(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Annual reports ..."

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 





r 



Digitizeiby CjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 






ANNUAL REPORTS 



or THB 



•WAR DEPARTMENT 



rOR THB 



FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1905. 



VOLUME V. 

REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS. 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1905. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



<^ 15'ao.Y/ 



JUN 201317 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



AMANGEMENT OF THE ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE WAR DEPARTMENT 
FOR THE YEAR ENDED JUKE 30, 1905. 



Yolome X Secretary of War: 

Chief of Staff. 

The Military Secretary. 

Inspector-General. 

Judge-Advocate-General. 

Volume n...^... Armament, Tranaportation and Supply: 

Quartermaster-General . 

CommisBary-General. 

Surgeon-General. 

Paymaster-General. 

Chief of Engineers, Military Afburs.^ 

Chief of Ordnance. * 

Chief Signal Officer. 

Chief of Artillery. 

Board of Ordnance and Fortification. 

Volume ^Q......I>iviaion and Department Conunandera: 

Atlantic Division — 

1. Department of the East 

2. Department of the Gulf. 
Northern Division — 

1 . Department of the Lakes. 

2. Department of the Missouri. 

3. Department of Dakota. 
Southwestern Division — 

1. Department of Texas. 

2. DefMirtment of the Colorado. 
Pacific Division — 

1. Department of California. 

2. Department of the Columbia. 
Philippines Division — 

1. Department of Luzon. 

2. Department of the Visayas. 

3. Department of Mindanao. 

Volume rv Militia Affairs, Kilitary Schoola and Colleges, Kilitaiy 

Parks, and Soldiers' Homes. 
The Military Secretary, Militia Affaire. 
Military Academv — 

1. Board of 'Visitors. 

2. Superintendent. 

Infantry and Cavalry School and Staff CoU^^. 

School of Application for Cavalry and Keld Artillery. 

Artillery School. 

Engineer School. 

School of Submarine Defense. 

Army Medical School. ' 

Commissioners of National Military Parka — 

1. Chickamauga and Chattanooga. 

2. Gettysburg. 

3. Shiloh. 

4. Vicksburg. 

Soldiers' Home, District of Columbia — 

1. Board of Commissioners. 

2. Inspection of. 

Inspection of National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers. 

Volumes V-vxxi Chief of Engineers. 

Volume IX Chief of Ordnance. 

Volumes X-XIV The Chief of the Bureau of Insular Affairs, the Philippine 

Commission, and Acts of the Philippine Commission. 



o Printed in Report of Chief of Eneineen, Vol. V. 
» Printed In Report of Chief of Ordnance, Vol. IX. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



CHIEF OF ENGINEEKS, 

UNITED STATES ARMY. 

1 9 O 5. 



EXG 1005 M 1 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by 



Google 



REPORT 

or 

THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, 

UNITED STATES ABMY. 



Office of the Chief of Enoineebs, 

United States Abmy, 
Washington, September 29, 1905. 
Sir : I have the honor to present for your information the following 
report upon the duties and operations of the Engineer Department for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905. 

OFFICERS OP THE CORPSOF ENGINEERS. 

rhe number of officers holding commissions in the Corps of Engi- 
neers, United States Army^at the end of the fiscal year, including 13 
who graduated from the Military Academy on June 13, 1905, but were 
not officially assigned to the Corps of Engineers until July 13, 1905, 
was 168. 

Since the last annual report the Corps of Engineers has lost 4 of its 
officers — Maj. Theodore A. Bingham, who was commissioned a 
brigadier-general, United States Army, July 11, 1904 ; Col. Alexander 
M. Miller, who died September 14, 1904; Col. David P. Heap, who 
was retired from active service February 16, 1905, upon his own 
application, after more than forty years' service, under the provisions 
of the act of Congress approved June 30, 1882 ; and Col. William A. 
Jones, who was retired from active service June 26, 1905, by operation 
of law, under the provisions of the act of Congress approved June 
30, 1882. 

There were added to the* Corps of Engineers, by promotion of grad- 
uates of the Military Academy, 13 second lieutenants on July 13, 1905, 
to rank from June 13, 1905. 

The duties devolving upon the Corps of Engineers have been 
increasing year by year. They now include the command of three 
battalions of troops ; the construction of fortifications ; superintending 
w^orks of river and harbor improvements ; the construction and repair 
of light-houses ; the construction of public buildings ; the water sup- 
ply, the municipal engineering, care of public buildings and grounds, 
and a share in the city government of the capital of the United States ; 
the improvement of the Yellowstone National Park ; the survey of the 
Northern and Northwestern lakes ; the mining and debris commission 



Digitized by 



Google 



4 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARUT. 

ill the State of California, all of which involve the expenditure of 
many millions annually, and, in addition to various other duties, 
supervision of military engineering and reconnaissance work in the 
several military divisions and instruction at the Military Academy 
and schools of application. 
On the 30th of June, 1905, the officers .were distributed as follows: 

Commanding the Corps of Engineers and Engineer Department, and on 

Board of Ordnance and Fortification 1 

Office of the Chief of Engineers 3 

Office of the Chief of Engineers and Light-House Board 1 

Division engineer and The Board of Engineers 1 

Division engineer 1 

Division engineer. The Board of Engineers, Chief Engineer Officer, Atlantic 

Division, and Light-House Board 1 

Mississippi River Commission and Isthmian Canal Commission 1 

Elver and harbor worlis 15 

The Board of Engineers and river and harbor woriis 1 

Division engineer, fortifications, river and harbor worlds, and California 

DCbris Commission 1 

Fortifications, river and harbor works, and light-house districts 6 

Division engineer, California D&brls Commission, and light-house district 1 

Division engineer, fortifications, and river and harbor works 2 

Light-House Establishment 2 

Elver and harlmr works and light-house districts 5 

Fortifications and river and harbor works 18 

General Staff, Philippines Division 1 

Division engineer and river and harbor works 1 

Leave of absence 2 

Washington Aqueduct, fortifications, and river and harbor works 3 

En route to Phillppiue Islands 11 

Mississippi River Commission, river and hart>or works, and light-house dis- 
trict 1 

Philippines Division * Hi 

General Staff 2 

Engineer Commissioner, District of Columbia 1 

Post of Washington Barracks, D. C, Engineer School, and Second Battalion 

of Engineers 14 

Chief engineer officers, military divisions 2 

River and hariwr works and Yellowstone National Park 1 

Military attaches with Russian and Japanese armies 2 

United States Military Academy ft 

Post of Fort I^avenworth, Eans., and First Battalion of Engineers 13 

Assistants to Engineer Commissioner, District of Columbia 2 

Californiii Di^bris Commission 1 

Public buildings and grounds. District of Columbia 1 

Buildings for War College, Washington Barracks, and Government I'rint- 

ing Office 2 

Mississippi River Commission 1 

Fortifications . 1 

Infantry and Cavalry School and Staff College 5 

River and harlior works and Vlcksburg National Military Park 1 

General Staff and Chief Engineer Officer, military division 1 

Board of road commissioners of Alaslsa 1 

Fortifications, river and harbor works, and California Debris Commission 1 

Graduating leave of absence 13 

Total 168 

THE BOARD OF ENGINEERS. 

The regulations for the government of the Corps of Engineers pro- 
vide for a Board of Engineers, consisting of not less than three offi- 
cers, designated by the Chief of Engineers with the sanction of the 
Secretary of War. This Board acts in an advisory capacity to the 



Digitized by 



Google 



FOBTIFICATIONS. 5 

Chief of Engineers upon important questions of engineering. One 
of its principal duties is to plan or revise the projects for permanent 
.fortifications of the United States. 

During the fiscal year the Board has reported upon minierou.s sub- 
jects connected with fortification work, and various tests have been 
witnessed and inspections made by its members. 

A statement of the composition of this Board during the past fiscal 
year will be found in its report. 

(See Appendix No. 1.) 

FORTIFICATIONS. 

The scheme of national defense upon which work has been in prog- 
ress since 1888 is based primarily upon a report submitted January 
1(5, 1886, by the Endicott Board. This report indicated the localities 
where defenses were most urgently needed, determined the character 
and general extent of the defenses, with their estimated cost, and rec- 
ommended for fir.st consideration the names of 27 principal ports, 
arranged in the order of their iinportance. 

The first act of Congress based on that report was approved Sep- 
tember 22, 1888. It created the Board of Ordnance and Fortification 
and made appropriations for beginning the manufacture of modern 
seacoast ordnance, but made no provision for the construction of bat- 
teries. The first appropriation for the construction of gim and 
mortar batteries was contained in the act of August 18, 1800, since 
which time appropriations of varying amounts have been made each 
year, except 1905, for carrying forward the scheme of coast defense. 
Under the general scheme of the Endicott Board the detailed projects 
were originally prepared by The Board of Engineers, and by its con- 
stant revision and study have been kept in touch with the cfianges of 
naval attack and naval armament. Before any money has l^een spent 
under a project, or revision thereof, the formal approval of the Sec- 
retary of War has been secured by the Chief of Engineers. 

Up to the present time projects for permanent seacoast defenses 
have been adopted for 31 localities in the United States, as follows : 



1. Frenchman Bay, Maine. 

2. Penobscot River, Maine. 

3. Kennebec River, Maine. 

4. Portland, Me. 

5. Portaniouth, N. H. 
0. Boston, Mass. 

New Bedford, Mass. 
Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. 
Eastern entrance to Long Island 

Sound. 
New York, N. Y. 

11. Delaware River. 

12. Baltimore, Md. 

13. Washington, D. C. 

14. Hampton Roads, Virginia. 

15. Entrance to Chesapeake Bay at 

Cape Henry. 



7. 
& 
9. 

10. 



16. Cape Fear River, North Carolina. 

17. Charleston, S. C. 

18. Port Royal, S. C. 

19. Savannah, Ga. 

20. St. Johns River, Florida. 

21. Key West, Fla. 

22. Tampa Bay, Florida. 

23. Pensacola, Fla. 

24. Mobile, Ala. 

25. New Orleans, La. 

26. Galveston. Te.^. 

27. San Diego, Cal. 

28. San Francisco, Cal. 

29. Columbia River, Oregon and Wash- 

ington. 

30. Puget Sound, Washington. 

31. Lake Champlaln. 



In addition to the above localities, the defense of the Great Lakes 
and the St. Lawrence River is under consideration. 



Digitized by 



Google 



6 



BEPOBT OV THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ASMY. 



Appropriations for construction of gun and mortar batteries m 
accordance with these approved projects have been made as follows : 



Act of— 

August 18, 1890 

February 24. 1891 

July 23, 1802 

February 18, 1893 

August 1, 1894 

March 2, 1895 

June 6, 1896 

March 3, 1897 

Allotments from the ap- 
propriation for " Na- 
tional Defense" act of 
March 9, 1898 



$1, 221, 000. 00 

750, 000. 00 

500,000.00 

50,000.00 

500,000.00 

500,000.00 

2, 400, 000. 00 

3, 841, 333. 00 



3,817,676.02 



Act of— 

May 7, 1898 $3,000,000.00 

July 7, 1898 2,562,000.00 

March 3, 1899 1, 0<K). 000. 00 

May 25, 1900 2, 000, tXM). 00 

March 1, 1901 1, Ol.'i, OUO. 00 

June C, 1902 2, (XtO. (XK». 00 

March 3, 1903 2. 2.'W, 425. 00 

April 21, 1904 700.000.00 



Total 28, 093, 434. 02 



The following table shows the present status of permanent work 
completed or in progress with funds already provided, and also the 
work remaining to be done under defensive projects as now adopted : 





Total num- 
ber carried 








by Endi- 


Provided 


To be pro- 




cott Board 


for by ap- 


vided for 


Calibers. 


scheme as 
revLsed and 


propria- 
tions al- 


by appro- 
priatfonR 




approved by 
Secretary 


ready 


yet to be 




made. 


made. 




or War to 








June 30, 1906. 






12-izkch mortars ..,.,... 


524 

125 

. 169 

Tl 
363 
106 

88 
342 


376 
106 
133 
TO 
171 
53 
38 
254 


148 


I2-lncb rifles 


20 


10-inchrifles 


36 


8-inch rifles. 


1 




182 


5-inch rapid-fli-e Kuns 


S3 







3-inch rapid-fire ^una 


88 







Columns 2 and 3 show that funds already provided by Congress 
will be sufficient to emplace 72 per cent of the 12-inch mortars, 84 per 
cent of the heavy rifles, and 62 per cent of the rapid-fire guns (6-inch 
and smaller calibers). 

With such a large part of the projected armament in position, it is 
po.ssible to state accurately what will be the cost of completing the 
present scheme of defense along the lines so far followed. The 
records show that for $16,000,000 the armament carried in the last 
column of the table can be provided with the latest type of emplace- 
ments, equipped with all necessary electric lights, and provided with 
electrically operated ammunition service, capable of supplying pow- 
der and projectiles as fast as the latest types of ordnance guns can be 
fired. It will be noted that the fourth column contains 36 10-inch, 1 
8-inch, and 53 5-inch guns. Wliile these calibers still appear in the 
unexecuted parts of the projects, it should be understood that in 
actual construction these intermediate calibers would l)e replaced by 
the equivalent number of 12-inch, 6-inch, and 3-inch guns. Their 
presence in the table only indicates that up to June 30, 1905, some 
projects had not been completely revised. The amount already appro- 
priated, $28,693,434.02, added to the above estimate of $16,000,000 
for completion, indicates that $44,693,434.02 would be the total cost 
of all engineer work involved in the execution of the original Endicott 



Digitized by 



Google 



FORTIFICATIONS. 7 

B«irtl scheme, revised and brought up to date by subsequent modifi- 
cations approved by the Secretary of War, but not including the 
recently developed svstems of range finding and of searchlights for 
night service of the guns, neither of which was contemplated 
at the time the Endicott Board estimates were prepared. This 
^.fi03,4.34.O2, it will also be noted, covers 31 harbors, while $55,- 
4S;j,000 was the original estimate of the Endicott Board for the engi- 
neer work connected with the defense of only 27 harbors. In 1900 
the Chief of Engineers in his annual report called attention to the fact 
that up to that date a saving of $5,000,000 had been made by the 
Engineer Department in carrying on its part of the work, and his 
own estimate, then submitted, was that the cost of the whole project 
( 31 harbors) as far as engineer work was concerned, would not exceed 
$50,000,000. ' . 

In his annual reports for the fiscal years 1902 and 1903 the Chief 
of F^ngineers suggested the creation of a tribunal similar to the Endi- 
cott Board, stating that, due to changes in both ships and guns, present 
conditions were widely different from those existing when the Endi- 
cott Board report was written, and recommending that such a board 
f-houUl consider not only the defenses of the United States proper, but 
also prepare and submit for Congressional action a well-studied and 
comprehensive scheme of coast defense for our insular possessions. 
During the year such a board, with the Secretary of War as its presi- 
dent, lias been constituted by Executive order, dated January 31, 1905, 
and is now pursuing its investigations. 

The following table shows that the Engineer and Ordnance depart- 
ments have w^orked in harmony, the numbers of gun carriages and 
implacements being the same, except where extra carriages are needed 
for purposes other than seacoast defense : 



Typo of gun or carriage. 



It-inch mortar airri»»?eB, model 1888 , 

li-inch mortar carriagea, model 1891 

13-inrh dissppearinK carriages, L. F., model 1901 , 

12-mch disappearing can iages, L. F., model 1897 

U-inch disappearing carriages, L. P., model 1880 

B-incb gan-lift carriages, altered to nondisappesring. 

I2-ineh gun-lift carriages, model 1891 

IS-inch Dondiaappearmg carriages, model 1892 

lu-inch disappearing carriages, A. R. F., model 1886... 

la inch disappearing caiTiages, L. F., model 1801 

10-inch di«aiq;>earing carriages, L. F., model 189B 

V.>-inch disappearing carriages. L. F., model 1884 

lO-incb nond&appearing carriages, model 18B3 

Mnch diaappe«niig carriages, L. F., model llM 

e-icrh disappearing carriages, L. F., model 1891 

Min.-b nondiaappearing carriages, model 1892 

ISioch smooth i»re carriages altered for S-inch rifles . 
Wnch disamiearlng carriages, model 1888 



Total 
carriages 
provided. 


Total 
emplace- 


ments 
provided. 


nHOB 


286 


6 86 


m 


11 


11 


85 


HS 


27 


27 


8 


a 


2 


2 


28 


27 


8 


8 


12 


12 


74 


74 


<im 


S> 


Ml 


.9 


3H 


40 


26 


26 


/» 


«9 


XI 


»81 


29 


29 



• The number of carriages of tills t;pe provided for exceeds by 10 the number which the 
riiief of Rnglnecrs hns notified the Chief of Ordnance are required for the emplacements 
be bas provided. 

*One Id nse at West Point; 4 Id storage. 

'One In use at Sandy Hook I'roving Ground. 

' One carriage Is the original expeiimental one for this caliber of gun, and has been put 
ont of service at the Instance of the Artillery Corps. 

■ One at Sandy Hook Proving Ground. The number of carriages of this type provided 
for exceeds by 2 the numl>er which the Chief of Ruglneers has DotiSed the Chief of 
Ordnance are required for the emplncements he has provl(l*d. 

' One at West Point and one at Sandy Hook Proving Ground. 

> Five temporary : armament removed from 3. 

' Temporary ; armament removed from 20. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BKPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. AEMY. 



Type of gnn or carriage. 



e-lnch rapid-flre (Tickers Son & Maxim), pedestal moants 

6-iiich diaappeariiiK carriages, model IMB 

fi-lnch rapid-flre, pedestal mounts, model ItOO 

5-incli baJanced-pilUr mounts, model 1896 

5-tnch pedestal mounts, model 1903 

4.T-iDcn rapid-flre (Armstrong pattern), pedestal mounts . 
4.7-inch rapid-flre (Schneider pattern), pedestal mount — 

4-inch ranid-flre (Driggs-Schroeder), pedestal moimts 

S-lnoh Inlanced-pillar mounts 

8-lnch casemate mounts 

3-inch pedestal mounts 

2.24-incb rapld-ilre field carriages and rampart mountD 



Total Total 



8 

90 
44 
82 
21 
84 

1 

4 
118 

» 

184 

70 



(*) 



8 
90 
44 
82 
21 
84 
«1 

4 
118 

2 
134 



" Temporary. 



' Movable mounts. 



At the last session of Congress no appropriation was made for the 
construction of gun and mortar batteries. The construction of 
emplacements, which had been begun under prior appropriations, has 
continued un<ler the original allotments, and as the estimates were 
accurate the balances on hand will be sufficient to complete them all. 

At the close of the fiscal year the status of emplacements for which 
funds have been provided by Congress is as follows : 





12-lnch 
mortars. 

367 
9 



18-lnch. 


10-inch. 8-inch. 

1 


Rapid- 
flre. 




101 

4 



nll9 
12 
2 


I'94 
2 



231 


R ^^f^y for nrmament . 


><326 


Under construction 


80 






Total 


876 


106 


183 


96 


SS7 











* Including original experimental 10-Inch carriage. 

' Including 26 which have been mounted temporarily ; 23 of these have since been 
dismounted. 

' One temporarily. 

' Including 70 B-pounders not requiring permanent emplacements. 

At the close of the previous fiscal year there were reported mounted : 



lii-inch 
mortars. 


12-inch. 


U)-lnch. 


K-inch. 


Rapid- 
flre. 


360 


98 


119 


98 


IHK 



A comparison of the last two tables shows an increase duiing the 
year in guns actually available for service of 17 mortars, 8 12-inch 
guns, 1 8-inch gun, and 46 rapid-fire guns. 

For continuing the construction of gun and mortar batteries in 
accordance with projects approved by the Secretary of War an esti- 
mate of $4,000,000 is submitted. 

Modernizing older emplacements. — The construction of high-power 
batteries has been in progress since 1890. All of the emplacements 
permit reasonably effective service of their guns, but when the earlier 
batteries were built the rapidity of fire of modern high-power guns 
and the mechanical appliances required in connection therewith could 
not be anticipated. Improved methods of construction and better 
general designs of the emplacements were from time to time devel- 
oped to enable the new works to withstand the blast and jar produced 



Digitized by 



Google 



FOBTIFICATIONS. 9 

by smokeless powder and to provide facilities for the new fire-control 
system, and these new provisions were incorporated in all subsequent 
emplacements. The latest batteries therefore leave little to l)e 
desired. Very many of the emplacements require only mo<lerate 
additions to bring them up to full efficiency; but a few of the very 
earliest would require extensive changes and additions, if they are 
worth the additional cost. It is Ijelieved to be wise, as a rule, to 
restrict changes to such as are evidently and decidedly necessary for 
proper service — that is, to let well enough alone. Where a battery is 
capable of doing effective service it should lie utilized in its existing 
condition to as great an extent as practicable ; where changed condi- 
tions have made a battery obsolete it should be abandoned. It hardly 
ever pays to remodel an emplacement to receive a more powerful gun 
than that for which it was originally built, for such changes in batter- 
ies cost as much as, if not more than, the construction of entirely new 
works for such new guns. For these reasons the proposed remodeling 
is limited in character and amount, and the principal improvements 
will conist in widening the loading platforms, in increasing the 
number of dry storerooms for projectiles, in sup[)lying better facili- 
ties for ammunition service, in providing adequate water supply at 
each emplacement, and in providing additional means of lighting 
gun platforms, carriages, and gun sights for night practice. For 
these improvements an estimate of $942,500 was submitted last year. 
The amount appropriated was $450,000, and the application of this 
sum to the purposes for which appropriated is now in progress. For 
the continuation of this work the appropriation of $402,500, the bal- 
ance of the original estimate, is recommended to Congress. 

Fire control at fortif^catUmn. — The fortification appropriation act 
approved March 3, 1905, provided for this purpose the sum of 
$1,000,000, to be distributed in the discretion of the Secretary of War 
among the Engineer and Ordnance departments and the Signal 
Corps, the object being to insure an early and systematic prosecution 
of the work of installing this new develoj)ment in seacoast artillery 
practice. In the distribution the sum or $590,000 was assigned to 
the Engineer Department for the installation of permanent fire- 
control systems at as many of six selected harbors as the funds would 
permit. As soon as detailed Artillery and Signal Corps plans arc 
approved by the Secretary of War work by the Engineer Department 
will begin. 

Tentative fire-control schemes for existing batteries have been 
adopted by the Chief of Artillery for almost all of the harbors now 
defended and corresponding detailed plans covering the engineer 
part of the work have been prepared. A few of these schemes have 
received the approval of the Secretary of War. The estimates for 
the work yet required of the Engineer Department to put into execu- 
tion these' schemes of the Artillery and Signal Corps, as they now 
stand, aggregate $4,263,364.47. While the general principles of (he 
fire-control sj'stem have been satisfactorily determined and adopted, 
the actual details on which costs largelv dei>end are still in a condi- 
tion of experimental development by the Artillery, and it is antici- 
pated that the cost of actual construction will probably largely exceed 
the above sum when such development is complete. Any portion of 
the above sum which is appropriated by Congress and allotted to the 
Engineer Department by the Secretnry'of War will be applied to the 



Digitized by 



Google 



10 REPORT OP THE OfllHF OF BNGINEEES, V. S. AKMY. 

systematic installation of complete fire-control systems in such har- 
bors as are selected as most important. As this single item in the 
appropriation act covers the work of three bureaus ano is apportioned 
between them by the Secretary of War, no specific estimate for the 
engineer portion is submitted. 

6ites for fortifications. — During the past year negotiations have 
been continued for the acquisition of one site at the eastern entrance 
to Long IshtTid Sound and of a tract at Mobile, Ala. A tract on the 
Kennebec River, Maine; one near Charleston, S. C. ; one on the Co- 
lumbia River, one at Narragansett Bay, and one at Paget Sound were 
acquired during the year. 

No funds were provided in the last fortification appropriation act 
for this purpose. A number of sites still remain to \ie acquired to 
carry out the approved projects of seacoast defenses, and an estimate 
of $500,000 is submitted for the acquisition of such sites as may l)o 
dcsii-able in the near future. The total required for all sites can not 
be stated till the Board of which the Secretary of War is president 
has submitted its reports.- 

Searchlights and electrical connections. — ^With the appropriation 
of $200,000 contained in the fortification appropriation act approved 
March 3, 1905, a number of 36-inch portable searchlight outfits ar« 
under construction for distribution to as manv forts as the fimds 
w-ill permit. Successive joint maneuvei"s of tlie Army and Xavy 
have emphasized the need at all defended harbors of an adequate sup- 
ply of powerful searchlights. The Chief of Engineers and the Chief 
of Artillery are entirely in accord in the view that systematic installa- 
tion of such apparatus for night defense should continue. 

For this purpose an estimate of $500,000 is submitted. Till further 
experience is had the total cost of such a complete equipment can not 
be estimated, but the aggregate will be large. Tlie suljject will doubt- 
less receive full consideration by the board created bv E.\ecutive order 
dated January 31, 1905. 

PreseriHition and repair of fortifications. — The operations under 
this appropriation have consisted during the fiscal year in the pres- 
ervation OT engineer material in new batteries, the application of 
remedial measures for reducing the dampness in some magazines in 
the earlier w^orks and the repair and improvement of the ammunition 
service. The mechanical and electrical appliances in modern batteries 
demand unremitting attention to prevent deterioration and damage 
under the d&structive influence of the moist sea air. The new works 
already constructed represent an exi^enditure of approximiately $28,- 
000,000 for engineering work alone. With the $300,000 proviiled by 
the act of March 3, 1905, for works of preservation and repair, it 
will Ix! possible to remedy many incipient leaks and other defects, as 
well as to keep the iron work and apparatus for ammunition serviw 
well i)ainted and free from rust. It is strongly recommended that an 
appropriation of the same sum be again made this year, as the needs 
are great and the numlxir of completed batteries, etc., requiring atten- 
tion and care is increasing, due to the completion of works now luider 
construction from balances in hand, and their transfer to the troops 
for u.se and care. 

Supplies for seacoast defenses. — Owing to the large number of elec- 
tric installations supplying power and light in .seacoast batteries, 
funds have been appropriated annually for the past six years for 



Digitized by 



Google 



POBTIPICATIONS. 11 

"tools and electrical and engine supplies for use of the troops for 
maintaining and o|)eratiug light and power plants in gun nnd mor- 
tar batteries." This appropriation is designed to enable the Engineer 
Department to comply with the regulations of the War Department 
for the supply and service of the Imtteries. Requisitions are made 
tlirecth' upon the Chief of Engineers, and authorized articles arc pur- 
chased and issue<l by district engineer officers with as little delay as 
possible. This system has proved eminently satisfactory to the giir- 
risons. 

The amount appropriated for this purpose during the present fiscal 
year was ^0,000, and it is believed that this will be sufficient. The 
same .sum will be required for these purposes during the next fiscal 
year, and an estimate of that amount is submitted. 

Sea traUj* and embankments. — ^The sum of $1J),400 was appropriated 
for this purpose by the fortification appropriation act approved 
March 3, 1905. This amount is being applied to work at the de- 
fenses of the eastern entrance to Long Island Sound. 

Based upon detailed estimates prepared by district engineer officers, 
an estimate of $'215,900 is submitted for the construction of sea walls 
and embankments at a number of localities on the Atlantic, (Julf, and 
Pacific coasts, where they are needed to protect the defenses. 

Sea walls, defenses of Galveston, Tex. — The defensive works at 
Galveston were unavoidably in most exposed positions, and the level 
of the lands surrounding the batteries was greatly lowered by the 
storm of September 8, 1900. Work of reconstruction and repair of 
the Galveston defenses is now approaching completion, mider the 
appropriation contained in the fortification act approved March 1, 
1901. With the funds so provided and in accordance with the phins 
before Congress when that appropriation was made each individual 
lattery has been made secure agamst any similar storms which are 
likely to occur in the future, but no provision has been made to pro- 
tect the sites on which quarters, barracks, and other post buildings 
must lie located at Fort Travis and Fort San Jacinto. At Fort 
Crockett a sea wall partly covering the site of the proposed post has 
been built with appropriations of $410,000 and $l81.04().2r>, provided 
in the sundry civil act of Congress approved April 28, 1904. To 
properly protect the range-finder stations, electric communications, 
submarine-mine buildings, and other engineer accessories, as well 
as the barracks and other quartermaster buildings at these three forts, 
very heavy sea walls and extensive sand filling will be essential. For 
this work there is submitted an estimate of $l,433,95;i.75, based on 
detailed estimates prepared by the district engineer offi<>er and con- 
firmed by boards of officers of other branches of the service associated 
with him. 

Submarine mines. — While the operation of tori>edo defenses is 
the duty of the Artillery Corps, the building of structures required in 
connection therewith is under the charge of the Engineer Department. 
The location and number of torpedo structures required on the 
Atlantic and Gulf coasts have been considered iluring the year by 

boards appointed by the War Department and consisting of a 
specially detailed traveling artillery member associated with local 
en^neer and artillery officers; for the same purpose similar boards 

have recently been constituted on the Pacific coast. 



Digitized by 



Google 



12 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARUY. 

The fortification act of March 3, 1905, provided $400,000 for the 
construction of torpedo structures. In accordance with schemes 
devised by these boards, and approved by the Chief of Artillery, 
this amount has been applied to the construction of such casemates, 
storehouses, etc., as were selected by the Chief of Artillery as being 
most urgently needed. For each harbor on the Atlantic and Gulf 
coasts detailed estimates of the sums needed to complete the engineer 
work comprised in these torpedo-defense schemes have been prepared. 
The aggregate amounts to $540,700, and an estiniate. of tliat sum is 
submitted for the coming year. 

Preservation and repair of torpedo structures. — A large number of 
these new torpedo-deiense structures are now approaching comple- 
tion or have been completed. In accordance with the views of the ar- 
tillery authorities, they are in great measure built of timber and cor- 
rugated iron, which permits the electrical instruments to be kept in 
dry, well-lighted rooms, but which makes the structures themselves 
liable to more rapid deterioration and decay than the more costly 
structures of concrete and masonry adopted by the Engineer Depart- 
nient when it had charge of torpedo operations. An e.stimate of 
$50,000 is therefore submitted for the preservation and repair of these 
buildings, to be applied to miscellaneous repairs to the more recent 
timber structures as the necessity therefor may arise, and to the pre- 
vention of dampness, etc., in the older concrete and brick structures 
which are still kept in service. The appropriations made to date for 
building torpedo structures aggregate $1,778,000, and it is believed 
that the above estimate for maintenance is reasonable when considered 
in connection with the original cost of the buildings and the character 
of those recently erected. 

Defenses of insuUir possessions. — The fortification appropriation 
acts of 1904 and 1905 each provided the sum of $700,000 for the con- 
struction of batteries for the defense of our insular possessions. 
With the approval of the Secretary of War the funds appropriated 
by the act of 1904 are being applied to the construction of batteries 
for tJie defenses of Manila Bay and Subic Bay, Philippine Islands; 
the funds provided in the later act are being applied to a continua- 
tion of the work at Manila Bay and Subic Bay, and to the installation 
of batteries for the defense of the important naval station at Guan- 
tanamo Bay, Cuba. 

Preliminary projects for the emergency defense of the most im- 

()ortant harbors in the insular possessions have been prepared and 
mve been approved by the Secretary of War. AVhile the defense of 
tliese localities is now under consideration by the board constituted by 
Executive order dated January 31, 1905, and of which the Secretary 
of War is the president, it is believed that in view of the utter insuf- 
ficiency of the existing defenses, any funds which Congress may pro- 
vide at the coming session can be advantageously applied to work 
under existing approved projects; an estimate o^ $3,020,000 is sub- 
mitted, $2,000,000 to be applied to the defenses of Manila, P. I.; 
$500,000 to Subic Bay, Philippine Islands, and $520,000 to Honolulu 
and Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. 

In his aiuiual report for the fiscal year ending June 30', 1903, the 
Chief of Engineers submitted an estim'ate of $520,100 for the acquisi- 
tion of land for fortification purposes in the Hawaiian Islands. This 



Digitized by 



Google 



FORTIFICATIONS. 13 

ratimate was based on an examination on the ground by a board of 
artillery and engineer officers, and is believed to be a fair estimate of 
the total amount that will be required for this purpose. The sum of 
$200,000 contained in the appropriation act of April 21, 1904, has so 
far been appropriated for this purpose. This amount has all been 
expended or definitely pledged and tne sites so far acquired have been 
obtained at reasonable rates. It is considered of importance and in 
the interest of economy that the remaining sites required should be 
obtained as soon as possible, and the appropriation of the remainder 
of the original estimate, $326,100, is recommended. 

The following money statements show the condition of all general 
appropriations under which operations were in progress at the close 
of the fiscal year : 

*< 

"gun and mobtab battebies." 

For battery construction. 

July 1, 1904. balance unallotted $373,661.20 

•Tune 30, 1905, net allotments during fiscal year 277, 791. 20 

July 1, 19(», balance unallotted 95,870.00 

July 1, 1905, amount pledged 50.797.85 

July 1, 1905, balance available for nilscellnneous work 39,072. 15 

For modernizing older emplacements. 

March 3, 1905, amount appropriated $450,000.00 

June 30, 1905. allotted during fiscal year 292, 729. 75 

July 1, 1905, balance unallotted l.')7.270.25 

July 1, 1905, amount pledged 157, 270. 25 

For installation of ranyc and position finders. 

July 1. 1904, balance unallotted $179, 071. .S8 

June 30, 1905, net allotments during fiscal year 174. 505. 37 

•Tuly 1, 1905, balance available for miscellaneous puri>oses 4,566.01 

" FIBK CONTBOL AT FOBTITICATIONS." 

April 1, 1905, amount allotted to the Chief of Engineers from the 

appropriation of March 3, 1905 $590,000.00 

June 30, 1905, net allotments during fiscal year 124, 397. 00 

July 1, 1905, balance unallotted 465,603.00 

July 1. 1905, amount pledged 425, 654. 00 

July 1, 1905, balance available for miscellaneous purposes 39,949.00 

" SrTES FOR FORTIFICATIONS AND SEACOAST DEFENSES.' 



IDC " 



July 1, 1904, balance unallotted $207,397.29 

June 30, 1905, repayments during fiscal year 7,166.56 

July 1, 190.5, balance unallotted 214,563.85 

July 1, 1905, amount pledged - 200,000.00 

July 1, 1905, balance available, , 14,563.85 



Digitized by 



Google 



:^ 



14 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF £N0I1!TEEBS, U. S. ARMT. 

"SEABCHLIOHTS FOR HABBOB DEFENSES." 

July 1, 1904, balance unallotted $50,350.00 

March 3, 1905, amount appropriated 200, 000. 00 

250,350.00 
Juiie 30, 1905, net allotments during fiscal year 249,350.00 

July 1, 1905, balance unallotted 1,000.00 

July 1, 1905, amount pledged 1,000.00 

" PBESEBVATION AND BEPAIB OF FOBTIFICATIONS." 

July 1, 1904, balance unallotted $249,894.70 

March 3, 1905, amount appropriated 300,000.00 

549, 894. 70 
June 30, 1905, net allotments during fiscal year 341,590.02 

July 1, 1905, balance unallotted 208, 304. 68 

July 1, 1905, amount pledged 208, 304. 68 

"plans fob FOBTIFICATIONS." 

July 1, 1!K)4, balance unallotted $5,000.00 

March 3, 1905, amount appropriated 5,000.00 

10, 000. 00 
June 30, 1905, net allotments during fiscal year 10,000. 00 

" SUPPLIES FOB SEACOAST DEFENSES." 

July 1, 1904, balance unallotted $12,306.91 

March 3, 1905, amount appropriated 40,000.00 

52, 306. 91 
June 30, 1905, net allotments during fiscal year 39, 714. 40 

July 1, 1905, balance unallotted 12,592.51 

July 1, 1905, pledged for later allotments 6, 100.00 

July 1, 1905, balance available 6,492.51 

" SEA WALLS AND EMBANKMENTS." 

July 1, 1904, balance unallotted $34,500.00 

JIarch 3, 1905, amount appropriated 19,400.00 

53, 900. 00 
June 30, 1905, net allotments during fiscal year 53, 900. 00 

"CASEMATES, GALLEBIES, ETC., FOB SDBMABINE MINES." 

July 1, 1905, balance unallotted $87,000.00 

March 3, 1905, amount appropriated 400,(KI0. (K) 

487. 000. 00 
June 30, 1905, net allotments during fiscal year 487, 000. 00 

" FOBTIFICATIONS IN INSULAB POSSESSIONS." 

For construction of seacoast batteries. 

.Inly 1, 1904, balance unallotted $700,000.00 

March 3, 1905, amount appropriated 700,000.00 

1, 400. 000. 00 
June 30, 1905, net allotments during fiscal year 1, 400, 000. 00 



Digitized by 



Google 



ENGINEER DEPOT, WASHINGTON BABBACKS, D. O. 15 

For Sites, Hawaiian Islands. 

July 1, 1904, balance unallotted $200,000.00 

June 30, 1905, net allotments during fiscal year .__- 177, 238. 00 

July 1, 1905, balance unallotted 22, 762. 00 

July 1, 1905, amount pledged 22, 702. 00 



ESTIMATES OF APPBOPBIATIONS BEQUIBED FOB 1906-7. 

Fortifications. 
For gun and mortar batteries : 

For construction of gun and mortar batteries. |4, 000, 000. 00 
For modernizing older emplacements 492,500.00 

f4, 492, 500. 00 

For fire control at fortifications («) 

For sites for fortifications and seacoast defenses 500,000.00 

For searcblights for harbor defenses 500,000.00 

For protection, preservation, and repair of fortifications 300, 000. 00 

For preparation of plans for fortifications 5,000.00 

For snppIieR for seacoast defenses 40,000.00 

For sea walls and embanicments . 21.5,900.00 

For sea walls, defenses of Galveston, Tex_' 1,4.33.95.3.75 

For casemates, galierles, etc., for submarine mines 540,700.00 

For preservation and repair of torpedo structures 50,000.00 

For defenses of insular possessions : 

For seacoast batteries, Manila, P. I <!2, 000, 000. 00 

For seacoast batteries, 8ubic Bay, Pbilippine 

Islands 500, 000. 00 

For seacoast batteries, Honolulu and Pearl 

Harbor, Hawaii 520,000.00 

For procurement of land for sites for de- 
fenses of the Hawaiian Islands 326, 100. 00 

3,346,100.00 

Total - 11, 424, 153. 75 

ENGINEER DEPOT, WASHINGTON BARRACKS, D. C. 

In the charge of Maj. Edward Burr, Corps of Engineers, during 
the entire year. 

The Engineer Depot, located at Washington Barracks, D. C, is 
the repository for the military bridge equipage of the Army; for 
miscellaneous military engineering tools, supplies, and materials of 
all kinds, and for astronomical, surveying, drafting, and recon- 
naissance instruments and supplies used by the Army and by officers 
of the Corps of Engineers on public works, both military and civil. 
It purchases and issues military engineering tools and supplies and 
serves particularly as an exchange for engineer instruments of all 
kinds, receiving them from the Army or public works, caring for 
them while in store, cau.sing to be made tlie necessary repairs, re- 
issuing them when required, and, so far as limited appropriations 
will permit, making purchases of such items as can not be supplied 
from store. 

One of the principal items of the routine work of the depot has 
been the purchase and issue to the companies, troops, batteries, and 
posts of the Army of the reconnaissance instruments prescril)ed in 
General Orders, No. 24, War Department, February 14, 1905. 

The storage facilities for the depot have not improved during the 
year. The depot property has been stored in various old brick and 

» No specific estimate submitted for the engineer portion of this worit. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



16- REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMT. 

frame buildingHf and, for want of sufficient space in these, a portion 
of it has been placed under temporary shelters. With the comple- 
tion of the new storehouse now building in connection with the recon- 
struction of the post of Washington Barracks ample facilities should 
become available within the next six months. 

The details of the operations of the depot, including the purchase, 
issue, and care of all stores will be found in the report of tne officer 
in charge. 

STATEMENT OF FUNDS. 

I. For Engineer Depots, fiscal year ended June 30, 1904 : 

July 1, 1904. balance unexpended $565. 26 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal 
year |550. 98 

June 30, 1905, amount turned Into the Treas- 
ury 8.28 

r>(V». 2(! 

II. For Engineer Depots, 1905 : 

Amount allotted for fiscal year ended June 30, 1905, for 

Incidentals and Instruments 13,521.09 

June 30, 1905, amount extended during fiscal 

year $11.(599. 15 

June 30, 1905, amount pledged 1, 821. 94 

13,521.0i» 

III. For Engineer Equipment of Troops, fiscal year ended June 30, 

1904: 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended 2,265.44 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal 
year $2, 264. 53 

June 30, 1905, amount turned Into the Treas- 
ury . 91 

2,2(55.44 

IV. For Engineer Equipment of Troops. 1905: 

Total of allotments during fiscal year ended 

June .30, ]!K)i> 17,82(5.10 

June 30, 1905, amount exiwnded during fiscal 

year $10, 702. 20 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 7,123.90 

17, 826. 10 

V. For Equipment of Officers' Schools, Military Posts, 1905, for 
" Purchase of Instruments : " 
Amount allotted for fiscal year ended June 30, 

190.'> $5. 000. 00 

Amount allotted on account of refundments 50. 49 

5,050.49 

June 30, 1905. amoimt expended during fiscal 

year 490. 69 

July 1, 1905, amount pledged 4,559.80 

5,050.49 

VI. For Gun and Mortar Batteries, for "Purchase of Instruments 
and Articles for Engineer Bkjulpment:" 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $405.77 

July 1, 1904, amount allotted o 4.600.00 

5,005.77 

June 30, 190.5, amount expended during fiscal 

year 4, 919. 48 

June 30, 1905, amount turned Into Treasury— 86. 29 

5,005.77 

" Allotment reimbursed from appropriation for " New Arms and Elquipment 
for Organized Militia." 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ENGINEER DEPOT, FOBT LEAVENWORTH, KANSAS. 17 

VII. For EJxaminatioos, Surveys, and Contingencies of Rivers and 
Harbors, for " Purchase and Repair of Instruments : " 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $273. 02 

June 30, 190S, amount expended dyring Oscal 

year $83.25 

June 30, 1905, amount pledged 46.03 

July 1, 1905, balance available 143. 72 

273. 02 

VIII. Emergency Fund, War Department, act of March 3, 1809, for 
" Equipment of Electrical Laboratory at Engineer School, 
Washington Barracks : " 

July 1, 1904. balance unexpended .V>. 3.'i 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year '.iH. '.Ki 

IX. For Improving Harbor at Honolulu, Hawaii, for " Purchase of 
iDstnimeuts: " 

May 20, 1905, amount allotted iiKJ. ".T 

June 30, 1905, amount expended to end of fiscal year 292. 75 

JffiW APPROPKIATIONS. 

For Engineer Depots for fiscal year ending June 30, 1900, the follow- 
ing sums were allotted by the Chief of Engineers, United States 
Army, for disbursement at Washington Barracks, D. C, viz : 

1. For "Incidentals" $6,500.00 

2. For "Instruments" 5.000.00 

11,500.00 

3. For Engineer Equipment of Troops, 1906 5,000.00 

For Engineer Sciiool, Washington, D. C, 1906, for " E>iuipnient and 

Maintenance of the Engineer School at Washington Barracks, 

D. C," amount appropriated 25,000.00 

Total - 41, 500. 00 

(See Appendix No. 2.) 

EXGI^'EER DEPOT, FORT LEAVENWORTH, KANSAS. 

This depot is maintained for the purpose of issuing supplies to the 
battalion of engineers there stationed and for the storage, repair, and 
manufacture or ponton materials. It was under the charge of Lieut. 
Col. S. S. Leach, Corps of Engineers, until November 13, 1904, and of 
Capt. Herbert Deakyne, Corps of Engineers, from November 13, 
1904, to March 14, 1905, since which date it has been in the charge of 
Maj. Thomas H. Rees, Corps of Engineers. 

The operations of the depot during the year have consisted in the 
purchase of depot supplies, including artillery harness for the bridge 
train, and building pontons, chess, and balk with materials pur- 
chased in the preceding fiscal year. In addition, tool wagons for the 
four companies of the First Battalion of Engineers were constructed, 
and experiments were continued with a view to developing a more 
satisfactory tool outfit for pack transportation. 

(See Appendix No. 3.) 

EJMO 1905 M 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



ly BEPORT OF 1SS. O^ief OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

ESTIMATES OF APPROPBIATIGNS REQUIRED FOR THE ENGINEER DEPOTS 

FOR 1906-7. 

For incidental expenses of the depots, including fuel, lights, chemicals, 
stationery, hardware, machinery, pay of civilian clerks, mechanics, 
and lalxirers, extra-duty pay to soldiere necessarily employed for 
periods not less than ten days as artificers on worli in addition to and 
not strictly In the line of their military duties, such as carpenters, 
blacksmiths, draftsmen, printers, lithographers, photographers, engine 
drivers, telegraph operators, teamsters, wheelwrights, masons, ma- 
chinists, painters, overseers, laiwrers, repairs of and for materials to 
repair public buildings, machinery, and unforeseen expenses |1],500 

For purchase and repair of Instruments, to be Issued to officers of the 
Corps of Engineers and to officers detailed and on duty as acting 
engineer officers for use on public works and surveys 5,000 

Total 16, 500 

ENGINEER EQUIPMENT OF TROOPS. 

By the act of Congress approved April 23, 1904, the sum of $25,000 
was appropriated for the engineer equipment of troops in the field 
and for the procurement of ponton trains, intrenching tools, instru- 
ments, drawing materials, etc. This appropriation was limited to 
the fiscal year 1905. 

With these funds engineering supplies were furnished, mainly 
through the United States Engineer Depots, for the various military 
divisions and departments in the United States and the Philippines ; 
the engineer battalions were supplied with materials called for in 
approved outfits for engineer companies; a number of experiments 
were made with intrenaiing tools and reconnaissance instruments; 
pontons were built with materials previously purchased, and parts of 
the Engineer Field Manual were prepared ifor the printer and Parts 
I and ni of the Manual were published. 

The sum of $24,989.50 was expended from this appropriation and a 
balance of $10.50 reverted to the Treasury. 

The army appropriation act of March 2, 1905, provided $15,000 
for the engineer equipment of troops during the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1905. P^or tne same purpose during the next fiscal year an 
estimate of $60,000 is submitted. 

In support of this estimate it is desired to call particular attention 
to the condition of the ponton bridge equipment, much of which dates 
back to the civil war. The quantity on hand is not large and is only 
sufficient for the routine ponton drills of the present number of au- 
thorized engineer troops. Experience during the past two years, 
particularly at the Manassas maneuvers, shows that the greater part 
of this equipage is, through old age, absolutely unfit for field service 
and can not be relied upon for a march of 100 miles. Recently the 
wagons pertaining to the bridge equipage in the Philippines were 
condemned and it has been impossible to replace them, as there arc 
no wagons on hand that are deemed to be worth shipping to the Phil- 
ippines. If the Army is to have any field bridge equipage fit for 
service it is essential that the joresent equipment Ije thoroughly over- 
hauled and parts of it entirely rebuilt. This work should l)e "under- 
taken without delay, and the modifications should be in accord with 
the b&st practice as determined by the experience of modern armies 
since the civil war. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AKD HABBOB IMPBOVEM£NI8. 19 

If the full amount of the estimate is appropriated it is proposed to 
use $25,000 of the amount on ponton equipment. 

Another large item of expenditure under this appropriation con- 
sists of the purchase and issue to the companies, troops, batteries, and 
posts of the Army of the reconnaissance instruments prescribed by 
General Orders, No. 24, War Department, current series. With exist- 
ing funds issues have been made in accordance with these allowance 
tables to about one-third of the service. To entireljr outfit all organi- 
zations and posts as contemplated by this order will require $15,000. 

The additional amount estimated for is required for the equipment 
of the engineer companies in accordance with the recommendations 
of the Board of Engineer officers now considering that subject. 

For details of expenditures under this appropriation, see Appen- 
dixes 2 and 3. 

CIVILIAN ASSISTANTS TO ENGINEER OFFICERS. 

By act of Congress approved April 23, 1904, the sum of $25,000 
was appropriatea for civilian assistants to engineer officers serving 
on the staffs of division, corps, and department commanders, to enable 
them to secure the services of surveyors, draftsmen, photographers, 
master laborers, and clerks during the fiscal year 1905. These funds 
have been applied to the purpose for which appropriated ; the sum of 
$21,838.32 was expended during the fiscal year, and a balance of 
$3,161.68 reverted to the Treasury. 

The army appropriation act of March 2, 1905, provided $25,000 
for the same purpose during the fiscal }'ear ending June 30, 1906, and 
»n estimate ox the same amount is submitted for the fiscal year 1907. 

RIVER AND HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS. 

Appropriatiohs. — ^The funds with which the works for the improve- 
ment of rivers and harbors were prosecuted during the past fiscal 
year were derived from the appropriations made by the river and 
harbor act and the sundry civil act approved April 28, 1904: the 
river and harbor act and the sundry civil act approved March 3, 
1905, and fvom such balances of former appropriations as were 
available. 

The following works are provided for by permanent appropria- 
tions : Removing sunken vessels ; operating and care of dredge boats 
on upper Mississippi River; removing obstructions in Mississippi 
River ; gauging waters of lower Mississippi River and its tributaries ; 
examinations and surveys at South Pass, Mississippi River; main- 
tenance of South Pass channel, Mississippi River; operating snag 
lx>ats on Ohio River ; operating and care or canals, etc. ; support and 
maintenance of the Permanent International Commission of the Con- 
gresses of Navigation. , 

Statics of works. — Statements derived from the reports of the offi- 
cers in charge of the various works, and given herewith, set forth 
the condition of each improvement and the extent of the work per- 
formed during the past fiscal year. 

Expenditures. — The total amount actually expended under the 



Digitized by 



Google 



20 REPORT OF THE OHIBF OF ENGINEERS, tJ. S. ARMY. 

direction of the Chief of Engineers in connection with the improve- 
ment of rivers and harbors during the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1905, is as follows: 

IJIvers and linrlwrs (general. Including examluatlonH, surveys, 

and contingencies) $20,789,423.30 

Removing sunken vessels 69,960.77 

0|)eratlng snag and dredge boats on upiier Mississippi River 25, 000. 00 

Removing ol)Structlon8 In Mississippi River 78, 90{». 55 

Gauging waters of lower Mississippi River and its tributaries 9, 942. 14 

Maintenance of South Pass channel, Mississippi River 105, 214. 12 

Examinations and surveys at South Pass, Mississippi Elver 10, 231. 79 

Operating snag boats on Ohio River 34,688.23 

Operating and care of canals, etc 1, 145, 644. 82 

Prevention of deiiosits In New Yorlc HarlxJr 97, 6i58. 15 

California Deiirls Commission 15,548.99 

I'ermauent International Commission of the Congresses of Navi- 
gation - 1, 401. 73 

Total 22,383,623.68 

This amount does not include the following : 

Eximiditures under Mississippi River Commission $2,265,073.69 

Enlargement of Governors Island, New York Harbor 97, 575. 74 

Estimates. — The following estimates are submitted by the Chief of 
Engineei-s for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1907 : 

Under continuing contracts $17,456,801.03 

Under California Debris Commission . 15.000.00 

Prevention of deposits in New York Harbor 85, 260. 00 

The Mississippi River Commission submits an estimate amounting 
to $3,625,000, which has been reduced in this office to $2,000,000. 

Engineer divisions. — The engineering works in the charge of this 
office are arranged in divisions, and officers of the Corps of Engineers 
were assigned as division engineers to overlook these works, as 
follows : 

East of the Rocky Mountains: Northeast Division, Col. Chas. R. 
Suter; Eastern Division, Col. Amos Stickney; Chesapeake Division, 
C^l. AV. A. Jones, to June 20, 1905 ; Southeast I)ivi.sion, Lieut. Col. 
James B. Quinn; Gulf Division, Col. H. M. Adams, to August 12, 
1904, and Lieut. Col. Clinton B. Sears since that date; Central 
Division, Col. G. J. Lydecker; Northwest Division, Col. O. H. Ernst, 
to April 5, 1905, and 'Lieut. Col. W. H. Bixby since that date. West 
of the Rocky Mountains: Pacific Division, Col. D. P. Heap (now 
brigadier-general, United States Army, retired), to October 16, 1904, 
and Col. T. H. flandbury since that date; Northern Pacific Divi- 
sion, Col. W. H. Heuer. 

/Surrey of United States land within the fiats of Anacostia River, 
Distrivt of Columbia. — The District of Columbia appropriation act 
of July 1, 1902, appropriated $5,000 to be expended under the direc- 
tion oi. the Secretary oi War for making a survey and outline map of 
land owned by the United States within what is known as the flats of 
the Anacostia River from its mouth to the boundary line of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, and authorized and directed the Attorney-General 
to report upon the nature of title to lands embraced within said flats. 
The survey has lieen made and the report thereon by Lieut. Col. Chas. 
J. Allen, Corps of Engineers (now brigadier-general, United States 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEE AND HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS. 



21 



Army, retired), dated February 17, 1903, with maps, has been trans- 
mittm to the Attorney-General with a view to examination and report 
pursuant to the law. This report has been rendered and the papers 
will be submitted to Clon^ess at its next session. 
. Preliminary examinations and surveys. — ^The river and harbor act 
of March 3, 1905, provides for preliminary examinations and sur- 
veys of certain localities and the duty of making the same has been 
assigned to Bbards of Engineers, ana oflScers of the Corps of Engi- 
neers in charge of the various engineering districts. Reports thereon 
will be duly submitted when received. 

ATLANTIC COAST AND GULF OF MEXICO. 

IMPROVEMENT OF RIVERS AND HARBORS IN MAINE AND NEW 

HAMPSHIRE. 



This district was in the charge of Maj. S. W. Roessler, Corps of 
Engineers, to August 2, 1904, and of Lieut. Col. W. M. Black, Corps 
of Engineers, since that date, the officer in charge having under his 
immediate orders First Lieut. C. W. Otwell, Corps of Engineers. 
Division engineer. Col. Chas. R. Suter, Corps of Engineers. 

1. Luhec Channel, Maine. — ^This channel lies between the eastern 
extremity of the State of Maine and Campobello Island, Canada. 

Originally the depth was about 6 feet at mean low tide and 2 feet 
at low water of spring tides. 

A project was adopted in 1879 which, as subsequently modified, pro- 
vided for a channel 276 feet wide, increasing to 300 feet in the bends, 
and 12 feet deep at mean low tide. This project was completed in 
1890, practically as proposed, at a cost of $168,954.68. 

The present project was adopted August 18, 1894, and its object 
was to widen the then existing channel to a least width of 500 feet, at 
an estimated cost of $150,000. The amount expended on the work of 
the existing project up to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1905, was $134,481.12. At the latter date the channel had been 
dredged to the full projected width and depth contemplated by the 
project of 1894. The work will probably be reasonably permanent, 
but examinations will be made from time to time, when opportunity 
offers, to determine this question. 

The maximum draft that can be carried is about 11.5 feet at mean 
low water ; the mean variation in tide level is 18.2 feet. The channel, 
which is about 3 miles long, connects the roads above with the Atlantic 
Ocean, and is the convenient and direct approach to Lubec, Eastport, 
and St. Croix River from the westward. It is an international pas- 
sage, and the benefits from the improvement are ahnost entirely gen- 
eral. As the tidal currents are very strong and dense fogs prevail a 
large part of the time, the widening of the passage decreases the 
chances of stranding and collision. 

The commerce is reported as follows : 



Tons. 

1897 53, 400 

1898 87,000 

1899 126, 700 

1900 70,800 



Tons. 

1901 KW. 000 

1902 . ^ 148.400 

1903 127,000 

1904 76,200 



Digitized by 



Google 



22 



EEPOET OF THE CHIEF OF ENG1NEEB8, O. 8. ARMY. 



There is no record for 1904 of the vessels passing through the 
channel, only the local traffic being given. The greatest single item 
was fish, which amounted to 44,000 tons. 

July 1, 1904. balance unexpended $33, 306. '{C 

June .SO, 1905; amount expended during fiscal jrear, for works of 
Improvement I 17, 741. 56 



July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 15,504.20 

(See Appendix A 1.) 

2. Narrdguagus River, Maine. — ^The navigable portion of the river 
is 7 miles in length. The town of Millbridge is located about 2 miles 
above its mouth and the lumber town of Cherryfield at the head of 
navigation. The mean range of tide is 11.3 feet.. 

Before improvement the river was obstructed from its mouth to 
Millbridge by a bar having a depth of 6 feet at mean low tide and less 
than 4 feet at e.\treme low tide. Between Millbridge and Cherryfield 
the river was obstructed by bowlders and ledge. 

The original project upon which the first appropriation was made 
is set forth in the district officer's report of December 8, 1870, and 
I)rovided only for the betterment of navigation above Millbridge bj' 
(he removal of obstructions, such as mill waste, sunken Iwwlders, and 
Ihe construction of an iron spindle on Half Tide rock. Thiswork was 
completed in 1874. The amount expended was $22,000, and the 
resulting improvement is said to have been of great benefit to naviga- 
tion. 

The improvement of the river below Millbridge was provided for 
by project submitted in 1880. Its object was to dredge a channel 200 
feet wide and 11 feet deep as far up as Tx)ng \Miarf, and 9 feet thence 
to the anchorage known as Deep Hole. The estimated cost was 
$50,000, and appropriations aggregating this amount were made 
between 1886 and 1899. 

The amount expended on the latter project to the end of the fiscal 
year 1905 was $49,643.81 ; but the project was not completed as orig- 
inally projected, a change having been made necessary by the aban- 
donment of Ix>ng Wharf by the steamboat 'company and the erection 
of a new wharf farther down the river. This change of location of 
the steamboat wharf rendered unneces.sary any further dredging 
above that point, and accordingly the last appropriation was ex- 
pended in dredging in front of the wharf and between that point 
and the deep water of the bay. In obtaining a depth of 11 feet to the 
steamboat wharf where it is now located the main object of the 
improvement has been accomplished. The work is only temporary. 
The material excavated was a mixture of sawdust and mud and will 
be replaced in the course of a few years by a new deposit of the same 
material. It is reported that the portion of the river in front of the 
wharf has already shoaled to a depth of 7 feet at mean low tide. 

Nothing has been done during the fiscal year. 

Tlie commerce for the last eight years is given as follows : 



Tons. 

1897 .. * 41,500 

1898 20, 147 

1899 23,545 

1900 - .35,825 



Tons. 

1901 41, 9.'V1 

1902 32, 885 

190.S 40, .525 

1904 41, 925 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HARBOE IMPROVEMENTS. 23 

More than 60 per cent of the tonnage is lumber. 

July 1. 1904, balance unexpended $356.10 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 35tt. 19 

(See Appendix A 2.) 

3. Breakwater from Mount Desert to Porcupine Island^ Bar Har- 
bor, Me. — The object of the breakwater is to protect the wharves of 
Bar Harbor and the anchorage in front of the to\jn from the heavy 
seas of southerly gales. 

The present project is the original one, approved June 14, 1889, 
modified as to length of breakwater by the revised project of 1893. 
It provides for a breakwater of riprap stone, extending from Porcu- 
pine Island a distance of 2,500 feet in a westerly direction, to a point 
about 600 feet from the low-water line of Mount Desert Island, the 
estimated cost being $420,200. 

The expenditures to June 30, 1905, were $189,789.18, by which date 
the breakwater had been raised to a height of mean high tide for a 
distance of 1,790 feet from Porcupine Island. The width on top is 
20 feet and the side slopes are such as the rock naturally assumes. As 
funds become available the existing work will be maintained and 
extended until the proposed length is obtained, after which the cross 
section will be strengthened to the extent required for permanency. 

The beneficial effects resulting from tlie portion of tne breakwater 
already built in protecting the wharves at Bar Harbor and the anchor- 
age basin are appreciably felt ; but in order to secure the desired pro- 
tection at high water of spring tides it will probably be foun^ neces- 
sary to raise the breakwater to a height of about 6 feet above mean 
high tide. The mean range in tides is 11.5 feet. 

The benefits to navigation are general in providing a harbor of 
refuge, and local in making it possible for boats to land at the wharves 
at all times with safety. The only convenient method of transporta- 
tion to and from Bar Harbor is by boat. 

The last appropriation for this work was in 1899, and no work has 
been done since 1900. At the last inspection it was noted that the 
crest of the portion in place had been lowered throughout about C 
feet by storm action. 

The commerce has been reported as follows : 

Tons. 

1808 22.175 

1899 24, 393 

1901 42,150 

July 1. 1904, balance unexpended $210.82 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 210.82 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 230, 200. 00 

(See Appendix A3.) 

J^. Harbo'c at Sullivan Falls, Maine. — Sullivan River has a length of 
about 6 miles and is the outlet of a large bay. About midway of its 
length a point of land projects to such extent as to reduce the width 
to alxjut one-fourth that immediately above and below, and at this 

{)Iace the slope and velocity are such that the locality is termed " Sul- 
ivan Falls. ''^ The bottom is ledge, the higher portions forming dan- 



Digitized by 



Google 



24 



RKPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEEB8, XT. 8. ABXY. 



gerous obstructions to navigation. Hatchers rock, about midway of 
the narrow channel at the rails, had originally only about 6 inches of 
water over it at mean low tide. The mean range in tides is 11.5 feet. 

Under a project set forth in report of the district engineer, dated 
December 10, 1870, and under appropriations based thereon, the sum 
of $35,000 was expended in removing three old piers, in excavating 
the obstructing ledges at the falls to a depth of 7 feet at mean low 
tide, and in replacing spindles on two rocks near the mouth of the 
river. This work was completed in 1875 and was of material benefit 
to navigation. 

The present project is that referred to in the river and harbor act 
of June 3, 1896, as the " approved project," and publishe,d in the 
Annual Report of the Chief oi Pingineers for 1891, page 619. It pro- 
vides for removing Hatchers rock and two other points of ledge to a 
depth of 10 feet at mean low tide, at an estimated cost of $35,000. 

The expenditures under the existing project to June 30, 1905, were 
$14,795.64, and the operations consisted in removing the entire area 
of Hatchers rock and about five-sixths of ledge " C ' to a depth of 10 
feet at mean low tide. 

To complete the present project the remaining part of ledge " C," 
containing about 67 cubic yards in situ, and ledge " B," containing 
255.3 cubic yards in situ, will have to be removed. 

Tlie improvement not only increases the navigable depth, but also, 
by removing the cause of ecldies and cross currents, has added to the 
length of time at each high and low tide during which vessels may 
pass tlwrough the rapid.s with safety. 

Vessels can not use the channel at low stages except when the tide 
is slack. This occurs after the tide has flowed about 2 feet, at which 
time vessels drawing 11 feet can pass through safely. 

The improvement may be regarded as permanent. 

The commerce for the last six years has been as follows: 



Tons. 

1899 42, 125 

1900 :-— 35,020 

1901 __. 40,125 



Tons. 

1902 37,050 

1903 4,5. 700 

1964 31,400 



The commerce consists almost entirely of granite. 

July 1, 1004, balance unexpended 

July 1. 1905, balnncH> unexpended 



$204.36 
204. .SO 



Amount (estimated) required for comiiletion of existing project 20, 000. 00 

(See Appendix A 4.) 

6. Union River, Maine. — The navigable portion of the river extends 
from the head of Union Bay to the foot of the falls at Ellsworth, a 
distance of about 3 J miles. 

Before improvement the channel was obstructed by a large deposit 
of slabs, edgings, and sawdust near Ellsworth, which practically sus- 
pended navigation except at high tide, by projecting ledges m the 
narrows about three-fourths of a mile below the wharves at Ells- 
worth, by bowlders at several points along the channel, and by a 
broad, flat bar of sawdust and mud at the mouth. . 

The first project for the improvement of the river is contained in 
the report of the district officer dated June 30, 1867, and provided for 



Digitized by 



Google 



BTVEB AND HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS. 25 

erecting beacons, removing sunken ledges and bowlders, and dredging 
mill waste near Ellsworth, so as to secure a depth of 3 feet at mean 
low tide, this being the available depth on the bpr at the mouth of the 
river. This improvement was completed in 1873 with an expenditure 
of $30,000. 

A survey was made in 1889 under the provisions of the act of 1888, 
and a new project was submitted with a view to obtaining a depth of 
6 feet at mean low tide from the wharves at Ellsworth to deep water 
in the bay. This depth was to be obtained by dredging mill waste 
near Ellsworth, by removal of ledge in the Narrows, and oy dredging 
across the bar at the mouth of the river. To maintain the improved 
depth of the latter point the same project provided for the construc- 
tion of a training wall to concentrate the ebb flow in the channel. Tlie 
present authorized project is that described above with the training 
wall omitted, and is published on page 461, Part 1, Annual Report of 
the Chief of Engineers for 1890. 

The act of June 3, 1890, appropriated $15,000 for beginning the im- 
provement. This sum was expended in excavating to a depth of about 
6 feet over a section of river about 3,000 feet long in the vicinity of 
the Narrows, ami in carrying a single cut of the dredge to the same 
depth as far up as the wharves, to afford immediate relief to naviga- 
tion. This single cut was partly filled with new deposit by the next 
freshet. 

By the act of March 3, 1899, the sum of $15,000 was appropriated 
and a contract was authorized for completing the improvement, at an 
additional cast of $1 15,000. 

Changes having occurred since the making of the survey upon 
which the project was based, a new survey was made in May, 1899, 
and a project for securing the completion of the improvement, with 
such changes in quantities as were shown to l)e necessary by the sur- 
vey, was apiproved by the Secretary of War June 28, 1899. 

This project was completed in 1902. The dredging at the mouth of 
the river and the removal of the ledge in the Narrows were arcom- 
plished, and the channel at Ellsworth, where the material was saw- 
mill waste, was dredged, but the depth at the latter place is not 
expected to maintain because of the movement during freshets of 
material from the great deposits of mill waste at that locality. 

The expenditures to June 30, 1905, in connection with the last 
project were $142,101.36. 

Tlie mean range in tide is 11.5 feet. 

The tonnage iot the past seven years is given below. It is reported 
that nearly all commodities now come by rail instead of by water. 
Shipments from Ellsworth by rail are increasing with corresponding 
decrease in shipments by water. 



Tons. 

1898 50.462 

1899 49,800 

1900 42. {580 

1901 : 37,749 



Tons. 

1902 .32, 169 

190.S 20,038 

1904 14,961 



July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $2. 898. 64 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 2, 898. 64 

(See Appendix A 5.) 

6. Bagaduce River, Maine. — This is a small stream that empties 
into Penobscot Bay .at Castine, Me. The upper part of the river 



^i 



Digitized by 



Google 



26 



BBFOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOIKEEB8, U. S. ARMY. 



divides into two branches, one called Northern Bay and the otlier 
South Bay. Northern Bay, near South Penobscot, is a shoal slie«'t of 
water of about 700 acres area, the bottom of which for the greater 
part is bare at low tide. Before improvement there was a narrow 
channel from Bridges Point to Bowdien's wharf, which had a depth 
of less than 2 feet and was obstructed by ledges and bowlders near 
Winslows Island. The South Bay is otetructed by ledges at John- 
sons Narrows. Mean rise and fall of tide, 9.8 feet. 

The approved project is understood to be that published atj)age 398 
of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1888. Its object 
is to secure a channel 100 feet wide and 6 feet deep at mean low tide 
from Bridges Point, Northern Bay, to Bowden's wharf, at an esti- 
mated cost of $45,000. The same project provides for removing a 
small quantity of rock in the channel at Johnsons Narrow's, at an 
estimated cost of $1,875. All work done has been in accordance with 
this project. 

The expenditures to June 30, 1905, were $24,865.21. At that date 
there had been obtained by dredging and by the removal of rocks 
and bowlders, mainly at Winslows Island, which was the shoalest 
place, a channel 40 feet wide and about 2 feet deep at mean low tide. 

Navigation has not been appreciably benefited by the improvement, 
which is of doubtful public value. 

There were no operations during the fiscal year 1905. A contract 
has just been made under which it is expected during the present 
working season to secure about 4 feet depth through the 40-foot 
cut already made. 

The commerce for the last eight years is given below, but it is to 
be remarked that this includes the business of Castine, a place of some 
importance at the mouth of the river : 



Tons. 

1897 80,600 

1898 79,965 

18!« 89,500 

1900 86,000 



Tons. 

1901 90, 900 

1902 99,2.")0 

1903 9n.77.-> 

1904 102, 05() 



July 1, 1904, balance unexpended— $3,254.50 

June 30, 190.5, amount expended daring fiscal year, for works of Im- 
provement 119. SO 



Julv 1, 1905, balance unexpended 3. 1.T4. 79 

July t 1905, outstanding liabilities... 2..s<i 



July 1, 1905, balance available .% LSI. n.i 



.Tuly 1, 1905, amount coveretl by uncompleted contracts 2. 71.'t. 8(1 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project— 18.875. (»0 

(See Appendix A 6.) 

7. Penobscot River, Main^. — ^Except the dredging of a sawdust bar 
opposite High Head, near Bucksport, Me., the improvements have 
l>etm confined to a stretch of about 3^ miles of the river at and below 
Bangor. Before improvement this part of the river was obstructed 
by ledge, bowlders, and mill waste to such extent as to aiford a safe 
available depth of only about 6 feet at extreme low tide. The mean 
range in tides is 13.1 feet. 

The original project is given in the district officer's report of 
August, 1870, and was approved August 22, 1870. Its object was to 
obtain, by dredging and by removing obstructing ledges and bowlders 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPROVEMENTS. 27 

• 
over 3^ miles of river at and below Bangor, an anobstructed channel 
having a width of 150 feet and a depth of 12 feet at the lowest tides. 
There was expended prior to the adoption of the present project 
$198,300. 

The present project is an extension and modification of that of 1870. 
It is based on a survey ordered bv the act of September 19, 185)0, and 
its object is to secure a channel clepth of 11 feet at extreme low tide 
for a width of 360 feet in Bangor Harbor; to widen, straighten, and 
deepen the channel near Crosbys Narrows and Stern's mill to a depth 
of 12 feet at extreme low tide ; and to secure a depth of 22 feet at 
mean low tide between Bucksport and Wiiiterport, at an estimated 
cost of $440,000. 

In 1899 the project was extended to include certain work at Bangor 
Harbor, estimated to cost $28,000. 

The expenditures under the existing modified and enlarged project 
to June 30, 1905, amounted to $169,434.27, and the object of the gen- 
eral project has virtually been accomplished. 

The available depths are as follows: Bangor Harl)or, 14 feet at 
mean low tide, or 11 feet at extreme low tide; at Stern's mill and 
Crosbys Narrows, 15 feet at mean low tide, or 12 feot at extreme low 
tide. The shoal at Frankfort flats was dredged to 22 feet at mean low 
water, and, so far as known, has given no trouble since. The shoal at 
High Head above Bucksport was dredged to the same depth, but 
afterwards shoaled up to a certain extent and subse<iuently tleejjcned 
again by the natural scour of the river. Examination made since the 
dredging was done shows that the depths on the bar vary and that no 
material benefit has been obtained by dredging. 

In view of the shifting character of this bar, the utter failure to 
obtain a permanent improvement by dredging, and the fact that it is 
not in any way a dangerous obstruction to navigation, no further work 
is recommended upon it at this time. 

In the act of March 3, 1899, Congress adopted a project for further 
local improvement in Bangor Harbor, the object being to remove the 
ledge in front of the Boston and Bangor Steamboat Company's wharf 
to a depth of 11 feet at extreme low tide, and to deei^en the basin of 
the Kendu.skeag stream at its junction with the Penobscot River. As 
approved by the Secretary of War, May, 1899, the detailed plan of 
improvement of the Kendu-skeag River, under the general proje<;t 
adopted by the act of March 3, 1899, contemplated dredging through 
both draws of the railroad bridge, and within the basin l)etween the 
lower bridge and the post-office bridge, so as to obtain a uniform depth 
of about 2 feet below mean low water to within 30 feet of the wharf. 
Both improvements were completed by the removal of 2,225 cubic 
j'ards of ledge in front of the Boston and Bangor Steamboat Com- 
pany's wharf and 15 cubic yards of bowlders and 27,428 cubic yards 
of gravel and sand from the basin of the Kenduskeag stream. The 
improvement at the Boston and Bangor steamboat wharf is perma- 
nent ; that in the mouth of the Kenduskeag not so. The depth it was 
expected to obtain in the later was 2 feet below mean low water, but 
the available depth secured is, in fact, less than this on account of 
bowlders brought in by freshets and scattered over the basin. 
During the fiscal year no work has been done. 
As above stated, the mean range in tide at Bangor Harbor is 13.1 
feet, and the depth of water resulting from past improvements is 14 



Digitized by 



Google 



28 REPORT OP THB CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, U.«8. ARMT. 

• 
feet, giving a depth of 27^ feet in the improved channel at high water 
of an average tide. The available high-water depth is some less than 
this at neap tide and correspondingly greater at spring tide. Deep- 
draft vessels always come in and depart at the height of the tide. 
Incoming vessels of deep draft are immediately docked on arrival, as 
there is not enough water in the channel to float them at low tide. 
There has been no special demand made for a further deepening of 
the channel of the river, but there has been a growing demand for 
an increase in its capacity by widening, the present area of deep Avater 
being insufficient to accommodate the traffic. Several instances have 
been reported of vessels being injured by striking ledges after being 
forced out of the channel. The act of 1905 provided for a preliminary 
examination, which has been made and a survey ordered. 

The conunerce of the river for the last eight years is given as 
follows : 



Tons. 

1897 790,608 

18!)8 (B{».(}71 

1899 6.58,632 

1900 917,Si.5 



Tons. 

1901 708, 012 

1902 689,369 

190:i 861,579 

1904 812, 273 



The bulk of the business for 1904 consisted of coal and lumber. 

July 1, 1904, balance uneipendetl ^610.39 

June 30, 1905, amount ext)ended during flscal year, for works of 

Improvement 44.66 



July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 8,565.7.3 

(See Appendix A 7.) 

8. Buckaport Ilarhor, Maine. — The mean range in tide is 10.6 feet. 
Before improvement the bed of the river on the east side in front of 
the wharves of Bucksport was obstructed by a deposit of sawdust 
and mud, having a minimum depth of abotit 4 feet at mean low tide. 

Under appropriations aggregating $16,000, this obstructing shoal, 
locally known as the Middle Ground, was dredged between 1875 and 
1878, under the general project for improving Penobscot River, to a 
depth of 12 feet at mean low tide over that portion of its area lying 
immediately in front of the wharves, and to a depth of 8 feet over the 
remainder. 

The existing project is based upon a report of a survey printed in 
the Annual Repoi-t of the Chief of Engineers for 1900, page 1103, 
and was adopted by the act of June 13, 1902. It provides tor remov- 
ing the Middle Ground, which has again shoaled, to a depth of 16 
feet at mean low tide, at an estimated co.st of $20,000. 

The expenditures under existing project to close of fiscal year end- 
ing June 30, 1905, have been $18,420.99. The improvement was com- 
pleted in 1903. 

As there are large sawdust and mud bars above this point, which 
are set in motion in times of freshet, it is expected that the area 
dredged at Bucksport will slowly fill in again in the course of years. 
The improvement should therefore not be regarded as entirely per- 
manent. 

July 1, 19<M. balance uue,xpended $1,685.36 

June 30. 1!K)5, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of 

improvement 100. 35 

July 1, 1905, balance unexi)ende«l 1,579.01 

(See Appendix A 8.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVBMENTS. 29 

9. Carnden Harbor, Maine. — The mean range in tide is 9.7 feet. 
Before improvement navigation was impeded by shoal water, there 
being a depth of about 6 feet in the outer harbor at the steamboat 
landing and less than 1 foot in the inner harbor, where most of the 
wharves are located. 

The first project is contained in the district officer's report of De-/ 
cember 17, 1872, and provided for dredging two channels, -one 1,500 
feet long, 100 feet wide, and 7 feet deep at mean low water on the 
easterly side of the harbor, the other 1,400 feet long, 100 feet wide, 
and 7 feet deep at mean low water. This improvement was com- 
pleted in 1875, under- appropriations aggregating $30,000 made by 
acts of 1873, 1874, and 1875. 

The harbor was again surveyed and a new project submitted in 
1887, under the provisions of the river and harbor act of 1886. This 
project provided for dredging at the entrance tp the harbor to a 
depth of 12 feet at mean low tide; to dredging a channel on each 
side of the harbor and approaches to the same to a depth of 10 feet ; 
to dredging small channels along the wharves at the extreme upper 
end of the harbor to 5 feet, and after completion of the above, to 
dredging the Middle Ground of the harbor to the same depths as 
the adjacent channels. The project was completed in 1897, witk an 
expenditure of $44,940.79. 

There is one small stream emptying into the harbor at the extreme 
upper end, but it is not a silt-l)earing stream, and it is believed that 
the improved depths have remained practically permanent. 

Under the provisions of the river and harbor act of March 3, 1899, 
a new survey was made in the vicinity of the Boston and Bangor 
Steamboat Company's wharf in the outer harl)or and a project sub- 
mitted for increasing the depths in this vicinity to 14 feet at moan 
and 11 feet at extreme low water so as to accommodate the Iwats of 
this line, which have had difficulty in reaching their wharves at ex- 
treme low run of tides. The cost was estimated at $7,400. Th\ 
project is published at page 1111 of the Annual Report of the Cliicf 
of Engineers for 1900. 

Expenditures under the latter project up to June 30, 1905, were 
$7,285.53, and resulted in completion of the improvement, giving a 
uniform depth of 14 feet at mean low tide over an area in front of 
the Eastern Steamship wharf, where the depth had previously ranged 
from 9.5 to 13 feet. 

July 1, 1904, bHlance une.xpemlwl $173.68 

July 1, 1905, balance unexi)eudetl 173.68 

(See Appendix A 9.) 

10. RoeMand Harbor, Maine. — The wharves are located on the 
shores of three coves, formed by two projecting points of land on the 
western side of the harbor, known as Crocketts Point and Atlantic 
Point. The general direction of the wharf frontage is north and 
south and the length of frontage is about 800 feet. Before improve- 
ment depths in front of the wharves increased very slowly. All the 
wharves except those at the end of Crocketts Point and Atlantic Point 
extended only a short distance beyond the low -water contour, a high 
mean range m tide, which at this point is 9.6 feet, being relied upon 
to give access to moderate and light draft vessels at high tides. The 
entrance to the harbor from the east has a width of about 9,000 feet. 



Digitized by 



Google 






30 REPOET OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMT. 

Before improvement the anchorage in front of the wharves, vessels 
lying at the wharves, and the wharves themselves were endangered 
by heavy seas during easterly gales. 

The first improvement undertaken was to render it a safe harbor of 
refuge for coastwise shipping, and incidentally also to protect the 
wharves as far as possible from heavy seas. To accomplish this a 
project was adopted in 1881 in which two breakwaters were contem- 
plated, one extending south from Jamesons Point, the other a de- 
tached breakwater nearer to and opposite the principal wharves in 
the town ; both to be raised in the first instance to the level of mean 
tide, but with the expectation that a further raising would be neces- 
sary as experience might dictate. 

In 1886 this project was amended so as to raise the height of the 
breakwater at Jamesons Point to the level of mean high tide. In 
18!)0 it was iigain amended so as to eliminate the detached breakwater 
and to provide for extending farther south than was first contem- 
plated the breakwater at Jamesons Point. 

IJy the act of June 3, 189(5, Congress adopted a project for dredg- 
ing the inner harbor in the vicinity of the wharves to dcjjths ranging 
from 4 feet to 13 feet at mean low tide and for removing two danger- 
ous ledges, one occupying a central position in the harbor, which was 
to be cut down to tlic depth of 22 feet at mean low tide; the other, 
less centrally located, was to be removed to a depth of 14 feet. The 
estimated cost was $403,000. By the same act this project was com- 
bined with that for the breakwater as one project, and authority was 
given for completing the whole under the continuous-contract sy.stcm, 
at an estimated expenditure of $1,036,000. 

The dredging was finished in May, 1901 ; the removal of ledge in 
the fall of 1901. The breakwater was also completed to the heiglit 
and slopes contemplated before the close of the same season. The sea 
slope or the breakwater did not maintain its status under the heavy 
gales of the winter of 1900-1901, and 32,656 tons additional of heavy 
riprap was placed on il l)efore the close of the fiscal year 1902. 

The winter of 1903—1 was phenomenal for its extreme cold and con- 
sequent heavy ice. An examination of the breakwater early in 1904 
showed nioi-e or less disturbance of the .sea slope as a result of the ice 
movenuMit and the heavy seas. During tlie fiscal vear 1905. 19,716 
tons of stone was placed along the out*r slope. This work is re- 
giirded as ratlier for improvement than for maintenance, as it was to 
be ex|)ected that some work would be neces-sary from time to time 
until the slo[)es hiul assumed a state of rest. 

The total exnendituros to the close of the fisc-al year 1905 were 
$915,46(;.7S. The benefits resulting are that the breakwater affords 
a siife and (>xt(>nsive andiorage and harbor of refuge. The removal 
of leclges has increased the available anchorage area, and the dredging 
iiiFords access to the wharves by vessels of greater draft. 

The coiiinierc(! for the last eight year's is given as follows: 

Tona. I Tons. 

IS!)-.- 5!)4,!)92| I'.KU r)22, 17.5 

1S'.).S ' 579,:J00 1!K)2 470,82.") 

1S!)!» 7.">.(M9 1903 4n8.(iti0 

lOtX) 553,000 I 1904 512,170 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND UABBOR IMPROVEMENTS. 



31 



July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $34,551.27 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of im- 
provement 24, 518. 05 



July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 10)033. 22 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 201.95 



9, 831. 27 



July 1, 1905. balance available 

(See Appendix A 10.) 

11. Carvers Harbor, Vinalhaven, Me. — ^The object of the improve- 
ment is to secure a better anchorage than the harbor afforded in its 
natural state. Before improvement the anchorage area was limited 
as to area and depth, there being less than 8 feet at mean low tide' over 
the most of it. 

The project of improyement, as approved by the Secretary of War 
May 11, 1897, provides for dredging the inner harbor to adepth of 
16 feet at mean low tide over an area about 23 acres in extent and at 
an estimated cost of $64,000. 

The expenditures under the existing project up to the close of the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, amounted to $42,841.60. 

The project is completed, giving 16 feet at mean low tide over an 
area about 1,300 feet by 750 feet, or practically all that part of the 
inner harbor used for commerce. 

The improvement will be fairly permanent and will be a benefit to 
navigation in affording a harbor of refuge and increased facilities for 
reaching the wharf. 

The mean range in tides is 9.3 feet. 

The commerce for the last eight years is given as follows : 



Tons. 

1897 63,074 

1888 80,000 

1809 63,390 

1900 64,500 



Tons. 

1901 78,300 

1902 77,200 

10O.i 82,906 

1904 64,650 



Probably 70 per cent of the tonnage is granite. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $2, 158. 40 

July 1, 1905. balance unexpended 2,15a 40 

(See Appendix A 11. )r 

J 2. Georges Rioer. Maine. — This river is a tidal estuary with a 
mean rise and fall of the tide of 10 feet. The head of navigation is 
Thomaston, Me. 

The navigable depth is full 3^ fathoms to a point about 1 mile from 
Thomaston, but from this point to the head of navigation the channel 
before improvement was narrow, with a short bend at one point and 
with a least depth of about 11 feet at mean low tide. 

By act of June 3, 1896, Congress adopted a project for dredging to 
16 feet at mean low tide, and to widths as follows : As far up as the 
I)end, 160 feet ; in the bend, 220 feet ; beyond the bend, 125 feet, nar- 
nowing to 90 feet at the upper end. 

The estimated cost was $26,000. 

The expenditures to June 30, 1905, were $25,787.91, and the work 
covered by the project has been accomplished. 

Gradual shoaling by material brought down by freshets may be 
expected, but the process will be slow and a depth sufficient to accom- 
modate the traffic wiU probably be maintained for a number of years. 



Digitized by 



Google — 



32 REPORT OF THE OHIEK OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

The depth of the dredged channel is such that vessels could be 
towed out at any stage of the tide, but as the business at that locality 
does not seem to warrant the maintenance of a tug they have to wait 
until near high water and a favorable wind in order to go in or out 
under sail with safety. 

The commerce is given as follows : 



Tons. 

1901 ao.ooo 

1902 45,000 

1903 21, 050 



Tons. 

1897 (54, 250 

1898 59, 000 

1899 00,000 

1900 29,225 

July 1, 1004, balttiK-o uuexi)en(led $357.00 

June 30, 1905, amount expended durinR flncal year, for works of Im- 
provement 145.00 



July 1, 1905, balam-e unexpended 212.09 

(See Appendix A 12.) 

13. New Harhoi\ Maine. — This is a small harbor on the easterly 
side of Pemaquid Neck and about 14 miles southeast of Newcastle, 
the nearest railroad station. The entrance is good, but inside the 
harbor the greatest depth is only about 10 feet at mean low tide, and 
that for a limited area. The ui)per part of the harbor is bare at low 
tide. These conditions prevented the steamer, on which local inter- 
ests depend for freighting, from landing at low tide and made it 
impossible for fisliing vessels and lioats to reach the upper wharves 
to land their catch except at high water. Lack of anchorage room 
also produced a ci'owded condition in the lower harbor. 

The existing project, which was adopted by the act of March 3, 
1905, is based on a survey made in 1903, the report of which was 
printed in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1904 
(p. 81(5). It covers the only work ever proposed for this locality 
and provides for dredging to a depth of 12 feet at mean low tide 
over an area of about 4| acres in the lower part of the harbor and to 
feet at mean low tide over an area of about 4^ acres in the upper 
part. The estimated cost is $10,500. 

The amount expended to the clow of the fiscal year 1905 was 
$129.75. No work has yet been done, but a -contract nas been made 
for doing all the dredging covered by the project. It is expected 
that operations will be commenced about the last of July and com- 
pleted during the jji-esent season. 

The tonnage for the year 1904 is reported as 8,349 tons, and the 
n>iml)cr of passengers 1,500. It has bwm estimated that about $300 
per year will be saved through the steamer making regular landings 
ahme. 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act ai)proved March 3. 1905. $10, 500. 00 
June .30, liM).'), amount oxiiondcrt during fiscal year, for works of 
Improvement _..- 129.75 



.Tuly 1, 1905, Iwliincc unexiKjndcd 10, 370. 2."> 

July 1, litO.'), outstanding lial)llitics 12.00 



July 1, 1905, balanc-e available 10,.^57.C5 



July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 9, 229. 50 

(See Appendix A 13.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



RIVEB AND HARBOK IMPROVEMENTS. 33 

H. Damariseotta River, Maine. — Damariscotta River is a tidal 
estuarv about 15 miles in length up to the head of navigation, where 
the villages of Newcastle and Damariscotta are situated. The ap- 
proach to the wharves is obstructed by a shoal having a least depth 
of 5 feet at mean low tide. 

The existing project, which represents the first work proposed for 
this locality, was adopted by the act of March 3, 1905, and is based 
upon a survey made in 1903, the report of which is published in the 
Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 190i (p. 800). It 
provides for dredging the above-mentioned shoal to a depth of 9 
feet at mean low tide, at an estimated cost of $5,000. 

The amount expended to the close of the fiscal year 1905 was 
$25.53. No work nas yet been done, but a contract has been made 
for doing all the dredging covered by the project. It is expected 
that operations will be commenced about the 1st of August ana com- 
pleted during the present season. 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act ai)proved March 3, 1905. f5, 000. 00 
Juiie 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of Im- 
provement 25. 53 

Jnly 1, 1905, balance unexpended 4,974.47 

July 1, 19(», outstanding liabilities 5.60 

July 1, 1905. balance available 4,968.87 

July 1. 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 4, 177. 36 

(See Appendix A 14.) 

15. Kennebec River, Maine. — Before improvement the main chan- 
nel of the river between the foot of Swan Island and Gardiner was 
obstructed by shoals near Beef rock, with only 10 feet of water at 
mean low tide, by dangerous simken ledges in Lovejoy Narrows, by 
a shoal below South Gardiner with only 8 feet on it at mean low tide, 
and by a ledge at Nehumkeg Island. The steamboat channel to the 
west of Swan Island (at Hatehs rock) was obstructed by a shoal over 
which there was only 7^ feet of water, and the channel between Gard- 
iner and Augusta, a distance of 6A miles was obstructed by shoals 
which gave a navigable depth of only 3J feet in low summer tides. 

Appropriations for minor improvements were made at various times 
between 1827 and 1852. 

In 1866 a project was begun for improving the upper part of the 
river with a view to obtaining a channel 7 feet deep and 100 feet wide . 
at low water. This project, witlj modifications, was completed in 1877 
and resulted in obtaining a channel 10 feet deep at mean low tide and 
not less than 100 feet wide in its lowest summer stages as far up as 
Gardiner, and a depth of 6^ feet at low tide and width of 100 feet 
from Gardiner to Augusta. 

The channel west of Swan Island, being obstructed by shoal water 
(8^ feet at mean low tide) and a too narrow channel at the head of the 
island, by shoal water at Hatehs rock, l)elow Richmond, and by a very 
narrow channel 30 feet wide at the foot of the island, was improved 
by dredging in 1881-1883, so as to give a channel 175 feet wide and 11 
feet deep at the foot of the island and a channel of about 80 feet width 
and 10 feet depth at Hatehs rock and the head of the island. 

ENG 1905 M 3 



Digitized by 



Google 



/ 



34 



REPOBT OF THE CHIEF OP ENOINEERS, U. 8. AEMY. 



The river and harbor act of 1886 provided for a new survey of the 
river from Bath to Augusta. This survey was made in 188?, and a 
project embracing dredging, rock excavation, and contraction works 
was submitted for tlie further improvement of the river. In 1882 this 

{)roject was revised to secure depths as follows: Thirteen feet at mean 
ow tide as far up as Sands Island ; 12 feet thence to Hinckleys shoal, 
above Gardiner, and 10 feet thence to Augusta, at an estimated cost of 
$388,500. This project was approved August 19, 1892, and was com- 
pleted in 1898. 

The total expenditures upon the river to June 30, 1905, upon the 
projects above enumerated, were $483,674.33. 

The improved channel obtained under the above projects has suf- 
fered some loss of available depth by the deposits brought down by 
freshets. This slioaling has been most marked in the stretch of 6^ 
miles of river between Gardiner and Augusta, the further improve- 
ment of which is provided for by the river and harbor act approved 
June 13, 1902, which appropriated $40,000 and authorized a continu- 
ous contract for the completion of the project. The last project is 
published at page 1121 oi the Annual Report of the Chief of Engi- 
neers for 1900, and proposes a widening of the channel from Gardiner 
to Augusta to 12.5 feet, and a cleaning out of the old dredged channel 
and its further deepening to 16 feet at mean high water, or 11 feet at 
mean low water. 

Nothing has yet been done under the project of 1902, and there have 
been no expenditures. The work has been advertised, but the bids 
were rejected because in excess of the authorized cost. It will be 
readvertised. 

The mean rise and fall of tides at Bath is 6.9 feet ; at Gardiner, 5.1 
feet ; at Augusta, 4.3 feet. 

Augusta is the head of general navigation, though above the dam at 
that place the stream admits of navigation in a limited way. Prob- 
ably not more than 7 feet at mean low tide could be carried up to 
Augusta. 

The commerce for eight years is given as follows : 



Tons. 

1897 66.5,991 

1898 1,211,808 

1899 714.199 

1900 716,930 



Tons. 

1901 542,626 

1902 431,118 

19m 499,849 

1904 468,980 



OENEBAI. IMPROVEMENT. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended— ' $17,413. 12 

June 30, 1905. amount expended during fiscal year, for works of Itn- 
provement -, 737. ^'i 



July 1, 190r>, balance une.xi)erided-- 16,67.5.67 

July 1, 190,5, outstanding liabilities 75.00 



.July 1, 1905, balnnc« available 16,600.67 

BETWEEN OABDINEB AND AUOnSTA. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $40,000.00 

July 1, 190.5, balanw unexpendetl 40,000.00 



Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 41, 000. 00 



Digitized by 



Google 



BITEB AND HABBOB IMPROVEMENTS. 85 

Amonnt tbat cmn be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 
1907. for worfcs of improvement, in addition to the balance unex- 
pended July 1, 1905 $41,000.00 

Sobmitted in compliance wltb requirements of sundry civil act of 
June 4. 1897. 

(See Appendix A 1.5.) 

16. Portland Harbor, Maine. — The entrance to the main part of the 
harbor of Portland, or the anchorage, has always been gootl, but 
before improvement the approach to the inner harbor was obstructed 
by a shoal known as the Middle Ground, over which tlie depth was 
onJy from 8 to 10 feet at mean low tide, while between it and Stam- 
ford ledge the greatest available depth was only Ifi feet. The best 
part of tne wharf front was exposed to swell from the main entrance, 
which sometimes made it dangerous for vessels to lie at the docks, and 
along this front the depth was in some places as shallow as 4 feet. 

The first work of improvement undertaken by the Government was 
the construction of the breakwater. This was begun as early as 1836. 
It was completed in 1874. 

The work of deepening the harbor was begun under the act of Con- 
gress of 1868, the plan of improvement being to excavate a chaimel 
.SOO feet wide and 20 feet deep at mean low tide through the southern 
slope of the Middle Ground and to remove the bar off the Grand 
Trunk Railroad wharves to the same depth. 

The project was modified in 1870 so as to provide for a channel 400 
feet wide, and again in 1871 so as to provide for a channel .500 feet 
wide. In 1872 further modifications were made by including in the 
project the dredging of Back Cove and the dredging of the inner 
harbor up to the harbor commissioner's lines to a depth of 16 feet at 
mean low tide. The project, modified as alwve described, excepting 
some dredging in the inner harbor, was completed by 1876. Between 
1881 and 1885 the Middle Ground was removed to a depth of 21 feet 
at mean low tide. 

A further deepening of a portion of the harbor to 29 feet at mean 
low tide was next begun under the project of 1886. To this was sub- 
sequently added, in 1890, a small amount of dredging in the upper 
part of the harbor. 

In 1894 the project was extended to cover the widening of the upper 
part of the 29-foot area and the dredging of a channel 25 feet deep to 
connect the deep water in the lower part of the harbor with deep 
water in the upper part. This work was completed in 1894. 

By the act of June 3, 1896, Congress adopted a project for dredging 
to 30 feet at mean low tide over the greater part of the harbor, at an 
estimated cost of $770,000, and included in the project the further 
improvement of Back CoA'e at a combined estimate of $946,250. The 
same act appropriated $20,000 for beginning work and authorized the 
making of a contract for its completion. 

The latter project was completed in 1902 at a cost which was about 
$2.53,000 less than the estimate. By the sundry civil act of March 3, 
1905, Congress authorized an amendment to the project by which the 
30-foot channel is to be continued up Fore River as far as the 
Boston and Maine Railroad bridge, and a channel of entrance to Back 
Cove dredged to the same depth. The width in each case is to be 
about 300 feet. The work is to be done without increasing the esti- 
mated cost 



Digitized by 



Google 



36 BEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARJCi. 

The total expenditures to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1905, have been $1,270,815.89. 

There are no silt streams emptying into Portland Harbor, and the 
improved depths obtained under the project will be practically perma- 
nent. The maximum draft that can be carried to the wharves in 
Portland Harbor at mean low tide is 30 feet and to the wharves in 
Back Cove about 11 feet. The mean range in tide is 8.8 feet. 

Two principal advantages have followed this large improvement. 
A large and well-sheltered deep-water anchorage has been created 
under the shelter of the breakwater, and the trans- Atlantic vessels can 
arrive and depart from their docks at the lowest stages of tide. 

The portion of the harbor in which most of the dredging has been 
done is the lower part of so-called Fore River. This river is crossed 
by four bridges. Going up the harbor these are: (1) Portland 
Bridge; (2) bridge of the Boston and Maine Railroad, eastern di- 
vision; (3) Vaughan Bridge, belonging to city; (4) bridge of Boston 
and Maine Railroad, western division. Portland Bridge has a draw 
G5 feet wide, and admits vessels of the largest class coming to Port- 
land. The next bridge has recently been reconstructed with a draw 
opening of 60 feet, and the city of Portland is now negotiating for 
the reconstruction of the third bridge with an opening of not less 
than 60 feet. The improvement in the bridges ana the new channels 
will afford great relief to the coal trade and other deep-draft com- 
merce which has been much hampered and retarded by lack of room 
and sufficient water. 

The commerce for the last eight years is given as follows : 



Ton8. 

1897 1. 326, 844 

1808 1,334,752 

1899 1, (i2<), 284 



Tons. 

1901 2, 461. 515 

1902 2,224,091 

1903 2, 312, 457 



1900 2,261,008 | 1904 2,233,475 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended |13, 779. 58 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905- 100, 000. 00 

113, 779. 58 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of Ini- 
piovement 868. 42 



July 1, 1905. balance unexpended 112,911.16 

July 1, 190.-). outstanding liabilities 115.02 



July 1, 1905, balance available 112,796.14 



Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 139,000.00 



f Amount that can be profitably ex|)ended in fiscal year ending June 30, 
1907, for works of improvement, in addition to the balance unex- 
pended July 1. 1905 139,000.00 

Submitted in compliance with requirements of sundry civil act of 
June 4, 1897. 

(See Appendix A 16.) 

17. Saco River. Maine. — [This work was in the charge of Col. W. S. 
Stanton, Corps of Engineers, to March 31, 1905.] In its original 
condition Saco River had a very winding course with abrupt bends 
and narrows, which, with its sunken rocks and ledges, presented 
many difficulties of navigation. The depth on the bar was only 2 
feet at mean low water. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 37 

The original projects appear to have been — 

(1) From 1824-1827 for the erection of piers, placing beacons and 
buoys, and removing obstructions near the entrance to the harbor. 
Under this project 12 piers of timber and stone were built, 10 in the 
river to mark sunken rocks and to facilitate navigation by sailing 
vessels, and 2 outside the mouth designed, but without success, to 
create a channel through the bar. The construction and maintenance 
of these works cost, 1824-1827, $12,000. 

(2) Adopted by the act of June 23, 1866, to construct a breakwater 
2,915 feet long connecting the two outside piers, and to repair the 
river piers and improve the channel. Under this project, completed 
in 1874, the channel in the river and through the bar was improved, 
and a breakwater built on the north side of the channel 4,200 feet 
long and 10 feet high above mean low water, at an expense of 
$162^71.75. 

The existing project is the consolidation by the act of Septeniber * 
19, 1890, of the proiect adopted in 1884 for repairing the breakwater, 
extending it 2,200 feet to Sharps ledge, building a stone jetty on the 
south side of the channel, and dredging between the jetties at an esti- 
mated cost of $356,500; and the project adopted in 1886 for improv- 
ing the river to Saco, 5 miles above its mouth, to the depth of ('» feet 
at mean low water, estimated to cost $50,000, amounting to $40(>,500. 
But some uncertainty seems to exist whether Congress has adopted 
that part of the project extending the breakwater 2,200 feet to Sharps 
ledge. By the report of the district officer in 1900, from an examina- 
tion made at that time it appears that extension of the breakwater is 
necessary to prevent the influx of sand into the channel, which is 
from the north side. 

On June 30, 1905, there had been expended on this consolidated 
project $172,258.37, with which all the works of improvement have been 
completed except the extension of the breakwater 2,200 feet to Sharps 
ledge, estimated to cost $200,000, and upon which no work has been 
done. An examination made in 1900 showed that 3^ feet at mean low 
water was the maximum draft that could then be carried over the bar, 
the shoalest part of the locality under improvement. No examination 
has since been made from which the depth can be given to June 30, 
1904. 

The mean range of tides is 8.8 feet. 

The head of navigation is at Saco and Biddeford on opposite sides 
of the river, to which towns, about 5 miles above the bar, the river is 
navigable in fact. 

The commerce benefited by the improvement consists of coal and 
building materials, principallv coal, and amounted in 1901 to 42,625 
tons, in 1902 to 38,072 tons, "in 1903 to 33,879 tons, and in 1904 to 
39,730 tons. 

A description of the harbor and of the earliest improvements is 
published in the Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1866. page 188. 
The present project for improvement at the river's mouth is pub- 
lished in the report for 1884, page 484, and for improving the river 
above the bar in the report for 188G, page 552. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexiwnded $">, 241.0i3 

July 1. 1905, balance uuexiwnded .'i, 241.(i3 

Amonnt (estimated) required for completion of existing project 200,000.00 

(See Appendix A 17.) 



Digitized by 



Google •^"' 



38 REPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, C. 8. ABMT. 

18. Kennehunk River, Maine. — By an act of Congress in 1798 pro- 
vision was made for keeping in repair a pier built at the mouth or the 
river, and under subseqtient projects, from 1829 to 1871, an easterly 
and westerly pier of stone at the mouth of the river, and a wharf of 
timber cribs filled with stone about 700 feet above the shore end of the 
easterly pier apj)ear to have been extended and maintained. 

In 1876 the project was modified to obtain by dredging a channel 
of navigable width, not less than 4 feet deep at mean low water, 
from the mouth of the river up about 1^ miles to Kennebunkport, 
at an estimated cost of $5,000. 

With the amount ($83,584.01) expended on the original and modi- 
fied projects to 1893, when they were i-eported completed (Annual 
Report, Chief of P]ngine«rs for 1893, p. 713), a westerly pier COO feet, 
an easterly pier 200 fi^t, and a wharf 300 feet in length appear to 
have been extended and maintained, and a channel of navigable 
'width, 4 feet deep at mean low water, obtained by dredging and rock 
excavation. 

In December, 1902, an estimate was submitted, amounting to $3,500, 
for the repair of the two piers and the wharf. This sura was appro- 
priated for maintenance by the act of March 3, 1905. 

The maximum draft that could be carried at mean low water on 
Jiuie 30, 1905, over the shoalest part of the locality under improve- 
ment is 4 feet. The mean range of tide is 9 feet. 

The head of navigation is at Kennebunkport, to which point, IJ 
miles from its mouth, the river is navigable in fact. 

The commerce benefited consists principally of coal, of which 
2,000 tons was delivered on the river in 1904. An occasional vessel 
brings in lumber for the shipyards, of which there are two at this 
point 

A description of the improvement at the mouth of the river may 
be found in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1870, 

?age 50G, and of the channel above the mouth, in the report for 1875, 
'art 2, page 434. 

Amount n|)pr(>prlated by river and borbor act approved March 3, 1905. $3, ."SOO. 00 
July 1, 1905, balaiM-e unexpended 3,500.00 

(See Appendix A 18.) 

19. York Harbor, Maine. — York Harbor is the mouth of York 
River, a small stream emptying into the Atlantic Ocean, about 10 
miles east of Portsmouth, X. H. Originally the channel was crooked 
and difficult to navigate. A project was approved in 188(5 for widen- 
ing and straightening the channel by removing part of the spit off 
the southwest point of Stage Neck, removing part of a sand shoal 
off Bragdons Island, and removing the upper shoal just north of 
Bragdons Island, at an estimated cost of $25,000, subsequently in- 
creased (in 1888) to $44,000, on accoiuit of some of the material 
proving harder than was expected. This project was regarded as 
completed in 1894. The cost was $44,000. 

The existing project was adopted by the act of March 3, 1905. It 
is based on a survey made in 1903, tlie report on which is published 
in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1904 (page 823), 
and provides for widening the channel off Bragdons Island about 
170 leet bv dredging to the depth of 10 feet at mean low tide, and 
for removing to the same depth the point of a projecting shoal just 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 39 

above. The estimated cost is $13,400. No work has yet been done, 
but bids have been invited and it is expected to make a contract for 
doing all the work covered by the project during the present working 
season. There have been no expenditures under the new project. 
The commerce for 1904 is reported as 21,900 tons, mostly brick. 
Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. $13, 400. 00 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 13,400.00 

July 1, 1905, outstanding iiabiiities 50.00 

July 1, 1905, balance available .• 13,350.00 

(See Appendix A 19.) 

20. Harbor at Isles of Shoals, Maine.— [This work was in the 
charge of Col, W. S. Stanton, Corps of Engineers, to March 31, 
1905.] The most protected anchorage at Isles of Shoals, known as 
Gosport Harbor, lies between Star Island on the south and south- 
west. Cedar Island on the southeast, and Smuttynose Island on the 
north and northeast. At mean low water its anchorage of about 32 
acres had a depth of 18 to 48 feet and none of its entrances less than 
24 feet. 

The original project of March 3, 1821, appears to have been to 
rebuild the small breakwater on the north side of Haleys Cove, pro- 
jecting westerly from Smuttynose Island to Cedar Island, directly 
protecting Gosport Harbor from easterly storms. 

The amount expended on the original project prior to operations 
under the existing project was $13,251.01. 

The existing project, adopted by the act of June 13, 1902, is to con- 
struct a breakwater on the base of the breakwater that was built 
under the project of 1821 between Smuttynose and Cedar islands, the 
upper part of which throughout its length had been demolished down 
to the level of 1^ feet above mean low water, at an estimated cost of 
$30,000. ■ 

The amount expended on the work of the existing project to June 
30, 1905, is $28,201.60, all for improvement, with which the break- 
water between Smuttynose and Cedar islands has been completed to 
the height of 15 feet above mean low wat«r, completing the project. 

The mean range of tides is 8.6 feet. 

The commerce benefited by the improvement is inconsiderable, but 
the harbor is of value as a harbor of refuge in the open sea 6 miles off 
the coast. 

A report of a survey of the Smuttynose Island breakwater is pub- 
lished m the Annual Report, Chief of Engineers, for 1875, Part 2, 
page 421. A description of the harbor, with survey and estimate for 
the new breakwater, is in the Annual Report for 1900, page 1172. 

July 1, 1904. balance unexpended $5,551.34 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during flscni year, (or works of Im- 
provement 3, 752. 94 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 1, 798. 40 

(See Appendix A 2t).) 

21. Cocheco River, New Hampshire. — [This work was in the charge 
of Col. W. S. Stanton, Corps of Engineers, to March 31, 1905.] 
Appropriations amounting to $10,060, made from 1829 to 1837, in- 
clusive, had been applied to the reduction of obstructions in the 



1 



Digitized by 



Google 



40 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGIWEERS, U. 8. ARMT. 

natural channel prior to the systematic improvement of this river, 
begun in 1870, when it was found to have a good channel not less 
than 6 feet deep at mean low water from it» confluence with the Pis- 
cataqua River to the Lower Narrows, about 1^ miles l)elow the lowest 
bridge at Dover. Above the Lower Narrows the channel was ob- 
structed by ledges and shoals upon which at mean low water the 
depth was from 6 inches to 2 feet. The original project for sys- 
tematic improvement, adopted by the act of March 3, 1871, was to 
obtain a channel 40 feet wide and 4 feet deep at mean low water from 
the Lower Narrows to the head of navigation at Dover. Under the 
original and amended projects completed in 1888 the amount ex- 
pended prior to operations under the existing project, including the 
expenditures from 18'29 to 1837, was $170,060. 

The existing project, adopted by the act of September 19, 1890, is 
to obtain a channel GO to 75 feet wide and 7 feet deep at mean low 
water (in rock 50 feet wide and 7^ feet deep) from the mouth of the 
river to the head of navigation, at an estimated cost of $175,000. By 
the act of June 13, 190'J, this project was extended to include the 
restoration of the channel in the Lamprey River, which from 1881- 
1883, under specific appropriations, had been dredged at mean high 
water 100 feet wide and 12 feet deep to the I^ower Narrows and 40 feet 
wide and 11 feet deep to the wharves at Newmarket, N. H. 

To June 30, 1905, there had been expended on the existing project 
on Cocheco River, all for improvement, $111,034.08, and on Lamprev 
River, all for maintenance, $8,207.53— total, $119,302.21— with which 
the channel in the Lamprey River had been restored to the full 
authorized dimensions, and a channel had l)een obtained in the Cocheco 
River of the full projected width and depth, except for a distance 
of 1,400 feet about three-fourths of a mile below Dover, over which 
the greatest continuous depth is (>i feet. The removal of ledgtvs and 
shoals obstructing the channel in this locality and the redredging 
of the basin at Dover will complete the channel called for in the 
project. 

The maximum draft that can be carried over the shoalest part of 
the locality under improvement is. in Cocheco River, 6J feet at mean 
low water; in Lamprey River, 11 feet at high water. 

The mean range of tides is 0.8 feet. 

The head of navigation is at the lowest bridge at Dover, to which 
point, 3 miles from its confluence with the Piscataqua River and 13 
miles from its outlet to the sea, the Cocheco River is navigable in fact. 

The commerce benefited by the improvement consists chiefly of 
coal and building materials, and amounted in 1901 to 199,890 tons, 
in 1902 to 121,000 tons, in 1903 to 200,526 tons, and in 1904 to 229,629 
tons. 

The original project adopted in 1871 is published in the Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1871, page 8.58; the existing 
project, adopted in 1890, in the Annual Rerjort for 1890, i)age 475. A 
map of Cocheco River, in the vicinity of Dover, may be found in the 
Annual Report for 1885, page 474. • 

The act of March 3, 1905, contained an appropriation of $21^711 
for completing the improvement, making the total appropriations 
under the existing project $141,711. 



Digitized by 



Google 



RIVEB AND HARBOB IMPROVEMENTS. 41 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended 1889.07 

Amonnt appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 21, 711. 00 

22, 600. 07 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of Im- 
provement 191.28 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended .- 22,408.79 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 50.00 

July 1, 1905, balance available . 22,358.79 

(See Appendix A 21.) 

22. Exeter River, New Hampshire. — [This work was in the charge 
of Col. W. S. Stanton, Corps of Engineers, to March 31, 1905.] In 
its original condition at mean high water, E.xeter River was navi- 
gable from its mouth, in Great Baj', 7.8 miles, to Fernald's wharf 
in Exeter for vessels drawing 10 feet; thence to the upper wharves 
at Exeter, 0.5 mile, the depth was .5 feet. 

The original project adopted by the act of June 14, 1880, was to 
obtain a channel 40 feet wide from tlie mouth, 8.3 miles to the upper 
wharves at Exeter, 12 feet deep at high water 5.0 miles to Oxbow, 
and 10 feet deep from Oxbow to Exeter. Under this project the 
amount expended prior to operations under the existing project was 
$35,000, with which the original project Avas completed! 

The existing project, adopted by the act of March 3, 1899, is to 
obtain a channel 40 feet wide at mean high water, 12 feet deep to 
Oxbow, and 11 feet from Oxbow to Exeter, with a turning basin 200 
by 110 feet at Exeter, estimated to cost (increased e.stimate) $19,000. 

The amount expended under the existing project to June 30, 1905, 
is $18,254.42, all for improvement, with which a channel and turning 
basin of the dimensions prescribed have been obtained, completing the 
project. 

The mean range of tides is 6 feet. 

The head of navigation is at the upper wharves at Exeter, to which 
point, 8.3 miles above its mouth, the river is navigable in fact. 

The original project is descrilK>d in the Annual Keport of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1875, page 427, and the existing project in report for 
1897, page 818. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $745. .W 

July 1. 1905, balance uuexi)ended 74i;. 58 

(See Appendix A 22.) 

23. Harbor of refnge at Little Harbor, New Hammhire. — [This 
work was in the charge of Col. W. S. Stanton, Corps oi Engineers, to 
March 31, 1905.] In its original condition the entrance to Little 
Harbor was but 3 feet deep at mean low water, and its anchorage 
ground, 650 by 125 feet in area and 9 feet in depth at mean low 
water, was exposed to the full force of the sea. 

The original, which is also the existing, project, adopted by the act 
of August 5, 1886, extended by act of August 11, 1888, and as reduced 
in 1894, is to obtain a channel 3,000 feet long, 100 feet wide, and 12 
feet deep at mean low water, and an anchorage basin of the same 
depth 40 acres in area, and construct two breakwaters at the entrance, 
at an estimated cost, as revised in 1894, of $145,000. 



Digitized by 



Google 



42 REPOBT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGIKEKBS, U. 8. AKMT. 

To June 30, 1905, the amount expended on the existing project is — 
for improvement, $133,227.33; for maintenance, $3,121.74; total, 
$136,349.07, with which the project has been completed. 

The maximum draft over the shoalest part of the improved channel 
and basin is 11 feet at mean low water. The mean range of tides is 
8 feet. 

The commerce benefited is inconsiderable, and the improvement is 
designed to afford a harbor of refuge for yachts and coastwise vessels. 
Dunne the year 1904, 466 vessels are reported to have anchored be- 
hind the breakwaters, including 101 steamers, 131 schooners, and 234 
sloops. 

The original project is published in the Annual Report of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1882, page 507 ; the modifications, with map of the 
harbor, in the report for 1887, page 470. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $9,650.57 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during flscnl year, for maintenance of 
Improvement 999. 64 

July 1, 1905, balance unexijended 8,650.93 

(See Appendix A 23.) 

84- Removing sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering 
naoigation. — Tne wreck of the schooner Olit^e Branch was an obstruc- 
tion to navigation of Penobscot River at South Brewer, Me. It was 
removed in October, 1904, at a total cost of $384.61. 

(See Appendix A 25.) 

IMPROVEMENT OF RIVERS AND HARBORS IN VERMONT, IN EASTERN 
MASSACHUSETTS. AND IN NEW YORK ON LAKE CHAMPLAIN. 

This district was in the charge of Col. W. S. Stanton, Corps of 
Engineers, having under his immediate orders First Lieut. Gustave R. 
Lukesh, Corps or Engineers. Division engineer. Col. Chas. R. Suter, 
Corps of Engineers. 

1. Newhuryport Harbor, Massachusetts. — Prior to specific appro- 

g nations for Newburyport Harbor funds applicable to Merrimac 
Iver, of which it is the estuary, were devoted to removing a sand bar 
and constructing a breakwater at the river's mouth, 1828 to 1836, and 
to removing obstructing ledges, piers, and wrecks, 1870 to 1880. In 
its original condition the outlet of the Merrimac River, which between 
Plum Island and Salisbury Point was 1,000 feet wide and 30 feet 
deep at mean low water, was obstructed by a sand bar, nearly a mile 
outside, through which, in 1880, a narrow channel about 7 feet deep at 
mean low water was maintained by the current of the river. 

The original project, adopted by the act of June 14, 1880, which is 
the existing project, is to create at the outer bar a permanent channel 
1,000 feet wide and at least 17 feet deep at mean low water, by con- 
structing two converging jetties, projecting, one from the north shore 
2,910 feet, the other from the south shore 1,500 fwt, their outer ends 
1,000 feet apart, which, with the protection of the beach in their vicin- 
ity, was estimated in 1881 to cost $365,000. The direction of jetties 
and shore protection was modified in 1883, and in 1882 the partial 
closing of Plum Island Basin with a timber dike about 800 feet long 



Digitized by 



Google 



KtVEB AND HABBOB IMPROVEMENTS. 43 

and 5^ feet above mean low water was added to the project, increasing 
the cost (as estimated in 1884) to $375,000. In 1884 a modification of 
the project provided for extending both jetties 610 feet parallel to the 
axis of the channel, and iii 1880 for increasing that extension to 1,000 
feet, increasing the cost of the work, as estimated in 1897, to 
$599,547.49. 

To June 30, 1906, the amount expended on this j)roject was 
$349,145.59, of which $1,741.38 was for maintenance; in addition 
S500 was expended in 1901 for removal of North rock under au- 
thority of act of March 3, 1899. The expenditure for maintenance 
in the fiscal year 1905 was $1,093.92, with which 300 feet of the south 
jetty was retopped. With the expenditure for improvement the 
north jetty has been completed for a total length of 2,705 feet, and 
the south jetty for 2,247 leet ; the Plum Island basin has been closed 
with a timber dike 817 feet long, 5^ feet liigh above mean low water, 
except near the middle, where a weir 150 feet long and 2 feet above 
mean low water was left temporarily; and two sand catchers, re- 
spectively 480 and 572 feet in length, have been built in rear of the 
south jetty. Both jetties are 15 feet wide on top, which is in a plane 
12 feet aliove mean low water, and have slopes of 1 on 2 on the .sea- 
ward face and 1 on 1 on the shoreward face. 

June 30, 1905, the maximum draft that can be carried over the bar 
at mean low water is 12 feet. The mean range of tides is 7.7 feet. 

The commerce of the harbor, chiefly coal, amounted in 1903 to 
140,518 tons, and in 1904 to 159,102 "tons. Of the latter amount 
76,527 tons was reshipped to points on the Merrimac and Powow 
rivers. 

It is reported that the improvement made has reduced freight 
rates 25 cents per ton, and that if the projected depth of 17 feet at 
mean low water be obtained over the outer bar it would still further 
reduce the freight rates 15 to 25 cents per ton. 

The available balance will be applied to extension and necessary 
maintenance of jetties. 

The original project, as reported by a Board of Engineers, with 
map of the harbor, is published in Annual Report of the Chief of 
Engineers for 1881, page 502; the modifications in jetties and shore 
protection, in reports for 1883, page 437, and 1884, page 494 ; and the 
parallel extension of the jetties, with map and additional estimate, in 
report for 1897, page 825. 

July 1, ISKM, balance unexpended , $32, 716. 60 

Amount appropriated by riyer and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 30, 000. 00 

62, 716. 60 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year : 

For works of improvement 112,768.27 

For maintenance of improvement 1,09.3.02 

n, 862. 19 

July 1. isixi, balance unexpended 48,8.">4.41 

.July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 1,72.3.20 

.Tuly 1, 19(K5, balance available . 47,1.31.21 

July 1, 19(K>, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 14,411.03 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 201, 547. 49 

(See Appendix B 1.) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



44 REPORT OB* THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, V. 8. ARMY. 

2. Men'imac River, Massachuaetts, — In its original condition the 
Merrimac River had a practicable channel 7 feet deep at mean low- 
water from its month 9 miles to South Amesbury, but l)esides being 
narrow and crooked the channel was obstructed by ledges, bowlders, 
and shoals. 

The original projects appear to have been — 

(1) For improving the bar at the mouth of the river, by erection of 
piers or other works, adopted by act of May 23, 1828 ; subsequently 
improved under separate project for " Improving Harbor at Jvewbury- 
port, Mass." 

(2) For the improvement of the river above the mouth, by the 
removal of the remains of a dam at the upper falls and of a rock at 
the lower falls, of Gangway rock in Newburyport Harbor, and a 
wreck near the mouth of the river. 

Upon the original and modified projects, prior to operations under 
the existing project, there were expended : Upon the project of 1828, 
$07,466.72, and upon the project of 1870, as largely extended bv the 
acts of June 23, 1874, and June 3, 1896, $187,000; total, $254,466.72. 

The existing project, adopted by the act of March 3, 1809, is to 
obtain a channel 7 feet deep at mean low water, 150 feet wide, from 
Xewburyport 14J miles to Haverhill, at an estimated cost of 
$171,442. 70. 

The amount expended on the existing project to June SO, 1905, is 
$79,423.59, all for improvement, with which the channel has b«^n 
completed to the full projected width and depth up to the highway 
bridge at Haverhill by dredging through eight shoals, aggi-egating 3 
miles in length, except for a length of 800 feet above Rocks bridge, <S\ 
miles below Haverhill, where the channel has been dredged to the 
width of only 100 feet. 

The head of navigation is at the hat factory, one-half mile above the 
railroad bridge at Haverhill, to which point the stream is navigable, 
in fact, 17J miles above its mouth in Newburyport Harlwr. 

June 30, 1905, the maximum draft that can be carried at mean low 
water over the shoalest part of the improved channel below the higli- 
way bridge at Haverhill is 7 feet. 

The mean range of tides is, at the mouth of the river, 7.7 feet, and 
at Haverhill bridge 4.6 feet, at low-water stage of the river. 

The commerce of the river is in coal, Iuml)er, etc., for the cities and 
towns along its banks, reported to amount in 1904 to 76,527 tons, an 
increase of more than 25 per cent in three years. The improvement 
of the channel is reported to enable the delivery of the„se commodities 
by water at rates 35 to 50 cents per ton less than by rail. 

The available balance will be applied to continuing the project by 
dredging and rock excavation from the lower (highway) bridge 
3.400 feet to the Boston and Maine Railroad bridge at Haverhill. 

The project of 1870-1874 is published in the Annual Re[)ort of the 
Chief of Engin«>rs for 1869, page 421 ; as extended in 1874, in report 
for 1876, page 165; as extended in 1806. in report for 1896, page 016; 
and the existing project adopted in 1899, in report for 1897, page SOS. 

The report of e.xamination and survey of the river, with estimate of 
cost to deepen the channel to 9 feet at mean low water, made in No- 
vember, 1903, in pursuance of a provision in the river and harbor act 
of June 13, 1902, is published in Annual Report for lOO-l, pages 
872-878. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 45 

July 1, 1004, balance unexpended 1576.41 

Amount appropriated by rlrer and harbor act approTed March 3, 1905. 40, 000. 00 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 40,576.41 

July 1. 1905, outstanding liabilitieti 176.24 

July 1. 1905, balance available 40,400.17 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 51,442.70 

(See Appendix B 2.) 

3. Powow R'wer, Massachusetts. — In its original condition the 
Powow River had a practicable channel 4 feet deep at mean high 
water, extending 9,G00 feet from its confluence with the Merrimac 
RiA'er to the wharves at Amesbury. 

The original project, adopted by the act of August 11, 1888, which 
is also the existing project, is to dredge the channel 9,600 feet long to 
the wharves at Amesbury to the width of CO feet and depth of 12 
feet at mean high w^ater, at an estimated cost (increased estimate) 
of $100,000. 

To June 30, 1905, the amount expended was $50,940.72, all for 
improvement, with which a channel of the full projected length and 
depth has been dredged, 45 feet wide, from Amesbury to the mouth 
of the river, except tor a distance of 650 feet at its lower end, where 
it is 30 feet wide. 

The head of navigation is at the dam at Amesbury, to which point, 
about 5 miles above Newburyport Harbor, the stream is navigable in 
fact. 

June 30, 1905, the maximum draft that can be carried at mean low 
water over the shoalest part of the improved channel is 4.5 feet. 

The mean range of tides is 6.7 feet. 

The commerce benefited by this improvement consists chiefly of 
coal for local consumption, oi which about 10,000 tons was carried up 
the river in 1904. 

The project, with report of survey of the Powow River, is pub- 
lished in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1885, page 
549, and the modified estimate for its completion in the Annual 
Report for 1897, page 829. 

By section 7 of the river and harbor act aproved March 3, 1905, 
the prova-sions of river and liarbor acts theretofore passed providing 
for the prosecution of work upon this project were repealed. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $59.28 

June 30, 1905, covered into surplus fund United States Treasury 59. 28 

(See Appendix B 3.) 

4. Essex River, Massachtiaetts. — In its original condition Es.sex 
River had a channel not less than 6 feet deep at mean low water from 
its mouth in Ipswich Bay for a distance of about 2i miles; but 
thence for 2^ miles to the Kead of navigation — in fact, at the railroad 
bridge at Essex — the channel was narrow, crooked, and shallow, having 
a greatest continuous depth of 1.7 feet, navigation being further im- 
I)eded by bowlders obstructing the channel. 

The original project, adopted July 13, 1892, which is also the exist- 
ing project, is to obtain a channel 4 feet deep at mean low water and 
60 feet wide to the head of navigation, at an estimated cost of $25,000 ; 
modified, March 23, 1899, by limiting the improvement to the channel 
below the bridge at Essex, which had been rebuilt without a draw. 



Digitized by 



Google 



46 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARBCT. 

To June 30j 1905, the amount expended was $21,459.21, all for im- 
provement, with which, it was reported February 2, 1901, a channel 
was dredged of the full projected dimensions from the mouth up to 
the highway (draw) bridge at Essex. 

Complaint was made, however, in May, 1905, of an obstruction in 
mid-channel, consisting of a group of several bowlders about 1,300 
feet below the head ot navigation, lying within the scope of the ap- 
proved project of improvement. These bowlders were removed in 
June, 1905. 

The maximum draft that can be carried, June 30, 1905, over the 
shoalest part of the locality under improvement is reported to be only 
1 to 3 or, possibly, 4 feet. The mean range of 'tides is 8.8 feet. 

No freight is carried on the river, but the improvement is for the 
purpose of permitting the exit of about thirty fishing schooners, 
which are built annually on the river, each of about 125 tons register, 
at an average cost of $12,000. 

The project, with map and report of survey, is published in the 
Annual Report of the Chief of "Engineers for 1891, pages 676-678. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $3,540.79 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 3,540.79 

July 1. 1905. outstanding llabiHties 265.00 

July 1, 1905, balance available 3,275.79 

(See Appendix B 4.) 

5. Harbor of refuge, Sandy Bay, Cape Ann, Massachusetts. — In 
its original condition this bay, whose southerly shore extends about 2 
miles westerly from the point of Straitsmouth Island, and thence 
about 2 miles northerly to Andrews Point, had a good holding ground 
of sand mixed with mud, and a depth of 7^ to 15 fathoms at mean 
low water, but was fully exposed to easterly, northeasterly, and north- 
erly gales. The original project adopted by the act of July 5, 1884, 
was to build a breakwater consisting of a mound of rubblestone to the 
grade of 22 feet below mean low water, 40 feet wide on top, to be sur- 
mounted by a masonry wall, and to extend from Averys ledge a little 
west of north 3,600 feet to Abners ledge, thence 5,400 feet northwest- 
erly in the direction of Andrews Point, covering an anchorage of 
about 1,377 acres. 

This project, with the cross section of the breakwater as modified by 
a Board oi Engineers February 13, 1900, is the existing project, the 
breakwater to consist of a mound of rubblestone built to the grade of 
12 feet below mean low water, where it will have a width of 117 feet, 
its harbor slope to be 1 on 1, its seaward slope 1 on 1 up to 25 feet 
below mean low water, and 1 on 2 thence to the top, 12 feet below 
mean low water; the rubble mound to be surmounted with a core of 
rubblestone, to be faced with selected stone to be laid horizontally on 
the sea face, to weigh not less than 8 tons each, and to be laid with a 
batter of 1 on 2, and on the harbor face to weigh not less than 3 tons 
each and be laid with a batter of 1 on 1 ; to be surmounted at grade 
17 above mean low water with a single course of capstones, whose 
upper surface shall be 22 feet above mean low water; at an estimated 
cost (as revised in 1900) of $6,904,952.25. 

Work under this project is authorized to be done under continuing 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HARBOB IMPROVEMENTS. 47 

contract, which, however, shall not exceed $100,000, exclusive of the 
amount already appropriated. 

The amount expended under the existing project to June 30, 1905, 
not including outstanding liabilities, is $1,350,042.93, all for improve- 
ment, with which 1,752,935 tons oi rubblestone has been placed in 
the substructure of the breakwater, and its condition is approximately 
as follows : 

In the southern arm for a length of 3,530 feet the mound of rubble- 
stone has been completed up to the grade of 12 feet below mean low 
water, with the full width of 117 feet prescribed in the project ; the 
rubble core of the superstructure has b^n built to the height of mean 
low water for 540 feet. 

In the western arm, for a length of 1,710 feet from the angle, the 
mound of rubblestone has been likewise completed to the full height 
(12 feet below mean low water) and full width (117 feet) projected, 
except for a small bench on the inner slope 13 feet deep and 17 feet 
wide, and to the height of 22 feet below mean low water for the 
further length of 40 feet; a rubble core of the superstructure has 
been built to the height of mean low water for 1,310 feet and to the 
height of mean high water for 400 feet. 

The draft is ample for the largest ves.sels ; the mean range of tides 
is 8.6 feet. 

The commerce of the harbor amounted in 1904 to 379,699 tons, of 
which 364,700 tons was stone. The improvement is chiefly of value 
in providing refuge for coastwise vessels, especially 4owed barges, 
which are frequently and suddenly in urgent need of shelter in fog 
and snowstorms. 

The estimated amount that can be profitably expended will be 
applied to the further extension of the rubble in the western arm up 
to the plane of mean low water, and to placing a part of the selected 
stones on the faces of the sotithern and western arms. 

For description of Sandy Bay and original project, see Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1884, pages 565-577. For cross 
section, details of construction, and increase in cost, see report of 
Board of Engineers, Annual Report for 1900, page 1 186. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $92, S55. 66 

.Imoont appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 

1905 100, 000. 00 



192,855.66 



June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for workH of 
Improvement 92, 898. 59 



July 1, 1905. balance unexpended 99, 0.")?. 07 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 225.50 



July 1, 1905, balance available 99,731.57 



July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 180, 000. 00 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project. 5, 454, 952. 25 



Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1907, for worlcs of improvemeut, in addition to the bal- 
ance unexpended July 1, 1905 100,000.00 

Submitted in compliance with requirements of sundry civil act 
of June 4, 1897. 

(See Appendix B 5.) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



48 BEPOET OF TB.® C3HIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8, ABUT. 

6. Harbor at Rockport^ Mass. — In its original condition Rockport 
Harbor, a natural cove about 15 acres in area, was exposed to the full 
force of storms from north around to east, and furnished no shelter- 
anchorage for shipping. A portion of the harbor had been inclosed 
by piers, built by private enterprise, from 1811 to 1817. 

The original project, adopted by the act of July 4, 1836, was to 
construct, in accordance with a report and survey made in 1829, two 
piers or breakwaters at the mouth of the harbor, one extending east- 
erly from Bearskin Xeck and the other westerly from Norwoods Head. 

The amount expended on the original project was $09,229.25, with 
which, from 183(5 to 1839, two breatwaters of rubblestone were built 
extending, one 900 feet easterly from Bearskin Neck, and the other 
about 200 feet northerly from Norwoods Head, leaving an entrance 
channel 220 feet wide Ixitween their low-water lines. In 1900 these 
breakwaters had so far deteriorated that they no longer afforded the 
necessary protection to the harbor. 

The existing project, adopted by the act of June 13, 1902, is to 
rebuild, with heavy rubblestone, to the height of 18.5 feet above mean 
low water, the two breakwaters at the entrance, and to remove the • 
principal rocks in the harbor; estimated cost, $22,481.80. 

To Juno 30, 1905, $22,000 had been expended under the existing 
project, all for improvement, with which tne main breakwater, about 
900 feet long, and the smaller breakwater, about 200 feet long, have 
been rebuilt with rubblestone to the height of 18.5 feet above mean 
low water, vsith a seaward slope of 1 on 2, a harbor slope of 1 on 1, 
and a width on top of 20 feet, and the principal rocks in the harbor 
removed. 

At mean low water 12 feet draft can be carried between the break- 
waters into the harbor, but the upper channel has shoaled so that but 6 
feet can be carried to the outer ends of the first two wharves and 
about 4 feet to the third, and its navigation is difficult by reason of 
rocks projecting on either side. 

Thp mean range of tides is 8.0 feet. 

The commerce lienefited by the improvement consists chiefly of 
coal, stone, and fresh fish, of which there were carried into the harbor 
in 1901 4,200 tons, in 1902, 2,091 tons, and in 1903, 4,371 tons, and in 
1904, 2,450 tons. 

It is reported that the completion of the project has been without 
effect on freight rates. 

The existing project with report of survey and description of pre- 
vious improvements may be found in the Annual Report of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1900, page 117' 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended 13,179.13 

June 30, 1905, amount expended durl- •' fiscal year, for works of 

Improvement 3,179.13 

(See Appendix B b. 

7. Harbor at Gloucesu . , Mass. — In its original condition this har- 
bor, which had a depth sufficient for the largest ships, contained 
several very dangerous submerged rocks and was entirely without 
protection against the sea and against heavy swells from the south. 

The original project adopted by the act of June 10, 1872, appears 
lo have been for removal of five rocks, at an estimated cost of 
$10,606.20. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 49 

rhder the original and modified projects the rocks were removed, 
Harbor Cove was dredged to the depth of 10 feet at mean low water, 
and the water front for a distance of 3,900 feet northeast from Fort 
Point was dredged to a depth of 15 feet at mean low water from the 
lo-foot contour to the wharf front, upon which there was expended 
prior to operations under the existing project (approximately) 
?86,0OO.. 

The existinsr project, adopted by the act of August 18, 1904, as 
curtailed b^' the act of June 13, 1902, is to build under continuing 
contract a breakwater from the shore about 2,250 feet to a point at or 
near Cat led^, and upon completion of the breakwater to applv any 
balance remaining " toward the work of removing Round rocfe,'" at 
an estimated cost of $416,083.43. 

The breakwater is to consist of a mound of rubblestone to be 31 
fleet wide at the top at mean low water, to be surmounted by a super- 
structure formed by two dry walls of heavy split stone, inclosing a 
core of rubblestone, and to he capped by heavy stones, forming a top 
course 10 feet in width, the slopes of the rubble substructure to Ixi 
on the harbor side 1 on 1.3, on the seaward side 1 on 3 to grade V2 
below mean low^ water, and 1 on 1.5 thence to the bottom. <•' 

The amount expended under the existing project to June 30; 1905, 
not including outstanding liabilities, is $344,927.50, all for improve- 
ment, with which 219,639 tons of stone has been placed in the break- 
water, completing the superstructure for a length of 3,065 feet and 
the .substructure its entire length of 2,250 feet, excepting the expan- 
sion at the outer end for a light-house site. 

The maximum draft that can be carried June 30, 1905, at mean low 
water over the shoalest part of the locality under improvement is 
10 feet. 

The mean range of tides is 8.9 feet. 

The commerce in 1903 amounted to 328,501 tons, and in 1904 to 
203,526 tons, of which 110,000 tons were coal and 86,000 tons fish and 
salt. Passengers carried numbered about 85,000. 

The available balance and the estimated amount that can be profit- 
ably expended will be applied to completing the breakwater and 
building to the grade of 20 feet above ipean low water the mound of 
rubblestone for light-house at its end, and toward the removal of 
Round rock in accordance with the project. 

A description of the original project is published in the Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1871, pagt^ 870, and its modifi- 
cations, with map, in the report for' 1887, page 500. 

The adoption and the commencement of work under the existing 
project are reported upon in the' Annual Report of tlie Chief of 
Engineers for 1895, page 610. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended—-" $10ft, 820. tMi 

.Unoant appropriated by sundry civil .:ct uppr-^'- t March .3, 100.')— 50, (KK). 00 

l.-)9, 820. 60 
Jnne 30, 1905, amount expended during flscal'i'ear, for works of 
improrement 105, 748. 10 

Jnly 1, 1SXJ5, balance unesiwnded 54,072.50 

Jnly 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 41,159.30 

July 1, IWjG, balance available 12. 91.3. 20 

eso 1905 M 4 



Digitized by 



Google 



50 BEFOBT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEEBS, U. 8, ARMY- 

July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts $«, 512. 05 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 17, 083.00 



Amount that can be profitably expended In fiscal year ending June 30, 
1907, for works of Improvement, In addition to the balance 

unexpended July 1, 1905 _• 17,083.00 

Submitted In compliance with requirements of sundry civil act of 
June 4, 1897. 

(See Appendix B 7.) 

8. Harbor at Manchester, Mass. — In its original condition Man- 
chester Harbor had a good channel 100 feet wicfe and not less than &i 
feet deep at mean low water, extending from the bay 3,200 feet to 
Proctors Point. At that distance the channel shoaleti rapidly to a 
depth of li feet at the Narrows, 1,400 feet from Proctors I*oint, and 
for the remaining distance, 2,600 feet, to the town wharves there was 
no practicable channel at low water. 

The original project, adopted by the act of August 11, 1888, was to 
dredge a channel 60 feet wide and 4 feet deep at mean low water 
from Proctors Point, a distance of 4,000 feet, to the town wharves, at 
an estimated cost of $14,300. 

The amount expended under the original project and prior to 
operations under the existing project was $14,300, obtaining a channel 
of the length, depth, and width prescribed in the project, expanded 
opposite the town wharves to the width of 80 feet ; but the dredged 
channel deteriorated rapidly and thereafter there was some shoaling 
at the entrance. 

The existing project, adopted by the river and harbor act of March 
3, 1899, is to dredge the natural channel to the depth of 6 feet at 
mean low water from that depth in the bay, a distance of 7,200 feet, 
to the town wharves, 100 feet wide at the entrance and at the sharpest 
bends and at least 75 feet wide throughout, with two turning basins, 
one 200 feet by 300 feet in area just below the drawbridge of the 
Boston and Maine Railroad and the other 125 feet by 250 feet at the 
town wharves, for which the estimated cost is $25,000. 

Under this project to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1905, the amount expended is $9,685.57, all for improvement, with 
which a channel has been obtained of the full projected width and 
depth from the entrance to a point 220 feet below the southwest 
corner of Read's wharf, except that two small ledges, projecting 
about 20 feet, obstruct the eastern side of the channel about west of 
Proctors Point. 

The maximum draft that can be carried June 30, 1905, over the 
shoalest part of the locality under improvement is 2 feet at mean low 
water. The mean range of tides is 9 feet. 

The commerce of the harbor benefited by the improvement consists 
chiefly of coal and building materials for local consumption, of which 
about 12,000 tons was reported received in 1900, 5,800 in 1901, 3,600 
in 1902, 4,000 in 1903, and 1,775 in 1904. 

The work done is of no commercial benefit and can have no appre- 
ciable effect on freight rates. The completion of the project would 
probably enable the local supply of coal and building materials to be 
Drought in more cheaply. 

The original project, adopted by the act of August 11, 1888, with 
map of survey, is in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 
1888, page 466. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVBB AND HABBOR IMPROVEMENTS. 51 

The existing project, adopted by the act of March 3, 1899, with 
map of survey, is published in the Annual Report of the Chief of 
Ei^ineers for 1897, page 869. 

m pursuance of a resolution of the Committee on Rivers and Har- 
bors of the House of Representatives the Board of Engineers for 
Rivers and Harbors has considered the project for this work, and in 
its report (Annual Rejwrt, 1904, p. 840) recommends, in order to 
make available for commerce the portion of the improvement already 
accomplished, that the United States complete the work under the 
existing project, but modified as follows : A channel 6 feet deep and 
75 feet wide and at the turns 100 feet wide, to be excavated from the 
entrance to the town wharves, and a turning basin 126 feet by 250 
feet at the town wharves, for the estimated cost, exclusive of amounts 
heretofore appropriated, of $18,117, toward which it is proposed to 
apply ^he available balance as a profitable expenditure. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $314.4-'? 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 314. 4:{ 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 15, 000. 00 

(See Appendix B 8.) 

9. Harbor at Beverly, Mass. — In its original condition this harbor 
had a practicable channel 18 feet deep at mean low water from Monu- 
ment bar beacon about 1 mile to its head, about 600 feet below the 
highway bridge, sufficient for the commerce of the harbor and its 
three tributary streams called, respectively. North River, Essex 
Branch, and Beverlj' Creek; but the channel, which is circuitous in 
its passage through the shoals at the entrance, was found in 1900 to 
be " of insufficient width for safe navigation by heavy vessels." 

The original project, adopted by the act of June 13, 1902, which is 
also the existing project, is to widen that part of the channel between 
Monument bar Deacon and a point about 200 feet cast of Rams Horn 
beacon to a width of about 200 feet, with the depth of 18 feet at mean 
low water, at an estimated cost of $10,000. 

To the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, $8,146.53, not 
including outstanding liabilities, had been expended, all for improve- 
ment, with which a channel 18 feet deep and 200 feet in width had 
been dredged from the town wharves to the entrance to the harbor in 
Salem Bay, but the available width is reduced to 150 feet by obstruct- 
ing ledges, uncovered in dredging, on which the least depth is 10 
feet at mean low water. 

The maximum draft that can be carried on June 30, 1905, at mean 
low water over the shoalest part of the locality under improvement is 
18 feet. The mean range of tides is 9 feet. 

The commerce of Beverly Harbor consists chiefly of coal and build- 
ing materials, of which, in 1903, 93,085 tons was carried, and in 1904 
about 138,843 tons, of which, in 1904, 103,000 tons was coal, an in- 
crease of more than 150 per cent since 1899. 

It is expected by those locally interested in shipping that the com- 
pletion of the project will effect a substantial reduction in freight 
rates, vphich to this time have not been appreciably affected by the 
improvement in progress. 

A report of a survey of this harbor is published in the Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1890, page 524. The existing 



Digitized by 



Google 



52 BEPOBT OV THK CHIEF OK KNOINEEBS, U. 8. ABMY. 

project with report of survey is in the Annual Report for 1901, 
page 1064. 

The available balance will be applied to prosecution of work in 
accordance with the existing project. 

July 1, 1904, balance uuexpeuded ^2, 338. 92 

Juiie 30, 1905, amount exijended during fiscal year, for works of im- 
provement 48S. 45 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 1,853.47 

(See Appendix B 9.) 

10. Harbor at Salem, Mass. — In its original condition Salem Uar- 
l)or, from its entrance between Winter Island and Naugus Head, had a 
channel of ample width, 18 to 25 feet deep at mean low water extend- 
ing to within 2,500 feet of the entrance of South River at Derby 
wharf light, where for 1,500 feet the depth was 8 feet, and 4or the 
remaining 1,000 feet the depth was G feet to Derby wharf li^ht, 
whei'e, however, the channel was contracted to 25 feet in width. 
Thence, in South River to the head of navigation, the low-water chan- 
nel was less than 1 foot in depth. 

The original project, adopted by the act of March 3, 1873, as 
enlarged in 1890, was to dredge a channel 5,100 feet in length, 8 feet 
deep at mean low water from that depth in the harbor, 300 feet wide 
at the entrance, 150 feet wide off Derby wharf light, diminishing in 
width to 100 feet near the inner end of Derby wharf, and from that 
point to the head of navigation 50 feet wide and 6 feet deep at 
mean low water. 

Under the original and enlarged projects completed in 1894, the 
amount expended prior to operations under the existing project was 
$52,3G8.6(). 

The existing project, adopted by the act of March 3, 1905, is to 
provide a channel 10 feet deep at mean low water from that depth in 
the harbor to the outer end of the wharves, 300 feet in width at the 
entrance gradually narrowing to 200 feet at Derby wharf light, at 
an estimated cost of $12,000 appropriated in full by the act of 
March 3, 1905. 

No expenditure under this project has been made to June 30, 1905. 

Tlie maxinuun draft that can be carried, June 30, 1905, up to 
Derl)y wharf, the limit of the present improvement, is 8 feet at 
mean low water, and thence to the head of navigation in South River 
at Lafayette Street Bridge, 3 feet. The mean range of tides is 9.2 feet. 

The commerce of South River affected by the project amounted in 
1904 to 111,967 tons, mostly coal. 

Available funds will be applied to dredging under the existing 
project. 

The original and modified projects, with reports of surveys, are in 
the Annual Reports of the Chief of Enginrors for 1873, pages 102 and 
1110, and ifor 18i)0, page 529. Report of survey of the harbor, with 
map, is in the Annual Report for 1895, page 651; and of a survey 
with project for improving the river to the head of navigation, of 
which the present adx)pted project is a part, is in tlie report for 1904, 
page 878. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AKD HABBOB TMPBOVEMEKTS. 53 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. $12, 000. 00 

July 1, 1905, balance unexiwnded 12,000.00 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 32. ;«> 

July 1, 1905, balance available 11.907.01 

(See Appen(li.\ B 10.) 

11. Sea wall at Mnrhlehead, Mass. — The location of this sea wall, 
which is reported to have l)een built by the United States, but of 
which no record has l)een found in Government reports, along the 
seaward, southerly, side of the narrow beach about 2,000 fwt long, 
which connects Marblehead Njeck w^ith the mainland and separates 
Marblehead Harbor from the .sea on the south, is more fully descriljed 
in the Annual Keport of the Chief of Engineers for 1S)03, pages 
753-757. 

The original project appears to have been that adopted bj' the act of 
August 30, 1852, which was to repair this wall throughout its length 
of 2,000 feet at a cost of $500 appropriated by that act, and which was 
entirely expended for that purpose. 

The existing project, adopted by the act of March 3, 1899, which 
appropriated $1,000 therefor, is " for the repair of the sea wall at 
Marblehead, Mas.s., made nece-ssary by the great storm of November, 
1898." 

That storm, the most memorable and destructive that has occurred 
on this part of the New England coast in many years, in which a vio- 
lent gale was accompanied by an excessive rise or tide to about 4.7 feet 
above mean high water, or aoout 2.5 feet above extreme high water of 
spring tides, wa.shed a considerable quantity of beach shingle up the 
southerly side of the beach and over the wall into the roadway lead- 
ing from the mainland to Marblehead Neck. It does not appear to 
have threatened to breach the beach from the southerly side, or to 
have imperiled the harbor. The effects of the storm are imderstood 
to have been repaired at the expense of the county. 

The amount expended under the existing project to June 30, 1905, 
is $84, for the sur\'ey and inspection of the wall. 

The report of the survey made in 1903 is published in the Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1903, pages 753-757. The 
reports of former examinations may be found in the Annual Report 
for 1897, page 870; and for 1900, page 1169. 

No further report will be submitted. 

July 1, 1901, balance unexpended $918. 38 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of im- 
provement 2. 38 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 91C. 00 

(See Appendix B 11.) 

12. Harbor at Lynn^ Mass. — An area of shoals extends from the 
wharves at Lynn 2| miles southerly to the sea. It is protected from 
the sea by the peninsula of Lynn Beach and Nahant. 

In its original condition three narrow and crooked channels, in 
which the depth was but 6 feet at mean low water, extended from the 
wharves to the sea. 

The original project, defined in the report of a Board of Engineers 
dated Apnl 10, 1884, and as modified in 1888, was to dredge a chan- 



Digitized by 



Google 






54 BEPORT OF THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, O. 8. ARMY. 

nel 200 feet wide and 10 feet deep at mean low water from the sea ( at 
White rocks) a distance of 3,300 feet to a deep basin opposite Little* 
Nahant, and from the basin nearly opposite Sand Point, a distance of 
(5,900 feet to a point 400 feet inside the harbor line, and an anchorage 
basin 500 feet oy 300 feet and 10 feet deep at mean low water ; tKe 
upper part of the channel to be maintained by occasional dredging", 
the lower part by a training wall joining the land at Little Nahant, 
at an estimated cost of $182,000. 

The amount expended on this project was $122,063.56, all for 
improvement, with which the entire channel and the anchorage basin 
as prescribed in the project were completed. 

The existing project, adopted by th« river and harbor act of June 
13, 1902, is to dredge the channel 200 feet wide from the sea to tlie 
anchorage basin and the anchorage basin itself to the depth of 15 feet 
at mean low water, at an estimated cost of $162,937. Under this 
project to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, $25,069.91 
has been expended, all for improvement, with which a channel has 
been obtained 15 feet deep at mean low water, with a width of lOO 
feet on straight, and 125 feet on curved, sections, and extending from 
the deep basin opposite Little Nahant, a distance of 4,600 feet, to tlie 
sea. 

This work is being done under continuing contract, which provides 
for the completion of the improvement by June 30, 1907, to which 
purpose the available balance and the amount estimated as a profit- 
able expenditure will be applied. 

The maximum draft that can be carried June 30, 1905, over the 
shoalest part of the locality under improvement is 10 feet at mean 
low water. The mean range of tides is 9.3 feet. 

The commerce of the harbor benefited by the improvement consists 
chiefly of coal, lumber, and building materials, of which about 290,364 
tons was carried during the year. The deepening of the channel to 
10 feet enables barges to carry full cargoes of coal to the wharves at 
Lynn during the highest stages of the tide ; the improvement to 15 
feet will enable the smaller or medium size barges to carry full car- 
goes of coal to the wharves at all stages of the tide and barges of the 
greatest draft during the higher stages. 

It is reported that the cost of transportation has been reduced 25 
cents a ton by deepening the channel to 10 feet, and will be further 
reduced 10 to 25 cents upon the completion of the 15-foot channel. 

The original project approved by the Secretary of War April 21, 
1884, is in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1884, 
page 524, and the map of the harbor at page 532. 

The existing project was published in uie Annual Report of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1901, page 1093. 

July \, 1904, balance unexpended $6,436.44 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved Marcb 3, 1905. 40, 000. 00 

46. 436. 44 
June 30, 1005, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of Im- 
provement 69. 91 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 46, 366. 53 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 1 488. 40 

July 1, 1905, balance available 45, 878. 13 



Digitized by 



Google 



mVEB AKD HABBOB IMPBOVEMEKTS. 55 

July 1, 1905, amonnt covered by uncompleted contracts |135, 980. 85 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 97, 937. 00- 



Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 
1907, for works of improvement, In addition to the balance unex- 
pended July 1, 1905 97, 937. 00 

Submitted in compliance with requirements of sundry civil act of 
June 4, 1897. 

(See Appendix B 12.) 

IS. Mystic and Maiden rivers, and Mystic River below the mouth 
of Island End River, Massachusetts. — (a) Mystic River. — In its orig- 
inal condition, the Mystic had a practicable channel 6 feet deep at 
mean low water extending to Dennings Landing, 8.9 miles above its 
mouth in Boston Harbor, and 4 feet deep at mean low water about 
2,000 feet farther. 

The original project for improvement, adopted by the act of July 
13, 1892, which is also the present project, is to make the channel 100 
feet wide apd 6 feet deep at mean low water from the Boston adi 
Maine Bailroad (western division) bridge up about 1 mile to the 
first turn above Denning's wharf; and thence 2 miles to the head of 
navigation at Medford, 4 feet deep at mean low water, gradually 
narrowing from 100 feet to 50 feet at the upper end, at an estimated 
cost of $25,000. 

The amoimt expended to close of the fiscal year June 30, 1905, is 
$15,000. With this expenditure a channel 100 feet wide and 6 reet 
deep at mean low water has been completed to the full length pre- 
scribed in the project, and the improvement has been carried a farther 
distance of 4,200 feet with the width and the depth of 4 feet 
prescribed. 

The maximum draft that can be carried, June 30, 1905, at mean 
low water is 5^ feet up to the first turn above Denning's wharf, and 
thence to the head of navigation 1.3 feet. The mean range of tides 
is 9.8 feet. 

The head of navigation is the upper limit of that part of tJie chan- 
nel under improvement, at the stone bridge at Medford, to which 
e»int, 6 miles above its confluence with the Charles River in Boston 
arbor, the stream is navigable in fact. 

The commerce benefited by this improvement, chiefly coal, amounted 
in 1903 to 22,650 tons and in 1904 to 25,965 tons. It is reported that 
as the smallest barges go out of use the improvement will permit 
barges of the lightest draft remaining in service to deliver coal at 
Medford without the expense of lightering, which would be about 50 
cents per ton. 

A report, with map of the survey of Mystic River and description 
of the project, is in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 
1891, page 674. 

The available balance will be applied to dredging, in accordance 
with the existing project. 

(ft) Maiden River. — In its original condition the Maiden had a 
practicable channel 4 feet deep at mean low water, extending only 
2,000 feet above its confluence with the Mystic. 

The original project, adopted by the act of August 2, 1882, was to 
make the channel 100 feet wide and 12 feet deep at mean high water 
to the second bridge, about 1.8 miles above its confluence with the 
Mystic, at an estimated cost of $35,000. 



Digitized by 



Google 



56 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEEE8, V. 8. ABMT. 

The amourtt expended on the Maiden River under the original proj- 
ect and prior to operations under the existing project was $10,000, in 
obtaining a channel with a least width of 50 feet and 70 feet at turns, 
with a depth of 12 feet at mean high water from the mouth to the first 
bridge at Maiden, a distance of IJ miles. 

The existing project, adopted by the act of July 13, 1892, is to 
dredge a channel 12 feet deep at mean high water 100 feet wide to the 
first bridge, 1.6 miles above its confluence with the Mystic, and 75 feet 
wide about 1,200 feet farther to the second bridge, at an estimated 
cost of $37,000. 

The amount expended under the existing project to June 30, 1906, 
is $25,536, of which $10,549.61 was expendea for maintenance. 

With it a channel was obtained 100 feet wide and 12 feet deep at 
mean high water up to the first bridge. The local officer has reported 
the river above this point to be unworthy of improvement by the 
United States at this time. 

The maximum draft that can be carried at mean high water, June 
30, 1905, over the shoalest part of the improved channed is 10.6 feet. 
The mean range of tides is 9.8 feet. 

The head of navigation is at the first bridge at Maiden, to which 
point the stream is navigable in fact, 1.6 miles above its confluence 
with the Mystic River. 

The commerce in 1904 amounted to 75,225 tons, all coal. The 
improvement is reported to enable the smallest barges or larger barges 
with partial cargoes to deliver coal at Maiden, saving the cost of 
lightemg — 50 cents per ton. 

The available balance will be applied to dredging for maintenance 
of improvement. 

A report of the survey of Maiden River and description of the 
original project is on page 532, Annual Report of the Chief of 
Engineers for 1881. 

The modifications of the project are stated in the Annual Report of 
the Chief of Engineers for 1900, page 1191. 

The existing project is described on page 672, Annual Report of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1891. 

(e) Mystic River below the mouth of Island End River. — Island 
End River is IJ miles above the mouth of the Mystic, at the navy-yard 
in Charlestown, and 2,700 feet above the Chelsea drawbridge over the 
Mystic. 

In its original condition the Mystic up to Island End River had a 
narrow channel 14.4 feet deep at mean low water, but so narrow above 
the drawbridge as to be barely practicable. 

The original project, adopted by the act of March 3, 1899, which is 
also the existing project, is to dredge a channel 25 feet deep at mean 
low water and 300 feet wide, emoracing 1.7 miles of the Bi^stic, 
extending from its mouth to a point 800 feet above Island End River, 
at a cost estimated in August, 1899, at $267,547.50 (reduced estimate). 

To June 30, 1905, $68,755.69 (all for improvement, except $281.92 
for maintenance) had been expended in obtaining a channel 26 feet 
deep at mean low water, with a minimum width of 100 feet up to 
Chelsea drawbridge and 150 to 300 feet in width from Chelsea bridge 
to a point just above the confluence of the Island End River. 

The commerce of the river has doubled since 1901, and amounted in 
1904 to 2,841,007 tons, three-quarters of which was coal. 



Digitized by 



Google 



MVEB AND HARBOB IMPEOVEMENTS. 57 

So far as the improvement has progressed, no effect on freight 
rates is appreciable. 

The available balance will be applied toward obtaining the full 
projected channel width below Chelsea bridge. 

The maximum draft that can be carried June 30, 1905, over the 
shoalest part of the locality under improvement is 25 feet. The mean 
range of tides is 9.6 feet. 

July 1, 1904. balance unexpended if.'), 708. 31 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1005. HO, 000. 00 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended .^S, 70S. .31 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 04.59 

July 1, 1905, balance available !», 04.3. 72 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project » 107, 547. 50 

(See Appendix B 13.) 

14- Harbor at Boston, Mass. — In its original condition the head- 
lands and islands were without protection against the sea, which was 
extensively eroding them. Dangerous rocks obstructed the approach 
and entrance from Nantasket Koads to the lower main ship channel 
through the Narrows. That channel was 23 feet deep at mean low 
water with a least width of 150 feet. The upper main ship channel 
from President Roads to Bo.ston had a least depth of 18 feet at mean 
low water with a lea.st width of 100 feet. The channel from Presi- 
dent Roads to Broad Sound in the ocean had a least depth of 29 feet 
at mean low water with a least width of 200 feet. 

The original project, adopted b^ the act of March 2, 1825, was " for 
the preservation of the islands in Boston Harbor, necessary to the 
security of that place," and until 1866 all expenditures, amounting to 
$694,826.58, appear to have been applied to that purpose in the build- 
ing and repair of sea walls. The amount expended uppn them since 
1866 can not be accurately stated. 

The original project for the improvement of the harbor adopted by 
the act of March 2, 1867, was (as modified) to make the main ship 
channel from Nantasket Roads to Boston 23 feet deep at mean low 
water, 600 feet wide through the Narrows to President Roads, and 
1,000 feet wide from President Roads to Boston. 

Prior to operations under the six existing projects (three for the 
improvement of the main channels and three for the improvement of 
tributary channels) 3.75 miles of sea walls had been built, protecting 
the most exposed headlands and islands, and a channel had been com- 
pleted 23 feet deep at mean low water from Nantasket Roads to Bos- 
ton, with a least width of 625 feet in the Narrows and of 850 feet 
between President Roads and the city. 

The amount expended on original and modified projects upon sea 
walls and channels, for improvement and maintenance, to June 30, 
1905, exclusive of all expenditures upon operations under the six 
existing projects, is $2,519,303.82. 

The existing projects are — 

a For Mystic River below the mouth of Island End River. 



Digitized by 



Google 



58 EEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGIITEEBS, V. 8. AEMT. 

1. Adopted by .the river and harbor act of July 13, 1892. To widen 
the main ship channel, from Nantasket Koads to Boston, to 1,000 feet, 
and to deepen it to 27 feet at mean low water, at an estimated cost of 
$1,250,000, subsequently increased to $1,488,751. The rock excava- 
tion in the lower main ship channel is bemg done under a continuing 
contract. 

2. Adopted by the river and harbor act of March 3, 1899.' To 
widen the Broad Sound channel to 1,200 feet, and to deepen it to 30 
feet at mean low water, at an estimated cost of $455,000. Under 
continuing contract. 

3. Adopted by the river and harbor act of June 13, 1902. To pro- 
vide channels 36 feet deep at mean low water, 1,200 feet wide from the 
navy-yard at Charlestown and the Chelsea bridjp;e and Charles Riyer 
bricige to President Roads, and 1,500 feet wide from President Roads 
through Broad Sound to the ocean, at an estimated cost of $7,994,- 
248.68. This estimate differs from any made in the project quoted in 
the act as the basis of the appropriation, owing to the different width 
of the channels adopted. (To avoid a large amount of rock excava- 
tion the 35-foot channel from President Roads to Broad Sound is in a 
different location from the 30-foot channel.) Under continuing 
contract. 

Under the project of July 13, 1892, to June 30, 1905, not including 
outstanding liabilities, the amount expended was $1,372,802.48, of 
which $58,085.20 was for maintenance. The expenditure for mainte- 
nance during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, was $40,335.78, 
with which in the lower main ship channel extending from President 
Roads to Boston light 73,441 cubic yards of gravel, cobblestones, sand, 
clay, and mud was removed from many small shoals. With the 
total amount expended under this project to June 30, 1905, the upper 
and lower main ship channels, from Boston to President Roads and 
from President Roads to the sea, have been dredged to the width of 
1,000 feet and depth of 27 feet at mean low water. Twenty ledges 
in the lower channel and 10 groups of ledges in the upper channel, 
covering 4.18 acres, have been removed to the dejjth of 27 feet at 
mean low water, embracing 13,063 cubic yards or rock excavation. 
Ledges still to be removed restrict the width of the channel (27 feet 
deep at mean low water) to 500 feet in the upper and 650 feet in the 
lower channel. 

The maximum draft that can be carried at mean low water, June 
30. 1905, over the shoalest part of the localitv under improvement is 
27 feet. 

A map of the project is in the Annual Report of the Chief of 
Engineers for 1894, page 554. 

Under the project of March 3, 1899, to June 30, 1905, the amount 
expended, not including outstanding liabilities, was $358,299.06, all 
for improvement, with which a channel 1,200 feet wide and 30 feet 
deep at mean low water was dredged from President Roads to Broad 
Sound, embracing the dredging of 928,524.9 cubic yards of sand, 
gravel, and clay, and 184,299 cubic yards of bowlders, and the re- 
moval of 156 cubic yards of ledge. 

The maximum draft that can be carried at mean low water, June 
30, 1905, over the shoalest part of the locality under improvement is 
30 feet. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HAKBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 59 

The project is published in Annual Report of the Chief of Engi- 
neers for 1898, page 886. 

Under the project of June 13, 1902, to June 30, 1905, the amount 
expended, not including outstanding liabilities, was $764,525.83, all 
for improvement, with which 3,502 J32.5 cubic yards of mud, sand, 
gravel, and clay, and 7.755 cubic yards of bowlders were dredged 
from seven separate areas, amounting to 167.1 acres, and to the depth 
of 35 feet below mean low water, except five areas, aggregating 5.7 
acres, which were dredged to solid rock. 

The estimated amount that can be profitably expended will be ap- 
plied to dredging and rock excavation under continuing contracts. 

A map of the project is published in the Annual Report of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1903, page 768. 

The mean range of tides is 9.5 feet at Boston light and 9.6 feet in 
the upper harbor. 

The foreign exports and imports for the port of Boston during the 
calendar year ending December 31, 1902, amounted in value to 
$174,135,076, being an increase of $107,448,455 over the vahiation in 
1867, when the systematic improvement of the channels was begun. 

As to the effect of the improvement on freight rates, the general 
manager of the principal foreign steamship lines entering this port 
states that about 30 years ago steamers were emploved with a loaded 
draft of 20 feet to 24 feet; 22 or 23 years ago, of' 25 to 26 feet; 14 
years ago, 27 or 28 feet ; 10 years ago, 28 feet 9 inches ; later, 31 feet, 
and recently one of 33 feet lOJ inches. He states, generally — 

that freight rates, caused by the larger class of steamers being used, are about 
50 per cent less than they were some 15 or 20 years ago, when very much 
smaller steamers were engaged In the trade. 

Tributary channels. — (a) Charles River. — In the original condition 
of the 9 miles of natural channel of this river, from its mouth to the 
dam at the head of navigation at Watertown, the depth at mean low 
water, from the mouth 4J miles to the Western Avenue Bridge, was 
not less than 7 feet, except in several places, covering about 1\ miles, 
below Brookline bridge, where the depth varied from 4^ to 7 feet. 
From Western Avenue Bridge 2\ miles to the Arsenal Street Bridge 
the depth was 4 feet. Thence 1% miles to the dam it varied between 
and 9^ feet. 

The original project, adopted by the act of June 14, 1880, which is 
also the existing project, is to widen and deepen the natural channel so 
that at mean low water it shall be from its mouth to Western Avenue 
Bridge 200 feet wide and not less than 7 feet deep ; thence to Market 
Street Bridge 80 feet wide and 6 feet deep ; thence to the dam 60 feet 
wide and 2 feet deep ; at an estimated cost of $125,000. 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, is $57,500, all for improve- 
ment, with which the channel has been completed as prescribed in the 
project up to the Arsenal Street Bridge (now called also Western 
Avenue Bridge). 

The maximum draft that can be carried June 30, 1905, at mean low 
water over the shoalest part of the locality improved is 6 feet. The 
mean range of tides is 9.3 feet. 

The head of navigation is at the dam at Watertown, the upper limit 
of that part of the channel under improvement, to which point, 9 
miles above its confluence with Mystic River in Boston, the stream is 
navigable in fact. 



Digitized by 



Google 



60 REPOBT OP THE CHIEF OP ENGINEEE8, U. 8. AKMY. 

The improvement serves the local commerce in coal, which in 1904- 
amounted to 112,000 tons, enabling it to be delivered without breaking 
cargoes at Boston, saving the cost of one handling and the greater* 
cost of transportation from Boston by rail. 

The district officer is of opinion that so much of the existing project 
as provides for a channel from Brackett's wharf to Market Street 
Bridge, a distance of about 1,300 feet, and from Market Street Bridge 
to the dam at Watertown, is unworthy of prosecution by the General 
Government. This opinion is concurred in. The river and harbor 
act of September 19, 1890, appropriated $20,000 for continuing im- 
provement of Charles River : 

Provided, That no expenditure of said twenty thousand dollars shall be made 
until the draws in the Arsenal Street and Market Street bridges shall be made to 
conform to the projected channel without cost to the United States. 

The Arsenal Street Bridge has been altered to conform to the pro- 
jected channel, and as the Market Street Bridge is above the limits to 
which it is now believed that the channel should be extended, it is 
recommended that Congress authorize the expenditure of the $20,000 
appropriated in 1890 in obtaining a channel of the projected width 
and depth to Brackett's wharf and in maintaining the Charles River 
improvement. 

A full description of the project, together with map of the river 
showing the progress of the improvement to this date, is on page 512, 
Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1884. 

(6) Fort Point channel. — In its original condition the mid-channel 
depth was 12 feet at its mouth and 16 feet thence to the Federal Street 
Bridge, excepting at the draw in the Congress Street Bridge, where it 
was 14.5 feet at mean low water. 

The original project, adopted by the act of August 5, 1886, which is 
also the existing project, is to dredge a channel 175 feet wide and 23 
feet deep at mean low water from the entrance about 4,190 feet to 
near Federal Street Bridge, at an estimated cost of $100,000, reduced 
in 1887 to $78,750. 

To June 30, 1905, there had been expended $18,027, all for improve- 
ment, with which a channel was obtained of the width and depth pre- 
scribed in the project from its entrance to the Congress Street Bridge, 
with an extension carried through the north draw to near the western 
extremity of the " rest pier." 

The maximum draft that can be carried June 30, 1905, at mean low 
water over the shoalest part of the improved channel is 23 feet. The 
mean range of tides is 9.6 feet. 

The head of navigation is the southern extremity of South Bay, at 
Massachusetts avenue, Boston, Mass., to which point, about 2 miles 
from the entrance to the channel in Boston Harbor, the channel is 
navigable in fact. 

The commerce benefit«d by this improvement consists of coal, 
sugar, building materials, and miscellaneous merchandise, which 
amounted in the calandar year 1904 to 1,488,565 tons. 

The available balance will be applied to the continuation of the 
improvement. 

For a description of the project see Annual Report of the Chief of 
Engineers for 1888, page 452. 

(c) Chelsea Greek. — In its original condition it had a channel of 
practicable width extending 11,000 feet from its confluence witii 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 61 

Mystic River in Boston Harbor and 18 feet deep at mean high 
water, except on a bar about 2,000 feet below its head, upon which 
the depth was 17 feet. In the 3,300 feet from the head of the 18- 
foot channel to the head of navigation the depth gradually shoaled 
to 13 feet at mean high water. 

The original project adopted by the act of June 3, 1896, which is-- 
also the existing project, is to make the channel about 5,500 feet in 
length next below the head of navigation, 150 feet wide, and 18 feet 
deep at mean high water, at an estimated cost of $65,000. 

The amount expended under this project to June 30, 1905, not 
including outstanding liabilities, is $12,002.94, all for improvement, 
with which a channelhas been dredged 75 feet wide and 18 feet deep 
at mean high water through a bar 2,000 feet below its head, and 50 
to 150 feet wide, 14 feet deep at mean high water, and 2,800 feet in 
length from the head of the ISifoot channel to Proctor's wharf, 700 
feet below the head of navigation. 

The head of navigation is at the bridge of the Boston and Maine 
Railroad, to which point the stream is navigable in fact 700 feet 
above Proctor's wharf and 2.7 miles above its confluence with Mystic 
River. 

June 30, 1905, the maximum draft that can be carried at mean high 
water over the shoalest part of the improved channel is 14 feet. The 
mean range of tides is 9.6 feet. 

The commerce benefited by this improvement, consisting chiefly of 
coal, amounted, in 1903, to 10,330 tons, and in 1904 to 4,055 tons. 

A report of the project and survey is in Annual Report of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1895, page 648. 

The available balance will be applied to dredging toward comple- 
tion of the project. 

PBOJECT FOR OENEBAL IMPROVEMENT. 

July 1, 1904, balance nnexiiended 159,081.44 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved Marcb 3, 

1905 100, 000. 00 

159, 981. 44 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for mainte- 
nance of Improvement 1,083.91 

July 1, 1905, balance unex|)ended 158, 897. .TS 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 520.84 

July 1, 1905, balance available 158,370.69 

Amount (estimated) re<iulred for completion of existing project.. 73,500.00 

PROJECT OF 1892 FOR 27-FOOT CHANNEU 

July 1, 1904. balance unexpended 1335,166.94 

June 30, 1905, amount exi^nded during fiscal year: 

For works of improvement $162,0.37.35 

For maintenance of Improvement 40,33.5.78 

202, 373. 13 

.July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 132.793.81 

July 1, 1905. outstanding llabilltlea , 9,249.84 

July 1, 1905, balance available 123. 543. 97 

July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 63,761.74 



Digitized by 



Google 



62 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, V. 8. AR3CX. 

PROJECT FOB 30-FOOT (BBOAD BOUND) CHANNEL. 

July 1, 1004, balance unexpended $120, 154. 80 

June 30, 1905, amount e.vpended during fiscal year, for works of 
improvement 23, 453. 86 



July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 96, TOO. 94 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 11, 328. 09 



July 1, 1905, balance available 85, 372. 85 



July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 12, 493. 40 

FBOJECT FOB 35-FOOT CaA.NNEL. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $853, 860. 57 

Amount appropriated by sundry civil act approved March 3, 

1905 : 970. 000. 00 



1, 823. 860. 57 
June .%, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of 
improvement 518, 380. 40 



July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 1,305,474.17 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 129, 373. 85 

July 1, 1905, balance available 1, 176, 100. 32 



July 1, 1905. amount covered by uncompleted contracts 1,774.017.23 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project— 5,924, 248. 68 

Amount that can be profitably expended In fiscal year ending June 
30, 1907, for works of improvement. In addition to the balance 
unexpended July 1. 1905 600,000.00 

Submitted in compliance with requirements of sundry civil act of - 
June 4, 1897. 

(See Appendix B 14.) 

15. Weymouth and Town rivers, Massachusetts. — {a) Weymouth 
Fore River {below Weymouth Fore River bridge) .—^The improve- 
ment embraces only that portion of the river extending from its 
mouth in Ilingham Bay about 3^ miles up to Weymouth Fore River 
bridge, at Quincy Point, about 1,000 feet above its confluence with 
Town River. 

In its original condition the channel had »i depth of 18 feet at mean 
low water with a least width of 300 feet up to a point about 1 mile 
Iwlow the bridge aforesaid, the 18-foot channel extending 3,400 feet 
above that point, but too tortuous for safe navigation of large vessels. 
In the remaining 1,800 feet to the bridge, the channel, when surveyed, 
was 150 feet wide and 13 feet deep at mean low water, but, before the 
adoption of the project, had been increased without expense to the 
United States to the width of 200 feet and depth of 15 feet at mean 
low water. 

The existing project, adopted by the act of March 3, 1905, is to 
dredge a channel 300 feet wide and 18 feet deep from the termination 
of the natural 18-foot channel to the Weymouth Fore River bridge, 
n distance of about 1 mile, at an estimated cost of $57,500. 

The act of March 3, 1905, appropriated the full amount of the esti- 
mate with the proviso : 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPEO YEMEN TS. 63 

That no part of this sum shall be expended until the Secretary of War shall 
have received satisfactory assurance that the Improvement of that portion otthe 
Weymouth River which lies above the improvement herein mentioned, and of the 
Town River, except so much as Is herein provided for, shall hereafter be main- 
tained by the State of Massachusetts, or other agency, without expense to the 
Government of the United States. 

By a resolution of the legislature, approved by the governor May 
26, this assurance was given by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
and accepted by the Secretary of War June 7, 1905. 

To June 30, 1905, no expenditure had been made. The maximum 
draft that can be carried at mean low water over the shoalest part of 
the channel to be improved is 15 feet. The mean range of tides is 
9.6 feet. 

During the calendar year 1904 the total commerce of the river was 
139,819 tons, of which 131,819 tons was carried into the shoal upper 
channels of Weymouth and Town rivers. 

This improvement is of importance chiefly to the Fore River Ship 
Building Company, which builds at its extensive plant at Quincy 
Point large passenger and freight steamers, cruisers, and battle ships 
up to 16,W0 tons with 24 feet 6 inches draft, and which during the year 
1904 completed the U. S. cruiser Des Moines, of 3,500 tons; Fall River 
Line freight steamer i?os^07i, of 3,900 tons ; two steel car floats of 1,300 
■tons each; two barges of 500 tons each, and had under construction 
the U. S. battle ships New Jersey, Rhode Island, and Vermont, aggre- 
gating 46,000 tons, and the Fall River Line pas.senger steamer Provi- 
dence, of 3,900 tons, and docked and repaired 10 other vessels of vari- 
ous classes, besides smaller craft. 

The head of navigation is 2.7 miles above this improvement at East 
Braintree, to which latter point the navigable length of Weymouth 
River from its mouth in Hingham Bay is 6.2 miles. 

A report of the survey of Weymouth Fore River is in the Report of 
the Chief of Engineers for 1904, pages 891-898. 

The available Balance will be applied to dredging in prosecution of 
the project. 

(6) Weymouth Fore River above Weymouth Fore River bridge and 
Weymouth Back River. — In its original condition Weymouth Fore 
River had a navigable channel 13 to 18 feet deep at mean low water 
from its mouth, in Hingham Bay, 3^ miles tjo ^\ eymouth Fore River 
bridge, and for 2,200 reet above that bridge the depth at mean low 
water was 12 feet ; 4,000 feet farther the depth was 6 feet in a chan- 
nel of practicable width, and 7,000 feet farther it was 3 feet, but the 
channel was too narrow to be practicable. 

Weymouth Back River had a practicable channel not less than 200 
feet wide and not less than 12 feet deep at mean low water from its 
confluence with Weymouth Fore River, 8,000 feet to the wharf of the 
American Agricultural Chemical Company, except on its bar, 400 
feet across, one-fourth of a mile above its mouth, where the depth 
was 11 feet, and except the 2,000 feet next below that wharf, where the 
depth gradually shoaled from 12 feet to 6 feet at mean low water. 

The original project, adopted by the act of September 19, 1890. 
which is also the existing project, is to obtain in Weymouth Fore River 
a navigable channel 6 feet deep at mean low water for the farther dis- 
tance of 7,000 feet, 100 feet wide, 4,400 feet to near Weymouth Land- 
ing, 80 feet wide thence 1,650 feet to Braintree bridge, and 50 feet 



Digitized by 



Google 



64 BEPOUT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOINKERS, U. S. ARMY. 

wido thence 950 feet above that point; as extended by the act of Au- 

§ust 18, 18i)4, to dredge in Weymouth Back River a channel 12 feet 
eep at mean low water 200 feet wide through the bar and to extend 
the channel 12 feet deep at mean low water and 200 feet wide 2,200 
feet to the wharf of the American Agricultural Chemical Company, 
at an estimated cost for Weymouth Fore River of $40,000 and for 
Weymouth Back River of $22,000, a total of $62,000. 

The amount expended on this project to the close of the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1905, is, for Weymouth Fore River, not including 
outstanding liabilities, $37,460.88, and for Weymouth Back River 
$11,753.59; total, $49,214.47, all for improvement. 

This expenditure has resulted in deepening the channel in Wey- 
mouth River to 6 feet at mean low water through the entire 7,000 feet 
of the river embraced in the project, w^ith a width of at least 100 feet 
for a distance of 3,725 feet from its lower end, 60 feet for a farther 
distance of 1,650 feet, and of the full projected widths for the upper 
1,625 feet of the improvement. In Weymouth Back River, of Uie 
2,400 feet of the channel embraced in the project, 400 feet on the bar 
has been dredged to the full width and depth prescribed in the project, 
and the 2,000 feet extending to the American Agricultural Chemical 
Company's wharf to the depth of 12 feet at mean low water and the 
width of 125 feet. 

The maximum draft that can be carried, June 30, 1905, at mean 
low water over the shoalest part of the locality under improvement 
is, in the Weymouth Fore River, 5^ feet, and in the Weymouth Back 
River 10 feet. The mean range of tides is 9.4 feet. 

The head of navigation is the dam at East Braintree, the upper 
limit of that part of the channel under improvement, to which point, 
2.9 miles above its confluence with Town River, the stream is naviga- 
ble in fact. 

Under a contract soon to be made the available balance will be ap- 
plied to maintenance in redredging to restore a practicable channel 
of the depth of 6 feet from Richards' wharf to the head of the im- 
provement and to improvement in widening the channel, when the 
project will be discontinued and the maintenance of the improvement 
left to the State of Jfassachusetts. 

The conmierce benefited by the improvement comprised in 1903 in 
Weymouth Fore River 92,759 tons and in Weymouth Back River 
132,600 tons, and in 1904 in Weymouth Fore River 95,483 tons and in 
Weymouth Back River 124,691 tons. In 1904 in Weymouth Fore 
River 8(>,441 tons, or 92 per cent, was coal, and in Weymouth Back 
River 118,000 tons, or 94 per cent, was raw and manufactured fertil- 
izer products. 

The project for improvement of the river alwve the bridge, with 
report of survey, is in Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 
1890, page 522. 

A report of the survey of Weymouth Back River is in the Annual 
Report for 1891, page 083. 

Available funds will be applied to dredging the channel to pro- 
jected dimensions. 

(c) Town River. — In its original condition Town River had a good 
channel, not less than 7 feet deep at mean low water, extending 4,000 
feet from its confluence with Weymouth Fore River 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEE AND HABBOB IMPROVEMENTS. 65 

At that distance the channel suddenly shoaled to less than 4 feet, 
and was 1 to 2 feet deep for a distance oi 3,300 feet, and was about 18 
inches above low water for a farther distance of about 1,200 feet to 
the upper wharves at Quincy. 

The original project adopted by the river and harbor act of June 3, 
1896, which is the present project, is to dredge the channel 4,500 feet 
long, to the upper wharves at Quincy, to the width of 100 feet and 
depth of 4 feet at mean low water, at a cost, estimated March 24, 1897, 
of $25,000. 

To June 30, 1905, the amount expended was $17,864.35, all for im- 
provement. 

With this expenditure the lower 1,400 feet and the upper 1,000 feet 
of the channel 4,500 feet long have been dredged to the width of 50 
feet, and the intermediate 2,100 feet to the full width of 100 feet and 
the depth of 4 feet at mean low water. 

The maximum draft that can be carried on June 30, 1905, at mean 
low water over the shoalest part of the locality under improvement is 
2 feet. The mean range of tides is 9.4 feet. 

The head of navigation is at the upper limit of the improvement, at 
Quincy, IVIass., to which point, about 1^ miles above the confluence 
with the Weymouth Fore River, the stream is navigable in fact. 

The balance available will be applied to completing the project and 
to dredging for maintenance, when the future maintenance of the im- 
provement will be left to the State of Massachusetts. 

The annual commerce of Town River amounted in 1902 to 99,373 
tons and in 1904 to 43,976 tons, of which, in 1904, 85 per cent was 
stone. 

The original project, with report of survey, is in the Annual Report 
of the Chigf of Engineers for 1891, page 679. 

July 1. in04. balance unexiiended f1.". IKI.IS 

Amount appropriated by rlrer and harbor act approved March 3, 1005- 67, .'i27. 41 

July 1. 1905. balance unexpended 8.H, 248. 59 

July 1, 1906, outstanding liabilities !«». (« 

Joly 1. 1905, balance available Kt. 14S. !M5 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project " 0, oOO. 00 

(See Appendix B 15.) 

16. //arbor at Seiti/ate, Mass. — In its original condition the depth 
on the bar was about 2.5 feet at mean low water, and the entrance was 
obstructed by many sunken bowlders ; of the low-water area of alwut 
57 acres, 6 acres had a depth of at least 3 feet at mean low water and 
there was little protection against the sea. 

The original project seems to have been to protect the beach between 
Cedar Point and the mainland on the northerly side of the entrance 
to the harbor, upon which, prior to operations under the existing proj- 
ect (in 1829 to 1852) $1,000.98 was expended in building 450 hnear 
feet of brush and stone bulkhead and 385 linear feet of stone apron 10 
feet wide. 

The existing project, adopted by the act of June 14, 1880, is to 
build, of rubbiestone, a north breakwater 800 feet and a south break- 
water 730 feet long, to dredge an anchorage basin of 30 acres and an 



« For Weymouth Back River. 
Eso 1905 M 5 



Digitized by 



Google 



66 REPORT OF THE OHIEP OF EN^QINEEBS, U. 8. ARKY. 

entrance channel 2,700 feet long and 300 feet wide, with depths at 
mean low water of 15 feet at the entrance, 12 to 15 feet between the 
breakwaters, 12 feet immediately back of the south breakwater, 10 
feet in the anchorage basin, and 3 feet in the channel to the wharves, 
at an estimated cost of $100,000 for the breakwaters and of $190,000 
for the dredging; total, $290,000. 

Up to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, there had 
been expended on the work under the existing project $103,500, of 
which $1,989.11 was expended for maintenance in 1900 and 1901. 
The amount previously expended for maintenance is not ascertainable. 

With that expenditure all known bowlders obstructing the entrance 
to the harbor have been removed ; the anchorage basin, 350 feet by 400 
feet, has been dredged 7 feet at mean low water, and the channel from 
the sea to the basin has been dredged 7 feet deep, 100 feet wide, and 
1,600 feet long; the channel, 2,150 feet long from the anchorage basin 
to the town wharves has been dredged 3 feet at mean low water at 
least 100 feet wide ; and 720 linear feet of the north breakwater and 
460 linear feet of the south breakwater have been built. 

The maximum draft that can be carried at mean low water, June 30, 
1905, over the shoalest part of the locality under improvement is 
through the entrance channel and basin 7 feet and through the chan- 
nel from the basin to the town wharves 26 inches at mean low water. 
The mean range of tides is 9.8 feet. 

In pursuance of a resolution of the Committee on Rivers and Har- 
bors of the House of Representatives, the Board of Engineers for 
River and Harbors has considered the project for this work, and in its 
report, published in Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 
1903, page^ 777-780, concurs in the opinion of the district officer that 
this place is not worthy of further improvement as a harbor of refuge, 
but in order to realize the greatest advantage from work already done, 
recommends the discontinuance of the present project for the improve- 
ment of Scituate Harbor and the adoption of a project for obtaining a 
channel 6 feet deep at mean low water and 100 feet wide from the 
entrance to the docks, at the cost of $18,000. 

The improvement of the channel has admitted to the wharves 
barges carrying 700 to 800 tons of coal each, in place of schooners 
carrying 150 to 200 tons, and is reported to have reduced freight rates 
50 to 75 cents a ton, which it is reported would be further reduced 
about 25 cents a ton if the channel be deepened to 6 feet, as recom- 
mended. 

The commerce benefited by this improvement consists of coal and 
building materials, of whicn 8,623 tons was received in 1903 and 
11,330 in 1904, an increase of 31 per cent. 

The existing project, as reported by a Board of Engineers, Septem- 
ber 18, 1880, with map of the harbor, is published in Annual Report 
of the Chief of Engineers for 1881, page 523. 

(See Appendix B 16.) 

n. Harbor at Duxhury, Mass. — This harbor has two channels lead- 
ing from deep water in the " Cow Yard " in Plymouth Harbor. The 
easterly channel to the east of Captains Hill is in Duxbury Bay, an 
extensive area of sandy shoals separated from the ocean by Duxbury 
Beach, a slender beach about 4j^ miles in length ; the westerly channel. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB Ain> HABBOB IMFBOTEKEITTS. 67 

known as the Miles channel, leads into Kingston Bay, west of Cap- 
tains Hill. 

In its original condition the easterly channel had a practicable 
width with a depth of 6 feet at mean low water to a point 2,600 feet 
from the wharf at Duxbury, in Duxbury Bay, and the Miles channel 
a depth of 8 feet at mean low water and a practicable width to a point 
2,100 feet from the wharf at Duxbury, in Kingston Bay. 

The original projects appear to have been — 

1. For the protection of the beach, authorized by the act of July 4, 
1836, by building groins of stakes and brush. 

2. For the improvement of the channel, authorized by the act of 
June 10, 1872, to extend the Miles channel by dredging to the depth 
of 8 feet and width of 200 feet for a distance of 2,3(W feet up to a 
point 200 feet above the wharf at Duxbury, in Elingston Bay. 

On these projects there was expended prior to operations imder 
existing project $25,000, with which some protection was given to 
Duxbury Beach, and the Miles channel was extended the aforesaid 
distance with the aforesaid depth and width. 

The existing project, approved by the Secretary of War August 
12, 1899 (a modification of a project submitted November 28, 1887), 
is to dredge a channel 6 feet deep at mean low water 60 feet wide, 
increasing to 100 feet on the curve, from the southerly wharf at Dux- 
bury, in Duxbury Bay, 3,600 feet to the head of the easterly channel, 
at an estimated cost (as increased in 1899) of $17,820. 

To the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, there had been 
expended under the existing project $12,000, all for improvement. 
With this expenditure the easterly channel has been extended with the 
depth of 6 feet the entire distance of 3,600 feet to the wharf, with a 
width of 80 feet at the wharf, 60 feet at the turn, and 40 feet else- 
where. 

The maximum draft that can be carried over the shoalest part of 
the improvement at mean low water June 30, 1905, is 2 feet. The 
mean range of tides is 9.3 feet. 

The commerce, consisting of coal and lumber, amounted in 1904 to 
1,494 tons. 

The project for beach protection, adopted in 1836, is in the Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1866, Part 2, page 36. 

The original project for improving the harbor is in Annual Report 
of the Chief of Engineers for 1872, pages 947 and 964. 

The existing project (without modifications approved August 12, 
1899) is in Annual Report of the Chief of Engineei-s for 1888, page 
473, together with maps of the harbor. No map or description of the 
channel as modified under the project of 1899 has been published. 
Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project |5, 820. 00 

(See Appendix B 17.) 

18. Harbors at Plymouth and Provincefown, Mass. — (a) Uarbor 
at Plymouth. — In the original condition of the harbor the channel 
and low-water line were about 2,500 feet from the wharf at Ply- 
mouth. Long Beach, between the harbor and the ocean, was, for the 
most part, low and narrow, and liable to inroads by the sea that 
would injure or destroy the harbor. 

All projects and expenditures prior to 1875 appear to have been for 
the construction of works for the preservation of the beach. 



Digitized by 



Google 



68 BEPOET OF THE CEriBF OF ENOrNEEES, U. 8. ARMY. 

The original project for the improvement of the channel, adopted 
by the act of March 3, 1875, was to dredge a channel, 100 feet wide 
and 6 feet deep at mean low water, through the flats from the channel 
in the inner harbor to Long Wharf in Plymouth, at an estimated cost 
of $28,000. 

Prior to operations under the existing project, $198,859.22 had been 
expended in preserving Long Beach and in dredging under the proj- 
ect of March 3, 1875, as modified, which resulted in obtaining a chan- 
nel 150 feet wide and 9 feet deep and a basin directly in front of the 
town wharves 866 feet long, 150 feet wide, and 9 feet deep. Of this 
amount $60,727.52 was expended for maintenance. 

The existing project for the protection of the beach, adopted by the 
act of March 3, 1899, is to strengthen the sections of beach damaged 
by the great storm of November, 1898, and to restore Eel River to its 
former course, discharging into the head of the harbor from its course 
into the sea, to which it was changed by the storm. The estimated 
cost was $95,700. 

The amount expended on the work of improvement under the ex- 
isting project to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, is 
$72,434.18, with which 11,843 linear feet of rubblestone dike was 
built on Long Beach, which has resulted in strengthening the beach 
by the accretion of a large volume of sand and beach shingle; Eel 
River was restored to its former course, and 536 linear feet of stone 
dike was built to prevent the river from being again turned into the 
sea. In addition to the aforesaid amount expended under the present 
project, $3,954.42 has been expended for maintenance in redredging 
the turning basin which had been dredged at the wharves under the 
project of March 3, 1875. 

In the report of January 20, 1899, submitting the project with esti- 
mate of cost it was said : 

The following estimate for this work should be considered approximate only, 
for the reason that further changes are likely to occur before the work can be 
accomplished, which changes may materially increase or diminish the amount 
of work necessary to restore the beach to a safe condition. 

The accretion of the beach before the stone dike was built mate- 
rially diminished the cross section of a considerable part of it, and 
permitted its extension to protect other places where further erosion 
has occurred. 

The balance available June 30, 1905, is sufficient for contingencies 
for the preservation of the beach. 

It is reported by the harbor master at Plymouth that the improve- 
ment of this locality by the United States has effected a saving of 50 
cents per ton in freight rates. 

The commerce of the harbor consists of coal and lumber, of which 
24,765 tons was received in 1899 and 49,386 in 1904, an increase of 
about 100 per cent in five years. 

The maximum draft that can be carried, June 30, 1905, at mean low 
water, over the shoalest part of the locality under improvement is 7.5 
feet. The mean range of tides is 10.1 feet. 

The original project for dredging is published in the Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1874, Part 2, page 348. A map 
of the dredged channel and basin is printed in the Amiual Report of 
the Chief of Engineers for 1888, page 460. 



Digitized by 



Google 



•ll 



BIVEB Alrt> HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 69 

(5) Harbor at Provincetown. — This is an important harbor of 
refuge in the bight at the extremity of Cape Cod. 

In its original condition the width and depth of its entrance and 
he depth of its anchorage were ample for the largest vessels, but 
actual or threatened inroads by the sea across the low and narrow 
part of the cape east of the town, and at intervals along alwut \\ 
miles of the narrow beach southwest of the town, were a serious 
'menace to the harbor. 

The original project, adopted by the act of May 20, 1826, was " for 
the preservation of the point of land forming Provincetown Harbor." 

The project from 1826 continuously to this date has been, by build- 
ing dikes and groins and by other sand-catching devices, to arrest the 
erosion and promote the accretion of the barrier of beach and sand 
dunes which protects and preserves the harbor. 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, is $207,553.77, all applied 
to improvement. 

The result of the expenditure has been the preservation of the bar- 
rier of beach and sand dunes essential to the preservation of the 
harbor. 

The maximum draft that can be carried, June 30, 1905, to the 
anchorage is ample for the largi>st vessels. 

The balance available will be applied to works of protection for 
preserving and strengthening the beach that preserves the harbor. 

A description and plan of works are in the Annual Ecports of the 
Chiei of Engineers for 1876, 1879, and 1886, pages 181, 273, and 574, 
respectively. 

A special project for the protection of the most slender part of the 
Ijeach southwesterly of Provincetow^n is published in Annual Beport 
of the Chief of Engineers for 1897, page 878. 

The commerce or this port, amounting in 1904 to about 21,480 ton.s, 
is a small factor in this improvement compared with the preservation 
of this very excellent and important harbor of refuge. 

July 1. 1004, balance unexpended $27, .323. 84 

Amoant appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3. 100."). 5, 000. 00 

32, .'?23. M 
June 30, 1005, amount expended during fiscal year, for works <St Im- 
provement 14, .10.5. 2.T 

July 1, lOOT. balance unexpended 18, 018. .59 

July 1, 1005, outstanding liabilities 1,282. 10 

July 1, 1005, balance available 10,7.3(5.40 

July 1, 1005, amount covered by imcompleted contracts 410.00 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing pro]ect----<»20, 700. 00 
(See Appendix B 18.) 

19. Channel hetxceen North and South Hero islands. Lake Cham- 
plain, Vermont. — Bv the original project, adopted by the act of July 
4, 1836, this channel, sometimes called the " Gut," was deepened by 
dredging to 8 feet at mean low water. The work was completed in 
1839, at a total expense of $21,000. 

In 1881 it was found by survey that the channel, about 1^ miles 
long, had an average depth of 10| feet, with sufficient width, except 

« For Plymouth Ilarbor. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



70 BEPOET OF THE OHJEF OF BNG1NEEB8, U. 8. AEMr. 

that it was obstructed at its western entrance by a bar through which 
the channel was 40 feet wide and 7 feet deep, and at its eastern 
entrance by a bar through which the channel was 100 feet wide and 8 
feet deep. 

The existing project, adopted by the act of August 11, 1888, is to 
obtain a channel 150 feet wide and 10 feet deep at both entrances, at 
an estimated cost of $14,300. The dredging was done in 1889 and the 
channel reported as completed. 

Complaint having been made of obstructions in the west entrance, 
the channel was examined in 1897, when it was reported that there 
was a good channel at the eastern entrance of the full depth and 
width prescribed in the project, but at the western entrance there was 
a dangerous bowlder in mid-channel, and the channel was 1 to 2 feet 
shallower in the middle, 2 to 4 feet shallower at its edges, and 25 
feet narrower than the project prescribed. 

To June 30, 1905, the amount expended under the existing project 
(as reported June 30, 1890) is $8,594.78 from the appropriation of 
$10,090 made by the act of 1888. 

This channel is the main water connection between the commercial 
channel on the western and Swanton Harbor and St. Albans Bay on 
the eastern side of the lake, and is generally used by steam and sailing 
vessels plying in that part of the lake, but the amount of commerce 
benefited by the improvement can not be accuratelj' stated. Two 
steamei-s, carrying freight and considerable numbers of passengers, 
each pass througli this channel twice daily during the season of 
navigation. 

The existing project, with report of survey, is published in the 
Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1897, page 3299, which 
contains also a report of the condition of the improvement. 

Aniouut (estimated) requlrwl for conipletlou of existing project |4, 300. 00 

20. Harbor at Burlinqton, Vt. — Before improvement there was 
ample depth of water along the docks and wharves, but they were 
without protection against wind and seas from Lake Champlain. In 
the greatest exposure during the prevalent northwesterly gales the 
wind has a sweep obliquely across the lake of about 10 nautical miles. 

The original project, adopted by the act of July 4, 1836, was to 
build a breakwater parallel with the shore and about 1,000 feet from 
the docks and wharves. 

Under the original and modified projects the amount expended for 
construction prior to the adoption of the project of 1886 was 
$501,811.07, with which 3,551 feet of breakwater was built. 

The existing project, adopted in 1886, is to extend the breakwater 
1,500 feet (500 feet northerly and 1,000 feet southerly), at an esti- 
mated cost of $150,000, enlarged in 1894 and 1902 to embrace repairs 
and replacing the crib superstructure (4,157 feet) with one of stone 
or concrete, at a cost estimated at $173,750, a total of $323,760. Com- 
pletion of repairs is authorized to be done under continuing contract. 

Under the existing project there was expended to June 30, 1905, 
$149,603.55, of which $59,738.69 was applied to extending the break- 
water 606 feet (364 feet northerly and 242 feet southerly), making 
the total length of the structure 4,157 feet; and the sum of $89,864.86 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HARBOB IMPROVEMENTS. 71 

was applied to repairs and completing the rebuilding of 1,820.75 feet 
of superstructure. 

The extreme variation of level of water surface is 6J feet and the 
usual variation about 4 or 5 feet. 

The commerce amounted in 1903 to 106,763 tons and in 1904 to 
107,421 tons, of which in 1904 63 per cent was coal, 30 per cent build- 
ing materials, and 7 per cent general merchandise. 

The estimated amount that can be profitably expended will be 
applied to rebuilding the superstructure of 551 feet of breakwater. 

A description of the existing project for repairs and maintenance 
may be found in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 
1901, page 1072, and a description and history of the work in the 
Annual Report for 1897, page 3296. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended 143,110.48 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905- 20, 000. 00 



63, 116. 48 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance 
of improvement 21,220.03 



July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 41,890.45 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 5,009.20 



July 1, 1905, balance available 30,887.23 



July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 10. 9(>0. 02 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 141,855.00 



Amount tliat can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 
1907, for maintenance of Improvement, in addition to the balance 
unexpended July 1, 1905 20,000.00 

Submitted In compliance witli requirements of sundry civil act of 
June 4, 1897, and of section 7 of the river and- harbor act of 1899. 

(See Appendix B 19.) 

21. Otter Creek, Vermont. — In its original condition Otter Creek 
had a practicable channel averaging in depth 10^ feet from its mouth 
in Lake Champlain up 8 miles to Vergennes, but in that distance 
there were seven shoals, aggregating about 1 mile in length, upon 
which the depth was 7 to 8 feet. 

The original project, adopted by the act of June 10, 1872, which 
is also the existing project, is to dredge to the depth of 8 feet " at 
Burlington gauge, me basin at Vergennes from the steamboat land- 
ing up as far as Potash Brook, and a channel of the same depth by 
dredging at six other localities between the steamboat landing and 
the mouth of the river; also to dredge from a point opposite Potash 
Brook " along the west shore a channel of the same depth, 100 feet 
wide, as far as the Horse Nail Company's wharf at the foot of the 
falls; " estimated cost, $58,146. 

In 1882 the estimated cost of the project was increased to $73,748.80, 
to provide for the removal of 1,772 cubic yards of rock from a shoal 
at the steamboat landing about 2,200 feet IJelow the falls. 

To June 30, 1905, the amount expended is $62,500, all for improve- 
ment except $2,246.50 for maintenance. With this expenditure the 
improvement has been completed in accordance with the project, 
except the channel 100 feet wide along the west shore to the Horse 
Nail Company's wharf at the foot of the falls, which, instead of 
dredging as originally estimated, required the excavation of the lower 



Digitized by 



Google 



72 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

4 feet of its depth in solid rock for a distance of about 500 feet below 
the falls, and in which a channel of the required depth and 40 feet in 
width has been completed 350 feet long up to the downstream corner 
of the Horse Nail Company's wharf. 

In 1896 (the latest record permitting comparison) the total com- 
merce on Otter Creek up to the public landing at Vergennes, to -wrhich 
the project has been completed, was 9,052 tons, of which only 926 
tons was carried above the puWic landing to the Horse Nail Com- 
pany's wharf, to which pomt the completion of a channel of the 
dimensions prescribed in the project will require excavation for a-. 
length of about 500 feet, depth of 4 feet, and further width of 60 feet 
in solid rock. Since the Horse Nail Company's factory was burned 
about two years ago no freight has been delivered there. 

The local officer has reported the creek above the public landing at 
Vergennes to be unworthy of further improvement by the United 
States at this time. 

The head of navigation, in fact, is at the wharf of the National 
Horse Nail Company at the foot of the falls at Vergennes, 8 miles 
above the mouth of tlie river in Lake Champlain. 

The commerce benefited by the improvement consists principally 
of coal and lumber, and amounted in 1903 to 5,300 tons and in 1904 
to 6,150 tons. 

The original project is published in the Annual Report of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1872, page 273 ; the increased estimate in the report 
for 1882, page 711, and a description of the work done in the execu- 
tion of the project in the report for 1897, page 3299. 
Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project $11, 248. 00 

(See Appendix B 20.) 

22. Harbor at Plattshurg, N. Y. — In its original condition the har- 
lx)r at Plattsburg was without protection against wind and sea from 
the south and southeast. 

The original project for improvement adopted by act of July 4, 
1836, was to build a breakwater or pier. Under the original and 
modified projects $185,440.76 was expended prior to oj>erations under 
the existing project, with which a breakwater was built, maintained, 
and extended to a length of 1,565 feet, consisting finally of a substruc- 
ture of timber cribs filled with stone and a superstructure of stone, 
and with which also shoals between the breakwater and wharves and a 
sand bar at the southeast corner of the south wharf were dredged. 

The present project is " for maintenance and restoration," adopted 
by the act of June 13, 1902, which appropriated $5,000 for that pur- 
pose without previous estimate. 

To June 30, 1905, tliere was expended under the existing project 
$4,848.33, with which the pierhead at the south end of the break- 
water, consisting of a timber crib filled with stone, was rebuilt above 
the water line and minor repairs were made to the timber crib pier- 
liead at the north end of the breakwater, and a channel 80 feet wide 
and 9 feet deep at extreme low water was dredged from the 9-foot 
curve in the harbor through the sand bar at the southeast corner of 
the south wharf 800 feet long to the northerlj' comer of the south 
wharf and extending for 215 feet farther, to near the steamboat land- 
ing, with a width of 20 feet. 



Digitized by 



Google 



fllVEB AND HABBOR IMPBOVEMENTS. 73 

June 30, 1905, the maximum draft that can be carried over the 
shoalest part of the locality under improvement is 9 feet at extreme 
low water. The extreme variation of level of water surface is 6^ feet 
and the usual variation about 4 or 5 feet. 

The commerce amounted in 1904 to 201,107 tons, fully 90 per cent 
of which is reported to be general merchandise. 

The harbor and works ror its early improvement are described in 
the Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1867, page 235. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $227. .")2 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works* of Im- 
■ provement 75.85 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 151. B7 

(See Appendix B 21.) 

23. Narrows of Lake Champlain, New York and Vermont. — In its 
original condition the 15 miles of this waterway, extending from the 
northern terminus of the Champlain Canal, at nTiitehall, northerly to 
Benson Landing, Vt., had a narrow and tortuous channel not more 
than 9^ feet to 10 feet deep on the shoals at low water. 

The original project, adopted by the act of August 5, 1880, was to 
obtain, by dredging and by a small amount of rock excavation, a 
channel with a least width of 150 feet and depth of 12 feet at low 
water from ^Vhitehall to deep water below Benson Landing, a dis- 
tance of 15 miles. On the original project (as extended in 1890 to 
widen and straighten the middle reaches of the channel) the amount 
expended prior to operations under existing project was $('>3,500. 

The existing project, adopted by the act of March 3, 1899, is to 
widen the channel and restore it to the depth of 12 feet at mean low 
water in five localities; also to provide fenders for protecting barges 
from collision with tiie rocky banks of the channel at Puts ro<^k, the 
Narrows, and Pulpit Point, at an estimated cost of $22,500. 
■ To June 30, 1905, the amount expended under the existing project 
was $22,788.39, all for improvement, with which the project has hoen 
completed, except the providing of fenders along the rocky banks at 
the Narrows and Pulpit Point. Available funds will be applied to 
this latter work and to dredging. 

To June 30, 1905, the maximum draft that can be carried over the 
shoalest part of the locality under improvement is 12 feet at low 
water. The extreme variation of level of water surface is 0^^ feet, 
and the usual variation about 4 or 5 feet. 

From the foot of the canal at "WTiitehall to the head of Lake Cham- 
plain at Crown Point the navigable length of the Narrows is 37 
miles. From Whitehalf navigation is continued to the Hudson River 
and Erie Canal by the Champlain Canal, which is 05 miles long, from 
the southern extremity of the Narrows at \Miitehall to Troy, N. Y. 

The commerce consists principally of coal, pulp wood, building 
material, and general merchandise, and amounted m 1903 to 590,789 
tons, and in 1904 to 651,592 tons, of which 30 per cent was coal and 33 
per cent pulp wood. 

The original project, with report and map of the survey of the 
channel, is published in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers 
for 1885, pages 2312 and 2315, and the existing project in the Annual 
Report for 1897, page 3302, and 1898, page 1046. 



Digitized by 



Google 



74 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, 0. 8, ARMY. 

July 1. 1901, balanre nnexpended $1, 292. 88 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 19(>5_ 2, 500. 00 

3. 792. 88 
June 30, lOiJT), amount expended dnring fiscal year, for works of im- 
provement 81. 27 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 3, 711. 61 

(See Appendi.x B 22.) 

24. Rrmoring sunken vessels or craft obstntctina or endangering 
naHgatton. — (a) Wreck of steamship Kiowa off Point AUerton at 
entrance to Boston JI arbor, Massachusetts. — The wreck of this 
steamer near the track of deep-draft vessels was reported to the De- 

fartment June 30, 1904, as a dangerous obstruction to navig^a tion. 
'roposals were obtained after newspaper advertisement and a con- 
tract made under which the removal of the wreck and cargo was com- 
pleted on January 18, 1905, at a total cost to the United States of 
$8,800. 

(&) Canal boats in Lake Champlain, NeiD York. — Canal boat Julius 
Fulton, jr., sunk by the ice during the winter of 1903-4 in about 3 
feet of water alongside the wharf of the Rutland Railroad Company 
at Rouse Point, N. Y., and canal boats Russell Wright, sunk October 
29 in 8 feet of water, and Anna Weightman, sunk November 13, 1904, 
in 5 feet of water, both the latter opposite the docks at Port Henry, 
N. Y., with cargoes of IGO tons iron ore each, were removed after 
advertisement for thirty days under a contract with the lowest 
bidder. Work was commenced April 25, completed May 31, and final • 
report submitted June 9, 1905. Tne total cost amounted to $2,300. 

(c) Schooner Albert II. Harding at entrance to Pigeon Cove Har- 
bor, Cape Ann, Massachusetts. — This wreck on May 13 floated from 
the shore and sunk in mid-channel about 150 feet seaward from the 
entrance to Pigeon Cove Harbor, where it constituted a very danger- 
ous menace to navigation. The owner having in writing abandoned 
the wreck, proposals were obtained by circular letter and its removal 
under informal agreement was completed June 12 at an expense of 
$300, allotted May 26, 1905. 

(See Appendix B 23.) 

IMPROVEMENT OF RIVERS AND HARBORS IN SOUTHEASTERN MAS- 
SACHUSETTS AND IN RHODE ISLAND. 

This district was in the charge of Lieut. Col. J. H. AVillard, Corps 
of Engineers. Division engineer, Col. Chgs. R. Suter, Corps of 
Engineers. 

1. Harbors at Hyannis and Nantucket.. Mass. — (a) Harbor of ref- 
uge at Hyannis. — The harbor of Hyannis lies on the south shore of 
the peninsula of Cape Cod and about 15 miles to the westward of the 
heel of the cape and is an important harbor of refuge. 

This harbor before improvement was an open roadstead, exposed 
to southerly storms. 

In the years 1827-1838 a breakwater 1,170 feet long was constructed 
of riprap granite, covering an anchorage of about 175 acres, the 
entrance to which has a depth of about 15.5 feet. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB ANI> HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 75 

Between the years 1852 and 1882 extensive repairs were made, 
increasing the width of the base of the breakwater and the size of the 
stone forming its sides and top. 

The sum or $123,431.82 had been expended at this harbor prior to 
operations under existing project. 

The existing project, approved in 1884, provides for dredging to 
15.5 feet at low water about 36 acres area north of the existing break- 
water, so as to increase the deep-water anchorage by that amount, all 
at a total estimated cost at that time of $45,743.20, increased $30,568.94 
in accordance with the report of December 2, 1899, by river and har- 
bor act of June 13, 1902, making the total estimated cost $76,312.14. 

The act of 1902 consolidated the works of Hyannis and Nantucket, 
appropriating therefor $35,000, of which an allotment of $20,000 was 
made for Hyannis Harbor and $15,000 for Nantucket. 

The act oi 1905 appropriated $80,000 for these two works, of which 
$10,000 was allotted to Hyannis Harbor and $70,000 to Nantucket. 

At the adoption of the existing project the 15.5-foot depth anchor- 
age covered only about 47 acres, and the 36 additional acres to be 
dredged carried a depth of from 7 to 15.5 feet of water at low water. 

The amount expended on the existing project up to the close of the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, exclusive of outstanding liabilities, 
was $63,591.93, none of which was applied to maintenance. Of the 
36 acres, 34.5 has been deepened to 15.5 feet, and two cuts 25 feet 
wide and 13 feet deep at mean low water have been made in the 
channel leading to the wharf of the New York, New Haven and 
Hartford Railroad Company. 

The mean rise and fall of the tide is about 3 feet. 

The principal value of this harbor to commerce is as a harbor of 
refuge for coasters and fishing vessels. The actual commerce of the 
place is, in general, agricultural products, coal, and fish, aggregating 
13,600 tons. The increase of anchorage area will afford refuge for 
more and larger boats. 

The unexpended balance, together with the allotment of $10,000 of 
the appropriation of March 3, 1905, will be applied to completing the 
15.5- foot deep anchorage area by dredging. The additional work pro- 
l>osed is for the extension of benefits, and will coinplete the project. 

For map, see Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1884, 
page 592, and for 1903, page 788. 

A plan of the works may be found in the Annual Report of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1885, pages 560 and 621, and report of survey 
of 1899 in the Annual Report for 1900, page 1284. 

(b) Harbor of refuge at Nantucket, Mass. — This harbor is the only 
one between the harbors of Marthas Vineyard (Vineyard Haven and 
Edgartown) and Provincetown, a distance of 100 miles, except the 
small harbor of Hyannis, on the north side of Nantucket Sound. It 
has considerable area, with a depth of water in excess of 12 feet, and 
the object of the improvement is to make it a harbor of refuge for 
vessels plying between ports north and south of Cape Cod. Inci- 
dentally it forms a commercial harbor for the island of Nantucket, 
and it is the only one on the island. So far as known it has never 
been used to any extent as a harbor of refuge. 

In its original condition the channel entrance was obstructed by a 
bar 1.5 miles in width, on which there was only 6 feet of water at 



Digitized by 



Google 



76 REPORT OK THE CHIEF OB" ENGINEERS, V. 8. ARKT. 

low tide, the channel being very crooked and subject to changes in 
location. Between 1829 and 1844 an ineffectual attempt was made 
to dredge a channel through the bar; $45,734.75 was expended prior 
to beginning operations under the existing project. 

The present project, adopted in 1880 and modified in 1885, pro- 
vides for the construction of two jetties, one on each side of the 
entrance, and for dredging when necessary, in order to obtain a chan- 
nel depth of from 12 to 15 feet at low water. Estimated cost, 
$375,000, exclusive of cost of dredging. 

The amount expended on the existmg project up to the close of the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, exclusive of outstanding liabilities, 
was $275,373.73, of which $7,210 was expended in repairs to the west 
jetty and $5,000 to the east jetty. 

About 83 per cent of the west jetty and 53 per cent of the east jetty 
have been constructed. The least depth in the channel is 8 feet. The 
dredging in the jetty channel has been commenced. 

The mean rise and fall of the tide is about 3 feet. 

During an unusually severe storm in December, 1896, a breach was 
made through the Ilaulover lieach between the ocean and the head of 
the harbor. The breach still remains open, and it is believed that its 
influence has been to retard the deepening of the jetty channel. 

A large portion of the 3,956 feet of the west jetty, built prior to 
1884, has been damaged somewhat by storms and ice, and, having no 
core of small stone, allows considerable sand to pass through it. This 
should be repaired so as to be as sand tight as possible and raised to its 
original height. It is estimated that $30,000 will be required to com- 
plete the repairs in addition to the estimated cost of the project. 

The approved project for this work contemplates building two con- 
verging jetties and the excavation by dredging of so much of the 
channel as may not be deepened by the tidal scour. Owing to the 
uncertainty as to the amount of dredging that would be required, no 
estimate for that feature of the work has been heretofore included 
in the amount required to complete the project. By authority of the 
Chief of Engineers, $50,000 of the allotment of the funds appropri- 
ated by the river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, has l)een assigned 
to dredging, and the estimate for the completion of the project should 
be increased by that amount in addition to the $30,000 for main- 
tenance referred to above. 

• Further work under the project will consist in raising the incom- 
plete portions of both jetties and extending the same with a view to 
the extension of the benefits to be derived from the improvement. 

The entire commerce of Nantucket is carried on at this harbor, 
amoimting in 1904 to about 38,594 tons. The effect of this work will 
be to afford a place of refuge easy of access and secure from storms 
for coasters and fishing vessels. 

The original reports upon which the existing project was based 
and subsequently modified may be found in the Annual Reports of 
the Chief of Engineers for 1880, page 432, and for 1885, pages 503- 
578, and map of present conditions at page 790 in same report for 
1903. 



Digitized by 



Google 



EIVBB AND HABBOB IMPBOVBMEKTS. 77 

July 1. 190*, balance unexi)ended isa'i, 067. 70 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905- 80, 000. 00 

115, 067. 70 
Jnne 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of im- 
provement .. 33, 350. 68 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 81,717.02 

July 1, 1905, outstanding llablUtleH 241.65 

Jnly 1, 1905, balance available 81, 475. 37 

July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 73, 970. 00 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 4.5,000.00 

(See Appendix CI.) 

8. Harbor at Vineyard Haven, Massachttsetts. — Vineyard Haven 
is a deep indentation on the northern shore of Marthas Vineyard 
Island, on the southern side of Vineyard Sound. 

The headlands on either side of the entrance to the harbor were 
gradually wearing away and the adjacent parts of the harbor were 
shoaling. The mean range of tide is 1.7 feet. 

The existing project of April 11, 1888, as modified in 1889, pro- 
vides for the protection of the " Chops " (or headlands) from erosion 
and the intervening harbor from being filled with the eroded material, 
the whole to be done by means of stone sea walls and jetties built 
along the beach in front of the bluffs at both headlands. The total 
cost was estimated in 1889 at $60,000, the whole of which has been 
appropriated. 

The sum of $55,387.35 had been expended on this work up to June 
30, 1905, by which there had been built a series of riprap jetties and 
sea wall, which appear to have afforded the needed protection. For 
details of construction, see Annual Beport of Chief of Engineers for 
1896, page 632. 

This harbor, being at present the most accessible refuge for the 
immense fleet of coasting vessels plying between points north and 
south of Cape Cod, is moi*e extensively used than any other on the 
southern coast of New England. Additional work in this locality 
would be for the extension of benefits. 

The report upon which the protective works were based is printed 
in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1882, at page 
592, and further information, with maps, in Annual Report of 
Chief of Engineers for 1887, pages 572-580, and for 1893, page 812. 
The report of a preliminary examination of the harbor is printed in 
Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1900, page 1289. 

The river and harbor act of June 13, 1902, provides that — 

A board of engineers shall be apiiolnted by the Secretarj' of War, who shall 
make * * * an examination of Vineyard and Nantucket sounds, and the 
east shore of Cape Cod, with a view to reporting uiwn the relative merits of 
each of said projwsed localities for harbors of refuge. • • • 

The report thus called for is printed at page 949 of the Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1904. Further work at this 
harbor will depend upon the action taken upon the report of this 
Board. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $4,612.65 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 4,612.65 

(See Appendix C 2.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



78 BEPOKT OV THE CHIEF OF ENOINEEES, U. 8. ASMY. 

3. Improvement of Little Harbor, Woods Hole, Mass. — ^Little Har- 
bor, Woods Hole, is at the heel of Cape Cod on the south coast of 
Massachusetts, separated from Great Harbor by Parkers Neck, and 
opens into Vineyard Sound. It is about three-eighths of a mile in 
length and about one-eighth of a mile wide. 

Before improvement the ruling depth on the bar at the entrance to 
the harbor was 7^ feet at mean low water, and at extreme low water, 
with northwesterly Avinds of autumn and winter, there would not be 
more than 5| feet. 

The original project for the improvement of this harbor, approved 
March 3, 1879, provided for dredging a channel 10 feet deep at mean 
low water and 130 feet wide through the bar at the entrance, and ex- 
tending it through the harbor to the wharf of the United States 
Light-House Establishment. This work was completed in 1879 in 
connection with the work of deepening and widening the channel 
through the strait connecting Great Harbor, Woods Hole, with Buz- 
zards Bay. 

The existing project, adopted March 3, 1905, provides for dredging 
a channel 12 feet deep at mean low water and 150 feet wide from 
Vineyard Sound to the wharf of the Light-House Establishment, and 
a turning basin 300 feet wide in front of the wharf, at an estimated 
cost of $18,000. 

The amount expended on the existing project up to June 30, 1905, 
was $16.63, by which a contract for the work had been entered into 
and the work of dredging had been commenced. 

The depth of water over the bar June 30, 1905, is 10 feet through a 
narrow channel; the mean rise and fall of the tide is 1.65 feet. 

The handling of light-house supplies, buoys, etc., will be mainly 
benefited by this improvement. 

The funds available will complete the project. 

Further information may be found in the Annual Report of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1874, page 275 j for 1879, page 299; for 1880, 
page 367, and for 1904, page 930. 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1005. $18, 000. 00 
June .W, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of im- 
provement 16. 63 

July 1, 1005, balance unexpended 17,983.37 

.Tuly 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 60.00 

July 1, ltK>5, balance available .17,923.37 

July 1, 190.5, amount covere<l by uncompleted contracts 13, 8«M). 00 

(See Appendix C 3.) 

4. Woods Hole charitiel, Massachusetts. — Woods Hole is a water- 
way or strait connecting Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound and 
lying near the southwestern part of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The 
name is also applied to the village in the near vicinity and to the 
Great Harbor and Little Harbor. 

Before improvement the entrance to Little Harbor was obstructed 
by a bar with but 7.5 feet on it at mean low tide. Great Harbor has 
ample depth. In the strait the channels were crooked and obstructed 
by bowlders, and the velocity of the currents at certain stages of 
the tide was from 5 to 7 miles per hour. The site of the wharves and 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTB. 79 

basins of the United States Fish Commission and Revenue-Marine 
Service was a submerged point of land from the shore of Great 
Harbor. 

The original project of 1879 provided for making a channel 
through the bar at the entrance to Little Harbor and widening and 
deepening the channel through the strait. The project of 1883, ex- 
tended in 1884 and 1886, provided for the construction of retaining 
walls on shore, a stone pier, and a wooden wharf, mainly for the use 
of the United States Fish Commission and incidentally for the use 
of other branches of the public service, all of which work had been 
completed prior to 1889. 

The amount expended on the original and modified projects prior 
to beginning operations on the existing project was $113,599.92, by 
which the entrance to Little Harbor had been dredged to 10 feet 
depth, and a direct channel 9 feet deep had been dredged through' the 
strait, where none previously existed. The retaining walls, stone 
pier, and wooden wharves at the United States Fish Commission 
had also all been built and repaired. 

The existing project, that of June 3, 1896, provides for deepening 
the channel tnrough the strait to 13 feet at mean low water and 
widening the same to 300 feet ; estimated cost, $396,000. 

The amoxmt expended on the existing project up to the close of the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, exclusive of outstanding liabilities, 
was $60,000, resulting in the removal of all obstructing shoals in the 
main channel to a depth of 13 feet at mean low water, excepting two 
small shoal spots on the northern edge of the channel near Devils 
Foot Island, and the shoal at the eastern end of the channel, through 
which there is a clear 13-foot channel 225 feet wide. 

The mean rise and fall of the tide is about 4 feet at the Buzzards 
Bay end of the channel and 1.65 feet at the Vineyard Sound end. 

The conmierce of Woods Hole was about 25,315 tons for 1904, no 
account being kept of vessels passing through the strait. 

Further work will consist in widening the main channel to the full 
300 feet, with a depth of 13 feet, and dredging its southern branch 
to the same width and depth, all of which is for the extension of 
benefits already secured. 

The prices at which the contracts for this work have been let have 
been much less than the original estimates, and the relative proportion 
of .the large bowlders to the smaller and lighter material less than 
the estimated amount based on previous work, so that the indications 
now are that the amount, $70,000, appropriated, in addition to "the 
$100,000 authorized by the act of March 3, 1905, will go much fur- 
ther than had been anticipated and may possibly complete the new 
work projected. 

For reports on original project see Annual Report of the Chief of 
Engineers for 1875, page 272. For reports upon which existing 
project is based see same for 1903, page 860, and for 1895, page 750, 
and for map of present condition see report for 1903, page 793. 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1005. $70, 000. 00 
July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 70,000.00 



Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 266, 000. 00 



Digitized by 



Google 



80 REPORT OK THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMT. 

Amount that can be profitably exiwudcil in fiscal year ending June :J0, 
1907, for works of improyement, in addition to the balance unex- 
pended July 1, 1905 J $100,000.00 

Submitted in compliance with requirements of sundry dvU act of 
June 4, 1807. 

(See Appendix C 4.) 

5. Improving Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, by removing Wee- 
pecket rock. — Weepecket rock lies in Buzzards Bay, off Uncatena 
Island, and is in almost the direct line of travel from New Bedford to 
Woods Hole. It is submerged and at low water has only about 2 fe«t 
•lepth over it. In fogey weather it is a menace to vessels entering 
the Woods Hole strait from the Buzzards Bay end. 

No work has heretofore been done by the Government toward the 
removal of this rock. 

The existing project, adopted March 3, 1905, provides for the 
removal of the rock to a depth of about 10 feet, the depth of the 
surrounding bottom, at an estimated cost of $2,500. 

The amount expended upon the existing project up to the close of 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, was $16.63, exclusive of out- 
standing liabilities, by which a contract for the removal of the rock 
was entered into and the work commenced. 

All commerce passing through the strait at Woods Hole will be 
benefited by the removal of this rock. 

The available funds will be sufiicient to complet-c the project. 

For further information see Annual Report of the Chief of En- 
gineers for 1904, page 945. 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905- $2, 500. 00 
June 30, 1!)03, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of Im- 
provement 16. 63 



July 1, 1905, balance unexiiended 2,4vS3. 3" 



July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 1,380.00 

(See Apijcndix C 5.) 

6'. Harbor at New Bedford, Ma«i<. — New Bedford is on an estuary 
of Buzzards Bay, and is the port of the cities of New Bedford and 
Fairhaven. 

Before improvement the channel had a depth of 12.5 feet at mean 
low water. The improvement of this harbor has been carried on 
imder a number of distinct projects, the first being the removal of a 
wreck and dredging the sand bar formed by it in 1836-1839, on which 
$10,000 was e.xpcnded. The projects of 1874 and 1877 provided for 
a chatniel 300 feet wide and 15 feet deep at mean low water from the 
deep water just above Palmers Island to the wharves of New Bed- 
ford. This work was completed in 1877 at a cost of $20,000. 

The project of 1887 provided for a channel 200 feet wide and 18 
feet det^p from Buzzards Bay to New Bedford, and was completed 
at a cost of $35,000. 

The project of 1896 provided for dredging an anchorage area 
one-half mile long, 600 feet wide, and 18 feet deep at mean low tide 
on the north side of the cliannel leading from Fairhaven to New 
Bedford, and was completed at a cost of $56,882.82. 

The project of 1899 provided for a channel 250 feet wide and 18 
feet deep at mean low water from the anchorage basin through the 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPROVEMENTS. 81 

new drawbridge between Fish and Popes islands to the deep water 
above, and was completed at a cost of $34,000. 

The existing project was adopted hy the river and harbor act of 
March 3, 1905, and provides for dredging a channel 18 feet deep and 
about 150 feet wide along the city wharf front immediately above and 
below the New Bedford and Fairhaven bridge, and dredging to the 
same depth a turning area connecting the channel above the bridge 
with the channel dredged in 1899 tnrough the drawbridge, at an 
estimated cost of $11,000. 

At the adoption of the existing project shoals of from 12 to 18 
feet depth of water cut off a portion of the wharf front from com- 
munication with those portions of the harbor which had been im- 
proved under previous projects. 

The amount expended upon this project up to June 30, 1905, exclu- 
sive of outstanding liabilities, was $977.40. All dredging contem- 
plated under the 1905 contract was completed June 21, 1905, and 
secures a depth of 18 feet at mean low tide between the wharves, 
near the bridge, and other improved portions of the harbor. At the 
close of the dredging operations a rock was uncovered just north of 
Fish Island which was of such size as to make it highly probable 
that it was a portion of a ledge. There is but 15.5 feet of water over 
the shoalest portion of this rock. A further examination will be 
made of it by a diver. 

Eighteen feet of water at mean low tide can now be carried from 
Buzzards Bay through the harbor to the deep water above the draw- 
bridge connecting Fish and Popes islands and to the wharves above 
and below the bridge. 

The mean range of the tide is about 4.2 feet. 

The commerce of the harbor amounted to about 775,000 tons in 
1904. The effect of the deep water on commerce is the use of deeper- 
draft vessels than formerly, larger cargoes, and a consequent reduc- 
tion in water freight charges. 

For more extended information, see Annual Reports of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1875, Part 2, page 282 ; 1888, page 514 ; 1893, page 
816; 1896, page 672; 1897, page 930; 1900, page 1295. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended", f826. 18 

.\iuount appropriated by river and barbor act approved March 3, 1905. 11, 000. 00 

11, 820. 18 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for vorks of 

Improvement 977. 40 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 10,848. 78 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 10, 733.95 

July 1, 1905, balance available 114.83 

(See Appendix C 6.) 

7. Taunton River, Massachtisetta. — This river rises in Norfolk 
County, Mass., and empties into Mount Hope Bay at Fall River. 

In its original condition the channel was narrow and obstructed by 
bowlders, and from Berkley bridge to Taunton the depth was in 

E laces not more than 5 feet at mean high water. A vessel of 30 tons 
urden was as large as could go up to Taunton. From 1870 to 1879, 



ElfO 1905 M- 



Digitized by 



Google 



82 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, D. 8. ABMT. 

$63,000 was appropriated to secure 9 feet depth «t high water. This 
work was completed in 1879. 

The existing project, adopted July 14, 1880, provides for the 
widening and depening of the river so as to secure a channel of at 
least 12 feet depth at high water, with 100 feet width from its mouth 
up to Berkley bridge (above Dighton) ; thence 12 feet depth with 
80 feet width (100 feet width at bends) up to Briggs shoal; thence 
11 feet depth with 80 feet width up to the " shipyard; " thence with 
11 feet depth with 60 feet width up to Weir bridge, Taunton ; all at 
a total cost estimated in 1893 at $125,000, all of which has been 
appropriated. 

The amount expended on the existing project up to June 30, 1905, 
exclusive of outstanding liabilities, was $130,000 by which all pro- 
jected work had been practically completed and the shoals offering 
the greatest obstniction to the navigation of the river had been 
redredged. About $24,000 of the above amount has been expended in 
the maintenance of the channel. Ve.sscls of 11 feet draft can reach 
Taunton at high water, but at some points the 11 -foot channel is very 
narrow. It is estimated that $5,000 every four years will be re<iuirea 
to maintain the channel. 

The head of navigation is at Weir bridge. No portion of the river 
has been improved above this point. 

The mean range of the tide is about 5^ feet at Dighton and 3.4 feet 
at Taunton. 

The $5,000 appropriated by the river and harbor act of March 3, 
1905, will be applied to redredging portions of the channel which 
have shoaled since the original dredging. 

The tonnage of 1904 was about 588,100 tons. 

Further work on this river will be for the maintenance of benefits 
secured by the improvement. 

For more extended information, see Annual Reports of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1880, page 375; 1884, page 606; 1888, page 515, and 
1893, page 824. 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approvetl March 3, 1005_ ^5, 000. 00 
July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 5,000. 00 

(See Appendix C 7.) 

8. Sakonnet River, Rhode Island. — Sakonnet River is an arm oi 
the sea betwetm the island of Rhode Island and the mainland, extend- 
ing from the ocean to Mount Hope Bay, aroimd the head of Rhode 
Island. It is at present obstructed at its upper end by a causeway, 
known as the *' Stone Bridge," extending across it. I'his causeway 
has two openings, one covered by a draw which is of insufficient 
width and depth for the needs of commerce, but the causeway offers 
such obstruction to the ebb and flow of the tides that tiie currents 
through the ojienings make the passage dangerous even to boats of 
such dimensions as could pass through them under ordinary circum- 
stances. 

The existing project, adopted July 3, 1896, provides for increasing 
the width and cfepth of the draw oijening in the Stone Bridge owned 
by the State of Rhode Island so as to provide an opening 100 feet 
wide and 25 feet deep at mean low water, estimated to cost ^0,000. 

No work had been done and no funds expended prior to May, 1905, 
when preliminary steps were taken and a project for the expenditure 
of the funds with specifications for the work were approved. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPROVEMENTS. 83 

The long delay in the execution of this work was owing to the fact 
that the proposed work involved the total destruction of the present 
bridge and the existing highway, while no provision was made for 
rebuilding the bridge or restoring the highway. Until the State of 
Rhode Island granted the Federal Government the unconditional 
right to proceeawith the work authorized by Congress, and provided 
either for the restoration or the discontinuance of the bridge and 
highway, the Secretary of War could not proceed with the work. 
The authorities of the State had repeatedly been advised of the 
existing complications and of the importance of having the legis- 
lature take the proper action to remove them. 

The necessary legislative action having been taken and a board 
of State commissioners having commenced the reconstruction of the 
approaches to the bridge, no further obstacles remain to delay the 
work under the existin'g project. 

Proposals for deepening and widening the draw passage were 
received June 28, 1905. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended J40,000. 00 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of 
improvement 1. 44 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 39,998.50 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities .31.65 

July 1, 1905, balance available 39,966.91 

(See Appendix C 8.) 

9. Pawtucket River, Rhode Island. — This river, a portion of which 
is called Seekonk River, is the upper portion of the Providence River, 
the navigable portion extending from Pawtucket to Providence. Be- 
fore improvement the channel in the river was narrow and had a rul- 
ing depth of about 5 feet at mean low water. Between 1867 and 1873 
$52,000 was appropriated to dredge the channel to 7 feet depth. This 
work was finished in 1876. The project of July 5, 1884, provides for 
the deepening of the river so as to secure a channel of at least 12 feet 
depth at low water with 100 feet width from its mouth, at Providence, 
up to Grant & Co.'s wharf at Pawtucket, and thence 12 feet depth 
with 40 feet width, through a ledge rock for a short distance farther, 
to Pawtucket bridge, the head of navigation, all at a total cost esti- 
mated in 1883 at $382,500, of which $284,000 has been appropriated. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1899, modified this project so 
as to provide for straightening that portion of the channel between 
Tenmile River and Bucklins Island. The project, with its modifica- 
tion, has been completed, with an expenditure of $282,444.91. This 
gave the channel 12 feet depth, but at a few points it has slightly 
shoaled and needs a small amount of dredging to restore the original 
depth. 

The existing project, adopted by the river and harbor act of March 
3, 1905, provides for deepening the channel to 16 feet at mean low 
water with 100 feet width and a channel through the ledge rock at 
Pawtucket of 16 feet depth at mean low water and 50 feet wide, at an 
estimated cost of $237,875. 

Preliminary investigation has been made with a view to submitting 
a project for the expenditure of the appropriation of March 3, 1905. 

The mean rise and fall of the tide is about 5 feet. 

The effect of the improvement is to cause the use of vessels of deeper 



Digitized by 



Google 



84 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOINEERS, U. 8. ABKT. 

draft than formerly, larger cargoes, and cheaper rates. The com- 
pleted channel has already been a great benefit to the commerce of the 
river, which in 1904 amounted to a tonnage of 219,135. 

For more extended information see Annual Reports of the Chief of 
Engineers for 1884, page 608 ; 1893, page 677 ; 1900, page 1302. ' 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $1,574.08 

Amount appropriated by river and bartmr act approved Marcb 3, 1905. 30, 000. 00 



July 1, 1905, balance une.xi)ended 31,574.68' 



Aniount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 207, 875. 00 

(See Appendix C 9.) 

10. Providence River and Harbor and Narragansett Bay., and Green 
Jacket shoal, Rhode Island. — (a) Providence River and Harbor and 
Narragansett Bay. — The object of this improvement is to furnish a 
wide and deep channel for foreign and coastwise commerce from the 
ocean to Providence, and to provide a deep-water anchorage for that 
harbor. 

Before the improvement of the river in 1853 the available low- 
water depth was limited to 4.5 feet. Between 1852 and 1873 $59,000 
was expended in securing first 9 feet and then 12 feet depth of channel. 

The approved project of 1878, as modified in 1882. provided for 
deepening the river and deei)ening and widening its anchorage basins 
so as to secure a channel of at least 25 feet depth at low water with 300 
feet width from the deep water of Narragansett Bay up to Provi- 
dence, R. I., and so as (o secure anchorage basins of 20 feet depth 
with (500 feet width, 18 feet depth with 725 feet width, 12 feet dejith 
with 940 feet width, and (> feet depth with 1,060 feet width from Fox 
Point to Fields Point, all at a total cost estimated in 1882 at $675,000. 
This project was completed in 1895. 

The total amount expended prior to operations under the project 
of 1896 was $698,490.60. 

Another project originated in the river and harbor act of June 3, 
1896, providing for securing a ship channel 400 feet in width and of a 
depth of 25 fwt at mean low water from Sassafras Point, in Provi- 
dence Harbor, through Providence River and Narragansett Bay by 
the most direct route practicable to the ocean by way of the " Western 
Passage," so-called, at an estimated cost of $732,820. This project 
was put under the continuing-contract system and has l)een completed. 

Under date of June 11, 1904, the Chief of Engineers authorized the 
use of $2,000 of the balanra remaining on hand of the appropriation 
for securing a channel through the ^\estern Passage of Narragansett 
Bay for the removal of certain obstructing rocks in Dutch Island 
Harbor, Rhode Island. 

The amount expended on the work under the project of 1896 up to 
the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, exclusive of out- 
standing liabilities, was $472,719.88, by which the channel 400 feet 
wide and 25 feet deep had been completed from Sassafras Point to the 
deep water of Narragansett Bay by the Western Passage. 

The existing project, approved by the river and harbor act of June 
13, 1902, provides for an enlarged anchorage area of 25 feet depth, 
extending the full width of the harbor from Fox Point on the north 
and Ix)ng Bed and Sassafras Point on the south, including the area 
known as Green Jacket shoal. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMEKTS. 85 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, placed this work under 
the continuing-contract system, and a contract for the work has been 
entered into for dredging all the soft material from the projected 
anchorage area. The removal of a small amount of hard material in 
the soutneast comer of the area is to form the subject of another 
contract after the overlying soft material has been removed. 

The amount expended on the existing project tip to the close of the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, was $96,108.21, by which all of the 
Green Jacket shoal, excepting a small triangular area in the extreme 
southeast corner of the shoal, and about one-half of the area between 
Wilkesbarre pier and Fox Point were dredged to the required depth. 

Further work under this project will extend the benefits secured 
thus far. 

The mean rise and fall of the tide is 4.7 feet. 

The improvement in general has been of great benefit to commerce, 
which in 1904 amounted to 2,259,173 tons. No special benefit is 
apparent from the dredging in the Western Passage, the project for 
which originated in the river and harbor act of June 3, 1896. It cost 
about $468,174.59 and shortened the channel a little for a part of tLe 
commerce of Providence. 

For more extended information see Annual Reports of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1878, page 235; 1882, page 557; 1884, with plan of 
the w^orks, page 622; 1893, page 830; dndfor historical data connected 
with the improvement and details of 1902 project, 1900, pages 1257 
and 1307. 

(6) Removal of Green Jacket shoal. — This shoal was in that part 
of PVovidence River which constitutes the harbor of Providence. It 
laid off the wharves on the south front of the city and occupied a 
part of the harbor that is required for anchorage purposes, covering 
an area of about 18 acres between the 15-foot curves and about 30 
hcres in all. 

In its original condition the shoal in many places carried only 1 
foot of water and was a very troublesome obstruction. 

The project for the removal of this shoal was adopted Augtist 5, 
1886. 

The sum of $104,250 was expended on this work up to June 30, 
1904, by which 23.8 acres out of the original 30 of this shoal had 
been dredged to 25 feet depth, and a 16-foot depth had been secured 
over the central and largest portion of the shoal, in addition to a 
20-foot depth in the main channel, making an important addition to 
the anchorage facilities of Providence Harlwr. 

In the river and harbor act of June 13, 1902, provision was made 

for the removal of the remaining portions of this shoal in connection 

with the project for an enlarged anchorage area in Providence 

Harbor, and nearly all of the remaining portions of the shoal was 

. removed under the appropriation made by that act. 

The removal of the shoal enables vessels to anchor outside of the 
channel, and thus remove an obstruction to vessels going to or from 
the Providence wharves. 

For more extended information see Annual Reports of the Chief of 
Engineers for 1885, page 598; 1893, pages 830-832; 1900, page 1307. 



Digitized by 



Google 



86 BEPOBT OV THE CHIEF OF ENOINEEBS, V. 6. ARXt. 

.Tuly 1, 1904, balance unexpended |! 12, 24a 96 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905_ 100, 000. 00 
Reimbursement 8. 48 



112,257.44 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during Ascal year, for worlcs of liu- 
prorement 4, 875. 20 



July 1, 1905, balance unexpended I 107,382. 18 

July 1, 19«i, outstanding liabilities 53. 74 



July 1, 1905, balance available 107, 328. 44 



July 1, 1905. amount covered by uncompleted contracts 400, 000. 00 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 407. 778.00 



Amount that can be profitably exi)ended In fiscal year ending June 30, 
1907, for worlcs of Improvement, In addition to the balance unex- 
pended July 1. 190.') 407,778.00 

Submitted In compliance with requirements of sundry civil act of 
June 4, 1807. 

(See Appendix C 10.) 

11. Harbor at Fall Rirer, Mass. — Fall River lies at the mouth of 
Taunton River, in the northeastern angle of Mount Hope Bay, which 
empties into the ocean through Narragansett Bay and Sakonnet 
River. It forms the port of entry of the city of Fall River, the larg- 
est cotton manufacturing city in the United States. 

Before improvement the depth of water in the reentrant in the 
wharf line north of the Old Colony Steamboat Company's wharf 
was only about 6 feet, and a considerable area of the hartor, espe- 
cially in front of the upper wharves, carried much less depth of 
water than existed in its approaches. 

The project of 1874 provided for deepening an area in front of the 
wharves immediately north of the Old Colony Steamboat Company's 
wharf ICO feet wide to 12 feet, and an additional width of 100 feet to 
11 feet at mean low tide. This improvement was completed in 1878 
at a cost of $30,000. 

The existing project, approved by the river and harl)or act of 
March 3, 1899, and enlarged by the act of June 13, 1902, provides for 
a channel 300 feet wide and 25 feet deep at mean low water along the 
city front between the Old Colony wharf and deep water at the upper 
end of the city front; also for a channel of the same dimensions 
through Mount Hope Bay to connect the deep water in front of the 
city with the deep water of Narragansett Bay, at a total estimated cost 
of $175,411.94. Provision was made in this" act for placing the work 
under the continuing-contract system. 

The sum of $173,390.50 had been exi)ended on the existing project 
to June 30, 1905, by which the channel in front of the city and across 
Mount Hope Bay had been completed. 

The mean rise and fall of the tide is about 4.7 feet. 

The improvement will give increased facilities for deeper draft 
vessels. 

For more extended information see Annual Reports of the Chief of 
Engineers for 1874, Part 2, page 284; 1895, page 272; 1897, page 
031 ; also House Document No. 56, Fifty-fifth Congress, first se.ssion. 



Digitized by 



Google 



fOVEA AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 87 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $44, IK). 95 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of im- 
provement 42, 148. 45 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 2,015.50 

(See Appendix C 11.) 

12. Harbor at Newport, R. I. — This harbor is at the main entrance 
to Narraffansett Bay, and all the year it serves as an easily accessible 
harbor of refuge to foreign and coastwise commerce. 

Befoi-e improvement the capacity of the inner harbor was limited 
by shoals, ana it was not adequate to the number and size of the vessels 
seeking it for refuge. The southern or main entrance was obstructed 
by a bar which stretched out from (loat Island, and the northern 
entrance by a sharp rocky spit near Rose Island, and the general 
business wharves of the city could not be reached at low tide by 
vessels drawing more than 8 feet. The mean tidal range is about 3.75 
feet. Between 1873 and 1875 $28,500 was appropriated to secure 12 
feet depth in the harbor. This work was completed in 1876. 

The approved project, adopted in 1880 and modified in 1882, 1883, 
1884, 1890, and 1895, provides for the widening and deepening of the 
channel from Narragansett Bay into Newport, so as to secure 15 feet 
depth at low water with at lea.st 750 feet width ; for the extension of 
the 13- foot depth and 10- foot depth anchorage basins, and for dredg- 
ing a channel 10 feet deep along the State harbor line southward to 
opposite the gas company s wharf; for the partial cutting off of the 
shoal spit at the southern end of Goat Island, and for the construction 
of jetties on the western shore of Goat Island, so as to protect the end 
of this island from erosion and to prevent the drift of sand, etc., 
around the island into the adjacent parts of the harbor and channel, 
and for the removal of Spindle rocli, a sharp, rockv spit near Rose 
Island ; all at a total co.st estimated in 1895 at $20(),2()0. 

A small area of ledge rock was discovered in the fall of 1903 in the 
channel through the harbor opposite the Old Colony Steamboat Com- 

Eany's wharf, which had been the cause of serious injury to one of the 
Dats of that company, and its removal was authorized by the Chief 
of Engineers with funds in hand. The rock was drilled ^or blasting 
during the winter, but owing to the unusually low temperature of the 
water the blasting was not done until June 27, 1904. The removal 
of this rock was completed early in the fiscal year. 

The sum of $205,(579.58 had been exix^nded on this work up to June 
r>0, 1905, by which the project had been completed. 

As the improvement of this harbor has progres.sed there has l)cen a 
large increase in the size and numlwr of vessels using the harbor. 
The commerce for 1904 shows a tonnage of about 1,561,375 tons, prin- 
cipally fish, coal, and general merchandise. 

For more extended information, see Annual Reports of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1873, page 29; 1881, page 562; 1882, page 561; 1883, 
page 494; 1884, page 624; 1891, page 736, and 1892, page 627. 

A plan of the works may be found in the Annual Reports of the 
Chief of Engineers for 188o, page 604, and for 1893, page 838. 

A report and estimate for a channel 18 feet deep through Newport 
Harbor is printed as House Document No. 121, Fifty-eighth Con- 
gress, second session, and at page 939, Annual Report of the Chief of 
Engineers for 1904. 



Digitized by 



Google 



88 .REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. .8. ARMY. 

July 1. 1904, balance uuexpcnded $1,438.81 

.Tune 30, 1905, amount cx|)ended during fiscal year, for works of im- 
provement • 730. 3S 

July 1, lOO.'i, balance uneziiended 708.48 

(See Appendix C 12.) 

13. Harbor at Coaster Harbor Island, Rhode Island. — Coaster 
Harbor Island lies off the northwestern part of the city of Newport, 
R. I. It is occupied by the United States Navy Department as a 
training station and site of the War College. 

Between the years 185)1 and 1893 a channel was dredged by the 
Government through the waterway separating the ^island from the 
city of Newport. This channel has filled up to a considerable e.\tent, 
and with a view to restoring its usual depth and customarj' use allot- 
ments were made January 8 and May 14, 1904, from the appropria- 
tion " Emergencies in river and harBor works," act of Juno 6, 1900, 
of $4,G61.87, and act of June 13, 1902, of $8,338.13. 

The work proposed under these allotments is redrcdging the chan- 
nel from the causeway connecting the island with Newport around 
the east and north sicles of the island to Narragansett Bay with a 
minimum depth of 8 feet and width of 80 feet, with increased width 
opposite the Doathouse of the training station. 

Contract for the work was entered into May 31, 190i, at 21 cents 
per cubic yard, for about (50,000 cubic yards, work to begin in fifteen 
days after the approval of the contract by the Chief of Engineers 
and to be completed in three months. 

The amount expended up to the close of the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1905, was $12,984.49, by which the proposed work was completed. 

No further work is proposed for this locality. 

July 1. 1904. balance unexpended . 112.949.33 

June .10, 190.5, amount expended durlnR flxoal year : 

Returned to Treasury ^l.'). .^l 

For maintenance of improvement 12,933.82 

12. 949. 33 

(See Appendix C 13.) 

H. Harbor of refuge at Point Judith., Rhode Island. — Point Ju- 
dith is the southeastern extremity of South Kingston, R. I., and 
marks the southwestern entrance to Narragansett Bay. A long ledge, 
known as Squid ledge, extends for nearly a mile in a direction south 
by east about 1.5 miles west of the point. 

At the adoption of the project this place was especially dangerous 
for ha&is ana tows to pass during storms, and even orclinarily bad 
weather. 

The existing project of September 19, 1890, provides for the con- 
struction at this ix)int of a national harbor of refuge nearly a mile 
square by means of stone breakwaters built partly on Squid ledge 
and planned so as to give protection against easterly, southerly, 
and westerly storms, the mainland itself forming a protection on the 
north, all at a total cost estimated in 1889 at $1,250,000. This proj- 
ect was modified by the report of a Board of Engineers convened to 
consider and report upon the construction of this harbor, which was 
api^roved November 16, 1896, and provided for raising the crest of 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HAKBOK IMPROVEMENTS. 89 

the eastern arm and extending the western arm to its originally pro- 
jected length, at an estimated cost of $444,311, and deferring the con- 
struction of the easterly detached breakwater as a part of the main 
project until the completion of the main breakwater should demon- 
strate its necessity or otherwise. The river and harbor act of Jun^ 
13, 1902, made a further modification by providing for the construc- 
tion of the easterly detached breakwater and continuing it to the 
shore, at an estimated cost of $196,193 for the detached breakwater 
and $187,558.80 for the shore extension, a total estimate for the proj- 
ect and its modifications of $2,078,0fi2.80. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, placed the construction 
of the easterly breakwater or shore arm of the breakwater under the 
continuing-contract system, appropriating $100,000 therefor and au- 
thorizing the expenditure of an additional $100,000. 

The sum of $1,343,421.40 had been expended on this w^ork up to 
June 30, 1905. By this expenditure the breakwater had been built 
to a total length of 6,970 feet, with a height of 10 feet above mean 
low water. It incloses an area of alx)ut ()40 acres, of which 390 
acres has over 25 feet of water and 198 acres additional over 18 feet, 
and the shore extension of the easterly detached breakwater had been 
completed for a distance of 593 feet from the low-water line on shore, 
the outer end reaching 16 feet depth. 

Three hundred and five vessels have anchored behind the break- 
water during the past year, of which 173 were schooners, MS were 
sloops, 52 were steamers, 11 were barges, 8 were catboats, 2 were 
tugs, 1 was a collier, 1 was a torpedo boat, and 1 was a submarine 
boat. 

A description of the works may be found in the Annual Report of 
the Chief of Engineers for 1890, page 595, and for 1893, page 840, 
and the reports of Boards of Engineers in the Annual Report of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1897, pages 920 and 937; 1903, page 809, and 
1904, pages 949-954. 

July 1, 1904, balance uuex|>ena(>d $8,040.96 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, lOO.'i- 100, 000. (X) 



108, 040. 96 
June 30, 1905, amount pxi>euded during fiscal year, for worlcs of im- 
provement 1, 423. 75 



July 1. 190.5. balance unexpended 1 106,617.21 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 80.00 

July 1. 1905, balance available 106, .537. 21 



Amount (estimated) requiretl for completion of existing project 628,062.78 



■ Amount that can be profitably exjjended in fiscal year ending June 30. 
1907, for works of improvement, in addition to the balance un- 
expended July 1, 1905 100,000.00 

Submitted In compliance with requirements of sundry civil act of 
June 4, 1897. 

(See Appendix C 14.) 

15. Entrance to Point Judith Pond, Rhode hland. — Point Judith 
Pond is a shallow salt pond, lying in the rear of the sandy beach of 
the Rhode Island shore, just west of Point Judith. 



Digitized by 



Google 



90 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ABXT. 

The improvement desired at this place by the people of the neigh- 
borhood IS widening and deepening the present opening into the 
pond and the construction of jetties for the maintenance of such 
opening. 

The State of Rhode Island and the town of South Kingston are 
making the opening into the pond. 

There is at present no approved project for the improvement of 
the pond entrance by the United States. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, appropriated $2,0OO for 
the improvement of this channel, in accordance with the report Knb- 
mitted in House Document No. 60, Fifty -eighth Congress, second 
session; which amount, together with the une.xpended balances of 
previous appropriations, shall be applied to the extension of the jet- 
ties or in dredging, as the Secretary of War may deem most beneficial. 

A survey of the locality has been made with a view to preparing a 
project for the expenditure of the funds. 

Up to June 30, 1905, $1,463.39 had l)een expended in surveys and 
for the exi>enses of the Board of Enginwrs authorized by the river 
and harbor act of June 13, 1902. 

For further infoi-mation, see Annual Report of the Chief of Engi- 
neers for 1893, pages 841-879; also report of Board of Engineers 
authorized by the act of June 13, 1902, printed in House Document 
No. 60, Fifty-eighth Congre.s.s, second session, and at page 967, An- 
nual Report "of the Chief of Engineers for 1904. 

July 1, 1904, balnnc-e uiiexp^ndetl $8, 73(X .*>« 

Amount uppropriatetl by river and harbor act approved March 3, 190.5. 2, 000. VO 

10, 7.30. r><; 

June 30, 1905, amount ex|>ended during fiscal year, for worlis of im- 
provement 193. 95 

July 1, 1905, balanc-e nnoxiMjnded 10, 530. CI 

(See Appendix C 15.) 

10. Ilnrhor of refvge at Block Inland, Rhode Island. — This island 
is about 14 miles east of the eastern end of Long Island, and alwut 
10 miles distant from the nearest point of the mainland. 

The object of the improvement is to furnish a harbor of refuge for 
medium-draft ves.sels engaged in foreign and coastwise connnenre. 

Before the construction of tlic present harbor Block Island had no 
harbor at all. 

The mean tidal range is about 3 feet. 

Between 1870 and 1876 $285,000 was appropriated for a break- 
water for a harbor for medium-draft vessels, this work being com- 
pleted in 1878. Between 1880 and 1882 $25,000 was appropriated for 
dredging an inner basin and the protection of the shore next to the 
breakwater, this work being completed in 1884. In 1884 $15,000 was 
appropriated for additions to the old breakwater, this money lieing 
so spent and the work completed in 1884-85. 

The project of 1884, as modified in 1888, provided for the construc- 
tion of a harbor of refuge on the eastern side of the island, consisting 
of an enlarged inner liarbor (or basin) 800 feet square for small ves- 
sels and an exterior harbor for larger ones, at a total cost estimated 
in 1888 at $75,000. This project was practically completed in 1893. 



Digitized by 



Google 



KITEB AND HABBOR IMPBOVEMENTS. 91 

The total expenditure prior to commencing work on the existing 
project was $399,000. 

The existing project of June 3, 1896, provides for raising the entire 
breakwater to proper height and stopping sand leaks between cer- 
tain points and dredging me main inner harbor to a depth of 10 feet, 
at an estimated cost of ^3,985. 

At the adoption of the present project this harbor was neither large 
enough nor well enough protected for the proper harborage of the 
craft seeking refuge at this place during storms and bad weather. 

The sum of $47,842.27 had been expended on the existing project 
up to June 30, 1905, by which the entrance to the inner harbor, 
which had shoaled up from the drift of sand through the break- 
water, had been partially dredged to a depth of 12 feet and redredged 
to a depth of 10 feet several times. The north wall of the enlarged 
inner harbor had been strengthened and repaired and the work of 
repairing the main breakwater and making it sand-tight had been 
completed for a length of 650 feet. About $17,«i39.74 of the above 
amount had been expended in maintaining the channel at the en- 
trance to the inner harbor and repairing and strengthening the 
harbor walls. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, appropriated $50,000 
for completing the existing project. 

Contracts were entered into with E. S. Belden & Sons, of Hartford, 
Conn., under date of June 12, 1905, for completing repairs to the 
breakwater, at the rate of $2.13 per ton of stone, and with the J. S. 
Packard Dredging Company, of Providence, R. T., under the same 
date, for dredging in the inner harbor at the rate of 24 cents per 
cubic yard. Up to the close of the fiscal year 1,571 tons of stone had 
been placed on the breakwater. The dredging had not commenced. 

In 1904 the commerce amounted to about 162,915 tons, showing an 
increase over previous years. 

The additional work required to complete the existing project is 
for the purpose of extending the benefits already secured by the 
improvement. 

For more extended information see Annual Reports of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1877, page 202; 1879, page 313; 1880, page 390; 
1881, page 563; 1882, page 563; 1884, page 628. A plan of the 
works may be found in the Annual Reports of the Chief of Engineers 
for 1885, page 609 ; 1888, page 506; 1893, page 844; 1896, page 674; 
also in House Document No. 60, Fifty -eighth Congress, second session, 
and page 954 of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 
1904. 

July 1, 1004, balance unexi>ende4l fi, Wii. 00 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March ^, ino.5. .TO, 000. 00 

53, »45. 00 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of Im- 
provement 1,896. 10 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 52,048.90 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities .SO. 00 

July 1, 1905, balance available 52,018.90 

July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 45,300.00 

(See Appendix C 16.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



92 BEPOKT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ASICS'. 

17. Great Salt Pond, Block Island, Rhode Island. — The Great 
Salt Pond is located about the center of Block Island, and contains 
an anchorage area of 150 acres for vessels drawing 18 feet and over. 
The work of converting the pond into a harbor ox refuge by making 
a channel through the beach on the west, connecting it with deep 
water in the ocean, was started by the State of Rhode Island and the 
town of New Shoreham. 

The channel, under the existing project of June 3, 1896, as modified 
in 1900, is to be 600 feet wide and have a central depth of 25 feet for 
a width of 150 feet, sloping gradually to 12 feet in a width of 504 
feet, the channel seaward to be protected on the south by a jetty 
extending to 350 feet beyond the original 18-foot contour, ana on ^ 
the north by a jetty about 1,200 feet long, and the sides of the channel 
where it passed through the original beach to be protected by stone 
revetments and sand rences, at a total estimated cost of $305,000. 

At the time the work conmienced under the General Government 
a channel of varying width and depth had been dredged with the 
money appropriated by the State and town, which would permit of 
12-foot draft being carried in, although there were two 9-root spots 
left in mid-channel. The south jetty had been built out 837 feet, and 
a north jetty 250 feet long had also been built, but at a distance of 
720 feet from the south jetty instead of 600 feet, as called for in the 
adopted project. 

Up to June 30, 1905, $122,730.41 had been expended by the Genera/ 
(Jovemment on the existing project, of which $5,253.24 had been used 
for maintenance and repair. By this expenditure the south jetty 
had been extended 287 reet beyond the originally projected length, 
making a total length of 1,549 feet from the initial point on shore. 
Some damage done by a severe storm in the spring of 1900 had been 
repaired, and a channel 18 feet deep and 300 feet wide, with a central 
cut 25 feet deep and 35 feet wide, had been dredged; also a small 
amount of dredging had been done in removing a shoal which had 
formed near the outer end of the jetty. 

The channel dredged in 1900 to a depth of 18 feet with a width 
of 300 feet, with a cut 25 feet deep through the center, has shoaled to 
some extent. The sides of this channel now have about 15 feet of 
water, from which it deepens to 18 feet toward the center. The 
25-foot cut has shoaled to 19 feet near the outer end. 

There remains, to complete the existing project, the construction 
of jetties as planned and dredging to secure the widths and depths 
projected. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, appropriated $30,000 
for this improvement. The approved project tor the expenditure 
of the available funds contemplates the extension of the south jetty 
about 150 feet and widening the central 25 feet depth of the channel 
as much as the funds will allow. 

The work required to complete the existing project is for the pur- 
pose of extending the benefits of the improvement. 

The commerce of the Great Salt Pond is reported for the calendar 
year 1904 at 45,000 tons. 

For more extended information see Annual Reports of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1896, page 620; 1900, page 1276. 

The report of the examination by the Board of Engineers author- 
ized by the river and harbor act of June 13, 1902, is printed in 



Digitized by 



Google 



BTVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 93 

Hoase Document No. 60, Fifty-eighth Congress, second session, and 
in Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1904, page 949. 

July 1, 19(M, balance unexpended $18, 318. 4« 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March Z, 1905. 30, 000. 00 

48, 318. 46 
June 30, 1905, amount exi)ended during fiscai year, for wortcs of 
improvement 1,054. 87 

July 1, 1905, balance unexijended 47,263.59 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 44.46 

July 1, 1905, balance available 47, 219. 13 

Amoant (estimated) required for completion of existing project 135, 000. 00 

(See Appendix C 17.) 

18. Remomng sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering 
navigation.- — Schooner Levi Hart and an unknown wreck; harken- 
iine Albertina and schooner Viola May ; schooner Frauline; schooner 
Richard S. Learning; schooner at Nantucket Harbor, Massachusetts; 
schooner Anna Laura; steamship Aransas, and barge Moonbeam. — 
Schooner Levi Hart and an unknown wreck, sunk in Pollock Rip Slue, 
Massachusetts; removal completed in June, 1904. Barkentine Alber- 
tina and schooner Viola May, the former sunk on Chatham bar and 
the latter on Shovelful shoal, Massachusetts; removal completed in 
November, 1904. Schooner Frauline, sunk on Common Flat, Chat- 
ham, Mass. ; removal completed in December, 1904. Schooner Rich- 
ard S. Learning, sunk off Cross Rip light-ship; 487 tons; removal 
completed in April, 1905. Schooner at Nantucket Harbor, Ma.ssachu- 
setts, sunk in entrance channel to the harbor, subsequently believed to 
be the w^reck of the schooner Frank Palmer; could not be located on 
arrival of wrecking party, evidently having been carried out to sea. 
Schooner AnrM Laura, sunk 1:^ miles from Hardings Beach, Massa- 
chusetts; removal completed April 25, 1905. Steamship Aransas, of 
the Joy Line, 1,166 tons, sunk in Pollock Rip channel, Massachusetts, 
on the night of May 7-8, 1905 ; removal in progress at the close of the 
fiscal year. Barge Moonbeam, sunk off Point Judith, Rhode Island, 
on the night of May 3, 1905 ; work had not begun at the close of the 
fiscal year. 

(See Appendix C 18.) 

IMPROVEMENT OF RIVERS AND HARBORS IN CONNECTICUT AND OP 
PAWCATUCK RIVEK, RHODE ISLAND AND CONNECTICUT. 

This district was in the charge of Lieut. Col. Chas. F. Powell, Corps 
of Engineers, having under nis immediate orders Capt. William 
Kelly, Corps of Engineers, until November 14, 1904. Division 
engineer. Col. Chas. R. Suter, Corps of Engineers. 

1. Pawcatuck River, Rhode Island and Connecticut. — ^The navi- 
^ble part of the Pawcatuck River extends 5 miles from Westerly, 
R. I., to its outlet in Little Narragansett Bay, and with the channel 
thence through the northern part of the bay 2^ miles to Stonington 
Harbor, which forms the approach from Long Lsland Sound to the 
bay and river under improvement. 

Before improvement the channel of the river was crooked and 



Digitized by 



Google 



94 



BEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGIKEERS, U. 8. ABMT. 



obstructed by numerous shoals, on some of which there was 1 to 14 
feet of water ; 4^ feet was the greatest depth which could be carried 
through the bay channel. 

The original projects, that of 1871 for the river channel and that 
of 1876 for the channel acrass the bay, provided for depths of 5i and 
7 feet and widths of 75 and 200 feet, respectively. The expenditure 
on the original projects prior to operations under the existing proj- 
ect was $97,500.01. 

The present project, approved July 24, 1896, and based on the 
report of the survey ordered in the river and harbor act of August 
18, 1894, provides for a channel 10 feet deep from Stonington, Conn., 
to Westerly, with a width of 200 feet from Stonington to Avondale, 
R. T., a distance of about 4 miles; a width of 100 feet from Avondale 
to the lower wharve.s of Westerly, a distance of about 3 miles, and a 
width of 40 feet between the upper and lower wharves of Westerly, 
a distance of about one-half mile, at a total estimated co.st of $200,- 
.361.60. The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, appropriated 
$1,000 for the removal of obstructions at AVatch Hill, at the south- 
eastern part of the Little Narragansett Bay, as part of the improve- 
ment of the Pawcatuck River ana the bay. On this project $37,166.84 
had been expended to June 30, 1905, therewith completing the section 
40 feet wide along the wharves of Westerly, extending the 100-foot 
channel downstream 1,800 feet, and making a part channel through 
Little Narragansett Bay. Of this amount $6,891.71 was applied to 
maintenance. The maximum draft which could be carried, June 30, 
1905, was 8 feet in the bay channel, 7 feet in the river, and 6 feet 
near Watch Hill. The mean rise of tide is 2.6 feet at the mouth of the 
river and 2.3 feet at Westerly. 

The effect of the improvement is to permit coal, lumber, and build- 
ing material to be delivered in vessels at Westerly and to ship there- 
from granite in vessels instead of by rail. The value of the tonnage 
for 1904 is computed to be $801,606. 

Comparative tonnage. 



Tons. 

1896 .39,086 

1898 131,602 

1900 57,530 



Tons. 
1902 116, 399 

ifXKi loaso'i 

1904 141,832 

July 1, 1904, linlaDce unexpended $3,361.11 

Amount aijpropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 1, 000. 00 
Amount allotted from appropriation for maintenance of river and 

harbor improvements, act of April 28, 1904 4, 100. 00 



June 30, 11K>5, amount ext)ended during flstal year: 

For worlis of Improvpuicnt 1363.53 

For mainteilanc-e of improvement 264.4:1 



8, 461. 11 



627.96 



July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 7,833. 15 

Amount (estimated) retjulred for completion of existing project 161, 361. 60 

(See Appendix D 1.) 

2. New London Harbor, Connecticut. — New London Harbor com- 
prises the lower 3 miles of the Thames River, having a navigable 
width of one-quarter to IJ miles and depths of 26 feet or more in the 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 95 

main channel from Long Island Sound to the railroad drawbridge 
which crosses the river alwve the New Ix)ndon dock front. This 
channel, especially opposite New London, follows the east bank. Be- 
tween it and the city docks is a nearly level area having a general 
depth of 10 to 15 feet. Heretofore vessels of 16 to 18 feet draft have 
been able at high tide only to reach some of the docks. Under a mod- 
ification of the existing Thames River project, adopted in 1872, 
Shaws Cove, a branch of New London Harbor, had been dredged to 
12 feet. 

The original and present project of improvement of New London 
Harbor, adopted by the act of June 13, 1902, provides for a dredged 
ship channel 400 feet or more in width, 23 feet deep, and about 6,000 
feet long. It is to leave the deep water of the river opposite Fort 
Trumbull on the west side, skirt the water front of the city, includ- 
ing that of Winthrop Cove to the C-entral Vermont Railroad bridge, 
and including the east side of the Central Vermont dock, and join the 
natural deep channel adjacent thereto, at a distance of about 4,000 
feet upstream from the point of beginning. The estimated cost of 
the improvement is $145,000, and $1,000 per annum for maintenance. 
For map see House Document No. 392, Fifty -sixth Congre.ss, first ses- 
sion. For report of examination of Winthrop Cove, with view of 
securing a depth of 30 feet, see pages 1004-1008, Annual Report of 
the Chief of Engineers, 1904. 

The project dredging was completed under a continuing contract. 
Up to June 30, 1905, $129,541.02 had been expended on the project. 
This gives the 23-foot channel except at two small areas of ledge 
rock in the Fort Trumbull-Shaws Cove arm of the channel, where 
depths remain of about 18 feet, and at part of a city pipe sewer 
crossing the middle of the dredged channel, where the least depth is 
21.6 feet; 23 feet can be carried to opposite all the principal docks by 
approach from the east end of the dredged channel. The mean rise 
of tide is 2.6 feet. The additional work proposed is to maintain the 
improvement and extend its benefits. 

The tonnage of this port for the year 1904, principally coal, build- 
ing material, oil, and steamboat freight, and exclusive of that per- 
taining to Shaws Cove and Thames River, is 745,856, whose value 
was $2,005,849, besides that of 433,533 tons of steamboat freight, 
mainly merchandise, of unknown value. 

July 1. 1904. balance unexpended $4],.')02. 84 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March .3, 1905. 2, 000. 00 

4.3, 502. 84 
June 30, 1905. amount expended during fiscal year, for works of im- 
provement J 26,043.86 

July 1. 1905, balani-e unexpended 17,458.98 

(See Appendix D 2.) 

3. Thames River, Connecti<nit. — This is a tidal stream from Nor- 
wich, Conn., the head of navigation, to Long Island Sound, a distance 
of 15 miles. For 4 miles below Norwich the natural depths were 
6 feet or more at low water, and width of 400 to 1,000 feet. Below 
this point depths were 13 feet or more, and widths 800 to 3,000 feet. 

In 1836 the original project was adopted, providing for a channel 
11 feet deep at low water, to be secured by dredging and building 



Digitized by 



Google 



96 



BEPOBT OF THE OHIBP OF ENOIWEEES, U. S. ABHY. 



dikes. On this project $40,300 had been expended when, in 1839, 
work was stopped, the project not having been completed. 

The existing project, adopted June 23, 1866, and modified in 1876, 
1882, 1888, and 1892, is to dredge and build training walls to secure 
a channel 200 feet wide, with depths of 16 feet from above New Lon- 
don to Allyns Point, and 14 feet thence to Norwich; also to dredge 
Shaws Cove at New London to a depth of 12 feet. Estimates of cost 
were $457,620 for construction and $8,000 annually for maintenance. 

Up to June 30, 1905, there had been expended $417,106.46 on this 
project and its modifications, of which $10,816.85 was applied to 
maintenance. Three of the five proposed training walls had been 
completed and the fourth nearly so. The proposed 16-foot channel 
had been completed to Allyns ^oint; thence to Norwich the project 
depth of 14 feet had been secured in a channel varying in width 
from 100 to 175 feet, which has since become narrower by 'shoaling. 
The proposed dredging in Shaws Cove had been completed. Mean 
high tide is 2.6 feet at New London and 3.1 feet at Norwich. The 
additional work proposed is for the extension of benefits by comple- 
tion of the project. 

Commerce at Allyns Point is coal, and at Norwich and intermediate 
landings it is mainly coal, lumber, and cotton and wool and steam- 
boat freight. The value of the tonnage for 1904, exclusive of un- 
known value of 24,691 tons of steamlxiat freight, is $4,659,759, includ- 
ing $118,600 for Shaws Cove commerce. 

The work done has reduced the cost of transportation by enabling 
freight to be brought in ves.sels of 16 and 18 feet draft instead of 8 
feet. The river commerce of the present day could not be carried 
except for the increased depth thus obtained, and urgent requests 
have been received for a furtner increase in channel depths to accom- 
modate the deeper-draft ves.sels now going to Allyns Point. 

Comparatire tonnage. 



TODB. 

1806 .1 424, {M5 

ISm 4.')9, r>88 

1900 4(U,283 



Tons. 

1902 3.5.5, 074 

!«« 409,997 

1904 346,791 



July 1. 1904. balanc-e unexi)ended $9, 251. 17 

Amount appropriated by river and harlwr act ajjproved March 3, 1905- 34, 100. 00 



43, 3,51. 17 
June 30, 190!), amount exi>ended during fl8<-al year, for maintenance 
of Improvement 2, 857. 63 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended ' 40,493.54 

•July 1. 190.5, outHtandlng liabilities 230. 58 

July 1, 1905. balance available 40, 262. 96 

(See Appendix D 3.) 

4. Connecticut River below Hartford, Conn. — The part of the river 
under improvement is 50 miles long from Long Island Sound to 
Hartford; beyond Hartford the river is navigable by means of a 
small private canal at Windsor Locks, Connecticut, 35 miles to Hol- 
yoke, Mass., although the navigation is limited by reason of low, fixed 



Digitized by 



Google 



RIVER AND HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS. 97 

bridges and the inadequacy of the canal. Before beginning improve- 
ment below Hartford the av.ailable depth over Sayorook oar at the 
mouth of the river was 7 feet, and thence to Hartford at the shoalest 
of the river bars was about 5 feet. 

In 1836 an appropriation was made for removing Saybrook bar; 
up to 1843 $23,471.57 had been expended thereon. An 11 to 12 foot 
channel had been dredged 50 feet wide and 1,500 feet long, but was 
nearly destroyed by following storms and freshets. No further work 
was done until 1870, when the present project was adopted, and which 
was modified in 1878, 1880, 1887, and 1890; for scope and other his- 
tory of these modifications see pages 120 and 121, Annual Report of 
the Chief of Engineers, 1900. The present project, as defined by the 
last modification, consists in completing two jetties at the Saybrook 
bar to a height of 5 feet above high water and top width of 6 feet 
and side slopes of 1 on 1 ; raising the training wall, nearly 3,700 feet 
long, at the Hartford bars as may be found necessary *by experience, 
but not to exceed 15 feet above low water; dredgmg the channel 
between the jetties to 12 feet depth and width of 400 feet, and main- 
taining the channel by annual dredging at the various river bars to 
about 10 feet depth at mean low water and to a width as near 100 
feet as practicable, at an estimated cost — 

For annual dredging 110,000 

Completing Saybrook Jetties 60,000 

Dredging cbaunel between them 20,000 

Raising Hartford dike 50,000 

Total 140,000 

The act of June 13, 1902, authorized an expenditure of $1,000 for 
removal of obstructions at mouth of Salmon River, a tributary to the 
Connecticut River. 

The total amount expended on the present project to the close of 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, is $513,838.62, of which about 
$286,739.77 was for maintenance. 

The maintenance of the river-bar channels by annual dredging has 
been held paramount in the project; available funds heretofore were 
not sufficient for enlarging the jetties or dike or for dredging at Say- 
brook bar. The jetties have maintained a nearly 12-foot channel of 
narrow width, and annual dredging at the river bars has gen- 
erally kept a half-width channel open, so that Hartford-New York 
steamers and barges drawing from 9 to 11 feet, according to river 
stage, have been out little detained or lightered, and then only at 
summer low river and before completion of the annual dredging. 
The maximum draft which could be carried at mean low water over 
the shoalest river bar on June 30, 1905, was 8^ feet. The mean rise 
of tide is 3.6 feet at Saybrook jetties and on low river 1.5 feet at Hart- 
ford. 

Sketches of the Connecticut River from Hartford to Rocky Hill 
and of Saybrook bar are printed in the Annual Report of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1885, page 636. The river from the Sound to Hart- 
ford is shown on Coast Survey charts 253-256. 

A report upon survey of the river between Hartford and Holyoke, 
under nie act of June 13, 1902, is printed herewith as Appendix D 15. 
It is expected that report of the reexamination of Connecticut River 

ESQ 1905 M 7 



Digitized by 



Google 



98 ■ REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

between these points, authorized by the river and harbor act approved 
March 3, 1905, will be submitted to Congress at its next session. 

Commerce is mainly in coal, lumber, building materials, and mis- 
cellaneous steamboat freight of a value of $2,282,503, not including an 
unknown value of 230,000 tons, principally merchandise, of steamboat 
freight. 

The work done has reduced freights to Hartford and lower river 
ports materially. Coal is reported to be delivered at Hartford at $1 
per ton less than at Springfield and Holyoke, Mass. Without the 
improvements there could be but little f reignt traffic on the river. 

Comparative tonnage. 



Tods. 

1890 1,095,000 

1901 723,187 



Tods. 

1903 681,000 

1004 075,000 



July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $7,407.08 

.\mouut appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 40, 000. 00 
.Amount allotted from appropriation for maintenance of river and 

harbor improvements, act of April 28, 1904 12,000.00 

59, 407. 08 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance 

of improvement 10, 547. 27 



July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 42,859.81 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 7,401.90 

.July 1, 1905, balance available 35,397.91 



Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing jxroject 100,000.00 

(See Appendi.x D 4.) 

6. Harbor of refuge at Duck Island Harhor, Connecticut. — Duck 
Island Harbor is a bay on the north shore of Long Island Sound, 
about 7 miles west of the mouth of the Connecticut River and mid- 
way between the harboi*s of New London and New Haven. Mean 
high tide is 3.8 feet. 

The project for this improvement, adopted under the river and har- 
bor act of 1890, and approved September 27, 1890, provides for the 
construction of three riprap breakwaters of 3,000, 1,750, and 1,130 
feet length, respectively, inclosing and sheltering an area of about 
115 acres, with two entrances. The project height of breakwaters is 
10 feet above low water, with crown of 10 feet and slopes of 2 on 3 
outside and 1 on 1 inside. The estimated aggregate cost is $403,540. 
For map see Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1887, 
page 644. 

To June 30, 1905, $114,202 had been expended, of which $202 was 
for maintenance, and 2,770 linear feet of the west breakwater had been 
built, but with reduced cross section, extending wcstwardly from 
Duck Island to a low-water depth of 17 feet. No work in further- 
ance of the project has been done during the past year from lack of 
funds. 

The commerce to be benefited by this improvement is the passing 
commerce of Long Island Sound, which may find it necessary or con- 
venient to seek shelter at this locality. Its value can not be satisfac- 
torily estimated. During the year 1900, 1,707 vessels were reported as 
using the harbor of refuge. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 99 

Amount appropriated by river and barber act approved March 3, 1905- |6, 000. 00 
July 1, 1905, balance unexpended G.'JOO. 00 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 349,540.00 

(See Appendix D 5.) 

6. Branford Harbor^ Connecticut. — The part of this harbor under 
improvement consists of the lower part of a small tidal stream, about 
If miles long from the upper docks, emptying into a bay about 1^ 
miles long and 1 mile wide on the north shore of Long Island Sound 
east of New Haven. At the upper dock the stream is crossed by an 
earthen causeway and small drawbridge rarely opened ; the stream is 
navigable by small craft to a fixed bridge about one-half mile above 
the drawbridge. The natural law-water depth across the mouth of 
the bay was about 16 feet, shoaling gradually to 8^ Jfoet between two 
rocks, known as " The Mermaids," near the middle of the bay, and 
thence to the mouth of the river very uniform at 8i feet. The chan- 
nel through the river to the lower coal dock varies from 8i to 12 feet 
or more. From the lower to the upper docks it gradually narrowed 
and shoaled, so that the controlling depth was somewhat less than 6 
feet, and the width from 25 to 50 feet. Since the adoption of the 
present project a very general and uniform shoaling of 1 to 2 feet 
has taken place in the outer harbor, so that the controlling depth 
between " The Mermaids " and the mouth of the river, the shoalest 
place in the channel, is now only about C feet. 

The original and present project, adopted by the act of June 13, 
1902, is to dredge and maintain an 8^-foot channel, 100 feet wide, in 
the upper part of the river between the lower and upper docks, at a 
first cost subsequently ascertained to be $10,000, and otherwise to be in 
accordance with a report of a survey given in the Annual Report of 
the Chief of Engineers, 1901, page 1189 et seq. A channel of full 
project depth and 75 feet wide was dredged from the 8i-foot curve 
below the lower dock upstream to the upper docks. This work 
greatly facilitates the navigation of the upper part of the harbor, 
but the above-named shoaling in the lower harbor or bay should be 
removed to project depth in order to obtain the full lienefit of 
the increased depth in the upper portion of the channel. The maxi- 
mum depth that could be carried June 30, 1905, from the entrance 
of the harbor to the head of the projected channel was C feet, and 
through the portion of the channel under improvement 8^ feet. 
The mean rise of tide is 6 feet. 

The amount expended on this project to June 30, 1905, is $4,840.12. 

The commerce of this harbor is mainly coal, iron, and molding 
sand. Traffic for calendar year 1904 amounted to 22,910 tons, valued 
at $230,450, a decrease of 4,148 tons from that of 1903. 

July 1, 1004, balance unexpended |4, 795. 89 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905- 3, 000. 00 

7, 79.5. 89 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of Im- 
provement 4, 03(5. 01 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 3, 159.88 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 2, 0(X). 00 

(See Appendix D 6.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



100 REPOKT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ABBCr. 

7. New Haven Harbor, Connecticut. — This is a bay on the north 
shore of Long Island Sound extending about 4 miles inland and 
from 1 to 2 miles wide. Mill and Quinnipiac rivers, navigable for 
about 1 and 3 miles, respectively, above their mouths, empty into the 
head of the harbor from the northeast. The original available low- 
water depth from the wharves to Cranes bar, one-third way down 
the harbor, was 9 feet; thence to Fort Hale, halfway down, it w^as 
16 feet or over. Below Fort Hale was a broad bar of soft mud 
extending across the channel, with available depth of 13 feet. The 
harbor entrance was partly obstructed by several sunken rocks. In 
Quinnipiac River the available low-water depth was about 4 feet, 
and in the west branch of Mill River about 5 leet to the head of the 
present projected improvement. Above this point both rivers are 
for the most part available for navigation only at high tide. The 
entire east branch of Mill River ran nearly bare at low tide. 

In 1870 a project was adopted for removal of sunken rocks at the 
harbor entrance. This work was not continued after 1875, when the 
harbor breakwaters were first proposed. In 1871 the project was ex- 
tended to include deepening the harbor channel, the proposed depth 
and width being modified from time to time as appropriations were 
made, so that \vhen the present project was adopted, March 3, 1899, 
it consisted in making a channel 16 feet deep and from 400 to 700 
feet wide from Long Island Sound to the head of the harbor and in 
constructing a dike to contract the channel across Fort Hale bar, at 
a total estimated cost from beginning of $348,000. This project was 
nearly completed, the deficiencies being in the length of channel arm 
of the dike, which was about two-thirds the projected length, and in 
widening the channel across Fort Hale bar, which was only 200 feet 
wide. The total amount expended on previous projects was 
$325,695.66. 

The present project, act of March 3, 1899, is to dredge a channel 
20 feet deep, 400 feet wide, and 4 miles long, from Long Island Sound 
to Canal dtK-k; thence one-half mile to Tomlinson bridge, of same 
depth and 300 feet wide; and three anchorage basins of 20, 16, and 12 
feet depths, at a cost not to exceed $345,000, and, act of June 13, 1902, 
to extend the 12-foot improvement to the Quinnipiac and Mill rivers 
to Grand avenue, provided the cost did not exceed the total amount 
authorized in act of March 3, 1899. The project for the latter-named 
works, as approved January 27, 1903, is: A channel 12 feet deep and 
200 feet wide in Quinnipiac River to Ferry Street Bridge; a channel 
8 feet deep and 50 feet wide in Quinnipiac River, through the shoals 
at the ends of the natural channel between Ferry Street and Grand 
•A. venue bridges, and a channel 12 feet deep and 200 feet wide in Mill 
River to the junction of the two branches above Chapel street and 
thence 12 feet deep and 75 feet wide up each branch to (trand avenue, 
and, as approved November 27, 1903, extension of the 8-foot channel 
in Quinnipiac River to Grand Avenue Bridge. The above project 
was completed April 26, 1904, mainly under continuing contract, and 
the improvement has been maintained. 

For reference to maps and further details regarding the harbor 
and projects, see Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers, 1904, 
page 94. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPROVEMENTS. 101 

The amount expended on the existing project up to the close of 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, was $288,799.61, of which $15,- 
593.40 was for maintenance. 

The maximum draft which could be carried June 30, 1905, through 
the main channel to Tomlinson bridge is 20 feet at mean low tide; 
above Tomlinson bridge the maximum low-water draft which could 
be carried up Mill River to Grand Avenue Bridge is 12 feet in both 
branches; up Quinnipiac River to Ferry Street Bridge, 12 feet, and 
from Ferry Street Bridge to Grand avenue a little mor# than 6 feet 
in the natural channel connecting the two portions of the dredged 
channel. The depth in this dredged channel is 8 feet. The mean 
rise of tide is 5.7 feet at entrance to the harbor and 6.6 feet at Tom- 
linson bridge. 

The work done has enabled deeper-draft ves.sels to use the harbor 
than was formerly possible. Vessels drawing from 22 to 23 feet 
now regularly enter the harbor, and vessel drafts are now limited by 
the depth of water in the various berths and slips and not by the 
depth of the main channel. 

The engineer oflScer in charge invites attention to and explains the 
commercial need of greater capacity of channel in the Quinnipiac 
River to Ferry Street Bridge. 

The commerce of New Haven Harbor is mainly in coal, .steamboat 
freight, shellfish and shells, lumber, .steel billets, and pig iron. The 
tonnage for the calendar vear 1901 was 1,511,427 tons, valued at 
$31,028,210.31, a decrease of 745,770 tons from that reported for 1903. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended |7, 216. 03 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 

1905 - 9,000.00 

Amount allotted from appropriation for maintenance of river and har- 
bor Improvements, act of April 28, 1904 9,000.00 

25, 216. 03 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance 
of Improvement " 15, (S7. 40 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 9, .57& 63 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities n.Ki 

July 1, 1905, balance available 48,006.98 

(See Appendix D7.) 

8. Breakwaters at New Ilaven, Conn. — ^The original and existing 
project for this work, authorized by act of March 3, 1879, and 
approved January 31, 1880, and modified by act of September 19, 
1890, in accordance with plans given in Annual Report of the Chief 
of Engineers, 1889, page 679, is to make a harbor of refuge at the 
entrance to New Haven Harbor by constructing four breakwaters — 
one 3,300 feet long, extending from Southwest ledge to Quixes ledge; 
one 5,000 feet long, extending from a point 1,000 feet north 54° east 
from Ludington rock in a direction south 54° west across the rock; 
one about 4,200 feet long, extending northwesterly from a point 
6,000 feet south 54° west from Ludington rock ; and one about 1,200 
feet long, extending southwesterly from Morgan Point on the east 
side of tne harbor entrance ; the cross Section or all these breakwaters 
to be 12 feet wide on top and 6 feet above mean high water, with 
outer slope 1 on 2 and inner slope 1 on 1. The estimated cost from 
the beginning in 1880 was $2,151,134. The anchorage which would 



Digitized by 



Google 



102 BEPOBX OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

be sheltered by the breakwaters exceeds 2,000 acres, and has depths 
of 9 to 26 feet. The mean rise of tide is 5.7 feet. 

For original report on project, see Annual Report of Chief of 
Engineers, 1880, pages 449 et seq., and for modification of project 
and maps showing the location oi the breakwaters as contemplated 
under the existing project, see Annual Report of the Chief of Engin- 
eers for 1889, page 678 et seq. ; 1890, pages 624 and 625 ; and 1896, 
page 702. 

No work «Fas done during the fiscal year owing to lack of funds, 
and at its close the breakwater from Southwest ledge to Quixes ledge 
had been completed 3,450 long, and 4,500 feet of the Ludington roclt 
and 1,805 feet of west breakwater had been built, but with steeper 
side slopes than called for by project. The total expenditure to 
June 30, 1905, was $877,921.24, of which $3,445.32 was for main- 
tenance. 

The commerce now benefited and to be further benefited by this 
work is mainly the passing commerce of Long Island Sound. The 
projected breakwaters provide also an outer anchorage for vessels 
bound to and from New Haven and help to protect the entrance to 
New Haven Harbor proper from seas and to diminish channel filling. 
For the calendar year 1904, 47,777 vessels were reported as passing 
or entering between the breakwaters, the number passing during dark 
nights or fogs not being observed. It is estimated that some 2,500 
vessels sought refuge behind the breakwaters during that year. The 
additional work proposed is for extension of benefit to commerce. 

July 1, 1904. balauce unexpended 4:1, 819. 84 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance 
of improvement . 741. 08 

July 1, 1905, balamre unexiwnded 1,078.70 

July 1, 1905, outstanding llnl)llltles 25.84 

July 1, 1905, balance available 1. 052. 92 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.. 1,272.134.00 
(See Appendix D 8.) 

9. West Rioer, Conn^etieut. — This river lies between the city of 
New Haven and the town of West Haven. The head of navigation 
is at a railroad bridge alK>ut one-half mile upstream from the Kim- 
berly Avenue Bridge. About 500 yards below this drawbridge the 
river widens into a shallow bay and joins New Haven Harbor south 
of Oyster or City Point. The natural channel about 2,000 yards 
long through the middle of the bay carries less than 3 feet at its 
shoalest part; a channel leading from the harbor to docks at Oyster 
Point has a controlling depth of 4.5 feet, but between Oyster f*oint 
and the channel along the West Haven docks is a wide flat nearly 
bare at low tide. 

The original and present project was adopted by the river and 
harbor act of March 3, 1905. It consists in dredgmg for a 9-foot 
channel, 100 feet wide, from the downstream corner of the 16-foot 
anchorage basin of New Haven Harbor, via Oyster Point and the 
dock frontage of West Haven, to Kimberly Avenue Bridge, at a 
cost of $38,500, and $500 for annual maintenance. The mean rise of 
tide is about 6.2 feet. The report of survey of West River is pub- 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPROVEMBNT8. 103 

ikfaed at pa^ 996 and following, Annual Report of the Chief of 
Engineer*;, 1904, and the survey map is printed in House Document 
Xa 73, Fifty-eighth Ck)ngress, second session. 

The principal articles of commerce are coal, oysters and shells, 
and building material; the estimated value of the total commerce 
for 1904 is $1,414,169,60. 

Comparative tonnage. 

Too*. 

IflOe 84,724 

M*U 122.366 

Amonnt appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. |38, 500. 00 
July 1, 19tK>. balance unexpended 38,500.00 

(See Appendix D 9.) 

10. Milford Harbor. Connecticut, — ^This harbor is on the north 
shore of Long Island Sound and consists of a broad open bay, from 
ihe head of which a small tidal stream extends nearly a mile inland to 
the head of navigation. 

The original depth on the bar in the bay at the mouth of the river 
was less than 2 feet ; in parts of the river the channel ran nearly bare. 
The original project adopted under the act of June 23, 1874, provided 
for a riprap breakwater 890 feet long from Welchs Point, on the 
east ade of the mouth of the harbor, protection of the bluffs on the 
east shore from erosion by means of small stone jetties, a jetty on the 
east side to maintain the river-bar channel, and dredging a channel 
4 feet deep and 100 feet wide acros.s the bar, the whole estimated to 
cost $85,000. This project was modified in 1878 and 1879 to provide 
for extending the 4-foot channel 60 feet wide upstream to the town 
dock and for a training dike off Bums Point, on the west side of the 
river channel, nearly at right angles to the east-side jetty. The 

groject thus modified was completed in 1880, except that the outer 
reakwater was not built, being deemed unnecessary in view of the 
provision of a harbor of refuge at New Haven, tinder the act of 
June 14, 1880, a project was adopted for the extension of the 4- foot 
channel, 40 feet wide, upstream to the Straw Works wharf, and under 
the act of August 2, 1882, a revised project was adopted which pro- 
vided for a channel 8 feet deep and 100 feet wide across the bar and 
upstream to Merwin's dock, at estimated cost of $11,000. In 18!)1 
the^' projects were rejwrted as completed and no further work neces- 
sary, except maintenance of jetties and dredged channels. It was 
stated in July, 1895, that as a result of private dredging there was a 
clear channel* across the bar 12 feet deep and nowhere less than 80 feet 
wide. On the previous projects $4.5,-500 and for surveys $1,600 were 
expended. 

For further details regarding former projects, see Annual Report 
of the Chief of Engineers for 1893, page 929, and for report on which 
present project is based see Annual Report of the Chief of Engineei-s, 
for 1900, page 1357 et seq. For map, see House Document No. 280, 
Fifty-sixth Congress, first session. 

T&e existing project, authorized by act of June 13, 1902, for com- 
pletion, at a cost of $15,000, consists in dredging and maintaining a 
channel across the bar and through the lower harbor 100 feet wide and 



Digitized by 



Google 



104 BEPOET OF THE OHIBF OP ENG1NEEB8, U. 8. ARMY. 

10 feet deep to Merwin's wharf, with an anchorage basin of same 
depth of about 6 acres area on the east side of the channel between the 
long dike and the harbor line, and a channel through the upper har- 
bor from Merwin's wharf to the Straw Works wharf 90 feet wide and 
6 feet deep. The estimated cost for maintenance was $1,000 bien- 
nially. The first cost of the improvement was subsequently jiscer- 
tained to be $25,000. The amount expended on this project to June 
30, 1905, is $15,132.87. The mean rise of tide is about 6.2 feet. 

Under authority of the river and harbor act of April 28, 1904, 
work was begun under the present project on October 24, 1904, and 
at the close oi the fiscal year the 10- foot channel hnd»been completed ; 
the 6-foot channel extended upstream to a point about 100 feet above 
the town dock ; and a portion of the anchorage basin, about 2| acres 
in area, adjacent to the 10-foot channel, dredged. The work done 
facilitates navigation in the lower part of the harbor, and the exten- 
sion of the 6-foot channel to the town dock renders it practicable to 
land cargoes of coal at this dock, which it was formerly extremely 
difficult to do. The development of a portion of the anchorage 
basin greatly relieves congestion in the lower part of the harbor, 
due to the anchoring of small pleasure craft and oyster schooners 
in that portion of the harbor. 

On June 30, 1905, a low-water draft of 10 fjset could be carried 
over the bar and up as far as Merwin's wharf, and thence 6 feet 
draft to the town dock. Above the town dock a draft of about $ 
feet can be. carried to the Straw Works dock. No navigation is 
practicable above this dock. 

The commerce of this harbor consists almost entirely of oysters, 
shells, and coal, the former predominating. Traffic for calendar 
J ear 1904 amounted to 21,304 tons, valued at $261,147.47, an increase 
of 1,123 tons over that last reported in 1903. 

Jul.v 1, 1904. balance unext)<>nded $14,720.27 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March .3, 190C>. 10, 000. 00* 

24, 720. 27 
June 30, 1905, amount ex|)ended during fiscal year, for works of Im- 
provement 14,853. 14 

July 1, 1905, balance Hnex|>ended 9,867. 1.^ 

July 1, 1905, outstandhiK liabilities 1,302.45 

July 1, 1905, balance available-.-- 8,564.68 

July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 6,461.57 

(See Appendix D 10.) 

11. Housatonie River, Connecticut. — This is a rapid river running 
southward through Massachusetts and Connecticut, emptying into 
Long Island Sound east of Stratford Point, about 5 miles east from 
Bridgeport Harbor. At Derby, 13 miles from its mouth, it receives 
the (fischarge of the Naugatuck River. Derby and Shelton are at 
the head oi navigation. About a mile above there is a large power 
dam across the Hou.satonic River; above the pool of this dam the 
river is rocky and shoal. 

The original depth on the worst bars in the river (6 in number) 
w^as from 3.5 to 4.5 feet. There was also a bar across the river mouth 
with about 4 feet depth. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 105 

The original project for improvement was adopted under the act 
of March 3, 1871, which made an appropriation for beginning the 
work. This project provided for a jetty at Sow and Pigs reef; 
removing Drews rock; construction of breakwater at the mouth, 
and making a channel 7 feet deep and 200 feet wide through the bar 
at the mouth and 150 feet wide in the river, at total estimated cost of 
$404,961. In 1887 the estimates were revised and a modification of 
the project proposed for building a breakwater or jetty at the mouth 
of the river 5,«50 feet long, extending about south-southeast from 
Milford Beach 3,250 feet, uience parallel to and 500 feet from the 
channel 2,500 feet farther, to the 12-foot curve in Long Island Sound, 
(he inner arm of the jetty to be 3 feet above mean low water, top 
width 6 feet, side slopes 1 on 1 ; the outer arm to be 6 feet above high 
water, top width 12 feet, outer slope 1 on 2, inner slope 1 on 1 ; and 
for making a channel 7 feet deep and 200 feet wide at the outer bar 
and 100 feet wide through the river, at a total estimated cost of 
$202,000, and $4,000 annually for maintenance, all in addition to 
amount already expended. This modification was adopted under 
the act of August 11, 1888, and work on the breakwater was begun 
July 10, 1889. In 1893 the project w^as further modified to provide 
for building a small dike in the river below Stratford. 

For maps, see Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1882, 
page 116 ; and for reports on various survej's and projects see Annual 
Reports of the Chief of Engineers for 187*1, page 781; 1887, Part 1, 
page 607 ; 1888, Part 1, page 554. 

The present project for improvement is the project of 1871, subse- 
quently enlarged or modified as above, and the estimated cost from 
the beginning is $275,500. Up to June 30, 1905, $240,360.16 had been 
expended on this project, of which $51,161.32 had been applied to 
maintenance. At that date the project was completed, except that 
the dike below Stratford was not built to the full projected length 
and the outer arm of the breakwater was only about 4 feet high above 
high water, 5 feet wide on top, and the side slopes much steeper than 
called for by the project. A channel of project dimensions had been 
dredged from the mouth of the river to Derby, but had deteriorated 
from the action of spring freshets and been redredged from time to 
time. On June 30, 1905, 8 feet draft could be carried across the outer 
bar and thence about 6 feet to Derby. The mean rise of tide at 
Derby is 4.2 and at the mouth of the river about 6.3 feet. The work 
done has enabled vessels to enter the lower river in safety, instead 
of waiting for high tide in an exposed situation outside. A large part 
of the commerce could not have been carried on without the improved 
channel. The navigable channel to Derby materially reduces ireight 
rates at that and adjacent towns, as otherwise all freight would have 
to be handled by rail and with no competition. 

The commerce is largely in coal. A considerable quantity of 
oysters and oyster shells is shipped from near the mouth of the 
river. The tonnage for the calendar year 1904 was 57,070, valued 
at $391,782.52, an increase of 2,483 tons over that reported for 1903. 



Digitized by 



Google 



106 RBPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOINEEBS, U. S. ABMT. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $9,882.39 

November 8, 1904, sales of condemned property .35 

Amount npproprinted by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 10, 000. 00 
Amount allotted from appropriation for maintenance of river and 

harbor improvements, act of April 28, 1904 3,950.00 

23, 8.32. 74 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance 
of Improvement 11, 742. 90 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 12,089.84 

July 1, 1905. outstanding liabilities i 73.61 

July 1, 1905, balance available 12,016.23 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 37, 000. 00 

(See Appendix D 11.) 

12. Bridgeport Harbor., Connecticut. — This consists of a shallow 
bay about 1 mile wide at the mouth and 1^ miles long, into the 
extreme northwest corner of which empties the Pequonnock River, a 
small tidal stream navigable for about 1 mile and crossed by four 
drawbridges, and into the northeast corner of which another small 
stream about three-fourths of a mile long, known as Johnsons River, 
empties. Midway between these two streams is Yellow Mill Pond, a 
tidal basin about 1 mile in length. Black Rock Harbor, now con- 
sidered part of Bridgeport Harbor, lies about 2J miles to the west- 
ward. Both harbors are inner portions of a large bay of Long 
Island Sound lying between the eastern part of Stratford Point and 
and Fairfield reef. Black Rock Harbor is .about one-half mile wide 
at the mouth and 1 mile long, with two branches at its head, 
the east one a mile long, known as Cedar Creek, and the west 
one about three-fourths or a mile long, known as Burr Creek. The 
original low-water depth on the bar at the mouth of Bridgeport 
Harbor was about 5 feet; in the Pequonnock River, from 2 to 5 teet; 
in Johnsons River the lied of the stream was nearly bare in its upper 
half; Yellow Mill Pond was generally 2 to 2^ feet deep and its upper 
part bare at low tide. The original depth in Cedar Creek was 2 to 
4 feet, and in Burr Creek the bottom was nearly dry. 

In 1836 Congress appropriated $10,000, and an equal amount in 
1852, for improving the main Bridgeport Harbor. These sums were 
expended in dredging near the mouth of the harbor, making channels 
60 to 100 feet wide and 8 feet deep or more at low tide. The depth 
did not prove permanent. In 1871 and at various times thereaitcr 
the original project was enlarged to afford a IS-foot main harbor 
channel, 12-foot channel 200 feet wide in Yellow Mill Pond to Strat- 
ford avenue, 9-foot Pequonnock River channel, 12-foot anchorage, 
and to protect the harbor entrance by two breakwaters, all estimated 
to cost $285,000. This project was completed in 1898, except as to 
capacity of the 15-foot channel. 

The amount expended on the projects above named was $317,848.50. 

At Black Rock Harlwr, between 1836 and 1838, $21,500 was 
expended in building a sea wall across a breach in the southern part 
of Fayerweather Island. In 1884 a project was adopted for protect- 
ing the upper part of Black Rock Harbor by a breakwater about 
one-half mile long between Fayerweather Island and the mainland 
and for making a 6-foot channel 80 feet wide in Cedar Creek. To 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 107 

July 1, 1894, the channel had been made, the breakwater built to full 
length but with reduced cross section, and the project was considered 
as completed. Subsequently repairs were made on the old sea wall 
on Fayerweather Island. The amount expended for Black Rock 
Harbor as a separate improvement was $72,900. 

For details of original projects and their modifications see Annual 
Eeports of the Chief of Engineers, 1902, pages 133 and 134, and 1903, 
pages 116 and 117. 

In the act of March 3, 1899, Congress adopted the present project 
for Bridgeport Harbor, which provides, at an estimated cost of not 
exceeding ^00,000, for— 

First. The main channel, 18 feet deep, 300 feet wide from the outer 
bar to the inner beacon, thence 200 feet wide to the lower or Stratford 
Avenue Bridge. 

Second. Anchorage for deep draft, 18 feet, 500 feet wide and 2,000 
feet long adjoining the main channel on the west, above the inner 
beacon; for light draft, 12 feet deep, 500 feet wide and 900 feet long 
adjoining the main channel on the west between the 18-foot anchor- 
age and Naugatuck wharf, and of the same depth at east side of 
channel between the steel works point and the lower bridge. 

Third. Pequonnock River channel from the lower bridge to the 
head of navigation, about 1 mile, 12 feet deep and 100 feet wide. 

Fourth. Yellow Mill channel, from the main channel to the head 
of Yellow Mill Pond, about 1 mile, 12 feet deep and 100 feet wide. 

Fifth. Johnsons River channel from the main channel to the head 
of navigation, about IJ miles, 9 feet deep and 100 feet wide. 

Sixth. Black Rock channel from the head of Black Rock Harbor 
to the junction of Cedar and Burr creeks, thence up each of these 
creeks to the head of navigation, with lengths, respectiveh', of IJ 
miles and one-half mile, 9 feet deep and 100 feet wide. 

Seventh. The repair and maintenance of the outer and inner break- 
waters of the mam channel, and the one connecting Fayerweather 
Island with the mainland as now built, and the construction and 
maintenance of shore protection on Fayerweather Island to check the 
shifting of the beach. 

An appropriation of $50,000 was made in the act cited and a con- 
tinuing contract authorized. The work is in progress. 

The amount expended on the existing project to June 30, 1905, is 
$79,414.17. 

The net results are: A main channel 200 feet wide and 18 feet 
deep, project dimensions, from Stratford Avenue Bridge to the inner 
beacon ; outside thereof the main channel has been dredged to project 
width and depth for about 3,700 feet, 225 feet wide and full depth 
for about 850 feet, and 200 feet wide and full depth for the remain- 
ing 1,450 feet to the outer end; the upper 12-foot anchorage and a 
portion of the 18-foot anchorage about 130 feet wide, adjacent to the 
channel, dredged; the Pequonnock River channel, 12 feet deep and 
100 feet wide, completed to within alwut 500 feet of its upstream 
end; the Yellow Mill channel, 12 feet deep and 100 feet wide, com- 
pleted to a point about 750 feet above the Stratford Avenue Bridge, 
and with partial width about 250 feet farther; the Johnsons River 
channel, 9 feet deep and 100 feet wide, completed to the turn above 
the shipyard ; the 9-foot channel, 100 feet wide, in Black Rock Har- 
bor and up Cedar Creek completed, and the Burr Creek channel of 



Digitized by 



Google 



1U8 BBPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF KNOIKEEB8, V. 8. ABICT. 

same projected dimensions dredged from the main channel to I>u.n- 
don's dock, but owing to ledge rock full project dimensions wevG not 
obtained. Portions of this channel have subsequently filled in so 
that the available width is only about 50 feet in places and tik& 
limiting depth about 5| feet. Also the east breakwater repaired and 
extended 380 feet, four jetties built for shore protection on the -^est 
side of Fayerweather Island, and the sea wall at the south end of tlie 
island repaired. 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, through 
the improved channels at mean low tide is 18 feet throu^ the mam 
channel from the outer end to the lower bridge ; in the Pequonnock 
River about lOJ feet to within about 500 feet of the upper end and 
thence about 6J feet to the end ; in the Yellow Mill channel, 12 feet to 
about 1,000 feet above the bridge ; in Johnsons River, 9 feet to the turn 
above the shipyard ; at Black Rock about 9 feet to the head of navi- 
gation in both branches of Cedar Creek ; in Burr Creek about 5 J feet 
to its head. The mean rise of tide is 6.5 feet. 

The work done in opening the main channel 200 feet wide and full 
project depth throughout its length enables the deepest draft vessels 
which at present ever enter this harbor to come in at any stage of the 
tide and with greater facility than formerly. 

The commerce of this harlior is chiefly in coal, lumber, iron, build- 
ing material, oysters, and general merchandise. Tonnage for calen- 
dar year 1904 was 864,800 tons, valued at $17,513,453.01, an increase of 
67,410 tons over that reported for 1903. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $76,926. 57 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 10, 000. 00 

86.926.57 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of Im- 
provement 6, 180. 24 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 80,737.33 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 5,654.40 

July 1, 1905, balance available 75,082.93 

July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 65, 082. 93 

(See Appendix D 12.) 

13. Saugatuck River and Westport Harbor, Connecticut. — For 
description of these localities and statement of work under original 
project, 1826, and its modifications to about 1871, see Annual Report 
of the Chief of Engineers, 1901, page 189. The total amount expended 
for the same is $19,444. 

The present project was originally adopted under the appropria- 
tion made in 1892 for beginning work. It was to make a channel 4 
feet deep and 60 feet wide up to Westport, at an estimated cost of 
$10,000. The work was completed in 1896. The mean rise of tide is 
about 7 feet. 

The river and harbor act of 1894 ordered a survey of Westport 
Harbor, report of which is printed in the Annual Report of the Cnief 
of Engineers for 1896, page 806, and with map in House Document 
No. 67, Fifty-fourth Congress, first session. It proposes a further 
improvement to provide ror repairing the Cedar Point breakwater, 
removing a ledge opposite Stony Point, or dredging around it, and 



Digitized by 



Google 



SIVEB Aim HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 109 

removing bowlders from the channel, at a total estimated cost of 
$8,000. Under the terms of the river and harbor act of 1896, appro- 
jpiiMtmg $3,000 for improving Westport Harbor, Connecticut, the 
project of 1892 -was extended to include this work, and the estimated 
cost was in consequence increased to $18,000. 

A sketch of this river and harbor is printed in the Annual Report 
of the Chief of Engineers for 1894, page 670. 

The total amount expended on the present project up to the close of 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, was $12,921.44, of which $18.36 
was for maintenance. The 4-foot channel had been completed to 
Westport, head of navigation, with width generally of 60 feet, and 
the Cedar Point breakwater had been repaired and extended. 

Completion of the project requires further removal of bowlders 
and dredging to full project dimensions at the channel opposite 
Westport. 

Improvements made have rendered navigation of the river prac- 
ticable at less than half-tide stages by vessels plying there. 

The commerce comprises coal, lumber, farm produce, and steam- 
boat freight. The tonnage for calendar year 1904 was 25,461, valued 
at $394,843.25, an increase of 9,035 tons over that for 1903. 

July 1. 190t. balance unexpended $96.0? 

Jmie 30. 1905. amount expended during fl8eal year, for maintenance 
of ImprDvement 18.30 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 78. 5C 

Amoant (estimated) required for completion of existing project 5,000.00 

(See Appendix D 13.) 

14. Harharti at Nor-walk, Fipemile Bilker, Stamford, Sonthport, and 
(rreenwirh. Conn. — (a) Xorwalk Harbor. — This harlK)r consists of 
the tidal part of Norwalk River extending from Norwalk, the head 
of navigation, to the river mouth, about 3 miles, and of an outer or 
main harbor lying between Norwalk Islands and the mainland. 
South Norwalk i.s on the west bank, about \\ miles below Norwalk. 
The original depth in the river up to South Norwalk was about 5 feet ; 
between there and Norwalk the river bed was nearly bare at low tide. 
The original project, adopted under the act of June 10, 1872, and 
modified by the terms of the act of June 14, 1880, provided for a 
channel 100 feet w^ide and 8 feet deep from the outer harbor to South 
Norwalk and thence 6 feet deep to Norwalk. This project was con- 
^^dered completed in 1892 at a cost of $83,000, although portions of 
the channel between Norwalk and South- Norwalk were only 60 feet 
wide. The act of August 18, 1894, appropriated $15,000 for improv- 
ing the inner harbor, and indicated the points where work was to be 
done. In accordance therewith a project was adopted for removing 
to 6 fert depth the shoal at Ferrys Point, l^elow Norwalk, and, if funds 

Sennitted, for widening with depth of 9 feet the Ijend at Keysers 
sland near the river mouth. This project was completed in 1897 at 
a cost of $15,000. 

The present project, adopted by act of June 3, 1896, provides for a 
channel 10 feet deep and 150 reet wide from the outer harbor to 
South Norwalk, widening two points near the entrance, and main- 



Digitized by 



Google 



110 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

tenance of this channel and the 6-foot channel between South Nor- 
walk and Norwalk, at estimated first cost of $62,000 and $2,000 annu- 
ally for maintenance. The amount expended on this project to June 
30, 1905, is $32,833, of which $13,856.27 was expended for mainte- 
nance. The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, to 
the South Norwalk docks was 10 feet and to the lower Norwalk docks 
6 feet, and from the lower to the upper docks, where the head of the 
harbor forms a catch basin, about one-half that depth. The mean 
rise of tide is 7.1 feet. 

For reference to reports and maps regarding this harbor and for- 
mer projects, see Annual Report or the Chief of Engineers for 1904, 
page 103. 

The commerce of this harbor is mainly in coal, oysters, lumber, 
building material, and general merchandise. Traffic for calendar 
year 1904 amounted to 199,599 tons, valued at about $9,155,786.40, a 
decrease of 23,793 tons from amount for 1903. A line of freight 
steamers makes daily trips to New York from Norwalk. 

(6) Fivemile River TI arbor. — This is a tidal inlet over a mile long, 
and from 100 to 1,000 feet wide. The natural low-water depth at 
the mouth was about 3 feet, shoaling to zero about half-way up the 
harbor and to about plus 2.5 feet at extreme head. The original and 
present project of improvement, approved September 7, 1888, under 
authority of the act of August 11, 1888, provides for a dredged chan- 
nel 8 feet deep and 100 Feet wide, extending up the harbor about 
6,000 feet from its mouth ; the estimated cost from the beginning, as 
revised in 1894, was $45,000. The amount expended on this project 
to June 30, 1905, is $27,000, of which $1,833.60 was expended for 
maintenance. 

For further details regarding this harbor see page 192, Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers, 1901. 

The result of the work to date is a channel of project dimensions, 
extending about 3,300 feet up the harbor and thence about 1,500 feet 
farther, with project depth and widths of from 50 to 70 feet. Nq 
dredging has l)oen done above this point. The maximum draft that 
can be carried to the upper end of the improved channel is 8 feet, and 
no navigation is possible l)eyond this point except*at high tide, when 
a draft of from 4 to 4A feet can be carried about 2,000 feet farther to 
the head of navigation. The mean rise of tide is 7.2 feet. 

The commerce of this harbor is practically confined to the oyster 
industry, which could not be carried on to its present extent without 
the improved channel. Traffic for calendar year 1904 amounted to 
8,276 tons of oysters and oyster shells, valued at $140,005.46, a decrease 
of 4,847 tons from the tonnage reported for 1903. 

(e) Stamford Harbor. — This consists of a bay on the north shore 
of Long Island Sound and of two tidal inlets known as the e^st and 
west branches extending to the head of navigation at the city of 
Stamford. The original depth in the west branch was from 1 foot 
to 3 feet, gradually increasing in the bay to a depth of 12 feet. The 
east branch was originally a small marshy creek, deepened by private 
dredging to a depth of about 8 feet and which had shoaled so that 
when work was begun by the Government in 1892 the available depth 
was only about 6^ teet. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVBB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. Ill 

The original project, approved August 30, 1886, under authority of 
(he river and harbor act of that year, was for a 5-foot channel 80 feet 
wide to the head of the west branch. This was considered completed 
in 1892 after an expenditure of $20,000, the channel being 5 feet deep 
and 100 to 140 feet wide at the bends, but only from 50 to 70 feet 
wide for the last thousand feet at the upper end. 

The present project, approved July 21, 1892, under 'authority of the 
act of July 13, 1892, provides for a channel in the west branch 7 feet 
deep, 150 feet wide, and about 1^ miles long, with a basin of same 
depth between harbor lines at the head of the harbor, and in the east 
branch, as approved Octolier 5, 1892, a channel 9 feet deep and 100 
feet wide for a length of about 8,535 feet and 50 feet wide for about 
1,200 feet farther to the head of the harbor. The estimated cost was 
$123,500. A modification to give increased width at upper end of 
east branch was approved February 12, 1901. The amount expended 
on this project to June 30, 1905, is $50,924.37, of which $3,746.90 was 
expended for maintenance. 

For reports on survevs and projects, see Annual Report of the Chief 
of Engineers, 1884, Part 1, page 672; 1891, Part 1, page 849; 1893, 
page 954 (map, p. 956). 

The channel in the east branch now affords approximately project 
depth and widths of from 70 to 100 feet from the entrance to the 
steamboat dock. The section above this point is completed, the 
widths ranging from 65 to 70 feet. The channel in the west branch 
has been dredged to project dimensions from its outer end to the south 
end of the basin and with reduced width along the east side of the 
basin to the harbor line at the head, but it has since shoaled and nar- 
rowed, particularly at the upper end, so that the available depth 
which could be carried June 30, 1905, to the extreme head was not 
over 6 feet. At the close of the year a draft of about 9 feet could be 
carried through the east channel to its head. The mean rise of tide 
is 7.4 feet. 

The commerce of this harbor consists mainly of coal, lumber, stone, 
sand, clay, ores, and steamboat freight. Traffic for calendar vear 
1904 amounted to 261,734 tons, valued at $17,062,387, an increase of 
50,925 tons over that reported for 1903. A daily line of freight 
steamers, landing at the east branch, runs to New York. The im- 
provements made have rendered it possible for these steamers to run 
on schedule time and to enter the narbor at any stage of the tide, 
which they were unable to do previously. 

(d) Southpart Harbor. — This is a tidal part of Mill River at 
town of Southport about -1 mile long and averaging less than 100 
yards wide, 6 miles west of Bridgeport. The original depth was" 
probably less than 2 feet at the entrance to the harbor, shoaling to 
about plus 1 foot at the upper end. Work was beg[un in this harbor 
by the Government in 1829, and prosecuted with various intermissions 
until 1878. During this time a dike inside and breakwater or jetty 
outside were built and a channel dredged 60 feet wide and 4 feet deep 
across the outer bar. In 1878 a project was adopted for dredging 
a channel 100 feet wide and 4 feet deep across the bar and upstream 
1,200 feet from the outer end of the jetty, and thence in a bifurcated 



Digitized by 



Google 



112 BEPOBT OK THE CHIEF OF ENGINEEBS, U. 8. ABHY. 

channel to the nearest docks. In 1882 this project was reported as 
substantially completed, $31,587.23 having been spent since the be- 
ginning of work in 1829. 

The present project, approved November 8, 1902, under the act of 
Jime 13, 1902, is to dredge a channel 6 feet deep through the outer bar 
to the upper docks 100 feet wide to the turn above White rock and 
thence in two branches, each 60 feet wide; to repair the breakwater 
and to remove two points of ledge from the channel to a depth of 7 feet. 
The estimated first cost of this improvement was $13,200, and for 
yearly maintenance $300 to be expended biennially. The amount 
expended on the present project to June 30, 1905, is $8,578.16, of which 
$1,032.62 was for maintenance. For further details regarding this 
harbor and its former projects, see Annual Report of the Chief of 
Engineers 1897, page 986. 

The improved channel permits vessels to enter the harbor without 
being compelled to wait outside the bar in an exposed situation for the 
tide to rise. The maximum draft that can be carried through the 
improved portion of the channel is 6 feet. Above this point, where no 
dredging has been done, a draft of 2^ to 3 feet can be carried to the 
docks at low tide. Above the upf)er end of the projected channels the 
harbor is navigable only at high tide, and for a distance of about half 
a mile. The mean rise of tide is 6.6 feet. 

The commerce of this harbor consists mainly of farm produce, 
oysters, and coal. Traffic for calendar year 1904 amounted to 10,905 
tons, valued at $135,268, a decrease of 14,793 tons from that reported 
for 1903. 

(e) Greenwich Harbor. — This is a shallow bay about 2 miles east 
from the New York State- line, extending about a mile northward 
from Long Island Sound. The original low-water depth was about 
6 feet to the lower docks. Above tliis jDoint it shoaled rapidly to 3 
feet 1,000 feet above, and to alx)ut plus 2 at the head of the harbor. 
The original and present project, adopted in the act of June 3, 1896, 
is to dredge a channel 90 feet wide from the mouth of the harbor to 
the causeway at its head, a distance of about a mile, to be i) feet deep 
to the steamboat dock and 6 feet deep above, the upper end to be 
enlarged to form a turning basin. The estimated first cost was 
$20,000. Page 105, Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers, 1904, 
gives a reference to report of examination upon which the project is 
based. The amount expended on this project to June 30, 1905, is 
$14,767, of which $2,854.34 was expended for maintenance. A chan- 
nel of project depth extends from deej) water outside to the head of 
the haroor, but with reduced width. The work done has enabled ves- 
sels to enter the harbor with 9 feet draft at low tide, thus permitting 
the regular steamer to make trips without waiting for tide. Above 
the steamboat dock a draft of 6 feet can be carried at low tide prac- 
tically to the head of navigation. The mean rise of tide is 7.5 feet. 

The commerce of this harbor consists mainly of coal, lumber, build- 
ing material, and general merchandise. Traffic reported for calen- 
dar year 1904 amounted to 73.951 tons, valued at $1,469,752, a 
decrease of 46,222 tons from that reported in 1903. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEHEKTS. 118 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $1,579.44 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905- 44, 000. 00 
Amount allotted from ap|)ropriation for uiaintenauce of river and 

harbor Improvements, act of April 28, 1904 9, 100.00 

54, 679. 44 
June .30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance 
of improvement 10, 181. 97 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 44,497.47 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 112.42 

July 1, 1905, balance available 44,385.05 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 93,700.00 

(See Appendix D 14.) 

SURVEY OF CONNECnCDT RIVER BETWEEN HAHTPORD, CONN., AND HOL- 
YOKE, MASS., MADE IN COMPLIANCE WITH RIVER AND HARBOR ACT 
APPROVED JUNE 13, 1902. 

Report by a Board of Engineers on survey of this locality pursu- 
ant to requirement of the river and harbor act approved June 13, 
1902, was submitted August 11, 1904. The report was reviewed by 
the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors. Improvement of 
the river by the United States in the manner proposed is not deemed 
advisable. The report was transmitted to Congress and printed in 
House Document No. 231, Fifty-eighth Congress, third session. (See 
also Appendix D 15.) 

IMPROVEMENT OF RIVERS AND HARBORS IN NEW YORK 6N LONG 
ISLAND SOUND AND ON THE SOUTHERN SHORE OF LONG ISLAND 
OF HUDSON RIVER AND HARBORS THEREON, AND OF HARLEM 
AND EAST RIVERS, NEW YORK. 

This district was in the charge of Capt. Edward H. Schulz, Corps 
of Engineers, to March 17, 1905, and in the temporary char^ of 
Col. '\\ . R. Livermore, Corps of Engineers, since that date. Division 
engineer, Col. Amos Stickney, Corps of Engineers. 

1. Port Chester Harbor, New York. — This harbor, situated at the 
boundary between the States of New York and Connecticut, consists 
of the tidal part of Byram River and of a bay at its mouth opening 
into liong Island Sound. The depth in the river before improvement 
was 1 foot, and Salt rock, in the river, and Sunken rock, in the bay, 
were considered to be dangerous obstructions. 

The original project for this improvement was adopted in 1872, and 
■ modified in 1884 and 1888. It proposed to remove Salt rock to 9 feet 
below mean low water, to build a breakwater from Sunken rock to 
Byram Point, and to dredge and maintain a channel to the Port 
Chester wharves, at a total cost of $57,000. Up to 1899, at a total cost 
of $52,000, this project had been completed, except the dredging in 
the upper harbor. 

The existing project, approved March 3, 1899, provides for a chan- 
nel 12 feet deep and 70 feet wide from deep water in the bay up to 
the town wharr, and thence 9 feet dcej) and 60 feet wide to the steam- 
boat wharf, the work to be done by dredging and rock removal 
Estimated cost, $25,000. 

EMO 1905 H 8 



Digitized by 



Google 



114 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGHrEEBS, V. S. ABKY. 

Up to June 30, 1905, there had been expended on the present project 
$29,438.09, of which amount $6,486.48 was for maintenance. 

The work done imder the present project has resulted in the com- 
pletion of a channel of the proposed depth and width, except at and 
opposite the southerly point of Fox Island, where the width is reduced 
by ledges of rock to about 60 feet. The channel has probably deterio- 
rated somewhat. 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, at mean 
low water is estimated to be about 12 feet up to the town wharf, and 
thence 9 feet to the steamboat wharf, and above the steamboat wharf 
2^ feet. Mean range of tides, 7.4 feet. The head of navigation is a 
fixed bridge at Mill street, about 900 feet above the steamboat dock. 
The total length of navigable channel from Liong Island Sound to 
the bridge is about 1^ miles. 

The commerce of this harbor, mainly in coal, building materials, 
manufactured goods, and farm produce, amounted to 140,000 tons, 
valued at $4,936,000, in 1898 ; to 169,500 tons, valued at $6,256,000, in 
1899; to 181,000 tons. Valued at $7,269,500, in 1900; to 327,500 tons, 
valued at $9,118,000, in 1901; to 237,000 tons, valued at $900,000, in 
1902; to 240,000 tons, valued at $3,940,000, in 1903, and to 255,000 
tons, valued at $4,590,000, in 1904. 

The eflFect of the improvement has probably been to reduce the 
freight rates since the channel has been deepened. 

Detailed description of this improvement is printed in Reports of 
the Chief of Engmeers for 1897, pages 1084 and 1085, and 1900, page 
1378. Sketches of the river and harbor are printed in the Annual 
Reports for 1885, page 658, and for 1889, page 716. 

July 1, liXH, balance unexi>ende<l $965.75 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 3, 000. 00 

3.965.75 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance 
of improvement 403. 84 

July 1, 190.5, balance unexpended 3,561.91 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 2, 000. 00 

(See Appendix El.) 

3. Mamaroneck Harbor, New York. — This harbor, situated on the 
north shore of I-ong Island Sound, consists of a narrow inlet opening 
into a shallow, broad bay. 

Before improvement the channel to the old steamboat wharf, half 
a mile up to the inlet, had a depth of 5 feet at mean low water, grad- 
ually decreasing to 1 foot at tne upper wharves. Various rocks at 
or near the mouth of the inlet obstructed navigation. 

The present project, approved August 2, 1882, and modified April 
27, 1899, provides for the removal of Round rock to a depth of 4 feet, 
and Bush rock and Inner Steamboat rock to a depth of 7 feet, and 
for making a channel 7 feet deep and 100 feet wide from the harbor 
entrance to the upper wharves. Estimated cost, $43,000. 

Up to June 30, 1905, there had been expended on this work 
$37,731.74, of which amount $2,628.50 was for maintenance. 

The work under the present project has resulted in a channel with 
a uniform depth of 7 feet at mean low water, with a width of from 



Digitized by 



Google 



BTVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 115 

70 to 100 feet from the harbor entrance to the turn at Hog Island, 
and thence 100 feet wide to the upper wharves. The channel has 
probably deteriorated somewhat. 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, at mean 
low water is estimated to be about 7 feet. Mean range of tides, 8 feet. 
The head of navigation is a fixed bridge at the upper wharves. The 
total length of navigable channel from Long Island Sound is about 
1 mile. I 

The commerce of this harbor is principally coal and building mate- 
rial and manufactured goods, amounting to 29,095 tons, valued at 
$482,092 in 1896; to 51,673 tons, valued at $877,180 in 1897; to 20,705 
tons, valued at $51,598 in 1901 ; to 48,495 tons, valued at $75,000 in 
1902; to 26,230 tons, valued at $337,000 in 1903; and to 49,589 tons, 
valued at $859,242 in 1904. 

The effect of the improvement has probably been to reduce the 
freight rates since the channel has been deepened. 

A detailed description of this improvement can be found in' Report 
of the Chief of Engineers for 1900, page 1381. Sketch of harbor is 
printed in Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1903, page 859. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended 1618.20 

Amount appropriated by river and barbor act approved March 3, 1005. 2, 000. 00 

2, 618. 26 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenanco 
of Improvement 350.00 

July 1, 1905, balance unexi)ended 2, 268. 26 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 5, 000. 00 

(See Appendix E 2.) 

3. Larchmont Harbor, New York. — ^This harbor, situated on the 
northwest shore of Long Island Sound, 4 miles distant from New 
York City limits, is about half a mile wide and five-eighths of a mile 
long. It is exposed to easterly and southerly storms. Two sub- 
merged rocks (Umbrella rock and Huron rock) formerly obstructed 
the entrance, which has a depth of 18 feet, gradually diminishing 
toward the head of the bay. 

ITie original project for this improvement, adopted September 
19, 1890, provided for building two breakwaters to protect the anchor- 
age ground, one to extend from Umbrella rock to Umbrella Point 
and the other from Huron rock to Long Beach Point, at an estimated 
cost of $105,000. Work under this project was suspended in 1891 
after the first appropriation of $5,000 had been expended in com- 
mencing the two breakwaters. 

The present project, approved March 3, 1899, provides for build- 
ing a breakwater extending southwardly 1,440 feet from the G-foot 
curve off Long Beach Point and for the removal of Huron rock to a 
depth of 14 feet at mean low water. Estimated cost, $108,000. 

Up to June 30, 1905, there had been expended on this project 
$59,531.31. 

Under the present project the breakwater has been built to a length 
of 1,410 feet, and Huron rock and a portion of the adjoining ledge 
removed to depths of 14 and 12 feet, respectively; 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, over the 
shoalest part of the entrance channel at mean low water was 18 feet. 



Digitized by 



Google 



116 HEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOnTEBBS, 0. 8. AKMT. 

The general depth of the anchorage area of the harbor is froin 6 to 
12 feet at mean low water. The narbor is about half a mile wide 
and extends rather more than half a mile inland. It is a basin with 
no definite channel. Mean range of tides, 7.4 feet. 

The commerce of the harbor is not large. It is mainly used by 
the Ijarchmont Yacht Club and also by coasting and fishing vessels 
for night anchorage and as a harbor of refuge. 

Detailed description of this improvement is printed in the Rep>ort 
of the Chief of Engineers for 1900, pages 1383-1387. A sketch of 
Larchmont Harbor is printed in House Ex. Document Xo. 40, Fifty- 
first Congress, first session, and also in the Report of the Chief" of 
Engineers for 1903, page 860. 

The effect of the improvement has probably been to reduce the 
freight rates since the breakwater has been constructed. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $720. 93 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 5,000. 00 

5.720.93 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of Ini- 
prorement 252.24 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 5,468.09 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 43, 000. 00 

(See Appendix E 3.) 

4. Harbor of Echo Bay, New York. — ^This harbor is on the north 
shore of Long Island Sound, 2 miles distant from New York City 
limits. It is landlocked, except toward the southeast, and has a good 
anchorage. Nearly all of the water transportation of the town of 
New Rochelle is carried on through this harbor. 

The original project for improvement, adopted in 1875, provided 
for the removal or two ledges known as Start rock and Sheeps- 
head reef, to 7 and 9 feet depth, respectively, at an estimated cost of 
$38,955.38. 

Prior to 1902 the sum of $22,000 had been appropriated, with which 
Start rock was reported wholly, and Sheepshead reef partly, removed 
to the projected depths and a channel 40 feet wide and 4 feet deep at 
mean low water dredged from Beauford Point to within 300 feet of 
the head of the harbor. 

The project adopted by the river and harbor act of June 13, 1902, 
contemplates completion of the original plan by the removal of the 
lemainder of Sheepshead reef and Start rock at an estimated cost of 
$17,000. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, authorizes the Secretary 
of War to cause an examination to be made of Long rock near the 
entrance to Echo Bay, and. in his discretion, if the interests of com- 
merce demand, to cause the removal of such rock and to use any 
amount heretofore appropriated for Echo Bay improvement for such 
removal. A survey of the rock is now in progress. 

On June 30, 1905, there had been expended on this project $8,461.72. 
This project of 1902 has been completed. 

The maximum draft that can be carried to the public dock at Beau- 
ford Point is about 7 feet, and the general harbor anchorage ranges 
from 9 to 18 feet at mean low water. The mean range of tide is about 



Digitized by 



Google 



RIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 117 

7J feet. The head of navigation is at Town dock, a distance of 1,500 
feet above Beauford Point. The harbor is about one-fourth mile 
wide and one-third mile long. The total length of navigable channel 
extending beyond the deep water of the harbor is about one-fifth mile. 

The commerce of this harbor is principally manufactured goods 
and coal and building materials, and was reported as amounting to 
99,000 tons, valued at $500,000, in 1902; to 129,400 tons, valued at 
$1,484,000, in 1903, and to 151,200 tons, valued at $1,647,500, in 1904. 

For detailed description of work see Report of the Chief of Engi- 
neer for 1900, page 1429. A sketch of the locality is printed in the 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1903, page 862. 

The effect of the improvement has probably been to reduce the 
freight rates since the rocks have been removed. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $8,799.75 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during flscnl year, for works of iin- 
provement 251. 47 

July 1, 1905, balance unexi)ended 8,548.28 

(See Appendix E 4.) 

6. Bronx River and East Chester Creek, New York. — (a) Bronx 
River. — This stream empties into the East River north of Hunts 
Point. The navigable part extends from its mouth to West Farms, 
a distance of 3 miles. At this point it is cros.sed by a dam. 

The natural depth at the mouth was 4 feet at mean low water and 
decreased ascending the stream to less than 1 foot at the head of 
navigation. 

The project for improvement, adopted by the act of June 3, 1896, 
provides for making a channel 4 feet deep and 100 feet wide at and 
near the mouth, thence decreasing in width to 50 feet at the head of 
navigation, the work to be done by dredging and rock removal. Esti- 
mate cost, $85,985. 

Up to June 30, 1905, there had been expended on this improvement 
$35,000. 

The work done under the present project has resulted in a channel 
with depths of from 3 to 6 feet at mean low water, and with a dimin- 
ishing width of from 100 to 50 feet, except where reduced by ledges 
of rock, from the mouth to the turn east of the gas works ; above this 
point the channel remains as previously reported. 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, over the 
shoalest part of the channel at mean low water from the mouth to 
the turn east of the gas works was about 3 feet ; above this point, 1 
foot. The head of navigation is at the dam across the river, just 
beyond the dye works. The total length of navigable channel is about 
3 miles. Mean range of tide is 6.6 reet at mouth and 6 feet at West 
Farms. 

The commerce of this river is mainly coal, cotton goods, drugs for 
dyeing purposes, ice, and building materials. It amounted to 1.39,310 
tons, valued at $526,025, in 1897; to 171,300 tons, valued at $1,985,700, 
in 1899; to 153,137 tons, valued at $500,000, in 1902; to 77,710 tons, 
valued at $536,400, in 1903, and to 42,286 tons, valued at $196,642, in 
1904. 

Details of improvement can be found in Report of the Chief of 
Engineers for 1900, pages 1389-1391. 



Digitized by 



Google 



118 BEPOHT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEEE8, V. S, ARMY. 

A sketch of a part of tJie stream is printed in Report of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1904, page 1016. 

The effect of the improvement has probably been to reduce the 
freight rates since the channel has been deepened. 

(5) East Chester (.'reek. — This is a small tidal stream emptying 
into Pelham Bay. It was originally navigable at high tide for ves- 
sels drawing 7 feet as far as Ix)ckwoods, a distance of 2J miles. 

The project for improvement, approved March 3, 1873, provided 
for a channel 100 feet wide and 9 feet deep, mean high water, from 
deep water in Pelham Bay to a point 3,000 feet above Lockwoods. 
Estimated cost. $130,500 ; subsequently reduced to $124,000. 

Up to June 30, 1905, there had been expended on this work $106,500, 
of which amount $16,408.78 was for maintenance. Expenditure dur- 
ing the fiscal year was applied to maintenance. 

The work done under the present project has resulted in a channel 
about 100 feet wide and 9 feet deep at mean high water from Pel- 
ham Bay to a point 3,000 feet above Lockwoods. It is probable that 
this channel has deteriorated somewhat. 

The maximum draft that could be carried over the shoalest part 
of the channel on June 30, 1905, up to Ix)ckwoods, is estimated to be 
about 9 feet at mean high water, and above this about 8 feet to the 
gas company's dock. Mean range of tides is 7.1 feet. The head of 
navigation in fact is at the upper end of the artificial channel. The 
total length of navigable channel is about 2f miles. 

The commerce, mainly coal, building material, stone, and miscel- 
laneous freight, amounted to 94,928 tons, valued at $2,199,180, in 
1895; to 28(5,428 tons, valued at $1,957,224, in 1899; to 99,750 tons, 
valued at $870,500. in 1902; to 104,655 tons, valued at $572,800, in 
1903, and to 146,955 tons, valued at $963,263, in 1904. 

The effect of the improvement has probably been to reduce the 
freight rates since the channel has been deepened. 

For detailed reports see Reports of the Chief of Engineers for 1897, 
pages 1089-1090, and 1904, pages 101-6-1018. A sketch of the stream 
is printed in Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1904, page 1016. 
For references to reports on examinations and surveys see Report of 
the Chief of Engineers for 1904, page 112. 

July 1, 1904, balance uuex|)ended 112,522.00 

Amount appropriated by river and bnrbor act approved March 3, 1905. 24, 500. 00 

37, 022. 00 
June 30, 1905. amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance 
of Improvement 12,522.00 

July 1, lixr), balance unexpended 24,500.00 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 21. 00 

July 1, 1905, balance available 24,479.00 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 34,485.00 

(See Appendix E 5.) 

6. Harbors at Port Jefferson, Mattituch, Iluntington, Gl^ncooe, 
Flushing Bay, Canarsie Bay, and Sag Harbor^ New York. — (a) Port 
Jefferson Harbor. — This is a large and deep inland bay, situated on 
the north shore of I^ong Island, and connected with Long Island 
Sound by a narrow entrance. 



Digitized by 



Google 



HIVES AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 119 

Before improvement the channel depth outside the entrance was 
but 4 feet at mean low water, whereas the depth in the harbor was 12 
feet and more at low tide up .to within 300 feet of the wharves of 
Port Jefferson village. 

The first project for improvement was adopted in 1871 and com- 
j)leted in 1883, at a total cost of $79,000. Two jetties were built to 
shelter the inlet channel, one east of the inlet, 1,300 feet long, and one 
west, 940 feet long, both of scant cross section. A channel 8 feet deep 
at mean low water and 100 feet wide was dredged through the inlet 
and the shoal outside. 

The existing project for improvement, approved September 19, 
1890, and modified August 18, 1894, provides for dredging a channel 
through the harbor entrance 12 feet deep and 200 feet wide, to be pro- 
tected by extending and enlarging the previously built jetties. Esti- 
mated cost, $145,000. 

The expenditure on the present project up to June 30, 1905, 
amounted to $65,200. The expenditure during the fiscal year was 
applied to building a fence to prevent the drift of sand and in making 
surveys. Under the present project the east breakwater has been en- 
larged to a width on top of approximately 4 feet and height of 6 feet 
above mean high water, and is in an unfinished condition. The west 
breakwater has been enlarged to a width on top of 4 feet and height of 
4 feet above mean high water, and is in good condition. The pro- 
jected channel has been completed, but some shoaling has occurred. 
The harbor is about 2 miles long and three-fourths of a mile wide. 

The maximum draft that could be carried over the shoalest part of 
the channel June 30, 1905, was 10.5 feet at mean low water. The 
total length of navigable channel from Long Island Sound to Port 
Jefferson wharves is about 2^ miles. Mean range of tides at entrance, 
7 feet ; at Port Jefferson wharves, 6.2 feet. 

The commerce consists principally of coal, building materials, 
farm produce, fish, and general merchandise, and amounted to 24,940 
tons, valued at $360,200, in 1898; to 42,130 tons, valued at $2,145,940, 
in 1899; and to 46,670 tons, valued at $776,000, in 1903. 

The effect of the improvement has probably been to reduce the 
freight rates since the channel has been deepened. 

For detailed rejport, see Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1900, 
page 1393. A sketch of Port Jefferson Harbor is printed in the 
Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1900, page 866. 

(&) Mattituck Harbor. — ^This harbor is a tidal inlet extending in a 
southerly direction from Long Island Sound to the village of Matti- 
tuck, Long Island. One mile above the mouth a tide mill dam with 
gates has Deen built across the stream. The depth at the entrance, 
which is obstructed by a shifting sand bar, is from 1 to 2 feet. Thence 
up to the mill dam from 2 to 7 feet at low tide, and above the latter 
the depth is 6 feet at high tide. 

The project, adopted by the act of June 3, 1896, provides for a 
channel 7 leet deep at mean low water from the entrance to the dam, 
and 7 feet deep at mean high water above the dam to the village, the 
width to be 80 feet, except near the mouth, where it is increased to 100 
feet; the entrance channel to be protected by two parallel jetties, 400 
feet apart, extending out to the 9- foot curve. Estimated cost, $83,000. 

Up to June 30, 1905, there had been expended upon the improve- 
ment $15,000. 



Digitized by 



Google 



l20 BEPOKT OF THH) CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

The west jetty has been built for a length of 680 feet, extending 
out to the 10-foot curve, and serves to some extent in fixing the chan- 
nel entrance, but navigation will not be materially benefited until 
the other jetty has been built and the entrance channel deepened by 
dredging. 

The maximum draft that could be carried Jime 30, 1905, over the 
shoalest part of the channel at mean low water is estimated to be 
about 1 foot. 

The head of navigation is at the village of Mattituck. 

The total length of the navigable channel from Long Island Sound 
to Mattituck is about 2J miles. The range of tide outside the en- 
trance is 4.8 feet and below the mill dam, 2.2 feet. 

The commerce consists principally of coal, building materials, 
fruits and farm produce, and general merchandise, and amounted to 
66,602 tons, valued at $2,041,766, in 1904. 

No change in freight i-ates has yet resulted, the work not being 
sufficiently advanced. 

For detailed description of this work, see Annual Report of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1891, page 843, and 1897, page 1095. 

{(;) Huntington Ilarhor. — This harbor is a narrow tidal estuary 
extending inland from Huntington Bay, I^ong Island, in a southerly 
direction for a distance of about 2 miles. 

Before improvement it had a natural available depth of nearly 8 
feet, mean low water, for a stretch of \\ miles from the entrance 
southward, thence gradually decreasing to zero toward the head of the 
harbor. 

In 1872 the first project was adopted, imder which in 1873 a shoal 
at the harbor entrance was removed and a channel 2,200 feet long, 
130 to 150 feet wide, and 8 feet deep at mean low water was dredged 
up to the town landings, at a total cost of $22,500. In 1884 this chan- 
nel had completely filled up. 

The present project, adopted September 19, 1890, provides for 
dredging and maintaining a channel 8 feet deep and 100 feet wide up 
to the upper wharves, to be protected bv piling if neces.sarv. Esti- 
mated cost, $32,000. 

Up to June 30, 1905, there had been expended on this project 
$32,000, of which amount $2,510.94 was for maintenance. 

The present project is completed, except as to the dredging or pile 
construction necessary to maintain the channel. For purposes of 
maintenance, the channel has been dredged 200 feet wide in lieu of 
pile protection. 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, is esti- 
mated to be about 8 feet. The head of navigataon is at a causeway 
about one-third of a mile above Town dock. The total length of 
navigable channel from Huntington Bay to the causeway is about 2 
miles. Mean range of tide, 7.2 feet. 

The commei'ce of the harbor consists mainly of coal, farm produce, 
building material, and miscellaneous merchandise, and amounted to 
23,584 tons, valued at $473,109, in 1897; to 46.500 tons, valued at 
$605,000, in 1899; to 45,600 tons, valued at $768,000, in 1900; to 
52,000 tons, valued at $875,800, in 1901; to 66,000 tons, valued at 
$1,086,000, in 1903; and to 94,950 tons, valued at $2,818,250, in 1904. 

The eflFect of the improvement has probably been to reduce the 
freight rates since the channel has been deepened. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOR IMPBOVEMENTS. 121 

For detailed description, see Report of the Chief of Engineers for 
1897, pa^ 1100 to llO^. A sketch of the upper part of the harbor is 
printed in the Annual Report for 1904; page 1023. 

(d) Glencove Harbor. — ^This harbor is a small tidal inlet on the 
east side of Hempstead Harbor, Long Island. Its channel is about 2 
feet deep at mean low water, and a bar at the entrance has a foot less 
of depth. Before improvement, vessels waiting for tides to enter the 
harbor were exposed to storms from the north and noi'thwest. Range 
of tide, 7.7 feet. 

The existing project, approved August 11, 1888, and revised June 
22, 1895, provides for the construction of a breakwater in Hempstead 
Harbor, extending from the northwest corner of (Jlencove dock west- 
southwestwardly toward Motts Point, so as to shelter the anchorage 
outside of Glencove Harbor. The breakwater is to have a length of 
2,000 feet and to be built to a height of 3 feet above high water, with 
a top width of 5 feet. Estimated cost, $l.sr),000. 

Up to June 30, 1905, there had been expended in carrving out the 
work $69,000. 

The breakwater is now 1,5(>4 feet long, 3 feet wide on top, and 4 
feet above mean high water, except for the outer 200 feet, which is 
5 feet wide. 

The commerce of the harbor is chiefly coal, grain, building 
materials, and general merchandise, and amounted to 8,549 tons, 
valued at $40,515, in 19W. 
This improvement has no immediate effect on freight rates. 
For details of improvement, see Report of the Chief of Engineers 
for 1897, page 1103. A map is printed in Report of the Chief of 
Engineers for 1889, page 728. 

(e) Flushing Bay. — Flushing Bay is on the north .shore of Jjong 
Island, about 14 miles by water from the Battery, New York City. 
The bay is about 1 mile wide and 2 miles long, the depth in the origi- 
nal channel being not much greater than elsewhere in the bay. Before 
improvement, the controlling depth up to Flushing was 3.9 feet, mean 
low water. 

The existing project, approved March 3, 1879, and modified Sep- 
tember 19, 1888, and June 9, 1891, provides for building a dike 
4,663 feet long on the west side of the channel to protect it from 
filling, and for making and maintaining a channel (> feet deep at mean 
low water up to the lower bridge at Flushing. Estimated cost, 
$173,500. 

Up to June 30, 1905, there had been expended on this improvement 
$123,000. Expenditure during fiscal year was for office expenses. 
During progress of work it was repeatedly noces.sary to redredge 
.some parts of the channel, so that it is not possible to state what part 
of above sum was used for maintenance. 
No work was carried on during the year. 

The project depth of 6 feet has l)een obtained, but the present 
width is insufficient for the needs of the locality. The dike, 4,663 
feet long, is in bad condition. The outer part, 1,606 feet long, which 
was left partly completed in 1891, has since been nearly destroyed 
by storms and ice. Further work on the dike was discontinued. 

The head of navigation is 1 mile above Strongs Causeway. The 
total length of the navigable channel is about h\ miles. Mean range 
of tides, 7.1 feet. 



Digitized by 



Google 



122 BBPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOTKEEBS, V. S. ABICT. 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, was 
estimated to be about 7.5 feet at mean low water from East River 
to just beyond the Main Street Railroad Bridge. 

The commerce consists chiefly of coal, building materials, dye- 
woods, and miscellaneous merchandise, and amounted to 163,395 
tons, valued at $1,449,438, in 1897; to 158,755 tons, valued at 
$1,534,937, in 1899; to 200,473 tons, valued at $4,196,406, in 1901; 
to 186,000 tons, valued at $1,613,100, in 1902; to 110,100 tons, valued 
at $960,750, in 1903 ; and to 142,996 tons, valued at $2,599,488, in 1904. 

The effect of the improvement has probably been to reduce the 
freight rates since the channel has been deepened. 

For detailed description of improvement, see Report of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1897, page 1106. A map is printed in the Report 
of the Chief of Engineers lor 1903, page 868. 

Report of the examination authorized W the river and harbor act 
approved June 13, 1902, was submitted January 15, 1904, returned 
by the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors for further in- 
formation, which was furnished Juno 21, 1904. It is printed in 
House Document No. 98, Fifty-eighth Congress, third session. 

(/) Canarsie Bay. — This bay forms the northwest part of Jamaica 
Bay at Canarsie Landing. The original depth from the landing to 
Big channel was 4.2 feet, and to Island channel 1,3 feet at mean low 
water. 

The project for this improvement,, approved June 14, 1880, and 
subsequently enlarged in 1889 and 1896, provides for the construction 
of two dikes and dredging between them where necessary to secure 
a channel 100 to 150 feet wide and 6 feet deep, connecting the steam- 
boat dock at Canarsie with Big channel, Jamaica Bay; also for a 
channel 4 feet deep and about 50 feet wide running in a south- 
westerly direction from Canarsie Landing to Island channel, and for 
a channel 5 feet deep and 50 feet wide running in a northwesterly 
direction to Gophel channel. Estimated cost, $88,000. 

Up to June 30, 1905, there had been expended in carrying out this 
improvement, $69,872.36. Expenditure during the year was for 
dredging. 

The head of navigation is at Canarsie Landing. 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, over the 
shoalest part of the channel at mean low water was 7 feet in the 
main channel, and is estimated to be about 2^ feet in the West 
Branch and 3 feet in the East Branch. The total length of navi- 
gable channel is about 1 mile. Mean range of tides, 4.7 feet. 

The commerce of Canarsie is mainly building materials, ferti- 
lizers, fish, and coal, and amounted to 50.000 tons, valued at $427,375, 
in 1896; to 450,000 tons, valued at $2,000,000, in 1901 ; and to 124,594 
tons, valued at $1,861,008, in 1904. 

The commerce in Jamaica Bay has been greatly benefited by the 
improvement and freight rates reduced. 

Details as to this improvement may be found in Report of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1897, page 1114. A sketch of Canarsie Bay 
is printed in the Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1904, page 
1026. 

(g) Sag Harbor. — ^This harbor lies on the northern shore of Long 
Island, about 24 miles west of Montauk Point. It is a small bay, 



Digitized by 



Google 



s 



KIVEB AKD HABBOB tMPBOVEMEKTS. 123 

sheltered \^y Long Island on the south and west and partly by Shelter 
Island on the north, and is open to the northeasterly storms. 

The project adopted June 13, 1902, consists in constructing a break- 
water 3,180 feet long -from Conklin Point, at an estimated cost of 
$71,000. 

There had been expended on this improvement on June 30, 1905, 
$13,500. The expenditure has been in completing the portion of 
breakwater built and extending it 584 feet to water 4 to 5 feet deep. 
It affords protection to small boats of light draft, but will not be of 
much benefit to commerce until extended into the deeper part of the 
harbor. 

The maximum draft that can be carried through the harbor up to 
the wharves is about 12 feet. The mean range of tide is 2.5 feet. 

This work is not advanced to a state neces.sary to affect freight 
rates. 

For detailed report see Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1900, 
age 1451. A sketch of the harbor is printed in the Report of the 
'hief of Engineers for 1903, page 870. 

The commerce of the harbor, mainly in general merchandise and 
fruits and farm products, amounted to 3,454 tons, valued at $187,015, 
in 1904. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $22,108. f56 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3. 19U5. (12. .'lUO, UO 

Recovered on bond of I'eter Lynam, failing contractor 2,290.00 

Amount allotted from appropriation for maintenance of river and 
harbor Improvements, act of April 28, 1904 2,400.00 

89,304.60 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year : 

For works of improvement $17,061.72 

For maintenance of Improvement 119. 30 

17, 181. 02 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 72, 123. 64 

July 1. 1905, outstanding liabilities— 174. C9 

July 1, 1905, balance available 71, 94a 95 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 258,000.00 

(See Appendix E 6.) 

7. East River and Hell Gate, New York. — East River, a tidal strait 
separating New York City from Long Island, extends from the Bat- 
tery to Tlirogs Neck, a distance of about 16 miles. In its original 
condition it was obstructed by rocks and reefs, especially in the part 
known as Hell Gate. 

The improvement of this waterway was commenced in 1852, under 
a project prepared in 1848, which contemplated the removal of rocks 
at Hell Gate and Diamond reef. 

The amount expended under this project was $33,861.59. 

The existing project for improvement, adopted in 1868 and modi- 
fied in 1870, 1874, 1884, 1889, 1891, and 1899, provides for the removal 
of rocky obstructions from the channel between the Battery and 
Baretto Point to depths varying from 18 to 26 feet, and for the con- 
struction of sea walls and dikes where necessary to guide the tidal 
currents. The cost of the work was estimated at $5,639,120. 



Digitized by 



Google 



124 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF EKGIKEBBS, U. S. AfOCY. 

The amount expended in carrying out this project to the cjose of the 
fiscal year ending June 30; 1905, was $4,728,382.86, no portion of 
which was applied to maintenance. 

This expenditure has re.sulted in the removal to the contemplated 
depths of Diamond reef, reef off Diamond reef, Coenties reef. Pil- 
grim rock, Charlotte rock, Hallets Point, Ways reef, Shell Drake, 
Scaly rock, reef at Middle Ground off Sunken Meadow, North 
Brother Island reef, reef off Baretto Point, Twenty-sixth Street reef, 
Man-o'-War rock. Third Street reef, and in the partial removal of 
Battery reef, reef off South Ferry slips. Shell reef. Ferry reef off 
Thirty-fourth street, Middle reef, including Flood rock. Gridiron, 
Hen and Chickens, and Negro Heads, Fiying Pan, and Pot rocks. 

A maximum draft of 20) feet could be carried at mean low ■water, 
June 30, 1005, through the main channel from the Battery to Long 
Island Sound, The total length of the waterway is about 16 miles 
and it is navigable throughout. The range of tide south of Hell 
Gate is from 4^ to 5 feet, and east of it from 5 to 7 feet. 

The traffic on East River is very great and is intimately connected 
with that of New York Harbor proper. It is impracticable to show 
what proportion belongs to the East River, especially as the heaviest 
coastwise traffic passing through this waterway is carried on in ves- 
sels Wliich do not enter or clear at the custom-house. 

This being a connecting water, most of the freight carried is not 
local, and for that reason its effect on freight rates can not be 
determined. 

Detailed descriptions of the locality, projects, and work done are 
printed in the Reports of the Chief of Engineers for 1868, page 741 ; 
for 1874, Part 2, page 164, and for 1897, page 1026. 

.Tuly 1, 1904, balance unexpended |8, 894. 90 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905- 200, 000. 00 
Received from sale of condemned property 1,326. 00 

210, 220. 80 
June 30, 190!), amount expended during fiscal year, for works of Im- 
provement 3,927. 96 

July 1. 1905. balance unexpended 206,292.84 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities , 257. m 

July 1, 1905, balance available 206, 035. 26 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 705, 77& 55 

(See Appendix E 7.) 

8. Ilarlem River, New York. — The Harlem River and Spuyten 
Duyvil Creek, both included in the improvement, are two waterways 
w^hich join at Kingsbridge, N. Y., and separate Manhattan Island 
from the mainland. The narrow channel at their junction was ob- 
structed by a ledge of rocks awash at low tide. 

Before improvement the Harlem River had an available depth of 
10 feet from the East River to Morris dock, except at Highbridge, 
where it was only 6 feet. From Morris dock to t ordham Landing 
there was a crooked channel 7 feet deep, and above the latter place 
the river could be used only by the smallest class of vessels. 

Spuyten Duyvil Creek, from Kingsbridge to the Hudson, had a 
depth of 4 feet. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOR IMPROVEMENTS. 125 

The original project for improvement, adopted in 1874, provided 
for the removal of old bridge piers, Candle Factory reef, and bowl- 
ders at various places near the East River to a depth of 12 feet, the 
cost of the work being estimated at $167,875.56. In furtherance of 
this project $21,000 was expended. 

The existing project, adopted June 18, 1878, and modified October 
7, 1886, provides for a contmuous channel 400 feet wide and 15 feet 
deep from the East River to the Hudson River, except just north of 
Highbridge, where the width was made 375 feet, and the rock cut 
through Dyckmans Meadow, where the width was reduced to 350 
feet and the depth increased to 18 feet. The cost of the work was 
estimated at $2,700,000. 

The amount expended in carrying on the work under the existing 
project to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, was 
$1,320,000. 

Expenditure during the fiscal year was for removing oljstructions 
at Fourth Avenue Bridge. 

On June 30, 1905, there was a continuous channel from the East 
River to the Hudson River, with a least width of 150 feet and a least 
depth of 15 feet at mean low water. The total length of the water- 
way is about 8 miles, and it is navigable throughout. The range 
of tides in Harlem River varies from 5.5 feet at Third Avenue Bridge 
to 3.8 feet at the mouth of Spu3rten Duyvil Creek. 

The commerce of this river, which is general in character, amounted 
to 7,533,594 tons, valued at $203,707,376, in 1895 ; to 6,910,386 tons, 
valued at $282,186,100, in 1903, and to 9,130,763 tons, valued at 
$231,384,004, in 1904. 

The greater part of this is handled by the New York, New Haven 
and Hartford Railroad Company, principally on the lower part of 
the river, and therefore can not be considered as bearing on the gen- 
eral improvement. 

For detailed descriptions see Reports of the Chief of Engineers for 
1887, pages 665-689, and 1897, page 1019 et seq. 

The effect of the improvement, according to the best information 
available, is that some reduction has been made in freight rates, but 
the principal benefit derived has been in the way of increased facili- 
ties for handling shipments, which make a material saving in the 
cost of transportation. 

July 1, 1904. balance unexpended |1, 717. 54 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 
1905 7.5. 000. 00 

76, 717. 54 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of 
Improvement 1. 717. ."U 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 7.5,000.00 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 3. .50 

July 1, 1905, balance available 74, 996. ,50 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existinf; project-. 1,305,000.00 
(See Api)endix E 8.) 

9. Newtown Creek, New York. — ^This creek, and inlet of the East 
River, extending inland between Kings and Queens counties, N. Y., 



Digitized by 



Google 



126 BEPOBT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, IT. 8. ABKY. 

for a distance of about 4 miles, had a natural depth varying from 12| 
feet at the mouth to 4 feet at the head of navigation. 

The original project, adopted in 1880 and modified in 1884, pro- 
vided for a channel 240 feet wide and 21 feet deep from the mouth to 
the Vernon Avenue Bridge, thence to the head of navigation on both 
branches for channels decreasing from 175 to 100 feet in width and 
from 18 to 10 feet in depth. The cost of the work was estimated at 
$255,500. In carrying out this project $197,600 was expended. 

The existing project, adopted June 3, 1896, is to secure a uniform 
channel 125 feet wide and 18 feet deep from the East River to the 
head of navigation at Metropolitan avenue, at an estimated cost of 
$450,000. This estimate was subsequently reduced to $213,000. 

The amount expended in carrying out this project up to the close 
of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, was $213,400, of which 
$14,792.61 was for maintenance. 

Under the present project the channel has been completed, with the 
exception of the removal of some bowlders recently found near its 
edge. Dredging for maintenance will be necessary from time to 
time. . 

The head of navigation in each branch is at the Metropolitan Ave- 
nue Bridge. 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, at mean 
low water was 18 feet. The total length of navigable channel is 
about 4 miles. The mean range of tide is about 4i feet. 

The commerce, consisting diiefly of coal, building materials, oil, 
ores, general merchandise, etc., amounted to 2,675,025 tons, valued at 
$90,535,640, in 1903, and to 3,771,726 tons, valued at $108,313,377, in 
1904. 

Freight rates have been greatly reduced as a result of this im- 
provement. 

Detailed descriptions of this improvement are. printed in the Re- 
ports of the Chief of Engineers for 1896, pages 760-761, and 1900, 
page 1411. A sketch of tlie locality is printed in the Report of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1904, page 1034. 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1005- ?5, 000. 00 
July 1, 1905, balance unexpended .5,000.00 



Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 14, 792. 61 

(See Appendix E 9.) 

10. Browne Creek, New Yorh. — This is a narrow stream which 
empties into Great South Bay, Long Island, near Browns Point. It 
had originally a depth of from 1 to 3 feet at low water, a bar at the 
mouth having less than 1 foot. 

The project for improvement approved September 19, 1890, pro- 
vides for a channel 100 feet^wide and 4 feet deep, to extend from 
deep water in the bay up to Sa.yville highway bridge, and to be pro- 
tected at the entrance by jetties on both sides. Estimated cost, 
$46,000. 

Up to June 30, 1905, there had been expended on this improvement 
$28,000, of which $3,000 was for maintenance. 

The west jetty is 492 feet long and the east jetty 438 feet long, 
both with top width of 3 feet at 1 foot above high water, and both 
partly covered at the shore end by accretion. They are in bad condi- 
tion. The dredged channel is 3,200 feet long, with a depth of 4 to 8 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIT£B AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENT8. 127 

feet at mean low water and width of 100 feet. Shoaling has taken 
place at end of jetties. 

No work was in progress during the past year. 

The head of navigation is at the Say ville highway bridge, about IJ 
miles from the mouth. 

The maximum draft that could be carried over the shoalest part at 
mean low water on June 30, 1905, was 4 feet, except at mouth, where 
considerable shoaling is reported. Mean range of tides, 1 foot. 

Great benefit has resulted from the improvement to the fishing peo- 
ple in this locality in providing a harbor of .fefuge for small boats. 

The commerce consists mainly of coal, building materials, and fish, 
and amounted to 10,700 tons, valued at $213,800 in 1898; to 11,642 
tons, valued at $251,350 in 1899; to 17,025 tons, valued at $454,500 
in 1901; to 17,630 tons, valued at $299,300 in 1902; to 20,380 tons, 
valued at $609,450 in 1903, and to 24,000 tons, valued at $807,075 in 
1904. 

This is mainly a harbor of refuge, and the improvement has had no 
appreciable effect on freight rates. 

Details in reference to this work appear in Reports of the Chief of 
Engineers for 1897, page 1111, and for 1900, page 1417. A sketch of 
the creek is printed in Beport of the Chief of Engineers for 1894, 
page 710. 

Amount appropriated bj river and harbor act approved March 3, 1005. f3, 000. 00 
July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 3,000.00 



Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 15, 000. 00 

(See Appendix E 10.) 

a. Great South Bay, New York. — ^The first project, approved Sep- 
tember 19, 1890, provided for the improvement of the Patchogue 
River, a small inlet extending from Great South Bay, Long Island, to 
the village of Patchogue. This stream had, before improvement, a 
depth of 2 feet. The project provided for a channel about 5,000 feet 
long, 60 feet wide, and 6 feet deep, to be protected at its mouth against 
westerly storms by a jetty 1,700 reet long. Estimated cost, $40,000. 

On June 30, 1902, there had been expended on this work $40,000, 
and the project was completed. 

The present project, approved June 13, 1902, provides for dredg- 
ing a cnannel from Fire Island Inlet, which connects Great Souui 
Bay with the ocean, to Patchogue, on Patchogue River. From the 
inlet to the central basin in Great South Bay the channel is to be 10 
feet deep at mean low water and 200 feet wide. From the central 
basin to Patchogue the channel is to be 8 feet deep and 100 feet wide 
at mean low water. Estimated cost $66,000, and $2,000 annually for 
maintenance. 

There had been expended in carrying on the work of the existing 

Sroject to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, $57,241.87. 
Ixpenditure during the fiscal year was for dredging and for survey 
to locate fish pounds obstructing navigation. 

The present project is completed except at bars A and B. An 
injunction prevented the work lieing brought to a conclusion. 

The head of navigation in Patchogue River is at a fixed bridge at 
Division street, Patchogue. The total length of navigable channel 



Digitized by 



Google 



128 BEPOKT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOINEEBS, U. 8. ARMT. 

from Fire Island Inlet to Patchogue is about 17^ miles, and to Belle- 
port 22 miles. 

The maximum uraft that could be carried June 30, 1905, over the 
shoalest part of the channel from Fire Island Inlet to central basin 
was 9.5 feet, and from central basin to Patchogue 6.5 feet. Mean 
ranee of tides, 1 foot. 

The commerce consists mainly of coal, lumber, and fish. It 
amounted to 255,200 tons, valued at $3,702,000, in 1898; to 266,800 
tons, valued at $3,808,500, in 1899; to 274,100 tons, valued at 
$3,919,000, in 1900; to 281,300 tons, valued at $4,025,000, in 1901; to 
257,500 tons, valued at $4,000,000, in 1902 ; to 258,500 tons, valued at 
$3,995,000, in 1903; and to 257,879 tons, valued at $4,037,130, in 1904. 

The effect of the improvement has probably been to reduce the 
freight rat<?s since the channel has been deepened. 

For details as to improvement see Patchogue River, Reports of the 
Chief of EngineecB for 1897, page 1108, and 1901, page 1249. A 
sketch is printed in Reports of the Chief of Engineers for 1903, page 
876. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $16,783.19 

Amount appropriated by rlrer and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 2, 000. 00 

18, 783. 19 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of im- 
provement 8, 025. 06 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 10, 758. 13 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 594.50 

July 1, 1905, balance available -■- 10,163.63 

(See Appendix E 11.) 

12. Hudson Rirer, New York. — The portion of this river which is 
now under improvement is the stretch beginning at the State dam at 
Troy and extending downstream to Coxsackie, a distance of 28 miles. 
In its natural condition the channel was narrow and crooked, with a 
navigable depth of 4 feet Ixjtween the State dam and Albany, of 7^ 
feet between Albany and New Baltimore, of 11 feet between New 
Baltimore and Coxsackie, and of 12 feet or more below Coxsackie. 

The original project for improvement, adopted in 1834, modified 
in 1852 and again in 1866, had for its object the securing of a navi- 
gable channel of sufficient width and 9 feet deen between Troy and 
Albany and 11 feet deep between ,\lbany and New Baltimore. In 
carrying out this work $1,667,938 was expended!. 

The existing project, approved Julv 13, 1892, for which a revised 
estimate was suomitted to Congress February 1, 1898, and adopted 
March 3, 1899, provides for a 12-foot channel 150 feet wide from the 
State dam to the foot of Jacob street, Troy, thence gradually increas- 
ing in width to 400 feet at the foot of Broadway, Troy ; thence 400 
feet wide to Coxsackie. This work was estimateJi to cost $4,343,863. 

The amount expended on the work under this project to the close of 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, was $3,283,581.67, of which 
$230,350.24 was applied to maintenance of improvement. 

In the item making appropriation for this improvement the river 
and harbor act of March 3, 1905, provides that $85,000 of the amount 



Digitized by 



Google 



BTVEB AJUO HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 129 



I appro]>riat«d. or so much thereof as may be necessary, may, in the 

J discretion of the Secretary' of War, be expended for the removal of 

^ Stonehou«e bar, opposite Kew Baltimore; and not exceeding $10,000 

f is MUthorized to be expended in providing a channel of access to the 

/ bMrbor at Tarrrtown, N. Y., in accordance with plan presented in 

r the Annuai Beport of the Chief of Engineers for loioO, page 1520. 

(See Tarrjtowii Harbor, New York, p. 133, herewith.) 

The said act also authorizes and directs the Secretary of War to 
cause an examination to be made of the existing stone pier at Pier- 
roont with a vie\F to determining whether the same should be re- 
moved in the interest of navigation. 

The result of the alxjve expenditure has been to provide a channel 
11 feet deep, .nowhere less than 00 and generally 180 to 320 feet wide, 
from Goxsackie to the foot of Broam\-ay, Troy, N. Y., except at 
Stonehouse Bay and Bath Cross-over, where the depth had decreased 
to 10..5 and 10 ft»et, respectively, and a depth of 10 feet for a width of 
60 feet from Broadway, Troy, to within 500 feet of the State dam. 
()n the miter sill of tlie Sloop lock connecting the slack water above 
the State dam Avith tlie tidal water of the river, the depth is only 4.5 
f«et. The decreatse in navigable depth was due to naUiral shoaling, 
there having been no dredging excejrt at Mulls Crossover. The head 
6f navigation for the tidal portion of the river is at the State dam. 

The benefits to the work already done is shown by change which 
has been made by the towing lines, which formerly broke up the 
large tows below the bridges at Albany, but now takes them through 
to the locks at Xroy with the heavy-draft boats, in considerably less 
time than formerly. 

The total length of navigable channel under improvement in the 
Hudson River is 28 miles. The maximimi draft that could be carried 
June 30. 1905, at mean low water was 10 fwt from a point 500 feet 
from the Sloop lock to Coxsackie. The range of tides varies in dry 
seasons from 2.55 feet at State dam, to 2.84 feet at Albany, to 3.69 
feet at Coxsackie. 

The result of the expenditures has been to nearly complete the work 
of putting in good order the old pile dikes which, owing to age and 
ice, had so far deteriorated that they were of little service as training 
works. There still remains a large amount of dike work to be done 
before it can be expected that the river will maintain the depth of 
12 feet at mean low^ water without having to resort to dredging 

periodically. .... 

The commerce within the hmits of the unprovenients now m 
progress amounted to 3,513,545 tons, valued at $ir)0,8!)3,030.41, in 
1904, and consists principally of grain, fuel, lumber, building ma- 
terial, and ice. 

The effect of the improvement has been to decrease freight rates 
ance the channel has been improved. 

EHO 1905 M -O 



Digitized by 



Google 



130 REPOBT OF THE OHIBF OF KNOnTEBBS, U. 8. ABUT. 

July 1, 1901, balance unexpended $104,455.06 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 
1905 203. 300. 00 

307,765.06 
June 30, 1005, amount exi)ended during flacal year : 

For works of improvement $74,570.18 

For maintenance of improvement 9,048.50 

84, 524. 77 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 223,230.29 

July 1, 1005. outstanding liabilities 14,957.30 

July 1, 1905, balance available 208,272.99 

July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 6,479. 24 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 1,067,406.68 

(See Appendix E 12.) 

13. Saugerlien Harbor, Netc York. — Saucerties Harbor is the name 
applied to the mouth of Esopus Creek, whidi empties into the Hudson 
liiver from the west, about 100 miles above New York City, which 
<:reek is navigable at high water for a distance of about 6,000 feet 
from deep water in the Hudson River. Above the steamboat land- 
ing, which is a distance of about 4,500 feet from deep water, there is 
little traffic. 

The original depth over the bar was 3 feet at mean low water, which 
had been increased to 7 feet by dredging done by the State of New 
York in 1885-86. 

The original project, which contemplated securing a permanent 
channel 7 leet deep at mean low water and 100 feet wide, at an esti- 
mated cost of $62,000, was adopted in 1884, modified in 1887, and com- 
pleted in 1892, with an expenditure of $42,000. To June 30, 1902, 
$15,000 had been expended for maintenance. 

The existing project, which contemplates a channel 12 feet deep at 
mean low water and 200 feet wide from the channel of the Hudson 
River to the steamboat landing, at an estimated cost of $44,685, with 
an annual expenditure of $2,500 for maintenance, was adopted June 
13, 1902. 

The river and harlM)r act of March 3, 1905, authorizes the Chief of 
Engineers, upon application, to permit Ihe extension of the channel 
from the point at which the present project terminates up to a point 
600 feet below the dam in Esopus Creek, provided the plan or im- 
provement is first submitted to and approved by him, and that no part 
of the appropriation made by said act shall be expended therefor. 

The amount exj)ended under the existing project up to June 30, 
1905, was $23,216.32, of which $17,884.47 was applied ttf maintenance. 

This expenditure has resulted in the removal of a portion of a dan- 
gerous reef of rock, a continuation of Barclays Point, to the depth of 
12 feet, and the partial restoration of the channel above the reef to a 
depth of 9 feet, where, owing to the bi-eaking of the dam a short dis- 
tance above the head of navigation in the summer of 1902, and the 
consequent release of a large quantity of mud and silt retained by it, 
the chanrel had been reduced in width and depth so as to be prac- 
tically closed to the navigation of large boats, and the relief of navi- 
gation along the wharves on the north side of the channel, where ex- 
tensive shoaling has taken place, apparently as the result of the 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIYEB AND HABBOB tMPEOVEMENTS. 131 

remoral of the rock off Barclays Point. The head of navieation is at 
a point about 600 feet below the dam. The total length of navigable 
cjunnel is about 1^ miles. 

The maxiniuni draft at mean low water that could be carried June 
30, 1905, was 8 feet for a minimum widtli of 60 feet. The mean rise 
and f&U of tides is about 4 feet. 

The additional work proposed is for the purpose of extension of the 
benefit.s already derived from the improvement. 

The cotomerce consists mainly of biuestone, coal, building material, 
and general merchandise, and amoimted to 67,473 tons in 11)01, ()(),.500 
tons in 1902. 112,677 tons in 1903; and 113,200 tons, valued at 
¥18^32.195, in 1904. 

The effect of the improvement, according to the best information 
available, is to reduce freight rates during the season of navigation. 

Details in reference to this work appear in Reports of the Chief of 
Engmeers for 1895, page 910, and 1900, pages 1518-1520. A sketch 
is printed in Beport of the Chief of Engineers for 1901, page 1046. 

July 1, 1904. balance unexpended $4. 421. SI 

Amount an>ropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905- 5, 0(K». 00 

9. 421. 81 
June 30, 1905, amount exjiended during fiscal year, for matiitcnancc 
of improTement 4, C38. 13 

Jnly 1, 1905, balance unexpended 4.783.08 

July 1, 1905, ontatanding Uabilltles 18. 4:{ 

Jnly 1, 1905. balance available 4, 7(15. 2.5 

Amoont (estimated) required for completion of existing project 19,085.00 

(See Appendix E 13.) 

14- Uarhors at Rondaut and Peekskill, N. Y. — {a)Rondoiit Jlar- 
hor. — ^This harbor is at the mouth of Roudout Creek, which cinj)ties 
into the Hudson River, on its west shore, 90 miles above New i ork 
City. The creek, which is navigable to Eddyville, 3 miles from its 
mouth, was the most easterly section of the Delaware and Hudson 
Canal until that waterway was abandoned several years ago. 

The original depth before the improvement was begun, which was 
the result of work of private parties, was 7 feet at mean low water. 

The original project, which contemplated securing a channel 14 
feet deep at mean low water and 100 feet wide, at an estimated cost 
of $172,500, was adopted June 10, 1872, and was completed in 1880 at 
a total cost of $90,000. 

The amount expended on the work up to the close of the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1905, was $125,300, oi which $35,300 was for main- 
tenance. 

The result of the above expenditure is a channel 11.5 feet deep at 
mean low water and not less than 100 feet wide from deep water in 
the Hudson River to the westerly end of the dikes. 

Owing to a bad breaking up' of the ice this past spring, or some 
onknown cause, there has been a very serious shoaling between the 
south and north dikes, quite a deep hole having been scoured at the 
ODter end of the south dike, which has weakened that structure for 
about 50 feet. The shoal east of the outer end of the south dike, 
ffhich was removed by the dredging in 1904, has started to form 



Digitized by 



Google 



182 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ABXT. 

again, but at present is not a serious obstruction, though it may be 
before another year. 

The head of navigation is at Eddyville. The total length of navi- 
gable channel is 3 miles. 

The maximum draft that could be carried through the dikes June 
30, 1905, was 11.5 feet at mean low water, with a width of channel 
of 100 feet. The mean rise and fall of tides is 4 feet. 

The commerce, which is mainly fuel, bluestone, cements, and gen- 
eral merchandise, amounted to $1,460,000 tons; estimated value, $41,- 
065,000 in 1904. 

The effedt of the improvement is to keep freight rates down during 
the season of navigation. 

(6) Peekskill Harbor. — ^This harbor is an indentation on the east- 
em shore of the Hudson River, about 46 miles above New York City, 
and was a flat about 3,500 feet wide, extending from the shore to the 
deep-water channel of the Hudson River, with a depth of water over 
it of about 5 feet at mean low water, except near the shore, where it 
was about 6 feet deep. 

The original project for improvement, which provided for a 
dredged channel 10 feet deep at mean low water and 100 feet wide 
from deep water in the Hudson River north of the village to deep 
water south of it, following generally the contour of the shore, at an 
estimated cost of $50,000, was adopted June 3, 1896, and was com- 
pleted in 1899 at a cost of $19,400. 

The amount expended at the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1905, was $23,000, of which $3,500 was applied to maintenance. 

No work was done during the past fiscal year, as the channel pre- 
viously dredged has maintained its depth and, approximately, its 
width, so that on June 30, 1905, a maximum draft of 10 feet can be 
carried through, with a minimum width of channel of 70 feet. 

The result of a survey made in June, 1905, was to show that though 
the dredged channel has filled up somewhat along the dock front 
of PeeksKill it is in good condition and in no immediate need of 
dredging. 

The total length of navigable channel is about If miles. Mean rise 
and fall of tide is about 3 feet. 

The commerce, which is mainly general merchandise, building 
material, and fuel, amounted to 81,265 tons; estimated value, $3,751,- 
985.61, in 1904. 

The effect of the improvement during the season of navigation is to 
lower freight rates. 

July 1. 1904, balance unexi)ended 14,605.23 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approval March .S, IIWS. 17, 500. 00 

22, 105. 23 
June 30, 1905, amount exi)ended during fiscal year, for maintenance 
of Improvement 4,605.23 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 17,500.00 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 115.29 

July 1, 1905, balance available 17,384. 71 

(See Appendix E 14.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 133 

15. Wappinger Creek, New York. — Wappinger Creek is a small 
stream -which empties into the Hudson River from the east, about 
one-half mile below the village of New Hamburg, N. Y., is navigable 
from its mouth for a distance of about 2 miles, to the works oi the 
Dutchess Company, which is located just below the falls and at 
the head of navigation. The entrance to the creek is through a draw- 
bridge, over which passes the New York Central and Hudson River 
Railroad, with one opening of 26 feet clearance and about 4 feet clear 
head room at mean low water, under fixed spans. The original depth 
in the channel did not exceed 6 feet, and the width varied from 
25 to 75 feet. 

The original project for improvement, which contemplated a chan- 
nel 8 feet deep at mean low water and 80 feet wide, at an estimated 
cost of $13,000, was adopted September 19, 1890, and was completed 
April 30, 1892. 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, was $14,500, of which $1,500 
was applied to maintenance. The result of the expenditure during 
the past fiscal year was to restore the channel to the depth of 8 feet 
for a width oi 30 feet for about three-fourths of a mile from the 
head of navigation. 

The greatest draft that can be carried at mean low water from 
deep water in the Hudson River to the head of navigation is 6.5 
feet, with a minimum width of channel of 20 feet. 

The mean rise and fall of tides at the 'mouth of the creek is about 
3.3 feet. 

The commerce, consisting principally of cotton goods, clothing, 
building material, and fuel, etc., amounted to 56,927 tons in 1904, 
the estimated value being $7,955,975. 

The traffic in the creek is mainly for the benefit of the print works 
at the head of navigation. Its effect is to reduce the freight rates. 

Details in reference to this work appear in the Report of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1893, pages 1024-1025. A sketch is printed in the 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1904, page 1051. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $1,342.07 

Amount appropriated by river and barlKtr act approved Marcb 3, 1905. 3, 000. 00 

4. 342. 07 
Jnne 30, 1906, amount expended during fiscal year, for rualDtenance 
of improvement 1,342.07 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 3,000.00 

Jnly 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities _ 57.90 

July 1, 1905, balance available 2,942.10 

(See Appendix E 15.) 

16. Tarn/town Harbor, New York. — ^This is a new work. The plan 
for improvement adopted by the river and harbor act of March 3,1905, 
provides for dredging a channel along the wharf front of the harbor 
and connecting it north and south with deep water in Hudson River, 
the said channel to have a depth of 12 leet with a width of 150 
feet along the wharf front and a width of 100 feet in the northerh' 
and southerly connections with the Hudson River. The estimatecl 
cost of this work is $26,000, and $1,000 or $2,000 biennially for 
maintenance. 



Digitized by 



Google 



134 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARXT. 

The project is printed in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engi- 
neers for 1900, page 1520. 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. $10, 000. OO 
July 1, 1905, balance unex|)ende<l 10,000. 00 

17. Removing sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering 
navigation. — {a) Wreck of coal harge Percie and Bertha in the 
Hudson River at Xew York, N. Y. — ^This boat was sunk in the Hud- 
son River at the foot of West Fifty-ninth street. It was reported to 
the Department August 29, 1904, an allotment of $530 for its removal 
made September 1, 1904, and it was completely removed for that sum 
on October 0, 1904. 

(h) Wrecks of unknown canal boat and an unknown schooner in 
Harlem River at New York, N. Y. — These wrecks were sunk in 
Harlem River near One hundred and forty-seventh street and above 
Washington Bridge near One hundred and eighty-fifth street, re- 
sjjectivenr. They were reported to the Department September 21, 
1904, and an allotment of $778 for their removal made October 3, 1904. 
The wrecks were completely removed November 5, 1904, at a total 
cost of $778. 

{c) Wreck of an unknown schooner in Great South Bay, New 
York. — This wreck was sunk in Great South Bay opposite Browns 
Point, New York. It was reported to the Department April 13, 1903. 
The wreck was broken iip with dynamite so as to be no longer a 
menace to navigation on June 24, 1905. 

(See Appendix E 16.) 

EXAMINATION AND SCKVEY OF FLUSHING BAY, NEW YORK, MADE IN COM- 
PLIANCE WITH RIVER AND HARBOR ACT APPROVED JUNE 13, 1902. 

Reports dated January 31, 1903, and June 21, 1904, were submitted 
by Col. S. M. Mansfield, Corps of Engineers (now brigadier-general. 
United States Arnu', retired), and Col. Amos Stickney, Corps of En- 
gineers, on preliminary examination and survey, respectively, of 
Flushing Bay, New York, with a viev) to 7'epairtng, completing, or 
remoinng the dike in said bay and extending the channel to Ireland 
[Irlatid) Mills, required bv the river and harbor act approved June 
13, 1902, and were reviewed by the Board of Engineers for Rivers and 
Harbors pursuant to law. A plan for improvement, at an estimated 
cost of $23,857.90, is presented. The reports 'were transmitted to 
Congress and printed in House Document No. 98, Fifty-eighth Con- 
gress, third session. (See also Appendix E 17.) 

IMPROVEMENT OF NEW YORK HARBOR, OF BAY RIDGE, RED HOOK, 
AND BUTTEUMILK CHANNELS, NEW YORK; ENLARGEMENT OF GOV- 
ERNORS ISLAND, NEW YORK. 

This district was in the charge of Lieut. Col. W. L. Marshall, Corps 
of Engineers. Division engineer, Col. Amos Stickney, Corps of 
Engineers. 

J. New York Harbor, New York. — Before the improvement of tho 
main entrance into New York Harbor was undertaken by the United 
States the least dejith in mid-channel on the outer bar was 23.7 feet 
at mean low water and about the same across three other shoals 
between the bar and deep wat«r in the harbor. A large proportion of 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AKD HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 135 

the conunore of the port, carried in vessels of great draft, could cross 
these slioals only at or near hi^ water. 

The project for the improvement of Gedney channel was approved 
by the Secretarj- of War December, 1884, and extended to cover the 
whole of the main entrance to the harbor December, 1886. It pro- 
vided for dredging a channel 1,000 feet wide and 30 feet deep at mean 
low water from deep water below the Narrows, through Main Sliip 
and Gedney channels, to deep water outside the bar. The estimated 
cost was $1,490,000 for dredging 4,300,000 cubic yards. The actual 
amount dredged to October, 1891, when the work was approximately 
completed, was 4.875,079 cubic yards. 

The existing project for maintenance of channels was approved 
November 15, 1892. The cost of this work varies in different years; 
it is estimated at $50,000 annually. 

Under these projects the amount expended up to July 1, 1905, is 
$1,998,206.75. 

As a result of these expenditures, channels to the sea have Ijcen 
obtained with a depth of 30 feet at mean low w^ater, and width of 
1.000 feet or over, and have been maintained for the full depth with, 
as nearly as [K)ssible, the full width. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, the U. S. dredge Ged- 
fury excavated 315,418 cubic yards of sand and mud from Mam Ship 
diannel, Gedney channel, and Bayside channel, removing shoals and 
lestoring the depth of 30 feet; further work is required in Main Ship 
dhannel to make the deep water full 1,000 fe<»t wide. 

The length of that part of New York Harbor included in the limits 
of the project for improvement (from Atlantic Ocean to the Battery, 
New \ork City) is 22J miles by way of Sandy Hook, and (June 30, 
1905) the channel has a depth of SO ^eet or over throughout its entire 
length. For a length of about 8 miles this depth was made and is 
mamtained under tne project. The mean rise of tide is 4J feet. 

Future appropriations will be applied to the maintenance of these 
channels. 

By the terms of the river and harbor act of 1899 a project was 
adopted for making an entrance to New York Harlwr by way of 
-Vmbrose channel (formerly known as East channel), to be 2.000 fe<'t 
wide and 40 feet deep at mean low water. The work was authorized 
to be done under a continuing contract at a cost not exceeding 
$1,000,000. It involves excavation of a channel about 7 miles in 
length. 

The original depth through this channel was 10 feet at mean low 
water, the shoalest part being the outer bar. The channel was used 
only by towboats, scows, and other light-draft vessels. 

Under the existing project, up to July 1, 1905, $1,908,200.2(5 has 
been expended in construction or two dredges and in excavating foi 
about 2 miles in length on the outer bar, a small amount of work 
being done farther up the channel ; 15,540,909 cubic yards of sand, 
etc., has been removed and the channel has l)een excavated to 40 feet 
depth or more with varying widths for a length of 8,400 feet, and to 
less depth for 21,600 feet farther. 
Danng the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, under the continuing 
* contract, 2,914,440 cubic yards was excavated, extending the channel 
westward and widening it northward. The two Government dredges 
built under the appropriation of March 3, 1903, were completed, de- 



Digitized by 



Google 



136 EEPOBT OP THE CmEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ABMY. 

livered, and placed upon the work — one in November, 1904, and one 
in April, 1905. Details of the work of construction are given in 
Appendix H 7, herewith. These dredges have removed during the 
year 499,375 cubic yards of material, deepening the north half of the 
channel on the inner slope of the bar. The available depth of the 
channel, June 30, 1905, is 22 feet at mean low water, the excavation 
having passed beyond the crest of the bar which had but 16 feet depth. 

Future appropriations will be applied to extending the channel 
westward and northwestward, the plan of operations being to first 
make a channel throughout the improvement of at least 35 feet depth 
and of navigable width, to provide passage for ships which can not 
use the present channels at full draft. 

By the river and harbor act of 1905, the removal of a rock in North 
River, near pier 1, was authorized, and funds were provided by with- 
drawal of $20,000 from the Ambrose channel appropriation in addi- 
tion to the $25,000 similarly diverted by the sundry civil act of 1903, 
A contract has been entered into for removal of the rock. 

Under an allotment from the appropriation of April 28, 1904, for 
emergencies of rivers and harbors, work has just been begun for re- 
storing Coney Island channel to the depth excavated in 1900, 14 feet 
at mean low water. 

The foreign exports and imports for the port of New York during 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904, amounted approximately to 
9,961,400 tons, valued at $1,212,377,112, being an increase over the 
valuations in 1886, before improvement was begun, of $372,100,420. 
The entire cost of the improvement of New York Harbor up to date 
is about 1 per cent of the increase in value of foreign commerce only 
for the port since the improvement began and less than one-third of 
1 per cent of the present annual value of foreign commerce. 
. No statistics are kept of local and coastwise domestic commerce. 

It is impossible to estimate the effect of the project upon freight 
rates. During 1904, 114 different ships, drawing 27 feet or more, 
made 589 trips in and out of the harbor. Prior to the improvement 
none of these ships could have crossed the bar or have come up the 
channel except at full higli tide or after lightening. 

Further details of the harbor and improvements are printed in the 
Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1897, page 1031. 

A report on the survey of Ambrose (East) channel, with map, is 
printed in House Document- No. 243, Fifty-fourth Congress, second 
se-ssioii. (See Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1897, 
page 1053.) 

OENEBAL IMPBOVEMENT. 

July 1, 1904, balaiiee unexpeuded $22,412.70 

Amount appropriated by river and barbor act approved March 3, » 

1905 75, 000. 00 

Amount allotted from appropriation for maintenance of river and 
barbor Improvements, act of April 28. 1004 15,000.00 

I 

112,412.70 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for mainte- 
nance of Improvement 31,004.93 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 81,317.77 

July 1, 1905, outstanding linbilltles 1,480.86 

July 1, 1905, balance available— 79,836.81 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIVEB Am) HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 137 

AltBBOSE CHANNEt. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended 4i815, 775.48 

Amount appropriated by sundry civil act approved Marcb 3, 1005.. 715, 510. 00 
Amount received on account of damage by New York, New Haven 

and Hartford Railroad car float 549.95 



1, 531, 835. 43 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year : 

For works of improvement ■« $684, 707. 74 

Allotted to removal of obstruction in North 

niver 20, 000. 00 

«704,707. 74 



July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 827,127.60 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities « 149, 424. 40 



July 1, 1905, balance available 677,703.29 



July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 2,678,767.38 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project— 1,221,400.00 



Amount tbat can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 
30, 1907, for works of improvement, in addition to the balance 
unexpended July 1, 1905 2«!5.()00.00 

Submitted in compliance with requirements of sundry dvU act of 
June 4, 1897. 

OB8TBUCTION IN NOBTH RIVEK. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $24,450.25 

Amount allotted by river and harbor act approved Marcb 3, 1905— 20, (KX). 00 



44, 450. 25 



June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of 
improvement 43. 20 



July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 44,407.05 



July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 40,000.00 

CONEY ISLAND CHANNEL. 

Amount allotted from appropriation for maintenance of river and 
harbor Improvements, act of April 28, 1904 $8,000.00 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of im- 
provement 15. 20 



July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 7,5)84.80 



July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 7,084.80 

(See Appendix F 1.) 

2. Channel in Gowanns Bay — Bay Ridge and Red Ilooh channels, 
New York Harbor. — These channels He along the east shore of the 
upper bay, New York Harbor, and with Buttermilk channel form an 
easterly channel between the Narrows and East River, separated from 
the main channel by a broad shoal off Governors Island and Gowanus 
Bay. 

Bay Ridge and Red Hook channels had a natural low-water depth 
of 7 to 12 feet, and were available only for a limited harbor commerce. 

The original project, adopted in 1881, provided for making these 



« Includes $400,407.04 on account of construction of dredges. 
* Includes $999.50 on account of construction of dredges. 



Digitized by 



Google 



138 BBPOBT OF THK CHIEF OF ENOmEFBS, U. S. ABKT. 

channels 18 feet deep and 200 feet wide, subsequently modified to 
make the depth 26 feet, with width of 800 feet in nay Ridge channel 
and 400 feet in Red Hook channel. This was completed in 1899 at a 
cost of about $1,090,000. 

The existing project was adopted by the terms of the river and har- 
bor act of 1899, which provided for making Bay Ridge and Red 
Hook channels 40 -feet deep at mean low water and 1,200 feet wide. 
The work was authorized to be done under a continuing contract at a 
cost not exceeding $2,500,000. 

Under this project, up to July 1, 1905, $821,096.19 has been ex- 
pended. About 60 per cent of the entire area to be dredged has 
been excavated to depths ranging from 25 to 40 feet ; 8,917,643 cubic 
yards has been removed, being about 37 per cent of the excavation 
required. In its present state of progress Bay Ridge channel is avail- 
able for ships drawing 30 feet of water for nearly its full length 
and for about 800 feet width (two-thirds of its projected width), 
except over the shoal at the south end it has depths of nearly 40 feet. 
Red Hook channel has been widened to about 600 feet, but the avail- 
able depth of 26 feet has not been increased continuously through the 
channel. 

The total length of channel covered by this improvement is about 
4^ miles ; the mean rise of tide is 4J feet. 

During the year ending June 30, 1905, 2,038,227 cubic yards of 
material has been excavated, mainly in widening the channels and 
removing shoals. 

The commerce of this part of New York Harbor consists of coal, 
lumber, iron, cotton, sugar, and miscellaneous freights, amounting 
in the calendar year 1904 to about 2,000,000 tons, valued at 
$72,000,000. 

Future appropriations will be applied to increasing the depth and 
width of these channels, as provided for by the project. 

Further details concerning these channels are contained in the 
Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1899, page 1266. 

House Document No. 337, Fifty-fourth Congress, second session, 
contains a report iipon a survey of these channels, with map showing 
locations and depths as existing in 1897. (See Annual Report of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1897, p. 1177.) 

•luly I, 1904. balance unexpended $4.35. 091. CO 

Amount appropriated by sundry clvH act approved March 3, 1905. 200, 000. 00 

635, 091. 60 
June 30, 1905. amount expended during fiscal year, for works of 
Improvement 207, 187. 79 

July 1. 1905. balance unexpended 427,903. 81 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 94,450.40 

July 1, 1905, balance available .3.33, 453. 41 



July 1. 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 1, 370, 028. 70 

Amount (estimated) requlre<l for completion of existing project.. 1,251,000.00 



Amount that can be profitably expended In fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1907, for works of Improvement, In addition to the bal- 
ance unexpended July 1, 1905 250,000.00 

Submitted In compliance with requirements of sundry civil act of 
June 4, 1897. 

(See Appendix F 2.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AJND HARBOB IMPROVEMENTS. 189 

3. Buttermilk channel, New York Harbor. — This channel, lying 
between Governors Island and the Brooklyn shore, forms an easterlv 
channel from East River to the main channel and to Red Hook 
channel. 

Prior to improvement it had a natural depth of 26 feet in a channel 
so narrow and crooked as to be hardly navigable. Its available depth 
for navigation was about 20 feet. 

The first project for improvement, adopted in 1880, provided for 
the removal of part of one shoal, to widen the channel. This was 
subsequently extended to removal of both shoals to 26 feet depth, 
making the channel about 1,000 feet wide. The work was completed 
in 1899, at a cost q| about $650,000. 

The project adopted by the river and harbor act of 1902 provided 
for deepening the channel to 30 feet, with such width as the appro- 
priation of $90,000 would suffice for. 

The amount expended under this project to June 30, 1905, is 
$88,776.01. 

Work upon the project was begun in October, 1903, and the project 
was completed April 4, 1905, the channel of 30 feet depth being 
made 800 feet wide. 

During the fiscal year 207,946 cubic yards of sand was excavated, 
increasing the width of the north half of the channel by 450 feet 
and making the south half 800 feet wide. The total amount dredged 
under the contract' and the project is 310,000 cubic yards. 

June 30, 1905, the available depth through this channel was 30 feet ; 
the mean rise of tide is 4^ feet. 

No satisfactory figures for commerce of Buttermilk channel were 
obtained; it is oelieved to he nearly the same as in 1899, when 
16,587,000 tons was reported. 

A survey of Buttermilk channel was made in 1900. The report 
containing further details is printed, with map, in House I)<x;ument 
No. 122, Fifty-sixth Congress, second session. (See Annual Report 
of the Chief of Engineers for 1901, p. 1299.) 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended ^a.jai. »» 

June 30, 1005, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of iiu- 
provement 02. 500. 00 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 1,223.99 

(See Appendix F 3.) 

4. Enlargement of Goremors Island, New York Ilarhor. — The 
project for this entire work, adopted under the terms of the sundry 
civil act of 1901, which made appropriations for beginning opera- 
tions, included an addition of about 82 acres to the area of the island 
by inclosing with a bulkhead part of the shoal southwest of the 
island and filling the inclosure, the building of a wharf on the north 
shore and dredging to a depth of 26 feet in front of the wharf, and 
the erection of Dundings. The work of enlargement, including con- 
struction of a wharf and dredging, all estimated to cost $1,100,000, 
was assigned to the Engineer Department. By a modification of 
the project adopted in April, 1902, the enlargement was to be ex- 
tended southwest over the shoal to reclaim an additional area of 
about 19 acres, making the total area of the enlargement about 101 
acres. 



Digitized by 



Google 



140 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OP ENGI1TBEB8, U. 8. ARMY. 

Work was begun in August, 1901, and up to June 30, 1905, 
$865,515.24 had fen expended. 

During the past fiscal year 45,943 tons of riprap was delivered 
in the bulkhead, extending it 559 feet, and completing it except a 
gap left for scows bringing embankment material; 105,692 cubic 
yards of sand was delivered at the embankment; about 12 acres of 
embankment were built up above low-water and about 3 acres above 
high-water level; 2,188 linear feet of masonry sea wall has been 
built upon the east bulkhead. 

The entire work done to July 1, 1905, consists in building a wharf 
with T head, 370 feet long, dredging the approaches to 26 reet depth, 
laying intercepting sewers, building 6,765 linear feet of riprap bulk- 
head and 2,188 feet of masonry sea wall, and building about 30 acres 
of embankment above low water. 

The available funds will be applied to continuing the embankment 
and the sea wall. 

Future appropriations will be applied to continuing and complet- 
ing the project. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended ft82, 060. !50 

Amount appropriated by sundry civil act approved March 3, 1905 100, 000. 00 

582, 060. 50 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of Im- 
provement 97, 575. 74 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 484,484.70 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 80,639.48 

July 1, 1905, balance available 394,745.28 

July 1. 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 71, 739. »8 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 175,000.00 

(See Appendix F 4.) 

5. Remoinng mmken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering 
navigation. — (a) An abandoned canal boat was found adrift in the 
Hudson River off pier 3 toward evening, August 18, 1904. She was 
removed without delay and finally disposed of by grounding at 
Rikers Island. The name had been carefully scraped off, and no 
marks of identification could be found. 

(6) Schooner Ilattie V. Kelsey, a coal-laden three-masted schooner, 
was badly damaged by collision September 14, 1904, and sunk on the 
edge of South channel. Her masts soon fell out, and she became a 
dangerous obstruction. She was removed and deposited in deep 
water at a cost of $5,200. 

{c) Fishing schooner Eva R. sunk during a squall and dragged into 
Ambrose channel, where she became a source of danger to the dredges 
excavating the channel. She was promptly removed at a cost of $225 
and disposed of by grounding at high tide at Staten Island. 

(rf) A raft of large timbers, worthless and abandoned, was found 
adrift in Buttermilk channel. It was towed away by the U. S. steamer 
Manisees and grounded at Staten Island, where it was subsequently 
cut up, all without expense to the United States. 

(See Appendix F 5.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HASBOB IMFBOVEMEKT8. 141 

IMPROVEMENT OF RIVERS AND HARBORS IN NORTHEASTERN NEW 

JERSEY. 

This district was in the charge of Col. W. R. Livermore, Corps of 
Engineers. Division engineer, Col. Amos Stickney, Corps of Engi- 
neers. 

/. Pasftau' Rirer, New Jersey. — This river is a stream of consider- 
able size. ri.sing among the highlands in the northern part of New 
Jersey and flowing in a generally easterly and southerly course into 
Newark Bay. It is navigable from its mouth to Passaic, a distance of 
■bout 16 miles, where navigation is cut off by the Dundee Water 
Power and Land Company's dam. In its natural condition the nav- 
igsble depth to Newark was about 7 feet at mean low water; from 
Newark to Pa.ssaic it was about 3 feet. 

The first project for iinpro%'ement, adopted by the river and harlwr 
act of June 10, 1872, was for providing a channel from Newark to 
Passaic from 6 to 7\ feet deep and from 50 to 200 feet wide, the first 
cort being estimated at $123,924. This was subsequently increased to 
$193,822. 

A subsequent project for improving the river below Newark was 
authorized by the river and harbor act of June 14, 1880, at an esti- 
mated cost of $353,875. It proposed a channel 200 feet wide and 10 
feet deep at mean low water up to Center Street Bridge, Newark. • 

The two projects were con.solidated by the river and harbor act of 
July 13, 1892, the estimated cost of the improvement being $r)47,<597. 
ifhe amount expended under this consolidated project up to the 
close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, was $478,327.00, of 
which $389,610 was used in carrying out the projects and $88,717.09 
for maintenance. 

By the passage of the river and harbor act approved June 13, 1902, 
a new project was adopted for improving the lower part of the river, 
" in accordance with the report submittedin House Document No. 401, 
Fifty -sixth Congress, first session, from Staten Island Sound through 
Newark Bay and the said river to the Montclair and Greenwood Lake 
Railroad bridge, with a channel 12 feet deep to the Nairn Linoleum 
Works, and 10 feet deep from that point to the said rtrtlroad bridge." 
Estimated cost, $29(),000, and the yearly cost of maintenance is esti- 
mated at $5,000. Work under this project is authorized to Ik; done 
under continuing contracts. The amount expended on this project 
up to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, was $53,352.85. 
The old project for improving the river below Newark is merged into 
this new project and therefore may be considered completed. 

The adoption of this new project for the lower part of the river 
leaves in force the part of the old project above Newark which is 
included betw^een the Montclair and Greenwood Lake Railroad bridge 
and the city of Passaic. Up to June 30, 1905, $188,500.55, including 
maintenance, had been expended on this part of the project, of which 
$150,734 was expended for the project and $27,766.55 for main- 
tenance work, leaving approximately $43,000 as the estimated cost of 
rampletion. The annusil cost of maintenance is estimated at $5,000. 

During the past fiscal year dredging has been carried on under 
three contracts, one of which was an emergency contract for restora- 
tion of channels dredged by the United States under previous projects 
and the other two were for the completion of the work contemplated 



Digitized by 



Google 



142 KEPOKT OF THE CHIBF OF ENGINEEB8, U. 8. ARMY. 

and adopted under the new project adopted by the act of Congress 
approved June 13, 1902. The restoration work was done under an 
allotment of $10,000 from the appropriation for emergency work, act 
of June 0, 1900, and consisted in the removal of 2,896 cubic yards of 
material and 1.17 cubic yards of bowlders from Lime Kihi bar, just 
below the Montclair and Greenwood Lake Railroad bridge. Work 
was completed July 13, 1904. 

Under the contracts for the work required under the new project 
222,100 cubic yards has been dredged by Kirk, DriscoU & Co. from 
six localities, namely: (1) Between Bridge Street and Center Street 
bridges, Newark; (2) east of Jackson Street Bridge, Newark; (3) 
near Lister's dock, Newark; (4) south of Plank Boad Bridge, New- 
ark; (5) south of Newark and New York Railroad bridge, Newark; 
^6) Newark Bay, and 9,247 cubic yards by P. Sanford Ross (Incor- 
porated), from Newark Bay and near Lister's dock, Newark. 

Under date of January 26, 1904, the Department allotted $10,000 
for additional emergency work. Nothing has yet been done under 
this allotment. 

The maximum drafts that could be carried June 30, 1905, were as 
follows : Nine feet to the Center Street Bridge, Newark ; 7 feet to the 
Erie Railroad bridge^, Newark, and 5 feet to Passaic. Mean range of 
tides : At mouth of river, 4.7 feet ; at Passaic, 2.5 feet. 

It is proposed to apply the amount estimate<l as a profitable ex- 
penditure to the continuation of the improvement in accordance with 
the adopted project. 

The commerce of this river is mainly in building material, iron ore, 
fertilizers, coal, and general merchandise, and amounted to 1,962,462 
tons in 1899, to 2,037,363 tons in 1900, to 2,009,356 tons in 1901, to 
2,494,312 tons in 1902, to 2,356,511 tons in 1903; and to 2,567,942 tons 
in 1904, valued at $134,850,964. 

This improvement is necessary to the great industrial interests and 
has reduced freight rates a dollar a ton on coal and building materials, 
smd its continuance is necessary to the successful carrying on of the 
business of this locality. 

Details as to this improvement may l)e found in the Annual Reports 
of tlxe Chief of Engineers for 1896, pages 770-774, and for 1900, 
pages 177, 1530-1550. 

Maps showing mouth of river and Newark Bay are printed in the 
Annual Reports of the Chief of Engineers for 1882, page 686, and 
1887, page 766, and maps of the river in the vicinity of and above 
Newark are jirinted in House Document No. 401, Fifty-sixth Con- 
gress, first session. 

July 1, 1904, balance miexi)ended ?n7, 827. tM 

Amount ai)iiroi)riHt«l by sundry civil act approved March 3, 1905 75, 000. 00 

Amount apijropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 40. 000. 00 

292, 827. 94 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year : 

For works of Improvement $43, 414. (>(> 

For maintenance of Improvement 2, 743. 22 

46,157.88 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 240,670.06 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabllitiex 7,552.55 

July 1, 1905, balance available 239,117.51 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AKD HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 148 

July 1. 1005, amount covered by uncompleted contracts $163, 375. 34 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 70, 274. 60 



Amount that can be profitably expended In fiscal year ending June 30, 
1907, for works of improTement, in addition to tbe balance unex- 
I)ended July 1, 1905 40,000.00 

Submitted in compliance wltb requirements of sundry civil act of 
June 4, 1897. 

(See Appendix G 1.) 

2. Arthur Kill, or Staten Island Sound, and channel'between Staten 
Island and New Jersey. — (a) Arthur Kill, or Staten Island Sound, 
New York and New Jersey. — ^This is a waterway about 12 miles long, 
which, together with the lower end of Newark Bay, 2 miles long, and 
the Kill van Kull, 3 miles long, forms the inland waterway between 
upper New York Harbor and Karitan Bay. The section now c*onteia- 
plated under this improvement consists of the 14 miles of channel 
between Kill van Kull and Raritan Bay. The original depth through 
the Arthur Kill, or Staten Island Sound, at mean low water was 15 
feet and upward, in a chaimel 100 to 1,000 feet in width. Through 
the lower end of Newark Bay the navigable channel depth is about 14 
feet at mean low water, the result of an improvement commenced in 
1874 and continued up to the present time. It is proposed in the 
present project to cut a new channel through the flats to the south- 
ward, where the depth is about 1 foot at mean low water. 

Prior to the adoption of the present project sections of this water- 
way have been under improvement by the United States, under the , 
title of " Channel between Staten Island and New Jersev," adopted in 
1880, superseding the project of 1874, and "Arthur Kill," adopted in 
1888. Tlie former provided for a depth of 14 feet and width of 400 
feet through the lower part of Newark Bay, and the latter for the 
removal oi Steep Point, in order to straighten the channel to the 
southwestward of the Baltimore and Ohio Kailroad bridge. 

Details as to the.se projel;ts are printed in the Annual Keport of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1895, pages 969-972, and in current report 
(.see p. 144) under the head of " Channel between Staten Island and 
New Jersey," which project is still in force. 

The existing project for this improvement, adopted by the river 
and harbor act approved June 13, 1902, provides for making and 
maintaining a channel from Kill van Kull to Karitan Bay, New York 
and New Jersey, by means of dredging and diking, 300 feet wide, and 
21 feet deep at mean low water, at an estimated cost of $(596,000, and 
$5,000 for annual cost of maintenance. Work under this project is 
authorized to be done imder continuing contracts. This project, with 
estimates, is printed in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers 
for 1900, pages 1525-1530. 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, was $93,538.30. 

Operations during the past fiscal year consisted in dredging under 
a continuing contract, approved by the Department on October 27, 
1903, upon which work was commenced on De<«mber 2, 1903. Six 
hundred and fifty-nine thousand four hundred and seventeen cubic 
yards of material had been removed under this contract at the close of 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, from the channel south of 
Shooters Island. 



Digitized by 



Google 



144 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOI1TEER8, U. 8. ABMT. 

The maximum draft that could be carried through the waterway on 
June 30, 1905, was about 14 feet at mean low water. Mean range of 
tides, 5 feet. 

It is proposed to apply the amount estimated as a profitable expend- 
iture to dredging for the continuation of the improvement in accord- 
ance with the adopted project. 

The freight earned through this waterway consists of oil, coal, 
ores, clay products, chemicals, fertilizers, grain, machinery, manu- 
factures, and general merchandise, and amounted in 1899 to 11,311,- 
991 tons, in 1900 to 11,047,633 tons, in 1901 to 11,651,300 tons, in 1902 
to 14,517,079 tons; and in 1903 to 11,512,420 tons, valued at $267,- 
046,086. 

It appears from inquiry that no estimate can be made of the exact 
eflFect of the project on freight rates, except to the local commerce. 
The rates on this have been reduced by this improvement and will be 
further reduced when the improvement has advanced to the extent 
of providing a practicable navigable channel of 21 feet. 

Maps of this work are printed in House Document No. 393, Fifty- 
sixth Congress, first session. 

(b) Channel between Staten Island and New Jemey. — This channel 
is an inland waterway, about 17 miles long, connecting New York 
Harbor Avith Raritan Bay. It consists of the Kill van KuU, con- 
necting the upper bay with Newark Bay, and the Arthur Kill, con- 
necting Newark Bay with liaritan Bay. 

The natural depth through the channel was 15 feet or more, except 
for a distance of about \% miles ill Newark Bay, where there was a 
shoal with a crooked channel 9^ feet deep, bordered by flats with 
depth of about 2 feet of water. The improvement of the " Channel 
between Staten Island and New Jersey consists in the deepening 
of the channel across this shoal. 

The first project, adopted by the river and harbor act of June 23, 
1874, was for making this channel from '14 to 16 feet deep, at an 
estimated cost of $44.3,211. The only work done under it was the 
building of 2,237 linear feet of diking', at a 'cost of $50,000. 

The second and existing project was adopted in 1880, which, with 
sul)sequent modifications, proposed to dredge through the shoal a 
channel 400 feet wide and 14 feet deep at mean low water, the cost 
being estimated at $210,000. 

A supplemental project was adopted by the river and harbor act 
of August 11, 1888, which had for its object the removal of the point 
of land known as " Steep Point," for the straightening of the channel 
to the westward of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad bridge. This 
work was carried on under the title of " Improvement of Aruiur Kill, 
New York and New Jersey," 1888-1895. The cost was estimated at 
$26,500, and the work was* completed in 1895, at a cost of $25,401.30. 
This modification of the project brought the total cost of the improve- 
ment up to $286,500. 

The river and harbor act of June 3, 1896, and of June 13, 1902, 
extended the project to include the dredging of a channel in Lemon 
Creek, on Staten Island, at a cost of $5,000 and $5,000, respectively. 
This extension increased the total estimated cost of the improvement 
from the beginning to $296,500. Annual maintenance is estimated 
at $10,000. 

The total amount expended to June 30, 1905, on the project, with 



Digitized by 



Google 



KHTEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEHENT8. 145 

its additions and modifications, was $293^12.53, which was applied 
to diking, to dred^ng a channel 14 feet deep and 400 feet wide 
through the shoal in Newark Bay, to removing Steep Point, and to 
dredging a channel in Lemon Creek 8 feet deep at high water and 
from 3o to 50 feet wide; $206,635.08 has been expended in carrying 
out the project and $86,577.45 for maintenance. 
No work has been done during the past year. 

The ma:ximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, through 
the channel between Staten Island and New Jersey was about 13 
feet at mean low water, and in Lemon Creek 8 feet at high water, 
to the head of navigation, a distance of about one-half mile from the 
mouth. Mean range of tides, 5 feet. 

The freight earned through this channel consists of oil, coal, ores, 
day products, chemicals, fertilizers, grain, machinery, manufactures, 
and general merchandise, and amounted in 1899 to 11,311,991 tons, 
in 1900 to 11,047,633 tons, in 1901 to 11,651,300 tons, in 1902 to 
16.266,574 tons; and in 1903 to 14,129,678 tons, valued at $327,477,738. 
This is a connecting channel, and no estimate can be made of the 
exact effect on the rates of freight, but it is known that the present 
commerce could not be carried on without this improvement, from 
which it is inferred that rates would be advanced if this improvement 
had not been made. 

Further details as to this improvement may be found in the Annual 
Reports of the Chief of Engineers for 1895, pages 969-970, and for 
1896, page 775. Maps of this improvement are printed in the Annual 
Reports of the Chief of Engineers for 1881, pa^ 696; 1889, pages 
820-822; and 1890, page 844, and in House Document No. 393, 
Fifty-sixth Congress, first session. No map of Lemon Creek has 
been" printed. 

JuJy 1. 1904, balance unexpended : $253,024.50 

Amount appropriated by river nnd harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 10, 000. 00 
Amount appropriated by sundry civil act approved March 3, 1905 — 70,000.00 

333, 024. 50 
June 30, 1906, amount expended during fiscal year : 

For works of improvement ^,274.97 

For maintenance of Improvement .45 

88,275.42 



July 1, 190.^, balance unexpended 244.749.17 

July 1. 1905, outstanding liabilities 10,890.25 

July 1, 1906, balance available 227. 858. 92 

Joly 1. 1905. amonnt covered by uncompleted contracts 42.'>, ."586. 30 

Amonnt (estimated) required for completion of existing project 370,000.00 

Amount that can be profitably expended In fiscal year ending June 30, 
IWTT' for works of improvement, In addition to the balance unex- 

S'ed July 1. 1905 ..--—---.---- 100.000.00 

Snbmlrted in compliance with requirements of sundry civil act of 
June 4. 1807. 
(See Appendix G 2.) 

3 Woodhridge Creek, New Jersey.— This creek is a small, crooked 
tidal stream, about 5 miles long, running through fi^t marshes for 

zva 1900 u 10 



Digitized by 



Google 



146 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOIKEEBS, U. S. ARMY. 

most of its length and emptying into the west side of Arthur Kill, 
or Staten Island' Sound, 2 miles north of Perth Amboy, N. J. 

It is navigable for 2f miles above the mouth to a point where it is 
crossed by a highway bridge without a draw. The width of the 
creek below this bridge is about 100 feet. In its original condition 
this stream was obstructed at its mouth by a bar having a least depth 
of 9.8 feet at high water, and by two shoals just inside the mouth. 
From these shoals a good 12-foot channel existed to above Anderson's 
Brick Works, seven-eighths of a mile from the mouth, above which 
point, however, many shoals occurred, although a narrow 8-foot 
channel existed as far as Salamander dock, 1§ miles from the mouth. 

First project: A survey of the navigable part of this creek was 
made in 1878, reference to which is made on page 139 of the Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1904, and a project for its 
improvement was adopted by the river and harbor act of March 3, 
1879. This project provided for forming a channel 12 feet deep at 
mean high water and 80 feet wide from the mouth of the creek to the 
Salamander dock, at an estimated cost of $13,800, which amount was 
increased in 1884 to $29,000. Work on this improvement was carried 
on under appropriations made from 1879 to 1882, amounting to 
$19,000, which was expended without completing the project, and 
was suspended in 1883. 

The existing project, adopted by the river and harbor act of June 
13, 1902, contemplates obtaining a channel 8 feet deep at mean low 
water, with a bottom width of 50 feet, by dredging, from Arthur 
Kill to Salamander dock, at an estimated cost of $35,000 for the 
improvement, and $3,000 annually for maintenance. A description 
of this project is contained in the Annual Report of the Chief of 
Engineers for 1900, page 1552. 

The amount expended on the work of existing project up to the 
close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, was $13,498.57, of which 
$10,000 was used m carrying out the project, and $3,498.57 for main- 
tenance. During the past fiscal year, under appropriation for main- 
tenance, 21,799 cubic yards of material was removed from the 
channel under a contract for restoration of previously dredged chan- 
nel. The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, over 
the shoalest part of the channel was 6 feet at mean low water. The 
mean range of tides is 5 feet. 

The commerce of this creek, mainly in clay, brick, tile, coal, and 
building materials, amounted in 1887 to 126,000 tons, in 1898 to 
176,000 tons, in 1902 to 134,377 tons, in 1903 to 155,751 tons; and in 
1904 to 165,313 tons, valued at $1,143,658. 

It appears from inquiry that freight rates have been reduced as a 
result of this improvement and will be further reduced when the 
improvement is carried on throughout the entire length of the creek. 

Detailed description of this work may be found in the Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1900, pages 1552-1555. Map is 
printed in House Document No. 282, Fifty-sixth Congress, first 
session. 



Digitized by 



Google 



KTVEB A»D HABBOB IMPBOVEMEKTS, 147 

Amount appropriated by river and bartMr act approved March 3, 1905. $6, 000. 00 
Anoants allotted from appropriation for luaintenaoce of river and 
l^rbor improvoneots, act of April 2a 1904 7, 750. 00 

13, 7S0. 00 
June 30. 190S, amount expended dnring fiscal year, for maintenance 
of improrenient 3,498.57 

Joly 1, 1905, balance unexpended 10,251.43 

Jnly 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 2. 100.40 

July 1, 1S05, balance available 8,141.97 

July 1. 1905. amount covered by uncompleted contracts 1,694.22 

Ammmt (estimated) required for completion of existinf; project 19,000.00 

(See Appendix G 3.) 

j. Raritan Bay, New Jersey. — This bay is a large body of water 
lying between the southern end of Staten Island and the New Jersey 
shore. Its greatest width north and south is about 5 miles and its 
greatest length east and west is about 7 miles. The Raritan River 
onpties into it at its west end between Perth Amboy and South 
Amboy, and the Arthur Kill, or Staten Island Sound, extends north- 
ward, connecting it with Newark Bay. 

This bay had naturally a fairly straight channel, 11 feet deep, to 
South Amboy. The line of the deepest water, however, followed the 
Staten Island shore from Perth Amboy to Seguine Point, where it 
was separated from deep water in the eastern part of the bay by a 
shoal 1.5 miles broad with a minimum depth of 14.5 feet. 

The original and existing project, approved March 3, 1881, and 
extended September 19, 1890, and June 3, 1896, provides for dredging 
channels, 300 feet wide and 21 feet deep, from Seguine Point to deep 
water in the bay, a distance of about 1.5 miles; through two shoals 
opposite Wards Point, O.-t and 0.6 mile long, respectively, and from 
Sooth Amboy to deep water near Great Beds light, a distance of 
about 1.5 miles. The estimated cost of the work is $507,875. Refer- 
ence to reports on surveys, with estimates, is noted in the Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1904, page 140. 

The amount expended on the work up to the close of the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1905, was $487,500, of which $297,314.45 was usecl in 
carrying out the project and $190,185.55 for maintenance. The proj- 
ect has been completed, and the only work now contemplated is main- 
tenance of the improvement. 

During the fi.scal year no work has been done on this improvement. 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, through 
the Wards Point channels was 21 feet, and through the Seguine Point 
and South Amboy channels about 20 feet, all at mean low water. 
Mean range of tides, 5 feet. 

The commerce of the bay is mainly in coal, brick, manufactures, 
and general merchandise, and amounted in 1899 to 6,507,402 tons, in 
1900 to 6,537,977 tons, in 1901 to 4,722,048 tons, in 1902 to 5,453,122 
t<His; and in 1903 to 4,484,152 tons, valued at $101,842,455. 

It appears from statements of the shipping interests of the great 
railroad terminals that the improvements have resulted in a great 
reduction of towing rates, and a proportionate reduction of freight 
rates owing to the greater quantity of coal that can be carried and 



Digitized by 



Google 



148 BEPOBT OP THE OHIEP OP ENOINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

towed through these channels over that which was carried before the 
improvement was made. It is stated that the further improvement 
of the channels in question will work beneficially to the consumers and 
carriers in the same direction or proportion as heretofore. 

Further details of this improvement are printed in Annual Bcport 
of the Chief of Engineers for 1896, pages 787-789. 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. |50, 000. 00 
July 1, 1905, balance une.xpended 50,000.00 

(See Appendix G 4.) 

5. Keyport Harbor, Matawan Creek, Raritan, South, and Eliza- 
beth rivers, Shoal Harbor and Compton Creek, and Cheesequake 
Creek, New Jersey. — (a) Keyport Harbor. — This harbor is situated 
at the mouth of Matawan Creek, on the south side of Raritan Bay, 5 
miles east of the mouth of Raritan River, and it consists of a bay 
about 1 mile broad. 

There was no distinct natural channel in the harbor, the available 
depth to the wharves being less than 4 feet at mean low water. A 
6-foot channel had been dredged at private expense before the United 
States assumed charge of the improvement, but it had shoaled again 
to 3 feet. 

The original and existing project, approved August 2, 1882, con- 
templates dredging an 8-foot channel 200 feet wide from Raritan 
Bay to the steamboat dock at Keyport, at an estimated cost of $40,475. 
Report on survey, with estimate, is printed in the Annual Report of 
the Chief of Engineers for 1873, page 941. 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, was $55,475, of which sum 
$30,500 was used in carrying out the project and $24,975 in main- 
tenance. 

During the past fiscal year, under an allotment of $5,000, dated 
May 31, 1904, from the emergency river and harbor appropriation of 
June 13, 1902, 23,968 cubic yards of material was dredged from the 
channel. 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, to the 
Keyport wharves was about 8 feet at mean low water. Mean range 
of tides, 4.9 feet. 

The commerce of this harbor is mainly in farm products, fertilizers, 
coal, lumber, fish, shellfish, and miscellaneous freight, and amounted 
to 67,500 tons in 1899, to 45.000 tons in 1901, to 62,000 tons in 1902, 
to 62,000 tons in 1903; and to 70,000 tons in 1904, valued at $1,948,000. 

The effect of this improvement has been to greatly reduce freight 
rates, especially in the marketing season. 

Further details as to this work are printed in the Annual Report 
of the Chief of Engineers for 1897, page 1147. 

(b) Mataican Creek. — This creek is a small tidal stream in the 
eastern part of New Jersey, which discharges into Raritan Bay at 
Keyport Harbor. It is navigable up to the bridge of the New "i'ork 
an(i liong Branch Railroad, about 2 miles above its mouth. 

In its natural condition the mouth was obstructed by a mud flat, 
throi^h which a narrow and crooked 3-foot channel existed. Above 
this flat there was a 4-foot channel for a mile, and beyond a narrow 
3-foot channel extending nearly up to the head of navigation at 
Matawan. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AUD HABBOB IMPBOVEMBNTB. 149 

The original and existing project for improving this stream, by 
dredging a 4-foot channel 100 feet wide from the mouth to Winkson 
Creek, about 1 mile, and thence 75 feet wide to the railroad bridge 
at Matawan, was approved March 3, 1881. The cost was estimated at 
$33,120. Report on survey, with estimate, is printed in the Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1881, page 720. 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, was $47,804.39, of which 
$21,000 was usea in carrying out the project and $26,804.39 for 
maintenance. 

During the past fiscal year, under an allotment of $3,000, dated 
May 31, 1904, from the emergency river and harbor appropriation of 
June 13, 1902, 9,050 cubic yards of material was dredged from the 
creek between the docks of the Pennsylvania Clay Company and the 
steamboat company. 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, was 4 feet 
at mean low water. Mean range of tides, 4.9 feet. 

The commerce of this creek is in brick, fertilizer, farm produce, 
and general merchandise, and amounted to 51,000 tons in 1899, to 
60,000 tons in 1901, to 61,500 tons in 1902, to 61,600 tons in 1903: and 
to 29,600 tons in 1904, valued at $74,000. 

The eflfect of this improvement has been to greatly reduce rates of 
freight, especially in the marketing season. 

Further details as to this improvement may be found in the Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1897, page 1145. 

(c) Raritan River. — This river is a moderate-sized stream flowing 
through the central part of the State of New Jersey and emptying 
into Raritan Bay at Perth Amboy. It is navigable to New Bruns- 
wick, N. J., a distance of 12 miles, where it is the eastern terminus of 
the Delaware and Raritan Canal. 

In its natural state the channel to New Brunswick was obstructed 
by several extensive shoals, on which the depth was from 6^ to 8J 
feet at mean low water. 

The original and existing project for improvement, approved June 
18, 1878, provided for a channel 200 feet wide and 10 feet deep from 
the mouth to the Delaware and Raritan Canal terminus at New 
Brunswick, to be obtained by dredging, diking, and rock excavation, 
the cost being estimated at that time at $2,093,662. Recent and im- 
proved methods for doing such work have made it probable that this 
estimate will not exceed $1,035,000. 

The amount expended up to the close of the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1905, was $689,015.58, of which $059,192.32 was used in carrying 
on the work and $29,823.26 for maintaining that already done. 

During the fiscal year 720 ctibic yards of material was dredged 
from the channel at Bishop's dock and the contract for the restoration 
of previously dredged channel was completed. 

On June 30, 1905, the maximum draft that could be carried to the 
head of navigation was 8^ feet at mean low water. Mean range of 
tides: At mouth of river, 5.1 feet; at New Brunswick, 5.56 feet. 

The commerce of this river is principally in coal, ores, lumber, 
building materials, and general merchandise, and amounted in 1899 
to 1,523,391 tons, in 1900 to 1,476,645 tons, in 1901 to 1,266,950 tons, 
in 1902 to 1,228,791 tons; and in 1903 to 1,020,420 tons, valued at 
$19,351,776. 



Digitized by 



Google 



150 BEPOBT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINliEBS, U. 6. A£MT. 

It appears from numerous letters received that this improvement 
has most certainly resulted in a very material reduction of freight 
rates. 

Details as to this improvement may be found in the Annual Report 
of the Chief of Engineers for 1897, page 1136, and further informa- 
tion is contained in the report for 1900, page 1505. 

Maps of the river are printed in the Annual Report of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1885, page 760. 

(d) South River. — ^This is a small stream in the central part of 
New Jersey which discharges into the Raritan River about 8 miles 
above its mouth. Before improvement by the United States a private 
canal about three-fourths of a mile long had been dredged from near 
Washington, on the South River, to Sayreville, on the Raritan River, 
which shortened the sailing course about 2 miles. 

The depth in the canal was about 3.5 feet, and in the river about 
2.5 feet as far as Oldbridge, at the head of navigation, 6.3 miles above 
the canal. 

The first project for this improvement was adopted March 3, 1871, 
and provided for dredging a channel 6 feet deep at mean low water 
up to the Washington wharves at an estimated cost of $13,653. This 
w^as completed in 1874 at a cost of $20,000. 

The existing project, approved June 14, 1880, provides for correct- 
ing the canal outlet and for obtaining, by dredging and diking, a 
channel 100 feet wide and 8 feet deep to Washington, 1.5 miles am>ve 
the mouth ; thence 6 feet deep to Bissetts, 3.7 miles above the mouth ; 
thence 4 feet deep to Oldbridge, 6.3 miles above the mouth, at the 
head of navigation. The cost was estimated at $194,695, but was re- 
duced in 1892 to $176,695. Report upon survey, with estimate, for 
this project is printed in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers 
for 1880, page 519. 

The amount expended on the present project up to the close of the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, was $98,000, of which $78,000 was 
used for carrying on the work and $20,000 for maintenance. 

During the past fiscal year no work has been done on this im- 
provement. 

The maximum draft that could be carried to South River on June 
30, 1905, was about 8 feet, and to the railroad bridge above about 6 
feet at mean low water. Mean range of tides: At canal, 6.34 feet; 
at Oldbridge, 4.57 feet. 

Large brick yards established along the banks of the river give it 
a commercial importance out of proportion to its size. 

The commerce is principally in brick, sand, clay, coal, fertilizer, 
and general merchandise, and amounted in 1899 to 343,202 tons, in 
1900 to 414,288 tons, in 1901 to 328,186 tons, in 1902 to 387,246 tons, 
in 1903 to 333,890 tons; and in 1904 to 392,626 tons, valued at 
$1,027,371. 

The improvement has caused a great reduction in freight rates, and 
it appears probable that the rates will be further reduced when the 
improvement reaches the upper reaches of the river. From reliable 
intormation received it appears that as a result of this improvement 
a reduction in freight rates on fire brick by rail to Boston of from 
$3.25 to $2 per ton has been made. The freight rate by rail to 
New York is $1.60 per ton ; by water it is 75 cents per ton. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENT8. 151 

Details as to this improvement may be found in the Annual Report 
of the Chief of Engineers for 1896, pages 784^-785. 

Sketches of South River are printed in the Annual Reports of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1882, page 678, and 1885, page 764. 

(e) Elizabeth River. — ^This is a small stream in the eastern part of 
New Jersey which discharges into the Arthur Kill at Elizabethport. 
Before improvement by the United States its width varied from 50 
to 90 feet, and it had a high-water depth of 4 feet at the head of 
navigation at Broad street, Elizabeth, about 2f miles above its mouth. 

The original and existing project, approved March 3, 1879, consists 
in dredging a channel 60 feet wide and 7 feet deep at mean high 
water at an estimated cost, revised in 1881, of $43,160. Report upon 
survey, with estimate, is printed in the Annual Report of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1879, page 481. 

The amount expended on this work to June 30, 1905, was $45,160, 
of which $27,000 was used for carrying out the project and $18,160 
for maintenance. 

During the past fiscal year no work has been done on this improve- 
ment. 

The maximum draft that could be carried to Bridge street, Eliza- 
beth, about one-fourth mile from the head of navigation at Broad 
street, on June 30, 1905, was about 5 feet at mean high water. Mean 
-range of tides: At mouth, 4.7 feet; at Bridge street, Elizabeth, 3.4 
feet. 

The commerce of this river is in coal, building materials, and mis- 
cellaneous freights. It amounted to 21,650 tons in 1895, to 36,066 
tons in 1896, to 28,865 tons in 1897, to 29,495 tons in 1901, to 40,250 
tons in 1902, to 37,136 tons in 1903; and to 36,336 tons in 1904, valued 
at $193,894. 

It appears from statements received from shippers that there has 
been a reduction in freight rates, probably due to this improvement. 

Details in reference to this improvement may be found m the An- 
nual Reports of the Chief of Engineers for 1896, page 778, and 1897, 
pages 1134 and 1185. 

(/) Shoal Harbor and Compton Creek. — This harbor is on the 
south shore of Raritan Bay, 5 miles from Sandy Hook. Compton 
Creek is a narrow stream emptying into it. The natural harbor is 
inside the mouth of the creek, where the depth is from 3 to 6 feet at 
mean low tide. The creek is navigable for about 1 mile above its 
mouth, where it is crossed b^ a railroad bridge without a draw. 
One-fourth of a mile above its mouth it is crossed by a highway 
drawbridge. 

The entrance to this harbor was originally obstructed by a broad, 
flat shoal on which there was a depth of less than 1 foot at mean low 
tide, the distance between the deep water in the creek and the 4-foot 
depth in the bay being about one-naif mile. 

The original and existing project, adopted September 19, 1890, 
proposes a channel 4 feet deep connecting Compton Creek with Rari- 
tan Bay, the width to be 150 feet in the Day and 75 feet in and near 
the mouth of the creek, the channel through Shoal Harbor to be pro- 
tected by a dike if necessary, at an estimated cost of $()4,130. 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, was $32^000, of which sum 
$17,000 was applied to carrying out the project and $15,000 for 
maintenance. 



Digitized by 



Google 



152 BEPOBT OF THE OHIEF OF RNaiKBEBS, V. S. ABMT. 

During the past fiscal year no work in furtherance of this improve- 
ment was done. 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, in the 
improved channel through Shoal Harbor and Compton Creek to the 
drawbridge was 3J feet at mean low water. Mean range of tides, 
4.5 feet. 

The commerce of this locality in farm and fish products, fertiliz- 
ers, and general merchandise amounted to 179,500 tons in 1900, to 
180,000 tons in 1901, to 48,790 tons in 1902, to 65,175 tons in 1903; and 
to 28,570 tons in 1904, valued at $906,350. 

It appears from statements received from shippers that there has 
been a reduction on coal freights of 40 per cent, on manure from 
40 to 50 per cent, and on fish 20 per cent as a result of this improve- 
ment, and if the improvement is not contiimed the rates will be very 
much advanced. 

Further details as to this improvement may be found in the Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1897, page 1150. 

(ff) Cheeaequake Creek. — This is a small stream in the eastern 
part of New Jersey which discharges into Raritan Bay, about 2 miles 
east of South Amboy. Before improvement by the United States 
the available navigable depth in the creek was Y\ feet at mean low 
water over the shoals, the distance from the entrance to the upper 
limit of navigation being 3^ miles. 

The existing project was adopted June 14, 1880, and provided for a 
new outlet, 5 feet deep, from the creek into Raritan Bay, at right 
angles to the shore line, through a beach which put across the mouth 
of the creek from the right bank, and which had forced the outlet 
nearly one-half mile to the westward. This was to be obtained by 
dredging and constructing parallel jetties of stone, 200 feet apart, 
each side of the dredged channel ; the old outlet was to lie closed oy a 
I)ile dike, and a channel, 4 feet deep and from 50 to 100 feet wide, was 
to be dreidged from the mouth to the head of navigation, 3J miles up 
the creek. In this distance two dikes were to be built, and a new 
channel to be made through the marsh was to cut off a bend in the 
creek. Stump Creek, a trioutary stream emptying into the creek neHr 
its mouth, was to be improved by dredging a channel 50 feet wide and 
3 feet deep. 

The cost was estimated at $75,279, which was revised in 1885 to 
$90,000. 

Report upon survey, with estimate, is printed in the Annual Report 
of the Chief of Engineers for 1880, page 525. 

The amount exi)ended on the present project up to the close of the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, was $40,000, all of which was used in 
carrying out the project. 

During the past fiscal year no work has been done. 

The maximum draft that could be carried through the mouth of the 
creek on June 30. 1905, was about 3J feet for narrow widths. Mean 
range of tides, 5.1 feet. 

"Die commerce of the creek is principally in bricks, clay, and farm 
produce, and amounted in 1886 to about 50,000 tons, valued at about 
}?216,000. 

Details as to this improvement may be found in the Annual Report 
of the Chief of Engineers for 1886, page 763. 



Digitized by 



Google 



RIVEB AKD HABBOB IMPB0VEMENT8. 15d 

Sketch of Cheesequake Creek is printed in Annual Report of Chief 
of Eng:ineers for 188-2. page 680. 

July 1. 190t balance unexpended $15,910.41 

Amoont appropriated by rirer and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 50, 000. 00 
KeceiT«d fn»n sale of condemned property 1. 15 

65, 911. 50 
Jane 30, 1905. amount expended during fiscal year, for 

maintenance of improvement $13,300.41 

Deposited to credit of Treasurer United States 315. 61 

13, 676. 02 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 52,235.57 

imaaat (estimated) required for completion of existing project 557, 752. OS 

(See Appendix G 5.) 

6. Shrewsbury Rirer, N&ic Jersey. — ^This river i.s a large tidal basin 
in the eastern part of New Jersey, and consists of two bays, each hav- 
ing an area of about 3 square miles, and known, re-spectivelv, as the 
North Branch (or Navesink River) and the South Branch, and a 
channel called the main stem, which unites the two branches at their 
eastern ends and extends northwardly to the outlet at southeast end 
of Sandy Hook Baj'. The river is navigable on the North Branch 
to Redbank, 8 miles from the mouth, where it is crossed by three 
bridges without draws, and on the South Branch to Branchport, 9 
miles from the mouth ; also to Little Silver, Oceanport, Parkers Creek, 
North Long Branch, and Monmouth Beach, on the several arms of 
the South Branch. 

The part of the river which has been under iniprovement by the 
United States consists of the main stem, the North Branch to Oceanic, 
5 miles from the mouth, and the South Branch to the vicinity of Sea- 
bright, about oJJ miles from the mouth. The bays above Oceanic 
ana Seabright had sufficient water to accommodate navigation. 

Before any improvement was begun by the United States the 
available depth to Oceanic, on the North Branch, was 3i feet, and to 
Seabright, on the South Branch, it was 2J feet ; the depth in the main 
stem was 4 feet. For details see Annual Report of the Chief of 
Ei^ineers for 1886, page 756. 

By act of Congress of August 30, 1852, $l,.oOO was appropriated 
for and expended upon a survey to ascertain the extent of a break 
through the beach between the Shrewsbury River and the ocean, but 
no work of improvement was begun. 

First project : By act of Congress of July 11, 1870, a survey of the 
river was ordered. The report on this survey, printed in Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1871, page 702, described a 
l»r across the river nearly opposite the Navesink lights and four 
analler bars above, and recommended deepening them by dredging, 
at an estimated cost of $14,000. The work was completed under 
appropriation.s amounting to $19,000, made in 1871 and 1873, and a 
new shoal near Lower Rocky Point was also dredged. The dredged 
channels did not long maintain the improved depth (6 feet at low 
tide). 

Existiiur project, with modifications : The river and harbor act of 
1875 pronded tor a survey of the " North and South branches of the 
Skewbury River, New Jersey." The report on this survey, printed 



Digitized by 



Google 



154 BBPOBT OF THE OHIBF OF ENOINEKBS, TI. 8. ARMY. 

in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers of 1876, page 278, 
proposed dredging at Upper and Lower Eocky Point and a training 
dike at the entrance to the North Branch at a total estimated cost 
of $18,000. This sum was appropriated by the river and harbor act 
of 1878, but before beginning the work it was decided to make a 
new and more detailed survey of the river. This survey was made 
in 1878, and the report, printed in the Annual Report of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1879, page 405, presented a plan for improving both 
branches of the river and main stem to obtain a channel of 6 feet 
depth at mean low water, with a width of 300 feet in the main stem 
and of 150 feet in each of the branches, by dredging and constructing 
pile dikes or training walls. At this time the available depth in the 
main stem was found to be 5.4 feet at mean low water, in the North 
Branch 3.5 feet, and in the South Branch, at the entrance, 2.6 feet — 
practically suspending all navigation in the latter channel. The plan 
was referred to a Board of Engineers, and with slight modifications 
was approved by it February 12, 1879. It provided for the construc- 
tion of seven pile dikes and for dredging at seven diflFerent shoal 
points, at a total estimated cost of $142,080. This project was 
adopted March 3, 1879, when an appropriation of $10,000 was made 
for beginning work. No essential modification of this project has 
since been made. Nine dikes have been built and the shoals have been 
dredged and redredged fretiuently in order to maintain the proposed 
depth of 6 feet. Owing to the change in diking and to the cost of 
dredging being generalh' greater than originally estimated, it was 
found necessary in 1881, 1883, and 1887 to add to "the estimate for the 
completion of the whole work. The existing project for improve- 
ment, therefore, is the project of 1879, with the modifications inmcated 
above, and proposes to secure a channel of 6 feet depth, at mean low 
water, with width of 300 feet up to the junction or the North and 
South branches and with a width of 150 feet in those branches, by 
means of dredging and diking at an estimated cost (including appro- 
priation of 1878 applied to this project) of $234,062. 

Report on preliminary examination and survey, with 'estimate, 
under act of June 13, 1902, is printed in Annual Report of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1904, page 1162. 

The sum expended under the existing project to the close of the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, was $320,227.81. of which $195,393.95 
was for carrying out the project, $119,833.86 for maintenance, and 
$5,000 for the survey made in 1903. 

During the past fiscal year dredging for'improvement and main- 
tenance was in progress under two contracts; 103,413 cubic yards of 
material was removed from the main stem below the Highlands 
bridge, the contract being completed May 17, 1905, and 61,476 cubic 
vards from three bars in the North Branch and six bars in the South 
Branch. The latter contract is still in force, but practically com- 
pleted. 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, through- 
out the limits of the improvement was 6 feet at mean low water in 
channels not less than 50 feet in width. Mean range of tides : Outer 
bar, 5 feet; Highlands bridge, 3 feet; Seabright bridge, 1.3 feet. 

The commerce of this river, mainly in coal, farm products, fertili- 
zer, and general merchandise, amounted in 1889 to 906,000 tons; in 



Digitized by 



Google 



ItlVEB AM) HAB&OK IMPBOVBBIENTS. 155 

1900, to 804,000 tons; in 1901, to 488,000 tons; in 1902, to 667,000 tons; 
in 1903, to 761,000 tons; and in 1904 to 780,290 tons, valued at 
$7,051,826. The passenger traffic is important, the number of people 
carried by the Patten Lme, South Branch, in 1902 being 264,635 ; in 
1903, 277,257, and in 1904, 266,157. 

Further details in reference to this wprk maj' be found in the 
Annual Reports of the Chief of Engineers for 1896, page 797, and 
1900, page 185. 

Sketches of Shrewsbury River are printed in the Annual Reports 
of the Chief of Engineers for 1879, 1881, 1882, 1887, 1890, 1891, 1892, 
and 1893, and a map of the whole river is printed in House Document 
No. 123, Fifty-eighth Congress, second session. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $46,469.72 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 2o! 000. 00 

06,469.72 
Jnne 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year: 

For worlcs of lniprovemen| $2G,HKi.95 

For maintenance of Improvement 10, 80.3. 58 

37,697.53 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 28, 772. 19 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 4, 292. 39 

July 1, 1905, balance available 24, 479. 80 

July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 404. 80 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 19, 581. 51 

(See Appendix G 6.) 

7. Manasquan River, New Jersey. — ^This is a small stream in the 
eastern part of New Jersey which empties into the Atlantic Ocean 
about 26 miles south of Sandy Hook, and in its natural condition 
the low-water depth for several miles above the mouth varied from 
4 to 6 feet. The outlet, however, was obstructed by a shifting sand 
bar, on which the depth did not exceed 1^ feet. After severe storms 
this outlet was sometimes entirely closed, remaining so until sufficient 
fresh water had accumulated in the river above to force an outlet 
into the ocean. 

A project for its improvement, adopted by the river and harbor act 
of Afarch 3, 1879, contemplated obtaining a permanent outlet for the 
river nearly at right angles to the shore, with a depth of 6 feet at 
mean low water; also dredging a channel in the lower river to the 
same depth. The estimated co.st was $52,120. Work was suspended 
in 1883 after three appropriations, amounting to $39,000, had been 
expended on the improvement. 

The existing project, approved March 3, 1899, with subsequent 
modifications, which is a modification of the original project, contem- 
plates obtaining an outlet 6 feet deep for the river, and also in deepen- 
ing the channel just above the mouth to the same depth, at an addi- 
tional cost of $18,300 over the amount expended and on hand, making 
the total estimated cost of the improvement $59,300, to which should 
be added $1,075 expended for maintenance. 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, was $10,229.27, of which 
$39,000 was used for carrying out the project and $1,229.27 for 
maintenance. 



Digitized by 



Google 



156 BEPOBT OF THE OHISF OF ENOINBEBS, U. 8. ABKY. 

Reference to survey of the inlet is noted in the Annual Report of 
the Chief of Engineers for 1904, page 147. 

The maximum draft that could l^ carried June 30, 1905, was about 
2 feet at mean low water. Mean range of tides, 2,4 feet. 

The commerce amounts practically to nothing. The river is used 
principally by small fishing craft ; also by pleasure boats during the 
summer season. 

The improvement has not advanced to the condition which would 
affect the rates of freight. It is stated that there will be a reduction 
when the entrance is made navigable. 

Detailed description of this improvement, with map, is printed in 
the Annual Report of the Chief or Engineers for 1898, page 1070. 

Histories of the work and maps are printed in the Annual Reports 
of the Chief of Engineers for 1880, Part 1, pages 547-566, and 1882, 
Part 1, page 701. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended ^,797.57 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance 
of Improvement i 26.84 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 5,770.73 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 14,375.00 

(See Appendix G 7.) 

IMPROVEMENT OF DELAWARE RIVER, NEW JERSET AND PENN- 
SYLVANIA, AND OF CERTAIN WORKS IN DELAWARE BAY, DELA- 
WARE. 

This district was in the charge of Maj. J. C. Sanford, Corps of 
Engineers. Division engineer, Col. Amos Stickney, Corps of Engi- 
neers. 

1. Delaware River, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. — ^Trenton, the 
head of natural and actual navigation of the Delaware River, is about 
30 miles above the upper end of the port of Philadelphia. In its 
original condition this stretch of river was obstructed by several 
shoals. Between Bordentown and Trenton, a distance of about 5 
miles, a narrow and circuitous channel existed, which carried only 
from 3 to 6 feet at mean low water. At Kinkora bar, about 9 miles 
below Trenton, there was a shoal carrying 7^ feet, and at Fivemile 
bar, opposite the- upper part of Philadelphia, a shoal crossed the 
Pennsylvania channel carrying only 3 to 4 feet at mean low water; 
there was, however, a depth or 13 feet past Fivemile bar in the New 
Jersey channel south of Petty Island. 

Below Philadelphia the river in its original condition presented 
obstructions at Mifflin bar, which reduced the depth at mean low 
water to 17 feet, at Schooner ledge and Cherry Island flats to 18 feet, 
at Bulkhead shoal and Baker slioal to about 20 feet, and at Duck 
Creek flats to about 20 feet. The lower end of Duck Creek flats is 56 
miles below Philadelphia. 

In that part of the Delaware River between Trenton, N. J., and 
Bridesburg, Pa., efforts in the past have been directed toward reliev- 
ing commerce from the obstructions which exist in the upper 9 miles 
of the river and toward deepening the channels across Perriwig and 
Kinkora bars. 



Digitized by 



Google 



RITEB AND HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS. 157 

Previous to 1885 the efforts to improve the river between Phila- 
delphia and the bay were confined to dredging, except. at Schooner 
ledge, where solid rock was removed. The work was done under 
appropriations for special localities, and also under general appro- 
priations for the Delaware River below Bridesburg. 

A Board of Engineers, convened by direction of the Secretary of 
War for the purpose of considering the subject of the permanent im- 

Srovement of Delaware River and Bay, recommended, under date of 
anuary 23, 1885, the formation of a ship channel from a point oppo- 
site Philadelphia and about midway between the American Ship 
Building Company's yard and the Gas Trust wharf to deep water in 
Delaware Bay, having a least width of 600 feet and a depth of 26 feet 
at mean low water. The formation of such a channel was to be 
obtained, except at Schooner ledge, where rock would have to be 
removed, by regulating the tidal flow by means of dikes, with 
recourse to dredging where necessary, as an aid to such contracting 
and regulating works. 

The estimated cost of obtaining a channel of the above dimensions 
was about $2,425,000, which covered the estimated cost of the per- 
manent improvement of the Delaware River between the upper part 
of Philadelphia and deep water in the bav. The annual cost of main- 
tenance was estimated at 10 per cent of the original cost for dredging 
and 1 per cent of the original cost for dikes. This estimate of cost 
did not include the improvement of Philadelphia Harbor, which was 
a separate project. 

In the nver and harbor act approved March 3, 1899, Cbngress 
adopted a new project for the improvement of the river, providing 
for the formation of a channel 600 feet wide and 30 feet deep from 
Christian street, Philadelphia, to deep water in Delaware Bay, at an 
estimated cost of $5,810,000. This project superseded the project of 
1885, which provided for a depth of 26 feet at mean low water. At 
the time of adoption of the new project the 26-foot channel, with 
widths varying from 200 to 600 feet, had been formed from the upper 
part of Philadelphia Harbor to the bay, except at the following- 
named localities: Tinicum Island shoal, depth from 23.6 feet to 26 
feet over a distance of about 4,200 feet ; above Schooner ledge, depth 
from 24 feet to 26 feet over a distance of about 4.800 feet ; from below 
Marcushook to Bellevue, depth from 23 to 26 feet over a distance of 
about 13,500 feet. These distances are measured on the range lines. 
The distances measured between the 26-foot curves on the lines of 
deepest water were much shorter. 

At the same time there was between Trenton and Philadelphia a 
channel 6 feet deep at mean low water through Perriwig bar, a depth 
of 7 feet in the eastern channel at Bordentown, a channel 8^ reet 
deep through Kinkora bar, and a channel 26 feet deep over the whole 
width through Fivemile bar. 

The entire amount expended on the improvement of the Delaware 
River from 1836 to June 30, 1905, under appropriations for special 
localities and the general river improvement, not including Phila- 
delphia Harbor, was $6,279,278.97, of which $124,500 was expended 
on the part of the river between Trenton and Philadelphia. 



Digitized by 



Google 



158 EEPOBT OF THE OHIEP OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ABMT. 

The total amount expended on the 26-foot project since its adoption 
in 1885 was $1,532,688.81, of which about $200,000 is estimated to 
have been applied to maintenance. In addition to this expenditure 
the following sums were expended since the adoption of the 26-foot 
channel in 1885 on special localities on the river under appropriations 
made for the purpose : 

Channel across Smiths Island bar, between Philadelphia, Pa., and 

Camden. N. J $30,000.00 

Between the upiier part of Philadelphia. Pa., and Trenton, N. 3 37, 500. 00 

Bebuildtng and enlarging dike at junction of Schuylkill and Dela- 

wiire rivers .3,000.00 

Removing rock ledge opposite Petty Island 69,463.20 

Expenses of Board of Engineer officers on project for channel 30 
feet deep and 600 feet wide 7. 000. 00 

Total 146, 963. 26 

Work under the existiuj^ project was commenced under an appro- 
priation of $300,000 contained in the river and harbor act of March 3, 
1899. Under the provisions of this act $69,463.26 was applied to the 
improvement of the river between Trenton and Christian street, 
$7,000 to the expenses of the Board of Engineer officers on project for 
a 30-foot channel, and the balance, $223,536.74, under the existing 
project. The sundry civil act of June 6, 1900, appropriated the sum 
of $270,500 for continuing the improvement under the existing 
project, and sundry civil act of March 3, 1901, appropriated a further 
sum of $61,500 for the work. 

The river and harbor act approved June 13, 1902, appropriated the 
sum of $600,000 for continuing this improvement under the existing 
general project. The same act authorized the letting of a contract 
or contracts to the extent of $2,400,000 additional for such materials 
and work as might be necessary for the prosecution of the project, to 
be paid for as appropriations may from time to time be made by law. 
The work completed during the past fiscal year, under the contracts 
entered into and by the operation of the plant belonging to the United 
States, was done under this authority. The entire amount authorized 
by the act to be contracted for has been appropriated. 

The river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905, appropriated 
the sum of $500,000 for continuing this improvement under the 
existing general project. The same act authorized the letting of a 
contract or contracts to the extent of $1,000,000 additional for such 
materials and work as might be neces.sary to prosecute said improve- 
ment, to be paid for as appropriations may from time to time be 
made by law. 

Up to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, the sum of 
$3,247,626.90 was expended oii the work of the existing project in 
surveys, in operations at Baker shoal. Duck Creek flats. Salem Cove 
flats shoal. Cherry Island flats. Deep Water Point, Schooner ledge, 
and Tinicum Island flats, and in the construction of bulkheads for 
the reception of dredged material. A suction dredge is under con- 
struction, and details of the work are given in Appendix H 7, here- 
with. None of this amount is considered as applied to maintenance, 
as the original project estimate includes maintenance until completion 
of the work. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 



159 



The changes during the past fiscal year are summarized as follows : 
At Baker shoal the work of bulkhead construction has resulted in 
the completion of 30,627 linear feet of .structure. At Cherry Island 
flats the work of bulkhead construction has resulted in the comple- 
tion of 4,535 linear feet of structure. The work of dredging under 
the 30-foot project has resulted in the formation of a channel 30 feet 
deep at mean low water about 20,500 feet long and with an average 
w^idth of 600 feet through the upper part of Baker shoal, a channel of 
the same depth with length of 43,000 feet and 600 feet in width 
through Duck Creek flats shoal, and a channel of the same depth and 
600 feet in width for a distance of 12,500 feet through Salem Cove 
flats shoal. The channel through Cherry Island flats. Deep Water 
Point range, and Tinicum Island flats has been deepened and im- 
proved by suction dredges. 

The greatest draft of water that could be carried at mean low water 
on June 30, 1905, over the shoalest part of the river below Philadel- 

1)hia was about 22 feet at a short shoal near lower end of Schooner 
edge range. 

For 1890 the total foreign freight movement of the Delaware River 
was estimated at 2,923,994 tons and the total domestic freight move- 
inent at 8,433,276 tons; total, 11,356,270 tons. For 1904 the total for- 
eign freight movement was estimated at 3,609,413 tons and the total 
domestic freight movement at 19,762.623 tons; total, 23,372,036 tons. 
The additional work proposed in the approved project, and for a 
part of which funds were provided by the river and harbor act of 
June 13, 1902, by sundry civil acts of" March 3, 1903, and April 28, 
1904, and by the river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, is necessary 
to make the improvement available and will largely benefit commerce. 

COMMEBCIAL STATISTICS. 

The following statement concerning the foreign commerce of the Delaware 
River for the yenrs ending December 31. 100.H and 15)04, Is complied from the 
reports of the Board of Trade, the Commercial Exchange, and the Maritime 
Exchange of the city of Philadelphia : 



Articles. 


1W8. 


i90t: 


IMPORTS. 


Von*. 

»,m 

112, 1S9 
29,101 
128,177 
2»,975 
ago, 640 


Ton*. 
60,628 


Th^glf ATlH f^hAfl^ffAtf , , , 


120 800 




30.839 


TT«t»,'wiV""f*^*Tl''«'^ 


11,204 


gogsr 


260,801 


If imM^llanmmff 


674,781 






Total 


1,661.249 


1,067,348 






EXPORTS. 

Coal 


640,080 

370,296 

I,n4,fla6 

868,976 


622,611 


Grain and flour 


281.292 




1,186,018 


Mil«TPllRI14*011ll . , , , , , , ...... 


462,244 






Total 


2,378,807 


2,662,066 







Digitized by 



Google 



160 REPOBT OF THE OHTEF OP EKOINEEBS, V. 8. ABICT. 

« 

The following statement concerning the domestic and coastwise commerce of 
the Delaware River for the years ending December 31, 1903 and 1904, has been 
compiled from returns made by shippers, consignees, and carriers : 



Articles. 


1803. 


1804. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 


ARRIVALS. 


148,462 

888,686 

948.481 

1,428,868 

1.250,828 


$3,312,754 

1,438,0(10 

18,417,757 

762,882 

626,803,726 


133,120 

434,268 

1,0IS6,076 

1,325,766 

4,482,806 


$3,600,882 


Ooel 


1,574,474 




10,224,542 


8»nd 


678,837 


Wlx^ll'in"^' 


786,817,622 






Total 


7.171,188 


6«),235,128 


7,441,017 


802,805,287 






DXPARTURB8. 


108,802 
7,462,126 

101,047 

71,414 

3,882,743 


2,444,7W 

30,808,465 

1,725,749 

8,884,717 

473,620,780 


132,846 

112,083 

94,816 

4,325,605 


8,275,241 


Coal 


28,968,722 


FertlUzers 


1,786,020 


Iron, mannftHTturfMl , 


3,491,730 




617,238,823 






Total 


11,716,281 


612,028,514 


12,321,606 


665,763,536 







July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $1, 334, 93«. 90 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 

1905 500, 000. 00 

Amount received from sales of condemned property 48.5. 00 



June 30, 1906, amount expended during fiscal year : 

For works of improvement $1,010,214.52 

By Treasury settlements 1898-99 1. 35 



1,835,421.90 



1, 010, 215. 87 



July 1, 1905. balance unexpended 825,200.03 

July 1, igo."), outstanding liabilities , 260,263.05 

July 1, 1905, balance available 55.5.942,98 



July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 146, 136. 00 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 1, 754, 463. 26 



Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 
■ 30, 1907, for works of improvement, in addition to the balance 

uuexiiended July 1, 1905 1,000,000.00 

Submitted in compliance with requirements of sundry civil act of 

June 4, 1897. 

(See Appendix Hi.) 

2. Ice harbor at Marcushook^ Pa. — In 1785 the Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania built two wharves* upon crib piers at Marcushook for 
the convenience of commerce. In 1829 an appropriation was made by 
Congress for repairing the piers and improving the harbor. 

In 1866 a project was adopted for a harbor in the Delaware River 
to protect vessels against moving ice. The old work at Marcushook 
was utilized as far as possible. The amount expended from 1866 to 
June 30, 1905, was $213,962.46. Since 1889 all expenditures have 
been for repairs and maintenance. The last amount appropriated for 
the work was $6,000, by act of September 19, 1890. 

The harbor covers an area of 12 acres, of which about one-half has 
a depth of 12 to 18 feet and the other half 18 to 25 feet at mean low 
water. The protection consists of the old landing piers and seven 



Digitized by 



Google 



BITEB AKD HABBOB IMFEOVEMENTS. 161 

detached piers, having foundations of wooden cribs filled with stone, 
the superstructures being faced with cut stone. The detached piers 
appear to be in good condition. 

During the past fiscal year 73 cents was expended for incidental 
expenses. 

Rules for the use of the landing piers were approved by the Acting 
Secretary of War under date of April 29, 1904. 

Jnly 1, 1904, balance unexpended $38.27 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year . 73 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 37.54 

(See Appendix H 2.) 

3. Iron jner in Ddaware Bay, near Lewes, Del. — ^The original proj- 
ect for this work proposed the construction of a landing pier about 
1,700 feet in length, extending from the shore south or the break- 
water into Delaware Bay to a depth of 22 feet at mean low water, the 
pier to consist of a substructure of wrought-iron screw piles, sur- 
mounted by a timber superstructure. The work was commenoed in 
1871 and completed, except as to superstructure, in 1880. 

The work done to June 30, 1890, resulted in the construction of 
1 ,155 linear feet of pier 21 feet in width and 546 linear feet 42 feet 
in width, or a total length of 1,701 feet. The depth of water at the 
outer end of the pierhead was about 21 feet at mean low water. Since 
construction the pier has been repaired and cared for by the United 
States. 

The total expenditures to June 30, 1905, were $385,339.40. Of this 
amount $27,000 was applied to the maintenance of the improvement. 

The right to use tjie pier for railway purposes, granted in the act 
of July 15, 1870, has never been exercised and doubtless never will be, 
as the pier has not sufficient strength to support the weight of modem 
frieght engines. It is therefore impossible to obtain any assistance 
from the railroad company in maintaining and repairing the struc- 
ture. 

During the past fiscal year no work has been in progress. 

The pier is of great use for the purposes of the Government engi- 
neer, light-house, and quarantine services. It is of very great value 
to vessels frequenting the breakwater harbor in winter, when the har- 
bor is packed with noating ice, rendering the anchorage dangerous. 
At such times vessels eagerly seek its shelter and protection. 

It is proposed to hold the available balance of $820.60 for mainte- 
nance and repairs as needed. 

The mean range of tide at the pier is 4.5 feet. 

.Tuly 1, 1904, balance unexpended $820. «0 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 820.60 

(See Appendix H 3.) 

^. Delaware Breakwater, Delaware. — ^The final report of the local 
officer upon this work was submitted June 19, 1899, and is printed in 
tibe Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1899, page 1346. 

The depths in the protected anchorage vary from 11^ to 18 feet at 
mean low water, and the harbor is available for vessels drawing up 
to about 16 feet. 



BNG 1905 M 11 



Digitized by 



Google 



162 BEFOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENaiKEBBS, U. S. ABKT. 

The amount expended on this work up to June 30, 1905, -was 
$2,807,479.06. No portion of this amount has been applied to main- 
tenance. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903, a survey of the break- 
water harbor was completed as a part of a survey of the national 
harbor of refuge. 

The mean range of tide is 4.5 feet. 

It is proposed to reserve the available balance of $875.64 for repairs 
to the breakwater and for surveys and examinations of the work. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended • $875. 64 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 875. 64 

(See Appendix H 4.) 

5. Harbor of refuge^ Delaware Bay, Delaware. — ^The project for 
the construction oi this harbor, which was adopted and provided for 
under the continuous-contract system in the river and harbor act of 
June 3, 1896, includes the construction of a breakwater on the line 
of least depth along the eastern branch of the shoal known as the 
'' Shears," and tlie construction of a row of ice piers across the upper 
end of the harbor to protect it from ice descending the bay, at a total 
cost not to exceed $4,665,000. 

No expenditures were made on this improvement previous to June 
80, 1896. 

Up to the clo%e of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, $2,238,205.34 
had been expended in the construction of the breakwater and ice piers. 

No part of this amount was applied to the maintenance of the work. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904, the sum of $338.43 was 
expended on a survey made of the harbor. 

The breakwater was completed on December fl, 1901. The super- 
structure of the breakwater has a length of 7,950 feet and the sub- 
structure a length of 8,040 feet, measured on the low-water line. 

A project for the construction of 10 ice piers was submitted on 
April 5 and approved April 23, 1900. This work was commenced 
during the fiscal year endmg June 30, 1901, and completed November 
22, 1902. Seventy-one thousand three hundred tons of stone was 
deposited in the work. 

A project for the construction of additional ice piers was submitted 
under date of June 7 and approved June 30, 1902. Work under this 

Project was begun August 4, 1902, and completed June 19, 1903. 
hirty-seven thousand six hundred and seventy-three tons of stone 
was deposited, completing 5 ice piers. 

A report was submitted under date of November 19, 1902, contain- 
ing project and estimates for further protection of the harbor. A 
further report on this subject, containing a detailed project and esti- 
mate of cost of the proposed extension or the breakwater at this har- 
bor, was submitted imder date of November 14, 1903. Both reports 
and the recommendations of the Board of Engineers for Rivers and 
Harbors are published in House Document No. 548, Fifty-eighth Con- 
gress, second session, and also contained in the Annual Report of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1904, pages 1215-1225. 

It is proposed to reserve the available balance of $1,128.66 for 
repairs and surveys and examinations of the work. 

The great value of this harbor to commerce is due to its location. 
It is about equidistant from New York, Philadelphia, and the capes 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMFEOVEMBNTS. 163 

of Chesapeake Bay (the ocean entrance for the ports of Baltimore, 
Norfolk, and Newport News), and is therefore an especially con- 
venient port of call for the entire commerce of the North Atlantic 
coast. It is now largely used by vessels awaiting orders to ports for 
discharge or loading. During the year ending December 31, 1904, 
1,171 vessels (not including small craft) called at this harbor. 

By the construction of the breakwater the usefulness of this anchor- 
age has been greatly increased not only as a port of call, but also as a 
harbor of refuge. Vessels bound from northern to southern or from 
southern to northern ports are able to go to sea in doubtful weather 
with the assurance of finding ample protection at the Delaware capes 
if overtaken by storm. 

Details as to this improvement may be found in the Annual Report 
of the Chief of Engineers for 1897, page 1216. A map is printed in 
House Executive Document No. 112, Fifty-second Congress, first 
ses.sion. 

The mean range of tide is 4.5 feet. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended . $1,132.91 

Treasury settlement, June 9, 1898 10.46 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year 3. 79 

4.25 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 1, 128. 66 

(See Appendix H 5.) 

6. Removing sunken vetseU or craft obstructing or endangering 
navigation. — (a) Wreck of canal boat in Schuylkill River. — This 
wreck, lying in the western draw passage of the Grays Ferry high- 
way bridge, was considered an obstruction to navigation. Its re- 
moval was authorized on December 14, 1903. Work under the exist- 
ing contract for the removal of this wreck has not yet been com- 
menced. 

(6) Wreck of barge Alice in Delaware River near Tinicum 
Island. — ^This wreck was considered an obstruction to navigation ; its 
removal was authorized on June 30, 1904. The wreck has not yet 
been removed. 

{c) Wreck of barge Santiago in national harbor of refuge, Dela- 
ware Bay. — ^This wreck was considered a dangerous obstruction to 
navigation; its removal was authorized on January 17, 1905. The 
work of removal is in progress. The contractor paid the United 
States $3,160 for the wreck and agreed to do the work of removal. 

{d) Wreck of Philadelphia City ice boat No. 3 in national harbor 
of refuge, Delaware Bay. — This wreck was considered a menace to 
navigation; its removal was authorized February 25, 1905. The 
work of removal is in progress. 

(e) The removal of the wreck of the schooner Lottie K. Friend 
from Delaware Bay, about 1\ miles west of Ship John light, under 
a contract dated February 18, 1897, with Thomas Poynter and Elijah 
D. Register, of Lewes, Del., in progress during the fiscal year endmg 
June 30, 1897, was not completed, and the annulment of the contract 
was recommended June 16, 1898, and approved June 18, 1898. This 
wreck has not yet been removed. 

The amount expended during the past fiscal year upon removal of 
wrecks was $1,039.63, 

(See Appendix H 6.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



164 BEFOBT OF THE CHIEF OF BBTGINEEBS, O. 8. ABKT. 

IMPEOVEMENT OF RIVERS AND HARBORS IN SOUTHERN NEW 
JERSEY, OF CERTAIN RIVERS AND HARBORS IN DELAWARE, AND 
OF INLAND WATERWAY FROM CHINCOTEAOUE BAY TO DELAWARE 
BAY, VIRGINIA, MARYLAND, AND DELAWARE. 

This district was in the charge of Capt. C. A. F. Flagler, Corps 
of Engineers. Division engineer, Col. Amos Stickney, Corps of 
Engineers. 

1. Rancocas River, New Jersey. — The Rancocas River is a tributary 
of the Delaware River, its mouth being about 11 miles above the 
Pennsylvania Railroad terminal and ferry at Camden, N. J. 

In the original condition the minimum depth was 4^ feet at mean 
low watel- from the junction of the forks near Centerton to its mouth, 
a distance of 7J miles. Above Centerton the depth on the Mount 
Holly Branch, a distance of 5^ miles, was generally about 2J feet. 
From the forks to Moores Landing, the head of navigation on the 
Lumberton Branch, a distance of 3.6 miles, the low- water depth over 
shoal places was 3 feet. The mean range of tides at Centerton is about 
6 feet. 

The original project of 1881 proposed the formation, by a dike at 
Coates bar and dredging elsewhere, of a channel from 150 to 200 feet 
wide and 6 feet deep at mean low water from the mouth to Centerton 
and thence to Mount Holly a channel 5 feet deep. Operations under 
this project were carried on from 1881 to 1895, and were directed to 
the formation of a low-water channel 100 feet wide and 6 feet deep 
from the mouth to Centerton and 50 feet wide and 5 feet deep for a 
distance of about If miles above Centerton. The unexpended balance, 
$399.70, has been returned to the surplus fund of the Treasury. 

An appropriation of $2,000 for this river, made in the act of 
June 3, 1896, was required by the act to be expended in the improve- 
ment of the Lumberton Branch and was applied in the fiscal year 
1898 to dredging through the shoals at Pattersons Landing, below 
Paxsons Landing, and partly through the shoal above Paxsons Land- 
ing, the channel having a width of 30 feet and a mean low-water 
depth of 6 feet, and an appropriation of $2,000, made in the river 
and harbor act of March 3, 1899, was likewise required to be expended 
in the Lumberton Branch and was applied to dredging a channel with 
a depth of from 6 to 7 feet at mean low water and a width of 30 feet 
through the shoal below Moores Landing. 

The river and harbor act of June 13, 1902, appropriated $3,000 
for continuing the improvement of the Lumberton Branch, and for 
its expenditure a project was approved providing for the construc- 
tion of contraction works, consisting of low wing dams, to be located 
at places where the channel had been dredged and had refilled. The 
work was completed on July 24, 1903. m aU, 18 wing dams were 
built. Of these, 11 were placed on the north side and 7 on the south 
side, covering the stretch from the forks up to the highway bridge at 
Hainesport, a distance of about 2^ miles. 

The expenditure during the year was for contingent expenses. 

The amount expended on this improvement to June 30, 1905, is 
$44,479.45, of which $6,979.24 was on the Lumberton Branch. 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, at mean 
low water, over the shoale-st part of the river between the mouth and 
the forks and Centerton was 7 feet, and above, to Moores, about 6 
feet. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AKD HABBOB IMPBOVEHENTS. 165 

It has been impracticable to ascertain what direct effect the im- 
provement of the channel has had upon freight rates, or the extent of 
the commerce during the past year. For 1903 the commerce reported 
was 462,971 tons, valued at $9,634,550. 

No work was done on the improvement during the past fiscal year. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended .• <>$433. 21 

June 30, 1905, amount expended durinfir fiscal year : 

For maintenance of improyement fl2. 75 

June 30, 1905, covered into surplus fund. United 

States Treasury <»390. 70 

412. 45 

July 1, 1905, balance available » 20. 76 

(See Appendix 1 1.) 

2. Cooper Creek, New Jersey. — This creeks enters the Delaware 
River in the city of Camden, just above Cooper Point. It was navi- 
gable at mean high water for a distance of 9 miles from its mouth for 
vessels drawing 5 feet, and for the first 5 miles for vessels of llj 
feet draft. The mean range of the tide at the mouth is about 6 feet. 
For a distance of li miles from the mouth the width of the stream 
averaged about 80 reet at low water and about 120 feet between the 
banks, and the channel in its original condition had a depth at mean 
high water of from 12 to 15 feet, except at one place, where the depth 
was 9^ feet. 

The project for this improvement was adopted in the river and 
harbor act of June 3, 1896, and is printed in the Annual Report of 
the Chief of Engineers for 1895, page 1102. It provides for the 
formation, by dredging, of a channel 70 feet wide at bottom and 18 
feet deep at mean high water from the mouth of the creek to Brown- 
ing's Chemical Works, and a channel of the same dimensions through 
the bar just outside the mouth — in all, a distance of about 9,000 feet. 
The estimated cost, including contingencies, is $35,000. 

The river and harbor act of June 3, 1896, appropriated $37,000 for 
completing this improvement, of which $2,500, or as much thereof as 
might be necessary, was to be expended in rebuilding the dike on the 
Government reservation in the Delaware River at Woodbury Creek. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1897, the sum of $2,500 was 
expended in rebuilding the dike on the Government reservation at 
AVoodbury Creek, and in 1898-99 the channel in Cooper Creek was 
dredged. The dredging resulted in the "formation of a channel ex- 
tending from the mouth to the Camden Iron Works, 7,500 feet long, 
50 to 70 feet wide, except at the bridges, where the widths are 30 feet, 
and 18 feet deep at mean high water, except on the water pipe belong- 
ing to the city of Camden at State street, where the high -water depths 
are 14 to 15 feet. 

- No work was done dn the improvement during the past fiscal year. 
The disbursement was for contmgent expenses. 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, is $25,882.55, exclusive of 
the $2,500 expended in rebuilding the dike at Woodbury Creek. Of 
this amount $206.45 was for maintenance. 

It is proposed to complete the improvement with funds now avail- 
able as soon as the city of Camden removes or lowers the water pipe 



1399.70 pertains to Mount Holly Branch, 
ft Pertains to Lumberton Branch. 



Digitized by 



Google 



166 KEFOBT OF TEE OHIBF OF EKOIKEEBS, TT. 8. AB1C7. 

at State street, which, it was imderstood, it contemplated doing lasi 
year. 

The maximum draft that could be carried on June 30, 1905, at paean 
low water over the shoalest part of the channel was 7 feet to the Cam- 
den Iron Works and 5 feet to Browning's Chemical Works. 

No statement •f the commerce of the creek for the last calendar 
year could be obtained. That reported for 1903 was 414,838 tons, 
valued at $3,820,974. 

The effect of the improvement made in this stream on freight rates 
is that it has reduced the rates by permitting larger vessels to be 
secured for long voyages, which was formerly impossible. The raii- 
road rates to points in the United States east of Cape Cod are 25 per 
cent higher than by water. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $8, 618.81 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year 1. 36 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 8, 617. 45 

(See Appendix 12.) 

3. Mantua Creek, New Jersey. — ^Mantua Creek is a stream flowing 
into the Delaware River at a point about 10 miles below the terminal 
and ferry of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Camden, N. J. 

In its original condition it was navigable at high water for a dis- 
tance of one-half mile above its mouth to the phosphate works of the 
I. P. Thomas & Sons Company for vessels of 13 feet draft ; thence 3J 
miles farther, to Paulsboro, for vessels drawing 9 feet; thence 3| 
miles to Parkers Landing for tugs and barges drawing 6 feet, this 
being the head of steam navigation; thence 4.1 miles to Mantua, llj 
miles above the mouth, small boats and barges of 3 to 4 feet draft 

?iassed up on the tide. The navigable portion is generally bordered by 
ow ground, protected from overflow by earthen banks. The general 
course of the stream is tortuous, and its navigation is much obstructed 
by bars, sharp bends, and the upper .portion oy stumps and overhang- 
ing trees. Tne stream, on account of its flat watersned, is subject to 
only moderate freshets, which seldom e.xceed 2 to 3 feet above tide 
water. The range of tide is 6 feet at the mouth, 4.5 feet at Pauls- 
boro, 3.4 feet at Berkley, and 2 feet at Mantua, which is the head of 
navigation. The low-water width near the mouth averaged 160 feet, 
decreasing to about 100 feet at Paulsboro. Above Paulsboro the 
width decreased to 88 feet at Parkers Landing, and near Mantua to 
50 feet. 

The approved project for the improvement, which was adopted by 
Congress in river and harbor act of March 3, 1899, contemplates the 
dredging of a channel 100 feet wide on the bottom and 12 feet deep 
from the 12- foot contour in the Delaware River, through the marsh to 
the phosphate works, a distance of 2,200 feet ; thence 80 feet wide on 
the bottom and 8 feet deep to Paulsboro, 6,300 feet, making a channel 
nearly direct by cutting off three bends ; thence to Parkers Landing, 
near Berkley, 3 miles, with one cut-off 60 feet wide and 7 feet deep; 
and the dredging of a cut-off 350 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 3 feet 
deep, 9,000 feet above Berkley ; also the removal of overhanging trees 
above Berkley and the construction of jetties on both sides at the 
mouth of the creek. The estimated cost of this improvement is 
$145,030. Such land and rights as were considered necessary for the 



Digitized by 



Google 



ttlVEB AKD SABBOB IMPBOVEMEKTS. 16? 

cut-offs were purchased in September, 1900, at a cost of $8,000, and 
during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1901, the channel between the 
phospnate works and Paulsboro was dredged to the project dimen- 
sions and the three cut-offs made as planned. 

The river and harbor act of June 13, 1902, appropriated $35,000 for 
continuing the improvement and contract was made for dredging the 
channel ftom the Delaware River to the phosphate works. Work 
under this contract was begun in November, 1903, and after many in- 
terruptions was completed in Januarv, 1905. A channel was dredged 
between the points named to a depth of 12 feet at mean low water. . 
The width made was 110 feet across the flats and 100 feet at the upper 
and lower ends. Plans, etc., for the jetties necessary for the protec- 
tion of the channel at the mouth as far as available funds will permit 
are now in preparation. 

The amount expended on this improvement to June 30, 1905, no part 
of which was for maintenance, was $47,430.31, of which $44,430.31 is 
on the present project. > 

The maximum draft that could be carried on June 30, 1905, at mean 
low water over the shoalest part of the creek under improvement was 
10 feet to the phosphate works, 5^ feet thence to Paulsboro, and 2^ 
feet thence to Parkers Landing. 

It has been impracticable to obtain commercial statistics for 1904. 
Those reported for 1903 were 136,105 tons, valued at $1,638,790. 

The improvement of Mantua Creek is reported to have reduced 
freight rates on car floats by fully 25 per cent, and has greatly facili- 
tated shipments. 

July 1, 1904. balance unexpended |32,S21.86 

June 30, 1005, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of Im- 
provement 16, 952. 17 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended.^ 16, 566. 89 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 85, 030. 00 

(See Appendix 13.) 

4- Alloway Creek^ New Jergey. — ^This is a tidal tributary of the 
Delaware River, flowing westerly in the southwestern part of New 
Jersey, its mouth being about 50 miles below Camden, N. J. In 
its original condition the creek was obstructed between its mouth and 
Quinton, a distance of about 10 miles, by shoal areas in the upper 
half of the stream, which reduced the low-water depths to from 1.3 
to 4 feet. The mean range of tide is 6 feet at the mouth and 4 feet 
at Quinton, the head of navigation. 

The original project of 1889 proposed the formation by dredging 
of a channel 6 feet deep at mean low water and 60 feet wide from 
Quinton to a point about 1,000 feet above upper Hancock Bridge; 
Ihence a channel of the same depth and 75 feet wide to a locauty 
known as "The Square," where the work was to be supplemented 
by a dike. At a locality known as the " Canal," in addition to a 
channel of the la.st-named dimensions, the width of the stream was 
to be increased to about 150 feet between its low-water lines. The 
project was modified on December 10, 1896, so as to provide for a 
dike formed by a single row of piles above upper Hancock Bridge. 
This modification does not increase the original estimated cost of the 
. work, which is $25,000. 



Digitized by 



Google 



i6S REPOBT OF THE OfllEP OJ- EltGIl<:EiatS, V. 8. ABlCt. 

At the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1900, $18,000 had 
been expended in dredging below The Square, at The Square, at 
Smith Reeves, at and near the Canal, just below upper Hancock 
Bridge, from upper Hancock Bridge to a point about 1,400 feet above 
it, above and below Robinsons Landing, upper and lower Foia^sers, 
upper and lower Lamberts, and Quinton, and in dike construction at 
The Square and above upper Hancock Bridge. Channels from 40 to 
75 feet wide and 6 feet deep at mean low water had been dredged at 
the above-mentioned localities, and dikes 300 and 404 feet in length, 
' respectively, had been constructed at The Square and above upper 
Hancock Bridge. Of this amount about $1^00 had been expended 
for the maintenance of dredged channels. 

In 1903, with the $3,000 appropriated by the river and harbor act 
of June 13, 1902, the channel was dredged at various points between 
the upper end of a shoal just above Hancock Bridge and a point about 
3 miles below, forming a continuous channel 6 feet deep at mean low 
water and 60 feet wide between the points named. 

No work was done on the improvement during the past fiscal year. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, appropriated $3,000 for 
continuing the improvement and for maintenance. A project for the 
expenditure of this appropriation in removing shoals between The 
Square and a point about 1,000 feet above upper Hancock Bridge 
and for dredging thence toward Quinton was duly approved and 
proposals invited for the work, to be opened June 21, 1905,-but none 
was received. The advisability of doing the work either by read- 
vertising for proposals or by day labor was under consideration 
at the close of the fiscal year. 

The amount expended on this improvement to June 30, 1905, is 
$20,995.44, of which $4,506.42 was for maintenance. The expendi- 
tures during the year were for outstanding liabilities and examina- 
tions. 

The maximum draft that could be carried on June 30, 1905, at 
mean low water over' the shoalest part of the locality under im- 
provement to Quinton was 5^ feet 

The commerce of the creek consists of miscellaneous articles, such as 
coal, sand, lumber, agricultural products, etc. The tonnage for the 
year 1904 was 60,350, valued at $1,093,200. 

The freight rates are reported to have been lowered by reason of 
the improvement of the creek, but to what extent is not stated. 
Larger boats are enabled to enter and depart, and shipments have 
been facilitated very much by avoiding delays in waiting for tides. 

Local interests in the navigation of this stream are desirous of 
having a cut-off made at a bend known as " Fosters Bottle." The 
proposed cut-off is to be about 1,200 feet long, 75 feet wide, and 6 
feet deep at mean low water. Its lower end is about 7,000 feet above 
the mouth of the creek and the bend 7,000 feet long. It will shorten 
the distance to the mouth by over a mile and will remove two difficult 
turns and be an improvement to the stream. The estimate for the 
entire work will not be increased if the proposed cut-off be made, 
and it is understood that the necessary land — a strip 250 feet wide — 
will be deeded to the United States free of expense. 



Digitized by 



Google 



filVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOTEMENTS. 169 

Jnly 1, 1904, balance unexpended ^7. 30 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved Marcb 3, 1906. 3, 000. 00 

3,297.30 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance 
ot Improvement 292. 74 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 3,004.56 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 5,200.00 

(See Appendix 14.) 

5. Goshen Creek., New Jersey. — ^This creek rises in the central part 
of Cape May County, N. J., and discharges into Delaware Bay about 
15 miles north of Cape May. 

In its original condition Groshen Creek carried a low-water depth 
of from 2 to 4 feet, with a least low-water width of 20 feet and a 
high-water width of 36 feet from Goshen to a point about 4,000 feet 
below ; and thence to the mouth, a distance of al)out 2,500 feet, a low- 
water depth of from 3 to 5 feet, with a least width of 30 feet. The 
range of tide is about 5 feet. 

The project for its improvement, adopted in 1891, proposed the 
deepening and widening by dredging of the 4,000 feet of the creek 
below Goshen Landing, which may be said to be the head of naviga- 
tion, to a low- water depth of 3 feet and a width of 30 feet, the forma- 
tion of a dredged channel 3 feet deep and about 50 feet wide through 
the bar at the mouth to the limit or the same beyond the low-water 
line, and the protection of the channel by a sheet-pile jetty. 

The improvement was commenced during the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1893, and to the close of the year the .sum of $2,270.16 had 
been expended in widening and deepening the channel to the pro- 

Eosed dimensions over a distance of about 3,975 feet below Go^en 
randing. By this work about one-fourth of the projected improve- 
ment had been completed and the navigable conditions had been pro- 
portionately improved. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1897, the pile dike was con- 
structed to its projected length of 600 feet, and 8,002 cubic yards of 
material was removed from the channel in the vicinity of the dike. 

The original cost of the project, made in 1891, was estimated at 
$12,000, this estimate being ba.sed on a single appropriation of that 
amount, by which the improvement could be made in a single season. 
On account of the small appropriations the execution of the work was 
carried through an interval ot several years, and it was not executed 
with sufficient rapidity to prevent injurious changes, which consider- 
ably increased the cost of the improvement. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1898, an estimate for the 
completion of the project, based on a careful survey of existing con- 
ditions, was made. In order to maintain the dredged channel it was 
found necessary to extend the dike somewhat farther inshore and 
dredge through the bar at the mouth of the creek, which increased 
the cost of the project from $12,000, as originally estimated, to $17,000. 
The river and harbor act of March 3, 1899, appropriated $8,000 for 
the completion of this improvement. During the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1899, a project for the expenditure of this sum and of a bal- 
ance remaining from a previous appropriation was submitted and ap- 
proved. The project provides for dredging a channel with a low- 



Digitized by 



Google 



170 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF BNOINEEBS, V. 6. ASttT. 

water depth of 3 feet entirely through the mouth of the creek and for 
repairing and extending the existing dike and constructing a short 
dike on the upper side of the mouth of the creek. Work under this 
project was commenced during the fiscal year ending Jime 30, 1899. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1900, under this project the 
existing dike was repaired and strengthened with brush and stone; 
two parallel brush and stone dikes, on opposite sides of the creek 
entrance, with a total length of 680 feet, were constructed; 10,436 
cubic yards of material, dipper measurement, was removed from the 
bar at the mouth of the creek, and one of the brush and stone dikes 
repaired. By the work done the improvement was completed. 

The total amount expended to the close of the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1905, was $16,228.77, of which amount it is estimated that 
about $870 was expended for maintenance. 

No work was done on the improvement during the past fiscal year 
and no further work is contemplated. The unexpended balance has 
been covered into the surplus fund of the Treasury. No further 
reports will be submitted. 

No commercial statistics have been received for the past year. The 
commerce reported in 1903 was only $3,300. That reported in 1900 
was $438,900, and the depreciation is stated to be due to excessive 
shoaling at the bar. The maximum draft that could be carried at 
mean low water in the creek when last reported, June 30, 1904, was 
2 feet. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $771.23 

June 30, 1905, covered Into surplus fund United States Treasury 771. 23 

(See Appendix I 5.) 

6. Tuckerton Creek, New Jersey. — ^This is a tidal stream flowing 
into Little Egg Harbor, on the Atlantic coast, northeast of Atlantic 
City. A preliminary examination and survey of the creek were 
made, and a report recommending its improvement was transmitted 
to Congress and is printed in House Document No. 274, Fifty-sixth 
Congress, first session ; also in Annual Report of the Chief or Engi- 
neers for 1900, pages 1612-1615. 

The original low-water depth at Tuckerton, the head of naviga- 
tion, was 15 inches, which increased gradually to 4 feet at the mouth 
of the creek, a distance of 2 miles. From the mouth of the creek 
across the flats to Gaunts Point, three- fourths of a mile, the low-water 
depths were 2 to 2 J feet. The mean tidal range is 2\ feet. The 
project, adopted by the river and harbor act of June 13, 1902, con- 
templates the dreciging of a channel 6 feet deep at mean low water 
and 80 feet wide from Gaunts Point, seven-eighths of a mile to the 
mouth of the creek; thence a channel of the same depth and 75 feet 
wide, 1 mile to Parkers Landing ; thence a channel of the same depth 
and 60 feet wide, five-eighths of a mile farther, to West Tuckerton 
Landing; thence a channel 5 feet deej) at mean low water and 60 feet 
wide for three-eighths of a mile to just above Scow Landing; and 
thence a channel 3 feet deep at mean low water and 40 feet wide for 
one-eighth of a mile to the milldam at Tuckerton, together with the 
widening of the channel at sharp bends, the channel across the cove 
between the mouth of the creek and Oy.ster Bed Point to be supple- 
mented, if necassary, by a revetment wall along its northern side. 
The estimated cost of the work, including contingencies, is $61,380. 

The plan was adopted by Congress in the river and harbor act of 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEK AND HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS. 171 

June 13, 1902, which appropriated $12,000 thereon, and with this ap- 
propriation the channel was dredged, between May, 1903, and Febru- 
ary, 1904, from a point five-eighths of a mile above the mouth to the 
milldam at Tuckerton, the width made being 75 feet to Parkers Land- 
ing; thence 60 feet to just above Scow Landing, and thence 40 feet 
to the milldam. The depth made was 4 feet at mean low water be- 
tween the milldam and a point about 300 feet below Daddy Tuckers 
Creek, and 6 feet thence for a distance of 1,500 feet below. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, appropriated $12,000 
for continuing improvement and for maintenance, and provided that 
the Secretary of War might, in his discretion, direct that the plan here- 
tofore adopted for this improvement may be modified, provided the 
cost of completion shall not -exceed the estimate heretofore made for 
the work. In accordance therewith, and to meet the wishes of those 
directly interested in the improvement, the Secretary of War, under 
date of April 11, 1905, approved the modification of the project by 
extending the channel from the mouth of the creek in a south-south- 
east direction to deep water at the head of Marchelder channel in 
lieu of dredging to Gaunts Point. The change will give a straighter 
and shorter course to the inlet and will not oe more expensive than 
under the original project. For the expenditure of the available 
funds a project was approved which provides for dredging from the 
point where work was last suspended, abreast of Flax Island, down- 
river to the mouth, and thence by the new route toward Marchelder 
channel, to the 6-foot depth in Little Egg Harbor, the width and 
depth to be' made approximately 50 feet anae feet at mean low water, 
respectivelv. 

Proposals for this dredging were opened June 19, 1905, and con- 
tract awarded under which the work therein provided for is ex- 
pected to be completed about the end of this year. 

The amount expended on this improvement to June 30, 1905, is 
$12,178.36, no part of which was for maintenance. 

The maximum draft that could be carried on June 30, 1905, at 
mean low water, over the shoalest part of the improvement was 2^ 
feet from the mouth to Tuckerton and 3 feet across the flats from the 
mouth. 

The improvement of Tuckerton Creek is not yet suflSciently ad- 
vanced to show any material decrease in freight rates. Shipments 
from distant points have, hpwever, been increased and facilitated, 
and lumber-laden vessels now come and await tides to make landings. 

The commerce reported for the calendar year 1904 is reported to 
have been 17,330 tons, valued at $564,880. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $129.42 

Amount appropriated by rWer and harbor act approved March 3, 19(K)- 12, 000. 00 

12, 129. 42 
June .TO, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of im- 
prorement 307. 78 

July 1, 1905. balance unexpended 11,821.64 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 50.00 

July 1, 1905, balance available 11, 771. 64 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 37,,S80. 00 

(See Appendix 16.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



172 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OP KNGtltEEBS, IT. 8. ABUT. 

7. Raccoon Creek, New Jersey. — ^This creek rises in Gloucester 
County, flows in a northwesterly direction, and empties into the 
Delaware River at a point nearly opposite MarcushooK, Pa. A pre- 
liminary examination and survey of Raccoon Creek was made in 
3899, and a report, with estimated cost of improvement, was sub- 
mitted to the Secretary of War, under date of December 18, 1899, 
and printed in House Document No. 231, Fifty-sixth Congress, first 
session; also on pages 1590 to 1598, Annual ^port of the Chief of 
Engineers for 1900. 

It was navigable at high water for a distance of three-fourths mile 
above its mouth to Bridgeport for vessels of 9 feet draft; thence 3J 
miles farther to Springer s wharf for vessels drawing 7 feet, and 
thence 4f miles to Swedesboro, the hedd of steam navigation, for 
boats and barges having a draft of 4 feet. Above Swedesboro the 
stream was narrow, shoal, and very crooked. The navigable portion, 
when it left fast land, wound through meadows lying 2 or 3 feet 
above low^ water, which, except for the 2 miles immediately below 
Swedesboro, were generally protected from overflow by revetted 
earthen banks. Navigation was much obstructed by bars and a few 
sharp bends. 

The range of tide at the confluence with the Delaware River is 

6 feet ; at Bridgeport, If miles above the mouth, it is also 6 feet ; at 
Kirbys Landing, 3 miles above the mouth, 5.8 feet; at Davenport's 
wharf, 4^ miles from the mouth," 5.6 feet ; at Leap's wharf, 5f miles 
from the mouth, 5.6 feet; at Adolph Black's wharf, 7} miles above 
the mouth, 5.3 feet ; while at Swedesboro it is 4.9 feet, though at the 
latter place it is considerably influenced by winds and freshets. 

The approved project, adopted by river and harbor act of June 13, 
1902, proposes the formation of a dredged channel 7 feet deep and 
75 feet in width at mean low water, from the mouth for a distance of 
If miles to Bridgeport; thence a channel of the same depth and 60 
feet wide to Springer's wharf, and thence a channel 5 feet deep at 
mean low water and 40 feet in width to the head of navigation at 
Swedesboro, 9f miles from its mouth, together with the widening 
of the channel around sharp bends, at an estimated cost of $102,135. 
That act appropriated $15,000, and between August, 1903, and March, 
1904, a continuous channel not less than 7 feet deep at mean low 
w^ater and a width of not less than 75 feet was dredged from the 
mouth of the creek to the highway bridge at Bridgeport, and thence 
across Springer's bar to a width of 60 feet, the depth made being 

7 feet at mean low water. The length improved is aoout 5 miles. 
The amount expended on this improvement to June 30, 1905, is 

$14,944.70, no part of which was for maintenance, exclusive of $757.23 
expended for an examination under act of August 2, 1882. 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, at mean 
low water, over the shoalest part of tlie creek to Bridgeport is 4 feet. 

The improvement of this stream has so far had no marked effect 
upon freight rates, as the improvement made extends only about half 
the way up the creek. Bulky freight by water, however, costs only 
about half that by rail. 

The commerce of the creek during the calendar year 1904 is re- 
ported to have been 252,389 tons, valued at $3,300,000. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, appropriated $15,000 
for continuing the improvement, and a project for the expenditure of 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEBCBKTS. 173 

the available funds was approved on April 11, 1905. This provides 
for dredeing to a depth of 7 feet between the mouth and Springer's 
wharf, the width to oe 75 feet to Bridgeport and 60 feet thence to 
Springer's wharf, and above that point to a depth of 5 feet and 
width of 40 feet. Proposals for this work were opened June 20, 1905. 
At the close of the fiscal year award of contract was under considera- 
tion. 

A cut-oflf at Molonox shoal, about 5J miles above Bridgeport, is 
much desired by the local interests and will be a valuable improve- 
ment to the stream. It will shorten the run from Swedesboro 2,950 
feet and will eliminate eight bad bends. It can be executed for 
about $1,000 more than would be required to dredge the channel in 
the bends cut off. If authorized, the present estimated cost of the 
improvement will not be increased thereby, and the necessary land, 
with right of way 200 feet wide, will, it is stated, be deeded, without 
expense, to the United States. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended 93,659.69 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905- 15, 000. 00 

18, 659. 69 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of im- 
provement 1, 361. 62 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 17, 298. 07 

Amount (estimated) requlre<l for completion of existing project 72, 135.00 

(See Appendix 17.) 

8. Wilmington Harbor, Delaware. — ^The harbor of "Wilmington, 
Del., is in the Christiana Kiver and includes a length of about 4 miles 
above its mouth at the Delaware River. It also includes the navi- 
gable portion of the Brandywine River, which flows into the Chris- 
tiana River at a point about 1 J miles above its mouth. 

Previous to 1836, when the first appropriation for the improvement 
of the Christiana River was made, the low-water depth at the en- 
trance to this stream was about 8^ feet. The minimum depth in 
the channel in the portion of the river below Third Street Bridge, 
Wilmington, was 8 feet. This depth was increased in 1836 by dredg- 
ing to 10 feet below low water. 

The present project is based upon a survey made in 1895 (see 
the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1896, pp. 974 to 
998) and provides for the formation, by dredging, rock removal, 
and construction of dikes, of a channel in the Christiana River 21 
feet deep at mean low water from that depth in the Delaware River 
to the pulp works, a distance of about 4 miles, and thence diminishing 
to a d!epth of 10 feet at mean low water to the draw pier of the 
Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington Railroad cut-off bridge 
No. 4, the width at bottom vanning between 250 feet at the mouth 
and 200 feet at bridge No. 4. The project further provides for the 
removal of shoals from bridge No. 4 to Newport to a depth of 7 
feet at mean low water. The width made under the present project 
is 200 feet from the pulp works to the mouth of the Brandywine, 
and thence to the 21-foot contour in the Delaware River, 250 feet, 
except a stretch of about 1,750 feet extending up from a point oppo- 
site the light-house at the mouth, where the width was made only 



Digitized by 



Google 



174 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. B. ABMT. 

200 feet. The depth made was 21 feet, and over the rock ledges 
above and below Third Street Bridge about 21^ feet. 

A history of the improvement and the work done under this and 
previous projects will be found in the Annual Report of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1901, pages 246 to 249. 

During the fiscal year 1903 a survey was made of the river extend- 
ing from the 21-foot contour in the Delaware River to the draw pier 
of the Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington Railroad cut-oflf 
bridge No. 4, and report thereon with maps was submitted under date 
of March 26, 1903. 

The river and harbor act of June 13, 1902, appropriated $50,000 
for continuing the improvement and for maintenance, with a proviso 
that not more than $25,000 thereof shall be expended until arrange- 
ments have been made by the city of Wilmington, and approved by 
the Secretary of War, to dispose of the sewage from the city in such 
manner as to prevent the filling of the channel. For the expenditure 
of $25,000 of this appropriation a project was approved August 15, 
1903, and under this a shoal, extending a length of about 3,400 feet 
between the Third Street Bridge and the Market Street Bridge, 
was dredged to a depth of 18 feet at mean low water for a width of 
between 100 and 150 feet, resulting in a channel 18 feet deep at mean 
low water and a width of 200 feet from the Third Street Bridge to 
the lower end of the Pusey & Jones yards, thence 100 feet wide to 
the foot of French Street, and thence an average width of 200 feet 
to Market Street Bridge. A shoal between the mouth of the Brandy- 
wine and the Pennsylvania Railroad cut-off bridge No. 3 was dredged 
to a width of 200 feet to the bridge and of 100 feet through the 
south draw, the depth made being 20 feet at mean low water, and a 
shoal extending a length of about 2,500 feet between the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad bridge and the pulp works was dredged to a 
width of 100 feet and depth of 16 feet at mean low water. 

Under date -of December 8, 1904, a Board of oflScers was convened 
by authoritv of the Secretary of War to consider the establishment 
of harbor lines at the harbor of Wilmington, Del. The Board met, 
held a public hearing regarding the matter, and concluded to have a 
detailed survey made, in so far as may be necessary, to express ac- 
curately on tt map the positions of the harbor lines to be recommended 
by the Board in its report. This survey is now in progress and will 
be completed shortly. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, provides as follows: 

ImproritiK harbor at Wilmington, Delaware: Continuing Improvement and 
for maintenance, up to Third Street BrldBe, twenty-five thousand dollars. In 
addition to the amounts heretofore appropriated, which are hereby made availa- 
ble and the restrictions upon the expenditure of which are hereby removed. 

Under date of April 27, 1905, the Chief of Engineers approved a 
project for the expenditure of about $40,000 of the $50,000 made 
'available by the act above quoted, the remaining $10,000 to be held 
for dredging on such places as may need immediate relief in 1906, 
and to defray the expenses of the survey for the harbor lines, esti- 
mated at about $1,800. This project provides for dredging a channel 
18 feet deep, 200 feet wide from the Third Street Bridge to the mouth 
of the Brandywine, and thence 250 feet wide to the Delaware River, 
and for repairing the north jetty at the mouth of the Christiana 
River and that at the mouth of tte Brandywine. The jetty work is 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPROVEMENTS. 175 

now in progress and will soon be completed, and proposals for the 
rec|uired dredging were opened on June 26, 1905. . It is expected that 
this dredging will be completed by June 30, 1906. 

The maximum draft that could be carried on June 30, 1905, at 
mean low water, over the shoalest part of the river between the mouth 
and the Third Street Bridge is 15 feet, and thence to the pulp works 
14 feet. 

The amount expended on this improvement from 1836 to June 30, 
1905, is $870,323.79. Of this amount $468,203.58 was expended on 
the present project, and of which $24,550.95 was for maintenance. 

Tne tonnage and value of the leading articles shipped to and from 
the port of Wilmington in 1904, as reported by the ooard of trade, in 
addition to the foreign shipments, was 680,263 tons, valued at 
$31,343,099. The shipbuilding industry on this river is quite 
extensive. 

The harbor improvements do not directly affect freight rates on 
light-draft boats. Shipments thereon made by water range about 25 
per cent lower in rate than by rail, and still more in deep-draft ves- 
sels, of which there are many, covering shipments to and from the 
manufacturers and shipbuilding plants. 

July 1, 1904, balance uue.xpeiided $57,477.94 

Amount appropriated by river and barbor act approved Man-b 3. 1005. 25, 000. 00 

82, 477. 94 
.Tnne 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for maiutenance 
of Improvement 24, 550. 95 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 57,026.99 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 8,480.00 

.July 1, 1905, balance available.- 49,446.99 

July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 835. 00 

(See Appendix 18.) 

9. Appogjiinimink, Mnrderkill, and Mispillion rivers, Delaware. — 
(a) Appoquinimink River. — At the time of the adoption of the 
present project there was a mean low-water depth of 2 feet at the 
entrance into Delaware Bay, and the shoalest depth inside the river 
was 4J feet. The most serious obstructions to the navigation of the 
river were the many bends in the lower and middle sections. 

The approved project is based upon a survey made in 1889, and 
provides tor a channel 8 feet deep at mean low water, having a width 
of 80 feet from the bridge at Odessa, the head of navigation, to near 
Townsend's wharf, a distance of 3J miles, and a width of 100 feet 
from this wharf to the mouth of the river, a distance of 5 miles. The 
estimated cost of the improvement was $39,963. 

In 1891 the channel was dredged to the full width of 80 feet and 
depth of 8 feet at mean low water for a distance of 1,975 feet in a 
down-river direction, beginning at the lower end of Watkins wharf, 
at Odessa, and early in 1893 a farther distance of 4,487 feet was 
dredged. Of the latter 595 feet was dredged to the approved width, 
bat on account of the settlement and sliding in of the very soft marsh 
bank upon which the excavated mud ana sand were deposited, the 
full approved width of 80 feet could not be made along the remain- 
ing 3,89^ feet, and it was therefore made only 50 feet until the banks 



Digitized by 



Google 



176 REPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF EKGINEEBS, U. S. ARMT. 

should become firmer. The entire length dredged was 6,462 feet, of 
which 2,570 feet is 90 feet wide and 3,892 feet is 50 feet wide. The 
channel was thereby materially improved so far as the work had 
progressed, giving great relief to the shipping and increased harbor 
room at Odessa. 

During the fiscal year 1898-99 the channel was dredged and shoals 
removed to a width of 50 feet and a depth of 8 feet at mean low water, 
as follows: At the upper point of ana through Quarter-Mile reach; 
from just below Polk s wharf to above the lower corner of the steam- 
boat wharf at Odessa; in Windmill reach and Toms Bay reach; 
below Windmill reach and in the reach just above the one leading to 
New bridge; the cut-off at No Mans Friend reach was widened to 
from 60 to 70 feet through the straight portion of it, and still more at 
the ends, which were made fan shape; a cut-off 625 feo,t in length was 
made through the marsh at Thomas Landing, and another, 960 feet 
long, including approaches, through the mar^ just below. An aver- 
age width of 45 feet and a low-water depth of 6.8 feet in the upper 
and 6.5 feet in the lower cut-off were obtained, with a low-water depth 
of 8 feet over a width of about 30 feet extending through both cut- 
offs. The aggregate length of dredging done in these operations was 
about 8,000 feet. At the mouth of the river a cut 30 feet wide and 5 
feet deep at mean low water was made for a length of 1,100 feet 
through the marsh from the 5-foot curve of depth in the slough out- 
side, tnrough which deep water in the Delaware River is reached just 
below Blackbird Creek. 

In the early part of 1900 the two cut-offs at Thomas Landing were 
dredged to a width and depth of not less than 80 feet and 8 feet at 
mean low water, respectively; at the mouth of the river the cut 
across the marsh was widened to 100 feet, the depth made being not 
less than 5 feet at mean low water, and at Toms Bay a cut 380 feet 
long was made through a sharp turn in the river, the width and depth 
made being not less than 35 feet and 6 feet at mean low water, re- 
spectively; and with $3,000 allotted from the appropriation made by 
the river and harbor act of June 13, 1902, for maintenance of the 
Appoquinimink, Murderkill, and Mispillion rivers, a number of 
points in the river were dredged, resulting in a channel varying from 
7 to 8 feet deep at mean low water, and from 50 to 100 feet wide 
between Odessa and Fennimore's bridge, except at a place near 
Townsends Point, in a bend proposed to l)e cut off, where the depth 
was 6 feet at mean low water; and the cut-off at Toms Bay was 
widened and deepened to 50 feet and 8 feet at mean low water, 
respectively. ' 

To provide for the restoration and maintenance of the channel, the 
Secretary of War, under date of June 23, 1904, allotted the sum of 
$4,000 from the appropriation of $200,000 made by the act of June 
13, 1902, for emergencies in river and harbor work, and with this 
allotment numerous shoals, aggregating 8,509 feet in length and an 
average width of 23 feet, were dredged, resulting in a navigable chan- 
nel 6 feet deep at mean low water from Odessa to the Delaware 
Kivcr. 

The maximum draft that could be carried on June 30, 1905, at mean 
low water, over the shoalest part in the river was 6 feet and across 
the bar at the mouth 2 feet. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIYEB AND HABBOB IMPEOVEMENTS. 177 

The amount expended on the improvement to June 30, 1905, is 
$32,108.34, of which $7,108.34 was for maintenance. 

The freight rates, it has been reported, remain about the same, but 
the passenger business has increased in consequence of the improve- 
ments in the river. 

The commerce of the river for the calendar year 1904 is reported 
to have been 30,705 tons, valued at $2,055,(500. 

Under date of April 19, 1905, the Secretary of War approved an 
allotment of $5,500 for the river, from the appropriation of $20,000 
made by the river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, for continuing 
improvement and maintenance of the Appoquinimink, Murderkill, 
and Mispillion rivers, and under date of June 12, 1905. the Chief of 
Engineers approved a project for the expenditure of the available 
funds in making a cut-off at New, or Fennimore s, bridge, and in 
dredging the channel where required to a width of 50 feet and a depth 
of 7 feet fit mean low water, as far as the funds will permit. Specifi- 
cations for the work were approved June 30, 1905, and proposals will 
be advertised for and it is expected that contract will be made shortly. 

(b) Murderkill River. — ^This river is a tidal stream and a tribu- 
tary of Delaware Bay and flows through Kent County. Del. Its 
navigable portion is about 9 miles long. The condition of the river 
was fair for the greater part of its length, the average width and 
depth being 90 and 6 feet, respectively. Outside the junction with 
Delaware Bay, however, there was a serious obstruction — the flats, 
which are nearly bare at low tide and extend for nearly a mile from 
the shore. The average ris»> and fall of the tide at the mouth is 4.6 
feet. 

In 1881 an e.xamination of this river was made and a project sub- 
mitted for its improvement. Xo appropriation was made by Con- 
gress, however, as the river was at that time in the hands of an im- 
l»rovement and navigation company chartered by the State. This 
company had expended about $10,000 in rectifying the many bends 
of the river by cutting straight canals and in dredging a narrow cut 
across the flats at the mouth. The latter slowly filled up again. 

The project for improvement adopted in 1892 is for a 7-foot low- 
water channel 80 feet wide from the town of Frederica. at the hesid 
of navigation, to the mouth of the river, and 150 feet wide from the 
mouth across the flats outside to the 7-fo<)t curve of depth in Delaware 
Bay, the cut at the mouth to Ix! protected by forming an embank- 
ment of the dredged material on each side, the estimated cost being 
$47,550. 

In 1893 a channel was dug to a depth of 5 feet below mean low 
water across the flats from a short distance inside the river to the 
5-foot curve of depth in Delaware Bay, and in 1895 a cut-off 975 feet 
long was made at Lower Landing, about 4 miles from the mouth, 
ana shoals were dredged at a short turn in the river below Frederica, 
at the head of Long Canal, at Coles shoal, and just inside the mouth 
of the river. The width of the cut in every case was 40 feet and the 
depth 7 feet at mean low water. 

In the winter of 1896-97 a channel was dredged 60 feet wide and 6 
feet deep at low water from the 6-foot curve in Delaware Bay to the 
steamboat wharf inside the river, a distance of 4,700 feet, and shoals 



ENO 1905 M 12 



Digitized by 



Google — 



178 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEEE8, U. 8. ABlCr. 

just above the steamboat wharf at Broad reach and Webbs Landing, 
aggregating 2,484 feet in length, were dredged to a width of 40 feet 
and a depth of 6 feet, resulting in an unobstructed low -water channel 
6 feet deep from that depth in Delaware Bay to Lindells shoal, a dis- 
tance of 16,000 feet; and in 1899 shoals at the steamboat wharf at 
Frederica and 500 feet below, at Long reach, Bradleys Canal, Good- 
wins, and Lower Landing, aggregatmg about 4,000 feet in length, 
were dredged to a width of 40 feet and a depth of 6 feet at mean low 
water, and at the mouth the channel was dredged to a width of 00 
feet and a depth of 6 feet at mean low water to that depth in Dela- 
ware Bay, resulting in a channel 6 feet deep at mean low water, and 
from 40 to 60 feet wide from the head of navigation at Frederica to 
Delaware Bay. 

In 1902 with an allotment of $2,000, shoals at West Canal, near 
Frederica ; at Goodwins, Coles, above and below Webbs Landing, and 
at Sand Point, were dredged to a width of from 30 to 40 feet and 
depth of 7 feet at mean low water ; and with an allotment of $5,r)00 
from the appropriation of $3,000,000, contained in the river and liar- 
bor act of April 28, 1904, the mouth of the river was dredged in Au- 
gust, 1904, from Sand Point to the 6^-foot depth in Delaware Bay, 
the width and depth made being 50 feet and 7 feet at mean low water, 
respectively. 

The amount expended on this improvement to June 30, 1905, is 
$30,967.75, of which $7,606.97 was for maintenance. The sum of 
$1,500 of the appropriation of August 18, 1894, was expended in 
accordance with the terms of the appropriation in removing a shoal 
at the mouth of the Saint Jones River. 

The maximum draft that could be carried on June 30, 1905, at mean 
low water, over the shoalest part of the river is 4 feet and 3^ feet 
across the bar at the mouth. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, appropriated $20,000 
for improving the Appoquinimink, Murderkill, and Mispillion rivers. 
From this, $5,500 has been allotted for the Murderkill River, and 
contract made for dredging therewith, the work to be completed 
about August 8, 1905. 

The commerce of the river, which is quite varied, is reported for 
the past calendar year as 22,480 tons, valued at $985,780. 

As to the effect of the improvement of this stream upon freight 
rates, it is reported that shipments by water are 25 to 50 jjer cent 
lower than by rail, and that in winter when the boats can not run the 
railroad increases its rates. 

(c) Mispillion River. — This river is a tidal .stream which enters 
Delaware Bay about 17 miles northwest of Cape Henlopen. It is 
navigable for about 12 miles. The mouth of the river is greatly 
obstructed by a flat foreshore without a channel. Vessels could enter 
and depart only at high water, the tidal range being about 4 feet. 

The river from Milford, the head of navigation, to the mouth was 
improved by the General Government between the years 1879 and 
1889, and $17,000 was expended in making a channel 4*0 feet wide and 
6 feet deep at mean low water. 

The project for the improvement of the mouth of the river, pro- 
posed in a report on a survey made in 1891, provides for a cut across 
the flats in a southeasterly direction, having a width of 150 feet and a 
depth of 6 feet at mean low water, beginning opposite the light-house 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HAKBOE IMPBOVEMENTS. 179 

and ending in deep water in the bay, the cut to be protected on the 
upper or north side by a bank made of the excavated material. The 
estimated cost was $24,000. 

In 1893 operations were begun under the project, and at the close 
of work in that season a pile dik/e 500 feet long had been built on the 
north side of the mouth along the line of the channel, and a channel 
80 feet wide and 5 feet deep at mean low water had been dredged for 
a length of 570 feet, extending from the 5-foot curve of depth in the 
Mispillion River to a point opposite and 50 feet west from the outer 
end of the dike ; and in 1895 and 1896 a channel was dredged 75 feet 
wide and 6 feet deep at mean low water from inside the river just 
above Sandy Point to opposite the mouth of Cedar Creek, and a crib 
dike 350 feet in length flanking the new channel on the west side was 
built. The dikes were found necessary during the progress of the 
dredging, owing to the character of the material dredged, which was 
mainly treacherous sand. 

In 1897 a brush and stone extension to the pile dike was built for a 
length of 200 feet, and a cut 50 feet wide and 6 feet deep at mean low 
water was dredged over a length of 450 feet near the end of the crib 
dike, but was soon obliterated during severe storms. A channel 4 
feet deep at mean low water and 40 feet wide was then dredged across 
the Bulkhead shoal about 400 feet beyond the mouth, resulting in a 
continuous channel 4 feet deep from inside the river across the Bulk- 
head shoal, and in 1899 a single pile jetty was built for a length of 
141 feet, extending from the inner end of the old pile and brush jettjr 
northward to the nigh-water line of the Mispillion River, and a simi- 
lar jetty was constructed from Green Point due east for a length of 
206 feet. The latter, which was designed to direct the waters of 
Cedar Creek into the Mispillion currents, was to extend much farther 
out, but it was found neces.sary to i-educe its proposed length tem- 

Eorarily by about one-half in order to keep the old channel down the 
ay shore open to navigation, as a cut made by private parties in 1898, 
under authority of the War Department, along the route of the origi- 
nal project to deep water in Delaware Bay had been completely 
closed by shoaling. 

In 1901 the crib dike built in 1895, having been undermined and 
become unserviceable, was removed. In the same year a survey of the 
river was made under the provisions of the emergency river and har- 
bor act of June 6, 1900. The report on this survey is printed in 
House Document No. 102, Fifty-sixth Congress, second session, and 
also in Appendix H 24 of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engi- 
neers for 1901. The improvement therein recommended is the forma- 
tion of a channel 6 feet deep at mean low water and (iO feet wide, 
widening to 75 feet at sharp turns from Milford to the mouth, and 
thence a channel 4 feet deep at mean low water and 150 feet wide 
across the flats at the mouth to the 4- foot curve in Delaware Bay, the 
channel at the mouth to be protected by a jetty on the south side 
5,000 feet long, the total cost being estimated at $87,065. 

The river and harbor act of .nine 13, 1902, appropriated $15,000 
for the Appoquinimink, Murderkill, and Mispillion rivers for main- 
tenance. Of this amount $10,000 was allotted to this improvement, 
the project approved for its expenditure providing for dredging at 
the mouth of^tne river and the construction of a jetty on the north- 
easterly side of the channel across the bar. The channel across the 



Digitized by 



Google 



180 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEEBS. U. 8. ARMT. 

flats was dredged in OctolMir and November, 1902, from a point 1,100 
feet out from the outer end of the Green Point jetty along the 
former cut in a southeasterly course from the light-house for a length 
of 4,4.")0 feet, the width and depth made being 40 and 5 feet at mean 
low water, respectively. Work upon* the jetty was begun on May 21, 
1903, and completed May 26, 1904. This consists of a double row of 
piles 12 feet apart filled in with brush and stone. It extends from the 
end of the old stone dike for a length of 805 feet. 

Under date of June 23, 1904, the Secretary of War allotted from 
the appropriation of $200,000 made by act of June 13, 1902, for 
emergencies in river and harbor works, the sum of $5,300, and on 
August 29, 1904, the further sum of $1,800 from the appropriation 
of $3,000,000 contained in river and harbor act of April 28, 1904, 
for maintenance of the improvement. With these funds the gap 
between the pile jetty at Sand Point and the inner end of the new 
jetty on the north side of the channel was filled in with stone, and a 
cut 40 feet wide was dredged to a depth of 6 feet at mean low water 
from the 6- foot depth in the Mispilhon River to the 6-foot curve in 
Delaware Bay. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, appropriated $20,000 for 
improving Appoquinimink, Murderkill, and Mispillion Rivers, Dela- 
ware, and of this appropriation $9,000 has been allotted for main- 
tenance of this improvement, and proposals for the work to be done 
therewith have been advertised for, to be opened July 6, 1905. 

The amount expended on the improvement to J*une 30, 1905, is 
$59,510.43. Of this amount $17,000 was on a former project and 
$42,510.43 on the present one, including $18,517.19 expended for 
maintenance. 

The commerce of the river for the past fiscal year is reported to 
have been 187,065 tons, valued at $4,537,300. The commerce reported 
in 1891, just before the present improvement was begun, was 67,396 
tons, valued at $1,051,405. 

The effect of the improvement on freight rates is stated to be quite 
marked, a reduction of an average of 25 per cent being reported, in 
addition to affording better and increased transix)rtation facilities. 

The maximum draft that could be carried on June 30, 1905, at 
mean low water over the shoalest part of the river was 3J feet and 
over the bar at the mouth 2 feet. 

July 1, 11X)4, balance unexpended $19,373.10 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1005. 20, 000. 00 
.Amount allotted from apiiropriatiou for maintenance of river and 
harbor improvements, act of April 28, 1904 1, 800. 00 ~ 

41, 173. 10 
June :tO, 1905 : 

Amount ext)ended during fiscal year, for mainte- 
nance of improvement $21,137.30 

Returned to Treasury 203.67 

21.340.97 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 19, 832. 13 

July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncorapletetl contracts 4, 0.'VO. 00 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 33,727.00 

(See Appendix I 9.) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIVEB AND HAEBOB IMPROVEMENTS. 181 

10. St. Jones River, Delaware. — Before the channel was improved 
the least practicable low-water depth of water to Lebanon, 1*2 miles 
above the mouth, was 4 feet, and tlience to Dover, 9 miles farther up 
the river, only 2^ feet. 

The original project, made in 1880, was for a 3-foot low-water 
channel, 100 feet wide across the bar at the mouth, protected bv a 
jetty, at an estimated cost of $35,000. The project was modified in 
1884 so as to include the removal of shoals in. the river to a depth of 

6 feet at mean low water. Improvements were not begun until 1885. 
The proposed channel within the river was reported as nearly com- 

gleted at the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1888, $25,000 
aving been expended. A modification of the project for tlie im- 
provement of the entrance was submitted and approved in March, 
1889. 

This modified project provided for a cut across the bar at the mouth 
from the 6-foot depth mside the river to the corresponding depth 
outside the bar, the width of the cut to be 100 feet, or which 50 feet 
in the center was to be dredged to a depth of 6 feet, the remainder to 
a depth of 3 feet, below mean low water. The material was to be 
deposited on either side of the cut to form training dikes, the outer 
ends of the dikes to be strengthened with pile revetments. It also 
provided for a new cut-off across a very sinuous bend in the upper 
river about 1 mile below Lebanon and near 'Wharton's fishery. Dur- 
ing the fiscal year 1890 $14,097.64 was expended on the improvement 
at the mouth, and there then existed, as reported, a clear and un- 
obstructed 6-foot low-water channel, 40 feet wide within the river 
and nearly 100 feet wide over the bar at the mouth, from Dover to 
deep water in Delaware Bay. 

In compliance with the river and harbor act of August 18, 1894, 
which provided that of the $6,500 appropriated for the Murderkill 
River $1,500 should be applied to the removal of a shoal at the mouth 
of the St. Jones River, a cut 60 feet wide and 6 fwt deep at mean 
low water was dredged .in July, 1895, resulting in the removal of 
about 10,000 cubic yards of material. Upon the completion of this 
dredging the steamer plying regularly on the St. Jones River could 
enter and depart at any stage or the tide. 

A preliminary examination and survey of the river " from its 
mouth to the highest point of feasible navigation " were provided for 
in the river and harbor act of March 3, 1899, and made m that year. 
The report thereon, which contains a project for further improve- 
ment, is printed in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 
1900, pages 1662-1665. 

This project provides for the formation, by dredging, of a channel 

7 feet deep from the curve of 7-foot depth in Delaware Bay to 
Lebanon, the channel at the mouth to have a width of 100 feet and 
inside the mouth of 60 feet, widening at the bends and in existing 
cut-offs. The estimated cost of the work is $47,074.50. No appro- 
priation has been made for this project. 

In 1900, with $2,946.73 allotted from the emergencj' river and har- 
bor act of June 6, 1900, a cut 60 feet wide and from 6 to 1\ feet deep 
at mean low water was dredged from the 6-foot curve in the Dela- 
ware Bay to the 6-foot depth inside the river. 

Under date of June 23, 1904, the Secretary of War allotted the sum 
of $4,500 from the appropriation made by the act of June 13, 1902, 



Digitized by 



Google 



182 BEPOBT OP THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, V. S. ABMT. 

for emergencies in riv^r -and harbor works, to the restoration and 
maintenance of the channel, and with this allotment shoals at and 
just below Lebanon, below Horseshoe Cut-off, and at White Stone 
reach and Barkers Landing, an aggregate length of 5,135 fe«t, were 
removed, and at the mouth the channel was dredged from inside the 
river across the flats to the 6-foot contour in Delaware Bay, a length 
of 3,G50 feet, the width and depth made in these operations being 
40 and 6 feet at mean low water, respectively. 

The amount expended on this improvement to June 30, 1905, is 
$48,941.74, of which $7,441.74 was for maintenance. 

The maximum draft that can be carried on June 30, 1905, at mean 
low water over the shoalest part of the river is 5 feet to Lebanon, 1| 
feet to Dover, and 3 feet across the bar at the mouth. 

The commerce of the river is reported for the past year to have 
been 81,610 tons, valued at $4,658,444. That reported in 1900 was 
69,241 tons, valued at $3,569,829. It is reported that the improve- 
ments made have reduced freight rates by one-fourth to one-half, 
l)esides increasing shipments, especially fruits, which now reach the 
markets in less time and fresher condition. 

•Tuly 1. 1904, balance unexpended |4, 500. 00 

June .TO, 1905 : 

Amount exi)eDded during fiscal year, for niniutpunucc 

of Improvement f4. 49.5. 01 

Keturned to Treasury 4. !K) 

4, 500. 00 

(See Appendix I 10.) 

11. Smymn River, Delaware. — ^This river was formerly known as 
Duck Creek. It is a tidal stream, flowing easterly into the Delaware 
River at a point about 26 miles south of Wilmington, Del. The 
navigable portion of the river was originally about 9 miles long; the 
niinim4im mean low-water depth over shoal places was 2^ feet in the 
river and 4 feet at the bar where it enters the Delaware River. The 
mean range of the tide at the mouth is nearly 6 feet. 

In 1878 a project was made for the improvement of the whole river, 
including the channel across the bar at the mouth. By direction of 
Congress the improvement of the bar was commenced first, and during 
the following four years three appropriations, aggregating $10,000, 
were expended in dredging a channel, 100 feet wide and 8 feet deep at 
mean low water, across the bar. The dredged channel soon filled up 
again. 

A new project was adopted in 1887, with a view of obtaining a 
channel of 7- foot depth throughout, with a width of 60 feet in the 
river and 100 feet at the bar, the channel over the bar to be protected 
by a stone jetty. The estimated cost of the improvement was 
$90,698.40. The first appropriation for work or this project was in 
1888, and was for dredging. The subsequent appropriations for con- 
tinuing the improvement have also been applied to dredging. 
• The entire length of channel has been dredged in parts at various 
times l)etween 1888 and 1900 to the approved dimensions, except at 
the mouth of the river. 

Under the provisions of the emergency river and harbor act of June 
C, 1900, a preliminary examination and survey were made, with a view 
to securing two cros.scuts to shorten the distance l>etween the head of 
navigation on this river and Delaware River. The report on the 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 183 

survey is printed in House Document No. 90, Fifty-sixth Congress, 
second session, and on pages 1363-1364, Annual Report of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1901. It reconmiended the construction of two cut- 
offs, 60 feet wide and 7 feet deep at mean low water, one 2,445 feet 
long, extending from the turn just below Limekiln wharf to the turn 
just above Mill Creek; the other 2,200 feet long, extending from 
below Rothwells Landing to the turn between Deep Hole and Brick 
Store Landing. The cost of work was estimated at $15,000, and that 
amount was appropriated for the purpose by the river and harbor act 
of June 13, 19(fe. Upon further examination, however, it was found 
that a modification of the plan by the substitution for the present 
lower cut of a cut from the mouth of Mill Creek to the bend above 
Brick Store Landing would be a material improvement, and action in 
the matter was therefore deferred to await fiulher action by Congress 
in relation to that cut. 

Under an allotment made by the Secretary of War for the restora- 
tion of the channel at the mouth under date of June 25, 1904, from 
the appropriation for emergencies in river and harbor works, act of 
June 13, 1902, the channel was dredged to a width of 50 feet and a 
depth of 6 feet at mean low water from the 6-foot curve just inside 
the mouth of Smyrna River across the flats to the 6-foot curve in 
Delaware Bay. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, empowered the Secre- 
tary of War to authorize a modification of the plan of the cut-offs 
referred to above, provided such modification would not increase tlie 
total cost estimated for the completion of the improvement, and with 
the further proviso that no part of the appropriation should be ex- 
jDended until a satisfactory title to the land required should be ob- 
tained without expense to the Uinted States. The required title hav- 
ing been obtained, and as the estimated cost for completion will not be 
increased by the modification, it was authorized by the Secretary of 
War under date of April 11, 1905. Under contract for this work 
dredging was begun June 20, 1905, and to the end of the month 11,978 
cubic yards of material had been removed. The work is to be com- 
pleted by December 25, 1905. 

The amount expended on the improvement to June 30, 1906, is 
$45,549.78. Of this amount $35,549.78 is on the present project, and 
of which $5,365 was for maintenance. 

The maximum draft that could be carried on June 30, 1905, over 
the shoalest part of the river was 4 feet and across the bar at the 
mouth 4 feet. 

The commerce of the river is reported for the past calendar year to 
have been 828,091 tons, valued at $6,163,450. Before the improve- 
ment of this river was begun the tonnage reported was 204,706, valued 
at $1,944,000. 

The effect of the improvement of this river on freight rates has 
been to reduce them by about 25 per cent, and in addition it has 
rasulted in the saving of time in shipments to Philadelphia and else- 
where. These conditions have stimulated certain industries, especi- 
ally fruit culture, and largely increased the production in this section. 



Digitized by 



Google 



184 REPORT OF THE CHFEF OF ENOINEEBS, U. 8. ABlTr. 

July 1. 19()4, balance noexpeuded $21,010.07 

Amount appropriated l>y river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 5. 365. 00 

. 28, 3S1. 07 

June 20. 1905 : 

Amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance 

of improveiiient $2,565.% 

Returned to Treasury 3,571.58 

6. 137. 43 

July 1. 1!K».5. balance unexpended 20. 243. Ol 

.Tuly 1. 1!J<>'>. outstjindlng liabilities 1, 200. 00 

July 1. 1905, balance available 19. 043. 64 

July 1. 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 17, lOO. 00 

(See Appendix 1 11.) 

J2. Inland wateriray from C hincoteagve Bay, Virginia, to Dela- 
ware Bay at or near Lewes, Del. — The original project, based on a sur- 
vey made in 1884, contemplated the construction of a continuous water- 
way 70 feet wide and 6 feet deep at mean low water from Chinco- 
league Inlet, at the southwesterly end of Chincoteague Bay, Virginia, 
to Delaware Bay at or near Lewes, Del. The entire length of the 
proposed channel is nearly 73 miles, of which about 57 miles is 
through several shallow interior bays separated from the Atlantic 
Ocean by narrow strips of sandy beach and soil. The remaining' 16 
miles consists mainlv of canals to be formed by dredging. 

The estimated cost was $350,000. 

In 18{)2 the line of location was slightly modified and the proposed 
dimensions of the canal were reduced from a width of 70 feet to 20 
feet on the bottom. The estimated cost from Rehoboth to Delaware 
Bay was reduced to $241,224. This, however, supposed that the work 
would bo done in about two years in one large contract. 

In 185)1 a cut was made 4 miles long, 20 feet wide at bottom, and 4 
feet deep below the mean level of 'Assawaman Bay across the neck of 
land lying between Little Assawaman Bay and "Wliites Creek, a 
tributary of Indian River Bay, and three temporary wooden bridges 
ijuilt over it ; and between 1893 and 1896 a cut 20 feet wide and 6 reet 
deep below datiim (mean low water at the Delaware Breakwater in 
Delaware Bay) was made from that depth in Rehoboth Bay^ to a point 
1,250 feet soutli of the Delaware. Maryland and Virginia Railroad 
crossing at Rehoboth. a distance of 9,000 feet, and another cut, in con- 
tinuation of this, extending to the railroad reservation, a distance of 
1,125 feet, was made to a depth of 2 feet l)eIow mean low-water level; 
and north of the railroad cros.sing a cut was made to a point 1,000 feet 
north of the boundaiy of the railroad track. Of this latter distance 
the lower 800 feet was excavated to a depth of 9J feet and the remain- 
ing 200 feet to an average depth of 15 feet above datum, the depth of 
cutting in the first averaging approximately ll\ feet and in the latter 
about 8 feet. 

The amount expended on the project to June 30, 1902, was $168,- 
421.88, no portion of this amount having been applied to maintenance, 
and the condition of the work between Ocean View and Rehoboth 
when last examined, in June, 1901, was as follows: The cut made be- 
tween AVhites Creek and the head of Little Assawaman Bay to a 
depth of 4 feet had shoaled in the middle portion, the deptH there 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVER AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMEKTS. 185 

being about 24 feet. ' These shoals are formed where the sandy side 
slopes, bare of all vegetation, fall in considerably during heavy rains. 
The depths in the cut through low or marsh ground had maintained 
tliemselves very well. The cut, made to a depth of (> feet from Ileho- 
both Bay along Millers Creek toward the high ground back of Reho- 
both during the working season of 1894, was in fair condition except 
for the closing of the entrance to the canal by the forming of a bar m 
line with the bay shore. 

The river and harbor act of June 3, 1896, appropriated $25,000 for 
continuing this improvement, to be used between Delaware Bav and 
Indian River, but provided that no part of the appropriation should 
be expended until the right of way should be secured without cost to 
the United States. The right of way over or through any railroad 
or county bridge was, however, not subjected to the proviso, but 
might be secured by condemnation proceedings. Previous to the 

Eassage of this act deeds to the land covering the entire right of way 
ad been vested in the United States, with the exception of that por- 
tion crossing the Delaware, Maryland and Virginia Railroad at 
Rehoboth. 

In January, 1899, the commissioners of Rehoboth conveyed to the 
United States a quitclaim deed to whatever title that corporation had 
to the land at the railroad crossing. The railroad, however, held the 
right of way by a franchise from tne State. 

In Mav, 1899, the commissioners for condemnation of the right of 
way of the Delaware, Maryland and Virginia Railroad Company at 
Rehoboth awarded the suni of $37,343.58 to ijie railroad company as 
being in full for all damages to them and for the erection and main- 
tenance of a bridge across the waterway. No funds have thus far 
been made available for the payment of this award. No action has, 
therefore, been taken toward the construction of the bridge by the 
railroad company. 

The proviso restricting the expenditure of the appropriation of 
June 3, 1896, having been construed by the law officers of the Depart- 
ment to apply only to that portion of the right of way secured with- 
out cost to the United States, the unexpended funds were held to be 
available for work under the existing project, and on April 7, 1902, 
a contract was made for construction of two parallel jetties of stone 
and brush and for dredging, the work to be completed by October 31, 
1902. This time was extended, the work under the contract not being 
begun until September 16, 1902. To the end of the fiscal year 1903 
the jetties had oeen completed and the canal north of Rehoboth Bay 
had been dredged where required and some dredging done in Reho- 
both Bay at the mouth of the canal. The dredging called for by the 
contract was finally completed on June 9, 1904. During this period 
the shoal at the entrance to the canal was removed. Dredging was 
also done in Rehoboth Bay where required, and a channel 40 feet 
wide and 6 feet deep was dredged through a shoal at Raccoon Point 
for a length of 2,700 feet into the 6-foot depth in Indian River Bay, 
making a continuous 6-foot channel from the railroad crossing at 
Rehoboth to Whites Creek. 

The expenditures during the fiscal year were for examinations and 
contingent expenses. 

The amount expended on the improvement to June 30, 1905, is 
$193,742.30, of which $25,330.42 was for maintenance. 



.Digitized by 



Google 



186 BEPOET OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMT. 

No statistics as to commerce have been obtained. A small steamer 
plies between the railroad crossing at Kehoboth and Bethany Beach. 

By section 7 of 'the river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, the pro- 
visions of river and harbor acts heretofore passed providing for the 
prosecution of work on this project are repealed, and the amoimt re- 
maining unexpended is required to be paid into the Treasury of the 
United States. Accordingly, the unexpended balance, $7.70, has 
l>een returned to the Treasury. By section 9 of the same act an ex- 
amination is directed to be made of the artificial channels constructed 
in connection with this project, with a view to ascertaining whether 
anv bridge or bridges should be constructed over such artificial chan- 
nels. At the close of the fiscal year the examination was in progre&s. 

.Tuly 1, 1004. balance unexpended $156.40 

June W), 190.5 : 

Amount expended during the flscal year, for maintenance 

of improvement $148.70 

Covered into surplus fund of the Treasury 7. 70 

150.40 

(See Appendix 1 12.) 

13. Removing sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering 
navigation. — During the past fiscal year wrecks were removed as 
follows : 

Wreck of scow lying sunk in channel of Mispillion River, Delaware ; 
wreck of sloop Constitution, sunk in Maurice River, New Jersey; 
steamer Mary N. Githens, sunk in St. Jones River, Delaware; coal 
barge Carrie, sunk at entrance to Little Egg Harbor Bay, New Jersey ; 
schooner Rebecca M. Smith, sunk on outer shoal of Little Egg Harbor 
Inlet, New Jersey; sc^hooner A. L. Lee, sunk in the south channel of 
the entrance to Absecon Inlet, New Jersey ; schooner Ann Virginia, 
sunk in Cohansey River, New Jersey. 

The following wrecks have been examined and found not to be 
obstructions to navigation : 

Wrecks of steamer Ranald and schooner Rival, alleged to be ob- 
structing navigation to the channel of Absecon Inlet, New Jersey. 

The wreck of schooner Mary, sunk in St. Jones River, Delaware, 
has been examined and found to be an obstruction. Proposals for its 
removal are to be opened July 17, 1905. 

The total amount expended in this district for the examination and 
removal of wrecks during the fiscal year was $4,824.09. 

(See Appendix I 13.) 

IMPROVEMRNT OF PATAPSCO RIVER AND BALTIMORE HARBOR, 
MARYLAND; OF RIVERS AND HARBORS IN MARYLAND ON THE 
EASTERN SHORE OF CHESAPEAKE BAY; OF NANTICOKE RIVER, 
MARYLAND AND DELAWARE, AND OF BROAD CREEK RIVER. 
DELAWARE. 

This district was in the charge of Lieut. Col. R. L. Hoxie, Corps of 
Engineers. Division engineer. Col. W. A. Jones, Corps of Engi- 
neers, to June 26, 1905, and Col. Amos Stickney, Corps of Engineers, 
since that date. 

1. Patapsco River and channel to Baltimore, Md. — The original 
condition before operations were begun by the United States was a 
controlling depth of 17 feet with a mean range of tide of a little over 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMEKTS. 187 

1 foot. Vessels of over that draft were obliged to lighter portions of 
their cargoes from about 14 miles below to permit them to reach 
the wharves of the city. There were pockets where deei^er water 
prevailed, but they were unconnected by any channel, natural or 
artificial. Under the original project, dated April 15, 18.53, for a 
channel 22 feet deep at mean low water and 150 feet wide, Col. 
Henry Brewerton, Corps of Engineers, gave the fii*st relief to com- 
merce by dredging the Fort McHenry channel, extending from the 
limits of the city of Baltimore to a point just below Fort Carroll 
and continuing thence at an angle by the Brewerton channel to the 
deep water of the Chesapeake Bay off Swan Point. The cost of 
those operations was $390,000. 

In 1871 the project was enlarged to a width of 400 feet at the lower 
end of the channel, graduated to 250 feet at its upper end, with a 
mean low-water depth of 24 feet. Meantime it had been found that 
the portion of the Brewerton channel which was swept across by 
the current of the Susquehanna River was continually obstructed by 
sedimentary deposit. This led to a search for a l)etter location for 
a deep channel which could be made and maintained by dredging 
and the natural currents. This was found in the position of the 
resultant of the two great forces made by the currents of the Sus- 
quehanna and Patapsco rivers. The new channel had also the ad- 
vantage of being shorter by several miles, and for this reason and 
the very much diminished sedimentary deposit the cost of mainte- 
nance was much lessened. In 1892 a project for 27 feet depth at 
mean low water, with a width of 600 feet in the straight sections 
and over 1,200 feet in the angles, was completed. At the same time 
the portion of the Brewerton channel between the upper end of the 
present cut-off and the point of intersection of the Brewerton and 
Craighill channels was abandoned because of the sedimentary de- 
posit from the Susquehanna sweeping across it and to still further 
shorten the channel and lessen the cost of maintenance. The proj- 
ects of dredging to depths of 24 and 27 feet and the two changes in 
the position of the channel were designed and executed by Col. W. P. 
Craighill, Corps of Engineers. The act of June 3, 1896, authorized 
the increase of the depth of the channel to 30 feet at mean low water, 
with a bottom width of 600 feet, widened at the angles and with side 
slopes of 3 base to 1 vertical. This was completed May 22, 1903, 
and has since been maintained. The amount expended on original 
and modified projects prior to operations under existing project is 
$4,721,269.48. 

The existing project, adopted by Congress March 3, 1905, provides 
for a channel 35 feet deep at mean low water and 600 feet wide at 
bottom, with side slopes of 3 base to 1 vertical from Fort McHenry 
to deep water in Chesapeake Bay above Sandy Point light-house and 
through the shoals opposite York Spit, at an estimated cost of 
$3,465,000. An appropriation of $250,000 was made in the river and 
harbor act of March 3, 1905, and work was authorized under con- 
tinuing contracts to an additional amount of $1,000,000. 

Preliminary steps have been taken to enter into such contracts. 
With the funds now available and provided for under continuing con- 
tract it is proposed to deepen the existing channel above Sandy Point 
to 35 feet at mean low water, beginning on the east side and for such 



Digitized by 



Google 



188 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, 0. 8. ARMY. 

width as the existing and authorized appropriations admit, and to 
dredge a channel through the shoals off "iork Spit to corresponding 
dimensions. 

The amount expended on the improvement to the close of the fiscal 
vear ending June 30, 1905, is $4,721,269.48, of which $32,797.72 has 
been applied to maintenance. 

The draft that can now be carried to Baltimore, the head of navi- 
gation, a distance of 11 miles from the mouth of the Patapsco River 
and 171 miles from the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, is 30 feet at mean 
low water. The length of dredged channel in Patapsco River and 
Chesapeake Bay above Sandy Point is about 19 miles. 

The tonnage movement of the port has been as follows : 



Fiscal year ending June 30 — Tona. 

1898 7,339,405 

1899 6,843,620 

1900 7,941,580 

1901 8,055,017 

1902 7,529,870 

1903 7,736,447 

1904 7,334,241 

1905 7,510,713 



Fiscal year ending June 30 — Tons. 

1889 3,243,017 

1890 4,237,361 

1891 4,495,460 

1892 5, 224, 042 

1893 4,607,176 

1894 4,752,946 

1895 J 4,794,964 

1896 5,363,894 

1897 6,868,120 

The statistics of the port for the past fiscal year are illustrated 
briefly by the following table : 

Dutiable Imports have decreased $595, 487. 00 

Free Imports have Increased $1,447,927.00 

Domestic exports have Increased $8,352,012.00 

Tonnage (foreign) has decreased tons.. 55,027 

Duties collected have decreased $31,136.45 

Duties on merchandise in bond have decreased $12,238.94 

Duties on merchandise in bond, with and without appraisement, 
have decreased $29,272.25 

The effect of the present project upon freight rates can not be 
ascertained until work is completed, but as some of the vessels trading 
with the port are not now able to load to their full capacity the tencf 
ency should be toward cheapening rates when means are provided 
to enable them to carry full cargoes and to enable other vessels of 
greater capacity to trade with the port. 

References to reports of examinations and surveys are to be found 
on page 180 of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1904. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $25, 732. 48 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 

1905 250, 000. 00 



June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year : 

For works of improvement 

For maintenance of improvement 



275, 732. 48 



$732.48 
5, 239. 48 



5, 971. 96 



July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 269,760.52 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 2, 975. 77 

July 1, 1905, balance available 266, 784. 75 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPEOVBMENTS. 189 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project $3, 215, 000. 00 

Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 
30, 1907, for works of improvement. In addition to the balance 

•unexpended July 1, 1905 500, 000. 00 

Submitted In compMance with requirements of sundry civil act of 
June 4. 1897. 

(See Appendix J 1.) / 

2. Channel to Curtis Bay, in Patapsco Riner, Baltimore Harbor, 
Maryland. — ^With a mean range of tide of a little over 1 foot, there 
was a controlling depth of 20 feet at mean low water in 1893, when 
the first improvement was undertaken by the United States. The 
original project was dated July 15, 1892, and was for a channel 27 feet 
deep at mean low water and a bottom width of 150 feet, at an esti- 
mated cost of $85,000. Forty thousand dollars of the estimate was 
appropriated, and with this total expenditure the channel was first 
made 25 feet deep for the project width and then dredged to 27 feet 
depth for a widih of 70 feet in the axis of the 150-foot channel. 
That project never was completed. It was superseded by a project 
Jn the river and harbor act approved June 13, 1902, for deepening the 
channel to 30 feet and widening it to 250 feet, and authority was 
granted to make continuing contracts to complete the work. The 
estimated cost was $196,000. 

A continuing contract was approved, and under it dredging was 
commenced March 5, 1903, and the project completed November 30, 
1903. The amount expended on existing project to June 30, 1905, 
was $192,450.32, no portion having been applied to maintenance. 
The balance available is held for maintenance. 

Curtis Bay is the mouth of Curtis Creek, which is navigable in fact 
5^ miles above the head of the channel contemplated by the existing 
project, but a maximum draft of 30 feet at mean low water can be 
carried June 30, 1905, over the shoalest part of the locality under 
improvement, which is a distance of 2J miles. 

With the funds now available it is proposed to maintain the exist- 
ing channel. It is stated that the improvement has lowered rates 
upon freight, but the amount of reduction has not been ascertained. 

References to reports on examinations and surveys are to be found 
on page 180 of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1904. 

This bay is in the collection district of Baltimore and the statistics 
are attached to the report for that harbor. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $(i, 215. 98 

June 30, 1905. amount expended during fiscal year, for works of im- 
provement 2. OtHS. ,T0 



July 1, 1905. balance unexpended 8,549.68 

(See Appendix J 2.) 

3. Harbor of southwest Baltimore (Spring Garden) , Md. — No work 
was done by the United States before the existing project, but the 
city of Baltimore dredged a channel from the mam ship channel to 
the foot of Eutaw street which had a controlling depth of 15 feet 
at mean low water. The average rise of the tide is a little over 1 foot. 
In response to a resolution of the House of Representatives, an esti- 
mate was furnished March 7, 1896 (printed in Annual Report for 
1896, p. 1006), of the cost of deej)ening the channel to a depth of 27 
feet. It was for a channel 100 feet wide on the bottom, with side 



Digitized by 



Google 



190 BEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF EN^OIN^EEBS, U. 8. ABHY. 

slopes of 1 on 3, from the main ship channel near Fort McHenry to 
the foot of Eutaw street, with a turning basin 400 feet by -MX) feet near 
the upper end, at an estimated cost of $314,000, which is the existing 
project. Five thousand dollars was appropriated June 3, 1896, but 
it was deemed inexpedient to start the work with that small sum. 
June 13, 1902, $88,000 was appropriated and authority granted to 
enter into contracts for the completion of the work. A continuing 
contract was made for the completion of the project, and it was com- 
pleted April 4, 1905. The sum of $314,000 has been expended to June 
30, 1905. The maximum draft that can be carried June 30, 1905, at 
mean low water over the shoalest part of the locality under improve- 
ment is 27 feet. 

The stream i* navigable in fact to Baltimore, Md., which is 14 
miles from the mouth of Patapsco Kiver and 174 miles from the 
mouth of Chesapeake Bay. The length of the channel dredged under 
the existing project is 4 miles. It is stated that the improvement has 
somewhat Towered freights, but the amount of reduction has not been 
ascertained. 

The commercial statistics of the port of Baltimore include this 
harbor. 

July 1, 1904. balam>e unexi)emied ?110. 389. 40 

June .30, 190,'), amount e.xi)eti(led during fiscal year, for works of lin- 
Urovement 110, a«®. 40 

(See Appendix J 3.) 

4. Elh Hirer, Maryland. — Before improvements were commenced 
there was practically no navigation above Cedar Point. Tlie origi- 
nal project, dated July 17. 1874, was for a channel 6 feet deep at 
low water, or 8 feet at high water, from Cedar Point to Elkton, the 
head of navigation, and in the Little Elk as far as Bennett's wharf. 
The mean range of the tide is 2 feet. Such a channel was estiinatecJ 
t() cost $36,000 if 75 feet wide and about $25,000 if 50 feet wide, cheap 
dikes l)eing required for regulating the banks and to provide a place 
behind which to deposit the material dredged from the shoals. The 
first work was done in 1874, when $5,000 was expended in building a 
dike and dredging to a width of 25 feet and a depth of G fe<>t at niesiii 
low water in front of it and for about 300 feet below. Two years 
later the channel was made 40 feet wide from the bridge at Elkton to 
about one-half mile below. In 1884 a channel was completed 80 feet 
wide through the bar near the mouth of the Little Elk Kiver and 70 
feet wide thence to the bridge at Elkton, the depth being 7 feet at 
mean low water. In 1893 a channel 100 feet wide and 8 feet deep 
from deep water below Cedar Point to the bridge at Elkton was 
completed. The expenditure on the original and subsequent projects 
has amounted to $40,500. 

The channel had .shoaled, and in a report on a survey made in 1899 
it was proposed to restore the channel to 8 feet deep at mean low water 
and 100 feet wide from deep water below Cedar Point to the bridge at 
Elkton. at an estimated co.st of $16,665, with an annual cost of $2,500 
for maintenance. The river and harbor act of June 13. 1902, adopted 
this project, which is the existing one, and appropriated $16,665 for 
the work. This appr()j)riation was practically expended in dredg- 
ing in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903. THe project width of 100 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVER AND HABBOR IMPROVEMENTS. 191 

feet could not be made, as the river was found to have shoaled very 
much since the survey in 1889, on which the appropriation was based. 
To complete the project will reauire the removal or about 40,000 cubic 
yards of material. The act of March 3, 1905, appropriated $-2,000 
for maintenance, and at the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1905, the work had been advertised. It is proposed to e.xpcnd this 
sum in removing shoals that have formed in the channel, dredging to 
begin at the fertilizer works and continue downstream. The amount 
expended on this improvement to June 30, 1905, is $63,165. of which 
$46,500 was on previous projects. The maximum draft that could be 
carried June 30, 1905, at mean low water over the shoalest part of the 
river was 3^ feet. The stream is navigable in fact to Eucton, Md., 
which is about 16 miles from the mouth of the river. It is stated that 
the improvement has lowered freight rates, but the amount of reduc- 
tion has not been ascertained. 

Reference to a rejjort on a survey is to be found on page 182 of the 
Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1904. 

A preliminary examination of the river is in progress at the close 
of the fiscal year 1905. 

Partial commercial statistics for the fiscal year show a tonnage of 
2,686, valued at $35,769.64, for this river. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $1,507.87 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 2, 000. 00 

3. mi. 87 
.Tune 30. 1905, amount expended durluK flRoal year, for workR of im- 
provement 1, 5<i7. 87 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended— 2,000.00 

(See Appendix J 4.) 

5. SusqueJianna River above and below Havre rf<? Grace., Md. — The 
original governing depth was 5 feet at mean low water. The mean 
range of tide is 2^^ feet. The channel above Havre de Grace was nar- 
row and subject to ice gorges. The original project is dated February 
22, 1853, and was for a channel 12 feet deep and 100 feet wide, at ah 
estimated cost of $59,000. Improvements have been in progress since 
1853, and up to August 22, 1882. when the existing project was 
adopted, $97,390 had been expended upon them. The existing proj- 
ect IS to give a channel 15 feet deep at mean low water below Havre 
de Grace and to remove the shoal opposite Watson Island (which is 
above Havre de Grace) to a depth of 8 feet at the same stage of the 
tide, at an estimated cost of $1(58,000. The amount expended on that 
project to June 30, 1905, is $83,500, and resulted in dredging a portion 
of the channel below Havre de (irace to a depth of 15 feet at mean low 
water and partially removing the shoal opposite Watson Island. 

With the funds now available it is proposed to remove the balance 
of the shoal opposite Watson Island and to continue dredging in the 
channel on the shoal about 4,000 feet below Havre de (irace. The 
work is under advertisement at the close of the fiscal year 1905. 

The maximum 'draft that can be carried June :50, 1905, at mean 
low water over the shoalest part of the channel under improvement 
is 11 feet. 

The stream is navigable in fact to Port Deposit. Md., which is 
about 5 miles above the mouth of the river. The improvement has 
made no appreciable difference in freight rates. 



Digitized by 



Google" 



192 BEPOET OF THE CHIEF OF ENOINEEB8, U. 8. ^MY. 

The commerce of the river for the calendar year 1903 is reported to 
be 143^12 tons, not including much carried m vessels trading tran- 
siently, the statistics of which can not be obtained. No statistics 
could be gotten later. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $17,241.49 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 10, 000. 00 

27, 241. 40 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of Im- 
provement 17, 241. 49 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 10,000.00 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 74,500.00 

(See Appendix J 5.) 

6. Harbors at Rockhall, Queenstown, Claiborne^ and Cambridge, 
and Cheater, Choptank, Warwick, Pocomoke, La Trappe, and Mano- 
kin rivers, and Tyaskin {Wetipqnin) Creek, Maryland. — (a) Rockhall 
Harbor and inner harbor at Rockhall. — In 1894 the controlling 
depth at Rockhall Harbor was 5 feet, with an average range of tide 
of 1.1 feet. With $16,600 (the first for this work) appropriated June 
?., 1896, a project was carried out in 1897-98 for dredging a cut 80 
feet wide and 10 feet deep at mean low water from the 10-foot curve 
in Swan Creek Inlet to the 10-foot depth in Chesapeake Baj, and a 
channel 100 feet wide and 10 feet deep from that depth in Swan 
Creek Inlet to the old pier at Eockhall. A turning basin, embracing 
the old and new piers, was also dredged. 

In accordance with the river and harbor act of March 3, 1899, an 
examination was made of Rockhall Harbor and the inner harbor at 
Rockhall, report on which is printed in the Annual Report' for 1900, 
pp. 1670-16.72. The project then proposed is the dredging of a chan- 
nel 12 feet deep and 150 feet wide from Chesapeake Bay to Swan 
Creek Inlet, acro.ss Swan Point bar, and 12 feet deep and 150 feet 
wide from Swan Creek Inlet to the wharf at Rockhall, at an estimated 
cost, in 1899, of $43,065, and $9,208 every two years for maintenance. 

The river and harbor act of June 13, 1902, adopted this project, 
which is the existing one, and appropriated $74,000 for dredging 
certain harbors and rivers on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Baj', 
including Rockhall Harbor. The sum of $12,000 was allotted for 
this improvement, the available sum to be applied to the dredging of 
a channel 12 feet deep and as wide as practicable within the project 
limits from Swan Creek Inlet to the wharf at Rockhall. Contract 
for dredging on this and the other improvements on the eastern shore 
of ChesapeaKe Bay was made, under which the entire work was to be 
completed by December 31, 1903. The contract was completed June 
1, 1904. Ail the dredging was done in the inner harbor, with the 
result of establishing a 10-foot navigation there. 

The river and harl)or act of March 3, 1905, appropriated $44,000 
for dredging certain harbors and rivers on the east shore of the Che.s- 
apeake Bay. The sum of $12,829.35 was allotted 'for this improve- 
ment, to Ije applied to the existing project. The work was under 
advertisement at the close of the fiscal year 1905. 

The amount expended on this improvement to June 30, 1905, is 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEit AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 193 

$28,697.12, of which $16,597.12 was on a previous project. It is 
reported that freight rates have been reduced 50 per cent. 

The maximum draft that could be carried on June 30, 1905, at mean 
low water over the shoalest part of the channel across Swan Point 
bar is about 4 feet and in the inner harbor 10 feet, to which point the 
improvement is navigable in fact. In 1903 from 50 to 60 vessels of 
from 5 to 50 tons made this harbor their headquarters, and .steamers 
make a daily service from Baltimore, their course from Baltimore 
being down the bay and around the south end of Swan Point bar to 
the inner harbor at Rockhall. No later statistics could be obtained. 

The harbor is a bay, making in from the Chesapeake Bay, and is 
navigable in fact to Kockhall pier, which is about one-fourth mile 
above the mouth of Rockhall Harbor. 

(6) Queenstown Harbor. — Before 1871 the controlling depth in this 
harbor was 6 feet. Between that year and 1880 it was improved 
under a project dated January 2, 1871, and a channel 100 feet wide at 
bottom and 8 feet deep at mean low water was made. In 1897, with 
$5,000 appropriated for continuing the improvement, a channel was 
dredged to 8| feet at mean low water and 100 feet wide from Chester 
River to the inner harbor, to which point the improvement is navi- 
gable in fact; and in 1900 a shoal extending from a point 138 feet 
above the lower light down for a distance of 960 feet was dredged to 
a depth of 8 feet and a width of 80 feet. 

Oi the $74,000 appropriated by the river and harbor act of June 13, 
1902, for dredging certain harbors and rivers on the eastern shore 
of Chesapeake Bay, the sum of $12,000 was allotted to Queenstown 
Harbor. The act provides that the improvement shall be made in 
accordance with the report submitted and printed in the Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1900, pages 1673-1676. The 
project therein submitted contemplates increasing the dimensions of 
the channel so as to make them 10 feet deep and 200 feet wide, at an 
estimated cost of $23,100. The range of tide is about 2 feet. With 
the allotment the entire length of channel was dredged under contract 
to a depth of 10 feet at mean low water and as wide as practicable 
within the project limits. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, appropriated $44,000 
for improvement of harbors and rivers on the east shore of the Chesa- 
peake Bay, and $4,606.50 was allotted for this harbor, to be applied 
toward completing the project. Proposals for dredging were invited 
by advertisement at the close of the fiscal year 1905. 

The amount expended on this improvement to June 30, 1906, is 
$31,000, of which $12,000 was on the existing project. The maxi- 
mum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, at mean low water 
over the shoalest part of the locality under improvement was 10 feet. 

The tonnage of the harbor is reported to be as follows : 

Tons. 

1900 \2.mZ 

1901 11,328 

1902 18,769 

J903 (only partial statistics could be obtained) 3, 889 

i904 19,144 

ENG 1905 M 13 



Digitized by 



Google 



194 BEPOET OF THE CHIEF OF BN0I1TEEE8, 0. 8. ABMlt. 

The harbor is a bay making in from the Chester River and i' 
navigable in fact to Qiieenstown, which is about one-half mile above 
the mouth of the harbor. The improvement has made no perceptible 
difference in freiglit rates. 

(c) Claiborne Harbor. — Claiborne is on the eastern shore of East- 
ern Bay, an estuary of the Chesapeake Bay, about 6 milas east from 
Bloody Point light-house. No improvement there had ever been made 
by the United States previous to the existing project. Tlie controll- 
ing depth was 9 feet at mean low water, with a mean range of tide of 
2 feet. The sum of $15,000 was allotted to this improvement from 
the $74,000 appropriated by the river and harbor act of June 13, 
1902, for certain harbors and rivers on the eastern shore of Cliesa- 
peake Bay, Maryland. The act provides for dredging a channel 12 
feet deep at mean low water and 300 feet wide from the 12-foot con- 
tour in Eastern Bay to the railroad pier in the harbor, a distance of 
about 1,900 feet, and thence shoreward along the south side of the 
pier to a width of 195 feet for a length of 500 feet, at an estimated 
cost of $17,490, and a further sum of $2,500 for an extension of the 
existing jetty, should it be found necessary. This is the existing 
project. 

A 12-foot depth at mean low water was dredged with variable 
widths in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904. Forty-four thousand 
dollars was appropriated by the river and harbor act of March 3, 
1905, for harbors and rivers on the east shore of the Chesapeake Bay. 
The sum of $1,8(53.35 was allotted to this harbor, and proposals for 
dredging are advertised for at the close of the fiscal year 1905, to be 
applied to excavating under the existing project. The maximum 
draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, at mean low water over the 
shoalest part of the channel is 12 feet. The amount expended to June 
30, 1905, is $15,000. 

Claiborne is at the head of navigation in Claiborne Harbor and is 
the western terminus of the Baltimore. Chesapeake and Atlantic Rail- 
way. It is about one-half mile from the mouth of the harbor. Three 
steamers and 70 sailing vessels and barges are reported to ply in the 
harbor. 

The tonnage of the harbor is reported to be as follows : 

Tons. 

1903 S'>. .'>49 

1904 00,435 

The improvement has made no appreciable difference in freight 
rates. 

Reference to a survey is to be found on page 185 of the Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1904. 

(rf) Cambridge Harbor. — This harbor is on the eastern side of the 
Choptank River, about 20 miles above its mouth, and Cambridge is 
the head of navigation, at the mouth of the harbor. In 1870, before 
operations were commenced, there was a controlling depth of 4 feet. 
The improvement of the harbor was commenced in 1871 with a proj- 
ect submitted in March of that year for an entrance way of 100 feet 
in width and to provide sufficient harbor accommodations of a depth 
of 10 feet at mean low water. The estimated cost was $36,000. The 
sum of $10,000 was appropriated March 3, 1871, and work begun. 
On this and succeeding projects $50,237 was expended to June 30, 



Digitized by 



Google 



srtEB ajtd habbob impbovbmbnts. 195 

1896, resulting in a channel 150 feet wide and 12 feet deep at mean low 
water from that depth in the Choptank River to the railroad wharf, a 
distance of nearly a mile. The inner harbor below the bridge had 
been dredged over its whole irregular area to a depth of 10 feet, and 
the part of the harbor above the bridge, for a distance of 750 feet, liad 
been dredged to a depth of 8 feet and a width of 215 feet. A survev 
was made in 1896 (printed in Annual Report for 1897, p. 1297), 
and the improvements then recommended were for a 12-foot low- 
water channel 150 feet wide from the 12-foot curve in the Chop- 
tank River to a point 500 feet outside the Baltimore, Chesapeake 
and Atlantic Railway Company's steamboat wharf, and from this 
point gradually widening to the harbor line at the wharf; from 
the steamboat wharf to Mill wharf to increase the width an aver- 
age of 200 feet, with a depth of 8 feet, making an anchorage basin ; 
increasing the width of the lower harbor 40 feet on the north side 
and widening the upper harbor an average of 360 feet along the chan- 
nel already dredged to a depth of .8 feet. The estimated cost of the 
project is $8,120. It is the existing one. 

Of the 74,000 appropriated by the river and harbor act of June 13, 
1902, for certain harbors and rivers on the eastern shore of Chesa- 
peake Bay $3,000 was allotted to the above project. A channel 130 
feet wide, 450 feet long, and 8 feet deep at mean low water was 
dredged during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904. The river and 
harbor act of March 3, 1905, appropriated $44,000 for harbors and 
rivers on the east shore of the Chesapeake Bay. The sum of $3,120.80 
was allotted for this harbor, and dredging under it was advertised for 
at the close of the fiscal year 1905, the work to be applied toward com- 
pleting the project. Tne amount expended on this improvement to 
June 30, 1906,ns $53,237, of which $.50,237 was on previous projects. 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, at mean 
low water over the shoal&st part of the channel below the bridge was 
10 feet, and about 8 feet above as far as the channel has been dredged. 
The range of the tide is about 1.7 feet. Six steamers and 130 sailing 
vessels and barges are reported to ply in the harbor, the commerce 
being valued at $1,986,352. 

The tonnage of the harbor is reported to be as follows : 

Tons. 

1903 101,552 

1904 102, .568 

The improvement has made no appreciable difference in freight 
rates. 

(e) Chester River, Maryland, from Crvmpton to Jones Landing. — 
Before operations were undertaken on this part of the river vessels 
at low tide drawing 6 feet of water could reach Crumpton, 33 miles 
above the mouth, and from that point to Jones Landing (to which 
point the stream is navigable in fact) , 6^ miles, the controlling depth 
was 3 feet, with a mean range of tide of 1.2 feet. The project for 
improvement, adopted October 21, 1890, is for a 6-foot low-water 
channel from Crumpton to Jones Landing, at an estimated cost of 
$12,760, increased in 1896 to $14,250, and still later to $19,562.50. 
There has been but one project for this section of the river. By 
June 30, 1900, the projected channel had been brought to within less 
than a half mUe of Jones Landing by dredging. Of the $74,000 



Digitized by 



Google 



196 BEPOBX OF THE OHIBF OF ENOIKEEBS, V. S. ARWT. 

ai)propriated by the river and harbor act of June 13, 1902, for cer- 
tain harbors and rivers on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay, 
Maryland, $5,402 was allotted for Chester River for continuing the 
improvement, and this was applied mainly to dredging; at the upper 
enci of the river in the fiscal year 1903. The river and harbor act of 
March 3, 1905, appropriated $44,000 for rivers and harbors on the 
east shore of Chesapeake Bay, and $1,245 was allotted to this river. 
With the allotment it is proposed to complete the project at the upper 
end and dredge some shoals formed in the channel below. The work 
was advertised at the close of the fiscal year 1905. The amount ex- 
pended on this improvement to June 30, 1905, is $19,602, of which 
about $2,500 was for maintenance. 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, at mean 
low water over the shoalest part of the river was 5 feet. 

The tonnage for the past calendar year, consisting mainly of agri- 
cultural products, is reported to be 48,463, valued at $1,896,485, and 
is carried on by 6 steamers and 175 sailing vessels and barges. The 
improvement has made no difference in freight rates. 

If) Choptank River, Maryland. — Before improvements were be- 
gun in 1879 the depth of water in the channel oetween Denton and 
Greensboro varied from 2 to 8 feet at low water, with a mean range 
of tide of about 2 feet. Navigation, carried on by small sailing 
vessels, extended to only 3 miles above Denton. UiJon the remaining 
5 miles to Greensboro, the head of navigation, all freight had to be 
transported upon scows. Greensboro is about 46 miles above the 
mouth of the river. 

A project for improvement was made in 1880 for an 8-foot low- 
water channel 75 feet wide, at an estimated cost of $79,000. At the 
close of the fiscal year 1903 the project channel had been completed, 
except for a distance of about 1 mile at the upper end, but there has 
been some shoaling since. No dredging was done in the fiscal years 
1904 or 1905. The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, appro- 

griated $44,000 for rivers and harbors on the east shore of Chesapeake 
iay. and $7,885 was allotted for this river. It is proposed to apply 
tliese funds toward completing the project at its upper end and to 
removing some shoals which have formed below. The work is under 
advertisement at the close of the fiscal year 1905. 

The maximum draft that could be carried on June 30, 1905, at 
mean low water over the shoalest part of the channel under improve- 
ment was 7 feet. The amount expended on this improvement to 
June 30, 1905, was $63,000, of which $2,437.39 was for maintenance. 
Six steamers and 246 sailing vessels and barges are reported as 
plying in the river, the commerce being valued at $4,743,416. The 
tonnage of the river is reported to be as follows: 

Tons. 

t!K« 208,367 

1901 210.447 

The improvement has made no appreciable difference in freight 
rates. 

{</) Warwick River, Maryland. — This river, formerly named Sec- 
retary Creek, is in Dorchester County, eastern shore of Maryland, and 



Digitized by 



Google 



MVEE AND HABBOR IMPROVEMENTS. 197 

flows into the Choptank River, one of the largest tributaries of Chesa- 
peake Bay. It is a small tidal basin 2 miles long, with no fresh-water 
influx at the head, and was originally only 4 feet deep. The average 
rise of tide is 2 feet. The original project for the stream is dat«d 
January 20, 1880. 

Before the adoption of the present project about $12,000 had been 
expended in the improvement of this river — ^$6,000 by the General 
Grovernment and the remainder by private parties. The existing 
project for improvement based upon a survev in 1891 (printed in 
Annual Report for 1891, p. 1219), provides for a channel 100 feet 
wide and 10 feet deep at mean low water from the 10-foot depth in 
Choptank River to Secretary Landing at the head of the river, includ- 
ing a turning basin at the latter point, at an estimated cost of $18,600. 
Up to July, 1903, dredging had oeen done from time to time as funds 
became available, untu the project was practically completed, but 
shoals formed rapidly. It is proposed to partially remove these 
with $1,909 alloted from the appropriation of $44,000 appropriated 
March 3, 1905, for rivers and harbors on the east shore or the Chesa- 
peake Bay. The work is under advertisement at the close of the 
nscal year 1905. 

The amount expended on the present project to June 30, 1905, is 
$16,000. The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, 
at mean low water over the shoalest part of the channel under im- 
provement was reported to be 9 feet. 

Six steamers and 78 sailing vessels and barges are reported as ply- 
ing in the river, the commerce being valued at $1,532,754. 

The tonnage of the river is reported to be as follows : 

TODB. 

1903 65,2(16 

1904 65,858 

The improvement has made no appreciable difference in freight 
rates. 

(A) Pocomoke River, Maryland. — ^This river has been under im- 
provement by the General Government since 1878, the original project 
being dated November 19, 1878. In 1879 and 1880 $12,500 was ex- 
pended on work below Snowhill, chiefly in the rectification of the 
channel and in giving increased width, the depth being 7 feet at 
mean low water. In 1888, with an appropriation of $8,000, a cut- 
off was made through the low neck of land forming four abrupt 
bends just below Snowhill. At the close of these operations there was 
a channel not less than 80 feet wide and 7 feet deep between Snow- 
hill and Shad Landing, a distance of about 4^ miles. 

The existing project, adopted October 1, 1896, is based upon a sur- 
vey made in 1894-95. (printed in Annual Report for 1895, p. 1167), 
and is for dredging the channel between Snowhill and Shad Land- 
ing to a depth of 9 feet at mean low water and a width of from 100 
to 130 feet, at an estimated cost of 14,000. The mean range of tide 
is 2^ feet. Snowhill is the head of navigation on this stream, and 
is about 28 miles above the mouth. With funds provided from 1897 
to 1904, the channel was dredged to the project dimensions, but in a 
few places there were shoals forming. The river and harbor act of 
March 3, 1905, appropriated $44,000 for the rivers and harbors on the 



Digitized by 



Google 



198 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF EKGINEEBS, tT. 8. ABMT. 

east shore of the Chesapeake Bay, and $1,743 of it was allotted to tliis 
river. With this amount it is proposed to remove shoals that have 
formed in the channel. The work is advertised at the close of the 
fiscal year 1905. 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905. at mean 
low water over the shoalest part of the channel under improvement 
was 9 feet. To the end of the fiscal year $33,300 had been expended 
for the improvement of this river, of which $20,500 was on previous 
projects. Two steamers and 86 sailing vessels and barges are re- 
ported as plying in the river, the commerce being valued at $2,314,411. 

The tonnage of the river is reported to be as follows : 

Tons. 

1903 245. 3«8 

3904 e-46, 223 

The improvement has made no appreciable difference in freight 
rates. 

(i) La Trappe Rirer, Maryland. — This stream, formerly known 
as Dividing Creek, has a length of about 3 miles and is a tributary 
of the Choptaiik River. The head of navigation is at Trappe Land- 
ing. The controlling depth prior to 1893 was 4 feet, with a mean 
range of tide of 18 mches, but was afterwards increased to 8 feet 
by dredging, under private subscription. The original project is 
the existing one, adopted August 5, 1892, and is for a channel 150 
feet wide and 11 feet det>p at mean low water across the bar at the 
mouth, and for a width of 75 feet and a depth of 8 feet inside the 
bar as far as Trappe Landing, with a turning basin at the latter 
point, at an estimated cost oif $7,250. subsequently increased to 
$9,750. The amount exjwnded to June 30, 1905, is $7,250, and has 
resulted in completing the project except for a length of 1.200 feet 
over the bar, where the width is but 100 feet. The river and harbor 
act of March 3, 1905, contains an appropriation of $44,000 for rivers 
and harboi"s on the east shore of Chesapeake Bay, and $1, 807.50 has 
been allotted for this river. It is expected to expend the funds in 
dredging in the channel across the bar and the restoration of it 
where it has shoaled. The work is under advertisement at the close 
of the fiscal year 1905. 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, at mean 
low water over the shoalest part of the channel was 7 fe«t. Three 
steamers and 81 sailing vessels and barges are reported as plying in 
the river, the commerce l)eing valued at $303,426. 

The tonnage of the river is reported to be as follows : 

TODB. 

1003 11, 4«) 

1904 13, 601 

The improvement has made no appreciable difference in freight 
rates. 

(j) Manokin River, Maryland. — Before improvements were cobP 
menced, in 1891, the depth of water at the mouth of the river at the 
so-called " Mud flats " was between 1 and 2 feet at low tide. These 
flats are about 2^ miles wide, and make navigation impossible except 
at high water, thereby rendering the upper part of the river, which 
has a very fair depth and width, almost useless for extensive shipping 
purposes. The average rise of tide at the flats is 2.6 feet. Prmcess 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS. 199 

Anne is the head of navigation and is about 12 miles above the 
mouth of the river. 

This project was adopted in 1890, and is based upon a survey made 
in August and September, 1889 (report printed in Annual Report 
for 1890, p. 961). It provides for a channel 6 feet deep at mean 
low water and 100 feet wide from Locust Point to Sharps Point, 
a distance of about 2^ miles, and embracing the section called the 
" Mud flats," at an estimated cost of $30,000. From 1891- to 1900 
dredging on the whole project was done at various times as funds 
became available. At the close of these operations there was a 
channel 6 feet deep from Sharps Point to about a mile above Dashiells 
Creek, and a slightly less depth to the steamboat wharf above, and 
at the mouth soundings talken over the area formerly dredged 
showed a range of depth from 4.5 to 7.3 feet. No work has been 
done since, but the river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, con- 
tains an appropriation of $44,000 for the rivers nnd harbors on the 
east shore of the Chesapeake Bay. Four thousand seven hundred and 
seventy-two dollars and fifty cents of this appropriation has been 
allotted to this river, and proposals for dredging are under adver- 
tisement at the close of the fiscal year 1905. U ith the funds it is 
proposed to complete part of the project and restore the channel where 
it has shoaled. 

The amount expended on the improvement to June 30, 1905, is 
ir22,500, and $2,000 additional was expended on the upper river, 
which is not included in the existing project. The maximum draft 
that could be carried June 30, 1905, at mean low water over the shoal- 
c!.st part of the channel at the mouth was 4J feet. 

It was impracticable to obtain complete commercial statistics, but 
it is reported that the commerce has increased between 5 and 10 per 
cent over that reported for 1896, which was 32,076 tons, valued at 
$522,990. The improvement has made no appreciable difference in 
freight rates. 

(k) Tyaskin Creek. — This stream is also known as Wetipquin 
Creek, or River. It is a small tributary of the Nanticoke River, hav- 
ing a length of about 5 miles. No work has heretofore been done on 
this creek. The controlling depth in the creek was 8 feet, but on the 
bar at the mouth it was but 3^ feet at mean low water, with an aver- 
age rise and fall of the tide of 3 feet. A survey was made in 1899 
(report printed in Annual Report for 1900, p. 1681). The exist- 
ing project is for a channel 9 leet deep at mean low water, with a 
width of 120 feet, at an estimated cost of $13,200. Dredging was 
done in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904, and resulted in mak- 
ing a 9-foot navigation at mean low water to the wharf at Tyaskin, 
the head of navigation, but the channel is only 60 feet wide. Two 
thousand one hundred and fifty-eight dollars was allotted for this 
creek from the appropriation of $44,000, March 3, 1905, for rivers 
and harbors on the east shore of the Chesapeake Bay. It is expected 
to widen the channel as far as permitted with these funds, and the 
work was under advertisement at the close of the fiscal year 1905. 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, is $8,000. I'he maximum 
draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, at mean low water over the 
shoalest part of the channel was 7^ feet. Three steamers and 35 sail- 
ing vessels and barges are reported as plying in the creek, the com- 
nierc • being valued at $33,813. 



Digitized by 



Google 



200 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF KNOIITEERS, U, 8. ARXT. 
The tonnage of the creek is reported to be as follows : 

'Pons. 
1903 784 

mn 79B 

The improvement has made no appreciable difference in freight 
rates. 

A preliminary examination is in progress at the close of the fiscal 
year 1906. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended : «$8,293. 40 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3. 1905- 44, OOO. OO 

52, 293. 40 
June 30, IfHKi, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of Im- 
provement 8, 2SO. 52 

July 1, 1905, balance unexi>ended 44.002. 88 

Amount (estimated) requlre<t for completion of existing project 43,818. OO 

(See Appendix J 6.) 

7. Nanticoke River, Delaware and Maryland. — ^This river is a tidal 
stream, its headwaters consisting of numerous branches rising mainly 
in the northern section of Sussex County, Del. The river flows in a 
southwesterly direction into Tangier Sound, Chesapeake Bay, and 
the interests for the improvement of the river center at Seaford, 36 
miles from the mouth. 

The river and harbor act of August 18, 1894, appropriated $5,0OO 
for improving Broad Creek River, Delaware, a branch of Nanticoke 
River, and provided that as much of it as might be nece-ssary should 
be used for the removal of the bar extending ftom the railroad bridge 
at Seaford toward the mouth of Nanticoke River. With this appro- 
priation the channel was dredged where necessary to a width of 100 
feet and a depth of 9 feet at mean low water from the south side of 
the railroad bridge at S6aford to a point 8,000 feet below. A previ- 
ous appropriation for the Nanticoke River in 1886 was, in accordance 
with the terms of the law, applied to Broad Creek River up to Laurel. 

The existing project for the improvement of the Nanticoke River 
is based upon a survey made in IS^.*), and is for a channel 9 feet deep 
at mean low water and 100 feet wide, the width to be increased to 
about 150 feet at sharp turns of the channel, the improvements to be 
extended to within 100 feet of the county bridge, where the proposed 
channel is to widen out fan shape, at an e^stimated cost of $13,000. 
In 1898 the channel above and below the railroad bridge at Seaford 
was dredged to the project dimensions, except 'in a bend about 2,900 
feet below, and the latter was dredged in 1900. No work has been 
done since, but the river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, appropri- 
ated $2,000, which it is proposed to expend in dredging shoal places 
and widening the channel in accordance with the project. The work 
is under advertisement at the close of the fiscal vear 1905. 



oTlie balance unexiiended in the Inst annual money statement ($12,256.32) 
v.'as in error. It should have i)een $0,207.78, as will appear on reference to the 
subtraction in the last annual report. The balance rejKirted this year 
($8,293.40) is arrived at by deducting $l,ia').54, the Wicomico River balance, and 
adding $:«!.13 for La Trappe River and $0.'5.n3 for Mauokin River, which were 
respectively withdrawn from and added to the consolidated appropriation in the 
river and harbor act of March 3, 1905. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HAHBOB IMPROVEMENTS. 201 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, was $10,362.36, of which 
$5,000 was on a previous project, no part of which was applied to 
maintenance. The range of tide is aoout 3.4 feet at" Seaford, the 
head of navigation. 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1906, at mean 
low water over the shoalest part of the channel was 7 feet. Three 
steamers and 120 sailing vessels and barges are reported as plying 
in the river, the commerce being valued at $2,028,656. 

The tonnage of the river is reported to be as follows : 

Tons. 

1903 119,0.38 

1904 120.229 

The improvement has made no appreciable difference in freight 
rates. 

The report of the survey upon which this project is based is printed 
in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1895, pages 
1165-1167. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $736.50 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March .% 1905. 2, 000. 00 

2, 736. 50 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of im- 
provement ; 98.86 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 2,637.64 

(See Appendix J 7.) 

8. Broad Creek River, Delaware. — ^This is a tributary of the Nanti- 
coke River, and in 1881 the controlling depth was 1^ feet, with a 
mean range of tide of 3 feet. In 1889 a channel 6 feet deep at mean 
low water and 50 feet wide had been dredged under project dated 
February 4, 1880, from Bethel to Laurel, the head of navigation, 
about 7^ miles from the mouth of the river, at a cost of $35,000. The 
existing project, adopted August 5, 1892, is for a channel 70 feet wide 
and 8 feet deep at mean low water between Bethel and Laurel, at 
an estimated co.st of $15,000. The projected channel was dredged, 
except for a short distance at the upper end, where it was reduced 
to 60 feet in width to secure the stability of some wharves. No 
dredging was done in the fiscal year 1905, but the expenditures have 
been for examinations and current expenses. The amount expended 
to June 30, 1905, is $15,000. 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, at mean 
low water over the shoalest part of the channel is reported to be 6^ 
feet. It has been impracticable to obtain complete commercial sta- 
tistics. The improvement has made no appreciable difference in 
freight rates. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended 1324.80 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of 
improvement 324. 80 

(See Appendix J 8.) 

9. Wicomico River, Maryland. — ^The portion of the river at and 
just below Salisbury, which is the head of navigation, has been under 
improvement by the United States since 1872, under project dated 
April 15, 1871. At that time the navigable channel, with a minimum 
depth of 8 feet at low water, extendi to a point within 2 miles of 



Digitized by 



Google 



202 BEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

Salisbury. The extreme upper portion, as far as the mill dam in the 
heart of the town, was quite shoal, and had an average depth of only 
18 inches at low tide. Between 1872 and 1885 a channel 75 to nearly 
100 feet wide and 7 feot deep at low water was dredged from deep 
water below to the drawbridge in the town, at a cost to the Govern- 
ment of about $50,000. 

The existing'project, ba.sed upon a survey of the river made in 1889 
(printed in Annual Report for 1889, p. 918), provides for a chan- 
nel 9 feet deep at mean low water from that depth below to the 
drawbridge at Salisbury, the width to be from 100 to 150 feet, at 
an estimated cost of $2.3,200. At the time this project was adopted 
there existed a 7-foot low-water channel from- 75 to 100 feet wide to 
Salisbury. From 1891 to 1904 dredging was done at various times 
as funds became available until the project was practically com- 
})leted. The river and harlwr act of March 3, 1905, appropriated 
$5,000 for this stream, which it is proposed to expend in widening the 

!)roject channel at some bends and in removing shoals that nave 
ormed in the channel. The work is under advertisement at the close 
of the fiscal year 1905. The amount expended to June 30, 1905, is 
$79,998, of which $50,000 was on previous projects. The maximum 
draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, at mean low water over the 
shoalest part of the channel tmder improvement was 9 feet. Two 
steamers and 80 sailing vessels and barges are reported as plying in 
the river, the commerce being valued at $4.7('>1,095. 
The tonnage of the river is i-eported to be as follows : 

Tons. 

IJX)?, 197, 300 

liiai 199. 270 

The improvement has made no appreciable difference in freight 
rates. 

A preliminary examination is in progreas at the close of the fiscal 
year 1905. 

.7uly 1. 1904. balance unexpended $1,105.54 

.\iiiount appropriated by river and harlwr act approved Marcb .S, 1905_ 5, 000. 00 

6. 105. 54 
.luiie 30. 1905. amount expended during fiscal year, for works of Im- 
provement 1. 105. 54 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 5,000.00 

(See Appendix J 9.) 

10. Removbuj minhen vessels or craft obstructing or endangering 
narigatlon. — During the past fiscal year wrecks were removed as fol- 
lows: Barge Charles Gring from Roads Harbor, mouth of Elk River, 
Maryland, and schooner Mai'y L. Colhourne from Tangier Sound, 
Virginia. 

In addition to the above, work was completed on removing sunken 
piles, rafts, etc., from Elk River and Back Creek, Maryland. 

The amount exjwnded for the removal of wrecks during the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1905, was $21,793.82. The most of this expendi- 
ture was on account of outstanding liabilities from the fiscal year 
ending June 30. 1904. 

(See Appendix J 10.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVER AND HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS. 203 

IMPEOVEMENT OP POTOMAC RIVER AND ITS TRIBUTARIES. OV 
JAMES RIVER AND OF HARBOR OF MILFORD IIAVEX. VIRGINIA. 
AND OF CERTAIN RIVERS IN MARYLAND AND VIRfflNIA ON THE 
WESTERN AND EASTERN SHORES OF CHESAPEAKE BAY; PROTEC- 
TION OF JAMESTOWN ISLAND, VIRGINIA. 



neers. 



This district was in the charge of Col. A. M. Miller, Corps of Engi- 
eers, to September 14, 1904; in the temporary charge of Capt. Wil- 
liam P. Wooten, Corps of Engineers, from September 14, 1904, to 
November 14, 1904, and in the charge of Lieut. C-oI. Smith S. Leach, 
Corps of Engineers, since November 14, 1904. Captain Wooten was 
on duty imder the immediate orders of the officer in charge from July 
1 to September, 1904, and since November 14, 1904. Division engi- 
neer. Col. Amos Stickney, Corps of Engineei's. 

/. Potomac Rirer at Washington, I). C. — Before improvement, the 
Virginia channel was obstructed by two bars. The upper bar ex- 
tended from Ijong Bridge to about one-half mile below F^asbys Point, 
and the ruling depth on this bar was 8 feet. The lower bar was near 
(xiesboro Point, and had a ruling depth of 14 feet. The ruling depth 
in the Washington channel was 10 feet, (ieorgetown Harlwr was 
obstructed by several dangerous rocks. The flats which extended to 
the edge of the Virginia channel were largely bare' at low water and 
were an active agent in spreading malarial and other diseases. 

Between June 11, 1870, and March 3, 1881, the sum of $290,000 was 
appropriated by Congress for the improvement of the harbors of 
Washington and Georgetown. The project under w^hich this sum 
was expended is not definitely stated, although it is understood that 
it provided for dredging channels 1(5 feet deep and 200 feet wide 
through the Georgetow^n and Washington channels and for the re- 
moval of the most dangerous rocks obstructing navigation in the 
harbor of Georgetown to a depth of 20 feet. 

The existing project for the improvement was adopted August 2, 
1882, and has for its object the improvement of the navigation of the 
river by widening and deepening its channels, the reclamation of the 
flats by depositing on them the material dredged from the channels, 
the freeing of the Washington channel of sewage, and the establish- 
ment of harbor lines. To effect these the project provided " that the 
channel depths * * • should be sufficient to accommodate the 
largest draft vessels that can be brought up to Arsenal Point " (the 
projected depth was not stated in feet, but by the above-imposed con- 
dition was at that time limited to 20 feet at low tide, whereas the 
ruling depth in the Potomac River below Washington has now been 
increased, by dredging, to 24 feet at low tide) ; that the flats be 
reclaimed to a height of 3 feet above the flood plane of 1877 (which, 
although the highest recorded freshet at that time, was exceeded by 
about 3 feet by the flood of 1889) ; for a tidal reservior to l)e pro- 
vided with automatic inlet and outlet gates, and for an ample system 
of drainage for the reclaimed area. A training dike on the Virginia 
shore, extending downstream from Analostan Island, was added to 
the project in 1890. The project also provided for the rebuilding of 
Tjong Bridge and for the interception of all sewage discharged into 
the Washington channel, but neither of these works was included in 
the estimated cost of the improvement, which was $2,716,3(55. The 
estimate, as revised in 1897, is $2,953,020. 



Digitized by 



Google 



204 BKPOET OP THE CHIBF OP ENOINEERS, U. 8. ARMY, 

The amount expended on the work of the existmg project to June 
30, 1905, was $2,477,503.40, of which about $693,500 was applied to 
maintenance. 

The expenditure resulted in the dredging of a channel 20 feet deep 
and 550 reet wide through the bar above Long Bridge and in restor- 
ing the standard 20-foot navigation by redredging shoals due to fresh- 
ets; in increasing the width of the natural channel just below Long 
Bridge by 50 to 500 feet and in deepening it to 20 feet; in dredging 
a channel 350 feet wide and 20 feet deep through the bar in the Vir- 
ginia channel near Giesboro Point; in dredging the Washington 
channel to a width of 400 feet and a depth of 20 feet for navigation 
channel, and in dredging between this navigation channel and the 
wall of the adjacent reclaimed area to a depth of 12 feet ; in dredg- 
ing at the junction of the Washington and Virginia channels; in 
dredging the tidal reservoir (111 acres) to a depth of about 8 feet; 
in the construction of the reservoir outlet, and in the construction of 
35,289 linear feet of sea wall, of which 5,680 linear feet has been taken 
down and relaid, and 5,965 linear feet of training dike. 

The area of land reclaimed by these operations is 621.12 acres (or, 
including reservoir, 739.42 acres), which, by act of March 3, 1897, 
was declared to be a public park under the name of Potomac Park. 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, at mean 
low water over the shoalest part of the Washington channel was 19 
feet; for the Virginia channel it was 18 feet. The mean range of 
tide is about 3 feet. 

The Potomac River is navigable to the foot of Little Falls, 3^ miles 
above Georgetown, but the Aqueduct Bridge, which crosses the river 
at Georgetown, 113 miles above the mouth of the river, has no draw 
and limits the navigation of large steamers and masted vessels. 

The principal articles of commerce are coal, sand, gravel, lumber, 
ice, wood, stone, asphalt, oils, and miscellaneous merchandise, and the 
total tonnage is shown, as closely as it can be ascertained, by the fol- 
lowing: 

Commercial stotistics. 

Tons. I Tons. 



1887 618. 972 

1888 .'581.575 

1889 488.680 

1890 -"t 519,696 

1891 551,219 

1892 766,954 

189.<i 65:^433 

1894 644,588 

1895 693.450 



1896 723.657 

1897 .593,684 

1898 C45, 230 

1899 715,549 

1900 661,420 

1901 706,551 

1902 672, 912 

19a3 762,043 

1904- 758,150 



The value of the articles shipped is not known. 

The benefits to navigation from the improvements made have been 
marked. Vessels of much deeper draft than those formerly used are 
now engaged in this trade, and it is understood that freight rates have 
been materially reduced. 

The additional work proposed is for the purpose of extension of 
benefits and for the maintenance of the improvement in a serviceable 
condition. 

It is proposed to apply the available funds toward dredging in the 
Virginia channel, the Washington channel, and the tidal reservoir; to 
the construction of the inlet gates, which, if constructed immediately 



Digitized by 



Google 



BTVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENT8. 205 

after the dredging of the tidal reservoir, will prevent subsequent 
!?hoaling both in this reservoir and in the Washin^on channel ; to the 
repair of the sea wall, the extension of the training dike, and the 
maintenance of the outlet gates. 

Maps of the locality may be found in each Annual Report of the 
Chief of Engineers since 1877, with the exception of those for 1879, 
1882, and 1893. 

Reference to the report on the examination and survey of Potomac 
River at Washington, D. C, will be found on page 194 of the Amiual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1904. 

•Tuly 1, 1904, balance unexpended $83,881.03 

Amount appropriated by river and barber act approved Marcb 3, 1905. 50, 000. 00 

133, »S1. 03 
Jane 80, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance 
of improvement 77, 484. -IS 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 5C,4i>C. 00 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 1,&14. 00 

July 1, 1905, balance available ^^ 54, 932. (50 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 469,020.00 

(See Appendix K 1.) 

£. Potomac River below Washington, D. C. — The Potomac River 
below Washington, D. C, is generally a wide and deep body of water, 
having the characteristics oi a tidal estuary rather than of a fluvial 
stream. 

Prior to improvement 24-foot navigation was obstructed by seven 
shoals over which the depth ranged from 19|t to 23 feet at low tide. 
Several of these shoals were long and formed serious obstructions to 
navigation by deep-draft vessels. ' , 

The present, which is also the original project for this improve- 
ment, was adopted March. 3, 1899. This provides for the improve- 
ment of the waterway by dredging channels 24 feet deep and 200 feet 
wide through all obstructions to 24- foot navigation below Washing- 
ton, D. C, at an estimated cost of $17C,000. 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, was $171,448.03, of which 
about $31,000 was applied to maintenance. 

As a result of this expenditure, channels 24 feet deep and at least 
200 feet wide have been dredged through six of the shoals, while the 
dredging of the seventh is in progress and is nearly completed. The 
maximum draft that could be carried on June 30, 190.5, at mean low 
water over the shoalest part of the locality under improvement was 
23.5 feet, this depth occurring over the shoal not yet completed. The 
mean range of tide varies from about 1.6 feet at lower shoals to about 
2.8 feet at the upper. Georgetown, 113 miles above the mouth of 
Potomac River, in the head of navigation for large vessels. 

The principal articles of commerce are coal, ice, lumber, wood, 
sand, gravel, clay, stone, oil, asphalt, and miscellaneous merchandise. 
There is a large passenger traffic on the river. The total tonnage is 
shown as closely as it can be ascertained in the following : 

Commercial statistics. 

Tons. 

1903 - 1. S.W, 000 

1904 1. 340. 000 



Digitized by 



Google 



206 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ABMY. 

The value of the articles shipped is not known. 

As far as is known the work done has had no material effect upon 
freight rates. 

The work provided for under the present project has been prac- 
tically completed and no further appropriation is required therefor. 
A channel only 200 foet wide is, however, regarded as too contracted 
for a river of the width and importance of the Potomac, especially 
in view of the location of the Washington Navy- Yard iipon its shores. 

Maps of the localitv may be found in the Annual Reports of the 
Chief of Engineer for 1890, 1900, 1902, and 1903. 

For reference to the report on an examination and survey of Poto- 
mac River below AVashin^on, D. C, see page 197 of the Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1904. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexi)ended $17, 845. .W 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 10, 000. 00 

27, 845. 55 
June 30. 1905, amount expended during fiscal year : 

For works of Improvement $4,293.58 

For maintenance of improvement.^.— 9, 000. 00 

13. 293. TiS 

July 1, 190.5. balance unexpended 14, .551. 97 

July 1, 190.5, outstanding liabilities 346.00 

July 1, 190.5, ')alance available 14.20.5.97 

July 1, 190.5, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 6, 182. 75 

(See Appendi.x K 2.) 

S. Anacostia- Rii;er, District of Columbia. — Before improvement 
the ruling depth from the mouth to the Navy- Yard Bridge was about 
18 feet, the channel affording this depth being narrow and tortuous. 

An allotment of $20,000 for work m the Anacostia was made from 
the appropriation of September 19, 1890, for improving Potomac 
River at Washington. Under this allotment channels 20 feet deep 
and about 200 feet wide were dredged through shoals near the foot of 
South Capitol street and opposite Washington Barracks. This dredg- 
ing was completed in May, 1892, at a cost of $18,536.94. 

The present project for this improvement was adopted June 13, 
1902, and provides for the improvement of the portion of Anacostia 
River below the Navy-Yard Bridge by dredging a channel 20 feet 
deep for a width of 400 feet, gradually decreasing the depth to 6 
feet at the bulkhead lines, and depositing the dredged material on the 
adjacent flats to an average elevation of 7 feet above low tide, the 
reclaimed area to be surrounded by an earthen embankment to a 
height of 14 feet above low tide, protected by a masonry sea wall, and 
provided with suitable drainage through the embankment, at an esti- 
mated cost of $1,218,52.'). 

The amount expended on the existing project to June 30, 1905, was 
$149,950.30, none of which was applied to maintenance. As a result of 
this expenditure a channel 20 feet deep at mean low tide and at least 
300 feet wide (except at Buzzard Point, where the width is about 240 
feet) has been secured for a distance of 9,130 feet upstream from the 
mouth of the Anacostia (or up to the lower limits oi the navy -yard). 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS. 207 

Incidental to the improvement of the channel about 110 acres of 
flats has been filled by the deposit of excavated material to an aver- 
age height of 4 feet above low tide. Harbor lines have been estab- 
lished up to Pennsylvania Avenue Bridge. 

.The maximum draft that could be carried on June 30, 1005, over the 
shoalest part of the locality under improvement was 19 feet. The 
mean range of tides is about 3 feet. 

Anacostia River is navigable for large ves.sels to the Navv-Yard 
Bridge, for tugs and small vessels to Pennsylvania Avenue liridge, 
and for small scows and lighters to Bladensburg, Md., respectively 2, 
23, and 85 miles above its mouth. 

The principal articles of commerce are sand and gravel, brick, clay, 
stone, coal, oils, ice, piles, wood, asphalt, and miscellaneous freight, a 
large amount of which is shipped to and from the naval proving 
grounds at Indian Head, Md. The amount of trade is shown, as 
closely as it can be ascertained, by the following : 

Commercial statistics. 

Tons. 

1903 285,281 

1904 280. 605 

« 

The value of the articles shipped is not known. 

The improvement already made has been of benefit to navigation, 
and has resulted in the diversion of considerable traffic from the 
Washington channel, where conditions were rapi<llv becoming con- 
gested. It is not known that any reduction m ^-eight rates has 
resulted from the work done. 

The additional work proposed is for the extension of benefits. 

Maps of the locality will be found in the Annual Eeports of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1903 and 1904. 

Reference to reports upoh examinations and surveys of this river 
will be found on t)age 198 of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engi- 
neers for 1904. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended |00, 781. 73 

June 30, 1905. amount expended during fiscal year, for works of 
Improvement (r), 2(59. a"? 

July 1, 1905, balance unexi)ended 1,512.70 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project-- 1,067, 001. M 

(Stje Appendix K 3.) 

4. Breton Bay and Patvxent River, Maryland. — (a) Breton Bay. — 
Breton Bay is aoont 6^ miles long and well landlocked. Fifteen feet 
of water can be carried up the bay for a distance of 4 miles. At the 
time of the adoption of a project for its improvement 10-foot naviga- 
tion in Breton Bay was obstructed by a shoal commencing 5 mues 
above the mouth and extending to the head of the bay. The least 
channel depth over this shoal was 5 feet at low tide. 

The original project for improvement, adopted in 1878, provided 
for dredging a channel 150 feet wide and 9 feet deep from the 9-foot 
contour m Breton Bay to the liconardtown wharf, with a turning 
basin for steamlwats at the wharf 400 feet wide and (500 feet long, at 
an estimated cost of $30,0(X). In 1886 the project was amended so as 
to provide for a channel 200 feet wide and 10 feet deep, the turning 



Digitized by 



Google 



208 BEFOBT OF THE OHIBF OF ENOINEEBS. U. S. ABMT. 

basin to be 800 feet long and 400 feet wide. The estimated cost of 
the amended project was $49,000. In 1890 the original project was 
resumed, a width of 150 feet and depth of 9 feet being deemed suffi- 
cient to furnish all the facilities needed by navigation at that time. 

From June 18, 1878, to September 19, 1890, nine appropriations, 
iiggi-egating $37,500, were made. This sum was applied to dredging 
214,22!) cubic yards of material. The work called for by this proj- 
ect was completed August 25, 1891. The channel was then 9 feet 
deep at low tide from the original 9-foot contour in Breton Bay to 
the Leonardtown wharf. The width of the channel was 150 feet, and 
at the turn off Buzzards Point it was made 320 feet to facilitate the 
turning of steamers. The basin at Leonardtown was 9 feet deep, 370 
feet wide, and 600 feet long. 

The present project for this improvement was adopted June 13, 
1902, and contemplates the dredging of a channel and turning basin 
10 feet deep, the channel to have a minimum width of 200 feet, and 
the turning basin to be 400 feet wide and 600 feet long. The esti- 
mated cost of the project is $36,480. 

The Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors considered this 
project and recommended that $6,000 be expended at the earliest 
practicable date in providing a channel 10 feet deep and wide enough 
to accommodate the boats now trading in this stream, including a 
turning basin of ample dimensions at Leonardtown wharf, $4,000 to 
be applied to new work and $2,000 to maintenance. 

It was the opinion of the Board that the expenditure of $4,000 
every four years thereafter would maintain a sufficient turning basin, 
a channel at least 100 feet wide and wider at the turn, all of a 10- foot 
depth. 

The amount expended under the present project to June 30, 1905, 
was $6,000, none of which was applied to maintenance. As a result 
of this expenditure a channel at least 100 feet wide, ,10 feet deep, and 
3,800 feet long has been dredged through the shoalest portion of the 
bar, with the turning basin of the same depth 200 feet wide and 400 
feet long. The maximum draft that could be carried on June 30, 
1905, at mean low water over the shoalest part of the locality under 
improvement was 10 feet, but the channel affording this depth was 
narrow and crooked. The mean range of tides is about 1.7 feet. 
Leonardtown, 6 miles above the mouth of the bay, is the head of 
navigation. 

It has been impracticable to obtain commercial statistics for this 
locality since 1899. The principal articles of commerce are wood, 
lumbel", coal, farm produce, grain, tobacco, and general merchandise. 
In 1899 the total tonnage was estimated as 101,605 tons, and the num- 
ber of passengei-s at about 2,000 a year. The value of the shipments 
was estimated as about $225,000 per annum. 

It is stated that the improvement has resulted in a reduction in 
freight rates, the amount of which is not known. Shipments have 
been facilitated by the work done. 

The additional work proposed is designed to improve the naviga- 
tion facilities of the present channel, and is hence for the purpose of 
extending the benefits derived from the work heretofore done. 

Maps of the locality may be found in the Annual Reports of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1887 and 1889. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 209 

For reference to reports on examinations and surveys of this 
locality see page 199 of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers 
for 1904. 

(6) Patnxent River. — Patuxent River is navigable for large river 
steamers to Bristol Landing, a distance of about 46 miles. The lower 
part of the river is a tidal estuary, with a width of 1 to 2 miles, and 
18 feet can be carried at low tide to Swansons Creek, 24 miles above 
the mouth. Originally there existed two obstructions to 9-foot navi- 
gation — Swann Point bar, 43J miles above the mouth, over which the 
ruling depth was 7.8 feet, and Bristol bar, at Bristol Landing, over 
which the ruling depth was 8 feet. 

The original project for this improvement, adopted August 11, 1888, 
provided for dredging channels 200 feet wide and 12 feet deep 
through Bristol and Swann Point bars, at an estimated cost of 
$80,000. This project was modified in 1890 so as to provide for a 
channel 120 feet wide and 12 feet deep (then already dredged) at 
Bristol bar and a channel about 100 leet wide and 9 feet deep at 
Swann Point bar. 

The sum of $10,617.30 was expended under these projects, the latter 
being completed in 1891. 

The existing project for this improvement, adopted June 13, 1902, 
contemplates the dredging of a channel through Bristol bar 100 feet 
wide and 10 feet deep, with a turning basin of the same depth, 300 
feet wide, and 4,00 feet long at the steamboat wharf, at an estimated 
cost of $10,500. 

The amount expended under the present project to June 30, 1905, 
was $3,382.70, none of which was applied to mamtenance. 

As a result of this expenditure there has been dredged at Bristol bar 
a channel 10 feet deep and 100 feet wide, and a turnmg basin 240 feet 
wide, 350 feet long, and 10 feet deep. The maximum draft that could 
be carried June 30, 1905, at mean low tide over the shoalest part of 
the locality under improvement was about 9.5 feet, and the mean 
range of tide is about 2.3 feet. Bristol Landing, 46 miles above the 
mouth, is the head of navigation for steamers, although lighters and 
smaH sailing vessels occasionally ascend the river to Hills Landing, 
about 2 miles above Bristol Landing. 

It has been impracticable to obtain accurate and definite statistics 
of the trade of this locality. The principal articles of commerce are 
com, wheat, tobacco, fruit, miscellaneous farm produce, and general 
merchandise, and the value of receipts and shipments is estimated as 
about $150,000 per annum. The annual number of passengers is about 
1,000. As far as is known the work done has not materially altered 
the freight rates, although shipments have been facilitated thereby. 

In pursuance of a resolution of the Committee on Rivers and Har- 
bors of the House of Representative's, the Board of Engineers for 
Rivers and Harboi-s has considered the project for this work and sub- 
mitted a report adverse to its continuance, which will be found on 
pages 1048 to 1050 of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers 
for 1903. No appropriation for the work was made in the river and 
harbor act of March 3, 1905. Reports for this locality will therefore 
be discontinued. 

ENO 1905 M 14 



Digitized by 



Google 



210 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF BWGINBER8, U. 8. ABMY. 

For reference to reports on examinations and surveys of this local- 
ity, see page 200 of tne Annual Keport of the Chief of Engineers for 
1904. 

Maps of the locality may be found in the Annual Reports of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1888 and 1890. 

July 1, 1004, balance unexi)ende(l <»f3,37i, 05 

Amount appropriated by rirer and harbor act approved March 3, 19Q5. »ti, 000. 00 

9,371.65 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of im- 

proveinent •3, 371. 65 



July 1, 190.5, balance unexpended >6,000. 00 



Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project f>2-i, 480. 00 

(See Appendix K 4.) 

5. York, Mattaponi, and Pamunkey rivers, and Occoquan, Nandua, 
Aquia, and Carters creeks, Virginia. — {a) York River. — Prior to im- 
provement 24 feet could be carried up York River for a distance of 
32 miles, when Potopotank bar was encountered, over which the 
ruling depth was 18.J feet. AVestpoint bar. the only other obstruc- 
tion to navigation, had a ruling depth of 15J feet. 

The project for this improvement, adopted June 14, 1880, and 
revised in 1884 and 1887, proposed dredging channels 22 feet deep 
at mean low water and 400 feet Avide through the bars, and the 
construction of a dike along the right bank at We,stpoint bar, to 
maintain the channel, at a total estimated cost of $308,800. 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, was $242,451.84, of which 
about $62,500 was applied to maintenance. This expenditure has 
resulted in a dredged channel 105 feet wide and 22 feet deep at 
Potopotank, and one 22 feet deep and 160 to 260 feet in width at 
Westpoint bar. A training dike 10,142 feet long has been constructed 
at Westpoint bar and repaired where necessary, and examinations of 
the channel made subsequent to its construction show that the channel 
dimensions obtained by dredging are now being maintained. 

The maximum draft that could be carried on June 30, 1905, at mean 
low tide over the shoalest part of the locality imder improvement 
was about 20 feet. The mean range of tid?s is about 3 feet. York 
River is navigable throughout its entire length of 41 miles to We.st- 
point at its head. 

The principal articles of commerce are farm produce, general mer- 
chandise, oysters, tobacco, fertilizer, canned goods, iron, lumber, etc., 
and a large numWr of passengers are carried to and from points on 
York River. The following table shows the tonnage of the river 
from 1888 to 1894: 



Reported for— Tons. 

1888- 2a'),480 

1889 .128.353 

1890 418,190 

1891 .304,.^38 i 



Reported for — Tons. 

1892 .'54.5,558 

1893 .'551,390 

1894 .179,808 



Repeated efforts have been made to procure commercial statistics 
for years subsequent to 1894, but without success. Statistics re- 

« For Patuxent River. » For Breton Bay. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPROVEMENTS. 



211 



ceived for 1902 and 1903 were incomplete, the tonnage of one line of 
steamers aggregating about 62,000 tons in 1902 and about 62,150 
tons during the year 1903. Much additional freight was carried by 
other steamers, sailing vessels, barges, etc. The value of the ship- 
ments is not known. 

The work done has been of much importance to commerce, and it 
is understood that freight rates have been somewhat reduced. 

The additional work proposed is for the purpose of extension of 
benefits and the preservation of work already done. • 

Maps of the locality may be found in the Annual Reports of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1886, 1887, and 1894. 

For reference to report on examination and survey of York River 
see page 201 of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 
1904. 

(b) Mattaponi River. — The Mattaponi River is navigable for small 
steamers and vessels from its mouth to Aylett, about 39 miles, and can 
be made navigable for small barges from Aylett to Monday bridge, 
16 miles. At the time of the adoption of the project the obstruc- 
tions to a 5i-foot navigation below Aylett consisted of seven bars, 
upon which the ruling depths at low tide varied from 2.4 to 3.8 feet. 
Above Aylett there were numerous bars, but no work upon them has 
been proposed. The river was also obstructed by snags, wrecks, and 
overhanging trees. 

The original project for improvement, adopted June 14, 1880, pro- 
vided for removal of snags, wrecks, and leaning trees below Monday 
bridge, and the improvement of the bars below Avlett, so as to give 
a depth of 5J feet at low tide and a channel width of 40 feet, at an 
estimated cost of $34,059. This project was extended by the terms 
of the river and harbor act of July 13, 1892, which provided for the 
removal of snags as far up as Guineas bridge, near Milford station, 
on the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad. Esti- 
mated cost of this, which is the present project, $72,100. 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, was $30,038.58, of which 
about $8,650 was applied to maintenance. This expenditure resulted 
in the removal of snags, logs, and overhanging trees from the river 
between Robinsons bar, 34 miles above me mouth, and Monday 
bridge, 21 miles above Robinsons, and in keeping the river below 
Aylett free from such obstructions ; in constructing 2.297 linear feet 
of dike at Robinsons bar, and in dredging channels of the full pro- 
jected dimensions entirely through Line Tree and nearly one-third 
of the distance through Latane bar. 

The maximum draft that could be carried at mean low water over 
the shoalest part of the channel June 30, 1905, was 2.4 feet at Walker 
bar. The mean range of tide is about 3 feet. Aylett, 39 miles above 
the mouth of the river, is the present head of navigation. 

The principal articles of commerce are farm produce, grain, and 
general merchandise, and the tonnage per year is shown as closely as 
can be ascertained by the following: 

Tons. 

1890 32,650 

1891 .52, 060 

1892 - .32, «00 

1893 as, 420 

1894 39,300 



Tons. 

1890 44,700 

1900 42.500 

1901 12,054 

1903 22.000 

1904 43,400 



Digitized by 



Google 



212 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOIITBEBS, U. S. ABMT. 

Commercial statistics for the years 1896 to 1898 could not be 
procured. 

The value of the articles shipped is not known. 

The work done has been of considerable benefit to commerce, and 
it is understood that not only have shipments been facilitated, but 
freight rates have been somewhat reduced. 

The additional work proposed is partially necessary to make the 
improvement available and partially for the purpose of extension of 
benefits. 

Maps of the locality may be found in the Annual Reports of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1887, 1888, and 1890. 

For reference to reports on examinations and surveys of this local- 
ity see page 212 of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 
1904. 

(c) Pamunkey River. — At the time of the adoption of the project 
for the improvement of Pamunkey River a draft of 7 feet could be 
carried at low tide to Buckland bar, 38J miles above its mouth. 
Between this bar and Hanovertown, a distance of 20^ miles, there 
were six bars, the ruling depths on which varied from 5J to 2 feet. 
Besides these bars the river was obstructed by wrecks, logs, snags, and 
overhanging trees. 

The original, which is also the existing, project for the improve- 
ment of this river was adopted June 14, 1880, and amended in 1885. 
Tt contemplates securing 7- foot navigation to Bassett Ferry, 47 miles 
from Westpoint; thence 5-foot navigation to Wormley Landing, 7 
miles farther ; thence 3-foot navigation to Hanovertown, 5 miles far- 
ther, the 7- foot channel to have a width of 100 feet and the other chan- 
nels a width of 40 feet. The wrecks, snags, logs, and trees obstruct- 
ing navigation between Garlick Ferry and Hanovertown were also 
to be removed. The estimated cost of this project is $32,500. 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, was $26,500, of which about 
$6,300 was applied to maintenance. This expenditure has resulted 
in removing snags and similar obstructions from about 30 miles of 
river, in keeping the river free from such obstructions, in removing 
parts of 7 wrecks, in partly improving Spring and Skidmore, bars, 
and in dredging a channel 100 feet wide ana 7 feet deep through 
Buckland bar. 

The maximum drafts that could be carried through the channels on 
June 30, 1905, at mean low tide were as follows : In the 7-foot channel, 
5.3 feet, in the 5-foot channel, 3.5 feet, and in the 3-foot channel, 2.2 
feet. The mean range of tide varies from 2 to 3.5 feet. Hanover- 
town, 59 miles above the mouth of the river, is the head of navigation. 

The principal articles of commerce are wood, lumber, grain, ties, 
coal, farm produce, and general merchandise. Commercial statistics 
have been difficult to obtain. The total tonnage is represented as 
closely a» can be ascertained by the following tabulation : 

Commercial statistics. 

Tons. 

1893 50, 420 

1R04 42, 250 

1890 44, 600 

Repeated efforts were made to secure commercial statistics subse- 
quent to 1899, but they could not be obtained. 



Digitized by 



Google 



MVEIl AND HABBOR IMPBOVEMEKTS. 218 

The value of the articles shipped is not known. 

The work done has been of benefit to coninierce, and it is understood 
that not only have shipments been facilitated but freight rates have 
been reduced. 

The additional work proposed is for the purpose of extension of 
benefits. 

Maps of the locality may be found in the Annual Reports of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1887, 1888, and 18«0. 

For Reference to the report on an examination and survey of 
Pamunkey River see page 213 of tlie Annual Report of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1904. 

(rf) Occoqnan Creek. — In 1872 navigation in Occoquan Croek was 
obstructed by three bars, designated as Ijower Mud, Upper Mud, and 
Sand bars, over which but 1.2 feet could l)e carried at low tide. Aside 
from these obstructions the creek was amply wide and deep at low 
tide for vessels drawing up to 5 feet. 

The original project for the improvement was adopted March 3, 
1873, and provided for dredging channels 100 feet wide and 5 feet 
deep through these three bars at an estimated cost of $18,000. This 
project was modified in 1879 to include a new channel through and a 
dike at the sand bar, and the dredging of a channel of the above 
dimensions through Occoquan bar increasing the estimated cost of 
the improvement to $2.5,000. Four appropriations were made from 
1873 to 1878, aggregating $25,000, and in 1880 the improvement was 
regarded as completed. 

The existing project for this improvement was adopted September 
19, 1890, and contemplates the dredging of channels 6 feet deep and 
100 feet wide through the four bars, except the lower 2,000 feet of the 
Lower Mud bar, where the width is to be 150 feet, and the construc- 
tion of dikes at Upper Mud, Sand, and Occoquan bars to maintain 
the depth obtained by dredging. The estimated cost of this project 
is $45,000. 

The amount expended under the existing project to June 30, 1905, 
was $27,299.41, of which about $12,500 was applied to maintenance. 
As a result of this expenditure, channels of the full projected dimen- 
sions have been dredged through the four bars and redredged where 
shoaling occurred, and 1,614 linear feet of dike has been constructed 
at Occoquan bar and Sand bar, and repaired where injured by fresh- 
ets and ice. The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1905, 
at mean low water over the shoalest part of the locality under im- 
provement was about 5^ feet. The ruling depth on the bar in Occo- 
quan Bay is, however, but about 5 feet. Although the improvement 
of this bar is not contemplated by the present project, it prevents the 
full advantages of the improvement from being obtained, and an 
increase of depth over it is regarded as desirable. The mean range 
of tide is about 2 feet. The town of Occoquan, 6 miles above the 
mouth, is the head of navigation of this stream. 

The principal articles of commerce are stone, sand (for building), 
railroad ties, piles, wood, coal, fertilizers, flour, grain, and miscella- 
neous articles, and the tonnage per year is shown as closely as can be 
ascertained by the following: 



Digitized by 



Google 



214 BBPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGIWEEES, O. 8, ARMT. 



Commercial statistics. 



Tons. 

1891 8.205 

1882 56, 705 

1894 8,900 

1895 10, 475 

1896 41, 670 

1897 15. 835 

1898 29, 865 



Tons. 

1900 69,400 

1!)01 20,220 

1902 13,049 

liK« 16, 245 

1904 25,880 



Totiil for twelve years _«. 316, 449 



Of the total tonnage, 109,G00 tons was sand. 

The value of the articles shipped is not known. 

The work done has been of great benefit to navigation in this creek, 
and it is understood that not only have shipments been facilitated 
but freight rates have been materiallv reduced. 

The additional work proposed is for the purpose of extending in 
point of time the benefits derived from the work heretofore done. 

For reference to reports on examinations and surveys of this local- 
ity see pages 202 and 203 of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engi- 
neers for 1904. 

(c) Nandxia Creek. — Before improvement the entrance channel to 
this creek was indirect, narrow, and sinuous, and could be navigated 
only at mean low water by veiisels of 5 feet draft. Within the mouth 
the channel was sufficient for all commercial needs. 

The original project, which is also the existing project, was adopted 
May 11, 1899, and provides for dredging a channel 100 feet wide and 
8 feet deep at low tide through the bar at the mouth of the creek, at 
an e.stimated cost of $0,000. 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, was $6,108.94, none of 
which was applied to maintenance. As a result of this expenditure 
a channel 1,200 feet long, 75 feet wide, and 8 feet deep at low tide 
has been dredged through the bar at the mouth of tlie creek. This 
cut afforded a temporary relief to naviffation, but subsequent exam- 
ination shows that the channel has shifted l)odily to the southward 
and that the dredged cut has shoaled. The maximum draft that 
could be carried June 30, 1905, at mean low tide over the shoalest 
part of the locality under improvement was about fi fwt. The mean 
range of tides is about 1.9 feet. Nandua wharf, alx)ut 4 miles above 
the mouth of the creek, is practically the head of navigation. 

The principal article^s of commerce are farm produce, fish, oysters, 
and general merchandise, and the tonnage per year is shown as closely 
as can be ascertained by the following 

Commercial statistics. 



Tonnage for — Tons. 

1898 a.-KW 

1900 1,167 



TonnaRe for — Tons. 

1903 5,068 

1904 5,119 



The value of the articles shipped is not known. So far as is known 
freight rates have not been affected by the improvement. 

The sum contemplated by the approved project has been expended 
at this locality, and no appropriation for the continuance of this work 
was made by act of Con^^ess of March 3, 1905. Furthermore, Nan- 
dua Creek is regarded as unworthy of further improvement by the 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEE AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 215 

General Government. Hence no additional appropriation is asked, 
no further work is proposed, and reports for this locality will be dis- 
continued. 

For reference to examination and survey reports upon this stream, 
see page 204 of the Annual Report of the Ohief of Epgineers for lOOi. 
A map of the locality is printed in the Annual Report for 1895. 

(/) Aquia Creek. — From Wharton Landing, t^ miles above its 
mouth, to the Narrows, 4^ miles above its mouth, Aquia Creek has a 
well-defined channel 60 to 200 feet wide, in which the depth orig- 
inally ranged from 2 to 17 feet. Below the Narrows the stream sud- 
denly expands into a bay 1,000 to 6,000 feet wide, resulting in a con- 
tinuous shoal on which the depth originally ranged from 2 to 4 feet, 
increasing to 7 feet near the mouth. 

The original project was adopted June 10, 1872, and provided for 
dredging a channel 40 feet wide and 6 feet deep at low tide up to 
Wharton Landing, at an estimated cost of $10,500. 

From June 10, 1872, to June 18, 1878, $10,500 was appropriated for 
this improvement, and by the close of 1878 this sum had been ex- 
{)ended. A channel 40 to 50 feet wide and 4 to 5 feet deep at low 
tide was obtained by this expenditure. 

A new project was adopted for this improvement September 19, 
1890, which contemplated dcedging a channel 150 feet wide and 8 
feet deep between the mouth and the Narrows, and a channel 80 feet 
wide and 8 feet deep through the bar at the mouth of Austen Creek, 
at an estimated cost of $101,278. This project was modified Decem- 
ber 4, 1890, to provide for a channel 80 feet wide and 6 feet deep 
between the mouth and the Narrows, at an estimated cost of ^0,000, 
which wa.s later reduced to $21,000. This is the existing project for 
the improvement of Aquia Creek. 

The amount expended under the present project to June 30, 1905, 
was $30,564.84, none of which was applied to maintenance. As a 
result of this expenditure the channel was completed to the full pro- 
jected dimensions during the season of 1897, and the locality was 
dropped from the list of improvements. The river and harbor act 
of Jime 13, 1902, included Aquia Creek in a consolidated appropria- 
tion with other works, and an examination of the channel was made 
in November, 1904, which showed that the channel still afforded prac- 
tically the full projected dimensions. The maximum draft that could 
be carried Jime 30, 1905, at mean low tide over the shoalest part of 
the locality under improvement was about 6 feet. The mean range of 
tides is about 1.4 feet. \Miarton Landing, 7^ miles above the mouth 
of the creek, is the head of navigation. 

The trade of Aquia Creek is chiefly in wood, railroad ties, lumber, 
tobacco, and farm produce, and amounts to about 18,000 to 20,000 tons 
annually. The value of the shipments is not known. The improve- 
ment has been of material benefit to shippers, and freight rates are 
understood to have been somewhat reduced and shipments have been 
facilitated. 



Digitized by 



Google 



216 BEPOBT OV THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, tJ, 8. ABMY. 

The work contemplated by the existing i)roject has been completed. 
Hence no additional appropriation is requested, no further work is 
proposed, and reports for this locality will be discontinued. 

For reference to examination and survey reports upon this stream, 
see page 205 of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1904. 

(g)Carter8 Creek. — Before improvement the entrance to Carters 
Creek was obstructed by a bar over which but 10} feet could be car- 
ried at low tide, and navigation was difficult near Gallyhook Point 
within the creek, owing to the projection of this point into the chan- 
nel, which was about 12 feet deep at low tide. 

The original, which is also the existing, project for this improve- 
ment was adopted June 13, 1902, and provides for dredging a channel 
at the mouth to afford a navigable depth at low tide of 15 feet, with 
a width of 200 feet, including necessary dredging at Crab Point, and 
the construction of a jetty for the protection of this channel, together 
with the dredging oi a channel 12 feet deep and 100 feet wide at 
Gallyhook Point, at an estimated cost of $35,700. 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, was $7,298.93, none of 
which was applied to maintenance. 

As a result of this exjienditure a channel 140 feet wide and 15 feet 
deep has been dredged through the bar at the mouth of the creek, 
and for a length of (iOO feet this channel- has been made 170 feet wide. 
Harbor lines have Ixjen established. 

The maximum draft that could be carried on June 30, 1905, at mean 
low tide over the shoalest part of the outer bar was 15 feet, and at 
Gallyhook Point was 12 feet, but the channel affording this depth was 
tortuous. Irvington, about 1^ miles above the mouth of the creek, is 
the head of navigation for large steamers, while small sailing vessels 
drawing up to 5 feet ascend about 1 mile farther. 

The principal freight shipments consist of oysters, fish, fish guano, 
fish oil, crabs, lumber, wood, farm produce, flour, and general mer- 
chandise. There is a good passenger trade in Cart^^rs Creek, which is 
also an important harbor of refuge. The total tonnage, as furnished 
by residents of the locality, is shown in the following tabulation : 

Commercial statistics. 

Tons. 

1903 503.050 

1904 357,150 

These statistics are not regarded as entirely correct. The value of 
the articles shipped is not known. 

The work done has been of considerable benefit to commerce, but as 
far as is known it has had no effect upon freight rates. 

The additional work proposed is for the purpose of extension of 
benefits and for the preservation of work already done. 

For reference to the report upon an examination and survey of 
Carters Creek, see page 206 of the Annual Report of the Chief of 
Engineers for 1904. 



Digitized by 



Google 



RIVEB AND HABBOE IMPROVEMENTS. 



217 



July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $16,942.59 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 
1905 o 28, 000. 00 



June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year: 

For works of improvement $7, 291. (52 

For maintenance of improvement I, 579. 98 



44, 942. 59 



July 1, 1905, balance unexpended... 
July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities. 

July 1, 1905, balance available 



8, 871. 60 

36, 070. 99 
750.00 

35, 320. 99 



Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project— » 131, 928. 17 
(See Appendix K 5.) 

6. Nomini Creek, Virginia. — Before improvement, Nomini Creek 
navigation was obstructed by a bar at its mouth over which but 3 
feet could be carried at low tide. Except for this bar a draft of 8 
feet could be carried to Nomini Ferry, 4 miles above the mouth, and 5 
feet could be carried 2 miles farther to the head of navigation. 

The project for this improvement, adopted May 3, 1873, and modi- 
fied in 1879, 1888, 1890, and 1897, provides for a channel through the 
bar 150 feet wide and 10 feet deep, with jetties at the mouth, and spur 
dikes inside White Point to check cross currents. The finally revised 
estimate of cost is $105,000. 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, was $69,763.87, of which 
about $17,500 was applied to maintenance. 

As a result of this expenditure the channel has been dredged to a 
depth of 9 feet at low tide by a width of 140 to 150 feet and redredged, 
and 872 linear feet of the east jetty has been con.structed at a height 
of 4 feet above low tide. 

The maximum draft that could be carried on June 30, 1905, at 
mean low tide over the shoalest part of the locality under improve- 
ment was 9 feet. The mean range of tide is 1.8 feet. 

The principal articles of commerce are farm produce, grain, flour, 
lumber, oysters, railroad ties, general merchandise, and wood. The 
total tonnage is represented as closely as can be ascertained by the 
following : 

Commercial statistics. 



Tons. 

1889 13. 542 

1890 — 1.5. 825 

1891 62,300 

1892 21,010 

1893 17, .V)8 

1894 18, 110 

1895 15. 248 



Tons. 

1890 7, 425 

18Jt7 7, 370 

1898 9,640 

1901 22,400 

1002 21. 350 

liHKi 19, 270 

19<« 9, 110 



«Of this appropriation, and subsequent to the close of the fiscal year. $.3,111.91 
was allotted for ¥ork River, $5,071.44 for Occoquaii River, $5,500 for Mattaponl 
River, $3,400 for Pamunkey River, and $9,ll(i.fi5 for Carters Creek. Virginia, 
and these sums are available for Improvement during the ensuing year ; $900 was 
allotted for surveys for the several streams, of which sum $148.20 was expended 
during the fiscal year and $303.42 was outstanding, leaving $.S88..38 available 
for surveys. 

> This item has been reduced $84.18, the amount transferred to improvement of 
Carters Creek from Nandua and Aquia creeks. 



Digitized by 



Google 



218 REPORT OP THE OHIEP OV ENGINEERS, tT. S. ARMY. 

The value of the articles shipped is not known. 

The work done has been of substantial benefit to navigation, and it 
is understood that freight rates have been considerably reduced and 
shipments much facilitated. 

The additional work proposed is for the purpose of extension of 
benefits and for the preservation of the work already done. 

A map of the locality may be found in the Annual Report of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1889. 

For reference to a report on an examination and survey of Nomini 
Creek see page 207 of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers 
for 1904. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended |2, 733. 75 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 4, 000. 00 

0, 733. 75 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance 
of improvement 2,497.02 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 4,236.13 

July 1, lOa"!, outstanding liabilities 9.05 

July 1, 1905, balance available 4,227.08 

July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 227. 08 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 31,000.00 

(See Appendix K 6.) 

7. Rappahannock River, Virginia. — ^The lower portion of Rappa- 
hannock River is generally a wide and deep body of water, having 
the characteristics of a tidal estuary rather than of a fluvial stream. 

The obstructions to navigation before improvement was undertaken 
were nine bars between Tappahannock and Fredericksburg, over 
which the ruling depths were from 4 to 10^ feet. Seven of the bars 
were in the 12| miles of river below Fredericksburg. Of these bars, 
Fredericksburg bar, with a least depth of 4 feet, and Spottswood bar, 
4 miles below Fredericksburg, with a least depth of 6 feet, causetl 
the most delay to steamboats and vessels. 

The original project for the improvement of this river was adopted 
March 3, 1871, and contemplates securing a channel 100 feet wide 
and 10 feet deep by dredgnig, and the construction of dikes from 
Fredericksburg to Tappahannock, the wrecks obstructing the channel 
to be removed. The first estimate of the cost of this improvement 
was $83,760. In 1879 the project was amended so as to provide for 
dredging a channel 100 feet wide and 10 feet deep through the bars 
between Fredericksburg and Port Royal, and one 200 feet wide and 
15 feet deep between Port Royal and Tappahannock, the depth 
obtained by dredging to be maintained by a system of wing dams 
and training dikes, the latter being also designed to secure the 
excavated material deposited behind them. The total estimated 
cost of this, which is the existing, project is $381,500. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, authorized a survey of 
the river to be made at and below Fredericksburg, with a view to 
determining whether any change should be made in the existing 
plans for improvement and authorized the e.xpenditure of the funds 
appropriated upon a modified project, if deemed advisable, provided 
the total cost should not exceed the amount estimated for the comple- 
tion of the existing project. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB and HA&BOfi IMPROVBMEKTS. 



219 



The amount expended to June 30, 1905, was $305,728.86, of which 
about $113,500 was applied to maintenance. 

This expenditure has resulted in the partial improvement of the 
seven bars between Fredericksburg and Port Royal by means of 
dredging and rock excavation, construction of dikes, and removal of 
wrecks which obstructed navigation. 

The maximum draft that could be carried June 30, 1904, at mean 
low tide over the shoalest part of the locality under improvement 
was about 9 feet. The mean range of tide is about 3 feet. Freder- 
icksburg, 106 miles above the mouth, is the head of navigation. 

The principal articles of commerce are ties, grain, oysters, farm 
produce, wood, fertilizer, lumber, flour, canned goods, and general 
merchandise. The total tonnage is represented, as closely as can be 
ascertained, by the following: 

Commercial statisUcs. 



Tone. 

1888 83,600 

1890 83,830 

1892 «126, 333 

1893 «141, 750 

1894 •144, 070 

1895 «151, 466 

ISJm 0161, 196 

1807 "158, 108 



Tons. 

law 0166,586 

189!) <>167. 862 

1900 0190,827 

1901 021.3,408 

1902 o244,3«5 

19(e «268,803 

1904 »395,202 



The value of the articles shipped is not known. 

The work done has been of benefit to commerce, and it is under- 
stood that freight ratvis have been reduced. 

The additional work proposed is for the purpose of extension of 
benefits and maintenance of the work already done. 

At Fredericksburg bar new deposits of sand are formed by each 
recurring freshet, and the annual reports for a number of years past 
have referred to the necessity of an annual appropriation of $7,500 
for removal of such deposits irom this bar alone. 

Maps of this locality may be found in the Annual Reports of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1880, 1881, 1883, 1886, 1887, 1888, and 1890. 

For reference to the report on an examination and survey of Rap- 
pahannock River, see page 208 of the Annual Report of the Chief of 
Engineers for 1904. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $36,735.41 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905- 40, 000. 00 



June 30, 1906, amount expended during fiscal year : 

For works of Improvement .- |1, 500. 00 

For maintenance of Improvement 23,464.27 



76, 735. 41 



24, 964. 27 



July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 51,771. 14 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 550.00 



July 1, 1905, balance available 51, 221. 14 



July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 15, 737. 00 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 49,000.00 

(See Appendix K 7.) 

o Furnished by Mr. William D. Scott, Frederidcsburg, Va. 
i> Furnished by the city council and Business Men's Association of Fredericks- 
burg, Va. • 



Digitized by 



Google 



220 BEPOft* 6F tHl! CfilEP off fiKGHitEfiftS, tT. S. ARltt. 

8. Urbana Creek, Virginia. — Before the improvement of IJrbana 
Creek a bar existed outside the mouth, oven which but CJ feet could 
be carried at low tide, and there was a shoal within the creek with a 
ruling depth of 7 feet. 

The project for this improvement, adopted March 3, 1879, and 
modified in 1883, 1888, and 1897, provides for dredging a channel 
150 feet wide and 10 feet deep through the outer and inner bars, with 
n turning basin of the same depth at the head, for a series of spur 
dikes at Baileys Point, and for a stone jetty to protect the cut through 
the outer bar. The final revised estimate of cost is $70,000. 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, was $33,598.49, of which 
about $10,500 was applied to maintenance. 

As a result of this expenditure there has been dredged a channel 
10 feet deep and 150 feet wide through the outer bar,- a channel 10 
feet deep and 135 feet wide through the inner bar, and a small turn- 
ing basin 10 feet deep at the steamboat wharf. These channels have 
been redredged where shoaling occurred. 

Harbor lines have been estaolished. 

The ina.ximum draft that could be carried on June 30, 1905, at mean 
low tide over the shoale.st part of the locality under improvement 
was about 8.5 feet. The mean range of tide is 1.5 feet. The town 
of Urbana, at the mouth of the creek, is the head of navigation for 
steamers and large vessels, while small vessels ascend the stream for a 
distance of 3 or 4 miles. 

The principal articles of commerce are oysters, railroad ties, coal, 
lumber, wood, farm produce, guano, ice, excelsior, and general mer- 
chandise. The total tonnage, as furnished by residents of Urbana, 
is shown in the following tabulation : 



Commercial statistics 








Oftlendar year. 


Reported 

by Mr. P. 

A.Bri8- 

tow. 


Reported 
by Mr. J. 
D. Qres- 

Bltt. 


Reported 
byifr.W. 
Key How- 
ard. 

Tout. 


Reported 
by fir. W. 
H. Ryland. 


1891 


Tons. 

19,600 

20,085 

65,885 

82,396 

66,530 

187,485 

153,875 

178.543 

648,250 

547,650 

646,700 

1,052,400 


Ton*. 
22.100 
17,125 
61,280 
88,:W6 
82,320 

183,926 


Ton*. 


1882 


1 


1893 




1894 






1896 






1886 






1887 


181,. 500 
178,414 
484,200 
538,100 
740.2WI 
1,086,625 







1900 






1901 






1902 






19lt) 


745,600 




1904 


1,130.800 









Commercial statistics received for 1898 and 1899 were not in a form 
to be used. 

These statistics are not regarded as entirely correct. The value 
of the articles shipi)ed is not known. 

The work done has been of benefit to commerce, and it is under- 
stood that freight rate-s have been reduced. 

Further work on this project is interefered with by the existence 
of an unlawful structure, or dock, built bv a private corporation in 
violation of the provisions of the act of March 3, 1899, in open con- 
tempt of an explicit mandate of the Secretary of War iforbidding its 
construction beyond a certain line. , 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENXS. 221 

This dock projects bodily into the area to be occupied by the pro- 
posed dredged channel, and its presence prevents further prosecution 
of the dredging along the lines authorized by Congress. 

A criminal proceeding bi-ought against the company resulted in an 
acquittal in the United States district court for the eastern district 
of Virginia. A civil proceeding was then instituted for a circuit 
court injunction to compel the removal of the structure. Until the 
proceeding is concluded no intelligent recommendation for the further 
prosecution of this work can be made. 

For reference to the reports on examinations and surveys of Urbana 
Creek see page 210 jof the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers 
for 1904. 

Amount appropriatetl by river imd burbor act apiiroved March 3, 1905. |10, 000. 00 
June 30, 1?)05, amount expeudwl during flsoal year, for works of Im- 
provement 98. 40 



July 1, 1005, balance unexpended 0,901.51 



Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 26, 500. 00 

(See Appendix K 8.) 

9. Harbor at Milford Haoen, Virginia. — Milford Haven is a tidal 
estuarjr about 4 miles long and from one-half to 1 mile wide. The 
depth in the channel ranges from 6^ to 15 feet, and in the portion 
navigated by steamers it is generally 9 feet or more. The haven has 
two entrances, one at the northwest end from Hills Bay, an arm of 
Piankatank River, and another at the southeast end, from Chesa- 
peake Ba^. Both entrances are obstructed by bars. The southeast 
entrance is exposed, and as the bar has a ruling depth of but 3 feet it 
is seldom used. The bar which obstructed trie northwest entrance 
had, before improvement, a ruling depth of 8 feet. A bar also existed 
within the haven between Cricket Hill and Callis wharves, with a 
ruling depth of about 8 feet. 

The original, which is also the present, project for this improve- 
ment was adopted March 3, 1899, and provides for dredging a chan- 
nel 10 feet deep, with a minimum widtn of 200 feet, through the bar 
at the northwest entrance, at an estimated cost of $12,500. The 
dredging of a similar channel through the inner bar was added to the 
project June 13, 1902, the total estimated cost being increased to 
$17,600. 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, was $15,506.50, none of 
which was applied to maintenance. 

As a result of this expenditure channels of the full projected di- 
mensions have been dredged through both bars, which work has been 
of considerable benefit to navigation. The maximum draft that 
could be carried June 30, 1905, at mean low tide over the shoalest 
part of the locality under improvement was 10 feet. The mean range 
of tide is about 1.3 feet. The haven is navigable throughout its 
entire length by vessels drawing 6 feet, and Fitchett's wharf, about 3 
miles above the northwest entrance, is the highest point reached by 
the large steamers. 

The principal articles of commerce are oysters, farm produce, fish, 



Digitized by 



Google 



222 BBPOET OF THE CHIEF OF ENOINEEBS, U. S. ABHT. 

flour, and general merchandise, and the tonnage per year is shown as 
closely as can be ascertained by the following: 

Commercial alatisttcs. 



Tong. 



1903 . 17, 892 

1904 18,071 



Tons. 

1900 16, 031 

1901 16,856 

1902 18,553 

The value of the articles shipped is not known. 

As far as is known freight rates have not been materially affected 
by the improvement, although shipments have be'fen facilitated. 

The work contemplated in the project being completed, no further 
appropriation is asked. 

For reference to reports on examinations and surveys of this lo- 
cality see page 211 of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers 
for 1904. 

July 1. 1901. balance unexpended ^814.75 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of im- 
provement . 3,788.28 



July 1, 1905. balance unexiiended 5,026.47 

(See Appendix K 9.) 

10. James liiner, Virginia. — Before improvement, the ruling depth 
of James River from the mouth to City Point, 68 miles, was 15 feet at 
mean low water, and to Trents reach, 18^ miles farther, 13 feet. 
This depth was accompanied by adequate width and other conditions 
of good navigation. 

From Trents reach to Richmond, 17^ miles, the channel was nar- 
row and tortuous in places, with a limiting depth of 7 feet at mean 
low water, and ol)structed by wrecks, trees, and other obstacles 
placed in the river during military operations. 

The original project, adopted in 1870, provided for obtaining a 
depth of 18 feet at full tide and the sum of $735,000 was appropriated 
and expended on the work. 

The existing project was adopted by the river and harbor act of 
July 5, 1884, ana contemplates the formation by means of regulation 
works and excavation of a channel 22 feet deep at mean low water, 
400 feet wide, from the mouth of the river to City Point ; thence 300 
feet wide to Drewry Bluff, and thence 200 feet wide to the lower city 
limits of Richmond, at an estimated cost of $4,500,000. The river 
and harbor act of June 13, 1902, authorized the extension of the 
improvement to the head of navigation at the docks, at an estimated 
cost of $724,943.15 ; and the project was further extended by the act 
of March 3, 1905, to include the excavation of a turning basin at 
Richmond 22 feet deep by increasing the width of the improved 
channel to 400 feet for a distance of 600 feet, at a cost not to exceed 
$150,000, making the total estimate $5,374,943.15. 

There had been e.vpended on the present project up to June 30, 
1905, $1,354,151.16, of which $5,000 was applied to mamtenance. 

As a result of the.se *expenditiire,s artificial obstructions have been 
removed, the regiilating works have been completed, and the channel 
excavated to depths of 18 feet at mean low water from the mouth to 
Goode's rocks, 1^ miles below the city line of Richmond, thence to 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPB0VEMENX8. 223 

the citj' line, 16 feet, and above the citjr line, 12 feet. This channel 
lias, with few exceptions, a navigable width of 100 feet or more. 

The range of tides is 2i feet at Fort Monroe, 2 feet at Jamestown, 
3 feet at City Point, 3i reet at Dutch Gap, and 4 feet at Richmond. 
The usual range of freshet heights is about 10 to 15 feet at Richmond, 
though occasional floods reach a much greater height. 

The head of navigation is at Richmond, 104 miles above the mouth. 
This entire navigable portion of the stream is included in the project. 

The improvement has been of benefit to commerce. River freights 
to James Kiver points have been constantly lowering the rail rates. 

Work during the fiscal year was done under contract. 

At the beginning of the year 35 per cent of the contract, as shown 
by the contractor^ estimates, was done. At the close of the fiscal 
year 73 per cent was done. 

The time limit on the contract was April 4, 1905. On August 12, 
1903, this time limit was waived, and on April 3 the charges for in- 
spection were remitted for a period of six months. 

The commerce affected by the improvement, as reported for the cal- 
•endar year 1904, aggregated 273,609 tons at Richmond and 250,437 
tons at other points. There were 1,854 and 1,660 (estimated) arrivals 
and departures, respectively, of vessels — steam, sail, and barge, the 
larger number being of steam vessels drawing 5 to 16 feet. 

These figures indicate a decrease in tonnage for the preceding year 
of 25 per cent for river points outside of Richmond, due mainly to the 
item of lumber. 

The principal articles of commerce are brick, asphalt blocks, coal, 
cement, lime, cord wood, fertilizers, fish, oysters, grain, lumber, oil, 
and miscellaneous package freight. 

It is proposed to apply the available funds toward widening and 
deepening the channel mainly above the city line of Richmond and at 
Dutch Gap Cut-off, and toward the development of the turning basin 
as required by law. 

For more extended information reference mav be made to Annual 
Reports of the Chief of Engineers for 1871, pages 603 to 605 ; of 1882, 
pages 870 to 887, and of 1900, pages 1757 to 1760. 

Maps of James River will be found in the Annual Reports of the 

Chiefof Engineers for 1871, 1900, and 1904. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended •— 1243,879.58 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 

1905 200,000.00 

443, 870. 58 
.Tune 30. 1906, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of 

Improvement ^^^< f^^O. 74 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended - 3.33,348.84 

July 1, 1906, outstanding liabilities 1,24.5.00 

July 1, 1906, balance available 3.32, 103. 84 

July 1, 1905, amount covered by imcompleted contracts, 85, 11.3. 00 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project— 3,602,443.15 

(See Appendix K 10.) 

11. Protection of Jamestown Island, Virginia. — The original project 
of October, 1894, was for the protection of something more than half 
» jnile of thd bank of the island by a revetment of stone laid on a 



Digitized by 



Google 



224 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEEBS, U. 8. ARKT. 

graded bank. At the lower end three pile jetties were built. Thj 
work was completed in 1895 at a cost of $10,000. 

The protection was not a succes.s. 

The existing project, adopted in September, 1896, amended in 1897 
and extended m 1900, provides for the protection of the same stretcl 
of shore by a revetment of a more substantial type; the remaining ol< 
work to be removed and its materials incorporated into the new, sc 
far as possible. It consists of a paving of concrete slabs, 8 inches 
(hick, laid on a prepared slope, protected at the foot by a buttress oi 
sheet piling, and at the top, where necessary, by a backing of rubble 
and clay. 

Thirteen hundred feet of such work was completed in 1901 under an 
appropriation made in 1900.. The remainder of the eroding bank will 
be covered by work done under the appropriation of $15,000 in sundry 
civil act of April 28, 1904. 

Work during the fiscal year was done under contract, and the pro- 
tection of an additional 1,125 feet was about 75 per cent completed, 
material fabricated but not placed and paid for, included. 

It is proposed to continue the work under the contract until funds 
are exhausted. 

The protection of this island can not be said to be necessary to the 
improvement or conservation of the navigation of the James River. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended |15,2C1. 92 

June no, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of Im- 
provement 3,546.27 

July 1, 1905, balance unexi)ended 11,715.65 

July 1. 1905, outstanding liabilities ISJ. 17 

July 1, 1905, balance available 11,580.48 

July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 10, 503. 00 

(See Appendix K 11.) 

12. Removing mmken venseln or craft obstructing or endangering 
nacigation. — («) Sunken raft in Potomac Rircr near Swann Point. 
Maryland. — This raft was reported as an obstruction to navigation on 
August 26, 1904. 

An allotment of $50 was made August 30, 1904, for an examinatioii 
of the raft, which was made on September 6 and 7. On September 
16 a further allotment of $600 was made for the removal of tlie 
obstruction. 

The removal of the wreck was delayed through the action of the 
owner of a derrick boat, which it was proiwsed to use on this work. 

On November 17, 1904, it was found that the piles had become 
water-logged and had sunk to the bottom of the river, where they no 
longer obstructed navigation. 

The total expenditure in connection with this wreck was $97.33. 

{!)) yS^reck of xcoic in Potomac Hirer at Washington, D. C. — This 
wreck was reported as an obstruction to navigation on September 9, 
1904, and an examination of the wreck was at once made. 

An allotment of $300 was made Septeml)er 16, 1904, for its removal. 

In NoA'ember, 1904, the wreck was raised and entirely removed from 
the river and conveyed to Easbys Point. 

The scow was repaired and is in use in connection with the Potomac 
Biver improvement, and the other articles recovered from the wreck 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMBNTS. _ 225 

were sold and the proceeds, amounting to $43.14, were deposited in 
the Treasury. 

The total expenditure in connection with this work was $300. 

(See Appendix K 12.) 

IMPROVEMENT OF NORFOLK II.4lRBOR, VIRGINIA. AND ITS AP- 
PROACHES, AND OF CERTAIN WATERWAYS AND HARBORS IN 
SOUTHEASTERN VIRGINIA AND NORTHEASTERN NORTH CAROLINA. 

This district was in the charge of Capt E. Eveleth Winslow, Corjis 
of Engineers. Division engineer. Col. \Y. A. Jones, Corps of Engi- 
neers, to June 26, 1905, and Lieut. Col. James B. Quinn, Corps of 
Engineers, since that date. 

1. Harbor at Norfolk and its approaches, Virfjinia. — (a) General 
improvement. — The channel of this liarbor was originally navigable 
at mean low water by vessels of 20 feet draft as fair as the navy-yard, 
on the Southern Branch of the Elizabeth River, while in the Eastern 
Branch of this river there was a chamiel 15 feet in depth at mean 
low water to the Campostella bridge. The normal range of tide is 
2.7 feet. 

A project of improvement was adopted in 1878, revised in 1886, 
and amended in 1890, 1898, and 1905. It included the attainment of 
a channel 25 feet deep at mean low water from Hampton Roads to 
the navy-yard, a branch channel 22 feet deep at the same stage of 
the tide to the Campostella bridge on the Eastern Branch, and, within 
the limits df the first-named channel, a channel 450 feet wide and 28 
feet deep at mean low water from deep water, in Hampton Roads, to 
the navy-yard. Above Fort Norfolk the excavation of the 25-foot 
channel was to be carried to within 75 feet of the pierhead line on 
both sides of the river, while below that point the contemplated width 
varied from 500 to 700 feet. There has also been included in the 
project the excavation of an area of 56 acres to a depth of 25 feet 
at mean low water for an anchorage at the mouth of the Western 
Branch, and the dredging to the depth of 28 feet at mean low water 
of the area between the western edge of the main channel and a line 
76 feet outside of the established pierhead line along the railroad 
docks at Pinner Point. The cost of all this work was estimated at 
$1,421,290.98. 

In addition to the above work $20,000 of the appropriation for the 
harbor and $30,000 of emergency funds have been authorized to be 
expended in the maintenance of the channel near Sewall Point. 

To June 30, 1905, $1,343,465.87 has been expended for work of 
improvement and $26,281.84 additional has been applied to main- 
tenance. All of the projected work has been completed with the 
exception of a part of the dredging in the Eastern Branch, at Berkley 
flats, and in the section between the Norfolk and Western and 
Campostella bridges, and the area in front of the railroad docks at 
Pinner Point. 

On June 30, 1905, the main channel of the harbor is available for 
vessels of 28 feet draft as far as the navy-yard, which is located about 
10 miles from deep water in Hampton Roads. The Eastern Branch 
channel is available for vessels drawing 22 feet as far as the Norfolk 
and Western Railroad bridge, a distance of 1 mile, and for vessels 



ENO 1905 u 15 



Digitized by 



Google 



226 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OV ENGINKEES, U. 8. ARMY. 

of 15 feet draft as far as the Campostella bridge, about 2,800 feet 
farther. 

The commerce is general and extensive and is increasing rapidly. 
In the calendar year 1904 it amounted to over 10,000,000 tons, valued 
at about $800,000,000. 

It is expected to expend the funds now available and the amount 
still .to he provided in the maintenance of the exi :ing channels and 
for the completion of the project in the following order: Dredging 
near Pinner Point, in the Eastern Branch, and at Berkley flats. The 
completion of all this wok is considered important. 

The recent increase in the commerce of the port has shown the 
necessity for the improvement of its navigability. 

July 1, 1004, balance uuexi)en(led $21,050.55 

Aniouut appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 40, 000. 00 

Amoiint received fi"oui sales of property 1.61 

Amount allotted from appropriation for maintenance of river and 
harbor Improvements, act of April 28. ISKM 30,000. 00 

91, 052. 10 
June 30, 1905, amount exi)ende<I during fiscal year, for maintenance 
of Improvement <»26, 281. 84 

July 1, im5, balance unexpended 64,770.32 

July 1, 1905, outstaudinK liabilities 2,670.92 

July 1, 190.5, balance available 62,099.40 

July 1. 1005, amount t-overed by uncompleted contracts ,'. 21,029.33 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 33,828.97 

(i) Hospital Point. — The land of this point is the property of the 
United States and is a part of the grounds used by the Navy Depart- 
ment as a site for a hospital. Just off from the wharf on the point 
is the deep-water channel of Norfolk Harbor. 

The project for this work, adopted in 1902, requires the cutting off 
of 450 feet of the point, the construction of a sea wall and wharf, 
and the dredging of the area on both sides of the old point. The 
depth to he secured in the dredging is to be the same as that of the 
harbor — 25 feet at mean low water. The estimated cost of the work 
is $193,957, all of which has been appropriated. 

On June .30, 1905. the expenditures had amounted to $122,955.21, 
resulting in the dredging of an area of 41 acres to a depth of from 
20 to 25 feet at mean low water and the construction of the new 
sea wall. 

Statements in the previous section of this report regarding the 
character and volume of the commerce affected by the improvement 
apply equally well to this section. The tidal range and state of 
navigability of the harbor are also the same. 

On pages 1355 to 13f)4, Annual Report for 1897, full details of 
the scope of the project for this improvement will be found with 
maps explanatory tliereof. 

The unexpended funds will probably suffice to accomplish all the 
work covered by the project. 

o Kx|)en(le<I from regular appropriation for maintenance In current fiscal year, 
$17,054.41. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPB0VBMENT8. 227 

July 1, 19(M, balance unexiiencied $174,391.43 

June 30, 1005, amount expemle<l during fiscal year, for works of 
Improvement 103, 389. 64 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 71,001.79 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 5,050.26 

July 1, 1905, balance available 65,951.53 

July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 63, 662. 44 

(See Appendix L 1.) 

2. Western Branch of Elizabeth River, Virginia. — The channel of 
the river, when the project for improvement was adopted, was 12 feet 
deep at mean low water and 50 to 300 feet wide. 

The project adopted in 185)6 provided for obtaining, by dredging, 
a channel 200 feet wide and 20 feet deep at mean low water from 
deep water in Norfolk Harbor for a distance of about 1 mile, at an 
estimated cost of $45,000. 

Up to June 30, 1905, the sum of $44,666.73 has l)een expended on 
this improvement, the result being the completion of the project. 

A draft of 20 feet at mean low water can now be carried in the 
improved channel. The average rise and fall of the tide is 2.7 feet. 

The commerce in the main consists of manufactured lumlwr and 
farm products, and had increased from 211,653 tons in 1896 to 
1,383,105 tons in 1901. It was reported for the calendar year 1903 at 
1,225,709 tons, and for 1904 at 1,173,439 tons, valued at $11,615,185. 

At high tide the river is navigable for a distance of about 9 miles 
by vessels drawing not over 4 feet. 

The channel is ample in depth, but it may be necessary to widen it 
in the near future to provide anchorage space, and thus relieve the 
overcrowded condition of the area in Norfolk Harbor designated for 
that purpose. 

July 1. 1904, balance unexpended $:<;«. 27 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 33:1.27 

(See Appendix L 2.) 

S. Hampton Roadx, Virginia. — Before improvement vessels of more 
than 25^ leet draft could not reach Newport News on account of the 
shoal in Hampton Roads, known locally as Middle Ground bar. 

Under an item in the act of June 13. 1902, provision was made for 
dredging a channel through the Middle Ground bar 500 feet in width 
and 30 feet in depth at mean low water. The estimated cost of the 
work was $225,000. 

On June 30, 1905, the expenditures for the work had amounted to 
$223,371.42, and a channel of the required dimensions had l)een pro- 
vided and still exists. Ves.sels of 30 feet draft could reach Newport 
News, Va., at mean low water. The average tidal range is 2.5 feet. 

The commerce at the inception of the improvement (1902) was 
2,663,669 tons. In the calendar year 1904 it amounted to 4,208,781 
tons, valued at $79,063,375. For reference to details of the work con- 
templated and the pjiblished map of this locality, see page 220 of the 
Annual Report for 1904. 

Some doubt exists as to the stability of the upper end of the 
improved channel, as the ebb tide sweeps across it nearly perpendicu- 
larly, and the flood tide during most of its diiration comes in through 
the shoaler channel to the north of the light-house. It is probable, 



Digitized by 



Google 



228 KEPOET OF THE CHIEF OP ENGINEEE8, U. 8. ARMY. 

therefore, that work will be rec^uired in th^ near future for the main- 
tenance of this channel, and its preservation in good condition is 
essential to the commercial interests. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $112,551.90 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of 
improvement , 110, 923. 32 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 1,628.58 

(See Appendix L 3.) 

4. Nansemond River, Virginia. — The original channel of this 
stream permitted it to be navigated at mean low water by vessels 
drawing not more than 5 feet. This depth was increased to 8 feet at 
the same stage of tide, under appropriations made between 1873 and 
1878, and aggregating $37,000. 

The project under which the work has been carried on until re- 
cently was adopted August 11, 1888, and called for a channel 100 
feet wide from Suffolk, the head of navigation, to the Western 
Branch, while from the latter place to Town Point its width was to 
vary from 200 to 400 feet. The depth to be obtained throughout was 
12 feet at mean low water. This improvement was estimated to cost 
$152,500. 

At present it is contemplated to provide a channel only 80 feet wide 
and 12 feet deep at mean low water between Suffolk and Town 
Point, which is deemed ample for the commerce of the stream, it 
having lately decreased materially. 

The expenditures under the project of 1888 and its modification 
have amounted to $49,943.96 up to June 30, 1905, of w^hich amount 
$9,266.85 has been applied to maintenance. 

The channel between Suffolk and the Western Branch has been 
dredged to 80 feet in width and 12 feet in depth at mean low water, 
and a turning basin has been excavated at the former place. 

At the close of the fiscal vear a boat drawing 11 feet at mean low 
water could reach Suffolk, tlie head of navigation, 18 miles above the 
mouth of the river. The tidal variations are about 3 feet at Town 
Point and 3.8 feet at Suffolk. 

The commerce of the stream consists principally of lumber and 
merchandise, and of late years has gradually decreased. In 1888 
it is reported to have reached nearly 110,000 tons, while for the last 
calendar year it amounted to only 22,119 tons, valued at $459,225. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended ffiS. 04 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 56.04 

.\mount (estimated) required for completion of existini? project 10. 266. 85 

(See Appendix L 4.) 

f). Pagan River, Virginia. — Originally the shoals in this stream 
limited the draft of vessels to 6^ reet at mean low water. The sum 
of $10,000 was expended in dredging a channel 60 feet wide and 8 
feet deep at mean low water through three shoals between the mouth 
and Smithfield, Va., under a project adopted in 1880. 

The project upon which the appropriation in the act of June 13, 
1902, was based contemplated a cnannel 80 feet wide and 8 feet deep 
at mean low water, at an estimated cost of $28,870. The act of 
March 3, 1905, authorized the expenditure of the balance remaining 
of the appropriation of 1902 in securing a channel not less than 40 



Digitized by 



Google 



KtVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 229 

feet wide and of such depth as might be obtained without exceeding 
said balance. In the project submitted under the above-cited pro- 
vision of law it was stated that the unexpended balance would pro- 
vide such a channel 10 feet in depth at mean low water. 

Up to June 30, 1905, the expenditures had amounted to $867.90 for 
surveying and contingencies. 

There is now a narrow and crooked channel 8 feet in depth. The 
average range of the tide is 2.6 feet. The head of navigation is at 
Smithfield, Va., which is located about 9 miles above the mouth of 
the river. 

The commerce is handled by numerous small schooners and sloops 
and two regular steamers and consists largely of peanuts and oysters. 
The commerce has varied from year to year, according to whether 
conditions have been or have not been favorable for the production 
of peanuts or ovsters. In 1901, 108,058 tons of freight was trans- 
ported; in 1902,"75,614 tons; in 1903, 120,121 tons, and in 1904, 85,128 
tons, the latter amount being valued at $6,651,300. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $10,002. 10 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 10,002. 10 

(See Appendix L 5.) 

6. Avpomattox River, Virginia. — (a) Maintenance. — The original 
channel in this river was narrow and tortuous, and numerous shoals 
prevented vessels drawing more than 6^ feet from navigating it at 
mean high water. 

The original project was adopted in 1871 and revised in 1893. 
The project as revised covers the attainment and maintenance of a 
channel 80 feet wide and 12 feet deep at mean high water between 
Point of Rocks and Petersburg. The cost of providing this channel 
was estimated at $473,920, and its maintenance at $10,000 annually. 

On June 30, 1905, the sum of $423,830 had been expended toward 
the improvement, and the sum oi $27,762.83 for maintenance. 

The available channel depth at high water was, at the close of the 
fiscal year 1905, about 9 feet at the shoalest point. The average tide 
at Point of Rocks is 2.7 feet, and 2.6 feet at the town of Petersburg, 
the head of navigation, about 11^ miles from the mouth of the river. 

The commerce in 1888 amounted to 30,626 tons; for the calendar 
year 1903 it amounted to 103,628 tons, slightly greater than during 
the previous year, and in the calendar year 1904 it was reported at 
only 42,245 tons, valued at $510,424. 

The interests of commerce require that the work contemplated 
under the project should be completed and annually maintained. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $4. 70 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March .3, 1905. 10, 000. 00 
Amount allotted from appropriation for muintenauce of river and 

harbor Improvements, act of April 28, 1904 12, 000. 00 

22, 004. 70 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance 
of Improvement 599. 2.1 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 21,405.47 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 1,465.20 

July 1, 1905, balance available 19, 940. 27 

July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 8, 5.34. 80 

Amount (estimated). required for completion of existing project 48, 090. 00 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



230 BEPOBT OF THE OHIBF OF KNGINEBE8, U. 8. ABITY. 

(&) At Petershvrg. — ^The project for the work contemplated is 
not to provide a navigable channel, but to excavate a new channel 
into which to deflect the river, and thus overcome the trouble experi- 
enced by the deposit of sediment in the navigable channel of the river 
in the neighbornood of Petersburg. 

The project for this work, which was adopted June 13, 1902, con- 
templates the excavation to mean low water of a cut from 200 to 300 
feet wide and 2J miles long, and the diversion of the river into the 
said cut by means of a dam built across the present channel at the 
head of the harbor of Petersburg, and includes the construction of 
bridges for the highways and railway crossing the new channel, and 
other incidental work. The amount authorized for the work is 
$200,000. 

At the close of the fiscal year 1905 the sum of $29,658.35 had been 
expended in connection with investigations, plans for the work con- 
templated under the project, the acquirement of part of the land 
needed, and the construction of a highway bridge across the line of 
the new channel. 

The commerce to l)e affected by the improvement contemplated is 
the same as that mentioned in the preceding section, and all general 
statements made therein apply equally well to this section. 

July 1, IJKM, balance unexiwnded $189,844.34 

June .W, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of 
improvement 19, 502. 09 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 170,341.(8) 

July a, 1905, outstanding liabilities 476.00 

July 1, 1905, balance available 169,865.65 

July 1, 1905, amount covered by unconipietetl contracts 124,840. 52 

(See Appendix L 6.) 

7. Ilarhor at Cafe Charles City, Va. — ^The harbor proper is land- 
locked and covers an area of 10 acres, and it and the exposed 
chaimels leading thereto had, Ijefore the beginning of work, a depth 
of 12 feet at mean low water. The project was adopted in 1890 and 
n'quires the dredging of a channel through Cherrystone Inlet and bar 
200 feet wide and 1(5 feet deep at mean low water, the dredgiiig of an 
entrance channel 100 feet wide of the same depth, and dredging over 
the entire area of the protected and inclosed harbor to a depth of 14 
feet at mean low water. Jetties of stone were to be constructed for 
the protection of the channel leading into the basin. This work was 
estimated to cost $142,340. 

The expenditures to June 30, 1905, amounted to $75,027.48, result- 
ing in the dredging and redredging of one-half of the inner harbor 
to the proper depth and the excavation of channels of the required 
dimensions through the inlet, bar, and the entrance to the basin, and 
the construction of 875 feet of the north jetty and 232 feet of the 
south jetty. The north jetty is 1,625 feet in length, but 750 feet of 
this was built without expense to the United States. The range of 
the tide is 2.5 feet. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AKD HABBOB IMPB0VBMENT8. 231 

On June 30, 1905, a vessel drawing 12 feet could enter the harbor 
at mean low water. The docks within the landlocked harbor are 
about 3 miles from the 16-foot contour in Chesapeake Bay at Cherry- 
stone bar. 

The commerce, in the main, consists of fertilizer, produce, miscel- 
laneous freight, and a small quantity of oysters and fish. At the 
inception of the improvement the commerce amounted to about 
400,000 tons annually. In the calendar year 1904 it amounted to 
1,404,146 tons. The interests of commerce demand that the project 
should be completed and thereafter maintained. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $1.53 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March H, 1005. 25, 000. 00 

2.5,001.53 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of Im- 
provement 2ft. 01 

July 1, 1005, balance unexpended 24,072.52 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 42, .340. 00 

(See Appendix L 7.) 

8. Waterway from NorfoU', Fff., to the sotindn of North Carolina. — 
This waterway extends from Norfolk, Va., via the Southern Branch 
of the Elizabeth River to Deep Creek, thence through the Dismal 
Swamp Canal to South Mills, N. C, and from the latter point 
through Turners Cut to the Pasquotank River and Albemarle Sound, 
and thence to Pamlico Sound by Croatan Sound. 

The draft which could be carried through this waterway at the time 
of the adoption of the project for improvement was limited to 2J feet 
at mean low water, owing to the deterioration of the Dismal Swamp 
Canal, which originally had had a depth of about 6 feet. 

The project, adopted March 3, 1899, is to obtain channels in Deep 
Creek and Turners Cut 100 feet wide and 10 feet deep, and through 
a shoal in the Pasquotank River near Shipyard bar a channel of the 
same dimensions, and to dredge a channel 12 feet deep at mean low 
water and 200 feet wide through a bar near Croatan light in Croatan 
Sound. It also covered the placing of sheet piling where neces.sary 
for the protection of the banks in Turners Cut. The cost of this 
work was estimated at $274,310. 

To the close of the fiscal year 1905, the sum of $253,310.88 has been 
expended, of which amount $2,114.42 was applied to maintenance. 

The dredging contemplated at all the localities had been performed 
and the sheet piling erected in Turners Cut. 

On June 30, 1905, ves-sels drawing 10 feet of water can, at mean low 
water, navigate from Norfolk, Va., through all sections of the route 
which have been improved by the United States. The canal, which 
extends from Deep Creek to South Mills, is maintained at the expense 
of a private corporation which tries to keep it available for vessels 
of 10 feet draft, but on June 30, 1905, the limiting depth for the entire 
route was only 9 feet, owing to the existence of shoal places in the 
canal. Deep Creek is the only tidal portion of the improvement, and 
there the rise and fall averages 3 feet; in the other sections the water 
level chan^ according to the direction and velocity of the wind. 
The route is about 67 miles in length. 



Digitized by 



Google 



232 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEEE8, U. 8. ARMY. 

The commerce of the route in 1902 was valued at $2,502,161, at 
$2,634,590 in 1903, and at $2,880,087 in 1904. 

No work is now necessary for navigation, except possibly some 
cutting away of the points of abrupt bends in the Pasquotank River, 
North Carolina, and the work required almost annually in removing 
logs and other obstructions from the channel. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $2,486.81 

Amount appropriated by river and barber act approved Marcb 3. 1005. 3, 000. 00 

5,486.81 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year for maintenance 
of Improvement 927.69 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 4.559.12 

(See Appendix L 8.) 

9. Inland water route from Norfolk, Fa., to Albemarle Sound, 
North Carolina, through Currituck Sound. — This route extends from 
Norfolk, Va., to Albemarle Sound, via the Southern Branch of the 
Elizabetii River, Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal, North Landing 
River, Currituck Sound, Coanjock Bay, North Carolina Cut, ana 
North River. The canal and cut mentioned are now controlled by a 
private corporation. 

This route had a good 6-foot mean low-water channel, but naviga- 
tion was obstructed by snags, sunken logs, and overhanging trees. 
Sharp bends added to the other difficulties of navigation. Until the 
act oi September 19, 1890, the work of improvement was carried on 
under several separate projects. They were consolidated in one item 
in that act. 

The present project, adopted September 19, 1890, provides for ob- 
taining a channel 80 feet wide and 9 feet deep at mean low water 
through the whole extent of the waterway to be improved bv the 
United States, at an estimated cost of $306,667.08. Previous to this 
$240,169.69 had been expended on the separate projects, and since 
then to June 30, 1905, the sum of $70,396.20 has been expended, of 
which latter amount $20,109.20 was used for maintenance by dredg- 
ing and removing sunken logs. 

The channels through the various portions of the route are now 
from 60 to 80 feet wide and have a dei)tli of 9 feet at mean low water. 
The draft of ves.sels which can pass through the route at moan low 
water on June 30, 1905. is 9 feet. The route is about 67 miles long. 

There is no lunar tide in any portion of the route, except in the 
Southern Branch of the Elizabeth River, where the average rise and 
fall is 2.7 feet. In the other sections the water level varies according 
to the velocity and direction of the wind, for which an allowance of 
0.5 foot is made, but severe storms may cause an elevation or depres- 
sion of 2 feet or more. 

The commerce has varied considerably since the route was opened 
to navigation. The highest reported was for the calendar year 1890, 
when it amounted to 403,111 tons. For the calendar year 1903 it 
was given at 203,812 tons, and for 1904 at 144,041 tons, the lowest 
amount ever reported. 

Some work is now required by the interests of navigation in dredg- 
ing a number of shoals that exist in this route. Considerable diffi- 
culty is experienced in keeping the waterway free from sunken logs 
dropped from rafts, due to the improper construction of these rafts. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 233 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $2,939.32 

Amount appropriated by river and barber act approved Marcb 3,1905. 22, 000. 00 
Amount received from sale of prbperty 100.00 

25, 039. 32 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance 
of Improvement 2, 935. 52 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended - 22,103.80 

(See Appendix L 9.) 

10. Perquimans River, North Carolina. — In the lower river the 
channel is wide, but navigation is obstructed by numerous stumps 
just below the town of Hertford, X. C, which limits the draft of 
vessels to 7 feet. The channel of the upper river, or above Hertford, 
is available for vessels of the same draft as the lower .part. Near the 
head of navigation the bends are very abrupt and the channel is very 
narrow. 

The first appropriation for the Perquimans River was made in 
1876, and was based on a project to provide a channel 200 feet wide 
with a depth of 9^ feet at mean low water through a stumpy reach 
near Hertford, N. C, and the amount provided ($2,500) was ex- 
pended in obtaining said channel, which was completed in 1877. 

The present project, adopted by Congress March 3, 1905, is to pro- 
vide a channel 200 feet wide and 9 feet deep at mean low water 
through the stumpy reach about 800 feet below Hertford, N. C, at an 
estimated cost of $11,250. 

To June 30, 1905, $34.75 had been expended for printing and con- 
tingencies. At the close of the fiscal year a contract to cover all the 
work under the project had been authorized. 

There is no lunar tide in the river, the level of the surface of the 
water varying according to the direction and velocity of the wind. 
The average difference in elevation is about one-half foot, but storms 
may cause a difference of as much as 2 feet or more. The head of 
navigation is at Newby's bridge, about 26 miles from the mouth of 
the river. 

An estimate in 1902 placed the commerce at about 36,000 tons, 
valued at $400,000. For the calendar year 1904 it is estimated to 
have amounted to 38,300 tons, valued at $548,000. The principal 
items of freight transported were farm products, general merchan- 
dise, lumber, and logs. 

Keports upon preliminary examinations of this stream may be 
found on page 361 of Part 1 of the Annual Report for 1876, pages 
1045 and 1046 of Part 2 of the Annual Report for 1885, and pages 
1380 to 1386 of Part 2 of the Annual Report for 1904. For map see 
House Document No. 302, Fifty-eighth Congress, second session. 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March .3, 1905- $11, 250. 00 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of im- 
provement 34. 75 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended . 11,215.25 

(See Appendix L 10.) 

11. Edenton Bay, North Carolina. — Before improvement a shoal 
obstructed navigation. The minimum depth was 6J feet at mean 
low water. 



Digitized by 



Google 



234 BEPORT OK THE CHIEF OF EBrolNEEBS, U. 8. ARMY. 

During the years 1878 and 1879 a channel 100 feet wide and 9 feet 
deep at mean low water was provided, at a cost of $5,000. 

The present project was adopted in 1884 and covers the dredging of 
a channel 150 to 200 feet wide and 9 feet deep at mean low water 
and providing a turning basin of the same depth 12 acres in area. 
The cost was estimated at $18,000, all of which has been appropriated. 

At the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, the sum of 
$17,779.37 has been expended in providing a channef in the bay 150 
to 200 feet wide, with a depth of 9 feet at mean low water, and the 
projected turning basin has been dredged to the same depth over an 
area of 9^ acres. 

A boat drawing 8^ feet can now enter the bay at mean low water. 
There is only a slight difference in the ordinary water level, which 
varies according^ to the force and direction of the wind. 

In 1898 the commerce amounted to 160,109 tons. It was slightly 
less in the calendar year 1902, having amounted to 149,246 tons. In 

1903 it is reported at 180,520 tons, and for 1904, 137,172 tons. 

The head of navigation on this bay is Edenton, a distance of about 
2 miles from deep water in Albemarle Sound. 
No additional work is now considered necessary. 

July 1, 1004, balance unexpendeO $220. G3 

July 1, 1905, balance une.xpcnded 220.63 

(See Appendix L 11.) 

12. Roanoke River, North Carolina. — Originally the navigable chan- 
nel to Indian Highland bar, 67 miles above the mouth, was 10 feet 
deep at mean low water, and thence to the town of Weldon, which is 
129 miles from the mouth, the minimum depth was 2^ feet at the same 
stage. 

The project adopted in 1871 contemplates a channel with a least 
width of 50 feet from Hamilton to Weldon, 5 feet deep at mean low 
water, and the removal in the lower portion of the river, below the 
former point, of such obstructions as may be neces.sary to accommo- 
date vessels navigating the North Carolina sounds. The estimated 
cost of the work was $269,000. 

The expenditures to June 30, 1905, amounted to $228,690.23, with 
which the channel obstructions were removed and a channel depth 
of 4 feet at mean low water over the projected width pro\ided 
between Hamilton and Weldon. On June 30, 1905, veasels drawing 10 
feet can go as far as Hamilton, and beyond that point to within a 
short distance of Weldon 4 feet can be carried at mean low water. 
The upper river is subject to heavy freshets, which cause the only 
variation in the level of the water surface. 

The commerce has varied considerably since the improvement was 
undertaken, the maximum amount of freight transported having been 
in 1891, when it was 376,181 tons. For the calendar year 1902 it 
amounted to 163,564 tons; in 1903, 115,875 tons. In the calendar year 

1904 it was reported at 32,790 tons, valued at $209,000. 

The head of navigation is at Weldon, N. C, which is 129 miles 
above the mouth of the river. 



Digitized by 



Google 



KIVEE AND HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS. 285 

July 1, 1904, balaoce unexpended $5,826.63 

Amount tijipropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 10, 000. 00 
Amount received from sale of property 13.75 

• 16,840.38 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of 

improvement 5, 178. 86 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 10, 061. 52 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 446.00 

July 1, 1905, balance available 10, 215. 52 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project :._ 31,000.00 

(See Appendix L 12.) 

13. Removing sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering 
navigation, — Wreck of schooner J. B. Taylor. — Tne wreck of this 
vessel lies in the Appomattox River, Virginia, in 6 feet of water at 
mean high tide, about 6 mifes below Petersburg, Va. Its removal was 
authorized June 5, 1905. 

Proposals have been invited for the work of removal. 

(See Appendix L 13.) 

IMPROVEMENT OF CERTAIN RIVERS AND HARBORS IN NORTH 

CAROLINA. 

This district was in the charge of Capt. R. P. Johnston, Corps of 
Engineers, to May 5, 1905 ; in -the temporary charge of Capt. E. 
Eveleth Winslow, Corps of Engineers, from May 5, 1905, to June 
30, 1905, when Captain Johnston resumed charge. Division engineer, 
Lieut. Col. James B. Quinn, Corps of Engineers. 

1. Seiippemong River, North CaroUn^i. — From the mouth to 
Columbia is 5 miles; to Spruill's bridge, 23 miles. 

Before work was commenced on the river there was only about 5 
feet over the bar at its mouth. The upper portion was obstructed 
by logs, snags, stumps, overhanging growth, and abrupt bends, per- 
mitting navigation by small ves.sels only. 

The original project, adopted in 1876, was to dredge the bar, make 
cut-offs at sharp bends, and remove obstructions so as to obtain a 
channel 60 feet wide and 9 feet deep at low water up to Spruill's 
bridge. Prior to 1902 $8,000 had lieen expended. . 

The present project, adopted by act of June 13, 1902, provides for 
dredging a channel 3,400 feet long, 150 feet wide, and 9 feet deep at 
mean low water across the bar at the mouth of the river, at a cost of 
$14,000. 

The amount expended on present project for improvement up to 
June 30, 1905, was $9,967.04. None of this was for maintenance, but 
of the sum spent during the fiscal year 1904, $1,869.08 was for the 
construction of new plant, repairs to old plant, superintendence, etc. 

"When active worn ceased in 1903 the condition was a channel 90 
feet wide with a least depth of 9 feet at mean low water across the bar 
at the mouth of the river ; thence to Cross Landing, 14 miles above, a 
good open channel of 7 feet at mean low water, tree from obstacles ; 
thence to Spruill's bridge, 9 miles farther, 7 feet at mean low water 
could be carried, but the river in many places was narrow and 
crooked and obstructed by overhanging trees on banks and by logs 



Digitized by 



Google 



236 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENG1NEEB8, U. 8. ABMY. 

and snags in channel. Some deterioration of the channel has doubt- 
less taken place since that date, though none has been reported. 

This is a nontidal stream with jio slope, the oscillations of the sur- 
face being controlled by the winds. • 

Spruill s bridge, 23 miles from its mouth, is the head of navigation, 
to which point 7 feet can be carried at mean low water. 

The commerce for 1904 amounted to 51,473 tons, valued at approxi- 
mately $2,539,259, an increase of 5,260 tons over last year. It con- 
sisted principally of lumber, timber, cotton, and other farm products. 

The additional work proposed with the balance on hand is the 
widening of .the cut across the mouth of the river to the project width 
and restoring any deterioration existing in the present cut. 

References: The adopted project is printed in the Annual Report 
of the Chief of Engineers for 1901, page 1543. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $32. 96 

Amount appropriated by river and harlMir act approved March 3, 1905. 5, 000. 00 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 5,032.96 

(See Appendix Ml.) 

2. Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina. — Report of Chief of Engineers . 
for 1904 gives condition of this improvement up to the ces.sation of 
work. 

Section 7 of the river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905, re- 
quired that the unexpended balance in hand to the credit of this 
improvement be returned to the Treasury. 

The money expended during the year ($90.97) was to defray the 
expenses of an inspection made by the district engineer in November, 
1904. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended ; $8,000.00 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of Im- 
provement 90. 97 



June .SO, 1905, covered into surplus fund, United States Treasury 7, 909. 03 

S. Fishing Creek, North Carolina. — When improvement began the' 
stream was badly obstructed by masses of fallen timber, overhanging 
trees on banks, logs and. snags in channel, and was navigable by rafts 
only a few miles above the mouth. 

The original project of 1889 was to clear the stream of logs, snags, 
trees, etc., up to Bellamy's mill. It was amended in 1896 to limit 
the work to that part below the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad 
bridge, and completed in 1901. The sum of $22,715.10 was spent on 
this project. 

The project for improvement having been completed, there is now 
no project except for restoration or maintenance. 

Amount expended on present project, for maintenance, $1,991.52. 

Results: The stream has been cleared of obstructions to the Wil- 
mington and Weldon Railroad bridge, but it is not navigable above 
Beech Swamp on account of its tortuous course and rapid current. 
Below that point it is navigable during the higher stages about 
eight months annually. 

The extreme lower end of the stream is in good condition. It is 
reported by those interested in its navigation to be in poor condition 
from the third mile post to Beech Swamp, being badly obstiiicted by 
fallen trees, logs, and snags. Between Beech Swamp and the railroail 



Digitized by 



Google 



KITEB Am) HABBOB IMPBOTEMENTS. 237 

bridge the condition of the stream is unknown, but it is presumably 
b«d. The owners of the vessels navigating this stream report that 
there are so many obstructions that it is unsafe to navigate unless the 
water is at least 2 feet higher than the stages at which it was safe to 
navigate just after the stream had been cleared out. 

The present head of navigation is Beech Swamp, 17.5 miles from 
its mouth, to which about 2 feet can be carried during about three 
mraths of the year. 

The water surface varies from a minimum depth of 6 inches at low 
water to 10 feet during the high freshet stages. 

The comnierce for 1904 amounted to 1,806 tons, valued at approxi- 
mately $26,165, a loss of 2,862 J tons over the previous year; it con- 
<asted principally of cotton seed, timber, fertilizers, and peanuts. 
Additional work proposed with balance available is the maintenance 
of the natural channel as far as Beech Swamp. 

Keferences : Annual Reports for 1890, page 1179 ; 1893, page 1377 ; 
1900. page 1796. 

Jnly 1, 19M, ttalance nnexpended |.'500. 14 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 500. 00 

1. 000. 14 
June %. 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, 'or maintenance 
of improvement 4.56.10 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 54.3. 38 

Ju^ 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 9. 08 

Jnly I, 19r«, balance aTallable.. .„ 534.30 

(See Appendix M 2.) 

4- Pamlico and Tar rivers, North Carolina. — (One river, called tho 
Pamlico, below Washington, N. C., and the Tar, above that point.) 
Distance from Washington to Greenville, 22 miles; to Tarboro, 49 
miles; to Fishing Creek, 56 miles; to Little Falls, 88 miles; to 
Rocky Mount, 89 miles. 

Prior to its improvement, which was begun in 1876, the stream 
below Washington was obstructed by war blockades, sunken logs, 
snags, stumps, and sand shoaLs. 

The governing low-water depths were 5 feet to Washington and 
perhaps 1 foot to Tarboro, the navigation to which place was practica- 
ole during freshet stages only. Arout 3 feet could be carried to Tar- 
boro during about eight flush-water months per vear. 

The original project for the improvement of the river below Wash- 
ington is that submitted in December, 1875 (Report Chief of En- 
gineers. 1876, p. 361), and adopted by Congress in August, 1876, 
to provide 9 feet at low watet from Washington to its mouth by 
(hedging and the removal of piles and obstructions at an estimated 
cost of $28,050. In the project proper the proposed draft to be pro- 
vided was not specified, but work under the project was devoted to 
swnring 9 feet at mean low water. 

Under this project the sum of $18,000 was appropriated, of which 
^11,877.12 was expended ; the remainder, $122.88, was transferred to 
the improvement of the Pamlico and Tar rivers, when the improve- 
ments were combined in 1880. 



Digitized by 



Google 



238 KEPOBT OK THE CHIEF OF ENOHnEEBS, U. 8. ABICY. 

The Tar River (that portion of the stream above Washington), 
prior to improvement, was obstructed by sunken logs, piles, wrecks, 
stumps, snags, and trees in the channel, and overhanging trees along 
its banks. 

The original project for this portion of the stream was that of 1879 
(Report Chief of Engineers, 18<9, p. 700) for the removal of obstruc- 
tions between Washington and Tarboro at an estimated cost of 
$10,000. An appropriation of $3,000 was made for this purpose in 
1879, of which $2,867.27 was expended, leaving a balance of $132.73, 
which was transferred to the joint improvement. 

Prior to the consolidation of these two improvements there had 
been expended under the above projects $20,744.39. To June 30, 1888, 
iS37,031.94 had been expended on the consolidated project, to which 
add the aggregate amount expended on the single projects, $20,744.39, 
which makes the total amoimt expended for the improvement of this 
stream $57,776.33. The total final estimate for the project submitted 
in 1888 was $76,000. 

In 1889 the project was extended to clear the natural channel above 
Tarboro, 34 miles to Little -Falls, and the estimate was increased 
$16,200, making the total estimate $92,200. 

The present project is that of 1875 (for Pamlico River), and of 
1879 and 1889 (for Tar River), somewhat modified to secure a chan- 
nel 100 feet wide and 9 feet deep at mean low water to Washington; 
thence a channel 60 feet wide and 3 feet deep at low water for 22 
miles farther to Greenville; thence a channel 60 feet wide and 20 
inches deep at low water for 26 miles farther to Tarboro ; thence to 
keep clear of obstructions the natural channel 34 miles farther to 
Little Falls, 2 miles below Rocky Mount, N. C. 
Amount expended on previous projects prior to 1876 $10,000.00 

Amount expended on present projeet. for Improvement 134, 495. 57 

Amount expended on present project for maintenance 19,05,5.52 

153, 551. 09 

Dredging in the channel below Washington was carried on during 
the jfiscal year, resulting in a cut 33J feet wide, 5,060 feet long, 9 feet 
deep, extending from the second angle in the cut downstream, and 
widening to 100 feet the cut of the previous year. From the end of 
tJiis cut the dredging was extended down the river for 2,050 feet, 100 
feet wide, and 9 feet deep at mean low water. Below this point the 
dredging was extended 820 feet, 66f feet wide, and 9 feet deep at 
mean low water on the south side of the channel. 

Snagging was carried on and the stream was cleared of stumps, 
logs, trees, etc., at a total cost for both dredging and snagging of 
$7,757.49. 

The controlling depth to Washington is 8.5 feet at mean low water ; 
thence to Greenville, 22 miles, 2.5 feet can be carried at mean low 
water. Above this point the river is navigable only during the 
freshet stages, of variable duration, extendmg over six to eight 
months of the year. 

The stream is nontidal. Below Washington the only surface vari- 
ations of importance are due to the wind, with an extreme range of 3 
feet under normal conditions; long protracted easterly or westerly 



Digitized by 



Google 



BITEB AND HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS. 239 

winds sometimes cause variations of 7 or 8 feet. The variations of 
the upper portion of the river are affected by freshets only. ' 

The head of navigation is Dunbar's bridge, 108 miles from the 
mouth. 

The commerce for the year 1904 amounted to 514,401 tons, vahied 
at approximately $17,04 i3J03..')0, a decrease since the previous year of 
330,976 tons. It consistt^d principally of cotton, cotton-seed produc- 
tions, grains, potatoes, wood, timber, lumber, fertilizers, machinery, 
general merchandise, etc. 

The tendency of the improvement is to keep down freight rates?. 

References: History and maps. Annual Reports, 1890, page 1114; 
1891, page 1347; 1896, pages 161 and 1101. 

Examinations and surveys: Annual Reports, 1873, page 555; 1879, 
page 700; 1891, page 1429; 1895, page 1365; 1897, page 1425. 

July 1, 1904, balauoe unexpended $J>. (KkS. 9,^) 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 8, 000. 00 
Ueceired from sales 123. 10 

17, 182. 05 
June 30, 1905, amount expended durinK flscal year : 

For works of improvement $8,006.43 

For maintenance of Improvement 1, or>4. 00 

9, 060. 49 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 8.121.56 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 350. 84 

July 1, 1905, balance available '- 7, 770. 72 

(See Appendix M 3.) 

5. Contentnia Creek, North Carolina. — Distance from the mouth 
to Snowhill, 31^ miles; Speight's bridge, 50^ miles; Stantonsburg, 
63 miles. 

Previous to improvement this stream was obstructed throughout 
its entire length by fallen timber, sand shoals, and overhanging 
growth, and was navigable for shallow-draft craft during only the 
higher freshet stages of alwut three to six months of the year. 

The original project of 1881 was to clear the stream of these ob- 
structions, so as to obtain from its mouth to Stantonsburg, 63 miles, 
a depth of not less than 3 feet during the higher stages, abotit nine 
months of the year, at a cost estimated in 1888 at $77,500. 

The project" of 1881 as extended in 1894 included maintenance 
below Snowhill, and was again extended in 1899 to include main- 
tenance from Stantonsburg to the mouth. This constitutes the exist- 
ing project. 

Amount expended up to June 30, 1905 : 

For improvement ?64, 394. .')() 

For maintenance 7, 'ATI. 01 

Total 71, 760. ,'>7 

At the close of the fiscal year 1905 the creek between its mouth and 
Snowhill was in fair conliition and could be navigated by boats 
drawing 3 to 4 feet during six months of the year, depending upon 
the rainfall. Snowhill, 3U miles from its mouth, is practically the 
head of navigation, although during the higher stages of water boats 
can ascend the stream to Speight's bridge, 50J miles from its mouth. 
The portion of the stream between Snowhill and Sjjeight's bridge 



Digitized by 



Google 



240 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOINEEBS, V. 8. ABMY. 

has been partially resnagged. since it was originally cleared of obstruc- 
tions, bQt no boat has ascended the stream above Snowhill since the 
resnagging. 

No further work except maintenance is now proposed. 

The commerce for the year IQOt amounted to 15,010 tons, valued 
at approximateh'^ $832,150, an increase of 1,168 tons over the previ- 
ous vear. It consisted principally of cotton, cotton-seed meal, timber, 
lumber, fertilizer, general merchandise, etc. 

References: Annual Reports, 1881, page 1009; 1890. page 1118; 
1896, page 1103. 

.Tuly 1. 1004, balance unexjieiulea 1102.23 

Amount approjjriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 1, 000. 00 
Amount allotted from appropriation for maintenance of river and 

harbor Improvements, act of April 28, 1904 .500. 00 

1. 602. 23 
June 30, 1905. amount «x|)ended during fiscal year, for maintenance 
of improvement ■ 368.80 

July 1. 190.5, balance unexpendetl 1, 2.S3. 43 

(See Appendix M 4.) 

6. Neuse and Trent rirers, North Carolina. — (a) Neuse River. — 
Distance from Newbern to Contentnia Creek, 32 miles; to Kinston, 
.50 miles; to Whitehall, 74 miles; to Goldsboro (Wilmington and 
Weldon Railroad bridge), 94 miles; to Smithfield, 1.50 miles. 

There is considerable uncertainty as to the conditions existing 
prior to 1878, when improvement by the Government was begun. In 
the report of a survey made in 1871 by William Popp, assistant engi- 
neer, it was stated that " the governing depth of water in the chan- 
nel from Goldsboro to Kinston is 4^ feet, l)elow Kinston 5 feet." In 
Ihe report of an examination by S. T. Abert in 1875 (Report Chief 
of Engineers, 1876, p. 363), it was stated that " the present low- water 
depth above Kinston is about 3 feet, and 4 feet of water (or 5) can 
be carried to Newbern at the same stage." It is known that before 
the civil war, and probably for sometime afterwards, light-draft 
steamers made more or less regular trips as high up as Smithfield. 
It is very doubtful, however, whether the depths above referred to 
ever actually existed at low water, for the report of 1879 (Report 
Chief of Engineers, p. 707) sj)eaks of a bar near Kinston on which 
only 18 inches was found at low water, and there are manv other evi- 
dences that the earlier statements were too favorable. The channel 
is known to have l)een obstructed by wrecks, snags, logs, and trees, 
and also by blockades built both above and below Newbern during the 
civil war. 

The original project of 1871, as extended in 1878-79 and 1880 and 
continued to date, provides for an 8-foot navigation up to Newbern 
during the entire year. 4 feet to Kinston, and during nine months of 
the year 3 feet to Smithfield, by the removal of war obstructions, 
dredging, jettying, and snagging, at a total estimated cost of $374,000 ; 
extended in 1902 to include dredging a channel 300 feet wide below 
Newbern and 200 feet wide to Newborn, to a depth of 8 feet at dead 
low water, at an estimated additional cost of $59,081.25. This esti- 
mate has, since its adoption above retnted, been reduced to $24,000. 

In 1902 the improvement of this river was combined with that of 
Trent, under a joint appropriation of $20,000 for the two rivers. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOR IMPROVEMENTS. 241 

Amount expended on the foregoing projects to June 30, 1905 : 

For Improvement $312,953.48 

For maintenance 10, 857. 97 

Total 323, 811. 45 

All war blockades have Ijcen cleared away, and the natural channel 
has been cleared to Smithfield. 150 miles above Newbern. No attempt 
has been made to maintain the stream above Waynesboro Landing 
(Goldsboro), 98| miles above Newbern. At low water 8 feet can be 
carried to Newbern, 4 feet to Village Creek, 25 miles above, 2.5 feet 
to the mouth of Contentnia Creek, 31^ miles above Newbern, and 1 
foot to Kinston, 50 miles above Newbern, above which point the river 
is only navigable during the freshet stages of variable durations. 

The channel of the river between Newbern and Kinston is free 
from all obstructions. Between Kinston and A\Tiitehall the channel 
in many places is badly obstructed by logs, snags, and fallen trees. 

The practicable head of navigation is Waynesboro Landing, 128 
miles from the mouth of the river. 

The stream is nontidal. The variation of the water surface below 
Newbern is due entirely to the influences of the wind. The maximum 
range is 3.3 feet duringsevere northwest winds to 8^ feet during vio- 
lent northeast gales. The upper river is subject to freshets, which 
rise 17 feet at Smithfield, 18 feet at Waynesboro Landing, and 20 
feet at Kinston. 

It is proposed to expend the balance of the funds available to com- 
plete dredging at and below Newbern and maintain the channel to 
Kinston. 

The commerce for the year 1904 amounted to 501,751 tons, valued 
at approximately $17,994,449, an increase of 10,015 tons over the 
previous j'ear, consisting principally of grains, timber, lumber, fer- 
tilizer, general merchandise, etc. 

Freight rates are materially lessened by reason of the improvement. 

References: Annual Reports of 1879, page 71; 1900, pages 268 and 
1802; 1901, page 1545. 

(b) Trent River. — Distance from the mouth at Newbern to Pol- 
locksville, 18 miles; to lower Quaker bridge, 27 miles; to Trenton, 
38 miles. Its original condition was a channel of 6 feet depth to 
PoUocksville, and the stream was fairly clear to lower Quaker bridge, 
above which point it was badly obstructed. 

The original project of 1879 (see Report Chief of Engineers 1879, 
p. 711), was to secure 3 feet depth at low water to Trenton; extended 
m 1886 to obtain 8 feet depth through Foys flats; extended in 1889 
to clear out obstructions to upper Quaker bridge, 40 miles above 
Trenton. The sum of $64,262.64 was expended on this project and its 
modifications. 

In 1896 the project of 1879 was amended to provide for the main- 
tenance of a channel only 30 feet wide and 3 feet deep from Newbern 
to Trenton, at an annual estimated cost of $2,500. This was ex- 
tended in 1902 to include dredging at Newbern to 8 feet depth at 
dead low water from harbor line to channel, at an estimated cost of 
$24,000 additional. The existing project, therefore, is to dredge to 
8 feet dead low water at Newbern and maintain a channel 30 feet 

ENG 1905 M 16 



Digitized by 



Google 



242 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOIXEEBS, U. S. ARHT. 

wide and 3 feet deep at low water to Trenton. In 1902 the improve- 
ment of this river was combined with that of the Neuse under a joint 
appropriation of $20,000 for the two. 

Amount expended on present project up to .Tune .".0, in05 : 

For Improvement $3,779.00 

For maintenance 8,700.89 

Total 12, 480. 79 

With the $1,410.03 expended during the fiscal year for the main- 
tenance of this stream the channel was cleared of snags, stumps, logs, 
etc., and a small amount of dredging was done immediately below 
Trenton. 

The improvement above Trenton has been abandoned. 

Between Trenton and Newbern the present project depth of 3 feet 
exists, and the stream is in good condition. The maximum draft that 
(.'an be carried June 30, 1905, to Trenton, 38 miles above th^ mouth, 
which is the head of navigation, is 3 feet. 

The retaining wall to the turning basin at Trenton, constructed of 
wood, is in bad condition and is m need of repairs. There is also 
some dredging needed adjacent to the wall to restore the basin to its 
original dimensions. 

Jsear the mouth the water level varies about 3 feet under normal 
conditions, according to the prevailing winds. Long protracted east- 
erly or westerly winds sometimes cause a variation of 7 or 8 feet. 
At Trenton the stream is subject to freshets of about 3 to 5 feet 
during the winter months. 

The commerce during 1904 amounted to 284,935 tons, valued at 
$14,793,947, an increase of 33,880 tons over the previous year. It 
consists principally of lumber, general merchandise, fertilizers, cotton, 
and other farm products. 

In addition to the maintenance of the present channel to Trenton, 
the work proposed with the available balance is to deepen to 8 feet the 
area between the harbor line at Newbern and the deep river channel, 
thus enlarging the harbor and enabling vessels from any part of the 
harbor to roach the channel. 

Refen'nces: Annual Reports of 1879, page 711; 1900, pages 268 
and 1802 ; 1901, page 1545. 

July 1, 1904. balance unexi)ended , $3,333.08 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 40, 000. 00 

Amount received from saleH 200.00 

Amount allotted from appropriation for maintenance of river and 

harbor improvements, act of April 28. 1904 500. 00 

44,033.08 
June 30, 1900, amount ex|)ended during fiscal year : 

For works of improvement $2,380.46 

For maintenance of Improvement 2, 909. 70 

5, 290. 16 

July 1, 1905, balance unexiKjnded 38,742.92 

.Tuiy 1. 1905. outstanding liabilities 2,875.43 

July 1, 1905, balance available :ii5, 867. 49 

Amount (estimated 1 re<iuire<l for completion of existing project 82,500.00 

(See Appendix M 5.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPB0VEMENT8. 243 

7. Waterway between Newbern and Beavfort, N. C. {via Neuse 
River, Clubfoot Creek, Clubfoot and Ilarlowe Canal {private), Har- 
lowe Creek and Newport Rirer). — Distances: Newbern to Clubfoot 
Creek, 20 miles; thence to Clubfoot and Harlowe Canal, 6 miles; 
thence to Harlowe Creek, 3.2 miles; thence to Newport River, 3^ 
miles; thence to Beaufort, 7 miles. 

The first appropriation for this work was made by the river and 
harbor act of 1882, which provided that $5,000 from' the appropria- 
tion for Neuse River and a like sum from the appropriation for 
Beaufort Harbor should be '" applied to the improvement of the line 
of inland navigation from Ne\vbern to Beaufort Harbor." 

No estimate or project for said iinprovenient had at that time been 
made, but in October, 1883 (Report Chief of Engineers, 1884, p. 1067) 
an estimate was prepared which contemplated a channel 80 feet wide 
end feet deep, at an estimated cost of ^883,580. exclusive of the cost 
of a tide lock and of the canal company's franchise and property. 

The available funds being totally inadequate for this improvement, 
the project adopted in 1884 for the expenditure of said funds con- 
templated a channel 30 feet wide and 5 feet deep at mean low water, 
the estimated cost being $92,000. 

This project of 1884 constitutes the existing project. 

All work of improvement has been confined to the natural chan- 
nels in Clubfoot and Harlowe creeks and Newport River. No ex- 
penditures have been made for maintenance. 

The governing depth in the approaches to the canal was increa.sed 
to about 5 feet several years ago, but for lack of maintenance has 
shoaled to about 1 foot. The depth in the canal is only about 2 feet, 
and it is obstructed by logs dropped from pas.sing rafts. The water 
level varies at Harlowe Creek end, where there is a tidal range of 
about li feet, and at the Clubfoot Creek end, where there is a varia- 
tion of level of from a few inches to 2 feet, due to the wind. 

The amount expended on this project to June 30, 1905, is $33,850.90, 
of which the amount spent prior to the past year, viz, $28,700, was 
for improvement, and the amount spent during the past year, viz, 
$5,150.90, was for maintenance or restoration. By this expenditure 
the shoal at the mouth of Harlowe Creek was restored to its former 
depth, but the shoal in Clubfoot Creek has not yet been restored, and 
hence the governing low-water de])th remains the same as it was last 
year — 1 foot. This shoal in Clubfoot Creek is to be removed as soon 
as plant, now occupied elsewhere, can be sjiared for the purpose. 

The commerce for 1904 amounted to 82,019 tons, valued at approxi- 
mately $3,240,976, a decrease since 1903 of 7,632 tons. It consisted 
principally of cotton, cotton seed, cotton-seed meal, and cotton-seed 
oil, hay, grains, fish, oysters. clam.s, lumber, timber, general mer- 
chandise, etc. The falling off in the commerce is directly attributable 
to deterioration of the waterway. It is thought that should the 
project depth of 5 feet and width of 30 feet be secured and main- 
tained the commerce would greatly increase and freight rates be- 
tween Newbern, Beaufort, and Morehead City would be lessened. 



Digitized by 



Google 



244 BEPOBT OK THE CHIEF OF ENGINEEB8, U. 8. ABMY. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended |6,300.00 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of 
improvement 5,150.90 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 1,149.10 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 57,000.00 

(See Appendix M 6.) 

8. Harbor at Beaufort, N. C. — When improvement (begun in 1836) 
was resumed in 1881, the erosion at Fort Macon and Shackelford 
Point was causing serious deterioration of the inside channels and 
threatening deterioration of the bar channel and bar. The governing 
low-water depth on the bar was 15 feet, and 2 feet at Beaurort, N. C. 

The original project is that of 1881, to stop erosion at the inlet 
(Fort Macon and Shackelford Point) by jetties, and to provide a 
channel 200 feet wide and 9 feet deep at ordinary low tide to Beau- 
fort, and a channel 100 feet wide and 6 feet deep from Beaufort to 
the 6-foot contour of the channel leading up North River, estimated 
to cost $82,103.38, increased in 1885 to $159,00D, and modifying the 
project by reducing the channel to Beaufort to 100 feet and its depth 
to 5 feet at mean Tow water, and eliminating the channel east from 
Beaufort. In 1887 the estimate for the above work was increased to 
$163,000. 

The project was again modified, in 1890, by increasing the depth of 
the bulkhead chaimel to 7 feet. The project as modified was com- 
pleted. 

The amount expended under the original project as modified was 
$148,843. To the above amount should oe added $5,000 appropriated 
July 4, 1836, making the total cost $153,843. 

I'he existing project of 1896 includes the maintenance of jetties 
and sand fences at Fort Macon and Shackelford Point and the main 
tenance of the 7- foot channel across Bulkhead shoal, and thence to the 
wharves at Beaufort. 

The amount expended on present project for maintenance to June 
30, 1905, was $11,341.49. 

A draft of 7 feet can now be carried across Bulkhead shoal and 6 
feet can be carried from there to the wharves at Beaufort at mean 
low water. 

The tide rises 2 feet at Beaufort and 3 feet at the inlet. 

The commerce for the year 1904 amounted to 62,226 tons, valued at 
approximately $9,902,960.50, an increase of 1,426 tons over the pre- 
vious year. 

It is proposed to maintain the sand fences at Fort Macon and 
Shackeliord Point, and to restore project depth across Bulkhead 
shoal to Beaufort.. 

The maintenance of this channel tends to prevent the rise in freight 
rates by allowing the larger vessels to reach the wharves at Beaufort. 

References: Annual Reports, 1881, page 1013; 1893, page 1457; 
1896, page 1115; 1899, page 1498. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMBNTS. 245 

July 1, 1904, balance nnexpendecl $772.05 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 2, 000. 00 
Amount allotted from appropriation for maintenance of river and 

harbor Improvements, act of April 28, 1904 1,000.00 

.% 772. 05 
June 30, 1905, amount exjKnded during fiscal year, for maintenance 
of improvement 2, 606. 54 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 1,165.51 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 267.07 

July 1, 1905, balance available 898. 44 

(See Appendix M 7.) 

9. Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina. — There exists a channel over the 
bar with approximately 12 feet at mean low water. 

The ori^nal project is printed on page 1415 of the Annual Report 
of the Chief of Engineers for 1904, and was adopted by Congress in 
1905. It contemplates a channel 300 feet wide, 20 feet deep at mean 
low water across the bar, at an estimatied cost of $45,000. 

There has been expended on present project to June 30, 1905, for 
improvement $138.67. 

The money expended during the fiscal year was for survey of the 
bar for the purpose of establishing ranges for dredging. 

The average rise and fall of the tide at the bar is about 3.5 feet. 

The commerce for 1904 amounted to 4,000 tons, valued at approxi- 
mately $502,000. 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905- $45, 000. 00 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of im- 
provement 138. 67 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 44, 861. 33 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 62.33 

July 1, 1905, balance available 44,799.00 

(See Appendix M 8.) 

10. Inland waterway between Beaufort Harbor and New River, 
North Carolina. — Distance from Beaufort to Swansboro, 30 miles, 
with access at Swansboro to the Atlantic Ocean, through Bogue Inlet. 
Distance from Swansboro to New River, 22 miles. 

When improvement began in 1886, the governing low-water depth 
was 18 inches to Swansboro and 6 inches thence to New River. 

The original project is that of 1885, to provide a channel 100 feet 
wide and 3 feet deep at ordinary low water between Beaufort Harbor 
and Swansboro, estimated to cost $6,000 ; this estimate was increased 
in 1887 to $50,000, and again increased in 1892 to $71,040. 

No project was adopted for the part beyond Swansboro, but in 
1889 a separate project for a channel 40 feet wide by 3 or 4 feet deep 
over this portion of the waterway was adopted, the estimated cost 
being $43,000. The act of 1890 made a separate appropriation of 
$5,000 for this portion of the route, designating it as the " waterway 
between New River and Swansboro." (See pp. 1376-1378, Report of 
the Chief of Engineers for 1891.) No work other than surveys has 
ever been done on this latter project for the reason that an act of 
the North Carolina legislature had granted to a private corporation 
exclusive navigation privileges. 



Digitized by 



Google 



246 KEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOINEEB8, V. 6. ARMY. 

On February 6, 1905, the surviving incorporators (J. H. Chad 
bourn, jr., and H. G. Smith) executed a legal relinquishment of thei 
claims, and it is therefore contemplated tnat work on the improve 
ment of this portion of the waterway will begin as soon as Govern 
ment plant, now occupied on other work, becomes available. 

Amount expended on present project (that of 1885) to June 30. 
1905, for improvement, $50,689.34. 

At the close of the fiscal year 1905 the project depth of 3 feet pre- 
vailed throughout the entire length of 30 miles between Beaufort 
Harbor and Swansboro, obtained by dredging a channel aggregating 
5.03 miles in length, 3 to 4 feet deep, as follows: 100 feet wide 
through one shoal, for 980 feet; 60 feet wide through six shoals, 
aggregating 24,696 feet, and 40 feet wide through one shoal, for 874 
feet. 

The tide at Beaufort Inlet and Bogue Inlet, situated at either end 
of this waterway, rises approximately SJ feet ; where the tides meet 
in Bogue Sound it rises and falls about 1 foot. 

The commerce of 1904 amouilted to 37,323 tons, valued at approxi- 
mately $2,024,849, an increase over the previous year of 1,231 tons. It 
consisted principally of lumber, fish, and farm products. 

It is proposed to continue the work of improvement to obtain the 
project width with the funds now available. 

References: Annual Report, 1885, page 1133; 1891, page 1378; 
1892, page 1141; 1893, page 1397; 1894, page 1034; 1896, page 1117; 
1897, page 1398. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $6,775.12 

June .30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of 
improvement 4, 464. 46 

July 1, 1905. balance unexpended 2,310.66 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 18,040.00 

(See Appendix M 9.) 

11. Waterway between New River and Sican^boro, N. G. — This 
waterway is a part of the waterway between Beaufort Harbor and 
New River (see pp. 1124—1127, Annual Report of the Chief of Engi- 
neers for 1889), but in 1890 two separate appropriations were made — 
one for the " inland waterway between Beaufort Harbor and New 
River " and the other for the " waterway between New River and 
Swansboro," and hence separate reports are made for the two im- 
provements, although one embraces the other. 

This waterway (the portion between New River and Swansboro) 
is about 22 miles long, and consists of tortuous tidal channels wind- 
ing through the marine marsh, which extends from Swanslwro to 
New River, between the mainland on one side and the barrier beach, 
or " banks," which separates it from the ocean, on the other. In the 
vicinity of the four inlets communicating with the ocean its width is 
several hundred feet and its depth from 12 to 15 feet, while between 
them its width diminishes to aoout 12 feet in places and its depth to 
6 inches at ordinary low water. 

The original project, adopted in 1889, is to enlarge it by dredging 
to a minimum width of 40 leet and minimum depth of 3 to 4 feet at 
mean high water, at an estimated total cost of $43,000. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BTVEB AND HARBOB IMPBOVEMEKTS. 247 

The existing project is the same as the original project. 

To June 30, 1905, $814.89 had been expcndea in surveying the 
shoals, leaving an available balance of $1,185.11. 

The present conditions are similar to those existing prior to the for- 
mation of the project. 

The waterway is navigable at high tide for very small boats 
throughout its entire length, a distance of approximately 22 miles. 
At mean low water some of the shoals are bare. 

The rise and fall of the tide varies from 2.2 to 4 feet in the neigh- 
borhood of the inlets to about 1 foot at the points most di.stant from 
the inlets. 

The commerce of 1904 amounted to 830 tons, at an approximate 
value of $36,560. It consisted principally of cotton, fish, oysters, 
clams, and salt This can not be taken as indication of the amount 
of commerce that will utilize the waterway after the proposed im- 
provement is made, for the difficulty and delay incident to navigation 
now are so great that commerce naturally seeks other routes. 

For the reason that an act of the general as.sembly of North Caro- 
lina, ratified February 13, 1889, incorporated the Wrightsville and 
Onslow Navigation Company with the exclusive right to navigate 
this waterway, as set forth in House Executive Document No. 26, 
Fifty -second Congress, first session (p. 1147 of the Annual Report of 
the Chief of Engineers for 1892), no work has been done under the 
project since the survey of the route in April and May, 1891. 

On February 6, 1905, however, a paper was obtained from the two 
survivors of the four parties named in the charter of said Wrights- 
ville and Onslow Navigation Company, in which paper it was de- 
clared that the privileges and franchises granted in said charter had 
never been exercised, and that said privileges and franchises had, 
" to all intents and purposes, been surrendered and abandoned." 

It is therefore contemplated that work on this improvement will be 
resumed at an early date. 

For description of this waterway see Annual Reports for 1892, page 
1146, and 1893, pages 1399 and 1400. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpendwl •_ |4, 376. 27 

June 30, 1906, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of Im- 
provement 191. 16 

July 1, 1905. balance unexpended 4, 185. 11 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project .38,000.00 

(See Appendix M 10.) 

12. New River, North Carolina. — Appropriations were made for the 
river in 1836, 1837, and 1838, after which no further appropriations 
were made until 1882, when $5,000 was appropriated. Another appro- 
priation of $5,000 was made in 1884, but since these amounts were con- 
sidered too small to justify undertaking the improvement no work 
was done until 1886, when still another appropriation of $10,000 was 
made. 

When improvement began in 1886 the governing low-water depth 
was 4 feet for a distance of 23 miles to Jacksonville, and the channel 
included two circuitous parts around Wrights Island and Cedar Bush 
Marsh. 



Digitized by 



Google 



248 BBPOKT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEEBS, U. 8. ABMT. 

The ori^nal project of 1886 was to dredge a cut 4 feet deep and 
100 feet wide through Wrights Island, and a second cut 4 feet deep 
and 150 feet wide through Cedar Bush Marsh. Both were completed, 
but the Cedar Bush Marsh cut deteriorated at the upper end and 
was abandoned, and the project of June 18, 1894, to obtain 4 feet 
depth around Cedar Bush Marsh by dredging and training wall was 
adopted and successfully carried out. 

The present project for the expenditure of the balance left from the 
project of June 18, 1894, is to expend such balance in rebuilding dike 
with oyster shells, in dredging to restore project width, and in neces- 
sary surveys. 

Amount expended to June 30, 1905 : 

For Improvement |29,628. 74 

For maintenance - 152. 84 

Total 29, 781. 58 

The project depth of 4 feet has twice been obtained and twice lost, 
through lack of maintenance. The project depth now exists, but in a 
channel so crooked as to be of little value. The tidal range of the 
inlet is about 3^ feet, and at the head of the marshes about 1 foot. 
The head of navigation for all practical purposes is Tar Landing, 3 
miles above Jacksonville, and 26 miles from the mouth of the river, to 
which a present depth of approximately 4 feet can be carried. 

The commerce for 1904 amounted to 5,812 tons, valued at approxi- 
mately $375,990, a decrease of 365 tons since the previous year. It 
consisted principally of naval stores, fish, lumber, cotton, and general 
merchandise. 

It is proposed to apply the available balance to rebuilding dike 
with oyster shells and dredging to restore the project width. 

References: Annual Reports, 1882, page 1117; 1886, page 992; 1891, 
page 1380; 1899, page 1501. Report on preliminary examination of 
New River, authorized by the river and harbor act of June 13, 1902, 
is printed in House Document No. 239, Fifty-eighth Congress, second 
session, and also as Appendix M 19 of Report of the Chief of Engi- 
neers for 1904. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended 4S3, 231. 49 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during flseal year, for maintenance of 

improvement 12. 97 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 3,218.52 

(See Appendix M 11.) 

13. Northeast and Blnck rivers, and Cape Fear River ahove Wil- 
mington, N. C. — (a) Northeast River. — Distance from mouth to Ban- 
nerman's bridge, 48 miles; to Hallsville, 88 miles; to Kornegay's 
bridge, the head of navigation, 103 miles. 

The original condition when improvement l)egan was a channel 
badly obstructed by logs, snags, and overhanging trees. The river 
was navigable to Banncrmaivs bridge, with governing low-water 
depth of 6 feet. 

The original project of 1889 is still in force and includes the clear- 
ing of the natural channel for small steamers to Hallsville and for 
pole boats to Kornegay's bridge, at an estimated cost of $30,000. 

Additional work proposed is for maintenance only. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVKB AND HARBOB IMPB07EMENTS. 249 

Amount expended on present project : 

For Improvement $10,687.96 

For maintenance 8,815.83 

Total 19. .503. 79 

During the year there was expended for maintenance $1,118.04, 
which inchides outstanding liabilities at the end of the year, resulting 
in the removal from the channel of 836 large snags, and from the 
banks 822 trees were cut and hauled back. 

The result obtained has been a cleared channel whenever funds 
were available, permitting navigation at all stages to Bannerman's 
bridge and during high water to Hallsville, the governing low-water 
depth being fi feet to Bannerman's bridge, 48 miles, and 3 feet thence 
to Groom's bridge, 8 miles farther, and 0.5 foot to Hallsville, 32 
miles, and 0.1 foot to Kornegay's bridge, 15 miles. 

From Bannerman's bridge to Kornegay's bridge, the head of navi- 
gation, the river is fo shallow that its navigation is dependent on 
ire.shets, which are liable to occur at any time, although during the 
summer low stages usually prevail. 

There is a tidal range of about 2 feet at the mouth of this .stream, 
which decreases to nothing at Bannerman's bridge. 

The channel is at present badly obstructed by snags above the 
sixty-eighth mile board. 

The commerce for 1904 amounted to 105.800 tons, estimated at ap- 
proximately $1,077,633, an increase of 3,(517 tons over previous year, 
and consisted principally of timber, naval stores, general merchandise, 
building material, fertilizers, cotton, and other farm products. 

References: Annual Reports, 1885, page 1123; 1890, page 1181; 
1895, page 1389, and 1896, page 1122. 

(6) Black River. — The original condition when improvement began 
was a natural channel cleared fairly to Point Caswell and roughly 
to Lisbon, with governing low-water depths of 4 feet to Point Cas- 
well, 2.5 feet to Haws Narrows, and 1.5 feet to Lisbon. 

The original project of 1885 included clearing the natural channel 
and banks to Lisbon and the cutting off of a few sharp points at 
bends. It was amended in May, 1893, by omitting that part of the 
river above Clear Run, and, as amended, was completed September 
20,1895. 

The existing project of 1894 is to maintain the natural channel to 
Clear Run, at an estimated cost of $2,000 per annum. 

Amonnt expended : 

On previous project, mentioned above $12,358.40 

On present project, for maintenance 8,326.65 

Total — 20, 685. 05 

During the year $1,022.41 was spent in maintenance, removing 
568 large snags from the channel, and 698 trees were cut and removed 
from the banks. 

The result obtained has been a cleared channel whenever funds 
were available, permitting navigation to Point Caswell, 24 miles 
above the mouth, at all stages, and to Clear Run, 66 miles above the 
mouth, at stages of 1.5 feet or higher above low water, the governing 
low-water depths at present being 5 feet to Point Caswell, 2.5 feet to 
Haws Narrows, 32 miles above the mouth, and 1.5 feet to Clear Run. 



Digitized by 



Google 



250 REPORT OF TH£ CHIEF OF EKOIITEEBS, U. S. ABICT. 

There is no steamboat navigation above Clear Run. Lisbon, 74 
miles from the mouth, is the head of navigation. The low-'wrater 
stages prevail usually from May to August, inclusive; during the 
rest of the year the stage is about 5 to 8 feet higher. 

The channel is at present badly obstructed by snags. 

No further work, excepting maintenance, is now proposed. 

The commerce during 1904 amounted to 72,6 < 7 tons, e.stiinated 
value, $1,223,759, a decrease of 1,446 tons as compared with 1903. 
It consisted principally of timber, general merchandise, naval stores, 
fertilizers, cotton, and other farm products. 

References: For history, see Annual Report for 1896, page 1125. 
For report on e.xamination, see Annual Reports for 1884, page 1061, 
and 1885, page 1145. 

(c) Cape Fear River above Wilmington^ N. C. — ^The original con- 
dition when work began was a channel badly obstructed above Kellys 
Cove by logs, snags, etc., and with governing low-water depths of 
•I feet to Kellys Cove and 1 foot to Fayetteville. 

The original project of Januarj' 26, 1881, was to clear the river to 
Fayetteville and obtain a continuous channel by jettying and dredg- 
ing; estimated in July, 1893, to cost $275,000 for a channel 4 feet deep 
to Elizabethtown, and 3 feet deep to Fayetteville. 

The existing project, adopted by act or June 13, 1902, is to obtain, by 
canalizing, a low-water depth of 8 feet to Fayetteville, at an estimated 
cost of $1,350,000. 

In consequence of this new project the former project has been 
abandoned, excepting for the maintenance of the natural channel, 
pending the construction of locks and dams. 

Amount expended on previous project : 

For Improvement $134,4.36. 96 

For maintenance 13, 769. 27 

Total 148. 206. 30 

Amount expended on present project (or Improvement by locks and 

dams 9,388.55 

At present the low-water depths are 8 feet to Kings Bluff, 38 miles 
above Wilmington; 2^ feet to Elizabethtown, 73 miles above Wil- 
mington; and 2 feet to Fayettevillej 115 miles above Wilmington. 
Owing to frequent freshets ho snaggmg has been done on this river 
since November, consequent!}' the channel, on the shoals, is badly 
obstructed by snags during low stagi's. There is no steamboat naviga> 
tion above Fayetteville, the head of navigation. Low-water stages 
prevail from 2 to 4 months during each summer, and freshets of 15 to 
50 feet occur about once a month, during the remainder of the year. 

The commerce for 1904 amounted to 150,016 tons, estimated value 
of $2,411,190, a decrea.se as compared with that of the previous year, 
of 6,676 tons; it consisted principally of timber, naval stores?, fertili- 
zers, general merchandise, cotton, and other farm products. 

The sum of $50,000 was appropriated b\' the act of June 13, 1902, 
for the purchase of suitable sites for locks and dams. The survey for 
the determination of the sites, in progress at the beginning or the 
fiscal year, was completed in Septemner, with the exception of investi- 
gating and purchasing sites, and putting in permanent bench marks. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPB0VEMENT8. " 251 

There was spent during the year for maintenance, $892.02, and on 
Ihe survey under the canalization project, $2,869.93; total $3,761.95. 

Eeferences: Annual Reports for 1872, page 742; 1881, page 1018; 
1901, page 1559, and 1904, page 1493. 

NOBTHKAST AND BLACK BI\'EBS, AND CAPE FEAB BIVEB ABO\X WILMINGTON. 

.Tuly 1, 1904, balaiK-e unexpended $;i,214. 80 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved Marcb 3, 
1905 9,000.00 

152, 214. 80 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for mainte- 
nance of Improvement 2,458.87 

July 1, 1905, balance uuexpended 9,755.93 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 573.60 

July 1, 1900, balance available 9,182.33 

CAFE FEAB BIVEB ABOVE WILMINGTON. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended f44, 303. 52 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of 
Improvement 3, 693. 07 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 40,610.45 

.Tuly 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 5.00 

July 1, 1905, balance available 40.605.45 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.. 1,300,000.00 
(See Appendix M 12.) 

H. Cape Fear River at and helow Wilmington, N. C. — ^The condi- 
tion of the river prior to the opening of New Inlet (which seems to 
have occurred during an equinoctial storm in 1761) is rather uncer- 
tain, but old maps indicate that there was a low-water depth of 14 
feet across the bar at the mouth, the least depth between Wilmington 
and the mouth being 7.5 feet. There is also some uncertainty as to 
the conditions in 1829, when the improvement was first undertaken 
by the United States, but the jnost reliable information is that there 
was then about 7 to 7.5 feet at low water in the river, about 9 feet in 
Baldhead channel, 9 feet in the Rip channel, and 10 feet at New Inlet. 
Work on the bar was first begun in 1853, at which time the bar depths 
at low water were 7.5 feet in Baldhead channel, 7 feet in Rip channel, 
and 8 feet at New Inlet, the governing low-water depths in the river 
having been increased to 9 feet. 

The original project of 1827 was to deepen, by jetties, the channel 
through the shoals m the 8 miles next below Wilmington. This proj- 
ect resulted in a gain of 2 feet available depth. The project of 1853 
was to straighten and deepen the bar channel by dredging, jettying, 
diverting flow from the New Inlet, and closing breaches in Zekes 
Island. This project was incomplete when the civil war began. 

After the civil war the first project was that of 1870, to deepen the 
bar channel by closing breaches between Smiths and Zekes islands, 
with the ultimate closure of New Inlet in view. The project of 1873 



Digitized by 



Google 



252 BEK)RT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOIXEERS, U. 8. ABXT. 

included that of 1870, and in addition the dredging of the bar chan- 
nel and closing of New Inlet. The project of 1874 was to obtain, by 
dredging, a channel 100 feet wide and 12 feet deep at low water up to 
Wilmington. The project of 1881 was to obtain, by dred^n^, 4 
channel 270 feet wide and 16 feet deep at low water up to Wilming- 
ton. These projects had been practically completed in 1889. 

The existing project, dated February 28, 1889 (see Annual Reports 
of Chief of Engineers for 1889, p. 1132), is to obtain a mean lo-w- 
water depth of 20 feet and a width of 270 feet from Wilmington to 
the ocean, at an estimated cost of $1,800,000. This project was modi- 
fied by act of June 13, 1902, to authorize the con.struction of mooring 
dolphins at Wilmington, at a cost of $30,000, and to provide for the 
removal of obstructions at mouth of Brunswick River, at an esti- 
mated cost of $1,000. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, appropriated $150,000 
for continuing the improvement, and provided, in addition, " That 
a contract or contracts may be entered into by the Secretary of War 
for such materials and work as may be neces.sary to prosecute said 
improvement, to be paid for as appropriations may from time to 
time be made by law, not to exceed in the aggregate three hundred 
thousand dollars, exclusive of the amounts herein and heretofore 
appropriated." No continuing contracts have, as yet, been made, 
however. The act also directs an examination to be made of this 
improvement with a view to determining whether any modifications 
therein are desirable. 

EXFENDITUBES. 

Prior to civil war $363,22&92 

Since civil war. on previous projects 2, 102,271.93 



2, 465. 500. 85 



On existing project to Jane 30, 1905, not Including outstanding 
liabilities : 

For Improvement 878,011.68 

For maintenance — 2.%, 347.22 



1, 113. 958. 90 

Of the expenditures during the year, $14,000 was for improvement 
and the remainder ($42,200.77) for restoration and maintenance, the 
expenditures for restoration being necessary on account of the great 
depreciation that had occurred between March, 1901, and September, 
1902, during which time there was no work on account of exhaustion 
of funds. As a result of these expenditures, the best conditions that 
had ever previously existed in the channels have been restored and 
maintained ; and, in addition, the lone shoal just below Wilmington, 
known as Alligator Creek shoal, has oeen widened from 148 feet to 
259 feet through 6,000 feet of its length, and to 222 feet through the 
remaining 3,800 feet of its length. The work of repairing the injuries 
sustained in 1899 by the New Inlet and swash-defense dams has been 
begim, and was progressing favorably at the end of the fiscal year. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AKD HASBOB IMPROVEMENTS. 



253 



The conditions on the shoals and bar at mean low water at the end 
of the fiscal year are shown by the following table : 



Name of shoal. 


Distance 

below 

WU- 

mington. 


Length. 


Width. 


Depth. 


Remarks. 


Wilmtiffton 


MOes. 


1.5 
8.0 

7.0 
9.5 
U.O 
1&5 
16.0 
19.0 
20.0 
80.0 


8,200 

9,800 

8,600 

16,700 
4,000 

17,200 
5,000 

14,600 
2,000 
9,000 
6,000 


Feet. 
210 

222-269 
185-222 

148 
148 
148 
148 
148 
148 
160 
IBa-300 


Feet. 
20 

20 
20 

20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
18-20 
20 


In addition an average width 
of 130 feet between cliannel 
and harbor lines has been dng 
20 feet deep. 

6,000 feet is 1S9 test wide, 3,800 


Alligator Creek 




feet is 222 feet wide. 
Upper 1,000 feet is 222 feet wide, 
lower 7.600 feet is 185 feet 
wide. Slight shoaling. 


Logs and Big Island 

fCtig TnlAnrl 


Lllllpnt 


Slight shoaling. 


Old Brunswick Cove 

Midniglit 


Beavee Point 






18-foot channel ISO feet wide. 


Ocean bar 











The total results obtained on the project up to the end of the fiscal 
year may be summarized as follows : 

At the ocean bar a 20- foot mean low-water channel exists from deep 
water inside to deep water outside, the width being 300 feet, excepting 
for a length of about 400 feet, where it is only 250 feet. 

From the ocean bar to Wilmington there is a 20-foot mean low- 
water channel, with a least width of 148 feet, excepting at Snows 
Marsh channel, where the depth is from 18 to 20 feet, with a narrow 
20- foot channel nearly throughout the shoal. 

The old Woodbuiy jetty, Duilt at the mouth of the river in 1853, 
but which had been flanked to such an extent as to be worse than use- 
less, has been removed to a depth of 25 feet, and the obstructions at 
the mouth of Brunswick River have been removed. 

The distance from the ocean bar to Wilmington is 30 miles, and the 
river is navigable 115 miles farther up, to Fayetteville, the head of 
navigation. 

The additional work proposed is the completion of the existing 
project. 

The commerce for 1904 amounted to 856,011 tons, an increase of 
12,674 tons over the preceding year, and consisted principally of 
cotton, naval stores, manufactured lumber and shingles, fertilizers, 
building material, coal, and general merchandise, the estimated value 
of whioi is $44,724,500. The gain in tonnage was more than seven 
times as great as the gain during the preceding year. The increase 
from 220,000 tons in 1869 is due to the improvement of the river. 

As a result of the improvement ve.ssels coming to Wilmington are 
much larger than formerly, the average tonnage in 1886 being 421, 
while in 1904 the average was 1,032. This increase in tonnage has 
caused a corresponding decrease in freight rates on shipments by 
water. 

Keferences: For special descriptions, see Annual Reports of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1873, page 44; 1887, page 1047; 1895, page 
1385 ; 1896, page 1131, and 1901, page 1552. 



Digitized by 



Google 



254 BEPORT OF THE OHIEF OF ENQIITEEBS, V. S. ABMT. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $00,413.13 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 150, 000. 00 
Amount received from rents and sales during fiscal year 1,932. 11 



212, 345. 24 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year : 

For works of Improvement $14,000.00 

For maintenance of improvement 42,200.77 

56,200.77 



July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 156,144.47 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 7. 299. 85 

July 1, 1905, balance available 148,844.62 



July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 5, 2SR. 00 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 835, 000. 00 



Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 
1907, for works of improvement, in addition to the balance unex- 
pended July 1, 1905 250,000.00 

Submitted In compliance with requirements of sundry civil act of 
June 4, 1807. 

(See Appendix M 13.) 

IMPROVEMENT OF WACCAMAW RIVER, NORTH CAROLINA AND SOOtH 
CAROLINA, AND OF CERTAIN RIVERS AND HARBORS IN SOOTH 
CAROLINA. 

This district was in the charge of Capt. G. P. Howell, Corps of 
Engineers. Division engineer, Lieut. Col. James B. Quinn, Corps 
of Engineers. 

1. Waccamaw River, North Carolina and South Carolina, and Little 
Pedee Biver, South Carolina. — («) Waccamaw River. — In 1880 this 
stream was navigable for 12-foot-draft boats at all stages of water 
from Georgetown, 23 miles, to Bull Creek, and at high water 4 miles 
farther, to Bucks lower mills; thence for 7-foot-drart boats, at high 
water, 22 miles farther, to Conway ; thence it possessed an obstructed 
channel for 3-foot-draft boats, at ordinary winter water, 68 miles, to 
Reeves Ferry; thence an obstructed channel, with 3 feet at high 
water, for 30 miles, to Lake Waccamaw. 

The project of improvement, adopted in 1880, provides for a chan- 
nel 12 feet deep at all stages of water, with 80 feet bottom width from 
the mouth of the river to Conway, thence a cleared channel to Lake 
Waccamaw. 

The original estimated cost was $29,370, which was revised in 1885 
and increased in the Annual Report of that year to the present figure, 
$138,400. In the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1886, 
page 170, maintenance is estimated at $4,000 per year after comple- 
tion of improvement. 

The total expenditure to June 30, 1905, was $112,457.73. The river 
had been cleared of sna^ to a distance of 128 miles above the mouth, 
and this portion of the river had been frequently resnagged as appro- 
priations permitted, 44,139 snags, etc., having been removed since 
June 30, 1884. Some work had been done toward increasing the 
original depth on eight shoals below Conway. As nearly as could be 
determined from tiie records, about $75,977.81 had been expended in 



Digitized by 



Google 



RIVEB AND HABBOB IMPB0VBMBNT8. 



255 



originally snagging the lower 128 miles of the river and in con- 
structing pile and plank dikes at eight shoals, and $34,135.27 in 
maintenance. 

Dredging was begun in 1903, 15,732 cubic yards having been re- 
moved, at a cost of $2,425.72. 

All the expenditures during th^ year were for maintenance. From 
the channel and banks 851 obstructions were removed. 

The available depths reported as now existing do not differ greatly 
from the original depths. At mean low water about 11 feet can be 
carried to Bucksville, 34 miles above the mouth; about 6 feet to 
Toddsville, 38^ miles ; about 5 feet to Conway, 50 miles ; about 2 feet 
to Wortham's bridge, 97 miles. At high water large side-wheelers 
can go to Red Bluff, 74 miles, and small boats to Reeves Ferry. 117 
miles. The usual variation in water level is about 7.5 feet at Conway. 
50 miles above the mouth, and about 12 feet at Star Bluff, 84 miles 
above the mouth. 

The tidal influence at low water extends 97 miles above the mouth. 

Commercial ^statist ivs. 





Year. 




Total 
tons. 


1887 


18M) - 1 


1890... 






67,195 
76,245 


1881 ... . 


1882 


83,UJ8 


18S8. . - - -- 


70,976 


18M... 






99,298 


1896 


128,466 
208,888 


1S96... 













Valne. 



Year. 



Total 
tons. 



12,129,231.75 1897 241,300 

2,308,915.00 189S 258,191 

2,817,388.50, 189B <fr6,822 

2,231,112.00 'i 1900 1 487,887 

2,178,389.00 1 1901 1 308,655 

2,OB5,548.00 I 1802 , 141,686 

2,120,864.01) 19(B I 14S,813 

2,(Wi,897.00 '1 1904 1 190,435 

2,814,176.00 ' I 



Valne. 



406,880.00 
666,280.00 
135,214.00 
481,072.00 
835,700.00 
844,019.00 
884, 700. Ul 
119,040.00 



Prior to the year 1902 the commerce on the Great Pedee River has 
lieen included, as it is carried over the lower 22 miles of the Wacca- 
maw River to get to Georgetown. 

The ves.sels engaged in traffic on this river are steamers and tug- 
boats of from 10 to 550 tons, seagoing schooners of from 300 to 500 
tons, pole boats, rafts, etc. The additional work proposed is neces- 
sary to make the improvement available. It is intended to obtain a 
6- foot channel below Conway, and afterwards to maintain the present 
cleared channel above Conway, dredging at a few of the snoalest 
places. No new line of transportation was established during the 
year. For references to examinations and surveys see page 246, An- 
nual Report of the Chief of J^ngineers, 1904. 

The sum of $9,000 has been allotted for this work from the appro- 
priation for improving Waccamaw River, North Carolina and South 
Carolina, and Little Pedee River, South Carolina, act of June 13, 
1902, and $13,800 from the appropriation made in act of March 3, 
1905. 

(&) Little Pedee River. — ^The river in its original cpndition was 
much obstructed by snags and overhanging trees and by 10 bridges 
without draws. In places it was divided into several branches, in 
none of which was there a good channel. 

Under the plan of improvement adopted in 1888 it is proposed to 
snag the river and close unnecessary branches, providing for steam- 
boat navigation up to the mouth of Lumber River, 65 miles, and for 



Digitized by 



Google 



256 BEPOET OK THE CHIEF OF ENOINEEES, U. 8. ARMY. 

pole-boat navigation 48 miles farther, to Little Rock, at an estimated 
cost of $50,000. 

The total expenditures to June 30, 1905, were $23,592.70. The 
river had been well snagged up to the mouth of Lumber River ajid 
roughly cleared for pole-boat navigation to Little Rock. No work 
had been done toward increasing the original depths. As nearly as 
could be determined from the records, about $19,549.99 had been 
expended in originally snagging the river, and about $4,042.,71 in 
maintenance. 

All the expenditure during the fiscal year was for maintenance. 
From the channel 1,180 obstructions and from the banks 336 trees and 
59 J cords of brush were removed. 

The available depths now existing do not probably differ greatly 
from the original depths. The usual variation in water level at Gil- 
christ bridge, about 65.5 miles above the mouth, is about 9.5 feet. . 

Commercial statistics. 



Year. 


Total 
1 tons. 


Value. 


Year. 


Total 
tons. 


Value. 


1891 


4,614 

1 7,115 

! 6,1.53 

8,:i75 

12,4:« 

17,060 

13,162 


. $52,760 
92,964 
lO^S.* , 
114,600 
117,470 1 
198,500, 
100,400 


1898 . 


11,900 
16,685 

23,780 
61,460 
67,060 
77,750 
88,100 


1106,760 


1892 


1899 


144,787 


1893 


1900 


173,500 


1894 


1901 


399,000 


1895 


1902 


416 000 


1896 


1903 


660, son 
646 010 


1897 


1904.... 









Two vessels ply on the river as far as Gallivant's Jbridge, 47 miles 
above its mouth ; the river is probably navigable at its mean low-water 
stage for boats with 3-foot draft as far as Gallivant's bridge. One 
new line of transportation was established during the year. 

The additional work proposed is necessary to make the improve- 
ment available. 

For outline map of river see page 1214, Annual Report of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1890. For preliminary examination and survey see 
page 1111, Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1887. 

The sum of $1,500 has been allotted for this work from the appro- 
priation for improving Waccamaw River, North Carolina and South 
Carolina, and Little Pedee River, South Carolina, act of June 13, 
1902, and $1,200 from the appropriation made in act of March 3, 
1905. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $804. 58 

Amount appropriated by river and harlior act apprtn-ed March .S, 1905. 15, 000. 00 

15, 804. 58 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance 
of Improvement 1,455.01 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 14,349.57 

July 1, 1905. outstanding liabilities 732. 19 

July 1, 1905, balance available 13, 617. 38 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 76, 100. 00 

(See Appendix N 1.) 

2. Great Pedee River, South Carolina. — The river in its or^nal 
condition was dangerously obstructed by logs everywhere. Boats 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AITD HABBOB IMFBOVEMENTS. 



257 



drawing 9 feet of water were able to reach Smith Mills, 52 miles 
above tne mouth. Those drawing 3| feet could get 54 miles farther 
up at low water, to Little Bluff, or at high water to Cheraw, 172 miles 
from the mouth. 

The project of improvement adopted in 1880 provides for a thor- 
oughly cleared 9- foot navigation to Smith Mills and a 3^-foot naviga- 
tion to Cheraw at all stages of water. 

The original project contained no estimate of cost. From 1880 to 
1886, inclusive, $47,000 was appropriated. In the Annual Report of 
the Chief of Engineers for 1886, page 170, it was estimated that 
$70,000 in addition to this $47,000 would complete the improvement, 
and that $5,000 a year would be required for maintenance. 

A project for the improvement of the upper river (the 64 miles 
between Cheraw and the bridge of the Wilmington, Columbia and 
Augusta Railroad) was adopted in 1902. (See Annual Report of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1901, p. 1607.) This project provides for 
obtaining, by snagging and dredging, a cleared channel, with a least 
depth of 3^ feet at mean low water, at a cost of $118,300; and the 
work was placed in the continuing-contract class. A total of $77,000 
has been appropriated, but no work has yet been done. 

The total expenditures to June 30, 1905, were $157,460.78. The 
river had been well cleared of snags from the mouth to the Wilming- 
ton, Columbia and Augusta RaUroad bridge, 108 miles, and less 
thoroughly snagged between the bridge and Cheraw, 40,918 snags, 
ete., having been removed since June 30, 1884. No work had been 
done toward increasing original depths. 

As nearly as could be determined by the records, about $78,919.13 
had been expended in originally clearing the river of snags and in 
preliminary examination and survey made in 1900, and about 
$41,758.60 m maintenance. 

The expenditure for maintenance during the fiscal year resulted in 
removing about 329 obstructions from the river. 

The present available depths are believed to be not far different 
from those originally existing, though there are a large number of 
shoals above the bridge on which the depth at low water is less than 

H feet. 

At mean low water 8 feet can be carried to Smith Mills, 52 miles 
above the mouth; about 3 feet to the Wilmington, Columbia and 
Augusta Railroad bridge, 108 miles above, and about 2 feet to Cheraw, 
the head of navigation, 172 miles above. 

The usual variation in water level is 16.4 feet at Smith Mills and 
34.2 feet at Cheraw. 

Commercial statigtic». 



1881 «,8«4 

1898 «,471 

UBB M.em 



18M. 
IMS. 

nat. 

1807. 



Total 
tons. 



im,ii6 
iu,m 



VBlne. 



11,807,880 
1,401,088 
1, 188,874 I 

806,480 1 
1,825,00 
1,167,814 I 



Tour. 



1896 
1899 
1900 
ISOl 
1908 
1908 
1904 



Total 
tons. 



75,280 
184,078 
1(4,727 
188,912 
188,006 
158,014 
188,586 



Talne. 



11,888,885 
1,698.709 
8,645,860 
8,811,080 
l,828,<m) 
1,888,769 
1,607,181 



KJtO 1906 M- 



-17 



Digitized by 



Google 



258 RBPOBT OF THE OHIBF OF KNGimEEBS, V. 8. ABICY. 

The vessels engaged in traffic on this river are steamers of 400 tons 
and less, seagoing schooners, pole boats, rafts, etc. One new line of 
transportation has been established during the past year. 

The additional work proposed is necessary to make the improve- 
ment available and for the extension of the benefits. 

For references to examinations and surveys, see page 249, Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1904. 

Available funds and additional appropriation reconmiended will 
be applied to maintaining the general unprovement and in obtaining 
the channel in the upper river. 

July 1, 1904. balance unexpended $61,777.38 

Amount appropriated by sundry civil act approved March 3, 1905_- 15,000.00 
Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1906- 5. 000.00 

81, 777. 38 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year : 

For works of Improvement $34,526.61 

For maintenance of Improvement 711.55 

35, 23a 16 



July 1. liXtT), balance unexijended 46,539.22 

•July 1. 1805, outstanding liabilities 4. 737. .39 



July 1, 1005, bulance available 41,801.83 



July 1. 1!H)5. amount covere«l by umwuipleted contracts 3,513.30 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 41,300.00 



Amount that can lie profitably exi)ended in fiscal year ending .Tune 30. 
1907, for works of improvement. In addition to the balance unex- 
l)ended July 1, 1905 20,000.00 

Submitted in compliance with requirements of sundry civil act of 
June 4, 1897. 

(See Appendix N 2.) 

J. Winyah Bay, South, Carolina. — This large bay is connected with 
the ocean by a pa.ssage between the shores of North and South islands 
'2i miles long, 1 mile wide at the bay, three-fourths mile wide at the 
gorge, and 1^ miles wide at the ocean, or southeasterly end of North 
Island. Through the passage, whicli trends north-northwest and 
south-southeast, there was a bold channel 36 feet deep at the bay, 
retaining a depth of not less than 20 feet until about 3,000 feet south- 
erly from the end of North Island and of not less than 15 feet to a 
point about 1 mile south of the island, where the channel divided into 
two. One of these two channelsj known as Main channel, continued 
HJ miles farther, through extensive shoals, to the 18-foot contour in 
the ocean. This channel was south-southeast, and in alignment with 
the main channel through the straits. The other, known as Bottle 
channel, after flowing about 2,500 feet southea.sterly, 1,500 feet east- 
erly, and about 3,000 feet northeasterly, reached the 18-foot contour in 
the ocean at a distance of about 1^ miles in a direction from the point 
of separation from the main ship channel almost at right angles with 
the direction of that channel and of the channel through the passage. 
At mean low water the depth on the crest of the bar was variable in 
both channels and alwut 7 to 9 feet in the Main channel and 6 to 8 
feet in Bottle channel. The mean range of tide is 3i feet. 

The present ])roject, adopted in 1889, provides for the construction 
of two jetties, springing, respectively, from North and South idands 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IHPBOVEMENT8. 



259 



and converging toward the bar, the jetties to consist of mattress foun- 
dation and a superstructure of lai^ riprap stone raised to a hei^t of 
6 feet above mean low water, the south jetty to extend due east across 
the bar and the north jetty to converge toward it, so as to produce 
the necessary contraction on the bar. The depth to be secured is 15 
feet at mean low water. The river and harbor act of June 3, 1896, 
authorized the completion of the work under continuing-contract sys- 
tem, at a cost not exceeding $1,996,250, in addition to the $20,000 
appropriated by the act. A total of $1,923,500 has been appro- 
priated by sundry civil acts .since that date. The project was ex- 
tended by the river and harbor act approved June 13, 1902, to permit 
dredging at the shoal places in Winyan Bay, between the entrance and 
the city of Georgetown, S. C, over which the least channel depths 
might at any time be less than at the entrance to the bay, provided 
that the expenses of this dredging, added to that of improving the 
entrance to the bay, should not exceed the total amount authorized 
under the continuing-contract system. 

The total expenditures to June 30, 1905, were $2,160,746,67, of 
which $428,750 was appropriated prior to June 3, 1896. For main- 
tenance, $3,540.20 has been spent. The jetty work, which since June 
3, 1896, had been under a continuing contract, had been completed. 
The north jetty extends a distance.ot 11,139 feet from the shore end, 
with crest from 4-J to 6 feet above mean low water, except the outer 
100 feet, which is submerged. The south jetty extends a distance of 
21,051 feet from the shore end, with cres-t at heights varying from 10 
feet above mean low water at the inner end to nothing at the outer 
end. The stone superstructure has practically no top width. The 
seagoing suction dredge Winyah Bay has been built, and this dredge 
and the similar dredge Charleston have removed 1,123,132 cubic 
yards of material from the entrance channel and 286,735 cubic yards 
of material from the eastern channel in upper Winyah Bay. Spur 
dikes have been built to protect the South Island beach. A mud aike 
has been built from the high land on South Island to the high land 
near the Santee River to prevent the tides from cutting around the 
shore end of the south jetty, and the stone work of the jetty has been 
extended about 2,600 feet by a work of sheet piling covered with mud 
to connect with this dike. The expenditure for maintenance during 
theyear was for sodding the mud dike. 

The controlling entrance depth is 15 feet at mean low water. The 
maximum draft that can be carried from Georgetown through Win- 
yah Bay to the sea is 13 feet at mean low water. The mean range of 
tide is 3^ feet 

The additional work proposed is for the extension of benefits. 

Commercial statUtica. 



Tear. 



1881. 

use. 

18SB. 
UM. 
Ue8. 

vsn. 
uoe 



Total 
tons. 


Value. 


Ml,8n) 
271,186 
»e,640 
«B,8S 
171,069 
1«,374 
1S,0(» 


ti,m\,9aa 






6,ai8,!«) 

5,817,960 
6,587,880 



Tear. 



1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1906 
19M 



Total 
tons. 



U0,687 
129,639 
247,989 
887,471 
888,502 
889,774 



Value. 



16,887,868 
6,7«,4a8 
8,467,906 
9,810,689 
9,869.581 
9,546,848 



Digitized by 



Google 



260 BEFOBT OF THB CHIEF OF ENOINEEBS, U. S. ARMY. 

The vessels using the entrance channel are steamers of 1,850 tons 
and less and sailing vessels of various kinds. The freight carried is 
principally lumber, naval stores, and general merchandise. There 
are two lines of steamships plying between Georgetown and northern 
ports. No new line of transportation has been established during 
the year. The water rate on lumber, the chief export, has decreased 
from $6.50 per thousand feet B. M., in 1892, to $4.12^, in 1905, 

For references to examinations and surveys see page 250, Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1904. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended ^ $247,178.35 

Amount appropriated by sundry civil act approved Marcb3', 1905 75, 000. 00 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 10, 000. 00 
Received for rent of dredge 5,670.00 

337, 848. 36 
June 30, 1905, cmount expended during fiscal year : 

Treasury settlement $10.15 

For works of Improvement 107,3(55.91 

For maintenance of improvement 3,240.20 

110, 010. 20 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 227,232.09 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities , 9, 000. 79 

July 1. 1905, balance available 218.225.30 

July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contractu. . . 3,513.30 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 72,750.00 

(See Appendix N 3.) 

Jf. Santee, Wateree, and Congaree rivers, and KutherviJle-Miniin 
Creek Canal, South Carolina. — (a) Santee Rioer and Esthermlh- 
Minim Creek Canal. — This river in its original condition was con- 
siderably obstructed at all stages of water by sunken logs and snags. 
Its bar entrance was narrow, crooked, and shifting, with only about 
4 feet of water at low tide, and so situated as to be difficult anJ expen- 
sive to improve. 

The original project, adopted in 1880, contemplated providing an 
outlet for the river into Wmyah Bay by constructing a winal from 
the river through Mosquito Creek into the bay. (Vn this project 
there was expended $99,750. 

The present project, adopted in 1880, coiitemplat«.s pi-ovidinj? a 
more satisfactory outlet into the bay by cutting a canal 70 feet wide 
and 6 feet deep at mean low M-ater fixnii the Esthcrvillc plantation 
t6 Minim Creek and for snagging the entire river. The estimatwl 
cost is $350,000, not including the amount expended under the original 
project. 

The total expenditures under the present project to June 30, 1905, 
were $186,439.95, of which about $14,254.63 w^s for maintenance. 
The first cut of the canal had been made entirely through, and this 
had been widened through a portion of its length. From the Santee 
River proper 1,809 obstructions had been removed. 

All the expenditure during the fiscal year was for maintenance; 
10.978 cubic yards-of materialand 68 obstructions were removed from 
the canal, and 213 obstructions were removed from the river proper. 

Except at the Winyah Bay end, where on account of the softness of 
the banks the width has been reduced to 40 feet and the depth to 4 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS. 



261 



feet, the canal is nowhere less than 50 feet wide and 5 feet deep. The 
mean rise of tide at the canal is about 3^ feet. The least available 
depth in Santee River is about 4 feet at low water. The usual varia- 
tion in water level at the Atlantic Coast Line bridge, about 54i miles 
above the mouth, is about 19 feet, and at its junction with the Wateree 
and Congaree rivers, 143 miles above the mouth, about 20 feet. The 
river is navigable its entire length. 

Commerr'ial statistics. 



Year. 



ToUI 
tons. 



Value. 



1891 100,»6 

lane 110,688 

1888 184,188 

1894 U5,4S8 

1896 in.tW) 

1806 1 184,135 

18B7 184,806 



$8,743,000 
8,775,800 
8,879,600 
8, 875, COO 
8,884,800 
8,804,600 
8,150,940 



Value. 




The vessels using the river and canal are steamers of from 10 to 500 
tons, small sailing craft, pole boats, rafts, etc. No new line of trans- 
portation has been established during the fiscal year. 

The additional work propc^ed is necessary to make the improve- 
ment available and for extending the benefits. 

For references to examination and surveys and other information 
concerning the work, see page 252, Annual Report of the Chief of 
Engineers, 1904. 

The sum of $22,000 has been allotted for this work from the appro- 
priation for improving Santee, Wateree, and Congaree rivers, South 
Carolina, act of June 13, 1902, and $25,000 from the appropriation 
made in act of March 3, 1905. 

(&) Wateree River. — In its original condition this stream had a 
low-water depth of from 3 to 4 feet from its mouth, 67 miles, to Cam- 
den. The lower 14 miles was completely blocked at all stages of 
water by logs, snags, etc., and at moderate stages by the bridges of 
the South Carolina and the Wilmington, Columbia and Augiista.rail- 
roads, then without drawspans; thence to Camden navigation was 
possible, but dangerous, except during high water. Its commerce 
was practically nothing. 

The present project of improvement, adopted in 1881, provides for 
safe and unobstructed 4-foot navigation for steamers from Camden 
to the mouth, at an estimated cost of $60,000. 

TTie appropriation of September 19, 1890, completed the estimate 
for the project, but appropriations have since been made for main- 
tenance. The work is one of snagging only, and, as snags are contin- 
ually lodging, it is not susceptible of completion. Snagging work 
should be done annually in order to keep the channel open. 

The total expenditures to June 30, 1905, were $72,373.30. To June 
30, 1900, the river had been kept fairly clear of obstructions from the 
mouth to Camden. Since June 30, 1884, 24,912 obstructions had been 
removed, the records prior to that date not giving number removed. 

The only expenditure during the fiscal year was for work in con- 
nection with new plant for this improvement, and is properly charge- 
able against maintenance. 



Digitized by 



Google 



262 RKPOBT Olf THE CHIEF OP KKOIKKERS, V. 8. ARICT. 

So far as known the available depths new existing do not differ 
greatly from the original depths. The usual variation in water level 
IS about 17 feet at a point aoout 4 mil&s above the mouth and about 
28.5 feet at Camden, 67 miles above the mouth. 

Commercial statittiea. 



Teu-. 


Tatel 
tons. 


Value. 


Tear. 

• 


Total 
tons. 


Valne. 


1881 


1,006 
8,244 
6,248 
18,076 
81,687 
86,008 
43,770 


161,810 
86,040 
117,788 ' 
94,834 
187,866 
888,686 
802,800 


1888 


88,668 
100,170 
88,084 
10,417 
• 48,676 
41,0SU 
16,600 


1274,060 
872,200 

166 non 


1888 


1889 


18W 


1900 


1804 


1901 


60,000 


1886 


1802 


92,600 
87,000 


1886 


1908 


1887 


1904 


29,700 







Rafting is the only business done on this river. No new line of 
transportation was established during the year. 

The additional work proposed is necessary to make the improve- 
ment available. 

For references to examinations and surveys see page 253, Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers, 1904. 

The sura of $2.5,000 has been allotted for this work from the appro- 
priation for improving Santee, Wateree, and Congaree river.s. South 
Carolina, act of March 3, 1905. 

(c) Congaree River {open-channel work). — In 1886 this stream in 
its original condition haa a low-water depth of 3 to 4 feet from its 
mouth to the railroad bridge at Columbia, thence 1 foot low-water 
depth 2 miles farther to its head. The navigation of the lower 47 
miles was blocked at all stages of water by the South Carolina Rail- 
road bridge and by sunken logs, snags, and overhanging trees. The 
navigation of the remaining 2 miles was prevented by swift currents 
and numerous rock ledges and bowlders. Its commerce was nothing. 

The project of improvement, adopted in 1886, proposes to secure a 
thoroughly cleared 4-foot navigation over the lower 47 miles at all 
stages of water and a cleared channel 100 feet wide through the 
ledges and bowlders above, at an estimated cost of $54,500. 

The total expenditures to June 30, 1905, were $35,875.49. The 
channel had been thoroughly snagged from the mouth to Granby, 2 
miles below Columbia. A total of 11,119 obstructions had been 
removed below Granby. As nearly as can be determined from the 
records, about $19,523.82 had been expended in originally snagging 
the river and about $16,351.67 in maintenance. AH the expenditure 
during the fiscal year was for maintenance. One hundred and sixty- 
two obstructions were removed from the stream. 

So far as known the available depths now existing do not differ 
greatly from the original depths. 

About 4 feet can be carried at mean low water to Granby, the 
present head of navigation. The usual variation in water level at a 
point 2 miles above the mouth is about 24.3 feet and at Columbia 
about 33.2 feet 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS. 



263 



Commercial statittien. 



Year. 



un. 

18tt. 
1818. 
1884. 
1816.. 
18W. 
1807.. 



Total 
t<nui. 

£,401 
8,«8e 
2,781 
7, 074 
8,988 
18,807 
40,8S7 


Value. ' 

847,840 

tt,a« 

71, U5 
40, 7W 
45,7U0 
178,000 1 
110, ll» 



Year. 



Total 
tons. 



11*8 8i,aae I t8oi,7oo 

1889 88,686 1 191,700 

ISCO 121,868' 197,000 

ISOI 14,688 7U,(X» 

1908 68,076 lai.fiUO 

1908 1 114,810 871,400 

1804 ; 43,(185 98,900 



I Value. 



I 



Rafting is the principal business on the river. No new line of 
transportation was established during the fiscal year. 

The additional work proposed is necessary to make the improve- 
ment available. 

For preliminary examination and survey, see page 1140, Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1885. For outline map of 
river, see page 1194, Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 
1889. 

The sum of $5,000 has been allotted for this work from the appro- 
priation for improving Santee, Wateree, and Congaree rivers. South 
Carolina, act oi June 13, 1902, and $25,000 from the appropriation 
for lock and dam in Congaree River as authorized by the river and 
harbor act of March 3, 1905. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $9,480.40 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act iipproved Mnrcli ."{, 1905. .V), (XJO. (K» 
Amount trnnsferreil from Conftaree Ulver 2.5, (KM). 00 



S4. 480. 49 
June 30, 1905. amount expended during flscal year, for malntenanoo 
of Improvement 5, (55.'!. 73 



July 1, 1905. balance unexpended 78,824.7(5 

July 1. 1905, outstandluK llabilttiea 1 21. 9(; 



July 1, 1905, balance available 78,802.80 



— l.-.2,000.00 



Amount (estimated) required for completion of existinK project. 
(See Appendix N 4.) 

6. Congaree River, South Carolina, from Gervais Street Bridge, 
Columbia, to Granby. — For original condition of this portion of the 
river, see preceding report on Congaree River, South Carolina. 

Pursuant to House resolution dated December 15, 1893, a project 
and estimate were submitted January 2, 1894, for extending steam- 
boat navigation from Granby to Gervais Street Bridge, Columbia, by 
the construction of a lock and movable dam near Granby. This docu- 
ment and a letter concerning it are printed on pages 1182-1189, An- 
nual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1896. 

The nver and harbor act approved March 3, 1899, appropriated 
$50,000 for be^nning this work, and authorized continuing contracts 
to be made for its completion, at a total cost not exceeding $200,000 in 
addition to the $50,000 appropriated. Three appropriations, aggre- 
gating $200,000, have since been made for this work, completing the 
amount authorized by the act. The river and harbor act approved 
March 3, 1905, appropriating for improving Santee, Wateree, and 



Digitized by 



Google 



264 BBFOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGHrSBBS, U. S. ABMY. 

Congaree rivers and the Estherville-Minim Creek Canal, contained 
the provision : 

Tbe Secretary of War may expend upon sucb ImproTement the nnexpended 
balance of the appropriation heretofore made for a lock and dam In the Congaree 
Elver provided for by tbe act of March third, eighteen hundred and ninety-nine. 

The total expenditures to June 30, 1905, were $204,353.94. The 
necessary land had been acquired and lock keeper's house and other 
buildings constructed. A contract for constructing the lock and dam 
abutment, except metal work, at a total cost, based on estimated quan- 
tities, of $77,621, was approved October 20, 1900, the contract time 
for completion being January 30, 1902. Owing to the unusual num- 
ber of freshets an extension of time was granted. During the fiscal 
year 1904 the contract was completed. The lock irons and gate mem- 
bers were purchased under a contract approved August 10, 1901. 
They had all been delivered. The gates had been built oy hired labor 
and had been hung. 

Contract was made October 2, 1902, for building the movable dam, 
376 feet long, of Chanoine wickets. During the nscal year 1904 the 
dam was completed, the last of the wickets and trestles being placed 
in position on June 30, 1904. During the past year work has been in 
progress of clearing the channel above the lock of obstructions, mostly 
rock ledges and bowlders. 

There is no navigation at present on this portion of the river. The 
additional work proposed is necessary to make the improvement avail- 
able. The usual range of water level at Columbia is about 33.2 feet. 

A steamboat to run between Columbia and Georgetown, S. C, is in 
process of construction. Connection will be made at Greorgetown with 
the Clyde Line steamers for New York. A reduction of 20 per cent 
in freight rates is expected. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $87, 782. .33 

June 30, 1906, amount expended during fiscal year : 

For works of Improvement $42,136.27 

Transferred to Ckingaree River Improvement by open- 
channel work 25,000.00 

67, 13a 27 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 20,646.06 

July 1, 1005, outstanding liabilities 942. 95 

July 1, 1905, balance available 19, 703. 11 

(See Appendix N 5.) 

6. Inland waterways between Charleston Harbor, Sauth Carolina, 
and opposite McClellanville. — These waterways consist of a series of 
creeks, sounds, rivers, and bays, which afford a route sheltered for the 
most part from the sea by the numerous islands which form the outer 
coast line. The route is tidal throughout, the range of tide varying 
from about 4.6 to 5.3 feet. It is now obstructed by a number of ^af- 
low reaches and narrow, crooked passages, particularly at points 
where the tides meet. The passage across Bulls Bay, besides being 
very shallow, is much exposed. The present commerce is compara- 
tively small, as only very small vessels can get through without ex- 
cessive delays. 



Digitized by 



Google 



RIVER AND HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS. 265 

The river and hsrbor act approved June 13, 1902, contains the fol- 
lowing item : 

Improving the Inland waterways between Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, 
and opposite McClellanvllle, In accordance with the report submitted by the 
Chief of Engineers, March twenty-sixth, nineteen hundred and two. fifty tliousand 
dollars, the same to be expended at tlie end of the route from Charleston north- 
ward in procuring a channel of four feet depth and sixty feet lx>ttom width: 
Provided, That all land required for the same shall be reiinqnislied free of cost 
to the Government 

The total estimated cost of improvement to the dimensions stated is 
$125,290, the work to consist of improving present channels and of 
avoiding certain crooked and dangerous sections by canals. 

The titles to the land required have 'been obtained. Actual work 
will be begun during the coming fiscal year. 

For references to reports of examinations and surveys, see page 256, 
Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1904. 

Commercial statistics. 



Year. 


Torn. 


Value. 


19U8 


as, 344 
W,(IM 


tSTV.fiSO 


lOM 


678, i7« 







The additional work proposed is for the extension of benefits. 
July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $50,000.00 



July 1, 1905, balance unexpended .W. 000. 00 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities • 221.80 

July 1, 1905, balance available 49, 778. 20 



Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 75, 290. 00 

(See Appendix N 6.) 

7. Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. — There were originally four 
channels across the bar, the deepest having about 12 feet depth at low 
water. Commerce was then using the Pumpkin Hill channel, about 
3 miles south of the present jetty channel. Where the present jetty 
channel is situated there was then the Swash channel, with a best 
depth of 10^ feet of water, too crooked for safe use. The natural 
channels were shifting in position and variable in depth. 

The original project, adopted in 1878, provided for establishing 
and maintaining, by means of two jetties and auxiliary dredging, a 
low-water channel of not less than 21 feet depth across the bar. The 
Swash channel was selected for improvement. The estimated cost 
was $3,000,000. 

In 1888 it became necessary to modify the height of the crest line 
of the jetties and to revise the estimate. This increase in the estimate 
was largely due to the fact that money had been appropriated so 
slowly that reasonable contract prices could not be obtained. The 
annual appropriation up to that time had been only 5^ per cent of the 
original estimate. In tne revised project the jetties were increased in 
height and length, but no change was made in their position or dis- 
tance apart, llie revised estimates were $4,380,500 if t^e jetties were 



Digitized by 



Google 



266 BBPOBT OF THK CHIEK OK KNOINEBKS, U. 8. ABMT. 



brought up to low-water level throughout, and $5,334,500 if brought 
up 3 feet higher. The former estimate was adopted by Congress in 
the river and harbor act approved July 13, 1892. 

The present project, adopted by the river and harbor act approved 
March 3, 1899, provides for obtaining a channel at the entrance to 
Charleston Harbor not less than 26 feet deep at mean low water (mean 
range of tide about 5.2 feet) and 600 feet wide, by constructing a 
large seagoing suction dredge, at a cost of not exceeding $150,000, 
and operating her, together with the existing dredge Charleston, for 
three years. The estimated cost of constructing the new dredge and 
operating this dredge as above was $285,000. Of this amount, 
$175,00 had been appropriated prior to the enactment of the river 
and harbor act of June 13, 1902, which made available an additional 
sum of $208,000, increasing to $383,000 the amount authorized for 
the project for the new dredge and its operation. 

The new dredge. General Abbot, was completed and placed in oper- 
ation on the work during the year. Details of construction are given 
in Appendix H 7, herewith. 

The total expenditures to June 30, 1905, were $4,536,083.89, includ- 
ing about $2,500 expended at Sullivans Island and $10,000 at Mount 
Pleasant. Of this amount, $4,172,500 had been expended on the orig- 
inal project and on maintenance. 

The jetties had been completed ; a channel 21 feet deep at mean low 
water had been obtained in 1898; during the fiscal year 1903 the 
project depth of 26 feet at mean low water was obtained, but the 
channel was narrow; during the present year the width has been 
increased until it is not less than 400 feet at any point. The mean 
tidal range is 5.2 feet. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, authorizes the Secretary 
of War, in his discretion, to cause the new dredges employed on this 
work to be utilized at such times as they are not employed in dredg- 
ing on the outer bar for dredging in the channels Ix'tween said outer 
bar and th3 city of Charleston. 

For references to examinations and surveys and to projects, see page 
257, Annual Beport of the Chief of Engineers for 1904. 



COMMEBCIAL STATISTICS. 

[Furnisbed by the collector of customs.] 

Foreign commerce. 



Year. 



gsteres- 

istered 

tons. 



18H9 

vm 

1881 
IMK 

isgs 

IHB4 
1«B 
1808 



ni.ans 

274. IM 

m,«n 

198,896 
208, 16e 
140,088 
1SS,8» 



Valne. 



tie, 744,861 
16,0(1,397 
23,110,664 
11,829,607 
11,840,129 
11,560,372 
10, .'186,326 
11.786,846 



Year. 



Aggre- 
gate res- 
istered 
tons. 



1897 
1898 
1KUU 
lUUO 
1801 
1B02 

leoB 

1804 



226,760 
214,180 
174,625 
l.'S0,«31 

141, nn 

210,068 
142,196 
146,968 



Valne. 



$12,10n.7«3' 
10,988.250 
6,86ri, 168 
11,1?>.'.I10 

6,27r.,T.-,7 
7,09^.,:.'>,^ 

6,23r,,n8 

6, lot 1, 285 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOR IMPROVEMENTS. 



2H7 



Commerce through Charlerton , Harbor, ocean entrattce. 



Yau-. 


Total iin- 
ports knd 
exports. 


V»lne. 


1«B .' 

tKB 


Tont. 
784,8U 
as. 046 

685, «oe 

880, MB 


|a>,4M,5U 
8t, 746, 907 


ttm 


47,SH,1£7 


aM 


W,m,8M 







Regarding effect on freight rates since improvement beoan in 1878. 
ihe only change that seems due to the improvement is a lowering of 
about 12i cents per ton on business done by coastwise sailing vessels. 

The vessels using the entrance channel are steamers, sailing vessels, 
barges, etc. The steamers of the regular lines number 15. The busi- 
ness of the Clyde Steamship Company has been done by 13 vessels. 

The additional work proposed is for extension of benefits. 

Jnly 1. 1904. balance unexpended 1157,094.76 

Itvcelvetl for rent of dredge Charleston, from Saranoab, Ga., office 2, 240. 00 

Received from auction sales SHW.iHl 

Amoont appropriated by sundry civil act approved March 3, 1905 25, 000. 00 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 25, 000. 00 

209, 841. 72 
Jane 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of 

Impirovement »117,483.37 

Jaly 1, 1905. balance unexpended 92,.^'>a3.'» 

Jnly 1. larei. outstanding liabilities 4, 015. «« 

July 1, WOa, balance avaltable - 88,:M2. 72 

Jnly 1. 19(6. amount covered by uncomplete<l contracts 4,500.00 

(See Appendix N 7.) 

ff. Wappoo Cvt, Sautk Carolina. — ^Wappoo Cut in its original con- 
dition was a narrow, crooked tidal stream, not over 2 feet in depth in 
ivme places. It connects Ashley and Stono rivers. 

The existing project, adopted in 1881, revised in 1888, provides for 
straightening, widening, and deepening to secure a fairly direct chan- 
nel 6 feet deep at mean low water and GO feet wide. It includes the 
construction of two training walls at the Stono River entrance, revet- 
ting EUiotts Cut, constructing three closing dams, and dredging a cut 
200 feet wide and 7 feet deep across the Ashley River bar. The esti- 
mated cost of the project was $88,000, including expenditures between 
1881 and its date. 

The total exjienditures to June 30, 1905, were $70,500, of which 
amount about $11,010.36 was for maintenance. A channel of the pro- 
jected width and depth had been dug and the banks of Elliotts Cut 
reyetted. Two of the closing dams had been built, and a cut of about 
•200 feet wide and 7 feet deep had been dredged across the Ashley 
River tor. A 6- foot channel 60 feet wide existed through the canal 
proper. The cut through the Ashley River bar had narrowed to 70 
leet Slid shoaled to 6 feet. The entire expenditure for the year was 

• Includes f33,025.77 on account of dredge construction. 



Digitized by 



Google 



268 REPORT OF THE OHIEK OF ENOIITEERS, V. H. ARBHc. 



for maintenance, and was for dredging at the Ashley River bar to 
the required dimensions of 200 feet wide and 7 feet deep. The mean 
range of tide is about 5.5 feet. 
The project is regarded as completed. 



Commercial statistics. 



Year. 


Total 
tons. 


Value. 


isn 


140,000 ! ti.inA.nao ' 


isae 




1,907,600 'i 


1H88 


. 142,800 
K88,aBO 

aso,2aD 

8n,800 


1,886,500 


18M 


1,683,000 


IMS 


8,880,100 


1888 


2,410,000 





Year. 



18M 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1908 
1904 



Total 
tons. 



168,848 
117,880 
148,165 
168.604 
200,712 



Vatne. 



$2,006,896 
2,681,899 
2,7at,«80 
2,687,481 
2,682,116 
2,689,660 



The ves,sels using the cut were steamers of from 40 to 400 tons, 
sloops, lighters, rafts, etc. Freight rates have been ^duced about 33i| 
per cent. * 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended 17,160.24 

June 30, 1906, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance 
of Improvement 7, 160.24 

(See Appendix N 8.) 

.9. Inland waterway between Charleston and Beaufort., S. C. — ^This 
waterway consisted originally of a series of creeks, sounds, rivers, and 
bays affording a practicable route for small vessels, being well sheltered 
from the sea except at the crossing of St. Helena Sound. A 6-foot 
. depth at mean low water existed throughout its length except in 
Wappoo Cut, Church flats. Mosquito Creek, and Brickyard Creek 
(part of Beaufort River). The first and last of these obstructions 
have been improved to depths of 6 and 7 feet, respectively. At 
Church flats the mean low-water depth is about 4 feet, and in Mos- 
quito Creek about 2 feet. The latter is, moreover, extremely narrow 
and tortuous. 

By the river and harbor act approved June 13, 1902, an appro- 
priation was made for constructing a canal between South Edisto 
and Ashepoo rivers at Fenwicks Island, South Carolina, whereby the 
difficult pa&sage through Mosquito Creek might be avoided. The cost 
of such a canal, 7 feet deep at mean low water and 90 feet wide at 
lx>ttom, was estimated in 1888 as $61,600. The land required was 
obtained through condemnation proceedings at a cost of $1,500. 

The total expenditures to June 30, 1905, were $17,528.77. Dredg- 
ing had been done at both entrances to the canal. 

The mean range of tide in the proposed canal will be about 7.5 feet. 

For report on preliminary examination and survey, see page 999, 
Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1888. 

Commercial stati.stics for Wappoo Cut are given under that head, 
and those for Brickyard Creek under the head of Beaufort River. 

Vessels can not yet use the canal. The additional work proposed 
is necessary to make the improvement available. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 269 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $26,071.63 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 20, 000. 00 

40, 071. 53 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of im- 
provement 13, 800. 30 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 32,471.23 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 3,165.34 

July 1, 1905, balance available 29,305.89 

July 1, 1905, amount covered l)y uncompleted contracts 9,910.00 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 11, 600. 00 

(See Appendix N 9.) 

10. Beaufort River, South Carolina. — There was originally a thor- 
oughly good 7-foot channel between the town of Beaufort and 
Coosaw River, except at a point called Brickyard, near the Coosaw 
mouth. The least depth here was about 4 feet at low water, and the 
channel, when deep enough, was too narrow. 

The plan of improvement adopted in 1890 was to deepen and widen 
the channel by dredging to give a continuous, sufficiently wide 7-foot 
channel at low water all the way through. Tlie estimated cost was 
$25,000. A layer of rock having been encountered at a higher level 
than was found by the preliminary borings, the work could not be 
completed for the amount of the original estimate. On April 15, 
1893, the estimate was increased to $40,000. 

The total expenditures to June 30, 1905, were $33,000. A channel 
7 feet deep had been secured all the way through, with minimum 
width of 150 feet. The mean range of tide is about 7.7 feet. 

The project is regarded as completed. 

For references to reports on examinations and surveys, see page 
260, Annual Report of the Chief of -Engineers for 1904. 

Commercial iitatlatics. 
[Commerce pausing tbrougb Brickyard Creek.] 




$571,607 

469, vxn 

gfM.ifiO 



The vessels using the river were steamers of from 40 to 400 tons, 
whooners, sloops, lighters, rafts, etc. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended |1, 850. 50 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of im- 
provement 1, 850. 50 

(See Appendix N 10.) 

n. Mingo Creek, South Carolina. — To June 30, 1897, $17,000 had 
been expended on improvement to provide steamboat navigation up to 
Williams Landing and pole-boat navigation at high water up to the 
head of navigation by snagging and clearing the banks. 

Deterioration having occurred, the sum of $300 has been allotted 
from the emergency appropriation provided by the river and harbor 



Digitized by 



Google 



270 BBPOBT OF THX CHIEF OF BNaiNEEBS, V. S. ABMT. 

act of March 3, 1905, to be applied to removal of obstructions and 
overhanging trees. The work has not yet been begun. 

Amount allotted from appropriation for maintenance of river and harbor 

improvements, act of March 3, 1905 $300 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 300 

IS. Removing sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering 
navigation. — An allotment of $2,000 had been made for removing 
(he wreck of an old vessel which had been converted into a phosphate 
barge, and which was sunk in Ashley River, near Lambs, S. C. It 
had been removed to a depth sufficient to accommodate the naviga- 
tion of the river, excepting a small portion. An additional allotment 
of $500 was made during the present year. The wreck has been 
removed. 

The total expenditures were $2,286.96. 

An allotment of $15,000 has been made for removing the wreck 
of the schooner Kate V. Aitken from the jetty channel, Charleston 
Harbor, South Carolina. No work has been done and no expendi- 
tures have been made. 

(See Appendix N 11.) 

IMPROVEMENT OF RIVERS AND HARBORS IN EASTERN GEORGIA; 
OF INSIDE WATER ROUTE BETWEEN SAVANNAH, GA., AND FER- 
NAMDINA, FLA., AND OF CUMBERLAND SOUND, GEORGIA AND 
FLORIDA. 

This district was in the charge of Lieut. Col. James B. Quinn, 
Corps of Engineers. 

1, Savannah Harbor, Georgia. — ^This covers the estuary of the Sa- 
vannah River from about 2 miles above the city of Savannah to the 
ocean bar, about 22 miles below the city. In 1873 the channel was in 
places not more than 9 feet deep at mean low water. 

The original plan of improvement is dated February 11, 1853, and 
another for removal of oostructions is dated about 1871. A later 
plan of improvement is dated August 28, 1873, and was supplemented 
March 15), 1879. It contemplated the establishment of a channel from 
the city to the sea, practicable at high tide for vessels drawing 22 feet 
of water. This project was replaced by an enlarged one (January 
16, 1882, Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1882, Appen- 
di.\ J 4r) contemplating the same channel depth. The amount ex- 
pended under these projects up to June 30. 1890, was $1,875,061.59. 

The project in force up to June 13, 1902, adopted in 1890, provid- 
ing for a mean high-w^ater depth of 20 feet from the city to the sea, is 
printed as part of Appendix O, Annual Report of the Chief of En- 
gineers for 1890. The channel depth contemplated by it was reported 
as having been obtained at the end of the fiscal year 1896. While the 
project depth was literally obtained, the channel was very crooked 
and of much less than the project width. 

A supplemental plan of improvement was submitted Deceml>er 7, 
1894, providing for a detached extension of the Oyster Bed training 
M'all, for the purpose of sheltering the anchorage in Tybee Roads, as 
well as for protecting the ship channel over the oiiter part of Tybee 
Knoll against the destructive action of heavy storms. This project, 
which is printed as part of Apjiendix M 1 of the Annual Report of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1895, was authorized by act of Congress of 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVBB AND HABBOB IHPBOVEMENTS. 271 

June 8, 1896, its estimated cost being $992,250. The same act author- 
ized the completion of work for improving the inside route from 
Savannah, Ga., to Beaufort, S. C, at an additional cost of $106,700, 
and dredging for maintenance in Savannah Harbor, and the sum of 
$1,005,000 was appropriated to complete these works. 

The amount expended under the project of 1890 up to June 30, 
1896, was $3,460,049.99, of which $974,504.88 was for dredging and 
$2,356,720.10 for contraction work. There had previously been ex- 
[jended $1,875,061.59, giving a total of $5,335,111.58. Betweeen June 
30, 1896, and June 30, 1902, $712,918.84 was expended on the modified 
26-foot project, of which $84,860.98 was for maintenance. 

From the time of the reported completion of the project of 1890, 
in Juljr, 1896, until June 30, 1902, extensive dredging was done, both 
for maintenance and as part of the modification or the project. 

The present project was adopted by act of Congress approved 
June 13, 1902, and is printed in House Document No. 123, Fifty-sixth 
Congress, second session, and also in the Annual Report of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1901, page 1723. The project provides for the estab- 
lishment of a channel from the old waterworks above Savannah to 
the ocean, 28 feet deep at mean high water, with bottom widths of 
350 to 500 feet, to be accomplished by dredging, and the raising of 
all existing training walls between Savannah and Tybee Roads. It 
also provides for the construction of mooring dolphins at two points 
in the harbor, the Bight and Venus Point. The estimated cost of the 
work is $1,567,791. This amount was increased by $210,000 by act of 
Congress approved March 3, 1905. 

Continuing contracts are authorized for work in this harbor, and 
dredging operations during the fiscal year have l)een carried on by 
this method. 

The amount expended under the present project up to June 80, 
1905, was $1,352,907.20, of which $96,012.90 was for maintenance. 

The total amount expended for the improvement of Savannah 
Harbor up to June 30, 1905, was 07,400,937.62. 

During the past fi.scal year 1,230,886.8 cubic yards of material was 
dredged under two contracts. There were dredged, for maintenance, 
by the U. S. dredge (Cumberland, from Tybee Knoll, 99,214 cubic 
yards, and from Long Island Crossing, under supplemental contract, 
293,077.8 cubic yards; 1,651.46 cubic yards of stone was placed on 
training walls to raise them to the proper height. The U. S. dredge 
Savannah removed from Tybee Knoll and the oiiter bar 107.030 cubic 
yards of material, a coaling wharf for United States dre<lges was 
constructed at the Venus Point mooring dolphin, and a new hull 
was constructed for the U. S. steamer Angler. The Savannah is a. 
new dredge built for this work, and reference is made to Appendix 
H 7, herewith, for details of construction. 

All inside dredging provided for under the approved project has 
been completed, and the dredgmg on Tyliee Knoll and across the 
outer bar with Government seagoing dredge is in progres.s. At the 
close of the fiscal year all training walls w^ere in good condition and 
there existed a channel of the project depth of 28 feet at mean high 
water, with bottom widths ranging from 350 to 500 feet, from above 
the Ocean Steamship Company's wharves to Tybee Knoll, except at 
two points where shoaling has (H't-urrcd ami when* the controlling 
depth is 19 feet at mean low water (25.5 feet at mean high water). 



Digitized by 



Google 



272 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF BNGINEEB8, V. S. ABMT. 

A contract for restoring the project depth at these two points has been 
authorized. On Tybee Knoll the controlling depth is 20 feet at mean 
low water (26.7 feet at mean high water) and on the outer bar 19 
feet at mean low water (26 feet at mean high water). The mean rise 
and fall of tide on the outer bar is 7 feet, on Tybee Knoll 6.75 feet, 
and from that point to the city it averages 6.5 feet. 

The additional work proposed is for the extension of benefits. 

The amount estimated as a profitable expenditure will be applied 
toward dredging on Tybee Knoll and the outer bar with Government 
seagoing dredges and the maintenance of existing works of improve- 
ment. 

In 1872 the tonnage of vessels arriving and clearing at Savannah 
Harbor was somewhat more than 1,000,000, the total value of imports 
and exports about $34,000,000. Cotton, liunber, wool, hides, naval 
stores, and rice were principally dealt in. In 1890 the total tonnage 
was reported to have increased to about 2,000,000 and the value of 
imports and exports to $152,000,000. Besides the articles named 
above, fruit, produce, and iron were handled extensively. 

For the calendar year 1904 the total tonnage was 3,230,346, valued 
at about $193,820,760. 

The various projects of improvement will be found printed in the 
following documents : 

Senate Executive Document No. 1, Thirty-third Congress, first ses- 
sion, and Annual R€port of the Chief of Engineers for 1853, page 468. 

Project for removal of Confederate obstructions. Annual Report of 
Chief of Engineers for 1872, page 653. 

Project for 22 feet depth at high water. Annual Report of Chief of 
Engineers for 1873, page 736, and moaifications in the following 
reports: For 1875, Part 2, page 34; for 1876, Part 1, page 437; for 
1880, Part 1, page 933, and for 1882, Part 2, page 1152. 

Project for 26 feet depth at high water. Annual Report of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1890, Part 2, page 1258, and modifications as fol- 
lows: House Executive Document No. 115, Fifty-third Congress, 
third session; Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1895, 
Part 2, page 1459, and for 1900, Part 3, page 1922, 

Project for 28 feet depth at high water. House Executive Document 
No. 57, Fiftieth Congress, first ses.sion, and Annual Report of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1888, Part 2, page 1057; modifications in House 
Document No. 123, Fiftv-sixth Congress, second session, and Annual 
Report of the Chief of I^ngineers for 1901, page 1719. 

A detailed history of the work of improvement may be obtained by 
consulting Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1888, Part 2, 
page 1013, and report for 1896, Part 2, page 1218; also report for 
1903, pages 1146-1152, and report for 1904, pages 1644-1647. 

Maps showing the condition of the works at various dates may be 
found in the following documents : 

Annual Reports of the Chief of Engineers for 1880, Part 1, page 
933; for 1885, Part 2, jmge 1202; for 1888, Part 2, page 1072; for 
1891, Part 2, page 1496; for 1896, Part 2, page 1245; for 1902, Part 2, 

Sage 1178, and for 1904, page 1646, and House Executive Documents 
o. 57, Fiftieth Congress, first session (1888), and No. 115, Fifty- 
third Congress, third session, (1895). 



Digitized by 



Google 



BHTEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMEITTS. 27S 

July 1, 1904. balance unexpended f451, Oitti. 94; 

Amount received from proceedM of tiovernment property 10. 00 

Amount appropriated by sundry civil act approved March 23, 1905.. 175,000.00 
Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 75, 000. 00 



701,048.0fi 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiwal year: 

For works of Improvement <>|4(!i, 139. t}5 

For maintenance of improvement 75, 863. 88 

• • 537, 'XB. 53 



July 1, 1905, balance uuex])eHded 164,045.43 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 7,343.53 



July 1, 1905. balance available 156,701.00 



Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 210,000.00 



Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June .SO, 
1907, for worlcs of Improvement, In addition to the balance unex- 
pended July 1, 1905 __ 210,000.00 

Submitted In compliance with requirements of sundry civil act of 
June 4, 1897. 

(See Appendix O 1.) 

2. Savannah River, Georgia, below Augusta. — ^This river is navi- 
gable from Savannah to Augusta, Ga., a distance of 202 miles. Pre- 
vious to improvement there were numerous shoals in the river with 
less than 3 feet at summer low water, the other obstructions consisting 
of overhanging trees, snags, and sunken logs. The aggregate length 
of river upon which there was less than 5 feet was aoout 9,800 feet, 
divided up into 10 shoals, and the controlling depth was about 2 J feet. 

The original project, submitted December 22, 1880, provided for a 
5-foot channel, 80 feet wide, Iw means of removal o^ snags, trees, 
sand bars, etc., and protection of banks, at a cost of $91,000. 

Under this project there was expended, prior to operations under 
the existing project, $93,480.09. 

The existing project, adopted in 1890, provides for the establish- 
ment of a na^^gable steamboat channel 5 feet deep at ordinary sum- 
mer low water between the cities of Augusta and Savannah, to be 
accomplished by removing sand and gravel bars, regulating portions 
of the river, revetting caving banks, closing incipient cut-offs, and 
removing snags and logs from the chamiel and overhanging trees 
from the banks of the stream. 

The total estimated cost of this improvement, in round numbers, is 
$332,000, on the supposition that funds are regularly and adequately 
supplied, besides $3,000 to $5,000 annually for maintenance. 

The amount expended upon the work lihder the existing project up 
to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, was ^65,227.67 
(of which $11,774.21 was for maintenance), which, added to the 
amount previously expended, gives a total expenditure for this work 
of $458,707.76. 

The work done under the present project has resulted in the removal 
of great numbers of snags and stumps from the river channel and the 
cutting of numerous overhanging trees on the banks. Sand bars have 
been removed by means of training dikes and shore protection at 

« Includes $128,626.42 on account of construction of dredge. - 

ENO 1905 u 18 



Digitized by 



Google 



274 REPORT OF THE OHIEF OF ENOINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

eleven localities, viz, Gardners bar, Kirks bar, Sand Bar Ferry, Blue 
House bar, Tweedys bar, Rifle Cut, Buges bar, Twiggs bar, If lowery 
Gap, Brighams bar, and Half Guinea bar. A great deal of work, 
however, remains to be done, principally in the upper 30 miles of the 
river, where there are sand shoals with only 3 feet of water over them. 
A jgreat many snags also require removal. 

The work done for maintenance during the fiscal year resulted in 
the removal from the river channel of 3,59i snags and 245 stumps, 
the cutting of 1,382 overhanging trees and 77 logs on the banks, the 
girdling of 17 trees, and the removal of 1 clay bank. 

The controlling depth on June 30, 1905, was 3 feet at ordinary 
summer low water. The river very rarely goes below this, and rises 
more than 30 feet in time of floods, frequently standing for long peri- 
ods at several feet above summer low water. 

In the upper 30 miles of the river the banks in many places cave 
more or less with every high freshet, and the problem of obtaining 
and maintaining the project depth is easily solved if the erosion of the 
banks can be stopped. The necessary training dikes for the contrac- 
tion of the river at the wide reaches are, with two or three exceptions, 
constructed, and the shore protections recently built are, as far as they 
go, efficient in preventing the erosion of the banks. These shore pro- 
tections do not have to be constructed to the top of the slope, but just 
high enough to prevent the undermining of the banks at an ordinary 
stage, so that at a high stage of water the falling in of the crest of the 
«teep banks is prevented. The improvements are at present just at 
that stage where it is necessary to continue the work of revetting the 
banks and keeping in i-epair the numerous dike,s. Quite a Targe 
number of snags m the river and overhanging trees on the banks 
require removal. 

The district officer rejwrts that it has not been ix)s,sible to complete 
all the work embraced in the jn-oject of 1890, and believes that certain 
work should be done at an early date to secure the i"e,sults contem- 
plated in the project. ITiere has been prepared an estimate of cost 
of the work remaining to be done. 

The additional work proposed is for extension of benefits. 

Prior to the improvement the commerce was small, but its quantity 
unknown. At times since, previous to tlie construction of railroads, it 
has probably been greater than it is now, as since the advent of rail- 
roads the river has never been in a good navigable condition until 
recently. The commodities carried consist principally of cotton, 
naval stores, fertilizers, and general merchandise. Excluding timber, 
the tonnage for the year 1904 amounted to 61,353 tons, valued at 
$6,154,521, besides 107,000 bushels of rice, valued at $82,600, received 
at Savannah in small boats. There was also rafted down the river 
during 1904, 28,430,400 feet B. M. of timber, valued at about $330,110. 

The various projects of improvement will be found printed in the 
following documents : 

Orinnal project. Annual Eeport of the Chief of Engineers for 
1881, Part 2, page 1088, and House Executive Document No. 23, 
Forty-sixth Congre.ss, third session. Modifications of original proj- 
ect, Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1886, Part 2, page 
1098, and for 1887, Part 2, page 1166. Present project. Annual Re- 
port of the Chief of Engineers for 1890, Part 2, page 1324, and House 
Executive Document No. 255, Fifty-first Congress, second session. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 275 

A detailed history of the work of improvement may be obtained by 
consulting Annual Reports of the Chief of Engineers as follows : 

Report of 1888, Part 2, page 1029; for 1890, Part 2, page 1324, and 
for 1899, Part 2, page 1569. 

Maps showing the condition of the work at various dates may be 
found in the foUowing documents: 

House Executive Document No. 23, Forty-sixth Congress, third 
session ; 'Annual Reports of the Chief of Engineers for 1883, Part 1, 
page 908; for 1884, Part 2, page 1106; for 1885, Part 2, page 1210; 
for 1886, Part 2, page 1094, and for 1902, Part 2, page 1185, and in 
House Executive Document No. 265, Fifty-first Congress, second 
session. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended |M!, 016. 40 

.Vmount appropriated by river and harbor act approved Marcb 3, 1905. 1.1, 000. 00 
Amount allotted from approiirlatlou for maintenance of river and 

harbor Improvements, act of April 28, 1904 5,000.00 

Amount received from proceeds of sale of Government projierty 15. 00 

24, «31. 45 
June 30, 1906, amount expended during flAcal year, for niaiuteuan<.« 
of Improvement 11, 774. 21 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 12,857.24 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 51.00 

July 1, 1905, balance available 12,806.24 

July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 6, 220. 00 

(See Appendix O 2.) 

3, Savannah River, above Augv^ita, Ga. — This jwrtion of the 
Savannah River is navigable only by pole boats from tke locks, 7 
miles above the city of Augusta, to Petersburg, a distance of 48 miles. 
In its original condition the river at low water was navigable only 
with great difficulty, on account of shallow water, obstructing logs, 
etc. 

The original project of improvement, submitted February 8, 1879, 
provided for a 3-foot channel, 30 feet wide, from Augusta, Ga., to 
Trotters shoals, and the removal of snags, trees, etc., to the Tugaloo 
River, at a cost of $45,000. 

Under this project there was expended, prior to operations under 
the existing project, $39,000. 

The existing plan of improvement, adopted by Congre-ss Julv 13, 
1892, provides for the establishment, between Petersburg and the 
locks, of a downstream channel 12 to 25 feet in width and navigable 
during ordinary summer low water for pole boats drawing 2 feet and 
of an upstream channel navigable for pole boats drawing 1.3 feet of 
water. This is to be obtained by removing logs and overhanging 
trees ; excavating rock, sand, or gravel, and with excavated materials 
raising crests of ledges; constructing training walls to increase flow 
of wat«r through sluices. The total estimated cost is $33,000. 

The total. amount expended under the present project up to June 
30, 1905, was $19,935.55, which, added to that previously expended, 
gives a total for this work of $58,935.55, No funds have been 
expended for maintenance. 

The work accomplished under this project has given a downstrejiui 
channel about 2 feet deep and an upstream channel of the project 



Digitized by 



Google 



276 ABPOftT OF *ra£ cttitef of EIfaiKx!£ttB. t. S. AttMY. 

depth. Ih many places, however, these channels at-e difficult to navi- 
gate and an', capable of gi'eatel' improvement. The additional work 
projwsed is for extension of benefits. 

In 187(>-77 alK)ut iJ,000 tons of freight went upstream from Augusta 
and about 12,000 bales of cotton came down. In 1888 the down- 
going freight was estimated at about 5,000 bales of cotton, and in 1904 
the total ireight carried on the river, excluding timber, amounted to 
1.094 tons, valued at $119,802.41. 




Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1890, Part 2, page 13(J6, and 
House Executive Document No. 213, Fifty-first Congress, first session. 

A detailed history of the work of improvement may be obtained by 
consulting the Annual Rejwrts of the Chief of Engineers for 1888, 
Part 2, page 1032, and for 1900, Part 3, page 1930. 

Maps may be found in the following documents : Annual Report of 
the Chief oi Engineers for 1886, Part 2, page 1094, and Houss Execu- 
tive Document No. 213, Fifty-first Congress, first session. 

July 1. 1904. balance uiiexpendetl |04. 4r» 

Amount appropriated by river and barlM)r act approved March 3. 1!K>5. 2, 000. 00 

July 1. 1905, balance unexpended 2.0«W. 45 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 11, 000. 00 

(See Appendix O 3.) 

4. Harbor at Darien, and Dohoy har, Georgia. — («) Darien Har- 
bor. — In ils original condition this harbor was obstructed at seven 
Ejints by shoals with mean low-water depths of from C^ to 10^ feet, 
etween the shoals there was nowhere less than 12 feet at mean low 
water. 

There was expended on this harbor in 1879 for dredging $8,000, 
without anv project having been recommended or adopted. 

The project for the improvement of this harbor adopted in 1885 
contemplates the establishment of a navigable channel 12 feet deep 
at mean low water l)etween Darien and Dolwy, at an estimated cost 
of $170,000. Work was not begun under this project until 1891. 
The total amount expended under it up to June 30, 1905, was $145,- 
674.38 (of which $20,572.75 was for maintenance), which, added to 
the amount previously expended, gives a total for this work of 
$153,674.38. 

At the close of the fiscal year the approved project was practically 
completed, there remaining only about 5,000 cubic yards of material 
to h& removed to give a channel 12 feet deep at mean low water from 
Darien to Doboy oar, a distance of 13 miles. During the fiscal year 
work for maintenance resulted in the removal of 58,504.3 cubic yards 
of material and the raising to high- water mark of 2,340 linear feet of 
spur dams. 

The additional work proposed is for extension of benefits. 

The total tonnage for 1878 was estimated at about 200,000, and the 
value of exports at between $600,000 and $700,000. In 1904 the total 
annual traae, consisting almost entirely of timber, was 121,224 tons, 
valued at $917,240. 



Digitized by 



Google 



ItlVBS ANt> HARBOB IHPROVBMBNTS. 277 

By act of Congress approved June 13, 1902, this work was consoli- 
dated with Doboy bar, Georgia, and $30,000 appropriated for their 
improvement, of which amount there was allotted, for Darien Harbor, 
on November 7, 1902, $6,000 for repairing suur dams and $18,000 for 
dredging, in addition to an unexpended oalanee of $10.46. This 
work was reimbursed by the appropriation for improving Cumber- 
land Sound, Georgia and Florida, to the amount of $1,500 for mate- 
rials transferred. There was also allotted for this work on November 
23, 1904, from the balance of the consolidated appropriation on hand, 
$26,865.96 for dredging and repairs to spur dams. 

The present project will be found in the Annual Reiwrt of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1885, Part 2, page 1238. 

A detailed history of the work of improvement may be obtained by 
consulting the Annual Reports of the Chief of Engineers for 1896, 
Part 2, page 1473, and for 1896, Part 2, page 1253. 

A map imowing the jetties con.structed will be found in the Annual 
Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1895, Part 2, page 1477. 

(b) Dohoy bar. — In 1888 $5,795.40 was spent in harrowing and 
water-jet work on this bar without result. In its original condition- 
there was about 12 feet at mean low water in the old channel, which 
was very crooked, so that the entrance was not much used. 

The project for its improvement, adopted by act of C/Ongress of 
March 3, 1899, provides tor creating a cnannel by dredging 24 feet 
deep at mean high water and 300 feet wide, estimated to cost $70,000. 
The proposed channel is some distance north of the old channel. 

The amount expended under the project up to J«ne 30, 1905, was 
$21,177.59, which, added to the amount previously expanded, gives a 
total expenditure for this work of $26,972.99. No funds have been 
expended for maintenance. 

By act of Congress approved June 13, 1902, this work was consoli- 
dated with Darien Harbor. 

An allotment of $2,000 was made on December 23, 1903, from the 
appropriation of $30,000 made by act of Congress approved June 13, 
1902, tor the purpose of making a complete survey of Doboy bar, to 
determine the be,st route for a channel across the bar. On November 
23, 1904, an additional allotment of $28,000 was made from the bal- 
ance of the consolidateil appropriation ou hand for dredging a chan- 
nel across the bar. 

The latest rep>rts indicate that the controlling depth on the bar in 
the present ship channel is 10 feet at mean low water. The tide 
rises 7.3 feet. The improvement of a channel to the north of the 
present channel was begun in 1899, and 120,000 cubic yards of mate- 
rial removed. The contractor abandoned the work December 16, 
1900. A survey of the bar was made during the past fiscal year, and 
bids for dredging were called for. These were so excessive, however, 
that they were rejected, and it has been determined to dredge the 
projected channel with a Government seagoing dredge. 

The additional work proposed is necessary to make, the improve- 
ment available. 

The commerce interested in this bar consists of lumber from the 
Altamaha River, the bulk of which is now shipped from Sapelo 
Sound and St. Simon Sound, north and south, respectively, of Doboy 
bar. During the calendar year 1904 it is estimated that about 
16,000,000 feet B. M. of lumber, valued at $150,000, crossed the bar. 



Digitized by 



Google 



278 REPORT OF THE OHTBF OF ENOtNERRS, U. 8. ARKT. 

The projects «f improvement will be found printed in the following: 
documents : 

Original project, Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 
1887, Part '2. page 1179. Present project, Annual Report of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1897, Part 2, page 1539, and House Document 
No. 13, Fifty-fifth Congress, first session. 

A detailed history of the work of improvement may be obtained by 
consulting the Annual Reports of the Chief of Engineers, as follows : 

Report for 1887, Part. 2, pages 1179 and 1199; for 1888, Part 2, page 
1041 ; for 1899, Part 2, page 1573, and for 1901, Part 2, page 1639, 

Maps may be found in the following documents : 

Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1888, Part 2, page 
1042; House Document No. 13, Fifty-fifth Congress, first session, and 
Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1899, Part 2, page 1573. 

July 1. 1904, balance nnex|)ended f62,82r>.fl0 

Jnne .%, 1905, amount expended durini; fiscal year : 

For works of Improvement 10.005.12 

For maintenance of Improvement 13.572.75 

23.177.87 

Julv 1, 1905, balance unexiiended .T0.«4a03 

July 1, 1905. outstanding llabllitieH 4.397.a^ 

•Tuly 1. 19a5, balance available a5,250.20 

July 1, 1906. amount covered by uncompleted contracts 653. 80 

(See Appendix O 4.) 

5. Altamaha Rinev, Georgia. — ^This river is formed by the junction 
of the Oconee and Ocmulgee rivers. At a point some 25 miles from 
its mouth the river branches and the river traffic reaches the ocean 
by two routes — one by the north branch by way of Darien and the 
other by the south branch to where it intercepts the inside waterway, 
which passage is taken to Brunswick. 

The river is navigable from the forks to Darien, a distance of 131 
miles, and to where it reaches the inside waterway. The lower section 
of the river is affected by the tides. The worst shoal is at Coupers 
bar, which at low water nas only a foot of water, but by waiting on 
tides 5 feet can be had at this place. The controlling depth above the 
tidal range is almut 2 fwt at summer low water. The river is subject 
to freshets, and in the upper sections the freshet height at times goes 
20 feet alxjve the low summer stage. The lower section is bordered by 
low swamp lands and the freshets rise from 5 to 10 feet over the 
banks. 

Before improvement the Altamaha River was obstructed by rock 
ledges, sand bars, snags, sunken logs, and overhanging trees. The 
low-water depths at some points did not exceed 1 foot. 

The original project or improvement, submitted in 1875, contem- 
plated a channel 4 feet deep and 80 feet wide from Macon to Darien, 
by the removal of sand bars, rock shoals, snags, overhanging trees, 
etc., at a cost of $lfi2,000. 

Under it and its modifications there was expended up to June 30, 
1890, $69,776.59. 

The existing project of improvement, adopted by Congress in 1890, 
provides for tne establishment of a channel 3 feet deep at summer low 
water throughout the river above Darien. This is to be accomplished 



Digitized by 



Google 



RIVEB AND HABBOB IMPROVEMENTS. 279 

by removing rock shoals and sand bars, building deflecting dikes and 
closing incipient cut-offs, removing snags and sunken logs from the 
channel and overhanging trees from the banks of the stream, and 
revetting caving banks. The total estimated cost of the improvement 
is $129,000, provided funds are regularly and adequately supplied, 
be.sides from $3,000 to $5,000 for annual maintenance. 

The amount expended on the work under the present project up to 
June 30, 1905, was $74,362.76 (of which $9,000 was for maintenance), 
which, added to the amount previously expended, gives a total 
expenditure for this work of $144,139.35. 

This expenditure has resulted in the removal of one rock shoal, 
three sand bars, numerous snags, sunken logs, and overhanging trees. 
The greatest draft that can at present be carried at summer low 
water is about 2 feet by waiting for the tide at Coupers bar. 

The additional work proposed is for the extension of benefit.s. 

The commerce of the river before the improvement was begun was 
reported to have amounted to about 100,000 tons annually, valued at 
about $1,000,000. During the calendar year 1904 it is estimated to 
have amounted to about 4,500 tons, valued at about $200,000. There 
was also rafted down the river 109,255,356 feet B. M. of timber, 
valued at $1,348,986. 

The various projects of improvement will he found printed in the 
following documents: 

Original project, Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1875, 
Part 2, page 670; modifications of original project, Annual Report 
of the Chief of Engineers for 1881, Part 2, page 1107, and for 1887, 
Part 2, page 1176; present project, Annual Report of the Chief of 
Engineers for 1890, Part 2, page 1372, and House Executive Docu- 
ment No. 283, Fifty-first Congress, second session. 

A detailed history of the work of improvement may be obtained by 
consulting the Annual Reports of the Chief of Engineers, as follows: 
For 1888, Part 2, page 1038; for 1889, Part 2, page 1246; for 1892, 
Part 2, page 1261 ; for 1900, Part 3, page 1939. 

Maps may be found in the followiM documents: Annual Report 
of the Chief of Engineers for 1884, Part 2. page 1116, and House 
Executive Document No. 283, Fifty-first Congreas, second session. 

July 1. 1904. balance uiiexi^nded 1 ?2, 8.11. 87 

Amoniit appropriated by river nnU liarbor act approved March !i. 1905. 10. (KX). 00 

12. 8.11. 87 
.Tune .W, 1905. amount exi>en(lert dnrinR fiscal year, for works of 

improvement 1.971. 22 

July 1. 1905, balance unexpended 10,860.65 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 2, 101. 23 

July 1. 1905, balance available 8,759.42 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 104,000.00 

(See Appendix O 5.) 

6. Oconee River, Georgia. — The head of navigation on this river 
is Milledeeville, Ga., 147 miles from the mouth, though this point 
can only DC reached during high stages of the river. At ordmary 
stages the river is at present only navigable to a point about 25 miles 
above Dublin, Ga., a distance of 104 miles from its month. In its 



Digitized by 



Google 



280 BKPORT 09 THK CHIEF OF KNCHITKEES, U. 8. ARMY. 

original condition this river was used principally for navigation at 
lii^ stages. At low water there were numerous shoals and snags, 
there probably being less than 2 feet on many sand bars and rock 
ledges. 

The original project was submitted January 29, 1875, and provided 
for the removal of snags, overhanging trees, etc., cutting on points, 
and making cut-offs, at a cost of $10,150. 

Under this project and its modifications there was expended, pre- 
vious to the commencement of operations under the existing project, 
the sum of $44,822.18. . 

The existing project of improvement Was adopted by Congress 
September 19, 1890. It provides for the establishment of a navigable 
channel 3 feet deep at ordinary summer low water from Milledge- 
ville to the mouth. This is to be accomplished by removing rw5k 
shoals and sand bars, revetting caving banks, and closing incipient 
cut-offs, removing snags and logs from the channel and overhanging 
trees from the banks of the stream. The cost of the improvement is 
estimated at $171,000, besides from $3,000 to $5,000 for annual main- 
tenance. The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, authorizes the 
expenditure of $3,000 of the amount appropriated to be applied to 
cleaning out the river from the Georgia Railroad bridge to the north- 
ern boundary of Greene County, Ga. 

The amount expended imder the present project up to June 30, 
1805, was $108,985.82 (of which $3,750 was for maintenance), which 
added to the amount previously expended, gives a total expenditure 
for this work of $153,808. 

As the result of this expenditure, numerous snags and logs, bowl- 
ders, and overhanging trees have been removed, several cut-offs 
opened and others closed, and three training dik^ built. The con- 
trolling depth at ordinary summer low water is 2^ feet between the 
Forks and a point 25 miles above Dublin and 1.5 feet between that 
point and Milledgeville. The river occasionally falls below this stage 
and frequently rises to 20 feet above it. 

The additional work proposed is necessary to make the improve- 
ment available between Dublin and Milledgeville, and for extension 
of benefits between Dublin and the Forks. 

No reliable statistics of the commerce of the river before the im- 
provement was begun are available. In 1904 the amount of freight 
carried on the river amounted to 32,160 tons, valued at $443,225. 
Besides this, 60,237,440 feet B. M. of tiinl)er, valued at about $737,- 
000, was rafted down the river. 

The various projects of improvement will be found in the follow- 
ing documents: Ori^nal project, Annual Report of the Chief of 
Engineers for 1875, Part 2, page 41 ; present project. Annual Report 
of the Chief of Engineers for 1890, Part 2, page 1432, and House 
Executive Document No. 211, Fifty-first Congress, first ses.sion. 

A detailed history of the work of improvement may be obtained by 
consulting Annual Reports of the Chief of Engineers for 1889, Part 
2, page 1253, and for 1900, Part 2, page 1942. 

Maps of the river will be found m House Executive Document No. 
211, Fifty-first Congress, first session. 

A report upon a preliminary examination of the river between 
Dublin and Skull shoals will be found printed in House Document 



Digitized by 



Google 



RTVER AVrf) HAKBOR TMPR0VEMBNT8. 28l 

No. 304, Fifty-eighth Congress, second session, and also on images 
1677-1679, Annual Report of the Chief of Engineei-s for 1904. 

July 1, 19W, balance unexpended $4,:«W.4n 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor net approved March .3. 19(15. 1.5, 000. (XI 
Amount received from proceeds of sale of (Government proi)erty 15. (X) 

19, 318. 49 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of 
Improvement 4,318.49 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 15,000.00 

July 1. 1905. outstanding liabilities ."38.14 

July 1, 1905. balance available 14,(«51.8(5 

Amount (estimated) retiuired for completion of existing project 111,812.00 

(See Appendix O 6.) 

7. Ocmulgee River^ Georgia. — In its original condition this river 
was used for navigation chiefly at high stages. At low water there 
were numerous shoals and snags, there probably being less than 2 
feet on many sand bars and rock ledges. 

The head of navigation on this river is Macon, a distance of 202 
miles, but the river during recent years has not been navigable above 
Hawkins^nlle, 133 miles from the mouth, except at high water, owing 
to heavy rock shoals just above Hawkinsville and long sand shoals 
below Macon. Between these two obstructions the river is also more 
or less obstructed with snags and logs. Between Hawkinsville and 
the Forks the river is, with few exceptions, in good condition, and 
while certain r(x;k shoals are difficult to navigate, the controlling 
depth is nearly, if not quite, the project depth. The controlling 
depth between Hawkinsville and Macon is about 2 feet at ordinary 
summer low water. 

The original project was submitted in 1875, and provided for a 
channel 80 feet wide and 4 feet deep at low water, to be accomplished 
by the removal of sand bars, rock shoals, snags, overhanging trees, 
etc., from Macon to Darien, at a cost of $162,0(W. 

The amount expended under this project and its modifications prior 
to operations un(ler the existing project was $79,390.73. 

The existing project of improvement, adopted by Congress Sep- 
tember 19, 1890, provides for the establishment " of a navigable 
channel 3 feet deep at ordinary summer low water from Macon to the 
river's month. This is to be obtained by removing rock shoals and 
sand bars, closing incipient cut-offs, revetting caving banks, and 
i«moving snags and logs from the channel and overhanging trees 
from the banks of the stream. 

The cost of the improvement as given in the project of 1890 is esti- 
mated at $210,000, provided funds are regularly and adequately pro- 
vided, besides from $3,000 to $5,000 for annual maintenance. 

Work was authorized to be done under continuing contracts. 

The amount expended under the present project up to June 30, 
1905, was $229,689.67 (of which $7,396.40 was for maintenance), 
which, added to the amount previously expended, gives a total of 
$309,080.40. 

The work under the present project has resulted in marked im- 
provement. Below Hawkinsville the project depth of 3 feet at 
ordinary summer low water has been obtained throughout the river. 



Digitized by 



Google 



282 KEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOrNEERS, V. S. ABICY. 

However, several rock and sand shoals give more or less trouh 
iind require removal. Buttermilk shoal, Colliers Bluff shoal, Ta: 
yard shoal, and Town shoal, a series of rock shoals above Ha^vkin 
Ville, have been removed. At a series of sand bars just belo>?e ]V£aco 
training dikes have been constructed and have resulted in reiiclerin 
this portion of the river available for light-draft boats at ortiiiiar 
low summer stages. These dikes have been damaged considerabl 
by freshets, however, and are in need of repairs. 

There are two rock shoals and several sand bars yet to be removed 
The work near Macon has been only partially successful, as freqiien 
freshets erode the banks and new shoals form at unexpected places. 

The district officer reports that it has not been possible to complete 
all the work embraced in the project of 1890, and believes that certain 
work should be done at an early date to secure the results contennplated 
in the project. There has been prepared an estimate of cost of the 
work remaining to be done. 

The additional work proposed is necessary to make the inaprove- 
ment available between Hawkinsville and Macon and for extension 
of benefits between Hawkinsville and the mouth of the river. 

The work done for maintenance during the past fiscal year re- 
sulted in the removal of 669 snags, 7 logs, and 42 stumps, the cutting 
of 24 overhanging trees on the banks, and the removal of a portion 
of an old dam which obstructed navigation. 

No reliable statistics of the commerce of the river before improve- 
ment was begun ai"e available. In 1904 the amount of freight carried 
on the river amounted to 7,497 tons, valued at about $248,430. Be- 
sides this, 23,513,969 feet B. M. of timber, valued at about $261,123. 
was rafted down the river. 

The various projects of improvement will be found printed in the 
following documents : 

Original project: Annual Report of Chief of Engineers for 1875. 
Part 2, page 670. 

Modifications of original project : Annual Reports of the Chief of 
Engineers for 1882. Part 2, page 1859 ; for 1885, Part 2, page 1297 : for 
1886, Part 2, ^age 1160, and for 1887, Part 2, page 1276. 

Present project: Annual Report of the Chief of Engineei-s for 1890. 
Part 2, page 1458, and House Executive Document No. 215, Fifty-first 
Congress, first session. 

A detailed history of the work of improvement may l)e obtained by 
consulting the Annual Reports of the Chief of Engineers for 1889. 
Part 2, page 1258, and for 1900, Part 2, page 1944. 

Maps of the river will be found in House Executive Document Na 
215, Fiftv-first Congress, first session, and in Annual Report of the 
Chief of lEngineers for 1902, Part 2, page 1192. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended |3. 9^.00 

Amount appropriated by river and harlwr act approved Marcli 3, 1905- 15, 000. 00 

18,985.00 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during flsciU year, for maintenance 
of improvement 2,396.40 

.Tuly 1, 1905, balance unexpended 16,588.60 

.Tuly 1, 190.5, outstanding llat)illtles 802.90 

July 1, 1905, balance available 15,785.70 

(See Appendix O 7.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVER AND HABBOB TMPBOVEMENTS. 283 

8. Brunswick Harbor, Georgia. — ^Previous to June 18, 1902, the 
projects under this title were for the inner harbor only, consisting 

f>rincipally of the removal of a shoal in East River, opposite the 
ower part of the city. The distance from the city of Bnmswick to 
de^ water beyond the bar is 13 miles. 

The original project of improvement, dated April 29, 1876, pro- 
vided for the construction of a jetty at the city front and dredgmg, 
at a total cost of $69,000. 

Under this project and its modifications there was expended, prior 
to operations uncler the existing project, the sum of $190,000. 

The project in force up to June 13, 1902, was adopted by Congress 
in 1894. It provided for the maintenance of a navigable channel 15 
feet deep at mean low water bv keeping the existing works in repair 
and by dredging. The act of June 3< 1896, provided for the improve- 
ment of Academy Creek. The cost of maintaining a channel depth 
of 15 feet at mean low water was estimated at $15,000 per annum. 

There has been expended under this project up to June 30, 1902, 
5534,817.25, all of which has been for maintenance. 

Including $10,000 spent in 1836 for dredging, the total amount 
expended up to June 30, 1902, on the inner harbor was $234,817.25. 

The present project was adopted by act of Congress approved June 
13, 19(^, and provides for a navigable channel 21 feet deep at mean 
low water in Brunswick inner harbor, at a cost of $120,000, and for a 
channel across the outer bar 19.3 feet deep at mean low water (26 feet 
at mean high water), at a cost of $40,000. If also provides for 
dredging in Academy Creek at not to exceed $5,000. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, authorizes the expendi- 
ture, from the the amount therein appropriated, of $5,000, or so much 
thereof as may be necessary, for maintaining in Academy Creek, 
immediately in front of and adjacent to the wharves thereof, to the 
Old Altamaha Canal, a depth ecfu&l to the controlling depth on the 
shoals at the lower end of the city in East River, provided that no 
money shall be expended inside harbor lines heretofore or hereafter 
established in said creek. 

The act of 1905 also directed a survey to be made of Brunswick 
Harbor, with a view to securing a depth on the outer bar equal to 
the controlling; depth in the inner harbor, and maintaining the depths 
over said bar and in said harbor. In addition to this survey, a 
preliminary examination of the inner and outer harbor was also 
authorized. 

The amount expended under the present project to June 30, 1905, 
was $166,073.62, of which $8,014.15 was for maintenance. This, 
added to the amount previously expended, gives a total expenditure 
for the work of $400,890.87. 

During the past fiscal year dredging on the outer bar was carried 
on with the tJ. S. dredge Cumberland for a period of nearly six 
months, and resulted in the removal of 393,482 cubic yards of mate- 
rial. On June 30, 1905, there remained only about ten days' work 
with the dredge to complete the project. The new channel dredged 
across the outer bar has a controlling depth of 20 feet at mean low 
water. The tide rises 6.7 feet. So work has yet been done on the 
inner shoal. This is to be done by United States seagoing dredge, 
and will be undertaken during the coming year. There were dredged 
from the inner harbor during the fiscal year 126,D01.3 cubic yards 



Digitized by 



Google 



S84 iOs^atkr of tflE ohi«p of •ssaTtnivBs, tr. 8. army. 

of material. The present controlling depth in the inner harbor Is 
20 feet at mean low water, and in Academj' Creek 16 feet at mean 
low water. The rise of tide is 7.5 feet. 

The project depth of 21 feet at mean low wat«r in the inner harbor 
was obtained in September, 1904, since whidi date the channel lias 
shoaled about 1 foot at two or three places. This shoaling covers a 
very small area, however, and does not extend across the channel. 

The controlling depth on June 30, 1905, between the city and deep 
w^ater bevond the bar was 18 feet at mean low water on the inner 
shoal in St. Simon Sound, where the tide rises 6.7 feet. 

The additional work proposed is for extension of benefits. 

Before the improvement in 1880 the annual tonnage of the port of 
Brunswick wa.s about 100,000, consisting chiefly of lumber, naval 
stores, wood, rice, and merchandise, valued at about $1,700,000. In 
1904 the total tonnage of the port amounted to 1,417,157 tons, Valued 
at $29,939,416. 

The various projects of improvement will be found printed in the 
following documents : 

First plan : Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1876, Part 
1, page 489. First project: Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers 
for 1880, Part 1. page 962. First revision of project : Annual Report 
of the Chief of Engmeers for 1886, Part 2, page 1113, and for 1887, 
Part 2, page 1184. Second revision of project: Annual Report of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1895, Part 2, pa^ 1494. Third revision of 

Sroject: House Document No. 40, Fifty -sixth Congress, first session, 
'roject for bar : Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1892, 
Part 2, page 1327, and House Executive Document No. 34, Fiftj- 
second Congress, first session. Revised project for bar : House Docu- 
ment No. 179, Fifty -sixth Congress, second session ; House Document 
No. 355, Fifty-sixth Congress, second session, and Annual Report of 
the Chief of fingineers for 1901, Part 2, page 1663. 

A detailed history of the work of improvement may be obtained by 
consulting the Annual Reports of the Chief of Engineers for 1888. 
Part 2, page 1047; for 1889, Part 2, page 1258; for 1890, Part 2, 
page 1407. 

Maps showing the condition of the work at various dates may be 
foimcl by consulting the following documents : Annual Reports ot the 
Chief of Engineers for 1880, Part 1, page 962; for 1881, Part 2, pagv 
1110; for 1883, Part 1, page 922; for 1885, Part 2, page 1228; for 
1880, Part 2, page 1116; for 1887, Part 2, page 1196; for 1889. Part 2, 
page 1266; for 1892, Atla.s, page .58, and for 1893, Part 2, page 1583; 
and House Executive Document No. 34. Fiftv-second Congress, first 
session, and House Documents Nos. 40, Fifty-sixth Congress, first 
session, and 355, Fifty-sixth Congress, first session. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $70,430.08 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 40. 000. 00 

110, 430. 98 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of im- 
provement . 71,321.85 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 39. 109. 13 

.Tuly 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities . 5,506.09 

July 1, 1905, balance available 33,003.04 

(See Appendix O 8.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



HtVEB AKD HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 285 

9. Inside water route between Sanantinh, Ga.. and Fei'uandina^ 
Fla. — This route consists of a series of bays and tidal sloughs, making 
a connecting waterway not exposed to rough water except at a few 
points in stormy weather. The waters forming the route are shown 
on Coast Survey charts Nos. 156 and 157. It is navigable from Sa- 
vannah, Ga., to Femandina, Fla., Brunswick, Ga., and Darien, Ga. 
The distance from Savannah to Femandina is 160 miles. Touching 
at Darien en route increases this by about 20 miles and at Brunswick 
by about 12 miles. , 

The project of improvement was adopted in 1892 and provides for 
the establishment or a channel 7 feet deep at mean low water. This 
is to be accomplished by the improvement of Romerly Marsh, Mud 
River, Little Mud River, and 3e«y\ Creek. The estimated cost of the 
improvement is $105,000, provideid the entire sum be made available 
at one time. 

The total amount expended under this project up to June 30, 1905, 
was $63,719.60 (of which $19,857.22 was for mamtenance), which, 
added to the amount expended for Jekyl Creek and Romerly Marsh, 
$71,108.77, makes a total of $134,828.37. 

The total of the original estimate for the improvement of this route 
has been appropriated but the improvement is still uncompleted. 
The reasons for this are set forth in the accompanying report of the 
district officer, with estimate of cos-t of the work remaining to be done. 
He also states that the present project should be modiiied so as to pro- 
vide for a channel 10 leet deep at mean low water, and that an esti- 
mate of the cost of doing this can be readily furnished if called for. 

At present the controlling depth is 4.5 feet at mean low water in 
Mud River, at the southern end of the route. The mean rise and fall 
of tide over the route varies from 6.5 to 8 feet. 

The additional work proposed is for the extension of benefits. 

The value of the commerce passing through this route was estimated 
in 1890 at between $200,000 and #00,000 per annum. For 1904 it 
amounted to about .59,983 tons of freight, valued at about $1,183,754, 
and about 73,300,000 fe«t B. M. of timber, valued at $849,600. None 
of this commerce passed over the whole extent of the route. 

The pi-esent project will be found in the Annual Report of the 
Chief of Engineer-s for 1892, Part 2, page 1309, and House Executive 
Document No. 41, Fifty-second Congress, first session. 

A detailed history oi the work of improvement will be obtained by 
consulting the Annual Reports of the Chief of Engineers, as follows : 
Report for 1892, Part 2„page 1309; for 1893, Part 2, page 1206, and 
for 1901, Part 2, page 1653. 

A map of the route will be found in House Executive Document 
No. 41, Fifty-second Congress, first session. . 

A report upon a preliminary examination of Frederica River, 
Georgia, which forms a part of this route, will be found printed in 
House Document No. 220, Fifty-eighth Congress, second session, and 
in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1904, pages 
1674-1676. 

A report upon the preliminary examination and survey of Club and 
Plantation creeks, Georgia, with a view to providing an inside route 
from the Altamaha River to Brunswick, Ga., will be found printed in 
Ilouse Document No. 159, Fifty-eighth Congress, second session, and 



Digitized by 



Google 



286 BEPOKT OF THIJ CHIEF OF ENGINJBEBS, U. 8. ABICT. 

in Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1904, pages 
1669-1674. 

July 1, 1004. balance iiiiex|)eiid<Kl $2, 048. .10 

Amouut appropriated by river and harbor act approved Marcb 3, ltK)5. 41, OOU. 00 

43,048.30 
June 30, 1005. amount expended during fiscal year, for workH of 
improvement 2, 367. 80 

July 1, 1905, balance unex|>ended 41,280.40 

Julyl, 1905, outstanding liabilities 400.9.1 

July 1, 1905, balance available . 40,813.47 

(Sec Appendix O 9.) 

10. Skidaway Narrows, Georgia. — The Narrows is a narrow, tor- 
tuous water course, and when improved will con.stitute an alternative 
or additional route for a portion of the inside waterway between 
Savannah, Ga., and Fernandina, Fla. In its present condition it is 
navigable only at high water for small sail boats and plea.sure 
launches. 

The approved project of improvement was adopted by the river 
and harbor act of March 3, 1905, and will be found printed in the 
Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1904, pages 1680-1684. 
This project contemplates the establishment of a navigable channel 
6 feet deep at mean low water and 75 feet wide at bottom, connecting 
Bumside River with Isle of Hope, or Skidaway, River, the route of 
such channel to be through the marsh and hammock land to the west 
of the Narrows. Subsequent developments made it neces.sary to 
abandon this route — principally on account of the difficulty in obtain- 
ing the desired right of way through private property. A new route, 
following practically the course of the Narrow.s, has been adopted. 
The estimated cast of the improvement by the new route is $55,000. 
No work has yet been done. 

The amount expended up to June 30, 1905, was $5.50. 

Amount appi-opriated by river jind liarltor act approved March 3. 1!K)5. ?20, 000. 00 
June 30, 1005, amount exi)en^ed duriuK tlscai year, for works of 
Improvement 5. 50 

July 1, 10«»5, balance unexpended 10,994.50 

Amount (eKtImated) required for completion of existing project 35,000.00 

(See Appendix O 10.) 

11. Cumberland Sound, Georgia and Florida. — In its original con- 
dition the available depth at the entrance varied from 11 to 12.5 feet 
at mean low water. The point of crossing the bar was subject to 
very great changes in location, moving in a series of years as much as 
14 mues. The distance from the outer bar to the city of Fernandina, 
Fla., is about 6^ miles. 

The pr^ect of improvement submitted in 1879 and revised by a 
Board of Engineers m 1891 provides for the construction of £wo low 
jetties from the shores on opposite sides of the entrance and extending 
seaward across the bar upon lines so directed that the ends will be 
parallel to each other and about .3,900 feet apart. These jetties were 
intended to establish a low-water channel across the bar not less than 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 287 

19 feet in depth. The cost of the improvement was originally esti- 
mated at $2,071,023, and as modified at $1,606,500, for the completion 
of low jetties, and at $2,079,500 if high jetties were found necessary. 
There was expended imder this project $932,500. 

The present project, which was adopted by act of Congress of June 
3, 1896, provides for the establishment of a channel across the bar 19 
feet deep at mean low water by the construction of two jetties of 
stone, resting on a foundation of brush mattresses, on the same lines as 
those in the previous project, the scour between the jetties to be aided 
by dredging, if necessary, the total cost of the improvement, at the 
time of this project, to be $2,350,000, exclusive of amounts previously 
appropriated. 

The amount expended under this project up to June 30, 1905, was 
$2,241,572.07 (of which $137,743.54 was for maintenance), which, 
added to the amount previously expended, gives a total expenditui-e 
for this work of $3,174,072.07. 

For maintenance of the dike on Cumberland Island there were 
placed during the fiscal year 13,286 cubic yards of brush fascines, 
2,681 cubic yards of stone, 63,000 feet 3. M. of lumber sheathing, 50 
sand bags, and 80 cubic yards of oyster shells, and. for maintenance 
of the inner end of the north jetty, 10 cubic yards of brush and 25 
cubic yards of stone were placed. 

The seagoing dredge Cumberland removed 59,412 cubic yards of 
material between October 22 and November 9, 1904, for maintenance 
of the jetty channel. 

At the close of the fiscal year the project for this improvement was 
completed, so far as depth is concerned, the controlling depth l)eing 
22.5 feet at mean low water, an exce.ss over the project depth of 3^ 
feet. The rise of tide is 6 feet. The channel lietween the jetties, 
however, required widening and straightening at one point. This 
work will be begun by the dredge Cumberland in July. 

The north jetty is in good condition for its entire length, with the 
exception of some slight settlement at two or three places. 

A wide gap exists in the shore end of the south jetty, and this jetty 
needs to be extended farther inshore. Other portions require raising. 

A contract for repairing the two jetties has oeen made. 

The north jetty channelis narrowing and shoaling at the inner end. 
A deep wide channel is rapidly forming along the south jetty, with a 
minimum depth of 24 feet at mean low water and a least width of 
400 feet, which channel extends about 3,300 feet beyond the outer 
end of the jetty. Beyond this point to deep water there is a small 
shoal with a controlling depth of from 13 to 14 feet at mean low 
water. Between the 24-foot curve inside and the 24-foot curve out- 
side the distance is about 1,200 feet. Two years ago there was a 
least depth of 9 feet on this line. 

The breach on Cumberland Island is practically* closed, and condi- 
tions there are very much improved. 

The additional work proposed is for the extension of benefits. 

Before improvement (in 1879) the annual in and out bound ton- 
nage at Fernandina was about 300,000, and the value of imports and 
exports about $2,500,000, lumber, naval stores, and cotton being the 

fnncipal articles. In 1904 the total tonnage of the port amounted to 
54,982 tons, valued at $10,715,805. 



Digitized by 



Google 



288 REPORT OF THE OHIEF OF ENOINEEBS, V. 8. ABMT. 

The project for this improvement will be found in the Annual Re- 
port of the Chief of Engineers for 1879, page 792, and the modifica- 
tions in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1891, Part 
2, page 1566, and report for 1896, Part 2, page 1289. 

A detailed history of the work of improvement may be obtained by 
consulting the following documents : 

Annual Reports of Chief of Engineers for 1876, Part 1, page 459; 
for 1878, Part 1, page 580; for 1883, Part 1, page 934; for 1885, Part 
2, page 1232; for 1888, Part 2, page 1054; for 1893, Part 2, page 
1599; and for 1897, Part 2, page 1533; and Senate Executive Docu- 
ment No. 19, Fifty-second Congress, second session, and Senate Docu- 
ment No. 163, Fifty-fifth Congress, first session. 

Maps showing the condition of the work at various dates may be 
found in the following documents : 

Annual Reports of the Chief of Engineers for 1876, Part 1, page 
482; for 1888, Part 2, page 1052; for 1889, Part 2, page 1276; for 
1891, Part 2, page 1561; for 1892, Atlas, page 60; for 1893, Part 2, 
page 1596; for 1898, Part 2, page 1326; for 1899, Part 2, page 1597; 
for 1902, Part 2, page 1198, and in Senate Document No. 163, Fifty- 
fifth Congress, fifst session. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $106,171.47 

Amount deposited on account of dredRe coustmction 3,041.80 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approvetl March 3, 1905. 30. 000. 00 
Amount appropriated by sundry civil act approved March 3, 1905 40, 000. 00 

180, 113. 27 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance 
of Improvement 37, 743, .'Vt 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 142.:«». 73 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 4, .194. 92 

July 1, 1905, balau(>e available 137,974.81 

July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 65.000.00 

(See Appendi.\ O 11.) 

J2. Re mo ring sunken renxels or craft ohxtnirfing or endangering 
iiui'igatkm. — The removal of the wrecks of the City of Aunt hi. Fran- 
fonia, and Puntalunon in Cumberland Sound, Georgia and Florida, 
begun during the last fiscal year, was completed. This work was 
done under emergency contract of August 8, 1903, at a total cost of 
$7,213.85. The balance remaining from the allotment of $9,570, viz, 
$2,356.15, was returned to the Treasurer of the United States. 

The amount expended during the fiscal year, exclusive of amount 
returned to the Treasurer of the United States, was $5,934. 

(See Appendix O 12.) 

IMPROVEMENT OF CERTAIN RIVERS AND HARBORS IN FLORIDA. 

This district was in the charge of Maj. Francis R. Shunk, Corps of 
Engineers. Division engineer, Lieut. Col. James B. Quinn, Corps of 
Engineers. 

1. St. Johns Rii;er, Flwida. — Before improvement the mean low- 
water channel depth across the bar varied from 5 to 7 feet, with a 
tidal range of 5.22 feet. The bar-wu:? dangerous, as the channel 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AKD HABBOB IMPBOVEHENTB. 289 

shifted through a range of about 1 mile. The least mean low-water 
depth in the river was about 11.5 feet. The tidal range varies from 
about 4.5 feet at the mouth to 1 foot at Jacksonville. 

The first project, adopted in 1879, contemplated a channel 15 feet 
deep at mean low water from Jacksonville to the ocean, a distance of 
about 27.5 miles. This was to be obtained by dredging and building 
training walls in the river, and by building two converging jetties of 
riprap stone 1,600 feet apart between their outer ends. 

The present project, adopted in 1896, and modified November 17, 
1903, contemplates a channel 300 feet wide and 24 feet deep from 
Jacksonville to the ocean, except at Dames Point, where the width is 
to be 400 feet and the depth 25 feet. This channel is to be obtained 
by dredging through all shoals, building training walls in the river, 
and by raising and extending the jetties. Estimated cost, $2,109,750. 
The amount expended by the United States up to June 30, 1905, was 
$2,937,276.57, of which $1,520,276.57 was expended under the present 
project. Of this amount $34,948.16 was for work of maintenance 
and $169,684.44 for construction of a seagoing suction dredge. 

The river and harbor act of June 13, 1902, appropriated $350,000 
for this improvement, and authorized a continuing contract for the 
work to an additional amount not exceeding $950,000, and of said 
amounts an expenditure of $150,000 was authorized for the purchase 
or construction of a seagoing suction dredge. 

The sundiy civil act of March 3, 1903, appropriated $350,000 and 
the sundry civil act of April 28, 1904, appropriated $395,000 for con- 
tinuing the work. The sundry civil act of March 3, 1905, appropri- 
ated $205,000, which completes the amount authorized in act of June 
13, 1902. The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, appropriated, 
for continuing improvement and for maintenance, $100,000, and 
authorized contract or contracts for such materials and work as may 
be necessary to complete the project, not to exceed in the aggregate 
$309,750 additional. 

The work of constructing the seagoing suction dredge St. Johns, 
authorized in act of June 13, 1902, was completed in March, 1905. 
At the end of the fiscal year the dredge was making her thirty-day 
trial and had not been finally accepted. Details of construction are 
given in Appendix H 7, herewith. 

Contract for construction of training walls was entered into June 
30, 1903. The work was completed December 15, 1904. 

A river dredge (the Jacksonville) with 30-inch hydraulic pump 
was completed in February, 1904. The work in the portion of the 
river above New Berlin and below Mayport is done by hired labor, 
using this dredge and the dredge St. Johns. Dredging in the lower 
part of the river above Mayport is done by contract. Contract for 
this portion was let August 24, 1904. Work began January 2, 1905, 
and was still in progress at the end of the fiscal year. 

During the year me depth on the bar has increased from 19^ to 25 
feet at mean low water. The maximum draft that can be carried at 
mean low water is 18 feet over Trout Creek shoal, which is the 
shoalest part of the locality under improvement. 

The river is navigable from the mouth to Lake Washington, a dis- 
tance of 276 miles. 

sua 1905 M 19 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



290 BEPOBT OF THE OHIEF OF ENOINEEBS, IT. S. ABMY. 

The commercial statistics furnished by the Jacksonville Board of 
Trade show a decrease of 51,760 tons for the year ending December 
31, 1904. The estimated value of the commerce for 1904 is 
$28,000,000. 

It is estimated that the improvement so far effected has resulted in 
maintaining a freight rate to northern points 100 per cent less than 
it otherwise would nave been. 

The amount estimated as profitable expenditure for the coming year 
will be applied to dredging and building up of jetties at the entrance. 

No work in addition to the project is proposed. 

Tonnage hy years. 



Tons. 

1898 494, 474 

1899 816,477 

1900 649,221 

1901 700, 179 



Tons. 

1902 903, 191 

1903 1, 052, 076 

1904 1, 000, 316 



More detailed information may be found in Reports of the Chief of 
Engineers for 1895, pages 1586-1604; 1896, pages 1305-1312; 1898, 
pages 1327-1330, and 1904, pages 1685-1690. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $384, 583. 30 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act of March 3, 1905 100, 000. 00 

Amount appropriated by sundry elvU act approved March 3, 1905. 205, 000. 00 

Amount deposited, sale of old material $445. 96 

Amount deposited, unexpended balance river and har- 
bor Board 89. 16 



535.12 



690, 118. 42 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, tor works of 
improvement 399,859.87 



July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 290,258.55 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities »35, 152.21 



July 1, 1905, balance avaUable _ ^ 255,106.34 



July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts •_ « 112, 213. 12 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project— 309, 750. 00 



Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 
30, 1907, for works of improvement. In addition to the balance 
unexpended July 1, 1905 309,750.00 

Submitted In compliance with requirements of sundry civil act of 
June 4, 1897. 

(See Appendix PI.) 

SS. St. Johns River at Orange MUls fiats, Florida. — Before improve- 
ment the St. Johns River, between Jacksonville and Palatka, was 
obstructed by four shoals, all near Orange Mills, viz : 

Forresters Point shoal, least depth 11.6 feet ; Orange Mills flats, 9.8 
feet ; Racey Point shoal, 10.1 feet, and Tocoi shoal, 11.1 feet. The 
mean range of tide is 0.9 foot. 

o Includes $48,182.69 on accoimt of construction of dredge St. Johns. 
* Includes $2,665.99 on account of construction of dredge St. Johns, 
e Includes $4,500 on account of construction of dredge St. Johns, 



Digitized by 



Google 



rilVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVBMBNTS. 291 

The project, adopted in 1898, is to dredge a channel 200 feet wide 
and 13 feet deep through the shoals between Jacksonville and Palatka, 
at an .estimated cost of $120,000. 

A channel was dredged through Orange Mills flats in 1900, from 
120 to 160 feet wide, connecting the 13-foot contours across the shoal. 

In 1903 the channel through Orange Mills flats was extended to a 
width of 160 feet throughout. A channel 13 feet deep and 120 feet 
wide was dredged through Racey Point shoal. Through Tocoi shoal 
a channel was dredged 13 feet deep and 40 to 80 feet wide. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, appropriated $25,000 
for this improvement. The work will be done by contract. 

The amount expended on this improvement up to June 30, 1906, 
was $70,000. 

The available channel depth is now limited by Forresters Point 
shoal to 11.6 feet at ordinary low-water stage, which is the maximum 
draft that can be carried through this channel. 

The commerce on the upper St. Johns is chiefly in lumber, shingles, 
building material, and general merchandise. Tiiis improvement has 
had no appreciable eflFect upon freight rates. 

Tonnage by years. 

1898 : 25,866 1 1901 67, .'iOO 

1899 . 122,074 I 1902 137,950 

1900 171,500 I 1903 269,610 

No commercial statistics for 1904 are available. 
No work in addition to the project is proposed. 
See Report of Chief of Engineers for 1904, pages 1690-1691. 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved Marcli 3, 1905_ $20, 000. 00 
July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 20, 000. 00 



Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 30,000.00 

(See Appendix P 2.) 

S. Volv^ia bar, Florida. — The bar is located at the south end or head 
of Lake George, in the St. Johns River, about 162 miles from the 
mouth. 

Before improvement the channel over the bar was very crooked and 
had a least depth at low water varying from 3^ to 4^ feet. 

The project of 1879 contemplated the construction of two jetties 
carried out beyond the bar, with their outer ends from 200 to 250 feet 
apart. Estimated cost, $15,000. 

Two jetties have been built, starting from opposite sides of the river 
bank at the south edge of the lake and converging until upon the bar 
they are 230 feet apart. The east jetty is 3,400 feet long and the west 
jetty 2,200 feet. They are built to the level of mean low water 
throughout nearly their entire lengths. Two rows of piles with 
waling pieces confine boats to a 100- foot channel across the crest of the 
bar. This work was finished during 1899. 

The act of March 3, 1905, appropriated $2,000 for this work, and 
there was an unexpended, balance of $4,000 from former appropria- 
tions. 

Operations began April 4, 1905, and were finished May 10, 1905, 
using the U. S. dredge and snag boat Florida. As a result, there is 



Digitized by 



Google 



Tona. 

1902 53,678 

1903 55,J)22 

1904 00,347 



292 RBPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOHfEBES, U/ 8. ABICT. 

now a channel through Volusia bar 1,100 feet long, 100 feet wide, and 
7 feet deep at mean low water, and through Lake Monroe bar a chan- 
nel 1,050 feet long, 100 feet wide, and 6 to 7 feet deep. 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, was $37,000, of which 
$12,000 was for maintenance. 

The maximum draft that can be carried through the improved chan- 
nel is 6 feet at mean low water. The usual variation of level of water 
surface is about 2 feet. 

The commerce of this portion of the river is chiefly in grain, fer- 
tilizers, ship stores, vegetables, and general merchandise. The esti- 
mated value of the commerce for 1904 is $3,620,820. 

Tons. 

1898 21, 959 

1899 26,358 

1900 31. 511 

1901 32,437 

It is estimated that the improvement so far effected has resulted in 
maintaining a freight rate to local points 100 per cent less than it 
otherwise would have been. 

Work of maintenance will be required from time to time. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended o|i4, 000. 00 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 2, 000. 00 

6,000.00 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance of 
Improvement 66, 000. 00 

(See Appendix P 3.) 

4. Oklawaha River, Florida. — This river is obstructed by snags, 
accumulations of drift, and overhanging trees. After removal, these 
obstructions recur in a few years. 

The project adopted in 1891 is to clear the river of obstructions so 
as to give a navigable channel 4 feet deep at low stages from the 
mouth to Leesburg, a distance of 94 miles. Estimated cost, $26,000. 

The act of March 3, 1905, appropriated $2,000 for this improve- 
ment, and there was an unexpended balance of $2,000 from a former 
appropriation. 

Operations began June 1, 1905, and ceased June 28, 1905, owing to 
exhaustion of funds. As a result, the river has been cleared of snags 
and other obstructions for a distance of 21 miles above the mouth of 
the river. The river is navigable from the mouth to Leesburg, a 
distance of 94 miles. 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, was $21,249.42, of which 
$11,249.42 was for maintenance. 

For more detailed description see Beport of Chief of Engineers for 
1896, pages 1314-1316. 

The commerce concerned is small. The Iwats using the river are 
chiefly excursion steamers, which run during the winter months. 
This improvement has had no appreciable effect upon freight rates. 

Tonnage, hy years. 



1898 4, 481 

1899 4, 291 



1000 4, 847 

1901 4,530 



o Includes $2,000 from river and harbor a<-t of April 28, 1004. 
t Includes ^600 allotted for construction of di-edge Florida, 



Digitized by 



Google 



II 



BTVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMEKTS. 

Commercial statistics for 1904 are not available. 

Work of maintenance will be required from time to time. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $2,000.00 

Amount appropriated by rlrer and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 2, OOo! 00 

4,000.00 
Jane 30, 1905, amoant expended dnring fiscal year, for maintenance 
of improvement 1, 249. 42 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended. _•_ 2,750.58 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 1,784.60 

July 1, 1905, balance available 965. 98 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 16, 000. 00 

(See Appendix P 4.) 

5. Indian River, Florida, between Goat Creek and Jupiter Inlet. — 
Before improvement the ruling depth in this portion of Indian River 
was 2| feet ; tide imperceptible. 

The project of 1891 contemplates a continuous channel 5 feet deep 
at low water and at least 75 feet wide in the straight reaches, with as 
much greater width in the turns as may be required, at an estimated 
cost or $44,000. In 1895 the channel previously dredged by the 
Florida Coast Line Canal and Transportation Company was widened 
at Long Canal, High Bank Canal, Curved Canal, and Conch bar by 
dredging along one side of it a cut 50 feet wide and 6 feet deep. 

The act of June 13, 1902, appropriated $2,000 for continuing the 
improvement This amount not being sufficient to obtain noticeable 
results, it was proposed to defer the expenditure of the appropriation 
until more favorable conditions obtain or until additional funds might 
be provided. 

The act of March 3, 1905, appropriated $20,000 for continuing this 
improvement and for maintenance, and provided for a survey of 
Sebastian Inlet. On May 5, 1905, the Chief of Engineers allotted 
$1,500 from this appropriation for survey of Sebastian Inlet, and on 
May 27, 1905, approved project for expenditure of the balance of 
$18,500. Dredging will be done opposite St. Lucie Inlet, in the 
vicinity of Jupiter Inlet, and elsewhere in this section of Indian 
River, the work to be done by hired labor, using the U. S. dredge 
and snag boat Florida. 

The depths in this portion of the river are gradually decreasing. 
From Goat Creek to St. Lucie River a maximum draft of only 3 feet 
c!an now be carried at mean low water. Between St. Lucie River and 
Jupiter Inlet the ruling depth is only 2 feet at mean low water. This 
shoaling is due to sand brought in through an artificial opening. 

The amount expended on this part of Indian River to Jxme 30, 1906, 
was $16,410.79, of which $806.76 was applied to building and equip- 
ping the dredge Florida, and $605.03 to survey of Sebastian Inlet. 

Indian River is at present chiefly used by small local steamers, 
launches, and small sailing vessels. 

No commercial statistics are available for 1904. The commerce is 
believed to be small, and consists of fruits, vegetables, lumber and 
other building supplies, and general merchandise. 



Digitized by 



Google 



294 REPORT OK THE CHIEF OF ENOrNBERS, U. 8. ABKT. 

Tonnage, hy years. 

1901 66,503 I 1902 91.875 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $2, 014. 62 

Amount appropriated by river and barber act approved March 3. 1!K»5_ 20, 000. 00 

22. 014. 02 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of im- 
provement " 1,410. ~ii 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 20, 603. 83 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 665. 3S 

^uly 1, 1905, balance available 19,938.45 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing i)roJect 7,000.00 

(See Appendix P 5.) 

6. Biscayne Bay, Florida. — Biscayne Bay in its original condition 
was navigable for boats drawing less than 3 feet of water. There is 
a channel about 12.5 miles long, with a least depth of 10.5 feet, from 
Miami to the Atlantic Ocean via Cape Florida. In about 4 miles of 
this channel the required depth was obtained by dredging. The tidal 
range in the bay is about 1 foot. 

The project, adopted by the river and harbor act of June 13, 1902, 
is to excavate a channel 18 feet deep from the wharves at Miami to 
the sea by way of a line entering the sea at a point about 4,000 feet 
north of Norris Cut, and a basin of same depth, 1,600 feet long and 
500 feet wide, adjacent te the said wharves. The act mentionea pro- 
vides that, of the work contemplated, the Florida East Coast Rail- 
way Company shall construct, at its own exj^ense, the basin adjacent 
to the wharves at Miami, and the channel from said basin to the east 
side of the proposed refuge basin on the east side of the bay ; that the 
amounts appropriated and authorized shall be expended in construct- 
ing and protecting the portion of the channel extending to the sea 
from the terminus of the channel to be constructed by the railway 
company, of such approximately uniform depth and of such width as 
will best serve the interests of navigation and as can be constructed 
with the funds therein appropriated and authorized. The act fur- 
llier provides that before any part of the appropriation shall be 
expended the said railway company shall enter into contract with the 
United States for the performance of its part of the work. The act 
appropriated $50,000 and authorized a continuing contract for prose- 
cuting the project for an additional amount, not exceeding $250,000. 
This latter amount was appropriated by the sundry civil act approved 
March 3, 1903. 

A c<mtract for the portion of the work to be done by the Florida 
East Coast Railway Company was executed by said company Sep- 
tember 25, 1902. A project for the expenditure of the available and 
authorized funds was approved January 12, 1903. The project con- 
templates the construction of a basin 300 by 500 feet at the eastern 
side of the bay, and the excavation of a channel 18 feet deep and 100 
feet wide, deepening to 20 feet at the ocean end, from the basin to the 
sea ; also the construction of a breakwater extending from the present 
shore line seaward about 1,500 feet, 500 feet north of the proposed 
cut and parallel to it. The estimated cost of this work was $300,000. 

<■ Includes $600 allotted for construction of dredge Florida. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIVER AKD HABBOB lUPBOVEMENTS. 295 

By subsequent arraneement with the Florida East Coast Railway 
Company, it was agreed that work W the United States should not 
begin until the Florida East Coast Kailway Company should have 
excavated a preliminary channel 10 feet deep and 60 feet wide across 
the bay. Work on this preliminary channel was begun in March, 
1903, and completed in November, 1903. Operations oy the United 
States under contract with P. Sanford Eoss (Incorporated), were 
commenced March 15, 1904. 

On June 30, 1905, the foundation and hearting of the breakwater 
had been built to a distance of 1,400 feet from shore. The break- 
water was capped with granite to a height of 5 feet above mean low 
water for a distance of 1,150 feet from shore. 

The sides of the seaward end of the dredged cut are being rapidly 
eroded by wave action, forming a widely diverging shore line at th*Q 
entrance. The sand removed by this erosion is being deposited sea- 
ward of the entrance, forming a shoal with only about 3 feet of 
water over it at mean low water, where a depth of as much as 8 feet 
had previously existed. It is believed that the shore line at the 
entrance will need to be revetted to prevent this erosion, and the 
southern breakwater, contemplated in the Board's report of April 9, 
1900, will also be necessary to wevent injury from heavy wave action 
during southeasterly storms. The present breakwater should also be 
extended seaward 100 feet and the capping carried to the outer end. 
The channel should be made at least 150 feet wide at the entrance. 
This additional work is necessary to make the improvement available. 

It is found that the actual proportion of rock is somewhat greater 
than was anticipated and that it will not be possible to complete the 
sea end of the channel to a width of more than 85 feet with funds 
available. 

The channel is not yet available for purposes of navigation. 

The amount expended on this work to June 30, 1905, was $98,767.03. 

A description of the bay, with report and recommendations of a 
Board of officers, may be found in Report of the Chief of Engineers 
for 1900, pages 1986 to 2013. 

The commerce of Biscayne Bay is in cattle, fertilizers, lumber, 
fruits, vegetables, grain, and general merchandise. 

The estimated value of the commerce for the year 1904 is 

$614,710.00. 

Tonnage, by years. 

1899 18,089 1 1903 13,319 

1902 8,390 1 1904 16,788 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended o$288, 358.01 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of 
Improvement 87, 125. 04 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 201, 232. 07 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 40, 120. 36 

July 1, 1905, balance available 161,112.61 



July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 142, 753. 2f 

(See Appendix P 6.) 

• Reduced by $34.49, balance of appropriation for survey, wMcli 1h not appli- 
cable to improvement work. 



Digitized by 



Google 



296 BEPOBX OK THE O&IEF OF EKOmE£B&, U. S. ABlfT. 

7. Harbor at Key West, Fla., and entrance thereto. — ^The enttahc* 
referred to is the northwest channel. Key West Harbor accommO-* 
dates vessels drawing about 27 feet. Before improvement the ruling 
depth over the northwest bar was 10.5 feet. The mean tidal range 
is 2.6 feet. 

The project adopted in 1889 contemplates a channel 17 feet deep 
at mean low water. This was to be secured by buildinc two stone 
jetties, one to the northeast and one to the west of the channel, con- 
verging toward the bar, and by dredging if necessary. Estimated 
cost of east jetty, $500,000. No estimate has been made of entire 
project. 

The east jetty has been built to a length of 11,354 feet and the 

west jetty to a length of 6,452 feet. The east jetty for a distance of 

. 3,950 feet is at the height of mean low water. The rest of the jetty 

is about 5 feet below mean low water. The crest of the west jetty is 

about at the level of mean low water. 

In 1901 the channel was dredged to about 12.5 feet. Since that 
time shoaling has taken place, especially at the turn inside the bar, 
so that vessels frequently have difficulty in passing. 

Authority was granted by the Secretary of War in April, 1903, to 
build a dredge for use on this work. This dredge (the Key West) 
was completed in December, 1904, and was accepted in January, 
1905. Details of construction aregiven in Appendix H 7, herewith. 
Work of dredging began at Key West Harbor entrance on February 
1, 1905. As a result of operations there is now a channel 15 feet deep 
and 100 feet wide over the shoal. 

The maximum draft that can be carried through this entrance at 
mean low water is 15 feet. 

The amount expended on this project to June 30, 1905, was 
$458,204.39. 

For more detailed information see Reports of the Chief of Engi- 
neers for 1896, pages 1325-1327; 1898, page 1371, and 1900, page 1958. 

The commerce is chiefly in cattle, fertilizers, tobacco, sponges, and 
general merchandise. The estimated value of the commerce for 1904 
K $5,229,150. 

Tonnage hy years. 

1898 72,968 1902 14,146 

1899 l.SO,713 1903 134,043 

1900 .30,594 1904 174,305 

1901 18,863 

July 1, 1901, balanc-e unexpended $55,586.42 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1906. 50, 000. 00 



105, 586. 42 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of 
Improvement ^ «51, 289. 31 



July 1, 1905, balance unexiiended 54,297.11 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 3,011.53 



July 1, 1906, balance available 1 51,285.58 



Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 50, 000. 00 

(See Appendix P 7.) 

" Includes $35,854.21 on account of construction of dredge. 



Digitized by 



Google 



mVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMSNTS. 297 

8. Kiarnnmee River, Florida. — ^The Kissimmee River rises in Lake 
Tohopekaliga and flows in a southerly direction through Cypress 
Lake, Lake Hatcheneha, and Lake Kissimmee, and empties into Lake 
Okechobee. The length of the waterway from the town of Kissim- 
mee, situated on the northwest shore of Lake Tohopekaliga, to Lake 
Okechobee is 137 miles. The river is very tortuous, and a number of 
cuts avoiding the worst bends have been made by private parties. 

Before improvement was undertaken by the Government the river 
and canals were narrow and shallow in places, and at ordinary stages 
of the water the minimum depth was less than 2 feet. Snags and 
overhanging trees impeded navigation. In years of drought steam- 
boats ceased running lor several months. 

The project adopted June 13, 1902, provides for a channel 30 to 60 
feet wide and 3 feet deep in the Kissinmiee River (including the con- 
necting canals and lakes) from the town of Kissimmee to Fort Bas- 
singer, and for a channel 25 feet wide and 3 feet deep in Istokpoga 
Creek. Estimated cost of the improvement was $24,220.90. 

The amount expended upon the work of existing project to June 30, 
1906, was $8,920.41. 

The channel in Southport Canal has been straightened and 
widened, its depth increased from 15 inches to 3 feet, and its perma- 
nence insured by the construction of bulkheads. At ordinary low 
stages of the river a maximum draft of 15 inches can be carried from 
the town of Kissimmee to Fort Bassinger. The annual variation of 
level is about 4 feet. Kissimmee is at the head of navigation. The 
entire route from Kissimmee to Fort Bassinger, 99^ miles, is navi- 
gable. 

The commerce of Kissimmee River is in cattle, fruits, vegetables, 
fish, and general merchandise. The value of the commerce for the 
year 1904 was $283,365. 

Tonnage by years. 

1901 3,670 1 1903 10,662 

1902 9, 655 I 1904 2,863 

For reference to examination and survey, see page 289, Report of 
the Chief of Engineers for 1904. 

The project has lowered freight rates by enabling the steamboats 
to run more months in a year than they formerly did. Freight is 
hauled by wagons when steamboats are not running, there being no 
railroads down the valley. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended ^ 1116.70 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 7, 000. 00 

7, 116. 70 
Jane 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of 
Improvement 1,037. 11 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 0,079.89 

July 1, 1906, onlitandlng liabilities 1,000.00 

July 1, 1906, balance available 5,079.59 



Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 9,220.90 

(See Appendix PS.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



298 BEFOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEBB8, U. 8. ARMY, 

9. Orange River, Charlotte Harbor, and Caloosahatchee River, 
Florida. — These improvements were consolidated by the river and 
harbor act of June 13, 1902. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, appropriated $3,000 for 
maintenance of these improvements. Allotments from the consoli- 
dated appropriation were made on April 26, 1905, as follows : 

Orange Itlver $1,000 

Caloosahatchee River 2, 000 

Total 3, 000 

(a) Orange River. — This stream empties into the Caloosahatchee 
River about 6 miles above the town of Fort Myers, and has a total 
length of 6 miles. Before improvement the limiting depth was about 
2.5 feet at mean low water. Navigation was obstructed by shoals, 
snags, and overhanging trees. 

The project, adopted June 13, 1902, provides for a channel 50 feet 
wide and 4 feet deep at mean low water from the mouth of the river 
to the head of navigation. 

The amount expended upon the work of existing project to June 
30, 1905, was $2,000. 

The improvement has resulted in the formation of a navigable 
channel 4 feet deep at mean low water from the mouth of the river to 
the head of navigation. This channel is 50 feet wide from the river 
mouth for about half the distance to the head of navigation. For the 
remainder of the distance the river's banks limit the channel width to 
about 40 feet. A maximum draft of 4 feet at mean low water could 
be carried on June 30, 1905, from mouth of the river for a distance of 
4 miles up the stream. Mean rise and fall of tide is 1 foot. During 
freshets the river level is about 2 feet above mean high water. The 
head of navigation is Middle Bridge, 4 miles from the mouth of the 
river. 

The commerce of Orange -River is in fruit, vegetables, fertilizers, 
lumber and general merchandise. The value of the commerce for the 
year 1904 was $112,388. 

Tonnage, hy years. 

1896 1,250 I 1903 8,555 

1902 7, 155 I 1904 .%099 

For reference to examination and survey see page 291, Report of 
Chief of Engineers for 1904. 

The freight rates are practically the same as before the improve- 
ment was made. 

(5) Charlotte Harbor and Caloosahatchee River from Puntarasa to 
Punta Gorda. — Before improvement this waterway was obstructed by 
two shoals in Pine Island Sound. The least depth across the' shoals 
at mean low water was 5 feet. 

The original project, adopted in 1890, for the improvement of 
Charlotte Ilarbor was to dredge a channel 200 feet wide and 12 feet 
deep at mean low' water from the Gulf of Mexico to the steamship 
wharf at Punta Gorda. The project was modified in 1897 to include 
extension of the channel from the steamship wharf to a point in mid- 
channel in front of the railroad wharf at Punta Gorda, a distance of 
about 6,000 feet. 



Digitized by 



Google 



EIVEE AKD HABBOK IMPBOVEMBNT8. 



299 



The amount expended upon the work of the ori^nal project and the 
modified project of 1897 was $100,000. 

The project adopted June 13, 1902, provided for a channel in Pine 
Island Sound 100 feet wide, 7 feet deep at mean low water, through 
the shoal northeastward of Patricio Island and through the shoal 
northeastward of Blind Pass. The estimated cost of the improve- 
ment was $G,000. 

The amount expended upon work of existing project to June 30, 
1905, was $6,000. 

Result of the work of improvement is a channel 100 feet wide and 
7 feet deep through both shoals in Pine Island Sound. 

The maximiun draft at mean low water that could be carried on 
June 30, 1905, was 7 feet. Mean rise and fall of tide is 1.7 feet. The 
head of navigation is Punta Gorda. The entire route from Puntarasa 
to Punta Gorda, 48J miles, is navigable. 

The commerce is in phosphate, coal, cattle, and general merchan- 
dise. The tonnage of Pine Island Sound in 1898 was 17,200; no later 
statistics are available. 

The value of the commerce for 1904 was $1,514,563. 

Tonnage, by years. 



1897 112, 172 

1898 _* 106,346 

1899 102,048 

1900 ^ 85,475 



1902 78,264 

1903 118, 105 

1904 114, 479 



For reference to examinations and surveys see page 291 of Report 
of Chief of Engineers for 1904. 

The project has not affected freight rates. The line of steamers 
that formerly used the route has been abandoned since the Atlantic 
Coast Line Railroad was extended from Punta Gorda to Fort Mvers 
in May, 19(M. 

(c) Caloomhatchee River between Puntarasa and Fort Thomp- 
son. — Before improvement there was a navigable channel 5 feet deep 
at mean low water from Puntarasa to a point 4 miles above the town 
of Fort Myers. From that point to Fort Thompson the least depth 
was 3.5 feet across the shoal at Beautiful Island. There were oyster 
bars in the river near its mouth, and snags and overhanging trees 
obstructed the channel above Beautiful Island. 

The original project, adopted in 1882, was to dredge a channel 100 
feet wide and 7 feet deep at mean low water from the mouth of the 
river to the town of Fort Myers. The project was modified in 1886 
to include improvement of the upper river by removal of snags and 
overhanging trees. 

The amount expended upon the work of the original project and 
the modified project of 1886 was $14,000. 

The project was again modified in 1888 to include straightening 
and deepening, to 4 feet at mean low water, the channel across the 
shoal at Beautiful Island. 

The estimated cost of the improvement was $11,000. 

The amount expended on the work of existing project to June 30, 
1905, was $21,100, of which amoimt $10,100 was applied to mainte- 
nance of the improvement. 



Digitized by 



Google 



800 BBPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOINEEBS, U. 8. ABMT. 

The result of the-improvement is a channel 100 feet wide and 7 feet 
deep at mean low water from the mouth of the river to the town of 
Fort Myers, and 4 feet deep from Fort Myers to Fort Thompson. 
The maximum draft that could be carried on June 30, 1905, was 7 
feet from the river entrance to Fort Myers and thence 4 feet to Fort 
Thompson. The mean rise and fall of the tide at the river entrance 
is 1.6 feet. During freshets the water level in the upper reaches of 
the river rises considerably. The head of navigation is Fort Thomp- 
son. The navigable portion of the river from the mouth to Fort 
Thompson is 59.5 miles long. 

The commerce of Caloosahatchee River is in fruits, vegetables, 
lumber, wood, and general merchandise. The value of commerce for 
the. year 1904 was $214,910. 

Tonnage, hy yeara. 



1899 33, 101 

1800 22,737 

1902 27,895 



1903 : 27, 576 

1904 12,255 



The freight rates are practically the same as before the improve- 
ment was made. 

.\mount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1906. $3, 000. 00 
July 1, 1905, balance unex|)ended ^ 3f000. 00 

(See Appendix P 9.) 

10. Sarasota Bay^ Florida. — Before improvement there was a 
navigable channel with a least depth of 5 feet throughout the length 
of Big Sarasota Bay, excepting in two reaches, Palma Sola Pass and 
Long bar, which have a total length of 5,400 feet. In these reaches 
the feast depth was 4.3 and 3.5 feet, respectively. 

Between oarasota and Caseys Pass, at the south end of the bay, the 
least channel depth was 1.2 feet at mean low water, except at the 
Mangroves, where there was no navigable water. 

The original project, adopted in 1889, was to dredge a channel 100 
feet wide and 5 feet deep at mean low water from Tampa Bay to the 
town of Sarasota. Estimated cost of the improvement was $17,500. 

The amount expended under the original project was $10,000. 

The original project was modified June 3, 1896, to include the 
improvement of Little Sarasota Bay by dredging a channel 75 feet 
wide and 3 feet deep at mean low water from tne town of Sarasota to 
Caseys Pass. Estimated cost to complete the improvement was 
$45,000. 

The amount expended on the work to June 30, 1905, was $22,500, of 
which amount $3,000 was applied to maintenance of the improvement. 

Result of the work is a channel 50 feet wide and 5 feet deep at mean 
low water from Tampa Bay to the town of Sarasota, and thence 3 
feet deep to a point on the southerly edge of White Beach shoal, near 
Osprey. 

The maximum draft that could be carried on June 30, 1905, was 5 
feet to Sarasota and 2 feet to the southerly end of the dredged cut 
near Osprey. Mean rise and fall of the tide is 1.5 feet. The head of 
navigation for 2-foot draft is the southerly end of the dredged cut 
near Osprey. The navigable portion of the bay, from the northerly 
entrance to Osprey, is 32 miles long. 



Digitized by 



Google, 



BTVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTB. 301 

The commerce of Sarasota Bay is in fruits, vegetables, fish, naval 
stores, lumber, and general merchandise. The value of commerce for 
the year 1904 was $704,931. 

Tonnaffe, by year*. 

1889 9,424 I 1903 4,755 / 

1902 4,313 I 1904 25,479 

For reference to examination and survey, see page 293 of Report of 
the Chief of Engineers for 1904. 

The freight rates have been lowered 25 to 50 per cent, depending on 
freight classification, since the improvement was undertaken. 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1906. $9, 000. 00 
July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 5,000.00 



Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 27,600.00 

(See Appendix P 10.) 

IJ. Tampa Bay, Florida. — Before improvement the least depth in 
the bay channel between the Gulf of Mexico and Port Tampa was 13 
feet. 

The original project was adopted August 11, 1888, for a channel 200 
feet wide and 20 feet deep at mean low water from Tampa Bay to Old 
Tampa Bay. The estimated cost of the improvement was $63,000. 

The amount expended upon the improvement under the original 
project was $50,000. 

A new project was adopted March 3, 1899. It contemplated a 
channel 27 feet deep from the Gulf of Mexico to Port Tampa, 500 
feet wide across the bar and 300 feet wide in the bay. It was pro- 
posed first to secure a channel of full width and 24 feet depth and 
afterwards to increase the depth to 27 feet. The estimated cost of 
the improvement/ was $750,000. 

Th amount expended upon the improvement under this project was 
$345,045.80. 

The project of 1899 was modified by the river and harbor act of 
March 3, 1905. The project, as modified, conteinplates securing a 
channel of 26 feet, with sufiicient width, from the Gulf of Mexico to 
Port Tampa. The act authorizes the expenditure of the remaining 
balance to the credit of this appropriation on this project and pro- 
vides " that no part of said balance on hand shall be expended 
unless the dock company or companies owning docks, wharves, or 
terminals at Tampa Bay shall, by valid contract, agree that the 
wharfage charges at such terminals shall be submitted to the Secre- 
tary of War and be subject to his approval." 

No work has been done under the modified project because the 
Atlantic Land and Improvement Company, owning terminals at 
Tampa Bay, has not agreed, by valid contract, that the wharfage 
charges at such terminals shall be submitted to the Secretary of War 
and be subject to his approval, as is required by the river and harbor 
act of March 3, 1905. 

The amount expended under the revised project to June 30, 1905, 
was, $2,170.69. 

Kesult of the work of improvement under the project of 1899 is a 
channel 128 to 300 feet wide, with a least depth at mean low water of 
24 feet, from the Gulf of Mexico to Port Tampa. 



Digitized by 



Google 



302 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF EKOHTBEBS, 0. 8. ABHT. 

The maximum draft that could be carried on June 30, 1905, was 24 
feet. Mean rise and fall of tide at Tampa Bay entrance is 1.5 feet; 
at Port Tampa, 2 feet. The head of navigation for 24-foot draft is 
Port Tampa, 35 miles from deep water in the Gulf of Mexico. 

The commerce is in phosphate, lumber, coal, crude petroleum, to- 
bacco, grain, and general merchandise. The value of commerce for 
the year 1904 was $9,316,918. 

Tonnage, by years. 



1896 276.638 

1898 236, 136 

1899 238,30.5 

1900 — 1 350, 761 



1901 416,503 

1902 462, 703 

1903 435,867 

1904 591, 181 



For report on examination and survey of Tampa Bay, see Report of 
the Chief of Engineers for 1897, page 1596 et seq. 

The freight rates have been lowered 20 per cent on phosphate ship- 
ments since the improvement was undertaken. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $292,631.01 

June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, ifor works of 
improvement «29, 834. 74 



July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 202,796.27 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities »100. 40 



July 1, 1905, balance available 262,69.5.87 



Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 139, 987. 24 

(See Appendix P 11.) 

J2. Hillshoro Bay., Florida. — ^The city of Tampa is located at the 
head of Hillsboro Bay, at the mouth oi Hillsboro River. It is sepa- 
rated from the 12-foot depth in the bay by a flat about 3 miles wide. 

Before improvement there was a narrow and tortuous channel 
through the flat, with an average depth of about 5 feet at mean low 
water. 

The original project was adopted in 1880, and had for its object the 
formation of a 9-foot channel, 150 feet wide in the bay and 200 feet 
wide in the river, from the 9-foot curve in the bay to the wharves at 
Tampa in the Ilillslwro River. In 1888 the project was modified to 
provide for the formation and maintenance of a channel 8 feet deep in 
Hillsboro Bay and Hillsboro River to the city of Tampa, and a chan- 
nel 20 feet deep and 200 feet wide from Tampa to Old Tampa Bay. 

The amount expended upon the improvement of Hillsboro Bay 
under the original project and the revised project was $80,000. 

A later project, adopted March 3, 1899, contemplated the forma- 
tion of a channel in Hillsboro River from a point about 100 feet 
south of the bridge crossing the river at Lafayette street, in the city 
of Tampa, to the mouth of the river, and from there along the line 
of shortest distance to the 12- foot contour in Hillsboro Bay ; this chan- 
nel to be 12 feet deep at mean low water and 150 feet wide in the bay. 

The estimated cost of the improvement was $300,000, and $1,000 
annually for maintenance. 



Includes ?22,918.91 on account of construction of dredge Kry We»t, 
» Includes $93.40 on account of construction of dredge Key West. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVBB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTB. 



303 



The contractor, Edwin W. Preston, ceased operations on November 
5, 1903. The contract was annulled on May 7, 1904, and the work was 
readvertised for completion on June 20, 1904. Bids for completion 
of the work were opened on July 21, 1904, and rejected on account of 
being too high. On August 5, 1904, the work was authorized to be 
done by hired labor, using the U. S. dredge Suwanee. 

The amount expended under the 1899 project to June 30, 1905, was 
$275,000. 

Result of the work is a channel 12 feet deep at mean low water, 
with a least width of 110 feet in the bay and 200 feet in the river. 

A new project was adopted March 3, 1905. It contemplates the for- 
mation of a channel 20 feet deep at mean low water and 150 feet wide, 
from the lower bay to the mouth of Hillsboro River, with a turning 
basin at the inner end of the channel 460 feet wide and 1,060 feet long. 
Estimated cost of the improvement is $448,350. 

Advertisements were published on June 1, 1905, inviting proposals 
for dredging the 20-foot channel. 

An allotment of $10,000 from the available funds was made on 
April 3, 1905, for completing the 12-foot channel in Hillsboro Bay to 
its full width of 150 feet, the work to be done by hired labor, using a 
Government dredge. 

The amount expended under the existing project to June 30, 1905, 
was $5,693.80. 

A maximum draft of 12 feet could be carried at mean low water 
from Tampa Bay to the head of navigation on June 30, 1905. Mean 
rise and fall of tide is 2.2 feet. The head of navigation is the city of 
Tampa. The navigable channel from the city of Tampa to Tampa 
Bay is 10^ miles long; from Tampa to the Gulf of Mexico is 41 miles. 

The commerce of Hillsboro Bay is in fruits, vegetables, lumber, 
coal, cattle, fish, naval stores, fertilizers, fuller's earth, and general 
merchandise. The value of the commerce for the year 1904 was 
$7,682,886. 

Tonnage, hv years. 



1898 32.070 1902 169,844 

1899 87,740 190.3 228,2.52 

1900 96,029 1904 274,399 

1901 131,208 

For further information, see Report of Chief of Engineers for 1899, 
pages 1635-1637. 

For reference to examination and survey see page 295 of Report of 
Chief of Engineers for 1904. 

The freight rates by water have been lowered about 25 per cent 
since the improvement was imdertaken. 

The amount estimated as a profitable expenditure will be applied 
to completion of the channel by dredging. The work is necessary to 
make the improvement available. 



Digitized by 



Google 



804 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEEB8, U. 8. ABMT. 

July 1, 1904. balance unexpended $28,587.80 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved Marcb 3, 1905. 100, 000. 00 
Amount deposited, sale of old material 9.30 



128,597.10 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of Im- 
provement 34, 181. 60 



July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 94,415.50 

•July 1, 1905, outstanding llablllUes 2.500.00 



July 1, 1905, balance available 01,916.60 



Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 348, 350. 00 



Amount that can be profitably expended In fiscal year ending June 30, 
1907, for works of Improvement, in addition to the balance unex- 
pended July 1, 1905 348,360.00 

Submitted In compliance with requirements of sundry civil act of 
June 4, 1897. 

(See Appendix P 12.) 

13. Crystal, Anclote, Suwanee, and Withlacoochee rivers, Flor- 
ida. — These improvements and the improvement of Manatee River 
were consolidated by the river and harbor act of June 13, 1902. The 
river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, made separate provision for 
Manatee River. 

(a) Crystal River. — Crystal River is a small tidal estuary empty- 
ing into the Gulf of Mexico on the wegt coast of Florida about 26 
mues southeast of Cedar Keys. It is navigable to the town of Crystal 
River, 6^ miles from the mouth. The.entrance is obstructed by reefs 
and sand bars. 

Before improvement the channel was crooked and difficult to navi- 
gate, having a minimum depth of 2.7 feet at mean low water. There 
was also a shoal near the town of Crystal River, with a depth of 5 feet 
at mean low water. 

The project, adopted June 13, 1902, was for a channel 60 feet wide 
and 6 feet deep at mean low water rrom the Gulf of Mexico to the 
town of Crystal River. Estimated cost of the work was $84,647.46. 

The amount expended to Jime 30, 1905, was $10,000, of which 
$2,700 was expended toward completing the Government dredge 
Florida. 

Result of the work is a channel, through shoals near the river en- 
trance, 60 feet wide and from 5.5 to 6 feet deep at mean low water. 
Maximum draft that could be carried at mean low water from the 
Gulf of Mexico to the town of Crystal River on June 30, 1905, was 6 
feet. Mean rise and fall of tide is 2.3 feet. Head of navigation is 
the town of Crystal River. The length of the navigable channel is 9 
miles. 

The commerce of Crystal River is in lumber, pencil cedar, oysters, 
fish, and general merchandise. The value of the commerce for the 
year 1904 was $352,720. 

Tonnage, bp pears. 

1902 1,785 

1903 725 

1904 6,875 

For reference to examination and survey, see page 296 of Report of 
Chief of Engineers for 1904. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BITEB AND HABBOB IMPBOV£M£NTS. 305 

The freight rates have been lowered 10 per cent since the improve- 
ment was undertaken. 

(6) Anelote River. — Before improvement the river below Tarpon 
Springs was obstructed by shoals and bars, with depth varying from 
2 to 14 feet at mean low water. The channel was narrow and tor- 
tuous. 

The project was adopted March 3, 1899, and contemplates a chan- 
nel 100 feet wide and 6 feet deep at mean low water from Anclote 
anchorage to Sponge Harbor, and thence 4 feet deep at mean low 
water to the county oridge at Tarpon Springs. 

The estimated cost of the improvement was $51,500. 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, was $15,000. 

Besult of the work of improvement is a channel 50 feet wide and 6 
feet deep at mean low water from Anclote anchorage to Sponge Har- 
bor, and thence a channel 50 feet wide and 4 feet deep to a point about 
1 mile below the county bridge at Tarpon Springs. 

The mean rise and fall of tide at Anclote River entrance is 2 feet. 
Head of navigation is the county bridge at Tarpon Springs. licngth 
of the navigable channel is 5 mile-s. 

The commerce of Anclote River is in sponges, lumber, naval stores, 
and general merchandise. The value of the commerce for the year 
1904 was $582,822. 

Tonnage, hy yean. 

1890 1,441 I 1903 2,138 

1900 1,000 I 1901 8,310 

For reference to examination and survey, see page 297 of Report of 
Chief of Engineers for 1904. 

The freight rates have not been materially changed as a result of 
the improvement. 

(c) Suwanee River. — Before improvement the river from its mouth 
to EUaville, a distance of 135 miles, was obstructed by snags, over- 
hanging trees, and shoals of soft, unstratified limestone. The channels 
across these shoals were narrow and crooked, with depths varying 
from 15 inches to 3 feet. At places in the channel there were large 
limestone bowlders. 

The project adopted in 1879 is to deepen the bar at the entrance by 
dredging, to remove snags and overhanging trees along the river, and 
to deepen and improve the channel by removing rocks and snags and 
building wing dams. The channel is to be 150 feet wide and 5 feet 
deep from the mouth to Rollands Bluflf (Branford), 75 miles; thence 
60 feet wide and 4 feet deep to EUaville, 60 miles. 

The estimated cost of the work was $65,158. The amount expended 
on the work of improvement under the existing project to June 30, 
1905, was $58,758.62. 

The maximum draft that could be carried at mean low water on 
June 30, 1905, was 5 feet from the Gulf of Mexico to Branford (Rol- 
lands Bluff), and thence 4 feet to Beechams shoals, 2 miles below 
EUaville. The mean rise and fall of tide at Suwanee River entrance 
is 2.4 feet. Head of navigation is EUaviUe. Length of the naviga- 
ble channel is 173 miles. 

BUG 1905 M ^20 



Digitized by 



Google 



306 BEPOBT OF THE OHUEF OF BNOIITEEBS, V. 8. ASHY. 

The commerce of Suwanee River is in limiber, naval stores, and gen- 
eral merchandise. The value of the commerce for the year 1904 was 

$468,557. 

Tonnage, by pears. 

1888 106,346 

1899 . 76,878 

1904 7.658 

The improvement has had no effect on freight rates. Only one 
steamer now operates on the river regularly. 

(d) Witklacoochee River. — Before improvement this river was 
obstructed by ledges of limestone rock, and sand bars, snags, and 
overhanging trees. The depths varied from 1 foot to 7.5 feet, the 
width from 75 to 180 feet. The obstructions prevented regular 
navigation, and the river was used only for rafting cedar logs. 

The present project was adopted June 13, 1902. It provides for 
deepening the channel from the mouth of the Withlacoochee River 
to the loading pool in the Gulf of Mexico, being a distance of 11,780 
feet, to 8 feet at mean low-water level, and straightening said channel 
where it is crooked, and for maintenance. 

The amount expended under the present project to June 30, 1905, 
was $15,000. 

Result of the work of improvement is three cuts 60 fe«t wide and 
8 feet deep at mean low water, with an aggregate length of 2,046 feet, 
and one cut 30 feet wide, 8 feet deep, and 300 feet long. 

Advertisements were published on June 12, 1905, inviting pro- 
posals for dredging, to continue the work of improvement with the 
appropriation made by the river and harbor act of March 3, 1905. 

For improvement oi the upper river see Report of Chief of Engi- 
neers for 1904, pages 298-299 and 1710-1711. 

The maximum draft that could be carried at mean low water on 
June 30, 1905, was 5.8 feet from the Gulf of Mexico to Port. Inglis, 
and 2 feet thence to Pembertons Ferry. Mean rise and fall of tide 
at Withlacoochee River entrance is 2.8 feet. Head of navigation is 
Pembertons Ferry. 

Length of the navigable channel from the loading pool in the 
Gulf of Mexico to Port Inglis at mouth of the river is 9 miles; thence 
up the river to Inglis, 9 miles ; thence to Pembertons Ferry, 68 miles. 

The commerce of Withlacoochee River is in phosphate, lumber, 
coal, and general merchandise. Port Inglis, at mouth of the river, 
is a subport of entry. Vessels ply regularly from the anchorage 
basin on the river entrance to European ports with cargoes of 
phosphate. 

The value of the commerce for 1904 was $1,802,976. 

Tonnage, by years. 



1899 4. !H1 

1900 2, KW) 

1902 74,047 



lOOi 115,269 

1904 123, .'169 



The freight rates have been reduced about 30 per cent since the 
improvement was undertaken by the Government and certain work 
done on the channel by the Port Inglis Terminal Company under 
authority granted by tne Secretary oi War. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMBKT8. 807 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $32,463.19 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 40, 000. 00 

72, 463. 19 
June 30, 1906, amount expended during fiscal year, for works of im- 
provement 28, 484 91 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 43,978.28 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 91, 147. 46 

(See Appendix P 13.) 

H. Manatee River, Florida. — ^This river has an estuary 12 miles 
long. Before improvement the general depth of the river in the 
estuary varied from 7 to 20 feet. At the mouth there was a long shoal 
with a depth of 7 feet. Between Palmetto and Braidentown there 
was another shoal with least depth of 3 feet. 

The original project, adopted in 1882, was for a channel 100 feet 
wide and 13 feet deep at mean low water from Tampa Bay to Shaw 
and McNeills points. 

In 1886 the project was modified to provide for a channel 100 feet 
wide and 8 feet deep at mean low water from Tampa Bay to Man- 
atee, Fla. 

The amount expended under the original project and the project of 
1886 was $34,000. 

The project adopted August 13, 1892, was for a channel 100 feet 
wide and 13 feet deep at mean low water from Tampa Bay to Shaw 
and McNeills points. The estimated cost of the work of improvement 
was $39,000. 

The amount expended upon the work of the existing project to June 
80, 1905, was $12,000. 

A project for forming a channel 100 feet wide and 6 feet deep at 
mean low water through Terraceia Cut-off was approved June 23, 
1897. Terraceia Cut-off is the waterway joining Manatee River with 
Terraceia Bay. The estimated cost of the work was $20,000. Before 
improvement there was a crooked channel through the cut-off 1 foot 
deep at mean low water. 

The amount expended upon the improvement of Terraceia Cut-off 
to June 30, 1905, was $13,342, of which $2,342 was applied to main- 
tenance. 

Result of the work is a channel in Manatee River 100 feet wide and 
9 feet deep at mean low water from Tampa Bay to Braidentown, and 
thence 8 feet deep to the town of Manatee; m Terraceia Cut-off a 
channel 100 feet wide and 6 feet deep from Manatee River to Terra- 
ceia Bay. 

A new project was adopted March 3, 1905. It contemplates form- 
ing a channel 9 feet deep at mean low water and 100 feet wide from 
McNeills Point to Rocky Bluff, and 4 feet deep and 75 feet wide from 
Rocky Bluff to Rye. Estimated cost of the improvement is $53,710. 

A maximum draft of 9 feet at mean low water could be carried to 
Braidentown, 8 feet to EUenton, 7 feet to Rocky Bluff, and 1.5 feet 
to Rye, on June 30, 1905, and 6 feet through Terraceia Cut-off. The 
mean rise and fall of tide at Manatee River entrance is 1.6 feet. Head 
of navigation is Rye. Length of the navigable channel is 20 miles. 

The commerce of the river is in fruits, vegetables, fuller's earth, 
lumber, naval stores, and general merchandise. The value of the 
commerce for the year 1904 was $929,075. 



Digitized by 



Google 



308 BEPOBT OF THE OHIEF OF ENGENEEBS, U. 8. ABMY. 

Tonange, hy years. 



1898 • 23, 800 

1890 43, 542 

1900 55, 162 



1902 34- 411 

1903 44, 3€l 

1904 46,51 



For report of examination and survey made in 1902, see pages 
1749-1756 of Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1904. 

The freight rates have not been materially changed as a resixlt ol 
the improvement. 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. ?10, OOO. OC 
July 1, 1005, balance unexpended 10. OOO. Ot 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project TO, 708. OO 

(See Appendix P 14.) 

15. Removing the water hyacinth from Florida waters. — Before 
this work was begun many of the Florida rivers, especially the upper 
St. Johns and its tributaries, were overgrown with water hyacinths 
to such an extent that navigation was impeded. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1899, appropriated $25,000 
for the construction of a boat for crushing the water hyacinths, $1 ,000 
for log booms, and $10,000 for operating expenses. Before the boat 
was built experience in Louisiana showed that the crushing process 
was too slow and expensive to be practicable, and a chemical procjess 
was recommended instead. 

The act of June 13, 1902, appropriated $50,000 for the removal of 
the water hyacinth from the navigable waters of the States of Florida, 
Texas, and Louisiana, and authorized the Secretary of War to use 
this amount and the unexpended balance of amounts theretofore ap- 
propriated for this purpose in the States of Florida and Louisiana in 
exterminating or removing the plant by any mechanical, chemical, or 
other means whatsoever. 

On August 13, 1902, the Secretary of War authorized the adoption 
of a chemical process and the purchase of a steamer to be used for 
the work. The estimated annual expenditure was $50,000. 

The sum of $25,000 was allotted for the work in the State of 
Florida from the appropriation made in the act of June 13, 1902. A 
steamer was purchased, and the work of spraying the water hyacinth 
witli tlie Ilarvesta chemical compound was begim November 20. 
1902, and suspended January 10, 1904. An allotment of $25,000 dfrom 
the river and harbor appropriation of April 28, 1904, was made for 
this work. Operations under this allotment began July 27 and termi- 
nated November 26, 1904. As a result the river and its tributaries 
for 20 miles above and 15 miles below Palatka were practically freed 
from hvacinths. The amount expended to June 30, 1905, was 
$84,977.97. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, appropriated $25,000 
additional for continuing the work by the spraying method, provided 
that no chemical process injurious to cattle be used. No work has 
been done under this appropriation. 

The commerce benefited is that of the upper St. Johns. (See im- 
provement of Orange Mills flats, p. 290, herewith.) 

Further information is to be found in the Reports of the Chief 
of Engineers for 1899, pages 1612-1623; 1901, pages 1746-1749; 1903, 
pages 1184-1186; 1904, pages 1712-1713. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HASBOB IMPB0VEMENT8. 809 

Jnly 1. Ifl04, balance unexpended o )|!27. 032. t55 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905- 25, 000. 00 

52. 032. (K5 
June 30, 1906, amount expended during flsoal year, for works of 
improvement J 26, 010. (52 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 20.fl22.(n 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities . 5(l.(X» 

July 1, 1905, balance available .." 25,972.03 

(See Appendix P 15.) 

16. Dredqe for river and harhor improvements in Florida. — The 
need for a light-draft self-propelling dredge and snag boat for opera- 
tions on the harbors and streams in the State of Florida, for which 
f>mall appropriations are made from time to time, and the special 
features required in such a boat are set forth in the Report of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1901, pages 1749 and 1750. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1899, appropriated the sum 
of $35,000 for the purchase or construction or such a boat. The 
amount was inadequate, and the act of June 13, 1902, contained an 
item appropriating $35,000 in addition. 

The purchase of refrigerating plant, electric-lighting plant, hy- 
draulic dredging plant, and sundry equipment for the boat w^as 
authorized by the Chief of Engineeers November 0, 1903. The cost 
of these was defrayed from funds for various improvements in this 
district on which the boat is to w^ork. 

The work of construction was begun in July, 1903, under contract 
approved July 11, 1903, and was finished in March, 1905. The boat 
was finally accepted June 8, 1905. 

Hydraulic and clam-shell dredging work, snagging work, and the 
work of removing a wreck were accompli.shed in a very satisfactory 
manner, and the boat appears to be well suited for the purpose 
designed. 

The amount expended from this appropriation to June 30, 1905, 
was $70,000. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended |51, 729. .53 

June 30, 1905, amount exi>ended during fiscal year, for worlcs of 
improvement 51, 729. ."iS 

(See Appendix P 16.) 

17. Removing sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering 
navigation. — On March 27, 1905, an allotment of $4,300 was made 
from the indefinite appropriation made by section 20 of the river and 
harbor act of March 3, 1899, for removal of wrecks of the schooner 
liidgewood and the steam ferryboat Commodore Barney from the St. 
Johns River, Florida, the former near McGuires Mill and the latter 
at Jacksonville. On May 2, 1905, an allotment of $800 was made 
from the same appropriation for removal of wreck of steamer Star- 
light from Lake Monroe, Florida, near Sanford. 

The work of removing the steamer Starlight was completed Mav 
15 by the United States dredge and snag boat Florida. Proposals 
for removing wrecks of the liidgewood and Commodore Barney wore 
opened June 15. The lowest bid was $2,490. On June 29 contract 
was sent to the bidders for signature. 

<> Includes |25,000 from the river and harbor act of April 28, 19(M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



810 KEPOBT OF TEtE CHIEF OF ENGINEEB8, U. 8. AJOtt. 

The expenditures during the year amounted to $813.07. 
(See Appendix P 17.) 

IMPROVEMENT OP RIVERS AND HARBORS IN WESTERN GEORGIA 
AND FLORIDA AND IN EASTERN ALABAMA. 

This district was in the charge of Capt. J. B. Cavanaugh, Corps of 
Engineers. Division engineer, Lieut. Col. H. M. Adams, Corps of 
Engineers, until August 12, 1904, and Lieut. Col. Clinton B. sears, 
(jorps of Engineers, since that date. 

J. East Pass and Carrabelle bar and harbor, Florida. — ^The town 
of Carrabelle is situated about 25 miles east of Apalachicola, at the 
mouth of the Carrabelle River, which empties into St. George Sound. 
The river forms the inner harbor, and along .the water front its chan- 
nel varies from 9 to 15 feet in depth, with a minimiun width of about 
100 feet. 

Dog Island anchorage, a protected portion of St. George Sound, 
showing a 4-fathom depth over a considerable area, forms the outer 
harbor. Between the 10-foot contours in the inner and outer har- 
bors there is a bar about 6,000 feet wide, which originally had a 
minimum low-water depth over it of 3^ feet to 4 feet. 

Dog Island anchorage is connected with the Gulf of Mexico by 
EastFass, which had originally limiting low-water depths of about 
17 feet on the outer bar and 1C.5 feet on the inner bar. 

The approved project for Carrabelle bar and harbor, Florida, 
adopted June 3, 1896, provides for dredging a channel 10 feet deep 
and 100 feet wide from Dog Island anchorage, St. George Sound, to 
the city of Carrabelle, at a cost estimated in 1900 at $47,300, in addi- 
tion to appropriations already expended on the project amounting to 
$22,399.54. By act of Congres.s approved June 13, 1902, this project 
was extended to include the improvement of East Pass by dredging 
a channel across the bar 20 J feet deep and 150 feet wide, and closing 
an opening in Dog Island, at an estimated cost of $27,450. 

The amount expended up to the close of the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1905, was $54,094.51, of which $21,704.08 was expended prior to 
work on present estimate, and $12,500 was applied to maintenance of 
the channel at the mouth of the river during the fiscal year. With 
allotments of $7,500 from the emergency act of June 13, 1902, and 
$5,000 from the act approved April 28, 1904, the channel across 
the inner bar, which had shoaled to a minimum depth of about 5 feet, 
was redredged to a width of 80 feet and a minimum depth of about 
9 feet. 

Under contract with Rittenhouse Moore, dated October 1, 1903, 
60,080 cubic yards was removed from the channel at East Pass, 
21,600 yards from the inner bar, and 38,480 yards from the outer bar. 

The maximum draft that could be carried through the channel to 
the inner harbor at mean low water on June 30, 1905, was 8 feet, this 
limiting depth being confined to the inner end, where no dredging 
has yet been done. This channel seems to be practically permanent 
under ordinary conditions, but should be protected by a bulkhead to 
the eastward to prevent shoaling due to storms. At the inner end 
beyond the dredged cut the channel is narrow and crooked and should 
be widened and straightened. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 811 

Work done on the East Pass has deepened the channel across the 
outer bar from about 17 to 20 feet, and across the inner bar from 
about 16.6 to 17.5 feet, this limiting depth being confined to a short 
distance. As the crooked channel through the crossover and around 
the inner bar is about 1^ feet deeper than the dredged channel, the 
limiting depth through East Pass on June SO, 1905, was 19 feet at 
mean low water. 

The ordinary range of the tide is about 2 feet. 

With the completion of the project a substantial reduction in ocean 
rates may be expected, due to increased draft and improved facili- 
ties for lighterage. 

The commerce of the port of Carrabelle, Fla., consists principally 
of timber, naval stores, dressed and kiln-dried lumber, shingles, and 
miscellaneous articles. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended |28,804. M 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1805_ 15, 000. (X) 
Amount allotted from appropriation for maintenance of river and 
harbor Improvements, act of April 28, 1904 5, 000. 00 

4fi. 804. .54 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year : 

For works of improvement , $18,000.00 

For maintenance of improvement 13, G94. 07 

31, 094. 97 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 1.5, 109. 57 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities : 37. 20 

July 1, 1905, balance available 15, 072. .17 

.\mount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 45,000.00 

(See Appendix Q 1.) 

2. Harbor at Apalachicola Bay, Florida. — ^The town of Apalachi- 
cola lies at the mouth of the Apalachicola River, and the deep water 
along the river front forms the inner harbor. 

At the mouth of the river, between the inner harbor and the 3- 
fathom anchorage area in Apalachicola Bay, there is a bar, of which 
the original width between 8-foot contoure was 7,000 feet and the 
minimum depth of water 3.5 feet. Across this bar the lumber ex- 

Ejrted is lightered either to the 3-fathom anchorage in Apalachicola 
ay or through Bulkhead shoals to the anchorage of Carrabelle, -25 
miles distant. The 3-fathom anchorage area is entered via West 
Pass, where originally the depth was about 13 feet. The original 
depth over Bulkhead shoals was less than 4 feet. 

The original project, approved June 14, 1880, provided for dredg- 
ing a channel 100 feet wide and 11 feet deep through the bar at the 
mouth of the river, the width of cut to be increased to 200 feet if the 
results justified this enlargement. 

This project was amended September 19, 1890, to include dredging 
a channel 9 feet deep and not less than 100 feet wide across the Bulk- 
head shoals. 

Upon this project as amended has been expended $154,000, of which 
$100,000 has been applied to maintenance in repeated dredging of tlic 
cut across the bar at the mouth of the river. The channel uirough 



Digitized by 



Google 



312 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOnrEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

Bulkhead shoal, dredged in 1891-92, i^emains practically unchanged, 
with a minimum depth of 8 feet at mean low water. 

Prior to the adoption of any project of record in this office $28,600 
was expended on this improvement, 1833-39, but the object and results 
of such expenditures are unknown. 

The existing project, approved by act of March 3, 1899, provides 
for a channel 100 feet wide, 18 feet deep at mean low water through 
the West Pass, along the northern shore of St. George Island, and 
across the bay to the water front of Apalachicola, estimated to cost 
$350,000, and $20,000 or $30,000 annually for maintenance of com- 
pleted work. {See Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 
1897, pages 1655-1659, giving report of survey, upon which the above 
project was based.) 

Under an appropriation of $20,000, made by the act of March 3, 
1899, a contract was entered into on December 16, 1899, for dredging 
a channel 18 feet deep at mean low water through the West Pass 
entrance and the Link channel, along the north shore of St. George 
Island to St. George anchorage. Work under this contract was com- 
menced March 28, 1900, and suspended May 12, 1900, due to the 
expenditure of funds available. The dredging done secured a chan- 
nel 17 feet deep, 150 feet wide, and 5,280 feet long over the bar at 
West Pass entrance, but no work was done on the Link channel. 
After the execution of this work West Pass shoaled rapidly, particu- 
larly at the outer crest of the bar, until the available depth on this 
crest at mean low water on June 30, 1904, did not exceed 13 feet. 

Under an appropriation of $40,000, made available by the act of 
June 13, 1902, a contract was entered into with Bittenhouse Moore, 
October 1, 1903, and a channel across the bar at West Pass was 
redredged to a minimum depth of 16 feet, work being completed 
November 10, 1904. On June 30, 1905, the outer crest of the bar had 
shoaled to about 15 feet at mean low water. 

An allotment of $20,000 was made from the appropriation of 1902 
for dredging on the bar at the mouth of the river, which had been grad- 
ually shoaling since the last dredging was done, in 1897. Work was 
commenced November 13, 1902, and continued until February 17, 

1903, when a channel 80 feet wide, with a minimum depth of 9 feet 
at mean low water, had been secured from a point 1,047 feet south of 
the red beacon to deep water in the river. With the balance of this 
allotment a channel 567 feet long was also dredged 80 feet wide and 9 
feet deep through the " Oyster Lump," south of the red beacon, on the 
line marked by St. George Island light. 

The channel across the bar at the mouth of the river shoaled after 
this dredging was completed in February, 1903, until on June 30, 

1904, at many points the depth did not exceed 6 feet at mean low 
water. 

With allotments of $12,500 and $5,000, made from the appropria- 
tion in river and harbor act of April 28, 1904, this channel was 
redredged to a width of 80 feet and a depth of about 9 feet, work 
l)eing completed October 12, 1904. On June 30, 1905, the limiting 
depth at the outer end of the cut did not much exceed 7 feet, but the 
general depth is 1 to 2 feet greater. 

The amount expended on the existing project up to the close of 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, was $77,386.32, of which about 
$57,500 was for maintenance. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BITEB AKD HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 31S 

The ordinary range of the tide is about 2 feet. 

The opening of West Pass will reduce the freight on foreign and 
coastwise freight from Apalachicola about 50,cents per ton. 

The commerce of this port is in timber, cotton, naval stores, staves, 
a large quantity of dressed and kiln-dried lumber, shingles, laths, 
and miscellaneous freight. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $31,899.85 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 40, 000. 00 
Amount allotted from appropriation for maintenance of river and 
harbor improvements, act of April 28, 1904 5,000.00 

76, 899. 85 
June 30, 1906, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance 
of improvement .16,786. 17 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 40,113.68 

July 1, 1906, outstanding liabilities - 43.30 

July 1, 1906, balance available 40, 070. .38 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing projwt .' .T<M), 000. 00 

(See Appendix Q 2.) 

S. Apalachicola River, the Cut-off, and Chipola River, Florida. — 
(a) Apalachicola River, the Cut-off, and lower Chipola River. — 
From the junction of the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers to the 
Gulf of Mexico (Apalachicola Bay), the Apalachicola River has a 
length of about 137 miles and a low-water slope of about 3 inches to 
the mile. The width varies from 150 to 300 yards, and the available 
depth was originally 6 feet at low water, except where obstructed by 
snags and sunken logs. . 

The Confederate authorities obstructed the channel at a point 
about 47 miles above the mouth, causing the river to break through 
by a channel known as Moccasin Slough into the River Styx, the 
latter a tributary entering the Apalachicola a few miles below the 
Confederate obstructions. Moccasin Slough was very narrow and 
tortuous and much obstructed by logs, snags, etc., and the former 
channel has gradually filled up. 

About 55 miles above the mouth steamboats may leave the river, 
and after pas.sing through the cut-off, lower Chipola River, and Lee 
Slough reenter it about 17 miles farther down, thus making many 
landings of much greater importance than those upon the corre- 
sponding part of the main river, which includes Moccasin Slough, 
above mentioned. 

The original project, adopted by the act of June 23, 1874, contem- 
plated securing a cnannel 100 feet wide and 6 feet deep at low water 
by the removal of snags and overhanging trees and widening and 
straightening Moccasin Slough and the Elbows, at an estimated cost 
of $80,333. 

The act of September 19, 1890, adopted an addition to the project 
providing for the clearing of a channel 60 feet wide and 5 feet deep 
through Sie Cut-off, Lee Slough, and the lower Chipola River at a cost 
of $7,500. 

The amount expended on work under this project since 1874 to 
the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, was $73,760. In 
addition there was expended between 1828 and 1831 $13,000 for 
which no project is of record. These expenditures have improved 



Digitized by 



Google 



814 REPOET OF THE CHIEF OF ENGIITEEBB, U. 8. ABMT. 

Moccasin Slough sufficiently for present purposes and maintained the 
river reasonably free from snags and other obstructions and enabled 
steamboats to make use of the cut-off, lower Chipola River, and Lee 
Slough either by day or night. An available depth of 6 feet had 
been secured in the Apalachicola River, except across the bar near 
Blountstown, over which about 3 feet can be carried, and in the Cut- 
off, lower Chipola River, and Lee Slough 5 feet has been secured. 
The Cut-off and Lee Slough have been widened also at the narrowest 
places so that steamboats can pass through readily going downstream 
and can pass upstream with little difficulty, but the channel is still 
very crooked, with some bends so sharp that in a few places lines are 
sometimes used going upstream, and the steamboats prefer the main 
river on the uptrip. It is estimated that the project is one-half 
completed. 

The work was done with the plant belonging to the Chattahoochee 
and Flint River improvements, and comprised cutting overhanging 
timber, removing snags and logs, blasting out cypress stumps, and 
widening 4he slough and Cut-off by clearing the points of timtjer and 
.dredging them on, depositing the dredged material in the deep holes 
or upon the banks. 

During the fiscal year work has been confined to the maintenance of 
the improvement. 

Variation of the water level is from to 30 feet at Chattahoochee 
River bridge. 

This river is navigable throughout its entire length of 137 miles. 

As the country bordering on the Apalachicola River is almost 
entirely dependent upon the river for the transportation of its sup- 
plies and products, this improvement is essential to the development 
of this section, but in the absence of any basis of comparison the effect 
upon freight rates can not be determined. 

The commerce of the river consists chiefly of cotton, naval stores, 
general merchandise, saw logs, and timber for export, and is so com- 
bined with that of the Chattahoochee, Flint, and upper Chipola 
rivers that a separation is impossible. The commerce of all these 
streams amounted to about $4,000,000 in 1809, about $4,777,000 in 
1900, about $11,000,000 in 1901, about $11,500,000 in 1902, about 
$13,324,000 in 1903, about $10,990,000 in 1904, and about $11,065,500 
in 1905. For detailed statistics, see reports on Flint and Chipola 
rivers. 

By the terms of the river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905, 
the upper Chipola River from Marianna to its mouth was included 
in this improvement, and will hereafter be reported under this head ; 
no expenditures were made upon this river during the fiscal year. 

(b) Upper Chipola Rioer, Florida, from Marianna to its mmith. — 
The river from Marianna to tlie head of the Dead Lakes has a general 
low-water depth of 5 feet and width varying from 60 to 200 feet, but 
is greatly obstructed by rock shoals, snags, and overhanging trees. 
Three bridges also form obstructions, their headways above low water 
being 17, 16, and 15 feet, respectively. 

At Look and Tremble shoal, about 45 miles above the Dead 
Lakes, there is a fall of 5 feet in 40 over rock bottom. Between this 
shoal and the Dead Lakes there is a long, flat mud bar, at Sister 
Tslands, over which but 2 feet can be carried at low water. The chan- 
nel through the Dead Lakes, which is considered part of this improve- 



Digitized by 



Google 



bllr&B AlTD HABbOB IMPBOVSMEiTTS. Si 5 

ment, has plenty of water, but is obstructed by snags and large cypress 
stumps and trees. 

The approved project, adopted by act of March 3, 1899, provides for 
clearing a low- water channel 3 feet deep and 60 feet wide from Mari- 
anna to the foot of the Dead Lakes, estimated to cost $41,000, exclu- 
sive of necessary plant, which would comprise a snag boat, drilling 
barge, and dump scow. (See Annual Report of the Chief of Engi- 
neers for 1899, p. 1417.) 

The amount expended to June 30, 1905, was $7,000, of which $5,000 
was applied to the river above Sister Islands and $2,000 to the lower 
end of Dead Lakes. Snags, logs, and overhanging trees were re- 
moved, and a channel blasted through the rock reefs from Marianna 
to Look and Tremble shoal. Wine dams were built below some 
of the shoals to raise the water level on the shoals, and below Look 
and Tremble shoal, down as far as Sister Islands, snags, logs, and 
overhanging timber were removed as well as available funds per- 
mitted. From the lower end of the Dead Lakes, for a distance of 7 
miles, a channel 60 feet wide was cleared of obstructions by removing 
logs, overhanging trees, cypress stumps, and knees. Very little ben- 
efit has been derived from the expenditure above Look and Trem- 
ble shoal, except to the timber industry, but the work done below the 
shoal and in tne Dead Lakes has been of great benefitj as there are 
many turpentine stills below this shoal, giving a considerable com- 
merce on this portion of the river, and in the Dead Lakes a large 
commerce in towing logs. 

The variation of the water level is to 14 feet. 

Two feet is the maximum depth at low water over the shoalest part 
of the river below the shoal Look and Tremble. The actual head of 
navigation at low water is Sister Islands, 35 miles above the foot 
of the Dead Lakes. 

The river is still obstructed by shoals at Sister Islands, Look and 
Tremble shoal, and at numerous points above, as well as by the 
bridges mentioned. The channel below Sister Islands is much ob- 
structed by snags and logs, and this same condition exists in the 
channel through the Dead Lakes, except where improved at the 
lower end. 

The commerce of this stream consists princii)ally of naval stores, 
round and square timber, lumber, and other miscellaneous freights, 
the estimated value of which was, on June 30, 1905, $408,500. 

The section of the countiy through which this stream flows is 
heavily timbered with long leaf yellow pine and cypress, which is 
now iJeing rafted down this stream in large quantities. The total 
amount of this traffic is reported as 10,000,000 feet B. M., and is 
included in the valuation of timber and lumber exports for Apalachi- 
cola Bay and Carrabelle Harbor, Florida. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexiiended |3, 750. 00 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 12, 000. 00 

15, 750. 00 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance 

of improvement 3, 750. 00 

July 1, 1906, balance unexpended 12,000.00 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 42,000.00 

(See Appendix Q 3.) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



816 BEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF EKaiKBEBS, U. S. ABMT. 

4. Flint River, Georgia. — Originally this river was navi^ble at 
low water from its mouth to Bainbridge, a distance of 36 miles, for 
boats drawing 3 feet, but the channel was narrow, crooked, and 
greatly obstructed by logs, snags, and overhanging trees. Above 
Bainbridge the channel was so obstructed by rock shoals, loose rock, 
and bowlders that there was no navigation except on a rise of 5 feet, 
when steamboats could run to Albany, 105 miles above the mouth. 
Above Albany to Montezuma, 182 miles from the mouth, the channel 
was so obstructed by sand and rock shoals, bowlders, snags, logs, and 
overhanging trees that the river was not navigable at a low-water 
.stage. 

The original project called for a channel 100 feet wide and 3 feet 
deep at extreme low water from the mouth of the river to Albany, 
Ga., at an estimated cost of $184,862. 

This project was extended in 1870 to give a channel for light-draft 
f-teamers at moderate stages of water from Albany to Montezuma by 
the removal of logs, snags, and overhanging trees, cutting through 
rock reefs, and deepening sand bars by contraction works, at an addi- 
tional cost of $15,000. 

The amount expended up to the close of the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1905, was $234,710.99. As a result of the work done the 
river is now navigable throughout the year from Albany down to 
Newton, 33^^ miles, and from Bainbridge \o the mouth, 36 miles, there 
being a good channel, with 3 feet available at low water, throughout 
these sections. 

Between Bainbridge and Newton, 35f miles, the river is navigable 
for light-draft boats only, and the channel is narrow and still much 
obstructed by bowlders and rock reefs. Considerable work has been 
done between these points, and operations for the next few years 
will be confined to this portion of the river. When the improvement 
of this section has been completed the river will be open to naviga- 
tion at low water from its mouth to Albany, Ga. 

The section between Albany and Montezuma, 77 miles, is still much 
obstructed, although it has been rejieatedly cleared of snags and simi- 
lar obstructions, in accordance with the project. As there is no 
navigation on this part of the river, it is recommended that no further 
work be done on this section until the improvement of the section 
between Bainbridge and Newton renders work already done fully 
available. 

A large amount of work was done on the river during the past 
fiscal year between Albanv and Newton, completing this part or the 
channel to a width of 60 feet and an available depth of 3 feet. 

The water level varies from to 40 feet. 

During ordinary low water Albany, Ga., is the head of navigation, 
but in periods of extreme low water, such as occurred during the fall 
of 1904, interruptions occur in the section between Bainbridge and 
Newton. 

The commerce consists principally of cotton, naval stores, pro- 
visions, general merchandise, saw logs, and timber for export. Sev- 
eral very large sawmills are located at Bainbridge, but no record of 
the amount of lumber manufactured is kept, as shipments are made 
bv rail. A large part of the saw logs used by these mills comes down 
t&e river. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HARBOB IMPBOVEMEKTS. 317 

To make the improvement below Albany fully available it will be 
necessary to widen the channel in many places between Bainbridge 
and Newton and to remove many obstructions to secure the width of 
60 feet and the depth of 3 feet now available in the section above. 
This work is largely permanent rock work, and its completion will 
greatly benefit the section of country between Albany and the mouth 
of the river. There are many turpentine stills in operation on the 
river which depend upon the water transportation for their products 
and supplies. 

The commerce of the lower part .of this stream is so combined with 
that of the Chattahoochee and Apalachicola rivers that it is impossi- 
ble to give a statement in regard to it. The commerce of that part 
below Albany down as far as the improvement has been carried is 
estimated to "be 30,792 tons, valued at $1,539,600, for the past fiscal 
year. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended |6, 558. 66 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905- 20, 000. 00 

26, 55a 60 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year : 

For works of Improvement fi, 000. 00 

For maintenance of improvement 1, 269. 65 

5, 269. 65 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 21,289.01 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 1, 195. 47 

July 1, 1905, balance available 20, 093. 54 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 73, 000. 00 

(See Appendix Q 4.) 

5. Chattahoochee River, Georgia and Alabama, below Columbus. — 
Columbus, Ga., is 223 miles above the junction of this river with the 
Flint and 360 miles above the mouth of the Apalachicola River, 
formed by the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint. Originally 
boats were always able to reach Columbus ; but navigation was dim- 
cult and dangerous by day and impossible by night, owing to the 
large accumulation of logs, snags, and overhanging trees and to sand, 
rock, and marl shoals obstructing the channel. 

The project for improvement, adopted in 1873, provided for a low- 
water channel 100 feet wide and 4 reet deep from Columbus, Ga., to 
Chattahoochee, Fla., at the junction of the Flint, which was to be 
obtained by the removal of logs, snags, and overhanging trees, cutting 
through the rock and marl shoals, and scouring out sand bars by 
works of contraction and shore protection. The estimated cost of this 
work from Chattahoochee, Fla., to Eufaula, Ala., 139 miles, was 
$145,247 ; but no estimate of cost for that part between Eufaula, Ala., 
and Columbus, Ga., was ever made. 

The amount expended on this work to the close of the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1905, was $493,066.42, largely expended in mainte- 
nance, removing the annual influx of obstructions brought in from 
caving banks. 

No increased depth as a whole has been gained ; but by removing 
the logs, snags, and overhanging trees and removing the sand, gravel, 
marl, and rock reefs the river has been kept open to navigation. As 
nearly all the land along the banks of the river and its tributaries 



Digitized by 



Google 



818 BEFOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOINEBBS, U. S. ABKT. 

has been gradually cleared, each rainy season has brought increasinff 
quantities of sand into the river, filling the original river bed with 
shifting sand and gravel bars and greatly changing its regimen. In 
fact, this stream has now a changeable bed, and it is practically 
impossible to say one year exactly where work will be needed the next. 
Four feet draft can lie carried at ordinary low water, but at extreme 
low water scant 3 feet is the maximum draft that can be counted upon. 

Below Eufaula, Ala., the river is now in a fair condition, with an 
available low-water depth of 3^ feet; but between Eufaula and 
Columbus there are a number of bars and isolated obstructions which 
cause trouble, particularly at extreme low water. The most serious 
of these obstructions was a series of sand bars formed in the river 
from the wharves at Columbus, Ga., down to Mary Freemans bar, 3 
miles below, which made it impossible for steamboats to reach Colum- 
bus, and the head of navigation during the period of extreme low 
water was therefore Mary Freemans bar. 

During the past fiscal year snags and other obstructions were 
removed from the river throughout its length, the system of jetties 
immediately below Columbus was extended down the river to the 
Indian Mound, 7 miles belo^ Columbus, and channels were dredged 
at the wharf at Columbus, at Jennys Island, Abercrombies, Wool- 
folks, and just above, Broken Arrow, Indian Mound, Snake shoals, 
and Chambers Landing. As a result of this work Columbus has 
become the head of navigation, and boats have been able to reach 
there at all times, except in the fall of 1904, when the unusual drought 
and unprecedented low water put a stop to all navigation. 

A large number of other sand bars and shoals between Columbus, 
Ga., and Eufaula, Ala., still need improvement, and the wing dams 
and training walls already built require repairs and maintenance. 
In addition, the annual accumulations of snags and other obstruc- 
tions must be removed from the river throughout its length. 

The variation of the water level is from to 47 feet at Columbus. 

The commerce of this stream consists of cotton, cotton seed, ferti- 
lizers, grain, naval stores, provisions, hardware, and general merchan- 
dise, and is so combined with that of the Flint and Apalachicola 
rivers that a separation is impossible. It is given under the report of 
the Flint River as 117,757 tons, valued at $10,657,000. 

The effect of the improvement has been to give to Columbus and all 
other points on the river water rates, or a material reduction over 
rates to all rail points, but the exact amount of reduction can not be 
stated. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $40,720.46 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905_ 75, 000. 00 

115, 720. 4« 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year : 

For works of Improvement $10,000.00 

For maintenance of improvement 35, 856. 10 

45,856.10 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 69,864.36 

July 1, 1906, outstanding liabilities 9,259.72 

July 1, 1905, balance available 60,804.64 

July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 947. 03 

(See Appendix Q 5.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 319 

6. Choctawhatchee River, Florida and Alabama. — The Choctaw- 
hatchee River is 162 miles long from Newton, Ala., to its mouth, in 
Choctawhatchee Bay, an arm oi the Gulf of Mexico. 

Originally the river was impassable during low water for about 10 
miles below Newton, due to marl reefs and fisSi-trap dams, and for the 
remaining 152 miles to the mouth it was much obstructed by snags, 
lo^, overhanging trees, and sand and gravel bars. 

The project for the improvement, as amended in 1890, contemplates 
the creation of a low-water navigable channel throughout, by remov- 
ing logs, snags, and overhanging trees, by excavating rock and marl 
shoals, and by contraction works and shore protection, at an estimated 
cost of $112,832. 

The amount expended on this river under the existing project (i. e., 
since 1874) up to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, was 
$166,690.02, of which the greater part has been expended in mainte- 
nance. 

The following results have been accomplished : 

A channel 40 feet wide and 3 feet deep has been blasted through the 
marl shoals for a distance of about 3 mues from a point about 8 miles 
below Newton to the lower end of these shoals above Pates Landing. 
The river has been partially cleared of snags and other obstructions 
ffom Pates Landing to Geneva. A fairly navigable channel 3J feet 
deep at low water was secured by snagging ana works of regulation 
from Geneva to Caryville, but is again much obstructed. The re- 
mainder of the lower river has repeatedly been cleared of obstruc- 
tions, but is at present much obstructed, except the section below the 
mouth of the Holmes River, which was thoroughly cleaned out during 
the fiscal year. A channel 60 feet wide and 5J feet deep at mean low 
water was dredged through the bar at the month of the river (Cvpress 
Top). 

The actual head of navigation at low water on June 30, 1905, was 
the mouth of the Holmes River, 33 miles above the mouth of the river. 
The minimum draft that could be carried to this point was about 2^ 
feet, but the draft is at least 1 foot greater, except at Cow Ford bar, 
where trouble has recently developed. 

There is no commerce on the river above Geneva, with the possible 
exception of a small movement of logs. Below Geneva there is a 
large commerce in logs and hewn timber, and four steamers ply be- 
tween Pensacola and Vernon on the Holmes River. 

Below Geneva the channel should be kept free from obstructions, 
Cow Ford bar should be improved, and the channel across the bar at 
the mouth of the river (Cvpress Top) should be further deepened to 
enable tugs to handle the timl)er brought down, and future appropria- 
tions should be applied to this work. 

The commerce on this stream is mainly saw logs, timber, naval 
stores, and general merchandise. 



Digitized by 



Google 



320 BEPOKT OF THE OHIBB< OF EKOIXBBBS, n. S. ABMY. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended 13,270.70 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. 10, 000. 00 

13,270.70 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance 
of Improvement 3,960.72 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended ^ 9,309.98 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 559.52 

July 1, 1905, balance available 8, 750. 46 

(See Appendix Q 6.) 

7. Holmes River, Florida, from Vernon to its mouth. — Holmes 
River empties into the Choctawhatchee River about 40 miles above 
the mouth of the latter. It is a wide and deep stream to the town of 
Vernon, 25 miles above its mouth, but was originally obstructed by 
sunken logs, fallen timber, and overhanging trees, and was only avail- 
able for navigation by small sailing craft and barges, which occasion- 
ally made trips up to Vernon. 

The present project for the improvement of the stream provides 
for mating a navigable channel by removing logs and snags from the 
river and overhanging trees from its banks from the mouth up to the 
town of Vernon. 

The total amount expended on this improvement up to the close 
of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, was $12,468.82, of which 
$10,308.02 was upon Holmes River and $2,160.80 upon Lagrange 
I5ayou. 

Prior to June 30, 1902, the channel was cleared of all obstructions 
that were then found and made available for the small craft that 
then* used the stream. A considerable trade having sprung up on 
this river, work was resumed during the fall of 1903 and tne river 
cleared of obstructions from Vernon to its mouth. 

During the fiscal year an allotment of $2,000 was made from the 
appropriation in river and harbor act of April 28, 1904, and with 
these funds the river was again thoroughly cleared of all obstructions 
from Vernon to its mouth. 

The importance of this improvement has increased greatly in the 
last few years, and four steamers are now engaged in the large and 
growing trade between Vernon and Pensacola. 

The commerce of the stream consists of cotton, turpentine, rosin, 
molasses, honey, and mi.scellaneous articles, the value of which has 
grown from practically nothing in 1902 to $500,000 in 1905. 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905. %% 000. 00 
Amount allotted from appropriation for maintenance of river and 
harbor improvements, act of April 28, 1904 2,000.00 

4,000.00 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance 
of Improvement 2, 468. 82 

.Tuly 1, 1905, balance unexpended 1.531.18 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 664.02 

July 1, 1905, balance available 867. 16 

(See Appendix Q 7.) 

8. Blackwater River, Florida. — The original project for this im- 
provement was adopted March 3, 1899, and provided for securing a 



Digitized by 



Google 



EIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBO^^EMENT8. 321 

channel 9 feet deep from Milton, Fla., to Pensacola, at an estimated 
cost of $20,000. Under this project $5,000 was expended, and a. 
channel of the required depth secured in the river proper. 

TTie river and harbor act of March 3, 1905, contains the following 
provision : 

Improving Blackwater and Upper East bays and Blackwater River, Florida, 
from Milton to tbe month. In accordance with the report snbmltted in House 
Document Numbered One hundred and ninety-three, Flftj'-elghth Congress, sec- 
ond session, ten thousand dollars. 

This in effect provides for the completion of the original project, 
fixing the width of the channel at 1()0 feet No work has yet been 
done under thb appropriation. 

The maximum draft that could be carried over the improvement at 
mean low water on June 30, 1905, was 7 feet. The usual variation 
of water surface is 2 feet. The head of navigation is at Milton, about 
4 miles above the mouth of the river proper. 

The commerce of this stream consists of timber, lumber, sash and 
doors, wool, and other products, having an estimated value of 
$800,000 per annum. The dry dock at Bagdad and marine railway at 
Milton both do a large business, which would be materially increased 
by the completion of the project. 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1805. |10, 000. 00 
July 1, 1906, balance unexpended :. 10,000.00 



Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 3,000.00 

(See Appendix Q 8.) 

9. Harbor at Pensacola, Fla. — ^The available depth across the 
inner bar at the entrance to this harbor in 1879, previous to tny work 
of improvement, was 19.5 feet, the width of the channel being con- 
tracted hv the encroachment of the Middle Ground shoal to the south- 
ward. The harbor entrance and channel way were also obstructed 
by wrecks, and the western shore line in the vicinity of Fort McRee 
was cutting away rapidly, almost the whole of the old Fort McRee 
washing away before the erosion was stopped. 

The project of 1877 considered only the removal of the wrecks; 
that of 1878 called for the removal of these wrecks and for making 
a survey to determine further recommendations for improvement. 
The project of 1881 provided for dredging a channel 300 feet wide 
and 24 feet deep at mean low water for the temporary relief of navi- 
^tion, and also for protecting the shore line near Fort McRee with a 
view to preventing further injurious changes. Dredging under this 
project was carried on at various times between 1881 and 1893, and 
at tne close of the dredging operations in August, 1893, the available 
channel was 225 feet wide and 24 feet deep at mean low water. Two 
groins, one 360 feet and the other 220 feet long, w^ere completed in 
1890 and still serve to hold the shore line near Fort McRee. 

In 1891 a special Board of Engineers presented a project for open- 
ing a new channel across the Caucus shoal, following the direction of 
the ebb current, by means of two jetties, assisted by dredging, if 
necessary. In 1895 a second special Board of Engineers recom- 
mended that no change be made in the project of 1891, but that dredg- 
ing be tried, using one of the hydraulic dredges belonging to the 

WS9 1906 n 21 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



322 BEPOBX OV THE CHIEF OF EKGHTEEBS, U. S. ABMY. , 

United States to open up a channel 26 feet deep at mean low water 
and as wide as practicalble on the line of deepest water across the 
Caucus shoal and approximately on the line of the axis of the jettied 
channel proposed by the Board of Engineers in 1891. In December, 
1895, this channel waS" opened by the U. S. dredge Gedney to a width 
of 120 f eei^ and depth of 24 feet at mean low water. It has a length 
of about 10,000 feet across Caucus shoal and is now known as the 
Caucus channel. 

In 1896 the same Board that recommended the first amendment to 
the project of 1891 submitted a second amendment providing for the 
expenditure of all funds available in continuing the work of dredging 
across the Caucus shoal and for building a dredge and opening the 
channel across the Caucus shoal 30 feet deep at mean low water to a 
width of at least 300 feet, with such side slopes as the material would 
assume, if sufficient funds were made available by Congress. Until 
a channel should be opened by dredging across the Caucus shoal, as 
above proposed, the Board recommended that the construction of the 
jetties for its maintenance be not considered. 

The river and harbor act of March 3, 1899, extended this project to 
" securing a channel depth of 30 feet at mean low water from the 
Gulf of Mexico to the dock line at the east end of the city of 
Pensacola." 

With balance of fimds left from the appropriation of March 3, 

1899, and an allotment of $5,000 from the emergency act of June 6, 

1900, 184,753.8 cubic yards of material was removed during the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1902, by the U. S. dredge Comstock, loaned 
from the Galveston district. This work restored the 30-foot depth 
for a 'width of 100 feet throughout the center of the channel, and for 
an additional width of 100 feet a depth of 28 feet was obtained. 

The amount expended on these projects to June 30, 1905, was 
$725,956.94. The work done comprises the removal of the wrecks 
obstructing the channel, dredging a large amount of material from 
the inner bar, opening and redredging a 30- foot, channel across the 
Caucus shoal, and the protection of the shore line, by the construction 
of two groins near old Fort McRee, from erosion, which are still in 
good condition. 

The river and harbor act approved June 13, 1902, appropriated 
$220,000, of which $150,000 might be used in constructing a seagoing 
suction dredge. This dredge is now building under the direction or 
Maj. J. C. Sanford, Corps of Engineers, ana details of operation are 
given in Appendix H 7, herewith. The same act modified the proj- 
ect, which now involves dredging a channel 30 feet deep and 500 feet 
wide from the Gulf of Mexico to the dock line at the east end of the 
city of Pensacola. There is no approved estimate of the cost of this 
project. Under this amended project there has been expended for 
maintenance of improvement $27,764.41 and for dredge construction 
$140,691.17. 

After dredging was suspended in 1902 the channel shoaled gradu- 
ally until the available depth at mean low water was about 26.5 feet, 
with an available width or less than 100 feet. As relief was urgently 
needed, the U. S. dredge Winyah Bay was borrowed from the 
Charleston district, and worked upon the channel from August 10, 
1904, to February 14, 1905. She removed a total of 200,108 cubic 
yards, restoring the chaimel to a depth of 30 feet at mean low water 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 323 

for a width of 150 feet. The maximum draft that could be carried 
over the improvement at mean low water June 30, 1905, was 29.2 feet, 
this limiting depth being confined to a short shoal at the outer end. 
In general the channel is in excellent condition, and no further work 
will be required until the dredge Caucus, now nearing completion, is 
available. 

The commerce of this port is very large. For the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1903, the foreign exports were reported ae $13,741,540, no 
record of the coastwise exports being availfuble ; in 1904, as $15,893,- 
456, and in 1905 exports as $15,295^067 and imports as $985,840. 

The completion of the project will give greatly increased facilities 
to the large commerce of Pensacola,.but will not materially affect 
freight rates. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $127,337.49 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved Marcb 3, 1906. 100, 000. 00 

227, 337. 49 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year : 

For works of Improvement $50,182.28 

For maintenance of improvement 25, 610. 79 

« 75, 793. 07 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 151.544.42 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 620,438.71 

July 1, 1905, balance available 131, 105. 71 

July 1, 1905, amount covered by uncompleted contracts c 15, 000. 00 

(See Appendix Q 9.) 

10. Escambia and Conecuh rivers, Florida and Alabama. — These 
two names apply to one and the same stream, which flows through a 
heavily timbered country in southern Alabama and western Florida 
into Escambia Bay, an arm of Pensacola Bay. The timber from this 
district is brought down the river and forms a large part of all that 
is exported from Pensacola. Originally the river was much ob- 
structed by snag, marl reefs, and sand bars, and a bar prevented the 
entrance of tugs to the mouth of the river, where the rafts are made 
ready to be towed to Pensacola, and seriously interfered with navi- 
gation. 

The first appropriation for the improvement of this river was made 
in 1833, and prior to the adoption of the present project $5,000 was 
expended in removing obstructions. A suosequent appropriation of 
$5,500, made in 1836, was returned to the surplus fund in 1838. No 
further appropriations were made until 1880. 

The present project, adopted June 14, 1880, is based upon reports 
of the examinations and surveys printed in the Annual Report of the 
Chief of Engineers for 1879, pages 843-852, and provides for the 
improvement of the river from its mouth to Indian Creek, Alabama, 
an estimated distance of 293 miles, by the removal of snags, logs, and 
overhanging trees, by excavating rock shoals, by works of contraction 
and shore protectionfand by dredging a channel 150 feet wide and 
5^ feet deep at mean low water through the bar at the mouth, all at 
an estimate cost of $87,430. 



Includes $50,182.28 on account of construction of dredge Caucus. 
* Includes $16,104.16 on account of constmctlon of dredge Caucu*. 
«On account of construction of dredge Oauoua. 



Digitized by 



Google 



824 BEPOKT OK THE CHIEF OF ENGINEEBS, U. S. ABMY. 

The amount expended to June 30, 1906, was $104,884.51, largely for 
maintenance. Tnese expenditures kept the river fairly frro from 
sna^ and opened the channel across the bar at the mouth from time 
to tmie, and has greatly facilitated the rafting and towing of timber; 
but, due to lack of funds in recent years, the river, which in 1900 was 
practically free from obstructions, has again become so much ob- 
structed as to seriously interfere with the rafting of timber at low- 
water stages. The channel across the bar has shoaled also, inter- 
fering wim the movements of the towboats for the rafts. Snagging 
operations were resumed April 4, 1905, at Pine Barren, and will be 
continued throughout the coming season. Fimds should be provided 
for operating the snag boat continuously throughout the low-water 
season and for redredging the channel across the bar at the mouth of 
the river. 

The commerce of this stream is mainly in timber, lumber, and saw 
logs. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended $759.30 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 1906. 10, 000. 00 

10, 759. 30 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance of 
improvement 1, 643. 81 

July 1, 1905, Imlance unexpended 9,115.49 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 812.00 

July 1, 1905, balance available 8, 303. 49 

(See Appendix Q 10.) 

11. Alabama River, Alabama. — This river is formed ^ the junc- 
tion of the Coosa and the Tallapoosa, 11 miles below Wetumka, on 
the Coosa River, and from this junction to its junction with the Tom- 
bigbee to form the Mobile it constitutes a 312-mile link in a waterway 
815 miles long, from the Oostenaula and Coosawattee rivers, Greorgia, 
to the Gulf of Mexico. 

The river was originally so obstructed by logs, snags, and overhang- 
ing trees, and shoals, many with depths of but 2.5 feet, that during 
the low-water season mivigation was practically by day only. Ijong 
detentions were frequent at many of the shoals below Selma, and 
when the water was unusually low traffic was suspended between 
Selma and Montgomery for three or four months in the year. 

The original project, adopted in 1878, for the improvement of this 
stream (see Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1876, Part 1, p. 498) 
provided for securing a low-water channel 4 feet deep and 200 feet 
wide by removing snags, logs, and overhanging trees, by constructing 
works of regulation, and by dredging, all at an estimated cost of 
§229,741. On this project $185,000 was expended, principally in 
snagging operations and the construction of works of contraction. 
These expenditures greatly improved the condition of the channel, 
freeing it from obstructions, and secured a low-water depth of 4J feet 
to 5 feet. • 

In 1891 the original project was amended to provide for a low- 
water channel 6 feet deep, which was to be secured in the same gen- 
eral way as contemplatea in the original project, and the estimated 
cost was placed at $386,251, provided that at least $100,000 should be 
appropriation annually, and $10,000 a year thereafter for maintenance. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AKD HAB60B IMPttOVElCENTS. 325 

Upon this project there has been expended to June 30, 1905, 
$234,400.10, but at no time since the adoption of the project have the 
appropriations been sufficient to do much more than maintain the 
channel, and in the last few years the channel has been deteriorating, 
as the funds available have been insufficient to maintain the contrac- 
tion works already constructed, and work on the river has been con- 
fined to the operation of the snag boat. 

On June 30, 1904, the maximum draft that could be carried to 
Montgomery was less than 3 feet. The actual head of navigation is 
Wetumka, on the Coosa River. 

The river and harbor act approved March 3, 1905, contemplates 
securing a continuous channel not less than 4 feet deep in the Ala- 
bama River by open-channel work, and calls for a preliminary exami- 
nation with a view of securing this channel from the mouth to Mont- 
gomery and from Montgomery to Wetumka. 

As the benefits to be derived from the improvement of the Alabama 
River are very great, funds should bo provided for the vigorous prose- 
cution of work whether a new project is adopted or not, and as the 
most important work under the project to secure a channel 6 feet deep 
will be the dredging, the small dipper dredge belonging to the im- 
provement should be kept at work and a suitable hydraulic dredge 
should be constructed. Works of regulation should be maintain^ 
and new works constructed in connection with the dredged channel. 

Variation of the water level is from to 59 feet at Montgomery, 

Ala. 

The commerce of this stream is important, consisting principally 
of cotton, cotton seed, fertilizer, grain, lumber, shingles, naval stores, 
staves, and a large quantity of miscellaneous freight of all descrip- 
tions, estimated for the past fiscal year as 127,250 tons, valued at 
$12,907,500. This, however, is but a small part of the freight move- 
ment that is affected by the improvement, for the actual shipments 
bj water have been relatively small. The rates quoted on the first 
SIX classes of through freight from the east to Montgomery, via sea 
and river, average 12 cents per hundred lower than the correspond- 
ing all-rail rates ; therefore, with the river improved for continuous 
navigation, it is estimated that 100,000 tons of the present freight 
movement would either go by river, or at river rates, and the result- 
ing saving would be enormous. In addition, improved facilities 
would render possible an actual reduction in rates on freight now 
carried by river. 

July 1, 1904, balance unexpended fS,447.Xi 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 190i5- 100, 000. 00 

108, 447. 33 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during fiscal year, for maintenance 
of improvement 8, 847. 43 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 99,599.90 

July 1, 1905, outstanding liabilities 16,032.71 

July 1, 1905, balance available 83, 567. 19 

July 1, 19(K5, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 13, 777. 69 

(See Appendix Q 11.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



826 BBPOBT OF XHB GBI&V OF BNOnrEEBS, V. S. ARKT. 

in. Coosa, Oostenaula, and Coosawattee rivers, Georgia and Ala- 
bama. — ^The Coosa is formed at Rome, Ga., by the junction of the 
Oostenaula and Etowah rivers, which have their sources in northern 
Georgia. The Oostenaula is formed by the junction of the Coosa- 
wattee and Connesauga rivers, 56 miles northwest of Rome. The 
Oostenaula above Rome, Ga., and its tributary, the Coosawattee, are 
navigable for light-draft boats during nine months of the year for a 
distance of about 105 miles, but the Etowah and the Connesauga 
are not navigable. 

The Coosa River has always been navigable for light-draft boats 
from Rome, Ga., to Greenport, Ala., an estimated distance of 162 
miles, and this part of the river is of such a character as to make its 
improvement by works of contraction and channel excavation entirely 
practicable. 

From Greenport, Ala., to Wetumka, Ala., a distance of 142 miles, 
locks and dams are required in conjunction with works of contraction 
and channel excavation to provide for navigation. 

From Wetumka to the junction of the Tallapoosa River the river 
is navigable at all seasons. 

The ordinary variation of the water surface is, at Rome, Ga., to 
30 feet; at Greenport, Ala., to 15 feet; at Wetumka, Ala., to 50 
feet. 

In compliance with the river and harbor act approved June 13, 
1902, a survey was made of the Coosa River from Lock 4 to Wetumka, 
Ala., and an examination of the Coosa and Alabama rivers from 
Wetumka, Ala., to the mouth of the Alabama River, and a report 
has been submitted upon the feasibility, advisability, and probable 
cost of securing a 6-foot navigation in these rivers from Gadsden, 
Ala., to the mouth of the Alabama River. This report was submitted 
to Congress and printed as House Document No. 219, Fifty-eighth 
Congres.s, third session. 

As existing data in reference to discharges, slopes, and character 
of lock and dam foundations are very meager, additional investiga- 
tion covering these and other points should be carried on to determine 
the details of any extensive improvements undertaken in future. 

(a) Coosa River hetrceen Rome, Ga., and East Tennessee, Virginia 
and Georgia Railroad bridge. — The original project for the improve- 
ment of the Coosa River contemplated the opening of a continuous 
water route of transportation from the Mississippi River to the 
Atlantic Ocean by way of the Ohio, Tennessee, Coosa, Etowah, 
Ocmulgee, and Altamaha rivers, with canals from the Tennessee to 
the Coosa and from the Etowah to the Ocmulgee. This was des- 
ignated as the "southern route." The low-water depth and width 
of the channel proposed can not be stated from the records at hand. 

Various examinations and estimates for the improvement of parts 
of this section of river have been made from time to time up to the 
adoption of the existing project, September 19, 1890. This project, 
as modified by act of (S)ngress of July 13, 1892, formed a part of a 
plan submitted in 1875 for a proposed waterway from the Mississippi 
to the Atlantic via the Tennessee River, and provides for a crib and 
timber lock 200 by 32 feet and a 3-foot lift, with excavation for a 
i-ioot channel between Rome, Ga., and Wills Creek in Alabama, at 
a total estimated cost of $180,000 ; for three locks between Greenport 
and Lock 4 (Whisenant and Ten Island shoals), 210 feet long, 40 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AKD HABBOB IMPBOVEMENTS. 827 

feet wide, and an extreme low-water depth of 4 feet on miter sills, 
toother with a 3-foot channel between Locks 1 and 3, at a total 
estimated cost, including accessory dams and dikes, of $155,616.23; 
for five locks and dams irom and including Lock 4 to the East Ten- 
nessee, Virginia and Georgia Railroad bridge, the locks to have an 
available length of 280 feet, width of 52 feet, and an extreme low- 
water depth of 6 feet over the miter sills, together with a connecting 
channel 100 feet wide and 4 feet deep at extreme low water, at a total 
estimated cost of $1,160,491, or at a total cost for the entire improve- 
ment of $1,496,107.23. 

To June 30, 1905, there has been expended on this section of the 
Coosa $1,027,826.09, of which $504,126.09 has been expended upon the 
existing project, and $523,700 prior to its adoption. The work ac- 
complished is as follows, of which expenditures about 10 per cent 
has been for maintenance : 

Locks 1, 2, and 3, Coosa River, commenced prior to 1890, have been 
completed. They are situated, respectivelv, 0.68 mile, 3.86 miles, 
and 5.24 miles below Greenport, Ala., and nave available lengths of 
175 feet and widths of 40 feet. 

Lock 4 (26.89 miles below Greenport), commenced since the adop- 
tion of larger dimensions above mentioned, has, together with its ap- 
purtenances, been under construction, with desultory appropriations, 
since 1886, but is still incomplete. 

Channel improvement has been extended as far down as Lock 4, 
and navigation is now possible to this point except at extreme low 
water, when interruptions occur a short distance above Lock 4. 

During the past Gacal year work was confined to maintenance of 
the channel bd:ween Rome, Ga., and Gadsden, Ala., and to care of 
the large amount of plant on hand. 

Even if it be decided to abandon the improvement of the river be- 
tween Wetumka and the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia Rail- 
road bridge for the present. Lock 4 should be completed, as the old 
cofferdam now acting as the west abutment of Dam 4 is in bad condi- 
tion and extensive repairs will be required in the near future to pre- 
serve the dam. The completion of the lock will afford a passage to 
the rafts which must at present be run over the dam, frequently in- 
juring it seriously, and will also extend navigation to the railroad at 
Riverside during the greater part of the year. 

On June 30, 1905, the maximum draft that could be carried at 
ordinary low water between Rome, Ga., and Lock 4 was 3 feet, except 
at Horseleg shoals, 1^ miles below Rome, over which but 2 feet can 
be carried until a lock is constructed at this point. 

The commerce of this portion of the Coosa consists principally of 
cotton, cotton seed, fertilizer, timber, lumber, staves, grain, and mis- 
cellaneous articles. 

(6) Coosa River between Wetumka and East Tennessee, Virginia 
and Georgia Railroad bridge. — On account of the numerous rapids 
this part of the river has nevM* been navigable. 

The original project for the improvement of this section of the 
river, adopted September 19, 1890, as the result of a survey made in 
1889 and modified by Congress Julv 13, 1892, contemplates slack- 
water navigation and provides for the construction of 23 locks and 
dams of varving lifts, of an available length of 280 feet and width 
of 52 feet, with 6 feet over the miter sills, no lift of lock to exceed 15 



Digitized by 



Google 



828 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOIKEEBS, V. 8. ABXIT. 

feet. In addition, the channel is to be cleared of various rock reef 
and points, so as to give a least depth of 4 feet, all at an estimate* 
cost of $5,106,422. Inere has been expended on this project to Jiin 
30, 1905, $399,966.15, of which about 2| per cent has been for main 
tenance, which has resulted in the construction of the lowest lock o 
the series, known as No. 1, excepting the dam and gates, the excava 
tion of the channel between this lock and the one next above, and tin 
preparation of data and plans for additionl locks and dam, but thesi 
data are still incomplete. As yet no benefit has been derived from 
this improvement, and its value is entirely dependent on the comple- 
tion of the entire system. 

(c) Oostenaula and Coosawattee rivers, Georgia. — The Oostenaula 
and Coosawattee rivers have their sources in the mountains of north- 
eastern Georgia and are tributaries of the Coosa. 

From Rome to Carters Mill these rivers were originally obstructed 
by gravel bars, rock reefs, snags, and overhanging trees. Exam- 
inations were made in 1872 and 1874, and the original project, based 
up6n them, was to secure 3-foot depth of channel on the Oostenaula 
and 24 inches of water on the Coosawattee to Carters Mill during nine 
months of the year, at an estimated cost of $28,208.50. 

There was expended on this project $25,500.61, which in 1881 had 
practically completed it as intended and no work had been done upon 
either river since that time until 1903. 

The existing project is that part of the river and harbor act ap- 
proved June 13, 1902, applying to these rivers, as follows: 

ImproTtng Coosa River. Georgia and Alabama, and the Ooatenanla and Cooea- 
wattee rivers, Georgia, tbirty-flve thousand dollars, of which amount ten thou- 
sand dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary, shall be expended upon 
the last-named rivers. ■ 

No estimate of cost other than that quoted from the river and har- 
bor act above was made. 

When this project was adopted the rivers were obstructed at high 
water by numerous closed bridges and at ordinary stages by sunken 
logs, trees, and snags; by overhanging trees; by various fish traps, 
erected under the laws of the State of Georgia, which require an 
opening of but 40 feet to permit the passage of ho&ta ; by the remains 
of two or three old milldams, which had been only partially removed, 
and by detached masses of rock lying in the channel, which were 
especially dangerous in the short turns. 

The navigation during the low-water season was still further ob- 
structed by a number of gravel bars and two or three rock bars or 
reefs. 

There has been expended under this project $7,155.80, with which 
a channel has been cleared from Rome to Carters mill, having a mini- 
mum width of 30 feet and a depth of 2 feet, but on June 30, 1905, it 
had again become much obstructed by drift and overhanging trees. 

No work was done during the fiscal year, and as the commercial 
benefits to be deriA'ed from the improvement are very small, no fur- 
ther appropriations are recommended at present. 

Carters, on the Coosawattee, about 105 miles above Rome, is the 
head of navigation on this svstem of rivers, and small steamboats can 
reach this point w^ith a draft of 2 feet at ordinary low water. 



Digitized by 



Google 



SIVEB AKD HABBOB IMPROVEMENTS. 829 

Jnly 1, 1904, balance unexpended $18, TOO. 47 

Amount appropriated by river and harbor act approved March 3, 

1905 25. 000. 00 

43, 790. 47 
June 30, 1905, amount expended during flscal year, for maintenance 

of Improvement 15, 607. 14 

July 1, 1905, balance unexpended 28,123.33 

July 1, 1906, outstanding liabilities 3,167.29 

July 1, 1905, balance available 24, 956. 04 

Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 6, 059, 913. 00 

(See Appendix Q 12.) 

13. Operating and care of canals and other works of navigation on 
Coosa River, Georgia and Alabama. — Locks 1, 2, and 3 were opened 
to navigation June 30, 1890, and have been operated continuously 
ever since except during such periods as it was necessary to close them 
for repairs, and for a period of ten days in February, 1895, when the 
canal between Locks 2 and 3 was frozen over. 

The amount expended to the end of the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1905, was $143,298.99. 

The expenses of operating and care of Locks 1, 2, and 3, and the 
improved channel as far down as Dam 4, during the fiscal year have 
been paid faom the permanent indefinite appropriation provided by 
section 4 of the act of July 5, 1884. These expenses amounted to 
$8,442.57, exclusive of liabilities outstanding on June 30, 1905, of 
$173.09. 

(See Appendix Q 13.) 

14. Removing sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering 
navigation. — The schooner Grace Andrews and the tug Bishop, sunk 
near the mouth of Carrabelle River, Florida, having been reported 
as obstructions to navigation, were removed under contract after 
advertisement, as provided by law. Amount expended during the 
year upon this work, $1,750.20. 

(See Appendix Q 14.) 

8URVBY OF OOOSA AND ALABAMA RTVERS, GEORGIA AND ALABAMA, MADE 
IN COMPLIANCB WITH THE RIVER AND HARBOR ACT APPROVED JUNE 
13, 1902. 

Capt. J. B. Cavanaugh, Corps of Engineers, submitted reports 
dated June 30 and November 22, 1904, on survey of Coosa and Ala- 
bama rivers, with a view of determining the advisability of securing 
6-foot navigation in said rivers and the probable expense thereof, 
required by the river and harbor act approved Jime 13, 1902, and they 
were reviewed by the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors, 
pursuant to law. Improvement of these streams in the manner indi- 
cated is not deemed advisable. The reports were transmitted to Con- 
gress and printed in House Document No. 219, Fifty-eighth Congress, 
uiird session. (See also Appendix Q 15.) 

IMPROVEMENT OF RIVERS AND HARBORS IN WESTERN ALABAMA 
AND EASTERN MISSISSIPPI. 

This district was in the charge of Maj. W. E. Craighillj Corps of 
Engineers. Division engineer, Lieut. Col. H. M. Adams* Corps of 



Digitized by 



Google 



S80 BBPOK* OS' THE CHIEF OF ENGINEEB8, tl. 8. ARitt. 

Engineers, until August 12, 1904, and Lieut. Col. Clinton B, Sears, 
Corps of Engineers, since that date. 

1. Mobile Harbor, Alabama. — This channel originally had mini- 
mum depths of 5^ feet through Choctaw Pass and 8 feet through Dog 
River bar, the available draft to Mobile, via. Spanish River, being 
limited to the latter depth. 

The improvement of the chamiel of Mobile Harbor has been pro- 
gressive. Between 1826, the date of the first appropriation for this 
work, and 1857 a channel 10 feet deep was dredged through the 
shoals in Mobile Bay up to the city of Mobile. Between 1870 and 
1876 this depth was increased to 13 feet, the channel being dredged 
to a width of 300 feet through Ghoctaw Pass and 200 feet through 
Dog River bar. 

El 1880 a project for a channel 17 feet deep and 200 feet wide was 
adopted, and appropriations between 1878 and 1886 were applied to 
the formation of a channel of these dimensions. 

In the river and harbor act of August 11, 1888, a project for secur- 
ing a channel 23 feet deep was adopted, this project bieing modified 
by the river and harbor act of September 19, 1890, so as to provide 
for the formation of a channel 23 feet deep and with a top width of 
280 feet from the Gulf of Mexico to the mouth of Chickasaw Creek, 
above the city of Mobile. This channel was completed in 1896, sub- 
sequent appropriations, up to and including that made by the sundry 
civil act of July 1, 1898, having been applied to its mainienance. 

The total amount expended on these projects was $3,648,630.60, of 
which about $115,000 is estimated to have been applied to mainte- 
nance. 

The existing project for the improvement of Mobile Harbor pro- 
vides for the lormation of a channel 23 feet deep and 100 feet wide at 
bottom, with appropriate slopes, from the entrance of the bay to the 
mouth of Chickasaw Creek, at an estimated cost of $1,640,000, and the 
removal of sunken obstructions from Mobile Harbor at such times as 
the latter work may be authorized. This project was adopted by the 
river and harbor act approved March 3, 1899, and was modified by 
the acts of June 13, 1902, and March 3, 1905. 

The amount expended on work imder the existing project up to the 
close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, was $1,098,559.94, of 
which amount the sum of $60,197.48 was allotted to work of main- 
tenance. 

The work of forming a 23-foot channel in Mobile River and Bay 
under the existing project has been in progress since 1899, under two 
continuing contracts, during the progress of which 12,402,956 cubic 
yards of material, scow measurement, has been removed from the 
channel. At the close of operations under the latter of these con- 
tracts, on November 11, 1903, an uninterrupted channel of the pro- 
jected depth, 23 feet, and with a width varying from 55 to 150 reet, 
existed within the limits of the project. Portions of this channel have 
subsequently shoaled. The work of removing sunken trees, logs, 
timbers, and other dangerous obstructions from the channel of Mo- 
bile Harbor has also been prosecuted at various times under the exist- 
ing project when such operations were nece&sary. 

On June 7, 1904, an allotment of $50,000 was "made from the appro- 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIVEB AND fiABBOB IMPBOVEMENtS. 831 

priation carried by the river and harbor act of April 28, 1904, for the 
purpose of maintaining the 23- foot channel in Mobile Harbor. 

During the past fiscal year the following work has been accom- 
plished : 

(a) Under a contract dated November 1^, 1904:, the work of main- 
taining the Mobile Harbor channel with the funds allotted from the 
act of April 28,-1904, was commenced January 6, 1905. Dredging 
operations under this contract were in progress until June 6, 1906, 
when work was completed. In this interval 498,739 cubic yards of 
material, scow measurement, was removed from the channel of Mobile 
River and Bay, principally below the Mobile Bay light-house, 
and cuts with a least depth or 23 feet, a width of about 55 feet, and an 
aggregate length of 43,798 feet were formed through shoal stretches 
ofthe channel. 

• (b) By use of United States plant and hired labor, various obstruc- 
tions in the ship channel, such as sunken trees, logs, and timbers, were 
removed between December