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Full text of "Annual Reports of the War Department"

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ANNUAL REPORT 



_ jiw -■»■■■. 

OF THB 



ii^tfe-E 



SECRETARY OF WAR 



TOB 



THE YE^R 1891. 



IN FIVE VOLUMES. 



VOLUME II-IN SIX PARTS. 

PART 4. 



WASHINGTON: 

OOVEBNMBNT PRINTING OFFIOB. 

1891. 



\ 



IV CONTENTS. 

In the chabgk op Capt. Fredbric V. Abbot, Corps of Engineers— 

Waocamaw River to Waocamaw Lake, N. C. and Si C, 170; Lumber River, N. I 
S. C, Little Pedee River, S. C, 171; Great Pedee River, S. C, Clark River, 
172; Min^o Creek, S. C, Santee River, S.C., 173: Wateree River, S.C., Coa 
River, S. C., 174: Chiirloston Harbor, S. C, 175; Aslilev River, S. C, WappooC 
C, 176 ; Edisto River, S. C, 177 ; Salkahatchie River, S. C, Beaufort River, a i 
moving sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering navigation, ITS; • 
ination, 179. 

In the charge op Capt. O. M. Carter, Corps op Engineers — 

Savannah River and Harbor, Ga., 179; Savannah River, Ga., Darien Harboi 
180; Altamaha River, Ga., Oconee River, Ga., 181; Ocmuleee River, Ga., I 
wick Harbor, Ga., 182; Jekyl Creek, Ga., 183; Cumberlana Sound, Ga. and 
removing sunken vessels or' craft obstructing or endangering navigation, e 
nations and surveys, 184. 

In the charge op Capt. W. M. Black, Corps of Engineers — 

St. Johns River, Fla., 185; Ocklawaha River, Fla., 186; Volusia Bar, Fla., 187 
bor at St. Augustine, Fla., northwest entrance. Key West Harbor, Fla., 188; i 
sahatchee River, Fla.. 189; channel of Charlotte Harbor and Pease Creek, f^a 
Sarasota Bav, Fla., Manatee River, Fla., 191; Tampa Bay, Fla., 192; With 
ohee River, Ma., harbor at Cedar Keys, Fla., 193; Suwanee River, Fla., 194; • 
inations, 195. 

In the charge of Capt. Philip M. Price, Corps of Engineers — 

Apalachicola Bay, Fla., 196; Apalachicola River, Fla., including Xfee Sloogli 
Flint River, Ga., 198; Chattahoochee River, Ga. and Ala., 199; La Grange J 
and Holmes River, Fla., 200; Choctawhatchee River, Fla. and Ala., 201; 1 
atPensacola, Fla., 202; Escambia and Conecuh rivers, Fla. and Ala., 203; Alt 
River, Ala., ^^; Tallapoosa River, Ala., 206; Coosa River, Ga. and Ala., 20^ 
erating and care of canals and other works of navigation on Coosa River, Gi 
Ala., Cahaba River, Ala., 210; examinations, 211. 

In the charge op Maj. A. N. Damrell, Corps of Engineers — 

Mobile Harbor, Ala., 211; Warrior and Tombigbee rivers, Ala. and Miss., 212; 
Warrior River, Ala., from Tuscaloosa to Daniels Creek, 215: Noxubee River, 
Pascagoula River, Miss., 217; Chickasahay River, Miss., Bluff Creek, Miss. 
River, Miss., 218; harbor at Biloxi, Miss., Pearl River, Miss., below Jacksoi 
Pearl River, Miss., between Jackson and Carthage, Pearl River, lOas., hv 
Edinburg and Carthage, Bogue Chitto, La., 220; examination, 221. 

In the charge op BIaj. James B. Quinn, Corps op Engineers — 

Inspection of the improvement of the South Pass of the Mississippi Rivei 
Cnefuncte (Tchefuncte) River and Bogue Falia, La., Tickfaw River and its 
taries, La., 222; Amite River and Bayou Manchac, La., 223; Bayou LaFoi 
La., Bayou Terrebonne, La., 224; Bayou Plaquemino, La., Bayou Conrtal 
La., 225; Bayou Teche, La., mouth and passes of Calcasieu River, La., 226 
bor at Sabine Pass, Tex., 227; Sabine River, Tex., Neches River, Tex., rem 
sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering navigation, 22H3; examini 
and survey, 229. 

In the charge of Lieut. John Milus, Corps op Engineers — 

Securing mouth of Bayou Plaquemine, La., from further caving, removing si 
vessels or craft obstructing or endangering navigation of New Orleans H) 
La., 231. 

In the charge of Maj. Charles J. Allen, Corps of Engineers — 

Entrance to Galveston Harbor, Tex., 231; ship channel in Galveston Bay, Tex 
Trinity River, Tex., Cedar Bayou, Tex., 2*33; Buffalo Bayoif, Tex., harbor a1 
£03 Santiago, Tex., 231 ; examinations and survey, 235. 



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OONTEN^TS. 

[Alphabetical index will be foond at the end of each part.] 



PAET I. 

OFFICERS OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Ckakgks during year, distribntion of officers, 3 ; officers detached, recommendations 

as to examinations for promotion, 4. 

FORTIFICATIONS. 

General statement, 4; defense of Boston Harbor, Mass., 6; defense of New York 
Harbor, N. Y., defense of Washington, D. C, 7; defense of Hampton Roads, Ya.j 
defense of San Francisco Harbor, Cal., 8. 

PROTECTION OF SITE OF FORT NIAGARA, NEW YORK. 

In the charge of Capt. Dan C. Kingman, Corps of Engineers 8 

SEA WALL AND EMBANKMENT AT DAVIDS ISLAND, NEW YORK HARBOR. 

In the charge of Col. D. C. Houston, Corps of Engineers 9 

SEA WALLS AT GOVERNORS ISLAND, NEW YORK HARBOR. 

In the cilarge of Col. D. C. Houston, Corps of Engineers 9 

BEACH PROTECTION, WATER SUPPLY, AND SEWERAGE SYSTEM AT FORT 

MONROE, VIRGINIA. 

In the charge of Lieut. Col. Peter C. Hains, Corps of Engineers 10 

REPAIR AND PRESERVATION OF FORT MARION, FLORIDA. 

In the charge of Capt. W. M. Black, Corps of Engineers 11 

ESTIMATES OF APPROPRIATIONS FOR FORTIFICATIONS REQUIRED FOR 

1892-'93 11 

THE BOARD OF ENGINEERS. 

Officers constituting Board, summary of reports rendered, 11 ; additional duties 

of indiyidual members, 14. 

POST OF WILLETS POINT, NEW YORK.— UNITED STATES ENGINEER 
SCHOOL.— BATTALION OF ENGINEERS.— ENGINEER DEPOT. 

Officer in command, Lieut. Col. W. R. King, Corps of Engineers — 

Post of Willets Point, United States Engineer School, Battalion of the Corps of En- 
gineers, 15; Engineer Depot, statement of funds, 16. 

\ 



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n ' CONTEXTS. 

RIVER AND HARBOR IMrROVKMENTS. 

GrxKRAL STATKMENT, rciiioval of wrecks, exaniinations and survovs, purcl 
Portage Lake canals, Michigan, 17; harbor lines, bridges, 18; occnpancy or 
of public works, engineer divisions. South Pass of the Missif^sippi River, 19. 

ATLANTIC COAST AND GULF OF MEXICO. 

In the ciiauge of Lieut. Col. Jared A. Smith, Corps of Engineers — 

St. Croix River, Me., Luhec Channel, Me., 19; Mooseabec Bar, Me.^ Pleasant '. 
Me., 20; Narraguagus River, Me., breakwater from Mount Desert to Pore 
Island, Me., 21; Bagaduoe River, Me., 22; Penobscot River, Me., Belfast H; 
Mo., 23; Camden Harbor, Me., 24; Rockport Harbor, Me., Rockland Harbor 
25; Kennebec River, Me., Harraseeket River, Me., 26; Portland Harbor, 
channel in Back Cove, Portland, Me., 27; breakwater at month of Saco 1 
Me., Saco River, Me., 28; Kennebunk River, M©., York Harbor, Me., 29; ] 
mouth Harbor, N. II., Bellamy River, N. H., 30; Cocheco River, N. H.,harl 
refuge at Little Harbor, N. H., 31; removing sunken vessels or craft obstru 
or endangering navigation, examinations and surveys, 32. 

In the charge of Lieut. Col. S. M. Man:«fiei.i>, Corps of Engineers— 

Kewburyport HarlK)r, Mass., 33; Merrimac River, Mass., 34; Powow River, A 
Ipswich River, Mass.. 3,'>; harbor of refuge, Sandy Bay, Cape Ann, Mass., Glo 
ter Harbor, Mass., 3t>; Manchester Harbor, Mass., 37; Salem Harbor, Mass 
Lynn Harbor, Mass., '30; Winthrop Harbor, Mass., Boston Harbor, Mass., 40; 
mouth River, Mass., Hingham Harbor, Mass., 42; Soituate Harbor, Mass. 
Plymouth Harbor, Mass., AVellticet Harbor, Mass., 44; Provincetown Ha 
Miiss., 4.^; Chatham Harbor, Mass., examinations and surveys, 46. 

In the charge of Maj. W. R. Livermore, Corps of Engineers— 

Harbor of refuge at Hyannis. Mass., harbor of refuge at Nantucket, Mass., 
Marthas Vineyard inner harbor at Edgartown, Mass., 49; Vineyard ILaven Ha: 
Mass., Wareham Harbor, Mass., 50; New Bedford Harbor, Mass. 51 ; Westport 
bor, Mass., 52; Taunton River. Mnss., 53; l*awtucket River, R. I., Providence J 
and Narragansett Bay, R. L, 54 ; removal of Green Jacket Shoal, Providence R 
R. 1.. 5.*>; Greenwich Bay, R. I., 56; cove and water-way near Coaster Ha 
Island, R. I., Newport Harbor, R. I.. 57; harbor of refuge at Point Judith, 1 
58; harbor of refuge at Block Island, R. I.. 59; Pawcatuck River. R, I. and Cc 
harbor of refuge at Stonington, Conn.. 60; removing sunken vessels or ( 
obstructing or endangering navigation, 61 ; examinations and surveys, G2. 

In the charge of Col. D. C. Houston, Corps of Engineers— 

Mystic River, Conn., Thames River. Ctmn., 63; New London Harbor, Conn., Con 
ticut River, Mass. and Conn.. 64; Duck Island Harbor. Conn., ClintoH Hai 
Conn., 66; New Haven Harbor, Conn.. 67; breakwater i^ New Ilaven, Conn. 
Milford Harbor, Conn., Housatonic River, Conn., 6l*; Bridgeport Harbor^Cc 
Black Rock Harbor, Conn.. 70; Norwalk Harbor, Conn,, Wilson Point Hai 
Conn., 71; Five Mile River Harbor, Conn., Stamford Harbor, Conn., 72; Port C 
ter Harbor, N. Y., 73; Larehmont Harbor, N. Y., Echo Harbor, New Rochelle, N 
New Rochelle Harbor, N. Y., 74; East Chester Creek, N. Y., Greenport Harbo 
Y., 75; harbor at Port Jetterson lulot. N. Y., Huntington Harbor, N. Y., 76; < 
Cove Harbor, N. Y.. Flushing 15ay, N. Y..77; Patchogue River, N. Y., 78; Bro 
Oeek, Say ville, N. Y., examinations and surveys, 79. 

In the charge of Lieut. Col. G. L. Gillespie, Corps of Engineers— 

Hudson River, N. Y., 81; harbor at Saugerties, N. Y., 82; harbor at Rondout, N 
83; Wappinger Creek, N. Y., Harlem River, N. Y., Rt; removing obstructioi 
East River and Hell Gate. N. Y., S6: Newtown Cn»ek. N. Y.. 87; Buttermilk Chai 
New York Harbor, S8; Gowanus Bay, N. Y., 89; New Yc»rk Harbor, N. Y., 90; I 
tan Bay, N. J.. 1^2; removing sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangc 
navigation, examinations and surveySi 93. 




Of Ckf-t. Thomab L. Cacby, floRPS or Ghcixukhii— 

ilet, N. ¥.. M: Caiiutsle liny, N.Y., 95j SUMpaliead Baj, N.Y.. WlJ 

inrKiU, 7f. Y. andM. J., 97; clutiiiiflllMlw«enHUteiiJi]aiid atidNew Jermy.ttSH 

taio River, N. J., 99; EliiAlietb Rlv«r, K. J.. 100; Rtthva? River, M. J., lOlil 

itaTi Eiver, N. J,, 108; Soiitli Blver, N. J., 103; Keypo^'' Harbor N. J., Ma«»iP 

__i Cieek, N.J., 101) Shniil Horljor and Comptnn Croc^k, N.J^lOB; 8hrnw«bUTJ-, 

.Itbt, S.J., Manaflqiian (Sqnan) River, N. J., l(m; removing annkeii veuels i 

ilMtiuctisg or ondongtriog navigiitlon, examlunttanB and §urve7, 107. 

<r Maj. C. W. Batmoxd, CORfs uit ExuiitBans— 

wamu-B luvttr, Pn, Mid N, J,, UWl hultor lietWMii rLit«ii^1|>li' i. r i . 
den,N.J„UO! Schuylliill Bivet, P»., 113; icft-hMbornt Mnivi; : 
bar at faenit of Delaware Bay, DoU 113; oonatructlou of irmi ji' 
near Lewes, Uel., 114; hurUiir at U«liiwiiic Broskwater, Del,, li . 
N^J-,lIfii iUownyCreck, N.J.,Mmi»keRiver, N.J.. 117; n-iii..', u ..; ,.,,, 
DeJawaro Bny nacl RivtT, n-raovhig sunken vesfloU or truft obniruding or 
gpriug BEivigut' - ' -• _ . _ I ..n 



nington Haclior, Del., 110; loe-bubor at New Cutle, Del., 12ui au) __ 
vnlc River, Del.. Smyruit River, Del., 121 ; St. Jones River, Del., HiBpillioD Crael^ .1 
Ml., Itronukilu Hivcr, Del.. 122; inliuiil water-way troui Chincoteagno Bay, Vik^ .^ 
p Delawore Bav. ut or near Lewoa, Del., 123; Siisqin^lmnna River, nhove nnil ha- 
rw Httvto de Grace, Md., Nartli Kast River, Md., IZi; Klk Rivor, Md., 125; Knir- 
e Creek, Md., Chester River, Md., IVoin Cranjptun to Johm Landing, ISBf CIiop- 
uik River, Md., Cambridge Harbor, Md., 137; Wicumko Biver, Md^ 128: Mano- 
'aRivor, Md.,OQaocook Harliof.Vu., 129; liorlior at Cape Charles City, va,, and 
iproadiwt by ChciiMo (Cherrystone) Inlut, 130; removing ganken vesBels or Praft J 
patruotiuj; or einliiugering naviyutiun, uxuininntious and survoys, 131. 

ttBK, CUiUOlC Oy COI.. WlLUAll p. CRAIGUILL, COBPB OF ENniXBKltS— 

nore, Md., 132; Jumea River, Va., ISt; oxantl 

B OHAKOK OF hlKVt. COI~ PHTKH C. UAISS, ColtPB OK ExQIXKRllS— 



Bomini Croek, Va,., 110; Patuxent Rivi>F, Md,, 141; Rappabnnuock Rivi-r, th,, -^ 
TfclMum Creek, Va., 142; York River, Va., 1*3; Mattaponi Hiver, Va., Ul; P*. j 
~ ikey Biver, Va., examinations and surveys, 146. - 

oj Capt. G. J. FiBnBOBii, Cows op Esijinkbhs— 

_JIOf Notfolk, und its approacbM, Va., 146; approaoh to Norfolk Harbor and 
j» Ifaited Btatea (Norfolk) navy-yard between Lambert Point and Fort Norfolk, 
ai HMnpton Creek and Bar, Va., Nansoinond Biver, Va., 146; CliiokaJiominy 
"~«, T»., 149; Appomattox River. Va., 150; inland water route from Norfolk 
■■iw, Va,, to Albemnrle Sound, N, C, throneh Cnrriluck Sound, North Land- 
__JviM, Va. and N. C, 151; CurrlCiK'k Soiinu. Coanjok Hiiy, ;itid North Hiver 
■TrK. C, cxamiiintionB, 153. 

t cHAiiGE 01' Catt. W. H. Bixby, Corps ok ExoixEGRe— 

Staonton River, Va., 153; RoanokoRiver.Va. and N.C.. 154; Pasquotank River, N.O., 
Harokoy Cr«ok, N. C, IM; Ooraooke Ink-t, H. C, Fishing Creek, N. C, 156; Para- 
Uoo and Tor rivers, N. C, 167; Contcntnia Creek, N. C, Treat River, N. C., J58j 
Neose River, N.C., 159; inland wator- way between New Bcnioand Beaufort, M.C., 

'~)} harbor at Beaufort, N. C, 101 ; inland water-way between Beaufort llarbor 

pd New Blver, N. C-, water-way between New Rivor and Swauaboro, N. C, 163; 
pYrRi7er,N.C.,163: Nurth East (Cape Pear) River, N. C, Block Rivor, N.C., 
6:GepeFe(vrBivor,K. C, above Wilmingtr- ""'- " — <.•—-«=.— w -^ -. ._j 



4 



r Wilmingt'Oii^lfiS; I^ckwood'u 
. \IT at Ooorgi'towu, 8, C, lOtS; VVinj art un 
\ obstraoting ot endangering navigation, ] 



.on; Cape Fear Rlver,N.C.,atBiiu 

r. N, C„ Yadkin Rivnr, N.C., 167; 
B. C, remuviiig siiiikun vassela W - ' 
'; exauinatiouB, 170. 



IV CONTENTS, 

In the chabox of Caft. Fredsric V. Abbot, Cobps of Enginebbs — 

Waccamaw River to Waocamaw Lake, N. C. and Si C, 170; Lumber River. 
S. C, Little Pedee River, S. C, 171 ; Great Pedee River, S. C. Clark Rr 
172; Min^o Creek, S. C, Santee River, S.C., 173; Wateree River, S.C., 
River, S. C., 174: Charleston Harbor, S. C, 175; Asnlev River, S. C, Wapp 
C, 176 ; Edisto River, S. C, 177 ; Salkahat^hie River, "S. C, Beaufort River 
moving sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering navigation, I 
ination, 179. 

In the charge of Capt. O. M. Carter, Corps of Engineers — 

Savannah River and Harbor, Ga., 179; Savannah River, Ga., Darien Hai 
180: Altamaha River, Ga., Oconee River, Ga., 181; Oomulgee River, Ga 
wick Harbor, Ga., 182; Jekyl Creek, Ga., 183; Cumberland Sound, Ga. j 
removing sunken vessels or' craft obstructing or endangering navigatio: 
nations and surveys, 184. 

• 

In the charge of Capt. W. M. Black, Corps of Engineers— 

St. Johns River, Fla., 185; Ocklawaha River, Fla., 186; Volusia Bar, Fla., 
bor at St. Augustine, Fla., northwest entrance. Key West Harbor, Fla., 18 
sahatchee River, Fla., 189 ; channel of Charlotte Harbor and Pease Creek, 
Sarasota Bay, Fla., Manatee River, Fla., 191; Tampa Bay, Fla., 192; Vi 
ohee River, Fla., harbor at Cedar Keys, Fla., 193; Suwanee River, Fla., IS 
inations, 195. 

In the charge of Capt. Phujp M. Price, Corps of Engineers— 

Apalachicola Bay, Fla., 196; Apalachicola River, Fla., including l^ee Slo 
Flint River, Ga., 198; Chattahoochee River, Ga. and Ala., 199; La Gran 
and Holmes River, Fla^ 200; Choctawhatchee River, Fla. and Ala., 20: 
at Pensacola, Fla., 202 ; Escambia and Conecuh rivers, Fla. and Ala., 203 ; 
River, Ala., 204; Tallapoosa River, Ala., 206; Coosa River, Ga. and Ala. 
erating and care of canals and other works of navigation on Coosa Rivei 
Ala., Cahaba River, Ala., 210; examinations, 211. 

In the charge of Maj. A. N. Damreix, Corps of Engineers — 

Mobile Harbor, Ala., 211; Warrior and Tombig^bee rivers, Ala. and Miss., 21 
Warrior River, Ala., from Tuscaloosa to Daniels Creek, 215; Noxubee Ri'v 
Pascagoula River, Miss., 217 ; Chickasahay River, Miss., Bluff Creek, M 
River, Miss., 218; harbor at Biloxi, Miss., Pearl River, Miss., below Jacl 
Pearl River, Miss., between Jackson and Carthage, Pearl River, Miss., 
Edinburg and Carthage, Bogue Chitto, La., 220; examination, 221. 

In the charge of Maj. James B. Quinn, Corps of Engineebs — 

Inspection of the improvement of the South Pass of the Mississippi R 
Chefnncte (Tchefuncte) River and Bogue Falia, La., Tickfaw River and 
taries. La., 222; Amite River and Bayou Manchac. La., 223; Bayou La 
La., Bayou Terrebonne, La., 224: Bayou Plaquemine, La., Bayou Cou 
La., 225; Bayou Teche, La., moutn and passes of Calcasieu River, La., 
bor at Sabine Pass, Tex., 221; Sabine River, Tex., Neches River, Tex., : 
sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering navigation, 228; exai 
and survey, 229. 

In the chabge of Liettt. John Milus, Cobps of Engineebs— 

Securing mouth of Bayou Plaquemine, La., from farther caving, removini 
vessels or craft obstructing or endangering navigation of New Orleans 
La., 23L 

In the chabge of Maj. Chables J. Allen, Cobps of Engineebs — 

Entrance to Galveston Harbor, Tex., 231; ship channel in Galveston Bay, ' 
Trinity River, Tex., Cedar Bayou, Tex., 233; Buffalo Bayorf, Tex., harbo 
S08 Santiago, Tex., 234; examinations and survey^ 235. 



\ 



V. 



CONTENTS. 



WESTERN RIVERS. 



In the charge op Capt. J. H. Willard, Corps of Engineers — 

Eted River, La. and Ark., 236; Red River above FultOD, Ark., 237; Ouachita and 
Black rivers, Ark. and La., 238; Onachita River above Camden, Ark., 239; Bayoa 
lyArbouue, La., Bayou Bartholomew, La. and Ark., 240; Bayou BcBuf (Bobui River) 
La., Tcusas River and Bayou Ma^on, La., 241; bayous Rondeway and Vidal, La., 
Big Black River, Miss., 242; Yazoo River, Miss., 243; Tchula Lake, Miss., Talla- 
hatchie River, Miss., Steele Bayou and Washington Bayou, Miss., 244; Big Sun- 
Aower River, Miss., 245; Bi^ Hatchee River, Ten n.. Forked Deer River, Tenn., 
water gauges on Mississippi River and its principal tributaries, 246; survey of 
Cypress Bayou and the lakes between Jefferson, Tex., and Shreveport, La., 248; 
examinations, 249. 

In the charge of Capt. H. S. Taber, Corps of Engineers — 

Removing obstructions in Arkansas River, Ark., lud. Ter., and Kans., 249; Arkan- 
sas River, Ark^ Ind. Ter., and Kans., 250; Fourche River, Ark^ 251; Petit Jean 
River, Ark., White River, Ark., 252; Cache River, Ark., 253; Little Red River, 
Ark., Black River, Ark. and Mo., 254; Black River, Mo., St. ]?rancis River, Ark., 
255; St. Francis River, Mo., Little River, Mo. and Ark., 256; examinations and 
survey, 257. 

In the charge of Capt. S. W. Roessler, Corps op Engineers — 

Examinations of Mississippi River, at Memphis Harbor. Tenn. ; from Lake Cou^^y^ 
Tenn., to Fulton County, Ky., north and west of Reelfoot Lake, 257. 

« 

In the charge of Maj. A. M. Miller, Corps of Engineers — 

Removing snags and wrecks from Mississippi River, 258 ; Mississippi River between 
the Ohio and Illinois rivers, 259; harbor at St. Louis. Mo., 260; Gasconade River, 
Mo., 261; Osage River, Mo., 262; Kaskaskia River, 111., 263. 

In the charge of Maj. E. H. Ruffner, Corps of Engineers — 

Mississippi River between Des Moines Rapids and mouth of Illinois River, 263; ex- 
amination, 264. 

In the charge of Maj. A. Mackenzie^ Corps of Engineers — 

Operating snag boats and dredge boats on Upper Mississippi River, 264: Mississippi 
River between Minneapolis and Des Moines Rapids, 265j Des Mouies Kapids, Mis- 
sissippi River, operating and care of Des Moines Rapids Canal and Dry Dock, 
266; examinations and survey, 267. 

In the charge of Maj. W. A. Jones, Corps of Engineers — 

Mississippi River above Falls of St. Anthony, Minn., reservoirs at headwaters of 
Mississippi River, 268; Chippewa River, including Yellow Banks, Wis., 270; St. 
Croix River, Wis. and Minn., Minnesota River, Minn., 271 ; Red River of the 
North, Minn, and N. Dak., 272; gauging Mississippi River at or near St. Paul, 
Minn., 273; examinations and survey, 274. 

In the charge of Lieut. Col. Charles R. Suter, Corps of Engineers — 

Examination of Missouri River, from the old mouth of Platte River, Little Point, to 
a point opposite Leavenworth; and at Weston, Mo., 275. 

In the charge of Capt. Chas. F. Powell, Corps of Engineers— 

Missouri River between the Great Falls, Mont., and Sioui^City, Iowa, 275; Yellow- 
stone River, Mont, and N. Dak., 276; examinations and surveys, 277. 

In the charge of Lieut. Col. J. W. Barlow, Corps of Engineers — 

Tennessee River above Chattanooga, Tenn., and below Bee Tree Shoal, Ala., 278; 
Hiawassee River, Tenn., French Broad River, Tenn., 280; Clinch River, Tenn., 
281; Cumberland River, Tenn. and Ky., 282; Caney Fork River, Tenn., 284; 
South Fork of Cumberland River, Ky.; examinations and survey, 285. 



Vt CONTENtS. 

Ik the cHAitoE OF Lieut. Geobob W. Gobthals, Corps of Engikbebs — 

Tennessee River between Chattanooga, Tenn., and foot of Bee Tree Shoals, A 
operating and care of Muscle Shoals Can^, Tennessee River, 287 ; exant 

288. 

IX TUB CHABGB OF LlEUT. COL. WiLUAM E. MERRILL, CORPS OF ENOIKEBS 

Ohio River, 288; operating snag boats on Ohio River, operating and care o) 
Island Dam, Ohio River, movable dam in Ohio River near mouth of 
River, Pa., Monongahela River, W. Va. and Pa., 290; operating and < 
looks and dams Nos. 8 and 9, Mononsahela River, purchase of I^ck an 
No. 7, Monongahela River, purchase of Lock and Dam No. 6. Monongahela 
Cheat River, W. Va., 291 ; Allegheny River, Pa., dam at Herr Island, All« 
River, 292 ; ice-harbor at mouth of Muskingum River, Ohio, Musking^xim 
Ohio, operating and care of locks and dams on Muskingum River, Ohio, 2 
aminations, 294. 

In the charge of Maj. G. J. Lydecker, Corps of Engineers — 

Falls of the Ohio River, Louisville, Ky., 295; Indiana Chute. Falls of the 
River, operating and care of Louisville and Portland Canal, Ky., 296; V9 
River, Ind. and 111., 297; WTiite River, Ind., examination, 298. 

In the charge of Col. Wiluam P. Craighill, Corps of Engineers — 

Great Kana^rha River, W. Va., 299; operating and care of locks and dams on 
Kanawha River, W. Va., Elk River, W. Va., 300; Gauley River, W.Ta., 801: 
River, from the mouth of Wilson, in Grayson County, Va., to the mouth of C 
briar River, W. Va., 302; examination, 303. 

In the charge of Maj. D. W. Lockwood, Corps of Engineers — 

Tradewater River, Ky., operating and keeping in repair locks and dams on < 
and Barren river8,"Ky., 304 j Rough River, Ky., Kentucky River, Ky., 305; 
ating and keeping in repair locks and dams on Kentucky River^ Ky., Li 
River, Ky., from larmer to West Libertv, 306; Bic Sandy River, W. Va. anc 
Levisa Fork. Big Sandy River, Ky., 307 T Tug Fork, Big Sandy River, W. Yi 
Ky., Guyandotte River, W. Va., Little Ktmawha River, W. Va., 308; Buckhi 
River, W. Va., examinations, 309. 

LAKE HARBORS AND RIVERS. 

In the charge of Capt. W. L. Fisk, Corps of Engineers — 

Harbor at Grand Marais, Minn., 310; harbor at Agate Bay, Minn., harbor at Dt 
Minn., 311; harbor at Superior Bay and St. Louis Bay, Wis,, 312; Minnesota] 
at Superior, Wis., harbor at Ashland, Wis., 313; harbor at Ontonagon, Mich. 
Eagle Harbor, Mich., harbor at Marquette, Mich., 315; harbor of refuge at ( 
Marais, Mich., resurvey and relocation of liarbor line in Portage Lake, Houj 
County, Mich., examinations and survey, 316. 

In the charge of Maj. Ch.uiles E. L. B. Davis, Coups of Engineers — 

Maiiistiqnc Harbor, Mich., 317; Cedar River Harbor, Mich., Menomonee Hj 
Mich, and Wis., Menomonee River, Mich, and Wis., 318; Oconto Harbor, Wis.. 
saukee Harbor, Win., 319; Green Bay Harbor, Wis., 320; harbor of reiftige : 
trance of Sturgeon Bay Canal, Wis., Ahnapee Harbor, Wis., 321; Keirannee 
bor, Wis., Two Rivers Harbor, Wis., 322; Manitowoc Harbor, Wis., ShelM 
Harbor, Wis., .^^; Port Washington Harbor, Wis., 324; harbor of refnge a1 
waukee Bay, Wis., Milwaukee Harbor, Wis., 325; Racine Harbor, Wis., Ke; 
Harbor, Wis., 326; Waukegan Harbor, 111., ^; Fox and Wisconsin rivers, 
328; operating and care of locks and dams on Fox River, Wis., 329. 

In the charge of Capt. W. L. Marshall, Corps of Engineers— 

Chicago Harbor, HI., 329; Calumet Harbor, 111., 330; Calumet River, IlL and 
331; Illinois River, 111., 332; operating and care of La (^rangc Lock, Illinois] 
m., 333; Illinois and Mississippi Canal^ 334; examination and survey, 895. 



CONTENTS. Vn 

In the CHAttGE OF MaJ. WiLLlAM LUDLOW, CORPS OF ENGINEERS—- 

Petoskey Harbor, Mich.; Charlevoix Harbor and entrauce to Pine Lake, Mich., S36; 
Kranlaort Harbor, Mich., harbor of refuge at Portage Lake, Mich., 837; Manistee 
Harbor, Mich., Ludington Harbor, Mich., 338; Pentwater Harbor, Mich., White 
River Harbor, Mich., ^: Muskegon Harbor, Mich., Grand Haven Harbor, Mich., 
340; Holland (Black Lake) Harbor, Mich., 341; 6aneatnck Harbor, Mich., South 
Haven Harbor, Mich., 342; St. Joseph Harbor, Mich., St. Joseph River, Mich., 343; 
Michigan City Harbor, Ind., 344; examination and survey, 3^. 

In the charob op Col. O. M. Poe, Corps of Engineers— 

St. Marys River, Mich., 345; operating and care of St. Marys Falls Canal, Mich., 
dry dock at St. Marys Falls Canal, Mich., 346; Hay Lake Channel, St. Marys 
River, Mich., 347; harbor at Cheboygan, Midi., harbor at Thunder Bay, Mich.,348; 
Thunder Bay River, Mich., 350; harbor at Au Sable, Mich., Suginaw River, Mich., 
351; harbor of refuge at Sand Beach, Lake Huron, Mich., 3^; Black River at 
Port Huron, Mich., 3o4; mouth of Black River, Mich., 365; St. Clair Flats Canal, 
Mich., 356; operating and care of St. Clair Flats Canal, Midi., Clinton River, Mich., 
358: Grosse Points Channel, Mich., 359; Rouge River, Mich., 360^ Detroit River, 
Mion.^ removing sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangermg navigation, 
361; examinations, 362. 

In the charge of Maj. L. Cooper Overman, Corps of Engineers— 

Monroe Harbor, Mich., 363; Toledo Harbor. Ohio, 364; Port Clinton Harbor, Ohio, 
365; Sandusky City Harbor, Ohio, Sandusky River, Ohio, 366; Huron Harbor, 
Ohio, 367: Vermillion Harbor, Ohio, 368; Black River Harbor, Ohio, 369: Cleve- 
land Harbor, Ohio, 370; Fairport Harbor, Ohio, 371; Ashtabula Harbor, Onio,372; 
examinations and surveyH, 373. 

In the charge of Maj. A»ios Stickney, Corps of Engineers — 

Erie Harbor, Pa., 373; preservation and protection of x)eninsula at Presque Isle, 
Erie Harbor, Pa., Dunkirk Harbor, N. V., 374; Buffalo Harbor, N. Y., 375; Tona- 
wanda Harbor and Niagara River, K. Y., Wilson Harbor, N. Y., 376; Olcott Harbor, 
N. Y., Oak Orchard Harbor, N. Y., 377; examination and survey, 378. 

In the charge of Capt. Dan C. Kingman, Corps of Engineers— 

Charlotte Harbor, N.Y., 378; Pultuoyville Harbor, N.Y., 379; harbor at Great Sodus 
Bay, N.Y., harbor at Little Sodus Bay, N. Y., 380; Oswego Harbor, N. Y., 381; har- 
bor at Sacketts Harbor, N. Y., 382. 

In the charge of Maj. M. B. Adams, Corps of Engineers— 




1, Vt., Plattsburg Harbor, N. \., 885; Burlington Harbor, Vt., 
Otter Creek, V^t, 386; Ticonderoga River, N. Y., Narrows of Lake Champlain, 



Lake Champlain 

Otter Creek, Vt^ ^^, ^ .^^..^^.^t^» . 

N. Y. and Vt., 387; examinations, 388. 



PACIFIC COAST. 

In the charge of Col. O. H. Mendell, Corps of Engineers— 

Oakland Harbor^ Cal., 388; survey of San Francisco Harbor, San Pablo and Siiisun 
bays, Stniit ot Oar<xuincz, uud mouths of San Jonquiu and Sacramento rivers, Cal., 
389. 

Ik the charge of Lieut. Col. W. H. H. Benyaurd, Corps of Engineers— 

Napa River, Cal., 889; Redwood Hfvrbor, .Cal., Redwood Creek, Cal., 390; San Luis 
Obispo Harbor, Cal., Wilmington Harbor, Cal., 391; San Diego Harbor, Cal., 892; 
examinations, 393. 

In the cuakge of Maj. W. H. Heup:r, Corps of Engineers— 

San Joaqnin River, Cal., 394; Mokelumno River, Cal., 395; Sacramento and Featliei 
rivers, Cal., 396; Pctaluma Creek, Cal., Humboldt Harbor and Bay, Cal., 397; 
examination and survey, investigation of mining-debris question in Sta.t^ oi C^- 
fomia, 399. 



Vin CONTENTS. 

In the charge of Capt. Thomas W. Symoxs, Corps op Engineers — 

Coquille River, Oregon, 399; entrance to Coos Bay and Harbor, Oregon, 4C 
qua River, Oregon, Siuslaw River, Oregon, 402; Yaquuia Bay, Oregon, 40 
mook Bay and Bar, Oregon, 404; Neliulem Bay, Oregon, ITpper Columbia ai 
rivers, Oregon and Wash., 405; Columbia River between head of Roc 
Rapids and foot of Priest Rapids, Wash., 406; Chehalis River, Wash., 407; 
Steilaquauiish, Xootsack, Snohomish, and Snoqualniie rivers. Wash., 408; 
atious and surveys, 409. 

In the charge of Maj. Thomas H. Handbury, Corps op Engineers— 

Mouth of Columbia River, Oregon and Wash., 412; constFuction of canal at '< 
cades, Columbia River, Oregon, 414 ; Columbia and Lower Willamette rivei 
Portland, Oregon, 416; Wifiamette River above Portland, Oregon, 417; • 
River, Wash., 418; Young's and Klaskuine rivers, Oregon, gauging waten 
lumbia River, Oregon and Wash., 419; removing sunken vessels or craft ol 
ing or endangering navigation, examinations and surveys, 420. 

EXAMINATIONS, SURVEYS, AND CONTINGENCIES OF RIVERS AND 

BORS 

SUPERVISION OF THE HARBOR OF NEW YORK 

MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION 

MISSOUTa RIVER COMMISSION 

HARBOR LINES 

Lubec, Me., Kennebec River at Bath, Me., Boston Harbor, Mass., New Yorl 
bor and its adjacent waters, 424 ; Philadelphia, Pa., New Castle, Del., St. I 
tine Harbor, Fla., 425; Duluth Harbor, Bay of St. Louis, Superior Bay and 
lent waters, Minn, and Wis., Portage Lake, Mich., Chicago Harbor, HI 
Francisco Harbor and adjacent waters, C.^l., San Pedro, Wilnungton Harboi 
426; Humboldt Bay, Cal., Astoria Harbor, Oregon, 427. 

BRIDGING NAVIGABLE WATERS OF THE L^NITED STATES. 

(1) Bridge of Winona and Southwestern Railway Company across Mississippi 
at Winona, Minn. ; (2) bridge across Powow River, between the towns of 
bury and Salisbury, Mass., 4^; (3) bridge of Clinton and Illinois Bridge Coi 
across Mississippi River near Clinton, lowa^ (4) bridge of Leavenworth and 
County Bridge Company across Missouri River between Leavenworth, Kani 
Platt« County, Mo., 428 ; (5) bridge of Charleston and South Side Bridge Coi 
across Great Kanawha River at uharlestown, W. Va. ; (6) bridge of &egoi 
way Extensions Company across Columbia River near Vancouver, Wash 
bridge of The South Bound Railroad Company across Savannah River near 
Ferry, Effingham County, Ga. ; (8) bridj^ of Houston, Central Arkansi 
Northern Railroad Company across Little River, La.; (9) bridge of Wrich 
and Tcnnille (Teunvilie) Railroad Company across Oconee River near Dubli: 
429; (10) bridge of Houston, Central Arkansas and Northern Railroad Coi 
across Ouachita River near Columbia, La.; (11) bridge of Kansas City Te: 
Railway Company across Missouri River near Quindaro, Kans.; (12) bri* 
city of St. Paul, Minn., across Mississippi River at St. Paul, Minn.; jl3) 
of Cable City Bridge Construction Company across Arkansas Kiver at Dardi 
Ark.; (14) bridge of Houston, Central Arkansas and Northern Railroad Coi 
across Red River at Upper Falls, near Alexandria, La. j (15) bridge of I 
Dublin and Savannah Railroad Companyacross Oconee River at Dublin, G& 
bridges of Tacoma, Olympia and Grays Harbor Railroad Company across CI 
River between Aberdeen and Cosmopolis, Wash., and across Johns River n 
confluence with Grays Harbor, Wash., 430; (17) bridges of Norfolk and W 
Railroad Company across Tug Fork of Big Sandy River, 91 and 95i miles abo\ 
lettsburg, Ky. ; (18) bridge of Port View Bridge Companyacross Youghic 
River at McKeesport, Pa.: (19) bridge of Inter-State Bridge and Street Ba 
Company across Missouri River betweeu C.'ouncil Bluffs, Iowa, and East C 
Nebr. ; (20) bridge of Northern Pacilic uud Puget Sound Shore Railroad Coi 
across Duwamish (D'Wamhih; River near Seattle, Wash., (21) bridge of Sj 



CONTENTS. IX 

and Palonse Railway Company across Clearwater River, about 11 miles above 
Lewieton, Idaho; (2§) bridge of Allegheny Bridge Company across Allegheny 
River, at Sixth street, Pittsburg, Pa. ; (23) bridge of Messrs. i^ederick W. Dick- 
inson et al, across channel separating Little Island from mainland at Osterville, 
in town of Barnstable, Mass.; (24) bridgfi of city of Winona, Minn., across Miss- 
issippi River at Winona, Minn., 431; (25) bridge of Missouri River and Land 
Improvement and Construction Company across Missouri River near mouth of 
^Kansas River; (26) bridge of Coos Bay, Roseburg and Eastern Railroad and Navi- 
gation Company across Coal Bank Slough, in Coos County, Oregon; (27) bridge 
of St. Clair, Madison and St. Louis Belt Railroad Com])any across Mississippi River 
at Alton, 111. ; (28) temporary and permanent bridges ol Chicago and North- Western 
Railway Company across North Branch of Chicago River near Kinzie street, 
Chicago, 111.; (29) bridge of The Upper Bridge Company across Monon^ahela 
River near Pittsburg, Pa. ; (30) bridge o£ Chicago and North Michigan Railroad 
Company across Piue Lake, near Charlevoix, Mich. ; (31) bridge of commissioners 
of public parks of the city o*f New York across Harlem River at 155th street and 
McComb Dam Road, New York City, 432; (32) bridge of North River Bridge Com- 
pany across Hudson River at New York City^ 433. 

BRIDGES OBSTRUCTING NAVIGATION. 

(1) Bridge across Ashley River^ S. C. ; (2) bridge across Swinomish Slough, Wash., 433; 
(3) bridge across Green River (below Lock No. 1), at Spottsville, Ky. ; (4) bridge 
across Muskingum River, between Marietta and Harmar, Ohio ; (5) bridge across 
Muskingiim River, between Taylorsville and Duncan Falls, Ohio ; (6) bridge across 
canal of Muskingum River at foot of Main street, Zauesville, Ohio ; (7) bridge across 
Bayou Plaquemine, La., 434 ; (8) bridge across channel leading to Back Cove. Port- 
land Harbor, Me. ; (9) bridge across Savannah River below Augusta, Ga. ; (10) oridge 
across Tennessee River at Florence, Ala. ; (11) bridge across Little Tennessee River, 
near Niles Ferry, Tenn. ; (12) bridge across Spuyten Duyvil Creek, N. Y. : (13) bridge 
across Trout Creek, Ha., 435 ; (14) bridge across Chicago River at Canal street, Chi- 
cago, 111. ; (15) bridge across Kentucky River at Frankfort, Ky., 436. 

OCCUPANCY OF AND INJURY TO PUBLIC WORKS BY CORPORATIONS AND 

INDIVIDUALS 436 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

WASHINGTON AQUEDUCT. 

In the charge of Lieut. Col. George H. Elliot, Corps of Engineers — 

Washington Aqueduct, 436; water supply, District of Columbia, 441; increasing 
the water supply of Washington, D. C, 442; erection of fish ways at Great Falls, 
443. 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND GROLT^DS AND WASHINGTON M&NUMENT, DIS- 
TRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

In the charge of Col. O. H. Ernst, Major, Corps of Engineers 444 

SURVEY OF THE NORTHERN AND NORTHWESTERN LAKES. 
Survey at Marquette Harbor, Mich., 445. 

PRINTING AND DISTRIBUTION OF CHARTS OF THE NORTHERN AND 

NORTHWESTERN LAKES 445 

CONSTRUCTION AND IMPROVEMENT OF ROADS AND BRIDGES IN YEL- 

• LOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

In the charge of Maj. William A. Jones, Corps of Engineers 447 

MILITARY AND OTHER MAPS 449 



1 Contents. 

RECONNAISSANCES AND EXPLORATIONS. 

•*. 

Officers on doty at headquarters of military divisions and dcpartmenti 
in Division of the Missouri, 449 ; operations in Department of the Co 
partment of the Platte, Division of the Pacific, 450. 

ESTIMATES FOR AMOUNTS REQUIRED FOR SURVEYS AND R! 
SANCES IN MILITARY DEPARTMENTS, AND FOR MAPS, INCI 
WAR MAPS 

OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS. 

Officers in charge of divisions, 451. 

* 

STATEMENT SHOWING RANK AND DUTIES OF OFFICERS OP T 
OF ENGINEERS DURING THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 9G 

LAWS AFFECTING THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS, FIFTY-FIRST ( 

SECOND SESSION, 1890-^1 

FORTIFICATIONS, ETC. 
APPENDIX No. 1. 

REPORT OF CAPT. DAN C. KINGMAN, CORPS OP ENGINE 
Protection of site of Fort Niagara, N. Y., 517. 

APPENDIX No. 2. 

REPORT OF COL. D. C. HOUSTON, CORPS OF ENGINEE 

Improvements. — Sea wall and embankment at Davids Island, ^ew Y' 
521 ; sea walls on Governors Island, New York Harbor, 524. 

APPENDIX No. 3. 

REPORT OF LIEUT. COL. PETER C. HAINS, CORPS OF ENGl 

Improvements. — Beach protection at Fort Monroe, Va., 529; water su] 
Monroe, Va., 53P; sewerage system at Fort Monroe, Va., 531. 

APPENDIX No. 4. 
REPORT OF CAPT. W. M. BLACK, CORPS OF ENGINEE] 
Repair and preservation of Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Flu., 533. 

APPENDIX No. 5. 

REPORT OF LIEUT. COL. W. R. KING, COKPS OF ENGINE 

Post of Willcts Point, N. Y., 537; United States Engineer School, 539; 
Engineers, 540; Engineer Depot, 547; experiments, 550; statement of 
estimates. 553. Appendixes : B, programme of study and instrnctioi 
season, 553; C, i>rogrumme of study and instruction for summer sea 
tests oif exx>losives, 559; E, tests of building materials, ^d5. 



eONfENtS. it 



RIVERS AKD HARBORS, ETC. 

APPENDIX A. 

f 

REPORT OF LIEUT. COL. JARED A. SMITH, CORPS OP ENGINEERS, 

Impro>'VMBMTS. — St. Croix River, Me., 570; Lnbec Channel, Me., 571; Mooseabec 
Bar, Me., 572 pleasant River, Me., 573; Narragnagns River, Me., 574; breakwater 
from Moiiut Desert to Porcupine Island, Me., 576: Bagadace River, Me., 578; 
Penobscot River, Me., 579; Belfast Harbor, Me., 58o: Camden Harbor, Me., 587; 
Rockport Harbor, Me., 588: Rockland Harbor, Me., 589: Kennebec River, Me., 590; 
Harraseeket River, Me., 594; Portland Harbor, Me., 595: channel in Back Cove, 
Portland, Me., 597; breakwater at month of Saco River, Me., 598; Saco River, Me., 
599; Kennebnnk River, Me., 601; Tork Harbor, Me., 602; Portsmouth Harbor, N. 
H., 604; Bellamy River. N. H., 6(XS; Cocheco River. N. H., 607: harbor of refuge at 
Little Harbor, N. H., 608; removing sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endan- 
gering navigation, 609. 

Examinations. — Harbor of Blue Hill, Mo., 611; Pepperell Cove, Me., 614; Lnbec 
Channel, Me., 616; Sullivan Falls, Me., 619. 

Harbor Lines. — Establishment of harbor lines at Lubec, Me., 621 ; establishment 
of harbor lines in Kennebec River at Bath, Me., 622. 

APPENDIX B. 

REPORT OF LIEUT. COL. S. M. Mi:NSFIELD. CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

iMPROVBNnsNTS. — ^Newburv-port Harbor, Mass., 626; Merrimac River, Mass., 628; 
Powow River, Mass., 630; Ipswich River, Mass., 631; harbor of refuge, Sandy Bay, 
Cape Ann, Mass., 632; Gloucester Harbor, Mass., 635; Manchester Harbor, Mass.,. 
638; Sal'dm Harl)or, Mass.,* 639; Lynn Harbor, Mass., 641; Winthrop Harbor, Mass., 
644; Boston Harbor, Mass., 645; Weymouth River, Mass., 655; Hingham Harbor, 
Mass., 636; Scituate Harbor, Mass., 658; Plymoutn Harbor, Mass., 660; Wellflcet 
Harbor, Mass., 663; Provincetown Harbor, Mass., 665, Chatham Harbor, Mass., 667. 

Examinations and Surveys. — North Rivnr, Salem, Mass., 668; shoals at the mouth 
of North River, Mass., 670; Mystic and Maiden rivers, Mass., 672; Essex River, 
Mass., 676; Town River, Mass., 679; Weymouth Back River, Mass., 682; Kingston 
Harbor, Mass., 685. 

Harbor Lines. — Entablishment of harbor lines in Boston Harbor, Mass., 688. 

APPENDIX C. 

R1:P0RT of MAJ. W. R. LIVERJ^ORE, corps OF ENGINEERS. 

Improve^ients. — ^11 arbor of refuge at Hyannis, Ma^s., 694: harbor of refuge at 
Nantucket, Mass. 696: Marthas Vineyaid, inner harl»or at Edgartown, Mass., 698: 
Vineyai'l Haven Harbor, Ma«s., 700; Wareham Ha'bor, Mass., 701; New Bedford 
Harbor, Mass., 70* ; Westport Harbor, Mass., 706; Taunton River, Mass., 707; Paw- 
tncket River, R I., 709; Providence River and T/arragansett Bay, R. I., 712; 
removal of Green Jacket ShoaJ, Providence River, B. I., 715; Greenwich Bay, R. I., 
716: co*'e and water way near Coaster Harbor Island, R. I.. 718; Newport Harbor, 
R. I.,7lvl: harboi of refuge at Point Judith, R. I., 722; harbor of refuge at Block 
Island, R. I., 723; Pawcatuck River, R. 1. and C«mn.,726; harbor of refuge at 
Stonington, Conn., 728; removing sunken ve-ssels oi craft obstructing or endanger- 
ing navigation, 721 L. 

Examinations. — ^Narragansett Bay Channel, R. I., between Starve Goat Island and 
the mainland, 733 j Watch Hill Cove, R. I., 735; Newport Harbor, R. I., south of 
Goat Island, 730. 



XV CONTENTS. 

ArPEXDIX D. 

REPORT OF COL. D. C. HOUSTON, CORPS OF ENGINEERS 

IirPRO\nEMEXTS.— Mystic River, Conn., 740: Thames River. Conn., 742: New 
Harbor. Conn.. 746: Connecticut River. Mass. and Conn., 748: harbor of n 
Duck Island Harbor, Conn., 757: Clinton Harbor. Conn., 759: New Haven 
Conn., 761: breakwater at New Haven, Conn.,76G: Milford Harbor, Cor 
Honsatonic Kiver, Conn.. 773: Bridgeport Harbor, Conn., 778; Black Rock 
Conn.. 784; Xorwalk Hiurbor, Conn., 78t5: harbor at Wilson Point, Conn., 78 
Mile River Harbor, C«mn., 792: Stamford Harbor, Conn., 795; Port Chester i 
N. y., 797: Larchmont Harbor, N. Y.. 800: Echo Harbor, New Rochelle,N. 
NewRocbielle Harbor, N.Y.,804; East Chester Creek, N.Y., 806; Green]^- 
bor, N. Y.. 811: Port Jeflerson Harbor, N. Y., 814; Hnntington Harbor, N.' 
Glen Cove Harbor, N. Y., 820 ; Flushing Bay, N. Y., 822; Patchogue Rivei 
825: Browns Creek, Sayville, N. Y., 828. 

Examinations and Surveys. — Stony Creek River at Stony Creek, Conn.. 831 . 
Cove, New London Harbor, Conn., ^53; Connecticut River, below Hartford, 
836: Saugatnck River, Conn., 840; Mattituck Bay, N. Y., 843: Stamford E 
Conn., 848; Cos Cob or Miamus Kiver, Conn., 852; Peconic River, N. Y., 85 
Harbor, N. Y., 859. 

APPENDIX E. 

REPORT OF LIEUT. COL. G. L. GILLESPIE, CORPS OF ENGINEEJ 

Improvements. — ^Hudson River, N. Y., 8&4 ; harbor at Sangerties, N. Y.,879; ] 
at Rondout.N. Y.,882; Wappinger Creek, N. Y., 885 ; Harlem River, N. Y., 8! 
moving obstructions in East River and Hell Gate, N, Y., 899: Newtown Creek 
906; Bhtt-ermilk Channel, New York Harbor, 911; Gowanns Bay, N. Y., 914 
York Harbor, N. Y., 922: Raritan Bay, N. J., 931; remoNing sunken vessels o: 
obstructing or endangering navigation, 937. 

Examinations and Surveys. — Buttermilk and Gowanus Bav Channels, Nex 
Harbor, 937; Bay Ridge Channel, N. Y., 940; Champlin Creek, N. Y., 942: 
son River and Moodna River (Murderers Creek) at Cornwall, N. Y., 944; 
River, N. Y., 949; Westchester Creek, N, Y., 954. 

Harbor I^ines. — EstabUshmeut of harbor lines in New Y'ork Harbor and it 
cent waters, 958. 

PART II. 
APPENDIX F. 

REPORT OF CAPT. THOS. L. CASEY^ CORPS OF ENGDTEERS. 

Improvements. — Sumpawanus Inlet, N. Y., 978; Canarsie Bay, N. Y., 980; S 

heml Bay, N. Y'., 982; Arthur Kill, N\Y'. and N. J., 983; channel between 

Island and N( 

Rahway Ri 

port Harbor, 

Creek, N. J., 1004; Shrewsbur>' River, N. J., 1007; Manasquan (S(iuan) Rivei 

1010 ; removing sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering navigatioi 
Examinations and Survey.— I*rinces8 Bay, Staten Island, N. Y., 1013; Hack 

River, N. J., 1016. 

APPEXDIX G. 

REPORT OP MAJ. C. W. RAYMO^^), CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Improvements. — Delaware River, Pa. and N. J., 1022; harbor between Philac 
Pa., and Camden, N. J., 1029; Schuylkill River, Pa., 1069; ice-harbor at 1 
Hook, Pa., 1072 : ice-harbor at head of Delaware Bay, Del., 1072 ; constraci 
iron pier in Delaware Bay, iieiir Lewes, Del., 1073 ; harbor at Delaware 
water, Del., 1075; Rancocas River, N. J., 1084 ; Alio way Creek, N. J., 1086; W 
River, N. J., 1088 ; removal of wrecks from Delaware Bay and River, 1090; rea 
sonken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering navigation, 1090. 




OOlfTEMTBL XnX 

EzAMZNATiONS AKD SuRYSYS. — Shark River, N. J.; 1092 ; sonnd between Bame^t 
Bay and Great Egg Harbor Bay, N. J., 1093; Little Egg Harbor Bay and Inlet, in- 
olnding Great Bay, N. J., 1095 ; thorouglifare from Cape May to the Great Bay 
north of Atlantic City, N. J., 1097; Cape May City, N. J., 1099; Pensanken Creek, 
N. J., 1100; West Branch of Susquehanna River, Pa., 1102; Toms River, N. J., 1114; 
Goshen Creek, N. J., 1116; harbor of refuse near mouth of Delaware Bay. 1120. 

Habbor Lines. — Establishment of harbor lines in port of Philadelphia, 1121. 

APPBOT)IX H. 

BEPOBT OF WM. F. SMITH, UNITED STATES AGENT, MAJOR OF ENGI- 
NEERS, U. S. ARMY, RETIRED. 

Improtsments. — ^Wilmington Harbor, Del., IIJW; ice-harbor at New Castle, DtiL, 
1160; Appoqninnimink Kiver, Del., 1161; Smyrna River, Del., 1162; St. Jones 
River, Del., 1165; Mispillion Creek, Del., 1166; Broadkiln River, Del., 1167; in- 
land water way from Chincoteague Bay, Va., to Delaware Bay, at or near Lewes, 
Del., 1168 ; Susquehanna River, above and below Havre de Grace, Md., 1181 : North 
East River, Md., 1182; Elk River, Md., 1184; Fairlee Creek, Md., 1186; Chester 
River, Md., from Crumpton to Jones Landing, 1188; Choptank River, M.d., 1189; 
Cambridge Harbor, Md., 1191; Wicomico River, Md., 1193; Manokin River, Md., 
1195; Onancock Harbor, Va., 1197; harbor at Cape Charles City, Va., and ap- 
proaches by Chenton (Cherrystone) Inlet, 1199; removing sunken vessels or craft 
obstructing or endangering navigation, 1201. 

Examinations ani> Surveys. — Linchester River, McL, 1202; Northwest Fork of 
Nanticoke River, Md., 1204; Tangier Harbor, Va., 1207: Broad Creek River, J)el., 
1209; Turner Creek, Md., 1211; La Trappe River, Md., 1215; Warwick River, Md., 
1218; Broad Creek, Md., 1221. 

Harbor Lines. — ^Establishment of harbor lines at New Castle, Del., 1225. 

APPEOT)IX I. 
REPORT OF COL. WM. P. CRAIGHILL, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Improvements. — ^Patapsco River and channel to Baltimore, Md., 1227; James River. 
Va., 1234. 

Examination. — ^Patapsco River, Md., from the Craighill Channel to the" sugar refin- 
ery whsirves, Curtis Bay, 1243. 

APPEimiX J. 

REPORT OF LIEUT. COL. PETER C. HAINS. CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Improvements. — Potomac River at Washington, D. C, 1246: Potomac River at Mt. 
VemoD, Va., 1252; Occoquan Creek, Va., 1253; Anuia Creek. Va., 1255; harbor at 
Breton Bay, Md., 1258; Nomini Creek, Va., 1259; Patuxent River, Md., 1262; Rap- 
pahannock River, Va., 1264; Urbana Creek, Va., 1268; YorkRiver, Va., 1270; Mat- 
taponi River, Va., 1273; Pamunkey River, Va., 1275. 

EXA.MINATIONS.— St. Leonard Creek, Md., 1277; St. Jerome Bay, Md., 1278; Pis- 
cataway Creek, Md., 1279; Newport Creek, head of Wicomico River, Md., 1281; 
Smith Creek, Md., 1282; Nandua Creek, Va., 1283; Potomac Creek, Va., 1285; 
ITpper Machodoc Creek, va., 1286; Great Wicomico River, Va., 1288; Crane Creek, 
Va., 1289; Piscataway Creek, Va., 1289. 

APPEiroiX K. 

REPORT OF CAPT. G. J. FIEBEGER, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Improvements. — Harbor of Norfolk and its approaches, Va., 1291 ; approach to Nor- 
folk Harbor and the United States navy-yard at Norfolk, Va., 1296; Hampton 
Creek and Bar, Va., 1297; Nansemond River, Va., 1298; Chickahominy River, Va., 
1299: Appomattox River, Va., 1300; inland water route from Norfolk Harbor, Va., 
to Albeniarlo Sound, N. C., through Currituck Sound, 1302; North Landing River, 
Va. and N. C, 1304: Currituck Sound, Coanjok Bay, and North River Bar, N. C, 
1305. 



XIV CONTENTS. 

ExAMiXATioxs. — Chickahominy River, from Holly Landing to Long M 
1305; western branch i>f Elizabetli River, Va., 1307; water way to OQl 
Haven Bay witL eastern branch of Elizabeth River, Va., 1310; Notin 
ftom mouth of river to Courtland, Va., 1315; North- West River, N. C, 
ock, 1321; West Neck River, to and beyond Dozier Bridge, Va., 1324. 

APPEKDIX L. 
REPORT OF CAPT. W. H. BIXBY, CORPS OF ENGINEER 

Improvements. — Staunton River, Va., 1328; Roanoke River, Va. and 1 
Pasquotank River, N. C, 1335; Mackey Creek, N. C, 1339: Ocracoke I 
1341; Fishing Creek, N. C, 1345; Pamlico and Tar rivers, N. C, 1347; 
Creek, N. C, 1351; Trent River, N. C, 1355; Neuse River, N. C, 13 
water way between New Berne and Beaufort, N. C, 1363 ; harbor at C 
C, 1367; inland water way between Beaufort Harbor and New River, ] 
water way between New River and Swansboro, N. C, 1376; New River, 
North East (Cape Fear) River, N. C. 1383; Black River, N. C, 1387; 
River, N. C, above Wilmington, 1390; Cape Fear River, N. C, at and 
mington, 1394; Lockwoods Folly River, N. C, 1402; Yadkin River, ] 
harbor at Georgetown, S. C, 1408; Winyaw Bay, S. C, 1411; removj 
vessels or craft obstructing or endangering navigation, 1417. 

Examinations. — Water way from Pungo River to Sladesville, N. C, 3 
way between Pamlico River and Bav Kiver. N. C, 1421; Drum Inlet^ . 
harbor of Washington, Pamlico River, N. C,. 1429; White Oak River 
erts Landing to Collins Crossing, N. C, 1434; Black River, from King 
mouth, S. C, 1435. 

APPENDIX M. 

REPORT OF CAPT. FREDERIC V. ABBOT, CORPS OF ENGIN 

Impr'ovements. — ^Waccamaw River, N. C. and S, C, 1442; Lumber Rive 
S. C. 1445; Little Pedee River, S. C, 1448; Groat Pedee River, S. C, : 
River, S. C, 1453; Mingo Creek, S. C, 1455; San tee River. S. C, 145 
River, S. C, 1462: Congaree River, S. C, 1464; harbor at Charleston, 
Ashley River, S. C., 1476; Wappoo Cut, S. C, 1477; Edisto River, S. C 
kahatchie River, S. C, 1482; Beaufort River, S. C., 1485; removing s 
sels or craft obstructing or endansrerin<j navigation, 1487. 

Examination. — Wateree River, S. C, 1487. 

p'aKT III. 
APPE]ST)IX N. 

REPORT OF CAPTAIN O. M. CARTER, CORPS OF ENGINEI 

Improvemknts. — Savannah River and Harbor, Ga., 1491; Savannah Rivei 
Darieu Harbor, Ga., 1528; Altamaha River, Ga., 153^; Oconee River 
Oeuuilgoe River, Ga., 1543; Brunswick Harbor, Ga., 1550; Jekyl Creek 
Cumberland Sound, Ga., and Fla., 1559; removing sunken vessels or era 
ing or endanircrin^ uavijifatiou. 1602. 

Examination.— Yellow River, Ga., 1606. 

APPENDIX O. 

REPORT OF CAPT. W. M. BLACK, CORPS OF ENGINEEI 

Improvements.— St. Johns River, Fla., 1612; Ocklawaha River, Fla., 16: 
Bar, Fla., 1627; St. Augustine Harbor, Fla., 1630; northwest entrance 
Harbor, Fla., IWO; Caloosahatchee River, Fla., 1643; channel of Charlc 
and Pease Creek, Fla., 1646; Sarasota Bay, Fla., 1651; Manatee River, 
Tami>a Bav, Fla., 1655; Withlacoochee River. Fla., 1659; harbor at C 
Fla., 1661;* Suwanee River. Fla., 1663. 



CONTENTS. XV 

Examinations. — St. Jolms Kiver, Fla., &om Jaoksonville to Sanford, and the upper 
part uf 8t. Jolms River, from Lalce Monroe southward. 1666 ; deep-sea channel at 
Ht. Augostiue, Fla., 1671; Indian River, Ha., between Titusville an«lJupiter Inlet, 
1673; channel north and west of Cedar Keys, Fla., 1676; Pease River, Fla., 1678; 
Charlotte Harbor, Fla., 1681. 

Hahbor Links,— Establishment of harbor lines in St. Augustine Harbor, Fla., 1685. 

APPENDIX P. 
REPORT OF CAPT. PHILIP M. PRICE, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Improvkmknts. — ^Apalachicola Bay, Fla., 1694; Apalachicola River, fla., including 
Lee Slough, 1696; Flint River, Ga., 1698; Chattahoochee River, Ga. and Ala., 1702; 
La Grange Bayou and Holmes River, Fla., 1704; Choctawhatchee River, Fla. and 
Ala., 17(i7; harbor at Pcnsacola, Fla., 1710; Escambia and Conecuh rivers, Fla. 
and Ala., 1735; Alabama River, Ala., 1738; Tallapoosa River, Ala., 1741; Coosa 
River, Ga. and Ala., 1743; operating and care of canals and other works of navi- 
gation on Coosa River, Ga. and Ala., 1753; Cahaba River, Ala., 1754. 

Examinations. — Chattahoochee River, Ga. and Ala., between West Point and 
Franklin, 1756; Alabama River, Ala., 1761. 

APPENDIX Q. 

REPORT OF MAJ. A. N. DAMRELL, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Impbovemknts. — Mobile Harbor, Ala., 1771; Warrior and Tombigbee rivers, Ala. 
and Miss., 1776: Black Warrior River, Ala., from Tuscaloosa to Daniels Creek, 
1784; Noxubee River, Miss., 17»7; Pascagoula River, Miss., 1788; Chickasahay River, 
Miss., 1791; Bluff Creek, Miss., 1792; Leaf River, Miss., 1792; harbor at Biloxi 
Bay, Miss., 1793; Pearl River, Miss., below Jackson, 1795; Pearl River, Miss., be- 
tween .Jackson and Carthage, 1797; Pearl River, Miss., between Ediuburg and 
Carthage, 1799; Bogue Chitto, La., 1800. 

Examination. — Sucamochee River, Ala., 1800. 

APPENDIX K. 

REPORT OF MAJ. JAMES B. QUINN, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 
IxsPKCnON of the improvement of the South Pass of the Mississippi River, 1805. 

APPEIN^DIX S. 

REPORT OF MAJ. JAMES B. QUINN, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

IHPROVSMBNT8. — Chefuncto River and Bogue Falia, La., 1818; Tickfaw River and 
its tributaries. La., 1819; Amite River and Bayou Manchac, La., 1820; Bayou La 
Foufche, La., 1821; Bayou Terrebonne, La., 1823; Bayou Plaquem in e. La., 1824; 

Bai '^^ ^ ^ ^ 

Cai 

1835 

endangering navigation, 1837. 

Examinations ani> Sukvky. — Bayou Carlin, La., 1838; shoals on Lake Pontcliar- 
train. La., near the Rigolets, 1839; Bayou Chevreuiland Bayou Tigre, La., 1841; 
Bayou Terre Bonne, La., from Houma to Thibodeaiix, 1843; Bayou Black to con- 
nect with Terre Bonne, La., 1846; Berwick Bay, La., 1847; Bayou Cocodrie, La., 
1849; Bayou Black, La., for connection between Calcasieu Lake and Sabine Lake, 
1850; BajrouTeche, La,, from Saint Martinsville to Port Barre, 1852: Bayou Dos 
Glaises, La., 1854; Bayou Vermillion, La., 1855; Mermenton River and tributaries. 
La., 1858. 

APPEOT)IX T. 

REPORT OP LIEUT. JOHN MILLIS, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Impkovemexts. — Securing mouth of Bayou Plaquemine, La., from further caving, 
1867; removing sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering navigation of 
New Orleana Harbor, La., 1869. 




XVI CONTENTS. 

APPENDIX U. 
REPORT OF MAJ. CHAS. J. ALLEN, CORPS OF ENGINEEB 

iMPROVEifEXTS. — Kntraiico to Galveston Harbor, Tex., 1871; ship cfaoiui 
veeton Bay, Tex., 1906; Trinity River, Tex., 1918; Cedar Bayou, Tex., 1 
falo Bayon, Tex., 1924; harbor at Brazos SantiajL^o, Tex., 1930. 

Examinations. — Month of Double Bayou, Chambers County, Tex., 1933 
River, Tex., from its mouth to DaHas, 1936; Colorado River, Tex., 1939 
Bay, Tex., to remove Half-Moon Reef; and St. Charles Bay, Tex., 1942. 

PAET IV. 
APPENDIX V. 

REPORT OF CAPT. J. H. WILLARD, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Improvements. — Red River, La. and Ark., 1946; Red River above Fnltc 
1961; Ouachit-a and Black rivers, Ark. and La., 1964; Onaohit-a River abo 
den. Ark., 1975; Bayou IFArbonne, La., 1980; Bayou Bartholomew, La. ai 
1982; Bavon Boenf (Bceuf River), La., 1985; Tensas River and Bayon Mac 
1989; Bayous RondewayandVidal, La., 1992; Bijj Black River, Miss., 1993 
River. Miss., 1996; Tchnla Lake, Miss., 2001; Tallahatchee River, Miss 
Steele Bavon and^ Washin^^on Bavon, Miss., 2005; Bi^ Sunflower River 
2007; Big'Hatchee River, Tenn., 2010; Forked Deer River, Tenn., 2012; 

g Binges on Mississippi River and its principal tributaries, 2014 ; survey of < 
ayon and the lakes between Jefferson, Tex., and Shrevejiort, La.^ 2021. 
Examinations.— Cane River, La., 2022; Bayon Castor, La., 2028. 

APPENDIX W. 

REPORT OF CAPT. H. S. TABER, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Improvements. — Removing obstructions in Arkansas River, Ark., Ind. T 
Rans., 21^; 'Arkansas River, Ark., Ind. Ter., and Kans., 2037; Fonrche h 
River, Ark., 2044; Petit Jean River, Ark., 2046; White River, Ark., 2048 
River, Ark., 2051; Little Red River, Ark., 2053; Black River, Ark. and Mc 
Black River, Mo., 20oS; St. Francis River, Ark., 2059; St. Francis Riv< 
2062; Little River, Mo. and Ark., 2064. 

Examinations. — Current River, firom Van Bnren, Mo., to its month, 2065. 

APPEOT)IX X 

REPORT OF CAPT. S. W. ROESSLER, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Examination. — Mississippi River from high-water mark, Lake County, T 
high-water mark, Fnltim County, Ky., north and west of Reelfoot I^ase, 2 

APPENDIX Y. 

REPORT OF MAJ. A. M. MILLER, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Improvements. — Removing snags and wrecks from Mississippi River, 2079; 
sippi River, between the Ohio and Illinois rivers, 2087; harbor at Saint Lov 
2109; Gasconade River, Mo., 2112; Osage River, Mo., 2114; Kaskaskia Ri^ 
2118. 

APPENDIX Z. 

REPORT OF MAJ. E. H. RUFFNER, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Imtrovf.mknt. — Mississippi River, between Des Moines Rax>ids and mouth of 

River, 2119. 
Examination. — Mississippi River at Warsaw, IlL, 2134. 



CONTENTS. XVn 

APPENDIX A A. 

REPORT OF MAJ. A. MACKENZIE, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Im PIlO^'^MENTS. — Operating snag boats and dredge boats on Upper Mississippi River, 
2137; Mississippi River, between Minneapolis and De« Moines Rapids, 2147; Des 
Moines Rapids, Mississippi River, 2172; operating and care of Des Moines Rapids 
Canal and di^ dock, 2174. 

Examinations and Survey. — Slongh at Hamilton, HI., 2185 ; Mississippi River at 
and above Clinton, Iowa, 2187. 

APPENDIX B B. 

REPORT OF MAJ. W. A. JONES, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

• 

Improvkments. — ^Mississippi River above Falls of St. Anthony, Minn., 2192; reser- 
voirs at headwaters of Mississippi River, 2196; Chippewa River, including Yellow 
Banks, Wis., 2201; St. Croix River, Wis. and Minn., 2203; Minnesota River, Minn., 
22in; Red River of the North. Minn, and N. Dak., 2210; surveys for reservoirs at 
the sonrcee of Mississippi, St. Croix, Chippewa, and Wisconsin rivers 2214; gang- 
ing Mississippi River at or near St. Paul, Minn., 2214. 

Examinations. — Harbor at Hudson, Wis., 2218; Red River of the North at Goose 
Bapids, N. Dak. and Minn., 2220; Creel Bay, Totten Bay, and Minnewauken 
Shoals, in Devil Lake, N. Dak., 2223. 

APPENDIX 0. 

REPORT OF LIEUT. COL. CHAS. R. SUTER, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Ex aminatiox. — ^Missouri River, from the old month of Platte River, Little Point, 
to a point opposite Leavenworth; and at Weston, Mo., 2229. 

APPENDIX D D. 

REPORT OF CAPT. CHAS. F. POWELL, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Improvemknts. — Missouri River between the Great Falls, Mont., and Sioux City, 

Iowa, 2232; Yellowstone River, Mont, and N. Dak., 2236. 
Examinations and Survey. — Tongue River, Mont., 2237; Yellowstone River, Moot., 

2239; Missouri River between Sioux City, Iowa, and Fort Benton, Mont., 2242. 

APPENDIX E E. 

REPORT OF LIEUT. COL. J. W. BARLOW, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Impri'ivkmexts. — ^I'ennessee River, above Chattanooga, Teun., and below Bee Tree 




Examinations and Survey. — Little Pigeon River, Tenn., from mouth to Sevier- 
ville, 2287; harbor of Siuithland, Ky., 2289; Obiou River, Term., 2292. 

APPE$n)IX F F. 
REPORT OF LIEUT. GEO. W. GOETHALS, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Improvements. — ^Tennessee River between Chattanooga, Tenn., and foot of Bee 
Tree Shoals, Ala., 2303; operating and care of Muscle Shoals Canal, Tennessee 
River, 2322. 

Examination. — Mouth of Gunter Creek at Guntersville, Ala., 2325. 

ENG 01 ^n 



XVm CONTENTS 

APPENDIX G G. 

REPORT OF LIEUT. COL. WM. E. MERRILL, CORPS OF 1 

Impkovemexts. — Ohio River, 2328; operating snag boats on Ohio B 
ating and care of Davis Island Dam, Ohio River, 2350; movable di 
near month of Beaver River, Pa., 2354; Monongahela River, \ 
2355; operating and care of locks and dams Nos. 8 and 9, Hon 
2357; purchase of Lock and Dam No. 7, Monongahela River, 2 
Lock and Dam No. 6, Monongahela River, 2360 ; Cheat River, W. 
gheny River, Pa.,. 2363; dam at Herr Island, Allegheny River, 23( 
month of Muskingum River, Ohio, 2367; Muskingum River, Ohio, 
and care of locks and dams on Muskingiim River, Ohio. 23^. 

Examinations. — Harbor of Owensboro, Ky., on the Ohio River, 2380; 
Pa., 2381; Oliio River, between mouth of Green River, Ky., and ] 
2382. 

APPENDIX H n. 

REPORT OF MAJ. G. J. LYDECKER, CORPS OF ENGl 

Improvkmknts. — Falls of tlie Ohio River, at Louisville, Ky., 2387; 
Falls of the Ohio River, 2393; operating and care of Louisvil 
Canal, Ky., 2394; Wabash River, Ind. and 111., 2402; White Riv. 

Examination. — Wabash Uiyer, Ind., from Terre Haute to La Fayet 

APPENDIX 11. 
REPORT OF COL. WM. P. CRAIGHILL, CORPS OF ENC 

IliPROVKMKNTS. — Great Kanawha River, W. Va., 2413; operating ai 
and dams on Great Kanawha River, W. Va., 2425; Elk River, W. \ 
River, W. Va., 2428; New River, Va. and W. Va., 2130. 

Examination.— Elk River, W. Va., 2433. 

.VPPENDIX J J. 

REPORT OF MAJ. D. W. LOCKWOOD, CORPS OF ENG 

IMPROVEMENTS. — Trade water River, Ky., 2438; operating and kt 
locks and dams on Green and Barren rivers, Ky., 2439; Rongh 1 
Kentucky River, Ky., 2449; operating and kipping in repair lo< 
Kentucky River, Kv., 2455; Licking River, Ky., from Farmers t 
2462; Big Sandv River, W. Va. and Ky., 2463; Levisa Fork of B 
Kv.,'2466: TugFork of Big Sandy River, W. Va. and Kv., 2467; Gi 
W.*:V»., 2469; Little Kanawha River, W. Va., 2471; liuckhannoi 
2474. 

Examinations. — Big Barron River, Ky., above Bowling Green, 2474 
the Big Sandv Kiv«T, Kv., 2476; Green River, Ky., above luoutl 
River, 2478. 

APPENDIX K K. 

KE1V)RT OF CAPT. W. L. FISK, CORPS OF ENGINI 

Improvements. — Harbor at Grand Marais, Minn., 24^; harbor at A 
2486; harbor at Duluth, Minn., 2488; harbbr at Superior Bay and 
Wis., 2495; Minnesota Point at Superior, Wis., 2499; harbor at 
2500; harbor at Ontonagon, Mich., 2502; Eagle Harbor, Mich., 
Marquftte, Mich., 2505; liarbor of refuge at Grand Marais, Mich.. 

Examination. — AUouez Bay and Kemadji River, Wis., 2512. 

Harbor Lines. — Establisl^ent of harbor lines at Duluth, Minn., 1 
Superior Bay, and the aTljacent waters, Minn, and AVis., 2515; c 
harbor lines in Portace Lake, Mich., 251H; resurvey and relocatio: 
in Portage Lake, Mien., 2522. 



CONTENTS. XJX 

APPENDIX L L. 

REPOKT OK MAJ. CHA6. E. L. B. DAVIS, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

lAiPROVEMENTS. — Manistiqne Harbor, Mich., 2523; Cedar River Harbor, Micb.,2525; 
Menomonee Harbor, Mich, and Wis., 2527; Meuomonee River, Mich, and Wis., 
2fc28£Oconto Harbor, Wis., 2531; Pensankeo Harbor, Wis., 2533; Green Bay Har- 
bor, Wis./ 2533; harbor of refuse at entrance of Sturgeon Bs^ Canal, Wis., 2536; 
Ahuapee Harbor, Wis., 2538; Kewaunee Harbor, Wis., 2540; Two Rivers Harbor, 
Wis., 2543; Manitowoc Harbor, Wis., 2545: Sheboygan Harbor, Wis., 2549; Port 
Washington Harbor. Wis., 2551 ; harbor of refa^fe at Miiwaukee Bay, Wis., 2553; 
Milwaukee Harbo^ Wis., 2560; Racine Harbor, Wis., 2562; Kenosha Harbor, Wis., 
2565; Waukegan Harbor, 111., 2568; Fox and Wisconsin rivers. Wis., 2572; oper- 
ating and care of locks and dams on Fox River, Wis., 2580. 

APPENDIX M M. 

REPORT OF CAP1\ W. L. MARSHALL, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Improvements. — Chicago Harbor, 111., 2596; Calumet Harbor, 111., 2602: Calumet 
River, HI. and Ind., 2606 ; Illinois River, 111., 2611 ; operating ^nd care of La Grange 
Lock on niinois River, 111., 2630; Illinois and Mississippi Canal, 2633. 

Examination and Survex.— Hlinois River, HI., from La Salle to the Mississippi 
River, 2658. 

Habbou Links. — Establishment of harbor lines in Chicago Harbor, 111., 2661. 

PAET V. 
APPENDIX N ISr. 

REPORT OF MAJ. WILLIAM LUDLOW, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 
Improvements.— General remarks, 2667; Petoskev Harbor, Mich., 2670; Charlevoix 
Harbor and entrance to Pine Lake, Mich., 2672; Frankfort Harbor, Mich., 2674; 
harbor of refuge at Portage Lake. Mich., 2676; Manistee Harbor, Mich., 2678; 
Ludington Harbor, Mich., 2682; Pent water Harbor, Mich., 2684; White River 
Harbor, Mich., 2687: Muskegon Harbor, Mich., 2689; Grand Haven Harbor, Mich., 
2692; Holland [Black Lake] Harbor, 51ich.. 2696"; Saugatuck Harbor, Mich., 2699; 
South Haven Harbor, Mich., 2700 ; St. Josepn Harbor, Mich., 2702 ; St. Joseph River, 
Mich., ^705; Michigan City Harbor, Ind., 2706. 

APPENDIX O O. 

REPORT OF COL. O, M. POE, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Improvements. — St. Marys River. Mich., 2712; operating and care of St. Marys Falls 
Canal, Mich., 2724; dry dock at St. Marys Falls Canal, Mich., 2758 ; Hay Lake Chan- 
nel, St. Marys River, Mich., 2758; harbor at Cheboygan, Mich., 2764; harbor at 
Thunder Bay, Mich., 2765; Thunder Bay River, Mich., 2768; harbor at Au Sable, 
Mich., 2771; Saginaw River, Mich., 2772; harbor of refuge at Sand Beach, Lake 
Huron, Mich., 2776; Black River at Port Huron, Mich., 2780; mouth of Black 
River, Mich., 2782; St. Clair Flats Canal, Mich., 2784; operating and care of St. 
ClairFlatsCanal, Mich., 2787; Clinton River, Mich., 2788 ; Grosse Pointe Channel, 
Mich., 2790; Rouge River, Mich., 2791; Detroit River, Mich., 2793; removing 
sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering navigation, 2^1. 

Examinations. — Sebewaing River, Slich., 2804 ; the American channel of the Detroit 
River, Mich., 2808; ship channel 20 feet in depth in the shallows of the connecting 
waters of the lakes between Chicago, Duluth, and Buffalo, 2810 ; Corsica Shoal^ 
Mich., at lower end of Lake Huron, 2820; Rouge River, Mich., 2822. 

APPENDIX P P. 

REPORT OF MAJ. L. COOPER OVERMAN, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Improvements.— Monroe Harbor, Mich., 2825 ; Toledo Harbor, Ohio, 2828 ; Port Clin- 
ton Harbor, Ohio, 2835 ; Sandusky City Harbor, Ohio, 2837 ; Sandusky River, Ohio, 
2840; Huron Harbor, Ohio, 2843; Vermillion Harbor, Ohio, 2847; Black River 
Harbor, Ohio; 2849; Cleveland Harbor, Ohio, 2853; Fairport Harbor, Ohio, 2859; 
Ashtabnla Harbor^ Ohio^ 2863. 



XX CONTENTS. 

APPENDIX Q Q. 
REPORT OF MAJ. AilOS STICKNEY, CORPS OF ENGINEE 

iMPROVEMEXTS.-^Erie Harbor, Pa., 2869; preservation and protection t 
Isle Peninsula, Erie IIiirb<»r, Pa.. 2877; Dunkirk Harbor, N. Y., 2878; B\ 
bor, N. Y., 2882; Tonawauda Harbor andXiaj^ara River, N. Y., 2888 ; -\^ 
bor, N. Y., 2891; Olcott Harbor, N. Y.; 2893; Oak Orcliard Harbor, N. Y., 

APPENDIX E R. 

REPORT OF CAPT. DAN C. KINGMAN, CORPS OF ENGINTEE] 

Improvemexts. — Harbor at Charlotte, N. Y., 2899; harbor at Pultnewi 
2903; harbor at Great Sodus Bay, N. Y., 2906; harbor at Little Sodus B 
2909; harbor at Oswego, N. Y., 2912; harbor at Sacketts Harbor, N. Y., 2 

APPENDIX S S. 

REPORT OF MAJ. M. B. ADAMS, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Improvements. — Shoal between Sister Islands and Cross-over Light, St. L 
River, N.Y., 2922; Ogdensburg Harbor, N. Y.. 2923; Grass RiVer,N.Y., 2926 
water at Rouse Point, Lake Champlain, N. Y., 2927; Great Chazy Riv" 
2929; breakwater at Gordon Landing, Lake Champlain, Vt., 2930; Ph 
Harbor, N. Y., 2931; Burlington Harbor, Vt., 2932; Otter Creek, Vt., 2935 
deroga River, N. Y., 2936; Narrows of Lake Chanii)lain, N. Y. and Vt., 293 

Examinations. — Innei; Bay, near mouth of Saranac River, at Plattabar 
2938; Boquet River, N. Y., from mouth on Lake Champlain to Willsboro, 2 

APPENDIX T T. 

REPORT OF COL. G. H. MENDELL, CORPS OF ENGINEERS, 

Impro\'EMENTS. — Oakland Harbor, Cal., 2943; survey of San Francisco Har 
Pablo and Suisnn bays, strait of Karquines, and mouths of San Joaqnin i 
ramento rivers, Cal., 2947. 

Harbor Lines. — Modification of harbor lines on Port Costa front, soath 
Karquines Strait, San lYancisco Harbor, Cal., 2948. 

APPENDIX U U. 

REPORT OF LIEUT. COL. W. H. H. BENYAURD, CORPS OF ENGIN: 

Improvements. — ^Napa River, Cal., 2952; Redwood Harbor, Cal., 2963; S 
Creek, Cal., 2953; San Luis Obispo Harbor, Cal., 2955; Wilmington Harb 
2956; San Diego Harbor, Cal., 2960. 

Examinations. — San Rafael River, Cal., 2963: Alviso Harbor and Alviso Ore* 
2964; Redwood Creek, Cal., 2966; harbor oi refuge at Santa Cruz, Cal.j^ 21 
Simeon Bay, Cal., 2971; Redondo Beach Harbor, Cal., 2972; Colorado Rive 
above Yuma, to Eldorado Canyon, 2974. 

Harbor Lines. — Establishment of harbor lines at San Pedro, Wilmington 
Cal., 2976. 

APPENDIX V V. 

REPORT OF MAJ. W. H. HEUER, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

IM^RO^•EMENT8. — San Joaquin River, Cal., 2981; Mokelumne River, Cal., 29 
ramento and Feather rivers, Cal., 2987; investigation of mining-ddbris qm 
State of California, 2996; Petalnma Creek, Cal., 3119; Humboldt Harbor a 
Cal., 3120. 

Examination and SUR^^:Y.— Mokelumne River, Cal., 3133. 

Harbor lines.— Establishment of harbor lines in Humboldt Bay, Cal., S138. 



CONTENTS. XXI 

APPENDIX W W. 
REPORT OF CAPT. THOMAS W. SYMONS, pORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

iMPRoyEMRNTS. — CoquiUe River, Oreffon, 3146; entrance to Coos Bay, Oregon, 3154; 
Uinp<|iia River, Oregon, 3169; raouUi of Siuslaw River, Oregon, 3173; entrance to 
Yaquina Bay, Oregon, 3182; Tillamook Bay and Bar^ Oregon, 3200; entrance to 
baruor at Nehalem Bay, Oregon, 3205 ; Upper Colambia and Snake rivers, Orej^on 
and Wash., 3210; Colambia River between head of Rock Island Rapids and foot 
uf Priest Rapids, Wash., 3223 ; Chchalis River, Wash., 3236 ; Skagit, Steilaquamish, 
Nootsack, Snohomish, and Snoquulmie rivers, Wash., 3238. 

Examinations and Surveys. — Alsea Bay and River, Oregon, 3246: Clark Fork of 
Culnmbia River from international boundary line to month of Big Blackfoot River, 
Mont., 3250; Puyallup River, Wash., 3255; D'Wamish and Black Rivers, Wash., 
3257; ship channel between Port Townsend Bay, Puget Sound, (ind Oak Bay, 
Wash., 3260; North River, Wash., 3263; Shoal water Bay and Willapah River, 
Wash., 3266; Nooksack, Skagit, and Snohomish rivers. Wash., 3271; Coqnille 
River, Oregon, from Coqnille City to Myrtle Point, 3275; Coos Bay, Oregon, 3^; 
Upper Snake River, Idaho, 3285; Nasel River, Wash., 3294: Gravs Harbor and Bar 
and Chehalis River np to Montesano, Wash., 3297; Port Orford Harbor, Oregon. 
3305. 

APPENDIX X X. 

REPORT OF MAJ. THOS. H. HANDBURY, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Improvements. — ^Month of Columbia River, Oregon and Wash., 3314 ; canal at the Cas- 
cades, Columbia River, Oregon, 3328 ; Columbia and Lower Willamette rivers below 
Portland, Oregon. 3362; Willamette River above Portland, Oregon, 3368; Cowlitz 
River, Wash., 3370; Youngs and Klasknine rivers, Oregon, 3371; gauging waters, 
cff Columbia River, Oregon and Wash., 3372; removing sunkeA vessels or craft ob- 
structing or endangering navigation, 3373. 

ExAJfiXATiONS AND SURVEYS. — Willamette River, channel on west side of Swan 
Island, Oregon, 3373; Youngs Bay Channel,. Oregon, 3376; Deep. Skamokawa, and 
Crooked rivers. Wash., 3378; Lower Columbia Kiver, between Astoria and Woods 
L.Tndiug, Oregon, 3380: Yamhill River, Oregon, 3381; Lewis and Clarke River, 
Oregon, 3383; Grays River, Wash., 3385. 

Harbor Lines. — ^Establishment of harbor lines in Astoria Harbor, Oregon, 3387. 



APPENDIX Y T. 

REPORT OF CAPT. W. A. KIRKLAND, UNITED STATES NAVY. 
Supervision of the harbor of New York, 3393. 

PART VI. 

appendix' Z Z. 

REPORT OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 



C. B. CoMSTOCK, Colonel, Corps of Engineers, Bvt. Brig. Gen., U. S. A^ President; 
Chaklf.s R. Sutbr, Lieutenant-Colonel, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A. ; O. H. Ernst, 
Major, Corps of Engineers, Colonel, U. S. A. ; Henry L. Whiting, Assistant U. 
S. Coast and Geodetic Sarvey; B. M. Harrod, Robert S. Taylor, and Henry 
Jj^LAD, Commiaaioners. 

Annual Report for Fiscal Year ending June 30, 1891, 3397. 

Appendix A. — Report of Lieut. Col. Charles R. Suter, Corps of Engineers, upon in- 
vestigation of discharge measurements, Mississippi River, 3417. 

Appendix B. — Paper by Lieut. Col. Charles R. Suter, Corps of Engineers, on effects 
of crevasses npou gauge readings below Red River during high water of 1890, 3444. 



XXtt CONTENTS. 

ArpEXDix C. — Report of <the secretary of tlio Coniuiission, 3446; (1) pap* 
Charles F. Powell, Corps of Eng inueM, on depressiou of the flood line^ '. 
Red River, from crevasses, 3463; (2) paper by Capt. Charles F. Powel 
Engineers, on effects of outlets on the bed of the river below theni^ 3i 
strnctioiis for secondary triaugiilation, precise level, and topographical 
graphical Held work, ^74 ; (4) report of Mr. J. A. Ockerson, assistant ei 
profile 'of Mississippi River, Cairo to Donaldson ville, 3486; ^5) tabulator 
ilischarge measurements on Mississippi, Old, and Atchafaiaya riven, 
lUSly (6) tabulated results of discharge measurements on Mississippi i 
falaj^a rivers and Bayou La Fourche, 1890, 3526; (7) high- water marl 
Mississippi River, Cairo, 111., to Carrollton, La., 3547; (o) high- water 
1891, Mississippi River, Cairo, HI., to Carrollton, La., 3551^ (9) high 
waters, referred to present or most recent gaus'es, of 31ississippi Rivex 
cipal tributaries except the Jlissonri, 3555; (10) report of Mr. J. A. 
assistant engineer, on changes in the bed of Mississippi River near the l 
Passes, 3575; commercial statistics, 3576. 

Appkkdix D. — Report of Capt. S. W. Roessler, Corps of Engineers, on op< 
the first and second districts, 3580 ; (1) report of Mr. Aug. J. Nolty^ 
engmeer, on work at Plum Point Reach, 3^95; (2) paper by Mr. Aug. 
assistant engineer, on details of construction of bank protection at I 
Reach, 1890, 3601 ; (3) paner by Mr. Aug. J. Nolty, assistant engine 
tails of construction of pile dikes at Plum Point Reach, 1890, 3606 ; (4' 
Mr. W. M. Rees, assistant engineer, on proposed system of levees along I 
Front, 3610; (5) report of Mr. W. M. Rees, assistant engineer, on levee sun 
River Front, 3612; financial statements, commercial statistics, etc, 3619 

Appendix E. — Report of Capt. C. McD. Townsend, Corps of Engineers, 
tions iu the third district, 3627; (1) report of Mr. Wm. P. Richardii, 
on surveys and observations, third district, 3658 ; (2) report of Mr. John 
aseistant engineer, on discharge observations at Arkansas City, 3660: (3 
of Mr. Henry B. Richardson, chief engineer, State of Louisiana, lor 
stmction in Louisiana from State line to Warrenton, 3662; (4) report of 
T. Rossell, Corps of Engineers, on connection between Arkansas River ] 
Mississippi River levees, 3663. 

Appendix F. — ^Report of Lieut. John MUlis, Corps of Engineers, on operat 
fourth district, 3665: (1) report of Lient. John MilUs, Corps of Engiuec 
vey of Mississippi River, near Natchez, Miss., and Vidalia, La., 3716. 

APPENDIX AAA. 
RKPORT OF THE MISSOURI RIVER COMMISSION. 

CiiAS. R. SuiTCR, Lieutenant-Colonel, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., Prej 
MACKKNZfE, Major, Corps of Engineers. U. S. A. ; O. H. Ernst, Majo 
Engineers, Colonel, U. S. A. ; Garland C. Broadhead and Rjciiard ^ 
Commissioners. 

Annual Rkpobt vob Fiscal Year knj>ino June 30, 1891, 3723. 

Appendix A. — Annual report of Secretary, Missouri River Commission, 
(1) report on the conunerce on Missouri River during vear 1891, 3737; j 
report of Mr. G. A. lilarr, assistant engineer, 1891, 3745; (3) annual re] 
O. B. Wheeler, assistant engineer, 1891, 3756; (4) tables of results of 
triangulation of Missouri River, 3760; (5) report of Mr. Chas. F. Potte: 
engineer, on shore-line surveys, 3802 ; (6) report of Mr. S. Waters Fo3 
engineer, on shore-line surveys, 3804 ; (7) report of Mr. Samuel H. Yo 
sion engineer, on shore- line surveys, 3805 ; (8) annual report of Mr. D. 
man, assistant engineer. 1891, 3807; (9) annual report of Mr. A. II. Bla 
sistant engineer, 1891, 3819; (10) annual report of Mr. James A. Sedd 
ant engineer, 1891, 3827. 

Appendix B. — Annual report of Lieut. Hiram M. Chittenden, Corjjs of ] 
1891, 3831. 

Appendix C and C 1. — Annual reports of Mr. Chas. F. Potter, division 
1891, 3832. 

Appendix D. — Annual report Of Mr. S. Waters Fox, division engineer, 1 

Appendix E. — Annual report of Mr. Samuel H. Yonge, division engij 
3818. 

APPENDIX B B B. 

BRIDGING NAVIGABLE W^ATERS OF THE UNITED STATE 

Report of The Board of Engineers on proposed bridge across Hudson Ri^ 
York City, 3853 ; report of Board of Engineers on bridge across Chicagt 
Canal street, Chicago, 111., 3861. 



CONTENTS. XXIII 

APPENDIX C 0. 

OCCUPANCY OF AND INJURY TO PUBLIC WORKS BY CORPORATIONS 

AND INDIVIDUALS. 

* 

(1) Report of Lieut. Col. G. L. Gillespie, Coq)8 of Engineers, 3865; (2) report of Col. 
Wm. P. Craighill, Corps of Engineers, 3866: (3) report of Capt. H. S. Taber, Corps 
of Engineers, 3867; (4) report of Col. O. M. Poe, Corps of Engineers, 3868; (5) 
report of Maj. Amos Stickney, Corps of Engineers, 3872; (6) report of Lieut. Col. 
W. H. H. Benyanrd, Corps of Engineers, 3873. 

APPENDIX D D D. 

■ 

REPORT OP LIEUT. COL. GEORGE H. ELLIOT, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Washington Aqueduct, 3875 ; water supply. District of Columbia, 3897 : increasing 
the water supply of Washington, D. C, 3904; erection of fishwavs at Great Falls, 
3905. 

APPENDIX E E E. 

REPORT OF COL: O. H. ERNST, UNITED STATES ARMY. 

Improvkment and cafe of public buildings alid grounds in the District of Columbia, 
Wasbington Monument, 3907. 

APPENDIX FEE. 

SURVEY OF THE NORTHERN AND NORTHWESTERN LAKES. 

Resurvey of Marquette Harbor, Michigan, 3927; issue of published charts of the 
northern and northwestern lakes, 3927. 

APPE]^DIX G G G. 

' REPORT OF MAJ. WILLIAM A. JONES, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

Construction and improvement of roads and bridges in the Yellowstone National 
Park, 3931. 

APPENDIX H H H. 

EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS I{f DIVISIONS AND DEPARTMENTS. 

Report of Capt. W. L. Marshall, Cori)s of Engineers, Engineer Officer, on opera- 
tions in Division of the Missouri, 3943; report ol Capt. Charles H. Clark, Ord- 
nance Department, Acting Engineer Officer, on operations in Department of the 
Columbia, 3945; report of Lieut. Charles A. Worden, Seventli Infantry, Acting 
Engineer Officer, on operations in Department of the Platte, 3946 ; report of Lieut. 
James E. Rnncic, First Artillery, Acting Engineer Officer, on operations in Divi- 
sion of the Pacific, 3947. 



APPENDIX V — REPORT OF CAFTAIN WILLARD. 1951 

ers of Louutiana may build levees for common protectioD upon private; 
propi'1'ty without CM»ude)nnation aud purchase, the banks of Bed IJiver 
may perhaps betaken in the same way, and j^jraded and revetted to 
yuotect the lev(»es a U>ii^ tlie I'i ver ; and un<ler the same deeisicm levees may 
be rebuilt, U) eontine th(^ flomi waters for improving navigation, while 
pr<»te(!ting the jjeople from 4»verflow. 

Piling can not be uscmI at Alexandria on aeeount of the rcHik un<ier- 
lying the bottom, and the objection to erib work is that it ought to be 
<-ariied up U) high water to prevent boats running into it, and, as the 
lino to b(j protected is used for steamboat laildings, the danger wouhl 
]>e greater in time of flood. 

Tlie ehiinnel work at the bridge site above ean be done at medium 
stiiges, but it will be b<»tter to wait for an <»xtreme low stage when the 
water is eh^ar. Work ean then be, prosecuted without the help of divers 
and the i)rogi'ess ean be seen. With two dump scows for general 
service in tln^ district the work eouhi be done most economically with 
hired labor and th(^ i)lant now on hand, and the most suitable time 
chosen, A^ithout the delay necessary for making a contract; and, besides, 
there would be no charges for denuirrage in case the work should be 
stoi)i>(»d by a sudden rise. The estimate for two dump scows is $3,500, 
and for two months' work of the dredge, steamer, exi)losives, and ma- 
terials, >«.'),CK)0. 

It nniy be note<l here that a considerable study of Ked liiver indicates 
the possibility of di\ iding it in two at the falls, and making a paitial 
slack- water s> sttMn ai)ovc». Al(»xandria by a combination of tixed and mov- 
able dams, Mith a. lock of size need(»d by the largCvSt boats tliat can reach 
Alexandria at low water. This is to be considered only as a suggestion, 
aiul in tlic liiu> of the reconnnendation made by Major llowell about 17 
years ago. The suliject will have t>o await the comi)leti(m of the gen(»ral 
survey now going oji. 

J.ITTU: liMVKII, TKOM TIIK SCOPIXT ClTOl'l' TO KNO-X POINT. 

A n allotment of >j20,000, to be expended in "widening and deepen- 
ing'' t his part of Red Kiver, a stretch 21 J miles long, below Tones Hay«m. 
was made by the act of September 19, 18JM>. The terms of the act wonid 
siMfin to indirat<» that some form of construction work should be adoi»te< I 
in this reach, or that dredging should be undertaken, neither of which 
is advisiiblc at present, and the latter unnecessary and inexj»edicnt. 

To widen and deepen the river at the sftme time can be done, but the 
result would prove disastrous to the stream in a short time. T)r<Mlging 
wouhl he dinicnlt and expensive, o^ving to the mass of h)gs which fills 
tin* bottom, and to widen the river Mcmld reduce its dei)th, now sntli- 
rient tor present river traffic. 

The survey of this stretch has been gone over, and it is Ibund t(» he 
widi'ning too ra])idly. What is most needexl is to remove false jMunts 
to make rli(* bends easier, and to begin a substantial revetment of the 
caving banks to prevent further encroaclnnent and secure the levees, 
put in by the. State at great cost io the people, and which starve to im- 
prove tlie navigation of the riv^er while protecting them from overtiow. 

Tin' Im'sI lorni o{' work in the channel will !)(» to send the snag boats 
ov<'r llie rcacli a! intervals, to ]»ull uj» tlui chanui*! snags and logs as 
thev beiMHUr looMiie,! b\ (he N\ork of llu" current itself. l'\ir beKer 
resuhs ran be gol in iliis \va> than by keex»ing boats eonstantl.v ai 
work o\(T tlie same gi'onn<l. When the survey is jmt into shape lor 
study nu*asurenu*jits can be takcMi and estiinatcNs prei)ared for such v<i- 



1946 REPORT OF THE CIIIEP OF EN6IN££RS, U. 8. ARKT* 

V I. 

IMPKOVKMKNT *>!' IJKh IMVKK. I.orislAN V AN1> AKKAXSAi 

lied Eiver rise^j iu northern Texas, in thr J An no Kstacudo^ au 
ill a general easterly directiou, formiiijr the iMuindary between 
Territory and Texas. At Fulton, Ark., its tMMirse elianiires to a 4 
southeasterly direction, and after ew^ssin*: the State of lA>uisiau] 
ters the Mississippi Eiver at Hed Kiver Landing. The river is 
1,200 miles long: the part hu-lnded in tlie project nnder this I 
inipn>veuient extends from Fulton. Ark., to the month of Atehji 
IJiver, about 525 miles. 

Work was begun by the United States as early as 1828, and 
priations aggiegating ?<535,7<m..'>0 were made at intervals bet wee 
and 1852. Between 1841 and 1852 no a])i)ropriation was made, 
louger jMM^iod elapsed between 1852 and 1872, during whieh the] 
of former work were lost. 

The present imxn-ovement eommeneed in 1872. The ])rojeet c< 
plated the remould of rafts, snags, wrecks, leaning timber, etc., t 
Tones l^ayou, and other outlets: op(*ning a channel thixnigh the 1 
Alexandria, La., and deepening the channel at sand bai*s: to in 
and keep navigati«)n open fnnn Fulton. Ark., to the mouth 
Atchafalaya; also protection of caving banks at Alexandria. 

The appropriations hav<» bt^en ns follows: 

Art of June 10, 1872— 

For improving Tonrs nayoii 

For reinovinjr rJilt 

Aot of— 

March 8, 1873. for loiinn-iii^ la I't 

June 23, 1874, for removiuu: nitt 

Mnrch 3, 1875, for removiujr rail 

August 14, 187G. for rrmoA-iiij; ratt ami iliKsiu^ ['om-^ Ija vuii 

Allotment of August 27, 1877, from tlir ap]>vi>pri:itiou for repair. ]>re8er\a- 
tion, etc.. of rivtT and liarl>or \A«Mks, art of April 10. 18tii». for closing 

Tones Bayou 

Act of February 7, 187>^. fnr r«Muoviiiir 1 aft. **tr 

Act of June 18,* 1878— 

For removing raft and elosiuir Toih-*; r»a\uu 

For removing snags, ete 

Act of Manb 8, 187J^— 

For removing raft and closing 'loni-s r»aynii 

For removing obstructions 

For improving river abnvr liend of raft to I'ulton, Ark 

Act of June 14, 1x80— 

For removing raft and closing Tiint's l»a> i>u 

F<ir rtMuoving obstructions 

For improving river above brad of ratt to Fulton. Ark 

Act of Marib :^, 1881— 

For removing raft and rlosing Tones Hayuu 

For removing obstructions 

Act of— 

August 2. 1882. for improving Ked Rivrr 

July r». 1S8-I. for improving Ked b*ivfr 

August .'. lS^J^.i. for improving IJt-d Kivn. iii.ikin'4: >r.rMy ol .•«ami\ and 

comi^bting survt-y of Bayou rirrn". I .inn^iana 

Act of August 11. 1KS8-^ 

For improving Ki*d Kiver. ( ypFt*." liavon. and Bayou Donbcai 

For survey of Kt'd K iver 

Act of September li». l>4i^»— 

For imi»roving Ked Kiver 

For survey of KimI IJiver 

Aggregate of appropriations 1872 to 1S!*1 1. 



APPENDIX V — REPORT OP CAPTAIN WILLARD. 1953 

resist the scoiir, and the cost ofclosiiijj SiUo and Mun)hy wjis givcu at 
$6,9(>0. (Rei>ort Chief of EiigiiuHn-s 1S82, pages ir>4<M547.) By the 
act of July 5, 1884, $5,0(M) was allotted to close this (iiith^t, and as this 
amount was not suthcient to carry ont tlu* original ]»roject, it was de- 
cided to build the dam of brush mattresses and earth. Thcj dam was 
built in !N'ovember, 1884, but before it hji4l time to solidify the Decem- 
ber flood came and it was destroyed. No work has been done tor the 
closure of the outlet since. 

The aet of September 19, l8fK), directed that ?l5,(MM) of the appropria- 
tion should be applied U) closing this outh»t. In Xovember Assistant 
Engineer John Ew<ins was sent t4) make an examination fortheiniriiose 
of preparing plans for the work recininMl. His r(»port is given below : 

I left Vicksburjf NoveiiibtT 6. but o\viii;( to a chaii^jt? in time of sttsimboat^ was 
nnable to leave Shroveport until Xovember 8. at 10 a. m.. and arrived at the Sale 
and Murpby Canal tlie morning of November 9. I foun<l tlie canal for a diHtanoe of 
800 feet trom its mouth back eonipletely covered with an inujiensi^ Jam of drift logs 
and trees, very few of Avbich were not of f7)rniidable ])ro]»ortions. Around the base 
of this conglomeration of d^^bris a heavy deposit of Hand and clay has formed, mak- 
ing an impassable barrier, wliieli is closing the. canal gradually through the natural 
action of the river, and, judging from the j>resent rate of progrcHs, the c'h)sure will 
be complete in 3 or 4 years. After a careful inspection of the canal from its mouth 
to a jjoiut where it divides into si'veral small branches a very desirable section 
about 1,200 feet from the mouth was selected as the one most suitable for an em- 
bankment to close the outlet. The favorable features it presents are ns follows: 

1. A foundation free from stumps, logs, etc., that always prove fatal to levee em- 
bankment, . 

2. It is the narrowest section between high banks; has the minimum water sec- 
tion at a stage at which the (dosure will have to be nuide; and a marked bar forma- 
tion is manifest, greatly reducing the till and giving a stronger fonndatiou. 

8. ITie banks practically are as high as at tbe mouth. 

4. Tlio best and nif>st aceessibli* mateiial in the vicinity is quit<5 near. 

In addition to these salient ])oints, the advantagt* to be derived from the protoc- 
.tion the immense barrier of «lri ft and deposit will art'ord can not be estinuitod too 
highly. The position selected is as near the moutb as prat.'ticabhs tbe governing 
cohditicms being to obtain a section that will be tr(M> from htgs, andatapoint where 
the pressure of intlowiug water will be at a niinimuni. The section was sounded 
carefully with a i)oIe an<l distances measured wit li steel tape. The total width of 
section from top of high bank is 160.7 feet; the water width at present stage 97.5 
feet. For a space of 41 feet an average depth of 8 f«!et of water was found, but in 
the spaces on each side of this i)ool the depth varied from to 6 feet. The high- 
water mark of 1890 (tlu^ highest known) was found to be 18.5 feet above the water 
surface November 9. (H. W. 18iK), L'8lM5 feet Cairo datum.) 

The following embankment is recommended for the closure of this outlet: A levee 
having a crown of 10 feet, to (extend 2 feet above high- water mark. Outside and in- 
side slo])es 4 on 1. The upper end (»f the dam to bo extended out to the main levee 
a difitance of about 1,500 feet, and the lower end to be extended to edge of swamp, 
about 1,400 feet. The crown and slopes to be sodded and covered with a thin layer 
of willows or other brush at hand, laid so as to form a light mattress to be held in 
place by sacks of earth. On the river face this mattress should be extended at b^ast 
50 feet beyond the base of the levee. A structure of this character, properly built, 
should stand all the pressure it would be subjected to ; but in order to have the views 
of the people who reside in the vicinity of the canal, and who are familiar with the 
regimen of the river at all stages and its etfect at the canal, I invited Mr. M. Hunt 
and Mr. T. J. Martin to go over the ground with me and discuss the merits of difter- 
ent locations as i)os8ible sites for the dam, and both agreed that the site selected was 
most desirable for permanence and eo(momy in building. The ma|j:nitude of the drift 
and deposit makes it not only inipracticabh!! but very undesirable to adopt any situ 
nearer the mouth. 

KHtiinaitft. 

12,798 cubic yards main (embankment, at 20 cents $2, Xii). 60 

12,888 cubic yards embankment for extension, at 10 eents 1, 2;JS. «() 

Mattressing main embankment 2r»(). OO 

In8i)ection :<4K). 00 

Contingencies, prote«-ting work during high water, etc 651.00 

Total 5,000.00 









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,u*nuluall>. ^'Vi' !• .* ..'• . .'-■'•:•.. allnwi-ii to giv«.' tli».* rhanui.'l tuipDr- 
tiiiiitv to aiiani :-• I; *o ^:.. • « n-;.-!-,! dJM-|iai^«*. 

sriivj:\ 1)1- n\:u i:i\j-i; ji;"i i ilimn. \ukansas. to axciiafalava 

<)ii ari'omit ot' tlio ilifiiiiih y ill MMinin;^- skilliM.1 lucii tor tin* ^radi* o 

work r<Miuir«Ml on the ^iii\fy. ami tin* lat«* ilat<» tin which tht* ii]>]>ro]ii'ia 

tion iMM-anu* availabh* at'irr lin- a|>i)i'oval of the pniject rtMpiiriMl by 

i;i\\. it was jiiiiiii'il mo>t rroiiniiiiral to ]»ONt])nin» the trlaii^'ulatioii anil 

imrJNi' li'vcls Irniii Alexandria to tla* Atchatalaya until tlie t'nllo\viii«r 

••■:i-on. TlM'>nrvey party wa^* rt'ornatii/^eil under Assistant Kn.s,nn«'<*r 

Ii. ^I. Marshall, and <'niploy«»d on the survey i»r Yazoo I^iver trom 

0'*',}n*i- 'J'J lo DiM'eniber <>. and tlu'ii transterreil to Shrevei>«»rt and 

' ..; .:'j<i\ on \\\r survey olthe (.'y|>re<s Ilayou and tlie lakes until April 

il. 1 'H. I |»on the eoin]detion olthe tield work the ]Kirty was ilivichMl. 

• ' •!• *.M li'iH ill lieinn ><*nt to make additional itoss se<*tions ot* Red 

• •.« !'fV. >Jii(\eport and (Minnei't ^^itll the stations ot* tornier snr- 

'• I. i^''- l.*i\ir ancl lI;i\ou l*iern»: and thi' seeond detaehinent wa> 

• •• •■ 'onneciinu- hiuh water marks with the levid lines ami 

■'■,• di ijiaruf of \U'i\ Hiver and outh»ts ahiive Shrevei»nrt. 

'\'i*,t\ fit' I ^IM^ w.i-i risinu in Red River persons living" alouu 

« •• . I I III to ro(ipeiate with the euiiineers in n\i?ii: tli«* 

Al.'.Ml I. "id piiMM'> ol' zine. lettered 11. W. lym. wnr 

/' i. .;»!.: eon\ « iili-ni to i]n' river between Kultoii. Ark.. 

.' •■ •!•, «•. err a>ke<| t<« nail them to trei-N «ii •n::M:nu^ 

' J In- lioiM|.:i!id to Ni'ud de^el iplinn^ •'*f *:.«■ >'••;! 

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1950 RErORT OF THE CHIEF OF KXOIXEERS, U. S. ABMY. 

the tlotli of June the boat bad ivatluMl Pdsteii Bay«>u, 53 mile^ 
Slirevei)ort. Progress was !*low, as tlu* banks >vere ovorgrowi 
brush and vines, and all trees were eiit into sliort lengths so as i 
beAMmie chamiol obstructions in the future. Operations witli the 
during the year were eondueted under the immediate supervis: 
Overseer W. W. Moore, who reported the ft»lU>wiug summary of 
done: 

Snui;s mid trees removed Inmi I'lmnnel 

Shore 8iiu«;8 removed 

.Side jams reinovfd 

Leaning tre«'S removed 

Trees girdled 

Stumps removed 

Square yards brush ami willows rut 1( 

False points removed with explosives 

The removal of obstiiietions during tht* }k\sx year has been of ^ 
benefit to navigation, as is evidenced by the I'aet that not a vessel 
lost, and, to my knowledge, there has been no serious aeeident. 
Xew Orleans and Shreveport boats ran tlirough the Little Kive 
regular time witli the gauge at Shreveport n»ading only 2 feet, a 
dition previously unknown by any of ttie i)ih>ts whom 1 questioned 

The plant when not in usi* was laid up at Slireveport. and eai'ec 
properly to prevent deterioration. The rented storehouse upon 
bank near the l>oals was destroytMl by lin* September l». The tire li 
out uptMi the t»]»])osite si<le of tiu* slnet. but spread «jul«-kly. K 
eH'oii: was made by tlie employes to save the lU'oj^erry. but as ihc* ' 
was blowing toward tlie tieet. they had all they eon hi do to sjivi 
lx)ats. Witli the t*\ee]>tion of skill's, th«' «rrratt»r portion of the iu*o] 
destroyeil wasof Htth* vahn\ and had brrn inovrd from the boats \\ 
it was needed no liuiger. 

ALKWNPIM.V. 

The aet of September r.>. lstM». piovidiMl that *• -'f«l.\0()o shall be 
in the work at Alexandria." No j»orti<iii oi' iiii< iimonnt has beei 
pended. but it is intended to riihi]L:<' tlie rliatiiii-l ihrough the u 
falls by dredgiuiLi". de]»ositiiig tin* i'\i:i\alrd inahTJal (Ui the east > 
endof Bailevs Dam at thelowt-r talN. :ind liu\ iiii: morr for that inn 
ifneeessary. Soundings \vi*n* iii:Hh* in Angn<i timing tin* progn* 
the survey of Hed Kiver for a wtukini: map in «aM* an allotment .sli 
be made for ]>ri»teftin«r tin* l»ank ai Ahxandria. Inii no work was 
on ae<'ount of the lat('ni'» ot'ilir ap|i]'i»)>i'ialion and the rontinued 
water to the <-los«' ni' tin- (iM-al >im!. li i< ad\ i^al>I<* to put this 
ofVas hmg a^s pM>Nihh'. Ih'tan^i' il i> a \«'r\ dflical** niatler t(» d( 
upon a work tur liank iMntn i jdn (ithi-t- than i«'\('tnn*nt that shall 
part of an intdliui'nt plan t'nr tii«- ;m-i niannit iuiproN rnn'nt of thrstr 
l*n»peM> t»\\ni'i«* alniiL; ^h«u«' In')o\. ?ljr l»!'iilvi* ai Mnnroj*. on <Mia« 
IJivrr. ha\<* proirrinl ilu- ri\rr imnr a; llu-ii own rhai'ges by a 
rangenn-nt o!" |»ih*> and j»lank< m i in ima* r<. and it is d«'sired t 
siTve tin* I'll'ict i>t' iliis ri»iM|»arari\ r]\ in«-\jM'ii>i\i* work. I{(»\eti 
with nialtrf« wnvk m ^Imhi' al'iiu-. a«- n^nl will; sin-t-i'ss on the M 
sippi. is id ht* pn-fi-rird in an\ «'ih« r kiinl as ^^Ihmt pr.tt»M*tion, bui 
[iro)M'ri> nwiui-sal A l-xanili ia aii- nn\\;Ilinu" ii«.-i\t' any part «M 
liank nut-^idf I in- n»\\ii lr\iM- ii> In- '^laiiiMJ awav. wliirh would ha> 
In- »lonf it* rr\ «•! nii-ni \\«ic a«hijiu-ii. ;^^L:i^^•an\ <-a"*> >li»pe and ]U'e 
lis sliding ini«i ihr i i\i r. liui ii i In- n rnii iltti'-inn of rlie Vnitetl 8 
\-tn\i\ niav !»«■ I'ollnwtd. in whi« li it va-* li«ld thai iIm* Stale eonnuis 



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lt»54 REPORT Ol-^ THE CHIEF OK ENIJINEEUS, .U. S. ARMY. 

Thf 'J\^ t<iii IkisU \v;l> iisrd. a> 1«m .il |»:iitit> ;ihsiiujI mv ihnt ilu*y wuuKl jj:ii;»r; 
Tu do thi- W(»rk satisfiuiorily lor that ]ni(«'. Tht- 10 rmt estiinaU' lor rxtiMisim 
^liore I r.iiisiiliT hwffv t-uouj;h, us Tluy ran In- imule with scrapiTS and very oa 
'Iho s4lu»i«' ^Y(l^k i^ iuiiMHtaiit fur j»nit«M f iou at l\i:;h water, as tIk- loral lovoo oxt 
to tUf liills and im waior rould nsuli tin- rniltaukmrnt from al>oM', 

OwiujL:" to till' latt' iktumI wlu-ii tlir ii]»pn>]»riatioii uas \i\iu\o \\ 
tliou^lit iM'St todi'tV'i- the work of <*oiistnu*tiii'r this diiiii ami tlio 
])ioai-hrs until aftiT th(» wiiitt'i- ami s]uiuir H«m)(]s hatl ]uisstMl. inonlt* 
>rivt» jilfiity 4»t*tinit* tor it to (*oiis<»liilato; ami tor this li'asoii and on 
count ol suiMM'ssivt* llooils ainl rontinnrd liijrh watrr to thilr noth 
was dont' to tht* iMid (d'tlu* tisral yrar. It is f\]MM't*Ml to romnionrt* 
i-onsi ruction by the ndddh* of Auj:usi. and under tudinary <'onditi<Mi; 
slu»uld bo tinished >Yithin a na»nt]i or (» weeks at most. 

'Ihis W(»rk shtiuhl be rej^ardtMl (»nly as a be«i:innin*r, and all i»t* t 
outlets which now <li*iilete the main river at all staj^es should be «*los 
gradually, sutlicient intervals bein-r allowed to jji:ive the channel oppi 
innity tip adapt itsidf to the increasiul dischar^re. 



srKVK\ vr KKD KIVER FKOM Fl LToX, ARKANSAS. TO ATCUAFALA^ 

RIVKR. 

IMMCHM'.SS RKIMUM. 

On actount of the ditH«-ulty in securin^r skilled men for the jri'ade < 
work retiuired on the survey, an<l tiie late date «mi which theappropri; 
tion became available after the approval t»l* the project required b 
law, it wasjud^'ed mt»st economi«*al to post])one the trian«:;ulatiou an 
precise levels from Alexandria to the Ati-hatalaya until the tbllowin, 
si»as<ni. Tlu» survey party was reorganized under Assistant Knjrinee 
II. M. Alarshall. and employed on the survey of Ya/oo IJiver t'nni 
October 1*0 to I>ecend)er (>. and then transt'cri'ed t«» Shreveport an< 
enpi*rotl on the survey of the Cypress l>ayt»u and the lakes until Apri 
14, ISIM. T'pon the c<»mph»tion of the lichl work the ]»arty was tlivided 
one detachnu'Ut beinj*; sent to nuike atlditional cross section:? of Ked 
Kiver below kSh re veiHU't and connect with tlu» stations of fonnor sur- 
veys of Little IJiver and Bay<»u Pierre: and the second detachment was 
employed in connectiu'r hij;h-wat4'r marks with the level lines and 
measurinjr the discharjre of Ked Kivt»r and outlets above Shrevej>ort. 

AVhile the Hoiid of l.siM» was risin;: in Ked IJiver ])ersons livinjr ahm«:: 
the banks were asked to coojjcratc with the enirineers in lixinjx the 
hijrhwater lin«\ About loO ]mci'i's t)f zim*, h*ttered II. W. ISUO, were 
mailed t<» citizens liviiiir convenient to the rivt»r betw<'en Fulton, Ark., 
and th«» Atcliafalaya. wlio were asked to nail them to trees or buihlinj^s 
at the extreme hci«iht ot the llnnd. ;md t4» send <b»scri]dions of the hM*a- 
tions anil d:iles tn this dniiM'. About thirty notires \v«mc received, and 
the rh'vatjoiis of tlic murks hiwr been taken ])\ Uxr] Mlier<'ver the de- 
tachment wa*s within reasonable distance of liie mark. Oilh»v marks 
have been Nveled to after imjuiry fr(>ni perNons li\ in^ alon^i tin* banks 
as far down>neam as Alexantlria. Tin' tli>char;i«'of ei«»ht outlets fnnn 
the west bank was measure«l by tloats. ami ihat t)f Twelve Mile l>ayou 
and rri»ss iSavon taken with the Priee current nn'tt»r. as alsi» the dis 
charjre of lied IJivcr abo\e and below them. TIn'se observations were 
made on llie >i»iinu rise, when the Shreve]»orl ^^aujue was L*."* feet. 

The party was tiien reilueed t«» a sinuh* >niall detaciinient — tiit» dralYs- 
men and C4im|mi«'r> bi'in;^' sent to ihe otlice to work ni>on maps and 
n<»tes — and ejiuai^cd in le\-elJ!ii: t«> hi;:li water marks, cimnectin^* trian- 
;ralation >ialioii's wiili .uaniic si'eti«»n^. and niakiiii: discharge and seili- 
iiient iilr^ei \a:ion^. Tlie w^ik h:i-» pro^H->si-d sali-^faetorily. the stajie 



APPBNDIX y — RKPKKT Of CArJAtN' wri.LAKI). 



10,57 



Tin.'. pri'iJiaiM'iit hiiprovoini'iit of Krd lil\rr others :» [irMlilriii of ox«M*»Mliii;; rliOii'MlU-, 
flic solution ofwliicli (io|M'iii1s iipiMi mt.-iiii coiiilitiiMi.s that, i^xist in no otiuM'Klrmiii 
ill like (U'^rcc. Tlu^ iiioKt Kcrioii.s (jiii'Ktiun i^ tlif (lis|Hihilioii of drift, which riiitN :it 
timoH iu Hiich f[iiaiititio8 hs to render iiiivijirntioii hu/anloiis liy day and impossibh'. 
by night. The river is frequently .ianiined in a few honrs with aeivs of tinufrs and 
logs; and raft formation iH prevented only hy jmini])! serviee. of the .siia;r boati<. 
»Shonld jams occ'ir when funds an* exhausted and none experted for 8<nne lime, it is 
probable that new raftri would form, divertin;; ihe river from the bed in whieh 
thousands have been judieiously spent, to ]osr. itself in the h>w]aud.s and bayous, 
flestroying by the. way a f«»rtile eountry tliat has been reelaiined from ov«frllow by 
the joint work of the im])rovement and the eonstru4'tii>n of levees by tin* State. 
Should the survey of Red River now in i»ro«;ress to ilw. Atchafahiya indieate that a 
8bu;k- water system is feasible and for the best interests of navigation, tln^ question 
of drift would assume larger proportions, possilily wou jindiibitory. There ean be. 
little doubt that it wonhl forbid tin- giMutral applieation of any existing system of 
movable dams; and even with iixed dams the qne.stion remains a srrions one. Some 
means would have to be devise<l to eateh <lrift. keeji it «>nt of the ehannel way and 
locks, and this wmild iieei'ssitate very long guard walls, >\ith traveling eraiies to 
handle heavy timber. Possibly a eombination of two systems niijj:ht be made, givuig 
a drift jiass to be eh»sed by heavy shutters, bear trap, or other (b*viee drawn from the 
best experieneo on sueh work. 

An open river, however, even with oeeasional «Iet<'nlions in low wafer, is to be 
7»rof<*rred to any .slack- water system with detentions at ev«'.ry lock. if it ean be. made 
To give generally a fairnavigation throughont the year at a reasonable eost, and 
itspermaneney s«'run»d by a moderate i)creentage for maintenance. The imiiortanee 
of the subject ean be judged best by referring t«) the map of the "'ountry drained by 
lied. Onaciiita, and tribntary streams. Clieaj* transportation tor th«* entire valley 
■west of Missis.sippi an<l south of the Arkansas is possible onlv through the mouth of 
Ked Kiver to the port of Xew Orleans and the sea. 

Whatever plan shall be adopted for improving the main riveis. or even if the. work 
of giving an a.ssured reji.sonable navigation iu lied Kiver to Shreveport and beyond 
be delayed for a time, there are certain general principles to be followed, if (»nly to 
save, till that rune eonies. what has been gained, or to prevent the liver closing. 
These principles are stated-in natural sei|uence. as fnllows: 

1. The systematic clearing of the ))auks for some distanre liack far beyond the 
limits of this district. It is cheajker to renujve the soun-e of drift than to dispose of 
drift; and the benefit to navigation is immediate. 

2. An etticient snag boat service for general work. i)atr<ding the river, preventing 
jams, removing logs and snags from the chauiH>l an«l banks, and diedging tow-heads 
and obstinate shoals. Here, again, the benelit is innnediate. A )>ermauent a))pro- 
}»riation of not less than fl'n.OOO a year is in*eded tor this purpose. 

3. Kxtcnding the sco])e of the survey to embrace the whole valley. This is neces- 
sary to the ])roper study of this riv<;r and tributaries, an«l to furni.sh all the int'onua- 
tion refjuired to decide u])on a system of imiirovement and to loeate its elenn-nts. 

4. Con.struetion of a substantial system of levees to nvstrain the greatest lb>ods, 
either abuie or in partnership with the riparian States. 

.").» Closing gradually every out h't through which the main streams are dejdeted 
at vari(»us stages above low water. 

(i. Fixing caving banks to c(mline the main stream to the channel selected for it. 

7. To exerci.se a watchful care fn»m lirst to last to ]>revent injury to the regimen 
of tht; streams by cut-otVs or (uith'ts, and to keep the building of bridges within 
reasojiable bounds. 

Onlinsirily, fixing; <'aving banks should pror.ode h'vco Iniilding and 
eh)sing tmth*ts, hut as the banks aio ivasnnably stable for a <*()nsider- 
nble part of Ked l^iver, and as the object is to gr^t an improved naviga- 
tion without unneeessary dehiy, revotin«*nt is ])laeed after tlieni. The 
surest and elieai)est way to get the bnietit of levi*es in eoneentrating 
the flood Avaters is to join the States and aid them in restoring antl 
completing their levees. The estimates tor levee eonstrnetion are for 
eompleting lines in Louisiana projected by tli<* State engiinMn*. Otiier 
lines will 1x5 hiid down in Louisiana an<l Arkansas after the survey 
shall have been (?oin])let<Ml to the Atchafalaya. The clo.sure of the out- 
lets may be aeeomplished as part of the levee work when the lines ar^ 
conveniently near. 



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APPENDIX V-7-Bi:P0liT W CAl'TAIN WILLARD. 195!) 

}r"l"'!l nhili'iiiriil. 

Julyl, 1890, l>uluiii.'eiiui-\]ii-]iilMl *i;i,a{B.33 

Amomit Hppniprinti-(l I'.v act npiiinvril S<'])irinln'r 1!1, IWM 128.000.00 

111.336.33 
June 30, 1891, iimonnt expeii>li-il ilnriii}; fts.-iil v.i.r H(i.831.»<l 

July 1, 1801, balance nnerjKiHiiMl Ii)1.40+.ft4 

Julyl, 1891, ontfltBU(Unglinl>Hiti.s _... 429.4B 

Jnlyl, 1891, liftlfliiCBaTailnhlr ia% 975.48 

t Ainouutfhiitcimbe]»rofltiib!.v.!XiiMi.|r.liiilis.Mil.vMiri.ii.liMK.Iiiiii:«'. 1893 100,000.00 
^ Snbmittnil iu compfiancG wirli ]vi]iii»'iLi<>iitK <>r siiliiiiiK 2 ol' rivci- iiiid 
( harbor aita of ISOG and IKKT. 
The amounts pxpcnded dnriiij; tliii tiscul yfui' Knclini;.Iiiiii! 'Mi. )M{PI, vf.n- im t'lillovH: 

For general improvement, n-pnirM. nirp of jiljiiit. i-tr i^, 346. 36 

ForCyprcii Uayoii, etc 28.'i.94 

For eiuuiination and survey of the l.ittlu Itivrr lii'loivS<<>|>iiii Cnt-nli'.. . 1',:CJ3.99 

For examination of Bale and Miiipliv Outlet 101. M 

For the snrvoy of Rpd River 4,773.90 

Total 3t>,831.:ei 



COMllKHCtAI. STATIsTirs. 

In the past fieeal year Bed Uivcr wuuiiavi^rniiiii iiptwR<>u Slirc^voport niidtho tnniitli 
during July, and ftoin Octobci 1 to .liiuc: 30. During Aii{;iiiit mid Stjittruiln^r tLo 
river was at a very low stage, and fur iian of that period Monifroinvi-y, li!l inilcH 
holoir Shreveport and .12 iibove Alexandria, wim thn neud of navigatiou. Ilctwi-eii 
Slirevoport, La., and FultJin. Ark., the river was nnvigalile froni XiiviTul>cr6 to May 
16, and ftoin Shreveport to (inrlnnil, for sninll ateamera, the entire year. 

The following stcauilioatti were engiif^ed iu thit Itcil Kiver trade during the year : 



TaJIfljrQQMn., 

Hn]lctte".'.".''.'!;.'!!!".'!^'- -SSliwi l«!o'3ai 4 

John D. Si'nilv -KtS. TOl 21B. M. 8- 1 

! I ) i 

Sat. P. Unrtch ilOlM; IBl.fl5a.» 3 

FHmiUr (in.7« iL'ii.osn.e a 

E. U. Whtelcict . . 
C. £. Sotlf rlM . . . 

BplleCnwka 

Mm™ 

John (liluiore — 



nil. 411 i<>2.iiw.n (.a 

TS.43 OLeSi.i\ 10 
. 4.1.* I I04.31V. 



3 iijij 



ShrcvunoTt andJuflprrion — 
...do 

Slueviiptirl, Giliner, uhI Obp- 

Fultuo and Liin«»nint 

Whreveport nod AlBiandriB . . 

_ FultflDnnd Gmiani) 

l-fll Fiilhm and. T.uiMt|H)rC ....,.., 

I j tjiinveiiflrt timt (iBrbind I . 

I ^, > Knox I>i>i Dt ami Mnalh BUck l 



1960 rp:port of the chief of engineers, v. .s. akmy. 

The freights by river are given below, witli a eomparisun with lbe2 years pre- 
ceding : 



Artit'lea. 



Cotton 

Cotton need 

Hides and skins. 

LiTostock 

Lumber 

Stares 

Stone 

Cotton-soed nioal 
Sundries 



1S90-'91. 



Tons. 

l!J.6i;» 

12, 'iM» 

212 

"38 

16, 52:1 

81 



10.0(H) 
2,719 



1889-'90. 



Tont. 
18,838 
14,140 
35 



4,519 
58 



136 



1888-'89. 



Tont. 

12,&93 

11,975 

97 

82 



4.600 
"*373 



Tot-nldown frciglit. 
Return freights 



63, 43:) 
30, 031 



37. 726 
28,6^ 



29.670 
19,780 



Total. 



93.486 J 66,376 I 



40,450 



Estimated vabie i9, 185, 000 $6,820,310 



$5,870,000 



Inncblitioit to the above: From Ouachita River, entering Red River at moutli of 
Black River, 221,191 tons. The value of whieh is estimated to bo $9,130,000. 
The following table shows the reeei])ts and shipments of cotton at Shrevcport, La. : 



I80a-'9i. 



Source of n>c«'ii»ts: 

By rail 

Uy wagon 

]Jy riv<*r 



Bale*. 
39, 890 
37,723 
14,836 



1889-'90. 



Bale*. 
25.470 
40,026 
8,897 



]888-*89. 



Balet. 
;w,331 
35,450 
12,368 



Warolioiise rfcoiptw ! 92,449 



ShipmvntM: , 

By Tpx:m and Tjui lie K.qilroud ! 23. f'.l 1 

J*y Vit'kHltiir^. Shn'vcjMirt and racilli'. Kaih'tmd l."», olU 



By Shn'V(']Mirt and IlmiMtun Kaih-oaii 
By St. LouiM and Siiuthwt'stfrn Knili-oad 
BV rivt-r !«» Now ( )r1<*iins 



Total 



13. KOO 
15, 039 
19,218 



74,402 



23.690 

20,813 

12. 529 

8,820 

8.412 



78.148 



20,682 

24,029 

4tf4 

24,123 

8,056 



80.992 



74,204 



18,184 



The water route from Slirevcpf»rt, La., to Jeft'erson, Tex., through the lakoA and 
Cypress Bayou, was navigable from l>ee»?mber 1 to the end of the fiscal year. The 
number of trips made by steamboats is given in the list of boats above, and the 
freights reported were as follows : 



Freiglita. 



1890-'91. 



Tm* 

Cotton 025 

Ciitton »iHd ' 200 

LnuilMT 89,4(K} 

Suudrk'fl 1, 82.'> 



Total down frci^ilits \ 85, 050 

Return fn-iiiliiK ! TOO 



]88ft.'90. 



Tvnt. 
200 
25 



225 
3.300 



T<italfni"lits 8r»,7."i0 i 



3,525 



Estimated value ' $748,000 J $304,325 



*Not i-pportod. 

The ronipetiug routes of transportation for the trade of tlie Red River Valley 
belt»w Fulton. Ark., an* as follows: Thi* river is ero.«<sed by the St. Louis, Iron 
Mountain and Soutlieru Raihvav. at Fulton. Ark., bv the St. Louis and Konth- 
western Railway (Cotton B^dt Route), at (iarhuid. Ark., and by the Vickubuzg, 






V~RKP'1HT.0>: ClWilK WlLLlittt- ' i^St 

Him |vnn;u)mtl iiii|in>i'i>u]<.'iit, nf itiirM'olIbriapiobleiaDfaxoMdiiiff dinenliy, 
th«»<>]iili>in«l'wltliii ilnitiitiitii ii| jaa ^Quditlvnathat otlat In no othor ■boam 

III tiy- i)<;:ri.>. [fw im-l Milr.ii ..tmtt theiUaBuutiancir drift, whiobTanBat 

.1 . I- I I r iiftTlfliatlon MiMdona Iiy cUqr ftnd impoulble ' 

I < iiii ,.. J, led in a ftw hours irlUi aocM of uiurs and 
III' ^ ■ iiti-'. .., Jj bj prompt Bervice of the anag Doati. 

.[ .ii>' I'^liuiiBMdand none oxpeotod for Bomo tlniQ, It fa 

.::: - ti'iiilil I'nrni, diverting tba rivoT ftom the bed in which 
li.iv.' Iii^ru jiiillr'ioiii^ly spent, to loMi itnelf in tbe luwlanda and baTom, 
t \ij flui way & furtiln'nxtutry tlmt hfta beon rooluinied lYom overflow bjr ' 
wur): of the improvDinont mid the constntation of leveoa by the State. 

IT in progTBW to the Atchafalaya inilicate that a 

I'"' '.'[J) best interests of uiLviautioo, the qncation 

., poSBibly even prohibitory. There can be 

. .eml ap]>Iication of iiny existing Hystem of 

j tlio i{iii>stiou romainH ii eerioos one. Sonie 

d h:ivo to bo rteTisert to catfli ilrift, keep it out of the cliannel way and 

aud this wonld neceasitatn very long gxiioA walla, ii'itli trnTeling crane* to 
bf«ry timber. Possibly a combination of two eystems might be made, giving 
B^iiftpBMlabe closed by heavy abutters, lienr tnip, or other device drownitom the 
Wrt uperiencq nii such woA. 

Jn epm river, however, even with occnsionnl detentions in low water, is to ho 
inlHnvI to any Hlack-water eyst«m with detonlinns at every lock,if it con be made 
It |iTR geiteraliy a Mr navi^tion throughout tlie year at a reasonable coat, and 




HlwnaunMicy secured by a moderate percoutage for maintiainnce. The importance 
•f MHhk<-tcBn lie Judgnl best by rol'i^rring tu tliomap of the country drained by ' 
MiOiiai-ntta, and tribntury stroama. Cheap trnnanorttition for tho entire vulloy 



•t of UiwiMippi nnd snnth'of the Arkiinaaa Is pofiatble only tiiToiigli the mouth of 
Bad Kivcr tu the port of Xen Orlcaiix iinil the scu. 

WliBtever pliin ?<linll lie niloptcd for iinj^'Dviiig tho main riviTc, or even If the woi^ 
■t nriiiK an a^iimt rcusonnlile nitvi;:iitioii in lied Kiver to Khreviii>ort and beyontl 
Wdebynl fur n time there are certain general principles to ho followed, if only to 
Hn,tiU that limo cotncs. what has been gained, or to prevpnt tho ilver rlosiug. 
llMwiiriui-iploH iin> Ktatwl-iu ii.ii nrnl wi|ni'iicp, na f(dlow» : 

1. Tht- Hv«t4>lii:iti«' i'li'iirhlg»t'tjie liiiiiltM fur Minje distil nil' back fur iHtviiiid thii 
liMit* of liiiH iliHtrif-t. 11 is <'I)i'ii]ht to rciiiovu lEiu source of 'liili liiiin to (liMiioufi of 
drifliaiiil the ln-nelit to niivigntiini is immcdiuti'. 

- An PlIii'iFiit snug bimt survice fur gi-nrrul work, piitroliug the rtvi-r, pn-vciitiiig 
jm. [•'iiiiiviiif! logH and siiiigs fi'oin tliti chuiiuid Diiil banks, ami dre<lging tow-hciiiln 
ml nlDitiusti' Hlioiilit. Ifi-rp, aguin, tiiK beiiclit is iniiut'<linte. A puriiuinent appro- 
|irliii<in »rii»t li-Ks ilian fSi^WO a year ia needed for this iiiir|)i>Ki'. 

X Kxti-iiiliiit: till- si'opi' nfilip survey toiinhnui- till- wlmU' vallor. Tliisia ncrea- 
■ary til till' pill] it-r study of this river and tribiittirics. nnd tu ftiniinhnl) theiiilVinna- 
lim minimi t" di'i-id^ iip'Ui a syHtem of iiiiprovemcnt and tu Im-iitu itaelemeulH. 

,^ I'liiiHtriK'liiin uf a sniistiintial syslr-ni of liivccH tu ri'struin thf greatest iliiods, 
•ith'i sliine or in partntirabip with tin' ripnrinn Stutes. 

■Vrlu^ug gradually vvcry outlet thrciuKh which tlic niniii streams nro depletiOd 
M variiinH Kiagi-s iiIhivc low water. 

*■ Riing raving Iianka to runtine tb" mniii slri'iini to tlic t')i:inni-l selcet-ert for it. 

". Til rxcrriiu- » watchl^l core from fimt to hint to prtvent. iu.jury to the rcgiincn 
"t thp Mrr.iniK bv rnt-otls or iinllets, iiuil to ki-ep tlio buililiiig of bridges within 
M^malili' Ixinuiln. 

"niiiiiirily, tlxinV caving bunks hIhiuIiI procode lovoc building and 
rIoMng (intli'ts, but as the banks ai-v ivawjiuibly stabk' I'ov a con-sidflr- 
■I'k' part «f Itcd Kiver, and as the objwt is to f!o,t an improved navifja- 
Iwo witliout uiiDWCwtary delay, i-evetmi-nt is platrvd after tliem. Tlie 
wn'st und flHMjiest way to get the In-m'lit of l«vees in coucentinting 
tliu flood waters is to Join the States and iiid tbcni iu restoring and 
Miniiltting their levees. The estimates lor levee eonstruetion are for 
B)iiililcting lines in Louisiana projeetcd Ity tlie State engineer. Other 
liwawillbc laid dou-n in Tjouisiana and Arkansas alter the survey 
rtiall have been (■om]ilet»'d to the Atehalala,\!i. The closure oJ' the <)nt- 
tets may be aeeomplished im part of the levee work when the hues are 
conreuicutly near. 



Ik 

l!)5Ji REPORT OF TliE CHIEF OF ENOIXEKRS, it. S. ARMY.-^ 

i> f: r A I IF. I » j: sm ma i ks . 

Flathoat with steam power and crauo or shears. r.-iUin. und ontlit 

Two dniup-scows for dredjre i 

Pile driver with steam hammer anil jet 

Small towlM>at and tender, .sTrel hull 

Skirts, rijrjrin^. tools, etc 

Scrricf of pUnit. 

Expenses ol' sna^ and tow hoats 

Expenses of <lredge 

Expenses of ehoppinjj parties 

Excavation of rock and straij?litenin«; cliannel at Ah'xaiulri:i 

KeniovinjL^ (d»strn<'ti<»ns in Cypress Itayou 

f 'fl/Y of pi (tilt. 

Wajjes, suhsistenoe. and supplies for lleer 

Regular and extraordinary repairs 

CoHnirmtion. 

Repairing and enhirpiug the State levees hy jtdninji: witli the Stato 
engineers and leve4» boards for the pnrpi>se of <'ontinin^ the waters 
uf Ked River to the adopted channel, thereby improving; and 
giving ease and safi'ty to the navigation of the river, cuhir yanls 
estimate<l as follows : 

Caddo district above Slireveport TiO, 000 

Caddu dist rict helow Shreveport :>70, 000 

dossier district below Shreveport :iOO. 000 

HoHsier district above Shreveport 80, 000 

Rapides district, from Alexandria tii A\o\cIl«.s Prairie 140.000 

Total «ubie yards, at 1*0 cents 790. 000 $1 

Closhitf niitlt tft. 

Pooley and Red Bayou 

Cottonwt»od Hayou 

Cowhide Ihiyou 

Tunes Bayon 

Choctaw Rayon 

Draining impounded water from Choctaw Hayou by canal to Hayou ties 
Glaizes, or otherwise 

Establishing gauges and pay of observers 

Leveling and monuments 

SurnyM, 

Completing survey of Red River a<"cording t<» ap|)roved projeet, including 
triant;ulation. transvallev sections, borings, and publieation of maps on 
full scale -' 

Ijocal surveys and examinations of caving banks for revetment work 

.iilnihnstmthtn. 

Oftice exi»enses, stationery, mileage, and contingenries 

As}«istaut engineers, draft>men, inspei"ti<»n, and trans])oriatioii 

Total •! 



ArrKNjux v-7-ki:p(»ut of cai»tain willaud. 195J) 

•'uU 1. is*Ni. ii:ti.iiii-«- Miii-\iitMiiitMi >f!i.s. !':;»;. i>:{ 

Aiii«»niit nvj»rMpii:iTeil ».y sn! aiijinn nl Si])t<uilMr 1!». ISJH) 12K.000. 00 

in.L>36.33 
.lime 3ii. 1x91. ann»mit <'XpriiibMl ilurinj; Hs.al .mjh :^«;. .s:^l.Hil 

-lulvl, l«n. l«il:iu<»? mu-xiMiuh-il HH. im.J»4 

July I. lW»l.«.iitst;milin;rri!»^Mliti«> 12t).4« 

July 1. ls*n, lialiUunjiVHilnUlf lOIJ. 975.48 

y .Vmoiiiitrli:(ttMit he]»r(itita1*iy4-x|)tMi<i<-4l in li>(':i] Miiri'ii(liii;^.hnit> lUi, 1S!K» KM). (NM). (H) 

^•■iHinitiiMl ill ri>iii|iii:iiiro with irfjiiirriinMits oT srctJDiiN 2 nf rivrr and 
^ haiUi.r ji. t<! .if I^M; ami IsiiT. 

rii»" anitumfN rx]icnil«'«l diirin;; iln- (i*««'al \iMr iMnliuix .Inn»* IJi). isni. wt-rr as tVillows: 

I •■! ^iiu-ral iinpiovcnM lit. n'i»air«<. <':iri' i»l' plant, rtr fl?9, SMJ. .'i(» 

ri.ri'vin.'SM r..iv«Mi. I'tr IKi.'M 

t'liirxuiiiinatiiin and snrvfv of* tin* l.iltli* l^i^^•r lulow Smpini (nt-ulV. .. U, :»2i>. JUt 

FtirrxaiiiiiniTion of .S"il«* antl Mm pliv Outlet 101. LM) 

1" rth.--:ii\iv iif Kiil liivt'i ■ l,77:j.iM) 

Total ;UJ,KSl.:Jil 



C'OMMIIM lAI. <IATI>IH «*. 

In tin- pa>t lisi-al year H«m1 liixrr wa-snavi;;,;!!!!.' Im'Twitii Sljirvi-port nn«l tlu* nnnitli 
•I'.riii:; .Inly, ami fVnni (NtidM-r 1 n* .Inn*' Iln. Ihirin;r An;;M>t and Si'p|iinln;r tin* 
-■■rwij-.iT a \«*iv l«»\x .sta^jo. and for p.-ii i nt" that juiiod Mnntunnn'iy, Itil inili's 
■'.■"•A >liii\rjiiirt anil .'»!' ;il»o\ f Ah'vandria. \Vii> ijii* In-ad (iT iiaNJ^alinn. Iirt\v«Tn 
^■.:» M'jiiiir. 1..I., and l-'nltun. Ark., tin- iivi*r was navijialdt- I'mni Nhvi-imIht »> !n .M:i\ 
'••. JMi'i linni !*iIiif\«'port lo (iailand. tor small ^t«*al^^M■.N, iln- i-nliir \i'ai\ 

Iln- i-'liiiW-ni: stfanil»«»ais wiMr tn^^airrd in ihr Ii«'d l?iv«T iradc during ilu: year: 



N'.:. 



Dr.flf. .' 



-'' — C: 



— :r 



I'.i-I 'V <i II vli.ll ]il II I «:. 



- /■ 

i- Zr 



— t 






■ . ** I *i ' • ; • ■ 

■■I * I ■• i*^ H 



;. I 



/'.■/. It It /■/.;, . /v .. 

■Ill' >.. I'.'"*. ♦» '■ ' ■ '• ■-■ •• - •> ■-'_■ Sill <■' iii'ii t :;iiil Ni-\v Ollt'ail^ 

.■•■i.lj !'■■■_'.'• ■. ' " < ' ■-• 'I .'» •: :;i .. *\n 

jii".. '.'■■ Mil. 'I .■■."' \ '■ "J <i '» <; '^i ii') 

•» i!ii 

-■: Sl;:i-' I .■•>' ! I ■ .:hi> : . .Il'il < ;,ii - 

!.!•:. i '. 

' I "^iii'". < I 111 » ninl .li'ilt : -uii . . 

. ::- .1.. 



■'■i ' 



|i:(.(i- - - -I .-. 1 »; 4 .1 



i.i; "I, 1 !.■■• II ."'"i ■■ ;;. ■ m i i 



,,. 1- '"■llM-'I t (iiljl.l-l . .lIllH 1,1!- 



I 



:.iii'; 



■1 r.ilti.ii .iiiii i,.ii:» -|n'ii ... 

j.'ij !'• ii-ii II .'I ■ I '.' 1 ^ ', I'l I, >l'' i- . jiiii I .iTnl Aii\iUiil"';i .1 

_'V| i- !'•_' »' ■" " ; ' ■ -■ ."■ I'l II <iii ... 

.» !.. r-l'i'Ii .111'! I lilll.ilni 

/ ! ' I '■'■.ii -III'' I. i.'i' -I'li; I 

'^'.' I . ilin' I :i|.il ( i.,i l.iiiil 

^ !\ iii'\ I'oii.l .iinl M'Mit li I'l.f k 



f. f» ■•■I. . ■ '. " -. •"• • 
■,. •! ; . ■ II , ;_ II i", . 1 



1 



i;:i(» 

;•■•.' I 
liliil 



■j;m 

(;ii 

}■■•.'} 

IJH 

;i;t- 

>'• ; 

1 .'I 



/ !Mmi 



S :>. \". 



• .\'-! 1. [Ill' tc'l. 



■W ii,., I . ■ .. 



1960 KEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, V. iy. ARMY. 

The freights by rivor art* gi von below, with a coniparistm with the 2 yei 
ceding : 



Cotton 

Cotton seed 

Hides and skins. . 

Livestock 

Lumber 

Staves 

Stone 

Cotton-seed nieul 
Sundries 



Articles. 



Total do w-n lrci;;1it. 
Betum freights 



Total. 



1SP0-'91. 



Tons. 



188»-'90. 



I 



•J1,613 I 
12.349 
212 I 

"a5 : 

16. 523 
81 



Tons. 
18,«38 < 
14,140 
35 



4,519 



t • « « ■ • • 



Do .■«•■•• 



10.000 I. 
2. 719 j 



■I..... 



136 



63.433 
30,0j1 



37. T26 ■ 
28,630 



93.486 



66.376 



Estimated value 69,185.000 $6,820,310; $5,1 



In addition to the above: From Onaehita River, entering Red River at mon 
Black River, 2*J1,11>1 tons. The value of which is estimated to be $9,130AX). 
The following table show.-* the receipts and shipments of cotton at Shreveport, 1 



]890-'91. 



Source of nvr-ipts: 

Ilyrail 

By wa^ou 

By river 



Bale*. 
39.890 
87.723 
14.836 



1889-*90. ! m 



Bates. 
25.476 
40.026 
8,897 



Warehoui^e nvoi|»t«». 



92.449 I 74.402 



Shipments: 

By Texai* and Tarirti- Kailnxid 

By Virksliiir:;. .*Hhr»'vo|»<«rt and Taiirir K:iilr(iiid. 

By Shn»vi'|M>rt :inil llmisroit I{ailn>;ifi 

By St. LoiUM and Snurliwe^trrn R.iilroad 

Bv river to NVw ( >r1ean:i 



Total 



23.311 
l.\564 I 
13.860 > 
15.039 I 
19.218 I 



23.690 
20.813 ' 
12,.'V29 i 
8.820 
8.412 ! 



86.992 I 74,26* 



The water route from Shreveport, La., to JetfiTson. Tex., through the Inkei 
Cypress Bayou, was navigable from IVcember 1 to the end of the fiscal year. 
number of trips made by steamboats is given in the list of boats above, an* 
freights reported were as follows: 



Freights. 



Cotton 

C"ttrtn st-ed 

LuuiImt 

Siindrii-8 ... 



]890-ln. 



T"tal diiwii frei::hts 
Return tVi-i::l IT «* 



Tmu. 
6S5 
100 

.... 81,400 
1,825 

;" 65,030 

i 700 



181 



I 



Total fr.i-lits 



85.7.V» 



I _^ 



£stimate<l v.i1ue ' $748,000 



$! 



• Not re|>ort<Hl. 

The rom]M*tiug routes of transport a ti»m fur the trade of the Red River V 
bflow Fulton. Ark., are as fi.»lli>W'4: 'l*hr river is rros.st'd by the St. Lunis. 
MfiMiitain and Southern Ifailway. at Fulton, Ark., by the St. Liuiis aud ft 
Western Railway ^Cotton Belt Rttutet, at (iarland. Ark., and by the Viclul 



APPENIUX V RKPfUn* OK CATJAIX WlIiLARD. lOfi.l 



I re<"oiiiiMriHl oim: of two nnns«»s in rri4;inl h> (liis piii-l of JJiul liiMM-; 
oither tluit no fiirtluT work he <loiir in il until lln'ir sluill hen \nvssi\\'x 
i\i*\Uii\u\ for ;i i*onsi(UM'iii)lc iniiM-ovi'MMMit troni Fulton iipwiinl, includiii;; 
Little liivcr, hotli to ^ain n bottt'i* jnni lon;u:iM* jMTiod of nsivi^ifiiiion and 
to ln»l[) drain tin* a(ljaci*nt lainls: or «'ls«' tliat a lilMial amount, say not 
l(*.ss tlnin Ji<l(),(MM), sliall I.m- ;j:ivpn in a sin;:l<* appropriation to allow tlio 
systnnati<' <*l('arin^ of the Ijanks and r<*nin\al of \o*xs from tin* <'liannol 
wsiy to I'MM'niit tlu* hottom to scnur. In no otlj<*r way can tlio moin'v ho 
oxiM'iidiMl economically or any api>rccial>lc results i»btiiinc<l. The cost; 
of or<;fanization aiul administration will he ahout tlic same tor a small 
a]>propriation as for a lar*»e one. and the cost of ^jcttinji" the plant to 
tin* sc(Mie of oiMMations and ietui'nin«r it to the IliM't or other w<»rk will 
rt'a<'li tojrether n<»arly >«l,tMM). The estimate is submitted with the idea 
of sondinj^: all of the sna^ l>oats in Ifed liiver t(» w(»rk together under 
one nuina*;ement just as soon as the sprin^i* tloods bcnin to subside, the 
sua;*: boats to lu* employed on the wrack heajjs and lu'avy obstructions, 
siiid the <'ho])pin«;' ]>arties to clear the banks, so that all loose stuff shall 
f^i} out on the tirst and succeeding risers. This will allow about <i weeks 
U) 2 months' work of the sna^' boats, tin* li;^htest draft ]*oat beinji: kept 
perhai)s sonu'what lon^'(»r, and the boat with the cho])])in<f party con- 
tiniiin«x on downstream on bauk work an<l small jams. About ftl,(MK> 
should 1m» held hi reserve to send a sna<»" boat over the whoh» tin* fob 
h>win;j: season to disl()d*;e heavy drift and jiick U]> channc*! snags. 

Nothing was known in this oflice about tln*Texarkaini and Fort Smith 
Hailroad Bri<lg(*, already nu'Utioned, until the snag boat HowvU went 
above Fulton in »Fanuary. It ajjjjcars, how(*V(*r, that a charter had been 
grauted by ( •ongr(*ss with the usual conditions, and the Inulders ass<*rt 
that])lans were s<*nt to the »Secr(*tary or War before construction was 
undertaken. Xo surv(*ys or j)hins wen* submitted to Cai)tain Taber, 
but the promoters of the railroad wi(>te to him befon* the charter was 
granted, after which he was unable to g(*t any information on tin*, snb- 
j(*<!t, ])rol)ably because* the X)roje<*t was abandoned for several years. 
Comjdaint having been made that tin* bridg*' would obstruct naviga- 
tion, I made an examination of the liver ami bridge at tin* ])oint of 
<'n»ssing, and directed the j)resi(h*nt of the comj)any to jU'epare a nmp 
and phins, which have not yet been submitted, owing U\ continm*d 
tliMMls in the n]>])er river. Jt is probable that deflecting dikes ])laced 
about half a mile above the bridge will div(*rt the channel under the 
draw span, so as t(> give reas<mably sate passage for any boat that can 
navigate this part of tin* riv<T. 

Moiini shifcmrnf. 

Amount apprupriMtud by iwt a]>]>rov«!(l S<.'|»tciiil>rT J!», IS(H) $2, tXK). 00 

Amount roc«*iv«'d fn»iji salt* nf snn*^ ]u>at Jinrlc 1, 5<X). (K) 

:;, r>(M). oo 

Juu<^ 30, 1891, amount expendiMl (hiriii^: lisral yoar .S, 27;?. 82 

Julv 1. 18Jn, halance nnoxpondiMl 22(>. 18 

July 1. lsjn,outstau(liugliahihti«*s 1.07 

Julv 1. 1891, balance available 22r>. U 

( Amount t hat can bo profitably i-.\|M!ink'«i in li^a 1 \ c-a r «-n<l in*^ J unr IJO, 1 SiKt 10, 000. <X) 
< SubmittciMu ronipliaucc with nM|uiivuii*nt» of sc('tion82 of livor and 
( harbor acts of 18(56 and 18G7. 



i!»^2 RKPnlM' OK THK rUIKr <U^ KNMilNKKR?, T. S. ARMY. 

r;miii»«l ln\\:u*l llir It It ili:hHi«l. Tlir //i*>r/ // cliMnMl tlir j;i| 
\\oiIv«m1 ii|i>li»':mi In .*» tiiilrs ;|ht»\r ^lilI <'nM'k :int| |.% iiiili's Im'IoW 

iiiiflii. 1»\ rliMl liiin', .launarv --. tlif watrr was rallin;; rapidly 
ahoiiT ''*\ \W\ on tlit* liars. aii<1 tlu* boat r<'tin-n<.Ml aii<l wnrkcMl ill 1 
mill's aiuivr J-'ulton. Tli** Isi <»!' Ft'lMuaiy thf iiviTiMHiiiiuMirotl] 
and Tlir Ilninll was nimiI to Slin'vrpor! lo t<»w tin* Itrn-k to Kiain 
possihlr. Tlir hoai> srarttMJ n]>stn*ain iM'Inuary '», ami Frbriiary 
lirrrl: was ilri»|»|MMl at .IoIiht Vrvvy !»ar. I inil<» ahovr Tfiok Lai 
Ark., ami y*^\ mih's abovr Kiiltoii. tin* war<*i' liaviii;:- falN'M m) rj 
Thai tlir Ilo/rfll coiilil u«i iio tairhiT \\iili satrty. I"'i*l»ruaiy 2- ai 
list' spl ill, aiul rlu' Hmnll worki'il njiio witliin ."><) mii<'s ot* Tin* im: 
Kiaiiii<'hi hrton* tlic fall was sntlicii'iit to lUMM'ssitato tiirniu;:' baek 
thrwav<low!i tlu' //»»'//// lowcil tlio /w>rA*l)a«*k to Kiilton, roacliiu 
l»lat<* Ki'hiuary -7. 

TIm' tolI«»wiii^ is a •<mnmarv «>tilir work tlotif liv iIh' IhunU: 

Sii:i^.N |iiilli'«l 

Snmi]»s i»u11im1 

l.iii;'' I'l'iinixtMl tV«>ni i"li:ium i 

.Ijiiii'* muiix imI 

Siilf jmiis nMimvcfl 

Leaning tri't"^ rut 

ToNviiisi MiMU l»o:it /w'c- iV-iiM I'ii'.- P«»iiil, Loiii'siaiiii. !«> Joinri I'l-nx. Aikaiir 
I'iniii 'IVxarkana ami I'oii Sjnitli K:iilri»:iil llii^lut- ti» KiilTmi. Ark. 

Tlu* liaiul-i»ropoll«M| snaj: l»oat finrh\ \V. \V. M<Hir('. i»vim*m»im' 
iiumuhmI woik at K<»M'l»an;rlH'r l.amlin;:', T'xas. Ffhruary ll,an< 
tiinir*! ii]>stn*ain 10 iiiili*<t<» Saumltn'sou liamliiiy;. Arkansas, where 
titms w<'ri' siisjuMnlnl lM»hruary L*l. Tin* l»oat startt'd downstre 
till* laTt<'r dati'. Imt wa> «lflav(Ml l»v liiuli winds until ovt^rtakcn 
lIiHC'lL Tin* linr/c ri'iiiovtMl 40 sna;:N, ^loin;^: sonn* heavy work, 
lias not hern t'oiiml oronninifal lo u>r lh<* boat tor this class of ol 
tions. as ir is brttrr adapted lor rlcaritiu tin* hanks and reinovin|[ 
sna;is. 

Tin* work ot' tin* ]>asi yrar prartically «'omi»lrte<l tin* j)n)it»et t« 
iniprovrmeiit. and has hem (■oinnu'ntlrd hy tin* stt^ainboat men 
ohstrnrtions wrn* n\' tin* heaviest kiml, consist inu principally ol 
snap's ami iiih*s ot" drift, which forced the livcr ont of its natural 
m*l and made navi<;:ation dillicnlt and dan;:t*rons. A fair stesi 
clianm*] fi»r hi;;h-wat<'r navi;;ation was cleared hy tin' lIowvU to 
.■»0 mih*s of theuj>per limit, as far as the h<»at was ahh* toy:oon tli- 
of water, and it was intended that tin- />rr»7ishonhl work over tin 
jMirtion before it was tbnml imi»racti<'able In t«»w th<» boat that 
This part t»f the river is navi;:alile by tlu* smallest boats, ami ' 
hi;:h sta«;es only. Lanesport. Ark., near the Indian T4»iTitory 1 
miles abo\e Fnllon. n^nally i< ciin^iidered the np]M*r limit of iiavij 
bnt boats make occasional trip> lo Kiamichi on the hi;:hest stii 
river. r»clo\\ the Kianiichi Ked IJivcr has no iribntarv <»f e«>iisiN 
<'\«-epi Litth' IJivi-r, which enter> tin* main stream *J miles above 1 
Tin* o<cillali»»ns are >o rapid thai ireipnntly boatscan run in one 
tion only on a >iimie riM*. and ha\c !•» re;:nlati' tln'ir trips by tlu 
fity and duration of rainl'all in the ujipcr river country. 

Till' banks are coNi-ieil with iree> con^-tantly caviiij; or slidii 
liie nvi-r. and if the ri-mo\;il tif ob>.tiuctions trom the channel we 
Tinned, and the timiier cleared from the banks to stop further ai 
latioiis. na\i.iiation wouhl be safer and lhi*re wmild bt» less d 
«'ontend with in the ri\t*r behiw Kulton. bni it is <hmbtfn] if the t 
perioil wouhl be len«^themMl «ir llu* upiM^r limit exteiuleii. 



APPENIUX V RKI'OKT OK CArJAr.V WFLLARP. 1 Ofi? 

i it'i'oiiiiiii'inl oiir o\ Iwii tonisrs iii rcjuMifl In llii.^i purl of JJ«'il li'JArr: 
ntliertlini m* t'lirtht-r wtnU Iw* ihmr in it iiiMil lln'ir sluill hr :i pn's>in^* 
iliiuMi«1 till' ;i (*i»iisi(li*r!il»t(* iiiiprovciih'iil trom i-'ulion iipwiirdjnrliuliii^ 
Liftli* iiiviT. Iioth ti) *Xi\\i\ n lH*tt<-i;iiMi lonniM" pi'iioil ni' luivi^jiHon and 
t«i lii>I|Mh:iiii rlir :ii1j:i(-riit Uimls: or <*ls<- tliiit ii lilural iiiiKniiit. say not 
k'ssfli;ni J^HMMM). sliall Im* ;i:ivcn In a >in;:l«* appnipiiatiiMi tt> allow tlici 
•vstHiiatir i-h'aiin'i of \hr i»anks ami rcnioNjil ot' lo;is IVoni The channel 
lay to iMTinil tlit* Jiottfun to *^<-onr. In no otijcr way <-an tho niont'y ho 
♦■\|i»*iiilnl «M-on«)ini<'ally or any ap))n'riai>lc i"<'snlts ol)tain<Ml. Tin* I'ost 
i>t' «»i;,r:ii)i/:itioii :in(l a<]niinisti-alion will Im' :il»ont tlir same tor a small 
.i|ii»Tii]iri:irii>n a^ tor a larju;!' one. ai!<l the co^r of ;:rtiiii^ lla* plant to 
:'»♦• siMii- of opi»rations ami rrinrnln^i ir to lln* licet or other work will 
r«:Mli fom-rhfr nearly "^IJMMI. Tln' r»;[inia!e i^ snbnnltefl with the itlea 
••? -M-nilini: all of tin" sna;: 1hki1< in IfeH IJiver to work to;;<'th<'r nn«ler 
"!i» iii:iii:i;^i-m4-nl in>»T as soon a-^ ilu' «*prin.u IIimmIs h«-iiin In snbside. Th<* 
*i:.u l"»:iT^ to iif eniploycd i»n the w laek lH'a]»s ;in<l hea\ y <»l>strnetions, 
.i:.«l rln' rliii]»pin.i; pai"lie> to clear the hanks. >o !h:it iill loose stntV ^hall 
'.'•I iMiT on tin* tir^t ami sncriMMlIn;;" ri<es. This will iillow about «» weeks 
H> 'Jiiioiith**" Work of tin- >na^ ho:it<, the Ii.ulit«'st draft l»oat bein;;' kejit 
I«ih:!l»> NoiiM w Jiat hui.uer, ami th«' boat with the choppin*:" party con- 
• ituiiiu on ilow nNtream «»n bank work and >nijill jjim^. About >«1.0(M> 
^l.t'iiM be liclij ill n-serve to send a smi;: b<»at o\er tin' whole the Ibl- 
Imuiii;; >«'ii<>i>ii to di>lofl«:e In'avy drift and pick n|» channel sna.us. 

N«»t!iinL: was known in thisollin-jdMint thoTcxaikana and Fort Smith 

l.*Mi!nniil llriilyfc. alieady nnntioned. until thr sna^z" bojit Iltnnll went 

.il»«iM' FnlTon in .lannary. It up|M'ar>. hnwcx er, Tim I :i charl4*r had becMi 

;:!.iiir«-i| by r4in;ire<> with the n<nal conditions, and flic bnildrrs a*-sert 

''mT pl.Mi^ \\«"!"i'srnt to tin' Sccr»'t:iry <»! \\';ir bcfor*- rnnsliMn-t ion wjis 

•:'.'!trr;iki-ii. N«) snrNrys oi- ]»!an> were >nl»iiiitt<-d to (jipiMin Tabi-r, 

":• tIm- pruniotcrs ol' the raih'oad wroicto him iM'forc iln* cinnter w;is 

.: .fiTrd. Jifier whii-li In- \\a> nn;ibh- to ^ri :iny infoiniMtion on iIm* Nnb- 

. •• ". pr'»b:jMy bccausi* tin* ]»roi.-ci w;i< ;ii!;iiidiH!«-d for .-e\i-ial w';irs. 

' ■■ jii..i:i: li.i\ iitu iM-rn nsjid*- t li;il tin- biJd.L:*' w -iiild o-i^iiurl n.i\i.i:;i 

■ • . 1 :ii;l'ir ;in r\;iliii!i;ltiui! ojlii"- li \ «'i :i:ii( biidi;!- ;ll 1 he ]H!int of 

■ -^ ■;::. ;Mni dni-cli-d tin- pi'i'^jflrnt of i!m- i"oni)»;iii;. lo prcp:jir :i map 

' pl:llJ'*. wjiii-ll \\l\\{' hoi yr\ br'-ii -ilijMiii i«'d. i»\\ iiiLi lo rnlil i || n«'d 

'' 'li- :it Tin' n]»p«i ii\«-i. It i> pjnnidlr iImm (h-il<'rt ijii: dike^ pliiced 
; • 'JT h.dr .1 njile abo\ «• fin- lirid.ue \' ill di\<ii the rii:nni«-l nn<h*r lln- 
'i . \ ""pMn. -^o ;i^ In _L;i\»' nM'»:>n;ibl\ -il'' pii-'-iiu'' for :ni\ bnjjt licit i":in 
. :u.iTi' : hi^ p:iit of t !ir ii\ <■!■. 

Mnfit ,/■ Sill 1 1 nil Iff. 
' . :.* t)-"!.] u)ii i"C<il l.\ :;< 1 .liijii..- . 'I ^. ji;. .|'..- !•• I^'in : L'. Hi iM. ( n > 

■. ■:• 1 • I • i \ ■ il 1l I'l,' >:il. Ill - : «-4 :■■> ' /.'■ # ■ '. . 1 . Tii'M. nil 

:••. l^'.'l. :nii<iii 111 I'XjM imI.«! < I ii Im .•!-■■■,;. .-.t I 

:. ^^-'i . I'.il.iii.i- iiinvj,! ii-i. It . . . .... 

'' *'•» .-ni.l l.Ni«. 



■ 1 
. 1, 


."»« " 1. 


IM) 


i«. 


■JT.K 


SJ 




Jl'i ■'. 


!>: 




1. 


t'T 




'J'S>. 


11 


1". 


1 H II 1. 


IMI 



1* 

19«il KtrOKT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEKB8, U. S. i^ 



0»MMKi:c"IM. MAH^^IIC-*. 



This part of Hod Kiver aviws iiavi^alilo in tUc past tis«-al yt^ar for jini 
the lattiT jjart of August to the luiiMlo of April. 

List of bfuitft vHffagtd in trade. 



Xamo. 



Class. : I ■ f = '^ ' *: I S ii" 



Draft, '.i- 

•s ' Between wki 



IWt. Ft. Ft. n.iiiAFt.in., 

Fricudly St«r ii- w h i- c 1 W, 76 rJii. «• M. «'• ;{. ;! o 11 a 4 Fnlton und Li 

I stoainlHXit .. ' • Ark. 

r»elle CrtMik.H du 78. -ti !H.oi-J,0 :!.0 I 6 3 01*:'.... do 

Doll Taylor ....Uo ; ' ' do 

I ' ! i 



*Fult4iii and Little liivor. towing timber; no further infonnatiou obtaiiu 
Summary o/frci(jhtM carried durinff the year. 



Cotton 

Cotton »vvi\ 

Lumber 

l^visiona 

« train 

Midcollanfous 

Total 

Estimatod value (iu round unmbers) 



The river from tlie mouth of Kianiiolii, the upper limit of improveme 
is paralleled by a braurh of the Texas and Pacitic Railroad from ToxarV 
Tex., eouneetinij at the latter plare with the i:>t. Louis and San Frauei 
whieh crosses Red River at Arthur. Ti-x., above the head of uavi^atio 
arkana and Fort Smith Railway ^undrr construct ion ) cro.-isi's the river;; 
north of Texarkana, and the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Ra 
at Fulton. 



V3. 

IMPROVKMKNT OF OrAC'IIITA AND Hl.vrK RIVKRS. ARKAXSA: 

ISIANA. 

OniK'hitait!ii'IiMliiiiin;!iiirf«»rl)l:u-kiliivoi'hasitssourcoinPt 
Ark.. ill tlu' Ouarliita -M«mntaiii.<!. and lbllowiiigaiiiiTO<rular< 
in a jreiicral soutlu»asri*rly diri'i-tion thr(ni«:h Arkansa.'^ am 
until jointed hv Tonsas and Littlo riv<M's at Triuitv, La. 
innrtinii it is known as I»lark IviviT and tlows in a suiitherl 
ontrriiijr Kod Kivt'i* about 40 niih*s abovo its nnuitlL Tlu» oi 
of Ouarhira Uiv4»r is about .""KM) niilrs and Iihu'k l\iviT is 47 

Kxaini nations wore made by tin* I'nittMl States iu 1871 ai 
submitted for temi>orary iini>n>venu'nr. from Arkadelpliia to 
bv tho rem«»val of sna^s and bv dnMl;;in;r at tlie worst bars, 
mated eost of .'i'W.^tK) ,3.>l-:ii«», Report (.'liirf of Engineers. 15? 
was e«>miuem'i*d the same year. In 1871-72 a survey fro 
Ark., to Triinty, La., was madt*. the reiMiri oii wliieh reeouu 
provement by forks and dams .:?1i7-«'574, l^^pint (^hief of Kngii 
am} a eoutraet was made for tindx'r for Ibiindatious of tliret 



; 



/ 



Lx* 



I9(vl KEPOKT OF THE CHIEF OF KNGINEERS, V. S. AKMV. 



0>.MMKi:ri VI, >i.\ iiMH'*. 



This part ot'Kod Kivor Avikj uaviirahlo in tin- ]»ast lisral v«'ar I'or small liiKits i 
tlu' latttT part of Aii^^iisC lo tb** iitiihlK- of April. 



Xamc. 



Livt vj hnttx (Htjdfjitl in tnide. 

I Dm ft. r 



II.! 
I 



Cliisd. =f -z =-■•.? -r l^'twtM»u w-Jiat places. 

\ 'I , 5i ^ i. 'H 5 ^' I 



f,W. iV. /v. Ft.iu.'.Ff.in. 

Frieudly Stoni-whiol 06.76 li?«». n 2H. u j.:: on;} 04 Knlton ami Lanosintrt. 

stoainlkoat .. Ark. 

Itolle Crooks <l<i 78.4.S tu. •» '.-_'. ;:.u 1 03 01s....ilii 

DcllTavlor ....ilo ' «io 



*Fii1t4>ii antl Littlo Kivrr. towiii<: timber; no fiirtlK-r intunuatiou t>litaiuable. 
Summary of fnifihtx carrivtl dunnij the year. 



Cottfvn 

Cotton 8ced 

Liixubf r 

IVovisions 

Grain 

MiaccllaneouB 

Total 

Eatimated value (in ruiind numbera) $X 

i 

TTie river from tlio mouth of Kiaiiiifhi. tlio up]»er limit of improvtMiiont. to Fu 
is paralleled hy a branch of the Texas and ru<'itic* Railroad from Texarknua to Pi 
Tex., oonnei'tiliff at the latter ]>lace with the 5>t. Louis and San Kranrisoo Railr 
which crosses Red River at Arthur, Tex., above the hratl of iiavij^ratiou. Tlie ' 
arkana ami Fort Smith Railway (undtT tonstructi<»n) cro."»ses the rivor about 10 n 
north of Tcxarkana, and the St. Louis, Iron Mountaiu and Southern Hallway cro 
at Fulton. 



V3. 

IMPROVEMENT OF OUACHITA AND HL.VOK RIVERS. ARKANSAS AND L 

JSIANA. 

()u;uliita(theIiKliaiinaMh'forhhuk)Kiverhasit.ssoiiiveiiiPolkConi 
Ark., in tlu* Oiiacliita Moiiiitaiii.*5, and fidlowiiigaii inv^xular course ti< 
in a ;^oncial souTheastorly dirtM'tion tliiou^h Arkansas and Ijouisi; 
until jiuut^d by Tensas an<l Little rivers at Trinity, La. l^elow t 
jniu'ti4»n it is known as l>laek River and flows in a southerly direct! 
ent4Min;r Ked liiver about 40 miles above its mouth. The entire leu 
o\' Ouarhita lvivi*r is about r>(M> mih»s and Blaek Kivrr is 47 miles ki 

Examination.* were made by tlie United States in 1871 and a pny 
submitted for Temporary improvement, from Arkadelphia to the mm; 
bv th<» removal of sna«rs and bv dred^injr at the worst bar.s. at an e 
m'attnl eost of jitKS.^iHJ (3;^4-:; Uk Keport Chit^f i»f Engineers. 1871). W 
was commeueed the same year. In 1871- 7U a survey from Gamd 
Ark., to Trinity, I^a., was mad<\ the rejMirt on wliieh reeommended 
provoment by loeks and dams (;?!»7-;^74. Tieport Chief ot* Engineers, 18* 
an(l a contraet was made for tindier for f<iundations of three locks. 



Tlu- r]n»p\)iii^ l';i::> \sli:rh "..; •! "■•■» :: • i.j.l-.ivt-il nu ihi- rive' 
tU'ii. Aik., :i»« ".:»••: rliai vi-.u-*- >"..v. :..' :i t. .n.i] Novi'iijlti-i' ; 
wnrko!i ilu- ' ivri" :u-lfv>. i ^.m-.. .■;:•.!. ^ ^■>.•l^■ 4-.'r. ii-il iii.wii'*fi 
piTt. Ark., 'SV} iiAlf^ \u\,\v \ .::i..':i-:.. \\:;ii»- tI.m y wt-ii* «.nsj 

:irv I 1>V hicil ^^'a!'-!. Tf ■':•• 's;.:'* : i»a.T «"1 Mav Th*- livr 

ihal Cuw*- Uiv « ln'i'-'i'.-i. vl/.tv v..i> :i-,.:^.ri.! •••1. ;n:»l :»T Th 

raituliii. Tin- vviiik «'! "";:> v. .' . • ■ :.^>:».-»'. ••i" vntri: - all 
tiniln-r 4»ii ihv |m':ii> ,r..*\ ::• i:.* '•• .. > .:.'•• ••":."i: It'iL^r-.-*. ^ 

fa\»>iaii. 0]t r;:Vi« ::S ^^'. > • -■•l;- ■.••': :'.«i»-. :!..- >",]»••: \i> 
SrtM" fli'lih T. IV/.ikv ■>-. ^^•.•• :• .• -T^ '..' :.*!1'V i:.^ ^^|•:k «l'»l 

Sn.t::s n '...."■ » ■-': :":■ ::". • ':...". ■ " 

SKovi- >v..'.^'i ". i'... •"» t 

1.0..!^::;^ :u.>: ■^^ '• .... 

I r«-i •< c ■'■ ' • -i ■■ 

1 .»'^> t'l ^ r./x-i i' ■.' ■.■.: . . 

■ rhr >!l.ii, "!"Mt /: -: " . '^'l. "!•. 1 . •". ■:. ;..'•••:. *^..> -t :;■ r 
port ili>\\ ;.>:■. I av.i :•' T:.' :.. ".:..■: K ". ':!..'. ■": - •-. .'v 'i«..:" 
.luiU' I- c':.:r:rii l^'.;ixx K\'.. !•". . •; ::..-■. ;.:•! 'i.r >« 
OiMihii.i >\r".i' :**-^ \:.^\: :;: .. ".'...•. '.^.«'- > • -^k. :.:A a> r] 
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l!^()«I KKPoKT or TiiK ciiiKr or kn(;ixi:i:r.s, v Sf. ARttV. 



The <!lu»j>[)iii^ paitv which h:ul hwu i-m]>loy<Ml cm lli4* vivev libo' 
(leu. Ark., n*:uljtMl that jihuM* yf»vriiilirr I. ami Xovi-tnbor ."i <»oiii 
work oil the i iv<'r brlow. (>prrations wnv rarih'il (iDwnsrrram 
jKirt, Ark., -.'Vl iuih\s below Canulcii. where They were .sus]HMide 
ary 1 by high water. To tho latter part nl' May tlu* river wai 
liijrh a sia>;4* for Avork, but by Jhih* J it luul lalleu siini4'ieiitly, 
that dat4^ the elioiniin;^: jiarry was ivor^Miii/eil. and at the em 
year o]»eratiinis hail proirn'sseil down to Millers JihitV. .'»2 mile 
Caiialeii. The work of this junty eoiisisteil of euttlii^ir all overl 
timber on the ]K>iiits and in the lu'mts intt» shi»rt len^^ths. «rird1i]i 
and removing snags as tar as ]iraerieable with explosives an 
eai^stan. ()peratious were eonduf-ted nndei- the sn]M'rvisioii o 
seor .bdiii T. Burketti', who r<* ports the following work ilone: 

Suajjs rt'iiu^vt'd tVcin rhanurl 

t>lion' sna^rs roiunvrtl 

Loaiiiii!; t ro*s iviiinvril 

Tn»i's ^jinlK'il 

l.n^s *.ui l»ank^ rut up 

S^iuan* vanl;i wiUuws aiul lniisli t.nx 

Linoal iWi In iish <lauis biiili 

• The snag boat IToirtlL M. !>. Lydon master, was sent from I 
port downstream to the month of IJed IJiver the early part of .In 
June 1- entered IMaek Iviver. lllark IJiver and the lower 
()aa<*hila were t(»o high for advantageous work, and as the wa" 
falling ra]»idly the lM>at ])roei*edeil upstream as far as ])ossib 
reaching l{i»ek Kow, just alu)vethr month of D'Arbonne and li 
above Monroe, June 1."), then' was but .» leet of water on the bar 
pilot reported that it wonld be unsale to go tart her ii]»stream oi 
ing river. The boat workeil back to Columbia. .V.> mih's 1h»1ow ! 
bnton tlnM7lh of June a rises<'t in and the lK>at rouncleil to and 
np to I nnh' above* Oua<*hita City. 1*01^ mih*s above the nnmth o 
liiver. fhme Ut the lintccll started bai-k downstream ami at tin 
the tisi»al year had worketldown to Log Town, -."{j miles b4dow ] 
All the snags in sight were K'nmved and the sweep chain was i 
removinir hidden t»b>tiin'tions. Tin* draw of the railroad briflyft* 
ri»e was cleared of a small sunken bargt", snags, and railroa<l ire 
folh»wing is a summary <»f the work ri']M»rte<l: 

Siiajis imlli'il 

stuiup"* jiuniMi 

Slmrr >ii:ii;< i-u! 

J.raiiiii;; trif*. riii . , 

"Wp'rk rinn»\ itl . >.in:ill liam- ■ 

Work witli tlie //#»/'"/// will be eonlinne<] down to the month «i 
lJi\*'r. ami tin- rhi»pi»itii; party in tin- ni«]H'r ]»art of the ri\fr w 
tinne «»pir:!'inn< ili)\\ u-ilriaiii a^ hm^ a<tlieycan l»e pur>.ihd t«» 
tage. ami ii i*- Relieved tliat it will In- able to reaih ilie ArUaii: 
Li»uisiana line, or po»ibly Monroe, before hiuh water sil> in. 

As the snag iMiat W'tniiKr i> «»!' li;L;ht ilralt and lias >ntiieien 
for all lull tlie heaviest ^\ork it is detacheil and used in other : 
oeeasionalh . Wheti the Onaehila is at suitable sijjn4. [\ \\{\\ he 
the npjier i ivei a> far as Camilen to >u]«plemeni tin* wurk of tli 
]»ing ]»arty now mo\inu ilownstream fioni the head of na\ iitatin 

The >nag bnat linnhr has been ii>ed in niia«-hita anil in the 
vies, and aNo in Ked itiver ami I'o*^ lilaek. The bnat ha> h; 
liai'<l >er\ iei* and is now lai<l up at ^'iek^bnrg. the lodl haNJng 
too si»ft to ealk. A Si then- ar»* no faeilitios fiu* n-pairin;: b».atv 
.*HM» miles, and as ir is impussibh" to estimate the ro>t of repairin 



APIT.XDJX V--REl>ORt OF CAPJAIN W1LL.AUD. 11)67 

n boat Until put on the dockw, it is reroiiiiiieiidcd as most ecoiioiuieai 
that a new hull Im built, and tlie boih^rs, shaft, enjLrines, and niaehinery^ 
Vvliich are all ji'ood and worth at least *.'L.')(M). be transfeiTed and the old 
linll stri])i)iMlaiid, iribuiKl worth it, slieathed and ns«Mi as a workinj>: ujid 
ijuarter boat tor a ehoj)|)in^ ]»aity. Tlie estiniat<' for a tranie-built hull, 
Mith seow bow and stern, 1 b'» to IJO le(»t lonj;: by liO feet beam and 4 
leet hold, to draw abont l^inrhes, is ><i*,S(M), and for transfiirrin^ ma- 
chinerv, boilers. 4't<*., >i*7tM>, whirh ]naefieally wonhl <::ive a new li^^lit- 
liraft sna<»' boat of pM»d pnwei*, that could be used at the lowest stages 
in almost any of the streams in this district and be g<Mid for at least 
\ears' work with ordinary i4M)air. 

CATAllorLA SHOALS. 

T ni;i(iea personal examination (»!' Catalionhi Shoals in January, 1800, 
and leconnnended a careful snrv(\v of the n^aeh during h)W water. The 
project was a|)i)roved and the snrvey madi^ in August foHowing by As- 
sistant Kngincer H. M. ^rarshall. The ma])s submitted are in three 
sheets on suitable scale, the first showing the topography of the whole 
reach, the seivaid the shoals an<l r<Mnains of fornuT work put in by the 
Stat(\ and the tliird the se<'tions at the sounding lines. Elevations are 
reduced to the ( 'airo datum through tiu^ bi'Uch of the Delta surv^ey of 
185S, wliieli was found at Harrisonburg, La. The levels of 1871 and 
1874 on Ouachita River gave the apjnoximate height of early fl(Muls, 
l>ut none of tlie ])oints of the snrv(\v on which the late work at the 
shoals was ])lanued could be recov<'r<»d. 

Tlu» maps show that the com])hunts against the work were not un- 
foundeil, bat tlie reniedy tlmt the steamboat men suggest would be less 
defensilde than theorgiujil work. It nnist be rememhtMiMl that the later 
work was j)lanned with a limited appropri}iti<ui to utilize as mucli as 
]»ossibIe of the old State dam. 

The opinion that the grav^'l bars l)elow the head come frmn thecreeks 
just above was bas<Hi upon unsntisfactory inJbrmation, or to hv more 
accurate, ha<l no f<aindation in fact, the stone in the ereeks being of 
(piite ditl'erent material from that on the shoals. 

In oi'der to bi'ueJit, mn igation as much as possihh* with the* least ex- 
penditure, and at the same time not to ])ut in any construction that 
Would not a<lapt itself to a w<'ll cousidered i)lan for the jiennanent im- 
provement of the river. I rec()nim(Mid that the rock b(^ blastetl an<l 
diedged from the point on the left bank above the shoals, when* th(5 
current naturally t<'mls t»» swing downstream boats, and that a cut 1m^ 
niade on the east side of the pr^'sent channel through the shoals and the 
:»Iil State work, closing the jowei- tMid of the wing dam from the right 
l>:ink and ])ossibly easing otV the point of the hitter, if it should seem 
hivisable, Ix'fore linishing the work. Part of the material should Ix* 
b'}»osited in the bend above, the heavier being used to form a dik(% aiul 
tilt* rest dep<Ksited ah)ng the ri;nht bank. 

Atpresent the crossing is exi-eedingly dillicult and grows worse instead 
jf mending as was hoi>ed, n(»t withstanding a rise and fall of over J(» 
iiM»tres (50 feet) which it would be natural to expect to se<mr the bottom 
lown to tlu* bed-rock. The Avoik can b<' <h*n<* by contra<'t, but proba- 
bly not so ecou«mii<*allv or well as bv hired labor and the use of the 
Iredge now in seivice. Two dump scows would be needed, ami a light- 
Iraft towboat. If the /looker shoidd i)e rebuilt it woidd be just suited 
ix^) the work. It is not thought that expensive niaeliinery would Ixi 
i<!tMl(»d t^> drill the i*<>ck for Idasting, but that hand drilling woviUlb^ 




i 



.:^- 



19(J8 KErOKT OF THK CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, V. S. ARMY. 

sufficient, but a steain-drill could be set on the jxunwale of the 
or ttiwboat at small (M>st. 

The survey haviujjfUeru made in the nu*tric system flKMiUcUitil 
*riven in cubic metres (l.;i cubic vanish. 

The estimates tor the work are as tbUows: 

Two (liiiiii) si-ows 

Towing ]il:int to (.'MialumlM Slu»;iN :nul ninni 

lU!i>»iiiijx ami <lit'tlgiiitr -^"'J'*'!^ <ii1iir mi'tri> rork. >:iim1. ami 1x1:1 vrl 

Traiuiuy: waU ami «lani 

lnsiu'iti<ni 



It maybe nMiiarkeil that certain i)arts of the estimate w«uild i 
unclianjicil for either a h*ss or a ;:i'cat**r anu^nnt nl" drcilj;:iiij;', an 
witli (»m*-hall' tlu» a]>])rnpriation tmly about one fourth of the bl 
antl dredjrin«r ciaild bi* dour. 

The body of Assistant Kii.uincer Marshall's report is jiivcn bcl 
details of the survey antl of the amount of worlr dcsirabk*: 

I havf thf honor to i»]iori ihat with A>si>iants Hillclcr ami IJink I ]iroi'» 
Rivcitun. La., hy rail. an«l tlu-nrr ilnwn < Ouachita Kivt-r on ]»oar«l I'nititl stai 
boat Citloiirl Ifnnkcr, on whirhtln' |»aviv was iinarimHl clnrin«i tin* snrM'\ . 
lK*;;:an Aujrnst I,") ami rnilrcl An;jn>.t L'i^. antl ron«»istt*d ol' transit antl stadia sii 
bt»tli hanks, shon- lino, antl ail.jaroni toiu»;;rai»hy. with t'h'vaiii»n> hasnl nn :i 
<*lioi:k«'il Y-h-vi«l> lVt»ni till' ih'lta Sni\ rv ln-nrh <»n watrr tahh*. novthi'asr 
of j>arish rhrk".- i»tiior at llavrisonliun;. La., tlu* i«h*vation of' whit h is now 1 
to L'aii'iMlaiiini: a!si»sonndinu:«4 »»n I'o irosssrrtions with i-hann*-! soumliniis 1m 
From thi'M- data tin* arrompanvim: map on a M-ah* of 1:1(J.«KH>. with ]in»l 
t*ross-s«Mti<»ns havinsr \i'iti<al stah I: 1.Mh> wrie impan-d in tUv otliio to >lui 
and h>w watrr slopi> and aiva-*, hank lint-*, ilrvaiions. and I'onliirnration. fro 
ris<»nhnrj; up tin.' rivt-r "..■> kihinictivs. This t-ovrrs both t'atahonla Sln)als an«! 
Lonis l»ar. Vtdority was nii>asnnMl at two scitions t>n tlu' shoals \> lu-ri' tlu* 
<Toss st'ftion was h-ast and thr Vfloriiv :;ri'att"<t. A snrfarr tloat was atta<-l 
line I'ord SO uu-tivs lon:j anil linu* taktii li> a wati-li. Thr tloat wasrnn at livt 
on fa»h »4i'ction. and tin* inian vi'lority at i-arh ]M»int takm as JKiiUJ.'S tinn's t 
fat"'' vohu-ity. riu* di>« harirt* was tlnn rah-nlatrd for tsuli fh-nirnt of tin* ^ 
tlu* ]M»int of t-arli vrhnity htini; takrn as tin* middh^ of an ulrnji-nr. ami tho 
tlu: oh'nu'ntary disrhar«;i's takm as tin* total ilixrhar^rr. Oiw sntion ;;avc n^i 
the otln-r lll.t^T »'nhir nn-m-s ]u'v .M-ronil. 'I'ln' ri\tr was ahont l nutrr ah 
tronu* low watrr. and to arrivi- at tlu' ilix-hais,'" :»t thai ptiiod I liaM* snpju* 
nroa t»f t-voss sft-rion alonr diinini*^hcd. thr vrhniiv rt'mainin«; tin* samr hv ri- 
tlu- inrri'asf in sh»]M* ;is iln- vi\«'r dt-i lini"». It is a fail that tlu* fall i»; rom-i-i 
at tlu' shoals dnri'ij; low wat'T. This wnnhl iii\f a <li-rhari:o of i'^Wi iiihir 
]M'r siM-ontl with a rros«i s«^iiion of so s«|ua!r niftvfs. Tin' nn-an raiioof sin, 
the 7.5 kilonn-ti'i". was (».«MiJI : ov^r tin* -^liiKiK ]mo])i r. (».<mh»;1.''»I): ovtr Hayon 
Uar. <».0(.HUr)t;. ami thronuh tin- prt-sint ilain at thr shoals. 0.t)<^C»s|. nr^idrs 1 
m'<rs'!ary ronri-ntration of >l(ip** and iimst'unrnt inoriMsr of fnrrrnt thron 
i)n's«*nt dam, thr rhannrl is uiadr to mni short ac ross ihr rivrr. A short n 
lu ;X«'ts shoal wat» r. naturr's ronntirpois in stri-p slopr. is always t«i hr a\» 
jMKsiMf. and is iiuly rr]irrlM'nsiIdi' in thi«* instanri*. In addition, tlii* low 
t-hannrl hrinir athwart tin* hiuli Mat'-r. it lii-.-nmrs rlndiril at rarh risr an«l n 
wasln-d oin am-w a«» thr waii-r falK. Sunn- Ntr.ijnhoatnirn. rrali/ini; »»nly thr 
i-ni rvil inriih-ni to thr ]»as««ai:i' of ilu- >hiial< ;u low waii-r. an«l aiirihutini: t 
niation of ihr liars ti> lln- f nijionr of m:i\ rl tVimi I'di; and Liulr L rrrks. li:i 
]ir< s>rd a di--»iri- I'nr 1 hr 'lii-inLj ••!" t hr pir<rnt rlcinnrl aiid ojirnin;.; a rhannrl tl 
thr w inii <hnn ^\ hi' h rMi mU from 1 In- riiiht hank, and whirh was hnilt hv tho 
Stalr> in 1>**'*. thii- ii-^'o!iii.j thi* i-omliiinns whirh tditainrtl suhsiMpn-nt to tl 
strmiiiin of iln- Stistr ilini. Thi-i wnijld rrt|nirr thr rrnn»val of I.tlOmhir 
nf Inuxi- rork and tiiMXi-l. mthI dnnipuju ii in thr prr<«-nt rhannrl at an i-stimat« 
iif .<»i)'.i. ]dns ihr .-osi of toMini: a ilicjinr lioat to thr shonls and hark, 'flu-v 1 
a-^k that thr nnnith"* of Ilii; anil I.iitlr tiiiks hr »losrd hy stonr <lams. to dn 
wonid nrrd. IM.'HU luhir nirtn-"* of sTi»nr. it' thr «l;niis -^honhl hi- ',\ nn-Ufs with* 
w ith siopr*. iif 1 on •_'. ami tin- io]i :i'» hi-;;!! a^ tin- jor-i-nt b.ink**. t hi* rn-it hrini; 
As -^tatiil. th«- lir-i laopusit idii i«« onl> in vi-nirn t«i trird. londirinn-*, whirh I a 
hy rancliil «»trainhnatnu-n ni-ir .mytliinu hnt s:iii>lartory. 

Thr Statr dam diil. ami would a^ain. siiriply fitrrr tin* riossin»: lowi»r dow 
liver iirairr l^iMMi Loiii^ liar, shinlim; that har tu 1.1 iiutics. whrro thoro : 



.1*. 



UUk. 



:' 



wmiimfcyA.mai4ca 



I, ^va^t 



I 



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I 



* 



1970 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. 

The agreement of the raih^oad levels at Little Bock and F 
those of the Coast Survey aiid Engineer Department warra 
lief that the heights at Arkadelphia may be accepted. The h 
shows at once that no money should be wasted on permanen 
ment above Camden; that Camden is the natural head of na' 
ordinary stages, and the river above almost a mountain 
might be supposed from the oscillations at Camden, where t! 
times rises as much as 15 feet in a night. 

The great range in the lower river is due largely to ovei 
Mississippi llivor through Bayou Bartholomew, Boeuf Riv 
Lafourche, and Tensas and Magon, but as the main levees an 
and consolidated the supply fix)m that source will be cut o 
flood heights greatly diminished. 

Fortunately for the interests of navigation and for the saf< 
l)ermaneut works that might be adopted, Ouachita River is 
tively free from dritl, in marked contrast to Red River, whic 
through Black River; and in the lower reaches the banks ar 
stable than in most of the streams in this district, and their 
pmbably would make it stife to repair old levees and build nc 
large expenditures for revetment. The map and hydrograj 
amended as additional information is obtained, and to hi 
work it is recommended that additional gauges be establ 
the most im])ortant points connected with the Cairo datum. 
Ouachita City, CoUimbia, IIan*isonburg, and Trinity can be 
by comparatively short lines, but the first and the last two a 
imnu^diate value than the others and should have precedence 

It is also recofiimended that a reconnoissance be made in 
river to determine the condition of the old levees and the \ 
would require to restore them in connection with the parish lev 
This would be doiie if the survey should be authorized, and is 
enough to warrant an expenditure of $5,000 in case the surv 
be postponed. With regard to the latter, I can not do bett<^r t 
from my report of 1890, as no action was taken on the subject 
session of Congress : 

In answer to your indorsement of December 9, on letter from Hon. Chai 
uer to the Secretary of War, askin<; for estimate of cost of sarvey of Ona 
to Camden, Ark., with a view to securing permanent navigation by mea 
I have the honor to submit the following : 

A number of surveys, examinations, and reports have been ma<le upon 
of permanent improvement of Ouachita River, the last by me under date c 
12, 1889, giving a brief summary of plans, estimates, etc., which is publi 
pendix W 22, Keport of the Chief of Engineers, 1889. 

The survey of 1871, upon which the first estimates were made, was eoii 
a Board appointed by Colonel Simpson, and so many errors were found up 
ing the maps and notes with the survey of 1873 a's to render it valueles 
reconnoissance. 

The report of the Board, with a review of the same, was forwarded to 1 
Kngincers by Colon*'] Simpson in his letter of March 11, 1873. The sul 
cussed again by Major Benyaurd in his report on the resurvey of 1873 (Re 
Chief of Kngincers. 1874, Part I. page 352). The survey of 1873 is not c 
and doubtless can be used to a certain extent, but how far I can not est 
was made under conditions that do not now exist. I presume the origin 
]dans are on lile in tin* Engineer nejiartment, but the field notes and cc 
ma]is. with a limited amount of to]>ogra]»hy. are at hand, Jind from such 
have brcn able to give them, in the brief time that I could spare, I shonl 
as tbev will be over 17 vears old bv the time tield work could be roeuim 
new survt'v be ordered, tlwir value for ])urposes of I'stimate must be limi 

Tin* reasons for this o]union are based upon the faets that Ouachita R 
an alluvial stream, has undoubtedly undergone considerable ehnm|^ sine 
espeeially that all the eastern tributaries are now, or soon will be, dep 

great part uf their «<upply by the dvi?ing of the <fVxkansas ftnd Looisuu 



leroes Il]o^gTt^tlSIU Front, nnii will Im liniited herpftftor Uj drainlni; their n 

Thd ttntnout of moan^ s|>ant by Uio ttniUd Stutnn in cambtituticm witli the Statrar] 
: md parfKlicw, Dorjiurationa, and prirutu partius in tliu conatriiciiun of nuir loTma ^ 
. __.__.._.*_.!!.____...__.. — rrauttUu bell " " 
le of leveei, 



:iinst of the vftlloy oil ■ ' -i I iiTS foriDOriy iiTorflownd, siidl 

' xt'tliiR will be r»i!l;iiiiH'<i "[ Tonsas Kront, it will be imr-« 

,,',,,:.. .'. kiiijwtho nmoiuit l.liiU h...: I by bni'.kwntnr dno to drunn on J 

i.hi.ii li.:.;, l.u settle questiona ol' Liml 'l.ii^t.i^^.., 1:1.1., and tblH wonld nocoBsitafa)-] 

Tu« llrat thiUK i" "rder should Iin prei^iso leveling on Orint'btta tram Arkodnlpluftil 
I or Cnmdeu to lieil River, and a fpw triul Hues iroin the miLin rivyt to the tribu- ^ 
' Wi'^ to oacertnin the probable lengths ol' the latter thnt woold raiiuiro the si 
ar iiunrly ef|iml grude ot siu'voy, I say tbe aame or nearly oauiil griido, becaiuui U 
OU'ii-liitn is to be conulixed it is hardly to bo donbted that tlis daiOD oonld beso-J 
plni'od lis to give no iucouside ruble BUuikwiter navigation to tbn Irihutaries ni 
Ha^ll^ time; whito on ths other hiiud thp tribnt»riea luuHt play an iniiioitaiU TQIo in J 
limiting the heights of ilaius aurl li Its of locks, and hence in deciding npon the noul- 
Lcr nniT position of them in Ibe niiiin river. 

AsBUtnmg for exumple tbiit both 1muks of Ouschita are high enongh In allow % 
lock of 8 to 13 feet lift below Btunf River, a slnckwiiter depth of about 4 feet might J 
bo abtnined for a distance of 40 to 60 miles on Ouachitu and Bccnf Rivers ut tbe.1 
Bnmo time, but onlyi perhaps, by flooding a greater or less .'unoiint of lund botwoen ^ 
the two HtToams. Now, the only iiifomiiiition I have In regard to the lands betiveeii'i] 
Oiionhitu a^d Bayoa Btenf that 1 cun offer as fact is, that on the linu of the Viults- f 



Bayou fimiif, and the map Indicates that in the neisbborbood of Columbia thflj 
draiDage it! indilTurent towards Ouachita or Breiif, anil may Bow iVom one to tl 
othnr a^ieoriUug to variations in respective atagcg. 

1 think enough has been said to slww the necessity of »n exhaustive survey nf th 
wholo valley. The information abouid be so complete as to leavonotliingtoohancii,] 
aiul thertfiiio the survey should cover precise levels along both bunks and lte<|uemr^ 
traiisvalloy sections; high and low water slopes, discharge and sudbuent obaervn^'^ 
tions; topography, taking iu the valley for u mile on each side, ormore, if necessary, J 
and oonnci'ting with the principal tribntari«B at intervals; hydrography; seottoiU'l 
aiirl Iniii'iiii'linai souuduigs; secondary triuugulation ; special examinations andjl 

1 ii i>ii.>ljablesites for locks; peiuanentbeaah-marks and monuments ; |irojBC-] 

..;.-; tamputotion, ofSee work, oto, 1 

■ .t™ for locks and dams heretofore subiuitted vary from, say, two to six 1 
■('■lliirs, and in mv opinion the latter is none too smiUl lor a systtim of J 
iii-i between Camden and Blaok Hiver, considering the nature of thef 
l>itibably t« be oncoiinterod. 

1 fall at Camdeii is 39.25 feet; at Monroe, 46 feet; at Bronf River. 

.ii Trinity 53.4 feet, so that it is clear that whatHvorsvstem were clioaon,_l 

t. [i. i)i. I I .< il or movable dams, looks of high or low lift, none but tho most sub-'a 

sliiutiiil worii would be admiasablo, as uomplete submergence of the locks and'O 

niBneuvuring engines, boilers, etc., would have t^j bo provided tut at onv stage over,. J 

Bar, 20 fool above low watnr. The great variation in rise and fill, as stated, l 

ihouKb mirier the changed ofinditiona it may be much less in the future, warrants 1 

ihc l.i'Hi'l' that both revetments and lovees may be requited to prevent flanking ths-l 

.' kn, adisiisterthiit wouldnot bo local, and to lie rcnicdiwl by the PX^f 

-I bimdreU thousand dollars or so, but one that would menu the deatruo-J 

si.;m or the intermptiou of navigation for years and the oxnejiditnrol 

: . 1I-.I sum for its restoration. Sii: millions of dollars would not liu an es-» ' 

,,,,..„.. niim to pay for a pemuinent nuvigiilion of Ouachita River that wouldaUo'^ 

Kivu Iruui iU to 100 miles on each of iU large ttibHtuHes, sfty obout 1,000 miles in all, 
gtvilig ail average of $li,ODO the mile. But whether ttio ultimate cost should be 
fouuu tit be gj'iiHtnr iir less thu.li the ostimatos heretofore subiuittud, true ei^onuuiy 
Is a most thorough and oxhaustive survey, always a very expensive iiiider- 

funcll of tbo country to bo gone «vur ia uusottled, it would rofiuire that lUoJ 



1972 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ASMJ, 

parties should bo maintained in the field, in camp, or on qnarter boats for 
sons, or longer if operations should be int-erruptea by high water or siokiu 
pay in the tield and office, as only the best men should be employed, and e 
instruments suited to the grade of work demanded. 

It is very difficult to make an estimate, because it can not be determined h 
work will be needed on the tributaries until they have been examined, 
much of the survey of 1873 can be used until it has been reviewed both in ' 
and in the field. 

First-class work can be done for about the following rates per mile : S( 
triangulation, $125, if the country is reasonably open, so that high stations 
cutting will not be required; topography, hydrography, and precise levels f 
river, il50; precise levels and transit lines across country, $50; discharge f 
ment obaervations,according to the number of stations and time allotted. T 
very uncertain, on account of interruptions and delays by floods and nnfavor 
ditions. 

Ouachita and tributaries are subject to sudden and considerable floods, th 
highest water occurs generally in March and November, so that it is probi 
field work could be carried on for about 9 months in the year. On this b 
making allowances for interruption from sickness and bad weather, I estin 
the survey could be completed and the notes and estimates prepared in abou 
and a half, and at a cost of $150,000, or about 2^ per cent, of the estimated a 
improvement. 

The amount estimated for the fiscal year 1892 can bo exi>ended to advs 
commerce and navigation in continuing operations under the present prq 
addition to the work of snag boats I recommend the systematic clearing of i 
for some distance back. This is especially necessary in the bends and narrc 
tions of the river for the immediate benefit of navigation, but should be o 
throughout the whole stream to prevent the formation of obstructions. I 
should be tried also at the most obstinate shoals, and the construction of ine 
wing dams, built chiefly with the material cut from the buiks. 

DETAILED ESTIMATES. 

For the snag boat service 

For plant and work at Catahoula Shoals 

Rebuilding snag boat Hooker 

Expenses o€ chopping parties 

Repairs and outfit 

Dredging in Black River 

Gauges, leveling, and reconnoissance 

Assistant engineers and draftsmen 

Survey of Ouachita River 

Office expenses, stationery, mileage, and contingencies 

Total 

The lower part of Ouachita Eiver, known as Black River, ^ 
the interpretation of Ouachita, is formed at Trinity by Ouachita 
Ha-Ha, Tensas River, and Little River. I made a reconnoissai 
map of Black River in January, 18iH), and found it to be about 4 
long, tortuous, and obstructe<l by shoals, which had as little as 1( 
over them in extreme low, while in great floods the depth excec 
feet. Little River is a stream formed by Bayou Castor and 
mona River, and roaches Ouachita through Catahoula Prairie 
becomes a lake in liigh water. The portion between Catahoal: 
and Trinity, some 25 miles, has been improved by the expend! 
$2,500, appropriated by the act of August 11, 1888. The effect 
work was to s^timulatc tra<h\ and the commercial statistics show 
large increase over thost* given in former reports. As the appro] 
of 1888 was made to <M)mph4o the work in acconlance with the ] 
no further estimate was submitto*!, and the stream w:\s droppc 
the list of riv<'rs in this district. It is referred to now on account 
amount of business contributed to Ouachita River. The same j 
could be si»eut on this stream with great advantage. 



BIX T — BBFOST OP.CAPTAIH WILWBD. 

.V(»)i#y sfntmirnt. 

July 1, 1890^ btJaoco nnusppiiii.'.l _ 17, 17-1,89 

Anoani OProiuUiod t>y act approved Sepb'mlmt Ifl, 1890 -. J5,(HiO,00 

22. 171. 89 
JuiHiSD, Uai, amoont exjtended during fiHCal year _ 9,398.3* 

Jnlj I, 1S81, Ifalanoe imexpciidcil 13,7T&[i5 

July 1, 1*91, onutanding fialiilitlM 241.67 

Jnlj I.iaei, Ulanecorailnble 12,5.11.88 

t inu>ntiltbBtcaiib<ipTofit4i1>IyexpetidediiiSscit]yniirciiiliiig3un(!30, l^SS 210^000.00 
I Submitted in Fomnliiuioe with reqiiireineiits of sections 2 wf rivpr nud 
< hatbor »cu of 1866 anil 186T. 



In th« iMtst fiscal year the rirnr woa nurigable to Cnmd^n trom the middle nf N'o- 
TDinbrr until the middle nf Muy. The lower part nf OiiarhitA nud Itlaik River was 
luvl^ablo the ontire year, bouts )(DDc-nilly ruDuine to llotiroe, but at very low stages 
Uoliunbia wail the headof iiavi|;iitio» for NeiT Orleans bnata. 

tlie foUowinf; lUt shows thi' steamboats engiiged iu bnsjness on the Ouochitti and 
tribntoriea dnrtuK the year; 




1974 BBPOBT OP TUB CHI£P OV KKGINERBS, U. B. AfiUT. 





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Slera- wheel 




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12.54 
3.00 




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l>niiri<- Landing. 
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ina- 



The traffic by river reported wne ns fo11o\r3: 



CottoD mH 

Hld« and akina 

Lumber 

L^:::;:::::;::::::;::::::::::: 

MiiiMUaB«iuii".".v'."M; !;;.;!;."; 

TeIaldowiifr.'i;:lit 

Kelnnifn.'iglil-- 

Total freight 

Eitiinated value, In m^od niimlK-i 



IS.3»a ; 7,W 

muoo se'.m 



Hi,oDO tia,2u,3sa; kth, 



The eompeting routes of transport sit ion nte as follows; Ouaebitn River is croat 
bv the St. Louis. Iron Jlonntain anil fsmtlitrn Railwav at Arkailelphia, Ark., bvl 
St. Louie and Southivestirii Kailnay (Cotton Belt route) at Cnuiden, Ark., wad 
th« Vickeburg, Slirevepirt niid Pneifte Railroad at tlouroe, La. Tb« St. Louis a 
Iron MoantatD road ban n liriiiiob line jiaTuIlcl to tb« river from Camden to Qnrdi 
Ark., aud thenco by the main line to .^rkndelphia. A projected estension of tl 
braneh will eiTe direct comniuniratiim withtlieMiwiisgippi Kiver at ArkanssaCi 
the part to oo built beiii^ ftoin Camden to Warren, Ark., a distance of abont 
miles. The Honston, Central ArknnKaa and yortlicrn Railroad (another branch 
the Missonri Pneilic Systi'nO eonnerts with ArkaDti.iB City at McGrbee, ISai 
went, and tbcuce runs in a eonthn-cijti'rly direi-tioii. about uiidway between Baj 
Bartholomew and Binif Itiver. toui'ties Ouachita Kivcr and crosses the Vickabn 
ShrevepoTt and Paeifie Kiiilroad lit Monroi'. La., and continncs down, parallel to ' 
main river, to Columbiu. La. Thii runil is liuiliHuR a lirid^e amiss the river at Eiv 
ton about 6 miles above Columliia, and is nn>l>-reonHtmrtion from Columbia to Al 
andria, and will cross Little liiver at the juuctiou of Dugdemoua with BSfOn Cast 



»BT OV CAPTAIN WILLARD. 1975 

The Kalrlira. Bi'«l RJvrr niu) Trxnti Railroml (iiurrn\T eniigi'i) riinn fmiu Dlark River 
BUUan, upiinkilA Trinity, Ui Viilnlin on tli.> Misfiiasipiii nt>|"i«it'' Niit'^li.z. Tills roml 
h«B a ■UtuiU triWMkly jm-iiH rtinniTii: ::, VA-u-V. l;ir.-i- (..Viit.lh-. 'Hr.- V.m- Oil.'iiiis 
•fet) NorlhwHtrni Ruilwity. i'.nii|.l.'ii-'l ., \ .i, i,. ii ,,- r.. i: ,. ■ in.. [ , , iTosm-a 

Buair KSv4irn Bliort rlinUiii'i- iiurMi 'ii I' ' " ' i < " '' -iiii|i. [,ii. 

Tli»oirulii>TMiifi.iItlt-liivi'r. wliE.h i-i.ir.-- >^.r .,. ,,,■,. .i,.! 1, i,- ,, ,it ■rriiiHy, 

L*., In funning Blauk Eivur, wan ri>|>iirti'>l lor ihb puisi lihnii your, m ioIiiavf! : 

CaUon 1,000 

ColtmaDnd 2,5(10 

HidM niKd Bkiiw 35 



1 



fltavM 900 

Uga 60,000 

Toral down fniEht Ki.wa 

Bctnni frcighl „ 3. R%8 



Total ftpichta IJD.338 

EitluBtt-d vaiav, hi tuuuil iiiiiiilx'rs _ #705,000 



V4. 

mPHOVI^MENT OF OUACHITA RIVEE ABOVE CAMDEN, AEKANSAS. 

At) ejcamiiiatioii of Ouachita River in ArlfanHaa was made iiudcr 
(IlrMrlion uf Lieutenant ColmiL'I llayiinlds in 1870. Ahove ArkiMlelphia 
it w;i.- I'.mriti t.. 1i.- liffk- iii'.n- limn a iiioiiiifiiiri tom-nt, iit m..st limes 
very shoal, and in flood too rapid for navigation. Estimates were made 
for removing obstructions below Arkadelpltia to the Arkansas line, 
•60,000, and for dr«dging, $12,300. (Report Chief of Engineers, 1871, * 
pages 336-337.) The act approved Marel! 3, 1871, appropriated $25,000 
for improving the river below Arkudelphia to the Louiriiana line, ^vhich 
was expended in removing obstructions in 1871 and 1872. 

Nothing was done for further improvement above Camden until 1S82, 
when an examination of the ri^'er from Camden to Arkadelphia was 
directed by the act of August 2, 1882. The examination was ma<lc by 
'itajoT Miller, who reported that this part of the river was not worthy 
of improvement and the work not a public necessity. {Report Chief of 
Engineers, 1884, pages 1351-13r>5.) 

The act approved August 5, 1880, directed a "reexamination of 
Ona<;faita above Camden, Ark.," which was made under my direction 
in 1887. (Report Chief of Engineers, 1887, pages 1495-1497.) I re- 
ported that nothing could be found to recommend an expensive im- 
frovement, but that I considereil the river between Arka^lelphia and 
!amden worthy of improvement to the extent of cutting leaning tim- 
ber, girdling trees along the bankw, removing snags and logs with 
dynamite, and building brush dams ut the shoals to iifturd uiivigatiiui 
at high stages, at an estimated cost of $9,000. 

The act of August 11, 1S.sk, iippropriated *9,000 "to complete" the 
improvenient. 

■Work was commenced at .Arkadelphia in September, 1889, and car- 
ried downstream to Camden, where it was suspende4i in l)e('ember. 
Operations daring that period put the river in fair condition for navi- 
<»twn above Camden to Arkadelphia at stages that would peimit 



1076 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMT. 

Rteanii'is to vuii to tlic fonnor pla<'C», all tlio work having been <1 
low wat<»r, oxcopt a short stretch above the mouth of Little Mi 
Ko business was <li verted to the river, however, and uoue of th« 
lar Ouaehita boats went hi^jher than CanuU^i, giving the rea^ 
as the merchants of Arkadelphia had taken no steps toward sk 
by river Camden was still regarded as the head of their trade. 

' The work in 1SS9 was done well in spite of occasional interra; 
by sudden rises, but it was expecteil that a great deal of the t 
that had been cut would lodge in the stream the first season, 
considerable sum was reserved to be used in going over the 
stretch during the next low water. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, operations were a 
lows: 

A chopping party was organized at Camden July 23 and the 
and outfit used the preceding year put in order by July 28, ani 
party started upstream to resume the removal of obstnictions. A 
water was at a low stage, progress was slow and the boats wei 
tained more or less at every shoal. There was less than 4 inchc 
Tulip Bar, and brush dams were built to concentrate the flow, by 'w 
the depth was increased to G inches, but as the quarter boat « 
about 13 inches log rollers were made and the boat hauled ux)st 
for over a quarter of a mile.. At the rapids a number of large bowl 
were removed before the boat could pass. The mouth of the I 
Missouri, .*iS miles above Camden, was reached August 12, and as 
tributary furnishes a large proiwrtion of the water supply it was 
deemed advisable to try to move the boats higher upstream on the 
stage of water, but the party was divided and six men with a s 
battery, and explosives were sent to remove the channel snags al 
that ix)int. The flat boat worked back downstream, thoroughly 
moving all obstructions on the way, until September 22, when 
river commenced rising rapidly, and the plant was laid up at Old B 
Cut-ott', a few miles above Camden. Complaint having been mad 
obstructions in the river bel6w Arkadelphia, the available balance 
expended between that place and the mouth of Decepier Creek 
miles below. October 2-4 the quarter boat was towed to the 1« 
l>oint, but heavj' rains set in immediately thereafter, and as there 
no probability of doing the work within a reasonable time, the ' 
was dropped back to Old River Cut-oft' October 7, and again laid 
By October 22, however, the water had fallen suflSciently to res 
work, and a party with skitts, tools, and explosives was transpo 
by teams to the mouth of DtH'cpier Creek. Work was carried 
stream to Arkadelphia and then back over the same stretch of ri 
dynamite being used Ireely, and the overseer in charge reported 
nothing further which would be called an obstruction could be foj 
and that with sufticient water to pass the shoals steamboats coul^ 
to Arkadelphia without danger. On completion of this work, 
]>arty in skitts returned to the lH>ats, which were dropped do¥n 
</amden November 4, t4) be used on the work of improving the i 
beh>w that pla<*e. 

Overseer John T. Ihirkette, in immediate charge, reported the 
lowing work for the year: 

Siijiji^s reiiiovetl fnnn chaunol : 

Leaniug trees out 

{Square yards brush and willows cut ; * 

Cubic yards rock removed from rhnnuel 

Liuear feet brush dams built 



:.<l<!>tinti;>l .'srini^il 


i;i;lllHli, liu't. ill tll> 



WDIX V — HEPORt OK CAPTAIN WILLARD. 

Tills work wmiiU-l'tl flu- pii.int. fnv iriii.i-..\-iiiL' Omicllif;' River I) 
Av<-<-i> (::Mri<)i'ii :i.ii<I Ai'k^iili'l|ilim, Ail... :ii><1. ii.s mI»I<'<I in iiiv ri-|Hi|-t. 

i li.il ir.|itiiv ;tll<'i>li.iii <'riv IIIMliy .y'MTH. No-l 

iiliiiiinril, ihiTf hi-jn^' li'i ciijiHiicrct- imw or tfiM 

I- U> miiir ;il ;ill riilllllirl..sur.llt^ ^^itll tLe COHt. J 

liil di'i'tlyiiig wiiiilti Iji! of yiciit I)ein.'-Jitt4iliav-T 
I'hl it would only ivggmv ate (lie ditticnlties.! 
iinl'ti profile ahows, aa he reports, "that ordi-f 
ii(.'tir, fiUL-h as dre^lging and rock excavations T 
or wing dams, woiUd involve eiionnoiia expense even if practicable," mid 
OH these remarks wei-e for the river below Oamdeii tlicy will apply still 
more forcibly to the river above. Colonel Haynolils HiM-aks of only 12 
inches on the shoiils, bat in extreme low water 3 inuhea is not luitMnu- 
tnOD. Even if a system of locks and dams should be found pnu^ticablo 
tlie benefit would be only local nnleas the whole river wt^re iinpmvod to 
give at least i feet navipition to Caimlon the year nmnd, for t)ua«hita 
Kiver iB not navigable to Camden by the sinalleHt boats in extreme low 
water, tliere being as little iis IS inehos on the bars in Black Kiver, the J 
Btretch from the Four Rivera at Trinity to Ked River, t« say nothing of fl 
the rock and gravel bars in th« river from Trinity to Camden, the head fl 
of navigation. The ))copIe iutcreated in Arkad^phia natorally desire I 
that the npper river shall bo iniproved if possible, and think it unfair ■ 
tliat their viewa should not be ancejited without demur. Complaint was ■ 
made that the work in the upper river had not been well done, and I ■ 
tlierefore ha^l the river esamiJied at the lowest stnge, and am eatistlet) J 
that everything contemplated and estiinnted for has been accomplished f 9 
that is, the r^noval of leaning timber, drift, and tlie most dangeronafl 
snags to give a rfiasonably snfe navi{ratiuii during liigh Ktagps. Moral 
can not bo done upon a stream that is subject to sudden rises of as much. a 
as 10 feet in a day and that ranges between high and low water not lesafl 
tiian 411 feet at Camden. 1 do not know the exa«t difl'oreuee of eleva-fl 
tiou between low water at Arkadelphia and at Camdeo, but a» the slojie m 
is not lesa thau four tenths foot at Camden, it ran uot be less than SOl 
feet, and yet with this great fall and a current of from 1.5 to 3 miles porl 
hour, and in high floods murh greater, the low- water discharge will notS 
viiry much fmm 350 cubic feet a second, which would give a channel im 
I'.-ci (l.i-ii iiiid not over 30 foet wide, provided the velocity could be kepbf 
iinilir > li'i't i>et second, or say 2 miles, per hour. ■ 

Tlir ri|iort on the Mississippi delta survey (IIumphrBya and Abbot), ■ 
page 211, edition of 1876, says: ■ 

Few rivets AiSat more in the f|iiaDt.itf of water itt difforont Heasons tUnn the Onu- U 
chit*. FluwinK f>oin aliillyoruuaQtiilnoiisCriuit mure cnnHtiinoyniiKbt Iwuxpeoted^ 
In llie coliiiiin of watocj but lb»iif!li the ptacM drivinod by the Littiv MisBouii aiidB 
Foiiiche HU CiMln are not delii^U'ut in spnngo, yet ttio extensive region toward 1li« V 
MUtitceH of Oaachitn baa Uttic water except whut is supplioil by tiuiib in the wiu* m 
!«■ ami (Miring. When tlie parching heat of anmnioT hw* drkil the country abiive ■ 
the nioiilfi of the Littto Mifwonri the Oaaebita bccomos very low lis far south an the ■ 
head of Itlai^k River. ■ 

(Arkadelphia t« Trinity is about 370 miles.) I 

To show other opinions in regard to the river above Cainden held byj 
people .engage* 1 in uavigntiug Ouachita between Camden and Npw« 
Orleans, attention is invited to the complaint of December 27, 1880, 1 
made to the Secretary of War and referred to me for report, the body ■ 
of which is as follows: I 

We, BtoninboatmRii who havnbcon uavigatins this river (Ouncliita) for the pnflt30>l 
jtmm from New Orleans to CaradiMi. Ark., beg to call your altmif ion to the ixnnnorB 
iD which the rivtir improvnniont ot Ouacbitu Una bouu munajfod. The goattomvA^V 



1978 REPORT OP TIIK CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, V. 8. ARMY. 

Captain Davis, now in cliar^o. informs ns that his instriK'tions are to work 
lh<- rivrr tV«un Caiiulcn a]»ov(>. ThiTi* is no st«>anihnat hiisint'ssnor iiavi^itioi 
CaiiHlcn. No lioats lim* st'vnal vrars havo Ikmmi running th«'i'o, aii«l tlio iiio 
)M'nilf(l theiv is of no Itcnctit to stranihoats or fonniuTco. Tho river fi*om t 
down is in Vfiy bad condition, as Captain Davis knows, and requires his at t 
tht'H' hi»i!]«x v«*ry many sna^s and ohstnn-tions in the ohauuel. Captain 
knows I ht* best and most t'conomiral iru't hod to remove thesetibBtrnctions, which 
hu done at ouvv. We do not know to whom we shonhl apply nnless to yon, 
y(m tt) ^ive Ca))tain Davis insiructions ttt work from Camdeu down. Our sea 
8t('nmboatin«; is short, and we ask as a sperial favor that yon will refer the 
to the proper person for promi>t action, and oblijre us especially. 

i I iv]>(>rtO(l tho work doiie on the river below Camden, and th\ 

' work above Caiuden was not discretionary, bnt required by the 1 

r Anjrust 11, 18SS, a])]>roi)riatin*;: ^^O.IMK) for tliat puri)08e, also tl 

' Mareh, 1887. with 18 feet on the gau^e at Camden, the pilot of the 

boat Wa(fne)\ 30 inches draft, refnsed to take the responsibilj 
jjoin^ above Cannlen bridge on account of the dangrer of being a 
above, as tlie river was fallinjr, althou«rh I did not contemplate 
the boat more than two days inspecting the upi>er river. 

There is but one way in which the question of improving the 
between Arkadelphia and Camden can be settled, and that is 1 
ac<*urate survey, especially in the line of levels. I have said tha 
difference of elevation betw<»en low water at each jdace was not ku 
but it may be estimated by combininjiT the results of river and rai 
surveys in Ouachita Valley. The Iron Mountain Railroad levels 
a difference between the brid*res at Little Kock and Arkadelphia of a 
71 feet, and placed the britljxe at Fulton on Ked Kiver at the same h< 
as that at LittU' Kock. 1 connected the hitter with the Coast Sn 
juecise bench, an<l the former with the levels of Ked River survey, 
found a disi*repancy t>f less than 1 foot. The precise levels from M; 
sip])i Kiver to Shreveport inchuled hi«rh and h)w water marl 
M<niriH* on Ouachita, and one bench of the survey of 1871 from Tr 
to Camd(»n. The survey of 187^^ fn>m Camden to Trinity gave a 
crepancy in levels of about feet as <*om])ared with those of 1871 
the several common benches at and near ^lonroe show a constant d 
ence in reference planes, so that, assuming them to agree and refei 
all elevations to the common datum of the Commission surveys 
variation at either end of the river line may be taken as not gn 
than .") feet. With these con<litions lii;irh water at Arkadelphia wi 
about i\:\ meters {say 207..") feet), Cain» datum; at Camden, 41,4 m 
(say VM\ teet), and at Monroe .'50.7 meters (say 101 feet). 

The i>rolile of 187.S s1h)ws a rise an<l fall at Camden of 12.3 m« 
(40..*>teet), so that it' the same ranjre is assumed low water at J 
;■ delphia wtmld be .>! meters (107.2 feet) Cairo datum. The distane 

j: tween the two stations has b<»en estimate<l from 72 to 100 miles, gi 

ji a fall of fnun iiu-hes to 1 foot to the niile. 

J: r>ut the <*hief tributary of that ])art of Ouachita (Little Miss 

j; enters some TH) miles beh)w Arkadelphia, an<l therefore, and froir 

i ra]>idity with which the river rises and falls at Camden, it ift evi 

■ that the ranp* at Arkadelphia must be very much less than at Can 

The estiniate made some years ajro of M) fei»t at Arkadelphia is pn>l 
abont ri;rlit, which would ^jrive the low-water elevation at that jwii 
about .■).*> meters (say betwtHMi 17.") and 180 feet) Cairo datum, givi 
total h>w- water fall of from SO to S."* feet, or, say. from 10 to 16 iueh 
the mile. .Makinjr all due all«>wance for ernus in the levels, it is ] 
able that the avera^re s1oim*s of either hijih or low water l)etween J 
|. delphia and Cannlen can not be less than inches to the milei so 



'. T- — REPORT OP CAPTAIN WILLARP. 



i liyjoKi.' 



iliii 



,h-,:]^\„ 



ilrt I 



19791 



ilU|)11»VMIIl!nt t 

Im-rfjisw of ileptli by any of these mpiniH ('mm CiumlPii iiimard would I 
juttniw hlie low-watw limit to full, nnd tlnis n-dni-o tlio iin-wiil tle|)tlis i 
pn Hie isliuiilH above, breakirig the a.ssiiiint<l low-wiiti-i- liii(< into a Hub of 
BacL-e)«sivv pools and rapids. Opi'ii it:ivif;;iliiiii at ijn-iliuni iiiiil lower 
ntAir*-'s cuald not be obtained by iiLrilj.-)h;;. I'x.-rpr by .■\iiiva.tiiij;l«8U(!h 
!& deptli as to reduce the low-n-:ilrr sinpi- lo, or Ics.s ili;iii, tliat at Cam- 
den. On the other hand, slnck-wiitiT ii;ivijj:;Lt!oii wmild not be of any 
material benefit to Arkadelphia iink'fis lowwatw navigation were first 
lobtained by some plan for the {jeneral improveaieut of the whole river I 
jbelow Camden. To give a navigable depth of 3 feet fmni Camden to 
j^ArkadclpUia, supposing that the water supply should l>e sulficifiiit, ' 
would require not less than three dams and locks above Camden, and 
probably six or seven, with maximum lifts safe for sueli foundations as | 
are pre-sumed to exist. But, us already said, tihe feasibility of this or 
of any permanent improvement of upper Ouachita can not be judged 
witliout a survey. I 

The first tiling requisite is the determination of the high and low- 
water elevations at Arkndelplua and Camden, and the most er^nomical 1 
metliodofdoingsowouldbe tomn a Hue of precise levels from the Coast j 
and GotKlctic Survey benches from Little Bock to Arka<lelphia, 65 milsB j 
along the In>n Mountain Railroad, thence along the brancli roads to I 
Gwrdon and Cmndcn, 50 miles, and thence return to close at Pine Bluff, 
j Arkansaf) River, along the Cotton Belt ronte, 04 miles. 

If the elevations at Arkadelphia and Camden should prove to be much | 
i less than those I have given, the survey of the upper river might be < 
I nndcrtakeu, connecting stations along the river by ordinary le\'els. If I 
I tte railroad companies which would bo benefit«d by the levels along j 
1 their Unes should be willing to help, as the Vieksburg, Shreveport and 1 
Pacific Railroad Company did on the line across Louisiana to Bed River, 
the precise levels su;;frestcd above i^ouhl be finished in jibout 3 months 
' for $5,0(MI. These liin's w.xild bo essential to iin iifcunitc survey of ] 
I Onachita River from Cinudi'ii to Red River, so tli^it. if tliut slimild be | 
' authorized, the eoKt would be bonie by the gentiiil iijipropriation by i 
' fixing Arkadelphia as till' u|>iier limit. j 

I The survey of the rivi-r iiiid valley ftom Arkadelphia to Camden, a j 
very difficult country, wiili the height of both banks determined by ] 
ordinary levels, and tniusvidley seitious made at intervals U> as<;6rtain j 
I the amount of land subject to overflow, would cost about JlfiO the mile, i 
or about jl2,000, in addition to the piedse levels, necessary in any j 
case, on the basis of 75 miles length of upper river. I 

Attention is invited to the map of Oumihita. Valley and the plate I 
showing the approximate limits of high and low water on Ouachita, and 
' to the subject of improving the river from Camden to Red River in my 
report of this date upon Ouaehita and Black Rivers. I recommend that 
no further appropriation be made for Ouachita above Camden until it . 
«baI1 be i^wn by a proper survey that permanent improvement of the ^ 
upper river is practical at a reasonable cost. 

Money statement. 



1 980 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF EKOINEERS, U. S. ARV 

COMMEKCIAL STATISTICS. 

In the pAxt Rsral yrar llipro wus nnvicalion for email buulK frum Canute 
del^hiafronithcniiildlcufD('ccml)cr until lhelatl«r purt orMiiy,aiidforlt 
dnrlug high stn^'Os say from January to May. 

The boat« which niu above Ciuuden were as foUoirs: 





CIosii. 


1 
1 


i 


1 




i«o. ;i 




KumB. 


1 


M 


nrtwpm irhat 






to. 18 


JL 


Ft 


iiW.-, 


rr.-»' 


CumilpB ■ml md 

?;«rOrini»u?il 
UteHoriBiiv. 


Prince 






,, 




.....lo 


107. W 


»,. 


i3.0 


- 


20 4.. 



The frpighta reported w 
Cotton 



Stayes.. 

M iscellaneous . . 



Total freights. 
Estimated Tslue, iu i 



Vs. 
IMPROTEMEST OF BAYOU D'ARBON-NE. LOUISIANA. 

Bayoa D'Arbonne is formed by the junction of the Soothj Hidd 
North or Comey Branches, near Farmerville, Union Panah, no 
LouisiaDa; flows in a southeasterly direction, and enters Ouachita 
6 mites above Monroe, La. The course of the bayou is very toi 
through an allu\iat bottom varying iu width from 1 mile at the 1 
navigation to 5 or C miles at its mouth, which is overflowed durin 
water to a dejith of from o to 15 feet. In its windings the t 
touches the hills, at several [iliices, which serve as shipping poii 
the country back of them. 

Au examination and a survey were made in 1883, and the prcri 
improvoineut was bo^ed upon the latter. The bayon is navigatu 
at hiffh stiiges, and it was believed that by the removal of snagt 
wTeeks. and leaning timber from Stein Blufl' on the Comey Brsi 
the moiith of the bayon, i'2^ miles, the boating season would be 1 
ened two mouths and navigation made less hazardous at all 
The estimated cost of such improvement was $15,1100, if spent 
consecutive seasons. (Report Chief of Engineers, 188t pagta 
1381). 

The following appi-oxiriations have been made: 
By act of— 

JolyS, 18St 

August 5. I88ti 

August 11, 18»8 

September 19, 18B<> 

Totalumount appropriated to Jnne 30, 1891 



OperatioDs cotnmencAd iii 1881, ami were continned in 1880, 1887, and 
889, extending nvec the bayou from its uioutb to Stein li\att'. Vav- 
Bg tliia period the improvement from Stein to Harrii* Bluif, or Shiloli 
jftDding, 13 miles above, waa unclertsikea by private sitbt^criptioii, and 
a 18i>0 hoati^ ran to tlio latter point for moiitliB. Considerable work 
rsa done by steamboat men in the way of clearing leaoing timber and 
emoving tbe worst snags before the im])rovciiient was nndertuken by 
be United States, and in 1883, tbe year the survey was madb, the 
»ayoa was reported as navigable from 6 to 7 inonthH nf the year. 
Phe woric done by the United Suites extended the period of navigation 
blly one month, enabled boats of double the capacity of those formerly 
ised to trade in tbe stream to advantage and with leas risk, shortenod 
ifae time for making trips, and redneed freight rates one-half. 
Ihiring the fiscal year 1891 operations weie as follows: 
The stream having been reported mucli obstructed by fallen timber, 
knd a& it was desired to clear it out if possible before the high-water 
wason set in, a flatboat was repaired and fitted up for quarters of a 
shopping party the latter part of December, and toweil from Monroe, 
[a., to the junction of D'Arbonne and Corney Forks January 5-6. 
A. paiiy of 20 men commenced work tbe following day at Stein Bluttj 
Irafc rainy weather set in soon after, and by Januaiy Kt the water bail 
aeaa BO much that it became advisable to suspend operations. The work 
had been carried downstream about 9 miles, and consisted of destroy- 
ing trees and stumpB tn the channel by means of high explosives, puU- 
tng snags, felling and girdling the timber along the banks, and cutting 
Dp all logs liable to be carried into the stream and become obstructions, 
tbe following liebig a summary of what was done: 

Bnaga nmovpil 33 

Stomps Rnuovitd 19 

Bliore HnagB out , Ii3 

Log* cut i33 

IVeea remuTdd 319 

Ttmb gLrdled 312 

The boat and outfit were laid up at Moselys Bluft' to await a lower 
stage, but continued heavy rauis prevented any work, and after they 
had ceased backwater fiom the Ouachita kept the bayou up. As there 
was no prospect of being able to resume work till late in f he summer, 
at the beginning of May the boat was transferred to Bayou Bartholo- 
mew, where operations would not bo afiected by backwater from the 
main river. 

The available balance will be expended during low water tliis aum- 
jner or fall in continuing the work begun in January. 

The-8teamer Trihiitarp (94 t<ms) burned in this bayon last season on 
the first trip, with 3a.'J bales of cotton, and the steamer Lake WasMnji- 
ton (HO tons) burned on I lie third trip. The wrecks of these vosaels will 
be removed if JoLiml to nljHlnu;t navigation. 

The work is not iirrm uienr, as new obstructions areaddetl from time 
to time, but it can lie diniu so thoroughly as not to require attention for 
some years if the balatu i' of the original estimate is granted by the next 
appropriation, although tills estimate was made for two consecutive 
seftHons' work. 

Money utatmtenl. 



A [luring tlatnl yei 



Jutf 1, IM)!, liiiiuucu uuuxpmiilvd . 




1982 REPORT OF THE CUIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. 



{Amount (estimated) required for completion of existinjo: project '? 
Amount that can be profitably expendinl in fiscal year ending June 90, 1898 
Submit t<Hl in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and 
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. 



COMMERCIAL STATISTICS. 



In the past fiscal year this bayou was navigable for nearly 8 months, froi 
until the latter x)art of May, inclusive. The boats emidoyed in this tnd 
follows : 



Name. 



Class. 



o 

es 
C 
B 
O 

H 









Draft. 


m 

s 




• 








u 


• 


ji 






• 


** 




»s 


• 


4a 


%. 


r* 


Long 


s • -^ 

n 1 Q 

■ 

1 

Ft. Ft. 


.a 

5 


Load 


G 


Feet. 


FLin. 


FLin. 



Between what pla 



JosicW , Steni-wlicol 15C.40 140.030.4 4.8, 2 6 6 6 5 Monroe and St 

steamboat. ; j > I I I | Bluff, La. 

LakeWiksbington,....do ' 06.39 102.024.0 4.3 2 6 0;3....do 

Sallic do 168.25 109.0 23.9 3.3 1 0,3 018 Monroe and Shi 

! I I I I ; Landhig. La. 

Tributary do '03.TS 83.018.6 3.0 1 2 3 2; l'....do 



Addie do 

I 



12.54 



1 I 



I 



■l". 



do 



The freights reported were as follows : 



Cotton 

Cotton seed - 

HideA 

Lumber 

Misellancous 



Total down freights 
Betum freights 



Total freights 




Estimated value in round numbers ; $683,500 



|64fi,0M 



The bayou is the only available means of transporting crops and snppli 
by hauling long distances in wagons to Monroe or to the Vicksburg, 8 
and Paciiic Kailroad on the south. 



V6. 



IMrROVKMEXT OF BAYOr B.VRTIIOLOMEW, LOUISIANA AND AKl 

This stream rises in southeastern Arkansas witliin a few 
Pine Bhitt*, aiitl, foHowing a tortuous course, flows at first nearly 
to Arkansas Kiver, at a distanee varying from 15 to 30 miles; t 
allel to th(» ]\lississii>i)i, at about the same average distance, 1 
entering liouisiana turns to th(» southwest and linally enters ( 
Kiver oi»j>osite ()ua<*hita <Mty. The total drainage area of tl 
ainl its tributaries is about 1.8(M) square miles. The States of L 
and Arkansas made expenditures at various times for its iuiprc 



^PESDXX V— BEPORT OF CAPTAIN WILLAED. 1983 

MTi^ltOD ID tt having boc^n carried on to a cousiderable extent as early 

» im. 

fh^uinatioi]H wore made by the United State's in 1872, 1879, 18S0, 
•nd 1884. (I{<^po^ts Chief of Engineers, 1872, pages 3S3-386j 1879, 
piifiHi 997-llKWi 1881, pagea 145^-1457; and 1885, pages 1548-1552.) 
Tlic project WOH iiilopted in 1881 and contemplatea the removal of snags, 
!og», wrecka, leaning timber, etc, obsti-ueting navigation from Baxter, 
Ark., tn the mouth. Tfais part of the bayou was csti{aatctl to be 211^ 
•uIm long,bnt from mowiarement^ of the maps at tliis oStce the distiiuee 
*)>(te)tr«i to be about 150 miles. New obstructions are added every year, 
ieore no estimate for iiennunent impnwement is given. 
The folhiwing uppropriations liave been made: 

itr Actor— 

HtfrbHvUHl *8,0M 

Auwtil883 5,000 

j^Ti,im 5,000 

iL»gtmts,ma 5,000 

AnputltlSIB 5,000 

a^tnnber lU, 1890 _. 5,000 

Tntai tunouii t nppropritttvd 33, 0«l 

The work eonuneuced iu 1881, and was continued in 1882, 1884, 1836- 
^T, and I8S9-'yO; operations extended over nearly the entire portion of 
ttk«^ bnyon included in the project and benefited navigation to a great 
BXt«it, but ut no time were the funds available sufficient to go over 
^e ivtirv stretch thoroughly, as contemplated iu the original project, 
^hkh «?uDt«ined estiiuates for two consecutive seasons' work duringlow 
filter at ii cost of $26,862. Before the improvement commenced tiireo 
■nontbK wiiw the itverage dnration of the navigable season; in 1890 it 
v»A re{Kirted that there was better navigation for 6 months; that 
b«ata of double the capacity m»de trips with greater safety iu half the 
time; and that the rates of freight had been reduced 50 per cent. 
Dnriog the fiscal year 18!t(>-'91 operations were continued as follows: 
The quarter-boat and oullit were dropped down trom Jloscly Bluff 
on Bayou D'Arbonne to Monroe, La., May 1 and 2, where supplies 
were received and a chopping party organized. May 6 to 10 the quar- 
ter-boat was towed to Portbind, Ark., where operations commenced 
Hay II, and were continued downstream to the Hughes Place, La., 
estimated to be about 50 miles. Tlic work consisted of girdling trees 
near the banks, catting leaning timber, stumps, shore snags, and logs 
on the banks, and removing snugs, logs, stumps, and trees from the 
channel by the use of high explosives and Mocks and tackle. 

Overseer Watkins Decker, under whose supervision the work was 
done, reports as follows : 

The removal of IftTge trees tliat had caved into the bayou and fallen across the 
chAimel will permit boats to navigate at from a 3 to 1 foot less sta^e of water. The 
clearing of tinber from the points nnd bends, and widening narrow places, will en- 
able ■tcftinboata to make better time, and the destruction of dangerous shore snags 



and BtamM, that have been a menace to steamboat men in past years, will lessen the 
danger ofnavigation greatly. 

The planters along the bayou are much interested in its improvement, in order 
that they may bare steamboat competition with the Houston, Central Arkansas and 
Northern Railroad, which runs nearly paralU-l to the bayou, and thny informed me 
that as Bonn as navigation ntups the lailro.nd raises fri'i^ht raten 25 per cunt. On 
both banks of the bayou are lurtile faniiH, gimdut^ing thuiisiindit of bulua of cotton 
jrearly. Mid it requires large quantities of siijiplii^s fur the l^kl)Or elTiployeil on tlieito 
plantationa. The R>ads, over which a jHirtiou of the crop Ima to be liauied beforo 
SKTJ^Uan opena, ion tbrongb swamps, and aio nearly impawnble ia wet weatherj 



1984 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

heuce the advautage to the planters to have better navigntion, and for a 
period, in order to ship their crops and receive supplies by water near their g 
The banks are heavily timbered, and it will be impoHsible to clear in one set 
the trees that should be cut, and snags will appear from year to year, but as ' 
provement progresses the work will be lighter and the annual exi^euse of k 
the bayou open to navigation will be less and less. 

The following is a summary of the work rei)orteil : 

Snags removed from channel 

Stumps removed fr#m channel and banks 

Shore snags removed 

Logs removed from channel and banks 

I^anin^ trees removed 

Trees girdled 

This work will be continued downstream as lon^ a« thei*e are i 
available, but at the present rate of pix>gress the appropriation w; 
expended by the middle ot August. 

It would be of great advantage to the shipjung interest to 
gauges at convenient i>oints, as at Baxter or Portland, Ark., oii 
Missouri Pacific system, to inform steamboat men when they c 
enter the stream and the depths they could carry on the shoals. T 
stations are but 14 and 2S miles from the Coast Survey precise b< 
at McGehee, Ark., and would recpiire only 31 niiles of leveling to 
nect them with the Cairo datum. With a gauge at the moutl 
Ouachita River, the approximate limits of high and low water coul< 
determined in one season, and the probable depths at low water ta 
firom soundings while removing obstructions. The cost of this woi 
insignificant compared with the information and benefits thatw< 
res^t. Other points might be reached by a line of levels down 
Houston, Central Arkansas and Northern Eailroad to Monroe, 
but the line would not be essential excei)t for a survey of thi^ ba 
in connection with the improvement of Ouachita Kiver. The cot 
establishing two gauges, leveling, and wages for observers would 
within 85()0. No separate estijnate is made for this work, as it wc 
properly be chargeable to the improvement of the stream. 

Mono}! tffafcment. 

July 1, 1890, balance unexpended | 

Amount appropriated by act ai)proved {September 19, 1890 5^ 00 

5,00 

June 30, 1891, amount expended <luiiiii: liscal year 2, 7S 

July 1, 1891, balance uuexpciuli'il 2, 24 

July 1, 1891, outstanding liabilit ks 34 

July 1, 1891, balance available 1,88 

{ Amounttbatcanbopr(>tital»ly«\}>fM(l«Ml iii lis -nl yi-artinliii.ti Jum'30, 1893 10^00 
< Submitted in compliaiuT with r«>i|uir<'in<*iits (»t' sections 2 oIl river and 
( harbor acts of l^jti and IS^JT. 



COMMrnCIAL STATISTICS. 

Navigation in tbis bayou opened to M«'('onibs Landing, Arkansas, at moat 
Bear House Creek, Decembor ir», 18tH>. and «losed May 1, 1891, on accooutof obst 
tioDS. Low-water navigation was continued to Point Pleasant, La., antilJon 



p 

TIT 



SslkfWUIc 



APPKNDIX V — KEI'UKl' OF t.'Al'TAlN WIIJ.AKH. I'JSB' 

(bUawinglUt ■liimtt tbnuUiiiiiiUjuts rii^iigfit in Uiik Irmtn iliiiiii^r |.]„, |}Hi.-nt 



1 



. «, ft 



U.3^ 1II«.I)I9.> 1.3' 1 






MuuR»lul'a|iliirmufl', 

Ark. 
MonnMio Uiul (irovc. 

Mriunw K. Ban Bniun 



if 



Th««(niiin«rc« of the atnun wm reported to be w fbllows; 





UMO-'M. 


lg«>--M. 


I8Sft>*». 




!i,Sii 

sia 
so 


Tm: 


'*•'%* 


g-., :::-:;-;:;;;:;;;;;:: 


431 






















a,iin 


17,83* 














««,:!» 


a.»8B 










*aa.aoo 


MnTw 









* IntonplelA. 

TMi atresia U c:rosseil at Baxter, Ark., tlio upper limit n( tbe iitipruvi^meiit, by ft 
mari, of the 8t. LouiM, Iron Mouiitnin and Soiitliuni Iliijlroud, whii^li oonnecta 
"^ih the Uiatiiuiippi River at ArkiiJiNus L'ity niid rims wrxt Tifi miles to Warren, Ark., 
■■■I rill be extended to CaiLiili;)). on tliu Oii:ii^hitu, wliich' ia coiiiicotod with tbe 
*>u>linfl by a branch to QDrdiiii, Ark. The Uoiietou, Ceiitriil ArkaunoH and North- 
^Biilroad (anotber briuich o( the Missouri Pacifie syatt'm) runs parallel to Bar- 
wriuDtw &oni McGehee, Ark., to Mancoe, Lu. Tbe prujected eiteiinioii of tlte 
^*Orl«aiu and Xorthwestern Railway north of Rayvilli-, Lu., will i-roHa Uayuu 
''utbaloDiew on a line Irom Jtuntrop. J.a., to Hamburg, .Vrk. 



IMPROVEMENT OF BAYOU BCEUF (B<EL"F KIVKR), LOUISIANA. 



BayoQ Breaf, iisuall.v c»l)c<l Bipnf Bi^ei-, Iiiis 
'''Miiity, RrtiiHiCiL-ftcrn Arkiiiisiis, Itows in a ;fciicii 
'i»D. iiiid eiiU-rs Oihti-Uita Kivur at Sluft'iutVs I'u" 
iwoitbiiitt, I'll- Tilt' iiii|niiviMiu'iit <>r this stii'aiii 
>Stute uf Ijotiittiaiiit liiilta ct'iitiiiv ;ifi<>, ttif t'i'|)iii'l 
RiirkH uf 1840 KtiUiii}; that it liail h.-ni ujk-ik-iI I< 

An esaniitiiittmi was uiadi; by tlic United Stat4;.s in IHH*) (paj^it.s 1424- 
1128, Report Chief of KuKineers, 18.SI), and tlic i>io.jo(-t bsised tlicrwHi 
COTiteniptateH removing nnags, \'>s&, and K^aning timber obistnicting 
sua n 125 



ivo. ill Cliieot 

,V.'.-iti-ll.V dill'C- 

111, H miles above Ilai- 
nas uiidtTlalvfii by tlie 
III' the lioui'd III' {iiiblie 



1986 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF EMGINEEKS, U. 8. ARMY. 

navigation at high stages from Wallace Landing to the mouth. 
distance between these points was estimated to he about 280 mUea 
as scaled from the maps it appears to be only 152 miles. 

rn 1884 an examination of three outlets near Point Jefferson 
made, in accordance with requirements of the river and harbor » 
that year, and their closiu-e was recommended as necessary to prea 
navigation in the stream. (Report Chief of Engineers, 1885, pages 1 
1548.) 

New obstructions are added every year, and require removal : 
time to time, hence no estimate for permanent improvement is mac 

The appropriations have been as follows: 

Bv act of— 

March 3. 1881 $ 

August 2, 1882 i 

July 5, 1884 i 

Augusts, 1886 i 

August 11, 1888 I 

September 19, 18JK) i 

Total auuiuut appropriated 3! 

The removal of obstructions was commenced in 1881, and coutii: 
in 1882, 1884, and 1888-'89, and enabled steamboats to run to P 
Jefterson, 19 miles below Wallace, dnring high stages, with greater sal 

The estimates of 1884 for closing the outlets amounted to $8,500, 
no appropriation was made for that purjiose until August 5,1886, hi 
$5,0(X) was provided for '* continuiug improvement and for closing 
let Xo. 1." Upon rei*»xamination it was found essential that all 
outlets be closed, and, by uniting with the planters whose lands w< 
be protected, this was done in lS^7 and 1888. Outlet No. 1 was cl< 
substantially, the stH^'oiul was closed by a heavy dam at a lower el 
tion, and the third by a low dam, this being all tl|e work that coul 
done with insutiicient appropriations assisted by private subscripl 
The closure of the outlets gave immediate benefit to navigation by 
lining the flow to the natural direction and scouring the bars below, 
during the overflow fi'om the Mississippi River in the spring of 1890 
dams were destroyed. 

Owing to lack of funds it was impracticable to make any ex 
nation of the outlets in the fiscal year 181K), after the dams were 
stroyed, but during low water last October, Assistant Engineer i 
Ewens visited the l<K'ality and reported as foUows: 

I found the three outlrts open and the dike that separates Bayous Bi^ and I 
Bonne Itlee jrone. OutU't Xo. 1, eh»sed in 1887, was found in a more critical a 
tion than outK'ts Xos. 2 and 3, closed in 1S88. Of outlet Xo. 1, just enough o 
old enihanknuMit was left to deline its outline at each end, about half of the i 
in^ was <li*y. and the rnnaining portion was from 4 to 5 feet deep, and dead w 
Outlet Xo. 2 war* completely dry at hase of the old dike; the top of the eroni 
the bast* was not less than 4 feet above the water. About one-tifth of the old eml 
nu-nt is St and in*:, with h»)th cuds well dclined. The old levee at both termini 
this dike was wasluMl out at sev«'ral places. The dike at outlet No. 3, with the e: 
tion of a small d»'prcssi<in about 3 feet wide through the center, was dry at the 
and above the water about l» feet, with both ends well detined. From'the abc 
will be seen that the srour when the dike jjave way was at its maximum belon 
not at the dike sites, thus saving a considerable yardage of earth and leaving a 
foundation to work on should the outlets be elos<*d during the coming season. 
dike between Hig and l^itth* Honne Idee bayous was cut by some miscreant di 
the re<'cnt hi;:h water. an»l I tbund a large force, with mules and scrapers, ch 
the oi>ening. Mr. A. Hefner is supervising and doing the work at his own exp 
The closure of this opening is very important; as it keeps the floo<l water fron 
breaks in Possum Fork L<'vee and from Lake Chicot from in undat ins the highly 
tivated lands in this vi<inity. It also turns the whole volume of Big Bonne*^ 
into its own channel^ whicli. if the outbts are closed, will be very bencftcii 



^" APPENDIX V— BEPOKT OK CAPTAIN WILLABD. 1987 

Bamf liiVBr. un ucixiuiil of iutU'eused vutume aud ourrout, uiiiuiiiig it tu deepen ut 
ihc Bhoiila ImIovt fuiut Jvlt'vvson. 

Tlieoffvi'lBuf vbeuutletont PoiDt Ji-nL't-^on on liit'iif River aud coiiti^'iiouB ciiUU 
v»im1 Uudii »n hi no w»v iiumiucuonruliU' with tlii> Hiuall nmunut roqiiired to fIuhh 
Xhma. Titvit vAvPt wu lite rivi<r i- Ui ili<Hi'.^i ir fniiu iM i-oacvn niid iliHi>el it« avtiO- 
llowiii)( wati-n liitn nii iniHrniiu-tbli^ nu:i[ii]>, wUiili norviM uk a drnhtMEe l>Nsiu fur Ili« 
rtfWintual Und* routigiii>ii>> tu it; huiI tint Hvit, Uiuh robbed iif its cliannBl-inHlciii); 
(briw, ■lioiil" nmI forms drift trups billow tlii' udlluta, destrnyiug nfivijjutidii aud the 
flond-watrr mpaHtyofthcatniiuufar over30mil(.»i. TherWiug of mjynue nf IliKsn 
iNilliI* will til no innnnnr unbaorvo tbe iinproveuieiit, as tlie cluanre of all thruu will 
alono accAnipli»h tlif end dmired. 

0«ttol N«. 1, 18,000 cnliiP yards at 25 cent* W.SOO 

OatlotND.3, 8,000 cubic yards at 20 oouta 1,600 

Onllvt No. 3, IS, 000 riitiic yards at 20 ceuta 3,200 

ItupMtliKI 300 

9,500 
In eounertinn with the above it is to be borne id mind tbat tbe Tork is iaolated 
knit Umit#d in extent, and that it will be more diiScult to obtain eartb now than 
vheii tlie tint dotinre waa made, and at outlet No. t it will be baideat to procure. 
Tht nnlmatfia include eitiiDsiona to join tbe levees and the naual percentage for 
■httnkagfi, 30 per cent. With fair wentber all tbe outlets could be cloaed in 30 days. 

Tbe liMt upproiuintion provided ^5,000 for " contiuaing improvement," 
»«imi tiMi stiiall U) ;itt«m]»t the dosureof the outlets without assistitnc^ 

(nim I lie ] I ill- iiit<re^t«:l,aud for this reason it was recommended tbat 

if till' ji.ir isli l.\ 11- Iwraid and the owuers of adjacent lands would joia in 
and liulp LoiiipU'tf the work the entire appi^jpriation lie applied to that 
pariKiie. Tliis was approved, and I wrote to the president of the parish 
Pfiiee jury October 11, and t« a prominent planter of that locality 
Vtrreinoer 12, inquiring whether the pai-ish aud the people to be bcne- 
flWJ by tJie work would subscribe sufficient money to make up tbe 
■■usat needed to close all three outlets substantially. To the fii-Ht of 
tliHe letters I received no reply, but the answer to tbe latter stated 
flu as the parish consisted of ten wards, only one of which was affected 
l^Mvcillow, th>- |)oli(o jury refused to make any appropriation ; that 
'lifjurr-iilfiit of the State Levee Board had been seen a.iid it was feared 
ti>at there would be no help from that source, and that little or nothing 
*roW be obtained by individual subscription. 

'Rie appropriation became available so late in tbe seasou that it was 

lot thought economical to begin any work until the winter and spring 

floods should be over, and the water has remained so high this season 

">at it wiU be best it) wait until the coming low water. For the reasons 

''•ted herein, and because the amount on hand i.s not sufficient to close 

■D of the outlets, it is proposed to applytheavailablebalauce after July 

\ 1891, to removing obstructions, snags, and leaning trees, and to put 

** building the dams uutil an appropriation shall be made for the 

Pupose. 

tte openings will enlarge somewhat, but it is not expected that there 

■ill be any excessive scour through them, so that the estimates of As- 

M"t«n Ktigineer Ewen.i will not reqnire much increase. I recommend 

• aogle appropriation of $20,000, of which $12,000, or so much thereof 

la may be found necessary, may be applied to closing all three outlets 

raiiMantiaUy and connecting tliem with the parish levees, applying the 

remainder to coutiimiug the work of clearing the banks and removing 

liipi Dom the cbanneJ. As the expense of organizing, cost of tools and 

outiit KDd administration •will be about the same for an appropriation 

a{$5,im> as for $:!0,000 on a stream of this kind, a large appropriation 

tan be employed far more economically than a small one. 




!^ OF ENQINEEBS, ^. t. i 



Information in regard to the slope of the stream can Hot bo given fw 
lack of proper surveys. We have but one aectiou determined with anf 
degree of accuracy. This is at the bridge of the Vicksbiirg and Shrevc- 
port Railroad, near Girard, La., where both the railroad company and 
the Signal SOTvlce have kept gauges for several years. The zero of tie 
Signal Service gauge is nearly the low water of 1884, but the higU-water 
Lmark ia not known. This zero is about 32.25 feet below the top of tin 
Uftil at the drawbridge aciosa Boeuf Biver, and corresponds to 72,2 feet 
rftn the raikoad company's datum, and to 73.45 feet above the Cairo 
*■ datum. As the danger hne is given at 25 feet and the general eleva- 
tion of the banks is about 30 feet above zero, and the neighboring lands 
are completely flooded in high water, it is presumed that extreme high 
water will reach at least 30 feet on the gauge, or 102.45 feet Cairo 
datum. The New Orleans and Northwestern Railroad Company, in ap- 
plying for approval of plana for abridge across Bceuf Biver, about 2 miles 
north of Baj-ville, gave about the same elevation (102.75 feet above Cairo 
U^^^ datum] for the high water of 1882. There is nothing defluite known in 
^^^■regard to elevations north of these points; the traiisvalley sectiOB 
^^^Bmade for railway purposes in 1850, and given on the map of tbe 
^^^^EDelta Survey, sliowing an elevation of about 11 feet greater tioino 3H 
j^^^V miles above. Approximate high water on the Ouachibi at the nioutk 
^B of BcBiif River, about 100 miles below Girard, is 87 feet, and low water 
33 feet above Cairo datum, giving a high- water fall of about 16 feet ami 
a low-water fall of nearly 40 feet iu 100 miles. These approximate 
figures show that at medium and high stages Btenf Biver could be nav- 
igated without difficulty if the leaning trees were removed, and that at 
low stages a sla^ik-water system on Ouachita River might biujk uji 
BcDuf River for about 30 miles. Should a survey of the Ouiwhit* lie 
undertaken it might be necessary to include Bcenf Biver, at least u 
far as Girard, to determine the water supply and the area that might be 
overflowed; and from the information so ohtiuned tlie feasibEhty of 
extending the system by one or two locks and dams could be deter- 
mined at compai'atively small cost. Fortuaatcly the levels can be nm 
with considerable ease over the railroad lines projected and in operation, 
so that the chief expense on this account would be iu the topographical 
^^^ and transvalley Ones. As part of the general plan for the survey of 
^^^L the whole Ouachita Valley it is probable that $6,000 would be sufficient 
^^^P for the basin of Bayou Boeuf. Upon tliis understanding, tberi, the fot 
^^^P lowing estimate is submitted for the fiscal year ending June 3U, 18ti3; 

^^^^ >'or oIoBins S ontletiB neat Point JeSonnn, Morehonse PatJBh .- (lU^OOO 

For lemoviiig obati'URtioDs between Wnlliioe Landinj; and Oiini^liita Rivur.. &Q00 
For siirvoy of Ba;on Bteiif iii conueotion wltli tlie survey of Ouachita Klvet ^OCH 

Total 2C^0Gn 

Money statem&iit. 

I July 1,1890, bolftopetinaspended K3,l» 

Amount appropriated by act approved Septeiubur 1!), 18!NI .■ 5,000.00 

_ 5,ma.» 

■June 30, 1891, amount enpendud during Secal jcat GfXTI 

Pjidy 1, 1891, baliince nneipeodcd 4,971,9 

f July 1, 1891, oautanding Uabilitiea 23.V 

I July 1, 1891, balance availible 4,»18La 

rAiiiutinttliDtdvnIiupriiCiiibl.VL-xpoiidediufiHCJilyoiu'enilinKJuooSO.ieg.t 26,000^1 

< Snhmitted in compliaucB witli icquiremeiita ■ '' — " — " -« — ■ 

I biuboi acta of 18G6 imd 1867. 



IT nas reported n&vi^^able from Decembor until Hay, 
JAtI of ttraiiib«alt engaged in navigation during tltr year. 





Cltt. 


1 


1 


If 


Draft. 


i 
1 






Smaa. 


1 


J 




Stern w^eel 


3.00 


130.0 


Ft. Ft. 
SS.0 1.0 


FLin 


B 


1 


Eaton Fiory, L». 

8^^ Point iDd 
nllM ibovo! 


U 




S 3 


a t 










^ 





^■minarjr effreigkl* r^portti. 





laao-'Di. 


18gft-'M. 






1.TW 
17B 


r« 


I*T«. 




















3.U8 


is 












7,8«t 


8.«5 























Tbe Vicksbnrg, Slireveport nail Pacitic Railroad crosses BcDuf Biver near Oirard, 
Lk., and the project«il line of the Kew OtleuiiH and North wee tern RaU way will cross 
•bout 1^ miles north of Rayville, La. The Hmistoii, Ccutral Arkansas and Nortbem 
Railroad mns parallel to tbe river on the west, and a new line is projected (Louisi- 
tna, Arkansas and Missouri Railroad) which will touch the river at several points 



DCPBOVEMENT OF TENSAS RIVKR AND BAYOU MA^ON, LOUISIANA. 

Tensas River has it« Bounce in Lake Providence, in northeastern 
LoDisiana, within 2 miles of the Mississippi Kiver, flows in a general 
southerly direction, gradually diverging from the Mississippi, and joins 
Ouachita and Little rivers at Trinity, La,, in forming Bla«k River. 
Bayou Ma^n waa united uuder the same head of appropriation with 
Tensas River by the act of 1884. This stream rises iu Desha County, 
■oatheastern Arkansas, near the source of Bceuf River and a few miles 
irc^i •■( ilii' -Mi-^i^-iinii. flows in a general southerly direction west of 
and nearly i»itnillei to tlie Tensas, and enters the latter about 40 miles 
above its mouth. 



1 



1990 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, IT. S. ARMY. 

m 

Exaiiiiuations were made in 1880, upon which the plan of impj 
meut is based. The project contemplates removing snag», loMj 
leaning, timber obstiiieting navigation; in Tensas Kiver, from I>i 
La., to its month, at an estimated cost of $23,000; and in Bayou Mi 
from Floyd, La., to its mouth, at an estimated cost of $17,000. (Bi 
Chief of Engineers, 1881, pages 1457-1467.) The estimates were I 
on calculations for continuous work in one low- water season, an 
view of the appropriations for the improvement, are without vain 
new obstructions are added from time to time. The distance from 
las to the mtnith of Tensas has been estimated to about 180 miles 
by scaUng from the, best maps of the stream in this office it appea 
be 134 miles; and the distance from Floyd, on the Majon, to Tf 
River, obt^iined in the same manner, is 98 miles instead of 130. 

The following appropriations have been made: 

By act of— 

March 3, 1881 i 

July 5, 1884 

August 5, 1886 

August 11, 1888 

September 19, 181)0 • 

Total amount appropriated * 

The total amount expended to June 30, 1800, was $15,873.2 
which $7,529.25 was applied to improving Tensas and $8,343.99 t 
Ma^on. The obstructions were removed as far a^s practicable with 
amounts. The principal steamboat traffic is between New^ Orleant 
Floyd, and at the close of operations in 1889 the master of the la 
boat tlien running in that trade reported that the work had short 
the time of trips 12 hours. 

Owing to the late appropriation and high stages of water di 
the greater ])ortion of the time since, no work was done during th 
cal year ending June 30, 1891. It is intended to commence opera 
as soon as practicable, and it is probable that the entire amount f 
able will be expended before winter. 

Two steamboats have been sunk in these streams this seasoi 
JT. J. Dickey^ 208 tons, in Bayou Ma5on,'and the Danube^ 232 toi 
Tensas Kiver. The latter has been raised, but the former is a w 
The underwriters were given a reasonable time to save cargo anc 
chinery, and the huU will be destroyed with dynamite when opera 
are resumed. 

Gauges should be established on both of these streams on the 11 
the Yicksburg and Shreveport Eai\^*oad, both to ascertain their ris< 
fall and to give information to steamboat men. The cost of the se 
should not exceed $200 a year for each. 

The alteration of the bridge of the New Orleans and Norihwe 
Railway at Daniels Ferry, on Tensas River, has not been comp] 
High water throughout the year is given as the reason for tlie d 
but while the fact can not be disputed, it is well understood tha 
company is unable to go on. If the piling is not removed whei 
work of improvement reaches Daniels Ferry, it will be blasted or p 
out. 

A gauge at the bridge would be useful, and it is probable that ' 
the company is reorganized the bridge tender will be required to 
observations. The gauge could be put up and set to Cairo datont 
cost of about $20. 



^^^■^ APPENDIX V — ItEPOHT OF CAPTAIN WILLAED. 1991 ' 

^^H Money utalement. 

^^otyl, 18«), lialnuM iiueipemluit St26.T6 

j%.^noant*p(iTopriiit«dl)y act approved SeptomlKit IS, 1880 5^000.00 

J«^y 1, IWI. balanre imeipeuded S,12S.7B< 

jasl;I, lt«l, oulaUudJDg liabilities .28 

J^bIjI, 1«1, balance aTaUable 5,126.48 

{Jlnount (MtiinBt4!d) rennii'ed for cample tinn of cisbtine proji-irt IB, 000. 00 

Jtmnniitt)iBlCBnl>npnit{tnb)yex)ieutle(linitHiMi1.v(iarrnilin^Jiini.-30,16tl3 10,000.00 
Submitted in comnlinocn with the luouircinc-iitB of fiirctiuuB 2 uf rivec 
Hd harbor Mta of 1S66 tu>d 1867. 



COMMKIICIAL STATISTICS. 

tittt atrvaiUH were nnvigable the entire year. 
JMvf tie^wAeaU mgtLftd in navigation of Ttniat and Mapm ditring fiuat yearli 

Dnft. 



)Nrv Orlnmi. I: 



FnlBbta. 


IBW-'Il. 


1889- 'M. 


i88a--». 


fei^= 


' 


Jbn.. 

. a.7«i 

378 


Ton,. 


Ton,. 








"S 
















a; 000 


5;2iB 
















ift,oa« 


13, MO 












•"■"" 


""■" 


|1,IM,]«» 







la Siver near Daaiels Ferty, Concordia PariBh, La. 



1992' REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMT. 

Vg. 
IMPROVEMENT OV lUYOl'S RONPEWAY AND VIDAL, LOl'ISIANA. 

Bayous Koiuleway and Vidal form a draiiiajre canal for the low law 
between the Tensas and Mississippi rivers in the vieinity of Lake P« 
in>Ta, an old channel of the Mississii)pi ai*ound Davis Island, 23 mil 
below Yicksburg, cut oft* in 1807. Bayou Bondeway joins Tensas Riv< 
nciir Dallas, La., and, tending in a general southeasterly direction, wi 
connei'ted ai-tificially with Lake Palmyra about 8 miles from it« entraiM 
into the Mississippi by a cut known as Harpers Canal. From th 
l)oint, tending in a southeasterly direction, the name is changed 1 
Jiayou Vidal, which forms a connection with the Tensas through Mi 
J^ayou. 

In accordance with the river and harbor act of August 2, 1882, a 
examination of thesi* streams was made in 1882, and in view of the coi 
of the Wink and the small amcmnt of commerce to be benefited theofl 
cer in charge reported adversely on their improvement. (Rei>ort Chi« 
of Engineers, 1884, pages 1347-1351.) 

Furtlier examination was rc(piired by river and harbor actof Angat 
5, 1880, and was made in tlM» spring of 1887, when it was learned thj 
the Stat<» of Louisiana intiMided buiUling a new levee, which would ci] 
ott' thesubayous entirely from the Mississippi, and they would receiv 
water from the Tensas only when it was high and run dry in low wate: 
It was recommended, however, that ^1.000 !)e expendedinremovingol 
stnu'tions, (•hi<»tly liMUiing tnM's, from the canal and that part of Bayo 
Vidal remaining oi)en between Lake Palmvra and the line of levee nort 
of the lake. (KciMMt Cliii^f of Kngineers, 18S7, pages 1497-1498.) 

The river and liarbor art <>f August 11, 1888, api)ropriated 91,000 fc 
this pui*i)ose which was cxi»cnded during the fiscal year 1889 in carr 
ing out the project. A ftcr completion of the work the canal waselmme 
as private pi-oiMM-ty, and the owner issue<l noti<*e that toll would be co 
leettMl on freights passing through. This canal or cut was made, befoi 
the old levee system along t\w w^st shore of the IxMid broke down, t 
conn<H*t r»ayou Vidal with Lake Talmyra for the i)uri)osc^ of drainin 
the swam]) abov(», and of late yi^ars has b(H»n used feu* the navigabl 
route from the lake into the bay<>u, the old line of the bayou havin 
becouK* obtructcd by fallen timlMU' and stumps. In my annual repoi 
for 1889 I reconmiended reoixMiing th(**old bayou to save the steambos 
intei'cst from the im]H>sition of the tolls exacted. Tlie act of Septemb< 
19, 1S90, appropriated *1.<HK) for this puriH>se. 

The work can be done at low water only, and for this reason was d< 
ferred until the Mississipi>i reached a low stage. Oi>erations were con 
menced June 22, 1S«M, by the chopjnng party transferred fh>ni Bi 
Black River, and continued until the end of the year, at which time39 
leaning trees had been cut. 

Monrif sfafvmcut. 

Ainoiiiit appropviatiMl by act approvo*! Sopt«Miibor 19. 1800 $1,000.( 

June 3(X 1891. amount oxpciKlt^l during tisral year llfi.( 

July 1. 1891. balance unexpeuilecl 88S.! 

Jnly 1. IS91. (Mitstandin^ liabilitirs .( 

July 1, 1891, balan<e availabK* 88S.S 




Appendix t — beport of captain wtllaed. 



1993 ' 



' Ijiko fnlmyrji is narigaliTi- for khiiiU Imata to N«w Cartliiljifl, ikt mnritli iif Diiyoa 
I TMil, t>wpt At luwrflt iit»g<^ of thi> MJKsiHsippi. Daring Iiigli wotir Uitne bouts 
■ jninta Bafou Viilnl to Koiins Iiaudiug. 

LUl <(f Mlerit-iehtel sleaaihoali fagagtd in naeigalioti. 






W.il 3!.* 
■3.0 'lg.4 

UL2 nil 



.,1, 



Not ranort''d. 

Brvou* l!<>iiil.-wny and Tidnland 

Maw (jrlnuin, 
Vicksbarg, Uiu., wd Hew Cmr- 

tluer, |ji,,aiidlnt«Ba]raiiV1dal 



■r Ltolhtrr banwd In Novombpr, ism, and «11 twonli « 
Summarji o/caiHinem rtporUd. 



PmitU*. 


ISBU-m. 


ISO-TO. 


bte 


Tani. 

m 


'^•frn 




e,0(« 


























7.15II 










tmi.K,a 









.If tnftmiMtioii hnd licnii roiuiileti-, tlic I'niiinmi'ne of the pBHt year probably wonld 
**<'« bMU u mucb, if not gn^ntKr tliun that «f fiscal ypar 1889. 



CMPROVEMENT OF Itlfi HLAfK RIVER, MISSISSIPPI. 

Iliis stream rises in Webster Ccniiity, Miss., flows in a general Rontli- 
i*^t*r]y (lirectiou and enters Mis-sissippi River at Grand Gulf, 37 miles 
^^low Vicksbarg, having a leiigtii estimated to be about 400 miles. 
J jf^-An examination was made by the IJnitetl States in 1881 (pages 1565- 

^"70, Eeport Chief of Engineers, 1882), and the project contemplated 
J^aring a channel suitable for navigation at high stages by tlie removal 
^P Biiags, logs, wrecks, leaning timber, etc., from Cox's Ferry to the 
^*«)Qth, about 130 miles, at an estimated cost of $32,000. 
The following appropriations have been made: 

^y»rtof— 

JnlyS, 188* $5,000 

AnenBtS. 1886 5,000 

The first of these apiinipriutionj^ was expendeil in IS84-'S5, when a 
k Onpping party removed the principal obstructions for a diatance of 



1994 kEPORT OP THE CHIEF OP ENGtNEEKS, U. S. ARM7. 

about 75 miles al>ove the mouth. The act of 1880 required tluit no jv; 
of the appropriation should be used until the State of Mississippi cam 
the bridjros south of the Vieksburg and Mendian Kailroad to be bo ct 
strueted as not to obstruct navigation. The bridges referred to wt 
the Louisville, New Orleans, and Texas Railway Bridge, about 15 mi 
above the mouth; a county bridge at Ivanhoc Ferry, al)out 50 mi 
above the mouth : and a county bridge at Baldwin Ferry, about 70 mi 
above the mouth. The tixed railway bridge was changed to a swi 
bridge in 18S0, in aci^onlance with an act of the State legislature, 1 
Ivanhoe Bridge has been replaced by a ferry, and the only one remaiiii 
to obstruct navigation is that at the crossing called Baldwin Ferry, abc 
1^5 miles by river below the Vicksburg and Meridian Railroad Bridj 

The river and liarlwr act of September 10, 1800, removed the restr 
tion contained in the act of 1880 and authorized the expenditure of t 
appropriation. The project was modified to include only the portion 
the river below the Bahiwin Ferry Bridge to the mouth, and operatic 
during the tiscal year were as follows: 

The United States snag boat Hooker was brought from Monroe, L 
for use on this work, and a barge purchased at Vicksburg and fitted 
for quarters of a chopping party, and the HooTcer^ with the barge in to 
entered Big Black January 24. The river from the mouth to the Lou 
ville, New Orleans and Texas Railway Bridge was in good conditic 
above the bridge to Ivanhoe Ferry there was considerable leaning timb 
and from Ivanhoe to Fisher Ferry it was imiK)Ssible, at places, for t 
steamer to pass until large, overhanging trees were cut. Fisher Fei 
was reached January 27, and as it was found impracticable for the sn 
boat to priH'eed further, the chopping party commenced work above tk 
l>oint. Finding that the Booker could be used to advantage no longer. 
was returned to Vicksburg and laid up February 7. The chopping pai 
continued upstream until February 28, when work was 8topi>ed by hi. 
water. By the end of March the water had fallen sufficiently to resui 
oi)erations, and the chopping party was reorganized and the boat work 
upstream to Baldwin Feny Bridge. From there the work was carri 
downstream to a short distance below the Ivanhoe Ferry, and as t 
funds were getting low it was deci<led early in June to apply the an 
able balance to getting the quarter-boat out of the river and breaki 
up jams of drift on the way. The boat reached the mouth of the ri\ 
June 18, and was towed to the mouth of Bayou Vidal, La., June 20, i 
use on the improvement of that stream. Cutting leaning timber ^ 
the principal work done, as the stream is navigable at high stages on. 
and then there is sufficient depth over the logs in the channel. Sai 
bars and gravel beds are too extensive and numerous to justify tin 
removal to i)ermit the ])assage of the smallest boats at low stages. T 
st ret rli of river worked over during' the past year, from the Bald^ 
Bri<lge to Ivanhoe Ferry, was the most obstructed, as but little wo 
had been done on it under the former appropriation. The following 
a sunnnary of the work reported : 

Sna^rs aiul lo«:s removed from ohniinel 

.lams removoil 

Side jams rfiimvod ; 

Drift piles miujvnl 

Leaning trees <-iit 1%* 

Brush win^-dams Imilt 

It is difficult to form an ojiinion as to what benefits, if any, wfll 
derived from coutinuiiig tlio ini]>rovemeiit of this stream. At presc 
the business <»onsists chi*»tiy of saw logs rafteil out of the river tt 
staves brought down in barges, with occasional trips of very 



i.PPElCDIlE V — RBPOBT Of Ci.nAiS WlLLAfiO. 

Hloniiiers. It is stated, bowevcr, that prior to the bnililiiij; orniilioads 
lHrj;o (^nnntities of cotton and produce weire sliipi)ed out of tlie river in 
flat and ke«l boat^. 

^Vhik' Ibe river is irithiii a short distance of Vicksburg, and the en- 
tire portion on wbinh any improvement is coiitemplfttcd at present is in 
Warren County, it is acee&sible only at tbn-e i>r four ]niii)t8, mid over 
verylwwi roadaiu wet weatlier, and priKlii.Mll,v is williiiiil tij:Lil l;n.-ilities. 
For tliene reasons tbe coat of gettiuf; .•.iippliis. :niii -il" iiis|]iTiiou and 
«uperltit«iidence, are inei'eased very i-ciiMidoi ality, iitid il i-^ ri'coin mended 
tliat if any fUrtber work Jie done the approjiriution hn tinthcii-ut to i-om- 

Jilete all tliat is required in one low-water season. Tbe expenditure of 
(10,000 would clear the banks tlioroughly from the Baldwin Bridge to 
ihe inouth, after which fVirtber work should not be required until the 
Hinouiit ol'eommerce is sufficient to justify a more extensive improve- 
lUL-nt by Ihe removal of obsti'uctions in the channel. 

Money statement, 

Jnly I. 1800. biilance nnoxpcudeil 95, 000. 00 

JtiiicSO. ItSOl. HiuoTuit expendnl during liecnl yi-ia 4,735.23 

Jnljrl, 1891. liulaavennexntinded 264.77 

Jolyl, l(»l.oulBt«ndingliHliilities 30.96 

Jnlj 1. 1891,b»l»apeavaUaWe 343.81 

{Amount (Mtimiitcil) required for completion of eKielioKprojert 10,000.00 
Aii««uitlhnt(nnl)eprnfital>lyeipen<l<!ain«si:alyearoudinBjmie30, 18iK( 10,000,00 
t<:u)nuitl<-<1 in i-<)rapliun<-e with teqninjiueuU of section* 2 of tivcraud 
harlKir >ii-ts of 1^ and 186T, 



LUt 0/ tteamboatt engaged 


n natigati 


" 0/ Big JJIoefc Eirer /or Ji^cal if.Tic 1S91: 




Clua. 


I 


4 


1 


i 


DniK. [ 


■- 


n™.. 


1 


1 


Belw«n whHt rlncM. 


t^B-Sar^nl 


St«n-wh«»l 


85. M 
MM 


Ft. 


FL 

i.3 


Ftm. 


Ft. In. 


1 Virfe«l.urg im.l FIsLcrs 

trip., 
po 
















^ 









SHmmary o/commercf reporleil, I890-'91. 

Ton*. 

CToKon 13 

^'otton seed II 

X^nmlier 2 

gim.e* 471 

*^vwL0D8 22 

'Gram _ 10 

fe»wloga 9,449 

Total freights 9, 978 

%sliinat«d Tslae in ronnd nnmliera *72,000 

Tlnf Alabamn and Vicksljur^ Kailniiv crosaes Big Jtiiick, on a fiied bridge, 13 niilcB 
*Ml of Vii;kalinrg. The Louis vill.', Suw Orlcanii aad Texas KaUway crosses, on » 
■vin^ biid|[e, aboot U mUea above Uiu mouth. 



V ^H 

IMPEOVEMEKT OF YAZOO ElVEK MISSISSIPPI. I 

■ Yazoo River, about 173 miles long, is formed hy tho junction of Xl| 
lahatcliee and Vallabuslia rivers in Le Flore County, Mies., flows inj 
geueral souttierly and then sou tli westerly direetion, and enters Misii 
sippi Eiver 5 miles above Vicksbmg. 

An exaniiuation of wrecks of gunboats, steamerH, and otberobetn 
tfons placed in tlie river during the war was made by tbe 0iiit«d Sta| 
in 1873 (pages 483, 484, Report Cliief of Engineers, 1873), and a furtll 
examination was made in 1874 ({tages 364^67, Rejjort Chief of £n| 
neexs, 1874). The project contemplates the removal of wrecks, loi 
snags, and leniiing timber wtucli obstruct navigation througfaoat H 
entire length of the river. New obstructions caused by floods, slidq 
banks, etc., are brought into thertvereveryyear, !iudnoestimat«eli«1 
been ma<le for permanent improvement on this account. 

The following appropriations have been made: 

By act of — 

March 3, 1873 »40,( 

March 3, 1875 12,1 

Augnst 14, 1876 15,3 

JnnelS, 1B78 3&,i 

March 3, 1879 li| 

Juno 14, 1880 ia.i 

March 3, 1881 «« 

August 2, 1882 £1 

July 5,1884 jft.i 

Augusts, 188G 15,1 

Augnatll, 1888 32,1 

Septemher 19, 1890 35,* 

Total amount approprinl-ed Sl^l 

The wrecks of nine steamboats, sunk during tlie war, were removj 
by contract in 1873-'74. Experience gained by thia work showed tU 
the improvement could be continued more economically by nteaiid ot 
snag boat operated with hired labor, and in 1875 and 1877 the UiuU 
Stiites snag boivt 0, Q. Wagner was employed in removing wrecks a 
other obstructions. In 1879 the snag boat Jokn R, Meiga Wfw ooi 
pleted, and the principal work since has been done with that Ixij 
The amount expended to June 30, 1890, was *i8(i,87G.13. \ 

In the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, operations were as follows: 

GEKEUAL IMPBOVEMENT. 

Owing to lack of funds fof ;;ctiii;.l iiii|iiiiM-rin'iit ul'-thc river, o\>t% 
tious had to be deferred unlil ullrr (!ir ;n'l .>r Si.|>ft. inluT 19, 1^ 
After some minor repairs, iIji- I'liitvil st;iii>s suiij; ln,;il Mrig» , ]*.} 
StaiT master, left Vicksburf? Oi'tnlicr liO, and ciiUTi'd VaKun Rivera^ 
commenced tne removal of obstructions, consisting mainly of tree slid^ 
Work was carried up to the mouth of Tallahatchee, which was reaclu 
October 31. During November the boat was employed in Tallabab^ 
Eiver, but returned to Yazoo in December, aud was brought to Viclj 
burg December 2. Some minor repiiiia were made, aud the boat I 
turned to work December 7. CoL 0. E. Comstoek, Division En^n<^ 
aud myself, accompanied by Assistant Engineer Ewens, nmdea tiip j 
inspection as far as Linden, 11 miles above Yazoo Citj', and thence b« 
to Tazoo City, where we left the boat December 8. The M«ig» oQ 




PM^-Ulk. ky A. NOCN 4 CO.. Baito. 



IKT OF CAPTAIN WILLAED. 1997 

Lftd np tilt' river, rcnmving obatnictions, arrived at the mouth of 
lUa lAki^ l>erembpr 10, «ii(l was employe-)! in that stream until tbe 
I. BetuniiiiR t«i YazcM) Dwembei- 'Ji. tlio boat eoramettced work on 
river side of Honey Ixlaiid and contliined upstream to Just Over, 
jh wan reatlipd December 24, Hy that time the river had begun to 
rapidly, and the Inmt turnwl back, breaking side jams and cutting 
ing tm-s OH the way down, and reiiched Vicksburg Deeember 30, 
mttuued high water fmm .lanuary until the latter part of May pre- 
xd any wofk. 

udco' aniliority of the Chief of Engineern the Meigs was transferred 
il 1 to Captain To*nsend, Cori)a of lingineerti, for use on levee work 
M Third IHatrict, Mississipjii River, and was returned io this dis- 

D Ibe 2il of Juno the .\fei{is repunu-d operations in Yazoo River and 
jtraud w|wU*<'ani until .Tune l,"i, when it entered TallHhat4^hee, and was 
lioyed nntil .hnie 2l(, Heavy rains caused both rivers to rise at this 
», and an th«* work conld not be continued to advantage the Meiga 
iraod to Vick»bnrg and laid up June 25 to await a lower stage, 
bo following is a summary of the work done by the Meiff* in Yazoo 
or doriug the year: 

[■pntki] 307 

ii|NIiullnl 31 

inaiovMl fruin dinitni'l 65 

ijMW teiuoveil 10 

raHMgscut 16 

ttincttcearnt 633 

M^ldlod 8* 

!h0 snag boat Meiga is in good order so fiir as tlie hull, machinery, and 
lin ire concerned, but a new iron deck is needed around the boilers 
en a woollen deck was put it when tlie boat wa.s built, and an iron 
k att the maiu engines in the space used for blacksmith shop. The 
t of this work is C8timatt!d at $1,200. New boilers will be required 
!i!b 2 years, the cost of which, including taking doivu the old cas- 
8, pipe work, and covering, is estimated at $2,500. 
Tie Meiga is too large to ^ used economically for chopping parties 
1 bank work alone, aud therefore for general use in Yazoo and tribu- 
T streams I recommend a flatboat about 75 feet by 22 feet by 4 feet, 
!i steam capstan or hoisting engine, and crane or shears, and a deck 
8e to accommotlate a party of about 20 men. The estimate for the 
t, machinery, tools, rigging, and outfit is $3,000, and for 4 months' 
ice is $4,000. 
be hull of the immping dredge has rottc<l so mnch tliiit tlie^ scams 

not be kept culked tight, and as there is no pla<;e near by wh'ei-c tlio 
t could l>e hauled out tor repair, it will be most economical to build a 
■ hull. An appropriation of $2,500 is recommended for this purpose. 
o give a clear idea of the extent of country drained by Ya^oo and 
Tibutaries, and the amount of navigable water ways impaired by the 

at the mouth of the system, I submit a map of Yazoo Basin and a 
et giving the limits of high and low waters in Yazoo River, derived 
D the best information attainable without an extended survey. Tlie 
) shows a high-water navigation of over 1,200 kilometers (800 miles), 
ch could be increased to 1,600 kilometers (1,000 miles) by a eompar- 
'ely small outlay; and it is probable that a low-water navigation of 
east 600 kilometers (400 miles) conld bo maintained if the entrance 
ilississippi River were open and free. This hydrograph is very re- 
iutble. It shows at once that Yazoo River must have a moderate 

imifonn slope at all stages, and that even in extreme floods the cut- 



I 

ii 
tj 

I- 



rent cau never attain deatructive ^pcei), timet cmpUa^izing the stM^l 
ment in former reports that Yazoo is an ideal uttream. WitJi a wr ' ■ 
manent navigable entrance to Mississippi Giver, cheap transportrnkiM 
could be hiid the year round for a large part of this sj'Hteni, exteadin^m 
int^i Tallaliiiti-Iiee, Big Snuflower, Tclnila Lake, and Yallabusha Birer.-<| 
It is siife tio say that uo expensive worka, such as locks and dams, tn^- 1 
iug wails, or dikes, will uver be needed in Yazoo Biver, and that bat J 
little revetment will be rcriuired. The channel is uniform iu Beetion ' j 
and bankH geuprally above overflow, except from Mismssippi Kiver if Hie 1 
levees should break, danger froui which is dimiDishing year by year. I 
Increased security from floods and iTuproved facilitieA for moving ore$a J 
and getting supplies are drawiug planters and small farmers iromtbe I 
hill counties and beyond into this fertile valley, and raili-oads are pa- 
etrating it in all directions to compete for the growing trade. Liberal 
appropriations for 2 or 3 yearn to permit systuiimtic clearing of the 
biuiks and removing logs fiom the tributary channels would !<rimalate | 
the »<ettling of the valley and bring large returns to the people in keep^ ; 
ing freiglit rates within reasonable bounds. 

The maps and liydrographs will be corrected and atiieinltd from time I 
t4f time as more definite information is obtained. Tbe bottom of Uib j 
river and the limit>s for bottom choids of bri<iges, tlmt nisiy be required 
as the valley develops, should be determined and rcfen'ed tu tlie same 
datum plane. For these objects, and a« a part of a general plan for 
improving Yazoo River, a system of gauges should be estalilished at 
the principal towns and the mouths of the large tributaries, eventually 
forming an extension of the water gauge«i on Mississippi River naA 
tributaries eatabliabed by Joint resolution of February, 1«71. Such 
gauges would be of immediate value in tirae^f flood to the people liv- 
ing in the valley, and of special value to the interests of navigatteOj 
enabling steamboat men to load their boats at low water so as tu avoia 
detentions at the shoals. By connecting the gauges with the i)aixo 
datum value would begiven to a mass of information in regard to flood 
heights,dischaige, etc., of former years. The principal cost of the work 
would be in the leveling and estabhshing the gai.^.'H, bulletins, mi 
peimanent monuments. The estimates for the fiscal year are $1,500 tat 
estahlisliing ttie gauges and bulletins and pay of observers, and $3,50(1 
fiu- leveling between stations and permanent monuments. 



PKOGRESS BEPORT. 

Tim item of appropriation by act of September 19, 1890, contaii^ 
allotment of $ri,0(H) to " be used in makuig a survey of the YazoaTl 
from the bridge of the Louisville, Hew Orleans, and Texas B^Iir 
its mouth, for the purpose of determining in what manner the mot 
the river can he so improved as to freely permit the passage t' 
the same at all seasons of the year of vessels engaged in the i 
tion of the river; and said survey shall also include an inveati 
into the feasibility and advantages of making a new mouth or ouil 
said river by way of Chickasaw Bayou, or otherwi.-ie, together y ' 
estimate of the cost of the name," 

A party was organized under Assistant Engineer H. M. Mu«ld 
Boon as practicable alter the approval of the project reiinired byj 
and work began iu tbe field October '29, and continued until D©c^ 



■ipPENWJC V — ^RBPOBT OF CAPTAIN WILLAKD. 1999 

high wat«r compelled suH))ension of operafaons. The rivei-s 
lainiMl loo high siuce then to allow the conipUitiuu of tLi' field 
ipecially at the mouth, niuL work will not be resumed until 
ipi Biver ahiiU have fallen to a, stage below 20 mctvisii Cairo 
r about 10 fi^pt on the Vickabiirg (KJeiiistou) gauge. 
ilay in getting the inlornialiou at the mouth of the river sptiui- 
qniretl by the act, and which involves not over a week's work 
rapby and sonudiiiga, prevents any discussion of the problem, 
I ^[icd that tbe river will tall early iu the season, so that a 
eport may hn submitted in time tor the action of the river and 
BiDinittce. The maps arc finished, except the last sheet, and 
ff and the uot«a of levels, ei-oas sections, and profiles ai'e in 
r plot ting. 

>Ht of the survey retiuired the IVill amount of the allotment 
the boriugs contemplated in the project, and as they will be 
y for the ptiriwso of final estimates, itis to be regretted that 
unount of the estimate, $8,000, was not given for the survey, 
nonld appear feasible to divert Ya^^oo Eiver through Chickor 
on, Thompson Lake, or through a canal oii a shorter line, it 
nportant to know the ehara«ter of the bottom along these lines 
^ of from 'JO ti) M feet, the sum of $2,500 is recommended for 
ose. lleprodueing the uiBps aud sections ou a .'iidtable si^ale 
ing drawings will require $500. 

DETAJtKO ESnMATKS HIK I-ISGAI. YKAR 1893. 

loni ha' service $12,000 

months in ordiuarv 1,800 

roaderka 1,300 

Mft-lboilcre 2,500 

ritli stHUU-paniT 3,000 

nontha' KCTviM 4,000 

br pamuing droitice 3,600 

montha mrark with wme 1,500, 

US mill iDaintiiiniiig gaufiieN 1,500 

jn.-veliiig, niouimitiits, etc 3,500 

iilr\iiiuiuutioiishiC't>uuri'llonu-itli hiivcy of Loner Yazoo Kiver. 2,600 

iig iiin|M of Bnrvey 500 

lUBCB, incidental lepaira, tools, oiitlit, a,uil tuutiugencies 3,000 

40,000 
Money utatcment. 



I 



i, amount expended during flsoal year 14,780.9 



», balance available : 13,320.38 

thatcanlieprofitablycspendcil ill fiscal yeiirendiiigJuno30,18.t3 40,000.00 

eil in coiupliance with rciinircuiuuts of sectiona ^ of river and 

ra<l«ofl«66andl867. 

luuts espi'iided during the fiscal year were: 

il impmveniciit, rare of pluiit, ntc $9,811.32 

ind dredge boat 327. 27 

>y below Louisville, New Oricans and Tcxaa Hail road Bii<ljjo .. 4,tH2, 31 

U 14,780.90 



2000 BKPOKT or TUi: C'UlEt' OF ENGINEUKS, U. 8. ARMY. * 

COMMERCIAL STATISTICS. 

Karigntioii of Yuzoo River from boaittu mouth wus atiiutrri'iiptod iu tlicputl»« 
Lhl 0/ bvull Ihal narigalrd Ta:oo SirtT in Jiteal gear 1S91. 





1 








I>n.fl». 1 i_ 




"3 1 


K««L 




1 


1 


1 


5 


1 


i 
1 


Betwmi w)ut placei. 




Addle £,I'-at»o»'... 


..24I.M 


i3.VBait.tt 


Ft.'FI.In 


t-^ 


33 


YiikKburc imd head ol Tu«> 

...iln...' 

Vai<»> City and Bdiona 




?«»;■":.:: 


'.'.'\<ii.-.* iii:i.-]-:il -iy Ik 


i J 


ff 


»- 


LalteCily 


..;a..«o;..o.,«.al w 


3 a, «) 






Crown l'.«iif 

HmKuuham* 


..■1W.U i;3.(.25.0 4.S3 S « 4' ^ 

..i;8.r.; sa.4i.Mt 3.9 1 g 1 ft si 


Vl,k,.l».n:uidGre«nw<»d 

VlrkiliorR nod Yim City..., 
Vi.lt-l,urB imd SaOrtla - . „. ... 
XiilvhM and Anthonyi Fony.:. 




HUlCitr- 

J.B.OBri™(liig).. 


i 


...'.' 


1 n 




4 o'(«^ 

... V i 


::=z 



5nBiiH'irj 11/ vommerct reported. 





A,-M,.W 






■— 




ITS 

IV- 
















i-- 










^- 








Eifer. Mul Steele l!i.v.m, which WM 




■ III-' llivtT. I'l'linliiTjiki 

tlinHII-ll YUBW KiYW . 


HijSnnfloww 



Total wflfht. Yai 
BatJmatnt vuliu-. I 



In tliB 6Ht'-al yriir 18SI0 tlifi comiii.Trc u^jf 
anuinnt<Hlto63.iir>3 Ihiih. AVith tlieluiiiliurui 
bwii iin'roniiod io Xl.lil tcus, 

Tho U«nTj;iul'a<'in<' DiviMJonof thn Rkbuuinil tiud Uanvillu ltiiilni:i(Urogwu Ita^^ 
River nt Fort Lnrin^. r> inili-ti ftttm lirceiiwiHiil. nml tbu Louinvillc, >'uw OtUkiuac^ 
TexnsKailway rniSM-Niiliiint \Ti milen nlwvi' tb« iiiixitb. Tho liitturroadliaBabnUH^ 
from Claiksdulr fn .Miiitrr I'ity on Iht' Tulliibiit<'1ii-i>, wlikh will be extended doi^ 
thefitrpam tn Um-nwiHHl. 'l\v> Yuxoo 1lniui-h uf tlm IltinoiH Cuntral BaUroad. bo- - 
ParsouB nn tlie Yiill.'ihnKhii lu .Itii'ltsiiii. )[iKii., iiiiir iiunillcl to tho river, tonelibig ^ 
lirc'euwood, Sidnn. T'lmln, iinil Yii/i>o City, niut lins a tup lino from Tchnla to tl::^ 
main lino at I>ur:iui, 



r 



-BKPOKT OF CAPTAIN WILLARD, 



IMPROVEMENT OF TCUULA LAKl^, MISSISSIPPI. 

i«t and imn-owt.«t channel of Yazuo River whei-e it divides ia 
Httiiov Island i« called Tulmla L;iko ov River. It lies wholly 
[nlnicn I'diiiity, Miw«.. (mil is nlmut (iO miles loiig. Honey I»- 
itwiil HMi luii.-s :iiii>\(i the iittiiitli 111' Yazoo Elver, ami fertiJ^ 
HIS jiiiii "III- :iiiiir!ifr iitmiH its l.;iiik«, theb' estimated aoiiuM" 
beiiij; iilKHit L'O.IHMI bules ol' cuttou. 
^fular Yuzoo luid Tallaliatcliee steaiuboata make trips through 
when the water is high euougli. An esaminatioii of TchiUa 
8 made by the Uuited Stat«s in 187d, and the principal obatnic- 
navigat ion were found to be si]ag» and logs in the lower part and 
Ijmber and nbore siia^^ along both banks from the foot to the 
the island. (Ke]H>rt('hief of Kugiueers, 1880, pagesl350. 1351.) 
ect (-Aiitomplated removal of these obstructions to permit light- 
itn to enter the lako earlier iu the season. The estimated cost 
000, if all the work should be done in one low-water season, 
ipropriations have b(-eii us follows: 

I 3, 1881 $8,000 

113,1883 a,50O 

i. im 1,600 

II B, W86 2,000 

>■ II, 1888 3,000 

jibcr IS, 1890 3,000 

(1 ninniinl npptopridtwi 15,000 

was commenced iu 1881 and continued in 1882, 1884, 1886, 1887, 

>, and the obstructions were removed as far as practicable with 

lints appropriated. 

tions in the fiscal year 1691 were as follows: 

itited tltates snag boat John R. Meigs, P. B. Starr master, eii- 

^ mouth of the lake December 10 and workexl up to the head, 

s snags, tree slides, and all the heavier obstructions. On the 

k the most obstructive brush arul leaning trees were cut until 

T rose too high for continuing such work to advantage. The 

it left the lake December 20 suid resumed operations in Yazoo 

e next day. 

lluwing iri a summary of the work: 

l«i .: 58 

illed 1 

ived from channel 11 



rds willowa and bniflb i.-tit 660 

:incipal work now needed it* the clearing of trees and brush from 
:8. The brush has grown so rapidly and to sueh an extent that' 
places tile i-lcar channel scai'coly exceeds 'A feet in width, and 
is gi-owth may iLot be very dangerous U> navigation at present, 
es passing vessels and latches diift and should be removed 
Illy as siMtii ;is jiossibte. This work can be done to advantage 
ages only, and it is intende^l to put a chopping party in the lake 
NG 91 126 



I 



2002 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS; U. 8. ABUT. 

as soon as there is a reasonable prospect of continued low water.| 
is probable that the balance available will be expended before fiuL 
The work is of such nature that it must be gone over to remo[fi 
obstructions that are added from time to time, but by the expend 
of $6,000 in one low-water season they can be removed so tiioroi 
that nothing further will be needed fbr several years. 

Money statement. 

July 1, 1890, balance nnexpended $1, • 

Amount appropriated by act approved September 19, 1890 3, i 

June 30, 1891, amount expended during fiscal year 1,: 

July 1, 1891, balance unexpended , 3,1 

Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal vear ending June 30,1893 6, ( 
Submitted in compliance with requirements oi sections 2 of river and 
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. 



COMMERCIAL STATISTICS. 



When the water is high enough Yazoo River steamboats run through thq lal 
List of steamboats that navigated Tchula Lake in fiscal year 1891, 



Kame. 



Stem-wheel steamboats — 
Addie £. Faison .... 
Blanks Com well — 






o 
H 



241.5 
232.4 



i 



Feet. 

135.0 

140.0 



5 



Feet. 
30.6 
29.0 



4) 



Feet, 
4.9 
4.6 



Draft. 



Light. 



Ft. In. 
2 2 
2 2| 



Loaded. 



Ft. In. 
5 
5 2 



Nnm- 
ber of 
passen- 
gers. 



70 
tlO 



Knmber of 
trips made \ 
tween what 



10, through tl 
16, throagh tli 



Summary of commerce reported. 



I 



Articles. 



Cotton 

Cotton seed 

Live stock 

Lumber 

Staves 

Provisions 

Grain 

Miscellaneons 

ToUl freight 

Estimated valne, in round numbers 



18 



The Yazoo branch of the Illinois Central Railroad, from Parsons, on the Yallabnf 
Jnrkson, Miss., runs parallel to the lake, and alHo has a tap line from Tchula to th< 
line at Durant, and has diverted a large amount of the business formerly done by e 
boats. 



' — REPORT OF CAPTAIN' Wn.LARD. 2003 

V 13: 
mPROVKMliXT or TALLAIIATOHEK RIVER. MISSISSIPPI. 

Tlelifiul wittem of tliis river svre in Tippah County, in northern Mia- 
iHlpjii. n'lieiir*' it flwwi* in a general wmtliwesterly direction throiigli 
iwMinliw* of Union, La Payette, Panola, joins Coldwat*>r River in 
^bniii, and then, as the main utieani flows, in a eontherly direction 
Innjh Talluhntchf^ and Ia; Flore eounties, and unites with Yalliibu- 
biofnruiing Yiiz<jo Hiver, 

Ad pxaniiiiation waa ma<le hy the ITnited Stiites in 1870 (pages 
IHWB, K.?|iort Chief of Engineerp, 1873). The project based thereon 
niauijiLited the removal of tinafr^, sunken logs, and leaninjr timber 
bfflmi-liiiK Ion-water navigation below the mouth of Coldwater, and 
te wrwk i)f thB Bteamer Star of tlie Went, S miles above the mouth, at 
leHtisuitMl root of $40,000. An ailditiouiil examination was made In 
WHlwgro 1323-1323, Ueimrt Chief of Engineers, 1H80). 
The Tullowing appropriationH have been niiule for this work: 

FMIrf- 

MmpIiS, iMTa •. to, 000 

Jow It, tfifo 9.000 

IUn,<h3,tWl 3,000 

ii*Mia. itftu 3.000 

My Ms*! .■ 3,000 

(biil»l5. IWG 3,500 

inpirtll, 188M 5.000 

S■P^Ml^pr 19. 1S90 5,000 

TM*1 luiuuut uppnipriaU'd ST.SOO 

TorkwiuH iK-guii in IS7!>. inul (-oitfiiui.-d in 1880,1881,1882,1884, 
W^ U»7, and i88». r:nts .,r il,r ;i|,propriationa of 1880 and 1881, 
•1 »n of that for 1882 (a l.ila] ..I sin.diHi), wereexpended on the Little 
NWi*tehee above the montli oi ('iildwater to Bateaville, as requred 
flheat'tn, but this partof tlie«trfiam was not included in the ori^nal 
n>j«t or estimate of cost. To the end of the fiscal year 1890 all other 
■ork va»toiilined to the river below Sharkey Landing, and resulted 
I the ri-niftval of a large number of obstruirtiona, to the great benefit 
r ijavigHtioii. Before the inii»rovpTiiont commenced the river was nav- 
»l>k aliout 6 montlisof the year; Itoats now nui to Sharkey the year 
""<I.ILe only serious detention being at the mouth of Yazoo Eiver. 
n-v'"' ^^^ fi!**'al yejir operations were as Ibllows: 
"niletlie original project for this stream contemplated work up to 
fjnnttion of the Little Tallehatchee and Coldwater, little or nothing 
•* '•eeii done above Sharkey, since 1882, for the reason that steam- 
"isilid not go above that hmdin^^ except to make occasional trips 
to t'ii)<]n.jit^r River during high stages, when navigation was as good 
ul iibout as safe as in the lowt'r part of the stream. In the last year 
* ^'Mmboatmen asked that snagging operations be extended above 
'^'■^Py to the forks, to enable them to bring out freiglits from the 
™»iiter and Little Tallahatchee. 

'Of Riiag boat Meigs, 1'. E. Starr master, entered tins river Novem- 
' 1 and worke<I rapidly up to Sharkey Landing, removing only the 
^t "hstructions on the wav, as it was desired to work up to the 
w'th of Coldwater Kivr-r l»-l..i(' Hi.- water should fall. The boat 
X'IihI :i ]K)int about miles ;iliovc Slinrkey November 7, but found 
Plater too low to go further, and turned back and was employed on 
!*0 miles l>elow Sharkey until November 17. On the later date a 



2004 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ABUT. 

slight rise coinmeiioed and the boat wa« enabled to go above Slia 
and was employed between that point and Mead Landing, at mot 
Tillatoba Elver, abont 25 miles above, nntil November 25. Durin 
remainder of November the boat worked in the lower part of the i 
and then returned to the Yazoo. 

Owing to continued higli water nothing further was done until ' 
15, when the Meigs, which had been working in the Yazoo, entered 
stream and worked for days, removing tree slides, etc., after ^ 
the boat returned to Yieksburg, as the water was too liigli for wo: 
the channel. 

The following is a summary of the work done during the year: 

Siiajrs puUrd 24 1 Side jjnn« romo v«»«l 

StunipH pulled til Leaning trees out 

Shore snaj^s cut 417 Trees jj^rdlod r 

Lo^s removed froui 4'hauu<'l 51^ Square yards willows ent 



The small amounts appropriated have prevented thorough woi 
this river. INIajor Benyauril, in submitting the project for its imp 
men t, estimated that it would take two sea^nons' work at a cost of $4! 
(page 985, Kepoit Chief of Engineers, 1879). As stated in my 
report, the snag boat Meigs should be used a short time each ye; 
remove heavy snags, tree slides, and sunken logs, but theapproprii 
should be large enough to permit the systematic clearing of the b 
by chopping parties, and $10,000 can be expended to advantage ii 
fiscal year 1893. 

M&ney statement 

Amouut appropriated by a<'t approved September 19, 1890 ^ ( 

J une IW, 1891 . amount expended during fiscal year 2, 1 

July 1, 1891, balance unexpended 2, < 



'Amount (estimated) required for comjdetion of existing i»roject 12,1 

Amount that can be profitably expended in liscal year ending June 30, 1S93 10, ( 
Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and. 
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. 



COMMERCIAL 8TAnSTIC8. 



Tliis river was navigable to Sbarkey Landing; the entire year. During higli i 
boats ran to M<*ad Lauding at mouth of Tillatoba Creek, and occasionally into 
water Kivcr. 

List of stcrn-ivhecl steamboats that navigat-ed Tallahatchee Biver in fiscal year 18 



I 






Name. 



• 




1 




Draft. 


• 

ft 






u» 


bc 


• 


J3 






• 


•^ 


a 


JS 


ha 


• 




•c 


PV^ 




a 


1 


1- 




0. 

9 


c 

mm 


H 




« 


S 


•r4 
^ 


o 


.« 



Bctwoen what places. 



Acblio E. Faison, 



Feet. Ft. Ft. Ft. in. Ft. in. 



3 



Virk8l>ur^ and BeleD, Mins 
241.50 135.0 30.6 4.9 2 25 Oj 5 Vuksburj; anrt Mead. Mias 



Blanks Cornwi-11 L'32.40 140.0 29.0 4.6; 2 4 



Jiihii F. Allt-n Vi'.i. IH> VM). 2 24. 4. 2 



lM..('ol»b 2t»4.r.<i 14.M2K5 3.0, 1 H 4 

D.C. Fu;ii*l 8!».(W 121. 921. 6 4.4" '.. 

MjiV'jjif Uaiiev 14»<. 02 12»<. 5 2.". 4. 5 ' ' 1 . . . «lo 

i : , : I I 



J 27 Vnksbur^and Sharkey, Miss ... 

( 3 Vickslniri; and Mead M iss 

2<: 2 VickabiirK aitd iSelen, Miaa 

( 27 Virksburp and Sharkt-y, Miss 

I C 1' Tirksburj: and llflon, MiK« 

1 8 4 0?ir> Vi.ksburt; and Mead. Miaa 

f 70 Vicksbnrg and Sharkt'V. Mini* . .. 

4 1 do 

.. 1 Ni'wOrlraMsandCi>ldwater, AU»H. 




Uk LoaiaTille, S«v OtIimiiis »iut Tdxm lUilwajr hu a lirMtch lltui A'om Cl»rkB' 
1 Minler City on tlii^ TalluliHtuhtw, wbioli wilJ be eitonded to ooniiuct with the 
.apwillc nMir Grtf^nirood; iiuil the OiM>r)cia Pucific hiiiI lUinois Ci>iitrfil Kail- 
, U UrHsuwood, arc eoiupxtituns foi the trade of Tallahatotiee River, 



V14. 

fcwOVEMEXT OF 8TEBLE BAYOU ANU WASHINGTON BAYOU, M18SI9- 
HIPI'I. 

Steflr Bityoa has its soiiri-t- in Swan luike, in WjisLitigtoii Goiintj-, 
■*; flows in a gcueral soiitlii-ri.v iliicclinn, liiriiiiQg tlieuiitletfurLukn 
liy Wasliiiigton Bayou, and 

t^ Tiiimth, It* course is pai-- 

lli nl".iLt sr. mill's: thiitall Is 
. I.;.-. ■'\'->-].[ wlifiithw 



Wwluri'iton, n-ith wWcU it i 
.•[ttts VazHo River about lli iini.,- 
Mftti.thi- MJssissi(»pi River. ;iimI 



-\n Piamiimtiiiii w;Lfi iniide by the Tiii 

p' in ch^gii reiMirtol adverRely U) the i 

"feineers, 18*4, pages 1300-13(>2.) 

*ne following appropriations liavi 



atrs i:i ISfi'l, and theoffi- 
ement, (Iteport Chief of 



following appropriations liave been made, viz: 

"^ »*1 «f : 

Jnly^lSKl •. $2,500 

ADgiutii. 1886 2,500 

-*u)ni«tll,1888 2,500 

BepMmber 19, 1890 2,500 

Total amonat appropriated 10,000 

T'he project under wliicli work lias been dcnie contemplates reninviiig 

^**gs, BtnmpB, drift, and leaning timber to improve higli-water iia^iga- 

^*i. Ciiopiiing parties were employed in 188-i-'A> and the latter part 

** IS86, and in February and July, 1889, small steamers were hii-ed to 

^ over the work and remove the heavier obstructions. Operations ex- 

^nded from the head of Washington Bayou to the mouth of Steele 

"*yon, bat were by no means thorough, on aecount of the small iippro- 

Wations, 

In the fiscal year 1891 operationK were as follows: 

JTie tTnited States snag boat Thou. B. Florence, J. H. Lewis master, 

»»8 aent into tliU stream February 8, and worked iintil the end of tliat 



I 

I 



if, 



> 



2006 REPORT OF THE VIUV.V OF KxNGINEKRS, U. S. ARMT. 

I 

inoiitli. ()2)erations exleiulod over the lower 50 miles of (lie bayou 
tweeii the foot of Poindoxtor Island and the month, and the folloi 
work was done: 



} Snags n^moved from channel 87 ' Side jams rcmovwl 

Jams r«*mov('d X 7.. Leaning; trees cut 

High water in the Mississippi, Avlii<*h eontinued until late in 1 
stopped the work. Operations had not bec^i resunn^l to the end oi 
year, as the available plant was in us(» (»lsewhere. It is iutende< 
apply the balance of the appro jniation to continuing the removal oi 
stru(*tions as soon as practicable. 

The region bordering the upper])artofthebayou and Washington 
Swan lakes furnishes the jmncipal products. The lower portion is 
ject to overflow, and not nuich land in the vicinity is cultivated. 
west side of Lake Washington is near the Mississii)pi, and a loop 
of the L<misville, New Orleans and Texas Eailway, from Coahom 
Rolling Fork, passes between Swan Lake and Lake Washington, 
has diverted the main trallic from the bayou. 

Steamboat navigation in Steele Bayou was not commenced until 1 
and since the construction of the railroad it has gradually deere; 
until for several years the trade has amounted U^ little or nothing. 

Much work is needed to make navigation in the bayou reasonably 
and unobstnicted, and if the improvement is to be continued, ; 
recommended that 8"),(HK) be ai)propriated, as that amount, if %\h^\\ 
one low-water season, will oi)en the bayou for high- water na\igatiou, 
further work will not be reipiired, at least for many years. 

Money statement. 

Amount appropria^d by aet approved September 10, 1800 $2, 5< 

June 30, 1891, amount exi>on<led during tiseal year 1, 31 

July 1, 1891, balance unex])ended 9' 

July 1, 1891, out8tandin«:j liabilities 

July 1, 1891, balance available 9^ 

f Amount (estimat^Ml) required for compb-tion of exist in^r i^roject 5, ft 
Amount tbat can be profitably expended! in liscal yea rending June 30, 181*3 5, 0( 
Submitted in comydianee with requirenu-nts of sections 2 of river and 
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. 



COMMERCIAL STATISTICS. 

This stream was navigable from January 1 to the end of May. ' 

List of stern-wheel vesnels engaged in navigation. 



! ; ! 



/ / i i re 1 != ; ^ ! ^ = 



.*niiic. ! 1' 



I ^ 



Draft. i. 

Between what places. 



/'../. Ft. Ft. Ft. in. Ft. in. 

I>v<Tsl>urir 7!.t'- '.i.;.ii !•«. i . n i •; :; u :\ Virk-^lmru :iinni<-ar(.;anlen. 

Josie 1). llarkiiis 7:J. li! l\o.o i-».:. :;.;; -j o :; i 'j ...do 

I 




diverted the 



V IS. 

lUPBOVEMENT OF BIG SUNFLOWER RIVER, MISSISSIPPI. 

riv«r lias its source in Moon hake, Ooahoma Connty, Miss., flows 
wntlierly <Ure*:tion, ami euters Yazoo Kiver about ifl miles above 
During extreme high water it is navigable to Clarksdale, 
above th« month, bnt Faisouia, 144 miles above the mouth, 
.' U ooasidered the he^ of navigation. 
BUBtiDAtion was matle by the United States iu 1S78 (pages 9S2- 
Bepnrt Chief of Engineers, 1S79), and the plan adopted for the im- 
!t"v«Diciit i!«>nt«mi>lut«d building timber and brush dams at the shoals 
*| s-oar a uhaunel 3 feet to 40 inches deep, and the removal of suags, 
nuk('nl<i(rit, and leaning timberobstrnctingnavigatiou, at an estimated 

The fiillowiug appropriatioiiij have beoii made: 
*I»rtof— 

lUreb3,tST9 320,000 

Jmeli. 1880 8,000 

lUrcbS, 18»l 4,0(10 

iuput2. 1883 5,000 

Jiily5,18«l 5,000 

AngDst5,1886 5,000 

Ansnet U, 1888 5,000 

I'fptember 19,1690 6,000 

Total unovnt appro priatRi) 57,000 

T^ork was commenced in 1879 and cwntinued in 1880, 1381, 1882, 1883, 
"^ ISS;. aii<l 1889, Operations extended over the navigable xwrtion 
■ theriver from Clarksdale to the month, but were by no means thorough 
* "wwunt of small appropriations, and a great deal of work is required 
" itt* flbstraetions are added every year. It is reported, however, 
*»' benefits have been gained by the work done as follows: Before 
■* improvement commenced fin 1879) the river was navigable for very 
■Sht Iwais at>ont fi mouths of the year; now it is navigable the year 
"W"], bnt difficult and dangerous at low stages on account of shoals, 
*!(?«. and sunken logs. Ijarger boats are used, and make the ronnd 
Wp (of about 180 miles and return) in 5 days, while before the improve- 
>«tt it was unusual for a boat to make the trip under 8 days. Freight 
aUe arc reported to be SO per cent. less. The lauds along the rivec 



2008 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY 

arc beiii^ cleared aiwl settlc^l rai)iilly of lat^*- years, which is attribi 
in part to the iniprovexl navijjation. 

In the fiscal year 1891 operations were as follows: 
The Unit^ States snag boat Meigs^ P. li. Starr master, was sent 
this river Jannary 10, and <*ontinned work nntil Februaiy 13^ wIm 
was stopped by high wat^r. Operations extended up to Faisonia, ne 
midway between Woodbnrn and Lehrton, and in addition to the remi 
of obstiTictions brush dams were built at head of Muscle Shoals an 
Hollj'wood Bar. Regarding the work done and the condition of 
river, the master of the Meigst reported as follows: 

Backwater from tho MissisRippi made the river too higb for any work b 
Campbellsville on th«' way nji; Olipliant Har had fnU 12 feet of water on the sho 
places. Worke<l up through the narrow river to ** head of drift" and removed a i 
her of larije and troubh'some sna^rs. Above Mike Hu^hea Landing, at "hej 
drift '* to Ortceola Gin, a distance of 38 mih»8, the river is wide and dcep^ witl 
few snags in the channel, and all of them were in sight. At and above Oseeoh 
the entire bottom apju'ars to be ooverc«l with logs and trees; none of them W€ 
sight, and they could be caught only with the drag chain. At places the ehnni 
80 close in shore that we had to remove leaning trees before we could get a 
snags. At Osceola 17 snags were removed in a short distance; at Savage Pol 
were removed in a distance of 400 yards, and 65 were taken out at Sedan Poin* 
Bend inside of 500 yards. Pilot liookout says we removed nothing bnt whal 
directly in the channel, and the worst snags oply. He seems to know exactly ^ 
they are, and can tell the kind of wood lx»fore they are pulled. Judging fror 
number we have removed, there is enough work to kee]> this boat employed 
stantly for a year. 

The following: is a snminary of the work done by the MeigSj viz: 



Leaning trees topped 

Trees girdled 

S<^uare yards willows and brash cut 
Lineal feet brush wing dams boilt. 



Snags and logs pulled 437 

Stumps pulled 9 

Side jams removed 4 

Shore snags cut 4 

Leaning trees cut 150 

Wrecks renuived : boiler of steanuT Sarah Elliott put on bank at Faisonia. 

The river remained at a sta^re too high to resnine work to advan 
until the latter part of May, when the snag boat Florence^ J. H. L 
master, was fitted out, and was sent into this sti-eam June 1, and 
tinned w<n*k during the month. Operations extended up to the w 
of the steamer Xellie Hudaon^ 18 miles al>ove Faisonia. As the w 
was but little in the way of navigation and the river falling rap 
only the boiler was removed and i)ut on the bank, and the boat 
ceeded downstream to avoid IxMiig caught by low water. Below W 
bum the river was too high for work in the channel, and the Floi 
returned to Vieksburg ♦June 30. 

The followinir is a summarv of the work d<me: 



Snags and l4»gs rcniuvcd from channel 

Stuiu])S removed from channel 

I^eaning trees cut 

Wrecks removed; boiler from steamer XvUie UmUon. 

The amounts exi^endcMl during the year were: 

/ For general im]»rovemcnt below W<»odburn $3,01 

' Between Woodburn and Lehrton 1,1 

Total 4>ll 

It is recommended that future ajjproiuiations shall not n^strict 
jxMiditures to designated stretches of river, in order that the funds 
l)e applied where tlie work is n(»eded most and where it will yield 
gn*atest benelit to navigation. 

The estimate of $G(),000, made in 1870, for the improvement of 



•8NP1X V — n«W>ttT OK CAPTAIN WILLABD. 2009 

ftw (yaiif W4, lU-jmrt Cliior«f Kiij^iim'iR. 1S7!»), did not uoiitemiiUte 
kiu^ tliv work at irregiilnr iDt«rval8 exU-miin;; ovi'v n jioriod of 15 
mrKiu* it nil! wi^ tbe iwital a))|>ropriiiiiijiiK, Iml wiis Diuile witli a 
M« lu fiuMliiD|i[ it in not more than ^( i>i 4 riiiisciiitivii^ aeanoos. As 
■nrnhfiUTK-tionit UTH ad(ir<l tWim tinii' i<> liiiii' ii is ijt){H>R»ibl(> to make 
ay (i^HDiii- estimate, but if an approiniiition ol' not leHH tliun t2U,UUU 
• Duili- i( ran be 8]>entt<> advantflK** ""•' "^''1' woiioniy in 1 or 3 low- 
wttT M-a»o{ut, and result in grt^ater benefit t4i navigation and work of 
inuifv luNthix I'.liitnu-ter than a larger nu in by Hmall allotments every 
tther year. 

k Money ntatemtnt. 
nt anprnpriKbHl bv act upprovod Spptrmbcr lU. IWO $5,000.00 
SU. IWl. uiiuinnt ■■xpimdnd ilnriiiK flH*'!'! .Vfur 4. 1!)6. 07 

iMjl. 1I91, liAlimcc unosminika SOR.fU 

All I, IMI. unUUmdine '''•l>nitiei9 4.78 

"jUj I. WBl, Imlwicc BriulsUlp 7B9.U 

qIawinillbiiti'HnbcpraauiiIvexiH'iKli'ilinWut.VtfiirvniUiiitJinii'WI.lHes 20,000.00 

iltatimiltiTil in «>>iiipliauc« wilti rc<|iiiri-Tii<^nt»< vt wi'tiuiui i of tiviM' uud 

1 i WlHt U'U ot 1800 ui<l IH6T. 

I = 



>l]H<pi 

' to Fatiuinla anil Hrirnh 1*181' 
iM III thrm-trlkttl 4tetimhonlii tiuit namgatri Big SimJIoirrr Bivtr i« Jtwal year IHIt. 




I Roiiiiil tHj." l»tw,*n Willi plucti 



VtoksborvuidHtir 



( i Vfckuburitaorllliin-lw.,-. 

I)f-i Vli-knliiirgaiuO'aiiionU.. 

I I I' ii V]ntihiirn»iirHliir,'ln..., 

3.1 1 l<i 4 n?li. VIckiiljiirgudFjilHiiila.. 



.Viiaiiunrji of cninmnre reported. 



Tent. Tmu. 



T'*iltttigkta 

WlwMii niHt in iHwl aDinbcn 



L 



2010 RRPOBT OP THE CHIKF OP ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

The liOiiisvill«, Now Orlraiis :iihI Ti'xaji Kaihva.v rioNscs the river at Clnrkn-I 
and thciioc Hoiith nniH ])iirallrl to Mio stream, :it distancoR vivryiii^ from 5 to^Oiiii 
The Georgia Pa('iti<> Division of the Kichmoud and Danville Kaili'otul crosses the ri 
near Johnsonville with a line running from Arknneus City om^he Mis8it»ippi to 
lanta, Ga« 



V i6. 

IMPROVKMEXT OF HIG HA TCUEE RIVER, TENNESSEE. 

This river has its source in Northern Mississippi, flows in a noi 
westerly and then westerly direction through the most productive 
gion of West Tennessee, and enters the Mississippi Eiver 50 mi 
above Memphis. I am informed that navigation in this stream a 
menced as early as 1827; that in 1841 and 1842 the .State of Tenues 
appropriated #i(K),(K)0 for improvement of rivers in the western par 
the State, one-third of which was expended on Big Hatchee, after wh 
considerable business was done; that from six to seven boats with 
pacities for carrying 500 to 1,000 bales of cotton were employed diir 
the cotton season, and navigation was open the year round for li$ 
draft boats. In 1866 the legislature of Tennessee declared the stre 
unnavigable, and authorized certain railroads to build bridges with 
draws, and navigation was suspended until 1879, when the law was 
pealed, and the bridges were altered. 

An examination was made by t\\o United States^ in 1879, and 
project based thereon contemplated the removal of snags, logs, lean 
timl)er, etc., to render the stream navigable for light-draft boats ft 
Bolivar, Tenn., to the mouth throughout the year. This part of 
river was estimated to be about 240 miles long. (Report Chief of . 
gineers, 1880, pages 1:330-1332.) The plan of operations given in 
original project contemplated com])leting the work in three eonsecut 
low-water seasons at a cost of *30,(K)0. 

The appropriations have been as follows: 

By a<'t of— 

June 14, 1880 .' flO, 

March 3, 1881 3, 

Augn8t2, 1882 8, 

JnlyT). 1881 2, 

Angust 5, 1886 S, 

August 11, 1888 6, 

September 19, 1890 6^ 

Total amount appropriated (in 11 years) 82, 

In view of the above, and the fact that new obstructions are adi 
every year, the work (*an not be (H)mpleted within the original estimal 
and small a]>pro])riati()ns will be required from time to time to maint 
unobstructed navigation. 

Work was b(^gun in isso, and continued in 1881, 1882, 1884, 1886-? 
and 1889. Betbn' its conmicncement the stream virtually was unnavi 
ble by reason of the obstrurtions; in 1889 it was reported navigable 
7 mouths, and during the past fiscal year it was reported navigable 
9 months. Tin? stream from Txdivar to its mouth is crossed by 4 r 
roads, about 60 miles ai)art. whicli transport th(^ principal producti 
the country, and the main ctl'rct of the im])r(>vement so far has beei 
facilitate the transi)orlati<>n of timber and staves and prevent excess 
rates of freight. The Hxcd l)ridg(* of the Tennessee Midland Bailw 
about 60 miles below Bolivar, prevents navigation of steamers ab< 




V HKHOHT OF CAPTAIN WIIXARU. 2011 

hi!- UUifiv i» )i]t>>r<Ml. mill till' iiiitiii-al ulisl I'lirlinnii ai'O 
(I tu |M-j-miI liiialN ni rim tim ycur idiiml, sii lliiil. Hip jn'iiple miiy 

»!«)« (be river trjMit«, thtru is every piobiibility ftiut KtPaiiibo)it 

■nipittoti will be revived, thongh not to tlie extent of the period prior 
lltUe war. Ijcfore Hip railronds were built. 
ThP appropriation of IS9() was made late io the season, and the river 
kw been at a slJig« too high for advantageuos work diiriug the greater 
■ctioD of the period sincfl, and on this account uo work was done dur- 
1^ Ihc fiMpiil year 181*1. It is intended to tiike advibiitago of the low- 
MUr M':i.suti tiit» MumiDer and fall, giving special attention to the chan- 
wl otMtmctiunif, width are more trouhle»otne than leaning trees, innch 
rftlii>tatt«r having been cut. 

If Ihit! work is to 1)« continued, economy will be subserved by expeud- 
i^E in OIK* iwMKon an ain<»unt sufticiciit t« cienr the river so that further 
i»rk cliall not by nccdc^d for several years. The improvement will be 
Mrh more thorough and lasting' l>y such couceutration, and the pra«- 
ial boiictlt to uavipitioii m<u-*> nearly attained. I reeommend the ex- 
ftt'liluie of nol IcKsthiin SMMHIil in one season, beginning work as soon 
•tUieMngL' iifwiiU-r will pi-rtnil, conatructing or hiring a flat-boat with 
OBunritpslan. and nsiny; cxjilosives liberally for removing snaga and 
wtii-ii log*. .\ ulinn- I'ltily, liidgcd in tents and moving about in skiffs, 
A'.uH rli-;ir Ihi.' Iniiiks ninl sui>|ilciii£'nt work in the channel. Expe- 
i>!iii* 111 till- i>;i-.! sh'irt.s iliiil Htllvjii-iielit is to be derived from small 
■•I iiT>-t'iil:ir :iii]ini]irialioiis. 'I'hc Vost of ad mini titration is increased, 
■duiuf^h ol'lho (joimI results ol' the work ifi lost during the iuterval 
tttveeu appropriatiouK, 

A» a insTt«r of history connected with the improvement of this stream 
■d tke Forked Deer Kiver, I rcimrt that at the last session of the leg- 
MttOK of Tennessee an appnipriatiou of Slo,000 was made for " surveys 
jtteatuil between the Tenne-ssee and the Mississippi Kiver," etc. The 
Mwt for mich a caniil, I understand, c^intemplateH an outlet to the 
ywaiBiipi through the Big Haf«heo or Forked Deer River, as may be 
■nid most feasible. After complpting the surveys and selecting the 
*w jirarlicablB rout«, it is intended to lay the rejiort before Congress 
Wli H view to having the United States undertake the work -of cou- 

Money statement. 

*'» 1,1881), balance nnnxpended JO. 81 

""Mt »ppropriat«d liy act approved Scptomlier 19, 18SH) 5,000,00 

' iJJ'llWl.bmlance unexu™ded 5,000.81 

^^ 1. 1891. milstauding liabilities 48 

*■'.''- I»l, balance »v»il»bla 5,000.33 



I 



I Wbotucleofll^iuidlSeT. 



._ie30,1893 10,000.00 
aclioua 3 of river and 



wiiBitmlSmontbaof 






2012 BEPOKT OF THE CHIEF OF ENG1NEEB8, U. S. ARMY. 
IA$t of boatt mgagnJ in HarigalioH. 





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The IlliiiniH Ci'iitrui Kuilroail crotuii-H rlie livvr iit Duliviir, Trnn., the hoMl of ' 
posed iinpriivMnpiit ; thr TnniirH«t'>' Midland Railwuy L-rowrB at Hntobee SUA 
about IT niileit I'imiii tbr Dioiitli ; tho IjouiHville And KRisbvtlle Hnilroad croBMt 
Bij; Hatrhi-e tftiitioii, nbuut 117 miles ttom tlir niotitli; and tb« Newport !N«wb 
Hiaaissippi Valley Itailroad fttmmni nt Riiilto, uboiit 57 luiltv ftom the mouth. 



V 17. 

IMPROVEMENT OF FORKED DF.EK RIVF.R. TENNESSEE. 

Fni:k»'«l Dpoi- Biver, 24 iiiilps long, ia ft)i-me«l by the junction of 1 
Jfm-tli iiiKi South l-'orksiii DytT ('ouuty, West TenncsBee, about mi 
below the town of Dyersburg, flows inanonthwe»ter1ydii«ctioD, enb 
Obion Kiver -1 miles iilmve itn inoiitli, and tlius flndfl an outlet to I 
JIissisKiit[)i nt Hale I'uint, !>5 miles alKive MempliiR. Originally 1 
month of Foiked Deor was at Asbiwrt, 18 inilcB below Hale Poiut, I 
about ii'2 years ago the State of Tennessee cut a canal to a bend of t 
Mississi])pi {now the nioiitli of Obion Kiver), shortening the length 
main I'orketl Deer Ki\er alwut onc-lialf. Tlie jiart Iwlow the canal 
bloeked with snags and diift, and is called " Old " and " Xjost" chi 
nels. The canal ia known as "Tigertnil." Xoith Fork is formed 
several small creeks near Trenton, in<iibsonCoiu]ty, flowainawestei 
direction to Dyersburg, thence southwesterly. South Fork h^ds 






'ENDII V— REPORT OF CAPTAIN WILLABD. 2013 

Ikyairy luiil Heiuk'vsun comities and flows iu a general ni)rtli westerly 
dtrpctivn. Appniprinlions apgregiitiiig $43.01)0 were made ut various 
'tauw by tlie Stah- itf Teunessee, bnt tlieirexpeiiditiuere.siilt<?d in little 
m nit tietit-lit to nuvi^rKtioo. 

Kxniiiiiiiilious wcipinade by tin* iruitwl States in 1874, 1880, imdia87. 
(B«*iu>rwt'lilef.>f Engineers, 1874, |iagce372-38«;J881,imge.B 1489-1497; 
Btl 188", |i)igea 1434, 1495.) Tlie projenta cOQteinplateil the removal of 
■>K^ l'*^^T leaning timber, etc., iu Sonth Fork below Jackson, Kortli 
Fmi; tieluw UyerHburg, and the main river. 'The estimates were 
"""^30. (4,500, and #7,000 for thene branches re8i>eetively, but as they 
twised upon plans for completing the work in one season, it is prub- 
tiutt the cost vfill be increa^>ed, as new obstructions are added from 
time. 
\Jh< ap]mtpriatioiis have been as follows: 

ANpiKtS, IWa. fnrSanIb Fi>rk t3,000 

1 Jnlya, t*«l, for Sonth Fork 2,000 

1 IngnirtB, Iffifi, for Sod lb Vuvk 5,000 

(fnrSuittli Fork 2,500 

I Ingu-t 11, WSJ*, ^ for North Fork *,500 

I / fur iiuiiu river 2,500 

fcplcuiliFr 19, im>, fwNonh Fork Mtd nuiin rivor 2,500 

' Total liiuoaut npprupriuUHl 22,000 

J^otk ill South Fork wiw eonmieuced in 1883 and continned in 1884, 
|jK6-^7, and I888-'8it. Its commerce consists chiefly of staves and 
|kd)er, brought out by datboat-s and rafts of saw logs. Before the 
'JlpnrveRieiit eommeneed about one boat in three was lost by rea^n of 
'tteobatructlous; now they make the trip with comparative safety and 
lllnMcot<(, 

Sorth Fork l>elow Djersburg was worked over in 1888-'89 and put 
li good navigable condition, enabling boats to nin at a stage 3 A'et 
hter than formerly. 

The main stream was cleared as far as practicable in 1888-'89, but 
■iIiIfii rises luid the limited amount prevented any material improve- 
■Hit to navigation. 

So Work was done during the fiscal year 1890-'91, as the appropria- 
li"u w>is made late in the season, and the water has been high during 
•Iw greater portion of the period since. It is intended to begin oj>era- 
•■»» as soon as practicable. The party can go .over the stret<'h from 
Djpreburg to the mouth of North Fork in a short time and remove 
■j olwtnictiona added since work wa.s 8U8j)ended in 1889, after which 
•pM^tions willjje continued in the main stream until the funds are ex- 
muted. 

Beiiire the railroads were built through this section of the State, 
•oe !J5 or 30 years ago, there appears to have been considerable busi- 
*«^done in tbis stream, bnt it bas declined, until at the present time 
^WDonntK to little. In the past year two tugs were employed in tow- 
■? ntttf, lumber, etc., once in a while carrying cotton to Hale Point 
Jw the railroad freight rates got too high. South Fork is obstructed 
^ Dunei-ous bridges, which render steiunboat navigation impracticable, 
*! there ap|>ears to be no reason or demand for its further improve- 
■nit. Siirth Fork lielow Dyersburg has been cleared so that it is in 
'JHygitod uavigiible condition; and it seems that the oidy work needed 
"iveaent is in the main stream. With the amount uvuilable for this 
ffliose, and an adiUtional appropriation of ijiSjOOO, it is belie\ed that 
ttis »wrk t-an bo completed. 



I 





















-m 


2014 KKPORT OF THE CHIEF OF F.NOINEKES, U. 


B. ARlrtB 


Moiic!/ aUih-ment. 


1 




■ 


July I, 18B1, balance uuexpend 

AmoUDt (t'atiniEited) required 

Atnoant tbivt nwa be profltablv 

Snlimittod in compliaiice wi 

liuibor Mto of 1866 and 186 








° '4 

for comnletion of pziatiliB project .. ^| 

Rxpeuilod \a fiscal veat endiug .Innr 30, 1898 S 


COMMERCIAL STATISTICS. 


1 


North Fork and Main River were reported navigable iu the past (lacal j^ 
Decenil>er to Muy, iimlusive. Ho commerce was reported from Sonlli ForfcS 








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Draft. 


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WDgen. 


TS 




Light. 


Loaded. 








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n 


n. in. 


n. in. 








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10.3 


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3 








Snm 


mars 


of CO 


miniT« 


reported 







Lumber, priuciiully 

Total Acight . 

Batlmated value, iu 



South Fork in rr08«ed at JarkHon by the Illinoia Central Rnilronil, the Mobil 
Ohio Rnilrnn'l, nnd the TeniieHfeu Midland Itaitwny; and by the Louisville and! 
villc Kailroail lit Belt Depot; and the Newport News and Misaisaippi Vailey 



B North Fork at Dyciaburg. 



Vi8. 
WATKll (lAlTflKfi ON MISSISSIPPI ItlVKli AND ITS PRINCIPAL TRltf 



Tlivse f^jilifjis were ili'.iifiiifil tii scm-iiii' inrnniiiilioii hiiui roiitiDt 
I'Mrords, with a view to protvctiiiy tlie vullcy of tbi' Missifwippi t 
overflow, improving navigation, and giving cori'eot reports tor tlie 



lOOO 



I700 



W^ 



APPENMIX V — REPORT OF CAl'lAIN WILLAItD. 2015 

oftt «f riviT m«i and ptaiiUiTK. They were iirdeiod by Joint reMoliitimi 
<»f tVin^rww approve*! February 31, 1871 {section 5252, Reviscil 8t;it- 

" toc5353. TbeSwroUrv o( V/ai in h-i. mn uulr. .!..■■ .1 nud lUrootfld to hnvis wntor 
mtahliHhml anil <{iiily olwn .i i -'<•■ rino lujil foil of thr Uowvr 

■Mippt Kiver4kii'I iw uliicf IriUin m. . my »f St. Lcmis, Crtic.i. Mom- 

i/rnM, Hulfiin. XatmlfoH. Providence, \i<<.-<<iij. h'' < \ii\.f! Ziaadmg, Baton Huiigu, 
MMlCArrilltim, nu tli« MiiwiiHtippi licuwiti tiii' ui-mili ui' ihe Misaoiui und tliu (iull 
of Hvtii:((: mill nl or in the vicinity of tart Luuvcnworth, on tba MiHsouri ; 
RiHk IMniiiR 'in the I'pptiT MitaiKsinpi; Louisville, on the Ohio: Floreure, i>u the 
TDnurMHi-; .iiickMiRp«rt rm the White River; Littlo Kock, on'tho Arkanaiw; nad 
Xl«iaii<lrl» an the R«d Riv^r; and at such olli(>r plttotw »b the Socretftty of War muy 
duuu K<ivi«3lil4i. Tbo eipeuiiitiirc for th)i Biime Hhsll bo mndo from the approprio- 
linn f'lt tlio impruvonii'nt of riven nnil hATburs, bnt the Annual coitt of the observiL- 
UMi*>h»ll not Kxrw-l thP«<imur«6,00l). 

Tlie aboTfl gaagns werq estalilished the latter part of 1871, except 
OvcDiltoD, {wtabli!<lied in Janiiary, 1872. A gauge was pliioed at 
nonth of White Kiver innteiMl of Napoleon, whith was fast caving into 
fte river. A gange was establiHhed at Natohez, Mins., and an addi- 
tknal one at Louisville, Ky., one being needed at the head luid one at 
thefbol of the falls. Observations were commtneed at each station as 
uwvi m the gauges were er^tablished, and with a few exceptions have 
km continued regiUarly since. 

.\ gauge was e^stablLthed at Nashville, Teun., on the Cumberland 
Rivvr, in August, 1873, and in 18i)0 four new gauges were established, 
i'r. On Red River at Shreveport, La., February 20; Garland, Ark., 
Feliniary ai; Fulton, Ark,, February 22; and on Mississippi River at 
Uiiimldsnnville, La., June U. 

The fiauge at ttock Inland, 111., was diacontinned April 30, 1879, bo- 
<nii!* (ibservations so far upstream were not needed, and the old gauge 
«t Kurt Leavenworth, Kans., was abandoned November 30, 1880, but 
r<'iidirL[;s have been continued by the Missouri River Commission. 

lit Ls,"*! bulletins were erected at the stations on the Mississippi for 
'hi- purpose of giving passing steamboats the stage of water at each 
fowling, iind showing whether the river was rising, stationary, or fall- 
inB. In law tliese were replared by hirger bulletins (sheet-iron plates, 
*** hy W ini'hes by one-sixtcentli inch; white figures on black ground), 
niiire than twice the size of the old ones, and large enough to be read 
^'li the naked eye at a distance of half a mile. A photograph show- 
'HWk new bulletin at Raton Ronge, La., which is a fair specimen, is 
f*nt herewith.' The old bulletins were repaired and used in extend- 
ine this service upon the tribuhiries. 

Since Febniary 1, 1887, the gauges have been read ftiid bulletins 
'Banged at .S a. ni. and 4 p. ni. daily, to secure greater uniformity and 
^•iiirai'y; fonneily they were read at 8 a. m. only. 

The engineer gauges are used by the Signal Servii* at St. Louis, Mo., 
J-srio. Ill,, Memphis, Tenn., Helena, Ark., Vicksburg, Miss., Nashville, 
•"in., Alexandria, La., Shreveport, La., and Fulton, Ark. 

buring the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, observations were con- 
tinned at the twenty-two gjiuges. The readings ace received at this 
I'lR-e H-et-kly, reviewed, consolidated, and sent to the secretary of the 
Missiwipjii itiver Commission. The rea^liugs have l)eeu published by 
"w Coinmissioii t^i the end of tlie calendar year 1890. 

Keconls of the daily reaiiings weit- I'uiiiished the president of tho 
3lL>MisKippi River Commission: tM>|iy of tlic Florence ref<)rd hum t'ur- 

' Not printed. 



2016 RfiPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMT. 

nished tbe engineer in charge of Tennessee River ; copy of the Carroll) 
record was sent the assistant engineer at South Pa^s of the Mississi] 
Elver, and copies of the records at various stations below Memp 
were furnished district officers and levee commissioners during the flc 
this spring. 

The following gauges were inspected by Assistant Engineer Jo 
Eweus, viz: 

Jm/.V.— (2l8t) Natchez, Miss.; (24th) Red River Landing, La,, gav 
rebuilt ti-oui 12 to 42.5 foot mark; (26th) Baton Rouge, 1^ gauge 
built fix)m 3 to 25.5 foot mark; (27th) DonaldsonviUe, La.; (29th) C 
rollton. La., gauge rebuilt from —2 to 17 foot mark, and position 
bulletin changed on account of ciiving bank. 

August. — (7th) Yicksburg, Miss., gauge rebuilt fix)m to 62.5 f< 
mark, and two additional l^nch-marks established; (15th) Lake Pro 
deuce. La., gauge rebuilt from to 44 foot mark, bulletin repainted, a 
new bench-mark established; (16th) mouth of WTiite River, Ark., gau 
rebuilt from 3 to 50.5 foot mark, and permanent stone bench-mark 
tablished: (18th) Memphis, Tenn., gauge rebuilt from —0.3 to 38.3 fi 
mark, bulletin repainted, and bench-marks tested; (22d) Helena, At 
gauge repaintiHl, and bulletin reset and repainted; (24th) Little Ro< 
Ark., bench-marks tested and level connections made with other gaag 
and bench-marks of Arkansas River and Coast Survey. 

September. — (1st) Garland, Ark., gauge rebuilt from to 31-fi)ot mai 
(M) Fulton, Ark,, gauge rebuilt from to 35.4-foot mark and zero Ic 
erod 3 feet, as old gauge wa« known to be too high. Signal Servi 
gauge tosteil, high-water mark of 1890 leveled to and found to be 43.? 
feet above zero of new gauge, and two additional bench-marks esti 
lislicd; (5th) Shreveport, La.; (7th) Alexandria, La., gauge rebuilt fh 
15 to 26 foot mark and high- water section braced ; (8th) Baton IU>uffe,L 
gauge rebuilt entire from to 38 foot mark; (lOfth) DonaldsonviUe, L 
gauge reset, having been disturbed by steamer jamming pOing to whi 
it was attached; (11th) CarroUton, La.; (15th) Red River Landing, L 
two new sections put in reading fn)m 5 to 12 and 17 to 23.5 feet, and i 
sections braced; (18th) Natchez, Miss., gauge rebuilt from 6 to 20f€ 
mark. 

Xovemher. — (5th) Vicksburg, Miss., bulletin repaired, reset, ai 
painted ; (18th) Shreveport, La. 

June.-^{9th) Shreveport, La.; (12th) Alexandria, La.; (21st) » 
River Landing, La., gauge rebuilt from 19 to 36 foot mark; (23 
Natchez, Miss.; (25th) Yicksburg, Miss., gauge rebuilt from 14.5 
30.4 foot mark. 

Tlie resolution of February 21, 1871, intended to provide an annt 
appropriation of 85,000, but as it directed that the expenditure be ma 
from the a])propriation for rivers and harbors, and as that has been 
biennial appropriation since 1882, it be(»ame evident that new legial 
tion would be rccjuired or the work would have to be discontinued. \ 
1878 observations were stopped for want of fiinds, but many observe 
continued the readings without compensation. In 1884 a deficien 
a])proi)riatiou was made for their continuance. In 1886 the Mississip 
River (Commission paid the observers and repaired the gauges on t 
^nssissi]>pi to prevent observations being stopped, and in ISST-'SS tl 
funds ran out and the re<*ords were kept up voluntarily by the o 
servers. 

The value of the records requires that they shall be accurate aud co 
tinuous, and to provide for this and to enlai'ge and perfect the Bystc 



t river and harbor act uf August U, 1888, made a permanent appro- 
latiuti, iw follows: 

Akc. ff. Thnt fur the purpose of wiMiTiug the u 

>f Iha Lower Miii>iiiuii|>)i( Itlvi^r itiul iu tnutttarif , -, - , 

of Um^IM of FsbniHry. 1971, ufiuu llie Hpiilicikt.ion of the Chief or Eiigiiie___, 

fmei^n "( ^Vnr w Leivby BUthoriE«l to draw liia wniTiuit or reiiuisitioii from time 
lo time nurm iLe t^iTdliiry urtliu TtOMiiry for aurh bdiuh as miiy bn nocosaiiry to do 
HU-k work, uot l« axcfiMl ta the ikitKrvuHtu for SMih year tho aniouut appropriHtoil in 
ihl« act fur svftt ptirpo««i: frBHrinf, MatMtrcr, Thut an itemiEed stBtemont of Buoh 
nsjMaieM Rb»11 M»^«iupiin7 the umnnt report of the Chief of En^neers. 



For aanicinj; the w;it«T8 of the Lower Missiaaip|ii 
VHleil fvr injoiiit rt'iM'tiilinu of 21et of Febrnnry, It 
of Mune te auihtiriKi-il In be expended in payiuK the cxpcnsei of gauging tho auid 
val«n (InrJuif Uiti nwiul .v«ar endiog Jimo 30, 1888. 

The samo act, iu the it«ni " for coutiiiuing gperatioiiB upon the reser- 
Toira St the hwui waters of the MiBsiSHippi Bi ver," provided lor an allot- 
ment from tiie permanent appropriation tor gauges, as foUons: 

And Ihe SerreUry of War sh»|] vtniscsurh^augiugs to be made at or near St. Paul 
doting the eniiiiiil •iiwrations of efttd reservoira iia aholt dEterminenccurately thodia- 
ebane at that puhit, the coat of sanie to be paid out of the annuiil appropriation for 
saoptig the waters of the MiMlMipiii Bivur and ilH tributariiM, 

Toward tlw pnd nf the third year's work midor this act, it was iield 
that tlie amount whieh tii« Srairetary of War.uiight draw for this pur- 
pose was liniiU-il to $C.O(H) a year, suid as 6',"Hl had been allotted for the 
work at St. I'uiil. thU loft l>iit iJ5.1(M) for i:oiitinniiig the obsei-vationa 
uuler an iipinove.1 pruifit i-ciiiiiihig tiie cxpciuliture of $8,700, 

To wtnijily with the law forliiddiii^ acct^ptiinre of vohintary service, 
and at tht- name timt> to avoid bicaliing the continuity of the observa- 
tiona, aathority wHs obtained for tumporary transfer of gauges on trib- 
utary Rtreiams in this diHtrit't Ui the appropriations tor their improve- 
ment, nnii tif most of llirisc on Missis»<ippi Hiver and the tributaries 
l~-^si.i;ii III.' liiiiii-i..ri)ii- .|j-tiirt to <>t!i<-rnllji-iTs. This involved ail ex- 
penditnre of from $30 to #00 from several api>i(ipiiation8 for tiie quarter 
ending June 30, a trifling i^um as compared with tlie value of Uie rec- 
ords to the several streums themselves aa welhistothe service at large. 

The joint resoUitiou of February 21, 1871, uittliorized the establish- 
ment and maintenance of gauges " at such other places as the Secre- 
tary of War may deem advisable," and it was umler this provision that 
the namber has been increased on Mississippi Itiver and the service ex- 
tended on the pi'incipal tributaries, and for which the appropriation of 
1888 was increased and made permanent; both for the beneflt of navi- 
gatioD and people living on the lowlands, and for preserving the con- 
turnip of the records. 

It is reoonunended that the section relating to water gauges be fixed 
so as to prevent any doubt about the amount tliat may be drawn in each 
flflcalyew. 

As the valaeof theobservatJons and the pnu^tical use of the bulle- 
tins become appreciated, requests are madebyriver men for new gauges 
or for bulletins at the important stations on the tributaries. Gauge 
•stations have been established on tributary streams in connection with 
their improvement, some of which might be transferred to this service 
\> i- . 1 > ;i' (u 111] I niicerned. A few stations on Ked, Ouachita, 
:ii"l 1 ,.M.> MM 1 . -iKiiiiii hi- continued and bulletins erected on the hirgo 
rivers iiut-^ide tin* district, as Arkansas, Tennessee, and Cumberland 
rivers. Htations on bayonn Bartholomew and Bteuf, Teusaa lliver, aud 
ESG »1 127 



2018 KKPOKT OF THH CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. AEMT. 

J>dyoii Miif'^iJi womIjI Im- v:«liialj]i- Ut tli^ j»w»]»le living iu the disTi'ieT Mib- 
j«-rt to ovi'i'tiiiw to ;rivi- winjjiji;:s uf a]>iHMcirljiijy: ri<NHl< and to iiifunn 
rivt'i jiH'Ji of tii<* yirniiiiit of waT^'i* on thn s]j«i:i]s, tbtis ruabliug tlieiu M 
klJ<f^v wJk'Jj to liifiki' tjijK. Ijuw far tljey roiibi ;^o. aud wbat di-pth to 
]o:juJ. 

To ;rjv«' tli«' ;:r«-at*'^t valiU' to th<- ii-<oid> the zeros of the gauges 
should be ^-ouiiertrd witli tli*' Tairo datiiiii.tlK' tHtiniiioii ifferenee ]daue 
of lh<* Eu'/iuifi'i J)i'jiartiji«Mjt and tlji- Missi>>i]»]>i liivi^r Commission, and 
lhjoii;:h that to U)t*iiu iiiilf I<*v<*l. Many r»f thi'Ui have l:K*en dxe<1. but 
h4>ni«' of tlj«»si' on till' WJMant >tM'anis renifiin to l»e n»nneeted- Fortu- 
nati'ly th«- line's of ]»n*<-i.*ii»ii ni' th*' Toast .Survey, roujuiission. jiind the 
Kn;:in«'<'r J>«'paitni«'nt Siii vi-y of Jied IJivi'r are S4> extensive that but 
fdw jin^s of Ji-vj'ls ar«' nei'd<'«l. ii«'d IJiver will liave a eontinnous line 
from Fulton to Mississippi Jiiv<*r liy next year. Arkansas Kiver is 
|iarail<']«'4l from tlie Missis>jj>iii t<» Litth- Koek by the Coast Sui-^ey line, 
from whieh l.'pjier Ouaehita. J^ayou liai'tliolomew. 8t. Frauei.s. and 
VViiite riv«M> ean he readied. Middle Onaehita is erossed by the pi-e- 
vi^' line from Viekslmr;: t<» ShrevejMirt. and Lower Ouchita and Bhick 
rivers and tlie months of Tensas and liavou Ihieuf are within easy i-eaeh 
<»ft he Coast Survey beneh at Vidalia. The line to ShreveiKut crosses 
'J'ensas, Alaeon. IWeuf. Oino'iiita. and the Dondieat. Yaz<K» Kiver needs 
bnt one line from <ireenville to the mouth of Talhihatehee Kiver, 55 
miles, to ;rive the eN'vation of hi^h and low water i»f early years and to 
reeovej- ihe eh'vations of tlie Delta Survev of ls."iS at Prentiss and 
Na|ioiet>ii. The Coast Survey line u]) the M<ibi1e and 01iit» Kailroad will 
seive as a base for the jian^res on Tennessee Hiver, wiiile those on Ohio 
K'iverean he reaehed from thi' transeontinental line. This work should 
be done •^ladnally s<i as not to involve a lai';;e expenditure in anyone 
year, or the necessity <ifor;rjini/in^ a special party. The most eeonomieal 
method would Ix* to extend the work of the ^au<;e inspector and run 
the shorter lines of level from time to time when he shouhl be euiiveu- 
ient to the stations to b<* connected. 

The search for the ben<-hes of the Delta survey has been continued 
and the level note hooks of isril and 1S5S n»viewed. It was intended 
lo N isit all of (lie old stations in Mav and 'hin<* and verifv the I'eeoinl, 
hnl the lack of funds pievented. It is h<i)>ed hy anotlier year that the 
subject will he exhausted. The follow iii^^ stations are believed to have 
beeu found heyond all doubt: Cairo, M<'mphis, Vicksbur^, and Baton 
Kou^e; while Natchez and Carrollton are in disjmte and ean be deter- 
mined only by ^^ettiu^ the elevation of known ])oints to Avhieh they ait) 
conmu'ted by lexclstMi certain sectiou lines. lltOona, Nap<deon, Pren- 
tiss, Lake l*ro\ iflencc, aud Ivcd b*iver ]iandin;>: may be restored by 
compariu;; cle\atioiisf>f lii^ih water nuirks, tbuml in a similar way, with 
[dottiu;: of the hi;:li water lines drawn between known stations of the 
survey. The ;:auji4's at Liith> IfocK and Natclu'Z ni'cd investijj^ating, as 
recent e\auiinat ious of the recdids indicate errors in placing the zei'os 
in rci'siablishin;^ tin* ^au;;es at pnints tither than those seh»eteil by 
Colonel Mi'rrill. The zeros will n^t be «*haujied. but a e<UTeetion i\\h 
plicil \n the record if fouud necessary. The height of nu»an (lulf level 
al>ovc tin' Cairo datum is about L'l tect, but uo a«rv<H'meut has yet beeu 
made bciw(>eu the (*oasl Sur\e,\ and the Couimission for a final value. 
\\\ \\w fonner Ihe la'iuht is tMI.SS and h> the lattt-r LM.LM;, I'ither of which 
is accurate eiHMiji^h for juactical usr. 

The reconnncndaliou of toruici rc)Mirts that lhe^au«;e s(Tviee should 
be under on«' manapMuent is repealed in the interest of ee<uiomy and 
'^ood service. There an* se\eral j;au;;es iu each district on Mississippi 



APPENDIX V — REPORT OF CAPTAIN WILLARD. 



2019 



River between St. Louis iiii<l Xew Orleans, the reports of which are 
sent to the secretary of the Coniinission, but the records of all can not 
be equally valuable, since the gau^cH are not insiMicted regularly or 
unifoiinly. Eigid inspection is necessary to insure (;arefiil observations 
and to maintain the gauge zeros invariable, to insure a well ordered 
and efficient service, and this can be obtained in no other way without 
great cost. 

Comparison offload of 1801 with highest water previously recorded. 



Gaage stationn. 



St. Louia, Mo 

Cairo, ni -^ 

Mconphin, Tenn .T 

Helena, Ark 

Moath White River, Ark 

Lake Providence, La 

VickMbors, If ias 

N»tcbec, Miaa 



Elevation 

of gaiif^e 

ten) above 

Cairo 

datum 

pkine. 



Ked Kiver Landing, La . . . 

Baton Rouge, I^a 

Donaldsonviue, La 

CarroUton, La 

Lonisville, Ky. (npper> — 
Loniaville, Ky. (lower) — 

Florence, Ala 

Naahville, Tenn 

Jackaonport, Ark 

Little Rock, Ark 

Alexandria, La 

Shreveport, La 

Garland, Ark 

Fnlton, Ark 



Feet. 

400.23 

290.84 

203.97 

161.98 

128.73 

89.02 

66.04 

36.89 

23.85 

20.06 
tl9.71 

20.91 
f419.76 
t392. 85 



Elevation 

of gauge 

zero almve 

nu'an.CruIf 

biv«4 at 

Hiloxi, 

MiH8. (pro- 

liiuinary).'^ 

Ffft. 
378.97 
269.58 

182. 71 

140. 72 
107.47 

68.36 
44.78 
16.63 



Highest water 

previouHlv re- 

conlwt. 




Gauge 
n'ading. 



1844 
1883 
1890 
1886 
189U 
1890 
1862 
1802 

2.50 I 1890 



- 1.20 

- H. 55 

- 0. :{5 
t398. 50 
t371.59 



f241. 55 

64.40 

161, 27 

22:J.44 

244. 78 



I 



1220.29 

43.20 

140.01 

202. 18 

223. 52 



• 1890 

i 1884 

, 1890 

I 1884 

I 1884 

1867 

1882 

I 189J 

i 1857 

' 1890 

1890 

188.') 

1876 



Feet. 
41. 39 
.52. 17 
35.60 
48.10 
50.40 
41.05 
5L10 
50.30f 

48.77 

36.58 

29.45? 

16.13 

46.60 

72.00 

3L08 

55.10 

33. 35 

31.00/ 

36.85 

34.70 

28.34 

35. 75 



Highest water during 

tiHcal year **nding June 

30, 1891. 



Date. 



Apr. 
Mar. 
Mar. 
Mar. 
Apr. 
Ai)r. 
Apr. 
Apr. 
5Apr. 



25 

4-6 

10 

27-28 

5 

1-4 

2-4 

11-12 

26; 



< - ^i 
I to May 4$ 

May 3 and 5 

Mar. 18 

Mar. 16 

Feb. 27 

Feb. 26, 27 

Mar. 15 

Mar. 14 

Apr. 26 

Apr. 24 

Fob. 16, 17 

Feb. 12, 13 

Ai»r. 28 

Apr. 27,28 



Relar 
tion to 
pre- 
vious 
highest 
r'an.n. record 



Feet. 
23.61 
46.20 
34.90 
44.70 
47.72 
4L00 
48.10 
46.50 



Feet. 

17.78 

6.97 

.70 

3.40 

2.68 

.06 

3.00 

3.80 



46.48 ; 3.29 



35.56 
27.90 
16.00 
32.40 
68.00 
22.20 
49.30 
23.75 
22.70 
29.95 
25. 20 
27.64 
30.30 



L08 

1.65 

.13 

14.20 

14.00 

8.88 

5.80 

9.60 

8.30 

6.90 

9.50 

' .70 

5.45 



* Mississippi River Commission preliminary value; 21.26 feet above tlu^ Cairo datum plane, 
t Preliminary value. , 

To provide for t^e judicious extension of the service, maintenance of 
gauges, and gradual level connections, the following estimates are sub- 
mitted for the fiscal year 1803, and recommended to be substituted for 
the amount appropriated by tlie act of August 11, IStSS: 

Wages of observers $5, 000 

Repairs of gauges and bulletins 800 

Pay of inspector, wages* of extra holj) at stations, and trav<'ling expiMises.. . 2, 700 

Permanent monuments 300 

Level connections 2, OOO 

Record books, blanks, stationery, tclrjjranis, «»tr 200 

Office expenses 500 

Mileage and transportation 50O 

Total 12,000 

rrEMIZED 8TATKMKNT OF EXPKXDITt'HKS DURING TIIK FISCAL YKAR ENDING .nrNE" 
30, 1891, SUBMITTED IN COMPLIANCE WITH UEQUIKEMENTS OF SECTION 6 OF THE 
RIVKB AND HARBOR ACT OF 1888. 



Observations : 

Pay of 20 permanent gange-keopers from .Tnly 1, 18JK), to 

March 31, 1891, inclusive .* $2,610.00 

Pay of 1 pi^nnanent gauge-keener at St. Louis, from August 

7, 1890^ to March 31, 1891, inclusive 117.00 



^^i^^r^.^ 



2022 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMT. 

hoped that they will be tinishftl in time to prepare a siMH*ial ivi>oii,aiM 
submit all to the l^epartmeiit before C'onirress meets. 

Money statement. 

Amonnt appn)])riatod by act approved St^ptoinbor 19. 1891^ $10. 000. 

June :^0, 18J»1, anioiiut expended during tisral year S», 897. 9 

Jnlv 1. 1891. balance unexpended • 102. 

July 1.18in.outstandin*r liabilities 3.8 

July 1. 181)1. balance available .- 98. 1 

{Amount ^^estimated) rcquireil for coinpb'titui t»f existinjj: i»rojeet 2, IKX>.0 
Amount that can be ]>rotitably expeutlcd in liscal year eudiu^j June oO, 1893 2, 000. 
^Submitted in comjdiance with ret|uirement8 of sections 2 of river and 
harbor acts of 18C6 and 1867. 



V 20. 

PREIJMIXARY EXAMINATION OF CANE RIVER. LOUISIANA, WITH J 
VIEW TO ITS IMFKOVEMENT IJY LOt'KS AND DAMS FOR THE PURPOSl 
OF GlVlXli rEKMAXEXT XAVU;ATI0X THE YEAR ROUND. 

[Priiitotl in House £x. Doc. No. 184. FiAy-first Congress, second Bcssion.] 

Office of the Chief of Engineers, 

United States Army, 
Washington. J). C, January 15^ 1891. 

Sir : T have the honor to submit tlie aeeompanyiug copy of roiwrt 
dated January 7, 181)1. by ('apt. J. II. AVillard, Coi'i)s of Engineers, giv 
in«r results of preliminary examination of ^*Cane Kiver, Louisiana, witl 
a view of imi)rovin*r'the same by loeks and dams for the piiri)ose o 
giving permanent navigation the year round," made in compliance witl 
provisions of the river ami harbor a<*t of Septemln^r 19, 181K). 

It is the opinion of Ua]»tain Willard ami of the Division Engineer 
Col. C\ B. Uomstoek, that Uane IJiver is not worthy of improvement, anc 
I concur in th«^ views of fliese ot!icers. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Tnos. Lincoln Casey, 
Brhj. (ivn.^ Vhief of Engineers. 
Hon. Redfield PRi^rTiiR, 

SiTniaru of War. 



refokt of captain j. h. willard, corps of engineers. 

United States Engineer Office, 

Vicksbnrg, Miss.^ January T, 1891. 

General: I have the honor to sulunit tlu* following reiwrt ujwn the 
preliniiuaiy examination of "Cane Iviver, Louisiana, with a view tc 
improving the same ))y lorks and dams f<ir the purpose of giving per 
inanent navigation the year ronntl." reipiinMl by sections 17 and 18 o1 
the at't of Congrc'^s ;i]>prov(':l Si]>;tMiiber 1S>, 181K), assigned to me b>' 
your letter of SoptembiT -^^ l^.-O. 



SURVEY OF CY?RES8 BAYOU AND TUE LAKKS RKTWEEN JEFFERSON, 
TEXAS. AND8IIKEVKP0FIT, LOriBIAXA, TO ASCiaiTAIN IF NAVIOATION 
CAS BR MATERIALLY AND PUmiAKEN'I'l.Y IMI'KOVED BY THE CON- 
STRUCTION OP LOCKS AND DAMS. AND THE PROBABLE COST THEREOF. 

This survey was ordered by the following item of the river and har- 
Iwr act of September 19, 1890: 

The Seoivtary of War is heroby direptert to cunsa a Biirvey to lie mode of Cypress 
I'uyou and the lakes betwei>ii JelTerson, Tex., and Sbrereport, La., iu order to moot- 
tftin iftho uavigatioa of the said bayou aodlukea can he materially and pumumentlf 
iinprovoil by the constroction of surh dams, and locks and dunw, ub may bo nooea- 



^H PROGRESS REPORT. 

The late date ou which the aiipropriatioii became available made it 
necessary to postpone this survey until late iu the year. In aci^ordance 
with the approved project required by law the snrvey party was organ- 
ized under Assistant Engineer H. M. Marshall, at VJcksburg, and began 
operations on the survey of the mouth and part of Yazoo Hiver. and 
continued on that work until driven out by high water December 6, 
3800. The party was transferred immediately to Shreveport, and, the 
quarter-boats having been repaired and fitted out in advance, began 
work on the survey of Twelve-Mile Bayou and the lakes, December 8. 
Progress was greatly impeded throughout Jammry by high water 
through the outlets from Upper Ked River, wbith submerged the low 
banks of the lakes and bayous. By April the water hiul fallen suffl< 
eiently to resume the survey, aud the field work was completed by thl 
middle of the month. 

Tlie triangulation coverstheentirebaaiu and connects with the sysl 
of the Red Biver Survey, and the precise levels were carried to thi 
limit of the high lands, and thence connected by ordinary spirit lereli 
with the line to Jefl'erson, the country being too difficult for the formerj 
The notes of triangulation and levels have been computed and tabu! 
ted, and the topography and hydrography is-ready for (ilottiug. 

It was found necessary as the survey <Ieveloped to join on with thi 
Upper Red River survey to find the outlets through which the wa1 
sup])ly came to the lakes, and which will grnduiilly be cut off by th< 
west bank line of levees. 

Aft the estimate called for $12,000, if the work should be found n< 
sary, it is to be regretted that the full amount of the estimate was ni 
gi-niited. Before anyiutelligent opinion can be formed of the advisabil- 
ity, duiabih'ty, and cout of locksand dams, or of any other reasonableplan 
for (giving navi|:atioQ to Jefferson when boats can reach Shreveport, it 
will be necessary to make borings along the trial lines to determine both 
the character and depth of the material to be moved, and of the founda- 
tions for construction. Borings were included iu the approved project 
for the survey, but the high stage of water that prevailetl during most 
of the time the party was in the field would not have permitted them ' 
be made, even had there been funds for the purpose. The work w 
have to be done at low water anil by skilled workmen, in order to ge( 
tlie information before flood. An appropriation of $2,000 is recom. 
'lis purpose. 
) maps are miw bi'iog l,iiil .iiit fn>in tin-- field slicetw, i 



4 



2022 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMT. 

hoped that tlicy will bo finished in time to prepare a special reiwrt, and 
submit all to the Department before Congress meets. 

Money state^nent 

Amount appropriated by act approved Septein])er 19, ISfKT $10, 000. 00 

June 30, 1891, amount expended during fiscal year 9, 897. 99 

July 1, 1891, balance unexpended • 102. 01 

July 1, 1891, outstanding liabilities 3. 84 

J'uly 1, 1891, balance available -• 98. 17 

{Amount (estimated) required for C()m})l;^ti()n of existing project 2, 000. 00 
Amount that can be profitably ex])tMi<led in fiscal year ending June 30, 1893 2,000.00 
Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and 
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. 



» 



V 20. 

PRELTMINARY EXAMINATION OF (JANE RIVER, LOUISIANA, WITH A 
VIEW TO ITS IMPROVEMENT J5Y LOCKS AND DAMS FOR THE PURPOSE 
OF GIVING PERMANENT NAVKiATION THE YEAR ROUND. 

[Prmtod in House Ex. Doc. No. 184, Fifty-first Congress, second session.] 

Office of the Chief of Engineers, 

United States Army, 
Washington, J). C, January 15y 1891, 

Sir: T liave the honor to submit the accompanying copy of report, 
dated January 7, 1891, by Capt. J. II. Willard, Cori)s of Engineers, giv- 
ing results of preliminary examination of "Cane River, Louisiana, with 
a view of improving 'the same by locks and dams for the purpose of 
giving i)ermanent navigation the year round," made in compliance with 
provisions of the river and harbor act of Sei)tember 19, 1890. 

It is the opinion of Ca])tain Willard and of the Division Engineer, 
Col. C'. B. (Jomstock, that Cane Iviver is not worthy of improvement, and 
I concur in the views of fliese olhcers. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Thos. Lincoln Casey, 
Brig. Gen., Chief of Engineers. 
Hon. Redfield Prootor, 

Secretary of War. 



report of captain J. h. willard, corps of engineers. 

United States Engineer Office, 

Viekshnrg^ Mitts., January 7, 1891, 

General: T have the honor to submit thc^ following report upon the 
ineliniinary examination of '^Cane J^iver, I Louisiana, with a view to 
improving the same by locks and dams for the imr])ose of giving per- 
manent navigation the year round," refpiircd by sections 17 and 18 of 
the act of (Congress a])]>rove(l S(»])ieinber 19, 1890, assigned to me by 
your letter of September 20^ ISiK). 



APPENDIX V — REPORT OP CAPTAIN WILLARD. 2023 

Cane River is one ol* the abainloiied eliaiiiH^ls of Red Kiver, left <mt 
on the westward by eut-ott's about 1S25 and 184!). It is about 75 miles 
long from Red River near (irand Eeore to Red River near Colfax, made 
up of pools, bayous, and swam])s, and intennii)ted by dei)osits eousid- 
erably higher than the aNCMiige stage of the main river. The bars have 
risen above the low-water line of Red River t-o sueh a height that Cane 
River c^aii not be ent>ered from above ex(?(»i)t at flood st^iges, and navi- 
gation is not opt'sn at the mouth to boats drawing over 4 feet until Red 
River has risen to a stage above 20 f<»et on the gauge at Alexandria, 34 
miles below, the nearest point of referene<\ This gauge was established 
December 2(>, 1871, and observations have* been taken eontinuously since 
that date. The zero was set at the low wat<»r of that ye^ir, the lowest 
then ascertained, but the river lias fallen below that point almost every 
year to the present time, reaching minus 3.7 feet on the gauge in 1881. 

I made the following table from the origiiwl records of the Alexan- 
dria gauge to show the behavior of Red River at that point, and to 
give all the information needed for the present discussion of any i)lan 
for imi)roving Cane River, 



2024 BEFOBT OF TUG CHIEF OP &MOINEERS, U. 6. ABUX.' 






-8SB£S3g3SSI~Br-:=.a - 






MS 



:li4 

isilill'lils ti I i 



lip 






[^i *, 



S5S?Ji=?S==as P2 



fill 

I Is'as 



agio's" 



7ff71 



tiii 









EEisEEgEiEi SS ( i 



I i 

1 I 
1 I 

I ^ 

m 

km 



rem Uie 19 yearn' iil>sorvi*l.ioiis it will beKtipn tbai. witboub any work! 
niirovciiifiiit Oiiiii! Itivur i» n!vvj{;;tbl« t'ur hmiia drawing 4 feet, eii- 
tog below, for about 2 montlm in tJi« year, usually between Miu-ch ^ 
nitd May ; that it ia not navigable for snch boatB, probably for none, fur 
abont 6 months, ueaally between AugiiHt and December; and that dur- 
ing the remaining 5 months navigation is not to be counted upon. 

Boat6 may navigate Cane River during the higli-water lacnths with 
Bofficient regolarity to acquire the name of a " line," but if they ent<>r 
the river at other ptirioda it is simply as a venture for one or two trips 
when the river is iinimually high for the season of the year. Now, to 
make steamboating in Cane Eiver profitalile, it sliould be navigable 
during the cotton shipping time, say October to March, but that is 
usually the low-water season in Hed River, and when the river falls 
mnch below the zero of the Alexandria gauge navigation ia suspended 
either at the mouth of Red River or at the falls of Alexandria, so that 
if Cane River were improved by locks and dams navigation would be 
limited to the canalized portion for a certain time during low and 
medium stages, and only available for general purposes when Red River 
should be high enough for loaded boats to na\'igate Red River between 
Colfivx and ^e Mississippi. 

Cane River was examined by Major Miller in 18S2, who reported that 
the stieam was not worthy of improvement nor the work a pnblic neces- 
sity. Tlie snbreport, however, contained an estimate of $7,665 for 
removing logs, snags, leaning trees, et^:., upon which probably was based 
the appropriation of $2,600 in the act apjji'oved July 5, 1884. (Report 
Chief of Engineers, 1884, page 1366.) 

No further estimate having tieen mode, Cane River was dropped from 
the list of navigable streams in this district after finishing the work 
contemplated in the expenditure of the amount allotted. 

In preparing my report of February 21, 1S90, upon a bill for a bridge 
to be built across Cane River at Nati-hitoches {act approved April 22, 
1890), I tried to get information about the commerce, of tliia stream, 
but with indifferent success. I was informed that the "Old Eiver" had 
filled up so much that ordinarily it was not navigable for more than two 
months in the year, and that as the filling up was still going on tlie 
navigation bet'ame more and moie doubtful year by year. 

The estimated croji of the valley last year was 7,500 bales of cotton 
and 75,000 eacka of seed, or about one-third the estimate in the report 
of 18S4, and in consequence of the uncertain navigation the greater 
part was hituled to the main river or to the Texas and Pacific Railway. 
If the water should be high at the cotton-shipping season it was ex- 
pected that about five trips would be made by a boat of about 300 tons. 
The president of the parish police jury stated that no objection would 
be made by tJiem to any bridge that might be built across Cane River, 
and considered the navigation of that stream an valueless to the people 
because of its uncertainty. Two boatfi made the trip last winter, but 
no report of the busiiiess could be obtained, and none could be procured 
of tbe business done during the yeai' 1890. 

Assistant Engineer Maishall connected the line of levels on Red River 
with points at Uie head and foot of Cane River in October and Novem- 
ber, 1890, and made a report, which is given below. 

Thia river, wi called, is an oW-time bed of Red River lyina wholly within tliejiarisli 
of Natcbitocbca and was abandoned when the Rigolet da Bon DUd became the niaiu 
channel. I iru not ablo to uctirtain aooural«l.r ttie c^haraot«T or time of this ohEtnge, 
which oomured about 1825. 

A RiTBTPrcmB ti have made* oiit-off, via a bayou, from the hilla at Grand Ecow, j 
WcBtoni iiidu of tho valley, iiii..> Siiliii.' Itivcr. whutP it Bkiited the hilla oo tli " 
n iide at tbe pieacnt town of St. Maurice. Thence, foUovinti^e \m& «1. a2 



2026 REPORT OP THK CHIKF OF KNr;iNKKR8, U. 8. ARMY. 



S:i]iii«> til its inoiitli. Ui'd Ifivrr rrtiiiiuM] in iisflf \v]i(r«> imw staihU tilt* tiiwii of f'ol 
fax. ('.iiir K'ivrr ^uopi r wa-* at om- tiiiir a slmit l»vaii«'li of Uvi\ Kivrr tnuii the lnwi 
of Nati'liitorlios in Twi'iu v-fnnr Mil»» I'nry. and Itrcainr tIh' main rliannt'l wlioii lln 
lJiv«-r aliandonoil what is now tornii'il Olil Kiv<'r, It is tlnis soon that Rod Rivorha 
from timo i(» time ohanufd its coiirso. sooniin;;lv for nn other roason than to !<hiirtei 
its r»>uti'. Thr nanio I'ano Rivor is now a]»p]io«] to all tlio ol«l Im'iI fmm Nati-hitm'hf 
n]» to R«'«l Ri\or. and from Twi'nty-four Milr Forrv ih»wii tt» Rod Rivor, as wel 
as to tlir intormodiato ]iorti(»n. oxicinlinju: in all a «listanor of nhont 128 kiloinotm 

Wlirn Lonisiana %\as s^ttlod tho land ahmp this rivor was oarly Miu*;lit out an* 
hron^rhi nnd<T onltivation. and now oimstitutos tho tinost fanus in tho Stnto. Cnl 
tivation i> oontinod almost i'x»"lnsivoly to ootton. whirh yields horo niost abundant!; 
in quantity ami oxii-llonT ipiality. Tlioro aro nt» statistirs ko]»t of the ooninioroe. J 
stoamhoat i-ajialdo of <arryinjj l.S<)J^ hah-s of «'otton nnulc ton trips up the riviT ]a« 
soa>on. 'Vhv town of Nat»-liitorlit»s, on the riiiht hank, nhont S kiiomotros below th 
h«'ad 4»f tho rivrr. has about li.i'HH^ inhabitants. Tho Toxas and PariJio Railway rnn 
nearly jKiralbd with, and from '2 to 10 kilomrtros fmm Cano ]\lvor. iVoni Nati'hitoohef 
whrro it bavos tlu' rivi'i*. down to tho month. 

Canalization is tho only ]>ossiblo modo of inii)r4»v<'nion1. 1HM•ans4^ «»f the laok o 
wator for any otln-r mot hod. Thrro is a ih»aii,oloar bod. about 12 motres deep au( 
14."» nn'tn-s wide. hi;:h and dry abovo low water, save for tho small stream supplier 
by tho drainapo a voa of 1, ;*><)») sipiaro kilomotros. Tho annual rainfall is nhont IJV 
niotros. or 2.2Si).(^H)j>X) «'ubio motros from tho whole aroa. and the disoharge ai tli* 
mouth of Cano Rivor wasl.tNH\(^XN'ubi«inotros per day. with Red River 3 metres a l»ovt 
exlronu' b»w watrr. Tin* fall thri»nirh Cano RiviT is 4.7 motros at hi^h water nni 
9.'A motn s at low wator from Natrhitorhrs t»> tho month. To tho low-water fal 
must bo addrd sutli* iont hoiixht toohtain rosfivoir j'aparity to snppiv water for hM'k 
as;o and Icakairo and t<> atfonl dral't for hoats. whicli would make the total lif 
alu»ut 11 «»r ir» motros. This boinir diviilnl into l\ lifts of 5 nietn'8 eneh pivo* j 
rosiTvoir raparity 271.(HX^.(XH> oubii- motros. With b»oks 20 metrt*8 wide and 
mrtirs lon-j. oarh loi-kin«r would roi|uiii* bnt t>.lXX> onbii- nn^tres. The discharyre o 
Rod Kivt-r at oxtrt'uio Inw watrr is ])robably about 0.1HX">.(H^> onhir metres per day 
and hair of tho ahovo ostimat<'d ra]iarity of i.'ano Rivor wonld be suflieient to donld* 
thf <lis<'hai;;o of RimI Rivor at oxtioiuf b»w wator for a period of 30 days. Thi? cana 
oou Id ilnn-lon.' bf ma«lr imiilon tally of ;rriat advantage to Rod Rivi-r. Tlie look 
would ro>t abi»nt .*7.""».iHl<> tarli. or ?=2*J.'>.(»0JMbr tho wholo work, bnt no reliable est! 
mati s 1 oi;lil 1m' mado ox»r]ii aitrr a survey of tho sito of thr lorks. It iskno^ni tlia 
ri»rk I'liuuihition ran bo obtair:rd at not a ^reat depth, whioli would insure tho fea^i 
bilit V of loiUin;;. 

Tho fnllowinv: tabb* shows nlativo elevations in motros above Cario datum as de 
tormiui-il by lino«« of b-vols at tho bead of tho riviT. aoross to Xatoliitoelu*s, and a* 
tho niiiutli. whib» tho acoonipanyinv: traoinj: shows tho frot>^raidiieal jHtsition. 





ri...... 




1 


,11 W 
,•1. V. 


Ti»]» ol 
Icnik. 


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lit nxir. 



:-<>. •! ) i'aim dntniii. 21 .t^* fit t In-Ioiv Miji 
::i'. I* '• iti«si|t]ii Ikhvr ('iiniiui:*siiiii pro 
21. 'J ) visional nif. in (ill If levtrl. 



To sum up till' n-'ilt*' nf ilu- i\:iiMi!r!'n''.i: 

1. (':iui' ivivi r rail bo ronvirt«-d Iiiti* :traii:!l at a i-iKt of about $2.tW per kilometer 
'J. riir i;ni:»I \vi.i:M h.- ol'^nat ad\;ni*:ii:o ti» \lvd liivor at b>w-wator mnisou. 
'A. Tin- ]iro«»]ni t i\ «■ inmnu-rro on ilir ranal is imlctiuito. but ]»ndiably not eonsid 
oraMi'. 

\. \ >\\v\r\ wiiiild Im- nri't>sarv til doU'ruiin*' Im atiim and oost of looks aeeuratelv 

Cnnvi'itiiiLi- c']rv;nii)ii< tVom iiiftri-.^ to iV'rt. aiitl using zero of Aloxan 
dii;t ;::niur for <l:inim. the r:il»h' willi rcitaiii additions will sliow the 
dri»Tli.< iiiid inM-ins 1kt\v<mii the lu*ad ufCanr Hivt*r and Aloxamlna. 



In . 



n..-i <• '■ • v.:-..- . 

N !.».- . . . 

M ■ )!;: ■ ; • :'. ■ \y.\\ r 

I."V\i i 



.■.•.71 



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watw. 


IVptb. 

0.0 ' 


lloi^lit ot 
Imtikfi. 




M K 


;u'.. .'.j> 


0.7 


7;«.S4 


♦;. tw 


1.0 ' 


M. 3i 


1.4^ 


8.0 


3S.0( 


0. <rr 


5.6 


34. W 


o.ou 


&0 


34. a 



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:• J- .nil It. 



APPENDIX V — REPORT OF CAPTAIN VvlLLARD. 2027 

The following table gives the depths of tUe eJiaiine] through the fall« 
above Alexandria, coiTcspondiiig to average and extreme low water on 
the gauge: 



Avera^t^ low 

water, 

19 years. 



Extreme low 

wat«*r, 
Sept«'mber, 

1881. 



Alcxamlrin jzaage —1.8 ' —3.7 

I>r>pthon Lower Falls I +».9 . +2.0 

Depth on Upper Falls I +6.3 i +4.4 



The tables show that with a slope of lesH than tive-tenths foot the 
river would have to be at hnist 20 feet on the Alexandria gauge to en- 
able boats to enter the mouth of Cane Kiver on 4 fe(»t draft, thus 
agreeing with former reports and with tlie statcMnent of pilots engaged 
in the Ked River trade. They also show that Re<l liiver would have to 
be improved by loeksand dams at and above Alexandria to give ''i>er- 
manent navigation the year round '' of at least feet, without whieh 
the desired improvement of Cane liiver could not be used at midsummer 
low stages of lied liiver except for local business, as already stated. 

Major Howell submitted i)rojeets in 1874 for l(M*ks and dams, and a 
canal at the falls of Alexandria to cost from *8(),(H)0 to §100,000, but 
the work was only intended to relieve navigation over the falls. !N^o 
action was taken upon the plan, and as a survey is now in jnogress to 
furnish a basis for a i)ermanent improvement of lied liiver, it is not 
probable that anything will be done until a new plan has been submitted 
(Repoi-t Chief of Engineers, 1875, page 904). I do not think it necessary, 
therefore, to review Assistant lOngineer Miirshall's approximate esti- 
mate of $225,000 for three locks, excei)t to say that unless the sites 
should happeikto fall when* the firmest foiuidations could be had, it is 
my opinion that a lift of 15 feet would be too great, and that four or 
probably five locks and dams would be rc^cpiired. This would increase 
the cost of the improvement very materially. 

The estimate, howev^er, is much too small, for, as the river rises and 
fiills nearly 40 feet, the locks would have to be of the most substantial 
type of masonry, as they would be submerged during floods, and the 
dams would have to be provided with navigable passes, to be used as 
soon as the water would reach a stage that would prevent maneuvering 
the gates. 

No estimate can be made of the ])robable cost of such an improvement 
without an exhaustive survey to determine the number and positions of 
the dams, the cjiaraeter of the foundations, and the* amount of reyetment 
and levee work that might be needed ; and this would be an expensive 
undertaking. 

By using the survey of Red liiver from Grand Ecore to Alexandria 
on the one hand, and the levels of the Texas and Pacific Railway on 
the other, it may be done for 812,0(M), provided there should be no seri- 
ous interruptions on account of high water or sickness. I do not recom- 
mend the survey, however, because I do not consider Cane liiver worthy 
of improvement by locks and dams or by any other method, or the work 
a i)ublic necessity. On the contrary, following the principles that 
should govern in any idan for im])roving Red River, Cane River should 
be treated as an injurious outlet, and its upper end, which has been 
gradually filling u^), should be permanently closed by a dam and levee 



2028 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMT. 

to ronlino tlie fioiKl \viit<Ts to the main river. No furtlier exaiiiuiatic 
or survey is necessary. 

Very resi)eetl\illy, your obedient sen'ant, 

J. H. WlLLARD, 

Captain^ Corps of EngineerM. 
Brig. (len. Thomas L. Casey, 

(liivf of Engineers, U. S. A. 
(Throu<?h Col. C. B. ConistiK-k. Con>s of Engineers, Division Eng 
neer. Southwest l>ivision.) 

[First indorsement.] 

U. S. Engineer Ofpick, 
Southwest Division, 
New York\, January 12^ 1891. 

Respectfully forwarded to tlie Chief of Engineers. 

Tor the reasons state^l, I concur in the opinion of the district oflS« 
that Cane I^iver is not worthy of improvement by locks and dams, i 
suggested in the ri v^r and harl)or act of September lO. 1890, section 1 

C. B. COMSTOCK, 

Colonel of Engineers^ Bvt. Brig. Gcn,^ U. 8. -A., 

Division Engineer. 



V 21. 

rRET.T^riN.VTJY EXAMINATION OF nAYOU CASTOR, LOUISIANA. 

[Priutt^l in Ho;isi> Ex. I)oi\ No. 185, Fit'ty-fint Ooiigre«s. second sesclon.] 

Office of the Chief of Engineers^ 

UniteJd States Army, 
Washington^ 1>. C, January 15 j 1891. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit, the accompanying copy of repoi 
dated January 7, ISOl, by Capt. Joseph H. Willard, Cordis of Eng 
neers, uixui the preliiiiary examination of Bayou Castor, Louisiana 
made in conii>liance witli requirements of the river and harbor act ai 
prove<l September 10. 181H). 

In view of the small oommer(»ial interests to be benefited iCaptai 
AVillard is of the oi)inion that the loc»ality is not worthy of iinpmvi 
ment. This opinion is cimcurred in by the Division Engineer, Col. ( 
B. Comstock. Cori>s of Engineers, and by this office. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant^ 

Tiios. Lincoln Casey, 
Brig. Oen.^ Chief of Engineerg. 
lion. ItKDFiKLD Proctor, 

^'<(vretary of War. 



repokt of captain j. ii. willard, corps of engineers. 

United States Engineer Office, 

Viekshurg, Miss.^ January 7, 1891. 

CiKNKRAL: I have the honor to submit the following report- upon tli 
preliminary examination of Bayou Castor, Louisiana, required by se< 
tions 17 and 18 of the aot of Congress approved September 19, 1890, an< 

assigned to nie by your letter of Sept<'iui)er 20, 1890. 



Biiyot! Castor, with its tributary creeicH, drairiR a portion of ttie i-oiiii- 
try south of the Vifikaburg and Shreveport Biiilroiid and west of t)io " 
Oiiiichita Kiver, flowing ftom t« 8 miles fhim the latt«r for a coiisid- 
eriibl« distance ttlwve and below Columbia. Its ^neral course is ■ 
wiiitherly to its junction with Dugdemona River, latitnde 31° 50', lon- 
gitude !Hi° 20', furniing Idttle River, a stream ttiat flows into what is 
called Catahoula Lake, which is drained into Ked Eiver iind Unachita, 
and sometimes filled by high water ftmn the latter through another 
Little River at Trinity, where the "l''onr Rivers" meet. Catahoula 
Lake is dry in summer and graHs gr()wn. Bayou CJastor is the same 
kind of stream as Dugdemona River, winch was examined by me in 
1887 and reported js not worthy of improvement. Assistant Davis 
reported Dugdemona River iis only a t«rtuo«s ereek, flowing through 
an uninhabit«d swamp about 2 miles wide, the Murroiinding country 
hilly, and the soil thin, (Report Cliief of Kngineers, 1887, page 1489). 

Assistant Engineer E, K. Buck, Jr., was* dispatched from the Bed 
River survey at Alexandria, La., Octiibcr lU, 1800, and directed to 
make a personal examination of Bayou ('ustor, beginning at the moutU 
and ascending as high as piacticablc, Tlie ti:>lluwing is taken from his 
report: 



Tliuro I Inft tlio Flmviiai uuU, MourinK the 

■, jjriK'ppilL'il aurosB isonutry to the monUi of 

I wi'ived tliure uu the mumiiiK of tlio I7th 

H order t*i buuikI and get uiiireut voloeity 

11.11 .n I'jii- :iH CiiBtor Sulphur 
■.1 til, iii'iisit^v uf the BwampB 
■ !iil iiiiMiiiiry biiyoua it wns 
'■ I! u . iilnT in a vehiule or on 
I uiy rlnj.. ti. attwupt it im fimt. 
vilh logR and Slings tliut ov<-ii It 
a been iiupuHHiblo to go up by 



We Brrived at Alexandria Outubut 10. 
aoTviccB of a doable team uiid drivi-r 
Bayon Castor, a distance of 43 u 
and went up the bayon about bnlf u luita ii 
in that vicinity. 

After leaving the month 1 piimn!. il :>,, ili. r, 

SpriDCEi, about 25 milea l^om the i < ' 

on both BiAea uf tlie bayou and tin ii 
imposeible to follow the bayou rli.H< I . 
horseback, and it woulil liiive beuii n -< li — >> < 1 1, "i' 
Farther, the bayou at that stage nii» w lilnikfit up 
a skitr or dug-ont had been proi;iifablo it would ba^ 
that moana. 

However, I stinck the bayou wherever it was pciLctiiiable to do ho, and saw unnun 
of it auil secured sufHuitiit information from the uativeslu ascertain the value of tl 
struum and the advisability of attemptiug improvouiuut. 

Bayou Castor in conjunction with Dugiieuioiiu Kivor Ibi'uia Little River, uuil. ut 
the stage at which it waa exauitued, ruruishes not more tbau one-tenth us niiich 
water to that river a* the other tributary. This is not 60 much on account of dif- 
ference in croB* aectioa an in corrent velocity. The current in Bayou Castor ueiir Its 
month is atiout oue'tbiTd mile per bonr, while that of Dugdemona River is not leas 
tliftu 3 milea p«T hour. 

Bayon Castor is of very uniform cross seetiou, with atoep banlcs, and throughout 
its entire length is a succession of bends mure ur less uliarp. There aro no murkod 
irregulBrities or bar formations. As high us Castor 8nlphnr Springs it runs thruiigli 
dense awomps and its banks are covert^ with undcrbrueh and trees down to I^e 
water's edge. The channel is filled with snags, brash, cypress trees, and knoea. 

From parties well acquainted with the bayou I learned that the irbaracter of 
the stream, though greatV diminished in size, and the country through wbicb it . 
nine ia mooh the same above Castor Sulphur Springs as below. From top to top of J 
banks near the mouth the bojou is about 300 feet wide, and Jhim water's edge to 1 
water's edge about 60 feet. lu that vicinity soundings in the deepest part raugod4 
from .1 to □ feet. The water was 3 feet above lowest stage. There the bnohH a~ 
fWun 17 to 30 feet high and the water in tinii! of flood rencbes 8 or 10 feet over t 
bonks. The range of fluotnatiou is, therefore, about 30 feet. 

At the Peodarvis place, 10 miles abovii the mouth, the banks are about 1£> feet 
high; ftont top to top of bonks the bayou is ITS feet wide; from water's edge to 
water's edge U) to 50 feet. Vclnoity of current in poids la about one-half mile pec 
hour; onrapidsaboutSmilesperhour. Stage about 3 feet above extreme low water, I 
Dnptli fi'om 12 tn 3 fi»t. The bayou breaks up iuto a ttucueseion of pools and rapids ■ 
■boat 7 miles abuvo the mouth. 

At tilt' Pendarvis place thc^ buck water rviK'hivi about 20 fbot above low water, L 
fmUict from above liaa roiu-lipd un high aa 40 feet above low water. Tbia excussi . . 
Rood height ia doubtless dun to great uoutru<-lioii of liigh-wuter section cauwd by , 
(ho hills coining in to Iho biijou. 

At Ciwlor Sulphur l^priugs the baj'ou is 110 feot from top to lop oE 'bM&La ua& ^ ^ 



2030 RFPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

fe«»t fn»m water's rtljn* to water's od^re. Tin* Imiiks are ahout 15 feft hich auti the 
water o Itn-t deep wIh-u 5 t"et*t above extreme low water, at which stage the bayoa u 
almost «lrv. 

HaekwaiiT has iieviT rea<he<l a higher point than 3 miles lielow Castor Siilphiii 
^prinjjs; but l'r«*slu't water reaelies :ii) t'et-t above low water. No examination wa* 
made above Castor Su})diiir Springs, as the impraetieability of making; any impntve" 
meat below devi'btps into impossibility above. As stated, the bayou runs through a 
dense swamp vary in jl; in width from one-quarter to 3 miles. In places the pine hilU 
come up to th<- bayou bank. 

tStatisties as to tlu* (b^mands of commerce and the business done on this bftvou are 
necessarily crude and uncertain. However, enough could be jjathered I'or praeticii] 
purpost»s. an»l I am liberal in allowance. From Castor .Sulphur Spriuirs to the innuth 
of the bay (HI tli<>re ar** four or tive >mall ] dan tat ions. The swamiit» bordering on the 
bayou are iiu>:r))able oi cultivation, the jdaces being on the hills. 

The hijihest point evi-r reaihed by a steamboat was 3 miles below Casttir Sniphui 
S]>rin;>s. or 2'2 miles above thi* mouth. Tin* highest pidnt reAcIuHl by steamboat dur- 
ing past -S yeari% vaecordiug to K. H. IVndarvis) wa»* S miles above the mouth. 
Howi'Vi-r, tlat boats for larryiuij out staves have gone higher. The Imyou is naviga- 
ble during 4. or .*> months in tlie year. One or two lioats i^o u]) tlie bayon in asen&oii. 

The amount of business done yearly is about as fidlows: 

Pine lojjs rafted, 2l\iHK\ at about iV cents per lo;; $12, rtV 

Staves rarried »»ut. 10. iKX\ at about ^V2'* per l.'»iX> 1. L».Vl 

Cotton and men-haiulise uncertain and inconsiderable, but aluuit itWV 

Total 13.i5CI 

M^o the amount of business done on this bavou ean Uiit exceed by liberal estimate 
^i'lH.iXH). 

From Castor Sul]ihur Sprin;;s to the mouth the Houston. Central Arkansas and 
N'ortheru Railroad runs at a distance from the bayon in most places not ex«-ee4Ung I 
or - miles, and nev«'r exceeding 4 miles. 

Exce]it when high water is backed uj» fnuu below no boat can get nn the bayon. 
When the bayou is high from head water the fluctuation is too ra]»id and the current 
tiM> strong to admit of navigation among the sharp bends, overhanging trees, and 
cntss currents. 

An estimate of theeost of clearin>: the channel of trees, ey^iress knees, and snags, 
and the banks of overhauiring tn-es can be put at .**Jl)i) per mile, or for the i"* miles 
u]> to Castor Sulphur .^priuirs, ^iCuW. After this is done it is questionable if naviua- 
tion would be more tliau sli^lnly facilitated, Iterause <if sharp bends and swift cur- 
rents. Cutiiuir bends and tln-reliy straight fuiuij the stream is altogether impracti- 
cable and no reiiietly forexistiii;; tlitlimliit's. In faet the character of the stream 
and the country through which it llows. in my opinion, renders any attempt at im- 
provement inadvisable. 

The railroad luoiitionetl above now lornis part of the Missouri Paoitio 
system. It eoimeets with the Iron Mountain and Southern Kailway 
near Arkansas City, tonehes the Ouarhita at Monroe, and crosses it 
near Columbia. l«i., and runs near ami iJaraUel to Kayou Castor, cross- 
ing Little Kiver just below the junrtion of r>ayoii Castor and Duuile- 
mona Kiver u|M»n a lixed bridge, approveil as authorized by the act of 
Congress approvetl August l», ISSS. Th«» roatl is now in o^xM-atiou south- 
ward as far as the erossingof the Chiaehita. about 4 miles above Colum- 
bia, and will ])erliaps be eomjileled .during the year as far as Alexan- 
tlria. on lied Kivt* r. 

The fliief funcTitm of these streams is to drain the neighlwring coun- 
try, and the only business done mi them is rafting timber and tlOi'itin^ 
out staves on tlatbt»;its. Sonu» years ago, it is said, a small steamboat 
asriMHb'd OugdfiMona IJivrr nearly as high as WinntlehUbut could not 
lind a i>hi<r to turn around and had t«» baek down. The l>oat barelv 
rsraiHMl loss, thr ii|»iu*r wurks bring rarried away by overlianjriujr liui- 
brr during thr tripdiiwn stream. Little Kiver, from the juuctiou of 
Dugdrmona and r»ay«»u c':ist4»r. was rxamined in 1SS7 and rejiorted 
un\\orrhy i»f imprn\riiirni r\rr]d for abnul L*."* miles bet wtH?n Catahouhi 
Lakr and Ouarhita Kivrr. at Trinirx. La., for which an estiinatt^ of 
.'?-,.'»oo was matlr •• Torom]>U*ii»." Thr amount wa^ai»pn»priatednndhas 
bri^n rxprudrd. and uo fuithrr rsiinuitr has bern made for the purpiuse. 



APPENDIX V REPORT OF CAPTAIN WILLARD. 2031 

The small amount of business of the eoxmtry along Dugdemona and 
Bayou Castor has been done by teaming to Oufiehita River, or by tiat- 
boat down through Little Eiver. I'liis will soon be absorbed by the 
new railroad, so that there should be no need of improving liayou Cas- 
tor, even if it were practicable. 

Assistant Engineer Buck's estimate of $200 the mile, or $5,000 for the 
25 miles from Castor Sulphur Springs to the mouth, is, in my oi)inion, 
much too low. The stream has never been worked and is obstructed 
by raft, stumps, and heavy timber and brush to the water's edge. It 
would cost not less than |200 the mile to clean both banks, $;U)0 the 
mile, or more, to clear the channel, with an extra allowance for (rutting 
the sharp points to enable boats to make the bends. The current being 
sluggish, the greater part of the timber removed would have t4) be 
hauled beyond overflow to prevent forming new obstrm^tions before the 
work should be flnished. Incidentally the work w(mld benetit the neigh- 
boring cx)untry by improving the driiinage and reclaiming lands now 
under water. 

In view of the facts set forth, I do not think Bayou Castor, Louisiana, 
worthy of imi>rovement or the work a public necessity. No fiirthcr 
examinations or surveys are needed. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J^ H. WiLLARD, 

Caiytairtj Corps of EnginecTs, ' 
Brig. Gen. Thomas L. Casey^ 

Chief of Engineers^ 6 . IS. A, 

(Thrtmgh Col. C. B. Comstock, Corps of Engineers, Division Engi- 
neer, Southwest Division.) 

[First indoraeiuent.] 

U. S. Engineer Office, 

Southwest Division, 
Kew Yorkj January 12, 1S!)1. 

Respectfully forwatded to the Chief of Engineers. 
For the reasons state<l I c()n<*ur in the opinion of the district officer, 
that Bayou Castor is not worthy of improvement by the United States. 

C. B. Comstock, 

Colonel of Engineers, 
Bvt Brig, Gen,, U. S, A,, 
I^ivision Engineer. 



^ 



APPENDIX W. 



IMPROVEMENT OF ARKANSAS RIVER, ARKANSAS, INDIAN TERRITORY, AND 
KANSAS, AND OF CERTAIN RIVERS IN ARKANSAS AND MISSOURI. 



REPORT OF CAPTAIN H. S. TABER, CORPS OF ENGINEERS, OFFICER IN 
CHARGE, FOR THE FISCAL YEAH ENDING JUNE SO, 1891, WITH OTHER 
DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE WORKS, 



IMPROVEMENTS. 



1. Remoying obstructions in Arkansas 

River, Arkansas, Indian Territory, 
and Kansas. 

2. Arkansas River, Arkansas^ Indian Ter- 

ritory, and Kansas. 

3. Fourclie River, Arkansas. 

4. Petit Jean River, Arkansas. 

5. White River, Arkansas. 



6. Cache River. Arkansas. 

7. Little Red Kiver, Arkansas. 

8. Black River, Arkansas and Missouri. 

9. Black River, Missouri. 

10. St. Francis Itiver, Arkansas. 

11. St. Francis River, Missouri. 

12. Little liiver, Missouri and Arkansas. 



EXAMINATION. 



13. Current River, from Van Burcn, Missouri, to its mouth. 



United States Engineer Office, 

Little Rock, ArJc,, July i, 1891. 

Oeneral: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual reports 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1 801, upon the works under my charge. 
I am, sir, very respe(jtfully, your obedient servant, 

H. S. Taber, 
CaptaiUy Corjps of Engineers. 
Brig. Gen. Thomas L. Casey, 

Chief of Engineers, if. 8. A. 



Wi. 

removing OBSTRUCTIONS IN ARKANSAS RIVER, ARKANSAS, INDIAN 

territory, and KANSAS. 




ENG 91 



2034 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENoixEERS, U. S. ARMT. 

character of its lower portion and the tendencies now manifest in i 
upper reaches, it may be inferreil upon ven- substantial gronnds th 
shiftiug sand bars, nUmerous drift piles, and dangerous snags chars 
terized the obstacles to navigation in the lower reaches: and gravel ai 
rock shoals, with a few snags and many overhauging trees, constitut 
those of the upper reaches. The records of this office indicate ths 
ex«*oi)t at a few phiccs, such as Pine Pluti*, Ark., and Fort Smith. Arl 
the general plan of improvement has consisted of snagging operatioi 
whicli includes cutting overhanging trees, and in building wing dams 
improve the slioals, the idea being to affiuil temporary i^elief to navi;; 
tion until com]>lcte surveys should render it i>ossible to project a iil; 
for the radical and pennanent impvovenient of the navigable ixn-tion 
the entire river. For tlie exceptions noted attention is ivsi>frtfu! 
invited to rejtorts upon these special eases. The api>ropriatious ha 
been made sometimes for the entire navigable reaeh and sometimes 1 
certain sct^tious. The grand total of all these appi'opriations up 
June 30. ISta. amount to .^4S5,l>51,;^7. Of this there had been esi>end 
up to June .SO. 1890. .'?3lU.L*88.07, exelusive of certain sums aggregati 
over $100,000 that were apjtropriated with the Mississippi and M 
souri rivers, so as not readily to be determined. The most perniane 
result of all this expenditure consists in a series of maps made by 
T. Abert from a survey of the river from Fort Gibson, Ind T., to I 
Rock, Ark., 3 miles above Little Rock, Ark., m the year 1870. and a 
another series of maps IVom Wichita, Kans., to Fort Gibson, Ind. 
from a survey in 1884. From the nature of the case the balance 
the work has been each year a repetition of that of ]>receiliug yea 
One iiiHi-lnilled snag boat and one light-draft wtHKlen snag bo 
with all the a]>i>lianees necessary for snagging operations were t 
visible signs nf the balanee, while the gratitude of those interested 
the navigatlmi of the river for a navigation rendered yearly less a 
less dangerous by the oi)t»rations of these two boats is the only evidei 
existing, and the only evidence to be expeeteil, of work that must 
done in a stream like this, until by some system of i>ermanen 
caving banks no longer exist and the annual quota of snags is no Ion* 
furnished. The most ec^>nomicnl management of snag boats requi 
not less than .'?35,000 annually to give absolutely indisi>ensiible aid 
navigation, a navigation in which a vast amount of commerce is vita 
interested. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1801, §0,3:.W.43 was ex]iend 
in the care and running expenses of the Fnited States snag bmit Wiehi 
During most of that time tlie Arkansas River has Ihmmi too high for eftV 
ive snagging operations, yet during that time about 30l> dangen 
snags were removed, about -.000 overhanging trees cut. and over 13,< 
trees ib-adened. Pursuing the steady judiey of operating the Ixtatoi 
at oi near low water, the l>ahinee has been reserved for use during i 
ni'xt \\>r'A\ year. This will enable me for the lirst time to enter u\ 
an etVi-riive and systematic removal of obstructions, but to do anyth 
lik4* thnnmgh Avork the ai»]»ropriation was much t<w small. Th 
ou;^lil to he at least •'?7lKOno expended during the next fiscal yc 
From all ]»reseiit appearanres the snagb«»at ('. 7^. /iVf«c. which has bi 
otVtTed for sa!r lo the Mississij)]>i Kiver (.'onunission and also to 
^Missnuri Ki\r! i n^niniNsioii. neiiher of A\hieh bodies wish to make ' 
purrhase. will laakr a iTdojl io\vl>nat I'ov X\io work of impi'oving Ark 
sas IJiver, Ai kMii-^a^. imlian Terriuny. ami Kansas, and may be sole 
that work fnr a >utii«i«'iii miui of money to build an entirely new su 
boat modrhdafrer the Wichita. 



B difficulty DOW contended with is that I have not Builiciuot plant 
isb snagging operations during the ahort> peiiod of extreme \ow 

ESbrta will be made to conBummate this sale and build the new boat 
(lurJttg the next ilscal year. 

If on or about the opening of the fiecnl year beginning July 1, 1802, 
the sum of $70,000 con Id be in band and an effective clearance of the 
Arkansas Uiver could be secured, this would render it possible, with 
the advance in the permanent improvements, to maintain tho channel 
frtt' ii-oni snags by taking the two snag boats as towboata on the per- 
manent iniprovements and using tbeni for snagging operations Kuch few 
times as might be necessary. 

Furthei', the time has come in the progress of improvements on this 
river when it is my duty to recommeud that, if possible, the money fop 
Bnaggtng be appropriated under the same head as that Cur the porma- 
netit improvement of the river, as it will save iu engineering and oflice 
expenses, as now two separate seta of pai>era have to be kept, wheri-as 
only one set of papers need be kept, and yet so much money might 
always be used for suagging purposes, the papers showing all the tim« 
exactly to what purpose moneys were appUed. This would pra<rtically 
increase the plant available for both work and will be a matter of econ- 
omy in many ways. The goal that hoa been so long sought in reference 
t« the opening of the Ai-kausas Kiver is rapidly being neaietl. It has 
taken persistent effort and strict adherence to a systematic plau in tho 
face of much adverse eriticismj but 3 years more of the same work will 
8bow that even with smalt appropriations, if there is an economical fol- 
lowing of a careftiUy devised plan, a river very thickly populated witll 
BUB^ may be eventually o]>eiied. 



COMMEBOB, 



■iL 

■■■K stated in this report this work was begun in 1833, and there are I 

^^ffrecorda available in this office to show what commerce, if any, passed 1 

'over this river. In 1852 a gentleman in Little Rot^k lost five out of six ' 

of the steamboats owned and run by him in one season, due to nnags. 

Navigation must have been uncertain in 1833, and commerce light. 

It is estimated tliat insurance and freight rates have been reduced 
one-third by the improvement already effected. As to effect upon 
rates of competing routes of transportation, there are many points where 
there is no competition. Where there are, cotton is carried at 25 
to 50 cents per bale cheaper by water than by rail, and other merchan- 
dise accordingly. This must keep railroad rates down. As to pros- 
pective advantages to commerce, if completed, observation shows that 
■whenever the snag boats, by thorough work, get the channel reasonably 
well ftlciired, the boats nin night and day, eagerly taking advantage of 
tJie brief interval before appropriations fall and tho annual cn»p of snags 
c«D not therefore be removed. As to benefits to community, if oom- 

r nothing better can be furnished under this head than a letter 
e little Bock Board of Trade, of date as follows, viz : 
LriTLE KocK BoAKD OP TaASE, 
UHU Bock, Ark., June S, 2891. 
PXAX 8ik; Owing to cMinsiderablo aicknesa during the month of May I was not 
ablo to gi\ii the attfiiitjuii to thn i.iUyctirni of river 8tatiBtii.'B tha,i 1 would hftve likeit 
lint I bare Duulc coiuiiddriibli^ sBurt tu obtuiii the doiiiniil inlbnuutiou uad towpaot- 
rolljr »nliinil tJm rolluwiiijj : 



From llio boat iufonuniiou h 



II get tliu tonuttge of fTDi};ht curried lias in 



2036 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMT. 

about 43 per cent, since onr report of July 27, 1886, and the total tonnan in rou 
numbers amounts to about 46.000 tons. This includes the freij^ht carrieiiDy boata 
and out of Little Kock. and not the entire river ralloy, the statistics for which ^ 
were not able to get. It is estimated that the river business would increase abo 
50 per cent, if the river was iiunroved. The board certainly appreciates your eftbi 
in behalf of our rivers, and siiKvrelytrusts the necessary appropriations wilUte ma 
by Conp:res3 to carry onthi3>vork. the importance of which can not be overestimate 
Assuring yuu the board's hearty cooperation. 
1 remain yours, very trul^', 

E. S. Greene, Secretary, 
Capt. H. S. Taber, 

^'. .S. Engineer 9. 

To ^ive the advantages to commerce if completed ftilly, would be 
enter upon the commerce of a great State, and would require an amou 
of time tor compilation and record that would be entirely out of the qu< 
tion. It is forecasting the future of the State's metropolis and raiiro; 
center. All that i)revents two-thirds of the freight now sent and i 
ccivcd at Little Kock from being handled by the river is the fact th 
there arc months of groat uncertainty, and the time lost by the boa 
exhausts the profits. The rapid increase in prosperity of this St;i 
during the 7 years spent at this of^ce reminds me more of the fronti 
gro^^ t li of the West than the growth of a State the ageof this one. A ji 
conciptiontan only be I'ormed by looking at some great fertile river vail 
in tlir Northern or I^astern States as they were years ago, andas they a 
now sinee settled up. with its river improved. What benefits have i 
cruiMl to tlint eonnuunity will surely accrue to this, with this Oilditit 
that tlu» miueral resources ol* this valley are to be added. Itseoal pre 
ucts alone and its wealth of timber will place it well to the fore. Wh 
The vast arroage of the Indian Territory is brought under eultivati 
its i)roduets nmst go this way. That well-known and exceedingly f 
tile State of Kansas will find Fort Smith and Little Bock it« neari 
water outh*t eventually. It will l>e seen how difficult it is to bau( 
this ipiestion briefiy if it is Iwirne in mind that with deep water to Xi 
Orleans frcMU the Gulf, the Mississippi improved, and the Arkansas Bi\ 
navigable t<» Little Kock by boats drawing 5 feet of water, we have t 
comlitions likely to exisi when the improvement is completed. I ba^ 
thorofore, only aitein]>ied to outline this matter, and trust that wh 
this ])ortion ot' the rei>ort is read a map of the territory covered m 
be hiul in niiml. as this will juobably be of itself the strongest pn 
that t!ie he'ietiis likely to accrue can but be too vast to be summariz 
in a rei)ori liki' this. 



Money statement. 



« 



July 1. IS'ji). bahiTiro iimxpomletl $1,674 

AiiiiiiiMt ;tiiTiropriaUil l>y art approved September 19, 1890..... 20,000 

21.674 

Juiir:'>". \>'M, :i:i.i>iiiit expended during fiscal year .r 9,330 

.Ir/.y 1. 1>:*1. l«;i!;jT^( f uTioxi>ended 12,344 

.hily 1. 1>.'.1. n;it>M!nliiijj: liabilities 1, 227 

July 1. IVM. l.jl.iiuv available 11,11€ 

.\iv.ii;'.".t fs'lriuitfl' n'ip;iri-cl for oonipli'tion of existing project 35,000 

\:i.i^;..r :1: i* = :i:Mi ^ri<:.T i''l> '-Ni'i'iukMl in tisc-alyoar ending JuneSO, 1898 70,000 
>.■.:••:;: rni i:-. r,.iii;-'.= i:i.t with ivi|ui rem cuts of sections 2 of river ajid 

ii..: i." a--> .»r l^io .iiiil U^G7. 



ASTtaSDOi W — ^BBFOnr OP CAFTAlH TABEB. 

ErptTUie aitcouai. 

y rolls «6.936.26 

«siippliM 1,186.86 

Oenexal snpplieB 727.89 

TruiispiiTtntioD 5. 65 

TrftveliiiK expenses 05,65 

Fuel 34a. 36 

BtaOoiiery 33.60 

Beat 40.00 

0,328.28 
Beaervedin United States Treusnrj for freight charges 3.11 

9,330.43 



Work daring the past season has been carried on under three differ- ^ 
ent acts of Cougtess. 

By act approved August 6, 1886, 175,000 was appropriated under thia 
bend, its distribution being indicated in the following words :uid tigures : 

» IniproTemtnt, accoriliiitt to 



usppcttvoly, OS mny 



„ , of which th«re ue ! , - , . 

and 010,000 ut Dnrdunelle, orso luuob thereof under thuee si 

be nMCBWiry at these points. 

All of tliis money except a email sum out of the $10^000 for Dar- 
danelle having been expended prior to June 30, 1890, it is only neces- 
sary to summarize the project for Dardanelle, as follows : At Dardaiielle 
the 410,000 is to be expended in erecting a permeable dike above and 
opposite the town, iu snch a position as to remove the sand h&x now in 
front of the wharves. 

By Mt which became a law August 11, 1888, 9150,000 were appropri- 
ated under this bead, its distribntioa being indicated in the following 
words and figures: 

ImpponuBArkansasEiver.ArkanBaB: Continuing improvement 8160,000: Fravided, 

Tliii' iniiliiii;; Iit'roio coQlainod shall anthorize the Secretary of War to eriur uimn 

:l^[llvelnent of said river as set forth in the rejiort of tlie Booril of En- 

Kivement of Arkansas River bora Witchita,KaaB.,ta its mouth, liatiMl 

. March 16, 18SS, ami coutained in House Ex. Doc. No. 231, fiftieth 

i , i h.it the Secretary of War shall expend the appropriation ir 

lii'jid iMlti rffcrence to tile final improveiuont of this river ae contemplated 
port of the Chief of Engineers for the year ending Jnns 30, 1885, and aa autbnrf: 
In tlui act for the Improvement of rivers and harbors, approved Angngt 5, 188fi, >.- 
in Honae Ex. Doo., Ku. 90, Foity-ninth Congress, first sewion, aaid methoda to h 
ftppUod sa the Si^cretarf of War may direct at such points hetweon Wirhita, Rons.. . 
and the navigBhle inoiitb of the Arkansas Eiver at its jnnction with the MiMisBippi 
Sivet, Mhe maydeemfor the beet interests of commerce. And all moneys now ta the 
credit of different Beotinns of the ArkanssB Blver, other than the anpropriutioits for 
the oparsting of the snag boats, sbiUl be avaUnble for use under tms liuiul; and in 
ftitnie the engineer in charge of tltis worlt and the Secretary of War slioll make re- 
port upon the progress and needs of this nork under this head instead of reporting 
npoii dWonnected projecto us heretofore. NoUiiog herein contained sluiU be undor- , 
ntntd to prevmt the Secretary of War from applying any part or all ftinds previously 
appropriated for use at Fort Smith, Dardanelle. in Pino Bluff Beat^h, or &om expend- 
lug not exceeding t8,000 as a contingent fund for expenditure in Pine Bluff Beacli. 



2038 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMT. 

By act approved September 10, ISOO, >5lS0,(iOO were appropriated, its 
distri])urioii beiug indicated as follows: 

Iin]>Toviii;; Arkaii!>;is Kivor. Arkansas. Indian TreriT(*ry. and K:insa«. Continuing 
improvement irom Wichita. Kans., to its mouth. ^180,IKK». 

The approved projects for the expenditure of this snm may be sum- 
marized a;? follows; 

At Pine Blufl'. the ?8.t>00 i€i to be used in extending and repairing the 
dikes, a portion of it to be held as a contingent, to watch the action of 
the river: the idea being to cause the river to become less and less 
dangerous to the town front. At Van Buren. the ??4.000 to be expended 
in erecting a permeable flike at a suitable ix>int a little above the town 
and upon the opposite side of the river, to contract the channel and pre- 
vent it from leaving the city wharves. From Fort Gibson. Ind. T., to tlie 
mouth of the river, the balance to be expanded in the erection of per- 
meable dikes, and in one instance by rock excavation at the worst 
places, or the places at which serious interference with the largest 
amount of commerce Oi»curs, so far as the amount of ai^puipriatioii 
will permit, looking towards the permanent improvement of the river, 
to give a channel at least 6 feet deep and 200 feet wide fmm Little 
liock to the mouth of the river, ^ia AVhite River Cut-oil', as provided 
under the act of August 5, 188G, and an-all-year-round depth of water 
of at least 2 feet from Little Rock, Ark., to Fort Gibstm, Ind. T.; un- 
der all acts the work to be carried on by hii'ed labor and the pur- 
rhase of material in o]>en market, as this is belie vcmI to be most eco- 
nomical and advantageous to the Government. Before operations weiv 
begun at Daidanelle a bad bar had formed along the town fi-ont, cut- 
ting (»tl* all appn)ach to eithei wharf at low water or at medium stage. 
At Pine Blnff, the condition before improvment may be found by re- 
ferring to the ivport *• Improving Arkansas River. Ai'kansjis," "Pine 
Bluff," Annual Report Chief of Enginei^rs. 18S7. page 1515, and wasol 
so grave a nature that re-enumeration here would occupy too much spiwe. 
From Fort Gibson to the mouth of the river, the river consists of alter- 
nating bars and caving banks, with crossings more or less trouble- 
some at low water, a few of the latter operating to effectually close 
the river to navigation, at exti-eme low water for even boats draw- 
ing but 2 feet of water. In all cases of this kind the crossings oc- 
cur at points at which, while the river is falling from a 10-foot stage 
to exti-eme low water, its water is so widely sjiread that it develops nc 
channel at any point. Six years of careful study of this river, combined 
with the testimony of the navigators of the river, all ixnnt to this fact 
that the crossings are deep or shallow in pro]>ortion as the water is nar 
r«)w or broad at or above the crossing, and that a very slight coutrae 
lion, smh as that prcKluced by a few logs, tree tops, and sometimes claj 
]nm])s. jnst sutliiient to give defining power to the current, will convert 
a bad crossing into a good one. 

During the lisoal year ending June 30, 1S91, the balance (;?2,llt».00 
of the contingent provided in the act of August 11, 1888. was ex|>endec 
in ri»Tijunition with the appropriation made by act approved Septem 
l>er li>, ISIHK in the extension of Dike 2 and repairs to Dikes 3 and 4 
This closes si>i*cial reports upon the Pine Bluff Reach. 

To econoniizi* tini«* and space reference is here made to the last An 
nnal Ro]iort ot' the Chief of Fngineers. ]>age 1J»34, for conditions wbicl 
relate to the above inentionod work. This sum, with money firom tin 
a]»]iropriation i»f act a]»]nov«Ml SeptiMnlwn* lt». ISIKI, extended Dike 2 2il< 
li-it. and rejiaiird l>ikcs .i and l by tilling them to alxuit 17 feet al>f>v< 
low water with brii>h and sand boxes, it was mv intention to submi 



a drawing Rbowing (he dianges. Imt. the r«iiuiTkablp ppriod iif liigh 
«-iit*r thut has prevailed has prevenlwl obraiiiinE "".v satistUctiJiy 
tiata. The same satisfactory results wmliiiiie Ui liilluw tlio works a» 
Iitretofore rL'])orted. Some atteiitiou will hava Ui l>c ffivi'n tn the work* 
liore tn keep them in repair, but this will all ciinic nailer thosi- ue«es- 
8ar>' t« hold a paving bend when ii'orks have been eieotiid to iinpi-o^'e ii 
bar below, aiul as Ibe i^iofineH o{ this report are limited and nmcb sirMtt 
liae been given to this locality during tlie past< 4 or 5 years, it is doubt- 
lews fitting that Ihe river gftnerally be gi\-en tliia sx'Bce, and all inter- 
ested parties be leferred to the reports of previous years, Proceeding 
to the other two headHi where sjiecifled sums were appropriated, viz, . 
ibr Uardanelle anil Van Buren, it nitiy be stated that, exeept viaita of ' 
iDsi>eetion, ini H:ork has been done at eithei' place. 

At Uardaneile the results are mf>Mt gratifying. It only remains to 
wiiteh developments and give fixation to the works at the proper time. 
Tlie. very latest advices show that the entire bar has been removed as 
oontemjilated. It will be remembered that this was pronounced an not 
likely to be accomplished with the money asked for. The small balance 
will be held for a time to watch developments. This work as a problem 
of river engineering is very interesting, but can scarcely be elaborated 
in a report like this. At Van Euren there is now no doubt but that 
the dike will need extending 100 feet or more. Such extension nill not 
till up the channel iu the draw if the present results form any guide, 

The problem here is a very nice one, inasmuch as there is dangcT of 
throwing a bar under the draw span of the bridge in the attempt to 
tiirow the channel against the wharf. The dike will be estpnded dur- 
ing the coming season under ])roper anthoriti- as a part of the general 
plan tor the improvement of the river. 

This brings this report to the improvement of the Arkansas Biver a 
a whole. Before entering upon this report attention is briefly invited 
to the fact that the work covers at least 710 milejs of river, and there 
liave been $330,000 wherewith to work, where *iMHI.000 was asked ibr; 
or, to pnt it in another way, the engineer is ex]>C('tedto enter upon the 
improvement of the river with about * 170 jiir mile, when the least esti- 
mate calls for over *14,(HH) jier mile. F;ii-infi tliese conditions, evidently 
about the only thing to be done is to select tlic places that afifect the 
greatest amount of commerce, and improve them as far as the sum ap- 
propriated will permit. 

Aeting upon this planjduring the fistsl year $04,201.01 have been ex- 
pended, as tbllows. viz: Two dikes, eaeh 400 feet long, were erected ia - 
the reaeh above Fort Smith — i. p„ from Fort Smith to 3 miles above. 
Two dikes about 30 miles above Fort Smith were well advanced towards ' 
eoiupletiou. For this work also a new hull was built for the qxiartsf ' 
boat Lizeito. These works affect a great deal of commerce. Siiicocom- 
pletion the water lias remained too high to determiiu) their eS'ects. 

At Moores ICocks, about 30 miles below Fort Smith, work was begun 
in July escavating the channel proposed there, but hiul to be suspended 
wbun 260 cubic yards of rock hatl been removed ou aci-ouut oi high 
water, and the water has remained too high ever since Ibp the work. 
To economize space it may be noteil here tiiat this is an unusual coniU- 
tion of things and has delayed' the works generally npon the river. Tlie 
cofferdam is still intact, and work will be resiuned whenever the water 
permitB. Beginning about 2 miles below Pine Bluff, 5 dikes have been 
erected, one 450 feet long, two 800 feet long, one SOT feet, and one 1,200 
" ' The above dikes are located in the bine prints" sent herewith and 



I 






arkoil A", A, A|, Aj, ard B. Tliew are HiB permf^ahle dikfi* 1 
. [ospribi-*! ill Jimuer icfioits, and always from 7 fcot to feet abovali 
water, except A", wliii^U is carried liiglioi" at tlio sborc end. Higb water 
.prevents any report upon the reeults from accurate low-water survey, 
i^oin geueral indicationa and the reports of pilots they are very satis- 
&ctory so fax. Steps have been taken to give fixation to the work fhim 
Pine Bluff to the Rob Boy Bridge by a series of dikes and by revetting 
the caving bends. As tlus requires a survey at or near low water, prog- 
ress has been delayed, as indicated, by the high water. This will be 
entered upon as soon as the stage of" water permits. 

The dikes referred to as 5 and 6 at Pine lUuff in the early part of 
Uiis report form a part of the series. They are used on account of the 
quicksand, the revetment being used when there is no. quicksand, as 
required by the indorseuients of the division engineer, duly approved 
in the office of the Chief of Engineers. 

In addition to the above works ten barges, (iO feet by 20 feet, 
have been built, and various additions made to the machinery of the 
plant, and tbe dikes above Baring Cross Bridge, at Little Rot^k, have 
been repaired in part, to be completed early in the next fiscal year. 

I am glad to be able to report a change of sentinient in regard to fur- 
nishing rock for the work, by which, with a suitable plant. 1 shall be 
able to obtain rock baUast lower than sand-box ballast, the reverse 
having been the case until owners of rock have seen that they had bet- 
ter take a reasonable price for stone than none at all. 

Tbe results of the work done in previous years in accordance with 
present project have all been most satisfectory wherever the dikes have 
been erected a sufflcient length of time to do the work expected of 
them, Tbe requisite depth of 2^ feet to 3 f«et at extrenie low water has 
been maintained. No bar has formed belo* the dikes in the chaunol 
and no caving of the banks opposite the dikes has taken i^lace. Tbe 
■work of the years 18S8 and 1889 above Baring Oross Bridge, at Little 
Bock, has continued its efi'ective action, and tbe current now{)a>sHO)i 
through the draw span of the bridge, as it did when the bridge was orig- 
inally erected. But for the splendid work at Dardanclle this in it^f 
might be regarded as a marked result. The contraction works below 
the Little Bock and Fort 3mith Bailway Bridge at Little Rock have 
demonstrated tlie correctness of the theory upon which they were built. 
This is a significant fact, as they are absolutely the only dikes built is 
foil accord with the plan, i. e., an adequate number as called for in the 
plan. It will be borne in mind that in other places one or more dikes, 
oat of a total of four or five that will be required, have been erected, be- 
cause the ajipropriatiou is so small. At this point, however, a fair test 
has been made, with the results as stated. This reach has been known 
for years to be the worst reach between Little Itock and the month of the 
river. Steamboats could come within sight of Little Rock and be una- 
ble to reach the wharves on account of this reach. Two dike.s were 
built on the I'i^ti appropriation and two more on the 1838, making a 
complete syetejo, according to the original plan. One pilot of 20 years' 
tstamling on the Arkansas Itiver speaks of it with the highest enthn- 
siasm, and to him it is a most wonderful resnlt. What ha3 been done 
here can be done for any other reach on the Arkansas River. The wxy 
latest advices show tiiat at Eagle Bend and White Bluff equally satis- 
lactory results have been achieved. Several pages of this report might 

'Doting tbe ntudf of tliU 
((rapIiH. One tracing und ' 
^uiied (sot piiuted). 




^Kipocnpied in gp^^^^l? i^f t'^'^^^D^^ij^tii; rtiiMtrtM rccuivtMl Ironi all iM 

^■KvorlCR, but this is niinet-eesjtry. Neither is it iii-oMsary now Ur ■ 

^^BBT into any elaborate details Retting forth the pnipoeed worfe. Beg- ■ 

^Kr plans and QHtimat«a having been prepared, thitt has all bet-omu a fl 

HKtIer nt printed record. ■ 

■TAb a matter of plain dnty it mnet be states! that prompt rceiilts are m 

not.tobe expected with only $150,000 or *18l),lWHt for 2 years' work, M 

when *1 ,000,000 coul^ be profitably expended In that time. ' ■ 

The engineer in this way spends more time in the vain eflfott trying I 

to make both eodti meet thati in a«tual engineering stady or develop- M 

ment of the works.' Fully $100,0<Kl ought to be expended in the plant ■ 

at once. There are not barges, pile drivers, and steamboats enough to I 

do economical work. Again, material and labor is advancing very ra]^ H 

idly in price, and it will soon cost one-third more to do the work on tliia H 

account. If anything like economical resnJts are expwt«d at least ■ 

41,000,000 should be made available for Ihe liacal year ending .Inne 30, M 

1893, and it will require ♦3,472^79 to complete the improvement in ao- ■ 

rord with the original plan. This is not a fancy estimate, but <!lofle ■ 

calculation, borne out by 7 years of unremitting labor. In connection m 

with thiB river, 1 must again respectfully invite attention tx> the won- fl 

derfiil develojmient of this State, and the natural tendency of all thia 'fl 

to make I/itlJ(> Eock a great commercial center. All the statistics con- M 

nuctod with my reporl-a bear upon tliia more or less. Aa one reach of V 

river under consideration has Little Itock at it** head, the great inipor- m 

tancti of these works becomes more apparent, A caret^il study of sta- M 

tistacB for 6 years (»nvinces me that the State of Arkansas will, ere ■ 

long, rise many flies in the rank of the States, and public improvements V 

wiU retam manilbld their cost in material beneUt to the entire Stato. M 

Tbe amount stated above as being required to complete the improve- ^ 

ment only refers to the reach from Fort Gibson to the mouth. If the M 

improvement ia to be extended from Arkansas City, Kans., to the mouth '« 

ot the river there must be added for tlie reaoh from Arkansas City, I 

., to Fort Gibson, Ind. T., *l,fi96,000. 1 

GOMMBRCB. . M 

r general snmmary of commerce, see that under head "Removing I 

■octiuns in Arkansas Eiver, Arkansas, Indian Territory, and Kjiu- M 

Jier details umy be BUTnniari?.ed as follows: Oommencbig at tha 1 

of navigatitm on the Arkansas River, thenee following down ■ 

tlirongh the fertile v^ey tributary to it, we have Wiciiita, Arkansoa M 

City, Fort' Smitli, Dajxlanelle^ Little Itock, and Tine Bluff, six of the fl 

largest dties in the valley, which, togothei' with their surrounding I 

coiQiities, have a population of over 400,000 inhabitants. The comnier- fl 

i;ia3 growth and prosperity of these cities demand an outlet by way of •■ 

this river. The following table, which has been compiled Irom sta- fl 

^jsges and letters from prominent business men of each of these cities M 

^HtXerrittiries, shows over 1,000,000 tons of ireight that will be cheap- ^ 

^^Kliy tlie improvement of the Arkansas River. V 

^^H' Toanagt, ■ 

ArkfttinoB City, Cowley Connty, Ark 42fi,(flfi M 

I'Dft Smith, Aric 51.03! M 

Uuiautdlm nod vicinlt)- Sl.SaO ■ 

■iVy'' "'"'' 68B,47a ■ 

I^^Si^ &oe.a3aJ J 

^^Etafefc;«'. \.'»ft.Wl 




;04G KEPORT OF THE CUIEF OF EXGINlitivo, ^ 

W 4. 

nrPROVEMENT OF PETIT JEAX KIVER, ARKANSAS. 

Before iiuprovement this river was ohsmioteil with snap^. logs, di 
piles, overhanjriiijr trees, and shoals. The orijriiial i>roject for impm 
ment coiiteiui)latetl rendering: it navi<rable dnriiip: hi;rh and niedi 
stages of water as hi;j:li as Danville, Ark., by enttin^ the overhang 
trees and euttin*? np the sna^s. 1o;j:s. and drilY. The fall in the rive 
t>o great that nothing could be done to improve the shoals. The Ij 
appropriation ever made for the river was that of the art approi 
August 5, ISv^J, amounting to s.s..%00 ; one-half theestimate, aJT.lKW. T 
amount was expended ]>rior to June 'MK 1S88, iu completing the w< 
of improvement to KoeVy I'rossingt or about one-half the distance. T 
act, which berame a law August 11, ISSS, appropriated 8-.oOO and i 
vides for continuing the improvement below the Iron Bridge at K« 
Crossing. It will be seen that this is a departure from the origi 
project, and conicmidates entering ujuui an improvement of a se 
permanent character. This reach of river was accordingly ^^sited 
person and a new ]>roiert prepariMl and duly ai>proved. This proj 
provides that *1\.">(M) lu» i»x]>cnded below Kocky Crossing in reuiov 
timber from tlu* low- water ehannel and in removing a small iwrtioi 
the ledges at Slaty Trossing an«l Robinson Kidge. so as to prolong 
seasttn (»f navigatitm. The best season for eoi»ducting this Wi»rk beg 
about the mitliUe i»f August or tl»e 1st of Sept timber. The date 
which the act became a law preeliidtnl the possibility of making 
examination. ]»reparing the pri>ie4*t. and cunmiencing the work dur 
the Hscal year ending June .SO. issi). as high water would have in' 
rupted the work befori' it wouhl have been completed, rendering ? 
pension of worknecosary. thereby adding materially to the ex]>ens 
transiKU'ting men and material to the works on two diffei-ent oecasi 
when one would answer as well. For these reasons no work except 
necessarv to make the examination had been done during the fiscal 
ending June 30, 1S89. 

The fiscal year ending June 30, ISIH), was prolific in sudden 
aiHl there was no time, on account of these unusual conditions, 
tin* W4U'k necessary to be dj>ne conhl be planned ^nth any certai 
being completed, and as much eomplaiut had been made about 1 
bi'ing expended at high water, it was thought best to hold this : 
until a regular prolnn«;;i'4l low- water st^ason W4»uld permit its es 
tiire to the very best atlvantage possible. Accordingly, in th* 
year ending June 30. IS'Jl. a completely t)rganized force was ph 
tl»e lield and the balance expended in aecordance with the ; 
The amount of wt»rk dnne for the money rcllccts great credit uj 
overseer. Mr. S. L. Titus, and may be recapitulated as follows 
cut. -..V>S: trees deadtMU'd, l..">i*l: snags and stumps remov- 
cubir yards of rock and gravel excavated. 3-10; distance work 
21 miles. 

Ir is searcely necessary to ]»nil(ing this report to state the ad. 
tt» bi* di'rived from the im])ruvemi*nt. since these are set forth 
in the remaiks in reference to 4Mnninen*e. It is my duty a^ 
ofiicer in cliarge to renew tin* rernmiiirinlations ot' impiovin ^■ 
from Kocky (.'n»s«^inu^ to Danville. ArU.. ari-» ►riling t«) the origi\ 

Thirty-tive liundiiMl «1(p11;ii > w ill In- rr«iiiitr«l ti»r this ]inriK\>. 
eonnectiou attention is rt*s|MTt iiill\ iM\':i-d lo uiv rejMuts ^ 
years. The entire river to bunvillr w ii; >i;uhm1;i\ be a v;i\* 



AITENBIX W — ^REPORT OP CAPTAIN TABER. 2043 

on account of insoiBcient water and stcamlioat facilities. Within the last 10 years, 
hy reason of the improvement in the channel, oar steamboat facilities have increased, 
and the business now requires two steamboats between Webber Falls and Darda- 
nelle. 

2. If the river was so im])roved as to be navifjable at hifjfh, medium, and low water, 
how much, if any, would the cost of shipping freight be reduced t 

Answer. Freight would be reduced at least 100 per cent. The principal towns be- 
tween Fort Gibson and Dardanelle are on the river and they would be supplied with 
merchandise by Fort Smith merchants and this would afford the best market that 
tributary country could get for its products. This would encourage competition in 
the steamboat business and still reduce the cost of freight. 

3. If the river was so improved as stated in the recent question, would it bring the 
freight down any, and if so, how mucht 

Answer. Yes, it would greatly reduce freight. The reduction would be from 50 to 
100 per cent. 

4. How much moi^ freight of different kinds would be shipped every year if the 
river was improved as suggested in the second question t 

Answer. The- business would increase rapidly and to such an ext-ent that it would 
be hard to even estimate it. The thousands of acres of rich valley lands that are 
now unimproved on account of the cost of getting its produce to market would be 
brought under a high state of cultivation at once, ^ew towns would spring up 
along the river, and our present line of steamers would soon be inadequate to do the 
work. , 

5. Are there any other ways in which the people of your town, county, or section 
would be benefited t If so, please name them. 

Answer. It would aid materially in opening up a tributary country to Fort Smith ^ 
that is rich in minerals, coal, and timber, as well as in agriculture, and whose busi- * 
ness would be of incalculable value. * This country is now practically cut off by rea- 
son of the great expense of getting to market, lliere is no richer country than the 
Arkansas Valley, and the question of transportation is what interests the people 
more than anything else. 
Mr. R. H. Adair, 

Secretary Chamber of Commerce, 

Fort Smith, Ark. 

Money statement. 

July 1,1890, balance unexpended $71,295.42 

Amount appropriated by act approved September 19, 1890 180, 000. 00 

251, 295. 42 
June 30, 1891, amount expended duriug fiscal year 94, 194. 61 

July 1, 1891, balance unexpended 157, 100.81 

July 1,1891, outstanding liabilities 3,774.80 

July 1, 1891, balance available 153,326.01 



r Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 3,472,479.00 

Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year eiuling June 

4 30,1893 - .' 1,000,000.00 

Submitted in compliance with requirements of sootioiis 2 of river 
and harbor acts of 1866 aiul 1X()7. 

Kxpvnsc account. 

Payrolls $50,319.16 

Subsistence supplies 11, 163. 66 

General supplies 25, 199. 53 

Transportatiou 443. 46 

Traveling expenses 809. 04 

Fuel 2,575.58 

Stationery 135. 15 

Rent 120.00 

Lumber 2,921.03 

Reserved in United States Tresisury for freight charges 208. 00 

Reserved in office of Chief of Engineers 300.00 

94, 194. 61 



CMPROVEMEHT OF FOUBCHE LE PEVBE RIVEH, AKKAN8A8. 

Tbe improvement of this stream was begun in 1879, under tlie 
rapproved Maich 3, 1879. Prior to any improvement its channel 
choked with snags, logs, and drifts, and heavy timber overhung fte 
liank^. Several bad shoals also impeded aarigation. Up to Juno 30, 
1886, $21,000 had been expended in removing the greater part of the 
obstructions, though the shoals, and now and then a snag that has 
washed in since work was suspended in December, 1882, stilT oS'er eeri- 
OUB obstti«les to navigation at medium stages of water. By act ap- 
Iiroved Angust 5, 188fi, 85,000 were appropriated fo« removing rode 
shoals situated about 4 miles below Perryville. At the cloae of ute &»•. 
cal year ending June 30, 1883, this sum had been expended, complel 
a channel about 300 yards long, 30 feet wide, and 2 feet deep at I< 
water tlirough this shoal. By act approved September 19, 1890, $7," 
were appropriated for this work. From June 30, 1888, to Septei 
10. 1890, no appropriations "were made for this work. 

During the tiscal year ending June 30, 1891. $2,448.70 was expei 
in building a hand-propelled light-draft snag boat after the A. B. Jo\ 
fi model, which has been found to be so well adapted to streAuu of 
is size. It draws but 13 inches of water with its powerful machinery 
Lin board and fully equipped with rations and crew, and can roach 
I every low -water enag that can possibly interfere with the packets, 
of which draw less than 16 or 18 inches of water. 

By act approved September 19, 1890, t7,500 were appropriated, 
approved project for its expenditiire provides for the buildiuc 
ceqaippiug of a hand-propelled snag boat of the A. B. Johmon model, a\ 
\k «ost not to exceed |4,000 ; that it be operated for 4 months, if possible 
^aid necessary, at or near extreme low water, in removing accumulated 
Elibstructioufi in the way of snags, logs, and drift piles, and also land 
slides, and certain bowlders on Piney Shoals, and $450 to be expended 
in making a sijuare section through May Shoal in the place of the pres- 
ent reversed arch, which will not permit a square-bowed ilatboat to pass 
and take nut a portion of a rock at Red Ferry, which lies like a whale's 
back, and oflors a very narrow channel to steamboats. All this to _ 
vide for high and medium stage navigation; low-water navigation 
out of the (piestion, except, say, for 26 miles from ita month to 
V £ihoal8. 

This boat is to be operated only at or near extreme low water. Dnr- 
ig the year no such water occurred. The boat is in readiness for tlie 
eld, and operations will be begun as soon as the water reaches a muta- 
ble stage. There will be some advantage to tliis river in this delay on 
~ onnt of the water, inasmuch as some of the old and experienced men 
I be available during tlie coming fiscal year that might not hare 
n available during the pawt. It is hardly necessaty to again refer 
"to the fact that these boats have accomplished wonderful results in 
thpse narrow streams for the amount of money expended, and most care- 
ftil attention will be given to the oi>eration of this boat, that the record 
may be sustained. It is believed that the present appropriation will 
' eet the present demands of the c^nunerce upon this river. It is doubt- 
J if there is any more deserving stream for its size in the district Ita 
wning will afford great relief to a community practically without trans- 
* yiortation. For ftirther facts in this line see the report under the ' 
of commerce. 



'hale's^^ 
tiona^^l 



APP£NDIX W — ^REPOKT OF CAPTAIN TABEB. 2045 

COMMEBOE. 

The anioxmt of commerce when work of improvement beffan may be 
inferred from the following, which appeared in the Annual lieiK)!! of the 
Chief of Engineers, page 971. 

The valley of the Fourche Le Pevre is one of the most extensive in 
the State. Large quantities of lumber and cotton are brought out an- 
nually, besides grain, furs, tallow, and beeswax. There ai'e also mines 
of lead, iron, and otner metals in the valley which can be profitably 
worked when the improvement is completed. 

As to the effect upon rates of insiuance and freight, no data to work 
from. The incomplete state of the works would be against any- great 
change. As to effiect upon coni})eting routes of transportation, there • 
are no competing routes. What freight the steaml)oats do not succeed 
in reaching must be hauled long distances in wagons. 

As to prospective advantages to commerce it* completed, with this 
river thoroughly improved there would be a great saving of time to 
shippers. It would reduce the cost of transportation to that extent that 
new impetus would be given to the settlement of the country and largely 
increase its products. As to the benefits to community if completed, 
there are few communities in this State so dependent on a river for 
transportation as the settlers of this valley. Every stej) in tbe improve- 
ment will bring direct gains and will be utilized at once. With such 
improvements as have already been made, over 3,000 bales of cotton are 
brought out annually and several tons of freight are handled. One 
steamboat works very energetically upon this river and takes immediate 
advantage of eveiy improvement, so that the people are sure of im- 
mediate relief as the channel is improved. 

Money statement. 

Amount appropriated by act approved Sop tfiubcr 19, 1890 $7, 500. 00 

Jane 30, 1891, amount expended during liscal year li, 418. 70 

Jnly 1, 1891, balance unexpended 5,051.30 

July 1, 1891, outstanding liabilities 330.28 

July 1, 1891, balance available 4,721.01} 



Expense account. 

Payrolls $903.41 

Subsistence supplies :r). 1)2 

General supplies !)2 1 . 1 •« 

Traveling expenses :^.(). so 

Stationery ] ♦ ; . Ni » 

Rent so.oo 

Machinery l«;ti. (M) 



2, 'M». 70 
Tonnage of Fourche Eiver, Arkansas, 1,000 tons. 



IMPEOVEMENT OF PETIT JEAN BIVEH, AEKAKSAa; *gi 

Before improvement this river was obstructed with snagSj logs, drift- 
piles, overhatipug trees, and shoiils. The original ]traject for improve- 
V meat contemplatfid rendering it navigable during Iiigb and medinni 
r-fltages of water aa liigh as DanvUlc, Ark., by cutting the overhanging 
m trees and cutting up the snags, logs, and drift. The fell in the river is 
I HO great that nothing could be done to improve the Bhoals. The first 
appropriation ever made for the rivei' was that of the aet approved 
Angnst 5, 188<}, amounting to 83,500; one-lmlf theeBtimate,«7,000. This 
amount was e^cpeuded prior to June 30, 1888, in completing the work 
I of improvement t« Eocky Crossing, or about one-half the distalictt. Tho 

■ act, which became a law August 11, ll^8S, appropriated $2,500 and pro- 
B Tides for continuing the improvement below the Iron Bridge at Eockj' 
P Crossing. It will be seen that this is a departure from the original 

project, and contemplates entering upon an improvement of a semi- 
permanent ciiaracter. This reach of river was accordingly visited in 
person and a new project prepai'ed and duly approved. This project 
provides that $2,500 be expended below Eocky Crossing in removing 
timtier Irom the low-water channel and in removing a small portion of 
the ledges at Slaty Crossing and Robiiisou Kidge, so as to prolong thi' 
season of navigation. The best scuson for coudneting this work begins 
, about the middle of August or the Ist of September. The date at 
L which the aet became a law precluded the possibility of uiuking the 
I examination, preparing the project, and coniiuoncing the work during 
r the flscal year ending June 30, 1889, as high water would huvc inttr- 
rupted the work before it would have been completed, rendering sna- 
peusion of work necessaiy, thereby adding materially t« the expense of 
transporting meu and material to the works on two different occasions, 
when one would answer as well. For these reasons no work except that 
! necessary to make the examination had been done during the fiscal year 

■ ending June 30, 1889. 

■ The fiscal year ending June 30, 1890, was prolific in sadden rises, 
w and there was no time, on account of these uinisual couditionSj wheji 
I the work necessary to be done could bo planned with any certainty of 
I being completed, and as much complaint had been made abont xaannj 
I being expended at high water, it was thought best to hold this money 
I until a regular prolonged low-water season would permit its espendl- 
[ ture to the very best advantage possible. Accordingly, in the fincal 
f year ending June 30, 1891, a completely orgtwised force was plae#d iu 
f the field and the balance expended in accordance with the proje<!t. 

Tlio amount of work done for the money reflects great credit upon tfa« 
oveiseer, Mr. 8. L. Titus, and may be recapitidated as follows: Trees 
cut, 2,558; ti-ecs deadened, 1,521; snags and stumps removed, 599; 
cnbic yards of rock and gravel excavated, 340; distance worked OTSr, 
21 miles. 

It is scarcely necessary to prolong this reixirt to state the advantages 
to be derived fiom the improvement, since these are set forth at Icngtli 
in the remarks in reference to comnioroe. It ia my duty as engineer 
K.Ofl&oerin charge to renew the reciininiendations of improving the river 
IfWtm Rocky Crossing to Danville, Ark., according to the origiiml pnyt'^f. 
K Thirty-five hundred dollars will be reqiiiicri lor this purpose. In tliis 
F«onnectiou att^mtion is resi)ectl'ully invited to m) i-ciioits of the liMtS 

■ ycare. The entire river to Danville will somf .hiy !..■ ;i viiluabhj iuUxf i 



APPENDIX W — REPORT OP CAPTAIN TABER. 2047 

■ 

of commerce, and tlie bridge to Rocky Crossing, whicli now obstzructs 
its free and safe navigation, should be made to comply witli the law at 
as early a date as possible. 

COMMERCE. 

When works of improvement began a boat made 2 or 3 trips a year, 
at high water or medium stages, and brought out from 200 to 300 bales of 
cotton. With the improvement completed, freight rates would be re- 
duced 50 per cent, and distance in hauling. by wagons reduced 26 miles. 
There being no competing routes of transiwrtation, except wagons, no 
comparison of rates can be made. The completion of the works as origi- 
nally recommended would increase the commerce tenfold, and it is esti- 
mated by one writer that from 5,00^ to 6,000 bales of cotton would be 
moved by river. Another writer estimates the Increase at from 50 to 100 
per cent. The community generally would receive many benefits. One 
writer estimates that products could be marketed at one-half present 
cost; another states, as an incidental benefit, that the freeing of the river 
of obstructions will reduce the overflow, thereby increasing the areas 
under cultivation and improving the general health of the section. To 
all this may be added the fact that this stream is the only outlet to the 
Petit Jean Valley. This valley is very rich. The town of Danville, in 
this valley, receives over 1,000 tons of freight annually by wagons. 
Timber is plentifal and in great variety. The great drawback' to this 
section is its want of cheap transportation. The opening of the Petit 
Jean to navigation for 5 or 6 months would be of untold value to the 
entire valley. The limits of a Tejyovt of this kind forbids entering into 
details, but it may be stated in a general way that the total requii*ed to 
complete the work is insignificant comi)ared with the results to be 
gained. 

Money statement. 

July 1, 1890, balance unexpended $2,444.52 

June 30, 1^1, amount expended during lisc.il year 2, 444. 52 

{Amount (estimated) required for <*oin])letion of existing project 3, 500. 00 
Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1893 3, 500. 00 
Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river and 
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. 



Expense account. 

Pay roUs $1,590.80 

Subsistence snpplies 258. 87 

General supplies 419.44 

Transportation 47. 79 

Traveling expenses 51. 10 

Stationery 36.80 

Rent 40.00 

Setumed to U. S. Treasury for freight charges .22 



2, 444. 52 
Tonnage of Petit Jean River, Arkansas, 1,500 tons,- 



2052 KEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. A&MT. 

accnmuliition of logs. Seven thousand dollars was the amount a] 
priatod. $3,000 for the constiiictiou of a snag boat and <<4,tH)0 fa 
operating expenses, working at or near exti*eme low water, the boa 
ing constnu'ted of light draft for this purjiose. 

I'p to June 30, 18*.»0. the entire sum except $7.11 had been exj^ei 
The snag boat was built and <»perated as far down as Walkers P 
leaving 35 miles of river yet to be wt>rked. The boat was opcratetl ju 
neiir low water as it roiiltl be moved and with a draft of only 14 inches 
will be seen that only the nniin rhanncl cimld be worked, as it suri'ly c 
bt' fonnd at tlM*h>w-waterstagi*. The obstructions eniHumtered were: 
formidable tlian the reeonnoissance showed, one snag when lifted i 
bringing nji several others. The balance of the river eiuild be ele 
]>y selling the snag boat to some other appropriation, but as these ( 
a]»im>i»riatitnis were small it eonl«l not be done during the liseal 
emling Jnnc MK ISOl. The b(»at has been well eared for and ke] 
thorongh repair and used u]H>n the Black liiver. If an adequate 
projuiation is made for the Black River. -Vrkansas. the boat niigl 
sold to til at river and the proceeds worked out in her operating: 
penses upon this river and no further apprt>priation made for this 
ticular river, if. however, the Black River appropriations are h*ss 
$1lMK>0 then imblic policy would require the ai^]»rt>])riatit>n of ar 
$3,000 tt» conii»lere this work. The remarks under comment* are all 
is necessary to show what a large amount is to be benefited. 

COMMEKCE. 

It is not easy to ascertain the amount of eommeree upon this i 
]»rior to the making of this its tirst appropriation. Since the buil 
4»t'the railroad the many obstructions in the stream have causi'd I 
to give up the usi* ot* it. an*! it is hard to get any information iu rej 
to it. It ci>nhl nor ha\ e been large, for the obstructions are so iiu 
ous as to preclude much use of it. As to the etfeet upon insurance 
freight rates this ean only be known by actual trial, as this is alun 
hitherto unknown river so far as any records go. 

.Vs to the etfeet upon competing routes of transiK)rtation. then 
probably very few sections in whicli an o])en river would atibrd reli 
a bnnlened people under exorbitant rai4's made by a single line of 
road as tliis one will do. As to relative cheai)ness there, of coursi*, 
be no ( I nest ion as to water rerittttf rail transportation. Reliable pa 
state that the opening of the river will cause a market reductic 
freight rates. 

-Vs to prospective advantages to eommeree there is at present no < 
put ing ihi'in. Tlie timber alone warrants the present outlay. 
r«uMitr\ is Very teiiile, well adapted to cotton, corn, fruit, and gi 
racily iiiliivjitiMl. and only om'-tburth settleil, ami it is as ditVicn 
1 1 II dirt wImi the ]nos]»cctive advantages to connnerce will be as to I 
r:iU« II n]> .'Hi or 7'» yrars ago and predicted tin' commerce u]>on != 
>iMiilar .Ntrtiini-* in oMei- Slates, where thonsands and even millioi 
d<dl:ii> lit' lii'i.L:ht nvr now trans])orted annually. The river is u 
alnn»>T :i Hiitin :il j;Mi:M. :nid it is believed that 50 vears from now wil 

■ 

if pii»\iili'il will! ;i lew l<n-ks ami so used. 

l>iiiin- tin- jiMMi:!i riidin.i: .Iniie 1(5. lisVMi, i\70J tons of lumlu'r "^ 
latTi'd ihiuiiLili till' ])iid;:e ot' tlie .Memphis and Little Ri»ck Raib 
Tills is th4f tLr>i uMiali of systematic etiV»rt to secure the tonnage of 
river. 



comit of this erroi- in the tixatiun of the zero. A much larger sum o 
money will be required to complete thin imjirovcment, iutuimueh as b; 
a«rtnal and uareful observation low-watei' mark is nemly as iimoh below 
the best that could be determined irom the iiiha)>itaiitR of tlils new 
eouutry »3 the di^ptb of water originally ootiteinplatfd to be Kiveii » 
ebtuuiel over tUi« refte)i of rivor. Prom thia (aA^t a. \ww set of coihH- ■ 
tioiis arise. 

During such time as I have been able to take from the conduct of the 
works during the past seaHon, fiinee I have become oeitaiu oEtheabove- 
iiietitioued ^t, much study haA been given to the coui-hc to be pnrsned. 
1')ie pi-osent plans and esdinates are of course entirely iiiadei^usite bo 
for OR the nver from Newport. Ark,, to Forsytbe, Ma, is concerned.- 
The demands of commerce are becoming very clamorous, and after nare- 
ful deliberation I am of the opinion that the question of a system of ' 
locks and dams oaght to be ciinvassed at once and abcKinning made ' 
upon an improvement of this nature, 'i^ipre are qidie a uuniber of ' 
shoals that will need Ioi.-ks and dams to overcome them. No estimat« 
i»n be famished of the cost nf tiiese locks and dams witlmut a mure . 
complete survey of the localities. The most judietons plan that haa 
occurred to me wonld bo to recommend an appropriation of i?7.*i,liOO or 
perhaps 8100,000, *50,000 to JTC.OtMl of which to be expended at the 
shoals not rer|uiring the aystem of Iwks and dams, and the tialance. or 
so much as might be necessary, utilized in making dctailtd snrvcpi 
preparatory to ^imishlng plans and estimates for a syalciu of locks and 
dams: this outiiide of ^e 653,810 required to complete the insisting 
project, which should be uaed almost entirely bctwi-en Nowjiort, Ark., 
and the month of tlie river, in accordance with the plans and estimates 
that are alruady a matU'.r of printed rceoi'd. This would make the total 
tiiat could be profitably exi>endod during the Ihical year ending .hum 
;», I«l«, «153,H15. 

Attention is respf?ictfiiUy invited to the increase in the tonnage of the 
river and to my statement matle iti the original plana and cHtimatea 
Knbmitted several years ago, that in ray opinion the time wonld come . 
when the vast commerce of this territory ivould demand the applioa- 
tiuii of a IfK'k and dam system to this river, 

I am satisfied that as yet the full tonnage of thU valley has not been 
BwmriMj, although this people are now thoroughly awake as to the ne- 
cessity for cheap tiansiwrtation. It may be noted liere as ap^dicable to 
all my annual reports that, while charged with a vaat tenitory, well 
watered with navigable Btreams, the people inhabiting the territory are 
w> little coHscioua of the roaourcoa they poaaess iu their iertile llelda, 
timbered hillA, mineral ^stocked monutaius, and natural water ways, that 
it is only by the most strenuous cflbrts that anything like an aceorate 
sjiowiog of commerce can be obtained, A quick way to get attention 
to thw White River would bo to say that it has at least all the possibil- 
idea of the Teunesseo Biver, with a margin in ita tiivor, if auytUiug. 

COSOIEBCE. 

The first appropriation having been made in 1833, the records of this 
ofllce ilo not show what was the amount of commerce prior to any at- 
tempf."* at improvements. 



In the .Vuiiual Rc|Virt of l.he Oli 
Colonel Suter, referriug tn the upin 

Thf ci-!inl.ry Ihordi-ring un l!iis ji.iri ion i 
ant nyau vnVet traiis]>cirti>Ii<iti, ivliLi.'ti tiu 
]■ vwry niiiTiitiiJn mirl I'milj. 
BSO 91 — j^y 



f of Engineers for ISifi, page 627, 
reaches of tlUs river, says: 



And even onC year later be speaks of much of the commerce being 
carried oti by teams. (Anqual Report Chief of Eugiueers, 1377, pagn 
501.) 

Tlie advantnges to commerce if the pennaneut improvement Is 
effected will be jjrejifest of that to any river in the State in proportion 
to the coat. This is a natnral highway for commerce to aii estenHiye 
territory, and much of this territory has as yet no other outlet except 
the wagon. In this connection aee Annual Eeport Cbief of Gnginuent, 
1880, page 1313; Annual Report Chief of Engineers, 1884, page 1401; 
aJ^su, Annual Report Chief of Engineers, 1885, pages 1589 and 1591. 
Here will be found a steady Increase in commerce, keeping pa<* with 
the improveraents, which Bpeaks for itself and calls for no coninient. 
As to beueiit.s to community, it may be Raid that a community that wiU 
follow np the work already done as this one has can but be greatly 
benefited. Every improvement made ia promptly taken advantage oC 
The rapid growth in prosperity in this seftion warrants the belief tivst 
the permanent improvement of this river will confer benefits upon tills 
community so great that the cost of the works will seem too sniall for 
comparison. Anyone taking the trouble to read the Annual Reports 
of the Chief of Engineers for the past 12 years will be struck by tJi6 
uniform testimony of engineers in regard to the future great commerce 
of (his river, a signilicant fiict in itself. 

Data gathered trom various sources may be condensed as followis: 

There is a division in the commerce of this river, the Up[)«r and 
Lower WhitCj both territories improving rapidly under the presontsys- 
tem of river improvements. The Upper White River territory, whuJi 
needed principally a low-water channel by improvement of iihoaLs M 
insure a regular traai^portation of product.a, ie beginning Lo sbow ft 
marked improvement in agricultmal lands, especially near the river, 
and yielding a greater tonnage each year. These products, whliA 
have been hauled heretofore across the country in wagons from 50 to 
80 miles to Springfield and other points on the railroad that lead U 
St. Louis markets, are beginning to find a more accessible outlet hf 
way of the rivei' to Batesville and Newport, where they are tianitferredw 
the railroad and carried to the same market. The ultimate rcnults rf 
this river improvement wilt not only be a settlement of the cuuDtif, 
but also a creation of new markets in the direction of ^ew Orleauv, U 
where a cheaper transportation is offered by way of the river, Tlw 
mining enteiiirise is also being engaged in all along the Upper WhiU 
Birer, and a greater demand for river navigation is presenting itself to 
the 6ommunity in getieral. During the past year, in develo]iiiig thew 
mines, several barge loads of zinc ore were shipped down the riverat 
a comparatively low stage of watei, the obstructions being so greatly 
reduced liy the river improvement tJiat it was found iwssible to stupiB 
tbis way. 

A number of enterprising citizens have responded to the inquiry fof 
eommercial statistics of this river during the past year, and all agn# 
that the improvement is of vast importance to the enhaiiccmont of juall'^ 
nets and settlement of the country. 

A tabulated statement from Capt. Charles B. Woodbury gives tiii . 
traffic in cedar and lumber as 54.!)(!l> tons, against 26,200 tons last yesCa 
also 3,878 tons cotton against 2.82u tons laat year, "j 

Tliia is an increase of over 100 per cent, in lumber and 37 p«r ctfu 
increase on cotton, the staple product of this country, ^ 

The tonnage of Lowei- White River has decreased somewhat, owiil' 



2056 REPORT OF THK CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8 ARMY. 

provod Spptonibor UK ISfHl, >«r»,<HM) wore appvopriatod out of the 
jSlV»,00() rt'ii^iniiimdod as the aiuouiit that rould be profitably expended 
diiriiiji" rhi' lisral year nidiiijr Jnue 30. ISOl. 

As stared in my last aiiiuia] re]M»it, the snajrboat belonging: to this 
river was found to hv in too rotten a eonditii»n lor sn a *rjring: operations* 
rortunati'ly a new bt>at built for the Caehe Kiver was idle. This boat 
is specially adapted for work in narrow streams. It was transferred at 
onie to this stream on pro])er authority, and work bejrun at Poj^lar Bluff, 
31o,. under the appropriation "Improving: Blaek Kiver, Missouri." with 
a view to working: down to the Arkansas State line on that appivpria- 
tion and then bejrinning work under this head. About the time that 
the work was brought down to the State line and the boat had been 
transferred to this ai>propriation. the river rose, and from that time to 
the end of the fiscal year remained t<H) high for effective snagging 
operations. During the fiscal year ending June 30. 1891, therefore, only 
.^L.^JT/JS have been exi>ended in the ninrssary repairs to the plant and 
care of i>ropcrty. Early in June the bi^t will be put in the field and 
operated between (.'orning. Ark., and the mouth of Current River, a 
reach that never has been thoroughly worked. As the Cache Eiver 
siKigboat may be rcipiired again upon her own river. I will renew my 
rcconmiendations made last year in regard to building a new hull for 
the snag boat liairu :<h*hhn, ami transferring her upper works at a cost 
of about •'jSjMJO. It seems like a redundancy to reiterate facts that have 
so often appeared in my annual reinnts. in regard to the gi*eat benefits 
to be conf(»rred by the opening of this river and to the deserving char- 
acter of the stnam. on aeconnt of its deep water and permanent banks: 
vet. as I eome to know this stream more ami more thoroughlv from vear 
to vear. 1 am more ct^nvineed that the recommendations made in the 

« 

past should not only be renewed, but emphasized in their renewal. 

^ly l>lan has been to secure an anniml contingent of ^'S.IHR) for this 
work, but this has l>een dejurted from so far in the amounts of the ap- 
]m>priations that nothing less than $42,000 would adequately nuvt the 
requirements <»!' the situation. It may be stated that with the expendi- 
ture of this sum as a whole, a magnificent artery of commerce would 
be etVeetively o]>cned, wliieh would need but very little attention for its 
maintenance. The work of the coming season between Coming. Ark., 
and the mouth of the Turrent Kiver will reduce the number of snags 
that an' likely tn loilge between Current Kiver and the mouth of the 
river fully ."in |icv cent. 

COMMKUCE. 

Tlie aiitniiiM nt'ct'iiuiicrce when work of ini]>rovement began may bf 
iiifriinl iinMi iln- !i 'IIi »\\ ill LI* >iaienient taken from Annual KeiH>rt Cliiei 

nl' MlI-iTlrt-]^, I'N'M*. |ia,Ll"C 1.">1'»I. 

!':.■■!. ''.I- ! ' • ■ ■ ". : \ -ii-.:' i]ii:niTitirs of sTiivrs are Taken, and from the I.owo: 
T;: .. \ • > . .: : ., : :;..,: ii,.in ln.tHH) to IL'JHXJ hah-. i>t' rotton .ire >lii]ipiMl to Mt-ii* 

l-':".^ . •-■ :■■'■.*'. ■ :".■•>. ■■.Hi ntl-.rr '»lli]il!lrllts , aillouIlT llOt kuOWn » ;jO OVtT thi- St 

1 =" ■- : =■ ! : ■!! ^!-■■.^• .::i iii St. Lmiis. 

A^ iM .:;..; i:;»"ii imTi's uf insurance anil fn^ight. insurance companftv 
li:!\«-i!i»; ;!(!..] r,|».ni ilu- niiiiirr. It is ex]H'cted that the rates will \u 
ii-tlii.j-.l. Tlir woiU i^Jusi beirinnini: h» trll upon the freight, and it i: 
TtMi >n(iii ri» ^r.iTi' tl.iiiiiicly :»< in rait-s. One man. reju*esenting a larg'^ 
>i;i\f t.niiiry a: ri'plai' lUiiil". Mo., esiiiuaies that rates would be iviluce^ 
one halt'. 



APPENDIX W — REPORT OP CAPTAIN TABER. 2053 

Monq/ Rfnfemenf, 

July 1. l>5no, halance nnexpendpil $7.11 

.1 iiiH- aO, l»yi, ainoant expended duriu;^ tisK-al y<*ar 7. 11 



{Amonnt (oHtimated) required for romidotion <»f exist in;; iirnJ«M-t :i. <J<)I>. (H) 
Amount that can be protitably expended intiscaly cur 4'iH I in;; J 11 lie :i<). IMK^ 3,000.00 
iSuhmitted in compliance with reqiiiremeuts of sectiuuH 2 of river and 
harbor acts of 1»66 and 1867. 



fCxpniMv avroiint. 

Stationery supplies $7.11 

Tonnage of Cache Kiver^ Arkansas. :{0.1NK) tons. 



W 7. 
rMPROVEMEXT OF LITFLE RED RIVER, ARKANSAS. 

The first iniproveineuts atteiiiptod iiix)ii tliis river were made in tlie 
year ending June 30, 1872, iind«T the act 'api)roved March 3, 1871. 

Prior to this work many overhanging trees interfered with navi<;ation 
in the lower reaches, and many bowlders obstructed flatboat and raft 
navigation in the reach above the present town of Judsonia. The ap- 
propriation referred to above was for the White, Bla<»k, and Little Red 
Ki vers, and amounted to 810,000 for the three, up<m <»stimates amounting 
to *L'5t),0:53, of which 838,06i> were for the Little Ked River. That little 
work could be done is apparent from Colonel Ke^Tiolds-s report for 1872, 
in which he states: 

Unless other and better facilities are provided it will be of very little use to attempt 
to remove the obstructions in such streams as these. 

^lost of the overhanging trees were removed as high as Judsonia. A 
l>ad shoal 3 miles below Judsonia and the bowlders rciiiaiiied untouched 
to the end of June, 1880. The act approved August ."), 1880, appro- 
priated 83,0(M). The present project contemplates tlic lemoval of the 
dangerous bowlders above Ju<lsonia and a shoal 3 miles billow thc^ same 
town. Up to June 30, 1888, $012.90 had been expi*n<lrd in removing 
the bowlders above Judsonia and the care of theproj>crt y and records. 
Jjy the act which l>ecamea law August 11, 1888, the balance. 8.3,400, neces- 
sary to carry out the orignal project was appropriated. During the liscal 
year ending June *^, 1889, 8;'>,008.fK) was expended in the construction 
of the dredge to be used in removing the shoals 3 juiles below Judsonia 
and in the construction of two material barges. During the low-water 
season of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1890, 8K.331."».S was expended 
in dredging the shoal 3 miles beh)w Judsonia, known* as liess Slioal. 
Tliese shoals are comjjosed of two n»efs about three-fonrtlis of a mile from 
lower to upi>er edges. Tlie up|)er reef has been linislH.»(l to a depth of 
].l feet below low water and 30 feet wide, and about 28.") tons of broken 
rcK'k and gravel removed. 8onu* very eft'ective work was done at the 
lower reef, but, owing to delays from high water, only 210 tons of brok(Mi 
lock and gi*avel have been removed, making 495 tons altogether up to 
June 30, 1890. 



2054 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINTEERS, IT. 8. 

KifWtivr* v.nik nt rlj*^ Mlmvo sboal cmi oi)ly hp dom* af low water. 

During tli»' tiscal year oudiiiff June 30, ISOi, the water remained so 
lii;;jh tliat, exropt a few days in the latter part of August, no workconM 
Im? done at the slioalp^. The dredge being required for the Arkansas 
Kiver wr»rks it was sold to that appropriation, upon proper authority, 
jur $3,500. As tliis would not all be required to complete the work at 
the shoals, a projeirt was prepared in this office and approved by the 
<Jhief of Enj^incers for expending $1,000 of the abovc^in cutting timber 
and removing stumps from the channel as high as the vicinity of Heber, 
Ark., so as to aid raftsmen. 

In accord with this plan, during January, February, and Maich a 
]>arty was put into camp and, with this 81,000, cut 3,331 trees and 
some 100 cords of bnisli, opening a good channel to Judsonia, fi-omHe- 
Ix-r, Ark. As soon as this was done a small steamboat was placed upon 
the river, and many enconjiums were pronounced upon the immense 
good ac<M)mplislicd. 

Many trees still overhang the eddies, and as soon as the work at 
IJesi Shoals has been cojnpleted a project will be submitted for ex* 
])cnding all that can be saved, in farther opening this rea<;h. All this 
may be done as early in the next fiscal year as the water will permit 

COMMERCE. 

Amount of commerce when work of improvement began may be in- 
iV'rred from the following, which appeared in the Annual Kepork of the 

Chief of Engineers, 1871, page 302: 




v»)lved. 

As to prospective* advantages to commerce if completed, if the shoals 
knowni aoS Bess Shoals were removed so that a boat could reach Judsonia 
at all stages of the* ri v(?r, from 1,000 to 1,500 bales of cotton and about 400 
tons of merchinulisc* wouhl be shipped by rivTr at once. A packet 
<liawing 3.^ iW*t of water now makes regular trips the year round tea 
])oint just below tliese shoals. The country round about Judsonia La^s 
been visite<l in ])erson, and I lind its resourc<»s have only begun to be 
<i(»veloped. I sliouM say that the i)resent commerce would double it^^elf 
in 5 years. 

As to benefits to community if completed, it is hard to estimate the 
benefits tlnit <'hea]» transportation would give to a community that has 
known (inly n niiboad outlet, nnd only one at that. No one will qnes- 
tion l)ut wlijit they will be very great; how great can only be told by 
reenlling wh:i1 sn<'h trnnsportntion Inis d(me for other fertile sections; 
but it may safely be s;iid that the benefits will lie so gi'eat that the out- 
hiv will sink into utter insignifieanee. 

This stream is located in a very i)i'os])ei'ous section of the State. The 
])res<'nt eonim<Mv(» amounts to upwards of 13,r>(K) bales of cotton and 
4,7(M) tons of merchandise. A grent <lenl of fniit is being raised, and 
theannmntis rapidly increasing each ycai'. The returns wiUbeiifl- 
mediate* 



APPENDIX W — BEPORT OF CAPTAIN TABEB. 2055 

Money statement. 

July 1, 1890, balance unexpended $537. 86 

Seceived by sale of dredge-boat, uh per letter of Chief of Kngineers, dated 

August 19, 1890 3,500.00 

4,037.86 

June 30, 1891, amount expended during (\hv;\\ year 2, 1-10. 92 

July 1, 1891, balance unexpended 1, 8!H>. 94 

July 1, 1891, outstanding liabilities 75.00 

July 1, 1891, balance available 1,821.94 



Expense account. 

Payrolls $1,709.21 

Subsistouco sup])lies 135. 32 

General supplies 193. 91 

Transportation 1 (J. 05 

Traveling expl'uses 32. 53 

Fuel 45.85 

Stationery 8. 05 

2, 140. 92 



Tannage of Little lied llxrerj Arkansas, 

Ton«. 

Cotton, 13.500 bales 3,375 

Merchandise 4 , 700 

Total 8,075 



W 8. 

IMPROVEMENT OF BLACK RIVER, ARKANSAS AND MISSOURI. 

Before any iinprovemeuts were made upon this river, the inagnilioent 
timber whicb lines its banks, overhung its narrow and deep cliannel, 
giants of the forests stretched across it from bank to bank in falling, 
debris from logging camps lodged in the same, producing shoals, all of 
which presented a formidable array of obstacles, not only to navigation, 
but to any attempts at improving the same. The original plan for its 
improvement contemplated the removal of the obstructions and the im- 
provement of the shoals, the latter by wing dams. A few sloughs were 
to be closed, so as to confine the water to the main channel. The work 
has been steadily carried forward, with very small appropriations, at 
iiTegular intervals, for upwards of 14 years. In the earlier operations 
the appliances were not adapted to the heavy work on hand. In later 
years, suitable appliances having been secured, more rapid progress has 
been made. Its channel being narrow, water de^p, and banks firm, it 
is one of the most satisfiictory streams in this district to improve. 

Up to June 30, 1890, $61,242.40 had been expended in carrying out 
the above plan, giving a very good river from the mouth up to the mouth 
of Current Biver, doing but little for the reach between the mouth of 
Current River and the bridge at Coming, Ark., and making a visible 
impression upon the formidable obstructions between the Arkansas 
State line and Poplar Bluff, Mo., in conjunction with the appropriation 
under the heading ^^ Improving Black Biver, Missouri." B^ ^/^ ^- 



■ proved aei)tffiiiber lit, 1890. J5,000 itltb appropriati-d it«t of the 
Iv^iWlO retrHiniiieDdpd a» the aniouut tb»t i-ould be profitably expended 
I during the flacal year euding Jnue 30, 1891. 

I As stated in my last anonal report, the enagboat belonging to tliia 
I river -was found to be iu too rotten a condition for snagging oporntions. 
I Tortunatelj' a new boat built for the Oaclio Eivtr was idle. This boat 
LjH Bpecially adapted for work in narrow streams. It was transfijiTed at 
Fonee to this stream on proper antliority, and work begun at Poplar BlnS^ 
I Mo., under the appropriation "Improving Bbx'.k Eiver, Missouri," with 
la view to working down to the Arkansas State line on that aj^propria- 
I tion and then beginning work ander this head. About the time that 
, the work was brought down to the State line and the boat had been 
. tiansferred to this appropriation, the river rose, and from that time to 
L the end of the Qsaal year remained too high for effective sniiggiag 
I operations. During the fiscal year ending Juno 30, 1891, therefore, only 
I $1,537.28 have been expended in the necessary repairs to the plant and 
J tare of property, Early in June the boat will be put in the field and 
operated between Corning, Ark., and the mouth of Current Hiver, a 
reach that never has been thoroughly worked. As the Cache Biver 
Kuagboat may be required again upon her own river, I will renew my 
recommendations made last year in regard to building a new hull Tor 
I the snag boat Henry Sktldon, and transferring her upper works at a cost 
I -of abont $6,000. It seems like a redundancy to reiterate fact^ that have 
V jto often appeared in my annual reports, in regard to the great benefits 
Wio be conferred by the opening of this river and to the deser^'ing char- 

■ aeter of the stream, on account of its deep water and permanent banks; 
1 yet, as I come to know this stream more and more thoreughly fiom year 
l.to year, 1 am more convinced that the recommendations made fn the 
I past should not only be renewed, but emphasized in their renewal. 

I My plan has been to secure an annual contingent of $8.(mmi tor tliii* 

Iwork, but this has been departed from so far in the ainonnts of the ii|i 

I proprifttions that nothing less tbaii $42,000 would adequately im'ct tin- 

I requirements of the situation. It maybe stated that with tlii> i\|n'iuli 

r ture of this sum as a whole, a magnificent artery of coniim r.r wmM 

' be effectively openetl, which would need but very little attoiirimi tm ii< 

maintenance. The work of the coming season between Coniini;, ,\rk., 

and the month of the Cunent Elver will reduce the number vt uniigti 

that are likely tJt lodge between Current Kiver and the mouth of the 

river fully lUi i>er cent. 

COMMERCE. 

The [tmimiif of i-oirimcrce when work of improvement began may bo 
I inferreil tioiu I lie i'ollowinj.' stiiti^meut t^ken from Annual lieport OhM 
tflf Engineers, IStso. page i;f20. 



Lot known) go a 

As to effect niM)n rates of instirance and freight, insurance compaulM 
I Jiave not acted upon the matter. It is expected that the rates will lie 
I Ti-AacM. The work is just beginning to tell upon the freight, and it fs 
I too soon to state definitely as to rates. One man, representing a large 
f stnvefactory atPophirBIuff,Mo.,estimatesthatrate3woold be rudaci ' 
f one' ball 



As to ^miict iiiwu rates of eompetinp rontfls i>f ttanwportatioD, Uds I 
river iiorallels the St. Loiiis, Iron Muuntaio and Soutliei'n Railroad for 
10« iiiil«*. Tliere can l>e no qiieatiou as tn watpr versiiM rail trans- 
poftatlon. Kdiablc parties atate tliat the efteut will be marked. Ah to ' 
pKiftpprtivo advantages to commerce if completed, treight would be in- 
(TpaKcd tenfold. There ie a va«t tract of land througli whirh Black 
Htver rnna, the pioductn of which must be transported by river. The 
country is only just beginning to be opened np, and is susceptible prat- 
ticftlly of unlimited development. It isdillic,nlttoesfimat«thebr!Uelit« 
to the community if completed. This river is one of the deepest in tho 
State. As a natural highway it fiiirpassoa liie Arkansas Itiver. lt» 
banks cave but littJe, and when the standing timber has been <'lear<-d 
otf HO that snags do not accumulnte it will not give much troublu an a 
navigable Htreiim. It is destined to beeDiiic in the near fntaru a part of 
a great parallel transportation line to JNew Orleans, competitig with the 
Missouri Pacific system of railroads for the traffic of an immense t*r- 
litorj". T lie confines of such a report as this are too limited to do justice 
to this river. Were they more extended I doubt if it were possitde to 
forecast the great benefits that will flow fiom ibs maintenance as a ' 
navigable streajo. i 
l£d following letter explains itself: J 

^^^^P F. G. OxijCY Stavs COMPUiT, fl 

^^■K Poplar Bluff', Mo., June 10, JS:n. I 

H^|SusBtn: * ■ ■ We find we have liauled on oui boats during the past ycvJI 
^^HBO tonv of ftrfght. This freight was dtliTored nt Poplar BJuft from points dowu'^ 
tlie rirer, aad at the railvaiy bridge between CorDing and Knobel tmio point* bultt 
aliovi! and below tbe bridge. There has been taken from points above tbe f>taT4 
line tlirM large barges of staves down the BInok Uivei into the White, anil ttiyin i 
til Dni.-H to New Orleans. This ctiiilili not hav» Itcou iiceomptished prior tu the liut ', 
work dime by your force. J 

I ilenire to eompliment yon on the work done by tbe loist appropriation. I lieBt've ■ 
that I nin not overdoing it when 1 say that it did more good than all the otjier vnirk 
tlutt has hei'ii done on the Tiver comliineil. It is hiird to tell the amoaut uf l^tJi^ht . I 
"whiiih oonld be moTed on this riTi>r, iirovliled it could be made navigable tbi- year "i 
rouml. The rirer has no biul bura. 1 think thut there are only four or live pliiriiN 
)jv(twt>i^ FoplarBlnlf and the State line which wonid rcqnireiuiy dred^^ng, ami 1 lie> 
lievn that if nil the snites were removed frum the river, and the Dan Biver i^tlV^tiinlly 
t-liwnd n]i at ita head, tlmt Ihuee bars would »11 be remuvBd by the mirrfnt nf th'ii 
liv«<r. Be it naturally biia » prett^v etiif ciorent. If it ctiitld be piMBible tn tbuninghly 
(ilenn this riviT. thus making it reusunable for a gteumboat man to hiivi! 'wiitri' Ili'o 
|(Tvat«r part of the year, ttrrangements could be made to mn boats Doatinnnlly. and 
BM Aoon BS aettlcTB iijid people ctune into this country and fLud that they uhh di>pcnd 
npon ttmmportation for their products, then tbe lower ooimtry between this mid 
the Stute line would naturally settle up. Every settler would of eonrBL- hiiVft 
anmD prodnet to carry. It is of vaiit importance to a very large territ-nry (1 shoulil 
think about 100,000 acres) that Ibis river be thoroaghly cleaned. All the overhang- 
ing tmsB. whether theyobstrui't navigation or not, should be removed, because they ■ 
^^untiuilly fall into the rivei. Onr Bteuuiboats have lenmved since your crew w<u J 
^^^£m many m 25 trees which fell into the ilver owing to washing of the bankit. I 
^^^^H ooimtry is greatly improving, and 1 notice on my trips down the river a uewJ 
^^^Ktot * new eleuring whieh did not appear when I was down tlie previous tiin«S 
^^Hbcerely hope you will be able to secure a good round appropri»tion thia year.4 
^HEteoiild mn our boat-s the year round we could double in the next year the tnii- °l 
^^^Enf tlie previous year. ' 

^^Hbttll* informatitiQ is not sufficient. kiniUy tell me just what yon want, and if it is 
^^^MUe to procure it for you I will cheerfully submit it. 
^^^t ¥onrB truly, 

^KT H. D. WlLUAMS. 

^^E SeoretaTf and TrtanHrer. 

^■ptot. U- S. Tasek. 



2058 HEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGmEERS, U. 8. ABMT. 

Money statement 

Amoun t Appropriated by act approved September 19; 1890 $5, 000. 00 

June 30, 1891^ ainouDt expendoa dnring fiscal year 1, 537. 28 

July 1, 1891, baljmcc unexpended 3,462.25 

July 1, 1891, outstanding liabilities 177.25 

July 1, 1891, balance available 3,285.47 

{Amount (estimated) required for fompletion of existing project 42, 000. 00 
Amount that can beprolitaldy oxi>ondt!d in fiscal year ending June 30, 1893 42, 000. 00 
Submitted in conipliiinc-e with requirements of sections 2 of river and 
harbor acts of Hm :ind 1867. 



' Expcnae nccount. 

Payrolls $851.44 

Subdistence Hupli«\s 154.00 

(General supplies 189.96 

Traveling expensi-^ 3L 88 

Machinery 310.00 

1,537.28 

Tonnage of Black River, Arkansas and Missouri, 97,720 tons. 



Wg. 

IMPROVKMENT OF HLACK RIVKR, MISSOURI. 

Tlie first iniprovenieiits attempted upon tliis reach of river were made 
in the years 18S1 and 18S2. 

Prior to this work its channel was choked with logs and snags, and 
obstructe<l by overhanging tiees, and in many places shoals interfered 
with its navigation at low water by any bnt very light-draft boats. Its 
banks caved but little, and except at the shoals it is characterized by 
greater dei)th of water than is found in streams generally in its vicinity, 
due to its being nanow and its banks firm. The original plan for its 
improvement c<)nteni])l}ited tlu^ removal of the obstioictions and the im- 
provement of the shoals, the latter l)y wing dams. A few sloughs were 
to be closed u]) so as to confine the water to the main channel. Up to 
June 30, 18SS, A(),0(K) had be<»Ti expended, which had opened up about 
20 miles of river from roi)lar Bluff, Mo., toward the mouth. Owing to the 
difiiculty in getting suitiible ax)pliances up to this reach it was carried 
on under great <liniculti<^s. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1889, 
the snag boat Ilennj Sheldon, si)ecially constructed for work on this 
river, wjis successfully ])ushed thrrnigh to Poplar Bluff and operated 
from tliere down the river, rnpidly and effectively clearing the same of 
obstructions. Six th(Mis;ind five hundred and sixty-two dollars and 
thirty cents wen* exi>en(led in the work; erecting a strong dam at the 
head of J)nn T^iver (ji chute of* the P»lack River); removing 203 snags; 
cutting 1.874 ovcrluin^iln;;- tiers: driidening 17,100 trees and removing 
12 musses ordril'twiioil; <'iirryiiig the work to the Arkansas State line: 
renioviii;^ the ^rt'atcr ])oi'tiou of the dtingiTous low-water snags, and 
making a good brginning upon the overhanging timber. 

Dnring the liscal year ending June oO, 1800, only §100.20 was avail- 
able, and this was expended in connection with the other appropriation 
for this river, in the running expenses of the snag boat Henry Sheldon. 



APPEITDIX W — ^REPORT OF CAPTAIN TABER. 2059 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, $3,914.21 were expended 
between Poplar Bluff, Mo., and the Arkansas State line, removing 406 
snags, destroying 23 i)iles of drift, and cutting 10,450 overhanging trees. 
This work was done between Xovember 22, 1890, and February 1, 1891. 

During the balance of the iis(!al year the water has been too high for 
effective operations. This work has greatly improved this reach of river, 
as one of the light-draft boats transferred from tlie Cache Eiver was 
operated. Tliere is still overlianging timber that should be removed 
and many snags and logs. Good i)rogres8, however, is now being made 
toward the thorough opening of the river, and the balance will be ex- 
pended removing the obstructions enumerated and in rebuilding the 
dam at the head of Dan lliver, which has undoubtedly been blasted out. 
It will be rebuilt so strongly as to render this impossible. More inti- 
mate knowledge of this river in this reach leads me to confirm all that 
I have said in regard to its being worthy of imi)rovement and to add a 
considerable more in the way of emphasizing the same. To economize 
space, everything that needs to be said in regard to future work has 
been placed under the general heading "improving Black Eiver, Ar- 
kansas and Missouri,'' as that covers the same ground. 

• 

COMMERCE. 

See report for "improving Black Eiver, Arkansas and Missouri." 

Money statement. 

Amount appropriated by act a]»proved September 19, 1890 $7, 000. 00 

June 30, 1891, amonnt expended during iiscal year 3, 914. 21 

July 1, 1891, balance unexpended 3,085.79 



« 

Expense account. 

Payrolls $2,970.95 

8ui»sist(mce 8nx)plie8 614.02 

General 8up|)lie.s i78. 11 

Transportation 9. 04 

Traveling expenses 80. 09 

Rent 40.00 

Skiff 22.00 

Total 3,914.21 



Wig. 
IMPROVEMENT OF ST. FRANCIS RIVER, ARKANSAS. 

Earliest appropriation made for this river under any head was made 
by act approved March 2, 1833. 

Summing up all the various works of improvement it Aiay be infeiTcd 
that prior to 1833 this river was much choked with drift piles, logs, and 
snags, its waters sprea<l out throu;;^h a great variety of sloughs, while 
overhanging trees added to the dilS(»ulties of navigation. In the origin- 
ally-adopted project snagging operations figured largely and attempts 
liave been mtade to close up some of the many sloughs. This river has 
been anited so often with the White Kiver and also witli ti\i!b 'fi\a«?«. 



__iiver that it in imposaibletogiveflxaetlyUow murh had bwsu «x] 
I upon the St. Trancis River to Juiie 30, 1884. 

rroid .liiiiP ao, ISSi, to June 30, 1890, «24,000 were approprial 
i^lLMiiH) ill 18S4, ^8.00t» ill ISSO, and $4,000 in 1888, and this liad h 
]'r:iilir:illj- esjunidnd. Tlie liistory of its expcnditiire is the liisfcorjr- 
;iil M<irk iu new countries, with entirely inadequate appropriadous, m* 
over long reachea of river. Moat constant and earei'iil stndy iias been 
given to making tho money do as much work as posaihte. The tuiag 
boat Johnson was first designed for tluB river, and its light draft, 
F great power, and light running expenses were first utilized on ttiisrivoLV< 
A vast Bjnoiintof very hardpioneerworkhasbeen done. Onceort 
bioknesB in the swamps has demoralized the crew. Diverse iutci 
[have opposed the boat's progress here and there, bnt with steady pfii" 
ttistence the work has been carried on, looking to the nitlmate openinft' 
of tlie river as contemplated In the original projects The little reach 
above the Sunk Lands has been well opened and greatly to the advan- 
tage of commerce. The transfer of the boat has caused great delay. 
Tills has been obviated by building a separate twin boat partly out 
t the appropriation to operate above the Sunk Lands in conjunction 
ith the appropriation "improving St. Francis River, Mi-seouri." 
By act approved September 19, 1890, $4,000 only was appropriated to. 
carry forward this work; $8,000 was recommended. Some criticie 
have been pas-ied locally upon the close estimates JuadCj and I have bi 
urged to increase them because they will be scaled. I can not see \ 
K)Ucy in doing this and can only report that where estimates are cloM' 
t wiU be found eventually that steady progress will be made, though 
t takes more time for it to appear. During the fiscal year ending June 
*", 1891, the water has been too high for efifective eiiaggin;:. which 
' shoold be done at or near low water. The boat has been moved to the 
vicinity of its next work and will be put in the fltjld tm early in the nest 
fiscal year as the water will permit. A small sum was expended pro 
rata uiwn a new snag boat for the reach trom Kennett, Mo,, to St. 
I'niiicis, Ark,, as explained above. It is scarcely proper to include in 
liiis ri'jHirt anything that is a reiteration of the reports of former years, 
jci iiMirder to obtain the information necessarj' to a thorough under- 
standing of the merits of the river, its commerce, the anumnt of water 
iu its channel, the difficulties under which It is worked, it is absolutely 
^ecessary tliat the reports for the last 5 years be caii^fnlly gone over. 
tCbe more study 1 have given the stream and the country tbc more ln< 
" ceetipg the study becomes and the moie convincing are the arga- 
iata in fevor of opening ap the river. With no transportation except 
Se wagon, a fertile section rapidly settling up between listers Liiiid- 
plg and St. Francis would at once pour out through this cliatiui-! its 
"products, adding many times the smn reciuired tor the inipti' :; 
to the material prosperity of the country. Whatever decisiin 
rendered as to the desirability of further expenditure, the riv< i 
a plant of its own, peculiarly adapted to its work, and can bi- 1 .; > 
at a very small outlay. It would bn better to put the river in c\ii|lorit 
shape before the plant deteriorates, ami it is believed that after a few 
years of thorough work the river will maintain itself. As to future de- 
mands, the development of the country can alone decide what tliese will 
be. It may be that dredging the Sunk Lands to bring the river back 
to its own channel may be warranted in years to come and that low- 
water navigation may be demanded. At present the prospect is too 
I jc^uote to devote time to plans and estimates for these improvemeDbS 



dto,^ 

!0«*^T^ 



iTbv pliin rocommemldd for several years that J8.000 be appropriated 
nuually uot having been catrit^d out th« rivur in ihlly t^8,(H)0 behind 
kne«<lL'(l improvtMnentB, and that sum could bo profitably expended'tl 
be fiscal yiiUT ending Jane 30, 1893. 

I The work in being carried ou aysfsmatically arid (.'ftVwtively, but tii 
■ yet mnch to bo done. Xowbere iu the State will the resalts be i, 
pro (lirwt, nor Is there auy section where the aiuuuiit net'esaary tou 
~we tho Btr&uu Is ouy smaller in proportion to the buuelit to be ( 
rred. 

OOMJUEEOE. 

I'The records do not show what the amonnt of commerce was before 

py work was done npoii this river. As the river was almost entirely 

Voked »rith snags, logs, and overhanging trees it must have bten very 

^all and, fiom the best authority I have been able to secure, amounted 

J a iew staves token out by flatboatw propelled by hand. Goodauthnr- 

■les, familial- with the river, state that if the river was properly improved 

l^ght would be reduced fiom $1 per hundred by wagon to 3(i to 35 

«iit« per hundred by boat. From what precedes it wiJU be seen that 

inhere are no competing routes of transportation. The teixitory dritinod 

by Hii« river is almost entirely dependent upon the river foi- trHiisjior- 

tiii.ii'ii. As t<) prospective advantages to coiLinierce it' roiii|>li'N'i( IIh'V 

:iii' j'liii'tiirally beyond computation. Four- Ictfcis in my i">'.-.[-vi,iti, 

I'nitu iitdividnals ()ni te widely separated, allagi-ciiupon (inopotiii, ii:iiin>l\, 

JjUut 111*; iiriiduct of tho counti-y, and heni^oits commercii, would \n- m- 

HKimcd 100 per cent, annually were the river improved ticcfinljn;: ii> Ihr^ 

^Bfisent plans. Some idea of the general beneflt.s to be conlV'j'iii] ii[><>ii 

^Hp immunity by the completion of the works may be formed liom Uio 

^Bct that, with the river only about half prepared for navigjitiitii. i linii 

^wt shipped iu 1885 and 1S8(>, in the extreme upper part of it, ."ion loiis 

^» mBrchandise, 600,000 staves, and 700,000 feet of lumber. Kvl.ti.lidg 

^■e limit a few miles lowei- and we have as the present yearly com iiiini>: — 

^Lobut *3, 150. 000 I Pork #300,000 

^Kvea 325,000 PotatnoB IDC^OOO 

^Kitt4>n «")0, 000 MisceUuneoQB 300,000 

^Em 300,000 I 

^■'J'rom the lower two-thirds of tlie river, during medium and high 
^Kter stages, there are shipped weekly 25,000 bales of cotton, 250,000 
^EclCH of cotton «ecd, and about 175 tous of merchandise. 
^■Comments as to benefits derived ^e unnecessary. 
^KFhta is one of the most deserving rivers of the State. Several letters 
^■my poflSBNsion go to show that the money expended with light-draft 
HpBtfi since 1884 ha» produced great changes in navigation. Replies 
^Klettern sent out to obtain statistics may be rwindensod as follows, vu: 
^■Bivei- improvement would be tho means of settling up the country 
^Ed wutse it to produce tliouwaiids of dollars' worth of timber and corn, 
^■.would reduce the rates of freight folly 25 per cent., as the boats now 
^Bnning could carry double the amount of freight at but little extra es- 
^Bise. It is estimated thatfourtimes as much freight would be shipped 

HFthe river. 

^Blf. Robert V. Sanders, of Kennctt, Mo., estimates that il' tli« river 
^BB pTOperly inijiroved there would be annunllv produced and shipped, 
^nrand above wh.it is now shipped, 25,000 bushels of corn, 100,000 
^Ba at cotton seed, 100,000 white-oak staves, and millions of cypress 



2062 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARHY. 

Tonnage of St, Francis Siver, Arkansas, 

Tons. 

Cotton (40,000 bales) 10,000 

Cottonseed 17,500 

Com (300,000 bushels) '. 6,600 

Pork 6,000 

Potatoes (300,000 bushels) 9,000 

Merchandise 2,500 

Lumber (337,000,000 feet) 674,000 

Staves (120,000 feet) ..i 6,000 

730,600 
Money statement. 

July 1, 1800, baliiDce unexpended $2.42 

Amount api)ropriated by act approved September 19, 1890 4, 000. 00 

4,002.42 
June 30, 1891, amount expended during fiscal year 2,501.52 

July 1, 1891, balance unexpended 1,500.90 

July 1, 1891, outstanding liabilities 298.10 

July 1, 1891, balance available 1,302.80 

(Amount (estimated) required for rom])lction of existinj? project 28, 000. 00 

Amount that can be profitably expended in ii seal vear tmd i ug J line 30, 1893 28, 000. 00 
Submitted in compliance -with rcquiremeuts of soctioiis 2 of river and 
harbor acts of 18G6 and 18G7. 



Expense account. 

Payrolls $1,821.04 

Subsistence supplies 216. 18 

General supplies 334.00 

lYansportation 13.20 

Traveling expenses 161.35 

Stationery 15.75 

Rent 40.00 

Machinery 400.00 

2, SOL 52 



WII. 

IMPROVEMENT OF ST. FKANCIS RIVER, MISSOURI 

The first appropriation made for this work was tliat of $5,000 by act 
of Aiij^iist 11, 1888. Trior to tliis time the river cliannel wafl choked 
with lo;^saml sniip:s, ov(^rliai)giii*2: trees iiit(»rfered with the smokcstiwrks, 
and several shoals interfered with low-water navigation. The original 
project eontemplated the removal of the shoals 12 miles below Green- 
vilh-s Mo., the removal by a sna^ boat of stumps, sna^a, and overhang- 
ing trees from (ircHMivilU'. ^b»., to the town of St. Francis, Ark. Up to 
June 30, 1800, .95,000 had b(H*n expended open in<^ up very thoroughly 
the river from Greenville, ]\1(»., to a jjoint about so iniles above St. Fran- 
cis, Ark. A few o])strueti(nis were i(*move<l ovov this latter reach. 

By act approved Seiitcmlu^.r li>, ISOO, .sio,r»oo were appropriatijd to 
carry on the work. As much tiouble had been exi)erienced in getting 



APPENDIX W — ^BEPOET OP CAPTAIN TABEB. 2063 

the snag "boat A, B. Johnson tlirongh the Sunk Lands, this being a bar- 
rier impassable except at extreme high water, and being a natural divi- 
sion of the river into its districts, rather than the arbitrary one at St. 
Francis, Ark., proper authority was secured to build a snag boat, tlie 
duplicate of the Johnsonj to operate above the Sunk Lands altogether, 
leaving the Johnson for the work below and also for the work in Little 
Eiver. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, tliis boat was bidit 
and equipped. From the time the boat was completed to the close of 
the fiscal year the water was too high for effective operations, and the 
boat was laid up in ordinary accordingly. As early in the next fiscal 
year as the water will permit the boat will be put into the field and 
operated, first over the 80 miles not worked under the fonncr appropria- 
tion, and then attention will be given to the shoals 13 miles below 
Greenville. The balance in hand c«an not be pronounced upon as to its 
sufficiency, inasmuch as the act provides for the payment of a claim 
supposed to be presented by the Dunklin County Transportation Com- 
pany for a cut-off owned by them. No such claim has yet been pre- 
sented, and it is doubtful if it ever will be, as the territory was a swamp 
and it was at tiieir most urgent request that it was improved, as may 
be shown by the records, and was of no account to low- water naviga- 
tion until it was opened by the snag boat. If this claim is not presented^ 
then no money will be required to complete the present project; if it is, 
then the amount of the claim in addition will be required. 

This reach of river win some day require very careful attention^ as it 
drains a very rich and fertile territory, now little known, 

OOMMEBGE. 

For commerce, see " Improving St. Francis Eiver, Arkansas.'^ 

Money statement. 

Amount appropriated by act approved September 19, 1890 $10, 500. 00 

June 30, 1891, amount expended during iiscal year 2, 642. 68 

July 1, 1891, balance unexpended 7,857.32 

July 1, 1891, outstanding liabilities 120.00 

July 1, 1891, balance available 7,737.S2 



Expense account. 

Payrolls $1,370.70 

r.eneral supplies 1,074.38 

Transportation 23.98 

Tin veling expenses 66. 90 

Stationery 9.00 

Lumber 61.35 

}<Kiff 22.00 

Kodorved in United States Treasury for freight fhar;r<'S 14. 37 

Total 2,642.68 



mPEOVEMENT OF LITTLE KTVEE. MISSOUEI AND ARKAXSA.S..^^B 
Tbe first appropriatiou ever made for this river vtis that of t^^^^| 
vhioh became a law August 11, ISSS, amounting to $d,nOO (live-vidH^I 
I bf the estiraate, $8,000). The project tor iniproveinent contum^uM^ 
beiiiltsriii^ it navigable at high and medium stages from Homersvillc to 
ntft junction with tbe 8t. Francis River, especially to prolong tbe medium 
t fttuge of wat«r by confining the wat#r to one of the two chutes making 
out of the lake upon which Homersville is situated, and by removing 
the snags, logs, and masses of driflwood that have accumulated in the 
channel. The jji-oject for the expenditure of the $5,000 referred to 
_ftbove, provides that it be expended as follows, viz: $1,500, or as much 
Lis may be necessary, in building a dam across one of the chutes at or 
■tecar the lake, and tlie balance in removing the worst obstructtous in 
wi^e way of overhanging trees, logs, snags, and drift, over the distance 
■vpeoifled, and that the sntig boat A. B. Jahnsmt be used for this work, 
■being tronsfeiTefl in due form and by proper authority and at the proper 
Etiiue for this purpose, the dam to be constructed of brush and gravel, 
I '^rnsh and i^xks. or of such other material as may be had in the locality 
as may be best adapted to the purpose. 

The work to be executed by hired labor and tbe purchase of mutej-ial 
iu open market, as this is moat eenuomioal and advant^igeoiui Ui Uie 
Govepumeut™ It will be ween that this provides for the use of tbe snag 
K boat A. a. JoknuoH. 

I Owing to the boat being requiied elsewhere and to an atx^ideut Ut the 

l-ftune in the fall of 1880. and to high water, no wdrk was done nntil 

■jOtu'ly iu the fiscal ye-ar fuding -Tuue 30, 1891. Operations were vigor- 

Konsly carried on from Jidy 5, IfsOO, until August 23, when wat«T oe- 

ftoame too low t^ move the o|icrutiug boat. Work was all done at or 

rBear extreme low wati^r and extended over 8i) inUes of the river, t. &, 

from its month to Perkins Bar. This can-ied the work to within about 

20 miles of the foot of the lake. In addition to this work, a dam 300 

feet long and from IJ to 5J feet high was biiilt across the right chute. 

Over the 80-mile reach, Ifil trees were cut, 109 snags removed, and 25 

r onbic yards of earth excavated. 

■ By a«t approved September 19^ 1890, $3,000 was appropriated. On 
KjNovember 22, 1890, the water continuing low and the boat being rtt- 

■ quired for work upon the appi-opriation to which she properly beloiigH, 
she was withdrawn fVom the river. 

The next suitable time for work will be in the early pai-t of the next 
fiscal year, jjiid steps will be taken to put the boat in the field at ^^_ 
J- proper time. Great relief has been afforded already, and it is bc^A^^I 
Ltbat the present iiinds will do all the work required at present. ^^^^| 
■dnfonned that extensive prexiarations are being made to utilise tiie^^^| 
■<nel a» soon iis opened. ^^^H 

I OOMMBROB. ^^H 

9 HoniCTSville sliips yearly about 20,000 bales of cotton, 600,000 hnsbelH 
I pf grain, and a good quantity of stock. This is the only outlet this sec- 
tion has, t'scept wagons. Like many other streams in this State, it 
litts iipou its banks some very fine timber, which only waits a fl-de 
water way to find a ready market. Horners%-ille is backed by a larefl 
, tract of imjiroved country, whose main distributing i»oint it ia. JDIH 
L waUir way itself is partly a lake and partly two narrow rlveEa.^^^H 



APPENDIX W — ^KEPORT OF CAPTAIN TABEB. 2065 

lake exteuds about 12 iiiiloK from lIornei'Hvillo. Tliis lake is drained 
into St. FraneiK River by two eliutes that an» known t^igetlier an Little 
Biver. It i^too soon to giveetterts ii]H>n rates of insurance. an<l freight. 
It lia« no competing routes of transiiortation. As to prosiwc^tive advan- 
t4iges to commerce and lK»nefit« to coniniunity if (•oni])K*ted, th(»r(» will 
be the 8ame results in a general way a^^ enumerated for St. Francis Kiver, 
as it is one of it« feedei*8. 

Money ttfatement 

July 1, 1890, balance uuexiKiudcd $2, 897. 59 

Amount appropriated by act approved Septembor 19, 1890 3, 000. 00 

5, 897. 59 
Juue 30, 1891, amount ozponded duriug fiscal year 2, 865. 69 

July 1, 1891, balance uuexpeuded 3,031.90 



Expense avcount. 

Payrolls $2,356.00 

Subsistence supplies 183. 20 

General suppUes 199. lU 

Transportation 15. 65 

Traveling exjienHCH 21. 95 

Stationery 2:120 

Kent 44.00 

Reserved in United States Treasury for freight ebarge» 22. 35 

2,865.69 
Tonnage, 2,611 tons. 



W 13. 

PBELIMINARY EXAMINATION OF CURKENT RIVER, FROM VAN BUREN, 

MISSOURI, TO ITS MOUTH. 

[Prinied in Uouao Ex. Doc. No. 157, Fifty-fii-Ht Congri'HH, docoiid scssiun.] 

United States Engineer Office, 

Little Rock^ Arl.^ December 11, lfi90. 

General: In accordance with the reriiiirenieiits of letters dated 
Office of the Chief of Engineers, Wasliingt^ni, I). C, Sei)tember 20, 1890, 
I have the honor to submit the f(>lh)wing report* upon the preliminary 
examinations of Current Kiver, Missouri and Arkansas: 

It being found impossible, consistent with the interests of the works 
under my charge, to make this examination in i>erson, a conii)etent civil 
engineer of ex];>erience was engaged to make this examination, and from 
his very full report now before me, appended, I am able to make the 
following stAtementi), viz : 

No farther examinations will be necessary to enable me to submit 
plans and estimates for the improvement of the navigable reach of this 
river. It is worthy of the improvement, and the outlay necessary for 
the same is ftilly wari'anted by the interests involved. 

It appears that there are 05 miles of this river from tin* mouth to 
Van Buren ttiat are navigable thrcmghimt the whole year, as there is an 
abundance of watef. The discharge at Van lUiren at a low- water st^ge 

* Maj> not rupriuted. 
BNG 91 ^130 



BEPOBT Ol- THE CUIEF OF EN01NKES8, V. S. i 

' is 2,300 cubic feet per second. About 4 miles below this point is a large 
spring, whicJi afforclB )il>out 700 cubic feet more. The average width at 
[ low- water stage is 200 feet and tlie velocity 2.75 miles per lionr. Tlie 
I flood oscillation is about 10 feet. The Current River at time of Hoods 
L ia very swifl, and has a t«ndeucy b) clear the clianncl of oi>stru('tionH in 
the way of snags, tlitiugh many large iday-flllcd roots, t<io obstinate to 
be moved in tliis wiiy, are lodged in the channel aud make Herioua ob- 
structions to navigation, Other obstructions in the way of slinals may 
be readily iinpTOvod by a system of wing dams, built of rock aiid willow 
bniHb, for the puri)ow« of contractiug tbe channel. 

ThiH style of wing dam has been successfully operated rin Upper 
W Lite Eivei'. The comineri'C demanding the improvement of tUis river 
is api)roximately estimated to be 112,500 tons of lumber \u)V annum 
in Ciirter County, Mo., besides twenty-one aoctiona of undevelope4l 
mineral lands (iron and lead), of which I have specimens now iu my 
oEBce that will compare favoralily with the ores of Iron Moimtain ajid 
De Lozo lead mines, Missouri. 

In Kipley County 23,004 tons of lumber, 1,112 bales of cotton, and 
120 carloads of dour and grain, besides merchandise, reeeivpd. 

From the State line to the mouth in Arkansas, 3o,lH>0 tons of timber, 
3,500 bales of cotton, besides grain aud merchandise. 

With the foregoing in view^it is recommended that $10,000 be appro 
priated for improving this nver&om Van Buren to its mouth, t'l be 
applied as Ibllows, viz: 

Felt building OJld uqnippin^ ODH Hinall hand-plopellDd anag boat t^W 

For niiiDiagexpouHUH of tliiB boat 4iaouthH if ISO' 

For biuldiug tii wing doius .,. TO 

For oue rouk burge ., ,,. jn 

For contingeut oxponfieS 1,190 

Totftl 10,000 

■Before closing this report it is my duty to invit* ntt«ntion to tlie fact 
that a raiUoad bridge spans the river 3 miles below Van Buicii, unpro- 
vided with a draw spauj and ao low as to prnwut an lrupus»uble ubrdacle 
to navigation. This bridge belongs to theCuirentRiverRailroadC-om- 
pany. This stmcturo will be made a subject for report, as roiiuired by 
law. It will have to be attendtd to before the improvement is suof.etia- 
fuUy carried out. It ia presumed there will be no dilbcidty m thin oiat- 
tei', as the policy of the railroads in this State seems to have l>ecn t(i 
erect a bridge and operate it Just as long as they should beundistnrb^d. 
and comply with the law when navigation demanded the passage of 
boats. 

The people of Van Buien consider it an imposition on the part of the 
railroad company in putting this bridge across the river, shutting out 
navigation to their town. 

A reference to the Annual Report Chief of Engineers, 1881, Part 11, 
pages 1407 to 1409, will fihow that the sum recommended is about tite 
sum recommended by Mtyor Beuyaiu'd, The difference is due to tift 
new model snag boat recently constructed for these ri^-ers, ^vbich can 
do as effective work as the more expensive iMiata, aud y«t does not cost 
BO much to run monthly by some $1,000 or SI, 700. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

U. S.TABBKf J 
Captain, Cor^a of ."- ''" 

Brig. Gen. Thomas L. Caskv, 

Ghie/ of £iigi7Kerii, U. S. A. 



* APPENDIX W — REPORT OF CAPTAIN TABEE. 2067 

[First indorsement] 

U. 8. Engineer Office, 

Southwest Division, 
Xew YorTcj December 18, 1890. 

Tlespectfully forwarded to the Chief of Engineers. 
I am of opinion that the Cunent Kiver is worthy of improvement for 
the reavsons and to tlie extent stated by the district officer. 

C. B. COMSTOCK, 

Col. of Engrs,^ Bvt. Brig. Gen,, U. 8. A,y 

Division Engineer. 



REPORTS OF mi. J. R. VAN FKAXK, ASSISTANT ENGINEER. 

1. 

United States Engineer Office, 

Little Bock, Ark., November 3, 1890, 

Captain : I have the honor to submit herewith my report of the examination of 
Current River from Van Buren, Mo., to the iifouth, where it empties into Black River. 

According to your instructions I proceeded to Van Buren on the 21st of October, 
1890, via St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railw«ay, to Williamsville, Mo. ; 
thence, via Cape Girardeau and Soutli western Railway, to Grandin, Mo. ; thence, via 
Current River Railway, to Chicopee, the station on the opposite side of the river 
from Van Buren. 

Van Buren is the county seat of Carter County, Mo., a town of about 200 inhab- 
itants, four general merchandise stores, one drug store, hotel, livery stable, black- 
smith shop, saw and grist mill, court-house, sclioolhouse, and churches. 

Mr. Alex. Carter, the oldest and one of the prominent merchants, informed me that 
Current River has always been considered navigable to that point, and even above 
there to the mouth of Jacks Fork, 30 miles above. Until late years flatboating was 
carried on between there and Pocahontas, a point on Black River, accessible to steam- 
boats adapted to the lower river. The principal commerce of the river at the p])3sent 
date is raiting of logs, lumber, and square timbers: a large quantity of cedar poles 
has been rafted from Jacks Fork this season. I found no one that could give me 
an estimate of the amount. 

Pine is the principal timber rafted from the vicinity of Van Buren and below. The 
hills of Carter County, adjacent to the river, are heavily timbered with pine. It is 
estimated by some of the prominent citizens of Van Buren that there is 800,000,000 
feet of timber adjacent to the river north of there undisturbed by mill and raftsmen. 

This interest is being developed along the lines of the Current River Railway and 
the Cape Oirardou andSouthwestem Railway. At Grandin, the present terminus of 
the Current River Railway, there are two sawmills with a combined capacity of 
150,000 feet per day. This milling company, called the Missouri Iron and Lumber 
Company, has contracted with the railroad company to furnish them with 10 cars 
per day. 

A new mill is being built 3 miles below Van Buren, with a capacity of 20,000 feet 
per day. Keen's mill, 6| miles below, combined capacity of 40,000 feet per day ; 
Carter & Clay's, at Chilton, 8f miles below, combined capacity of 40,000 feet per day. 
Other mills at copper mine and west of the river, of which I did not get an esti- 
mate, together with the above mentioned, all have an interest in the logging and 
rafting commerce of the reach of Current River above and for 20 miles below Van 
Buren. Aside from the lumber there is a large tract of undeveloped mineral lands 
immediately on and adjacent to the river in Carter County. It is estimated at fif- 
teen sections of iron dre, six sections of lead, besides copper and manganese, lliere 
is also a good quality of marble in this vicihity. 

The agricultural lands are largely undeveloped, and as yet give little commerce to 
the river in this vicinity. So far I have outlined the commerce above and for 20 miles 
below Van Buren to the vicinity of Ripley County line. The commerce of this county 
is as large in the lumber interest as that of Carter County. The agricultural lands 
are more fertile and well developed. 

Doniphan, the county seat, has about 800 inhabitants, is a])ro8]^erous and growing 
town, and has communication with the outside world by means ol a brauch of the St. 
Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railway from Neely ville, a distance of 20 miles. 
This railroad was built in 1883. Previous to this date steamboats navigated Current 



APPENDIX W — REI'ORT OF CAPTAIN TABEU. 



2069 



End of inland 

Ford and shoal, 2 feet deep 

Shoal, 2ftM)tdeep 

Month of creek Smooth River to Bart 

Cam p Creek 

Mouth of Bart Camp Creek 

Rock Dam, shoal 2 feet deep 

Bend, Cedar Blutf 

Shoal, 1.5 feet deep, can be improved by 

wine dams from richt bank — 

Islan£ and crooked enannel, caving banks 

on left 

Shoal Just above bay at Phillips Mill 

Snags in bend ■ 

Shoal, needs oontraoting, raft lodged 

Bad snags in swift current, banki caving 

on left 

If arrow chute 100 feet wide, 5 feet deep, 

swift 

Shoal (upper) at head of towhead, 2 feet 

deep, rapid current 

Shoal below, 2 feet deep ; this ends the bad 

reach of Imile 

South line of Carter County 

Shoal 2 feet deep 

Bend 

Jakes Valley 

Shoal 1.5 feet deep 

Month <tf Biff Barren Creek 

Shoal 2 feet deep 

Do 

Do 

The bend above Club House is filled with 



Dis- 
tiinoe 
fnim 
Van 
Buren. 



snags 

Rillley Coon^' Club House 

Siiags wad rapid current 

Shoal 

Mouth of Little Barren Crook, cultivated 

fields on right bank 

Month of Buffalo Creek 

Shoal, not bad, large spring on right 

Small chute to left, runs back to uluil' and 

comes in 1 mile below 

Bad shoal, 1 foot deep, tow-head and chiito 

on left; gravel bar extends diagonally 

down the river from right bank 

Mouth of chute and end of island 

Bay at Jones Mill, end of isle, mouth of 

cniite and Capps Creek 

Shoal 2 ieet deep, rapid 

Sharp bend to left, tow-head and rapid 

current 

Middle of chute running eaAt>, rapid cur- 
rent 

Sharp bend to right, water 12 feet doop . . . 
Mouth of Wells C*reek, raft yard, bluif, 

bend to left 

A good reach of river called Birds Reach, 

amne southeast for 2 miles 

Month of Isaacs Creek 

McGee Ford and mouth of Siiiipsun 

Creek 

Mouth of Bills Crciek 

"Worley Rock 

Ifead of island and ford ; chute on loft 

runs to Neils Mill 

Ferry at Doniphan 

ShoaJ, 1.5 feet deep, mill dam; water is 

deeper next right Dank 



13.50 
15 

15. 25 
16.75 

17 

18 

18.75 
19 
19.25 

19.50 

19.75 

20 

20.25 



21 

22.25 
23 

2:^.75 
24 

24.50 
25 
25.50 

25. 75 
20 

20.25 
26.50 



30 
31 



31.50 
32 

32.50 
33.50 

33.75 

34 

:u.25 
:w. 50 




Rhonl, 2.3 f<»ot deep 

Slionl, 1.5f«»<'t deep, lioad of chute on right. . 

B<*nd to left, wator 1.2 feet deep 

Shoal, 2 feet deep 

Bend Ut right 

Shoal 2 feitt deep 

Shoal at month of MuUjerry Creek 

Snugs in bend and mouth of Cuiighom 
Creek 

Chute to left, head of inland 

SnngH 

Mouth of Mill Creek aiul Shoal 

Bend to left and bad nnags 

Mouth of Dudley Oeek and l*atM Hay 

Three chutes ; tile ri^ht chute is de4«i> and 
narrow, though it should be chwwl, 
tiuiiing the water through eenU^r chute, 
thus making the channel straight; bad 
snags at the lower end of these chutes. . 

Batl snags 

Tow-heads, crooke4l channel, and ba<l 
snags. Impn)vements can oe made by 
building dam from left shore and taking 
out snags, so as to utilize the left chute. 

Indian Ferry 

Shoal 2 feet deep, rapid below, chute on 
ritfht 

Roeik points to left 

Marvel Hend, many bad snogs 

Head of Cane ( 'hute ; is narrow and di'ep ; 
cut-off rock blu£f on the left is one-thinl 
of auiile long 

State line, cut oft', very (^rooked, bad sna^ . 

Pittmon Ferry; steamboats run to this 
)M»int 

Shoal 2 feet deep, rapid current 

Do 

Bail suaf^rt 

Cultivation on n^ht bank 

Shallow wat^T, stnilj;ht reaeh. 

Ifoad of iHlaud; rliuteouthe ri;;)it Ih nar- 
row and deej), rocky bank on the ri«;lit; 
this iH the hint rock that shows on the 
bank of the river 

Lower end of island 

James Price's fannhoUHo 

Bad snojJtH 

Cut-otr at month of Little Black River; 
Hiiags 

Duff F*'rry 

RirharilHo'ii Feiry 

Fannliouse : old 'ntore Ht.j)nd 

liOgging on ri^rht hank and Cypress Lake. . 

Sawmill on ri«;lit bank 

tJiiu iIolniHon Ferry, store, sawmill, and 
cotton ;;in *. 

Cut ofi'at Sliuuiakar Ferry 

f 'aseys col ton gin ! 

( iay lianlt Ferry « 

Iteiid ; lar«;e t wo-story franu^ house 

Mcflroy Ferry 

Cut -olV' should I >e cleared of snags 

Fiu'uihouse on right biuik 

Loggingcauip 

Mouth of Current Ki ver 

Black Kiyer: 

Jell' Cart4'r H ]>laoo 

Mouth of Kourche Dumas 

Pocahontas 



Dim 

t-ance 

fnun 

Van 

Bur(«n. 



42. 25 
42. 75 
43. 25 
43. 50 
44 

44.50 
45 

45.75 
46. 25 

46. .50 
48. 75 

47. .'iO 
47.75 



48 
48.25 



48.50 
49. 25 

50 

50.50 

51 



52 
53 

53. 50 
54.50 
55 



56 
57 
58 



58. 50 
59 
61 
61.50 

62 

63.25 

65 

65.50 

67 

68.25 

69. 50 
71 

73.75 
78 
79 

85. 25 
85. 50 
87. 25 
89. 75 
94.50 

94.75 
98.50 
99.50 



The character of the river from Van Buren down IJ3 miles is a swift, evou curront; 
Telocity al>oat 2,75 miles per hour at the present low-water stage; the width is fvbout 
200 feet and depth from 2 to 6 feet; the osei11ati(m Di feet. 

The discharge at Van Buren is 2,200 eubie feet per second ; stage of water, 0.5 feet; 
the width of overflow from 600 to 800 feet; average height of hank ahove low water 
12 feet; average width hetween hanks, 400 feet; iiver:ig(> fall per mile, 2.5 feet. 



2070 RErORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, IT. 8. ARMY. 

■ 

There are very few sungs in this reach of livrr; the rain<l <'niivnt has a twntleury t4> 
clear eyerything in itscourse^ even to making level the hrd of the stream, as the even 
depth of wat'er shows no pools, no rock reefs, 1)ut an t^vcn gravel hed. The honks 
are snhstantial; few overhanging trees obstnict navigation in tlie bends and chntes. 
There are few shoals that have less than 2 feet of water in low-water season. 

The Current Railway Bridge, three-fonrtlis mile below "\''an Buren, is a combined 
wood and iron trass, 450 feet long ; tliere are 3 tixed s]>ans 150 feet each ; the piers con- 
sist of 2 iron cylindrical caissons 6 feet in diameter, filled with concrete; the cross- 
beams and lower chords are 325 feet above low water. This is the only permanent 
obstruction to navigation on the whole liver. The firat bad reach is 19 miles below 
Van Buren and extends 1^ miles, has a crooked channel, rapid current, bad snags, 
and two shoal places; a channel of 2 feet of water over the shoals can not be utilized 
on account of snags. Another bad place was enconntered at 25| miles distance^ whore 
10 or 12 snags occu]>ied the channel, leaving the only room ibr a raft or boat next the 
gravel bar, 1 foot deen ; there would be 6 feet of water in the channel were the snags 
taken away. The only ba<l shoal on^the whole river where there does not seem to be 
enough water to float a 20-inch sawlog is 31^ uiiles down the river; there are two 
chutes here to divide the water, which, if closed by rock and willow dams, with an 
additional wing-dam on the ojjposite side to contract the chainiel, would give plenty 
of wat«* over the shoals. 

At a point 1^ miles above Doniphan is a large I'ock, known as Worley Rock, about 
10 or 12 feet in diameter; the water is deep to one side of this rock, but the current 
carries a raft directly over it, making it a dangerous obstacle to encounter. This 
may be blasted out. 

Doniphan is 4^ miles from Van Buren ; from this place to the ^State lino is where the 
most of the snagging should be done and overhanging trees cut. In some of the 
bends where the banks are caving the trees should be cut to prevent their falling 
into the river and lodging. There are no bad shoals but that have plenty of water 
to be overcome by a boat drawing from 18 to 24 inches of water. 

At a point 48 miles down the river are three chutes. The water divides to such an 
extent that the middle chute is sliallow at the upper end, leaving the side and 
crooked chute to be navigated; these side chutes should be closed by rock and 
willow dams, throwing the water at a low stage through the middle chute. Another 
point one-half mile below this is similar and can be improved by removing snags 
from the straight channel. 

Still farther down the river is Cane Chut<5. This is a cut-off, straight, narrow, and 
deep: overhanging trees obstruct navigation. One mile farther down -the river is 
the State Line Cut-off; this has recently been made; is very crooked; the raw edges 
of the bank are still projecting and many snags are lodged in the channel. From 
this point down to the mouth the current is more sluggish and the river more wind- 
ing, giving greater length of river. Two miles below the State line is the last shoal 
of 2 feet. From there down the depth ranges fr«)m (J to 12 feet. Very little work 
with a snagboat would put this reach of river in good shape, so that the boats now 
plying the lower river could run as far up as Pittinan Ferry at the State line and 
carry out the freight now waiting on the bank. 

The steamer /7ojf>c made an attempt to n^ach this point 10 days ago, but met with 
diihculty on account of snags and overhanging trees near James I*rice*8 farm, and 
returned down the river. 

The cut-off at the mouth of Little Black has several bad snags to be removed. 
This will bring us into clear river already navigated without difticulty. 

Another cut-off just below Mellroy Ft^Ty, not us«'d at ])res<»nt on account of being 
choked ^vith snags, could be cleared and tlioreby short^Mi the distance 2 miles. 

No other obstructions were encc»untered on to the mouth, though outside of my 
brief outline of work to be elfcM'led many contingi-neies will occur to give ein]>loy> 
ment to a snagging outfit <luring the season. 

Very respectfully submitted. 

Your obedii'ut servant, J. 11, Van Fjlanic, 

Ansistant JEngincer. 

Capt. H. S. Tabki;, 

Corjys iff Kngiiirn-Hj L\ S, A, 



APPENlJlX W — REPORT OF CAPTAIN TABKR. 2071 

2. 

United States Ekgineer Office, 

Little Bock, Ark., December 1, 1890, 

Captain: I have the honor to submit as an appendix to my report herewith an 
estimate of cost of removing obstructions in Current River from Van Ruron, Mo.^to 
the mouth, viz : 

One hand snagboat fitted with steam hoisting power $4, 000 

Expense of running same 4 months 2, 800 

6; 800 

Cost of wing dams : 

Smiles, 100 linear feet, at 30 cents $30 

3.5 miles, 200 linear feet, at 30 cents 60 

8.25 miles, 200 linear ffeet, at 30 cents 60 

17 miles, 100 linear feet, at 30 cents ♦. 30 

19.25 miles, 200 linear feet, at 30 cents 60 

20 miles, 100 linear feet, at 30 cents 30 

23.75 miles, 100 linear feet, at30cent8 30 

Qi tYiii^o S 100 linear feet, at 30 cents 30 

aimues, ^ 50 linear feet, at 30 cents 15 

31.50 miles, 200 linear feet, at 30 cents 60 

42.75 miles, 50 linear feet, at 30 cents 15 

AQ. m^^^a S 150 linear feet, at 30 cents 45 

** °^"^' ) 150 linear feet, at 30 cents 45 

48.50 miles, 200 linear feet, at 30 cents 60 

53 miles, 200 linear feet, at 30 cents 60 

54.50 miles, 100 linear feet, at 30 cents - 30 

Total, 2,200 linear feet, at 30 cents 660 

Worley Rock (blasted) 50 

Superintendent, 4 months, at $125 per month 500 

Custodian and recorder, 6 months, at $75 per month 450 

One rock barge 350 

Total 8,810 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. R. Van Frank, 
• Assistant Engineer, 
Capt. H. 8. Taber, 

Ckn^s of Engineers, U, 8, A» 



APPENDIX X. 



PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER FROM HIGH- WATER 
MARK, LAKE COITNTY, TENNESSEE, TO HIGH-WATER MARK, FULTON 
COUNTY, KENTUCKY, NORTH AND WEST OF REEF FOOT [REELFOOT] 
LAKE TO ASCERTAIN IF NAVIGATION OF THE RIVER MAY NOT BE IM- 
PROVED BY RESTRAINING THE FLOW OF WATER INTO SAID LAKE, 
AND ADJOINING LOW LANDS. 



REPORT OF CAPTAIN 8, W. ROESSLER, CORPS OF ENGINEERS, OFFICER 

in charge. 

United States Engineer Office, 

MeniphiSy Tenn.j May 14, 1891, 

General: In compliance with the Department letter of the 20th of 
September, 1890, 1 have the honor to vsubniit the foHowing report of a 
preliminary examination of the " Mississippi Kiver from high-water 
mark, Lake County, Tennessee, to high-water mark, Fulton County, 
Kentucky, north and west of lieelfoot Lake, to ascertain if navigation 
of the river may not be improved by restraining the flow of water into 
Siiid lake, and adjoining low lands." The examination in the fiekl was 
made by Assistant Engineer William M. Rees, a copy of whose report 
is hereto appended. 

The escape of wat^r into the basin of Eeelfoot Lake is limited on the 
east by the high bluft' at Hickman and on the west by Prairie llidge, a 
high piece of ground from 5 to 7 feet above the highest known water. 
The piece of river included between these two high grounds is about 23 
miles long, and has banks varying in height from 4 to 11 feet below the 
high water of 1883, the highest here known, the mean depth of over- 
flow being about 7 feet. The water diverted from the main river over this 
bank flows in a direction generally parallel to the main river through 
the ba^iin of lieelfoot Lake, Isom Lake, and Ifeaver Lake, joins the val- 
ley of the Obion, a short distance above its mouth, and returns to the 
main stream at Hale's Point, 100 miles below I lickman. The overflowed 
area due to this escai^e of wat^^r is estimated at about 280,000 acres, in- 
cluding Re^lfoot Lake. From indirect data it has been estimated that 
the overflow during the high water of 1883 reached a maximum of nearly 
200,(MM> cubic feet per second. 

The divergence of so large an amount of water could not fail to exert 
a delet/i»rious influence on the bed of the river in New Madrid lleach, 
and the construction of a levee to restrain it would, in myoi)inion, inove 
benefi(»ial to the navigation of the river and at the same time protect a 
large area of tillable land from overflow. 

The approximate location of a levee connecting the bluffs at Hickman 
with the high ground above Tiptxmville and following the bank of the 



rivvr ia iiKlii;aU^il od tlie a^companyiTig map. The location us given i» 

that of a preliminary survey of the Mississippi, Tennessee and Georgia 

Railroad Company, made several years ago with the view at the time 

(bat since abandoned) of building a riverside railroad fiom Hickman 

south towards Dyersburg. Using the profiles of this survey as basis for 

&a estimate, a levee suitable tor restrainiDg the highest ovei flow known 

L would be about 20 miles long, with an average licight of 10.2 feet, and, 

Sallowing for a crown width of 6 feet and side slopes of2^ to 1 and 3 to 

1 1, would contain approximately 1,300,000 cubic yards, which at 20 centa 

f per yard would cost $260,000. 

' I have been led to understand that the overflowed district aided by 
the city of Hickman would be in a position to contribute about fl^iliOOO 
of the above amount if the United States would supply the remainder. 
At the time the railroad project was under consideration the folhiwing 
amunnts were guaranteed the railroad as an inducement to Imild the 
levee and occupy it as a roadbed : 

_ BabBvtiption city of Hickman, Kv 921j,000 

I Tai on 2D.000 acres in Kentucky, $2.: 00,006 

ft Subscription or25,000acTea in TenneMCie, $2 50^O(Q 

I Total Ut^OOft 

I ' Aud the same amounts are af^in presented as the probable resouroes 
I of the district inaidoftlie construction of a simple Icvue. Thebal»ne«. 
1. $135,000, to complete the levee would be an advantageous investmetiG 
I to the Government, as tliere is probably no jwrtion of the river v " 
I BO small an esiienditni-e would restrain so large a volume in the o 

nel in time of flood and maintain it there for such a long distanoe)! 

the gap between Ilickuan and Prairie Bidge closed, there wi!H>A 

considerable overflow within a distance of 50 miles below HiekiniH . 

The principle adopted by the Commission of using levees as iinportitut 

n^ljuncta to the improvement of the low-water navigation would find 

special application in this case. 
The estimate of cost above submitted, thongh subject to corrcctionE 

by exact surveys, is believed not to be seriously in error. 
The locality is worthy of improvement in the manner stated. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

I S. W. ROESSLER, 

I Captain of En^vnot 

I Brig. Gen. Thomas L. Casey, 
I Chief of Engineers, U. 8. A. 

(Through Col, 0. B, Comstock, Corps of Engineers, Division Engi 
Southwest Division.) 

[Tblnl iDdorBinnont.) 

U. 8. EiJOLNEER Office, 

Southwest Division, 
JVew Tori; May 28, 1 
BospectfuUy forwarded to the Chief of Engineers. 
The river and harbor act of September 19, 1890, provides for l 
arniiiatiun " north and west of Beelfoot Lake to ascertain if uavigi 
of the river may not be improved by restraining the flow of i 
said lake and a^tjoining low lands." 

The estimated cost of tlie restiaint is $260,(K)0. In my opinion the 
amount of improvement of the Mississippi River by this exj 
[ -would be too small to juntify the expenditure and there" 
kthiuk the river worthy of improvement by this method. 



sstmetiG 
r wlui^ 

iekmiol^ 






*. i. 



mmm 



m^0t^UM. if /I. Mfns CO.. Ma»t.. 4V 




^.^ij.'iN 



lASAirtM 



— MMa nm ■nnnrtrianna n n ..^.j— 



APPENDIX X — REPORT OF CAPTAIN R0E8SLER. 2075 

This ciit^irprisc has been i)reseiite(l to the JVlississipiii River Coinniis- 
sion more than once by tlie Mi8si88ii)pi Levee Compauy, and aid from 
the Commission has been asked, but the Commission has not a« yet 
recommended any allotment for the i)uii)ose. 

C. B. COMSTOCK, 

Colonel of Engineers^ Bvt. Brig. Oen., U. J3. A.j 

Division Engineer. 



beport op mr. w. m. rees, assistant engineer. 

United States Engineer Office, 

Memphis f Tenn,, May 11 ^ 1891, 

Captain: In compliance with yonr iustriictioiis of May 1, I have the honor to re- 
port npon '' a preliminary examioiitioii of the location of a propo8e<l levee, from the 
high ground at Hickman, Ky., to the high ground above Tiptonville, Tenn." 

I left Memphis on May 3 and arrived at Hickmau, Ky., the following day; here I 
devoted 2 days coUectiug data and arranging for a trip over, the proposed levee. 
This I made on the 6th, traveling for the greater part of the distance, over the line 
surveyed by the Mississippi, Tennessee and Ge(»rgia Railroad Company, which oc- 
cupies the high ^ound in the viciuity of the river, but at a safe distance therefrom. 

From an examination of county aud other maps, and the maps and profiles of pre- 
liminary lines run by the railroad euginccrs, I lind the length of the levee will be 
about 20 miles, 15 of which are in Kentucky and 5 in Tennessee ; and that the aver- 
age depth of overflow is about 7 feet. 

One terminus is the bluffs at Hickman, and the other a high rid^e, extending from 
below Tiptonville to opposite New Madrid, Mo., having an elevation of irom 5 to 10 
feet above extreme high water. 

the territory to be benefited. 

This levee will protect lands in Fulton County, Ky., and in Lake, Obion, and Dver 
counties, Tenn. ; a strip of land extending from'lliekman, Ky., on the nortn to Hale's 
Point, at the mouth of Forked Deer Kiver, on the south, a length of 45 miles: and 
from the Mississippi River on the west to tlie hills on the east, an average width of 
10 miles. In this is situated Reelfoot Lake, a shallow body of water covering about 
30,000 acres and having a depth of 5 to 8 feet. 

Reliable parties in Hickman, Ky., who have given the problem some study, esti- 
mate the lands to be protected at 30,000 acres in Kentucky and 200,000 acres in Ten- 
nessee. I have compiled from various sources the following: 

Approximate estimate of overflowed lands. 

Acres. 

Fulton County, Ky 30,000 

Lake County, Tenn 75,000 

Obion County, Tenn *50,000 

Dyer County, Tenn tl25,000 

Total 280,000 

In Fulton County, Ky., 5,000 acres will probably be left outside the levee. In 
Obion County, Tenn., Reelfoot Lake' covers about 30,000 acres, though it is held 
that much of this will he reclaimed when the levee is built, the depths being ex- 
tremely shallow along the margins. 

Lake and Dyer counties have lands near the river, which would still be over- 
flowed, and in the latter county the back waters from the Mississippi River will still 
inundate much of the low lands, though probably not to the present extent. Based 
upon approximate information only, I estimate the area to be benetited as follows: 

Acres. 

Fulton County, Ky 25,000 

Lake County, Tenn 50,000 to 60,000 

Obion County, Tenn 25, 000 to 40,000 

Dyer County, Tenn 50, 000 to 75,000 

Total. 150, 000 to 200, 000 



« 



Including Beelfoot Lake. t North of Forked Deer River. 



2076 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMT. 

ARKAS UNDKR CULTIVATION. 

Of the above the following in an approximate estimate of lands now being culti- 
vated and the value^ the information being obtained from local anthorities. 

Fulton Connty, Ky., r),000 acres, at $20 \ $100,000 

LakeConnty, Tcnn., 10,000 acres, at $25 1^,000 

No reliable information as to Obion and Dyer coanties could be had. The lands 
, along Re<'l foot Lake and its outlet, called the scatters, are low lands and sparsely 
'settled. It is hence safe to estinmte that they will not exceed, and probably not 
reach, the quantities and values of lands al>ove estimated. Probably $600,000 would 
be a most liberal estimate of the total- value of the cultivated lands in the entire re- 
gion under consideration. 

The wild lands are valued at from $2 to $5 per acre, the latter being for well-tim- 
bered lands. Taking the average at $3 per acre and the quantity at 150,000, the total 
value is $'J50,000, which, added to the value of improved landS; is a total of $1,060,000 
for all lands to be l^enehted. 

m 

DEPTH OP OVERFLOW. 

The surveys made by the railroad engineers show an average of 7.2 feet depth of 
overflow, the mininmm being about 4 and the maximum about 11 feet, referred to 
the high wati^r of 1883, the highest here known. 

From the personal inspection I made I think it probable that better ground can be 
found for a levee than on the line surveyed by the railroad engineers. 

There are no deep sloughs or crossings to make, and in only a few places will the 
overflow exceed 10 feet; and then only for a short distance in each^case. 

QUANTITY OP OVERFLOW. 

There is, no doubt, a large escape over the banks during extreme high water, dna 
to the nearness of the river to Reelfoot Lake, the head of which is 6 or 7 miles from 
the Hickman end, and not exceeding 2^ miles from the lower end. As no observa- 
tions of discharge have been taken over this bank, I have estimated it by takius the 
difl'erence between the maximum discharge at Columbus, Ky., above, and at New 
Madrid, Mo., below, deducting therefrom the escape into 8t. Francis Basin. 

Cabic fleet 
peraeomid. 

The discharge at Columbus, Ky ., high water of 1882, was 1, 660, 4S6 

The net escape into St. Francis Basin between Columbus and New Madrid 

in 1882 was 2,126 

DiflVrcnce 1^658,371 

No high-water discharge observations were made at New Madrid in 1882. I have 
therefore used those of March 25 and April 10, 1890, and adding the increment to 
bring the section u]) to the high-water stage of 1882 to have been 1,459^260 cubic 
feet. Deducting this from the diftcrcnce above, gives about 200,000 cubic feet per 
second as tlie a])i>roxinuite amount wliich escapes over the proposed levee location. 

This is ]>rol>abjy not seriously in error. 

KSTIMATK OF COST. 

The profile made l)y tlui Mississi))])i, T(»nneHsee and Georgia Railroad Company 
shows a total embankment of 1,620,000 cubic yards, for a levee of 14 feet crown, 
slo)>cs 2 to 1 and 3 to 1, and a grade 3 feet above liighest known water. 

Keducing the crown to feet and making slopes 2^ to 1 and 3 to 1, with the same 
elevation of grade line, will make the yardage 1,300,000, which, at 20 cents per cubic 
yard, will make the cost $200,000. The estimat<'d clearing is about 235 acres, and 
the price above is iutend<'(l to include this cost. 

PUOHAllLE RKYKNTE FROM THE DlSnilCT. 

In 1872 the State of Kentucky incorporated the Mississippi Kiver Levee Company, a 
body ])olitic, to construct and maintain a levee from Hickman, Ky., south. The capital 
stoi'k was not to exceed $1,000,000, and, with the consent of the'majority of the voters 
in the district, they were to have power to tax all lauds protected $2 per acre and 
town lots 20 per cent, of valuations for construction purposes. Not exceeding one- 



APPENDIX X — ^REPORT OF CAPTAIN E0E8SLEE. 2077 

fonrtli of this tax was to bo levied uiiy cue year. Tu maiutaiu tlio levee they are 
empowered to lay a tax not exceeding 10 cents per year per acre and 1 per cent, on 
valnation of town lots. 

It being feared that this act had lapsed by non-usance an aniendiiieut reviewing 
it was passed by the Kentucky legislature in 1890. I am infonued that the jieople 
of the district are almost unanimons in favor of the taxation. 

As no such law can be passed by the Tennessee legislature the revenue tlierc iiir.st 
be raised by sabscription, all of which I believe have been in lauds. 

The city of Hickman has voted $25,000 towards the levee; this act expires June 1, 
1892, but it is claimed will be renewecl. 

The available resources of the district are represented to be as follows: 

Tax on 25;000 acres in Kentucky, at $2 $50,000 

Subscription of 25^000 acres in Tennessee; at $2 50, 000 

Subscription of ^lckmany Ky 25, 000 

Total 125,000 

The above was offered as a bonus to the Mis8issip]>i, Tennessee and Georgia Rail- 
road if they would build the levee and occupy it as a railroad bed. It is now stated 
that the railroad company has abandoned the project through their inability to raise 
funds. 

EFFECT UPON IMI'KOVING TllE lUVEK. 

There is probably no portion of the river where so small an expenditure will con- 
fine as large a volume of water in the channel in time of flood and maintain it there 
for such a long distance, for the high ground immediately below confine^ it to below 
Tiptonville, and the New Madrid prairies on the right 1)ank of the river prevent its 
overflow into the St. Francis bottoms. Thus the building of 20 miles of levee will 
practically hold the water during floods within the banks for a diBtan(;e of 50 miles, 
and in this stretch of river there are a number of shoal places. As the volume re- 
strained during maximum flood is 200,000 cubic feet and at mean flood about 70,000 
cubic feet, I am of the opinion that the effect will be to keep the bars lower and im- 
prove low-water navigation. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

W. M. Kees, 
A89i8tant Engineer. 

Capt. S. W. ROESSLEJR; 

Carps of Engineers^ U, S, A, 



APPENDIX Y. 



REMOVING SNAGS AND WRECKS FROM MISSISSIPPI RIVER; IMPROVE- 
MENT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER BETWEEN OHIO AND ILLINOIS RIVERS, 
OF HARBOR AT ST. LOUK, OF OSAGE AND GASCONADE RIVERS, MIS- 
SOURI, AND OF KASKASKIA RIVER, ILLINOIS. 



REPORT OF MAJOR A. J/. MILLER, CORPS OF ENGINEERS, OFFICER IN 
CHARGE, FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE SO, 1S9I, WITH OTHER 
DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE WORKS, 

IMPROVEMENTS. 



1. Rcmoviuj^ snags and wrecks from tlio 

Mississippi River. 

2. Mississippi River, between the Ohio 

and lUinoiB rivers. 



3. Harbor at St. Louis^ Mo. 

4. Gasconade River, Missouri. 

5. Osage River, Missouri. 

6. Kaskaskia River, Illinois. 



United States Engineer Office, 

St. Louis, Mo., July IG, 1891. 

General : I have the honor to forward herewith annual reports for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, for the works under my charge. 
Very respectfoUy, your obedient servant, 

A. M. Miller, 
Major ^ Corps of Engineers. 
Brig. Gen. Thomas L. Casey, 

Chief of Engineers^ U. 8. A. 



Yi. 

REMOVING SNAGS AND WRECKS FROM MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

The work for the fiscal year consisted in the removal of snags, logs, 
and leaning trees between the mouth of the Missouri Eiver and Don- 
aldsonville. La. 

^ The river was divided into two districts, the first extending from the 
inouth of the Missouri Eiver to Memphis, Tenn., and the second from 
' Memphis, Tenn., to Donaldsonville, La. The snag boat H. O. Wright 
was assigned to work in the first district, and the snag boat J. N". Ma- 
comb to the second district. 

2079 



1 



2082 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 



Table No. 1,— Detailed statement of expenditures made in connection vitk the work of 
remorinff ohfttruvtlonH in Jdisnsaippi Bicer, etc,^— Continued. 



Month or 
iiuartt-r. 



is9i>. 
S*'l»t • C 






1801. 
St?con(l «i iia rt I • r . (; 



To wliom paid. 



.■•0 



1 
•> 

ii 

4 ' 
Ti ■ 

r> j 

s 

!» 
10 
11 
1J 

i:t 
14 
l.'i 
ir> 
17 

IS 
l!i 
•JO 

•Ji 



•j:{ 
•J4 

i L»:> 
*_♦<•. 
•-7 

■ -js 
' I'lJ 
. ;:o 

:u 

\\\\ 
::t 

. :t(> 

:i7 

:5s 

, :{u 

I 40 

- 41 

4J 

, 4:t 

44 

4:. 

4(> 
47 
4S 
4y 

:h) 
.'•1 

■ r.j 
:..{ 

M 

i *.♦» 

I r.7 
I r»s 

■ r.ii 
I g:{ 



(l('or;:t* Tr.uil) A- Co ... 
Mati. Mitiiimhan <&* To 



For what i»aid. 



Amount. 



Siil>Mi8t4*nn 
...do 



William Burr l>ry IUimmIs Co I ItcimirH 

.1 aim'>* Smith . . . *. StTviivM 



1 i in-«l im-ii I do 



...do 
. . .do 
. . .dti 
. . .ilo 
. . do 



do 
do 
do 
.d«i 
do 



t^uiMiHt<'iioe 

FlM'l 

Sulisicit<'m'e 

...do 

C«ml 

Siibi^irttcuco 

...do 

SiitMiKtciico. t'tr 

Oiitttt 



Sundry i>*»rsons 

«!o 

, . . -ilo 

. . ..di» 

PittHlmrn Ctwl Co 

Fnuirls Whittaki-r & Sons 

Klwrll A- Tat II m CommiHiiion Co 

I>avid N ifhtilnnii 

I.amnirrt Fnrnitiin* Co 

l»r:ni<'h-Cr«M»kt's S;iw Co ; do 

Simniim;* Han!wan» Vx> ■ Oiittit. eto 

K. .\. llit^hnH'k.nHviviT j C«wl 

(N»n.<*i*li(Litiil('o;ilCo.of St. Louin ' do 

lUal t niT A- .Vthnii SupidirK 

.Mlirrt 11. Howmau do 

F. L. MrtiinncAH Paintinf; Co dt> 

Thf W . A. rM»«sju*k LumiK'r Co '- LuuilH'r 

Kwald ln»n <'" j Siiiii»lirH 

.1. 1). I.awiiin , LninlM*r 

W . ( ■. Tostal : C«»al 

N.O. Nflsnn Manufactiirinie Co Out tit, etc 

IIiisi'.v LiMiniis lee ]iud TransiMirtation j loc 

To. 

IN-atn.s.H. Camrron & Co Cim! 

.1. H.Cottin \- Co : Outfit and Hupplies. 

.\. Iv. Taylor A: Ci» ' Stationary 

Tin- Olivrr-Finiiii" (IrwiT Co Suhsixtrncc 

Ilinil men St'rx ir»'i» 



.1. 



I 



do 
do 
do 
do 
do 



...do 

....do 

. ..ll.» 

... .lo 

...do 

.1 ;nin?* Smith do 

( 'on-^itlidatt-il ( 'tml Co. «if St LouiD Ciuil 

K. .V. llitrhrork.nrt'ivrr do 

Cain) Citv Ci»al Co do 

ritt»*luiiu Ci»al Co d«» 

Matt. Moiia;:han A: Co Sub8iHtrm*e 

tiu.st. IliMiholl do 

Mlwfll A Tat urn Comuiisrtion Co d«> 

Sundry ]hrson8 lio , 

Matt. Mona;;lian A: (^> do 

.MiMuiihi."* Machinr i'o Supplies 

.\. r>ii.«*«h»it A- Co li«- 

Fiiliiin ln»ii Works Ca-tinjjK. etc 

»;.rraiiliA ('<• Sulir.ii*tt'iu"v , 

IMtt^hurii CimI Co <*«»jd 

•laUM-H .\. Tapjtau - <lo , 

.\.l.«aA Co do 

Siindr\ ]H rsiniM SulisinU-nc*' 

i|o Fu«*l 

Parkrr. Kiili-r. Nichollft Statijinery Co .. Stationery 

MiMhirt l';il«iit IMilley Co .* SuppIlt'H* , 

Frainis Wliiilaki-r and Sons SuimiHtenco 

Ward A- llrady , t hitlit and nupiiliefi 

IN'.rtros"*. fauienm .k Co ' Ci»al 

Fiiltini Iron W»>rk8 (*astin);]« 

.1. .V. Fa> A: Co Su]iplit>r( , 

I*»Mnl Kiiuiniriini; Co ilo 

IJiamh (rooki >* Sjiw Co Outfit 

.1. K« nnani A Sons Carpet Co ilo 

M. M. r.uik A- Co »..' do , 

l»:ij KiihlMrC*. ' do , 

. Franoits Whittuker & Sons ! Subsiatenee. •••••.. 



...1 



fUO.53 

i:ki.m 

9.50 

:m.uo 
7:>:i.oo 

l.tM.UU 

].TrA).:t» 
341. :« 

40.67 
21.00 

rjo.23 

700.00 

194. 42 
27.97 

714.01 

13. Iff 

28. HO 

8.10 

27«.2:i 
70.00 
.00 
20. M 
24. !» 
05.80 
28.17 
.\ 70 
42.00 

847. 25 
02.20 

lin'.OS 
106.25 
11.35 
4:14. 72 
If0:i.00 

I,7:t8.e8 

385.00 
l,IKt0.33 
300.17 
87.83 
55. 00 
98.00 
i:t8.13 
161.00 
2A5.00 
i:{9.83 
266.80 
16.81 
141. 16 
174.90 
7. 50 
2:1. 32 
61.07 
51.36 
420.00 
300.00 
06.00 
109.91 
21.00 
18.00 
51.85 
i:{4.03 
266.02 
202.65 
243.50 
15.00 
114.40 
12.00 
35. 

2.11 
U. 
7«. 






APPENDIX T — BEPOBT OF HAJOB MILLEE. 



2081 



4, tron Mountain ud SoatiiBrT^ 



hlOo... 



Chamu J. Ci 



DuvMNioho 

FmnGlaWbltbtkK&Bau 

Henry A. Kciettksr 

Onsl. BiMhoff 

??."J3\M~':':;:":::::::::::::: 

PetBTton * HomM 

Geo. A, Bolxdniann HarfwaraCo 

The VMtarn iSnua Miumfaotaring C 
N. O. Nelioa MsDilfiictoiing Co 



Cii!ni aty Coal Co 

Ilionndbetgor * Friunt 

EmddlfonCo 

Westam Coal and Tow Co 

BiutoQ & Sklniusr StdUoOBry Co.. 
Ttaejr, A. BoDuDk Lnmber Co - - - - 

I'lttaborgCoidCD 
Man. Manag'-— "-■ 
Cairo City O 
Jaaiea Smith 
Einnliucn... 



uj&Ca-- 



IdllniBd tick 



Outfllauilsnppliea. 

!":do"ii;!;;;!;"ii 

(SupnUu 

SspHiriog famitCfi , . 



CuDBalldiiivd Coal Co. of SL Loala. . , 
KwaldlronCo 

aeK'«!g'£S"ci::::::::: 

SlmnioDS nnrdwsrs Oo 

A.C.DnjilBTy 

K. O. N'elsnD Manufantiirliig Co 

Henry A. KootLker 

.T.S. Mprrpll Drug Co 

"■" '—'-iringCo.... 



AnmicuDSilliUaiiara 
EtwoU ftTatiim Coi 

ttS',^.^ss 

' ThonuM J. CoDDUT 

ItaTijI Nicholion 

; Suiidrviieraaiis 

MAttTMuiiagiiui & Co..._.^.. 
W»hl*Briil,v 

I'aj^rr::;:::::.::: 

Tlie W. A. BoDWiffk luin)>cr (,'i 

Jwnwi BwHcnej 

MrKlnluy * Co 

C.iDraKdatedCoalCo. or St L<» 

PemlniW, Camflnio &Co 

' lair & UBfter 



Cairo Citj Coal Co.. . 
.ramu A.T^pno.... 

■131 



S7S.55 
74. SK) 



REPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF EN0INEEB8, U. 8. ABUT. 



Mmlhnr 


1 


W 


To whom piJd. 


Forwh.tprid. 


AlDOIIIlt. 


im. 


c 
c 


SI 

1 

ST 

iiO 
liO 

3 
4 






•110.5] 
1M.M 


' 


Mnll^imadwii&Co 


...•to 




Ilin"™™'' 


















l.tHI.M 
































S«omliiiu.rUr. 
































F™Vl"Tvh'lMiiliet&'Sc'iii»'""--'-"-- 




7W.M 




Winini.."- FlanLwnre Cu 

K.A.lIililinuli.rwi'iv.T . 
(■"U..iliiliiHiH-™lfiJ.ofSl ! .... 

AlLrl'k'lt.'.wmnn'-' ,'-.'-.. 


■ ■■m''.....- ;:::::;::: 












^ui.i,lH'a'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.''.'.'." 
LlluilHT 


Miss 




iimiH,i.|<- 


•iio 




W'iZf^ro 


i.,..1ti.ndmppU^ 


loaa 












■1 


"imln"" 


imS 




a) .....1" 

as m". : 1. 




'"Sin 






5S.ni 






lw« 










,/:■,".■■■■■■■■■■■■■-' 


m.it 

174. » 




sr:ti;i.;i:=::::::::::: 


Sl.N 




fto 












iintJith'Bci,'.'.'.'.'.'."'.','.'. 

IH-'»;1^- 


lM.it 




fti M' ■ ' . ■ ■ ■ ■ <-.. .'. 




5La 




62 




...|tjltWKl™ppltai.... 








30.9* 
15. •• 
114. N 

1 



APPENDIX Y — BEPOBT OF MAJOE MILLER. 



KlmWIroiiCn 

The W, A. nmjmrlt Lumlwr Co 

I r>«vld Nlrhiilmn 

I CimaollilntalCniilCu.ofSLLnDi*... 

I 'iSv^i^ralran (joiiiJiiiMiMi W. '. 

■ CuiroClljL'nHlCo 

, K.4.HitHii">rh,™rr.|VBr 

< K.O.Ni>lH»n MtnnruetuHng Co.... 
Piipe i Tiillmpi - 



Malt MciTUEhAn & Vn 

I I'ilWbuntfiiiiiro-- 

! J«H, A.Tnpiiiin 

J. H.OiiBiitCo 

. tniarl™ Mill™ 

J.tMn-!w 

' ^fi^nloni Cml ami Tnw Co . . 

Mult. HunaKliiin £ Co. — ,... 

I I WkIiiittc Cml Co 

I Poml BnjiiDecrliis Ui> 



\m JiiBiFii Jackmi 



JniFR Smitit 

: Ward&BnilT 

' ' irLlinfHaru.. 



Elvrll A Tatnni ' 



(;.Tnn1i 



, Jm. 



[Co.. 



A . M riSm 



lUer... 



Mai. A 

J.K.C _ _ 

The (Hlii>r.nnDl« I imcrr I 

Hitt Honuhan & Cn 

Illlalnim c:<ul Co 

I^)Mnl■M, CamnvD to Cu. ■ . 
— il. Uoini!7 & Co 



1 j J.F.Irriae. 

: I J<diD F. Irvinn A Son. 
. PlttabnrsCuelCa.... 



' J. Kmiuvd dt SouH Cirifot Co . 



arkLiiiulHiTCa.. 



SSSJ;: 



Ullpiiild 

OatRt hhI aupplica . . 



a"" 



.iMarlilnrry.Bli'.. 



< Buitiin&SklnnrrSUtlnue.. . 

Sunclrv penHina .- KiibiiiHt^'lii^... 

JniDi»!&nith ' Servkis) 



RKI'ORT OF THE CHIKK OV KSOINKKRS, V. S. ARMY. 
Si., ^.— l>.■l<lil>t^ Klul,-m>Ht uf rxiH-iidilHn- mailr in (V.iib.tHob tr»* tir irork nf 



«H Kiiiirvrl.' Itnw.UHnufarl 

«7 A, A. All". A- Ci 

iw M.M.IIii.'l. &I-U 



Urmlrine 
!<lltni!illru 



11. S 
ICM 



I 0.-. USmriiu-B S.r*i.tTi ! M.M 

i T"l»l onmniit .■iiK'ii.Uil I >2.*Ta*T 

ill. '2. — IMiiilnl tliilimfHl of txprn^ilnrtu tMttlr im cuHNri'fiON trili tkt rrvrt «f 
nil t'lmlrHrtioHs tM MinifKijipi Rirer. an rrquinil hg wrfJuN 7 «/ (Ac rim- «ttrf t(tr- 



t!>oa.2Sj fltLSK •LIMLIW 



Sa|i|ili.-» 

u'lw-rlliiiiniiVi 

ailiins,-.(.i.naj: 

(Tiw 

VnA.'.V.'.V". 
SuIwIhIi-ihc ■ 



i.iiu,n3 



1. 1».K : 

itIjj 



tt|i>.PO, ].iMI.»T 

MK.S i.niK.Ta 

S.-Ji :t.oa 

SH. I-.', li(3.3S 



Sot. 
•1H.IW 


DfT. 






.wiia 
(n4.n 

IT&tS 
«1.1S 


is 

.as 



iiT.in KHI.3U I te>-.ti\ (e3.« 

!IX.3I l.(l!t,M l.lKiG. lltS.lB| 
«.IS I MB.1! «.3U ' 

M.M , Mi.ie sa.u 15.1)0; 
LIS 28.1S ii.^'-s; '- 



Fell. I Uhi 



ltr.-.,*f,- 



'j}l'."w.," '""'■ "" 



WAM 


15.tll».«7 


IO.tW2.74 


3,«1.« 


i>,3W.n 




1S91 








Unr. 


i:a.i.7 
•juvno 


... 


taxt.!- 
i.iiM).n 
1:3.00 

414] M 


T„U1^ 


MO.W 

■WVIW 


tlSt.lf 
l.tiSK.10 

712. ai 


a.Dw.ai 
«.iia.ai 



a,T7i.3j 
' 'i.'sii.'w" 

TW.:!! 



!S.M 1,039L«7 



**■" siioiw 

«eti.« e.M«.i) 

XI.1T MO.S 

MAl.tO Z.t9S.« 



B,i:(7.m ,2,aMLM I i.M^M ; ft^«?liflT 



APPEKDIX T — REPORT OV MAJOR MILI.ER. 



Wniaghtlroa lUngeCD... 



I J.H.CofBnft C&I 

Boberl Wuhlnnon 

I Chulcalf. Butler 

N. O. NsImib UvinliicMrSiig Co ■ ■ . 

ThonuB J. CoDnor - 

Sankhi i. Frllscb F. Jk U. Co . . . . 

Ewald Iron Co 

'WntushC Iron Bange Co 

Ihe W. A. Bousack Liuubur Co . . 

Hired men 



s«L'iffiiiB 



nYorkStonCo 

, _. W.MnW 

Wmtain jBiTBtt 

: St. Lotiii, Iron Moontnin and Sonihe 

Owen JackBon 

ConHolldBlvd Coal Co. of SI- Loula. . . 

Poleraon ft Hurntu 

UlBsunri Tent and Awning Co 

Gnsl. Blachoir. .' 

Jobn Gorman &Brn... 

Frani'ls Whiltaker A Sane -.. 

MelilPT Drag Co 

WanlilJ™lv , ^ii|i 

S.O.Nrl.onUiiiiufiu:lurlBB(;o ...il 

KwaldlronCo litpo 

Jamea Sweeney* Sod...- i Cnv 

"rooeht Iron Range Cu Ituii 

il.iM.MlUer I Mili 

uo City Coal (;» Cml 

tUbUM Coal Co - .i 

PBatniM.Cann,n.n ACo L.-.d 

Mott. Uonagfaan A Co ; Mnf. 

Himd meo I Siti 

■ •''• -i 






' Conaallilolul C<uil Co. c.f HI 



Petcraon A Huii. 



K<ln'iinl Wlllio. 



otiDghui 
t'.l'"'. ^& 



tnelneerjne ( 
•IIFiimltare 



. SMtvk-cs 

l^Lmtrtc-llRlit jilont.. 

: SSS-''r^:::::: 

do 

. Onlfitauaaapiilie*.. 
<lo 

. Snpplle* — 



2088 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

The appi*oved projeit tor the exiK.*iHliture of this amount 
platod ^vork as follows: 

For Alton H;irlH>r ^by law^ 16 

For Sto. Gt*iu*vit*ve i^by law"^ S 

Repair an«l piin-base of plant 4 

C'ontin^onrios and repair of old work 1 

Rush Tower, or new project 24 

40 

ALTON. 

Tlio work at Alton consists of the extension of the present 8uhme 
able stone dike for a distance of 2,8(H) feet. The object of the wot 
to prevent the formation of a bar in fi-ont of the landing at Altoi 
directing the tlow of water at lovr stages along the river front at 1 
place. A contract was entered into tor this work with Mr. H 
Brown, of Quim\v, IlL. under date of January 28, 1891. •Owing to 
lateness of the season and the danger of interference with the wori 
running ice, no work could be undertaken here during the fall or win 
and up to the 30th of June the stage of water has been too higl 
begin wtu^k; the contractor is prepai'ed to go to work as soon as 
stage of watei* will permit. The amount exi)ended was $51.22. 

BUSH TOWEB. 

Work was begun at the head of this section of the river aboit J 
15, and is still in progress. Owing to the extreme depth of wat^rfoi 
near the shoiv at the prevailing high stage, but little work could be 
complished in the way of hurdles. Two hurdles, Xos. 4 and 5, wen 
catcd and partially bnilt, and (KH) feet of bank protection was place 
lH)sition. Work will be continued here as long as the season will 
mit. 

The river heiv at high water has shown a tendency to make a cr 
ing higher up than the channel of last year, and if this channel pen 
at low water a slight nuHlitication of the project here may be nc 
sary. 

The pi-otortion of the bank where work has been oommenoed, 
l>oin! aUout I mile below Calico Island, is necessary, as it has in 
]>hu'c raved so far as to be within 50 feet of the base of the 1 
which i>n>t*Hts the Inittom lands fix>m overflow. The amount expei 
was >*;?.OLMi.iXi. 

ST. GENEVIEVE. 

. The work at this iH>int consisted in the construction of a sen* 
Inmlltv^ on the Illinois side of the river in order to prevent the cha 
\i\\\ hxix Kittle l\ock. the landing for the town of St< Genevieve, and 
to t'onirart the river to a width of 2,5iH) feet. 

W oik was begun heiv on May 22, and continued up to the cloi 
t hr \\>i\\\ \ i\\\\ A system of four hurdles was projected, but on ai 
aininaiioii ot' tlie hnality at the commencement of woi*k it was fi 
tliat ilio bar at the t\>ot of Turkey Island had worked downstreai 
la- as to renilt»r the eonstrnetion of the upper hurdle nnnecesi 
Thn e liiniMes, Nos. i\ :». and 4. were constructed and practically 
ph'ti'il: tlieir leiuvih^ are, resiHxmvely, 1,500, 1,250, and 900 
Anhuint i*\pen«b»d was J*lKS>(Krv). 



APPENDIX Y — REPORT OF MAJOR MILLER. 2087 



Y 2. 

IMPROVEMENT OF MLSSISSIPPI RIVER BETWEEN OHIO AND ILLINOIS 

RIVERS. 

PROJECT. 

The object* of the iniprovemeut is to obtain a minimum depth at low 
water of 6 feet from the mouth of the Illinois Kiver to St. Louis, a dis- 
tance of 41 miles, and 8 feet from St. Louis t^ the mouth of the Ohio 
River, a distance of 191 miles, tlie natural depth at low water being in 
lliany cases from 3 J to 4 feet. The initial point of the work for the lower 
XK)rlion is St. Louis, the programme being to make the work continu- 
ous, working downstream from that city. Work at detached points has 
also been carried on under allotments specially nmde by law for the 
improvement of landings and the proUx'tion of local interests. 

The plan of general improvement contemplates a reduction of the 
river to an approximate width of 2,500 feet below St. Louis, the natural 
width being in many cases from 1 to li miles, and the protection of the 
alluvial banks from erosion. The methods employed are to build up 
new banks with the solid matter caught from the river itself by means 
of hurdles and revetment of the banks, both new and old, when neces- 
sary'. 

ORGANIZATION. 

The organization of the engineering staff during the season was as 
follows : 

A supervivsing engineer was assigned to the general supervision of all 
the works and of the supply depot. His office was in St. Louis and his 
duties were to advise and direct the resident engineers and to have 
especial charge of the supply of brush, stone, and piles, and of the tow- 
boat and barges engaged on the work. 

The resident engineer was provided with quarters and an office at the 
work. His duties were to have immediate direction of the work of con- 
struction; to make such surveys and observations as might be required 
to keep the progress map, upon which all work was to be located, as fast 
as constructed; to keep the journal and other records of the work; to 
prepare payrolls; to render quarterly property returns, semi-annual 
and annual reports to the othcer in charge, forwarding them through 
the superintending engineer. 

The superintending engineer was Mr. D. M. Currie. Resident^ engi- 
neers: At Ste. Genevieve, Mr. William S.Mitchell; at Rush Tower, and 
for the procurement of brush, Mr. C. D. Lamb. 

Work accomplished. 

Owing to the lateness of the passage of the river and harbor bill, 
September 19, 1890, no work of construction was attempted during the 
fall, but contra<!!ts were entered into for the supply of material and the 
building of 13 model barges and extensive repairs to plant. 

The amount appropriated by the river and harbor bill of 1890 was 
$400,000. Of this amount $50,000 was to be expended in the comple- 
tion of the work at Alton and $50,000 for imx)roving the river at St. 
Genevieve, in the State of Missouri. 



1 



2088 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S, ARMY. 



The a]>proved i)rojec't for the exi>en<Iitiire of this amount contei 
plated work as follows: 

For Alton Harbor (bylaw) $50^6 

For Ste. Genevieve (by law) 50,6 

Repair and purchase of plant 40^0 

Contingencies and repair of old work lo,0 

Rush Tower, or new project 245,0 

400,0 
ALTON. 

The work at Alton consists of the extension of the present submerg* 
able stone dike for a distance of 2,800 feet. The object of the work 
to prevent the formation of a bar in front of the landing at Alton h 
directing the flow of water at low st^iges along the river front at tht 
pla<je. A contract was entered into for this work with Mr. H. i 
Brown, of Quiitcy, EL, under date of January 28, 1891. -Owing to tt 
lateness of the season and the danger of interference with the work b 
running ice, no work could be undertaken here during the fall or winte 
and up to the 30th of June the stage of water has been too high i 
begin work ; the contractor is prepared to go to work as soon as tli 
stage of water will permit. The amount expended was $51.22. 

RUSH TOWER. 

Work was begun at the head of this section of the river about Jnn 
15, and is still in progress. Owing to the extreme depth of water foun 
near tlie shore at the prevailing high stage, but little work could l>e a4 
complished in the way of hurdles. Two hurdles, Nos. 4 and 5, were h 
cated and partially built, and 600 feet of bank protection was jJaced i 
X>osition. Work will be continued here as long as the season will i)e 
mit. 

The river here at high water has shown a tendency to make a cros 
ing higher up thim the channel of last year, and if this channel persisi 
at low water a slight modification of the project here may be nece 
sary. 

Tlie protection of the bank where work has been commenced, at 
point about 1 mile below Calico Island, is necessary, as it has in oi 
place caved so far as to be within 50 feet of the base of the lev< 
which protects the bottom lands from overflow. The amount expendc 
was *a,92().0r). 

ST. GENEVIEVE. 

. The work at this point consisted in the construction of a series 
hurdles on the Illinois side of the river in order to prevent the chann 
leaviiig Little lioek, the landing for the town of St. Genevieve, and al 
to contract tlie river to a width of 2,500 feet. 

Work was begun here on May 22, and continued up to the close 
the tiscal year. A system of four hurdles was projected, but on an e 
anniiation «>f the locality at the commencement of woi*k it was fom 
that the bar at the foot of Turkey Island had worked downstream 
far as to render the construction of the upper hurdle unnecessax 
ThnH' hurdles, Nos. 2, o, and 4, were constructed and practically coi 
pleted: their lengths are, respectively, 1,500, 1,250, and 900 fe4 
Amount expended was $9,830.55. 



MISSISSIPPI r: 

FROM 

TURKEY ISLAND to STE 
Showing works of impn 

Sars are sho*rn «* Otey appear July 1891. at ,ri 

Bars as ^ey apfaeared in ^ugrJS6S. af ^fape €.40ff. abo 

■scAte. 

'tooo S»0 1 S 3 ■* i 




1 



2000 KKP(>RT OF TIIK nilEF OP ENOINEERS, II. 8. ARMT. 

GAUGES. 

Tht^ <rau^es at Griiftou and Gray's Point were read daily during the 
yoar. The readings are appended, marked A. 

CONDITION OF THE BIVEB. 

The channel depths, as furnished by the Mississippi and Ohio Biven 
lMh)ts' Association, for the year are appended, marked B. Afiill list of 
soundings eouUl not be obtained, as the pilots' reports wei'e not all pre- 
s<»rve<l. 

The* river was open all winter and navigation was not interrupted by 
iee. This is the third successive winter with navigation uninterrupted. 

The stage of water was lowest in ])eceml>er, January, and Februarj-, 
when it fi^ll below standard low water; the highest stage was in June, 
when it reached a height of 19 ftM»t above low water. The uavigatiou 
of tlie river has beiMi in a very good condition. The least depth met with 
in the ])ortionof the river under improvement, a stretch of i^io miles from 
8t. Louis, was 5 feet, found at Twin Hollows; this place soon deepened 
and a good eliannel of abcmt 7 feet was maintained. 

The locality. Twin IIoHows, has been aditticultone for l>oats always; 
the works built here, however, for inqn'oving the channel have had a 
marked elfect and the channel should be good and well deftned this 
season. At liUcas', d(»pths of G and Gijfeet were found in December, but 
soon scoured out to 7 and S feet. About the shoalest place in the river 
last season was at Perry's Towhead: this locality will be impixived with 
tlie funds now aviulable. 

ESTIMATE. 

The amount that can be profitably expended during the year ending 
June 30, ISlKS, is A1,(KK),(K)0. It is i>roposed to exi)end this sum in car- 
rying out the programme heretofore adopted — ^that is, to carry on the 
work of imin'oviMiuMit continuously from St. T^uis downsti'eam, re- 
<-laimiug land by buildiug up new banks, thus nnlucing the river to an 
approximate width of L\.><M) feet, alluvial banks to be protected from 
erosion. It is ])roposed to obtain by this means a channel of at leasts 
fec»t at low water. The de])th now is liable to l)ecomc as small as 4 feet, 
or even less in some i>laces, and less at every lo<*ality where the width 
is more than 2,r)<M) feet. 

This general statement of the proi>osed a])idication of the a])pi'opria- 
tion is as si>cn'ilic as the nature of the case admits. The changeable 
<*hara<'ter of the river renders it impracticable to give in advance the 
exaet locality where works will be required. 

The original I'stiiiiati'd cost ot' this work, as rcvisod in 1883, wns $16,997,100; the 
aj;^iv;;att' aiiiouiit a]>pr()iiriate(l to Juno I'M), ISSU. is ^.529,600: the amonut expended 

AllSTKAt'T OF AITROPIUATIOXS MA1»E FOR TUIS WORK. 

By att <»f— ' \\\ art (jf— 

.hinr 10, 1S7l> $ll>r>,(HH) * .]un»» II. 1880 $32a0C0 

Mar<h3, 1S73 1>(K).(HH) March :*, ISSl tiSO^NX) 

Junc2;{, 1S71 lMM).(KH) Aui;nst 2. 1S82 000.000 

Mar<h X IS?.'. L'(m>,(kh) .lulv .">. 18HI ;'V20.000 

Auj,Mi.Kt II. isn; L^JI».»H»0 AJi;inst.">. lS8<i STTnOOO 

June IS. 1S78 LM(».Un) Au^rust 11, 1888 .SOQ,000 

Manh 3. lS7i> L'<K).IHK) .S'i»tcnil>cr 19, 181K) 400,000 



APPENDIX Y — REPORT OP MAJOR MILLER. 



2091 



Money Htatvmvnt, 



July 1, 1890, balance unexpended 

Amount appropriated by act approved Sc^ptcmbcr 19, 1890. 



June 30, 1891, amount expended during fiscal year. 



$97, 177. 71 
400,000.00 

497, 177. 71 
96,811.87 



Julv 1, 1891, balance unexpended 400, 365. 84 

JiUy 1, 1891 , outstandinfj liabilities .^20, 720. 86 

July 1, 1891, amount covered bv uncompleted contracts. .. 114,727.18 

1:^5,448.04 



July 1, 1891, balance available 



264, 917. 80 



Amount (e8timated)required for coniidction of cxistin*? project 12, 467, 500. 00 

Amount that can be profitaldv cxi)endcd in fiscal vear ending .June 

30,1893 * 1,000,000.00 

Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of river 
^ and barl)or acts of 1866 and 1867. 



Abstract of proposals received for furnishing lumher, opened Octobers, lS90y by Maj, A, 
M, Miller, Corps of Engineers, St. Louis, Mo., under notice of 10 days, by circular 
letter dated September S3, 189(). 

[ Addreases of bidders : St. Louis, Mo.] 



Kind. 


Quantities. 


F. Duff. 


St. Louis 

Kofrigc- 

rator and 

"WoiMhm 

(luttor 

Couipimy. 


John J. 
Gannhl 
Lunib<'r 
Company. 


Eau Claire- 

St. Louis 

Lumber 

Company. 


W. A. 
Bousack. 


Knapp, . 
Stout & 
Co. 
Company. 


AVLItconk 


IHeeeg. 

476 
40 

202 
3 

260 
90 

915 

104 
30 
46 
46 
60 
20 
20 
60 
40 
70 
20 
34 
20 
20 
20 

500 

**'i66' 

11 

8 

181 

30 
340 


Feet. 

26, 272 

' 2, 317 

6,775 

240 

10, 920 

600 

47, 738 

' 8. 493 

3,600 

5, 520 

' 2,415 

1,440 

6,720 

4,320 

7.200 

5, 760 

560 

600 

. 776 

320 

467 

400 

15,000 

7,000 

1.000 

28,000 

17. 500 

16,800 

12,000 

112,000 

2, (KM) 

5,500 

1,000 

6,667 

1,013 

512 

3,877 

4, 320 

6,987 


rerM. 

$*23. 00 
*24. 00 
*25. 00 

, *20. 00 
*28.00 
*28. 00 
*29.00 
*34.00 
*34.00 
*30. .50 
*28.50 
*20. 5J 
*32. 50 
*31. 50 
*25. 00 
*20. 00 

1 51.00 

*51.00 

*51.00 

51.00 


Per M. 

$34. 00 
:i4.00 
34,00 
44.00 
44.00 
44.00 
44.00 
34. 00 
44.00 
30.00 
'M. 00 
25. 00 
36.00 
36.00 
29.00 
36.00 

*30. 00 
55.00 
55. 00 
55.00 

*00. 00 
26.00 
25.00 
17.50 
21.00 
16.00 
25.00 
37.50 
37.50 

t37.50 
3S. 00 
30.00 
29.00 
40.00 
40.00 
30.00 
22.50 
40.00 

*15.00 


PerM. 


PerM. 


PerM. 

$.35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
35.00 
45>00 
50.00 
4.5. 00 
35.00 
45.00 
40.00 
40.00 
35.00 
45.00 
45.00 
40.00 
45.00 


Per M. 




























1 






1 




























"Wliil<^pine 


35. 00 
35. 00 
30. 00 
40. 00 
37.50 
32.50 
37.50 
37.50 
55.00 
52. 50 
52. 50 
65.00 
22.50 

*17.50 
16.00 
18.00 
15.00 
25.00 
36. 00 
35.00 
42.00 
35.00 
19.00 
18. 50 

*37. 50 
30. 0'J 
25, 00 
2.'>. 00 
30.00 
16.00 


























• 
















45.00 












52.50 
*50.00 




















*22.00 
22,50 
18.00 
21.00 
15.50 
24.00 
40.00 
40.00 

*40. 00 
29.00 
21.00 
21.00 


25.00 
18.50 
*14.50 
*16. 50 
*14. 50 
*18.00 








37.50 




























45.00 
45.00 
45.00 


«$30.00 






*30,00 








*17.50 
*19. 00 
*17.50 


37.50 






25.00 






22.50 




40.00 




Yellow pine 


*28.50 
23.50 
21.50 

*27.50 
19.00 


35.00 

*22. 50 

■^20. 00 

35.00 

16.00 

































♦Awarded. Formiil written contract entered into with F. Duff only; remainder purchased " under 
public notice' of JO days." 
t Did nut comply fully with speeiflcationa ; the next lowest bid was therefore accepUA. 



, 2092 REPOET OF THE CHIEF (IF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

JbilracI of pTopomU reivii-ril. in ri'iifxnun- tn adrfrliiment dtiird Korembtr SO, lSO0,/«r 
furKiMng piUg, glonr, manila and »i$al rape, vire, maih, ipikeg, and ttrew holla, opentd 
December 20, 1S90, bg Jliy. A. U. Miller, Corp* of Bngineert, St. LoMit, Mo. 



t. 11 11 il 



m\i 



ill! 
I' |i 4 \i 



Si 






CIM. cu. cu. en. 



Mn. Liiaibir ami UHillie 



'■ibii V. Mvi 
ri>I.U>>.l.- 



.. unit Jjuiin T. ilr- 
a\■.^^'bpatlmi. 111 — 
y K. Coffin. Urin|>hl«. 



ranml Uiuitiy fn., St. 

IjuiiilMk.: 

FDpiilil Mi-lhiuly. SI, 



Si H 



^••TanWiUmdS 



I.imiN. 111. .. 



An<'h<ir I.lni- Stiire, »t 
I^mfi. M<t 

1I«.I 

Brrtholil &- JvuuIiiEi 

Liiui«.Mii.l 

Jubn ( 'IvHrr. 



at. 



•? 3 ;'! 



1,11. 1.. F<>x4:l.'a..St.lAiui*.! 



1.^1. ISllKlilIiifiiniiiiU(iii>ii 



limimwilH. : Qnnrry at Gnnon, in. 

.IHIID. Mu. 

aiKHisital bUdor^ iii.-ept U. M. Bock & O 



APPENDIX Y — ^BEPOBT OF MAJOR MILLEB. 



2093 



dbstract of proposals received in response to advertisement dated Novemher SO, 1890, for 
constructing an extension to dam at Alton, III., opened December 20, 1890, by Maj, A, if. 
Miller, Corps of Engineers, 8t, Louis, Mo. 



* Contract awarded. 





Name and address of bidder. 


Piles, 80 sticks, 3,200 
feet. 


Bmah, 83,000 
cubic yards. 


Stone, 16,500 
cubic yards. 


_rt 


Ko. 


Price driven 
to 14 feet 
depths, per 
foot 


• 

o 


Pa 

$0.35 
0.05 
0.05 


i 
1 

P4 


• 

1 

o 

a 


i 
1 

$1.40 
1.80 
1.00 


• 
• 

1 

e 
1 


Amount of eacl 
iwsal. 


1 


James Short and John Gray, St. 
Charles, Mo 


$0.28 
0.20 
0.10 


$896 
610 
230 


$0.50 
0.65 
0.65 


$16,500 
21,450 
21,450 


$23,100 
21,450 
16,500 


$40, 4M 
43,540 
88,270 


2 

a 


A. J. VVhitnpy, Rook Island, 111. . . 
H. S. Brown, Quincy. 111.* 







Abstract of proposals received in response to advertisement dated January 24, 1891, for 
building and delivering at Bushbergy Mo., thirteen model barges, opened February 24, 
1891, by Maj. A. M. Miller, Corps of Engineers, St. Louis, Mo. 



No. 



1 

o 



3 

4 
5 



Name and address of bidder. 



Sanfonl S. Holbrook, Cincinnati, Ohio * 

Sainnel W. Coflin, Cincinnati, Ohio t 

St. Louis Secitioiial Dock Company, St. Louis, Mo 

James Hill, Madisou, Ind 

J. J.Hammer & Son, St. Ixiuis, Mo 



Komber 

proposed 

toftumish. 



6 

13 

4 

13 
6 



Price 
each. 



$3,750 
3,795 
4,600 
4,160 
4,880 



• Contract awarded for 6. 



t Contract awarded fbr 7. 



REPORT OP MR. D. M. CURRIE, ASSISTANT ENGINEER. 

St. Louis, Mo., June SO, 1891. 

Ma.jor: I liave the honor to submit tho following report upon works for the im- 
provement of Mississippi Kivcr, between the Illinois and Ohio rivers, including as 
part of it the reports of assistants in local charge, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 

1891. 

itusu tuwkr. 

• 

Work wjis begun at this locality about the middle of June, but on account of the 
excessive depths of water found near shore at the prevailing high stages of the river, 
but little progress had been ma<le at the close of the fiscal year. Two iiurdles, located 
as shown on the accompanying sketch, were started, and about 600 linear feet of mat- 
tress was placed in the protection of their shore ends, and a few piles were driven fol- 
lowed by the usual foundation mattress in each of the hurdles. 

Reference is made to the report of Mr. C. D. Lamb for further details. 



8TE. GENEVIEVE. 

This work embraced a series of hurdles below the foot of Turkey Island, located 
as shown on the accompanying tracing. 

The bar below Turkey Island had extended down so far that Hurdle No. 1 of the 
project could not be built, when work was commenced in May, with the river at the 
stage of 14 feet above low water. Nos. 2, 3, and 4 were started in the order named 
and at the close of the year Nos. 2 and 3 were nearly finished and work was well ad- 
vanced on No. 4. 

Reference is made to the accompanying report of Mr. W. S. Mitohell for further 
details. 



2094 REPOKT OF THE CHIBF OF ENQINEERS, U. 8. ARMT. 

rnocuKixG matekial. 

Hrnsli >v:is pnMMirod Ity liiroil labor, the drtails of which nro shown in th6 •ceom- 
panvin^ ivport of Mr. V. O. I.anib, suiHn-hit«MuU*nt in local charge. 

I'ilcs wcn» prorurcd l»y contract drliYcrcd at the work. 

Stone for riprap was procured by rontract delivered (.»«(tovi*niinciit barges at Graf- 
ton. III. 

Hidts, nails. ro]M>. spikes, wire, and other niiscellaneons material wiTo procnred by 
ctuitract wlM'n the quantities re<|uired were large, and by purchase when small, de- 
livered at tiie supply depot in this city. 

The towboat, ])ile <lrivcrs. bar«j:es. and other plant used in comioct ion with the 
work are public property. The repairs and additions to it will be summarized under 
the head ot' plant. 

PLAXT. 

The barjre>. jMb'-drivers, and n«'arly all the M\wv ]dant receivwl extensive repairs 
in wbii h 1J> barir»'s and l."> pile-<lrivers Wi-re taken out on the ways at Mound City, 
111., and r«*paire<l brlow li«;ht-water lin«'. The other repairs and renewals nee<led 
to restore the etUcimi-y of the ]dant were uiaile by hired labor and purchase of ma- 
terial. tln' details of which are shown in the aeroni]»anyins; rcp«»rt of Mr. S. S. Van 
Norinan. suprrintcndeiit of su]>jdies. 

At the close of the year V^ model bar^res were uiuler process of eonstnietion by 
contract. 

Very respectfully, y«»ur (d»edient servant, 

D. M. CrRRiE, 
JwutaHt EmgimteTm 
Maj. A. M. Mii-i KK. 

i'orpit itf t^in/hmry, i'. .S. A. 



liliroKT OF Mli. C. 1>. LAMll. SrrEKIXTKXOEXT. 

St. Lot is. Mo., Jiiae SO, 1S91, 

Major: I have the honor to submit the following report of operations at Rush 
Tower durinvr the liscal year euiliiiir .lune 'M^, ISIU : 

The work to be done at ]\u>h Tnwir inrludes the prot<'ctiou of the hank oppoaite 
"Kenneti's" to prevc-nt an.\ further iucreasr in the width of the chute east of the 
towhead and the brifinnini; of hurdler, whieli form a part of the general project for 
improving this ]Kirt «»f the river. 

The construction of a shore mattress was brgun cm the 17th of June and at the 
close of the month (iTiO liuiar fert had bei'u built and Tu7^ linear fiM't placed. 75 linear 
feet bring <"arrietl away by the strouircurn-nt uhile ]»artly sunk. This mattress was 
S<> tcet wide. w«»\»-n on way Mat. and ]»la<Td in three sectituis. It coveriMl the bank 
fn»m a ItVfoot sta^xe out to where the slope of the bank was very slight and has pre- 
vented all I'xri'pt a little surface seonr. 

'I'he dritt n»w of lliirille \o. I. located 7.~» feit Iwlow the head of the shore mattress, 
was extended to a di^tanrc of UH) fi-ct fr«»in shore, where the water was so deep that 
the ]nb's on haiiil etuibl n«»t hv n^ed for tlie I'xtension. A secoiul hunlle was began 
,lnne '21, JMm> fi-rt bt«lo\v No. 1. .iiid at the cbise i»f the year the drift row had been ex- 
tended ti» a bnjith of liKi iW}. 

The folhiw ing table slu»\v«i thr amount of work ilone during the year, while its 
location i> >hn\vn on the traelng arcompanying the monthly report for June, 1891: 



l*il» - ilri\i n 

lilMi « «< i»l.'.« « <1 

SiriiivTi !"•' I'l.n 111 . 
SlinTf iiMtt?-. «.^ )>--:i]: : 
1. ill.'. IV ri ; r 

>i|'.l.lTi ?■ • I 
^^ll>•I■• II!. .'Ml ^^ J.'..;- ■ I 

l.iif .11 i> I : . 
Sjii.ri |i t t 



Hurdle 



19 

11 

3 



Hnrdto 
No. 2. 



Total. 



M 

SS 
7 



15 
11 

4 



I 93,000 

I 575 

I 48,000 



V«-i\ i»-^pi'it !iil]\ . \ «iiii- ••l.iilirii! "'.i-rv ant, 



M:ii. v. M. Miiu w. 



C. 1>. Lamb, 



APPENDIX Y — ^REPORT OF MAJOR MILLER. 2095 

RBPORT OF MR. W. 8. MITCHELL, 8UPKRINTENDEXT. 

St. Louis, Mo., June SO, 1S9U 

Major: I have the honor to Bubmit the following report on the progress of the 
workfor improving the Mississippi River at Ste. Genevieve, Mo., during tlie fiscal 
year ending June §d, 1891 : 

The project for this improvement of the river embraced a series of hurdles extend- 
ing downstream from Turkey Island, and of such length as to reduce the width of 
the river to 2,500 feet next the Missouri shore. The upper hurdle was to be placed 
across the bar at the foot of the island, and the others were to follow at intervals of 
about 1,300 feet. 

When work was begun. May 22, the stage of water, which was about 14 feet on 
the St. Louis gauge, did not admit driving piles on the upper line. Hurdle Xo. 1, 
within 750 feet from shore, and the bars extended so far below this line tliat 
Hurdle No. 2 seemed the upstream limit for the work, and here, also, a dry bar about 
300 feet wide crossed the line 200 ft^et from shore, leaving a gap in the hurdle to be 
closed at higher water. 

Pile-driving and mattress work were begun on both sides of this bar and were 
completed June 9. A rise of 7 fec^t in the o days preceding this date enabled tlie 
drivers to establish the line of drift piles across this gap, and the mattress was just 
started June 11, when the drift which had collected against the linxj and the rapid 
scour in the bottom carried out the piling. The drivers were put back in position 
and the line again started over the bar, but the few piles driven during the day were 
carried out at night. As the action of the jet-pump seemed to increase the scour 
and depths at the incomplete hurdle ends on either side of tliis gap it was thouglit 
best to move up 100 feet into shoaler water witli less current and build a hurdle in front 
of the gap, connecting its ends with the main line. This work was completed June 
29. During the rise drift ha<l collected against the hurdle for 20 feet in widthfrom the 
offset to the end of the line, 800 feet. A mattress was built over this and the whole 
was sunk to the boUom, forming a good protection for the base of this portion of the 
hurdle. The shore end of this hue was protected with the usual stone and mattress 
revetment and the outer end by a T-head mattress. This hurdle is 1,500 feet in 
leng:th and is complete, with the exception of wattling in those portions unprotected 
by drift. 

Hurdle No. 3 was begun June 2 and was completed on the 29th. It is 1,350 feet 
long, and located 1,250 feet below No. 2, parallel and similar to the latter, with outer 
T-head mattress and revetted shore end. During its construction a portion of tlie 
drift row of piles about 250 feet from shore was crushed down against the hurdle 
row (the cross bracks had, not then been placed) by drift, piling, and a pile driver, 
which were carried out from No. 2 on June 11. The hurdle was not brok<5ii though, 
and after making a new drift row of the first hurdle row a new line of piles for 
wattling was driven behind it and protected by additional mattress. This hurdle is 
also complete with the exception of wattling. 

Hurdle No. 4 was begun June 4, but on account of the rapid rise in the river and 
a scarcity of piles long enough for the work the drivers wc^re withdrawn on the 6th 
and the line was not resumed uritil the 22d. None of the piling first placed was lost, 
and at the close of the month the drift row had been carried out 900 feet to the end 
of the line, and the mattress had been constructed 650 feot and sunk for 500 feet. 
This hurdle is parallel to the others and 1,400 feet below No. 3, and for 300 feet near 
shore crossed wat^r, 30 to 35 feet in depth. 

The season has been very favorable for the work, the river not having been at any 
time higher than 23 feet on the St. Xioiiis gauge. The current at this stage has been 
very strong, but has brought with it a considerable deposit about the upper two 
hurdles. 

The locations of the hurdles and soundings are shown on the chart accompanying 
the monthly report foi: June. 

The force engaged on the work has averaged 10 pile drivers and 275 men, although 
it has been difficult to keep the full complement of men, owing to the demand for 
laborers in the country adjacent. 

Very respectfrilJy^ your obedient servant^ 

Wm. S. Mitchell, 

Suj^erintendenU 

Maj. A. M. Miller, 

CwrpB of Engineers, U, S» A. 



2096 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. AHMT. 

REPORT OF MR. C. D. LAMB, SUPERINTENDENT. 

St. Louis, Mo., June SO, 1891, 

Major: I have the honor to submit the following report for procuring brush dur- 
ing the tiscal year ending June 30, 1^1. 

No brush was procured during the fall season, bnt work was begun with a nnall 
force February 25 at East Carondolet. Most of the brush procured at that locality 
was hauled across the Prairie du Pout Creek on a ponton bridge made of liatn. 

The following table shows the places at wliicn brush was procured during the 
season, with length of time spent at each place, and the number of cords procured: 



Locality. 



»«*«""'"k. ipSS;.!. 



East Caromlelot ' Feb. 25 to Mar. 30: 1.452.2 

Arscuid Irtlunii Mar. 31 to Aio*. 8 787.0 

Head of WiNou lalanil Bnul ■ Apr. 9 to Aiur. 20 ],S9S.9 

South bank M isj^oiiri Kiver, at mouth ; Apr. 21 to Miir 10 I 3, 550. 

Coraroint May 20toJune 2i l.lTJSll 

Brivkhon^e Bond Tune StoJune 0. 25S.0 

lUinoia nhon^ at hoad Calico Ishiud Jnnt? 10 to June 10 j 56S.8 

Duifco Pikint Juno 20 to June 30 78S.S 



Total ' I •,7«.l 



Tho brush proourfil in Fcbruiiry was loa<l«Hl in tho ordinary way, but about the 
l8t of March a pilo driver was oquiupud with a derrick^ which was used in loading 
the brush during tho remainder of the season. 

The brush was lilted from the wagons by the derrick and swung upon the barge, 
which was laid outside the driver and shifted as rei[uired. One man was n*qnired on 
the liank to fasten the load lines. 2 on tlie driver to handle tlie lines at the wpools, 
and S on the barge to swing the load and place it in position. As at first arrauged, 
with a short mast and 35-foot boom, about 10 cords per hour could bo handled, but 
many elianges were made during the season, and as now us«mI 25 cords per hour can 
be loaded by 8 laborers and a steam engineer, a rate which would require abont 35 
laborers loading by hand, while the brush can be laid straighter and more compactly 
and unloaded with less labor. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

C. D. Lamb, 
igiycrfaitead c at. 

Ml^. A. M. MiLLEK. 

Corps of Engineer 8 f U, 5. A. 



report of mr. 8. s. vax norman, 8uperintendbnt« 

St. Louis, Mo., Jm jm 50, 1891. 

Major : I have the honor to submit my report of operations at the engineer sup- 
ply depot connected with works of improvement under your charge for the fiscal 
year ending .Time W, 18iU. 

Following is a general account of work done on each class of plant: 

Toic boat!*. — Kei>airs to the steamer (Tcneral (iiUmore consisted of renewal of aflerpil- 
low block chain braces: roof, nosing, facing, aiul scroll work of pilot house; 10 feet 
of boiler deek rail: riirle l»races. keys, arms, and buckets of wheel; 146 feet phink- 
sheer. li>> feet nosing. 11 outriggers, most of the decking on the st>arboard ^ardy 4 
kev«'ls, and 4 fendrrs. 

The guard rail, cabin roof, and boiler deck were patched and new glass placed in 
the cabin doors and skylights as needed. 

The ontrigiriTs of both guards were calked at the ports, the interior of the cabin 
and rooms ])ainted, the doors overhauled, new transom sash placed in the engine 
room and a new stage bnilt. 

Liiunihes. — Two sti»rn-wheel steam launches, or Hats, of the following description 
were built during the year: 

Len^ith over all. !!• feet 11 inches: width. 10 feet 6 inches; depth aniidahip, :i6 
inches: diameter ot* \\liecl. il.j feet: length of bucket, 7^ feet; width of backet, 14 
inches. 

A cabin 6 feet high. 'So feet long, extending from the stem forwaid and terminat- 
ing with a circular pilot house, was built on each launch. 



APPENDIX Y — KEPOIiT OK MAJOR MILLEB. 

Two KlidH-viUvo utiglDW, 4 iDoheain dianietier by36-iiich stroke, u) "Eeonomio" 
boilur and n " Uookoc No. 1 " fitoiiiii pliiujter pump for eapulyiug the boiler wer« I 
provided euuh bonl, biMidea a " Chitlleuge " pump lor geiieml oao. J 

file dHverii.—Hoa. 2,5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 13, 15, 16, 18, I9,uud20 warehaulndont 1 
on the wnys nt Mintnd City, IlL, tuid rupiured below tjie watur line, the work done a 
twlag priuuipiUly ua follons : 1 

At t^ IquOb ends Lite knees, conier iioaU, pliiiiik-sIieer,gnDWitl»H,aDd beams nndor | 
enda uf deukiug were reitewcd; the luwur ganwale atrukes tiiiil vnk shoee iit rake I 
«ndBieuflwe(lurreptiired,ssrequiied,tbepampHtraiDerBoverhiiiiled,audthubottumft-| 
pktvliud, (ia]k<Ml, an<l pitched. 

Tbu fuUowiug odditioDul rejiLii 

Nevr leads were placed on Nob, 
6 aiid 18. 

On« side brace was lenewed on Nos. B, 6, 7, S, 11, 13, und 20; o 
on Nos. 6 and 7; one ladder leg on No. 8; two on No. 13, and a cmb , 

New lieaiDS and silla were placed nndet the boilers and pumps where nrrnssanr; _ 
the derka renewed or patched; the cabins, crab frames, tad<lurs, plalfiimiM, choru. J 
and hU roatenlngs OTerbauled and repaired, (-abins rulettered and uuuibernd, tha j 
holds deaneil, and all the drivers painted. 

New hulls for No. 1, 3, 4, 15, and 17 were built, to which the cabiiiB, macUiuery, - 
etc.. of the old hiiUq were traiisrerrcd. 

The new hull for No. 15 was made neceaaary by injuries iustuined in a collisitiii ] 
after the old hall htid been repaired. 

Thn liuHs of Nos. 1,3, 4, and 17 were worn out. 

The miK^hiupry «f all the drivers was placed in thorough repair and a well for BQp- ] 
plying (hi- main pumpi put in each. 

ftirgrs.— Nob. 1,2,3.1,5,6,7,8,9.11,17,18. IS. 31, 22. 24, 28, 2B. and 30 were banlwd 
out oit the ways at Mound City, 111., and repaired below tBe li " 

lton<-wcd or repaired eterae, and bottom and side plunking. 'I'he oiikum lu tliM 
•MtuiB njid bntto of tliebottoina and kniiekl^s was^eol(^dnut, relilleil, horsed ii^, onm 
otto tlmud of oakum made in un top of horsing, scams fllled with tarred injm, onm 
pttyed off with red Imd and oil. i 

H«pturB U> most of the barges at the supply dcjiot were extensive and of Uiu fol-fl 
towing character : 

OnNDH. 1,3,8,4, 5,^,7,8,11, 2)11, and 39 t)in flecks, plauk-alu^^r, c«uti>r strnkfis, eHp-l 
•t&n liedti. kev<il», bita, ohoeks, natoh lyomee and i^oveiB, noeiug, ISO bi:nins. SI stati- 
(diions iiiid(-r benniB, 6,323 foet of side planking, 172 foot main olamp slrukc, 5 bond 
etidd, and 17 top timbon were renowi^d ; 17 floor timbers spliiied ; top and floor biuil- 
=-^ strakes n-pnireil; 3fi engraven piocoa put iu sides; gas-pipe piiiti[m supplied, 

V " .'r<iJMiu lined to patrbuiL: lii ■ i. - imi i.i. ^. ic.iiiivriii(r 



UlffSl 
hoTrls 



nd 1> 



inpiim 



, Palkin; 



','" ■ ' - u" L ■. ISI, and 22thofu8t''riiii;;i ■■! i . i.. 1 1 mil 

b'M'l ' i.pv-.--|Hi(e dungPB renewed, lln; ^u',--.-. i .>IL. J lu a U" 

III.' I . ':.ji^k«atnieend»of No, 19 and oiiULdt of quarter 

IT - I -• and hullB painted. 

I I . i|iiartetB on No. 31 was Bheatbed, inside of qnttrtora wbita^ 

wii-ii 11 16 patched, and tUsteningfl of both overhauled. 

l'<.,i'i:ii>li' iiiniriii.;^.,, of 6^ BeetioiiH eaob, 'n■e^t^ put up on barges NoRr25 and 27, t 
(■xIj'I'iit of quurters painted and interior whitewashed. 

Machine tlinp. — The bnll of the machine shop having brn'ome unlit for aor 
machinery wiis stored at the depot awaiting a new hnll, for which pravistoh h 

.«m'i(f'i(<'ii«.— Twenty fiats, 10 feet by 30 feet, were built, lOof which were decked j 
'Jl eels of ways erected on flats; 118 flats repaired by patching bottoniB, sides, u 
dei^ks, reiKiwing timberbeads, imd calking. 

'I'we[v<^ new ukitEs were purchased, and 51 skiffs and ISvawIaropairudBndpainto 

Tooh ami applianott. — Fifteen oant hooks, 1(12 cant-hook baudbui, 78 aapataii bui 

16 gas pl[>e and 20 box pumps, G coal boxes, 37 pike poles, 6 grindstone IVaiucH, 1 

wooden togglea.SO signal poles, a boom inebua by 9 inches liy 40 feat, a nuu 

inches by 8 feet, and a machinery truok, were made; u side dock b 

iYiks ])r''|iured, and 64 wheelbarrows, 14 tool boxes, and axes, auj 

"i-idc8 the 13 acetions reported under the bead of "quartet 
|.I.ii;ed DU bJireca Nos. 25 and 27. new csnvus was lair" -- ••-' 
supply depot, and 18 soctioiia were taken down anr 
.< Ivu new wutur-coolockogswureuuMli) ready for uso n 



inrhcA by 1 

100 -tai;.' I 



2098 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENQINEERS, D. 8. ABBIY. 

Two closetii 6^ foot by ^ fe«t, aiid one closet 3^ feet by 4^ foet^ were made; 42 
6 men buuks, 2 double and 1 sinj^le bunks put together ; 6 tables and 14 benches re- 
duced in len^xth from 10 foot to 8i feet, and 2 io^e boxes repaired. 

Supply depot. — The ofUco was raised, the sillsi porches, gutters, and flttor in one 
room rent; wed, the screen doors and windows repaired, and building painted. 

The depot fence, coal and machinery- sheds, and gutters to buildings were repaiied| 
all the building painted and fence wliitewashed. 

Ei^ht clumps of piles were driven in front of the depot for mooring purpoaee. 

Wat^'r barrels wore placed on^the roofs of all the buildings, with means of ready 
access to them in case of lire. 

All subsistence stores, as well as supplies of every description required in the field 
other than piles, brush, and stone, were also distributed from the depot. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servaut, 

& S. Van Norman, 

MaJ. A. M. MiLLKK, 

Corps of Engineer 8 f U. S, A, 



Construction account, showing total cost of works to June SO, 1891, 



Xaui^of work. 



Piasa iRland Dam 

Piada Island Dam. cutting chauuel 

Alton Dam 

Alton Dike 

Sawvor Ilend pn^teclion 

Venice Dikes 

St. LoiMH Harbor 

ArBonal Island protection 

Cloaiug Cahokia riiuto 

Channel omnwite St. Louis 

Horsetail I^ir, dikes 1 to 5, inclusive 

Horsetail Bar, training wall 

Hor8Ct;dl Bar, hurdles 

Horsetail Bar, bank protection 

Carroll Island hurdle 

Twin Hollows, west side, hurdles 

Twin Hollows, west side, bank ]»rotrction 

Twin Hollows, east siile. bank pntte«tion 

Beanis Island, priuiai y hunlb' 

Beanis Island, bank protect ion 

Jim Smith's hurdles 

Jim Smith's b.iuk pnttection 

Puljtight hurdles 

Chesh'y Island, b.nik iirotcitii»n 

Chesley Island hunili s , 

Sulphiir Springs, hurdles 

Lucas hurdles 

Foster IsLind 

Kush Tower 

Fort < 'hartres 1 >.nu 

Tuikey Ishiud 

St. 1 leuevieve 

KaskaAkia jimt «. « t iuu 

Libi-rty Island IVim • 

LilHTtv Island ]Mcti-« ti<<u 

IVvil'a Ishind 1 •: k . 1 , 

IVivils Island, dtiii-; I .aid 2 

Miniiin Point. Iniiiil- .«» , 

<'.»IH« (.iirardi i:i. iirim..iy hi:idh-s , 

Coiru, iU'oi4-i Hull .* , 



Expended 

prior to July 

1,1890. 



•37, 
3. 

76, 
Wi, 



910.41 
116.86 
740.05 
6.V2. 74 
8a'{. O:) 
341.85 



42, 
110, 

58, 
oo«i 

81, 
548, 

40, 

4. 

248, 

31, 

rj8, 

7, 
84, 

365, 
I. 

340, 
64, 
27. 

177, 

128. 
44, 



51)!). 06 
IWW.21 
455.54 
066.31 
253.28 
834.08 
993.55 
093.58 
837.82 
370.55 
020.30 
166.24 
258.76 
80.T33 
569.58 
778. 57 
416.04 
808.61 
UftL24 
050.65 
206.02 



•J4. 



812.86 
4JV3.S5 



(}0, 



4,'>. 
ti.-., 
66, 
3.1, 
31. 
1()0. 



465.62 
053.91 
120.40 
871. 17 
526. 88 
4^16. 37 
IKH). IK 
4;f.».82 



Expended 

during fiscal 

year ending 

June ao, 1891. 



$51.22 



99.729.86 



Total 

ooBt to June 

30,1801. 



3.026.06 



35.565.21 



ToUl 3.500,195.02 | 139,272. 



137.010.41 
8.116.85 
33. 74a 05 
70. 703. 96 
06.803.63 
3S.S41.8S 
00.720.86 
42.500.06 

110. 058. SI 
58.455.54 

235.066L31 
81.253^28 

548.63108 

40.003.55 

41.008.58 

248,837.82 
81.3f70L55 

128.020.30 

7.168.21 

84.258.76 

365,80133 
7.580.58 

340.778.57 
84.416.04 
27, aw. til 

177,081.34 

128.0S6LI5 

44, 208. OS 

3,03801 

38,812.81 

24,483.86 

8tt.4A8S 
ft,05&0l 
45,120141 
85,87Ln 
86,50188 
33|436.r 
31.030.18 
180.439L8: 



8,738,4812? 



APPENDIX Y — ^BEPOET OP MAJOB MIIA.EB. 



2099 



Property and material aooounU 



Class of proper^. 



Barges, model 

Steamer Gen. GlUmore . 
Pile drivers 

?aarterB 
ents 

Supply depot 

Macnine siiop 

Small boatti 

Tools and appliances 

Boarding outfit 

(Mice furniture 

Surveying instruments . 
Photographic apparatus 

Subsistence 

Brush 

Pttes 

Stone 

Bope 

Wire 

Iron 

Nails 

Spikes 

Bolts 

Lumber 

Oakum , 

Coal 



Ice 

Miscellaneons materiid. 

Launches 

Quarter boats 



Total 



Balance 
July 1, 1890. 



$31,303.70 

11, 815. 46 

20,909.83 

7, 861. 11 

190.75 

3,479.75 

1,885.61 

6, 643, 70 

1, 626. 00 

9, 306. 97 

428. 48 

471. 61 

200.48 

1,114.48 



95.60 

98.55 
9,800.00 

34.26 
274.72 
315.46 
131.72 
988.83 
485.15 

90.14 
321.00 



394.58 



U0,417.93 



Debits. 



$46, .381. 06 

13, 076. 04 

28,665.25 

2, 622. 12 



1, 674. 78 
1,354.95 
11, 129. 87 
3,795.71 
1, 635. 11 



32.25 



10, 262. 97 

19, 090. 15 

22, 794. 32 

12,411.04 

3,804.31 

1,537.64 

418. 72 

630.70 

1,301.43 

3,928.04 

14,025.03 

1,057.77 

4, 582. 52 

1,255.93 

8,958.68 

6, 513. 62 

15.00 



Credits. 



$11,661.42 

13, 384. 70 

3,093.75 

960.90 



548.73 

2,440.56 

1,713.26 

457.06 

960.66 

42.86 

47.16 



11,041.45 

17,741.10 

22,822.82 

12,044.44 

3,788.87 

555.78 

448.44 

588.90 

765.87 

1,764.76 

13,829.89 

916.62 

4,605.67 

1, 255. 93 

7, 520. 60 



15.00 



Balance 
June30, 1891. 



222,954.98 



135,607.12 



$66,118.88 
11,606.79 
45,041.88 

9,622.88 
100.75 

4,605.78 

«00.00 

16,060.32 

4,064.65 

9,091.42 
385.63 
456.70 
200.48 
336.00 

1,349.06 

67.10 

465.15 

0,815.44 

1,016.17 
245.00 
857.26 
667.28 

8, 152. 12 
680.20 
231.20 
297.85 



1, 832. 66 
6, 513. 62 



197,765.79 



Detail oonstrwstion aooountf showing coat of works during fiscal year ending June SO, 1891, 



Labor, material, plant, etc. 



Labor, superintendence, etc 

V. S. Engineer Office 

General expense 

Tel(;phone 

Gauge readers 

Steamer Gen. Gillmore 

Quarter barges 

Pile drivers 

Quarters 

Sapply depot 

Small Doats 

Tools and appliances 

Boarding outfit 

Survey fustruiiH.'uU 

( >ffice furniture 

Brush 

Piles 

Stone 

Snbsiiitence 9,...^ 

Hope 

Wire 

Oakum 

IfaiU 

Spikes 

Screw bolts^eto 

Lnmlier 

Coal 

Ice 

Miscellaneous material 

Total 



St. Genevieve. 


Bush Tower. 


$11,1(55.89 


$1,432.00 


558. 44 


70.43 


758. 13 


95,62 


180. a7 


22.75 


35. 52 


4.48 


676. 45 


81.50 


4:{7. 12 


66.41 


822.57 


40.31 


163.56 


44.03 


113.55 


15.32 


414.83 


43.52 


102.42 
407. 61 


12.27 


49.75 


7.39 


1.00 


8.88 


1.12 


4. 185. 16 


679.00 


5, 780. 05 


142.00 


2, 907. 93 


252.84 


4,291.07 


521. 18 


577.20 


72.15 


128.59 


25.00 


.73 


3.65 


59.67 


18.26 


135.32 


14.35 


502.40 


7.85 


67.20 


32.00 


;n6.73 


36.84 


556.21 


87.74 


194.62 


57.60 


35, 505. 21 


3,926.06 



2100 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENQINEEBS, U. 8. ABlfT. 



1 



A. — Benord of gauge at Grafton, lU., for fiscal year ending Jwne 30, X891m 
[Height of water above a plane 200 feet below St. Lonis City Birectxix.] 



Day 



Julj. Aug. 



Sept. 



1. 

o 

3, 
4. 

^ 

;>. 
fi. 

K. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
i:i. 
14. 

ir>. 
i«. 

17. 
21. 

_ > ■ 

24. 
2."». 
2(». 
27. 

2S. 
2*.*. 

:io. 



I 



204.53 
21U.58 
2t>4. r»3 
2m. :to 

2»»4. 10 
2vKt. SS 
'Mi. M 
2ti:<. :w 
2o:i. OS 

2i'2. f<i 
202. U 
201.44 
2iH). 9:{ 
2iH>. 51 
199. m 
198.70 
198.41 
198. {X\ 
197. 67 
197. :»:> 
19<5. 8ii 
lur.. 7:{ 
1%. :a 
iiHi. :i8 

IJMi. 2V> 
UMi. 2" 
llVi. iVA 

vXk 8:< 
19:>.»K> 
i9r>. ."4 

10."). 4: 1 



40 
16 



195.04 
194.84 
194 
194 
194 
19:J. S7 
193. 73 
193. G^ 
193.71 
UUl. 73 

19:1. tie 

193. 53 
193. 43 
193. 31 
193. (*9 
192. 88 
192. 80 
192.71 
192, 'lO. 
192. 5;^ 
192. 50 
192.53 
192. 61 
192. 73 
192.84 

193. or> 

19.x 13 



193. 
193. 
192. 



13 
11 
98 



Oct. 



192.68 
192.77 
192.75 
192.77 
192.77 
192. 86! 
192.94! 

193. o:t 
193. 18 
193.26: 
19:t.34 
19:). 42 
193.38 
193.30 
193. 17 

193. 12 

193. 13 
193. 31 
193.63 
mi. 88! 
193.97! 

194. a3! 
193.98- 
193. 87j 
193. 76i 
193.67= 
193.62 
193.50 
193.46 
193. 37 



Nov. 



192.86 



193.31 

193.29 

193.23 

193. M 

193. 66] 

193.79 

193.86 

193.74 

193. 6:) 

193.581 

193. 51 

193.44 

193.38 

193.24 

193.13 

193.11 

193.11 

193.53 

193.91 

194.18 

194.33 

194.39 

194.40 

194.41 

194.43 

194.50 

194.68 

194. 80 

194.99 

195.26 

195. 38 



Dec. 



195.38 

195. 15i 

194.90 

194.81 

194.76 

1M.72 

194. Gl 

194.53 

194.24 

194.08 

193.91 

193.77 

193.64 

193.73 

193.68 

193.62 

193.59, 

193.55 

193.53; 

193.50 

193.46 

193.43 

193.34 

193.39 

193.36 

193.35 

193.33 

193.33 

19:1.29- 

193.23 



Jan. 



193.23 

193.14 

193.09 

193.03 

192. 97j 

192. 91: 

192.86 

192.63^ 

192. 13! 

191. 83= 

191. 53) 

191. 40; 

191. 171 

190.83 

190.73! 

190. 66! 

190. 60; 

190. 73' 

191. 13| 

191.331 

191.63 

191.731 

191.61 

191.45. 

191.29 

191. 13l 

191.04 

190.93 

190.73 

190.741 

190.99 



Feb. 



191.23 

191.47: 

191.81' 

192.23: 

192. 13i 

191.92 

191. 73 

191.83! 

191.91: 

192.03! 

192.011 

191.93, 

191.80 

191.63 

191.49 

191.33 

191 

191 

191 

191.28 

191.341 

191.401 

191.43 

191. 58. 

191.44 

191.43 

191. 18 

191. 17 

191. 14 

191. 16 

191.21 



Mar. 



191.33- 

191.61' 

191.73 

191.03 

190.781 

190.20 

190.19 

190.60 

190.72 

190.97 

191. 2U 

191.42 

191.43 

191.71 

192.20 

192.37 

192.53 

192.50 

192.42 

192.41 

191.20 

191.91 

192.20 

192.70 

193.30 

193.90 

194. 21 

194.50 



Apr. 



194.50 
194.41 
191.07 
194.01 
194.40 
194.90 
195.50 
195.60 
105.48 
195.30 
195.10 
194.84 
194.621 
191.50 
193.80 
103.60 
193.80' 
194.02 
191.38 
195.40 
196. 80i 
197. 60; 
198.35 
199.05; 
200.80 
201.45 
201. 75 
202.01 
2it2.66 
202.88 
203.05. 
I 



U»j, 



203.10 
302.911 
202.78 
202.59 
202.21; 
202.30! 

203. «3 
202.90: 
203.14! 
303.50: 
203. 4l| 
303.16, 
303.01; 
202.92 
303.05; 
303.16; 
203.30! 
303.60; 
303.76 
310.65 
203.60 
303.75 
303.80 
201.06 
204.62 
205.05' 

204. «5j 
204.06 
203.90 
303.80 



JUM. 



203.8V 
203.75! 
203.67; 



303.56^ 
303.80 
303.38 
303.23 
303.10 
302.96 
202.83 
202.79 
202.10; 

201.70; 

201.30! 
200.80 
200.16 
199.63 
199.30 
198.90; 
198. W 
198.62 
198.70 
108.62 
198.43 
198.38 
198.08 
197.90 
197.80 
197.78 
197.54! 



197.58 
197.41 
197.39 
197.31 
197.09 
197.01 
197.29 
197.43 
197.67 
197.89 
197. « 
197.04 
198.80 
198. «l 
198. 5S 
19&53 
196.50 
198L4S 
198L3B 
I90L8O 
197.30 
197.10 
198.82 
19&90 
197.90 
197.87 
197.40 
197.00 
196L58 
198L39 



r 



standard low water at St. LouiD 170.10 fcoU 



APPENDIX T — RKPORT«OP MAJOR MnXGR. 



2101 



A. — Tteoord ofgange at Orayti Point, Mo., for. finical year ending Jvne SO, 1891. 
[Height of water above a plane 2<N) ft^^t ImiIow St. Lttyin (!i(.y Directrix.] 



Day. 



1 

o 

3 
4 
5 
6 
I 

8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
U 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
2U 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
80 
31 



July. 



108.26 
108.16 
107.96 
108.46 
107.66 
107.46 
107.26 
107.16 
106.91 
106.81 
106.51 
105.96 
105.41 
104.66 
104.01 
103.96 
103.86 
103.41 
102.96 
102.06 
101.66 
101.36 
101.16 
101.36 
10L21 
101.31 
101.46 
101; 36 
100.86 
100.36 
99. 96 



Aug. 



99.76 
99.36 
99.01 
98.76 
98.56 
98.26 
98.06 
97.96 
97.86 
97.71 
97.66 
97.66 
97.81 
97.01 
97.01 
96.86 
97.41 
97.86 
97.86 
96.86 
96.76 
96.86 
96.56 
97.01 
97.41 
97.56 
97.76 
97.40 
97.41 
97.16 
96.96 



Sept. 



96.91 
96.91 
96.76 
96.66 
96. 66 
96.36 
96.46 
96.46 
96.46 
97.76 
97.06 
96.06 
97.36 
97.26 
96.96 
96.56 
96.11 
96.06 
95.96 
95.81 
95.96 
96.26 
96.61 
96.86 
96.86 
96.86 
96.76 
96.56 
96. 56 
96.56 



Oct. 



96. 66 
96.66 
96.76 
96.86 
96.76 
96.66 
96.46 
96.36 
96.26 
96.16 
96.06 
96.26 
96.66 
96.56 
96.36 
96.06 
95.66 
95.41 
95.51 
96.11 
96.66 
97.76 
97.76 
97.66 
97.56 
97.41 
97.26 
97.11 
96.91 
96.76 
96.86 



Nov. 



96.91 
96.96 
96.91 
06.86 
96.76 
96.61 
06.41 
96.21 
06.11 
96.06 
95.86 
95.76 
95.61 
95.41 
95.31 
95.36 
95.61 
95.76 
95.76 
95.76 
95.86 
95.96 
96.41 
97.16 
97.56 
97.46 
97.16 
97.86 
96.66 
96.46 



Deo. 



96.06 
95.76 
95.46 
95.26 
95JD6 
95.01 
94.81 
94.76 
94.66 
94.31 
94.81 
93.51 
93.41 
93.16 
93.06 
92.71 
92.46 
92.26 
92.21 
92.21 
92.26 
92.31 
92.46 
92.66 
92.81 
92.96 
92.96 
93.06 
92.96 
92.66 
92.36 



Jan. # Feb. 



92.46 
92.61 
93.31 
93.81 
94.36 
94.66 
94.61 
94.41 
94.51 
94.81 
94.86 
94.81 
94.76 
94.46 
94.26 
93.86 
93.61 
93.26 
93.01 
92.96 
92.96 
93.11 
93.26 
93.26 
93.41 
93.46 
93.41 
93.31 
93.26 
93.16 
93.46 



93.66 

93.76 

9:^.96 

94.36 

94.86 

95. 16 

95.41 

96.26 

96.61 

96.81 

97.16 

97.51 

97.81 

98.06 

98.41 

99.11 

99.21 

99.21 

99.46 

100.01 

102.06 

101.86 

102.01 

103.01 

103.71 

104.21 

104.91 

105.16 



Mar. 



105.21 
105. 11 
104.91 
104.71 
104. 36 
104.26 
103.81 
103.46 
103.21 
103.11 
102.91 
102.76 
102.51 
102.86 
102.86 
102.16 
102.16 
102.06 
102.01 
101.96 
101.86 
102.81 
102.86 
103.81 
105. 11 
106.86 
107.06 
107.46 
107.81 
108.46 
109.16 



Apr. 



109.36 
109.66 
110.06 
110.06 
109.81 
109.56 
109.36 
109.16 
109.06 
108.46 
108.26 
108.96 
109.66 
109.56 
109.46 
108.96 
108.86 
110.26 
110.96 
111.06 
111.16 
111.06 
110.91 
110.76 
111.06 
11L86 
111.06 
110.66 
109.96 
109.86 



May. 



108.86 
108.81 
108,76 
108.86 
108.96 
109.06 
108.61 
108.06 
107.66 
107.21 
106.66 
106.06 
105.71 
105.56 
105.06 
104.66 
104.20 
108.86 
103.41 
102.91 
102.26 
101.86 
101.81 
101.51 
10L96 
102.16 
102.96 
103.81 
104.11 
103.71 
108.71 



June. 



103.91 
103.60 
108.06 
102.86 
102.28 
104.86 
106.86 
106.56 
107.96 
100.66 
110.61 
110.76 
110.66 
110.06 
108.66 
107.56 
107.81 
107.41 
107.26 
106.96 
106.86 
106.96 
107.66 
108.26 
109.41 
110.16 
109.91 
109.06 
107.26 
107 81 



Standard low water at St Louis 170.19 feet. 



2102 BEPORT OF THE CHIEF pP ENOINEEBS, D. S. ABHT. 




APPENDIX T — BEPOBT OF UAJOB MiLLEB. 2103 

bart Mwem SU Loiti* and Cairo. 





i 
1 


111 


h 

Hi 

sal 


f 


3 


,^ 




B 


^ 
1 


II 

9 3 


t 
II 


1 

1 


S 


j 


s 


i 

1 


1 
% 

...L 


11 


e 

1 


i 


j 


'.fi 


. , 


......lOi 




io- 


8 


ig- 


.' 




.^ 






.2 

fl 

7 

'* 


',% 




i 

8 

6* 













..le 


16 


. IB 


18 


ij 




1'a 








Is* 

< 






u 




u !^ 


-j-- 


iai 




0(1(^ 




12 




'i". 


.12 


---"-13 




!^. 


ii- 


13 


" 


... .. 


-lai 




01 IB 


IB 




- 8 


j^ 




















i . 




lOJl^U 


ISt 


14 


">» 


V 

lot 


■"■? 


li- 


lOi 


» - 
81 


; 8 




1 


I 


























? 


1 


■1 


... «" 1 


1 ?■■ 


iot 


i«i 


4 


S* 




Kivi 


IDi 


ii 


- 


'SI 


...fl 


IS 


7 


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^ 


■ 8 




t 






















H- 


. T 


* .-. 1 


8* 

St 

! 






















10* 
















13 












t* 

4 


1 


1 














i' . 








'«* 


"7i (11 






















• 








81 
































? 


■7' 


... 

1 


St 








1 






T 
















































■ n 










4 

f 


8* 


6i 

1 


... « 




._ 
























?* 










b" 






1 


61- 

'6i 


; 7 






'■'i 


.!'::: -^ 


:: Bi 


■' 


iii 


t 


s ... t] 


; 


7 






















« 


0* 
















Bi...[0 










T* 




































a 
"7" 


■*■ 


a 












l 


u a 














1 


"«■ Bi 






1 


a 


'-\ 


a' 
Si 


<* 


? 




7 ... a 


T 


a 


fl 


« 


.. 7 


•i 




7 








10* 


6 


? 


... 4i 


.. ij 


* 

fi 


** 








^ 






































































































-\ 




■ .:-::.. 
























































1 




' 1 1 












1 























2104 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARIIT.' 



COMMERCIAL RTATISTTCS. 



Jitreiplv and Hhipmenh at St, Loui9, Mo., during the years 1SS8, 1SS9, and 1890. 



1 



Artioles. 



]'»:irhHl win' and (iro9 aud metals (pig 
:iii<1 iiiainitart iinnl \ 

ri-nu-iit 

*V»;il ami «oki* 

Cottitn i:iih1 i»ri»«birts» 

linu*r:»'sanil dairv piiMliu'ts 

Hay. sirtls. ami p-'ains. inrluiiiii;; flixir, 
lueals, «-i<- , 

Jiitf 

Iaw stiK k ami ]»rmluc-i.'* 

LuiiilH-r 

;Mon'hamli'»i' ami Mimlrii .>* 

\"r:;i-tal»l«>* 

"\V liit«* Irail. uils. fti' 

"NVims ami liiiimrs 

AViM.l 



Receipts. 



1888. 



TonM. 

32.738 
5.344 

96.208 
5. 178 
7.911 

H¥>.3<U 

2.724 

12. S2I 

VM}. ^V> 

S. iHG 
670 
174 
193 



1889. 



TwM, 

31.063 

6.876 

88.845 

4.663 

8.815 

96.2tr. 

3.4?,* = 

12.AK"> ! 

127.001 

281.579 

7. 986 

756 

102 

162 



1890. 



Tont. 

21.782 

15,8l>2 

81.565 

4.230 

8.262 

92, 914 

2:t."» 

17.:i47 

i:r2.940 

284. .'.89 

3. TAVi 

204 

00 

180 



SbipmentB. 



1888L 



Ton». 
6,748 

"7.605 
23 

7,598 



1889L I UM. 



5,889 I 

"i.ToiV 

2P0 ' 
8,047 ' 



8,045 



527 



342. 2l» .'"138,329 440.TSft 



14. 619 

13.<»S5 

112. !HM 

2.260 ' 

2. 2«V5 

772 



1.1.429 

6, 470 

131.546 ! 

2,612 ! 

1,790 ' 

617 . 



18.379 

8.526 

117. HM 

1.7» 

1.379 

668 

3 



Total ] 728.810: 671.685. 663,730' 510,115 712,700 



O0U683 



TrauHt'errt'd hi/ /«rri>* across the rirer at St, Louis, 

TODH. 
lSS:i 2.351.881 

lS»it» 2.717,760 

1*^IH.» 3.058,166 



Shijnnnit.'< thnru ihv river from landings between St. Louis and Cairo during the years ISSS^ 

Ctr.i'iH. ini-hnliiii: tlmir. incals. t'to. : TmiS. 

los 37.2S7 

2»,206 

34.387 



1' 
1S90 



RECAPITULATION. 




Ton9. 



Tofu. 
1.384.385 



Rt*i-oi]>ts :iml «»lii]»inoiits at St. Louis ■ 1.2:j8,925 

Tnmslf iTi'il li\ iV-nii's at St . I.fuiis i 2. 351. 881 2. 717. 760 i 

Sliippf it t'ri'in lamlin;;s K-t wt-cu St. Lmiis anil Cuiru 37. 257 29. 2U9 j 



Total 3.628.««3 4.13l,3,%4 



I860. 



Terns. 
1.263,562 
3.052.168 
34,367 



4,352.025 



N«iTK. ImrtM^f ot" 22»>. 071 tmis for voar 189H ov»*r vi-ar 1889. 



vln ii'd/x and dvjuirfiirts it/ f(teamlH»ats and htirgen at St. Louis during ike years ISSS, 1S89, 





Arri%'al*. 
1KS8. , 1>^. 




BciMrtiiTCt. 




1890. 

1.927 
1.274 


1888. 
2,076 


1880. 


1800. 


Stv.nnlioatA 

i;.it ■«■•* 


2.079 2.195 
L244 , 1,474 


2,211 


1,016 







APPENDIX T — ^BEPOBT OP MAJOR MILLER. 



2105 



LUt of Bleam-power hoaU that arrived at St, LovU (Jvring the year 1890, 



Name. 



Aimer O'Neal 

Alice Blair 

Alice Brown 

Arkansas City 

A. L.Ma8on 

A. Saltzroan 

Albert S. WUlis 

Bald Eagle 

Bart £. Linehim 

Belle Memphis 

Benton 

Ben. Wood 

Brother Jonathan 

Calhoun 

Carrie 

Charlotte Boeckoler. . 
Charley McDonald. . . 

Cherolcee 

City of Alma 

City of Baton Kongo 

City of Cairo 

City of Florence 

City of Hickman 

.City of Monroe 

City of Now Orleans . 
City of Providence. . - 

City of St. Lonis 

City of {Savannah 

City of Sheffield 

City of Vicksbarg ... 

Clyde 

Commodore 

C.R.Sater 

Crystal City 

D.H.Pike 

Dick Clyde 

Dolphin 

Dora 

l>uran 

Eagle 

E<1. Durant, Jr 

Edith 

Edna 

£. M.Norton 

Ferd-Herold 

Future City 

Gem City 

General Barnard 

General Gilhnore . . . . 
General H. F. De vol . . 

Geo. Ly sle 

Golden Gate 

Grand BepubUc 

Harry Clyde 

Helena 

Henrv Loorey 

H.F.Frisbie 

H. G.Wright 

Hiawatha 

H. M. Hozie 

Helene Schulenberg . 

Idlewild 

Imperial 

Irene D 

Iron Age 

Iron Duke 

Ironsides 

Jack Frost 

Jay Gould 

John Gifanore 

John L. Ferguson 

John N. Macomb 

J'oseph Walton 

J'osie 

J'ulia 

Xit Carson 

liibbie Conger 

JA\y 

I.ittleEagleNo.2 

I^isxie Gardner 

liOnsfeOow , 

I^otfie 



engt.h. 


Breailth. 


Depth. 


Gross 
tonnage. 


Fett. 


Feet, 


FeeL 




150 


28.4 


8.8 


107.74 


130 


25 


4 


119.96 


193 


34 


4 


661.86 


273.7 


44.7 


. 7.8 


1,236.90 


252 


52.6 


6 


1,180.84 


75 


10 


3 


36.00 


153.1 


26.5 


3.6 


132.99 


202.3 


30 


5.4 


454.71 


127 


23.5 


3.9 


178.82 


267 


42.7 


7.6 


1,222.89 


197 


Z\ 


5 


394.08 


222 


23 


5 


143.69 


110.6 


21 


4 


110.23 


230 


:i6 


6.4 


631.74 


75 


13 


2 


29.82 


140 


29.4 


4.1 


143.48 


147 


30 


4.5 


259.52 


216.4 


33.9 


6.4 


681.20 


110 


20 


4 


96.07 


290 


48 


8.7 


1,003.96 


271.2 


44 


7.8 


1,266.12 


160 


82 


6.8 


358.31 


2a'i 


44.5 


9.6 


1,656.17 


275 


45 


8 


1,038.26 


290 


48 


8.5 


1,586.28 


273.1 


44.6 


7.8 


1,303.81. 


300 


49 


8.8 


1,614.02 


186 


31.2 


6.3 


335.55 


183 


35 


5.5 


829.74 


273.7 


44.5 


8.2 


1,356.62 


125 


19 


4 


144.00 


97 


23.2 


3.2 


86.45 


189.6 


52 


7 


828.28 


234 


42.2 


7 


199.6 


33.6 


5.5 


465.75 


95.8 


17.4 


3.9 


76.84 


135.8 


22.8 


4.8 


156.16 


199.5 


25.2 


4.3 


392.23 


(*) 


(*) 


(*) 


(*) 


155.6 


24.8 


4.2 


231.30 


(*) 


(*) 


(*) 


(*) 


101 


24 


3.1 


69.59 


102 


21.5 


4.7 


80.35 


174 


30 


6 


549.53 


244.6 


34 


7.2 


900.58 


187.4 


36 


6.1 


589.30 


263 


29.8 


5.6 


580.56 


215 


37 


5 


500.00 


140 


28 


4 


125.00 


130 


22.5 


3.8 


156.99 


174 


33 


6 


426.74 


131.4 


30 


4 


142.17 


260 


50 


8.5 


1,985.92 


(*) 


(*) 


(*) 


(*) 


194 


33 


4.5 


352. 31 


209.6 


35.2 


5.3 


646.79 


169.4 


32.2 


5.8 


270.45 


190 


62 


8 


(*) 


(*) 


(*) 


(*) 


(*) 


213.2 


34.8 


6.6 


622.30 


130.8 


25.4 


8.7 


107.95 


207.6 


35.6 


6.7 


520.36 


89.3 


19 


4.8 


68.08 


133 


24.8 


(*) 


142.76 


176 


88 


5.5 


885.01 


177 


82.6 


6 


421.25 


•154 


80 


6.4 


282.80 


165 


80 


6.4 


850.77 


186.8 


30.4 


6 


446.26 


183 


84 


6 


503.00 


111.6 


25.6 


13.6 


79.81 


176.9 


62 


7 


(*) 


158 


27 


5 


800.27 


143 


28 


5 


237.51 


107 


22 


8.5 


58.61 


138.6 


29.2 


4 


237.00 


168 


29.5 


4.5 


324.00 


178 


28 


4.3 


200.00 


130.7 


10.2 


8.0 


82.66 


124.5 


21 


8.6 


70.54 


112 


19.8 


4.3 


93.6a 


65 


1« 


I ^^ 


V Y^^ 



* Not known. 



2106 BEFOST OF THE CHIEF OF EN0TNBER8, U. S. ARKT. 
Ziaf of lifam-poKtr boatt thai arrived at St. Zouit dKrii«f th« s»ar 18$0—CcntAim»i. 



SIhfiHlppi.... 

My <'hnii^ 

XcIlirSlHTr.... 
.NVwIdpa 

OUtwBImw''! 



PoUi Wiive .. 
PnrtEada.... 

Saelut 

B..V.SprMl.. 



ffldiwy 

SMiUTlHlIau.... 

8LL.triMMl 

S»T«dEiwlr.... 
Static FlnGtr.... 
State nfEuH*.. 

T.F.Erkfrt 

TUMlf 



War Eagle 

Tr,H.Chmy ... 
'n'hItfEaEli'.-- 
H'lltlmSloiw.. 
W.P.BidM|>.... 



LttI of harge» ikat arrirtd at St. Louii during the jrwr ISSO. 



tss.n 

turn 



K„.. 


L«gth. 


BraadtlL 


DiTth. 


Gnwa 

touHwa. 




FmI. 
1*1.* 

187. S 

m« 

?i. 

a.. 

?>. 

ii. 

Pi 


Ptrt. 

■•4. 

SI 
r) 

•1 

l. 

1:1 
I- 


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APMJHDIX T — EEPOKT OP HAJOB HILLER. 2 

LUI tif ftM^M Oua arrUni of jSI. LimU dartefr tht year i«80— Contliiii«d, 



LcoKlh. Brmdth, Dapth. 



Keokuk Kn.l 

toil* 

Luik 

M»oli 

M»rtlnMlclu«l 

•Ml^l.n ^ " " 

Ulseourl Sand Ornipuy, 'Sat. 1 to 4 - 

MiniongaheU 

MortoD * 

Urwe 

NelilBPMk 

Now 8t. Lonlii Sud Cnnipuir, No. 7 

OesidoDt , 

Ruhal 

£. A. Speed, Kw. 3 lo 4 

Bo-rer.SM. 1 ^ 

a 

3 

Enih Jir;'"'""';^!;;^";"!;;"!^!";!!!";!!!;;; 

Sproad Baele 

Swrling 

Siran 

SLJmnrw 

St. Louia and HluEnlppl Puket Cnmpany, Koa, a, T 

SI. LonlH and Miaaiaalppt Tallej Xmiapdrtattan Ctnnpiuiy: 



Fi. 



sa.sa 
ira.os 

iia.01 



1. 137. 3D 
1,113.47 
1.12S.S3 

iliesiTB 



2108 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, U. 8. ABHT. 
I.i»t of hargrn tint arrirrH at fH . Lniiit Hiiritig (»< ymr 7iW— Cnntinnrf. 



x.„„... 


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trauci. 




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38.0 

37. 
38.4 

a&s 


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. 

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is 

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. 
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APPENDIX Y — ^BEPOST OF MAJOR MILLEE. 2109 

Y3. 

mPEOVEMENT OP HARBOK AT ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI. 

The river and liarbor act of IS88 contained a provision calling for an 
examination and estimate for the improvement of St. Jjouis Harbor. A 
report was submitted from this offtce under date of December 22, 1888, 
for the improvement of the harbor at an estimated cost of $182,000. It 
was recommended that this amount be expended in the portion of the 
harbor below Bissells Point and above the Eads Bridge. In the river 
and harbor act of September 19, 1890, the above amount, $182,000, was 
appropriated for "improving tlie harbor at St. Louis, Mo." 

The approved project consisted in a contraction of the width of the 
river by hurdles for a distance of 13,000 feet to an average width of 
2,000 feet, in order to remove some trouble due to middle bars, which 
interfered with navigation. 

Appropriations for the improvement of St. Louis Harbor had been 
made as far back as 1836, and a longitudinal stone dike was built at 
that time near the head of the present works by Capt. E. E. Lee, Corps 
of Engineers. Other work done by the United States consisted in the 
building of stone dikes normal to the current, in the closing of Cahokia 
Chute, and the revetment and protection of the bank in Sawyer Bend. 

Work under the present project was begun on March 13, 1891, and 
completed as far as practicable on June 9, 1891. The work consisted in 
the construction of 11 hurdles varying in length from 325 to 2,075 feet, 
the total length of hurdle constructed being 12,400 linear feet. The 
hurdles are numbered from the upper part of the work downstream. 
Hurdle l^o. 5 was omitted, owing to the fact that it would have inter- 
fered with the ferry landing, and a portion of No. 8, the outer end, was 
left inc/omplete, owing to the depth of water. No. 5 will be built and 
No. 8 completed during this working season. 

No special difficulty, exce])t deep water, was encountered. At the 
beginning of the work some interference from drift was met with, but 
by sinking what had accunmlated above Hurdles 1 and 2 this was over- 
come and the sunken drift served the purpose of wattling. 

The work has been in position too short a time to form an idea of its 
eflfect, but it will undoubtedly be of great benefit to this portion of the 
harbor. 

This is one of the few cases in wliich the amount asked for in a pre- * 
liminary estimate has been appropriated, and the advantage of this 
method of appropriating is shown by the immediate completion of the 
work, thus avoiding the losses and unsatisfjictory results of incomplete 
work. • 

The amount expended*up to June 30, 1891, including outstanding 
liabilities, was about $130,000, leaving a balance of about $50,000 avail- 
able for completing the work and any extension or repairs which may 
become necessary in the future. No further appropriation for this 
estimate is need^. 

The material used in the work was purchased in connection with that 
for improvement of Mississippi Eiver between Illinois and Ohio rivers, 
full details of which are given Jn tlie report on that work. 

A portion of the repairs to the plant belonging to the improvement 
of the Mississippi Eiver which was used on this work was paid for 
from this appropriation and five new-model barges were c^>ntracted for, 
but had not been finished at the close of the year, this being authorized 
by approved project of September 30, 1890. 



2110 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. a ARMT. 

There are submitted herewith the reports of Mr. P. M. Carrifl^| 
ant engineer, and Mr. John O. Hohnan; also plate in, by reft 
which all details and particulars can be obtained. 

The commercial statistics will be found iit the report on impi0i| 
of Mississippi Eiver between Illinois and Ohio rivers. jj 

Money statemefU. I 

Amount appropriated by act approved September 19, 1890 ^^4i^ 

June 30, 1891, amount exx>ended during fiscal year lOflp 

July 1, 1891, balance unexpended 7%i 

July 1, 1891, outstanding liabilities $41.06 

July 1, 1891, amount covered by uncompleted contracts 20, 892. 17 

J^ 

July 1, 1891, balance available SI,' 



REPORT OF MR. D. M. CURRIB, ASSISTAlTr XNOINKSR. 

St. Louis, Mo., Jume SO, J 

Major : I have the honor to submit the foUowing report upon the improyen 
the harbor of St. Louis, Mo., for the fiscal year ending June SO, 1891, and to 
mit the report of Mr. John O. Holman, superintendent in local charge, whiel 
tended to form part of it. 

This work consists of a series of hurdles numbered 1 to 12, as shown on 1 
companyiug sketch. No. 5 and 430 feet of the river end of No. 8 were not 
The others aggregate 12,400 feet, and were finished, -with the exception of ww 
This was placed to the sta^e of 12 feet above low- water on Nos. 9 to 12, an< 
was sunk on Nos. 1 to 4^ which sufficiently checked the flow of water. 

Reference is made to the accompanying report of Mr. Holman for farther d 

PROCURING MATERIAL. 

Brush, — Brush was procured by hired labor by a party organized under tb 
supervision of Mr. CD. Lamb, whose report is transmitted with that of opex 
for the geueral improvement or the Mississippi River between the Illinois an< 
rivers, to which reference is made for details. 

Piles. — Piles were i)rocured by contract, delivered at the work. 

Siotte. — Stone was procured by contract, delivered on Qovemmeut barges al 
ton. 111. 

Other material was procured by contract, delivered at the supply depot. 1 
Arsenal street, wheu needed in large quantities, and by purchase when only 
quantities were required. 

The steamer GeHcral Gillmore and other plant belonging to general improvem 
this section of the river was used in connect ion with this work. 
Very respec^ully, your obedient servant, 

D. M. CURRLK, 

A99%9iant Enfii 
Maj. A. M. Miller, 

CorpB of Engineers, U. S, A, 



REPORT OF MR. JOHN O. HOLMAN, SUPBRINTKNDXHT. 

8t. Louis, Mo., Jm4 30, j 

Major : I have the honor to submit the follpwing report of the operatioiis i 
prov'ing the harbor at St. Louis, Mo., for the fiscal year ending June 30, 189L 

The project consists of 12 hurdles on the Illinois side, between the M 
proach of the Merchants' Bridge and the head of Bloody Island. The hmdl 
spaced 1,000 feet apart perpenaicnlar to the new river or shore line, which v 
the river to a Width of 1,700 feet at No. 1, the upper hurdle, aod 9^200 &et at] 



Pla^e 3. 




cr,S. Enffiheer O/Tiae. Sf. Louts. Ma thdy I7,28S1. 
rtiiual rti/jott tor fi}n ysaf ciiiUiiu June 30, 1891, 



Jtifajor Corps otStt^ineers', V:<3.*A. 



2112 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

Y4. 

IMPROVEMENT OF GASCONADE RIVER, MISSOURI. 

The improvoniout of this stream has eonsisted iu the removal of ob- 
structions to navijjatioii in the shape of leaning timber, snags, stiunps, 
ete., and the construction of low wing-dams, to facilitate the passage of 
boats over the shoals during low stages of water. 

The work was bt^gun in 1880, and has been continxieil when funds 
were availabh' up to the present time. 

As the money apiu'opriated for this work was not available nntil late 
in the fall, it was imimssible to do any work during the low-water sea- 
son, and operations were postixmed until the following year. Up to 
tlic close (»f the tisral year a suitable stage had not been obtained* con- 
seijuently but little work was done, and that consisted in the i*epair of 
phint and iu obtaining a supply of brush, stone, and timber to be used 
in raising tlu» crest of dam at Pryor's Mill. A small force was employed 
in quarrying stone and proi'ured 270 cubic yards, which was placed 
ready for depositing iu Pryor's Dam when the stage of water will admit 
of the work. 

The dt^ails of the seascm's operations are 8ho\ni in the report of as- 
sistant, Mr. J. W. Heaman, which is forwaixled herewith and to which 
attention is invited. 

The work has been of great benefit to navigation of the river, espec- 
ially to the rafting interests, and the river is now in fairly good navi- 
gable contlition from the mouth to Indian Ford. 

No work has bct^n done on the stretch of river extending from Indian 
Ford to Arlington, and which is in poor condition owing to leaning tim- 
ber and snags. ^V large i>ortion of the railway ties, and some steam- 
boat conmuTce, i)assover this ixution, and it would therefore seem desir- 
able to remove these obstructions. 

There are also a uumbtT of shoals between -tlie mouth aiid ludiain 
Ford which need contraction works. At tlie shoals where such works 
have been placiMl the conditions have Ixm'U so much improved that it 
wimld seem to warrant a reasonable exiH^nditure for simihir works at 
other localities. 

With the funds now on hand it is pi*oiN)sed to raise the dam at Pr>"ors 
Mill anil remove obstructions as far as they will admit. Witli the appro- 
priation asked for tisr;il year ending June .*»0. 1803, it is pn>iM>sed to 
clear th«' river of 4»bstnu*tions above Indian ImuhI and construct con- 
trartiou works at such slu)als as mav seem most advisable. 

« 

The estimatril rost i»f this improvement was *ri(MHK». and the former 

a])proiuiati«>ns arc — 

1\V ;ut nt- ; By act of— 

,Imii- II. is?>y> ^\000 ' ' Auijust .">. lSS«i $7,.V)0 

M;iirli ;^. ISSl m.*HX> Au^riist 11. ISiSS 5,ert) 

An-u^t L'. ls,v> 10,(KK> Soptomber IU, 1«K) 4,000 

July .\ l.>si 5,000 

Money state ment. 

July 1. ISi'O. Iml.iiu'f inii*x]u'n4l('(l |4J7.6o 

Amount ;ii»inoi»ri;itr<l l>y art approved SoptonilnT W, 1890 4.000.00 

4, 427. ea 

Janfi>»>. \X\H. aniouiii fxpnultMl iluriuj; ri»*i-al \oar 513.61 

July 1, 1N>1. l»alaM«'«' inn \p« ui]««l :i.8St.04 



^ Ainouui tli;it ranliipi-oiiiaMy rxpi'iMlfiliu ti><-aly4'arrutlin*;.Tum*30y 1^<03 IQ^OOOlOO 
. >uituiittr<i ill r(iiii]ili;(Uf-«> Avitii ri(|uiri-uu'utii uf si'ctiuuBl2of river and 
( bailor acts vi lMk> ami \^u. 



A. survey to locate the hurdles waa made i\ 
tioa work was pliioed id my uh;Lrge. 

Field work was begun March 13, and uoDtiDiiod without iDtorroptian uulil tJ 
close of the apriug bimlboq, June 9. During tliiit period of ncurly 3 monUui all nf 
the hotdlea were completed with the exception of no. 5, wlriuh wat omitted for the 
lime being, to pTeserve a lnuding at Venice, and the river and of No. 8, wliora the 
irfctBT was too deep for&vorablooonBtruction. 

leogUi and woik perfonued on each hurdle is given in the Ibllowing table: 



I, i inter 



TabU ofvort done. 



H,.„U„n«u.b«r. 


Cor- 

»lrucU-l. 


Pllea. 


DrlTBU 
diVtl.. 


Slrine- 


Mat truss, 


mnil. 


Wattling 






St. 

358 


Ft.c. 

B,4n 


Sv. 

103 


S!i,S*S 

TSJIM 


10.000 

i:»o 


»,./"<. 




^ 




2. ml 

•■s 


san 
an 

2M 


io,oTa 


U 
M 


B8.BM 
101.300 

«a,;iM 

mTOO 

iia,K5 

111,200 

hi; 800 


0,800 

*.ooo 


























n.m 


S.5M 


m.m 


1,«I3 


l,01i,3» 


97,130 


8(1.7M 





The fonn of hurdle aud method of consttuotioD ware not abanged. Two r< 
giloB were driven in each hurdle, 30 to 27 feet apart, according to tbe deptt of 
The piles in the upi>or or drift row wore driveu 6 feet apart, the topa pnll 
Kether with a lougitndinal atriugor bolted to them on the downHtreani side not 
lower than the 3D-?oot stago. llie brace pile woe then driveu 6 or 8 feet below, 
palled over to the stringer and bolted to It, Ibrmiiig a olump of 3 plks every 12 feet. 
The hurdle row waa>drivoi) after the mattreaa wan sunk, tbe piles spaced 6 feet apart, 
with the stringer on the up-stream side, to which were bolted tbe brace piles dnven 
eTery t3foet. The hurdle waa strenguiened by croaa stringers placed at varying 
intervals from the shore to the river end. 

With the river at an 18-foot stage or lower tbe drift-row piles wore carried to thn 
^'foot Btago, the stringer and hurdle piles to the 20-foot stage, changing with tba 
river when above that stage. 

For a length of 4U0 feet at the shore ends of Nob. 1, S, and 11, and 700 fi< 

10, only the hurdle row was driven, the depth of wutor not requiring the drift row. 

A woven niattroBB of brnsli, 65 feet in width, was pluced beluw the drift row. A' 
the river cud of Nn. 3 and the shore end of No. 8 it wiui 80 feet iu width. A pcate<. 
tion mattross for the shore end was plaee<l uii Nob. 1, 2, 3, 6, and 7. They vrl^re1n)Ul•] 
I'OO feet long by 80 feet in width, half above and half below the hurdle row. A T>J 
beiul mnttmu waa placed just ouinide of the river line on Nob. 3 to IS to proteutttta; 
riv«r ends from Bcour. These ninttroasPB were 90 fi-et in length by 80 " " "■' 

witli the upper edge 30 feet above the line of the drift 



4 



it iu tvidlh,! 



Ripmp was placed at the shore oud of all the hunlles to protect them from s< . _ 

during n high atnge of tbe river, the extent of revetjjient placed varying from S,lSllfl 

to 11, w) Bquue feet, ocvordiug to the nature of the bank protected. | 

On the tower hurdles. Nos. 9 to 12, the current was checked by a wattling mattreaa 
placed against the hurdle-row piles. These mattresses were made in leugths of about 
200 (^t> the width varyiug with the depth of water, so that when placed in on np- 
right position the upper edge would be at the 13-foot stage. Oo the upper hurdles. 
NoH. 1 to 4, the current waa greatly checked by sinking the drift wood collected 
above them. 

Only a few of the foremen and enough laborers to t^ike care of the plant in rainy 
weather were aubsiated. The maximum number of persons umidoyed waa 470, dur- 
ing tbe Utter part of A;pril. 

A sketch of the locality arcompauying tliis report shuvrs the location of the work j 
done. 

Tory respectfully, your obedient Hurvant, 

JgUN 0. HoutAS, 

SaptriitlatKtvnU 
Ui^. A. U. HnxEB, 

Corpt a/ Enginewt, U.S. A. 




2112 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ABBIT. 

Y4. 

IMPROVEMENT OF GASCONADE RIVER, MISSOURI. 

The improvement of this stream lias consisted in tlie removal of ob- 
stinictions to navitration in the shape of leanin^i: timber, snags, stumps, 
etc., and the I'onstnu'tiim of low wing-dams, to facilitate the passage of 
boatii over tlie slioals dnring low stages of water. 

The work was begun in 1880, and has been continued when fiiuds 
were avaihiblt* up to the present time. 

As the nuuiey appropriated for this work was not available until late 
in the fall, it was impossible to do any work during the low-water sea- 
son, and (»]>eral ions were postponed until the following year. Up to 
the close of the tisral year a suitable stage had not been obtained, con- 
sequently but little work was done, aiul that consisted in the repair of 
])lant and in obtaining a supply of brush, stone, and timber to be used 
in raising the crest of dam at Wvor's Mill. A small force was employed 
in quarrying stone and procured 270 cubic yards, which was placed 
ready for depositing in Pryor's Dam when the stage ofwater will admit 
of tlie work. 

The details of the season's operations are shown in the report of as- 
sistant, Mr. J. W. Beaman, which is forwarded herewith and to which 
attenti(m is invited. 

The work has been of great benefit to navigation of the river, espec- 
ially to the rafting interests, and the river is now in fairly good navi- 
gable contlition from the mouth to Indian Ford. 

No work has been done on the stretch of river extending from Indian 
Ford to Arlington, and which is in poor condition owing to leaning tim- 
ber and snags. A large jKn^tion of the railway ties, and some steam- 
lH>at commerce, pass over this iH)rtiou, and it woidd therefore seem desir- 
able to remove tliese obstructions. 

There are also a number of shoals between -the mouth aiid Indian 
Ford which iuhhI contraction works. At the shoals where such works 
have been place<l the conditi<ms have be<'n so nmch impn»ved tliat it 
would seem to warrant a reasonable cxix^nditure for simitar works at 
other localities. 

With the fun«ls now on hand it is pniposed to raise the dam at Prj'ors 
^lill and remove obstruetions as far as they will admit. With the appro- 
]n'iation askt'd tbr lisrul year entling June MK 1803, it is proiH)seil to 
elear thr vivi-r of obstruetions above Indian Ford and ctmstruct con- 
trartioii \\orks at such shoals as may soem nu»st atlvisable. 

The estimated rost of this impi*ovement was J?r»0,(XKK ami the former 
a]>iu*o]>riaiions are — 

I\v act •»!' i By act of — 

.fiuir II. ISSO ^j\000 ] * Aii^iisi .">. 1Sn> fT^.^iOn 

Marrb :i. l.vsi \{\(m ' Aiijriist 11, ISSS 5,00i> 

AnuMist l». issi> 10,000 . September 19, 1890 4,000 

Juiv r». l>^si 5,000 

Money i<taU'ment. 

July 1. ISIH». iMlanoe uiu'XiMMKled 4427.65 

Amount approiniatt-d by art approved September 19, 1?<90 4,000.00 

4, 427. es* 

,Ian«';>*», 1S«U, amount rxpondt'd during risi-al year M3.61 

July 1, 1SI»I. balanrr un.vprndtd a.884.tU 



^ 



\ Amount that eanb«-])ii»ni:i)>]y rx]»rn<b'd intisrnIyearrndiiij^.Tuue30, IHKi IQ^OOOlOO 
< subniittid in i i)Tn|i1ianf-t> Aviiii iLtiuiremoutEi of sections ^of river and 
( harbor acts of I>i>G and iJjCT. 



t'b Mi 



BltPORT OP HS. J. W. BEAUAM, ASeiSTAKT EKODIEKS. 

.rEFFi;Hw>N- CiTT. Mo., Jime SO. 1S9L 

Ma i"!"- I I. n '- I in I J In . I. iiiiii ! r hi' I'.j lll■^ in- 1 1 ]nirt upon the improvenienl of "I 

".. I. ■!. .,■,... li . I .iiricJuneSO, 1891. ■ 

>!;■■:,. i ■ . ■ L II 111^' the latter put of Jnneuf 1 

III'- l.'-i I'-' II ■■■II ii '■; !■■' II i^-^ - "" I il'V, two men w«re uupluyed f 

111 lU i-:|i«o iM'iii .iiU.i i II II 111 .-Wi^iiiii. LI. 1 ;]>..>> ilti.< liilter dnte, thu plant bavinK I 
livi^u rcpiuiuil, it wan pliiueil in cliurge ufa muIi^Iiuulii uud the repairiiig foruu 'WM ■ 
dbohM'god. 

On Mny 1. in aoeordiinoo with verbul ti 
flalboat nnil tools in order I'or work projootud ut Pryor'i 
were occnpind until M»y 16. 

On this dat« thu iinprovcniont plant in cLarce of two mun wiui tukun in tow by I 
boat jHmha and towml to the foot ol' Prior's Iidand, Tho work of ijuitrryiiia nn'fe 1 
comnmnocMl'Mtiy 18 und cuiitinuod iip bi tli<> 36th of June, Uiirlii); Ihie tiniu 2T8j 
aallie yards of rin'k was qiiiirried anil placed re»dj- I'ur depusitiiiK in Pryor'H daui 1 
wben the Mtugo uf water will ivdiiiit of tlio huii)«. I 

WImd the water, whii^h is now aliout 2} feut deep ou the otest of the dam, ahall 1 
luv« &lIeD somewhat the dam at Trvor's MUl will be lepaired by plaring rook, tiia- I 
hox, and brash where needed, bu hb to raise the slrurture not to exi-eiKl IR iuehea I 
above Mm present height of dam, With thia 'addjtioo it is expected that sufficient 1 
rat«r will be deflected into the left chute us to render it navigable at a loiror atAga 1 
<f til6 river Iban under the preseut condition is "~'- 

Upon the completion of the work projected t 
Oascouade Biver will leqnim the employmei ' 
otlior wofk unto the close of the working si^ili 

Attention has been called by the Hermann 1' 
didun of the r' ' ' .... 

Nothing has ev 
Furd, which is 78 miles above the montn. 

k large part of the railway ties rufted, and some steamboat commerce, pass ovce 
this upper river: it is therefore desirable thot the overhanging trees br mmovud 
fruni tBB dvannol banks und that the enags be removed &om tho channel wuy so I 
Uwt those interested may lie protected. I 

The uiesaut high water will probably deposit snags in the channel and so uiidiTr- J 
■nine tuo banks in the bends aa to cause some needed i^ork of removal of snags froiik I 
tbA slboals Mid overhanging trees fi;om the banks, along the whole course of tho rii " 
dnring the Dext low-water season. 

A ttllUlber of shoals between the month of the river and Indian Ford need c 
traction works as soon as there is sufficient money available for their oonatrurtion. I 
Tho tline Bho»tn where such works have been placed show sneh an improved eondl- 1 
tiuu of channel depth as to warriint n renaonnble expenditare of money for like 1 
works at other shoals where tho etmnnel way has become bo wide as to render its | 
iiavii!»ii<>u dilhcult at the lower stages of the river. 

Fur ^1. ijLiii J ii)'. r iiii.us and Contraction works upon the hundred miles of river 
beliMi 'III' I'ould be nx(iond«i to ailvantagt'. 

T1j< I ( 'oinpuiiy thia report indicate a houltliJul condition of river 

trad'-. ' " ' t>'"''eotud and fostered. 

\ ■ 1 ■. .L.-ji' ■ ! iiill.v, yottr obedient servant, 

J. W. Be AM AN. 

UiO- A. M. MiLLKR, Ainstant Eagifieer. 

CorjH of Euj/iiKtrs, D. S. A. 



t Pryor Mill, other portions of tllS I 

t of a small party in snugging and I 

in November next. r 

y and Pariket Compnny to the con- | 

r channel and banks abovn Indian Furd and below Arlington. L 

ir been done by the GoTernmont to improve tho river above Indian J 



COMMERCIAL STATISTICS, GASCOS/lBS RIVER, 


aissouBi. 






Fl™lr«rflndlng- 




Jouesa.um. 


Juneao, 1891. 




33 

flSB 


I^IU 


































2S.085 




Hi 





2114 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. a. ARMT. 

Li»t of •team-power hoaU engaged i% oommeree on Gaeoonade Biver dturimg ike 

June 30, 1891, 



Name. 


Length. 


Bnadtl!.' I>epai. 


GroH 


Pin Oak 


FmL 
95.0 
85.6 
57.0 
85.0 


FmL 
17.5 
2i.O 
lOLO 
18.0 


a.0 

2.5 
ILO 


41.55 


Roval 


4^tt 


Jiimbo 


SuOO 


Fawn 


T105 







Y5. 

mPROVEMENT OF OSAGE RIVER, lOSSOURL 

The project for the improvement of this stream has consisted in Uie 
removal of obstructions to navigation, such as snags and leaning tim- 
ber, dredging channels through shoal places, and the constractJAm 
of cross and wing dams to concentrate the water over shoal places. 
The construction of a lock and dam near the mouth was also anfluiiued 
by the last river and harbor act. 

But little work was done during the year, owing principally to Uie 
late date at which the new appropriation became aviulable. 

The worst obstruction to navigation during the year was at Bienneke 
Shoal where the low water cau^ serious trouble. Sevend attempts 
were made to overcome the difficulty, but before they were sacceasfid 
sudden rises in the river rendered further efforts unnecessary. 

A personal examination of this river firom the mouth to Warsaw, a 
distajice of 174 miles, was made in March, 1891. The river was finind 
to be in good navigable condition and but few obstructions were observed 
in the channel. Above Tuscumbia the banks are covered with over- 
hanging trees which should be removed. There is but little naviga- 
tion of the river above Tuscumbia by large boats, so that a large ex* 
penditure for the improvement of this i>ortion of the river would not 
be warranted. 

A report on proposed location of lock and dam on this river, near its 
mouth, with estimate of cost, also tracing showing plan, elevatioDy and 
sections, was forwarded during the year. 

The general dimensions of the lock proposed are as follows: 

Total length feet.. tt0| 

Width do... 

Miter sill to miter sill .....do... 

Spring of arch to head of lower recess do... 

Lift do... 8| 

This loi'k will conveniently pass a boat 240 feet in length over all 
and 48 feet in bi*eadth over all,thusbeingof ample size to accommodate 
any boat navigating the river. 

The proposed dam is 800 feet long. 

The efteet of this lock and dam will be to give an unintermpted 
channel of 4 feet for the whole year from the mouth to Dixon Shoaly a 
distance of -0 miles. 

The estimated cost of the lock and dam is as follows: 

Lock «i4i,i3aai 

Dam 96^5ffi.a 

Land and keeper's dwelling 3,500.00 

Engineering and contingem-ies 17^001.10 

Total 187,914.00 



Estunates are being prepared of the cost of a series of locks and dams 
desigiied t« give depths of 4 teet aud 6 feet, reapectively, for navigation 
in tius river. 

Gauges were established at Oeage City and Brenneke Shoal, and a 
series of discharge observations were oiMnineni.ed at the latt«r locality. 

The details of the work are given in tlie report of Mr. J. W. Beainao, 
assistant engineer, forwarded herewith. 

The readings of the gauge at Tascnmbia were kept up daring the 
year, and are given in the accompanying table. 

The work done has been of great benefit to the navigation of the 
river, rendering it safer and also enabling steamboats to navigate it at 
lower stages of water than formerly, aud tending to prolong the boating 
seasons. 

Daring the coming season it is proposed to expend the amount a)i- 
]>ropriat«d for snagging in tlie last river and harbor act in that manner, 
and of the amount appropriated for lock and dam as much as may be 
necessary' for gauging the river and acquiring the land required, the 
remainder to be retnined until further appropriations amount bi the 
estimated cost of lock, or «14l»,000. 

Of the amoaut asked for fiscal year ending June 30, 1893, it is pro- 
posed to expend $10,000 in removing obstructions, dredging, and build- 
ing wing dame when found necessary, and $100,000 in constructing 
lock. 

Tlie (bnner appropriations are : 



■Xtit— 






Maioh 3, 18T1 
Jiiiio 10, D<T2 

Muuh s. im 

J«ii« S3, 1874 

=" i« 18, 1878 

'Oh 2,1879 





nnn 


•'t 


fKKI 




rtOft 


2'i 000 1 


A 


IKK) 1 


20 000 1 



By ftct of— , 

June 14, IBSO 830, (K¥) 

Mnrch3, 1881 ai.lM") 

AuKiwts, im in,(»0 

AngnsUl, 18S8 5,000 

September 19, 1890 55,000 



I 



Money statement. 



Jiinf 30, 1801, amoiint Expended diirint; liB'-n-l year .. 
July 1, 1891, balance n 



Jn]y 1, 1891, balance available '. 54,0*9.86 

{A.mi>nnt (estimated) required for completion or lock Olid dam L17,344.00 
Amount that can be profltabl^oxpendedisliacal year oiidinK.riniu30,lSt)3 110,000.00 
Submitted iu compliauce with requirements of sootioUB 3 of rivor and 
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. 

F jRirKKKSON CrTY, Mo., JunsSO, tS9I, 

I MaJoB: 1 have tbe bonor lu submit the fuDowinu ruijort apuu the imptovemsnt of 

I the Onag« Biver, Missouri and Kansas, for the lUcal year enduiB June 30, 1891: 

I No river improvement work proper has been doa« npon the Ouage Rivei u 

[ raUufl8S9. 



KKTOBT OP K 



ASSISTANT ENQBtEKB. 



1 

2116 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ABMY. , 

In October, 1890, there was snch a shallow depth of water over Bresmeke Shoal as 
to occasion serious trouble and loss to the Missouri and Osage Biver Packet Linoy and 
the attention of your office was called to the matter. After much difBcolty experi- 
enced in the effort to secure men and teams to work in the cold water, three men and 
two teams began work November 10. In former years gravel deposits hare been 
removed from the channel way by road scrapers drawn by horses or mules. The same 
plan was tried at Brenneke Shoal. It was found, however, upon driving the teams 
upon the shoal that thoy mired to their bodies, rendering work impossible, and the 
attempt was abandoned^ and the men were discharged November 12. A rise in the 
river a few days later relieved the difficulty. 

In January the water was again so low that Capt. R. M. Marshall^ of the Missouri 
and Osage River Packet Line, by letter of January 17, called attention of your office 
to the grounding of one of their steamboats on the shoal, and a request for some re- 
lief was made. Arrangements were then made with the Missouri and Osage River 
Line to remove the deposit with one of their steamboats. Before the company had 
perfected its x>roparations to l>ogin work a rise in the river again relieved the diffi- 
culty. 

Again in March the water was so low as to cause the grounding of a barge loaded 
with gravel, which was taken over the shoal after a delay of 24 hours. 

On March 21 there was a rise from backwater from the Missouri, followed by a 
head rise, since which date there has been an excellent boating stage for the smaUer 
Osage River boats and for most of the time for boats of the size of the Selenm and 
Benton. 

Between March 24 and 27 an examination of the river was made from its month to 
Warsaw, a distance of 174 miles. In this examination, which was mad» under yonr 
immediate personal direction, the steamer Helena was utilized. The river wasfoond 
to be in goo<l uavigable couditiou throughout the whole distance passed over. The 
stage of water as indicated by the gauge at Osage City was 8 feet above standard 
low water on March 27. 

There has been no improvement work done upon the river above Tnacombia ainee 
1883. As a consetiucnoe the banks are covered in places with overhanging trees 
which should be removed in order to make navigation more safe for the larger river 
boatft ; still there is very little navigation of the river by large boats above Tnscnmbia, 
and the necessities of commerce would not warrant a very large outlay of money in 
the improvement of this upper portion of the river. 

At a few points below Tuscumbia there are upon the banks some overhanging trece. 

At Moore Flats and lioskins Shoal on March 24 there were a few stumps and snags 
lying in the channel way, which should be removed if still there at the next low 
water. 

The chief river obstruction as developed by the examination and previons com- 
plaint is the gravel deposit at Brenneke Shoal. This deposit will cease to be 
an obstruction as soon as the lock and dam projected has been completed at the foot 
of the shoal. 

Upon November 24, in accordance with your letter of instructions of November 
20, I prooeoded to Louis>iIle, Ky., and afterwards to Mt. Carmel, 111., and at 
these points obtained working drawings of the lock and dam under construction in 
the Wabasli Kiver near Mt. (^armel. In this work I was engaged until Decem- 
ber 24, when I returned to my station at Jefferson City. A complete set of worUog 
drawings were obtained and duly transmitted to your otlice on Uei'ember 31. 

In accordance with verbal instructions upon April 1 a small force was employed 
to repair and launch the datboats at Lisle To^^'n Landing, and in moving the Osage 
River improvement plant to Hrenneke Shoal. At this point a gauge was established 
and a basi* line surveyed, and observations commenced for the determination of 
river discharge. These observations have continued up to the close of the year, and 
will continue until the lowest stages of the river have been observed. 

In March the gauge at Osage City wa6 repaired and an observer was appointsd 
who has kept a record of the gauge readings at 8 a. m. daily since March 5. 

In conclusion it may be stated that $5AK.K) will bo sufficient to keep the riTer in 
good navigable condition during the next 2 years. Ample provision ahonld be 
made so that the projected look and dam at the foot of Brenneke Shoal may be com- 
pleted at the earliest praetieable day. 

Very resju'ct fully, your obedient servant, 

J. W. Bkaman, 

AMUtani £%gii 

Maj. A. M. MiLi-r.K. 

Co/j>» o/ Eiujimcrs, U, 6, A» 



2118 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. &. ABUT. 



1 



Y 6. 

IMPROVEMENT OF KASKASKIA RIVER, ILLINOIS. 

The iinprovenieiit of this stream cou templates the removal of snags 
aud other obstructious from the channel and the deepening of the river 
over the shoals and bars by means of dredging and excavating firom the 
mouth to the Baldwin Bridge. 

An examination and survey of the river, with a view to its improve- 
ment, was made in 1888, and the first appropriation of $6,000 was con- 
tained in the river and harbor act of September 19, 1890. 

As the low water season had passed by the time the project for the 
expenditure of this amount was approved it was decid^ to post|)oue 
operations until the low- water season of the coming year, so that uo 
work was done on this improvement for the fiscal year endinjf Jnne 90, 
1891. 

With the amount recommended to be appropriated for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1893, it is proposed to complete this improvement as 
contemplated. The estimated cost of the improvement was $10,600. 

Money stat-ement 

Amount appropriated by act approved September 19, 1890 $6^000.00 

July 1, 1891^ balance unexpended 6,000.00 



Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project 

Amount that can be profitably expended in ti»cal year ending June 90,1893 
Submitted in compliance with requirementa or sections 2 of river and 
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. 



4,500.00 
4,500.00 



COMMERCTAL STATISTICS, KASKASKIA RIVKR, ILLINOIS, 1890. 

Coal m 

CordwcMxl and lainWr 2,196 

Flonr. i;raiii,eti- 5^817 

Mt^n'liuuiliiio • 4M 

Total T "lk«S 

List of steam-power boats engntjvd in i^ommerce on Kaskaskia River, lUimaii, dmin§ fftt 

year tHdiny Ih-cember 31 j 16'00, 



Name. 


JjCDgOk. 


Bntdth. 


D^th. 


Gma 


I)oIi)liiu 


Feet. 
13S.8 
00 

143. S 
100 
194 


22.8 
10 
28.S 
18 

22 

• 


Ft§L 
4.8 
8 

4.4 
4 
4.2 


UCM 


LiitlcNiik : 


14.21 


Murv M . M u'luu'l 


SU.4I 


>iicU StuuT 


•BL27 


K. A. Si»ef<l 


llfllU 







APPENDIX Z. 



IMPEOVEMENT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER BETWEEN DE8 MOINES RAPIDS 

AND MOUTH OF ILLINOIS RIVER. 



BEPOBT OF MAJOR E. H. BUFFNEM, CORPS OF ENGINEERS, OFFICER IN 
CHARGE, FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE SO, 1891, WITH OTHER 
DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE WORK, 

IMPROVEMENT. 

1. Mississippi River between Des Moines Rapids and mouth of Illinois River. 

EXAMINATION. 

2. Mississippi River at Warsaw, Illinois^ with a view of removing bar. 



Zi. 

improvebient of mississippi river between des moines rapids 

and mouth of illinois river. 

United States Engineer Office, 

Quincy^ 111.^ July 8, 1891. 

General: The following report of operations for the fiscal year end- 
ing June 30, 1891, for improving Mississippi Eiver between the Des 
Moines Bapids and the mouth of the Illinois Biver is respectfully sub- 
mitted. The year began with a good stage of water in the river and 
with a balance of funds on hand sufficient to justify some work of con- 
struction. 

Accordingly it was decided to begin the works of improvement de- 
signed for Cottonwood B^Bach, 2 to 5 miles above Quincy. After prep- 
arations were made and material gotten, the water fell so that it was 
only possible to put in shore protections. Two pieces, aggregating 1,660 
feet in length, at the foot of Cottonwood Island and consuming — 

Rock onbio yards.. 2,446.4 

Brash do... 1^417.2 

Total do... 3,862.6 

And one strip of 2,600 feet on the Illinois shore opposite containing — 

Rock cubic yards.. 4,089.6 

Brush do... 2,328.0 

Total do... 6,417.6 

And a beginning of the shore protection for a long wing dam higher 
up, taking — 

Rock cubic yards.. 190.7 

Brush do... 25.0 

T0X9X do... 216-T 



« f 



2120 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARHT. 

exbrtustod the appropriation available, and work eloRed. In all, 4,400 
\W\ V)t'sh«nv protection wore laid dnrin^ tlie season, 4*on^(nn^nJ;<: 10,49G 
t'ubir yards oliuaterial. Tliis is less than 2i eubie yinxls to the mu- 
niii^ foot, and less than onr nsual .averagre/but it stands well, holds 
\\\o bank, and appears to be perfectly satisfactory. Complaint was nuide 
in An«:nst that navijration was impeded, although the gange read not 
less than a foot higher than in 1889, and not less than 4 feet depth was 
fonnd over the slioalest bars. The river rose slightly in September 
and Oeto])er, and no difficulty was expepenced. At no time was one 
bar markedly worse than another. To complete the repairs on our 
lleet, bids were invited for redecking the six model barges, and the fol- 
lowing is the abstract of proposals: 

.Ihstrort of proposah for repairs to model bar^eSf opened at S p. m., July 18, JS90, fcjf 

Maj, E, H, Buffner. 



No. 



1 
•> 

!< 

4 

r» 

G 



Name and a<1dresA of bidder. 


Price. 


KemarkB. 


1 
r 1^ lIiMik :iiul T. S. A«1aiii!«. Ouinov. Ill 


$r>.9io 

7. t^"il> 




il. 1l. "MuF'':!!! C!1inti>ii. liiwu 




T (r r>(ht>rw(NNl l.r ( 'lairt* Iowa 


4 *.^K) 


Martin Von Hriii. Lc riaire. Iowa 

Ivjililki- J?n)tlu'r8. llo^^i Island. Ill 


3. OThi Accepted and conlraoi made. 

742 F«ir vaoli. for two or three Inrfea. 
9,300 1 


J«>lm 1*. noisier. Rix'k I.nluud, 111 









Mr. Von TTein duly completed his contract^ and tlie barges are now 
in t^xcellent condition. To stvure material for the seascm of 1801, bids 
Avere invited and opened January 8, 1891, with the following abstract: 

Jhstravt for propofiah for furnishinff rock and hruah during tht^ season of 1891, opened by 
Maj. E. If. linffncry Corps of Engineers, at QHrncg, III., at 2 p. «., January 1, 1801. 



Vo 


Name and addresa of 


Rock. 


BniAh. 


- iH<ldt>r. 


















Tarda. 


Price. 


Place of deliveiy. 


Yards. 


Price. 


Place of deliTay. 










Cents. 




1 E Kimniell Ouincv. HI . . 








19.000 


40 


Canton. 


I 












2 n. P. IVMljrr, Atlas, Pike 


19, (XH) 


fO.74 


Louisiana, Mo 


11,000 


49 


Scott Landing. 




Count V. 111. 
























11,000 


89 


On river bankSooU 
Landing. 


3 


Grafton Qnarry Co.. St. 
I.'ini". Mo. 


19,000 


.45 


Grafton. 111. 








4 Ti.'.l. ri(k W. :Mt«nke. 


2.000 


.ei 


Qiiincy, HI. 








giiinv>. lll.» 


:\, 000 


.69 


Do. 








r. ll.i.l. r.josi * KUort. 


10. 04M) 


.tej 


La Gniiige, Mo. 








t,)uinov,lll.* 














6 llrnrv L. Hart, Louisiana. 

Mo> 

7 , (•li:i>. (\ Pratt an*l i:.»lit. 


19,000 


.Mi 


Louisi.ina, Mo 


11.000 


20i 


I/Oul:«iana, Mo. 


19,000 


.r>r> 


l>o. 








W. Yonnc l-nni^iana. 














Mo. 














8 Goo. J. TlbiTt.l^iinrv. Ill* 


2.000 
2. i>iH» 


.70 


Quincy. HI. 
do 








l> HannilnlLimrCo., Ilau- 


nannibal. Mo. 




nilul. Mi».* 














10 Z.ii'k FiiMor, Uiinnilial, 
, Mo. 


.'i.OOO 


.60 


Do. 








19. 000 


.70 


Louisiana. Mo. 








1 


:u. oiH) 


.M 


La Granf^e and 
Quincy. 








11 P.itti'r"<nn Brofl, Ke*^knk, 


lO.OiK) 


.7.1 


5 niilt'A below 








j Iowa. 


2,(H10 


.8.-. 


l^ouisiana. Mo. 
KtKtkuk. Iowa. 








12 : Wm. C. Swanwirk, Koo- 


5.000 


1.00 


Hannibal. Mo. 










knk, Iowa. 


2.->.000 


1.25 


I<a Grange, Mo. 








13 Jo•^^»o G. Fox. Camian, 








10,000 


86 


oetwoen Keokvk 


ni.* 




















•BdQnIiiQy. 



* Accepted I contnot mad*. 



— heport op major ruffner. 2121 

Tbe-se coutraets Dot famiflhiii^ enough rock for the season's work, f'ur- 
tlu't'ii<lv<Tti!«ciueDt. was bad and proposals invited for !!0,l>Oi)('nhii' yards, 
'f h«- tiitlowiitg is the abstract: , 



Xm. lrime'.nd.ildr«.rfliUflBr. 


iSK.' 


Friee. 




OiMtjiara,. 


Otnta. 




1.1, 1)W 









Contract with Messrs. Tigue & Mf Claffrey to deliver 10,000 cubic yards 
of MKik on the barge, at Keokuk, Iowa, was entered into. 

To carry out the clause in the appropriation bill providing fordredg- 
iriK in Quincy Bay, bids were invited by advertisement dated December 
6, IrtSO, and opened January 6, 18111. The following is the abstract of 
propnsnU: 



ir* 


Nw»iuidi«Mm 


MofWddar. 


^^ 






(knU. 















\ 



Contract was entered into with Mr. H. S. Brown, who began work as 
eu'l^ in the spring aa was feasible and carried it on with his usnal 
vigor. He IB engaged in carrying oat the project of 1S79, and the 
present contract will, with the amount allotted ($12,.'>00), deepen all 
areas near the Qnincy Bay Bridge and in the channel through Wliipple 
or Cedar Creek Bar sufficiently for present needs of navigation. The 
remaining 412,500 will be reserved for the present. Mr. Brown dug 
.^,7tJ3A cubic yards up to June 30, 1891, about a third of his contract. 

It is my especial reconmiendation that jjonnission be grant^ to use 
.so much of the $12,500 reserved for Quincy Bay as may be necessary t<> 
ntnstrnct a retaining levee on Whijiple Cn«k Bar to hold the material 
dredged from the bay itself. The <^ontinual dredging of large quanti- 
ties of material in Quincy Bay and depositing it in the main river is a 
positive damage to the latter. The levee proposed will also catch and 
retain material brought down the two creeks named, and which, espe- 
cially after heavy storms, materially contributes to tilling up the dredged 

The area proposed to be leveed i.s submerged at all but low stages of the 
water, and liea within the harbor lines. I4o ex])ense should be incurred 
by the United States for acquirement of title, as I believe the patent for 
the land in question was never made out and the title probably rests 
in the United States. If the levee be constructed and subsequently 
dredging be required, the material can be deposited in the basin (treated 
and the bay will be benefited without injuring the river. No further 
appropriation for dredging in Quincy Bay is needed for the present. 




OF THE OHIEP OP ENOrNEERS, V. 8. 



OLASKSTTLLB HABBOB, MISSOITRT. 



[airing a^H^^ 



To carry oat tlie clause in the river and Larbor bill requiring t 
pen jltnre of lH6,000 as recommended by me, the United States dredge Vo. 

2 was set at work there the last week in March, assisted by the latmch 
Iris and steamer Sfonarch, hired for that purpose, and dug gravel along 
the front of ClarksviUe and above and below the town. The material 
varied very much in character, and in places was almost rip-rap. Bnt 
again in many places it was but little better than sand and mud. Had 
the river remained at an average stage, instead of di'opping in June to 
the lowest and next to the lowest place on the gauge, I jtiesuaie more 
of the material dumped on the line of the dam would have leraaiued. 
Ab it woH the fall gave a strong scour and much was carried below the 
dam. The dredge sufl'ered many accideuts, and can not be said to have 
mttde as good a showing as it has made when newer. Work contJnued 
until the end of June, when the dredge was moved elsewhere. In all, 
there were dug and dumped upon the line of the dam, l,<iOO feet long, from 
the head of Chirksville Island to the Illinois shore, 36,203 cubic yards 
of eand, tnud, gravel, and rock. Probably one-fourth of this vaa en- 
tirely washed away, and another fonrth is carried below the liue of the 
dam. The remainder makes a good, solid dam, as far as it goes. The 
gap not filled by the dredge will be filled by the usual biiish and rock 
dam, and when the low stage of water comes scrapers will be hired to 
distribute sui'plus material regularly along the dam, which will thus be 
widened and leveled as a causeway. Somewhat more than a third of 
the dam was raised above a 3j-foot stage by the dredge alone, and there 
is enough material available to level the whole when the time comes. 

The Success and half of our barges, under charge of AssiMt'Jvut Engi- 
neer A. L. Kichards, started work during the last week In Mai-eh, and 
have been steadily engaged with reasonably good results. The con- 
tractor for material at Louisiana fumiRhed rock and brush very 
promptly except daring June. A cutting bank behind Buffalo laland, 
where some work was done in 1887, waw held by 518 cubic yanls m 
rock, and then the fieet protected the sn>a1I tow-head at the foot <^ 
Hickory Chute, running a short dam to lower Fritz Island, a« recom- 
mended by the Board of Engineers for Hickory Ohute. Work thea 
began on the protection of the shore necessary to secure the Sny laJsoid 
Levee, as provided for in the appropriation bill. This stretch of abont 

3 miles begins at Scott's Landing, and all but abont 2,600 feet of it was 
secured by June 30, when the fleet was transferred to Olarksvllli "^ 
already noted. Particulars as if) material will be found in the] 
later on. The fleet put in 24,313^ cubic ynrds material in 3 mont] 
2 days, 

The Coal Bhi;ff and the remainder of the deet have been emplt^ 
Cottonwood Island Reaeh, 3 to 5 miles above Quincy, with Ovet 
George Wolcott in charge. The rebuilding of the wheel of that boot, 
the last of the repairs on it, delayed beginning until April 9, whw 
barges were delivered near quarries and men set to work cutting bniflb. 
Material came slowly, as contractors were not prompt, having only smfttl 
contracts, and not until June was a goo<l showing ma^Ie. Cottonwood 
Island was connected with the Illinois shore by a closing dam 1,126 feet 
long, built on a high bar, at a good stage of the river. A short dam 250 
feet long unites the two paits of Cott^titwood Island, and a shore protw- 
tion 650 feet long was carried arouud the head of the eastern half of tJ» 
island. The building of a long wing dam, began last year, £ ""^ 



niinoiH shore new the toot of the next ialand up the river, was resumed. 
I'hiB dam in !,7(HI liwt hmg, hut as it i<>st» in whallow wat^r doPH not 
consume much material. The »horo protection of the cutting hank op- 
posite on the Missouri side wan then hegnu and was abont three-fourths 
flntshed when the month <ilosed. With this piece all is done contem- 
plated in this reaeh for this season. Lone Tree Crossing is better, this 
year than for several p»st, the channel being straight and deep. The 
stage of water this spring was especially favorable for work in this reach. 
For 45 days the gauj^e read between 10.5 feet and 11.7 feet, not varying 
more than 1-t inches, and the Rtage waa the best posfiihle for the cliar- 
acter of the work. The dams were cheaply, atwtirately, and Muceesafnlly 
built and desirwl scour owmrred as the river fell. The following table 
abowB work done and material usetl by the two tieets. 

id thort prolretioni built ia 1S9I hy Ike fieeU of the Suceeat and Coal Bluff torn 



Kd thort prolretioni I 
inta aboFS nateatlon .. 
Ihala Tcnr-bad prolecl 
tmnEory OhnteTow-lxMidelociBg 
Sny taUnd Levas ihan pmteoHs 



CotUiXnrooA Island shors protecl 
WiDK duu opjawlto Tout of Eogl 
Shoiv fmteeituo. MiHonil ahun uppoalte 



Eogbook iBluDd, IQIiidIs ihiR* . 



M8,S 



1,441.1) 
4flT.3 
417.8 



I 



'ms 



Excepting a short time in August, ISOO, navigation has been reason- 
ably satisfactory, there being never less than 4 feet on the shoalcat 
bars. But as the work of improvement progresses very slowly owing 
to the limited appropriations, there are so many untouched portions of 
the river that each year the same difUcnIties arise. Thus far we have 
control of the river only at certain places; at many others it remains as 
it always has, and in- these tJie channel shifts continually and exceed- 
ingly. Conld there be enough appropriated at once to control stretches 
like Tnlly Island, Moziers and Hamburg, Sterling Island, Fritz Island, 
and others, we might begin to look forward to a possibility of deepen- 
ing the channel. Bnt until the channel is first reasonably under con- 
trol no additional depth can be looked for. The items for this district 
have been so reduced and diverted to points not connected with the 
general plan of improvement that the net amonnt available is hardly 
enough for 1 year's operations, even on a moderate basis. The present 
appr^riation will not allow of any construction by contract work, and 
only «iOO,000 is available for the navigation proper for 2 years. Not 
less than double the recent appropriations would sufBce to carry on this 
work with efficiency. The fleet of this district has no winter harbor 
belonging to it, havingbeen wintered heretofore atdifferent places and at 
ttnneces«a[y risk. It needs also a marine railway at least 135 feet long 
on which to be repaired from time to time. I specifically ask for $5,00U 
for this purpose and to pnrchase or lease a suitable frontage somewhere 
for harbor jnirposea. 



4 
4 



2124 REPORT OF THE CniEF OF ENQIXEERS, U. S. ABBlT. 

^fonrlf statement, 

July'l, mM\ linlniirft nnexpoiuliMl $2r*. 142.00 

Aiuuiitit a])|»rni)riatiMl by act ajiprnviMl Sf|it<*iiilM-r f!t, IMH) ItiTt, iNHMIO 

190, 142. 00 
J line 30, 1891 , amount expoinled during fiscal year 68, 801. 00 

Julv 1, l«i>l, balance uncxpouded 121«a40.91 

July 1, 18in, outstanding liabilities ^, laU. 77 

Julv 1, 1891, amount oovoxod bv uncompli'tt'd routvacts 27,507.64 

34,202.41 

July 1, 1891, balance availalde 87,138.50 



Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project Unknown. 

Amount that can be ])i-ofit ably expended in fiscal y ear ending June 30, 18it3 300, 000.00 
Submitted in compliance with requirements of' sections 2 of river and 
harbor acts of 1866 and 1867. 

Very respectfiilly, your obedient servant, 

B. H. BUFFI^B, 

Major of Engineem. 

Brig. Gen. Thomas L. Casey, 

Chief of Engineers^ U. 8. A. 



REOPENING WILLOW SLOUGH, OR SOME OTHER GHANNSI*, FBOX 
>nSSISSlPPI RIVER TO QUINCY BAY, ILLINOIS. 

[Printed in House Ex. Doc. No. 284, Fifty-flret Congreiw, seoond seMloii.] 

Engineer Office, U. S. Abxt, 

Quvwyj lU.j December 23j 1890. 

General: I respectfully forward lierewitb, through the Division 
Engineer, my ro]>ort on the examination of Willow Slough as required 
by the river and harbor a<*t of 1890, aceompanied by the following 
papers :• 

Plat of Willow Slonijh and direct canal. 

Sheet of protilos of the same. . ^ 

Fourteen shoots of oross Hoctions. 

Printed sheet, jjeiieral map, sheet 2. 



Printed slieet. |j:eueraj map, sheet 2, 

Blue print, (^ninry Bay<8UOwinff dredgin^j 1881. 

Tracing, Quinry Bay, showing di*edging 1885. 



Please see my i>roie(*t of oi>ei:ations in regard to this project. 
Very resjicct fully, your obedient servant, 

E. H. Rttffneb, 
Major of EngineerMm 
Brig. Gon. TnoMAS L. Casey, 

("hi(f of EngiHcers^ U. S. A. 

(Tlirongli Col. (). M. Toe, Cori)s of Kngineers, Division Engineer, 
Northwest Division.) 

[First iiKliirHtiiiriit.l 

r. S. l^xGixEEB Office, 
Df'troit. ^fwh.. jyecemher 29^ 1890. 
Ri»s])ortfully forwarded. 

I have ma<Io an l^\a1ilinatiou of WiUow Slough and Quincy Bay and 
I not only conciu* in the conelusi^ni reached by Major Kufinery but am, 

• Kot printed. 



more strongly than he is, of the opiiiiun that the effect of opening Wil- 
low 81un|^h would be (ietrimcntiit t^i Qitircy Bay for ail puri»0M«a rou- 
net-bftd with imvijifatioii. Il probalily would be uilvantai;e(ius t« other ' 
interests which, as 1 iinderstainl it, wf lire not called upon to eouMidcr. f 
O. M. I'OE, ' 

Colintvl, Carps of Enj/hicorit, 
JHinnUm Eni/imvr, N'vrlhwesl .IHinniM 



I 



EBPOBT 01' HAJOU V.. II. BUPPNEB, CORPS OF BNtilNGEIlS. 

Enoimkkr Office, U. S. Abmt, 

<^uinvy, Jit., J)eeemlter Z% 18'J0. 

OenebAL: r rt!spei;tfully report thefollowinciii regard tio theexam* 1 
iuiition iw "to thn advisaliility of reopcuitig Willow Sloiigb, or soniQ| 
iitber channel, from tbo Missismppi River to (Juincy Bay," I'etiuirod by 1 
the liver and harbor a«t of 18!H). 

Willow Sloufih is a low, flat slou^b, 23 niilos long, iionnectiug tho I 
MisKir^Kippi River with Qniney Bay when the gauge rea^ls about 5 feet 4 
above low wattT mark. 

The upper end lies bolilnd a large island, Ko. 422 on our maps, an<l 
tbre^-ijuartcrs of a mile east of the mmn channel, wbieh is to the weat 
of Itland 422, The chnl« or slough from which Willow Slough starts is 
some 8J miles long, and its upper oLtrancct are closed by dams lu-ross 
Canton and Hinoot etiute»4, built in 1881 and raised aud repiiired in 
1889. A series of wing dams, ]jropt)serl many years ago, will be built 
in ISW from the tUiiiois shore in tit; lirat loUe below the foot of Isliiiid 
423. 

These dams, three iu number, will cause laige deposits of sand above J 
and below them, and at low stuges the river near the Illinois shore for 1 
IJ milex below tlie head of Willow 8lough will not be navigable eveal 
for very small crafts. Indeed this is already the case from the acti<in-l 
of the two dams already built. The slough has a slightJy deviousl 
course through the wooded, alluvial bottom, tliat is overflowed at Mgli J 
water, and not necessarily extreme high water. It has been over-1 
flowe*l partly or entirely for longer or shorter periods during 9 of 1 
the past 13 years. The mouth of the slougb is in Qiiincy Bay. about f 
1,000 feet above the harbor as roceutly establislied and about 9,350 feet I 
or 1.8 miles above the mouth of the bay. It is owned thronghout by | 
private parties, aud the ground under the bay is also owned by private I 
parties, tiom the mouth of tlie slough to the harbor lines. | 

A survey of Willow Slough was made in November, 1800, by Assist- 
ant Engineer George Wnlcott. This survey shows the course of the 
slough, the profile, auderosH sections of the ground taken often enough 
to give the losing chara^teristie" and to enable a reasonably accurate 
est^ate to be ma^le of the (quantity of material to be removed in ca^e 
the slough should be "reopened," iu the language of the act. The plat, 
profile, and 8 sheets of cross sections are forwarded with this report. 
A table Hhowing all the data of the survey aud the calculated amounts 
of excavritioii roipiired to open Willow Slough to a depth of 6 feet at 
low w(it<ir, IIHI fi^et wide and with side slopes of 2 horizontal to*l ver* t 
tical, will now be given: 



2126 BBPORT OP TUB CHIEF OP ESGINBEES, V. S. ABHT. 
Detailed M(iMa(« of IFi(Iom> ^Ioh^A turreg beiinBen Quiites Bag amd a« SBtHt^fi J 



Xo.of 

lUtiOD. 


h 

5. 




11 


t- 
III 


£S. 




1 


III 


■si 

III 


w'.'.'.." 

w 

at 

k"'."'.'. 

s: '.'.'.'.'.'.'. 

*6.."V.'.. 
4(1 

K-::::::: 
M 

IB.. '.'.'.'.. ~ 


"■"■■J.i.V' ^iillR 

«•! ;i. KV 

x:-" e.wl 
;i, w>ii . e. 7(i.-. 

i. wv v. IM 

A.mW ' 4. DAI 

fl.L'.'.i ■ T,:«9 


i'.-](tt:it 
i:i:ii':p,'^ 

ill 


e,H>8.703 
8.T(M.Ma 
».471.»I3 

'tlffi 

s.MB.n4 

10|4(ttL074 

Id! &^ 000 
10,831703 

til 

5,007.703 

13. DIB- Ota 
1,744.111 

u^ ■«.«!: 

1.481.MI 

1,17».1>2S 

Fii 


72 

IS 

70 

78;:;;" 

78 

M 

i3»;;;;" 
3«;;!;" 

45-Ho;' 


fl 

7; BOO 

ii!»o 

S'i 

B.'JJU 
B.OH 
]0.«)0 

lli-JOO 
11; 700 

illi 

13, MO 
13, (WO 

141 100 

its 


0.U74 
5. SSI 

a; 420 

6;w7 

b;2S3 

10. m 

i 

8.0M 

B.3M 

H-ssa 
Im 

T.l&S 
7.872 


tS 

i.«e£M 

1.T13.H 
1,814.40 
l,8»l.5« 

fcas 

1,783.00 

!:SS 

S; 043. 78 

til 

fis 

1,«»1.N 
1.IM7.» 
LBBLTS 
1,342.83 


io,in.zn 
i7,2iLni 

SiiiSi 

Isfs 

ILOSLSi 

430Lat 










-u 


..- 


'■™ 






Tata 


noDibn 


•""""" 


1b 


. su,n3.»t 



*Thii abow* the nnmbn oT ym-Ai neetautj to omnplet* tli» work o 



WOLCOTT, 






All analysis of tbe resnlt^s of this survey sbows that, if the water 
vere allowed to tlow through an ai'tificial channel of the proposed di- 
luousioiis aiitl (i feet iu deptli, the resultant velocity would be 1.77 miles 
pei' hour, which being suAicient t4) move small gravel, tbe cbanoel mmld 
till up from onision, nnless the bottom and i$ldes were protected. In 
this region riprap stone makes the cheapest protection and the estamato 
is based thereon. 

It may he said that if any doubt arises as to the probability of Willow 
Sliiugli tilling up from erosion one has only to think that it hat filled 
from natural imuscs, even if it ever was more open than it is now (whicli 
1 doubt). 

liiprap would probably average about 6 inches in depth, and could be 
put in pla<e at alxiut *1 a lubif- yai-d, With these elements the pro- 
toctiou of 14.<^H> t'cct of ranal. with a wetted peiimeter, aveiaginff not 
less thiin 175 t'cct. would require about 45,384 cubic yards at $1 per 
yiii'<l. Wc linvi' never bad ih-cdging done in Quincy Bay at less than 
14 cents [KT ciil>ic yard, and including the removal of the bees and 
rorits.'it is i|iiito safe lo .say that not less than 11 cents shoold be Uie 
estimated cost of dredging. 



r 



2138 RKPOKT OP THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, V. S. ARMT. 

of 114MV rliainiols, assisfiiijr slrandod boats and l>aj*gos, surveys and 
exaiiiiiiations in ronn<Tti(»n >>itli new iuiprovoinviits and for larilitathi;; 
uavij^ation tLrougli bi"idj»:i»s, inspection and repair of existing works, 
formation of temporary or i)ermanent channels through ohstnieting bai*s, 
and in general in beneliting commerce by aiding existing navigsitiou 
and assisting in the permanent imi)rovement of the Upper Mississippi 
Kiver. 

Th<^ plant used in connection with this work is the snag boats and 
drtMlges. At times wht^i the ])lant is not required in connection with 
this sjKM'ial work it is use under general or sjieiMal appropriations tor 
work of peiinanent construction. 

By the river and harbor act of August 11, 1888, pmvision was made 
for operating snag boats, and dredge Imats on the Ui>i>er Mississippi 
Kiver under an indefinite apjuopriation, the annual exi^nditui^e Iwing 
limited by the act to j^iVMHM). There has been exiKMuknl under the in- 
definite ai)pn>i>riation during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, the 
sum of 82.\000. 

The snag boat (ivneral />/mmr<7 wasengagetl in the work of removing 
snags, t^c fn>m July 1 to 0<-tober 10, IStH), and fitmi May 18 to June 
t'iO, ISDl. During a i>art of the season of 1S90 she wasemi)loye<l in towing 
dn»dge Vhanl.v to various ])oints on the river. Dredge Pkainx was 
engagcMl fn>m July 1(» to October »'5, 181M>, in removing wre<»ks, cribs, 
and t»ther obstructions above Keokuk, in which work she was assisted 
by steam launch .1 da. The snagboat J. G, P/irAr, having been thoroughly 
rcpain'd. was ])ut in commission May 10, 1891; and from that time to 
June ;>0, ISOl, was em]>h»yed in connection with dre<lge Phtenix and 
steam launch Hlair in decpcMiing the jH^rmanent channel at Nininger. 
The dt»tails oi' work accomi>lislied, together with statistics of eoimneree 
and navigation, ar<^ giv<Mi in the ai>i)ended report of Assistant Engi- 
neer (\ W. Durham. ^ 

A detailed statement and a summary of exjienditui'es for operating 
snag lK)ats and drcdg(»lM»ats on Upper Mississippi River for the flsc'al 
year ending June M), lsi>l, are apjH'nded. 

The total tonnage of the Mississipjn l^iver betw(H?n the Falls of St- 
Anthony and nn)uth of Illinois Kiver for cah'udar year ISOO was ap- 
I»n)ximately 4.4<KKOiH) tons. This inrlu<les logs and lumber as well as 
ordinarv m«'rchandisi». 

« 

AltSTKACr OK APl'KnPKlAriONS. 

Ry art :i]>iirovo«l Manh 2. iNiT $9(S.OnO 

Uy allot im-nt i'roiu Mj»i»rn]nia!iuii nlMnly *_*."». 1S«W 26.01W 

Hy allntiiM'iit tVniu ai>iiii»|niatinii of 1S«;!» 35, MO 

nv art appi'ovnl — 

.Iiilv 11. 1S7«» 38,000 

Maivh;;. isTl 42,0i10 

.luiu' 10. 1M*J 42.000 

Marrh S. ls7:{ ^i. aW 

.iiiiH'js. isTi 2>.noo 

Maivh ;{. isT.-. 23,000 

Au;iust 11. ls7«; 30.000 

.hiiu- IS. isTs 41,ri00 

Manh .{. 1S71« 20.001) 

.Illllr 11, 1SM> »,000 

Maivli :?. issl 2SK001) 

IW art nas<td Vnmi«.i J. Iwj 25,000 

ny art a]»]»rt»\«Ml .\i:l:)i>i ."•. 1>ni; 22,500 

IW art «)l'An;;u.st 11. ls>o<. tm li>r:il Vf.ir ciniinji — 

.Jnnr.So. 1SM» 25,000 

.luiMlJo. i.s;m) 25,000 

Jum-.io. IMM 25,000 

T.'tal 5»»,ttlO 



2128 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOmEEBS, U. 8. ABH7. 

Willoaw Slouch, in the language of the act. An esaminatioD of flifl 
map of the river in the viciuity of Quincy {a copy of which is inrlospd) 
will show that when the works of iiupro\-eincnt contemplated for the 
vicinity of CottonwiKHl Ishuid are completed the channel of the river 
will tbllow the Illinois show, as it d(»es now, opposite Upper Cotton- 
wood Island, and it thou leaves the Illinois shore for the Slissoori shore, 
as governed hy a dike const ructod hy the bridge company 24 years aga 

In order that a can;!! I'min the river to the hay should always have 
water at its river end wirlmnt dictlfiiug it should he located somewhere 
in this stretch of a lutU', tiiid in order to have the least possible dredg- 
ing; done the Hue shonld be the shortest which would cany it to the 
lower end. 

The bay end of such a canal shonld be near the upper end of t^e 
established harbor lines of Qnincy Bay. or at least not above tliat point 

Such a line has been surveyed by Mr. George Wolcott in a similu 
manner to that of Wilhiw Slough, and the same data are collected and 
exliibited. and the same diameter of a canal contemplated. No shorter 
or less exjwnsive line cowld be locatetl, if any regard be had to navi- 
gatiiin.aiid I assume that it issupiio.scd that the United States will not 
eiiibiU'k in an imdeitakiug of the kind_ unless water craft can oee the 
canal at sometime. The tollowing table gives all informiition n 



Detailed n 


mateo 


r dim-l cftnimcl 




S'< uf 




11. 

111 


1 


11 
Jl 


X...Bf 


a 

ii 


4 
111 


1 


« 


















< 






J-Kl. 


F«(. 


"Uli 


ru-iHifi". 






r«T 


."Ift 




































































































'f^i!-i? 






























































































































































































































'^s- 








."..iKai.^r. 


lutal 


iiniler 


ubicj«d. 


tU,KLU 



y to I'lHuplete the work out to B hat b 
stiitiatcd cost of such a canal, based upon prior calculationB, 



AM 1" I'lT .-.■ 
Total.. 



t.ls. iitJl- 
iLCitifjonrii'S 



Bftr <^}iI<uiliitJon a» to the elemeubi of t^uuli a uiiiiul gives — 



A=area=G73 sqiiaro fret. 

ite=bnr(ler= 126' JJ3 for depth nf fi feet of water. 



=a'.298 hyilrftnlio.mDaii deptli. 
in w'=9'J.3G v/im=3'.2181. 
t-ij— -yj-gTB- )»'=3'.2]8 feet per Hecond. 



11^ 
Jvelotity is U)iuil to 2.23 uules per hour, and will movp pi'libk's 
ge a» an i-gK- Discbarge will be aboat 2,2(»0 niibu! feet per wkmukI. 
or Bonwswhat moie than a tenth of the Iow-waI«r discharge of the rivi>r 
at Qaiiicy, II' the L-aiiiil were ouly 50 feet wide at the bottom the velocity 
wonld still be y'.l2S per sei^ntid, or 2,13 miles pei- hour. 

Wlieti the river rose to 8 feet on the gauge, and there wonld be 12 feet 
in the eaiial, the vcloitity wonld bo 4'.381 per i«ecotid, or 3 miles per 
himr. The aaine would occur at 12 feet on the gange if there were only 
a canal 12 feet d(iep; that is, ouly to low-water mark. This velocity is 
that rcfwrded at Ilnunibal, when the gauge rea^l 12 feet and the dis- 
charge was X40,(HH) cubic feet i>er second. This question of velw^ity ia 
the most important item in the project and should be thonnighly under- 
stood. Since Qiuaey Bay has no connection with the river from the 
upper end at low stagea it has a level water surface and no slope. Tlie 
average slope of tlie river is, however, about C inches to the mile, and 
the higher up the river we go and the shorter line we run to Quinoy 
Bay the greater slupi' wi' l!;ive and the greater velocity. To any one 
familiar with lli.> vtlmiry nf tlie river above and through Qiuncy Bridge 
to the City VVIi:iir :i |)iii|iMsjii(m to concentrate the fall of this distance, 
which is sfmicH ii:it less f li;ui L'i milea by the channel, into a short canal 
of less then a mile, would be viewed with some diatriist. If the con- 
(■entration of the canal could bo preserved through (Juiucy Bay the case 
wonld Iw dilTurent. 

But tJie outcome is a wide, flat, sliallow surface, not less than :^^t^^ fcfit 
■wide at the low-water mark in narrow parts of the bay, am] widening 
rapidly with the rise of water. There would be then under the most 
favorable conditions high velointyin the cnnal ami much le«s in thebtiy 
a short distance below the mouth. In shorty the ]>roposition involves 
all thftconsiderations due to a " cut-off;" that is, leading a part of a great 
river through a short line instead of a much longer one. 

Let us iioiv considei' some points in reference to the navigability of 
tlio proposed canal. The distance by the river eliimii.l finm the head 
of the canal to tjuincy Wharf, i>assing tbrongh tlii-.<Jiiiii''V ]'>riiIj;iN with 
its draw of IfiO feet opening, ia alwut 12.801* tVul. 'I'lif .list;iiif.> Ijc- 
tween the same points passing down the canal, llinnifrli tlm "iP-funt 
draw span of the Bay Bridge, is about 14,847 feet, ii. clear loss of jilMiut 
2,)KK> feet. To be sure, rafta and small craft having business in Qniney 
Bay wonld go down the canal, but few boiits would att^uipt to go up it. 
There WonliT be a constant snctiiin down tlie cnual, at t.bi- head, wliirh 
would be a source of anxiety U< pilots p.i'-Hiiii,' il.iwn llii' niiiiu I'hiinnel 
uild not intending t4Misctliiieaii;i I. Tlijs mli liuu nould Iiim.I' \i-vy great 
iiniMtrtam-e, and a source iirdiiiigerw lien llir ji-i- liic;ik^ iiji in llic s|iring. 
One very great iidvaNtagc that VLiiiicy Bay imw |io«m-,sscs iw that it 
i« n secure iccdiaibor, or winter harbor, for boats. With an open cauu.1 
ENU n 134 



2130 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

loailiujj: <li)wn from the river into the bay, we may foretell what might 
happen at tlie oiul of a severe winter. The bay, canal, and river wifl 
be frozen, as they freqnently are, with ice 15 inches thick or more. A 
thaw comes on a risin<r river, and this heavy mass is raised firom its 
side anchorages, is broken to pieces and driven down the bay, is piled 
np against the piers of the Bay Bridge, and then when enough hcttd is 
gained and the whole is somewhat softened it gives way, crashing down 
the bay, carrying with it all trail vessels, until a mas8«large enough is 
accumulated to tear away all steamboats that have sought Quincy Bay 
as a safe winter harbor, sm*h as it is now. 

This is not a fancy picture. Ice has been foi-cini in times past down 
Scpuiw CMiute, a short small slough, into Quincy Bay, at the lower end. 
when a break uj) occurred at a stage suitable for such an event, and 
one of our ililliculties is to maintain, against the ice, dams that we build 
to close up just such small sloughs as is here proposed to be opened. 

Let us now consider the engineering pn>i)ositions of the project. The 
general ]ilan of improvement of this river proposes to close all small 
useless island chutes and sloughs. The plan of concentration requires 
the constant passage down the main low-water bed of the river of the 
bulk of the water. 

For rj years we have made a practice of closing such small chutes. 
The maps show how many have been closed, and the testimony is 
unanimous that such closure is in the interest of navigation. 

Three such ilosures have been made in sight of Quincy, and one 
small slough running into the bay has itself been closed. Squaw Chute 
by name, it does not need argument at this time to show that this 
plan is the pii»per one to follow. Yet the opening ofWillow Slough or 
some other chaniu'l fnnn the Mississippi River into Quincy Bay will be 
a direct ^iolalion of this practice. 

What engineering reason has been assigned why this canal should be 
(lug f The only oiu' tliat has come to my knowledge has been that the 
current introduced into Quincy Bay would scour out the bar at the mouth 
of Whipi>lc and Cedar creeks, and in general keep the bay from filling 
up. 1 have alreaily slu^wn that there would undoubtedly be a great 
diminution of vi'locity and scouring effect atter the water of the canal 
reached Quincv Bav. 

There is ni» donbt that the canal would scoui* a canal or channel equal 
in cai^acity to itself through Whipple Creek Bar. The matter so scoured 
wouhl <lci>osit lowi'r down in the bay, and eventually a channel equal in 
capacity to tlie <lng canal wimld be sccmred and maintnined through 
tlu* lower bay. That is the limit of cai>acity of the current introduced 
into (^>uincy Hay. to scour and maintain a channel equal to itself. But 
ICC hacr sttvli (( rhfDDU'l alreatly in Quincy Bay, and greater throughout, 
except ihrougli \Vhi[)p]e and Cedar Creek Bar, and this has been half 
openi'd, and will be entirely opened by July 1, probably at an expense 
of not over >«(».0(M». In point of tact, the total exi>ense of maintaining 
by dredging the harbor i)f Quincy Bay for 11 years has been only 
.*(»0,.*?00. instead of the minimum anumnt of 873,120, proposed in this 
])roJei'r to secure a smaller channel with many disadvantages. 

Of the work alreaily tlone in (Juincy Bay about 820,lH)0 worth of dam- 
age >\asctiuscd by the Hood of isss, during which the Indian Grave 
levee broke at the hiad of tht* bay. and a large amount of material was 
jn-ecipitahMl intt> tlie l»ay. entirely tilling up the channel dug through 
Whii)i)le Creek Har in issi and iss."), and the areas just Ih'Iow that bar. 
There is nmv available for dredging in Quincy Bay $25,000. This 
money will be spent in carrying out the project of 1879| and tbueis no 



2140 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OP ESQINEERS, U. 8. ASUT. 



5S ■ ('lijii.J.I..nu: 

:» Tin". K. S'lllnilli^r * r... , 

31 .I.I..Viili.»1«ll 

.■H- L.Kjni- 



Chub .• IVIiii' 

Jmrn-K lb<lilii»>n ^ s,.ii 
liaiii.itEllnH.A-S>li«;il 



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4 I W. K.'l.'lMin . 
5l JiiliulUm.. 



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tl.lin ll,iri'l...l 
Til.-.. K.h1iii.<l 
llin-iiiuii .... 



Hi. 



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I : i 

■3 I £ 



3^», 4W.M . 



K.W IE.M) . 



1.448.W K7.a 4sa.aa 



3M.M SKIS 



2132 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

The l^t>jn'fl considers that Major Ruffner's detailed report, whieli gives 
all the t;u*ts bearinjr upon the question and detailed estimates of cost, 
covers all the points that need be disenssed and adoptiii it as a part of 
this re]>ort. 

Ft appt'ars that toriuerly there was a current in Quincy Bay at lower 
staircs than at present, hut that, bv the constnietion of the Indian Grave 
Icvcc, rcrtain nuncnicnts of sand bars in the Mississippi Kiver, aud the 
hnin«r up of Willow Sloujrh, such current has been virtually destniytnl 
at all sia«rcs of less than o feet at low water. This absence of current 
at \o\s sta;4:cs of the river attects the purity of the water in the bay i\\u\ 
to a certain extent results in the deposit of a limited amount of the ma- 
terial bronuht in by creeks, l>y slitrhtly deei>ening AVillow Slouch, or 
other juacticablc means. x\w len^^th of thue durinfj which fi-csh water 
can reacli the bay may hv [>n>lon«retl, and such a result is pn>bably ver>' 
<lcsiniblc on sanitary «rro,inds, but to furnish a channel which will ser\'e 
the puri>osc of na vibration lu* iH'rniit the passage of a sufficient amount 
of water to have any ctVcct on the ileposits in the bay is a work wbirh 
would be very expensive and which the interests of commen*e do not 
appear to Justify. 

Thi* r»oanl wtuild res])ectfully state that in their opinion the •* re- 
ojienin^ of Willow Slonirli or souxl' other chaniu'I fiimi the Mississippi 
to (Juincy Day " is not advisable. 

A. Mackenzie, 

-l/Vr;V»r, Corpa of Engineers. 
A. 31. Mh-LEK, 

M([ji»r, Corps of Engineers. 

E. 11. ih'FFNER, 

Major of Engineers. 

Brig. Cn'n. Thomas L. Casey, 

Chief of' Kntthiars, C: S, A. 



Mixnrs OF crnue MKKTi>fO. 

Kn*;ink.ku Of kick, IT. S. Army, 

VHinrjr. ///. 

K*f'|ii»r! t»ttlii' nii'otin:; lirlil at lln* Y. M. U. \ room** Ki'hruary 17. 18iM. in re<;anl to 
Min'ii'mir Will.iNN Slmisili nv n.»mh' hiIht rliMnn*! into l^iitin'v Hay. 

Afitr an i-vjilanaiinu t»t'tlu' ohjnt ot'tln' nnH'ti!!i; by MajiM- KulViUT, City Kn}^iiu*4'r 
riiaitt n >!.'.'ril thai t]ii'oiiii:h tin- tlo-iuiv ot'cliaiiiit'Is Ibmi tln' rivorfiusod tht» wati^r 
fn stannati'. ami that a rha!nu'l wouM W wry iiM]>ort:nit to I'arry oft' the clo|>osit. 

l\ l^ \'an i'raiik tlnn K-ad a iM'titioii in roirnrt! to tlu* Imildiiij; of a lt*voe around 
thr iijimtli t»ri'»'<lar Cn rk tt» i»n'vriit ilrpnsit in tin* hay. 

V. W. Mi>i-r wa-* ralli'il ii|):m. ami siaioil that l»y the buihliii); oflcveeB the aupply 
ni' \vai« r wa^ i iit n\\' tVoiii x\w l»ay. ami thviniixh that s^iiirt't* the l»ay 1ia8 been graaii- 
a]l> lilliiiu. ami ri\i-i- ami i(-<' men I'-piM-i lily have heeii dania«:!re(l to a j^reat esEtent. 
■lhiiik«» thai hy np.niM.i: a thaiiin'l a iMirmit into the l>ay will pn'wnt aU further 
«li'|Mi«.ii ;ii iix ni.iiiili. 

(i«iMi;i' A. Aiiil< rMtii: ]ii iN'^anl to thr a(lvaiita;;i's ot'a rhaiiuel in Qiiincy Ray an«l 
it-* inipoilamr to iiavii;ati«»u. 

I". 1>. Vail I'rank >!airil tliat a rhatinel in the upi>er ]»art of the htiy would lie a 
init^t (li-^ir.ili1i- thiiiL:: it wonM torni a eoutinual eiirr«'iit thronj;li the bay without 
wa^hiiiL: ir^ l»aiiks au«l wiihiMit th«' least ilan«;er to st«'anihoat8: would form a moal 
i'\ii-llri;t h.;v1»i.r. 

('(•1. W. \\ . \U'\\\ : In icuanl i(» tin- na\ iLra^ilii.v oi (^niiiey Day and thv imitortance 

( '. 1 1. \ .Hi 1 i.:nk -; i:« ■! ih.it a « liattiu-l >n. ii .■.«. |i1ii|iosim1 \\«iiilil raiT\ all the d«*p«iiiit 
<><\\;i::i (i-i>ni til- li:i\ ainl liiXi- t'nii t> in<»ni:li t«>i-air\ out what is materially depo«- 
iti-il t!iiii. IhinK-* iliru- w (inhl he \ trv lit 1 1«- «'\]K'nsi> r«»nHerte(l with the repair 
«»t' Ml* h I ii-innrl. I'hi-M' >iii.>iilil 1m' a ehannel iiinning into thu buy at low atagM to 
l»rcvvnt lining: in at the lower end. 



2142 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

Detailed statement of ejrjtenttitHres for operating snaff boat* and dredge boats on Vpptr 

Mis»ii*vipp\ Hirer, etc. — Continued. 



! 



i\ 



To Avlidiu puid. 



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* T Z • 

^1 1 mm •^ 

M t* * 5 

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28 
29 
30 

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37 
38 
30 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
4o 
46 
47 
4^ 
49 
5*) 
51 
52 
53 
&4 
55 



Wilkliisou A Co 

Sjiiii. ('. \Vt>tni!l 

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M;lisli;ill vV Ki'ili.r 

l>avif. A <■(• 

elms. .1. I.i»M^ 

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lit-o. Hill 

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A . RiMihfit A To 

.Tohu M. Ki'iiU'in 

Dan. Kl'^^^MTl 

(i. V. Hallhlav \- (.'o 

L.T.Davis ..". 

W. A. I^»n!»afk Lumber (\»... 

John Harr\ 

iyannit/ rinitluM> A- S* liawh. 

T. NimUit 

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Hind nii-n 

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Nii'ols A- m-an 

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♦2. 

3. 

9. 

1. 

4. 

19. 

25. 

249. 

8. 

57. 

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78. 

42. 

3. 
51. 
11. 
69. 
44. 
15. 
XI. 
5.». 
12l». 

4. 
40. 
27. 
:{6. 
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18. 

3. 



l.tV.»9. 

25. 
224. 
'37! 

40. 

10. 
685. 



15 
50 
45 



$.:. 15 1. 



fi.75 



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6S 
50 

40 

71 
50 
80 
01 
51 
88 
16 
81 
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79 
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82 
47 

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18 
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iV) 
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48 
24 
89 

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$10.24 

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4. 08 

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8. 50 



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. 120.47 
.| 

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18.60 
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59 

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63 
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T.f. r.rijlit A «'.» 

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Alht'it Kinhn:'. 

rr.il.Ti.K A. \\\V. 

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6.55: 3.00 



.65 



48.65 40.00 

32. ! 



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.\ 

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no. 
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6. 

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43. 

6. 

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3. 
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iM» 2HW 

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0»> 2«».00 

00 <ki. 00 

45 43.45 

<n» 6.(10 

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M : ot.eo 

93 27.53 

75 ■ 

on 1.274.0i» 

2i> 2^». 21^ ' *■ 

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6.80 



.40 
3.75 



.1 2.50 



.1. 



\ 



600.00 



40.011 
42.00 



249. 71 



54.10 j 3.70 

184-.. :;5 19.66 

2.75 $72.S« 3.40- 

9.88 : 3;k00 

i ' a.16 

5L81 

11.52 

31.25 

44.T!> 

-....-. 15.25 

■Vi, •Hi I........ ......«, ........ 

5;t.82 1 1 



4.00 



IS. 57 

13. «» 24.00 
40.32 



W.15 1.784.85 tV2.79 312.33 185.79 551. 



8.65 . 

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10. .-.2 ; :w.oo I 



Total :i.oj5. 20 1.274.(H» 262. 73 j 639. 50 



•10.40; 2SL5' 



1 



2134 REPORT OF THE CHIEP OP ENGINEERS, IT. S. ARMT. 

rFTlTloN OF riTIZFXft OF QriN'CY, ILLINOIS. 

QuiNCY, III.. Ffhrttarif 77, ISOl, 

(iKXTi.KMi'.x : III the mutter of opening a channel from Mis8is8ippi River to Qainrf 
Hay : 

Siirh u channi'I s«*('iiis every way desirable for the purpoat^s of nari}ir]|tioii. 

To v:f t thf lu'Stt results from Hurh improvement of Qiiincy Harbor it mh^uw to na 
that th(> ]>r4>])i)S(d rhauuel Hhoiihneave tm« river at some ponit above the railroml 
brid*;*' wilt- re th<* st«'ambuat ehaunel of river sets in t-o the Illinois shore, theuee 
aevoss tlio island in a diroet line to some point in the bay near to the uortheru liniita 
of harbor, and snrh channel shonld be broad and deep enonj^h to admit steamboat* 
at all sta^xes of river; the sides and bottom shonld be properly protected by riprap 
to pri'vent 8i'0!irin;ir. 

Sncli a channel wonld not only make a good and desirable inlet for steamboata and 
other eral'rs to the upper end of Qnincy Harbor, but would also supply a enrrent 
whieli would eavry out a large percentage of the material now depositing in tfaebay. 

In eon nee t ion with the above it seems to us that instead of removing the main 
part of Whipple or Cedar Creek Har, which will be a very expensive nndertaking, 
will it not be moro economical and ndvantag(H)ns, and also answer all the require- 
ments of navigation, to open a good navigalde channel along the western part of 
said bay. iuid then build a levee around the remaining part of the bar with suitable 
water ways for the escaoe of the water of Cedar Creek, such levee to hold the de- 
posits of the creeks on sliore,thus preventing further injury to navigation Ch>m that 
source. 

C. D. Yam Frank 

(and 38 othMt). 

BOAKD OF EXGIXEKR OFFICERS, 

Ci»NSll>KKlNU QUINCY BaY iMPKO^nCMENTS. 



Z 2. 

rUELIMIXARY EXAMIXATIOX OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT WARSAW, IMJ. 

NOIS, WITH A VIEW OF liEMOVING BAR. 

[PriiiU^tl in IIouao Ex. D\x\ Xo. , Fifty-First Congress, Moond wwrioiu) 

Office of the Chief of Engineers, 

United States Armt, 
Washintftony D, C, December 4, 1890. 

Sir : I have tlio honor to siibiiiit llOlv^vith the aooompauying copy of 
n^purt tlattd Dctolu'r 21>, 1S1H», tix>ni Maj. B. H. Buffn^r, Corps of Eu- 
«riiuH»rs, jrivinj; n^sults of the preliiiiinary examination of Mississippi 
Www at Warsaw, ril., with a view of removing bar, made to comply with 
l)rovisi(»ns y\{ tlie river and harbor aet a]>prove(l September 19, l^M. 

Major niitlner reports that he does not consider this section of the 
liver worthy of improvement, and on the contrary that the removal of 
tlu» bar would be a detriment to navijration. Col. O. M. Poo, Corps of 
Kn^in«M'rs, a«;riM's that the loeality should not be improved by the Qen- 
eral (l«»viMnnient. and in this oi>inion I eoiieur. 
\'ery n^spint fully, yiuir obedient servant, 

Thos. Lincoln Casst, 
Brig. Gen.^ Chitf of Enginmn, 

Hon. Redfiem) Pkootor, 

iStcnturif of War» 



. KF.roRT OF MAJOIt F. 11. IHrpFNER, CORPS OF KN(iINEEBS. 

KNdl.VUKB OFKICI;, rjNITRD STATES ARMY, 
Quinty, III., October 39, 1890. 
(iKXKRAi,: In ohodience to letter of iiistriictiims of the 20Ui SeptentJ 
ItHr, 1 have tbe lioiior to rentlet tbe followiug report of a preliminarji^ 
exiimiuntion of MlRHiMsippi River at Warsaw, IH., with a view to r 
movinc har, as reqnirecl by the river and harbor act of September 1 

A peraoDal examination of the river near the public steaiuboaL 
ing at Warsaw, 111., and cunversation with pilots who know the river, 
confirmed my prior kniiwhtdgp that there wan no bar in front of or imai 
the public landing at Wiusaw. There has been no bar near or inter^ 
feting with this landing for some years, and there is no bar approach- 
ing or coming down ou it. In order to ascertain exactly what was the 
intention of the act, the i^teamer S»«w«/t was snbseriuently stopped at 
Warsaw and a search uimle by Asnistant Engineer Uiehard» and 
Pilot Amea for parties knowing anything about the matter, Itwa 
then diitoovered that the olan»e wiki^ inserted at the request of tbi 
owner* of a woolen mill some two-Uiirds of a mile below the publio' 
landing. There is a large suud bar in Qontof this mill, and on aeeoiiot 
of low water there had been a ne<'es8ity for extending the supply pipe 
for the boilers into the river. The nature of well wat«r at the mill site 
wa« such that the boilers could not advantageously nse that well water, 
and therefiire as the bar grew in size from year to year, it becamu 
neiessary Ui extend the supply pipe to the river, until finally soma 
1,700 feet of pipe in all were laid. This long pipe would not be re- 
cjiured if the bar wort' leiriovHl, anil hmca the suggestion liS to an in- 
quiry in reference to the tiist of removing this bar. 

Steamboats are not emibled to land at or near tho mill, and an. 
giXHls shipped by Kteaiiilmat must be hauled in wagons over the two-1 
thirds of a mile to the steiindioat Isnding. I did not understand thatj 
it was eonsidere<l de^iirable that the bar should be renmved in order t- 
allow steamboat.-^ to land at the mill, nor do I unilerstand that the mi 
makes many shipments by water. It will now be best to consider tin 
engineering features of the situation. A tracing of the geneml map o| 
tbe vicinity of Warsaw is inclosed,* This shows the outlines of the 
low-waler bed of tbe river as it will be when oonipletely reguLited at 
this stretvh. The broken lines show a width of about 1,400 feet (some 400 
feet less than in other localities), and the two wing dams on the Missouri 
8bore, built in 1880, and one raised in )S87, hold the boily of water on 
tbe Illinois shore at tho Warsaw LaJiding. The current and bndy of 
water then leave the Illinois shore and go over to the Missouri shore 
and the Ale.'tandria Landing, Tlus set of the current is mqch moro 
marked at hi^h water tlian at low water, and tho liead of Fox Island 
and Alexandria Point can be held only by revetment, as shown. Tliis 
8t«t« of atlairs produces an eddy under the lee of Warsaw Point, and 
tbe large bar shown is the result. I presume that bar has always been J 
there, and eertJiinlyas a resultof our works of permanent coutractioal 
it not only will always be there, bnt probably will increase in beighfea 
and maintain a width at low stages of about what it is now, t. e., about J 
as far as t.he broken linc.'i or channel lines show, at least 1,400 feet in o 
straight line from the mill in question. If it happen at tlie present 1 
" B to be a little wider than that, possibly the next high water willj 



at 
Qd^Jj 

bS^^I 
oe ^ 



2136 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S ARMT. 

wash oft'somoof tlio extra wi<lth. Wo consider tlio eoiulition of the 
river for the 2 miles in dist^uice fi^oni the upper part of Warsaw to the 
middle of Fox Ishind as very favorable. 

In consideration, therefore, of the whole, I respectfully rej>ort that I 
do not consider the removal of the bar below Warsaw, III., as worthy 
oi' improvement, but, on the contrary, that its removal would be a posi- 
tive detrinuMit to that portion of the navigable river. 
^'ery respectfully, your obedieut servant, 

E. H. RUFFNER, 

Major of JEngineers, 

Bri^. (tcu. Thomas L. Casey, 

Chief of Engineers^ V, 8, A, 

(Through Col. O. M. Poe, Corps of Engineers, Division Engineer, 
Northwest Division.) 

[Pint indorsement.] 

U. S. Engineer Office, 
Detroit^ Mich.j November i, 1890. 

Respectfully forwarded. 

I i*oncur in the opinion of the district engineer that, under present 
conditions, the " Mississippi River at Warsaw, III., with a view to re- 
moving bar," is not worthy of improvement by the General Govern- 
ment. 

O. M. Poe, 
Colonelj Corpn of Engineers^ 
Division Eingineer^ Korthwest Dimmcm. 




APPENDIX A A. 



IMPROVKMEST OK MISSISSIPPI KIVEE BETWEEN MINNEAPOLIS AND 
1>KS MOINES RAPIDS, AND Of DES MOlNEfi RAPIDS; OPKEATISO AND 
CAKE OP DES MOINES UAPIDS CANAL AND DRY DOCK. 



BBPIiBT nr MAJfiR A. MACKENZIE. CORPS OF EKGIKEERS, OFFICER IN 
CBABGE. tVB THE FISCAL YEAR ENTHNO JUNE SO, 1S91, WITS OTHER 
DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE liunss. 

IMPROTEMENTS. 

1. Op«ratiai!niagbDBte nnd dredge boats i 3. Dea Moinea Rupida, Mlutlaaiptii Rivttr. 

•til li|iTiHT MiKaiui]ii>i River. 4. Operutiiijc and L-nrool' UeaMaliioa Rup- 

2. MiiifiiMipiii River Wlwef^u MinDonpol in ide ChiihI iiud Drj Diwk. 

auil l>i« Moines Riipids. { 

EXAMINATIONS AND SUBVBTS. 

G. Missiaaippi River at iiiid above Clin- 
ton, lowiv, with view uf removing 
bam north of Little Kuek Iltland. 



United States Engineer Office, 

lioek Inland, III., .fttly !i, }S9}. 
General: I liavo tlie honor to tnuisniitlieit'witli the aimiial rcpoits 
ti[M)ii the works in iny chtiigc during the fiscal year i-iuling June .'ill, 

Very reapectfiilly, your obedient servant, 

A. MArKENZlE, 

Major, Corpn o/ Enyinters. 
Brig. (leii. Thomas L. Casey, 

Vhuf of Kitgiiwerx, U. N. A. 



The work covered by this appropriation is the removal of snags, 
wwcka, and other obstructions, the cutting and pulling back of over- 
^^^KinfT trees, the clearing of shores, the .leavchiug tor and marking 

2137 



2138 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. fl. ARMY. 

of now rbaiuuOs, n^^sistin}r strandod Imats ami barges, surveys and 
oxainiiiati<»iis in coiiiKH'tion \\it1i now iinprovoiih'iits and for lacilitatin;; 
navit^ation tbn»ugh biidjivs, inspection and repair ol" existing works, 
formation t»f temporary or permanent channels thmujrh obstnieting bai^s, 
and in general in beneliting eommeree by aiding existing na\igiitiou 
and assisting in the permanent improvement of the Upi>er ^lississippi 
Jiiver. 

The* plant used in eonneetion with this work is the snag boats and 
dnnlgi^s. At times when the plant is not requiixni in connection with 
this special work it is usi* under general or sjuHMal appropriations for 
work of ]KM'iiuinent construction. 

By the river an<l harbor act of August 11, 1888, piH)visiou was made 
for operating snag boats, and dirdge l»oats on the Upi>er Mississipi»i 
Kiver under an imb'tinite a])propriation. the annual exi>enditni'e lH»ing 
bmitcd by the act to .'?l*.'i.(HH>. There has Ihhmi exi>endtMl under the in- 
detinite ai)propriation during the fiscal year ending June «^, 181U. the 
sum of •i'^rMMM). 

The snag boat firtieral />V(rwrt)77 wasengagtHl in the work of removing 
snags, etc.. from July 1 to Ortober 10, ISIK), and from May 18 to June 
M). 1 StU . I hiring a part of the season of ISVM) she was emph>yed in towing 
dredge Phani.r to various ])oints on the river. l>redge Phcrnix was 
engagt'd fn»m «Iuly H» to October l\, 18!)0, in removing wrei'ks, eribs« 
ami other obstructions above Keokuk, in which work she was assiatiHl 
by steamlauneh Ada, Thesnagboat »/. (r, Parke^ ha v in gl>een thoroughly 
repaired, was ]uit in commission May 10, 1891: and from that time to 
June ;U), ISIU, was emi)K»yed in connection with di*etlge Phoenix and 
steam hiuiu'h f.7.swV in deepening the permanent channel at Niniiiger. 
Tht^ details of work a<-complished, together with statistics of eommeree 
and navigation, are given in the ap]UMuled repint of Assistant Engi- 
neer i\ \\\ Durham. ^ 

A detaiUHl statenuMit and a summary of exiK^nditui'es for operatinj; 
snag boats and dredge btiats on Upper Mississippi River for the fiscal 
year ending Junt* .*>0, is*»l. are a]>i>endetl. 

The total tonnage of the Mississippi Hiver between the Falls of St. 
Anthony and month of lllim»is l\iver for eah^ndar year 1800 was ai>- 
in-oximately 4.4(H).(MH» tt»ns. This inrbides logs and lumber as well us 
ordinarv men-hand ise. 

aii>ii:alt ok Arri:<»i*iaAii<»Ns. 

Hy :u't :i).|>rovoa Manh L'. iNu $9(1000 

My all«»tiuriit iViMii :»ii|»rniiriaiioii olMnlx *_>."». ISjvV 26.000 

Hv aIl4iTiih'iit iViun a]ipro])i-iaTinn <»!' lSi>l» 3S. M) 

r»v art a|ijuii\ nl — 

.lulv 11. lv7«» Se^OQO 

Mairh :;. 1>71 42.000 

Jiim- 10. IsTi' 42,000 

Manli ;;. is;:: 2nOOO 

.luiH- L':?. 1^71 2s>.non 

Mar. ii :i. IvT". &000 

Anirn>t It. l^Ti; 30.000 

.luiu' 1^. 1>7> 41,»|10 

Mar.li ;i. 1^7;« 20.000 

.1 niif 11. 1 vv, ( K, 000 

Manh:!. l^^l 2Si.OOO 

IW art pa>>ril AiiuM-t J. l^^J 25,000 

\\y ait aii]iii»Niii .Vr.u'!>i ."•. 1*''^»> 22.500 

l?y a« t «»t" AiiLiMvt 11. Iv'SH. I.,, ii>i;,] M;ir rinlinir — 

•hiTif ;ii ». 1 vv» 25^ 000 

.Jjiiir :io. i>;».i 25»000 

.IniH-.id. 1N»1 25b 000 

Tut..) 6««,6I0 



APPENDIX A A — EEPOET OF MAJOB MACKENZIE. 



1 

•s 


Towbompsia. 


1 


Hi- 

m 

Jill 


1 


= ll 


1 I 




1i 












*47.ao 






•200.00 






















3.00 


























470. W : liOO.OO 


215.00 






55.03 




January, mi. 








75.79 














JW™<MV. IK"!. 









-^.^ 






lis! on 
».7n 
m-ao 

40.39 

38.30 
3.9« 
8.8* 

11.50 


a)<i!oo 






















215.00 










-w'. i. Jioiirtck LombMCo 












































































11. eo 

200.00 














215.00 














BM,73 






























125.00 






JSS 




Uarth. mi. 


379: 10 
217.60 

11 

oioo 

707.00 


— 


_ — 


I 






12. as 






















217. M 
29! 0& 












lliiclniv &Aiiiiit;igu. 






n 




j 


^ 


Klii.'ia,itirp^'&c«'.':;'.":;;;.'::; 


200! 00 


;;;:;;;:;:;;::;;: 


::;::::±:::::::! S 






rj5:oo 




202,00 
355. BS 










Total 

Aprtt, mi. 








2.]5a,M| 2I1.2r, 


4(K>.00 


I 1 


1,455.95 










12.75 
03:80 


12.75 










































imog 




^ 




47.18 
<13!74 


1 




■-:;■:- 


























m.'ii'm,'!; ^ ' " 
















::::::::::I...'!^:"'.i::::::::!:::;::::i::::::: 












Total 

^a«.mi. . 






i,e«i.io 


25.05 


215.00 




155.86 












3. IS 


' 1 


4.50 






































SSS5?.i:3Si::::::;:::;; 












a-U 



2140 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, U. 8. ABHT. 



JmDIV Kulijllimn it MiiII .. 
liamilli Itrw.JC Sriiiviib. 
Hlmlnu'u 



AlhrrtK. 



John lliirrv 

S.ll.(t>ni>'tl 

<;HllllUltltnM.JIrM.-I 
F.W.I.iiIi-vkSiio. 
«i.-nljik<i>i llnH.... 
F.n'nIlir^Soii... 
T-IMhisliUtro.. 



llirni III 



13 Sliail]i-»ii.l.\.'L.T 






n.oa'V.'. 
imw 1... 
".11 ■.. 

' .j KTi-T* 



141.13 ... 


1 


....! «3.ro 


7S.O0: 

If 


IW 






























.... 47.M 










IK..1.I .... 




'.'.'.'.' 2.M 


■«:i6- 


"iji' 


:::::i:: 



l.MS.m,in.» 488.31. 4.N 



"j:. I r 



K. 


ir 


^■"w 


rrmar 


•1- 










tv.n 


i r.al 




^ 


^;n:::::-:::: 















APPENDIX A A — EBPOET OF MAJOR MACKENZIE. 



1 

i 


Towhoml-rfa. 

Dfttmhtr. im. 


1 


iiii 
iigi 


1 


f 

1 1 


1 


1 




•47.80 












*47.«. 






(200,00 


*215.00 






































^ 














m02| li<».(» 


215.00 






55.0) 




Januaiy. mi. 








T5.TS 
















FOavary. IS9I. 
















3- OS 

4.7r. 

'Si 

36.30 
3.M 

11. » 
415. W 

855.78 


111 70 

aiKi.oo 






























215.00 












W.A.B™Mck LomWCo 






































































moo 












215.00 










































1,185.47 1 433.00 


,30.00 



125.00 










Jfareft, 1S9I. 










125.00 

iitIso 






j 1 






12.25 
































3D 


a-.^j^^^^iti^-.;:;::;::::. 


20.05 




1 ; 


20.05 




A.wpbfflT&oo- "I!:.*"""' 


»1.83 
13.00 
R.40 

707^00 

4eo.o» 




, 1 i 


J!i; 
















ioo!oo 










siri.oii 

125.00 
















T U\ 










2.152.20 


221.25 


403.00 




1.4SS.» 




April, im. 






13.20 
03.80 

II 


13.20 






























f!i.rV,T"b.iMmCo 








im«i 


"m.ii 
















































215.00 






















Total 

K.M««1 


25.05 










1,681.10 


215.00 




















4.50 


' 1 ' 


■11 




V 




no! 58 
8.15 


j , 




















U> 


lIcElrajrftAndtaf* 









2142 REPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF EN0INEEB8, U. 8. ABUT. 



1 
i 


To n-hom paid. 


1 


il 


1 


."_ 


i 


1 


! 




Man. MHI-l.'nnliliiHit. 


12.76 

a. 15 
e.Gu 

l.4fi 
4.W 

240.71 

15S 

42. IS 

s.ie 
09: f» 

3130 

*-00 

27.00 
3«.I8 

3.10 

Si 

6§S,IM 








•17> 






-iS 






























•i:£ 

3.20 




















$1<.S4 
:iS.40 

















































B4.10 

2.7S 


■i7S.ii6' 


3.70 
1B.W 
3.40 


























U^rSS™::::::::::::: 

Wm. T..wl,«,Co 












































»i:25 






W.Td&li™iy 






38.61 


































83.30 
53.82 


























130; 47 




















40.00 














J^uSiter'^-"'-;?;:::-.:: 

Guuiilti UrotliFr" £ Hi'liAwb 

T.X.hIIit 

K«b.Tl,FWl«Jt(:baiiiW™ 

Hinilin-n 

r.i..rti]«virii 

V.n rmtci. 4, MiirkH 

NicouTDp-n.?./.'::;;;::::;::: 






27.00 


















j.00 




" "islHo 
3.10 


BO. 50 
























ll.OOV.M 










son: or 














1S.K 

"1 






























(.5& 


3.00 










0B6.H 






T U! 










a.sM.as 

5.30 
HO.M 

4o!oo 

ss 

8.IKI 

:in.iK) 

01.00 

•-1. 0:1 


84.15 


1.7M.e5 


««,7» ! 312.83 


U3.» 
8,05 






r,™ .,,,':"■"'■ 








40.0.1 










32.0* 






W -'■■ l^-wii. 




■as 

40.00 


G.30 


■■••ii 




T.f\(iri;!i,t&r^!.'..'!'.:::"::::: 




















0.80 






?Si:;i:-irrrm 




».= 


27.50 

»i.ao 
00.00 
























F.w.V,"Kvis"B 

Alh,.rl Klr.>llN.;r 










■- 










30.00 
04.00 


3:1s 

"i'so 




71 


;!!!!"!!! '.'.'.'.'.'.'".'. "-n'-ia 




^ 


<iii«i'ii/r'iL.iii.'.™&!i>hwi;r.;:;:: 


1,274.00 

as 

40. UO 


1,274.00 


100.66 


::;::::: 




»:ij.»iiiniirtt 








000.00 










40.00 
4tOO 

is 






Jamr* KnliliMin A- S<jii 

J1.ii.W11-«iAS,;h 




;!'^~ 






■;;:;;;;;;;:::;;::;; ss 


"K5."i! 














1. 274.00 


*■" 


830.50 


$40.40 


»» 



APPENDIX A A — REPORT OF MAJOR MACKENZIE. 



2143 



Summary of expenditures for operating snag boats and dredge boats on Upper Mississippi 

Biverfor th^ fiscal year ending June 30, ISOl, 



MontliB. 



1890. 



Office ;^are, repair, and operating snag boats General Barnard and 
expenses, J.G.Parke, 

superiii- ' 



*^"ete"*^'' ^^^«^- 




January 
February 
March ... 
April 

iMay 

June 



Total. 



Months. 



1800. 



July 

August ... 
September 
(X-tober . . . 
November. 
December . 



1801. 



January. . 
February 



March 
April 

aun 



rune 



Total. 



4.00 



July I $325.00 $1,473.90 

August 

Scpt<»raber 

October 

November 

l>cceuiber ^ 



114.70 
200. (N) 
200.00 



932. 20 
9(M. 33 
832. 49 
215.00 
215.00 



$178. 00 
460.00 
161.25 
257.00 



Subsist- 
euce. 



$492.90 

218. 32 

145. 39 

75. 59 



Expense. 



$38:*. 76 
2.50 




150.54 



74.91 



47.60 




433.00 

221,25 

25.95 

04.15 

63.00 



430.00 

215.00 

215. 00 

1.099.51 

1.274.00 



180.47 
639.50 



$2,650.01 

1,622.02 

1,271.97 

1, 390. 53 

215.00 

262. 60 



401. 42 
202. 73 



62. 04 
&i0.40 



922.47 
1, 465. 95 
553.00 
340.99 
228. 57 



1,352.47 
1, 680. 95 
768.00 
2, 084. 43 
3, 045. 20 



1,051.05 ; 7,867.52 



1,885.22 1,596.35 , 1,239.24 | 3,754.85 I 16,343.18 



Care, repair, and operating dredge and tender. 



Labor. 



$482.75 
976.47 
482.67 
125. 67 



Fuel. 



$7.20 
507.22 
327. 01 

64.75 



250.00 



Subsist- 
ence. 



$72.10 

190. 34 

132. 06 

87.67 



Expense. 



$54.86 

7.45 

4.00 

50.50 



Repairs. 



$307.53 
338.44 



154.01 



7.42 



75.79 



685.34 



3, 002. 00 



131.86 I 281.37 ! 



155.86 j 
123.75 I 



711.29 
210. 39 



Total. 



$924.44 

2,019.92 

945. 74 

482. 60 



7.42 



75.79 



250 00. 
867. 15 
1, 432. 71 



1,038.04 763.54 



r 



396. 42 I 1, 804. 87 j 7, 005. 77 



Grand 
total. 



$3,899.45 

3,645.94 

2,217.71 

1, 987. «.\ 

415.00 

470. 02 



75.79 
1,785.47 
2,152.20 
1.661.10 
3,.'>81.29 
3, 108. 20 



25, 000. 00 



report of mr. c. w. durham, assistant engineer. 

United States Engineer Office, 

Kock Island, III,, July 1, ISOl. 

Major: I have the honor to present my report on the operations of suufi; boats and 
dredge boats on Upper Mississippi River for the fiscal year ending June SO, 1891, to- 
gether with some statistics of commerce and navigation : 

operations of SNAG BOAT GENERAL BARNARD. 



The Barnard arrived at the Des Moines Rapids Canal July 1, 1890, and lay in the 
lower level until July 16, during which time her hull was repainted and considcralilo 
repairs were made to roof, machinery, etc. 

On July 17 she left for below, arriving at St. Louis on the 19th, and returning 
reached Keokuk on the 24th. On this trip a portion of one of the ice-breakers of 
Hamilton Bridge was removed, as also were snags and other ohstriietions at or near 
the following localities: Fox Island, Lone Tree, Cottonwood Island, Whitney, Hick- 
ory Chut«, Louisiana, McCoy Island, Ha4;chet Chute, Mason Chute, Two liranch. 
Maple Island, Sterling Island, Tindel, Carroll Island, and Marion City. 

On July 25 the Barnard left Keokuk for above, arriving at St. Paul August 9. On 
this trip obatnictionA were removed at or near Dallas Island; Sauerwein, Oquawka., 



2144 REPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

Keithsbnrg, Turkey Island, Port Louisa, Henthoy Chut-o, Fulton Island, Arnold, 
Sand Prairi<^, Bellcvue Slouch, Nine Mile Island, Fiuley, Hurricane Island, Caasville 
Slougb, De Soto, Victory, Coon Slongb, Root River, La Crosse. Diamond Bend, And 
Island No. 7. On this trip, for the eonvcnienee of lumbermen, suubbing-posts were 
put in as follows : Two l>elow Burlington Bridge, tme on island above Sabulft, And 
one opposit-e Dubuque Bay. 

On August 13 the Barnard left St. Paul, and taking the J, G, Varke in tow at 
Nininger, proceeded down river, arriving at Des Moines Kapids Canal on the 19th, 
where the Parke was left for repairs. On the way down 53 piles were pulled ont or 
cut off at the elevator at Wabasha, and obstructions were reniovc<l from the shore 
above Keithsburg bridge. 

August 20 the Barnard, with dredge Pha^niXf 2 dum]> boats, and 1 barge in tow, 
left the canal for up river. On August 30 arrived at Fountain City and laid up un- 
til September 4. the crew assisting dredge Phtvnix, which was engaged in remorin^ 
a portion of Island 61 and in ri]>rapping its head. On September 5 placed dredge in 
position at the damnged shore protection above Alma and, a tier making some Bonnd- 
ings above Read Landing Bridge, laid up until Septemln'r 11. 

On September 11 the Barnard, with fleet in tow, started up river and, leaving the 
fleet at llastiugs. arrived at 8t Paul on the 12th. 

On September 15 the Barnard left St. Paul for below, and taking 2 barges in tow. 
reached Hey t man Landing Se])t ember 20. On the way down snags were removed 
from channel at Merrimac, Mettlers, Grey Cloud, Island No. 17. Beef Slough, Foan- 
tain City, and Wilds, and the Pomme de Terre Dam was n'paired, as also were the 
dam at Island 59 and the tirst dam below La Crosse bridge. Si^ptemlHT 20 to 23, in- 
clusive, the Barnard was employed in repairing the dam across Harper Slongh snd 
the shore prote<'ti<>n in Crooked S1ou|b:1i. On Se|)tember 24 and 25 the crew nuule s 
survey of the river in vicinity of Pniirie du Chieu. September 28 to 29 the Bttr- 
nard removed transfer in<'line at East Dubuque, taking out 53 rails, besides the ties 
and stringers. 

The Barnard left Dubuque for below on September 29, arrived at St. Lonia «m 
October 5, and returning reached Keokuk October 10, and lay up fur the winter in 
the Des Moines Rapids Canal above the middle lock. On this trip work wes per- 
formed at or near Bellevue Slough, Hershey Boom, Keithsburgh, Oquawke, Devils 
Island, Lone Tree, Whitney, Hickory Chute, Slim Island, Red Landing, Sterling, 
and Hannibal. 

In 1891 the Barnard y having been repainted and having received needed repairs, 
was put in commission May 18 and proceeded down river, arriving at St. Louis on the 
19th; and, thence returning up river reached Rock Island on the 27th. On this trip 
snaccs and other obstructions were removed from the river at or near Hickory Chut^*, 
Tisdcl Towhead, ,Tersey Landing, Enterprise Island. Dardenne Island, Anuiranth 
Island, Clarksville, Saverton, Whitney, Canton, Dallas, and Port Lonisn. The 
Barnard lay at Rock Island repairing sheet-iron work until June 3, on which dat« 
she proceeded up river, arriving at St. Paul on the 10th. I^t^aving 8t. Paul on the 
12th, she reached Albany on the 18th; thence returning arrived at St. Paul on the 
25th; and, thence proce4'ding down river, tied up at Dubuque on the night of the 
:^-h. On this trip work was performed at or near (ionlou Ferry, Kagle Point, 
Specht Ferry, Cassville Slough, Wyalusing, Crooked Slough, (*oou Slongli, Pike 
Island, Newport, Xininger, I*rescott Island, Diamond Blutf, Reil AViug, Lyoni«, Hur- 
ricane Island, Lansing, De Soto, Picayune Island, Riclimond Island, La Sloille, and 
Fountain City. Tlie works at Beef Slough. Minneiska, and i^airie dn Chien were 
inspected, and several dams located at the latter jioint. 

Summary of operations of snag boat General Barnard for Ike Jiseal year ending Jtm^SOig 

1S9I. 

Snags removed 271 

l^eaning trees pulled back 69 

Leaning tn-ts iVlbd 2, ISW 

Wre«'k removed I 

Posts ami ring-bolt •; put in K 

Steamboat as>istf«l 1 

Railr<»ad t ranstV'r incline removed 1 

Miles run 4,900 

OrKKATHiN'S i>K SNAG BOAT J. G. PAKKli. 

The l*arkr was nut put in roinniission during season of 1890. She wiM, however, 
towed from Houlan^rer Slough to Keokuk fc»r repairs. In ISSU, after receiving thoi^ 
ougb repairs, she was ])iit in c<»mmission May 10, and left for above on that d»y, low- 
ing a fleet of dump boats, quarter boats, and barges, a portion of whidi WM^Iaft at 



^-BEPOBT OP MAJOB^ MACKENZIE. 2145 

Rnrk I>laiHl nii-l the reniHinili'r taken to ririnity of i<t. r.iiil, w]ii>re abe orriv-ed on 
M«7 a. ^'T^•^l thu 2»tli nntil The closi^ of the tispal year tlic /'nrfre l»y at. Niuiuptr, 
hrr rtr<M Ixviiig uM-il to iiinu Isunch Ehie, wliicli whh emiiloynl as tpiMler to ilnnlgp 
FlMitit. ThB /'arte removed, on her way to St. Paul, 1 bihiob, hihI ton, tiiwine fleet, 
630ml1m». 



JdIj IK tnl8. laeo, dredge Tfttniiz removed 3 etone erilin rrntn the tall i'hiuiiit>lja«l 
ImIow Mnntnwe, lowu. Id this uid Hitbacquciit work or the HfiKOji the tnwiufc for 
llt# drrdj^ was pnrfoTm^d tiy xteiun Innneh Ada und thi drpilgiii):; jitaiit wiis towed 
Avn point to point by tbn BOag bont fieitfral Barnard Aiignht W to n ptOTtilwr 4 
tb« Andge. removed about 100 linear fept of the head ot I^ ii t h! 1 1 i I- n t iii 
CitJ', tbr <lrvd|;ed lUBt-eriBl beiu^ Ibiefly cast into dpep uat i 11 

tbe dredxe w«B oDgii|^ ill renioviiig the wrecked Hhore prot(< 1 
37, Bknvd Alma. The grMiter part of the niatennl nns ■ int i i 
■nuU porlicii whs tbruwu upon the hank Two eUiai nl n i I 
^wtnAt luuuitatiuii Ht AJma wero taken out Aent I ' 
xork wiileniiiR I'hitiinel at the bar above HiMtincs tl 
kmic. 110 f(M>t wide, and to a depth of ulmot 6 l^et it 
'water iniuitMliatety «et in thron|{b tbr rnt nhteh m i 

(tnriim muaiuiler of «e«Hon. 8epteiut>er J3 to J6 i)r I I 

Nb. T at bar above HMting*, wfaicb had been tenipniHnl\ I iilt i i t.i n liit.i>i 
Bepletnhcir 27 to Octobers, dredge was employ id miikiiifEiir ii j>)iiii>, Ihottb ut iibuie 
Xlnliw^. Tbia rut ih 975 feet long, 40 feet wide and 6 feet ileei Oitohor 4 llio 
ill ln1||Tim plant waa lAd up for the winter tu Bonlungir Slough 

Smmmarf of ofMratioit* o/ dredge Pltartix and tttan-lamtvh Ada from July 1, ISDO, to end 

CrilMt removed 5 

PitvH miMIVMl 9 

I>Ufnjk)i>»^i of ma l«rial removed 36 

Niimbrf ofilaya coating 18.6 

Id IWI IV f kavjx wnx t4>wed to St. Paul fnr repair*, which beiii|e coniplrttKl. hhn 
*w]wi plsri^l OD Jniie I at work of dredjfing a yiemmneiit rbNiinrl in Miiuity ufKiuiii- 
gvr, whli'b work wae ^onti^u<^d until the end of lh<' lixin! vciir. 

RIVBR NOTES. 

In 18B0 the river wat at a good boating stage until quite late in tlir )U'nNf<ii. niul nt 
no time wan the water very low, except in thnt ]>;irt of tlie rivi'V iiliftvi' HHsiinjiH. 
Considerable trouble was experienced dnring tlie wiiole si'iii«i>ii iit NitiiiiKi'v. "wiJij; to 
r-makedne«a of channel, and above Rurlingtnn for a short titin'. ilin' In sUnat iv;iti-i'. 
n»nH built at the latter place rauscd speedy ini|ivovi']iii'nt, TIkti' ivni' iicm'v U'hh 
than 4 feet of w»er on any bar during tlie seasou, excejit for ii IVw il.tys aliini' Hiir- 

In Decenit>cT, 1890. raft navigatom reported obstructions and d<'Hiri*([iiii)>rnvi'in''uls 
at tbe fotlowing points above the Des Moines Rapids: Island Nn. 'M. hf^iil nl' l.iik'- 
Pt-pin, Pine Ixland, Buffalo Island, Minnciska. Chimney Rock, lie]i>«' Winnii;). llriMni'. 
head of Biebmond Island, Dfesbaeh, below Had Axe, Iowa Slough, I'r.iirii' li' Sioux, 
Guttenberg Channel, Cassville Slough, Hurrieaue Uhiiid. uliuvc K^i^'li' l'i>iu1. I1r:id- 
man lilanil, Stone »longh, Bcllevue, .SHntu IV, Ihirk Chntc, Klk liivec .-Plough, 
Onnawka. and Devils Island. 

In 1891 the river below Hastingit maintniucil u giHid Hlagc iluiiiig tlie i^juiiig 
months and until June 30. Almve Hastingw, during .Inne, the wiiter hiif lirvu at a 
low slage, but uo trouble baa been experienced, and all lioatM have rim t!irou<;h to 
St. Paul without difficulty. 






LambfT. — The mnnt important business connected with the navigatiim of the I'pper 
MiMtissippi Kiver and its principal triliularies is the Itimber trade, whiih gave eni- 
ploymrDt in 1H80 to about 100 raft boats, valued at $7.VI.OO0. Kctwi-eii SI. I'anl ainl 
1*1. Lauis 74 nawmills were operated by 61 wholesale Iniii her llriuH. having an iuvewled 
rapilal of about «3G,000,000. 'Ilieir maniitai'lure:) in IN!)I) were: l.iiiiilu'i'. !.'.>:{ I. (i7>i.!H>U 
fert B. M.;«MugIe(s-''iO8,98e,705. In addition to ilie i,i:,hiifiMtiiierH. tln'V alv large 
nnmWrsut retail or distributing lirnis mi.t t.re.l along tli.' liv.r. In IW*, lowaid 
the latter part of the season, was inaugurated ou an extensiv «, ah. tin- i-afling ..f 
ktgB Guniug frmt, the river aliove Miimeaiiolis. Thin ImsiucHH was coniiuiiei) in Ituf'j 
MH 91 136 



2146 EEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. AKMT. 



and 1890. ami it is thon;;lit that it will luTonio larjror from year to yoar as the anpply 
from the (.'liippewa. St. Croix, and Black diuiiuishes. Prior to 1888 hut a compara- 
tively small amount of loirs and lumher bad l>een moved in the river Iwtweeii the 
mouth of t!u' Sr. Croix and Minneapolis. 

Stcamhonti* and frthihi. — The principal steamboat lines on the Upper MisKiuippi 
River are the St. I.oiiis. St. Paul and Minneapolis Packet Company, the Diamond 
Jo Line. an«l tbe Kajrk- Packet Company. There are also many independent Itoata 
carrying freight and pa>sfnger8. louring ISiXl the amount of frt»ight carrietl on 
boats and barg*>s was about 3;^*5.0l23 tons, and the numl>er of jpas«H»ugers. not in- 
cluding tho^e of tViTv an*l excursion boats, was about 124.542. Taking into consid- 
eration the logs an<l lumbvr floated in the stream, the gross tonnage for 1890 w, 
4,4(K\0lX^ ton^ approximaicly. 



Statement of d'\»tnhution of Uimh^r manufacture alontj the I'pper Miwtnppi Eirrr froi 

MinneavoViH to St. Louis in iSCkK 



Locality. 



Limibor. 



' Ff't /?. .V. 

Minnoap<ilis 'J'>». -'mh;, i :;7 

Tr.istins:s 11. »»«•.). i^V> 

lV«»soot t 1 . ."hMi. \\xs 

KtHl Will;: >i, .''"■>. tNn» 

Alma H;:r\n>i» 

"VVinona 14'.. «»iin. n ii 

La i :to><v 'Jl 4 . ' 'J^. ■>.? 

Onahiska :•«». >•'■:. 4««ii 

Laiwii:: -i'. i:.:.«'«»i) 

Prairif tlu Chii «• . . . 14. iM». •'•••> 

<;utrinl»i i-z 1' e"0.iH»i^ 

I^hImi'usi' r.7 .(Bi i„ni 

lMlli-vm» ". •'.'•' L'TT 

Lvoiin T"J. •»»K'. {^^) 



Shiiiglcfl. Locality. 



! yumbrr. \ 
i:>t5. WX 300 

l.lH><MXV 

:^.ixx).OiH) , 

l.OiJO.rtiO I 
8:«. fkX). 4HH1 
' 111.1W.IHH1 : 
17. 44«V 7.>(> 
10. {\M\, iHX) 
4.0H0,iHM J 
4. :^. IHH) 

::0.S00.0iK) 
is. 756,0lV» 



Lumber. 



■ I 
fWt. K. M. i 

Clinton ]70.68(t.(W0 

Fulton ' r.\Ono.(XIO i 

Cnmani'lio 11. SiH). IHXI 

Moline .W.OOO.iW , 

Pa vvniM»rt W, <e9. VOO \ 

Kork I:t1ana i Srt, (XHt. (HHI ; 

>I uscat int* 97. 272, WO 

Ktirlinutiin 'J.'i. 7ri»». tXH> ■ 

Fort Mailisoii 'Jl. IM**. IHX> • 

Ki oknk i:{. tmo. IXW 

Canttin 7, iXH>. IHXI 

Oninrv tf.r<(H\(HXt ' 

l\ Miiijlial 2.\ tiOii. 000 

St . Lnui.-* 16. tXH). <iQO 

Total 1. :»•>. Ita. 097 



Shingles. 



ymmbfr, 

56.558.000 

5.6&VLW0 

3.<NXI.(H10 

3.<HX».000 

17. TOO. 000 

1R. 300. COO 

50.4M.MO 

ll.]M.T» 

22,4<W.WP 

7.IW.000 

B..vx>,aoo 

2.(X«O.O0O 
7.OI1O.O0O 
7.O5S.300 



«6S,390.]0S 



Statenuntot'itminttttvjfniifht rutiml and shipped from St, Louis bji the Vppfr Outfit- 

f^ippi Hiver for i> tfeartt. 



St. T.«Miis. 



Kiveivcil 

ShipiH-*! . 



18W. 



IJiW. 



T»nt. Tont 



IRi^. 



Tonr. 



1W7. 



r>.06o ' ii3.:x»."» I lu.mjLl i:e.4u 

: J-J. M7 ' 47. 560 ' 50. llW, 36. 17 



170 



IRML 



140. M> 
46. 1» 



Total ; 151,507 160,865 165.255:188.570 IgT.fRO 

I I 



Itiveipts of lumber, /••./<. ttc. at St. Louis, from Fpper Mississippi /?ir<r dmrimff lSS7f 

JSSS, i^>i-'; and 16CfO, 



Y»- lis. 



ls»'.» 



I 



\V1i't»"- ]iMlO 

lu:!.iii I . 



<'":ti»n- 

AViM"l 

Imiibrr. 



I 



Total 
iunibor. 



Sliin^lci*. 



Lnth. 



ricket«. 



Total fvicmi 

shintfkV. latK, 

and pickets. 



}'"•!. F'-'^t. Frrt. ' Xvmf'Tr. yumhrr, Xumhfr. 

7 1 . :. :; ' I • ' > » 1 :v r.-^ ?:iV S7. :?'J.".. 8 1 4.\ 44!>. 1 .VI 1 6, :Bfi, 650 '. 60:t. 6W 

7 1 . •■• .-.. .'. ji ' 11. i».'. 1 . : : 4r» 8.! . jSht. ] »v, 4 X WW ."xx" 21 . ;u!6. :«o " 401. ari i 

:•.' ■:]■■< >. 7j .H-i S.<.0i.\-S7 iV74:!.,VHi 14.rvV.:^67 27:1.744" 

1 '■ 4>'. '."■<; 0. 4.:i.. 1111 141*. •.•!'«■. itW 70. iJTi). TXi 43, 0:i4. 705 " 44*. 060 ' 



Xvmhfr. 

62. .>9. 4MI 

65. i;ViTi>2 

40.6R7.6II 

113.6AS«W 



ISOO. 



Stt-anil'i'-tt" .M'.il l•l'L.«^♦ t'oTii rpi'1-r MiHsissippi Kivi r arrivo*! at St. Ltmis 79$ 

Yi-*-x I r> M • I'l Ii'u'> ruri^til .tt St. I.uiii:^ tr«>iii r|>]KT Mi.stfis^ippi Kivor by nft. approxi- 

111. Ill Iv 30,000,601 

6tiaiiiL-<Mts and li.Lri^i\-< di p.d t« d iViMu ."st. l.iiui> t<*i l'])]!^-!- Mii»si;i3ippi RivuT 73 



T! 



2158 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 



at- certain Hta;;os of water, running in on the lower side of the dam down near aliorey 
an<l out into tlie river above the dam next below. 

** It is not ex]»e('ted that enouf;h work would be found in this stretch of riTer to 
keep a puiu]» dredjLce fully occupied, but it conld be employed for nimilar work on 
other parts of the river and, possibly, to great advantage at the Des Moines Rapids 
Canal. 

**In the matter of depositing city refuse in the river, a great change has taken 
place at St. Taul within the past year. An azotine plant now consnmes a vast 
amount, and by tliatmuch at least is the quantity deposited in the river decreased. 
It is to be hoped that means will be found for keeping all the refuse from this city 
out of the river. 

A list of irorka constructed and repaired, and of materials used during the season of 1890, 

between St. Paul and Pxescott. 



W<»rk8. 



Dimensions. 



Vfttcrial. 



Length. 



Shoi't 4 : 

Dam 44 

l)i»m 4.'» 

I»am4« 

Djiiii 47 

]>ai!i 4S 

l>ain 4M 

l>aiu '22. v\\vuiht\ 

l>ain LU. hiii^lii'<l 

l>aiii "J't. lnii'«li('4l 

1 >aiii :«•». raisi'il 

1 *ani 4l». raisiMl 

lIr»vi>tiiH'iit Islainl i:!. n'pain'd . 

nain:5li 

l>ain:H» 

Pain '2. raisiMl 

I^aiii '2ty, raisnl 

1 »aii! '21. raisc<l 

l>ani 'M\. raisoil 

Pain ;M. r.iiM-d 



Fn^t. 



Tot;«l 



T 



390 
410 
•J«) 
270 
•J20 
175 
40 
525 
ftIO 



Height ! 

above low i 

water of 1861. 



215 ! 
225 ! 



Feet. 



4.5 

4.5 I 

4.0 

4.0 

4.0 

4.0 



4.0 
4.0 
4.0 
4.0 



4.5 
4.5 
4.0 
4.5 
4.5 
4.5 
4.5 



Rock. 


Bniafa. 


Cuhie yards. 


CHbiejfmrdf. 


40a.6 


hOM.8 


49aw3 


1.314.3 


3SI.2 


964.8 


410.6 


SM.6 


8M.7 


I.ISSlI 


9S1.9 


1.107.6 


120.7 


441.0 


534. 9 


832.9 


613.4 


1.801.6 


62.7 





50.5 
80.5 

328.5 
319.2 
49.0 
130.3 
140.4 
102.0 
120.3 



r 



5,074.5 



T87.9 
65(1.3 



1 

3SS.5 
137.5 
340.1 



12.044.0 



**T!n' materials wen* j>nrchased in open market delivered on 1-nited States bnr|!M 
at tho follnwin;; ])rices: Kock. 44.5 cents per cubic yard; brnsh, 1^ cents |)cr cubic 
yard: jM»h's. o i-ents each. 



rinaiuial stutrmcnt for works of improrinff Mitfttiiinippi Hirer between St. Paml and 

cott durinff the season of ISPO. 

Amount exp«'n<lf<l in the tirld during the calen<lar year 1SSK> (from distri- 
bution sheets^ *. $12,773.7 

Add rost of materials iVom lS?<i» 898.? 




I^MliHt inr rxiH-ns*' of i-nttin«; temporary clianncls 7fK>. (10 



1.270. 



Nrt rost nf lifM Work 13.408. 

A<M <|unt:i ot" ;xin«'i;il superintendence and ol!irr expenses 1, ^iS*. 

A«M for ii«if ;m«l di'ierioriition (tf ]»lant 3,276. 






Tot III rost nt" work 17,545. 



Material put in wmk- : 

ICiM-k cubic vrtnl».. 5.07 

i;riisli '.do 12. tU 



ToiaJ do 17, 11 




2148 KtPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

rfK'k, Inusli, pil(»s, and ^ravt^l. which <*U>se side chutes and I'educeihe 
low-water chaiincl to a projKT width, and in the protection of caving 
banks. The ai»i)ro]>riation also ])rovides for a certain amount of dredg- 
ing and other t(»iniM)rary woik for the more ra]»id and immediate re- 
moval of obstructions to navi«^ation. 

At. th(» coiniiHMicenuMit of the fiscal y(?ar there was available for gen- 
eral imi»rovoiiient the sum of *01,4;fi>.01. The snni of $5<K),(NM» was 
a])])ropriated by the act of S(»])tember 19, 1890, but this amount iHH^aine 
avaihible too late to ])ermit of work on an extended scale during the 
lirst half of the fiscal year. Work was resumt^d at as early a date iu 
1891 as the stance of water and oth<»r (»ircuinstances i>ennitted, and is 
now in ])ro^n»ss at numerous points. 

lender a])]>rove(l ])rojects, work of dam constructi(m, slioi-e protection, 
and rein(»val of rocks and bowlders has been earned on during the pjM*t 
year by days' labor and Government ])lant Ix^tween Minneapolis and 
St. Paul, between St. Paul and Pn»seott, in vicinity of Fountain (*ity 
and Wilds Landing, in vicinity of ( -rooked Shnigh, at Clintini, Iowa, 
on Rock Island Ka])i<ls. in the vicinity of l>urlinfrt<m and Dallas, and 
1m»1ow Minneiska. By informal agreement work with jnivate jdant has 
bci'ii carried out at Kead Landing and in vicinity of Teei)et^»ta Point, 
at Lak(» City, at iJurlinjifton, and at Port 15yron. Tender formal con- 
tracts work has been commenced between Kead Landing ami Miune- 
iska, anil at Piairi(» du ('liien. 

The <lred<re Phanir duiin^i: the y<»ar cut new channels near Nininger, 
and furnished ♦ri'iivel for dam construction at Crooked Sloujrh. 

Surveys and examinations were maile between Minneaprdis and St. 
Paul, on Hock Island Ha])ids, at Read Landing, Prairie du Chien, Port 
l>yron, nurlinj»:ton, Montrose, and at other points where construction 
work was carried out. 

The buoys and ran<res on 'the Rock Island Rapids were nniintainifil. 

Extensiv(» n»|)airs ha veb(»en made to the (lovernment plant, and twenty 
new barges are in coni'se of construction. 

The details of all tin* abov<»-mentione<l work an* fully pven in the 
a]»]KMHled re])()rt of Assistant Kn;n'ineer (■. W. Durham, which inc1udi*:< 
full extracts from the re]M)rts of Superintendents .1. D.DuShane, W. A. 
Thompson, and J. C. INb'I^lherne, an<l the report of M. Meigs, riiitetl 
States civil enj^ineer, whose rei)oit includes extracts from the report 
of Mr. f>. Kdwards, Cnited Stalc*^ ovt*rse<'i-. 

The \\v\ of Coii;»ress of August 11. ISSS, ]irovi<led in a general way 
for work of inii)rovt'nient between Minnea|)olis and St. Paul, and tnr 
reasons tiiven in my last annual rej^ort and in accordance with tlu* 
pio\'isi4Misotthe river and liarl)(»raet ol'Se]»tend)er 19, 1899, 1 presentc<1. 
under (late of Sepl ember .*»0. IS'.ML a project lor the c(mmn'n<'emeut of 
work ol'i-eniovin^ 1 bowlders. This work wa^ a|>])i'oved October Hi, bSWI. 
and durin;» balance of season 7<> ^iianite Ixiwlders and 5 pieces of h^lgi* 
ro<*k were broken up and r<Muoved IVoni channel. The act of (.'ongn'ss 
a]»proved Se|)teniber 19. 1S!M). pro\i(l(Ml under item for '' Improving tin* 
.'\Iississi|)pi River from tiie lan<linii' on the west bank biOow the Wash- 
ington Avenue Rrid^e, Minnea])olis, to the \h'r^ Moines It a) dds,^ as fol- 
lows: ••Of which sum also fifty thousand d<»llais shall be expendwl !>«'• 
twetMi the Cliica<;(». St. Paul, Alinueapolis and Omaha Railroad Hridgi' 
at wSt. Paul, and the Washington A\enue I>ridg«*, Minneapolis, in 
<lred;^in«;, removal of jiraNci, liowhh'rs, and brok(»n r<M*k, and the nrti- 
st ruction of (hims and rcNetmi'iits." A {nnject in c(mf<»rnnty with the 
reijuirements of the act of < 'oiiures^, was juesented h'ebrnary 2.'J, IStU. 
and approved rehruary ->», 1S!M. This [uoject pro^Mhses a continuation 



•1 



2160 REPORT OP THE* CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ABMT. 



Liiit of trorku vonniruvtrd, trith amoMnt^ of materiuh vHed dmritiif the sea90M of 1800, mi 

livad I.andiMft tiHtl nViwi/y of Ta^jKrota Point. 



Ih'si;;iiatioii. 



DimonsioDA. 



I 



I Uoijclit above 
T^'ngth. ] low water 
I of 1AM. 



Sliovt r>: 

Willi: l^;nn 4 (ii<-w> " 

Wiii^ Uaiii T^ (iH'W) 

SluMt II: 

Willi; nam 4. n-pjiin'jl 

Willi; l»!iinl». iv|»ain'«l 



Feft. 



730 
8(t0 



Fett. 



4.0 
4.0 

3.0 
S.0 




Haterial. 



Brush. 



hTSLS 
l.SI4.t 

412. S 
SIaS 



n.tai 



5. 168.9 



3.M7.8 



Fimniri'il iifalimtnt for irorkt* at Bead Landing and ricinitif of the Terpeeota Point, 

formal under agreement during seawn of 1890. 

Aiiionnt p:ii<l contnu-tor $8,087.09 

Cost ofhujil iiisiMM-ti«>ii. t*to 49R.tS7 

\\\\\ (plot a ot'^jt'iiiTal Miperintondt'nce ami ofiice t*xpeni<e8 1,316.61 

Total «ost of work 9.899.97 

Material \n\\ in: 

lio»k ciiliic ynrds.. 5,169.9 

hY\\>\\ do 3,967.2 

Total do 9,137.1 

Avi'rajx<- «ONt pvr (.Mibii* yanl iu place $1,083 

* • • • • 



K KIWI RING DAM AT HEAD OF POMME DE TERRE £iU)VGH. 

Owv l»ar;:(* loatl ot* rock waj^ plared in tin* break of the loiif? dnm at Pomme do Terrr 
Sloiiirli. tlif lalMir l)t'iii^ ]M'rtorined by the crew of the euag boat General Barnard. 

Cost olnuk iiM'd was i^^lJ.PO. 



VKIMTY OF Fl>rXTAlN CITY AND WII.DS LANDING. 

()^^in;:: f<> lark of t'muU. (»peratioiit» at these localities were not comnieiicc«l until. 
<)«ioli«'r, 

Knun tln" report of Mr. W. A. Thompson, superintendent in local charge, the fol — 
]nw in;; i> tak»n : 

" riii> woik Mas ptTt'oriiu'd by (iov4'riniient plant and days' labor. The launclie^ 
Hinihi and .Itio bit Houlan^fer *Sb>u;jai October 4, with bafp*« 22. 36, 66, 68, 76, 97,. 
biiil'linir b;iiir«» 11. ipiartrr boat 7'>, i»iT»* driver 73. and ju:raK8lio])per iu tow. Octolier' 
li tlii^ ill t'T r«:i<'li«'il Ar^xo Uar, 1? miles below Wilds Landinju:. where the first work wa» 
to 1m- <Ioim>. l*h(> lannrli Ado ]troeeeded to Heytman Lauding and returned to Argi^ 
It;ii « >i n»l)ii- s. with barp's 101 and lVf2 in tow. 

"A I Aiirn ri:ir a ;:reat deal of troubb> bad been experienced by Hteamhoat« aniL 
rati'- ilniiiij: the la.Nt season. The <'liannel was originally down the east Rhnre, but 
in l.v^l» tlieii- \v«re L' ehannels: one. as bef«»re. down the eant side and the other down. 
tile \\««»t -^iili-. mitlier beinjj good. It was btdieved that then was the time to forr^ 
tli«' ( hannel t«i the wi-Nt si«le. as ]>ropos<Ml in the approved pn»jeet for this stretrh of 
ilie ri\ir. < )\\ iijM to the laten«'ss of the .season, it was impossible to do all the work 
nen'''*:!!^ tor the priuianent ini|>i-o\emt'nt of this [lart of the river; aud, owiug to laek 
otriindv. woik rniilil not hi- rcsiinied until late in tin* scawm of 1X90. 

" To ]>nt a ^ood < h:Minel di>\> n the west side. Wing Dam 47 (sht^et 18). that hail been 
rMniMMiierd ilir t.ill l»et*i»re. \> a> laiM'd an avt-rage height «if Oft*et. making the rniwu 
Ml ih»' ilani \,'» t«ii .ihu\<- loNv water, ami Closing l>am 2 tslieet \H) wom n*|iair«Hl and 
i;ii>.rd :ihiiMi t t'l t t . niakin>: ilie erown 4if this ilani 1 f«'t*t abovi' low water. Ry thesr^ 
nie:in-^ t he I i\ « I w M-H ii'diii ed lo about one-half its original width, and a giNKl. Mtrai|eht^ 
."• tool • h.nirii 1 ^^ a> iiiade. w lieif it \\ as pro2iose4l to have it. No further trouble i 



2150 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMT. 

no-(lo.tjii]od ostiiiiiites of cost of completing tho entire work can well be 
now made. Projticts for the expenditure of each appropriation, in ac- 
cordan('(», with a])pr()vcd i)lans and inotliods, are presented in lieu of a 
general project for the completion of work, it has been the custom in 
carrying outwork on the Upper Mississippi to select, when fhnds are avail- 
able, such localitiesfor improvement as maybe at the time most detrimen- 
tal to navigation. Each and eveiy locality thus improved has a beneficial 
result on the navigation of the whole river, and, as the slioalest bins 
have been improved from year to yejir, the ruling navigable depth has 
boon considerably increased. By this method, the good effects of work 
are spread over the entire stretch of river, and the improvement of the 
riv(T, considered as a whole, is made progressive, the expenditure of 
(^a<'h successive appropriation resulting in further and imm^iate benefit 
to the interests of continuous navigation. 

SCMMAKY OF KXPENDITUKKS FOR CALENDAR TEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1890. 

MiriiH'apolis to St. Paul: 

SiirvevM $2^988.39 

Keinoviil ol" rocks 744. 51 

3,732.W 

St. Paul tnPresrott W^ttll!?! 

Keiul Laiidiiit; nnd virinity ol" TcMMift'ota Point 9.MR4.H7 

Vicinity oi" Foiiiitain (.'ily ami WiliU Laiidiiijr :i0,528.ti5 

l{ci)airiii<^ J'ouimc da Terrt', Dam 49.42 

Crooked rtltm^^li 1,079.06 

liock Island Ha].i<is '. 10,981.85 

Buoys on I?ork Island Papi^ls 389.93 

JIari»or at l>nrliii;;t<ni 2, 195.18 

Vicinity ol* Hnrliniftnn and Dallas 23,815.13 

►Snrv<\VH and {^an.icrs 745.24 

Care, n-jiair, and <M>nsh lulion of plant 9y«')30.53 



rty 



Total 97,540.16 

GKNKKAL S'lATKMrNT OK lUCOKUTS AND KXPKNDITURES. 

Expended l>v ViincluTS IVom llic connnonceinent of iniprovciueiit to 
Jnlv 1, \x\h: 

si. Paul to Dcs Moines liaj)i<ls $1, 5G2.09fi.aO 

Minnca]ndi.s to Dcs Moines Ii:ii>idM 690,6H2.66 

Harbor al Laki- City (St. Paul t<» D«'S Moines Ka]>ids) 13. Ji"»l. 17 

Pra<'tical test, of Adams' tlunic (St. Paul to Des Moines lia])iils).. *22, ITlllS 



Total 2,288,290.16 

Deduct amount nM cived from siiles of fu<d !i4M6.68 

Ditduct auiountncrivc'il l»\ t »::nsfcr set tl«*incnt with Quarter- 
master's Dc]):irtnicnt, account ol sah' of fuel to otlicers ir><>. 29 

Deduct anujunt rcecivtMl from sale of rt»ck 1,078.05 

2,181.03 

Net cost of improvement 2,286,109.14 

IJiilanres .Inly 1, l.s}»l : 

St. Paul'to Des Moines Kapids t $2. 045. 88 

Minnejipulis to Dcs Moin<'s Kapids 4(£), 314. 98 

411,390.86 

Tot ill ap jiropriated 2, 097, 500. i"0 

*Jn addition to tliis Mnu)unt Mr. Adams e\p«'nded 4'8.0(X), a])propriate4l by ai't of 
August 'J, if<f<'2, as a separate iti'Ui. 

tOf this amount $1,(>-15.83 pertain to Lake City Harbor and $248.40 are nonpay- 
luents. 



APPEmOIX A A — ^REPORT OF MAJOR MACKENZIE. 



2151 



ABSTRACT OP APPROriMATlOXR. 

St. Paul to Dos Moines Rapids : 

By act approved — 

June 18, 1878 $250,000 

March 3, 1879 ,...: 100,000 

Jnnel4,1880 150, 0(H) 

March 3, 1881 200, 000 

By act passed August 2, 1882 250, (MX) 

By act approved — 

J lily 5, 1884 (gonornl iniproveiiH^nt) 250, 000 

July 5, 1884 (applied to harbor at Lake City ; 15, 000 

August 5, 1886 ' 382,500 

Minneapolis to Des Moines Kax)ids : 

By dct of August 11, 1888 000,000 

By act of September 19, 1890 500,000 

Total 2,097,500 

Net expenditures on the various sections of the river between Mhincapolis and the Des 
Moines Kapids from commencement of improvement to July 7, 1S91. 



Locality. 



Hinueapolifl to St. Paul (Omaha Bridge) . . 

St. Paal (Omaha liridgii) to Prestrott 

Prescott to liead of Lake Pepin 

Harbor at Lake City 

Foot of Lake Pepin to Alma 

jlLlma to Winona Bridge 

Winona Bridge to La OroAse BriA^e 

La CroAse Bridge to McGrfgur Bridge 

, McGregor Bridge to Dubuque Bridge 

Lkibnque Bridge to Clinton Bridge 

Clinton Bridge to Rock Island Bridge 

Kock Island Bridge to Keithnburg Bridge 
Keithaburg Bridge to Des Moinos llapidH. 



iiig 



Survej'S, gauges, and meter- work 
Snag and dredge boats and wreck 
Facilitating navigation through bridge.s 

Plant at esTimatc^ value 

Piuctical test of Adams* Hume 



Total 




Amounts. 



Pi, 

511, 

5«, 

13, 

278, 

*J7!», 

109, 

90, 

82. 

57, 

95, 

70. 

391, 

91, 

:i9, 

1. 

79. 



147.99 
l«:i. 50 

220. -.n 

:t54. 17 
312. M 
942. m 
544. 59 
305. 75 
729. :j5 
297. i:i 
9.'):>. M 
071. K5 
:{70. 50 
7(i5.5| 
4'M.VM 
•MW. M 
917. (M) 

170. h:i 



2,280, 109. 14 



FINANCIAL STATKMFNTS. 



1. General improvement. 

Jnly 1, 1890, balance available $01,432.01 

Amount appropriate*! ])y act of ScpteiiiluT 111, 1X!M) 5(X), (MX). (H) 

RecreivedbytTauBfersettlcmentwitbC^uarteriiiastcr'rt Dcjiarhnt'iit, .'iccoiiiit 
of sale of fuel to officers 150.29 




501,588.30 



204, 955. 32 
Jolyl, 1891, balance available 35(i,632.98 

2. Applied to Lake City, Minn. (Act of July r,^t<iS4.) 



Jnly 1, 1890, balance available 

July 1, 1891, amount expended durin;; fiMial yrar 

July 1, 1891, balanea available 



$2, 515. 83 
870. (X) 

1,645.83 



•OfthU 



132.75 ai« DODpttyttieutM on WAtnmi of t4;iit of Adaiuii* flinuo. 



2152 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, U. B. ABUT. 



8T. J'AUL TO DKS MOINKK RAriDS. 



Money statement. 

July 1, IWK), balnncp iinoxpni(le<l f2, 764.23 

{{(•(•Vivcdhy traiiHt('rsottleiiieiitwithQiiarteriimHt'«^r'HD«imrtnientyn('rmiiit 
of sail" on'iu'l to ollh-tTs 151.65 



2,9ir>.K8 
J iiiu* 150, 1891 , amount oxpeinlt'd during tiscal year . . ., 870. 00 

.Tulv 1. ISOI, balaurc uucxmMultMl 2,<Xi5.88 

July 1, ISDl, nutKtan<liii«r hahiliticH 248.40 

July 1, 18i)l, balance available " 1,797.48 

MINNKAI'OUS TO DKS MOINES KAIMD8. 

. Money HtatemenL 

July 1. 1890, balauct' unoxpomled $61,432.01 

JicrVjMMl by transrri'srttb'im'nt witliQuaTtcniiaHtorVDepartiiioiit, accoiiut 

of sab* of fut'l To otlb't'i'M 4.64 

Amount aii])ro])riat4Ml by act aiiprovod September 19, 1890: 

<M'u<*ral iuipi'ov«>m«*nt $408,000 

ISi'twecn ('bira;;o, St. Paul, MinneapolU and Oinnlia Kail- 
road JSri«l<>:<' aud Wasbin^ton Avenue Hridjje .')0,000 

Hurlin^ton, Iowa 5,000 

iMontrorte, Iowa 2,000 

Kast(!bannel. Prairie du Cbien 30,000 

Port Bvron, 111 5,000 

500,000.00 

561,436.(5 
July 1, 1891, amount expended during fineal year: 

' ( Jeneral improv(>ment * $138, 616. 47 

IWtween (.'lii<-a<;o, St. Paul, MinneajioliH and Omaha 

Railroad lirid^e and Washington Avenue Brid};e 2,312.25 

Hurliu;;tou, Iowa 1,905.62 

Moulrose. Iowa 1,278.93 

Kant Cbauuel, Prairie ilu Chien 6,617.54 

Port Hvr<Mi, III 1,360.86 

$152,091.67 

.Tuly 1. 1891. balauee unexpended 409,;M4.S)8 

.luly 1. 1S91. outstanding liabilities: 

(•eiicral improvenieut $1,404.25 

Kasi Cbauuel. i'rairie du Cbien 625.29 



July 1. 1X91, amount eovered by nne«impleted 
foulraeis: 

(ieueral improvemeut 38,261.73 

Kast Cbannel. Prairie du (Uiien 12,.572.38 



2, 029. 54 



50, 834. 11 
52,863.(E> 



July 1, 1S9I, balaiiee available :i56, 481.33 

.July 1. 1^91, aiuonuts available under general and R]H*eial 
allot UK'Uts are as follows: 

(ieneral iuipro\ euieut $291,154.20 

Jb'twern (.'liiea^o, St. Paul. Minncapolin and Omaha 

lijiilroad Mrid^e and Washington Avenue Bridge 47,687.75 

I5u rl if ij:loii. Iowa 3, 094. 38 

Montrose, Iowa 721.07 

Kast Channel, Prairie du Cbien 10.184.79 

P«.ri P.vron. Ill 3,639.14 

a'i6,481.3S 



Amount that can l»e ]»rotitablv expended in fiHcal year ending Jane 

:^<», i89:j 1,500,000.00 

Submitted in eom])lian('e with requirements uf sect ions 2 of river and 
harbor acts of 18tk> au«l 1867. 



APPENDIX A A — ^REPORT OF MAJOR MACKENZIE. 



2153 



Ahsfraci of propimaU Tfcei red and opened hij Mnj. A. Murhnzir, Corpn of EtifiinrvrH, at 
jRoek Inlandf III., Fthnmrtf^ 'JiO, IHUlj at J p. m.^for **cou:ttnicthi(f and repaii'uuj damn 
and nkort protections of brush and rock heUcevn Reads Landing j Minnesota, and Minne- 
islca, Minn" 

[Thero in available for thin work from appropriation of $500,000 made by river and harbor act of Sep- 
tember 19, 1800, for ** improving Mifwiiwiippi Kiver from Miuneui»oIiH to Dhh Moin(>rt Kapi«U '* an ul- 
lotmeut of $50,000 made by pru^t approved January tf, 1891. J 



No. 



Name and renidence of bidder. 



! Kock in place, ' BriiHh in place, 
25,000 cubic yurdH. 20,000 cubic yardH. 

Total. 



Per 
cubic 
vanl. 



I»cr 



2 

a 

4 
5 



Nehomiah Martin and Timothy Mitchell, HaAt- 
ini(M, Mimi 

AiMln-w lMant*y, St. Paul, Minn 

Albert Kircluier, Fountain City, WiH 

Jai*ob Klchtuiaii, Fountain City, WiH 

Wm. A. PatterHon and Sabret T. PattcrHon,Keo- j 
kuk Iowa . I 

A. J. Whitnoy.iioiiiiiland; IU'.V.".*.V.*.'.".V.V.V.' ! 



Total. ! cubic 
I yard. 



$1.35 
1.15 
1.17 
1.20 



:J5 
30 



$.'W. 
28. 
29, 

32. 



750 
7M) 
250 
000 

750 
5<K) 



).(K) 
.00 
.50 
.27 

.48 
.05 



$12,000 

12.000 

10,000 

5.400 

9.000 
13,000 



(irnind 
t(ital. 



$45, 750 
40, 750 
39, 250 
35, 400 

43, 350 
45, 500 



Abstract of proposals receired and opened by Maj. A. Mackenzie, Corpn of Kntjineerti, at Itovk 
Inland, III, February :J0, ISUl, at 2 p. w., for conntrnction of damn and nhore pro- 
tections of brush and roek in riciniiy of Prairie du Chien, fl'iHconHin, 

[There ia available for this work an allotment of $30,000, made by the river and harlior act (»f September 
19, 1890. from appropriation of $500,000 for "improving MiHfliHHi])pi River from MinneaxioliH to Ih^ 
Moiue8 Kapids. J 



No. 



Name and residence of bidder. 



1 Nehemiuh Martin and Timothy Mitchell, HaHtingx, 

Minn *. 

2 .lames ('olemaii and John U. S. Coleman, Davenport, 

I Iowa ,. . . 

3 ! Andrew Dtdam'y, St. Paul, Minn '. . . 

4 Sid. J. Tnmx and (ieor;;e J. Uetherinj;t(m, llaHt- 

ln;rs. Miim 

5 A ll>ert Kircliner, Fountain City, Win 

6 ' Jacob Kichtman, Fouutiiin City, Wis 

7 I William A. Patterson and Sabri'tT. Patterson, Keo- 

! kuk. Iowa 

8 , A.J. Whitney, Kock Island, 111 



Kock in place, j Itrush in place, 
14,000 cubic yards. 1 4.000 cuhicyanls. 



Per 
cubic 
yard. 



$1.35 

1. 25 
l.lrt 

.89 ' 

1.<'9 I 

.90 , 

t 

,90 
1.00 



Total. 



$18,900 

17.5(M) 
1(5, 52U 

12, 400 
15. 2W) 
12,OuO 

12. 600 
14,000 



Per I 
cubic I 
vara, j 



Orand 
total. 



Total. 



.$0.00 $8,400 ' $27 300 



45 
Oo 

44 ' 

.39 j 
, ,'»0 ; 

,40 ; 

,60 '. 



0. 3<K) 
H. 400 

0, 100 
."». 4Ch» 
7, 000 

5. COO 
8,4UO 



23, HIM) 
2I.0L'0 

18.020 
20. 720 
1!). 000 

1H.200 
22, 4 IK) 



Abstract of proposals received and opened by Maj, A. Mackeuziey Corpn of EnyhievrH, at 
Hock Inland^ Hi., February 20, ISOl, at 2 p. m., for eonHlrnrlintf damn and f<horr protec- 
tions of bruah and rock l)etween liellevue, Iowa, and Savanna^ 111. 

[There is available for this work from ai)nropriation of $500.(KH). mado by i-iver and harlnir act of Sep- 
temlM^r 19. 1890, for "improving Mississipi)! Kiver from Miuneai»olis to'lJcM Moiiien KapidM," an allot- 
ment of $25,000 made by pn»j(M;t appro ve(i January 6, 1891. J 



No. 



1 
2 

3 

4 

5 
6 

7 

8 



K(M'k in i>lace. ; Hnish in ])lac<', 
13,0(H> cubic yards. lO.OOOcubic yards. 



Name and rcsidcno^ of bidder. 



er 



V 

cubic 
vard. 



Total. 



I'er 
; cubic 
I vard. 



Nehemiah Martin and Timothy Mitchell. Uastin;;s, < 

Minn *. $1.40 

James Coleman and John n. S. (*<demau, DaveniNirt, ' 

Iowa ' 1. 25 

An<lrew IVlaney, St^ Paul, Minn i 1. 28 

Sid.J. Truax and Geo. J. iletherin<|:ton. Hastin;;s, 

Minn 1.14 

All»ert Kirchner, Fountain City, AVis J . ) 

Jacob Kichtman. Fountain City. Win 1. 20 

William A. Patters<mamlSabretT. Patterson. Keo- : 

kuk, Iowa O.ro 

A.J.Whitney, Kock IsLiihI, 111 l.OO 



$18,200 $0.60 



16,250 I 

ic,o-:o I 

14,820 ! 
14.170 
15. 000 

11.700 
13,000 



0.45 
0.64 

0.40 
0. 39 
0.27 

0.38 
0.00 



Tt)tal. 



CJrand 
total. 



$6,000 $24,200 



4,500 
6,400 

4,000 
3,900 
2, 700 

3,800 
6,000 



20, 750 
23, 040 

18,820 
18. 070 
18,300 

15, 500 
19,000 



2154 REPORT OF THE CHIKF OP ENGINEERS, U. 8. AKUT. 

RF.roKr OK MK. r. w. nrnifAM, assistant knginkrr. 



United States Kngixekr Offick, 

I\ovk Island^ lU., Januarg 31^ t89U 

Major: I liavo the honor to submit the following report of operations for tbe im* 
ii-ovciut>ut of the Mississippi River in the division under my charge, extending fhim 
Minneajiolis. Minn., to the viciuitv of Bnrliugton^ Iowa, for the calenflar year end- 
ing December 31. l«iK): 

MINNEAPOLIS TO ST. PAUL. 



\ 



Surreys and craminations. — On April 25), 18iX), an examination of this part of the 
river was made, the party starting from Minneapolis with a skiff, with a view to in- 
qniring into the tV>asibiIity of improving navigation by rt^moval of rocks and bowM> 
ers. A very swift enrrent was found for the greater part of the way to Met*ker 
Island and inuch nuigh water, indicating the existence of many rocks andbowlderv. 
The least depth ot" water fonnd was 3 feet, the stage at St. Panlby the enginc^or giiage 
reading 2.8 leet. Below Meeker Island no serious obstrnct ion was met with, exi*e|it 
a row of cribs with connecting chain across the channel ut a point ahont 1 mile above 
Minunehaha Creek. 

On May 1 the laun«'h Ada, drawing about 2 feet, went through from St. Panl to 
Minneapolis without ditbeulty. the tmly delay being caused at the cribs above men- 
tioned, where the chain had to be cut. On May 5, at a stage of 2.6 feet at St. Paul. 
the (ivntrul Jianiard, <lrawing 3 feet and 3 inches, ran without trouble from 8t. Paul 
to the point where the boom company has placed the cribs, and was then obligetl to 
turn baek. On June 2<). at a stage of 6.2 feet at St. Paul, the liarnard went up as far 
as the Franklin Avenue Hvidge and was there stopped by n»cks. These rocks removetl. 
she ean ])robably go to Minneapolis at a 5-foot stage. By these examinations it wan 
demonstrated that the channel could be considerably improved by removing nteks 
and bowlders, which exist in great numbers. 

In .Mine and .Tuly accurate* surveys of the river were made by a party in charge of 
Superintendent J. D. I)u Shane from the Minneapolis steamboat warehonse to a 
]>oint 1,200 feet below the Franklin Avenue Bridge; from head of Meeker Island to 
Short Line Bridgi*; at Marshall Avenue Bridge, (iroveland Park, Minnehaha Creek. 
and Pike Island. Tht^ cost of these surveys, including work in the office, wa^ 
$2,J*8S.3l>. Fr<»m Mr. Du Shane's report the following extracts are taken: 

"Actual work of the rapids survey began .June 9, the time from the 4th t« the 7th 
being used for establishing stations, setting gauges, and practicing the rr«'W iu 
handling the sounding boat in the rapi<l current when not interrupt^'cf by rain. 

'*As the current was too rapid for holding the sounding boa ton line withoars, a S|)eri»l 
tjickle, described as follows, was devised lV>r maneuvering it: A 1-inch rt>pe, about l,06l> 
feet long, was stn'tehed across the rivt-r about 10 feet above water and made tant 
by a capstan at one end; on this holding line ran a snatch-block to which a half- 
inch rope or dro])])ing line 2r>0 feet long b^d from the sounding boat; to the 1d(M*k 
were also attached two half-inch ropes or hauling lines, each long enough to reach 
across the river and su]>])ortiid. on each side of the block, on the 1-inch holding-liue 
by 2^-inrh iron rings fixed to the hauling-lines at points 25 feet apart by small «*ti]d- 
shuts. Tht> sounding b(»at could thus be held against the rapid current, dropped 
downstream, ami hauled across river as required. In practice the holding-line was 
ki*pt perpendieular, as near as may be, to the direction of the current, and was 
changed in position up or down river as work ]»rogre88ed, from l(X>to200 feet at 
e:uh moving, three skitfs being placed under the line at suitable points for holding 
it out of tin* s^\ ift water while being moved. The sounding boat, a small vawl, was 
dr<i]>])rd In feet at a time, making the sounding lines practically parallel Irom shore 
to short' and Id fiet a]):irt ; the boat was hauled across the river by two men on each 
shore, the s]ard being maiiitniiuMl as uniform as ))racticable and the soundings be- 
ing takiii at intervals ni' 10 to l."» fert on each line. The soundings were locat€*d by 
intersection from twn transit instruments on shore, tbe intersections 1>eing taken at 
every fourth sounding on the sounding rod at the instant of verticality , a signal be- 
ing given iVom tin* soundinir boat. 

the 
Avenue 
dis- 
tanre a seanh. as thoroii<ih as the stage oli water would pennit, was made for rocks« 
autl 17."i MM-ks. ImwMrrs. and patches were located^ Many more smaller bowldeni 
could have been located had the water been at a lower, more favorable stage, aa 
many of the bowlders did not show a distinct break in the rough waterof the rmulda 
atthetinu* of survey. <'»*|iccially in the vicinity of the Franklin Avenue Bridge. 
However, the largest were located and many of the others can be readily ISrand dur- 



ing ^iM*n ironi iiic souuuing ooat. 

"In this manner tlu- river was thoroughly sounded from a point 100 feet above th 
Minnea]»oli^ steamboat wan-hmise to a point 1.2lX) feet below the Franklin Avenu 
Brid;;«*. near tl»e head of Mcek«'r Island, a distance of 7,UCK) feet. Within this dii 



ing Ilia iiroKretwrif any opctuiioiiH wliJi'h mny bn iinilrrtukpn for l.lio rnnnvnl fif tlioNH 
ikltvntly luratavl. 1 

"Siiiin'lin^. Itl niiiliiiiiiilion ■■!' tbote »n the rapide, ven^ laicen friini tlio lii>ud uS 
MMiker Ixbiiil t^> Mix Hlmrl. Line Brid^x, a ilixtAiice of 2,li00 i<'«t. Tbv -ouniliiiKM 
weru tnktiii 15 ti< IW IVd. :i|i.'irt, on iiamlTol liiiM 40 Toot apart, eiti>iii1iN|: rnmi <ilior*j 
to sUore, Tbc tackle liaviiiu heen. abanilonoit at tlie foot of tlii> rHiiiils, tli<'>ii< wmuit- ' 
ing were taknn fr»m n rowhoatand Incated aa above deevribpd. Tweul.V'twd IiomIt' 
(l«n wore locat«il witblu tliis dlBtniica. . U 

" TliK linttoni of the rivei' from the Minuenpolis landing to the BiuiTt Linu llriitcftl 
i» piini]MiKfliI of bnwldnrti varying in size from one-half foot to 2 feet or more, inUrd ill- 
plan's with coiirBu gravel; it may be likened to a itniet paveil with cobble flloiirH, an.' 
closely are the bi>wldera pockcit. A narrow bar in iiiid-Htri'am, romtioKi'il of miiim^ 
fcmvol nnd nmnll botrldprs, extenda fVonaliave tlie MiniipnpoIisLMiiliiiKdoi^ii rivor-- 
•Bvornl hiiniiriHl fpot. Thia bar is dry, or uearly so, at ita upper eud duriug low sum- ,' 
iner Bta^oa. J 

"In lulditioQ to the abovp survey there wpre mado exaniinalioua of bIiouIh at thai 
Marahull Avenue Bcidj^e, Groveland Park, Minnehaha Creek, and I'ike lalaiiit. The.| 
leuKtti of rivut covered by those exaniinatiuns la about 3^ i[iil«it, Souudiii^cH wetQ^ 
maa6 tcoia a rowboal and located by InturHeetiouB with two Iraiiait inHtriLiueiiM, . 
The Bonndiuge nere taken 15 to 20 feet apart on parallel liooa acroHn the river 41) feet.] 
apart, except at Marshall Avenue Bridge, where the tines are 25 feet apart, mid at I 
Grovelaail Park, where for one-third of the diatanee the linoa are 20 feet apart. | 

"At Marahall Avenue Bridge tho bottom is onmpoBed of small bowlders nndcoarM ■ 
gravely at Oroveland Park the bottom is similar to that at Mnrahall Avenue Bridges 
eixc«pting along the right bank, where for 50 to 100 feet ftoui shore in a deposit ot 
aawilnst, slabs, and muck. At Minnrhahn Creek the bottom is gravel, with scattering; 
anull bowlders, while at Pike Island it roosiste entirely of gravel, excepting noar the 
ahoree, wbern it scnnia to bo eonipoaed of sand, aawdust, and slabs. 

"Temporan gan^rea w<u« established at Minneapolis Landuig, Franklin Avbiiim; 
bridge, nml Gruvclaud Park. Daily readiuKs of these gauges and of tliatatHt. Puul , 
were kept. 

"Pennanciit bench-marka were establiehod at Uinneapolis Landing, Franklin 
Avonne Bridsei and Marshall Avenue Bridge. The tirsl two were I'onnei'ted by 
lcv«I«, cMrofult j taken, with bench-murkn of Mi),ior Allen's survey of IS8T. 

"Penniini>iil stationa were made at all but three of the transit stations ooi'iipieil 
for locating sonudiiigs on the rapids survey. Those permanent stations conBiiit o£, 
granite bowlders, set Hrmly in the ground and marked with a x (cross) thiscleil into^ 
the top of the bowlder, the center of cross being center of statu 
tbeoD BlatiouH have been referenced and are fully descri 
b<e readily identified for fntnre work. • • - 

" Obaervations were taken for velocity of the cnrreut 

Operatiotui in renuicing roekt and bomlder*. — Thia work w 
ent Du Shane, whoso report is here given: 



a map, and they 



" Tlie ri 



itisaippiUiverfrom Minneapollni 

ftppropriat*^! ^ (50,000 shall be (?&pDuui:u uDb^rcn^ii uu^ vuii^i*^,,, *:-._ .. . _, .._ 

and Ouiaha Railroad Bridge at St, Paul and the Washington Avenno Briilgn, Minne- 



a expended between the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis 




apolis, iu dredging, removal of gravel, bowlders, broken rock, and the 
ui dams and revetment«.' 

" Under a project, dated September 30 and approved October 14, 1890, work of re- 
moviaif rocka from the river bed below Minneapolis wm begun by a aniall purl.y on 
Octulwr IS. Thia work was carried on by day's labor. Between tho Fruuktiu Ave- 
nae and Sliort Line bridges there were removed by bloating 78 granite Imwlders and 
5 iitftnen of ledge rock. The bowlders varieit in size Ciom 1.5 feet to 6 feet in diania- 
tor; the le<lge rock from 4 feet by 4 feet to S feet by 16 feet on one face. The thick- 
iitiM of ledge rock was not aaoertained, though the holes drilled for blasting weru. 
n-»m 2.5 f>'etto3 feet in depth. With a few exceptions all these rocks were so cr— 
idet«1y broken np astoleuveno trace. WLonever large pieces of rock remilined b< 
l.lttBling, they were either huulei) ashore or further broken up by blasting. It ._ 
thonghtthatallnf the mo«t daugeroua rooks within the channel limita between theso 
bridges have been removed. 

"Owing to cold weather, with heavy snow, operations for the season were snl- 
pKDded November 8. 

"Cost of removing rocks, including quota of office expenses, is ST44.51. 

" Aa port of n general system for the permanent improvement of the river botwcfn 
AlinnenpoliB imd Bt. Paul, work should be dona during the season of 18BI ut the r»1' 
lowing places: Opposite foot of Pike Island, removal of sevoral log cribs from thr 
obaAticI and protection of left bank (this high, sandy bank ia being rapidl^v washed 
' ■ ■' ' er. forming an obstructing bar at tlie foot of tho island); at I'ieherman 
d of log cribs from channel and cat dri-dged through gruvcl bi 




^_Lf4o the river, for 
^^Bhnd, removal oi 






2156 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF KXOINEERS, U. 8. AKHT. 

i;i:ivrl t«» 1h' n-^rtl fni' f-ln>iiiir.iljiiiis in si«UM-Iiiitt's; )>osKil>|y s<»iiu» i1r4Ml(;iii^ lirliiw and 
.'iIhiM' M ir>-li:ill Amiiih' liri<1;^r: 1m>1(»\\ thr Slutrt Line itritl^e, ri*iiiov:iI cif'ji («'W Mi-at- 
tciiiii; roiKs: ri'iimxal ol'i-<>(*ksoii rnpiils aliovv Fniukliii Att^iint' ISrid^^ niul iH^twecn 
thr )i«M(l oi' ni]»i(K :ui(l tlit> laiulin^ on \V(>st hank Ih'Iow tlio Wasliiugtou Avenae 

" While it i-^ in)t tliou^ht tliaT tlie vrUM^val of howMrrs ami rorks from the nipiiUi 
will t'unii>li a priiiiaiH'iitly ini)>roV('«l «*lianiiol sntiirimt f«»r i«af(> ami cuhv pasMiire 
1»\ tIm' lai'iitT I la>sis of stvaiiihoats. it wilJ no dotiht answer all tin* rt*(|iiircnuMitA of 
iiaviu^atitin : tor. at least until a s\st(>ni of inii>i'ov(Mnciit liy locks aii«l «laiii8 iA f«kui- 
]»htiMl. this stretch of viviT will Ik* put to litth* t'oiuniercial «tH\ «»xri»pt for niniiing; 
l«>«rs tViMii Minneapolis to tin* lMH)ni works beltjw V'lke Island. H«»w«»v«»r, alionld Uicka 
ami ilauis «>\er he liuilt. nuieh of the work near the Iioad of tlio rn])id8 and all thnt 
ahove the i-ai)iil> iirevion^ly mentioned as work that slH»uld he done during 1891 
would loitu a part of the ]>ennanent iinproviMnent hy this system. 

i Ml i Kti>l»er \'J, 1S!H). when the Tnited States en^im'er^aiijje at St. Paul read 1.1 feet, 
the <:i iieial tl()>t h «>f river in ehannel on tht> ra]dds above Franklin Avenue Hridce wan 
2.."i i'e«t. ihoui^h hnwhh-rs and r(»eks projecting ahove the river b«>ttom r«MidenHl the^e 
rapids inina\iua1de at this sta^e for any class of steamhoatH. The navijpible depth 
in ehaniit-l ai Meeker Island was 8 feet; above and below Marshall Avenue Bridge, 
2.r> feet: at Fisherujan Island. l.r> tVn't: beh>w Hiuue, 3 feet ; bidow Fort Snelling, 3 
feel: between St. i'aul an»l Preseott, .S..'> feet. 

*• In reeeni years the quantity of mill refuse dnm]>ed into the river at Minneapolin 
has threat \\ iliminished, hut there is > (>t a large amount {Jcoiiig in tlironglmut the greater 
part nf the \«-ar. The (piantity nt'city refuse and garba>;e d«'p«isited in the river lA. 
liiiwe\er. on the iner«'ase. Since the «'ity crematorium was abandoned, alHtnt 1 year 
airi), all the irarh:»;:e and other refuse «'ollecti'il from this city of*»ver l(k).(lUO inhabi- 
tant«» is. 1 am ini'ovmed. dejxtsited in the river. This city refuse pn>veis not onl^* a 
nuisaue«' and a i-nnstnnt nienaei' to the health of a lar;::e community along the river. 
hut a1s«» helps to form obNtriietions to naviiration at h'ast as far iw Ihresoott, WU., 
■tl mile"- ImIow Minneapolis, and. possibly, to Lake Pepin, s«une 20 niile« farther. 
In th«' inii rest^ ot* na\i>j:ation and of the health of steamboatmen and of thoae eon- 
ne« ted with ri\er iuiproxements amf de]KMidcnt w«)rks. whose occupation reqiiifM 
theuj to li\r oil the n\erdurin;i a ;;reat part of the year, it can notice urged too 
siiouiilv that all ile])osits in the rivertd' n'fus*» fn>in the mills an<l from the eity should 
reaNi-. MoieoN er. It is Hot to be ex]n'rted that the liver can l>e permanently improved 
for nasiuation hetueeii Minneapolis and St. Paul S(» long as these de]>ositM con- 
tinue. 

In leLrard io ihf stretch <»f the r]»per Mississippi River between Minneapolis and 
St. |*anl I Omaha Ilridirc^. it may be said that from St. Paul to Minnehaha Creek the 
rixer is i»f the same «:jeneral character as the river between St. Paul and Preseott and 
can readilx ami cheaply be ini]>roved and ada]>t<'d to the navigation of tlic large8t 
boats pl\ imr the Tpjur Mississipjii h\ the nu'thods em]doyed on the river below St. 
Paul. liui. tVi»ui Minnehaha ('rei*k n]». tin* river assumes a dirtert»nt charaeter. the 
eurreut beinu mm h swil'tcr. in fact at sonu' ]UMnts so rapid that even boats of con- 
sitlerable ]Mi\\<-r would have great ditliculty in stemming it, and the iMittouiat mnny 
point-- i^ io!ii]i.ised ot'grav4*l or rock, with large accumulations of liowldeni. Hy re- 
nun iim bri»k»n roek. iiravel. and bowlders, as called for in the act of 8e])tein1ief 19, 
1NH\ iht ehaiiiiel will he only ])artia11y improved as to depth, perhaps enabling lNiatii--irf 
to go u]» at a sduiewhat lower stage than at present ]»ossilde. Even if the eh'auneL^ 
w I re jliep'iuii and w idemd by the I'xpensive exeavatinn of the s«did-rock bottom, the 
lone ot' the euireiit wiuibl come into play, seriously retartiing or effeetually rheek- 
ing boats heaxilv ladeucd or of smaller ]>ower. s(» that it is believed, and this lieliel 
has herei«i|ore been expressed by many otln*rs, that Xo ]»ractically improve the nn| 
]iart. --aN iVitiii Miuiuhaha Creek, nr at all events from Meeker Island, to the ^^ ash — -:: 
iuiitiui Avenue lJridu«'. some form of canali/ati«m <»r slackwater improvement wil - 

bt' neer'«'«:jl \ . 

ST. PAVl. TO PKKSt'OTT. 

I'nder ]»rol.it of August VX ISIH), operations were carried on by hired labor an^^ 
(itivt riniH III ]»lnui. material being purchasetl in ofuMi nnirket. lVtai1s«)f this impoT*'' 
tan I wnik are uixi ii in the following extract from the season's report of Mr. J. I^^ 

Dn ^hau^^ ^nju'viuii-ndent in local charge: 

«- • • 

••Ojieratioiis wen- rr«»umed September S, 1SI^\ at Pine Rend. Dams 24ancl25 (ahec>'^ 
•1 \ bit uuiiiii^heil ill 1-v^M. were com])lct<«d: dam 22 (sheet ■I'i was lengthened. X,^ 
this ]tla>e. as a le-^ult of the wiuks of improvement acc(mi]disli<Ml during 1888 an^^ 
\s\HK a iiio*«t (!•->«; rable i-orrertion of the river was ma«le. th«' channel now followin^^ 

the b«-u«l aloim tin- right bank 



••(Ml s.-]it ember LM the ile«t was moved to lirey (*loud Landing. The ahore |iwr-^ 
tectioii ol Island i:; was ]e]iaiied. Dams 11 , 4. 'i, it). 17. 48, and 49 (sheet 4) were CQK'^ 



APPENDIX A A — REPORT OF MAJOR MACKENZIE. 2157 

• 

striicted; Dudih 44 and 45 are located below DaniH 7 and 32, reHpectivelv, while Dams 
46, 47, 48, and 49 are Imilt from the right hank helow Island lA. liy i\wHv dams the 
water was directed from the right bank and held down the mid<lle of tlie river. The 
rectified channel now continnes directly from the foot of Island 13 to Grey Cloud 
Landing. 

**The fleet was moved, October 24, to Nininger, where Dams 32 and 33 (sheet 5) 
were built from the left bank belows Dam 26. Dams 2, 26, 27, 30, and 31 (sheet 5) 
were raised. 

** Operations were suspended on November 3, and the fleet was laid up for the 
wint<?r in Boulanger Slough <m November 4. 

"On September 12 the dredge Phoenix j attended by launch Ada, liegan a cut through 
the bar opposite Dam 10 (sheet 6). This cut was finished September 23 ; h'ugth of cut, 
500 feet ; width, 110 feet. The dredge then removed the outer (temporary ) en<l of Dam 
7 (sheet 6). On Septei^il)er 27 the dredge was moved to Nininger, where a cut through 
the bar along the right bank was l)egun tlu» same day, the material ]»eiug cast on 
shore. The cut is 975 feet long and 40 feet wide. This work was susponded October 
3. The dredge and two dumps were laid up for the winter in Houlauger Slough and 
the launch Ada turned over to Superintendent W. A. Thompson on October 4. 

"Works of improvement should be constructed during the season of 1891 at the 
following idaces, or so much thereof as funds will prTUiit or the interests of naviga- 
tion demand, all of which works form part of the general syRtein jinnjccted for the 
permanent completion of the stret<'h of river inider cousi<leration : Dam above Dam 
13 (sheet 2); dam below Dam 28 (sheet 2)j dams at Islands 4, 5, 6, and 7; dams be- 
low Grey Cloud Landing; dams opposite Nininger; dams above and below Hastings; 
shore protection opposite Island 1 may need extending, also that below Newport 
and that below Pine Bend ; the left bank below Island 17 and the right and left 
banks above Hastings should be prote<!ted. 

"Repairs should be made as follows: Dams at Island 1; dams o]ii»osite Newi)ort; 
revetment above and dams opposite, Robinson Rocks; dams below Nininger. 

" The condition of the river at Nininger during the latter part of the season was 
such as to cause boats much trouble; the channel, being not only siioal in places but 
narrow and very crooked, rendered it impossible for the larger class of steamboats, 
bound upstream, to pass this place without going ashore, there not being suflicient 
room for maneuvering. While this status existed no relief could be auorded by 
works of improvement, for to undertake any work at this time would mean the com- 
plete obstruction of navigation diu-ing the remainder of the season. In all proba- 
bility close attention will be demanded here at the opening of nsivigation in 1891 
should a low stage of water prevail. A medium stage will be the most advantageous 
for continuing operations, as it is essential to good work hen^ to create (leposits 
l>elow the dams of the obstructing 8a^d, re<iuiring it to travel the least possible dis- 
tance downstream. Work should be coumienced here as soon as practicable in order 
that the«e bars be kejjt out of the channel immediately below, where, for the next 
mile and one-half, the works of imi>rovenient are now practically completed. Should 
these bars get into this ]»ieco of river, trouble will ensue during the time reciuired 
for the bars to travel this distance at least 2 or 3 yesirs. The bars are already 
so ftir advanced that to secure the l)est results it may be necessary to operate the 
dredge, even at serious disadvantage, in connection with constructitm woA. 

" While speaking of operating a dredge in connection with constructicm work it 
may be proper to state that for removing temporary olistructing bars more or less 
dredging will be necessary during the continuauce of work for regulating the river, 
and also occasionally after the completion of these works. It is not to be, exjjected 
that all ni(»ving sand Vill l)e eomplet(?ly contndled by the works when finishetl to 
the present adopted channel widtli, an<l so long as such movingsand remains within 
the channel limits, st> long will temporary obstructing bars form, and the jkhhI exist 
for their speedy removal, if the best interests of navigaticm are to be served and 
consequently promoted. To accomplish this removal for some years after the regu- 
lation works are completed, a <lredge will be required at least a small part of the 
season of navigation. Owing to the advanced st^te of the work in this stret<'h of 
river and the large accumulations of sand between the dams and back of islands, ac- 
cessible dumping grtmnds are becoming scarce, so that only occasionally can a])lace 
be found convenient for dumping dredged materials. A hydraulic dredge would, I 
believe, furnish a means both convenient and economical for removing or redu<Mng 
these temporary bars. By this method the dredged material could be de)>osited, 
through pipes, near shore between the dams, when^ it is not only most desirabhi, 
but also most diflicult to create deposits by the aid of regulation works alone. Fill- 
ing these pockt^ts, which frequently exist, thus connecting the, shores with the 
deposits already <'reate<I by the dams, would result in a double benetit ; nanu'ly. re- 
nuiving the obstructing bars fnmi the channel and pn'ventingthe formation of other 
obstructing bars by sand which is carried out into the ehannel again from deposits 
oncecreatcdaudsotlesirabletoretain, the mt»vement of this sand being due to a current 



2158 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMT. 

• 

at certain stn^rcs of water, running in on the lower side of the dam down near ahore^ 
and out into tho river above the dam next below. 

''it is not expected tliat enough work would be found in this stretch of river to 
keep a pump ^Iredge fully occupied, but it could be employed for niwii lftr work on 
other parts of the river and, possibly, to great advantage at the Des Moines Rapids 
Canal. 

'' In the matter of depositing city refuse in the river, a great change has taken 
place at St. Paul witiiin the past year. An azotine plant now consumes a vast 
amount; and by that much at least is the quantity deposited in the river decreased. 
It is to be hoped that means will be found for keeping all the refuse from this city 
out of the river. 

A lint of works constructed and repaired, and of materials used during ike season of 2890, 

between St. Paul and Pyesooti, 



Works. 



Shoot 4 : 

1 >Hiii 44 

Dam 45 

I>am4fi 

Dam 47 

Dam 48 

Dam 45) 

Dam 22. oxtf lulcd 

Dam 24. iliimlioil 

I>am 2'». liiiiHhfMl 

1 >aiii ;J8, raisod 

Diim 40, rainrd 

Uovftrnt'iit iHlaml l.'{, ropairtMl 

Dam:{2 

Dam 33 

Dam 2, rainiMl 

Dam 26, ruLned 

I )am 27, raiseil 

Dam 30, raiHed 

I>am 31, raiHcd 



Total 



DimcDBlonB. 



Length. 



Feet. 



390 
410 
280 
270 
220 
175 
40 
525 
640 



215 
225 



Heieht 

ftbovelow 

waterofJ8G4. 



Feet. 



4.5 
4.6 
4.0 
4.0 

4.0 
4.0 



4.0 
4.0 
4.0 
4.0 



4.5 
4.5 
4.0 
4.5 
4.6 
4.5 
4.5 



Material. 



Book. 



Oulbio yards, 

409.6 

493.3 

364.2 

410.6 

390.7 

323.0 

120.7 

634.9 

643.4 

62.7 

50.5 

80.5 

328.6 
319.2 
49.0 
120.2 
140.1 
102.0 
120.3 



Bnub. 



Cubic ysrdi. 

1,048.8 

1.314.;i 

964.8 

894.6 

1.135.1 

1,107.6 

441.9 

832.9 

1,891.1 



5,074.5 



767.9 
66013 

'283.1 
335.5 
137.5 
349L1 



12.044.9 



"'Hk* matorinls were iinrchased in open market delivered on United States barynv 
at the follnwin*; prices: Kock, 44.5 cents jier cubic yard; brush, 26 cents per cubic 
yjird; poles, W <'ent» each. 

Finuuv'uxl statement for works of improving Mississippi River between St, Paul and Prts- 

eott during the season of ISOO, 

Amount expended in the field durinji: the calendar year 18JK) (from distri- 
bution Hheets) '. $12,775.79 

Add co.st of mat (Tials from \m^\ 8SW. 5S 

13,«74.»< 

Dedmt tV»r materials on liaiid ISIK) $50.'*. 78 

l)ediict tV»r expense of cut tin*; temijorary channels 7(15. (X) 

1,270.78 

Net cost of field work 12.4n3.fiO 

Add i|Uotji of j^rneral su])erintendence juid otlice expenses l,><fw.!^!J 

Add for use nud det<*rit)rati()n of plant 3. 27H. 40 

Toi al <'ost of work 17, .>ir». H2 

Material j)Ut in work.-: 

lioek cubic yards.. r>J)7l..'» 

Drusli '.do 12, IM4.0 

Total do.... 17, IW..'» 



APPENDIX A A — REPORT OF MAJ(5r MACKENZIE. 2159 

Average cost per cubic yard on bar^cu $0. 321 

Ayerage cost per cubic yard for towing; and ]>iittiii<^ in matf'rial . 404 

Average coat per cubic yard for ^oneral HIlp<>rillt«•lMl('I1<'(^ and ofHco ex- 
penses 1 . 109 

Average cost per cubic yard for plant . 191 

Average cost per cubic yard in place 1. 025 



# 



PBE8C01T TO LAKE PEPIN. 

Owing to tbe late passage of the river and liarbor bill and tbe groator need of 
work above Prescott, no work was uudcrtakcu in tliiH stretch of river during sesison 
of 1890. 

READ LANDING AND VICINITY OF TEEPEEOTA POINT. 

In order to regulate the channel above Read Landing Bridge, whieli had become 
very crooked and difficnlt to run, two wing dams were built out from the right bank. 
Some needed repairs were made to dams in vicinity of Teepeeotci Point. There 
follows the report of Mr. W. A. Thompson, Huperintendent in l(»cal charge: 

** For many years a bad bar h<aR been across the Htcamboat channel op])OHite KeiMl 
Landing and above the ponton of the railroad bridge which caused many requeHts to 
be made by steamboat owners that something be done by the (government to make 
a permanent and easy channel above and through the bridge draw. 

"Owing to*the lack of funds, nothini^ could be done before Octob«'r, when an 
agreement was entered into with Jacob Kichtman, of Fountain City, WiK., for the 
construction of wing dams above the bridge from the MinneM(»ta shore. The price 
was $1.15 per cubic yard for rock in place, and 54 cents per cubic yard for brusli in 
place. 

'•Two wing dams were constructed; one (No. 4, sheet 13), from a point on shore 
1,500 feet above the west end of the railroad bridge, and the other (No. 5, sheet lo), 
from a point on shore 615 feet further upstream. ITiese dams were built very 
strong, owing to the great quantity of heavy ice that comes out of Lake Pepin 
nearly every spring and would come directly agaiuHt these dams. Extra heavy 
double mattresses of brush were used and weighted well with rock. Dam No. 4 has 
au average width of 35 feet 'and Dam No. 5 a width of 'iO feet. The construction of 
these dams was commenced October 18 and was completed November 19. These 
dams cause a largo Volume of water to be thrown into tlu^ main channel that before 

Sassed through the opening of the bridge west of the draw. No further trouble to 
oats crossing this bar is expected. 

"In 1878 and in 1880, several wing dams were built in vicinity of Tctipe<'ota 
Point. For many years previous navigation had been very ditlicult in low stages of 
the river. After the construction of these dams no complaints were heanl from 
river men regarding the condition of this part of the river until a year or tw(» jrgo. 
Upon examination, several of these dams were found to be in very bad condition. 
Several have bad breaks that draw otf a large quantity of water from the main 
channel. 

''After the dams at Read Landing were completed, Captain Jacob Kichtman was 
authorized to begin making these repairs, at the sanu^ prices for material as he re- 
ceived at Read Landing. This work being commenced late in the season, only two 
of the dams could be repaired. Dam 4 (sheet 14), from the right baiik at Tcepee- 
ota Point, had a bad hole in it and the shore jirotection had been washed away. 
This dam was put in good condition and work on Dam 9 (sheet 14) was commenced. 
This dam is from a small towhead at the mouth of the Zumbro River. The old 
shore protection had l>een washed away and the towhead from which the dam hail 
originally been built had cut away, back 150 feet from the end of the dam. The 
depth of water in this open space was from 12 feet to 16 feet. Across this hole a 
new dam was built and a new shore protection put in where the dam now connects 
with the shore. 

" Work was suspended December 3. 

" It is recommended that the n^mainder of these dams be repaired as soon as ])osHi hie. 

''Mr. C. A. Stoddard, inspector, performed his duties with zeal and ability.'' 



2160 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS^ U. 8. ARHT. 

Lisf of irorkH comttnivfed, with amoMnts of mater'mU nned during the 9ca9on of 1890^ cl 

Read Landbiff and vicinitjf of Tcepeeota Point. 



Di'si^iatiou. 



iShci't i:t: 

Win^i' l»aiii 4 (nrw) 

Win;; Djmii 5 (m-w) 

Sheet U: 

WinK I^rti" ■*. n'p;iin'<l. 

Win;; Dam l», rt'iiaired. 



Total 



Dimonaions. 



Lenj^li. 



Feet. 



750 
880 



Ileiglit above 
low water 
oflM4. 



Feet. 



4.0 
4.0 

3.0 
S.0 



Hat4*iial. 



Bock. 



Cubic yards. 
2,447.4 
1,398.1 

560.4 
7!i5.0 



Bnuh. 



Cukicfmrdi. 
1. 724.8 
1,214.1 

4112 

ei&.3 



6,168.0 



3,967.3 



Fiutntviitl niatvmvnt for worl'H at Read Landing and ttioinitg of the Teepeeota Point, per- 

formed under agreement during season of 1890. 

Aiiioiiiit paid oontnuftor $8,087.69 

Cost of local insiHTtion, etc 495.(77 

A<1<1 i{uota of Kt^'ii^'i^'iil siiporiiiteudonce and office expenses , 1,316.61 

Total cost of work .*... 9,899.97 

Material ])iit in: 

YUu'k cuYuoyATds.. 6, lfl9.9 

Hnisli do 3,967.2 

Total do.... 9,137.1 

Avera<j:e <i».st i»er cubic yard in place $1,083 

r. # « « # • * 

ItKPA IKING DAM AT HEAD OF POMME DE TERRE SLOUGH. 

■ 

One liai'irc load of rock w:lh jdaccd in the break of the long dam at Pomme do Tern 
Sloii;;:li, tlir labor b<>in^ ])erfonnud by the crew of the snag boat General Barnard, 
Cost of rock used was $4:3.JH). 

VICIXITY OF FOT'NTAIN CITY AND WILDS I^NDINU. 



Owiii;;: to lack of fnndrt, operationn at these localities were not commenced until 
( >ctol»er. 

I'roni \\\v report t)f Mr. AV. A. Thonipson, superintendent in local charge, the fol- 
low in;; is takrn : 

"This >v«»rk was ptTforiiied bv Oovernnient plant and days' labor. Tlie lunnchf^ 
r.wihi and Ada left Hoiilan^T'T 'SIoU|j^ October 4, with barges 22, 36, 66, 68, 76,97. 
liiiiMiii^C b;ii';;r 11. ipiartrr boat 75, j>ih'. driver 73. and graHslio]»per in tow. OctolnT 
I) ilii-* liii'i reaclitMl .Vr;i;o Har, 2 miles below Wibls Lan<ling, where the lirst work wns 
to lie done. The launch Ada ])roceeded to Heytman Landing and returned to Arpi 
liar Ortobrr H. with ]>arp's 101 and 102 in tow. 

"At Ar«x<» Bar a ;;n'at <leal of trouble had been experienced by steumboHtH ami 
rafts durifi;; the last season. The channel was originally down tlie eaHt hIioh'. hul 
in ISSD tlirn* wrre 2 channels; one, as before, down the east side and the other down 
tlir ^v^st sidi'. neither being good. It was believeil that then was the time to font' 
the ehannel lo the west side, as proposed in the approved project for this Atretch •»! 
the river. Owiii;; to the lateness of the season, it was impossible to do all the worl: 
ncrissary for the peniianent iinprovcuient of this ])art of the river; and, owing to lack 
of funds, >\ork eould not 1m> resuiued until late in the season of 1890. 

"To jHit a ;;o«»d ehannel down the west side. Wing Dam 47 (sheet 18), that hml lieeii 
e<»iuuienei'(l the fall het'iiie. was laised ail average height f»f (ifeet, making the erowii 
ot' the dam !.."» leet al>o\r low wati'i'. and Closing Dam 2 (slieet IH) wan repaired i\w\ 
r.iistd :ihout 1 feet, making the crown ot'this dam 1 feet above low water. By thesi- 
nii-ansthe river \\:is reduet-d to about one-half its ori;j:inal \vi4Ith. andagf»od, atraight 
5 foot eh:innel was uuiilt'^ w heie it >\as propostMl to have it. No further trouble irt 



APPENDIX A A — BEFOBT OF MAJOR MACKENZIE. 



2161 



expected at this point. This work was com|)leted October 20. and the fleet moved 
up to head of Blackbird Island (No. 65) one mile above Wilds Landing. Here, as at 
ArjB^o, a great deal of tronble was experienced in getting rafts around tlie liead of 
the inland, as a high Hand bar had formed above and worked down til] tiiere waH, by 
moKt skillful handling on the part of the pilots and favorable winds, Just room 
encMigli for a half raft to pass through, and for several months this could only be done 
in daylight. Many rafts had caught on the bar and then swung around onto Uie 
head of the islsmd and broken up, causing great delay and cost to the owners. 

** In 1881, two closing dams were built west of Island No. 65, one from Island H5 to 
Island 66, and the other from Islan<l 66 to the Minnesota shore, and the hcatls of 
these islands had been protected. Since then these dams have been ciit down by the 
ice till their crowns were only 1 foot above low water, permitting a large volume of 
water to be diverted from the main channel, and about 400 feet of the protection on 
the head of Islimd 65 destroyed. 

"It was decided the first work to be done was to build two wing dams from the 
Minnesota shore in such a manner as to throw the <'urrent against the lower side of 
the bar and wash it away. ITie first Wing Dam, S3 (sheet 18), was built from a point 
on right bank 1,000 feet above Closing Dam 22 (sheet 18). This dam is 615 feet long, 
and the crown is 4 feet above low water. Wing Dam 34 (sheet 18), is from a point 
on shore 750 feet farther up river; it is 300 feet long and the crown also 4 feet 
A^ove low water. TTie Closing Dams 21 and 22 (sheet 18), were raised to 4 feet above 
low water, and the head of Island 65 was again protected. Shortly after the com- 
pletion of this work, the channel past the head of the island had widened out sufll- 
ciently for a whole raft to pass through without difficulty. 

"November 10, the fleet was moved up to Fountain City, where, during the season, 
mach trouble was caused the pilots in getting their rafts around the head of the 
towhead above the steamboat landing; The conditions were almost the same as at 
Blackbird Island. Hiree short wing dams were built out from the left bank, above 
the towhead in such manner as to force a channel straight down the river awav 
from the towhead. Two more wing dams wore thrown out from the right bank 
farther down stream, to hold the channel past the landing at Foimtain City. Some 
slight repairs were made to the shore protection on the towhead, to the shore pro- 
tection opposite Fountain City, and to Dam 7 (sheet 16). 

" December 2. Owing to the river being full of floating ice, the fleet was laid up 
for the winter in Fountain City Bay, and all work suspended for the season. 

LUi of works constructed and repaired, and of materials used during season of 1890 in vi- 
cinity of Fountain City and Wilds Landing J Wisconsin. 



Designation. 



SbeetlO: 

Closing Dam 7 repaired 

Sheet 17: 

Wing Dam 33 

Wing Dam 34 

Wing Dam 35 

Wing Dam 36 

Wing Dam 37 

Wing Dam 38 

Win^Dam 39 

CloAin^Dam 22 rnincMl 

Cloning Dam 21 rninetl 

Shore protection, Inlnntl 05, repaired 

Shore protection, lahanil 6J, repaired 

Shore protection opposite Fountain Citv ropuired. 
Sheet 18: 

Cloning Dam 2 rniiieil 

Wing Dam 47 raisetl . .*. 



Dimensions. 



Length. 



Feet. 



4.0 










Cu . yd». 
90.9 

1.77:{. I 

J,05o. 1 

1, mi. 

9:{7. 9 

670. 1 

8.')J. 

477.2 

507.8 

511.2 

004.5 

48.0 

01.2 

474.3 
1..VJ8.2 

Total i 11.280. I 



615 
300 
325 
275 
145 
250 
180 
600 
470 
400 



Heiglit 

above 

low water 

of 1864. 



Feet. 



4.0 
3.0 
4.0 
4.0 



175 

850 



4.0 
4.5 



ISIaterial. 



Kock. 



Brush. 



Vu.yds. 
106.1 



900. 

047. 
718. 
875. 

i.o:{o. 

1.1.''>8.9 
587. 1 
456. 5 
280. 



.> 
9 
4 
4 
4 
1 



208.0 
2.291. :i 



ll.79.'».6 



13N(J 01 13G 



2162 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMT. 

Financial eiatement for work in vicinity of Wilds Landing and Fountain Citif dMrin§ 

season of 1890. 

Amount expended in tbo field during the calendar year 1890 (from distri- 

InitioiL sheets) $17,798.35 

Deduct cost of material on hand nt close of scnson 453.17 

Net cost oinHd w«»rk 17,^16.18 

Add ({uota of general Hnperhi tendiMice. and office expenses 2, 730. :<fl 

Add for use and deterioration of plant 2, 493. 11 

Totalcost of work 22,569.59 

Material put in work : 

Koek en hie yardB.. ll,28fi.4 

lirush do..-. 14)79f>.6 

I'oles (2,L>06) do.... 229.6 

Total do .... 26,311.6 

Cost of material .' $11,166.M 

A verajje eost per cnbie. yard on hargCB ■ $0. 4244 

Averaj^e eost per enbie yard for towing and putting inmaterinl .2343 

Average eoHt pt^r cubic yard for general superinteudeuce and oflice ex- 
penses .10C<8 

Average cost per eul>io yard for plant .DM}* 

Av<'rage cost per cubic yard in place . 8579 

VICINITY OF CROOKED SIX)UGH. 

A large break having occurred in the dam across Harper Slough, due to the nndtT- 
mining of the soft bank at the island end, it wafl repaired daring Jnne with gravrl. 
fiirni.Mhed by I United States dredge Phoenix, and rock, purchased at LynxvUle. Ste»m 
laiineh Ada and the erew of the snag boat General Barnard were employed on the 
work. Cost of rock used was $1)37.24. 

nroYS ox kock island rapids. 

The buoys were reset A])ril 10 to 15, 1890, by steam launch Luda, There wen'Sn 
])uoys in the system, 27 of which were sc^cnred to the rock bottom by bolts mul. 
eliaiiiK and !> were held by aiiebors. During the season, several of the bnoysweri* 
carried away by rafts but were aft-i^'wards rephvced. 

Xovrmber 1!) to tl'J, the ranges were adjusted and the buoys were taken up aud 
stoiiMl for thi^ wint«*r. 

The. cost of buoyage for the season of 1890 was $389.93. 

nENCII-MARKS AT UOCK ISLAND RAPIDS. 

Xoveinber !) to l'> tlie beneb-uiarks wore carefully examined, repaint-cd, and r^ 
nuuibered, so as to preserve them for future use. Number of beuoh-marktf is 67. 

IMI'KOVIXC UOCK ISLAND RAPIDS. 

Tilis work was in local charge of Mr. J. C. McElherne, superintendent. Intke 
early ]>art of the season Mr. MeKlherne made very frequent trips over the rapidSf frr 
the. ])i]i-{M»>:i> ot'asee.rtainiug the views of steamboatmen regarding the improveioents 
aln-ady earried out and those ])roposcd. He succeeded in obtaining expreasioiiH ^f 
o])iiiion from nearly all of the pilots and masters of boats navigating this part of the 
river. The optrrations of the season, which commenced August 7 and ended Deftfm- 
ber H. consist fd in the removal of ])atches of rock at Cabin and St. Louis chaiufiliic 
means of sti\-iui-<lrill auil ilrcH^^c '{'he proposed work at St. Louis Chain is now com- 
pleted, tliMi :ii r:iliiii ('h:iiu uiMi'ls >o. SiHiir >iiiall patehi'S of roirk near rMiek(*ri^L 
rh.-iin, broK«'ii upiu |NS*». weit- irnioMil h\ dieilm'. Most tif the broken nnrk lakiu 
up by di'edgo W;i> deposit i.mI in Su<-lvii- (.'liutc for the purpose of cUecki uu thii si<ld 



ilMft tliom; bnt the amnJl annaut gntheied at Duok Creek Chain wns ilnmpeil 1iC' J 
tWFrrii llin towbead and Ike lonn nhoro. ' 

Til" pluiit iiseil rcinaisted of xtcain drill bont, with ponder bnat, liuidinK IioikI, 
fOnI Hat, and niinrtor boat, dtedgn Ajax, Inum-li louinr, and 6 rock flats. TlicdriMlgnl 
wo* t;ikeii to Knukiik, Kovonibor 8, Iml thercet nf tbu flont wiucmpluyudutitilelosa ■ 

The Mloyiiag extrucia oro mucla irtitu Mr. MoEIIii>rue'a report: 

"Oil August 7, operations wore cninmenced by tbn drill hnatntSt. Lotub Chain, fur 
(bi- tmr[H>se of deei>oii<iig nud wideuing the rliniiiii!) by riitirnly runioving tlin miiny 
•l»i>;:<>roM9 olistrnotiuna existing iu that loculity. In ordor that blasting mlslit l>« 
. ..i'm>m) ->t> nitbout IntJ'n'upttiig uitvi;ratioii UDtil siic-h a time lut u drndgo mielit, lin- 

c, Li!.!!.!!}, a section (No. 1), averaging 70 feet wide by B75 lent in leuetli, 

iii; the tintiro length or the extrema lllinoia side of the piopoiied cluin- 
. . . n. was ohofien aa the initiiil work. Fointe wero first establiNheil, btv- 

II <: III'!' iiiillird, and flexible ranfe poles Net therein, completely outliniug the area 
In i|ii>'r<uiiii. Tlie drill boat «a8 tlien placuit at the upper end and on the llUuiiiH 
aide lit thiH uection and ao mauoiiverea by means of aut^hurH, liuois, and spuiU un In 
n]*erule directly bcfobh the sei;tion, and at richt angles witli the current, aovcrinc 
tiingcs 56 feet wide sucressively, and, while iloiug eo, uiiikin^ 4 feel movca, thereby 
•PiMiring a oarefnl soundiog of the river bottom at each sEiftmade by the l)oiii. 
Itnngo poles were kept plauted, and so reguluted on shore as to iniiure the bou['H 
hiiing properly held on tJie correct lines. By the time this xoction was wotl(e<t over 
the arrival of dredge AJax left the drill boat free to proooed with the adjoiaing jiatch 
(No. 2). This, togetber with 3 others, comprising the remainder of the oTiHlriii'- 
tians at fit. liouis Cbaiu, were staked out, when reached, and treated according to 
the same established plan. 

"The obatractions met with PoiiBistod partly of loose rock nndsomegrnTol, but 
mostly of aomerouB bowlders and solid rock ledges, both large and Hinall, ranging 
fromO.Sfoot to 1.5 feet or 2.0 feet above the grndeof 4 feet below low water of ItltH. 

" The drill boat is provided with two Bteiun drills, oiontited on oarriaees i>apahta 
uf being moved alon" the gnniiel u» reqnireil. Tliose drills ore AimiBbeil with slici-l 
pointe, star-shaped, ^ inches iti diuuioter. With them holes wore mode 4 feet anarc 
in the case of solid patches, if of u sixe to require tbeni, and bor«(l to a depth of 
from 18 to 23 inches below grade. The bole» wnre t.lien thorouglily cleaned by mcniiti 
of a water hose, with long noxEle, passing down tlirough a cooper tnlie tirmly bold 
iu each one. This tube, 3 inches in diameter and uf suitable Iciigtb, bos a slot ii>i 
one side, extending its whole length, to faoilitAte the esoape of deliris. n&d after tlio 
obarees are ramm^ soniirety to tJit! bottom to penntt the placing of tlie mres ciiii- 
nnctins them. When tbeluuiUiig was ftnisbed, the connecting wires were miiii-il 
with the letdingwires, thus coniploting the eiretiit, and the drill boat wiis then 
moved about 50 1'eet away and the bluet llred by electricity,. 



then 

*' October 27, the drUl boat finisbed work on St. Louis (.'hain. In the accomplish- | 
mrnt of this work, she succeeded, after a great dual of laborious shifting, sounding, 
etc., in shattenng all solid fonnatinns found projecting above grade, within the ci 
tire area, a space averaging 300 feet in width by 000 fret in length. 

" As it was deflnitely known at the close of the work on St. Louis Chain that tlie 
dredge wonld in a very few days be taken away, the drill boat was immediately set 
at work on Cabin Chain, beginning at the upstream end with aviewnf selecting and ■ 
destroying as many as possible of the rock patches already known. Theonegreutly g 
feared by river men, a compact ledge 1 feet wide, 8 feet long, and 14 inches abuva J 
grade (on which the steamer Ben IhrikTi/ and oneofonrdnmpboafa were sank), and f 
others of adangiTiinatype scattfred ihrouahout theleuglh of the chain were selecti'cl'l 
and broken np prior to tlio departure of the dredge. Sulisejjuently the method of | 
proccding originally described was pursued and a good portion of the lower end nf - 
the chain disposed of; but as it was deemed best 'not to disrupt the bottom of tlif 
channel too ranch without means at hand of remo vine the material, andasthowiiirly 
vea^er interfered grciitly with correct soundings, the boat was moved to the largo 
hiEh patihrx alireiut of pirr No, 11. Blasting on theae, although well on towurils i 
I <,ij^)il< rr.i'i. wLih brought to a close on December 3 by the snddeu appearance '■fa 

I'- of the rock mot with was gwiif rally a mixture of siiml a 

rv :',u ,1 III' ioMtof St. Loula and Cabin i-lMilnit. <vbi^re It was fnuii-l 
<i ",L.^ u.,,.1 ..i.v burr) Iu diill. 

[ifiL August JU, the dtciigu AJiijr, Laviiif; arrived I'ruui Keokuk, wiw u 



2164 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMT. 

f lowiiHt roam end and on Illinois sidu of Section No. 1, at 8t. Louis Chain. TheBoi- 
torial on thiR section, as well as that on Section 2, was dredged, out as floon as nos- 
ti'ihh\f the Ixittoni examined, and found to Ik?) well down to grade. This gave a clear 
width of i:^ feet, ho that, with the aid of aline of large range poles, set inaud 
dearly delining tlie Illinois edji^e of thtt iniproved channel, aU steamboats found 
am]>le Hpaee to navigate there, thuH Nccuring more room and. freedom of action for our 
plant on the nntinisiied ])ovtLon of the chain. 

•• On Sci)t<'mher 2*.> the dredge, having canght up with the drill boat, was sent to re- 
move the -material lilawted hiHt Hcason above Duck Creek Chain. There were four 
])atehe8 there; one. Mason Break, was ni»ar Buoy No. 19; the others, of wldoli one 
was un immense granite bowlder on which boats occusioually struck, were la tlie 
channel above Bony No. 20. Theitu having all been found without difficulty and 
dealt with as intended, the boat wan, on October 10, returned to finish up atSt.Louitf 
Chain. 

*' It having ha])pened that the boats were brought too close toj;cther for advanta- 
geous working, the dredge's time was utilized for a while in trying to procure nn-k 
tor utid in dams along the Illinois shore Ix'low Crab Island and below Cabin CThain. 
V«-ry little was found at the former place, and mostly small bowlders at the hitter. 

•*'A careful sweeping with iron rail, made after all dredging, having fullv demon- 
strated that the desired end had been attained, the dredge was, on October 2^, started 
on Cabin Chain. In order to make the most of the little time remaining to her, she 
moved about between the head and foot of (yabin (*hain and removed several of the 
highest ])atches blasted. She was taken away on November 8, leaving those pati'heti 
of niinor importance, together with tlie intervening spaces, for future work. Mwt 
of the material obtained at St. Louis and Cabin chains was deposited in Sucker 
Chute tor the ])uri>ose of slnitting otf the draft of water, while that taken fr<»m 
l»:itchrs abov<' Ouck Creek Chain was thrown between Duck Cn.*ek Tuw-head and 
tlie I(.iwi( shore on the line of a dam contemplated at that place." 



Ihtoih of oprrations. 

T.aun<-h Limisr.: 

Ibnirn run ift^ 

Mihs run 2,143 

Drill boat: 

Hours worked UlS 

Hours lost oaring to rafts 57 

Hours lost, owiihg to a<.'eiilents ■ li 

Hours lost owing to storms W 

Numlier of holes drilled 1, !W 

Number of holes blasted 1. flS 

A verag(j de])th of Iftdes, in inches S) 

Number of soliil ruhii- v:irds l»lji>ted ( anproxinnite) l.ftTJi 

NuiulxT of pounds of dynamite us»mI 3.'i.'i*' 

Ihrdi^r tjajr : 

Hours worked r>4»i 

Hours lost owing to rafts 4S 

Ihmis lost owing to accidruts •! 

H«mrs lost owing to stnrnis 11 

Number of solid rubi** \ arils dredged ami remoxed U. IW 

riuaiu'ltll titiitcmrnt for iinju'mi nn nf nf Utnk hlomt h'ophiH for hvumok »/' /.V.'«(/. 

Amount eNpeiided in the licM fnr i he calendar \ ear 1><fK> ( from distribu- 
tion sheets) " ^».47H.19 

.\«ld (|M(»l.i nt";cefu'r;il sup«'rrnlende!Hi- and olliee e\])enses l,4;viAt 

Add f*»r u>e iind ileteriorati<»n of plant 4, 174.3' 



Total co>l of work l."5,10d.<^» 



I 



l^M-k hrokeii u]) and diedgi'd at St. Louis and Cabin chains, solid cubic 

yards \^^ 

Kock broken \\\t at Cahin Chain, solid <"ubic yards 261 

liock dredi^eil at St. Louis and Duck Cri'ek chains, solid cubic yards . 721 

Kock put in dams al Sucker (.'hute and Muck Creek, eubii: yards 2, IW 

Allow iii-r tl pel' culiii- \aid t«ii the loi k put in dairis. 1 otimate the Ci»st jjer wdiiT 
«uliic xaidof ilii loiK hioUrn up and dr«dv.ed al J|7.L'0- of rock blai*ri*fl but not 
dii-d;;«.d, at ^i'o.l.M; of loeU diedyid, at +1.1M». 



APPENDIX A A — REPORT OF MAJOR MACKENZIE. 2165 

HARBOR AT lAKK m V. 

i 

Some repairs were m»<le to the pier at Lnko Cily. T)(>failK of the work are given 
in the following report of Bnperintoiultriit W. A. 'I'hunipsou: 

**Thi8 pier was const rnctea in 1«87. Owing t<» the Aopth of water being from 20 
to 28 feet at low- water i^tage. for moHt of the length of the proposed pier, and the 
imiall amonut of money available for its couHtnirtion, it wuh decided to lessen the 
coHt by making a fooudatiou of gravel dredgeil from the gravel bars in the vicinity 
of Lake City. After the cribs were pnt in place a large quantity of gravel was de- 
posited on the outside, to protect the pier Irom moving ice and the action of the 
waves. 

'* On the south side of the pier, and at its outer end, this gravel had settled in 3: 
years from 3 to 6 feet. Consequently, when the ice broke up in the lake last springs 
several of the plank were loosened at their ends, and, during a violent storm in Aprils 
115 of these planks were pulled out and washed away. 

** The work of repairing was commenced October 21. The oak plank that were lost 
were replaced by pine plank 3 inches thick, and all of the other plank on the sloping 
side were lespiked witn 7-iuch boat spikes. 

"An agreement was entered into with .lacob Richtman, of Fountain City, Wis., to 
place 519.3 cubic yards of rock around the pier in places whore the gravel had settled 
most, at $1 per cubic yard, and the above-named a mount of rock was ])laced, as agreed, 
as a protection to the pier foundation. It is believed that this will protect the pier 
from damages by the ice for another vear at lesust; but I would rerommend that a 
liiyer of brush and rock be put upon the gravel around the pier to prevent it from 
sliding out into the deep water. 

** This work was suspended November 15. 

" The total cost of the repairs was $870." 



SURVEYS ANT) GAUGES. 

Between May 25 and 27 the crew of the Barnard made a reconnoissance in vicinity 
of Reads Lan^ng. On September 24 and 25 an examinatitm of the river in vicinity 
of l*rairie du Chien was made by the same party. Between October 21 and 31 a party, 




Vinona during the year. Gauge records were also <d)taine<l from the Signal Service 
and bridge keepers at St. Paul, Dubuque, Rock Isljind, Keokuk, Burlington, Quiucy, 
Hannibal, and Louisiana. These records are now being plotted. 
Amount expended on surveys and gauges during the year was $745.24. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

C. W. Durham, 
Assistant Engineer^ 
Maj. A. Mackenzie, 

Corps of Engineers, U. 8. A, 



report of mr. m. mkicis, [;xited states civil exgineer. 

Unitkd States Enginkku Officf, 

Keokuk f Iowa, January 14, 1S91, 

Major: I have the honor to submit the following report of operations, for work in 
my charge, for the calendar year ending l)ecemb(;r 31, 1890: 

VICINITY OF BURLINdTOX AND DALLAS. 

I submit extracts from report of Mr. S. ICd wards, overseer, on work done at above 
localities. Mr. Edwards' report is in detail and gives all the necessary figures, which 
include expenditures to December 31, 1890, and are checke<l with the othce distril)u- 
tion sheets. In the statements it appears that the cost of work done at Dallas, al- 
though carried on with a less expensive plant, is slightly in excess of that done at 
Burlington. This is explained by comparing the comparative n mount of rock to 
brush liseil at Dallas with the comparative amount iised at Burlington. At Dallas 
there was more than twice as much rock used as brush, while at Burlington the propor- 
tion was as nine to eight, or nearly equal quantities. ' At Dallas the work was mainly 



? 



2166 REPORT OF TitE CHIEF OF ENGiyEERS, U. S. ARMT. 



fitunutb* niiii; slmiv prntorfion that had b#»on only sHirbtly rov^rod witb 5t«»n«,' 
ill liiirliiii:t<Mt tlui'i* WHS x]\*' ordinary cbi8s ol'daiu :iud shortf-proteotion work. 
I \\onlii o.'ill attt'ntion to Mr. KdwnrdsV figures on the coaiparutiTe cost olf wii 
lath y;irn Jor binding piirposeB. By these it appears that, for making faaeiMi 
lath y:u-n riMpiired for 1 cubic yard will coat, at 10 centa per jtoand, $0,023; iha 
r('(|nired for the same purpose, at 3.35 centa per jionnd, will cost $0,007, a savi 
two-thirds in the cost of binding material by the use of wire instead of lath- 
For making into mats, the saving is in the same proportion. The contractM 
brnsh were furnished with wire by the United States. The wire comes in colli 
liave ni> covering weighed in, while a considerable portion of the weight of 
yarn in made up of the packing materials. No. 16 annealed wire is about aa 
iiH ir is safe to use. The bundles of brush are stronger and stand handling 1 
when bound with wire than when lath-yam is naed, and wire is qoita aa haa 
a]»i»ly. 

List of irorA-4 construct fd and repaired^ and of WMtmiaU uted dmr%n§ ike sea 

in vicinity of BMrlingtou, Iowa, and Dalla», /U. 



Works. 



DimensioBS. 



Length. 



Shf ft :.«! : Feet. 

i>:iiii :» :i40 

l»;iinG* ' 1,2A) 

HamS 610 

l>.nii 10 3S0 

Sluuf iin>t«tfii»u below l>ivw l*rairie ., l.MO 

J>.iin I ]vi>aittHl ; , 

Slmrt- i>rotei'tion on liiirHii^tnii Irthiinl n-iminnl J 4.000 

."nIiiui- pnitti-tiiiu at S.iiU'rw<'iu Hfiid nikiiixHl 2,700 

."^Imrt- ]»nitiviiuu at Twiu Islaud 196 

I>jiu 14 <not completed) | 

Slu»ii' i»riiTt^'tion on Cn^w Ishiud : 980 



Height 

•buve 

low water 

of inm. 



Feet. 
3.6 
3.5 
8.5 
4.0 
12.0 



Boek. 



12.0 



zi-\ 



Total 



r 



Cu. yda. 
1.4&w4 
2,23ft.5 
2.505.S 

515.0 
2.556.1 

44L2 

2.135.9 

1.006.4 

:i43.3 

6S0.9 
1,148.7 



T 



* .'•.'•0 feet of Dam were built fi»r tcnipor.iT>- effect, and were removed November IX 
Ki>i-k on hand on bank at close of season of 1890: 

Kurni.-«1ii'd by Kudtdph Wiegand, of Xauvoo, 111.^ 1,172 cubic yards at 
.^j*"* irnts per eubic yard 

riinii>h(d by S. A. Maley, of Pontoosuc, 111., 350 cubic yards, at 60 
cents per cubic yard 



B 



O 



14,837.7 i 1 



Total 



Financial statement for tcorls of improving Afisnsaippi Jiirer in vicinitjf of BurlinfU 

DaltaSf during the season of IS90. 

.\ mount expended in the field during the calendar year 1890 {(torn distri- 

l»nti(»n slioetd^ $30,i 

] tiMlm t ( ost of 1.5l^2 cubic yards of mck on liand $761.00 

priluit r(»>t of removing temporary dam 201.77 

liriluit riiKt ot' survey at Burlington 75.36 

ni'ilu(t txp.nsesof I'awsuit in 1888 138.49 

1,1 



Ni't rost of tioM work 19. ^ 

AiM «iu«»ta nf •reneral sui^erintendence and ollice expanses 3.1 

.Villi rVir use anil deterioration of plant 3,' 

'l'nl;i] lost of w«)rk - 215.4 



M;iT«-i ial put in works: 

i;«" k cubic y.irds. 14, J 

l'«iu».h do 10,' 



Total cubic yards. 25.; 



ATWUKTiust pi-n'iiljiir jiud I'n bur;:(ui jni.iSlH 

A.'tfngv isiHt pur euliia yard fur tuwuiu uuil i>uttiuK in matnrinl 'tMhH 

ATWa^e rost per cabio yard for geueriu lupeniiCoDrti'niw jind nffirn I'ipenaea. . lai^H 
AT(Vfti;e iHwt per cubic yard for pUnl ,.. 149^1 

Avnroge cost per ciiliic ;atd in place '■('9^1 

Mr. i;dw»rdB. saya: "According t" \-n<- mM.-i-, I I. .ft Keokuk Snpt^mlx'r 1. 1SH0^| 

nitb Bii'uiiiKr I'lren and fleet ol' Ij.wi^'. -- ' \- llurliiigtoti, rown, ti> bnlldS 

Hiu>L daiiiH Lind shore protectJonB UH 1 .1 i. ii si-us<iii ivDiililrill^jw. ^^t 

"111 Yidiiity of BnrUiwtoii. Dun- ■ ■ !■■ h-t 581. wt-re built, md tJOtoU 

T«et at nhtiTf. protection below Dn-n i i.,inc .-hi. t :.?.| were coiiatrnotcd. Dam (^| 
(«biH.>l uH) waa repaired, after coiup]<^i.i'>ii «i wlii'ti wurlc tbo fleet was laid up Ibr Uia^| 
wintut, ill tha Des Hoines Hapids Caual, Noveuiber 15, 1890. ^M 

"SeptiimberS. 1890, work was coraraeoced oo Dam 6 (sheet 58). tbt- eecoud dum unS 
lltinMs shtire of the aevon dams proposed to be built above Biirliuj^oD, lewa (aea^| 
earvey completed September 6, 1^). The total len^b of tLiii dum wue 1,280 feet, fl 
of which the outer end, 550 feet, iraa intended aa temporary, na apron loaded wltll^H 
ntiljr a little rock lieing pat in; the other part, ISO feet long, was liuilt up to 3.fi lJwti^| 
nbove low wAti^r, an average height of 5.5 feet. Navigation at tliis point, duilDE »^| 
low stage of water, has, for a number of yeara, been more difflcnlt than at any otbei^l 
pl«(^e in your district, and only a few daya before work commenced here boata had H 
boon hard aground at this iiuiut fur as luug na 6 honrf. By September 10, the 1,S80 
f)wt of apron wore laid, ana September 20 the dam was completed. Soonrlug oom- 
iiienced imniedJatoly ai^r the completion of the apron, and although the river after , 
D aiuall rise, fell as low as 2,3 feet above low water, no di£Banlties were enooautered 
by >ny packet or other boat for the balance of the season. The temporary portion _ 
01 dam waa removed by dredging, November 10 to 12, 1890. J 

"September 20 we commenced on Dam 5 (sheet 58), and completed same September H 
30. The length of dam ia340 feet; average height la 11.5 feet, and height atiove low H 
water ifl 3.5 feet. ■ 

" From Beplember 30 to October 18. 1890, a force worked on Dam 8 (sheet 58). thsS 
lowest dam of the projected series of four dams on the Illinois side of the river. ^| 
Owing to the eballow ivatcr above Dam 8, a dam conld not be bnilt in the positioiLH 
Indloated on project for Dam 7 (sheet 58). Dam 8 is 640 feet long, of which length H 
400 feet are built in 12 feet of water, the balance in 4.5 feet of water, at a 3.5 joet ■ 
BtHge, the dam being built np to a height of 3.5 feet above low water. There being 
Kko shallow water near shore to float barges, the 400 feet of dam In deep water were 
bnilt Arst. After a few days there were 4 feet of water near shore, a aconriug of 
«ver 2.5 feet, when the remaining 240 feet of dam wore built. T'his dam will prevent 
Aa enormons amonnt of sadd i^om moving into the channeL 

" October 18 to November 10, 1890, shore protection below Drew Prairie wai 
atmoted. Ita length is 1,940 feet, height of bonk above low water is 12 feet, and I 
Ttoiioa] height from bottom averages 21 feet. Tbongh caving fast in some places ¥ 
eap«ciajty in windy weatjier, the bank was very hard and plow and acrapera wero J 
lined to great advantage in grading the bonk, 6 honrs' plowing keeping tb% scraper I 
employed for 18 hours. Where poasibio t^ make use of this method, it is a cheap and I 
(|uick way of grading a hard bank, and, as it waa impossible to get men, it enabled | 
me with a very small force to make satisfactory progress. 

" In the latter part of October, work was beenit on Dun 10 (sheet 58), which ie 
tended, when completed, to extend ont &om shnre of Rush Island opposite Dam 8 1 
(nheet 58} across and beyond the bar abreast of the island. The portion of tho dam f 
on ohannel side of the bar wae completed November 15, 1890, find is 320 feet long. 1 
llie unter end of dam is in 4,6 feet of water, at a 3-feet stiwe, and inner end 3.5 feot-4 
aboTO wat«r snrface on the dry bar. 1 l>etieve this dam will prevent mncli cutting J 
of the bur, which the building of the other dams would no doubt cause. 

"Dan I (sheet 58) was repaired by flUing with rock u number of holes formed be- 
hind ttaa puing, and raising a few places tnut had settled . 

"Tbenrem^ to be built Dnms T, 9, and 11 (sheet 58), and the inner part of Dam 
10 (khoet 58), to close chute behind bar south of liush Island. These can, however, 
«iily be built dnrlng high water. ^ 

"The work In vicini§ of Dallus waa cotnmenced October 4 and cloaed November I 
8, ISM. Launch Luda and a small force were employed at this work, the Lwtiii I 
taking the men to and f^om the work .ind, when the tow was not too long, aasisting j 
in towing. The towing uf material, owing to the lung distance, was mostly done by 
the «t«amcr I-'iaeB during the night. The work in this vicinity oonsistetl iu tho 
building i)f two new iiiocea of shore protection, at Twin and Crow ishmds. fiiiioliing 
putliii|[ in <)f apron course of Dnni 14 (sheet 60), beeun in 1889, and repairing sbor.i 
jtrolection ou liurlington Island and at Suuerwoin iTcnd. 

"The length of shore protection repaired ou Burlington Island is 4,600 feet. 



2168 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U, 8. ARMT. 

Ii'ii^th of sbnrt^ protortiim at S:iii<^Tw»>iii Boud is 2,700 feet, and almost thewh 
li.Miiifh aliovo the water surface had to be recovered with rock. This piece of mi 
likr till- work on Burlington Island, when originally Imilt was, owing to the dM 
ne^s oi' tiinds on liaiut only slightly covered, uud the action of ice and waves, asv 
as tlie raving in of a very sand^ oank. had almost left the whole bank nncoverea. 1 
apron was found to be in fair condition and no brush was nsed in repairing i 
aliovt* works. 

"Now work was done by protectinj^head of Twin Island (381). The length 
short' protection is li)6 feet, and the height of bank from bottom of river Ib 18 fetf 

" Lower end of Crow Island (383) was also protected. The length of shore p 
tection is iV^) feet and the height of bank above bottom of river is 15.6 feet. T 
bank contains heavy strata of sand and was caving rapidly, causing, no doubt-, nil 
of the Tronhle below. - A long slo^e was given the bank and I think that, notwi 
standinj: the sandy condition, it will prove a lasting piece of work. 

" l)ani 11 ^ sheet (U)> was commeuced in 1^). but owing to low water its consti 
tion had to lu* discontinued. October 28. l8iW. there l>eing water enoueh to get 
1 stMrtcd party to build same, connecting the apron laid in 1889 with the she 
This aprou is 2..%40 feet long, of which '200 feet were laid the year before and bsla: 
this si-ason. A raising mat TOO feet long was also put in fnmi outer end tows 
shore. November 5. 1890. work on this dam was again discontinued on acconni 
water tailing. 

** No difficulties of any consequence were encountered during the season's wi 
outside of the scarcity of men to be had, no doubt due to the lateness of the sea 
in whirh work «'onnneuced. 

, ** Steamer I'ixrn was again run with a double crew, enabling her with ease to 
the tt»wing for both works. Some delay wascause<1 by eon tnir tors having difBcv 
in gettin;; men. necessitating the rtxcn'it waiting for material oi'casicinally. At si 
tiuK-s she would be employed iu snagging, if any such work was necessary. 

" A survey was made from the foot ot Drew Prairie to Burlington Bridge. 
additional help was hired for this work. The survey has been ]>lotted and trac 

" Ki»r binding fascines and making mats, wire (No. 16 annealed) was um*d inst 
of the t-iistomary lath-yarn, and, by its cheapness as well as its iioicker handii 
re<-i»mmeiids itself as far superior to twine." 

COMPARISON' OF COST BETWEEX WIRB AND TWIXB. 

From former estimates I get — 

For making fascines, per 100 cubic yards, lath-yarn. 32i>ounds $3 

For making mats, per 1(X> cubic yards, lath-yarii. 1-t pounds 1 

1(K) cubic yards i»f brush in mats 4 

We used this season for 7,12l>.iH> cubic yards brush made into mats 3.690 
pounds of wire, at ^'X'Sii per U)0 pounds, or per 100 cubic yards brush in 
mats 1 

A saving per UK) cubic yards of 2 

Bv aetnal c»)unt I tind — 
10 fasrines used IS ounces lath-yam, or per 100 cubic yards, 20.45 pounds. 2 
10 fasiiiu's used 1J>.."> ounces lath-yarn, or per lOO' cubic yaros. 22.16 

]>oinHls 2 

l.tKil fasrines used 241 pounds lath-yarn, or per 100 cubic yanls, 22.70 

]M>unds 2 

."><> fasiines used .'>.."» pounds win*, or per llH» eubie yards, 20 pounds 

."»<) fM-iiint'-i wivt} .'»..*> pounils wire, «»r per HH> eubic yards, 20 ponnds Q 

(.'o^t of wire ]ifr 100 ptmnds '. $3.20 to $3 

('i»>i of lath yarn per 100 pounds $10.00 to $12 

•• There is no los> in the paeking of wire, whereas I have found a loss of 10 per c< 
in lath-varn when taking otf the cover and cords. 



t 



" 'rinmu:li indebteil to a greater pan of the force for their ready help, I take | 
tieiilar pli-asuri- in exprt-ssing my ttianks to Capt. II. B. Whitney, master of steal 
I'ij-fH. :iiid Mr. tii'urgf Aikley. rereiver of materials, who, by their untiring intei 
iu thf work, t- naVdrtl me to give most of my time to the field work, which 1 otl 

wise roiild not liavi* diMie." • • • 

IlAinUHt AT lURI.INGToN. IOWA. 

Tlii** wnik . iin<i».ii'd in ditiM-ning the river ali»ng the levee Irom lower end of le 
at till- ^•■\\tr uutli t to the toot of JJigh .street. The contractor, under informal agi 
ment of Oetuber 1^. \s{H), \\:is A. J. Whituey. The price paid was 17 ceutaper cu 



APPENDIX A A — REPORT OF MAJOR MACKENZIE. 2169 

yard removed. Work wmh begun rutr>l»4T *JJ :nul was Bfnpprd by tlu» r<>M weather 
November 15. The work'was not. qnitf conipletcd. hut the niuin and important part 
was finished. A large inavel bar at- the He-wer out let whh removed and tlie levee front 
deepened to a ^ade of 5 foot below low water. 'I'lu* wtu-k remaining untiniHhed iH 
diedeing from the foot of Court Mtrwt to th<' foot of High street, <»ne bb)ck; and 
poesibly a narrow cnt all along the levee front if ftumd nate to go any nearer the 
paving. 

Finan<:ial staifmvni. 

Amount paid contractor ^ - . $1, 809. 69 

Cost of local inspection 95. 93 

Add fpiota of general superintend en ere and ofliie*^ expenses 289. 56 

Total cost of work 2,195.18 

Material dredged and removed, cubic yards 10, 645. 2 

Average cost per cnbic yard $0. 206 

The local inspector was Mr. H. H. Ayres, while Mr. 8. Edwards had general super- 
visioB of the work. 

CARE, REPAIR, AND COXSTRTTTIOX OF PLANT. 

During the year a large amount of repair and construction work was done at the 
canal dry dock and shops. A coal barge, 100 feet by 20 feet, commeneed in 1889, was 
coroifletcd. Considerable work was done on towboat Funj^ snag boat J, G. Parke, 
towloat Alert, and steam launches IJUie, LouisCf Emily, SteUuy and Ada received 
some repairs. Many of the barges and other pieces were i»ut in condition for service, 
viz: Barges 1, 5, 27, 28, 33, 35, 37, 39, 40, 47, 79, 82, 91, 92, 98, 99, and 105; dump boats 
1, 3, and 6; d[rill boats 34 and 1CK3, and pile-driver 104. At such times as the plant 
was :iot used in the field watchmen were employed. Total amount expended for care, 
repair, and construction of plant during the year was $9,530.53. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

M. Meigs, 
United States Ciml Engineer. 
MjQ. A. Mackenzie^ 

Corps of Engineers, U. S, A, 



report of mr. c. w. durham, assistant engineer. 

United States Engineer Office, 

Bock Island, III., July 1, 1891. 

Major: I have the honor to present a preliminary report of operations on the 
various works in my charge during the second half of the fiscal year ending June 
30,1891: 

MINNEAPOLIS TO ST. PAUL. 

This work is carried on with a special allotment of $50,000 in act of September 19, 
1890, and under project approved February 28, 1891. 

The work projected consists in protecting eaving l)anks, building dams of brush, 
rock, and gravel, dredging gravel bars, and removing rocks and bowlders from 
channel. 

A plant, consisting.of steam launch Emily j quarter boat 94, working barge 95, rigged 
with derrick, grapples,. sweeping bars, etc., was put in commission June 15, 1891, and 
proceeded up river from Boulanger Slough, removing a number of bowlders from 
river above Fort Snelling and below Grovcland Park. Considerable progress has 
been made in sweeping the chaimel between the lu'ad of Meeker Island and the 
Short Line Bridge for the purpose of locating rocks and bowlders above grade in 
that part of the riyer. 

ST. PAUL TO PRKSCOTT. 

The project allotting $40,000 for building dams and shore protections, etc., between 
St. I'aui and Prescott was approved February 28, 1891. This work will be earried 
on by hii'ed labor and Government plant. The condition of this portion of the river 
is better than has ever before been known for the same stage of water. With one 
exception the crossings are straight and afford a )i:ood depth. At Nininger a bar 
formed iL the channel and caused some trouble, but the dredge Phoenix, which oper- 



2170 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGIXEERS, U. S. ARMT. 

:•'• il ,if t]iw ]ioint (luiiii^ tht> iiionlh t>f Jiin»*. li.is rn^w opened a good elm nnt>l. whir" 
will) I iM.i([r iKTiiiauont. 
CiMistnu'lion wmk will bo rosumod ojirlv in Jul v. 

KKAD iJlXDlXCf TO XnXST.ISKA. 

\Vt<i]» i!\ \\i\< liu:»lity. toiisi<tiii^ «>l*tlie <*oii8tnioti«m and repair of linwb and rod 
il:i!ii<> :i III oIliiIi' jirtitritiniis. 1^ Ix'iii^ rniTied on under rontruct in aeconlance wit] 
]iri»irri :i)>i>io\id Jauuaiy 0. l^tl. The auKUint of the allotment is $50,090. Open 
tiniis i-iMiiiiii'iu'tMl May U». and were carried on continuously until end of fi^oal jeai 
The wt»rk aicomiiiishod is the construction of 3.620 linear ieet of shoreprotection 09 
Island :w>: Ll'iO linear feet on Island 34. and of closin£r-d.im at Island &• 750 fectii 
It'ir^th. The amount of material put in is. rock. 10.359 cubic yards; brush, 5^96 
cuhic \ards. 

MIXXKISKA TO LA CROSSE. 

The ]>Toiect alloting $00,000 for hnildinj; dams, shore protections, etc.. betwee 
Miniiriska and La Crosse was a]»]>roved February 28.lS*n. 

\V«»rk was commenced, with usi* of hired labor and (Government plant, on .Tune 4 
and was ramed on until end of fiscal year. There were constructed 1.5LHMinealfe< 
of short' ]irotoction on Ihland 4i>: 2lX) linear feet of shore protection on Island 5isan> 
V>'iug da II IS S. 9. and If i sheet 10). The amount of nniterial put in is, rock, 4,59 
cubic yards; brush, 6.701 cubic yards. 

"nCINITY OF PRAIRIE DI' CinEN. 

Tin** work. cnn«*istin»: of the ronstruction ef rock and brush dams and shore pre 
tertiuiis fur ihe iniprovenu'nt of the channel at Trairie du I'liien. is carried on b 
fiunial i'ontract. under siH»cial allotment of ^^\04^) in act of September 19, 18JH.\ an 
under i»roj«'i't a]»]>roved .ranuary S, 1^J»1. 

«>]»eratii>ns coinmenrod May 1*5 an<l were carried on to end of fiscal vear. Closin 
ilanis 1 ami 3 and Winir dams 4. 5. and ^shect 'M)) wer«' completed. Amonnt of nu 
tcrial put in wa.s: Hock. 4.831.1 cubic yards: brush. 4.762.3 cubic yards. 

\nCINITY OF CLINTON. 

The projci't allotting; $5.00i) for coustruction of a dam and shore protection in v 
linity «itrlinton was approved February I'S, \^[)l, ami work was carrieil on, by n» 
i»f hired labor and Oovemment plant, from May 18 to the close of the year. * Th 
^^o^k aeromplislied consisted in the construction of a small dam iit the headoftli 
;:uard fence. East Channel: Dam No. 1. from Island 290 to Willow Island; and Bhoi 
I>ro[e« lion around head of Willow Island. Amount of material pnt in was: Hoel 
L*.,":>lHi < wbio yards; brush. 2.873 cubic yards. 

HARBOR AT PORT BYROX. 

The :«.ct of September 19. 1890. makes a special allotment of $5,000 for removal i 
liar :'f Toit Hyron. and a project for dredijiii;: in that locality was approved Febn 
:ji\ 1*7. lv»l. a moiliiii'ation of which proi«*ct was approved June 2l\ l&M. 

Woilx. under a^reeuient with A. J. Whitney, was commenced .Tune 6 and cairic 
o;) r.uiil close of the iiscal year. Amount of materi.il dredged and removed wi 
;«.j;vj , ubic vards. 

nroTs ON ROCK isijoa> rapids. 

Till- bnoys bavin <r been repaired and repainted "were reset April 21 to 24, 1391, I 
>Ti am lam.-h Lout ft . There arc now 29 buovs in the system, all of \rhich are secun 
}i\ i.njT< aiMl chains to the rock bottom. All the range stakes were carefully exaa 

in* i1. iii»airc»l. and ]iaiiiti'd. 

iMriMvixr, ROCK ISLAND i:apit>.<?. 

I'l'tl'i- iM-.'jri-T n]n->n>v.d lVl.n:ar\ lN. 1^91. an albitnn-nt of $50,000 wa« made fi 
i'\i .i\;i!:!u .iik! i«i::"\iM: I"- In :i!!'l ^:i:ni iVoim tin- < liaiiiiel of Kotdv Island R&pids, ail 
loi I'MiMiii;; idiU iiaiii*« Mini j^r.iiic ]•;■ is. 



APPENDIX A A — REPORT OP MAJOR MACKENZIE. 21 71 

On account of high wjiicr the work of rork exravation wa^ not. roiniiU'iMril nntil 
May 22, and since that time the stoam drill has been at work on St. JiOniH and Caligi 
chains. As the broken rock has not been taken up by dredge, no cHtiniate can now 
he given of the quantity. Work on dams and guide x>ier8 is not yet begun. 

REPAIRS OF PLANT. 

During the spring needed repairs were made to towhoats Fwry and ^/fr/, steam 
launches StellUf Louise, Ada, Emily, and KlMe, and to many of the 1)argc8 and other 
pieces of plant pertaining to works above mentioned. 
Very re8x>ectftilly, your obedient servant, 

C. W. Durham, 
Assistant Engineer, 
Maj. A. Mackenzie, 

Corps of Engineers, U.S. A, 



report of mr. m. meigs, unitrd states civil engineer. 

United States Engineer Office, 

Keokuk, Iowa, July 1, 1891. 

Major: I have the honor to present a preliminary report of operations during the 
second half of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891 :* 

KEITHSBURG TO MONTROSE. 

An allotment of $60,000 was made for work hetween Keithshnrg and Montrose 
under project a])proved February 28, 1891. 

It is proposed to carry on the work by use of Government plant and hired labor. 
Parties are getting out rock at ^ different places, and needed repairs have been made 
to portions of the plant. 

A wrecked ice-barge was removed from the channel near Montrose, during June, 
hy dredge Ajtuc and towboat Vixen, and 240 cubic yards of bowlders and gravel were 
n-moved from the Devils Island Crossing. 

HARBOR AT MONTROSE. 

The act of September 19, 1890, made a special allotment of $2,000 for removal of 
bar at Montrose, Iowa. 

Under project approved February 27, 1891, dredge Ajax and towboat Vixen worked 
from June 1 to 26 dredging along the levee, which was cleared of dejxisits to a dejjth 
of 5.5 feet at low water for a length of about 1,000 feet. Eleven thousand four huu- 
dreil and sixty-five yards of material were removed from the town front. 

REPAIR AND CONSTRUCTION OF PLANT. 

In the Des Moines Rapids Canal and Dry Dock, extensive repairs were made during 
the winter and spring to towboats Fury and Vixen, and minor repairs to other por- 
tions of the floating stock. 

During the spring a quarter boat, for use in connection with construction of dams 
and shore protections, was built at the dry dock. The quarter boat was launched 
June 23, 1^1. 

Very respeotfolly, your obedient servant, 

M. Mrigs, 
United States Civil Engineer. 

Maj. A. Mackenzie, 

Corps of Engineers, U, S. A» 



!I172 RErORT OF THE nUKK OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY. 

A A3. 

IMPROVEMENT OF DES MOINES RA]»IL)S, MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

There was available for tliis work July 1, 1890, the sum of $348,149 
and the act of Congress approved September 19, 1890, appropriated 
$22,000 for conijdeting the work. 

At the beginning of the year the work remaining to be done, to com- 
jdete the work in aeeordaiiee with tlie approved project was — the com- 
pletion of the 8lui(*e for carrying off the muddy water brought into the 
oanal by Price Creek, raising the lock walls of the middle lock, the re- 
jQOval of a small amount of rock above grade, the completion of the 
prot-eetion of the canal embankment, and the completion of the lock 
^;rounds. 

A proje>ct for the completion of the laying of 2,500 cubic yards of rip- 
lap face stone on canal embankment, at a probable cost of $4,000, was 
submitted September 28, 1890, and approved October 6, 1890. This 
"^irork was completed during the year. 

A project for purchasing and laying 2,000 cubic yards of riprap face 
stone on embankment of canal, at a probable cost of $7,000. and for 
raising the lock walls of middle lock, at a probable cost of $o,420, waB 
submitted December 22, 1890, and approved December 29, 1890. The 
■^f ork of raising the lock walls of middle lock has been virtually com- 
pleted, and the laying of riprap face stone on canal embankment was 
continued until the delivery of stone was made impracticable by low 
v/ater ; 818.13 cubic yards of stone were received and laid. 

The work remaining to be done under approved project is the removal 
of a small amount of rock above grade, the completion of sluice at Price 
(h-eek, and the completion of the lock grounds and of the protection of 
canal embankment. It is probabh*- that after this work is carried out, 
9, balance will still be available, which balance can be applied to ad- 
lantage to the construction of a permanent machine-shop at the lower 
lock of the canal. The construction of such a shop was referred to in 
my last annual report. 

No further appropriation is required for the completion of this work 
i \ a<*cor(lance with approved project. 

Details of the work accomplished are given in the appended report of 
I Ir. M. Meigs, United States (jivil enginer, in local charge of work. 

ABSTRACT OF APPP^OPRIATIONS. 

) V a^t approved — 

June23, 1««0 $200,000 

March 2, 1S(J7 500,000 

Jiilv25, miH (aHotment^ 300,000 

Apnl 10, 18<)9 (allotment) 178,200 

December 23, 1869 200,000 

July 11, 1870 400,000 

January 18, 1871 341,000 

March 3, 1871 250,000 

June 10. 1872 400,000 

Marcli 3. 1873 400,000 

June 23. 1874 400,000 

MMrch3. 1875 480,000 

August 14. 1870 230,000 

June IS, 187S (alh»tinciit ) 62,500 

Mar(?h 3, 1 S7M 25, 000 

June 14, 1880 20,000 

March 3, 1881 25,000 



APPENDIX A A — REPORT OF MAJOR MACKENZIE. 2173 

By act paBued Aaffust 2, 1882 $30,000 

By act approved July 5, 18»i 50,000 

By act approved Aiignst 5, 1886 2IJ. J.V) 

By act of August 11, 188X :V>,000 

By act of September 19, 181K) 2L\0(X) 

Total 4,r>7l,f)50 



Money ftUiicment 

July 1, 1890, balance unexpeudod $:Uf<. 14 

Amount appropriated by act ai>provcd Si'pteiiib«T 10, 181M) 22, (MM). 00 

June 30, 1891, amount expended during fiscal year 12, 1 17. 15 

July 1, 1891, balance unexpended 10,230.99 



report of mr. m. meigs, united states civil engineer. 

United States Engineer Office, 

Keokuk, Iowa, JnUj 1, ISOl. 

Ma.i<»r : I have the htmor to submit tho following report on " improving Dch MoincH 
Rsil»id8, Mitt8i88ipi)i River," for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891: 

raising lock walls at lower lock. 

The work of raising the lock walls at the lower lock, that was nearly complettHl 
at the close of last fiscal year, was finished early in July, 1890; 22.73 cubic yartbi 
of face stone and 6.06 cubic yards of backing stone were purchased from ratterson 
Bros., contractors, for use in this work. 

raising lock walls at middle lock. 

In accordance with authority granted, an inf<»rnial agreement was made with Pat- 
terson Bros., owning the Sonora Quarry, to furnish 120 cubic yards of i\u'v stone at $8 
per cubic yard, and 100 cubic yards of backing stone at $3 per cubic yar<l, for us«^ iji 
raising lock walls at Middle Lock. The prices i^aid for the stone were the same as 
those paid under the last ftu-mal contract. 

The work of raising the lock walls at the Middle Lock was begun April 1, 1891. 
Derricks were set up for use in unloading and handling the stone. The work was 
continued until the close of the fiscal year and the raising of the lock walls 3 feet in 
height is almost complete. The masonry work on the east and west walls is finished. 
ITie portion of the wall raised extends 80 feet 3 inches below the upptT heel- 
post and around the ui^per end of lock to the sluice. All of the lock grounds adja- 
cent to the raised portion of the walls was raised 3 feet with mud dredged from tlie 
canal bottom, the mud being covered with 6 inches of black soil taken froru the 
canal lands at Sandusky outside of the embankment. A good deal of the old co'ping 
was injured and broken while being taken uj), so that the amounts of stone purchased 
for this work have somewhat ovt^Tiiu the cHtimated qujiutities required for the work. 

There remain to complete the work a little gra<ling of tlie grounds and the laying 
of a small amount of slope wall on the slopes near the towers. 

LAYING RIPRAP FAOE STONE ON CANAL EMBANKMENT. 

Daring October, November, and a part of December, 1890, and April, May, and the 
greater part of June, 1891, a force of from 15 to 35 uk^u has be<ML kept <'mployed in 
mying 8lox>e wall on the outside of canal embankment at s(M'ti()ns59 to (v) and sec- 
tions 79 and 80. The surface coYered by slope wall was 6,108.28 sc^uare yards. 

The stone used in this work was furnished by Patterson Bros., under an informal 
agreement^ the price paid being the same as that under former contract. 

On account of the low watm- which prevailed during the month of Jniu*. the tow- 
ing of stone was imx>i'aetirable during the latter part of the month, .lime 22, 1S<^»1, 
at which date the stone that had been delivered had been all put in the ^5lope wall^ 



THE CHIKF Ol'' K.M: 



r. Ilip work wa^dUcontuiurrli 818.13 oulitc ynrdHorrlprsiil'ncaHlntiebiLd 
I" op to Ihi^ time of eloaing the work, A purlinl jiaTioiTUl wns lanAe nii 3 
[- OfKlnU" piled at qiinrry, the atone to be delivrrerl om soou as the Btii|;o 
p nuilod putting a tow boiit at work tronspoTting it. 



( HUII.UIKO AT IX>WHU LOCK. 



Eloctiic-ligbt fiituiBB were put up nt the 



n building. €"11 



'I'ko; worknl well aihI 



„ „ n the spring of 

^JOW perfectly aatisfnntory. 

The mm) nboiit the offins ImiliUrig was gruded. 

I hnvR lienn itbly oesisted in the iibove work by Mewrs. 8. F.dwnrds tiud 
[' Curpeiitor. overaeorH, and by Mr. O. 8, WiUcy, olork and dcaftsmun. 
Very cespuctfiiUy, your obedlwit servant, 

Uniled StaU* Civil E* 
Mliy. A. Maokfnzif,. 




AA4. 

. OPKRATINfJ AND CARE OK DES MOINES liAPIDS CANAL AND DBT 

Tlie Des Moinea Bapids Canal was open for navigation during tli» 
tyortr 234 days, during wUich time tliere pji^^ed tbiniigh it 878 ateiini- 
biiatB and 357 biirges, carrying 15,ist>l passengers, 45,217 tons r>f mer- 
chandise, imd 304,878 bushels of grain. Tliere alsn passed tbmngh 
rlM> ranal 193,358,08!) feet of lumber, 37,170,150 feet of logs, 87,259,69« 
wliiuf^les, and 59,3.'iO,595 laths. 

Tlie expenses of operating and caring for the Dos Moines 1 

('iiiiitl, inchidiug extensive repairs to guard gates, during the past j 

lia\'e been $44.!M)8.20. These expenses are now pn>vidSi for by 9 

ditHuite appropriation made by act of Congress of Marnli 3, 1881. 

Th(i machine shops and storerooms now in use nt the lower lock uF 

I'tlie canal are old frame structures, liable, together with their valaablv 

[' contents,' to destruction by file; It is desirable that a stone or brick 

^.STTurture be built as a part of the pennanimt lock buildings. It is lm- 

rtiiiiated that such a building will cost $3,500, and a project for its con- 

I smiction will soon be presented. As the consti'uction of such Imildiiig 

I b ntade necessary, in part at least, by the repairs required iu ronnuc- 

Itiouwith operatingaud care nf canal, itappearwproper that a portion of 

ft ltd cost should he borne by the indefinite approptiation for the canat, 

* and 41,000 i» therefore added to the estimate of fundu required for iiext 

fiiw-al year. 
i A thorough examination of the lower lock should be made during tht- 
[. oomiug year, and some repairs to gatco, culvert**, etc., will certainly be 
.. tetiuired. The cost of the work which may be fonnd nwiessary can ottt 
I be closely extimated, bnt is approximately given in the estimaKi fbr 
I the coming year aw $4,000. 

I The amount of dredging which it has appeared practicablu to carry 
[i oat during past few years has not been suRicient to keep pai* with thii 
[ filling, and it is desirable that a large amount of dn-dgiiig bo carried 
t ont during coming season. The item in estimate uf probable espKoac 
C of dredging is therefore increaKWl. 

The apinoprialioii fi.r the dry iloik wjis exhausted in 1889. i-uoiplcr- 



^ hig Hi 
the douk lia» bceJi 



e<inl;.i 



.. e.l I . 
Ill ul' till- Ucs .Monies liapiila i 



APPENDIX A A — ^REPORT OF MAJOR MACKENZIE. 2175 

in aooordance with instructions of the Secretary of War and the river 
and harbor act of September 19, 1800, which provided as follows: 

Sec. 14. That the dry-dock constrncted at the Des Moines Rapids Canal nnder the 
piorisions of tibie acts of Congress approved An^st second, eighteen hundred .nnd 
eighty-two, 'July fifth, eighteen hondxed and eij^hty-four, Augast fifth, oi^hlooii 
hundred and eighty-six, and August eleventh, eighteen handred andeighty-eiglit, 8hall 
be considered an integrant part of the Des Moines Rapids Canal, and the act of Con- 
giess approved March third, eighteen hundred and eighty -one, which provides for 
expenses of operating and care of Des Moines Rapids and other canals, and the act 
of Confess approved July fifth, eighteen hundred and eighty-four, which provides 
p^alties for violation of rules and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of War, 
shall also apply to the said dry-dock. 

During the past year the dock has been almost constantly in use. A 
table showing boats using the dock is appended. One hundred and 
twelve dollars and fifty cents, dockage fees, were collected from pri- 
vate parties usi^g the dock, and deposited in the United States Treas- 
ury to the credit of the Treasurer of the United States. It is desirable, 
when appropriations are available and circumstances permit, that a 
shop with wood-working machinery and storage sheds for lumber be 
provide at the lower end of the dock. The expenses of operating the 
canal will be slightly increased by the operating of the diy dock as an 
accessory work; but it is hoped such increase will be more than offset 
by the increased feujility furnished for repair of Government boats and 
the amounts received from private parties for the use of the dock. There 
is appended hereto a history of the dry dock construction. 

T*he boom, constructed in accordance with act of Congress, for con- 
necting outer wall of the canal with the pier of the Keokuk and Ham- 
ilton Bridge, requires repairs, and must be taken into the canal at the 
close of navigation and put out again in the spring. An item for thij 
expend of such repair and labor is included in estimate of cost of oper- 
ating and caring for canal for the coming fiscal year. 

Tables are given herewith showing details of expenditure and trafiic*. 
A table giving dates of opening and closiDg of canal and of the high- 
est and lowest stage of water for each year since the canal was opened 
to navigation, and comparative expenditure and traffic statements are 
also submitted. 

The operating and care of the canal and dock are in the immediate 
charge of Mr. M. Meigs, United States civil engineer, whose report is 
appended. 

ABSTIiACT OF APrHOrniATIONS. 

By act approved : 

April 30, 1878 $7,500.00 

June 18, 1878 (aUotmont) 32, 500. 00 

March 3, 1879 10,000.00 

June 14, 1880 30,000.00 

March 3, 1881, for fiscal wnr oiuliii'r: 

June 30, 1882 45, 000. 00 

June 30, 1883 75,000.00 

June 30, 1884 47,000.00 

June 30, 1885 40,500.00 

June 30, 1888 43, 000. 00 

June 30, 1887 41, (KK). 00 

June 30, 1888 4 2, 000. 00 

June 30, 1889 30, 000. 00 

June 30, 1890 43. 8,37. 97 

June 30, 1891 1 3. 9}ir». SO 

Total o?o,oo3.n 



1 

2176 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ASHT. * 

Money statement, 

July 1. 1S90, balance on hand |1, OM. 

Juno^-M). ISiU. amount drawn from Treasiirv under indefinite ajipropria- 
tiou .' 43.995. 

4.\ ()oa 

June 'SO, 1SJ>1 , amount expended durinp: liseal year 44. IW. 

June 80, 18iU, balance on band JL 



HISTORY OF THE DKY-POCK CONVrurcTION AT THE DES MOIXES RAPIDS CANAL. 

The oonstruotion of a dry dock at the l>ed Moines Rapids of the Mississippi Kiv 
was under eonsideratiou by private parties as early as 1868, and in 1877 certain pla 
w«*re i>rc]>ared. but no further a»tioii was taken at that time. 

A HiKird of Knjrineer Othcers. constituted by orders of the Secretary of War Man 
13. 187iK for consideration of the feasibility of utilizing the water pt>wer of the D 
Moines Kapids (.'anal, submitted a rexH)rt in which the subject of a dry doi'k is i 
ferred to as f(d.h>w8 : 

" In rt»ference to the dry dock the Board is of the opinion that such a work, in co 
nection with the canal, would be of jajreat value to commerce. The amount of wat 
n'quircd for this purpose would have no appreciable effect on the canal. Th«» loc 
ti«»n mentioned by Mr. Jenne is the most favorable for such a work. A dry dock 
needed by the Government for the repair of the boats, dredges, bargt»s. scows. et« 
in use on the canal, and numerous (Government vessels employed on the Westei 
rivers in that vicinity. The dock should be built by the Government, and be op^ 
for penenil use at rates to be prescriU'd by the honorable Secretary of War, ai 
uuder such re«;ulations as he may prescribe. As the proper care and maintenan 
i>f the river bank of the i jual is essential to its existence, under no circumstanc 
should the absolute control of it. and all oiienings through it, pass out of the hani 
of the Government." 

A resolution of the House of Re]>re8entatives of the United States, dated March 3 
1S82. requested the 5>ecretary of War " to furnish the House with any information 
his possession concerning the need of a C^ovennnent dry dock at the Pes Moin 
Ra]>ids Canal, on the Mississijtpi River, together with the views of the Dcpartme 
upon the subject." 

Under dat^ of April 11, 1882, a '•cjjort upon tlie subject-matter of the above-me 
tioned resolution was submit tt^l to the Thief of Kngineers by Captain A. Mackenzi 
Corps of Kngineers. This rep«»rt reeit<»d as follows: 

*• The Upper Mississippi River is navigable during a large portion of the year f 
the largest class of steamers from St. Paul to the mouth of the Missouri, a distau 
of over 700 miles, lliere is no dry dock in this stretch of river; and to make repai 
upon hulls, steamers and barges must be hauled out upon ways. These ways a 
few in number, and none of them are suitable for the repairs of the largest stesimei 

•• A dry dock is much needed in the interests of commerce, and its construction 
of importance. 

"The most favorable pi>int for establishing a «lry dock is at Keokuk, Iowa, whei 
by building as an adjunct to the canal, the cost of construction and operating c 
be reduced to the lowest figure consistent witli good work. 

•* Such a dry dock connerted with the canal ran n«»t, without endangering the i 
ten-sts of navigation, be constructed or npnated by ]>riv.ite interests, but if t 
ni;iMagenient of the dock is in the hanils of the (ioverament, .is is the management 
till' «:inal. no interfcreurc is possible. 

••'I'lu' United States now owns and us»-s. in counectnm with the improvement 
the r]>per Mississip]>i. large fleets of tow boats, barges, dnMlges, etc. It is desira) 
to ninkr Keokuk a depot for n^pairs and construction, and in connection with su 
work a drv dork would be most c«mvenirut and wouhl niateri:U1y reduce the cost 
rc]iairs whtrli must now be made on ]rrivat«' ways." * * 

rill' \ ifws i-xpro-til in this reiM>rt were approxtMl by the (.Miief of Engiuivrs Ap 
IS. isvj, an, I hy the Se, ivtary ot War April ly, 1?W2. 

I'lir a<t ot" Couirn'^is passed Augu>t 2. 1882, provideil for the coumiencement ol 
dr.\ cluik. ,i>» follow <s : 

** i'li.-ii till Ninii 4»t'tliirtv thousand dollar>. or so much thereof as may Ih^ necessai 
111-. ;iii.I \\if • ii!ii- i-- lirirliN. a |ipr«>]>i ia t<d for tli»* construrtioii of a drjk d«H-k at t 
!)»■- Mi'ii.. u'.i|ii'l- r.iii.il iiu tin- Mi--Ni..^i|»ni Ki\t-r. at suth site as may b«* stdeit 
tin It "11 l>\ lit. S«Mil.u\ III \\ ai ; >»aitl ill \ ilmk to bi* iisrd lor the ron^tructit 



DALANC Cross Section 
Elevation 




IKIX A A — Kl';f(»l{T OF MA.IOK MACK1-:N/It:, 



2177 



ring, and uso of boat*. •lr<«1tiu«, biirgos, scows, nml iitiiiT vi'bkkIh 
IM, aud tlio I'lmiitrui'tiiiii, 'ixnminatton, Hiid repair of vcaBels for 
detaach reutiljidLoiia »nd li,r mnli rornponnution a» luaj, fnuu tiiiio 
ind regaliit4;il by the iiui'r(>t:i[.v <i1' Vim; this uppropriatiuu to bo 
« direction of the bouretikfy uf War." 

ipiii-tioaa were provided u foUowB : By act approved Jniy 5, 18»4, 
preredAn^tostS, 1886, »48,750; by iurt of AuRuat U, 1888, $16,250 f 
ppropriationa br Coognws for the work, f 125,000. 
I Mnstruclion of the dry dock wiw Hiibmttted to the Chief of Kn- 
Hnukeoxie, CorpH <>f EneJneen, September 12, J882, aiid apptovcd 
f Wac iu Fi-brnary, 1883. 

k VB8 b<)|;un in Atiril, 1883. and tho nctaul ooDBtrui'tiOD of tlin 
le followTiig July. Work on the dook vae corripil forwonl as 
datioDH pemiittud and virtnally pompleted ill AiigiiBt, 1889, atu 
00, of whirb itmoiiDt «125,000 were appropriated -by Cciiii;rcRH ti>r 
r dock, and 18.000 were allotted from apprnpriatlons for liniirov- 
plds and for oporatinK and care of Des Moin<>H Uupids ('anal, lor 
ined to Rsnal nnibankmeiit and slnloea lU nell an to the dry dork, 
itoae, iron, cement, nnd timber, irete parchawd under formal run- 
: waa dona by day's labor. 
' ■■ low piece of ground belon([in»r to thif United Statiw on 



le canal enibankmenC uid jost above the middle lock. 
icB a boain 400 teet lon^; and 100 fe«t wide, with -intrnnip 
Bfl giving Hu opening of 80 J'oet, wliitJi is thr ^^.mr- ■.tt^i;!! 
by tbo canal locka. Tliu outer embuukm<-Tii i- ' - ' 
iB. At the lower end of the dock grouud liii 1 . 
. Tbo abiitmonts of giitri^ and slnicca ate or 
: is formed of gnivi'l resting on solid rockunil . ,■ . . .1 i i 
• timber sunporli faiiiiili-d cm riu'k for furr.nTii; l">riiH. 
wrding to tbo ntji^ii of nulcr, by sloircs tliroiieh ullt«r 
iptying into nii'i'l!i> l.'n-l of miv.d awl by iiiiiiip». 
DmpIetioD, and imi'ii t'nr ii tiiiu- bt-fori'. has lu'en in iibp nl 
fiiit«d Stat«e t'lr Mu' r<'i>iiii mid L'Oii^^triK'tiori <-t pbiuC c 
lODt of the Upix-r Mhsiaxippi Iliver .ind !>> )>iK:it» |>. 
It haa Borved niJiiiirptl'ly the piirpuso furwhiib il wii^<<ir 
lau be docked H;tf<-iy iu ii t-<>uip:iratlv^ly abort s{>;ii r ni i 



froiu It.K 



on the river, where considerable time is 


onsumed 


nhaalingoat 


IS for this dock wu 


■o prepared hy Mr. M 
8. Wi'lley. Tbo conet 


Meigs, ir 


S. civil cngi- 


, Edwards and 0. 


mctioQwn 


B tilso oarriV^d 


y imnmdiate hupia 


visiOH, thn masonry ■» 


ork beinR 


l^na," auFtho 


«r. the woodwork 


under cbar^o of Mr. 


Huns Mm 


charge of Mr. .Tanif 


■* Suliivnn. 






a of Mr. M«iKa tb 
onared. Purtner i 


i followLDg dotiiiled 


deaoriptiii 
are alinw 


s of portions 




i\ in tlietbreo 


N 


-Tbe inner or wc»t aide of duck 






river cmTi.inkrnent is 


of earth, 






■k. whicliwnf- Innod 


at an nvcrnK" dipiL nf? 






ri-mnvod t 


o*.lu]ithofl 






1 from a c 


ly liank wi-Bt 






,1^. barge- 






" ' ■ 1 ■ , ' ' w 


':'-K?''l 


ected ontside 
k;.ts«. 



! 



. ili.or ut thefoot of tbeiuiiur Hlope 
Lii'i t^^ti^s, aud the holluw iiuoin, urti 



I 



1 

217h^ REPORT OF .THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U 8. ARMT. 

of iron; tlie arms aro of oak: the shcnthiug is of 3-inch cypress, toneaed and 
f;roovo«l. put on diatfonally. This sln^ithing is pluovd on the lower or lock aide of 
Xhv ^atos, thus prt>v('ntin«r any ^reat lifting; effect when the dock is empty, anil add* 
in«; to the lifr of the aruisi h\ keeping fill but two upper arms constantly aubmorged. 
ami tht'se two upper arms ran be reailily replaced without iuterterini; with use of 
dock. Then' is no miter pt»8t pro]ier. the arms abutting against a 4-iueli plunk. As 
the ;;ates are not to bo used often, hand-power is consider^ sufficient. By capatanft 
and the arrannremmt of ehains shown three men can swinff a gate in about 8 min- 
utes. Hy means of pivots 10 inehes in diameter, at top of the heel posts, ctiUan. 
iron eastings on the coping of almtuient. and anchoring rods, the gates are 8us]iended 
without the aid of columns, anil no rollers are used. Notwithstanding the length of 
gates as coniparrd with their height, their construction gives them siithcient i«tiiRie«s 
to permit of swinging them without any appreciably settlement of outer end and 
when the water ih out of the eanal and doek. The coping stones are fiUiteueil down 
hy one-(iuaiitr-inrh holts of various lengths up to 8 feet. 

Flllitn/ atui t mfitt/htij t nlnrtM, drains, and piimpn (Sheet No. 3). — ^Thedrv doek is AHrd 
through a cut -St oiio masonry culvert behind the eastern or river-sit\e g:ate of the 
«lock. This culvert is 7 feet wide and 8 feet high, with arched roof; conne<'ti(»n 
with the ranal is through four openings, each 3 feet wide and 5 feet 10 inchea high. 
The culvert discharges into a 8um]> at the upfier end of the dock, with its bottom 1 
feet lower than lowest part of dock ])ro)ier. This sump drains into the river through 
fiMir openings similar to those at inlet of <'ulvert. The openings for filling and di»- 
charge an' ch»s*'d hy cast-iron gates which ^lide vertically. These gates are raisrd 
by a liydraulic jack of 7 tons capacity, working acainst a crosshead conuec-tetl by 
keys with two vertical lA-inch rods, to lower end of* which rods is attachetl thlp 
gate. When the ram has made one lift of 18 inehes the ram and crosahead are ran 
down, tht* keys are inserted at a new ]ilnce on the vertical rods, and another lift is 
mad«'. Four lifts raise a gate t<i its full height. To hold the gate during the shift- 
ing (»f crosshead a clam]i is )>rovided. The hydraulic jack is on a track and \* 
moved from one gate t(» another. Wlien pressure is on the catea 2 men can raise a 
gate ({uickly, the work being about equal to the capacity of the jack. Aflter pnttiujC 
the dock in operation it was tound that, at times when a boat waanot tokins tb^ 
bhu'ks propi-rly, a more rapid i-losing »if the outlet than was practicable with ihr 
sliding gat<- was necessary, and two balanced gates were added to the outlets. Theiec 
balanccil gates are of cast-iron on a vertical stem 3Muches in diameter, and air 
operated from the top of the wall hy small capstan heads and cear wheels, incrensiiu; 
]K>wer in ratio of 7 t<» 1. Capstan bars Ti feet long an* usi^d. This arrangement work5 
very satisfactorily and rapidly. The culverts and gates are so arranged as to alM 
furnish a slui<'eway fi>r the muddy water coming into the eanal ftrom Price Creek. 

The direct drainage into the river is )irnotieable up to a stage of 6 feet above lov 
water on the lower lock river gauge. Above this stage and up to a stage of 12.1 fret 
on same gauge the drainage i^ through a lo-inch tile drain, which passes under th<* 
th>or of thi' di»ck tViuu the sump to the culvert of the middle lock. On the line of 
this drain is ]irovided a will with two self-acting valves which prevent back flow 
into the d<»ck when the middle lock is tilled or discharging into the canal vrhen the 
dock fills. Kither or lnuh valves can ho opened bv means of chains. 

At «-ertaiu stages of the river it is net'cssary to i\epend upon pumps for drainage. 
A Il^-inch rotary pump located on a well house in the south wall of the sluice is pro- 
vided. 

KnU r.ATIONS FOR THr. I'SK OF TIIK IHiY IKKK AT Till: IH.S MOlXKS lt.\fI|iS tWXAL, 

1. The dry dock at the Pi's Moines Kapids Canal will be cunsiden-d as a part •»! 
the Pes Moines Kapids Canal and its use will he governed by the regulations for the 
government of this canal api>rov«'d by the iSe<"retary of War April 14, 1K85. so farsf 
they may he applicable t(» the use of the dry dock, ami by the following special 
n-gulalions: 

L'. The pen:iltiis pro\ ide4l fi»r by si-etion 7 of the river and liarlN>r act of Jnly 3* 
Issi. aiitl ])ni>li^li(il Willi tliecanal n-gulat ions, will apply to all violations of ^»neral 
or s]>*'cial r«L:nlaTioim u:o\.Tniug the u^e of the dry dock. 

3. The div iliM-k at iln» Pes Miuiies Kapids Caual, when not n't^uinnl for repairsor 
ron-itruction liy tli*- Cnited ."^tati'*;. may be used by private ]»a r ties or eor)>o rations 
under certain ri"»nii tiiiMN ami under the supervision and direction of tlie l*nit«d 
States olheiv or a;^«ut in rh.um' of the Pes Moines Kapid^< Canal. 

i. riie u>e lit the Pi-<. Moiiie> Kapid.s Canal Pry Pock being primarily fur the omi- 
siruetion. exaniinanoii. and re]>air of 1mi\ eminent property, audit being iuip«>rati%'e 
that thi^ dork he so inanageil as to he at all times available at short notioi* for the 
n*;i' •■! ilie «oivernin»iit. it is iieeissary to restrict the uw* of the doek l»y ]irivate par- 
ti i-> to Mii-h tinii* as i> reiiuiied for making repairs in emergencies aud for such wori^ 



APPENDIX A A — REPORT OF MAJOR MACKENZIE. 217!) 

M cm not, in the opinion of the United States officer or agent in charge of tlie Des 
Moines Rapids Canal, be conveniently or properly carried out at private 1)oat yardfl. 
5« Private parties desiring to use tho D(4 Moinrs Rapids Canal Dry Dock will givo 
notice to the Unite-d States officer or ag<'nt in cliargeof the Des Moines Rapids Canal 
as long in advance as practicable, slating when use of dock is wanted, nature oi' 
repairs required, and the diniensiouH and character of boat. No f)oat will enter thi> 
doc^k until the permission of the United States oflicer or agent in charge has 1»ecn 
obtained. 

6. All private parties or corporations using the Des Moines Rapijds Canal Dry Dock 
will furnish all material and labor required for prompt execution of their work, and 
will also furnish all labor for properly ojierating, under the ininiediate personal su- 
penision of an authorized canal employt^, gates, sluices, and other machinery and 
appliances of the dry dock. No gate, sluice, or other niacliinery or appliance of the 

* dry doek will be operated or in any way meddled with exce])t by permission of and 
under the personal supervision of such authorized e.anal employ^. 

7. N" l»oa4, will be allowed to occupy the Des Moines Kapids Canal Dry Dock for a 
liHigiT ]»eriod than 2 days when otlu^r 1)oats are waiting to use the drxrk, except in 
cawH when, in the opinion of the Unit-i'd States officer or ar'^nt in charge of the Des 
Moines Rapids Canal, circumstances ncf^essitate and justify a longer use than 2 days. 
Tlie l.'nitea States offieer or agent in charge of tho Des Moines Hap ids Canal is an- 
tliorized to remove from the dry dock any l)oat using or occui)ying such dock with- 
out his anthority, and the expense of such removal will be paid by the party or par- 
ties o^'uing such boat. 

8. The wages of all mechanics and laborers, due from private parties for rejmirs 
carried on in the Des Moines Rapids Canal Dry Dock, must be paid before the boat 
leaves the dock. * 

9. The Government charges for the authorized and necessary use and o<?cni)ancy 
of the Des Moines Rapids Canal Dry Dock by private boats shall be, until further 
orders, as follows: 

For boats of less than 200 tons : 

For first day of 24 hours, or part thereof $15.00 

For each subsequent one-fourth day, or part thereof 3. 75 

For boats over 200 tons and less than 500 tons : 

For first day of 24 hours, or part thereof 20. 0<) 

For each subsequent one-fourth day, or part theniof •. 5. 00 

For Imats over 500 toi^s: 

For first day of 24 hours, or part thereof 25. (K) 

For each subsequent one-fourth day, or part thereof 6. 25 

10. The charges for all use or occupancy of the Des Moines Rai>ids Canal Dry 
Dock by a boat of private parties, after repairs on such boat have, in the of»iniou of 
the United States officer or agent in charge of the Des Moines Ra])ids Canal, been 
so far completed as to permit safe removal from the dock, (»r after such removal has 
lM»en <>rdeiid by the United States officer or agent in charge of the Des Moines Rap- 
ids <Janal, shall be $50 per day or part of a day, in addition to any iienaltics incurred 
for vifdation of any of the regulations jirescribcd by law for the government of the 
dock and those using it. 

11. The dock will be considered in use by a boat from the time the dock is placed 
at its disposal until the boat is out of the dock. 

12. Registered tonnage shall be taken when it is available. In other cases tlie 
t^ninage will bo computed by the Unitcil ^States officer or agent in charge of the Des 
Moines Rapids Canal. 

13. The charges for the use of the dry dock must be paid at the time the b;»at 
leaves the dock. 



2180 KErOKT OF TllK CHIKF OF ENOIXKEKS, IT. S. ARMY. 

Lift of vc98vh dorktit nt the dry dock at the Dcs koines Rapid Canal during tkeJiMcaJ 

ending June SO, 1S91, 



Dc8ip:ii<ition. 



l>ato of I 
oiilvriiijr ' 



Date of I 
Iravinj; dock. 



Steamors : ! 

Lilv. (T. S. ii-lil- ! 
hfujsi' timliri . . July 18. IKH) 

Julia* All's. H. ISOO 

AliTt Xw^. le. 181K) 

<'i»l«»ntl Palti t "i-n* St^pt. 11. 18SW 

J . « ; . Tarkr Oct. 9. l.OO 

Fiirv Nov. 20. ly.iO 

Vi\iu Apr. I.ISS'I 

J. «;. V.n\r Mav 1. l^iU 

Viirv Mav 4. l>i»l 

ThiMl. ' May <>. 1S91 

<;r)iiT:il I>:iMi.r.<i. . May 11.1891 

SU.ini 1:tili;i iIin: 

I.ui ia AiiiT-lIMiW 

Stilla Nov. -J-i. ISM 

V.Ww Apr. 18. IMU 

l>I1il;:i's: j 

rh.iniv .Tiilv 8. Ifl**^ 

rii.iiii\ Vui:. 11.1.<!W 

.\i.i\ N«»v. i:M<iHl 

A.ii\ Apr. ti. 1891 

PiU" ilrixt-r: 

N.«. liM : Nov. 10. ImW 

Prill IwMl : i 

Nil. :S4 1 June \X 1891 

lUiiup iMi.its: I 

N... :. I Jiilv 8.1890 

No. «; • July 29. 1SW« 

No. 1 .-Vui;, -3. 1SW» 

No. 2 Srjir. 1.'. 1>'.M 

No. I ilo 

No.:; Ni'V. li». 1S!><" 

Nu. 5 Mav •.•■>. 1SV>1 



Jiily 

Au;:. 

Ani:. 

Sept. 

(Vt. 

May 

Apr. 

Mav 

Mav 

MaV 

>rav 



19. 189i^ 
10. 189t> 
L';t. 18l»«» 
ir>. 1890 
15. 181^1 
1.1891 
IS. 1891 

4. 1'J'.n 

fi. 1891 

9. 18H1 

14.1891 



An;;. !••, 18?»'» 
Juno 13. 1891 
May 1, 18l»l I 

Jul^ 12.189»^! 
Aup. 1.^189o|i 
Nov. Ki. l.-^lH'i- 
Apr. 18.1891 

Nov. 13.1890.] 

June 16. 1891 ! 

Aup. 23.189" ! 
Nov. 10. 189'.t 
St'pt. ••«. 1890 
Svpt. •-'->. ISIH' 
. . . I li» . . 
Nov. 'Jo. l"iiU« 



Denignation. 



Date of 

eiit<>iiiig 

dock. 



t>atoflf 
^ IraTingdoA 



"f 



Quarter boats : 

Xo.91 :XoT. 2(1. ia» 

Vo O*'^ An 

A^ \,'m X K* '■•••■■■••■ ••••••«••»••«■ 

Gm8siihop|HTi« : 

No. 1 1;{ S-pt. 1 ri. ijBfr) 

No. 112 Apr. 18. 1891 

No. 113 May 1.1891 

Bar^i.'« : 

No. 9S Jnly 19.1890 

No. 7 \ uir. 23. 189i^ 

No. 79 Anc.itl. 1890 

No. 40 dtt 

No. :i:. A up. »». 1890 

No. ;r2 ! S»-pt. 6. 189i» 

No. 29 t do 

No. ftl Si'pt. 20. 1«W 

^ O. oo. •..•••....■ ....<nl ....... 

No. 31 do 

No. 28 : do 

No. 82 U't. 25.1890 

No.:W "...do 

No. ;I7 .^. do 

No. 5 do 

No. T9 .Apr. 18. l.<91 

No. «v; May 4.1891 

No. ilo 

No. 1 do 

No. f'T Mav 6.1891 

No. if." Mav 2i>. 1891 

No. 4' Mav 22. 1891 

No. 98 ■ June 2. 1881 



Apr. CUH 
IVi*. 4. UN 
June SI. UH 

So|»t. an.u» 

Mav l.im 
May 4.im 



Jnlv 

St'pt. 

Aue. 
....Ac 

Sfpt. 

St'pt. 
I... 'do 

S'pl. 

Oi-t. 

: 5Hpi. 
■ OvI. 



•.liW 
30. UN 



11. IM 

sllM 

8.1W 



Mav l.im 
Mav iLirn 
Mav 11. im 

...an 



June 2. IM 
May 2Xli9l 
June 13, un 



"Ivolonj:* to private partiLsi. 



t Nt'W; built at dry di>ek. 



ErprnditHi'ts fnr opcrailntj and care of Ihs Moinrs Jiapidit Canal for Hsciil tf car rndittf 

June ..<'.', ISi*l. 



M..nt^. 



Jnly 

Vu::'i.4t 

Si^]»ii !iil»i r ... 

OOfl'iT 

Niiviii.i'ir .... 
Piri-miu r 



S,u.ilU'>. 



(till- 1- .!n<l aihniiii«!rati<in. 
.**iip- Mii»i ill.t 



Canal and locks. 



^1 'I'.Vi 111 

!i7.'. "o 
v,7.". "<i 
;;7,'». \'»' 



tlanniirv 

Fii»ni;ir\ 

Miiri ii 

.Vpril 

M.i\ 

JUH'* 

Tol.U 



1 ].'.■». t»i I 
■ 7.'. II I 
7'> 1'-^ 
."'. Ill 



:>. 17:- 



jilii-H. 



52. 75 

.xi;. ti.'i 

i.r-i' 



UfOllS. 



T..t,d. 



LalH.r. Suppliea. ^^^^ 1 TottL 



i;5. 91.1 

"7.":o 
i?>.tiii 



. ... I —J* 



I 



r:i.4i r?4. 19 

28. 19 1. OS:. 2.} r^. 8«4. .^0 ! 

401.05 1. Ot5. 17 

I :?8«».M 1.710.W • 

21.44 : 397.91 l.tV<1.42 \ 



4.15 



379.15 1.5U5.33 I 



0. 7J 



-It: 74 
■• 1 .1 



■■■» 



I. **-.". 10 ' 

1.71.'..W 
l.rtji'. M 



iC>t. 68 
::2l». fiS 
892. :*2 
147. 87 ' 
222. 70 
131. 25 



' 1.10 :.«,*« 2.915. 'H> i i:av02 

1 0. i>i^ ■ •'.• 1 . 1 " t 1 . :* '2 . :•* I i 218. fti 



4:<.54 , 
irvi. 49 

:;65. 08 i 



f757. 44 

1. iw9. rrr 

eK7. 21 » 

947.59 

2. 426. 14 



4.5ia3 
3.i:iLU 
2.a3ft.« 

4.i5fi.a 



1,381.13 LSSLtt 
2.S3T..VS . &»R.5T 

58(^.16 s.3;r:.3i 

40d.67 . S.0&3ff 
222.39 i S,«iLH 
200.02 I X\gk7i 



11-. -^ 5.451.14 18.785.73 | 2.725.27 | 11,863.31 j Sa^Slia 



;NDTX kA. — EEPORT OF MAJOR MACKENZIE. 2183 
Kxptt^ilnrvn far opuralinii ami mrf of I'm Motam llttplib Camil, e(o. —Continued. 





iranth. 


Dredging CM..I. 






Labor. 


Soppllta. 


CiiiTont 
repilra. 


ToUL 


total. 




tan 




lies. 87 
KLua 

871711 


AS 

BS.M 


•i«e.«7 

"■Si 


«.O0M« 




n,MI.U 










«■«'■" 














l.tl31.» 




1*1. 












B,70 


80.12 


«.m.n 


















wi-oi 


i.m,3i 














8, 66a. 51 


I. MS. SI 


TiK-ei 











I 



f r«tJto riolnimi o/ lheDe$ Xoinu Sapidt Canal for thejiiotilfiearetidnig June 30, X 



Xoolb. 


^^ 


doirn. 


a:.T 


""S^™"- 


clij^o 


Gr*hL 




1SK>, 




33 
98 


S7 
CO 




55 
7S 


3i5il7 


font. 

ij,8s;i 


b\u,^. 












ia.fia 




*-«.... ."".': .. 






BOD' 11,351 




















GU 


MU 


.157, IS.S01 15,217 










Iloulli. 


Liimbor. 


LofW. 


SMngl™. 

A'utnlfT. 

1,075,750 
!3,eS*,5«i 
»,:'», 7M 
18,153,500 

»,<18tl,U«l 


Lntlm. 

I'll 

aKO,(IO0 


^r™W 




■WO. 




S^3!iJ 


1.5011, IxMl 

D.mi.KOii 

», 371, 150 
4,000, UW 
































■,»,: 


" 


ua 


Si£:::::::: 






\!ZZ 




i."Mo,ooo 






13,!5(I,1M 








358, UM 

































2182 nEPORT OF THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, n. S. ARMY. 

t UnpiSf rnnnt fnr Jtieal 









Criiiuln u 


n,i liKkii. 






^,«ri««. 


surpiiBs. 




Total. 


Lohor. 


SuypUe.. 


Bepuin. 


Totd. 




»:i, 7111. DO 
































































































































































]HtH... 




182.70 


113.38 










33.tH.n 


V 


Dredging oanol. 




Uiaoelli- 




L»l»r. 


Suppllas. 


E^imita. 


CnntrBit. 


Total. 


tnUI. 


ms 


if" ■■'*.) .s 


1672. OB 






»17 63» « 


























4,7BS.3a 
S.ESU.W 


l,2fla.m 








*a.iss.a 
S:oo».6! 


























l\Z.tl 






l-i4i:(,55 






















































Ml- SI 






a 172. 75 




"■"" 


















_ Kinkuk, Ivua, J»lg I, ISSI. 

Vaj6R! I hoTB thn honor to submit the fullowiue rii)>»rt on " opi\rtitliif[ nnil oamV 
of Dm HoiiiRH Knpiits Cunal" for ih» ilst'ul jvia enmug -tau* SO, I81II : 

'ITiu ciuinl vaa ojjen to oavigiitiou 'XH 'liiys nnd ulosoJ 131 days. Niivij-dllou cIimnI 
Novcrulwt 20, IHW, utkI upenod April I. 1891. 

The low-water pPTitxIs of the pnat liscul youi' exteudM ftiHO JuJy 21) to Novumbme 
30, 1B80, uiul IVoui Mur 29 tn Jime 30, 1891, duriiiK which ttinei) tho giiuraioi'.k gat« 
m thi* cnnal rciniiuiail opDn to the river and tieatfy aU ukTigiitioo tii^ocaaurilj' n ~ ' 
UBC of the DimaL 

CA?iAL i^MBununKF. 



Vu7 lictle voTlt WAS done on the canal euili»n)un«nt. One or two mqaII iMt 
B Eli>|>p«il uuii tliL- ripcHp repairod. QiilM u MrlnuH Utnk htu il'Mrelnnetl Il_., 
"e tha middle lofk in the old einbuukmeut UatwMn the cunul nnd tbn dry m>r:lH 
inll soon reqiiiro utteution, thon^^h at ptsiuxit giving no cnnan I'ut iiuen ' 



\, IXKJK ai(OUM)S, BTC, 



Vsihti guard lock heavy repalra were nuda to u.11 of tlin foor gutM. A coderdam 
r(x>t high, 12 feet wide, and tM feet ioDK >M built iibovu tile 1«Kik, andonHGfeet 
I Ijigh l)y 4 feet wide below. The materially the dinn waa utl ilrod^ed by the canal 
I dredge Ajax, I'itlier from the river jnst ubava the oiiaaJ, the raatwial bniug gravel 
I uiid cluy, or »tlff mud dredged ttom the riuial hottuui. Both dntns eloud very well 
l< and gav^i but little trouble. At the upper gates the aix uppor armt> naA ehcathingj 
li weT« reiniivnd, and nC tbe lower ^ules fbur tiers of arma wero ^oml>vt^d. In planking^ 
I' the gatM anew, the plajiks, beiaj; of 3-incb cypieBs, tongusd and gruovod, werm 
r pl»nMl on the towi-r mce of the gate*. There was also saine work ilune in taking! 
itp the old cflSt-iron segments at the upper end and in fiUing in hetweon tlio 8toii«a 
liloi^k« to which they were bolted witb wood, forming a anopurt for tbe gtLtp shonJdiJ 
nny ai^ideiit happen to the HuapenHion rods. Himilur bloeking waa put iu huhind*! 
tho Bcgmeiito at the tower end of the lock; also new sLeaveH, hoods, and ahenvo- 1 
frames, th«i hoods being of a mueli stioiiger pattern than tlitt old unea. CidvarlS 
frames were repaired where found neuessary, and everything ptit in Kood ordecf 
New elevlNKH of a new pattern and cost of olamintim bronze were put in alt the gatnq 
of tbe cannl. There were two qualities made — those for the Inrger gittM of bronM 
Xo. 1 (containing 10 per cent, of aluminum), and those for the four upper gates at. 
uiiildle and lower locks of bronze No. 2 (containing 5 per cent, of uliiiniuum}. Thw^ 
lattor cIPvifiEs proved dellcient in streneth. Tests of the metal showed a tnusilttg 
strength or7T,000ponnds per square jncli on small specimens cut from the misting. 
The repairs of tbe guard-lock gates, etc., were carried on from November ao, 189 
, to Ftibraarf 9. 1891. A mild winter greatly facilitated this work. 

At tho middle and lower locks black soil wa« spread over the loek grounds an 
gnitiH seed was sown upon the graded surface. Curbing was laid around the oflice4 
MiiildJiig at the lower lock and stone posts, with chains, put np. 

At Tb<> middle and guard locks a mason was employed to trim off sharp comen 

the lock walla, replace defective stones, and point up tho joints of the niasonry. 

h 'I'he I«1epbone line was rebuilt from the middle lock to the guard lock in Sopti 

I tier, 1890. L.ightnlng rods were put up on every fourth pole to protect the linu,fl 

II wbfrrh is very mnoli exposed, from iiyiiry during thunderstorms. Hew t«lophoiief 
--'-' t were put in nt the crossings of the canal. The old cables had given out com>] 




[e Unonnt of repair work was done to boate and bargee of the canal. Dredgi 
« docked &om April 7 to 30, ISUl. New leaders wore put in her front, or&na^ 
gningR wre replaced, and 6 Iron knees were Hulistitut«d for the wooden ones about ■ 
vtriadnrii. Aapndof dreilge was repaired and general repairs wore made to dred^^V 
msriiindry. Tbe.lowboat Vixen was docked and four broken timbers iu bottom o,^^ 
boat rciilaced, 

BOOM BSLOW VaWKR LOCK. 

The lioom was taken in November IS, 1H90, without trouble, and stored in thecanatl 
fiirthe wlnti^. It woe put out again April landS, 1891. Thislioomaliouldbe docksA J 
p Winter, and the accumulated mnd washed out of it at the dry dock. It bc^inaH 
A very low in the water. It baa answered its purpose llioruughly and give*.^ 
U sattsracUnu. 



2184 UEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S ABMT. 

* 

MACIIItfF: Slior AT UiWKR I.OCK. 

Diirini( ilio wiiitor all luii oii(>. of t}H^ lock (^n^^incors wore cinployod on general lock 
And niaoninery repuirH. Now oloviscs of uluininum bronze were made for ull the caual 
^iit^'N, and ni^w piiw wtav niado for the clevises. Dynamos were repaired and <'lectric 
niaeliiiicry w.-m overhauled. A relief valve was made and iitted to the lower lock 
diNlrilHiliii^ valve. At IvOsi $40,1)00 worth of work has now been tnmed out of this 
Hliop riiiiett it was inaugurated in 1883, and nearly all of this is a direct saying to the 
Duitml StateN, 

CAPSTANS AT LOCKS. 

A worm eap.stan, built by the Amoriean Ship Windhiss Company, of Providence, 
K. I., wuN erected at the middle luck. This capstan and the one at the lower lock 
ai't^ ))riucip:illy used for hauling rafts into and out of the locks, and are of great serr- 
ico in expediting the passage of the locks. 

DREDOIXO CANAL. 

|)n'«l;ro Ajax and towboat Vixen were employed in dredging canal from July 1 to 
August jr>, ISiM). At the latter date the dn-dge was detached for work at Rock Isl- 
and L'aplds. Dredge Jjax was em[)loyed November 20 to 25, 1890, in dredging mate- 
rial for colVerdams at the guard lock; March 28, to April 6, 1^1, In removing gtuad 
Uu'k coHerdams, dredging material for tilling the middle-lock grounds, putting ont 
boom at' lower lock, etc. ; May 4 to 31, 1891, in removing deposits of mud from the 
upper U'Vii}. Dredge PhccniXj with steam-launch ^<7a as tender, worked in the upper 
lc\rl of the canal from August 1 to 10, 1890. At the latter date the Phcdnix went to 
Montrose to remove some cribs that obstructed the raft channel. 

Mat^'rial removed: 

Vicinity of guard lock cubic yards.. 23,667.64 

Vicinity of Sandusky do 22,612.19 

Vicinity of lower lock do 490.98 

Total 46,770.76 

DKrOSlT IN TlIK CANAL. 

A survey was made of the whole canal in August, 1890, and the amount of deposit 
above grade calculated therefrom. The survey shows that extensive areas oitbs 
canal are 2 feet above grade, and some portions even 3 feet above grade. 

OFFICK Bi:iLl>ING. 

The new ofTi<^e building has been in use for one ycjir. The past very mild winttf 
showed that by use of stoves it would be <lillicult to keep the buillling warm in 
severe weather. It should be lit^atcd by stcaui from the boiler at the lower lock. 
Kstimatcs made i)lace the expense of this work at tJlTiO. 

OPKKATING DRY DOCK AT DES MOINES RAPIDS CANAL. 

The «lry do<'k has been in constant use during the past year for the docking and 
repairing; of boai^ l)clon;:ing to the (iovennuent ]dant. as well as of boats belonging 
to private i)arties, the latter being permitted to UvSe the dry dock under the regula- 
tions lor the use of ilie dock that liave been approved by the Secretary of War. 

Durini^ tlie year ]>rivat(; boats and barges w«.»re clocked for repairs, and dockage 
Jccs for sueli use of tliedry do<k and at the rates approved by the Secretary of War 
were eollcct.«Ml as tollows: 

SleauH'r Julia $30.00 

Steamer Cnlnnd I'atttrvou 52.50 

Steamer Thisllr 15. 00 

J Jarge. No. 1 (towed by steamer Miiftser) 15. 00 

Total 112.50 

There should be a ]>roper shed built at the dry dock for storing oak and other 
lumber, and tor protecting the workmen from the weather during winter work. A 
]>roper shed can be built for $2,r»(NI. and about •i'i^OO ad<litional \>ouId purchase some 
machinery — a saw and a planer, which are much needed at times. 



'ni*n.!.llUoii"fihp.lrvfl..'>.k I: (hi> !.[.rMrr|.ini.,ir™.,r Hii'IVHM"iii.-.lii.(.MKraii»l 

*^<|riir>« 111" ■»X|u'riiUlNr'^ <>r t KiiiuU xiiin {iiiiiriHlly M ki'np II, In ii'ii^ilt' iinil In UN". 
Onti tti]rk,inilAt«r mill uiie watcluuuu jiid mijiiirinl :il lliu ilrv ilnrk i'i>iit.Iijni>iiiily. Miii'e 
ni Im> hif ifleutal repaim have to be idiiiIg annually to thu liuililiugs niid. ^annda of 
U)r> tluck. I estimate that the Bum Teqiiirerl uimnaU; Ut keep the nry dock lu opur- 
Btk<>n t« oa fflllowB: 

Our ilu'^liuia«trr aad canientw, 12niouUia, iit iJlOO per month 91,S0I> 

One WHlnhliioa, 13 moiitha, ut 945 per muutb 540 

' l<airi>Um 200 

Jl^^)Ias*i>iaa repairs U> bnililingB and groimdH . 300 

Total 2,240 

BrSIfKM OF THK CANAI. 

Ijow wal«i B#t iit uliDiit the middli* of Jnly, 1S90, and continned nutil the c1ob« of 

navijciiUam. In 18!il luw water begnn May 29, anil continned until the close uf 

tile fiwal jrt<ar. 01' Xhv H months during thi? ynitt that the ennal vas operated, fi 

muutJut wt^re ui.iiIxm] by low -water; an<l licring this mmod of low water nearly uU 

91 lUTfgatiuu «»» tii>r>-<iMiiril,v throngU tlie naunl. Heavy tows of ice and railroad tieii 

■ ItfVV bMS fiMliltfw of the Gonuoeirial AtatJstk-s. 
■^ V«tr teupp'tfrilly, yout obedient servant, 

■ U. Mkigs, 
W UtiiUd Stala Civil B ' 
P H^. A. Ma(:kxnwk, 

Carf of Knginetr; U. S. A. 



' IPiinlol to Hou» Ei. Doc. No. 72, Finy-flrat CoDgreiw. tftanA wmfon.] 

Office of the Oitikf of Engineers, 

United Htates Armt, 
Washington, I). C, December 6, 1890. 
Sir ; I have the lionor to submit lierewith the aecoinpaiiyinji oopy of 
re|)ort, dated November li5, ISiK). from Maj, A, Mackenzie, Corps of 
Engineers, giving results oi' preliminary examination of f^lough at Ham- 
ilton, 111., with a view to dredging out the same, made to comply with 
provisions of the river and liarbor act api»roved September 19, 1890. 

^lajor Mackenzie reports that an exiuniiiation of this locality was 
made under the act of Angust 11, 1888, aTid an adverse report made 
thereon under date of November 27, 1888, to be found on pages 1781 to 
17»4, Annual Report Chief of Engineers for 1880; and that after a 
)ie<'ond personal examination of the locality he is still of the opinion 
that tie main slough at Hamilton, 111., is not worthy of improvement 
by the General Government, an opinion which is also held by Col. O. 
si. Poe, Corps of Engineers, Division Engineer, Northwest Division. 
The views of these officers are concurred in by me. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Thos. Lincoln Caset, 
Brig. Gen., Chief of Engiiuyers. 
Hon. Bedfi£ld Pboctor, 

Searetartj of War. 



^^^H BBl-liKT (IF MA,lliR A. MiCirENZn':, CQKPK (iF ENt: INERRS.^^H 

^^^P t7MTF.D Statbs Engineer Opfios, Jf^H 

^^^H Bock Inland, TIL, November $5, -^^S^^H 

^^^P GenEBAL : The river and harbor act of September 19, 1S90, prov|^H 
^^^KBir nil (^xiLiniiiation or snrvey of tbe slough at HamiltoD, -with a vi^j^H 
^^^Biiri;<1giiig out the same. ^^ 

^^^H I'he prelimiuary exauiiuation of the main »lougli at Hamilton, HL,' 
^^^H aflsigtii'd to iiiG by letter dated OiSce Cliief of Bngioeers, Septembcr 
^^^H^5, ISiHl. liaviug been tuado, I have the houor to submit the following 
^^^Hrcport thereon : 

^^^H Tlin river aud liarbor act of August II. 1888, provided for an exam- 
^^^B imition (if '■ Mississippi Biver, the main slough at Hamilton, 111., to tbe 
^^^H fud of Hcruiiiig a good aud suflicient lauding at that point." A report 
^^^H upon Kiii'h ■■xnniiuatjon was submitted by me to the Chief of Engiucers 
^^^H under dat<;- of November 27, 188S, and is found on pages 1781-1784, Re- 
^^^B port of the (.Hiief of Engineer's for 1889. A sketch of the locality and 
W^^ copies of letters received from the Business Men's Association of Ham- 
F ilton accompanied the report. Considering the intciests involved, the 

uatiiral condition of tlie slough, and the section of the MiBsissippi Blvflr 
L ill its vicinity, and the very great expense that would attend the carry- 

I^^H itig out of such work as was contemplated by the act of Congress, n^ 
^^^Kcouclusions, as given in former report, were that the main sloagh irii 
^^^H JIamilton was not worthy of improvement by the General Government. 
^^^^L The conditioni^ now existing in Hamilton Slough are the same as ex- 
^^^^Listvd at time of the former examination. The head of the slough is 
^^^^Tobliterated, except at high stages, by a giavcl bar, which is constantly 
^^^■^■^reasing in size; water only reaches the slough in an insignificant 
^^H^&tn^am. tiirOugU a narrow and crooked cut-off; several crftftkfi 6inpty 
I inio the Nlougli at and above tlie town of Hamilton, forming gravel bars, 

wliii'h stretch across and, in pla<^es, almost fill the entire bed of the 

iflloiigli. which burs, if removed, would soon reform; at and below thfi^ 
town of Hamilton the slongh is crossed by low highway and rai^M 
bridges without draw openings. ^^^t 

The former bead of the Rlough and the exi»tiug cut-off can (n^^^f 
snaTde ar^eHsible &oni tlie main river at stages of less than 3 feet,^^^| 
for small steamboats and light-draft flatboats. by extensive rock ci^^^H 
in the bed of the Ues Moines Rapids aud of the slough, in addita^^H 
sand and gravel dredging in river and Blough. j^^H 

It i» practicable by the dredging of some sand and gravel to en^JJ 
lud straighten the cut-off and increase somewhat the depth of waterln 
the slough, and such work, so long as its effects remained, wonld prob- 
(ibly enable very light-draft boats and barges to reach tbe Umn dar- 
ing a portion of the year, and tbe lumber yards of Hamilton and ^flH 
shipping ititerc!«ts would derive some benefit from such dredgingj^^H 
the existing conditions and public necessity would not, in my op^^^H 
justify the undertaking of sueh temporary work by tlie General G<]^^^| 

For fnrther details regarding the subject under consideration, T 1^^^| 
ret'(>r to my former rcpoi-t of November 27, 1888. ^^H 

After a second itersimal examination of the locality I am atill <i^^^| 
m^ (ipinioti tbat the niuiii ."lough at Hamilton, HI., is not worthy 4^^^| 
K-|irovement by the Generiil Government. ^^^| 

H^ Very reHpcetfully, your obedient Gcrvant, ^^^| 

H A. MACKESzm, ^^H 

■ [big. <icii. TnoHAS L. ('i.eiRY. Mnjur, Corps of ICngin^^^M 

■r Vliic/ 0/ Knginccrx, U. S. A, ^^H 



IS- A A — HEPORT OF. MAJOR MACKENZIE. if! 873 



BpTEND] 

V U. 8. Kngisbkr Oi'Firr., 

" Detroit, Mich., Ptcember a, 1890. 

H-lfitllj' rfhiriiwl to the Office of the Chief of Engineera witli li*- 
It 1 coTifiir ill the ojiitiioii of Mitjor Mufkenzie that, the IwiulitjV 
i b> U uot worthy 6f iuipEuveiiieut by the Oeaeral QoTerniiiuuC. 
O. M. POB, 
Colonel, Corps of Enffiveeri, 
J>iri»inn Enffineerj Northwest JHvuion. 



fPrlnlrd In UuuH Er. !>«■. No. iV. Finy-flrst Cmfn-™". •'^'"1 <"*••••«.] 

WARY KXAMINATION OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT AND ABOVE 
ON, IOWA, WITH VIEW OF REMOVING BAR8 NORTH OF UTTI.E 
ISLAND. 

TTiaTED vStates Engineer Ofpick, 

Roek Island, III., September S7, 1890. 
'.RAL: I hftve the honor to acknowledge the receipt of lett^-r 
>tBc« Chief of Engiueers, September 20, 1890, referring to pM- 
V exam itiuti oils i-etiuiretl by river and harbor act of Septembtr 
>. assigning to my eharge ii preliminary examination of "MiHsi't- 
iver at and above Clinton, Iowa, witli view of removing bars 
f IJttle Ilock Island," and allotting S5U for the cost of suclt prji- 
y exfyiiination. 

ocality referred to embraee-s a portion of the Upper MisBiseippi 
letvreeu Fnlton, III., and Clinton, Iowa, about 2 miles in laagLh. 
facts reRiirdin? this imht nf n\'i'i- uliirli wmld bo shown by a 
luirv exiuniiiatioii iiu- ..I: . ■ lii- .r..<]. I'mni iufornmtinii 

I. r^mal'Ic tosiihiiLi 

lection of the Llpiwr .'Mishissijh)! iJucf Ijciiij; considered contains 
md, and jiorticms of the •.'lt;iiiiii'l ai'c cljan^cable. A sand bi.r 
ring the past few years, bci'ii imning dnwii t')wards the head of 
totrk Island, and now, at icitain stiifji^s iif water, interferes soni-f- 
ith raft navigation. 

■onditinn.s of iiavigation iil)iiv(( t'linton are not such aa to make 
ate work in that locality of as much importance as work on othfc 
s of the UpiMT Mississippi Hivcr, but it certainly appears th; t 
tion of the river ln'iiig i-unsidcred is worthy of improvement, and 
ch improvement slmuld be carried out whenever funds can Le 
y allotted to the work. Any work which may be carried ott 
II Fulton and ('lintoii wit! tbrui a |iart of the " improvement of 
per Mississippi River," an iin]noveinciit in which the whole coni- 
rfthe Mississippi Eiver in intereste<l. 

detailed survey of the section of river under consideration ha« 
ade for several yoar.s I believe a new survey is justifiable and 
lie. The cost of audi a survey, including offii-c work of inakini; 

1 estimate t*) be *.'ilMI. or $-S>H in addition to llie ?.')ll allotted IV'r 
nary exainiiiatimi. 

Very resiiectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. MA(:kexzie, 
Major, Corps of Engineers. 
Gen. Thomas L. Casey, 

Chief of Kilt/! iiecrs, U. S. A. 
•ugh Col. O, M. Toe, Corps nl' lingiueers, Division Knfiineer, 
"est Ui vision.) 



2188 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARM7. 

[First iDduisemeiit.] 

U. S. Engineer Office, 
Detroit^ September 29^ 1S90. 

Respectfully forwarded, approved and recommeDded. 

O. M. PoE, 
Colonel, Corps of EnffineerSy 
Division Emjineer^ Northwest JOivision, 



survey of mirsisssirn river at and above clinton, iowa, with 
view of removing bars north of little rock island. 

United States Engineer Office, 

Rock Isliindj III, December 20, JS90. 

General: The river and harbor act approved JSepteniber 19, 1890> 
provided for a preliminary examination of the *' Mississippi Kiver at 
and above Clinton, Iowa, with a view of removing bars north of Little 
Kock Island." It was fiirther provided by the act that, if such pre- 
liminary examination showed the locality to be worthy df improvement 
by the*. General Governmeiit, a survey should be made and estimates of 
the cost of proper improvement should be prepared. 

By letter dated September 20, 1890, the preliminaiy examination 
above rel'erred to was assigned to me, and, under date of September 27, 
181)0, 1 submitted a report upon such preliminary examination. In this 
report I stated : 

Tlie section of the Upper Mississippi River lieiiig coiisidered contains mnch und, 
and ]»ortions of the channel are changeable. A saind bar has, during the paflt few 
yt^arH, 1)(icn moving down toward tlie head of I^ittle Rock Island, and now, at c«r- 
tain stages of water, interferes somewhat with raft navigation. 

'J'he conditions of navigation al)ove Clinton arc not such as to make inunediaU 
work in that locality of as much imi)ortance as work on other portions of the Upper 
MiHsissippi River, but it certainly appears that the section of the river being con- 
sidered is worthy of improvement, and that such improvement should be carried oat 
whenever funds can be proj>erly allotted to the work. Any work which may be car- 
riiMl out between Fulton and Clinton will form a ])art of th«^ ** improvement of the 
T]>j>er MissiH8ipi)i River," an imi^roveuient in which the whole commerce of the Mi»- 
Hissi])]>i River is interested. 

As no detailed survey of the section of river under (*ousidcration has been made 
for sev«'ral years, I believe a new survey is justitiablo and desirable. 

Th<» survey above re feried to was order<»d by lett(M', dated OflQee Chief 
of Kn^in<»ors, Octtober 1, 1890, and made in October, 1800. A tracing 
sliowin;»; the results of tlu* survey is trausniittrd lierewitli.* 

This survey shows that at tlie present time th(»re exists n deep, wide 
clianiicl in the center ot* river and along the Illinois shore from Fulton 
to th(* head of Little Eock Island; at this ])oint the main low- water 
channel crosses tlie head of the island, under a sand bar, to the Iowa 
siiorc. At any stage i)ackets and single towboats experience little or 
no troubh* in the vicinity of Clinton, so far as the depth and slia]»eof 
the channel is concerned. At stages greater than 4 feet above low 
wat<M* lafts are sent down tlie Illinois shor<» east of the island, under 
the raft s])an of the railroad bridge. When the water is at <a lower 
stag<' rafts nnist follow the low-water chamu*] across the head of little 
l{(Mk Island and pass the bridge west of the island, and this oi>eration 

is tedious and attende<l with some danger. 

■ — ' — ^-^— — ^—^^^ 

•>»ol ivprintcd. 



4 < 



2190 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARIIT. 

t^ie proper time, there arc uo conditions which necessitate a special ni 
pi'opriation for the work. All necessary work in this locality can^ 
carrit^d out, whenever found necessary, under allotments ft^om the ycft 
eial appropriation tor ^'improving the Mississippi River iTom Mina^i 
apolis to Dos Moines liapids." 

A' cry respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. Mackenzie, 
Major J Corps of EHginetn. 
l>ri<:. Gen. Thomas L. Casey, 

Chief of EnghxeerSy U, 8, A. 
(Tlirou'rh Col. (>. M. Pi>e, Corps of Engineers, Division Eugineer, 
> or t invest Division.) 

[First iiiflor!H>iiii>nt.] 

U. S. Enginkeb Office, 
Detroit December ;23, 189(k 
BespectfuUy forwarded. 
I concur in the conclusions reached by Ms^jor Mackenzie in this n- ^ 
p)rt, and recommend that his proposition to build ''a closinjc dam be 
t»»ecn Little Eock Island and the tow head to the left" be apprnviiL 

O. M. PoE, 
CoJonelj Corps of Engineen^ 
Diriifion Etujincer^ Northwest Divmonm 




APPENDIX BB. 



'ROVKM8NT OP MISSISSIPPI HIVER ABOVE FAI,I,8 OF ST. ANTHONY, 
IISSESOTA, OF CHU'PEWA KIV'KR, WISCONSIN, OF ST. CROIX RIVBK, 
V18CONSIN AN1> MINJJESOTA, OF MINNESOTA RIVER, MLNNESOTA. AND 
IF BED RIVER OF THE XORTH, MINNESOTA AND NORTH DAKOTA; 
JAUOUJO MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT OR NEAR ST. PAl'L, MINNESOTA. 



<!POBT OF MAJOB W. A. JOTiES, CORPS OF KXi>l!iEEBS, OfTlfKS I.V 

charok, fob the fiscal tear exdino june so, is9i, with otaeb 
hocumexts eei.atikg to the works. 

impbovkmi:nt8. 



UlMiwippt River abovo Falls of St. 

Antlituiy, Hiunesots. 
■BMTTuiK at hoadWHteia uf MiMii- 

•Ippt Biv«r. 
-'Iilpiww* River, including Yellow 

lUnkB, WUcouHin, 
^C. Troit Rirer, Wihcodbui iind Miii- 



5. Miiine^-nla River. Miiiu><tH>tji. 

6. Rati River of the North, MinuMOls ani\ 

North Dikkota. 

7. Surveys for reaervoiM at the «i>nrMMior 

MisHisxippi, St. Croix, ChippewA, mi<\ 



EXAMINATIONS, 



Harlior at HiiiJson, Wiscnncin. «ii 



nlT from the niivigiilde' c 
(h« St. Urnii I.nk~o. na -.i 
Ihc Govei 
,.l a< 

> the fensihi 
ing the waters of Willow itiviT 
Ihi- .'ityof Hudson into the ii 
H:\\Ae ohannel ol thr> laki', 
SwiKiveroftheNorth, Nurlli U.il 



]iriivLnu the nsiviciititui 

i1;iiii at (joose RnniilB ii 
Crc^I lliiy, Totteli Bay, a 



United States liNGiNBER Office, 

m. Paul, ^finn., July 8, 1891. 
■■Uneeai.: I have the honor to transmit Lerewitli reports upon the 
" ■ n and liarljorsiu my charge 



.,..1 and wnrk.s for improvem«nt of ri 
the flseal year ending June .'iU, 1891. 
Very re-spwtfully, your otii'difiit s( 



'Vig, Gen. Thomaw L. (Ja.sey. 

Chie/ of EmjtHterH, U. 8. A, 



L'vant, 

W, A. JONKS, 

Major., Coi-jis of Kmjhu-i: 





THE ClIll'iF Of KM 



The present project, under which work \ia» been tarried on sint 
intruding 1880, is based upon the project for the improvement of 
miles of the river, from Couradi Shoals to Grand Kapids, the latter tM' 
pitsenl head of steamboat navigation. The estimated cost, 151,127^ 
18 given in the report of February 8, 1875, upon part of the Mississippi 
routes to the seaboard ; plan of improvement to afl'ord 3 to 5 feet depUi 
in the cliannel by removing emagu, bowlders, and bars, and confining 
the low-water discharge to widths practicable for navigation by meom 
of wing dams where necessary. In 1889 the estimate was increnfted to 
*fi;),000. 

This same report (1875) estimated the cost of improvement of tha 
river between the Falls of St. Anthony and St. Cloud at 8144,(i(>7.50j the 
improvement of tliia section to aiFord 5 feet depth in the channel at loT 
water between tlie falls and St. Cloud by removal of sand, gravel, and 
bowlder bars and the construction of wing dams. The sum of $20,00^ 
appropriated by act of Congress approved August 14, 187C, was ex- 
pended between those placea. Prior to the rendition of the report and 
«4tjmate of February 8, 1875, Congress had ajipropriatcd, by act approvAfi 
June 23, 1874, thesum of Sl!5,tK)t» for improvement of the river above the 
Falls of St. Anthony, which was also exi)ended in improving the i ' " 
neJ between the falls and St. Cloud. 

Steamboat navigation having discontinued between the falls i 
. Cloud, a distance of 78 miles, the tliird appropriation made bj 
gresa, that of jl 15,1(00, by a«t of Congreas approved June 14, 188t^ 
applied to the stretch (130J miles in length) of river between AitkiiT 
(rrand Rapids (this stretch included within the distance &om tho rupiilM 
to Conradi Shoals], as have been alT subsequent appropriations tor im- 
proving the river above the Fidls of St. Anthony. 

Before work of improvement commenced under the present iilan ChO 
stream between Aitkin and Grand Bapids was so obstructed by snags, 
bowlders, and leaning trees that at low and even high stages of watat 
navigation was difficult and sometimes almost impossible for stuamurt 
drawing less than 3 feet of water. 

The amount esj>ended on present project to June 30, 1890. iticladJsg 
outstanding liabilities, $44,900.13. With this sum there hnd bwin pm- 
dueed a general depth in the improved channels except on the rapids 
of 3 feet at low water. On the rapids the channel depths woru but 3 
feet; a few snags and leaning trees otfercd some obstruction, bat diid 
, not serioosly interfere with navigation. 

Field work during the past fiscal year was performed between Bo- 
Tember, 1890, and April, 1891, in deepening and widening all tliei' 
places (rapids] in the channel between Aitkin and Ei-ainerd. Tho ' 
was carried on during the winter, as at that season the water i 
brought by the aid of the reservnirs at headwaters of the Mi 
Kiver to an abnoi-mally low stagt.' and offered the best opport 
pruset^iiting work. 



APPENDIX BB — REPORT OP MAJOR JONES. 



2193 



The following is a stsitcmcnt of work perfonncd during the fincal year 
ciuling June .'K), 1801 : 



1)<*Hi*ri|itioii. 



Wins and train log fLimii con»trurt<'<l ( i.4(h) ii-rt Itm;;) : ^ * 

liock placed in work '. . . .vu. \ tU . . 

Brush placed in work innU . . l 

Bowldm removed from rliiiinir] m. v(1m..| 

iJIay, sand, and gravel n^'h «>xr:iviiti-(l <lo ' 

Sna£S removed : 

16-inch diameter , 

18-inch diameter 

32-lncli diameter 



<>ii;nitity. 


font. 


IfiK 

mi 

1 
1 
1 


$2.M i»or c'uhic yard. 
$4.U1) ptT f^nl. 
$'i.27 iM»r en hit: yard, 
$iJ.*J7 per cubic yard. 



The field work wa^s in cliargc*, of Mr. E. J)aveni)()rt, assistant cnf^ineer, 
to whom credit is due for encM'^j^y di.si)laycd. His report, api)ended 
hereto, contiunn an account in detail of the season's operations. 

During the month of August a steamboat will be emi)loyed in remov- 
ing all snags which obstruct tlie channel, and then the work of improv- 
ing this sti-etch of river will be (tompleted. Our operations duiing the 
last winter, were extiemely succossful, and result<Ml in making a good 
navigable river from Grand Kapids to Brainerd, a distance of 185.4: 
mUes. Over this reach we h{iv<i incn^ased the navigable depth more 
than 1 foot. 

There being no demand at pr(^s<Mit for navigation between Brainerd 
and Minneaiwlis, no further approi)riation is now a.sked for. The time 
will come when this should hv <lono. 1 will say in conclusion that this 
reach may be placed in exccll(»nt navigable condition at quite a reason- 
able expense. 

Amount expended during liscal year ending fJune 30, 1891, including 
outstanding liabilities, $10,479.L>2. 

The three completed reservoirs at the headwaters of tlu^ I\Iississij)y)i 
Kiver, above Grand Rapids, may be relied upon iMMUM'forth to provide 
sufficient water and depth for the steamboats on the riv<*r at and above 
Aitkin. 

Last season one steamer with barges was engaged in freight and pas- 
senger transportation between Aitkin and (irand Rapids. During the 
winter of 1889-^90 the Duluth and Winnipeg Railway (3onipany con- 
struct4?d and are now operating a line from (/hxpiet, a point on the St. 
Paul and Duluth Railway, to Grand Rapids. Th<i same company will 
tixtend their line from Grand Rapids toward Winnipeg. 

In 1889, my predecessor, Maj. (J. J. Allen, reported — 

• 

''The comparative t»blc8 of roiiimt^rcial Rtatistics herewith show that in 1880, the 
year in which the work of iinjirovciiieiit between Aitkin and Grand Rapids com- 
iiiencedy there was bat one BtcaiiKT (with itu barges) nlyin^ Itetween those points, 
iind that though the aniDunt ol' frci^^ht tranHported tliat year by steamer was un- 
iisnally large, the freiglit rat<iH wt^re from 75 cents to $1 per lnin<ircd pounds, while 
in 18^ 1884, 1885, and 18^(i the rates rodnced to 20 to 40 cents per hundred pounds. 
The last name<l tignree obtained in 1SS«), at which time there were three steamboats 
I'ngaged in freighting and carrying ])aK8engcr8 between Aitkin and Grand Rapids 
The country bordering tlu? rivc'i* north of Aitkin is becoming more and more settled, 
and there is no doubt that the improvcmont of the river already etVeeted by the 
I'liited States Government has largely contributed to the increase in settlement.'' 

This work i9 in the collection district of Minnesota, of which St. Paul is the port 
of entry and 8t. Vinc<Mit a sul>port. ('ollc<*tions for year eiulinjj: December 31, 1890, 
$1105,878. (M). Value of domestic exports for same period, :|«l,7;Jli/J07, 

EI^U 91 138 



2194 KEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. 

ABSTRACT OF AFPROPBIATIONB. 

By act approved — 

June 23. 1871 '125.01 

AnguBt 14, 187H •tSft.iW 

June 14, 188() W 

March 3. 1S81 10. 

By act passit'd Auj^ust 2. l^y<L> : ^ HI; 

Byact of AuKll^t 11. 1SV< ^ 10. 

By act approvtMl 5>«'ptfiiilMM- \\K 1KH> * 18» 



Total lOS^OOl 

Money sfaff*tnn}t 

July 1, 189(\ balauoo nnexptMidcd y. $13.54 

Amount aiipiopriatoil by art appmved September 19, 1890 18, OiUXW 

IS.CHSLM 
June 30. 185^1. auiouut expended durin«j tiM-al year 10. 1.M.2F I 



July 1, ISJH, balanee unexpended 7,5ft2.fl 

July 1, ISIU, outstanding liabilities 31.0 

July 1. 181U, balakce available 7,56L\.6S 



IIKlMUrr OF MR. R. P-VVrNPoKT. ASSISTANT KNCINEKR. 

St. Paul, Minx., April 30, 1S9J. 

Major: The followinjr report of work done in the improvement nf the Mie&sissima 
River above the Falls of St. Anthony, during the winter of 1890-'91, it» n^spectthlir 
submitted. 

The work was rtmmientx^d in November, 18iK), and completed in April, 1891. jnst 
before the opening of navigation. During the entire working Bea(H)n the river *« 
clo.sed by iee. 

Tlie force employed on the work consisted in all of 14 men and 2 t«am8, extra teami 
being hired when occasion — moving camp, etc. — required. 

The men and teams were housed in tents — the camp being moved as often as nw- 
essary — so as to be always in the inmiediate vicinity of tlie work. 

Tlic length of river worked over wan about 1<C> miles, from Grand Kajiids to a poini 
3 miles b««b»w the outlet of' IMne Kiver. Of this distance, however, a bont 15niilr« 
between Aitkin and Tine Knoll riMiuiretl no work of improvement, as on that 8*»ctioB 
the river is deep and slu;iuisli and free fri»m bowblers and reefs. 

The work i>f imjtrovenieiit. as instructed, was eontiued entirely to the remova]of 
obstriu'tions fnuu the navigable channel, ami the construction of wing and traiDiiV 
dams where necessary. 

All ob.st met ions were removed to an estimated de]»th of 3 feet below low w»trr 
(l.«XX><'ubic feet per second discharge fn»m Pokegama l>am) and to a uunimiuii widtk 
of 80 feet at the same stage. 

Bowlders of all sizes up tt) 3 cubic yards were removed by horse-power, n\dM ^T 
blocks ami tackle. Clay. san<l. ami gravel reels were excavated by scraix'ru. nik<*' 
and shovi^ls. after first being broken up by dynamite. (Seven hundn'd pounil**' 
dxiiamite were used on the wtirk.'^ 

In all '.'-^T cubic yanls of bowldiTs and 5tU i-nbie yards of clay, sand, and gravel 
reefs were rmioved trom the channel. 

Length of wing and training dams and shore pndeetion e<mstnict«'<l, 1.109 Hm'*' 
feet. 

Brush cut. bound into faM'ines. and ]daced in dams. 1(?8 conls. Kock collected »«*• 
placed in dams. tV.»i).; rubic yards. Snags removed from channel, 3. 

The ii»si of the work averaged as follows: 

Kemoval oi' bowM»Ts and excavation of clav. sand, and gravel reefs, per cubic ^ 
vard ■ |8.2r* 



' 



Brush rut. bimnil inti» faseines. ami ]»l:i<'e<l in dams. ]»er <-or<l .- 4.' 

Stone e\i-.i\ated «>r eolleitetl from r«M-t's rind ]»l:ireil in jlams. per eiibii- yanl.. l!.* j 

Snails r»iin»\eil. eaeh IJ.*^^ 

Cost of siib^i^teMie. iK-r rjititui ■* A 

Cost t»f lora^e. i)er ration -!► 

*Madc and expended before the adoption of the present projeott 




_. _> 



[ WINTER OF 



|S7Ci* 



.Y4t. 



»• 



fft. below Itw 

Nsd 

ired 



N. 

! 



tm 



. * . 



APPEKDIX BB — EEPOBT OF MAJOB JONES, 
g ia » BUt«mBnt of Uie MTork iu doUU : 


2195 i 






1 




111 

II 

Lin.Jl. 


^ 

i^ 


f 


Siwgi remoTAd. J 


j 


i 


1 






O..,*-. 


a*d» 


(Vir* 




/M*M. 


nu. 


Pi>U«m 




















<" . 
















o HalM 


















s 


W 


H 




n 










■ 


IS 


M 




51 


an 


TO 


u 


in 




1 


13 


« 




nil 


lU 










to B*t- 


















IT 

17 


so 





T* 


*•* 


















m 


U 


■1 


m 
















Sandy 
















"i 


a 














pirt. to 














M 
















I>lud 


















" 


iw 


« 


41 


w 








. >,.. 


. 


1« 


. 








an 


24 




lioaA 


104 


P 
















18 


i 


108 








>M^ 






















121 


' 


oust 


s 




















of til.' work llir 



2196 REPOBT OP THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. AEMY. 



COMMERCIAL STATISTICS. 



Comparative statement of steamboat business on the Mississippi River between Aitkin md 

Grand Rapids, 1SS0-1S90, inclusive. 



Year. 


Steam* 
boats. 


Freijght 
earned. 


Passengers 
carried. 


Total 
tonnage. 


Year. 


Steam- 
boat*. 


Freight 
earned. 


Passengers 
carried. 


Total 
tbnna^ 


1880*... 


1 
1 
2 
2 

2 
2 


Pounds. 
7,874,250 
2,200,000 
3,026,000 
2,800,000 
16,000.000 
5,000,000 


1,000 
1,540 
1,764 
• 1,100 
1,346 
2,400 


Tons. 


1886.. 
1S87.. 
1R88.. 
1889.. 
1890.. 


3 
3 
3 
2 

1 


Pounds. 

8, 000, 000 

3,710,400 

5,321,443 

7,000,000 

3,212,550 


3,500 
2,884 
2,860 
5,250 
1,253 


Tons. 


1881 






1882 




2.880 
3,SS 

i,eM 


1883 


, 


1884 




1885. . . . 


i 



* Amount of commerce and navigation when work of improvement began. 

Amoont of commerce and navigation, 1890, approximate. 

t 

Comparative statement of loose logs run on the Mississippi River above the Falls of 8L 

Anthony. 



Year. 



1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 



Loose logs 
nm. 



228,000,000 
238, 000, 000 
285, 000, 000 
420, 000, 000 
.'{67, 000, 000 
317, 99:J, 000 




1880 

1S87 
1888 
1880 
1890 



I 



Loose logs 
run. 



282, 600, 000 

♦265. 000, 000 

*265,000,000 

288,000,000 

325,660,280 



* Approximate. 



B B 2. 



KESERVOIRS AT £EAD WATERS OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

The reservoir project is the outcome of surveys and examinations in 
1869, 1874, 1878, and 1879, the results of which are published in api)en- 
dices to various Annual Ecports of the Oliief of Engineers. The r6suni6 
of the subject is given in the leport of tlie Board of Engineers, printed 
in Appendix A A to the Annual Rei)ort of the Chief of Engineers for 
1887. 

From the results of the surveys and examinaticms just noted and ftir- 
ther examinations in 1880, the lirst cost of (?onstrnctiiifx 41 reservoir dams 
in Minnesotii and Wisconsin was placed at 81,8()9,08;3, exclusive of that 
of land damages, which could not be given in advance. (See page 1871, 
Ai)])cndix W to Keport of the Chief of Engineers for 1881.) 

The project for this im])rovement was inaugurated in 1880 by an ap- 
propiiation for the construction of a reservoir dam at Lake Winibigo- 
shish, made by act of Congress approved June 14 that year. For Sie 
reasons given in the Annual Eeport for 1880 tlie work of constmction 
commenced and has been (fon tinned in Minnesota. 

The project has for its object the construction and maintenance of 
reservoirs at the head waters of the Mississippi liiver, in tlie State of 
IVlinnesota, for the purpose of collecting the surplus water, principally 
from the luecipitation of winter, spring, and early summer, to be syste- 
matically released so as to benefit navigation upon the Mississi])])i River 
below the dams and as far down as Lake rex)in. Eeduction of heights 



of flnnds in localitifls immeiliat^cly ticlow th(* flams pxpepf«l to obtain Ui 
8onii.' extent, biU- Lontrol nft'xtpiifloii ftnods or IH'sliotH not expected. 

Tliere nrp 4 lornpletwd resBrvoirH. viz: 

AtLakeWinil)igoshi!ai,oompIet4?diui883-'84; i!apacity45,8IHI,<MHI,l«Ml 
nnbic feet. 

At Lm-h Lake, coni])let4>d in 1SS4 : i-apat^ity .tO.OOO.omi.OOO tnibir t(.(.|. 
, At Pokegama FallM, wiiiijdeUMi in 1884, lift of dam tncreaswl in ifWU; 
O^MCrty 4,700,IKH),OO0 cubit; leet. 

At Pine River, eoinplet«d in 1886; capacity 7,500,0(10,000 (;ubic fwt. 

Congress, by act approved August 5, 1886, appropriated as IoUuwh: 

Far rnntmning oporutiuiix nron tlio rest'rvoirs at the heruX wateraof the MixnJMippi I 
River, thirty-Mvtm tUotuauil five hundred dollars : Provided, That, in the opinion iif 
the Chief of £ngin««ra, tlit> rxpenilitate of thii ftppiopriatioii and the ultimate tiuiu- 
pletioD of this part of the ruBorroir sjatem will adequate]? improve navigation. 

The subject was referred to the Board of Engineers meutioDed above. 
The Board reported " tiiey (the r4'sprvoirs) now ' adoqiiately improve 
navigation ' in the sense that they i-cudered a fair return for their cont," 
The Boanl also reconimended further work and extcuHiou of the syKlcm 
at the headquarters of the Mississippi Biver, viz : 

(1) Raising the Pokcgamii Dam 2 feet. 

[2) Bnilding a dam in the ii>aiidy Lake district-, if more elaborate sur- 
veys there (confirm present indications. 

{S) Iiegislation to provide rules and regulations to govei-n the opoiu- 
titins of the reservoirs. 

(4) Gaugings to be made at or near St. Paul during the annual opcru- 
ticta of rem<rvoirR. 

I The tlrst and third recomraeudations of the Board have been carried 
into effect, anil the fimrt li partially ao, Legislatiuii on tliene aubjects was | 
contained in the river and harbor act of August II, 1888, as follows : 

Tar riintiniiing operations upon the rnHurvoira itt tho head watBra of the HiBfiisnijipi 
HivL't, 112,000 to ba expended in accordance with the rtMiommeiidtttiun of the Hoind 
of KnginDuTH in their rujiort to the Chief of Engineers, duted May twenty-tbnci.li, 
oifbleen hundred and oighty-Bovpu, And it bIiuU be the duty of the Baerotary iil' 
Wolt to preBcribu snob rules and reguliitions in respect to the nse and adminiatrutioii 
of said reservoirs as in his jadgment the public intereat and necessity may reqniri'. 
wlijciJi niteH and Tegulutions shall be punted in some conapicnons place or places fur 
lbi> iiilorin.'ilion of the public. And an; person knowingly and williiilly TioluMng | 
li' h ii'i- I'i'l vej^ations shall be liable t-o a fine not exceeding $500 or unpriRim- 
. iliiiKBiimonlhH, the same to be enforced by proaecntion inanydiBtrii'l 
I iiitKiT Statics within wfanae territoTinlJnrisdiotionMioh offiinsemay buvi 

1 1 1 il. And the ScrtPtarv of War ahallcanac such gaugings to be niaile ul 

I, Unting the aiiiiu:il operation of sold reservoirs, as shall dpteniiint 
diaehnrKA at thai point, tbe cost of same to be paid out of the i 



■a of the Hjssiasippi Uiver and il 



Tiliutnrlm. 



iringthe nnintemipted ganging of the nattun | 
Kivecund iCBlrtbuturieH. as provided for in joint resoluliun of , 
1 li> r 1 ' II I ir .' ... I ' I.' ii.ir\ , eighteen hundred and seventy-one, upon tlie appUcuttoil 
I I. ' ' ~ the Seci'etaryof War is hereby authorized to draw his war- 

I . ' ' 11 liine to time upon the Seccetaiy of the Treasury for snch 

.i,\ to do Bnch work, not to exceed ix the agxregale for each 
^ . <) 11" II .1.1" I .;.|. .jiiinted in this act for such purpose: Provided, Iwteever, That 
.111 it«uil'.o<l sLik'UR'nl of Buuh expenses shall accompany the A&nnal Beport of the 
Chief urEugiuucTs. 

e lift of the Pokeganin Falls Dam was raised 2 feet in 1889. Boles 
jnla.tioUH to conti-oT the nsp and adininiatjation of the reservoirf 
emulated and approved by the Secretary of War, February 21, 



2198 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. AXliy. 

1SS<>. GaiijLrin^s'of the ^Fississippi IJivor at St. Paul hare been made, ] 
to u limited extent, (luring the pa^^t two liseal years; they form the sub- 
ject of a separate rei)ort. 

The Hual survey of the proposed Saudy Lake Eeservoir was made in 
thi^ Ml of 1888. 

Total expeuded upon this work, ineludin<i: exaniiuations at propMed 
dam sites, hydrolo<rieal observations, laud damages, amounts set aside 
as awards t^ Indians, and eare and maiutenanee of tlie works, to the 
elose of the lisi*al year endiug June 30, 1890, $023,986.63. 

Amount expended durin«r the tiseal year ending June 30, 1891, inelad- 
injr outstanding liabilities, ''?11,520.74. 

l-'ield operations during the past year wei'e mostly confined to eaie 
and protection of dams and engineer proi)ei-ty and recording hydro- 
logical and meteorological data. A sled road was constructed between 
Leech and Lake Wlnibigoshish dams, and the Lake Winibigoshish log 
sluice was repaired. 

In the office, si design for Sandy Lake Dam was preps^red and sab- 
mittiHl to the Chief of EnginetM's, May ;">; estinmted cost, ^30,229.14. It 
was approved May 18, 181U. During the months of May and Jnne the 
business of assembling the nuMi and material for constructing the 8andy 
Lake Dam has proceeded, and the party is now on the ground. It was 
n<»t considertHl advisable to attempt further oi>erations while the liTer 
was occui»ied with so many log-drives. 

It had been observed tliat during low stages in the Wiuibigoshidi 
and Leech Lake reservoii-s, it was only jwssible to make the dams dis- 
charge a very small ([uantity of water. In other words, theii' efficiency 
was practically at an end long before the water was drawn off. I foand 
tliat at the former the old cofferdam had not all been removed above 
x\\v sluices, and that the channel way from the lake was obstmcted with 
grass. These removed only slightly remedied the matter, and thedilB- 
culty at both dams was found to be practically the same. Owing to 
the low sh>pe and tortuous channels of the sti'cams below the dams, it 
riMpiires (Mmsiderable head at each, below the dam^ to creiite a velocity 
sutlicient to overcome the excessive beil and bank fiiction arising from 
the h»cal conditions. This head requires the water immediatdy below 
the dams to stand nearly on v» level with that immediately above daring 
low stages, and henccbut small (luantities ofwatercould escape. Abont 
1 foot of the holding capacity thus becomes Useless in producing naviga- 
tion dischar«xes. 

At Leech Lake the level above the dam can be considerably inoreoaed 
by dredging the river channel considerably above so as to admit some- 
tliin<r like the lake level torcachthe dam. It is estimated that the Bum 
of r^iijHH) will accom]dish this. At Winibigoshish this condition pcac- 
tically exists, so 1 had to look below for relief. Here the Mississippi 
winds in t he most tortuous manner southward panillel to Ball Clnb Late 
and has some slight rapids on the route: from the foot of Ball Clnb the 
.Mississippi waters ba^'k up into that lake, making a diQerence of levd 
of 10 teet between the head of the lake and the waters of Little 'Wln- 
nibigoshish one half mile distant. Obviously, if we lead thewatw 
across this nei'k it will take the waters away jfrom the foot of the dam 
very lapidly, and «»nal>le us to drain the reser\'oir very rapidly in ite 
low(>r stages. This can be done at a cost of $5,000, and tiieexpenditue 
is recommended. 

The sum of j?80,0()0, appropriattMl Se])t4Mnber 19, 1890, is oonsidjeKel 
sulUcitMit to complete the Sandy Lake Dam and pay all necessary land 
damages, and this will conqtlete the n\scrvoir system in Minneaota 



Therefore no ftirtliw aimrtiprii 



I inn riircoiintmctioii j>iiiiRis«'» will In- iiuu- 1 
iiittiiili'i! 1^ tiii[ii-ovoUio low-stage (ipcj-a- 
tioaa of tbe two upper rmi-ivoiis :iin] r<.i- imliiKuy rcgmlrs aud malute- 
liuniiv. ItmiLsLuot lnMivi>rl()iiK (■(!.] Mi\\r\ IT-, ilml tliP tinif-is noon to I'ormi > 
wh«ii l.he dw.ay of t.lii; wodiIsmhI, in :\]l <-i Wh-m' iJn.iiiHt.ructiirest willi-iiH 
I'ln- uxri^iixivti repairw, n-iid Mil- ilrjji^nids iii,i\ riiiin! very midilenly, 

Tlift projert for Sandy Laki.- l>am U;is noi Imikedtj) a Hti-uctiire wit)ia 
titivi^nblepa^ii through it. A ^'i-i';il dial of jiiHtcomplaintlDutbefMi made '. 
tliat tlUK will deprive navigation inltTfsta of a valuable Held of opwa- 
I.iuns in the waters alK>ve thi^ duin. Thi^ demand can be met at a small I 
iiist and I tJieretore recommeinl that the sum of *.10,l)i)0 be providwl for I 
tliis piir|i08e. I 

Ft is i)ropo8ed during the coming year to complete the Sandy Lake ' 
Ritiei-voir and to operate and uuiintain the completed system. , 

i 'ondemnatioii proceedings to acquire title to Uuidn bt'tween L'okegaina 
Falls and Blackberry Bi-ook that are liablt* to be ovcrtlowed by the oper- | 
ttlitin of Ute resei'voirs wei-e TOmmnnc«d last year, but aitorwardii dis- 
troRtinnml, aa it wa^* deemed more ncoiiomical t^» obtain title, or the right 
to overflow, through private jturchasc It is expected U> iK'(-om]>li8h 
ttiit* daring the t^oining year as well as to obtain the right to ovcrllow 
the private lands to t)e aScctcd by the Sandy Lake Dam. A list of the 
latter lands was scut to the Chief of Engineers February 1!>, last, with- 
rei'x>mmendatioi) that condemnation proceedings be eommeuced. 

The beneficial efl'octs resulting in previons years iroin the ojienition | 
of thv conipluted reservoirs have been maintained. 

TlielJoardofEngineers, intheirroportheretoforerefen'ed to, expresa | 
tliiH opinion: 

S» (at ilowii iH tile mnutb tif thn Grat ntinsidnrnblit trilmlary, tliu St. Croix, it is 

IfafTffArF not iiiirRiLaDimliln In fiiimiuse that unvigatiim may bo beiiulltod n~~~' '~ ~ 
prnportion to IJinotT'-'ut niion t.bL> St. Puulgauge,!. e., l^-nm t font to 18 inchec 
watM singes. 

My predecessor, in his annual reports for the yesirs 1S87, 1S88, and I 
18K0, has8Ut«d: 

Fivm •iK'ii ot>MTViitiii[ia tM I1IOU.UB admitUHl of in 1H85 »nit 18811, ai 

mpvrts of UiHvHRilwr W, lKtl5, aad NuvmnbKr G, IVSA, bnlb nf wliiub ate iier» respoct- I 

Tiilly nil'i^rii'il U>, it B)>j>eatBil tbut wheu tbu river Htuud at 3 feet on tbe U. 6. Si^ial I 

-. I . ;. i ;: nil-- rtt St. Paiil, the eflei-i. i>l' .'v.iy lOi iMibic feot pet eonond of -water I 

■■ liver and Bleudily nmiiitiNiii-.l iv:i- i-.|iiivnli-ut to uioreaaing thodepth 1 

.1 iV.ol. Aa tbe rivprriHi-- 1 h ■ aiiiiii iii^ri of t-ach 100 cubic fort of wntBp 1 

....-■«hnt. It aiippiirs. lirnv. m i , ;r.. v..iniiiatioii8 iu IggS and 1886, th»t J 

■i„- lilieiiLli.'.! W.I1.-1' li.iii, 111,- (.1111- r.'..iv.iirB wiia tbe»ddiUouof ifoot 1 

' : !.< .!< I'tii .11 Si I'jiii), during thu dry [luTiudH uf thoBd years, tbe ad- J 

' I' I ' <!' t ii mil of water anffiwe ae welt ua to udditiouul seunr. 1 

. . ■■ .1 U. |...il. 1S87.) I 

■■ I ■, ..II '..iiiiiu' BxtPiidi'd over aoiue 4aG [390] luiles of river ' 

. .,...1,, i.li.- i.i|.i.l= l,Liiig388 [353] iiiileB. by river, above St. I'lml. Of 
:,iiri 'JIM [IGj] uju uavigaU'd by steoitiero. 

Ill I'liiinnel iteptb at Bl, Paul due to releaao of tba Btored-up water 
' . inigod for tbe 86 days 1 foot to 1} feet. (See Appendix Z, Antinal 



;;Ki 



1 of II 



athe 






Krport, 1889.) 

Tin- i-fT.ct ..f Hh- reiiervoirs on the navigable depth of wat«r in the 
cbaiiii' I III tlif ■'■li -i-^sippi Hi ver above the Falls of St. Anthony is not 
af ciir i I : vii as it conid be. A series of hydrologieal and 

uiftt 111 ; n I \ations on the Mississippi and the principal tribu- 

I r III. extending over a i>eriod of several .yeai'S, would 
i liifoniialiini not only of great practical valoe in theoperation of 
rvoirs, but would also be of scientific value in connection witli 1 



1 



2200 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARKT. 

'i 

tlio loss of river water by evaporation and filtration, and in the pitv 
fpression (and even disi)ersion) of a ti(H>d wave. A commencement in 
this direction has been made by the provision for gaugingi^ at or near 
St Paul, but the money available for the puri)ose is inadequate for 
thorough work, and is only applicable near St. Paul. It is estimatetl 
that the sum of $15,(KK) per annum can be profitably expended in hydro- 
logical and meteorological investigations during a period of 4 years. 

The sum of $75,000 can be profitably expended during the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1893, as follows: 

Navigable pass in Sandy Lak«' Dam $30, 000 

Maiiitenanre and ordinary n*]»aiiK 19,000 

Excavation at the two ui»i>er dams 11,000 

Hydrological and nieteorolo>;i«'al invest igatlous 15,000 

TotiU • 75,000 

For C(minien*ebeiu*tite(l by tlie reservoirs, reference must be made to 
the commercial .statistics (»f the Mississippi liiver. 

For valuable assistance in work ui>on, and management of, the reser- 
voirs, 1 am greatly indebted to 3Ir. Ai'chibald Johnson^ assistant en- 
gineer. 

ABSniACT OV Ari'K01»RIATIONS. 

l?v art approved Jnno 14. isso $75,000 

nV act ai»proved Marth 3. ISSl 160^000 

nVact passiMl Aut^nst 2. 18^<l' 900,000 

By act approved Jnly 5. ISS-l 67,000 

By act approved Ani^nst 5, 18S(» 37, 500 

Bv act of August 11, 18S8 12,000 

By act approved September 19, I.^IH) * 80^000 

Total 714,500 

Allotment per lett^ir from (.Uliee Cliict' of Kngineers — 

November9, 1881 1,572.15 

Janiiarv20, ISS'i 176.00 

JanuarvlS, 1888 643.S5 

May U! 1888 S.GO 

Awards to Indians f<>rdani:i«;;ts in (MiiiHTtion \\'i\\\ tlu* building i»fl^'eeh 
Lake and Lake Wiunibigosliisli dams. li'ttcifVnm oilieeUliief of Engi- 
neers. August?, 18?Ci ...' 15,906.90 

Allotted and ex]>entled by ollieer ki eliarge for nu'teorologioal obRerva- 
tiniis. borings, examinations, ete., at ])ri>p()sed dam sites, letter from 

t.tlie.' t)f Cliief of Engineers, May 27. ISSl 7,500.00 

Ixpt'iHlid by t)llieerin rharge in eoiiiHTtioii witli the building and o]M*ra- 
t i II ir <d" four reservoir <lams to .liin»« ;io, 1/<!U. iiiehuling outstanding 
Ii:il.ilities 009,615.87 

Total a]]ntt«d and I'viMMMb'tl lo .lnn(':>n. IMM. inelnding outstand- 
ing liubiliiirs 635,513.37 

Kstiniatt'd cost of Ihc svstrni < omit ling tliat of land. etc.. damagen)... 1, K09^063L50 
Amounts a]»nn»]niatt'd 714,600.00 

llt'inairiing to br a|i])ro|uiaf«Ml 1,094^663.60 

Mumif titninuvHt, 

.Tuly 1. iSiX). balance unr\)n'mb'd $11,790.34 

Amount ai>propriat(Ml l»y ;n.i apppiovcd Si'j»t«'mlM*r 1J>. 1S5K) 60,000.00 

91,199.34 

June 30» 18;»l. annumt f\p«-ud«Ml during tist-al year 11,772.0 

.Inly 1. 1S!»1, balanee um-xiMiidrd - ^' wl\\ii 

Jiilv 1. 18i»l, outstan«linir liabiliti«'s - 1,040.48 



July 1, 18J»1, balanee a\ailablr. 



O^W^CS 



APPENDIX BB — ^REPORT OP MAJOR JONEfi. 2201 

Amount (estimated) reiiiiired for completion of oxiRtiiig projort $1, 004, 583. 50 

Amount that can be 2)roiitably expended in fiscal year eudiii;^ Juno 

30,1893 75,000.00 

Submitted in compliance with requirements of sections 2 of nvor 

and harbor acta of 1806 and 1807. 



BB 3. 



IMPROVEMENT OF CHIPPEWA RIVER, INCLUDING YELLOW BANKS, WIS- 
CONSIN. 

Tlie plan for improvement of the Chippewa Elver consista in revet- 
ment of caving bends and construction of dams and jetties from Eau 
Claire to the confluence of the stream with the Mississippi Iliver, a dis- 
tance of 67 miles, to confiiH*. the low-water volume to a channel of nearly 
uniform width and depth. The general plan for imi^rovement was 
adopted in 1877, and the work 1ms been canied on in accordance with 
it, varying, however, more or less, as to location and extent of dams, 
jetties, etc. 

The object of protection of the Yellow Banks is to prevent erosion of 
the high sand bluffs or banks bordering the Cliippc^wa Eiver at a num- 
ber of iK)ints below Eau Claire, and to thereby relieve the channels of 
that river and of the Mississii)[)i below the junction of the two streams 
firom the masses of sand contributed by those banks. The plan for pro- 
tection consists in a revetment of piling and fascines, the latter to be 
crowned with rock. 

The examination of the fiver upon which the. plan and estimate were 
based was made in 1874. The report, dated January 30, 1875, of this 
examination, is printed in Part I, Appendix to the Annual Eeportof the 
Chief of Engineers, pages 375-380. In that report the estimate of cost 
of improvement, including protecting the Yellow Banks, was $139,892.50. 

The first appropriation for improving the Chippewa Elver was made 
in 1870, and the first for protection of the Yellow Banks was made in 
1882. These were regarded as se])arate and distinct works until the 
act of Congress of August 11, 1S8S, ai)pr()priated for the imx)r()vement 
of the Chippewa Eiver, including Yellow Banks in said river, Wiscon- 
sin, continuing improvement, $10,000. 

Tlie estimated cost, including all expenditures since 1876, for channel 
improvement of the river, as revised by my predecessor in 1888 (see 
pages 1543, 1544, Annual Eeport ihv LSS8), was placed at $170,487.72. 
The cost of protecting the Yellow IJanks, as revised by the same officer 
in 1883 (see page 1443, Annual Ke])ort lor 1883), was estimated at 
$96,000, making the total cost for channel improvement and the protec- 
tion of the Yellow Banks $272,487.72. 

There has been appropriated for the Chippewa Eiver improvement 
and the Yellow Banks the sum of $106,750, leaving a balance of 
$105,737.72 remaining to be approprialxHl in order to complete the ex- 
isting projects in accordance with the estimates. 

Before the improvement commencc^d the depth on the bars at low 
water seldom exceeded 18 inches, and the crossing at the mouth of the 
river was extremely difficult at that stage, owing to the volume of the 
river joining the Mississippi through a number of channels of insufficient 
depth. 

Total expended firom commencement of optnathms in 1877 to June 
30, 1890, including ontstanding liabilities, $156,ms.2r>. 

In the Annual Keport for 1889 (page 1796) my inedc^cessor reported: 

Wherever works have been constructed by the Government for the improvenu-nt 
of the river the navigation has been benefited, a low-water depth of 3 to 4 feet be- 



2202 REPORT OF THK CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMT. 



inp maintained whori' bffnro the works were undiTtakt'n t\w. depth seldom < 

18 inohi*s. Tilt' \sork lor inii>roveiiu>nt has been principally cuufinetl to the extent «f 

rivfr liotwi'cn xlw niuiith and Dnrand, TG^ miles, and to the vicinity of Eau Clun. 

The jetties at the month of the river have been of inoalculable benefit to zaft and 
Bteamhoat navigation in secnring a stable channel of snlticient depth where befine 
ini)irovenit'nt commenced there was a broad bar, intersected by Bhallow, ehiltiiif 
channels. p:i8sable with great difiiculty at times of low water by laftd and steamen. 

The injurious elfects upon the channel from the operation of private sluicing daois 
on tlie river and its tributaries has been noticed in precedinffs reports. 

Since the branch of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Panl Railway has beenbuiU, 
in 1882. from \Va1)asha, on the Mississippi River, to Eau Claire, the braueh being 
<'lose to and generally parallel w^ith the Chippewa, the freight and passenger traiBc 
of The latter has declined. The rafting of manufactured lumber, laths, shingles, and 
]>ickets varies in ditterent years, the raits moving down the Chippewa and betweoi 
the jetties into the Mississippi. In 1881 the lumber rafted was reported aa SiS^887,000 
fett'. «. M.: in 1885.374.138,443 feet; in 1886, 207, L>(r>.b72 feet; in 1887, 186,MaSgl 
feet : and in 1888, 161,309.512 feet. The sawlogs. from 300,000,000 to 800,000^000 ftet, 
B. M.. which are annually run down the Chipi>ewa. are made up into rafta at Beef 
and West Newton sloughs for points on the Mississippi River. 

The reduction in the cost of running lumber from Kau Claire to the MIsalHippi 
River, due to the improvement of the river by the rnitetl iStates, can be arrived al 
by roniparing the contract rat^s paid by the Dunirl Shaw LnuiWr Company, b 
1877. the year when the improvement was commenced, they paid TtS^ cents per thoa- 
santl fe<*t,' U. M.: in 1886 and 1887 they contracted for 37 cents. 



Till' l()(*a1iti('s remaining to be iniproveil have a least depth in the 
cliaimel of about 2 leot. 

The work during the past fisi'al year lias consisted only in the care of 
])lant and investigation of aHeged railroad obstruetions. The money 
appropriated in the riv«4' and harbor aet of September 19, 1890, did not 
betoine available.until too late to enable work to be done advantage- 
ously last fall. Operations will be resumed in July or Augusts 

KxpiMuU'd during the liscal vear, including outstanding liabilities, 
*1,:^59.41. 

The sum of .^00,000 can be profitablv expended during the flscalyear 
ending June 30, ISWS. 

This work is in the collection district of Milwaukee, Wis. The dntifiiB 
on imports collected during the vear ending December 31, IfKM^ 
amounted to a328.;^(J0.08. 

ABSTIIArT OF Al*ri{ori!IAT10XS. 

nv art a]i|»rovtMl — 

Auj^ust IL ls7i>. flOtOOO 

.Tunc S. 1S7S 10.000 

MardiX ls7V» 1^000 

June 14. iNSi) 10.000 

Marrli o, 1>M.. 10; 000 

Hy art ]»a>sid AumiNi 'J. 1>M* tiS,000 

r»y a« t apintixril .Inl\ ."., l^^i 15,000 

h\ ait apjiioviil An;:n'»t ."i. ISNI 1S.W 

Uy ai t f.f Aiimi^t 11. ls>>: 10.000 

Hy art npjnoMil Sr}. t.'inlMi- 1;». 1MN» lOj^OlO 

Total 166^180 

Mnnrii statemvni, 

,Tiily 1. ISim. lialain r uih-xihimIimI 0901.30 

Annmnt ai>i.roi.riattil h\ art apumwd Sfptomlu'r li», liftH) lO^OOOlOO 

10^901.85 

Juno .S<\ 1S1»1, amount expon<l«Ml duiinu fiM-al year 1,46BL40 

July 1. ISin. ]»alan«-e unt'X|nnilril 8^4S6i.07 

.Inly 1. IMM. t>ui>ranilin^ liabilities 'flOLOl 

•July 1, ISIU balanee availalih- 8^341.31 



-REPOHT OP MAJOR J0NE8. 2203 

{Ainnnnt(rrtimnlJiil) ri'rinlrpil fm .'„iii].l<ilion i.fi-!iist.in;i| prtgcct 11(15,737.72 
Atiinnittttiatcaubi-i>rotiiHlil.vi.-\)it-tj.lt'rlLii1m<-,iUuiii'.-n>Iiiiu.liiii<i:ill, mi» fH),tm.i)0 
KtibuiittccI in cotnptiiinuf ivith reqiiiri'iucuU of scctluna 2 <>r rivur and 
lmt\ivt luita uf UfitJ unil IritiT. 



MMMKKL'IAI. VIATISTtCS. 



LmuWr fcot, B, M.. JfiO.OOO 000 

Lntba M<1 pli^orii uuiubor.. 30.000,000 

SUl^lIu <1<> -. 40,000,00l» 

Thp niuuWr uf >>ti^:im1«iiirH ]ihiiJt.'<)ii tlii' (']ii|>|>t>w)t Biver in 1877, ur the mnoniit 

■ • ■ vur. tliftt llie 
i> the 

. -iiiiiii 1 1 [ih' J II .;iil:irly on tbe Tivpr ilnriDK the aeasan of 1H90, This 
' ' liiirrlen and 2 fout druft), lau from tbe mouth to 
■ ' II tb(> moutli and Kaa Ctairo, to ussiat thn Kiiupp, 

I ..< I • III. .M,iMi tliH river, tier passeiigerH and freight weto wtu- 

I u. l.lu 1 ii;ti|i.tu.'. .' r;il'tiug biuineBS. 

Compuntlirt tlaltmoit ^ Ji^ht «md paiuatgen far $ ji*ari. 



Ytar. 


Slanni. 


oiirHnl. (jaii. 


i„. 


buat*'.' 


SSS' 






] 


i\«»d#. 






no, 000 

1,B«I.0(» 

alBsaiooo 

























•".""1 l:ffi 














tlL 


1 li 





lo/Uiwh.r. hilhn, nhiHijlee, picket', aud Jot/i fnr 9 years, 



i-«r. L.ii.,U.r. 


1-1 li,-- 

V „,- 

RkuuDluoa 
u:tkt;«oo 


M, 1,1-1. ■-. 
\ '.-r, 

lis 


ri.i,..- 

1, 81U, LT» 

i,eai,iio« 


IcK"- 

mi.-io 
3-.B,g7i 


IW SIl.11^1. 
lug-. 

fWt I), if. 




SiKS 




4511. too. 000 

xu, 000, 000 
aoaloDoloDO 






tiKi . j-i ."iii-Lfia 

MK -'■" .'""> 

IWI 1- ^■7,0«» 







IMI'IiOVK-MKNT OK ST. »T;<)IX IIIVKK, WISCONSIN AND MIXNKSOTA. 

The oriKiDal iHojcrt for the iiiiiiiuvciiieiit of this river, iidopted in 1878, 
was based upon the results of ii survey iiui'le in 1874. when the St. Croix 
vrax at a high stage of wiitiT and but comnaratively fuw bars, etc., U* 
be seeu, vuntemplated the reuIo^'al of snags, bowlders, wrecks, leaning 



1 



2204 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINBEKS, U. 8. ARMT. 

• 
troos, and s;nid bars between Taylor Falls and Pivscott, and oontni& 
tion of low-water channel between Taylor Falls and Stillwater into one 
of nearly uniform width by means of brush and stone jetties and dams 
of the same material, to dose island chutes and secondary channel 
Estimated cost, $lM,758. 

The present inojeit. adopted in 1880, and modified in 18S2. and again 
in ISSO (see i)age 1801, Annual Report, 1889), by my predecessor, i« 
based \\\xm the results of a low-water survey made in 1879. The esti- 
mated cost has been x>laced at $108,700. 

In the Annual Keport for 1889 he repoi*ted: 

The first ap])ropriation for the improvement of the St. Croix was $10,000^ made br 
aot of C'oii;j:n'ss apjuovotl .Tune 18. 1878. 

At that date the channel, above Stillwater especially, was encnmbeied bysanken 
cribs, wTeclvs. sna^s, and ohl lH)om piers, and the bends by leaning trees. The low- 
wat«r channel had in many places but 2 feet of depth, and steamers and barges ma V 
their way as best they couhi amongst the obstructions. At times it was impossililr 
for thcm'to get over the 8hoal places. Under this appropriation some of the wunt 
obstrurtimis were removed between Taylor Falls ana Stillwater. 

Another ap])ro]iriatiou of ;{!8,0tX\ by act approveil March 3^ 1879, was expended in 
the same manner, and in addition the stream was thoroughly surveyed ttSm Taylor 
Falls to Preseott, tic results of which were reported January 26, 1880. (See pagnt 
irH>l-l(k;7, Appendix V. Annual Report of the Chief of Euf^iueers, 1880.) Upon the 
results and ma]i of this survey in based the present plan oi improTement. 

The work ]»erf<)rmed in 1878-79 lessened the difficulties tonaTigatioii wifhin the 
limits worked over. 

Under the appropriation of $10,000. by act approved June 1^ 1880, work began 
under the present ]>n\iect, wliich consists in the construction of aamsand Jetties to 
confine the low- water volume to a practicable channel, and in remoTsi of snags. 
bowlders, cribs, and other obstructions from the channels between Taylor Falls ami 
Preseott. . 

* ■* # • • • ■ • 

• 

The result of tlu» work to d;ite is a least depth upon the Itars above StillwatiT, 
where impr»»vfnn'iits have btM-n made, of \\ feet at low water, and Mow Stillwater 
of 4 to 5 feet. (MMieially. it may be said of the work that at many }K>ints naviga- 
tion has been rendered permanent* where formerly it was uncertain, and that in other 
places it has been made practicable where l>efore improvement it was impooaible. 

In the iiniin]>rovoil parts of tbo river above Stillwater there is a low- 
\rator dt^ptli in tlio channol of if iWt: ])elow Stillwater there is a giHHl 
oliaiinol witli a least depth of 4 foot. 

Kxpendod muler ]ueseiit lanjert to June 3i\ 1890, including oat^taiiil- 
in»r liabilities, .'?«71,4.V).*M. 

Total expt'inled innler Mri«riiial aiul present projects to June 30, 1890« 
ineludiu^ outstaiMliii;:' liabilities. !?i»L*,4rM.lU. 

OjKTat ions din in*: pa^t tisral yi'ar wei*e eonfiiiiHl to dredf^ing on the 
sha1b>w l»ars. Field work <'oinnieneed Oetoher li(> and continued until 
N<»^ rmlKT \K 1'he advent of winter ]nvvented further operations. Ihir- 
in.iT this pni<»d an ar«'a of lL*."i,:{t>(> stpiare feet on the bar above the 
1 1 u<lson llridm* was dred»red and 1 l,r»4)7 eubie yarfs of material removed. 
The cost was 1*0 (MMits ]ier rnbie yard. 

Work was icsnnied May .'^0, 1S«M, and eontinued during the month of 
Jnn«', dnrin;: >Nhi<li time dred«rin»r was done on the bars above Hudson 
r>ri<l«re, below the brid^^', and at the lower end of the boom at the head 
of Lake St. ('n»ix. 

Tlu» wlmle (pnintity of niatiuial removed during the fiscal year was 
2.'i,*n0 enbif yards. The eost was 20 cents i>er yaid. 

The total ex]MMiditnre for the year was 80,2(>L\ leaving a balance of 
.^KTSlMh; whieh will be expended during the month of July, 1891 ^ in 
dred^^in«r upon the bars at tlu» head of Lake St. Croix, and at Hudson, 
and in removin<Lr sunken sawlo^s from the lake and river. 

The condition of tliis river is now snbstantially as follows: From the 
head of Lake St. Croix to the Mississippi Hiver there is a good chaanel 



^^^^^ APPENDIX BK — KEPOET OF MAJOK JONES. 2205 

of 4 feet ftt extreme low water. From the head of Lake St. Crobc to 
the heud of navigation at Taylor VaQn there is a miiiiinmn navigable 
ile[>th of ulwiit 2 feet at extreme low-water stage. The principal com- 
merce of this river is in logs and log products. The volume is surpris- 
ing. The qiiiwitity of lugs brought to market at Stillwater during the 
Mssutm of imt was 4fl0.0O0,l»0 feet or 1,610,000 tons. Tliey are a prod- 
uct of tlw soil convoyed to market by cheap water transportation. 
The cOBt of ti-ansportjition is about 10 cents pei- ton per 100 miles, or ,^ 
ocnts [ler ton per mile. Obvioasly, without watei- transportation, the 
crop could not go to market, and the great lumber business of Minne- 
BOta and Wisconsin would not be in existence to-day. The output of 
logs during the same year on the Chippewa Eiver was 606,992,790 feet 
itDd ufHin the Upper Mississippi 3^5,609,280 feet, making an aggregate 
l<»unage on the three rivers of about 4,874,317 tons valued at 414,000,000 
from one product of the soil alone. 

It is therefore quite evident that the American sawlog, navigating 
iUwlfupon our water transjiortation linos, is an object worthy of con- 
itidRratJon, and that some of our efforts at river improvement Should bo 
devotwl to helping it along. Not, however, to the extent of allowing it 
ki paralyze boat navigation. Measures should be taken to require a 
»unlcipnt number of men to accompany the drives to prevent the logs 
from forming jams, which totally obstruct navigation. 

It is proposed during the coming year to improve the reach of river 
between the head of navigation and deep water in Lake St. Ci-oix. The 
nam tJiat can be profitably expended thereon is tSfi.^OO. 

Total expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, inctud- 
ing outstanding li.tbilitie8, $6,2412. 

Thia irork ia in thi^ LtiUcctiun dULriot <if UiniKwotn, of whirh Rt. Tuiil in tin.' luii-t 
a<«itrv*i)d&t. Vimienl ii Kii1.|nirl. ( '<in<.'<.'tu>ii'> for yuar eiKliii^ Decuuilier 31, 181H), 
taOajmM. Vitluo uf IloulM<liI^ I'l^pucU fur namu {lutiixl, $1,73.1,907. 







*fl0,000 

"8,000 
10,000 
8,000 


















Ay act appnivcil— 

Jnlv5. 1H84 




a 000 






7 500 
10,000 

«;ooo 






By act appro vfii S.'ptniiluT I'X WOf 






100,500 

»fi5,69 
8,000.00 

8,065.69 
3,268.70 

4, 7%. 99 


MiDifi/ xlfilcinritl. 




Jiiiic 30, 1891, amount eipomli-iliinriiiK 'i-i-il .viir 




.Inly 1,1891, onMtainlinKihiliiliii.'s 




,1,014,93 




1.782.06 




ct 

iic30. ]N!):i 
liver uud 


(AmoDnt (Mtimated) requirfld for i-oniiiletiim nf oxi«titiu jir-iji 
jAmouni that can lie profitahlvexpcmlfil ill fiMcnlvparrtnliiiEJii; 
1 Sabmitt«d in compliance with rciiuircmenta ul' aoctioiis -J of 
I harbor acta of 1866 and 18^7. 


26,200.00 
26,200.00 



'Appropriated before adoiitiuu of present project. 



2206 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMT. 



1 



COMMKKCIAL STATISTICS. 

Comparatirc etalanmt of sfenmhont'* ami barptu, freiffhf and paa^cngen ettrritd, Imwulhet 
and /m/N lowed and ra/Ud oh th*' St, Croix Hirer , IViiteontiiH and MinnefotOf for a pitied 
of 7.? votrs, 

ST E \ M \^^ » A TS AN 1> 11 A KGKS. 



Year. 



p r Imsims*. i in toAviii:; 



1>7> * 
ISM.. 



Yoar. 



187>« 

ISS.'i 
1KS« 



aii«l rattiii;; 



StlMllilH 


MtS. ] 


iJargt's. 


bll»ilU>:t8. 




3 '... 

3 ... 




8 
12 




3 ... 




sy 




•> 

3 

3 .! 

3 ' 


24 

2."> 


40 
77 
51 



Year. 


In iVoichf And pMseti- 


StfibMH 
in towinf 

andratOng 
baaiBCH. 




Steamboata. 


BargM. 


1A55 


4 

3 
1 
1 


33 

38 

40 

3 

3 

3 


ji 


l-sSrt 


If 


ISS7 


5S 


1?^S 


H 


18^9 

I«l0t 


S3 



* .\nioiiiit of ooinnirn'o am) navigation T^hon work of improvement beCHL 
LVniniuit ofionuiuTrr ami navic;.ition at prwirnt time. 

* 117 ami l.v> Ions bunli-n ami IS ami 'Mi iiiohi'* draft, mapeoiiTely. 
^Fn^n :v> to '^W tons biiiibn and 2^ to 3| f«H.*t draft. 

FREir.nX AXD PASSEXGERS. 



Frrijibt rarriod. 



Oonoraj imnhan- L^n^i^or. j W.^hI. Total to 1«17. inclusive. ! TOtiO. 



Tout. 



T"U*. 



T".'*. 



I 



Ibiw. 



2"J* 



7. 1:J!» 



Foundt. 

32, Oi)0. (W 

47. 7t«. 00.^ 

Unlinnwu. 

3."».00«'.t1Hi 

fi(l. IHKt. Olio 

(tl. itihMHNi 

So, iKM. iHW 

s:.. IKH». tHM* 

ISO.iHO.iHIO 

:»7. oiv. :»2i» ' 

4.:ru 9.5M t 

rliN» 10.000 

.V 71H-. 13. 144 



,...j 



•Amount «'f «-i'niii!in i- ami ]i.)vi::iiiion v*hrn wurk of improvement Wgan. 

KAl TKU l.OtJS AM* T.lMr.EK. 



15.000 

•.an 



11,01S 
10. 300 

4.0i« 

10. «i: 
12.7:* 



Kl 



Tliift* d b'lrs towtil out nt" K;ifitil Inmln r towi d •«nt I't' St. Cndx Kiver. 
Yiar. St. rri>i\ llivir (I's- 



ISTii 

•»<7 

— »H 

l*i"» : 



limatcdK 



Fcft B. v. 






1 .1 1, ■ 

l«H i 



I-' 

1 ;.■ 
1 - 
IT"- 
!"■ ' 

17.'' 

1 '*■ 

1 '»■ I I 

2.'"'. IH"' 



II H'. 

I >i •■ I 
I 



I N II I 

I'll. I 
|l. •! 

mill 
■ •■Hi 

II -il 
i<|i I 

I II III 

7-III 
11 -I I 

mill 

(.'!•« I 

mill 



l.unilH r. ShinuN.''. Lathti. Pirki-ta. 



\\W IHHI IKNI 

11 !. lil" ;►<■■•■. 
ll'i. )'■ '. •■<'0 



F"* H. U. .Viiji.'.r. .VnnjVr. \umhfr. 



•|o. i»7'.*. .'••'!' 
liS. K:::;. mhi 
4«». i>'7. **\*>* 



•J 1. I"i."il. soil 

2;".. 2i'<i. :'7r» 



Tofal t4Hinajpi«. 



row*. 



■ •«•«• I « 



7.70. !B2«> 

ft\iWO 

278.^80 



7QS.367 

eV7.3«4 

1,104.100 



I.oiwf loirs «lri\<Ti on Si. ( iiii\ K*i\«>r 1i» licail of 1:iki' dining Ronsoii of 1890 WM 
40U.lH.iL»,l.K>«.» lift B. M.» ur l,<;iu.(>iK» toi»>. 




APPKMOIX B B — KKPOBT Of MAJOR JONES. 



THPBOVEMENT OF MINNESOTA RIVEK, MINNESOTA. 



An vxamiDittion of tliis stream was made by Mi^j. (i. K, Warren, 
CoriK* "f Kiiginecrs, in 186fi, imder Aiitliorizaticia of section 4 of the act 
of Cougrens approved Jiuie 23, IStMi, Mjyor Warren's firfit or prelimi- 
raury report of this Kurvuy was rendered January 21, 1867, and printed 
as a part of Senate Bx. Boc. ^o. 58, Thirty-ninth OongrosB, se(^oQd 
seSHiun. 

The eBthuates of cost of improvement, based upon resulte of tliis exam- 
iQatJOD and survey, are given in the Report of the Chief of Engineers 
for the year ending June 'M), 1807. Two plane are coiisideredj viz, one 
to improve the navigation of the river from the Yellow Metlicme to the 
month of the Minne^sota by means of locks and dams, so as to secure 4 
foot of water, at a cwst of $775,ri(Hl, and another to secure 2 to 3 feet of 
water by removal of snags and bowlders throughout this stretth of river, 
in addition to the constmction of a lock and dam at Little Falls and 
tho operation of a scraper and dredge boat at a cost of $117,000. 

The river and harbor act of Congress approved March 2, 18G7, appro- 
priated ♦37,600 for removing snags and bowlders throughout the Min- 
nesota River, thas sanctioning the second plan. 

The river and harbor acts of Congress approved June 11, 1870, and 
Man-h 3, 1871, each appropriate J10,00(l for continuing the improve- 
■neiit. 

The necood section of the river and harbor a*!t of Congress approveil 
Jono 10, 1872, provided for the survey of the Minnesota River above 
tbe month of Yellow Medicine, which survey was made during the same 
ye»r, Ihi' report |»ertaiiiirig to which is printed in the llejiort of the 
Chii-r ..( iMiKiiii-rr* for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1S73. The 
removal of obstructions, principally bowlders, was recommended. 

The same act (approved June 10, 1872,) appropriated $10,000 for the 
improvement of the stream, wlii<^ti sum was expended in the removal 
of bowlders, overhanging trees, etc. 

By act approved Man-h .1, lS7;i, tlicrc was !i])j»roi»riatcd — 
iiic^HntnItiver, Min 



Tliis apjiropriation w;is iij>|>licd to tlie removal of rocky ledges, bowl- 
ders, snags, and oveilianging trci's. TJie total of appropriations to 
Man'h 3, 1873, inclusive', was ^71,'iW. 

By act of Congress approved June 23, 1874, an appropriation of 
$10,<HH> was made "for the surveyor improvement of the Minnesota 
River," A survey wa« made from the mouth of the river to South 
Bend, a distance of llfi.4 miles, to detctininc the practicability of 
improving the navigation by means of canals, locks, and dams. The 
results of this survey pioved the jwssibility of lo<;k sinrl dam navigation 
for the distance passed over, the estimated cost nf improvement, as 
.xtated in the report at the survey printed in the Annual Report of the 
Chief of Engineers ibr the fiscal yoir endingJiinc30, 187.^, being for five 
locks and dams and removal of siiagn, etc., $733,84>8.03, the cost of 
removing snags, etc, being therein placed at $34,585.10, including con- 
tingencies. Following this report Congress made three appropriations 
of $10,0(tO each, by acts :ip].iov.-d Miir.h 3. 1875, August 14, 187C, and 
June 18, 1878, which sums were applied to clearing the river of obstmcv 
tioofi beiow South Bend. 



2208 REPORT OF Tin: CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ABUT. 

The appropriations up to and including that of June 18, 1878| were 
si])plied in removing snags, bowlders, etc., on the upper )>art of ffae river 
botwetMi ^Minnesota Falls and a i)oint 30 miles below Henderson fl&T 
miles above Shakoi>ee). The rapidly eaving banks on this stiretcii of 
tlie river add snags and leaning trees to the channel yenrly^ so that 
eliannels which were cleared 12 years ago are incumbered with them 
to-day. 

No money has been spent on the lower part of the river, which pre- 
sents a markt^d contrast to the upper section. 

Below Shako|)ee the river is, in the main, very deep, almost free from 
snags and caving banks, and would otter exceptional advantages to 1^ 
navigation thereof were con mmnication between it and the Aussissippi 
River rendered possible by the inii>rovemeut of the bar at the month of 
the rivei*. and an increased depth provided over Ci'cdit Kiver Bar (or 
Tt^terson's i^ar, as it is sonietiines called), just below Shakopee. 

It is claimed by those interested in the Minnesota Valley that, were 
the imi)r<)venients extended by the constniction of locks and damt^ 
stt'amboats and barges would navipite the river and carry much of the 
iVeight that now dei>ends upon rail for transportation. 

The river and harbor act of Congress approved August 5, 1886, au- 
thorized a survey of the ^liniiesota River with a view to its improve- 
ment by locks and dams. The survey, extending from the month of tiie 
river to Mankato, was made by my predecessor during the season of 
1SS7, and a report thereon, with ma]Ks, I'endered January 16, 1888. 
Tliis rt^port Avas printed in House Ex. Wh\ Iso. ir»8. Fiftieth Congress, 
lirst session. 

Hv the river and harbor act of August 11, 1S8S, Gongi*ess appropriated 
for— 

Improving; Minnesota Kiwr. Minn«'st)i:i. in<-1iiilinj; protecting and holding thr 
hunks op^iosite tlio l»uroii;rli *»t' ]\o\W V]n'uu\ so as to prevent the river fh>in catting 
throui;]! the narrow ueek of hind at that ]»oint and thereby ehanging its channel and 
eour»<e. $10.(>H>. 

This is the lirst appropriation made sinee 1878 for the improvement of 
the Minnesota Kiver. 

Coneerning the ex])enditm'e of this a])propriation my predecessor re- 
ported (see page 1804, Annual Kepcn't, 188l>): 

An examination of the river at Hflh' rhiine. nnd also from Cnrver to the month of 
the iitreiini. was made in Si-ptemltiT. I^xS. wiih a view to ohtaininK data npon whirh 
to hase a ]iroiert tor the advanla^^rouH expenditure of the »nm upprtipriated by tlii* 
aot of Antrus't 11. 1888. 

The examination showed that tlirn* had ni»t heen any marked eronion of thebeotl 
.-It Helle riaine for several year> ]»ast : hnt tliat to tlu»rougli1y protect it apiinat anrh 
iTosiitn as mi^lit orenr from thiods or from rhan,i;i>s in theelninnelH of the river abovo 
the bend Would undou1>teflly eost more than thr entire sum appn>priat«d for the 
river. It :iNo sliowrd that tliere had not heen any steamboat navigation of the rivtT 
at that point \^iiu oeeasional triii hy a steamhoat at high water vxct^pted) foranam- 
her of years. 

The eost of :in adeijuate open-ehannel ini])rovement of the river fh>m ita montfl tn 
(':irver, sueli an improvement as mi^ht last for a uuiuber of yoara, waft found to be 
not hss than $.">!*.< nM>. 

The a])propriation hi'in<; in:idri|u.-ite for tliorongh work at either BcUo Flaine or 
thr extent of livir fr«»m its mouth to Carver, and still less adeqiiut^^ for the perform- 
;niee<d'work ifdividi'tl hftwiM-n thi-m, it w:is recommended that the anbmitting a 
projei't for ex]>fniliture ivf tin* a]»propri:ition hi* dehiyed nntil the further wiahea of 
C'oni^vess mii^lit he known, or until souw deli nit e information an to prodpectiTe navi- 
gation miirht be obtained upon \\ hi eh lo hase a project for the beat utilisation of the 
appvopriaiion. 

Siiirc the snlMnission of ih<' rorr^oinir re]»int it lias been represented 
by reliabU' parlies that a hir^^e ainoiuit of briek, bay, lime, and wood 
would be earned by steamboats and barges from poiuts near Shakopee 



^^ APPENDIX BB— BEPOBT OP Mi.IOK JOHeS-. 2209 

to St. Paul were navigatioD miulo wertaln tbruutrhout thts HeaHim, and 
that tlcre is au excelleut opiioitimity for a jjciu-ifil i>iii'k«it, l)iiHiue88 bo- 
twwii the MisNwsippi HivM itiirt jioiutti on tUe Lower Minncsotii llivor, 
wbiili wunld result in a uiaUirial rednctiou of fi-oight mtes butweeu 
thcso poiuU. 

It IB reconunontled that tlie wuiu of $10,000, appropriated in the a^A 
of Aueust II, 18S8, be reappnipriated, omitting thtt rtxiuiri'jneut fnr 
OTMnmons at Ilelle Plaine. This will etiiible nie to upeu tli« river fViim 
tM JCaBJBsippi to Shakopee, a distance of 25.9 milvs. That is to say, 
with tJie Bom of $10,000 already appropriateil, a watur transportation 
Hue a5.£» miles in length can be opened at a cost of $3^ jier mile. It ia 
otUinated that a bndness of 25,000 tons ])cr aiiiiuin in now rcudy to 
ttviiil itself of the line. 

Ill this connection I report fi-om my prodecesttor, Major Allen {ma 
AiiniiiU Kejiort, Chief of Kngineern, 18S8, page 1574): 



Total expended under the pi-oject following the ourvey of 1874 to 
June 30, IN!H), iDcluding outstanding liabilities, $;t4),042. 

T.ir.i! i'\|i(;[id»l under all projects, iuulndiug the survey, to June 30, 
1V..I. i„.lrisive,*ll7,532. 

1 III T I' :iic no operations to report for the pai^t year. 

,\iiioiiiii expended during the flseal year ending JnneJJO, 181)1, $0,711. 

Sliculd Congre!«H order an open-c^hannel iuipinvemunt helnw Cai'^'er 
Um Mum of $25,000. in addition to that appropriatniMl in 1S88, eoold bo 
BXpuiduil during tlie fiscal year ending June 30, 1893. 

This nurk iH Ui the oollortion diatriot of MirmttHOta, of wliioii St. P>al ie the ptut 
uf iTtiriv nnit St. Vluieul u Riibpurt. Collentioos for yew ondinK Doc6iubor31, ISiW, 
Wa6.«7B.6(ii v«lue oldomeiitio exports fgr sume periwd, »!, 733,907. 

Bv act »m>rove<l— 

Murch 3, ]8ti7 *.t7, 500 

Jnly 11, 1870 lO.mto 

March 3, 1871.- 1(1. IXO 

June 10, 187a 10, (KX) 

March 3, 1873 II), 000 

Jane 23, 1874 -10,000 

»Urch3, 1875 10,000 

Anfnmt 14, 1870 H),000 

Jane 18, 1878 10,000 

B> act of August 11, 18f<n 10,000 

Total 127,500 

M-'ii''!/ Hl-iUmvitt. 

Jnly 1, 1890, balance nnexpcmliil $9,967.00 

Jniy 1, 1891, balance unei pen rtcil .* 9,967.00 

Jaly 1, 1891, outBtanding lial.ililicH 9.79 

Jnly 1, 1891, balance availiiljlv 9, 957. ai 

lAmonnt (estimated) reanired for completion of oxintinR project 693,868.63 

|AmonntUiatcanbeprofitablye3tppnar!dinBBCiiIyear.-mlinr'-— '^ '"" "= "^ "" 
i Sntnnitted in compliance with reqiiiremunU of sections 



' Uaed iu making survey of ri 
jjHQ 91 139 



2210 KEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

COMMKKCIAL STATISTICS. 





lov 
Xo. 


imbiuits plyinconl Freight carried. 




Year. 


Tonnage. l>rart. ^^•''™«- "V. W«h.. Brick, ^j^ 


Xnld. 


iKjW *.... 


1 


Tnnt. Tnche*. Ton*. Ton*.'. Tons. 

1 > 


1 
2\»fu. i Tom», 


Am. 

lb 350 


lSi!9 


2 

3 


(i:»:t 1S( til 


4.000 


isno 


^ ISO AM 

riiT i.-i) j 
n?0 20) 


840 


1.080 


«** 


a,oai 







BB 6. 

IMrROVKMKNT OF RED RIVER OF THE NORTH, MINNESOTA AND NORTH 

DAKOTA. 

The present, wliioli is also the orijriital projeet for the improvement 
of this river from Brei'keiirid^e to the northern boundary liue^ adopted 
in 1877 and amended as to estimate of cost in 1883, consists in the re- 
moval of snaj^s. loanintr trees, and bowhlers, and in dredging channels 
through the bars. 

The estimated cost of this improvement, omitting the itemof improTe- 
nieiit ol* (.loose l^i])ids, as based uj^on the rei>orts of 1874, 1875, and 
1877 (see i»agc»s 7;>0-732, Koport of (.Miief of Engineers, 1878J, was 
'*14.VVUMs, \vhich estimate asi*evised, andforthe reasons stated in Ap- 
pendix X 8 nl" the Annual Heport of 18S;^, was increased to $179,310J8. 

The river antl harbor act of Congress, appn>ved August 6, 1886, mak- 
ing the money theretofore appro]>riated for locks and dams at 6oo«e 
Kapids available for tlredging, removal of snags and bowlders, and con- 
struction of wing dams, necessarily included in that mode of improving 
Go<ise Kapids, wliich were originally intended to be improved by meuis 
of hK?ks. For this reason, as ^\■v\l as for others given in the annual 
reix>rt for 1887, a new estimate of cost of completing the work became 
necessary. The cost was placed at ri* 79,598.37. (See Appendix A A to 
the Annual lieport of the Chief of Engineers for 18^7, pages 1714^ 
1715.) 

Previous to 1870, when the first bar was dredged throngh, the mling 
di']>th at ordinary low water between M<H>rhead and Goose Bapidshas 
been stati'd to have been but 1^ feet, and below Grand Forks but 2 feet 

A 3-foot rhaunel at or<linary low water, averaging 00 feet in width, 
from Moorhead to a point 80 miles north, and a 4-foot channel at same 
stage averaging 70 U^ot in width, li'om Grand Forks to a point 62 miles 
north, by livt-r. have bet»n made by dredging through the bars. 

The river is subjert to land slides. These slides can never be antid- 
l>ated, form obstnutioiki when they occur, and have to be removed in 
whole ov in part, thereby increasing the amount of cost of the improve- 
ment. 

Tlie removal of snags and trees between Mix>rhead and Aberorombie 
improved that portion of thr stream for navigation during high and 
medium stages of water. 

Expended upon the improvement from commencement of work i 
1877 to June 30, lSt»0. including <aitstanding liabilities, $187,042.79. 



APPENDIX BB REPORT OF MAJOR JONES. 



2211 



OPEBATIONS DURING THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1891. 

The low water of the spring and early sununer of 1890 having con- 
tinued for the remainder of tlie season, operations during the summer 
and fall were confined to completing the repairs to the dredging fleets 
that were begun earMer in the st^ason. In addition to the repairs to the 
boats, a large derrick was placed on the bow of the st<»amer Ogama^ for 
use in removing snags and bowlders. The repairs -Jind the derrick cost 
$2,474.79. 

The season of 1891 has opened with a favorable stage of water for 
dredging operations. The fleet being in prime condition for work, ad- 
vantage was taken of the situation to conrnienccs work early. Dredge 
No. 2 was taken from the winter quarters at Grand Forks and com- 
menced work at a point 13 miles north on May 5. Dredge No. 1 was 
towed to Pelican Bars, 92 miles north of Grand Forks, and commenced 
wf)rk May 13. Both dredges have since been kept at work excjavat- 
ing channels 60 feet in width and 4 feet deep at low water. 

Table of dredging work jtcrfonned during fiscal year, ending June SO, 1801, 



Excava- 
tion. 



I Cv. ydM. 

BredgeNo. 1 I'JJMM) 

BredgoNo. 2 j 21.K75 

Total ! 44,5.15 



Length of 

channel 

luude. 



Lin. ft. 
:t.l75 
5,135 ! 



New 
cuttings. 



No. 



2 
10 



Old cnt- 
tingH ex- 
tended, 
etc. 



No. 



Wing und 

training 

dams. 



Lin. ft. 

U, 075 
5,85<) 



Kiver 

worked 

over. 



Mile*. 



8,310 



12 



# 9,525 



31i 



The total work done upon this stream since the first appropriation 
for its improvement was made in 1876, and extending from Fort Aber- 
crombie to a point 93 miles north of Grand Forks, a total river distance 
of 321 miles, is as follows : 

Cabio yards of material dredgt^d 583, 178 

Snags removed 618 

Overhanging trees removed 8, 705 

Cabic yards of bowlders removed' 382 

Stamps removed 198 

Piles removed 23 

Drift-piles (collections of drift wooil, t rcrs, t'tc ) 8 

Barge removed 1 

Total linear feet of channel oxravalrd 105, 297 

Total linear feet of wing and t i;i iuing dams consl nictod 146, 140 

On the portions of the river worked over by the dn»d^es Wm average 
depth of the channel has been increased from 1 J to 2 feet. 

]Mt. Bufus Davenport, assistant engineer upon this improvement 
for the past nine seasons, has exhibited faithfulness and zeal in carry- 
ing out the work intrusted to him. 

All the work for the improvement of this stream has been performed 
by hired labor. 

Expended upon this improvement during the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1891, including outstanding liabilities, $11,889.79. 

The sum of $34,598.37 can be profitably expended during the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1893, in dredging operations and in removal of 
obstructions generally between Breckenridge and the northern boun- 
dary line. 

This work i« In the collection district of Minnesota, of which St. Paul is the ])oit 
of entry and St. Vincent a sub-port. Collections for year ending Doccmbor 31, 1890, 
$305,^78.60. Value of domtiBtic cxi»oa:t8 for same period, $1,733,907. 



2212 BEPORT OF TUB CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

ABSTRACT OP Ari>Kl>PKIATIONS. 

By act approved — 

August 14. 1876 $10,000.00 

June 18, 187S 90,000.00 

Manh3, 1871> ^ 25,00a00 

JuneU. 188() x 2O,O0a00 

March 3. 1881 IS^OOaOO 

Bv JU't passrd — 

Augusts, 1882 10,000100 

Bv art api^roveil — 

July 5, li<Si 10,000.00 

Augusts. 1886 40,047.65 

By art of Augnnt 11. ISSS 2^000.0rl 

By :u't a]»proved Si'i>triiilHr 1!>, \s\M) 25,000.00 

Total 214,047.65 

Money tstafemcnf, 

July 1, 1800. balance unoxju'iidod $4,770.48 

^Viiiouut appropriated by act approved September 19, 181H) ^000.00 

29,770.48 

Juno 30, 1891, anuMint e\])eiided during iint-al year 10,611.65 

July 1, 1891, balance unexptiided 10.158.83 

July 1, 1891, ouistauding liabiliiiis 3,143.76 

July 1, 1891. balanee available 16,015.07 

I Amount i estimated) required for completion of existinff prefect SM,598.S7 

! Amount t hat ean be ]>rotitably e\]>ende<l in liscal year enainc Jiuie30, 1803 34, 596. 37 
^ :>ubmittrd in com]tliance with requii'ements of sections 2 of river aud 
1 harbor acts of 1800 and 1867. 



REPOKT OF mi:. K. 1)A\ r.M't>KT, AS.'ilSTANT KNGIN1':ER. 

(iKANi) Fdkks. X. Dak., June SO, 1891, 

Major: The foUowing report of operations in the improvement of the Red River of 
the North during the hscal year eniling June 30» 1891. is respectfully sabmitted. 

lowing to the fait that tlie water remained too low to operate the dredges to a«lyaa- 
tage, the work during the last half of the season of 1890 was conliued entirely to the 
eontinuatiim of the repairs on the dreilging tleet. 

The work on the hull of Dredge No. 1, (uzvr Fritz, was completed, and after the 
laiMiehing the superstructure was thoroughly re])aired and painted, a new boom 
built, and the ma<^hinery. as far as possible, prepared for the next scisoa's work. 

Steamboat No. 1. Cunaal l\n\ was removed from the water aud the hullropairMl, 
calked, and paiutetl. A new canvas roof, sanded and painted, was pat on, and the 
supersirui'ture painted throughout. 

(^hiarter boat No. 2 was hauled out. the hull repaired and calked, and Baperstraotare 
painte<l. 

CjMiarter boat No. 1 was repairetl aud ]>ainted. 

The work on Steamboat No. 2. (hjama^ was eontinued to completion. Anew canras 
ronf. sau<led aud ]>ainted. wa.*« put on. and a large derrick to be operated by the steam 
(■a])stan for the removal of snags ami bowlders i'n>m the channel was oonstrncted 
and placed in ])ositii>u on the forecastle. Some minor repairs were also made on the 
liull and machinerv. 

Some additioilal work was also done on the machinery of Dredge No. 2, Otier T\ni^ 
BO a •> to have it as tar advam-ed as possible for the resumption of dredging. 

Such giiieral reiKiirs as wi'Vc nec«'.ssary on tin* remainder of the boats— derrick 
boat. b:i]ges. slide sci>ws. skills, etc. — 11 in all. wcn- made :iud they were all painted. 

The dredges aud steamboats were lettered L', .S. J:!nijiHtirs, with their aeTOCal di^ 
liiiciixc nanus. 



APPENDIX BB — REPORT OF MAJOR JONES. 



2213 



The ortst of the work was an followfl: 

Dredge No. 1 $753.76 

Dredge No. 2 i 150. fi6 

Steamboat No.l 394.91 

Steamboat No. 2 401.58 

Qaarter boat No. 1 80. 68 

Quarter boat No. 2 185.29 

General repairs on the remainder of the boats, 14 in all 507. 91 

The total cost for repairs to the <:lo8<j of the season 2, 474. 79 

By these repairs all of the boatH were x)ut in as good shape as it was possible to 
make them; many of them have, however, b«'en in service from 10 to 12 years, and, 
as a matter of course, repairs on boats of that age will only render them serviceable 
for a short time. 

In the latter part of October the repair work was discon tinned, and after a trip of 
inspection over the river to the north, on the steamer Ogama, from Grand Forks to 
the Pelioan bars, the dredging fleet was put in shape for the winter and all work 
closed. 

SEASON OF 1891 TO JUNE 30. 

This year the preparatorv work for the resumption of dredging was commenced in 
the latter part of April. Owing to the repairs of last season the preparatory work 
cronsisted of but little more than that of setting up the machinery of the dredges 
and steamboat. 

Dredge No. 1 was started from Grand Forks on the 8th of May and towed to the 
Pelican Bars, 92 miles north, arriving at the upper bar on the 13th, when dredging 
waa at once commenced. 

Tlie river in the vicinity of the Pelican bars is about 300 feet wide and the bars 
are very long. Since the work was started the dredge has excavated a 60-foot chan- 
nel through the upper bar, 2,075 feet long, and is now at work on the second bar, 
which is about h«'uf completed. 

Total excavation to date, 22,660 cubic yards. Length of channel -cutting, 3,175 
linear feet. Length of wing and training dams formed with the excavated material, 
3,675 linear feet. Length of river worked over, li miles. 

Dredge No. 2 was started from Grand Forks on the 4th of May and the work on 
the channel was commenced at a point about 13 miles north. 

The work of Dredge No. 2 has so far been confined to the removal of a few small 
bars and to clearing and extending some of the old chaimel cuttings and repairing 
the wing and training dams. 

This portion of the river has been improved in former years, but at a higher stage of 
water, so that some of the small bars that had before been passed over, it was now 
consiaered necessary to remove. 

Total excavation to date, 21,875 cubic yards. Length of channel cuttings, 5,135 
linear feet. Number of new channels cut, 10. Number of old cuttings widened and 
extended and the wing and training dams repaired, 7. Length of wing and train- 
ing dams formed with the excavated material, 5,850 linear feet. 

Length of river worked over, 30 miles. 

Summary, 



Dredge No. 1 
Dreilgo No. 2 

Total.. 



Excava- 
tion. 



On. yds. 
22, 6G0 
21,875 






Lin. ft. 
3,175 
5,135 



2 
10 



44, 535 



8,310 



12 



Old cnt- 

tings ex- 

tenoed, etc. 



WiDg find 

training 

dams. 



Hiiearfeet. 
3, 675 
5,850 



0,525 



River 

worked 

over. 



M\U». 



3i^ 



31i 



The now channels this year have all been made 60 feet wide, with a low-water 
depth of 4 feet. 

Average cost of the dredging, 13 cents per cubic yard. 

Cost of subsistence per ration, 38| cents. 

Steamboat No. 2, Ogama. operated in connection with the dredges, towing the fleet 
and keeping up the supply of fuel, subsistence, etc., has made 17 trips so far this 



2214 REPORT OF THE CHIEF 




season. Total miles run. 873. (Tho rost of iiiAiiitaiuiiig and upenfeing the iteni- 
boat is included in the oost of the work.) 

Owing to low water during the last half of the boating season of 1890. all of tho 
steamboats on the Red River were laid up. So far this vear there has been a good 
navigable stiigc averaging about H feet on the Grand Forks gauge; a f avocahle 
stage, also, fur the dredging operations. 

The steamer //. H'. Almp, ot the Red River Transportation Company, with aflieei 
of barges, has hern operated day and night since the opening of naTiffation, hriug- 
lug wheat from the north and south to Grand Forks. The steamer Jwop has, how- 
ever, been the only boat run on the Red River this year. 



Very respe«'t fully, your obedient servant. 



Maj. \V. A. .loNKS, 

Corps of I-^it4jinnr«, L\ S. J. 



R. Davsnpobt, 
J«iri«/ajil Emgituer, 



COMMKRCIAL STATISTICS. 

Tliere are two stimmboat lines now on the Red River: At Fargo, N. Dak., ths 
Grandin line; one steanter, the Gramiin^ 2:20 tons, with four barges, two of 300 tons. 
one of 250 tons, and one of 200 tons. At Grand Forks, the Red River Tranapoxtatioa 
Company, two steamboats, the Pluck, 36 tons, and the H, JF. Al90p, 167 ton% vith 
ten iKiTges, four of 178 tons, one of 202 tons, one of 155 tons, one of 106 ton% and 
three of 72 tons. 

Cumptirative stti tern rut offrt'ujht mortd by steamboats and barge* during ikepoii IS 



Yt'ar. T"*!!-*. Yrar. 




1S!H» 1.710 l>.^«! Ul.r»(»T i«e 



IKS!» :!. Mill i>.«0 

1S^S 1LM40 1.^4 

18JJ7 U».4U5 liv'^J 

I .1 



25,J14 : 187» 



I. 



31, ca 

31337 
17.1 



B By. 

Sl'RVKYS FOR RKSKRVniKs AT TllK SorR(M:s OF MISSISSIPPI, ST. CROIX, 

ClllPrKWA, AND W LSCi»N>ilX RIVERS. 

yothiuf: was done un<lor this lu^iul iluriug the x^wt fiscal year, no 
t'uiuls having: bet'ii available for such work. For aeconiit iu detail of 
tlieso surveys rercriMuo is iiuule to i)a«ros 15()7 and 15G8, Appendix T| 
Part II, ^Viinual 1 Report ot* the Chief of Eugiueers, 1880, 

^f(n^nf statement. 

i Ani«»uiiT ' fNtiiiijittMl^ r»'f[iiinMl li»r tMi]n])U'tii>ii of ex istinjj project fGQ^OOO 

■ Subniiiti-il lit t-oinpliaiue with rt'iiuiiviiiciits of si'rtioiid 2 of river and 
( harbor acts of ISOG aud ISlJT. 



BBS. 

(;Arj;iX(; Mi>>Jissii'n kivkk at ok nkar st. pavl, Minnesota. 

Tlie lioartl uf i'ji;4:ineers, to whom was referred the project for the 
api>li<atioii of ^^^T.-VK), appropriatrd by the river and harbor act of Au- 
gust o, 1880, for reservoirs at the headwaters of the MififliBSippi BiveTi 



iIX BB — REPORT Oj- MAJOE JONES. 



2215 



u«t)ilt;<l Ju tlifcir i-otHJit, dated Aliiy 2i, 1887, ^'thatsncli gaugiugg 
ie at or iienr St. I'^iil during the annual operation of the reser- 
lA ntuill de.tenuiue nccui-atuly tlio discharge at that point at i^rit- 
irJods." (Page 1692, Annua! Report Chief of Engineers, 1887.) 
rivtr and liarbor act of August 11, 1888, authorized the gaugiugH 
ttvlded for them as follows.: 

hn-SocrnljiT; of Wm- Bhnll iMtiiBe Kiicb gsof^gs to be moile at ot near St. 
iring tlic anauul opprntinii iir iitid rt«ervum s« sUnll dntnmiiiie upciirately 
hnrgant Ibat noiiil., tbn cuat cif thu hiuu» to be paid mili>f tbu aim mil appro- 
I for K»ugiiig Urn ffutum of tlie MiaHUuiipiii River luiil iU tributuriiw. 

It. 'Hint for tho piirposo nf Hi^rnriit^ tbo imlnti-rriiptnd gaiii;iiii[ or tbe waten 
[.iiwcr Mluiwinpl Uivnr nnil iM tributarily, a« provided &r in joint resola- 



rcigiiisitiun from 
ntiUT of tho TruBBDT.v Itit micb inine iw« may be uecMSory 
.coca in tbu uj^i^r^ate for cii,cb year tbe amouiit appro- 



ttmn upon tho Suiintiur of tho Tn 

aeh work, not to cxeoml in tho iigKrugi . _ _ _^ _ . 

tn thu a0t for «ucb piirpuM : I'rireidea. tumever. That .in ttoinixed atat«nent 



txpcnscs shall n«pompiiny tbe Aunuul Report of the Chief of Kngiiiei 
t(tngs were not made until the fall of 1S80, although an allotment 
D for tho fiscal year ending June 3i), 1889, had been made. On. 
ih of tJic lateness in the seoHou and the condition of the river it 
)t deemed advisable to exju^nd any of the money that year, 
allotments of ((WO and k'MH) msu\e tor tbe tlscal years I889-'90, 
i90-'91, respeetivoly, were apiilicd to ganging the MieBissippi 
at St Paul. • 

iu^ the past year a total of C2 gangings have been made, 57 of 
LBSissippi Itiver at St. Paul and .0 of the Minnesota River at its 

following are tbe gangings made during the litstal year 18ilO-'91: 



>to. PblM. 


M^LhCKl. 




°sr 


^u. 


■ 1 Mis-i-sippl River ah.ivt 
,1 iniialiaR«ilvByliri<l|;e 

' Kr>lK'rl Hlnvt bridse, 
1 St. Paul. 




,.70 


4,100.14 

3,939.30 

4, 789. 20 

4. 7SS. S3 

442.50 

4. MS. St 

4, Wr. .',7 
r..0B.-.,l8 

4,W7.99 




. lS'--..rto \.-...l: 




IU Mma<mU River U iU 






do 


2*0 




■.;l;; :■::::::: 




■. T Mi'-mWippiRiviTi.lKpM- 
lliilwrl itivet bri.lj,-.'. 
StPuil. 

1 i:ol>erI ■treet bTi■l^,■, 
\ moath. 
1 StPuL 




""''" 1 




■-"■■ I '■"" 








'■'"■•' 





1 



2216 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. AHIIT. 



Ni>. l>at. 



1 >'.«•". 
17 Ni.v. -Jij 



1«»1. 



18 I May 

I 

19 i Mny 
2i) : MaV 

21 May 

22 ' >rav 
2:1 ^lav 
24 Mav 
2'! Mav 
2tl I May 

27 ; Muv 

28 I Mav 

29 I Mav 



30 
31 
32 
3:) 
34 

55 
M 

:«7 
:is 
:«» 

40 



Mav 

MaV 
Mav 
^InV 
May 

Mav 
Mav 
Mav 
Mav 
May 
Juiie 



42 June 
4^ June 



4f> 
47 
4S 
4i) 

rm 

''1 

r.2 
w 

54 

5«i 
57 

5K 

!■■<• 

01 



Jnm^ 

•IlIllO 

•I ttue 
•I iiiii' 
•III ho 
.Iiin«» 
Juuo 
Juno 
till no 
Junt* 

JUIH' 

Juiu> 

JiiiiH 

JiUM' 

•l:ino 
•I I'.ni' 



5 



I 



ft 
11 
12 

r: 

14 

15 
1« 
18 

19 

2l» 

21 

>»• 

2:i 

24 
20 

29 

:iO 

4 



41 June 5 



6 
8 



44 Jnne 9 

45 June lu 



11 
12 

y.i 
i.'i 

Ki 
17 
!•< 

ll» 
■jii 

• !•■ 
.■* ; 

-4 

•jy 



riaco. 



Mitliotl. 



Miinii-siita Kivir at its ! Curn^nt meter., 
iiiimtli. 

Mi<^i<(^«i|•]■i RiviM'itlMivo Kiwtrioal cur- 
l;iiii«-ri ••tn* t l»riilui'. n-nt uii-tor. 
St. Paul. 

. . . till flt> 

.. i''» ilo 

. . . »!' I d»» 



1 
.till 



. . .(Ill 

.. il.i 
. . .ill) 

ill' 

ilo 

do 



.ilo 

.»!.» 

.ili> 

-do 

.do 

.do , 

.do 

do 



do do 

. ■ ilo do 

.. ili» di> 

. . d«i i|«» 

Mi<si^<ili]ii Kixt-r at ...do 

ll.lMnlt r.llllI..S|. I'.Ull. 



d. 



. . . tio 

. . . .«lo 

. . . .«lo 

. . . ill* 

Mi^.■«:!»iIl}li !:iM-r :ilMi\t- 
KoIm ri >irii t br iili:**. 
St. rani. 
MiHsi^.^ijijti Ki\ir at 
I>a_vtiin lUuif. Si. I'atil. 

. . . do 

Mis!:issi]i|ii Kivt-r ^ilmvi- 
Kobrrl f»in-it l»iiil_i;t'. 
Si. r.ii.l. 

. tU* 

"!•• 



do 
do 
do 

• lo 

• lo 
do 



.do .. ., 
ilo 

do .... 



•!.> 



..I.. 

• lo 



111! 



• lo 
do 



lio 

.lo 



dn 



i|(> 



do 



do 

.!o 

d.> 
d.. 

,lo 

I'.lf 

.till 

.lo 



. d.. 
. do 
dn 
.. d.. 
.. i!o 



(-J JllTl 



i« 



«l>» 



d.. 
.{.I 

d.i 



Kt-ailiii;; 

«f St. 

Paul 

SUmal 

SiTvire 

Gauge. 



Di^rliarpo 
in cabks 
feet per 
aecunil. 



4.C4 

4.52 
4.40 I 

4.32 

4.00 

3.92 

3.75 I 

3.78 

S.71 

3.74 

:{.42 



3.29 

a. 07 I 
:i. 14 I 

3.(t5 , 
2.99 

2. S9 
2. JW 
2.M) 
2..<l 
2. S2 
2.84 



•I — •! 
... I _ 

2. l57 



2. 01 
2. .'d 

2. :.7 

2. 56 
2. HI 

•I wo 

2! SI 
2.82 
2.81 
2. Ill 

2. W 

•» —.I 
... <> 

2. :<» 

2. ::9 
2. f-U 
JL77 



396.01 



4. 75 10. IGO. 00 Wind doWDi 



10,357.63 
9. 329. 50 

9. 153. 88 i 

I 

8.633.54 i 
8.350.85 
7. 919. 28 
7.503.04 
7.510.57 1 
7.424.08 > 
7.902.52 
6.934.57 

6.501.44 
0.191.61 
6,432.80 
G.311.:M 
6.175.12 

6.100.76 
6. «W. 22 
5.949.90 
5. T.iO. 81 
5.8W.40 
6,072.79 



Do. 
StniuK wind 

Httvam. 
Wind do 

Do. 



Wind oMi 

DoL 
Stnms wlad 
•tntm. 

Do. 
Wind dowBo' 
Wind iipotn am 

Do. 



Windn: 



2.77 5.853.04 Wind 



2.77 5.729.17 
2,iU 5.675.02 



.\ 700. 42 
5.039.27 

5. 564. 34 

5. 214. 55 
5.3)8.79 
5.407.31 
5.9:U.»4 
6.0U7.86 
5.8;t8.88 
6.003.20 
5.887.48 
5.422.93 
^ 410. 50 
5.668.10 
5. 429. 54 
5, 2ot\ tt2 
:». 4rt). 10 
.«>. 829. 13 



■truiUB. 



2 70 5,622.01 



Rain. 
Wind n 
Kain. 
Stnmf; n-ind 

BtlfJUU. 



Tlir UMM-iiius wi^ro umuU^ by ol»st*rvin;; tlio iiiid,flo|>t1i velocities in 
sfriiiiii> L'o \\'i'\ apaii. Mt-aii vrli»ritv was takni as 05 i>er i'ent-. of niiil- 

drl)tll v«*l<»ritv. 

-V s<*ri«'s nf ol»>tiviUiniis \v<n» takrii in «1 une to determine the ratio. 
,- ." , tor tlir ;i;ni;j:iTi.i: srrtioii at St. Paul, and was found to be 0.948. 

' O |i 

riu' n-siilis ni' tlir pMi.iiin<^s an» intrrostin*: and valuable so far a8 
tln'\ iro, hut iho inoiirN luTotot'oif allot t4Ml and made available for ^ug- 
in;:s lias luM-n iiiadr.[nai«* to ]uo«'niv ilio i n ton nation needed for a oor- 
ri'fl and M-ii^ntitu- invest i«^Mt ion ottliiM'tVirtof the rosiTvoir water on tbe 



^^^^» IPPENDIX BIl — RErORT OP MAJOR .TONES. 2217- 

Mi»)U)tippi Kiver. It in imperative tJist this cdfect Khali bo aiu-cr- 
taincd and eHtablisbed beyond qaeHtion. Tbe knowledge gained would 
Iw of nHe,notonIy in ronnection with the present reservoir system at 
tbe head waters of the Mississippi River, but also in determining tbe 
value of reservoirs a^ a ineanx of improving rivers in general. 

It is recommended that Congress be askedtoflx the amount to be an- 
naally available for this specific work. An e.xaminatinn of tlio legislation 
nfl'ecting gauges indicates that Congress intended tbe smn to be $4,tKH>. 
Previous to the act of August II, 1888^ the annual expenditures of gaugeH 
and ganging of the* Ixiwer Mississippi River was limited by law to t5,0<H). 
^Vben, in 188S, it was provided for paying tlie expenses of " gaugings 
at and near St. raul," qU-.., " out of the annual iippi-opriation for gaug- 
ing the Ml8sissi]tpi River nnd its tributaries," tbe limit wiun increa^d^to 
«9,600. 

Amoant expended during fiscal year ending June 30, 1S91, including 
oatstandiog liabilities, $900. 

ADSWACT OT AI.IflrrMRXTB. 

For fl«-«l y*w ending Jwie 30, IftSH 'SIWO.OO 

Kor A«im1 ypu eiiiliDg Jnnu :tO, 1«I0 600,00 

I'or tlawl year ending June 30, IWII 900.00 

Miincii utiifrmi'i't. 

Amonat allotted for (iwalynTeiKliii)- Jiii.u 30, IWII OOO.OO 

Amount uUutted for fiscal year ending Juuc 30, isirj 900.00 

1,800,00 
JanaSO, 1891, wnnnnt eTiwnded dnring fiaciJ yonr 620,93 

Jnlvl, IWl, bali.n.T Lii!Pvpemlc.T 1,179.07 

Jnlj 1, 1891, onUtonding DabilitiiB 279.07 

Jaly 1, 1891, balance STailablo 900. 00 

{A)nonntth.')tcanli«prorLtn1<1vr\|ii'ii'[i''Ui)tisnilvr':iri'iiili[i;;,liiii.i30, 1893 4,(MM).U0 
Submitted in coiiiiiliiuin' svilb K-qiiiri'im iits <'] s.:<aiuu8 2 uf river luid 
harbor acts ol' 1866 iind 18<>i. 



Ilemisfd tlaiement of e^miUlun 



iifj (III- f'iKal year ending June SO, 1 



DM*. 


Tu whuln pulcl. 


For what paii. 




An.™nC 


n'r^ 




, 




•2.00 




a.k:w™&;:::::::::::::::::: 






















Seribner-Llbbej C 

A. O. Powell, M«™taj.[,-ufii„-,i-... 

ATi.<..,Vrtght&..-" 

H°'ir7^W^''«'^"'"''t ■'■"'■■■ 

SanuDmeteu 

J.B.RItcs 
















X«v. 13 






1.WI 








l',„iTi|i> n,ll for NovemlKr 


iww 


8.61 










x^v n 






Z,KI 








U.26 
U.X 


1>BC fl 


J^aK^IX^Ui>t eniii'nwr- . . 


Tnvelinic eipedilea 


18B0 



2218 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. & ABMT. 



Jtemhfd ftatement of expenditures during the fiscal year em^im§ 



», 



Date. 



1S91 
Apr. 
Apr. 
May 


•2:{ 
11 


May 
Juufl 
Junv 
Juuo 


i.r. 

IS 


June 


•» 


June 
June 


24 
26 



To wlioni palil. 



For what p«id. 



Anu'S. AVriubt A: Oo On»» dry Uattery 

•TaiiH'4 E. Aujii* I'si* uf* skiff. . .* 

Hurt i lk*r>:er IkitterieSf register*, etc. . . . 

t'lijirlv!* lJ^nUhmit Di-ayage 

Adiun IVH-ktT Jk: i'o Wire, etc 

Sniulrv jH^rsuns I'a v mJl for Mnv. 1H91 

. . . ilo * l»ay ri>U for April, 1801 .... 

St«-aiufr /7i'/i r.V/fii TRUUip(tn.itio]i 

Scribm-r-LUilH-v Tu Itnifw tnbeA, ete 

N[. I'. Konmnlv "a iin-* Ihirs, eto 

< ;«-<>rgt* AV. A llt-ii Travt'liug expeiuitv 

.\iiif«. Wright A Co Ilatterv 

ii«-\»rjie W. AlU-ii TiiiTefiiig expeuiMii , 

Kobinson & Cary (.'o Wirerope, cortl, etc 






Itil 

.» 

.9 

list 

ISI 
3t« 

191 

L» 
LW 

HIT 



< hi tsta N (7/ N «/ lia hi /t /itvt Jh mc 30„ ISOl. 



To \ilioiii II will;;. 



On iK>i-«tunt of— 



Sumlrx iH-rj*"*!!'* 

1). Kainalt'v Jc S«ii 

llonn- E. \Vvtblstatth a To. 



I'uy roll for J uuv, liSU 

Knvflopes , 

Statioiier\- 



LSI 



£xiH.*n<1tHl during tisrul yi-ar i-ii<liii<; Jinn.- :\*k l"«iM 
Total 



B B 9. 

rRKTJMlXAKYKXAMIXATlt>X OF HARBOR AT HIT^PON, WISCONSINp WITH 
A VIKW lY) PKKVKNT TlIK CITY HKlXCi TIT OFF FROM THE NAVIGABLE 
THAXXF.L OF THK ST. C'KOIX 1-AKK. A!^ A RESl'LT OF THE GOVBBV- 
MEXT niKK X<nv itASTlil'CTKn AT TH.VT 1H)INT, AND WITH A 
TO TlIK FUVSIHILn Y OV iOXOri'TlXO THK WATERS OF WILLOW 
PAST THK rlTY OF HinSOX IXTO THE XAVIGABLE CHANNEL OF 
LAKK. 

ilViutiil in ftousf Ex. Pik\ Xo. 2iV. Fifty -first Congress, second HMiott.] 
OfFK'H OF THE ('HIEFOF EXGIXEEBS, 

rxiTED States Ainrr, 
Washi)njtoii. I). C Februarjf ISj 1891m 

Sill: T li;ive the ln>nor to submit the acooiuimiiying copy <^ vq^ort 
tlatiMl Kobniaiv 10, is«»i, iVoni Maj. W. A. Jone^ Coips of iBi^niMnti 
<riviii^^ n-sults (»t' iti-cliinlnary cxaiiiiiiatioii of the harbor of HndaoB, 
\Vi.^., •• with a viiw to juvvtMit tlie oity being cut off from the iiavi|pAh 
rhaiinel ot' the St. ( roix I.ako. as a losnit of the Govemment dike iMiv 
«oiistruit(Ml at that i>oii)t. ami with a viow to the feasibility of oondofl^ 
iii«r the waters of WiHow l\iver ]»ast the eity ^f Hudson into fiie nsvi- 
<<:al>1e ehamii'l of the lake." iiuuh' to eoniply with provisions of the liYW 
and harbor art appn»ve«l September 19, 181H). 

^lajor Joiu's iv}»orts that the eity of Hudson has an exeenent baibor 
and that the ]H'opositiou to ireate a new ehaiinel for Willow River in 
order to improve a harbor that is <rood enough already is nnieeeoiimblB 
and pi obably very expensive. Ha.^ing his opinion upon the fiMte^et 
forth iu his report, Cid. O. M. Poe, Corps of EiigineetSy DiviAHi 



ji»:\! 



APPENDIX BB — REPOBT Op MAJOE JONES. 2219 

i|' gioMV, Noillintwit Division, i'0ii<nir!4 with Ms^)or Jmiivs tiiiit. ttiis ImilKir 
boot worthy' of improvement in ttic miitmcr dt>.'«iguati^(l 1>y tliu suit; 
[ «D(1 tbu viewH of thesa officers meet ^ritli iny approvnl. 
Very ruepfNitfnlly, your obedient servant, 

Taos. LtNOoLN Casey, 
Ilriff, Oen., Chief u/ Jingincers. 
Hun. Uedpield PRocTojt, 

Staretarjf of War, 



report (l¥ major w. a. jones, qorps of rnainbkbs. 

Unituu States Knoinrer Officb, 

St. Paul, Minn., Februars 10, 1891. 

Gknbral : I have tlie honor to report the result of a preliminary eic- 
aniinatiuii of the "hurlior at Iliidsou, Wis., with a view to preveut the 
city being eiit off from the navi^iible channel of the St. Croix Lake, as 
a rtvnilt of the Government dike now conBtmct«d at that point, and 
with « view to the feasibility of conducting the waters of "Willow lliver 
past UiL- cily of Undson into the navigable channel of the lake," ah pro- 
Tided for in the river and harbor act of September 19, 1890, 

Tbe city of Hudson, Wis., lies upon the east bank of the lake portion 
(if the St. Croix River. Willow River, a »iaaM sti'eam, empties int« the 
lake at tin: upper end of the city. At its mouth is a large bar with 
diMsp water above and below. The channel of the St. Croix River passes 
uriMind the bar and along the west or Minnesota shore of the lake. 

The bar may have been formed by sediment brought down Willow 
Biver iw well as by other causes. At any rate the bar is of old foiniii- 
tion, as shown by the faet that more or less bowlders aro fotin<l on it 
which could not have been brought down by the action of Willow 
Eiver. 

Funhermore, Willow River has fur many years jmst been iin]»roved 
for water-power ]mr|>osos, and it is not likely that sediment in any great 
qna&ttty is now carried thi-ough the mill pond to be deposited oa the 
bar. The Chicago, St. Paul, Miuneapolis and Omaha Railway Company 
took advantage of the bar to cross the lake. 

I inclose herewith two maps* of the harbor of Hudson, one the result 
of a careful suivey in 1879, prior to the construction of the Government 
dike referred to in the aet, and the other from a survey made under my 
direction in January, 1S91. These fully illustrate the situation, and 
from them it will be seen: 

(1) That the city of Hudson had an excellent harbor in 1879. 

(2) That she has to-day an excellent harbor. 

(3) That there has been no maten:il eliaugc in the said harbor since 
1879. The upper end of the Hudson Harbor has a soft bottom. The 
soundings made last month throufih the ice. are i)i-obably more reliable 
than those made for the survey during ojien water in October, 1879. 
The soundings for the latter were made from a rowboat, ou time and 
l>etweeD located buoys. The sounder could not have had time to care- 
fully feel of the bottom and may have ineasnrc^d mud as well as water. 
This explauatioD may account for the slight difference in depth exhib- 
ited by the surveys for the upper end or slioalest part of the harbor. 

(4) That the proposition to create a new chsmnel for Willow River in 



2220 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. & ARMT. 

onior to improve a harbor that is good euough already is nnTeMonaUe 
and probably very expensive. 

l)esi>ito the fact of a good harbor at Hudson, there acjB no oommeraai 
statistics to report, since thei*e has been no material commeree in recent 
times that I am aware of. These are the reasons which induce me to 
state that the harbor of Hudson is not, in my judgment, worthy of im- 
pit>vcmeiit. 

Very respectfully, your obedient serviint, 

W. A. Jones, 
Major ^ Corps ofEnginetrt. 
Brig. Gen. Thomas L. (\vsky, 

Vhkf of Kiufineem^ L\ iS. A. 

(Through Col. O. M. Toe, Corps of Engineers, Division Engineor, 

Korthwest Division.) 

■ 

[First indorsement.] 

U. S. ExonvEER Office, 

Detroit, February 13, 189L 

Eespectl'iilly forwarded. 

Basing my opinion upon the faet« set forth in this report, I concnr 
with Major Jones that the harbor at Hudson, Wis., is not worthy of 
improvement by the General Government in the manner outlined in Uie 
terms of the act of September 19, 1890. 

O. M. PoB, 
Coloneh Corps of Engineem^ 
IHvisioH EngineeTy Korthwesi DivtsiaiL 



BB 10. 



PRKLTMINARY KXAMIXATInX OF KMID IJIVER OF THE NORTH, WPTH A 
Vli:\V OF IMPKuVIM; THK NAVHiATION OF THE SAME BY THE OOK- 
STRUCTIOX OF A LOCK AND DAM AT GOOSE RAPIDS IN SAID RIVEB. 

[Priiittil ill IIiMisv Ex. l)oo. X«i. 292. Fiftv-flrat Confrresa, MOondMMloB.] 

Offk'k of the Chief of Exgineers, 

United IStates Abxt, 
WashiHfiton, i>. C, March 3, 1891, 

SiK: 1 have thr hnn<»r to submit thi* aeeompanying eopy of report 

(latiMl FrbriKuy iM, ls«»i, tVoin .Maj. W. A. Jones, (Torps of fSngineerSi 

«riviii«r n*siilts of pn^liiuiiiaiy t'xaniinaiion of "Ked Kiver of the Iforth, 

with a \iew of iiiiproviii*^ the navi'ration of the same by the oonstne- 

tion of a loek and ihiiii at (lOose Ka]»i(ls in said river,^ made to comply 

with provisions of the river and liarbor aet appit)ved September 19| 
ISDO. 

Major Jones reports that it is perftTtly evident that a lock and dam 
wonld not only be an nnneoessary obstrnetion in the navigation of the 
river, but that it would be an unnecessary expense, and therefore in \m 
judjrHieut the Red River of the Xorth at Goose Rapids is not worthy <rf 
improvement by means of a loek and dam. 

Col. O. M. Poe, Corps of Kn»rineers, Division Engineer, Northwest 
Division, eomurs in the opinion that this loeiUity is not worthy of im- 



APPENDIX BB — BEPOBT OF MAJOB JONES. 2221 

provement as proposed by the act; and the views of these officers meet 
with my approval. 

Very re8i)ectftilly, your obedient scsrvant, 

Tnos. Lincoln Casey, 
Brig. Oen.y Chief of Engineers. 
Hon. Bedfjelb Pboctor, 

Secretary of War. 



bepobt op major w. a. jones, coups of engineers. 

United States Enoineer Office, 

St, Pauly Minn,j February 23^ 1891. 

Genebal: In complian<;c with the requirements of the act of Con- 
gress of September 19, ISIM), I have the honor to report the result of a 
preliminary examination ot^— 

Bed Biver of the Norths with a view of improving the navigation of the same by 
the construction of a lock and dam at Goose Rapids in said river. 

This matter has been examined before, as follows: 

This proposed improvement was tirst suggested by Major Farquhar 
in his report on an examination and survey of the river, dated March 
4, 1874. In 1877 the same officer estimated the cost at $219,287.99, and 
located the proposed improvement so as to flow out about 4 miles of the 
worst portion of the rapids. In 1881 and 1882 Congress api)roi)riated 
$50,000 for this work. 

In the fall of 1882, Maj. C. J. Allen suggested locating the lock and 
dam at Buffalo Neck, about 8^ miles below Major Farquhar's site. This 
would necessitate a gieater fift, but would flow out a longer reach oi 
the rapids and reduce the dredging. The preliminary estimate of cost 
was placed at $240,992.85. In 1883 a survey was made of the rapids, a 
report on.which was submitted January 21, 1884. In that report Major 
Allen presented the cost of three plans for improving the rai)ids as 
follows: 

(1) Locks and diuiis at Buffalo Neck and Isabella Inland $"476, 378. 49 

Dredging 4,750.00 

481, 128. 49 

(2) I^ck and dam at Buffalo Neck 261,378.49 

Dredging 12,750.00 

274, 128. 49 

(3) Dredging the bars on the rapids and utilizing the dredged material 

for dams, training walls, etc 30, 000. Oq 

The officer favored the third plan aud suggested for consideration the 
advisability of rendering the appropriations already made for a lock 
and dam available for dredging, and the river and harbor act of Con- 
greBS approved August 6, 188G, authorized such expeuditures in the 
following words: 

Improving Sed River of the North, Minnesota: Continuing iuiprovement from 
Breckenridffe to the northern houndary line of the United States, in<;lnding dredg- 
ing, remoTsQ of snags and howlders, and construction of wing dains, etc. : and the 
money heretofore appropriated for locks and dunis is hereby made availahld for tliis 
pnrpoee. 

The balance from the appropriations for lock and dam was accord- 
'- -'" trainsfeiired to the improvement of the Red Kiver of the Korth. 



2222 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, U. 8. ASMT. 

At and in the vicinity of Goose Bapids the Bed Biyer of the Katt 
runs thi*on^h a plain of soft alluvium underlaid with clay. At scatter- 
ing intervals on this ph\in occur small deposits of drift in the shape of 
small bowlders, cobblestones, and gi*avel, composed of several varieties 
of crystalline nx'.ks and a well-defined fossiliferous limestone. At G^ost 
Bapids the river cuts through a number of these deposits, and the w- ; 
moval of the soft material has left the drift imbedded in the chqr iiPM 
the bottom to such an extent as to prevent fiuther catting of the ch^Tt 
and hence at low-wati*r stages there is quite an increase in flie river 
slope. 



Averajiro slope at low water over the whole reach at Gooee Rapids, a distance 

of 22 miles 1 

(Greatest slojie at any one |niint at low water over a distance of .928 mile 4.15 

Slope of Keil Kiver over a ilisraiueof 154 miles ahove and below Gooee KapiiU 
and iiu'lmlinjr same Ol54 

From the forejroing it is perfectly evident that a lock and dam wonU 
not only be an unneccssmy block in the navigation of the river, bat 
that it would be an unnecessary expense. By removing the drift and 
clay which are the cause of the obstruction at this point the excessive 
slope can be so distributed a^ to no longer prove a lundraooe to naviga- 
tion. Tliis is the project under which the improvement of the rivw ii 
now boin<r conducted. 

1 have tliereforc to report that in my judgment the Bed Biver of th6 
Xortlu at (liiosc Kapids. is not worthy of iinpi'ovement by means of a 
lock and dam. 

COMMi:i:ilAl. STATISTICS. 
[Sot.- AiiTMtal UciMiyt f.ir lisoal year ending JnneSO, 1800.] 

There are two steaiuln^it limy^ now on the Red River: At Fargo, N. Dak., th* 
<iraiuliu Line; one stritniiT. Tht (inimUn, 2*J() ton.<. with 4 barges. 2 of 900 torn, lof 
25<> tons, and 1 of L'iH) tons. At (/irand Forks, the Red Biver Transportation Cob- 
pany, 2 sten ml Mints: the riurk, 88 tons, and the H, JT. AI^p^ 157 tons, with 10 barges; 
4 or"ll»S tons. 1 t>iL'iL' ions. 1 olird tons. 1 of 116 tons, and 3 of 72 tons.* 

Comparative stat* ttutit of r'ni'iht mort'ii htf A^nmNmM and barges during tkepmtiJl 

Ton**. 

1SS1> 3.Mi<J 1883 25l314 

1S.XS ILMIO 1S8-J Sl.fiS! 

i><?s7 io.iiv> 1881 aassi 

ISSii V\Ta)1 18S<> 21.651 

l^^^-^ L^o.iM8 187i» 17,859 

ISSi -JtMMJi 

Very ivspM't fully, your olK'diont sorvant, 

W. A. J02fE8« 

Major. Corps of Ei^ffimeen. 

Briff. Gen. Thomas L. C'askv, 

« • • 

(Tlirouirli Col. O, M. Poc Corps of Enjrincors, Dhision EngmMTi 
Northwest Division.) 

[Virst iiiiliirsi^mcnt.] 

F. S. Knginkeb Office, 
l>eiroit FebrMarg jgtf, 1891, 

Rospoe tfnlly forwanlnl. 

I roiMur ill till* ojtiiiion that " Red KiviM* of the Xorth, with a view of 
improving the navigation of the same by the coustruction of a look and 



^^^^B APFEirUIX B B — KEPORT OF MAJOR JONES. 2223 

liun ftt Goo«e Eapidfi," is iiot worthy of itnprovi>ment by the General 
■uvununeDt. 

O. M. POK. 
VoloneJ, Cmyit of Ungvneer/i, 
Dirinion Engineer, N»rthioeat Division. 



BBii. 

■BEUMINARr EXAMINATION OF CEEEL/S BAY, TOTTEN BAT, AND MDf- 
NEWAUKEN SHOALS. IN DEVIL LAKE, IfOBTIf DAKOTA, WITH AN 
ESTIMATE OF THE COST OF IMI'KOVING THE SAME BY llEEDOINO OB 
OTHEHWISK. SO AS TO BEliSTABl.ISH THE NAVIGATION OF 8AID 
LAKI';. 

[tVlntcd In UouH Ki. Doo. Nn. tCa, ¥lttj-Bnt Con|{nu, uooud euauni,) 

Office op the Chibf of Enginkebs, 

United States Army, 
WitsUngt&n, D. C, March 3, 1891. 
Snt: I have the hODOr to submit the iMX'.onipanying copy of report 
iatMl February 24, 18ftl, from Mi^j. W. A. Jones, Corps of Kngineers, 
;i\-iiie resulUi of prelimiimry examination of Creel Bay, Totten Bay, 
md Miunewaoken Shoals, in Devil Lake, Ifortb Dakota, '■ 'nith an es- 
jiuate of the cost of improving the same by drMging or otherwise, bo 
ts to reestablish the niivigation of said lake," made to comply witti 
Huvisions of the river and harlMr act approved September 19, 1890. 

Both Mtuor Jones and Col. O. M. Poe, Corps of Eagineers, Diviaioa 
Engineer, Northwest Division, report that in their opinion these locali- 
test are not worthy of improvement by the General Government, and I 
wncur in the coiu-lusioiis ii'acht'd by these ofllicr-s. 
Tery respectfiiUy, your obedient servant. 

Thos. Lincoln Casey, 
Brig. Gen., Chief of Engineer!. 
Hun. ItKDFIELD PEOdTOlf. 

Secretary ofWtir. 



BEroBT (fF MAJOR W. A. JI)NK«, (.'(IRl'S OF ENGINEERS. 

UNITKH StATKK EXGINEER OFFICE, 

*7. raul, Minn., February M, 1801. 
Oeneual: 1 have the honor to rei>ort having made an examination 
if "Creel ISay, Totten Bay, and Minnewauken Sboals, in Devil Lake, 
sorth Dakota, with an estimate of the cost of improving the same by 
In-dging or otherwise, so as to reestablish the navigation of said laka" 
Devil Lake lies wholly within the State of Worth Dakota, and its 
laters have no communication whatever witli the waters of any other 
itate. It ciin not, therefore, be classed iimong the navigable waters of 
he United States, and hence I do not see how it can be considered as 
\ worthy subject of improvement by the General Government. 
Very respet;ttiilly, your obedient sei-vant, 

W, A. .Tones, 
Mujor, t'orpn of EngiiiKvrs. 
Brig, Gen, Thomas L. Cas];y, 

Chief of Engineers, (.'. >S. A. 
(Through Col. O. M. Pue, (-.'orjiM of Engineers, Division Engineer, , 
Hortihw«et Diviaion.) 



2224 KEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. A8KT. 

[First indorsement.] 

U. S. Engineer Office, 
Detroit^ February 26^ 1891. 

Kosi>cc t till ly 1\ >r wariU^l . 

From the statoiiiouts hereto attached it does not appear thateittier 
the present or pro8i>eetive commeFce of Devil Lskke is sufficient to 
justify tlie very considerable cost of the dredging that would be re- 
quired at Creel l>ay, Totten Bay, and Minnewauken Shoals, to obtain 
even a teniinuary improvement. 

For this reason, and not for that assigned by Mtgor Jones, United 
States Kn;ijrineers. I am of opinion that the hK'alitics named are not 
wortliv of improvement by tlie Cleneral Government. 

O. M. PoR, 
ColoncU CorpR of Engineerg^ 
J>irishn KtHjinctr^ yortkicvst JHviHan, 



C< ' M M I : li(.' I A L STATISTICS. 

Devil Lake, Denmher IT, 1890. 

Wlicrrus l)y reason of Ihc rooiMliiig the paat few years of the water in DevU Lakfli 
the businoiis ol' navigation has very materiaUy decreased, and our bostiUBS intereili 
iiiatrrially siiflor tlitTi-by, 

lifsolrtfL Tliat it is the snise of this Chamber of Commerce that the United Stitci 
Govcnimeut should, by a system of dredging or otherwise, seek to so improTe tiic 
navigation of I>evil Lake Hay as to permit the steamers to land at their ibnBer 
landinic ])laiv: and siM-oml, to inquire into the feasibility of turning Moiue Riwr 
into lU'vil Lake l>y means of a «-aual for the jomt purpose of lucreaBing the volime 
of waters into Devil Lake, and for irrigation purposes along the line of thepiD- 
posed eanal; tliird. to inquire into the feasibility oi turning the waters of the Hi«- 
souri liivtT into the Mouse Kiver for irrigation and navigation purposes, thenesby 
tlie eanal into Devil Lake for n storage reservoir of surplus winter, then down the 
('■heyenno for irrigation purpo8«>s, thence into the Red River of the ISorth for immor- 
ing navigation thereon. We believe that the great volume of water which flovi 
from the Mmise River at June or spring lloods could be turned into Devil Lake, 
and would restore the latter to its lonner height, and if eontinned on to theBf«i 
Kiv«>r would make that stream of mueh greater commercial importance, and would 
help solve the irrigation problem for the farmers along tlie course of these stroaiiu. 

J\ii<olvvd, That we havo carefully read over the st;itement submitted by Capt. E.E. 
lleernian to Ma j. William A. Jones, of the United States Engineering CoipSyielatiTe to 
the rainfall and lowering of the lake, and the consequent decline in boainessy and 
that we know these statements are true in every particular, and earnestly urge i 
action by the Government to improve navigation on our lake. 

A. O. WUXFPLXy 



Ja8. v. Brooks, 



Di:\iL Lake, N. Dak., Deeemher IS, 2890, 

Dkau .Sik: On May 27, of 18S;>, the lirst steamer in running operation^ the ateams 
Arrow, was ]iut (»n the lake at expense of ^.800. On the 4th of Jnly of thesaBS 
year t1u> steani«'r Minnie fl. was put on the lake at a cost of $32,000, it is about 10D 
tons burden, and sinre that time there has been another boat put on at anozpense 
i»f about >:l.^^H>. The tirst two boats since tliir first launching have been numiiig 
eontinuou.sly fnuu o]>enini; until chtse of navigation each year, bnt^ owing to the 
decline in business sinee iss7. they have been run at a great loss. Unless tbsieii 
M>niething done to brin;; the boats back 'to the old landing at Devil Lake^ thcj 
itni^i be abantloned. murh to the inconvenience of the imblio at large, MCtfamlaity 
ih:iT of the f.uiuer residents on the south shore, and to the great linaneUllWioClkt 
o^^ncr. 



^^HB- APPENDIX B B — REPOBT OF MAJOR JONBS. 2225 

*nift fiillavriDg U a correct ro«<iTd of the fteigkt tonniiee. HeermnulluiinrsU'iuneTB, 
I>ovU Liilt.-. S. Uiik., for thf ypjirs 1837 to JSift, inclusive: 
In INST tlie tmiuiica ftggtPgMfd l,339Aft,H tnns, na foUowB: 

Ki I I n!i ...I 1,B35.GI0 

! I I .'iiiiii ttkdrr, itnd miacellHneoiia&cight 1U,S11) 

^. 100,0m) 

i , V 97,0I» 

» ~ I ;. I r I r:i.!(^, niid mtBCf Qnneous IVeiglit SCDINI 

I»,UW l.unluls wli.nt ." T8ll,OI)0 

T*Ul 2,678.130 

III IMtl tlio ImBiiMwa fdl) off on Mienntit of low wktw, and not moro than HOO tauB of 
nwlKlit wuroTTird. In WHS thf^f^^ightngfl did not cxcund HOC tuna, nnd in ISM tbti ton- 
noRn ft>U In nOO tnnii. Frnin 1883, wti«ti tlieru wnit nothiug diinn oti thn lake, the 
ftrlK^t tuonn^' and pnucngi^r truffla Htoodily and rupidlf inivcaand CHch sueonaslvo 
mHuum, Todi-'hiiii: muKiiuum llgumt 1S87,-ks kbovu mt forth. Since the lutt-nanicd 
(tatn, owing uluioiit ciitiruly U) tb« fulHii); of tho luke, the decruuso in tonunse hits 
tippu cvo) narn mnrkud tUun w&a tho pteTiuus ratio uf inoreinw, (loc^liiiins from 1.300 
I*.n» in tS87 to 300 toiw iu 1890. The numi'ugrr traflli' liud iiteo steadily incronBod in 
like raliu from 1883 U> 1887. riftphinc its maKimum figure in 1887, when, in the ab- 
atntv at aii> Hp<-i-ial ti-cunl kept, I shonld estimate that we transported fnll.v 3,000 
paMrngerB, wiiite during lh<< past wnaon of 1890 w huvc not carried to exceed 1,000 
paMtMigeri'. By reuaon uf the low stage of wati^r our Bteamers each year sines 1887 
uir« had to Innil at iiupruvised dockn each iti^aauii farther cemofed from tJiii city of 
Qevit Lak« Ihau thv |)ntc«ilin); ypM, hu that now £reiehtage and passengeta mnsl be 
unuAjK'ili'd I1V \vu),-e|jiti and Stages orer a rough toad aronnd the bay, a ciruiiitoTis 
I" . " :i ii, . Ill ilii preaent lauding. Thii nrnterlnlly adds to thu cost of 



it niily to IJie ooat hut very greatly to the dlaconilitute 
■ lie gpnerally. Ha<l the ' ' 

. . onauig in volume the bu ...._ . 

h year inereaaetl in a ratio similar In the rapid Aey 



. BH puhlic gpnerally. Ua<l the waters not re<:eded 
iii-itpiidof (levronauig in volume the business of navigation 



, . . ._ ,. , , the great inoreaae of population, and the growing 

popiitarity (if thu lake aa a summer resort. The city of Devil iJakeis theuatnr^ 
Ifiwe and tioani'ial craitfir of a vatt tributary region. 

I rti»iM''il'nlly Milmiir hiTewilli. hi. I'titnldiHliing the foregoing filets, a few htieflet- 
tmn frtiiii -in !•■ [ir-'ii.iii.'iil lui-iin'i.- rii'iiis. 

U^j. W. A. JONKS. 

Cor^ 0/ £iigi«tert, C S. J. 



Dkvii. I.akk, \, Dak., Dtxembcr 10, LViO. 
Dear Sir: Sinru thRivntii' in lli'vll I.:ike ha^ fallen so that Htfiuni'rs can not 
Ulid nithiii iiboilt 3 uiilc^ ni oiii- \A.n': lh.- travel across thn lake lias givntly diniin- 
. i,.h..<l. una i<,ve:irly losing- iU ^1111:1. 1i^ nii'-i ah a summer resiirt. 

If ih« l.nvconld be drr;ilf;ci| en :is i.> K-l steamers land near our town, it would add 
larirelv to the IriiUlc across Ihi- Inke. 
Mosttrnlv, 

J. E. Galkiiul'sk. 



IF.TrKU OF Mlt. Kl>. I. T. UTAF.DE. 

Dkvii. Lakk, N. Dak., December 6, 1890. . 
Deak Sir: I am pleiieed to address you in the malti-rof what advunlaEo may ac- 
crne to our busincHs inlerexts if navigation on Uevil Lake could lie sci iniproved as 
to alio* Nte.iuier* In land in-ar our ejl y. us in ot lier ye:irs, for I couHidpr that ainre t he 
iratrr fill to any cinsiitnrable extent in the hike th;it the mi-rciintile business in thia 
citj- baa steadily drcreasfd. In my own line of trude, I nin safe in pBtiniiitint: that 
in 18M7— when the lake biiDini'xs reai-hed its nuiximnm point— my traile from tha 
•obUnndeof thelnke, settlers in Bcuhou, Kddy, and even more remote counties, 1^- 
EHG «1 liO 



2226 K£PORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. & ABUT. 

gregated $10,000, while during the past fanning season less than |500 has come from 
that source. In earlier vears the farmers could come in the steamer whithin a lew 
squares of our city, and their purchases of machinery and other merchnndise— often of 
heavy bulk — were easily loaded on to the boats to Fort Totten, where their own teune * 
were in waiting ; whereas now the only practicable way for the south-shore aettlen 
to come here fur supplies is to couie over and around the lake, a distance firom 60 to 
91 miles, a journey so tedious aud expensive that with very few exceptions they hmr9 
discontinued trading here, and trade at their small trading stations. I fonuerly had 
a large business alon^j: the Sheyenue River and country tributary to Mimiewaaken, 
which trade has all disappeared since the steamboats ceased to make their legrnUr 
trips. I consider that with the increased population of the country, that if the boats 
were running regularly over the lake and could land at the old dock, I would hare a 
business of not less than $2,500 annually from the Sheyenne farmers alone ; as peo- 
ple would naturally come here, as they can buy for less money and have bettisr stocks 
to assort from than they can find at any of their interior trading points over the lake. 
Very respectfully, yours, 

Ed. L p. Staxdb. 
M^j. W. A. Jones, 

Corps of Engineers, U. S. A, 



1 



LKTTER OF MK8SRS. WARNER A CLRVmJCHD. 

Devil Lake, Kovemher gS, 1390, 

Dear Sir : In reply to yours of recent date in regard to our i>resent trade and what 
it formerly was when the steamers came to the docks of this city, woold say that it 
has fallen' off more than 1,000 piT cent. Our trade in ldS&-*S&-*S7 was large, now it 
is small in comparison. Taking our lumber, coal, and machinery which used to mn 
up in the thousands have dropped into hundreds, and below that even. We know 
our trade would increase over the above percentage now if the steamers conld lamd 
at our docks. 



Kosprt'T fully, yours, 
Capt. K. E. Hekrman. 



Warner &, Clexelaxsk 



LETTER OF MF.SSR8. C. A L. BCDDE. 

Devil Lake, N. Dak., Deeember t, 1890^ 

Dear Sir: Since about 2 years ago the water in Devil Lake has receded neaily 
out of the bay so that steamboats land so far away from our town that it has dam- 
aged our trade considerably. 

I came here in the s])ring of 1883. From that time until the fall of 1888, when the 
firm of C. & L. Budde dissolved, we had considerable trade from south of Devils 
Lake and from along the Shoycnne River. Farniers were seen every day in onr town. 
I think and believe that in the time mentioned, 4 to 5 years, when* boats bTOOffht ns 
the trade to our dock at tlit^ head of the bay, that during that time C. A L. Bndde 
sold at least far over $75,000 worth of lumber, machinery, and general merohandise 
across the lake. 

Since the year 1888 there is so large a falling off from the trade across the lake, 
which is mostly due to the low water, havhig to haul goods about 3 miles to thenear^ 
est boat lantliiig, also the sanu^ trouble in landing on the other side of the lidce. We 
wish something eonld be done t-o improve navigation; our lake filled witii water 
again would benefit our country and people. 

Yours, triilv, C. & L. BUDDB. 

C. BUDDS. 

Maj. W. A. ,loNK.s, 

Corjint of Knfjinccrs, U. S, A. 



LETIF.K OF MK. £. J. CUAMBERLIir. 



Devil Lake, N. Dak., December S, 1890, 

Dear Sir: In the matter of our lake and the proposed dretlgiug of hay, I notice 
that in the years when boats lande<l in the town we had a bnsiness of $5,000 to$7y000 
from the country south of the lake, through dealers and at retail, wmoih hM d^ 



APPENDIX BB — RKPOST OF MAJOR JONES, 2227 



L 

^nnsMd to about 30 to 35 per <'E<nt. of former uoouDt, sud from no other oause than 

^Pv* in»cocwibilitj' of our maiknt unilcr present uoncUtioii of the water. The trade of 

H.'Oni town hiiH inrressed generjiUy in other dirertions, and jyiiai of from this soiircf. 

Devil Lake ia and al^afi bus heitn tbn t'ommercial o<»it«r of this whole northwcul 

etmutXT from Datnml location and sorro'indingB, and it becomoM aii nnfortiuiute miit- 

t«r to And our oppoTtimitiea diiiiinieh from a. tauBp to be ri-mcdied, bnt not by oiir- 

•Innp. Bi'iUE the only tihi'et of water of any iDU);nitiid<> iu thu Stnto, if tnnde 

ih|p, we wiil find ourBelvea a suimuor resort for the whole State. 



P 



E.J. ClUMiiiclu.u 



Drvil Lakk, N, Dak., nmimhtr 17, isao. 
DULK Sir : I would My in rugurd to the position thnt wo am in hero on apronnt of 
loir water in our bay preTenting Bleambont nuvigution to the city, that it ha« bonii 
and will bo a great ilvtriment to iis unless suniolniiig ia done To mjrsnlf personally 
it baa not only caiisi^ me a griMit de^il of extra expense, hut also int^onvoniejire. I 
■lo bnaiaewi at Fin-t Tott«n as well as here. While the steamboala ran up to the dty 
I oonld ill Iho waTDiest wenthfr run my nioota over to supply Fort Totten. Now! 
have t<i drive my Mook '10 inilrH and keep extra help al the tort. 
Hoping! noioetliiDg will be done to help us out of tliifl (tiffionlty, 
I remain, yours, respect fnlly, 

F. W. COCKBURX. 



LETTRR OP HISSRS. 80DTII A KBLI.Y. 

Dbvu, Lakf, N. Dak., Dtcembtr 17, ISOO. 
Dkar Sir: In Tegard to the loss in trade from the south side of the lake since the 
Hti'anier has been unable to get uij to tlie dork, we c;in say that we formerly sup- 
plied that whole country with hiiTdw.iri', also the post trailers at Fort Totten; but 
sinre Ibo Imat Iinn harl to lan<1 4 iir T> miles from this place wo have lost all the traile 
we had on tlic Houtb side of the Inki', which amounted to several thousand dollars 
a y>>ar. The peo])le on thiit siiie of tlie lake would trade here if lliero was any way 
ihcy i*nnl<t j^et over here iiuil ^et their goods buck without too much uxpcnso, und wo 
would have had no dilTti.'ulty in gutting tlieir trade if the boat could land at the dock- 
Respect Alii y, 

SouTU &, Kelly. 




APPENDIX C C 



PRELUtrXAKYEXAMlNATIONOFMlSSOlTEIRrVEH, PROM THE OLD MOUTH 
OF THE PLAriE KIVER, LITTLE I'UIST, TO A POINT OPPOSITE THE 
CITY OF I.EAVF.NWORTH. ALSO OF THE RIVER AT THE CITY OP WES- 

TO)f. Missorni, with a view of returnino said Rivi'm to its 

ASCIENT CHANNEL, ANi» THE llKfiT PLAN OF ACCOMPLISHING TliE 
SAME. 



Missouri Eites Commission, 

Office of the President, 

St. Louis, 3f«., April 39, 1891. 
GEIfERAl.: In accordance with your instructioiiH of September 24, 
JSOn. 1 hiivt.' the hooor to forward herewith a map of the MiHMouri River 
Irwm Port VVillJaui, Kans,, to Parkviile, Mo,, which covers the two por- 
tions of the river assigned to me for examination, viz: 

Hiiwouri River, &om the old utniith of the I'latte River, Little Point, to a point 
ojipusit-c tbo citv of Leiiveriiviirtli. Also of the river at the citv of Weston, Mo., 
with :i view of rcturuiux Biiiil rivrv toitsaiiiLciLt chiimml, ilnd tli^ Im^xI pl;iQ of accoia- 
l.ti,-hinK tlniHauic. 

Tliis rei«>rt has been lichiyt'il till tlie map of a resiirvey of the Mis- 
M>Hri liiver, inaile last iUll, liiHiune available. 

L'iMJii the im'losed nia|i 1 have indicated the extent and general char- 
acter of the work ncedi'il tn iriipiove the river thoroughly over the des- 
ignated jwrtion, and in tlie i^ise of Weston to restore the old channel 
past the town, the work in botJi cuseM ctmforming to the practice gen- 
erally followed on the Jlissoiiri Itivcr, and embracing both permeable 
dikes for coutracting and fixing the chauuel and bank revetments. The 
propijsed lines of rectification are .shown by broken lines, the dikes pro- 
posed bv solid lines, and the pro^wsed bank revetments by the letters 
B, R', R', etc. 

The e.stimated costs are as follows, viz: 

(1) Improving Mi asouri Kivar from the old month of the Little Platte River 

(about 1 mila above Piirkvillu) to a point opposite the city of Leaven- 
worth $800,000 

(2) Improving tlie Missouri Itivcr at the city of WcBton, Mo., with a view 

to returning saiil river to iu anri.'nt channel 384, 000 

With reganl to the first item of work it may be said that it forma a 
part of the systematic impruvonent of the Missouri Biver, and should 

2229 



2230 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. 

not be considered apart fi.om it. There would .be no advantage 
ferred on navigation by work done here till the improvement is 
pleted to Kansas City. No boats run above Kansas City at preaenb 

The second item is of doubtful utility in any case, and would bet 
work of great difficulty and expense. At present there is no naiigft- 
tion here, nor prospect of any, so that the deprivation of its river law 
ing is not likely to work much injury to the town of Weston. No ftppn* 
priation is recommended in either case. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Ghas. E. Sutbr, 
Lieut Col. of Engineer€j 
President Missouri Hirer CommimiaiL 
Brig. Gen. Thomas L. Casey; 

Chief of Engineersj U. S, A, 

[Second indorsoment-.] 

lilissouBi BivEB Commission, 

8t. LouiSy Mo., May 5, i89i. 

EespectfuUy returned to the Chief of Engineers, XJ. S. Army. 
The localities named are not (considered worthy of improvement 

Chas. E. Suteb, 
LieuU Col, of I!ngineer9j 
Fresident Missouri Eiver CommtMJM. 



.M> 







Eng9 



APPENDIX D D. 



IMPROVEMENT OF MISSOURI RIVER ABOVE SIOUX CITY, IOWA, AND OP 
YELLOWSTONE RIVER, MONTANA AND NORTH DAKOTA. 



REPORT OF CAPTAIN CHARLES F. POWELL, CORPS OF ENGINEERS, OFFI- 
CER IN CHARGE, FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1891, WITH 
OTHER DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE WORKS. 



IMPROVEMENTS. 



1. Missouri River between the Great 
Falls, Montana, and Sioux City, 
Iowa. 



2. Yellowstone River, 
North Dakota. 



Montana and 



EXAMINATIONS AND SURVEYS. 



3. Tongue River, Montana, with a view 

of determining the practicability 
and approximate cost of straight- 
ening the channel of said river, im- 
mediately west of Miles City and 
north of the Northern Pacific Rail- 
road track. 

4. Yellowstone River, Montana, from its 



mouth to the mouth of Tongue 
River. 
6. Missouri River between Sioux City, 
Iowa, and Fort Beuton, Montana, 
including the part of the river A:om 
the mouth of the Big Sioux River 
to the north line of the State of 
South Dakota. 



Engineer Office, United States Army, 

SioiLX City^ lotca, July 6, 1891. 

General: I have the honor to transmit herewith reports upon the 
river improvements in my charge for the year ending June 30, 1891. 
Very respectfally, your obedient servant, 

Chas. F. Powell, 
Captain J Corps of Engineers. 
Brig. Gen. Thomas L. Casey, 

Chief of Engineersy U. 8. A. 

2231 



1 

^2232 REPORT OF TUK CHIEF OF £NOINEERS, U. 8. ARMY. f- 

DD I. 

IMrKOVKMKNT OF MIS.^OURT RIVKR BETWEEN THE GREAT FALLS, 

MONTANA, AN1> .SlOl'X CITY, IOWA. 

Tliis wDik liatl bocMi iiiuler the eoiitit)! of the ^lissoiiri Eiver Commis- 
sion. Ill coninliaiiro with onlei-s, I n^coived charge of the work !Novem- 
luT 21>. ISOO. • ■ 

The i)rt)jeet of iminovtMiHnit t\w\\ in fence coiislstiHl in ooutrnction 
works aiul (lreil«riH^^ iit the bars on tlie riH'ky river, viz, from Fort 
lieiitoii to Carroll, .Mont., about I<i8 n)ih»s. A iletaiUnl survey through- 
out the whole reach, about ],.'>(M> miles hui*;:, was also in propres:?. 
Sna^iiin^r work on the sandy river, that from Carroll to Sioux City, had 
been r*'connn<Mided but not commenced. No work had been pntposed 
\'vou\ Fort r>enton, the head of navigation, to the foot of the Great Falls. 
about 40 miles. 

At tlu^ b(^«:innin»r of the year the vessels and other plant belongiu^ 
on the rocky liver were laitl up from want of ftinds, having l>eeii 
hauled out on the bank at the end of the previous sea.son; the fieM 
work of the trianjiulation between river blutts had been eompletod; the 
l)rimary levels earried from an assumed base at Fort Benton to Trovew 
Toint, -.">- miles, and the topograjdiy and hydit>gi'ai)hy run from Ben- 
ton to Coal Banks, which part of the siu'vey was being extended by a 
field i)arty. This party closed work for the season at Wolf Pointy Mon- 
tana, .*^S2 miles from Ihniton, and also set and ran the oixlinary levels 
to i)ermanent benches from Trovers to Wolf Point. The river suwey 
from Benton to Coal r>anks had been niapi)ed in five charts, seale 
1 :lL*0(M), and on one chait. scale 1 inch to 1 mile, 

During th(» year and since November computation and adjustment 
of the triangiilation were c(nnpleted at the oftiee of the Missouri River 
Commissifui, with some aid from funds in my hands. The other field 
work has been reduced at this olHce, antl two series of itiaps pnijected, 
one of preliminary charts, s(»ale 2 inches tt) 1 mile, and the other detail 
charts, scale 1 inch to 4(M) feet. The preliminary cUarts, 8 in number, 
friHu Benton to Wolf Point, were comidettHl in pencil; charts Nos.1 
and 2 were trace<l and blue printed. The <letail charts, 63 in numbeff 
and covering the same leach, wt»re plotted in pencil and their shore- 
lines and contours inked: soundings, elevations, and -names of places 
were printed on the .*>0 charts from Coal Banks to Ti*overs and the topo- 
grai)hi<al signs on the tirst 7 of this set. It is expected, with funds in 
hand, to tinish the two series of maps to the end of the pi'esent season's 
liehl work and to ])ublish the detail charts by photolithography, reduc- 
ing the seale one third; below the mouth t)f the Yellowstone the scale 
of the charts is to be I inch to (»(H) feet, reducing one-fourth tliereftom 
in ]mhli(ation. 

It is ;ilso expected to carry this season the last of the field work to ft 
]joiiit below hismarek, X. Dak. Two large hydrographic and topo- 
graphi«" parties were ready on •lune IM) to take the field, one commenc- 
ing at Wulf Point and the other about TH^ miles beh»w WiUiston, N.Dak. 
The ]nimary levels wen» run from Trovers to Poplar, and rerun from 
Coal l»anks \o Trovers, where they had not ju'eviuusly been duplieated 
and wh«-n* there seemed to be need of a checking up. 

The lleet belonging to the roeky river improvement was thoroughly 
repaired and launched: the dreilge boat was lengthenwl to decrease its 
ilraft and more j»owerful steam capstans added: jiew capstans werealao 
l)iit on the t(>wboat Josvphuw, and the small steamer Jr*ff to Joe lengfli- 
encd; part of the old barges, which were badly worn and decaycKl and 



..J 



t*^©'— EEPOKT Of CAPTAIN POWELL. 2233 

vcff Uw large, wei-e broken up, and .good i»arts, witli new iniitfl-riiil, 
workotl into hc<)ws of moru cinivfiiiciit nizu and dr;if't. 

Tli« ilam» at ilakerH Bar, EvanH Bar, and Fonta.uelle Bar were cwt- 
«iicml»Iy repaiiort and extended; I'urtlierexteusion is required at Bakflis 
Bar and rook Itallant on dams of the Fontauelle system; aft«r doing 
that it lit ex[>e(^t«<d, with funds in liand, Ut continue the repairs to prw- 
ent dmnD, working downstream, and ti^ Mild new works for conti-an- 
tioa «f water way and for holding up the water below rapids, and to 
drcdce at tlie womt plae,es an Iav jus Judith, S7 mileR from Benton. 

Tu earry ont the pi'oJe<tt in the application of the pnw^ent appropria- 
tinn for anagging, etc, and temporary improvement at Idie worst bar 
irJiannpltt on the sandy river, a fidly eqiupi>ed snag boat and a snag 
Hcow, both of sti?('l linllH, have been built, and will be ready for service 
in a few weekrt and aa soon as present liigh watci suhsiilos. The boats 
hre to work principally hptwet'n Sioux City himI liiiilinlil, about 850 
ini]i>«4 up streiim; the «t«in!fr •/HSfpftino is to bi- rintlut liiiid for pull- 
ing snags and wmoving other obsfnictionw, ami "ill Willi; iVoTii (larroll 
ti> Uerthold an soon as she •■uu ln> spiin-d Irmii ]lw [■o.'k,\ I'iviT. 

KxaniinatiuUM were matlefor tin' svli'ili.in ol'^ilrs liii' I\m. ii'<' UiU'lKU'S, 
coiiteuiidatod in tlie appropriiitjim -.h-LiukI iwo crrtiiiu jiLirfH rtH-om- 
mended for that purix'"*". H '^ innimsi'd l.> iiminivi- tln'sn iiliu.'c» for 
the harbors »« may b« mdtied. 

Th« pro|>oiHKl u]>pli('ation of tho iiiipropriutioa asked lor ItS'j:) is as fol- 
lows: 

Cranpliitjcni of tlio ri»ot survyy ami jiiililicution of mnpa *71, 497 

CnntuiiMtJDiiof wDrlci>utlinru4-kTrivi>r 25,000 

Opcnrtion of muiik Ixiut* »ntl ttMniHtrary iiiiiirDvi*m(nit Dt tlis wont bun nn 

iIm MDd;^ river 50,000 

B«ctilicalluii of t1i« rivral uikI iicur l>l<>rn> urid Ynnbtoii, K. Pnk I5(r, COO 

Total 209,497 

The object of the hitMidcd w»n'k at Pierre and Yaukton is to it-claim 
the «teamlM>at landings. Tin- hiiiditij; iit Vanktoii luis been mined and 
the one at Pieire iTiJured by ii shilling of the clianiiel to flu; opjiosite 
side and a consequent extensive lilling ahmg llic iivi'r fiimts of th*i 
towns. Tlie works would be useful in a siibsequeiit ix'niiaiient im- 
provement of the river channel; in any plan liir that the river frout.s of 
the more Important towns ought to be controlling elements where prac- 
ticable, an it is in the cases named. 

It i« recommended that the estiiuate for the removal of snags, wi^ecks, 
and other obstmctlons and for teniporary inipi-ovement at the shoalcst 
channels be made as a separate appropriation, and in order that the 
work may be uninterrupted that the appropriation l>e made continiions, 
the name as for the uiH-ratiou of snag boats and dredge boats on the 
Upper Mississippi, and for the operation of snag boats on the Lower 
3fiKsissippi and Ohio Eivers, as pmvided in thejiver and harbor acts 
of 1(488 and 1890. 

Money xtiiti-ment. 

Amoant approiiri)it<^il bv act iip|.ruveil Si'iitciiilH-r 19. 1890 $300,000.00 

JuiieSO, 1891, amount e3tpcu.lfa iliiiiug fi.-riil yiMr" 3:!, 1IK(.89 

Jiilv 1, 1891, lialuuw iiiicx(]fii<l.-il i;C7,»%.ll 

July 1, 1891, uiLtBtuiiclmKliiLliLliti.-s *IJ. l.-.il. TT 

July 1, 1891, iimoiiiiloovemi l.v uiLr<iiii|il.l- I . unliMits.. . . :,Xq:u.-27, 

65,517.02 

Jnly 1,1891, balance nvailiilik a(«, 379. 0!) 

-CzGlii>tiv«areii>eii<litiiresrruLja l.:ilaiui-9 in liiiuiU of Missouri Uivur CuuiiuieBiou. 



2234 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMT. 

I Aiuouut K'dtiniated) requirod for couipletion of exbtin^ project |S0^49i.<W 

i Amount that can be profitably exi)eudea in fiscal year ending J ime 90,1888 300^000.99 
I Submitted in compliance >vith requirements of sections 2 of river aad 
t harbor acts of 1806 and 1867. 



Jhsfraci of proposals for charier of light'draft towhoalfor improring Jf?MOirH JKnr,ri^ 
vviri'd and opened June IS, 18^1, by Capi. Ckas. I\ Powefl, Corps of Emftmeen, 



No. 



1 

o 



l^ome uid address of bidder. 



Name of timaatt. 



5 
6 
I 
8 



I 



Southern Tranf«pf>rtatinii and hnnilwr Co.. St. Loais, Mo j Little Eagle, Xo. 3 . 

£. W. Diinuit and K. J . W li.fl.r. Stillwati-r, Minn I K. J. Whraler 

John M. Turner. Mandan. N.Dak I AbnnrO'NMl 

Ci RiiaebiMl 

\ '. lUit4rlielor 



4 I l8aacP. Baker. Bismarck. X. Dak *. 



Grant Marsh. St. Louis. Mo ■ It. A. Speed 

V. A. Bitfolow. La Cn.»8St\ Wis ' JeiwieB 

Scott !& w alhuv. Pmluoah, Ky Iliawiitbii 

George Ifays. St. l^lu^ Minn.' Mike I>a\i« 



liaaMr J 



1 



1&« 

as 

9km 

«.« 
mil 



* At rato of ll.a^O iM>r niontlu or at that rate \\t day if delivered above, and $5 per daj addttioMltf 
delivorcd below Oiuaim, Nebr. Award inmle tu Iiinac P. Baker f<ff ateamer Uo$tbui. 



REPORT OF MR. II. C. GOULD, ASSISTANT EXGIXEER. 

U. S. Steamkr Josephine, Jmmt 19, ML 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of the season's opeifttlQBito 
June :^0. 1891 : 

Htpairs to dams. — This work i-onimoneed April 7 at Fontanelle Bttr. In the ehntt 
on the loft side the bank had been cut away, taking off 48 feet of the outer end of 
dam No. 4 and in places the to]) of the dam was washed out; on dam No. 9 bobs 
brush and «rr:ivol were waslird nil' the top. 

Tho washed out places were re tilled by brush fascines, weighted with grmTsl ii 
sacks, and the whole len;^th covered with loose fcravel. A new part was built staitr 
inf; Irom a point on No. i, 100 feet from the bank and extending to near the end of 
dam No. 5. This part is 172 I'eet lon^, averages 2 feet deep, and 20 feet wide at boit- 
tom; it was built in tlie usual manner, viz, laying brush fascines, about 1 foot in di- 
ameter; stakin*; them linuly to the bottom and ballasting with gravel in sacks and 
covering the whole with loose j^vavel. 

The foUowiui: material and labor were used: 



Stakes number .. ir>8 

Fascines do 4L*i) 

Gravel sacks . . 543 



Gravel yards.. 9K 

Labor d^ys.. 100 



At dam Xo. 1 was a deep cut around outer end and some holes were 
through the dam. A new piece 3(.> iVct long was built from near outer end of thedaa 



to the ishuid as tar l>eh>w its head as practicable; abont 10 feet of this was 9 fM 
deep, the rrst :ivrra!;iii>; U tret deep. The holes in the old part were filled. 
There wer«' usrd here: 



Stakes number . . 10 Gravel 

Poles do .'><) 1 Gravel 

Fasciiu's <lo 170 I Labor 



yards.. W 

d^ys.. fl 

At dam Xo. '2 a deep hole had been worn by an eddv on the lower side at nppsKSBli 
the wearing wa^^ sto]iped by placing itX) sacks gravel in and around ITmi hnin^ MMialfi 
iuiX 21 dav.s" labor. 

i.>n May 4 the dani-buildin*; party was established in cnmp at Bakers Bar. Iki 
(dd dam here was con>ider:ibly washed out in places along the top. Hie endntBrfl^ 
laud was threatened by euts o\\ Itoth sides and at the island end a widecut liad hsn 
made. A \ery stroiiir current was running over the whole dam. Tbehigjh gnffd 
dike thrown u]> by the dredge in 1JS8!* across the head of the chute had " 
all washed awjiy. 

Work was ioiiiuieiierd at the mainland end; mats were built of brosh 
poles, on a lar«;e bari^e. launched from the barge, and sunk along the dam by gnffd 
in sa«'k.s and by roek. Th«' bar;xe was held by long lines reaching up the stream lisi 
was moved along the erest of the dam by lines from capstans on each end of Ifet 
barge to the ui.-iinlaud and island res)>ectively. As the work progressed, UOftHtif 
the outer end of the old dam was washt^l away and a large hole was oat in its piM 
for about 120 feet; the part of the old dam which remained, SSOIeet long. 



fl^Hwtt D D— REPORT OP CAPTAIN POWELL. 2235 ^^1 

i1 riooi If- vud uew wMk was put in for 40<> (••vt. iMttimliuji well up uu tho 
Ii- frwls WIT" Miotuugbly piof ertod. 

ioIb work noa woll ballasted wilb rook brought woully troiu tli« L» Barge 
J&duIm below. Thero wuceiuudoD tliiadam: 

nnmber.- 284 1 Kouk yards.. 428 1 

do,,.. 941 Luthyam coilB.. ij 

sacks.. 3,324 1 Labor <l»y».- 632 i 

ri) ws« iii..vod to Evan* Bar June 2B, and work.etflrt«rt on the Jiirge diuo Iht.re, 
appuiua tv bt> in good ronditiou, none of it bt<uig wuMhud away, but the 

ial new work and exteoil the other end wull up ou the island, requiring about 
tiirw. 

Lpectml that tl>i« will complete the repuii's to duDS above the Uoiias River. 
mirk.— A dike of lava rook appeuis in the hills at Senieui Beach, 16 mlks 
iDton. Some rock for the diunH h»d been tiikon from here lu pmvions sea- 

c sluicing uuttil vriu tuTimgal with a liirgis pump and mutcriiU on hiuid; bow- 
be muted with much hard siuid. und the suirouiidiite innliiial proved much 
1 retaove than was eipe^lad, so the phwe was uljan.loued. A trip was then, 
the Jotephinc to oiamine the led™ about 20 miles above Bentjin. Theso 
nd to be of a sandstone, much of It too soft fur use; on this accouut, and aa 

ahuvo Benton is very difliinlt to navigate with a steamer as lurgt- as the 
, owing to the rapids and uhnrp turns, etc, it was decided to use tbel.a Barge 
.f here roJk had been obtained in previous eeasoDS: this fs a hard, heavy, 
(a rock, and about 460 yards wore already qnarried. ILis .unonnt wiis uearly 

by June 15, and a party of7 uii-n and a cook waa left there in camp to break 

lowing list shows tb« rock handled, where obtained, and whoro delivered: 


yaids. Where from. 


Wtim>a»BToitd. 




BakenBu. 

Da. 
Eviu Bar. 
(LoadlOKDiillHlLl 













ry respectfully, your ohodii-nt 





Table 


of 


iialano 


u/ruiii niirr .'iiif^y. 




I'lnieii. 






Iwnk^ 


,1 pu™. 


Miilwny 
bsDks. 


.n llfi'li:<- 


!l 
iiSSSiS:.!:::::::::::::::::::::- 

■ Opiili.tm.IL.iii.line 

1 li.-.-..I..r<ir;.n.ilH].-.H.l 

.; Il<'.i.l ..fTnuCalf Island 

! Hn.'kv I'l.iiit 


Mila. 
























I.iwl.'v iHlniid Cnt-.ir 

SiS'EfiS':!-';::;;::::: 












■vm'.'. '.'.'. 






za.i 
















I.il.l..l)r>c™fk 
















. I>rv F.irk 

. G«Il.in St^liyn^.j^^^^^^^ 

,M.."ti."fKi'kiiiv«r":.;:;: ..::::;.;;" 




Sa:::.:;:::: 






M7.a 

387.1 


'' 



















2230 REPOKT OF THK CHIKF OF ENGIKEERS, U. S. AHHT. 



OiMMrilClAl. STATISTICS. 

Tliroo iMiats oi iVniii 'J\ to V* tVii dral't \vhi>ii loadod. arc riitiiiiux on the rive^ 
tMi^:i;r,.,i nMi>i]y in r:in\viii«; nicn-liaiiiliso ami :>u]i]tlies tniiu Situix i'ity. llertv. aiiA 
l^isinari-k to tlu* iiii]ii:ii-\ ]Mi>ts and Iii«li:ni ag(Mu-ies from Sioux i'ity to BertlioM,X. 
l>ak.. aiitl To .Imiirii and Fort Itciihui. Mont., ami iu oolleotiiig j;;raiD, 'vrool^poUh 
Toes, hides. lM>iit^<. rtt .. I'nr dt-livery uT railroad lamliu^rs, ami in carrying pasMnigcn 
and live stork. • 

Some of the ^inall !'• ii,\ lioat^. ii i*^ l^'UeM-d. oooaMoiinllv earry loads for short di«- 
i:iiii-«<i ntt iliiir \\-\i\ iiiiii«>«. Imit (if wliirh only ]iart nToril is available. 

riitii' is lilt ::i ti4 1i' III' hra\ > tiatlir lar<;r]y tr.in*«]M»r(ed. A little prtkspert esijttii 
Thai ori> frmii tin- )iar! %^{' Montana south of tin* rivrr and tributary to it uiav be 
i-arrird on }ioat> to Kansas i'ity. The li;;nite eon I uf North Dakota, veins of wliicli 
(-ro]i «*ut on till- river ahov«' Hi^niaivk. may in the futurt« Ite oarrio<l by boats to tke 
Town< Im-Iow i;i^niari-k. Tlu' river hortoms are fertile and when settled and fsnned 
Avill douhTli's^ « a;;sr an at tivt' tratlii- on th»» river between railroad points. There 
art' w«iiks at Yj.i.ktun prodm-in^ a Portland ivnient wlioi«e tests are eqnal to thoM 
of Fni^lish :iii<l (•! inian Portland rmimts. The material for the Yankton cement. 
i-halk-stoni'. and «-lay abound in laru*' (inantitics ami are said to show at pl.ioe»oi 
the river above and ludow Yankton : the rhalk rertaiiily crops out fh)m the rirer 
Idntfs. and it <eein^ thnr the eement industry, at least at Yankton, should W extea- 
eive. and th«- eeuu-ui shi]»]ted down the rivrr to Sioux City. Omaha, and other eitiet. 

Tlie Tiinna>xe amounts tabulated below do m>t inelnde ferria^^e businesa: 



liinr lotntintc htiirtt'n Sioux i'iiv ciwrf Bismarck. 



1SS7 
1SS> 

1N.V> 






Jut}r,*:n Jiitmftrtk uiid Fort BcHton, 



1SS7 

lS.v>- 

INVJ 



. 2;l» 



/.'#*'f •• frntHi' Utr /.v»". 



Sioux CiiN li» r-isn..t:> 'r\ 
r.i>ui.ni k til Ki'it r.!j|i»iil 



• Milit.iry :uiil li'ili.iu ^.:i':»l'i < :ii» i- !:.'!:i}i-i ^i.iiii. 
» (ir.iiii. mi'reli;u:tiNi . rS'iir Ti r«l. biiul"-'. . 
■ ^l• '. ■!••■.!■: i -I \* I ■•1. ".I-. 



aud bulk 
fsL'isht. 



t2.467 
:i.l24 






Lht 
■toA 



.Vo. ! HMi, 

\xa\ 41 

63: a 

I 



D D 2. 






IMlK'MM.Mr.M' nr vr.F.LOWSTnM: KIVKK. MONTANA AND NORTH DA- 
KOTA. 

Tlii> w»)rk was trnnsu*m'il ti» nu* l»y MaJ. W. A. Jonos, Cori^sof B^ 
_itnMis. OctolM r 17. 1S!M». 

N»» o|Miaiii»iis wtTt^ romliu-toil ^hiring tin* \i\\\\ fxropt a preliminBiy 
t'xaiiiiiiaiioii injiiiiiMl \\\ a ]>rovisioii in tlu* a*'t of Sopteiiiber 10,1^ 

'riir pr«>irrt nt" iiniirovt'iririii is siis|mmmUmI in ordor that the whd* 
niaiTiT iiiiulit 1m' vr]»nrt4'tl \u i'oii;L:n'>s, and lor reasons given in App^ 
di\ X L' Xo x\\v Annual K«'iM»rr nt" 1SS7. hy Capt. C. B. Sears, Corp«» 
Knuinri'is. 

Thf aiipioiniati<»n asktil t'or is<j^;is lor imK'uriiic a phmt fiv dred^ 



. I 



■KEPOBT OF CAPTAIN POWELL. 2237 

d dtticiiig at tLe bais on the river lielDw Gli-adive, to be used 
irer stcainboating ou the litin- shall hv resumed, as it is likely to 

year. 

Money statement. 

LBOO, tialsTicv mi expanded $11,0211.45 

ItStl, mmoHiit cxiiended during fiarul yv»t- HSO.ffi 

Iffil. bslMiiw anexpiinited _ lI.TOe.aO 

L8ai, ontNtADdtng QaMlitifs .■ .71 

iPitl, UUnre KVaUable 11,705.19 

nt (cMtimuIcil) n^qufrcdfor completion nf cKistiiig t>nijec't 106,000.00 

iitUiat<iimlHinrutit.ab1;'uxpciide(liiiliRoulyeiu'i'n(tiugJnuL'30,lg93 30,000.00 
ilted In i!«in)i11uuce with reqiiireuioiite of seutious S of rivei and 
K>r acts of latit! nud 1S67. 



[. STATlB'nCH. 

M no BtsBinboatiiiK nn tbo rivpr; a 1iri»k truffln fomiDrW osisMI, vhiob 
H I8S) after th« Northern Puciltc Kiiilruud prutrtrntod Uontana. Below 
n thnre in no riulroad in the YoUowuluuu ViiUc.v, and no prospupt of thotu 
ly. PrunpRulii exist for coinpetiuj; mil Hups to reach IliKiiiDrrk or ItnTtbold 
t oiuit anil whir'li woulil jirobiibl.v une the riven ubove for fet-dcfs. Witbotit 

un the Yeltowxtoue l>(>low <J1<'ii<ilve, trnnsportaUou hero mcMm n jfxgnn 
null froni fileuiliTe. or ti hiiiI from n point on the Oreat Northern mud und 

anoiM tho UiHHuuri Rivrr. TM< niUrnnd, coming from the east. strikM thn 

ion ilA Dortti »ide at Wi1li^f»ii \'. li^il. ■ ■ --■ ■ - 

uwotone. and agxin at Furl i:.,i<<.>i. >i 

m febonid, nalfifiitly, b<' I" 

itnl to Ibt- Oreal Nortlieni i > < 

«»ui, HA Rortbild <irBi!tiji:ir>-l' ' j' II' . r.,:: iiri.' from the eust miij' terminntn. 

U a li»" nf mif tlBiiisiitd almij; iiii' riv.-r iniiri its mouth up, and a 6ta|;« anil 

d ftoxD Bliford toOIcndivp. 

rea of land below Olendive iind hotwutn hlufta is about 200 square miles, of 

ome tvo-thirds in bultom and the remainder first bench land. The Juno 

e rarely coTera the bottoms, but nt places Ibey are frequently aiibiiicrfred 

iprilig breakups bv biick n-nlc-r finm ice (riiruc.s. 

Ition on bottom nut! bi'Dcb hin.l^ is ]ir,.lin.' until nbout tbe c-u<I nf .lunr, wli.-n 

months comnn-ucp. Witliout riiin nr iiiif;:ttiipii iHriiiiiif; is cuit of Ibi- ours- 

he hot sun of .lillv ami Aufi"*! "hilf daniiit;in^' vci;etati<.n cures the luxnr- 

s«. making liiilritiuun loud Ini^ hffur'k. Crazin;; i» thercfnru the preseul piin- 

In'rse as barrels utii! liojtRheaiifl hiive l>i-c-n Neon on the burs or iilnnt; Ibo 
The coal is apparently us good as that mined in eastern Moutuua or Uakotu. 



D D3. 

IINAKY KXAMINAIIUX OF TONGUE RIVER. JIONTANA, WITH A 
■ OF I'ETKlJMIMNtJ Till: 1'RA(-1H;.\1!H,1TY ANH AITROXIMATK 
OF sTKAKiHTKMNf; TFIK ClIANNICl. OK SAIH RIVER IMMKIU- 
V IVESTOF.MII.KSCITV AND KOKTH OF THE NORTIIEHN PACIFIC 
KUAIl T1{.\CK. 

[Prinlrd m Il^iisp lOj. Iti^s >". IIW, iiflj-flrHt Criiign«fl. serond bt-siod.] 

Ol'FU'K Ol' TIIK ClllKF OF EXGIXEKUS, 

United States Army, 

ll'««/((«i/M«, i>. C, Decmber 23, 1800. ■ 

I have the luinfir ii\ submit the jiceoiiiiiiiiivinB co|>v of repiirt 

leeemberit, ]S!HM»yr;i|)t.<'liiu-Iesl--. ri>«fli.'C..r|.sof EiLf;iin-.Ts, 

retiultii oi pitiliiiiiiiary oxaminatiuii of ''TuuytiG River, Mou- 



2238 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOINEEBSy U. & 

tana, witli a view of determining the practicabilily a i approxunaAB 
cost of straightening the channel of said river immediately west of IGki 
City and north of the Northern Pacific Railroad track," madetooon* 
plv with requirements of the river and harbor act approved Septembtr 
11), ISIHL i 

It is the opinion of Captain Powell and of the Division Engineer ^ 
Col. O. M. Poe, Corps of Engineers, that the locidity la not w«ffiBiy€f 
improvement, in which opinion I concur. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Thos. Lincoln Casey, 
Brig. Oen.^ Chief of Engineen. 
Hon. Rkdfielp Proi'Tor, 

/Secretary of War. 



RKPORT OF CAPTAIN CHARLES F. POWELL, CORPS OF ENGI1VBER& 

Bis^iARCK. N. Dak., JDeeember 9, 1890. 

General: I have the honor to repoit, from a preliminary ezamiiia- 
tion which I made, that "' Tongue River, Montana^ with a view of de- 
termining the i)rartioability and approximate cost of straightening the 
dianuol of said river immediately west of Miles City and north cil flM 
Northern Paoitic Railroad traok,'^ is not^ in my opinion, worthy of im- 
provement . 

The river is not navigated, and there is no present prospect dT ito 
being navigated. It empties into the Yellowstone Biv^r near Miki 
City and about 80 miles above Glendive, Mont. An existing prqieet 
for the improvement of the Yellowstone from Olendive to its moirtk 
is suspended. The Yell(»wstoue, before its valley was penetrated by 
the Northeni Pacilie Railroad, was navigated to above the Tongue 
River; there has been no st4.'amboating on the Yellowstone since 1882. 

The diflieulty at ]^liles City is thatTongne River norUi of the raiboad 
track is cutting its bank in an already deep bend on llie side of die 
mnnieipality, and its eontinuanee will seri<msly endanger private prop- 
erty, as it already does a small tract controlled by the city; tlie river 
forms the eastern lH>undary of the Fort Keogh military reservalioDy 
and the citizens desire that a eut-ofi'bc made on the reservation side. 

The Government has a right of way over the smaJl tract tefemd tO| 
and maintains a ferry aeross the river at that i)oint for the use of Fort 
Keogli. A stoppage of tlie bank cutting would render nnnecessaiy a 
shifting of the ferry aneliorages and road making up a 15 or 20 foot bank 
from time to time: the prevention of this small work is the only pahKe 
convenience which would be subserved by the stoppage of the bank 
cutting and river shifting. 

Appended is a letter trom (^olonel Swaiue, commanding Fort Keo^ 
in ansAvcr to an inquiry from mv in this connection. 
Very respectfuliy. your obedient servant^ 

Ghas. F. Powbul, 
Captain^ Corps of Sngiimn. 

Krig. Gen. Thomas L. Casky, 

Chief of Kntfineers, F. S. A. 

rrhnnigh (^)I. (). ^I. Toe. Ciaps of Knginecrs^ Division Eng^ineeryBoryh 
west Division.) 



II APPENDIX D U — REPORT OF CAPTAIN POWELL. "2239 

' (Fint lDiloTaou«iI.} 

, U. 8. Emginbee Office, 

\ Detroit, December 19, 1890. 

Bespect.AiUy forward«i to thtt otiice ut'tlie Obief ot'Engiueers. 
r coiicur ill the opinion of Captain I'owell as liemn expresHod, that 
e channel of Tonii^ue River. Moiitima, iimiitMliatelf west of Miles Cit]^ 
and noiili of the northern Pacific Railruud trtutk, ie not worthy of im- 
provemviit by the General Goverument. 

O. M. PoE, 
Cohnel, Corps of Engineers^ 
i» Dirimim Engineer^ Nvrthwimt Divimm. 



l''OKT KxoGH, Most., OotoJier 10, 1890. 

8ib: In rvfily to your fitvor of tho ISth iiictiiiitl bnve the honor to inform you th»t 
Ii«Ub«>T ihn Ftrautiteuing of tlie Toiignu Itivrrchunnel nor the improvement for navi' 
ntioB at thn YellowstoQo would be boncHviiLl to the tmuportation or other iacilitiea 
ofUvopMt. 

I prmiinu the work proponiMl on Tonsui.' Kiver ia in the ititerest of the town of 
Mriiv Citf, a* tlio bank on Ibnt side of toe strunm is ^raUuullv wushing, and I hare 
nlKUr - ' " " ■ ■ ' '^* " -t- .. - — .. .. -'■■ ■ 



tKlrntooil the snbjccl ' 



I'u) brought to the iiltvutiou of the pro 
iu Washington by thcCimgtfwsioiialiloti 



Colonel, Tkcrn'ii-aivoHd tnfanlry, ( 



Ekcineee Office, U, S. Army, 

St. Tjouia, Mo., March 25, 1891. 

General: I have the honor to submit the following report of a pre- 
liminary examination made by me of the Yellowstone River, Montaaa, 
from its mouth to the mouth of Tongue Biver: 

The length of river named, at the upper end of which Miles City is 
8itaat«<l, is 187 miles. Glendive is about half way, or 98 miles from the 
Yellowstone mouth. The mouth of the Big Horn, the principal tribu- 
tary of the Yellowstone, ia 106 miles above the mouth of Tongue River. 

From about 1876 to 1881, and especially during the building of the 
N'orthem Pacific road in Moutana, there was a brisk navigation on the 
Yellowstone; steamers have frequently ascended tlie Big Horn t« Fort 
Cnster, 40 miles, and a boat has gone up the Yijllowstone to near the 
present town of Billings, or about 50 miles above tlie Big Horn. Two 
steamers went up the Yellowstone in 1882; there has been no uaviga- 
tJon on the river since. 

The river was surveyed in 1878 iiiid 1879 fmni Junction City, 5 miles 
almve the Big Horn, U* Diamond Island, about 57 miles below Glen- 
dive, 919,000 having been appropriated tJieicfor. Work of impiovo- 



1 

2240 KEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ABMT. 

ineiit, oousistiiig of rock removal and bnilding of dams and shoie pro 
teetion, was commenced in 1879 and continued to 1885; it was vounned 
at tirst to the reach between Miles City and Glendiveimdera project to 
imi)r(>ve the kiw-water channel for light-dratt navigation up to Miles 
City : part of tlie IvSSl work and subsequent work were below Glendive, 
to which reach the project has been thereafter limited; in 1883 fhe sor- 
vcv was extended fnmi Diamond Island to the month. 

Upon an exphination of the inadequacy of available funds and rec- 
ommendations of the cni^ineer in charge, summarized in his annnd 
report of 1S87, the Chief of Engineers dii'ected ik July, 1887 : 

(1) That no lonst ruction work on the YeUowstone River be nndcrtftken thii 
8e;ison. 

fj ) Tliat the ]>resont plant bi* pnt in repair, iuot sufficient to move it to tlio moath 
of the Yellowstone, and atUl it to that of the lfp])er Misaouri Riveri And to preserve 
it in »ti>ra,v:<' until next season, awaiting the next seaaon or further action of Con- 
gre>s. 

i.'on^'Kvss 1i:is n(»t made any appropnation since nor taken any action 
other than t<» require the present examination. The project fherefore 
remains snsprnded. Tn the mean time the working plant has been 
transloniMl to the Upper Missotu'i River improvement. 

The ^vol'k d<me was biMieticial in dee])ening the channel and other- 
Avise impro\ injx the naviorati<m: that of the I'oek-removal i>art remains; 
the (Muitnu'tion and hank- protection works have been much damaged 
by ice and from other causes and ai*e now generally in bad condition. 

The total a]>propriation for the Yellowstone improvement, 1879 to 
188(», is >«lis.7r»0. j'rom wliich ainonnt the exi)ense8 of the 1883 snrvey 
were paid: the available balance remaining is $11,766.20. 

I have to report that the Yellowstone above Glendive is not worthy 
of improvement, but that the part from Glendive to the mouth is worthy 
of improvement, and for the reason that there is no prospective river 
commere<^ foi- tlie ni>per j>art named, while thei^e is a prospect for river 
trallie below (ilendive. The North Pacific Bailroad going weat fironi 
the Missouri on a direct line strikes the Yellowstone at Glendive and 
doM'ly follows it to beyond the head of na^igation. From Glendive the 
river Hows northeast and away from the railroad. 

The nnnli lon^rer river route has not competed against the more 
direct and tliron^rb rail line, and I have not been able to learn of any 
]irosp(Htive tratlic which would probably support boating on an im- 
liroved river as apiinst a railroad. The future rail tariff is lU^ely tohe 
n^lneed, wliile the small volume of water at low stage, which is a diffi- 
culty ti» jaest'ni navigation, especially on the npi)er part of the Yellow- 
stone, will jirobably be diminished fvovx irrigsition ditches and land 
clearin«r and enltivation, and the ditliculty thereby increased. 

lielow (Jlemlive there is no railniad in the Yellowstone Yalley, ^n^ 
as far as I ran set* now no prospect of there being any- without boat- 
iii.u. transportation hero means a wagon haul to and from Glendive or 
t<) ami from a ]M»iut on the Great N<utheru road and ferriage across the 
.Missouri IJiver. This railroad, coming from the east^, strikes the !^Iis- 
snuri oil its nortli side at Willist^m, !N^. Dak., alnnit 40 miles below tlie 
mouth of the YeUowstoue and again at Fort Huford, alH>ut opposite tlie 
nu»uih. It api»ears that there should naturally be hH*al boating between 
illentlive and a -Misstmri Kiv*T ]>oint of the Great Northern road, and 
]»erhai)s also s<»me river ]>oint farther downstream, as Bcrthold or Bis- 
niarek, win-re a rail line t'roni the east may terminate. 

Tiiere is a line of sett lenient alon^ tin* river from it^ mouth up, and a 
>\tvs\i and mail roatl from Ijulord to (.ilendive* 



^^ APPENDIX DD — REPORT OP CAPTAIN POWELL. 2241 

TIi# ai-en of luiid below Gleiidive aud between bluffs is aboiil 200 
wiitxrv mflos. of wbU-li m>nie two-tlimls is bottom and the ifinaiiider 
flret bviic-h laud. Tbv Juno river riso rart'ly eovers the biittiims, but at 
I>ltt«»<t( Ihf,v are freiiuwiitly KubuicrgiHl duriug spring break up» by biwrk 
walpr from ice gorges. 

Yfgi'(«ti"ti oil lN)IU>m iiud bench lands is prolific until about tlie end 
of June, wli.Ti iliu dry tnontlu) uoiuuieuc<^ Withont rain or irrigution 
fiftrmicjiU "iil -if rlir ijit'-niou. The hot nun of July and Angui^t while 
tbuiuiging v<';,'>.liiliini iTiii-s iJie luxuriant grass, making iinrrlMiuis 
food for »t<Kk. Gracing is therefore the prestrnt itrineipnl indnflry, one 
IinNluct of which, wool, can advautiigeously be rarrietl by Wat. Lig- 
nite coal crops out in about 4 and fl feet veins in the river banki», 
and piccwt of coal as large us barrels and hogsheads have been seen ou 
the bars or along the shores. The coal is apparentJy as good as that 
tuin(>d in eastern Montana or Dakota. 

The average slope of the river below Glendive ia 2J feet per ndle, 
roiuRieoicing with a ;i-foot slope and ending with one of 2 feet. From 
*i!endiveto I>iamond Island the ri*-er is gravelly; ftoni Diiimond Island 
to the mouth it is sandy. These two reHcIies are siniihu in (-h:ii:iil:rr 
and degree of navigability, except that their islands iiml slmt^'lif* ;ir.) 
more numerous and the iee gorges more damaging, t« tin- ivintn-s c.r the 
MisMinri Biver from Cow Itdand to (.'amdl and ft-om Ciinoll r.i Mnliiiil. 
The approved pnijoct on the Missouri above Carroll i.> l",\iiii.! I'.iw 
iKlaad, now under execution, c«nsists of closing and win^ (i^ims and 
ilredfiring. Below Carroll no project lias been pi'oposfil, .itliiT rhim 
fmnfndng, altbongU it has b(>eii recommeuded that dredging would bo 
naehtl for some <iistau<.e from (-iirroll. 

The plan of improvement for the Yellowstone below (llendive to giv« 
a go<id ^ feet low-water (ihuniiel should be <^Iosiiig dams where the river 
is divided at A)ioi;Is, protection at cutting banko, and dred^ruig at tho 
jmtvel bars, near and above Uiamond iHland, and steamboat sluicing 
wt b.ii-i on the Rnnrly river. The dams, if maintained, and the dred^ng 
will : ■'■ it';i!\ |jriiiiaiieiil chaiiiii'l. The sluicing will generally need 
to 1h' reiic;itcd yi'aily. 

The fsliniiitt' of cost oftliis phiii. derived from the survey maps and 
<i>sts of past wiirk of building of dams at the locality and ti-om other 
siuirees, is — 

aJ.7lW>rf«of<lo8itiKil"iii8, iit*7.-Vl .* $J55,250 

1ti.2«0 1ietofiTVPtiiitiill.iink, atr. 81,000 

IMaiit tticn-for 15, 000 

riiinl for iIiP<l;;iiiK ""I'l Hliii.iii!,' 30, 000 

281,250 
;tnd after the lirst vrar lOr annual maiutcnaiice of works and the sandy 
river channel *;j(t,(KKt. 

Very respeetfnllj', jour obedient servant, 

CiiAS. F. Powell, 
Caplnin, Corps of Engineers, 
Brig. (ien. Thcuias L. CA«ey. 

('hif/o/Eiiffiiiars, U. ti. A. 
(Tiirough C<»l. O. JI. I'oc, Corps of Engineers, Division Engineer, 
iiorthwest Division.) 

BNG yi la 



2242 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARBIT. 

[First indorsement.] 

XJ. S. Engineer Office, 

Detroit, Mich.^ March 28j 189L 

Eespectfully forwarded to the Chief of Engineers. 
I concui- iu the opinion herein expressed, that above Olendive the 
YcHowstone Kiver, Montana, is not worthy of improvement by the 
General Government. Whether it is worthy of such improvement be- 
tween Glendive and its mouth, 98 miles below, dei)end8 upon the prob- 
able relations between the cost and the benefits. If a probable expen- 
ditiu-e of 8281,250 in fii^st improving the river, and a subsequent annual 
expenditure of 630,000 for maintaining the improvement, be a fiiir esti- 
mate (and I have no reason to doubt it), then, in my opinion, based upon 
the statement of the eummerce as given by the Glendive committee, the 
present eommeire, or that probable in the near future, is insufficient to 
justify the improvement of any portion of Yellowstone River by the 
General Government at this time. I ^^ill be prepai-ed to modify this 
opinion whenever the conditions may seem to warrant it. 

O. M. PoE, 
Colonvlj Corps of JEngineerSj 

Bvt. Brig, Otn,. U, o. J.., 
Division Engimrrj KortMcest '"' " • 



6TATEMKXT OF GLENDIVK COMMITTEE. 

Glendive, Mont. ,Decemibar 16, 1890, 

Dear Sir: In roply to your fuvor of December 14, we would reapoctfVilly say that 
the iulv:iiita<j:t's to tlit* citi/eiis aud incrrliaiitsof this county would he innnmeriible if 
we roulil ii:ivi;;at«' the Vollowstoiu' Kivcr. Iu the yuan 1881 uiid 1882^ when boats 
wore runiiiii^ on the Yellowstoue, the rates ot* freight from St. Paul, Minn., to Glen- 
dive, Mout.. were reduced from $2.50 for first -class freight, to $1.10 for iinclaasi- 
fied frt'ij^ht, which ratr was maintained for two years. 

With such competition all. merchants aud their patrons would be £:niatly benefited 
in 6hii>i>in^ iu ;;o(m1s, wliirh amounted during the past year to over 300 rare, regard- 
less of uuuu'i'ous small shipments. There were shipped from this county this past 
Si'ason 1,(XK),(HK) pounds of W4»(d, 5jS0 cars of eattle, and 200 cars of sheep. 

There are several settlements al«>u«j: the Yellowstone between Glenoive and Fort 
Bufonl which maintain a triweekly stage and mail line, which would bo greatlr 
benetitrd. as said residents are now compelled to transport all their freight ana prod- 
U4'e some 10 mih's> or more by wagons. 

This couury is rapidly settling uj) and freights will be largely increased daring the 
coming year. 

Yours, very respectfully, 

D. R. Mead, 
H. HoDOSox. 
James G. Kamsay, 
Capt. C'HAs. V. PnwKLL, CoMmiffes. 

Curps of LmjiiutrSf V. S. A, 



DD 5. 

PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION OF MISSOURI RIVER BETWEEN SIOUX 
CITY, IOWA, AND FOKT HENTOX, MONTANA, IN'CLl'DING THE PART OP 

Tin: Ki\i:u fkom the mouth of the bk;^ sioux river to the 

KOKTH hINi: OF THE STATE OF SOUTH DAKOTA. 

St. Louis, Mo., October 21j 1890, 

Generax: I report that, in my opinion, the Missouri River between 
Sionx City, Iowa, and Fort Benton, Mont., inehiding the part of the 
river from tUc moutU of the Big Sioux Kiver (at Sioux Cit^) to tli9 



north line of Sontli Dakota, tbo preliminary exatninutioiis of which 
were as»>igaed to my charge by Depaitmeut letter of September 20, 
1890, are worthy of improvement, at least for the greater part of the 
reach of river najiied, and for the tbllowlug facts and reasons: 

The MJHHoiiri River ftom 8ioux City to Benton, 1,716 miles, has been. 
B natural highway for exploration, trade, military transportation, and 
settlement. It in iiboiit a oue-sixth part of the immouse system of Wm- 
si«mppi Itiver navigable water ways. Although the navigation is uot 
^osy and convenient, this part of tlie river is free from falls, very 
nerions rapids, and obstructive bridges. It has been navigated by 
Hteamboats throughout since 1860, when two steamers reached Fort 
Bentnn; in 1831 an Ohio Kiver steamer arrived at Pierre, 642 miles 
uboveBioux City; between these times steamboats have pushed furtber 
Qp the river as demands required. Withiu a year I have seen at Cairo 
a steamer intended for the njiper Missouri River trade, loaded with iron 
wiu-e at Pittsburg for Benton ; that is, a ciirriage of an unbi'oken cargo 
from Pennsylvania to Montana. 

The Missouri Kiver from Benton (lownsti'eam to Carroll, 160 miles, 
i» kuown as the rocky river. Work under a project for permanent im- 
provement on this part was tindertaken by the Engineer Department 
aeveral years ago, and has been continued by the Missouri River Com- 
mission, whose engineer in charge estimated in his late annual report 
lhiM^3.'iO,000 are required to c()iuplet« the existiug project and that 
$12.^,<)00 eould be profitably expended in the year ending June, 1893. 

There has been no work done from Carroll to Sioux City, called the 
tnundy river; the Missouri River Gommissiou have recommeuded during 
the last 2 years snagging operations here, an«l liave urged the appro- 
priation of funds to complete a survey over this part for aid in prepar- 
iitjr !i project for permanent improvement, speaking of the I'eacli a.^ one 
iiiikiutwn for engineering purposes and of the survey as of national im- 
[Mirlnnce. 

Th« Enjrineer DepaHiricnt niiidi-ii survey of the river from Sioux City 
til I'irnv ill 187l> to 1>>.''L': tlii' M j-^iKin ItiviT roiiiuiissiou have extended 
a triangnlation over the whole pint from Sioux City to Benton and have 
nearly completed the remiiiuder of the field work of a systematic survey 
from Benton to Milk River, 350 miles. lu fiw^t, the Commission survey 
hat> extended in whole or in part, and was iuteudetl to be made com- 
plete, from the mouth of the river to TLree Forks, 244 miles above Beu- 
t<m ; their funds applicable to the survey from Sioux City to Benton are 
practically exhausted. 

Bench marks, soundings, and new shore lines are desirable over the 
old part from Sioux City to Pierre, and arc estimated for below with the 
new survey work, in addition to the unexpended balance of the allot- 
ment for the examinations: 
Field work of topography, bjdrogruphf , and levels, Milk River to Piene, 

7M milM at *K.50 $66,970.00 

-6»mf of hy<lroKraph;, levels, and shore lines, Piene to Sioux City, 612 

mile*, atM6.75 _ 30,013.50 

MappiDKand publication, Benton to Picrro, 1,074 milcH, at $32.75 39,673.50 

Same, Rerra to Sioni City, 642 miles, itt EJO 12,840.00 

Total 149,197.00 

The class of survey intended is that which jrill simply answer pres- 
ent purposes; nothingless extended or detailed will do. The prices have 
been e^efully scrutinized} consequently the estimate should not be cue- 
tailed. 



2244 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. ARMT. 

The demands of m^er eomuieree above Sioux City during the last sea- 
son, now at a ek)se, were met, but not wholly, it is beueved, by the 
services of three steamboats. Railroads have in late years paraUelefl 
the river and penetrated the re^rion pre\iously tributary to-it, and have 
absorbi^l the tniliic, which in 1881 and 1882 gave business to more than 
twenty steamboats. Tliis is in line with the history of traffic on western 
water ways. The same history also shows that the gn>wth of to^Tis and 
the settlement of the country ami increase of business ver>' generally 
follow the advent of railroads; and, as a next stage, that articles in bulk 
and a low class of frci;;:hts iire furnisheil whose transportation seeks the 
river and calls for an easier navigation and a deejwr channel, wherever 
practii-able, and that Im^al river hnci* to landings and settlements inter- 
mediate l>etween railroad ])oints become needful; also that some eoui- 
mercial interests inquire the maintenance of an improved river route as 
a regulati>r of rail rates. 

Thei'e is no reasim to judge that the same traffic history will not ob- 
tain on the ^lissouri from 8ioux City npstivam. 

At the upi>er end of the river reach under consideration there is a 
(juestion of practicability as to river improvement, and which I had in 
view when indicating at the beginning of this report the possibility that 
a smaller part of the river was not worthy of improvement. The volume 
of the rooky river at ilift'erent low stages has been found to be only from 
2,8(K) to 3,4(M) cubic feet per second, not enough for profitable sized 
boats: the low stage obtains for one-half of the time when the river is free 
from ice. leaving alH>ut three months for the navigable season and making 
it t^M) short for commercial purposes. The cost of neutndizing the low- 
water ditliculty may not pay for the resulting Iwnetit. The sar\'ey is 
necessary to dettTuiinc this question. Milk River and the Yellowstone 
are received below the ro*'ky river: these tributaries more than doable 
the volume of t\w n»cky river: the YeUowstone has been navigated, and 
its lowiH' 40 miles are without railroa*l facilities, and navigation is here 
(*alled for, whih' a trunk rail line skirts the main river fh)m near the mouth 
of the Yellowstone to Milk Kiver. 8o that the month of the Yellow- 
stone. •>! 4 miles from Benttm, ftnius a dividing line in the reach fritiu 
Benton to Sioux City, below which line the river is more worthy of im- 
provem**nt than above. 

It should be noted that a ]mnci])al part of the field work of the river 
survey has been made at the upiwr end of the river, and I judge that 
sufficient warrant remains for navigation improvement purposes for 
com])h'ting tlic survey there. r>esides. it is advantageous for other 
public interests that tlie Missouri Kiver survey, now well advanced at 
both ends. shiMild bt* made continuous fr<»m its headwaters to its 
mouth. 

Very res]>ecttnlly, your obedient servant, 

C*IIA.S. F. POWEIX, 

Ofpttiin^ Corps of EngineerSm 

Hii^/iiMM. Thomas I.. Tasev, 

ilhiough <Jol. <>. M. Foe. Coips of Engineers, Division Engineer, 
^s^orthwe-^t Division.) 




■REPOBT OP CAPTAIN POWELL. 2245^ 

I'. S. Knginkeu UiTirE, 
Hetruit, Mich., N^oeember 11, 1890. 

Respw^tftilly forwarflcil, with tlii' tViIlowiiig vi«w« aud recoinmeiida- 
tioii, viz: 

I M I ii.r..iiii.-il as lo Ilh« i;u il i> .l.-rm.-.l ;..lvi,s!i!>le trt att^miit a 

i-x-wr.x\ iN.|ii..\vitM.iir..r .Mi^-,.lln i;i\ .-r ahuM- Si.iiixOity. Bmilte of 

jtiiv v;ilii.' 1»>\ 1 wli.'it iii^n )"■ iilii;iiii.<l l.\ ivinuviii^ sQatfs aiitl Bimilnr 

oli.-.inidi..iis will, rv,-ii il' muTi's^riilly ;ir,'i.)i(iitislL,Ml, mily be attained »t 
a firnt far in pxrwiB of any pmhulilc bt-iiptit. 

I havA gravp douIitK conceruiiig the poasibility of any permanent 
impmvenieiit of tliat portion which Captain PowpII herein designates 
the "aandy river," biit I have none as to the advisabiJity of such a sur- 
vey and examination an will servR a» a basis for au iuteUigODt opinion, 
which it f)««m» to me is quite inipraetie^ble in the presunt tttate of onr 
knowlMigH of the matter. 

It is ((uite apjiareiit that the funds at tlie disimsal of the Department 
are insuHlrieut t'l do more than pay for surveys of a small iKntion of 
Tlie river within the limits designated in the law. The triaugulation 
stations of the Missouri River Commission's snrvey will serve tn pnt 
into portion any ilelachfil siirvi'ys in ^■■.\:^^■ sui'h ure made, and grndn- 
wlly the wholi' niii\ bi' hi-uii^lii Im-ci1iit. Sci'tiim IS of the river and 
liartwir aet of He|itciiiln>j \'.i. Isiiii, irniiii-.'.- iliat the division engineer 
of the IfM-iiIity shiill ii|iiii t « li.-iin>i. in his "iiirnfUL, the river is worthy 
(if ini|>r<iMTneiii. Imt ■iiH-N imi irijiiire any expression aa to the extent 
or <lii(r;nii'i- of sm h iiii|>ni\iMiii'nr. Beiie\'iug that Missouri River be- 
twerii Simis Ciry uriil Vn\\ i!i'iiton iw worthy of improvejneut, at leant 
!<■ Iht- e\leiil iniliiati'i! iu ihc upcniug paragraph of this indorsement, 
1 refoninienil that the survey herein projwsed tie Hiithorize^l and that 
an<-h allotment for the ]iuri>ose be made lioni the approjiriation now 
aVftilabld OS the condition of the FiindR will permit. 

O. 51. POE, 
Cotiinet, Corps of Engineers, 
Ttirision Engineer, Northirest Division, 



project for improvemkxt of missol'ri rivek, nebraska and 
soith dakota. from thk moitii of tiif big sioux kiver to 
the north line of the sitatk ol' sditu dakota. 

Enginf,kr Office. Tnitbd States Army, 

Si'iMT City, Totca, July S, 1891. 
General: Having rejtortfd October '21, ISftO, from the preliminary 
examination required by the net of Ke|irember 10, 189tt, that the Mis- 
nouri HIver, from the Big Sioux l{i\-i'r to the north line of the Stat* of 
South Dakota, was worthy of improvement, an<l in compliance with De- 
partment instructions, 1 have tlie lionor now to offer a plan of improve- 
ment for the water named, an<l an estimate of its cost, as follows; 
(t) Kitensiou nf present Tivc^r snrvcy nnil mapping uud publication iif nl»pa: 
Field work of 1i]'<lrogrH])hv, loiingr.iptiv, und levelit, bouudnrv 

line to Pierre, 192 milea, al. *92.50 .'. * 17, 760 

Same of hydragraphT, levels, and ithore lines, Pierre to the Big 

Sionx River, 456 miles, at *16.75 21, 318 

llappinK and pnblicatioD, boundary linp to Pierre, 192 mili^s, at 

«2.75 8,288 

8ame, Pi«Tre toSiomCity, 456iniieH. ill |!20 it, 120 

*54, 496 



1 

2246 REPORT OP THE CHIEF OP ENGINEERS, IT. 8. ARMY. 

CJ") K^movnl of Biia^R. wreckS; and other obstiuctionB ; tempprary irork and * 
pl.'u-iug cliaiiTiol iiKirks at the worst bar channeln. ana at tjir ontrnnrn 
to the wintor harbor at moath of the Big Sioux River, anuuully $25,000 

(3) For rectification of the river at and near Yankton, S. Dak \ 75, 000 

(4) For rectification of the river at and near Pierre, S. Dak 75, 000 

Total 229,4^6 

A principal reason for the postiK)iiement heretofore of aprojcct for the 
permanent improvement of the Missouri Eiver in South and North Da- 
kota has been the absence of a survey. A continuous detailed survey 
from the Great Falls, Montana, is now in progress, and witl| present 
funds \vill be completed this year to a i>oiut between JBismarck, N. Dak., 
and the north line of South Dakota. The Estimate lor completion from 
this point to Sioux City (mouth of Big Sioux l^iver) is $74,497, which 
should be appropriated in order to make the survey coutinnous, as it 
ought to be, instead of the amount named for the part from the north 
line of South Dakota. 

The annual removal of snags and other obstructions would be a judi- 
cious improvement and a great aid to na^igation. A snagging plant is 
now being built from the ])resent appropriation for improving the Mis- 
souri Kiver from Sioux City to the Great Falls; its operation should be 
uninterrupted, the same as provided for by continuous appropriations 
for the removal of snags, etc., on the lower and upper Mississippi and 
the Ohio rivers in the river and harbor acts of 1888 and 1890. The 
temporary deepening of the worst bar channels and the marking of the 
channels before tlu* completion of a permanent improvement, which 
will necessarily be a matter of several years, would also be a judicious 
work and will nee<l to be repeated during each low water. The estimate 
for these annual temporary and continuous works on the sandy part of 
the .Missouri above Sioux City is 8.">0,(KH), and about one-half the works 
will fall on the part of the river in South Dakota; the whole amount 
should ])referably be appropriated and made applicable to the whole 
Upper Missouri. 

The continuous permanent improvement of the Missouri Biver on ita 
sandy part will be of great cost, and is not now, in my opinion, war- 
ranted by the present nor prospective commerce. Such improvemeut 
would most probably provide channels along the immediate river fronts 
at the prini'ipal towns; an*l work of rectification of the river done now 
at these places would be useful in a plan of proper and permanent river 
improvement. 

There is need for the restoration of the steamer landings at Yankton 
and IMerre. At both places the channel has shifted to tiie opposite 
side, thereby causing extensive tills along the river fronts of the town& 
There is no steamer landing at Yankton, while formerly a dozen boats 
or more used to land at a time at the imme<liate bank. At Pierre the 
landing is well above the town and is gradually filling up. There are 
tworaih'oadsbelongingto large systems running into each of the towns 
name<l t'n»m the east, and doubtless bridges will be built acroBS the 
river here, in extension of the roads to the Black Hills; it would be 
good to pro]u'iIy lix tho channels before the bridges are built. The im- 
provements estimated tor at Yankt(m and Pierre consist in the deflec- 
tion of tlio river by works above the towns to make the river flow along 
the town fronts. At Yankton the bank is of fairly hard materiid and 
bank protection will not be reijuired. At Pien-e the bank is not quite 
so goiul and it is likely that bank protection agaiiist caving will be 



on — ^REPORT OF OAPTAIN POWELU 224T 

oecCK^ary. it' th»Unitn1 Stated unclortak«sthebatikprotectiout25,000 
Bbould bi! adcifd Ui my I'stimatc almve. 

»Very respw;tt'uily, your oliedieut servant, 
(!has. F. Poweix, 
Captiiin, Corps 0/ Engineera. 

Brig. Gfiii. TnoMAS L. Oasey, 

Chief of Enginetrt, U. 8. A. 
(Tlipough Uol. O. M. Foe, Corps of Engineers, Divisiou Engineer, 
N4>rthwe«t Uivisiou.) 



U". 8. ENeiNEEB Office, 
Detrtnt, Mich., July 11, 1891. 
Rv«iHS.-tfany forwarded to the oflSce of the Chief of Etigiuoera. 
I cviicar in the eouulusions and eatimat«s of Uiis report. 

O. M. I'OE, 
Colonel, Corps of Enffiiwcra, etc., 
IHvinoH Enginter^ Northwest IHmtion. 



CDMHERCIAI. BTATIBTICB, 

TbrM bnnta are ninninff on the riror, oanying meTchandite tinA inppliw from tho 
rsilroMl iiatnM of Sioux City, Pierre, and ChoiiibcrlalD. principHlIy Us thi- niititarj 
p<«U anil Indiiio ugi'iicii* bolwoou Uisraurck &111I Sioui t'ity, »nd cullHctini; gi^in, 
' wool, bldoa. baDcs, cto.. for duliviry at railroiul landings. Tbere is do tliraaith 
tnOr DOT an; article! of boavy trafllo largely traoKporled. The lignite coal of North 
DkkotB, f olnn of whi<'h rro]> out on thp riv«r above Bismarck, maj in the futun ba 
aWTiitl by liniita l-> the Uivm- li^lmv I{lstii;irck. Tli" rivpr Jidtlomx !tro IVrtilf and 

tb« Yankton c.-meut, chalk, ftuii.-, iiiiiJ chiy, iU)oiiii(! in Inrye qu;iiititU9 and are said 
to «how at places on the river alinve :iiiil li.liiw Yankton ; the chalk certiiinlj crops 
ODt fraia Iho river bluffs, and it aeeniB that the cemi-iit induatry, at l<>nst at Yankton, 
should be eitensive, and the rement Hhipped down the river t^ Sioux City, Omaha, 
and other cities. 

The only statistics of river tonnage available apply to the reach fVom Bismarck to 
Sionx City, T3S miles; the part from Sioux City to the north line of South Dakota 
being 64S miles. The amounts tabulated below do not include ferriaee bosineu, 
neither some smalt tonnage occasionally carried by ferry boats on abort distancea off 
tbeir ferry rontes. 



Jtirer tonnage heiieeen Sioux Ciiy and Bitmarck. 



..ie,622 
.-•9,735 



■Military and Indian supplies, merchandise, grain. 



2248 keport of the chief of enoixeerfl, u. s, asmt. 

pro.ikct for improvement of missoitii rivek between sionccnt, 

h)\va. and fort benton. montana. 

Engineer Office, United States Ahmt,' 

Shiix CityjTawa, September 7, 189J, 

General: ITavinfr reported that the Missouri River between Sionx 
City aiul Fort HeiitoiMvasworthyofiiuprovenieiit, at least tor its frreatt-r 
part, I liavt* {\w lioiior now to otter the to1h»whi;ir phin and estiinsite i»f 
fost of iuiproveiiient : 

A pnijert for improveiiieiit of the river from F*u't Benton to Cam>U, 
]Vhait., ItiS miles, *'alled the roe*ky river, has been uiider extH.Mition diu*- 
iiijLr several years. After the ai)plieation of funds in hand tor the pur- 
pose tlMM-e will remain of neoessjiry work the i^enu^val of bowlders nnd 
the dredtiinji: of hard material at rapids beh>w Judith, which point 18 
nearly halfway from lU'uton to Carroll. 

From Carroll to Sionx City, nearly 1,4(H> mih>s, the river is first sandy 
an<l then nnuhly and qniekly assumes the bad ehanieteristies of the 
Lower Miss<airi. and, in addition, is subJH't to damaging iee gorges. A 
satisfaetory i)rojeot for permanent improvement and an estimate of cost 
below Carroll await the eom]>letion *>f the systematie and detailed siu*- 
vey now in i>ro'xress. A pri'sent netnl on the sandy and muddy river, 
w hose work <loes not dei>end upon a survey, is the ivmoval of snails. 
wreeks, and otlier o])struetions; also, pre viims to the completion of jier- 
manent works, tenjporary improvement at the worst bars and the mark- 
ing i)\' the new ehannels by ranges on shore. The teniinn'ary work is to 
he done by steamer sluieing, and has for its object the Oldening of eban- 
neis during li>w stages at the places of controlling depth for tTie steani- 
hoats navigating the river. The jneseut appropriation forimproviu^ 
the Missouri Hiver between the (ireat Falls and Sioux City will liave^ 
X)rovi(hHl the snag boats; their operations in snagging and sluieiuj: 
slhndd he nninternpted, and to insure that the appropriation for their 
fnture operations should be made continuous, the sjune as for the oper- 
ation of snag boats and dreilge boats on the Cpper Mississippi and^fivr 
X\w o]»erations of snag boats on the Lower Mississippi and Ohio riverSi 
as pr<ivi<led tor in tin* river and harbor acts of 1888 and 1890. 

The ])resent approj»riati(»n is also to pi'ovide an ice harbor at Rork 
Haven, near l>isn)ar<'k and Mandan, X. Dak., for the maintenance of 
wlii<*h a snijill amount Avill 1h» n*H»ded annually. 

Theif is need of restoring the steamer landings at Yankton and 
(^ierre, S. Dak., the works for which arc not dependent u]>on the eontin- 
uuiis survey. At both phh'es the channel has shifted to the opiNwite 
sidr. tlH*n*hy causing (*xtensivt» tills ahmg the river fi'onts of the town*. 
There is no steamer landing at Vankttm, while formerly a dozen boats 
or iimrr ummI to land at a time at the immediate bank. At Pierre the 
hnnlinu 1^ W4'll ahove the t(»Avn and is gradually tilling up. There are 
two railrnads belonging to large systems niuning into each of the towii» 
nainrd tVoin the east, and doubtless bridges \nll be built across the 
river heri' in extension <»f the roads to the Black Hills: it would be 
gontl to projK'ily lix the ehannels before the bridges ai*e built. Theim- 
proNrinrntN estimated tor at Yankton and PieiTe consist in the deflec- 
tit»n of tin* river by dikes alxivt^ the towns to make the river flow along 
the town iVoiits. At Vanktt)n the bank is of fairly hanl materitid and 
bank juotrrtion will n<it hr HMjuired. At Pierre the bank is not qaite 
so ;:»mm1 and if is likely that bank ]>rot(*ction against caving wffl be 
niM-es^ary. lit he Cnited States undertakes the bank protection^ 92 
should bi- added to niv estimate below. 



IIEFORT OF CAPTAIN PtJWELL. 



Tli*> liydrtjjniiplii*! and to|M»grai>liic s»i-v 
tfi4>^ Mild liiisnl 1)11 » triiili;;iil)itii>li hvU\ 
bitllkA, iiiul iin a riri-iiil <it' |>iiiij:irv Itvi'ls. 
tnwU in tiantl U> llt-M hi-h.w I:isiii;in k. N 
ttum Fort Benton i<. Si,,ii\ City. Tlir -|i. 
uiul its tnH|i))inv iir»' IiikI'I? .juiiirimiN lui ] 
iiH M iHvlimiimiy !'• lln- |iii'|Mi'uli>iij til'ii |i 
linjVCHM'llt. 



CuBi1tl»tJ(iii of nncnwiiiry work on lorkj river bolnw Jmlitb, Mont ^.. ifSO.OOO 

,OpiBntk>D i>f •■ti»ic l<(inlB nod I«inporitrj improviunnnl at tlin irorst lints on 

trio Miiitly luiil loiiildy rivw (numiall.v) &0,000 

MMililmniKv or iFO-hiirbnr nt Kitck Hiivi-u (annHiillvl n, IMX) 

KivllHi-ailon of the rivftr nt Nml iienr Pierre mill Yiutktoii, H. Dnk 15(1,00(1 

' CmiiiiIi'IIoii of rlvfrr Biirvpy Biiil jinhiirfttioii of ninps 74, *it7 

Totol :ial,4!)7 

Vvry rcsjHTtfiilly, your (fliciliL'iit wervaiit, 

VUAB. P. I'OWELL, 
i'npfaiH. Vm-pK of Euffincers. 
Brig. Gfn. Thomas L. Ca«by. 

Chief of Enyhieiri, V. S. A. 
(Throiiiili Col. 0. M. I\m'. Cor\w i.f Knsi""'"*. l>iviHi..n Kngiiioer, 
XortliWftHt Wvisiou). 

[FlrHliniliOMinnit.l 

IT. 8. liNonsKEB Office, 
T>eirwf. Mich.. A-ptemltr Hi-. 1SU1. 
Itf^iKftrtilly forwaitleil to tlie oftit-c of tlie f'liief of Eii(i;iiii?4Ts with 
till- tttllowiiif; reniitrks: 

Wlrtr.-MT iniitfrli-.n is m-c'essMiy t.i |.imTV.- tlir Inlllks ;ni.l (lilis ' 



it 18 doiihtliil if thiK ..\t.'iiiN ro tlif I'liiisliiictioii ;iiid m;ijiil.'ii;i(ic.' of 
ronimcroiul levees, sncli ;is arc itsiiiilly tiniinl ;it nil iniiioit;iiit l;iii(liiigs. 
It is riifMmlt t() slinri>ly iletiiie tlie limitations in tlie two eases, and tlins 
wi»ar!it«- wlmt isjirojierly aCmvernnient eharfiefiunt one wliiilt is purely 
ItM'al. It theiefoi-e seems to nie t(» lie advisalile to consider snui iict 
ni>on each partienlar ease as it arises. 

With the re8er\'atiou indicated aliove, tlie projeot is reeoniiuended for 
approval. 

(>. M. I'm:, 
Colonel. Corps of l-'iiijitiiTm, i-tv., 
J)irh!oH Eiifihirei-, Xorthicent lUriHitm. 



Three hofttfl of from 2i to 3 f.-fl lirnfr nlicn luailpil are ninninj: oii tlin river, eii- 

gi(t«l moHlIy in inrryiiijr niercliiniilis.. .in.I Hii|>|>li<>M liom Sioux Cil.v, I'iirrc and 
ismarrk to the niilitnry jiokIs :iii<I [mliioi atcciKicit tVom Sioux City to Korthold. 
N. Dak., and to Judith and Fuit lli-iil'in, Mont., uiid in cotlui-tin<! j:i'o<"> n'ool. 
potatcim, hides, boii«H, etc., for dclivciy nt niilrond InTidingx, and in i-iirr>ii]K pnH- 
•engen and live stock. 

S<HQe of the sm»)l ferry boars, it in hpiievi-d, oeoasii.nnlly r'Hny liiiLd« fi.r short 
diatancen off their ferry routes, but of which only pint ivruiil in Hvailiilili'. 



2250 REPOKT OP THE CHIEF OP ENGINEEBS, ' U. 8. ASlfT. 

There is no article of heavy traffic largely transported. A little pzoapecteziati 
that ores from tho part of Mont\»]ia south of the river and tributarv to it, may be 
carried on boats from Judith to Kausaa City. The lignite coal of North Dakot^ 
veins of which crop oat on the river above Bismarck, may in the fntme be cazriea 
by boats to tho to^-ns below Bismarck. The river bottoma are fertile and when 
settled and farmed will doubtless cause an aotive traffic on the river between rail- 
road points. There are works at Yankton producins a Portland cement wboM 
testti arc equal to those of English and German Portland cements. The material for 
the Yankton cement, chalk-stone, and clay, abound in large quantities and are said 
to show at places on the river above and below Yankton : the chalk certainly crops 
out fh>m the river bluA's. and it seems that the cement industry, at least at Yankton, 
should be extensive, and the cement shipp»ed down to Sioux (3ity, Omiiha, and other 
cities. 

The tonnage amounts tabulated below do not include ferriage business: 



Biver tonnage between Sioux Citif and Bismarck, 

1887 a064 

1888 6^075 

1889 I«,e23 

Betxceen Bismarck and Fort Benton, 

1887 7,897 

1888 6^820 

1889 a;iflB 



Biver traffic for 1890. 



Sioux City to Bif^marok — 
Bismarck' to Fort Biititnl . . . 
Fort Bnford to Fort Bonton 



Pnckase 

and bulk 

fteight. 



Tmu. 
t2.467 



PUMB- 



JftfiiiMr. 

4,sa 

IM 



Ikw 
■todc. 



Rmi. 
t,9l4 



* Military anil Indian Auppliea, merchandiae, andgnfau 
t Grain, merchandise, flour, feed, and lumber. 
I Merchandise, wool, and ore. 




ENT OF TENNESSEE RIVER ABOVE CHATTANOOGA, TENNES- 
I BELOW BEE TKEE SHOALS, ALABAMA; OF CUMBEfil.ANI) 
ENNE8SEE AND KENTUCKY, AND OF THEIK TKIBUTAKIES tS 
TENNESSEE AND KENTUCKY. 



f LIEUTENANT-COLONEL J. W. BARLOW, CORPS OF ENOI- 
IFFICER IN CHARGE, FOR THE FISCAL TEAR ENDING JUNE 
'ITU OTBSB DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE WORES. 



mPROVBMENTS. 



r kbore ChftitiiDuoga, 
Be, tmd helow Be* Tren 
\lubaiDa. 

I River, Tennpanee. 
out River, Tenntviseee. 
rer, Tennenaee. 



r>. Cnmberland River, TennrsRe^ and 



6, Canny Fork River. TenneaBep. 
1. Sonth Fork of Cainberluuil River, 
Kentucky. 



EXAMINATIONS AND SURVEY. 



Smitlilani], Kentucky. 



Obion River, Tennesnee, from its 

uiuiith to tbe (.Toasinj; of tbe Lonis- 
villeund Memphis Railroad in Obion 

Connty. 



Engineer Office, V. S. Aesiy, 

IfashriUe, Tenn., July 7, 1801. 
l: I have the honor to transmit herewith the aauual rejKirts 
iver iiiiprovciiieiils in iiiv charge for the fiscal year ending 
;91. 
.' respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. W. Baelow, 
Liciiloiaut-CoUmel of Engineert. 

n. TlIOMAK L. {^AfiEY, 

Chief of Engineers. U. S. A. 



2252 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENOINEERSy U. 8. ARKT. 

E E I. 

IMPROVEMEXT OF TENNESSEE RIVER. 
( Lonfftli, 650 Tniles.) 

Tlio <'\iut point af wliifli tlH''IVniu>ss(»t» Kivor lists its 1>o^iiiiiin^ is sHII 
a inatffi' of s«niu* iiiuMM'tainty. The Kivioiv des ( -lionuiiiis^ or Clii'mke, 
of tlu» v'AvW Fivni'li exjihuvrs, ami the Cliorokee River aa i-oferred to in 
iM^ssitms to tlie Kn*riish by tiie Indians in 1707, hasl>eeii considered as 
iM'in^ foruHMl by the Junc^tion of what aiv now ealled the Little Tennes- 
see and Ilolsttui rivers, noar the town of Lenoirs, Teun. Teuuasaee. 
the eliief town of the Then^kee Indians, was situated near thispointy and 
tile faet that tlio riv(4* derives its presentname ti'oni that town seems 
to add athlitiouHl \v(M;^ht to the arguments of the geo^niphera who hare 
])hu'iMl the heatl\vat4'rsof thcM-iver at this jnnetion. In some of the older 
jieojrraphies tlie head of tliis river has been plaeiMl at the mouth of the 
(Mineh and tlie Ilolston extended to that ]H>iut. 

The h^«rislature of TiMinesstM* in ISSO passed an act extending the 
name of tlie Tennoss<H^ l^iver to the jnnetion of the north and sonA 
Ibrks of tht* Ibilston, at KinjiTsport, in Sullivan County, Tenn, 

< 'onji'ressional lejiislation, however, in several laws appropriating 
inont»y tor the iinprovein4»nt of the Upper Tennessee between Knosville 
and i'hattanoooa. has o-iyen authority for extending; the name at least 
to the former eity, but as thejnneti4)n of the Hoi ston and French Broad 
rivers is bnt 4.\ miles above Knoxville, this point is now generally taken 
a^ the ori^iin of the Tennessee River, and in the river and harbor aet 
oi' istio this ]Mant appears tt» have been definitely fixed by the apeciflc 
hni«ina;ie of the aet i)n>vi<linjr for a stirvey of the Tennessee Biverftom 
rhartanoo»»a to the jiuH'titm of Holston and Frendi Broad rivers. 

As ont» of the lar^a^st of the forty-thret* or moi*e tributaries of Ae 
^rississi]»pi River, the Tennessee has ;vf ways held an important place in 
the projerts for tln^ improv<»nient of the navigable waterways of the 
country. Tlie Miiseh^ Shoals Tanal having been opened to navigation 
in Xovend^er. ls*M), the Tennessee River is now navigable firom it^sonree 
to its month, a distance of <m<) miles, during several months of each 
year, and as work is continued upon certain other less formidable ob- 
structions the season of navigation will be eori-esixmdingly len^hened. 
The radical im)in>vement of this river so as to make navigation con* 
tiiuuais for boats of moderate drat> is by no means an impossibility. 

1. AUOVE CHATTANOOGA (194 MILES). 

This section of the river is naviji:able during medium and high stages, 
whici) uMially prevail thron^h the winter and spring months, aiidoeca- 
sionally at i»ther seasons daring tiie oe<*urrenee of so-called rain tidc«. 

The navi<Lratit»n consists (»f steamboats (*arrying fW^jght and passen- 
^•ers. tiatlioats brin^in^' iH'odn4*ts from the upjH'r tributaries, and rafts 
of U)*s> and bimbt^r. alsti broii«rlit from the tiibutarics, the latter con- 
stitntinu the major part of tiie 4*oniin4Tce of this river. # 

III ls.;o. Col. s. IF. Lonjr. I . s. To])o«ri*apl"^"*l Engineers, made a cara- 
ful examination t>f tht* Ilolston ami Tennessee rivers between Kinga- 
]>ort. Tcnn.. and the Alabama State line. His reports published as Ex- 
4'cutive Docnmcnt No. 107. Ibmse of Representatives, Forty- thud Con- 
«4:ress. s4'coml session, jrives a di'taileil deseriptiim of every obstniGtkNt 
to iiavipition at that time, and phms and estimates for th«ir improve- 



■i 



*.3 



KB^BEPORT OF LIEUT. COL. BABLOW. 2253 

tiiftit. Ill 1871 ail exAniinatioQ wa^ uiado betwetin Kiiox\'ille and Chat- 
t»uiH>;Cii l)y rapt. L. Cooper Overman, Corps of Engineers, under tlin 
ilin-ttiiiM of JI;ii. \\':ilii'i- Mi-Fiirlaud, Corps of Engineers. (St* Re]»iit« 
of tti.-ri.i.r.irHi.nHi'-i'^. lS71,ijp.502 to507, and 1872, pp.4.S3 to 4U4,) 
Tln'<iti.-tiiii Ttoiis III iiii\i-:iti.tn, as deHcnbed in these reiwrt**, were "low- 
wuKt (jtiNlriiiMi'ii?.." II insisting of liars, eitLcr ro<rk or gravel, extending 
at.T(>i<>« till' rivi'i-, with ii h-ngtli varying from 60 feet to U miles, (lie 
deiitJi of wiiltT over tins)- barH varying from 10 to ;tO inches at extreme 
low WAtcr. uod the rnrivnt varying. ftwm 2J to B Biiles per hour. 

Tin- liwl Mod htinUs lit' the river att! of «neh c.har.H'tfr auto mitke any 
lni)inivvinfiilt< |.[iii'tir;i!ly |H>rmaneut, with the es»!pt.iiiQ of the. re- 
ikovhI, from timt' t.i linn-, ul' svifh drift or sna^s as may be brought 
ilownby (iKMiMMiial ll<>o.ls. 

Ill ItSii the Htjile i.l' Tenues.see undertook the improvement of cur- 
tBin poliitM »Ik>vo Cljalfanooga l»y i-emoval of roek and cnnBtnietiou of 
whig ilnma 

In 18."»0 Congri-ss iippriiiniated $5U,()00 tor the imjii-uvement of thiM 
IH>rli<in ol' the rivi-c, :iiiit the nioiiey ;ip]iniiiri;iti'il was cxpi'ndeil utidvr 
tll.-din-.'ri,i.i ,,! <'nl. -r. M.CIrlhiii. t.i|».;;i;ipijii'nlciiHiiir.T, U. S. ^Vl'my. 
Soiiif 111 l)it-d;iuishitill liiiilri' this iip|ii,ipri;itinL] ;iiv still lit existent-e, 
Ibotlgli gcEiernllj I'oveied up liy thi.' nmicextriLsive work of recent im- 

provooMaU. 

nib present project of improvenieut^ based upon the examinativn of 
1971, provides for <li«pcniHg the ehannel at tlie worst olistmctions by 
blMtin^ or by meowring bars by the aid of wing dams, and the iTrmival 
of sueli snngs uud drift a« may pnne dangerous In Tiiivif;;if ion ; this iw 
to Iwj done to nn extent riiiit will secure a ilianml ;! Hci in diptli at 
»veriMr«' low wnt<-r. Tin- estiniiiti- ol" 1(S7I witn incn-asi.l in ISTI. |s77. 
ami again in l.s.^1, f-u- the reasous stated in ilie rep'irts ol" tlLose mmi's. 
t^neeri tti)proiiriati.>ns finui July II, ISTII, to Si-]iteinliei' I'.l, IHfHUiiive 
bwni luiuif liy <'iin;;ii'ss |iir this w.irk, ii«^'rc;;iiIinK Ihc sumof *L'7l.lMl(l. 

The amount rxpetidnl, iuihnlinj,' iintstiinilinf; indebt<'dnes.s, to .Inne 
3W, 1890, was *:.';i7.L'.-.2.8ll. 

0|>MiiHoii8 have been eonflned to the iminiivement of twenty-nine of 
the forty-three obstrii('tii)nB a-s enumerated by Colonel LoiLg. and have 
rwailt^ in jriving :hi hn)ir<ivc(l clianni-l at f liese jmirits and a lengthened 
iwasoD of navigation. Thisimiiruvenu'nt liasheen of special advantage 
to rafts and tlatboats. whiih ii)ui]iiisf tlic uiLLJiir part of the conimei'ce 
of the Up[>er Tennessee. As a mattei' of ( iULvenienee and economy 
Operations ai-e carried on in coimeition witli the rivers tntnitary to tliia 
MM'tiou of the Tennessee. 

At the beginning of tlie liscal year work \\:in in inogress at Whit^i 
CteekShoaU, and eontinneddnriiLgtlic months of.) nly, August, and Sep- 
tember, work done at that point being )»-'!() enbie yards of earth, etc., 
irtripped from quarry, U.1S7 enbie yards stone qiiarried for dams, and 
2,fi35 cubic yards dam buili. 

In previous years a dam f;."><l feel lony had been built from the lower 
end of Whit« Creek Island loinateii sinur throii[r|i the sand and gravel 
bar which was originally a seriou> "l>strui tiim (o tlie navigation of the 
river at this place. Its efieet was to deepen the water opjmsite the dam 
and tocaose the deposit of the material in the form of a half mr>ou bar 
io the channel just below the end of the dam, the only available pas- 
sage for boats being a cross channel between the bar and the end of the 
dam. 

In 1889 this dam was extended 17o feet, (he result being that the 
erosB chaimel around end of dam ^a.s removed a short distance lower 



1 

2254 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. 8. 



down ; the obstnioting: bar reforming about 300 feet down stream, fliA 
obstacles to iia\igatioii remained about the same as before. In 1890 
the dam was tiirther extendeil about 3lH) feet, and a spur 130 feet kmg 
built out into the t-hannel to create a scour which would Temove tbe 
obstnu*tion, the objei^t being to sc'our away the bar and deposit the 
material in prolongation of the k»ngitudinal dam. The bar reformedf 
but to a less extent, about (MR) feet below the spur dam. The longitudi- 
nal dam was again i»xtcnded over the shoal 5G0 feet farther, and a sec- 
ond spur L*15 feet l»>ng was built on the new shoal. The result of this 
last work has bet»ii ti» i-ausi' tiie removal of the obstruction to the deep 
water beh>w the last >pnr, and it is believed that it is not likoly tore- 
form for many ve;irs in the navigable channel. This improvement is a 
very interesting e\aiii]>le of the eombined effect of a longitudinal dam 
with short spurs in reino\ ing gravel or sand bars. 

During October. Nt»veiaber. and December continued work at Soddy 
Shoals and vicinity, and near the Cincinnati Southern Bailroad Bridge. 
The work dt»ne in the channel consisted of the removal of a sunken 
barge, 40 cubic yards of loose rock, and 24 snags; 258 overhanging trees 
were <*ut down and remoxed. 

Operations were suspeinle<l on account of high water, but wen* re- 
sumed at SiMldy 6hoa!s in June, ISOl. and preparations are now in 
progress \or drilling ami blasting upon this troublesome reef, under the 
supervision of Assistant Kngineer 0. A. Locke. 

The steam drilling scow, which has been provided by adapting the 
ohl hull of the steanu'r Wvitzel to this puriwse, will be eniph>yed upi»n 
this work. The Ignited States steamer Weifj:el was thoroughly rebuilt 
at Chattanooga for use on the rumberland l^iver. 

In addition to the i>r«»]H>sed wt>rk required at Soddy Shoals, improve- 
ments are needed at C'aney SlH>als, near Kingston, and at Seven Island 
SIhmIs. or Farmers Djinu as this ]dace is now called. Tlie cbanu^ter of 
tiie work is the same at both ])laces. and will consist in the constnie- 
tion of a wing dam locarod below each shoal to lengthen the fall and 
decrease the velocitv i^f the current. 

The Wcifzt'l having been transferred to the Cimiberland River for serv- 
ice upon that stream, the steamer Dortr — renamed and duly recorded 
as the MvPhrrsnH — was purchased for use u]>on the Upper Tennessee 
and its triV)utary waters. The McPhtrHon reached Chattanooga early iu 
^lav and was at mice eni:aircd in moving to the mouth of the French 
Broad Kivi^r the survey party organized at Chattanooga for the surrey 
of the Tennessee JJiver from <'halianooga to the junction of the Holston 
and French llrnad IJivt-rs. as ]>rovided by act of September 19, 189l>. 
This survey began at tlMM'()ntluent waters of the Holston and French 
Broad Kivcis, and has made g<MKl progress, abtuit l^o miles of river 
fnmi the initial ])oint having been surveyed. 

As requirctl by the act. a careful ami comprehensive survey, about 
104 miles t»f river, is being made by First Lieut. John Biddle. Corps rf 
Engineers, in local charge of the work. The discharge of the riTerl* 
bein.iT ascertained, current t»l)servations taken, and substantial bench- 
m.irks established. 

Tlie total amount expendc<l during the fiscal year ending June JW» 
ISIU, was $17,i:i(L77, as follows: 

^ifiinal iuiin'oN tiiu'iit $12,9Bly'[ 

Snrvoyfnnn ('liattan.n»:;.i 'm jisn, ri.in ••ril(u>toii and Tri'iirh Broad Riven. Itflft** 

The original estimate of «m»si i»f imiu-oving Tennessee Kiver abov* 
<Muitianoog.L umler the existing ]>roi<M't. was .f*175,lHH>; incxeased iA 
LS77 to *;ii'0,(M.io, and again in bs84 iucre;UHjd to ♦300,000. Tto appl*- 



1 

i 



APPENDIX E £ — ^REPORT OP LIEUT. COL. BARLOW. 2255 



• 



priation of $30,000 by act of September 19, 1890, uearly exhausts the 
above-named estimate. Pending the Kubraission of the iv]K)rt:, with its 
accompanying plans and estimates, of the survey of the Tennessee Jii ver 
above Chattanooga, Teun., now in progress, for approval and subse- 
quent adoption as the basis for a new prqjec;t, it is necessary to inrn^ise 
tlie estimate under the existing project, and the sum of $40,(K)0 is added 
thereto. 

The estimate, a8 mmUfied iu 1881, for improvini; Teiin(>s.sce Kivt^r above 

Chatt:inooga is $3(K). 000. 00 

lucivased in 1891 '10,(XK).00 

:UO,(KK>.00 

ATn«>iiiii ap]»roi»riated liTl, 000. fX) 

Auiuiiii t cxpomU'd 'J-VJ, 801. 33 

Money sta tern en t, 

July 1, 1890, balance uiiexpeu(le<l $^1, 310. 44 

Amouut appropriated by act approved September 10, l^iMJ 30, <KK). 00 

31,319.41 
JuBe 30, 1891, amount expended during iiHcal yea i 14, 800. 74 

July 1, 1891, balance unexpended 19, 518. 70 

July 1, 1891, outstanding liabilities L',410.0:i 

July 1, 1891, balance avaUable 17,108.67 

{Amount (estimated) required for eom])letir»n of existinfr project (if), (KX). (K) 
Amount that can be profitably expendediu fiscal yeaieiiilin;;.! uiie3f), 1803 00, 000. 00 
li^iibniitted in compliance with requirements of Hcctious 2 of river and 
liarbor acts of 1806 and 1867. 



2. BELOW BEE TREE SHOALS f2L'5 MILES). 

The available information peitaininj^ to tin* Motion of tlje riviT l^dow 
Bee Tree Shoals is very meaner. In n-jKjrt <»n line of wjiter corn muni- 
cation between the Mis.si.ssippi ItiviT and tijp Atlantic ^It<'jiort of riiiiff 
of Engineers, 1872, page 513;, Maj. \Valt<-r Mi-rarlaud, (.'oij^.s of l-^ji^i- 
neer^f, states: 

Descending; the river, we tin^l that inijirovnin-iits u\' -^ftiw. kiiMl or oIIht- imiiov- 
ing rock or gravel or constnirtin;: win;; ijams in unU'.r to j»traitilit"ii oi \viil« n iIid 
channels or to give thi;in Knflicic-nt d<-j»llj — ••vill In- i*'(jiiiif:rl at tJi** lollowin;; l»oiiit»i 
viz: Hear Creek Shoals, Indian Creek. JJij: \»*ut\ >];'>:sJ-»,I>i;iiiiOii'l I.<I:jij<i, Woli 1 .laml, 
Chalk HI uff. Beech Cni^-k Shoals, nnffalo >Iio;iI-. ,\nij-ti*iM;rb 'lowh«-:nl l'ii»i;'»:at 
JohnAonvillo, Dnck Biver .Shoals and .Sn'-k. 'i'iijk>'.v l^hui'l >]}o;i].'<,. White O.-ik Ulnuilf 
Harrican Island, Leatherwrjod ^fhouls. >anfl>> l-]:iii<i. I'anther ( n-ek Isluiid. Me'iil- 
longhs Bar, Blood Biver Inland, iVnteront Towhi-ad, Widow lieynoMs iiai, Orubbn 
Towhead, Little Chain, and Grand ^ h:iin. 

In 1875 an examination wa> Iliads of l>ii«-k liivc-rShonls. In May, 1880, 
an examination wa.s made of the river imiiK-rlintr-ly brlow the Johnson- 
ville Bridge, 

In 1878 some work was done at l)n<:k Jtiv<:r »Sljoal>. This .-lioal is a 
gravel bar and is subjw-t to ^•on^idMabht r:lian;:e fionj Un- airtion of the 
current; in 1882 the river men rejiorted that itwa- niiwh less deserving 
of attention than other obsti-urt ion. •> lo-Jriw FJon:jK<*. In 1881 and IH'"/^ 
a small force with a snag iKiUt was enijiloyid a -ijort time in ea^:h year 
removing firom the channel a Iai;i<« number ol r^im'^^ and overhanging 
trees. As^istaut Engine4;r J, II. May hew, who wao in charge of biiag- 



1 



2256 KKrOKT of the chief of ENQINEEBS, U. 8. ARHT. 



iriujr o])oratioiis in 1882. reported the following localities below Bock- 
port as nMiiiirinp: iniproveineiit: Big Chain, Little Chain, Sandy Inland, 
Turkey Ishnul.lieynoMslmrg Island. Johnsonville, and Duck BiverSuek. 

Ill isss, IMlot James Till, by request, gave a list of obstructions in the 
Lt»\ver Tninessee wliii'h a snag boat and crew eould probably remove. 
Tln^se wi'iT surt'aee c»bstru4-tions at some tifty-six places. DnringXoveiu- 
berand DtM-ember, 1 SOU, the United States snag boat ire/f-rW, while en 
vonXv iVoMi rht' ['p])er Tennessee Kiver to the Upper Cuniberlaml, wasen- 
^ia.ued in nnioving snags, etc.. from Florence to the mouth of the river, 
but the si aire of ^^ater l>eing high the work wsis not completed. Ninety- 
two snaiTs and lo;;s, ;5t^ overhanging trees, and a part of the sunken 
4le!»ris o\' the old bridge below Jolmscmville^vere removed. 

LirlHfhsttni Ptnnt, — This is a narrow strip or tongue of land lying 
between tlie waters of the Ohio and Tennessee rivers, just above the 
nioutli of tlie latter stream. This iH)int and the two small islands 
below it form tlie harbor of Padueah, and by their position prevent the 
irt^ btnning ciii unt of the Ohio from entering the harbor, which is sup- 
]ditd with the wanner waters of the Tennessee, flowing fix>m a southern 
latitude and rarelv if ever troubled bv ice. 

The (urrtMits of the two streams are parallel tor about a mile on 
4'itlnT side of Livingston Point, and the OluoKiver is rapidly encroach- 
ing u]»on this narrow barrier. The Tennessee does but little damage. 
Near the extninr 4Mid of the jioint the Ohio has washed tliroagh at 
high water. 

The river and liarbor at-t of Septembi^r UK ISIK), approi)riated for — 

linint«\ ini; 'J'«iiii»>»*^«t' Ii'ivrr lirloxv C'h;Utaii<N>^u. Ti»iiii08R«*e. uiolnding Colbert 
Shn:iis iiiid Wvv Ti <••> sliii:i]<. : (.'oiiTiiiiiinj; iin])ruv«'iii('iit. four linndrcd and seveuty- 
ti\f TlHMi>:niil iloi1::r^. oiiT of wliirli t wciitv-fivi' (hoiit»aiul dollars iniiy be iweil at 
l.i\ iiiL^^ton I 'oil It. lit I 111- nil nit h i>t'sai(l riwr. in iirrordaHi'e with the recoiuiueiidation 

uf iIm' »MiiriiitM-r in tli;n«;r olllnit portion ol'tln* river. 

In order tt» roniply with this provision of the act, a survey of Living- 
ston l\»int wa^ made in Deeember, 1S90, and a project submitted to tlie 
Chief t>f Ijiuint'crs Jannary 12, It^^M. The proJe<*t having been ap- 
prove<l, sperillcatitms were prepared, and after advertisement in tlie 
nsual niannrr a contrari was entered into M a ivh .*<<>, 1891, with AVilliaiu 
ivii'k. of MadisjMi. Ind.. ftir part constnietion of the shore protection 
and *liUe at Li\ing>ton l*oint. The water not being sufficiently low, 
work was not coninieiiced nntil ^iay, and is now in prngivsR. 

TIm' phm iif ini]»rovenient ado]»ted for preserving this i)oint fit)m de- 
>tiiu-tiini ronsisis in covtaing the wearing slopes with a revetment of 
stone ;mm1 linisli. carried well dt)wn the bank below the water snrfiioe, 
>ii]»l)l( iiiciitiMl l>y a pile and srone ilike along the eivst of the weake:!^ 
pn] jjini oil !ir 11 111*, where the <-iirrent of the Ohio hasalrejidy eutthroii|;h 
at hi;:]i -ta;L:«*s i»f the riv(M-. tin* objeet of both works being to hold in 
its |»r«"icni position tin* land now existing, and to cause, if possible, a 
fmiluM- ilrpnsit of siMlimcnt on the Tennessee side of the dike, wliich 
from prr>i'iii iihliratioiis is likely to oe<*nr. 

riir ir\riinrn! nf >.iniM' and bi'ush IS s])e('i»IIy niHHled on theOhio 

•in* , aiirl will lu' hilt >|KMin'ily irqniret! on the Tennessee- side. It will 

In • aiii« •] \\M brlt.w low water, where it will eonsist of brush weigbted 

<b)wn \\iili >!oMe in altnnate layers. From low water to foot of dike 

brokni stout* will br rarefnlly place^l. n 

TIm* dikr < oii>ists of jijlcs driven o feet from center to center in four 
row <. rlic X rond row in trrt from tin* first, the thini row 2() feet fr