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CITY DOCUMENT, 



EIGHTH ANNUAL EEPOKT 




ON THE 



BIRTHS, MARRIAGES AND DEATHS 

1^ IN THE 

¥ 

CITY OF PROVIDENCE: 

FOR THE YEAR 1862. 

BY 

EDWIN M. SNOW, M. D., 

SUPERINTENDENT OF HEALTH AND CITY REGISTRAR. 







PROVIDENCE: 

KNOWLES, ANTHONY & CO., CITY PRINTERS, 

1863. 



U I /^>^~<#,<J> 'J* 



CITY DOCUMENT, No. 6 



EIGHTH ANNUAL EEPOKT 



BIRTHS, MARRIAGES AND DEATHS 



CITY OF PROVIDENCE 



FOR THE YEAR 1862. 



EDWIN M. SNOW, M. D., 

SUPERINTENDENT OP HEALTH AND CITY REGISTRAR. 




PROVIDENCE: 
KNOWLES, ANTHONY & CO., CITY PRINTERS, 
1863. 



CITY OF PROVIDENCE. 



In City Council March 9, 1863. 

The Eighth Annual Report of the City Registrar is presented and read J 
Whereupon it is 

Resolved, That the same be received, and that seven hundred and fifty copies 
thereof, and of the communication accompanying the same, he printed in pamphlet 
form for the use of the City Council. 

Witness : 

SAMUEL W. BROWN, City Clerk. 



INTRODUCTION. 



To the City Council of the City of Providence : 

Gentlemen :— In accordance with the requirements of the City Ordinances, the 
€ity Registrar's "Eighth Annual Report on the Births, Marriages, and Deaths in 
Providence, for the year 1862," is herewith presented. 

The report contains statistical tables similar to those in previous reports, with such 
additions and recapitulations as have seemed important to illustrate the subject. 

During the year 1862, there were in Providence, 1529 births, 914 deaths, and 547 
marriages. Compared with the previous year, the number of births was 196 less; 
the number of deaths, 137 less; and the number of marriages, precisely the same. 
Compared with the population, there was in 1862, one birth in 33.1; one death in 
55.4; and one person married in 46.3. 

During the past eight years, I have recorded the birth, marriage, or death, of 
30,663 persons in Providence, a number considerably greater than half the popula- 
tion of the city. These have been divided as follows: children born, 13,182; per- 
sons died, 7,683; persons married, 9,618. 

An exact copy of all these records is deposited in the Office of the Secretary of 
State, so that there is a double security that they will be preserved. It may be 
safely asserted that both in the aggregate, and as to particulars, these records are 
more complete and correct than in any other city in this country. 

The facts contained in them have now become so numerous as to possess a posi- 
tive value in illustrating the general principles which govern the vital statistics of 
the city; and it is my intention, before printing this report, to add a series of state- 
ments, in familiar languag e, without tables, and containing a general analysis and 
summary of the results obtained from the registration of births, marriages, and 
deaths in Providence, during the last eight years* 

Respectfully submitted, 

EDWIN M. SNOW, M. D., 
Supt. of Health and City Registrar-, 

Providence, March 9th, 1863. 



CONTENTS. 



Births 1-8 

Wards, sex, season, and color, (Table I) 1 

Season, and sex of children born 2 

Proportion of the sexes 3 

Parentage of children born. (Tables III and IV) 4-5 

Number of the child 6 

Twin births, and Eight years' summary , 6-8 

Marriages 8-13 

Season in connection with marriage. (Table VI) 8 

Percentage of marriages at different seasons 9 

Nativity of persons married 9 

Ages of parties married 10 

Number of the marriage in each case , 11 

Marriage and education 12 

Marriages of colored persons 12 

Denominational > 13 

Deaths 14-37 

Sex, color, nativity, parentage, locality, and season. (Table X). . . .15 

Season in connection with mortality. (Table XI) 16 

Sex, color, and nativity 17 

Aggregate and average age and parentage. (Table XII) 18 

Percentage of deaths at different ages according to parentage. . .19-20 

Infantile mortality 21 

Causes of death, sex, age, parentage, and ratio. (Table XIV) . . 22-27 

Causes of death in connection with season, (Table XV) 28 

Notes on the causes of death in 1862 29-37 

Still births in 1862 37 

General Summary 38-44 

Births, marriages, and deaths in 8 years. (Table XVI) 38 

Statements relating to statistics of births in Providence 39 

Statements relating to statistics of marriages in Providence 40 

Statements relating to statistics of deaths in Providence 41 

Population j sex, ages, and wards, U. S. Census 1860. (Table XVII) . .44 



CITY REGISTRAR'S REPORT. 

1862. 



BIRTHS. 

The following table shows the number of children, the number of 
each sex, and the number of colored children born in each ward of the 
city of Providence, in each month of the year 1862. 

Table I. Births, 1862. Wards, months, sex, and color. 



1862. 


WARDS. 


Whole number. 


Colored children 

included in the 

preceding. 


I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 

28 
28 
22 


VII. 

29 
17 
22 


M. 

91 
71 
85 


F. 

82 
51 
66 


Month. 
Totals. 


M. 


F. 


Totals. 


January 

February 

March .' 

Total, 1st quarter 


41 
26 

29 


15 

6 

13 


25 
25 
30 


12 

5 
14 


23 

15 
21 


173 
122 
151 


2 
2 
2 


2 
5 
3 


4 
7 
5 


96 

27 
2b 
32 


34 

3 

9 
9 


80 

25 
16 
32 


31 

7 
7 
4 


59 

12 
11 

27 


78 

22 
24< 
24 


68 

24 
23 
21 


247 

57 
66 
70 


199 

63 
50 

79 


446 

120 
116 
149 


6 

3 

4 
2 


10 

1 
3 

4 


16 

4 
7 
6 


May 




Total, 2d quarter 
July 


85 

25 

22 
38 


21 

3 

4 

7 


73 

11 
20 
23 


18 

7 
9 

7 


50 

15 
21 
15 


70 

14 
21 
20 


68 

13 

18 
IS 


193 

46 
54 

62 


192 

42 
61 

66 


385 

88 
115 

128 


9 

1 

2 
2 


8 

2 
9 
2 


17 

3 

11 

4 




September 

Total, 3d quarter 

October . . , 

November 

December 

Total, 4th quarter 

Whole Year 


85 

32 

31 

27 

90 
356 


14 

o 
O 

9 
6 

18 

87 


54 

17 

23 
21 

61 

268 


23 

8 

8 

11 

27 

99 


51 

24 
19 
17 

60 

220 


55 

23 
13 
32 

68 

271 


49 

15 
13 
15 

43 

228 


162 

68 
61 
60 


169 

54 
55 
69 


331 

122 
116 

129 


5 



2 
4 


13 

1 

1 
2 


18 

1 
3 
6 


189 
791 


178 
738 


367 
1529 


6 
26 


4 
35 


10 
61 



The number of children born in Providence, in 1862, was 1,529, or 
196 less than in 1861. The number was less in every ward, less in 
every quarter of the year, and less in every month except March and 
June. The number of males was 145 less, and of females 51 less. 
The whole number of births, in 1862, was less than in any year since 
1854. 



CITY REGISTRAR 



REPORT 



This decrease in the number of births was anticipated as one of the 
inevitable results of war, and its cause is obviously, the absence of so 
large a portion of the population in the army. 

Season. There were 446 births in the first quarter of the year ; 
385 in the second quarter ; 331 in the third ; and 367 in the fourth ; — 
during the first six months, 831 ; second six months, 698. The largest 
number of births in any month was 173 in January; — the smallest 
number, 88, in July. The month in which the largest number of 
births occurred, in each of the last seven years, was as follows, begin- 
ning with 1856: May, March, December, July, November, February, 
January ; — a different month for each year. 

In the aggregate of 11,582 births in Providence, during the seven 
years, 1856 to 1862 inclusive, the number in each quarter of the year 
was as follows : — 

First quarter, 2,984; second quarter, 2,913; first six months, 5,897. 
Third quarter, 2,832; fourth quarter, 2,853 ; second six months, 5,G85. 

These figures show the largest number of births in the first quarter 
of the year, the smallest number in the third quarter, and more in the 
first six months than in the second. These facts are contrary to the 
rule in other places. The aggregate of more than 300,000 births in 
Massachusetts shows a large excess of births in the last half of the year. 

The following table shows the number and sex of the children born 
in each ward of the city, during each quarter of the year 1862. 

Table II. Births, 1862. Wards, sex, season. 



WARDS. 



I 

II 

Ill 

IV 

V 

VI 

vir 

Whole City 



1st Quarter. 


2d Quarter. 


3d Quarter. 


4th Quarter. 


Whole Year. 


M. 


F. 


Total. 


M. 


F. 


Total. 


M. 


F. 


Total. 


M. 


F. 


Total. 


Bf. 


F. 


Total. 
356 


58 


38 


96 


37 


48 


85 


44 


41 


85 


37 


53 


90 


176 


ISO 


18 


16 


34 


12 


9 


21 


7 


7 


14 


10 


8 


18 


47 


40 


87 


43 


37 


80 


41 


32 


73 


30 


24 


54 


28 


33 


61 


142 


126 


268 


16 


15 


31 


• 


12 


18 


9 


14 


23 


13 


14 


27 


44 


55 


99 


39 


20 


59 


26 


24 


50 


21 


30 


51 


38 


22 


60 


124 


96 


220 


38 


40 


78 


36 


34 


70 


28 


27 


55 


38 


30 


68 


140 


131 


271 


35 


33 


68 


35 


33 


68 


23 
102 


169 


49 
331 


25 

189 


178 


43 

367 


118 

791 


no 

738 


228 
1529 


— 

247 


199 


446 


193 


192 


385 



BIRTHS. 6 

Proportion of the sexes. There were 791 male, and 738 female 
children born in Providence, in 1862; or 107. 2 males to each 100 fe- 
males, which is very nearly the average proportion for nine years past* 
There were more females than males born in the first and fourth wards ; 
and more males than females in the other wards. There were more 
females than males born in April, June, August, September, and De- 
cember ; and more males than females in the other months. 

The proportion of the sexes born in each quarter of the year 1862, 
was as follows : 

January — March. . . . 124.1 males to each 100 females. 

April — June. 100.5 males to each 100 females. 

July— September — 95.8 males to each 100 females. 
October— December. 106.2 males to each 100 females. 



Whole Year 107.2 males to each 100 females. 

During the seven years, 1856 to 1862, inclusive, the proportion of 
the sexes born in Providence, in each quarter of the year, has been as 
follows, as shown by the aggregate of the births : 

January — March 1,586 males, 1,398 females, or 113.4 males to 100 females. 

April — June .1,518 males, 1,395 females, or 108.8 males to 100 females. 

July— September. . . .1,429 males, 1,403 females, or 101.8 males to 100 females. 
October— December. .1,481 males, 1,372 females, or 107.9 males to 100 females. 



Seven years total 6,014 males, 5,568 females, or 108.0 males to 100 females. 

During the nine years, 1854 to 1862 inclusive, the whole number of 
births in Providence was 14,551 ; males, 7,532 ; females, 7,019. The 
proportion for the whole time Was 107.3 males to each 100 females ; 
or 51.76 males, and 48.24 females in each 100 born. 

The proportion for each of the nine years was as follows i 

1854, 107.9 to 100; or 51.91 and 48.09 in each 100 born. 

1855, 101.7 to 100; or 50.44 and 49.56 in each 100 born, 

1856, 113.6 to 100; or 53.19 and 46.81 in each 100 bora. 

1857, 106.8 to 100; or 51.66 and 48.34 in each 100 born. 

1858, 106.7 to 100; or 51.62 aud 48.38 in each 100 born. 

1859, 107.4 to 100; or 51.79 and 48.21 in each 100 born. 

1860, 96.4 to 100; or 49.09 and 50.91 in each 100 born. 

1861, 118.6 to 100; or 54.26 and 45.74 in each 100 bora. 

1862, 107.2 to 100; or 51.73 and 48.27 in each 100 born. 

Colored Children. There were 61 colored children born in Provi- 
dence in 1862, a larger number than in any previous year. Of this 



4 CITY REGISTRAR'S REPORT. 

number, 26 were males, and 35 females. During the same year there 
were only 34 deaths among the colored population ; the proportion of 
deaths being less, and of births greater, than in any preceding year. 
During eight years, 1855-1862, there were 378 births, and 420 deaths 
among the colored population of Providence. 



PARENTAGE. 

The next table shows the parentage of the children born in each 
ward of the city of Providence, during the year 1862, and the per- 
centage of the different classes. 

Where both parents were of foreign birth, but of different nations, 
the parentage of the child is given according to the birth place of the 
father. 

Table III. Births, 1862. Parentage and Wards. 



PARENTAGE. 


WARDS. 


Whole 
City. 


In each 

100 born 

there 

were. 


I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


VII. 


American = 


114 


48 


83 


52 


60 


139 


93 


589 


38.52 

41.53 
6.02 
3.07 
1.64 




164 

30 

6 

4 

204 

18 
20 


23 
3 
6 
1 

33 

3 
3 


134 

14 

4 

10 

162 

13 
10 


22 
5 
3 
2 

32 

8 

7 


112 

14 

6 

2 

134 

14 
12 


87 

13 

13 

2 

115 

12 
5 


93 

13 

9 

4 

119 

6 
10 


635 
92 
47 
25 












799 

74 

67 


52.26 

4.84 
4.38 


Am. father and For. mother. 
For. father and Am. mother. 




356 


87 


268 


99 


220 


271 


22S 


1529 


100.00 





Austrian, Bavarian, and Prussian are included with the German. 
The proportions of children of American, foreign, and mixed par- 
entage, during the last seven years, have been as follows : 

Parentage. 1836 1857. 1858. 1S59. I860. 1861. 1862. 

American 42.09. . . .38.51. . . .41.30. . . .37.60. . . .40.11. . . .37.91. . . .38.52 

Foreign 51.17. . . .55.51. . . .51.39. . . .55.69. . . .52.00. .. .53.10. . . .52.26 

Mixed 6.74.... 5.98.... 7.31.... 6.71.... 7.89 ... 8.99,... 9.22 



BIRTHS. 

In every year the children of foreign parents comprise more than 

half of the whole number, while the number of children of " mixed/' 

i. e. of American and foreign parents, is increasing from year to year. 

During eight years, 1855 to 1862 inclusive, 13,182 children were 

born in the city, divided according to parentage, as follows : 

American parentage. . . .5209 children, or 39.51 in each 100 born. 

Foreign parentage 6994 children, or 53.06 in each 100 born. 

Mixed parentage 979 children, or 7.43 in each 100 born. 

Whole number 13,182 100.00 

The next table shows more exactly the mixture of different nation- 
alities, among the 1529 children born in Providence, during the year 
1862: 

Table IV. Births 1862. Parentage. 



BIRTH PLACE 

OF 

FATHERS. 


BIRTH PLACE OF MOTHERS. 


Whole 
number 

of 
FatherS_ 


United 
States. 


Ireland. 


England 

and 
Scotland. 


Germany. 


British 
America. 


Other 
Foreign. 


United States 


589 

32 

18 

6 

7 

4 


35 
614 

25 
7 
4 
4 


17 

11 

56 

3 

2 


35 
1 


15 

9 

11 

5 
1 


7 
1 

2 

8 


663 

667 

110 

53 

18 

18 


England & Scotl'nd 


British America. . 
Other Foreign 


Whole No. Mothers 


656 


689 


89 


36 


41 


18 


1529 



The parents of 222 children, or more than one-seventh of the whole 
number, were natives of different countries. 

It is interesting to notice the mixture of different nationalities which 
is going on and increasing from year to year, and the results, moral, 
social, and political would afford interesting themes for speculation. 



NUMBER OF THE CHILD. 



The following table shows the number of the child of the same 
mother, of the children born in the city in 1862, and also of all the 
children born during eight years, 1855 to 1862 inclusive :— - 



CITY REGISTRAR'S REPORT 



Table V. Births, 1862. Number of the' child. 



NUMBER OF CHILD. 


1862. 


EIG BT 

TEARS. 

185J-1S62 


NUMBER OF CHILD. 


1862. 


EIGHT 

YEARS. 

1855-1862 


First child of the mother 


362 


3086 


Eleventh child of the mother 


7 


64 


Second " " 


299 


2728 


Twelfth 


9 


46 


Third " 


258 


2225 


Thirteenth " " " 


1 


16 


Fourth " 


186 


1695 


Fourteenth " " " 


3 


9 


Fifth " 


146 


1165 


Fifteenth " " " 


1 


5 


Sixth " " 


97 


829 


Seventeenth " " " 


1 


5 


Seventh " " 


71 


568 


Nineteenth " " 




1 


Eighth " " " 


51 


348 












Ninth " " " 


15 


240 


Whole number of children . 


1529 


13,182 


Tenth " 


22 


152 









A simple arithmetical calculation shows that the 1529 mothers rep- 
resented in the preceding table, for the year 1862, were the mothers 
of 5,322 children, which gives an average of 3.48 children to each 
mother, or about seven children to every two mothers. The mothers 
of twins are necessarily counted twice. The average for each of the 
last eight years, has been as follows : — 



1855, average 3.25 children 

1856, average 3.32 children 

1857, average 3.40 children 

1858, average 3.30 children 

1859, average 3.52 children 

1860, average 3.54 children 

1861, average 3.49 children 

1862, average 3.48 children 



to each mother, 
to each mother, 
to each mother, 
to each mother, 
to each mother, 
to each mother, 
to each mother, 
to each mother 1 . 



TWIN BIRTHS. 

There were 15 cases of twin births in Providence, in 1862, and one 
case of triplets. In the year previous, there were 30 plurality cases. 
Of the whole number of cases in 1862, there were in the first ward, 2 ; 
second ward, ; third, 2 ; fourth, 1 ; fifth, 2 ; sixth, 4 ; seventh, 5 ; 
total, 16. 



BIRTHS. • I 

The number in the different months of the year, was : January, July, 
August, and December, 2 each ; June, 3 ; February, March, April, 
September, and October, one each ; May, and November, none ; total, 16. 

The sex of the children, was : in three cases, both males ; in 7 cases, 
both females ; in five cases, one child of each sex ; and in the case of 
triplets, all females; total, 11 males, 22 females.. 

Color. All were white children. 

The number of the children of the same mother was as follows : first 
and second children, 6 cases ; second and third children, 2 cases ; fifth 
and sixth, 2 cases ; sixth and seventh, 2 cases ; seventh and eighth, 
eighth and ninth, ninth and tenth, each one case ; and the triplets were 
the ninth, tenth, and eleventh children of the mother. 

Parentage. In 5 cases, both parents were born in the United States ; 
in 6 cases, both were born in Ireland ; in one case, the father was 
Scotch and the mother British American ; in one case, father Irish and 
mother American ; in one case, father English and mother American ; 
and in one case, father Irish and mother British American. In the 
case of triplets, both parents were of Irish birth. 



EIGHT YEARS SUMMARY OF TWIN BIRTHS. 

During eight years, 1855 to 1862 inclusive, there were in Provi- 
dence, 155 cases of twin births, and 4 cases of triplets. Of the twin 
children born, in 47 cases both were males ; in 53 cases both were fe- 
males ; and in 55 cases, there was one child of each sex; total, 149 
males, 161 females. Of the triplets, in one case all were males; in 
three cases, all were females. Total of plurality cases, 152 males, 170 
females ; total, 322. 

In 52 cases of twin births, both parents were Americans ; in 75 
cases, both were Irish ; in 10 cases, both were English; in 5, both 
German ; in 3, other foreign ; and in 10 cases, the parentage was mixed : 
i. e. American and foreign. In the 4 triplet cases, the mothers were 
all Irish ; in two of these the fathers were Irish ; in one, father Eng- 
lish, and in one, father Scotch. 

Of the whole number of twin births, in 5 cases the parents were 
colored. 

During the whole period of eight years, there were in the city 12,860 
cases of single birth ; 155 twin cases ; and 4 triplet cases ; total, 13,019 
cases, with 13,182 children. It results that of all the cases in eight 
years, in one case in 84.6, twins were born ; and in one in 3,255, triplets. 



8 



CITY REGISTRAR S REPORT. 



The. results for eight years, according to parentage, are as follows., 
including the triplets : 

American parentage. .5,157 cases; 52 plurality cases, or one in 99.1 

Foreign parentage 6,893 cases; 97 plurality cases, or one in 71.0 

Mixed parentage . . . . 969 cases; 10 plurality cases, or one in 96.9 



Total 13,019 cases ; 159 plurality cases, or one in 81.9 



MAKRIAGES. 

The following table shows the number of marriages in Providence, 
during each month of each of the last eight years, 1855 to 1862 inclu- 
sive, with the average for each month : 

Table VI. Marriages, 1862. Season. 



MONTH. 


1862. 


1861. 


1860. 


1859. 


1858. 


1857. 


1856. 


1855. 


Totals. A 


verage. 


January 


.48.. 


..60.. 


..72.. 


..52.. 


..49.. 


..53.. 


..52.. 


..49.. 


..435.... 


....54 


February 


.41.. 


..33.. 


..57.. 


..32.. 


..53.. 


..41.. 


..45.. 


..39.. 


,.341.... 


....43 


March 


.34.. 


..23.. 


..27.. 


..48.. 


..26.. 


..30.. 


..27.. 


..24., 


..239.... 


....30 


April 


.33.. 


..77.. 


..62.. 


..46.. 


..35.. 


..50.. 


..53.. 


..60., 


...416.... 


....52 


May.. .... 


.52.. 


..53.. 


..50.. 


..50.. 


..45.. 


..58.. 


..72.. 


..53.. 


..433.... 


....54 


June 


.48.. 


..60.. 


..51.. 


..54,. 


..41.. 


..47.. 


..66.. 


..48.. 


..415.... 


....52 


July 


.34.. 


..34.. 


..46.. 


..44.. 


..46.. 


..49.. 


..35.. 


..57.. 


..345.... 


....43 


August 


..30.. 


..39.. 


..30.. 


..48.. 


..36.. 


..49.. 


..36.. 


..47., 


...315.... 


...39 


September 


,.74.. 


..35.. 


..53.. 


..59.. 


..52.. 


..59.. 


..62.. 


..54., 


,..448.... 


....56 


October 


.51.. 


..47.. 


..63.. 


..64.. 


..60.. 


..65.. 


..76.. 


..81 , 


...507..;. 


....63 


November 


,.60.. 


..46.. 


..67.. 


..61.. 


..71.. 


..65.. 


..69.. 


..68. 


...507.... 


....63 


December 


.42.. 


..40.. 


..42.. 


..53.. 


..46.. 


..48.. 


..55.. 


..53., 


...379.... 


....47 


Month not given . 














..8.. 


.. 3. 


... 11.... 





Whole number.. .547. . .547. . .620. . .611. . .560. . .614. . .656. . .636. . .4791 599 

The number of marriages (547), in 1862, was precisely the same as 
in 1861 ; but considerably less than in the preceding years. The com- 



MARRIAGES 



9 



paratively small number still shows the effects of our national troubles, 
though the number in the different months of the year 1862 was more 
nearly in accordance with the general rule than in the previous year. 

The order of the months, in relation to the number of marriages, in 
1862, 1861, and in the aggregate for eight years, 1855 to 1862, was as 
follows ; the month in which the greatest number of marriages occurred 
being placed first : 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 

1862 Sept. .Nov. .May. .Oct. .Jan. .June. .Dec. .Feb. .Mar. .July. .April. Aug. 

1861 Apr... Jan.. June. .May. Oct.. Nov... Dec. Aug. Sept.. July. .Feb. ..Mar. 

Eight yrs. Oct.. .Nov. .Sept. .Jan. .May. April. .June. Dec. .July.. Feb. ..Aug. .Mar. 
The number and percentage of marriages, in each quarter of the 
year 1862, and in the aggregate for eight years, 1855 to 1862 inclu- 
sive* were as follows ; omitting, in the aggregate, eleven marriages m 
which the month was not given : 



1862. 



Marriages. 

January — March 123 . . 

April— June 133. . . 

July— September 138. . . 

October— December 153. . . 



Total. 



.547. 



Percent. 
..22.49. 

.24.31., 
,.25.23. 

.27.97.. 



100.00. 



1855 to 1862 inclusive. 
Marriages. Percent. 

..1,015 21.24 

..1,264 26.44 

..1,108. .......23.18 

..1,393 29.14 



.4,780 100.00 



The nativity of each couple married in Providence, in 1862, is shown 
in the following table : 

Table VII. Marriages, 1862. Nativity of the parties. 



BIRTH PLACE 

OF 

GROOMS. 


BIRTH PLACE OP BRIDES. 


Whole 
number 
Grooms. 


United 
States. 


Ireland. 


England 

and 
Scotland. 


Germany. 


British 
America. 


Other 
Foreign. 


United States 


288 
7 
13 
3 
2 
5 


20 
122 
6 
3 
2 
4 


20 
16 


11 
1 


10 
2 
4 

1 
2 


1 
4 


338 

131 

39 

18 

5 

16 


England&Scotl'nd 


British America. . 
Other Countries. . 


Whole No. Brides 


318 


157 


, 36 


12 


19 


5 


547 



Of 318 females born in the United States, who were married in 
Providence during the year 1862, 288 married American Grooms ; t 

2 



10 



CITY REGISTRAR'S REPORT 



married, Irishmen, 13 married Englishmen^, 3 married Germans, 2 mar» 
ried British Americans, and 5 married natives of other foreign coun- 
tries; In 105 of the marriages in 1862 the parties were natives of 
different countries. 

The proportions of American, foreign, and mixed marriages in Prov- 
idence, during the last eight years, were as follows. 

American. Foreign. Mixed. 

1855 48.73 per cent. ; 41 .93 per cent. ; 9.34 per cent. 

1856. . . 54.74 per cent. ; 32.97 per cent. ; 12.29 per cent. 

1857 62.54 per cent. ; 28.50 per cent. ; 8.96 per cent. 

1858 50.54 per cent. ; 38.21 per cent. ; 11.25 per cent. 

1859 54.50 per cent. ; 36.66 per cent. ; 8.84 per cent. 

1860 54.19 per cent. ; 36.29 per cent. ; 9.52 per cent. 

1861 55.58 per cent.; 33,27 per cent.; 11.15 per cent. 

1862 52.65 per cent. ; 32.72 per cent.; 14.63 per cent; 

By " mixed " marriages is understood marriages of Americans with 
foreigners. Where both parties are foreigners, though natives of dif- 
ferent countries, they are included with the " foreign." 

The next table gives the ages of the parties in each of the marriages 
in Providence, in 1862, with the proportion of grooms and brides in 
each division of ages : 

Table VIII. Marriages, 1862. Ages of the parties* 



AGES OF THE GROOMS. 


AGES OF THE BRIDES. 


111 

ft O ej 


o 

a 
1= 


8 

o 


o 
Co 

o 

iO 


3 

o 

CO 


o 

o 

i 


8 

o 

o 

IO 


So 


Under 20 years 

20 to 25 years 

25 to 30 years 

30 to 40 years.... ... 

40 to 50 years 

50 to 60 years 

60 to 70 years 


7 

68 
18 

8 


6 

102 

87 

32 

1 

1 


19 

45 

38 

8 

2 


1 
1 

10 

38 
20 
10 


i 

3 

8 
6 
4 


1 
1 

1 


14 

190 

161 

119 

38 

20 

5 


2.56 
34.74 
29.43 
21.75 

6;95 

3.66 
»91 


Whole No. of brides. 


101 


229 


112 


80 


22 


3 


547 


100.00 


Percentages of brides 


18.47 


41.87 


20.48 


14.63 


4.00 


.55 


100.00 





MARRIAGES. 11 

Comparing the preceding table with a similar table for the year 
1861, it seems that the proportions of both grooms and brides, over 30 
years of age, were much greater in 1862 than in 1861. 

The aggregate and average age of the parties married in Provi- 
dence, in 1862, was as follows : 

547 males, aggregate age, 15,773 years; average age, 28.83 years. 
547 females, aggregate age, 13,565 years; average age, 24.80 years. 

The average age of the males was .59 of a year, and of the females 
2.47 years greater in 1862 than in 1861. 

The average age of the parties married, during the last seven years, 
was as follows : 

Average age. Average age. 

1856 males, 28.3 years; females, 24.4 years. 

1857 males, 27.6 years; females, 23.8 years. 

1858 males, 28.3 years; females, 24.5 years. 

1859 males, 27.8 years; females, 23.9 years. 

1860 males, 27.6 years; females, 23 6 years. 

1861 males, 28.2 years; females, 22.3 years. 

1862 males, 28.8 years; females, 24.8 years. 

The average age of both males and females was greater in 1862, than 
in any previous year. 

The number of the marriage of both parties in each of the 547 mar- 
riages, in Providence, in 1862, is shown in the following table: 

Table IX. Marriages, 1862. Number of times married. 



GROOMS. 



First marriage 

Second marriage 

Third marriage 

Fourth marriage 

Whole number of Brides. 



BRIDES. Number of the marriage. 



First. 



408 

58 

7 

1 



474 



Second. 



32 
31 

8 



71 



Third. 



Whole 

number of 

Grooms. 



440 

91 

15 

1 



547 



The proportion of first marriages was less than in previous years : — . 
440 grooms, and 474 brides were married the first time. One mar-: 
riage was the fourth of the groom and first of the bride. 



12 city registrar's report. 

Marriage and Education. The laws of Rhode Island require the 
certificate giving information in relation to the candidates for marriage 
to be filled out, and signed by the parties themselves, and given to the 
clergyman before the marriage can be legally solemnized. The clergy- 
man has no right to proceed with the ceremony until he has received 
this certificate thus signed by the parties. 

The whole number of persons married in Providence, in 1862, was 
1094, as follows: Born in the United States, 338 males, 318 females ; 
total 656. Born in foreign countries, 209 males, 229 females ; total 438. 

The number who signed the marriage certificate with a mark, was 
as follows : 

1862. Whole number. Signed with a mark. In each 100 

Males born in the United States 338 9 2.66 

Females born in the United States 318 22 6.91 

Total born in the United States 656 31 4.72 

Males born in foreign countries 209 101 48.32 

Females born in foreign countries. . . .229 127 55.46 



Total born in foreign countries 438 228 52.05 

Of those of American birth who signed with a mark, 8 were colored, 
and 10 were children of foreign parents ; total 18, or more than half. 

The aggregate of the statistics on this subject in Providence, for 
four years, 1859 to 1862 inclusive, gives the following results : 

1859-1862. Whole No. married. Signed jvith a mark. In each 100. 

Males of American birth 1404 40 2.85 

Females of American birth 1372 68 4.95 



Total of American birth 2776 108. 



Males of foreign birth 921 400 43.43 

Females of foreign birth 953 561 58.86 



Total of foreign birth 1874 961 51.28 

Marriages of colored persons. There were only 12 marriages in 
Providence, in 1862, in which the parties were colored ; this gives one 
person married in 63.8 of the colored population. 

Of these 12 marriages, one was the first of the groom and second of 
the bride 2 were the second of the groom and first of the bride ; and 
9 were the first marriage of both parties. 



MARRIAGES. 13 

The average age of the colored persons married in 1862 was as fol- 
lows : males, 27.75 years ; females, 25.75 years. 

Denominational. The number of marriages in Providence, in 1862, 
by clergymen of different religious denominations, was as follows : 

Roman Catholic 156 Second Advent 7 

Calvinistic Baptist 77 Bethel Pastors 7 

Free Will Baptist 42 Lutheran 6 

Methodist 59 Presbyterian 2 

Congregationalist ,..58 Hebrew Priest 1 

Episcopalian , 52 Justice Supreme Court 1 

Unitarian 36 

Universalist , .36 Whole number 547 

Christian 7 

Of the 547 marriages in Providence, in 1862, in 16 cases only, were 
both parties born in Providence ; in 45 cases, the groom was born in 
Providence and the bride elsewhere ; and in 75 cases, the bride was 
born in Providence and the groom elsewhere. It seems, then, that of 
the 1094 persons married in Providence, during the year, only 151, or 
14.35 per cent, of the whole number, were natives of the city. 

In QQ marriages, both parties lived out of the State. 



14 oity registrar's report. 



DEATHS. 

The number of deaths in Providence, in 1862, was 914, which num- 
ber was 187 less than in 1861, and 79 less than the average for seven 
years previous, 1855 to 1861 inclusive. 

The number in 1862, was less than the average, in every month ex- 
cept August, September, November, and December ; less in every 
quarter of the year except the last ; and less in every ward except the 
fourth. 

It is difficult to estimate the population of the city on account of the 
absence of a considerable portion in the army, and other causes ; but I 
have good reasons for believing that the resident population is as large, 
and probably larger, than in 1860. Assuming the resident population 
to be 50,666, the same as in 1860, we have the following statistics of 
deaths for the year 1862. 

Total population one death in 55.4. 

White population one death in 55.8. 

Colored population one death in 45.2. 

Male population ! one death in 53.1. 

Female population one death in 57.7. 

In Ward I one death in 58.6. 

In Ward II one death in 98.4. 

In Ward III one death in 54.9. 

In Ward IV , one death in 66.4. 

In Ward V one death in 50.3. 

In Ward VI one death in 58.9. 

In Ward VII one death in 47.0. 

70 years of age and over, one death in 9. 9. 

One death in every 7.2 dwelling houses. 

One death in every 11.1 families. 

Population of American parentage, one death in 63.0. 

Population of foreign parentage, one death in 47.8. 
These figures compare favorably with those of other years, and of 
other cities. 

The next table shows the sex, social condition, color, nativity, and 
parentage of all the decedents in Providence, in each month of the 
year 1862 ; also the number in each ward of the city, in each month. 



DEATHS 



15 



Table X. Deaths, 1862. 
Sex, condition, color, nativity, -parentage, locality, anal season. 



1862. 



Whole No. Deaths 

^ex- 
Males 

Females 



Condition — 
Married... 

Single 

Widows. . . 
Widowers. 

Color — 
Whites . . . 
Colored. . . 



Nativity— 

United States . . . 

Ireland 

Engl'nd& ScotlM 

Germany 

Other countries. 

Parentage^- 

American 

Irish 

English & Scotch 

German 

Other foreign . . . 

Locality, Wards— 

I 

II 

Ill 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 



Public Institutions 



Totals. 



72 



30 
30 

17 

35 

5 

3 

57 
3 

50 
8 
2 




72 60 



56 



65 56 



74 



62 



62 



61 



22 



58 60 
4 1 



01 



109 



54 
55 

18 

74 

11 

6 

101 



101 



109 



101 



99 71 

2 2 



73 



87 



914 



450 

464 

287 

509 

80 

38 



94 87 914 



90 84 

4 3 34 



C87 

190 

29 

1 

7 

460 
370 

57 
12 
15 

160 
48 
147 
71 
152 
159 
144 

33 



16 



CITY REGISTRAR'S REPORT. 



Season. The number of deaths in each quarter of each of the last 
•eight years, and the annual average of each quarter for the whole pe- 
riod, has been as follows : 

Annnol 

1862. 1861. 1860. 1859. 
January— March. ...197. . . .240. . . .243. . . .213. 

April— June 192. . . .236. . . .209. . . .205. , 

July— September . .271. . . .336. . . .297. . . .270. . 
October-December 254. . . .239. . . .252. . . .211. . . .: V 

Whole year 914 1051 1001 8 



1858. 


1857. 


1856. 


1855. 


Average 


.279.. 


..214.. 


..308.. 


.213. 


...238 


.278.. 


..173.. 


..244.. 


..208. 


...218 


.257.. 


..286.. 


..296.. 


..339. 


...294 


.203.. 


..252. 


..217.. 


..231. 


. . .233 


1017 


925 


1065 


991 


983 



It will be noticed that, in 1862, the number of deaths was remarka- 
bly small in each quarter of the year, except the last. In the fourth 
quarter the number of deaths was greater than in the corresponding 
quarter of any previous year. This increase of mortality has continued 
until the present time, March 1863. 

The order of the months in relation to mortality, during the last 
eight years, 1855 to 1862 inclusive, is shown in the following table, the 
month in which the greatest mortality occurred being number one, and 
the month with the least mortality, number 12. 

Table XL Deaths, 1855-1862. Season. 



YEARS. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


11. 


12. 


1855 

1856 

1857 

1858 

1859 

1860 

1861 

1862 


Aug. 
Aug. 
Sept. 
Apr. 
Aug. 
July. 
Aug. 
Aug. 


July. 
Mar. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Sept. 
Aug. 
Sept. 
Sept. 


Sept. 

Jan. 

Oct. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Oct. 

July. 

Nov. 


Nov. 

Sept. 
Nov. 
Mar. 
July. 
Sept. 
Mar. 
Dec. 


Feb. 
Feb. 
July. 
Feb. 
Dec. 
Jan. 
Feb. 
May. 


May. 

Apr. 

Mar. 

Sept 

May. 

Mar. 

Oct. 

Oct. 


Dec. 

July. 

Jan. 

May. 

Oct. 

Apr. 

Apr. 

Jan. 


Oct. 

May. 

May. 

June. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

May. 

Mar. 


Apr. 

June. 

Dec. 

July. 

Apr. 

Nov. 

Nov. 

June. 


Mar. 
Oct. 
Feb. 
Dec. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Dec. 
July. 


Jan. 

Nov. 
Apr. 
Nov. 
June. 
May. 
June. 
Feb. 


June. 

Dec. 

June. 

Oct. 

Mar. 

June. 

Jan. 

Apr. 

June. 


8 years total 


Aug. 


Sept. 


July. 


Jan. 


Mar. 


Nov. 


Oct. 


May. 


Apr. 


Feb. 


Dec. 



This table shows great variations in the different years ; but the ag- 
gregate shows correctly the relative order of mortality of the different 
months, for a series of years. 



DEATHS. 17 

The number and percentage of deaths in each quarter of the year 
1862, compared with the aggregate for seven years previous, 1855 to 
1861 inclusive, were as follows : 

1862. 1855-1861. 

Deaths. Percent. Deaths. Percent. 

January— March 197 21.55 1,710 24.60 

April— June 192 21.01 1,553 22.35 

July— September 271 29.65 2,081 29.96 

October— December 254 27.79 1,605 23.09 



Total 914 100.00 6,949 100.00 

Sex. The decedents in Providence, in 1862, were 450 males, 464 
females. According to parentage there were : 

American parentage 216 males, 244 females. 

Foreign parentage 234 males, 220 females. 

"We have, in previous reports, noticed this difference between the 
American and foreign population. Among the decedents of American 
parentage, there are more females than males ; among those of foreign 
parentage there are more males than females. 

In six of the last eight years, more females than males died in 
Providence, and in the aggregate for eight years there were, males, 
3,883 ; females, 3,980 ; total, 7,863. But during the 23 years, 1840 
to 1862 inclusive, the deaths were, males, 10,451 ; females, 10,385 ; 
total, 20,836. 

Color. There were only 34 deaths among the colored population of 
Providence, in 1862 ; a less number than for several years previous. 
The births exceeded the deaths in number, in 1862, though during the 
whole eight years, 1855 to 1862, there were 420 deaths, and 378 births, 
among the colored population. 

Nativity. In 1862, there were 687 decedents in Providence, who 
were born in the United States ; but 227 of these were children of 
foreign parents, leaving 460 of American parentage. There were 190 
decedents, born in Ireland ; but there were also 180 children of Irish 
parents, making 370 of Irish parentage. There was only one dece- 
dent born in Germany ; but including this, there were 12 of German 
parentage. Among the decedents in table X., of " other foreign paren- 
tage," there were 5 British American, 3 Portuguese, 3 French, aiid 
and one each, West Indian, Swedish, Norwegian, and Italian. 
3 



18 



CITY REGISTRAR S REPORT 



Locality. The deaths in 1862, compared with those of 1861, in the 
several portions of the city, were as follows : first ward, 5 1 less ; second 
ward, 18 less ; third ward, 24 less ; fourth ward, 10 more ; fifth ward, 
8 less ; sixth ward, 7 less ; seventh ward, 18 less ; in public institu- 
tions, 21 less. On the east side, 93 less; on the west side, 23 less. 
In the whole city, including public institutions, 137 less. 

In the first, third, fifth, and seventh wards, there were 244 decedents 
of American, and 359 of foreign parentage. In the second, fourth, 
and sixth wards, there were 201 of American, and 77 of foreign paren- 
tage. In public institutions, there were 15 of American, and 18 of 
foreign parentage. 

Average age. The next table shows the aggregate and average age, 
according to parentage, of all who died in Providence, during each 
month of the year 1862. 

Table XII. Deaths, 1862. 

Aggregate and average age, and parentage. 



1862. 



January. . . . 
February. . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. . 
October. . . . 
November. . 
December. . 

Whole Year 



American Parentage. 


Foreign Parentage. 


Whole No. Am. & For. 


o 

& A 
3 § 


<3> 
ho 

< c3 


CO 
fcD 
U 

£ 6 




to 

< 53 


p 

88 

< c3 


O 9 rt 


.2 
to 

< c3 


fco 

S3 

|a 

< a 




Years. 


Years. 




Years. 


Years. 




Years. 


Years. 


32 


784 


24.50 


40 


848 


21.20 


72 


1,632 


22.66 


40 


1,260 


31.50 


20 


540 


27.00 


60 


1,801 


30.01 


32 


1,176 


36.75 


33 


1,176 


35.63 


65 


2,353 


36.20 


24 


820 


34.16 


32 


746 


23.31 


56 


1,566 


27.96 


42 


1,471 


35.02 


32 


804 


25.12 


74 


2,275 


30.74 


29 


1,072 


36.96 


33 


900 


27.27 


62 


1,972 


31.80 


30 


927 


30.90 


31 


682 


22.00 


61 


1,608 


26.36 


49 


1,433 


29.24 


60 


1,187 


19.78 


109 


2,620 


24.03 


55 


1,427 


25.76 


46 


837 


18.19 


101 


2,264 


22.41 


29 


763 


26.34 


44 


915 


20.79 


73 


1,679 


23.00 


46 


1,581 


34.37 


48 


1,362 


28.37 


94 


2,943 


31.30 


52 


1,875 


36.05 


35 


997 


28.48 


87 


2,872 


33.01 


400 


14,589 


31.71 


454 


10,994 


24.21 


914 


25,585 


28.00 



DEATHS. 19 

The average age of all who died of American parentage, in 1862, 
was 1.37 years greater than in 1861. The average age of the de- 
cedents of foreign parentage, in 1862, was 5.49 years greater than in 
1861, and greater than in any previous year. The average age of all 
who died in the city, in 1862, was 3.33 years greater than in 1861, 
and greater than in any year previous. 

The aggregate and average age of all who died in Providence, 
during the seven years, 1856 to 1862 inclusive, was as follows : 

Parentage. Deaths. Aggregate age. Average age. 

American 3,505 109,347 years 30.67 years. 

Foreign 3,307 63,733 years 19.27 years. 



Whole number 6,872 173,080 years 25.18 years. 

In nearly seven thousand deaths, in seven years, nearly equally 
divided in number, the average age of the decedents of American pa- 
rentage is 11.40 years greater than that of the decedents of foreign 
parentage. 

The average age of the decedents in any place, for any specified 
period, may be affected by various causes. Two important causes are, 
the average age of the living population, and the proportion of infan- 
tile mortality. Thus, in Providence, we find that every year the num- 
ber of the decedents of foreign parentage is greatly less than that of the 
decedents of American parentage, and both the causes above named 
assist in explaining this difference. The average age of the living 
population of foreign parentage, is less than that of the American pop- 
ulation; and the proportion of infantile mortality is much greater 
among the foreign than among the American population. 

Percentage at different ages. Table XIII., on the next page, shows 
the percentages for all the divisions of ages, in 1862. The following 
is a condensed statement of the same facts, and illustrates the differ- 
ence in the decedents according to parentage, for the seven years, 
1856—18(52 inclusive. 

1856-1862. American Parentage. Foreign Parentage. 

Ages. Deaths. Percent. Deaths. Percent. 

Under 5 1,192 33.44 ] ,679 50.77 

5to20..., 394 11.05 275 8.31 

20 to 50 975 27.35. 908 27.46 

50 to 70.... 516 14.47 319 9.65 

70 and over. , 488. 13.69 126 3.81 



7 years 3,565 100.00 3,307 100.00 



20 



CITY REGISTRAR'S REPORT, 



The folIoAving table shows more particularly the percentage, accord' 
ing to parentage, in the different divisions of ages, of the decedents 
in Providence, in 18G2 ; and also of all the decedents for seven years, 
1856 to 18G2 inclusive: 

Table XIII. Deaths, 1862. 
Percentage, according to parentage, at different ages. 





American 
Parentage. 

1862. 


Foreign 

Parentage. 
1862. 


Total 

Amer. and For. 

1862. 


Total Deaths and 

percentage for 
seven years, 1856 
to 1862 inclusive. 


AGES. 




«1 • 

S <A o 
8 ® fl 

£.3,2 


II 
II 


«!& • 

S - a 
(2.2.2 


1 


§ 1° 

1.2.1 


Deaths. 


Percent. 


Under 1 year 


75 


1G.30 


91 


20.05 


166 


18.16 


1435 


20.88 


1 and under 2 


34 


7.39 


50 


11.01 


84 


9.19 


749 


10.90 


2 and tinder 5 


34 


7.39 


50 


11.01 


84 


9.19 


687 
2871 


10.00 

41.78 


Total under 5 


143 


31.08 


191 


42.07 


334 


36.54 


5 and under 10 


21 


5.22 


10 


2.20 


31 


3.72 


320 


4.66 


10 and under 15 


10 


2.17 


4 


.88 


14 


1.53 


121 


1.76 


15 and under 20 


20 


4.35 


15 


3.30 


35 


3.83 


228 


3.32 


20 and under 30 


44 


9.57 


4G 


10.13 


90 


9.85 


656 


9.55 


30 and under 40 


52 


11.30 


03 


13.88 


115 


12.58 


701 


10.20 


40 and under 50 


3G 


7.83 


47 


10.35 


S3 


9.08 


526 


7.65 


50 and under 60 


28 


G.09 


34 


7.49 


62 


6.78 


439 


6.39 


00 and under 70, 


37 


8.01 


18 


3.97 


55 


6.02 


396 


5.76 


70 and under 80 


34 


7.39 


17 


3.75 


51 


5.5fc 


365 


5.31 


80 and under 90 


24 


5.22 


8 


1.76 


32 


3.50 


200 


2.91 


90 and over 


8 


1.74 


1 


.22 


9 


.99 


49 


.71 
100.00 


Totals 


400 


100.00 


454 


100.00 


914 


100.00 


6S72 



The year 1862 shows differences in relation to parentage, similar to 
those of past years. Thus, of all the decedents, in 1862, of American 
parentage, 31 in each 100 were under 5 years, while of those of for- 
eign parentage, 42 in each 100 were under 5 years. 



DEATHS. 21 

Infantile Mortality. Only 36.54 in each 100 of the decedents in 
Providence, in 1862, were under 5 years of age. This proportion is 
less than in any previous year in the history of registration in Provi- 
dence, and we are confident is unprecedented in the mortality of any city 
of equal or larger size, in this country. The percentage under five 
years being smaller, of course the percentages at other periods are 
larger. 

The following shows the proportion of the decedents under 5 years 
of age, of the American, foreign, and total population, in each of the 
seven years, 1856 to 1862 inclusive. 

American. Foreign. Total Am. and For. 

Under 5 years. Under 5 years. Under 5 years. 

1856 37.15 per cent 54.95 per cent 45.91 per cent. 

1857 32.31 per cent 51.74 per cent 40.75 per cent. 

1858 35.35 per cent 55.44 per cent 45.33 per cent. 

1859 28.00 per cent 48.34 per cent 37.82 per cent. 

1860 32.81 per cent 48.S7 per cent .40.06 per cent. 

1861 35.87 per cent 52.63 per cent 44.05 per cent. 

1862 31.08 per cent 42.07 per cent 36.54 per cent. 

During 23 years, 1840 to 1862 inclusive, there were 20,011 deaths 
in Providence, with the following proportions : 

Whole number of deaths 20,011. 

Under one year 3940, or 19.69 in each 100. 

One and under two *. 2532, or 12.65 in each 100. 

Two and under five 2134, or 10.66 in each 100. 



Total under five years 8006, or 43.00 in each 100. 



The next table (XIV) shows the causes of the deaths in Providence, 
in 1862 ; also the number of each sex, the number in each division of 
ages, and the number of American and of foreign parentage, from each 
cause. It also shows the proportion of deaths from each cause, to the 
whole number from causes which were known. 



22 



CITY REGISTRAR'S REPORT. 





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DEATHS 



23 



Ratio of 
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to whole 
number from 
known causes. 


1.81 
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1.3G 
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24 



CITY REGISTRAR S REPORT. 



* 



^ 



Ratio of 
deaths from 
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to whole 
number from 
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2.38 

3.51 

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DEATHS 



25 



Ratio of 
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__ 1 


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26 



CITY REGISTRAR S REPORT. 



o 

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number from 

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DEATHS 



27 



Ratio of 

deaths from 

each cause 

to whole 

number from 

known causes. 


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28 



CITY REGISTRAR'S REPORT 





5 ►„ i 








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DEATHS. 



29 



NOTES ON THE CAUSES OF DEATH, 

DURING THE YEAR 1862. 

The following notes are intended to explain some facts and give some 
additional information relating to the causes of death, which could not 
be given in tabular form. 

Accidents. There were only 26 deaths in Providence, in 1862;, 
from accidental causes of every description ; or 2.93 per cent, of the 
whole number (884) of deaths from known causes. The number was 
the same, and the percentage nearly the same as in 1857 ; but both 
were less than the average. 

There were in 1862, eight deaths from burns and scalds; 3 only, 
from drowning; 4 from falls; one from poisoning; and 10 from other 
accidents. There were 17 males, 9 females ; 8 of American, and 18 
of foreign parentage. 

The case of death from poisoning was a child, poisoned by drinking 
six ounces of gin. 

The accidents not described in the table, were : " fall from a fence," 
" fall down stairs," and " fall from a building," one each ; " hit by loco- 
motive or cars," and " steam boiler explosion," two each ; " run over by 
a loaded wagon," " upset in a hack," " thrown from a sleigh," and " in- 
jury at birth," one each ; and two deaths of children from " injury to 
the head." 

The number and percentage of deaths from accidental causes during 
the last seven years, 1856 to 1862 inclusive, have been as follows: 

ACCIDENTS. 1862. 1861. 1860. 1859. 1858. 1857. 1856. 

Number of deaths. . . .26 37 35 33 21 26 27 

Percentages 2.93. . . .3.65 . . . .3.64 . . . .3.80 . . . .2.11 . . . .2.88 . . . .2.62 

During the seven years, included above, there were 6,649 deaths in 
Providence from known causes. Of these 205, or 3.08 per cent, were 
from accidental causes. Of the 205 deaths, there were 143 males, 
62 females ; 80 of American, and 125 of foreign parentage. 



30 CITY registrar's report. 

Apoplexy. There were 19 deaths from this cause, in 1862, or 2.15 
per cent, of all from known causes. The number of deaths from apo- 
plexy, in 7 years, 1856-1862, was 120, or 1.80 per cent. These were 
divided as follows : 

Males, 60; females, 60; total, 120. 
American parentage, 86; foreign parentage, 34. 

Brain, Diseases of. There were 40 deaths in 1862, of which 16 
were reported " inflammation of the brain ;" 13, " congestion ;" and 11, 
" disease of the brain." They amounted to 4.52 per cent, of all the 
deaths from known causes, and included 18 males, 22 females; 18 of 
American, and 22 of foreign parentage. 

The statistics of deaths from diseases of the brain, for seven years 
past, were as follows : 

Males, 124; females, 105; total, 229, or 3.44 per cent. 
American parentage, 124 ; foreign parentage, 105. 

Cancer caused 20 deaths, in 1862, of which 4 were cancer of the 
breast ; 1, of the stomach ; 3, of the uterus ; 3, of the liver ; one each 
of the parotid gland, oesophagus, face, neck, and leg ; and 4 in which 
the location was not given. There were 7 males, 13 females; 13 of 
American and 7 of foreign parentage. The percentage was 2.26 of 
all from known causes. The statistics of deaths from cancer for seven 
years, 1856 to 1862 inclusive, were as follows: 

Males, 35; females, 87; total, 122; or 1.83 per cent. 
American parentage, 85 ; foreign parentage, 37. 

Child-birth. Eight deaths were reported in 1862, from "child-birth;" 
and 2 from puerperal convulsions. Of the 10 decedents, 2 were of 
American, and 8 of foreign parentage. No deaths were reported, 
during the year, from puerperal fever. 

Of the 8 deaths reported from " child-birth," one was from " prema- 
ture labor ;" one from " rupture of the bladder ; " and 2 from "rupture 
of the uterus." The decedents from " rupture of the uterus," were 
both natives of Ireland, and aged 34 and 35 years respectively. 

During the seven years, 1856 to 1862, there have been reported 65 
deaths from causes connected with childbirth. Of this number, 22 were 
of American, and 43 of foreign parentage. Of the whole number, 10 
were from " rupture of the uterus." These were all natives of Ireland, 
and all but two were between 30 and 40 years of age. 



DEATHS. 31 

Cholera Infantum. The number of deaths (44) in Providence, in 
1862, was 17 less than in 1861, and less than the average for a series 
of years. The percentage, (4.98) was also less than the average. 
Of the 44 decedents, in 1862, 25 were males, 19 females ; 17 of Amer- 
ican, and 27 of foreign parentage. 

During seven years, 1856 to 1862 inclusive, the statistics of deaths 
from cholera infantum in Providence, were as follows : 

Males, 192; Females, 170; total 362;— or 5.44 per cent. 
American parentage, 136; foreign parentage, 226. 

Consumption. The number of deaths from consumption, in 1862, 
was 191, which was 21.61 per cent, of the whole number from known 
causes. They were divided according to parentage, and sex as fol- 
lows : 

American parentage 47 males 52 females total, 99. 

Foreign parentage .51 males 41 females total, 92. 

Total 98 males 93 females total 191. 

The year 1862 was the first in which there was a greater number 
of males than of females among the decedents from consumption, and 
this was owing to the fact which we have before noticed, of the excess 
of males among the decedents of foreign parentage. 

During seven years, 1856 to 1862 inclusive, the deaths from con- 
sumption, in Providence were as follows : 

Whole number, 1305, or 19.62 per cent. 

American parentage 261 males; 453 females; total, 714. 

Foreign parentage 308 males; 283 females; total, 591. 

Totals 569 males; 736 females; total, 1305. 

Convulsions. The number of deaths reported from convulsions, in 
1862, was 21 ; or 2.38 per cent, of all from known causes. There 
were 15 males, 6 females ; 13 of American, and 8 of foreign parent- 
age. The number and percentage were less than in preceding years ; 
a gratifying change, as " convulsions" are not of themselves a disease, 
but only a symptom of some disease. 

The deaths reported from convulsions, in seven years, 1856 to 1862, 
were as follows : 

Males, 125; females, 98; total, 223, or 3.35 per cent. 
American parentage, 88; foreign parentage, 135. 



32 CITY registrar's report. 

Croup. There were 31 deaths in Providence, from croup, in 1862, 
or 3.51 per cent, of all from known causes. Seventeen were males, 14 
were females; 15 of American, and 16 of foreign parentage. The 
seven years statistics of croup in Providence, 1856-1862, have been as 
follows : 

Males, 93; females, 85; total, 178, or 2.67 per cent. 
American parentage, 76; foreign parentage, 102. 

Diarrhcea and Dysentery. In 1862, there were 21 deaths reported 
from acute diarrhoea; 10 from chronic diarrhoea; and 22 from dysen- 
tery ; total, 53, or 6.00 per cent, of all from known causes. Of these, 
22 were males, 31 females ; 20 of American, and 33 of foreign 
parentage. 

There were 98 deaths, or 11.09 per cent., in 1862, from the four dis- 
eases, cholera infantum, cholera morbus, diarrhoea, and dysentery ; viz : 
48 males, 50 females ; 37 of American, and 61 of foreign parentage. 

The statistics of deaths from these four diseases, during seven years, 
1856 to 1862 inclusive, were as follows : 

Males, 365; females, 372; total 737, or 11.08 per cent. 
American parentage, 303; foreign parentage, 434. 

Diphtheria. There were 17 decedents from diphtheria, in Providence, 
in 1862, or 1.92 per cent, of all from known causes. Of these, 4 were 
males, 13 females; 11 of American, and 6 of foreign parentage. 

The first deaths reported from diphtheria in Providence, were in 
1858. During the five years, 1858 to 1862 inclusive, the statistics of 
deaths from this disease were as follows : 

Males, 39; females, 47; total 86, or 1.82 per cent. 
American parentage, 48; foreign parentage, 38. 

The number of deaths, in 1862, from diphtheria, was less than in the 
preceding year ; but there was, as usual in past years, an outbreak of 
of the disease in October and November, which soon subsided. At no 
time has diphtheria ever become epidemic in Providence. 

The season of the year in which diphtheria prevails most severely, is 
a subject of interest and importance ; and the statistics of diphtheria and 
of scarlatina show a marked difference between the two diseases, which 
is worthy of notice. It seems that diphtheria prevails most severely in 
the autumn, reaching its period of greatest mortality in October or 
November ; while scarlatina prevails most severely in the winter, reach- 
ing its bight in March or April. 



DEATHS. 33 

The following statistics show this difference, the facts for diphtheria 
being for five years, 1858 to 1862 inclusive; and those for scarlatina 
being for eight years, 1855 to 1862 inclusive. Dividing the year into 
two equal parts, the deaths for the whole period have been as follows : 

Diphtheria, 5 years. Scarlatina, 8 years. 

January— June 22 deaths, or 25.58 per cent 275 deaths, or 69.80 per cent. 

July— December. . 64 deaths, or 74.42 per cent 119 deaths, or 30. 20 percent. 



Whole Year 86 deaths, or 100.00 per cent 394 deaths, or 100.00 per cent. 

Dividing the year into three portions of four months each, the deaths 
were as follows : 

Diphtheria 5 years. Scarlatina, 8 years. 

January— April. ... 14 deaths, or 16.28 per cent 193 deaths, or 48.99 per cent. 

May— August 18 deaths, or 20.93 per cent 119 deaths, or 30.20 per cent. 

Sept.— December... 54 deaths, or 62.79 per cent 82 deaths, or 20.81 per cent. 



Whole year 86 deaths, or 100.00 per cent 394 deaths, or 100.00 per cent. 

Taking all the deaths from diphtheria, reported in the State of Rhode 
Island, from 1858 to 1861 inclusive, the proportions were as follows : 
January— June, 39.06 per cent. ; July— December, 60.94 per cent. 

Fevers. There were 21 deaths reported in 1862 from typhoid fever ; 
a less number than the annual average. Of the decedents, there were 
10 males, 11 females; 14 of American and 7 of foreign parentage. 
During seven years, 1856 to 1862 inclusive, the deaths from fevers, 
including typhoid, typhus, bilious, yellow, &c, were as follows : 

Males, 97; females, 88; total, 185, or 2.78 per cent. 
American parentage, 118; foreign parentage, 67. 

Heart, Diseases of. There were 49 deaths reported from diseases 
of the heart, in 1862, or 5.54 per cent of all from known causes. Of 
these, there were 26 males, 23 females; 33 of American, and 16 of 
foreign parentage. 

During the last seven years, 1856 to 1862 inclusive, the decedents 
from diseases of the heart, have been as follows : 

Males, 111; females, 122; total, 233, or 3.50 per cent. 
American parentage, 166; foreign parentage, 67. 

During the last two years, there has been a large increase in the 
number of deaths reported from " diseases of the heart," the numbers 
being 41 in 1861, and .49 in 1862, while the annual average for the 
5 



34 CITY registrar's report. 

five years preceding was only 28. There has been a large number of 
sudden deaths, in the last two years, and a considerable portion of these 
are reported " diseases of the heart," often perhaps, without sufficient 
certainty of its correctness. 

Hooping cough. Only 3 deaths in 1862, while in the year previous, 
the number was 25. 

The seven years statistics of deaths in Providence, from hooping 
cough, are as follows : 

Males, 41; females, 47; total, 88, or 1.32 per cent. 
American parentage, 34 ; foreign parentage, 54. 

Hydrocephalus. There were only 19 deaths reported, in 1862, from 
hydrocephalus, or 2.15 per cent, of all from known causes. The num- 
ber was much less than in preceding years. Of this number, there 
were 9 males, 10 females ; 9 of American, and 10 of foreign parent- 
age. In the seven years, 1856 to 1862, the statistics of deaths from 
hydrocephalus were 

Males, 127; females, 86; total, 213, or 3.20 per cent. 
American parentage, 123 ; foreign parentage, 90. 

Intemperance and Delirium Tremens were reported as the direct 
cause of 13 deaths, in 1862. Of the decedents, 10 were males, 3 fe- 
males ; 3 of American, and 10 of foreign parentage. 

The statistics of deaths from intemperance and delirium tremens, in 
seven years, 1856-61, are as follows: 

Males, 64; females, 21; total, 85, or 1.27 per cent. 
American parentage, 26; foreign parentage, 59. 

Kidneys, Diseases of. Seven deaths in 1862, of which 5 were from 
" Bright's disease." 

Liver, Diseases of, caused 19 deaths in 1862, of which 3 were from 
" hypertrophy of the liver," 3 from " cirrhosis," and 7 from inflamma- 
tion and congestion. 

During the last seven years, the deaths from diseases of the liver 
were as follows : 

Males, 35; females, 43; total, 78, or 1.17 per cent. 
American parentage, 39 ; foreign parentage, 39. 

Malformations. Only 2 deaths reported in 1862, from this cause, 
of which one was " of the spine," the other * of the bowels." The 



DEATHS. 35 

malformations reported in Providence during the last seven years, 
1856-61, were, whole number 45 ; males 26, females 19; American 
parentage, 32 ; foreign parentage, 13. 

Marasmus. The number of deaths reported in 1862, from maras- 
mus, was 24, of which there were 13 males, 11 females ; 9 of Ameri- 
can, and 15 of foreign parentage. 

In seven years past, 1856 to 1862, the whole number was 175, or 
2.63 per cent, of all from known causes ; 91 males, 84 females ; 83 of 
American, and 92 of foreign parentage. 

Old age, including senile gangrene, was the reported cause of 41 
deaths in 1862, or 4.64 per cent, of all from known causes. Of the 
decedents, there were 12 males, 29 females ; 26 of American, and 15 
of foreign parentage. During the same year there were 92 deaths 
of persons of 70 years of age and over. 

During seven years, 1856 to 1862 inclusive, there were 614 dece- 
dents in Providence, of the age of 70 years and over, distributed as 
follows : 



YEAR. 


1862. 


1861. 


1860. 


1859. 


1858. 


1857. 


1856. 


Total. 


70 years and over. . 


....92.. 


...86.. 


..104.. 


...73.. 


...91.. 


..96.. 


...72... 


...614 



Of the whole number (614) there were 365 between 70 and 80 years 
of age, 200 between 80 and 90 years, 45 between 90 and 100, and 4 
over 100 years. There were 488 of American, and 126 of foreign 
parentage. 

The whole number of decedents in Providence, from known and 
unknown causes, during the seven years, 1856 to 1862 inclusive, was 
6,872, of whom 614, or 8.93 in each 100, were 70 years of age or more. 

Pneumonia including congestion of the lungs, caused 61 deaths in 
Providence, in 1862, or 6.90 in each 100 of all from known causes. 
There were 29 males, 32 females ; 33 of American and 28 of foreign 
parentage. 

In our fickle climate, this disease constantly causes a large percen- 
tage of the mortality ; both as a primary disease, and as secondary, 
after measles, scarlatina, &c. 

During seven years, 1856-1862, the decedents from pneumonia and 
congestion of the lungs, in Providence, were 

Males, 262; females, 213; total, 475; or 7.14 per cent. 
American parentage, 255; foreign parentage, 220. 



36 city registrar's report. 

Scarlatina. This disease has not been epidemic in Providence 
since 1858. Though almost constantly present, and occasionally prov- 
ing suddenly and severely fatal in single families, it has been generally 
mild and the mortality has been small. There were only 14 deaths 
from scarlatina, in Providence, during the year 1862, a smaller num- 
ber than in any year, with one exception, since 1842, a period of 20 
years. 

During the last seven years, 1856 to 1862, the decedents from scar- 
latina, in Providence, were as follows : 

Males, 171; females, 181; total, 352, or 5.29 per cent. 
American parentage, 189; foreign parentage, 163. 

There are great variations in the number and percentage of the 
deaths from scarlatina. In 1862 there were 14 deaths, or 1.58 per 
cent, of all from known causes ; in 1856, there were 144 deaths, or 14 
per cent. ; and in 1858, there were 72 deaths, or 7.23 per cent. 

Some remarks in relation to scarlatina have been made in the notes 
on diphtheria; and in the sixth report, for 1860, very minute statistics 
of both diseases were given* 

Small Pox. There were four deaths from small pox in Providence, 
during the first three months of the year 1862. The first death was on 
the last day of January, and the last death, on the first day of March. 
The last death in the city from small pox, previous to these, was on the 
12th of May, 1860. 

From the first of January to the 14th of April, 1862, there were 53 
cases of varioloid, and 9 cases of unmodified small pox, in the city. Of 
the cases of varioloid, none died ; of the cases of small pox, 4 died. 
There was one case, in February, in which the same person had the 
small pox the second time. 

There has not been a case of small pox or varioloid, in the city, since 
the middle of April, 1862, to this date April 1, 1863. 

Suicide. There were three deaths from suicide in Providence, in 
1862 ; two males, one female ; 2 of American, and one of foreign pa- 
rentage. One was by drowning, one by shooting, and one by taking 
prussic acid. 

During the last seven years, the deaths from suicide in Providence, 
have been as follows : — Whole number, 21 ; males, 13, females, 8 ; of 
American parentage, 14; of foreign parentage, 7. 



STILL BORN. 37 

Unknown causes. Thirty persons died in Providence, in 1862, of 
whom the cause of death is recorded as unknown. Of these, 1 6 were 
males, 14 females; 10 of American, and 20 of foreign parentage. 

In seven years, (1856-62), the deaths reported from unknown causes, 
were as follows : 

Males, 100; females, 123; total, 223. 
American parentage, 51 ; foreign parentage, 172. 

STILL BOKN". 

The number of still born children in Providence, in 1862, was 88, 
which is not far from the average. Of these, 47 were males, 41 fe- 
males ; 84 white, 4 colored ; 22 of American parentage, 55 Irish, one 
English, one German, 2 American father and Irish mother, 2 English 
father and Irish mother, and one each of the following : British Amer- 
ican, British American father and American mother, English father 
and American mother, Irish father and American mother, and German 
father and Irish mother : total, 88. 

In the different portions of the city, the numbers were as follows : 
First ward, 22 ; second, 2 ; third, 14; fourth, 5 ; fifth, 18 ; sixth, 12 ; 
seventh, 15 ; total, 88. 

The numbers in the different portions of the year were as follows : 
January, 12 ; February, 13 ; March, 2 ; April, 9 ; May, 7 ; June, 6 ; 
July, 7 ; August, 2 ; September, 9 ; October, 7 ; November, 9 ; De- 
cember, 5 ; total, 88. 

The number in each quarter of the year, was : 

January — March 27 July — September 18 

April— June 22 October— December , 21 

A comparison of the still born, in 1862, with the whole number of 
births according to parentage, gives the following results : Whole num- 
ber of children born of American mothers, 656; still born, 25, or one 
in 26.24. Children born of Irish mothers, 689 ; still born, 60, or one 
in 11.48. 

During the last seven years, 1856 to 1862 inclusive, there were 641 
still born children, in Providence. Of these there were 369 males? 
272 females ; 617 white, 24 colored ; 235 of American parentage, 338 
Irish, 61 other foreign, and 7 of unknown parentage ; the parentage 
being given according to the nativity of the father. 

The whole number of children born in Providence, during the same 
seven years, was 11,582, so that of the whole number, one in 18.07 
was still born. 



38 



CITY REGISTRAR S REPORT. 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 

EIGHT YEARS, 1855 TO 1862 INCLUSIVE. 

The following table shows the general results of registration in Prov- 
idence, during eight years, 1855 to 1862 inclusive. 

Table XVI. Births, Marriages, and Deaths. 



YEAR. 


Population 


Births. 


To popula- 
tion one 
birth in 


RIAGES. 


Of popula- 
tion one 
person mar- 
ried in 


Deaths. 


Of popula- 
tion one 
death in 


1855.... 


47,785 


1,600 


29.86 


636 


37.56 


991 


48.22 


1856.... 


48,727 


1,675 


29.09 


656 


37.14 


1,065 


45.75 


1857.... 


49,457 


1,688 


29.30 


614 


40.27 


925 


53.46 


1858.... 


49,457' 


1,724 


28.68 


560 


44.15 


1,017 


48.63 


1859.... 


50,100 


1,593 


31.45 


616 


40.66 


899 


55.72 


I860.... 


50,666 


1,648 


30.74 


633 


40.02 


1,001 


50.61 


1861.... 


50,666 


1,725 


29.37 


547 


46.31 


1,051 


48.21 


1862.... 


50,666 


1,529 


33.13 


547 


46.31 


914 

983 


55.43 
50.55 


Average 


49,690 


1,648 


30.15 


601 


41.33 



The population given above, for the years 1855 and 1860, is official, 
according to the censuses of those years. I have given the population 
for 1862, the same as in 1860. 

Though there is a large number of residents of Providence absent 
in the army, there is each year an excess of several hundred births 
over the deaths ; and some important manufactures in the city are 
highly prosperous at the present time, so that there has been a con- 
siderable immigration from other places. I am confident that the popu- 
lation of the city is fully as large as in 1860, and probably larger. 

The annual average for eight years, is nearly one birth in 30 ; one 
person married in 41 ; and one death in 50 of the population. 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 39 

The present report, for the year 1862, is the eighth annual report 
which has been published, upon the births, marriages, and deaths in 
the city of Providence ; commencing with the report for 1855. During 
these years, a large mass of facts has been accumulated, so that they 
begin to have some positive value in determining the general laws 
which govern the vital statistics of the city. 

For the jDurposes of convenient reference, conciseness, and uniform- 
ity, it has been necessary to give these facts in the form of tables. 
But the tabular form, though necessary, is unattractive to a large por- 
tion of the people, and on this account, fails in some degree of its ob- 
ject. In order to put the information which has been obtained, in a 
form which will be interesting and useful to the people generally, I 
propose, in the following pages, to give some of the facts obtained, and 
the general laws which govern them, in the form of simple deductions 
or statements, which may be comprehended by all, at a glance. 

Though these deductions are given in the form of statements of 
positive truth, I wish it to be distinctly understood that they cannot be 
considered as absolutely true. They are only true statements of the 
results of registration in Providence, during the last eight years, and 
though the greater portion of them are very near the truth, they are 
nearly all liable to be changed and modified, by a further accumulation 
of facts. 

The statements are arranged in the order of the facts in the annual 
reports, under the three divisions : births, marriages and deaths. 



BIRTHS. 

1. The average number of children born in Providence, annually, 
is 1,648 ; equal to 137 each month, or one every 5 hours. This is one 
birth, annually, in every 30 of the population. 

2. In every 100 children, born in Providence, 51.76 are boys, and 
48.24 are girls; or 107.3 boys to each 100 girls. 

3. The proportion of boys born is much the largest in the first 
quarter of the year, and the smallest in the third quarter. 

4. In each 100 children born in Providence, 39.51 are of Ameri- 
can parentage, 53.06 of foreign parentage, and 7.43 of mixed, i. e. 
American and foreign, parentage. 

5. Of every 53 children of foreign parentage, 42 are Irish, 6 Eng- 
lish, 3 German, and the balance " other foreign." 



40 CITY registrar's report. 

6. Of 13,182 children, born in the last eight years, 3,086, or 23.41 
in each 100, were the first children of the mothers ; 9 were fourteenth 
children, 5 the fifteenth, 5 the seventeenth, and one the nineteenth. 

7. In eight years past, there were, in Providence, 155 cases of twin 
births, and 4 cases of triplets, in which 322 children were born ; 152 
boys and 170 girls. 

8. The cases of twin births were one in 84.6 of all the cases of 
child-birth, and the cases of triplets, one in 3.255. 

9. Of all the children born in eight years, one in 41 was a twin or 
a triplet. 

10. Of 13,182 children, born in Providence, in eight years past, 
721 were still born, or one in every 18.28. 

11. Of the still born children, 57.57 in each 100 are boys, and 
42.43 in each 100 are girls ; or 135.6 boys to 100 girls. 

12. Of all the children born of American fathers, one in 21.4 is 
still born ; of Irish fathers, one in 15.2 ; and of other foreign fathers, 
one in 23.4. 



MARRIAGES. 

1. On an average 1200 persons are married in Providence, an- 
nually, or 100 each month. 

2. One in 41.3 of the population of Providence, is married annually. 

3. More marriages are solemnized in October, and less in March 
than in the other months ; and many more in the fourth than in the 
other quarters of the year. 

4. Both parties are natives of the United States in 55 of each 100 
marriages in Providence ; both are natives of foreign countries in 34 of 
each 100 ; and in 11 of each 100 marriages, one party is born in the 
United States and the other in some foreign country. 

5. The average age of persons married in Providence is, males, 
28.1 years ; females, 24.1 years. 

6. About one in 5 of the females married in Providence is under 
20 years of age, while only one in 34 of the males is under that age. 

7. More males are married over 50 years of age, than under 20. 

8. Of all the marriages solemnized, it is the first marriage of 82 in 
each 100 of the males, and of 88.6 in each 100 of the females. 

9. Of 1094 persons married in Providence, in 1862, only 14.3 in 
each 100 were natives of the city. 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 41 

10. During the last four years, of the persons married in Provi- 
dence, who were born in the United States, 2.85 in each 100 of the 
males, and 4.95 in each 100 of the females, were unable to write their 
names. 

11. Of those married, who were born in foreign countries, 43.43 
in each 100 of the males, and 58.86 in each 100 of the females, were 
unable to write their names. 

12. Of the marriages in 1862, in Providence, 28 in each 100 were 
solemnized by Roman Catholic clergymen. See page 13. 



DEATHS. 

1. The- average number of deaths in Providence, is 983 annually, 
or 82 in each month. The extremes in the last eight years, are 899 
and 1065. 

2. Of the whole population of Providence, one in 50.5 dies annu- 
ally, or 19.78 in each 1000. 

3. In a series of years, the order of the months in relation to mor- 
tality is as follows : the month with the greatest mortality being number 
one, and the month with the least mortality being number twelve. 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 

Aug. Sept. July. Jan. March. Nov. Oct. May. April. Feb. Dec. June. 

4. In a series of years, the greatest number of deaths occurs in the 
third quarter, and the least number in the second quarter of the year. 

5. In the last eight years, more females than males died in Provi- 
dence ; but in the last 23 years, more males than females died. 

6. As a general rule, more males than females are born, and more 
females than males die in Providence, and yet there is constantly a 
large excess of females in the living population of the city. 

7. In every year, among the decedents of American parentage 
there is a large excess of females ; but among the decedents of foreign 
parentage there are more males than females. 

8. Among the colored population of Providence, there are more 
deaths than births ; in the last eight years, 420 deaths to 378 births. 

9. In the First, Third, Fifth, and Seventh wards, more persons die 
of foreign than of American parentage ; but in the Second, Fourth, 
and Sixth wards, the reverse is true. 

10. Of all who die in Providence, 79.8 in each 100 are born in 
the United States ; but more than one-third of these are children of 
foreign parents, so that 



42 CITY registrar's report. 

11. Of all who die in Providence, only 51.8 in each 100 are of 
American parentage, and 48.2 in each 100 are of foreign parentage. 

12. The average age of all who have died in Providence, during 
the last seven years, has been 25.18 years. 

13. Dividing the population into two classes, the first class includ- 
ing Americans and their children, the second including foreigners and 
their children ; the average age of those who die in each class is as 
follows : 

Arrierican class. 30.67 years; • [Foreign class 19.27 years. 

14. Of the decedents of American parentage, one-third (83.4 per 
cent.) are under 5 years of age ; while of the decedents of foreign par- 
entage, one-half (50.7 per cent.) are under 5 years* 

15. More than half of the decedents in Providence, of American 
parentage, are over 20 years of age ; but of those of foreign parent- 
age, one-half are under 5 years. 

16. Of the decedents in Providence, of American parentage, 28 in 
each 100 are over 50 years of age ; but of those of foreign parentage* 
only 13 in each 100 are over 50 years. 

17. Of those who die, of American parentage, 14 in each 100 are 
over 70 years of age ; but of those of foreign parentage only 3.8 are 
over 70 years. 

18. Of all who have died in Providence, of all classes, in the last 
23 years, 43 in each 100 have been under 5 years of age ; but this 
proportion is less than in other cities. 

19. Causes of death. Of all the deaths recorded in Providence^ 
only 3 in each 100 are reported " cause unknown." 

20. Of each 100 deaths in Providence, of which the causes are 
known, the average numbers from some of the principal causes are as 
follows : 

Accidents 3.0 in each 100. Fevers 2.8 in each 100. 

Apoplexy 1.8 in each 100. Heart, Diseases of 3. 5 in each 100; 

Brain, Diseases of .3.4 in each 100. Hooping Cough 1.3 in each 100. 

Cancer 1.8 in each 100. Hydrocephalus 3.2 in eaeh 100. 

Cholera Infantum 5.4 in each 100. Liver, Diseases of 1.1 in each 100. 

Consumption 19.6 in each 100. Old Age 3.5 in each 100. 

Convulsions. . . . • 3.3 in each 100. Pneumonia 7.1 in each 100. 

Croup 2.6 in each 100. Scarlatina 5.2 in each 100. 

Diarrhoea & Dysentery . .5.3 in each 100. Small Pox 0.3 in each 100. 






GENERAL SUMMARY. 43 



21. If we take 100 deaths in Providence, from each of the fore- 
going causes, the number of American, and of foreign parentage is as 
follows : 

DEATHS FROM In each 100 deaths*. 

Accidents 39.0 of American, and 61.0 of foreign parentage. 

Apoplexy 71.6 of American, and 28.4 of foreign parentage. 

Brain, Diseases of 54.1 of American, and 45.9 of foreign parentage. 

Cancer 69.6 of American, and 30.4 of foreign parentage. 

Cholera Infantum 37.5 of American, and 62.5 of foreign parentage* 

Consumption 54.7 of American, and 45.3 of foreign parentage. 

Convulsions. 39.4 of American, and 60.6 of foreign parentage. 

Croup 42.7 of American, and 57.3 of foreign parentage. 

Diarrhoea and Dysentery.. 45.6 of American, and 54,4 of foreign parentage. 

JFevers 63.7 of American, and 36.3 of foreign parentage. 

Heart, Diseases of 71.2 of American, and 28.8 of foreign parentage. 

Hooping Cough. 38.6 of American, and 61.4 of foreign parentage. 

Hydrocephalus 57.7 of American, and 42.3 of foreign parentage. 

Liver, Diseases of 50.0 of American, and 50.0 of foreign parentage. 

Old Age 73.7 of American, and 26.3 of foreign parentage. 

Pneumonia .53.6 of American, and 46.4 of foreign parentage. 

Scarlatina 53.7 of American, and 46*3 of foreign parentage. 

22. Of all the decedents in Providence, from contagious, infectious* 
and epidemic diseases, (zymotics), 46.5 in each 100 are of American, 
and 53.5 in each 100 of foreign parentage. 

23. Of each 100 persons of American parentage, who die in 
Providence, 23.6 die from zymotic diseases. 

24. Of each 100 persons of foreign parentage, who die in Provi* 
dence, 29.3 die from zymotic diseases. 

I had intended to add various propositions in relation to some of the 
most prominent causes of death ; but the want^of time renders it neces* 
sary to close this report at this point. 

I am indebted to the Superintendent of the United States Census 
for a table, which is given on the next page, showing the number of 
males and females in each division of age, in each ward of the city of 
Providence, by the census of 1860. This table has not been pub- 
lished before. 

EDWIN M. SNOW, ML D., 
SupU of Health and City Registrar, 

Providence, April 3, 1863. 



44 



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VITAL STATISTICS, PROVIDENCE, 

1862. 




CITY REGISTRAR'S 



EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



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