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Agricultural Experiment Association 

Madison, Wis., Feb. 3, 4, 1804. 

Address of President, Secretary's Report with Papers and Addresses Given by 

Members of the Association and Others Interested in 

Progressive Agriculture. 

Compiled by 
R. A. iWOORE, Secretary. 

Democrat Printing Co., State Printers. 

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SEP 12 1904 


Office of the Secretary^ 
Wisconsin Agriculturai. Experiment Association. 

Madison, Wis,, 190 4, 
To His Eixcellencv, Robert M. La Follette^ 

Governor of the State of Wisconsin: 
Sir — I have the honor to submit for publication, as provided 
by law, tho Second Annual Eepoirt of the Wisconsin Agricul- 
tural Experiment Association, showing the receipts and dis- 
bursements the past year, also outlines for experiments, and 
addresses and discussions given at the annual meeting at Mad- 
ison, February 3-4, 1904. 

Respectfully submitted, 

R. A. MooRE^ 


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Letter of Transmittal iii 

Officers and committees of the Association vii 

Constitution and By-Laws viii 

List of Members x 

Program for Annual Meeting xvi 

President's Address 1 

Secretary's Report 2 

Growers of Swedish Select Oats 6 

Official Corn Score Card 9 

Wisconsin Grain Crops, G. C. Julius Spoerri, Secretary Grain 

Shippers' Association 11 

The Press as an Important B'actor in Progressive Agriculture, 

A. J. Bill, Agricultural Editor, Pantagraph 19 

Cutting Cross Comers on the Farm, W. L. Ames 29 

Fair View Farm 36 

Farmers' Daughters, Ella Menn 37 

Papers and Addresses by Members of the Association 41 

Growing Clover for Seed, J. H. McNown 41 

Growing Barley, J. D. Clark 44 

Farm Managers, R. H. Poston 47 

Don't Knock but Push, J. H. Liebe 50 

Wisconsin Tobacco, Thos. H. Biggar 52 

Teachers of Agriculture, Ross C. Preston 57 

Cooperation of Students with the Experiment Association, 

G. A. Freeman 59 

Treating Seed Orain to Prevent Smut: 

Henry O. Jacobson 62 

E. L. Dreger 63 

Rufus Gillett 64 

H. E Rosenow 64 

Geo. Q. Emery 65 

Rape as a Forage Plant for Pigs, C. E. Jones 66 

Rape as a Forage Plant for Sheep, H. J. Renk 67 

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vi Tahle of Contents. 

Papers and Addresses by Members of the Aasociation: Page 
Or owing Alfalfa: 

Henry E. Rosenow 70 

John P. Bonzelet ' 72 

R. C. Schreiber 74 

David Williams 74 

E. E. Jones 75 

Hon. W. D. Hoard 76 

Growing Soy Beans: 

J. Roy Gordon 81 

W. Andrews «S2 

P. A. Dukleth 83 

Growing Swedish Select Oats: 

Edward F. Heuer 86 

Ernest A. Donaldson 88 

Rufus Gillett 88 

Julian Cherovsky . . '. 89 

John P. Bonzelet 90 

Summer Pastures for Growing Hogs: 

L. P. Martiny 00 

A. L. Bonnell 93 

Relation ol* Short Course Students to the County Fairs, 

A. C. Hagestad 95 

Tests with Grain and Fora.L^e Plants, R. A. Moore 97 

Outlines for Tests with Alfalfa 98 

Outlines for Tests with Wisconsin Seed Corn 101 

Treating Potatoes for the Prevention of Scab 103 

Treating Seed Oats for the Prevention of Smut 104 

Outlines for Testa with Swedish Select Oats 106 

Outlines for Tests with Forage Rape 107 

Outlines for Tests with Soy Beans 113 

Cooperative Work in Live Stock, Prof. G. C. Humphrey 116 

Milking Experiments, Prof. F. W. Woll 118 

Experiments on the Treatment and Cultivation of Soils, 

Prof. A. R. Whitson 123 

Pure-bred Cereals for Wisconsin 125 

Premium List 126 

Rules and Regulations under which Premiums are given 127 

Business Meeting 129 

Secretary's Report on State Appropriation 131 

Treasurer's Report 132 

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OFFICERS, 1904. 

President— K. L. STONE .Madison 

Vice President— LKWIS M. HATCH Oakfield 

Secretary— R. A. MOORE Madison 

Treasurer— P. A. DUKLETH R. D. 40, Mukwonago 


Program : 

Experiments : 

Oflicers of the association. 

L. P. Martiny , North Freedom 

H. A. Donaldson Eau Claire 

R. H. Poston Oconomowoc 

H. J. Renk Sun Prairie 

E. E. Jones Rockland 

S. S. Mutch , Jewett 

Farm Crops R. A. Moore 

Chemistry F. W. Woll 

Dairying E. H. Farrington 

Agricultural Physics A. R. Whitson 

Animal Husbandry G. C. Humphrey 

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Article I. — Name. 

This organization shall be known as the Wisconsin Agricultural Ex- 
l-'eriment Association. 

Article II. — Object. 

The object of this association shall be to promote the agricultural 
interests of the state. 

1st. By carrying on experiments and investigations that shall be 
beneficial to all parties interested in progressive farming; 

2d. To form a more perfect union between the former and pres- 
ent students of the Wisconsin College of Agriculture, so as to enable 
them to act in unison for the betterment of rural pursuits in carrying 
on systematic experiments along the various lines of agriculture; 

3d. By growing and disseminating among its constituency new va- 
rieties of farm seeds and plants; 

4th. By sending literature bearing upon agricultural investigations 
to its mem"bership, and 

5th. By holding an annual meeting in order to report and discuss 
topics and experiments beneficial to the members of the association 
and those interested in progressive farming. 

Article III. — Membership. 

Section I. All former, present and future students and instructors 
of the Wisconsin College of Agriculture shall be entitled to become 
members of this association. 

Sec. II. Honorary membership may be conferred upon any one in- 
terested in progressive agriculture by a majority vote at any annual or 
special meeting of the association. 

Article IV. — Dues. 
A fee of fifty cents shall be collected from each member annually. 

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By-Laws. ix 

Article V. — Ot'FiCEBS. 

The officers of this association shall consist of a president, vice-presi- 
dent, secretary and treasurer, whose term of office shall be one year or 
until their successors are elected. 

Abticlf VI. — Duties of Officers. 

Section I. It shall be the duty of the president to preside at al) 
meetings of the society and enforce the observance of such rules and 
regulations as will be for the best interest of the organization; to 
appoint all regular committees as he may deem expedient for the wel- 
fare of the association. 

Sec. II. In the absence of the president, the vice-president shaU 
preside, and perform all duties of the president. 

Sec. III. It shall be the duty of the secretary to keep all records 
of the association; to report the results of all co-operative experiments 
carried on by its membership and the experiment station; plan the 
experimental work as far as possible for the members of the asso- 
ciation, and labor for thiB welfare of the society in general. 

Sec. IV. The treasurer shall collect fees, keep secure all funds of 
the association and pay out money upon the written order of , the sec- 
retary signed by the president. He shall furnish bonds in the sum of 
two thousand dollars with two sureties, for the faithful performance 
of his duties. 

Article VII. — Amendments. 

This constitution may be amended at any annual meeting by a two- 
thirds vote of the members of the association present. 


Article I. The officers of this association shall be elected by ballot 
at the annual meeting. 

Art. II. The president and secretary shall be ex-officio members of 
the executive committee. 

Art. III. This association shall be governed by Robert's Rules of 

Art. IV. All members joining at the organization of this associa- 
tion shall be known as charter members. 

Art. V. The time and pla«e of the annual meeting shall be deter- 
mined by the executive and program committees. 

Constitution adopted and organization effected Feb. 22, 1901. 

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Ackeret, J. J Medlord. 

Adams, H. C Sechlerville. 

Aderhold, Herman F Urbana, 111. 

Ahrens, George A Mukwonaso 

Aldrich, H. E. .. .Burlington, R. R. 21. 

Alexander, Dr. A. S Madison. 

Almon; Perry T Weyauwega. 

Andi easscn, A. L Bloomer. 

Andrew. J. S Mt. Tabor. 

Andrew, William R Livingston. 

Athearn, S. J Osnkosh. 

Atwood, M. L Rockford, 111., R. 6. 

Austin,. W. B Janesville. 

Baker, L. D Iron River, Mich. 

Baker, F. E Whitehall, 111. 

Baker, E. D Whitehall, 111. 

Bale, Robert O Augusta, N. J. 

Ball, Leroy C Monroe. 

Bark, P'erdinand Wauwautosa. 

Barkhauccn, Ernest Thiensville. 

Barlass, Robert Janesville. 

Banon, R. E Platteville, R. R. 5. 

Barton, Otto M Mount Vernon. 

Batho, Lester Plum City. 

Bathrick, H. R Hewitt. 

Behrens, Bernard F. C Grafton. 

Belda, William F De Forest. 

Bell, George S Madison. 

Benedict, A. M Mazomanie. 

Bennett, Arthur F Pewaukee. 

Bennett, Charles S Walworth. 

Benson, Edward E..Mt. Horeb,R.R.69. 

Bruhn, A Spring Green. 

Beule, Elmore A. . , Fox Lake. 

Bewick, W. W Madison. 

Beyer, Ira Mishicot. 

Bickfcrd, George H Livingston. 

Biddick, H. E Livingston. 

Biggar, T. S. .Walkerville, Ont., Can. 

Biglow, L. F Brooklyn 

Biles, Alfred Porcupine. 

Bilkey , Joseph Madison. 

Bixby, Phil. T Appieton. 

Blackman, Eugene West Bend. 

Blanik, George F Algoma. 

Boies, Phil R Marengo, 111. 

Bonnell, A. L .Northfield, Minn. 

Bonzelet, John P Eden. 

Boss, S. J Oshkosh, R. R. 7. 

Boss. U. C Oshkosh, R. R. 7. 

Fourret , Floy d . ., l\'\t m^ston, 

Bowden, Charles B Mauston. 

Brekke, Alfred L Alban. 

Brehm, Alvin Sheboygan, R. R. 4. 

Brewer, Burt F Berlin. 

Bristol. Abel C Oakfleld. 

Erunnier. Martin KelinersviUe. 

Buehler, J. G Hhaca. 

Bunker. H. W Clinton. 

Bunting, O. H La Crosse. 

Bursewitz, W. E Juneau. 

Buzzell, Roy C Randolph.' 

Byrne, John J Appieton, R. R. 5. 

Caiins, Everett A Amount Hope. 

Cai:e:(i3r, Howard Baraboo. 

Carmody, P. J Mount Ida. 

Cartwright, W. B Tangier, Ind. 

Catt. Harry W Clinton vill'e. 

Cherovsky, Julian L. .Kewaunee, R. 1. 

Chetlain, L. A Galena, 111. 

Christenson, C. Alfred Walsh. 

Chiist.'anson, O. A... Pleasant Prairie. 

Christianson, Oscar Cambridge. 

Church. G. S Allenville. 

Clark, C. F Madison. 

Clark, J. D Whitewater, R. R. 

Clark, W. E Weyauwega. 

Clausen, Reinhold Manitowoc. 

Clausing, Adolph Bartel Sta. 

Clow, A. D Mount Horeb. 

Clendening, H. V. . . Bradwardine, Man. 
Coburn, O. A Whitewater, R. D. 

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List of Members. 


Cockerill, Hugh L Berlin. 

Cole, James O Knapp. 

Cole, W. B Pleasant Prairie. 

Colenso, James E Madison. 

Ccnant, Walter A Stockton, Cal. 

Connell, Wesley F Colgate. 

Conway, D. P Elroy. 

Conway, John P Elroy. 

Cornelius, Herman R Belle Plaine. 

Cowg'ill, D. L Doylestown. 

Cramer, John J Marshfield. 

Cianefield, F Madison. 

Cross, A. J Allenville. 

Dahl, R. M York. 

Dale, Clarence H Soldier's Grove. 

Dallenbach, Chris Clintonville. 

Dann, Prank E Clark, So. Dakota. 

Davis, James Viroqua. 

Davis, John F Barneveld. 

Davis, LeRoy M Pranks ville. 

Dawson, W. J LaCrosse. 

Dennis-on, Nicholas. .Milwaukee, R. 10 

Dettinger, W. P Mason City, la. 

Dettwiler, A. J Monroe. 

Dickey, Meldrum. . .Green Bay, R. 7. 

Diet:ich, John Black River Falls. 

Dille, Forrest G Oakfield. 

Dineen, C. P Cedarburg. 

Dixcn, Darley Cuba. 

Dodge, J. E Ix^well, Mass. 

Donaldson, E. A..Eau Claire, R. R. 3. 

Donaldson, H. A Eau Claire. 

Dregor, Emll L Madison, R. R. 7. 

Drissen, P. J Athens. 

Dudle«stcn, Claude LaValle. 

Duecker, Herman J Kiel. 

Dukleth, Peter A. .Mukwonago, R. 40. 
Eastman, Seth A. .. .Sheboygan Falls. 

Ebert, Francis E Tomah. 

Eddy, Allen R Lancaster. 

Edwards, Wiljiam C Cambria. 

Elhrhardt, Daniel Knowles. 

Ei£:enmen, Fred Mishicot. 

Elfers, David G Richmond, 111. 

Eilickson, Alfred C Madison. 

Elliott, Lewis R River Falls. 

Emery, George Q S tough ton. 

Emery, Lyman J Oconomowoc. 

Evans, Thomas H Wales. 

Evert, Edward Pewaukee. 

Farnam, Ernest Shiocton, R. 18. 

Farrington, E. H., Prof., Madison. 

Fawcett, L. S..1345 Mont. St., Chicago 

feathers, O. C Manawa, R. R. 1. 

Feile, Rudolph A Kiel. 

Fellenz, John Kewaskum. 

Forsythe, John Oconomowoc. 

Fox, Henry T , Durand. 

Frauenheim, Oscar Random Lake. 

Fredlund, Jules Mt. Vernon, Wash. 

Freeman, George A Sparta. 

Fruit, Clyde E Arthur. 

Fruit, Earl J. . .'. Arthur. 

Fruit, J. P Arthur. 

Funk, Walter L Honey Creek. 

Gallagher, Michael M Elroy. 

Garbers, August. . .La Crosse, R. R. 2. 
Geller, H. W...Agr. Col. P. O.. Mich. 

Gerhardt, Walter Neillsville. 

Ghastm, William J Twin Bluff. 

Gillett, Rufus E Verona. 

Gleason, Gilbert M Madison. 

Glindinning, Harry L Shullsburg. 

Goodell, Alfred, Jr Madison. 

Gordon, Roy Mineral Point. 

Gould, John Hartford. 

Grebe, Fred P Fox Lake. 

Grehgo, A. L Sussex. 

Griswold, J. N Stitzer. 

Griswold, Theo. E Livingston. 

Grist, H. C Hay ward. 

Grove, John W. L Browntown. 

Gruhle, William H. ...Barton, R. R. 1. 

Guildford, W. S Ractno. 

Gullickson, Charles E Ciishing. 

Guptill, Lawrence R Auburn. 

Gustafson, Theodore .Lund. 

Hamilton, Thomas S Westfleld. 

Hanchett, W. H Sparta. 

Hansen, H. T Sawyer. 

Hansen, Norman E Auburn. 

Hanson, A. T City Point. 

Hanson, H. T Camp Douglas. 

Hanson, John H Luana, Iowa. 

Hardt, Walter R Janes ville. 

Harland, Robert B.... Cottage Grove. 

Hartman. Andrew Alma. 

Hartsough, A. L So. Wayne. 

Haseltine, E. W Mazoman e. 

Haskin, I. O Prairie du Sac. 

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List of Members. 

Haas, H. A Madison 

Hatch, James R Waupaca, 

Hatch, Lewis M Oakfield. 

Hegge, Evan A Pigeon Falls 

Held. William J Ft. Atkinson 

Heike, Rudolph Tarrant. 

Hendricks, Lewis E . . . Campbells port. 

Herbst, J. L Sparta. 

Hermanson, Herbert T Rio. 

Hesselberg, Arthur Bangor. 

Hettfi, Gary Ft. Atkinson. 

Haass, Otto Merton. 

Hackett, Chas Baraboo. 

Hadden, G. A Janesville. 

Haevers, Martin Tonet. 

Hager, Max H Prairie du Sac. 

Hagestad, A. C. Ettrick. 

Halbert, J. H. Augusta. 

Halgrim, Henry Dodgeville. 

Hetts, John ¥t. Atkinson. 

H«tzel, Peter A. Rubicon. 

Heuer, E. F Wautoma. 

Hicken, A. B Waukesha, R. R. 7. 

Higday, J. S Evansvillo. 

Hillier, H. B Waunakee. 

Hitchcock, H. R Pecatonica, 111. 

Holcomb, W. R..St. Bonifacius, Minn. 

Holman, Ross E Waupaca. 

Holzworth, R. B Farmington. 

Hometh, Charles Mount Sterling. 

Hcukom, Stephen Blair. 

Howard, Arthur E Whitewater. 

Howard, Herbert M Fox Lake. 

Howitt, Charles H Randolph. 

Howland, Howard H Waupun. 

Hoy em, Sigmund EJau Claire. 

Hubbard, Sherman Evansville. 

Hudson, Dwight ReedsBurg. 

Huebbe, Edgar Beloit. 

Hulsether, Albert. .Stough ton, R.R.45. 
Humphrey, Geo. C, Prof., . . . Madison. 

Hundt, Peter A Bangor. 

Hutchinson, James W Lodi. 

Illdan, W. L Adell, R. R. 19. 

Imholt, B. A .Houlton. 

Jackson, H. O Cambridge. 

Jacobson, Anton,. .Buckingham, Iowa. 
Jacobson, H. O. .Cambridge, R. R. 38. 
Jahn, Chas Cream. 

Jahnke, J. F Pepin. 

Jameson, W. G Appleton, R. R. 2. 

Jaquish, James E Ithaca. 

Jarr, Herman D Manitowoc. 

Jeffrey, Harvey B. . . Menomonee Falls. 

Jensen, Fred Waupaca, R. R. 3. 

Jensen, J. F Waupaca. 

Johnson, Alfred lola. 

Johnson, Bert Vifoqua. 

Johnson, Billie Strongs Prairie. 

Johnson, C. J Blair. 

Johnson, Frank R Appietoh. 

Johnson, H. W Wiota. 

Johnson, Kasper Blair. 

Johnson, S Kilbourn, R. R. 2. 

Jones, Albert Dousman, R. F. D. 

Jones, C. E Dousman, R. F. D. 

Jones, E. E Rockland. 

Joos, Frank. . .Fountain City, R. R. 1. 

Jordalen, Clarence Stoughton. 

Jorgensen, Edward Neenah. 

Keenan, William M McFarland. 

Keipper, Edward ... Menomonee Fai:s. 

Kendall, Myron Waupaca, R. R. 3. 

Kendall, V. S Waupaca, R. R. 3. 

Kent, H. W Husk. 

Kent, Joseph S Rusk. 

Keogh, Leuke F Forestville. 

Kerthals, August C Summit Lake. 

Keys, James M Richland Center. 

Kieffer, Michael Fredonia. 

Kielsmeier, Ralph C Hika. 

Kilby, Otto W Wheeler. 

Kiley, Eugene F Curran. 

Kitchen, Joseph H Eldorado. 

Klovdahl, John Wittenberg. 

Kluck, Roy E Lena, III. 

Kluck, F. E i^na. 111. 

Knudtsen, Oscar Beloit. 

Kohlwey, Otto F Grafton. 

Kolar, Frank J Muscoda. 

Koll, Charles A Eau Claire. 

Kramer, H. F Bloomer. 

Krause, William A Aztalan. 

Kressin, Arthur E Cedarburg. 

Kubat, William Neilsville. 

Kundert, Edward Monroe. 

Lamb, James R Janesville. 

Larson, Arthur D... Waupaca, R. R. 4. 

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List of Members. 


Larson, J. M Wautom-a, R. R. 1. 

Larson, W. B Ogdensburg. 

Lassell, Wallace .'. . Ort'ordville. 

Lawrence, Floyd W LaCrosse. 

Leach, John M., Jr Stockbridge. 

Lehman, William V.- Neoeho. 

Lewellin, George C Waterloo. 

Liebe, John Jr Grand Rapids. 

Linker, William J Hartford. 

Little. George D Janes ville. 

Lloyd, Evan B Cambria. 

Logan, Ralph G Madison, R. 6. 

Longanecker, Elmer.. Cerro Gordo, 111. 

Loomis, Charles W Wauwatosa. 

Lord, J. W Neenah, R. R. 8. 

Lord, Karl W Chicago, 111. 

6146 Madison Ave. 

Lothe. Herbert StougEton. 

Love joy, Hiram D West Salem. 

Lyman, C. a Sun Prairie. 

Lytle, John L Luana, Iowa. 

Maas, William C Oostburg. 

Mackie, E. B Picketts. 

Maddock, D. E Maddock, N. Dak. 

Mader, Harvey F EJvans ville. 

Main, A. G Hortonville. 

Main, Herbert S Ft. Atkinson. 

Malde, O. G Cranmoor. 

Marck, Fred R Athens. 

Markey, William E Madison. 

Marsden, Riley Fennimore. 

Martin, Otto Ripon. 

Martiny, L. P No. Freedom. 

Marty, Matthias .Albany, R. R. 1. 

May, E. D Berlin, R. R. 4. 

Melville, David H Colgate. 

Menn, Bennie Norwalk. 

Meyer, A. J. . .Berthold, Col., R. R. 18. 

Meyer, E. J Tomah. 

Miles, Ira D Taylor. 

Miller, Harvey H. .. Evans ville, R.R.I. 

Miller, I. L Livingston. 

Mills, Stephen Viroqua. 

Minnich, Hugh Kasbeer, 111. 

Mitchell, James T Cottage Grove. 

Moen, George O Cambridge. 

Moody, R. F Oshkosh, R. R. 5. 

Moore, R. A., Prof Madison. 

Morris, George C Ridgeway. 

Mortimer, G. W La Valie. 

Moses, C. P Eau Claire. 

Moyle, W. J Union Grove. 

Muehleisen, Gottlieb Alma. 

Muenster, Herman New Holstein. 

Mulcahy, John W Belmont. 

Murphy, D. E Kewaunee, R. R. 1. 

Mutch, Stuart S Jewett. 

McCarty, EWward H Brownsville. 

McCauley , Rex C Osseo. 

McConnell, Robert Tomah. 

McClure, Mark Manhattan, 111. 

McGilvra, George B Baraboo. 

McLaren, W. P Delavan. 

McLeee, Adam Viroqua. 

McMillan, H. Neil Nero. 

McNown, J. H Mauston. 

Nelson, A. M Spring Valley. 

Nelson, Erwin Kaukauna. 

Nelson, James Waupaca. 

Nelson, Ole A Cumberland. 

Ness, Christopher E Ume. 

Nevens, C. H. ...-. Winnebago. 

Newhouse, Charles L Clinton. 

Nicolaus, D. C Troy Center. 

Nichols, Charles L Hebron, 111. 

Nichols, Vernon Walworth. 

Nicolaus, C. A Troy Center. 

Nelson, O. A Madison. 

Nye, Ernest J Appleton. 

Oglo, James L Urbana, 111. 

Olcson James P Ripon, R. R. 2. 

Oleson, Otto W Walsh. 

Olsen, Edward Strumm, R. R. 1. 

Olson, Herman A . . Cambridge, R. R. 1 

Olson, N. E 403 John Av., Superior. 

Oliver, Albert Madison. 

Osborne, William F Cobb. 

Osterday, E. G Woodford, R. R. 1. 

Ovitt, Norman Blackcreek. 

O'Keefe, M. . .Stevens Point, R. R. 1. 
Pachernig, Anthony. .Waccabuc, N. Y. 

Paden, H. B Kasbeer, 111. 

Partridge, Harry C Cross Plains. 

Patterson, William Glen Haven. 

Pattison, Thomas J Durand. 

Paulson, John N Manitowoc. 

Peck, Leon F Elroy. 

Perkins, J. S HicRory. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


List of Members. 

PeterEon, Chas. A Cambridge. 

Peterson, Chas. A Orange. 

Phillips, Jesse Elizabetli, 111. 

Poellman, M. J Granville. 

Pope, Nat. Jr Waupaca, R. R. 3. 

Portz, Albert Oshkosh, R. R. 5. 

Post, Harry L Sextonville. 

Poston, R. H Oconomowoc. 

Powell, L. J Hilbert. R. H. 1. 

Preston, R. C Lower Brule, S. Dak. 

Purdy, W. N Bangor. 

Raichle, William French ville. 

Rankin, Evert J.. .Templeton, R.H.20. 
Rankin, W. D..Menomonec Falls,R.18. 

Raven, John W Bloomer. 

Ray, Henry K Kewaunee, 111. 

Redelings, Henry Marinette. 

Reck, Joseph Neenah. 

Rehbein, A. E Manitowoc, R. R. 3. 

Remington, A Elk Mound. 

Renk, Henry J Sun Prairie. 

Renk, William F Sun Prairie. 

Richards, W. B Madison. 

Richter, B. F Faribault, Minn. 

Rietbrock, Fred Milwaukee. 

Risum, Louis E brodhead. 

Roberts, F. W Wood worth. 

Robertson, R. B Tomah. 

Roeckel, Joseph P Stark. 

Rogers, Fred Vulcan, Mich. 

Rood, Minnick So. Wayne. 

Rood, Ole C So. Wayne. 

Rosenow, Arthur Oconomowoc. 

Rosenov/, Henry E Oconomowoc. 

Rosenow, Henry G Montana. 

Rosenow, Louis J Montana. 

Rowe, Leonard M Wau^paca. 

Rundell, Brian L Livingston. 

Rundell, Homer F Livingston. 

Rundell, Homer L "Livingston. 

Rustad, John Black River Falls. 

Ruste, C. O Blue Mounds. 

Ryall, Bryant R Augusta. 

Salter, Ray West Bend. 

Savage, Albert Quincy, Fla. 

Saxe, Arthur W Whitewater. 

Schaefer, E. A. : . . . Appleton, R. R. 1. 

Schaefer, R. J Appleton, R. R. 1. 

Schafer, C. H. D. .Waukesha, R. R. 7. 

Schaf ner, C. H Duplainville. 

, Schellenger, R Warren. 

Scheid, F. L Campbellsport. 

Schnabel, Alfred Neillsville. 

Schreiber, Robert C Fall River. 

Schroeder, H. C Madison. 

Schroedcr, F. C Wao lington, D. C. 

Schumacher, H. C. Kewaunee, R.R.i. 

Schwartz, J. A Troy Center. 

Se'mb, T. A Ranney. 

Sette, O. E Juneau. 

Shape, O. J. . .Milwaukee, 239-25th St. 

Sheldon, Benjamin F Brandon. 

Shultis, A. D Waukesha. 

Sizer, G. S Fond du Lac, R. R. 1. 

Skalitzky, Frederick J... Sun Prairie. 

Skcwlund, James Marinette. 

Slaby, Edward Kewaunee. 

Slosser, G. B Black River Falls. 

Slosser, J. A Black River Falls. 

Smith, Clinton E Orfordville. 

Smith, Roy L Wawa, Pa. 

Snuggerud, Helmer H Holman. 

Snyder, H. A Brooklyn. 

Snyder, R. B Cfmton. 

Spaulding, C. F Oconomowoc. 

Spooner, Carleton Orange. 

Stantorf, Walter H Boscobel. 

Starker, Charles Sun Prairie. 

Stauffacher, A. J Monroe. 

Steele, Samuel H I^di. 

Steffen, Charles Corliss. 

Steidtmann, Edwin Prairie du Sac. 

Steiner, W. H Brownsville. 

Steinhoff , Walter J Platteville. 

Stevens, M. B Jefferson. 

Stewart, John Verona. 

Steinstra, Samuel K Galena, HI. 

Stivaries, George A Stitzer. 

Stommel, Eugene Mayville. 

Stone, Alden L Madison. 

Stone, H. A Oregon. 

Stonhouso, T. D..Neepawa, Glendale, 

Strader, E. W Augusta. 

Strand, Oscar M Rice Lake. 

Strande, Theodore A Taylor. 

Strange, M. D Grand Ledge, Mich. 

Stroup, F. G Fond du Lac. 

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List of Members, 


Suhr, Adolph A Cochrane, 

Swan, Leon Waupaca, Box 303. 

Swenson, O. S Nelsonville 

Taft, Vernon R Whitewater. 

Tallmadge, J. J . . Milwaukee,69-33d St 
Tanner, R. C . .Harvard, 111., R. F. D. 

Teisberg, Samuel StougHton.. 

Tellestrom, Elias Green Bay. 

Theil, Alfred Viroqua. 

Thieleke, Edwin A School Hill. 

Thorn, Edward G Mllburn, 111. 

Thomas, Henry Wausaukee. 

Thompson, George O... Mount Horeb. 

Thompson, Melim, Mount Horeb. 

Thompson, Theodore Curtiss. 

Tillotson, H. A Bristol. 

Toepel, William H Haven, R. R. 6. 

Toole, William A Daraboo. 

Torrey, William E Hebron. 

Treat, P. S Edgewood, Col. 

Treleven, Guy T Omro. 

Troeller, Jacob M Rubicon. 

Truesdale, Thomas S Gillingham. 

Tubbs, George P Seymour. 

Uehling, l,. E Afton. 

Vandercook, R. I. Linden, Mich.,R.R.2. 

Vater, Arthur Withee. 

Voegeli, William Monroe. 

Vogel, A. H Shiocton. 

Wagner,' J. M.. Union Center, R. R. 1. 

Wahler, Adolph Woodford R. R. 1. 

Waite, Earl L Oshkosh. 

Wallin, Joseph E. Atlas. 

Walter, Andrew Oshkosh, K. D. 

Warner, J. F Tempe, Ai^izona. 

Watkins, H. A Edmund. 

V^Taterstreet, William ... Spring Green. 

Welton, Clarence Monroe, R. R. 3. 

Wernick, William H DeForest. 

West, John B Whitewater. 

West, Robert B Caledonia. 

Weston, John Burnett Junction. 

White, T. J Vesper. 

Whitson, A. R., Prof Madison. 

Whittemore, Francis M Brandon. 

Wiegand, O. R Cleveland, R. R. 1. 

Wilkowski, Robert T MisHicott. 

Williams, A. R Waukesha, R. R. 8. 

Williams, David Mora, Minn. 

Williams, D. T .... Waukesha, R. R. 8. 

Williams, Jesse E Lancaster. 

Williams, Melvin G Potosi. 

Williams, Ray Lancaster. 

Williamson, A. B Millville. 

Winter, F. H Tomah. 

Wise. H. J Plattevnie. 

Wismer, Herman Larsen. 

Woll, F. W Prof Madison. 

Wolkow, Benjamin Rubicon. 

Woodcock, Edward R Collins. 

Wrabetz, Frank Oconomowoc. 

Wright, Marvin T Waupun. 

Wright, T. J Mauston. 

Wyatt, E. E Tomah. 

Young, Frederick T Gretna, 111. 

Zabel, Julius J Deerfleld. 

Zahrt, F. H Hortonville. 

Zenz, Andrew Hurricane. 

Zimmerman, Fred D Edmund. 


Ames, W. L Oregon. 

Cary, C. P., Prof Madison. 

Emery, J. Q., Prof Madison. 

Harvey. L. D., Prof Menomonie. 

Hays, W. M., Prof 

St. Anthony Park, Minn. 

Hitt, W. D., Hon Oakiaeld. 

Hoard, W. D., Hon Ft. Atkinson. 

Karel, L. A. Hon Kewaunee. 

Phillips, A. J West Salem. 

Renk, Katherine Sun Prairie. 

Toole, William Baraboo. 

Whitmore, Mary Janesville. 

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The officers and inembers of the Association extend a cordial invi- 
tation to ail interested in progressive farming to attend its meetings 
and take part in the general discussions. 


Wednesday, February 3, 9 A. M. — Assembly Chamber, Capitol. 

Annual Address J. P. Bonzelet 

Report of Secretary R. A. Moore 

Co-operative experiments with rape. 

Rape as a Forage Plant for Sheep H. J. Renk 

Rape as a Forage Plant for Pigs C. E. Jones 

Discussion H. F. Kramer, W. B. Edwards, H. F. Rundelt.. 

Co-operation of Farmers W. H. Hanchei r 

Co-operation of Students with Experiment Association. . .G. A. Freeman 
General Discussion. 

Co-operative experiments treating seed grain to prevent smut 

R. C. Schreiber, H. E. Rosenow, H. O. Jacobson, N. A. Olson, 
E. L. Dbeger, G. Q. EMEBr. 

General Discussion. 
Wednesday, 2 o'clock P. M. — Assembly Chamber. 

Veterinary and Live Stock Topics Dr. A. S. Alexander 

Growing Clover for Seed J. H. McNown 

General Discussion. 
Cutting Across Corners, or Ways and Means in Farm Economics, 

W. L. Ames 
Seed Barley., J. D. Clabk 

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Progrwm of Meeting. xvii 

Opportunities for Short Course Students as Farm 

Managers R. H. Poston 

Summer Pasture for Growing Hogs L. P. Mabthyt 

A. L. BoNNELL, H. C. Pabtbidge. 
General Discussion. 
The Press as an Important Factor in Progressive 
Agriculture A. J. Bill 

Wednesday, 7:30 P. M, — Assembly Chamber. 

Joint Session of the Agricultural Experiment Association, 
the State Board of Agriculture and the Horticultural Society. 

Music Short Course Orchestra 

The Farmer's Daughter. . . .' Miss Ella Menn 

Quartette No. 2. 

Recitation Miss Maby Whitmobk 

Vocal Solo W. J. MoYLE 

Illustrated Lecture Professor K. C. Davis 

Vocal Solo C. A. Dutton 

Trial Orchards A. J. Philips 

Thursday, Feb. 4, 8:30 A, M. — Assembly Chamber, 

Business Meeting. 

Election of Officers, Reports of Committees, etc. 

Plan of Work for the Coming Year. 

Division of Farm Crops R. A. Moobe 

Division of Animal Husbandry G. C. HuMPHBFr 

Division of Agr. Physics A. R. Whitson 

Division of Chemistry F. W. Woix 

Division of Dairying E. H. Farbington 

Co-operative Experiments, Papers, Discussions, etc. 

Benefits Derived from Local Experiment Work W. J. Moyle 

Swedish Oats E. A. Donaldson 

E. F. Heuer, Julian Cherovsky, J. P. Bonzelet, G. A. Fbee- 

MAN, Rurus Gillette. 

General Discussion. 

Growing Tobacco in Wisconsin i T. S. Biggab 

Growing Soy Beans in Wisconsin P. A. DuKLEin 

J. Roy Gobdon, W. Andbews. 

General Discussion, 

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zviii Program of Meeting. 

Thursday, 2 P. Jf.— A««embly Chamher. 
Opportunities Afforded Short CJourse Students in the Agency 

Schools R. C. Pbeston 

Relation of our Short Course Students to the County Fairs 


Alfalfa as a Forage Plant Hon. W. D. Hoabd 

Growing Alfalfa in Wisconsin .E. E. JoNEd 

H. E. RosENOW, C. R. ScHBEiBEB, David Whxiams. 
General Discussion. 
Importance of Selecting Good Seed Grain for ihe Season's Crop, 

G. C. J. Sfoebbi 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association 



Members of the Wisconsin AgricuUuraZ Experimeni Associor- 
tion: — Owing to the absence of our wortliy president the duty 
of presiding at this meeting has fallen to your vice-president 
who feels the burden of this arduous task. I sincerely hope you 
will bear with me in my attempt to nender judgment in a just 
and impartial manner. Rest assured that the welfare of your 
association is the uppermost thought in mind, and I sincerely 
hope that the coming meeting will be the best in its history. 

It is really surprising the wonderful strides made by our in- 
fant organization of a few years ago. From an association of a 
few members we have grown until now, we have nearly reached 
the 600 mark. The character of our work is attracting attention 
far and near and I feel that every state in the Union should have 
an organization founded upon similar lines to carry progressive 
agriculture to the very door of the farmer. This experimental 
work appeals to young and old in a way, that will prevent the life 
work of the farmer of the future from running in the old ruts of 
the past. We have reached that period in agricultural advance- 
ment when it calls for the united efforts of all interested in that 

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2 Second Anmial Report of the 

noble occupation to stand valiantly together and work for the 
oommon cause. 

I feel our association has accomplished considerable in the past 
and I know we can do much for the betterment of ourselves and 
agriculture in general in the future. 

I thank you. 



• Worthy Members of the Experiment Association: — Another 
year has rolled by since our last meeting and during this space 
of time much has been done in the way of pushing the work 
we have in hand and placing the importance of our line of 
effort before the public. 

We have received just recognition from the state by the enact- 
ment of the following : 

Bin, No. 1815, A. 

CHAPTER 157, LAWS, 1903. 

An Act to provide for an annual appropriation to the Wisconsin 
Agricultural Experiment Association. 

The people of the State of V/isconsin, represented in senate and 
assembly, do enact as follows: 

Section 1. There is hereby appropriated to the Wisconsin Agricul- 
tural Experiment Association out of any money in the treasury not 
otherwise appropriated, the sum of one thousand dollars annually. 

Section 2. The money so appropriated shall be used in securing 
and testing new and improved varieties of seeds and plants, securing 
and testing fertilizers, studying the best methods of cultivating and 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Wisconsm Agricultural Experiment Association. 3 

feeding crops and in general advancing the agricultural interests of 
the state. 

Section 3. The secretary of the said Agricultural Experiment Asso- 
ciation shall before June 30th of each year make a detailed statement, 
properly sworn to before a notary public, to the secretary of state, 
showing all the receipts and expenditures under the provisions of this 
act. Said association shall have prntod at the expense of the state, 
each year, by the state printer, 5,000 copies of an tannual report of not 
over 200 pages, 1,000 to be bound in cloth. 

Section 4. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after 
its passage and publication. 

Approved May 2, 1903. Published May 5, 1903. 

We trust by the judicious use of the funds provided to em- 
phasize progressive agriculture so that future legislatures and 
farmers in general will justify the action of the legislature of 

Although our work is yet in its infancy and our association 
scarcely three years of age, yet the practical work we have in 
hand has appealed to the progressive farmers of the state. 

Hundreds of inquiries have come to the office for our reports 
and outlines of experiments. These have been given out gen- 
erously and many farmers of the state have followed, during the 
past year, me^lhods outlined by our experiment association for 
growing grain and forage plants. One of the commendable 
features of the association work is the fact that we have reached 
the actual farmer in a plain and practical way in all counties 
of the state. 

These essentially practical tests with grain and forage plants 
carried on in so many different localities of the state under the 
observation of neighboring farmers, have appealed to the farmer 
in a way that literature never could. We cannot, at the present 
time, measure the great good we are doing but hope to contin- 
ually improve on the work in hand until the agriculture of Wis- 
consin will be materially modified through the selection of good 
seed, the introduction of important crops and the careful culti- 
vation of the soil. While in the way of experimentation we 
have taken u'p work in various lines of agriculture, it seems from 
the reports received that attention on the part of the membership 
has nearly all been centered on the farm crops department. We 
are not surprised at this when we consider that the live stock in- 

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4 Second Ammal Report' of {he 

dxisiry and dairying have considerably out-stripped and reached 
a much higher degree of perfection Ihan the growing of farm 
crops. Much attention has been given in the way of breeding 
choice breeds of cattle, horses, sheep and swine, but as yet very 
few have made much attempt to emphasize the growing of 
choice varieties of grain and forage plants. 

The production of grain and forage plants and the improve- 
ment of live stock sliould go hand in hand and the former should 
bo put on an equality at the soonest possible moment as the pro- 
duction of choice grain and forage plants will largely determine 
the excellence of our live stock industry. 


Reports on the oat smut prevention were received from 215 
members and invariably we note the effectiveness of the formal- 
dehyde treatment. Many of the members have treated barley 
using the same treatment recommended for oats with the excep- 
tion of making the solution stronger ; using one pint of formjal- 
(lehydo to 20 gallons of water instead of one pint to S$ as reoom^ 
mended for oats. 


From the reports on the alfalfa test wo are able to summarize 
as follows: 

Alfalfa will do well on high well drained porous soils. Where 
land is inclined to be weedy it seems preferable to sow with a 
nurse crop using about ^/^ the usual amount of oats or barley for 
the grain crop. Barley seems to make an excellent nurse crop 
for alfalfa as it rarely Icxlges when sown thin and ripens early 
so that it can be harvested in time- to give the alfalfa suiRcient 
time to grow at least one good crop the same season. The 
amount of moisture held near the surface in heavy clay soils is 
detrimental to the growth of alfalfa and land of that character 
should be used for different purposes. As far as we have been 
able to determine alfalfa develops bacteria-bearing nodules on 
its roots naturally in Wisconsin. For a feed all speak of it 
favorably. Three cuttings are usually obtained giving from 4 
to 5 tons of cured hay per acre. It seems from the results ob- 
tained and the wide spread interest lx>ing taken in the growing 
of alfalfa that the assoieiation is warranted in pushing this line 
of work. Judgment should be used in securing good seed, in 
the preparation, of the seed bed, and sowing on high well drained 
porous soils. Alfalfa should be out at the first appearance of 

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Wiscormn Agricultvaul Experiment Associoition. 6 

blossoms as the next crop shoots up rapidly when cut at that 
stage and the quality of hay seems much finer and better. A 
fine surface coating of well-rotted manure spread on the ground 
immediately after seeding or the following fall will aid mate- 
rially in getting a good stand. Do not pasture closely the first 
year or two after seeding. Always sow in the spring using at 
least 20 lbs. of seed per acra 


One hundred members reported on growing Swedish Select 
oats (Wis. No. 4) in accordance with data given below. 

Number of persons reporting . 100 

Number of acres sown 56,450 

Number of bushels grown 23,705 

Number of bushels for sale .\ 11,940 

Average No. bu. per A. of Swedish Select 44 

Average No. bu. per A. other varieties. ... 37 . 5 

It seems from remarks and suggestions made in the many re- 
ports that the Swedish Select oats are especially adapted for 
the heavy clay and the worn out soils. The great root develop- 
ment makes them great drought resisters. 

Some complaint has reached the office to the effect tfiat on 
loose, rich prairie soils during wet seasons the growth of straw 
was so rank and the heads filled so heavily that a storm would 
readily carry them to the ground. It seems essential that a 
short strawed, heavy yielding variety be bred especially for the 
loose rich soils. 

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6 Second Annual Report of the 

The following persona in Wisconsin have grown the Swedish. 
Select oats during the past two years and can speak of their 
merits and may be able to supply actual farmers with a limited 
quantity of the seed : 

Name of Grower. 



J. W. Stevenson . . 

J.fE, Donnely 

John Knecht 

H. F.Kramer 

D. L. Cowffili 

Chas. Rutter . . 

Earl Gilleapie 

Herman Olson.... 

R. A. (iillett , 

J. C. Latham 

Geo. Snyder 

Renk Bros 

W. ^. Bussewitz . . , 

Edward Keogh 

H. W.Kent 

Theo. Isaacson 

J. V. Langworthy 
Charles L. HUl. .. 

E. E. McCormick. 

D. Dixon 

A. E. Barron 


H. O. Halgrim 

T. A. Strande 

H. A. Tillotsou ... 
Anton Cherovsky . . 

Geo. Erickson 

A. J. Moe 

Edward Benson . . . 

O. C.Rood 

Joseph Reich 

C. J. Hessel 

E. L. Newbury.... 

David Swan 

Francis E. Ebert . , 

G. R. Downer , 

M. Dineen 

Theo. Gust af son . . . 
John E. Charley . . . 

G. E. Grover 

O. U. Knntson 

L. L. Olds 

W.C. Bradley 

Wilbur Cahoon . . . 
William Toejiel . . . . 

W. L. lUian 

John Bjorge 

8. Houkom 

J. H. McLees 

Harry Dunbar 

J. C. Gould 

A. B. Hicken 

Henry E. Rosenow 
Ferd Kieckheifer. . 

A. D. Larson 

L. M. Rowe 

E. F. Ileuer 


Rice Lake , 


Fountain City. 
Chippewa Fails 
Doylestown.... , 

Ferry ville 






Sun Prairie 









Cuba City 






Kewaunee , 

Midway , 

Blanchardviile , 
South Wayne... 

E. Gibson 

Francis Creek . 


Wauwatosa .... 


Appleton . . ) 




Junction City . , 






















Chippewa, R. R. No. 5. 



Crawford . 




Dane. R. R. 

Bane. R. R. 





Eau Claire. 

Fond du Lac. 




Green Lake. 



Kenosha . 

Kewaunee ^ 

Kewaunee . 

La Crosse . 

La Fayette. 

La Fayette. 


Manitowoc . 


Milwaukee . 



Oiaukee . 

Pepin . 

Pierce, R, R. No. 1. 




St. Croix. 


Sheboygan, R. R.No.6 



Trempealeau . 


Walworth . 

Washington . 


Waukesha . 






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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 7 


The reports received from members experimenting with soy 
beans seem to indicate that very little difficulty is experienced in 
growing and maturing the early varieties, but the problem of 
harvesting, threshing and feeding will need considerable atten- 
tion before perfection is reached. • 

Several members having silos have grown soy beans using for 
seed 1-3 soy beans and 2-3 corn and planting in drills at the 
usual width for com. No difficulty was experienced in cutting 
with harvester and putting in silo and we believe a better grade 
of silage was thus obtained as the soy-bean is very high in 
protein and would have the effect of making a more evenly bal- 
anced ration of the silage. Soy bean plants do not readily 
develop nodules on the roots unless the ground has been in- 
oculated with soy bean bacteria. The Experiment Station can 
ship to members of the association earth from the soy bean plots 
with which to start the growth of nodules the first season. 


The experiments carried out with rape seem to meet with 
much favor ec-pecially where it is sown, in drills for sheep. 
Where sown broad-cast with grain crops a limited quantity of 
seed should be used (not to exceed 1 lb. per acre), otherwise the 
rape plants will grow so closely together as to materially check 
the growth of the grain crop. This is especially true during a 
wet season when sown on rich black soil. . Where sown with a 
grain crop using a small amount of seed per acre much valuable 
feed can be secured for fall pasturage. Sheep and cattle thrive 
on rape. 

For hog pasture it seems preferable to sow broadcast using 
about 8 lbs. of seed per acre and turn the hogs in when the rape 
is about one foot in height. Where rape has been left until it 
reaches the height of two feet before pasturing hogs it seems 
to act in a detrimental way. Some report that hogs will 
become sore, the skin assuming a chapped appearance. It seems 
quite conclusive that where hogs are pastured in a rank growth 
of rape that the dew and other moisture collected on the plants 
and retained there for some time, becomte quite bitter and hogs 
coming in contact with the same and having their bodies wet for 
several hours daily with this water, finally have their skins 

Digitized by 


8 Second Anmud Report of the 

become chapped and this may continue until it assumes a serious 
form. Unlike the ruminant, the hog has but a single stomacli 
and can not be expected to consume large quantities of rape like 
the sheep and cow. Hogs that are kept on rape pasture should 
be fed a liberal grain ration.. 


' Bealizing the importance of the corn crop we seem justified 
in putting forth considerable energy in the way of improving 
this cereal. 

Acting in accordance with this impulse your secretary visited 
Iowa and Illinois, and for a month made a careful study of corn. 
From observations made it seems that by actively pushing this 
line of work to a high d^ree of .perfection in Wisconsin, we 
can be the means of putting good seed com and methods of 
growing the same before the farmers of tihe state in such a prac- 
tical way that the increased yield will amount to several million 
dollars annually. 


Students in the Wisconsin College of Agriculture are this 
year given regular work in the study of com and henceforth 
this study will be required of all Short Ck>urse students. 

As an aid to members of the Experiment Association, who 
will not have an opportunity to take up the systematic judging 
of corn, I will herewith give the score card used by the students 
in the College together with explanations and suggestions that 
may be helpful to those members of the Association who expect 
to emphasize com improvement in Wisconsin. 

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Wisccrmrk Agricultural Experiment Association. 9 







1 Trueness to Type or Breed char- 

acteristics 10 

2 Shapeof ear 10 

8 Color: a. Grain 5 

b. Cob 5 

4 MarJtet Condition 10 

5 Tip3 5 

6 Batts 5 

7 Kernels : a. Uniformity of 10 

b.Shapeof 5 

Slengthofear 10 

9 Circumference of Bar. 5 



10 Space : a. Furrow between rows ... 5 

b. Space between kerne's at 
cob 5 

11 Proportion of Com to Cob 10 

Total 100 








1. Trueness to Type or Breed Characteristics: The ten ears of the 

sample should possess siiuilar or like characteristics and should 
be true to the variety which they represent. 

2. Shape of Ear: The shape of the ear should conform to variety 

type, tapering slightly from butt to tip, but approaching the 

3. Color: a. Gravn; 6. Coh. Color of grain should be true to variety 

and free from mixture. White corn should have white cobs, 
yellow corn red cobs. 

4. Market Condition: The ears should be sound, firm, well matured 

and free from mold, rot or injuries. 

5. Tips: The tips of the ears should not be too tapering and should 

be well filled with regular uniform kernels. 

6. Butts: The rows of kernels should extend in regular order over 

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10 Second Annual Report of the 

the butt, leaving a deep impression when- the shank is removed. 
Opened and swelled butts are objectionable. 

7. Kernels: a. JJniforviity of; b, Shape of. The kernels should be 

uniform in shape, size and color, and true to the variety type. 
The kernels should be so shaped that their edges touch from 
tip to crown. The tip portion of the kernel is the richest in 
protein and oil, and hence of the highest feeding value. For 
this reason the tip portion should be full and plump. 

8. Length of Ear: Northern section 8 to 9 inches, central section 

8 14 to 91A inches, southern section 83^^ to 9l^ inches. Long ears 
are objectionable because they usually have poor butts and tips, 
broad, shallow kernels, and hence a low percentage of corn to 

9. Circumference of Ear: Northern section 6 to ^^/^ inches, central 

section 6V4 to 6% inches, southern section 6^/^ to 7 inches. 

10. o. Furrow between rows; b. f^pace between furows at Cob. The 

furrow between the rows of kernels should be small. Space be- 
tween kernels near the cob is very objectionable. 

11. Proportion of corn to cob: The proportion of corn to cob is de- 

termined by weight; -depth of kernels, size of cob and maturity 
all affect the proportion. 


1. Length of Ear — ^The deficiency and excess in length of all ears not 

conforming to the standard shall be added together, and for 
every inch thus obtained a cut of one point shall be made. 

2. Circumference of Ear -The deficiency and excess in circumference 

of all ears not conforming to the standard shall be added to- 
gether, and for every two inches thus obtained a cut of one 
point shall be made. Measure the circumference at one-third 
the distance from the butt to the tip of the ear. 

3. Proportion of Corn to Cob — Per cent, of corn should be from 85 to 

87. In determining the proportion of corn to cob, weigh and 
shell every alternate ear in the sample. Weigh the cobs and sub- 
tract from weight of ears, giving weight of corn. Divide the 
weight of corn by total weight of ears, which will give the per 
cent, of com. For each per cent, short of standard, a one-point 
cut shall be made. 

4. Color of Corn and Coh — ^A red cob in white com, or a white cob 

in yellow corn, shall be cut at least two points. For one or two 
mixed kernels, a cut of one-fourth point, for four or more mixed 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 11 

kernels a cut of one-half point shall be made. Kernels missing 
from the ear shall be counted as mixed. Difference in shade or 
color, as light or dark red, white or cream color, must be scored 
according to variety characteristics. 

5 Scoring Tips — ^Where the full diameter ot the cob is exposed, a cut 
of one point shall be made, and a proportionate cut as the cob 
is less exposed. Regularity of the rows near the tip and the 
shape and size of the kernels must also be considered in scoring 

6. Scoring Butts — If the kernels are uniform iri size and extend over 

the butt in regular order, give full marking. Small and com- 
pressed or enlarged or open butts are objectionable, as are also 
those with flat, smooth, short kernels, and must be cut accord- 
ing to the judgment of the scorer. 

7. Ten ears of corn constitute a sample for scoring. 




Mr. President and Oenthmen: — In reading over the Constitu- 
tion of the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association I 
find that your organization has for its object the promotion of 
the agricultural interests in the state of Wisconsin. The word 
"agriculture^^ covers a large latitude and many subjects come 
properly within the scope of its meaning. 

The Wisconsin Grain Shippers' Association is vitally in- 
terested in any matters which concern the grain crops' of Wis- 
consin, and one of the objects of this association is to create and 
develop wherever possible, a deeper and more intense interest in 
the production of cereals within our states. 

When therefore your secretary extended to me an invitation 
to address at tihis convention, the members of the Wisconsin Agri- 

Digitized by 


12 Second Annual Report of the 

cultural Experiment Association, it appealed to me very strongly 
and it occurred to me this would be a most opportune time to 
dwell upon that aspect of agriculture which has to do with the 
growing of cereals, considering that which shall increase the 
quamiity and improve the quality of the crops. 

Actuated by a desire to co-operate with the Wisconsin Experi- 
ment Station and your Association along the lines indicated, with 
the hope that our efforts will result in mutual benefit to pro- 
ducer, handler and consumer, I take pleasure in availing myself 
of this opportunity of addressing the gentlemen here assembled. 

Before proceeding with my remarks permit me to pay my 
respects to the large body of men classed as "The American 
Farmer." I am not unmindful of the exalted position he oc- 
cupies in the development of the affairs of this nation. • In a 
very large measure the progress and prosperity of the country 
are dependent upon him. He contributes largely to the com- 
mercial activity and success of our mercantile and manufac- 
turing industries and this nation can justly say : 

"By Agriculture We thrive.* 

The Annual Report of Secretary Wilson of the Department of 
Agriculture at Washington presents some convincing statistics in 
this respect. 

Wisconsin's farms. 

According to latest U. S. census figures there are 169,795 
farms in the state of Wisconsin comprising 19,862,727 acres. 
Eighty-seven per cent, of these farms are operated by the owners ; 
6 per cent, are worked by tenants who pay a cash rental; 7 per 
cent, are farmed by tliose who work on shares. This indeed is a 
very creditable showing. As a general rule, the aim of the 
farmer is not so much to bring his land up to a high pitch of pro- 
ductiveness as it is to make the best possible use of the ways and 
means at his disposal. Good farming consists in getting the 
highest possible profit from the land, year in and year out 

The modes of arranging and managing different farms must 
differ widely, according to varying local circumstancee. (Condi- 
tions may make it necessary for one farmer to engage in sheep- 

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Wisconsin AgricvZtural Experiment Association. 13 

raising, anotlier cattle-grazing, another dairy-farming, another in 
the production of tobacco, potatoes, hay, or grain. 

Wisconsin farmers are no doubt engaged in all of these dif- 
ferent branches but the one which I wish to direct your attention 
to in particular is the production of grain, with special stress 
upon barley and oats. 


The interest in the eultivation of this cereal has greatly in- 
creased in the past decada In some sections of the country the 
acreage has doubled. Seventy-five per cent, of the barley crop 
of the United States is grown within the borders of six states. 
There is considerable room for improvement in Wisconsin's raak 
as a barley producer. 

Barley, however, is a very tender plant and is easily damage-l 
at any stage of its growth. It is a crop that responds very 
quickly to a generous diet, yet when food is lacking, it languishes 
equally as rapidly. No grain is more affected by soil and cultiva- 
tion, than barley. Heavy land, unless exceptionally well tilled, 
is unfit for barle^. Light, rich, friable loam is best suited for 
this grain. 

The earlier barley is sown the better and this crop has great 
merit in that its term of growth is short, that is, it matures in a 
shorter period of time than any other cereal. Barley must be 
sown at a diy time, for a wet or muddy seed-bed is sure to 
diminish the yield considerably. Being a shallow rooted plant, 
barley suffers severely from drought, while on the other hand an 
excess of rain would cause tiie crop to run intO' a strong growth 
of straw. To the superficial observer, the character of the seed- 
bed might appear of little moment but barley is unusually sen- 
sitive and the exercise of great care on this point is necessary. 
I^et us suppose for instance that you figure to sow 100 acrer^ of 
barley. Conditions are favorable and you sow 50 acres, when 
up comes a heavy rain. Now it will be much more prudent and 
profitable for you to stop sowing and allow the soil to get into 
good condition again, before sowing the remaining fifty acres. 

Barley is classed as two-rowed, four-rowed and six-rowed ac- 
cording to the number of rows of kernels on each side. Wiscon- 
sin produces almost entirely six-rowed barley. 

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14 Second Arvmud Report of the 

While barley may bo used for mariy pfiirposes the two prin- 
cipal ones are for "feeding" and "malting^." 

The production of a good malting barley of a superior char- 
acter is most remunerative to the grower. The average price 
for this class of barley on present crop has been about 55 cents 
delivered at Milwaukee or Chicago. 

Barley is preferred above other grain for making beer, for the 
reason that when "malted" it contains a larger proportion of 
certain imorganized ferments. The process of malting is car- 
ried out for the purpose .of converting the starch in barley into 
sugar. The percentage of starch determines the proportion of 
sugar, and this, in turn, regulates the quantity of spirit. 

The barley best adapted for malting purposes coming from 
Wisconsin is grown in the eastern part of the state, in the coun- 
ties of Oalumet, Ozaukee, Washington, Fond du Lac and She- 
boygan. Wisconsin barley acreage for 1003 is estimated at 
480,000 acres ^vith an average yield of 29l/i bushels per acre," 
which amounts to 13,800,000 bushels. 

Another period in the cultivation of barley which requires 
the exercise of good judgment and great care, iathe harvest time. 
In harvesting barley more care is requisite than with any other 
grain, and in bad seasons it is often found very diffilcult to save 
it. On account of the softness of its stem and the tendency x)f 
its ears to vegetate, barley is more apt to be injured and even 
destroyed by wet weather than any of the other cereals. 

Should barley "groV in the ear before cut it is rendered unfit 
for malting purposes. Barley intended for rfialting purposes 
should not be cut before it is "dead-ripe." Certain conditions 
are necessary to produce a good sample of barley that will please 
the malster. This period of cutting is a matter which materially 
effects the barley. 

If weather can be depended on, barley, after cut, should lie 
two or three days before binding, during which time it should 
be turned onc^ or twice as the exposure to sunshine produces a 
fine color and the grain becomes mellow. In this practice, how- 
ever, great care must be used and no chances taken, for continued 
damp weather would discolor the entire crop. Unless climatic 
conditions are such that the alx>ve practice can be adopted with 
certain safety, it is Ix^st to shock the barley at once. 

The carting of other grain should be stopped to allow the 
barley to be gotten in. This is one of the reasons why' farmers 

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Wiscormn Agricultural Experiment Association, 15 

in eastern Wisconsin are so successful with their barley crops. 
Realizing the peculiarities of barley, they attend lo it at harvest 
time first. They have found it profitable eoonomy to erect bams 
in which to place the barley under cover as soon as harvested. 
This done, thej then proceed to care for their other crops. 

Barley that is stacked when dry, does not, as a rule, "heat," 
but precaution must be taken in this respect for such "heating" 
reduces the' germinating power of the seed and hence affects 
the value for malting purposes. However, nature must be 
given ample time to perform her operations, and barley in the 
stack should be allowed to go through the "sweating" period 
before threshing. 

Then in threshing barley by machine, special care should be 
taken in not allowing the awns to be cut too closely, as this also 
destroys the germinating value of the barley. 

8eed barley should be plump and uniform in color and weight. 
Do not sow shriveled barley for in an unfavorable season the crop 
from such will be delicate and off color while plump seed throws 
up strong healthy stems capable of resisting inclement weather 
and in more c^^genial weather, pushing forth with renewed 
vigor and redoubled strength. 

Previously we mentioned that in order for barley to best be 
adapted for malting purposes it should be developed to an excess, 
should possess a very thin and delicate skin and should contain 
an excessive quantity of starch. These conditions however fre- 
quently prevent such barley from being hardy so it does not then 
necessarily follow that the best malting barley would make the 
best seed barley. In some cases it is true, good malting barley 
being used for seed manages to go through its duties satisfac- 
torily but the safer course is to take some of the tail-barley from 
a superior lot and use that for seed. 


It has often been said that oats will grow on almost any soil 
that can be ploughed and harrowed for the oat can struggle 
against greater difficulties than other grains. There is a great 
difference in the quantity of oats grown per acre, as well as in 
the quality. 

Wisconsin's oat production is something like 95,000,000 bu. 
but this amount could be increased fully 15 per cent, if farmers 

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16 Second Anmjud Report of the 

were not so indifferent to the smut question. The loss to Wis- 
consin farmers from this source is from four to five million 
dollars annually. But why are farmers so slow to put to a prac- 
tical test information they have regarding the treatment of seed- 
oats for prevention of smut? 

What is smut ? Smut is a plant, but one very low in the scale 
of plant life, belonging to a class called "fungi" and as smuts 
get their food from other living plants they are termed "parasitic 

The smuts which infect oats may be classed as "loose smut" and 
"covered smut." The one affects the oats more generally from 
without while the other secures a lodging place under the hull 
of the healthy kernels. Oats affected by the one are left with 
stalks bare and the other operating unseen within the husk, in 
many cases the presence of the smut is undetected. 

Smut in appearance is a dusty, powder-like, blackish brown 
mass of minute spores or seeds. 

When oats are sown in spring that are infected with smut 
either under the hull or on the outside, the spores germinate and 
send slender threads into the young oat plant. 

The smut threads grow on the inside of the oat stalk so that 
there is no external evidence of the presence of the smut plant, 
.When the oats begin to head out, the smut threads penetrate the 
oat kernel. 

At harvest time the oats affected by loose smut, are often en- 
tirely bare, the smut being blown away by the wind while the 
covered smut destroys only the kernels and leaves the outer chaff 
unaffected. When the husk is cut upeu however, a mass of smut 
is found in place of the kernel. There are millions of these smut 
spores in each kernel. 

The farmer is very apt to underestimate the loss which he 
sustains from smut especially on account of this hidden form and 
perhaps not one in a thousand has an adequate idea of the ex- 
tent of its ravages. 

Now seed oats can be treated and successfully too, for the pre- 
vention of smut. The treatment in no way affects the germinat- 
ing power of the seed and does absolutely destroy the smut 
spores. The value of treating seed oats for smut has passed 
the experimental stage. The presence of smut in oats is pre- 
valent throughout the state and th^ treatment of seed oats 
should become a general practice. 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 17 

The process of treating seed oats is not difficult or expensive 
but requires some time. 

Make a solution composed of one pint of 40 per cent, for- 
maldehyde to every thirty-five gallons of water and stir thor- 
oughly. This mixture can be placed in a barrel or tank. All 
that is required is to place the oats in a gunny sack and place in 
the solution laking pains to see that the oats- are completely sub- 
merged for ten or fifteen minutes. Then remove tbe sack from 
the barrel allowing it to drain, in order to save the solution. 
Empty the oats on a platform to dry and repeat the process until 
all is treated. It might be well to shovel the treated oats over at 
intervals to peimiit of them being thoroughly dried, otherwise if 
the oats are damp some difficulty may he experienced in sowing 
with drill. If sown when damp the seeder or drill should be 
set so that it will sow al>out one bushel more per acre than when 
solving dry oats. 

A solution made from one pint of the formaldehyde will 
serve for treating forty bushels. Of course if a large quantity 
of seed oats is to be treated several barrels should be used thus 
facilitating the work. It is well to have plenty of the solution 
as the time saved more than repays the extra expense. 



In no feature of farm practice is niggardly economy or lack of 
proper attention more productive of disappointment and loss- 
than in the failure to provide proper seed for sowing. It is uni- 
versally recognized by agriculturists that the use of poor seed 
causes a loss of millions of dollars annually either directly or in- 
directly to the American farmer. 

On the other hand, no department of farm work yields more 
beneficial results than the careful and intelligent selection of 
good seed for sowing. Too much emphasis cannot be laid on this 
point for the production and selection of good seed is as essential 
to continued success in agriculture as good soil or careful culti- 

Cereal plants develop all their buds into branches, run them 
into ears and exhaust them in grain production, therefore the 
chief object in the growth of cereals is to obtain the grain. The 

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18 Second Anrmal Report of the 

larger the proportion of living seed true to kind, the greater tlie 
chances of a perfect stand and a normal and healthy growth of 
crop. By careful selection and breeding, improved varieties of 
the different kinds of cereals have been developed. 

The lerm "good seed" implies three things: 

Purity — Freedom from foreign matter, as dirt, dust, weed- 
seed, chaff, etc. 

Vitality — Capacity for growing under favorable conditions, 
that is, mature seed capable of germinating. 

Gemiineness — Tnieness to type, which depends upon age, size, 
weight and smell. 

A seed is said to have "vital" power when it can pass through 
that phase of growth called germination. As a rule seed more 
than one year old is less likely to germinate than fresh seed. 
The loss of vitality is gradual though more rapid in unripe seed 
than in well ripened seed. Then too, the larger and heavier seeds 
die more slowly than the smaller and lighter ones. 

We have made mention that by breeding, improved varieties 
of seeds have been developed, but the natural tendency of the 
plant even under favorable conditions is to go back to its original 
and inferior state. One of the principal sources of this deterio- 
ration is "in-breeding." Where the same grain is raised year 
after year on the same place it is almost, sure to suffer a loss of 
vigor if not of quality. Usually this may be remedied by the 
introduction of fresh seed. , 

The great bulk of the seed of the cereals is undoubtedly 
groT^Ti in the locality where it is to be used, the required amount 
for seeding being reserved from each crop, year after year. 

From reading the Morrill and Hatch bills as originally intro- 
duced and passed, I learn that they provided for the establish- 
ment and endowment of Agricultural Colleges, the office of which 
shall be t/) investigate phenomena connected with farm) life and 
the operations of farming and the dissemination among the peo- 
ple of useful information respecting agriculture and the mechan- 
ical arts. 

In as much as your time is fully occupied, you cannot per- 
sonally inquire into the whys and wherefores of things. It is 
just in this respect that you are entitled to the benefits of scien- 
tific research made by your Agricultural College and Experi- 
ment Station. 

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Wisconsin AgricuUuraZ Experiment Association. 19 

Every fanner should take advantage of the assistance to be 
had in this direction. The secretary of your association is no 
doubt in a position at iimes to give you very valuable informa- 
tion and you should not hesitate to communicate with him. If 
there are any questions which perplex you in regard to the best 
methods to pursue in the production of cereals or it is not clear 
to you just how seed oats should be treated for smut, write your 
secretary and seek his advice. Many points which may to you 
appear very difficult, may be made very plain by him and I am 
sure Mr. Moore is prepared at all times to rendef you such 
service. There must be a certain confidence both expressed and 
implied between the members of this, association in order to ob- 
tain the best results and to create the greatest degree of interest 
in matters in which you all are vitally interested. 

With this, I shall conclude my remarks believing that each 
and every one of you will readily understand that the exercise 
of great care in tlie selection of good seed grain is a matter of 
paramount importance. 




I take it "(he press" means the agricultural press, the news- 
]3iaper and all periodical literature. The press is the world's 
herald of ideas and ideals. Wherever it is desired to proclaim 
ideas and lead on toward ideals, there the press has such a work 
as no other agency can perform- ProgTessive agriculture has 
much to do with both ideas and ideals. 


A speaker's words fall on your ear in rapid succession ; you 
can scarcely gather them all ; you cannot hold for five minutes 

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20 Second Annual Report of the 

the ones in your ^asp; joii miss^ the key word of a sentence ; the 
very figures yon want most slip from memory and shiver like 

' Your mind vibrates with the speaker and is w^onderfiilly il- 
lumined as his living sentences roll on. Yon carry away some- 
thing of the impression, perhaps for all time, but the words un- 
recorded go ahnosl. as fast as they come ; evaporate like the dew 
of a summer morning. You wake from the dream when his 
voice ceases. How much of it can you repeat to your friend at 
the end of an hour ? 

You do well if you catch a few of the principal ideas. The 
form of the words and their magical spell are broken forever. 
Several links in the chain are gone. You cannot tell for sure 
whether he said it this way or that. You are confused; you 
misunderstand ; but you cannot go back over the sentences, weigh 
their meaning and untangle the thought. Much of what is said 
you cannot use or apply because you have forgotten the exact 
or the full statement. 

Witness Lincoln's "lost speech," when the flood of great ideas 
carried Editor Medill off his feet and he forgot to write the 
words ; nobody could recall them. 


Here comes in the miracle of the press, and gives you in cold 
black and white just what was said — as near as the reporter 
gets it. You may sift out the ideas, released from' the spell of 
the speaker, view them at leisure from any standpoint; make 
them stand or fall in the court, of reason or experience; applv if 
you will the exact recipe, or save it for any future use. How 
much of this meeting can you preserve in any definite way 
without the record ? The press may tell you tomorrow or next 
week more of it than you hear and far more than you will carry 
away. Fortunate if it doesn't tell you more than w^as said ! Like 
tho lightning stenographer who came out several words ahead of 
the speaker ! Be .grateful that the press leaves out so much that 
you didn't care to hear. 


The actual audience may be fifty or five hundred ; but the 
press, with the deafening clatter and dizzy whirr of its revolu- 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 21 

tions, extends the circle to fifty thousand or five million within a 
few hours. 

But a few from a limited territory get to the meeting, but the 
press gets the meeting to all the people. The very men you 
wanted present may stay away, but they cannot escape the news- 
paper, the journal and the magazine. Very important ideas and 
movements are originated in small gatherings of big men,; but 
"these ideas are made powerful and far-reaching by the press. 
Without the press the agricultural organizations would be shorn 
of much of their strength and influence. 


An Indian medicine troup came to town. After every round 
of laughs a ready and graceful speaker set forth the mari'^elous 
power of his nostrum. But the people didn't care to listen, and 
would hardly look at the medicine. But he lost no chance to 
enlighten the audience and his confidence was unshaken. I was 
sorry for him and thought it a pity to waste such earnest effort, 
but before the week was out I was more sorry for the audience. 
They drove in from miles away and many individuals bought 
six bottles for $5. The outfit took hundreds of dollars from 
that little village. It was to me a great object lesson on the 
power of artful repetition. Probably you recall similar in- 


Kow if human nature can be so impi-essed with the lawyer 
eloquence of a quack doctor within a few evenings, will it not 
finally respond to the truth 'I When tliat truth is spread upon 
an attractive page and comes under one's eye every week or day 
in the year? It does respond, consciously or imeonsciously, 
willingly or unwillingly. If you read the truth it will grow 
upon you. You cannot get away from it. The very head lines 
will convict you of guilt. You become aware that many people 
— some of whom you know and re3|>ect — are interested in the 
given subject and acting upon the ideas set forth. Finally you 
are forced to admit — though you may not formulate it even to 
yourself — the evidence of results. 

There is the power of magic in that quiet, unobstrusive line 
of type. It resents neither your anger nor indifference. You 

Digitized by 


22 Second Annual Report of the 

may throw it down, or burn it up, but there it is before you 
again next; day, and it is lx?fore the whole world and they are 
talking about it. The pre.-^s is preoopt upon pveeept, line uj)on 
lino, here a little and there a little, and altogether a very great 
foreo in your thought and life-^-if you think and live — as sure 
as the sun shine*^, for it is built to carry out a great pi^dagogie 

Your men and your meetings may come and may go — with long 
intervals between — but the editor goes on forever. You \hrow 
him out a handful of texts in Avinter, and he preaches sermons 
all summer. With fresh shoulders to the wheel and hearty 
hurrahs you start the load, but the editor's plodding drudgery 
moves it on, down hill and up hill, day and night. 


In an Illinois city about the size ( f your capital it was sus- 
pected that the quality of the milk' sold was not up to the 
standard. Five reputable physicians acting in connection with 
the city council privately secured ten samples of milk as it. was 
delivered to the homes of }>atrons by different milkmen ; analyzed 
the milk and made an itemized rej)ort of Avhat they found in 
each sample, naming the seller and exj>laining the findings. 
They reixu'led formaldehyde in two samples and found the 
l>utter fat as low^ as ly^ to 2"l/2 per cent, in a few instances. 
This complete re|X)rt, over tfie signatures of the physicians, was 
jTublished Avitli the city council proceedings in the morning 
paper. - The result was a sensation, and a sudden improvement 
in the quajity of the milk. In overdoing their defense one milk 
firm disclosed unsanitary conditions of their plant, which were 
soon improved. The simple and immediate effectiveness of this 
publicity was far better and cheaper than uncertain court pro- 
ceedings or even big fines. 

We seldom stoj> to consider the mighty weight of decisions in 
the suj>reme court of public opinion, or trace out thpir practical 
transformation of every day life, and the editor is prominent 
an wmg those who preside in this court. There may be almost 
as much chaff and error as at any other bar of justice. But 
verdicts are handed in occasionally, and they may mold the 
destiny of not one life but a thousand, aud may fix the fate 
of a cause instead of a i>i'isoner. The labor unions and the 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 23 

I'esponsibility for the Iroquois disaster are more recent suits 
in this court. Often a newspaper is stronger than the whole 
police force in reforming or improving conditions. 

The secret of this great power lies in the intelligent and 
righteous judgment of men and women when given the correct 
data and thought It is the narrow or fraudulent scheme, the 
unworthy cause, tliat is afraid of the reporter. The more a good 
thing is known and discussed the better it appears and the 
stronger sanction it receives. 


The press is not to make news but to tell news ; not to create 
agriculture or theories of agriculture, but 'to reflect and ad- 
vocate the best things in agriculture, the things you do and 
strive for. Slop your doing and the press is soon done. It 
gathers the life and the agriculture that is, and ever looks to 
others for the basis and material of its w^ork. This is yours 
to furnish. 


From your side, you must take the editor as he is. He is 
trying to edit just as you are trying to farm or teach farming — 
the best he can under the circumstances. He has his own ideas, 
and he runs the paper. If he is to do you and your cause any 
good you must impress liim agreeably and conform to his plan. 
For this reason you ought to find out his attitude, know his 
wishes, and let him know that you are willing to help him get 
the news about your business. His money and reputation and 
ideas and all his earthly interests and- tastes are \vi*apped up 
in that paper, and you can neither question or fathom the rules 
or accidents that may shut you out of his columns. Because you 
have failed with him once or twice don't jump to the conclusion 
that he does not want any good item that you can give him. If 
possible find out what was the matter. Try again and above 
all try to make your trial fit the conditions, his conditions. The 
editor as a nde doesn't want your itcans after they have ceased 
to be news.' Get them to him the first minute possible after the 
events happen. Sometimes you can get them to him before they 
happen. He wants the plainest, shortest and most direct state- 
ment of the facts, with due stress on the features. 

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24 Second Annual Report of the 


Why am I saj^ing all this? Assuredly not to ask you to 
give something for nothing. If I were talking to editors I 
would present a quite different side of the question, but I am 
here indicating some factors that are under your control, the 
things that you can do — if you are devoted enough to the cause 
of progressive agriculture. Difficulties? Unreasonable or in- 
different editors ? Certainly. But what of that ? You haven't 
succeeded in your work thus far in life by avoiding all the hard 
and complicated tasks. The time is ripe and the door open as 
never before to get agriculture in the press. There are a great 
and increasing number of editors who will welcome and use 
your items. In many sections it is getting to be the popular 
thing. There the problem is to make it so good a'lid sensible 
that the service will not die out as a fad. It is well not to 
overdo the matter of "bfowing your own horn," but don't let a 
real or false modesty blind your eyes to what you, as progressive 
agriculturists, owe to your cause, and to the farming public, 
and to your own- sincere desire to disseminate the good things 
that you have proven. And you can adapt the matter to your 
own sense of propriety. You can do more than wish that the 
press would take up your matters; you can encourage and help 
the press to do so. No line of effort will bring better results ; 
no investment pay better. T'ry this with the big press, the 
little press, the local press, the distant press ; with the agricul- 
tural press, the news press and the magazine. If necessary press 
the press, but do it gently and gracefully. 

It is wonderful how easily the press doors open to a live man'^ 
who is doing large and worthy things, and who takes pains to 
accommodate the press and uses printer's ink freely himself. 
Witness the case of County Superintendent O. J. Kern of Illi- 
nois and his various school improvements, school gardens and 
school consolidation in the land of the Winnebagoes. Big men 
and little men, and the busiest of men, in other callings and 
spheres of life cater to the press, at no little sacrifice, and profit 
by it. Why should not the farmer ? 

Of course highest success in this will come only with un- 
selfish fidelity to your side of the contract. You must prove 
to the editor that you will keep your promise, that you will get 

Digitized by 


Wisc&min Agricultwal Experiment Association. 25 

for him or help him to get the items that he wants as well as 
what you want published ; that you will be sincere and reason- 
able and not cause him to get "scooped." The last is the un- 
pardonable sin in dealing with the press. 


How many farmers' institutes and other gatherings of farm- 
ers are set forth as they should be in the local press, both before 
and after the meetings. Is the program published throughout 
the whole territory? Is special attention directed to its best 
features ? Is it told who the strongest speakers are ? Are spe- 
cial reasons set forth why farmers should attend ? Are special 
letters and calls written through the press by the officers, over 
their signatures ? Is this all done in time, and done as well, as 
uniquely, as attractively, as "fetchingly" as the gray matter of 
some good leader's brain can invent ? 

When the meeting is on, is every provision made for the press, 
including an honest welcome and sensible, efficient help in get- 
ting items? One who is acquainted with the speakers and 
themes and audience can greatly assist the reporters. 

I am convinced that in some agricultural gatherings it would 
pay well to maintain a press bureau. Have somebody, with the 
necessary helpers, get up the news and distribute it where it 
will be received. How the influence of every farm gathering 
could be extended if it were made easy for every paper in that 
region to give a good account of the proceedings. This is hard 
work and needs a systematic plan and preparation several days 
or weeks in advance, particularly in getting in touch with the 
papers you would serve and finding out what they would take, 
but it would be a very interesting education to the onp who 
imdertakes it. 

If the press is important to progressive agriculture, why 
shouldn't progressive agriculture use the press? If the press 
doesn't come to you go to the press. Go to it intelligently, per- 
sistently, progressively. There is no doubt that such means as 
are hinted at here would get more agricultural matter in the 
press, get it in more of the papers and have it in better shape. 
And not the meetings only ; there are many papers that would 
be glad to get good items of crop yields, special methods that 
have brought success, experiments, farm management, figures 

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26 Second Annual Report of the 

of cost and profit, timely reports of special conditions. There 
is news, the best of news, in all of these, and the press wants 
the news while it is news, and your neighbors, far and near, 
want the news of your farm' or agricultural work, just as you 
want to know what they are doing. Use the press, help the 
press, educate the press. The end warrants no little thought 
and effort in this direction. If there w^ere time a great deal 
might be said about the press as a connecting link between the 
agriculturist and the legislature You cannot be in too close 
touch with the press when the time comes for getting the much 
needed appropriation. 


Without a book report much of the work of a big agricultural 
organization is lost. But it should not be thought that this 
book, coming out four to fourteen months after the annual 
meeting, competes with or takes the place of the press report. 
The press gets the matter while it is news and there is fresh 
interest in it. The permanent report comes out after much of 
the event is forgotten, and it is impossible to revive the interest 
as it was at first. The press report is short and is administered 
in broken doses at several intervals. The book report is long 
and comes in one big piece. The press report generally deals 
in features and is set off by atlractive headings. The permanent 
report is often a wildeniess of straight reading matter with the 
good and the poor all thrown together without distinguishing 
between them or analyzing or heading the features for hurried 
readers who care for only certain things. The book goes to a 
few and chiefly to those already interested in its contents. The 
press report goes everywhere to everylxxly and sows your seed 
in new fields. Intrudes even where it is scarcely welcome and 
performs its brief mission where a big formal document would 
not be read. There is na clash of interest between the two; 
there is room and demand for both ; the press w^ill make a way 
and a w(»lcome for your lx}ak, and lead to its being called for and 


What are the things that keep progressive agriculture out of 
the newspaper or limit the space given to it ? The editor doesn't 

Digitized by 


Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 27 

see the demand for it. Agricultural items are not so easy to 
get as town news. He doesn't know the subject any better 
than some of us know base ball, and finds it difficult to write 
intelligently about agricultural matters unless some one practi- 
cally dictates the form of the item. 

Oan you think of some Avay to cliange these conditions ? Can 
you do anything to show the editor there is a demand for agri- 
cultural matter in his paper, and that when given it is appre- 
ciated. Don't you think a dozen or so gracefully written letters, 
or personal inquiries or coimnendations would give him a better 
and more favorable idea of your view ? It is a greatly appre- 
ciated thing by most editors to have good items written out for 
them and sent in or brought in. 


Think of the substantial improvement in the agricultural press 
the past ten years. Think of the Review of Reviews, the 
World's Work, Success, the Saturday Evening Post, the Youth's 
Companion and many other magazines and high class papers 
giving agriculture a frequent or occasional place in their col- 
umns. Think of the several big city dailies and the scores of 
smaller newspaj^rs throughout the country that have taken on 
agriculture as a regular feature. Think of such an artistic and 
high-priced publication as "Country Life in America" becoming 
a financial success almost from the start. And whom doyou think 
are its chief patrons ? School teachers. In handling exchanges 
I find that good agricultural items are copied from one paper 
to many others, thus increasing the dissemination and showing 
that the editor appreciates a good thing when he sees it. All 
this is barely a hint of the rapid progress of the press in repre- 
senting progressive agriculture. To one Avho has watched its 
growth even for five years it seems a transform a tion of the press. 
It is ours to take Aviso advantage of this open door and show 
our appreciation of it. And there is ample evidence that the 
press has thus really heljxul agriculture. 


This whole paper might have Ix^en devoted to another phase 
of the question — ^that of advertising. Through the magazine 

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28 Second Annual Report of the 

and newspaper advertisements the public is educated concerning 
almost every article that is manufactured — and concerning very 
few products as they come from the agricultural producer. 
Beautiful illustrations and catchingly worded sentences set forth 
tlie claims and brand and quality of the article, tell you where 
to get it and what it costs. Suppose cheese and apples and beef 
and butter were given as much space and thought, wouldn't it 
educate the consumers and increase the demand? With agri- 
cultural products graded to a standard, that standard made 
known and maintained, and the producer's brand on the goods, 
trade in those things is bound to increase. It is because the 
customer doesn't know what to call for, and isn't sure of getting 
it when he does call for it, that he buys less of farm products. 


Dr. Frank H. Hall, special farm institute instructor in Illi- 
nois, found by actual vote in a great many county institutes of 
that state, that very few of those present had read the bulletins 
of the Illinois experiment station or knew of the important farm 
investigations which in some instances had been conducted very 
near them. And he concluded that dissemination is not keep- 
ing pace with investigation in agriculture, and made a very 
prominent point of this in his address to the Live Stock Breed- 
ers last week at the Univei'sity of Illinois. This condition is 
by no means confined to Illinois. Now the press can be and 
should be used as a mighty factor in the dissemination of the 
results of agricultural investigation. Both the editors and the 
agricultural people have a big re£ix)nsibility in this. 


Dean Davenport of the Illinois College of Agriculture in an 
address to tlie Illinois Agricultural Editors last October ex- 
pressed the following ideas : TJie press has a distinct field that 
cannot be filled by tlie agricultural bulletin, the college man or 
the agricultural organization. The bulletin is published but 
once, and it needs the reiteration of the press to bring its ideas 
home to the people. The professor can jwint the right way but 
he cannot over and over urge the people to adopt it, as can the 
press. The organization meets annually or at long intervals; 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Associaiion, 29 

the press visits the people every week or month. There is no 
other known way but that of the press to keep a matter before 
the people until it is adopted in their practice. Then the press 
is the place (and will be more than ever in the future) to "thresh 
out," thoroughly discuss and settle agricultural problems. 



Young men of the agricultural college, it gives me pleasure 
to be permitt^ed to briefly address you. T c/)me to you not as a 
theorist but as one whose hands are familiar with the fork 
handle, the spade, the axe helve and the reins of the workteam, 
and as "necessity is the mother of invention," so scarcity of help 
in recent past years is and has been the root of many of my 
practices, a few of which I shall call your attention to in the 
brief time allotted to me in your program schedule. 

I remind you at the outset, that I consider the advantages 
you enjoy in this "Agricultural Short Course" one of the most 
advantageous cross comers that you will ever experience or be 
able to cut. 


The authority that you have listened to in this course is of the 
best. The world wide reputation acquired by our beloved and 
honored Prof. Henry is not only a great credit to himseJf, but 
an honor to the state of Wisconsin. A few years ago it was 
my privilege to attend a National Agricultural Convention at 
Fort Worth, Texas, at which Prof. Henry and Ex-Governor 
Hoard were both active participants. During the time of the 
convention the Texas dairymen succeeded in engaging the at- 
tentions and services of these two men for an hour or more on 
their favorite themes of study, and if ever a body of men ab- 
sorbed with wide open mouths the utterances of others, those 

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30 Second Annual Report of the 

dairymen absorbed the expressed thoughts of those two distin- 
guished lecturers. They listened to good authority. 


Taking up the year's farm work at about the present time 
(February 1st) we find yet considerable shock corn, standing 
in the field. Up to about this time a horse may be used to good 
advantage in loosening the shock from the ground. Attach him 
with Whipple tree to about a 15 foot stout rope wnth chain hook 
at the other end, proceed down the row of shocks, stopping at 
each long enougli to throw the hook-end of ihe ro]Xi around the 
shock two-thirds the way up from the ground and hook the hook 
over the main rope. Start tlie horse, the rope will lighten and 
the shock will pull over. T^^sen only an acre cr so at a time, 
as may be needed. An acre may l>e thus loosened in a half 
hour or less. 


But a good horse is needed or the operator may lose his tem- 
jier, w^hich again reminds us that |2:ood horses are marked es- 
sentials to successful and possibly pleasurable farming through- 
out. And what do I mean by a good horse ? First of all reli- 
ability. One that will do, if required, to the utmost of his 
ability, and do it over and ov<3r again if asked to by a considerate 
owner or driver. Not one that is in the air a portion of the 
time or that w^ould leave the driver at every drop of the reins. 
For draft work draft horses, light work or driving the medium 
and nimble horse. I use about reven or eight horses of which 
at least three must l>e drafters for plow, disk, binder and the 
like. My three double-furrow-plow^ horses, weighing 5,000 lbs., 
Avould actually handle that tool alone but for turning corners 
and setting plow in and out of the ground. The day is past of 
tw^o-horse teams. Where three or more can practically be used, 
economy demands that they must be. 

spring's work 

Spring work is the front door to the farm year. As this im- 
portant season draws near, have every preparation made that 
can possibly be. Available manure removed, the year's wood 

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WifSconsin Agricultv/ral Experiment Associaiion. 31 

provided and prepared, every tool in repair, seed cleaned, every 
preparation made for treating the seed oats for smut prevention 
(Tlie methods prescribed by the Experiment Station are reliable 
and a success), corn stalks or stubs crushed, the horses will thank 
you for it when they come to plowing, etc. Our so-called seed 
oats must invariably contain from a fifth to a fourth of wheat, 
we like it best for all purposes for which wo use oats on the 
farm ; for horses, cattle, calves, sheep and hogs, and we thereby 
raise an excellent substitute for so-called mill feeds and know of 
its purity. It also assists the crop to stand up when nearing 
harvest time. Wo almost invariably sow grass and clover seeds 
with all small grains, and quite regularly rape seed at the rate of 
a pound or more to the acre. 

Pity the stupidity of the farmer who yet })lows round and 
round his whole field, always throwing the furrows and top soil 
out, to nourish the surrounding old rail or wire foneo. Evi- 
dences of such historic stupidity are plainly manifest yet in 
many a Wisconsin field. 


Good tools are also an important element in up-to-date farm- 
ing and second only to good horses. I prize the double-furrow 
plow as much in spring's work as I do the binder in harvest time. 
With it one man and three good horses will plow six acres a' day, 
which counts well, and at minimum expense in precious seeding 
time. A good wide, three-section. drag that will cover 40 acres in 
a half day is eoually an essential. If, in the preparation of a 
seed bed, the disk and drag are both to be used Ix^fore sowing 
or planting, attach a section of drag to the rear of the disk har- 
row by means of a chain, and with the three good horses one 
driver will easily handle both. IVFy good man and I recently 
thus pleasantly fitted and planted 50 acres of corn in three days. 
Observing neighbors admitted that "they had not Ihought of 
that before." As to the gang plow on stony land. While our 
land is not absolutely free from stones, it is comparatively so; 
but the gang plow is a tool that never should be ruvshed by fast 
driving. Its appropriate gait is a slow but steady one, hence 
it can be advantageously ufod on much more stony ground than 
ours. On my drill box cover, and also on my drag T always 
have a shallow box attached in which I can carry easily a small 
stone or two from the middle of the field to the fence if I should 

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32 Second Annual Report of the 

find one or more. By this means, practiced for years, very 
few such are to be found in our cultivated fields, and when we 
want a few stones, we know where to look for them. 


The former is a necessity, and the latter an essential to a good 
farm home. The man who denies either of the above proposi- 
tions, I consider neither fully realizes what a good farm home 
is, nor deserves one. A man once said to me in a public agri- 
cultural convention in answer to my above proposition, "Away 
with your farm orchard. I will plant the same ground to tobac- 
co and receive for the crop enough money to buy fruit for the 
whole neighborhood." In reply I would say that I would 
rather my one little son would know the virtues of one good 
applet ree than the virtues of sAl the tobacco that was ever grown. 
Pity the parents and especially the mothers whose prayer must 
essentially be, "Oh L©rd, please keep my boy from using the 
filthy stuff, but encourage the other mothers' boys to use it; for 
thou knowest that it is one of our main crops, and some one 
must use it in order for us to receive a remunerative price for 


At the close of the small grain seeding get at and keep at 
the remainder of the manure hauling to a finish, if possible, 
spreading from the wagon as you haul. 


Strive, by the 10th of May, by having recently kept one man 
busy with the double plow, to have the bulk of the corn ground 
plowed, as I consider that from May 10th to 20th the 
most appropriate com planting season for our latitude. Near 
the lOth for old land. Near the 20th for sod land in which 
cut worms may be harboring. Land well fitted is more easily 
and successfully tended. To secure an even stand, screen seed 
to uniform sized kernels. 


With these main crops in the ground, and the most strenuous 
spring work accomplished, appropriate the first pleasant day 

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Wisconsm AgricidhmU Experiment Association. 33 

to a thorough relaxation of both mind and body from the remem- 
brances of those labors. In our case we'll go fishing every 
time, and take the whole family, and if the neighbors are ready, 
take them also; and what a time we and the precious children 
will have! And the very next day see that the employees have 
the same slight reward for a season of faithfulness. 

Between now and the first of June the odds and ends will be 
picked up, fences repaired, and corn occasionally dragged. And 
we forgot to say that the sheep were sheared about the first of 
April, and as they were yet around the buildings for two or 
three weeks, it was like finding something to see the hens wander 
among them in the yard as they lay in the sun and pick the few 
ticks from them as they — the ticks — ^had no long fleece to further 
hide in. Better than any sheep dip that I ever knew of for 
that purpose. A few sheep on every farm is one of the best 
paying of investments. 


Time, not earlier than June 1st for main crop. Seed cut to 
one eye to a piece. Planted one piece in a place 15 inches apart 
in the row, and rows 30 inches apart. In our case we plow them 
in, dropping seed close to land side in every other furrow of 14- 
inch plow, stretched to cut as wide as consistent and do good 
plowing. Result, too late for potato bugs and August blight, 
just enough good strong vines to produce for us never less 
than 200 bushels per acre and up to 400 bushels per acre of 
good large potatoes. Previous to following the above outline 
we were scarcely able to raise enough for our own use but by an 
entire revolution of our former practices and following the above 
method have never failed of a successful crop. 


"Early at it," our motto. Mostly sun cured. Some sap in 
mow not objectionable, but outside moisture never. Quality of 
our hay always complimented when it has appeared on the 
market. A fork head in a 12-foot pole handle is a great labor 
saver on the mow by swinging and pushing the hay-fork load 
just as it is snapped. The low truck farm wagon is always in 
order on the farm and especially in haying, and with its basket 
rack will oftentimes nearly save a man on the load. 

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34 Second Annual Report of the 


Small grain is now universally harvested with the binder, but 
why some men leave off the bundle carrier is always beyond our 
comprehension. It is a great labor and time saver. 


Feed half or more of oats in the sheaf if possible. Who can 
give a good reason for adding 5 cents cost per bushel to every 
bushel of oats by separating the grain from the straw and then 
putting them both right back before the stock? Everything in 
the stock line likes sheaf oats. They are clean and easy to 
handle. Ihey make good hog bedding; not a kernel will be 


Get down on your knees less to an oat bundle and other 
earthly objects and more to your Maker. 


Probably most economically done with the com binder, and the 
valuable store of fodder thus secured, even though it continues 
in the shock till used, is a small gold mine, and many of our 
most successful stock-feeders deliver it direct from shock to the 
combination of hogs-and-oattle. 


Is most satisfactorily done at about early corn-husking time, 
and it isi not a. had idea to leave a limiticd acreage of best com to 
ripen naturally and frorai which, as you husk it, to select and 
save seed froon best portions of such. Dry in a non-freezing 
roomi of the house, if convenient. 


A stone vxder tank constitutes our main reservoir for out- 
building water supply. Dimensions, 4 feet deep, 5 feet wide 
and 12 feet long in the clear. Capacity 60 barrels. Outlet 
fl'om bottom by means of faucet into trough. Walls of stone^ 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 35 

mortar and cement. Earth wall outside 6 feet thick. A 
load or two of straw over top prevents all freezing in winter. 

Pure Bred Stock. — (Cultivate an ideal and indulge in it in all 
possible ways, and there will still be scrubs enough for the other 
fellows that never attend a farm institute or gathering. 

Dehorn all Cattle, — Horns, their primitive means of defense 
are no longer needed. Do it mainly by caustic potash on calves 
under a week old, as prescribed by Experiment Station years 
ago and still no method better. 

Barley Fork. — ^You say you have not one ? Take one from 
hardware next time you are at the village. It is a time, labor 
and patience saver. 

Furnace heating for the fann home is a cheap luxury; onoe 
indulged in never to bo relinquished. Fire box under the 
house and heat will rise and warm the floors first. Wood dirt 
all down cellar. No sparks to injure carpets. No stoves 
to take down and put up (just the day you had planned to do so 
much of something else). House cleaning in no sense dependent 
on the heating apparatus only that the women folks can get at it 
a full month earlier in spring than if the house were heated 
with stoves. Fire plant all in one place and that the safest place 
and not scattered all over the house. 

The Fai'm Telephone. — The "quick-meal" employee of the 
whole institution. Ours was the first put in outside of my 
native village and I am proud of the fact. Too wonderful an 
art to be lost. Oourt its service at the earliest opportunity even 
if a few 4)ost holes have to be dug or posts furnished. You can't 
aiford to be without it. 

A Safe sufficient io hold all farm pajx^rs and practically 
fire proof, is a good investment and will serve many generations 
and in emergencies save from storm or fire the valuable papers 
pertaining to every farm. 

Name on Farm^ Buildings. — Are you pleased to have passers- 
by kr.ow you live there? then put your family name where all 
may see it. Tf not, then clean up and improve until you are 
satisfied to have it known tliat that is your home. For a good 
farm house is one of the principal net profits of farming. 

A Road Smoother made of a sawed railroad tie, with tongue 
mortised in at slight anffle, an old grader blade bolted on to 
frrnt lower edge, and all of which one good team can slowly 

Digitized by 


36 Second Anwual Report of the 

handle, and hitched onto occasionally and driven to your nearest 
village, upon one wheel track and back on the other, will do more 
to cause your neighbors to rise up and call you "blessed'' than 
anything else of equal cost that you can do. 

Acquire TJsefvl Knowledge and Apply It. — ^To be able to 
thump a billiard ball or roll a ten-pin ball successfully, or to be 
able to trace a checker man away in advance will never do you 
nor any one else any real good, but to be able to intelligently and 
dextrously execute farm or any other work is a most worthy 

Do things one of the inany right wa/ys; attend to important 
matters first, and time, if well used, shall be given you to bring 
up the details. Know what to omit, what to postpone, and what 
to assign others to do. 

And lastly, young men, wishing no evil, but that heaven's 
choicest blessings may attend your labors in the grandest oc- 
cupation and profession that Providence ever instituted among 
men, and that you may early know the value of money and all 
earthly possessions, my prayer for you is that the first thou- 
sand dollars of your own that you ever handle may never be 
bequeathed to you by a kind and well meaning parent, but that 
you will have to earn every cent of it. 



One of the prettiest farm homes in the vicinity of Oregon, 
is that of the Ames family, located a mile south of the town. 
The place is properly called Fairview fari.i" and comprises ovei 
400 acres of the best Southern Wisconsin land. The farm 
house, a large, comfortable home, surrounded by a grove of 
stately trees and a pretty la^vn, is located a short distance back 
of the road, while the substantial and well painted bams and 
buildings are placed some distance in the rear of the home 
grounds. See Figs. 1 and 2. 

The farm is owned by J. N. Ames, now past his eightieth 
year, and his son, W. L. Ames, manages the farm operation3t 

Digitized by 


Fig. 1. — "Fair View Farm" Home of J. N. Ames & Son, Oregon, Wis. 

Fig. 2.— "Fair View Farm" Barns. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 37 

The senior Ames settled on the farm in 1870. He began life in 
Dane county with only $100, which he had saved from monthly 
wages received as a farm hand. By paying close attention to 
farm affairs and through proper cultivation of his land he was 
enabled to accumulate money and purchase more land. The 
son, W. L. Ames, takes great pride in beautifying the farm home 
and grounds, and believes that if many farmers would give 
more attention to making their homes and surrounding grounds 
more pleasant and inviting, life on the farm would be more 
enjoyable and farm environments more pleasant. 

Tliis large farm is devoted to general farming and live stock 
raising. Pure bred registered Shorthorn cattle and Shropshire 
sheep are specialties in live stock. A large number of hogs are 
annually fattened for market. Besides the large barn, granary 
and hen house shown, in the illustration the farm buildings in- 
clude a work shop, shed for farm implements, a long sheep 
bam, large hog house and other smaller outbuildings. 

W. L. Ames is a progressive farmer and frequently takes part 
in farmers' institute work. He is an active officer in the Dane 
County Agricultural society and is a life member of the Farm- 
ers' National congress, at present being a member of the ex- 
ecutive commmittee. 



A farmer's daughter living in a happy country home, sur- 
rounded: by Nature's forces, enjoys a great blessing. The mean- 
ing of the word Home is dear to her. 

Every human being should have a home, the single person 
his or her home, and a family its home. The home should offer 
to the individual rest, peace, quiet, comfort, health and that de- 
gree of personal expression requisite, and these conditions should 
be maintained by the best methods of the time. The home 
should be to the child a place of happiness and true develop- 

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38 Second Annual Report of the 

He who is fortunate enough to have a home in the country, so 
closely in touch with Nature, certainly ought to enjoy life, and 
consider himself blessed. An attractive home should be the am- 
bition of all. A country home may be made attractive in many 
ways. Plant trees, shrubs, vines and flowers, so as to make the 
country home the ambition of all. Young people enjoy a 
happy home. If many country homes were made more at- 
tractive and the young people given more advantages, they would 
remain more on the farm. 

We notice one thing in looking over farmers' families that the 
Wisconsin farmer seems almost altogether to consider the im- 
portance of the boys, while the girls seem to receive no attention 
whatever. They are not altogether superfluous on the farm, they 
are mighty handy to have around. Fanners' daughters ought 
to have the unqualified respect of all men and women. 

Parents owe much to their children. They owe as much to 
the daughter as to the son, but they do not owe them. a fortune 
in money or lands. They owe them above these things, home 
training and home surroundings which shall make thoughts, 
habits, cliaracter and ambitions, which are above the valuation of 
money standard. Outside the chances of misfortune they owe 
them a happy childhood. 

The farmer's daughter has a right to be taught the detail and 
dignity of labor in the home. She has a right to it, because it is 
absolutely essential to her well being. No matter whether its a 
financial necessity or not its a moral necessity. You will find 
that nothing is drudgery, if done in the right spirit. 

Many a "farmer's daughter" has not the privileges and ad- 
vantages that her city cousin may enjoy, although the Eural 
Delivery System brings her in closer touch with the works of our 
great world and there is no reason why she should not be able to 
converse upon the subjects of the day as well as her city cousin. 
Numerous magazines and papers may be delivered at her 
father's door every day, and a few moments spent reading these 
articles will give her much valuable information, not this alone, 
the system, of farmers' telephoneis gives her an opportunity to 
converse with her friends and neighbors. Here, free from the 
noise of the city, she can enjoy the beauties of the country. 

Respect towards her parents is one of her first duties in life. 
TVying to have her own way in defiance of the opinions of her 

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Wiscomin Agricultural Experiment Association. 39 

own family will never make her happy. She fails in duty if ishe 
listens to any one who encourages her to disregard the wishes 
of her parents, or near relatives. Loyalty to one's family goes 
hand in hand with self respect. Cultivate moral courage, it is 
a noble quality, be frank in confessing a fault or a mistake. If 
you have distressed or displeased your parents, brothers or sis- 
ters say conscientiously that you are sorry, you will be a better 
and braver girl .for this effort:. 

Sisters and brothers are sometimes inclined to say sharp 
things to each other, to criticise or to snub, but relationship does 
n-ci give the privilege of being rude and disagreeable. Courtes-y 
should be practised at home, if you would have good manners. 

Let your speech never be idle, gossiping, irresponsible. Have 
you ever thought how far a little word may go ? It may help or 
it may hinder, it may do good or evil, it may hurt or it may 
heal, have you ever thought that your own speech helps to form 
your own character ? 

Accomplishments are for home use. Perhaps you have a 
brother who loves music and would be glad to have you play ac- 
companiments for his singing or his violin, would it not be 
worth while to help him ? 

Home life may be very much what you make of it yourself. 
Your nature, your character will influence the lives of others, 
and inake happiness or the reverse. Cheerfulness and bright- 
ness are duties at home. An enemy to peace in your home is a 
sulky, imforgiving temper, any one who indulges in such feel- 
ings is selfish, and destroys the happiness of others. 

Take the trouble to have everything as dainty and pretty as 
possible in your home ; some may think in order to have an at- 
tractive home iti will require a large out lay for a modem build- 
ing and the necessary furnishings, here is where too many make 
a mistake. A little log house may be made beautiful and at 
tractive if you know how to arrange furniture, pictures, flowers 
or how to prepare food. There are but very few "farmers' 
daughters" in their teens, who can not prepare and serve a good 
meal on short notice. 

Let it be your duty to assist your mother, and relieve her as 
much as possible of her worry and care. She likes to receive ap^ 
preciative words as much as you do. She goes without many 
things perhaps, so you may have them. She buys one new dress, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

40 Second Annual Report of the 

and manages that you niay have several new ones. You forget 
that she has not outlived a fancy for nice things. Perhaps she 
has not been away from home for yeara, could you not plan a 
little outing for her ? Remember 'that a daughter in a country 
home may be a great blessing and treasure. She may be like a 
ray of sunshine diffusing light and cheerfulness by her 
presence, she will make home beautiful by her sweet ways and by 

^*Little nameless unreiuemibei'e<l acts 
Of kindness and of Love." 

Also assist your father in beautifying the home grounds or 
take charge of this yourself during the harvest season, it will 
keep you busy attending to the lawn, so that its appearance is 
always attractive. Have some choice beds of flowers, they add 
so much to the beauty of the home, keep an eye on the outside 
appearance of the house and farm buildings, call your father's 
attention to the needed repairs, or of a coat of paint, have him 
remove alt small buildings and other unsightly objects, that oc- 
cupy a prominent place in the yard to the rear. 

Do not think it a disgrace to act as milk maid in case of 
necessity or your father's absence, he will always appreciate 
these kind acts of his daughter. 

A "farmer's daughter" has also a right to other knowledge than 
that of the household ; that a girl should know nothing beyond the 
fireside limits, is a thing of the past. She has a right to a 
thorough education, unless the question of money stands in the 
way. She has the same right that her brother has to a higher 
education, its value is as great to her as to him. 

The farmer's daughter even has a greater right to be well 
educated than the boy. The boy knocks about among men more 
or less and develops mentally by the contact. The girl's life 
touches the world at fewer points, she is carried along in a nar- 
row monotony of neighborhood thought and talk. The fact must 
not be overlooked however that the education which every farm- 
er's daughter should have, is often beyond her reach, because of 
its cost, then the great majority must find their knowledge in the 
lower school and in their homes. Should not every effort bo 
made to bring our rural district schools to a higher standard, 
not alone by our state but by the parents themselves ? 

Please visit with me a little country school and look over the 
register and see how many visits by parents and district oflicers 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 41 

are recorded during the school year. I am sorry to say but very, 
very few. Should not the parents quite often step into the 
schoolroom and learn how little Mary and Johnnie are advancing 
in their studies, and have some encouraging words for them, 
and a word of praise to the teacher. 

Too often she is left alone in charge of 25 or 50 pupils, labor- 
ing under difficulties, and not receiving the compensation she is 
entitled to. Let us make the little country school room more 
pleasant by pictures, flowers and neat white curtains and some 
musical instrument. 

When going away to a higher school or college, or when choos- 
ing a profession or a business, let nothing sever tlie home ties or 
associations. Your parents have given the strength of their best 
years to you, their ambition has been to give you advantages in 
education and to fit you for life at the cost perhaps of much 
sacrifice to themselves. Do all that you can for them in re- 
turn, you will never regret making sacrifices for them, but you 
will regret some day bitterly if you fail in plain duty. 

Success in life does not always mean prosperity or fame, a 
very secluded life may be full of possibilities. To live up to 
a high ideal of womanhood is one of the noblest ambitions. 



In introducing this subject I will not take up any of your time 
in discussing the value of clover as a hay crop or as a renovator 
of soils, these subjects have been brought to your attention and 
impressed upon you, so that they will remain indelibly upon 
your minds. 

On the ordinary stock and grain farm in Wisconsin it seems 
as though growing clover for seed, in a three or four years' rota- 
tion, would enable the farmer to handle his farm easier and with 
less labor than he could otherwise, besides resting up that par- 
ticular field which may be in clover each year. 
« In this brief article, I will endeavor to tell you how we handle 

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42 Second Annual Report of the 

clover for seed in Juneau county, central Wisconsin, which is 
spoken of as the clover-belt. 

During the last decade clover seed has paid more mortgages, 
swelled more bank accounts, bought more comforts and luxuries 
for tlie farmers, and raised the price of land I believe more than 
any other one thing, in proportion to tlie land devoted to it and 
the attention devoted to handling it. 

It is raised in the vicinity of Mauston by the hundreds of 
bushels and in shipping season is handled by the carloads, num- 
bers of farmers have in different seasons received checks for 
$1,000.00 and more for their clover. 

In sowing clover with a view to raising a seed crop, sow clean 
seed on clean land preferably after some cultivated ci-op. Some 
pernicious weed seeds are apt to lurk in clover especially alsike 
which is a smaller seed than the red clover, and is hard to clean 
free from small fine weed seed. 

Sow alsike on your low heavy lands at the rate of about two 
quarts per acre, and Mlaimnoth and June clover on your lighter 
soils at tlie rate of about four quarts per acre, the ground being 
well prepared and preferably, after the grain crop has been 
drilled in and harrowed once. Sow with a regular hand seed 
mill, and follow once with light harrow or roller as you may 
prefer or both. 

Avoid pasturing off in the fall, but pasturing off of Mammoth 
in the spring is to be recommended if your clover has wintered 
nicely and soil conditions will permit. If not pastured off, clip 
back with mower about June first, or just as the plants commence 
to joint up, do not wait too long, or disappointment in seed crop 
may result, conditions which I have noted in Juneau county a 
number of times. 

This clipping or pasturing is done to reduce the straw and it 
seems to invariably increase the yield of seed. I also believe 
alsike can be pastured awhile in spring with good results, but am 
not very certain on this point, although knowing of several 
good yields of seed being obtained in this way. 

With June clover you remove the first growth as a hay crop, 
cutting when just coming to full bloom, and letting the seed crop 
come last. If you attempt to let the first crop go for seed dis- 
appointment is apt to follow as a result, for new growth springs 
up before the first crop is mature and an unsatisfactory mess re- 

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Wiscormn AgricuUva-al Experiment Association. 43 

suits. I have seen this tried a number of times and in each 
case the fields were abandoned, but the land got the benefit, and 
the loss was perhaps not so great after all. When seed clover 
comes to maturity, alsike especially needs very careful attention. 
Gutting alsike should commence before all heads are fully ripe, 
using either a reaper or a mower, if badly lodged or tangled a 
mower will probably give the best satisfaction, cutting when 
dew is on in early morning hours, or have men follow im- 
mediately after the mower with forks and bunch and pile out 
from under the horses' feet thereby avoid trampling. 

As soon as dry, do not neglect but put the clover in bams or 
barracks or stack up and cover suitably or better still hull direct 
from the field, using tight rack beds on wagons and liandle care- 
fully to avoid shelling. 

Mammoth and June clovers can be handled in much the same 
way, but as they are a great deal more bulky than alsike, it is 
more desirable to hull direct from the field, and as Mammoth 
or June clover does not shell oif as^asily as alsike, the damage 
is not so great in case of bad storms after being cut. 

The season of 1903 was a very trying one on Wisconsin farm- 
ers and was especially disastrous to a great many who happened 
to get behind with tlieir work at any time during the season, and 
especially at the harvest season, and the clover men had their 
share of troubles; a nmnber in our section losing their entire 
crop of alsike clover by being a little tardy in securing the crop 
and getting caught with the extremely wet weather. It pays to 
act and act quickly when a clover crop is ready to liandle. 
Always try and hull when the clover is perfectly dry, using a 
regular clover huller. Attempting to hull damp clover is ex- 
trc^riicly wasteful and must l;(^ avoddc^d, also avoid usiing hulling 
attachments that are sometimes fitted onto regular threshing 
machines; the attachments cannot hull and save the seed as n 
regular huller can. 

Before marketing, the seed should be recleaned with some 
regular seed mill made especially for the purpose. Such mill? 
can be obtained by ordering from regular seed commission firms. 

When the seed is cleaned, a sample may be sent to your setrd 
commission firm, who will make a bid on the lot, and if ;y<>u wish 
to accept you should notify them at once and your seec/ can be 
shipped a few days later. 

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44 Second Annual Report of the 

The clover straw can be used on the farm the same as other 
straw, or be spread at once on the fields to be plowed under. 

The alsike straw if gotten up without any rain is often fairly 
good feed for cattle or sheep, being fairly bright and not so 
coarse and woody as the straw from the red clover. 



De Candolle concludes that barley has been cultivated by man 
for over 4,000 years and that its original home was in western 
temperate Asia, 

Fragmentary bits of bistory show that it was known to the 
Egyptians, the Lake-Dwellers of Switzerland, the inhabitants 
of the Canary islands, the Chinese and many other ancient 
peoples scattered over all the temperate portions of the Old 
World since pre-historio times. 

By many of these people it was used as the principal grain 
for bread making, the word "barley" being derived from Hebrew 
words meaning bread-corn. 

Botanists divide barley into three species; the two-rowed, 
four-rowed and six-rowed. DeOandoUe, however, holds that the 
four and six-rowed species are variations from the two-rowed 
barley which is the only kind that he considers has been 
found in a truly wild state. There is little or no doubt that 
the beardless, hulless and innumerable other cultivated varieties 
are all derived from the three above mentioned species. 

The crop statistics of the Year Books of the Department of 
Agriculture show that barley has a much higher value per acre 
than any other cereal crop. 

The average farm value per acre of the cereal crops of the 
entire United States for the 10 years ending in 1902 are as fol- 
lows : 

Barley. $9.56 

Wheat 8.17 

Com . 8.07 

Oats c 7.45 

Eye . 7.00 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 45 

The following table gives the average yield per acre, in pounds 
of the four small grains for the state of Wisconsin for the ten 
years ending with 190'2 and also gives the digestible nutrients 
in the average acre of each grain, ' 


yield per 



farm value 

per acre. 

Digestible Nutrients. . . 


hyd rates. 







94. SB 




21 78 


45 02 


15 81 



These figures effectually prove the value of barley as a crop 
for sale or feeding purposes and it would seem that the grain 
growing farmer would do well to try it to a limited extent. 
There is a place in our agriculture that barley fills better than 
any other small grain. 

In the southern part of the state wliere the oat crop often 
lodges on rich soils or rusts and in either case fails to fill 
properly, barley is rapidly replacing it; under the same condi- 
tions, the barley may lodge Imt it never fails lo fill and it is not 
perceptibly injured by the rust. There is no doubt that barley 
is the ver)' best nurse crop that Ave have for clover or alfalfa. 
The stock-farmer must of necessity depen,(l largely on corn and 
legumes, but he must also in order to have a proper rotation of 
crops, have some small grain crop to succeed the corn, serve a?* 
a^iurse crop to the clovers, and to furnish straw for bedding and 
grain suitable for sale or feeding purposes as the markets may 

Barley is especially suited for these conditions and its more 
general culture must follow l?etter acquaintance w^itli it. Tt is 
essentially a grain adapted to intensive farming on rich, well- 
drained soils. Beardless barley is highly valued as a feeding 
crop near Racine, but in some sections of the state it is not re- 
garded as nearly as good as the bearded sort^s. 

The two-rowed Bavarian barley has been grown at Ft. Atkin- 
gon^ by Governor Hoard, w^ith marked success, 

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46 Second Annual Report of the 

The Oderbriicker, a six-rowed barley, is giving reiuarkabl; 
good results at the Experiment Station and is regar».\ed as per 
haps the most promising of any variety tried as yet. 

The six-rowed Manshury, sometimes called University barley, 
has been more widely grown in .this state than any of the other 
good varieties and has given better results under all sorts of con- 
ditions. The Oderbriicker will probably prove a formidable 
rival but has not been grown to any extent as yet. 

Barley does not require early sowing; in the southern coun- 
ties the last ten days of April are considered as about the proper 

The most prevalent error in barley culture is the sowing of 
too much seed; this causes improperly developed plants and 
heads, and if continued for several generations injures the 
value of the strain considerably. 

One bushel and three pecks of good clean barley is enough for 
an acre under any conditions in my opinion. I have seen some 
very fine barley grown from one bushel and one peck of seed 
per acre and no one would have considered it too thin. 

We would place no more plants on an acre than tho available 
plant food can properly develop. 

Seed barley should be treated with formaldehyde as recom- 
mended for oat-smut. It not only destroys the barley smut but 
the plants are apparently much healthier, the straw stronger and 
of better quality. The formaldehyde apparently destroys some 
parasitic growths, that we are not as yet familiar with. It 
should l>e harvested as soon as the larger portion of the field is 
ripe ; once rijx>ned, the weig;ht of the heads breaks over the straw 
very easily and it "crinkles down" making it very difficult to 

It is preferable 1o shock it in round shocks and cap tbem well, 
unless the bundles are very creen or wetv, as exposure to the 
weather darkens the color of the berry and reduces the price. 

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Wisconsin AgricnItnraZ Experiment Association. 47 



Members of the Wisconsin Experiment Association, friends 
and fellow students: It affords me much pleasure on this oc- 
casion, to bring before you this subject. "Opportunities for 
Short Course students as farm managers." Tliis is a subject 
that has taken but very little space in the agricultural press in 
the way of discussion, but we will no doubt see and hear more 
about it in the future. The very rapid, increasing interest 
that men of capital are taking, in our agricultural lands at the 
present time, and for many other reasons too numerous to men- 
tion here, have made farm managing a profession which has a 
very promising future before it, especially for the youns: man 
who has had training in our agricultural college^. In the last 
decade agriculture has made a most wonderful stride in this 
country ; farming is not carried on as it used to be ; competition 
has forced upon the American farmer many improved methods, 
which are mostly based upon scientific principles. This with 
many other improvements has opened a large field for the 
man who has had training along this line. Never was there a 
time in the history of America, when there Ava.s such a demand 
for grod agricultural land. Never was there a time when so 
many men of wealth were pAitting money into farms, as there 
are at the present time. Nor was there ever a time wlien farm 
managers were in such great demand as to-day. We see men 
from almost every industry in the world turning their attention 
to farming. And a great many of them have millions to back 
them. As a rule such men know but very little about the de- 
tails of the fann. Their time has Ix^n spent far from the 
farm, and their live-^ have l)een burie<l in other business. Such 
men depend almost entirely upon our agricultural colleges for 
men to manage their farms. This is one reason why our col- 
leges of agriculture receive so many more calls for men than 
can be supplied. T don't knew of any profession to-day that 
affords its seekers better opportunities than farm managinsr, 
neither is there any. where the supply is so far below the de- 

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48 Second Annual Report of the 

mand as in this vocation. During each year the Wisconsin 
college receives calls from almost every state in the^ Union for 
Short Course men to take charge of farms. If Prof. Moore 
should receive a call to-day for a dozen book-keepers or clerks, 
he could easily find them. Or if the call should he for lawyers 
or engineers, he could send them by the score, but if the call 
should be for farm managers, he would be puzzled to know 
where to get them.. As the great American wheel of agriculture 
keeps rolling around, the demand still increases, so I say to the 
young man who is able to fill this position when he finishes 
school, that he has a very inviting future before him. We often 
hear the remark made by people that know but very little about 
the value of an agricultural education, "Don't go to Madison 
and take that Short Course, people won't be willing to pay 
you for what you know." Well now, when it comes to dollars 
and cents, the man that .thoroughly understands farming with 
all its details, and is able to apply his knowledge will realize 
about as much out of it as any of them. Now, you young 
men, when you go to hire out on a farm you expect a certain 
sum and your board. We married men, hiring out as farm 
managers, don't expect to board with our employer, but we do 
expect such perquisites as a horse, fuel, rent and many other . 
little things which add a great deal to our salary at the end 
of the year. For instan.ce, we will take the young man seeking 
employment in other lines of work. T mean men who have 
fitted themselves for a certain profession which compels them 
to live in the city. Most of them live in rented houses, buy 
their fuel and almost everything they live on. We will say a 
fair average of their wages would be $50 per month. Now 
say he pays $150 a year for rent, $60 for fuel, $50 for milk, 
biitter and cream, and $40 for potatoes, eggs and poultry, which 
makes $300 per year. This is half of his year's wages. Then 
he buys his family's clothes and pays the grocery and meat 
bills, also his incidental expenses, and what has he left at the 
end of the year? On the other hand, the farm managers' wages 
run from $45 to $75 per month. His house, fuel, milk, butter, 
cream and eggs are furnished free of charge. Allowing him 
just the same for his family's clothing, for certainly he has a 
right to just as good clothes if he does live on a farm, also the 
same for groceries and other expenses. These I stated cost the 

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Wisc(mmn Agriculhural Experiment Association. 49 

city man $300 which you can see at once, the farm manager 
would have to put out at interest. I visited a farm not long 
ago, owned by a very wealthy man, and was told that when com- 
pleted with buildings and stock ready for business it will have 
cost the owner t$300,000. I understand this man will give 
any one $2,500 a year, who will take charge of that farm and 
make a success of it. A man of capital, who has two large 
farms now in operation, told me not long ago that he would buy 
another one worth $40,000, if he could get a competent man to 
take charge of it. But it seems to l>e the problem to secure good, 
responsible men. as farm managers. I think it needs no argu- 
ment on my part to convince you, that there is a very briglit 
future before the young man who fits himself for this work. 
I know a Short OcMirso student who finished in 1902, who now 
has a position in this state, and when all his bills are paid, in- 
cluding his family's living which consists of himself, wife and 
three children, he has $75 in cash at the end of each month. 
This is $900 a year and his family's board. To equal this in 
the city you would have to get over $100 per month. Without 
an agricultural education this young man would have been 
working for common wages. We believe that American agri- 
culture is just entering the most wonderful era of its history. 
One thing is sure, if you come here to Madison, with the right 
motives in view and do your best, when the two years' work 
is finished you will leave, feeling amply repaid for what it 
has cost you. Then if you possess certain other qualifications 
that you can't obtain in school, you can step out into this busy 
world and make a success of the most noble profession that con- 
fronts the young man of to-day. The opportunities for Short 
Course students as farm managers are most wonderful, although 
just in their infancy. We believe ten years hence will find the 
demand double what it is now for such men. First prove to 
the world that you are master of your profession and no one 
will hesitate to pay you the price for your time. 

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50 Second Anrmal Report of the 



George Ade says, ^^Every knock is a boost." 

How often in every-day life do we meet with a person who 
will spend his time ajid ours in nmning down his neighbor or 
his rival in business, never stopping to tliink, or perhaps not 
capable of thinking what the ultimate consequences of such 
knocking will be. 

If we have a rival in business or an opponent in any kind 
of work and that rival or opponent is continually faultfinding 
and running us down among his friends and ours, we should 
take such things as cooly as possible. Kever make haste to deny 
that which rumor and gossip sets afloat. For such people, 
whose worst weapons are their tongues and who kick trying to 
gain fame and notoriety by criticising and running down other 
people's affairs, belong to the very lowest order of humanity, 
and if we pay attention to these and deny publicly their sayings 
we are putting ourselves down toward the same level with them. 

If we have been run down, let us patiently abide our time and 
prove by actions that such criticisms are without foundation. 

If, for instance, anybody with intent to knock us runs down 
our manner of farming or methods of business, let us take it all 
in quietly. Don't try to get even by knocking back, let us keep 
our eyes and our ears open and our mouth shut, work diligently, 
honestly and unpretentiously, judge carefully and see if there 
is not a grain of advice in those criticisms. Then try our best, 
put our shoulders to the wheel and make a success of that partic- 
ular thing and prove to the knocker and to the world by actions 
that we are on the right track. By so dcing we will gain a 
double victory, first, by proving that the knocker is wrong, 
second, by making such particular thing a financial success 
which, by (he way, is almost always the point desired in any kind 
of business. And he who has been trying to knock us has un- 
consciously given us a boost. 

If we are in the dairy business and a rival dairyman trys to 
nm down our methods and our products, let us not try to get 
even by nmning him down ; let us remedy our faults if there 

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Wisconsin Agncvltural Experiment Association, 51 

are anj, for in our business, no matter how far advanced, there 
is always room for improvement. Let us strive for a more 
perfect system. Let us "push" steadily onward, never stopping 
to look backward, not even stepping to see how far the party who 
has knocked us is left in tlie rear. O'ur success will prove our 
right and we will gain the confidence and res|>ect of our fellow 
men. Whereas if we had given, blow for blow both parties 
would perhaps be on the verge of financial collapse. 

It is true that some things do cross our paths that sorely test 
our patience, things that cut to the core, and we are oftentimes 
on the verge of explosion for anger and tempted to give a piece 
of our mind to brand as false things said and done to knock us. 
But words do not have the effect that actions have. Tx^t us over- 
come our anger and irorTc, act, f,vsli, and we shall and will gain 
a decided victor)^ without descending to the low level of knock- 

Everywhere, in every line of business, in every profession 
and vocation we see and hear some people knocking, some person 
rimning others down. One firm is trying to draw trade by knock- 
ing the other. Editors call each others names that would do 
credit to a mule-driver, doctors and lawyers make scathing re- 
marks about Iheir rivals in their profession and even some of our 
ministers who should be the very best examples of purity, peace 
and good will are so often knoeking each other and throwing 
stones right and left that their narrowmindedness is clearly 

?fow to which class do we wish to belono;? Do we wish to be 
knockers? Do we wish to gain success by throwing stones at 
others ? Do we wish to boost our own state of Wisconsin by 
ninnihg down other states ? 

Is this our aim ? Decidedly not. Our aim is self-improve- 
ment. Our ambition is to build, not to tear xlown. We want 
\iO push forward and onward. Wo want to remedy our mistakes 
and shortcomings. We want to increase the caDacity for pro- 
duction by improved methods, by selection and experimenta- 
tion. We w^ant to prove to the agricultural world by our acts, 
by our productions, by the results obtained through our push 
that our state is a pro2rressive one, and the Wisconsin Aeri- 
cultural Experiment Association is the standard bearer for the 
coming generations of farmers of this state and we, as indi- 

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52 Second Annual Report of the 

viduals and as a body, each and all of lis as members of this 
association and other kindred associations should do all in our 
power to steadily and earnestly work in harmony and co-opera- 
tion and by so doing we will make this, our own state of Wis- 
consin famous the world over for its agricultural attainments. 
And during all this time that we are striving for this ultimate 
end let our thoughts not be how far we can leave our neighbors 
in the rear, but let this be our sentiment: Let us see how far 
we can get ahead of them and keep gaining, so that as the years 
roll by the Wisconsin farmer shall stand pre-eminent in his 
profession, a power in the social and political as well as in the 
productive world; broad-minded and noble, proverbially an 
example of thrift, wealth and intelligence. 



Tobacco, the world's most popular narcotic, is today one of 
Wisconsin's greatest products. 

Fifty years ago the Pomeroy Brothers, Ralph, Orrin and 
William, settled on adjoining farms in the town of Fulton, 
Rock county, and grew ten acres of tobacco. William T. 
Pomeroy, the only surviving member of the three brothers w^ho 
were the pioneer growers of Wisconsin and Ohio, has watched 
the groAvth of the industry from that small beginning of ten 
acres to the 40,000 acres grown in the season of 1903. From 
that small beginning in Rock county the industry spread to 
seventeen other counties of the stat^. In r>ane county, one 
acre in every fifty-six produces tobacco. 

Many trials of growing tobacco for different purposes have 
been made in the past fifty years with more or less success, but 
today Wisconsin is known to the tobacco world as the "Binder 
State." A cijrar is composed of a filler, or the inside filling, 
the binder which binds these together and the wrapper or out- 
side covering. Very few high grade domestic cigars have 

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Wisconsin Agriculturcd Experiment Association, 53 

anything but the Wisconsin binder. As was stated, many 
changes have taken place in the qualities of Wisconsin tobacco. 
We have grown the filler, the binder and the wrapper, but time 
and experience have shown tliat our great fort lies in the pro- 
duction of a high grade binder. 

The promoters of every line of businass should have an ideal 
for which to strive. Now an ideal crop for binder purposes is 
one in which the leaves are soimd, spready, similar in shape 
and .the veins smooth, small and colored the same as the leaf. 
In texture the leaf should be grainy and yet have a sufficient 
quantity of oil to insure a proper amount of fermentation. 
When it is on the cigar it must burn well and have an aroma 
which at least is not detrimental. 

At least four things are necessary to obtain these results, 
favorable climatic conditions, proper soil well fertilized, pure 
seed, and proper handling. 

Man can do little to change climatic conditions in Wiscon- 
sin, but by good judgment some men manage tlieir work so that 
they get better results, under adverse circumstances, than their 
neighbors. Much has been said and written about how to care 
for the crop under different weather conditions, but my observa- 
tion has been that the men who keep up with their work get 
the best results. However, there is a vast field for study and 
demonstration in the growing and curing under different con- 

The remark is often made that tobacco is a bad crop for the 
farm. In a measure this is true for farmers make the mistake 
of putting all the barn-yard manure from an eighty acre farm 
on the same seven or eight acres of tobacco land year after year 
and try to grow corn and other grain on the remainder of the 
farm. This is a mistake in more ways than one. Barn-yard 
manure alone is not what produces the best quality but it is 
when used in connection with commercial fertilizers, that the 
best is obtained. By the use of fertilizers, more manure 
could be spared for the other crops or by using legumi- 
nous plants to aid in keeping up the farm, a judicious use of 
the farm manure and a liberal pairchase of fertilizers, more and 
better tobacco could be grown and at the same time the other 
part of the farm could be kept under a high state of cultivation. 

Sugar beets, which many are rushing into, while they are a 

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54 Second Annual Report of the 

g(;od paying crop, are much more exhausting to the soil than to- 
bacco. An average crop of tobacco removes from the soil 80 
pounds of nitrog(ui, 102 |X)unds of ix;tash and 23 pounds of phos- 
j>horic acid. An average crop of sugar b-eets removes 110 |X)^unds 
of nitrogen, 11)5 pounds of ix>tash and 40 pounds of pliosphoric 
acid. (\>nii>aring the two, the Ixn^ts remove 21 pounds more 
nitn.gen, 1)3 jxninds more ix>tash and 17 pounds more phosphoric 

The following interesting figures which w^ere given me last 
summer by Wm. (^lark c.f Janesville w^hile I was there looking 
over tlie experimeuis Avith tobacco, which were being conducted 
by the University, will prove that tobacco is a paying crop. 
In 19 consecutive years, commencing in 1882 he grew a total 
of IIG acre=* for which he received 17,385 dollars or about 150 
dollars per acre. lie always grew^ the one variety known as 
Spanish. In 1884 lie sold 8 acres which brought 2,440 dollars 
or 305 dollars per acre and one 'year he sold for 4 cents per 
})ound or al>out 50 dollars per acre. 

The most serious draw 'back to the grower here is, that he 
doesn't get enough for his labor and the reason he doesn't is be- 
cause he doesn't i)roduce the goods that command the price. We 
have the soil and climate necessary for a good quality of to- 
bacco, but there is a lack of intelligent fertilizing. There is 
nothing which man can do that will produce Ihe quantity and 
quality like intelligent systematic fertilizing. But let a grower 
be approached in regard to investing in commercial fertilizers 
and he is almost sure to say that it costs too much. That he has 
got alon^ in the past and can in the future. This idea of being 
unwilling to invest a dollar and get out of the old rut is a 
serious matter for the future of Wisconsin tobacco. The science 
of tobacco fertilizing is much farther advanced in the Connecti- 
cut river valley than in any other section. They get larger 
yields and lx3iter prices than any place elne in the United 
States. When our tobacco yields 1,200 pounds ]>er acre on an 
average, theirs yields 1,400 ])ounds. When w^e are getting 5 
to 9 cents }>er pound, they get 15 to 20 (*ents. 

In the past few years many of the growers have tried to get 
a big yield by growing a coarse large variety. To my positive 
knowledge there are no loss than seven different ty}X}s of tobacco 
here wdien there sliould be but one standard variety. Some of 

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Wisconsin AgricvlturaL Experiment Association. 55 

these types have good points which others have not. The 
blending of the good qualities of each so as to get one that best 
suits the trade means a lot of work, but it must be done if Wis- 
consin wants to hold her own. Some work is being done along 
this line now and it should not be allowed to drop. 

The most serious drawback to the manufacturer who uses Wis- 
consin tobacco is that it lacks that sameness of quality which it 
should have. It is hard for the small manufacturer to get 
binders that are near enough alike for him to keep the same 
flavored brand of cigars before the public. There is nothing 
that kills a brand of cigars so quickly as to have it changed in 
flavor. The man who has been smoking a certain brand will 
notice any change at once. The new box may be just as good 
but he won't think so. He is sure that the manufacturer made 
them good until he got the brand to take and now he is putting 
in poor stock. He no sooner notices this change than he seeks 
another "favorite." Only the other day I was in a Detroit 
cigar factory and the manager told me he was using a Con- 
necticut binder instead of a Wisconsin binder. He said it cost 
him more than twice as much as the Wisconsin, but it was so 
much more uniform that it paid. I asked him what he thought 
was the cause of Wisconsin tobacco not running more even and 
he said, "Lack of fertility and to many poor growers." 

In every line of business there is a class of men who will 
only half do their work. Of course the saying that, "we reap 
that which we sow," applies to this class as well as those who 
put in the best and get the best. There are cases, however, 
where a man not only reaps that which he sows himself but also 
some of the other fellow's as well and I know of no work where 
this applies more forcibly than in the tobacco business. 

Tbe trade looks upon the different lots grown here last season 
as one whole crop and they call it the 1903 crop of Wisconsin. 
There were 40,000 acres grown here by eight to ten thousand 
good and poor farmers. Poor crops and good crops all go to 
make up the 1903 crop. It is a case of "the tail goes with the 
hide" and when we have a year that experience, push, energy 
and a determination to get the best possible is necessary for a 
fair crop, there are so many of the half way fellows and those 
who lack experience, that there is too much tail for the hide. 
Consequently the hide, which may be good, has to go at a lower 

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5G Second Annual Report of the 

Some years almost any one can grow a fair crop, but the past 
two years have been wet and many people hung their tobacco 
up wet or harvested just after big storms, while others strip and 
bale it in high case. Many of the growers don't even know that 
a wet year crop retpiiro.^ more care in regard to handling in 
low case than one grown in a diy season. 

Many i>eople lay the slow movement of the 1903 crop to the 
uncertainty of the money market, lack of case weather, eic, but 
the great cause in my mind is the uncertainty of the outcome 
after it has gone through the sweat. I would say though in 
this connection that the lack of case weather may prove a benefit 
after all for the tobacco is far more apt to go (hrough the sweat 
alright than it would if stripj?ed last fall. This uncertainty of 
the out<^me is due more to the i>oor handling than anything 
else. The man with the good crop has to hold his goods just 
because of a class of growers who make nothing out of the 
business themselves and are in reality a public nuisance in 
so far as they affect the tobacco industry. 

The state, the grower and the buyer should do their utmost 
to cause the half way fellow to quit growing and to encourage 
and educate vhe man who tries to get a good crop. The new 
l)eginner should study well the conditions necessary for success 
before he goes into growing. He should remember that not 
all the soil here is fit for tobacc'O and that it is only when well 
fertilized that any of it will produce what is wanted. lie must 
not forget that there is no crop grown here that ^requires the 
care and experience and while it often pays well, yet there is 
a iehance to lose as well. 

Many of these detrimental conditions which have much to 
do with the success or lack of success can be removed. The 
state should make appropriations each year to be used in ex- 
periments in fertilizing, improving the seed, construction of 
curing barns, and the printing and distribution of bulletins on 
tobacco culture. Compared with Connecticut and Massachu- 
setts, Wisconsin has done very little to assist the grower to im- 
prove his methods and because of this lack of interest the state 
should be the more prompt to respond to the demands which 
should and will be made in the future. 

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^Visconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 57 



Stop! Why do yon pass along paying no heed to the call 
of others ? You with the jealous or selfish disposition ! Those 
of you that have had opportunities laid down at your door, 
qualifying you to master the conditions brought about by the 
progress of time, fitting you not only to be intelligent in your 
agricultural pursuits, but qualifying you to be teachers in the 
line of work you have chosen as an occupation or profession. 
You have attaine<l this height by the constant nagging and 
persuasive po'wers of friends or others who had a, deep feel- 
ing toward you and the general welfare of your future. Finally 
you consented — you attended the Wisconsin Agricultural Col- 
lege. You were taught nature in its advanced forms, you were 
put abreast, as it were, with the conditions of the present time. 

Now if you but will, you can take hold of the opportunities 
that are presenting themselves every day, with the mighty hand 
of intelligence, and work and mold, the stubborn and seemingly 
unfertile soil, until the actions of your hand, lead by an in- 
telligent eye and brain, have conquered the unwilling soil, and it 
has humbled, as many of you must have humbled, as you were 
patted upon the head or shoulder with the trained hand ad- 
ministered with parental love. 

At last you have taken the medicine, you have finished the 
"Course," it has dawned upon you that it was just what you 
needed, then it was that you buttoned a shield of greed and sel- 
fishness around you. You are in a position to take advantage of 
your neighbor, you do some of your work after dark at night 
and before daylight in the morning only l)ecause you are afraid 
your neighbor will learn of some more improved method you 
are following, by seeing you do it. 

The unfortunate ones are looking for information, they were 
not able to attend the Wisconsin College of Agriculture and you 
were almost dragged into such an idea. You have got the 
training and the other fellow hasn't it. Unbutton that shield 
of sin that is holding you under ! Be neighborly, be brotherly. 

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58 Second Annual Report of the 

be Christian like, be willing to help some other person on his 
feet and give him an encouraging word to cheer him on. 

When you have finished college you are in a pasiiion to begin 
to show what you are, and what you are made of. Don't think 
that you know it all, and that every man in the country doing 
a business is seeking your servici^s at your own figures. Just 
so sure as ycm expect that so sure is your failure certain. 

And now my dear fellow student, that you have finished your 
college course and are seeking some good honest and honorable 
employment, try to instill into your being, that, if in your work 
you have done some one some good — a great kindness, just so 
sure the work has done good two-fold. You have made some sad 
heart glad and the world will have been better for you having 
lived in it. 

Some of you have not the opportunity of returning to a home 
to relieve the cares and burdens of an aged father, and those 
of you who do not, are the ones that I wish to si)eak a few 
confidential words to. , 

There are in the United States approximately 270,000 In- 
dians and these Indians own 74,580,641 acres of land in these 
United States. During the ])ast year about 29,000 of these 
Indians (which are of school age) were enrolled in different 
schools. To teach these Indian children, the government em- 
ploys, undor civil service rules, ( r other\vise, iui round numbers 
3,000 teachers. 

It is the intention of the government to give their Indians 
a practical industrial training, placing particular stress on agri- 
culture and stock raising. Why shouldn't they when the In- 
dians have so much land ? Now then the Indian eervice wants 
more industrious, energetic, alive and crmpetent instructors on 
its force. Men with a good knowledge of agriculture and the 
handling of stock, and th(^se that can teach it to the Indian. 
Gord inducements are offered ^o those who prove themselves 
wor'.hy. The Comniii'-sioner of Indian Affairs Ix^ng ever ready 
and willing to give his assistance in heljjing his teachers to ac- 
complish the best, and the most goml results. 

The Hon. Commissioner of Indian Affairs is advertising for 
applicants to take the examinations for teachers of agriculture. 
Places are vacant. Other positions that require equally as 
much qualification are teachers of industries, industrial teachers, 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experimerd Association, 59 

dairymen, farmers, etc. These positions pay from $600 to 
$1,000 per year. 

At the present time there is a vacancy in the position of 
teacher of agriculture at the Pipestone Indian Training School 
at Pi2>estone, Minn., paying a salary of $900 per year, another 
vacancy in the same position is at Haskell Indian Training 
School at Lawrence, Kan., which pays a salary of $1,000 per 
year, and no eligible® to fill them. 

If it is your desire to want to do mankind some good, do a 
missionary act, if you are honest and willing to be put on test 
for an efficiency record, understanding that the top of the ladder 
is reached round by round, then there are good opportunities in 
stores for you in the Indian school service, at the same time 
doing a great good for humanity. 

I trust that before another year has passed the Wisconsin 
College of Agriculture will have sent into the field of Indian 
civilization many earnest toilers and educators, and I will predict 
for them success, and for their Avork — teaching the Indian, the 
time will come when they can say that their labors were not in 
vain, and that the reward is of two-fold. 



Mr, President and Fellow Mcmhers of the Association: — 

The topic assigned, me is one which deserves more time and 
better talent than your humble servant is able to furnish at this 
time. Let us consider for a few moments some of the reasons 
why we as students should cooperate wivh the associaticn, for I 
take it for granted that the word students as here used, refers 
to all students present, p'asl and future of the (^'olle2:e of Agri- 
culture of the University of Wisconsin. 

We are all members of one and the same grand institution 
that our ^ancestors planted many years a2,'o on yonder hill, that 
it might be a guiding star in the upbuilding of the best jx)ssible 

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60 Second Annual Report of the 

citizenship for all time. I refer to the Oollege of Agriculture, 
the Alma Mater from which we drew our first nourishment 
to strengthen us for a higher citizenship and enable us to cope 
with the more difficult, practical and scientific problems of 
modern agriculture. And who is here so base that he would 
not help to siipport and strive to do honor to a mother in her 
old age. As a society we came into existence that we might 
accomplish a work that our older sister the Alumni was not 
able to do in that she lacked in membership. 

For it is an undeniable fact that we as an association and as 
students in cooperation with this association may accomplish in 
a year or two, what would cost a few individuals unorganized 
the efforts of a lifetime. I believe tlie number of eligibles at 
present is ranging near the fifteen-hundred mark. With the 
number of members (all infused with the spirit of cooperation) 
scattered abroad throughout the state and I may say the United 
States with every known variety of soil, and climatic conditions, 
what a grand work could and would be accomplished in the de- 
partments of horticulture and farm crops alone. 

Our aims were almost identical. We sought the guiding star 
that it might brighten our paths to a higher and nobler citizen- 
ship and let us not smother its rays with a shroud of selfishness 
and indifference, but as true reflectors do our duty to the state 
by diffusing all the light concentrated within us, in such a way 
that it may be felt and appreciated by the present generation as 
well as those to come. As a duty we owe to agriculture, we 
should strive to make some improvement or advancement along 
some lines, as there is no such thing as a stand still in our 
vocation. It must be progress or retrogression. And who would 
be the sluggard ? I trust that his name has not yet been en- 
rolled as a student in the Wisconsin College of Agriculture. 

As a duty we owe ourselves as individuals for benefits which 
w^e would receive physically, as a duty we owe to society in 
general by showing good will and self sacrifice and in short 
l)ecoming public benefactors. The field is long and wide and 
there is plenty of room for all to bear their respective shares of 
the burden without any clashing of elbows. Take for instance 
the department or division of farm crops. Note the benefits 
derived in the past year or two, as the results of the continued 
research and investigation carried on regarding the question of 

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Wisconsin AgriculturcU Experiment Association. 61 

oat smut and treatment of the seed oats to prevent smut. We 
can but do our duty if we urge our more careless skeptical farmer 
friends and neighbors to treat their seed grain with the formal- 
dehyde process. Much work of this nature remains yet un- 
done, which must be done before the state can gather the ripe 
fruit of the untiring efforts of our beloved benefactors, the re- 
sults of whose efforts are just beginning to be appreciated. As 
I believe. that we can breed desirable characteristics into our 
dumb animals, so do I firmly believe that we can breed desirable 
characteristics into our grain and forage plants as w^ell as our 
garden plants, flowers, orchard trees and shrubbery. 

France, by cooperation, of her farmers in the sugar industry 
and determination of Itfapoleon to crush the prosperity of Great 
Britain by excluding English sugars from the French market, 
did succeed in raising the sugar content of the beet root from 
5 per cent, to 1 6 per cent. In the light of these facts, are not 
we justified in the belief that the Wisconsin Experiment Asso- 
ciation with our modem Napoleon at the helm to guide us, 
can raise the protein content of com to 15 per cent, or better 
and raise so many soy beans per acre that it will put the price 
of middlings so low that even the poor man's hog can reach them. 

Elxperimental work with soy beans should be con- 
tinued as well as that with rape, sorghum and alfalfa. The 
potato crop, too, in Wisconsin is a very important one and 
one that may be much improved by proper selection and treating 
seed to prevent scab. In dairying there is yet room and reasons 
for continued experiment work in feeding, care and management 
of the herd. In horticulture the propagation of new varieties, 
the improvement of the old and the study of insect pests and how 
best to exterminate them v/ill furnish a life work for those who 
choose horticulture as an occupation and are so situated as to be 
able to experiment along that line. 

It remains for us as individuals to give to this Association 
our most hearty support and cooperation, thus not only enabling 
our Agricultural College to maintain the reputation which it 
now has for its high standard of excellence, but pkce Wisconsin 
at the head of the list a^ the most progressive agricultural state. 

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62 Second Annual Report of the 



In the spring of 1902 I treated our seed oats for smut, using 
the old fcraiula of 1 po-und of f(;riiiakleh;'d to fifty gallons of 
water. But, owing to the f(^nualdehyd hcing of inferior 
quality, this experiment was a complete failure. 

In the spring of 1903 I determined to repeat the experiment, 
using 1 pound of the fonnaldehyd to 86 gallons of water. 
This experiment was quite successful, scarcely a trace of the 
smut w^as to be seen. 

I also treated a small quantity of seed using I poiind of for- 
maldehyde to 9 gallons of ^vater. This solution was so caustic 
that its effect was readily noticeable on the operator's hands and 
I thought that there would be considerable difference in thf* 
germinative powers of the two quantities of seed treated. The 
two quantities of seed were sown under exactly similar condi- 
tions. These two plots w^ere clcsely watched and no marked 
difference was noticeable except in. the case of the plot where 
the seed was treated with the 1 :9 solution, there was a larger 
percentage of vigorous oats. In treating the seed grain, I always 
allowed it to soak 20 minutes and also disinfected the grain bags 
and seed drill with the same solution. In order to lessen the 
cc%st of treating the seed, I found it more economical to purchase 
4 pounds of formaldehyde for every 100 bushels of grain to 
be treated and using 4 or 5 casks at first, reducing their number 
as the quantity of the solution diminished. In looking over 
the neighbors' fields I noticed a larger per cent, of smut in the 
fields of the farmers who practice sow^ing a large quantity of 
seed per acre. Evidently owing to the continuous stunting of 
each successive crop's growth causing a reduced vitality. 

The elimination of smut is probablv not the only benefit de- 
rived from treating the seed grain. I find a number of experi- 
menters who agree that the continued treating of grain from 
year to year evolves an oat of preater vitality and vigor. This, 
fact has not been fully established by experiment, but is 
probable, and well worth watehing. An incidental benefit of 
treating seed grain is that one has his attention called more 

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Wiscormn Agricultural Experiment Association. 63 

closely to the oats individually and this may lead to greater dis- 
crimination in the selection of the seed oats in the first place. 
I thon>iiglily bolievo in the p:)W'er of the fonnaldehyd solutio-n 
to prevent smut in the small grains, and have been equally 
successful in treating seed wheat and barley for smut as in 
the case of seed oats. However, the job must be carefully 
executed and caution exercised to prevent reinfection of the seed, 
to attain the most satisfactory results. 


Ladies and Gentlemen : — To have holes in our pockets where 
we try to carry our money and smut in our oat crop are about 
the same thing. We lose money in both instances. Both can 
be remedied, especially the smut in the oat crop which can be 
entirely prevented if a very small amount of money and a little 
labor are expended. The most satisfactory, from all points of 
view, is the formaldehyde treatment which is so strongly recom- 
mended by Prof. R. A. Moore, and with which I have been 
experimenting the past two seasons with the most satisfactory 
results. The first year I experimented with it I sow^ed about 
a bag full of untreated seed along side of some that had been 
treated. The oats were entirely free from smut and where the 
sef^d had nrt been treated there Avas a large per cent, of smut 
present. I, therefore, came to the conclusion that if smut could 
be prevented as easily as this it was unprofitable to sow oats 
w^hich had not been treated. The second year I treated all the 
oats that were sown, and in a field of eighteen acres I was able 
to find only two heads of smut and these were right in the first 
foot sown from the fence. I think this association as well as 
the general public is greatly indebted to the Wisconsin Experi- 
ment Station for inducing the farmers to use this treatment 
^vhieh, if used throughout the state, would bring several thou- 
sand dollars to the pockets of the farmers, and the sooner the 
farmers learn these facts the better. 

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64 Second Annual Report of the 


T use t\vr> larn^ls wliirli I will call No. 1 and 2 respectively. 
Barrel No. 1 sits niK>n a Ik>x high enough from the ground 
so that an ordinary pail can be set under a spont which leads 
from the baso of the barrel into the pail. The oj^ning in the 
barrel into which the spout is fitted is covered by a screen on 
the inside of the barrel to prevent the oats nmning out through 
the spout. The barrel is then filled nearly full of oats and 
fonnaldehyd solution from banvl No. 2 is poured into barrel 
No. 1 until the oats are covered. It will take aTx>ut 25 gallons 
of the .solution: to cover the oats in an ordinary kerosene barrel. 
Allow the rats to remain covered by the solution for the re- 
quired length of time, then remove the plug which has previ- 
ously been inserted in the tube and allow the solution to drain 
off. The oats may then be })oured upon the floor to dry and the 
operation repeated until all the oats are treated. Several 
barrels may be used if preferable and as rapidly as the solution 
drains from one pour into the next and so continue. The ad- 
vantag:es of this method are ease of operation, rapidity, efficiency 
and the simplicity of the outfit. 


We have used the fomaldehyd treatment for the prevention 
of smut for the past two years and have found that the time 
and money spent in making the treatment was a very profit-able 
investment. Besides using the treatment on oats, we have also 
tried it on barley, but only in a small way, that is on only a 
few bushels of seed as the barley Avas only affected with al)Out 
8 per cent, of smut, and the treatment reduced it one-half, but 
I think it would have been more efficient and probably reduced 
it to a minimum if treated in a stronger solution as in our case 
the barley was treated after we had finished treating the oats 
and thus considerable strength of the solution had already been 
]ost from the contact with the open air. 

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Wiscon^n Agricultural Experiment Association. 65 

In regard to the experiment of treating the seed oats this last 
year, will say that we treated about 60 bushels, and about 2 
bushels of untreated seed was sown. The solution was made as 
recommended hy the Station, that is, one pint of formialdehyd 
to 36 gallons of water which was divided equally into two barrels 
and the oats placed into gunny sacks and submerged for ten min- 
utes then let drain about a minute and spread on the bam floor to 
dry. As the weather was quite cold and wet in the fore part of 
April, the oats were left on the floor about one week before they 
were sown, and as it had been shoveled over occasionally it had 
become thoroughly dry in this length of time. 

Several farmers in our vicinity who had signified their in- 
tention of treating their seed oats did not do so on account of 
the cold weather at that time. Our oats were sown about the 
second week in April and no difference was noticeable in the 
plants of the treated and untreated seed until about July 8, 
when the smutted heads could be seen in the plot of iintreated 
seed ; there was no smut in the fields of which the seed had been 
treated while the other was affected to 8.5 per cent., thus making 
a total gain of this much or about 7 bushels per acre of the 
treated over the untreated seed. 

And from my experience thus far I believe it will be profit- 
able for every farmer who has any smut in his oats to treat the 
seed before sowing. 


A year ago last spring on noting the bulletin published by 
the Experiment Station on treating oats for the prevention of 
smut I made a test. 

In treating, I followed the directions given. After the oat9 
were allowed to submerge in the solution, I emptied them on a 
large canvas, which was spread upon the ground. The grain 
was shoveled over several times until nearly dry when it was 
sown. As the oats were a little swollen when sown, I gave a 
little better measure than in those not treated. By sowing the 
grain in this condition, a little time was gained in germination. 

Last spring with the exception of four bushels of Swedish 

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66 Second Annual Report of the 

oats, I sowed seed from the grain which had been treated the 
previous year. There was no smnt in the Swedish Select oats 
while in the other very little w^as found. 

From the result of this experiment I think it would not be ad- 
visable to treat grain every year, but care should be taken that 
it does not become contaminated from other fields. If joining 
fields are badly infected, seed should not be saved from grain 
grown near that field. If oats Avhidi were badly infected had 
been stored in bins in which the seed is to be plaoe<l it woidd 
be well to have such bins sprayed with the fommaldehyde solu- 
tion. By this careful selection and management of seed I would 
not think it necessary to treat oats more than once in five or six 



My experience in using raj>e as a forage ])lant for pigs has 
been within this last two years, although w^e have been growing 
rape for about five or six years. We farmers came to the con- 
clusion that in order to raise hog^s the most economical and 
thrifty way was to grow a bulky, succulent food for them to 
graze upon. By doing this you will enlarge the frame (or 
body) of the growing pig and expand his digestive system w^hich 
will give him the power to digest grain feed closer. 

Pigs fed in this way will make a quicker growth with less 
grain feed required for one pound of gain. The pig feeding ex- 
periments at our Experiment Station where rape was used as a 
forage plant will prove this to you. It even took less grain feed 
per pound of gain where rape was used than where clover 
used. My experience has taught me that in order to produce 
rape as forage you need other pasture connected with it, such as 
clover, rye, etc. When you have a variety of feeds which 
sharpens their appetites, your pigs will not be troubled with 
scours. Two years ago I sowed one acre of rape connected with 
clover pasture. The pigs took as readily to the rape as to clover. 
It is best to allow rape to harden or until some of the lower 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 67 

leaves turn brown before pasturing. By feeding at the projx^r 
stage you will have better results. The latter part of the season 
when old pastures are getting short and dry, we are in need of a 
forage crop for pigs. Kape is the very plant that fills the bill 
of fare. Using rajx? as a forage Avill give us an op]x>rtunity to 
change our pigs on different ground. This keeps down disease 
and produces cleanliness. Last season I plowed up our old 
hog yard, and sowed rape. 

It produced enough forage for eight brood sows from Septem- 
ber until winter. This is just the food for the brood sow\ Pas- 
turing on rape will make her more active and hasten grow^th of 
frame. It seems the only true way of making a good mother of 
her. The kind of soil w^o have growm rape on is a sandy loam. 
About two pounds of seed should be soAvn broadcast, per acre. 
Sow when the ground is moist or just before a rain so as to give 
it a start. You can sow rape from early spring until late in Au- 
gust. Allow me to urge upon every member of the Experiment 
Association who raises hogs to prepare a small piece of ground, 
sow it to rape and use it as a pasture crop for the pigs this coming 
season. Study the results and see if you do not reap a benefit 
and profit from it. 




We usually sow from 4 to 5 lbs. of rape seed per acre broad- 
cast, and harrow in the same as oats or barley. If the season 
is favorable it makes a very rapid growth, esf>eeially on rich 
locse soil. When from 12 to 18 inches high it is usually suf- 
ficiently matured to turn on to and pasture. But right here I 
w^ish to state that rape like clover is apt tc cause bloat, unless - 
necessary jTccautions are taken. 

Xever turn a sheep with an empty stomach on rape or when it 
is moist with dcv/ or rain. After sheep are once accustomed to 
rape Ave prefer to let them run on it day and night. If they have 
access to hay or straw wdth plenty of salt and good w^ater the 

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68 Second Armuai Report of the 

losses from bloat will bo comparatively small. Occasionally 
sheep do not take to rape at first, and it is well then to shut them 
on to the rape to ^et them accustomed to it. When they once 
have an appetite for it they are as eager for it as a drunkard is 
for his drinks. They will eat up leaves, stalks and all. Of 
course in order to pet the l)o<st results from the rape we should 
have a pasture of some kind adjoining the rape field. Olover 
or blue grass is ver)' good. As you all know a variety of feeds 
are essential to successful stock production. Not only this 
alone, but hay, straw or an adjoining pasture will help to pre- 
vent scours in sheep or lambs. Rape fed alone is very apt to 
cause scours. 

The most satisfactory results we ever got perhaps was from a 
20 acre field. The rape seed was sown in the spring with the 
oats using a grass seeder attachment to seeder. The season was 
an unusually wet one causing a very rapid growth of both rape 
and oats. Tn places where the ground was rich the oats began 
to lodge. But the rape kept right on growing for further orders. 
I still rememl>er the morning my brother and I got down to 
that field perched on our old Deering binders ready for business. 
You can imagine the serious expression on those two Dlitch boys' 
faces as they approached this field and found the large rape 
leaves sparkling with a heavy dew. We stopped some time de- 
bating the best method of tackling it, while the dew was drying 
oflF. After a while it got dry and we went at it. 

The first round we had to cut a full swath "couldn't help it." 
And you can imagine there was some tall talking done to the 
horses. The old binders geared up to the top notch. We finally 
succeeded in cutting all but about 4 to 5 acres. The oats yielded 
50 bushels per acre and the rape was fromi 2 to 4 feet high nuak- 
ins: a double crop. This bia; football game or mix up could have 
been prevented however, had we sown only 2 lbs. of the rape seed 
per acre instead of 4 to 5 lbs, or had we sown the rape seed a 
little later than the oats. 

Rape will mature when sown as late as August. We some- 
times grow two cro]>s per year from the same piece of ground. 
We have grown an early variety of peas this year and harvested 
them, then pulverized the ground and raised a good crop of rape. 
You may sow a piece to rye in the fall and pasture it awhile in 
the fall and sprinir. Then turn over and grow a crop of rape. 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Associaiion, 69 

If your hay crop is poor and you do not expect a second crop, 
turn it over and sow to rape. A great many times you may 
grow two crops per year in tliis way which is quite an item on 
high priced land. 

Now as to results of feeding rape to sheep. At weaning time 
we turned our flock of lambs on to this 20 acre rape field. Some 
of the lodged oats had shelled out and started to grow, making a 
variety of feeds. They had standing oats, rape and new 
sprouted oats, and free access to a straw pile. We never had 
lambs do better as long as we have raised sheep. It seems to us 
as though tliey had gained in tliree weeks time from 8-10 lbs. per 
head. At least they made remarkable gains. We shipped a 
car load of these lambs and came near topping the Chicago mar- 
ket They brought us a little better than 6 cents per lb. at home. 
This was without any other grain, except what they picked up in 
this rape field. 

Experiments also show us tliat an acre of rape in connection 
with x>asture will produce over 400 lbs. of lamb mutton, at 4 
cents per lb. this would bring $16.00 per acre and at 5 cents per 
lb. it would bring $20.00 per acre. Not very bad compared to 
grain farming, labor considered, as there is no reaping, shock- 
ing, stacking or threshing bill, or twine to pay for. Prof. 
Craig conducted an experiment at the Wisconsin station with 
96 lambs. Putting 48 on rape pasture only and 48 on blue 
grass pasture feeding "grain in connection to both lots. In 
four weeks' time the rape fed lambs gained 50 per cent, more 
than the lambs on the blue grass pasture. After this the lambs 
were put in pens and fattened in winter for twelve weeks and 
they found that it took 476 lbs. of grain for 100 lbs. of gain on 
the blue grass pastured lot and 429 lbs. of grain for the rape fed 
lambs. So the rape fed lambs made 100 lbs. on 47 less lbs. of 
grain. This shows tliat lambs fed on rape in the fall make bet- 
ter winter feeders. 

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70 Second Animal Report of the 



Alfalfa has been grown with ni<).re or less success in every 
state in the Union ; it is the be«t hay and soiling crop of the 
west; and has \yeani highly re(*onunended in the south as being a 
valuable addition to their list of forag'e grasses and clovers ; in 
the middle and eastern states it ]n*oniises to l)e<*onie a rival of the 
better known and more widely grown red clover; and surely 
there is no reason why it should not l)e grown more extensively in 
Wis(»onsin. To secure this result it bec^omes the duty of the 
memlx^rs of this Association to get this valuable plant estab- 
lished and to learn the best conditions suitable to its growth in 
the different ])arts of our state. 

My experienw of growing the ]>lant is limited to the knowl- 
edge gained from the ex])eriments carried on in a small way for 
the past two seas<>ns whi(*h have both Ix^en too wet for Ix^st results 
in getting a stand. The ])l(vt which I scnnled previous to last year 
did not make as good a showing last sjmng as I had expected, a 
part of the field which was on lower g*round was txx) wet in the 
spring and as a result the plants were killed, but the number 
killed l)y frost varied in difTerent parts of the field, on some 
places the stand was light while other places it was good and 
also made better growth during the season, but all through the 
field there is considerable June grass sod getting started. 

There were three croi)s of hay cut from tlie field last snmmer, 
the first cutting was made on Jime 17, the se^^md July 80, and 
the third on S<^])t. 21, each cro]) yielded one t(m jxn* acre or three 
tons }x^r acre for the season, the last cro]) was the only one we 
succeeded in g(^tting in Avithout any rain on it and it made some 
excellent hay which is relished more by the stx)ek than any other 
hay on tlie place, a part of the liay has l>een reserved for the 
winter's feeding to the hogs a.nd poultry which eat it greedily 
and without any waste. 

I also sowed one half acre of Turkestan alfalfa this last season, 
it was sowTi the 23d of April, on a gravely loam soil which had 
been fall plowed and ]>revious to s<:HHling it Avas disced several 
times and then oats were sown for a nurse crop at the rate of II/2 

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Wiscomsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 71 

bushels per acre, after wliicli the alfalfa was sown at the rate of 
20 lbs. of seed per acre and then the ground was harrowed once 
which covered the seed sufficiently, the young alfalfa plants were 
noticeable within 5 days of sowing. 

The plants made good growth all season and during the month 
of June I noticed a considerable number of noxious weeds in the 
field, the seed of which must have been in with the alfalfa seed, 
most of the weeds were the European mustard which were all 
pulled out at that time; along in, the first week in July the cat- 
tle broke into tlie plot and ate off most of the oats and trampled 
the yoiuig alfalfa plants some, but it did not seem to have in- 
jured them any. The remaining oat plants did not grow very 
large any more and also rusted considerably and on the 28th of 
July the plants were clipped off with a mjower and left on the 
ground as a mulch. After this the young alfalfa plants seemed to 
get a good start and made an even growth of about 6 to 10 
inches for the remainder of the season, this was left standing 
as a winter protection. 

In regard to the alfalfa plants gathering nitrogen from the 
air in the soil and storing it in the tubercles on the roots ; I ex- 
amined the roots of a nund>er of plants and occasionally there 
was a plant that had grown much larger and more branching and 
also had a darker color than other plants, on the roots of these 
plants I found a number of tubercles Avliich contained the nod- 
ules produced by the nilrogen-gathering bacteria ; while on the 
roots of the weaker plants these nodules were absent, therefore I 
believe it would be beneficial to apply some soil from an old 
alfalfa field, in which these bacteria Avere present, to a field 
newly seeded to alfalfa. Another way to secure the benefit of 
these nitrogen fixing bacteria on all the plants is to sow seed 
which had previously been inoculated with the same, and 
through the effort of the Bureau of Plant Industry of the 
Department of Agriculture I have made arrangements to se- 
cure a certain amount of inoculated alfalfa seed^this coming- 
season and compare the results with a plot sown with the un- 
inoculated seed. 

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72 Second Anmud. Report of the 

My experiment with the alfalfa plant was to determine the 
drouth resisting properties of the Common versus the Turkestan 

For the experiment I took one acre of well drained clay soil, 
with a heavy day subsoil, that had produced potatoes the pre- 
vious year and was not ploAved in tlie fall. 

Early in the spring I worked the land up thoroughly with a 
disk harrow, going over the piece four times, lapping it half, 
and then divided the piece into two equal parts sowing one with 
the common and the other with the Turkestan variety, at the rate 
of 30 lbs. per acre. I sowed one bushel of barley as a nurse crop, 
and cut it when ripe for grain. 

The season was very wet and the plants were very strong and 
healthy. I couldn't see any difference between the two varieties 
last fall, and they went into winter quarters standing from eight 
to twelve inches high and covering the ground quite closely. 


Tb grow alfalfa successfully one of the first and most essen- 
tial conditions of the soil is good drainage. For as the saying 
is alfalfa will not grow with wet feet and from what experience 
I have had up to this time, I find that the saying holds good. 
But there are other conditions that must not be lost sight of, some 
of them are good seed, soil that is free from weeds, soil that is 
rich in fertility and has a porous subsoil so that the roots can 
penetrate tlirough it. Seo Fig. 8. 

In the selection of the ground on which to grow alfalfa let 
it be high rather than low, for water standing over the alfalfa 
plants for 48 hours will kill them, so it is very important that 
the ground be rolling enough at least so that the surplus water 
will run off readily. I prefer to sow on ground which the year 
previous had been planted to potatoes or some other cultivated 

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J. p. Bonzelet, Eden, Wisconsin, malies his first attempt at growing Alfalfa. 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. Y3 

crop. The weeds will be pretty well killed out and on such 
land the ground will be in good tilth as it should be to grow 
alfalfa. The ground should be plowed deep the fall before 
sowing to alfalfa and as soon as dry enough to permit in the 
spring the ground should be cultivated so as to break up the crust 
and prevent evaporation and also to sprout and kill what weed 
seeds that may be left from the year before. The seed should 
not be sown until the danger of hard frosts is over in the spring. 
We must thoroughly prepare the soil on which the seed is to be 
sown and in regard to this very important operation let me say 
that no effort should be spared. First the ground should be well 
cultivated so as to miake it mellow, after this has been done the 
harrow and roller must be used to break up the lumps and to 
smooth down the surface. The amount of seed required per 
acre varies from 16 to 30 lbs. according to germinating quality. 
I have sown 20 lbs. with good success and in what experience I 
have had I consider this amount sufficient, providing the ground 
is practically free from weeds and has been well prepared. . Oare 
should be taken not to cover the seed too deep ; from ^2 to 1 inch 
is plenty. After having tried both methods of seeding with and 
without a nurse crop I miust say I prefer sowing without the 
nurse crop. 

Last season I received two cuttings from my first year's seed- 
ing and had a good heavy growth left for winter protection. 
One of my chief objections to a nurse crop is the danger of it 
lodging and smothering the young alfalfa plants, or taking 
plant food out of the soil tliat is so badly needed by the tender 
young plants. It has been my experience that a nurse crop is 
detrimental if the ground is not weedy. If a nurse crop is sown 
and it lodges remove it at once or the alfalfa plants will be choked 
out. If sown without a nurse crop and the weeds should begin 
to get ahead of tlie alfalfa plants run the mower over and cut 
weeds, alfalfa and all about two inches from the ground. If at 
any time the alfalfa does not seem to be doing well, or in case of 
it turning yellow cut it at once. When it comes to the making of 
alfalfa hay be careful not to get in a hurry for if you do the 
chances are there will be some trouble or spoiled hay. The 
making of hay requires considerable skill on account of the 
nature of the plant. To make the best hay the alfalfa should 
be cui just when the first flowers commence to appear. If al- 

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T4 Second Annual Report of the 

lowed to go until in full bloom, or until the plants have finished " 
flowering tlie sterns beocnie hard and woody and are unfit to be 
eaten by stock, xc make good hay, cut alfalfa in the forenoon. 
Let it lie in the swath mitil tlie leaves are thoroughly wilted, but 
not dry and brittle, then rake in windrows and leave it until 
fairly dry. After pro|>erly cured remove it directly from wind- 
rows to stack or barn. The ail oi making good alfalfa hay is to 
be acrquireil by practic»e rather than by following directions, as 
the quality de|x»nds upon putting it in the stack when it is just 
sufficiently cured to keep without heating and yet is green enough 
to hold the leaves. • 


Last spring I received ten pounds of alfalfa seed from Prof. 
Moore, five pounds common and five pounds turkestan, to experi- 
ment with. The ground used in this experiment was part sod 
and pa>rt corn gTound, some of it lx>ing fall plowed and some 
spring plowed. Tlie sod was used as hog pasture the summer 
before. The ground was thoroughly worked up into a fine seed 
bed, and the seed was sown at the rate of twenty pounds per 
acre. I used spring wheat as a nurse crop, which I think is 
just as good as barley. It will ripen JTist as soon and not lodge. 
Tlie wheat w^^s sown as a nurse crop at the rate of a bushel per 
acre. About ten days after the seed AVas sown the young plants 
were noticeable. The plants were about eight or ten inches 
high, when the wheat was cut. After the grain was cut the 
Turkestan variety grew quite well, while the common did not 
seem to do as well. It was four or five inches behind the tur- 
kestan in the fall. Both the varieties seemed to do better on the 
spring plowed corn ground. I did not cut the alfalfa, conse- 
quently did not carry on any experiments in curing or feeding 
the hay. 


Select a heavy clay soil with a fair drainage, and sow about 
thirty pounds of alfalfa to the acre along with a bushel and a 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 75 

half of oats or one bushel of barley to the acre. The seeding 
may be done about the first of May. The oats should be cut 
just when it begins to head or sooner if it is thick and kxlged. 
In wet seasons if the stand of oats is thin it can be left until 
ripe. The alfalfa plant is very small and dainty at the start, 
but when properly managed it is a valuable and certain crop. 
Generally no crop can be secured the first year, but the second 
year you can make the first cutting before it is in full bloom. 
In fair drying weather cut it down one day ajid the next fore- 
noon shake it up witli a hay-tedder and in the afternoon it will 
be ready to bunch up in large cocks if the weather is fair. The 
cocks should be covered with a cotton hay cap and left to stand 
for a few days when it can be stacked or hauled into the barn. 
The alfalfa hay wants to lie cured in the shade and for that 
reason we should exjiose it to the STin as little as possible, so it 
should be bunched up as soon as it is a little wilted. In Wis- 
consin the fourth crop should always be allowed to stand on the 
field as a winter protection, if you are ex]>ecting to raise another 
crop the follow^ing \^ear. The effect which alfalfa leaves on the 
land can be seen by tlie way in which the soil becomes finer and 
more broken up besides adding greatly to its fertility. 


Can we grow alfalfa in Wisconsin sucoessfnlly, is a question 
which is receiving considerable attention in Wisconsin at pres- 
ent. Every stockman should aim to raise on his own farm, the 
necessary feeding rations, so that he would have to de])eiid less 
on the milling corjwralions to furnish him their high priced 
bran, shorts, etc. Chemical analysis shows that alfalfa is very 
rich in digestible protein and also in digestible ash, even richer 
than bran, and it will come nearer taking the place of bran than 
any other food Ave can produce on our Wisconsin farms. Al- 
falfa is being successfully grow^n in several sections of Wiscon- 
sin and I tliink that the time is near at hand, when it will be 
grown successfully throughout our state. Alfalfa is a deep 

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76 Second Annual Report of the 

rooted plant and if you have a subsoil not too hard and a rich 
surface soil, then you will have the best conditions. Alfalfa 
requires rich soil with a porous subsoil, well prepared, so you 
can make the seed-bed early in the spring. Twenty pounds of 
seed to the acre is about the proper amount to sow. 

As to the method of seeding there are several different ways 
advocated. Some prefer seeding alone, while others use a nurse 
crop and cut the nurse crop early for hay, while still others 
leave the crop of grain to mature. In the last mentioned,' barley 
is considered the most satisfactory, for the reason that it matures 
earlier than any of the other crops. In case the crop is left to 
mature, the grain shocks should not be permitted to stand on 
the alfalfa more thaa three or four days, for the reason that it 
will kill out the young alfalfa plants. You should watch your 
alfalfa very closely and if you detect any yellow leaves, you 
should run the mower over the field and clip those leaves and 
let them remain on the field for a mulch. The first year is the 
hardest to get through the winter and it is well to cover 
the field with a tliin layer of straw manure before the ground 

We members of the Wisconsin Experiment Association should 
all try and grow alfalfa on a small scale at first, and let our 
fields grow larger as we gain experience. 


I always enjoy hearing from the boys. The past month I 
have been lecturing in the Atlantic states and it is painful to 
see all the audiences there composed of gray headed men. I do 
not like to see agriculture represented entirely by men on the 
shady side of life. The boys are all gone. One man in Maine 
said to me, "My father took the old farm from his father, he 
from his father before him, I took it from my father, now my 
boy has refused to stay on the old farm. These old arms are 
growing weak, and mother and I cannot stay here much longer. 
It seems hard to bear." 

• New York has lost in the last thirty years a billion and one-half 
dollars in the decline of value of her farm lands, because the boys 
did not take sufficient interest in agriculture. The Atlantic 

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Wisconsin Agricultiural ExperimerU Association. 77 

states are just waking up to shape the minds of the boys toward 
agriculture. It is valuable to Wisconsin that a different ferment 
is in the minds of the young men of our state. I believe the law 
of ferment applies to mind. Mental ferment is aa necessary to 
the mind as brewer's ferment is to the malt, as the baker's fer- 
ment is to the bread. 

Nine years ago I commenced the study, of alfalfa having con- 
cluded that alfalfa could be grown in Wisconsin. Thirty years 
ago a man in Koshkonong sowed some alfalfa- There are roots 
now in the fence comers. I soon became convinced that I must 
know what to do with it from a Wisconsin standpoint. No man 
had yet considered it from a Wisconsin point of view. It had 
been considered from the standpoints of Kansas and Nebraska 
and other western states. Having some vacant lots in the village 
I sowed some alfalfa thereon. I was as green as the alfalfa that 
grew on them. It is easier to teach an ignorant man than one 
who knows it all, as an ignorant man carries a blank ]>age in his 
mind on which you can write. Tlie man who is wrongly edu- 
cated carries a scribbled page which you must first erase. Don't 
carry a scribbled page around in your head. It is hard to get 
it out. I heard of an old preacher whose head was so full of 
what he didn't know that he was foggy. 

My first attempt growino^ alfalfa was on these village lots, 
which have a black soil with a blue clay sub-soil and the water 
table is about twenty feet below the surface. The alfalfa grew 

Professor Roberts of Cornell came to visit mo for a few days 
and I took this wise old man out to show him my alfalfa. Some- 
thing was the matter, and T wanted him to tell me what it was. 
He immediately said ^^dodder." "Dodder is a parasite that 
groAVs on all leguminous plants. It must be cut out immediatelv 
and burned. It is a good thing to have had experience with 

I grew alfalfa on other soils. From my experience T have 
learned the follo^ving: First; the soil must be well prepared. 
Many farmers think that alfalfa can be grown the same as clover 
on poorly prepared soil, but it cannot. You must give special 
preparation to the soil. I plow once, disc twice, and harrow 
twice, then sow thirty pounds of seed to the acre. The thicker 
you sow the seed the more it seems to defend itself acainst the 
winter's frost and the better it will do. Second ; some say it 

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78 Second Annual Report of the 

should be cut the first year. Thoy cut it t^\'x> or throe times the 
first year to kill the weeds, but bless your heart, what will kill 
the weeds will kill the alfalfa too. It must 1x3 allow^ed to form 
good strong roots the first year ; sow alfalfa enough to make it 
uncomfortable for the w^eeds. Several of my neighbors secured 
seed containing seed of the Russian thistle. They were all 
frightened and all but one man plowed up their alfalfa. This 
one man kept his head, and the Kussian thistle was persecuted 
unto death the next year. Third ; never allow a hoof on an al- 
falfa field in Wisconsin. An old German neighbor of mine had 
a fine field of alfalfa at Ft. Atkinson, Wisconsin, on which he 
turned his cows. I met him and said to him, "Fritz I am afraid 
you have spoiled your alfalfa." "Ach no!" he said. "What 
do these newspaper men know^ about fanning." "Well, I am 
afraid the pasturing will kill it." I thought, "all right old 
fellow, fry in your own fat." There is nothing like a man fur- 
nishing his own fat to fry in. He pastured his alfalfa and 
killed it. Ilis neighbors jollied him, asking him if he was 
going to raise any alfalfa. He finally came to me and wanted to 
talk about alfalfa. Christ said, "Eixcept ye become little children 
ye cannot enter the kingdom of heaven." I say, except ye be- 
come as little children ye cannot enter the kingdom of alfalfa. 
The crowns of alfalfa plants are very sensitive. Where a load 
has been hauled through a field, wheel marks can be plainly 
seen the next year, where the plants have been set back by the 
pressure. Fourth ; the growth must be left high for winter pro- 
tection. I had a field of eight acres w^hich furnished seven tons 
of alfalfa hay per acre. This w^as w^orth ten dollars per ton. 
Yes, it was worth more than, ten dollars ]>er ton. My foreman 
thought it would be too bad to waste all of the fourth cutting so 
one day when I w^as absent, he commenced cutting around the 
filed. He had cut about five acres, when T came home and 
stopped him. It seemed to be doing very well through the win- 
ter, but along in February or IMarcli, w^e c(mld see that the snow 
melted off that part w^hich had been cut, but w^as left on the part, 
uncut. That part that was cut you could pull up the plants and 
three-quarters of them w^ere rotted. I broke up the outside, and 
seeded it but it did not do well. Cut five or six tons to the acre 
this la-st summer on the center that w^as left and then I broke 
up the w^hole field last fall. 

Last spring the whole of my farni with the exception of my 

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Wisconmn Agricultural Experiment Association. 79 

alfalfa field, plowed up shiney. You all know what it means to 
have a field plow up shinej. That shows the soil is too moist. 
The ground does not break down as it should. It took three 
good horses to plow up that alfalfa and you could hear the roots 
crack for twenty rods, but the soil was mellow and in fine con- 


Don't undertake to cure without muslin hay caps. It must go 
through the first sweat in the cock. Cut when it commences to 
blossom. Rake up and cock, then put on caps. The caps are 
made of muslin forty inches wide, and cut in forty inch pieces. 
I went to the blacksmith shop and bought a lot of old horse shoes 
and had them cut in two. Had a hole punched near one end and 
tied one of these to each corner. When the wind blows this end 
sticks into the hay and holds it. The cocks must be moved 
every day cr two to prevent the killing of alfalfa underneath 

Be careful to give horses only a. limited quantity. They are 
so fond of it that they will eat too much. Last winter I win- 
tered nine brood sows on nothing but alfalfa hay. Had seventy- 
eight pigs in the spring and only one titman. Xever saw a 
brighter, thriftier, healthier lot of pigs. Saved seventy-five of 
them and marketed them this fall. It only cost me one dollar 
and fifty cents each to winter the brood sows. I am keeping six 
this Avinter. Pbultrj^ is veiy fond of alfalfa. I have had a 
flock of Buff Plymouth Rocks feeding on the alfalfa fields all the 
past summer. 

Alfalfa has a fondness for lime. Dress the land with thirty 
bushels of lime to the acre. I bought five or six hundred bushels 
of ashes to put on my alfalfa at the rate of thirty to forty bushels 
to the acre. N^ever plant alfalfa on land where the water table 
is less than fifteen or twenty fpi't from the surface. 

^^Put that in your mental pipe and smoke it." 

Select land with good slop? so surface water will drain off 
quickly and not leave litUe hollows for the water to freeze during 
March for this will kill the alfalfa. 

Question. What experience have you had in pasturing? 

Answer. Not any. I don't pasture. I don't dare. I sup- 
ported a drove of hogs on an (icre and a half of alfalfa by cutting 

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80 Second Armudl Report of the 

it three times a day and feeding it to them. I never saw sows 
give milk as these did. 

Question. I>an't you think you could get them to ruminate if 
you kept at it? 

Answer. If you mean mental rumination I don't know but 
I cx>uld. They seem to stand and think. (Applause.) 

Question. What crops do you follow with alfalfa ? 

Answer. No special crop, but have nearly always followed 
with com. 

Question. Do you cut the hay with feed cutter for your 
brood sows ? 

Answer. No, but think it would be a good thing to do. 

Question. Do you think it does better in a wet or dry season ? 

Answer. Can be seeded in an exceedingly dry season. 

Question. Do you use a nurse crop ? 

Answer. I use a bushel of oats or barley to the acre. I 
don't think I make anything by using a nurse crop. 


In speaking of alfalfa as a drought resistant plant, compared 
with clover, will say that I carried on, with the United States 
Department of Agriculture, a cooperative experiment with clover 
u Jng twenty-four different varieties. This was in 1901, the sea- 
son of g:reat droua:ht in southern: Wisconsin, as you all well 
know. T sowed alfalfa in plots next to the clover plots and when 
the hot dry weather began to come on the clover be^^can' to wilt till 
all had disappeared. Not' so with the alfalfa. It appeared to 
enjoy the drousrht and I got an excellent stand. I have got three 
cuttings of alfalfa annually since from the same plots. 

Pasturing means death to alfalfa. This has been tried several 
times on the Experiment plots and the pasturing in every 
instanw has killed or greatly thinned the alfalfa. 

If your alfalfa is submerged by water for only a few hours 
it will smother. Yon should plan on having a good stand of 
alfalfa, at least a foot high, for winter protection. 

Question, I would like to ask Gov. Hoard how he would 
grow alfalfa for seed ? 

Answer. I have been trying for a number of years but have 
not succeeded. Alfalfa is susceptible to "yellows," a parasitic 
disease. The lower leaves turn yellow and drop off, until some- 

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Wtsconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 81 

times the ground will be covered with yellow leaves. The al- 
falfa must be cut on the first appearance of "yellows." 

Question. When is the best time to sow Avithout a nurse 
crop ? 

Answer. About the time of sowing barley. 

Question. Do you advise breaking it up in fall or spring ? 

Answer. I don't know\ I never tried anything but fall 
plowing, to any extent. If I wished to break up alfalfa ground 
for com would do so late in the fall. Alfalfa produces a 
splendid mechanical effect on the soil and nitrogenizes the land 
the same as does clover. I am going to try and go over the 
whole of my upland plow land with alfalfa. I believe it will 
prove a great soil renewer and fertilizer. Every farmer ought 
to make a special study of this wonderful forage plant by sowing 
every spring'in plots of a few acres and so get his mind and 
judgment with the principles that govern its groAVth. It is a 
very exacting plant and is bound to be treat>ed exactly right or it 
refuses to grow. Hence the necessity of every farmer knowing 
something about it from the standpoint of his own farm experi- 



Immediately after corn planting, in well prepared soil, I 
drilled in with a corn planter the Ito San variety of soy beans. 
I cultivated them four times with a Janesville disc riding com 
cultivator, and at harvest time they had scarcely a weed in 
them. They ripened nicely and were perfectly hard before 
frost. I intended to harvest them with a corn-harvester, and 
think that would have w^orked all right, but I found that I 
hud planted them too thickly and they did not grow high enough 
to cut in that way. We had to pull them. We piled them in 
piles and let them dry for two days but were afraid of rain and 
after the second day hauled them to the barn. They were 

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82 Second Annual Report of the 

threshed with a threshing machine that had all the concaves taken 
out, and boards substituted, therefore you can see by the sample 
here, that but very few were injured by threshing. Owing to 
the excessive wet weather, some of the beans on the lower part 
of the stalks were pounded down upon the ground and this 
caused them to turn black. The sample here is a couple of 
handfuls just as they came from the bin. In fact it was dark 
when I got them and I took the first I came te. Had I the 
meajis of cultivating them I should have gone over the field 
again with the planter straddling the rows and thus increased 
the yield. I have had no experience with soy beans as a hay 
or forage crop. Have fed a few to pigs and find that they 
like them. We have fed them to our chickens this winter 
mixed with oats for a^ morning feed, and they pick out all the 
beans first. One of the boys was telling me yesterday that he 
sows rape and soy beans together for hog pasture, and that he 
finds it all right. That was Mr. Osterday of Lafayette county, 
perhaps we can hear from him in the discussion. 


The soy bean is yet in the px]x^ri mental stage. I never 
saw a soy bean till T grew them last season. The soy bean has 
given such good results in feeding trials with hogs that I con- 
cluded to carry on an experiment with them and determine 
whether they could be grown to maturity under our conditions 
of soil and climate. I got the seed of Mr. Edw. Evans of West 
Branch, Mich. The seed wavs northom grown and had become ac- 
clim.ated. If they had not been acclimated they probably would 
not have given very good returns. T trierl several varieties and 
all the early varieties were ripe before frost came. T found that 
one of the best varieties to* grow wheni a crop of seed is desired 
is the extra early black; this is one of the earliest and it pro- 
duces a very large amount of seed in proportion, to the amount 
of vines. For this reason the rows should be planted close and the 
beans should be drilled closer in the rows than the late varieties 
that make more gi-owth. The soil did not contain the right 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association, 83 

kind of bacteria for forming nodules on the roots of the plants 
to enable them to take nitrogen directly from the air. The soil 
was a good clay loam and probably contained all the nitrogen 
that the beans needed in their growth. If the soil is to be bene- 
fited by the growing of any leguminous crop on it the soil 
should be inoculated, with the right kind of bacteria. The 
w^orst difficulty in growing soy beans for seed is to get them 
harvested. When a convenient way of harvesting them is found 
I think they will scon become a very important and profitable 
grain crop to grow for feeding farm animals, particularly ho-gs. 
When they have been fed to swdne in small quantities in connec- 
tion with corn very satisfactory gains have been obtained. They 
may also become very useful for the purpose of planting wdth 
corn and cutting them with the com for silage or fodder. 


There is not a dairyman w^ho does not feel tempted to ignore 
the feeding of coarse and concentrated feeds that contain a high 
per cent, of protein, when the same have to be bought upon the 
market or from dealers that handle such feeds, on account of such 
feeds commanding very hi,a:h prices, and have to be fed to dairy 
cattle with ihe utmost skill and best judgment in order to obtain 
a small margin for the money and labor invested in the under- 
taking. But experiments have demonstrated that, when milch 
cows have been fed exclusively upon coarse feed, that is generally 
grown on the farm, such as corn, timothy and clover hay the 
ration wall be too wide^ and, therefore, will have to be substituted 
with other feeds that contain a higher per cent, of protein, in 
order to obtain the best results. 

Now" it Ix^oomes a question at once with the progressive dairy- 
men, how^ can w^e grow a cro]> on our farms that can balance 
the feeding ration of milch cows, more than the alxwe mentioned 
crops and save the expenses, not only the feed alone but also the 
profits that are retained by middlemen who handle these feeds, 
from the time they are obtained from the groover until they 
reach the feeder, which in many cases amounts 1o a very respect- 
able sum of profits, 

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84 .Second Annual Report of the 

Much is being said in the agricnlUiral press concerning the 
home production of protein, mentioning such protein producing 
plants as the oow peas, field peas and soy beans. The latter 
has not as yet passed the experimental stage in Wisconsin, and 
thoivfore experiments have \yvvii carried on by this Association 
to det-t^rmine the vahie of this bean and how it can be mot>t siuc- 
cessfully grown as a fann crop. 

The soy bean is taller and stiffer than the other protein 
producing plants ; will reach a height of from two to nearly four 
feet if the soil upon which it is grown is well cultivated and 
contains sufficient fertility to grow a crop of com. 

The silo has become one of the most important buildings 
on a dairy farm and com has proven to be one of the cheapest 
crops to grow for silage, but as the corn silage contains a high 
per cent, of carbo-hydrates and a low per cent, of protein it does 
not become a perfect feeding ration and some other feeds 
have to be fed with it to make up a so-called "balanced ration." 
It becomes a very important question as to how we can grow a 
crop with the com that has a high per cent, of protein. 

Studying this question I have been induced to believe that 
the soy bean can be grown and harvested successfully with a 
crop of corn for silage purposes. 

An experiment was carried on last year with the soy bean 
of the Ito San variety. The beans were mixed with com in the 
proportion of one part soy Ix^ans and four parts com, and the 
result was a favorable cue as to growth and harvesting the crop. 

A larger trial was made with the same variety the present 
season on our farm in Waukesha county. About ten acres were 
grown, using the same proportion of beans and com as the 
previous year. The mixture was planted with a two^horse Deere 
com planter, dropping the seed about four inches apart in the 

Some trouble was found in this method of planting when the 
seed hoppers were filled full with the bean and com mixture. 
The beans being smaller than the corn w^ould work their way 
doAvn faster than the corn, coneequently the latter came to the 
top, caused by the jarring of the machine, the land being quite 
firm after heavy rains and time was not taken to re-pulverize the 
field. If the seed-bed had been loose and well harrowed the 
planter would have run smoother and the separating of the seed 
would not have been so rapid as in the case mentioned above. 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 85 

After the field was planted it was cultivated with a two-horse 
riding cultivator straddling every row and cross harrowed with 
a smootliing harrow. 

The beans and corn apj^eared tlirough the ground about the 
same time. 

A slanting tooth harrow was run over the field after the beans 
and corn were above ground. A considerable number of bean 
plants were covered over with dirt but this did not seem to check 
their growth for they soon were above ground again and showed 
no bad results. 

The cultivation of the crop was started as soon as the com 
was sufficiently large to allow the man on the cultivator to follow 
the row, but at this time the beans were not as tall as the corn, 
and when the shields of the cultivator were raised to allow some 
of the finer soil to be thrown towards the com, it would cover 
some of the bean plants; for this reason the shields had to be 
lowered and this would be objectionable if the weeds had been 
allowed to start before cultivation could be started. After the 
bean plants had attained further growth there was no further 
trouble in cultivating. 

In early September the beans were podding and the corn was 
fairly well eared, but the ears were only partially developed. 
Medium early com was used in this trial, viz. : the Mastodon 
and White Cap Yellow Dent. 

Tlie mixture was cut October 11th to lYth, and bound suc- 
cessfully with the Milwaukee Com Harvester, at which time the 
beans were well matured and considerable of the leaves had 
dropped off, the bean pods filled and the com kernel commencing 
to glaze. 

This was the second trial made in cutting the corn and bean 
mixture with a harvester. In both cases, however, some of the 
lower pods on the beans were left uncut. If the machine was 
tilted very low it would leave a very small per cent, of the l)ean 
pods, but would materially increase the draft. 

This mixture was run through an ensilage cutter before it 
was put into the silo. The silage is \mng fcxl at the present time 
and is very satisfaclory. 

The objection found with the Ito San variety in this year's 
experiment was the same as the previous year, viz. : that this 
variety matured too early and practically all the leaves 

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86 Second Annual Report of the 

drc/pixid off before the corn was sufficiently matured to l>e cut 
for the silo. 

llie soy beans were also grown in a plot by themselves and 
they made a more rank growth than wlu^n grown with corn. It 
was believed at the time, however, that tlie increased cost of 
handling the crop (as it could not Ik^ harvested with a corn 
harvester when grown separately) more than counter balanced 
the value of tlie additional protein secured, and would not be 
mixed as uniformly with the corn silage as when grown with the 


1. Com and soy hesm seed can be mixed together and planted 
successfully with a two-horse corn planter. 

2. nie cultivation (/f the mixed crops can be made with the 
same machineiy that is used for cultivating corn. 

3. When a medium early bean was j)lanted with the corn, 
the c(/rn and soy beans would mature at the same time. 

4. The mixture can l>e successfully harvested with a corn 
harvestx^r and economically handled for silage. 

5. The bean crop is unformly mixed with the corn silage 
when the two are grown together. 

6. That the silage from soy beans and corn is eaten in a satis- 
factory manner by dairy cows. 

7. That it has in a measure aided in increasing the supply of 
home-grown protein. 



Mr. President, Felloic Members of the Assoelaiion and Short 

Course Students: — 

It is always quite an honor and pleasure to b^ able to speak 

to a large audience and I greatly api)re(nate the pleasure of 

having the opportunity to say a few words to you about my 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Expemment Association, 87 

experiments and trials with Swedish Select oats. I have 
grown these oats for two years and am perfectly satisfied 
that they are well adapted for our county and that they are the 
most profitable, to my knowledge, grown in our community, 
A year ago last season, although somewhat dry, they grew up 
well from the ground, being alx>ut ^Y> feet tall, and last season 
it being almost too wet they grew very vigorously and thriftily 
but on account of their heavy, stiff, bright straw they did not 
lodge although some vvefe over 5 feet tall, and tliis, I think, ac- 
cc'unts for their heavy yiekling qualities. The straw being 
plenty stiff enough to carry the heavy, large, round heads with 
well filled, large, white, ])lump kernels. The oats are of the 
best quality having very large meat and very thin hull which 
makes them a very good oat for all feeding purposes. 

I treated my seed with formaldehyde and there was scarcely 
a trace of smut to be found in them. O'ne of the greatest values 
about these oats is in their early maturing qualities, for this 
reason they are well adapted as a nurse crop in which to sow 
clover and other grass seed. These oats get ripe and can be 
cut from 5 to 10' days earlier than most ether varieties which 
makes a great difference with the small trass })lants. On ac- 
count of their earliness they escape being affected as badly with 
rust and also get out of the way of chinch bugs and other pests 
Last season was a very poor oat year, but the Swedish Select oats 
did very well for me. I get about 40 bushels per acre. I did 
not sow any other kind for I was convinced by the first year's 
trial that they were the kind of oats to grow. The average in- 
creased yield per acre the year before last was enough more over 
the other oats to convince me that I did not want to take any 
chances in getting them mixed. My neighbor had a field near by 
and on practically the same soil and in about the same condition. 
His yielded him 2G bushels per acre where mine produced 40 
bushels }x^r acre, making a difference of 14 bushels per acre in 
my favor. Now figuring that at 35 cGuts per bushel would 
make a net profit of $4.90 p/er acre, and estimating that for 
20 acres, the usual amount most farmers raise in our locality, 
would mean a net profit for one year of $98. 

If the fanners could be induced to sow these oats it would 
mean many dollars to them and that would mean better farm 
buildings, better stock on the farm, more luxuries and more 
enjoyable living for the farmers and their families. 

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88 Second Annual Report of the 


Mr. President, Fellow Members of tJie Association: — 

I don't know that my testimony in regard to the Swedish Se- 
lect oats will be of any considerable value to you. A good many 
of those present at the annual meeting heard a large amount of 
favorable evidence last year, and as a consequence obtained some 
of the seed. I was among that number. I purchased seed of 
Mr. Ebert, of Tomah to the amount of ten bushels, at 75 cents 
per bushel. The ten bushels came in three ordinary grain sacks ; 
One American A sack weighing over 120 lbs. We sowed them 
with a broadcast seeder on four and one-half acres of high day 
ground, some of which was stony. 

At the time of sowing we thought it was about the poorest 
piece of ground we had, but it turned out to be the best on 
account of our having so much rain. 

As they grew and headed out one could easily tell where the 
division was in the field. They ripened about a week before 
the others did and were entirely free from smut. I couldn't 
find a single smutted head in' the field. They yielded approxi- 
mately 58 bushels to the acre, or about 10 bushels more than 
our old variety which we call No. Y, and paid $2.25 a bushel 
for at the time we first got the seed. I consider the Swedish Se- 
lect oat a very superior one both for feeding on ac^count of its 
thin hull and for its large yield. Our surplus seed is all spoken 
for at 60 cents and 75 cents per bushel at the granary. One man 
ordered 60 bushels for his own use. It has proven a very 
profitable investment for us and we will sow nearly all, if not 
all, of that variety the coming spring. 


I began raising Swedish Select oats in the spring of 1902, ob- 
taining one sack of the seed from Prof. R. A. Moore which I 
sowed on about one acre of ground. Owing to the nature of 
ground and condition of the season, I harvested only about 20 bu. 
of good oats as they lodged very badly. The spring of 1903 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 89 

I sowed the 20 bu. on 10 acres of loose, low prairie soil and had 
a very good stand, but owing to the rust they yielded only 40 bu. 
per acre by weight. In conclusion will say that I regard them 
the best oats there are to my knowledge as they, like our 
standard breeds of livestock, have a history behind them which 
tells of their performance in the past. Their superiority over 
most varieties of oats are earliness, even stand, heavy grain, and 
trueness to type. 


Fellow students: — ^We meet here today to see what improve- 
ments have been made since this Agricultural Experiment As- 
sociation was formed. While sitting here yesterday and today, 
I have seen that we are taking great interest in our worl^ (I say 
our work.) Why? because the future of agriculture depends 
quite largely on our boys who have graduated from the Short 

My subject today is a short talk on Swedish Select oats. T 
will in a brief way tell you my experience the past season. I 
sowed these oats on a sandy clay loam soil on which the year 
before potatoes were planted. I sowed them with a broad cast 
seeder on a well prepared seed bed. The oats were treated be- 
forehand for smut. At the time of seeding I found they w^ere 
swoolen somewhat, consequently! sowed them two and one-fourth 
bushels per acre with good success. They came up as green as a 
lawn until they were between three and four feet high standing 
as straight aud stiff as a wall. I couldn't help but get a picture 
of them. See Fig. -4. I believe the treating of oats for smiut 
greatly improved the crop, because the oats sprouted quicker 
and grew better. 

All members present who have treated seed oats in the past 
for the prevention of smut can not help but note the great 
improvement in appearance and general character of the grain 
grown from treated seed. 

The Swedish oats proved to be great yielders as we threshed 
81l/> bushels per acre which we considered an excellent yield 
for last year. 

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90 Second Annual Report of the 

We can't farm as our forefathers farmed, we must find a 
better way if we wish to reach the highest degree of success. 


... ^ 


While attending the Short Course in Agriculture I became 
interested in a variety of oats known as the Swedish Select 
oats. I purchased a sack of Prof. Moore, who had been 
growing them for some time, and had found them to be su- 
perior in quality as well as in yield to any that he had 
grown. My experience was a very satisfactory one. I sowed 
the Swedish oats on one end of a barley field so that they might 
not become mixed with our other variety of oats. They yielded 
about twenty-four bushels more per acre than did our own 
variety, and they did not rust nearly as badly. The rust was 
barely noticeable in the Swedish Select oats while in the others 
the rust was very bad. The Swedish oats stood up w^ell, not a 
single plant lodged, while our home variety was lodged to quite 
an extent. In conclusion I will say that any one growing oats 
either for market or for feeding purposes cannot make a more 
profitable investment than to secure a few bushels of these oats 
for trial purposes. 



Before discussing how and what to have for our pastures for 
hogs in the sunmier time we might spend a moment in consider- 
ing the value and imjx)rtance of summer pastures. 

In the first place abundant pastures are the cheapest feed we 
can supply our hogs and the more we can get them to graze 
the cheai)er the cost of i>ork production. I doubt if there would 
1 e much profit in growing hogs ; all the feed was carried to them 
in a concentrated forai. 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association, 91 

Pasture also furnishes the best kind of roughage for our hogs. 
So many feeders lose sight of the fact lliat, to get the best results 
in pig feeding as in other lines of live stock, the ration should 
have a certain amount of volume to it to get the best results. 
There is notliing that will answer this purpose better than good 
pastures where the pig can regulate the amount and bulk of 
his food to his heart's content and he can do it better than any 
feeder can do it for him. 

Again we should keep in mind that pastures are about the 
only succulent feed our hogs get and all good feeders realize 
the importance of having sQ-me succulent food for our animals. 
The dairyman realizes this perhaps more than any other farmer 
because he sees the immediate effects in milk production, but it 
is just as necessary that we should have succulent feed for our 
hogs only we do not see immediate results quite so quickly as the 
dairyman does. 

Another great advantage of pastures is that they furnish a lot 
of cheap protein and mineral matter tliat helps to balance the 
grain rations fed them and thereby develop in our hogs strong 
bones and muscles. 

In planning our pastures for our hogs tliere are certain things 
that we should keep in mind. We should have pasture in the 
spring as early as we can possibly get it and as late in the fall, 
in fact we like to have as much as we can the year around. 

Next in planning our pastures we should have a gi'eat variety 
so as to encourage as large a consumption of this cheap feed as 
we can. 

In the planning of pastures we should have started last year 
by sowing a small piece of that most common and often times 
despised plant, winter rye. It should be sown in August or 
September in some old hog pasture, in the com field at the time 
of the last cultivation or on some otiier piece of land especially 

This rye will make a good fall pasture and in case of an open 
winter the hogs can get a great deal of green feed. The rye 
starts earlier in the spring and makes a more rapid growth than 
any other plant we have but we can not depend on this for any 
great length of time as it grows very rapidly and soon becomes 
coarse and fibrous. We use this for first early. 

Next I would mention as a valuable pasture the common 

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92 Second Annual Report of the 

blue gras3 or June grass as we call it. This comes on very 
early and will furnish a great deal in the way of the best kind 
of forage, but like the winlier rye its season of usefulness is 
rather short as it soon ripens and its growth is nearly stopped 
until cold weather comes in the fall. 

These two plants that I have mentioned, we can have on any 
farm without much difficulty, but from this time on is the diffi- 
cult period of furnishing our hogs with good pasturage. 

If we are successful in having a good catch of clover at this 
time we will have one of the best pastures we can get for a great 
part of the summer time, for I do not know of a better single 
pasture plant than the common clover, but in connection with 
this we want something els© for variety and especially if we are 
not fortunate enough to have the clover. 

For future pastures, as soon as we can get on tlie land in the 
spring we prepare a piece of land and sow it with a grain mixt- 
ure of 2 bushels of barley and 1 bushel of peas per acre. We 
seed with this mixture 2 quarts of Dwarf Essex rape and 4 
quarts of medium red clover. 

We will sow two or three of these pieces at intervals of two 
or three weeks. When the barley in the first field gets about one 
foot high we turn the pigs in and they will eat the sweet and 
juicy barley stalks and the peas very readily, but at this time do 
not seem inclined to eat much of the rape. After this first 
pasture is picked down we turn in the second and so on. After 
the barley is picked dowTi it does not make much cf a growth 
but the rape and clover come on and make a good growth and 
as the ra}>e gets a little more maturity we turn in this first 
pasture again and we have permanent pasture of rape and 
clover for the rest of the season as the rape and clover will 
always start up after being picked down but the peas and barley 
will not. 

This is our method of preparing pastures for our swine. Some 
might ask why we sow the barley and peas? It is because it 
comes on and is ready to pasture earlier than the rape and it also 
furnishes a lot in the way of variety. 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association, 93 


Ladies, Gentlemen and Fellow Students: — 

It is with pleasure that I have this opportunity to say a few 
words on this great and important subject of such vital interest 
to all swine growers, and in thus speaking I do not presume to 
be presenting something new, but rather a very old practice now 
under consideration, and being revived and returned into actual 
use. Our ancestors, many of our grand-fathers raised their 
hogs on nature's wild and bounteous supply, the sows being 
turned out in the spring (sometimes were out), and were seldom 
if ever seen until late in fall when they were "rounded up" 
with their families, sleek, plump, and fat from pasture, finished 
with acorns which were very plentiful in those days in our sec- 
tion of the country (when nearly all was timber land). They 
were then slaughtered and packed for future use or piled like 
cord wood on an old sled and drawn many miles by oxen to some 
poor and distant market-, and there sold at a very low figure. So 
much for the past. Why must we change? What conditions 
have we at present? 

First: We have rivalry, hard universal competition in rais- 
ing hogs for an open world-wide market which has to some ex- 
tent forced the present generation to look for something cheaper 
to grow pigs, and carry over old breeding stock. 

Second: Land is getting higher priced; in some localities 
very high, which compels hog-raisers as well as all farmers to 
try to reap all the revenue possible from a given area, in order 
to get even fair interest on money invested. When we first 
began to raise hogs to any great extent we built a hog-tight 
fence around about five (5) acres of low wood-land (nearly all 
the timber out off, with running water on one side) as a perma- 
nent pasture, and that same pasture is still in use (fifteen years), 
although we have added more as necessity required, and it is get- 
tinisr better every year, the grass is thicker, grows faster, and 
suffers drouth less. This is blue-^rass pasture, with the natural 
growth each year, of clovers, timothy, etc. Adjoining this 
■oasture we had for several years a clover lot, but we found the 
hogs did better, were more satisfied, when they had the run of 

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94 Second Annual Report of the 

both at the same time, so tlioro is now no division fence, they 
will feed on one, and then go to the other and feed more. 

In 1901 w^e sowed c-ats and clover early, April 8, for pasture, 
and turned the ho^ on as soon as oats were 6 inches hi^h, and 
it made an excellent run. Along later the clover came on and 
made good feed in Septemhor and O^'toter. In 1902 we fol- 
lowed about the same rctatif n exceji we also sowed considerable 
oats and rape which affords more })ast.ure, but I believe of poorer 
quality, but possibly the greater quantity more than offsets the 
better quality.* Both of these years we fed gTound rye, some 
times mixed with bran, cats and corn for their slop. 

Previous to 1900 we raised peas and oats and cut them as 
soon as they were in the dough, and hauled them into the pasture 
for the pigs — but that is unnecessary w^ork, they can do the 
harvesting themselve:^, — and continued this until they were too 
ripe, so they shelled badly, and they gave most excellent re- 
sults, often reducing the amrunt of other food to a very light 
ration. This past season we followed a little different rotation 
in as much as it was more extensive and continued, and I will 
also give you the dates of sowing and the method we followed 
in pasturing in rotation. TTie field where these hog pastures were 
the past season, is a deep black loam underlain with gravel sub- 
soil, and was all fall plowed in October. The past spring was 
exceptionally wet, so the first sowing of oats and rape was 
late (April 17), the second sowing May 8, and the third June 
10. We turned hogs on first sowing June 1, 44 days after 
sowing; the rape at this time was about a foot high. We turned 
on second field July 10, 04 days after sowing; the rape was an 
immense growth at this time, perhaps too large. The third 
sowing we turned brood sows onto, away from pigs and other 

Our field peas were also sown late (April 23), atid were in 
the dough and ready to turn into (we pasture them) July 28, 
96 days after sowing, and w^hen these were gone we turned into 
flint com which ripened in 90 days (Aug. 15). After this our 
corn from the field w^as ready. 

Now did it really pay to pasture so much ? We must make 
a little comparison. We fed middlings the past season, some 
milk. We figured that when pasture was good they took ono- 
Ihird less feed. We actually know they did. This meant about 
100 lbs, saved per day. An acre would last our di'ove (about 100 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 95 

head) about twenty (20) days which would equal one ton of feed 
saved or $17.00, the price per ton. Now two crops of oats 
and rape may be grown on the same plot in one season. Fall 
sown rye pastured early (I ^vill say here that we use rye as a 
substitute in the absence of clover, and sometimes in connection 
with clover), and then sown to oats and rape May 15 to June 1, 
and also the first early sowing may be followed later by another 
crop of oats and rape. You can sow as late as July 1 with good 
results unless exceptionally dry. The peas yielded about the 
same net returns as the oats and rape, as the seed was more 
expensive. But when the peas were mature and at their best, 
the pigs would not come to eat slop at all. You will understand 
that during all this pasturing the past season the pigs had access 
to a fountain of pure, fresh water, supplied from a tank always 
clean. The pigs make much more gain on peas, than on any 
other feed I know of, fed in this way. We put them in mid- 
dlings and changed from one feed to another in that way, so 
that we may ever keep them hearty and feeling well. 

In oonclusion I will say I think land handled in this way 
will yield an average of $20 per acre, considering two crops on 
part of the land. And that is not all, even cash value doesn't 
cover it. In what condition are our pigs? Hearty, healthy, 
long in body, plenty of strong bone and muscle, and will stay 
on their feet, though pushed with a heavy grain ration through 
the fattening period. These things alone w^ould warrant pastur- 
ing in my estimation, if there were no other real cash value in 
sight. And I think if there is any one thing we are in greater 
need of than ^^summer pasture for growing hogs" it is more and 
better pasture. 



Memhers of the Wisconmn Agriculdural Experiment AssociMion: 
— ^I am a beginner in the Management of county fairs, so will 
be unable to do justice to the subject assigned me. I hope that 
some of this paper may fall into rich ^il and bear good ixmtn t 

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96 Second Annual Report of the 

Tliere are several go(x\ reasons why the short course students 
should take active parts in the management of our county fairs. 
L(^t us lx4ieve that we are still students (which we really are), 
only in a farther advanced class. We should take our places 
at the head of this class and work vrith a will that never tires, 
for a ^ood end. 

The state of Wisconsin supports this Short Course in Agri- 
culture for young men, who wish to gain a l)etter knowledge of 
j)ractical and scientific farming, that they may l>ecr>me intelli- 
gent st-(>ck men, dairymen, gardeners, etc. The state gives aid 
or a certain per cent, of all the premiums paid at the county 
fairs, for the same pur{X)se as the aid to the Short Course; 
namely, that ( f advancing and improving agriculture. 

Wo are receiving the knowledge and training here at the col- 
lege of agriculture, which wo are supposed to put into practical 
use, when we get back to our homes and the county fair is the 
place where we can display the fruits of our labor. Is it not our 
duty to help the state along in this matter cf county fairs as 
a small compensation for what she has done for us ? It should 
1x3 our highest ambition to put more into this world than we 
have taken out of it. Still further as students it widens our 
ability to think and act. It puts us in constant touch with the 
diiferent classes of people, especially the a^i cultural class. It 
drives our minds to new and up-to-date metho<ls in the line of 
agriculture. It is a great honor to the Wisconsin College of 
Agriculture to send out students from its diiferent classes wdio 
are capable of taking responsible positions for the purpose of 
improving agriculture. 

As memibers of this Experiment Association, we should take 
active part in extending its experiments to every county in the 
state of Wisconsin. And no better place can be had or found 
in a county for the center of this experiment work than the fair 
grounds. We should take the lead in these experiments. You 
will probably ask why should we take this lead? Simply be- 
cause we are memlx^rs of this asvsociation. We should encour- 
age our neighbors to make experiments along certain lines, we 
should try and get the people over the whole country interested 
in this experimental work. What we w^ish to do is to get the 
people out of the old ruts. 

The county fair is the place of gathering for all the farmers 
of that county and adjoining counties as exhibitors. They come 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 97 

for the purpose of learning better methods in their chosen pro- 
fession, thus leading others to investigate and study and to 
understand many things they did not know before. The county 
or community where you live should be greatly benefited by 
you as an active worker for the county fair. You have had 
ample training at the Short Course in all the lines of agri- 
culture and therefore you should not take a back seat in its 
management. I do not want you to think that you should run 
for an offi^^e as one of your fair managers at once. But I do 
want to impress upon your minds to start as an exhibitor, super- 
intendent or judge, get down on the lower step of the ladder and 
work yourself up. Be present at the annual meetings, do all 
you can to help the fair along. In a few years the people will 
find out that you are taking an interest in the fair and that you 
are an active worker for it. Then you will be climbing up the 
ladder and may be elected as one of its officers. Fill your place 
to the best of your ability, make the county fair a success by 
studying the people's wants. Now is the time to put your 
thinking cap on and act to the best of your knowledge. Let us 
put our shoulders to the wheel and push to the front. 

TESTS witb; grain and forage plants. 


Approximately 400 members of the association signified a 
desire to carry on experiments with grains and forage plants 
and were furnished outlines and report blanks. 

To give all members of the association a knowledge of the 
scope of the work copies of the outlines given those members 
desiring to cooperate are herewith published. Several of the 
experiments outlined for this season will be continued next 
year and members wishing to aid in the work will be furnished 
information sheets and report blanks on addressing the secretary 
of the association, R. A. Moore, Madison, Wis. 

Reports on the various experiments should be sent to the sec- 
retary promptly in order to be compiled for the next annual 


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98 Second Annual Report of the 

Wisconsin Agbicui.turai. Experiment Association. 

Experiment I. 

Trials ^Yith Alfalfa to Determine if it can he Gro^vn in Wis- 
consin Successfully as a Forage Plant and the Relative 
Value of the Turlcestam* Compared With 
Common^ Variety, 

The value of alfalfa as a forage plant in the west is becoming 
more and more apparent and the area grown, which was very 
small a few years ago, has gradually widened until at the pres- 
ent time most of the stock producing states west of the Missis- 
sippi grow it in abundance. In Wisconsin alfalfa is yet in the 
experimental stage and until it has been further tried at the 
Experiment Station and by members of the Experiment Asso- 
ciation, it will be well for the farmers of the state to refrain 
from sowing it in large quantities. 

Alfalfa or lucerne is a perennial plant and belongs to the 
clover family. If not killed by frost, water or some other ele- 
ment, it can be cut the secx>nd year after ,sowing three or four 
times per season for hay and for many years without re-seeding. 

It should be sown in the spring on land that is well drained, 
with oats or barley as a nurse crop or alone if the land is not 
weedy; at the rate of tw^enty pounds per acre. 

Having procured good alfalfa seed^ proceed as follows: — Se- 
lect land that never overflows and that which is well drained ; 
the riclier the soil the better will be the growth of the alfalfa. 
Fall plowing is preferable to spring plowing, therefore, we should 
select a piece that has been fall plowed if possible ; prepare the 
seed bed thoroughly and sow oats or barley and cover as usual ; 
then sow alfalfa broadcast at the rate of twenty pounds of seed 
per acre and drag once. If the season is very wet and the nurse 
crop lodges, cut the crop for hay or Ix^dding and give the alfalfa 
a better chance to grow. The alfalfa springs up readily after 
the nurse crop has been removed and if the season is favorable, 
in from thirty to forty days, it will be fit to cut and should yield 
from one to one and a half tons per acre. It is well to leave a 
fair growth as a cover crop for the winter, as like the clover, 
there is danger of its winter killing. 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 99 

Do not pasture the first season as it injures the young plants. 

By sowing the oats at the rate of one bushel per acre you will 
give the alfalfa a better chance to 'grow as the young alfalfa 
plants will not be crowded as they would be if the ordinary 
amount of oats was sown per acre. Barley sown three pecks to 
the acre is preferable to oats as a nurse crop. 

The Turkestan alfalfa is said to have special drought and 
frost resisting qualities, but the price of seed is considerably 
more than that paid for the Common variety, consequently it re- 
mains to the Experiment Station with the assistance of the 
Experiment Association to demonstrate the relative value of 

A small piece of alfalfa of each variety should be sown without 
a nurse crop where it is convenient^ and the merits of the method 
compared with that sown with the nurse crop. 

Report Blank, Experiment I. A. 

Getting a Stand of Alfalfa, TurJcestan vs, Comnu)n Variety, 

Name of experimenter 

P. O ; County^. ; State 

1. Date of sowing oats and alfalfa 

2. What varieties were used ? 

3. Nature of soil ? 

4. How prepared ? 

5. When were the alfalfa plants first noticeable ? 

6. Were the oals cut green or left to ripen ? 

7. How long after the oats were cut was the alfalfa cut ? . . 

8. How much alfalfa hay did you procure per acre (esti- 

mated) ? ;Turkestan ; ComrnxDni 

9. Did you experience any difficulty in curing it? 

10. Did the stock as a rule relish the hay ? 

11. Did you feed any green ? 

12. How did the stock relish the green feed ? 

13. Have you a good thick stand of alfalfa ? 

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100 Second AnmuH Report of the 

1 i. How high is it ? 

15. At what rate did you sow the oats per acre ? 

16. At what rate did yon sow the alfalfa per acre? 

17. Which seems the hest adapted for your locality the Turkes- 

tan or the common variety ? 

18. Which seems preferable sowing with or without a nurse 

crop ? 

19. Did the plants develop the bacteria-laden nodules nat- 

urally ? 

In examination of plants for nodules it is necessary to remove 
the ground from the plants carefully so as to not break the fine 
rootlets on which the clusters of nodules hang. 

20. Date of making this report 

21. Give in a brief way your opinion on growing alfalfa in 

Wisconsin from the knowledge you have thus far gained. 

Experiment I. B. 

Alfalfa after First Yea/r's Seeding, 

Encouraged by the ability of stockmen in the west to grow 
alfalfa, many of the former students of the Wisconsin College 
of Agriculture have been tempted to grow it in a small way. 
Through the encouragement of the Eperiment Association, 
many of its membership sowed from one to two acres last year. 
The association is desirous to learn the success of those who have 
sown alfalfa previous to this year and will send blanks and re- 
turn envelope to any wlio will agree to send in report. 

Report on Alfalfa after First Years Seeding, 

Report Blank, Experiment I. B. 

To be sent to the Secretary, by O'etober 1, 1904. 

1. Name of experimenter . 

Post Office ; County ; State 

2. Year and season alfalfa was sown 

3. Was the aKalf a sown with or without a nurse crop ? 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association, 101 

. 4. Variety of alfalfa seed used 

5. Amount of seed per acre 

6. . Was crop cut for hay the year of sowing ? 

7. If so, the amount obtained per acre. 

8. Nature of the soil 

(Clay, muck, highland, lowland, etc.) 

9. Was good stand noticeable before the fall frosts ? 

10. What per cent, if any, winter killed ? per cent. 

11. How many cuttings did you get the year after seeding ? . . . . 

12. Weight of hay from all cuttings for the season — 

(actual) . (estimated) 

13. Did you experience any difficulty in curing the crop for 


14. Date of making this report 

Please give in a brief way your method of growing alfalfa 

and your views as to its value a^ a forage plant for Wisconsin. 

Experiment No. 2. 

Wisconsin Seedrcom. 

Very little has been done in Wisconsin up to the present 
time in the way of breeding good seed com or taking care of the 
season's crop. 

We feel that by judicious selection of seed, farmers of the state 
can increase the yield from ten to twenty-five bushels per acre. 
We know that members of the Experiment Association can do 
much for the communities in which they reside by breeding a 
choice variety of com. Due care must be exercised in plant- 
ing, cultivating the soil, harvesting and curing the crop as well 
as rigid selection of the seed. No matter how good the seed if 
planted on weedy or poor, worn-out soil and not properly cared 
for we can not expect a good crop. 

We expect to see great strides made in the improvement of 
com within the next few years and may not the Wisconsin Ex- 
periment Association be the factor to bring this improvement 
about? i 

For this experiment ten ears will be used and each ear is to 
represent a row. Use the ear with the least number of kernels 

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102 Second Annual Report of the 

first Plant in hills three and one^half feet apart in the row and 
the same distance between the rows. The com left from the dif- 
ferent ears after planting individual rows can be mixed and one 
or more rows of the mixture can be planted. 

Plant at least forty rods from any other com, a greater dis- 
tance if convenient. Avoid having a field of com near the west 
or south of the plot as the prevailing wind during the pollinating 
season is from that direction and the com is liable to cross. 

Report Blank, Experiment No. 2. 
Wisconsin Seed-corn. 

Name of experimenter. 

P. O ; 0)unty ; State. 

1. Variety of com planted 

2. Where was seed secured ? 

3. Germinating test, per cent 

4. Date of planting 

5. Nature of soil ? , 

6. Fall or spring plowed?. 

7. Following what crop ? 

8. How planted ? 

9. When first noticeable above ground ? 

10. Did com germinate evenly ? . 

11. Give the number of times and method of cultivation ' 

12. Did corn mature well ? . . 

13. What t)er cent, of barren stalks were noticeable in each row \ 

To find the per cent, of barren stalks in a row count the whole 
number of barren and fruitful stalks present, and divide the 
number representing barren stalks by the number representing 
the whole number of stalks. 

14. How harvested ? 

15. Yield per acre, actual ; Estimated 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 103 

Experiment N"o. 3. 

Treating Potatoes with Formaldehyd Solution for the Preven- 
tion of Potato Scab. 

The potato crop of Wisconsin in 1902 is estimated at 
25,800,000 bushels, valued at $9,030,000. Only a portion of 
the yield is retained, the remainder shipj^ed to market, for which 
the farmers of Wisconsin receive a sum one-third as great as 
the value of tlie dairy products of the state. -The potato in- 
dustry has become so important that it needs our immediate 

One of the evils the grower has to contend with is the po- 
tato scab which often renders the crop of potatoes unfit for 
market, or nearly so. The market demands a smooth, even 
grade of potatoes; consequently, wliere the potatoes have been 
made rough by the scab fungus tliey sell at a reduced price. 
The scab fungus attaches itself to the tuber where it makes the 
ugly looking scars so often found on the potato, or remains in 
the soil where it is able to survive varying conditions for sev- 
eral years. 

Tbe scab fungus on the seed potato can be killed readily 
by the formaldehyd treatment here recommended, and if the 
seed is then planted on land that has not before grown scabby 
potatoes or has not become contaminated with the scab fungus in 
any other way, the crop should be entirely free from scab. 

Method of Treatmeni, — ^Put in a cask twenty gallons of water 
and pour in one pint of formaldehyd, and after stirring the 
solution, distribute in several barrels or tubs. Put in the un- 
cut seed potatoes and submerge for two hours. If desired, the 
potatoes can be left in gimny sacks or bags while being treated. 

After removing the potat-oes from the solution they can be 
cut and planted as desired. In this test the experimenter will 
select a bushel of very scabby potatoes and treat half and re- 
tain the other half without treatment. Plant on ground that 
has never before grown potatoes, and note the result 

Do not let the treated seed come in contact with the untreated 
seed or any sack which has held untreated }X)tatoes. The seed 
potatoes for the general crop should all be treated if at all 

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104 Second Annual Report of the 

Report Blank, Experiment No. 3. 
Treaiing Potatoes for the Prevention of Scab. 


Name of Experimenter 

Post Office ; County 

1. How much secnl treated for the experiment ? 

2. How much seed untreated for the experiment ? 

3. Date of planting 

4. Did you notice any characteristic difference in the growth of 

the potato vines during tlie growing period ?. . / 

5. Date of digging potatoes 

6. Yield from the seed treated 

7. Yield from the seed not treated 

8. No. of scabby potatoes found from the treated seed . . . 

9. No. of scabby potatoes found from the untreated seed . 

Experiment No. 4. 
Treating Seed Oats to Prevent Smut, 

Smut affecting oats is prevalent in all parts of this and ad- 
joining states. The great loss sustained by farmers and the 
rapid increase of the smut area suggests that a remedy be found 
to stop this loss. 

The accompanying sheets will give method of treatment to 
prevent oat smut. 

It is the desire of the Association to know the eflFectiveness 
of this treatment by many observers, and to publish determina- 
tions in the next annual report. 

Where smut has been noticeable in the oats the previous year, 
all seed should be treated to prevent a re-occurrence. 

For the following experiment it will be necessary to treat about 
three bushels, sufScient to sow an acre, in accordance with plan 
outlined in instructions. 

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Wisconsin Agricvltwral Experiment Association, 105 


Experiment.— 1. Take three bushels, or the usual allowance 
for seeding one acre, that were threshed from a field that was 
worst affected with smut the past season, and treat as stated in 

If the experimenter has no oatss, he probably can obtain some 
from a neighbor whose grain has been afflicted with oat smut 

2. Take the same quantity from the same lot of oats and do 
not treat. 

3. Sow both quantities on adjoining plots of one acre each. 
Be sure to have a distinct separation f romi the plot sown with the 
oats treated and that on which the oats are not treated. 

4. After the oats are fairly headed take an ordinary barrel 
hoop and make several counts on the plot where oats were treated 
and on the plot where oats were not treated. This can be done by 
placing a hoop over the oats and counting all the heads within 
the circle and then note the number affected with smut, thus 
getting data to determine the percentage. . 

Eeport Blank, Experiment lN"o. 4. 

Treating Seed Oats to Prevent Smut. 

Name of experimenter 

P. O ; Oounty ; State. 

1. Did you treat oats according to directions ? 

2. How much treated for the experiment ? 

Size of plot. 

3. How much was sown on experiment that was not treated ? . . . 

Size of plot 

4. Did you treat your seed that was sown for general pur- 

poses ? 

1. Date of sowing seed not treated 

2. Date when smut was first noticeable 

3. When were oats cut ? 

1. Date of sowing seed treated 

2. Date when smut was first noticeable. 

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106 Second Annual Report of the 

3. When were oats cut ? 

6. Did you make several counts after the oats were headed 
using the hoop in the manner suggested ? ; 

6. What per cent, of oats were affected with smut on plot where 

seed was treated to prevent smut ? . . . 

7. What per cent, of oats were affected on plot where seed was 

not treated ? 

8. Per cent, saved by treatment 

The data obtained by counting the heads within the circle of 

a hoop that are affected and those not affected is a fairly ac- 
curate method of arriving at the percentage affected with smut. 
Send in this report as soon as the experiment is completed. 

Experiment No. 5. 
Tests With Swedish Select Oats. 

The test mtade during 1903 with the Swedish Select oats 
(Wis. No. 4) was very satisfactory and shows that the oats are 
especially adapted for Wisconsin conditions. The desire is now 
to have them grown as extensively as possible by members of the 
association so that the variety will be in reach of all farmers. 

In order to be placed on the list of seed growers it will be 
necessary to comply with certain conditions. 

1. All seed oats must be treated for the prevention of smut. 

2. Must be sown on land that is free from Canada thistles, 
mustard or any obnoxious weeds. 

3. If possible a comparison with another variety of oats 
should be made. 

4. A report must be sent to the secretary immediately after 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association, 107 

Report Blank, Experiment No. 5. 

Swedish Select Oats. 

Name of experimenter 

Post Office ; County ; State 

1. Date of sowing 

2. Amount of seed sown 

3. Amiount of land covered (approximately) 

4. Nature of soil ? , 

5. Fall or spring plowed ? .' 

6. Sown with seeder or drill ? 

7. Were heads of any other grain noticeable within the plot on 

which oat® were sown ? - 

8. Were 'they removed ? 

9. Did the oats stand up well ? 

10. Did you treat the seed for the prevention of smut ? 

11. Did you notice any smut ?..... 

12. How much ? 

13. Was the ground on which oats were sown free from Canada 

thistles, mustard and quack grass ? 

14. Did oatsi rust ? 

15. When were oats cut ? 

16. Yield per acre of Swedish Select oats 

17. Yield per acre of any other variety of oats grown 

18. How many of the Swedish oats on hand do you intend to sell 

for seed oats ? , 

19. Please give a brief description of what you think of the 

Swedish Select oats. 

Experiment No. 6. 

Tests With Forage Rmpe. 

For several years rape has been grown for soiling purposes on 
the Experiment Farm with that degree of success which sug- 
gests that it is worthy of a trial by Wisconsin farmers in general. 

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108 Second Annual Report of the 

Stheep and young stock are very fond of the plant and fatten 
readily when pastured upon it. Care should be taken to not let 
sheep feed upon it while it is wet with dew, or when they have 
been kept for several bourse without food, as they then eat so 
abundantly that it often leads to serious bloating or scouring. 

The Variety Used: — The Dwarf-Essex rape has been the 
variety used most extensively at the Experiment Farm. This 
variety can be purchased from any good seed house, in five or 
ten pound lots for about eight cents per pound. 

Rape can be grown late as well as early in the year, therefore 
it often serves as a good catch crop when other crops have failed, 
and will afford a'goodly supply of green fodder when the pastures 
are dry and short If possible, try four experiments with rape. 

1st. Sow broadcast on one acre or more which you have pre- 
viously seeded to oats, and which are about one inch in height at 
the time of sowing the rape. Cover with a slant tooth harrow or 
light drag which will not materially injure the oats. Let the 
oats ripen and when cut, the rape will come on rapidly and cover 
the stubble with its wide spreading leaves. It feeds to best ad- 
vantage when about 18 indies in height or a little over. If 
a hurdle fence is used and changed from time to time, the rape 
first pastured will come on rapidly and soon be fit to pasture 

2nd. Sow one acre or more which has been properly prepared 
with disc barrow or otherwise, to rape, using drill and putting in 
about 30 inches apart so as to cultivate once or twice. 

3rd. Sow one acre or more broadcast or with drill at the time 
of sowing oats. The rape seed should be mixed with the oats. 
If the ground is not too rich the rape mil not interfere with the 
oat crop or lessen the yield to any great extent. After harvesting 
oats, the rape will come on rapidly and in a few weeks be of suffi- 
cient height to pasture. If sown on rich ground in a wet season 
the rape will interfere with the grain crop. 

4th. Sow one acre or more broadcast, without dragging, when 
the oat crop is from two to four inches in height. Sow about 
four pounds of rape seed per acre and if possible before or im- 
mediately after a shower. Tbis method is especially recom- 
mended on low rich soils. 

Ammmt of seed necessary: — ^When sown in drills, three 
pounds per acre is suflSicient, when broadcast, on small areas, 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 109 

five or six lbs. should be used ; when sown with oats at the time 
of seeding use about one pound per acre mixed with the seed 

By reserving ten feet square .or one square rod and cutting 
rape when about eighteen inches or two feet in height, then 
weighing, the amount of green fodder per acre can be readily 

Eape should be cut about four inches from the ground in 
order to get best results for next crop. 

If the season is favorable you will succeed in getting three cut- 
tings of rape from the same plot if it is sown early and alone. 

Where the object is to fatten sheep for market, a small grain 
ration should be fed at regular intervals. 

All reports should be sent to R. A. Moore, Madison Wiscon- 

Report Blank, Experiment No. 6. A. 

Sowing Rape Broadcast on Oat Field and Dragging Ten or 
Twelve Days After Seeding With Oats. 

Name of experimenter, 

P. O ; 0>unty ; State 

1. Date of sowing oats 

2. Date of sowing rape 

3. What variety of rape used ? 

4. Amount of seed used y^v acre ? 

5. Nature of soil ? 

6. How prepared ? 

7. What height were the oats when rape was sown ? 

8. Did dragging materially injure the oat crop from first ob- 

servation ? 

9. When were the rape plants first noticeable ? 

10. When were the oats cut ? 

11. How did the yield of oats compare with the yield on land 

where no rape was seeded ? 

12. How long after the oats were cut before rape was fit forfeed- 

ing purposes ? , 

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110 Second Annual Report of the 

13. How many and what kind of animals did you pasture upon 

the rape? 

14. Did you feed a grain ration also ? . 

15. Did the animals fed upon th^ rape thrive ? 

16. Approximately, how much green fodder' did the rape pro- 

duce per acre ? -. 

17. Did you notice any detrimental effects from the feeding of 

rape? , 

18. Briefly give your opinion as to the value of rape as a soiling 


Report Blank, Experiment No. 6. B. 
Sowing Rape With Drill, 

Name of experimenter, ' 

P. O ; County ; State 

1. Date of sowing, 

2. What variety ? : 

3. Width between rows, , 

4. Amount of seed used per acre ? , 

5. Nature of soil ? 

6. How prepared ? 

7. How long after sowing was the rape fit for feeding purposes ? 

8. How many and what kind of animals did you pasture upon 


9. Did you feed a grain ration also? 

10. Did the animals fed upon the rape thrive? 

11. Approximately, how much green fodder did the rape pro- 

duce per acre ? 

12. Did you notice any detriment^al effects from the feeding of 


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Wisconsin Agricultufal Experiment Association. Ill 

13. Briefly give your opinion as to the value of rape as a soiling 

Eeport Blank, Eixperiment No. 6. C. 

Sowing Rape on Plot With Oats in Accordance With Directions 
Given on Information Sheet. 

Name of experimenter, 

P. O , County , State 

1. Date of sowing, J 

2. What variety of rape used ? . . 

3. Nature of soil ? : 

4. Amount of seed used per acre? 

5. How prepared ? 

6. Wh^en were the rape plants first noticeable ? 

7. When were the oats cut ? 

8. Did the rape interfere in any way with the growth of the 

oats ? 

9. Did you experience any difficulty in cutting and binding 

the oats on plot where rape was sown ? . . . 

10. Did the rape interfere with the drying out of the bundles ? 

11. How long after the oats were cut before the rape was fit for 

feeding ? 

12. Which in your opinion is preferable, sowing the rape at 

the time of sowing oats or after the oats have reached the 
height of one or two inches ? . 

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112 Second Annual Report of the 

Report Blank, Experiment No. 6. D. 

R\[ipe Sawn Broadcast Without Dragging When Oat Crop is 
From 2 to Jf Inches in Height Immediately Before 
or After a Shower. 

Name of experimenter, 

P. O , County , State 

1. Date of sowing oats, 

2. Date of sowing rape, 

3. What variety of rape used ? 

4. Amount of seed used per acre ? 

5. Nature of soil ? 

6. How prepared ? 

7. Did you sow rape seed immediately before or after a 


8. When were the rape plants first noticeable ? 

9. When were the oats out ? ; . . . . 

10. How did the yield of oats compare with the yield on land 

where no rape was seeded ? 

11. How long after oats were cut before the rape was fit for 

feeding purposes ? 

12. How many and what kind of animals did you pasture upon 

the rape ? 

13. Did you feed a grain ration also ? 

14. Did animals fed upon the rape thrive? 

15. Approximately, how much green fodder did the rape pro- 

duce per acre ? 

16. Did you notice any detrimental effects from the feeding of 

rape ? 

18. Briefly give your opinion as to the value of rape as a soiling 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association, 113 

Experiment Xo. 7. 
Soy Beans. 

The soy bean was probably introduced into the United States 
from Japan about fifty years ago and has been cultivated with 
success in the southern states. In Japan it is used extensively 
as a human food, but in this country it is grown for the seed, 
as a forage jj-lant, and as a sril renovator. As a forage, its use 
as a soiling cro]> is boc*oming recognized, by stockmen and dairy- 
men, as it withstands the drought exceptionally well and will 
give a good cutting of green forage at the time when other 
feeds are shriveled and wilted. Soy beans of the late variety 
gave a cutting of 9.9 tons of green forage ])er acre at the Wiscon- 
sin Experiment Farm in 1900, and an early variety yielded 
thirty-eight busheLs of seed teans per acre in. 1902, and forty 
bushels per acre in 1903. It makes a fairly good hay, and at the 
Kansas Station a yield of about three tons of cured hay per acre 
was secured. 

Like the clover, the soy bean is a nitrogen gatherer and en- 
riches the soil on which it is grown. It is said to grow on soil 
quite low in fertility, but a mellow, rich soil is preferable. 
It requires a well drained jx)rous soil ; in no case sbould the seed 
be sown on low ground that is saturated with water during most 
of the growing }x*riod or on a heavy clay soil that is inclined to 

When sown for hay or a soiling crop;, a drill or broadcast 
seeder can l)e used to advantage. If sown for seed, use a corn 
or bean planter and sow in drills about thirty inches apart be- 
tween the rows and alx)ut three inches apart in the row. ^Vhen 
planted in drills as described, from two to three pecks of seed 
per acre will be used. 

Soy l>eans should not l)e planted while the ground is cold ; 
immediately after corn ]>lanting is a favorable time. 

Sow in accordance with suggestions above given, for growing 
soy lx)ans for seed, one-tenth of an acre. 

When desired for hay, soy lx>ans should be cut when the pods 
are partly developed. Trs- a few square rods sown broadcast 
for a soiling crop and for hay. When grown for seed they 

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114 Second Annual Report of the 

should be harvested and threshed as our common variety of 
beans and put in a large open bin and shoveled over frequently 
to avoid heating. 

If you have a silo try soy beans with com. Plant in drills 
with the corn planter using one-third soy beans and two.thirds 
com mixed. When planting with com for the silo use the 
Medium Green variety as this variety is noted for its great 
leaf development. No difficulty will be experienced cutting 
the soy beans with the corn harvester at the time of harvesting 
corn. For pasture, hay or seed the Ito San variety will give 
excellent satisfaction and will usually ripen before the fall 

Secure a sack of inoculated soil from the Experiment Station 
and scatter on a portion of the field that you desire to plant to 
soy beans, and note the development of nodules. The roots 
of the soy bean plants growing on that part of the field where 
the bacteria laden ground is scattered will have numerous nodules 
attached to them which decay in the fall and add much fertility 
to the soil. When a few square rods of ground are inoculated 
and soy beans are grown thereon, henceforth ground can always 
be secured from this source of supply to scatter on other fields 
where the desire is to have the nodules develop. 

Report Blank, Experiment No. 7. 
Soy Beans, 

Name of experimenter, 

P. O , Cbunty , State 

1. Date of planting soy beans, 

2 Oharacter of soil, 

3. Wbat crop had been grown the previous year? 

4. Was the land used, fall or spring plowed ? 

5. Give your method of planting, 

6 How long after planting were beans first noticeable?. 

7. Give your method of cultivation, 

8. Did you try a few square rods for forage ? 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 115 

9. How many pounds of gi^een forage did you cut from a 
square rod ? 

10. How many pounds of cured hay did you get from a square 


11. Did the vstock eat the green and cured forage readily ? 

12. What kind of stock did you feed it to ? 

13. T>id the beans left for seed rii>en evenly ? 

14. Date of harvesting, 

15. Manner of harvesting, ! 

16. Method of threshing, 

17. Yield per acre of marketable seed beans, 

18. Did you use any bacteria-laden soil for inoculation pur- 

povses ? 

19. Were nodules noticeable on the roots of the soy bbans at any 

time during the growing poriod where such soil was 
used ? 

20. Were they noticeable where the soil was not used ? 

21. Date of sending report, 

22. Give in a general way your opinion of soy beans as a seed 

and forage plant for Wisconsin, 

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116 Second Annual Report of the 



In recommending work pertaining to livestock investigation 
for members of the Association, I would first of all recommend 
that the work outlined and undertaken in former years be con- 
tinued. We must keep in mind the fact that a single 
year's work of investigation does not stand for much so far as 
establishing new facts are concerned, and especially is this true 
in working along lines of investigation pertaining to animal 
husbandry. ^ 

In recommending a new line of work for our consideration, I 
have in mind the subject of economy in livestock production. 
Economy in production is a matter of vital importance to every 
manufacturing concern in our country, and the time is at hand 
when it should engage the altention of every farmer in his work 
as well. 

Two factors enter into the matter of determining the profits 
to be gained in livestock production. One is the price we are 
able to secure for our animals when w^e put them upon the 
market, and the other is the actual cost involved in growing and 
fitting them to satisfy the market demands. The margin be- 
tween the selling price and cost price determines the profits to 
be derived in the production of all commodities. Few livestock 
producers are able to say tvhat the actual profits are in pro- 
ducing livestock- of the various classes. As a general rule the 
livestock producer has little to do with fixing the market quota- 
tions w^hich are variable from day to day and year to year, but 
it is within his power to determine the actual cost of producing 
his animals; and it is beyond doubt that the man who under- 
stands this factor in production stands in a position to increase 
his profits over what they are apt to be where no attention is 
given the matter of cost and economy in production. 

The following method of procedure is suggested whereby we 
can determine the cost of producing pork from a single litter of 
pigs. Should any member see fit to work with any other class 
of stock or to take up the work more extensively he is at liberty 
to do so. 

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Wisconsin AgricvUural Experiment Association. 117 

Method of Procedure: — 1. Select a sow about to produce her 
litter; record her breeding, age, and her weight just previous 
to farrowing time. It will bo best to weigh her on each of the 
three or four days previous to her farrowing time and take the 
everage of these weiglits for her weight at that time. Get her 
weight the day after she farrows and continue weighing her every 
two weeks thereafter up to the time the i)igs are weaned. 

2. Record the date the pigs were farrowed and weigh them 
the day the sow is weighed after farrowing, continuing to weigh 
them everj^ two weeks until they are sold. Weigiiing the pigs 
individually will add interest to the work and not require much 
extra time where one iilust dej^end ujK>n small platform scales 
to do all the weighing. 

3. Commence a record of the feed given the sow and pigs 
after farrowing time, keeping a weekly record of this until the 
pigs are weaned when the sow can be removed from the lot and 
the record continued for the pigs until the time they are sold. 
Xote the kind of feed consimied by the sow and pigs, including 
grain, hay, roots, and skim milk, also make note of the kind of 
pasture and the area to which she Jias access. 

4. At the close of the feeding }Xii'iod when the pigs are 
turned oif to market record the price received for them and 
proceed to make out a financial statement, showing the profits 
derived over the cost of feed. 

The apparatus necessary for carrying out this experiment will 
be a pair of })latform scales which evers' fanner should |>ossess 
and a crate in which to weigh the pigs. Blanks for keeping 
records of weightvS and feed can- Ix^ siMinired upon api)lication 
for them. 

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118 Second Annual Repori of the 



During the last few years the subject of milking has received 
cc'iisiderable att?nti(?:i by dairvnion in this country and abroad, 
mainly through the work of a Danish veterinarian and teacher. 
Dr. Hegclund, who published the L.r>-callod Manipulation Method 
of Milking a couple of years ago. It occurred to me that I could 
not do better at this time tlian to bring this method to the atten- 
tion of the members of the Experiment Association and to ac- 
quaint you with some of the results of an investigation of the 
merits of the method w^hicli was conducted by the Chemical and 
Animal Husbandry Department of our Station. The results of 
the investigation are of considerable practical importance to all 
oow owners, and it will be well worth your while, I believe, to 
look into this subject and make experiments in your own herds 
along this line, in order to find out how thorough the milking is 
done in case of your different cows and whether they can be 
milked as clefan as they should be by the ordinary methods of 
milking now in use. 

The importance of the subject is suggested by a simple cal- 
culation of the value of an increase of, say one tenth of a pound 
of butter fat, for every co-w in. the state?-; the 'ncrease in the daily 
production of butter fat per oow of one tenth of a pound for the 
million dairy cows in this stale would mean an annual gain of 
thirty million pounds of butter fat, if the cows give milk three 
hundred days of the year. Valuing butter fat at twenty cents 
a pounds, a figure considerably below^ the average ^Elgin price, 
we find that the value of such an increase to the dairy industry 
of the state would be about six million dollars per year. 

Before mentioning the results obtained in the investigation of 
methods of milking at our Station, to which I referred, I will 
give a brief description of the various steps of the Hegehmd or 
so-called Manipulation Method of Milking. The object in view 
by this method is to obtain all the last traces of milk elaborated 
in the udder of the cow at the time of milking. Every dairy- 
man understands the importance of milking cows clean, and 

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^ r 

Fig. 16a.— First manipulation of udder, ri ght quarters. Fig. 16b.— First manipulation, left quarters* 



Fig. 17a.— Second manipulation, right fore quarter. 


Fig. 17b.— Second manipulation, hind quarters. 

Fig. 18.— Third manipulation. 

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Wisconsin AgHcultural Experiment Association. 119 

knows that unless the milking is done thoroughly, the flow of 
milk will not only be diminished for each milking but the lacta- 
tion period of the cow will be shortened through this practice. 
This is the way in which cows of marked dairy tendencies have 
to be dried off,- by leaving some of the milk in the udder every 
time they are milked. Dr. Ilegelund has interested himself in 
this subject of milking for years back and worked out a method 
of milking by certain manipulations of the udder after the milk- 
ing by the regular method has been finished, which in many 
cases brought down considerable quantities of milk where a cow 
was believed to have been milked perfectly clean. In many 
cases the increase in the production of butter fat by the cows ob- 
tained by the manipulation method over a^d above the ordinary 
method of milking amounted to more than ten per cent, of the 
total production of butter fat. 

The following description of the manipulation method of 

milking, with the accompaning illustrations (fig. ), will 

give a fairly clear idea of the manner of procedure. It may 
seem complicated at first. It is often the case that it takes 
longer to tell how to do a thing than to do it. If some practice 
has been obtained in working the method it will be found to be 
a very simple thing after all. 


The milking is done with dry hands and with the whole hand ; 
after the milk flows readily, the milking is proceeded with as 
rapidly as possible and without interruption, until full streams 
of milk are no longer obtained. At this point tie milker begins 
with the manipulations of the udder, which are three in number 
and may be described as follows : 

First Mamipvlaiion, — The right quarters of the udder are 
pressed against each other (if the udder is very large, only one 
quarter at a time is taken), with the left hand on the hind quar- 
ter and the right hand in front of the fore quarter, the thumbs 
being placed on the outside of the udder and the four fingers in 
the division between the two halves of the udder. The hands 
are now pressed toward each other and at the same time lifted 
toward the body of the cow. This pressing and lifting is re- 
peated three times, the milk collected in the milk cistern is then 
mxtked out, and the manipulation repeated until no more milk 

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120 Second Annual Report of the 

is obtained in this way, when the left quarters are treated in 
the same manner. (See Fig. — , a and b.) 

Second Mwnipulation, — The glands are pressed together from 
the side. The fore (juartiTs are milked each by itself by plac 
ing one hand, with fingers spread, on the outside of the quarter 
and the other hand in the division between the right and left 
fore quarters; tlie hands are pressed against each other and the 
teat then milked. When no more milk is obtained by this nia- 
r.ipulation, the hind quartei's are milked by plaeing a hand on 
the outside of ea^'h quarts r, likewise with fingers spread and 
turned upward, but with tlie thumb just in front of ^e hind 
quarter. Tlie hands are lifted and grasp into the gland from 
behind and fromi the side, after which they are lowered to draw 
the milk. The manii>ulation is ro|ieated until no miore niilk is 
obtained. (See Fig. — , a and b.) 

Third Manipulation, — The fore teats are grasped with partly 
closed hands and lifted with a push toward the body of the oow. 
both at the same time, by which method the glands are pressed 
between the hands and the body ; the milk is drawn after each 
three pushes. When the fore teats are emptied, the hind teats 
are milked in the same manner. ( See Fig. — . ) 

In looking into the merits of this metliod of milking with oows 
in our University herd and elsewhere, we found that the claims 
made for the metliod by persons who had previously investi- 
gated it, were in the main correct. In order to test the value of 
the method I conducted three different experiments with cow^s 
in our herd during the summer of 1902, and the trials were later 
extended to twelve different Wisconsin dairy herds. Tliese 
herds include cows of various breeds, Ilolstein, Guernsey^ Jer- 
sey, Red Polled, as well as grades and native cows, and were 
kept under widely differing conditions as to housing, manage- 
ment, and system of feeding. The aim was in- all cases to 
ascertain the gain in the production of milk and butter fat ob- 
tained by the manipulations of the udder, accx>rding to Hege- 
lund's method, after the regular milking was finished; where 
the regular milker diid not milk clean, the gain obtained by clean 
milking and by manipulation of the udder was ascertained 
The plan of the experiments was therefore such as to show the 
character of the work done by the different milkers. The main 
results of the investigation are briefly stated in the following 
summary : 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 121 

1. In our University herd the average daily production of 
milk from twenty-four cows was increased by 4.5 per cent, by 
means of the manipulation method, and the production of fat 
was increased by 9.2 per cent, (range, 3.0-30.2 per cent, for 
individual cows), as the result of milking experiments con- 
tinued for four weeks ; the average gain in milk per cow and per 
day being one pound, and in fat, . 09 of a pound. 

2. A similar average increase in production was obtained for 
ihe tAvelve dairy herds tested, viz., a gain of 1.08 pounds :n the 
daily production of milk per cow, and of .1 pound of fat The 
results obtained in this investigation, extending over a period of 
four months, with cows in all stages of lactation, indicate that 
this gain is maintained through the whole period of lactation. 

3. The largest amount of milk obtained from a cow by the 
manipulation method, after the regular milking was done, was 
5.5 pounds pe^ ^^J? ^^^ the lowest .20 pound. The corre- 
sponding figures for fat prcdiiction was .64 and .02 of a pound. 
The former figure is considerably above the average total daily 
production of cows in this or other states. 

4. The greater portions of the gains obtained came through 
lack (f care on the part of the regular milker as the cows were 
not milked perfectly clean. But even in herds where the milk- 
ers did their work well, there were always one or more cows that 
gave an increase of nearly a p:;und of nuilk and one tenth of a 
pound of butter fat per day by the manipulation method. 

5. The difference in the work done by different milkers is 
brought out strongly by the results of the investigation. In 
several cases one milker did his w^ork so much better than the 
others in the same herd as to be worth nearly $10.00 a month 
more to the owner, on account of the larger yields of milk and 
fat which he obtained from the cows milked by him. 

6. The milk obtained by the manipulation method is similar 
in composition to that of ''strippings;" on the average for all 
herds it contained 10.32 per cent, fat and was found to be about 
two and one half timcy richer than the ordinary milk. The 
highest per cent, of fat found in the after-milking from any 
cow was 23.0 |3<er cent, and from a single herd, 14.41 per cent. 

7. The results obtained in this investigation suggests that a 
thorough system of milking is a foundation requirement in suc- 
cessful dairying. For, aside from directly increasing the pro- 
duction of milk and fat from the cows, exhaustive milking will 

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122 Second Annual Report of the 

be likely lo maintain a maximum flow of milk throughout the 
lactation period and to permanently develop the dairy qualities 
of both the dam and her offspring. 

A full discussion of the Hegelund method of milking will be 
found in Bulletin No. 96 of the Wisconsin Experiment Station 
(Investigations of Methods of Milkinsj, Sept., 1902, 79 pages), 
and also in Bulletin No. 113 of the Pennsylvania Department 
of Aqrieulture (Methods f f Milking, with Special Reference to 
the Manipulation Method, 1903, 96 pages). I would refer 
those of you who are intercHS-ted in this subject to these publica- 
tions for details as to the work done in carrying out these inves- 
tigations as well as similar work done elsewhere. There can 
be no question as to the general immediate effect of this manipu- 
lation method of milking on the milk yield. Whether a con- 
tinued favorable effect can be oblained through the exercise of 
a reasonable amount of care can only be settled by trials cov- 
ering several lactation periods and with a large number of 
animals. On theoretical grounds we have, however, every 
reason to believe that a careful system of milking is a potent 
factor in the development of the dairy qualities of cows. 

As an illustration of the importance of careful milking and 
as object lessons in this direction, I think you will find it both 
a most interesting and profitable line of experimentation to 
study up and try this new method of milking with your cows ; 
you will be able to tell with certainty by this method whether 
the milking is done as it should be by yourself as well as by 
others who have charge of the milking in your dairy herd 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 123 



The state of Wiseonsin has a greater variety of soils than any 
other/ slate of the northern Mississippi valley and' there is much 
still to learn before we qan get them to produce the maximum 
crops of which they are capable. Since it is necessary in study- 
ing the various soils to carry on experiments in different parts 
of the state where they occur it will be readily seen that the 
TTiCiTnibers of tlie experiment association can be of great aid in 
this work. Among the lines of experiment and observation 
which are of great importance and promise are the following: 
(1) the application of potash fertilizer to the marsh soils; (2) 
the cultivation of the soil to conserve moisture; (3) the meth- 
ods of increasing the humus in the very sandy soils; (4) the 
use of lime on the soils in the southwestern part of the state * 
particularly when seeding to clover and (5) the relation be-, 
tween the protein content of fodder crops and the fertility of 
the soil on which they are groAvn. 


Experiments have been made in this and adjoining states 
which show that many crops growing on this soil are greatly 
benefitted by potash in moderate amounts. At the University 
farm the yield of corn has been from two lo four and a half 
times greater where treated than where untreated. 

During the season of 1902 ^\r, T. A. Strande of Taylor 
carried on an experiment X)n the influence of potash on this 
soil growing timothy and reports that the yield was three times 
as large where treated. 

Mr. A. P. Lalk of Koshkonong in an experiment made in 
1901 found that the yield of oats was increased two and a half 
times. In this case the fertilizer Avas applied broadcast May 
22, after the oats were well up but were light and yellow. This 
year experiments will be carried on in several different parts 
of the state on a larger scale with the hope of determining (1) 
the best form of potash fertilizer to use (2) the best means of 
applying it to the different crops and (3) the smallest amount 
needed to produce satisfactory results. 

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124 Second Annual Report of (he 



Fioii eriisi(le:atir<:is c-f ih'^ (;*n cf si Is in the southwest- 
ern part pf the state including Grant, Tcwa, La Fayette, Green 
and the westejn part of Reek and Dane counties, it is qnite 
probable that the use of lime will be fc.und helpful partioularly 
in the growth of legumes. This will be especially true on hill- 
tops and high lands generally. 

A moderate application w(,uld be 1,000 to 1,500 pounds of 
slacked lime per acre. 


During the season cf 1902 it was found that there was qniie 

a variation in the j^er cent, of protein in such crops as corn, 

oats and rape due to the fertility of the soil. These results are 

'given in the annual report of the Experiment Station for 1902. 

It is desirable that this matter be studied on the different 
soils of the state. In this work members of the association can 
be of great help by cooperating w^th the Experiment Station. 
Sampler cf fodders fi-oiii: the same variety of seed, grown on 
different soils and sent to the Experiment Station will be ana- 
lyzed and the results published in the report. 


It is desirable that during dry seasons members of the asso- 
ciation make observations as to the influence of cultivation to 
develop a mulch on the growth of such crops as corn and }X>ta- 
toes. This can be done by allowing a few rows to remain un- 
cultivated especially after light showers have made a crust. 
The difference may not be large but it is desirable that the crop 
le harvretcd separately and weighed or measurd to eoiftpare 
wath the cultivated rows adjoining. Often a profitable differ- 
ence will bd found in tliis way where no difference is apparent 
to the eye. 

The writer wull be glad to communicate with members of the 
asscciation on any of the above mentioned subjects. 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association, 125 


To encourage the growing of pure bred cereals and forage 
plants the Wisconsin Experiment Association deems it advisable 
to offer premiums for those grains and forage plants placed on 
exhibition during the next annual meeting of the association, 
February, 1905, that show the highest degree of merit. The 
desire of the association will be to have everj^ memb-er who 
carries on experiments with grain or forage plants during the 
season to make an exhibit and assist in every way in making 
a display worthy of tlie association. We feel that much can he 
done in the way of encouraging the dissemination of good seed 
that has been grown in our own state. 

As soon as the Experiment Association demonstrates to the 
seedsmen and farmers of Wisconsin that good seed can be grown 
within our borders which is acclimated to cur home conditions, 
it will net be necessary for them to place their orders with 
growers from other states. The seedsmen of our state and of 
adjoining states will be only too pleased to assist in the dis- 
semination of home grown seeds if they can be shown that the 
quality is equally as good or better than they can get else- 
where. It seems that if notified that a display will be made 
that many of them will be willing to haVe a representative on 
hand at the association meeting to note the character of seed 
grain displayed. Realizing the great improvement that can be 
made in the growing of farm crops we trust that every member 
of the association will do all in his power to assist in every pos- 
sible manner the production of choice grain and forage plants 
for Wisconsin. 

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126 Second Annual Report of the 



Class 1. Oais, 

Best % peck Swedish Select oats (Wis. ISTo. 4) $3.00; 2nd, 

$2.00 ; 3rd, $1.00 ; 4th, 50 cents. 
Best 1/2 peck any other variety, $3.00; 2nd, $2.00; 3rd, $1.00; 

4th, 50 cents. 

Class 2. Oais in Sheaf, 

Best bundle Swedish Select oats, $3.00 ; 2nd, $2.00 ; 3rd, $1.00 ; 

4th, '50 cents. 
Best bundle any other variety, $3.00 ; 2nd, $2.00 ; 3rd, "$1.00 ; 

fourth, 50 cents. 

Class 3, Barley, 

Best 1/2 P^k Manshury Barley, $3.00 ; 2nd, $2.00 ; 3rd, $1.00 ; 

4th, 50 cents. 
Best 1/2 peck any other variety, $3.00 ; 2nd, $2.00 ; 3rd, $1.00 ; 
. 4th, 50 cents. 

Class If.. Barley in Sheaf. 

Best bundle of Manshury Barley, $3.00 ; 2nd, $2.00 ; 3rd, $1.00 ; 

4th, 50 cents. 
B^st bundle of any other variety, $3.00 ; 2nd, $2.00 ; 3rd, $1.00 ; 

4th, 50 cents. 

Class 5. Com', 

Best ten ears, Reids Yellow Dent, $3.00 ; 2nd, $2 ; 3rd, $1.00 ; 

4th, 50 cents. 
Best ten ears, Learning Yellow Pent, $3.00 ; 2nd, $2.00 ; 3rd. 

$1.00 ; 4th, 50 cents. 
Best, ten ears, Clark's Yellow I>nt, $3.00; 2nd, $2.00; 3rd, 

$1.00 ; 4th, 50 cents. 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 127 

Best ten ears, Iowa Silver Kdng, $3.00 ; 2nd, $2.00; 3rd, $1.00 ; 

4th, 60 cents. 
Best ten ears, any other variety, $3.00 ; 2nd, $2.00 ; 3rd, $1.00 ; 

4th, 50 cents. 

Class 6. Clover Seed, 

Best 1/2 peck of medium red clover seed, $3.00; 2nd, $2.00; 

3rd, $1.00. 
Best 1/^ peck of mammoth red clover seed, $3.00 ; 2nd, $2.00 ; 

3rd, $1.00. 
Best 1/2 peck. of alsike clover seed, $3.00; 2nd, $2.00; 3rd, 

Best 1/2 peck of alfalfa seed, $3.00 ; 2nd, $2.00 ; 3rd, $1.00. 

Class 7. Soy Beans, 
Best 1/2 F^ck soy beans, $3.00 ; 2nd, $2.00 ; 3rd, $1.00. 

Class 8, Soy Beans in Sheaf. 
Best bundle of soy beans, $3.00 ; 2nd, $2.00 ; 3rd, $1.00. 

Class 9, Alfalfa Hay, 
Best sample of alfalfa hay, $3.00 ; 2nd, $2.00 ; 3rd, $1.00. 


1. The exhibitor must be a member of the Wisconsin Ebqperi- 

ment Association. 

2. Grain or forag'e plants must have been ^own the season 

previous to exhibition, by the exhibitor. 

3. No fees will be charged for exhibiting' in any classes. 

4. The samples of grain and forage plants exhibited are to be 

retained by the E!xperiment Association unless a special 
permit is given to the exhibitor to take his sample away. 

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128 Second Annual Report of the 

5. Exhibits are to be Iwought in by members of the association. 

If sent by express or freight all carrying charges should 
be prepaid. 

6. Varieties of grain or forage plants not specifically named 

in the list can compete as "any other variety" in which 
case these different varieties compete against each other 
and not as an individual class. 

7. Exhibitors cannot compete for two premiums on the same 

variety of grain and forage plants. 

8. A proper entry of all grains, seeds, etc., must be made in 

the entry bcok at the Secretary's office before placed on 
exhibition tables. 
0. Expert judges will be secured to place the awards. 
10. The meeting of the association will be held at Madison in 
AgTicultural Hall and rooms secured in that building 
for the exhibits. 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 129 

Business meeting of the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment 
Association, Thursday, February 4th, 1904, 8:30 A. M., As- 
sembly Chamber. 

Called to order by the vice president, J. P. Bonzelet. The 
minutes of the last meeting were read and adopted, after which 
the following officers were elected : 

President — ^A. L. Stone, Madison. 

Vice-Presidenl^-L. M. Hatch, Oakfield. 

Secretary — ^R. A. Moore, Madison. 

Treasurer — P. A. Dnkleth, R. D. 40, Mukwonago. 

Resolutions : — The following resolutions were reported by the 
committee, and unanimously adopted: 
Resolution No. 1: 

Whereas^ The people of the TTnited States are greatly incon- 
venienced by the necessity of transporting parcels by express or 
freight which might easily be carried by mail at lower rates. 

Be it resolved. That the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment 
Association in convention assembled strongly favors the enact- 
ment by Congress of a law to establish a Parcel Post delivery, 
and heartily endorses the efforts now being made to secure the 
enactment of such a law, and 

Be it further resolved. That each member of our association 
urge it upon his TJ. S. Senator and Representative in Congress 
to support sucli legislation. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be entered in the records of 
this meeting and that copies be sent to the Agricultural Press. 
Resolution No. 2: 

Whereas^ The State Agricultural Elxperiment Stations have 
become of inestimable value to the agricultural interests of the 
nation, and 

Whereas^ There has been introduced in Congress a bill, 
known as bill ISTo. 8678, increasing the appropriations to the 
Agricultural Experiment Stations, 

Resolved, That we heartily approve of the purpose and scope 
of this bill, as vitally effecting the farming interests of Wis- 


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130 Second Annual Report of the 

Be it further resolved. That the oapiee of these resolutions be 
forwarded to the PreBident of the Senate^ the Speaker of the 
House of BepresentativeSy and to each Wisconsin delegate in 
Eesolntion No. 3 : 

Whereas^ There is no one thing that so effects the well being, 
comfort and prosperity of the farmer as good roads, 

Be it resolved. That the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment 
Association heartily approves of the efforts being put forth by 
the National Good Roads Congress to secure better roads. 

Resolved, That the members of this association pledge them- 
selves to aid, in every possible way, the good roads movement. 

Committee on resolutions : — ^A. L. Stone, L. M. Hatch, E. A. 

The membership committee recommended that honorary mem- 
bership be conferred upon Hon. L. A. Karel, Kewaunee; Wm. 
Toole, Baraboo; A. J. Phillips, West Salem; W. L. Ames, 
Oregon ; Mary Whitmore, Janesville, and Katherine Eenk, Sun 
Prairie, which was unanimously adopted. 

It was moved and carried that Miss Idalyn Bibbs, Madison, 
be appointed clerk and stenographer and be paid $5.00 per 
month for such services. 

The advantages of the Association uniting with the IT. S. 
Plant and Animal Breeders' Association was discussed and on 
motion was left to the officers to take such actiooi as in their 
judgment was deemed most advisable. 

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 131 


E. A. Moore, Secretary of the Afisociation, made the follow- 
ing financial report which was duly adopted. 

May 5. State appropriation by Chap. 157, Laws of 

1903 $1,000 00 


Oct 29. To Democrat Co., for binding reports $120 00 

Nov. 6. To 2,500 2c stamps, 2,500 Ic stamps, 2,500 

Postal cards 100 00 

Nov. 15. To Fairbanks, Morse & C>., Chicago, 

scales and scoop ... .< 12 75 

Dec. 2. To Democrat Prtg. Co., for letter heads and 

envelopes 10 50 

Dec. 5. To J. D. Clark, Whitewater, 16 bu. seed 

com, $2.50 per bu. , , 40 00 

Dec. 22. To Will Banks, Burt, Iowa, 231/2 bu. com. . 58 75 

To C. & N. W., freight on com ,... 6 00 


Jan. 18. To E. A. Moore for traveling expenses 19 62 

Jan. 25. To Democrat Co., for Envelopes $6.60, L. en- 
velopes $1.75, programs $6.25 14 50 

Jan. 29. To services rendered by Miss Bibbs 5 00 

Jan. 30. To L. L. Olds, Eape 38.00, Am. alfalfa 
^ $154.00, Turkestan alfalfa $153.80, sacks 

$2.38 348 18 

Jan. 30. To M'l. Bag Co., for bags, printing and 

freight ,. 26 80 

Jan. 30. To freight on alfalfa and rape seed, C. N. W. 6 68 

$768 28 

Feb. 4, 1904. Total receipts in state treasury $1,000 00 

Total disbursements from state treasury . . 768 28 

Balance in state treasury $231 72 

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132 Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association, 


H. J. Renk, treasurer of the association, made the following 
report which was duly accepted. 

Report as rendered by H. J. Renk, February 4th, 1904. 


Feb. 6. From J. G. Milward, former treasurer. . . . $79 11 

Mch. 9. From Secretary as membership fees 22 00 

April From Secretary as membership fees 34 75 

May 21. From Secretary as membership fees 11 80 

Feb. to Aug. 3. From members as fees 4 50 

$152 16 


Feb. 20. To Jno. HefFron for Badges $9 95 

Feb. 20. To Postage 1 64 

Feb. 21. To Groves Barnes Music Cb., for organ .... 1 50 

Feb. 21. To 2 order books 1 75 

April 7. To Postage 10 00 

May 25. To Postage 27 32 

May 25. To Democrat Printing Co. for Report 98 00 

$150 16 

Feb. 4, 1903. Total Receipts $152 16 

Total Disbursements 150 16 

Balance on hand $2 00 

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This book may be kept 


A fine of TWO CENTS will be charged 
for each day the book is kept overtime. 






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