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Full text of "The Annual review and history of literature"

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iu- 










[ 



THfi 



ANNUAL REVIEW, 



ANfi 



HISTORY OF UTERATUREi 



»OE 



1805. 



ARTHUR AIKIN, EDITOR. 
VOL. IV. 

t 

amssssssi I' I ik I.- 



LONDON: 

^SdKTSO FO^ LOKOMAN, HURST, R££$, A2a> ORM^p 

PATERNOSTER-ROW. 



im. 






V* 







f 
( iii ) 



TABLE OF CONTENTS, 

With the Prices of the various Works, in Boards unless otherwise 
expressed, and the Publishers' Names, 



CHAPTEJl h-r^oyages and Travels, 



Page 



x. lurnDuii s > oyage round the World, 3 vols. l52mo. 13s. Od. rhilliiw 

3. M«vor*s Aecbunt of Oiptain Cook's Voj-ages, 2 vols^ Iftnio. 8s. Harris 

4. Popham's Description of Prince of Wales island, 8vo. 2s. tki. Slotkdai 

5. Lwth's A^-'count of ditto, Svo. 2s. 6d. Booth — ^^ 



1. Bnne's Travcls;^ew Edition, 7 vols. 8vo. with a VoUune of Plates, in 4to- 41. 16s. 

and Royal, 71. Longman and Co. — — — — 9 

2. Tumbuirs'Voyage round the World, 3 vols. i52mo. 13s. 6d. Philliiw — — 16 
" *' ' • • J.Harris — 24 

Stotkdale — i.'5 
T- . — ibid 

6. Lindley's Voyage to Brasil, 8vo. 6s. Johnson — — — 1,'7 

7. Beftvex's African Memoranda, 4to. 1*. Ms. 66. Cadell — — 32 
. S. Description of 8t. Helena, 12mo. 6s. Phillips t- ~ — 38 

0. Kotzebue*s Travels through Italy, 4 vols. 12uio. 20s. Phillips — ^43 

10. Present State of Peru, 4to. 21. ifs. Bhilfips — — ' — 49 

11. Tour in Zealand, 8 ve. 5s. White — — ^ — — 60 

12. M'^'aUum's Travels in Trinidad, 8vp. 10s. 6d. Croste,^ — — 63 
i3. Griffith's Traveb,4to. 11. lis. 6d. Cadell —' — —.67 
J 4. Davte*s Letters from Paraguay, 8vo. 5s. Bobinson — — — 77 
15. Parkinson's Tour in America, 2 vols. 8 vo. 15s. Harding — — 82 
\6. Collection of Modem \'oyaj5es, &c. Vol. I. 158. Phillips — . — 85 
J7. Michaux'sTravels in America, 8vo. 7s. Mawnian — — — 91 

15. Beckford's Letters iirom Italy, 2 vols. &vo. 18s. Cadell — -^ 99 
Id. Ckarice^s Naufragia, l2mo. tis. 6d. Mawman — — — ibid 

20. Carres Northern Summer, 4to. 21. 2s. Phillips — — — 100 

21. Boukon's Sketch of Upper Canada, 4to. 7s. Norftavilte and Fell -^ — lOS) 

22. Sketch of the present Sute of France, 8vo. 3s. 6d. Phillips — — 1 12 

CHAPT£R IL^Tkeoiogy and Ecckmstical Affairs. 

1. HolnMs, Vetus Testamentum Grvcum, folio, Payne — — — 119 

2. Stock's Book of Job, 4to. ll. Is. Wilkic and Co. — — 128 

3. Winstanlcy's Vindication of the New Testament, 12n]o. 3s. Longman and Co. — 134 

4. Nisbett on the New Testament, 8vo. 6s. Rivington — — — 135 

5. lacbbald on the Fall of Man, 8vo. Johnson — — r- ibid 
t>. Trinuner's Help to the Unlearned, 8vo. 12s. Hatchard — <— 13() 

7. Parker's Old Testament illustrated, 12mo. 3s. 6d. Vidler — — 138 

8. Sharp's Enquiry concerning Babylon, 12uio. 3s. 6d. Kivingtons ^- — ibid 
9- Watson's Popular Evidences, 8vo. 10s. 6d. lx)ngman and Co. — — ibid 

JO. N are's View of the Prophecies, 9vo. 7s. 6d. Rivin^tons — — 141 

it. Robinson's Christian System, 3 vols. 8vo. 11. 4s. ditto — — 144 

12. Smith's Letters to Bclsham, 8vo. 3s. Johnson — — — 149 

13. Bekham's Reply to Siiuth, 8vo. 3s. ditto ^ — — ibid 

14. New Way of deciding old Controversies, 8vo. 4s. ditto — — ibid 
J5. Wright's Anti-iatisfactionist, 9vo. VicUej — -- — 151 

16. Moncrief Wellwood'.s Sermons, 8vo. 8s. 6d. Longman and Co. — — 153 

17. Cappe's Discourses, 8vo. lOs. 6d. Johnson — — — 157 
l.S. Kcnrick's ditto, 2 vols. 8vo. lOs. ditto — — — — 161 

19. Townsend's S(»rmon?i, 8vo. 8s. Mawman — . — — 164 

20. Gilpin's diUo, Vol. IV. 8vo. 7s. Cadt'll — — .^ 166 
i:i. Napleton's, ditto. Vol. II. 7s. 6d. S4el — — — 16S 
V^ Morton's ditto, \'ol. II, 7s. 6d. Mawman — — . . — 169 
x'J. Munkhouse> Discourses, 3 voU. 8vo. ll. 4s, Longman and Co. — — 170 



fy CONTENTS. 

Page 

24. Partridge's Sermons, from Ihe French, 8vo. 7s. Kivin^tons — **" .^^i 

25. Twelve Senuonson Important Subjects, 8vo. 6s. Cadeil and Davies — ibid 

26. Adam's ditto on the Dutv, &c. 8vo. 7s. 6d. Longman and Co, — IJ2 

27. Dore's Three Sermons, cVit^ 8 vo. 3s. Button — — ib|d 

28. Drummond's Two Discourses, 8vo. Is. 6d. Johnson — — ibjd 

29. Headlam's Sermon at Richmond, 4to. Is. 6d. RiviBgions — — 173 

30. Phillpott's ditto at Oxford, 4to. is. 6d. ditto — • — 'hid 

31. Gardiner's ditto on Dr. Maclaine, 8vo. iiatchard — — ihid 

32. Mosele/s ditto, 12mo. Is. Williams , • — " — "^ ijj 

33. Hall's'Sermoa before the House of Commons, 4lo. — — wjd 

34. Poulter's Fast Sermon, 8vo. White .-.—.- ibid 

35. Madan's ditto, 8vo. Is. Rivingtons — . — — ;hja 

36. Dore's Sermon on the floiy Spirit, 8vo. — — ihul 

37. Belsham's ditto on the Pros;ress of Error, avo. Is. Johnson — 175 

38. A Sermon on Baptismal Faith, 4to. _ — — ibid 

39. Butler's Sermon at Shrewsbury 12mo. Is. Longman *— — ibid 

40. Prosser's ditto at Lambeth, 4to. Is. 6d. Rivingtons • — -—176 

41. Baseley's Oration on the Duke of Gloster, 4to. Sael — — ibid 

42. Bulmer's Sermon, ^vo. Is. Rivingtons -^ -^ -*. ibid 

43. Hawtrey's Guide to Heaven, crown 8vo. 4s. ditto — ibid 

44. Oakley s Holy Family, 8vo. 4s. ditto ^ . — . ibi4 

45. Felloweson Death, 12mo. 3s. Mawman — — — 177 

46. Leighton's Works, 8vo. Vols. 1, 2, and 3, 7s. each, Baynes — — ibid 

47. ViUiers on Luther's Reformation, by Mills, 8vo. 9s. Baldwin ^ — ibid 

48. Ditto by I^mbert, 8vo. 8s. Jones — — — ibid 

49. Laurence's Eight Sermons, 8 vo. 8s. Rivingtoi% . — — 187 

50. Examination of Daubeny, 8vo. 8s. — — — 191 
31. Overton's Four LettcKJ, 8 vo. 35. Rivingtons — -* ibid 

52. Rathbone's Memoir of the Quakers, 8vo. 2i. 6d. Fhillips — 19« 

53. Bevan's Defence of FrieiKis, 8vo. 5s. 6d. ditto — — 193 

54. M'Rae's View of the Church, I2mo. 3s, I>ongman and Co. — — ib. 

55. Report of the Bible Society, Pai'tL Is. Hatcliard — — ib. 

56. Lavater's Letters of St, Paul, 8vo. 58. Johnson — 105 

57. Peace on Earth, &c. 8vo. 9». ditto — —- tt>^ 

58. Thoughts on tlie Creation, 8vo. 38. fid. Hatchard — — 197 

59. The Christian Minor, l2mo. 5s, Williams — — I9S 

60. Adams's View of Religion, 12mo. Gs. Button — ♦ — ib. 

CHAPTER WL.'^Hiftory, Politics, and Statistics. 

1. Wilson's History of Eg}'pt, 3 vols. 8vo. II. 4«?. Longman and Co. — 202 

2. Belsliam's History of Great Britain, 12 vols. 8vo. 51. 5s. Phillips — 206 

3. Orme's Historical Fragments pf -the Mogul Empire, 4to. ]1. 8s. Wiitgrave — 212 

4. Rainsford's Account of the Black Empire of Hayti, 4to. 21. 2s. Cundee — 219 

5. Sir J. Sinckwi-'s History of the public Revenue of the British Empire, 2 vols. 9vo. 

18s. Cadeil — .« — 228 

6. Adaro5^s Roman History, I2mo. 4s. I^ngman — — 232 

7. The Earl of Selkirk's pi-esent State of the Highlands of Scotland, 8vo. 6s. ditto fb. 

8. Wy vill's Political Papers, vok 5. 8vo. 78. Johnson — — 235 

9. Reasons why the Society of Friends should not vote for Members of Parliament 243 

10. An Attempt to rectify the public Atfaim of the £jnpfre, &c. -*- 244 

1 1. M'DtannKl's Enquiry into the System of national Defence in Great Britain, 2 vels. 

8vo. U. Is. Bafdwin — — — 247 

12. Poole's Reply to Gardiner's Answer to a Narrative, &c. — — 2jl 

13. Intercept ea Letters — •— — ib. 

14. Sir James Stcuart's Works, 6 vols. 8 vo. 21. 2s. Cadeil — — 232 

15. The Policy and Interest of Great Britain with Respect to Malta considered — 257 

16. Thoughts on the Protestant Ascewkncy in Ireland — — 258 

17. Lemesurier's Examination of the Roman Catholic Claims. Stockdale — 260 

18. Melancthoii's Letter to Dr. Troy. Booker — — 261 

19. Cockburn's Dissertation on Civilization in India, 4to. Cadeil — 264 

20. Asiatic Annwal Register for 1802, 1803. 8vo. 13s. each, ditto — 265 

21. A Conclsi* Account of the Commerce and Navigation of the Black Sea, 8 vo. 

Is. 6d. Harding — — 256 

22. Turner's History of the Anglo-Saxons, vol. 4. 8vo. lOs. 6d. Longman and Co. 268 
2i. Defence of Monopoly, 1 3. 6d. «?}monds — — 275 



CONTENTS. t 

Page 

14. Talleyrand on Commercial delations. Deboffe — — 276 

Ui. Lovd livetpooVs Treatise on Coins, 4to. ll. Is. Cadell — 278 

^, Captain Barber's intemal Defepce of Great Britain, 2s. 6d. Egertou — 280 

J7. llcilop*s Observations on tlie Duty on Properly — — ib. 

;». Brarbtock's Treatise upon Ty tlies, 3s. 6d. liatchard _ 28 1 

!?9. Thoughts on public Trusts, 12ino. 2$. 6d. I^n^man and Co. — ib. 

30. l^y&ir*$ Enqu'ury into the Causes of the Decline of poweriul and wealthy Na- 

tions 4to. IL lls-6d. Greenland and Norris — , — 286 

31. Speech of Deputy Birch against the Catholic Petition, K Richardson — 290 
3'i. Stewart's Suggestions for the Improvement of the Military Force, 8vo. Is. 6d. 

Egerton — — -r- 291 

33« (Mtterv'atioDs..and Hints lelative to the Volunteer Infantry, ditto — 2^ 

34. Trial for a Libel ui the Antijacobin Review, 8vo. Symonds — 293 

33. Lauderdale's Hints to the Manufacturers of Great Britain, 8vo. 2s. Longman — ib. 

36. Ir^'inc's Enquiry into the Causes of Emigratkin, 8vo. 3s. (kl. ditto — ' 294 

37. Lauderdale's Thoughts on Circulation, 8 vo. 38 ditto — — 295 
39. Lau)berf s Characteristic Anecdotes, 8vd. 58. Baklwia — — 296 

39. llalfs Efifects of Civilization, 8vo. 7s. Ostell — — 298 

40. HoMr's Observations on the Poor Laws, 8vo. Is. 6d. Hatchard — . 302 

41. .lii Essay on tlie Principle and Origin of Sovereign Power, 8vo. 7s. ditto — 304 

42. eddy's European Commerce, 4to. 21. 2s. Richardson — — 307 

43. Line's Method of keepiog Accounts with Bankers «n the Country and in 
LonUon,8vo. 10s. 6d. Longman and Co. — — 313 
" '- .--... — ib. 

— 313 

r reducing the Poor's Rate — — 315 

47. Cappe's Obiervations on Charity Schoals. 8vo. Johnson — — 317 

48. War in D'i^uise, 8vo. 5s. 6d. Hatchard — — 318 



xx>naon,9vo. ius. od. jjongman ana^o. — 

44. Hunter's Sketch of the political State of Europe, 4to. 12s. Budd 
4j. M'Keuna's 1 liouglits on the Catholic Cltrgy and People — 

4f). Bone's Outline of a Plan for reducing the Poor's Rate — 



CHAPTER TV.-^JncUnt Classics, Classical Antiquities, and Mythology. 

1. Orphka, cum Notts tl. Stepliani, &c. 8vo. Payne — — 2^2^ 

S. Walpok's Comicorum Gnecorum Fragmenta quxdam, Stro. 5s. Mawman — 3t2^ 

3. Walpole^s Specimens of Scarce IVanslat'ions, l2mo. 5s. Mawman -^ 329 

A Adam's Compendious Latin Dictionary, 8vo. 12s. bound. l.ongroan and Co — 33 1 

5. Neilson's Greek Exefcises, with Key, 8vo. 9s. bound, ditto — — 332 

6. Good's Translation of Lucretius, 2 vols, 4to. 41. 4s. ditto — ib. 

7. Jones's Greek Grammar, 12mo. 69. ditto — — 345 

8. Claik on ihic Tomb of Alexander, 4to. ll. Is. Mawman -^ -« 346 

9. J>«icri|^onofAatiiim, 4to. 11. Us. 6d. Longman and Co. — 353 
M. Vinceojt's Peripkis of the Erythraean Sea, 4to. part 2. ll. 6s. Cadell , «-- 359 

CHAPTER V.'-Afodern Languages. 

L Euay 00 Eogfish Accents and Prosody, 12mo. 4s. 6d. — — 370 



CBAFTER YL^British Ttpos;raphy and Antiquities, 



3U 



L Barry's History of the Orkney Islands, 4to. W, \ Is. 6d. Longman and Co. ^^ 
t. Britton's Architectural Antiquities, parts 1, 2, 3. 4to. lOs. 6d. each, and 1.5s. royal. 

Longman and Co. — — — 388 

1 Miner's History of Doncaster, 4to. ll. Is. and royal II. 1 Is. 6d. Miller — 392 
4 Nichols's History of Leicester, folio, vol. 3. part 2. 2i. 12s. 6d. NichoUf -^398 

5. Pohrhele's History of Devon, folio, 3 vols. 41. 48. Cadell — — 400 

^ Sir H. Englefield^i Walk through Southampton ^ &vo. 4s. 6<L JLongmau and Co. — ib. 

7. DoBcumbe's History of Hereford, 4to. vol. I. 31. 3$. ditto •-- ib. 

«. Jones's H&tory of Brecknock, 4ta vol. I. 21. 1 Ss. Booth — — 4C9 
9. BbmdielA History of Norfolk, vols. 1 . 2, 3. royal 8vo. I8s. each, a&d 4to. 21. 2s. 

Miner — — — 41« 

10. PohrtH^'s History of Cornwall, vol. 3. 4to. ll. l<i. Cadell — — ib. 

11. Hay's History of Chicheiter, 8vo. lOs. 6d. Longman and Co. — 41 7 

12. Gtttiiwwatei'a History of Bury^ Edmunds, 12mo. 7."?. ditto — — 421 
U. Hewlett's Views in Ltacoloshire, 4to. Si. 15s; 6d. MiUes — 4v2 
Ml Ooiton's Traveller's Guide, 2 vols. Igmp- IL 5s. Cuudee — — ib. 
il Mak3c4pi*s LondiQUm RdUvivuni, 4tp. vols. )2, 3. 4to. 3h I3d. 6d.LoDgmajiaQdCo. 4S3 



vi . CONTENTS. 

Page 

16. Rpautics of Engtend and Wales, 8vo. vol. 6. IL 3s. Longman and Co. <^ 425 

17. Whitaker's Catliedral of Cornwall, 2 toU. 4to. 21. 2s. Nicholls — — 428 

18. Maw mau^s Exciirstoiis to tlie Highlands, 8 vo. 93. Ma^^l1lan -^ — 438 

19. Beauties of Scotland, 8 vo. Vol. f 1 5s. VernorandCo. ^— — ib. 

20. Donovan's Excursion tlirough South Wales, 2 vols. 8vo. 21. 2s. <nd cold. 31. 10s* 

Rivingtons — — — 44t 

21. Select Views in Ix>ndon and its Environs, 4to. Vol. 2. 31.3s. ani royal 51. js^ 

' Vernor and Co. — — — . 444 

CHAPTER VlL^GeograpJiy. 

I. Aikin's Geographical Delineation; 2 vols, cr. 8vo. 12s. Johnson — — 446 

CHAPTER yill.—Biogr(q>kfj. 

' 1. Roscoe's Life of Leo Xth., 4 vols. 4to. ffl. 6s. -^ — 44§ 

i?. Maton*s Life of Liniianis, 4to. U. lis. dd. Mawinan — — 467 

3. Franklin's Memoirs of G. Thomas, 4to. 11. 5s. and 8vo. lOs. 6d. CadcU ~ 473 

4. Cayley's Life of Ralegh, 2 vols. 4lo. U. 158. and 8vo. 2 Is. Cadell — ' 477 
.5. Brief Account of Dr. Johnson, 1 2mo. 4b. 6d. Phillips — — 484 

6. Cooke's Memoirs of FooteJ 3 vols, l2mOp l3s. 6d. ditto — — ib. 

7. Memoirs of Marmontel, 4 vols. l2nio. ll. Is. Longman and Co. — — ib. 

8. Laycey's Life of Erasmus, 8vo. 8s. 6d. Cadell ' — ~ — 48S 

0. Thif?bault's Anecdotes of Frederick 11. 2 \t>ls. 8vo. l6s. Johnson — 48ft 

10. Stark's Biographia Scotira, ISmo. 5s. Murray — — — 495 

11. Female Revolirtionary Plutarch, 3 vols. 12mo. 11. Is. ditto — — Lb. 

12. Memoirs of Talleyrand, 2 vols. 12mo. 12s. <iitto — — 496 

13. Piikington's Dictionary of Painters, 4to. ll. I6s. Longman and Co. — 497 

14. CoU'ms's Memoirs of a Picture, 3 vols. 12mo. lOs. Beil — — 504 

15. Greiwell's Memoirs of Politianus, t\cc. 8vo. I2s. Catlell — — 50P 
1(5. Life of Professor Gcllert, 3 vols. 8 vo. 18s. Hatchard '— — 516 
17. Hartford's Co^^c^pondence, 3 vols. 12mo. ll. Is. Phillips — 517 
13. Granger's Letter^, by Mafcolm, 8vo. 10s. (>d. Longman and Co. — 523 
19. Memoirs of I^rrl Nelson, 8vo. 2s. 6d. Symonds — — 535 
!l^ Cnmberlahd's Meinoin;, 4to. 21. 2s. Lack'uigton — - — — jfe^ 

CHAPTER lX.-^Poctr7j, 

1. Ellin's Specimens of Metrical Romances, 3 vols. Svo. ll. 7s. Longmm and C«. — 53^ 
C. Spenser's Works, by Todd, 8 vols. 8vo. 41. 4g. Rivington — — 544 

3. Montgomer/s Poems l2mo. 4s. Longman — — — 555 

4. Herbert's Icelandic Poetry, cr. 8vo. 12s. Longman and Co. — — 558 

5. Beresford's Song of the Sun, 8v6. 2s. 6d. Johnson — — 563 

6. RicIiardsoiiN Poems, 2 vols. 12mo. 12s. Longman and Ca. — -— 56S 
. 7. Bayrteld'i Poems, 12mo. 7s. Lindsetl — — — ib. 

8. Valle Cnicis Abbey, l2mo. 5s. ditto — -r- ib, 

9. Clarke's Uustioi I'Jjno. 3s. 6d. Ostell — — -. ib. 

10. Maxey's Kuth andTobit, from Florian, 12mo. 5s. Boosey — — 566 

11. Magnall's Half an Hour's lounge, 12mo. 3s. 6d. Longman — — ib. 

12. Boun4e[i*s Fatal Curiosit\-, 12:no. 4s. 6d. ditto — ' — ib. 

13. Battle of Largs, 12iuo. 3s. — — — ib. 
1 4- Bowles's Spirit of Discover)-, l2rao. 9s. Cadell — — 56S 

-15. Works of the Author of Epistle to Sir W. Chamba^ 12mo. 4s. PiiiUips — ^73 

J 6. London Cries, 8vo. 4s. Murray — • — -*- ib. 

i7. I lay ley's Ballads, foolscap, 6s. Phillips — — 575 

13. liopp»er's(>cientidTales,8vo. 7s. mtchard — — SM 

J 9. Epistle to James Barry, Esq. 8 vo — — •-. 57g 

-CO. Soulhev's Metrical Tales, 12mo. 5s. 6d. Longman — -^ 579 

^\. Boyd's'Penanceof Hugo, 12mo. 5s. ditto — — — 581 

€2. Graham's Sabbath, 12mo. 5s. ditto — — — 58€ 

423; Mifai's Simple Poems, 8 vo. 5s. ditto — -^591 

£4. Steuart's Pleasures of Love, f. c. 6s. Mawman — -i«- ib» 

US. Fitzwilliam'* do. f. c. 6s. Cunde^ — — — ib. 

C6. Courtier's Poems, vol. 2. 6s. Rivtngtons v — — 59* 

27. Shee's Rhymes on Art, l2rao. 7s. Harding -^ -— 592 

e8» Whitchurch's UispanioUy l2mo« 3*. Od, Longman and C(h ^ 59€r < 



contents: Tit 

CQ, The Anti-Corsican, 4to, 5s. Law — — •-, — . ^tjr 

30. Grant's Prtee Poem, 4to. 3s. 6d Cadell and Davies — . — 59« 

31. Coxe's MiScelbncous Poetry, 8vo. 88. W hitu — ~- — ibid 

32. Bond's Woodman's Tale, 8vo. I0s.€cl. lowigiwan artd Co. * — — (»0D 

33. West's Poems «nd Plavs, Vols. 3 and 4, foolscap 8vo. V2s. ditto — €02 

34. Southe/s Madoc, 4to'. HI 2s, ditto — — ^ t)04 

35. Smilii's &jglish Lyricf, Part 2, 8vo. 5s, Cadcjl and Davies — — 6lS 
3<i Tcniplt!'* Poeijis IL'mo. 5s. Phillips — — "^ $*^ 
37. Icing's Ossikn's Poems, 2 Vols. 8vo. ll. lOi Longman and Co. — — ioid 
3d. Macdonald'sAiiHwer io dtto, 6vo. 7s. Cadell and Davies — — 620 
39. Rosa Matilda's Hours of Solitude, 2 Vols. postSvo.' i4s. Highley — ibid 
4a The Chaplet, 12mo. 38. Longman and Co. — " — 021 

41. Gibson's Elidure and Ella, 8vo* — -. ._ ^ ibid 

42. Dovonian's Poems to 'I'hespia, 8vo. 4s. Cadell and Davies — — ibid 
43- Poetical Epistle to Mr. Pitt, 4to. 2s. 6d. Gray — — ibid 

44. The British Martial, 2 Vols, foolscap Svo. IQs. Phillips — — ibid 

45. Poems by Bobertits, ditto 7s. Ebers — , — 622 

46. Stinunerseli's Rustic, ditto, 4s. Lon^ao and Co. — — 4hid 
^, Ajnatoxy Poems, ditto, 2s. 6d. Bell — — — ibid 
45i. Hunter's Sports of the Genii, 4to- 5s, Payne ' — .— -^ CiJ 
^ Cottle's Sdection of Poems^ l^mo. 4i. bound, Johnson — — 6^4 

CHAPTER X.-^Dramatic Poetry (bid Pluf/s. 

I. CifTord's Edhion of Massinger's Plavs, 4 Vols. 8vo, 21. .8s. Longman and Co. — j62i 

fit. Nathan the Wise, 8vo. 7s. 6d. Phiilips ^ — — 634 

3. CoUett's Sacred DEamas, 8 vo. 6s. Longman and Co. — — ^3* 

4. The Natural Son, a Tragedy, 2s. Barker — — ibid 
3. 'ITjcI^dy of tlie Rock, 8vo. Is. 6d. Longman and Co. — — ibid 
t, I'o Marry or Not to Marrv, 8vo. 2s. 6d. ditto — — 640 
7. Too Many Cooks, 8vo. ll 6d. ditto — — . — 64« 
JB. The Blintf Bargain, 8vo. 2s. 6d. diUo — — — ibid 
9' The Honest Soldier, a Comedy, 3s. Longman and Co. — — ibid 
iO. The Honey Moon, a Comedy, 2s. 6d. ditto — — ibid 
H. The School of Reform, ditt«,"2s. 6d. ditto -^ — — 64£ 

12. The Cabinet, a Comic Opera, 2s. 6d. ditto — — . — 643 

13. Youth, Love, and Folly, ditto, is. 6d. Barker — — ibid 

14. The Delinquent, a Comedy, 28. 6d. Longman and Co. — ' — ibid 
li. John Bull, a Comedy, 2s. 6d. ditto — — — ibid 

t 

CHAPTER Xl.-^Xox'€fs, 

1. Hulcroft's Bryan Perdue, 3 Vols. 12mo. 15s. Longman and Co. — 644 
i. GodN%in's Fleetwood, 3 Vols, l^'mo, i5s. Phillips • — — 64^ 

3. Hennan and Dorothea, a I'ale, foolscap 8vo. 7s. Longman and Co. -«» 6^ 

4. Opie's Adeline Mowbray, 3 Vols. i2mo. L3s. 6cL ditto — — jOSI 
3. Lee's Life of a Lover, 6 Vols, crown 8vo. ll. I6s. Robinsons , - ' -»-r iUid 

6. Mysterious Freebooter, 4 Vols. 18s. Hut^hts — • -:- €54 

7. The Daellists, l^mo. 3s. 6d. Williams and Smith ^ ^ 65£ 

5. Lee's Canterbury Tales, Vol. 5. 8vo. 8s. WilkieandCo. — r— ibid 
9. Hebie's Pilgrim of the Cross, 4 \ ols. 12mo. ISs. Osteli ^ ir^ ibid 

10. MenUl Recreations, 12mo. 4s. Baldwin — — ibid 

11. Bdi'ille House, 2 Vols. 12mo. 8s. Symondg — — ibid 

12. Lambert's Adyentuces of Cooroo, cro\yn Svo. 5«. Scatchard and LeUen^iap — ibid 

13. MemoiTS of M. de Biinboc, 3 Vols. 12mo. 12s. Gadell and Davies ^^ 6jO 

CHAPTER yilL^Mttapkygiffs, PkUology, and CrUicisnu 

L An Essay on the Priaciples of human Action, cr. 8vo. 43. Johnson ' -— 657 

2. Forsyth's Principles of Moral Science, vol. 1. 8yo. 10s. 6d Longman and Co. — ()64 

3. Dnumnond's Academical Questions, vol. 1, 4to. 15s. Cadell and Dayies -* 670 

4. Tooke's Diversions of Pudev, part 2. 4to. 11. 1 1 s. 6d. Joluison — ' &f6 
i. ^fjckenne's Keport of the Highland Society on tlie Poems of Oisian, Bvo. 12s. 

Longmaa^dCc^ «— — — -«- 679 



m C0NTENT5. 



CHAFFER XIlL—A/wce/fawVi. 



f^gt 



i, Fostfr's Essays, 2 rols. 12mo. 9s. Longman and Co. -— - .,^ 70f> 

5L Hiats for a Young Priucess, 2 vols. cr. 8vo. 12nio.. Cadel! and Davies -^ 7()« 

S. Br istcd's Society of Friends Examined, 8 vo. (>s. Mawman — — 71 3 

4. ^ayers's Miscellanies^ Antiquarian and Historical, 8 vo. 68. Cadeiland Davies — 716 

5. Peacock on Dancing, 8 vo. 5s. Ijougnian and Co. — — — 718 

6. Miller's Retrospect of the 18th Centui7, Part I. 3 vols. 8vo. U. Is. Johnson - 72\ 

7. Bigland's Essays on various Subjects, 2 vols. 8vo. 12s. Longman and Co. — 729 

8. Andrews's Free Disquisitions, &c. 8vo. iis. Tipper and Co — — 730 

9. I^ncaster on Education, 8vo. 5s. Phillips and Fardon — — — 73^ 

10. Pratt's Harvest Home, 3 voJs. 8vo. U. lis. 6d. Phillips — — — 736 

1 1. Light Reading at Leisure Hours, 12mo. 6s. Ridgcway — — — 738 
\9i. Barbauld's Seiecti<Mis, 3 vob. 8vo. 18s. and ISmo. 10s. 6d. Johnson •*« — 740 

13. Twiss's Miscellanies, 2 vqls.Svo. 11. Is. Booth — — — 74? 

14. Memoirs of Gilbert Purring, 12nio. 3s. 6d. Longman and Co. — — ib, 

15. -j^urns Illustrated) 4lo. 11. Us. 6d. Royal 8vo. \Lu and Demy 8vo. 15s. Vemor 

and Hood — ' — — — ib. 

16. Ireland's Confessions, cr. 8vo. 7s. 6<1. Phillips — — 743 

17. Knight on Taste, 8vo. 8s. 6d. Payne -.- — . .^ 745 

18. Stower's Typographical Marks, 8vo. Is. Longman and Co. -— — 74^ 

CHAPTER Xiy.—Militart/ and Ntvcal Tactics. 

1. GiMSdon's Address to Volunteer Corps, 8vo. 28. 6d. Egerton — ^ — 75tf . 

Ij. iku-krr's Instructions for Sharp^Shooters, 12mo. 2s. 6d. Egerton — ib. . 

3. Kirke's Duties of Riflemen, &c. f. c, 8vo. 2t. 6d. Vemor and Co. — — 759 

4 Howard^s Drill of Light Infantry, &c. 12mo. 2s. Egerton — — 753 

5. Kirige's Duties of the Light Cavalry in tlie Field, l2mo. 4s. Vemor and Co. — . ib. 

6. Gord6!>^, Treatise on the Science ot Defence, 4to. J 5s. Synu>nds — 754 

7. Clerk's Essay on Naval Tactics, 4to. U. l6s. Longman and Co. — 756 
i« Beatson's Naval and Military Memoirs, 6 vols. 8vo. 31. 3s. Longman and Co. 761 

CHAPTER XXL^AgricuUure and Rural Ecommy. 

I. I^wrenceen Cattle, 8vo. 12a. Symonds — — — 76« 

?, Coo^munications to the Board of Agriculture, Vol. IV. 4to. 18s. Nkol and Son — 764 

3. Luccock on Wool, l:^nio. 5s. 6d. Harding — — 771 

CHAPTER XVII.— .V«/ttra/ Hutqry. 

i. Skrimshire's Essays cti Natural History, 2 rols. 12mo. 7s'. Johnson — 775 

V. Wildcnow's Principles of Botany, 8vo. lOs. 6d. Cadt-ll and Davies — — 778 

S, 'I'l-acts relative to Botany, 8vo. os. 6d. Phillips and Fardon — — 782 

4. Banks on the Blight, &c. in Com, 8vo. 2s. Harding — — 786 

5. Curtis on British Grasses, 8vo. 5s. Symonds — — — 787 
li. burner's Botar»ist's Guide through England and Wales, cr. 8vo. 2 vols. l4s. 

Phillrps and Fardon — — — 78S 

7. 1 h« Botambt's Guide through Northumberland and Durham — — 79a 

CHAFITR XWlL-^M^dicine and Sur^erj/. 

1. Hamilton on Purgative Medicines, 8vo. 6s. Murray — — — "^92 
)i. Hay garth's Clinical History of Diseases, Part I. 8vo. 5s. Cadcll and Davies — 794 

2. Clarke's Modern Practice of Physk:, 8vo. 9s. Ix>ngman and Cu. — — 796 
4. Wilson's PJiilosophy of Physic, 8vo. 5s. Symonds — — — 79!^ 
9. PuFlunson on the Nature and Cure of Gout, 8vr>. 5s. 6d. Symonds — — ibid 
C. KiBglaJce's liepty to iVir. Edlln's two Cases of Gout, 8vo. Is. 6d. Murray — 803 
7. Hunt's salutary Cautious respecting the Gout, 8vo. 2s. 6d. Phillips -^ — 805 
%. CraiBpton's E^say on the Eutropeoa, 8vo. 2s. 6<l. Carpcmer -^ — ibid 
9. Harly on thestrnple Dy-sentery, &c. 8vo. 7s. Callow -^ — - — 8O6 

lUk' Lambe on ooastilutional Disea^tes, 8vo. 5s. 6d. Mawman •— »«* %Qf^ 



pONTENTC, im. 

n. Cooper on the Cataract, 8vo. 5s. Lon^pnan and Co. — — — 8 i i 

12. Jones on the HaimoiThage, 8vo. 10s. bd. Phillips — — — 813 

13. Duncan's Annals of Medicine, 1803-4, bvo. 9s. Murray — — 8 Id 

14. Jxkson on the Medical Department of Armies, 8vo. 13s. 6d. Murray — 8 IS 
)5. Procecthngs of the Hoard of Health at Manchester, 8vo. 4s. Cadcll and Davies 822 

16. Buchan on Sea-Batliing, cr. 8vo. 58. Cadell and Davies — — — 8S3 

17. Moseley oo Lues Bovilla, or Cow-pox, 8vo. 5s. Longman and Co. — — 824 

18. S(|uirrel on Cow-pox Inoculation, 2s. 6i\. Hatchard — — — 836 

19. Lipscomb's Vindication of luouulation for tlie Small-pox, 2s. Robinson — 82^ 

j.l Dissertation on the lailure of the Cow-pox, 3s. Robinson — 830 

2:. Rogers un Cow-ix)x — — — — — ibid 
£2. Report of a Medical Committee on the Cases of supposed Small-pox after Vacci- 
nation, 8vo. Is. Highley — — — — — 831 

23^ Merriman's Obser\'atioiis on Vaccine Inoculation, 8to. Is. 6d. Murray — 832 
21 L-batt's Address to the Medical Practiliouers in Ireland on the Subject of Cow- 
pox, 8vo. 3s. 6d. Murray — — — — ibid 

25. Shoon>red on the Progress of Vaccination at Bengal, 8vo. Blacks and Parry — 834 

26. Jcsner's Evidence at large, as luid before the Coumiittec of tlie House of Coni- 

moos, 8vo. Murray — — — — ; — 835 

27. Ring's Answer to Dr." Moselev, 8vo. 6s. Murray — — — 83ft 

28. Mcinoire of the Medical Society, Vol. VI. 8vo. 12s. Longman and Co. ^ 838 

29. Smith's Remarks on the Report of M. Chaptal, 8vo. Is. oil. Callow — — 842 

30. Letter to Wilberfoice, 8vo. Murray — — — — 843 

31. Johmlone'sReply to J. C.Smith, 8vo. Is. Callow — — — ibid 

3;'. Whately on Polypi, 8vo. 2s. Johnson — — — < — ibid 

33. KerbyV Tables ot the Materia Medica, 12mo. 4s. Murray — — ibi4 

34. Luxinore's Manuiil of Anatomy and Physiology, small 8vo. 10s. 6d. flighley — 844 

35. Currie*s Medical Reports on \V'ater, 2 vols. 8vo. 145. Cadell and Davies — ibid 

36. Stock*s Medical Collections on the EiFccts of Cold, 8vo. 7$. Loiignian and Co. 84^ 

CHAPTEPi XiX.'^.Mi and Mamtfactures. 

I. Shannon on Brewing, 4to. 21. 12s. 6d. Scholey — — — 847 

^. Edlin on firead-makuig, 12mo. 4s. 6d. \ ernor and Co. — — — 849 



CFLAPTER XX. — Farriery and Horsemanship. 

II. 2s. Longman and Co. 

and Co. — — — ibid 



1. Adams on Horsemanship, 3 vols. 8vo. 21. 2s. Longman and Co. — — 850 

j2. Snape*s Farrier}', 4to. ll. is. Longman 



CHAPTER XXL— il/o/Artnafic* and Natural Philosophy. 

J. Schroler's Observations made at Lilienthal — — — 851 

2. Markonochie^s Prosi>ectus — — — — 853 

3. BatUy's Htstoire de rA:>tronomie — — — , _• g54 

4. Dubost's Commercial Arithmetic, 12mo. 6s. Symonds — — ibid 

5. Stephenson's Land Sur^'eying, 4to. Ids. Symonds — — — 855 

6. Fenwick's Subterranecius Surveving, Svo, lOs. 6d. Longman and Co. — 856 

7. Bagiey's Young Mathematician's Assistant, 4to. 5s. &d. Longman and Co. «— ibid 

8. The Wonders of the Telescope, 4s. 6d. Phillips — — — .857 

9. Rios's Tables for Navigation, &c. 4to. 11.3s. Longman and Co. — — ibid 

10. Lowrie on the Convenieucy of keeping Accounts u'ilii Bankers, 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

Longman and Co. ' — — — — — 858 

11. Jonas on Gauging, 1 8s. Drlng and Fage — — — 859 
13. Dubost's Elements of Conmierce, 2 vols. 8vo. 21. 2s. S\Tnonds — — ibid 

13. Meirier on the Impossibility of the a^itronomical Systems cf Copcniicus and 

Ke«ton — — — ' — — ibid 

14. Bp. of St. Asaph on Virgil's two S<-asons of Honey, 4to. 5s. Hatcbat*d — 8f)0 

15. Frcnd's Evei^ing Amusements, 1 8()G, 12mo. 3s. N'lawnian — — 862 
lb. 'I'angiblc Arithmetic, 7s. 6d. Mawman — — — • ibid 

CHAPTER XXn.-^Gcncral Science, 

L PbilosopLicai TroBsactions of the Ro}al Society for 1805^ 4to -^ -— 864 

4 



% CONTEXTS. 

?. TranMctions of the Rojal Society of Edinburgh, Parts IL and JTI.^ Vol. V. — 873 

3. Kees's New Cyclopedia, 4to. Vol. IV. ll. 16». Longman apd Co. — r -r- W7 

CIUFTElt XXlll.-^Expcrmcntal Philosophr/, 

1. Irvfoe's Essays on Cbemica! Subjects, 8vo, 99. Mavman — , — g7S 

^. Nisbetfs Dictionar)' of Chemistry, 1 2mo.§s. Highlev — ■ — 881 

i^, HaTPs Experiments on Ice, Heat, and Cold, 8vo. Is. Jordan and Maxwell — 882 

4. Conversions on Chemistry, ^ vols. 12mo. 1 4s. Longman aiul Co. — 883 

CHAtTER XXiy.-^Commcrce. 

1. Anderson on Commcrpe, 4 vols. 4to. Si. 8s. Longman and Co. — ^ -^ 884 

2. Dubost's Merchiint*s Assistant, 8vo. 7s. Boosey — — -t- W7 

CHAPTER XXW-^Mzneralog!/. 

1. Werneria, foolscap 8vo. 4s. C. and R. Daldwin ' — rr- — ^ 885 

2. Trotter on destroying the Fire and Choke Dani? of Coal Mines, &c. 8vo y ibicl 

3. Weaver on external Character of Fo-sUs, 8vo. 8s. Ijongman and Co. — it^rd 

4. Jameson'* Mmcralogical Description of Dumfries, 8vo, ds. Longman and Co. 989 

CHAFFER XXM.-^Jrchitecture and the Fine Arts. 

1. Gandy's Designs for Cottages, 5:c. 4lo. 21. 2s. Harding — — S!JO 

2. i— ftoral Architect, 4to. 21. L^s. llarding — , — — ibid 

3. Noble's Practical Perspettive, 4lo. ll. Is. — -— — 6Q\ 

4. Atkinson's Cottage Ai'chitccture, 4to. ll. Is. Gaidiner — — 9ti^ 



ANNUAL REVIEW} 

AND 

HISTORY OF LITERATURE. 



CHAPTER L 

VOYAGES AND TRAVELS} 



NARRATIVES of Ycjag6s an^ travels, and foreign* topbgrapkyi are of all 
books, perhaps, the best calculated to excite a strong and general interest ill 
the reading part of the community j every dass of which, frota the nlere lounger, 
with whom reading is only a creditable kind of idleness, to the pUil6sbpher> whd 
Waives from books the materials of useftd contemplation, is almost equally inter-^ 
ested in the ^tfaful narrative of the traveller. Nor is there any reason to fear that 
thii department of literature should ever become exhausted -, accidental causes may 
superinduce a tempotaxy dearth, but the cutlosity of the public will never fail to 
encourage and reeompente those adVenturdbs spirits, who, after penetrating into 
foreign countries^ to gratify their own love of novelty, will allow their fellow coun- 
trymen to indulge theirs from the same source. The navigatorj it is truei must ere 
kng find his employment, as far as regards the discovery of new lands, almost entirely 
condudedj and with much more reason than Alexander may complain of the dimi- 
oativeDess of the globe that he is destined to inhabit -, but this very circumstance 
wiO probably conduce to the public benefit, by withdrawing the researches of science 
from the barren ocean and the sea-beat shore, and encouraging them to penetrate the 
vast tracts of land, as yet> almost wholly unknown to Europeans, though inhabited by 
man in various stages of civili^tion, and presenting, to the lover of nature, an inex^^ 
luustible store of the wonderful^ the beautiftil, and the new. 

Of America, though under the dominion of Europe, and colonies from £urope, 
we know less than even of Africa j it is therefore with peculiar satisfaction, that we 
perceive an increasing curiosity concerning the transatlantic Continent, and that it 
be^ to attract the attention of travellers : no less than six of the books noticed in 
the present chapter, refer to this quarter of the world, and althou^ the iaformatiQii 

A3fif. RjBv. Vol. IV* #' 



2 VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 

wbich tliey contain is imperfect, and probably, in many respects inaccorate, yet we 
are inclined to welcome them perhaps more than they deserve, as good omens^ and 
the harbingers of better and more accumtc rq^earches. 

Political circumstances have excluded British travellers from the tenitories o^ 
France and her allies j «Qd the other parts of the continent being but little attractive* 
Mr. Carr's northiern suniiaer, being a tour Uirov^ Norway and Svreden to Peters- 
burgh, is the only account worth mentioning of any part of Europe that has issued^ 
during the last year, from the English press. 

The discussions in parliament respecting Pulo-Penang (Prince of Wales*s Island), 
have given birth to two small topographical descriptions of tliis little island. The 
solitary rock of St. Hetena has also found a seasibfe and at^ historian. 

Captain Beaver's African memoranda merit the senous study of all future leaders 
of colonies to the western coast of that continent j and Mr. Turnbull's voyage round 
the world deserves mention, as bemg tiic latest account of tlie singular pcditical 
changes that are going on in the Sandwich Islands and some other of the Polyne- 
sian groups.^ 



Art. T. Travels to Dtscover tite Source qf the Xile, in the Years 1768, 1769, 1770, 1771, 
1772, and 1773. Bu James BsivcE of k'inrunrd, Esq, F. R. S. 7 Vols. 8vo. and I 
4to. Vol. of Plates. The Second Edition, corrected and enlarged ; to which is prclLxed 
-a Life of the Author. 



WAS Bruce ever in Abyssinia, and 
are the sources which he describes, the 
real sources of the Nile ? These fects 
have been questioned with little urba- 
nity, little candour^ and much male- 
volence. 

The first fact will now no longer be 
contradicted. After the positive/ teati- 
Inony which sir William Jones acciden- 
tally found in India, he who denies that 
Brace was in Abyssinia, and as he him- 
self states, in high favour at Gondar« 
must be a wilful calumniator. But did 
he visit tlie sources of the Nile ? " The 
T5nhr el Azrek, or Blue River, says Mr. 
Pinkerton, was mistaken for the real 
I^ile by the Portygueze writers Alvarez, 
Tellez, &c. probably misled by tlie vain 
glory of I he Abyssinians j though it was 
veil known to the ancients as quite a 
d'lstinct river, the Astapus, flowing into 
tlie Nile, from the Coloe Palus, now the 
lake of DLMubea. Mr. Bruce*s vanity 
led hira to ad >pt the same mistake." 

That the Abyssinian branch is tlie As- 
tapus of the ancients is sufficiently clear, 
tnd qUo. that Herodotus and Ptolomy 
considered the Bahar el Abiad as the 
Nile. But it is equally certain that the 
Abyssinians themselves consider their 
branch to be the Nile ; as such it is des- 
cribsid by the Jesuits and laid down In 
the |n:ip of Balthezar Tellez ; this was 
tlie opiubn of Ludolphus, Hm was the 



general opinion in Europe when Bnictt 
set out upon his travels, and this (pinion 
lie found in Abyssinia, in Atbara, and in 
Nubia, not only in the country wher» 
the Bahar el Asrak rises, but also whcro 
it joins the other stream. There is de- 
cisive proof that this is not a mere boast 
of national vanity among the Abyssini*- 
ans, but actually and bona fide their be- 
lief, a received opinion upon which they 
have formed a great, though visionary, 
political pioject, which tliey oiKe pro- 
ceeded to put in practice. li^iibala began 
to divert the course of his Nile for th^ 
purpose of famishing Eg>*pt : in the lirst 
intercourse which took place between 
the Portuguese and the Abyssinians tiiis 
project was renewed, and had Albajucr- 
que lived, tliere can be no doubt but 
that the execution would have been again 
attempted. 

If Bruce, thert f()re, has mistaken tli» 
Astapus for the Nile, it is a very par- 
donable mistake, tor if there be not au- 
thority sutncieut to establish his opinion, 
there is surely enough to excuse his 
error. 

The question itself, however, is infini^ 
tcsimalfy insignificant. The Bahar el 
Asrak, and the Bahar el Abiad, meet and 
form the Nile j which is to be called tUo 
Nile before the junction ? The dispute 
is not^conceming tlie course of the water, 
but couceming tiie name. 11' indeed the 



B&VCB*S 9!|l4VEf.S f^ TV« tOlTXlQB Of T]|l KILX, 



tme Nile had been regular]/ durUtenedt 
Ad a certificate from the church register 
could be produced, the poiot might bt. 
4ecided. Bat to wbom does the right of 
fodfiitfaership belongin this case } Wh/ 
to the Donga atid Tuclawi, the people 
of the Deir and Tugguki, more than to 
the Ab/i^iand and the Agows of Geesh ? 
The7 who reside about the junction, call 
the united stream by the name of tlie 
Abyssinian branch : if authority is to de- 
termine the point, where can we go for a 
better jury than to the place itself? The 
Bahar el Abiad is the larger branch : 
Brace expressly says that it is so, bat his 
eJitor very properly obser\es, if they 
who dwell by the junction continue the 
name of Bahar el Asrak after it has 
joined a larger branch, it is plain that 
they consider the larger branch as re- 
ceived into the smaller, not the smaller 
is xeceived into the larger. It is the 
straight course wh'ch determines these 
ooletiered sun'eyors. Striking Instances, 
he says, occur in our own country, of 
livers being named from the inferior 
iource» and he adduces a case in point. 
The largest river in Scotland isformed by 
the Teith aiid the Forth, the latter of 
which Is a stream as much inferior to the 
former as the Bahar el Asrak to the Bahar 
el Abiad. The inferior stream, however, 
in ^ite of the decision of several respec- 
table writers in favour of the Teith, ob* 
taiQs the name of the great river, because 
it runs in the same^ line. A river must 
have as many sources as a man has grand- 
fathers in the fiftieth degree, and in the 
one case as well as in'the other we trace 
to the straightest line. 

True it is that Bruce himself consider- 
ed the discovery of tlie sources of the 
Nile as a thing of great importance) 
hmourable not only to himself but to 
his age and country, and to the king 
under whose reigu it was accomplinhed. 
In this respect he was as absurd as his 
critics. But this folly does not in the 
•lightest degree detracv from the value of 
his work. The journey was not the less 
important because the object was ridicu- 
lous, as the value of an action is not to 
be estimated by tlie motive of tlie agent, 
though the merit of the agent is. What- 
ever be the name of a rivulet in Geesh, 



vre are eqnalty interested by the pictum 
of society in Abyssinia. A gap m History 
has been filled up. 

There remains yet a third question—* 
did Bruce actually visit these sources in 
Geesh, or has he merely copied the Je- 
suits accounts, and tlie Jesuits map ? for 
whoever has inspected both can liave not 
the smallest doubt, that in the map of Bal- 
thezar Tellez, these sources, and the. 
course, of the river, through the lake 
Derabea, are laid down precisely as they 
are by the English traveller. This ques- 
tion has been for ever settled by Mr. 
Murray, the editor of the present edition^ 
whose undeviating candour and indefati- 
gable industry, cannot be too highly com- 
mended. Of the journey to the sources, he 
tells, us, there exist, be^des the narrative 
in Mr. Bruce's own words, written as he 
Went along, the complete journal by Ba- 
lugani in Italian, and many of the strips 
of paper which he carried in his hand, on 
which he wrote -with a pencil the histoiy of 
each day, brfore he entered it in the 
jourAal at night. We will transcribe that 
part of 6alugani*s journal which describea 
the springs, because it sets the questioD 
for ever at rest 

" At three o'clock we have arrived at the 
diurch of St. Michael, above the sourct^ ; 
and at an eighth of a mile, descending from this 
into the plain, are found ihefountuins of the 
Nite. Ave have halted in the valley (or.plain) 
called Assua, half a mile to the S. S. E. ot these 
fountains. Our journey to day has been 
six hours, computed at twelve miles. 

" The sum of the whole way, from Gron* 
dar to the fountains of the Nile is about one 
hundred and eleven miles. 

" The fountains of the Nile are three. 
One of then it will be four j^alms in diame- 
ter ; but it is all fiiU. of rushes, and shews 
neitlier its deptii nor true extent, it not being 
possible to introduce into it any sounding in- 
strument. 

" The second will be fire paces di-^tant 
from the first to the south, a little west ; and 
will be about twelve uiches diameter at ti:c 
mouth, but within about four palms, and it is 
eiglit feet three inches deep. 

*' The third will be twelve paces distant 
from the first, to S. S. W. ; ^ts mouth i:« 
somewhat larger tiian tliat of the second, but 
it is only five feet eight inches deep. I'he 
first being the lowe:^t, the water is seen at the 
level of the earth ; but in the other two, the 



* It is cnrioQS that the river should resemble the Abyssinian Nile in another very re- 
■fflkablc circumstance. The stream of the 'feith i^ distinctly visible in its jjassage tluoagh 
Lochhibcaig, which indeed signifies ilie Lake of the ff^irKJling Stream. 

t This expression is literal^ and might be exchanged for z^ ; fliough computation be In 
~ ceases understood^ 



Voyages anc ihavels. 



gfound being a little raised, the water re- 
Inains about eight inches lower than the level 
of the mouth. All the three may be observ- 
ed to spring (tlie w<n'd bollire sigiiiiies to boil 
or bubble), but so imperceptibly that it can 
scarcely be discerned by oreat attention ; and 
it is raise what is said by some, tliat tliey 
spr'mg witli a noise out of the ground, rising 
above it. 

" All this place near the fountains produces 
only grass and rushes ; trees are not found, 
to the distance at least of half a mite on every 
tide. 

The latitude of the foun- 
On the Mh Nov. tains is 10 deia^eers 58 min< 
the sun's altitude and 58 sec. 1 he sources of 
\^as 63. 15. the Nile are found in the 

On the 6th Nov. Agow countrj', in a pro- 
found to be 62. vince called Sacchala. — 
56, 30. Thev are situated in a lit- 

tle valley at the foot Of the 
mountain of Ghe<»h, by ' E. N. E. From 
the fountains to the top of tlie moimtain will 
be two miles and a halt, nearly three. Above 
tlie fountains^ about one-eighth of a mile 
distant from them, by K. E. by N^ is a 
church, on the top of a hill. Called Ksdus 
Michael, over the fountains. The Nile, ris- 
ing out of its springs, takes a direction east 
for a quarter of a mile Then it turns about 
to north-east for another half-mile, always in 
the middle of a plain (vallonc), without trees 
or shrubs, excepting grass and rushes ; and 
in all that space it does not appear to run ; 
but as the earth is very iiat, it spreads, and 
leaves the ground about, marshy, and (in) 
stagnant (water). From this it begins to run 
north, and in a shott tune becomes very rapid, 
and continues to tlow by north-east and north, 
linder tlie mountain, on which is the church 
of Mariam Nett, for the space of a mile^ 
Thence it runs north-west about a mile. 
About that part is the place Where they pass 
tne Abay, to go to Goiidar, coming from the 
foimtains^ and the church will be a i]uarter of 
a mile to the east distant from this passage. 
ARcr having run the foremeiUioncd mile 
noith-west, it turns about west, and a little 
after south-west, then south south-west, then 
south, always retreating backwards towards 
its sotvces in all that course. From the place 
where it beg'uis to go west till it runs south 
will be about four miles and a half. In this 
last place it passes between two mountains, 
and begins to retreat, by goine down by the 
way of west, north-we^t, nortn, &c. until it 
comes to cross the hike in an angle of it ; it 
(then) passes near to Dara, and returning 
south makes the circle of Goiam, after which 
it descends (towards the north), 

*' Two miles before aiTiving at the place 
where it chants its cc^urse reverling towards 
its sources, aie seen tlirec small streams, one 
of which comes from the east, aiiolhcr from 
the south-cast, and another from the south 
south-east ; the two l^rst of these arise to tlie 
north-east of the church of St. Michael 
Ghccih, about somewhat less than one-eighth 



of a mile's- distance. The first of fhe«;e ftim 
nearly parallel to the Nile, receiving aboct 
half a mile from its source the st-cond, antf 
their about three miles after the third ; and 
about a mile and a half after that discliarges 
itself into the Nile. I'he Nile in that place 
begins to grow large ; becatise it receivefr 
there other small streams which come from 
the north and Wes^ ** 

A minute account follows of (he bear^ 
Yngs of the adjoining places, as marked 
from the top of the mountain of Geesh- 
The manuscript from Which this is printed 
is in Italian, in Balug^mr's hand-\vriting, 
on the sriiooth cream-coloured cotton pa* 
per of the east. It contains a complete 
detail of the hours and days in which they 
travelled j of the villages, rifers, moun- 
tains, and in short, of every rerfiafklble 
object they met with from their leaving 
Gondar, Sunday twenty-eighth October, 
1770, at half after nine A. M. till tl\e\t 
return, Sunday eighteenth Nov. one o'- 
clock P. M. hi the same year. 

Such evidence is unanswerable. But 
could any thiiig be more absurd than to 
admit that Bruce was in Abyssinia, anct 
yet to deny that Se visited the sources of 
the AbysSinian J^ile ? These sotirces, says 
Mr. Pinkerton, wefre ?n the seventeenth 
century accurately described by P^yz, a 
Portugtieze missionary, -whose account 
was published by Kircher and Isaac Vos- 
sius, and has in our times been very mi- 
nutely copied by Bruce, as Haftman has 
explained by printing (he two accounts 
ift parallel columns. Mr. Murray has 
confuted the charge in the best possiblof 
nlannef, without condescending to iK>tice 
it. He has printed the passage tls ijL 
stands 1n Kir(5he'r, and added a literal 
translation. In justice to hira and to 
Bruce, we shall copy the two accounts, 

" The source of the Nile is situated in the' 
we^tem part of the kingdom of Goyam» in 
the upper (or highest) j)art of a valley, which 
resembles a large plain, surrounded on every 
side with ridges of hilk. A. D. I6l8, April 
21st. when I was living in this kingdom 
aloiig with the emperor and hi«? army,. I 
ascended this place, viewed every thhig dili- 
gently, and found at fiftt two round fountains 
there, both above four plms iji diarneter, 
and with the gi'eatest pleasure of njind saw 
what Cyrus, king of the Persians/ Cambyses,^ 
Alexander the Great, and the famous Julius 
Cx'sar, could obtain by no wishes: "^j^he 
water of the source is very clear and lights 
and agreeable to the taste' ; yet it must be 
known that these two fountains of the s*iurce 
have no outlet in the uppermost pint of tlics 
plain of the inuuataiuj but at tlie liuut oi' the' 



BR0CB S TSAYSL8 TO TBE 80VRCB OT THE NILE. 



ivantain*. We tried also the dept]i of the 
ibunuins, and put a lance iuto the iirst, 
vhicb, entering eieven pahns, seeined to 
tiiOch, as it were, some roots of the neigh- 
bouring trec^ eiilangltxi with one-another. 

** 'llie second fountain bears from the first 
cast about a :^toae's cast ; trying the depth of 
this hj putting in a lance 'of twelve palms, 
me fotuKl no bottom, but having tied two 
^Jbuices together, in length twenty nalms, we 
tried the thing again ; but not even then could 
we find bottom, and the inhabitants say that 
the whole mountain is full of water, of Which 
they gave this sign, that all the plain about 
the fuuntain shook and bubbled, a plain mark 
of concealed water, and that, fiir the same 
reason, the water did not overflow at the 
SNDoes, but threw itself out with rery great 
i>n:e at the foot qf them ; and the inhabi- 
tanls. affirmed, as well as tht; en)petY)r him- 
Sjdf, who was present ak>ng. witli his army, 
that the ground had trembled little that year, 
oi account of the great dryness of the sea- 
son, but in other years it shook and bubbled. 
M, that it could' scarcely be approached 
without danger. Tlie circumference of the 
jkm JB like a round lake, the breadth of 
which may be a slbig's cast." 

"^ Furtfaer, the pUun of thefountdns of the 
Nike is difficult (k ascent, on every side but 
on the north, where it b easily ascended. 
Bebw the mountain about a league, in a very 
deep vallej, rises another river from the 
howels of (be earth, which however joins it- 
sHf a little after to the Nile ; they believe 
k has the same source with the Nile, but 
that, oonducted under ground by secret 
chaonds, it rises fmt here. But the rivulet 
from the source, which breaks out below the 
nountain, runs a gui^hot to the east, then, 
viiid'ms suddenly. Hows to the north, then, 
about tiie foiuth-part of a league afterwards, 
a new li^er presents itself, d^hing from the 
^ooes and rocks, to which two other nvers a 
^^ttle after join themselves, breiking fixim the 
east quarter ; and so on, by receiving con- 
stantly one stream after anotlier, the Nile inr 
creases remarkably. After a day's journey, 
it meets with a large river, that is called Jama 
(Jennna) ; then turning towards the west for 
twenty-five leagues, or thirty-live leagues 
finxn Its sources, it next reflects its course to 
the east, winding into a large lake (situated 
ki the province called fied, and partly adja- 
cent to the kii^pdom of Goyam, partly to 
that of Dambia), which it passes through in 
such a manner, as that the waters of the r^ile 
^heH' a remarkable ditFerence homthe waters 
of the lake ; and the whole stream, unmixed 
wkh the lake waters, holds op its course." 

It is to be remembered also that Bruce 
has hinuelf giTen in the text of his book 
the whole smn and substance of the very 
account by Pedro Paez (who was a Cas- 



tillian anH not a Portugueze) which he is 
accused of having stolen ; omitting only a 
few trifling parts of no importance what- 
ei'er, for the sake of brevity. Let his own 
account be now examined. 

" In the middle of this marsh (that is, 
about forty yards hrom each side of it), and 
something' less from the bottom of the moun- 
tain of Geesh, arises a hillock of a circular 
form, about three feet from the surface of the 
marsli itself, though api^rently founded 
much deeper in it. The diameter of. this is 
something short of twelve feet ; it is sur- 
roimded by a shallow trench, which collects 
the water and voids it eastward ; it is firmly 
built w<th sod or earthen turf, brought from 
the sides, and constantly kept in repair ; and 
this is the altar upon which all their reliaious 
ceremonies are performed. In the middle of 
this altar is a hole, obviously made, or at least 
enlarged, by the hand of man. It is kept 
clear of grass, or other aquatic plants; and 
the water in it is perfectly pure and limpid* 
but has no ebullition or motion of any kind 
discernible upon its surfiau:e. This moutii, 
or opening of the source, is some parts x)f an 
ihch less than three feet diameter ; and th^ 
ivater stood at that time, the 5th of Novem- 
ber, about two inches from the lip or brim* 
nor did it either iiKicease or diminish during 
all the time of my stay at Geesh, though we 
made plentifiil use of it. 
. '* Upon putting down the shaft of my lance 
at six feet four inches, I found a very feeble 
resistance, as if from weak rushes or grass ; 
and about six inches deeper I found my lance 
had entered mto soft earth, but met with no 
stones or gravel, lliis was coniirmed by an- 
other experiment made on the 9tli with a 
heavy plummet and line besmeared with 
soap, the bottom of which brought up at tlie 
above depth only black earth, such as the 
marsh itself and its sides are composed of. 

'* Ten feet distant from the hrst of these 
springs, a httle to the west of south, is the 
second fountain, about eleven inches in dia- 
meter ; but this is eight feet three inches deep. 
And about twenty feet distant from the first, 
to the S. S. W. is the third source, its mouth 
bein^ something more than two feet large, 
and it is five feet eight inches deep. Both 
these last fountains stand m the middle d 
small altars, made, like the fbnner, of firm 
sod, but neither of them above three ieot 
diameter, and having a foot of less elevation 
than the first. The altar in this third source 
seemed almost dissolved by the water, whiclt 
in both stood nearly up to the brim ; at the 
foot of each appeared a clear and brisk nm- 
ning rill ; these uniting joined the water in the 
trench of the first altar, and then proceeded di- 
rectly out, I suppose, at the pouit of the triangle, 
pohiting eastward, in a quantity that would 
nave filled a pipe of about two inches dia* 
metfcr." 



* This is muDtelligiUe ; Kiicher havhig misunderstood, or obtained an incorrect copy of 
wcongiial- - * • t • • 



-6 



VOYAGES AOT!) TRAVELS. 



; ** The NQe, keeping nearly in ^ middle 
of the niirsh, nii^ east for tHirtv yarda^ with 
a very litUe increase of stream, but perfectly 
visible, till met by the grassy briuk of the 
land declining from Sacala. This turns it 
round gradually to the N. E. and then due 
north; and, in the two miles it flows in tliat 
direction, the river receives many small con- 
tributions from springs that rise in the banks 
on each side of it : there arc two, particu- 
larly one on the hill at the back of St Michael 
Geesh, the otiier a little lower than it on the 
other >ide, on tlie ground declining from 
Sacala. These last-mentioned spring are 
more than double its quantity; and being 
arrived under the hill whereon stands the 
church of St Michael Sacala, about two miles 
Irom its source, it there becomes a stream 
that would turn a common mill, shalkny, 
clear, and running over a rocky bottom about 
three yards wide: this must be understood 
to be variable according to the season; and 
tiie present observations are applicable to the 
5th of November, when the rams had ceased 
for several week^ There is tlie ford which 
we passed going to Geesh, and we crossed it 
the day of our arrival, in the time of 'my 
convereation with Woldo about the sash. 

" Nothing can be more beautiful than this 
spot ; the small rising hills about us were all 
thick-covered with verdure, especially with 
clover, the largest and finest I ever saw ; the 
tops of the heights crowned with trees of a 
prodigious size; the stream, at the banks of 
whk;h we were sitting, was limpid and pure 
as the finest crystal ; the ford, covered thick 
with a bushy kind of tree, that seemed to 
aflect to grow to no height, but thick with 
foliage and young branches, rather to court 
the surface of the water, whilst it bore, in 
f)rodit5ious (juantities, a lx»autiful yellow 
flower, not unlike a single wild rose of tliat 
colour, but without thorns; and, iixiced, 
upon exaniinatk)n, we found that it was not 
a spet'ies of the rose, but of h}'pericum.'* 

" Here, at the foviS, after' having stepped 
over it fifty times, I observerl it no larger 
than a comlnon mill stream. 1 he Nile, from 
this ford, turns to the westward, and, after 
nuining over loose' stones occasionally, in 
that direction, about four miles farther, the 
angle of inclination increasing greatly, broken 
Welter, and a fall commences of about six 
feet, and thus it gets rid of the mountainous 
place of its nativity, jmd issues into the plain 
of Goutto, where' is its first cataract ; for, as 
I have said before, I don't account the broken 
water, or little falls, cataracts, which are not 
at aH visible in the height of the rains. 

" Arrived in the plain of Goutto, the river 
seems to have lost all its violence, and scarce-, 
ly is seen to flow; but, at the same time, it 
tnere makes so many sharp, imnatural wid^ 
in^, that it differs from anyotfcer river I 



ever saw*, rtidcing aWe twtntr shiirp atf» 
gular peninsulas iti the course of *^ five miles, 
through a bare marshy pkua of clay, quite 
destitute of trees, and exceedingly micoiivo- 
nieat and unpleasant to travel. After pas^- 
in.g this plain, it turns due north, receives X\\^ 
tribute of many small streams, the Gomftti, 
the Govoguefi, and tlie Kebezza, which de* 
scend from the mountains of Aformasha; 
and, united, fall into the NUe about twenty 
miles t>e]ow its source; it begins here to fun 
nuAd]}[, and again r^eives a number of btsau- 
tinil rivulets, whkh have their rise in the 
heights of Litehambara, the semi-circular 
range of mountains tliat pass behind, and 
seem to inelose Aformasha : These are the- 
Cacchio, the CamachiuU, the Goo^eri, the 
Iworra, the Jeddeli, and the Mmch; all 
wiiich, ruuning into the Davola, join the 
Nile something less than a mile west of the 
church of Abbo. 

" It is now become a considerable stream ; 
its banks high and broken, covered with old 
trees for the space of about three miles; it 
inclines to the north-east, and winds exceed- 
ingly, and is then joined by the small river 
Diwa from the east. It tiien makes a semi- 
circle, and receives Dee-ohha, turns sharjrty 
to the east, and fells down its second cataract 
at Kerr. About three miles bek>w this ca-^ 
taract, the kirge, pleasant, and limpid Jemnra» 
pays its tribute to the Nile. 17ioiigh its 
course is now mostly north, through Maitsha 
on the east, and Aroossi and Sankraber on 
the west, it stftl is inclining toward the lake 
Ttaua, and, aft ^r receiving the rivers Bolia 
and Analac Ohha, small streams from the 
west, and the Assar, Aroossi, and Kelti, large 
rivers fron> the east, it crosses the south end 
of the lake Tzana, for about seven leagues, 
preserving the colour of its stream distinct 
from that of the lake, till it issues out at the 
we^t side of it, in the teritory of Dara, where 
there is a ford, though very deep and daii* 
gcrous, immediately where' it fiwt resumes 
tlie appearance of a river.*' 

Is there any greater resembhmce be- 
t\x'een these descriptions than there ne- 
cessarily must be between two descrip** 
tions oi the same place, made at dilTerent 
times by different j>ersons ? if any thmg 
remarkable is to be discovered in then), 
it is in the points of diflference, not of 
agreement. But what motive for pla- 
giarism can now be assigned ? It is not 
pretended that the whole story of these 
travels is the impudent forgery of a maQ 
who was never in Abyssinia; what then 
was to prevent him ^om proceeding to 
Geesh ? Th^ diiHculties and d^uigers of 
the journey were not Ukely to iotiaiidaia 



* A plan of the windings of the Nile in the pMi of Goutfa is inserted istj fialugani in fhc 
Journal. These are singnlarl^ numerous, and. very much resemble^ tl»ugi» on SkiHbt&t 
scale, what are called '' the links of ^e river FbrtA,*' near Sliriing, in ScoUaod 



BBUCE's T^AYELl TO TUB SftUKCB OF Tfffi KILE. 



r man wbo-hni reached Gond^. And 
that he did visit Geesh is proved, as lar 
as any such 1^ is cafkable of proof, hy 
las own journal taken on the spot, and 
bf the joamal of Bakigani. As for tbo 
rMcmUance bet^K^een bis account and 
tbat of Pedro Paez^ both are alike be- 
cause both are true ; so also hia map 
agrees with tb0t in Bakhezar Tellez, be- 
caaae both are made from authentic cb- 
eoments, not because one is copied from 
the other. Bruce has sinned against the 
Jesuits, but not as a plagtarist. 

That we arc not disposed to depreciate 
the merit of this traveller must already 
hjve been apparent, and how highly we 
value his labours will presently be seen -, 
but it must be confessed that the object 
of his iouniey was an unworthy one. It 



not enomerate him am<»ig his authorities 
for the description of the springs. Oui" 
traveller may be ri^it here : but on the 
other hand Tellez expressly raentioas th# 
^triarch Afibnso Mendez, of whom 
^ruce as expressly ssys, that he never 
sakv, not* indeed ever pretended to hate 
seen- tlie purees of the Nile. Bruce even 
hazards a hardier mistatement, asserting 
boltfly that TelleB makes no mention <^ 
such a discovery. Tlie work of Baldie- 
rar Tellet lies befbre us j he gives a de- 
scription of the springs *' as they are 
described in many annual letters, and 
many treatises by many Jesuits who saw 
these secrets closely," — cofno em muyta^ 
ismuutit e muytof tratados, emnrevem mityiot^ 
nossos reltffiodos que viram mity de perto 
estes seqredos, " The best witnesses 



was the search after what was curious, ^ rfmong them, he adds, are our patriarch 



Rot wbat was useiid 5 a-kin to the pur- 
suhs of the collector and virtuoso, rather 
than of the philosopher. However great 
the efibrt, however valuable the result, 
vanity was th^ motive. Attributing an 
vndiie importBDce to the discovery of 
these soarces, he unduly attempied to- 
^ropriate the whole merit of th» dis>- 
eovery to himself. No pa^^ion so easily 
tempts to falsehood as vanity. H^ could' 
not be coutent with being tlie pai^tner of 
Pedro FatZy to use his own expression, 
aiul has therefore laboured with much' 
disiDgenuity to prove that nei^r he, nor 
any of the Jesuits had visited the sacred 
spot, the KMn to which all his ambitious 
aspirariooB were directed. The extract 
from Pedro Paez published by Kircher, 
he says, was not in three manuscripts of 
that tailter's history which he examined 
at Milan, at Bologna and at Home. He 
does not pretend' to have read through 
these manuscripts, but only to have ex^ 
amined the plaoe where tliis description 
ought to have l>een. Mr. Murray, how- 
ever, is so well satisfied with the account 
in Kircher, as fiirly to concede tlto point, 
and to declare it cannot be doubted- but 
that Pedro Paez had vii»ited the sources. 
On this head we are not so fully satisfied 
as the editor ; whoever vrrote the descrip- 
tioo in Kifdaefj certainly had seen the 
place which he describes | but if tlie 
passage is not to be found in the three 
manuacripts which Bruce consulted, it 
may very possibly lianre been inserted in 
that which Kircher used, by the tran- 
scriber, from the aoeouat af some other 
ytmiU This we suspect to have been the 
case, because TeUez, though he had the 
viitings di Pedro Paez betbit bim^ does 



of Etliiopia, Dbm AiFonso Mendez, a man 
of the highest credit, and father Mausel 
d*Almeyda who relates it much at length, 
and father Jeronymo Liobo, all of v^hom 
curiousiy beheld it witli« Uieir own eyes." 
Bruce has certainly been guilty of wilful 
misrepresentation herej and his chticr 
have oiYly dtalt by him as he has dealt by 
idie Jesuits, with the same measure where- 
with he meted, it hath been measured to 
film again. . 

. A similar jealousy lest any perKon 
should share the imaginary honbur of 
this discovery is discernible in his whole* 
management) .respecting Bakigani the 
Italian, who assisted him in bis drawings, 
and kept a' daily jouhial' of tiieir route, 
Kke himself. We suspect that tlie men- 
tion of hisdeat!i (Vol. iv. p. 4'20') is pur- 
posely antedated, and introduced bbfore 
the joume)' to die springs, least it should 
be known tliat he also had seen them, 
and been the partner qf Bruce ; for it is 
mentioned as having t^aken place before 
the journey, and as one motive which 
alhoosr induced him to return witliout 
accomplishing it. This was not over- 
sight. In die journal of the journey a 
sejvant is spoken of, who die editor tells 
us in a note was Bahigani,. In this proud 
and imfeeling language does he speak of 
his only literary companion, of the artist 
who shared all his dtmgers, and died in 
his service. Not otie expression of re- 
spect, or kindness, oc endearment to- 
wards this voung man ever escapes him, 
— though the deatli of a dog whom one 
had taken from Europe into such | 
country shoiild have made an English man 
shed tears. In no other instance does 
]^ruce appear like a proud and hard- 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



hearted mdn, but it is the tendency of 
that mean passion which was in hinqt so 
preJoininant, to warp the understanding 
9nd to deaden the-iieart. 

So far then as reeards Luigi Balugani^ 
and the claim of ihe Jesuits to the dis- 
covery of these sources, the errors in 
Srace BT-e misrepresentations, not mis- 
takes ; fsilsehoods, not inaccuracies. He 
x^as not ignorant of the truth, and he had 
obvious motives for concealing it. Many 
other errors occur in his work, which can 
only be called inaccuracies or blunders, 
and which must have proceeded from an 
undue reliance upon his own memory- 
Some of these we shall notice, 

Bruce is speaking of the conquest of 
Spain by the Moors : he say*— 

*' A great influx of trade followed the con- 
quest ; and the religion, that contaiaed little 
restraint and great indulgence, was every 
where embraced by the vanquished, who 
long had been Christians in name only. On 
the other side, the Arabs were now no lonser 
that brutish set of madmen they were under 
the Khalifat of Omar. They were now emi- 
nent for their rank and attainments in every 
species of leaming. This was a dangerous 
crisis f<Mr Christianity, which threatened no- 
thins else than its total subversion. The 
whole world, without the help of England, 
had not virtue enough to withstand this tpr- 
rent. That nation, tlie favourite weapon in 
the hand of Heaven for chastising tyraimy 
and extirpating false religion, now; lent its 
assistance, and the scale was quickly turned." 

It is impossible to explain the gross 
iniorance of this paragraph. Charles 
Martel. was tlie man who preserved 
Christendom. As for England, it had 
not the slightest influence upon the con- 
tinent of Europe till the Norman con-^ 
quest. 

*' John I. king of Portugal, he tells us, 
afler many successful battles with the 
Moors, had at last forced them to crosfl 
the sea and return vanquished to their 
liative country. By this he had changed 
his former dishonourable name of Bastard, 
to the more noble and more popular one 
of John the Avenger." John the First 
pever fought a battle with thq Moors in 
his life, till he crossed to Ceuta. They 
had been completely subdued in Portuc^ 
a hundred years before he came to uxe 
crown. The whole of this chapter is full 
of such errors. We know not whether 
they are his own, ox taken frpm some 
French blunderer,— for the orthography 



or rather kakography of many of Ao 
names is French. 

Covillan, he says, (it should be Covil- 
ham) sent frequent dispatches from Abys- 
sinia to the king of Portugal, who on his 
port spared no expence to keep open the 
correspondence. Of course it must have 
been carried on by tlie regular post- 
of&ces. He. even describes the contents 
of Covilham's journal, and adds, that he 
sent a map with it. All this Bruce has 
dreamt by his own fire-side. The con- 
temporary chroniclers of Joam ll. all say- 
that Covilham was lost, and the contem- 
porary historians of Emanuel all say whea 
he was found. 

•He wonders why no mention is made 
by Tellez of the three capuchins who 
were stoned to death at Gondar in 1714. 
The wonder would have been if Tellea 
had mentioned them, for he died in 1675 
himself. One might almost suspect that 
Bruce never re^d^ his own writings; 
he tells you that he. has a Coptic MSS. 
three times as old as the books of Numa 
were in Pliny's days, that is, above two 
tliousand five hundred years ; and a few 
pages on he adds*, that it is a Gnostic trea-. 
tise. It would be tedious to proceed tvith 
instances which might be enumerated to 
great length. Enough has been adduced 
to show diat he wrote often carelessly, 
and sometimes prosumptuously, but such 
blunders do not affect the main value of 
his work. 

Whichever be the source of the Nile, 
whoever may be the first European who 
beheld it, and whatever be the historical 
inaccuracies and trifling blunders of the 
traveller, the main value of his travels 
remains unaffected. This consists in the 
state of society which he has most admi- 
rably delineated, a state the most extra- 
ordinaiy in which any people upon the 
fece of tlie globe exist. It has fallen to 
his lot to reside among a people half Jews, 
half Christians ; half savages, half civi* 
lized 5 half blade, half white, half canni^ 
bals ;— ra people standing in so little fear 
of God, that oaths and sacraments go 
even for less among them than they do 
at an election or a custom-house ; yet in 
such dread of the devil that they will not 
spill water upon the ground least it 
should splash some of his imps, a fid dare 
not ti-avel in the night for fear of meeting 
him upon the road : so ignorant that they 
believe hyenas to be Jews in disguise, 
and oblige their blacksmiths* to live 



* This is not mentbned by Bnite^ but we give it on the avthprity of Francisco AJ^v^ 
the first Iravelkr ii^o the country.^ . 



BBtrCE S TRAVELS TO THE SOURCE OF TBfi ^ILtl 



Wftsi fiom the rest of the community^ 
as taen who can have acquired such ex- 
tzaordinaiy skill from noue but from the 
dtvil ; and it must be confessed that cer- 
tainly these artificers do practise the 
Uackart: a people, who, in direct viola- 
tion of that hospitality which all savages 
practise, detain every stranger who is 
unhappy enough to venture among them, 
and who send for their patriarch from 
Cairo, lest the little learning and mise* 
fable remains of Christianity among them 
should be utterly extinguished. Such is 
their known barbarity, that the unfortu- 
nate Copt who is condemned to be their 
primate, mast be put in chajns and sent 
ipto the country under a guard of janiza- 
ries lest he should run away. Tliis coun- 
try Bruce describes, where the inhabitants 
lii-e in such a state of insecurity tliat the. 
saddle and bridle can never be taken off, 
nor the bit slipt from the horse's mouth 
while the soads are passable, nor the 
shield and lance hung up in the hall till 
the rainy season sets in, and brings with^ 
it what may there truly be called the 
truce of God 5 — a country where dead 
bodies are left in the streets of the me- 
tropolis for the hyenas > — ^where if the 
small-pox make its appearance, the 
neighbours surround the house and con- 
sume it, with all its inhabitants, by ^e, 
•^wbere they eat animals alive, and men 
and women intoxicating themselves to- 
gether at these bloody feasts, satisfy their 
lusts publicly^ like dogs, in opeu day- 
light ! 

There is not the slightest reason for 
disbelieving or distrusting any part of this 
description. It is authenticated by other 
accounts, as far as they go, coherent with 
itself, probable in all its parts. There is 
oothmg which could have warped the 
Teracity of the traveller here) nothing 
which could be affected hy neglect of 
documeats or failure of memory. It 
depends not upon single £icts, but upon 
accumulation ; the whole history of 
Abyssinia agrees with the representation, 
and every circumstance in their laws and 
manners, their forms, ceremonies, and 
customs, public and private, is in keeping. 

No traveller ever left Europe better 
<palified to travel in safety, and to keep 
up the honour of his country. Well ac« 
qoainted with the language of the people 
among whom he was adventuring, he 
took with him recommendations and 
safe conducts firom the chiefs of their re- 
ligioo, and the difierent powers whom 
t£7iiiost respected^ or with whom they 



were most connected. Without incur* 
ring the dangerous suspicion of being 
wealthy, he appeared as a noble, and was 
accordingly valued by others qs he valued 
himself. His person and his personal^ 
qualities were such as to obtain and to 
secure respect j tall andppwerful beyond 
the ordinary strength and stature of man, 
he excelled the barbarians of Abyssinia 
in their own accomplishments : his ex- 
cellence in horsemanship delighted them, 
and his skill in the managco^eot of a 
double-barrelled rifle astonislied people 
who did not fire the clumsy muskets of 
the Aiabians without' fear and trembling,. 
Wherever human courage or humap pru- 
dence can be of any avail, Bruce n|ight 
have travelled safely; never ofi'e ring an 
insult, never submitting to one,— ^ootan^* 
bitioLuly exalting himself, not meinl/ 
self-abased, conferring favours instead q( 
soliciting then), — ^fearless in times of dan<c 
ger, yet never losing sight of cautioa 
when in most security,— a soldier in Iho 
camp and courtier in the city — the fiiend 
of the great, the healer of the sick, tho 
favourite of the woman. Long will it 
be before anotlier so qualified shall un« 
dertake such a journey,— ^md any one 
less qualified would have perished in tho 
attempt. 

The historical portion of his work is. 
valuable to collate with the Jesuits' ac^ 
Qounts, and to supply the chasm fiom tho 
time of their expulsion to oiu: own days ; 
that part in which he himself bore a share 
is particularly interesljiug. When the in^ 
tercourse between Abyssinia and Europe 
shall again be opened^and the nation hu- 
manized by future missionaries more for- 
tunate than Pedro Paez (more able and 
mote deserving they need not be^ and 
unless, like the Jesuits, they unite policy 
and religion tliey must fail) — whenever 
that happy age for Africa shall arrive, tho 
inhabitants will read their own history in 
the writings of Yagoube the Englishman. 

We have better books of travels in the 
Eiiglish language; that is, books more 
uniformly good, and witliout the faults of 
this; but none that contains so much 
interesting matter. Encumbered as it is 
with theoretical dissertations, it excites a 
livelier and more abiding interest than 
any traveller of our own, or of any other 
cotmtry. This is partly because he was 
a witness of great events, and an actor in 
them ; still more, because he knew so in- 
timately the, most important persons in 
the drama, and has so admirably deli- 
neated them. It has been said that Mi- 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



ditel $uktiU ^ Raft^ i» fl^ich 9 character 

m Shakespeare would hwe Gonce|v«d; 
aor is this €ocnniendation^ high aB it is^ 
exaggerated. Other books luaj he better 
written, but there ii none from which 
tiuer passages can be produced; and in 
flKse tliere are no tricks of composition, 
nothing that the Birmingham-manufac- 
tttreri of plated style can counterieit ; it 
is the plain tale plainly toid^ the strong 
leeling naturally expressed. In the whole 
course of our readhig^ we remember no- 
tBing more deeply and lastingly impres- 
iive than the journey of Bruce across the 
desert. 

It now remains to state what has been 
added to the present edition, either from 
Ae papers of Bmce, or by the labours of 
4fae editor. An account of the life and 
writings of Bruce precedes the work. It 
appears that the conclusive act, by which 
presbytery was established as the national 
idtgion of Scotland, was obtained chiefly 
hf the address and policy of tlie founder 
csf his fiunily. WlM)eTer has seen pres- 
bfterianlsm north of the Tweed, will un- 
ilerstflnd what reason Scotland and reli- 
gbn have to be obliged to him. In his 
youth, Bruce was considered as of a con- 
•wnptLve habit, which there was the more 
leason to apprehend, as his mother and 
Aster had both been cut off by that cwse 
mi our country. He had the happiness to 
be educated in England, because his fa- 
lt»r was attached to the house of Hano- 
ver, and feared lest he might be iutected 
by tile prevalent spirit of jacobinism in 
iitt own country. Accordingly he was 
fkeced at Harrow, where he distinguished 
Ivimself. As he advanced towards man- 
hood, the symptoms of disease became 
Bxae ilireatening : he was tall beyond the 
mcnsure of his years, his joints feeble, his 
breast weak, and subject to violent coughs 
en catching the slightest degree of cold. 
Care and exercise saved him. For his 
professrion he would have preferred theo- 
logy himself, and wished to have entered 
the English church. This predilection did 
Dot meet with tlie approbation of his fa- 
ther, and, in obedience to his advice, he 
entered at Edinburgh and commenced the 
atudy of Scotch law : but neither health 
OMT inclination permitted him to proceed 
with this. India was the next object: 
he was advised to petition the court of 
directors, for the liberty of settling as a 
ft«e-trader under its patronage. To for- 
ward this scheme^ he went to London in 



1753, the twehty-sccond year of his agwt 
there he became intimate with the family 
of Mrs. Allan, the vndow of an eminent 
wine-merchant, married the daughter, 
and entered into tfie business with the- 
son. In his own opinbn this marriage, 
which prevented him from adventtlrrng 
to Indra, saved him from the dreadful 
imprisonment in the black hole. He was 
now settled in a prosperous business, and 
happy with a wife ; but, before the end 
of the year, manifest sjmiptoms of con- 
sumption appeared in Mrs. Brttce. Bris- 
tol hot-wells preyed, as they always must 
prove in such cases, befficacious : tho 
south of France was then recommended, 
which was her native country ; but siio 
only lived to reach Paris, where her last 
moments were persecuted by the catholic 
clergy, according to their detestable cus- 
tom. We copy a very aflecting letter 
wittcn shortly afterwards. 

" Letter of Mr, Bruce to Ids Father. 

" Dear sir, Marklane, Nov. 12, 1754. 

" 1 received yours of the 28th ult. If I 
could be susceptible of more grief, I should 
have been much concerned for my good 
friend Mr. Hay ; but my distress at present 
does not admit of augmentation. Death haa 
been very busy amongst niy relations of late. 
My poor \¥ite, my kiiid uncle,* vfho had been 
always a tender fallier to me, both gone in 
eight niODths ! God Almighty do witn me as 
he sees best! \Vhen I reflect upon what I 
have sefl'cred these tiiree years past, I am 
much ivxjK inclined to pray for my life being 
shortened than tor a prolongation of it, if my 
Mictions must l»ve no end but with my 
being. My mind is so shocked, and tlie ini- 
pressioBS of that dreadhil scene at Paris so 
strongly iixed, thai I have it every mii|iite 
before in}' eyes as distinctly, as it was lien 
happening. 'Myself a stranger in the coun- 
try ; my sei-vauts unacquainted with the lan- 
guage and country, my presence so necessary 
among them, ana inuispensibly so witii my 
dear wife; my poor giri dymg before my 
eyes, tluee months gone With child, full of 
that alfcction and tenderness which marriage 
produces when peoj[>le feel the hapi^iness, 
but not the cares of it ; many of the Roman 
catholic clergy liovering about the doors; 
myself unable to And any expedient to kce]> 
them from disturbing her in her last mo« 
ments — Don t you feel for your son, dear sir, 
in these circumstances? But I will write no 
more ; my a<tiicting you cannot aUeviate* my 
distress. I cannot, however, omit tdling.ypu 
an instance of lord Albemarle's very gi-eat 
humanity ; he has been always a warm-i^re* 
tector of this house. ^ The momina b^re 
my wife died, he sent his chapLuu uy wn im 



*- Counse&)r Hamilton. 



»mUC<^ TRAVILS TO TH« f pFSCE OF TifB !MLR, 



n 



^ftr his services In oiir dwtnew. After hear- 
ing the service of tliesick read, and receiving^ 
the sacrament together, he told me, in case I 
teceivtti any trouble from the priests, my 
lord desired I would tell them 1 belonged to 
the English ambassador. When my wife 
d^, the chaplain caine again to me, desired 
me to CO home with h»ui, and assured me, 
(hat my lord had eiven him orders to see my 
wife buried in the ambassador's burjing- 
cround, which was accordingly done ;' and 
nad it not been for this piece of humanity, 
she must have been buried in the conunon 
yard, where the wood is piled that serves the 
town for tiring. I could not, however, leave 
her as soon as dead, as is the custom in Eng- 
land, but having ordered the mournful solem- 
nity, with as much decency as is allowed in 
Hidt country to heretics, at midnight, between 
the 10th and 1 1th uit. accompanied utily by 
the chaplain, a brother of my lord Fofcy's, 
9od cor own servants, we carried her body 
to the burying-ground, at the Porte St. Mar> 
tin, where i saw all my comfort and huppi- 
jftess laid witli her in the grave. From thence, 
Jbnost frantic, against the advice of every 
body, 1 got on horseback, having ordered 
the 'servant to have post horses ready, and 
fetOBt in the most tempestuous night 1 ever 
saw, for Boulogne, where I arrived next day 
without stopping. There the riding, without 
a great coat, in the night time, m the rain, 
want of iood, which, tor a long time, I bad 
Hot tasted, want of rest, fatigue, and exces- 
•ive cotncem, threw me into a fever; but, 
after repeated bleedings, and the great care 
taken of me by Mr. Hay, I recovered well 
cncingh to set out for London on the Wed- 
nesday. I arrived at home on the Thursday, 
iHien my fever again returned, and a violent 
pain IB ray breast. 1 he fonner is so far 
abated, that I am endeavouring to do a little ' 
bnsmess, hoping, from the variety of that, to 
imd some ease nom reilections that at pre- 
fientaretoo heavy for me. Thus ended my 
dnlbrtiinate jounie>% and with it my present 
prospect of happiness 'm tliis life." 

He contiiraed in the trade several 
years, and, im the course of business vi- 
sited Spain, and Portugal, and France. 
Before this journey he had sti^dicd the 
Imguage^ of these countries, and improved 
himself in drawing. As his journals re- 
main, we cannot but wish that all which 
IS interesting in them had been inserted 
in this memoir: tt might well have sup- 
plied the account of his writings, which, 
howerer fit for a biographical dictionary, 
h surely out of place when prefixed to 
ibe writings themselves. The following 
passage Is given by the editor as a speci- 
men of these Joun&als. 

*• There are manv particular customs in 
ft»rtn|ral, ail of which may be known by this 
10)^ oat whatever 'vn done h the rest of the 



twrtd in one way, is in Pvxtiig^ done by the 
ttontrary, even to the roduag of the mdle, 
which 1 believe in aU the rest of the world is 
from side to side, but in Portugal is from 
head to foot. I fanc^^ it is owing to this eari^r 
contrariety that Iheir brains work m so dli^ 
ferent a manner all their lives after. A Por- 
tuguese boabnan always rows standing, not 
with his face, but his back to the stern of the 
boat, and pushes his oar from hfan. When 
lie lands you, he turns the stem of the boat 
to the shore, and not the head. If a man 
and woman ride on the same mule, the wo*. 
man sits bebre the man, with her face the 
contrary way to whxt tliey do in England. 
When you take leave of any person to whom 
you have been paying a visit, the master of 
the house always goes out of the room, dowa 
stairs, and out'of the liouse, befbfe you, to 
leave you, as he saj^s, in possession of his 
house, and to shew you how much he, and 
all that are in it, are devoted to you. They 
are, indeed, very attentive to the smallest 
punctilio, knowing well one anotiier'stempec. 
The smallest affront is never forgiven. This 
is the occasion of the many murders which 
are continually committed here. It is, in* 
deed, the only country where it can he said 
that murder is tolerated. Everj' fa^^iily has . 
a son, a brother, or a nephew, who is priest, 
or Criar. Tliesc are the instruments. As 
soon as Jhe friar has committed the crime, he 
flies to his convent' ; and in six months the 
thing is no more talkcil oif." 

Much of this is prejudice, and the latter 
part is false. A curious anecdote occurs 
in anotlier note. Ou arriving at Coimbni 
they visited fhe principal library, but 
none of the friars could tell where the 
Greek books were kept. Mr. Brace's 
frieni^ having been there on a former oc- 
casion, accidentally found one ; and, on 
asking the friars in what language it was 
written, they answered, i/tr ais;inmi du9 
len^}uis mucrtaSy it is one of the dead lant- 
guages. 

In Spain he made some effort to obtaiit 
access to the Arabic MSS. in the £scu- 
riaL Don RicardoWall, the then minis- 
ter, wiijhed to engnge hiiu in the service 
of Spain, but did not, or could not, as- 
sist him in this plan. It seems that the 
obser\'ations which he had made iu Spain 
were new and considerably numerous} 
but in consequence of an early resolution, 
which he never violated, he had deter- 
mined to publish nothing on any subject: 
which others had exhausted, or might 
easily illustrate— a resolution springing 
from that vanity which was his predomi- 
nant fault. 

During this journey his father died 
and he succeeded to a respectable fchc- 
ritance, though not equal to his growing 



u 



, VOYAGES AKD TRAVELS. 



ffmbitioii. In ) f6l he left the wine bu- 
siness* He liad seen a battle at Crevelt 
without being engaged in it^ and had con- 
ceived a passion for military enterprize. 
Having procured a plan oi the harbour 
dnd works at Ferrol fi^om soniB person in 
the Spanish scnMce, he projected a sciieme 
ibr attacking it, a Spanish war being thenex- 
pected> and tlirough his friend Mr. Wood, 
' then under secretary of state^ laid it bc- 
Ibre the miiustry, adding, that if the king 
wauld eotnut him wixii the command 4^* 
the tolom hope, and a pair of colours, 
he would not desire the assistance of an- 
other boot except that hr which he landed, 
till he had planted tliem with his own 
Laud on the beach of Ferrol. He con- 
ceived himself justified m this^ because 
Hiodels of the newest British ships of war 
bad been secretly procured by the Spa- 
wards. The justitication is not admis- 
sible f notlikig can justify aiman of ho- 
nour for performing the work of a spy. 

The plan was approved, but laid aside 
for the sake of sending nearer relief to 
Portugal. He was preparing to return 
to Scotland, when lord Halifax requested 
to see him. 

" On meeting withhhn, hislordship laughed 
at Mr. Braced desist of retiring to the coun- 
try at his time of 11^ ; suggested to him, tiiat 
tike wny to rise in the present reign, was by 
^uterorize and discovery ; and that his ma- 
jesty^ love of the arts was a sure and efl'ec- 
Uial introduction to patronage. He observed, 
that Africa, though almost at our very door, 
was yet unexplored ; that Dr. Shaw, a writer 
of undoubted credit, had spoken of mj^gnifi- 
rent remains of architectiffe existing in the 
kingdoms of Tunis and Algiers; and (hat 
loiuething should now be done to preserve 
them, by drawing, and add them to the king^s 
collection. As a further inducement, he in^ 
tonued him, that Mr. Aspenwall, his mar 
k.sty*s agent and consul-general at Algiers, 
had been recalled ; that a merchant, ot the 
name of Ford, who had been appointed to 
succeed him, was since dead ; in consequence 
of which the place was vacant. He warm(y 
advised Mr. Bruce toaccept tliis opportimity 
of visitinij Africa, under tlie protection of a 
public character; promised tliat he sliould 
nave leave to appoint a vice-consul for the 
disj)atch of b^usiness in his absence ; and that, 
if nc made wide excursions into tlie country, 
and large additions to the king's collection, 
he should be recompensed with the rewards 
9*ipulated in the affair of Ferrol, or advanced 
to a higher situation m the diplomatic de- 
partment, "^lo these proposals Mr. Bruce 
acceded. He afterwTards had several conver- 
sations with k)rd Halifax and Mr. Wood on 
the subject of Africa. In the course of the ^e, 
mcatiou was frccjuently mi.de of the sources 



of the Nile, and of the obscurity in whielk 
they had ever been concealed. The foun- 
tains of the river of Egypt were spoken of as 
likely to remain wliolly unknown to the mo- 
derns, mi til some undaunted adventurer 
should trace it to its origin. Hints were 
obliquely thrown out, that the discovery of 
these " coy sources** could not be exi^ected 
from an ordinary traveller, much less'fnjiu 
oiie who had no experience m those difHcul- 
ties which must accoiniiany an ^iterprize of 
such magnitude and glory ; and it was insi- 
nuated, that if any Briton sliould fulfil tlie 
wishes of even* age, in ti>is particular, he 
ought not, unner such a monarch,. and in ^ 
period so auspicioiis to discovery and leam^ 
mg, to despau' of a high reward. ' 

The consulship at Algiers accordingly 
was given him. It appears from hist>wn 
letters in the appendix, but not from tli« 
memoir^ that he had accepted it because 
an attack upon Oran was projected, irr 
whkh he hoped to have been of si*rvice^ 
The fair promises of lord Halifax ended 
—as the promises^ of great men usually 
end. Not oply was the promise which 
bad been given htm of a few months 
absence to visit the interior of the coun- 
try never performed 5 but pressing dis- 
patches upon the roost urgent business, 
m which the property, and liberty, anU 
life of British subjects were at stake, were 
neglected. As far as it was possible for 
an individual, Bruce defended the rights 
of his countrymen, and supported the ho- 
no^u: of his country. If British property 
was confiscated, and British, subjects 
clnigged into slavery and scourged like 
slaves, the in&my does not lie at his door. 

It was the plan of the Algerines to 
make tlie English pay them an annual 
tribute i for tlie many favours which thej 
received from England, these ignorant 
barbarians attributed to fear — though 
not the true motive, quite as worthy and 
as wise as the true one. Bruce's advice^ 
if followed, would have humbled their 
insolence for ever, and have preserved us 
a station in the Mediterranean. It is 
thus detailed in one of the letters to lord 
Halifax : 

" My lord, affairs are come to this crisis r 
the Alserines have formed their plan, pursue 
it steadily, and have made all further expos- 
tulatbn impossible ; and I humbly apprehend 
no alternative remains, but either by appear- 
ance of force, to shew them this scheme is 
impracticable, or put ourselves upon the foot- 
ing of other nations. 

" Nor is it the arrival of a fleet only that 
will have the eflect to put his majesty's aifaira 
upon> lasting footing of quit^t. I'hey will^ 



«lt7CB*8 TRAViL^ TO TH£ SOUXCE OF tB£ ITILK. 



13 



K IS trap", immediately niake n^sHtution, and 
desire a renewal of friendship, and if we are 
contented with that, the fleet will scarcely be 
disarmed, until they anew begin acts of vio- 
lence, till constant 'equipments on our part, 
nithout any product but constant verbal sub- 
jnis.^ioos on theirs, will, they ho]X}, in time, 
make us prefer a moderate annual ex pence 
to in excessive one so often as they please to 
provoke us to K. Therefore, my jord, I 
should humbly hope, besides restitution and 
reparation, tiiat the expence pf the armameht 
-nught be insisted upon. They really arc not 
in a condition for retusals. 1 Vis, on our part, 
would be such a lasting mark of superiority, 
and» on theirs, so distinct a one of mal-admi- 
nistrattoD, that ao Dey, for' the hittive, would 
hazard measures that "might bring snch seri- 
ous consequences on his country. They are, 
my bid, very capable of affording this: in 
the treasury m Algiers only, there arc said to 
be contained thirty-tive millions sterling in 
specie, besides an iounense amount in jewels 
and plate. 

" but if it were his majesty's pleasure his 
roiral highness sliould come hitKer with a licet, 
there is a much more proper species of in- 
demnification than that above mentioned, of 
more consequence to the nation in pe&ce or 
war, which will much more readily oe coiyv- 
plied with by Algiers, and which is' attended 
with certain circumstances in favour of li- 
berty, that make it perfectly proper for the 
£ist expedition of a prince. 

" This is the cession of the islasd of Ta- 
baica to Britain, the subject of the memorial 
indoKd, wherein I have set down imperfectly 
the advantages attending the possession of it. 
It has been oflered, by Algiers, to several 
powers, and they have ditl'ered upon small 
sums. It is of no sort of profit to the Alge- 
fines at present. The above your lordahip 
Miay depend upon, as it is the result of many 
cnnVersations: with the conunlssary of Ta- 
barca, now a slave here, and who is under 
obligations to me, though he knows not what 
use is to be made of liis information. 

firucc had seen this island in a coasting 
vc^'age. It Is famous for a coral fishery j 
and, along the coast, he says, are immense 
ibrests of large beautiful oaks, more than 
nffident to supply the necessities of all 
the raariiinae powers in the Levant, if the 
<)ualily of the wood be but equal to the 
size and beauty of the tree. 

The whole con-espondence is in the 
highest degree honourable to Bruce. He 
ijoncludes one-of his letters thus : ' My 
lord, in tliis country of murder, chains, 
and torture, your lordship will not ex« 
pect me to be more explicit than I am as 
to measures.' 

" I was just finishing the letter to vour 
k^rdiihip, when wonl in Iwought me, th;;t titis 
moraine tarly, the master of the above-men- 
tsoued vcsxd* aod the ^percargo, were cat- 



ried before the Dey, and in order to extort a 
confession if they "had secreted any etfecls, 
were bastinadoedf over the feet and bins in 
such a manner as the blood gashed out, and 
then loaded with heavy chains: the captaia, 
it is thought, cannot recover. I have like- 
wise received from a fiiend some insinuations, 
that I am IB danger, and advice to tly ; but 
as it was not the prospect of pay, or want of 
fortime, that induced me to accept of tiiis 
employment, so I will not abandon it fi-ofa 
•fears or any motives unworthy a gentteman. 
One broAliet has this war already liad ihc ho- 
nour of dying to his majesty's service, twa 
nxn-e are still in it, and all I hope is, if any 
accident be^U me, as is hourly probable, his 
majesty will be favourable to the survivors oi 
a tamily that has always served him faith- 
fully." 

It Is impossible to read the correspoo- 
deiHie wickouC wishing the two men U> 
change situattone. Bruce would h2Vo 
taug^ the pirates, a good lesson had fa^ 
beeti in tlie miiiistry, and lord Halifax 
should have been sent to Algiers to teach 
him English feelings undier Algerrne dk-. 
cipliue. Bruce was neglected io his 
public capacity, and ill-used as to his pri- 
vate concerns. The leave of absence was 
never granted him, and he was at last 
obliged either to make bis excarsioa as a 
private individual, or to abandon tiie prin- 
cipal design of his residence in Barbaiy. 

The history ©f this journey is g\\-en by 
himself in the introduction to his travclf- 
Frora this time, therefore, till his retura. 
from Abyssinia to Europe, we may pass 
over the occurrences of his life. The 
tirst business in which he engaged after 
his complete recovery was of a very sin- 
gular nature. . Before he went to Algiera 
he had received a promiae of marriage 
from a Scotch lady, settled, as we sup^ 
pose, in Italy* Ar Bruce, however, 
thought proper to make an e^urursion t». 
the sources of die Nile before he claimed 
the performance of this promise, the ladf 
married an Italian nobleman, while he 
was drinking her health at Geesh. He 
thought himself injured, apparently with 
less reason tlian she had thought herself 
undervalued ; and, in spite of tlK^ advico 
of his friends, he went to Rome to chal- 
lenge tlie marquis. The atlair terminated 
in th« following correspondence : 

" 1 . Mr, Bruce to Sig. Accoramhonu 
" Sir, 
" Not my licart, but the entreaties of my 
friends, made me otfcr you thij allcrnAlive by 
the abbe Grant. It was not* for such sati*- 
faction, that sck, and covtr *d witii woundi, 
I have traversed ^f^ niuch i^nl ;ini »v:a to iiud 
you. 



i4 



VOTAGtS AND TBAVEI^. 



*^An ioBOccnt man, esofAoyed ja tke w- 
^e of my couotry'-'WiUiaut pcovooatioo 
cr inji^rv frooi me, you have di^ved lae 
cf mr honour, by vioktitts; all tlie most 
sacred eights before God anainat^; and you 
now refui^e to i^ouuuit to writing wbat you 
willingly confess iu words. A maa of houoor 
aod iunoceoce, marquis, knows no such shifts 
as these; and it will be well for one of us lo- 
day, if you had beenas scrupulous in doiug 
an injury as you are in rcpainiig iL 

'* I am your eaual, majKHUi, in every x»- 
spoct; and God alone can do me justice for 
the injury which you have done me. Full of 
innoceuce, and with a clear consdmcey I 
commit my revenge to him, and draw my 
fword against you with contidence inspired 
by the reflection of havbg done my duty, 
aiid by a sense of the injustice and violence 
vhicli 1 have sutfered fifom you without any 



" At half past nine (French reckomin;) I 
come to your gate in my carriage ; if it does 
not please you, let yoin* own be readv ; and 
let us go together to determine whicfi b the 
more easy, to injure a man in his absence, or 
to defend it when he is present.'^ 

•« 2. Sign. Aceoramhoni to Mr. Bruce. 
" Sir, Eomc, Nov. 30, 1773. 

*• When the maiViage with Mm M., at 
|iresent my wife, was arranged, it was never 
mentioned to me that tliere was a promise 
made to you, otlierwise that connection 
flhoiild not have taken place. 

•* With regard to yourself, on my honour, 
1 have never spoken of vou in any manner, 
as you were entirely unknown to me. On 
wlitfrh account, if I can serve you, command 
md With the profoundest respect, I sign 
myself, your most obedient humble sen'ant, 
" FiLIPPO AccoaAMBONi.*' 
•* To Jxunes Bruce, Esq. 

On his retnm to England he presented 
iiis drawings to the king, for vi'hicb, it is 
added in a note, he received a gratuity: 
we wish it had been specified what. Tlie 
liigh reward, which had been lield out to 
• lim by lord Halifox, was certainly never 
bestowtd, though assuredly the services 
which he had rendered to literature de- 
served some marks of public honour, and 
public remuneration. In 177^ he mar- 
ried a second time : liaving been so long 
a widower, ihat tlie year of his first wife's 
death was that in which his second was 
bom. With tliis lady he lived happily j 
but only for nine years, when he was 
again lett single. lie survived her nine 
years : his o*'n death was remarkable. 
After having escaped frpm the barbarians 
of Abyssinia and K'ubia, and the perils of 



the desert, he lell down his own stairv 
and died j but it is probable that his fall 
was tn consequeoce of a fit He was im 
his 64th year. 

The present edition contains his last 
correctious and emendations. As these 
ire not pointed out, it cannot be expected 
that we should have, collated so eitten- 
stve j^ work; and had they been of any 
great importance, they would have beea 
fpectfied. Mr. Murray has added vari- 
ous appendices and notes. To the first 
book he has appended Balugani's descrip* 
tion of the amja, or boat of the Nile, 
and general observations on the early his- 
tory of Arabia^ Egypt, and Ethiopia, which 
tend to ideiuify Sesostria with Shishak, 
and to prove that the Egyptians had made 
oo conquests in Asia prior to the age of 
Sobmon. The dissertation is erudite and 
ingenious, bat the arguments would have 
been more forcible if more condensed. 
Here also he has inserted Bruce's letter 
to Dr. Burney on Egyptian and Abyssi- 
^ nian music, adding certain remarks of his 
own ; a part of which we shall quote, re- 
lating to the drawings of the harpers l^ooi 
the caverns ef The^. 

*' Mr. Brown, who lately travdfed into 
Eg)'pt, and Dar Fur, and visited the cavcra 
in me Biban al Moluc, where Mr. Bruce drew 
these figures, has insinuated that he seemed 
to have drawn them from memory. This re* 
port has gained credit, and t>een repeated to 
the prejudice of Mr. Bnice's diameter, both 
in Britain and on the continent. * The &cts, 
that may be brought to vindicate him, are 
tlie following : 

'' The penciled sketches of the two harps 
are still preserved among Mr. Bmce's papers^ 
and one of them, at least, is clearly the woiic 
of Luigi Balugaai. On on^ of them is a di- 
rection to 'the engraver, in Mr. Bruce's hand** 
writing, giving him a slight liberty to finish 
the sketch, but not to change the costume of 
the player. This was written a short time 
before the publication of the travels ; but it is 
quite evident to any eye that tlie difference 
between the engravmg and'the sketch is very 
trilling. 

** From the known custom of Mr. Bruce 
and his assistant, it is next to certain tliat the 
sketches were tiiken on the spot. However 
careless Mr. Browne may suppose tliese gen- 
tlen^en to have been at other ti:nes, it Is not 
likely that they would have sitten down, afi^ 
an excursion through the tombs of ancient 
Thebes, to draw, ^ram memory, the sculp- 
tures they had seen in the course of the day. 
Mr. Iirowue does not pretend that lie cin 
draw ; wc may, therefore, ask him, if he ijad 
Mr. Bruce's drawmgs in the cave to compare 



♦ Vide L3rchcr,Traduct. d'Herodote, vol. i. pref. p. xliv. 



S&tTCB*0 tBA^BCS VO TBB SOUItCX Qf «HB VILBf 



w 



Aem with (be OfigiDals? If be had not, his 
crjtictsni is that of a man wha is no artist, 
mkinga remark from memory, "^hethcr 
. Mr. Brace couid dm* or not, is of httli!; im- 
portaooe b daciding on the Iruth of these re- 
pmentatioDs ; for he had in his company an 
exoelient draughtsman* whose works remain 
to $|M9k fiar his pretensions;*' 

M. Denon^ who gives us a more per- 
fect view of Egyptian antiquities than any 
»-ori as yet iu existence^ confirms what 
Mr. fimce has said on the subject of £gyp<: 
tiin mosic. That accomplished artist 
sketched seren figures, playing on instru^ 
ments, from the walls of the royal sepul-> 
chres, H-estofT2)ebes^ and irom the temple 
ofTtnlyra, 

The most important of these sculptures 
h that of a musician playing on a harp, 
having, according to M. Denon, twenty- 
floe surings. The sketch which he gives 
liearly inclines us, at first, to believe, that 
it b one of those given by Mr. Bruce ) 
ytX, on examination, it differs in so many 
partkulars as to leave no doubt that it is 
none of them. M. Denon's sketch is 
evidently hasty, but probably a good re- 
semblance. 

Denon has now confirmed the veracity of 
Bruce, who seems to have made no othet 
alteration than that of improving the 
figures, a liberty to which a zealous artist 
|D^ easily be seduced. 

To the second book the editor has added 
a sommary view of the Egyptian theo- 
hgf, as cdiected firom the Hebrew and 
Greek writers, with the names of the 
gods in the antienC native language, in* 
tended to sihistrate tlie remains of Egyp- 
tian antk{uity mentioned in the two pre- 
ceding books. A dissertation, coutaining 
additfenai prooft in support of Bruce's 
hypothesis, that Egypt was peopled from 
^ SQuth, 9nd the coofinefe of Ethiopia ; • 
and a vocabulary of the Amharic, Fala- 
shan, Gaiat, Agow, and Tcheretch Agow 
bngns^es. To the third, he haf prefixed 
a geographical account of the Abyssinian 
pronnces, and a' preface to the history of 
Abyssinia, containing a short view of the 
Abyssinian constitution, such as it ap* 
pears to have been in the better days of 
the empire ; an account of the ceremo- 
nies used at the coronation of the king, 
or negux, as he should more properly be 
jaHcd J of the prihctpal officers of state, 
and those pecuHar customs of thfe court 
tod camp, winch should be understood 
before the history is pamsed/ These very 
feartied dissertations are compiled from 
>roce% Exiitopic M5S. T^ Utts aame 



\iocki he has appeiybd misceUaneou^ notes 
and remarks on the MS. Abyssinian hb- 
tory, bnmght by Bruce from Gondari 
and a vocabulary of the Galla' language. 
The fourth book has peither preliminary 
matter nor appendix $ but, in the course 
of this book, Mr.. Murray has exercised a 
verv unwarrantable exertion of editoria) 
authority, having omitted the whole life 
of Bacu^a, as jt stands in th^ former edi<- 
tion, and inserted one written by himself 
in a note. He says, indeed, that the life^ 
as written by Bruce, may be found in a 
succeeding volume : we have not found 
it there. This total omission must be 
imputed to oversight; but the cliapter 
ought not to have been displaced 5 it is 
highly curious, and the roost curious anec* 
dotes rest upon the Authority of tlie -mie 
of BacuHa, the Iteghe, who herself com- 
municated them to Bruce. Mr. Murray's 
additional matter might have appeared, 
as it now does, in a smaller type, and this 
have been retained. The work is imperr 
feet without it, and indeed contains some 
allusions which are left absolutely unin« 
telligible by the omission. 

The fifth book also is without addi<« 
tions ; but, after the sixth, we find addi^* 
tionai Accounts of the transactions . at 
Gondar, and journey to the sources, con- 
taining a sketch of Michael Sukuls life, 
till the time when Bruce entered Abyssi- 
nia 5 extracts from Bruce's common-place 
book concerning his first introduction to 
the Ras, and from Balugani's journal; 
part of these last we have previously ex* 
tracted. Here also he has inserted the 
descriptions of the sources by Pedro Paez 
and Jeronymo Lobo ^ the first as it stands 
in Kircher, part Latin, part unintelligible 
Portugueze; the latter in lie Grande's 
French, with translations of both, and re- 
marks upon them. It is his opinioii that 
Paes had visited the springs, but that Lobo 
only copied his account. After the last 
book^ detached articles are added from 
the several journals and common-place 
books, containing additional inforiuation 
respecting Abyssinia, and extracts from 
die j ournals oi the route homeward . The 
appendix is increased with eleven addi- 
tional articles of natural history 3 an ac- 
count of the antidotes .used by the Nuba 
against serpents. Observations of lati- 
tude and longitude made by Bruce in 
Africa j dissertation on tlie progressive 
geography of the Bahar el Abiad, and the 
other branciiet of the Nile $ accouxit of 
the Ethiopic MS8. from which Bruce 
composed the history of^Aby^siiiia^ ac« 

B7 



i4 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



count of die price of vriting-*book8 at 
Gondar, and a description of some of the 
most valuable works in Bruce's collection 
of Arabic MSS. The volume of prints 
contains all the additional articles of na- 
tural history, and portraits of Ozoro Esr 
they, Tecla Mariam, Kefla Yasous, and 
Woodage Asahel. 

It would be poor and inadequate praise 
to say, that it has seldom or never fallen 
to our lot to notice a book so ably edited. 
We believe no editor ever before so labo- 
riously qualified himself for his under- 
taking. It is to be hoped tliat Mr. Mur- 
'^ray will make farther and 'greater use oi 



the very rare, and very difficult anoflitio* 
which he has acquired. We wish for \h» 
book of Enoch, however extravagant it 
may be^ and for a literal version of the 
Abyssinian chronicles, however opposite 
to our notions of historical composition. 
Bruce says tliat he has rhadehis narration 
from these, more conformable to the man« 
ner of writing English history j this is pre- 
cisely the very thing which he should not 
have done. If I am to feed u^xm ^ion^f 
flesh, do'nt let it be drest like roast mut- 
ton ; I would have k in the genuine cook* 
ery of the Welled Sidi Boogannlm. 



Art. II. AFoya^ round the ff'orld in the Years 1800, 1801, 1 802, 1 803 oni 1804: 

rn which the Author visited the principal Islands in the Pacific Ocean, and the English 

Settlements qf Fort Jackson, and JSorfolk Island. By John TurnbulI. 3 Vols. 
&)olscap 8vo. 



IF every man whose business or amuse- 
ment leads him into WaW or Scotland 
flatters himself t^iat he is qualified to im- 
part some interesting information to the 
public, to present some novel view of hu- 
man society, some unnoticed trait of cha- 
racter, it can excite no surprise that he 
%rhose enterprising spirit has led him to 
circumnavigate the globe, should, on his 
return, feel so fully fraught with matter 
of high import and curiosity as to seize 
with avidity on the press, as the only suf- 
ficient conductor for discharging the con- 
tents of his o*erburdened brain. Repeat- 
ed experience, indeed, has evinced, that it 
Is not absolutely necessary to freight a 
vessel with $avans in order to have such 
an account of a voyage as may repay the 
time and task of perusal : the plain and 
unassuming journal of a man of sense and 
observation, faithfully kept, will hardly 
fail to interest and inform. For many of 
our best books in this department of li- 
terature we are indebted to merchants and 
missionaries. Among the number of our 
best books, indeed, the present narra- 
tive has no chance or claim to be ranked -, 
such as it* is, we owe it to an adventurer 
whose voyage was undertaken for the ad- 
vancement of trade, not of science, and, 
like most others, for purposes of private 
emolument rather than of public advan- 
tage. 

Whilst second ofHoer in the Barwell, 
in her last voyage to China, in the year 
1799jMr,TurnbuU and the first officer 
ot ihat ship had reason to belieVQ that did 
Americans carried on a very lucrative 
fnde to the north-west of that continent. 



On their return to England they commu- 
nicated the result of their observation to 
some merchants of an enterprising spirit, 
who approved of the proposed speculation, 
and immediately prepared for its execu* 
tion. Tho command of the vessel was 
given to the captain of the Barwell, apd 
the' cargo and trading part were entrusted 
to Mr. Tumbull ; both these gentlemen 
were interested in the success of the vey- 
age, as they held shares of considerable 
value. 

Prom Portsmouth we sail to St. Salva- 
dor in about six pages. It is perhaps a 
memorandum worth preserving, that 
whilst the Spaniards in the harbour wer« 
lading and unlading as deliberajtely, and 
as much at their ease, according to Mr. 
Tumbull, as if they had been in Cadiz it- 
self, tlie most minute and jealous exami- 
nation of the English vessel was insistai 
on by the viceroy j various circumstanoes 
indicated that the Spaniards were on very 
favoured terras with the Portugueze, and 
indeed that a clandestine intercourse be- 
tween the two powers existed at that 
tinae, prejudicial to the interests of Great 
-Britain, and consequei>tly unsanctioned by 
the terms of a fair neutrality. Mr. T., 
however, gives thePortiigueze a Rowland 
for tlieir Oliver 5 he suggests the inipossi- 
bility that -a nation iaflen so low in ihm 
scale of European powers should long pos- 
sess' the Brazils, and monopolize an ex- 
tent of country which she is as little able 
Jo use as to defend j of course, if 'it falla 
into any hands, it had tetter lie enjoyed 
by us than the French, who would ba 
likely cnottgl^ to seize upon them if an 



MRNBULl's VOTAOtS 11^ THB FACIFlC OCSAlTi 



17 



aplKfftiniity occurred, and consok them« 
lelves in South America for the loss of 
Malta. 

From the Brasils our adventurers steered 
their course to the Cape of Good Hope, 
where thef stayed a fortnight^ and thence 
proceeded to Port Jackson in New South 
Wales, where Mr. TumbuU remained, in 
onto to dispose of his cargo, whilst the 
capudn proceeded on his north-west spe- 
culation. The admirable account of New 
South Wales, by captain Collins, has nn- 
ticipated, in all its particulars, the infor- 
matign concerning it in this meagre nar- 
ntive. Mr. Tumbull paid two visits to 
the colony, and laments^ not without rea- 
son, the disunion which at both times he 
found prevailing among the officers of go- 
Teniment. Numerous indeed are the ob- 
stacles which seem to oppose themselves 
against the improvement of the colony 3 
nor, perhaps, is it a matter of much con- 
teqaence, so far as the interests . of the 
mother country are concerned. The vast 
expence with which the establishment of 
it has been attended, ought, no doubt, to 
ensoie a compensation at some distant 
period : a parent never expends his money 
with kss reluctance than in the education 
of his son : he hopes to qualify him for 
earning his own subsistence, and for add- 
ing to the wealth or honour of his family. 
But a ookmy— a colony too of convicts ! 
is it likely to thrive > And if it should, is 
the thrift of the offspring connected with 
the interests of the sire? where is the 
hood of unity and concord ? Whenever the 
colony is able to support itself it will, in 
all probability, assert its independence: 
the aid of other countries in support of its 
exertions will be called for without scruple, 
tod granted without reluctance. This, 
ito doubt, u a remote period to contem- 
plate : the climate, indeed, notwithstand- 
ii^ its severe heat, is salubrious, and when 
tbe country is ck^red of its woods there 
will be a large extent of fertile soil. The 
cbaracter, however, of the persons who 
«e traaspianted thither leaves but little 
hope that they will advance the interests 
of tbe colony by tlieir industry, their mo- 
nls, or dielr rniderstanding^ and some of 
the regulations which, with the best in- 
teutkxu, the government has adopted, ap- 
pear to be in the highest degree impolitic 
ud prejudicial. We allude to the limi- 
^>tion of the price of labour, of pro- 
fits upon the sale of imported articles, 
>ndto tbe regulation concerning the price 
of provisions. These absurd restrictions, 
hovever, call forth warm eulogiuflpa from ^ 

Ajijr. Rav. Voi. IV. 



Mr. Tumbull on the wisdom and bene* 
volence of the government! The markets 
at Port Jackson having, unfortunately for 
Mr. Tumbull, been just supplied, and tha 
little money of the colony exhausted, ho 
proceeded to the settlement of Norfolk 
Island, where he had again the misfortune 
to have been recently anticipated. Hers 
he remained ten months, and as an ex- 
cuse for sayii^ little or nothing about iti 
pleads that he visited the island as a trader^ 
and not as a natural philosopher ! The g&k 
neral statement which many of our readers 
will remember to have seen in governor 
Phillip's Voyage to Botany Bay, &c. con- 
cerning the beauty of the country, and the 
exhaustless fertility of the soil, is confirm-* 
ed bv Mr. Tumbull The productions 
which, according to the governor, were of 
the greatest importance to Norfolk Island, 
are the flax plant and the pine : the fbr-^ 
mer, though luxuriant in its growth, and 
estimable for the purpose of naiaking cord- 
age, sail-cloth, &c. does not appear to be 
a native of the island. Pines grow to an 
enormous size ; they often rise to eighty 
feet without a branch 5 governor Phillip 
says they are sometimes nine or ten feet 
in diameter at the bottom of the trunk, 
and frequently measure one hundred and 
sixty or one hundred and eighty feet in 
height. The fern tree (according to the 
same author, for we obtain marvellous 
little from Mr. Tumbull) measures fi-om 
seventy to eighty feet, and affords excel- 
lent food for sheep and| other small cattle. 
The turpentine obtained firom the pine is 
remarkable for purity and whiteness, and 
governor Phillip, understanding that the 
wood was of excellent quality, and light 
as the Norway timber, thought that it 
promised a valuable supply of masts and 
spars for our navy in the East Indies. He 
seems, however, to have been mistaken ^ 
Mr Tumbull says that the pine of Nor- 
folk Island is very brittle, and only fit for 
purposes of building, household furai-. 
ture, 8cc, The pine of the South Sea> 
and indeed of all warmer climates, he 
says, is of a very different nature from 
those of Europe. We have no doubt of 
tliis : nature is uniform in her operations : 
throughout the vegetable kingdom rapi- 
dity of growth seems to be incompatible 
with solidity of substance* 

Norfolk island was colonized by go- 
vernor Phillip, who sent thitlier the most 
profligate part of his profligate people : • 
" it has hencefortli been adopted as the 
ordinary practice, that the more abandon- 
ed of the convicts, and such as have fallen 
C 



It 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



tinder the sentence of the law a second 
time, should be transported to this island." 
Among the most respectable of the settlers 
•re some part of the crew of tlie Sirius, 
who, being shipwrecked on the island, 
preferred the cultivation of so fertile a 
country to a return home ; several ma- 
rines who went out upon the first estab- 
Hshment had the same indulgence, as also 
have some of the more industrious con- 
ticts. We are glad to leaiii that the cul- 
ture of the sugar cane is highly encou- 
raged) many of the smaller plantations 
are fenced round with it. Norfolk Is- 
land, however, as a place of establishment 
for a colony, has the insuperable objec* 
ifion. against it of being almost wholly sur- 
rounded by a reef, and barricaded, as it 
^•ere, against all approach, by a heavy 
mountainous sea -, of being destitute of a 
harbour ; and having a bad shore, the bot- 
tom being covered with pointed fragments 
of sharp coral rock, which renders an- 
chorage impracticable. Goveftnnent has 
attempted in vain to remove these ob- 
stacles. 

The following anecdote will not be read 
without interest, or without exciting feelr 
ings of compassion towards the unfortu- 
aate outcast: it occurred in the island 
about eight years since : 

« *' One of the prisoners belonging to the out- 
gangs, being sent into camp on Saturday, to 
draw the weekly aUo\K'an^e of provision for liis 
mess, fell unfortimately into the company of 
1^ party of convicts, wao were playing cards 
fpr their allowance, a tiling very frequent 
amongst them. With as little resolution as 
his superiors in similar situations, after being 
a while a looker-on, he at length suffered him- 
self to be persuaded to take a hand ; and in 
the event, lost not only his own portion, but 
that of the whole mess. Being a man of a 
timid nature, his misfortune overcame his 
reason, and conceiving his situation amongst 
his messmates insupix)rtable, he formed and 
executed the extravagant resolution of ab- 
sconding into the glens. 

" Every possible enquiry was now made af- 
ter him ; it was known that he had drawn the 
allowance of his mess, and almost in the same 
njoment discovered that he had lost it at play ; 
«earch upon scarcli however was made to no 
purpose. However, as it was impossible that 
ne could subsist witiiout occasionally maraud- 
ing, it was believed that he must shortly be 
taken in liis predatory exairsions. These ex- 
pectations, however, were in vain, for the fel- 
low managed his business with such dexterity, 
keeping closely within his retreat .during the 
day, and marauding for his subsistence only 
by niglit, that in despite of th(^ naiTow com- 
pass of tlie island, he eluded all search. His 
p«ctiim4 depredations were solely confiiied 



to the supply of his necessities ; Indian coa^ 
potatoes, piunpkins, and melons. He seldom 
visited the same place a s<*cond time ; bui 
shifting from place to place, always contrived 
to mie his escape almost before the theft 
was discovered, or the depredator suspected- 
In vain was a reward olfered for his appre* 
hension, and year after year every possibly 
search instituted; at times it was considered 
that he was dead, till the revival of the old 
trade proved that the dextrous and invisibly 
thief still existed. 

"In the pursuit of him, his pursuers have 
often been so near him, tliat he nas not unfre* 
qiiently heard their wishes that they might b* 
so fortunate as to fall m with him." The re- 
ward being promised in spirits, a temptalioQ 
to which many would have sacriiiced their 
brother, excited almost the whole ijJand to 
join in the pursuit ; and even those whose re? 
Si>cctabiiity set them above anv pecimiary 
compensation, were animated with a desire of 
hunting in so extraordinary a chase. 1 hesi 
circumstances conairred to aggravate the ter- 
ror of the unhappy fiigitive, as from his re- 
peated depredations he indulged no hope o€ 
pardon. 

" Nothing of this kind, however, vras in-. 
tended ; it was humanely thought that he had 
already sustained suflicient j>unishnient for his. 
original crime, and that his subsequent de- 
predations, being solely confined to necessary 
food, were venial, and rendered him a subject 
rather of pity than of criminal intliction. Of 
these resolutions, however, he knew nothing^ 
and therefore his terror continued. 

" Chance, however, at length accomplished 
what had ballied ever^' fixed design. On* 
morning about break ot d?y, a man going to 
Ms labour observed a fellow hastily crossing, 
tlie road ; he was instantly struck with the idea 
that this must be the man, the object of such 
general pursuit. Animated with this belief,* 
he exerted his utmost efforts to seize liim, and,- 
after a vigorous opposition on the part of the 
poor fijgitive, finally succeeded in his design. It- 
was to no purpose to assure the atlrighted. 
\^Tetch that his life was safe, and that his apj- 
prehension was only sought to relieve him 
from a life more suited to a beast than a hu- 
man creature. 

** The news of this ap]3rehension flew 
through the island, and ever\- one was more 
curious than another to gaiir a sight of thia 
phenomenon, who for upwards of five year». 
had so eiTtx'tually secluded himself from att 
human society. Upon being brought hito 
the camp, i^ncl the presence of the governor, 
never did condemned malefactor feel more 
acutely; he appeared to imagine that the 
moment of his execution approached, and, 
trembling in every joint, seemed to turn his 
e>es in search of* the executioner. His pep- 
son was such as may well be conceived I'rom 
his long seclusion from human society; liis 
beard had never been shaved from the mo- 
ment of his first disappearance ; he was cloth- 
ed in some rags he had picked up by the way ^ 
in some of his nocturnal pcregrmutions, and 



TURNB.0i:l*S VOTiTGBS 19 THB FA^OtWIf OCBANc> 



rat ilk ofvn fauignage wa« at£nt uoutterabl^ 
ItiMluiUDtelii^ible by him 

" After some previous questions, as to what 
jiad induced him to fomi sucli a rt^oiution, 
and by what means he had so long subsisted, 
the governor gave him his^ pardon, and re- 
ftored him to society-, of which he afterwards 
krcame » very useful member." 

Mobile Mr. Tunibull was at' Norfolk 
Jslaiid he received a letter from his cap- 
tain, announcing the total failure of the 
fiorth-westem speculation, and his return 
to Port Jackson : it was resolved to try 
Bass's Straits, and endeavour to make up 
a rargo of skins there, as the licence from 
the East Iiidia Company compelled tlie 
Tcssel to visit China. The captain, in or^ 
der to exfiedite this business, engaged 
some sopemvmierary hands, M'l^om, to- 
gether with an officer " well versed in 
the sealing business," he landed on King's 
Island in those straits, whilst he proceeded 
' with the ship to the Society Islands, in 
order to supply her with pn)vigions, which 
could not be purcfiased at Port Jackson at 
aiy price ! On their arrival at Otaheite, 
fcowever, they leanied from some mission- 
aries who are settled there, that the ra- 
vages of a destructive war, which was just 
temuoated, had created a dearth in the 
island. After remaining there about a 
montli, however, tliey obtained a small 
supfdy of hogs, &c. and proceeded to Uli- 
etea, foudiing at Huaheine, where they 
were greeted by an old shipmate who had 
for some tiitie resided on tiie island, and 
seemed perfectly satisfied with his situa- 
tion! hi thb island the natives entertained 
them with a dance. 

" The performers and their attendants 
came oil' in procession, iii a large double ca- 
noe, having a platform or stage erected across 
the forepart, on which the dancers and musi- 
ciair; sat. Th'i5 canoe was accompanied by a 
great number of small canoes, hlled with na^ 
lives to behokl the entertainment prq>ared for 
ihe strangers. The women were dressed in 
a H)rt of long bell hooped petticoat of thc^ir 
OiFB cloth, oniamented with a purple border. 
What answered tlie uurpose of a hoop was a 
cou;jle of stuffed pads bound roujid the w. ist 
to supjwrTaiid distend the petticoat; round 
tiie body was uTapped a large quantity of 
doth, fastened with bandages ; and opposite 
to eadi hxt^A was placed a bunch ot black 
feather^, ' They wore also a kind of turban 
adorned with a variety of ilowers. A master 
ei the ceremonies presided in the dance, and 
directed all tlie movements, which were not 
alvays of the most delicate nature. The mu- 
oc con^ted of two drums made from a log 
of wood hollowed out in a cylindrical shape, 
wd covered a\ the end with a piece of shark 
Aia, ti^itly bnced dowa the ^^ Tbie 



musicians mak^ no use of dnuibestidUi -but 
employ their fmgeas, and sometimes th^ 
tands, so as to be heard at a considerable dis- 
tance. They beat slowly at first, as a signal 
to prepare for the dance ; and as the music 
becomes more rapid, the dancers quicken 
their motions. Flutes also were used on the 
occasion, having only three holes or stop% 
one of which is of such a size as to admit of 
the performer 5 applying his nostrils to till i^ 
The dance required very great exertion in the 
women to keep time to the music by e:^- 
piring and inspiring their breatlis, drawing 
their mouths hi contrary directions, and twirl- 
ing their arms and iingers with some order and 
great regularity.- Ihose who excelled in 
8iese contortions and gestures were the mo0t 
applauded. So eager were the perfonners tor 
gain the approbation of the spectators, and so 
violent were tlieir exertions, overloaded wit^i 
clothing and sCraitened with bandages, tha^ 
many of them seemed at length ready to sink 
irnder the violence of their eiibrts. The di- 
rector of the dance exerted himself to encou- 
rage them to a ftirther continuance of their 
labour, which to us appeared a kind of 
cnielty ; and induced us at length to. inteii- 
ferc, apparently much to the sati^^tion'of the 
performers. Our people were samuch pleasea 
with this ent^rtaimnent, that tliey applied to 
me for some articles to bestow on tne ladies 
who had wofked so severely for their amuse- 
ment. Goods of ditferent sorts, to the value 
of three pounds, were accordingly furnished^ 
and instantly distributed amongst the actresses^ 
and thus an acquaintance was mutually fom^ 
ed, which in some instances grew into a close 
intimacy. » 

" During this exhibition, some of the men 
weje amusmg themselves by a sport ol theif 
own; three of tiiem getting into a vessel 
formed like ^ wooden dish made use of a(t 
great feastings, their weiffltt sinking it in the 
water to imthin an inch of ^e biim. ' in this 
situation they whirled it. round and round, farf 
means of their paddles, with incredible velo- 
city, till they fell into the water, when they 
again renewed the sport, to the no amaljl 
amusement of the by-standers.'* 

A savage who is brought from his na« 
tive woods into a civilized country, therv 
cloathed and fed, and anticipated, in all 
his wants, feels, after a time, his resdess*- 
ne.ss revive, and impatient of restraint, to 
which he lias been unaccustomed, sighs 
for the society of his sbble brethren ; he 
is anxious to participate in the dangers of 
.the chase, the vicissitudes of war, and the 
barbarlti^ of victory. An add i tional mo- 
tive too, for returning among his country^ 
men, is the pride of shewing the trinkets 
he has obtained, and of enjoying the rank 
and estimation he is likely to derive from 
them. But it is hardly credible that a 
man who has once tasted the sweets of ci- 
vilized li& should volunurlly degrade him*- 

C2 



id 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



self into the character of a savage: and 
yet this has often happened. Several Eu- 
ropeans are scattered among the South Sea 
islands. The ^cilities of subsistence, 
arising from a soil of the highest fertility, 
exemption from labour even to indolence, 
and unrestricted intercourse with the fe- 
male sex, these are the allurements which 
a sailor, after the fatigues of a long voy- 
age, is not always able to resist. The na- 
tives, crafty and insinuating, take every 
opportunity to seduce the sailors: sen- 
sible of the superiority of European skill, 
they are eager to obtain their assistance in 
battle, and their instructions in the make 
and use of domestic implements. It has 
of late also been customary to permit con- 
Ticts from Botany Bay to assist in navi- 
gating vessels bound thither : these people 
seldom fail to avail themselves of the op- 
portunity to escape, and afford no slight 
ground for the apprehension of Mr. Turn- 
bull, that in no great length of time the 
South Sea islands may become nests of 
plunderers and pirates. 

At Ulietea our adventurers found an 
Englishman of the name of Pulpit, who 
brought with him his wife, as he called 
her, an Otaheitan girl of about fourteen 
or fifteen. The moment the poor fellow 
got upon deck he returned thanks to hea- 
ven, in the most fervent and impressive 
manner, thathehadescapedoutof thehands 
4>f the most savage murderers. It seems 
tliat he had been landed in Huaheine by 
the brig Venus : and in return for his vo- 
luntary service on board that ship he had 
been supplied with such articles as would 
be useful to him on the island. Among 
these was a musket and double-barrelled 
gun, which were objects of such eager- 
ness to the natives, that in order to pro- 
cure them tliey resolved upon his murder. 
This horrible project was discovered to 
him by the Otaheitan girl, who faithfully 
assisted her lover in his attempts to elude 
the attack of his murderers. Pulpit, how- 
ever, was at last surprized by a party of 
natives, and led away as a sacrifice to some 
of their divinities : they disputed among 
themselves concerning the treatment he 
was to receive, and his life was spared by 
the authority of an elderly woman of rank, 
on condition that he should give up his 
various implements and arms, and repair 
some muskets belonging to the natives. 
Pulpit made his escape to Ulietea, but he 
assured his deliverers that the inhabitants 
here had the same character of dissimula- 
tion, treachery, and ferocity with the people 
ofHuaheiiio. Th« evaut proved the truth 



of his assertion: on the night before t!ie 
intended departure of the vessel from 
Ulietea, it was discovered that four of the 
crew had deserted -, three of these were 
Botany Bay convicts, who had been taken 
on board to work the ship, under an en- 

fagement that they should be returned t# 
^ort Jackson. These fellows had con- 
certed with the Ulieteans to cut the vessel 
from her anchors, and when she should 
be driven ashore, to plunder her of her 
small arms and ammunition, and murder 
the crew. As soon as this desertion was 
discovered, Mr. Tumbull, with a degree 
o^ courage bordering on temerity, went 
singly on shore at two o'clock in the morn- 
ing, and requested of the king (who had 
been a constant visitor on board the ship) 
to exert his utmost authority in restoring 
the men. The king affected the greatest 
surprise, and declared tliat they certainly 
had not landed, although it was afterwards 
known that half an hour before they had 
passed by his house. In a short time the 
situation of Mr. Tumbull became ex- 
tremely critical : he felt himself surround- 
ed by an hundred islanders, who were sa- 
gacious enough to know that if they had 
come to an open rupture and murdered 
him on the spot, it would have defeated 
the object they had in view ; and who, on 
the other hand, were sufficiently aware of 
their own relative superiority at the time, 
to make their own terms for the restora- 
tion of the deserters, who, at last it was 
acknowledged, were concealed in a house 
but a little way up the country. These 
terms were tiie immediate gift of a mus- 
ket and the promise of more fire-amis. 
Mr. T. retumed to his ship, doubtless not 
without self-congratulation on his escape : 
some of the crew, however, had beta 
tainted, and it was necessary to inflict 
summary punishment on two of the ring- 
leaders. On the following night Mr. T. 
was roused from his sleep by an alarm 
that the ship was on shore : it was dark ; 
but on sounding, t%velve fathoms of water 
were found, and there was no sensible mo- 
tion of the ship or of tlie water. On ex* 
amining the cables, Mr. T. found them 
both lying slack on die deck > and the sea- 
men being commanded to haul them up^ 
the first pull brought the ends of both of 
them on board ! They had been cut, and 
with the slightest breeze from sea tlie ves- 
sel would have been drifted on shore; 
indeed the natives had contrived to fasten 
a long and stout rope to the mdder, five 
or six feet under water, with which they 
had inteadad to draw the ship on shorei. 



TVKNBULL*S T0TA6BI IN TBB PiCIFXC OCBAIT. 



ai 



Tins timety discovery enabled the captain, 
by deatring away another anchor with an 
iron stock, to haul the vessel seven or 
e^t fathoms off linom the reef. The na« 
lives had all this time preserved tlie pro- 
foundest silence, in momentary expecta- 
tion of the bulging of the vessel : when 
th^ found their desperate plans detected 
they became periectly outrageous, begun 
a furious assault with stones, and kept up, 
during the greater part of the following 
day, a discharge from fourteen muskets, 
whidi they had among them, and which 
did great damage to the ngg^g, boardings, 
nettings, and boats. Tne discharge of 
small arms from the ship, far from inti- 
midadz^ the natives, made them more 
OQtiagieous: fortunately the horrid me- 
naces which they held out of flaying and 
roasting alive any who should fall into 
their hands, restored loyalty and unani- 
mity among the crew. Two of the de- 
serters were seen instigating the natives 
with the gxeatest activity. Several at- 
tempts were made to recover the lost an- 
chors, but in vain : the natives kept up 
so well-directed a fire that it was impos- 
sible. In the course of the day they made 
repeated exertions to gain the prize they 
had so treacherously laid a snare for, and 
it v.'as necessary to employ the large guns 
^inst them in order to defeat £e pur- 
pose. These bad the desued efiect, and 
the ship, in the darkness of the following 
night, got under sail and escaped iron» 
her penloos situation. 

From the Society Islands our adven- 
turers proceeded, with some Otaheitans 
whom they had taken on board, to the 
Sandwich Islands: the first land they 
made was Wahoo, where, notwithstanding 
the example of treachery and ferocious- 
ness displayed by the Ulieteans, the ship- 
carpenter deserted, and it was thought ad- 
viseaUe not to go on shore for the reco- 
very even of so necessary an artificer, lest 
more of the crew should follow his ex- 
ample! ' 

According to Mr. Tumbull, the inha- 
bitants of the Sandwich Isles are astonish- 
ingly more advanced in civilization than 
those of the Society Islands : these latter, 
iodeed, have made no perceptible pix)gress 
wice the time of captain Cook. Like 
att savages^-would that the remark were 
limited to savages in its application — their 
aridity for intoxicating substances is ex- 
cessive: some Europeans planted the vine 
in Otaheite, and explained its future uti- 
lity if allowed to remain Unmolested. The 
aridity of the satires broke through aU 



restraint, and the grapes were plucked ofT 
before they were ripe. Not relishing the 
fruit equally with their own ava, they ima- 
gined that the spirit was in the root, and 
end^voured to extract it by mastication, 
(the nauseating process which is employed 
on the ava root) 3 finding their efforts \m- 
successful, they revenged their disappointr 
ment by treading it under ^oot. 

Mr. Turnbcdl suggests that the labours 
of the Missionaries would be fiir more suc- 
cessful among the Sandwich Islands than 
they are likely to be at Otaheite or Ton* 
gataboo : here they could have the ad- 
vantage, support, and influence from se- 
veral Europeans, and of a sovereign, Ta* 
mahama, the great chief of the Sandwich 
Islands, a man of insatiable ambition, and 
very uncommon genius. In a short spacei 
of time he will, without doubt, make him- 
self master of every island : he was now 
on the point of invading Attowaie, an 
island to the leeward, whither our voy- 
agers proceeded for a supply of salt and 
yams. The king of Attowaie had ac- 
quired so much knowledge <^ our lan- 
guage from some Englishmen who had 
followed his fortunes, that he was able to 
understand and answer any jplain ques- 
tion which was put to him : the natives 
of Otaheite, although they have had still 
greater opportunities of hearing the Eng- 
lish language, scarcely pronounce th« 
proper names of those persons with whom 
they are most fiuniliarly acquainted. Th# 
king of Attowaie professed a high regard 
for the British nation, and, as a proof of 
it, had taken to himself the name of King 
George, and to his children, who are nu- 
merous, he had given those of the royal 
family of England, beginning with the 
Prince of Wales, &c. 

*' This unhappy man, who, from evei'y 
thing we saw and heard, is well desejVing of a 
better fate, had already suffered so much from 
the ambition and power of Tamahama, that 
he was now about to adopt one of the most 
extravagant resolutions that can be conceived. 

" The Europeans who had attached them- 
selves to his fortunes, some of whom were car- 
penters, blacksmiths, &c. were now with their 
of&pring a numerous body. As their last re- 
source, they were constructing a vessel suited 
to tlie attempt of a long voyage, and in the 
event of the expected invasion, thev proposed 
to escape from the island, and seek a refuge 
from the cruelty of their enemy in some one 
of the islands whkrh they have heard are inter- 
spersed in the main sea. They are whollv iff- 
noraut of the method of measuring a ship^t 
coui^, or of the other necessary branches of 
navi^on. A compass, indeed, they possess. 
Their intention in the first place, is, to steel 



B 



VOYAGES ANO TRAVELS. 



io the westward, in the hop« of reaching some 
pik of the coast of Ciiina ; or, by keeping 
their xdnd to the southward, to fall in with 
Otaheite, or some other of the Society 
Islands." 

^ After having obtained provisions and 
»alt, our voyagers left the Leeward Islands, 
and arrived at Owhyhee : here tliey re- 
ceived a visit from Mr. Young, who, with 
Mr. Davis and captain Stewart, had fol- 
lowed the fortunes of Tamahama for four- 
teen years. It appears that this ambitious 
chieftain has prohted to the utmost by the 
jnstrtiction and assistance given him by 
captain Vancouver. The islanders under 
bis dominion make frequent trading voy- 
tgtes to the north-west coast of America, 
and it is the intention of Tamahama to 
Open a trade with China in vessels of their 
own construction, and to be navigated by 
their own people. The progress of the 
Sandwich islanders in tlie mechanical arts, 
according to Mr. Young's* account to Mr. 
^lumbull, has been astonishingly rapid : 
his roynl residence at Mouie is said to be 
built after the European style, of brick, 
ind with glazed windows, by European 
tod Atnerican artificers, of whom he has 
a great variety. 

" It was only in 1792 that captain Van- 
couver laid down the keel of Tamahama's 
first vessel, or rather craft; but so assiduously 
has he applied himself to effect his grand and 
favourite object, the establishment of a naval 
lorce, that at the period of bur arrival he had 
upwards of twenty vessels of different sizes, 
from twenty-five to fifty tons ; some of them 
were even copper-bottomed. 

*' He was, however, at this time much in 
want of naval stores; and, to have his navy 
quickly placed on a respectable footing, would 
pay well for theniv He has also a certain 
number of body-guards to attend him, inde- 
pendently of the Rumber of chiefs who are re- 
quired to accompany liim on all hisjournje^ 
^d expeditions." 

A marine force of such strength, and so 
rapidly created, has given him an astonish- 
ing superiority over his neighbours : he 
no.w sends his warriors into distant parts, 
employs some of his ^tnall vessels as trans-^ 
ports^. and his . larger pnes as men of war^ 
T^hich are occasionally mounted with^ a 
few light guns. Tamahama's body-guards 
go regularly oil duty, and relieve each 
other as in Europe, calling out allis well 
ever}." half hour : tlieir uniform is a bluQ 



grent-coat with yellow facings. M?. 
Turnbull has forgotten to inform us of the 
nature of the traffic which takes place be* 
tweeii the north-west parts of America 
and the Sandwich Islands: he prepares 
himself, however, with an answer to the 
\ery natural enquiiy as to the possible na- 
ture of the commerce which can be car- 
ried on between these latter and the Chi* 
nese j he says that they are able to fur- 
nish fire-arins, gim-powder, hardware, 
and cloth of different sorts. A super- 
abundance of these Tamahama is repre^ 
sented to have obtained from Enropeant 
and Americans, in exchange for labour 
and refreshments supplied to the shipping 
■wko ha\e touched there. This statement^ 
we fear, will not obtain very general ere* 
dit without further confirmation. • Be- 
sides these articles of foreign introduction, 
the Sandwich islanders possess the sandal 
wood and pearl ojster-sheli, of native 
produce. 

Having acc6mplished tlie object of their 
visit to the Sandwich Islands, that of lay^ 
ing in a stock of salt, our navigators re- 
turned to Otaheite : in their coarse the^ 
fell in with several low islands, on some a( 
which they landed, and had reason to be- 
lieve, from the shyness of the natives, and 
their indifference to the proftered trinkets 
and tools, tliat they had never before been 
visited by Europeans. For the situation 
of these islands we are referred to Arrow^ 
'Smith's map, although Mr. Turnbull has 
neither given us tlie name of them, their 
longitude nor their latitude. So much for 
his contributions to the advancement oF 
maritime discovery ! 

During the absence of the Ma^aretf 
the ship Nautilus had visited Otaheite, and 
taken away all the hogs she could pro- 
cure : it was agreed, therefore, that the 
captain should proceed to some of the 
windward islands for a supply, whilst Mr. 
Turnbull, with a few assistants, remained 
afr Otaheite on the salting business. She 
was expected to be about three weeks: at 
the expiration of two months the crew- 
reached the island in a punt made from 
her wreck'. Thus fetally terminated all 
the hopes of the voyage ! - ' 

• The accounts of Otaheite and the So-» 
dety Islands given by the Missionaries in 
th^ transactions of their society, are by far 
the- most' valuable of any that we haver 



* Mr. Young, from whoin most of the particulars." respecting Tamahama were obtaUted, 
Is said, by Mr. Turnbull, to be " a man of strict veracity." ... 

t It is singxilar enough that we do not even' learn the name of the ship in which this voyage 
is made, tHl the wreck of I'he Margaret is .related' ^t'thfr latter eud of tUc second volijme. 'Tu| 
iameofthe captain is not oiice mentioned, .•:•..' 



TUKNB0LL's VOTAGBI in the FACXnC OCBAN. 



«# 



llieir manners, customs, snperstit'ons, and 
idokcnes, are there detailed with more mi* 
outcness than in any other work. The 
vpportnnities of obtaining information on 
these snbjecu duriz^ his residence at Ota- 
lieile by Mr. Tumbnll, were considerable, 
bjit we find little whidi has not been an- 
ticipated by the relation of the Mssion- 
aries. This account indeed seems later 
than the last of theirs, and the political 
ecenls of the island, to use a term of ap- 
fvopriate dignity, are brought lower down. 
The war which the Missionaries repre- 
sented as being on the eve of taking place 
between the young king Otoo and the 
Attahoorians for the image of their god, 
Oro, had just terminated in favour of the 
latter when oi^ vo}'agers first landed there, 
^d was the ,caiise of the dearth which 
then visited the island. This war was not 
entirely of a religious nature, but seems to 
have been fomented, if it did not origi- 
nate in the domineering and- oppressive 
character of tlie royal family, and particu- 
larly of Otoo himself. 

.The father of Otoo, the regent Pomarre, 
died &i\ddenly at tlie time Mr. Turnbull 
was at Otaheite : he considered this event 
as likely to be attended with serious in- 
conveniences to the Missionaries, to whom 
he was ever a firm friend. Many of the 
natives imputed his death to the prayers 
of the Missionaries *. indeed it is a very 
prevalent, and most unfortunate belief 
among the Otaheitans, that whatever ca- 
lamity tefalls is effected by their witch- 
aaft; They are convinced too, that a 
peat part of their plagues and diseases 
nroceed immediately firom the shipping, 
in the present instance, however, tliere 
was a diversity of opinion, which, it may 
be' hoped, the Missionaries would turn to 
k good- account. Many attributed the sud- 
d«i decease of Pomarre to some offences 
he bad conomitted, and they agreed that 
this must have been the fi-equency of his 
human sacrifices. In order therefore to 
propitiate then: offended divinities, the 
body of a human victim which he had 
sacnficed about three weeks before, was 
bibaght and stretched prostrate before his 
corpse. The Missionaries would, no 
doubt, endeavour to avert from them- 
aelves ibe suspicion of instrumentality in 
his deaths and press the abolition of so 
horrible a custom. Mr. Turnbull asserts 
that it is abhorred by the common people, 
9fid only supported by tlie chiefs : Po- 
marre was himself a high priest, and ob- 
tened great indnenoe among them by his 
Uai for the gods. Ipfiinticide prevails as 



much as ever, and the population of th^ 
island is diminishing with great rapidity. 
Captain Cook no doubt overstated it at 
two hundred diousand : on the arrival of 
the Duff in 1797 it was fifteen thousand; 
at this time (1 803) it does not exceed {iv% 
thousand souls. The doctrine of fatality 
is carried to such excess, that every dis- 
ease is believed to be a punishment fron^ 
their offended deities, wrought, perhaps, 
by the magic of the Missionaries, or 
by shipping which touch at the island. 
Iii this latter superstition they have had, 
alas, but too strong Yeason to repose ! The 
consequence of tliis doctrine is, that dis- 
eases are considered as remediless, and the 
use of medicine is rejected. * 

The Missionaries, although their pious 
but ill-directed labours have been thrown 
awayj are pretty well satsified with their 
situation : their zeal is yet unabated : 
they twice made the circuit during Mr. 
Tumbull's stay, preaching firom district to 
district, and seconding their exhortations 
with presents. Sonie of them expressed a 
wish that sotne decent young wotften qf cha^ 
racier might be sent over to Otaheite as xuivm 
for the?n. They were building two boats 
firom eighteen to twenty tons, for the pur- 
pose of visiting the islands to the leeward : 
they had it also in contemplation upon th$ 
arrival of the next missionary ships to re- 
treat to the isthmus, as their chief sub- 
sistence ; the fruit of the bread tree is be- 
coming scarce at Matavai. 

The propagation of the Christian faith 
still goes on very slowly : 

" One Sunday evening, Mr. Jefferson re- 
quested pemiission to exhort Otoo and Teri- 
navoura, witli all their followers; Otoo sent a 
messenger to me on the occasion, saying that 
he wished to see me: I accordingly went, and 
found Mr. Scott and Mr. Jeiferson ui the act 
of exliortation. Their congregation iniglit 
amount to about fifty. Upon its ccf.chision, 1 
demandetl of Otoo what he wanted with rae. 
He asked me, upon the dei)arture of the Mis- 
skHjarics, whether it was all tnx?, as they 
preached: I Fephed in the affirmative, that it 
was strictly so according to my own belief, and 
that of all tlie wiser and better part of my 
countrymen. He demanded of me where J e- 
hovah lived ; I' pointed to tlie heavens. He 
said he did not believe it. His brother was, 
if possible, still worse. Edeali was looking on, 
witli a kind of haugiity and disdainful indif- 
ference. It was aXlhavery or falseliood, add- 
ing, they would not believe unless tiie>- toiild 
see ; and observed, we could bring down thg 
sun and moon bv means of our quadrant, why 
could we not bring down our Saviour by siuu' 
lar means r' 

The M^ssiofiariet tell them that the god 



u 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



lost their carpenter at the Sandwich Ulaods; 
their Influence with the natives hecama 
weakened, and the crew dispersed. Havw 
tng remained in this situatioa three 
months, they were relieved by a vesiiel 
which touched at the. bland, and took 
them to Port Jackson. Here they resided 
a second, time till the Calcutta brought 
them once again to the shores of Britain. 



of Britain is the god of Otaheite and the 
i^'hole earth, and that it is from this Being 
that they receive their hogs, bread, fruit, 
and cocoa*nut. This the Otaheitans flatly 
deny : alleging that they possessed all these 
articles long before they had heard of the 
god of Great Britain. 

After the loss of the Mai^aret the situ- 
ation of our adventurers at Otaheite be-» 
came exceedingly distressing: they had 

Art. hi. An Historical Account of the Vqyaga qf Captain James Cook^ to the Southern 
and Northern Hcfnispheres. By William Mavor, L.L.D. 12mo, 2 Vols, 
pp. 656. 



THE public is very well acquainted 
with Dr. IVlavor's pentagraphic powers ; 
children may read these volumes with in- 



struction and amusement, who would be 
unfit to engage in the original work. 



Art. IV. A Description qf Prince qf Wales Island, in the Streights of Malacca: witU 
its real and probable Advantages and Sources to recommend it as a Marine Estab^ 
lishment. By Sir Home Popham, Knight qfthe Sovereign Order qf St. John €^ 
Jerusalem, Captain in the Royal Navy, and Fellow qf the Royal Society. 8vo. 
pp. 82. 



THE propriety or impropriety of ex- 
pending a large sum of public money on 
the construction of moles, docks, quays, 
arsenals, and the other appurtenances of a 
marine establishment in Prince of Wales 
island, cannot here be justly appreciated 
without the aid of a counter-memorial 
drawn up on the spot by an accomplished 
»ur\'eyor. Sir Home Popham pleads for 
the establislunent witli specious and plau- 
sible reasoning. 

'' But an advantage which Prince of 
Wales Island possesses beyond any other part 
of the eastern coast, is the excellence ot its 
harbour. The whole space from tlie north- 
cast point of the island to Pulo Jer^a, bound- 
ed on the east by the coast of Queda and 
Praya Sand, may be considered as a very 
safe harbour, and capable of containing all 
the navy pf England : the present anchoring 
place is near the Fort Point, to the northward, 
for large ships, and to the southward for 
smaller ones, where they lie in from five to 
thirteen fathoms, and so perfectly smooth in 
all winds, and at all times, that I never heard 
of an instance of the smallest boat not being 
able to pull off to the weathennost ship. I 
had apprehended, on my first going to the 
island, that the north-west wind would have 
forced in a heavy swell ; but as it frequently 
blew from that quarter, I concluded the mud 
flat, from the north point of the island to the 
Queda shore, on whicli is only four fathoms 
and a half at low water, served as a bar, 
constituting the whole harbour a complete 
bason. 



'' The island abounds in several kinds of 
deer and wild hog ; and it is remarked that 
the wild hog is of a very delicate flavour, and 
particularly good. 

" The coast of Queda produces great 
numbers of cattle ; and as many as may be 
wanted can be obtained, whenever there' is a 
sufficiency of pasturage. They have fo|f 
some yeare salted beef m Bengal, with much 
success. A similar attempt may be made 
here, for the climate in the upper part of the 
country is nearly as cold as at Calcutta. If 
the experiment should succeed, beef and 
pork can be cured as cheap as in England, 
and the ships served with it always in less tiian 
three months salfmg. Bakeries may also be 
established for the supplv of biscuit ; and 
there appears to be no JifFiculty in making 
both rum and arrack, purer and cheaper 
than what is now served to his Majesty's fleet. 
Rice grows here ; and I imagine the sugar^ 
cane* would thrive as well as in any other 
parts of hidia, which, by being cultivated^ 
would increase the revenue, and add to the 
export to Europe." 

This pamphlet would have been mor ^ 
intelligibie and complete if accompanied 
with a map of the island in question, 
which was formerly and more dlscrimi* 
nately called Pulo Pinang ) and with a 
chart of the contiguous sea, which might 
have been copied on a reduced scale from 
that published for Laurie and Whittle, 
after the original Calcutta chart. 

In 178a Mr.' Lacam suggested to a 
committee of the house of comxnoDS the 



'*' The sugarKjane grows to a prodigious size, both in tliis island and oo the coast oC 
Queda. 



sift 6B0&6B I.BITU3 ACCOUNT OF PSINCB OP WALB8 ISLAHS* 



csfiedieixy of a nuuine establishment in 
dK eastern part of our Indian possessions. 
He fixed on New Harbour, in the river 
Hoogly, as the fittest place of structure : 
bot whaterer use commerce might \^ 
able to make of that site, it se^ ns ill 
adapted for belligerent vessels. 

If (his island, which is well situate to 
cdkct the produce of the Indian archi- 
pelago, be wholly exempted from the 
joii^ction of th« company, and not 
comprehended within the withering ban 
of its charter, it will speedily become 
another Onnuz'for traffic, wealth, and 
pcpolatioQ. This advantage attends a 
new settlement in the east, that labour 
is cheap, and- the supply of a population 
^miJiar with the arts of luxurious life is 
easy; so that, in the course of a single 
gco^ation, all the parts of a flourishing 
and polished society can be put together, 
and a city can rise like an exhalation. 

^Zliere is perhaps no episode in our his- 
tory more truly honourable to the general 
character of our people and our protec- 
ivm than the fortunes of Pulo Penaqg. 
In August 1786 there were tombs on the 
kiaod, but no man : it had been a haunt 
of pintes and banditti, whom the king of 
Queddah had thought it necessary utterly 
to extirpate. The empty wilderness was 
purchased of this sovereign for a perpe- 
toai rent of six thousand dollars. In Ave 
years time George-town was so much of 
a sea-port, and the resort of prows so 
ooBsidersble that the king of Queddah 
compjaioed his continental custom-houses 
DO loager yielded any revenue, and armed 
toattadi the new settlement. The inva- 



sion was repelled ; but an additional quit- 
rent was granted to the king of Queddah ; 
and the most' entire cordiality was restor- 
ed. In the year 1 800, that is in the short 
space of fourteen years, the population 
consisted of ten thousand three hundxed 
and ten persons, of whom seven hundred 
and twenty-three were land<-owners^ and 
one thousand two hundred and twenty- 
two were slaves. The country is already ^ 
pierced by roads bordered with alleys oif 
young spice-trees : to pensile bridges of 
bamboo, have succeeded in £ve places bold 
arches of brick and mortar. The cajm 
huts of the first settlers are giving plao» 
to durable houses and rectangular streets. 
Aqueducts and hospitals, custom-housef 
and jails, are already towering into cons- "" 
picuity. Vessels of eight hundred tons 
have been built and launched by the inha- 
bitants, pepper-vines and beetle-nut treet 
afford important objects of exportation. 
The revenue amounts to eighty thousand 
dollars, and the annual arrival of ships to 
two hundred and fifty, bearing fifty thou* 
sand tons. How swift a growth of pros- 
perity. 

The real lamp of Aladdin is tliat on 
the merchant's desk. All the genies, 
white, olive or black, who people the at- 
mosphere of earth, it puts in motion at 
the anti{)odes. It builds palaces in the 
wilderness and cities in the forest ; and 
collects every splendor and every refine* 
ment of luxury, firom the fingers of sub- 
servient toil. Kings of the east are slave* 
of the lamp : the winds blow, and the 
seas roll, only to work the behest of itir 
master. 



Ait. V. A Siort Account of the Settlement, Produce, and Commerce qf Prince of 
Wdea bland, in the Straits of Malacca. By Sir George Lsith, Bart, Mafor 
IJtk Foot, and late Lieutenant Governor, 8vo. pp. 94. 



THIS island is unwisely named. There 

is aoother Prince of Wales Island off the 

coast of New Holland. It may be very 

Joyal to have George-towns and Prince- 

c^-Wales islands all the world over j but 

i it occasions confusion and mistake in the 

Linenioiy, and will, in due time, occasion 

||ery troublesome miscarriages at the 

Ifost-office. How inconvenient to the 

aotieot world were its Selocias and Alex* 

andrias, 

Tbe island ber« described was formerly 
cslfed Pulo Pioang, or Penang, and is si- 
iBate in the straits of Malacca, opposite 
tKe Queddah diore, on the Malay penin- 
||bU. It aboonds with ship-timber and 
iuati «f aU dimensiottfr It enjoys a cli* 



mate and a soil applicable to the most 
precious ailtivations of the east. It is in- 
habited by new settlers of all descriptions, 
Europeans, Chinese, Chooliahs, Burmniis, 
Pursees, Malays, and Buggesses, a people 
from Borneo and Celebes, hitherto con- 
founded with the Malays, but dljQfering 
from them in language. Of the com* 
merce tliese particulars are given : 

" COMMERCB. 

'* The principal, if not the only view m 
fonniiig thks settleiueiit, appears to liave been 
the acquiring; a port iii l|it: Straits of Malacca, 
for commercial purposes ; and there certainir 
is not in any part of India a place so veu 
adapted to this end as Priace of Wales 
bland ; at the miic time it undoubtedly a^ 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



joys greit advantages^ a naval port. — 
Hitherto the productions of the island have 
instituted but a small portion of the exten- 
sive fcoramerce wliich has flourished here for 
some years ; but although thb portion has, 
<syet, btetk inconsiderable, there is the most 
satofactoiy and pleasing evidence that it is 
. daily increasing. The numerous, e^ctensive, 
and highl)^ cultivated plantations of pepper^ 
4nd beetlc-nut, which are every where rising 
ipAo view, will, in a short time, afibrd large 
cargoes of those articles, without the trouble 
and expence of importation. It is computed 
tiiat there will be upwards of fifteen thousand 
peculs of pepper produced on the island this 
year; (1S03-4), and that, in the course of 
tiiree or four yean moref theplantatioDs will 
yield more than twenty thousand peculs. 
ColTee also promises to become a. valuable 
commodit}^ ; this berry has been imported 
from different quaiters, and they all thrive 
very well, and produce fine flavoured coffee. 
TTie sugar cane grows with uncommon luxu- 
liance ; but as the price of labour is very 
high, the expence attending the making of 
sugar, will prevent a very extensive cultivation 
of the cane. 

. '< The spice pUuitations, in which there are 
many thousand clove and nutmeg trees, .are 
so flourishing, that the island may reason* 
aUy hope, in a few years, to be able to furnish 
4 valuaole cargo of cloves, nutmegs, and 
mace ; witli their essential oils, and also the 
so much esteemed Kyapootee oil. 

** However the productions of the island 
may increase in vanous articles, -the principal 
source of wealth must arise from its being 
considered as the belt and greatest port of 

^ exchange in India. Ships and vessels come 
here from every au^urter, and can exchange 
the conmiodities they bruig, for those which 
are required as a return cargo. Tliis affords 
the merchant the very important advantage of 
a quick return of his capital. 

** As there is not a custom house on the 
Island, it is not possible to form an accurate 
idea c^ the extent of the general imports and 
exports. In the year 1 80 1-2, an import duty 
of two per cent, ad valorem, was laid on tin, 
pepper, and beetle-nut ; from the return given 
m by the renter of this duty, it appeared that 
the following quantities of these articles were 
bnported, viz. 

China Peculs. Catties. Amt. qf the Duty, 

s. D. p. 

Pepper 29,468 SJ 5,251 97^ 

Tin - - 14,136 86 3,982 634 

' Beetle-nut 45,819 90^ 3,842 16 

Sp. Ds. 13,076 78 



^ ** The follo\^ing statement will shew at 
"one view the different places which supply 
the trade of tliis port,, with the articles ot vmr 
port and export. 

" IMPORTS. 

^'^ PiHfm Btfngff/.— Opium,- grain, iron, steel, 
•.^nuioe' stil3l:es ; piece gcKKls, which cob- 



. 8istchiefl]rofHummum5,Gurrahs,Baft!ei$ 
Cossas, 'fanjabs, Mamoodies, Chintss, 
Kurwahs, Taffatees, and Bandanoes; 

*' Coast ofCoromandeL — Salt, tobacco. Pun- 
jam cloths, kaal-blue cloths, handkerchicfej. 
coir rope, and yarns ; chintzs ; and ^^snial] 
quantity of fine goods. 

*' Bombay and Matahar Coast. — Cotton, salt, 

« a few piece goods, red wood, sandal %vood, 
shark tins, iish mote, putclmck, myrrh, 
Surat piece goods, oil, &c. 

*' IF. Coast Sumatra. — ^Pepper, benjamm, 
caqmhire, gold dust. 

" Acheen andPedier, — Gold dust; beetle- 
nut, white and red, cut and chickney ; 
pepper, rice, and Acheen cloths. 

*' Diamond Point. — Rattans, sago, brkn* 
stone, and gold dusty 

f East Coast.-^Tm, pepper, Java arrack, 
sugar, oil, rice, tobacco. Sec. 

*' Junk Ceylon, — Tin, birds nest<s, beache de 
riier, sepuh, and elephants teeth. 

" Tringano. — Pepper, and gold worked 
cloths. 

" Borneo.-^^old dust, sago, and black- 
wood. 

*' Moluccas. — Spices. 

" China. — Tea, sogar, lutestrings, Tdvcts, 
paper, umbrellas, Ciiina ware of all kinds ; 
qiiicksilver, nankeens, tutenague, sweet- 
meats, pickles, and every, article required 
by the Chinese mhabitants ; raw silk, cop- 
per ware, China camphire, China root, 
allum, &c. &c. 

" EXPORTS. 

" Sumatra. E. and IV, Coasts. — ^AIl the ra-* 
rious piece goods from Bengal, the coast, 
and Bombay ; cotton, opium, iron and tb« 
bacco. 
" Junk Ceylon. — Piece goods, and opiomu 
" Tringajio, Java, Borneo, Celebes, and 
Moluccas. — Iron, steel, . opium, Bengal 
piece goods, blue cloth ; Europe coarse red, 
bfue, and green cloths, and coarse cut- 
lery. 
**" Cfritia. — Opium, cottons, rattans, beetle* 
nut, pepper, birds nests, sandal wood, 
shark fins, ^matra camphire, tin, beache 
de mcr, cutch, and sepuh. 
" Bciaral Coast and Bombay. — ^Pepper, tin, 
beetle-nut, cut and chk^ey ; rattuis, can^ 
phire, gold dust, &c. 

" In addition to the quantity of pepper at 
present annually exported from thjs poit^ 
almost py number of tons could be pro- 
cured for the London market, should it e\'er 
be deemed advisable to send it home on acj 
count of the honourable company, and ^r^ 
may safely venture to assert, tnat the peppe* 
will be of as fine a quality as any ever pro* 
cured ; and the pepper produced on the 
island is considered cleaner than that of the 
surrounding countries : and in general, b| 
equal measures, it is heavier. 

"In the year 1802, a thousand tons of 
pepper of 20 cwt. were sent from the island 
to Europe, without having the smallest effect 
OB the surrottoding markets. That» and m^ 



SIX 6SOB6S LEITH*! ACCOUVT-OF rBINC? OI^%ALES ISLAND, 



^gtd t much larger <qiiantfty, could easify \k 
ffocured, without any nak of raising 'the 
price, viz. SOL sterl. per ton of .20 cMft. 

*' hintmufrable inaeed are the advantages 
which would accrue to this settlement, wcrie 
the exportation of pepper produced on the 
island, direct to the tlondon market^ on the 
honourable company's ships, once establi8h7 
ed; nor would these advantages be confined 
•to the settlement alone, as considerable bene- 
fit, it is confidently pTesumed would also 
arise to the h«mouraole company from this 
tranch oit commerce. The experiment at 
least appears worth the trial ; all the expen- 
ce;> attending it, will be apparent at one view, 
and even if the Hattering expectations which 
are now entertamed should not be fiilly rea- 
Kzed, still there Is ho prospect of risk, or loss, 
-attending the measure. To the pepper, the 
•prndoct of the island, many other articles 
jni^t be added, if required, as rhubarb^ 
^ajiioga] root, turmeric, cochineal, &c. &c. 

" One of the most convincing proofs 
which can be adduced of the floiiri&liing 
state of the commerce of this rising /settle- 
ment, will be foimd in the following table, 
dewing the number of ships, witli their ton- 
nage, which have enterea into and cleared 
out ftom thisrport, within the last four years, 
«nd as a considerable portion of the trade of 
the island is carried on by prows, an account 
.4)f them is also subjoined. 

" A&&IVALS. 

Colours. Ships, Tons, 

1799 English • - - 95 25,640 

Amer. Pdrtug. Danes 37 8,299 

Asiatic - - - 36 5,432 



ftoo 



^m 



'tnoz 



English 
Amer. Portiig. 
Asiatic ' - 



Danes 



English 

Amer. Portug, Danes 

Asiatic 



Englrsh 
Fortiig. Danes 
Asiatic . : 



168 


39,371 


111 
31 
51 


31,097 
8,025 

5,7^ 


193 


44,907 


160 
33 
72 


38,880 
7,549 
7,399 


263 


53,828 


142 
15 

84 


44,356 
4,810 
7,654 



i?4l 56,820 



1799 



.1800 



180) 



1802 



Colours', 

English - ' - 
Amer. Portug. Danes 
Asiatic - - -• 



Alps. TojiJf^ 

101 57,3^1 

39 8,80$ 

-37 5,703 



English 
Amer. P 
Asiatic 



English > 
Amer. Portug. 
Asiatic f 



English 

Portug. Danish 
Asiatic 



• ■ • ~ ..' 


177 41,87r 


Danes 


116 29,93S 

30 8,27l> 
'45 6,071 


, 


191 A,324 


Daues 


■ 156 36,6li 
28 7,03i> 
73 6,447 




23^ 50,09(1 


I 


133 4l,l^l> 

■ 21 5,25Sf 

SO 6,082 




234 52,461 



€( TOTAL, 



Arrivals 
Departures 



' Ships. ToTis, ^ 
867 194,92^ 
859 188,75^ 



To the general reader this account wiM 
be more amnsiog and more instructlrd 
tlian the description pnblished hy sir 
Home Popham 5 but those who are called 
on to determine whether directions dudl 
be given in London to forbid the sea ttf 
encroach on the north face of the fdtt 
?nd esplanade, by the construction ci 
vast stooe moles, and piers— -whether cfr^ 
rections shall be ' given in London for 
founding huge docks and naval arBenals^--» 
in shdrt, whether all the profits of tliitf 
well-situate and rapidly rising establish- 
ment shall be given away to the places 
mongers and projectors of jobs — wUl do 
well to read all Ihe accounts. That o^ 
captain Macalister passes for the less ac^ 
curate and precise. 



^»T. VL Narrative qf a Voyage to Brasil; terwfnkting in the Sehivreqfa British 
Vessel, and the JmptisanmaU of tlte Author and tlie Ship's Crew ^ by the Porlugflcse, 
With General Sketches of the Country, its Natural Productions^ Colonial Inhabitauis'^ 

' i^c. mid a Description of thg City and Prohinces of St. Sahadore and Porto Seguro, 
To wfdch are added, a correct Table of the Latitude and Longitude cfthe Ports on 
tkr Coast qf BrQsilj Table of Exchange, if c. By TxiOMAS Ljndley^ 8vo. pp. 298. 



EARLY in 1802, Mr. Lindl^ sailed 
-ftocn the Cape of Gwd Hope * for St< 



Hdena and a market,* this is his phrase; 
ami the oi-i^inul destination of the brig jc 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



not otherwise explained. Afbr leaving 
St. Helena, a severe squall considerably 
damaged the vessel, and obliged him to 
bear away for Brasil. He repaired at 
Bahla, or St. Salvadore, and from thence 
intended to steer for Rio Janeiro, where 
hb expected a ready sale of his cargo to 
Ihe Spaniards, trading from the River 
Plata. But a storm sprung up just as he 
had cleared the bay, and obliged him to 
put into Porto: Seguro, which port, how- 
ever, he did not reach without the loss of 
the rtidder. 

While he was detained for repairs here, 
the civil governor, or judge of the pro- 
vince, proposed to barter Brasil wood with 
him for goods. ' The proposal appeared 
lo advantageous,' says Mr. Lindley^ ' that 
I couM have no hesitation, except from 
an uncertainty whether this wood was al- 
lowed to be exported; but, as tlie offer 
came firom the gbvernor himself, I con- 
axdered any prohibition that might exist 
•s merely nominal -, and evety doubt be- 
ing thus dispelled, I agreed to the ex- 
d]2nffe.' The plain English of which is, 
that he knew he was engaging in a con- 
traband trade, but thought ne could do it 
•ecurely. Gasper, one of the governor's 
sons, transacted the bargain, and his bro- 
ther Antonio was to get the wood ready ; 
Imt the business was not kept secret^ and 
in about a weeks' time both father and son 
said it must be given up, regretting the 
mutual disappointment, and telling Mr. 
lindley that he might procure the wood 
be wanted by another channel, and should 
meet with no hindrance or opposition on 
thmr pert. Another adventurer was soon 
found, but wood is a clumsy article to 
ttoxigg\ei ; the errand of the English ship 
was pretty well understood, and Gaspar re- 
quested the captain, in the strongest terms, 
to decline the business altogether, saying, 
that he had secret reasons of the most for- 
cible kind for his advice. lu consequence 
he set sail to proceed on his destination ; 
the repairs had been so badly made, that 
he was obliged once more to come to an- 
chor in die river of Carevellos, near at 
Jiand ; and before the carpenters here had 
completed tlieir work, the brig was seized 
by tne Portuguese government,, and the 
crew conducted back to Porto Seguro. 
An inhabitant of that place, to revenge an 
old quarrd upon the governor, had laid 
an information against him for smuggling 
with Mr. Lindley. 

Mr. and Mrs. Lindley were taken to the 
common prison : they were led into an 
upper room, m the floor of which a trap- 



door was opened, down which they d^ 
scended by a ladder into a dungeon. Three 
comers of this wretched place were filled 
with heaps of dirt, rubbish, orange-peel, 
and the refuse of other vegetables, rotting 
together ; the fourth with filth of a tnon 
disgusting kind, for four of his sailors had 
been confined there for eight days, and 
were just removed to the next duiq;eon to 
make room for him and his wife. In this 
place they remained a fortnight, burning 
a fire during the day, notwithstanding the 
exceeding heat of tlie weather, as the only 
means of amending the bad air. At length 
Mr. Lindley was examined f he denied 
that any Brasil wood had ever been brought 
on board the brig; but was ' perfectly ex- 
plicit i^pecting his intention to have pur- 
chased some,' had he not discovered in 
time the strictness with which that article 
was prohibited j tliat is, he betrayed the 
whole transaction with the governor and 
his sons. After this examination, in con- 
sequence of his entreaties, they were re- 
moved to an upper apartment. 

There 4iad been found, in his writing- 
desk, a paper containing a small quantity 
of grain gold, intermixed with gold-co- 
loured sand, which had been brought to 
him by an inhabitant of Porto Seguro as a 
sample. When closely questioned con- 
cerning this, he made no secret of whence 
he had obtained the article, but declared 
he knew neither the name nor residence 
of the person from whom he had received 
it, though he believed that he was from a 
distant settlement. They took him a days* 
ride into the country to point out the man, 
whom he was predetermined not to recog- 
nize if he met him. The stream, how- 
ever, from whence the sample had been 
collected was found, a guard set over it vfi 
the queen's name, and a farther samp^ 
taken to be assayed at Bahia. 

The sailors had been ill supplied with 
food. On Mr. Lindley *s remonstrances 
this was remedied. His situation was not 
much ameliorated -, he was called to visit 
the sick, and obtained permission to tak^ 
the air with his wife. Still there was 
much to complain of. 

" Their impudence is unbounded, even to 
msult ; while I can only resent it by rq>roac;h 
or unavailing complaint. The captain, Mor, 
who has superior apartments in the prison, 
takes the liberty of runnbg into mine without 
excuse ; not considering the situation of Mrs. 
Lindley and myself, confined to a small room, 
and who do not at all hours chuse such visi- 
tors: besides constantly using my liquor for 
himself and friends, notwithstanding he know* 
I purchase it on the spot^ and have no suppcn^ 



1Z9DI.ETS VOTAGB TO IXASIW 



79 



J me. The jndge ordinary, er magis- 

tnte of the town, daily visits the prison, and 
uses the same frecdpjn : this morning he pre- 
taHed us with a basket of ^gs, begged a nik 
handkerchi^ in return, and, whilst talking on 
the sobjecty reached a clothes-brush from the 
«aR» and, sans ccremonie', brushed his hat m 
oir tices. Each poor meal we make, we are 
neoeaitated in the first instance to secure our 
door from intrusion: and a thousand other 
ineaiiDesses we daily endure. 

" The vary dress of the men (particularly 
in the morning) is shocking to a person of thie 
commonest dtdkracy. They promenade the 
prt^on in a thin p^r of callico drawers that 
tcanx reach the knee, with the shirt loose over 
tfaa]i,andoostoddngsor hat: if cool or rainy 
veatker, ihef sometimes have the addition of 
a ck»k or bed-gown loosely wrapt round 
them. In short, maugre every exertion of 
patioice, our situation is miserable ; and most 
ghdW shall I hail the haopy day of our arri- 
Tal in a land of decency. 

After ten weeks confiDement they were 
lemored to Bahia,and again pat in a dun- 
geon ', a long arched vault, with a plank- 
woriK oo one skle to sleep on — (be old a^ 
tndo. The captain of the fort executed 
his orders with due fidelity in placing 
them there} but advised Mr. Lindley to 
write to the governor of Bahia, supplied 
him implements for the memorial, and 
dispatched it. On the morrow the com- 
mandant of the sea, as he is here called, 
came himself with an order for their re- 
lease from the dungeon, and that they 
should have an apartment, and the liberty 
of the fort. Both the commandant and 
the captain of the fort seem to have done 
every thing which men of honour and of 
fiseliitg could do, consistently with their 
duty, to alleviate his confinement. He 
was shortly afterwards confronted with 
Gaspar and Antonio, who steadily denied 
Che whole transaction, which he^ on his 
part, as consistently confessed. Assassi- 
nations, Mr. Lindley remarks, are not com- 
mon in Bahia ; and it is a proof this, that 
be walked the streets of the city in safety 
fix mooths after he had betrayed this &- 
mily. 

His ship and cargo ^were now valued 
infinitely below thair real worth. The 
cargo had been pillaged, and much da- 
mped; but he was obliged^ to sign a 
paper, attesting that the whole was in the 
nme oxidition as when first seized. The 
crew meantime were allowed eight-pence 
a day each ; they were in want of clothes, 
for their chests, as well as Mr. Lindley's 
trunks^ had been plundered. He was now 
informed that he could not be sent to 
Lubon till orden caxn« &ota thence^ in 



reply to the dispatches sent concemit^ 
him ; but the governor woukl permit him 
the liberty of the city, if he would peti* 
tion for it on the plea of iUness, and pn>« 
cure certificates to that effect. This Mr« 
Lindley thinks proper to call a qoean and 
paltry subterfuge from the great and 
mighty governor of a country ! though he 
avmled himself of the humane offer. The 
return he makes is to publish the fact, and 
print, at full length, the names of surgeon 
and physician who attested, on oadi, that 
he was dangerously ill, without having 
seen him. The next Englishman who is 
detected in smuggl'mg at Brasil will be 
lef^ to rot in a dungeon^ He waited till 
August in expectation of boing sent to 
Lisbon, then with his wife, pate, and ser- 
vant, made his escape in a vessel bound 
for Porto. 

** After the usual voyage, I arrived at 
Oporto on the 2d of November, and found 
vessels from Bahia that had sailed subsequent 
to ours : in consecpieiice, I expected that in- 
foraiation had been received of our escape^ 
and was apprehensive of some embarrassment ; 
but my fears were groundless. I applied in- 
stantly to the actiug consul, Mr.'Harr, who 
pointed out the necessity of my proceeding 
uninediately.to Dsbon. In four days I reach- 
ed that city, and waited on lord R. S. Fltsf- 
gerald, our residentiary minister, who received 
me with the most soothing and polite atten- 
tion, and entered into the merits of the a£Eair 
without losing a mcmient Jo'uitly with Mr. 
Gambler, the consul-general, his lordship had 
the goodness to assure me it should be forcibly 
represented to the Portugueze govemmtot, 
that a satisfactory recompence might be ob- 
tained for this imjust outrage on British sub- 
jects, and the sufferings that had been so wan- 
tonly inflicted on myself and wife. • 

" His lordship honoured me with aa iatfor 
ductory letter to lord Hawkesbury, wbJch on 
my arrival in England I presented, and was 
referred to the secretary of state*s office, 
where I attended at various times till the 
middle of June last, when 1 received the un« 

}>leasant intelligence (as well by advice from 
ord Robert Fitzgerald), that the Portuguese 
government had linally resolved, that no resti- 
tution or recompence whatever should be 
made in the alfair ; thus leaving me no further 

Erospector hope, of redress, for the mjuries f 
ave in so manv respects sustained—in my 
feelings, my health, my time, and my pro- 
perty!" 

No other termination of tlie affair was 
to be expected. Mr. Lindley was engaged 
in a contraband traffic, no matter whether 
with the chief magistrate of Porto Seguro 
or not, and no matter whether he knew it 
to be contraband or not ; ignorance of the 



VOYAGED ANOTBAVELS. 



Inr will' no indte excuse a breiach of thcf 
kw in Brdsil tbdn id England. 
- The Tokime contains inany^ amusing 
Indt^ of natibaal manners. It is veiy re- 
markable that knive» and forks are not 
jet in general use among tl^ Brasilians. 

' " Tbejr first take in their fiiigers a little 
jneat (wtucli is always so much over-<lone, as 
lo be readily separated), then vegetables, and 
ferihha; these they roll in the sauce, oil, or 
*oup, with which their plates abound, squecz- 
mg the whole in the pahn of the hand inta 
the ^ixsBpe, and about the size, of a wash-ball ; 
mliich, when thus, pre^iared, they convey mto 
their mouths at once, and whilst eating form 
another. 

. " Indelicate, and disgusting as such a pio; 
ture may seem, it is not overcharged \ botH 
sexes equally use this practice; and most 
dasse^; even when before Strangers, if by 
chance they take up a knife and fork, ^'etthey 
are soon tired of a mode so unusual^ slow, and 
tedious; and they invbluutaiily drop it,- and 
fell to in their old way with redoubled eager- 
JW89. It is true, that, as^ in the east, water is 
piesented before and after eating ; but it is by 
ft> means an apology for this barbarous and 
•Rrty custom/' 

"It is aJstonishing to see how little subordi- 
natfon of rank is- known in this country : 
France, m its completest state of revolution 
and citizenship, never excelled it in that re- 
spect. You see here the white servant con-^ 
▼eree with his master on the most equal and 
friendly terms; dispute his commands, and 
wrangie about them If contrary to his better 
opinion — ^which the superior receives in good 
part, and frequently acquiesces in. 

" The system does not rest here ; but ex* 
tends to the mulattoes-, and even to the ne- 
groes. Gne sees no humiliation except in 
tlie patient hard working drudge, the native 
Indian. 

" The feme licentious freedom is found in 
their marine and troops. On board of ship an 
order is seldom issued without tlie sailors giN**- 
iBg their ouinion on it, and frequentl^^ involv- 
ing the- whole in dispute and conhision. In 
conseqiience, each ofiicer walks tlie deck witli 
a stick of no small dimensions, as a* mark of 
authority; to use as occasion requires, and 
carry on the duty of the vessel. 

♦''The captain of the fort I am in, traverses 
the platform in a pair of coarse printed cotton 
trowsers, a jacket of the same, with a supple- 
jack in hand, commanding his working party 
of artillery-men under the title of comrades. 
I took the liberty of remonstrating about his 
wooden companion ; but he replied, ' Ko 
duty could go on without it.' At Porto Se- 
guro, I have often seen the lieutenant, Serjeant, 
and a private, in the same card party: even 
the captain (mor), and others the, most re- 
spectable inhabitants, betting, and taking part 
in the game, uithout scmple. This unreserved 
freedom is productive ot the most pernicious 
consequences ; you get no command promptly 



obeyed, and rtrangett who e^ecf ftefeef vh 
ever liable to insult. I attribute thi& promis^ 
aiou& intercotirse to the general ignorance 
that pervades the country ; as no people pre* 
tend to more hauteur and reserve tlian tha 
Brasilians, or really have less, in their owtt 
society.'* 

Bleeding and clysters of human milk 
afe the grand specifics. Mr. Lindlev wa^ 
called in to one poor wretch who had been 
bled one and twenty times in the space of 
nine days for a pain in the breast,, and of 
course fairly died of the doctors. They 
have an extraordinary Guy FaUx at Bahia; 

" In my walk to the city a considerabte 
crowd occupied the street, and I was obl^ed t<> 
stop till the. occasion was over. This proved 
to be the destruction of poor Judas in effigv i 
when, not content with all tlie anathemas this 
day thundered against him, and the eternal 
tornient to which he is consigned, the popur 
lace in dilTerent parts of the city dress up a 
masked figure, and erect a ^bbet on winch 
they exalt him — ^as do the shipping also firt>in 
their yard-anns. At eleven in the morning 
•they discharge musquets at the traitor ; ana 
set fire to rockets fastened at his back, and 
crackers* concealed in his dress. 

" In the exhibition which I witnesse<l, the 
rage of the good CatJiolics was not satisfied 
with hanging and blowing up poor, Judas ; 
but thev afterwards lowered his remains, and 
dragged them in triumph through the street:" 

The sugar- works are in a state of pri- 
mitive simplicity. 

" The word i/ig-enio is tlie/Portugueze disf 
tinction of those who haVe a sugar-work :— ^ 
here ver)- simple, cons^ting of tliree rollers .cSf 
ponderous wood, two feet in* diameter abd 
three in lengtli, working horizontally in k 
frame: the upper part of the center roller 
joins a square beam that ascends thrckigh the 
frame work; and to which are aflixed cross 

fneqes sufficiently low for tlie harness of two 
lorses, that move the whole, l^e side rollers 
work by cogs from the ciMiter one. Under- 
neath this macliine is. a long trough, slanted, 
that receives the juice of tlie cane as pressed 
out by the rollers. The juice is thence con- 
. veyed to a shallow boiler of six feet diameter, 
and skimmed from all impurities ; after cool^ 
ing in another vessel, they add an alkali of 
wood ashes,' suffer it to stand some days, pour 
off the pure liquor, 'Convey it to tlie same 
boiler, and evaporate till the sugar is formed. 
the settlings, &c. being distilled to a powerful 
spirit. How widely different is this primitive* 
sugar-making, from the hnniense works, ma- 
chnies, and engines, employed by our West*- 
Indian planters !" 

Notwithstanding the rudeness of thii 
machinery, and notwitlistanding the ge-^ 
neral darkness of Mr. Lindley's colouring, 
it is easy to perceive that the country is in 
a State of improvement. He indeed saysV 



xindlstV vota^^b to BRA9U,r 



» 



ittt js^ffmmeni Ig iisuig eviexy diligence i 
ID lender it more productive. Salt-petre 
nines, pmrbaps tbe &-st.in the world^iaaye 
iiteljbe^ opened, and the pepper-shrub 
imported fTX)m India, and thriving; unconv- 
nxnily well. Some interesting passages 
iektiTe to natural history may be selected* 

" I was called this morning to visit a sick 
planter, who chiefly cultivates mandiock, that 
mvaluable root which fomis the fariiilia, or 
bread of South America, and I had an oppor- 
tunity of minutely viewing the whole process 
of preparation- Mandiock is a knotted shrub 
that roiis to the height of six feet and upwards, 
but without branches ;* the root, which is the 
only useful part, somewhat resembles a pars- 
liip, but is much larger. It i& planted by cut- 
tine the body of the shrub into short lengths, 
and slicking them hito the earth, when they 
immediately reshoot, and, after growine for 
about twelve months, the root is perfectly 
formed, but varies in size according to the fer- 
tilitT of the ground, from one to twent}' inches 
in diameter, and from six inches to two feet 
in length. The roots being pulled up, and 
the exterior bark cut oflf, a farinaceous sul> 
Aanoe remabis, milky and glutinous ; tliis -Is 
nibbed to. small pieces against a rasping wheel 
covered with perforated copper, and received 
into a trough below ; it is then dried in di^l- 
tow pans over a slow fire, till all moisture is 
evi^xwafced, when it appears a dry granulated 
nb^tanoe, and b ready for use. 1 apioca is 
the juice of the root drained from the rasp- 
ngs, and granulated in like manner over a 
Ibwiire. 

" Farinha was in use among the Indians of 
Sooth America at the time of its discovery, 
toi impeiceptibl^ adopted by its conquerors, 
wheat not agreeing with the soil, and man- 
diock being cultivated at an hundredth part 
ctf the bhcmr and expence." 

The bee& form nests which load the 
trees. 13iey consist of a ponderous shell 
^ day, cenaeoted like the martin s nest, 
tweUing from high trees about a foot 
thick, ffld forming an oval mass full tv^'o 
feet in diameter. The wax within is ar* 
langed in the usual manner, and tlie honey 
abundant ; but little use is made of either, 
ngar being the growth of the spot, and 
wax sillied pleotifidly- by the African 
ooknies. 

" For many days there has been an im- 
mense flight of white and yellow butterflies. 
They never settle, and proceed in a direction 
from the north-west to the sooth-east. Nei- 
ther the fort nor any other building iibpedes 
^hon: they steadily pursue their course; 
which being to the ocean (at only a small dis- 
tance), they must consequently perislr 



of these.mseets is to be seen, notwUhstanding 
the country generally abounds in ^ch a v? 
rietv.** • 

^ "" I was caught on the beach in the severest 
fall of rain 1 ever witnessed. "VVhrle standing 
^mder a shed to avoid its vielaice, I all fi 
once observed the air full of a small flying in- 
sect, which the people near me called Asiaa 
ants.* This is tte moment they use Ibr mul- 
tiplying their ^ecies, after which theydiop; 
wien their transparent wings sticking to the 
moist earth, they make a violent eflbrt and 
leave them, llie insect then appears as a 
sntall maggot, which immediately divides, 
and each part seeking the porous earth soon 
disappears : the larger ones always leave their 
wmgs ; while some smaller, after separation, 
regaui the air. On my arrival at the fort, I 
heard they had there also swarmed in mvriads, ' 
as just observed. 

" The large ant already noticed, is also in 
a^ate of. chrysalis at- this season. It is far 
increased in size during this change; and 
after cohtmubg some time in tlie air, returns 




Ti 



J9 singular that at present no other kind 



A nest which I passed of these insects was 
opened, with some hundreds of the wmged 
ones (which I imagine females) taking flight 
from the nK>uth of it ; while myriads of young 
ones continued unintemij^ed at work." 

The natives, who are not always padfie, 
are. formidably armed. 

" The bows of these Indians are similar to 
the English long bow ; about six feet^ix inches 
in length; strong made, of a ponderous wx)od, 
but oarticularly elastfc, and strung with the 
dried sinews of an animal, or sometimes a 
pr«)ared cotton cord. Their arrows are tliree 
and four feet in length, well feathered, and 
consist of one piece of light wood : the poiiifs 
of the larger sort are simply the arrow ta- 
pered, and afterwards notcliecl for about eiglVt 
mches, to prevent its easy extraction; the 
shorter have a broad scoop head, about four 
inches long, and one broad in the center part 
of it, tapering each way to its point, and 
where it joins the stem ; this head is concaved 
to a sharjp edee, and is a fatal weapon. They 
harden both heads in the iire ; and though 
the wliole arrow feels vei^ light, and appears 
insiifHcieiit to pierce at any distance, yet it 
kills at neariy as great a dbtance as an Eurd- 
pean musket." 

On the whole this is a volume which 
may be read with amusement and advan- 
tage. We have, however, to reprehend 
Mr. Lindley for the dreadful indiscretion 
with which he has published the names of 
persons, who, in tlie confidence of friend- 
ship, uttered their sentiments to him, and 
showeJ h'im the secret treasure of their 
libraries, little thijiki;ig that all was to be 



• # Venni^es d*Asie, 



VOYAGES AND TIlAVELS. 



thus befnyed ! A fiuniluor of the inqaisf- 
tkMi waald not have been a mote danger- 
tuns, nor a more deadly companion for 
them. No Englishman will ever be re*- 
cdved with kindness or confidence by a 



' Brasilian after the publication of this xna9t 
imprudent book, and no English prisonrt' 
there must ever again expect the slightest 
relaxation of law, or the slightest allevia- 
tion of imprisonment. 



Abt. VII. — 4Mcon Memoranda : relative to an Attempt to establish a British Settle-' 
meat on the Islandof Bulama, on the Western Coast qf Africa, in the Year 1792. With 
u brief Notice qf the neigl^Hmring Tiibes, Soil, Productions, ^c. and some Obserra* 
iions on the facility qf colomzing that Pai^t qf Afric^> ^i^h a View to Cultivation ; 
mnd the Introduction qf Letters and Religion to iu Inhabitants : but more particularly 
ms the means qf gradually abolishing African Slavery. By Captain Philip Bea^veb^ 
qf his Majesty^s Royal Navy, 4to. pp.500. 

What shall I do to be for ever known^ 
And make the age to come my ovm} 
IS the fine question which Cowley asked 



<if himself, and answered, not triumph* 
antly, by his poems. The projects of 
Mr. Beaver's ambition were diSerent : he 
once planned an excursion to the north 
pole ; then a journey through the inte* 
lior of Africa -, and thirdly, to coast the 
vorld. He was at length induced by 
circumstances to conduct an enterprize 
lor the colonization of Bulama. 

This volmne contains a narrative of all 
the transactions relative to that under- 
taking : it defines the chances of success 
ind the causes of fidlure : it preserves the 
hints and the warnings of experience, and 
deserves to occasion a repetition of the 
attempt Mr. Beaver's personal conduct 
compels high admiration: he is one of 
those natural heroes who wanted only 
other followers to have founded, like 
^neas, a permanent empire in a strange 
and savage land : he ought again to be 
folicited by his country to undertake a 
commands of which the highest recom- 
pense will be its eventual success. 

The first chapter relates the proceed- 
ings of the Bulama society in England. 

The second chapter contains the adven- 
tures of the colonists, firom their leaving 
England to their arrival in the Bijuga 
channel on the coast of Afirica. 

The third chapter contains a summary 
of the fortunes of those embarked in the 
Calypso, which separated rather shabbily 
from its companions at the outset, and 
which denerted the expedition, on the first 
pretext of difficulty, with ruinous retrac- 
tation. 

The fourth chapter details the proceed- 
ings of the colony from their landing to 
the retreat of the crew of the Calypso. 

The fifth chapter preserves lieutenant 
Beaver's journal on the island of Bulama. 
By the progress of disease and desertion, 
he is at length reduced to the oecoissity of 



return : only one of the original colo- 
nists remained with him to the last. 

Here ends the historical portion of the 
book. Six speculative chapters follow^ 
which treat of the advantages to be de^^ 
rived firom theexjperience collected during 
this attempt— of^ the causes of failure 
which are stated, convincingly, not to lie 
in the difficulty or impracticability of the 
enterprize— of the geographical charact^ 
of that part of the African coast betweea 
the Gambia and Rio-Grrande-K)f the Bi-» 
juga islands, and of Bulama especiallj^ 
their soil, productions, and capabilities— « 
and lastly of the wisest plan for a futtire 
colonization. 

An appendix follows containing tho 
public papers of the colony ; nautical re-* 
marks 3 meteorologic journals; and other 
particulars worthy of preservation, which 
could not well be inwoven in the nar* 
rative, are here separately chronicled. 

The first difficulty opposed to this 
effi)rt at colonization arose from the 
antljacobinism of Mr. Secretary Dundas, 
who laid an embargo on vessels which 
had been purchased by voluntary sub- 
scription, and were freighted with volun- 
tary emigrants. The constitution of go- 
vernment, forsooth, in which equal sub-^ 
scribers had equal rights of sufirage, and 
chose a council for the management of 
their affairs, had given ofi*ence. 'Thit 
being cancelled, the ships were sufifered 
to proceed: but whereas the colonists 
originally tlunight themselves bound ta 
obey the governors they had elected, they 
now knew that there was no legal autho-^ 
rity over them ; thus the pedantry of Mr. 
Dundas bestowed a practical anarchy on 
the colonists, and prepared the critical re- 
turn of the Calypso-party. 

The colonists, it may be ni^ed^ shoiuld 
have obtained a charter. There are tw0 
plans of colonization equally practicable. 
^he one is to go out with the connivance 
of the di^ei^t European govematenta. 



cjLPtinr •sATviL s a^lc^v mkvoivakda. 



•Sf 



p,^. u^ oegm on' a sysi 
CBce, aud to preserve a strict neuti-ality 
danng the wars of Europe. The other 
is to gp out with the concurrence of a 
^leclfic country^ and to solicit its aid : 
where this is the intention, the form of 
declaring allegiance and of pfomi.«iing pro- 
ttcnoa, ought unquestionably to take 
place ; in oSxer words, a charter ought to 
be obtained. At the time of the Bulama 
suhscription^ the friends of the blacks were 
sufficiently numerous, both in France and 
England, to have conjointly colonized a 
vast tract of Africa for the purpose of cul- 
tivating cotton by free labourers. The 
democratic constitution of the colony was 
adapted to the admission of people of all 
kinds and countries: di^iiculty of any 
kind would always have occasioned the 
necessary deposit of authority with tlie 
few leading mind A A colony from all 
oatiGnSj a North- America in ^Vfrica, free^ 
iadependeni, at perpetual peace, and open 
to the commerce of the world, might 
veil hav^comprebended a larger portion 
of white settlers, and have attained a 
speedier civilization, than under the mo* 
aopoly system of British intercourse. 

Mr. Beaver's method of acquiring as- 
cendancy over the negroes is thus recorded 
in hj3 journal. 

" Read prayers. Sent the Industry, with 
Mr. Scott, to Bissao. Hierm. 88. Bennet 

*' Employed as yimal till nine o*cIock, when 
Beilchore, with two canoes, paid us another 
Tisit JLeft ofl* work, and collected the gni- 
metas witiiin the block-house, which Bell- 
dure, and two attendants only, are pemiit- 
ted to enter, at the gate of which they deliver 
up (heir anus, and they are returned* to them 
vfacQ they go out again. I'he rest of his 
people, in numb^ twenty-eight, occupr the 
^nuQct^s' huts. I am novr strong enough not 
to care for tiiese people, tiiey can do notliiag 
by open force, f had intended to have re- 
proached Belichore for his treacherous con- 
onct in having been here with a large armed 
fox, with a view of attacking us ; to have 
anored him that nothing that he had done 
was unknown to me ; then to have dogged 
lum, and turned ban unarmed ^m tlie 
bland ; hut as we were now safe, and had no- 
thing to fear from them hereafter, I thought 
k more advisable, on reconsideralipn, to re- 
ceive him in a friendly manner, and pretend 
iSDOrance of what had passed. 

'* In the evening, at the request of Bell- 
chore, %e ftred several six-pound shot in va*" 
lions directions, to the great admiration of 
the Bjugas, particulaily one, which I had told 
them, bdorc it was fired, should ccnne out of 
Ihc water four or five thnes- It did so in iact 

AsN. Kev. Vol. IV, 



.^j-.^^y -rtx cvcianneci, clapping 
"all white man witch;" tJiii, 
simple as it appears to us, they could by no 
means comprehend, and thought ttiat nothing 
short pf witclicratt could possibly fwesee thdX, 
a shot fired into the water, shouki come t^t of 
if again four or five times. Another shot 
they were told should go through a tree, 
distant i suppose not more than two hundred 
yards. It went through its centre, and they 
were all astduishnient: but virjjat seemed to 
stiipify them with wonder was the accideutai 
circumstance of my sitting u]X)n one of tliesjp 
six-pounders while' it was fired. 

" It has ever been my custom, smce th^ 
departure of tlie Hankey, to lire a morning 
and evening gun, that is, one at dawn 6i dav*, 
and one at sunset. When the latter is fired 
the dnuii is beat, the colonists retire to tiie 
block-house, wluch Is tlien locked, and the 
key put under my pillow, and no c^ie can, 
after tliat time, go m or out without my per- 
niission. We liad for some time left otf firing 
to amuse the Bijugas, when, it being just sun- 
set, I was sitting upon tlie gun tJiat was to be 
fired, talking to Bellchore: as the boy ap- 
proached with the match, Bellchore ran away, 
for tliough they are highly delighted with the 
noise of a caimon, they keep at a ve:y respect- 
ful distance, vvliile it is fired ; and notwith- 
standing they have so often seen my little boy, 
not more than twelve years of affc, fire one, 1 
suppose no consideration could Tnduce one <ȣ 
these people to do so. As before observed, 
I was accidentally sitting upon the gun when 
the boy came to fire it : Bellchore mmiedi- 
atdy ran away — I remained — the boy fired, 
and 1 verily beliese they expected to see inc 
dead. 

"They had before a grckt idea of the 
power which I possessed in common wilh all 
white men, of performing miracles, or rather 
of being a magician, ana they now believed 
me invulnerable — a belief that I was at no 
gains to undeceive them m. Themi. 86. 
Bennet sick. 

" As we did no work while Bellchore was 
here, in the morning I amused him and hii 
people, as well as myself, in shewing tlwan 
many thmgs which riveted their faith in my 
magic power, and which they at lagt believed 
to be unlunitcdi 

" I made them ffemark the north point of 
my cu'cuniferenter, and then, desiring them 
to turn it j-'averal times round, or put it in any 
Other position, observe that they had not the 
power of movme that point, because I luid 
ordered it to reirfain where it was. The)' saiy 
that it was so, and could not compreliend why 
it wa3y unless by my power, hxed to tliat 
point. The bubble in the spirit lev«l of my 
thjcodolite, thev thou gl it alive; apd tlv^ 
distmctness with which they viewed dittanii 
objecta, through a good telescope, ericreswed 
their belief in my magic. But there -was on|^ 
tbhig yet to shew Aem, which would fufiy 
convince them that nothhig v^as to me iro^ 
ix)ssible. It was near noon, and I was regu^ 
jating ri>y watch by the s wi* 1 ks yriXok Sad 

D 



-- u 



VOVAGES AND TRAVELS, ' 



for some flnlff itrKcn-tTjrTww — u-_ij[^^ u;4, 
they thought, as well as the spirit'levd, \vas 
* alive: particularly after, (for at iir^t they 
tvoiild not believe that the minute hand had 
. motion, which is too slov; to be readily per- 
ceived by the eye) I liad made one of them 
'hold a pm, live miiuites before the minute 
iiand, and then explained to him, that in a 
^certain time that hand would r;o to the pin, 
'and then pass it ; tor instance, wliilst another 
*\vaikied to a certain tree and back again. Tliis 
Hhey all perceived ; l)ut, wonderful as it was 
to them, it ceased instantly, as well as every 
thing else, to occupy any' of their attention, 
'when I played off my last trick. M'ith my 
quadrant r brought the'sun djwn upon tlie 
top of the block-house, and then dt^slred Bell- 
chore to look at it, which he did, and then, 
"one after another, all his people ; when, plac- 
ing one of his men beibre me, I told him that 
I would put the sun up)n his head, llie poor 
liijuga at first was frightened, and unwilling 
to stand where I de-ired him ; but, on my 
repeated assurances that no harm shcmld come 
to him, he consented, and 1 shewed to his 
iastonished countrymen the sun upon his head. 
" In the cvenbig IJellchore htft me. He 
had been much stnick with the strength and 
magnitude of our build'mg, and will never, 
hereafter, I am confident, attempt any thing 
against us. Besides, what can he expect to 
.atchieve against a man who can sit upon a 
cannon^ " against which there is no gris-grls" 
ivhile it is lired; and can put the sim upon 
another man s head ? The Industry returned 
this evening from Bissao with six new gru- 
metas.*' 

The result of Mr. Beaver^s interestins; 
<ijxj)erience, which constitutes a suni of 
knowledge wortli the expcnce at which it 
has been purchased, is tlius very modestly 
summed up. 

" AVhat did we propose to ascertain? 
' ^ First — ^M^hethcr we could cultivate the 
tropltal productions un the Island of Bulama 
ana tlie adjacent shores ? 

*'■ Second — Whether we could do so by the 
Dieans oifree natives f 

'* I'hird — ^\Vhetlicr by cultivation and 



commerce we mlAt tiot introduce afiion| 

tnl 111 I'WltlZlUi'Vnf 

** The first of these queries is prored ho- 
yond a doubt, not only by what 1 cultivated 
on the island ; but froin all tropical produc- 
tions growing wild on it, or in its vicinity. 

" Now then for the .second, which b by far 
the most imiwrtant. It will appear by the 
list of grumetas in the Appendix * that in 
about one year I employee! on the island 196 
of them. 1 hese grumetas ^vere not all of one 
nation : neither were they only of- two ; but 
they were of three, of four, of live, and even 
of six,t and they were all free. Had it been 
pnident, witJi my reduced force, to have em- 
ployed more, I could easily at all times have 
doubled or trebled their numbers. Iheso 
gnnnetas cleared all the ground that was 
cleared, they made the inclosurcs, and work- 
ed hard and \\ilUngly, generally speaking, at 
•whatever task was assigned to them. 1 have 
no hesitation therefore in declaring that the 
second also is proved : and the third v:ill nc- 
ccssariti/follozv — ^for commerce will foll6w 
cu LTiVvVTioK, and civilizatiok will re- 
sult from them both. 

" M'hcn the peculiar disadvantages eiiume* 
rated in the former part of tJiis ciiaptcr, arc 
added to those arising from the general cha- 
racter of the settlers, and of some of the gru- 
metas, as well as from the smallness of out 
force for the last year, our having been able 
to conmiand resjicct, and to accomplish what 
we did, must remove from the m'md, I think, 
,of all unbiassed persons, every doubt as to the 
practii ability ot accomplishing all which we 
nad proipised ourselves, had the exix^itioo 
been planned with more wisdom, or executed 
with more encTp;y. Aiid although we were 
obliged to (jijit ttie Island at the, moment when 
we had slielter and protection for more set- 
tlers, anfl iields ready for the plough, yet I 
tnist that our labour lias not been altogellier 
fruitless, but that we have been pa&'ing the 
way for some more fortunate enterprise. AjkI 
though in this undertaking our mortality has 
been great, nay dreadful indei^d, yet havo we 
th(» satisfaction to say that no one ever fell by 
the hand of an enemy ; J that we never had 
any^quarrel with the natives ; and tliat the 
English character which we found considered 
by tiiem as sordid, base and cowardly, wc left 



: *.No. 15.. 

1 1 rbgret much that 1 did not, when on the island, keep an account of the' nations to which 
jny sevt?ral gri^metas b:^ionped, as, besifles beini; more satisfactory to the rc»a(lvr, it would have 
enabled us to form sonie little notion of their national character. However, by far the greatest 
numb'.T wer<.* Pfipels and Manjacks ; about a dozen of the whole number were Biafaras, a feW 
BalantiH^s, four or/ive v?cre Naloos, but only tuo IMjugas. 1 had Biafara visitors fretjueiitly, 
and with them sometiwws came Mandingos, but I nev^r had a Mandingo grunuta, though 
tJiey have (retiuently come to the Island in that situation, in canoes belonging to Bissao. I 
sonietimes also had yi-sits tVom lkilola,<i place alx)ut seventy mi'es.up the Kio Grande, but in 
what nation t6 place its inhabitants I know not. 'I'hey ai'e I think a mixture of Biafaras, 
Naloos, and Mandingov; at kast ])eople of each of tlio*;e nations reside at Bulola, and there 
^s fr.ou nt intercourse by land between Kacundy on the Nunez, and Bulola on the Grande. 
Moody Toorey was at t;iis time qiuynof Bulola ; ijjic oftin pri^iSL-dnie to come to her town, 
hiit I ni'vcr was able to acc:;mpli.slnt.' 

{ The reader \\M\ rcmeiiiber that vve had not arrived when tlic Calypso's people were at- 
tacked by tlic natives. 



CAPTAIK BEATS&*8 AVUCk'S, USMO&AKDA.' 



35 



sing on these powerfiii animals a simikr 
opinion of stbe friendliness and compati- 
bility of the white man? CameU, but not 
yet, will be 'neouisite in these di^tric'f^. 
Ants are trouOTesome tliere : the par- 
tridge, which is a yoracioiis ant-eater, 
might be "carried over. Swine are the 
appropriate enemies of serpents. 

The following hints for commencing 
tlie settlement of Biilama^ deserve con* 
spicuity. 

" Supposing the colonization of the couutry 
between the Gambia and Ihe Grande, as wiTl 
as the uninhabited Bijuga isles, to be under- 
taken by individuals sanctioned by govern- 
ment, or else by gpvenimeut * itself, 1 should 
recoiniiiend the repossessing ourselves of lu- 
lama inmiediately ; and, upon the fertile ?oil 
of tJiat beautiful hllle island 1 should cgpif 
nience such a plan oi cultivation, which, \rith 
common prudence and coiiimon success, 
would, 1 doubt not, in less than twenty years 
export to tlie parent cointry produce to the 
value of more than a million'sterlint^ ; and, it 
requires no great share of credulity to believe,, 
might soon after take from (xi-eat Britain l«.r 
manufactured goods to more than tliat a- 
mount ; for which the colony wcnild make its 
chief returns in raw materials, for Hritish in- 
dustry' to work up ; and these would he. rc- 
tumeii to it at an amazingly encreased price ; 
which is, of all otliew, the most advantageous 
conunerce that one country can carry on with 
another. 

" Me will therefore suppose the coloniza- 
tion d' tiiese couiitries seriously intended ; and 
that a certain number of persons are ajTived, 
at the proper season of the year, that is to say, 
jiut after the rains, on the island of Bulama ; 
those persons will find an uniiJiabited and 
fertile soil ; and gnunetas, or labourers, may 
be readily procured in. the neighbourhood. 
Six months dry weather may be certainly 
reckoned upon,' if they arrive at tlie proper 
time; in which they may clear theii- grounds 
for cultivation ; and cotton, as the leiVst diffi- 
cult and least ex[)ensive, and making the !)est 
return, all things considered, I should recom- 
mend to be iirst cultivated. Durmg the dry 
season the colonists would also erect th(fr 
houses and n\ake a public road &c. ; while 
the governor should be making purchases of 
land on the continent and among the Pijuga 
islands for future settlers ; and in doing this 
he would meet with no great dillicultv, as all 
the ^ound uncultivated by thi m is of no use, 
any further than as affording tbeni the n.t ans 
of tlie chace. And indeed they are ever 
anxious to have white peoj)le settlt*d in their 
neighbourhood, as whr.n that is the case tliey 
always expect a constant supply of European 

* It would be better undertaken by government, on whose account all the land should b* 
pirrbased, whidi 1 think mi^ht be done for less.than 5000 pounds ; and giants of certain por- 
tions of it ^onld be made* to mdividuals at IDs. an acre. Now suppo^^ing the above tenito^y 
to ctmtaiu only 18,000,000 of acres^ the whol^ when granted away, woukl produce to govern- 
BMit 9,000 fiOOl sterling. 

J)2 • 



Uoved, respected, and admired ; yet its eiv- 
jaiAy^ji3 :cared as nmch as its friendship was 
courted. And although we have not been ^ 
hitherto able to reap the fruit of our labour, I ' 
hope that the day is not far distant,. when . 
fonie enlarged and' liberal plan will be adopt- 
ed to cultivate the western coast of Africa, 
without interfering with the freedom of its 
natives. Such a plan, pursucxl with a wise . 
policy, is the surest way of introducing civili- 
atioD, andat the same time of abolishing* 
sliven- ; and if the preceding account shall 
in the'sniallesl degree lead to such a measure, 
I shall be amply repaid for all the time and 
trouble I have expended, and all the diillcul- 
tie» 1 have encountered.** 

Vtlni remains for national considera- 
t'on is the expediency of reviving a dis- 
positioo to form settlements in Afripa. 
This is the only quarter of the world in 
•which British language and British com- 
merce have struck no root ; to whicb the 
advantage of our laws> tlie benefit of our 
protection, the civilizing influence of our . 
manners, our iutercourse, and our litera- 
ture, have not been extended. It is tlie 
bed of a soil, which we have not attempted 
to cultivate ; the atmosphere of-a climate, 
which we have not endeavoured to pu- 
rify ; the home of a barbarism, which we 
have not sought to dissipate -, the seat of 
a slaver)', which we have not taken steps 
to abolish. Let us try. The solid pyra- 
mids of African antiquity attest the possi- 
bility of labour in vain : let the htf)llow 
warehouses of modem industry demon- 
itrate the possibility of labour to advan- 
tage. The first roads will only be acces- 
tihk to the keel } but die next to the 
camel and the elephant : to fleets will 
lucceed caravans 3 to a coasting- trade^ in- 
ternal traffic. 

The elephant and the hippopotamos 
of this part of Africa, have hitherto 
been hunted down, as the foes of 
mzn, for the puny recompense of their 
ivory teeth. From Mr. Beaver's testi- 
mony, and from that of odier zoolo- 
gists, it is probable that their alliance 
would be more profitable than dieir en- 
mity. Both appear domesticable. The 
elephant can carry burdens ; the hippo- 
potamos can tow boats. Great care is 
uLvely recommended to impress on the 
black man an opinion of the justice and 
bamanity of Europeans : ought not ana- 
logous precautions to be taken for impres- 



f» 



TOVAGES AND TRAVEL! 



C00&. - Til the fttctfi ikne, iHiile tbe cotton 
£ ^gowing, sbinc small rci»m6 might be made 
to the mother coitiitry ia the natiVe produce 
enumerated ia page 3S1. 

'* Having, in tin: fir^t year, made t\vo egta- 
^1t:>hments on the island of Bulama, one at 
the east, and the other at the west end of it ; 
the former of which i3 to be coa^ddtTed the 
capital of the colony ; I should tHe next year 
lorm ooe on the Biafara shore opposite to it; , 
tnd another just to the westward of tliat 
branch of the Grande which runs up to Ghi- 
jiala. These would be both on land already 
purchased of the natives ; but, if the govern- 
ment at fiulama has been at all active, other 
territcN'ies will have been purchased in the 
^rst year ; in which case I should form a third 
^Titablishment at Bulola,* and a fourth in the 
isle of Galenas ; so that at the beginning of 
the di7 season of tlie second year, wo s^liould 
have six distinct establishments on this part of 
the coast. At the begiiming of the third year, 
diree, four, &ye or six other estabiishiu'jnts 
might be foniicd on sonic of tiie Bijuga 
islands, or on some of those: clo^e to the con- 
tinent, or, on the continent itself, north of the 
Hio Grande; and I should now consider the 
colony as sufticiently strong and permanent 
to require no further assistance from govern- 
ment. 

'< In the above outline, I have confined 
myself to the soutbecn shore, but I think it 
would be as weii, nay better, to begin the first 
year at both ends. In which case I should 
rocommend the taking posscisioa of Jamed's 
island in the Gambia, and constructing on it 
a considerable foit; and the second year an 
cstablisbmcnt should ix: made on the Pasqua 
river* 

•* in establishing this cc^ony there are cer- 
tain points which must not be swerved from ; 
whenever they are, the^ony, if not ruined, 
will be retarded ; tii:*3e arc : 

" First, that no Lmd b^: ever taken from 
tlie natives by force ; and that we do not ever 
make a settlement witiuHit their consent. Wc 
should even re-purchase the land alrrady 
bought rather than our right to it be disputea 

** The second is, that no [lerson can b j em- 
ployed as a slave ia any of our settlements, 
nor on board any sliip or ves^ belonging to 
the colonuit?. At the same time tliat the em- 
ployment of slaves is prohibited to the Kuix>- 
pi*un colonists, these must also be forbidden 
to interfere in the smaller degree Miiatever, 
with the cmjjlojinent of tljem by the native 
kings or chiefs, in their ouu towns or territo- 
rit^. Nothing must bfj.done againsl their 
independence. Tlie abolition of that ext^ 
crablc trade must be left to the gradual, but 



sure, operation of reason, and exampts* 
Should we endeavour to prevent the native 
chiefs from selling slaves; so sudden, and so 
violent a check to one of their immeiftoriai 
customs; the reason, the policy, or the justice 
of which it is impossible for them at 4irst io 
comprehend, would ill dispose them toward* 
us ; and make them either treachtfous friends 
or open enemies to the success of our imd^a*- 
takiiig ; at the same time that not one sjave 
less would be annually sold, notwithstanding 
our ill-advised and absurd attempts to prevent 
it ; and by sudi means the slave trade never 
will be abolished. Whereas if these people 
are left to th«nselves, and to the operation of 
reason and example, without the smallesi 
shock to any of their customs or prejudices^ 
I question very much if a slave will ever be 
seen in any native tu\ni of the colony at the 
expiration of tifteen or twenty years. But if a 
misguided zeal for the aboiilion of slavery be" 
manifested, it will tend to prolong its contim^ 
aiice, and the colony never can, and never 
will nourish. I'he absurdity of very well 
meaning persons, in thinking that they can 
overcome vices, customs, or pnjjudices, im- 
memorially rooted in an unenli^htejied people, 
by shocking, instead of gradually enlightening 
. their understandings, has done a great deal of 
mischief already, lb begb by telling a native 
diief, the instant you have got into his coun- 
try, that of his six wives he must put awav five, 
because it is a great sin, and foroidden bv the 
laws of God, to have more than one, will cer- 
tainly astonish the chief, but will not induce 
him to part fi-om his wive^. As to the word 
sin, it is im})ossiblc that it can convey any idea 
to him ; it is not within tlie limits of possibi- 
lity ioT liini to comprehend the idea wiiich it 
is meant to couvey ; and of tlie laws of God 
he will have as little knowledge. But he will 
know that it is the custom, and ever has been, 
in his country, for evvry man to keep as many 
wives as he can alibrd; and that he is re- 
sjjectcd in projwrtion to tlie number of them 
wfiich he mamlains. Now to insist U|>oi\ his 
partinj^ fix)m llie cause of his res|>ect, without 
assigning any comprehensible reason for his 
8o doing, betrays a more barbarous mind than 
the one intended to be enlightened. If, after 
this, the siune ix^rson goes on, and tells the 
chii'f, that druiikcmiess is also a sin, and that 
he must give up drinking spirits ; in short, 
tlial he v^ill not sell him any, nor suiicr any to 
be sold to him for the future ; the ciiief, who 
iias been accustomed to drink spirits, and to 
see every one cbe do the same, when it was 
• to be imKived, w^ill bt^gin to tliink this luini- 
peaij a liaie unreasonable ; and will not be de- 
sirous of having hbu for a nelghboiu'. But if 



• Although Buloia is without Ihc boundary line of the territor)' proposed to be colonized, 
.llring on the Naloo pcuinsuhi on the south side of the Grande, vet, from the character of i\A 
inhabitants, and tlicT desire to have us cstab'iilitfd among them," I sliould then; form a settle- 
ment, probably it might be thought wise to < xteud tlie southern boundary of the colony and 
ciirry it to tlie Rio Nunc^ which is navigable iar ships of 300 tons burthen, though with two 
j#r three bars, up to Kacuiid]^^ about sevcDiy miles from its mouthy between wliicu place and 
#nlo)a on the G rande, tliesa is frc<iuem coinii4yiu;atioa^ 



•APTAIK BBAVEB*S AFKICAK MSMO&AMOA. 



97 



tbp Curdpean goes on, and tells him that he 
must change his religion and bcx:ome a 
Christian^ or else when he dies that he will be 
misled like a yam, always in torment but 
ncrer tboroughly done ; this chief will pro- 
bably inquire what he means by being a 
Christian, that he may avoid this roasting. 
When his European instructor goes on from 
one dogma to amither, all alike uninteliisrible 
m the present intellectual state of tlie chief, 
till he unishes witii the doctrine of the Trinity, 
the b»»lief in which, he tells this chief, is essen- 
tol to uis salvation : the latter, who tlunight 
hun unreasonable at hrst, now thinks hhii * 
outragoou&ly so ; and that he is either a mad 
man, a fool, or an impostor ; and to get rid 
of people profi*ssing such doctroies, will be 
his cuttbtant endeavour. Absurd as such con- 
duct must appear, I have seen conduct to- 
wanK a native chief yet more so ; and much 
mifchiof has already been done by the fana- 
tical zeal of some misguided people. I could 
giTe instances, but they are so incredibly ex- 
travagant, that they would scarcely lind ci edit 
among sober ni'mded people. If conduct like 
this be pursut-d in the intended colony, it will 
never succeed, and the condition of the natives 
will never be improved. 

" It these Europeans who settle there are 
of mdu^rious habits, and conhne themselves 
to one whe, whose offspring they bring up 
with care and alTection, the very habit even 
of imitation, (more particularly as it would \ye 
an imitation of people acknowledged their 
superiors in every thing) will in time, and that 
not very distant,' introduce the same custom 
ankong the native chiefs, and from them it will 
di^oend to all others ; and thus what the fu- 
rious zeal of a bigot would have endeavoured 
to briiig about in a day, a week, a month, or 
iycar, at the expence'of rudely attacking all 
their prejudices, but which he would never 
luve accomplished, niiirht gently and gradu- 
ally be etfected, and made to appear thciit 
own work, without our having in any imstance 
wounded any of their feelings. 

" As tp dn:ikinff ; if Europeans set them 
the exaifiple of sobriety, if they will not em- 
ploy a drunkard, and always considi^r a man 
who has been seen in that state, as having dis- 
honoured, and debased himsc^lf, they will soon 
confine thai vice to a few of the fovrest and 
DMst thoughtless of the people; who,, by tJie 
b)-e, if ibcy hare the propensity, will not have 
|he means of gratifying it. 

*' As to religion ; there is nmch more dan- 
g*?r of doing evil, than probability of doing 
pad, by an excessive zeal for its inlroducfion. 
In this, as in other p jints, exampU^ is mtrch ; 
It we are constant in our attendance at divine 
worship, and conduct oursrives there with de- 
ronmi and reverence, this wtU have more 
ctfect on tiic miads of the Africanf, towank 



converting them to Christislmty, than any 
thing that could be said by any fanatical 
«ealot; and if we leave its operatkm to th« 
diow workings of time, we shall certainly at* 
tain our object; which the fpUy of an enthu- 
siast might only place faither from us. 

" So of slavery. Interfere not with the 
natives bu}'ing or selling slaves ;' but let up 
European employ one. His gmmctas, who 
', till the ground for hire, must be reasonably 
paid, well fed, comfortably lodged, and have 
a little piece of ground to raise vegetables, 
and to keep poultiy. 'i hese grumetas, unless 
they have a very unreasonabke master, uili 
be generally contented and happy; and if 
they have a good master they will never quit 
hun ; and generally speaking would risk their 
lives on his account. It would be seen in a 
very short time that these grumetas would 
annually produce more profit to theif master, 
than if they lutd been ait sold for slaves ; nay, 
than if they could be all sold evxry tear, 
whereas they can be sold but once, 

" One great motive of the Africans in mak- 
ing slaves, indeed I may say tlie only one, if 
to piocure European goods ; slaves ate the 
money, the great circulutii^ medium, with 
which African commerce is carried on ; they 
have no other If therefore we could substi- 
tute another, and at the same time that other 
be more certain and more abundant, the great 
object in trading in slaves will be done away. 
This may be done by tlie produce of tie 
earth. Let the native chiefs be once convinced 
that the labour of a free native ill cultivating 
tlie earth, may produce him more European 
goods in one year, than he could have pur* 
chasc*d if he had sold him for a slave, and he 
will no longer seek to make slaves to procure 
European commodities, but will cultivate the 
.earth tor that purpose ; and he would be a 
gainer, even if the labour of one man should 
procure, annually, goods only to the amount 
of one half, or one fourth, of the value of a 
slave; because these he will have every ycar^ 
the former he could have only orcc.** 

By consulting captain Beaver's excel- 
lent niap> an instantaneous idea may bd 
formed of the magnificence of thi9 under- 
taking. 

Mr. Malthus*s book must have con- 
vinced the British public that population 
is always and every where progressive 
witli the means of maintenance, and with 
them alon^ ; tliat nations, which cannot 
provide a drain for theic superfluous ado- 
lescence, must rebarbarixe, and allow the 
brutal qualities of sUrength and courage to 
snatch the goods of life from the feebler 
hands of the industrious, the luxurious and 
(be refined ^ that colonies, fiu from being 



• If 1 may be thought to have spoken too lightlv on tubjects so serious, my apology will 
fce fcu«d in the contempt and UKhgnalwn 1 feel at the ill-directed etTorts of those misguided 
and ftetf-appointed missionaries. The langoj^e i use is suoh as iiwist naturally suggest itself 
to thtir ignf>rant ctUechisU. And tlie great trutliS of Christianity will be more exposed to r^^ 
4kMk than vcncnAiQn, by tbe cxeccisc of tUk " zeal without knowledge." Romaus \. ?. 



38 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



exhaustive of national force, or burden- 
some to public revenue, promote a whole- 
some emigration, and facilitate at homo* 
early marriages, manufactural demand, 
and domestic thrift ; that with our power 
t-Key extend our fume and influence, dif- 
fusing our exemplary arts of life, our muU 
tif^uious occupations of profit, our tradir 
tionul and recorded experience, enlarging 
the areii of existence, and distributing the 
blessings of civilization. 

The ancient world enrolled among its 
favourite worthies the founders of states j 
to their honor monumental cities- arise j 
their ashes fertilize provinces, 

Mr, Beaver wisely proposes to the go- 
vernment to buy these districts for its own 
account, and to grant the lands to indivi- 
duals at a low quit-rent, increasable at de- 
iinite periods. This is the best form of 
colonial taxation, and less likely to pro- 
duce by its augmentation a dangerous dis- 
content; than those monopoly-laws and 
n;ivigation-ncts, which check a direct inr 
terrourse with foreigners. 

A time of war i© the fittest for found- 
ing a new colony : few emigrant are 
wanted in tlie origin, and those not so 
much of the fighting as of the industrious 
class : the primary difficulties are thus 
overcome against the period when the re- 
dundant population of peace is ready to 
ppur forth its shoals of reciiiits. A treaty 



recognizes possession j whereas, during 
peace, wars arc sometimes incurred by 
the attempt at new acquisition. We exr 
hoit the minister to put immediately at 
Mr. Beaver's disposal the means of enter- 
prize : \w« doubt not his success : the risk 
and cost is small ; the plobabic gain vast 
and lasting. 

Out of deference for the practical vir-r 
tues of the writer, let us not overlook the 
literary imperfections of his book. It \\ 
too thick : it abounds with repetitions : 
facts included in tlie narrative reappear in 
the journal : reflections incorporated with 
the history are brought out again in the 
speculative chapters. A more scholastic 
knowledge of natural history and botany 
would have rendered' tlie .same circum- 
stances more conducive to the advance- 
ment of science, and also of the arts of 
life. Gardening and agriculture may be 
learnt by specific experience; but tlie 
mamier in which they are practised being 
a result of the experience of ages, it is 
cheaper to follow tradition than to arrive 
at the same rule by fresh experiments. Yet 
in fitting out this colony no provision had 
been made to hire Creole labourers in the 
West Indies, who might set agoing, in the 
established manner, the various processes of 
tropical agriculture. We recommend to 
the author some increase of library, and 
some extension of his literary acquisitions. 



Art. VIII. A Description of the Island of St. Helena ; containinrr Observations on ita 
sinfrular Slruciure md' Information ; and an Account of its Climate j. Natural History ,. 
and inhabitants. 12mo. pp. 239- 



A solitary, wild, and rocky island, rising 
in the midst of a vast ocean, which sepa- 
ntes it from tliose continents on which its 
inhabitants must depend for the prime ne- 
cessaries of life, was not likely to have 
enticed many settlers from more opulent, 
fertile and independent regions; and al- 
though tlie situation of St.. Helena, in the 
honiCward track of our Indian ships, in- 
vites them to anchor in its harbour, few 
of the numerous visitors who touch at the 
island enjoy opportunity and inclination to 
examine with atte-ition, and at leisure, ita 
5bil, structure, c^.nate, and productions. 
Nor ha«? St. Helena, like the rock of Mal- 
ta and Gibraltar, had the good-^or evil 
fortune" to emblazon tlie page of history 
witli hi^h deeds of vrar or feats of chi- 
valry. It luK5 thus happened, that tlie 
descriptions which hive been given of it 
«re 'nioas;fc, and rather general than ii> 
detail. ^Ir. Forster's is ^ exception. 

If, however, this insulated rock allures 
pot the historian by records of painful 
^ud protracted sieges it has sustained, or of 



hard-fought battles it hrs won, it interests 
the naturalist by the Curious geological phe- 
nomena presented for his examination, 
and is dear to the philanthropist as being 
the scene of a prosperous experiment, 
"which in its issue, has utterly disproveti 
the hardy and unfeeling assertion that^he 
labour of the negro mu*t be enforced by 
the lash, and can only -be secured in tli& 
mute and sullen obedience of slavery. 
Sir George Staunton, who stopped tliera 
in his return fr«n China, mentions this 
fact, to the honor of the East India pom- 
jfany, in his account of loid Macartney's 
embassy (vol. 2, p.60()). St. Helena is 
chieiiy cultixatcd by blncks, vho \ver<i^ 
brought thither as slaves by the first Eu- 
ropean settlers, the Fortugneze. They 
continued under the unlimited dominior^ 
of ibcirowners> 'till, in consequence of _^ 
representation made to the- English Kasf- 
India company," many regulation ;>werQ 
enacted in their favour,, and they wero 
placed under the immediate protection Cf£ 
the magistracy, Beiore these regulati^j^ 



A OESCtJPTIOir OP THt IStAXD OP ST. It ELENA. 



td 



vwe Adopted there was an annnal average 
hss of ten slaves in the hundred, and 
MnoB that time the race has conbiderably 
enoeased in consequence of the comfort 
and security they enjoy. 

Besides the blacks in a st^te of slaver}', 
there are some who are free : the labour 
«f these latter diminishing tlie value of 
the former, the free blacks became ob- 
noxious to the slave-holders, who had in- 
fiuence in a grand jury to represent them 
as witliout visible means of gaining a live- 
lihood, and consequently liable to become 
burdensome to the community. On ex- 
amination, however, it appeared, that 
«// the free blacks of sufficient age to 
work were actually employed, that not 
ent of them had been tried for a crime of 
•everal years, nor had any of them been 
upon the parish. The English East India 
company has accordingly placed them 
nearly on a footing witli the other free 
inhabitants j and the importation of slaves 
•into (he island is prohibited, 

St, Helena derives its name from the 
circumstance of its having been disco- 
rered on St. Helen's day by the Portu- 
gueze, in 150S : tlie English obtained 
possession of it in l6(50, and in 16/3 the 
Dxxuii look it by surprize. It was retaken, 
howc\ er, tlje following year, in a very gal- 
lant manner, by captain Munden, who 
also captured three Dutch Indiamen, 
which were in the roads, and the island 
has from that period remained in the 
hands of the English East India company. 

It marks the natural sterility of the 
island, that, on its- discovery, it was des- 
titute of human inliabitants, tliat it was 
withoat quadrupeds, and almost without 
birds J ' tor excepting some species of sea 
fowls, which still hover about its coast, 
and the man-of-war and tropic birds, 
which annually resort thither to build 
their nests in the cliffs, no otlier kinds 
iccra to liave found tlieir way through tlie 
vast solitude of the ocean to this remote 
isle, which was only covered in a few 
places with some indigenous shrubs and 
plints, and these neither numerous in tlieir 
kinds nor very abundant.* 

The whole structure and composition 
of St. Helena indicate volcanic agency ; 
and whether or not we accede to the 
theory of its origin and formation, deduc- 
ed from n carefril examination of its njate*- 
rials and the arrangements of tliem by the 
author of this little tract, it will be im- 
possible to A^'ithhold from him the praise 
doe to his scientific re<»earch and ingenuity. 

llie iottiest range of hills in St, Helena 
rues iu gceutral Uuefrom the 90vitU»w?it lo 



thenorth-east,forminganelevationfromtwo 
thmisand to three thousand feet above the 
level of the ocean. Throughout the island 
their declivities present a stratified appear- 
ance, showing at different heights a great 
variety of tint and colour. The layers 
consist of basaltic rock, placed alternately . 
with deep beds of volcanic matter, and 
layers of da) s ; they have moreover en 
uniform tendency, even where the masses 
of rock are most wild and irregular, to 
assume the columnar form ; consisting of 
perpendicular portions of rock, separated 
from each other by vertical fissures, and 
generally also intersected by horizontal 
ones. Towards the summits tliese columns 
arc sometimes oblique, and not unfre- 
quejilly curved : the central parts of the 
rock are compact and of an uniform tex- 
ture, but at die extremities, that is to say 
where it terminates, eitlier in the bed of 
volcanic matter or of clay, it is commonly 
scorified, flaky, and honey-combed ; the 
scorified parts oftentimes presenting the 
appearance of recent ignition, being quit© 
black and scorched. Tliis cellular appear- 
ance, tliough generally confined to the 
sunmiits and bases of ilie rock, is some- 
times found in the center of it : in a quar- 
ry, situated in tjie interior of the island ; 
the stone, when broken, exhibits large ca- 
vities, containing a line and wholesome 
water. 

Tiie intermediate layers of clay and of 
volcanic matter, which, like the strata of 
rock, vary in depth sometimes abniptly, 
sometimes with insensible gradation, cor- 
respond in several re^^pects with the ap-r 
pearanoes of tire basaltic columns : they 
occasionally present the columnar form, 
are found to consist of concentric lamellae, 
whose interior surfaces are tinged with a 
variety of rich colour?, and are oftentimes 
found regularly fissured, separating into 
uniform and angular portions. 

A remarkable diilerence is observayo 
between tlie exterior aud interior of the 
island -, in the hills that border on th^ sea 
tiie clays only appear in thin layers, inter- 
posed at different heights between the 
beds of basalt j the interior hills, which ag 
has been already observed, are much 
loftier, are composed principally of clay, 
interspersed with some beds of the samo 
basaltic rock and die same volcanic pro- 
ducts as near the shore. 

Among diese argillaceous hills more 
particularly, it is to be observed, that be-r 
sides the horizontal strata of which the 
hills chiefly consist, thev are all penetrat- 
ed by huge i:K?rpendicular sUata of loose 
wid orgken rock, red, grey, or blue, re» 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS- 



gfllarly fissured, the fnfgmefits in many 
places being quite separate and distinct. 
The fissures in the vertical strata are often 
in the direction of the stratum itself> and 
in some places separate the whole mass 
int6 perpendicular columns, ivhich arc 
again transversely subdivided by horizon- 
tal fissures. As in the lapse of time the 
softer parts h^e crumbled and fallen away, 
some of these vertical strata rise to a great 
height above the summits of the hills, ex» 
hibiting, together with some insulated 
masses of l^oken and precipitous rock, a 
most wild and dismal pictyre; No sand 
is found on the coast, except at one place, 
which, on that account, is called Sandy 
Bay ; nor did our author meet with any 
granite ; but the whole surface of the 
island is overspread with a vast quantity 
of loose fragments, consisting of splinters 
of the blue basaltic rock, intermixed with 
light, spongy, porous, and honey-combed 
stones, very various in their colour and 
specific gravity. From all these appear- 
ances he conjectures — in opposition to 
Mr. Forster's opinion, that St. Helena as an 
island or fragment of some ancient conti- 
nent, existed above water before it became 
the scat of a volcano — ^that the whole is a 
volcanized mass, raised by successive 
eruptions from the bed of the sea. Not 
that St. Helemt ^as raised above the 
waters of the Ethiopic, by the resistless 
violence of one vast explosion 5 such a 
supposition is incompatible with tlie regu- 
larity of its appearance : we might, says 
our author, as easily believe, that an earth- 
quake could raise a city without throwing 
down its buildings, as to imagine that the 
hills of St. Helena could have been sud- 
denly raised three thousand feet, without 
disturbing the position of the broken, 
loose, and hailing rocks, of whk:h they 
consist. 

" It seems not likely, that the perpcndica- 
lar and oblique strata of broken and fissur- 
ed rock, wliich pass through the volcanic 
beds, could have existed before tlie formation 
of tiie hills, which support and keep them to- 
gether in their present position ; and it is im- 
po^sibic to conceive, thai the parallel horizon- 
tal layers, and those th;it cross them, were the 
ertect of (>i)erations, co-existent and simulta- 
neous. >\'hence it will follow, that the deva- 
lion of the perpendicular strata, and of tlie 
numerous oblique ridges of stone which inter- 
sect t'^e liills, must have taken place at some 
period subsciment to the elevation of the island 
iV,elf. 

" From all tliis, the mo«?t probable conclu- 
sion S'ems k) be, that the various matters, 
composln:^ tin? parallel lay-rs of the hills, have 
b*» n siicce-sivi'ly aceuinulated by volcanic 
criipii'jus ; thai tiiese matters, on cooling and 



utodmiiig,' not eidy became nssuried tfn 
cracked in the manner we tind them, but thal;^ 
in many places, the hills tiiemselves were af- 
fected with larger rents and chasms, from the 
same causes : that all these rents and chasms, 
as well as the crater?, were afterwards filled up 
with explosions of liquefied matter from be- 
low: that this liquefied matter, which, upon 
coolmg and contracting, would also naturally 
become fissured and broken, as we see it, hak 
formed all the perpendicular strata of rock, 
SMid the oblique ridges tliat cross the hUls. 
This opinion seems conformable to every ap- 
pearance which we meet wnth in the island ; 
For all the beds and layers, which compose the 
main bulk of the hills, are unquestionably 
volcanic ; and in niany places disposed, as we 
should expect, by matter issuing from the 
nibath of a volcano ; and on the spot where 
we should naturally kx>k for a crater, we somo« 
times find an angular or conical mass of stom^ 
or a huge vertical stratum, dividing the hill 
into two equal segments. As the clays and 
coloured earths would be more subject to rents 
and fissures than the stoney matter, we ac^ 
cordingly observe, that the argillaceous hills, 
more than any other part, are penetrated b^ 
vertical strata of rock, and intersected through^ 
out all the declivities with numerous oblique! 
ridges of cracked and shivered stone. From 
the loose texture of all these vertical strata and 
oblique ridges, and of the insulated and p<fr-» 
penoicular masses of stone, it sei*ms evident, 
as has been previoiusly obser\'ed, that they 
must have acquired all their cracks and fis- 
sures, while in their present situation ; as they 
could not possibly be displaced, without a total 
disruption of their component parts : that corn 
sequently, they mnst have been elevated, while 
in a soil and liquefied state from the elfccts ai 
heat ; and that afterwards, upon coolmg and 
contracting, they became split and fissured ift 
tiie manner in wliich we finq them." 

.From whatever convtilsion of natur* 
St. Helena may have been formed, no apf 
pearance of any active volcano is now to 
be seen; no shocks of earthquakes are 
felt here, nor are any sulphureous, bitu- 
minous, or infbmmable matters discover^ 
ed 5 whatever fires may have once exist* 
ed, have for ages been extinct. The cli^ 
mate is salubrious, and the temperature;, 
for an island witliiu the torrid zone, is mo- 
derate, the medium heat being about Qg, 
and the range of the thermometer, for tho 
period of a year, from about 52 to 84. It 
has nd wind but the trade wind ; is never 
visited by hurricanes, and one may reside 
on it for several years without obsen in^ 
tlie phenomena of thunder and lightnin.;. 
Tlie hills and valleys, as they approach th^ 
coast, are alike sterile, while the 'loftier 
summits of the central ridge arc coverei} 
with tJie most luxuriant vegetation ; thus, 
apparently is inverted the ordinary course 
'^•hich nature is obseryed to pur*«ic» 'rh# 



A vEscKtttiott oY rtiR iti^knti <sf sir. rblena. 



4% 



SrA, Mdwevct n» thsit ii Isrgc ptoportioli of 
tie little rain which iaib tipon the isfamd 
desooxb on the interior mottntaihs ; which 
finMi die superior loftiness of then: sum- 
oiits, are coajectared to intercept in their 
coarae the lighter yapours of the trade- 
vind, which accamnme till they acquire 
a sufficient density to be precipitated in 
the form of rain. 

The author of this little tract has en- 
deavoned to explain and illustrate some 
ef the pecoliarities of. climate in St He- 
lena, by comparing them with those which 
exist on the peninsula of India. From 
its loftiness oikI lonely situation, exposed 
to all the exhalations of a mirrotinding 
ocean, in a warm climate it might have 
been supposed that St. Helena woald rather 
haresTiilered from a superabundance th^ 
a deficiency of rain. The causes assigned 
for the severe and excessive drought which 
sometimes aifiicts this island, and for the 
leiiend deficiency of moisture which pfe- 
\^Ii there, are — 1. The great uniformity 
of the temperature and the constancy 
ef the trade wind. In the Carnatic several 
n-iBths pass without a shower j ' during 
this period the weather is serene and the 
winds steady and uniform ; and so small 
is the difference between tlie temperature 
of the night and day, that there are no per- 
ceptible dews, for the atmosphere in such 
a state docs not part with its latent rnois* 
ture/ Yet in this situation extraordinary 
degrees of heat and closeness are invaria- 
bly followed by storms and showers, as 
alno are tlie concossion of opposite and 
the intermission of periodical winds. 

" While S^ature thus relieves the extraor- 
diaan- heats of India, by the gathering and 
dispersion of heavy stonns, she mitigates and 
counteracts the siiltrine^w, incident to some 
^rtimlar ^awni», by the effects of frequent 
«bowcr«. It is surprizing how regular this 
OMiRc of things is, at some periods, especially 
in the ckpe montiis of April and Septembir, 
vhi-Ji it is not unusual for rains to occur every 
afteraoou, if the heat and suUr'mess of the day 
ha^T bsen considerable. Yet rains, at this 
season, never take place in a morning, and 
▼cry rarely at night. The aftiTnoon showers 
lecm to be the otVcct of each day's heat, and 
proceed from clouds, vrhich collect and di*- 
that^Q than^lvcs witliin tlie visible horizon. 
For a considcmiblc time after sun-rise, no 
clouds are to be seen ; but in the heat and 
doscw^s of the for<!naon, sm.nll specks are 
ob-^;r% «»d to gather all round the lower sky, 
Jiid not ia the direction of any narticuiar 
wind. Thesi* increase in size with tne iiici'ea- 
•ing heat of the day, and coalescing, form a 
continued belt or zone all round the horizon, 
'iTiis, ia the afternoon or evetiiiig, blackens in 
diderczii parls^ and fi^h in rain^ b'omet^tne^ 



the whole produces rain; though thas, ing»» 
neral, is confined to particular quarters, front 
some one of which the lightning breaks forth, 
and the wind shortly after Ukiojj its direction 
from the same point, blows delightfiilly cool 
and refreshmg. After sun-set, these cloudt 
subside befieath the horizon ; and tfie night is 
bright and starry. This succession of appear- 
ances frequently lasts for several weeks to- 
^c^her, dunng whk:h the monunss are ahvaya 
Kiir, the afternoons cloudy, the evening 
showery, and the nights clear." 

Thus it is in St. Helena : the rain usuallj 
falls at the hottest or coolest time of thib 
year, that is to say, when the temperature 
varies the niost considerably from th© 
surrounding sea ; tlie greater coolness of 
the trade wind in the one case evolving 
the latent moisture from tlie h^ted at« 
mosphere ; and in the other, the greater 
coldness of the summits of the hills con* 
densing the exlial^tions borne to them bj 
the trade wind. 

A second cause assigned for the inmio* 
derate dryness of St Helena, is the want 
of land and sea breezes, and of regular pe- 
riodical winds blowing from opposite quar* 
ters. The change, or breaking up, as it 
is called, of the monsoons, which prevails 
in most tropical regions, is generally ao 
companied with rain : the equilibrium be- 
tween the temperature of the ocean and 
the land is destroyed. * The destructlcnt 
of this equilibrium is also ^produced by 
the diurnal alternation of the sea and land 
breezes: the wind from the sea blowing 
cool in the evening on the exhalations and 
vapours of the land, condenses and con- 
verts tliem into rain ; and the land breeze, 
when it blows chill towards the morning, 
in .like manner produces showers on the 
surface of the ocean. 

A third cause is the small, size of the 
island, and its distance from other lands; 
and the fourth, the nakedness of its sur- 
face, which had it been well-wooded, 
might, from its eleration, have arrested 
many passing clouds which now fly over 
it, and have converted them into rain. 
These causes require no illustration. 

That the island of St. Helena may be 
converted from its present dreariness and 
desolation there is good reason to believe, 
from the auspicious growth of some vege- 
table productions which are indigenous 
both in hotter and in colder regions. 
From want of care and want of foresight, 
it has happened, that in many parts of the 
island where wood was formerly cut by 
the inhabitants for fuel, no vestige of ve- 
getation is now seen. St. Helena abounds 
with excellent water, and in its liarbour 
8hi|)s ma^ 4wi^ys rid^ ia safety : iu cU- 



<2 



VOYAGES And travels. 



mate too is of such singular salubrity, that , 
the sickly crews of ships which touch there 
▼cry shortly recover, and of the invalids 
who are discharged from tlie different re- 
giments of India, and sent home as in- 
curable and unfit for service, many, du- ' 
ring their stay among the health-breathing 
bills of this island, recover so fast as to 
enlist again and enjoy a renovated consti- 
tution. The atmosphere is unruffled and 
aerene, and free from noxious vapours : 
xoalignant and contagious fevers are un- 
Kix>wn, nor has tlie small-pox ever found 
its way to St, Helena. 

As tlie island, therefore, is in every re- 
spect of infinite importance to the inte- 
rests of the East India company, it is to 
he hoped they may attend to the sugges- 
tions thrown out for its improvement in 
, this valuable, unassuming little volume. 
In what degree, duriug a lapse of years, 
the aridity of the atmosphere might be 
corrected by spreading vegetation over 
mountains now desolate and barren, can 
<xi]y be ascertained by the success of the 
experhnent itself. A society was estab- 
£shed in St. Helena some years ago, which 
liad {(X its object the cultivation of va- 
tw\3s exotics in different parts of the 
island : had the resources of'this laudable 
lociety been equal to the promotion of its 
•views, there is every reason to infer, from 
the actual success which crowned their 
labours, that the consequences would have 
been most beneficial. As it is, however, 
the general improvement of the island is 
ceglectcd: the want of inclosures leaves 
j-oung i^ants unprotected against the in- 
juries of goats, which nibble off the shoots, 
and a scarcity of fuel induces the inhabi- 
tants to employ for present necessities 
those stores which ought to be preseiTed 
for the future. 

Of indigenous shrubs and trees there 
^re not above nine or ten different species : 
among these are the fern, whicli grows to 
twenty or twenty-five feet, the cabbage 
tree, two or three different sorts of gum 
trees, the ebony, the aloe, and the .aroma- 
tic string-wood tree. Of the smaller ve- 
.getiible productions^ tlie principal indige- 
.jious ones, besides some species of grapes, 
are endive, purslane, samphire, wild ce- 
lery and water cresses. Exotics from the. 
mosf opposite climates, from Britain, Afri- 
/ca, China, India, New Zealand, New 
South Wales, and America have tliriven 
here luxuriantly : the oak, chesnut, ilex, 
bamboo, palm, weeping-willow, cypress, 
orange and apple-trees and plantain. 
Scotch firs grow vigorously : the cherry, 
the j>ear aad the gooseberrj^ do not ^ uc- 



iceed ; the peach, which was formerly the 
most abundant fruit on the island, has been 
almost entirely destroyed by the inexorable 
ravages of a microscopic insect, whichiiaft 
hitherto bid defiance to every attempt for 
its extermination. 

The first step suggested to the Com- 
pany's consideration towards the improve- 
ment of this island, is to secure shelter 
for young planfs by enclosures, and to 
obtain an artificial command of water, 
much of which now runs to waste. Oi^ 
80 uneven a surface as that of St. Helena^ 
nothing can be more easy than to inter- 
cept by tanks and reservoirs, those nu- 
merous springs which issue from the hills, 
and to distribute the fertilizing streams 
over thirsty, parched-up grounds. As St. 
Helena is unfit for the production of com, 
and its inhabitants are of course dependent 
on other countries for the prime neces- 
saries of life, those trees should be culti- 
vated with peculiar care, which woold 
afford the surest resource against scarcity. 
The various sorts of palm, (which are en- 
tirely neglected) and particularly the 
cocoa-nut, sheuld be encouraged: these 
trees, the growth of tropical climates, 
are of inappreciable value. The todda 
panni, and tiie codda panni of Malabar, 
are both recommended : the pith of the 
former is made into bread, . and tlie 
leaves are so large that one of them 
plaited will protect a dozen people from 
the sun or rain. The palmyra is a hardy 
palm, affords a durable timber, and grows 
out of the dead sand on tlie coasts of Ma- 
labar and Coromandel. The bread-fhiit 
tree might also be tried. The jack, or 
artocarpus integrifolia is a tree which 
yields a very nuu'itious, and at tlie same 
time tlie largest fruit in tlic world 5 it iaf- 
fords also a beautiful timber resembling 
mahogany, and from its tliriftiriess in 
Tanjore on a similar soil, gives reason to 
believe that it might thrive on the argil- 
laceous hills of St. Helena. 

** It is a sin^lar circumstance respecting 
this tree, which is, perhaps, not gvoerally 
known, that it produces its fruit at the same 
time from the boughs and stem, andfroip that 
part of the trunk .which is under ground, 
where the natives find it ui^on digging. The 
fmit, dug up in tiiis way, is reckoned the best, 
ajid the time of its maturity is known, from 
the ground over it craclving and opening. 
This tree, which is one of the most beautilul 
and useful in the universe, has not btien lonff 
known to Euroixian botanists. Its foliage is 
very close and shj^y, and the leaf bears soni« 
resemblance to the laurel. The fmit is of a 
' most extraordinary size, and contains a whole- 
some ^d sweet pulj), interspersed wiith smd 



\ 



KOTZZBUE 6 TRAVELS THBOtTGH ITALY. 



occasions displays a large and lovely gronpe 
of beautiful young women. In so salu- 
brious aclimatfe, longevity must prevail: 
the females are prolific, their labours easj^ • 
and their offspring healthful. 

'* But it de?ervqs particular notice, that the 
number of females bom iuTc, is said to ex- . 
ceed that of males, which also happens at the 
Cape of Good Hope: and, if the writer is not 
greatly mistaken, in the East Indies. The 
number of males born in Britain is known to 
exceed that of females ; and this is probablT 
the case in all nortliern countries. Nowif jt 
be really true, as there seems reason to susi* 
poet, that tile re is a greater number of fe* 
males born within the tropics, and qf nialei 
towards the polar regions, the hd Is well 
worth the aUention of ])hilQBophers, as the il- 
lustration of it might enlarge our views of the 
order and design of nature, in discovering why 
she thus varies, though by means utterly mys- 
terious and unknown to us, the propoition of 
male and female births in opposite circum* 
stances of climate, ibr tlie purpose of perpe* 
tuating t he race of jnankiud V* 

It will be recollected that Mr. Bnitse 
lias defended against the holy conclave i£ 
moralists, Mahomet's permission of poIy« 
gamy on tlie principle that in eastern na- 
tions more females are bom into the wor]4 
than males. In the south of Mesopotamia, 
Armenia, and Syria, from Mousul or 
Nineveh to Antioch and Aleppo, the pro- 
portion appeared to • be fully two to one. 
From Latike (Laodicea, ad marc) down 
the coast of Syria to Sidon, the number 
was nearly three to one. It was the same 
through the Holy I.and and parts of the 
Delta : but from Suez to the straits of 
Babelmandel, which contain the thre^ 
Arabias, it was four women to one man ; 
this pro[x>rtion he imagined held as far 
as the line, and to 30 deg. beyond it. 

Although the final cause, therefore, of 
such a disproportion may elude our in- 
vestigations, the fact, if it is ascertained 
to be one, facilitates our researches into 
the national manners, and religions insti- 
tutions, of fir distant countries. 

After the ample notice we have taken 
of this little tract, it is unnecessary to say 
that it indicates in its author a cidtivated 
and philosophic turn of mind ; the style 
in which it i| written is perspicuous and 
energetic. 

Mt. IX. Travels through Italy in tJic Years ISCn and 18Q5. Bjf Av^vstv$ Yov 
KoTZEBUS. 4 V0I4. foolscap 8vo. 



lo«Bels called jack-nuts, of an exquisite fl»- 
voBf and nutritious quality. The natives of 
Fomeof the hills of India use these kernels as 
brKtd. 

" llie Mahwab tree, which grows in the 
sandy (lesarts of Hahar.and Ori'^sa, and by 
fopporting the Si'vere droughts of that climate, 
suppH.s a scastinaJ^le sub^sihtonce to the inha- 
bitants, «!eems well calculated to bear the less 
parchintj droiidits of St. Helejia, and ought 
10 be introduced here." 

The tenp and the poon are also advised 
to be tried here, and more particularly 
that monarch of tlie vegetable world, the 
banj-an ; these, together with various ar- 
tificial grasses, miglit cover the surface of 
the soil, and contribute to arrest the fall 
of those loose crags which impend over 
tie i-allies, and are oftentimes precipitated 
from their parent rock. 

Among the animals which have been 
introduced into St. Helena — for on its 
discovery it was destitute of any living 
thing, except a few oceanic birds — ^are 
to be mentioned horned cattle, which 
are numerous and well- flavoured 5 goats 
which are very abundant ; sheep, poultry, 
and game. Horses are a^ hardy breed, 
and well adapted to tlie craggy and 
precipitous roads they have to traverse. 
The inhabitants have to contend against 
' a multiplying breed of rats, which, toge- 
ther with caterpillars, and the insect whose 
ravages are directed agniAst the peach 
tree, swarm in incredible numbers, to the 
great detriment of agriculture and gar- 
dening. 

St. Helena, the circumference of which 
is only eight and twenty miles, contained 
about two thousand souls some years ago, 
five hundred of whom were soldiers, and 
six hundred blacks. Wlnt its population 
k at. present the writer of this tract had 
no opportunity of ascertaining : there are 
about seventy garden houses, and f^w fa- 
milies are without one, in which they re- 
side during the summer season, namely, 
from October till April or May. There 
are no professed imis on the island, but 
hospitality is to be purchased at every 
house : the arrival of the homeward- 
bound India fleets i«, of course, a season 
of the greatest festivity and joy. Plays, 
fbnces, and concerts recreate the way- 
worn passengers, and St. Helena on these 



OF all thet40ers which it has been our 

k)t to fall ID with, thi« Kotzebue is the 

most egregious; his trifles, however, have 

been so \vell received by the public, that 

- ^ now coosidcrs himself Uxe arbiter of 



taste, and supreme judge of merit in the 
affairs of men. With a hop, skip, and 
jump he posses from one comer of the 
continent to tlie other, inspector-general of 
stat^ a|ttl 6P3f ircfi sod delivers in Ua re« 



44 



V0YAG18 AND TRAVELS. 



port to tfa^ woi'ld with the same confidence 
that would have inspired him had he been 
cielegated to the task by a general coi^ress 
o^ £or(^)ean powers ! \\%at serves as a 
preface to these voluRies commences in 
as arrogant a manner as the pertest cox- 
comb could have adopted. 'A list of 
those who are not to read this work: 
£Tst, All artists -, or judges of the arts, as 
they are termed : unless they find any 
pleasure in giving their shrugs of compas- 
sioD Vveiy moment. For as they consider 
the aits as something fixed, but /as some- 
thing daily new ; tkey as tlie mere crea- 
tion of fonu, but I as the ti'ansfiision of 
mind } they as proving the expertness of 
the eyes, but 1 as the occupation of the 
BDul ; tlie/oim being with them the first, 
tittt with me the Last thing,* &c. &c. 
What staff this is, and how disgusting ! 
Kotzebne is a man of genius, and certainly 
no inattentive observer : we object against 
him that he Is pert and faiidiliar, and self- 
sufficient, seemitig to stop his readers 
ereiy now and then and say, ' Is not this 
s smart thing ?' or like the old battered' 
ha^ in a caricature — * John ! do the la- 
dies^mira me V 

, After rkiiouling the indi^riminate cus- 
tom which prevails in Germany of strew- 
ing fiowers hi festive and in mournful so^ 
kmnities, a custom, by the way, simple, 
elegjuit, and of classic origin, Kotzebue 
says, th^|L in Eastland and Livonia it is 
usual to strew the path on which a corpse 
is to be carried, with branches of fir : his 
remark on this custom is, that < it i» a real 
advantage fof the bearers and tlie followers 
on foot : for when the streets are dirty 
they are thus rendered' passable, or when 
the snow lies deep their feet are at least 
defended from the wet !* Such sl remark 
might well have come from the mouth of 
aome buffoon in one of his own plays. It 
would cost us no trouble to select others 
equally silly, but it is an ungrateful task 
to censure — ^we take no delight in it. Let 
us rather avail ourselves of what is to be 
found curious and interesting on the pre- 
sent state of countries, the face of which 
has been completely changed within the 
k3t ten years. Italy and the Tf rol are at 
tliis moment the seat of war : like all 
mountaineers, the Tyrolese are an active 
and brave people : in their pursuit of the 
diamois ffoat they scorn all danger and 
all hardship, and are such admirable marks- 
men that their services as sharp-shooters 
ill llie last war were rewarded with tli« 
lemporarv liberty of hunting with impu- 
nity. The .value of this liberty can only 
he estimated by those who kaow the pas* 



sion ofthe Tyrolese fiir the chase ^ znat* 
sion, says Kotzebue, more violet. than 
that of the gamester. Neither tlireats nor 
punishments can deter them from the pur^ 
suits of it ; gain is not the object, for the 
goat, flesh and skin, does not sell for above 
ten or twelve florins, and yet a man whd 
had be^n many times caught in the fact 
declared, that if* he knew the next tree 
would be his gallows he would nevertheless 
hunt. M.de^ussure records an interestirg 
anecdote of a chamois hunter whom he 
knewj he was a tali well-made man, and 
had just married a beautiful woman > ' mj 
grandfather, said he, lost his life in th^ 
chace, so did my father, and I am so well 
assured that one day or other I siiall also lose 
mine, that this bag which I always carry 
with me in the hunt I call my winding- 
sheet, for I shall certainly never have any 
other J nevertheless. Sir, if you were to 
offer me a fortune immediatelv, on con- 
dition that I must relinquish the chase^ I 
would not accept it.' Ve Saussure says 
that he took several excursions among the 
Alps with tliis man ; his strength and agi- 
lity were astonishing, but his courage, or 
rather his temerity, still greater than ei- 
tlier : about two years afterwards his foot 
slipped an the edge of a precipice, and he 
met the fate he had so calmly anticipated ! 

At Inspruck Kotzebue witnessed the 
dexterity of the Tyrolese sharp-shooters > 
he says, that of ten or twelve shots, eight 
at least entered the bull's eye, not a single 
one missed the target ; and the man whose 
business it was to mark the place where 
the ball had struck, was so certain of no 
one's shooting wide of the mark, that he 
oflen continued standing near it during 
the firings. 

From Inspruck we proceed to Florence, 
Rome, Naples ; at the time of Kotzebue*s 
visit to the first of these cities tlie yellow 
•fever raged within its walls, and of course 
made him eager to flee from the pesti- 
lence : he lias contrived, notwithstanding, 
to ^U a few dry pages with die names oi^ 
churches, and of some of the pictures and 
statues in tlie gallery. He says, that in 
the year 1800, the Florentines had the 
precaution to convey their most remark- 
able statues and pictures to Sicily for 
safety, but when the storm blew over they 
were all returned in good condition. This 
precfiutionary measure was adopted ratlier 
late, for in the year 1800, if we mistake 
not, they were most^f tli^o^t Paris. 

A great and general outcry has been 
made against the French for their plunder 
of Italjs for their seizure of all tlie valu-i 
4ble specimens ijf art, aad transportauoa 



COVSBBUB^ fEATXtS iPHftOTTOH fTALYJ 



4B 



vfdieminto Frmce; as if the law of na- 
tioas diew a circle of security round these 
precious rdiques of antiquity ? As if the 
conqueic^s did not display before the eyes 
^'Europe a Boore cultivated taste than if 
they had contented themselves with the 
plunder of Italian coffers ? And as if the 
FkdA bad not actually followed the ex- 
am]^ 6f the Romans themselves^ who 
adonied their capital with the spoils of 
Greece, orSyracuse, of Carthage^ and, jn 
short, with those of eveiy city which sub- 
mitted to their arms ? From a fact inci- 
dentally mentioned by Kotzebue, in his 
Dotioe of the gallery, we may suspect that 
the Florentines will not grieve long for 
- the loss of their statues : ' Venos of Bel- 
vedere formerly held an apple in her hand, 
bat when Venus of Medicis went on her 
iau^grimage, it was wished to comme- 
JDorate her by breaking off two arms of 
tills Venus^ and substituting two new ones 
with the bend of the Medicean. It now 
makes a droll appearance/ In such esti- 
mation is a supposed work of Phidias Iield 
at Florence ! This reminds one of an anec- 
dote recorded of Mummius^ who^ when 
be had conquered Corinth, and stripped 
the city of all its choicest specimens of art, 
threatened the soldiers who conveyed them 
to Rome, that if they broke any they 
sboold be compelled to replace tliem with 
others! Who does not regret that the 
Veous of Belvedere did not find an asylum 
against this violation by unholy hands, in 
company with her Medicean sister, at the 
Louvre? 

Naples. KotKbue's forU is in deW- 
Af^ating living manners 3 he catches a few 
ftiiking traits of character, and illustrates 
them with little descriptions and anec- 
dotss. Like all other travellers in Italy, 
be seems to imagine that none of his readers 
can possibly kiiow any thing about Roman 
antiquities: the number of superfluous 
pa^es devoted to architectural remains, 
which have been described a hundred and 
a hundred times before, makes a large pro- 
portion of these volumes tiresome in die 
extreme. For the relief of our readers 
we shall pass these over, and advise Kot- 
Z6bue*s readers to do the same : in de- 
icribing the museum at Portici, which con- 
tains an assemblage of those works of art 
which have been recovered from the subter- 
ranean cities of Pompeii andHcrculaneum, 
Kotzebue has given an interesting account 
of the progre^which is making (under 
the munihcenP patronage of his Royal 
Highness the Prince of Wales), in the de- 
febpement of ancient manuscripts. 
1* Xhfi aaast. wmartabk Qt9ecU ja the mu< 



soira at Pordd, are ^e manuscripts found ia 
two ciiambers of a* house at HcfciUaneuinu 
Though they have been so fre<)uently <fe- 
scnbed, they must be seen to furnish a oor» 
rect idea ot them. They resemble cudgels 
reduced to the state of a cinder, and in pait 
petrided; are black and chesnut brov^'u; he 
in many glass cases ; and unfortunately ai« 
90, decayed, that under every one of them a 
quantity of dust and crumbs is'to be perceived. 
Being rdled up together in the manner of the 
ancients, and perhaps also graduall v damaged 
by the moisture penetrating tiirough tiie asheE, 
k appears almost impracticable ever to de- 
cypher a syllable of them. But for the in- 
dustry and talent of man nothing i ■• impossiB^i^ 
and his cariosity impels him to the most in- 
genious inventions. 

** The machine by which the maauscr^ 
are unrolled, is of such a nature that I despair 
of describing it cleariy. It resembles, yet 
only in the exterior, a bookbinder's frame on 
which he usually sews his books. 1 he manu- 
script rests on some cotton in the bow of two 
ribbands; with one end fastened above in- 
cords, exactly like the curtain of a thcatrd. 
Goldbeater^s-skin is then . laid on with the 
white of an egg in very small htripcs, by means 
of a pencil, in order to give something to hold 
by. To diis skin silk threads are rastened; 
which, together with <he ribband, wind above 
round the peg, in the rame manner as the 
string of a violin. When the workman has, 
ii^itli the skin, laid hold of howe\'er small a 
part of the manuscript ; and, by means of a 
sharp pencil, has loosened the iinit leaf as much 
as possible ; he turns the pe^ with tlie great- 
est precaution, and is happy if he succeeds so 
far as to imroU a ouarter of an inch : upon 
which he begins tlie operation afresh, it 
must not, however, be imagined that this 
quarter of an inch, which was undone with 
such inhnite. diflkulty, remams a connectad 
whole. Not at. all: it ratlier resembles a 
piece of tinder that is full of holes. 

'* After the workinan has gamed thus much 
of the iiimsy leaf, he caifies it, with his breath 
lield in, to a table, and gives it to the copy- 
ists. These men must be very expert in dis- 
tinguishing the betters. Their ta^ la not only 
transcribmg, but drawing: for they copy the 
whole leaf, with all its vacancies, in the care- 
fullest manner ; after which a man of learning 
-tries to supply the parts that are wanting. 
These supplements are, of course, verv arbi- 
trary. 1 here is scarcely a line in which some 
letters or words are not wanting ; often wbc^e 
Unes, or whole periods, must be iiiled up. 
"VVhat a wkle field for conjecture! What is 
tlius supplied h written in red ink, between the 
black; we may tlierefore instantly perceive 
at first sight, how much belongs to the origi- 
nal, and how much has been added. Jt is 
said that the manuscri])ts are also to be print- 
ed : in tliat case I anticipate how the linn;uiit3 
of Europe will employ themselves in cavilling, 
each in his way, at the suj^plics wiiich hav^ 
been thus made, or substituting others in their 
room. 

*' Tlu^ cadte^ ti:ouble which the wh^lo 



4ft 



VOYAGES AND TEAVELS. 



must occasion, may he conceived. It was 
9ome time ago nearly laid asicU?, as every 
tiling else is here; but the Prince of \Val« 
has taken it ttpon himself, and defrays the 
cxpences witliout giving otfcnce to the royal 
ipoFtsman of Naples. Eleven young per- 
sons unfold the manuscript:}, two others co|w 
them, and a meritorious and z<'alous English- 
nan named Hayter, has the direction o( the 
whole. He assured me tiiat tlie (x^rsons em- 
ployed began to work with greater skill and 
-expedition than some ycai-s ago. He by no 
. means despairs of decypherinq, all the six hun- 
dred manuscripts still extznt ; and dot^s not 
^tbtof finding a Menaiuler and an Ennius, 
1^ he flayers himself witii having already 
fiwnd a Polybius, in liis work. 1 he \ cry day 
before I visited the musemn, ho h\\ disco- 
vered an unknown author, naiueci C olotos. 

■" His business requires a ];hil()>oplii-ai tom- 
per. As tlie name of the author is always put 
on the last page, he carnoi know whotni work 
it is till that leaf is unroll ::cl. Seven I^tin au- 
thors have fallen into Mr. Ha\ tor's hands; 
but unfortunately all in si5'h a >tatc tl:at it 
was not possible to open tiuin whole. He 
complained tlie more of this, as there appear- 
ed to be among them a work of Livy'?; at 
. least, it was ceilainlv an historical work writ- 
ten in his style, anJ b(»gan with a speech in 
which much was said ot a family of - Acilius. 
Unfortunately no more could be made of it. 
Mr. Hayter lamenterl that t!ie lirst person to 
whom the manuscripts had been eiitmsted (a 
Spaniard named Albuquertjue) had tlrrown 
them all together ; for he himself tho\ight that 

- they might have been of various merit in the 

• diiterent chambers in which Uiey were placed. 

** At present five writei-s have l>cen disco- 
vered: Philodemus, of whom the most works 
have been found, and among oUiers a treatise 
on the vices which border on virtues — cer- 
tainly a ver>' copious subject, if it has been 
J discussed with ability; Epicums: Pliaxlrus; 
Demetrius Phalcreus ; and now Colotos. Mr. 
Hayter is not perfectly satislicd with finding 
- nothing but philosophical works ; yet he says 
that even in these many historical notices yet 
unknown are interspersed, 'i'liere is, for ox- 
amj^ie, a treatise on ajiger, coi:tainbig an in- 
ftance in which Biicchus punished Cadnuis for 

• indulging that pas^Jicn ; a cinuin stance of 
which we were never before intbrmed. All 

. travellers interested for tfie scienc; s, will catch 

- (as 1 did) with eagenness every word from tlie 
mouth of the meritorious Hayter, and ioin 
with me in wishing him health. He Is fully 
possessed of ever\' other requisite qualitica- 
tiou. 

" In a fresh conversation with Mr. Hayter, 
I have learnt that the manuscript of Colotos 
lately found contains a refiitation of Plato's 
treatise on friendslnp. Mr. Hayter has also 
traced the name of Colotos in Plutarch ; who 
has written against him^ as he has against 
Plato. Thus It was the same with tfee ancient 
philosophers as with those of our times. 

" A new and important discovery has been 

made within these tew days. The writings of 

' Epicurus iiave hith^o been found only in 



detached parts, but now they have been met 
witi) all together. This manuscript is in the 
be&t state of pn. servation, and Hayter will no^ 
be a])le to rectify his own fonnersupplerisents 
by the original.* it must be extremely inte- 
resting for an intelligent man, to l>e able to 
ascertain in such a case whether he has pro- 
perly supplied the sense* — ^A hundred and 
thirty manuscripts are either actually unrolled, 
or unrolling." 

It is impossible to be at Naples \v'ithont 
visiting Vesuvius : Kotzebue had the good 
fortune to witness the eruption which took 
place on tlic night of Nov. 22, 1804, and 
he has descrilK'd it with raucli less draiua- 
tic sentimentality and parade than we ex- 
pected. There had been no formidable 
indicatioas of an eruption since, the year 
1794, when fourteen lives were lost, and 
many families were mined by the desola- 
tion, until in tlie early part of this year 
(1804). Three earthquakes were felt at 
Somma on May 22d5 on the 31st of July 
the water had visibly diminished in the 
rivers and cisterns of the neighbourhood ; 
on the 11th of August Vesuvius begun to 
bellow, and on tlie thirteenth a stream of 
lava, accompanied with flames and stones, 
burst forth from a new-formed gulph. 
'Since that period, Vesuvius had not been 
at rest, and an approaching eruption was 
apprehended, which took place Nov. 22. 
No mischief of much consideration re- 
sulted, except to the character and person 
of St. Januarius, whose image, when the 
lava threatened to overwhelm the vinej-ards, 
wa.s, as usual, t*arried in procession in 
Ibrre del Greco, and placed before the 
lava 5 immediately the j^eople began to 
kneel before his saint.ship, and pray that 
he would be so good as to stop the pro- 
gress of the flood — til© flood rolled on ! 
The saint was placed a little farther back ; 
pravcrs and prostrations were repeated 
with cncreased vehemence and devotion — 
but tlie flood rolled on! At length the 
I)eople, finding that Januarius was utterly 
inexorable, begiui to abuse him j they call- 
ed him an old rascal, hypocrite, and every 
other name which indignation prompted. 
From words they actually came to blows. 
and the sides of Saint Januarius were vil- 
lainously belaboured, particularly by an 
old woman, who had no mercy upon hiin. 
The fact however was, that St. Januarius 
had previously lost credit among tlie Nea- 
politans by condescending to let some of 
his blood liquefy in the presence of the 
French j on this occasioi| they called him 
a jacobin, and it is even said that a crimi- 
nal prosecution was commenced against 
him for tlie offence. St. Anthony has 
profited by the disgrace of his^ tiyal, aad 



KOT«MUe'« THAVXtl WBOUOfl ItiLt. 



47 



!i now iH very high repute! It Is really 
pflmfiil to dwell on such instances of in- 
fatuation; these ire the debasing effects 
if «^«r^rstitian, engendered by tie craft 
of the priest upon the igiiuiau«<; wf tb© 
people. 

The manners of the Neapolitans appear 
to have suflered but little alteratiou within 
the memory of roan ! the only jkw feeling 
vhich" possesses them is a bitter and a 
looted hatred against the French. It is 
entirely superfluous to remark, that where- 
erer the French have set foot, this deadly 
detestation has been excited. The Nea- 
politans, from high to low, are ignorant, 
lazy, superstitious, and debauched : |hey 
are irascible and revengeful j an injury 
must, if possible, be revenged on the spot, 
and, iif possible, by the stiletto. Kotzebue, 
however, says, that the habit of stabbing 
each other in the breast witli knives on the 
•lightest quarrel, no longer prevails. The 
frequency of assassination has been re- 
pressed by the vigorous ordinances of the 
duke of Aseoli, to whom the Neapolitans 
are under various other high obligations. 

Nothing can exceed the stupid supersti- 
tion of these people ; we have already 
civen an instance of itj another is at 
hand. It ia a good custom in Naples for 
cows to be sent about from house to house ; 
whoever wants milk sends out a servant, 
and he milks the animal before his mas- 
ter's door. But besides these oows, a 
iiumber of calves wander about the city 
belonging to the monks of St. Francis, a 
*et of crafty, idle impostors, who not only 
live themselves, but get a liviiig for their 
stock also, upon the folly of the people. 
' For this purpose they put a small square 
board on the forehead of the calf, with the 
figure of St. Francis painted on it : pro- 
vided with this, the animals walk about 
uncontrolled, devour as much as they can, 
and sleep where thfey choose without any 
one venturing to prevent them. On the 
contrary, if one of them should happen 
to enter a great house, and lie down there 
to deep, the occupier thinks it a fortunate 
omen !* 

Gaming is carried to as great e^icess as 
at Paris, and prevails as generally among 
all classes of people : the dissoluteness of 
the female sex seems to surpass that of 
the Parisians. Infidelity does not prev^ 
in Paris as it does in Naples : the cicisbeo 
exists no longer as a centinel to give the 
Bospicioos husband notice. From Italian 
jealousy the sttanger has no longer any 
thing to dread« Tafa^ an instance, of con- 



summate, but according to Kotzebot't 
account, not uaparallelcd depravity • 

"A duke who was esteemed the hand* 
soniest man in Naples, married an amiable 
wuiuan of unblemished reputation, and who 
to his own astonishment remained when a wiie 
still amiable and irrq)roachable. The duke, 
however, became dissatisfied; and paid his 
addresses with great fervour to a princess, 
whose name, together with that of her lover, £ 
shall omit. He succeeded in obtaining favour 
with the new object of his passion, but (Mily 
on one express condition; that as long as 
their connection lasted, he should live with 
his young and lovely wife merely as with a 
sister. He promised every thing; but he 
found this more easy than obeying, for a livmg 
evidence of his defalcation too soon appeared* 
I'he princess raved, and would hear nothing 
h& had to say. in this dilenuna he asserted 
that he was not the father of liis wife's ciiild- 
The princess started: for a married man to 
load himself witli such a renroach, confounded 
even her for a moment, let her jealousy de- 
manded stronger proof; and he promised all. 
* If the child is not yours,' said she, ' send it 
immediately to the foundling-house.' llic 
duke leit her, and sent his child thitlier ac- 
cordingly ; regardless of tlie agonies of the 
mother, of whose innocence aU Naples re-, 
iains convinced to this day." 

To crown the whole, the Neapolitans, 
in tlieir revolutionary frenzy,, committed 
excesses not surpassed in savageness and 
atrocity by the Parisian populace > every 
one, says Kotzebue, still relates with hor- 
ror, that the Lazzaroni roasted men in the 
streets, and begged money of the passen- 
gers to purchase bread to their roast meat! 
The royal library at Naples has been en- 
riched, pro tempore, it is apprehended, by 
MSS. from tlie Vatican, which the Nea- 
politans took from the French at Rome, 
Kotzebue frequently attended the librarj^ 
and, from his account, it seems to contain 
a great variety of manuscriptSi which 
would amply reward the careful examiner, 
on subjects connected with history an4 
science. 

RoMB. A more active and voluble 
Cicerone is not to be found in all Rome 
than Kotzebue himself: theatres, temples, 
baths, palaces, porticoes, &c. ^c. succeed 
each otiier in description, till the wearied 
reader begs an interval of repose. Rome 
yet continues to be the resort of artists 
from all parts of Europe, and notwith- 
standing tlieir plunder of Italy, the French 
have a great many pensionary pupils tliere. 
Kotzebue nms through the galleries of 
living as well as of departed artists, and 
delivers his opinion on their respcciive 



VOYAGES AND TBAVELS. 



vieritg^ith adegree of freedom and ooo- 
:^ence which somewh^ startlen ioode$t 
men. At the name of Canova he is all 
idn fire ; the burst of his enthusiasm is 
perfectly dramatic. The woiicsiiop of 
Canova is the richest in Uonie> and, not- 
withstanding that * the mamifacturers qf 
just proponion" shrug tlielr shoulders, he 
is asserted to be the greatest sculptor that 
lias existed sinoe tlie days of Phidias. 
His statue of a Venus, covering herself 
with a light robe, bears some resemblance, 
in point of proportion, to the Medicean 
Venus : our entliub^ast says tliat, in this 
lespect, Canova*s statue is for superior, 
and * cannot be charged with that con- 
foundedly stift* position of the arms which 
the other appears to have learned c^' a 
dancing master !' It is a lucky thing for 
tlie Belvedere Apollo that he chanced to 
be at the Louvre. St. Peter s church iares 
no better with this second Smelfungus : 
Smollet compares the panUicon to a huge 
cock-pit, and Kotzebue the chiu-ch of St. 
Peter to a handsome woman of die se- 
venteentli century, who has token all pos- 
sible care to counteract her charms by a 
iioop-petticoot and a preposterous head* 
dress. He is inconsistent, however, in 
his comparison, for he allows tLe hidy to 
be handsome, but he denies St. Peter s to 
be elegant or imposing^ more than A 
dozen popes, and several dozen arci^itects^ 
have been busy at tlie building, mending^ 
ornamenting, and spoiling it ; but * all 
their endeavours at producing a grand ef- 
fect have proved abortive !* 

The population at Uoine .doe^ not ex;- 
ceed one hundred and Lvvemy tiiuu:»aud 
souls, and as the city number* very nearly 
three hundred diurches, ch;^els, ic. there 
is ample room for tlvs excrci.se of devo- 
tion. It is represented as being a most 
grievous custom to biuy the dead bodie* 
within the churches, ajid, from 4Jie sciw- 
city of wood, it i:* the horribje practice to 
inter them witliout a colli n ; they are 
thrpwn headlong into die vault on a heap, 
and the mouth of it is merely dosed wiilx 
a loose stone. The putrid slcnch wbicii 
arises iiom this dreadful <:u*toni is, of ne- 
cessity, ofiensjive and deleterious in the 
e^^treme. 

The following account oi the chambers 
of the dead is carious : 

" I went into the church of the capucliins, 
to see a* painting of Giiido rcprcseiitiHg the 
archancor Michad holding one of tlie dcyiJs 
by a chain. My plAsurc was iijrr^lly iuter- 
zupted by the capuchins a^iscmbied here. A 



lay-brother, the v^Itf of caidliyal Beroif, faa^ 
just died, leaving > consider^e property. 
The monks, after having pat tiie body mto a. 
capoucke and carried it hither, )tood now 
round the bier, with a niimi»«» wf aioicuioixs 
Gercmomes. 

" My guide having mentioned the burialr 
place of tSe ca^udiins as something veir ex- 
txaordinary, this raised my curiosity. Yet I 
Oliver thought of meeting with a scene lik« 
tliat which stmck me there. I sliall never 
forget the impression which it made on mc. 
llie reader must expect neitlier church-yard, 
nor vault, nor cellar, nor cavern. ]n a lower 
story of tlie convent, not quite under ground; 
there Is a ran^ of arched chambers, with sc- 
vsraLwindows loolung into the garden of the 
cx>nvent, and all opened. I nc»ver breathed 
a purer air than here ; and certainly 1 was ia 
need of it, for Uie aspect was of itself siUffi- 
cieutly oppressive. A passage running down 
clos^ under the windows, is allotted ibr 'tho 
livmg that may wander here ; and is separ 
rated by a small balustrade from the lower 
vaults, the quiet regions of death. Every 
ardied rpom beyond this balustrade ap{)car« 
like a grotto ; and eadi is laid out with hu- 
man boivis, and j^rovided with lucbes. In 
e\'ery one of these nkj/^ we discover a dead 
c^pudiiji, dressed in his capouche, and witii a 
loiig h^d ; for tlie dead bodies buried here 
do not suffer jNitrefaction, but only drj' up. 
The best-preserved arc placed hi these niches. 
On each of the skumy caccascs there is » 
ticket, beai'ing the name, and the faoiir ai 
deuth, of its iiQssessor. 

" The apaitn)0iits for ti^is puipoie ane yery 
small, yet liarbour hundreds of su«^ tenants. 
7 hey he here till Utey arc dcied jup; wheu 
they are brought to light ajgain, in order to 
yield sheir fonuor spaces to theif successors. 
A small plain black cross marks every grave. 
The ceiling is ornamented with arabesks con- 
sisting of human bones. A pre4t\'4arge cross 
is composed entirdy of the small ooncs under 
the throat. Several girandoles with kmg 
branches, and lamps of dij^'ereiit sissos, all hang 
down. 8couces of tlie same cQUipositian dc- 
coraiijthe passage ruiuiing aloA^ these places. 

•* These chambers arq all set out in diil'cr- 
mt styles. One was decorated with skulii 
only, another \^ ith hip-bones, and so on. "We 
niisi^ the adpourhe of one of tlic corpses, end 
didcovuced luiderncath it a skiu very luuch lik« 
vdlow pai'duuont. J£ach of them carries «. 
liglit in its hand, and every girandoje aiid 
sconce is provided in the same nuuuicr; wtiich 
must have a strange and soleum ellect at iiiglit. 
No fori'ign(ir should neglect to visit those last 
rdrcats of humanity, where thousands of his 
fellow-creaturfs peacefully dwell near or above 
each other. The emperor Josq>h has been 
hert ; and I wish every pnnce who visits Rome 
wouUl do the same. 

" From the fourth grotto a clpor opens into 
a small cha}>d, where mass for the dead is 
said. It is laid out like the other rooms, but 
witii A U^^ ^paling hand. The rdioctions^ 



PRESENT STATE OF PERU. 



49 



«f die 9(nmger are here mtemipted by the dis- 
covery of some vary inditlerent sonnets on the 
fiailtv of human life, inscribed on the waUs. 

" On leavine the chambers of the dead, we 
may cast a look on some tine paintings by Pe- 
ter of Cortona and Dominichmo Lantranco in 
the diurdi, to dispel our gloom ; and may 
Ticw the ahar contahiing the remains of Justi- 
mxAf a saint who is reported to have been at 
mce a christian martyr and a philosopher." 

The manners of the modem Romans 
cannot be supposed to difier materially 
from those of the Neapolitans. Gaming 
is equally prevalent, and the age of mira- 
cles ii not gant, although the disgrace of 
St. Januarius might reasonably have been 
suspected to have staggered the firmness 
of credulity. A miracle was performed 
on the 21st March, in the year 1803,- at- 
tested by the nun who was tlie subject of 
it, the superior of the convent and all the 
siiters, the confessor and two learned phy- 
sicians, whose medical skill in tlie restora- 
tion of the patient was of no avail ; at 
length her disorder was cured through the 
henevolent intercession of the Madonna. 
The priests of tlie church of tliis devout 
nun*s benefactress have not ^iled to turn 
the miracle to their advantage. The or- 
thodox believers tlironged thither in 
crouds ; for three days a triduo was cele- 
brated, and on the third, his holiness 
Pias VII., attended by twenty-one cardi- 



nals, was pleased to visit the church, and 
to impart his benediction ! 

When a foreigner, says Kotzebue^ re- 
turns to Rome, after visiting Naples, he 
will be more than ever struck with the 
stillness and solitude of the streets. 
' Rome seems as if it had been depopulat- 
ed by a plague : but it is only the effect 
of the pestilential dominion of the priests. 
The city contains one hundred and twenty 
convents for monks, and fifty-one nun- 
neries.' . Rome is less filthy than Naples, 
nor is beggary carried to so impudent and 
offensive an excess : the wearing of of- 
fensive weapons is also prohibited here^ 
but not so strictly as at Naples. Fatal 
slabs with knives are still frequently given 
in quarrels, for the Romans, although they 
esteem it a vice to steal, do not regard 
murder as a crime. Pius VI. suppressed 
many Sanctuaries^ but the police of the 
SpanUh Place is under the jurisdiction of 
the Spanish ambassador, and the assassin 
may here bid defiance to the ministers of 
justice. 

From Rone Kotzebue returns to Ber- 
lin, taking in his way Bologna, Modena, 
Mantua, Verona, Vienna, Prague, andDresr 
den. His remarks are in the same style 
of freedom and vanity : he is often amus- 
ing and very communicative — but alto^ 
gether we have had enough of his com* 
pany and conversation* 



Ait. X. The present State qf Peru ; comprising its Geography, Topograph, Natural 
History, Mineralogy, Commerce, the Customs and Manners of its InJiabitants, the 
SiaU of Literature, Philosoplty, and tlie Arts, the modern Travels of the Missionaries 
m the heretofore unexplored mountainous Territories, 6fc. dfc. the Whole drawn from 
original and authentic Documents, chiefly UTitten and compiled in tlie Peruvian Capital; 
and anbellisited by Twenty Engravings ofCostufnes, b^c, 4to.pp. 483. 



BY the preface to this book, to which 
the name of Joseph Skinner is signed, it 
appears that several volumes of a periodi- 
cal work, printed at Lima, entitled El Mer- 
curio Pcruano (ilie Peruvian Merciu'y), 
which were richly stored with intellectual 
treasures, strayed from t/teir destination, and 
fell into the hands of the editor. In plain 
English, Mr. Skinner found these volumes 
on board a Spanish prize.' From these, 
and from various auUieniic sources, the 
ivcsent state of Peru has been compiled, 
in particular, D. Pedro d'Oribe y Vargas, 
a karaed naturalist, resident in London at 
the time when the book was published, is 
Bieutiooed as having answered the queries 
relative to certain phenomena of climate 
in Peru, his native comitry. On board the 
same prize, a bird's-eye view was found 
of the festival in the great square of Lima, 

AaiN.Riv.Voi.IV. 



on the accession of his present catholic 
majesty Carlos to the tlirone, and frpm 
this the prints have been taken, represent- 
ing the dresses of the ditfcrent inhabitants, 
A map of Peru should have been added, 
and might easily have been giv^, as the 
splendid Spanish map of their Americaa 
possessions has been copied in London. 

The volume begins with an unnecessary 
and uncandid depreciation of tlie old his- 
torians of Pern, because they did not ' soar 
to the contemplation of man in his moral 
and physical relations.' Credulous they 
undoubtedly were, and so much the better j 
for whatever may be thought of the old 
question concerning superstition and athe- 
ism, it is better tliat historians and travel- 
lers should believe loo much, than too 
little 5 it is better that they should repeat 
exaggerations or falsehoods, than suppress 

It 



so 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



fects becaiise they think them untrue ; it 
is better that tliey should leave the reader 
to exercise his own judgment, than take 
tipon themselves lo decide for him. As 
for soaring to the conteroplatio» of mail 
in liis moral and physical relations ; gen- 
tlemen who soar so high, see bin little-- 
tliey who write travels must not travel in 
air-balloons. 

The volume promises us more precise, 
and, at the same fime, more novel infor- 
mation concerning Peru, than any that has 
hitherto been given. The first section is 
entitled general idea of Peru. The politi- 
cal geography of this country has been 
changed, during tl\e last century, by the 
tlismcmberment af the provinces on the 
nortli, wliich form the kingdom of Quito; 
and of those to^ ard the east,, which con- 
stitute the viceroy alty of Buenos- Ayres. 
The population consists of every possible 
combination between Spaniards, Indians, 
and Negroes. The improvement of the 
human species, by crossing different breeds, 
u-as a favCTU'ite subject of speculation with 
major Jardinej while the colour is the 
' srimc, he may he right — Spanish and 
Soiilh-down do well together. But it does 
»ot do to cros^ races. The mixed breeds 
between European and African, and Eu- 
ropean and A'^iatic, seem to have a certailS 
nralish obliquMv of nature, as if the course 
of nature had been perverted in the mix- 
ture. fW'heiher the European and Ame- 
rican succeed better we have had no ex- 
perience . Thv ex peri mcnt has been made 
vpon a large pcnle in Mexico and Peru, 
but we do not know the result. 

Sowing aiid plantiivcc, and domestic era- 
pioymcnts, were, till \cry lately, wholly 
performed \sy nogrotM. It i^ only, we arc 
told, within t]ies»:t four years ptist, that 
wfnt'j people Iin\e conde-anided to ihese 
tasks> which wc*rc formerly, and by many 
of their cnuntiynu-n hiill are thonc;!il in- 
famous ll>r nuTi of their complexion. 
Cornmorre flouri<»hes since it lias been un- 
festraiijcd ; thai is, inir^^trained with the 
ifiothcr f.ountry, instead of being limited 
to the g.illeoiis and the fairs of P^rto-Bello 
and Pan.ima. Manufactures consist almost 
entirely of a few friezec, used diiefly by 
the Indians and Kegroes : hats, cotton 
cloths, and drinking-gla-:ses, also are ma- 
nufactured here, though in small quanti- 
ties. Sugar, Vicuna wool, cotton, and 
Peruvian bark, are die only home-raised 
articles of exportation. The miiiei are 
still productive, though little industry is 
en^loyed in w orking them ; as tlie com- 
luerc© of the country increases, mining 



speculitions will bd abandoned. The ships 
of Peni trade with com to Chili, with 
timber to Guayaquil, and make a few voy- 
ages to Chiloe, Juan Fernandes, Valdivia, 
and Panama. We. navigate, says the 
writer, with economy and ease, but arc 
deficient in the scientific part, deriving no 
aid whatever from astronomy. After tli» 
confession, we need n(»t say they are bad 
sail.vrs j hut coasting-vessels are multiply- 
ing, and navigation will improve, llie 
tishiTies on the coast are neglected, and 
the lakes are not well stored. Ihe agri- 
culture is bad; and it appears that ihe 
siibsisK'nce of tlie people is precarious, and 
dependant upon foreign aid. 

*' Knowledge i^ general throughout Perov 
as well on account of the natural quickness 
and pcuctratiou of its luitive inhabitants, as 
througli liiuir fondness for study, lii what-s 
ever does not require a meditated combina- 
tion of idea*;, the tair sex has conunonly the 
advantage over oui-s. The royal imiversity of ' 
St. Mark of Lima, and, proportionally, the 
t>ther .universities of this kingdom, form % 
centre of literatare, which dUlvscs an abun- 
dant light to tlie wliohe of the circumference- 
Uiuler their auspices, the moral and phHoso* 
phinil sciences have, latterly, made an incie- 
tiible iMogress, having fowncl their way into all 
the schools, and tlience diffused themselves 
rapidly into evcrs' order of the state. It \^ 
our earnest wish that this philosophical light 
may, by its permanence and eflicac^, innu- 
ence and ameliorate the common sj-stem of 
ctlucation. it is on that score alone, in the 
acceptation which embraces the whole extent 
of tlie kingjloin, tliat Peru is in some measure 
defective. A good taste, urbanily, and a so- 
cial disnosition, are the hereditary' qualities oC 
ever\' Peruvian." 



. Vestiges qf the momiTMcnts of ajKiettt Peru. 
There ate obelisks at ^ahuanacu, stfor-^ 
midable pyramid (not having an English 
gradus ad Paniassum, we cau only gijcss 
that this epithet is gjven as .synonimous to 
large), and colossal statues of stone, toge- 
ther witli a variety of human figures well 
cat in stone, which point out that this 
monument belonged to some gigantic na- 
tion. The farts are important; the hi- 
ference about as legitimate as it would be 
to say that our ancestors were twelve feet 
high when Gog and Magog w(?re placed 
in Guildhall. In the province of Chaba^ 
poyas thero are coniad stone buildings^ 
v/hich support large busts : they are situ- 
ated on the declivities ©f mountains in 
spots so inaccessible, that both materials 
iand workmen must have been lo«vered 
from" above. It is conjectured that the 
Cacifiues, v. ho erected Uiem as their mo* 



PEKSK27T (TATE OP ^ZViV* 



SI 



^aaeau, placed them m these difficult 
s:tu2auas tLat they might not be destroyed 
hy aun. Mummies are found in the ca- 
toLuiubs; the word miinuny should not 
have been used, as it implies more than it 
is here meant to imply. liow these bodies 
werepresened has not been yet ascertain- 
ed; some persons ha\ e conjectured by mere 
exposure to tlie action of frost; but, it is 
replied, that the>' are foond in the vallies, 
and in the warmer parts of the country. 
Many ruins are specified in proof of the 
^1 of th/t Indians in civil and military 
architecture j aiid of the roads cut through 
the middJe of the Cordillera mountains : 
it is said tliat the encyclopedists, who have 
denied their existence, have only to send 
5oiae one to view the splendid vestiges 
which yet rema'm. Mines of the natives 
are mentioned, and, what is more extraor- 
dinary, fragments of aqueducts, which 
prove dut tbey were acquainted with hy- 
draulics. In this science, and in agricul- 
ture, it is admitted tliat the Spaniiu^ds have 
not only not exceeded tliem, but have 
iaika short of their progress. As in 
China, the Peruvians filled up the clefts 
of ihek rocky hills with mould, to increase 
the ^aamity of cultivated ground. Their 
sepulchres still occasionally supply sped- 
mens of their pamtings, manufactures, 
mechanical instruments, and w^eapons. 
Many remains of their poetry and music 
itill exist. The shepherds still, use the 
qu^ to reckon the number, increase, or 
diainution of their flock, to record the 
day aod hour when a sheep died, a lamb 
was yeaned, or one of the flock stolen. 
' Pdlare erected to point out the equinoc- 
tials and sol&tices ; the names given to the 
pUaeU ; the oelestiiil observations relative 
to eclipses; and those by which they 
ke|« their time, are aoxnany data by which 
^r progress in astronomy may be calcu- 
lal€d.' Ihese dau therefore exist, unless 
thifilai^gua^e be wilfully inaccurate, which 
a»nredly we have no reason to suspect. 
How much do we regret that these very 
important facts are related, in the book, 
little more at length than in oxir recapita- 
l>tai ! and how earnestly do^we wish that 
tbey had been ^iescrajed minutely, and 
that views had been added. As for the 
drilization of Pferu and Mexico, there is 
no doubt that both conntries were in a very 
^ and extraordinary state of civiliza- 
ti«i. A print 'is subjoined to this section, 
^the costume of the jmcg aryl his queen, 
« the modem Indians represent it in their 
pocessions. This costume is so evidently 
Mtious^ &at it ^ould ,xwt .fauve h«cn 



copied : it if fit for OOUiipg Wt ih§ pan- 
tomime of Pizarro. 

Physical geogmp!iy in Peru. Fro!» the 
insutierable bomb&^t of this chapter we 
can collect nothing. Some queries rela- 
tive to the climate follow, witii answei;? 
by Don Pedro, himself a Peruvian. They 
terminate in a conjecture, tliat by erect- 
ing conductors si(ffici€JUl^ high aiid stifi^ 
cicntly numerous, the fickle atmosphere of 
Great Britain may be converted into a 
climate as serene, steady, and beantiful, M 
that of low Peru. The iron-masters will 
have no obj<5ction to the experiment. 

From the section upon botany , it aps> 
pears that able botanists have been senft 
over by the late and by the present king ; 
both monarchs will long be remembered 
by the Spaniards as the benefactors of 
science. Of zoology little is said : there 
is a print of the Llama, and a wish express- 
ed that attempts may be made to domes- 
ticate the vicuna, which, as the Jndianf 
hunt them for their wool, will also be de** 
stroyed. The ne^t section is upon.antbcor 
pology. it is said here, tliat in tlie cabi.i 
net of natural history at Lima, a tooth 
(one of the viqiai^) is deposited, taken 
from a mummy discovered in Tarija, 
which weighs a pound and a half! The 
body from whence it was taken, was con- 
veyed from Tarija to Cuzco by the maiv 
quis of Valle-Umbroso, and shipped for 
Madrid; but taken on the way by the 
English and carried to London. ][f, per^ 
duince, tlie Pct^utian tuercury should reach 
that capital, say the writers, we request to 
know, tlirough the medium of the Philo- 
sopliical Transactions, whether ^the giant 
tlius intercepted wants the tootli in ques- 
tion. Was there ever so prodigious a 
fable so circumstantially related ? Another 
such tooth is mentioned weigliing more 
than five pounds, found in the same pro- 
vince Either Garagantua, or Og the king 
of Basan, who used to catch whales in 
tlie mid sea, and toast them against th* 
sun, must have been buried in Tarija. 
An account follows of a living giant, with 
amis like a Gibbon, bulkier than the Irish 
giant, but not taller and worse proportion* 
ed : a moderate reasonable giant, such a« 
an Englishraau niiglit safely speculate 
upon for a show— a monster with grin* 
ders of a pcimd .and .a half weight would 
eat up Mr. Pidcock. 

*' Mineralogy. Fromthe statement in this 
chapter it resufe,0iat in the eight intendencjes 
intowhich the ?riccipyalty of Peni it divided, 
there vjere, in theyear 179Uti3rty-nines«rvk:^ 
iri>te mi&f9 <tf .gfiU^^ifireja hiuidredaad ^khiy* 

£2 -p» ^ • 



52 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



four of silver, four of quicksilver, four of cop- 
per^ and twelve of lead ; at the same time that 
twenty-nine gold, and five hundred and 
eighty-eight silver mines had, by various ac- 
cident* and casualties, been rendered luiser- 
viceable. In this statement the mines con- 
tained in the kingdom ot Quito, and in tlie 
viceroyalty of Buenos- Ayies, although tJiese 
domains mav be considered as constituting a 
part of the iPenivian territory, are not com- 
prehended. 

" During a space of ten years, from the 
commencement of 1780 to tlie end of 1789, 
the above mines yielded thirty-five thousand 
tliree hundred and fifty-nine marks of gold, 
twenty-two carats fine; and thn,*e miUioiis 
seven hundred and thirty-nine thousand scvi.ni 
hundred and sixtv-threemarks «C silver. * I ft 
the vear 1790, tfie silver mines yielded four 
hundred and twelve thousand one hundred 
and seventeen marks of that metal ; being an 
excess of tliirty-eight thousand one hundred 
and forty-seven marks over the average pro- 
duce of the ten antecedent years. 

" It would appear that the mines of Mexico 
are much more productive than those of Peru, 
since in the above year of 1790, which was 
far from being reckoned one of the best, five 
thousand and twenty-four marks of gold, and 
tu'o millions one hundred and seventy-nine 
thousand four hundred and fifty-five marks of 
silver, the produce of the mines, were coined 
In the royal mint of Mexico. The propor- 
tion of silver was consecjuently in the ratio of 
more than five to one greater than that afiford- 
«d by the Peruvian mines." 

The Mexican mines flourish, while the 
Peruvian decline. Two writers in tliis 
magazine explain the cause of the decline. 
Hiere is a want of capital : tlie money- 
lenders lend small sums in small instal- 
ments, for which they are to be paid in 
pina, that is, the silver after it has been 
freed from the mercury with which it was 
amalgamated, and before it has been fused. 
This they have at so low a price, that 
their interest is eighteen per cent, for 
three or four months. What tliQy ad- 
vance la not all in specie ; a great part is 
in coarse baize, and other commodities, 
^orbitantly rated, with which the miner 
pays his labourers in kind, and they often 
run away. Another cause of decline is, 
chat neither whites nor negroes can work 
in^the mines ; they soon ^U victims ; die 
native Indians last larger, but they are 
licarce. In die royal mines they are com- 
pelled to work, and it scemfthat the pri- 
vate miners would very willingly be per- 
mitted to enforce the same prerogative. 

Commerce, Witli tliese details we s>liall 



not detain the reader \ it is ot Kttltt gene- 
ral interest to enter into minute accounts 
of a commerce in which we can have no 
participation. The facts respecting po- 
jMilation are of more importance. There 
are, in the viceroyalty of Peru, one tiiou- 
sand tliree hundred and sixty towns, and 
yet, according to the highest computation* 
tlie number of inhabitants does not ex- 
ceed one million ! four hundred tliousand 
of diese are Indians. There has been a 
grievous depopulation. In 1551 the royal 
commissioners stated in their returns, that 
the number of Indians amounted to eight 
millions two h\mdred and fifty-fivie thou- 
sand J it is tnie that the viceroyalties of 
Santa Fe and Buenos- Ay res were com- 
prehended in the census, still the depopu- 
lation is prodigious. The small-pox, un- 
known in Peru till tlie year 1588, has 
been the main cause — to the American 
tribes this disease has proved dreadfully 
fatal J but tlioiigh this be the main caure, 
a heavy load of guilt remains for Spain : 
white men will not work the mines, and 
they will not compel the negroes to work 
them, because it kills them too soon, and 
negroes cost money j but the Indians are 
-grown upon tlie spot, and it is what they 
are bom to— a curse which they have in- 
herited from their garents. Doubtless the 
Spanish casuists can trace their genealogy 
to Canaan, the son of Ham, and silence 
all scruples of humanity by quoting Noah'* 
malediction; doubtless- the Spanish f)oli- 
ticians can preve that the produce of the 
mines ■ is indisi^ensable to tlie ' state, and 
that human lives, when weighed against 
gold and silver, are as dust in the balance. 
We indeed exclaim against this systematic 
inhumanity; but with what consistency 
do we exclaim against it ? or why do we 
deny that to be good logic for America, 
which is admitted as irrefragable for Af- 
rica ? While England continues the slave- 
trade, she must not inveigh against Spain ; 
while we consume negroes, we must not 
cry out against the consumption of In- 
dians. 

From 1517 *o 1790, nearly eleven mil- 
lions of negroes have been transported 
into Peru ! and these also have been con- 
sumed ! The Spanish writer plainly states, 
that they are so many individuals lost to 
the growth of the population, and the 
rd usage, cruelty. 



reasons assigned are 

the rigorous labour exacted from the fe- 
males during pregnancy and unmediatelv 

* The mark of gold being estimated at a hundred and twenty-five piastres, and that of 
silver at eight piastres, the total amount, in sterling money, o? the produce of the twt^ 
during tkiHiboYe ten years, will be found to have been of the vahie of 7,703,545L 



PRESENT STATE OF PERU. 



^ 



^^ parturition, and the melancholy 
wiiich their miserable situation occasions. 
Wlicn will this irafiic have an end; this 
foul disgrace to Europe, to Christendom, 
but to England in particular ! The work 
ef retribution is begun in Hayti: there 
the iniquity began, and there the first ac- 
count has been rendered — ^who can tell 
where it will stop ! 

The mixed descendants of the negroes 
in Peru become perfectly white in the 
fourth generation ; this is said to b^ so 
prejudicial to the kingdom, as to have re- 
peatedly called for the interference of the 
legislature. What colonists arrive from 
Spain seem to be so many lost to the mo- 
ther country, winch ill can spare them, 
and nothing added to Peru : some few 
niake fortunes and return ; others remain 
single, because they and their posterity 
would be alike excluded from any honour- 
able situations : — this should have been 
more clearly expkined j nor do we under- 
stand, bj' the phrase which is used ofetn- 
bracing celibacy, whether it is meant that 
^se persons merely remain single, or 
enter into the monastic orders. This is 
one i^iecimen of the miserable stj'le of the 
book. A great proportion of the Euro- 
pean emigrants are mere vagabond adven- 
turers; of no use while they are above 
ground. Hands, therefore, are wanting 
in Peru, and of coiu^ every thing is 
wanting in proportion; roads, bridges, 
canals; there is no internal commerce in 
consequence. The conclusion of tliis 
essay, which thus exposes the weakness 
of the country', was suppressed by autho- 
rity. 

Historical and Political Reflections on 
the Papulation of Lima. The capital of 
Peru contains three hmidred and fifty-live 
Krcets, three thousand nine hundred and 
forty-one houses, including one hundred 
and" fifty- seven which belong to ri^igious 
communities, and fifty-two thousand six 
hundred and twenty-seven inhabitants. 
Of these one thousand six hundred and 
forty-sevcn belong to the different mo- 
nastic orders, and three thousand one hun- 
dred and eighty-four live in religious com- 
nmnities without having made the vows ; 
but dtesc also are to be considered as lost 
to the state — a proportion, on the whole, 
of one to eleven ! the secular clergy are 
not included in this number. There are 
nine thousand two hundred and twenty- 
Mie slaves, two thousand nine hundred 
and three free servants. The capital has 
increased one-fi&h in size since the vice- 



royalty of Buenos-Ayres separated fi-om 
Peru. 

The account of the university of St. 
Mark, in this capital, is characteristic. 

" The fees disbursed on the admission to 
the diftcrcnt degrees, were originally very 
high. Each doctor of the faculty, besides 
paying a considerable sum to the rector, head 
master, register, and other officers, was ob^ 
liged to fee all those who composed the chap- 
ter, or assembly, at the time of his admission. 
If he took a secular degree, he gave to each 
of them a velvet bonnet ; and if the degree 
was ecclesiastical, a bonnet of doth. To tliis 
gift he added another, of six fjat hens, four 
pounds of cold viands, and a pair of gloves, 
fiiese disbursements, united with the cxpcnces 
attendant on the public exhibition of a bull 
ligiit, in the great square, on the day of ad- 
niission, and the sumptuous entertainment 
given to all who were present, were found, on 
an average estimate made in 1743, to ajnount 
to the extravagant sum of ten thousand pi- 
astre's for each degree. To remedy this in- 
convenience, it was then settled that the gra- 
duate should pay into the chest of the institu- 
tion the sum of two thousand piastres, to be 
divided equally among the doctors; and 
should prqvide a slight refreshment for those 
who were present at his examination. Ho 
^'as, besides, to bestow small fees on the rec- 
tor, head master, register, and other persons 
holding literary employments in the college. 
The gross amount of the charges has been 
since reduced to one tliousand and sixty-six 
piastres. 

" To obtain the degree of doctor, that of 
bachelor is, in tlie first mstan. e, indispensably 
requisite. For this purpose, the student must 
be provided with a certiiicate of iiis liaving 
attended live courses in the faculty to which 
he aspires, together with another certificate of 
his having taken the private lessons, without 
which his studies would have been incomplete. 
The cxp<»nces of this degree are moderate, 
amountmg to twenty-five piastres only. Con- 
fonnably to the spirit and tenor of the laws of 
the kingdom, whenever ten degrees of bache- 
lor have been < onferred, a similar degree is to 
be bestowed on a poor scholar, as a btimulus 
to application, and a recompense for the suc- 
cessful prosecution of his studies; but this 
favour has been liberally dispensed by the 
academy, which, with a view to the prosperity 
and cultivation of the sciences, has not limited 
itself to the number of indigent students for 
whom the above legislative provision was 
made. 

" llie ceremony of the reception of a doc- 
tor in this univerhity is not uninteresting. On 
the day appoint;>d, at sun-set, the interior of 
the hall having been lighted, and the doors 
closely barred, the examuiation commences 
before the masters and doctors, who alone are 
allowed to be present. Between the first and 
second lc*ssons^ an oath is administered by die 



i4 



VOYAGJ^ AND TRAVELS. 



fed^irtoeaclioftheasAsUots; and when the 
second lesson is concluded, four of the doc^^ 
tors, tlie junior taking the lead, maintain a 
controversy witli the candidate. This doea 
not, hovttver, prevent any one present from 
making such obsenations as he may deem 
Essential to his further satisfactioii and secu- 
rity. The rector, the president, the four re- 
phcants, and the six most ancient doctors of 
the faculty^ now proceed to vote privately ; 
and by their sutlrages, the individual who has 
been exammcd is either admitted or tejected. 
The wliole concludes by a refresliment of 
sweetmeats and jellies, substituted to the 5iU|> 
^r ordered by the ancient institutions of tlie 
academy. 

" On the following morning, the degree is 
confert^ svith every solemnity. Provided 
the ceremony be not, by special favour, per- 
formed in the mterior 6^the university, the 
cliajjel of the blessed Virgin, belonging to tlie 
great church, is splendidly ornamented ; and 
thither the graduate, accompanied by the 
aitiidents, collegiates, and doctors, proceeds to 
nislke his profession of faith. 'iTie rector 
having administered' to hnn an oath to defend 
the mystery of the immaculate conception, 
and to detest the execrable doctrines of ty- 
rannicide and regicide, the degree is delivered 
to him by the head master, at the same time 
tliat the register invests him with tiie badges 
of his newly acquired dignity. This bemg 
done, a latui oration is pronounced in his 
praise, and a theme proposed to him for the 
exercise of his talents. 

"The. number of doctors is not limited. 
At this time (in 17§1) there Ate one hundred 
and thirty-four in the faculty of theology ; in 
that of lows, one hundred and sixty-four; ip 
that of medicine, twelve ; and six masters of 
Arts." 

The university is poor, nor wonld its 
rents be sulHcient, if several of the chairs 
were not vacant, and if the other profes- 
sors did not give up half their salaries. 
The members are celebrated for their pa- 
triotism. 

'* It Is impossible to read without satisfac- 
tion the sacrifice of life, goods, and persons, 
made by the doctors, masters, and students, 
m 170$), when the English, having invaded 
the port of Guayaquil, excited a general panic 
tfiroughoiit the kingdom. They enrolled 
themselves, witiiout any exception of classes 
or jconditions, for the king's service, and form- 
ed themselves into companies. Dr. Martin 
de ios Reyes took the coimnand of the com- 
pany of the ecclesiastics who composed the 
chapter ; that of the seculars was commanded 
by Dr. Bartolome Romero ; and that of the 
students by Dr. Tliomas Salazar. The rector, 
Don isidora C^edOj to evince his attachment 



and fidelity to his sovereign, took the com* 
niand in chief.'' ^ 

It may be impossible to read this with- 
out satisfaction in Lima, and it is impos- 
sible to read it in England without smiling. 
If we were reduced to the necesbity of arm- 
ing our owTi universities, the heads of col- 
leges would not be the tittest possible com- 
manders. They themselves would not 
think it necessary, to evince their loyalty, 
that they should change their wigs for 
helmets. 

The charitable establishments in Lima 
are many and flourishing. They have a 
theatre, which is fasliionable : the writer 
wishes tliat the comedies* of v hich monks» 
popes, and saints, are the heroes, were 
laid aside ; that the actors would declaim 
with less violence ; tliat any one might be 
permitted to seat himself in the pit with- 
out regarding his dress or his periwig j 
and that the company would not smoke. 
Silence, and no smoking, is the motto ia 
the theatre at Corunna. Cotfee-liouses 
were first established in 17/1 ; they sue-, 
ceed well. 

" Tlie literary memoirs of Madrid ♦ con- 
tain the provihions made by Don Mariano 
(Joton, sujjerintcndant-gcnefal of jielice of 
that court, with a view to the introduction of 
a greater dc*corum in th(» coiliee-houses. T*he 
principal enactments are as follow : ' firsts 
that in all the col]ee-housi»s in which a certain 
share of decency, and a corresponding neat' 
ness, should not be observed. Jointed doth^ 
should be hung up, the walls white- waslu^d, 
and the doors and iabh» coloureil. Stxonclly , 
that a clean dish should be scfved to eadi in- 
dividual, notwithstandinn: three or four persons 
should unite together, for this nnson, that, iu 
pouring the liquor from the cup to the saucer, 
it was spilled on the table, w) as, by tiio slight-, 
est inattention, to stain the clotiies and majitlc»s 
of the company. 'ITiirdly, that the waiters 
should, on their prescntiiig tliemselves, b<? 
clean, without either a net or a bonnet on the 
head, and, if possible, combed, &c. &c/ 
What would some of our readers say if we 
were to innnuate the like ?" t 

The detestable amusement of cock- 
fighting is permitted twice a week oa 
working days, and on Suadap end festi<; 
vals. There is a regular cock-pit ; seata 
are paid for, and the mob admitted grati^ 
to stand. Not a hint is ventured 'm re* 
pi^bation of this cruelty. EuU-feaste^ of 
course, are fashiouable. Teymis is lepre- 
sentjed as a ruinous game, m copse(j^Qi)c^ 



^ Vol X, pages 404 and 4Q5* 



. TBfeSfilT STATE OF XlSP* 



5i 



«f the enarmocis bets which are made 

opooit. 

Customs and manners. This is the sati- 
rical portion of the wurk« aud not the lea.st 
valuable. In ''the form of a fragnn^ut 
upon the state of the Roman colonies in 
Africa, one writer insinuates that tl)e In- 
dian and Negro female slaves are the mis- 
tresses of the Spanish husbands, the bawds 
of thdr wives, and the nurses of their 
children: that they sway die fashions, 
direct the education^ and contaminate tiie 
morals of the youths and tliat their influ- 
ence is so great, that the European wo- 
men even imitate them as far as possible. 
Another satirist exhibits a Peruyi.m beauty 
in a dream, thcr^ to expose tlie manners 
of his countrywomca. 

"Observe attcnliTcJ)' : tiiat white whiel^ 
Birprises thee so much, is a thin coat of ar- 
senic or while lead, laid on with art, and in a 
jnanntf ghied to the skin. This Is a despi- 
cable cuiitoni in ;^ny other nation ; but, among 
the countr\ women of Eugenia, it is abso- 
lutely crimiiial, seeing that, by its adoption, 
the)*' injure and tamish their natural whiteness, 
that surprizing whiteness w^hich excites the 
envy of ail the other ladies in the wv^rld. Art 
thou desirous to sec tlje mischiefs by which 
this detestable paint is accompanied ? Eeuiark 
the foreiieafl, which has a somewhat dispro- 
portionate width : it proves that the hair has 
Moi odf at the teujples, by the friction of 
thijMle ingredient. Observe, now that she 
«mil«: she has several decayed teeth; and 
if it uca* lawful for tliee to approrxii her, 
thou u-oaldest be sensible that her brcatii even 
is m some measure vitiated. All these arc 
consequences of the same abuse.' 

^'''fhe hands,' exclahned in continuation 
the scnipnlous censor, * those hands which, 
pbvsically, arc beyond a doubt well shaped, 
delicate, and hambH^ntc, have, in a moral 
pojnt of view, several very notable delects, 
ihose honourable marks which the use of tJie 
needle, or of the di-stai}', occasionally leave.<, 
are not to be traced ion them. Among her 
countrywomen, it is considered as derogatory, 
to know how to take up a Iof)p in a stocking ; 
aad but few are to be fmmd who arc able to 
embioida' a pair of rnliies, for the husb.aud, 
cr few the boy^. Tlie discoloration wiiirh is 
« pqceptible at th^ tijis of the tliumb, tore- 
ft^jer, and miiidk hnger of thp right hand, is 
Dving to these extremities being logularly 
made to answer the purpoA2 of tlic tork, i^ 
t.V repasts -.-—a filthy pnictlce by' which the 
strongest stomacii must be nauseated. loi:- 
twat«iy, however, this indelicacy is not to be 
found among certain principal nympl^ who 
ait the Mower ami the ^lory of ihi4t Ifighly far 
voun^d country.'^ 

It is carsoQ8^ that what Ben Jonspn c;ill3 



' the laudable use of forks 
Brought into custom here, as they are in Italy 
To the sparing o' napkins,' 

should not yet have become general ia 
the Spanish and Portugueze colonies. Per- 
haps they agree with the German diving 
who preaclied against tl>e custom, and 
said it was an insult against Providence 
jiot to touch one's meat with one's fingers,. 

*' The most conspicuous part of the cos- 
tume is thcfaldtttin, or short hoop pettkroat, 
more particularly worn in the carriage, and at 
pulilic eulertainments. It is made of richly 
embroidered cloth, velvet, &c. ; ia rendereci 
Hexible by the means of wlialebonc ; and 
provided with a .wadduig, to give it a greater 
protuberance, so as to display the ankle mor^ 
perfectly. U is attended, nowever, by this in- 
convenience, that, m climbing a hill, or oi| 
any sudden jnotion, the wearer makes an ex- 
poiiure which borders on indc^cency. Its nu^ 
merous plaits cause it to assume a variety o| 
graceful fornis, at the same tune that they 
n^nder it very costly, fifteen yards of stufi'at 
the least being consumed in the 'outward co^ 
vering. Tiie expence of this article of dresj^ 
alone, is rated at between ^hree and four hun- 
dred crowns ; notwitlistanding which, a mo- 
di.sh female of lima seldom pays a ceremoni- 
ous visit, without having previously had re- 
course to ttie Bodtgoius, tlie pruitipal street 
in which the fiishionmongers reside, for a^a/- 
dellin of the newest taste. In tiieir jewels, 
and, in general, in every part of th^:u: dress, 
the ladies of the Peruvian capital are equally 
extravagant, 

*' One of their favourite oniame^ts is th^ 
puchcTO de flores, or nosegay, which, as it 
may ser\'e to ilhistrate the progress of luxury 
in that capital, with tiic civil history of whi(;h it 
is in some degree coimected, merits a detailed 
tloscription. Its basis con<h5ts of the blossom 
of a small apple of llio size of a nut, of a white 
lily, of one or two roee-buds, of tht^ same num- 
ber of cherry-l)lossonis, and of tlie flowers of 
the Seville orange ; the whoU* laid on a plane- 
leaf, of tlie dimension of the cigliih part of a 
siieet of paper. On the suriti- e <>f tin's plane- 
leaf are cii5:i)0sed chamomile- tlowers, the 
flowers of the yellow lily, violets, daisies, and 
tliyme , and, over thesc'again, a small branch 
ot'bazil mint, anoUier of a s^t^t pea bearing 
a violet rtower intermixed with white, and, 
occaisionally, a stem of hyacinth, a branch of 
the odoriferous rush liaving yellow llowers 
and white leaves, and the blossoms of a small 
fruit, a kind of strawberry, but larger in size. 
Having been sprinkled with a watei* of a com- 
mon scent, or with a spiritqus solution of 
amber, this pwr^ero is valued at half a real. 

"The ditTerent aggregates, such as the 
Ho^soHis of the little orange of Quito, of the 
apricot, of tJie small apples' which have an am- 
ber colour, of the larger fmits, and of the med- 
lar, ^jetiier wWi tlie chir'imoya,* camations» 



♦ A flower of pieao appearance, b«t of exquisite scent.— ^V/ocr. 



58 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



►wers, anemones, tulips, and other 
liowers in full season, being conjoined with a 
puchfro of double or treble the size of the 
simple one, augment its price to two or three 
piastres. Its value is raised or diminished, in 
proportion to the private festivities which are 
on foot, and to the times of tlie public fes- 
tivals. 

" To the augmentation of value above- 
mentioned, is to be superadded the price of 
the flower named ariruma, which is so arbi- 
trary, that it rises from six reals \o six or seven 
piastres, accorduig to the season, or to the de- 
mands of the pur hasers. Artificial flowers 
of this description liaving been recently intro- 
duced, have in some measure dimhiished the 
value of the natural ones. It is, however, to 
be noticed, that the puchcro of natural flowers 
is to be procured at every season of tlie year, 
there bemg simply a variation of the more 
exquisite flowers, which, for want of a proper 
degree of skill in the culture, are not at all 
times obtainable. 

"This indBpensabte luxury is purchased 
by all the different classes of females, in a 
street fronting the steps of the cathedral 
church, from which it is distant about fifty 
paces. Thence the expectants proceed, either 
to seek diversion from the chances which .may 
present themselves, or to wait the appoint- 
incnts that have been already made. It is 
needless to add, that the Cafle delPeligi^o 
(Hazard-street), for so this street is denomi- 
nated, on account of the dangers to which li- 
bertines wei-e formerly exposed, in their in- 
tercourse with the abandoned females by 
whom it was freauented, still contbues to be 
the rendezvous of gallantry. 

*' The station occupied by the women who 
deal in flowere, is divided between those whose 
speculations are on a large siale, and the re- 
tailers. The former have their backs to the 
church; each of them confining herself to 
one or two species of flowers. 1 hey are the 
female gardeners ; and in their firont are rang- 
ed those wlio make thepwcA^ro*, on the tables 
placed before them. Thev are very intent 
on this occupation, and at the same tune very 
courteous. 

" In private houses, the puchero, or that 
which correspond^ to the pucfuro, is constant- 
ly made to serve as a<iomestic and favourite 
gratification. I'hc ladies select the flowers, 
and free them from the sandy and seminal 
particles, which are apt to soil, and are de- 
void of scent ; such as the yellow at the ex- 
tremity of the orange-flower, the fibrils of 
which give out an amber stain, in common 
with those of the daisy and rose-bud, and of 
the blossoms of the mti<ilar, apple, and smaller 
fruits. Having sprinkled them afresh with the 
purest water, thijy are placed beneath a cry- 
stal vase, into which is introduced a small 
chafing-dish filled with live coals. On this 
chafing-dish is poured the most exquisite per- 
fume, blend- mI with di(Vere|itaix)matics, to the 
end that the natural fragfancy of the flowers 
xna} be heightened. 



" This delicate operation havini^ been per- 
for.ned, an economical distribution is made 
among the ladies who are present Each 
places her portion hi her bosom, and thence 
presents her favourite with an orange-blossoin, 
or a small bunch of flowers, which sometimes 
receive a greater value from the beautiful 
• hand that bestows them, tlian from that of 
Nature herself." 

The portrait of the men is even more 
unfavourable than that of the women. 
Satirists use dark colours, but even in 
caricature they endeavour to preserve 
some likeness. Unless those writers fouUy 
belie tlieir countrymen, a detestable vice 
is practised at Lima, which, to the honour 
of tlie Spanish peninsula, is no more to- 
lerated there than in England. 

Essay on the false rel i^ion and sup^rsii^ 
thus customs of tfte Peruvian Indians, The 
chief deities were Apuinii, the sun, the 
lord and father j Uuiri Inti, son of the 
sun ; Imic Vauqui, brother of tlie sun ; 
and Tarigalajuray one in three and three 
in one, if this interpretation is to be be- 
lieved. Besides these there was the idol 
Rimac, or the speaker, — who may have 
been their oracle j and Pachacamac the 
omnipotent, whom they regarded as above 
all, the deity whom perhaps tlie priests 
acknowledpd, who invented idols for the 
people. For private and particular devo- 
tion they had household gods called Cono^ 
pas or Guisicamai/ec, lords of tlie house : 
Compos, stones to whom they prayed for 
water ; Htiancas, other stones erected in 
tlieir plantations that they might lighten 
the toil of the husbandman 3 and Mama- 
tcras, long cylindrical stones w4io were 
to take care of the maize, and supply 
abundant crops. To bestow upon these 
poor idolaters, immersed as they were in 
darkness and error, the intelligence diey 
needed, the essayist tells us, immense 
vvisdom prepared the fittest means. It 
discovered to Europe this valuable part of 
the globe, and transferred its dominion by 
the right of concjuesl to Spain !— Happy 
change for the Peruvians ! it is true that 
tliose who were not put to the sword were 
made slaves, and that a few millions have 
been worked to death in tlie mines -, but 
what is that to the incalculable advantages 
communicated to their posterity ? Have 
they not got nuns instead of Adlacunas, 
and the trtie trinity instead of Tariga- 
tqnga ; crucifixes and madonnas instead of 
Guasitnacoyea at home j and crosses in tlie 
fields instead of Conipas, Huancas, and 
Mamateras, besides a whole array of 
saints to pray to into the bargain. 

Accowu of the costumes, superstitions. 



rRBSEMT STATE OF PERU. 



sr 



€»i exercises r of die Indians qf the Pampa 
id Sacramento and Andes mountains of 
Pent. The country in which liars and 
dreamers placed El Dorado with its capi- 
tal Mansa^ is inhabited by various savage 
tribes in a miserable st^ge of ignorance. 
Their complexion would be almost of £a- 
ropean whiteness^ if exposure and un- 
guents had not made them swarthy : they 
are well made and strong, because they 
murder the deformed infant, and their 
habits of life destroy the feeble one. To 
make the body strong they bind the waist 
and the joints of their male infants witli 
hempen bands, and they flatten the head 
before and behind to make them like the 
fiill moon. Unmarried women go naked 
among them, and among those tribes who 
inhabit the warmer parts, aU are naked. 
ITicy have no idols, but worship the maker 
of the world during the time of an earth- 
quake, and only then. They call him 
hther, and believe that having made the 
world he retired, into heaven. An evil 
being is also acknowledged by them, 
whom they place in the centre of the 
eanh. Their conjurers represent them- 
selves as his delegates, Mc/umes or ^g»- 
rrros Mr. Skinner calls them, overlook- 
ing that the latter word is only a Spaniard's 
translation of the former. Polygamy is 
only in use among the Caciques, yet they 
delight in aphrodisiacs, and some circum- 
stances are raentioned which indicate a 
loathsome sensuality^ as degrading as that 
of the Polynesians. 

Their notions of a future state differ in 
different tribes. Some expect a world 
like their owii, with plenty of boiled plan- 
tains and juf:as, where they shall %ht 
with thunder and lightning, and sport in 
the milky way, which is the grove of di- 
versions. Others believe in transmigra- 
tion, and worship the particular beast into 
which they conceit their father or their 
cacique has passed. They cultivate cot- 
ton tor the only garments they use j and 
yuca of which they make their only drink, 
for the water is miwholesome. Stone 
hatchets and wooden tools are tlieir only 
impJements of husbandly. They use poi- 
fontd weapons against wild beasts, but 
never in war j an extraordinary fact, that 
having such means of destruction^ a sense 
of honour, or humanity, or policy, should 
prevent them from exercising them. War 
is the main business of their lives. Tliey 
bring home tlie heads of their enemies, 
make necklaces of tlie teeth, and masks 
of the &kin, and hang up the skulls as 
ornaments from the roofs of their dweJl- 
injs. Among the Itucalis, a warrior. 



whenever he carries home the tead of an 
enemy, opens the skin of his own nose, 
and puts in the little hiLsk of the palm 
und^ it, just upon the brid|^. A nose 
completely embossed from the top to the 
tip in this maimer, is as honourable as a 
blue ribband in England. What is most 
remarkable is, that they treat their prison- 
ers with great humanity, in all respects < 
like brethren. 

Account qf the public congi-eg^ations of 
the negroes residing in the district qf Lima. 
The^ negroes are divided into ten casts, ac- 
cording to their original countries j each 
cast lias its own chief, and two head cor*- 
porals are chosen as chiefs of the whole : 
each has its meetings, in which the con*- 
tributions for their festivals are fixed, ac- 
counts rendered, and disputes between 
husband and wife, &c. settled. All tte 
festivals of these poor people are connect* 
ed with religion, but it is surprizing to 
find that certain ceremonies, which are 
clearly derived from their native super- 
stitions, should still be permitted to them. 

Historical and chorographical descrip^ 
tion qf the province of Chichas y Tat-ija. 
Francisco Tarija, who left his name to Uiis 
province, might serve as the hero of a 
romance. Leaving Pizarro and Almagrd 
to devastate Peru, and to turn their arms 
against each other, he with a small band 
of followers penetrated to this fertile 
valley, when tlie natives who bad never . 
been subject to the Yiicas, and had never 
heard of the Spaniards, received him with 
resi^ect and awe. Here he settled, and 
peaceably began to teach the lodians the 
language of Spain, and the habits of civi- 
lized life. But his numbers were insuf- 
ficient, and after his death they relapsed 
into their former stajte, preserving no, 
other relic of his language than his name, 
which tfiey gave to the valley, as it is be- 
lieved, in aflection to his memory. The' 
larg« teeth are again mentioned in this 
paper, but the .writer has too much com* 
nion sense to dream that they can have 
been l^uraan. A great blunder of the 
translator occurs here , he says tliat the 
chronicles of Flavius Dexter, &c. '* were 
extracts surreptitiously made from father 
Gerommo, aYonuince qf la Higuera*" The 
fact is, they were fabricated by the Jesuit 
Jlieroni/mo Reman de la Higuera, and Mr. ' 
Skinner has converted his name into a 
romance ! 

PI ait for gaining access to, and peopling 
the Andes mountains of tlie province q/ 
GuamalicSf proposed and set on foot by Don 
Juan de Bczarcs, The projector of diis 
new seltlemeut is a merchaia of Lima, 



J8 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



miaatuif in a copies perspiration, le%v« 
hiin free from every ailnjient. Tht few trials 
of this remedy which have been made, have 
been extremely successful against siphvlis; 
and if the practical enquiries that have been 
^ecent^y instituted should coixe^pond uith 
them, cures may be effected by the means»of 
one of the most surprizing simples for which 
medicine is indebted to the American contt' 
nen|. The production of a wonn, which the 
Indiaas name susiillo, and by which a paoer, 
very similar, to that made in China, is fabri- 
cated, has been hitherto uiUtnowi to' all tht 
naturalists.* 

Bezares obtained the sanction Of the 
government to form settlements here, an4 
it is supposed that his plans will be pnr* 
sued; — ^but however well di.^posed the 
government njay be to such projects, po- 
pulation is wanting; nor is there that en«, 
terprize in the people which in North 
America almost supplies the want of po- 
pulation, and secures whole provinces of 
forests and savannahs to be cultivated by 
their childrens' children. 

Repopulaiion qftke valUy of Vitoc. This 
paper communicates sonie curious histo^ 
rical infbnnation. In 1^42 Juan Santos 
Atahualpa fled into the mountains to 
escape punishment for murder. He called 
upon tiie Indians, boasting bis descent 
from the Yncas,-*4ind by his n^me it ap- 
pears that some such descent liad been al« 
lowed by the Spaniards, took the title of 
Apu-Inga Kuapiacapac, and proclaimed 
himself the restorer of the empire of his 
ancestors. A multitude of Indians joined 
him, five and twenty towns-r-or more aci 
curately speaking, establishments of the 
Franciscans were demolished, and Qui^ 
miri, an important post. Conquered, an(l 
its governor burned in it? ruins. T\\^ 
valley of Vitoc, which was then overruu, 

* This catir pillar is bred in the facae, a tree well known in Peni, and named by the Peru-* 
vian Flora, MS. mimosa inga. In ppopoKion to the vigour and majestic growth of this tjree, 
U tlie number of the insects it nourishef;, and vvhicii ^re of the kind an4 si^ of the bombyx^ as 
Bilk wonn. Wjien tliey aue con^jHctely satiated, they unite at the body of the tree, seeking 
the part whicli is best adapttxl to tlie extension they Have to take. They there foi in, witfi ti\^ 
greatest sjTnmetry and logularity, a web which is 'larger or smaller, accprdkig to the number 
of the operants ; and more or lesjs pliant, according to the quality of tlie l«af by which they have 
been nourished, the whole of them reniaming beneath. This envelope, on which they be- 
stow such a texture, cowisteticy, ami lustre, that it canndt be decomposed by any practicable 
expedient, having been finished', they all of them unite, and ranging Uicmsdves in vertical aqd 
even files, Ibrm in the-centre a perfect square. Being thus dis{H)scd, eacli of tl^em lualoes its 
cocoon, or pod, of a /:oafse ana short silk, in which it is tran&iormed, from the grub tQto tbtt 
chrifsalisy zxnX from the chrysalis into the papilio, or nioth. In propprtJAHi as tljuey 9ftenvar4 
cttiit their confinement, to take wing, they detach, wiierever it is mosjit convcni«ij^ jto Ihein, 
their envelope, or web, a portion of which remains suspended to the tiimk of the tnee, wher« 
it waves to and fro like a streamer, and which becomes ihore or less wliite, accordii>g to th.e 
air and humidity the season and situation admit. A complete nest l\as already been trans^ 
initted to his cattioltc majesty ; and, by the hands of his naturalist, Don Antonio Pineda, ^ 
piece (if this natural silk paper> nu»|suriiig a yard and a half, of dn elliptical shape, whick i^ 
ptxAilj^r to all of tjiepi, 



who wbe^ cm the point of Fetorning to 
his native cmmtry with a respectable for- 
tune, met with a Spaniard who had long 
led a sava^ life among these Indians, and 
represented to him their docility, and the 
advantages of the country. Bezares de- 
voted his property to civilizing the.se 
people, and i^eclaiming them to Christian- 
ity, from which,' since tlie unhappy extinc- 
tion of the Jesuits, they had filleu. Un^ 
bappy we <^1 tliat extinction, because of 
all tlie moiia:ritic orders they only were 
well employed. Upwards of twenty 
(towns which they had established were 
found ia ruias,'>-"tbe term of course has 
not its. European aigni^cation, but it im« 
plies fixed dwellings, and habits of do* 
mestication and agriculture, the first rudi-» 
raents of civilization. The tree which 
yields tlie red bark grows here in great 
abundance, and also the yellow bark, 
neither of which had been calculated 
upon. Other promising productions have 
been discovered. 

<* Bejrares met with a description of very 
lofty trees, the wood of whkh is unknown, 
but valuable, not only because, with all its 
foiidity, it yields with equal suppleness to the 
plane and tlie cl^isel ; but likewise op account 
of its 5«)ii-violet colour, by which it appears 
to he, in preference to any other wogd, adapt- 
ed to the purpose of dyemg. He found ano- 
ther tree which produces, m the shoots of its 
hrajiches, a resinous substance in grains, of a 
gieenish hue, whidi, as he pro^^ed it to be an 
eilectual substitute for sealuig-wax, is appa- 
rently calcufctcd for many ases. A kind of 
0zk": or wiHqw, which grows in thip territory, 
is de; med by the liidians a qieeific in com- 
pla'unts of the bowels, and is named by them 
ccUnturc, because, b employing its decoc- 
ticm in cases of the most violent rheumatic 
liticctions, the patient is subjected for three 
&f lour hcure to a violent fever, which, ter- 



HESENT STATE OF PEHU. 



« 



WM only beginning to be repeopled when 
tbe tern ian Mercury was publihlied : the 
new Yuca then possessed liis acquisitions 
m peace, but Jefc no successor. An f n- 
dian Toussaint might shake tlie Spanish 
empire in Peru. 

Periodical u^orks. Mexico supports a 
gazette^ a civil tliary, and another of nj- 
tural history. The Peruvians r.ow rival 
this fiourishing state of hterature; a Di- 
afio £oo:)&iiiico was started at Lima^ and 
soon followed by this Mercurio Peruano, 
which commenced in 1791. The Sema- 
narioCritico fallowed this, :ind it was then 
boasted that Lima had at lengtli placed 
itaOif 00 a footing with Mexico, at the 
time of the greatest splendour of the latter 
city, by possessing a Diary, a Mercury, 
anda Weekly Critic. In the same year 
a periodical paper \\ as set on foot at Santa 
Fe de Bogota, and o^iother at Quito, — 
symptoms of improvement those, but 
which also prove diat literature had d^;- 
cJined in the Spanish colonies as well a in 
the mother coxmtry, and that its revival 
was later. Nor are these symptoms en- 
couraged: die editor into rms us that the 
Mercur}', after having been progressively 
subjected to a variety of restraints, was 
finally discoi^tinued in 1 7i)6. 

Pdiiicai economy . The ccadem ical so - 
cietywho published tiie Mcrciuy, offer a 
gold meual of eleven ouncx^s, with a ring 
and chain g£ gold for the bc^t plan for 
iniprming die roads, which are in a 
miserable state, and a silver piedal tor the 
second best. One only was *icn i i n , w hicli 
was pot thought worthy of either. The 
bishop of Quito^has exerted liimself to 
promote tlie same desirable object, and 
ecbscribed five hundred piastres towaidfi 
opening a road in his dioce<e. He al^o 
offered a premium to the best baker, — a 
6ct v/hich proves his own excellent wishes 
«nd, iauntion?, and cKposes at di<> same 
lime the sad condition of th^ colony. 

JBiovrapAy. 'J his article contains bio- 
graphical skctclies of P. Juan Perez Me-* 
fiacho, a theologian of the siKteeuth cen« 
tiiry, remarkabW for his stature and his 
rtruttg memory ; of D. Antonio Lewn Pi- 
neloj a useiul, hiborious, and learned 
writer of the sei^irteei^th ceiittiry ; F. 
Fnmcitico d^l Castello, a biimi iuipiovi- 
i'iiore, not long dead ; and 1). Diego Lo- 
pez, who lost hij wi%s iu ^tlenapting t^ 
*<j«ai>e the circk. 

Lmgevit^. A single instance is given 
» a DftCive SpaiifanL who lived to l)e J 33. 
An article upoa imr^oroiir^' a>ncluvietf 



An appendix of considerable length it 
added, containing a history of tbe mis- 
sions of Caxamarquilla, of the origin and 
loss of those of Manoa, and the travels ot' 
P. Manuel Sobreviola, by the river Hual- 
laga to the lake of Gran Cocama in l/QO, 
and of F. Njirciso Girbal y Barcelo by the 
Marannon and Ucayali to the tribes of 
Manoa in 179I, with an account by So* 
breviela of the entrances into the ^noun* 
tainous country made at difterent timet 
by the Franciscans, whom Mr. Skinner^ 
according to the conmiou error of Kuglisk 
wr i ters, call s monk s instead of friars . So- 
brevicla's map was not in the volumes 
which fell into the translator's bands. 
We do aotrccoUect whethw the great 
map of Spanish ^Vmerica be of a later 
date than l/CjO, or if, as we rather think 
it be, his survey would be included 5 but 
in any case that^map should be reduced 
for the subsequent edidons of this work. 

A few curious circumstances respecting 
the Indians and the country may bt 
gleaned from this portion of the volume. 
Tlieir mode of catching wild beasts might 
usefully be practised wherever man it 
placed among such bad neighbotirs. 

" They nuke a narrow passage fomied by 
stakt s of a competent thickness, and six feet in 
length, well Iksteued together and fixed in the 
earth. The top, and one of the .entrances, 
are secured by other stakes of the s^me dc-. 
scrii>lion : in the middle of the pusoage thor j 
is a divisioji. At the cntraiice which is Itft 
oprn, a stout plank, supported by a cod 
which Is slightly secured m the ftoiit of the 
paisage, is siMfa^uded. >yhen tiw bowlings of 
a tiger are heaid, a dt^ l^ shut up in the m- 
ner division, who, iindiiig himself in confine^ 
nient, begins to howl. The tyger instantly 
darts forwrarcl, tliinking himself secure of hia^ 
pay, and bAn^ mublo to find any other pas*, 
sage than the one where the plank is suspend-, 
ed, enters tliat wa\ . Now entangling hmiself 
in the cord, he spfaig^, throws (kAvn the plank, 
and linds himself hemmed in without bein^ 
able to hurt llie dog, who is protected by th<£ 
division of boardii. A4ter having ainusc4 
diemselves untiixthc animal becomes furi^us^ 
tlie isdians put him to death with ihch clubs 
^d arrows." 

Wolves are trapped in a like manner 
in some paru of Europe ; diere is a pruit 
of such a sn^te in one of the early volunoet 
of the Gv^ntleman s Magazine. Some od4 
diiugs ar4f rdated of diese American ty« 
gers, that they watch for die cayman m 
the \>mVM of tKe Ucayali, and fasteu tbeir 
dawt in his eyes, the only part which they 
can pierce ; and that when they catch a 
turtle, diey imitate nian, by turoixig it on 
4(6 b£H:t^ ^ tbmi »f curift^ It Fokcoof 



a> 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



ve know catch eels, but when tygers turn 
turtle-eaters it is time for the court of 
aldermen to take alarm. 

The remains of one of tlie Yncas 
brifkesare still to be seen over the mouth 
of the lake Lauricocha, where tlie Tun- 
garagua^ one of the sources of the Maran- 
Don, issues from it. They are stone py- 
ramids, excellently wrought, a yard and 
Iralf square, and placed a yard asunder 5 
does Mr. Skinner mean pillars when he 
6ays pyramids ? — his grandilocjuous style 
€>*tcn obscures and sometimes destroys 
his meaning. We read in this volume 
of the cxplcration of America, of gratuitous 
crogadons, of decorticating the trees, of 
retrograding on foot, and of s fluviatic 
voyage. This gentleman would have 
written better English if he had not had 
the misfortune of learning Latin. 

The navigation of the Marannon is re- 
markably inconvenient. Even English 
♦ sailors would object to going under water 
•n their floats in the whirlpools or pongo*. 

'* These pongos are straits formed by high 
and pendant clilfs, over whidi the descending 
torrents force a passage with such a degree of 
violence, as to occasion terrible billows, eddies, 
aiui whirl^)ooltJ, by which tlie balsas are sub- 
merged. The latter are composed of fifteen 
logs or beams of wood, twelve }ards in length, 
and somiwhat less in their united breadth, 
the narro\^nessof the pongos not admitting a 
greater extension. They are furnished with 
aloft)' and solid tilt, formed of canes, beneath 
which the cargoes are made secure with strong 
cords. At the extremities, as well as at the 
parts where tlie beams are united, other beams, 
ialf a vard in hcaght, are tinnir attached in 
' the manner of small pillars ; and by these the 
navigators secure themselves, attlic time when 



the balsa„ which, hotrever, speedily returns 
to float on the water, is submeiged iu Uic 
pongos." 

The information comprized in this vo- 
lume is new and highly interesting 5 a 
more modest title, however, would have 
been more decorous. Information con- 
cerning Peru, — or Transactions of the So- 
ciety at Lima. A curious book concern- 
ing this country might certainly be com- 
piled at Lima, from a few volumes of the 
Monthly Magazine, but it would not be 
accurate to call it the Present State of Eng- 
land. We very much disapprove the 
manner in which it is dedicated to lord 
Melville : as if no information were wel- 
come to government but such as could bo 
subservient to mischievous pur|K)ses. It 
is the dread of such buccaneering schemes 
as are evidently in the writer's mind, which 
has rendered Spain i^ jealous of suffering 
any accounts of her colonies to be made 
public, and such schemes are merely buc- 
caneering. What madman dreams of sub- 
duing Peru } and expeditions which end 
only in plunder are disgraceful to the na- 
tion that undertakes them. The Spaniards 
have been forced into the war against their 
wishes and against tlieir interest, — ^it is 
both for the honour and interest of Eng- 
land to show that she is sensible of this, 
by sparing Spain as far as may be possible. 
Willingly would Spain throw off the yoke 
of France and become our friend, for of all 
nations in Europe it is the best disposed 
toward us ; every thing which weakens 
that noble nation, delays the day of its 
deliverance, and aids tlie policy of Bona- 
parte. 



Art XL A Tmr in Zealand in the Year 1 802, xvith an Historical Sketch of the Baltk cf 
Copenhagen. ByaNativeqfDciwiark. Tk£ seco?id Edition, 12mo. pp. 182. 



THE Danes arc a brave, generous, and 
grateful j^eople ; and slight as is the sketch 
here presented by a native of the manners 
of his countrymen, every now and then 
an anecdote occurs which gives a mo- 
mentary interest to the narrative. Den- 
mark has been singularly fortunate in her 
ministers of state : the yoke of dej^endence 
on the court of Russia, which it was the 
patriotic wish of the unfortunate count 
de Strucnsee -to throw off, was removed 
by the more skilful genius of the younger 
Bernstorff, who also completed the pro- 
ject of emancipatioB, undertaken by his 
illustrious uncle, the old count de Bern- 
storff. 

It is singular enotigh that the enfranchise- 
ment of the peasants was a scheme which 



Catharine, probably to weaken the power 
of the nobility, endeavoured to bring 
about in the Russian erhpire. To a simi- 
lar manoeuvre recourse has^ been had in 
most countries in Europe, and wherever 
it succeeded the monarch has found a 
power succeed more jealous of despotic 
authority than that which it destroyed. 
In England, some of our most despotic 
monarchs incorporated several small towns, 
and conferred on them the privileges of 
royal boroughs, that tliey might send bur- 
geSses to parliament, and thus counter- 
balance tlie preponderating power of the 
nobility : Henry the eighth gave to twelve 
counties, and to the same number of bo- 
rouglis in Wales, the right of sending each 
a representative to parliament. Edward 



▲ TOUR ISt ZEALAtYD. 



61 



liie sixth created thirteen boroughs, and 
restored ten to the privileges which^ from 
long (tisuetude^ they had fbifeited 5 
Mary created ten, Elizabeth twenty-four. 
The same policy was observed in France : 
Louis le Gros, in the early part of the 
twelfth cenfniy, was the tirst who endea- 
voured to counterbalance the formidable 
power of his vassals, by conferring impor- 
tant privileges on the towns within his 
o«-n dominion. Still fartlier to depress 
the aristocrac)', Philip the Fair, in a sub- 
sequent period of time, introduced tlie 
deputies of free towns into the states ge- 
Aeral of the nation. The emperors of 
Germaoy, in order to undermine the ba-» 
ronial power^ which they were not strong 
enough to oppose openly, elevated tlie 
clergy. Tlie consequence was fatal : pa- 
pal authority rose resistless, and trampled 
on the imperial insignia. 

The Russian nobi^y had too many ex- 
amples before their eyes to be seduced 
into a measure which they feared would 
diminish their opulence and authority. 
Whether the present emperor Alexander 
may be aWc or willing to effect what the 
great Catharine failed in, time only can 
unfold* The elder Benistorff, however. 
Dot dismayed by the failure of a project 
which, whatever might have been its im- 
mediate object. Would eventually improve 
tlie character and condition of a large mass 
of people, sacceeded in liberating from 
bondage the peasantry of Denmark. Ig- 
norant people are often unacquainted with 
their own interests : the author of this 
Tour, whose signature, A. Andersen, is 
annexed to the dedication, says, that at 
first the abolition of vassalage, by which 
«ery peasant became his own master, 
and enjoyed the fruits of his own labour, 
was considered rather as an hardship than 
as a blessing. Lands were parcelled out 
in lots, upon which farm houses were 
erected, and those peasants only remained 
in the villages where lands were conti- 
guous. The others, however, were placed 
in a situation in which they knew not how 
to begin business : removed from a &rm 
the good and bad qualities of which tliey 
were acquainted with, some of tliem were 
perhaps invested with a sterile part, or al- 
lotment of a common. An agricultural 
society, however, was formed,' which re- 
warded individual exertions* in husbandry, 
and activity and diligence were crowned 
with merited success. The change lias 
been as beneficial as the warmest philan- 
thropist could have wi^^hed, or the most 
e^r zealot hare anticipated. 



The peasantry, nmsed from their tor^ 
por, have testified the sense they since ac- 
quired of their ameliorated condition, and 
die grateful feelings with which they are 
impressed towards their benefactors, by 
erecting stones in memorial of tlieir deli- 
verance, and in honour of their deliverers. 

Mr. Andersen has called his book the 
narrative of a Tour in Zealand: by ^ 
plying the compasses to his scale of Ba- 
nish miles, at the bottom of a neat littk 
map of the island, it does not appear thalt 
his peregrination at any time exceeded 
half a dozen miles from Copenhagen, or 
that the whole extent of his tofwr could be 
five and twenty ! From th© capital he went 
to Roeskilde, then proceeded north as far 
as Elsineur, and coasted along Uie Sound 
back again to Copenhagen. 

We have said that the Danes are a ^- 
lant people j henceforth let it be recorded, 
to tlie honour of the north, that diey are 
also a most gallant one. Several young 
women, whose Itfvers were killed in the 
memorable battle of the 2d of April, IBOI, 
received relief from the patriotic fund 
which was established on tliat occasion. 

The historical sketch of the battle of 
Copenliagen, which is annexed to this 
tour, is full, and, no doubt, accurate. 
The engagement did infinite honour to the 
bravery of both parties : the Danes wem 
certainly unprepared for it, and at this 
time would present a far more formidable 
resistance. As it was. Lord Nelson did 
not hoist the white flag until two British 
ships of the line, by running foul of each 
otlier, got aground, and were raked by 
red hot balls t'rom the battery of the three 
crowns. 

The day of peril and of suffering was 
to tlie Danes the commencement of a new 
era in their military establishment ; and 
the great accession of strength which their- 
navy has received since that event, testifies 
the confidence they repose in its exertions 
on any future emergency. 

Within the space of one year afler the 
battle of Copenliagen, a fund of upwards 
of fifty thousand pounds was raised, the 
interest of whicli is applied to tjie main- 
tenance, relief, antl education of about six 
hundred and fifty persons, who had suf- 
fered either individually or by their con- 
nections in that engagement. When any. 
of these pensioners die, the portion em- 
ployed in his maintenance reverts to the 
capital, which is established in perpetuity 
for the encouragement of the navy. On 
the first of July, 1S<X), the total number 
oi guns on Danish ihips, fit for service. 



^ 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



was one* tliouttiftd aeven hundred and thirty 
«Xiand©fun«en'iccablegunseightliuiulieU 
aod eighiy-two. Ca|>tain HohlcDberg bad 
been apjwiuted constructor of the royal 
iiavyinihe)t?ar J79(>; he travelled llirough 
the prioclpal maritime countries in Eu- 
rope, and i«turned to Denmark, where 
hici geuius and exfcnious were inddiatigably 
and successfully employed. In the year 
2800 it appeiirs, from the above statement, 
that very i>iarly one-third (not ab Air. An- 
dersen has erroncou-ly stated more than one 
iialf) of the Danish navy consisted of ships 
incapable of patting to sea, being eitlier 
entirely superannuated or standing in want 
of repair. On the l>.t of July, 180J, tlie 
•liips fit for service carried two thousand 
one hundred and eit^hty-twno guns, aixl 
those in an unsen'iccuble state one hun- 
dred and seventy eight only, which is not 
ane-tliirteenth of the w hole. If this ac- 
count is convct, however, it appears that 
the Danes had not yet eniployc4 all the 
guns from ihiMr mv«erviceabie ships. Tiie 
statement will stand tHus : 

Jul\, 1800. 

Ships fit for 5Jcr\Tce carried - 173G ( ogig 

July, iSOJ. . 
Ships fit for sorvico carried - 2 1 B J ( ,^,gQ 
— - uuiitfor surviLc - 17^5 i* 

258 

Thus, the nnrocrical majority of guns 
employed in the navy was greater by two 
liundred and tifiy-eight in the year 1800 
than in the year 1 BO'i. 

Within the siime space of time the 
ro^'al na\nl acuhMiiy doubled the number 
«»*' its midshipmen, a proportion ofwiiora 
make an annual excurion on board a fri- 
gate to tlie Ikllvc, under tlic inspection of 
a superintendant. 

" A battel-^ ciill( :l Prc>pves<(»cn (Ih^Tomli- 
rtone) was civilod in il\i* si'u, to th<.' south- 
vard of tlii» cily, t.> prevent an enemy from 
kombardinj; the doc-k-yards and otiier im- 
^rtitnt pbci*<. Tl.e pLui of this battci-y was 
laid before Christian \ I. and approved by 
hiiu the 2d April, 174'J; a remarkable day, 
as the eiltectsot tiiat r.egliqence wiiich sutlered 
the buttery to go to decay, were nioat severely 
felt on the same day in 1801. 

" To replace tiiis battery, the Elephant, the 
Sotmd, and the Princess Vilhclmiiia were cut 



do^ii, Ailed wtti) ballast, and groOiKted in tJ^ 
ruim, to raise' a fouudatiun tor a neu* fort» 
This undtirlaking is pursued most zealously, 
and a few years will, 1 hojxi, cxliibit as line » 
batter}' there, as that we have to the north of 
the city, calhxl the M'hrce C'nmns. This last 
batterv was coiiPtmcte<l at tljc distance of tw<^ 
milc!» from ?hore, on the plan ot our ingenious 
Commodore Gerner,* wlw dying before it 
was comphHed, tJie batterj- wa? sunered to go 
almost to dc*cay; but in 1801 it became aa. 
object of more serious attention. I'pon liic 
approach of the British Heet it was hurried 
uito a state of toh^.'ble defence, though un- 
fiimished with eitljer bix^ast-work, or powder 
magazine. However, three furnaces were 
completed for heating balls, and the batterv 
being foilwrjrtety made like a horse-shoe, with 
a tolerable large' harbour in the centre, showers 
of shell.:, which would otherwise have annoyed 
the garrison very materially, only whihtied by 
their ears, an. I buried themselves in the water. 

" After tiie battle the East India ConijKinY 
furnished govcniment with a large quantity of 
cotton, in bags, and many individuals col- 
lected empty ^ugar bags; they were filled 
with sand, ^\hieh, with the cotton bags, made 
a most excellent breast-work all rcHind the 
garrison, in two days every thing was dis- 
posed to meet whatever danger might occur. 

" A priyect has, likewise, been attempted 
for the cretlion of a.third battery on the side 
hnmediat'-ly opjx)site. b'hould this ever be 
accomplUlied, the Danish metropolis may be 
considencl imprei^nable, as in the citadel, Vre- 
derick^liavn, a line of formidable batteries 
have been raised just above the water's edge, 
which, together with the nim})firts, are con-^ 
stracted so as to cross their iire with the batn 
teries iu the sea, though the distance cousi-. 
dered, certa'uily with no ^^reat effect, unles»- 
parlicubr circum:»tances should favour the 
eat ranee of an enemy to tlie inner roads. 

** New batteries have likewise been raised 
onllie iit-w dock-yard and ail along the tx)ast of 
Amack, so that it the cnemy,8onie years hence," 
should aitem[)t making any impression on Co- 
penhag(*n by £ea, he would, upoe the smallest 
c;ompi;(tition, be welcomed with upwaids of 
live iiundred guns, most of which are long 
tiiirly-six pounders, hidependent of mortaiN, 
that throw shells of no less than one hundred 
and litty pomids weiglrt. 

" l^ouble ramparts have been elevated, 
and fosses du^ horn the batteries on the shore 
of Amack, adjoining the Baltic, down to the 
western gate, a distance of one and « half 
English miles. 

'* Thus tlic 2d of April, 1801, surpassed t}« 
uninternipted calm ol ^i eighty years' peace 
in yielding substantial benehts to Denmark, 
uidependeiit of the s]>eedy re-establisluBieut of 



♦ Commodore Geraer died in 1784. He invented a madiine worked %7 etrht liorges^ 
which drains the ro>al dock in twenty-four hours ; a tjftk which formerly emploTcd ^^p^ hun- 
dred sailors iiu essantly for three days. I remember once to have been in thin dock mlb tw» 
Englisli sea captains, wiio paid many obliging compliments to tlie ingenuity of Gour, axd* 
spoke in very i)igh tenns of tlie dock itselt, altogether the labour of art; the.tidea«aL|JOEBHl^ 
ting us to e$t4)lish similai docks to those in Englaud. 



U^C'AhL\rU*S llEtATftLf IN tKINtDAD. 



«$ 



that bamionT which has so lon^' tiibsistei, 
and which T trust ^Almighty God will ever 
pre^ffTc, bettvcen t%vo oations, to botii of 
which niay, with justicej be applied the lines 
of Addison : 



" llappythepcoptewhbpresrrvetliw honour; 
By the same duties that oblige tlieirprii €.*/' 

In this devout wish we most sincerrfy 
join. 



Art. XII. Travels in Trinidad during the Months qf February, March, and April, 1803, 
in a Scries of Letters, addressed to a Member of the Ituperiai Parliament oj Grtttt Isri- 
taia. Illustrated with a Map qf'the Island, By Pierre F. M'Callum. 8v'o. pp. 354. 



THE author of these travels was bom 
in Scotland, and seems to have been en- 
pged in commercial pursuits^ from the 
lamiliar aptness with which he talks of 
eveiy thing mercantile; he has resided 
much in the North American republic, 
visited San Domingo during the ascen- 
dancy of Toussaint, and went to Trinidad 
in Febraary, 1803, to reconnoitre the ca- 
pabilities of the place. 

Trinidad, according to our aathor, was 
then governed by a Welshman, named 
Ihomas Picton, who finding himself, in 
his civil capacity, intrusteil by the Spanbh 
laws )*nth arbitrary powers of imprison- 
ment and torture, and, in his military ca- 
pacity, with a despotism not less forrafd- 
able, gave the re.ins to his passions, in a 
inanner more resembling the administra- 
tion of Paris, where lewc&ess and rapacity 
are indulged without restraint, than the 
tBuai government of a British province. 

Among the persons confined by order 
of governor Picton, was the author of 
, these letters : the alleged motive of com- 
mitment was a contempt of court ; but 
the apparent eause was a suspicion of what 
the governor called sedition, aud jacobin- 
ism and disaffection. But we will borrow 
the author's own narrative. 

" When the signing of the preliminaries of 
pcsictf was announced in Trinidad, the inliabi* 
tarns, actuated by a spirit of loyalty which dif- 
fii^ iuelf through all ranks, prepared a duti- 
fill address to their sovereign, expressive of 
their sttVMi^ attachment^ to his majesty's per- 
Mi and government, and prating him to ex- 
toid, in due time, the Uessings of a British 
cnmilotloii to "lYinidad. The framers of 
tbis address were Messrs. Sanderson, bhaw, 
dad Uighani; the fbfiner a respectable phy- 
sciaDy and the two latter engaged in mercan- 
tile pursuits, — all of them Englishmen born, 
vvmly attached to the constitution of tiieir 
oative country, and of cous^iderablc experience 
Id the colonies. As great pains have been 
taiceD to represent this address as tlie violent 
ptwfoctioD of an intemperate partv, calculate^ 
to distoib the peace ef the colony, and to 
. render the governor theobject of public odium, 
I am happy ia the opportunity of doing justice 
U> 4ie irainen of it, . by furnishing an exact 
Copy; and I think you will agree with me in 
prcMiQdtig it ^ loyal, constitutional, and 



temperate a petition as ever was framed on a 
simihtf occasion. 

TO THE 

king's most excellent majesty. 

" Most Gracious Sorerei^, 

" We the principal freelwldcrs, mei* 
chants, and other British inliabitaixts of the 
island of Trinidad, approach your majesty's 
throne with tlx; most dutihil respect aiid af- 
fectionate loyalty, begging leave to present 
our unfeignctl and earnest congratulations oa 
the happy change which has taken place ia 
the political aft'airs of Eun^c, among whose 
nations none have been so clistinguislMxi as 
your majesty's imperial kmgdom, for that 
perseverance and success wliich have dignified 
your majesty's cxHincils, and have iniprcssed 
tlie world with an appropriate opinion of their 
wisdom and penetration. 

" That so long aiid extensive a 'war sI'.miM 
be closed by such a signal series of un])aral- 
leled successes, both by sea and land, and cud 
in a peace so honourable in its terais, and so 
valuable by its addition to your majesty s do- 
minions. Is a consideration which must excite 
the proudest exultation in every British bo- 
som, but more particulary aflects the hetirts 
of your majesty's most loyal subjects in this 
island, who feel, with inexpressible gitttltude, 
the immense obligation which your majesty 
has been pleased to confer on tliem by your 
gracious solicitude to ccnlinn this «most valu- 
able conquest, and add it to the other coUiies 
so happily placed under your majesty's pa- 
ternal cave and protection. 

*' Iji thus venturing to address your ma- 
jesty, we are emboldened by that gracious 
concie?cension and regard wliich it has been 
your Majesty's pleasure to extend on every 
occ3«5ion to your dutiful and loving subjects'; 
and we -niost humbly beg leave to represent, 
that next to our most anxious prayers, witiciv 
will be contimially offered up to heaven tor 
the long life and perfect health of the best o£^ 
kings, aud for the continued blessing of peace, 
we most earnestly hope your majesty will be 
graciously pleased, as speedily as m your ma- 
jesty's wisdom may seem expedient, to a)m- 
plete the happiness which we already begia 
to feel under the cession of this island to ouf- 
motlier country, by extending to your .faith* 
ful and ttffectiobate subjects in this colonjf tlie 
privileges and protection of the British constw 
tution,.as experieuced by a free representatioa! 
in a house ot assembly, and m a trial by jury : 
privileges which tv^ mherit in commou >vith 



64 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



•«r countrvm^n wider your majesty's mild 
and benevolent government in Great Britain 
and its numerous colonies. 

" We most humbly beg Itfave to lay at your 
majesty's feet our warmest protestations of 
loyalty and attachment to your majesty's per- 
son and family, while we cnerish the recollec- 
tion of the happy events which confirmed the 
liberties of Englishmen, by placing }our ma- 
jesty's ilhistrious ancestors on the throne. 

" That tlie blessing of almighty God may 
contume your majesty's health during a long 
and glorious life, and prolong the happiness 
and prosperous influence of your majesty's fa- 
mily over your majesty's united kingdoms to 
the remotest ages, is the devout and fei-vent 
f rayer of your majesty's most faitliful and af- 
iiectionatc subjects." 

The signatures follow of one hundred 
and eight British planters and merchants. 
A couipt roller of the customs had signed, 
but being threatened with the governor's 
displeasure, obtained the erasure of his 
signature. This address was left for sub- 
scription at the store of Messrs. Thomas 
Higham and Co.; and, after being signed 
by as many as chose, was confided to 
^ViUiam Harrison, esq. A meeting of tlie 
addressers had nominated him as their 
chairman : half tlie persons assembled 
wished the address to be forwarded to a 
mercantile house in London for presenta- 
tion: a majority of one voice decided 
that it should be given to the governor to 
be forwarded. This vote marked the 
persons who wished for a fresh governor. 
They thought fit to dine together at 
Wharton's tavern, in ortler to commemo- 
rate the annexation of Trinidad to tlie 
British empire. The governor heard of 
it, and sent word to tlie innkeeper that he 
should hold him personally responsible for 
any seditious meeting tliat might be held 
on bis premises. Some gentlemen went 
to explain the innocence and loyalty of 
their object : the governor took from them 
their rank in the militia, and dismissed 
the custom-house officer who had with- 
drawn his signature to the address.' Mr. 
Higham was arrested and led to the com- 
mon prison, itself a sepulchre filthy and 
unwholesome in no common degree ; and 
the author, who seems to have kept a club 
with tlie managers of this addrers, but 
who did not sign it, was also arrested and 
committed J and, after about a week's 
confinement, was shipped off for New- 
York. 

This arbitrary banishment has not de- 
terred Mr. M'Callum from accomplishing 
a task for which he had been making pre- 
parations in Triiiidadi- he has proceeded 



to lay before the public all the otlier ty- 
rannies of the governor, of which he 
could collect accounts. The catalogue 
of accusations is so formidable and so 
horrible, tliat, if the common courts 
of justice do not possess a jurisdiction 
competent to tiie investigation, sotne par- 
liamentary proceedings ought to be had 
on the occasion, that the colonial subject 
may in future know the formal meth<xl of 
redress. 

Beside that portion of the letters which 
is devoted to the impeachment of govern 
nor Picton, they contain several instruc- 
tive, novel, and curious particulars of a 
colony likely to becGme very important ; 
being situate at the moutli of the Oi-ono- 
ko, and uniting to the common sources of 
tropical pros^ierity the command of a na- 
vigable communication with tlie interior 
of the South- American continent. Port- 
Espana will consequently be a great em- 
porium ) whenever the progress of settle- 
ment and civilization shall invite the ship- 
ping of Europe beyond the bocas (not 
bocases, as this author writes, the singular 
is boca) of the great river. 

There is^ resemblance between the 
usages of the people of Trinidad, and 
those of the antient Greeks. When an 
European arrives, his first care is to pur- 
chase a concubine, of the black, yellow, 
or livid kind, from the priest (p. 30) ; or 
from the girl's mother (p. 79) ; or from 
stationary slave -venders. Auctions of 
naked slaves are frequent : tlie artisan 
fetches more than the husbandman. A 
belief in witchcraft is so prevalent, that 
negroes are tried and tortured for sorcery. 
The Sunday is observed like a pagan fes- 
tivalj goods are sold in tlie foreiKK>n as on 
a fair-day 5 in the afternoon, songs and 
music, dancing and games of chance fill 
up the intervals of feasting : the rites of 
worship are pantomimic and idolatrous. 

Trinidad produces fine grapes (p. 41); 
and might rival Madeira and the Gape in 
the production of dry and sweet wines. 
Surely the British legislature ought to 
withdraw a fourth of the present wine- 
duty, upon all wir.e grown and made in 
Trinidad. This will presently cover the 
country with colonists, and render us more 
independent of European agriculture. Be- 
sides, Trinidad may in time supply North 
America with an imitation of Madeira, if 
the fashion should deserve adoption ia 
London. 

" Tlic following statement, though not 
perfectly accurate, will, however, tend to git« 



U'CALU^> travel's IN TRINIDAD. 



'65 



xm an idea of the portioii of land capable of 
CtiitifolJOQ: 

ACRES* 

13 13 Lots saitable for sugar 420,160 

943 , coffee 302,400 

138 . = cotton 50,560 

304 -—a cocoa 97,280 



Total27JO Total 870,400 acf. 

Deduct 400 lots already grant- ) 

ed by the 'Spanish [ 128,000 
. government. 5 



5320— So that the crown > 
now holds - j 



^42,400 acn 



We wish that an increasing quit-rent, 
liable to be settled afiresh by parliament 
eve^ fifteen years, were demanded for tlie 
giant of colonial lands. Some land-tax 
ought to exist in favor of the state> as an 
incleranity for the expence of protection, 
and the risk of endowment. Duties on 
produce, which is our present plan of in- 
demaificatioD, divert mischievously the 
Mtaral course of coounerce, and will at 
last trauster it te that country which, by 
its inteinal economy, can afford to levy 
the lowest duties. Thus, tlie fms of Ca* 
nada are now shipped in Philadelphia for 
China j and the return cargo is smuggled 
into Canada j the whole operation being 
conducted by British capital and for Bri- 
tish provinces. 

Some words are expended (p, 79) ; on 
the cttckcxia Africana, a disease of the 
itomach for which negroes seek a remedy 
in eating dirt. A West-Indian, with 
whom we have conversed, thinks it a dis- 
ease which results fro*n the excessive use 
of trfacco ; an indirect debility of the 
itoniach, brought on by intemperate 
liinoking , a practice in which die negroes 
delight, and in which they are willingly in- 
dulged by their toasters, who attend more 
than is imagined to the comforts of their 
dependents. 

Of the general face of the country the 
fuliowing account is given : 

" There are in this inland three distinct 
'Jdjes <rf jiioUQtatns, the northern, middle, 
™ southern, covered with incorruptible 
woods proper for sliip-building. 'llie nvers, 
u^'eral of which are inconsiderable, have been 
traced 2nd examined as to wliat distance they 
ijre navigable ; and a report lias been made by 
Mallet, with respect to the unprovements they 
"ay be capable of, bv deepening their beds, 
taaking canah, &c. 6iit as tiiis man (though 
i creature of Picton) never discovered any 
^alefiU, except a srries of ill treatment to- 
wards his amiable wife, I do not iinaguic that 
Ui« surveys merit any liolice. 

Axn.'Rev. Voi. iV. 



*' The navigable rivers on the ^esi coast 
which disembogue themselves into the gulf of 
Paria, are the Caroni, Gurracara, Cuura, aufl 
Siparia ; those on tlie east coast of the island 
are the Ortoire, Neg, Lebnmche, and the 
Oropuche. 

'* Mr. Christie, a gentleman of consider- 
able talents, in the siuveyor j^enerars de|>art-^ 
ment, is preparing lo survey the river Caroni, 
a few miles distant from hence. This is the 
prmcipal river of tJie island, being uavigable 
from Its eatraoce to the Aripo, a branch of 
the Caroni, a distance of about twenty miles. 
I'iie views of govermnent are, to connect the 
Aripo with tlie Guaro, a branch of the Oro-» 
pucne, also navi^.iblc to the sea, which Will 
open a communication from the west coast of 
Paria to the east coast, or Atlantic ; and also 
to clear the bed of the Caroni of the rubbish, 
so as to drain the great savannah before men- 
mentioned, which will be the means of not 
only rendering the Port of Spain healthy^ but 
of tacilita^ig an easy hitercourse with the inte- 
rior of the island.' The river Ortoire, ot 
Guataro, is-the principal one on the east coast, 
navigable to Morne Orange, a distance <k 
about twenty miles, havuig from two to five 
fathoms water ; but as the mouth of tl.i'; river 
is shoal wat-er, it would be requisite to cut 
a navigable canal to the bay of Mayaro, which 
would give the facility of exportation to the 
production of an munense tract of cultivable 
land. 

*' In the bay of Mayaro, we find safe an- 
chorage, havmg good holduig groimd, a iin» 
bottom of sand and gi'avel, and may embark 
and disembark at any time of tlie tide. 

*' The Neg runs a short distance parallel 
to the shore, fonning a sort of canal about six 
miles m length, which receives the waters of 
the Mangro%'e trees that spread over all this 
part. The water of this river is black, and 
so tainted, as to make the sea frothy all round 
its mouth. 

'* The Oropuche is navigable about ten 
miles on the banks of tins river. A hue set** 
tlcinent might be formed, containing forty-live 
divisions, about 14,400 acres. Tlie rivers 
Guaro, Siparia, and I-,ebranche, are insigni- 
ficant, and hardly wortli noticing, Because 
neither of tlieni are navigable above 6009 
paces. 

*' Tlierc are several marshes ; that of Ca- 
roni might be drained as well as those of 
Ortoire and Oropuche, but the marsh of 
Lagona Grande is inaccessible, llie mar^ii 
of Icaque is level with the sea, in which there 
are two gulfs ; one has an elevation of about 
seven feet, and the other twelve : mud and 
calcareous earth are cootinually gushing from 
them. In the months of March and June, 
the two ptmcipal months, they emit metallic 
particles, stones rounded by friction, and otliet 
neterogeneous substances. 

" Rio Grande is a valley belonging to the 
cfown, which lies about sixty-^ight miles from 
lhl5 place, containing eleven divisions of three 
hundred- and iwonty a^res each, with a ^ 



0$ 



\^OYAGES AND TRAt^LS. 



riva* meandaiiug through it, having good an- 
choring ground; sheltered by a head-land 
from the north-cast wind, and being healthy, 
it is remarkably well adapted for a white psOr 
pulation* Balfandra is another place I deem 
cc^ually advantageous, and not more thin six 
nulcs trom Rio Grande, situated on tlic south- 
cast side of the island. Tlie reason why I 
give the preference to these places is, notonly 
their superior situation with regard to health, 
but their distance from any other settlement, 
which would preyent them from liaving any 
intercourse whatever with the cc»Tupt society 
already mentioned, as — 

' Creeping in the putrid sink of vice.' 

'* I have just seen a considerable quantity 
of petroleum, bitumen, dA^caWedpimspiuUtos, 
carabe funentin, gummi fufierum, mumia, 
carabe of Sodom, fossil pitch, and Jew's. pitch, 
a ;nineral sulphur, solid and light in sub- 
stance, of a dusky colour on the outside, but 
a deep shining bU ck within, having but little 
taste or smell, except when heated, in which 
case it emits a strong pitchy odour. It was 
brought from Cape de la Brea, situated in the 
western extremitjr of Laguna Grande, where 
there is a lake of it, elevated between seventy 
and cSghty feet above Uie level of tlie sea. 
We are Informed by Father Gurailla, that 
some little time before he came to this island 
(which may be reckoned nearly about seventy 
years), a spot of land on the western coast, 
about half way between the capital and the 
Indian village, sunk suddenly, and was imme- 
diately replaced by a small lake of pitch, to 
tlie great surprise and terror of the inhabi- 
tants. I suppose he means by the capital, 
the village of La Brea, for I do not know that 
any other petroleum lake is fcwnd m the 
island but the one above mentioned. The 
question now remains, whether this petroleum 
would not supersede the use of copper, for 
9]ii()s navigating these sejis ? If it would, 
what a great ex pence would be saved, not 
only to the nation, but to individuals. Surely 
the* experiment ought to be tried.*' 

Accounts of the principal productrons 
Are given in the scientiticTorm in which* 
they appear in l^ooks of natural history : 
the author's personal observation does not 
intervene much. There are many digres- 
sions which one would gkdly spare : Pope 
and Pomfret, Armstrong and Goldsmidi, 
could as well be quoted in a tour to 
Iceland as in a tour to Trinidad: all 
books are too large 5 let us have no- 
thing nnnecessary. The author is over 
fond of employing fine words, some of 
which he misunderstands : but he displays 
xnany kinds of reading, much information 
and experience, and a laudable zeal for 
public morality and political beneficence. 

Although we have done with the travel- 
ler, we have not with his island. Trini- 
dad is a recent acquisition, thinly and va» 
tiously peopledvwhlcfa i» §cii«itipg from the 



hands of the British legislature new zxA 
purer constitutional laws. Why not make 
the experiment of a code more lil»eral to 
the black colonists, th^tn that which 'has 
hitherto prevailed m the West Indies ? 

To the iitiiwrtation of slaves we are not 
about to object. The lands of tropical cli- 
mates cannot be cleared and cultivated,* 
and made profusely to contribute tovard 
the sustenance of mankind, without the 
aid of that swarthy race, whiqh natore 
has formed or seasoned for the hot lati* 
tudes. The venal negroes are slaves at 
home ; like all th^ vulgar and unedncat- 
ed, their memories have tittle tenacity, 
and they soon acquire as real an attach- 
ment to their new as to their original 
home. 

But sb soon as thte imported slave is sold 
by Auction, let him be termed a vassaL 
Let the act of his being purchased fagr a 
British land -owner better his. condition, 
and confer some of the privileges of fiee* 
dom. By passing fi'om the hands of the 
slave-merchant to those of the planter, Wt 
him become> accoxding to the apt defini- 
tion of the Roman law, mscribcd to the moU^ 
Let him acquire a right of settlement on 
the estate to which he belongs ; let th» 
land which he is to cultivate be ^comj^U-^ 
ed to afibrd him a maintenance in the 
hour of disease, and during the twilight of 
decrepitude. This is West Indiao law 
already in the chief point ; and it is en* 
forced: a Dutdi planter of Deni^ary^ 
whose black peasantry were so scantily 
provisioned during a scarcity that €h^ 
begged for food in other plantations, had 
his estate taken away by tlie courts of jus- 
tice for one year, and put under the cam 
of tmstees, who fed his vassals properly, 
and who accounted with him &x ths 
surplus. 

I'he right of transferring vassals from 
one estete to another seems incapable of 
limitation, so long as the country isunder-* 
stocked with kbourers. Whenever the 
number reared shall exceed the demand 
ibr labourers, the claims of negroes for 
maintenance on the estates to which thejr 
belong will become burdensome $ ai^ 
then, voluntary emancipations will abcdish 
vassalage, in the same manner as it has 
been dropped in modem Europe. In the 
mean time vassals must be saleable be- 
tween the planters ; because the act of 
sale, transferring a claim of maintenance 
to a different tract of land, is as necessary 
to authorize migration, under the West 
Indian system of poor-laws> as a paritk 
certificate here. 



cxiFnrfts^i travels in bu&opb/asia unfoa, astd akabia. 



^ 



SoineUiiag could be-dcxie in the new 
coostitution of Trinidad to facilitate the 
acqaisition of a pecn/iam, or individoal 
property, by tke negro vassaJry. ' At pre- 
sent, the blacks keep fowls and pigs^ and 
out of savings so acquired purchase their 
litde luxuries: but a specific price might 
be set (m emaBcipation, so as to enable thp 
industrious to buy their fiieedom : of this 
price a part siiould go to the state, whicli 
would thus be burdened with the mainte- 
luace of the free poor. We should tind 
however, as in Poland and Russia, that it 
would only be worth the while of skilful 
inechanica, such as carpenters or black- 
smiths, to incur the precarious subsistence 
flf a iiee labourer. 

Trinidad has the advantage over all tlie 
^oiooies of a larger proportion of female 
raisaby. Hie Spanish manners have 
founded a greater domestic demand for 
women, than our manners : we want labor, 
they want hixuiy. These manners should 
not be discourrged ; -they ought rather to 
be corroborated by sl poll-tax on the male 
population ; the multiplication of qreole 
laboorers being the radical and proper 
core both for the alave-trade, and tor co- 
lonial vassalage. 

Some power must be conceded to the 
empb)'er over his workman^ analogous t» 
that of a^master over his apprentice -, but 
this power ought surely to be restricted 
withm narrower bounds dian the vague 
bat wide stretch allotted in the Code noir, 
In reforming the criminal jurispmdence 
which protects the negro, the cry of li- 
herty, Quality, and the rights of man, is, 
^ ! still in its place. The doctrine d 
equality wis originally a fiction or hypo- 
thesis of the civil lawyers, put for the 
purpose of ascertaining what is due to 
each, what ought to be commanded for 
erery one. He who reviles this doctrine 
professes in the first instance to be a des- 
piler of justice -, he may be a great states- 
man, as Burke was^ bat he. cannot be a 



man of principle In Trinidad, we will 
not inquire farther, the violent death of a 
negro is not avenged like the violent death 
of a white; the one is but manslai^hter.; 
the other, murder. In Trinidad, torture 
may be applied to the negro 5 in Trinidad, 
aorcery -may be punished on the negro; 
in Trinidad, flagellations, at which a regi- 
ment would mutiny, may be inflicted by 
the civil law, or without the civil law. 
Here is indeed a cruel change in the ne- 
gro's condition. In his native c juntry h^ 
enjoys trial by jury. When the grameta 
draws a knife on his employer^ a palaver 
is held. The master states his case and 
produces his evidences : the singry man is 
then heard, and his companions pronounce 
' whether he has the reason.' Tlie pur 
nisbment is only inflicted if their verdict 
dpes not acquit. Why are iK>t slave-dri- 
vers subject to a similar control ? 

This pursuit of the good opinion of 
one's companions, to which the native 
Africans are tremblingly sensible, is the 
most powerful stimulus to human excel- 
lence, and the basis of all the forms of 
ambition : of the descensive benevolence 
which scatters patronage, ^ud of the as- 
censive benevolence which aspires to do- 
mineer. Men are most easily directed by 
theur equals : trial by jury is the verdict 
of nature. 

Under Adrian the murder of a slave 
was first punished with death -, and the 
master accused of cruelty was oompelled, 
on conviction, to sell the complainant. The 
successive extenuations of servitude be- 
tween Adrian and Justinian merit tlia 
consultation and imitation of those houses 
of assembly, which have a similar popu- 
lation to govern. The protection of fe- 
male chastity and of the rights of msff-^ 
Tistge was the latest improvement of their 
condition, and the pure gift of Christi- 
anity. 

The appended map of Trinidad is not 
accompanied with a scale of distances. . 



Art. XII TrecveU in Earofe, Asia Minor, and Arabia. By J. G&ipriTBs> M. D, 
Member qf tke Royal Medical Soeiety of Edinburgh, and qf Hseral Foreign Lite* 
rary Soeietiea. 4to. pp. 400. 



TH£ present volume. Dr. GrifBths in- 
fbnos us, is to be considered as the pre- 
lude to one of more importance, as ' the 
tint link of the chain of observation 
whldi he has made upon men and go- 
vernments.' But thi& greater work, which 
'WQffid include discussions upon the whole 
system of our Indian empire, and the laws 



and manners of the Hindoos and Moslem 
subject to it, he will not vetitore upon, 
till he has ascertained the disposition of 
tha public to receive his farther labours, 
by the. reception which they «hali give to 
this. In our last year's* v<^ntie we ad* 
vanced some opinions upon the buMMta$ 
of periodical criticism, nifficiently appli« 



^ JsLthe levieival of Tennant-s Indian RecreaHiMms, p. 559. 

F3 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



cable to form a riile for condilct in the 
present case. If in \aorks of iiue litera- 
ture there be a defiipieiicy of taste or of 
genius, the critic has a right to complaia; 
if in historical and scieutiiic compilations 
he discovers a want of research and a want 
of industry, he is ju«tilied in rtSenting it 
as a want of honesty ; in works like the 
present, where an author comes forward 
with an account of what he has himself 
8e«n or learnt in distant countries, if he 
lands any new information, instead of 
cavilling at the manner in which it may 
be conveyed, he ought to learir and be 
thankflil. 

Dfr Griffiths embarked in the summer 
of 1785 for the Mediterranean, with no 
other motive than his ' natural and r)Tc- 
sistihle inclination to visit distant and mi- 
fnquenicd countries;* an inclination, he 
says, which very early persuaded him, 
that, with good humour, a spirit of ac- 
commodation, and an abundant share cA' 
jxitience, the difficulties of traveHing might 
be surmounted, and nrany of its dangers 
avoided. The vessel touched at Genoa, 
On- the situation of the slaves and prisoners 
here Dr. Griiiklis nxikes some huiBane 
and interesting remarks. 

'* Humanity has reason to rejoice, that the 
disgraceful system of tortiiriHg the 'lurks and 
Afncaas, taken prisoners by the vessels of tlie 
Genoese Republic, is no longer pui*8ued ; and 
that throughout those states, now subject to 
Gallic influence, the horrible j)ersrcutions to 
which these luiforlunate victims were exposed 
have totally ceased. 

*' Amongst the first ol>jfHts 1 visitj»d, on 
the morning after my arri\al, were the pri- 
sons near the harbour. Here I behfhl, I 
think, tlveverv k>we;^t pitch of human wretch- 
edness and degrr<latioii 1 A niuuber of aged 
I'urks were cluiined to tiie wall, iu stone re- 
cesses, at a sliort distance from each other ; 
and some still more a^ed in cells, so low that 
they were never able to stand uprip;ht ! Many 
of these men. of misery a})peared to have lost 
all sense or recollection ; and one, who par- 
ti9ularly attracted my at lent ion, had counted 
no less' than twenty-seven years of captivity ! 
He, seemed about "sixty-live vears old — iiis 
iiowtng beard was whitened f)y mistortune; 
and his sullen deportment indicatetl the rooted 
antipathy he so jastly entcKained against his 
inliuman Christian tormentors ! buch was 
liis prejudice, that he treated with contempt 
the trifling assistance I was dispo>ed to otler 
him ; aod allowed it to remain noon tbe 
ground untouched, witliout ev«i condescend- 
ing to acknowledge it by the slightest ge:r- 
ture. 

'* Quitting this melancholy object >vith 
every feeling of humanity tipon the stretch, I 
entered one of the j^alleys— ^Here was an as- 
semblage of wretcliedaJss one would tluiLk 



sufficient to annihilate all idleaof mepfimeni;- 
yet such is tt>e accommodating spirit «ith 
which we are endowed by Providence, tliat 
even here I heard the sounds of joy aiul.^iong 
and Uiughter.^— Turk chained to 'lurk — Chris- 
tian to Christian, and, by a refmemeiit of 
cruelty, C'hri,stian to 1 urt ; all were rivettcd 
to the beuclies of the vessel — Here tliey 
worked and ate and sle|)t ; and wnked to a 
renewal of the lierrid circle of tlieir emploj- 
meut ! — ^\'et so littk; di^l^e^siug to one fellow 
with whom I spoke appeared tlie life of a gal- 
ley slave, that he had actually comDionccti a 
tliird term of seven years conlineuicnt for a 
veiy trifling renmneration — He had been first 
condemned to seven years i)uni>hnient fer 
criminal conduct — then served seven years 
for another person, and had, a few da^'s pre* 
vious to my vi>it, contracted a similar engage- 
ment. Tlie only answer I could obtain to the 
few questions I ventured to ask him respect- 
ing his state was a kind of smile, and Che 
xunle ? Non mi diipitwe tanio ? U hut can I 
say ^ I doiUJind it so vcnj disai^rttahlt / 
■* ** I wa> afterwards informed that this was 
not a very uncommon txrcurrence ; and tliat 
even many of ih se poor wretches, becoming 
debtors to the government for some tritiiug 
assistance, or loan of money during the term 
of their imprisonment, were frequently oblig- 
ed, upon faikire of payment, to renew tlietr 
services, and pass the remauider of their life 
in all the misery of a galley slave, llie dis- 
tinguishing appellation of Uiese amateurs was 
JBuone voglic, whilst those conlinedfor crimes- 
were Urnwd J'brzatti" 

Tlie use of proxies in England is not 
carried quite so far j indeed we have not 
deduced all tlie advantages from the prin- 
ciple which might legitimately follow. 
We Mndeed permit our peers to said their 
opinions upon great national subjects, and 
Upon points of law which have passed 
througii the inlorlor courts to their highest 
tribunal, taking it for granted tliat the ar- 
guments wliich might be advanced in de- 
bate could throw no new light upon th^ 
subject, and produce no change of senti- 
ment — and thaty. so the vote be given, it 
matters not by whom. It is equally rea- 
sonable, and even more coii\*cnient for 
great men, to allow of punishment by 
proxy, according to the^ custom of Genoa. 

Dr. Griffitlis mentions it as a curioug 
proof of inconsistent toleration, that a 
^Tosque should have bc»en built for tlie 
Moiiammedan slaves, and the free exer- 
cise of that religion pcnnittcd tliem, for 
"which they had been so unjustly deprived 
of liberty. Strictly .speaking, war is not 
made upon the piratical states for tlieh- 
religion, but for their piracy. The moors 
of Barbary ai'e the common enemies of 
civilization and of the human race, not 
merely of Christianity and Europe. We 



<2B1PPITHS'S T&AVELS lif EUROPE^ ASIA MINOR^ AND ARABIA. 



G» 



'*» Bflt say this froni any wish t© extenu- 
ate tlje lolly or barbarity of a mere buc- 
caHeering war, but in the hope that the 
cfarisikii poArers will one day, by common 
couvQt,and for their common honour, ex- 
(iRguLsh ihese deipicable and detesuible 
gp^^mnients. 

Tlie game of pallove might advantage^ 
OB^Iy be introduced among us by some 
£i^ioaable traveller. Athletic sports are 
always useful, and this might have a fair 
dizixc of coming into voguCj as it would 
be new and foreign. 

** -\ ball of Ir at her, fill«< with air, and equal 
in sizi* to a man's head, is propelled hack\Tards 
aod fhrward^ by ineans of a wooden instru- 
Dice* lixcd u;x>a tile arm of the striker, cuHcd 
iruccitdr. At a little distance it resembles a 
rouif, but is covcriitl with short wooden dia- 
ni'Wti-sliaped points. The hand and arm 
b-'ijjq in(i\xhiced into it, the player, by gra^jj- 
^1 * P^ placed for the purpose across the 
ioti-mal part of the instrument, secures it 
imiS- in its situalion, .and uses it v^itli a dci»^ 
terity (nily admirable. 

"'The parlies eni^a,T[ed generally consist of 
^wchrc, six on each *«ide ; and llie object is to 
drive the ball into the adversaries ground, or 
2s far distint from the adversaries themselves 
3s ptHsible." 

The Italian hospitals ace establishments 
of ^uch magnitude and liberality, tliat even 
ia England we liave nothing which cnn 
he set in com|iecition with them : no cer- 
li^catesor recommendations are required) 
sickness is a sufficient ticket of entrance : 
iwr are the inc*urable ever discharged. 
Ue copy^ the nemarks of Dr. Grittiths 
qpon these excellent institutions, because 
iucb xemarkB siiould be as widdy circu- 
lated as possible. 

"In dwelling upon the exrellencr of the 
Itadiaa hospitals, I do not wish it to be under- 
rttfxi, tbat I hold such establisbments, or the 
ticiiity with which they may be entered, as a 
aperCx consicieratiou* in favour of tJie poor, 
to those rcgulalUms, in a gcinnal view, wliich 
have been adopted under the head of the poor 
hu-5 in Knglaiid ; nor am 1 unconscious that, 
by the Ja.vs of England, every poor person, 
vltfmit the means of subsistence, inherits a 
ririit tosirpport from his parish; that every 
•m^L^ralc is bound to convey to such pansii 
the aHikled wretch discharged from an hos- 
pital, and that such arrangements have been 
«nde bv the laws of the land, as hiunauity 
and justice CAjuld devise for the benefit of the 
dJ«tTe«»«*d, fcb tliat piirochial assistance Should 
pT.'vcnt ll:e aiserr of dying froili actual want 
d fovid. i am p«ifectly aware of all these ad- 
vantage? in England ; but 1 still contend, that 
tbesick nt Ji, who linds his misery a sutficicnt 
iex)mmeiichlk>n to en€«re the attentions of 
nuKiical men., and tlie means of sup^^grt, bo 



long as he shall require-them, is iufinitely more- 
tbilunate than the sick man who, in conse- 
(lut'nce of the probably incurable nature of 
Iris complaints, is dischari^od from an Kn^';lish 
hospital, to be transferred from one end ot the 
island to the other upon a waggon, because 
none Iwit iiis own pansii is compelled to sup- 
port him. 

" 1 am tend, that -those hospitals arc to be 
preferred, where every day is a receiving day, 
toXho^e whose gati^s are opened to tlic recoiii* 
nicndatory letter ef a subs<«riiber only once in 
the week ; -uid where, even on tlrat day, the 
amount of the sub^xription is often consi'dt^ed 
of more importance than the disease of the 
patient, .provided tliat disease be not of the 
mo^t serious i«ture ; in which case, 1 allow, 
that the hujnlmity of our truly respectable 
physicians and surgeons always ovcrbaianci^ 
the pecujiiiu-y interests of the establi? hnuiit. 

" i am aw'are, that cases ^f accidents arc 
received at all tunes, without nxroininenda- 
tton, at all our hospitals ; but is John with an 
int(Nmittent Jev(?r ou 'ihureda> less an object * 
of compassion th:mon tlie Wednesday follow- 
ing, which 1 will (iresuine, for the sakeof argu* 
rount, is the established receiving day ? Is Wil- 
liam with an ascitic, or 1 homas with an erysi- 
pelatous uiUummation, less entitJtKl, by the 
seveiity of their suti'erings, to an immediate 
endeavour at rehef, than Richard, who has 
been thrown from his horse, and fractured his 
libula? 

'* If it be pleaded, that the ftmds pf our 
hospitals will not alford siich general and in- 
discriminate admission of ]3atients, and that, 
wi»re evfry invalid to be received without 
fonnality, the establishments must be ruined,* 
my observations are correct. Happy, I re- 
peat, in this particular, is the country where 
thi' al}Hct«*d jxwr may be at all times well pro- 
vided for by the benevolence of ihericli, with- 
out waiting' for a letter of recommendation, or 
a rtveivhig day !*' 

Having readied Smyrna, the traveller 
proceeded to Constantinople. Often a^ 
this metropolis has beeu described, a city 
so interesting on every account, must still 
present something new to every traveller, 
however well informed. Dr. Grilfiths 
pretends jaot to have penetrated into the 
seraglio, — iudeed the sight of three heads 
witli labels to them signifying to whom 
they belonged, lying at the gate of the 
inner court, might have cured him of any 
rash curiosity. Arguing from tlie impos- 
sibility which existed to himself, he at- 
tempts to discredit all descriptions of these 
inaccessible recesses. But the old writer? 
to whom he alludes were men of veracity, 
and jewellers and physicians may have ob- 
tained access where a young and idle 
traveller would be excluded. He (bund 
the prejudices of Mohammedan pride and 
ignorance in full force 3 the true believers 



70 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



Bad not then recciycd those salutary les- 
' tons of European discipline and European 
strength which have convinced them that 
a horse in Egypt t& notdegraded by carry- 
ing a christian on his back. The kqftan, 
Which has usually been represented as a 
mark of distinction, is, we are here told, 
rather a mark of subjection, it being a 
custom that every ambassador must be 
habited in the Turkish manner before he 
could be peraiitted to see Mc light of the 

The dishonourable deling of the 
Turkiali- traders is thus extenuated* 

. i' The censure which has fallen upon the 
Tai^ish and other Levantine traders, in re^ 
spect to their attempts to deceive or cheat, by 
asking three times more than the value of the 
articles they sell, deserves some moditicatkin. 
— ^A Levantine trader fixes no precise price 
to his merchandise ; his object is to obtain as 
nvxh as he can ; not to mnch J9fr caU. per 
anatun upon his capital: he is acquainted 
with no price current, no rate of exchange; 
and from a want of that regularity in business 
to which we are accustomed, sees notliing con- 
trary to propriety in demanding a consider- 
able sum for an article of inconsiderable in- 
trinsk vahie ; estimating its worth by the pro- 
bable necessity of the buyer, and therefore 
not otTendcd at any proposed dimmution. — 
There does not appear to me, in this mode of 
traffic, any tJiing very repugnant to honesty, 
nor indeed very different from what every day 
occurs in commercial countries. — The dibtinc- 
tion exists merely between the wholesale ex- 
tensive monopolising advance in price of any 
article in demand, established upon a grand 
exchange b^ very rich merchants, who all 
partici|)ate m the advanta^; and the tem- 
porary eflbrt at emolument of a poor huckster 
m a boutique, desirous of obtaining a more 
than usual profit upon an article wliich, by the 
inquiry, he supposes absolutely wanted." 

The defence is admissible to a certain 
6xten; only. Actions considered singly 
are not the same as in the gross. An ad* 
Tauce upon sugars, for instance, Ls a sort* 
of authoritative «ct ^-^ tax laid by the 
West India merchants upon all tea-drink- 
^fs, which is openly enacted, falls upon 
each individual in due proportion, and ag- 
grieves none. But were the grocer to ask 
three times its value for a pound of sugar 
to every customer, and abate in his de- 
mand according to their pertinacity, thitf 
would be an act of personal knavery, 
which he himself would feel as such, and 
by which each person whom he succeeded 
in over-reaching would be personally in- 
jured. It is well known that men as* 
sembled in bodies will agree to actions of 
which each individual Would be ashamed;' 



A mob will proceed to. massacre, thea^ 
every man among them would shudder 
at the thought of committing murden 
We must distinguish between wholesale 
and retail wickedness, — between Alex- 
ander and the pirate. We must insist 
upon private honesty, though public ho- 
nesty should be out of our reach. 

At Constantinople Dr. Griffiths became 
acquainted with Mustapba Campbell, th© 
Scotch Ghumbvagee Bashee, or general 
of bofnbardiers, of whom other tra vellera 
have spo^n. This gentleman, or rath^ 
mussulman, bore testuaony to the trsth 
of baron de Tott's story of tlie canuon^ . 
which has been so ignorantly and foolisbl j 
ridiculed as an extravagant falsehood. 

An account of the Mohammedan reli- 
gion is given at some length, avowedly 
abridged from D'Ohsson. Why has not 
the second volume of that valuable work 
been translated, or why was the first pub-. 
I'nhed in a style of sikcb needless expeuce ? 
The system of the Turkish government i». 
better explained in Glivier's excellent tra- 
vels. The state of the Turkish military 
force is copied with due acknowledgment 
from Mr. £ten, as is also a statement of 
the ordinary revenue and expenditure ot 
the Porte, with a view of its debts and 
credits in 1776. As Mr. Eton's book is 
so very accessible, we could well have 
excused two quarto sheets of transcription 
from an heneU octavo volume. But the 
most valuable information in this part of 
the book is that which explains tlie method 
by which the Turks endeavour to secure 
their projierty from contiscation. Tlie 
only means of securing it, under a govern- 
ment so rapacious and so arbitrary, is by 
making it over to soiiie religious or cha- 
ritable purpose, in which case it is callecl 
a wakf. 

" An estiiblished fonnality in bestowing 
pro,«.Tty in wakfe reciuirini that the donor 
should nominate a person, named ATootou^ 
wauiee, to whose niauagcmeut the revenue^ 
are to be entrusted ; and another called A a- 
zecr, to whom the Mootoiiwaulee is compelled 
to render yp his accounts once in every Six,' 
or at farthest every twelve months. But as it^ 
is the peculiar charactcribtic of wakfs that the 
founder should be at perfect liberty m the 
choice of an agent or director, as well as in the 
disposal o( his property, he has a right to unite 
both privileges in the same person. He may 
even reserve to himself the management of 
the estate, or grant it to his wife, to his diil- 
drt-h of either sex, or to his friend. A mode,' 
therefore, presents tt^lf, by which a consider- 
able portion of his fortune may be ensured ta 
tiie heirs of a family, since whatever property* 
is not spetifically msposed of in the act wbitH * 



GSIFFITBS'S TXATtLS IN BUBOPB^ ASIA MIR«K^ ADD ARABIA. 



71 



eaUGMbes fhe wskf, becomes tacitly the right 
of the MooCouwaulee. Tiise the term tacitty, 
because it is ptresumed by the law tliat the 
Mootouwaulee expends lor pious purposes^ 
Morcfing to the suggestions A lus wm devo- 
tioD, the^Vftiole of tiie wakf, ahiiough no posi- 
tive applicatioii may have been jnadk: by the 
fMuxier. 

^' The advantage which the most opulent of- 
ficers of the Porte continued long to take Of the 
fedlity witb whK*h they could evade the right 
ofthe'sultaun to inhent their estates, became 
at last so evident, that the laws azte now much 
mcfe enforced than fonnerly ; and whenever 
a person of rank dies, or, wluit is the same 
tfamg as to the sultaun's privil^e, is disgraced, 
the whole of his property is seized, and a ri- 
fOTGus examination made rcspectins the wak& 
with which it may be charged. When the 
residue of the fortune accruing to the family is 
found to be in a proportion not approved of, 
the sukaun, wichout ceremony, conhscates the 
whole estate for his own use, making it an- 
swerable only for the wakfe properly authen- 
ticated." 

*' The produce of the wakfs, with which 
mosques and other establishments are endow- 
ed, usually exceeds very considerably the ex- 
penditure which their maintenance reoulres ; 
and the Mootouwaulee seldom scnipies to 
appropriate tlie difterence to his own use. 
Many of the imperial mosques Imve a revenue 
of twenty or thirty thousand pounds sterling, 
whilst their whole expences require not more 
than half, or at most two-thirds of this sum. 
llie pen|uiBites, which are therefore eno> 
nxMis, are divided between the Nazeer and 
Mootouwaulee, witli little risk of discovery, 
as the government appears to be ignorant of 
the depredations committed, and no heirs of 
law are furtfacoiTiing to claim the imapi^ropri- 
ated estate." 

The wakfs of the mosques, which are 
continually increased by legacies, new en- 
dowments and good jnanagemeut, form 
no inconsiderable part of the ways and 
means of the Sublime Porte. The mufti, 
and the grand vizier, and the kislar agah 
arc nazeers to most of the mosques in the 
empire -, the kislar agah's chest in parti- 
cular contains many millions of piastres. 
Hiisfiind is a never- failing resource. The 
Buitaun htirtmjffs from it without hesitation, 
and the minkterof^ nance engages to re- 
turn the som so borrowed. 

There is another kind of wakf still more 
^nvenient. 

" Formeriy the mosques, which were suffi- 
ciently rich, 'were accustomed to })urcliase 
estates with the* surplus of their revenuvs, for 
which they paid only half of the real value ; 
but as a fe'rther compensation, the seller was 
permitted to enjoy the possession of the pur^ 
etiaied eitate for a giveu Busaber ci yeaiSy 



upon allowhig to the mosque a Very trifling 
rent. * 

• '* The proprietorV of estates consented to 
this mode ot disposing of tiieir property, as 
much from a spirit of devotion as trom the 
advantage of placing it beyond the grasp of 
authority ; for the f^e being duly registered 
with all the forms used at unequivocal wakfs, 
they were regarded merely as tenants. To 
ensure the tranquil enjoyment of these estates, 
it was particularly spccilied that a certain sum 
of money had been paid in advance, and that 
another^ valued at a tenth of the annual value, 
mutually agreed upon between the parties, 
would be paid annually. — ^At tlie expiration 
of the stated term, the property so purchased 
devolved to tlie mosque ; out if the possessor 
died previously to tlie date detemiined upon, 
the mosque invaiiably permitted ti. heirs of 
the deceased, or in default of heirs, those 
who farmed the coUectioMs of intestate estates, 
to enjoy the property till it became legally an 
appurtenance ot die moscjue. 

"In this kind of wakf the repairs of the 
estate were al\frays imposed upon the mosque ; 
but as this circumstance gave rise to perpetual 
disputes, it frequently aupeared that pre\'aii* 
cations originated witli tJic mosque as well aa 
with the proprietors or their heirs ; and the 
government was therefore induced to revise 
the laws, and improve those which should be 
found defective. 

" By tlie laws now in force, it is enacted, 
that the mosques, shall purchase these estates, 
whenever inclined, at a iiMxlerate rate ; that 
the tenants shall be responsible for all repair?", 
improvements, or embellishments ; anu that 
the proprietors shall have the right of posses* 
sion in perpetuity. Tliese regulations are 
scrupulously attended to ; and the method ot 
ajrangemctit is as follo^^-s : 

" The proprietor of an estate makes a ces- 
sion to a mosque under the title of wakf, for 
which he receives a sum of money, calculated 
at most at liftcen per cent, upon the real 
value of the property ; sometimes at not more 
than ten per ceiit.-^Yor two thousand pounds 
value, therefore, in land, the mosque pays 
only two hundred or three hundred pounds ; 
ana the seller, who is theii considered simply 
as a tenant to the moscjue, pays an annual 
rent to it, equivalent to the mterest of the 
sum which he has thus received for hfe own 
estate. — ^The interest is calculated as the con- 
tracting parties may agree, but must not ex^ 
ceed fifteen per ctrit. 

** This svstem will, no doubt, appear very 
singular to tlie reader : impoitant advantages, 
however, result, not only to tha mosque, but 
also to the founder of tlie wakf ^ for by tlieso 
means the property is no longer liable to the 
common forms. of civil law, and is sheltered as 
it were from every kind of seizure and con- 
fiscation. 

'** The founder esteems amongst his advan- 
tages, 17770, The right of continuing master 
of an estate, upon which he may reiode^ or 



72. 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



by wliicli be niaj- benefit by lettm^ it to 
anotlier. 

" 2do, That in case of debts contracted 
after the wakt* hiw been legally made, na pro- 
ceedings of common law can attach it, noj- 
. can any creditor pretend to claim a property 
which is adjudged sacred. 

" 3lio, 'i he right of transmitting to his 
children of both sexes the whole of nis pio- 
jerty, or rather the produce of this property, 
t» equal proportions ; whUst by the laws of 
the government no other property can be 
Tilled to his childrcii but in the proportion of 
two parts to the males and ons to lemales. 

" Mo, The right to mortg^e» transfer, 
*nd dispose of hia wakf by cession or othcr- 
wUe as may best suit his convenience ; subject 
however to a duty payable on these occasions 
to the mosque. 

" Sto, 'i he privilege of not conforming to the 
law, which gives every proprietor of an estate 
contiguous to anotlier about to be sold a pre- 
fei-ence to all other purchasers 

" The mosques, as may be natyrally sup- 
posed, derive siu)eri()r advantages. 

" lino, The timdi employed at interest 
have an undeniable security in' the estate morti 
gaged. 

*' 2do, The rnosquo, not being any longer 
compellecj to rq)air estates so purchased, 
^icouomises considerably.; and tlie tenant,who 
is most interested in their preservation, will 
nece-isarily attend to the amelioration of the 
property. 

" Mio, These rej>air3 and emhclliihments, 
as well as every sort «f augmentation which 
the tenants may choose t-O make, belong to 
tlie mosque by law. 

" Mo, The enormous receipts which accnie 
by the duty ajlowcd by law to be levied at 
every commutation that takes place by a 
transfer of the tenant's privileges, change of 
Alootouwaulffc, or otherwise. 

" bto, 'J 'he essential advantage of inheriting 
these estates whcij cvtT the founder dies williT 
out children, the property then devolving, 
ipso facto, to the mosque ; and no claims of 
iht heirs at law, nor even of grandchildren, 
can be attended to : — ^Also of inheriting those 
tfistates for which tlie stipulated annuaf rent is 
neglected to be paid," 

P.'irticular care is necessary on the part 
€)f the wakl-raakcr in drawing out the deed 
<)f conveyance, as the law so far favours 
the mosques, that even a verbal disjiosi- 
tion in their favour is admitted. 

From Constantinople Dr. Griffith re- 
turned to Smyrna, and there met a young 
Swede, who was willing to travel with 
him to Aleppo. I'hey made their arrange- 
rnents with the pwner of some horses 
i^'hich were en singed to carry merchandize 
tti the metropolis of Syri?, clothed them- 
selves like Ci)mmoii Greeks, and set out 
witli thp caravan, tp encounter the dif5- 



oulties and dangers of an Asiatic journey, 
■The mode of travelling and the accommo-- 
dations on the road ^re well described. 

'* Caravanserais, or khauns, are most com* 
monly large square buildtnga of stone and 
brick', appropriated at convenient distaxxn 
on each road tlirough the Ottomaun j^mptro 
to the service of travellers : the)' arc frequtint- 
ly the gratuitous olfering or K'gacy of the 
well-disposed ; and somciimes a prot/f of pa- 
ternal regard on the part of a patriotic suituim.- 
They are generally rendered so far common, 
dioiis, that round the inside of the qnadrai^gle 
a story of chambers is built, whtTt* tlic travdit*r 
may repose without dinger of those acrideritji 
horn the horses, and other beasts of burthen, 
to which he is exposed below. The center of 
thi.s quadrangle on the ground lloor, wlrtch is 
open and not covered by a roof, contains the 
goods, and, when not completely filled by 
then), the horses, &c. ; but it often occiira 
that some of the animals' are brought upon 
the elevated bank which is continued on thrt^ 
sidos (or on the four sides, allo\ving a space 
for the door) of tiiss quadrangle, and .destined 
for the travellers themselves previously to 
their retirinc to their chambers. It is upon 
this elevated bank of earth that the meals are 
dressed, the pack-saddles, 6cc. deposited, and 
where the immediate attendants of the cara-i 
van remain as guards to the propeily. It ic$ 
here also that all accoujpan) ing passengers 
must be contented to eat and Aw\i whenever 
tjie chambei's above their heads <ire occupied, 
or where, as it sotm:times occurs, no such 
chambers liave been constructed. Fountains 
of water are often in the center of the cara-t 
vanserai; never at any great distance: and 
these establislunent-s, though rude and unequal 
to the comforts ot an inn or a p)st-hcuse, yet 
bear with them the stamp of civilizaticn. 

** It is usual for the caravan ba^^hee and his 
myrmidons to be on the alrit before day- 
light, and no time is lost in loading iHe 
horses ; when the whole pivcecd during four 
or live hours, then halting near a fbutilain or 
rivulet for about an hour, tlie nmt is renewed 
till near sun; et, or uptil some favourable >pot 
is met \yith, which arrests its progre^^ for the 
night. So man}' delays, however^ take place, 
bv stoppbg to shift, or secure the merchan- 
dise upon the saddles, to mend the miserable 
tackle with which it is fa,<»tened, aad to wait 
for the conductor's business in the little vil- 
lager u])on or near tlie road, that the greate»t 
extent of ;^round passed in one day «eldoin 
exceeds tliivt>-, apd is ;nore generally under 
twentv-iive m*iU»s. 

" At convenient distances through all Asia 
Minor, and indeed wherever 1 have halted 
through the Turkish dominigns, the erection 
of fountains, as well as caravanserais, denotes 
tiie attention which has been paid to the ne-^ 
cessities of Mussulmaims. Many of the for- 
mer are built with elegance, and ornamented 
wUh xnscriptio;;s jti gilded letters^ allusive (u 



6KIFFITH8 S TSATIX.S XK ZVKOTt, ASIA MINQR| AND AltABXA. 



7a 



thcfbuD^TT, as well as to the pnncipal article 
of die Mahoinniedan &ith. An iron bowl^ 
lawBded by a chain, is always ready to 
assbt tht! thir>ty, and a Hewing stream near it 
to supply their 'beasts Very generaUy a hut, 
at DO great distance, is provided with" coffee, 
bread, ee^, and a distilled spirit they call 
rakee ; or if the pious Mus>ulm un proprietor 
should be scniptilous on the subject of the 
labt articJe, the traveller has only to wait until 
be meets with a Greek, who in every village 
may be found to fiimish this pernicious, 
thoM^ on 5uch occasions ahnobt irresistible 
iBXury.' 

On the fourth day they reached Sardis, 
now called Sart ; the city of Craesus is now 
a miiienible village of clay huts, and the 
caravan halted amid the ruins of a palace. 
Their next stage was Allah-Sheer, the 
dtyof God,. the ancient Philadelphia, still 
a populous place, where toarse cottons 
and carpets are manufactured, and the art 
of dyinj is better understood than in most 
parts of the neighbouring country. The 
Khauns here axe g^ierally full of mer- 
chants, and tlie cotiee- houses and baths 
well frequented. There are several Greek 
churches, and one which, though mean, 
is large, is called the episcopal; all in- 
dicate the state of wretched poverty in 
which the Greeks exist, and the bishop 
has few other comforts than those which 
he may derive from a conscious discliarge 
of his duty. Here leaving Lydia they 
entered Phrygia, and proceeded to A- 
phiom-Kara-H«ssar, the old Apamea, 
Wt on the banks of the Mafsyas, which 
falLs into the Meander, The wool trade 
forms the chief occupation of the inhabi- 
tants, but great quantities pf poppies are 
cultivated in the neighbourhopd, and much 
ofHuni exported. In this melancholy 
journey, Uirough a country which h^ 
been, and which ought to be, the garden 
of the world, they saw little else than fine 
lands uncultivated, and villages in riiins. 
And now they were informed that the 
road to Koniah was dangerous, for an Aga 
\i'lth a troop of banditti had stationed 
himself about ten miles from the common 
route, and from rhence infested the coun- 
try. This alarm was not groundless; the 
handitti surprized them at their mid-day 
meal, and demanded money Js duty for 
passing the confines of their Aga. One 
of these rufBans attempted to kill Dr. 
Griffiths, who owed his escape entirely to 
the protection of a hadgee in the caravan. 
His share of the misfortune, however, was 
Bot yet over. When supper was prepar- 
ing, tha Tiurks obstinately refused to let 
him and his compauion partake, unless 



they indemnified them for the loss they 
had sustained from the rohbers. Hh» 
reason assigned for this demand was quitft 
satisfactory. " You are two infidels, who 
have been the cause of all our misfortunes, 
on account of our having had the weak- 
ness to allow you to come near us, and to 
travel with us. Mohammed has in his 
wrath punished us by permitting robbers 
to take away our property ; and therefbra 
unless you reimburse us for our losses, 
you must no longer expect to eat from our 
dish." Even the hadgee, who had given 
them his oath of protection, thought this 
a reasonable claim. They were to reach 
Koniah the next day, where they had let- 
ters of credit ; their purse was light, their 
stomachs empty, for in the rencontre with 
the banditti they had lost their dinner, and 
they gave up all their stock of cash : it 
proved far short of the expectations of 
their companions, but they had honour 
enough left to accept the will for the deed, 
and allow them their share of the meal. 

At Koniah, however, the travellers at^ 
tempted to right themselves by complain- 
ing to the Turkish raerchant to whom 
they were recommended from Smyrna | 
he replied that it was out of his power to 
enforce restitution, as t^ie Turks would 
plead it was only their share of the loss, 
and he very sensibly advised them to pro- 
ceed without exciting murmurs against 
them. 

In this city is the great mosque of the 
Mewlewahs, the whirling dervises, an 
order instituted in the six hundred and 
seventy-second year of the Hegira, A. D. 
1294, by Jelaulud-dinn Mewlana. This 
is the chief mosque of the order, and the 
schaik is obeyed with the most profowid 
respect. The proofs required from a no- 
viciate are sufficiently severe. He \% 
obliged to perform the lowest services of 
the kitchen for a thousand and one days— - 
a favoiurite number this it should seem 
among the eastern nations. An order 
called rufayees, from tlieir founder Said 
Ahmed Rufayee, is distinguished for 
more extraordinary practices. After four 
scenes, as Dr. Griffiths calls them, in 
which they have to all appearance com- 
pletely exhausted themselves by violent 
cries and motions, th^ fifth, which is cha- 
racteristic of tlie order, conmiences. 

** This is by far the most extraordinary,afld 
cannot be witnessed without a degree ot" hor- 
ror, 'llie state of inactivity to which thtf 
dancers appeared to be reduced is now chang- 
ed to one of ecstatic phrenzy, which they call 
Hd€tk It is in the fervor of this religious de- 



y» 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



Iitram that they make Oietr triab withred-bot 

JftKl. 

• << Ib a rece» in the waU, near the seat of 
ike ichaik, cutlasses, and other sharp-pointed 
instntnicnb, are suspended. Two <x the der- 
vishes, as soon as the hfth scene commences, 
take down ei^t or ten of these instruments, 
and, after making thcni red-hot, j)resentthciu 
to the superior ; who, repeating a tew prayers, 
afad invoking schaik Ahmed Rufayee, the 
fdimder, blows upon the heated iron, carries 
tbem ligiitly to his mouth, and then delivers 
them ui those who most vdiemently demand 
4hcm. It B at this instant that these fanatics 
appear tramported with enthusiastic joy: they 
seize the irons, look upon them with exi^res- 
sh'e tenderness, lick them with their tongues, 
bite'them repeatedly, and at length extinguish 
them in their mouths ! Those who cannct pro- 
ctre any of tiic red-hot instruments grasp the 
rtitlasses with fury, and wound themselves in 
thf side, arms, or legs. 

" k frequently luppens that they support 
these esctraordinary tortures without the small- 
est expression of pain ; but if they have not 
power to resist, and fall under the violence of 
th«r efhrii, ihcy throw themselves into the 
?rms of a brother. In a few minutes the 
fchaik visits them, breathy upon their wounds, 
anoints them with saliva, recites prayers over 
them, and promises a speedy recnveiy ; which 
they pretend always taJces place in twenty-four 
hom% afterwaids, frhen their wounds are no 
longer visible. 

^' llie ori^ of these singular customs is 
said to be th^ belief that tiiefoimder, Ahmed 
Sulayee, in a moment of religious transport, 
thrust his leg into a fire, and was instantly 
cured of his woimds by tlie virtue of tlie 
breath and saliva of Jhdiil C(mdcr<k)olanee ; 
fmm whom they imagine tlieir founder re- 
ceived a similar power, which he at his death 
transmitted to all the schaiks his successors. 

" Ihe instruments made use of they call 
gpoly whkh signifies a rose ; n>eaning to cop- 
vey an idea, that the use to which they apply 
them is as agrcecble to the shrine of their 
elected chief, as the odor of tlie flower is ge- 
nerally acce])table to the voluptuous of the 
present age. 

** It must be confessed, however, that great 
mpicions have been entertained of these der- 
vishes eraploving some artifice in their exhibi- 
tions, as.weflas of tlieir possessing secrets, 
communicated only amongst the elders of 
their order : but there can be no deception 
In the uncommon exertions and subse^juent 
fsxhaustion from fatigue, which they publicly 
exhibit in the ceremonies above described."" 

Prom Kooiah they proceeded with the 
caravan through Kreklee by Adana to the 
^ort of &aftdash, and there embaFked for 
Snediah, the ancient Seleucia, on the coast 
of Syria, and from thence once mpre pro- 
ceeded with the caravan. On the way to 
Antioch, Dr. Griffiths and his Swedish 
friend were once qiofc obliged to paydutif. 



After leaving it they reached MJartavaun, 
a place of which they had heard sufficient 
to excite the curiosity o£ the most torpid 
traveller. # 

"In truth, the extraordinary customs of; 
the inhabitants are so irreconcileable to our 
ideas of propriety, and so diametrically oppo- 
site to every thing we imagine a principle of 
devotion, that were not the facts ascerta'med 
beyond a doubt by many authors of respects* 
bility, I should scarcely venture to expose my 
veracity to the suspicions which may arise 
from a detail of the occurrences witnessed. 

" Upon entering the village the inhabitants 
flocked around us, and, before we could dis- 
mount from our horses, eagerly seized upon 
some part of our doathing, and' invited us to 
accompany them home. Men and women 
were equally solicitous and equally loud in 
endeavouring to attract our attention. A- 
mongst them a well-looking man, in company 
with three or four females, not less fa\ oreCl by 
nature than himself, in spite of their olive- 
colored complexion, whispeped into my ear 
the Turkish words, '^ Keff-var, Keff-var- 
geld!" — Much pleasure^ {txvaits you, come 
with tne ! My companion, as well as my- 
self, was well>ai8posed to enjoy the hospitable 
ofler; and, resistmg the repeated attempts of 
others to withdraw us from our exulting host, 
we entered the doors of his mud-walled resi- 
dence. The women were dressed in loose 
vests, with a head-dress rising in a point, and 
unlike any we had seen: they were joyous, 
familiar, and vociferous. Unfortunately the 
conversatkm- ^vas almost conlined to them- 
selves, for of Arable I miderstood not a wonl ; 
and my companion, whose knowledge of the 
eastcni languages was extensive, was too re- 
cently arrived to be familiar with the pronxin- 
cbtion of our new associates. The house 
continued a scene of hurry and activity, until \ 
a smoking piloh and a roasted kid engaged us 
all at the same table. A spirituous liquor was 
handed round, and the highest conviviality 
was manifested bv all our hosts and hostesses, 
pf whom we had three men and four women. 

" After paying a serious attention to our 
meal, coffee and jJipes succeeded. I'he men 
disappeared one after the other, then returned 
agam amongst ils for a few minutes ; seemtxl 
amaz'mgly well pleased with the jokes whk^i 
circulated among themsflves, accompanied by 
gestures evidently intended to impress us with 
the idea that we Were perfectly at home ; and 
at la)gth we remained without interruptkxi in 
the full enjoyment of the ladies' societv. 

''Such a contrast to the ji'alous prohibitions 
establish^ throughout tJie countries in which 
we had travelled, and even to the prev^l'mg 
manners of those immediately surrounding ' 
the village itself, was calculatedf to excite our 
curiosity as much as our surprize; and to 
have ascertained the reality of circumstances, 
which, when reported to us, we could only 
regard as the inventions of pleasantry or 
fiction, was a subject of astoaishnici^t wbki^ 



GXIFFITHS'S TKATBLS IH BUHOVS, ASIA UINOI, ANP ARABIA. 



fi 



evening. Here he met with an adventnm 
Aot altogether unlike the custom of sweat-t 
ing in the Spectator. A party of Torkisl^ 
ladies meeting him alone in the gardens 
upon the banks of the Kowick, joined 
hands> and formed a circle round himj^ 
while others, who were at liberty within 
the circle, pushed him on every skie^ 
laughing violently at the sport. Had any 
Moslem come up, he wquld have been 
bastinadoed, or imprisoned, tor undergoing 
this diversion, to which he put an end at 
last by forcing his way through, 

Mr. H., one of the English residents at 
Aleppo, was- at this tune obliged by busi- 
ness to go to India, and wished Dr. Grif- 
fitlis to accompany him^ saying, indeed, 
that witiiout him he dared not undertake 
it. The invitation was readily accepted, 
for it was indilierent to the traveller which 
way he went. Mr. H. took with him a 
daughter only seven years of a«e, because 
he could hot bear to leave both bis chil- 
dren. It is almost inconceivable that any 
man should thus needlessly have exposed. 
a child to the dangers of such a jo^mey. 

" Mr. H. determined to take with us a hone 
of great value, to which he was oartial : fiid 
a machine, cidlcd mokdffahj was tit ted up for 
cotiuiion use. This is fanned of two boxes, 
about four feet in length, and eighteen or 
twenty inches in breadlii. One of these is 
slupg on each side of- the caiuel ; and, by 
means of upriglits ox posts hxed at tlie out- 
side cornel's,, a canvas covering is thrown over 
them, and sharks the travellers from the. tXr 
trcme heat of the sun. 

*' 1 o render tliis machine more commodn 
ous, the boxes are nearly filled with mat** 
tresses, but the movements of the camel pre-. 
vent all comfort; and every time the fore- 
feet of the auiraal come to the groimd, the 
shock is similar to that which is experienced 
in the bow of a vessel when labourmg agaictt 
a heacl-sea ; and in a few hours 1 was so 
bmised, that I (quitted the mohalVah, and ever 
afterwards, even when the lieatwas almost 
insupportable, preferred walking. 

" ITie provident care of Mr. H. had in- 
duced him to pack up a very exceUont tent, 
some wines; liqueurs, butter, and h variety 
of dried articles ; not forgetting a quantity of 
vinegar, alum, and a pair of bellows, for.tlie 
purpose of purifying the bad water we had 
reasoi^ to expc^rt. 

The alum proy^ useless : it only re- 
(noved one unpleasant taste, by cammu** 
nicating anotheif yriskh. was worse. Th» 
journey was dreddfbl I the &'moo/r/i * It6- 
quently blew, and pf the European tca^ 
vellers the child was th« one who sufiered 



llMed us ample room for discussion during 
(be rest of our journey. 

" In the morning we were greeted with the 
most friendly and obliging salutations, llie 
voRKn as well as the men accompanied us to 
die bouse where tlie horses had been ptit up ; 
isA a pre«nt of a few piasters to our liberal 
host do3ed their compliments and our adven- 
ture. 

"The history of these people is still but 
litUe understood, although the Euroj)eans re* 
jkient at Aleppo have fretjuently oaid a visit 
to the village of Martavaun as well as to that 
diiled Trfiem, which, at a few utiles distance, 
is inhabited by the same race. They are said 
to be a sect of the Ansarians ; a tribe whose 
origin is traced to an old man, who lived in 
the year eight hundred and ninety-one, at a 
Tilta^e named A'awr, near Koulfa ; and, 
amongst a variety of extraordinary tenets, a 
]lriiicipal object of their devotion is the <lis- 
tfoctive attribute of the female sex. From 
htiice, as a natural consec|uence, may be de^ 
dooed their religious attention to a multiplica- 
ftjn of its enjoyments ; and, with ^ pious re- 
gard to their opinions U]x}n the subject, they 
onbrace every opportnnity thrown in their 
way by the arrival of strangers, without any 
Ikind of attention to their age, their rank, or 
toeir religion • 

"They hold frequent assemblies, wjhere 
l^ronitscuous connection is the conclusion of 
such ceremonies as they have thought proper 
fl> adopt in the fulfilment of their worship : 
Imt wliat these previous ceremonies are, seems 
to be uoknown, or involved in doubt and ob- 
scurity'. The men arc of much darker conn 
plexion than the women, and pay little atteo- 
tion to the external omainL-nts of their dress; 
whk'U is similar to the comiUon habit of the 
Arabs. Many of th** women were not only 
dean, but much mon* attractive than has been 
etpresstxi by sevcfal travellers, whose reports 
were rat her grounded u|X)n hearsay than po- 
satire evidence. Their limbs are liuely form- 
ed, as is generally the cas<* where nature is 
not coniined by the trammels of dress ; and 
tSeir teeth are beautifully white.*' 

In this part of Syria they met two of 
the sec^ called Yauzdia, who professedly 
adorers their devotions to Shitaun, •Satr.n> 
or the evil spirit. Dr. Griffiths observes 
that there are other customs in the world 
as ridiculous, and moce atrocious ; he might 
have remarked that wc have Yauzdia in 
Snglaod, who not ctnly worship an evil 
spirit, but give hin\ tlie name of the deity j 
and inve< him with all the attributes of 
the deity— except justice, mercy, and 
goodness. 

Dr. Griffiths arrived at Aleppo in so 
dirty and so populota a condition) that he 
was ashamed to nsit the baths till the third 
day after liis arrival, and even then in the 

^ Dr. Griifiths writes the word tluis, after the excellent authority of Dr. Kusscl^ changing 
only the final y into <r^ as ff^ore analogous/ ht^ says, to the Arabic pronunciaUopr 



f« 



VOYAGES Ai!D TRAVELS, 



least. Their stock of procmions ran low ; 
and the malted tongues, with which they 
had absurdly provided themselves, proved 
«f .DO use when water was scarce. The 
thermometer varied, during the day, from 
Cttiety-siz to one hundred and four de- 
grees ^ the nights were frequently cooled 
^ northerly winds. 

At length they came in sight «f the 
l^rand dome and glittering minarets of 
Xtscbcd AU* 'Here Dr. Griffiths must 
relate his own rash and perilous adventure. 

" My friend was almost exhausted by the 
naim aad Mneaaness he experienced ; nor was 
1 much less sa: but a desire to expbre (at 
iia as was possible for a ciuristiau) the re- 
nowned tomb of the prophet Ali, held in es- 
Cmation by the Persians witb a zeal equally 
enthusiastic with that which the Iladcees of 
!&]rcca cntcrtam (br tlie shrine of Mahom- 
B>cd, Taiaquished my disposition for rest, and, 
contrary to tlw a<lvice of Mr, II. I set off 
alone iir the village. 

'* It is seated upon an elevated ridge of 
snul hiUs : a tolerably good street nsns nearly 
iram south to north about three hundred 
yards. The houses on each side are fiat- 
jTOofed ; many of thein being so constructed 
that their roofs are but little above the level 
of 4he street To enter the liabitable part 
of them, it is necessary to descend from the 
streets down several steps ; sj that one is apt 
to hnaglne the street has been formed bc- 
txecB two rows of houses already built. 

'• After proceeding along tlus street, aa- 
<4her turns abruptly to the right ; aiul on the 
left of the angle is the grand eiitrance to the 
celebrated mosqua In a variety of shops, 
nearthe gates of the mosque, were e»: posed 
to sale water-melons and other fruits, as well 
an many dried grains: but in almost all of 
tliem the proprietors were reposing them- 
selves ; and on account of the extreme heat 
not a sin jle person appeared walking in the ' 
ftreets. "Being thirsty, 1 wished to purchase 
part of a melon, and addressed myself to a 
shopkeeper for the purpose ; but taking me 
for a Greek, he loaded me with abuse, and 
refused to contaminate fiimself even by sell- 
rng to me ono of the articW op his shop- 
board- I retired without making him any 
reply ; and, unon Tny return past liis hiit, ob- 
«er\'ed he han again laid hnnself down to 
•li-ep. Oa apj>roaching the gate of the 
mosque, I perceived that all the good Mus- 
siilmauns, at each side of tlie entrance, were 
in the same drowsy disposition. Stimulated 
by an irresistible, yet unpardonable airiosity, 
I nastily walked into the iii'st court. An ele-' 
gant fountain, ornamented with coloured 
tiles, and a profusion of Arabic sentences, 
was constructed in the centre ; and a corridor 
roimil the area afforded a shady walk to thai 
part of the btiildmg, where t\^*o handsome 
doors led to the ititerior of the mos(jue. I 
went to that on the jeft-hand side ; and find- 
ing iw one at prayers, entered it far enough 



to see the whole of the apartment. The donm 
is very handsome, but by no means so Jarge 
as that of Saint PauPs, as colonel Capper 
^ judged it to be from its apj)ea ranee at a dis- 
tance. The mosque is rich 1 y ornamented with 
balls of ivory, glass, ostriches oggs, and a pro- 
digious nuinlK^r of lamps, not only in tiie 
centre, but on every side. Very small-siztd 
rich carpets covered the flooring, and two ex- 
traordijiary large silver candlesticks were 
placed near the Alahareb. 

" Apprehension of discovery now began to 
operate upon me, and 1 traced back my steps 
with caution, greatly dissatisiied at liavins 
found nothing extrabrdwiary ; but, bt fore I 
could repass tJie gate, an old man started up, 
and called to me in Persian. Not receiving 
any answer, he awakened two others ; when 
the)' all jumped from the elevated part where 
they had been sleeping, and exclaimed moat 
vehemently. One of them, anned with a 
schnitar ^tortuoatcly for me not unsheathed), 
and another with a short stick, made many 
blows at me ; which parrying in the best man- 
ner I was able, aithoui^h not so successfully a* 
I could have wiahtxl, 1 da.shed through these 
beanded her)es, and was assailed in my llight 
by many large stones, of which, for many 
days, I bore tlie marks.** 

As ihtj advanced tl^eir sufferings be- 
came almost intolerable. The sand was 
so hot, that the horse was actually lamed 
by the burning heat of his shoes. Tlie 
S/nwo/ei. became more frequent and more 
violent: tlie tliermomeber lose to one 
hundred and sixteen degrees ; what little 
■water remained was so tliick and cont*. 
minated, tliat, parched as tliey were, diey 
could not swallow it. For eight and forqr 
hours they were in want of water, at 
length tliey reached the well, but not ia 
time to save the life of Mr. H. He lived 
indeed to taste the water, and almu6t im- . 
mediately expired. 

The child, probably because she was in 
the mohaffah, suffered comparatively little 
from the poisonous wind. At length they 
readied the Euphrates j but though many 
of tlieir dangers were over, the heat coo- 
tinned to increase. Pahrenheit's thenno- 
meter rose to one- hundred and thirty-two 
degi-ces under the tent ; and when exposed 
a quarter of an l^our to the sun, to one 
hundred and fifty-six degrees. On die 
forty-eighth day after their departure from 
Aleppo they arrived at IJassora. Here Dt, 
GriAitlis consigned his little charge to tli« 
commercial resident : she remained a few 
months tliere, and ri'crossod the desert 
under the care of captain Currie, who de- 
livered her safely to her mother. 

From Bassora Dr. Griffiths suded for 
Bombay, and there his volume ends. W « 
wish to see his remarks upon India. 



DATIE^S LETTEXS 9ROU PARAGUAT* 



» 



This book is poblislied in a maoiKr un*- 
Becessarily expensive, which we notice, 
because it is becoming too much tbe prac- 
tice for authors, or for booksellers^ to 
nuke the public pay tor blank paper. 
The three hundred axid ninety-six pages 
of this quarto might have been comprised 
in a thin octavo volume, or even ib a duo- 
decimo, and that too in a type which 
\^oidd require no spectacles to magnify it. 
There is certainly no legal standard for 
printers measure^ but tliere is a standard 



of honesty to which evoy things ms^ be 
referred. 

The prints in this Toliune are aetlter 
beautifial nor useful ; they serve no other 
purpose than to enhance the price of Am 
work. They have a bad custom, ift arbi^ 
trary governments, of licensing books-^ 
they have also a custom of fixing the suoi 
at wliich they shall be sold— our Rngiigli 
publishers are proving that this custom !• 
not quite so bad. 



Art. XIII. Letters from Pera^aoff: describing the Settlemmts rf Afonte flieo imd 
BumofJ'jres ; the Presidencies of Bioja Minor ^ Nombre de Dios, St. Muryani SL 
John, (Jc. ^Cv xsitkthe Manners, Customs, and religions Ceremonies, fyc. cf the Inko" 
kitOHts, U'rilten during a Residence qf seventeen Months in that Country. By Johji 
CossTANSE Davie, i:*^. 8vo. pp.293. 



THIS book has, in some parts, a kind 
t>f romantic air, which prevents us from 
trusting implicitly to the information which 
it contains : it is evident, however, that 
the writer has described many things from 
actual inspection} and, as eN'cry notice 
concerning the state of Spanish America 
ii highly interesting, we are. much in- 
clined to give the volume before us a 
welcome reception. The advertisement 
infonns us^ that 

•* The writer of the following letters^ a gen- 
ti^nnan of liberal education and considerable 
property, harlng been disappointed in his 
hopes of happiness with a beloved female, to 
ftiieve the distress of his miud, resolved to 
travel; and leaving .this country for New 
York, on his arrival aimmencetl a corres- 

• Modence with his most intimate friend 

Yoike, esq. of Taunton-Dean, in the county 
of Somerset, his half-brother. After remain- 
ing at New York a short time, he suddenly 
formed the resolution of embarkmg on a tnui- 
iogvoya'e to Botany Bay — ^with which tliese 
letters begin. 

" Soon after they had sailed, a tremendous 
itanii obliged the captain to alter his course, 
and make for the river Plata. They safely 
reached Monte A idt^o, and afterwards went up 
to Bucnos-Avres, to ri'pair the v<«sel ; whefe 
VkT. lhs\& was seized with a dangerous dis- 
order, which usuallv attacks Europeans upon 
tbeir first landing m tliat country ; and the 
aptain, having repaired his damages and 
ronipleted his stock of provisions, was under 
thc disagreeable necessity of leaving him in 
the care of the fathers of the convent of St. 
Don/uuc, by whose unremitted attention he 
^covered in about three months. 
I " The jealousy of the Spanish government 
causini^ fahn, upon his recovery, to be coiv- 
£ned to the limits of the convent, he, to ob« 
t»a more liboty , took the dress 9f a noviciate ; 
and, IB con!«quencc, after a short time was 
permitted to vi$it in the town, and soon after 
t9 attend (aUier Hcnuadei o& a visli to some 



of the presidencies in the interior of thepn>- 
viiKe of Paraguay, which v^ere tmderstood 
to be in an unsettled state : diis enabled him 
to inake many observations^ AvhieU he took, 
every opportunity of communicating t» hit 
friend ui this c ountry, through his agent at 
Kew Y'ork, by means of the American cap- 
tains trading to South America. 

" After his return to Bnenos-Ayres, it it 
certain that he went to Conception, ia Ciuli^ 
as he was last heard of from that place, in 
the year 1803 : but whether he lost his life in 
any insurrection of the natives, or was im- 
prisoned by the government in coasequenoft 
of Ills correspoudencc being detected^ is uar 
known." 

From tliis it is evident, that the frieal 
to whom these letters are addressed is nol 
the editor of them, and, of course, not re* 
sponsible for tlieir authenticity in the state 
ill which they appear before the public. 
Another suspicious circumstanpe is, that 
the latest letter in this volume is dated 
May 1798, although we learn from the 
Advertisement, that Mr. Davie was hist 
heard of firom Conception, in Chili, ia 
1803. Were no letters received during 
the wbolQ of this interval, qt have thej 
not come into tlie possession of the editor > 

Soon after Mr. Davie's arrival at Mont» 
Video, he was seized with a dangeixitia 
iever, accompanied and succeeded by long- 
cxmtinued delirium, during whicli he was 
conveyed to Buenos-Ayres, and left at 
the Dominican convent there, by 411* 
.friend the American captain, who was 
obliged to proceed on his vayage. From 
the monks, to whose hospitality he was 
entrusted, he received the kindest atten- 
tions, and finally got the better of his ill- 
ness by means of an Indiap remedy. 
Being thus left alone amopg strangers, 
and, in consequence of the war betwecB 
JEp^land and Spain, being considered «s 



tf^ 



Voyages and tRAVElis. 



t prifiOner> Mr. Davie "vras induced to re- 
tain the noviciate's habit, with which he 
htA been clothed on his first i^eception into 
the monastery^ in the hope of being al* 
lowed a little more. Hberty, more especi* 
idly a^ he was looked upon by tlie goCbd 
fimers as a catholic^ in consequence of 
the following nustake. 

** These reverend fathers regard me as a 
tery pious and devout catholic. This strange 
prepidice I can no otherwise account for^ than 
ny tJieir finduig on my neck the precious 
cross worn by my lost — . I missed this 
iraluable reUc immediately upon regaining 
my senses, but was dilHdent ot asking for it» 
as not knowing where or how I had lo;it it. 
However, when 1 was, in their opinion, sui)i- 
ciently recovered, the jewel was restored to 
me, and in a transport of joy I seized and 
carried it to mv li})s. lliis motion ^f mine 
«vas attrQ»uted ]>y the brethren to a motive 
of grateful piety,' and they very readily conr 
ceived that I was one of their own persua* 



This letter is dated June 1797, so tliat 
the subsequent events related by Mr. 
Davie occupy a period <^ only eleven 
months. The discreet conduct of the au-» 
llior, his attentions to his ecclesiastical su- 
periors, and a \veIUtinied present to the. 
Btonastery, procured him tiie liberty of 
visiting a ^w of the principal families in 
the town, and of making little excursions 
into the neighbourhood. The country 
taaad is, for the roost part, an immense 
' sasanna, extremely fertile, especially in 
those parts that are annually inundated by 
the river, iind covered with luxuriant 
herbage, supporting large herds of wild 
cattle and horses, tlie descendants of those 
formerly imported bither from Europe. 
The cattle^ however, are not so numerous 
as they usM to be, on account of the de- 
xastation committedamong them for many 
years *past by the hunters, who destroy 
them by thousands metely for the sake <^ 
the'u: skins, tongues, and fstt. 

Splendour, dissipation, idleness, and 
filthy strikingly characteriae the settle- 
fneat of Buenos- Ayres ; and the influ- 
ence of the clergy being' very great, the 
x^ligiou^festivals are solemnized with un- 
usual pomp. The account of the cele- 
tartion of Corpus Cluisti day deserves to 
ha extracted. 

'< The mocning was ushered in by the rio^- 
ii^ of bells, firing of cannon, and other ami- 
lar demonstrations of joy. At ten o'clock^ 
upon a signal given at tne ^veriior*s house, 
the community prepared to join in the gene- 
sal ca^vakade ; aiid now, for the first time, I 
sKattoM^theotttsideflf thecanrBOU We 



were arranged in order, in a large ft:|nftre, 
within tlie gates : firit, the young chorister* 
were divided into four bands, twelve in each 5 
these are the cliildren tinder the tuition of the 
fathers. The lirst division was to precede the 
whole, singing a particular service appropriate 
tO' the day. On either side the^e children' 
walked lay-brothers, bearing ensigns, or pic- 
tures representing the dilferent achievementi 
of their patron sauit Then followed the 
novices, amonc; whom was myself; every one 
bearing some precious relic or another, en- 
closed in boxes of ebony and ivory, curiously 

' wrought. 

" 'i b us succeed«l another band of music, 
accompanied by ^i the visitors of distinctk>fl, 
of which there were not a few from the dis- 
tant plantations. Next came the elder la- 
thers of the convent, two and two, each car- 
rying something relative to the festival ; and 
after them the superior, chased in all the re- 
galia of his ofHce, surrounded by the young 
students go'mi; to Cordova, and six lay-bro- 
thers, bearing banners. ITie remainder of 
tJie community, choristers, and several newly- 
baptized Indiaus, brought up the rear ; every 
one in this procession being arrayed in their 
richest and gayc-st attire. The caralcade, 
having cleared the convent-gate, entered a 
iai^e Jiandsome square ; en one side of which 
stands the cathedral, a very fine well-finished 
edifice, crowned with a cupola, and open on 
all sides to the view. Round this square were 

. assembled the societies of several other or- 
ders, all dressed in paraphernalia ; and a 
more curious scene 1 never witnessed, it 
seemed as if people from all nations of the 
earth were collected together, presenting 
every dillerent shade of the coinple.xion, from 
the silver-haired iniiabitant of Denmark to 
the sable-hued native of Guuiea. 

" Among the crowd some Indian caciques 
held a very conspicuous ulace. . They wore 
party-Goloiured cotton haLiti;, prettily decor 
rati*d with a variety of feathers, arranged in a 
ver)' judiciotis and elegant nianner. Bands of 
wo«j1, red, puq>le, and yellow, encircled their 
heads, and supported some of the most beau- 
iiiul plumes I ever beheld. Several of the 
caciques wore glittering ornaments on their 
chkis ; others on their necks, arms, and legs*. 
But if these Indians pleased by the satety of. 
their attire^. another tribe interested me ne 
4ess by their simplicity. These were dad in 
white cotton vestments, with no other oma^ 
ment than large full \riiiie feathers, rising oot 
above another round the head. This dress, 
contrasted with the dark copper cok>ur d 
their skms, was peculiarly striking, and gave 
a most singukir, though extremely pleasing 
appearance to tlie whole. 

" The outsides of the houses, round thf 
jquans wete hung with festoons of Jewcrs, 
and Ihre birds, tiaiwith strings, to prey^ 
thetresoape, but long enough toadmitof tJtm 
.flutteringsui&ctcntly to expand iheir.i»eautifiil 
plumage ; .^contrivance which J must cooSe^ 
Jiad a fvry picturesque .eStait The paitic^ 
jd tiirnhunnh vas dixoiated vntk^an juaeoinr 



tiUnt a LiTTSBS fk6x Pit Aotr4^.* 



fflODqiiqptity of real aod artificial flpwers, io 
the dBp(»a! of which a great share of ta$te 
bid been displayed. Under the principal 
arch was placed' a band of musiciaiis^ who 
tm^ flndpliiyed most enduBrtingly. Indeed 
thefe is not a place m the world, not even 
itilT, where sacred music ismore studiously 
«tt«ided ta Up<ia a volley beiog fired by 
naieof the soldien — who were all drawn ufp 
oi one side of the square— the processtoa 
Gmmenced by the military, fully accoutred, 
uarchiog otT two and two, to the sound of 
«lfums trumpets, and other martial music, at 
ifiterrab halting, to diseharge their pieces ; 
tile beBs of all the diurches ringing, and the 
diips in the harbour vetun^ng the tire in the 
tamu: to that altogether you may suppose the 
oooGCft by no means a de^icable one. Fir$t 
after the solcUers came the order of St. Fraof- 
ds, airanged in nearly the same manner as 
ourselves ; then followed a second division of 
the mililarv, and the choristers of the cathe- 
dral: to tlicm succeeded the order of St. 
iaines; and, thirdly, we came in. Between 
ouritar, and the advanced guard of the fourth 
eBoaminity, was borne on a very high a)tar> 
Ikfaly deoQiated, the elemcDtB oif the eucha- 
list, 9MTouoded by a vaist number of jpeople 
of the first rank and. quality ; some ot tliem 
heaxins ligbted wax-candles, highly perfunt- 
cd ; others incease, many banners, and not 
a few relics : the whole group flanked by sol- 
diers on horseback, in ttieir newest and best 
attire, firing alternately to the right and left: 
and wherever a cross was erected, which I 
Mieve was at the end of every street, the 
vhole cavakade bsdted to sing the appointed 
lervicc. 

" After the eucharist came aaotkei^ division 
of soldiers, and after tbcra all the remalaing 
rd'igious of the town ; while on either side tf 
the street— for we took the middle-Hsiarched 
the mobility, men, womettr and childi«n ; btrt, 
notvithstaiiding their numbers, all ranged in 
regular order, and observing a profound si*' 
fence, except when diey iotned in the general 
cfaonises, and then blessed St D^imc* 
What a din was there ! Each division of the 
whole procession was attended by a band of 
nunc, which, halting at the crdsses^ played 
aJmoat divinely ; and sorry -enough I was, 
vhen the devotion of the muhifeude, break*- 
iag foith into audible sounds, spoiledsuch ex*- 
ceilent harmoBty. 

" The decorations of the houses in mag^ 
aificence surpassed any thing I ever beheSi 
■t Europe on the like occasion. Tlie streets 
are w^ *, and most of theni in a Mraight Ime ; 
the houses in general low, with here and there 
a very elegant church or public buil^g, 
finished accordmg to the rules of European 
architecture. Every habitation was hung 
cither with tapestfy or coloured cottons ctf 
various djes, ornamented with feathers in a 
'wy Higemous manner ; between which were 
n^enoed festoons of fiowers, articles of plate, 
andLe?ren jeweb, according to the riches of 
tke tmifir. Across the streets^ from side tp 



^ 



aide, were triumphal arcbds, con^)OKd of 
boughs of trees artfully interwovi^n; kois^ 
which hun^ as at the portico of the churclu 
a great vanety of living birds, aH suspoode^ 
in the most advantageous point of view, and 
somei of them beyond description beautiiiiL 
Between the arches were set out a vast quan- 
tity of eatables ; such as cakes, pies, £ruits» 
Sec. all disposed io a very agreeable maimeii 
and I could not help feehng a kind of peculiar 
EttglUh pleasure at this part of the exhihatioo. 
Cfose to tlK* houses, on each nde of the street^ 
were likewise pkuied living animals — ^>'o<u^ 

' tigers, lions, wolve^ do^, and even monkeys 
ot a particular large specKs — sccunedso caf^ 
fully as to prevent any possibility of the^ 
escaping, or hurting those that nugjht come 
near them. From tiie windows wi^re su9-> 
pended baskets^ very neatly wove, ot aiovd^ 
green colour^ containing every lund of seei 
or erain with which they mean' to sow th^ 
land, that the Saviour of the worlj^ 
might bestow "his benediction on them asiie 
passes, which they tliink will undoabtedly 
procure them a pleatifui harvest ; aadindeed 
they are seldom, if ever, disappc^ed. 

*' There is not a stieet tlirough which te 
procession passes but is adorned in thb %ihstt 
did manner : for on this festival the riches «f 
every individual are displayed to the greater 

^advantage possible, and with a peculiar dc- 

,gree of ait ; which must, I should think, oo» 
cupy a considerable tune m preparation; 

• "In one of the streets leadmg to the great 
square I saw three of the largest and Ime* 
peacocks I ever bdield: ato |ttK«i6ants of an 
extraordmary size and beauty, not tauch wt- 
like the peacocks in point of feather, hut taUeiv 
with itioiv slepder legs ; and in lieu of a long 
sweeoins tail, small tufts of featliei's, coa^ 
posea of dark brown, bcautihilly ^ded with 
green and gold ; but their ejcs and plumage^ 
m beauty and variety of colours, far surpassed 
any of the biped kind that had ever Wore 
met my iaspection. ITiey all appeared vert 
tame ; and, wiUi several other large birds fas- 
tened in a smiilar way, were not in tiie least 
disturbed bv the firing, the shouts of the*mul- 
titude, or the trampling of tiie horses. 1 he 
ground was all over strewed with herbs and 
flowers, so regularly disposed as to resembk, ia 
many places, the most delicate Persian carpets. 
fn iine, all the sweets of nature seemed col"- 
lected m one spot, to honour the -sacred fes- 
tival : and a greater assemblage of people «ft* 
all ranks, ages, and conditions, 1 jievur wil- 
nessed, even in the most populous city in Ei*- 
rope ; nor so profound a suence and regiil^ 
rity, except wlien the pious responses were 
made. 

*' The governor was dressed in a rich Spa- 
nish habit, tastily ornamented with goli 
jewels, &C. He was stjrrounded by a nii^ 
merous*and very ^lendid retinue, a*? nonfc 
but the sick are exempt from assistance at thJb 
ceremony. i 

^ " When the procession reached the'e?4liQ» 
dbl, tlic air was almost rent by the m u j ti ^uip 



M 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



of Tcnoes; and vvt entered the edifice during 
ft heavy discbarge of artillery from the gani- 
aoa and ships in the harbour^ also volleys of 
.'musquetry from the soldifrs in the streets. 
Here high mass was celebrated, and the sa- 
crament administered; which ceremony, of 
course, occupied a considerable time, and 
when ended the different communities retired 
in the same order to their respective convents, 
^lie principal visitors and caciques are invited 
to the govemor^s, where a plentiful banquet 
b provided for them, composed of every de- 
Jioicy the country affords. The eatables, &c.^ 
-with which the streets were adorned are taken* 
down^ and distributed by the parish priests 
among the inhabitants, who entertain all stran- 
gers that clioose to partake of them. At night 
viere is a general rejoicing ; when some very 
ingenious fire-works are displayed, and «a» 
ttonal games exhibited, such as hunting or 
ludtingthe wild bull, &c. and various maitial 
exercise^ in which the inhabitants of Buenos- 
AjTes particuUurly excel.** 

We are sorry to obser%'e that tlie op- 
pression of the Indians still continues in 
ail its rigour, and that this is the causdof 
the comparatively good treatment experi* 
cnced by the negro slaves : the cost of a 
negro is considerable, and therefore his 
purchaser is induced to use him weUj 
out the poor native Indians, whenever 
they can be caught, belong to the govern- 
ment, and are consumed, without re- 
^morse, in the public works and private 
cnnployment, by excessive labour and 
scantiness of food. 

The empire established Ky the Jesuits 
in Paraguay, although its destruction was 
:^pQrently very complete, has by no means 
yet ceased to operate : the necessary ten- 
dency of this measure was to increase pro- 
digiously the power of the military com- 
isanders, at the expence of the influence 
till that time possessed by the priests; 
the consequence of which is, that the ec- 
clesiastics, in the distant presidios at least, 
are yerv discontented, and ate intriguing 
both with the converted and unconverted 
Indians, to expel the military by force, 
and throw off^ their dependence on the 
governor of Buenos-Ayres. Some sedi- 
tious movements among the clergy, in tlie 
settlements on the Uraguay and the lake 
Iberi, had parfcicularly attracted the notice 
of government, and it wzs thought expe- 
dient to send, from tlie Dominican mo- 
nastery at Buenos-Ayres, a respectable ec- 
clesiastic, fatlier Hernandez, to conciliate 
if possible the existing difl^irences. Mr. 
Davie bad the good fortune to prevail on 
the father to allow him to accompany the 
nritssion as secretary, and accordingly, in 
the mon^ of Seprcmber, he quitted the 



capital with his associates, and commenced 
his journey. They travelled by land up 
tlie banks of the Plata, as far a:i the little 
harbour of Rio de las Conchas ; here they 
embarked on board three balsas, or cover* 
ed doubk: canoes ; and crossing the Plata, 
entered the Uraguay, a deep and rocky 
stream, and one of the principal contri* 
butors to the main river. The Uraguay 
abounds in fish, and its wooded banks 
swarm with game, and are infested by 
tigers, not indeed so formidable as those 
of Bengal, yet sufficiently fierce to exer- 
cise the skill and courage of the Indian 
hunters. After proceeding for some da}'s 
up this river, they entered one of its tri- 
butaries, the Iber, and at length r^ched 
the lake Iberi, out of which the Iber 
flows in one direction, and an unnamed 
stream in anoiher, that falls into the Plata 
at tlie presidency of Santa Lucia. The 
lake is above one hundred miles long, and 
forty wide : it is sprinkled with nuroe-^ 
rous islands, and on its fertile and wooded 
shores are established several flourishing 
settlements, at the principal of which » 
Rioja Minor, father Hernandez and his 
company took up their residence. 

" This town is pretty large, and very regu- 
larly built. Ihc streets, which are in the Ro- 
man style, exactly parallel, are divided by 
plantations of trees thick set, oranges, le- 
mons, citrons, myrtles of every various 5^01!, 
and scores of other odoriferous shrubs, which 
as you pass' regale the senses most delightfully, 
and seem to give one a foretaste of tho^e 
blissful regions where our religion tells us we 
shall rest for ever. little currents of tlie 
purest water run witli gentle ripplings under- 
neath tiie trees, over a smooth ned of small 
round pebbles. The houses are mo$>tly built 
of clay, one story high, and covered with 
tiles; but tlu? dwellings of the commandant, 
corrigidor, fiscal, anil others of note, arr 
higher, inade of brick, and fitted up with 
every convenience. The public storeliousc 
is in die centre of the town ; it b oiu» story 
high, very long and wide, divided into seve- 
tal apartments, so contrived as to receive 
every dilferent article for use or barter. !• or*- 
nieriy this storehouse was under the sole re- 

gulation of tiie rector, and by him only was 
le jjroduce proportioned out to the Uittereiit 
families; but now tlie Spanish com: ^ ndant 
claims a share in the diiitribution.*' 

The unusual alertness of the military 
clearly showed that raiscliief was appre- 
hended, but for some weeks no disturb- 
ance took place: in January 179^» father 
Hernandez, accompanied by Mr. Davie, 
went, ott account of his health, to the^ mi- 
neral waters of Ariciffe, near the pnesi« 
dency of S;tfita Maiia, on tbe-xiver Pk- 



DAT IS^S LETTERS FROM PARAQUAT. 



81 



tarn; from this place he was suddenly 
ifcaUed to ihe suqceeding month to Rioja 
3finor, where every thing was in confu- 
sion. The father, on his arrival, found 
ihe moDastery surrounded by a guard of 
soldiers, and that two of the principal ec- 
clesiastics were under arrest on a charge 
of trtasQD; this disgraceful circumstance, 
tc^ether with the fatigues of his rapid 
joomey, afiected so severely both his 
health and spirits, that he died in a few 
da>'s, leaving the two parties in a state of 
tbe highest irritation against each olber> 
Vthidi shcnrdy concluded in the following 
tragical manner. 

*' Futficr Michael and father Josqjh were 
phceil in confinement, until tlie balsa sliouid 
be ready to convey them to Buenos- Ayr6s. 
1 «as 9(> much taken up with the ilhiess and 
death of our good pastor, that I never even 
be!ik)VGd a thought upon these men until the 
moniing after the funeral, when I scut to tlie 
couiuiandant to rec|uest tiut I might be per- 
mitted to return with the prisoners to the* con- 
vent of St Dominic, if tliey were not already 
sent off; for not a single person had oiwned 
his lips to me on that or any other subject, 
save the death of the superior,- whom every 
•lie lamented, llie answer I received from 
Don Policarpo (the governor) was, ' that he 
should consider of ray request ; and in the 
meantime desired I would Keep myself quiet 
^wth the other two brothers in the monaster}/ 
round which I found the guard was still sta- 
tiwied. This answer of the commandant's 
somcuhat siirpHsed me; and about the 
middle of the day after that on which it was 
sent to me, 1 was sitting in the apartment for- 
merly occupied by the venerable Hernandez, 
n-decting on my situation, and wondering for 
what new vicissitudes I w;as rese^^'ed, when I 
was routed from my reverie by the loud con- 
. filled dm of an approaching multitude. .Pre- 
witW a »gnal-gun was fired, the driuns beat 
to anns, and the piercing war-shout of tlie 
Indians burst upon my ears. I spnmg in ter- 
ror from my seat, and ran to the*window ; but 
it only commanded a vieu' of the convent 
garden. I was therefore hastily returning to 
the door when it flew open, and the friendly. 
Indiaii, who made my secret box for me, 
r^ished into the room, followed by about 
twenty of the town Indians. * Come with 
me, father Mathias,' said he — for that is my 
nrligious title — ' for with us you will be safe/ 
' \\ hat IS the matter >* cried I ; ' what does 
ill this mean ?* ' Father Michael and fother 
Joseph,* retuined he ' have been rescued fh>m 
the oalsas by some tribes of the wild Chanias : 
tliey have joined tiie tow^n Indians, ^ho have 
ris4^ in a bodvy and are now surrounding 
every Spaniard's house ; but 1 will preserve 
ytju. Saying this, he threw part of a tiger's 
sluD across my shoulders, and pulled me after 
him out of ihe monastery, aqd towards the 
maud. All we pasied was tupiult, horror, 
AxK. Aey. Vol. IV. 



and confusion ; the military were fljnng in all 
directions, pursiuul by the Chanias, armed 
with long barbed darts, which they sent 
through tlie air with amazing celerity. The 
townsmen had taken possession of tlie signal 
post, storehouse, and arsenal, and bemg at 
tlie hour of siesta, all the Spaniards had been 
taken miprepared. This was the revolt which 
had bedi so long dreaded, and ^-hich the 
commandant too securely thought lie had 
elfectually circumvented through the intel- 
ligence received from the Indian. But this 
pretended confession, it now .appears, was 
only a deep-laid scheme to deceive the com-' 
"mandant; the conspirators h^d fpreseen the 
consequences, and provided accordingly. I 
perceived, as I passed along from the" mo- 
nastery to the water, that all who had not the 
whole' or part of a tiger's skin upon their 
shoulders were immediately sacrificed either 
by tiie town Indians, who wore this sj-mbol, 
of by the Chanias, who had theirs lied about 
their waists as tJieu* common, and indeed only, 
covering. When I reached the strand, the 
first objects f beheld were the dead bodies of 
the comnumdant and major-general^ pierced 
in every part with darts and arro^i's, i have 
since learned they dragged the former from 
his bed, and massacred hUn ; his wife and 
family were killed in much tiie s^me maimer; 
and so sudden and unexpected was the blow, 
tliat not a s'uigle destined victim had escai^ed." 
• ** On tlie sixili day in the evening, tather 
Michael came to me, and apologised for not 
seeing me before, saving, that the many ma- 
terial things he had had to arrange alone pre- 
vented him. lie then entered into a k>ng 
dissertatbn on tlie necessity the town Indians 
had beenoinder of adopting the decisive mea- 
sures ihcy had pursued, to obtain that liberty 
the state of Spain had so long deprived them 
of, and which it was their firm determination 
to secure against whatever ste|w the crown 
'might have recourse to, to prevent tiiem ; for 
although diey respected the laws, they were 
not disi>osed tp abide by any but those they 
tiieinseivcs sliould frame: their oppressor^ 
had reigned long enough, and tliey were re- 
solved to enjoy their native freedom, oif 
perish in the attempt." 

The insurgents offered Mr. Davie a 
quiet residence among them, and even to 
secure his escape to England 5 but expect- 
ing to be appointed to a mission to Cliili, 
he declined their offers, and was sqjU in a 
balsa to Buenos-Ayres, wher« he safely 
arrived in the month of May. Here the 
volume terminates. Besides the events^ 
of which we have given a sketch, tliere 
are interspersed several interesting parti- 
culars relative to the manners of the In- 
dians, and the police of the Spaniards 5 
bat these we decline to notice, oonceiving 
it to be an injusrice to the author to make 
any more extracts from a iroaU hook. 



VOYAGES AKD TaAVELSw 



^RT- XIV. 4<Tour in America, in 1798, 1799, and 1800. Exkihiihg SJcetchcs qf Stf^ 
eietif and Manners, and a particidar Account of the American Syttem <jf AgrictUturef 
xiith itit recent Imnrozenient^ By ViicHAnn Parkim«on, late of Orange HiU^ near 
Baltimore' (AutnoY of the '* Experienced Farmer" ^'c. 2, Vols. 8vo. pp. 735, 



Ma. PARKINSONt ought to have ei> 
titled his work an AgricidUtral Tour; for 
It lias lio pretensions to have given a satis- 
factory accouat of any otiier phenomena, 
than those which interest the farmer. 
Jut for the very rej^son that it selects for 
ijbcord and discussion such ieaUires of tlie 
Qountry, as the author was peculiarly qua- 
lified to give a critical account of, it ex- 
ceeds ia value those superficial books of 
travels, which treat of every thing, s<nd of 
every thing defectively. The farmer, who 
nrojects an emigration to Niorth America, 
^lould fittudy this work } it will deter him 
l5*oro executing the project, by the satis- 
ftctory detail of causes, why me agricul- 
tural profession neither ia, nor is, likely to 
bocome a profitable or pleasant employ- 
ibent, in any part of the United States 
whfch the writer visited. His tour is con- 
fined to the central provinces of the North 
American States. 

The author embarked at Liverpool, 
landed at Norfolk in Virginia, went to 
treat with General Washington for a femt 
near Mount Vernon, and tin^dly settled in 
the neighbourhood of Baltimore, in which 
town he «old a great quantity of milk. 
Concerning this sweep of district the ac- 
count is ample, minute, instructive, and 
decisive. 

Instead of a survey of the back settle- 
ments, some sliocking stories are told of* 
tlie atrocious conduct of the Indians in 
1782, when tliey were toid to have been 
hallooed upon the western settlers by the 
intrigues of the British: it is more pro- 
bable that the usurpation of Indian dis- 
tricts, without orderly purchase, gave oc- 
casion to thi$ savage w\irfare. 

The author next travels to Philadelphia, 
Brunswick, and New- York, for the pur- 
pose of soliciting subscriptions to his re- 
printed Experienced F^mer. His social 
iutrodwctious are various, and the infor- 
mation collected is considerable for so 
cursory a three months journey. 

Hif tliird tour, is a circuit of three hun- 
dred mileSff chiefly along the Chcsapeak, 
through Annapolis ; ixere, if any where, 
tbe author linds something to praise. The 
ijorthern, the southern, tlie western states 
were never inspected : but as the tide of 
emigration fi'om Knglaud mostly tends to- 
ward the country bet wcea New- York and 



Baltiroore5 that territory b described con- 
cerning which information Is most impor- 
tant on this side the Atlantic. 

We learn in general that the soil is every 
where* bad; labour every where dear^ 
demand for produce every where narrow 
and precarious 5 necessaries eveiy where 
costly; and comforts whc^Uy uncomeat* 
able : that farming on a small scale, or a 
large scale, is a losing trade ; and that a 
£urmer*s lamily m reality subsists^ not bji 
the profits on his stock or C2^ixal em* 
ployed, but by personal Egging, which, 
as all men's labour is well paid, may keep 
a family h-om starving. The roads are 
execrable ; but the gentlemen hospitable. 
The people are insolent, dishonest, and ra- 
jijacious. There are no poor-laws, no pu- 
nishments, no schools. Civilization, whidu 
always proportions itself to tlie densi^ of 
populousness, is retrogressive, and ap- 
pvoach?s nearer to a Russian than an Eng^ 
lish level : the symptoms of culture ob- 
ser^'able in the towns are due to the in- 
flux of tbreign, chiefly Scottish, mer- 
chants. In short, such a picture as Bu- 
low of Hamburgh drew, in 1797, of th«^ 
commercial interest of North America, 
is here drawn of the landed interest. 
Both authors agree that the price of land 
is on the decHne; and tliat the incle- 
mency and unwholsomeness of the cli- 
mate are uiiconquerable impediments to the, 
higher stages of cultivation and improve- 
i»ent. The country is not only bad, but 
unbetterable. The inliaWtants are con- 
stantly crawling westwards, and. at every 
remove sink lower toward poverty, priva- ' 
tlon, and barbarism. 

In all this delineation there is evidently 
much of caricature ; and' a systematic, 
wish and endeavour to ciirry favour with^ 
the' tories of England, by ascribing the 
evils of North Aiuerica to its republican-^ 
ism. To the doctrine of equality is at- 
tributed the insolence of the commonalty^ 
to liberty, tlieir improbity; to tlie wanf 
of a distinct exemplary class of noblemen, 
tlieir vulgarity or rudeness ; to the want] 
of an established clergy, their ignorance. ' 
The author was pleased with Washuigtoa' 
and Jefferson, and therefore omits to men- 
tion what they lose by wanting a king. 

Those who are curiousLCQnceniing-:\me- 
ricao agriculture >vill^ of course^ consuls 



^AlKlIf SOV t TWM »r AMM^itk^ 



U 



tk book itself; vre shall indicate ovly tt 
kwhcta, which may supply hints lor lm« 
proTcments at home. 

In Che Patowmak there are ftpsh^water 
ofsters, large and &t: ** the taste ia wateiy 
aad ditt^reeable to me, but not so to the 
Americans.*' Supely this sort of shellfish 
might be reared in the inland lakes of 
Great Britain. 

""There 2tt ^TBit numbers of hogs» in ge- 
bI of a very interior kind. The real Anie- 
ncan-bog is what is termed the wood-hos: 
fbey are lone in the leg, narrow on the back, 
short m the body, iiat on the sides, witii a long 
samit, very lousii in their hair, in make more 
Ske tfie wh caUed a perch than any thing I 
can describe. You may as well think of stop- 
ping a crow as those hogs, lliey will go to 
aifastanceform a fence, take a nm, and leap 
thmigh the rails, three or four feet from the 
gnxuid, turning themselves sidewlse. These 
hogs sufler sudb hardships as no other animal 
GouJd endure. It is customary to keep them* 
hi the woods ail winter, as there is no thrash- 
ing or fold-yards; and they must live on the* 
roots of trees, or something of that sort; but 
ihcy arepoor beyond any creature that I ever 
saw. That is probably the cause why the 
ibaerican pork is so very fine. They are 
something bke the forest-sheep. I am not 
certain, with American keeping and treatment, 
if they be not the best ; for I never saw any 
animal live without food, except this ; and 1 
am pretty sure they nearly do that. When 
tb^ are'frd, the ifesh may well be sweet : it- 
isaU vouD^ though the pig be ten years old ; 
and, iikepigs in general, they only act as a 
convevaoce to carry com to market. The 
sort c^hogs I left in America pay the most for 
faod i ever saw. 1 fed some half-bred ones, 
at six months old, that weighed ten stone 
each— fourteen pounds to the stone. With 
^nery little food and care, tliey kept fat in their 
ptjwiiig state. 

" I had a sow that yielded me one hundred 
and twenty-five pounds fifteen shillings in ele- 
ven roooUis. I sold three hogs to general 
Eidgdy for fifty-six pounds five shilUngscur- 
rency. llie pigs were all sold trom the sow 
at se>-en weeks old, except one. At two litters^ 
ibc had only twelve, to inake the sum.** - 

This breed may be worth importing for 
the northern shires: ^here food is pJenti- 
iol, the Java hog is the quickest fatter. 
A peculiar Imeed of chickoas, which hiy 
<>ggs all winter, also deser\'es attention : 
ii is norjced page 2g9. The sofV crab, 
and the canvaa-back duck are mentioned 
as delicacies, which the curious in eating 
tbmki import, llie early white wheat is 
4tocribed, voL 11. p. 322 : there are many 
VMriciies of wheat cultivated- in Sicily 
^Huch actt unlived in Amerioa, or even in 
^wt Brilftin^ one so ra^d offfrowth,a» 
to rield thrice in a year* * 1!o the hot 



countries American £irmers shoold adf-* 
dress themselves for seeds and for prec«« 
dents. Herd-grass, or swiamp-grass, me« 
rics trial at home; and so does timothy- 
grass. 

'' The great advantage of herd grass li 
that it grower on Swampy ground where wafaP 
is liable to stand: it grows in those sort df 
swamps with such luxuriance in America, as 
to produce, it is said, a greater burthen than 
timothy ; and is much superior in quality to 
either clover or tunothy. It is a much Aner 

grass than timothy, is better hay for cattle or 
leep, is hardy to han'est ; and, in growing, 
forms a sod, which mats the land over in suot 
a manner, as to cause it to bear the pressure 
of cattle, horses. Sec, though previously so sof!f 
as not to bear the footsteps of a man. 'it is the 
only grass that forms any kind of sod on land 
in America ; for by nature I never saw a sod 
in tiie country, but where the herd grass grew. 
The earth is so loose as not to cause grasses to^ 
fonn a sod, as in England ; the swamps are 
flie very same." 

The twenty-fourth section contains va- 
luable reflections on the management of 
Aegroes, suggested by the inspection of 
those belonging to general Washington, 
of whom &ese curious particulars are' 
give^. 

'' I think a lam number of negroes to re^ 
quire as severe discipline as a company of 
soldiers: and that may be one and the great 
cause why general Washington managed hia^ 
negroes better than any otlier man, he being^ 
brought up to the anny, and by nature in- 
dustnous beyond anv description, and in re* 
Kularity the same. There are several anec- 
dotes related of him, for bemg methodical. 
I was told by general Stene that he was travel- 
ling with his fomily in his carriage across the 
country, and arrivmg at a ferry belonging to* 
genefai Washington, he oifered the ferryman 
a moidore. The man said, '* I cannot 
feke it." The general asked, " Why, John?** 
He replied, "1 am only a ser\'ant to general 
Waslimgton ; and I have no weights to weigh 
it with ; and the general will weigh it ; andif 
it should not be weight, he will not only maker 
me the kwer, but he will be angry with me.**-*- 
*' Well, John, yoir must take it; and 1 will 
lose three pence in its value :" the fen^inaa 
did so ; and he carried it to general AVasiiing* 
ton on the Saturday night following. The^ 
general weighed it ; and it was not weight : it- 
wanted tJuee half-pence : general Washmgtoib 
carefully lapped up the three half-pence m m 
piece of paper, and directed it to general 
Stone, which he received fixjm the ferryman 
onhisretuin. General Stone told me anotheif 
of his regularities, that, during the tune h« 
was engaged in the army in. the American- 
war, saijaom home, he had a plasterer from'- 
Baltirooi^ to plaster a room for httn ; and th^ 
room was measured, and the plasterer's de* 
mand paid by the stewar4^ Wiietf th^ ge** 



S4 



[.VOYAGES AXD TRAVEI^. 



fteral returned home, he measured llic room, 
and found the woik to com^ to less by iiftfeu 
shillings than the man Iiad received.* Sonic 
time alter the plasterer died ; and the widow 
married another man, who advertised in the 
newsjxipers to receive all and pay all due to 
Or by her fomier hiisl>and. The general, see- 
ing the pai>er, made a demand of the lilteen 
■shillings, and received them. Another time, 
a man came to Mount-Vemon to pay rent ; 
and l^e had not tlie exact balance due to the 
general : when the money was counted, the 
general said " Thei'e wants four pence." The 
luaft ortercd him a dollar, and clesired him to 
put it to the next year's account. No, lie 
must get the change, and leave the money cm 
tJie table until he had got it. The man rode 
to Alexandria, which is jime miles from 
IMount-Vemon ; and then the general settled 
the account. It was always his. custom, when 
he travelled, to pay as much for his servant's 
breakfast, dinner, or su])per, as for his owii. 
I was told this by the keepur of a tavern 

* where the general' breakfasted ; and he made 
flie bill three shillings and ninepence for tlie 
master's breakfast, and three sliiilings the ser- 
^rAnt's. The general sent for the tavern- 
keeper into the room, and desired he would 
tda^e the same charge for his servants as for. 
Ijimself, for he doubted not that they bad 
^atcn as much. This shews he was as correct 
in paying as in receiving. — It is said that he 
never had any thing lx>ught for his use tjiat 
was by weight, but he weighed it, or any thing 
by tafe, but he had it counted : and it'he did 
not find the due weight or number, he sent 
the articles back again to be regulated. There 
is a striking instance related of his conde- 
lijcendency : he sent to a shoemaker in Alex- 
andria to* come to measure hini for a pair of 
shoes ; the shoemaker answered by the ser-. 
\ant that it was not his cus»tom to go to any 
one's house to take measure for shoes. The 
general, being told that, mounted his horse, 
and went to the shoemaker to be measured. 

** It may be worthy the reader's notice to 
observe what regularity doi*s ; since there can- 
not be any other |>artlcu1av reason given for 
general \\ ashingtou's Miperiiar |x>wers than his 
correctness, that made hnn .fable to govern that 
wild country : for it was the opinion of many 
of his most ultimate fri<5iids, that his intellects, 
■were not brighter than thoj^e of many other 
men. To me he apj)earc*J a mild friendly 

. man, in company rather reserved, in private 
speaking witlj candour. His beliaviour to me 
was such, that 1 shall ever revere his name. 
Before he died, general Washinaiton himself, 
with his own hands, closed his eves and 
mouth." 

At page 573 tliis author says he has re- 
coromendecl to government to prevent the 
emigration of uiicertifieated persons : tlie 
grant of this certificnte to depend on the 
clergyman and overseers of tlie parish. 
The only just method of; preventing emi- 
gratiou is tu diiisemuiat^ iustruciiou. Let 



extracts from Mr. Parkinson's book he re- 
printed ill a cheap form, and read aloud 
from tlie pulpit of cfery Welsh parish, if 
it be necessary to resist, by active inter- 
ference, tlie roanaing tendency of the ne- 
cessitous classes : but let no laws imprison 
the Briton in his country. Ratlier let us 
repeal those laws which already resist tli* 
exportation of mechanics and artisans, 
under a foolish and tyrannical pretext d 
their founding elsewhere our manure- 
tures. Skill and industry being more 
highly recompensed in Britain than abroad 
will not find tlieir account in emigrating j 
ignorance and idleness may well be spar^, 
their migration will be an ease to thd 
poor's rate. If tliey can dispose elsewhere 
of their reputation to more advantage, 
they have a iiatnral right to carry it tliitlier. 
Does jVIr. Parkinson secretly mistrust the 
credibility of his own delineation of N<Mth 
America, tlrnt he tliiuks it needful to cor- 
roborate his arguments against emighitioa 
J?y new legislative restrictions ? 

The English farmer who wishes to re- 
move, would probably>find Ireland a more 
profitable resting-place than North Ame- 
rica. There is much good land unculti- 
vated, and still more ill-cultivated, for 
want of skill and of capital, in the western 
island. But the most patriotic specula- 
tion seems to be the enterprize of tropical 
agriculture. Trinidad is still to colonize, 
and the banks of the Esscquibo. Tlie 
same quantity of labour aiKi capital ap- 
plied in the warm countries increases 
much more rapidly tlie mass of produce 
and of wealth, than ,af J)lied in the cold 
countries. We much wish than some 
such book as Mr. Parkinson's Experienced 
Farmer were drawn up in Jamaica or De- 
merary (it might be entitled tlie Tropical 
Planter), containing such plain directions 
for the culture of maize, cotton, coffee, in- 
digo^ sugar, &c. as should facilitate in 
new settlements the transfer of the agri- 
cliltural arts. These things ti-avel much 
too slowly. Mr. Thomas Cooper praised 
timothy-grass in 179^, Mr. Parkinson con- 
firms tlie eulogy : yet timothy-hay is still 
to seek among the productions of BnglLsh 
agriculture. A greater quantity of praise, 
of coaspicuity, of noisy gratitude, must be 
awarded in favour of those men, who 
have the forethought and take the trouble 
to bring over useful animals and plants. 
Lucullus has been immortalized for in- 
troducing to Rome tlio cherry tree ; and 
shall we reserve no recompense, . not at 
least a parsley-wreath, for the brow who 
will introduce tbe Americaa. hsu, that 



i COLLECTION OFMPDEKN AND CONTEMPORARY VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 85 



lars eggs in the Christmas holidays ? Per- 
haps Mr. Parkinson has the merit not 
liierclj of obiierving, but of bringing over 
KTend of these useAil articles. 

This book is not neatly put together. 
Some facts, as the eflect of plaster of Paris 
on a turnip-crop in its early stage of ^rowtli, 
tre repeatedly narrated. Softie state- 
ments, as that concerning s\vapip-grass, 
arc ac^Lwardly interrupted to talk about 
sheep or the weather, and tlien returned 



to again as unexpectedly. "Some rela- 
tions, as those concerning tlie Indian war-* 
fere, which do not repose on personal en-- 
quiries, and are disconnected wiih tlie- 
chief topic, might haw been wholly omit- 
ted witli advantage. The grouping of to- 
pics, the treating of each thing in its pro-- 
per place, is as favourable to compression 
as to interest. These two volumes re- 
duced to one would form a Qompleter 
work. 



Art. XV. A Collection of Modern and Contemporary Foya^es and Travels: containing, 
1, Translations from Foreign Lcmguages, oj Foyages ima Travels ntvtr before trans" 
latcd; 2. Original l-'oyages and Travds never before published ; 3. Analyses tf NtSii 
Voyages and Travels publisfied in England. Vol. 1, 8vo. •» 



WHEN books of every kind are be- 
come so extravagantly dear, any plan 
^hich renders useful works more acces- 
sible is sure 6f our approbation. The plan 
of the present requires no explanation 
fnrther than what the title-page conveys ; 
ii is a collection of travels, not a compF- 
Jation, printed In a fair, clear, well-pro- 
portioned type, on good paper, each page 
cnDtaining more than two of such quartos 
as it not unfrequently falls fo our lot to 
notice ; yet the page is not crouded, and 
the letter not unpleasantly small. The 
canteuts of the volume must be noticed 
separately, 

Trazeh in Istryia and Dalmatia, draxim up 
from the Itinjerary of X. F. Cassas, Author 
and Editor of the Picturesque Travels in 
^yria, Fhitnicia, Palestine, and Lozvtr 
StpWt. ity J OS E p H Lav ALLE E, Member 
<^ the Polt/techmc Sotiety, of the Society 
^ Arts and Sciences cf Paris, of tlie 
Azriculturat Society of the Seine and 
Juarne, dfc. Translated from the French. 

THE first part of tliese travels, which 
contained an historical account of Uie 
countries through which M. Cassjis tra- 
velled, has been omitted by the translator. 
We do not approve of such mutilations, 
but as this introduction was the work of 
M. Lavallce, the French editor, not of 
the author himself, it is of less conse- 
quence. TTxe chapter abridged from it, 
which relates to tlie manners and customs 
of the Morlachians, is the most valuable 
in the whole. 

The origin of this people is uncertain. 
Tliey arc dispersed o/cr Dalmatia, though 
principally among the mountains in the 
Ulterior, and extend towards Germany, 
Hungary, and even Greece. Two distinct 
races seem to be confounded under one 
naine, the one of Celtic, tlie other of 
Asidtic physiognomy and complection. 
TiN^e latier are the mountaioeers^ ^d the 



least civilized. They are robbers by pro- 
fession, but religious enough to prefer 
robbing Turks to Christians : the science 
of thieving is carriod by Uiem to the 
greatest possible perfection, and ihey re- 
semble the Arabs in their inflexible fide- 
lity when once their * faitli is pledged. 
They are;, remarkable also for hospitality, 
the virtue of barbarians not of savages 5 
the Morlachian who has a good stock of 
provisions sliares them with his neigh-^ 
bpurs, and partakes of their abundance in 
his turn ; if he is in want he enters h^^ 
neighbour-s house, takes a place at the 
table, and remains as long as he pleases. 
. The custom of vowing friend^iip .it 
very remarkable, 

** Two young men, or girls, associate to»' 
gether ; and their union is consolidated by a 
common education, custom, uniformity of 
character, and sometimes by those i mforesecr^ 
and sud<len emotions of sympathv, which 
often arise in the liuman breast. \Vhen two 
voung- pei-sons agree to live in this kind of 
harmony, they repair to the church, accom- 
panied by tlieiV relations ; and the priest oifers 
a benediction on the union, uliich becomes in- 
vioiable. Two girls. joined in this mamier, 
are called posestrimo ; and two men, pobrat 
timi. They are tiieii inseparable for the rest 
of their lives: evei^ circumstance has a com- 
mon -interest betwegi them ; pleasures, cha- 
grin, dangers, injuru»s, and reverse of fortune ; 
all, in short, is divided between the pobratimi 
and his comrade ; and tlie posestrime and her 
friend. Even the sacrifice of life has often 
signalised these ardent attachments ; and, if 
two pobratimi should happen to dissolve their 
union, the event is regarded as a public cala- 
mity, and as the forerunner of some great 
misfortune with which the nation is threat- 
ened." 

But this singular custom is becoming of 
less effect as strong liquors become more 
common among them, and they get in- 
fected with the despicable vices of thQ 
Jtalian^. 



86 



VOYAGES AND TRAVEJi;: 



, a p9«siim wliich needs no (os^ 
tMriog, is inculcated aa a duty. In case of 
a murder the bloody clothes of the slam 
are [deserved by his family^ and shown 
to the children. Forgiveness is unknown -, 
they will in some cantons accept money 
as the price of blood, but otherwise ven- 
geance is sure to be taken. The death of 
the offender does not put an end to the 
feud, his family inherit the danger. Some 
follow theGreek church, some the Romish, 
the priests of both sects being equally ig- 
norant The superstition of Vampirism 
prevails here as m Hungary and Greece ; 
out th^ Morlachians, more prudent than 
their neighbours, take meastu-es to prevent 
tjie mi^chief• ikfore the funeral they 
ham-string the corpse, mark certain cha- 
racters upon it with a hot iron, drive nails 
into it, repeat charms over it, and then it 
ii as peaceable in the grave as an obstre- 
perous English ghost when laid in the Red 
Sea. What is the origin and where of 
this widely-extended and most horrible 
superstition ? Their paganism, whatever 
It may have beep, is not altogether forgot- 
ten ; the names of their andent gods are 
jjways repeated in the bridal song. 

They have tlieir minstrels or ballad- 
singers, whom M. Cassas calls chaimters, 
there is never a feast without one. 

" The songs, which are in the Illyrian idi- 
om, but corrupted by their transmission, 
thnoqgh a number of ages, describe the his- 
tory of some Sclavonian heroes, or relate to 
some tragical event ; the time of which is for- 
gotten, lliis heroical song b grave, heavy, 
and monotonous. The instrument with which 
it is accompanied, is but little calculated to 
give it animation : it is a miserable monochord 
guitar ;• the sound of which is dull, and with- 
out modulation. The poetry, however, is 
not without energy : it does not posses^ the sa- 
Vage wildness of that of Ossian ; but some- 
times has that august kind of simplicity, which 
pinietrates to the soul. If a Morlachian lr?k-' 
vel by night amongst the mountains, he ge- 
nerally sings; and these antique poems are 
always the songs which he prefers. A long 
exclamation, or rather a barbarous and m- 
longed crv, precedes each strophe. It oTtefi 
happens that this song is heard a^far off by 
some other Morlachian, who never fails tore- 
peat, in the same tone, the couplet which the 
other has chaunted ; and they thus answer 
each other as long as they can be heaid. It 
zs impossible to describe the species of dui- 
ncss or melancholy, which thb landof muf^ical 
dialogue spreads through tlie soul, the doleful 
expression of which is prolonged in echos by 
the desart mountahis, amidst the profoimd si- 
lence and solitude of niglit." 

Wiiy did not M. Cassas colkct$oine of 



these songs ? Wliat a hint is here for 
some Italian Macpherson I 

The women are hardly used ; in this 
respect tiie Morlachians are savages, not 
barbarians. The wife never partakes her 
busband^s bed, she is obliged to sle^ oia 
the floor, and the roost disgusting dnploy* 
ments and hardest labour is her k>t. The 
children of course in such a state of so- 
ciety receive little attention, they are suf- 
fered to crawl about almost naked, and 
they who survive the seasoning become 
hardy and agile. Their conunoa drink 
is milk made into whey with vinegar. 
Wine and peppet fbrra their febrifuge | 
pepper and gun-powder infused in brandy 
their panacea ; it will scarcely be believed, 
says the writer, that this remedy is oftea 
attended with success 3 perhaps, however^ 
they are indebted for their cure to the 
abundant perspiration which it induces. 
Red ochre mixed with fat substances is 
the only ointment they apply to wounds 
and contusions ; and it is a fact, he says, 
that from the experience of the Moiia- 
chians, some men of science have ob* 
tained from this oiptment, in similar cir- 
cumstances, the toost favourable results. 
For rheumatism, to which they are very 
subject, tiiey apply a heated stone wrapp- 
ed in damp linen. 

The travels of M. Cassas were perform- 
ed in the year 1782 ; he was sent by a so- 
ciety of admirers of the fine arts to make 
views of the scenery and architectural re- 
mains in the vicinFty of Trieste, which 
were to be engraved at Vienna, under the 
patrondge of the emperor Joseph II. but 
the artist, finding that the coasts of Istria 
and Dalmatia abounded witli rich remains 
of antiquity, resolved to extend his la* 
hours. The first place of importance 
which be visited was Pola, whose magni- 
ficent amphitheatre is now called the Or- 
landina ; so luutied, he conjectures, by ig- 
norfint banditti, who admired the poem of 
ArioM, and this guess is as good as any 
other. His coasting; voyage was endanger^ 
ed not merely by the storms so frequent in 
those seas, but also by pirates, from whom . 
he once narrowly escaped, lying hid in 
his vessel in a little creek, covered with 
tfees, while the pirate boat brushed, the 
veiy branches which concealed it. H« 
examined the remains of antiquity at Zua 
and at Asseria, now called Podgragc, a 
place which strongly excited his cu- 
riosity, and made a short stay at Se* 
benico, next to Zara the pleasantest 
town in Dalmatia. They have a cu- 
rious custom here of electing a king 



A COLLECTION OF If O^DERK An6 CdlTtllM'rOtAtt VOYAGBS JLND TRAVELS. Bf 



it Christmas, vhosS reign lasts only a 
fertnight* • 

" For a length of tinio, tins panfomimkal 
kmj; was cho:;en from amongst tlie Yiobk*s ; 
but at present, they th'aik it beneath them le 
amuse themselves witli such biitfoonery ; and 
this chimerical crown ha>, then-fote, devolved 
to what U called, in Italy, a man from the 
dn-gs of the people. M. Cassas, who was at 
iJehmico only in the sunuiier season, was hot, 
ronsjquently, witness to this ceremony ; but 
Fortis asert;; tJial this king, notwithstanding 
the short duration of his autiiority, enjoyed 
«ercTal pren^tives of sovereigniv ; such^for 
example, as tltat of lading tlie "keys of the 
town, ai having a distinguished place in the 
cathedra], and of cfeciding upon all the diffi- 
ciiities or disputes which arise amongst those 
who compose his court. The town is obliged 
tri provicle him with a houf^ suitable to thte^ 
dfg;iiity of his elevated sitoation. When he 
teave« his hoose, he is always forced to Weaj* 
a crown of wheat-oars ; and he cannot appear 
in pubtic without a robe of puq)le. or starlet 
cloth, and surrounded by a great nuinber of 
officeR. The govei^Ksr, the b^oi>s, and 
other dignitaries, are obliged to give him a 
ieast; and aU who meet hun must salute him 
^itli respect. When the fortnight is At aik 
end, the king quits his [)alace> strips ofif his 
crown and purple, dismisses Im court, and 
returns to his hovd. On con^^idering this ce- 
remony, in a certain point of view, its Iblly 
might seem to have a phiiosOphidl end: it 
micht fiirnjsh an annual type ot the instability 
of human grandeur ; but it is doubtful whether* 
those who instituted it had sttch an idea in ' 
tricw." 

Many instances of ^nailar customs In 
other parts of fisrope mi^ht be mention- 
od, resemblix^ more or less the Satur* 
nalia. 

The cascade of Scardona is diescribed at 
great length, and with much artistical en* 
thnsiasm ; but mere description can give 
knt very inadequate ideas of such scenery j 
and here, as indeed in most parts of these 
travels, we haf\'e to regret thit die original 
work is not before m. We cannot form 
fi &ir opinioii of M. Cassas, who is profes* 
sionally an artist, v.htn we read his des- 
<^lption and do not see his views. The 
long account of Spalatro occasioned a si- 
milar regret, for the lew aqua-tints in tliis 
pablication, t&onghto the foil aii respect- 
able as can be etpocted, aie of little va- 
lue. In feet, this is ond of th<i books 
which fheold not have befcn iheinded in 
»di a collection as the present What 
can be more ill-contrived than to ^t the 
vohime of an artist c^ its prints ? 

One remai-kable Qitract shall conchid^ 
«itr aecount ef these travels ; h dt^HjH 



" Thisti\^Ttmsbetwe<inTQc!u Of a con- 
siderabfe height, ^^hosc ruggedoesli is insur* 
moitotable, even by the most ^venturous 
herdsman; ^ove these rocks appear the an- 
ticine and dismantled towers of the old castle 
df Novoscogtio, exhibiting tiie vestiges of sa- 
vage feudalit)', m the bosonl of more savage 
nature. Not far from this spot is the village 
of i^an-Canciano, or Saint-Kosiun, which is 
likewise situated on the summit of the rocks. 
At the foot of diis village, the fiuecca affords 
to those who take' delight in the plicnomcia of 
nature, a spectacle the like of wnich is seidOni 
to be found in the world : in tliis p^rt the £s- 
siu*e in the rocks is so vertical, that they ap- 
pear to have been cut by the hand of man, 
and this ste^ness is cverV where alike, how- 
ever various may be the \incs which they fol- 
l6w hfi their super-position ; but what adds stiS 
more to their sin9;\ilanty^ is then* summit!^ 
which are ait with a sort of syinmetry, and 
appear like so many square towers, that com- 
mand and seem to defend thotte gigantic 
walls, or they might rather be taken for bat- 
tlements. At the base, that is to say, in the ^ 
almost uniiUliomable abyss fonned by these 
natural ramparts, the Ruecca wmds land runl 
with a k>rt of majestic slowtieSs, seeming tti 
disdain the opposition of the blocks . witii 
which Jts bed » cvclry where interspersed, till 
it suddenly arnves at an immense cavity, the 
frightful and sombre peristyle of a subterra- 
neous gallery, ot wiiich the terrified imagiiia- 
tion can neither guess nor measure the dei)tli; 
In fact this gulph ihay be described as an 
enormous and inconceivable precipice, in 
wWch the waters of the Ruecca faU, witli a 
tremendous noise, and are lost from the ob- 
servance of man •, but whither they go, to 
what depth they fall, or how long they have 
disappe^ircd ui this .receptacle, ho has nevt- r 
been able to ascertain, during thousands of 
generations, and manj ages will doubtless yet 
pass aWay before this mystery will bo disco- 
vered. No one can conceive the dreadful 
and incessant ioarihg of the waves, m the deep 
cavities of this impenetrable abyss, nor the 
tL*rror which ^izes on the spectator, at his 
lipt view of file guiph. It is here, by his 
unexpected humiliation, tliat man is compell- ^ 
ed to acktiowledgie th«^ Ihnited extent ot liis < 
rfilnd ; and ihougn every where else he may 
be proud to tliink and act like a god, he here, 
jKirhaps for the first tltnO, perceives his infoi^ 
liiation to be .only that of a subordinate crea- 
ture. But this IS not all, for the traveller, if 
he pi'ocecd jio further, \yill have but an in- 
complete idea of the singular destiny of the 
Ruecca ; he must, if possible, pass this mounr 
tdin, or rather this gigantic wall, the fractured 
sides of which absorb Ihe fiver. The other 
^dc affords A spectacle not less extraordinary, 
and perhaps still more wild ; the samerueged* 
ncss and nudity in the rocks, but more disor^ 
der and confusion : the masses, which are 
equally vertical here, obstruct, intersect, and 
pass each other hi various directions, while tlie 
summits frequently come m contact, and at 
oihir times appear at a considctabl6 dislan&e 



7" '* 



B3 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



from each oilier ; m short, the whole presents- 
the most shapeless and tcrriiic chaos. It is in 
the midst of these numerons blocks, that the 
Riiecca, a'fter meandering throngh tlie bowels 
of the mountain, issues vidlcntly fi'om a deep 
and narrow fissure, and disgorges itself into a 
large basin, six hundred feet below the level 
of San-Cantiano, which is so shaded by the 
elevation of the rocks, that it is constantly 
inaccessible to the rays of the sun. It is even 
pretended, that all attempts to ascertain its 
depth by sounding have proved ineffectual. 
In ^t, this may be considered as the tomb 
of a river, so remarkable for its adventures : 
the threads of water which trickle from the 
ovcrtiowhig of the basin, after having nui 
ior some time across the rocks that lie dispers- 
ed below this kind of crater, diminish till they 
At length become imperceptible^ and thus tlie 
Kuecca <iisappears for ever." 

The language of the translation is disfi- 
gured by inflated phrases. We are told 
that the Romans surrounded the town of 
Pola with their omnipotence, and we read 
of the anfructuX)slU€S of a rock [ 

Travels through Denmark, Sweden, Austria, 
and Part^ of Italy, in 179S and 1799, ht/ 
Charles Gottlob Kuttner. Trans'- 
laicdjrom tlie German, • 

Kuttner is a good, sensible, plain mat- 
ter-of-fact German traveller, who tells you 
all he sees, which is not so much as a man 
with better eyes would have seen, and all 
he learns by inquiry, in which he seems 
never to have been deficient. His book 
would be an excellent companion for tra- 
vellers following his track, as it is full of 
useful information. Here again we have 
to complain of mutilation. The trans- 
lator has judged it proper to dispense witJi 
the desultory observations on Hamburgh 
and other well-known parts of Germany, 
and has conducted th^ reader at once to 
tlie autliofs entrance into Denmark. 

The account «f Denmark is in general 
very favourable — such was the order, 
cleanliness, and comfort in die isle of Fu- 
fien, that the traveller could have fancied 
himself in Holland ; tlie smallest cottages 
were comfortable, there were no traces of 
opulence, and scarcely any of poverty.* 
Copenhagen is described as one of the 
finest capitals in Kurope. Every thing is 
extremely dead there j though I should 
spend more in the course of a yenr In/ 
London, says the traveller, yet here I coht'. 
sider many articles as dcjrcr, because , 
they are so much worse. Religion, he; 
Rays, appears to be out of fashion at Co- : 
penhagen, as in most otlier places ; this ' 
it should be remembered is the remark of 
a German. The royal library is one of the 



most extensive in ffliftstendom ; it haJ " * 
just received an accMsion of one hundred 
thousand volumes. We have beard ainc©- 
tliat nearly tliat number of duplicates have 
been sold from it. But the most inte- 
resting institution is the lying-in hospital^ 
where all mid wives in the Dauisli domi- 
nions ought to have studied. 

'* This institution is properly a kind of 
foundling-hospital, in whicn mothers may not 
only place their children, but where they may- 
also be delivered. All pr^nant women of 
what.ever condition, religion, or country, are 
admitted, wiUiout being asked any questions ; 
they are even allowed to come in masks and 
to retain them during their residence there. 
This building formerly had, in an aperture in 
the wall, a machine similar to those I liave 
seen at Milan, and in other foundling-hospitals^ 
in which a person may place the cliild, turn 
the machine inwards, then ring the bell and 
go away. This has iKJwever been removed ; 
and the king has ordered every female wlio 
presents herself to be admittcni, only wiih 
certain liniitatidns as to lime. Married women 
frequently apply for admittance ; and, at their 
departure, are even at liberty to leave their 
children behind them* Women of rank and 
property frequently avail theniselves of this 
general licence, because they here find better 
attendance, and superior conveniences, to 
what they could possibly enjoy in their own 
houses ; and for which they, of course, pay. 
The best accommodations for ladies of this 
"description cost rifteini dollars per week. Tliere 
are. other apartments for twelve, and others 
again as low as eight dollars. 

" 1'he lodgings of the pnmarried are sepa- 
rate from those of the manicd women. In 
this regulation, I thougfit 1 discovered that a 
distinction \yas made between tlie children of 
love and the offspring of the man iage-bed,. 
which, in an institution of this nature, appear- 
ed rather improper. 1 was, however, inform-, 
cM, that this regulation was introduced, lest 
the single ladies, by living among those who 
were married, might meet with some of their 
actjuaintance, and thus be discovered. Tlie 
apartments for twelve and lifteen dollars are 
liandsonie, and, in general, spacious and con- 
venient. At my desire, I was shewn several 
rooms, for the reception of those who are 
gratuitously admitted into tliis institution ; and 
found tiiein all clean," conmiodit)u>, and com- 
fortable." 

German \^ universally understood in this • 
c*ipital; it is but lately that tlve Danes 
have taken an>» pride in their own lan- 
g^iage J all the. laws and public inscriptions 
are now in Danish, and they will soon 
, have their own poets and hist(xrians. On. 
ithe road to l']Lsiiior lie p5i»sed through the 
estate of count Bernstorf, who made all 
his peasantry free ; at lirst they considered * 
tiiis as no great beaclit^ but they have felt; 



A €0LLECnOH ^F MODERN AND COKTEMPP^ART v6TAG£a AND TRATStS. 8§ 



its advantages, and have erected a monu- 
me&t ID gratitude to tlieir emaucipator. 

On entering Sweden an alteration was 
wm risible ; the appearances of comfort 
aod respectability about the cottages were 
zwt to be seen. The roads are even bet- 
ter than in Englaud, unnecessarily goed 
aod mimerous in a country of compara« 
tirely little trade^ and thin population. In 
some parts nothing but Swedish was 
spoken, but Kuttner confirms the obser- 
Tation so often made by others, that wo- 
men understand every compliment paid to 
them, be it in wliatever language it may. 
• At Fredericshali he visited the spot where 
' Charles XII. fell ; the trophies and inscrip- 
tions which marked it have been all de- 
molished, and in their stead nothing is to 
be seen but a wooden cross, painted white, 
on which is written the sie^e, Dec. 11, 
1/18. The traveller says • that the king 
. vas killed by a musket-shot from the ram* 
part, I have not the smallest doubt; for 
in my opinion the nearest part of it is 
scarcely six hundred feet in a direct line 
from the spot.* Without expressing any 
qunion upon this much-controverted ques- 
tion, we must remark that' Xiittner has 
been \ery easily satisfied. It is by no 
Rieans proof enough tliat he was killed 
ftom the ramparts, to tell us tiiat he was 
vithin shot. 

The scenery in Norway is described as 
ail travellers describe it ; nothing can be 
lyiore exquisitel}- picturesque. Govern- 
ment, he says, endeavours to prevent the 
improvement of the country 5 there seems 
no proof of the heavy accusation ; if tiiey 
have not thought proper to establish a uni- 
Tcrsity at Christiana, it may have been 
becanse tlie place v/ould not support one, 
Mr. Coxe b often mentioned to be qor- 
lected. . 

Stockliolm is well described; the ac- 
coont of the king s character is not plea- 
sant, yet cannot be called unfavourable. 
He is said to he uncommonly grave, uu- 
natunilly it might have been said, if it be 
true that he has never been seen to laugh ; 
his manners are cold and austere 3 even 
his former play-fellows have been severe- 
ly reprimanded if they ever seemed to re- 
coileci that their sovereign had once been 
tiieir tiieqd. He dreads nothing so much 
as the idea that any |x?rson possesses or 
seeks to obtain an infineuce over him. 
But, on tlie other hand, he pays due attcn- 
t^^ni to the finances of aft impoverished 
oonntiy, and exercise^ a strict economy, 
the higlvst virtue whiclja king of Sweden 
can e&erclse ^t pre^eut^ wiihoi^t t^e sli§ht<- 



est derogation from a proper dignity and 
splendour. . The opinion of his charactet 
may be misconceived, but the favourable 
account of his conduct rests upon facts 
which cannot have been mistaken. 

The late^ king is said to have been a 
complete Frenchman in his taste. There 
is in the library at Upsal a large box, on 
which stands a smaller one, both secured 
with strong chains and locks. They were 
given by the late king to the university, 
with the injunction tliat they should not be 
opened for "fifty years. Thunberg has 
given his beautiful collection to this uni- 
versity. 

The Swedish raaAufactures are not in 
A thriving stata ; English goods are far 
better, and even when smuggled clieaper. 

From Sweden he entered G'ermany, 
An account of the Hermhutt^rs merits 
transcription, 

" The bretlirens' house, that is the house 
inhabited by the unmarried men, and where 
they all worlc for the general benefit of the so- 
ciety, has a mean appearance, both internally 
and' externally. I'liey have their comment 
donnitory and refectory ; but there are tables 
at ditferent prices, wliich each is at liberty to 
chiise, according to his taste and abilities. 
Most of them are artisans ; and tJic excellence 
of their work consists in a certain neatness, 
finish, and durability. But as the articles 
macle here are on the' whole better than thost 
manufactured m other places, they are neces- 
sarily dearer. 

"In the sisters* house eveiy thing appear- 
ed to me to be on a belter footing. and a more 
extensive scale. 1 he exterior is more respec- 
table, the acoommodatioiis are superior, and 
the whole has a neater and more pleasing ap- 
pearance. This is the habitation of the gu- 
inarrred sisters, who are subject to regulation^ 
perfectly similar to those of ^he brethren. 

*' What made the most impression on me 
was the burying-ground, which is situated on 
an eminence, conmianding the finest prospect 
of any in the vicinity of licrnihutt. It forms 
an extensive square, inclosed by a hedge, and 
intciTscctt'd by alleys ; over each grave is 
placed a ilat stone* recordiiig the name and 
native country of the deccast-d, together with 
the year in which he 'd'tnt home, or, as it is 
more frequently expressed, fdl asktp. Th« 
graves in the pnncipal Ihic, nearly in the centre 
of tills ground, were particularly interesting 
to me ; they contain persons from es'ery coiui- 
try hi Europe, and I migiit ahuost s.ay from 
every part 01 the world. On the most elevat- 
ed point of this burying-ground a kmd of pa- 
vilion or small w^oodeu tower has been erect- 
ed, the view from which is extremely bealiliful. 

" Do you know tliat the directors of 
all the congregations of the evangelical 
bretiiren in tlie world, reside in a vil- 
lage, two miles from tUis place ! It is called- 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



Bctlwfedorf; «nd 38 by right the birth-place of 
4he omereiQKtioii, for it was there that count 
2iBzen&il collected the first Moravian bre- 
thren. These directors are called tlie Unity's 
tlders' Confercoce, whicii is generally com- 
posed of from twelve to fourteeji persons, who 
iiever have any fixed place of resiiVhce. These 
govern the tvhole htitemity with unlimited 
pavrcT during a certain number of years, at 
the end of which a «ynod, composed of depu- 
ties from the congregations in every part of 
the world, is held, and a new Eldcrfi Coiife- 
Tcnce appointed. The men^rs of this con- 
ference constantly remain together, and the 
affairs of the unity occupy their whole atten- 
tion. In this conference the German nation 
«>pears to possess the sam»j preponderance as 
the Italian in the college of cardmak ; indeed, 
I am informed that all the members oif tfa6 
present are Germans." 

' Tkb linen manufactures of lAisatra are 
«n the decline. Great quantities were 
Ibrmerly exported to Spain and South 
America, but cotton is supersedii^ linen. 
It is one proof of Bruce's wisdom that be 
fccesaw this. * Cotton,' he says, • after 
^rool shonld be the ^vourite maaufacture 
of Gieat Britain. It will in time take 
place of that isngrate^il culture flax ; will 
em{>loj moie hands,, and be a more ample 
field for distinguishing the ingenuity of 
our manufacturers." The cloth febrlcs 
flourish in Losatia, improved by the im- 
portation of Spanish rams, and the in- 
creased attention paid to the breed of 
ibeep. 

The Thefesiairam at Vienna is justly 
insured by KQttner. This seminary for 
the children of the nobility was founded, 
is its name implies, by the empress The- 
lesa, suppressed by Joseph II., and re- 
establisfied by the present emperor. A 
more mischierous institution never waa 
conceived by the spirit of arisiscratical ab- 
aurc^ty. 

"The pnpils'are here separated, from in- 
fency, from the rest of the world, that they 
may receive an education which, at every 
itep, announces to them that they are beings 
6f a higher order. On viewing the interior of 
the institntion, the spectator is astonished at 
the degant -aiid extensive apartments of the 
Abbot or prelate, who has the inspection of 
the Wiole; the vast and splendid halls in' 
which the pupils dine, play at billiards, receive 
Company, and occasionally ijive balls; the 
stables, which contain forty-six horses, and 
toom for a greater number ; the large riding- 
School, the spacious garden, the copious n- 
hrary, a^rtd the magnificent lecture-rooms. 
These young gentlemen daily have six dishes 
.for dinner. Many of them will, probably, in 
the course of their future lives, be obliged to 
put up with less, and will here lay the fbunda- 
von oif discenteat with their circ«uMascc9 a&4 



situations, that will embitter the remaindo- df 
their days. Many a future ofiicer will here 
make a bad prepfation for the want and the 
hardships which are so often inseparable from 
a military life." 

" The pupils in general arc never left by 
themselves, they are at all times obliged to 
conduct themselves like gentlemen, and ate 
never sufl'ered to indulge, free from restrain^ 
in those childish sports aud innocent diver* 
sions which constitute the deRght of boyhood. 
In all the corridors, I observed attendants^ 
and they appear to be watched in the strictest 
manner. This indeed is a methotl of prevent- 
ing the extravagancies which boys in" the 
English schools sometimes commit; but it 
is the liberty they enjoy that gives the telkT 
that independence and limmess of character, 
which distinguish the English nation, and 
whicii it is impossible that persons educated 
in this place should possess." 

The institution for the deaf and dumb ^ 
is said to be more successful than that of 
the abbe dt TEpce. It is hot perhaps ge- 
nerally known that the first person ^^'ho 
carried this art to perfection, and probably 
the first who ever practised it, was Fr. 
Pedro Ponce, a Spanish benedictine of 
the sbtteenth century. One of hfe pupils 
was an excellent Latin scholar^ and had 
even acquired some Greek. 

The mortality in Vienna exceeds that 
of any other place in Euiope : the annual 
proportion of deaths is calculated at one 
in twenty, and Kiittner tliinks it is under- 
rated. What can be the cause of this pro- 
digious consumption of life ? — Some anec- 
dotes of Joseph are related, all highly fa- 
vourable to his character. What is said 
of the reigning emperor is also in his fa- 
vour ; he follows the simple unostenta* 
tious manners of Joseph, aud is -beloved 
by the people. A proportionably greater 
quantity of animal' food is consumed in 
Vienna than in London, not that the 
Austrian^ eat more, but because their 
p(X)r eat mekt, and the English poor do 
not. At Leebch the traveller heard dread- 
ful anecdotes of the French ; tlieir atro- 
cious conduct towards women exceeded 
any thhig he had ever . heard before. 
Throughout Styria the only complaint 
against the government was that it liad 
agreed to the preliminaries of peace too 
floon^ whereas if it had sufiercd the pea- 
santry to oppose the French and defend 
themselves, it was confidently maintained 
that verj' few of the invaders could hard 
escaped out of the country. Kuttner 
himself thinks that the French army might 
•have been destroyed. 

He proceeded to Trieste and Veaict, 
a cit/ eadly changed from what it Was. 



HICQAOX 8 TBAVBLt TO TBS AX-LEOAITr MOVKTAIlTl. 



91 



^ "The cotAns^ between the f<5rraer and 
ment times is do where so striking as on the 
grand canal, which is now very dead in com- . 
vartson with what it once was. *' What b 
Kcome of all the gondolas which used to 
svann on this canal ?** — La rivolutione ! they 
itpiy, with an Italian shrug. "But there 
must ^et be a great number of opulent iauii- 
lim wflo [>ay visits, or go abroad to take the 
air ?"— itowio in casu — " They remain at 
home,'* B the answer. — " And the numerous 
boats and gondolas, which formerly rowed for 
wagers, while a crowd of loiterers ran after 
theBi> And the many gondoliers and boat- 
men who used to sing and laugh and joke of 
an erenii^?'* — Non hanno piuspirito — 
•• They have no ^[Hrits, or life.' —I frequently 
become impatient at such unsatisfactory an- 
t«rcn; but it is certain, that in these respects 
a great alteration has taken place at Venice.'^ 
From thence Kiittner returned by way 
of Padua, Verona, thel^^^^ Munich, and 
Ratisbonj to Hamburgh^ where he con- 
cludes his travels. The book contains so 
much good sound information, that we 
ate sorry it lias been in the slightest de- 
gree abridged. 

Travels to the toesttoard of the AUegany 
Moimteuns, Sfc. By F. A. Michaux. 

A s^arate publication having been noade 

AjtT. XVI. Travels to- the westward of the Allettmu Mountams^ in the States qf Ohio, 
Milftiichff and Tennessee: in the Year 1802. ^^ F. A. Michaux, Af, D, translated from 
.r. _. , « r . r, # I _. «... pp.350. 

period of more than ten years, made nu- 



of another translation of this work, we flhai) 
refer the reader for an account of it to the 
next article.' 

The next portion of tlie volunae i? oc- 
cupied by an itinerary from London to 
Coastantinople in sixty days, taken in the 
suite of his excellency the British ambas- 
sador to the Ottoman Forte in 1/94. It 
may be advantageously consulted by fu- 
ture travellers, but requires no mther 
notice. . * 

The remaining articles are analyses of 
new voyages and travels lately published 
in London, a portion of the work wUch 
ought to be omitted. The editor asserts 
that his abstract of captain Woodward's 
narrative contains in the small compass of 
thirty- two pages every passage worthy of 
preservation in the whole* work. How 
far this may accord with the custom of 
the more respectable Loudon publishers 
we know not, but to us these kind of 
abridgments appear little better thati pi* 
racies. Tliese analyses should be dispens* 
ed with, and no retrenchments made £iam 
the other works — the publicatian weoU 
then really be valuable. 



-. the original French, hy B, Lambert, 8vo. 

TH£ name of Michaux is well known 
to the lovers of botany j and will ever be 
Eratefblly remembered by all who know 
how to appreciate the valae of an enter- 
prising atKl laborious life, devoted to the 
JNirsuit of natural science, with a conti- 
nual regard to the general good of man- 
kind. iVndr6 Michaux, the father of our 
tveseot traveller, having visited England, 
and traversed the mountains of Auvei^gne, 
the PTrenees, and port of Spain, for the 
sake of improving his botanical* know- 
ledge, and as a preparation for more dis- 
tant and more hazardous expeditions^ in 
the year 1782 accompanied the French 
consul to Persia, under the patronage of 
Monsieur the present claunant of tlie 
crown of France ; and spent two years in 
expiodi^ the vegetable riches of that 
country, from the gulf of Persia to the 
Caspian sea. In 1785 he was sent by the 
French government to Nortii America, 
with a commission to collect tlie seeds 
and roots of such plants as promised to be 
eidier useful, ornamental, or cuiious, if 
€uki\'ated and naturalised in France. For 
thb purpose he establislied gardens in the 
.Mtghb(Hirhood of New York and Charles- 
Wwn ia South Carolina, and, during a 



merous excursions pverdiflferent parts of 
that vast continent, from the coast of the 
Atlantic to the banks of the Ohio | and 
from the Bahama islands and Florida to 
the upper part of the river which &lls 
into Hudson's bay \ and sent to hia em- 
ployers, from time to time, laive quanti- 
ties of seeds .and young trees which have 
been propagated in France and oth6r cbun- 
tries of Europe $ these also be cultivated 
in his two American gardens^ witli the 
addition of many plants from the eld con- 
tinent, which he thought likely to flourish 
and become useful in the new. The dis- 
turbances occasioned by the French revo- 
lution obliged him to return home in the 
year 1 796. But his ardent love of science 
did not permit him to rest satisfied with a 
state of inaction. Disappointed in his de- 
sire of a new appointment to North-Ame- 
rica, he was induced to engage in a 
iNjyage to the Isle of France; and, unfor- 
tunately for the interests of science and 
mankind, in the year 1803 died of the 
country fever in the island of Madagascar. 
Dr. F. A. Michaux, with whom we are 
at present more immediately concerned, 
appears to have Inherited tiic public spirit 



#' 



VOYAGES 'AND TRAVELl 



Ittid intl-epidity of his father, whom he had 
Accompanied in his thivels through several 
parts of North America. On that account 
tie was. selected by M. Chaptal, minister 
of the interior, to takp another yoyage to^ 
Worth America, for the purpose of send- 
ing to Prance the pjants whipli remained 
|n the two gardeps, and of finally disposing 
q{ the grpimd. The garden in the neigh- 
bourhood of Charlestown, we are happyi 
to learn, has been purchased by the agri- 
cultural society of South Carolina, and is 
still applied to the u&e for which it waa 
tormed by its philanthropic founder. 
; i)r. Michaux having some months, to 
ifpare, availed himself of the opportunity 
jo pass through tlie new western states 
which, though traversed in part by his 
father,, had not been visited by himself 
during his -former residence in North 
Aancrica. The result is the work now 
befcJre us. .He modestly present^ it td the 
public, not as a compleat account, but as 
a relation of such particulars as occurred 
^o him in a circuitous journey of eighteen 
^iindred miles, through tlie countiy be- 
yond the Allegany mountains, performed 
In the course of three months and a half, 
eometimes on foot, sometimes on horse- 
\acki and for 348 ^mil!^ in a pirogue or 
canoe on the Oh jo^ eitlier alone, or accom- 
panied bv such travellers as he accidentally 
inot with on Jhe way. ,. As a further apo- 
io!Ty for the Wevity of his- narrative, he 
adds^ that when he undertook the journey 
he had no intention of publishing his ob- 
^ervationsj and therefore omitted collect^ 
\ug a muhimde of facts, whicli would 
4iow be pleasant to read, but which at 
that time, he felt no inducement to write. 
His readers, however, xyill have the satis^ 
f;iction to find, that though there are 
niany things which they may wish had 
|)een told, they will mept ^\itl^ nothing 
that is trifting or of dubious autliprity, 
pn Michaux possesses a mind accustomed 
to accurate and extensivje observation, 
vrhirh liaving taken for its iruling principle 
tlie benevolent sentiment of the comic 
poet, humani nihil a vie alicnmn putq, is 
always awake to whatever may.be condu- 
cive to die benefit. of his fellow-nien. . .In 
^very part .of his travels he attends to th'e 
natural advantages and disyd vantages of 
the country, the direction and character 
of its rivers and mountains, its spontane- 
ous productions, its .population, agricul- 
ture, and commerce, the manners of its 
inhabitants, and the means which he 
thinks' likely to beUer their situation, .and 
make them more -respectable, and Iwippjc. 
"His remarks are the more valuable, as 



they relate, td a country which has only 
just begun to be reclaimed from 9 stat^ 
of savage nature, ai^d is qpw advancing 
with uuexan^led peleritf in the arts <$ 
civilized life. 

From Philadelphik to Pittsburg, the 
place of his fii*st destination, is three hunv 
dred dnd ten miles, As fer as Shipperis- 
burg, one hundred and forty miles lit»m 
Philadelphia, there is the convenience of 
a public caniage, of which, as that part of 
the road did not promise much that woulcl 
be new. Dr. Michaux availed himself. . Af 
Shippensburg he joined in tlie purchase 
of a horse with an American officer, who 
had been a fellow-passenger in the stage, 
and tliey agreed to ride and walk by turns. 
After travelling ten miles they came to 
Strasburg, situated at the foot of the first 
chain of the blue ridges. This chain con- 
sists of tfer^e piirallel ridges of equal 
heiglit* sppa^ted by two small vallie$ 
tliinly peopled,''^nd distautjy cultivated. 
Tiie ascent of the first ridge is steep j and 
it cost our travellers three quarters of an 
hour to reach the top. Other ridges sooi^ 
succeed, the intervals between which are 
filled with small hills, till at length the 
Juniata, one of the Streams tributary to 
the Susqueliannah, forms » larger vallej, 
!and afibrds room for a more numerous 
population. .Beyond the Juniata are other 
ridges, the highest of which is the A^e* 
gany,. the boundary of the eastern and 
western waters. It is ascended by a road 
extremely steep^ which requued a labo« 
rious marcli of two hours. On tlie west^ 
era <>ide the soil improves, and the tree^ 
in the woods are of a better kind and 
greater size. The Laurel hill, a ridge 
parallel to the former, derives its name 
from the kalmia latifolia^ and rhododen^^ 
dion maxinpum, both of which are called 
laurels by the inhabitants^ the former^ 
eight or ten ieet high, exclusively occupy- 
ing every spot ahttle open, and the lattei 
covering the banks of tlie torrents. 

Pr. Michaux having been told that in 
Ligonier's valley, on the west side of 
Laurel hill, a shrub is to be found, tlie 
fruit of which yields good, oil, ,his ever- 
acti\ e benevolence impelled him to go in 
search of a production which cannot fail 
to be. of great utility, if .to the valuable 
property of the. olive there be added that 
of l>eing able. to be^r.the^coldof the most 
northern countries. His account of .the 
snccc^ of his expedition shall ,be;givex]i in 
his own words, .. •• 

*'-' The day after my arrhral, I proceede4 
intQ the woods, .and at' mj iiist txcvnkA 
found the shmb which was tne object of my 



JMfCHAUX's TRAVBLS TO THB kttZQASX MQUNTAINS- 



seaidi. I realized it as being the same 
ufaicli my father had discovered tifteen ye^n 
hdSoK ui the mountains of South Carol'uia, 
and which, notwithstanding his care, he could 
mK nuie succt^ed in his garden near Charles- 
ton. Mr. W. Hamilton, who- had also re- 
ceded seeds and shoots from this part of Peim- 
j}kanb, had not been more successftil. '^i'he 
skiii ba-ome so soon rancid, Jhat, in a few 
dav?, tliey lose their germ'mattng property, 
aoti acquire an extraordunary acrimony. Tms 
shmb, which seldom rises more than tour feet 
above the ground, is dioecious. It grows ex- 
diisively on mountains, and is only found in 
ojjI, shady places, where the soil is very fer- 
tile. Its roots, wiiich are of a citron colour, 
are not di\-ided : thev extend horizontally to 
a ^rrat distance, and give birth to off-sets, 
which seldom rise to more than eighteen inclies 
li hoight. The roots and bark yield a dis- 
agnreable smell on being bntised. I charged 
»v host to colkt± half a busl«l of tlie seeds, 
aail to send thwn to Mr. W. Hamilton, point- 
ing out to him the precautions it would be ne- 
c^^^ar^• to take to keep them fresh until tliey 
could reach him.** 

In the Deigbboarhood of Greensburgh, 
thirty-two miles short of Pittsburgh, Dr. 
Mlchau^L discovered unequivocal marks 
of a mine of pitcoal, and was informed 
diat this substance is so easily procured 
as to induce some of the inhabitants both 
of Greensborgh and Pittsburgh to bum it 
for cheapness. Tlie road continues moun« 
tainous to Pittsburg, which is situated at 
the confluence of the Monongahela and 
the Allegany, whose united streams con- 
stitute the Ohio. The former of these 
rivers rises in Virginia, at the foot of what 
is there called the laurel mountain, which 
forms part of the western side of the Al- 
kgany chain, and is navigable to Mor- 
gaa's town^ one hundred and seven miles 
above Pittsburg. Tiie settlements on its 
banks are numerous, and there are several 
small towns in whieh commerce is car- ' 
ried on with great activity. The source 
of the latter is fifteen or twenty miles 
from lake Erie. It is navigable two hun- 
dred miles above its junction with the 
Monongahela, and its banks begin to be 
tolerably peopled. The sugar maple, 
ivhich is always a sign of a fertile soil, is 
very common in all the country, watered 
by the two rivers. 

The Ohio at Fittsburgh is about four 
bnodred yards wide, and vessels of a con- 
siderable tonnage are built upon it and the 
Monongaheki. Oi^e of two hundred tons 
burden was launched at Elizabeth town, 
twenty-three miles above Pittsburg. When 
Dr. Michaux was at PitUd^urg, there was 
on the stocks a three-masted vessel of two 
Imodred dod Mty tofi& burden, which hf 



afterwards learnt had arriv«d aak at Phi- 
ladelphia, and which, before it reached th» 
gulf of Mexico, had to make a river 
voyage of two tliousand two hundred 
miles : and eleven hundred to the junc- 
tion of the Ohio witli the Mississippi, and 
nearly as much to new Orleans . The 
Ohio as far as Limestone, four hundred 
and twenty-five miles from Pittsburgh, is 
navigable for large vessels only in the spring 
and autumn, that is, during the montlis 
of April, . Marcli, May, October, and 
December : at otlier times boats of a mo- 
derate size pass with difficulty : but at 
these two seasons, tlie waters are raised to 
such a height that vessels of three hundred 
tons burden, steered by men well ac- 
quainted with the river, may descend 
with perfect safety. The passage up the 
river is of course difficult, and has not yet 
been mucli practised. When Dr. Mi- 
chaux was passing down in 1802, they 
were sendiiig cotton from Tennessee by 
tlie Ohio to Pittsburg for the first time, 
to be afterwards, dispersed through the 
back part of Pennsylvania and Virginia, 
The boats were pushed up the river by 
poles, and went abput twenty milQs a 
day. The men who conduct the boats 
from Pittsburg to . New Orleans have on 
their return either a fatiguing journey of 
fourteen or fifteen hundred miles by land, 
in six hundred miles of which they pass no 
white settlement, and pnly two or three 
Indian villages, or, which is generally pre- 
ferred, take their passage by sea to Balti- 
more or Philadelphia. Tlie principal ar- 
ticles sent down the Ohio to be exported 
from New Orleaas to the West Indies are 
flour, hams, and smoked pork ; and for 
the consumption of Louisiana bar- iron, 
coarse cloths, bottles made at Pittsburg, 
whiskey, and barrelled buttfer.' 

Tlie current pf the Ohio is exrremely 
rapid in the spring j and the form of the 
boats which navigate it is calculated, not 
to accelerate their progress, but to coun- 
teract the swiftness of the stream .s They 
are from forty to forty^five days in mak- 
ing the passage, but a canoe \\'ith two or 
tliree men will accomplish it in twenty- 
five. In the summer, on the otlier hand, 
except in the straits formed by islands, 
the current is slow. ' It was judged by 
Dr. Michaux, when he went down it, to 
be about a mile and half an hour. At 
this season its waters, owing to the heat 
of the climate arid the slowness of tlie 
ciirrent, acquire so great a degree of heo.t, 
that they are not drinkable till they have 
been kept four and twenty hours ia tlie 
shado; so that theWvigatoi: bf afresh 



VCrrAGES AKt> TIAVEK. 



9k tf)0 distsance of two thou*' 
sand miles from the ^sea, and compared 
with which our boasted Hiames is but d 
bxDok^ often sufiers greatly from thirst. 

Its banks^ although from twenty to 
iixty feet in height^ affi}rd scarcely any 
itony substance in the upper part of its 
coarse. With the exception of some 
]aTge» detached, soft, grey stones for ten 
or twelve miles, they appear to consist 
tnitirely of vegetable earth. A few miles 
above Limestone a calcar^us rock of 
great thickness begins to appear. Two 
kinds of rounded flints are found in the 
bed of the rtv^r ; one of a dark colour, 
easily broken, the other of a white semi- 
transparent quartz^ smaller and less beau- 
tiful. 

fVom Pittsburgh, for nearly three hun- 
dred miles, the Ohio runs between two 
ridges of hills of near equal elevation, 
vluch Dr. Michaux judged to be from 
three to four hundred yards. They are 
sometimes undulated at their sununits, 
but often seem perfectly level for several 
milea^ with occasional intervals, which 
afibrd a passage for the streams that fall 
into the main river. Their direction is 
fatallel to the great chain of the Allega- 
fties, with which they are considered by 
Dr. Michaux to be connected, diougk 
admetimes from forty to a hundred miles, 
distant from. them. Between them and' 
the river there are often flat spaces Ave or 
six miles broad, which ara generally 
known by the name of Riven-bottoms, 
They are covsered with wood, and exceed 
in fertility, perhaps, every other part of the 
western territory, llie greater part of 
tbft large and small rivers, which ^11 into 
the'Ofaio, have alao their rivers-bottoms, 
but generally less rich than these on the 
main river. Dr. Michaux saw a plane 
ttee, platanus occidentalisj on the right 
bank of the Ohio^ which at the height of 
fliur feet^om the ground^ was forty-^even 
flset in circumference. It appeared to 
ke«p the same dimension to the height of 
fifteen or twenty feet, and then divided 
into several branches of a proportional 
thickness. The tulip-tree, lirodendron 
tuHpifcra, perversely called poplar by the 
inhabitants; is, next to the plane the larg* 
cif tree of North America. 

The banks of the river on both sides 
aiB covered with trees, which often con- 
fltitute beautiful vistas. Dr. Michaux 
giipes. a lively picture of one near the 
xboothof the great Kexmaway. 

" For fcaur.or: five miles the Ohio preserves 
itr breadth, whkh is about eigiit hundred 
jBxtts; soui -c^Lfaibilfrthe most perfect alignmeut 



6it esK:h side; Its shelving banks, iising-fhRii 
flve-and-twenty to forty feet, as in the rest of 
its course, are planted at the bottom with wiI-= 
k>w8, tlie pendant branches of which, and the 
dear green of then* foliage, form a veiy pleas^ 
ing contrast with the sugar-maples, red mables, 
and ash-trees, situated immec^ately aoove 
'them ; and thfese, in their turn, are overtopped 
by the plane, the tulip-tree, the beech, and 
the magnolia^ wliich occupy the highest ele- 
vation ; the lat^ branches of these, attracted 
by the brighter light, and (he more easy ex- 
pansion, incline towards the sides, covering 
the trees situated .below them entirely, and 
even stretching much faitherover the river. 
This natural disposition, which prevails on 
both banks of the river, forms a regular sweep- 
on each side, the image of which, reflected by 
the crystal of the water, embellishes this mag- 
nificent pro^ject.'* 

Both banks of the lower part of thai 
Monongahela, as well as those of the 
Ohio, till it takes a southerly direction, 
belong to the state of Pennsylvania, and 
are advancing fast in population. The 
town of Fittsburgin 1802 contained about 
four hundred houses. The remainder of 
the country between the Alleganies and 
the Ohio to its junction with the big 
sandy river, where its- course becomes 
westerly, is in the state of Virginia. ITie 
greater part of it is so OAountainous^ that 
it is settled only a little way up the su- 
bordinate river. But the banks of the 
Ohio, which till 1796 and 1797 were so 
thmly peopled, that them were not more 
than twenty-five or thirty femilies in a 
space of near four hundred miles, have 
since that time attracted so many emi- 
grants, that the plantations are at present 
not more than fl-om one to three miles 
asunder; and some of them are always 
within sight ftom thcmiddleof the river. 
J>r. Michaux is persuaded that its future 
pEQg^ess will keep pace with iu late rapid 

inrmiiiMiii 



" The poskioii olthis river, the most happy 
whkh can be found in the United States, will 
cause It to be considered as the centre of ac- 
tivity of the commerce between the eastem 
and western states: it is by it that the latter 
receive the manufactured artkles furnished t9 
thefir^ by £uf(^, India, said the Antilles; 
and it is the only cliannel of commuriicatlon 
openwith the ocean, for exporting the pro- 
duce of that vast and fertile part of the United 
States, comprized bet\v-een the- Allegany 
mountains, the lakes, and the left bank 01 the- 



" All these advantages, added to the salu- 
brity of the climate, and the beauty of t^ 
situations, enlivenod, in the sprine> by croudi' 
of loaded boats, hurried on with incredible 
rapidity by the current, and by the extsaix^' 
dinary specucle of vessels of heaw burden 



mcHAUx's t»4ViU Taxa&ia.MQAvx vonrrAurs. 



l^i pioceed directly fnwi 4he middle of 
^is Ti4 coDtincui to the West Indies: sdl 
tiioe advantages, I say, make me look to the 
huiks of the Ohio, frgm Pittsburdi to Louia- 
viile, both included, 33 being lu^ely to be, 
vitkjp twenty years, the most nopujous atul 
mostoMnmerctal port of the Umted States.. 
It is also tiiat to which !■ should not hesitate to 
girc the preference, m chusmg my place of 
ifekkaKe." 

Of the state of Ohio, wliich has but 
lately been received into the union. Dr. 
Michms saw only the settlements on the 
right book of tiie river, its boundary from 
the states ot* Virginia and Kentucky. Ma- 
rietta, situated at tb« confluence of the 
great Muskingum with theOhio, one hun« 
died and eighty miles from Pittsburgh by 
water, is the chief establishment in this 
state. It has not existed £tteen years, 
«Ki the number of its houses was in 1 802 
WOK than a hundred. The Muskingum 
ristfs near lake Erie, is navigable two hun- 
dred and. fifty miles from its Influx into 
the Ohio, and is there three hundred and 
forty yards broad. The seat of govern- 
ment is at Chillicotte, on the great Scioto^ 
about 60 miles from its moQth. Hie banks 
%f this river are said to be almost as fer- 
tiie as those of the Ohio : but as they are 
lower and mote humid, the Inhabitants 
are subject to obstinate intermitting feverv 
in theautunm, which do not cease till the 
approach of winter. Chillicotte con- 
tains about a hundred and fifly houses. 

At Limestone Dr. Michaux left the 
Ohio, and peoceeded by land through the 
late of Kentucky to Nashville in the 
itare of Tennessee. Kentucky was dis- 
covered in l/fOby.some Virginia hunters. 
At that time it was not occupied by any 



iiatioa against all who attempted to settle 
there : (hi this account.it was calkd Ken- 
tucky, which in their laugoo^ signifies 
the land o£ blood. No fixed estabUsh- 
meot was fomwak init til}J780. In 1782 
the ttomfaBrof its white inhabitants was 
•bout three thousand : in 1790, one hun- 
dred tbcnsand: at the gene^ census 
taken in 1800, it was two hundred and 
tWTOty thousand : and when Dr. Michaux 



V ^^ unskiliuhiess o£ tfo smmycn. 
Frankfort is the seat of govemmtot, but 
is less populous than Lexington, which 
contains about tl^ree dnmsand inhabitant, 
and is the •Idest and most considerabla 
town in the three new states. Theg^t»t- 
est length of the state is four hundiieA 
miles, and its greatest breadth about twa 
hundred. In its whole ^tent it seems l» 
rest on a bed of perfectly homogeneou* 
hmestone, which in some of the deep 
channels of the rivers is exposed to view 
to the height of three hundred feet per- 
pendicular: the vegetable earth varies in 
thickness from a few inches to twelve <v 
fifteen feet. There are also ^^'TOerona 
explored mines of coal, but with the ex- 
ception of a few iron mines, there ia, 
scarcely any olher mineral substgnce ia 
the country* ' 

The land m Kentucky, as well as m 
some of die Adantic statas. is divided jotm 
three classes, which are difi^rendy assess- 
ed to the land-tax: but the same kiad rf 
land is there put in the second class, whidi 
•Mst of die mountains would belong to dve 
first; and in die third, which in Georgia 
and Carolina would be assigned to the 
second. Thae is, mdeed, some land ia 
the eastern states as fertile as a^ in th0 
west; but it is not common, and is sei* 
dom met with but by. die aides of rive» 
and m the vallies. 

^Zt^'^^'K^''^ CumberiandindepeR^ 
dently<if a fewtrees, M-Jch are pecuhi to 
th^ cotmtnes, Uie niass of the fmesK 2 
lands of the first cms, is compo^ ^f^^ 

east of dieinounlams, in dxe most ferti^tt^ 
these speaes are principiJly the OBtm^' 

> nigra, cerulea, white, blik, 

hricaria, black-jack oak ; OuiimdinadiJ^ 

locust; an^ ^fmana triloba, papair.^^ 
nses to the height of diirtv fet. Ih^^ 
ast species, in oarticuJar, denote thTrichS 
lands. In cool mountakous phK«s anrf^ 
the sidcsx^f the riven wludtRoT^S 
banks, there are also found the ^uctcusmSI 



A — — — • —- ""w».^.. xTxu.iuHu^ which are as large as a hen's '^a^- n,™"!? 

«» tkre m 1802.. the pqpojation was, *acclmrimm,^l>x r^Xlsa^^ 
etmuted at two hundred and ^ thpu- "f™. be«ct; «««ralso itpkS^dZ 



and, including about twenty thousand 
jepo daves. This rapid increase would 
tee been still gKater> if it had not been 
ar dieigioviog difficalty of ascertaining 
the titks to die land^ occanoned pardy by 
tb»iiii«sr^tl|»Jasid»desa«r^ andpaftly 



^te and ytUow tuhp-tree ; aod the AiLSi 

l^^^^mma, cucumber-tree, the. thwe*SS 

r^ ^»»» to a ctrcuniference of eighteS 

toed befote> grow, to a larger sac. Twl 
two spea«i of tulip-tree, with white aod yd- , 



©6 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



low wood, have no external character, dither 
in the leitves, or in the tiowfrs, by which they 
can bii distinguished from each other, and ag 
tlie yellow wood is most used, before a tree is 
felled, a piece is cut out, to asccitahi whether 
it is of this species. 

" In the lands of the second class, are 
found Fa^ut castanea, chesnut ; Quercus ru- 
' bra, red oak ; fUerciis tinctoria, quercitron ; 
Laurus saifsafras, sassafras; Diosptjros vir^ 
giniandf persiinon ; tiquidambar siyraciflud, 
Ny9sa tHIosu, gum-tree, a tree which neither 
yields gum, nor resin, as its name seems to 
unply. 

• " Those of the third class, which arc gene- 
rally arid and mountainous, scarcely produce 
any but the black and red oak; i\iG Qucrcux 
prinus montatuif ixx;ky oak, some pines, and 
sometimes Virginian cedars. 

" The fuglans jxicanc is not met with 
ncarci' ihali the mouths of tlie rivers Cumber- 
lacd and Tennessee, from whence the fniit 
is sometimes brought to Lexington market. 
Neither docs this tree gmw to tlu! eastward of 
the Allegany mountains. The Lobelia car- 
dinalh grows abundantly in all the cool humid 
filxHs, as well as the JLolfclia sphilitica ; tliis 
is more common in Kentucky than in any part 
of the United States which 1 liave seen. The 
Laurus Benzoin, spice-\vood, is also plentiful 
here. The two genera, f^accimum and ^Jn- 
dromeda, which constitute a series of more 
than thirty sparies, and are very abundant in 
the easteni slates, seem, in some decree, ex- 
cluded from those of the west, and the caka- 
reous district, in which only tlie Andromeda 
urborea is found." 

The barrens or racadows of Kentucky 
Comprize an extent of sixty or seventy 
miles in length, to fifty or sixty in breadth. 

• " From the signification of the word," says 
Dr. Michaux, ** I expected to cross a bare 
tract, with a few planl.i scattered here and 
tliere upon it : ancf in this opinion, 1 was sup- 
ported by the notion which tiome of the in- 
habitants had given me of t]ie«>e meadows, 
belbre I reached them. They told me, that, 
at this season, I should perish with heat and 
thirst, and that I should riot meet with any 
shade tlie whole length of the loatl ; for, the 
greater number of the Americans, w ho live m 
woods, have no conception that countries can 
exist which are entirely free from them, and 
still less that they can be habitable. Instead 
of lindinga coiuitry such as had be«.'n describ- 
ed to me, I was agreeably sih-priz;'d to see a 
beautiful meadow, well covered with giass, 
of two ot tliree feet in height, wliich is used 
to feed cattle. A great variety of plants also 
grow here, among which the GLrurdiaJinxa, 
gall of the earth, tlie Gnaphah'um dloicum, 
white plantafai, and the Rucibeckia pnrjmrca, 
were at this time predominant. I noticed 
that tiie roots of the latter plant Jiave, in a' 
^rtain degree, the acrid taste of tlio^ leaves 
of the Spilanthus qlemcca. When I crossed 

' tiittse meadow«^ thice-fourtiis of the'plautsjjtsi^ 



done flowering, and the period of the «tiafi> 
rity of the greater part ot their seeds, was s»tiU 
far distant ; I, however, collected about ninety 
specimens, wliich I have brought to France. 

\*' In some parts of these meadows, several 
species of wild creeping vines are met with, 
and particularly tJiat called by the inliabitants, 
summer grapes. These grapes are as large, 
and of as. good a quality, as those from the 
vineyards hi the neighbourhood of Paris, with 
this chflTerence, that they are not so close upon 
the bunches.'* 

'The remarkable nakedness of this and 
some other similar tracts of a country, 
which in its natural state is one thick fo- 
rest, had before been attributed by Volney 
to tlie custom of burning tlie grass every 
spring, practised time out of mind by thft 
Indians, and continued by the white set- 
tlers. Dr. Michaux, who does not seem 
to Have been acquainted with A'^olneys 
conjecture, was led to form the same con- 
clusion by an observation which occurred 
to him incidentally, in a future part ol'bis 
journey. 

" At a short distance from Macby, oit the 
rivei- Hoist en, lifteen miles from Knox ville, the 
road, for the space of a mile or two, nms beside a 
Coppice; very thickly set witli trees, the largest 
clumps being twenty or twenty-five feet across, 
1 had never seen any part of a forest in a simi- 
lar state ; and I made this observation to the 
inhabitants of the country, who infonned me 
that this spot was fonnerly part of a barren, or 
meadow, which had become naturally re-co- 
vered with wood within the last twelve or iif- 
teen years, shice the bad custom of setting lire 
to them, as is jiractised m all the southern 
states, had been discontinued. This example 
seems to prove, that the extensive meadows of 
Kentucky and Tennessee are indebted to some 
contiagratiiMi, which had consumed the fo- 
rests, for tlieir origin, and that they are pre* 
served in that state by the custom, which still 
orevails, of setting lire to them annually. 
vVhen on these occasions chance preserves 
any spots of them for a few years from tlie ra- 
\"ages of the flames, the .trees spring up agsun ; 
but, bemg extremely close, tlie fire, which at 
length catches them*, burns them completely, 
anil reduces them to the state of meadows 
again. Hence it may 1m.' concluded that, in 
tiiese countries, the meadows must continuailT 
encroach upon the forests ; aiid, in all proba- 
bility, this wjs the case in Up|jer Louisiana 
and'New Mexico, which are only vast plaias 
to wiiich the savages set fire aiinually, and 
where there is not any tree." 



Tlie .elks and bisons, which formerly 
abounded in this country, are almost all 
gone orer to tlie right bank of tlie Mis&i- 
sippi: tlic only, species of wild aninuik 
which are now common are the deer; the 
bear^ the wolf i the grey and the r^ 



lftCHAUX*S THAVfiLi TO TtlE ALLB^^ANt MOUNtAtlrfl. 



# 



htovedfbses; tbe wild cat* which is either 
the Cmadian lynx or a variety of it^ and 
BiK, as has sometimes been supposed^ the 
ongzD of the domestic cat of Europe ; the 
racooD; the opossum^ and three or f(5ttr 
ipectes of squirrels. 

"The \frfld ttirkies, which begin to be very 
farce in the soiitht-m stales are- plentiftil in 
those to the Westu'ard. In the most luiinha- 
bited parts they are so tame as to. be easily 
kxikd with a pistoMiot In the oast^ on the 
CDntiary, and parficularly in the neighbour- 
hood of the searports, they cannot be ap* 
{Moached without difiiculty: they are not 
•lanBed by a noise, but they iiaveavery, 
quick sight, and as soon as they discover the 
hunter, fly away with such rapidity, tliat it 
takes a d^ Kcveml hdnutes to come up with 
them; ^nuwhen they see themselves onjhe 
p:!DlM)f being caught, they escape by taking 
10 flight. The wild turkies gencralljr remain 
it die swamps, and by the sides of nvers and 
credp> and only come out in the moniing and 
eimag. 1 hey perch on the tops S[ the 
highest trees, where» notwithstancUng their 
bulk, it is not always easy to see them. When 
they have not been frigHtcncd, they return to 
Ihe same trees for several weeks in succession. 

" To the east of the Mississippi, in a space 
af more than eight hundrud leagues, tiiis is the 
onhr species of wild turkey which is met with.* 
They are larger than those reared in our pouU 
try yards. In autumn and in winter tiiey feed 
ciiietiy on chesnuU and acorns ; and some of 
tboie 'killed at this season wei^h thirty-five or- 
forty pounds. The variety ot dome'stic tur- 
kies, to which the name of English tlirkies is 
giTtn, in France, came origmally from this 
species of wild turkey ; and when they are not 
OQSKd with the common species, they retain 
the primitive colour of their plumage, as well 
as that of thdr legs, which is a deep red. If, 
Subsequent to 1523, our domestic turkies Were 
natuRlized in Spain, and from thence were in- 
troduc*nl into the rest of Europe, it is probable 
that the)* were originally from some of the 
more soiithem parts of Anerica, where there 
doubtless exists a species diHerent from that 
of the United {States.'* 

Many horses are bred in Kentucky 
Hrhich £od a good market ih .the southern 
stales, particularly South Carolina: the 
number of horned cattle is also consider* 
able; but very few sheep are reared. Dr. 
Michaiix travelled upwards of two hun- 
dred rniles in this state, and saw but four 
plantations at which tliere were any. 
Their flesh is not much in esteem, and the 
MK>1 is of the same quality as that of the 
•hecp in the eastern states. 

The cultivated produce is chiefly tobac- 
co, hemp, flax, and the different grains of 
Europe, but principally maize and wheat. 



Whisky IS distilled fit)m oats, and bnmdy 
from peaches. Except a tew apple-trees, 
the peach is the only friiit-tree which haj 
hitherto been raised in the country. Ail 
attempt, indeed, has been made by a Swiss 
settler to establish a vineyard, aiid great ex-^ 
pectations were fbrtned concerning it 3 but 
the experiment has not succeeded, in con^ 
sequence of the humidity 'of the atmos^ 
phere occasioned by the vicinity of the fo^' 
rests. Dr. Michaux is of opinion that the 
barrens are much better adapted to this 
purpose than (he spot x^hich has been cho«* 
sen on the banks of the river Kentucky. • 

Tlie manufactures carried on at Lexing^ 
ton are fhose of writing paper, ropes, tan*' 
ned leather, nails, pottery ware and gun*' 
powder. The sulphur for the last is ob*» 
tained from Philadelphia, but the tohpetre 
is the {iroduce of Kentucky and Tennessee, 
and has hitherto been fabricated iii no- 
other part of the United States. Th& 
earths which yield the lixivia are obtainedf 
from the grottoes and caverhs, formed ott 
ihe declivities bf high hillSi in the most, 
mountainous parts* They are very rich: 
in the nitrous principles, which is evidently 
owing to the calcareous rock, firom the de- 
cay of which all these excavations aror 
formed, as well as from the vegetable* 
substances which are accidentally driven* 
into them. This, Dr. Michaux observes, 
seems to show that the assimilation ot 
arfimal matters is not absolutely necessary 
to produce a greater degree of nitrification' 
even in the fiJ^mation of artificial niti^ 
beds. 

These manufactures are said to atiswer 
notwithstanding tlie extreme high price of 
labour, and the scarcity of handicraft 
workmen, owing to the general preference* 
pven to agriculture. To render the de- 
fect of artizans in the West country more 
perceptible. Dr. Michaux gives the follow- 
ing comparison t 

" At Charlestown in Carolina, and at Sa- 
vannah in Georgia, a white workman, slich as 
a joiner, carpienter, mason, white-smith, tay* 
lor, shocdnaKer, &c. earns two piasters a d.iy, 
and cannot live a week for less than six. Atr 
Ne\7 York and Philadelphia he receives only 
one piaster, and it costs him four per week. 
At ^la^ictta, Lexington, and Nashville in 
Tennessee, this workman receives a piaster, 
or a piaster and a half per day, and can live a« 
week upon one day's wages. 

The state of Teimessee is bounded to the* 
north by Kentucky, to the west by the. 
Ohio, to the south by that nominal part of^ 
Georgia which is reserved for the territory 

• There is one spedmen of afemalc in the coUectioti cf the MuscUm of Katuial BlstorV: 
A*».Hev. VoulV. H 



d» 



VOiyAGE^ AND TRAVELS. 



ef the Cherokee aini Chactaw Indians, and 
to the east by tlie Allegany mountains^ 
which separate it from Virginia and North 
Carolina. It ha4 not aaiuired population 
enough before 1796 to be admitted into 
the union as a separate state : till then it be- 
longed to Nortl^ Carolina. Its principal 
rivers are the Cumberland and the Ten- 
nessee, botli which fall into the Ohio at 
the distance of ten miles from each other, 
and are separated for nearly the whole of 
their course by the Cumberland moun- 
tains, which are a process from the 
Alleganies. Cumberland river rises in 
ICentucky, among the mountains which 
separate it from Virginia. It has a course 
of about four hundred and fifcy miles, and 
15 navigable in winter and spring as far as 
three hundred and fifty miles from its af- 
flux ', but in summer it cannot be ascended 
tnore than two hundred and thirty, i, e. 
fifty above Nashnlle. The Tennessee is 
the largest river that fails into tlie Ohio. 
It commences at a place called West Point, 
on the south-^ast side of the Cumberland 
mountains, and is formed by the junction 
of the Clinch and Holstou, botli which 
xise in the Allegany mountains : they are 
^ach near two hundred yards wide at tlieir 
confiuence, and are navigable to a great 
distance. The Holston, in particular^ is 
80 for neariy two hundred mile^ j so that 
the Tennessee, in conjunction witli it, 
would have a navigable course of about 
eight hundred miles, if it were not for tlie 
muscle shoals which, for #lx months in 
tlie year, obstruct tlie passage about two 
hundred and fifty miles from its mouth. 
The greater part of the Tennessee, running 
tlirough the Indian territory, has scarcely 
any settlements on its banks. 

The Cumberland mountains divide the 
state of Tennessee into two parts, which 
have so little connection -W'itli each (Hlier, 
and diifer so much in their products and 
interests, that tliey wijl probably. soon be- 
<;ome separate states. They were origi- 
nally known by.theiiames of Cumberland 
and Holston. West Tennessee, or Cum- 
berland, is in extent about two-thirds of 
the ^ole« and though it had few settlers 
before 1789> is now supposed to contain 
«bout thirty tliousand white inliabitants. 
Nashville, its principal and oldest town, 
consists of about one hundred and twenty 
' houses, of which seven or eight are built 
of brick. The vegetable eailh rests cbidly 
on & horizontal cj^kareous rock, but is not 
«o deeg as in Kpiitucky, and partakes more 
<^ an argrltaceous nature, without an 
diaLtureof^tony^b^tances. Qnlhehi^ ' 



any 

igh 



banks of seme of the rivers the upp^T 
rpcks cover thick beds of ferru^neout 
schistus lying horizontally, the laminae of 
which, on the slightest touch, break o^in 
pieces a foot long, and faH spontaneously 
to powder; and on such as are the leak 
exposed to tlie water aad the light, there 
is a white efHorescence of an extreme te« 
nuity, and greatly resembling snow. la' 
tliese banks there are also deep cavcms^ 
in which arfe found masses of an alumioow 
substance, so near the degree of puifqr- 
required for the operations of dying> that- 
tlie inhabitants not only collect it for their 
own use, but also 'send it to Kentucky. 

As greater care has been taken to render 
the tides to projx?rty cjear and uncontro^ 
vertible, this part of Tennessee b now ge* 
nerally preferred to Kentucky. The sn* 1 
perior warmth of the climate, moreover, 
is fa\-ourable to the growth of cotton, a. 
much more profitable produce than either' 
grain, hemp or tobacco; stufis of a find 
quality are already fabricated m the cou]i-> 1 
try from the raw material. 

East Tenessee or Holston is situated h^ * 
twecn the Cumberland mountains and tha^ 
highest part of the Alleganies, . Its ltine«>^ 
stone appears to be deeper than in West*^ 
Tennessee, and the beds which incline to i 
the horizon, are divided at small intenr^'j 
by strata of quartz ; it is watered also bf*' 
a great number of small rivers, whidi^ 
cross it in all directions. The best IttA 
is on their banks ; the remainder is of aa 1 
indifierent quality ; and as the climate i» 
considerably colder than that of Wrtt- 
Tennessee, none of it is favourable to tJie 
cultivation of cotton. Dr. MichauK, sa- 
tisfied with stating the fiict, has assigned 
no reason for the latter dtfferenoAi bat 
it may probably be owing to the opposi- 
tion made by the Cumberland mouuuins 
to the passage of tlie warm current of sir 
fiom the gulph of Mexico, to which Vol- 
ney has ingeniously attributed the supe- 
rior temperatunfc of the countries on the 
Missisippi to that of places on the sam# 
parallel of latitude in the Atlantic states. 

East Tennessee began to be settled as* 
early as 177^* and the number of its iyia- 
bitants is now estimated at about seventy 
thousand, ilicluding three or four thpusaod 
uegroe slaves. On accomit of the bad na- 
vigation of the river, its trading concenia 
are nearly all carried on by land with the 
sea ports on the Atlantic 5 it is, therefore, 
thought by Dr. Michoux to be the roc»t 
unfavourably situated of all the parti of 
the United States that are now inhabited, 
being -sarroundad bj. e^ttftnsive tracts of 



mCRAUX's TEA VSL8 TO TBE ALLlEOAKY MOUtTTAINS* 



coonfrjwkidi yield the 6ame products, 

9od are eit-her more fertile or nearer the 

tea-si^. The seat of govenrnieot for tlie 

yibok state is at Knoxviile, on the Hol- 

stoa, wftuck ooQtaiiis about two hundred 

booses* 
The mouBitaiiison the east of Tenessee 

are gmersUy allowed, by tiie emigrants 

horn Pennsylvania and Vii^ginia, to be 
liigfaer than any others to die south of 
HttdMQ^f rirer. They place the great 
hiba mountain in the first rank, then the 
iran mountain^ the yelkVw mountain, the 
hbck motrntain, and the table mountain. 
In support of this o{nnion it is alleged, 
that faehft-een the 10th and 20th of Sep- 
tember, the cold becomes so severe on 
the mountains, that the inhabitants are 
obliged to have fires, which is not the case 
with auy of those in Virginia, although 
Ihcy are some degrees fiuther north. Dr. 
Micfaaux has also seen in his father's 
notes that he fi>und trees and shrubs on 
the yellow .and great father mountains 
which he never met with afterwards, ex- 
c^ in Lower Canada. These moun- . 
taifls do not tmn part of the grand chain, ' 
hit ave strictly within the district of the 
western watexs. They have also a pecu- 
liar character, and instead of forming a re- 
gular ru%e with little or no undulation, 
iheyaxe imiilflted mountains contiguous 
«iKky at the base. The peal dividing ridge, 
which is truly a oontinuance of what are 
called the AJlegamcs in Pennsylvania, is 
known in North Carolina by the name of 
the Une cidlge. It is xaudi lower than 

^T. XVIL Pamiliar LeUers from Italfj to a Friend in England. By Peter BECKro&D, 
£sa. In 1 wo Volumes, Svo. pp. 004. 



,the Tennessee mountains^ and was passed' 
by l}r. Michaux to the east of the iron 
mountain on his return to Charlestown. 

In the whole of the western states thirty 
years ago, there were scarcely three thou- 
sand inhabitants : at present there are more 
than four hundred thousand. There are 
two printing presses, tx)lh at Pittsburgh and 
Lexington, each of which pttblishes two 
newspapers every week* At Knoxville 
one is published twice a week, and at Chil- 
licotte, Nashville, and at Jonesborough 
and Holstou once. And so desirous is the 
federal government to propagate instruc- 
tion and a knowledge of the laws among 
the people, that it allows the editors of tiie 
periodical papers, published through the 
whole extent o{ thq United States, to re- 
ceive those which they exchange witli 
each other, or which are directed to them^ 
post free. 

We have endeavoured to condense and 
to digest into as small a compass as pos- 
sible, what appeared most important with 
respect to the rising states, that it may 
serve as a kind of fixed point firom which 
their farther pi^ogress may be estimated. 
An abundant and rich gleaning, we are 
very sensible, may be gathered after us : 
but ioT this, as-weU as for our author's ob- 
servations on his way through North and 
South Carolina to Charlestown, ^^e must 
refer our reader to the work itself: and 
shall only add, that the narrative is illus- 
trated by a distinct map of the soutliern, 
western, ^nd middle states. 



rr is not very easy to throw the diarm 
^novelty over a taie which lias been so* 
<yto told. These letters wene, many of 
them, written so kmg ago as the year 1 7S7t 
tod most of them be&re the invasion of 
Italy h^ the French. Mr. Beckibrd seems 
^ have passed much of his time on tlie 
omtineot, and to have had abundant lei- 
An« to complete his memoranda*- We 
*Binot, however, think that the present 
work vas mnch wanted: it contains a 
pw deal of unnecessary matter ; matter 
^hlch presumes niudi upon the ignorance 
ot die reader. What in the name of good 
latteor coramon sense should an epitome 
of the aoueot History of Home be intro- 



doced for ? Almost every town he enters 
Mr. Beckford thinks demands from him a 
sketch of its classic days ! The familiarity ' 
of the style displeases us : Mr.- Beckford 
introduces too many silly stories and jokes 
from Joe Miller, many of them are coarse 
and vulgar, and some of them scarcely 
decent. If on the one hand, however, we 
complain that tliese letters contain much 
irrelevant and tiresome matter, it roust, 
on the other hand, be conceded, that every 
thing is described which admits of descrifn 
tion : now and then a leisure boor may 
be employed^ not nnprofitably, in perusing 
them. 



Art. XVIIL Xaufragia ; or Historiral Memoirs nf Shtpearecks, and qf the Providential 
JfcHxtnmce of yt99€U. By James Stamicr Cla&ke, F. R. S. Chapiain qftkeJ^iuct^s 
Housckoidf and Librarian to his B/9yul Highness, Vivoo. pp. 421. 

W'£ are sorry that so osefiil a design as that of this yolunic should bare bflea 

H2 



100 



VOYAGES AST) TRAVELS. 



* executed by Mr. Stanier Clarke. Any 
thiog like a judicious selection we could 
Dot expect from tliis gentleman, after his 
History of Maritime Discovery j but we 
did expect that he would have shown more 
knowledge of the subject upon which he 
was writing. Not one of the most extra- 
ordinary shipwrecks which have taken 
place are to b« found in his collection : 
but the novels of Robert A-Machin, and 
Captain Richard Falconer, are unsuspici- 
ously, inserted as true history j Philip 
Qnarle is just as credible, aud just as au- 
thentic as eitlier. 

Here we might dismiss this meagre 
compilation, were there not in the liri»t 
section a ' Dissertation* on the real autiior 
of Robinson Crusoe, which requires some 
comment. Tlie following extract is tlie 
whole of this dissertation : . 

*' Before I conclude this section, 1 wish to 
make the admirers of this Nautical Bomaiice 
niindfiil of a report, which prevailed many 
years ago ; that Dffoe, after all, was not tfj'e 
real author of Robinson Crusoe, I'his asser- 
tion is noticed in an article in the seventh vo- 
lume of the Edinburgh Magazine. Dr. Towtrs 
in his life of Drfoe in the Biographia, is in- 
clined to pay no attention to it; but was (hat 
\>Titer aware of the following letter, which also 
appeared in the Gaitleinan*s Magazine* for 
1788? at least na notice is taken of it in liis 
LifeofZ>^bf. 

" Mr. Urban, Dublin, Feb. 25. 

In th^ course of a late conversation with a- 
nobleman of the fit st consequence and infor- 
mation in this kingdom, he assured mc,'tliat 
Mr. BeruaminHotioKayi of Middleton Stonv, 
assCiredhim, some time ago, that he knew tor 
fact, that the celebrated romance of liobinson 
Crusoe was really written by the Earl qf Ox- 
ford, when conlined m the tower o. I^ondon ; 
that his lordship gave the manuscript to Da- 
niel Defoe, who frequently Nlsilcd him daring 
his ooiiAneinent : aud that Dcfcfc, having af- 
terwards added (he second vojuine, pubHshc4 
tiie whole as his own })roduction.-r-This anec* 
dote I would not venture to send to your va^ 
Uiable magazine, if I did not th'uik my infor- 
mation good, aiid^ imagine it migliC be accep- 
table to your numerous readcK ; ndlwitllstand- 
ing the work has heretofore been generally at- 
tributed to the latter." 

. . ' W. W. 



*« It is impossible fcfr me to enter dn a &* 
ctission of this literary subject; though I 
thought the circumstance ought to be mcnre 
generally known. And yet 1 must .observe,. 
that I always dUcemed a ver}' striking failins 
off between the composition of the iirst and 
second Volumes of this Romance — ^tliey seem 
to bear evident marks of having been the 
work oi different ^Titers." 

Mr. W, W. dating from Dublin, in- 
forms Mr. Urban of the Gentleman • 
Magazine, that an Irish nobleman assured 
him that he was assured by Mr. Benjamtn 
Holloway, of Middleton Stony, that he^ 
the said Mr. Benjamin Holloway knew, 
i\x fact, that the earl of Oxford wrote 
tlie first volume of Robinson Crusoe ! Ad- 
mirable evidence ! Mr. W. W. one : ibm 
Irish nobleman twoj Mr. Benjamin Hol- 
loway three — ^here there is a gap, and we 
know not through how many generations 
tliis ridiculous talsehood had passed betore 
It reached Middleton Stony. And Mr- 
Clarke, though it is impossible for hin» 
to enter into die subject, thought this tes- 
timony ought to be more generally knoun^ 
and adds, in supi)ort of it, that he alway» 
tliought the secoud volume of Robinsos 
Crusoe inferior to the first. Admirable 
critic! 

Nothing can more strongly charactenzer 
a mean and little mind than an eagerness 
to believe and propagate such idle ca-* 
lumnies as this ! What would a court of 
justice say to Mr. Stanier Clarke if be 
were to make his appearance before them 
with a st^)ry that Mr.. A. B. had written 
him an anonymous letter, to say tliata wor- 
tl)y friend of his had assured htm that John- 
a-Nokes knew for fact that John-a-Stiles 
had picked his [)ocket ! False accusation 
In tlie present case is as much heavier an 
biRMice as the valuie of a good name is 
greater than gold. Mr. Clarke's memory 
may help him to this comparisoR in verse. 

Something is said oi Alexander Selkirk 
\n tlijs same section, llie reader who 
would wiah to know every thing that can 
be known concerninvr him, may consuh a 
little volume upon the subject, published* 
four or five years ago, by &Ir. Isaac James 
of Bri:»tol. Tlie account is authentic, and 
highly curious. 



Art. XIX* A'NorOiern Summer; or Trwfids Round tlie Bakic; through Dvnmnrkf 
Sxveden, Russia, Prwrniu, and part of Germany j ii^ the- Y.ear. 1 &u4» Btf JloH N C akr, ^i^» • 
JIuthor if the Stranger in France, S\c. 4 c. 4lo. pp. 480. 



Mb. CARR gave a liglit and agreeable 
itcount of his cxcursipu into IVtmce, and 



he has now given us a light and agreeablt ' 
account of his trayel» through the ies^ ire* 



* Vol. Lvai. Part I. page 208, 



CARR's NoHTHRRN £trMM£ft« 



101 



ipfnied countries which surround the 
Baiik. To atford amusement seems to 
have been a prime abject with the author j 
he writes, ciamUe caiatno, and enters but 
sligfadj into the politics, religion^ history, 
or statistics of the countries he visited. 
Mr. Carr is an arti^, and the delineation 
of DatioDol characteristics is congenial with 
his ta^te and pursuits : his anecdotes are 
numerous and oftentimes iliustrative. 

The first capital town wortli stopping 
at is Cc^^enhagen : ee passant, we have a 
good picture at Husum. The fair was 
held at the tiriie Mr. Carr was there ; the 
huckraimned bosoms g(( the" women, to- 
gether w ith the vast protuberant rotundi- 
tit^ which they display . behind, form a 
whimsical contrast to the fashionable dress 
of our English beauties. ' In the even- 
ing, a crazy violin and drum allured me 
into a public room, in 'V^iich the merry 
peasants were dancing waltzes. Heavens ! 
what movetncnts ! A Frenchman who re- 
vokes e\iery thing into operatic eifect, 
would Iiave felt each particular hair stand 
erect had he contemplated the heavy so- 
lemnity of the performers. The females 
looked like so many tubs turning round, 
and their gallant partners never moved 
their pipes from their mouths.' ITiis is 
not a bad picture; a Danish Jupiter making 
love to some tender female, fire issuing 
imm his mouth, and the god himself, * in- 
^"fiiible, or dimly seen,' through clouds of 
smoke that curl around him. Bunbmy 
might give it to our print shops. 
' Dancing is a favourite diversion with 
oor northrtsm as well as our southern 
neighbours : if tlie poorer classes of tkk 
country meet together it is to drink! 
A mdnorable day for Denmark was the 
2d of April, 1801 : we claim the honours 
<A that hard-eanied, if not dubious vic- 
tory, and certainly In its consequences we 
had every reason for triumph 9 the battle 
ofi^Cc^ienhagen dissolved the confederacy 
of the northern powers, and produced the 
convention, in J 803, between his Brit- 
laiiic M;<jesty, and the king of Sweden, 
respecting the search oi neutral vessels, 
and regulating wliat sliould in future be 
deemed legitinoate cargoes. The Danes, 
however, fought so valorously, and with 
such terrible effect, that for two years they 
commemorated tktir victory by an anni- 
versaxj rejoicing. 

" On oar return to the dty, and about a 
snile from it, a turt^ hilkx± of small poplars 
^tr9cted our notkre : it was the national tomb 
of the heroes who fell in the memorable battle 
fxf CopcBhagen roads, a» the i2d of Apri!^ 



1801, and stood in a meadow about two hun 
dred yards from the road, and looked to- 
wards the crown battery. As we approach- 
ed it we saw i small monumental obelisk 
which was raised to the memory of cajj- 
tain Albert Thurah, by the CroMTi Prince. 
It appeared by tlie iaacnprton, that during the 
heat of that sanguinary battle, a signal was 
made from one of the Block sliips, that all tlie 
odicers on board were killed; the Crown 
PriiKie, who behaved with distinguished judg- 
ment and composure during the whole of that 
territic and anxious day, and was giving his 
orders on shore, exclaimed, * who' will take 
the command ?' The gallant ITiurah replied, 
' I will, my Prince,' and immediately leaped 
into a boat, and as he m^is moimting tiie deck 
of the block ship, a British shot numbered him 
amongst the dead, which fonned a ghastly 
pile before hiai, and consigned his spirit anU 
nis glory to the regiofls of inunortalily." 

A larger tomb is erected by their grate- 
ful country qjer her fallen heroes : 

** It is a pyramidal hillock, neatly turfed 
and planted with saplkig |X)plars, correspond- 
ing with the number ot otlicers who fell. At 
the base of the principal front are tomb stones 
recording the names oi each of these oihcers, 
and their respective shijjs. ^ A lillle above is 
an obelisk of grey nortlicm marble, raised 
upon a pedestal of granite hearing this mscrip- 
tion : 
♦' To the mtmbrif qf those vJio fell for their 

eountri/, their grateful fi Itow citizens raise 

this monumcKt, j4prii 2, 1801. 

" And beneath, on a white mari>le tablet, 
imder a wreath of la^m*l. oak, and cypress 
bound together, is inacribwl: 

" The wreath which the country bestows 

never ioitficrs over the grave of the fallen 

tvarrior. 

*' The whole is enclosed in a square pdlisa- 
do : as a national monument, it is too dmiinu- 
tiye/' 

Tlie following anecdote is worthy to be 
recorded: after the preliminaries of paci- 
fication were adjusted, at the impressive 
interview between lord Nelson and- the 
Crown Prmce, the latter took some re- 
freshment at the palace ; 

** During the repast Ijord Kelson spoke in 
raptures of tlie braver}' of the Danes, and par- 
ticularly requested the prince to intnxluce him 
to a very young officer, whom he described 
as liaving pcrfonned wonders du ring the battle, 
by attacking hb o^n ship immediately under 
her lower guns. It proved to be the gallant 
young Weimos, a stripling of seventeen ; the 
British hero embraced him with the enthusi- 
asm of a brother, and delicately intimated to 
the prince that he buglit to make him ah ad- 
miral, to which the prmce very happily re- 
Eli.'d, *'If, my lord, I were to make Jill my 
rave officers admirals, I should have no cap- 
iiVBS or Ueuteoants in my serTice/ This he* 



102 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



roic youth had Toknteered the commaiKL of 
a praain, which b a sort of raft> carrying six 
small caiinon» and manned with twenty-four 
men, who Dutdied otf from shore, and m the 
fury of tlie battle placed themselves under the 
stern of lord Nelson's ship, which they most 
successiully attacked, in such a manner that, 
although they were below the reach, of hi» 
stern chasers, the British marines made ter- 
rible slaughter amongst them: twenty of these 
gallant men fell by their bullets^ but their 
young commander continued kuce-deep in 
dead at his poiit, until the truce was an-> 
nounccd. He has been honmired, as he most 
eminently deserved to be, with the grateful re- 
membrance of his country and.of his prince, 
who, as a mark of his regard, presented him 
witli a medallion commemorative of his gal- 
laittrv, and has appointed him to the com- 
mana of his yacht, m which he mak«siiis an- 
nual visit to nolstein." 

Copenhagen does not present many 
objects of high interest and curiosity : tlie 
city is between four and five £ng]ish 
miles in circumference, conta'ming about 
foiu: thousand houses: the royal palace 
fell a victim to the flames in the year 
I7g4', it was an immense and splendid 
pile of building. Its internal decorations 
vere of the highest magnificence : the ritta 
saal, or knight's saloon, was one hondred 
and eighteen feet long, and fifty-eight feet 
broad: nine windows lighted it by day, 
and at night twelve hundred wax-lights, 
distributed in three lustres, shed a brilliant 
blaze over the room } on each side was a 
gallery richly gilded, and supported by 
forty-four columns of cinnamon wood, 
the base and capitals of which were also 
richly gilded, The paintings of Abilgoad 
on subjects of Danish history embellished 
the hall : the library of the king contained 
one hundred and thirty thousand volumes^ 
and three tli<nisand manuscripts, and was 
much injured by the fire. Fart of the 
castle of Cliarlottenburg is devoted to tlie 
royal academy of painting, architecture, 
and sculpture. Those of its productions 
which Mr. Carr had an opportunity of 
aeeingi gave him no very high opinion of 
the fine arts in Denmark. The, palace of 
Fredericsberg, wliere the king resides, is 
small, and the gardens are tastefully ar- 
ranged ; his majesty has for many years 
been unable, from the iiifirmity of his 
mind, to j)erform the royal functions, which 
devolve on the crown prince, who is de- 
ji^rvedly beloved by all his subjects. The 
"Dmes are a grateful people : a few miles 
from tlie capital on one side uf the public 
road is a plain and simple monument, 
erected bv the peasants of the late count 
Sei;tistortt; in gratitude Qf theii: liberation. 



The crown battery is an interesting ob- 
ject : it is square, stands about half za 
English mile firom the shore, the water 
flowing into it* It is undergoing altei»« 
tion and enlargeaient; goverDmcnt has it 
also in coiaemplation to r^se a fresh bat» 
tery to tlie southward. 

Among the charitable instltaUons is aa 
hospital where pregnant women, who have 
reason for seeking ccxicealment, are re- 
ceived upon paying a small stipend : they 
enter at night in masks, and are never seen 
but by those who are pecessary to thdr 
comfort, nor are their names ever w- 
quired. This interesting asylum seems 
fiir preferable to foundling hospitals, which 
oifer a premium to tlie violation of ma- 
ternal feelings : it is s^id to have produce^ 
a visible diminution in the crime of infanti- 
cide. The mild laws of Demnark punish 
not even the murderer with death. 

Taking leave of Denmark, we cross the, 
Sound, and enter into tlie Swedish terri^ 
tories : the sight of Cronenberg ca-itle re- 
cals to mind the unhappy late of the!ami->^ 
able Matilda, who fell a sacrifice to the' 
political jealousy of Juliana Maria, the 
monster step-mother of his present ma- 
jesty. The story of her niisior tunes ex-' 
cited so deep an interest at the time that 
Mr. Carr has introduced it. Cronenberg 
castle now forms the residence of the go-; 
vernor of Elsineur : it mounts three hun- 
dred and sixty-five pieces of cannon, and 
its subterranean apartments will hold more 
than a regiment of men. Its strengths 
however, is not so formidable as its ap-' 
peorance : tlie British fleet under admi- 
rals Parker and Nelson passed it with per- 
fect impunity, and disdained to return a 
shot : it stands on a peninsular spot, the 
nearest to Sweden. 

The next place we stop at is Stockholm, 
but in travelling from capital to capital we* 
must not forget the intermediate coun- 
try : tlie appearance of the peasantiy and 
of their cottages, indicates poverty : 

**' Sweden is One continued rock of granite, 
covered with lir: hence the cottagt*, ><-hich 
ace only one story high, and many of the su- 
perior iiouses, ar;ii constructed of wootl, the 
{)lanks of which are lot into each other in a 
uyer of moss, and the outside is painted of a 
red colour ; the roof is formed with the l)ark 
of the birch, and covered with turf, which ge- 
nerally pYesonts a bed of grass sufVirieiitly high 
for thescytiie of the mower. The tiooKof 
the rooms are sitrewed witii tiie slips of young 
fir, whicl) give them the appearaiK-e of litter 
and disorder, and the smell is fur fr9m bt^uig 
pleasant. Nothmg can he more dreary than 
winding thioughthe tbrOsts, which every now 



CARRS NOHTRERK SUMMER. 



101 



nd tin oment to th« weary eye little patches 
0f deann ground, where tirs had been felled 
i b^ lire, the stumps of which, to a considerable 
hla^f were left in the ground, and, at a dis- 
tant nsembied so many laige stones. In- 
nkmstiMe abundance ot wood induces the 
peamt to thuik it labour lost to root tiieni tip, 
ttd they remain to augment the general 
Ircaraieis of the scenen-. 

"Tbe population in both the provinces of 
Sfania and Smaland b very thinly diilbswl : 
xcqrt in the very few towns between Hens- 
ofg and Stoddiolni, the abode of man but 
iRiWiefreBhestheeyeof the weary traveller, 
^t (Bwn of day, and all day lon^, he moves 
■" a forest, and'at night he sleeps m one. The 
\f birds we saw were woodpeckers. The 



^heck boasts 

'content. 'ITieir clothes and stockmgs are 
of light cloth; theikr hats raiKd in 
crawn, pouited at top, with large broad 
, and round theh- waist they frequently 
a leathern girdle, to which are fastened 
' knives in a leather case. I'he countty jq 
prorhiccs appeared to be verj- sUtiIc ; 
ily small portious of its rocky surtat e were 
wtred witn a spriDklihg of vegetable mould.** 
Tbe peasants bake, thit'ir bread only 
«ce, or, at most, twice in tbe year : m 
times of scarcity ihey add the bark of the 
Kfch well pounded | and Mr. Carr says,^ 
that thus prepared, their cakes require the 
ms of a stone-eater to penetrate them, 
iliey are made round and flat, with a hole 
io the middle, through which a stick or 
nii&g is pass^« ^nd they are suspended 
6oro die ceilings, 

StockboIiQ IS m^der infinite obligations 
to the taste and genius of the late illus* 
triotu monarch 'Gustavus III. who not 
merely gave encouragement to science and 
tbe fine arts in his metropolis, but to 
«tiiineice and agriculture throughout his 
kii^doDL The manner, however, in 
whih he effected the revolution of 1772, 
and tbe absolute power with which he in- 
vesled himself at the expence of the arig- 
tooacy, are not consistent with tlie cha- 
racter to which he aspired, namely, that of 
« ptxiot king. The power which Gus- 
tana gain^ he employed for the bepelit 
of hb people; this cannot be questioned 3 
*wt to effect a revolution by his sole ijn- 
trigues, and In that revolution to destrqy 
the legitimate, though abused power, of 
the states, and make himself a despot, was 
ai act of violent hostility against the prin- 
ciples of liberty. Mr. Carr is dazzled by 
the splendour of his genius and the ex- 
|«nstl«M resources of his mind ; he is lost 
ID astonishment and admiration. 



Sergell the statuary, Mr. Carr saw the co« 
iossal pedestrian -statue of this monarchy 
in bronze, which liad just been cast, and 
was then polishing. It is a present from 
the citizens of Stockholm^ and will cost 
forty thousand pounds ; it is^ ptfrhsps^ the 
Jw5t eftbrt of tlie iirt of Sergell, who, al- 
though every tribute of. honour has beep 
paid to tlie sublimity of his genius, and the 
delicacy of his taste, is no^'^ become in- 
sensible to admiration, disgusted with himt 
self, and disgusted with die World. Hia 
Cupid and Psyche is qot to be 8o)d \J\\ after 
his death. . 
The palace at Stockholm b an elegant 
itry are poorly housed and clad; yet, edifice, begun by Charles XI. and finishe4 
aich discouraging appearances, their by Gustavus III ; within its walls is the 
boasts the bloom of health and the smile king's museum, which Mr. Carr was for^ 

tunate enough to see, immediately after 
the opening of severed package^ po^tain* 
ing five hundred valuable paintings and 
antique statues from Italy, where they 
had been purchased by the latter- soe 
vereign about eleven ye^rs since, and 
had been prevented from reaching tlieir 
destination by the French revc3ution. 
They lay in great confusion, and soiq^ o^ 
them were much damaged. In the pa# 
lace of Drottingholm there are also som« 
exquisite statues in alabaster and marble, 
and Etrurian vases, purchased in Italy by 
Gusta\'us III. Haga was the favourite 
retreat of this illustrious monarch: the 
little palace, or rather chateau, which it 
of wcK>d, and is extremely elegant, wa^ 
built after his designs, with the assistance 
of Masrelier. The gardens are laid out 
with great taste, and the surrounding 
scener}' is remarkably picturesque. Hagif[ 
is about a mile and a bsdf from Stock- 
holm: in the year 1791 Gustavus laid 
there the foundation of a vast palace, but 
the ^dertaking was discontinued at hi^ 
death, as being on too large a scalej atLd^ 
too expensive for the country. 

The laws of Sweden are mild and 
simple j capital punishments a^e seldon\ 
inflicted, and the prosecutpt sustains nq 
share of the expence of prosecuting ^ cri- 
minal. England would do well to adopt; 
this system of indepmification, as Sweden 
would to imitate from her the ac^ustment} 
of costs in civil causes by reference to i| 
jury, In Sweden eaph psurty psiys his owi| 
costs. 

Mr. Carr made an excursion to Upsala, 
and paid a vbit to the mines of Danmora, 
which, notwithstanding they have beea 
wrought for three hundred years, yet pro? 

duce a vast quantity of ore of a superio^v 

i^ 9 tempofar|r buildhig at the house of quality, muct^ used in tbe firitislt fite^ ' 



m 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



•piaaufactories. The mipient town of Up- 
aala was once the capital of Sweden, and 
the jfesidence of the high-priest of Odin : 
.in the cathedral/ which is a prodigious and 
unwieldy pile of briok and of heteroge- 
oieaus grchit|5cture, repose the ashes of 
Linnaeus. The fojlpwin^ simple epitaph 
jppints out the spot : 

"Ossa 

Caroli a Lr.vNB 

cquitis aunti 

niarito Optimo 

filio iinico 

Carolo a Lin'nb 

patris succcsiiori 

et 

sibi 

Sara Elizbkta morxa. 

*' Tlie affectionate reverente of the ptipih 
0f this distingiiislied^xpouijder of nature, and 
the powers jof his celehratctl friend Sergei I, 
have eDdeavoiired to siippiy the humility t)f 
the prec€»ding tribute, by raising, in a little 
recess, a monument of Swedish porphyry, 
supporting a large mt^uliion of tlic head of 
the illustrious naturalist, v'jhich is said to be 
^1 admirable Iikenes^ of hhu ; under it is the 
jbllowipg inscription: 

(Jarolo a Linnk 

J3otannicoruni 

princ'ipi 

Ainici et discipulii 

In a private chapel of the cathedral is 
the tomb of Gustaviis Vasa, whose effigy 
is placed between that of hi^ two wi\ es, 
Catherine and Margaret. Mr. Carr should 
have transcribed the inscription which is 
sacred to the memqry of such a hero^ such 
a patriot, and such a mnn. 

From the Swedish Mr. Carr proceeds 
to the Russian territories : his talents for 
description are pleasingly displa}'ed in the 
tullowing p;^ssage : 

*' At fiyeoclQck in the evening of the siyth 
of July, with very little wind, wc slowly vith^ 
drew from Stockholm, liefore night we were 
completely becalmed ; our captam rowed us 
up to a rock, aiid throwing out a ^ang-board, 
tied the vessel to a fir-tree tor the night. Here 
wc landed, and ascended the rocks, which, 
sparingly clothe^ with grey moss, rose from 
the water's edge in the most grand, romantic, 
aijd picturesque disorder. Before us the rich 
crimson suffusion of the sun, just sunk behind 
a dark undulating line of fur Crests, gave at 
pncc trancjuilUty'and tone to the lake appear- 
ance of this arm of the Baltic, which was en- 
livened by the white-lagging sails of a few 
boats, 'thj^ on the opposite side softly and 
slowly ofc^pt^d through the deep shadows of 
ih^ shoretjt, crowned with the woods of liston* 



pottage ; whilst in the south, the ^ower of S| 

Catherine's, mounted upon her airy summil 
the houses, the palace, and the spires, seem 
composed of light cloud and mist. The 
lence of this delicious repose of natures 
only feintly broken by the dashuig of the o 
SLiti the carol of the distant buutmen; in tb 
language of the divine Milton: 

^ Now came still evening on, and twillg^i 

Had m her sober livery all things clad: 
Silence accompanied ; for bejist and bird, 
I'hey to their grassy couch, tiiese to 

nests, 
Were slun k 

- how glowed the iirinamealt: 



I: 
'theJ 



With living saphirs.* 

f Seated upon a roc*k, we for a long tiTne 
pontemplated this exquisite scene, till at length 
tlie call of sleep induced us to descend intof 
our cabin, where our accommodation*^ wctq 
very comfbrlable. AVith the sun, which was 
an early riser, we unmoored, and advanced! 
but verj"^ slowly ; as we proceeded, misery 'm^ 
a new shape presented Itself. From a wretch- 
ed hovel, hpon one of the islands which bi 
to appear ti\ clusters, hanging ovff the 
9fthe waterj and ready to drop into it, anol ^ 
man in rags, and ne^ly blind, put off in a 
little crazy boat, and'rovving towards us inir 
plored our charily iii the niost touching man- 
ner, and seemed very gral^fu) fof the trifle 
we gave him. 

" In the evening, having made but Ihfle 
way, the master again moored the vessel to 
another island for the nijjht: as I foundwa* 
the custom, on accoujitot the danger and di^ 
iiculty of the ^lavigatbn. This island was i&r 
deed a most enclianting scene ; upon its ro- 
inantic summit of jgrey ropk \v^ found a little 
cottage, embowered in trees of lir, ash, and 
elder, that niight well be called ' the peasauts 
nest," A fisherman, his aged mother his wife 
and his children, forme(lthc population of th'^ 
beautiful spot. A Utile field of grass, in vhkrh 
a cow was grazing, another of com, a garden, 
and the waters of the Baltic, i^hicb again rer 
^embled a lake, supplied iiipm with all theic 
wants, and ali their nclu». Here it seemed a« 
if the heart could no longer ache, as if ambir 
tion might wish to be what he beheld, axK| 
tliat love might ponder on the past without a 
pang, llie inside of the cottage was neat and 
chearfiil ; the good old lady, whh the chil- 
dren in their shirts playing mund her, sat 
knitting by the light of a spriglitly fire, and 
under Kwks of snow presiniteU a face art peace 
with all tlie world. Upon hearing that we 
wbhed to have some supper, tlie hsherman* 
with a couuteniuice of healtli and gaiety, de- 
scended into a little creek, where his boats 
were moored, for some perch, coniined in a 
wicker well in the water, whilst his young 
wife, who liad a pair of veiy sweet expressive 
e)-es, laid tlie cloth in a detached room facing 
the cottage. "Whilst supper -was preparing 1 
nuubled over this little paradise. Night caiK 



CA&H S irOJITHERN SUMXn. 



105 



p^ and afl the beauties of the proceding evcn- 
ig, with some variety of new forms, letiuti- 
ed ; the same bright bespangled heaven ! the 
same serenity; the same silence! yielding 
only to the unceasmg rippling of a little stream 
of rock water, to wiiich, as'^it gushed from a 
bed of long moss, and as our fair hostess pre- 
sented her pitcher, thiiftily fenced with wicker, 
might be applied tlic btautiml inscription erf" 
BobquUlon, on the fountain ia the street of 
Kotre Dame des Victoires in Paris : 

" La nympihe qui donne de cette eau 
Au plus creux do rocher se cache; 
Snives uq exexupie si beau ; 
Doouez sans vouloir qu*oii le sache.** 
Or thus in English : 

** Prompt to reJieve, ^kio' viewless v,'npp'd 

in stone. 
The nymph of waters pours her generous 

streaiu : 
Go, gentle reader, do as she has done ; 
See while vou bless, but btemng be unseen.^* 

J.C. 

"It was just such a spot as the poetical spirit 

flf Cowpef would have coveted : his eve would 

fiaye penetrated, and his pen could afone have 

painted every beauty.* 

Bad as the inns are in Sweden, they 
are still worse in I^assia?^poor as the pca- 
»nts are in Sweden, still poorer is the 
peasantry in Russia, Swedish and Rus- 
£tao Finland are the confines of the two 
* ixmmries^ and rival tach other in sterility, 
glooTOi and wretchedness. 

The capital of the Russian empire has 
beoQ describe^ by so many travellers of 
larioos ta^es, oountries^ and pursuits, 
that we have hardly a right to expect much 
novelty from a transient visit, Mr.Storch's 
' Picture of Petersburg* is spread upon 
fljch an ample caqvass, and executed with 
M accurate a petiptl^ as to have left com- 
paratively little for succeeding artists. 
Oa die other hand, the imperial city, 
from the unbounded power and resources 
9( the monarch, is ever presenting some 
pew object of admiration to tlie observer : 
ia die course of the last year five hundred 
noble houses wcra erected within its 
^Us ! Its population has nevertheless de- 
di^, whilst, as appears from the last 
estimate, that of the country has en- 
peased. 

A metropolis is the centre from which 
civilization radiates, sheddmg on the re- 
moter provinces its weakened l^ms, 
feinter and morq feint^ as the line of dis- 
t:mcc lengthens- To the genUis of Peter 
tfee Great and the late Cathei*ine, Russia 
is indebted for every thing : for the crea- 

e^and extent of her commerce, and for 
eievation to that rank and power whic^ 



«he now holds among the nations of the 
earth : they taught the barren wiWeroess 
to smile, and formed the statue froni tho 
unliewn rock. The present emperor is 
treading in tlie steps of his illustrious an^ 
cestors, and tljere is hope that, in a long 
reign, he may succeed in rubbing ott 
many of the asperities which still charac- 
terise his subjects. The arts are highlr 
encouraged and cultivated in Petersburg; 
architecuure with more success than sta- 
tuary : statuaiy with more success than 
pamting, which seems to demand a milder 
dimate. The great obstacle to civiliza- 
tion is the ignominious and grinding vas- 
salage of the peasantry : the late Catherine 
made some attempts to mitigate its seve- 
rity, and Alexander will better deserve the 
appellation of great than his Macedo- 
nian namesake, if he subdues that pride 
and prejudice of his nobility which ar« 
nourished to the injury of his people." 

A Russian peasant is in a state of the 
lowest degradation : 

,r ^^^ ,?! S^^ ^* ^^ ^« o^ws to him- 
self ; his foibles, and they are few, originate 
elsewhere : he is the absdute slave of his lord, 
and ranks with the sod of his domains ; of a 
lord whose despotisro is frequently more bit- 
ing than die Siberian blast. Never illumined 
bv education, bruised with ignoble blows, the 
object and frequently tlie victim of baronial 
rapacity, with a wide world before him, this 
oppressed child of nature is denied the com- 
mon right of raising his shed where his con- 
dition may be ameliorated, Ofmzttffd only to 
toil m a distant district under the protection 
of tliat disgraceful badge of vas^lage, acer- 
tificate of have, and upon his return com- 
pellable to lay-thescanty ftiiits of his labour at 
the ieet of his master ; aiid finally, he is exclud- 
ed from the common privilege'which nature 
has bestowed ujwn the birds of the air, and 
the beasts of the wilderness, of chusing his 
mate ; he must m^ry when and whom his 
master orders. Yet under all this pressure, 
enough to destroy the marvellous elasticity of 
a Frenchman's mind, the Russian is what I 
have depicted him. If the reader is not 
pleased witli the portrait, the painter is in 
fault"' 



It is a vulgar apophthegm, ' take cam 
of the pence, and the pounds will take 
care of themselves :' it may be applied in 
politics, ' take care of the poor, the rich 
will take of themselves.' The Russians, 
according to Mr.^Carr, are not bad mate- 
rials to work upon : he over-rates them 
however. To ' bear the curse and scorn, 
and frequently die blows of his superior 
with mildness,' proves only that his spirit 
is broken, and his manhood mutilated j 
(he individual Russian, perhaps this ' poor 



106 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



Mr. Gould yet holds the office of imperii 
gardener at the Taurida palace ; he &ajoiy% 
a munificent salary^ and beholds diii 
' little paradise, which he created from a; 
mephitic bog, flourishing and exciting the 
admiration of foreigners, and in the shade 
of which Potemkm^ Catherine tlie Great, 
and two succeeding emperors of Russia, 
have sought tranquillity and repose from 
the oppr€;ssive weight of public duty/ 
The Russian navy is supplied with several 
English officers : tlie late emperor offered 
tlie command of a vessel to the noted 
pirate Paul )Jones j on hearing it, all tlio 
Englishmen in his ser\-ice instantly sent 
in their resignations. This anecdote must 
be recorded to their honour. 

The I'aurida palace was built by Ca- 
therine II., and presented to her tavourite, 
prince Potemkin : here it was that be gave 
to his imi)erial nustress that costly fi^ta 
which beggars all description, and even, 
baffles imagination to concei^'e of. In 
the gorgeous magnificence of their pa-^ 
laces, and the splendor of their eutertain- 
ments, die Russians far surpass the feeblft 
pomp of more soutliern princes : to thei 
banks of the Neva seem to have been 
transferred all the riches, grandevur, an4 
luxury of Asia. Mr. Carr was an eyen 
witness of the brilliant festivities m'hich 
took place at the nuptials of the grand 
duchess of Russia a^d ^e prince of Saxet 
Weimar. 

Within the massy walls of Michaeliskyk 
palace perished tlie unliappy Paul : Mr.^ 
Carr has devoted a chapter to this gloomy 
subject, and thrown an interest over the 
fete of the emporor, which tlie violence 
and eccentricities of his character and con- 
duct had almost forbidden to be excited 
in his favour. ' The original source of 
my information,* says he, ' is from one' 
Ufho beheld the catastrophe which I am, 
about to relate, whom I can neitlier name 
por doubt J a catastrophe which is toa 
near tt^e period in which I write not to. 
render, an unrestrained disclosure of all 
the particulars with which I have beei^ 
furnished unfair, if not imprudent.'* 

The caused whi^h first produced the wn-. 
natimU estrangenient of Paul from h\\ 
mother are unknow^i : it is not unknown, 
however, that, for many years past, he was 
k^pt in a state of the most niortifying aixi 

♦ It is to bo regretted that any considerations of delicacy or prudence should exist, suf^ 
ficieiitly well-grounded tojirohibft the disclosure of every particular which is known on so in- 
terobtlDg an event. The tune may arrive when Mr. Carr will deem tKese restraints no longer 
necessary ; in wliicli case he will no doubt supply vis with that important desideratum, tli^ 
name of tlie person who Uhtld the cata^tropfw, and from whom his' information is deriv^ 
Rfcv. ' . 



slave of the north,* may have displayed 
' the most heroic valour in the field, and 
the most gentle moderation in success -,* 
but the victortet of Suwarrow were the 
indiscriminate desolations of a beast of 
prey : the relentless massacre of thirty 
thousand Turks at Ismael, and almost of 
an equal number of Poles at Praga and 
Warsaw, displayed more of ferocity than 
* Jieroic valour,* and certainly evinced as 
little ' moderation in success* as a natu- 
ralist could have expected from any mon- 
sters in tlie shape of man. 

It is an encouraging trait of character, 
that the Russian is mijd and humane to- 
wards the animals over which he has do- , 
minion : if his horse is sluggish, h'e cheers 
him by a few exhilarating sounds. If the 
jaded beast proceeds no faster, still pa- 
tient, he sings ; if this does not answer 
the purpose, he talks to hhn, reasons with 
him, but is rarely seen to strike the ani- 
mal, whose services are only withholdea 
when the force of nature is ei^hausted. 

*' A Russian, in the ebullition of passion, 
may do a ferocious thing, but never an ilhiar 
turld one. No being under heaven surpasses 
him in the gaiety of the heart. His little na- 
tional sooR cheers him wherever he goes. 
Where a German would smoke for comfort, 
the Russian sin^s. There is nothing cold 
about hiin biit his wintry climate ; whenever 
he speaks, it is with good humour and viva- 
city, aecoinpanied by the most animated ges- 
tures ; and although I do not think that the 
Graces would at first pull caps about him, 
yet, hi the dance, for spirit and agility, I would 
match and back him agahist any one of tlie 
most agile sous of carelcssuetis in the Cliampt 
ELysets."* 

An Englishman feels the flush of ho« 
nourableand patriotic pride, tliatwhithei:- 
soever his countr}'men go, they are re- 
ceived with cordiality and respect; in 
their person a willing homage is paid to 
the intellectm:! and moral character of 
tlie British nation. Whoever has travel- 
led on the continent knows this: Mr. 
Carr relates jnany little anecdotes indica- 
tive of tlie deference paid to Englishnaen 
in Russia. Many are settled at Peters- 
Imrg, which owes some of its architec- 
tural ornaments to tlieir genius and taste : 
particularly to Mr. Cameron, the present 
imperial architect, who lias a superb suite 
ot' apartments in tlie Michaelisky palace. 



CARK*S yOSTH^RN SUMMER. 



lor 



ImmiliatiDg degradation . He was not only 
derived of t£e honours due to his high, 
lank, but even cut otf from the ordinary 
idicities of life : ' the pressure of his hand 
excited suspicion j peril was in his attach- 
ment, and in his confidence guilt and trea- 
sou. He could not have a friend without 
foniishiDg a victim.* 

Fiul is said, by a gentleman who had 
the honour of s|x?nding a short time at 
his sechided Jittk court of Gatschina^ to 
have displayed ' a mind very elegantly in- 
dined^ and, withont being brilliant, highly 
cultivated, accomplished, and informed, 
frank and generous, brave and magnani- 
mous, a heart tender and affectionate, and 
a disposition very sweet, though most 
acutely and poignantly susceptible: his 
jwraon wus not handsome, but his eye was 
penetrating, and his manners sudi as de- 
noted the tinished gentleman.' He loved, 
c*en to indulgence, his family and ser- 
yants, who, in return, were most devot- 
edly attached to bun. His ardour in mi- 
litary pur&uits was entliusinstic ; his ce- 
lebrated challenge to the crowned heads 
pf Europe was wortiiy the age of chi- 
valry. • 

It was the mtention of Catherine that 
Paul sbould be passed over in the succes- 
sion, and diat the grand duke Alexander 
should mount the vacant throne on her 
demise. A short time before this event, 

*be had committed to count P Z 

a declaration of her will to this effect, ad- 
dre$sed to the senate. This last favourite 
of Catherine's, however, immediately on 
leamiug the death of his royal mistress, 
flev to Payiovsk, where Paul then re- 
sided, and delivered up to him this im- 
p«rtant docninient. The new emperor 
regarded tlie courtiers well-timed zeal, 
b)' iftqwing him alone, of all the panders 
to hiii ni^tber's loose and voluptuous ex- 
t«5es, to TQp\n his honours and liis for- 
tniies. * ' •'• * 

Paul, hou'cver, soon ri?pented of his li- 
berality : every ^pvi which had been pol- 
luted T»ith Catherine's' HcenciDus orgies 
fcecaaic hateful iii his eyes, and ever)' per- 
son who had been associated in then) was 
to the list degree di«gn«tiijg: Paul had 
been elevated to the ina^rial dignity hut 
« very short time before he gave alairniing 
symptoms of octa^ional derangetnent : so 



otter was his abhorrence against those pa« 
laces which had been, tlie favourift resi-* 
dences of his mother, that, in his delirium, 
he had determined to level every one of 
them to the gi'ound, and actually built for 
himself tliat gloomy and enormous pile, 
tlie palace of Michaelisky, which was 
the scene of his own murder.* With 
these strong feelings, it Avas impossible 
that the sight of count P— Z — should 
not have been odious to him : to effect 
his ruin, he was denounced as a defaulter 
to the imperial treasury of half a million 
of rubles, and Paul proceeded to sequester 
bis estates, and those of his two brodiers. 
In despair, one of the latter walked bold- 
ly up to the emperor on parade, and re- 
presented to him the injustice of his mea- 
sures :. it marks the inconsistency of Pauls 
character diat he listened to him with at- 
tention, and restored the property. The 
original disgust soon returned, and P— 
Z — was ordered to reside on his estate : 
this rustication was borne with impati- 
ence j and madame Che\'alier— a French 
actress of resisdess fasciiiation, who had 
been purjwsely introduced on the boards 
of the Fi-ench theatre at Petersburg, by 
Messrs. Otto, Sieyes, and Talleyrand, to 
seduce the emperor, and decoy him into a 
political snare — madame Chevalier waa 
bribed, by a magnificent aigrette of dia- 
monds, valued at sixty thousand rubles, 
to intercede, in some unguarded hour of 
dalliance, for the restoration of the count. 
The artifice succeeded, and die count was 
graciously received by his imperial ma.s- 
ter, against whom, whatever private pique 
the former might have cherished, Mr. 
C;UT believes it was wholly lost in his re- 
view of the drcadful condition of tlie em- 
pire, and in those aweful measures which 
were afterwards resorted to. However 
that may be, it seems to have been in the 
bosom of P — Z— that originated the 
idea of saving the empire by destroying 
the sovereign. Several noblemen, and 
jxjrsons of high rank and Consequence^ 
among tliem was the governor of die city, 
engaged in this fearful business j and, ac- 
cording to the merciful and generous as- 
surance of Mr. Carr, who one would sup- 
pose derived his information from the 
partial account of a conspirator,! none of 
them was actuated by any other motive 



* During hn» tnnporary ^ver^ion against the English, Paul ordered the celebrated bust of 
Mr. Fox, vhich was nitKleiled from liie at iJie express desire of the late empress, to he carried 
iiitu the cellar! 'i he present einpt'ixir has done him^lf the honour to place it in the magniti" 
prm gardens df the 'i aurida palace, in company ^tth a great number of beautitiil statues and 
Colos-a] r4sts. 
' t On the burdcK^ of Poland, Mr. Carr met this idontkal count P-*- 2^— at a post-house ; 



KSS 



VOYAGES AND TRAVeLS. 



Ifaan to prtvent the iihal ruin of their 
connlTry, and for this purpose tliey deter- 
mined to place in peril tlicir own lii'e^ and 
fortunes. 

" The pabce of St. Michael is an enor- 
mous fabric : the whole is nioaled round, and, 
when the stranger surveys its bat^tionf of gra- 
nite, and numerous draw -bridges, he is natu- 
rally led to conclude, that it was intendwl for 
tiie last asylum of a prince at war with his 
subjects. Fhose who have seen its massy 
waits and the capaciousness and variety of its 
diainbers, will easi!}' admit that an 'act of 
violence might be committed in one room, 
and not be heard by those who occupy the 
adjoining one ; and iliat a massacre might be 
|)erpretrati'd at one cud, and not known at tlie 
otlier. Paul tcxili po>se>sion of this palace as 
a place of strength, ami beheld it with rap- 
turcy because his imperial mother had never 
even seen it. Whilst his family were here, 
by every act of tendcrucss endeavouring to 
soothe the twnble perturbation of his nimd, 
tliere were not wanting tho^e who exerted 
evei-y stratagem to inllame and encrease it. 
Tlicse people were constantly insinuating, 
fiiat every hand was armed as^ainst him. 
With this impresswn, which added fuel to 
Ills burning brain, he ordered a secret stair- 
case to be constructed, which, leading from 
his own chamber, passed umler a false stove 
in the anti-room, and led by a small door to 
the terrace, 

" It was the custom of the emperor to 
deep in an outer apartment next to the em- 
press's, upon a sopiia, in his rt^imentals and 
boots, wliilst the grand duke and duchess, and 
"the rest of the imperial family, were lodged 
at various distances, in apart nients below the 
story which he occupied. On the tenth day* 
of March, O. S. 1801, tht-duy preceding the 
fatal night, whether Paul's api)ri.'hension, or 
•nonymous information, sujjgeited the idea, 
is not known; b\it conceiving that a storm 
was ready to burst upon him, he sent to 
count P — , the governor of the city,- one of 
the noblemen wljo had resolved on his de- 
struction: ' I am informed, P-~,' said the 
emperor, < that there is a conspiracy on foot 
aj;auist ra? ; do you think it necessary to take 
any precaution?' The count, without be- 
traying the least emotion, n*plied, ' Sire, do 
«ot suifer «uch apprehffn^^ions to haunt your 
luind ; if there were any combinations form- 
ing against your majesty's pTson, I am sure 
J should be acc^uaintecl with it.' ' Then I 
^m satisfied,' said the emperor, and the go- 
vernor withdrew. Before Paul retired to rest, 
he unexpectedly expn^ssixl th4» most tender 
soli<:itpdc for the emnress and his children, 
kissed them with all the warmth of farewel 
, loudness, and remained with them longer than 
usual : and, alter he had visited the centinels 
at their dilferent posts, he retired to his chain- 

they seem to have passed the evening in company, ond to have breakfasted together on the 
jbllowing momingj when the count gave the p^y a cordial iavitatiim to his s<at at Moscow. 
Rev. 



ber, where he had not long reniaxnecl, bdbie^ 
under some colourable pretext that satisfied 
the men, the guard was changed by" tbe offi- 
cers who had the command for the night, and 
were engaged in the confederacy. An hus- 
sar, whom the emperor had particularly ho- 
noured by hi^notice and attention, always at 
night slept at his bed-room door, in the anti- 
room. It was impossible to remove tini 
faithful soldier by any fair means. At this 
momentous period, silence rWgned through- 
out the palace, except where it was distuifoed 
by the pacing of tiie centinels, or at a distance 
by the murnmrs of the Neva, and only a few 
lights were to be seen distantly and irrv'^lariy 
gleaming through tlie windows of this dait 
colossal abode. In the dead of the Wf;ht, 
Z— and his friends, amounting to eight or 
nine pcrsions, passed the draw-bridge, easUy 
ascended the stair-case wiuirh led to Paul's 
chamber, and met with no resistance till thej 
reached the anti-room, when the faithful hus- 
sar, awakened by the noise, cliallenged them, 
and presented his fusee : much as they must 
have all admired the brave iidelity of the 
guard, neither time nor circumstances would 
admit of an act of generosity, which might 
have endangered the whole pfan. Z — drew 
his sabre and cut the poor fellow down. Paul, 
awakened by the notfse, spnmg from h'ts sopha: 
at this monient the whole party rushed into 
his room ; tJie unhappy sovereign, anticipat- 
ing their desi^i, at nrst endeavoured to en- 
trench himselt ui the chairs and tables, then 
recovering, he assumed a high tone, told them 
they were his prisoners, and called upon them 
to surrender. Finding that they fixed their 
eyes steadily and fiercely upon h'im, and con- 
tmued advancing towards nim, he implored 
them to spare his life, dL*clared his consent 
instantly to relinquish the sceptre, and to ac- 
cept of any tenns which the^- would dictate. 
In his raving, he oHered to make them princes, 
and to give them estates, and titles, and or- 
ders, without end. They now began to press 
upon him, when he made a convulsive eflTort 
to reach the window : in the attempt he failed, 
and indeed so high was it from the ground, 
that had he succeeded, the expedient would 
only Ivave put a more instantaneotis period to 
his misery. In the eflbrt he very severely 
cut his hand with the glass; and, as'tiin- drew 
hhn back, he graspeiia chair, >*ith wfiirh he 
felled one of the assailants, and a de^jjerate 
resistance took place. So great was the noise, 
that, notwithstanding the massy walls, and 
thiek double folding-doors whicli dividt d the 
apartments, the empress was disturi)ed, and 
began to cry for help, when a Wice whispered 
in her ear, and unperatively told her tore- 
main quiet, otherwise, if she uttered another 
word, she should be put to instant death. 
Whilst the cinperorwas thus making a last 
struggle, tlie prince Y— struck him on one of 
his temples with his fist^ and laid him iipoa 



€A»^8 NOftTHBXN St7MM£t« 



1Q» 



Hie floor ; ftml, recovenng from the blow, 
9p^ implored his life ; at this moment the 
Mut of F — Z — relen^^ and Ujxm being ' 
obscn'ed to tiembte and hesitate, a young 
Haoovefian resolutely extlaimed, ' We have 
passed the rubicon: if we spare his life, be- 
KK the setting of to-morrow^ sun, we shall 
be his victims !* upon which he took off his 
nsh^ tuned it twice round the naked neck of 
the emperor ; axKl giving one end to 2^, and 
holding the other himself* they pulled for a 
coQsidmble time with ail their force, until their 
iniserable sovereign was no more : they then re^ 
tired iirom tiw palace without the least moles- 
tation, and returned to their respective homes.. 
What occurred after their departiwe can be 
'bftter conceived than depicted: mescal aid 
was nssorted to,, but in vain ; and upon the 
Weathless body of the emperor fell the tears 
of his widowed empress and diildren, and do- 
L BKStics; nor was genuine grief ever more 
! ixcihly or feelmgly displayed tha& by him 
on whose brow this melancholy event had 
planted the crown. So parsed away this night 
of honor, and thus perished a prince, to 
whom nature was Mcoerely bountifiil. The 
accnteness and pungency of his fedmgs was 
incompatible with ha^^iness: unnatural pre-- 
jndice pressed upon the fibre, too finely spun, 
and snapped iL 

" Tis not as heads that never ache suppose, 
Forgwy of fancy, and a dream of woes ; 
Man is a harp, whose chords elude the sight. 
Each yielding harmony, dbposed aright ; 
lliescrews ievers*d (a task wluch, if he please, 
Ood in a moment executes with ease). 
Ten thousand thousand strings at once go 

loose. 
Lost, till he tune them, all their power' and 

use." ' CowpER. 

** The suQ shone upon a new order of things. 
At seven o'clock the intelligence of the de- 
mise of Paul spread through the capital. The 
interval of time from its brst communicatbn 
to its diflusion o\'er every part of Petersburg, 
was scarcely perceptible. At the parade Alex- 
ander presented hmisdf on horseback, when 
the troops, withlears rolling down their rugged 
and suohbrowued faces, hailed hun with loud 
and cordial acclamations. The young em- 
peror was overwhelmed, and, at tne moment 
of mount hie the throne of the most extensive 
empire unoer heaven, lie was seen to turn 
from the grand and alfecting spectacle, and 
weep. 

" What followed is of a very subordinnte 
consideration; but perhaps it will be eagerly 
adced, to what extremity did the avenging 
arm of justice pursue the perpetrators of the 
deed? Mcixry, the brightest jewel of every 
crown, and a7orbm and melancholy convic- 



tion, that the reigning motive was the safv«:* 
tion of the empire, prevented her from being 
vindictive- Never upon the theatre 'of litis 
was tbere presented a sceira of more atiectiB^ 
magnanimitv ; decency, not revenge, govern- 
ed the sacrifice. P — Z — wa;? ordered nUt 
to approach the imperial residence, and the 
goveraor of the city was transferred to Riga, 
As soon as madame ChevaUcr was inionneii 
of the demise of her imperial patron, she pre* 
pared, under the protection of her brother, m 
dancer, for ilight, with a booty of neariy » 
million of rubles. A police otnccr was sent 
to inspect and report upon Ijcr property: 
amongst a pile of vahiabfe articles, he distco*- 
vered a diamond cross of no great intrinac 
vaKie, whkrh had been given by Peter l, to m 
branch of tJie imperial family, and on tlist ao- 
coimt moch esteemed ; it was to recover iStam 
that the of ncer was sent, who obtained it, after* 
the most indecent and unprincipled resistance 
on her part. Pai»s{X)rts were then gi^anted to 
madame Chevalier and her brother. llni» 
terminated this extraordinary and impressive 
tragedy.*' 

Numerovrs are tlie anecdotes of Alex- 
ander, which testily to the excelleaoe of 
his understr.nding, and the benevoleooe of 
his heart ; we had noted two or thnee of 
thes«, with a view of presenting them to. 
our readers, but we are limited by the xuh 
ture of our work. Mr. Carr took leave of 
Petersburg, passed through Livonia, and 
skirted tlie Baltic through the Prussian 
dominions till he reached Berlin. Here 
he baited a short time, and, of coorso* 
paid a visit to the great Fred«rick*g fa- 
voorite retreat at Potsdam : the pictum 
gallery at Swns Souci is a noble roooiV and ' 
contains a very choice and precious, ool-* 
lection. Military discipline seems to hayft 
relaxed notlnng of Its severity since the 
days of Frederick : on the otliaT hand, it 
is pleasing to reflect that, throughout the 
Prussian dominions, and ^le vast empire 
of Russia, complete toleration in religious 
subjects i& allowed. 

After having rested himself from the 
fatigues of a long journev, Mr. Carr left 
the delightful Linden waUc of Berlin, and 
that elegant specimen of architecture, the 
Brandenburg-gate, and returned to his 
native la!>d. The account which he has 
given of hi* travels, displays a cultivated 
taste and an inquisitive mind. Several 
engravings adorn this volume from draw- 
ings, taken on the spot by the tasteful 
pencilof Mr. Carr. 



Aat. XX. Sketch qf his Majesty's Province qf Upper Canudu. By D'Arcy Bo vito^^ 
Barrister at Lau\ 4to. pp*. 99. 



TO this volame Is prefixed a map, but 
•b so small a scale^ aikl s» leantily dotted 



with, towns, that not half the places or 
crea subdivisions mentioned. in^he oaqra* 



no 



Voyages anb travem. 



tivd xm therein fee found ) it ik worse 
than u»less, it is perplexing: we recom- 
mend, as an tmportartt luiprovemeht, at- 
tachi;ig the narrative to a good tnap> and 
charging half-a-gninea for the voiurrte. 
Where the extension of geographical 
knowledge is the chief object of a writer, 
ke ought to provide the essential assist- 
ance of linear description. 

ITie land-surveyors of Upper Canada> 
who have dissected its forests and marshes 
into rectangular shires, without setting up 
rtatron-staves or rattling a polechain, ar6 
distributing, by the theodolite, such masses 
of property, as will outmeasure the estates 
dP Russian nobles, and found rivals to Bri- 
tish peers. With as little ceremony as 
one petitions for a clerkship in the excise- 
office^ his majesty's patent is solicited for 
the grant of couuties^ which will place 
one's grandson among the lords of thd 
world, and prepare new American wars 
from the ambitious ingratitude of over- 
fostered children. There is rashness in 
these grants. No quit-rents are reserA'ed. 
No taxes levied. The expence of protec- 
tion ought progressively to be asked of the 
dependent stiitej and the wisest. form of 
obtaining the indemnity is not by the le- 
vies of the custom-house, but by the as- 
sessment of the tenantry. Let the rent 
to the state amcxmt but to a shilling the 
aqnare mile, while the difficulties of set- 
tlement ccmtiuue j but let it be progres- . 
aive with tlic produce, and comaiensuidte 
with the prosperity of the country. 

With the circumstances and wants of 
North America a new division of human 
labour has grown up; an army of wood* 
clearers. 'i'hese anti-savages sell their 
farms In the states of Kew York and 
Vermont to Kurojxian emigrants, or agri- 
cultural neighbours, and undertake to re- 
duce into th^* like saleable state the un- 
touched acres of Upper Canada. To them 
the sway of a republican master or a dis- 
tant king, is alike inditfcrcnt. Where 
ptt^t comes, lies their country. They 
purchase on iive }ear bonds a lot of tM o 
hundred acres. I'he men come by them- 
selves at first, fell or ginlle the uiconve- 
nient timber, rear a log-house, harrow the 
cleared intervals, sow wheat, and then re- 
turn for their tamilies and cattle. The 
flext year they bring tlieir stock, their 
waggons, and their women, and improve 
tlieir new houses into decgit residences. 
In live years tliey have paid for the ike 
simple of their faniis ; they have increased 
their stock j they are ready to hitch witli 
added ^nvers i!b Uie lepelitiiou of a siaii- 



lar efiterprtse'> and they^g&in tell wltii a 
lai^e profit to tlie second ordier of aet« 
tiers. So many of these primary colo- 
nists are now m organized nroveroent, 
that some thousand families in a year will 
cross the lakes which separate America 
from British territory^ and re-ceounence, 
bn the oppositie shore, their levelling ope- 
rationsv They perforate a wilderness in 
a 8um)li6r, mhide tunber into wheat-halm, 
and lead bullocks to browse where the 
bear growled. 

Care is taken not to move beyond reach 
of water-carriage, as there must be an an- 
nual excliange of the supeiiluoiu produce 
for the clothing, the metallic utensils, the 
glass and pottery ot' £urope. Farmers of 
skill and capital succeed with advanti^ 
to these inclosures; they combine more J 
than one allotment, and place dependents ^ 
in the supernumerary log-houses. The 
climate of Upi)er Canada is mild and in- 
viting j the soil rich and productive; the 
winter useless to any purpose but amuse- 
ment ; and journeys are undertaken in 
sleighs or sledges of four or fi\e hundred 
miles to visit tlie neighbottrs. The dis- 
tance between Edinburgh and London is 
within the beat of regular acquaintance. 

In such a country, population is con- 
stantly tending to dispersipn, and no where 
to accumulation. Of course, manners ar6 
tending to rudeness, not to refinement. 
Education is confined to the ordinary uti- 
lities of milking coin's, feeding poultry, 
killing sheep, flaying bullocks, ploughing 
land, and buying and selling. The last 
occupation has some tendency to preserve 
tlie knowledge of letters and figures -, but 
where the labour of the youngest is valu- 
able, and tlie distance of tolerable scliools 
immense, tliere is a risk of the whites re- 
hilling into Mohawk ignorance, and of 
having to bargain at talks for want of be-- 
ing able to sign a contract. Much laad 
has been set apart in Canada for the 
church: why not grant it under the 
double tenure of j)erforming worship on 
the Sunday afternoon, and keeping school 
on the Sunday morning? Parents will 
perhaps travel to worship, if their chil- 
dren are to be taught to spell and to cy- 
pher. A vernacular litiurgy, in which tlie 
people take part, favours tlie difiusion'of 
the art' of reading. To so much of en- 
croachment on the habits, whether satho- 
lic or presbyterian, of the Canadians, as 
tends to secure the loud reading of the 
forms of worship, ojne would wish the 
exemplary classes to incline. Yet we un- 
derstand that the clerical situations in Ca- . 



B0TJlt6N*« EKETCH Of UMftK 6Alf AbX. 



Ill 



vtk ire •onDHivithig to any educated 

flstt, tbat the English clergy^ who are 
mostly w-ell boni^ the younger sons of oui^ 
eminent families^ and hence accustomtdi 
to the best society^ unwillingly listen to 
oSen of transatlantic preferment. 

In Great Britain the press supersedes 
tlie importance m£ otal instruction; but 
io North Aineril;:a the antique provisions 
ibr a learned olrder are not less necessary 
now than during the feudal ages df £u* 
rope. Nor can a profuse removal into 
colonies which are just arrived at the ma* 
tority to require an insertion of £uro^ 
pean improvement, be any way so effica* 
ciouMy stimulated as by inducing the chief- 
tains of petty sects to become the leaders 
of migratory flocks. Whether this can be 
accomplished without a repeal of the act 
of onitormhy, may be contentedly aban- 
doned to the discussion of parliament or 
of the con vocation. 

Whatever may be the objections to the 
clerical order, as at present constituted in 
Europe, there is no doubt that in Canada 
it wcNild be an impediment not to wis- 
dom and tolerance, but to ignorance and 
^oatidsra: it would keep alive a pious 
attachment to the mother country; it 
would import and dlfiiise both knowledge 
and manners. Barbarism and civilization 
ate equally natural to noan, and bear a 
pnetty r^olar proportion to the rari^ or 
density of populousness : barbarism is the 
name given to that set of manners which 
prer^ where men are thinly scattered > 
and civilization is the name given to that 
set of manners which prevails where men 
aie thickly scattered: retrogression takes 
place whenever popolousness grows thin- 
ner, progression whenever it grows den- 
ser. European families transported to 
Canada must wilder in a generation or 
two : the precautions of the lawgiver ought 
chiefly to be directed toward securing those 
aits of life which are in danger of being 
abandoned there. 

An important service ipight be render- 
td to Upper Canada not only by sending 
pastors, but fipcks. Why not repeal tlie 
laws against wAing, and permit the ex- 
portation of our best breeds of sheep into 
Canada? The wool would return hither 
to be numu^tured, and at a price which 
would ^Kalitate to our manufacturers tlie 
supply of distant markets. The higher 
it^ges of cultivation are incroaching on 
our domestic sheep-walks; and wool is 
gradually ascending to a price which en- 
dangers our staple industry. Hides and 
t>ilow, IS well as wool^ might be brought 



fixttnGabada in greater abundance, and 
80 might hemp iai^ flax. The ^ndation 
of a naval arsenal in the river Saint Law-* 
rence would give an expedient directieo 
to the contiguous industry. 

A curious delineation is that of the set« 
tiling of wild land. 

** Wild lands, that is, lands in a state of 
nature, have been sold as low as a qliarter of 
ia dollar per acre, for prompt payment ; and 
mucii has been sold from that price to half a 
dollar per acre. In other situations, similar 
lands have produced horn one dollar to two ; 
but such prices in money are rare, and can 
only be obtained where a person liappens to 
be settled in tUc4ieighbourhood» aud to own 
adjoining land^, Bnt a new settler, or a per- 
son desirous of making a purchase, can always 
do it to great advantage if he can command 
moncv. 

'* Tlic lands are usually divided into lots of 
two hundred acrt^ each, fonnin^^ a complete 
farm ; that quantity of land bemg fully suf- 
ficient for any one farmer^ Much land in 
this country is purchased with no other view 
than to sell again, a trafHc concerning wliich 
I do not feel competent to decide, whether it 
should be considered as advantageous to the 
country or not. In many instances it has a 
good tendency, in others the reverse. Thou- 
sands of poor people come into this country 
to settle, without being able to advance 
money, not bemg possessed of any c^itaL 
A person so circumstanced is of course con- 
strained to purchase on credit, which he does 
to great disadvantage, unless he happen to 
deal with a man of peculiar honesty. TJie 
tenns u^ally are, to pay the purchase money 
by instalments, sometunes embracing a period 
of four or five years. In such cases, tlie ven- 
der usually gives the purchaser a bond, with 
condition to give a deed of conveyance at a> 
certain period, provided the purchaser shall 
fulfil his sevenu payments. Somethne:*, in 
case of non-perfomiance of these payments, 
the obligee hi the bond avails himsell ol his ad- 
vantage, and takes back the land with four or 
five years unprovement upon it, and resells it 
to a fresh purchaser to a great profit. In tnith, 
any jierson capable of advancuig money may 
purchase very low, and sell at an advance uf 
one or even two hundred per cent, profit, 
payable by instalments. This system aflbrJ.s 
an excessive advantage to the municd man, 
who takes security of the purchaser for tht; 
purchase money, with interest, which at once 
alfords him au immoderate advance. 

'* The plan I here state is daily fi)lIowed ; 
and I can in>1ance cases where piK)ple iiave 
actually improved their interest in the cour^ie 
of seven years more than one tiioesand per 
cent. The local situation of Upper Cairada 
is such that it will ever be the mo^t thiivihg 
country in America. 'I'he Americans ar^ 
per]3etually removbg into this province, 
which produces a regular «?> stem o\ trade in 
that way. I could instance some few ca^^v^ 



tn 



VOYAGES ANii tftAVEt*. 



irikerepersons have pturdiased biid fiw ten 
«r twelve dollars a jot (of two hundred 9cccs}; 
vhd, in the course of twelve or fourteen ye&rB» 
Ibave refused three hundred pounds fur the 
same land. This may be termed land spe- 
culation ; but however obnoxious the system 
may be to some minds, it does and ever will 

r:evaU in this country ; and, upon the whole, 
am much inclined to think that it is a be- 
neficial traffic for the coi^try. The bulk of 
the inhabitants are Americans, whose natural 
turn of mind leads to variety ; for which rea- 
son they no sooner improve a new farm than 
they are desirous of selling it No set of 
men on earth, perliaps, are so competent as 
Americans to engage in the difficulties of a 
new country ; and Europeans, unacquainted 
vith such a course of lite, will fmd it better 
policy to purchase small improvements than 
to engage in such dlHicuIties. I know of no 
method by which a capital can be improved 
to so great advantage as by adopting this 
system; but it requires some knowledge of 
the country before a person can form a just 
opinion either of the situation or value of 
lauds. It may appear almost necessary to 
say what. sort of persons, under these cir- 
cumstances, can become pu'cliasers. But 
my reply will be ver)' general : ahnost every 
one. If a man haf great industry, and a 
femily sufficiently advanced to aid instead 
of encumbering him, he can, without any 
money, make a purchase of a single lot of 
two hundred acres ; and, to »isc a common 
expression, make the land pay for itself, that 
is, from its own produce. If a fanner has 
three or four boys old enough to help him, 
they can easily clear twenty acres of new 
land ; and, if they have ordinarj' luck, the 
fet crop will yieki live hundred bushels of 
good wheat, wnk:h, if the market price is a 
dollar, will produce one hundred and twenty- 
five pounds currency, that is, double the va- 
lue of the land. Many persons have become 
purchasers of land, with no other view than 
that of selling on credit for large profit. Many 
hundreds indeed there are in this country who 
own from eight himdred to two thousand 
acres, yet began without any capital. I could 
enumerate many instaiices of individuals hav- 
ing maintained their families, and, in the 
course of seven years, collected from six to 
twelve hundred acres of land. Irue it is 
that this cannot at present be called a large 
pxroerty ; but when a parent can reflect that 
he has secured for each of his family after 
him a comfortable fann, how satisfied must 
such a one feel. It has not been the lot of 
every one to be forced to these reflections : 
happy are they who have no necessity for 
them ; but much more happy they who by 
their industry have rendered themselves in- 
dependent, and their families after them." 

If geographers would pay some atten- 
tion to euphony in the imposition of new 
names, they would ^eatJy facilitate to fo- 
seigpers tb« prominciation aind rccolkctiou. 



4f such nameff. Why spell CrwiHiarfi!*^ 
burg : the ^ is no part of the Saxon vit" 
hebn, whence the English name Williani 
has been corruptly ^rmed: this initial 
letter answers the double purpose of dis- 
playing ignorance and puzzling utterance. 
Why preserve unshortened the French 
names of places ? Ijet point au galop be- 
come Faint Gallop} let point au barril 
become Point Band ; and point au cardi" 
fUU become Point Cardtnal. Let us amal- 
gamate the French topical nomenclature, 
and die other remains of their language, 
with our own, but so as to efface that 
appearance of strangeness, of quotation^ 
which yet adheres to some of the phra-c 
seology adopted in this sketch. To revive 
the names familiar in the mother country 
may be natural. When the Persians 
colonized Egypt, they founded another 
Babylon and another Ecbatana ; but these 
double nommatioDs produce inconveni- 
ence. Baltimore cannot be spoken or 
written of witliout a descriptive qualifica- 
tion: contiguity suggests Baltimore m 
Ireland; celebrity suggests Baltimore in 
Maryland. Diminutive appellations would 
sometimes be more respectful at well as 
more convenient; Londonetta instead of 
London. Vowel terminations would suf- 
fice to discriminate, and woUld preserve 
every desirable recollection. The grand 
subdivisions ought every where to be 
named from the contiguous lakes and 
rivers, for this plain reason, tliat their 
situation is thus suggested by their name: 
the name of a French department instantly 
tells you where to look for it on the map^ 
A system of geographical nomenclature 
might be c^ontrived, which would greatly 
facilitate the reraerabrance of names and 
sites, by giving to names of mountains 
one termination, to names ot jrivers ano* 
ther, to names of provinces a third, to 
names of towns a fourth. Thus the pro* 
vinoe watered by the Niagara might be 
called Niagria, the chief town Niagaroui 
and the mountain down which it fidls 
Niagar. 

At the peace of 1783 the Americans 
would probably have been content with a 
line of demarcation allotting the wholes / 
territor}' north and west of the Qkiro to' 
the owners of Upper Canada. Perhaps it 
is become worth the while of the British 
government to open a negotiation for ex* 
changing New Brunswick and Nova See- ^ 
tia against tiiis unoccupied district. The- ' 
coast thrives better under the free trade 
and maritime privileges of the United' 
States: the interior settles faster under 



\ 



PitBSBKT ST^TB OF FRANCS. 



119 



ftepatonagc of British capital, and the 
prettKnc^ of British custom for produce. 
Thc« proTiDces therefore would be served 
by an excbauge, which, tor a oentury to 



come, will not be of importance to either 
government as a fund of taxation; dnd 
before that time the Canadas will have 
attained the age of emancipation. 



Ait. XXr. ji Sketch (tf the present State qf France, By an English Gentleman, who 
escaped from Paris in the Month qfMay 1805. 8w. pp 124. 






PEACE was unfavourable to the repu- 
tation of Bonaparte, and, had it lasted, 
▼oold have occasioned his deposition. 
He is too ignorant in literature to appre- 
ciate die merit by which he is suri^ound- 
cd, too religi ous to be a welcome chief- 
tain for {fie philosophic world, and too 
despotic to be obeyed with a disinterested 
alacrity. He has not the dextrous alla- 
bQity of Augustus, who could substitute 
the equalizations of politeness for those of 
republicanism. His internal government 
was barsh^ unjust, and cruel: it united 
the mistrost ot a Venetian with the seve- 
rity of a Spanish inquisition. 

War has restored to Bonapaijte, in thel 
eyes of Frenchmen, his original and pe- 
ciliar value. His superiority as a general 
renders him the most desirable chieftain 
for bis country. The odium which was 
load against his assumption, his caprice^ 
and his petulance^ is become mute. Pub- 
lic gratitude and public confidence have 
superseded the sneers, and froAMis, and 
n^ of a refined displeasure. 

This writer speaks of him with the 
artificial ill-will of a suiSerer, not with 
the indjfi'ereuce of a mere observer. He 
who determines to live free or die, will 
commonly domineer : he stakes more on 
bis puipose than his antagonists. Moreau 
feared infamy, and feared the scalfold: 
without the senate he would not begin, 
arid with the senate he would have shrunk 
from some gf the sine qudnons of usur- 
pation. Singleness of view, however in* 
compatible with the interest of mankind, 
where the cosmopolitical passion is not 
the ruling one, is almost a necessary ini 
gradient of succisssfui ambition. This 
character of greatness belongs to Bohai 
parte. Whatever actions ^e essential tp 
his success should be criticised tolerantly. 
He is not to be compared with other men, 
but with other usurpers.' To Septimius 
Severus be bears a close, resemblance 'by 
his personal character and his iiinovative 
institutkMis; but being more adventurous 
and less accommodating, he is tmiikely to 
bring hii fbrtiuies to an atchor : he must 
contmoe in fiill sail or be 'v^ecked. 

The conquests of the ancient Aomans, 
fike those of the British i^ H'lpdostan^ 
AHii.R«r.Voi..IV. 



were rendered subservient to national 
opulence : the generals and proconsuls, 
like our nabobs, brought home fortune^ 
which adorned the metropolis with edi- 
fices, and scattered a demand for luxuries. 
But tlie conquests of the French, although * 
accompanied with profligate extortions, • 
have not sensibly increased the propor- 
tion of rich residents in their metropolis, 
Paris does net flourish. Bridges are built, 
market-places and quays are cleared, pub- 
lic monuments are erected and embellish- 
ed ; but new houses, new streets, new 
villas, are no where climbing. The pa- 
tronage of government is parcelled out in 
small shares among the civilized neces- 
sitous : it is not employed to attract the 
residence of provincial opulence. By the 
profuse confiscations, by the breach of 
entails, the consequent absolute tenure of 
land, its divisibility among mor^agees> 
and among heirs without preference of 
primogeniture, the huge estates have beea 
crumbled, and the nobility has been 
minced into a yeomanry. There may be 
more ease, but there is less splendor. 
The country is tliriving, not the chief 
city. 

If Bonaparte wishes for trade, ships, 
and colonies, he must transplant his me- 
tropolis to Bordeaux. Conmierce c&n do 
nothing for a town situate like Paris. It 
is inaccessible to shipping; and inconve- 
niently approached even by boats: the 
Seine is. a rapid stream, and in some, de- 
gree a torrent: iadry seasons the shoals 
are hardly e'vitable. Many advantages 
would attend the transfer of the seat of 
government. Instead of tlie profligate 
population of an idle metropolis, Bor- 
deaitx would offer- an orderly multitude, 
accustomed to maritime art<^ industrious 
habits. A less vigilant ani' intolerant 
polico would suflice to preserve order j 
the prevalence of occupation would check 
th^ tendency to revolutionary fanaticism. 
In* a commercial town, public opinioa 
operates habimally in favour of peace, of 
justice, of respect for propert}' j not in 
favour of mutalions that will supply talk.- 
The tendency to French encroachment 
will eventually spend itself on Spain, and 
* through Spain on the .coast of 4&ica^ 



1X4 



VOYAGES AND TIAVELS. 



Bordeaux is a more coniii^^t site of 
sway for an empire growing in tliat direc* 
tion; and it is securer from the approach 
of German or Russian armies. Paris was 
built while civil arcliitecture was in its 
kifom^: the priirata bouses are inconre* 
nient beyond corrlgibility ; no water is 
laid in to the apartments ; no stair-case is 
private; no room but is a thoroughfiuv. 
Hie loss of labour occasioned by the per- 
terse distribution of the apartments makes 
tlie diiference of a servant per family. The 
Streets are as absurdly contrived as the 
houses: tliey are all narrow, and without 
foot-ways : there is no remedy but to re- 
build. This reconstruction miglit as well 
take place elsewhere. Paris might re- 
main the Athens of the French empire, 
ihe seat of colleges and museums, of lite- 
rature and art ; but the Rome, the impe- 
rial city, should be stationed on the im. 
periai river, open to the ocean, should 
have navigable access to the interior, and 
be the natural mart of interchange for 
every thing domestic with every thing 
foreign. Paris has seen its acme : demo- 
litions may awhile conceal the progress 
of ruin and desertion, and embellish the 
increasing vacancy; but commerce is be- 
come so much more powerful a principle 
in the creation or annihilation of cities, 
tlian the expenditure of courts, that the 
return of an eminent prosperity is impro- 
bable to a place so ill situate for traffic 
and circulation. 

The state of public welfare and opinion 
IS thus sketched: 

" A new quay has been opened from the 
Pont Aotre Dame to the Pont au Chanf:e on 
thf- Isle of Paris, called the Quai Dessaix, in 
memory of the general of that name, to wliom 
ft nionumeJit lias also be»'n erected in the 
Place Dauplnnt on a rouml pedestal, orna- 
mented With the names of all the contributors 
to the expencc on marble tablets. 

" But these publie edifices ahd decorations 
have nothing to, do with the comfo:^ of the 
people, and cannot be taken for the sigss of a 
pips|x!ro<is city. 'I'here arc not ten houses 
now buikling m Paris and its suburbs ; and 
some lately nnishcd, in the best part of tlie 
town, near ihaFauxbourg (or Suburb) St. //o- 
nore, on the site of the Convent of the Jaco- 
bins, are without occtipicrs. 

" Nearly a twelvenionlU has rfapsed ^iftce 
tlie groiiad on the north side of the Carde«i 
ot the Tuilleries has been cleared, from the 
Place Louis Xf^- to the Carousel ; and a car* 
riage-way paved, with the name R»ie de Rivati 
pompouniy iixcd up on handsome stone ta- 
blets. 

" The ground of this intended stre«, lying 
ou the side of -the garden t>f the Tuiileties^ 



and opposite to the imperial nalace (ihe best 
and indeed the only desirable situation in 
Paris), has to the present moment contintied 
to be otiFered to let for the purpose of build« 
ing ; yet such is the want of capital and spi- 
rit, or such the apathy or doubt on the pmlc 
mind, that not one stone has been laid. 

*' The Morgue, an e<Mce for the recqition 
and exhibition to public view of the nume- 
rous bodies of nightly assassinated individuals, 
and of people found dead and deposited theic 
to be owned, is a well contrived in'w building, 
lately opened, and is never empty of unfoi^ 
tunate objects. 

*' Great part of Paris exhibits nothinc but 
raggedness and dirt, llie inhabitants, hov- 
ever, contend, that it is cleaner since tiie re 
volution thwi before. They have therefore 
derived one advantage from this event, and 
one which they very much wanted ; but much 
improvement will still be required to bring 
it into a state of wholesome cleanliness. 

" A project is in contemplation to bring 
water to Paris, somewhat on the plan of the 
New River of London ; but Paris, as it now 
exists, can never be supplied, in every house 
and in every family, with water. 

" Hie height of the buildings, and the 
number of fomilies in each house ; the dear- 
ness of manual labour and of lead ; and, above 
all, the tittle inclination a Frenchman has to 
lay out a sum of money, unless on the cer- 
tainty of immediate profit, must prevent the 
distnbution o( water by pipes, cocks, and 
cisterns; the first expence of which could 
only be reimbursed by gradual savings, and 
by. tlie comfort' and convenience of the im- 
provement. 

** It is not the custom in Paris to take or 
grant a longer lease than for nine years: three 
is the usual tenn ; and if the proprietor of a 
house sells itafter luiving granted a lease, this 
is immediately void between tlie tenant and 
tlie landlord. 1 o guard again^st tliis pxac- 
lice, it is usual to insert in the leases a fine on 
t)ie landlords in case of their selling the pro- 
pert v before the expiration of the term. 

'•This custom otshort leases operate very 
powerhiUy in aid of the natural ais{x>sifion of 
the Parisians to impleaidiness in their liouscs, 
an^ inattention to repair them. They justiff 
the contimiance of the practice of only taking 
three, six, or nine years* term, in a miUding* 
by pleading the uncertainty of tluugs, and the 
apijreliension of changes ui their jtciitical $}*$- 
tvm aiid 'Situation, and the consequent ^hictu- 
atkakis in the vahie of property. 

THEATilSS. 

" New Dif^Qtres -are sin adifing to thefreit 
Mmib^r already ensdi^; in Batis, lo ^^mtcfy 
liie taste of the hihabitsnts for dramadc ea- 
tdtanments. 

'* The Tkegtre Franfais, the fn»d €|M!t% 
and the comic ojiera, do honour to the spcnic 
art, and are perlect exhibitions in their Jiind. 
Tha grand opera^ttdt Italian) is amost mag- 
fUncent ^Ipcctach^. 



i 



YH&SSNT STAT* Of fllA^CB. 



*iaog kaa e d mM f undar the contioiil 
md ^iPBction of t^ scorenunent, who cootri- 
htfe largely to their" support, the theatres of 
has are in its hands great means of lulling 
and amusing the people, and of attracting fo- 
tognas to a place so dangerous to thcin in 
fvery respite, but particularly so since the 
vrvokition of BoDapsrte. 

"The small and very mferior theatres and 
show* situated in the Bouicvartb (rampart^), 
mar the Gale St. Martin, many of them not 
to be ranked in some respects with Sadi/er's 
Wctts, an? wtU frequented by even the higher 
class of the city of Paris. These places of 
•amosemciit, a^ well as tJie many public danc"- 
in»-nx>iTi?, the open gamhig-tabies, and the 
innumTablc cofl'ee-houses, are always liMed 
by this Tivacious p«ople. 

" Attention to dress is more observed at 
d)c theatres of Paris by the audience than it 
k W5 dtfee yeafs ^o. NJen who dress well 
^UflUcTiuHy adopt tbe English mode ; but the 
emhroidefod liveries introduced by the aw- 
fej of Bonaparte, may give for a time a ciew 
wedion to liic public taste in thb respect. 

•* At the theatre of the Gate St: Martiii, 
ifc the representation of a piece on the taking 
Pf^hgapaUun, the audience dapped on 
^rcdtaiofaTery illiberal assertion put by 
tteauthor into the mouth of one of his pcr- 
foa^0e$ of tAe p)ay. ' The English are trai- 
k«,* said the actor ; and the house applauded. 
"XolwithsUndia^ this syniptoqi of prgu- 
QJcc, the war with England is not popular in 
France; thou^ scwne amopg die few that 
think, believe it in some measure the cause 
d their countrr, or at least feel that it ought 
to be supported «# a war: and though they 
gdiott uucm the taU-nts of Bonaparte as ^ 
#Mni,Ciey cortaioly do uot Wour hii^ 09 

** A fittle piece is played at the theatre of 
)^^ Comique, caUed rekili, in which 
tbcbealihofa now-made emperor is drank 
aithc staje. After the coronation of Bona- 
l^te, a kind of pause seemed to be made at 
tills Mssage, in order to observe whether the 
peojJewoukl applaud with an allusion to the 
wcent coronation of their Napoleon, but 
taoe was not even a vMsper of approbation, 
ff.14 P^y ^^^^ ^« title of Henry the 
. ^Ih had been forbidden on account of 
c^ nuiked applause which ei'cry passage al- 
Aft^ ^ ^ destniction of tyrants excited. 
After his coronation, BonapaVte ordered it, 
and appeared himself. His impudence, how- 
W, was not proof aeainst the ordeal ; for 
o« hoRc rang widi redoubled aad continued 
Pab of applaud at every sentence pointing 
^ *2"^' ^^ fc€ quitted his box before the 
^■wttsiou of the perfonnauce.'* 



«f 



Jitd^abQi^ tjbftipFoIfitipQ full ^ f:xm^ 
quoices, gives dw psitiodoiy cfGsffs^, 
Vidafi^pvL, and MoEeaii, aad a scaxiQr dLetch 
Of the! general state of Frw*.' He de« 
scribes the coronatipn 5 ije treats of thjD 

Eope and religion, an4 of tit legion of 
onour. An impoh^t cliaptq?: |s that 
which respects our sw^jj^ 4xxi iippn* 
^oned couotiymen. 

'* The peculiar situatbp of Ae E^sli^ now 
detained m France ynder the name of W- 
tages, ou^t to excite tlie attention of tlieir 
countrymLn at home, who enjoy the privilM^e 
of personal liberty, the advantages c« cH^ 
cising jklieir talents for the unprovjexni^t of 
their Ibrtimes, and the aocic^ ojr their mends, 
in a country of fiei^en. ' ijbey' were ^c« 
by sui-prise by tlie Aincxamp!|[^ measure'^ 
ttDnapaite's aiTite for' their detention, ^hich 
was put in force yiMii^ V^^J^ t)jcin were 
traveling in i^fferqif parts pf france at a dis- 
tance from the capital, and wlici^* they cd 
not know of the dcpaj[;tufe of the i^mba&didor ; 
and some of them were ac;;b»lly pnthqtt i<^ 
nev to leave the ixmtry. * 

^' li is surdy a repi^i^ach to a neat and ^ene* 
reus nation that'dicpoor amoM tK^r cbtfotryr 
men, unfortunate prisoners jui m en<*ipy*s landl 
shut out from even the ordinary hopes oTmoi 
whom the cli«9ce of Wiiir ^tatAS, s^ld pdt 
experience the ^ha^d ,of l^be^Uy all|!vja&( 
the niisi^ of JtHeir h^pfcss ^uatjon, 9^P^ 
in the persons Qjf .the^r p^ coimtrmeh m 
more easy circvuistances dctampd in pnson 
like themselves, who lately poibriQed % play 
for their benefit. Arc toCy forgotten?-^ 
too ofien happops to those' who laogutsji j4 
prisons! 

"Letit>nowbe Jcnownito*©lWftJ$hpfh-. 
uc, that many .of ija^r co^inAT^p^gfi fftfXi0Xr 
treme distress; ^djpot a ^f^^^^vfm, 
militarij prisons, by military authority, fS 
having incurred debts for the ordinary com* 
forts of life, which they are luiabic to dis- 
cliarge. Certainly our government could 
not treat on this basis till alter a general 
peace : but the liberatk^n of the hostages, now 
so cruelly detained, might be solicited, and 
in the cause of humanity, and to release such 
captives, it would not be a dishonourable or 
unpardonable subnassion for government t9 
solicit justice as a favour, doing so tui^ dig^ 



la a similar nnafifected manner many 
«» passing phenomena are related by 
tow author, whose observations include 
™ giweroment, the army, the police, 
^ law, ihe m^mners, the newspapers, 
« the trade of Paris. He speculates a 



Till the late escape of his fleet from their 
confinement, Bonaparte has waged war on 
only those unfortunate men whom he has got 
within his power, and on the finances of Eng- 
laud. Shall the people who have, in the lat« 
ter respect, so nobly sust;\ined the credit of 
their ooiuitry against the attacks of an Unprin- 
cipled enemy, suffer their defenceless coim« 
trymen, whom mere chance, and events which, 
human foresight could not guard against, have 
put into his nands, to sustain in poverty the 
effects ©f his anger, and the malicious sugges- 
tiau<3 of his disappointments, without contri* 
but'ik^ to remove the evil of Zi/ant, heaped «C| 

la 



116 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



them in addition to their other hopeless and 
melancholy circumstances? 

".If the etic[uette of government prevents 
them fipm being an object of its attention, it 
becomes more particularly the duty of spi- 
rited and literal individuals to think of some 
effectual measure to alleviate the misery of 
their unprecedented situation. 

*5 It has excited the wonder of the French 
people, to whom the active benevolence of 
the English character is known, that nothing 
has been done on this subject; for they par- 
ticularly recollect how liberally the people of 
this country contributed to tlie support of the 
French emigrants in the beginning of the re- 
volution. 

'* That there are indigent and worthy men 
among them, let the circumstance of the exer- 
tions made for them by their fellow prisoners 
be a proof to those who have no other means 
of judginij, 

" No doubt can be entertained that any 
sum which might 1>e contributed by the people 
of England for the relief of the necessitous 
part of the hostajges in France, would be well 
and judiciously applied and distributed. The 
care of managing it would be cheerfully un- 
dertaken by some of the gentlemen of for- 
tune, rank, and consequence, who are de- 
tained with them.'* 

In our opinion, this government ought 
to offer to exchange the prisoners of re- 
giilar war against the detained English^ 
The injustice of the detainal is a disgrace 
to Bonaparte ; but it ought not, under a 
notion pf protesting against such injustice, 
tp be made unnecessarily grievous to the 
individuals seized. The wisest revenge 
for injustice is the affectation of an oppo- 
site generosity : the fear of shame ac-> 
complishes wnat retaliation cakinot efiect. 



Release without ransom^ parcAe^ or ex- 
change, as many Frenchmen as there ari 
Englishmen confined at Verdun -, and de-^ 
sire these Frenchmen, on their return, to 
solicit the release of the detained English.' 
Such at least, at the beginning of the con« 
test, would have been the noblest and tbd 
wisest course: but magnanimity conies 
with ill grace as an after-thought. 

There is the more reason to hope that, 
if any pretext were afforded to the French 
government for the release of the hos- 
tages, tliey would immediately be set free, 
as the real object of detention is at an end. 
While the invasion of Great Britain was 
in project, the English newspapers threw 
out the abominable proposal to take do 
prisoners among the invaders. This re* 
fusal of quarter to the conquered and the I 
suppliant is so contrary to the usages of ' 
ciiHlized war, and so outrageous to eve^ 
feeling of humanity, that a French arm/ 
refused to put it in practice when decreed 
under Robespierre by -their government 
Against the threatened and possible mas^ 
sacre of prisoners the seizure of these hos* 
tages was intended as a precaution. It 
was felt that few English would be taken 
on land or sea, and that the guests, who 
confided in the rights of hospitality, were 
perhaps the only ones whom their power 
could reach: they were seized, that the* 
means of retaliation for any irregularity 
might exist. Now that invasion is post- 
poned indefinitely, a release would pro- 
bablybe acceded to, especially, if aiittb 
private bribery were to corrobowttf'oflS* 
ciai arguments. 



(• '17 ) 



CHAPTER II. 



THEOLOGY 

AND 

ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS- 

THE articles in tJaU department will be found less numerous and less valuable than 
usual. The strength of our th^Iogians has been spent upon sermcnis; but^ we ar«. 
happy to add, not spent in vain. 

I. A single .work appears in our first class. Dr, Stock, whose translaticm of Isaiah 
was noticed in our second volume, has undertaken a New Version qfJob, in which, 
if be has not been completely success^il, l^e has continued to exhibit himself as an 
able scholar in Jewish literature^ 

II. In sacftd criticism, Mr, Winstadey claims the first post. His Vindication qf. 
efiTtaifK Passages in the common English Version, addressed to Gran, Sharp, though 
short, is honourable to his character as a scholar and a divine. Mr. Nisbett appears 
a^tn, with credit, in defence of the hypothesis he has long been labouring to prove 
respecting tht Second Coming qf Christ, Mrs, Trinmer has published a bulky volume. 
of Amtotaucms upon the Q'd and New Testament, which she has entitled, '' A Help to 
the Unlearned," but which we fear will, in many respects, be found a hindrance to' 
them in the proper study of the scriptures. Mr. Parker has compiled from the best 
authors, and for the use of young persons, Explicatidns of remarkable Facts and Pas-^y 
ssgei in the Jewish Scriptures, which have been objected to by Unbelievers; and Mr.. 
Granville Sharp has opened again his formidable battery against the church of Rome, 
in An Enquiry whether the Description qf Billon, in tlte IQth chapter qf Jtevelaticns^ 
agreet perfectly with that of Rome as a city. 

III. Two works only, and those of very difibrent merit, have appeared in support of 
natural and revealed religion : Mr, Watsq/i's popular Evidences (^Natural Religion anA 
Qristimity, and Mr. Nares's connected and chronological View of the Prophecies. 

TV. Nor is our list of controversial theology, for the present year, long, or marked 
bf any work of extraotdinary value. Mr. Robinson, of Leicester,, has stood fi:>rth the 
champion of modern Calvinism, with three volumes, entitled, *' The Q^stian System 
wffolded." A short but interesting controversy has taken place between Mr. .Smithy 
and Mr. Belsham, in consequence of some reflections upon Calvinism in the sermozk 
preached by the latter on occasion of the death of Dr. Priestley. An ironical writer,, 
who calls himself Basamiites, has attacked the trinitarian hypothesis, in a work, 
qoaintly entitled, Aipstreoov Ayara(ri$, or a neto Way qf deciding old Controversies; aqd 
iHr. Wright^ of Wisbech, ali^ a unitarian writer, has published a work on the doc- 
tjine of the Atonement, and which he has called ^' The Anti-soHrfactiomst."* 

V. Our catalogue of sermons is larger and more valuable than u^ual. Wdlwood^ 
Cifpe, Kemick, Napletan, Gilpin, Toumsend, are names that will appear with honour 



118 1HE0L06Y AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 

amongst the most eloquent or the most instructive of English preachers. Mohkhaust, 
AdamSf Motion, Partridge, wad Dore, will not be generally thought to have contri- 
buted much to the large and valuable stock of this branch of theological literature, 
which we already possess. 

Single sermotti upon various subjects have been published by Headlam, Phillpots, 
Gai'dino', Mostly, Hall, Poulter, BeUham, md p^ers^ 

In practic€U theology wq haVe Rawtrey's Guide to Heavoiy Oakley's Holy Family, 
and an excellent little Treatise, by Mr. Fellowes, on Death, 

VI. It is not yet ascertained who are the true churchmen. Dj\ Laicrcnce, in 
Eight Sermons preaclied at tie Lecture founded by Mr. Bampton, has endeavoured to 
vindicate that character to those who give an amainian interpretation to tlie thirty- 
niite ^t$efes. An anonymom toriier has re-publtshed, from a rfespectable ncionthly 
vrdrk, a " Candli Examination of Mr, Daxtbenfs Vindiciiz Ecdesid JngHcana:,"* on 
the contrary side. Mr. Overton himself also has again come forward in reply to some 
ccciMdrW Strictures ok his former Work in the preceding article, with irKidenttd iZr- 
mArks 6n Dr. Kipling, kc. 

.Ite schisnk in the Society of Firiehds fs not, nor, we fear, is it likely to be, healed^ 
The only tracts connected with this curious and not important part of modem ecclo- 
fiifetf«tt history, which have this year come bcifbi*e us, are a Memoir by Mr. Rathbone, 
^Itiot of a Kfarrative of Events in Irebnd, &rc. and Bevan'i Dtft-nce of the Christian 
Mariner, iftc. Two otiicr pubKditiohs relating to the society of Friends are noticed, 
iSk dfte in our ^itic&I, the other fn out miscellaneous chapter. The most impor-' 
tJril ^(rcJ^rkj ho^^Met, relative to lecclesiztstical history, in our present volume, is an 
JR% dh ^ BSffbiiii&ibit, by Viilars, wntteh tfriginiHy in Ffench, and of which two 
S&gli^ tran^a6dAs have been published. 

Ifil. To tlwite niajr be iddted the following miscellaneous articles: the Emt Report 
4f ^ BH/AftiM F(i>reigH BiMe Society; Lavater's Letters qf St. Paid the Apostle: 
mi 1%t Cmmtih ikirhr. 

Of kll theate ,^rks \fe shall liow, according to tlie best of our jitdgment and ability, 
jWWelfi % gi^ s'6ch to account as shall convey to our readers some just riotidn of 
their respective value. Paying all due regard to the feeKiigs of the different authors; 
iHd ifbktb&s rattier tb shfew the dpiniobs of ©tliers tlian to obtrude our own, we shall 
di^fbtly teStbHti ftdfe fill tftifece^saiy censuffe, and confine ourselves as much as pos- 
sible to the iftrifcdrf df *ialySs. 'tKeftre may be means of making Works of this 
iitire iriore Hfiiuslog^ but n6xie, ^t are firmly persuaded, by Which the end in view 
tAn He ihxkt prd^pctly and surc^^ Wi&it^. We could, perhaps, have entered intd 
doritfovfer^y ixrith Abs\ ol'thfe lifers thit hivte appeared before us; we could haxe 
^dbbBited mimy cBT tKdff principle, arid propose and defended cur o\<'n5 but how 
ISikh ^cfd 6tir duty IraVe beAi faIflHed> "We do not consider ourj>elves as the guar- 
AcrAs W" ahy pafticulaf bteed, but ai |{)!edged lo give a fair statement bf the design 
end Execution of tSe tKeclfcgicid works of the year. For ourselves, we are accustomed 
ib read, fd ?*S«:t, Wifl tt) Jttdgi j tfhd Mx Utfe eiercise of tliis right, ive have em^ 
'brticbd ^enfitaeifts vftififh ^^'t highly esfefein, aild which, on all propfer occasion^, we 
aie prepi-cfd d^jenly fe kvow, afifl atfettaoiifely to defefifl. But to the public ^* is rf 
^We tnoment ^p^fefffer we belong to thfe Whodl of Geric^ra, df Leyden, or cK" Cra- 
eow: our priv^ fentlinertts^ ^iirhcn ^ appekt da teviex^eh, shall as iuuch ais fos- 



TETU8 TESTiUBlTTUU GUMCVU, kc. 



119 



ttble be oonfiiied to our own breasts^ and in oo case be made Uie standard bjr which 
(k jentimeots of oChenTahali be tried. 

THE SCRIPTURES. 

iRT. I. Fdui Tfttwmeni»m Gntatm cum variis Lcctiombui, EdiiU Robe^tu^ JJotMSS^ 

FUio. 

AANIHA, KATA TON OEOAOTIUNA KAI RATA TOTS 0. 

Daniel kttta Urn Theodotimia kai kata touM 'EiniomikoHtM, 



DR. HOLMES haa long been known 
in the liteiary world by a sennon on the 
Eesucrection ; by his Bampton Lectures j 
by 6xa Tracts ^ by an Ode to the Duke 
ot Portland ; bat especially by his Epistle 
to Bishop Barru^on, whichj in the ye^ 
l7S8,we believe, announced and intro- 
dtioed his intended collation of the best 
maniucript cc^ties and printed editions of 
the Greek Oid Testament; and by the 
subsequent but leisurely progress made 
in die fiermion of that laborious task. 
Whelher the oil of patronage, or the bur- 
aiih of pnise kas keen wanting to over- 
oonethe natoral friction of weariness pr 
in d n le Bcg , we know not We r^;ret, fco: 
the honour of Pritish theology, that so 
i^pkndid and neritmrieus an enterprise 
•QouU not animate to more active per- 
severance, faitt, like a wounded saakOj 
daw ita slow length along. 

Even the first tome of the Vetus Tm^ 
■KBtaM Gntcwn cum varifs Ltciionibus 
made its ^ppea^Ulce at the Clarendon 
pKSB only in 1798. The general dbarac- 
ter of the edition has so amply been dis* 
cQssed and so wittingly commended in 
those journals whidh could commemorale 
its birch, that we can no longer hope to 
enhanrr its celdnrity, or to influence 'its 
eondoct. Tl» collators have now travel- 
led on to Daniel : there will be more of 
novelty in discussing tlie itness of thus 
cMBpfcfaendtng thb book in the canon of 
script uie^ than in transcribing from Scbar- 
fenheig. Specimen imimadvgrsionum, quibus 
la^ mafnmdli Dumetis et irUetpreium ejus 
vOcnm frmaeriim Grrcw^m iiliutpeuUifr, 
tmcmdan^. Tbtfl is tlie most u&eful sort 
of conamcmtary on the sacred writings^ 
which enquires coaeomipg their antiquity 
and their readings, with a view to their 
historic value. 

' The .present edition profesaQs to con- 
tain the Greek translation of Daniel by 
llieodotion, which is arranged liistj and 
Ihe pnor Greek translation of iDaniel, 
made at Alexandria, which is arranged 
last. From Theedotion's version has 
been lof^ped the jtoty cif Susaima ; from 
i vac^n fbas been lop{ied 



the song of the three holy children : fhui 
neither of the promised texts are honestly 
given, both having been garbled intp re- 
semblance with the canonica} Daniel. 

Theodotion of Sinope was bom of or* 
thodox christian parents, and educated iu 
their religion, which he professed awhile 
at Ephesus. Having ve»d the book of his 
&llow-dtizeo^ Mardpo, entitled, TheAi^ 
tithetea, which attempted to point out in* 
consistencies and qpixtradictions betwee?^ 
the Old and the New Testament, he be* 
came, like Marcion, a bdiiever in tho 
christian jscriptures only. Afterwards, 
conceiving these christian scriptures to 
be the less strongly authenticated of the 
two, he renounced Christianity, and tupir 
ed a Jew, in which iiuth he died. His 
translations from the Oid Testament are 
thought to have been made about the 
year 185, undor Commodus, and are said 
to have been ii^possed as a penance w 
expiation for his having been ojiice a 
christian. 

#The Alexandrian version was made nO'* 
body knows when, nobody knows by 
whom : the newest authorities incline to 
the suspicion that it was completed dur« 
ing the reign of Augustus, with die pa* 
tronage of Agrippa, under the superiiv^ 
tendance of Philo-Judseus. Ari^^teus says 
that seventy men were shut up separatfely 
by king Ptolemy in seventy cells, and'that 
aU the seventy translated jill the btbje pre- 
cisely in the same words : irom m\\\s silly 
legend results the denomination of the 
Si'pinarint, or seventy men's version 5 an 
appellntion, whicli only popish C!:eduli^ 
should condescend to Repeat, and which 
we are shocked to obsexve in tlie title- 
page of a protestajit publication. 

To tlie curtailed texts of tliese two 
Greek versions are appendjid iu this odi- 
tion a laborious collection of readings, de- 
rived irom various manuscripts, and edi- 
tions of manuscripts, especially the Chi- 
gian. We observe no citation of the 
version of Daniel, edited at Strasburg iu 
1784, by J. B. G. d'Anse de Villoison, 
along with the Proverbs. 

Some jporsous have supposed that tho 



120 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 



mention of Daniel the prophet, by tlie 
founder of cliristianity (Mattliew xxiv. 
15) confers a sanction on tlie specific ap- 
plication of passages in Daniel to the tinries 
of Christ. The work in question was 
certainly a sacred book of the Jews, ap- 
pointed or allowed to be read in synago- 
gues, a national classic, and therefore 
^dapted to supply the orator with allu- 
sions : hut the specific application, as pro- 
fessor Paulus observes (Commentar iiber 
das neue Testament, vol. iii. p. 406) 
amounts to no more than tliis — ut verbis 
Daniditicis utar — and does not m the least 
imply .any ascription of foresight to the 
author, whqse phraseology is quoted. 
There is no irreverence therefore in dis- 
cussing the real origin of the book. 

The proper canon of Jewish scripture 
appears to have been clpsed by Nehemiah, 
who (ii Maccabees, ii. 13) ' founding a 
library, gathered together the acts of the 
kings, anfl the prophets, and of David, 
and the epistles of the kings concerning 
the holy gifts.' . To this collection Judas 
Maccabeus added some apocrj'phal books ; 
for it is further said (v. 14), * in like man- 
nei* also Judas gatliered together all those 
things that were lost by reason of the war 
we had, and they remain with us.' It is a 
question of some curiosity whether the 
Jbopk here published with tlic superscrip- 
tion ' XJaniel* can have been extant in the 
time of Nehemiah j or whether it be one 
of the deutero-canonical writings first de- 
positied in the temple -archives, und^r 
Jui^as Maccabeus. 

A short recapitulation of the leading 
tircurftstances in the life of Daniel will 
l)oint out those events and ideas, wliich 
were most likely to be strongly impressed 
on his mind, and familiarly alluded to in 
his writings. The date of Daniel's birth 
\s not precisely known. He was taken 
captive by Nebuchadrezzar, in tlie third 
year of Jehoiakim, carried to Babylon, and 
brought up in the schools there. Whis- 
ton, in a note to Josephus, suggefts with 
probability that he and his companions 
were made eunuchs ; indeed tlie fourth and 
fifth verses Ivi^ Isaiah, apparently apply to 
tliese captives, or hostages. As the Per- 
sians were accustomed to make eunuchs 
only of the immature, Daniel could 
hardly be more than twelve year? of age 
at the time of his translation. He was 
consequently born about the twenty-eightli 
or twenty-ninth year of the reign of Jo- 
jslah. That he was son to this king is no 
where stated ; there is even an apocryphal 
#e^t whicj) p^ lus father ^b^l : ^et th« 



words ascribed to Isaiah in 2nd Kings {x%. 
18.) as well as the passage in Daniel (1.3.) 
render it evident that it was systematic 
with the Babylonian court to eictinguish 
among subdued princely families tlie hope 
of further posterity, fearing the rebellious 
adolescence of hereditary claimants ; and 
that among the children of the royal family 
of Palestine were selected tlie clients of 
thia mortifying patronage. Daniel (ix. 
24.) was born at Jerusalem. 

If Xerxes, as well as Artaxerxes, (Jo- 
sephus Ant. XI. 6.) was called Cyrus among 
the orientals, and if Daniel continu^ 
(i. 21.) until the first year of this prince, 
he lived in all about eighty-six years : 
twelve at Jerasalera ; thirty-seven at Ba- 
bylon, Kcbatana, and elsewhere, under 
Cyrus the great ; thirty-six at Susa and 
Persepolis, chiefly under * Darius 1 j and 
one under Xerxes. 

When Cambyses undertook the inva- 
sion of Palestine, it was natura) for the 
court of Babylon to attach Daniel to that 
army ^ as his local knowledge and power- 
ful connexions in Jerusalem were likely 
to facilitate essentially its success. Da- 
niel does not appear to have approached 
Jerusalem during tlie siege, but to have 
staid at Iliblah with Cambyses. 

Cyrus the great was killed in warring 
against the Visigoths who then occupied 
the northern skirts of the Persian empire : 
his descendants had not that personal re- 
putation which was necessary in his suc- 
cessor. Cambyses learnt his father's deadb 
in jEgypt, and hastened toward Babylc»i 
to claim tlie sovereignty : he died su<jden« 
ly on bis way of a wound, which was con- 
veniently ascribed to accident. Merodach 
the second son, or as iEschylus calls hiiu 
Mardys, next ascended the tlirone j but 
was hurled from it by the management 
of Otanes, under tlie pretext of his being 
an impostor. (Herodotus, Thalia 68), 
Seven leading men declared for Darius ^ 
but the Babylonians, faitiifiil to the pos* 
terity of Cyrus, defended their city against 
Darius, in favour of Belshazzar, or Bal- 
thaser, a minor son of Cambyses. The 
people of Nineveh too, attempted to re-es- 
tablish there an independent sovereignty 
under the Nebu-saradan, or Sardanapalofii^ 
whom Cambyses had employed against 
Jerusalem. Darius, who .was a Mcde, 
took both Babylon and Nineveh, and 
became sple master of the Persian eilk-. 
pire. 

This-success he owed principally to Da^ 
niel ; whoj though courted by Belshazzar 
(y. 2^,) ^ye to this priqpe miw^coilii|k 



TEtUS TBSTAMENTUM 6BJBCUM, &C. 



121 



ondes (v. 26.) and firom his immediately 
subsequent promotion (vi. 2.) under the 
iBQiper, must long have been a secret 
^ieod of the son of Hystaspes. The new 
difision of the provinces by this prince 
(ri. 1.) and by Daniel^ is also noticed in 
Herodotus (Thalia^ 89) who makes twenty 
larger divisions^ incltiding no doubt the 
ooe hundred and twenty smaller ones of 
the Jewish account. 

Throughout the Persian empire the fire- 
^arshippers and idolaters, the monotheists 
imd polytheists, had long formed two inve- 
teracely hostile but nearly equiponderant 
lects, who were perpetually cabaDing for 
the patronage of the sovereign : as was 
nearly the case also in Palestine under the 
Jewish kings. With Darius the idolaters 
came into disfavour 5 and the massacre of 
thdr priests by] his party (Thalia, 79) was 
commemorated in an anniversary festival. 
The Jews (Esther ix. 15«19.) lent zealous 
assistance on this occasion . Arioch , chief- 
tain (Jadith I. 6.) of the £lamites^ a Jew- 
ish clan (Nehemiah vii. 12.), who was 
captain of the king'» guard (Daniel 11. 14.) 
and intnisted with the execiltion of this 
leveie measure in Babylon, appears to 
hare been on very courteous terras witli 
Daniel (11. 15.), and to have concerted 
with him (11. 24.) various exemptions from 
the proscription. 

Nor was Daniel less active in securing 
' the allegiance of Nineveh. Diodorus Si- 
cvAas records his interference under the 
same of Belesis. He was named Belte- 
shazzar (Daniel v. 12.) by his sovereign : 
the termioation tsar appears fronl Forster's 
letter to Michaelis, to have been a Medic 
title J Beltesh therefore is the name re- 
presented by the Greek Belesis. After 
- the suli^agation of the whole empire by 
Darius, no further mention is made of 
Daniel. When Darius, by taking Esther 
to wife, married into the royal family of 
Westine, one would have expected to 
find Daniel attaclied to her fortunes, as 
well as his kinsman Mordecai : perhaps 
the whole revolution which overthrew 
Haraan or Intapherues, which divorced 
Vashti, and made empress the Jewish prin- 
cess, was the woik of the powerful mind 
of Daniel. The influencing ministers of 
Fersia were often derived from thp schools 
^ the eunuchs. 

let us now turn to review the various 
composition ascribed to him, which, in 
the fomi given to it by Theodotion, is a 
translation firom a work partly written in 
Hebrew, and partly in Chaldee. If Da- 
M had been drawing up a Jbook for the 



people of Palestine, he would employ their 
vernacular language, that is the Ghaklee 
(as we absurdly call it) or Sjrriac -, if h» 
was drawing up a book for the instruction 
of the Persian empire, he would employ 
the Hebrew, which was the language of 
Babylon in his time : but he would not 
employ both, that would un£t his book 
for either purpose. Still less would a man 
during his boyhood familiar with the one, 
and during his education with the other 
dialect, think of editing a book in Greek 
(a language to which he was born and 
bred a stranger) and then of translating it 
first in to Chaldee, and next in part into He- 
brew. Yet such is the history of the bib- 
lical book superscribed Daniel, Not only 
the Greek words ir^a;r/pot, ^Sgyjxa, xtipv^, 
xYfpvG'a'siy, xi&apis, xi^xpa, (ra|u,/3yxij, tJ/aA- 
rrjpioy, irstaa-os, occur in the Hebrew, cm: 
rather macaronic Daniel 3 but even the 
word cvif,<pwvix which cannot have pre- 
sented itself to a person, who was not 
translating firom a Greek text Nor 
would any of these words have mingled 
in the vernacular dialect of Palestine, be- 
fore the Macedonian conquest. Neither 
the text of Theodotion, nor the prior text 
of tlie Alexandrian version, can have pre- 
served the archetypal Greek Daniel 5 for 
both contain marked orientalisms of -dic- 
tion. The text of Thecklotion is borrow* 
ed from that Daniel which is included in 
the received canon 5 that of the Septua- 
gint has variations, ^which indicate, that 
very different editions, or copies, passed 
for original in early times. 

Not only . the dialect but other circum* 
stances prove that ^^^ ^ioo)ii must have 
been drawn up in Palestine, by a person 
ignorant of the Babylonian court. Both 
Cyrus and Darius were monotheists, or 
fire-worshippers, like the Persians .aiid 
Medes, among whom they originated. 
Hie viands set on their tables were uQt 
oHered to idols. But here Daniel (i. 8.) 
and his companions are made to object 
generally to the food on the king's table, 
as if to partake it was a breach of the 
Mosaic law. Had they refused only pork, 
their conduct would be in costmne 3 but 
they are described as refusing wine, which 
could to them be unclean food. only in 
case it had been partly shed in libation to 
idols. This passage is symptomatic of tlje 
times of Antiochus Epiphanes, and the 
Maccabees, when every faithful Jew was 
called on to bear halntttal testimony against 
polytheism, and to abstain from meats of- 
fered to heathen gods. Yet this passage^ 
is in the Hebrew portion of the book. 



J22 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIM. 



The image of gold set up by Nebuch- 
adnezzar in die plain of Dura is sixty cu- 
bits high and fix cubits thick : it is not a 
oaiiaculoiis production, birt a work of 
imman ait. Michaelis has been at the 
fxiins to calculate its solid contents, and es- 
timates the worth of the gold at three 
thousand four hundred and eighty millions 
cf dollars. There is hardly so much in 
the whole world : this wonderfid effort 
0f foundery cannot therefore have been 
described by an eye-witness, if it has been 
described by a man of veracity. It is a 
statue, which, if coined iutodarics, would 
more than discharge the national debt of 
Great Britain. Darius was no maker of 
golden statues ; the pecuniary wants of his 
ambition tempted him to invade the sepul* 
chies of tlie dead (Clio, 187), and the 
temples of religion (Clio, 183) ; 2nd, 
although he is stated to have replaced the 
atatue of -Bel, which he coveted and had 
ventured to remove ; yet if there be a his- 
todcal basis in this extraordinary narrative, 
that very seiztire of the statue of Bel, 
which, according to Herodotus, was only 
twelve cubits high, must be the basis. 

The tnttsformation of Nebuchadnezsar 
lor aeven years into a wild beast is narrat- 
ed in the fourth chapter 1 this chapter of- 
JeM a fine harvest of various readings: 
but those only which aivct historical state- 
fiients can merit discussion. 

At the doae of the dfth chapter, instead 
of Darius the Mede, as in the common 
version, Artaxei-xes die Mede isma^ in 
the Alexandrian version to acquire the 
jLiDgdom 5 Darius being fkll of days. It 
is tevident that the (dirase Darivs the 
Mede cnonot have «come into use, until 
there had been a second Darkts who was 
not a Mede; and consequently that the 
Ohaldaic text is subsequent to the reign of 
Darius the second. It is also evident that 
the author of the Alesaadrian text must 
iiave flourished after the accession of Ar- 
tjwterxes Memnon, who followed Darius 
II ; for he makes an Artaxerxes succeed 
to a Darius, an order of inanies which had 
not occurred in tiic list of Bab)donian cm- 
peroiji before that date. These circum- 
stances however do not quite suffice to 
prove that the book of Daniel was com- 
posed after the time of Nehemiali's com- 
piling tlie canon 3 because Nehemiah in 
tiie received chronolog}' is placed too 
soon. 

The new^ division of the provinces of 
the Persian empire (vi. 1.) is rightly as- 
cribed by tlie text of Theodotion to Darius 
the Mede (Herodotus^ Thalia^ 89) and 



wrongly by ihe Septuagint text, as it k 
here called, to Artaxerxes. The Sepfua* 
gint text of the 28th verse also contain* 
an historical blunder, and makes Cyroi^ 
succeed to Darius instead of Darius saU 
ceeding to Cyrus. This verse has bea| 
the real cause of that wild suppositioii 
advanced by sir Isaac Newton and othei3%* 
that Cyaxares and Darius are one. 

The seventh chapter, like the fizBt» if 
written in Hebrew 3 but its oracular all»» 
sions so closely resemble those rantalng4 
in the Chaldaic portion of the seoQ«i' 
chapter, that one cannot well avoid m^l 
cribing a common origin to them bodb 
An attempt may have been made to traoi^ : 
late the whole book out of the vemacobir ; 
Chaldee into the sacred language, or Hfp^J 
brew, which began with the seven^i 
chapter, as the pr<^het is there first m»\ 
troduced speaking in his own person ; ant I 
this attempt may next have been extendidtj 
to the biographical or legendary part 4^ 
the book, but, have becQ brok^i off i|f^^ 
some accident, before two chapters we^ 
gone through with, Tbe Greek texts c 
ceal this solution of continuity. The < 
cular passages have been well comoieiwi^;^ 
by Gf otius, and, after him, by CoUiiisj, iitl 
his scheme of literal propheqr cxynsiilcjllj 
(p. 148 to 200) ; the due, or key^ ^^""'iKi 
this labyrintli of hieroglyphic ioiagecj^ 
to be found in the 8th chapter (v. ^20-2^*)fj 
which though a sufficient passport : 
jpbyry^s time, is so no longa:. Mu 
by a more industrious consoltarion <£ i 
itfst book of Maccabees, has added 1 
satisfactory elucidatk>ns to those of Grotiaf 1 
and GoUins ^ but at the ninth chapter te I 
abandons the literd, or natural, for a nsyt* 
tical and supematuial scheme of inteipB»» 
tation : he avoids to perceive the puBd^ 
ality with which the author of DanlJ 
(ix. 24-2^.) paints the oondkioo a£ Jan* 
salem under Amiocbus (1 Maccabees, i. 
54.) and under tlie short but enthuaiailt 
cally welcomed toleration of Lysias (1 
Maccabees, vi. 58.) M'hois described as a 
Messiali, who toas to be cut tiff", baHnoifat 
hintsc(f (Daniel ix. 26.) ami who bt fytt 
suftered (l Maccabees, vii. 2-4.) for Ifo 
son of Antiochus. The author of Dankl 
also alludes to the destruction of the.sano 
tuary (Daniel, ix. 2(>.) which was miha* 
biy accomplished by the people of JjkeBie* 
trius, when they encamped before Jenisa* 
lem (1 Maccabees, ix. 3.) end slew JiidaK 
Thus it appears that all the aUvsioiis^ 
real events in this oracular conyositian 
center on the times df Antiochus asid Ac 
Maccabees^ and no whore tfa^txihhe^o^ 



r%fvs TsstAiftByttrat^ enxcw, $tc^ 



123 



dtfiii : and this » exactly, tbat the' des- 
trsdioQ of the sanctoaiy, of which Judas 
Htccabeos was a witness shortly be- 
fore ills death, is mentioned in Da- 
nief, vhereas the death of Judas Mac* 
dbeas is not meutioded* It seems 
tbnefoft as if Judas Maccabeus himself, 
or somebody under his immediate mspec- 
tioo and dltectioni was engaged in accom- 
modsting the bdok of Daniel to the events 
ef his own times, iar the purpose of in- 
t^ohttng that reiigiods loyalty for which 
his pirtizaDs were distinguished . So con- 
fidently may it be daswd as a portion of 
hts secondary canon. That the book of 
Daniel was in great request among his ibl- 
Joweis may be further inferred from the 
Second chapter (v. 59-6O.} of the first book 
m Maccabees. 

The commentary of Michaelis on the 
CQDcinding chapters of Daniel is as satis* 
fidoiy as it is learned : be apobgizes 
honestly for his diffiatlties af^er die thir- 
teenth Terse of the eleventh chapter, 
where the narrative of Poiybius quits him. 
He oonoborates the main inference that 
ttexy historical allusion descends ooly to 
Ihe time of Judas Maccabeus. Of Mi« 
dael, (Daniel xiu 1.) Michaelis nudces an 
ifeegKxical persone^e, a gnardiah angel of 
Mestine : fhxxi Ouseley's epitome of the 
antient hbtoiy of Persia, it may be susn 
|K(ed that Aidavan became powerful at 
thh sra, and supported the Jews against 
the Greek sovereigns of Babylon. Mi- 
chaelis conciudes his exposition with this 
i^markable sentence ' in der 'That, kaum 
ehic Weimt^aig Ui so wunderHchvcrstanden 
vnfdeHf ais diese, so doss wir, wie ich 
*d^ mtknkah ^^esagt hahe, die Erklanmg 
iAm- htiien Hii§te nicht den Kirchencdeerh, 
dk sk aufi vtondtrlicksie erkt&rten, sondem 
n der IhuptsOcke dem Fcinde dir Religion 
Porpfyriozndankenftaben,' Indeed scarce- 
ly any prophiecy has been so strangely ex« 
poinded as this : so that, as 1 hav^ oflen 
dbaerttd, w« ateuot Indebted to the fathers 
af the churcfi, tvlio expound ft most wUd- 
Ifj bet to Porphyry, the foe of reli- 
^00, ibr ^ inain grouadwori^ of expia- 
tiat)on.* 

Ha^ !9io^ thiit this decofid Daniel 
ftm't be iteiinted t6 thb tithes, if not to 
lie %aha of iritdas Macetbdus, it merits 
tsSf&y whicft ftfto the {k)ems (hat may 
^M frtMti^ hb iiscribed te^^ €rst 
iU Mk DM^. 4>oubt^ *Mtf taik)Dally 
te eifteftaBM ^chie^mftig "tin! t^ipfdpHa- 
Mi df Bb mitMW <Mkfts. ^t«itoiak 
^ ^«Mte afl^ehb 10 hAf^ ct^teofed %is 
9^ tt^^ 'bdtmiKfkM kis-iatt!«s, «M 



Zechariah his panegyrics. Odes ate scat- 
tered among the productions of thesft 
writers of loftier tone and more stndioui 
composition tl^ die works which they ' 
intersperse. 

In the time of Nebemiah all these writ-* 
ings were probably deposited in arks, or 
chesti, belonging to tlie temple o€ Jeru- 
salem ; each on the separate napkin which 
had be^n hung up for its original promul- 
gation. In Arabia it was long an habitual 
form of publication to suspend a new- 
poem for perusal (sir W. Jones's works* 
IV. 245) at the gate of some public build- 
ing. Cotton doth (Arrian, 717) anl 
linen cloth (Pliny, xiii. 1 1) was in early 
use to write on throughout die east. - The 
squareness of the Babylonian character 
adapte4 it pectdiarly for nations who wrote 
on a woven material : now this alphabet^ 
in the time of the prophets wab still ia 
use 5 and consequently tlie connected prac- 
tice of writing on linen. Baruch (Jere- 
miah, XXX vx. 18-28.) writes with ink on a 
roll, which could be burned in the kmg*6 
presence, and was th^efore not of parch- 
ment Isaiah, or more probably Joie- 
miah, alludes (Isaiah, xxii. 25.) to the 
nailing up of burdens, (X oracles. Hab- 
akkuk (11. 2.) undertakes to write his ora- 
cles in letters so large that he who runa 
may read. A mlsarrangement of such 
autographs may easily have given occasion 
to erroneous superscriptions ; when these 
napkins or litenny fi'agments, were fir«t 
tnmscribed on continuous rolls of linen. 

It remains to be enquired whether any 
internal characteristics will authorize a 
partial correction 'of the iteceived distri- 
bution. 

Whoever .reads the first twenty-foul: 
chapters of £zekiel will be struck with 
the identity of manner which pervades 
them. The poet i^ evidently a man of 
vigorous and busy imaginadon, but of low 
and ignoble taste. He appe;u*s to know 
Jerusalem and its neighbourhood, and die 
banks of die Chebar (Chaboras) from 
Carchemish to Tel-abib : with die rest of 
tlic world he betrays little acquaintance. 
His favourite tbrmtda is to begin with u 
parable or allegory, which he leaves awhile 
wholly enigraatic:iJ, and dien e5q>lains by 
the narration of a cohresponding evenu 
He is a ditfuse writer : not content to in- 
dicate he completes all his images, des- 
cribes from head to foot with needless de- 
tail, and instead of selecting the £ner 
^upes, parades before us the endre pro- 
cession of his thoughts. Of his writings 
tte t^nciur is didactic chiofiy, althou^ 



m 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 



tlie nineteenth chapter might pass for a 
fragment of Jeremiah, and they seem 
intended for the perusal of fellow-cap- 
tives. 

From the xxvth to the xxxiind chapter 
Snclnsive^ 3 distinct and loftier vein of 
poetry prevails. Nothing low or spun 
out here requires apology. All is dig- 
nified, simple, concise, s%iblime. A pro- 
fusion of geographical knowledge is sedu- 
lously displayed, such as might be ex- 
pected from a professed historiographer of 
the campaigns of Nebuchadrezzar. These 
poems all relate to one or other enter- 
prize of the kings of Babylon, and are 
rather adapted to metropolitan readers 
than to coptive jews. They were evi- 
dently written on the spur of the occa- 
«on ', since, at the moment of the block- 
ade of Tyre, the poet does not hesitate 
<o threaten, or announce, its capture 
(c. XXVII.); but in a subsequent poem 
(xxix. 18.) he owns that tlie siege had 
been unsuccessful, and that the king was 
marched forwards to Egypt. For this 
miscalculation, for this want of foresight, 
the poet apologizes, and, apostrophizing 
Dthbaal, the king of Tyre, says nearly : 
• It is true, I called your resistan<pe proud 5. 
|>ot I perceive you estimated rightly your 
strength : you were wiser than L' And 
cti this occasion the poet names himself 
(xxvii.-S.) Daniel. 

The xxxvth, the xxxviiith, and 
xxxJxth chapters are composed in a simi- 
lar strain: the two latter evidently relate 
to some expedition against the Scythians, 
and probably to that defeat of them which 
Herodotus (Clio, 105.) places in the reign 
of Psarametichus, or So, king of Egypt : 
in which case the poem cannot well be 
cotemporary with the victor)*^ celebrated. 
It may have originated oa a recent view 
of the whitening bones of the Gothic in- 
vaders. 

Again; if the first forty-five chapters 
ef Jeremiah be attentively perused, the 
reader will be struck with much identity 
of character. An unrelenting hostility to 
idolatrous rites, and an anxiety to transfer ' 
the allegiance of his countrymen from the 
Egyptians to the Persians, distinguish th» 
matter of this author : a love of para- 
phrase and tautology, his manner. A 
complaining, evil -boding strain charac- 
terizes the whole. His finest passages are 
the patlietic descriptions of occurring 
miseiy during and after the siege of Je- 
rusalem. The habitual want of bright 
and bold imagery tallies with his unvaried 
wailing cast of expostulation. Very few 



exceptions ofifer. The xxiiid chapter to- 
deed seems more modem than the pre-' 
ceding one, and of opposite tenour, and 
it brings out those trains of idea and aUu- 
sion in which Zechariah delightji. The 
xxvth chapter, fi-om the 15th verse oa* 
wards, might be thought to form a dis- 
tinct oracle. The Lamentations, which 
are in the best manner of Jeremiah, par- 
take closely the same general character of 
composition as tliese forty-five chapters* 

But from tlie 13th verse of the xx.vith 
chapter, to the 58th verse of the fiity-f^rst 
chapter, intervenes a spirited, vigorous, 
concise vein of poetry, full of boldnesa 
and sublimity, delighting in images of 
war, and descriptions of conqu&st, and 
occasionally borrowing decoration fi'oin ! 
idolatrous mytholog}\ Greographical al-. ; 
hisions are profusely scattered : names of 
places are accumulated witli triumphai 
complacence; and the poenis all relate 
(there are nine distinct odes concernii^ 
Egypt, the Philistines, -Moab^ AnuDon,'- 
Edotn, Damascus, Kedar, £lam> and Ba- 
bylon) to one or other aehievement of the 
armies of the Persian emperor. Now a$, 
these nine oracles occupy, in the Aiexao- 
drian version, a different order and placet 
in the book of Jeremiah from that assignedi 
to them in the established version, it 'vf ' 
natural to infer that they have been-.hesi«; 
tatingly and arbitrarily^ ascribed to this* 
prophet by his pctsthumojis. editor, aad^ 
that they belong, like tlie minutely, dmi- * 
lar matter scattered in Ezekiel, toDanieU 

Thirdly ; of the many poems asM^nbed 
to Isaiah, who flourished under tlie kings 
Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, few allude, 
to contemporaneous events, or to persons 
of his aera. Most exliibit symptoms at' z 
posterior date. Thus the xith chapter^ 
by mentioning the branch of the stem of 
Jesse, announces itself as. firom the tinaest 
if not firom the hand of Zechariah^ who 
was the poet of the restoration! Tl|e 
xvth and xvith chapters, which profess 
to have been written within ^Arer years 
(xvjth 14.) of the destruction of Moab, 
must consequently be by a whole oentury 
posterior to Isaiah: Moab having been 
overthrown (Josephus, Ant. x. 9.) about 
^ve years later than Jerusalem.. Tb^ 
Liiid chapter is probably a lamentation o( 
Jeremiah for . the death of Zedi^uah^ 
Other chapters, as the.Livth.and fbllowT 
ing, abound with trains of sentiment na-. 
tural and- usual only to prophets who, like 
Zechariah, wrote after the return of the^ 
jews from captivity. Here ^Iso occur 
gome poems closely reseqEibling^ the warn 



T£TU» nStAVMVTVU GXBCVM, tcO, 



m 



•cop scattered in Ezekiel and Jeremiah. 
Socfa are the xiiilh to xixth chapters in« 
donvc; the xxistand xxiiid chapters, 
tbe xLvth chapter to the 1 2th verse of 
tfae Liind chapter/ and perhaps some other 
fragmeiits* These poems share more or 
less that loftiness, that art, that proneness 
to geographic allusion, and that concen* 
tration of attention an tlie Babylonian so- 
verdgn, which characterize^ it seems, the 
other odes of Daniel. It is moreover evi- 
dent, that the xvth and xvith chapters of 
Isuah have the same author as the xLViiith 
chapter of Jeremiah j and that-the xxuid 
chapter of I^iah has the same autlior as 
the xxvith and xxviith chapters of Eze- 
kiel 5 10 great a resemblance and confor- 
mity would have been avoided as plagiar 
rism by two distinct writers ^ but the 
lame poet may well be supposed, in a 
nbsequent edition, to have indulged this 
ample variation. It. follows that these 
poHns may, with much confidence, be as- 
cribed to Daniels 

Were a chronological arrangement of 
these compositions to be attempted, it 
would be necessary to consult thq histori- 
lad order of the events which tliey cele- 
brate. . Cyrus is named in sc»ne of them, 
md forms a leading hero. This prince 
(Herodotus, Clio, 177), after the conquest 
of Saidis, raised the army which was led 
against Labynitus, leaving Harpagus, the 
^edc, in Asia Minor, with the forces re- 
quisite to keep^nder the newly conquered 
Lydians. After the taking of Babylon 
(Clio, 191.) Cyrus interfered in the a&iirs 
of Egypt, and favoured the rebellion of 
Am^jgainst Apries, or Hophra. Jeru- 
salem b^ng at that .time a satrapy depen- 
dat on £^pt^ was prot»hIy the price of 
thb assistance j and hence the first siege, 
in wjnch Darnel and othei^s were made 
captifes, and tak^n to. the Chaldean 
Kfaools. Jerusalem was first acquired by 
the Babybnians in the reign of Manasseh 
(u Chronicles, xxxiii. 1 1.), and was con- 
Qoeied from them by. Necbo, king of 
Bgypt, at the close -of Josiah^s reign 
(n Kings, xxiii. 29.). After some years, 
Cyras, choosing to march against the Mas- 
Si^eiai, or Visigoths (Clio, 208.^, invest- 
ed Cambyses with the vice-royal^ of all 
the rnrion dependent on Babvlon, under 
the tine apparelitly of king of the ChaU 
decs* (II Chronicles, xxxvi. IJ.)- This 
pripce, dissatisfied with the equivocal al- 
ksiffice both of Zedekiah and of Amasis, 
^uidertook the regular subjugation of Sy- 
na aqd Egypt, summoning to bis ^d some 
ttoopi ^uji Asia Minpr, If Ujupagus 



still commanded these troefps, he most ho 
the Holofemes whom Ju<Uth slew. They 
will have taken Damascus in their way tor 
the rendezvous at Riblah, and will thencv 
have proceeded conjointly witli the troops 
firom Babylon, and under the command 
of Nebuzaradan (Jeremiah, ui. 30.), to 
the conquest first of Jerusalem, then <£ 
Ammon and Moab, next of Gaza and 
Ascalon, and finally of Egypt. Cambyses 
joined the army in person at a more ad- 
vanced period of the war, after the oom^ 
meucement of the siege of Tyre, and bj 
a march through the Arabian desert (Tha- 
lia, 7.). Many of these incidents aro 
mentioned bv the prophets 

First should occur among his works, if 
aiTanged according to the order of event; 
the xviith Isaiah, and so much of xLixth 
Jeremiah (23 — 27.) as relates to the mis- 
fortune of Damascus : these compositions 
appear however to be considerably subse* 
quent to tlie siege which forms tliebr 
theme : they confirm tlie account in the 
book of Judilli (11. 27.), that the plain of 
Damascus was laid waste in harvest-time. 
The second siege of Jerusalem is not 
sung : the patriotism of the poet could not 
bear to triumph, his loyalty did not dar« 
to lament. 

The expeditions against Ammon, Moab, 
Sen:, Hazor, Bozra, £dom, and other con- 
tiguous places, are noticed in tlie xvth and 
xvith Isaiah, xLvinth and xxixth Jere- 
miah, XXV th and xxxvth Ezekiel. The 
march of Cambyses through tlie desert 
(xxist Isaiah, 13 — 17.) is commemorated 
as by an eye-witness and companion. 

If any specific purpose invited the corn^. 
position of the xxxviiith and xxxixtb 
chapters of Ezekiel, it was probably that 
of inflaming, by the recital of former con- 
flicts, the passions of such Jewish recruits 
as were to join Cyrus against t^e Scy- 
thians. A newly conquered country, from 
the ditninished means of maintenancei 
has always aiforded numerous leviel to 
tho conqueror ; and such troops are studi- 
ously employed at a distance from their 
original frontier. 

The encampment before T)Te seems to 
have lasted during the whole war, apd 
eventually to have become ratlier a bazar 
than a blockade. It was resorted to by, 
the Persians for the sale of captive^ (Joel, 
ni. 6.), and tbx the purchase of military 
stores (Thalia, 19.), and was employed to 
compel the co-operation of Ethbaal, then 
king of Tyre (Philostratus, as quoted l^ ' 
Josephus, Ant. x. 11.) in various under- 
ti(14ng9 of Cambyses. T« t^ intixnid^r. 



na 



THEOLOGY AKD ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 



tery siege allode the xivith and xxviith 
Siekie), the xziiid Isatah, and the 
xxvnith of Ezekiel. 

To tlie inarch through Gaza, Ashkelon, 
and other towns of the Philistines, apply 
the xxvth Ezekiei, v. 15, Ice. and the 
XLviith Jereniiah. 

The xixth and xmith Isaiah, the 
sxixth and xxxtli, and the xxxiind Eze. 
kiel, and the XL^ith Jeremiah, v. 14 — 2&, 
concern the war in Egypt and Ethiopia : 
these poems, like the lamentation for 
T)rre> must ha\'e preceded the historical 
catastrophe, as they vary from the real 
eirent. 

The xxxist Ezekiel is evidently an 
elegy on the death of Cjttus, defeated and 
killed by the Massagetas (Clio, 2\4.) : 
Che 11th and 12th verges are very ap|H-e- 
priate: and the wliole poem is solemn, 
foblime, and worthy of die majesty of its 
liero. 

' On the death of Cyrus, one Smerdis, or 
Mardys, or Merodach, assumed the em- 
phv, while Camhyses hastened homewards 
fo dairo it. The conspirators in the in . 
teresC of Darius probably dispatched both 
these princes ^ Camhyses at some obscnre 
^ttce, where he was said to have killed 
himself accidentally (Tha)ia, 64.) ; and 
If erbdach later (llialta^ 70.) at Suaa. 

The xivth Isaiah is another elegy, ^nd 
OD the deeaaee of Camt^ses, to whose 
death and burial, in a foreign land, tftie 
20Ch vene alludes. It tnttac hopre been 
written duriog die aupremacy of Meio* 
jtfach ; as the I7<h verse cootaios an in^ 
direct f raiae of the lit*eration of Jefaoia- 
kitn {hsnmUAkf lii. 31.). This ode is 
•QMrlativcly grand. 

The Babylonians, instigated by the ido- 
Isltrotts priesthood, ea may be inferred 
#POBi the eventual massacre of that «rder 
(Thalia, 79.), determined to defend their 
«ity agaioit Dah«s, m behalf of Bakha- 
«ef , 4 minor son ef the prince <Baruch^ 
a. 11.) who had brought Daa)iel out of 
Mestine, This young sove^gn was 
iooin besieged by Darius in his metropo- 
lis ! and, the city liavingbeen taken alter 
aiaeteen months hiv«9liture (Thalia, 152.), 
the king was thrust through in the streets. 

To these -events ^pp^-tain the xnith 



and XLViith Isaiah, and the tJk and xiaf 
Jeremiah* x 

Darius, after the capture, rased the lor- 
tiiications of Babylon (Thalia, 159.) whiA 
had been spared by Cyrus^ and augmented 
by Camhyses (Berosus, as quoted by Jo- 
aephus. Ant. x. 1 1 .). This circumstaw* 
is accordingly specified (Jeremiah, Lr.44.J 
by the Hebiew bard. The expulsion oC 
supernumerary women is another pecu- 
liarity of this siege of Babylon by the son 
of Hystaspes ; and it rs noted by the He- 
brew (Isaiah, XLvir. 9.), as weU as by the , 
Greek (Thalia, 150.) authorities- Inar- 
tentiveto these two discriminating marks» 
some commentators have erroneously sup- 
posed that a prior siege of Babylon by 
Cyrus is referred to in these poems. 

In the capture of Ninevdi, as wd! as 
of Babylon, Daniel must h2^e tdten an 
interest which, in other similar instances, 
nuide him endeavour to immortalize the 
event in stmg. There are no l?istoricaI traces 
of such a prophe?: as Nalium. There is as 
allusion in this orade (Nah^m, in. 8.) to a 
passage in the xLvith Jeremiah (v. ^5.>^ 
which indicates identity of autiiprship. 
The internal evidence of style, tnanner, 
power of mind, also favour the ascription 
of tliis vision of coiisolation to Daniel. 

Suppose tlie poems here enumea^ed tn 
h^ve been sq^arated from the otSier scrip- 
tures oa ffooDds soffidieptly convincing, 
they will oe found to contain poetry of 
superior quality. This Daniel would be 
far the greatest of the Hebrew bards, 
and worthy to have iiis odes inscribed on 
the walls of ^10 palace of Persepoli^. 
Nor is it ttntrkely tfcat the decypberers of 
the arrow head characters tliore engrav^ 
are actu^flly making an addition to tbe 
ckculating mass of bis pro^uctjods. Edu- 
cation and inteHect o^ tliat hig!i order, 
whSch distinguish Danid, were too rare in 
the times q( Darius, to ^owmuc^ -nmee 
of dioice in the sdection rf his panegyrist. 

Enp^gh, Tvce trust, h^is beei^ said to 
prore that l4ie l^ook, cpmraonly attributed 
to Daniel, may with more probability ije 
racked amon? those wiiich vc:ere ooinpos^ 
about or after tlie tiipes ^f Ae Macca- 
^es, than among the older scriptures cf 
the Jews. 



Ube following pas^ige^ wtiich we ^haH fuote js^s one pf the mocp^eipaxkable v;^t^napc|^ 
of variation between the two tex^sjj^ere edited^ wQl fiiu^i^ qijir jC^ecs ^iti^iUp 
PI^)artuiuty p/^pmparison. 

Prom the patM Xi&TA TON &Z0^ Fkxbx dhe iOanie} SATA S10«£ |GI^ 



VKTCS T«9TAW»TUM O&JBCini^ &C. 



v» 



mr ©ew, xai wAoygyrc^ rov Kvpiov. 24. 

tpas iCaMfiey Bif ro ^cw rs ary^Of wf- 

^iXfj. 25. Kai stXcv 6 Pa<ri?^vs, i $e 
tyv ia'A arlpa^ rs^cxpaf >^?Mpt»eYous, xou 
Gspvtrxnvrra^ iv (/lscm rov vrvpof, xa* 
^ix^p^s% jtc £S-t7 iv ayrw>', xai rj opao't^ rs 
rerapr'iv iy^ix vm 0£». 26. Tors mcf^tr- 
^}^ }^xt(/v^'i^9vo(rop mpo$ rr^y ^upav ryjf 

8a TB lAfrtroy, ^f fiXS-grs xrw isvrr xai gg- 
^X^w Ss^pa;^, Mio-flt;^ *Af Jgvayw, ex /x€- 
ro:j TB 9Dpo^, 27* Ka< (ryvayovrou o< 0*0:- 
rcatau, xai ot rpoorrfyoi, xau w rcirajp;^a/, 

T9S MpoLSt. In ax eKv^iBvas ro orup rou oruD^ 
furs; wrran, xau r^ ^pi^ n^; xe^aXi^^ au- 
TQff ix ifXcykS^f xau rot, <roLpasap%^<ic(;rujy 
ix i{*^M»^, xoi oV,a^ irvpof ax 1^*/ £V av^ 
TUf, 28. KdEi carsxptb^ ISa^ax^Aovoa-op 
fixJiXsv^, Ksu etiTBv, evXcyrjrps 6 0£O^ ri 

n**AyItX£v carri, xau h^BiXaexo r8$ wou^as 
mrri^ Zri hfsieoi^iicay W aiyrw' xau ro 
kwL ri fixTiXiw^ T^XK^iw^ay, xau v^xpe- 
Imlsot rx y«//*-ara xyrwv stg nrvp, oirojs ^m^ 

dXX ^ r^ ©£0? ayrwj'. 29. Kau lyji ixn^ 
iWflEirt ^&vfba' ^as Xa^s, ^'jXri^yXwanrxj, 
^ taof tae% pXAC^yiu.iXi' xxrx rS Qsi X£^- 
^X» Mio'a;^ 'AthvxyWf si$ dtcouAeixy 
k^rrait xau ot uxai aurcoy Big iixpirxyrfV, 
M^i wx Srt ^B0§ irspoc. Iris Suvyjprsrai 
^ftnff^cu h-Qcg. 30. Tors 6 fix^iXs-JS xa- 
TFj^B rov ^siaxx* ^^^X* 'A^hyxym, 
^ ^X^?f Ba«vXaiyo;, xau ^v^TfCsv xuraf^ 
ttJ T^ix^y wiTB^ ^sicr^cu Tffo^rwy ru>¥ 
lK.la«By, r-jav h rr, fixo'iT^ic^ xurS, 31. 
lix%wx^hy6a'op S px^iKBif^ trxtri roig 
>^iU fvXaus, xoi ykMcra-xis, roig oixso'iy 
h vxcj rJ yy, ^^i^ iu^iy* wXT^v^sn^ 
32. Ta r^£ia xoi rx r^pxrx, i hroi-^ff§ 
Iter Ij^ S Ssos i S^irof. r^scTBy hxyrioy 
Bfii a»ayTiiXxi ituy^ 33/tif [ji^xXx xxt 
h^pXTf ifixa't?\£ix avr»Vs '^xariXsix oio;- 
nv^ uu { S^j^ix auri Bts yevmy kou yB- 



ij ^Xog EX rTfg xa^ivtf ByBitvpt(r8 xxt aifoe- 
rsivsy avroi Sb flruvsnj^^o'ay. 24. Kfla 
iy^yffro Jv r^ dxatrxt rov fixriksx ujtti^ay- 
r»y oun'euv, xai Irw;* k^swpsi xvrsg ^wrrxg, 
rors Na?oy;^o^OKdtro^ fixa-iXBvg l^ayftato-e, 
xoi fltyenj a^Bvcxf, xxi siirsy rotg ^iXoi^ 
xvrs, fi^t iy^pxg rpBi$ BCxXofx^sv eig fj^Bvo¥ 
r» vrvpoi weirtJmtEMof ; xa* siirov rev fix- 
oriXBi, xXr^^usg, pxa-iXsv. 25. Kxt BiTfBv & 
fixviXsvs" I^a eyw ipoj ay^pag rewxpxf 
XsXvpi^vovg VBpiiexrayrag h rw wpi, xxt 
f^Bpx sSsfxix sysvyj^ h xvroig, xxt ij oex-. 
&iS r« rstxprov opiOi'Mji^x 'AyygXou Qte. 

26, Kxi wpoo'EX^cuv fixviXBVi vpog rijv 
hvpxy rrjs xau.iv» xxiop^tyyis ru) mvpi, htx- 
X£frBy xvr8$ s^ iyo^xros, Is^px^, Mifrx^, 
'Athyxyio, o\ "mouoBs rov ®sa rwv ^stay r» 
wf/is-ovj k^sX^sre sx r» mvpcr Srtag »if 
i^fXbov ol xy^psg ex ^B<ro'j row wpo^. 

27. Kxi 9vyjix^,<ray ol vtrxhty roiexpyxi, 
xai xp^tifxrpiwrxi, xas 01 ^iXoi rs pxrt- 
Xevog, xx\ i^Ewpovv rag iy^p'jmrovg hiEtysg, 
on ay ^^aro ro iffvp ra ^^^xrog xortoy, 
XXI XI rpiyBg aurcav ^v xxrexxrf<rxy, xxt rx 
vafx^apx xvrww ix ijXX^ioa^rprxyf 9^s Scr^yj 
ra mvpog ijv iy xvrotg. il8. TifoXaJCuJv h 
NaCoup^o^oyoo'o^ fix^>jevg ttvsy, coXo- 
yijro^ Ku^io; r» Xe^pxx, Mura^, *AC^c- 
yxyujf og doTBrsiXB rov ^AyfEXoy xvra, xxi 
irw^s rsg wou^xg xvrB^ rovg iXiticwfrx^ 
he xvrw ryj[y yxp mpoorxyniv r» fixartXEvg 
ij^finjo-oy, xati mxpB^'jjxxv rx wwxrx 
xurwv stg BfiitjpivfMy, Hyx ju.^ Xttxprj^Mgri 
|xi}^£ izr^oo^uvijoriuo) bBt^ mfco, aAA* ^ rw 
BBwaorojy, 29. Kxi tvy eyoj %ptfm, Trx 
vrxv S^og, xau vxuxu ^jXou, xau 9x^xi 
yXsvc^eu, Sg A fiXxo'ffgM^ st^ rwifijptcit 
roy 0Boy ^eSpx^f Mi«j6^, 'At^ipxyut, &«- 
jxgAic^o-erai, xm « otxta xvns n^ci;^* 
crrau, ^ton ovxsri^t^g htpg, ig ^vtryn* 
rxi B^B?^r^xt vrwg. sio. Otrrwr w )3«?ri- 
XEt^g rtp 'ZBhxx> M'«J2» 'Afftf^o/w, Igoo^ 
tnky $8g If oXtig rtfi xwp&g, uxTBrr^trsp 
xvrng Spx^rrxg- 31'. Apx*^ rr,5 'EinroX^s* 
NaCoi^oaovoo^^ ^xrtXsvg mart roig 
Xxotg, fvXxig, xxi yXix^y^rm^, rou otxnrtr 
h tffxayi ry yri, stpTiyTj vjji^w ^Xaj^w^^Eiiy, 
32. Ta '^ifi^Bix xxi rx rspxrx, i fiWtTjw 
lurr* ijM.8 ^tog 6 iAj«r^f, r^pgfftr Uxmoft 
iLVv dyxyfsihau ipAy, 3$. '&g jueyaX* xxi 
tff^jpx" wg lueyxXrj xm hrj^ypx ij SxviXux 
xvra, Tf ^xTiXmx avm, fixriKtix xutan-^s, ij 
i^ov^ix xvm tig yvftxst xoi y^BXt. 



Verbal critics dua exftgetic virtuosos Bt Gottingen, m W]^, vhcre there, are, 
viDdowell to consult fur&r theDnnlel moreover, tlxe apocryphal, or udditional 



»«. 



m% 



tetnpbit Okrigwis Terses afjfarfizftl/ izK^Rided Ito be set W 
.'OlMiatto CKiioft 



masic 



126 



THEOLOGY AND JECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS- 



Art. II. The Book of J6B : metrically arranged according to tfie Masora, and nttatg 
translated into English ; with Notes critical and arplanatory : accompanied on ilie (^ 
posite Paee by the authorized English Fersion. By tlie Right Reverend Joseph Stock^ 
D. D. Bishop of Killala and M. R. L A* 4to. pp. 246. 



WE congratulated our readers in a for- 
mer volume, that the learned bishop of 
Killala having been induced by his friend 
and relation archbishop Newcome to turn 
his attention to sacred criticism, had, after 
the death of that eminent scholar, entered 
upon the same walk of useful learning, 
which he had trodden so long and with so 
much honour and advantage ^ and pre- 
pared himself to add to those valuable 
translations which have proceeded from 
the labours of some of the brightest orna- 
ments of our country. The first speci- 
men of Dr. Stock's abilities as a translator 
has been — as it deserved, very i^vourably 
received. The version of Isaiali proved 
him an able successor of his venerated 
friend, and raised expectations, which we 
trust will be fully realized. We strongly 
recommended that work to the attention 
of biblical students — and a frequent use 
of it has confirmed the opinion of its 
merits which we at first formed, and witli- 
out hesitation expressed. The work which 
now claims the notice of tlie public, tliough 
it be not destitute of considerable merit, 
is not equally free fi-om imperfection. 
Many pas:>ages, obscure in the common 
English version, aie here indeed elucidated 
— ^many beauties hitherto concealed are 
here brought to light — ^but dark passages 
still remain to perplex tlie reader, which 
are capal)le of being illaminated— and 
many- alterations are introduced which 
have far less excellence than the passages 
for which they are substituted. This has 
arisen in part from the difficulties with 
which, owing to various causes, the book 
of Job abounds— in ji^irt also— tliough the 
right reverend trai^lator will not perhaps, 
upon his hypothesis allow it, from his not 
having had recourse to the literature of 
Ai'abia^ and in part, w^e fear, in no small 

Brt, from the haste, together with the 
iictive circumstances, in which this ver- 
sion appears to have been made. 

That the translation of the book of JolJ 
is no easy task, has been admitted on all 
hands.-—'' Mvlta sunt loca valde. obscura, 
ftndta qua varsr ut quisquam mortalitan 
satis intelligatr was the complaint of 
Lowth : and Dr. Stock has hiipself enu- 
pierated some causes which contributed 
to the incorrectness of the old English 
▼im^Sb 9ui wbiob not iTei^g yet xemoyod, 



must produce their effect upon a modem 
translation. 

That a translator and interpreter of ihm 
book of Job should be well versed in other 
languages of the east, besides the Hebrew 
— liat he should be a proficient in Arabic 
— and deeply read in the numerous and 
rich effusions of the Arabian muse — ^we 
tliiiik cannot reasonably be doubted. When 
it is considered tliat to whatever period 
the date of this beautiful composition be , 
referred — the scene of this poem is laid in 
Idumaea — ^and tliat some of its most diffi- 
cult as well as its most beautiful passages 
are distinguished by their allusions to the 
natural history, or to the manners and 
customs of tliat region. The style, we 
allow, is pure Hebrew, yet many unusual 
words occur in this work, and oppose very 
serious obstacles to the progress of the 
interpreter : and if other parts of tlie Old 
Testament, known to be composed by 
native Jews, and at a late period of their 
monarch V, often receive considerable illus- 
tration from the Arabic tongue, much 
more must the book of Job. We have 
reason to believe that this language is un- 
known to die bishop of Killala ; aiid this 
we consider as one cans^of some passages 
beuig left as obscure, and as unintelligible 
as he found them. 

Knowing tlie book to be the most diffi- 
cult in the Jewish canon, and himself 
destitute of one source from which Ger- 
man critics especially, have very copiously 
and very successfully drawn in their ver- 
sions, and in their illustrations of the ^Til- 
ings of the Old Testament, it ought not, 
most assuredly, to liave formed any part 
of the learned prelate's ambition, that a 
work of this nature had been completed in 
a short time 3 and in the midst of afilic- 
tions which might well have rendered him 
incapable of the cool and laborious in-* 
vestigation required in such an employ- 
ment. It was therefore with moiled 
emotions of surprize and grief that \i^ 
perused the following passage, with which 
the admirable analysis of the poem con- 
cludes. 

"This (viz. a confident expectation that 
the government of God will be vmdicated m 
a future scene) is the impoi^t ksson to b« 
Icamtd from the book ot Job. Till man ai^ 
nv^9 at tl^i; blessed place, whwe ke sh4 



6T0CIIL*S BOOK OF JOB. 



329 



Inor ereo as he is known, let him lay his 
juiidiipon hi^ mouth, and humbly acknow- 
iedjeiys incapacity to judge of the dispensii- 
tioosofdie figiituJus governor of tiie world. 
-liiwUlend well at theTast with him that loves 
Ui God, and trusts in him. 

" Reader, 1 believe so. I am assured of 
it; although 1 also have shared in the miseries 
of mortality, and am at thii very moment 
pittc«l through with sorrow . A few days be- 
i*i: I prestTibi^d to my-^elf the task of trans- 
lating iob, a disease ot the most excruciating 
kind tell on a bi?loved consort, my most laith- 
ful companion thn)ugh toil and peril for tiie 
apace of tMenty->eveu years. While 1 pro- 
ctedetl, not hef liissoluiion only svam before 
my eyes : pain, the extremity of pain, which 
I would mo>t gladly liave bought oft* by my 
own suflVring, drew" from the most patient of 
human creatures accents of woe, which I liear 
now, and will speak no more of them. It was 
a business of six weeks. The last line of this 
tnmsiatioD was tracing tcliilt they carried lier 
to lua- grave.* 

" \ly God, it is thy doing ! I will lay this 
good book to my heart, and be still." 

p. 243, 244. 

Under such circumstances, and in so 
ihort a portion of time, a work of this na- 
ture cocdd not be properly performed. We 
ate astonished indeed that it was perform- 
ed at all ; and more astonished still that 
it has the merit which we very gladly 
ascribe to it : but tlie cause of sacred cri- 
ticism would have been better served, and 
the reputation of the learned prelate 
^ouy have been givatly increased, had 
he been content, in that season of afflic- 
tion, with deriving trom the original work 
the consolation he has found in it 3 defer- 
red the translation to a season in which his 
mind could have been free from the per- 
turbation under w hich it must have labour- 
ed; and apportioned more equally the 
time employed to the difficulty and im- 
jiortance of the undertaking. 

•In tiie preface Dr. Stock attempts, we 
tfaiiik widiout succciss, to settle tlie time 
at ^liich this extraordinary poem wa^ 
VrTitien. He observes, p. v, vi. 

** The sacred critics in gtneral have been 
apt to ascribe to the book of Job an origin 
tiBit loses it«e!f in the sliadts of anticjuity. 1 he 
o^ion, I believe, rested at first on the very 
uud^ foundatkm of what is stated in the two 
conchidiDg verses of the work, which ascribe 
to its heru a k>ngevity tliat belonged only to 
the ^fneratioDs not far distant from the tUxnl. 
Of the authentkrity of those verses 1 thudt I 
bai^e shewn in my note on them that we have 
t^ery reason to be suspkdous. 



•' But if it were ever so difficult to ascertain 
the portion of time when the patriarch lived, 
it may not be impossible, from internal markg 
in the poem itself, to conje»:tiire with tolen»ble 
certainty the era of its author. Ihis is what 
1 have attempted 16 execute. The subject 
Is curious ; and on a close inspection of the 
work before us, certain notc»s of time have nre- 
SviJited lliemselves to my observation, wnich 
appear to have escaped" the diligence of all 
preceding critics. The reader will allow me 
to oiler them to him here in a summary* man- 
ner, referring him for further satisfaction OA 
the point to what I have said m the notes. 

" Allusions to events recorded m five 
books of Moses are to be found in this poem, 
Ch. XX, 20, compared with Numb. xi. 33, 
34. Ch. xxvi. 5, compared with Gen. vi. 4, 
7, 19. Ch. xxxiv. 20, compared with Exod. 
xii. 10. Ch. xxxi. 33, compared with Gen. 
iii. 8, 12; and I shall hardly be expected to 
prove, that the author of the jwem derived 
nis knowledge of those events from a history 
of so much notoriety as that of Moses, rather 
than from oral or apy other tradition. Fact* 
are not usually referred to, before the history 
recording theni has had time to obtahi cur- 
rency. I'he inference is clear: the writer of 
the Cook of Job was junior to the Jewish le- 
gislatorj and junior it is likely by some time. 

" A similar mode of reasoning upon com- 
parison of Ch. xxxiii. 23, with 2 Sam. xxiv. 
16; 1 Chron. xxi. 15, will, if I mistake not 
greatly, bring down the date of our poem be- 
low the tune of king David, » 

" Lastly, C'h. xii. 17, to the end, seems to 
po'uit to the circumstances pnceding and at- 
tending tlie llabylonish caplivity: and CIl 
xxxvi. 8 — 12, has an appearance' of athiding 
to the various fortunes oi Jehoiachin king of Ju- 
dali, 2Kings^xiv. 12. xxv. 27; notes of time 
these, which, though not so manifest as the 
fore-i.Tentioned, may deserve attention ; since 
they add strength to the sentiment of tlu)se 
learned men, who have been inclmed to give 
the honour of this celebrated composition to 
Ezra." 

If our readers will give themselves the 
trouble to compare the above-mentioned 
pas.sages, they will undoubtedly be con- 
vinced that in this attempt to ascertain the 
era of tlie autlior of tliis book. Dr. Stock 
has not been successful. The first of 
these passa^s derives all die little efficac^ 
it may possess, from a variation in the 
version which comes not with siifticient 
authoritj'. He who has not access to Dr, 
Stock's translation, cannot judge of the 
importance of this passage in this enquiry. 
For " surely he shall not feel quietness 
in his belly, he shall not save of tliat ^v|kich 
he desired," Dr. Stock reads, "Bccrost 
he acknowledged not the quail in hi« iito- 



* Mrs. Catliafme Stock died May 5, 1805, in the 55lh year of her age: she has left tc- 
hiixl her hfleeu cliildren. 

Ax5. jibv. Vol.. rv. K 



130 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 



mach, in tlie midst of his delight he shall 
not escape/' The old version is more 
suitable to tlie context, and would not per- 
haps have been altered by the right reve- 
rend translator, had not the ambiguous 

word iTfiT afforded a plausible opportunity 
of supporting an hypotliesis. The next 
chapter, which is thought to contain an 
allusion to the deluge, rests upon no surer 
foundation. In. Ch. xxxiv. 20, tliere is 
very probably a reference to the death of 
the first-born in Egypt, and in CJi. xxxi^ 
the transgression of Adam is expressly 
mentioned. But such focts as these — 
the former of which, it is probable, had 
but recently hnppened, might be the sub- 
ject of oral information only. The story 
of Adam, wc have ever}- reason to believe, 
was a common tradition ; and so striking 
an event as the sudden destruction of tlie 
first-bom, could scarcely fail of being soon 
communicated to the neighbouring people, 
and amongst those who were not idolaters 
must have been remarked and cited as an 
evidence of the power and the moral go- 
vernment of God. 

Of the allusions ,to the destroying and 
the interceding angels in the time of 
David, aud to the events attending tlie 
Babylonish captivity. Dr. Stock himself 
does not appear perfectly convinced ; and 
no one will find them in the passages to 
'which he has referred, who has not an 
hypothesis to propose or to support. It is 
in point here to obser\-e that the former 
of these was regarded by Warburton, 
whose object also it was to bring the date 
of this book as far down as possible, as 
•* a most circumstantial account of God's 
dealing with Hezjkiah." The ques- 
tion, therefore, re«[)ecting the date of this 
singular and beautiful production, is not 
yet settled. One thing we apprehend 
must be regarded as certain — tliat if it had 
been of tlie age of Ezra, tliere would have 
been no occasion to explore the poem so 
minutely, or to alter the version of am- 
biguous words in order to find references 
to the Jewish history : tliese must have 
been interwoven with the whole piece, 
and given • a strong and decided colouring 
to tlie poem. 

Two of the sources, whence the He- 
brew poets drew their most striking and 

2. This man.'] 1 follow the masoret distinction of the lines. 

6. The bases thereof,'] lis cassoons, upon what are they sunk ? 

10. I fixed:] Heb. 7^2aAe5/*or/, fixed it decidedly and briefly. *']n">U is the Chal- 
dee version. Had we aiuthority of MSS. 1 should have preferred ?3C?fc^1 and { im- 
nclied against it my decree. See the verb in Parkhurst. Being of rare occurrcuce, 
t nwght have been changed by transcribers for a word more couunon. 



beautiful imagery, were, tlie sacred ritef 
of their religious worship, and the sur- 
prizing occun'ences in their eventfiil his- 
tory. Images derived from these abound 
in the odes of David, and In the cfiiisions 
of the propjie'ts. It is therefore scarcely 
credible, that a long and ornamented 
j>oem, in which so few of these image* 
can be discovered even by the microscopic 
eye of a framer of hypotheses; was com- 
ix)sed a considerable time after these rite* 
were established, and ,these occurrence* 
recorded by tlie pen of the historian. 

But it is time to proceed to the exami- 
nation of the learned translator^ laboursb 
In carefully colliiting this version with 
that in general use, we have found nearly 
five hundred variations, of w^hich more 
than four hundred and thirty are mark- 
ed witli an aster". w, to denote that they 

* depart materially from our comnioa 
English translation.' Of these variations 
many are very judicious, others are need- 
less } some cUe very faulty, blemishes 
rather than improvements. As a fair 
specimen of tlie work we present our 
readers witli the following version of lh« 
XXX VI nth chapter. 

" CHAPTER XXXVIIlth. 

" 1 . Tli(»n Jehovah answered Job out of the 
whirlwind and said: 

2. Who is this that darkeneth wisdom by 

words, 

* This man without knowledge ? 

3. Gird up now, like a man, thy loins, 

For I will question thee, and uiform thoa 
me, 

4. M'here wast thou wlicii 1 founded the 

earth ? 
Tell, if thou knowcst zvhat is understand- 
ing. 

5. A\ ho lixed the measures thereof, if thoi 

kuowest ? 
Or who stretchetl the line upon it ? 

6. I'lwn what ar«i the ba'^es thenx)f n-sled, 
Or who laid the corner stone thereof? 

7. When the morning stars sung together. 
And all the sons of God shouted for joy. 

8. Or who shut up with d(x>rs the sea. 
When it brake forth, as if it issued from ft 

womb r 

9. ^^'llen I made the cloud the garment 

thereof, 
And thick darkness its swaddling-band, 
10.* Wheal lixed over it my decree. 
And set bars and doors,' 



STOCR*S Book OF JoMi 



i^i 



i\. And said, hitherto shall thou come, but 
jio further, 
And here shall thy proud waves be stay- 
id. 
7?.*Ilail thou out of thy seas commauded 
the morning > 
*Ha4 thou known the datfn, since it was 
ap{xmiteil ? 
13. Thai it might lay hold of the edges of 
the earth, 
*And the Hashes be set in motion from 
her? 
14.*She chansjdth her appeatanre, as cldy 
from the s<*al, 
*And they pre-^cnt themselves like a per- 
son fuil-dresswl : 
L5.*-Vnd firoiu the Hashes their light is with- 
drawn. 
And tj c high-raised ann is broken. 

16. H±»t thou entered mto the mazes of tlie 

sea ? . 
Or iu the inmost recess of the deep hast 
thou Malked ? 

17. Ilavc the gates of death been revealed to 

thee. 
And Uic gates of the shadow of death 
liast IhiHi seen ? 
lS.*I)ofi thy understanding extend to the 
wide stretchings of the earth ? 
TfH, if Ihou knowcst it all. 
to. Where is the road to zvfune light dwcll- 
elh? 
And dariwne^s, wliere is the place therrof ? 
JO. Seeing thou canst conduct us to its bor- 
der. 



And seeing thou art acqiiamted with the 
paths to its house. 
21.*Tho*i nmst know, because thou wert born 
at the time. 
And in number thy days are many. 

22. ?Iast thou enteretl into the treasures of 

the snow. 
And the treasures of the hail hast thou 
seen, 

23. Wliich I reserve against the time of dis^ 

trt*ss, 
Against the day of combat and war ? 

24. Where is the way to where lightning id 

Strewed out ? 

To whence the east wind is let loose upori 
the earth? 
2j. AVho hath laid out for the flood its chan- 
nel. 

And a way for the forked bolt of tliun- 
der, 
26.^ To cause rain on the earth where no 
man is, 

On the wilderness where mortal is not ; 

27. I'o satisfy the ilesolate and waste ground j 
1 o cause the issue of the grass to sprmg > 

28. Hath the ram a father? 

Or who hath begotten the round drops of 
the dew ? 

29. Out of whose womb came the ice ? 
And the hoar frost of hc*aven, who hath 

gendered it? 

30. As with stone, do the waters cover them-^ 

selves, 
♦And the face of the deep is taken pri* 
son^jr* 



11. ^stayed.] ITeb. shall one put a stop to ; verb im})er. 

12. The duiL-n.'] Joining irTOTl, as in many copies. "Idp'fci, since it ivas eMb-^ 
hikfd, for the purposes mentioned in the next verse. 

Ibid. Out of the. seas.l From M'hose bosom the first streaks of light seeni to tdkd 
their rise. To prevent the equivoque of ^"^^"^D which may signify either from thjr 
da)'5 or from thy seas* two copies have tlie word *7D*^D, from thy sea in tl^e singu- 
lar cumber 5 but it is not necessary to write so, since tlie context explains thci 
ttmse. 

13. And thejlashes,'] Vulg. O^JHin, of die authenticity of which word it should 
«eem that many copyists had a doubt by writing the y in a position elevated above 
the level of the other letters, and that twice over in die same verse. In place of tliis 
intruder we should substiiutc the letter D, and make the D^StJ'l, wliich denote* 
foMkct of Ufrhfniftq, corruscations, as in P?. Ixxviii. -18. The whole passage will 
theu become both consistent with itself, and elegant. Tlie flashes, or first streaks of 
A?y-i«cht, are tlescribed as presenting themselves to view in the gay dress of a cour- 
tier going to wait on his hovereign ; while the earth, whose edges are illuminated by 
wm, changes her appearances, as the clay (the eastern .substitute for sealing-wax) 
takes difterent forms according to the seal : the splendour of these flashes is diminish-^ 
•Bdby the .«!ujKTior lustre of tiie pliinet of day advancing in his course, till by degree.^ 
^ fu^ raised ann (or the projected arm) tV^"^ yi*^^ tlie ann of Shooting) which was 
itrctclied across the heaven, is broken off. Of the justice of this picture of the sky 
w a fine rooming every reader must be Jl judge, who has accustomed himself to the 
budable practice of early rising. 

. 16. Tfte mazet.'] From *nU to be perplexed comes the name, implying meanders^ 
■tricate passages into the abyss. — Scott. Parkh, Ipfl is the penetrate of the ocean* 

20, 21. Contain a lofty irony. — Scott. 

^. Li^tning.'] So we should render "1*lN herci as in chap. x;txvii. v. 3i oa ac- 
«wnt of its acconipaniinenis— whid, ruin, and thundor.-— ^tfy^. 



132 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTIGAL AFFAIRS. 



bind 



up 



the 



delights 



of 



3l.*Cmist thou 
warmth, 

*0r the flakes of#.cold canst thou set 
. loose ? 
32.*C;mst tjiou hfms; forth the biiglit iii its 
Sfu^on, 
*An<{ annfort corrosion over her sons ? 
33. KiiowonI thou th«» Matults for heaven, 
, *Canst th^Hi lay d;>wn regulations for the 

earth ? 
3L Can<«t thou lift up to Uie clouds thy 
voice, 
That A deluge of waters may cover thee ? 
35. CaiLst liiou dispatch the lightnings, that 
they may go, 
And may siiv unto thee, Iiere we are ! 
3t). Who iiath settled in the inward parts 
wi>doni ? 
Or who hath given to the imagination 
discernment > 

37. AMio shall number the vvarrijig clouds by 

wisdom r 
*Aik1 tlie pitcbcr of heaven who shall 

St0(>]) ? 

38. When the dust iixeth into hardness. 
And the clodi slick close to,«TKher ? 

39. \N lit thou liunt down for tiie lioness her 

prey Ir ' 
And witli animal llesli wilt thou stuff the 
young litnis ? 

40. AViien they couch in th(?ir dens, 
*\\'hen thtj abide in the covert, their 

place of ambush > 

41. Who layeth out for the raven his provi- 

sion,' 
When his youno: ones caw unto God, 
* Whi^n they are straying to where tliere is 
no food ?" 

All the corrections which the common 
versiou has received from the hand of 
Dr. S. arc not equally judicious. Impar- 
tiality reciuires that we select a few to 
exemplify tliis remark. 

Old rcrshn — '* For now it would be hea- 
viiT than the sand of tlu; sea: Uieretbrc my 
words are swallowed up." Cliap. vi. v. 3. 



Dr. Stock — " For now b^-ond tiie sand ' of 
th<* sea it would be heavy ; 
Therefore my words are swallowed up.'* 

O. f\ — " C'aiist tlkui by sea/chin^ lind o\it 
God ? canst thou fmd out the Ahmghty unto 
perfection ? 

** It is as high as heaven ; what can>t tliou 
do ? de 'pvr than hell ; wliat can>t thou kiiow.* 
Chap. XI. V. 7-8. 

Dr. S. — " Canst thou by searching fmd out 
God? 
Unto perfection canst tliou find out tlu; Al- 

mii^hty ? 
See the heights of heaven^ what canst tboa 

do .' 
See a deep below hell, what canst thou 
know ?" 
0, /'. — *' If r wait, the grave U mine bouse: 
I have made my bed in the darkness. 

" I liavc said' to corruption, Thou art my 
father; to the worm, Thou art my mother 
and my sister." Chap. xvii. v. 13-14. 
Dr.'S, — "Though i tarry, the grave is 
mine house, 
Ir darkness must I seek my mattra^Js : 
To the pit must J .say, my father an tbou ; 
My mother and my sister / mu^t call the 
worm." 
0. /'. — " B*»hold, I cr}' out of wrong, but 
I am not heard: 1 cry aloud, but tlurrc istia 
judgement." Chap. xix. v. 7. 

Di\ S. — " Lo, 1 may cry murder ! but 
have no answer ; 
r may roar, but there is no justice.'* 

O. V, — ** llie lion's whelps have not trod- 
den it, nor the iierce lion passed by it. 

** He putteth forth h shind upon^he rock ; 
he overtunieth the mountains by the- root^" 
Chap, xxviii. v. 8-9. 
Dr. S. — '* The sous of the splitter trcaci it 
not, 
Neither passeth over it the jackal. 
Into the flint he Uirusteth his hand, 
He upturaeth by tlie roots the mountains.*' 

In a note upon tliis passage the trans- 
lator obser\-es, tliat the spliUer signities 
the lion : — ^Why then, we ask, has he 



3 J . Vi€ delights.'] A pleasurable sensation of warmth. — Parkh, Tlie ^akes of 
cold are the spiada of frost, which penetrate the skin. 

32. Comfort corrosion.'] A beautiful poetical image. Canst thou make amends iQ 
' tlie destructive blast tor the loss of tlie numerous trilie of insects, to which she gave 

hirtb last season, ancl Which were swept away as quickly as they came, bj giving Lrr 
the opportunity of producing as many more ? For DI'STO see above. Cliap. xxxvii. 
verse 2. 

33. Regulations.'] For TitfittTfi read with one MS. Jll'^IOtZTtt. The common read- 
ing affords no antecedent to I'^IO^P.but 0*^27, the plural to the singular. 

34. Mat/ cover thee.] May form, as it were, a pavilion for tlie lord of thunder.— 
Scott. 

30. Discernment.'] To count the conflictingeletnenUt as Parkh. expounds D^plTW. 

37. Who shall stoop,"] To discharge their contents upon tlie earth. This image is 
similar to the inclined urn, which the heatlien poets place in tlie hand of a river-ged. 
Scott from Schultens. 

38. W^Af/i tlic dust.] When rain is most Wanted to mollify the glebe^ hardened -bj 
brought. 



STOC^ S BOOK OI^ JOB. 



133 



chaogfd the old verBion for a synouimoufj 
ejpre^iony harsh and unpleasant, und 
letjtiirioga marginal illustration ? This is 
QupTuot cither of taste or judgement. 

0. y. — *' I am a brother to dragons and a 
rmnpanion to owls." Chap. xxx. vl *9. 

Ih". 6\ — " A brother am 1 to drjy;ons, 
AaA a comi^auion to the daughters of screech- 
ing.** 

AVe cite this instance as one amongst 
many others tlint might be adduced to 
justify the censure >»'e hii\ e passed upon 
die hasty mnniior In which this version 
Lis been prepared. Daughters of screech* 
t»» is a literal translation of the original 
pxnical phrase 71 jV^ m^H, and might 
pn>piTly enough be substituted ibr oiiis, 
but in a short note Dr. S. informs us lliat 
it is 'a common epithet for osl riches.* In 
hU haste he has unfortunately forgotten 
tbat in his transhition of Isaiah, cliap. xiii. 
V. 21, he hai« rendered the very same 
phrase by acrrcc/i-oit/.s and, uj>on the au- 
thority of tliat excellent critic Rosen- 
roulier, asserted tliat it cannot mean oS" 
tricfits. 

All the above alterations, and many 
more, we are .sorry to say, might 1x3 added, 
are needless j and some of tiiem betray a 
total want of discrimiualion 'and taste. 
We subjoin a few yet more reprehensible, 
in which the correction is not only uced- 
kss but abbolutely faulty. 

0. /*. — " lie is wise in heart, and mighty in 
Jtrfn^h : who hath hardened himself against 
^ liiiii, ajid liath pro^pTed?" Chap. ix. v. 4. 
Dr. S. — " Wine in heart a-* lie is, imd 
miffjity in strength, 
AVho >Iiail play the sturdy with him and pros- 
ji-.-r:-'' 
(\ y. — " He will not suffer me to take my 
bfvatii, but fiUeth uie with bitterness." ibid. 
T. 18. 
Dr. S — " He givcth no respite . to my 
breath, 
Tliocjgh he stuifrth me with bitterness." 

0. y. — " If 1 say I will forget my com- 
pUint, I will leave oif mv heaviness and com- 
Jartnivsetf." Ibid. v. 27. 
Dr 'S.—*' If 1 sav I will forget mv sad 

tlMUght, 

I will leave mv zin/ faces, and wear a smile.' ' 
0. y. — " 1 uni from iiim that he may rest 
I'll he shall accomplish, as an hireling, Ixis 
^Jii)." Chap. xiv. V. 6. 
Dr. S-^** Look anray from hun and let him 
tleray 
Till he has run through, as an hireling, iiis 
day." 

What ear is not offended by this miser- 
able jingle? What cause of boasthig is 
there here, that this translation was a 
work of six weeks ? 



0. F. — " With us are botli the gray headed 
and verv ai^ed men, much elder than tii-s la- 
thiT." Chap. XV. V. 10. 
Dr. •i'.-7** 'fhe gray head and the chrony 
are with us, 
Th<? plenti.ous, more tlian Uiy father in 
days." 
O. y. — " M'hereas our substance is not cut 
down, but the remnant of them tiie lire eon- 
sumeth." Chap. xxii. v. 'iO. 

Dr. a. — " As surely as our estate shall not 
be carried away, 
So en their savings 'shall the fire ptey." 

O. /'. — " 'i'lie east windcarrieih him away, 
and he deparletli." Chap, xxvii. v. 121. 
Dr. a. — " The east wukI upliflelh liim and 

he Is ort'." 
O. y. — " Her young ones aKo suck up 

blood." Chap, xxxix. v. 30. 
Dr. »S'.— " And her young ones gobble up 
blood." 

It is no pleasant task to point out such 
gross > iolations of propriety and of goo<l 
taste as these, and we are sorry to observe 
that the list might have been made more 
extensive. Our object has been, to in- 
duce the learned prelate to be more cau- 
tious in any future work of this nature j 
and to reperuse before he favours tlie 
world with a translation of any other por- 
tion of scripture, those excellent rules 
which his great predecessor laid down in 
his admirable ' historical view, &c.* and 
to which he himself so faithfully and ju- 
diciously adhered. It is with interpret- 
ers in general, as with annotators : they 
never know when to stop, but appem* to 
estimate the value of their version by the 
quantity rather than the quality of their 
coiTections. We recollect scarcely a 
single translator, * who has not, without 
any reason, altered elegant and harmo- 
nious passages in the common English 
version, and utterly destroyed all sweet- 
ness of sound, widiout improving tlie 
sense. 

Our readers may perhaps be curious to 
know the opinion of the bishop of Xilkla 
conceniing the much controverted passage 
chap. xix. V. 25-26. It' we had not al- 
ready extended this article to a more than 
usual length, we would transcribe the note 
upon diose verses. We can do no more 
than state that Dr. S. rejects the opinion 
of Peters aud others, that the bnguage of 
Jtjb had fl reference to a general resurrec- 
tion to etenial life, and considers it as 
expressing a full ' expectation of returning 
from the grave at son)e future ixMiotl, to 
see his own innocence vindicated, and his 
calumniators punished.' 

Many short but uf^eful notes accompany 
this \ersion, yet tlieir number miglit 



J34 



TI^EOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 



vith great advantage, liave been n>uch in- 
creased. Every book should be as com- 
plete as possible in itself. This is a rnaxim 
which has been often recommended, and 
no author should be unmindful of it. 
The obicure passages, of which almost 
every reader of tliis version will wish tor 
an elucidation, may be cxplnined !)y 
Heatli or Scptt, but these valuable works 
are not in every reader's possession. 

We must not omit to mention that in 
this work several conjectural emendations 
by Dr. S. occur, in general very judicious 
and happily throwing light upon difficult 
passages. One of these has been already 
placea before our readers in tlie e^v tract 
we have made. Of the rest the following 
are the most satisfactory : chap. vi. v. 7, 
'»13 for *<n3 ; chap. xv. ver. 22, ^mSJO 
torl^in ISn 5 verse i^9, D'^blD for 
0*^730 J chap. XX. verse 7, ih^^Xl foF 
•)7 /3D ; chap. xxx. verse 2, *^Sb4 for 
^3M J verse 24, ]rT7 for Trh ; chap. 
xxxvii. Til for '^'^5. This part of die 
learned translator's labours might have 
l)een extended ; and the emendations of 
many eminent critics, now widely scatter- 
ed, might liave been collected, and, 
in many instances, advantageously intro- 
duced. 

The translation of Isaiah by Dr. Stock 
was accompanied by the Hebrew, and 
we are sorry that tlie same plan lias not 



been adopted in this version of Job. ' Th« 
Hebrew original,' observes the autliori 
' I have not been at the pains to annex tn 
tlie present work, because tlie critics 
seem to have given me no thanks for my 
lab<)ur in publishing Isaiah with points j 
and I work for ordinary scholars, like my- 
self, who do not hope to understand He-» 
brew very well, witliout the assisiance of 
those reprobated points.' Pref. p. viii. 
We are perhaps among tliose to whom 
the learned author here refers. We ven- 
tured to express om* disapprobation of tlio 
points that accon^panied the original of 
Isaiah, but we are truly concerned and 
surprized, that, because the points were 
reprobated, the Hebrew text has been 
in tlie present publication widiheld.— 
Though we do not lay the same stress 
upon these barbarous inventions thai the 
bishop of Killala does, yet we should 
have been glad to have seen the original 
text even with the incumbrance of the 
niasoretic commentary. 

Wo now take leave of this version of a 
very curious and im|X)rtant book of scri|>T 
ture, after having endeavoured to give a 
full and an impartial account of it. Wo 
are happy to express our approbation of 
the greater part of tlie corrections which 
the common version has here received; 
but we regret that it is not so perfect us it 
wpuld have been had the author bestowed 
upon it a larger share of uninterrupted at- 
teution. 



SACRED CRITICISM. 

Art. III. — .4 llndicaiion of certain Passat^cs in the cnmuion English fcrsion of fhc Xczd 
Testament; addressed to Granville Sharps Enq. Author of the '* Renmrks on the Cues nf 
the Definitive Article in the Greek Text of the At it' TestamuU.** By the Rev. Calvin 
Wfnstanley, a. M. 12mo. pp. 84. 

OUR readers, \ve apprehend, cannot 
have bedn inattentive to die progress of die 
j.'nquiry to which this excellent litde tract 
ivlatcs, and which we hope it has brought 
to a conclusion. In the j'jar 1797» tliere 
iippeared, in the second part of a learned 
occasional work, entitled ' Museum Oxo- 
^liense,' a paper written by Mr. Granville 
^harp, and intencled to exhibit an argu- 
inent in favour of the divinity of Christ,, 
deduced from the Greek definite ardcle, 
and die copulative conjunction. In die 



Evidences of Christ's Divinity, hy Dr. 
Whitby 3 a table iK>j to be found in his 
LAsl" THoi^GiiTS, Hs Dr. Burgess well 
knew, though he had not the candour to 
acknowledge it. In die course of the 
same )'ear appeared six letters addressed 
to Mr. Granville Sharp by Mr. Wads- 
worth, it was said, of Cambridge, intend- 
ed to form a supplement to the ' Re- 
marks,- and to corroborate the si^ecies of 
evidence which had been exhibited in 
diem, by numerous quotations from the 



midst of erudite criticisms, not generally fathers', esjx?cially the Greek fathers. In 



regarded as iipportant, it might have re 
mained knovyn only to' a few scholars who 
have acce3§ ):o tliat work, had not the 
present bishop of St. David's, in the year 
J 7t)d, urged by his great zeal for tlie or- 
thodox faith, republished it in a pompous 



1S03, six more letters were addressed to 
jNIr. Sharp by an anonymous author, of a 
very diti'erent character, and of very dif- 
ferent views, who called himself Girgoiy 
iBlunt. An account of this witty produc- 
tion was given in our second volume. 



and illiberal manner, subjoining a tabic of IJis object was, ridens diccre xxrum 3 and 



IKCHBALD S TWO THEORIES OP THE FALL OF MAN. 



135 



in && field of grammatical controversy he 
ma^ be acknowledged to have used the 
we2pons of ridicule \^th great sit ill and 
CiTecL Mr, Winstanley has entered last 
into the lists — 3 sober champion^ cased in 
die armour of Grecian literature, and at- 
tacking hi^ boastful antagonist witli his 
owB weapons. He has clearly proved 
that the iirst suspicions which arose in 
Mr. Wadsworth's mind are unjast : ' Sure- 
ly/ said I, * Mr. Sharp has only not gone 
10 tar in the investigation as earlier critics. 
There mast be some secret fiillacy ; and 
be is producing to us, as a valuable dis- 
covery, that which his predecessors, after 
ha^'ii^ for a time followed it, must have 
foimd oat to be an empty phantom, and 
ao ihey returned from their pursuit, and 
sat down again, not venturing to tejl the 
world how idly they had been occupied.' 
See &> Letters, Sec. page 2. 

This secret feliacy, which esca^>ed this 
laat-mentioned author, has been detected- 



by Mr. Winstanley, and clearly bronght 
to light. He examines, witli care, the 
se>eral mles which had been propo.sed by 
Mr. Slitirp ; he ' proves some to be de- 
fective, some fidlacious, and others abso- 
lutely talse.' It is impossible to give any 
satisfactory analysis of such a publication 
as this, or to select any passage that should 
do Justice to the author or his subject : 
but \va recommend it to the serious re- 
gard of those who, dazzled by " tlie im- 
ix)sing light in which the * Remarks* have 
been reconmiended to public attention,*' 
have been induced to give their approba- 
tion to canons of criticism Xvhich are at 
variance with the genius of the Greeic 
language, which tend to deform and vi- 
tiate our English version of the Scriptures, 
and which * exhibit the sacred penmen in 
unfavourable colours, irreconcileable witlv 
the uprightness and simplicity that cha- 
racterise their \n ritings/ 



AiT. l\'. — A concise and interesting fiexv of the Ohjection of Mr. Gibhon, that our I/yrd 
foretftld his second Coming in the Clouds of HtaviH in the Generation in zvhich he lived, 
'^zhirhtlte Revolution of seventeen Centuries has proved not to be agreeable to Kjperienc.e: 
ehirfty intended its a Specimen of the true Method of asccj^taining tiie genmne Meaning 
if the Xezv Testament, By N. Nisbett, M, A. Rector of Tunstal. 8vo. pp. 39. 

THIS little tract, published in the terests of our common Christianity, ^e 



form of a sermon, delivered, we are told 
w tke preface, before the judges of assize 
at Maidstone in the year 1802, is an epi- 
tome of a very valuable w^ork, reviewed 
by us in a former volume. The subject, 
it is well known to theological students. 



will venture to confess that, from the very 
day in which a^ e read the first publica- 
tions of this intelligent and zealous writer, 
we have been satiNded of the justness and. 
high imporUmce of the principles which 
he has been labouring to establish. We 



has occupied the author's attention for earnestly recommend this tract, but 



many years, ' from a steady conviction, 
as he asserts, * that it would not only fur- 
nish an unanswerable reply to Mr. Gib- 
bons objection concerning the coming of 
Cimst3 *>"^ 'Jiat it would lead to a more 
accurate knowledge of the New Testa- 
ment than has hitherto been acquired.* 

As this subject does not relate to any 
•pcculative doctrine, but involves the iu- 



especialiy the publication to which we 
have before alluded, and of which this is 
only an outline, to tiie attention yt' those 
who arc desirous of seeing an able illus- 
tration of many very striking passages of 
scripture, and a strong hold of intidelity 
swept away like the house erected oh the 
sand. 



Avt. \.-^Brirf and impartial Ficw of the tzvo Tlieories of the Fall of Man, by the Rev. 

P. Ikchbald. 8vo. 



THE author of the Wisdom says in 
the second chapter (v. 23 and 24), ' God 
tTe4ed man to be immortal, and rnade 
him to be an image of his own eternity ; 
nevenheless, through envy of the devil, 
eanie death into the world.* This is not 
only the scriptural, but the popular opi- 
ttioQ concerning the fall. Milton, who 
was learaed in theology, and who aspired 
to make his fablings correspond witli the 
K;ceived uf>tions of the clu-istian world, 
ffvfi* an analogous representation : ac- 



cording to which, mortality is the heredi- 
tary corruption we owe to Adam, the im- 
puted penalty, the unceasing consequence, 
of his conduct. 

Mortality, if it be a misfortune, is how- 
ever no sin. Vice is a departure from the 
laws of reason, crime from tlie laws of 
society, and sin from the laws of religion - 
To die is not an act of disobedience to 
God. The original sin of Adam, if it 
produced a mortal change in his nature, 
became^ by tiiat \iiry change, thenceforth 



136 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 



incapable of repetition. It is no more 
possible t6 inherit a sin, than to inherit a 
tall from One's horse. A sin is an act of 
transgression, not a habit or a tendency. 
What we can and do inherit is the capa- 
bility of sinning, tlie power of being sti- 
mulated by apj)etite, anger, vanity, and 
lust, to commit actions unfavourable to 
our own happiness, and to that of others. 
This capability of sinning is necessarily 
accompanied with a tendency to sin : for 
the original propensities ot' all animals are 
selfish: every creature naturally prefers 
itself to others : and such preference, in a 
case of collision, is sin. It is by experi- 
ence and cuhure that tliose sympathies 
and forecasts are evolved, which purify 
our actions' into virtue, by causing them 
to be performed with a view to the pro- 
duction of the greatest happiness, whe- 
tlier we ourselves are to partake it or no. 
As far as selfishness is sinful, and self-im- 
molation virtuous, we inherit peccancy 
and accjuire merit : we pass, as is techni- 
cally said, from a state of nature to a state 
of grace. This regeneration of our ideal 



associations is often brought about by the 
means of religious opinions ; by in:3istiiig 
on the advantages which, in a future state, 
V'ill attend the sacrifice of ourselves to 
others ; by insisting on the miseries which, 

. in a future state, will attend the prefer- 
ence of ourselves to others ; thus making 
our very selfishness a motive to our bene- 
volence. And thus faith mgy conquer tiie 
original hereditary selfish tendency, or 
pravity, of our nature, and ought in ihat 
case to be imputed to us as righteousness. 
These observations being, premised, we 
suspect it will be found more scriptural, 
and more rational, to incline toward ll>e 
first, than toward the second dieory of tiie 
f.dl here examined : although several of 
tlie phrases in use among the cah inistic 
arguers may be mere jargon. We advise 
tlie author to reconsider his opinion : we 
prize the learning, the clearness, and the 

-sincerity, displayed in the statement of itj 
but we diink its soundness likely to be 
denied both by the tlieologian and the 
metaphysician. 



Art. VI. — A Help to the Unlearned in the Studt/ of the Holif Scriptures : beinq an Attempt 
to explain the Jiihle in a familiar ff'ai/. Adapted to comiiion Apprelunsions^ and accord" 
ing to t/ie Opinions of approird Commentators, By Mrs. Trimmer, Author of Sacred 
History^ t^c, S^c. 8vo. pp. 8J2. 



MRS. TRIMMER*s character is well 
known and highly esteemed. The poor 
have foimd in her a benevolent friend, 
and, in some instances, a judicious in- 
fitructress j but for the employment which 
she has here undertaken she is by no 
moans qualitietl. Odier talents than this 
good lady possesses, are requisite in those 
who would unfold to the uninformed the 
volume of holy writ. In aiming to be 
faniilinr, she is often eminently trifling : 
in her condescension to the weakness of 
those whom she would instmct, she some- 
times derogates from the sublimity and force 
of the lessons of divine wisdom'j and, 
throughout this ponderous book, one great 
object appears pre-eminent, the support 
of the ftstablished system both in dcK-lrine 
and discipline — a system to which we 
have no doubt slie is sincerely attached. 
Had she confined her recommendation of 
this to such passages of scripture as clearly 
authorized her to do sq, she would have 
been in the way of her duty : but she has 
twrtured many a passage to effect this pur- 
pose, and advanced interpretations for 
which she can shew no warrant. A few 



*' Gen. XIV. ver. 18. — Observe, what is 
said of Melchizedec, and the blessing he pro- 
nounced upon Abram, and what Abram gave 
to the priest of the most high God. From 
which we leani that it is agreeable to the will 
oi God that the people aiiould pay tithes to 
his miiiifters. Farn^ers, tiu-rcfore, and otJien 
of whom tithes are demanded, should pay 
them to the clergy with a willing mind, as an 
otlering to God ibr increasing the hiiits of 
. th(! earth." ' 

"Psalm xcii. — The instruments, men- 
tioned ver. 3., were always used in the tcniple 
strrvice at Jerusalem ; and in many cluisUan 
churches there arc organs, which are great 
helps to devotion when people mind properly 
what they are about ; but very often Uiey at- 
tend only to the music, as an amusement, 
which is a great profanation of the liord's 
house and his holy worship. They should 
sing to the praise and p:lory of God, as the 
clerk calls ui)on them to do." 

" Matt. XV 11. ver. 22. — From our Lord'? 
sending Peter to catch a fish, we learn, that 
in cases of necessity we should work in our 
respt'ctive callings,* in order to earn money, 
since God's blessing attends honest industn*. 
If Peter had not found money in the mouth 
of the fish, the sale of it would have fetched 
him something, and by fishing on he might 



short extracts will be sufficient to shew ^»^'<^ ^^^^ sullicient number of fi>h to pn>- 

the character of Uiis work, and to justify 1".^*^ \^''' ,^"ij^ ^Y' '''^^i!,^' ^^r ''/ -fil uH 
the rpmnrka w^ h^^^ ^rlvunV..! ^ ^ *^»»^ "\™ Ic, that our blcsscd Lord, if he had 

chose it, could have got great riches for him* 



the remarks we ha\'e advanced. 



MRS. TKIMJfEH's HELP TO THE UNLEARNED. 



137 



sdf from the bottom of the sea; but he had 
mwonced all tiie pomps and vanities of the 
Hvrid, and submitted to a state of poverty 
fcr the sike of mankind.** 

** St. John, XVII. ver. 20. — ^The concluding 
part of this soU^nui prayer was for all our 
ijauX's falthfiil followers' to the end of the 
vorid. To be €me xvifh God the Father and 
n/AGod the Son, ver.i?l, must signify, to 
have the Holy Spirit imparted to them. 'Ihis 
was the glory which our iSaviour gave to all 
hfii hithful aiM:iples, to be united with God 
by means of the Holy Spirit, wliich is given 
by the Fatl»er tliruugfi the Son." 

Mrs. Trimmer is very reprehensible for 
h.i\*ing used, in this passage, and in a man- 
ner which lias the appearance of artilicc, 
a phrase that does not occur in tlie scrip- 
tures either of the Old or New Testa- 
ment 

" Acts, XIII. ver. 1, 4. — Observe, that tlie 
apostles antl all the firn ministers of tht* gos- 
pt"! were directed by the immediate inspira- 
tion of God. There Is no occasion for this 
iKAv, as every thing our Saviour and the 
apostle^ taught as nece^sarj' for salvation may 
be read in Uie Bible ; but as tlie sacred books 
were written at first in other languages, and 
tiie gift of tongues is not coulinued, it is 
proper that chiistiaii ministers should be 
Iramed men. The work for which Barnabas 
and Paul were separated, was that of preach- 
ing to the Gentiles. Observe, that tl\i;y \verc 
ordained to this holy office by the laying on 
of thehtmds of the apostles. Tliis rule has 
been kept up in the christian church from the 
lime of the apostles. The bLshoi)s, who are 
BOW at the head of the dmrch, practise it, 
and every clergyman is ordained first deacon, 
and afterwards ylWr*^, with solemn pray«^r and 
the laj-iag on of the hands of the bishops, 
who are so far in the apostles' place, that it 
rests witli tliein to see that no false doctrine is 
taught in tlie church, and tliat its holy ordi- 
naiiCi-s, amongst which is the laying on of 
their hands, are c^ervtd, and an order of 
i>'gular ministers kept up. John, who is men- 
tioned ver. 5, was Jolui Mark, not St. John 
the EiTUigeUst." 

In a short introduction to the epistles 
ve meet with tlie following : 

*' Christians of the present day arc there- 
fore under very different circumstances from 
those of tlie apostles' limes. They have nei- 
ther Jews nor heathens to dispute with. They 
have the \\ritten scriptures for their guide ; 
they know that thev are delivered from the 
burden of the Mosaic law : and that they liave 
nothing to do with the doctrines of tlie hea- 
then philosophei^ ; and those of this happy 
country are free from persecution ; they have 
chwthes in which they may assemble witliout 
fear or danger ; they have a r^;ular order of 
ministers, which may be traced up to those 
ft^ were first ordained by the layuig on of 



the hands of the apostles, according to Jesus 
Christ's holy institution ; and they liavc an 
established tbrni of worship, in every respet:t 
agreeable to the doctrines of our Saviour and 
his apostles. Christians of tlie present day, 
therefore,, have no reasonable causey for dis- 
sensions ; they can have no occasion to as- 
senil)le in fields, or to make churclies of pri- 
vate houses, in order to hear the gospel. 

" But unhappily there has been a great fall- 
ing otf from the established church; and 
there is a gr&di number of sc<:ts and parties 
amongst us; still, however, the established 
church, as maintained in the kingdom, is a 
true branch of tlie holy universal church, built 
on tlie foundation of the apostles, Jesus 
Christ himseif hfhi<^ the chirj conitr-stone. 
The members of the church of England llicre- 
fore, that is, all wlio have been baptized in 
their infancy, or at any time according to the 
oftice of baptism in the Common Prayer 
Book, are bound to continue finn to its ofdi- 
names and doetrities to the end of their lives ; 
for they cannot liiid any g(X)d, that is, any* 
scriptural reason for depcirthig from it ; and 
they should carefully guard against the insi- 
nuations of those who would draw them away 
from it; but at the same time they siioulil 
also avoid giving way to a contentious and 
pers(jcuting spirit." 

Again : 

*< I. Cor. IV. ver. 1, 7. — In these verses the 
apostle teaches christians in what light they 
should regard those who are ordained of Go<l 
to instruct them in the religion of Christ. By 
the mysttries of God, we are to understand 
the great truths of revealed religion, and tlie 
two sacrament:^, baptism, and the Lord's sup- 
per, which it is tlie duty of the ministers of 
Cfirist to explain to tlie' people, and, admini- 
ster agreeably to the word of God. Those 
who hold this sacred office should be reve- 
renced by their peopUi, and not judged hardly 
of by them. It certainly is an ollence to 
God, when people set themselves agaiiLst the 
ministers of tlie church; whoever is disposi-d 
or persuaded to do so, should call to mind the 
a])6stle*s admonition hi the fifth verse." 

We shall produce but one more quota- 
tion, of itself enough to shew that they 
who trust themselves to Mrs. Trimmer's 
guidance, may indeed learn w hat she be- 
lieves, but not what the scriptures teach. 

" I John, V. vet 1, 9. — From these verses 
we Icam that none are the true ciiildren of 
God but those who believe in his Sonj and 
keep his coinmamlments ; and that this is no 
difiicult task — also, that tlirongh faith in Christ 
we may overcome the temptations of the 
world. Ver. 6 means that Jcsus Christ, who 
was baptized with water by John the Baptist, 
and shed his blood for mankind, was really 
the Son of God. Ver. 7. In the text we have 
the doctrine of the I'rbiity, the Father, the 
Son, and the Holy Ghost, three divme per- 
sons in one God. How this can be, is be- 
yond our power to comprehoid^ but while wc 



133 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 



cannot understand our own nature^ consisting 
of body and soul, we must not wonder that 
w(* slio'uld not be able to understand (he na- 
tim* of the Godhead, so infinitely above us. 
In the New Testament we n ad ot the Father 
as God, of the Son as God, and of the Holy 
Crhost as God, yet wo are repeatetlly told that 
there is but one (jod ; (h^-si; three therefore 
nnist be in that one God, which is all that 
Iran be known by us." 

Is it possible that Mrs. Trimmer should 
undertake to comment upon tlie scrip- 



tures, and not know that the most ortho- 
dox divines of the established chiircli have 
demonstrated that the words upon wliicli 
she here lays so much stress are interpo- 
lated ? If so, what is this ponderous vo- 
lume but a blind guide to lead the blind 
astray ? If she did know this, then a hea- 
vier charge lies against her; a charge, 
however, which we have too gtx)d an opi- 
nion of her heart to suppose can be fairly 
alleged. But every scribe should be well 
instructed. 



Art. VII , The Old Testament iUuJtt rated : hein^ ErpHcations of retTuirkaMe Facts and 
Passages in the Jen ish. Scriptures, "jnhich have been ohjcettdto by L'ubt lievrrs, and the- 
proper Lnd'.r standing of ivhich mat/ be rendered condiieive to a further yJcquutntuHce 
with tli£ Chris! inn. Dispensation. In a Series of Lectures to Young Persons, By S am u ei. 



Parker. Unio. pp. 37f5, 

' THE design of this little compilation 
is good — but Mr. Parker's apprehensions 
are not unfounded, that '* critics may 
probably find great imjierfection in the 
execution of the work." '* His object 
has -been," as he informs us, " to select 
from the writings of others, and some of 
them men of considerable celebrity, pas- 
sages,, which have a tendency to elucidate 
various parts of tlie Old Testament, and 
to remove, or lessen, the objections of ini- 
believers." Had this plan been executed 
witli judgment, it would have proved ex- 
tremely valuable. The efforts of the 
present compiler will not be >^'holly lost, 
but tlieir benefits would have been much 



more extensive and more lasting, had the 
uumerous passages which he has collected 
from the most approved writers been jwo- 
perly arranged, and connected by sonic 
l)ertinent and judicious original ohxerva- 
tions. A few reflections by Mr. Tarker 
himself do indeed occur, but the wtirk 
would have lost none of its value had 
they been wholly suppressed. This little 
work, however, may with great advantage 
be put into the lunds of young jx^rsons j 
it will funiish diem with many excellent 
replies to the cavils of unbelievers ; and 
especially will direct them to more copi- 
ous sources of information. 



Art. VIII. An Tnqum/y "whether the Description of Babylon, contained in the Xr/I/th 
Cluipter of the Revelations, agrees perfectly ui'lh Home as a City f fyc. In a Letter to ilte 
Reverend Mr. ***. //^ Granville Sharp. 12ino. pp. 'J53. 



THE questions which have occasioned 
this inquiry, ai*e the following : " Whe- 
ther the description of Babvlon, contained 
in the xviiith cliapter of the Re%elations, 
agrees perfectly with Rome as a city, a 
commercial city inhabited r^id visited by 
merchants and traders? and whetlier it 
may not be applied with propriety to some 
other opulent and mercantile cities ?** p. 2. 
Mr. G. Sharp decides that it applies to 
Rome. Following the track which has 
* been long occupied by pfotestant inter- 
preters of this wonderful book, Mr. Shaip 
endeavours to prove that Rome not only 
lias been, but still is, notoriously guilty of 
all the tliree Babylonian crimes, idolatry, 
sprcery, and bloodshed ; and of her being 
a trading city tliere can, lie imagines, be 



no doubt, when it is remembered wliat 
an extensive sale of indulgences has been 
carried on in it — a traffic in tlie bodies and 
souls of wen ! ! 

Among many curious passages whicli 
occur in this curious little work, none is 
perhaps more remarkable than that in 
which the author speaks of the fatal en- 
deavours to bring alx)Ut a war against 
France. '' Of die lafe Mr. Eihnund Burke, 
who was himself a real papistical jacobui, 
at the same time that he accused d e 
English people of having eighty thousand 
jacobins among them, in order to incul- 
cate the idea of a iwcessity to exercise a 
power bejond tlie law, and to promote the 
illegal measure of suspending iL'* r. 62. 



EVIDENCES OF NATURAL AND REVEALED RELIGION. 

By the Reverend 



Art. IX. Popular Evidences of Natural Religion and Christianity, 
Thomas Watson. 8vo. pp. 477. 

THE audior of this useful work lias thought it necessary " 



to ojQfer some apo- 



WATSON S POPULAR EVIDENCES. 



139 



fcsj7 (0 the world for bringing it forward, 
utilst we have in our own language so 
many excellent treatises on the same sub- 
ject, and especially after that most excel- 
lent peri'onnance of Dr. Paley's " Ele- 
roenh of Natural Theology." But no 
apology can be required by any candid 
reader. Derham and Ray, and others 
who have entered upon tlie same argu- 
ment, are too learned, as Mr. Watson 
justly observes, for those who have not 
some previous a<xjuaintance with the sub- 
jects on which they treat. A more po- 
pubr work was wanting, and ]Mr. Watson 
has endeavoured, and not without consi- 
derable success, to supply the defect. 

In the tliree first chapters the autlior 
endeavours to settle the respective claims 
of religion and modern philosojjhy. He 
ihews that the title of philosophy is un- 
justly Usurped by infidcHty, and that jt 
belongs properly to religion j he examines 
vith some degree of severity tlie general 
characters, the acts, the talents, and the 
fe\ouiite studies, of infidel philosophers, 
and ably supports llie pretensions of reli- 
^on to wisdom, as being founded upon 
right reason, and leading to the supreme 
gooil. Here he has borne somewhat too 
hard upon metaphysical pursuits. We 
agree indeed with an author that " dies© 
are the most uncertain of all studies j tliat 
they have given birtli to wrangling and 
endless disputation 3 and that they have 
been perverted by mien of talents and in- 
genuity to puzzle, to perplex, and be- 
wilder, the world ;'* — but they ought not 
to be thus indiscriminately condemned. 
Metapliysics have been successfully em- 
f\aj&\ in the cause of moral and religious 
truth, and they present some subjects, not 
merely of curious, but of important sixj- 
culation. The author's inquiries are next 
directed to the probability^ that there are 
beings in tlic universe superior to men, 
and diat die planets are peopled by such, 
beings ; and from these conjectures, for 
Ihey are nothing else, he deduces the pos- 
sibility of the existence of a first great 
and invisible cause of idl things. Happily 
he has "surer words" in store to confirm 
our belief in this article. He then conjec- 
tures again that rational beings may pass 
through different states of existence as 
other animals and even vegetables are 
known to do, and tlms may rise again after 
death : but in the second part of this work 
we meet with something better than such 
imperfect analogies, upon which we may 
rebi our hope of a future state of being. 



Tliese observations form tlic subject of 
the four first chapters, and may be con- 
sidered as introductory to the chief design 
of the work. After a few remarks upon 
atlieism, our author proceeds to prove the 
existence and perfections of a Supreme 
Being; His argument is " from the ef- 
fects to the cause, from the visible crea- 
tion to the invisible creatot." He first 
takes a general view of the universe ; tlie 
union, the conn^tion, the preservation, of 
all things, are adduced as evidences of the 
being — the unity and tlie providence of 
God. He dien descends to a more par* / 
ticular examination of some of the most 
important or striking parts 5 he shews 
what the sun, the moon, the stars, the sea- 
sons, and die great deep, depose concerning 
the existence and the attributes of tlie 
Supreme Uein^ Man is presented to our 
notice next ; his nature, his excellences, 
his imperfections, are all adduced to con- 
tribute to the demonstration that there is 
a God, and that he rules over the crea- 
tures wljom he has formed. A few of 
the most remarkable quadrupeds — and the 
different provisions made for them — some 
str living facts in the history of birds and 
of insects, arp likewise mentioned as tend- 
ing to the same conclusion, that the works 
of nature arc irrefragable arguments of 
the being and the providence of an ititelli- 
gent first cause of all things. The various 
relations which animals bear to men— 
their use, their dependance, their hosti- 
lity, are shewn to be illustrations of die 
power, wisdom, or goodness, of the Crea- 
tor. As a conclusion to this first pan of 
his work, our author very properly calljr 
die attention of his readers to tlie noble 
powers and faculties of man, as strong ad- 
ditional evidences of the existence and 
perfections of the Supreme Being. 

From this sketch it will be readily per- 
ceived, Uiat'Mr. Watson does not in this 
investigation interfere with Dr. Paley. We 
subjoin an extract from die first part of 
til is treatise, which will in part clearly 
evince this, and aflbrd a specimen of our 
author's manner. Dr. Paley thinks but 
little of the evidence that astronomy flir- 
nishes j it did not suit the peailiar nature 
of his argument. Mr. Watson regards 
the heavenly bodies as well adapted to 
display the being and the excellences of 
dje Creator. He has accordingly in a po- 
pidar and familiar manner shewn that die 
glory of God is strikingly manifested in 
the firmament. He thus speidis of the 
moon ; 



140 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 



"This light (viz. of tlie moon) is wisely pro- 
portioned to the seasons and climates that 
most need such assistance. 'Ihis distribution 
Is so apparent, that it cannot fail to call the 
attentive observer to notice the wisdom and 
goodm-ss of such an appointment. 

*' In summer when we have little occasion 
for this additional light, the arch that the full 
moon de-cribes in tliese months, is a small 
portion of a large circle. Her duration is 
then very short. She barely shows her full 
orb, and* descends to visit climes that require 
more of her friendly aid. In these nortiiern 
latitudes, she makes a short rang^ above our 
southern horizon, m* a rly about the same com- 
pass that the Hin lakes during our shortest 
day; and in many cases her stay is even 
much shorter. She is then liltle wanted, and 
is therefore but little seen and very little re- 
garded. 

*' Whilst, dMrinc;thc winter season, and our 
shortest <lays, the full moon takes a wide cir- 
cuit, rising far towards the north, andp ssiiig 
our meridian m a high elcvat on, she d« sceuds 
in our western boundary, and generally near 
the same place that the sun sets in our longcrst 
day. Her stay alx)ve our horizon is during 
the whole night ; her duration is nearly equal 
to the Sim's duratitni in otir longot day, and 
sometimes mucli longer. (This depends up(m 
her latitude at the time.) At this time in the 
depth of winter, mankinc! most want her bc- 
neiit, and therefore at this time it is shared 
out to them in the greater degree. 

" In the highest latitudes, and the further 
Tcmovcd from the bendit of the sun, the full 
moon continues the longest, endeavouring to 
supply that want to the inhabitants. Jn our 
norlh»»rn hemiiJphere, the further north that 
any country is removed, so much a greater 
share have the inhabitants of the winter's full 
moon. 

" What I have said here with respect to 
the benefits of this planet, applies equally 
to both the noilhcrn and southern hemi- 
spheres. They enjoy all a share m her bene- 
lits in proportion to their wants. 

" Now, if we were to reverse the case, and 
s\ippose the full moon in summer should take 
a wide ram?e above our horizon ; and, on the 
contrary, tnat in winter she should hasten her 
^ departure, coming forth only to shew her full 
orb, and dej^cend suddenly and leave the 
world in darkness, we should' certainly censure 
the wisdom of the apix)intment, * as bear- 
ing in it no marks of benevolence and good- 
ness. But this is not the character ot any 
part of God's works ; the more they are 
sought into -and the better they are under- 
Stood, the more marks of beneficence do we 
find. 

*' It may be argued, that these benefits 
arise entirely from the mechanism of the uni- 
▼erse, and are governed by fix(.»d and stedfast 
laws. This, most certainly, is the case ; but 
who has constituted these laws ? and who 
planned this \Vonderful frame* of nature? The 
answer to this question leads us to the ac- 



knowledgment of the wisdom and goodness 
of the Great First Cause." 

" During the montlis of the harvest, the 
full moon continues wit ii us much longer than 
during any other months of the year. At 
that period she hastens her rising, as if to call 
on the husbandman to collect the fruits of the 
earth under her friendly assistance. During 
the tirst seven or eight Jays after Uie full, you 
will rind her generally up before the light of 
dav has totally forsaken the skies. From tlie 
first to the last of th(.'se eight days, the dilfer- 
ence between the time of rising will in general 
be found to be less than two houi-s. '1 liis dif- 
ference, however, varies in diiVerent places ; 
and there is some Variation in the &anie place 
in dill'erent yeare. Th:.* principles and causes 
of this appearance, this is not the place to exa- 
mine and explain. A slight acqtiaintance 
with the globes renders the whole pflenome- 
non perfectly intelligible. It is sutlicieiU here 
merely ti) state the lact, and to c^ll the atten- 
tion of those, who may not have considered 
this appearauf e, to the' examination of a fart, 
which atiords a pleasing testimony of tJie care 
and goodness ot our heavenly father. 

** This becomes a piieuomenon more strik- 
ing, when compared with the fi.dl moons in 
the opposite seasons of the year. During 
the spring season the. full moons quickly pass 
away, 'i'he second or third night after the 
full, she rises late, and in a night or two more 
it is very near morning before she makes her 
appearance. At that season the husbandman 
has no great occasion to prolong his lalK>urs 
in the tield. At that time, generally cold and 
uncomfortable, it would be neither pleasing 
nor suited to his health to expose himself to 
the severity of cold damp nights. But during 
the month's of harvest, when the gatliering in 
of the fi nits of the earth is the imixtriant la- 
bour of the husbandman; when the suste- 
nance of the whole year depends very much 
on his diligence at that season ; when he is 
imder the necessity of usin^ every exeilion to 
prevent the uncertauity ot the seasons ; and 
wlien th 'Se months are generally soft and mild; 
our great parent and benefactor gives them 
extraordinary assistance, by sending to us 
scKrfier and protracting longer the stay of the 
friendly moon. All his works praise him, and 
bear testimony to his providence and care. 
y4nd oh ! thutjiicn would praise tlie Lordjor 
his goodness, and for his zi'ondcrful n^rks to 
the children of men,*' 

Having in the conclusion of the first 
part of diis treatise shewn that man is 
formed for religion, Mr. Watson proceeds 
in the second part to exhibit in the same 
familiar manner the evidences of the trutli 
of Christianity, He insists chiefly npon 
those \\'hi«h are usually denominated in- 
ternal. He shews that the evidence we 
have is the best that can be desired ; and 
taking the prominent parts of this evidence 
as it is usually exhibited, fcc illustrates 



Watson's i^opular evidences. 



141 



than with much ability and effect, and in 
a inaDner suited to the common capaci- 
ties of mankind. We cannot enter into 
an analysis of this part of the work, nor is 
it necessary, as Mr. Watson takes no new 
ground. If he has produced any observa- 
tions not usually to be found in treatises 
upon tKis subject, it is in tlie concluding 
chapter, in which he exiimines some colla- 
teral evidences, and particularly die insti- 
tution of the Lord's supper. We were 
much pleased with the following very 
juit and striking passage : 

" In tills institution, we meet, not only with 
a remarkable in^stance of his knowledge of the 
heart of man, by tliat accuracy with which he 
foretells their several failing^, which were 
futhfuli V- accomplished, but also of his insight 
into futurity, by 'assuring thcni that he would 
still have a church and a peo|jle to celebrate 
tin* benefits conferred by him on the world, 
and to preserve the remembrance of his dyin<j 
\ovQ, What other can be that command 
*hich contains the essential parts of this in- 
slitotioQ, Do this in remnnbrancc of mr ? 
Never was there a time so unlikely for its ac- 
cmiplishmenL He was the next day to be 
cnicilied, and all his disciples would abandon 
him: and these things he also foresaw and 
fonHold. The continuance of his church was 
not then an accidental circumstance, which 
anise from a combination of unexpected 
events, neither within tlie knowledge nor sub- 
ject to the direction of men ; but an event 
long foreseen and provided for by him, who 
is our great lord and head. 
. " Had he foretold this event a few days 
before, when riding in triumph to Jcrusaleni, 
vu might have considered it as a fortunate- 
wedkrtion, thrown out in the enthusiasm of 
his greatness and ambition ; and that it liad 
bftn brought about contrarj' to aH probabi- 
lity. But it is dejivered at a time when, Xo 
all human appearance, he had not tiie smallest 
prospecl of a church, or so much as a single 
follower; at a time when he saw himself 
within the grasp of his relentless enemies : it 
was within a tew hours of his bemg led to 
mount Calvary, to undergo an ignom'uiious 
death. It was' amidst his very preparations 
for this death, that he gave forth that com- 
mand, to do this in reinenibranct: qfinc, 'I'lie 
next day he knew he was to he crucitied, his 
etMoiiies were to triumph over hhn ; and wlio, 
after this, would either dare or chuse to re- 
member him? After this tragical end, the 
disciples do not seem to have entertained the 
smallest idea of ever agaui acknowledging 
Christ. Concealed in diH'erent lurking places in 
Jentsalem, or wwidering dejected and solitary 
b lis neighbourhood, they only thought that 
it 'Xii^hf'xho should have redtemed Israel; 



but meeting with this dreadfiil disappointment, 
they seem totally- to liave abandoned tliis 
hopeless and ruined cause. 

" Their state of muid during this suspense 
was singular and distressing; they never 
blamed their master, they never urged thai 
they had been deceived: bewildeied in the 
greatness of tlieir grief, and the extraordinary 
change that they had so lately seen, their love 
never sinks, and yet they dare not hopcl 

" They believed not iiis resurrection when 
it was lirst annouiu^ed to them, and some of 
tliem refused to believe even tlie testimony of 
the whole disciples when they aflinned 'this 
great c»vent. 

"It is scarcely possible to bring the evi- 
di?nce of tiie gos})el to a sev erer test. If there 
had not been suinetliing extraordinary in his 
character, how can we account for Uie'ir rally- 
ing agiiin alter this fatal dispersion, and their 
lirm adhei-ence to him ever after? Now we 
have, ill this ordinance, a standing monument 
to convince us of the truth of his prediction, 
and all its ch-cumstances ; and the whole his- 
tor)' of the worid, and botli friends and ene- 
mies, must acknowledge its accomplishment 
From his cross a church instantly sprung up, 
it hicreased rapidly, and hath exteiided its 
arms to the ditlerent quarters of the world ; 
and the experience of eighteen hundred years 
assures us, that he has been remembered, re- 
membered in this very ordinance, and that 
remembnuice must endure till Christ come 
again. 

*' Go back again to this imjwrtant scene : 
behold the Saviour of the world, assembled 
witli his disciples for tiie last time before his 
sufferings ; see the father of this little family 
taking his farewel of his children, delivering 
to tliem his dying command, and fixing a 
period for tiie duration of its observance. 
Every thing corresponds exactly to this pre- 
diction. '1 he scene throughout* m>t so awlul 
and sublime as the wonders of nature at his 
crucilixiou, yet sfieaks to us in calm but strong 
language, which all nations and ages hear, 
truly this xvas the son of God.*' 

Upon the whole, we can venture to 
promise our readers that tliey will find 
great pleasure, and much valuable instnic- 
tion, from tliis performance. It discovers 
sound judgment and n-^tional piety"; and 
in the hands of many to whom Dr. Paley's 
Elements would be of comparatively little 
service, may be of considerable use to 
confirm their faith, and at the same time 
to suggest some lessons of practical utility: 
The St) le in many parts betrays a nortti 
Briton : and is throughout less correct 
than the value of the work required, and 
less polished tlian the nature of the work 
allowed. 



Art. X. A connected and chronological Fiezv of the Propfiecics relating to the Christian 
Church; in Twelve Sermons : Preached in Lincoln's Jnn Chapel, from the Year 1800 r* 



142 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESLVSHCAL AFFAIRS. 



1804, dt tJie Lecture founded by the Right Reverend William Warhurton, Lord Bishop (^ 
Gloucester, By Robert Nares, A, J/., h\ R. S,, F. A, S,, ArchdeacoH of Stafford, 
ifc, 8vo. pp. 371. 



THERE is no subject^ we believe, in 
the whole compass of tlieological inquiry, 
attended with so many difficulties as that 
of prophecy j particularly that branch of 
prophecy which is usually produced from 
the Jewish scriptures, by christian writers^ 
ss relating to the Messiah. These diffi- 
culties have been felt and acknowledged 
by the soundest divines and tlie ablest cri- 
tics, and several attempts have been made 
to remove from so ver}' important a part 
of the Old Testament the obscurities which 
prevail in it, and the apparent incon- 
sistencies which arise from the usual and 
the reputedly orthodox mode of interpre- 
tiitlon. Mr. Naies, however, has been 
perplexed by no difficulties himself, and 
consequently has not felt the necessity of 
preventing or rejnoving such as some of 
his readers may have experienced. He 
enters into no investigation of those pas- 
&jges which both Jews and Christians have 
denied to be applicable to Jesus of Na- 
zareth : he disdains to regard tlie connec- 
tion in which they appear j or if he ever 
tlirows out a hint tliat other events than 
tliose which distinguished the life of 
Christ might be originally predicted, he 
removes every difficulty by the magic 
touch of a type, or a double sense. There 
are many inquirers whom this will not sa- 
tisfy J but for inquirers the arch-deacon's 
work does not seem intended. He treads 
over tlie old ground, removing no impe- 
diments, nor exliibiting any additional 
iight. 

** Prophecy may be usefully characterized, 
as a miracle, of uhich the testimony reniaim 
in itself. It is a miracle, because to foretel 
events, to whicA no chain of circumstances 
vleads, no train of probabilities points, is as 
much beyond the power of human agents, as 
to cure diseases witli a word, or even .to raise 
the dead. But that actions of the latter kind 
were ever perfonned can be proved, at a dis- 
tant period, only by wiUiesscs ; against whose 
testimony cavils may be raised, or causes for 
doubt advanced. But the man who reads a 
prophecy, and perceives the corresjignding 
event, is himself the witness of the miracle : 
he sees that thus it is, and that tJnis, by hu- 
man means, it could not possibly have been. 

" A prophecy yc»t unfuUilled is a miracle at 
present incomplete; and these, if numoruus, 
iHay be considered as the seeds of /uture con- 
viction, ready to grow up and bear their fruit, 
whenever tlie corresponding facts shall be ex- 
hibited on the tlieatjc of the world. Will the 
£ceptic then say tliat a man should ilisbchcve 



even his own knowledge, when if b^ars wit- 
ness to circumstances so extraordinary? A^ 
well might lie say it, as reject the testimony of 
miracles, merely because it gives evidence la 
facts of very unusual occurrence. Yet, in the 
instance of prophecy, absurdity can hardly g# 
so far. 

" 'Hic Holy Scriptures are thickly sown with 
the set^ds of propiiecy, from the beginning 
even to tlie end ; and thtfsc have been gradu- 
al ly developed throughout the history of man ; 
antl will be more and more unfolded to the 
eonsununatio'n of things, resj^ecting this pre- 
sent world. A series of pfopliets, it has beerf 
already obs€»rvcd, was given to the nation of 
Israel, to preserve them tram tlie abominable 
superstitions, and idolatrous divinations, of thtf 
nations among whom they dwelt. But tlii? 
was not tlie origin of pmplicc}-. It originated 
in the earliest period of the world, from God 
himself, who foretold to Adam and the Patri- 
archs the distant hopes of restoration and re- 
demption, jirovided for tire human race. 
The propIrtHic spirit was next communicated 
to the Patriarchs, and rested mofe especially 
upon Moses ; wiiose inspiration had at once a 
retrospect to the period of creation, and a view 
to tile redemption of man ; and even to th^ 
most distant fates of thc'choseh people, whom 
he had conducted out of Egypt. It was im- 
parted, through a series of prophets, till the 
completion of the canon of the ancient scrip- 
tures. It was again poured out, without nn^ar* 
sure, upon our blessed Saviour, and was con- 
tuiued to his apostles, till the second canon of 
the scriptures wa»ako closed, by the Revela- 
tion given to St. John." 

Upon these principles the plan of these 
lectures is formed. 

" Tlic great and pjeneral bond of imion be- 
tween the covenants is, in (ruth, that of pro- 
phecy; by which the Holy Spirit has mira- 
culously coimected the' beginning and the end 
of the world. W herever man is fcnrnd, there 
also are the pervading rays of divin'e VKt- 
SCIENCE, either tending'to our Saviour, and 
marking him out as the messiah of God ; or 
proceeding from him, and giving light to tlie 
faithful, even till the iinal day of uuiver>al 
judgment. 

" Prophecy, in its mo?t intimate connec- 
tion with chrrstianity, has thi'« extent and com- 
pass ; and our blessed Saviour gave an ac- 
count only of one division of tlie subject, 
when he cn plained, in the ancient scriptures, 
the prophecies liuit related to himself. 4t was, 
however, as much as could at that time be t^i- 
ven. His own predictions, with those of Ins 
apostles, and such of tlie jewisii oracles as ex- 
tend beyond the period of his tirst advent, — 
all these arc to be weighed by a christian (li- 
tills day, if he would contem])Ute the wlmle 



KARSS*! tJBW OF TUB PI10PHBCI£S« 



143 



farce of piO|>hccy, as applicable to our Savi- 
our, and to those wiiocall upon his name. 
'• ThK, therefore, is the kind of view pro- 

riH-d to hi* taken in tlie present Lectures ; 
Tirst, comprehending the prophecies that 
nkte tn our Sarciour, us Author andpcrpc- 
tytQl fittid of tlie Christian Church: U. S<?- 
cowiiy, thr^tr zihickjorett'l thef<ite of his di^ 
cipifi, '^'h.thcr adv. rsc or prosperous, from 
the time m bis df}xirturc from thtm, to that 
oj his IfhU most soltmtt advent, llicse will 
farm two grand divibions of tlie subject." 

In seven successive sermons the pro- 
pbecies- relating, or thought to relate, to 
our Saviour are enumerated. From the 
book-j ol" Moses are produced the prophecy 
given to Adam concerning tlie seed of the 
woman ; the promiiSes made to Abraham 
and to Jacob ; the benediction of this lat- 
ter patriarch upon Judah ; the prophecy of 
TYPES, such as the pai>sover and other ob- 
itrvances amongst the Jews : the predic- 
tion of Balaam, and the declaration g£ 
Mioses respecting a propJiet that was to be 
raided from tiie midst of the Jewish peo- 
ple. From the time of Moses to that of 
David, no direct prophecy ccHiceming the 
MessiaJi is known to have been delivered. 
In tlie reign of that king it was foretold 
tiiat Solomon should be settled in the 
house of God, and in die kingdomj/orwcr, 
and that his throne should be establisiied 
for evermore. This Mr. Nares concludes 
must refer to the Messiah, though he ac- 
knowledges tliat •* it miglit require, per- 
haps, some persuasion to convince us that 
this divine oracle had in truth so exalted 
a meaning and reference, were it not con- 
tinned b}' other circumstances." p. 132. 
The>e circumstances are deduced . from a 
few passages of scripture widi which tliis 
ha^ no connection ! David himself then 
Comes under consideration in two points 
of view: l^t, as a type of the Messiah 5- 
and 2dly, as an inspired person, enabled 
to foreiel iiis advent, his sufferings, his 
glor)', and his everlasting kingdom. 
To trace whatever may be applicable 
to our Saviour in the Psalms of t)a- 
vid, Mr. Nares asserts, would be to 
trattbcribe a large part of those sacred 
bymns. He therefore confines himself to 
tho«je jxissages which are actually cited in 
the New 1 estanient. The Psalms parti- 
cularly, but yet briv'fly , noticed, are : . the 
2d, lOtli, 22d, 4Kst, 110th, and 118th. 
Upon this subject Mr. Nares has produced 
an authority, which by all good christians 
will uitdoubtedly be esteemed of verj' 
great weight. " The apostate spirit him- 
self, (he gravdy observes, p. l05.) ac- 
cording to the narrative of the evangelists^ 



confessed that die Psalms "were prophetic 
of the Son of God 3 for he said in t)ie 
course of his temptation, alluding to tlie 
51st Psalm, ' If diou be die Son of God^ 
cast thyself down: for it is written, lie 
shall give his angels charge concerning 
dice, and in their handsi shall diey bear 
thee up, lest at any time thou dash- thy 
foot against 9 stone.' Jn this, as in some 
odier instances of evil spirits, reluctant 
testimony was borne to the truth, by those 
who were most alienated from it." 

Solomon is then cited bodi as a type of 
the Messiali, and likewise a prophet. His 
predictioiis concerning the Messiah aire 
said to be found in the 132d Psalm. Tiie 
sixteen prophets then pass under a very 
hasty review j and all except Jonali, Na- 
hum, Zephi^iah^ and Habukkuk, arc as- 
serted to ha^e prophesied of Christ. 

With Malachi closed the series of pro-i 
phecies under the Jewish dispensation. 
Four hundred years ensued, during which 
the divine oracles w6re silent. . Thea 
came the fulness of time; and the subject 
of prophecy appeared, and began a new 
series of astonishing and important predic- 
tions ; some now fultilled, odiers waiting 
the time of their accomplishment. 

" Messiah \^'as certainly to be a sovereign, 
of whose kingdom Uierc was to be no eud : 
but Jesus expressly declared, that his kingdom^ 
as man, was not of this world ; and that his 
triumph would be hereafter, in the clouds of 
heaven. Confomiahly to this riglit interpre- 
tation of the ancient prophecies, our Saviour 
pretlicted the treachery of one disciple, tlie 
lonsteraation and dei^ertion of the rest, and 
his own death upon the cross. His view, how- 
ever, rested not here. He looked forward to 
his resurrection and ascension ; to the etltf- 
sion of the lioly Spirit upon his apostles; to 
their successful preach'uig in all the world ; to 
the rejection of the Jews, and the conversion 
of the Gentiles ; events which, Uiough impos- 
sible for human sagacity to foresee, certauilT 
took place, and justiried his words. With 
hiore minute exactness did he foretel that ju- 
dicial visitation of Jerusalem (at tliat time in 
the highest degree inr.irobable), \\ hen its state 
and polity should be dcstroved, and its mag- 
nificent temple levelled witli th« (hist. . lliis 
prediction, strictly limited to time for its ful- 
lilment, is, .of all that ever were given, the 
most exact and circumstantial, and aifords, 
therefore, the most perfect pr(X)f of miracu- 
4ous foreknowledge ui the propliet who pro- 
nounced it. 

" Various other partk:i|lars, then hidden 
from cvciy mortal ej-t, and discoverable by 
no analogy which could be founded on ihc 
course ot human events, wgre predicted by 
oui: blessed Saviour. Such as the persecu- 
tion of hi? di>i iples ; the fortitude of some, and 



144 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 



gospel; and 10th, The universal resnr* . 
rection, and day of judgment. 

We have thus given a ^ithfiil oatliae 
of these lectures, from which our reader* 
will be able to form some good judgment 
of the nature and extent of the information 
they convey. We are sorry that we can- 
not congratulate the lecturer upon having 
fully answered the intention ot the right 
rev. founder, by adding to the evidence 
of •' the truth tjf revealed religion in ge- 
neral, and of the christian in particular." 
Nor can we congratulate the inquirer after 
religious trutn upon his having a rational 
and a safe guide through tlie intricate 
mazes of prophecy, in which so niany have 
been bewildered and lost. One principle 
pervades the work, which is manifestly 
untbunded j that the language of the Jewish 
prophets, which the writers of the New 
Testament liave applied to Christ, must ne- 
cessarily have been originally spoken in re- 
ference to him : and frequent passages oc- . 
cur to which many sincere believers will 
not be able to assent, and by which the 
sceptic will not be favourably impressed. 

DOCTRINAL AND CONTROVERSIAL THEOLOGY. 

Art. XI. 7%e Christian System wf folded, in a Course of practical Essays on the principfd 
Doctrines and Duties of Christ iariity. In Three f'oltunes, 8ro. Sy Th 6 mas R o b i k s o v, 
Af. A-y Vicar qf'St. Mary's, Lticesttr, pp. 453, 499, and 539. 

THE author of tliis work is not unknown 



even the particular fate of others; the divi- 
fiionsand dissensions of chriitians among them- 
selves ; and the secure pennaiienry of the 
chuixh, under every circumstance ot external 
or internal disadvantage. These things, which 
have always been fullilling, from that time to 
this, and will be to the end of the world, are 
standing proofs of divine kno^\iedge, in him 
by whom they were foretold ; — proofs inca- 
pable of refutation or contradiction," ' 

The prophecies by our Lord, and his 
llisciples, are then arranged by our preach- 
er, under ten different heads, and very 
briefly and • imperfectly discussed in tlie 
tliree concluding discourses :-^l st. The 
rejection of the Jews and call of the Gen- 
tiles 3 2d, The preaching of the gospel 
throughout the world j 3d, The persecu- 
'■ tions of the apostles and their converts j 
4th, The destruction of Jerusalem ; 5tli, 
The fate of Rome and its conversion 5 6th, 
The rise of Mahomet and tlie Saracenic 
power 5 7 th, The rise and chai-acter of 
Antichrist; 8th, The conversion of the 
Jews 5 pth. The general prevalence of the 



to the religious world. He is a person of 
forae consideration in the daily increasing 
class of tliose who denominate themselvfcs 
* True Churchmen,* amongst the adherents 
to whom he has gained celebrity, by a 
large, * Treatise on Scripture Characters,' 
and by some tracts of less magnitude and 
importance. 

*' The chief attention of his life," he infomis 
us, " has been occupied upon the subjects of 
the work which he has now submitted to tlie 
public eye, not merely in the retirement of his 
studv, but in the active performance of his 
minfsterial duties. He has been labouring, 
not without cflect, to establish among the 
people of his charge what he conceives to be 
the fundamental principles of the gospel, and 
upon them as a lirm basis to erect the super- 
structure of christian moralilv, of solid devo- 
tion, and of vit^l holiness. And now, witli a 
view to their spiritual progress, and in the hope 
that his instructions may be remembered with 
advantage after his personal services on earth 
are terminated, he sends to them from the 
press tiie substance of what he lias mvariably 
delivered from the pulpit" 

We carmot convey to pur readers any 
information respecting the design of this 
work better than in the words of the au- 
thor; 



" His plan has been, after considering the 
strong and decisive evidences of the inspira- 
tion of tlie Old and New Testament, and attemJ- 
iiig to tliat state of mind with wliicli they ought 
to be received, to investigate wliat is Uidr 
grand object, and what tlcir most importuit 
contents. They were undoubtedly designed 
■to communicate tlie knowledge oV tlie true 
God and of his will concerning us. They ei- 
hibit his character in the varied perfections of 
his nature, and call upon us to yield to him 
all possible reverence, love, and obedience. 
They describe his formation of tlic cartii, and 
the peculiar administratibn of its goveriiniciit 
by himself. 

'* Man is introduced to our view as a crea- 
ture of high excellence and dignity, as bear- 
hig the iuTagc, and constituted tne vicegerent, 
ot Jehovah. But he is also represented as 
having fallen from his original cinineiKe, and 
sunk uito a deplorable state of depravation and 
misery. 

" Here the system becomes unspeakably 
interesting. To console us ni our distress, to 
rescue us from, merited and impending ruin, a 
di\'1ne person interposes ; and to him give all 
tlie scripture's witness. He is the grand sub- 
ject of revelation : ' the alpha and omeea, tlic 
beginning and the ending. ' It is therefcre re- 
cjuisite that we fix a large share of our aitea- 
tion upon him, and enquire what arc the of- 
fices he 'sustains, and by wiiat means he pro- 
cures reconciliation for us. We behold nim 
relinquishing tlie glories of tlic heavenly world. 



MOfilNSOK S CHBISTIAV SYSTEM. 



US 



tnd Tslntarily submitting lo the deepest hu-> 
■ulobao aad siifiieriiigs upon earth. He 
istf» by rarious methods ; aod in Die acconi- 
pibknaA of this grtat work a distinct consi- 
deraiioD is given to his teaching, ius example, 
lus ligfateousne^y his atonement, his interce^ 
man, and his guveniment. 

"Another divine person is introduced b 
ttas %itst economy, co-operating with the Sa* 
rknr, and fultilling his gracious purposes. 
The Holy Ghost daims our adoration, aihance, 
giautude^ and love^ By the most amazing 
praces He recovers men to tlie knowledge^ 
the !iimyibide, the aer>'ice, and the enjoyment 
idGod. He brings tliem to the pre.scnt pos* 
sesaun of the blessings of rederoptkm; He 
iorms their character ; He guides, preserves, 
and cheers them; and gradually preparer 
(bem for the fruition of the eternal inheritance 
reserved m heaven for them. 

"Our attention is then directed to this 
* chosen generation/ this ' peculiar people,' 
vtum the Lord has saved, lliey are*dis- 
tiittittjhed, not more bv tlieir high privileges 
and cunsolatians, than by their steadfast p<*r- 
anreiance in moral and religious duties, i he 
•fule of obedience is proposed, its extent is 
^MTwn, and its excellence Yindk:ated. 1'he 
am^ants of God are also men of prayer, and 
are daily surrounding the throne of grace with 
their importunate ^itions. Tliev are in- 
ilnicted what and how they shoulo ask, and 
ac assured that they shall obtain the blessing 
ttey supjjTicate. They are considered also in 
a cottectire capacity, are incorporated into a 
ipiritiial society, and by certaui divme mstttu- 
uns they maintain communion with their 
heavcaK' Father and with each other. Such 
k the Church of Christ on earth; and all its 
6itfaful members afe in succession removed to 
a better world, where the wliole company will 
Aortly be assembled together, and, reccnving 
their ' perfect consummation and bliss tK>th 
in bodv and soul,' shall reign with their ex- 
aked Head m gbry cveHasting. 

" These are the outlines of the syrtem here 
pfopoMd, and the author does not hesitate to 
pmunce that the representation is scrip- 
lonl. and contains the substance of genuine 
Chmtiuut}'.'* 

In fiUing up these oatltnes^ the author 
hascfaoten to throw his system into the 
fetm of essays, of which there aie, in the . 
whole work, uineiy-eighi. The twofirst^ 
SR introductory, npou the holy scriptures.' 
£isfat follow upon the attributes of the 
J^iy. In the eleventh esss^ the subject 
of the Trinity is discussed . Eleven essays 
are next devoted to the consideration of 
Man, his creation, hb fell, his misery, his 
salvation. This leads to the consideration 
of the Saviour, whose godhead, character, 
ttd office, are treated upon in the nine 
saoceeding essays. These are followed 
by dght upon tbe personality, the divinity, 
^ influences and operattoiu^ of the Spirit. 

Affi..fi£v.Vox..lV. ' ' 



The fortieth essay is on true repent- 
ance, from which, to the fiftieth, the wri- 
ter is occupied upon the subject of faitli, 
its nature, its consequences, its divine ori- 
gin, and its necessity. Seven Essays then 
claim our notice upon the nature, tlie 
progress, the completion, the author and 
means, the advantages and the necessity 
of sanctification. The fifty-eighth essay 
treats of cliristian obedience; the fifty- 
ninth of tlie comfort of the Holy Ghost ; 
and the sixtieth of tlie witness of the spi- 
rit. In the sixty-first the writer endea- 
vours to establish the necessity of keeping 
the comnhandnients, meaning by them the 
decalogue delivered on Mount Sinai, and 
the nature and obligation of each com- 
mandment are discussed iu fourteen suc- 
ceeding essays ; these are followed by one 
on prayer for special grace to keep tlid 
commandments. From the seventy«>se« 
venih to the eighty-fourtli essay, inclu- 
sive, the several petitions of the Lord's 
prayer form the subjects of discussion^ 
and these are succeeded by one on the 
church of Christ, one on public worship^ 
hve on the christian sacraments, baptism 
and the Lord's supper, one on the resur- 
rection of the body, and one, which con- 
cludes tlie work, odl the life everlasting. 

Our readers are now able to judge of 
the design of this work, and of die prin- 
ciples upon which it is conducted. The 
author professes ' that he has not attached 
himself to any leader, however eminent 
for learning, piety, or usefulness, and that « 
he does not wish to raise the standard of 
feotion, or establish any. Shibboleth. 
Whatever appellation may be given him, 
he declares that he will still maintain that 
he has followed ^ no other guide than the 
inspired volume.* We are not disposed to 
call in question the author's veracity in 
making such professions ; but we beg 
leave to express our regret that he' has so 
often left the guide he had chosen, to wan- 
der after objects of his own imagination^ 
or so totally neglected the directions which 
his sacred conductor afforded. We have 
seldom seen in the same compass so many 
passages of holy writ misinterpreted and 
misapplied. No enquiry is instituted 
concerning tlie connection of the most im- 
pcHtant texts of scripture ; no attention is 
paid to the genuine sense of the originiil 
words, to the occasion on which they w^ere 
written, to the sentiments which tliey 
were designed at first to recommend or to 
opjwse. What opinions might not thug 
be discovered in the sacred volume; what 
opinions might not thus be shewa to hav* 
L 



146 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 



the sanction of God's word ? WTiile the©- 
logians treat tJie scripture in so irreverent 
a manner, endless controversies must ex- 
ist ; various discordant and opposing creeds 
must be adopted and professed. Mr. Ro- 
binson very properly cautions his readers 
against * setting up their own preconceived 
opinions, or carnal inclinations, against the 
bible. If it ha indeed the word of tiie 
living God, it is an infcillible and authori- 
tativc umpire in all doubts and dlsputa- 
tioas. We should therefore miplicitly 
$u!)uiit to its decisions, and bring all our 
systems, creeds, and purposes, to be ex- 
amined by it." This advice is good ; but 
our author has exhibited, in his own in- 
stance, the difllculty of following it. He, 
lil^e rainy others, with honest and upright 
intenti'Mis, have, perhaps unperceived . by 
tlicmsjlwjs, examined the scriptures by 
tlieir own ' systems, creeds, and purposes/ 
Hie ciiusc of religious truth is thus injured 
amongst tiiose who profess to honour divine 
revelation ; and the scriptures are brought 
into disrepute amongst many persons of 
discenuuent, who either^ without givkig 
tlierasclves tlie trouble to enquire, imagine 
that the word of God, like the oracles of 
paganism, can be fairly made to utter op- 
posing sentiments, or, satisfied tliat there 
can be but one sense afiixed to the sacred 
writings, yet despairing, amidst sucli great 
variety, to discover tliat sense, leave the 
important enquiry, and treat with neglect 
the treasure of heavenly wisdom. We 
cordially agree with Mr. fiobtnson that 
the infidelity of many, and tlieir total dis- 
regard of the scriptures, are chargeable 
upon the evil of their deeds 5 they come 
Dot to the light lest these their deeds 
should be reproved. But tliis is not the 
sole and universal cause of unbelief. It 
has been our lot to know some men of a 
sceptical disposition, but of very dilFerent 
characters J not ' proud philosophers,' not 
* formalists,' not • wilful and impenitent 
transgressors,' but men of meek and en- 
quiring minds, sincerely desirous of fulfil- 
ling all their important duties in life, and 
in all the fruits of virtue more to he dis- 
tinguished tlian many who make a noisy 
piotession of rchgion, and who call down 
fire from heaven on all that worship not 
with them on their Zion. They vvitlihold 
their reverence from the. scriptures in cJn- 
setjuence of seeing them irreverently 
treated by persons who professed a vene- 
tHtion for them : tliey deny their impor- 
tance, because they observe that they are 
fiiiployed to justify die wiliiesl fancies, 
and the most absurd opiaioni, A\'e do 



not vindicate such conduct; isut we cmi^ 
aider it, and would earnestly propose it Id 
the supporters of systems, as a eautioa 
not, l^ a method of quoting and applyio^ 
scripture which they would not adopt Ui 
respect of works of less value, to give oc- 
casion of oficnceto those who are not strong 
in faith. 

Such observations as these have bem 
suggested by the- work before us; widi 
what reason our readers shall judge from 
a few passages which we now .select. 

The following occurs in the tbirteentb 
Essay. 
* *' We begiD' with the understanding, and 
consider whether its present state be not sudi^ 
as to prove that it has- lost modi of its ab- 
ginal excellence. Msoi is still dtstinguisbed 
by hi» intellect from all other creatures upon 
earth. We mean not to decry the use rf 
reason, or derogate from its importance. It 
is an inestimable talent, which we should da 
well to aillivate, and exert with diligence and 
fidelity, in the service and for tiie gloiv of 
its divine author. But, while we praise uod 
for the precious gift, we should l>e aware d 
its degeneracy, and the injury il has sustained 
by the fall. This is, indeed, wliat few penon 
are willing to admit ; for there is no endows 
ment, of which we are more disposed to be 
proud. So just is the observation of Zopfaar, 
' Vain man would be wise, though man be 
born like a wild ass^s colt.' Tiie dcscriptkn 
is instructive, but very mortifying. lie as- 
pires after knowledge which was never de- 
signed for liiin, and of which he is utterij 
incapable ; he Is conceited of his intellcdual 
powers, as if they were able to discover and 
comprehend the nature, the attributes, aod 
purposes of Jehovah, and considers uiH, that, 
m subjects of a spiritual kind, -he may4ie fitly 
compared to creatures the most ignorant ain 
stupid. He is bom so ;' and therefore tliis is 
luiiversally the case, and results not from any 
piiailiarly imfavourable circumstances, in 
which certain individuals may be placed. 
Like the animal here refcrretl to, lie is af 
himself, or without assistance, perfectly uian- 
fonnt-d, as well as altogether untractabie, 
foolish, and perverse in the extreme, and not 
to be taut^ht any thing but by severest disci- 
pline, ^riiis, it should seem, was an acknw- 
ledged tmtU in Job's time: may we sciiwislj 
attend to it, and be deeply alfected by it!" 

Before IVIr. Robinson ventured to by 
so much stress upon this passage from 
Job, he should have been au-eful to en- 
quire whether our ticanslation fully ex- 
presses tlie sense of the original. A 
learned prelaffe has decided, tliat it does 
not; and has given anew version of it, 
which renders it utterly iuapphcabic to 
the doctrine of tlie above quotation. We 
shall subjoin that version with the note 
accompanying it^ tor 4he inlermatioa if 



ItOBQVSON 8 CHniSTlAN STSTEM* 



147 



Mr. Cobtnsorij and the benefit of those 
of our readers who msy peruse the essays. 
The oliservation of Zophar^ according to 
Dr. Stock, is this : 

"That the growing up person may gather 

st'use: 
And the wild colt become a man.'' 

And this much improved rendeniig of tlie 
original passage is, by the right reverend 
translator, thus justified and explained : 
" The pxnsing i^ person] ^')^ part. Pahul 
ot 3;^i verb. Sequent, from !I13 to ger- 
miuate ; see 2^ch. ix. uit. llie iuten* 
tioQ of divioe punishments is to correct 
tbewildoess of youth, and to cause the 
savage to become, to be bom t^ain, a 

rational creature. T?!*' is used in the 
tense a( becoming, or being rendered, Prov. 
xvU. 17. as Scott remarks.'* See Dr. 
Stock's Version of the Book of Job. 

Again, p. 256, 257. Mr. Robinson ob- 
serves: " Our very hearts, the fruitful 
source of abominations, are offensive to 
God; and therefore ills that we are '*by 
tmitfft the children of wrath .^* He see», 
and ouiit see, with abhorrence, that " lust 
of the fl^fa,** that *' carnal mhid/* that 
" fpimryLa trasyms,'* which is enmity a- 
gainst Dim. Tliis is the ianlt tod corrup- 
tion of die nature of every man, that is 
namraUy engendered of the o&pring of 
Adam, — ^^^vhich in " every persim bom into 
this vsorld dtTeroeA God^swath and dam» 
nation.** 

Here indeed is as^dindd somewhat of 
the appearance of learning; bi4 what 
good end it is to answer we are at a loss 
to discover. The genuine import of 
" carnal mind'* is not explained by quot- 
ing the original, ^^cvijaa trlLpMS } nor is 
tlie phrase by nature, as used by the apostle, 
int^reted by the largef diaracters in 
v'hidi It is printed, lliese expressions 
are taken completely firom their connec- 
tion to serve the purpose of a system, 
and the sense which, acoofding to the 
tenor of the apOstle*s argunient, mey tmiH 
bear, is either entirely overlooked, or 
carefully ccmcealed ; neitlier of which cir- 
cumstances is honouttlble in a professed 
teacher of christiaiVj^octrilie. 

We need not go far for another ex- 
ample of the faijlt which so glaringly 
pervades this performance. In the very 
page firom which we have made the last 
extract^ it is said, 

"To the transgressor even of one pre- 
cept it (i. e. tlie la%) shews no mercy : 
for what is its language ? '* Cursed is 
every one that cotitinuetli not In all things. 



which are written In the book of the law 
to do them ;" nor is its sentence light. 
It dooms the sinner to final and everlast- 
ing misery. It declares him to be ac- 
cvirsed of God: and that curse, if not 
removed, must issue iu everlasting de- 
struction.** And again, p. 258. " The 
law discovers our true state, and pro- 
nounces our doom. ' For by the law is 
the knowledge of sin j it worketh wrath ; 
the commandment which was ordained to 
life, 1 found to be unto death j it is tlie 
ministration of death and condemua'- 
tion.^ " 

Are the reasonings of the apostle urged 
Upon the Jew to prove the wisdom and 
necessity of abandoning the Mosaic dis- 
pensation, and of adliering solely to the 
more liberal principles of Jesus, to be 
thus applied witliout any discrimination 
to the state of those who were never sub- 
ject to its autliority ? Is the christian 
system likely to be unfolded by any one 
who heaps text upon text, widiout any 
consideration of their primary meaning ? 

He who undertakes to explain or de- 
fend opinions which are usually deemed 
of high importance, should be extremely 
careftil to take no ground from which 
there is any danger of his being driven. 
I'he success of an adversary will wcfikea 
tlie confidence which it is .his object to 
gain ; and the detection of one mifounded 
argument will induce a suspicion of the 
validity of all the rest. Mr. Robinsoa 
does not appear to have considered this 
when he wrote the following paragraph 
in his twentv-third essay. Vol. I. p. 307. 
" St. John admonished his christian 
brethren to beware of idolatry ; but it is 
idolatry to give divine honours to Christ, 
if he b^ not God in the proper and full 
sense of the word j and yet the apostle, 
whilst delivering the caution, declares 
with peculiar emphasis, ' This is the 
tnie (rod and eternal lite.' " 

A careful perusal of the whole passage^ 
of which this is only a part, immediately 
points out the antecedent to " this** In 
our common version (but not in tlie old 
English versions) , an imwarrantable liberty 
has indeed been taken which migJit em- 
barrass a mere English reader? but Mr. 
Jlobinson ought to have known what the 
original really teaches in tliis passage, and 
how clearly the most eminent critics, 
whose orthodoxy is beyond suspicion, 
have proved that the antecedent is A/w. 
not Jesus Christ. Our reverend essayist, 
fearful of the "subtleties of criticism,'* 
see p. 306. seems vory cautiously to avoid 
L2 ' 



148 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 



that exact and scrupulous enquiry into 
every passage, and into everv construc- 
tion, and into every term, which is ne- 
cessary in one who would teach tlie 
christian system. 

A few lines below the passage we liave 
juKt (juoted, Jude is said to style Jesus 
" the only wi.se God.'* Here the author 
refers to tlie doxology in this epistle, be- 
ginning thus : " To the only wise God 
our sa\ iour," And is Mr. Robinson so 
little versed in the language of scriptirre 
as not to know that tlie epitliet " saviour" 
is applied to the Father ? 

We cannot refrain from laying before 
our readers an instance or two more, 
though the character of our author, as a 
critic in scripture, may have been already 
«hcwn with sufficient clearness. 

" To the Philippians al,so he (i. e. Paul) 
declares his linn di't*Tmination to retiouijce 
ail reliance u{)on his own obedience and at- 
tainments, and his fervent desin* and expec- 
tation to stand conn>li?te before God, asi-oii- 
siflered only in his saviour; " That I may 
vin Christ," sa-d he, " and bo found in him, 
not Jiaving min(? own righteousness, which is 
of the law, but that which is through the faith 
of Clirist, the righteousness which b of God 
by faitli." I'hese are clear and incontro- 
vertible testimonies, that St. Paul lookefl for 
eternal life as procured for him by the merit 
of Ills Lord and master, and that he taught 
men every where to cherish the same liop«js. 
We need not fear to follow such an example, 
or to adopt his expressions, liowever un- 
fasliionable they may now be, in laying down 
or explaining our ^ stem of faith." 

If this part of the system depends upon 
the text here quoted, it must fall. Here, 
qs before, no attention is paid to the mean- 
ing alHxed by the apostle to the termf 
laiv or righteousness, nor any account token 
of the connection in which they appear, 
apparently for no other reason than that en- 
quiries of til is nature would have prevented 
the passage from being adduced; But is it 
thus, by refraining from a strict regard to 
the situation as well as to the import of 
the leading terms, that a knowledge of 
the christian system can be obtained ? 

We select the following from the essay 
on the influences and operations of the 
Spirit. 

*' In oar lord's last solemn address to his 
disciples, who were dreading his departure 
from them, Jie sugge^ed to them for their 
congelation, that his place W(xikl be supplied, 
and his gracious jmrposes carried on, bv the 
continual presence and elFeclUHl workmg of 
the Holy Ghost. On this consideration, aliove 
all others, he grounded his exhortation* to 
theui, and his exprciilious clearly slicw, that 






the promise was intended, not for dicm <nI 
as individuals, but for the benefit of his chuit 
in all ages. " I will pray the Father, and h 
shall give you another coinfoiter, that lie ins 
abide with you for ever ; even the ^irit i 
troth. — ^Aml when he U come, he willi^piof 
the world of sin, and of rigliteousness, aod( 
jmlgment.** " The world is too extensi%'e 
tenn, in whatever sense we underbtand it, I 
be contined to tlie apostles, or even to tb 
christians of their day ; and the whole pu 
sage amounts to an engagement on the pai 
of Christ, to support his f^hful poopk; at ^ 
times, and to wnnff men to the knmrlcd^ 
and experience of his salvation, by theenerg] 
of the lioly Ghost, who akue contSkd it* 

Is the term loorld, indeed, a leim H 
extensive to .be amfioed to the christian 
of the apostles' days ? How tlien did 
happen diat our Lord himself applies 
that very term to- the unbelieving Jewi 
who had hated liim, and were to hate hi 
followers ? Compare John chap, xv, Wi 
19 ; also chap. vii. 7* Why then did thi^ 
evangelist in nis first chapter call (he Jev^ 
ish people the vH)rld T Chap. i. 10. Wkj 
has Paul in ao many passages distinguishec 
the Gentiles by that term > What ibet 
is meant by that term, when in John Hi 
19> it is said, *' the world is gone afte 
him ?" Wliat— but why need we multiply 
such questions \ They are readily answer-* 
ed by any one moderately versed in di^ 
knowledge of language. We refer Mr^ 
Robinson to that excellent lexicogiapheij 
Schleusner. In his invaluable lexicoo^ 
Nov. Test. art. Ko 0-/^0;, No. 4. jS. he wil| 
find many otj^er passages than those t(| 
which we have directed his attention, de^ 
monstrating that the term has frequentlj; 
a confined or limited meanmg. " Sigoi- 
ficat, observes Schl. xximundas apud I^i- 
nos, magnam hominum mtdtitudinem, ex 
eontexta oratione definiendain.*' But Mr. 
Riibinson is one of those interpreters of 
scripting who despise the eontexta oratio. 

We could fill many pages with extracts 
and remarks similar to thfe preceding. 
But we must forbear. What we have 
said, it must be evident^ proceeds from uq 
wish to controvert the system which tht 
lAithor believes lias the sanction of scrip- 
ture ; but from a cordial desire of seeing 
the word of God more reverently treated, 
and of entering our pro^st against a prac^ 
tice so injurious t9 true religion, as that 
which pervades these volumes. In a work 
avowedly popular, vre do not look for 
elaborate disquisition or learned criticism; 
but we expect, and justly expect, diat it 
should be the result of very accurate in* 
vestigatiqn^ and minute enquiry^ 



BSLSBAM I VIKDICATION OP DA. PRI£STLET« 



149 



^B^ H be not encumbered with erudite 

auKKations, yet, that It admit notliing 

whkhasAy not be successfully vindicated. 

Fnio alioost ereiy page of this perform* 

aoce, we are jnstilied in the conclusion, 

tbt the author has* not studied the scrip- 

tfim. He has read them much, it may 

he; and no sniaH portion appears to have 

bcea coDfuuitted by him to memory : but 

the enquiries, on what occasion, to what 

persons, with what particular view3, evan- 



gelists or apostles have written, he seem; 
not to have instituted. With what hop^ 
of satisfaction then can any one apply to 
this work for assistance, in examining tlie 
true nature and extent of christian doc- 
trine ? Mr. Robinson's system of faith, 
indeed, he will find amply detailed ; but 
if the remarks we have offered be just, 
there is reason to doubt whether that be 
in every respect such as is taught in th« 
writings of the New Testament. 



PrUatU-y, ami a Defence of Dr, PriettU'ifs Character and ff'ritings, in Repbf to 
imadversioM qf the Her. John Pyc Smith ; in Letters to a friend. By Thomas 



Aat. XII. — Letters to the Rev, Tltonuu Behham, on some Important Subjects of Tkeologi" 
ea( Discussion, referred to in his Discourse on Occasion of the Death of the Rev. Joseph 
Priestley, LU />. F, R. S. ifc. SfC. By John Pye I»mith. Second Edition with some 
Imprsvcmenis^ 8vo. pp. 129. 

Art. XIII. — A Vindication qf certain Passages in a Discourse on Occasion of the Death 
of' Dr. Prici ' ■ - • - ^ - . _ . 

vie Jnimadvi 

BsLSHAM. 8vu. ppT 109. 

IN dw discourse which has occasioned 
these letters and the reply, Mr. B. spoke 
•f Calvinism, as ' a tremendous doctrine,' 
adding, * that had it really been taught 
by Jesus and his apostles, their gospel 
might truly have been denominated not 
the doctrine of peace and good will, but a 
message of wrath and injustice/ of terror 
md despair.' He also ftuther stated, that 'Dr. 
P. Tiew^ Calvinism as the extravagance 
of error, as a mischievous compound of 
impiety and idolatry ;' to this he himself 
ssvMed, and scrnpled not in addition to 
call it 'a pernicious system.' In men- 
dooing the controversy that had passed 
beroven Dr. Priesdey and Dr. Horseley, 
^Ir. B. had likewise said that ' notwith- 
standing the overbearing temper, and the 
great talents and learning of his adversary. 
Dr. Priesdey was completely victorious/ 

hnvoked by these insulting words of 

AiT. XIV. — Aifs^sm Ayara«r i Or a New Way qf Deciding Did Coniroversies. 
Basamistes. 8vo. pp. 194. 



the Unitarian Goliath, Mr. S. (a young 
tutor at a calvinistic academy, though 
no calvinist himself) like anotlier David, 
comes fortli to check the insolence of tlie 
bold opposer of the armies of orthodoxy. 
But not with the skill, the prudence, or 
the success, of the shepherd youtli. He 
disdains the sling and the stone, and de* 
mands a panoply. Rncumbei-ed with ar- 
mour which he had not sufficiently prov^ 
ed, his attack is hurried, his blows are 
feeble, he seizes upon stations which he 
cannot matntam. When Ids strength is 
thus fruitlessly spent, tlie giant advances : 
fewer indeed are the blows he deals, but 
heavier and surer do they fall 5 and the 
stripling, tlioiigh he owns it not, is van- 
quished. We cannot enter into the detail 
of this contest : our readers will be inter* 
ested in perusing it for themselves* 



By 



THIS £icetioascontrover»alist has pro- 
filed to his work the old motto— n'<2e»^enf 
dicen tenon quid vetat f and he attempt9 
to re&ie the orthodox ^ith^by^what he 
deems a reductio ad absurdum. 

Speakiug in the assurned character of 
aa adversary of ' Unitarian heretics,' he 
tbm propounds the nature and design of 
bis attempt 

" In this alarming period of pr^-ing re- 
«Mrii, wlicn men, destitute of chivalrous 
tcntimfut, rudely examine the awful fane of 
txtJodox devotion, and expo% to unhallowed 
rja {\it bdy fhriue of ineilable mysteries, it 
^Kvmiei a moit necessary branch oi reli|^us 
Fwkaice to remove our orthodoxy still &rtber 



from vulgar apprehension, and to shcher it 
within more mysterious folds. The manner 
in which this pious work ina^r be most elfec- 
tually accomplished, i» a question of considei- 
able magnitude. To me it doc*s not appear 
to be sa3e policy to ^ve any ground to our 
adversaries,- or to coutuie ourselves to defen- 
sive operations : but I apprehend, the surest 
way to preserve our ortkcxioxy inviolate, is to 
malce bold and unexnected advances on tlie 
hereticks — ^to flash the comscation of some 
new divinity against them, which, like the 
xgis of Minerva, shall petrify them witli as- 
tonishment. Obvious as tlie wis<^om of this 
conduct appears as soon as it is mentioned, . 
yet I confess it was lirst suggested to me by 
tlie ndble trope, so happily applied by a late 
most devoted servant to the priesthood, and 



150 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 



an admirer of orthodoxy -. when the vessel of 
state wa8 too heavy, and ready to sink on one 
aide, he ran to the opposite side in order to 
preserve an equilibrium. In like manner, 
since Unitarians have run into the extreme of 
inculcating simplicity of worship, and since 
the world is so much inclined to side with 
them, that the catholic faith is m danger of 
being upset ; the ortliodo?t on the contrary, 
may create a counterpoise to the love of sini- 
•plicity hi the human mind, by adding to the 
objects of worship, and multiplying incom- 
prehensible mjniteries. In courormity witli 
tilts captivating idea, I am happy to tliinkthat 
I can give tlieni incalculable weight, by ad- 
ding one to tiie two infinite minds or pef.«)ns, 
with which they have already improved our 
notiop of the Dejty. By this unexpected de» 
vice, I have every prospect of sudaenly turn- 
ing the scale, and of exposinjj the h^^rctics 
aiol't, in tiieir timi, iji a curious attitude. The 
Trinity thus will be a point gained, and a 
fubicct Jit rest, at least for ijiany years; 
and the contest in futiu-e will be aboiit the 
Quaternity, or some other nity. 

"To secure this important advantai^e, most 
fortimately, I have no occasion tor invention 
or ingenuity: I have only to search for the ar- 
guments ot the- orthodox since the -time of 
Athanasius, a few of which will fully answer 
my purpose. I am also confident of ;In active 
support from the Orthodox, who cannot desert 
thc^r own principl»!s ; thoui^li perhap;> 1 can 
expect only a tardv coopcrati^.ii from some- 
very pious souls, wlio are smitten with a de- 
vout love for a triangle, and from some cau- 
tious politicians, who may be appi'ehensive lest 
they might destroy the decisiveness of a cast- 
ing vote, by adding one to their odd number 
of divine persone. Against the prejudice of 
the former we shall find a remtjcly as we pro- 
ceed ; and let me here remiml the latter cir- 
cunispt'ct gentrjr of an improvement, which 
has beni made in most ftf our courts of law, 
in which one person has been added to the 
three on the bench, with manifest advantage 
to the public. But I have no great desire to 
weaken their attachment to o<ld numbers, 
provided they remove to a farther distance 
iVom a dcistieal unitarianism, and pro^/ided 
♦hey uicludo, in tlieir scheme of orthodoxy, 
tluit person whoni I. shall now propose. 

"The person, whose apotheo«?i8 I contend 
for, is the Jewish legislator: and I shall prove 
it to the astonishment of all heretics, by 
s^ich arguments as the Orthodox will be proucl 
to acknowledge for their own. * There are 
<•( rtain attributes or perfections, which solely 
b<«!ong to, and characterise the Supreme 
Brin?5 : tht^e cannot be ascribed to any crea- 
ture : whvjrever we find these perfectiipns as- 



cribed to any being in the scriptures, we have 
the fullest assurance tiiat such being is God ; 
both because they are incommunicable in their 
own nature, and because God hatli declared 
he will not give his glory to another, Isaiah 
xHi. 8. But these perfections are ascribed to' 
the person whose apotiieosis 1 contend for ' in 
the scriptures, therefore, he is very and etfmal 
God. This I shall prove by the most clear 
testimony of God's word.'* 'llie instant this 
bold advance on the I'nitarian is aiuiouiKed, 
all the truly Orthodox will reassume their 
courage, and will anticipate a complete 
triumph over our astounded adversaries. At 
the outset, 1 have extricated my party from a 
SiTious dilemma, in whwh the I'liitarians 
vainly thought we should stick fast for ever. 
Thev have continually indulged their inalicc, 
bjr (femanding from us in our distre»,to mark 
out piTciselv Si)mc medium between Tritheism 
and Sabelllanismt- This spiteful recjuisition 
is now impertinent, because we arc no lonqiT 
conccrnetf about the former extreme : lessa- 
ralh<i>m should henceforward be mentioned 
in its place, which is infinitelv removed from 
tritheism ; and betwen this infinite aca?saion 
of iulinity and Sabclltanism, it will be very 
hard uideed if we shall not be able to nndoiit 
some medium. Many other pleasing pros- 
pects Dpen huddenly u[)on us. If Unitariaus 
are nor past all feeling, we may expcx:t tliat 
they will discover remorse, for liaving repiy- 
bated the Orthodox as polytheists and manu- 
facturers of almighty }>ersons, when I shall 
shew that the latter are to be blamed only for 
their great moderation ux this manufacture. 
Our modesty is no less conspicuous than our 
moderation, since we have long enough con- 
tented ourselvt^ with the title of trinitarians, 
which is held in great contempt by hereties, 
when wtt might easily have assumed the more 
sonorous and honourable title of quatuora- 
rians." 

Agreeably to the purpose thus express- 
ed, our author proceeds sometioies in a 
delicate, sometimes in a coarse strain of 
irony, to apply to Mo3es some of the 
leading arguments which have been incau- 
tiously advanced to prove the divinity of 
Jesus Christ. Unitarians may be amused 
by tills production, and contirmed in their 
reputed heresy, but serious trinitarians 
will be displeased at the manner, and not 
convinced. 

The author himself is indeed awaro— 

" That the pious readier may sometimes 
wish, that this argmnent might have been car- 
ried on, witlioutthe fee use of the most 
sacred name ; but if he should perceive a fault 



* Short defence of the doctrine of thp D»vinity of Christ by an anonymous autlior, pub- 
lished at LcM-cis. As 1 shall sometimes have occasion to quote this publi<-ution, which has 
rc.eived the highest enconuiims from >ome of our first-rate writers, 1 shall call it infotuit^ 
short defrncf. 

t Sabellius taught that there is a plurality of moles or cliaractcrs in the divine nature, but 
aiinily pf ixrrsou. 



Wright's akti-satisfactiovist^ Sec. 



151 



i& tliFTC^pcct, I believe he will not say that it 
fM> vith mc, unless he should think h an un- 
justifubK: proceeding, to repeat anfd submit to 
ik rcnsure those unworthy ideas of the nature 
of Godf which are expressed in a ft.»w docu- 
miTiU of great notori*«ty, and which "are de- 
liwled by persons, who set the greatest value 
OD the form qf goidhness. On the contrary, 
be will perceive, that the teal intention of my 



argument is to cause tlic name of our Ihaxcn- 
fy Fattier to be hallotved," 

We have little doubt of his intention, 
but we hardly think it will be effected. 
Tliey who cannot be reasoned out of their 
trinitarian faith, will not be laughed into 
tmitariamsm^ 



Art. XV. — Tke Anti-S<(tixfactioniitt ; or Hrc Sahcation of Sinner t by tlie Free Grace of 
God : being an Atttnipt to Explode ike Protestant, cut well as Popish, Xotlon of Salva- 
tion &i/ Human Merit, and to Promote the Primitive Christian Doctrine of the sufficJnict/ 
vf Dkine Mercy for aUv:hoarc Penitent: iti Tfuree Parts. i?y Richard Wright. 
8vo pp. AVJ. 



IT appear*; from an historical notice 
prefixed to this work, that it is published, 
chiefly, in consequence of a controversy, 
' respecting the trutli or falsehood of the 
notion of Christ's having made satisfac- 
tion for the siiis of nseu,' which has lately 
;q>peared in a uiontlily publication entitled 
tlje uni\'erbalist*s miscellany, and ia whidi 
Mr. Wright took a considerable part. Mn 
JenaiD, a clci^'maii in the establishment, 
^•as at length excited in opposition to Mr. 
Wright, and in the same niiscellauy, to 
defend the doctrine o£ atonement. 

" I rejpHcd to Mr. Jerrani (obsen-es Mr. 
AV right) in a series of letters, which were in- 
ierted in tht sauie work. To my answer Mr. 
Jt-nani did not think proper to ofler any reply ; 
though the magazine was stiU open to him. 
However he, in consecjuence of my reply, 
jnade some material alterations in his letters, 
tuppnssed some i>assag(S, dropped some rea- 
KKimgs, and substituted otliers, &c. In this . 
improved state he republished his letters ; but, 
tliuugb he availed himself of my reply in cor- 
nrtiiig and altering them, he carelully avoid- 
ed dropping the slightest hint tiiat any reply 
had bren pubiished. Hence I thought duty 
called upon ine to republish my answer, tiiat 
it micht nave a more general circulation, and 
tljat 1 might meet my opponent's argimients 
in their piesent form : but, judging it best to 
tnat the subject more at large, I liave penned 
the folknring work, which is now submitted to 
the examinatioa of the publkr. Criticisms 
and ifferenc^s to the original I have as much 
as possible avoid<rci, it being my wish to adapt 
mv reasoning to the common reader: I have 
hid recourse to these only when justice to the 
catfce of truth seemed imj)erk)usly to de- 
aiandit^ 

The author sets oat with a few preli*- 
minaiy observations, in which he takes 
' a general view of tl^ way of acceptance 
with God, ^ taught by Moses and the 
prophets, by Christ and his apostles.* He 
then eaters upon the great object of his 
work; first, stating tlie doctrine of satis- 
ficdoD ia the vords of its defcndersj fiuch 



as Luther, Calvin, various sjTiods, con- 
'fessious, and articles ; Flavell, Baxter, 
Beveridge, &c. &c. 5 and placing 5n a pa- 
rallel column such passages of scripture 
as he conceives afford a refutation of these. 
In a second chapter he attempts to re- 
fiite the doctrine of satisfaction by argu- 
ment He next endeavours, with the as- 
sistance of Priestley's history of the cor- 
ruptions of Christianity, to account for 
tlie rise of the doctrine anK)ng christians, 
and its continuance to tlie present day^ 
and in a fourth chapter, in answer to a 
question which he is aware may be pro- 
posed, what lie would substitute in tlie 
place of this doctrine, he replies, the sal- 
vation of sinners by the fiee grace of God, 
and explains the terras of tliis reply. 

In the second part of this treatise Mr. 
Wright enquires concerning die doCUine 
of atonement-: he investigates the mean- 
ing c^ the term, the authority upon 
which its use in tlie English version of the 
new testament rests, and asserts, tbtit it 
should rather be reconciliation. The doc- 
trine of atonement he denies, and con- 
tends for that which teaclies the reconcili- 
ation of men to God by means of the 
gospel. The letters originally published 
in tlie universal ist's magazine, in reply to 
Mr. Jerram, follow. II13 writings of the 
old testament are then examined for the 
purpose of discovering what they teach 
concerning the death of Christ, and many 
remarks are offered on the iifty-third 
chapter of Isaiah -, tlie object of which 
is to shew, that this, as well as every 
other passage of the Jewish scriptures, is 
totally silent concerning die death of 
Clirist as a vicarious sacrifice. A few 
general thoughts upon the sul^ect of sa^ 
crifices succ^, which throw no new 
light upon the much agitated questions of 
their origin and desjgp. All the texts of 
die new testameftti usually cited by the 
advocates of tj>e dpctrijie of atonement, 
are dien brgught luiJder a review : the 



151 



THEOTX)GY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 



author is not content with 'abareexhi- 
^bition of them, though he thinks tliat 
would be suflScient to discover to the can- 
did and serious enquirer after truth, how 
destitute their hypothesis is of plain and 
positive proofs ;' but he gives a brief ex- 
position of them according to his own 
system. As several of the offices ascrib- 
ed to Christ have been supposed to favour 
the doctrine of atonement, our author 
proceeds tooiier some remarks upon these. 
, He enquires into the meaning of the terms 
.mediator, surety, propitiation, advocate; 
and intercessor ; he attempts to explain 
wliat is to be understood by Christ's being 
made sin,, and a curse; by his agony in 
the garden, and his exclamation on tlie 
cross ) and lastly, to prove that the phrase 
for Christ" s sake is a mi^ranslation. 

In the third part of his work Mr; W. 
very briefly enquires into tlie nature of 
the death of Christ, its design, and the 
connection which that event had witli the 
dispensation of the gospel and the salva- 
tion of men. 

We will enter into no controversy with 
this autlior upon the subject whicii he lias 
thus discussed. That he is an opponent 
of popular creeds and confessions will be 
evident from the outline we have given of 
his work. Whatex'er may be the value of 
his arguments, we will bear our testimony 
to the general ability nnd the truly candid 
temper with which they are managed. 
We subjoin the following specimen : 

*' Satisfaction demanded implies injury re- 
ceived by him who demands it» and a capa- 
bility of receiving compensation ; but Gixl is 
no more capable df receiving injury than he is 
of doing injury, or than he is of receKing 
benetit. Job xxxv. 6, 7, 8. ' If ihou sin- 
nest, vUat doest thou agraiust him ? or if thy 
transgression be multiplied, what docst tiK>u 
unto him ? If thou be righteous, what givest 
thou him ? or what recciveth he of thine hand ? 
Thy wickedness may hurt a man as thou art, 
ana thy rightcotisness may profit tlie. son of 
man.' Clu^. xxii. 2,3. ' Can a man be pro- 
fitable unto God, as he that b wise may be 
profitable unto himself ? — is it gain to him 
that thou niakest thy ways perfect ?* Psa. xvL 
2, 3. * O my soul, tliou hast said unto the 
Lord, thou art my Lord ; my goodness ex- 
tendeth not unto thee : but to the saints that 
are in tlic earth.' As God is absolutely inde- 
pendent, above all influence, incapable of 
mistaining injury, or receiving beneiit, from 
any one, it is impossible he sbooid demand 
ana receive satisfaction, or aa equivalent for 
bxs fsLvoT ta sinners. 

*^ But it is argued that, though he cannot be 
personally iniured, his justice was injured, and 
that it was niS justice required satisfaction: 



this affects not tlie aigument; far what is \s» i 
justice separate fiom him wliose justice it hf 
Can justice, viewed abstractedly, be a per- 
son capable of acthig and sullering, of receiv- 
ing uijur)' and compensation? I'he justice of j 
any being is the rectitude of his comiuct, the i 
equity of^his ways; ana, surely, the rectitude | 
of tiic divuic conduct was not diniintsbed, nor { 
the equity of God*s ways interrupted, by the ] 
evil actions of his creatures. Justice can ' 
neither demand, nor axxive, any thin^ but i 
as some one demands and receives it m the ] 
nanic of justice ;. therefore to say that the jus- j 
ticc of God demanded and received satisbc- 
ti<m is, in cflect, the same thing as saying I 
God iiimself demanded and mctived satisfac- i 
tion. Sin is no where but in the creature, aH j 
its eflects are restricted to the creature, and J 
all tlic injury done by it is done to the crcarj 
ture: consetiuenHy, it is in the creature thatj 
reparation for the evil produced by sin ts rr 
quired : and this reparaiion can only be mad 
by the restoration of the sinner to purity and! 
happiness : in other words, by the removal of I 
the evil from those who are the subjects of it: I 
this is effected, not by an innocent person 5 
suffering in their place and stead, but by 
their refonnation and recover}' to the paths of 
rectitude. 

" It may l)e said, tliough God is not injur- 
ed by Our sins, yet the good of the moral 
system is, the interests of our fellow creatures 
are ; and consequentlv satisfaction was neces- 
sary, 'lb this 1 reply, wliatever injury had 
been done to the moral system it could not be 
repaired by the cruel niurder of an innocent 
person, which is spoken of in the new' testa- 
ment ^ a gn>ss violation of moral principle : 
there seems no way of repairing the injury 
done to the moral sj-stcm, but hv the refor- 
mation and future good conduct of those who 
have done it However the interests of crea- 
tures may be injured by sin, it b not possible 
to compensate that injurj' by any thing but 
the amendment, and future right action:s of 
those who have been injurious." 

" A^in, the notion of Clirist's making 
satisfaction for sins establishes the doctrine ol 
merit, yea even of human merit. Its sidvo- 
cates are continually, talking of the merits of 
Christ, and that they expect all blessincs from 
God on the ground of the merits of Christ 
as if God would bestow no favor unless some 
one had merited it? Yet th? phrase, merits 
of Christ, is not to be found in the new testa- 
ment. It is fully admitted, tliat the merits of 
Cluist stand very high ^^^th respect to us ; we 
owe him the warmest gratitude and praise, as 
the medium by whicn all tlie blessings of 
grace and salvation are communicated to us ; 
the favor which he manifested to us was great 
indeed : though he was rich, yet for our sakes 
he became poor, that we, through his poverty, 
might become rich ; he sacrificed hb own iSfe 
to effect our salvation, and he stiU lives to 
cany on the work ; but, however gneat his 
merits with respect to us, however great tlic 
obligations we are under to hun, he never 



/WBU.WOODS 8BRMOK8* 



153 



<UflKd mj thing of ^e Farther^ either for 
hiatfdf or flnners, on the ground of his 
mrhts, but recoved every thing as a free 
ibSl Hk apostles never mentioned his hav- 
M^ merited any thing at the hand of God, 
either far himself or others ; but, on tlie con- 
trary, they ascribe every thing he hath receiv- 
ed, aad every Messing he bestows to the gift 
Df hts Father ; which is uicompafible with the 
doctrine of satisfoction. Our opponents talk 
mudi of the merits of the death of Christ, as 
the only ground on which sinners have a right 
to expect salvation ; and they sing — 
' Tb bv the merit*; of his death 
' The Father smiles again ;' 

» if God would have been eternally frowning 
npoD the world if Christ by his'dymg groans 
had not appeased his. wrath, and induced liim 
to smile on his own works, llie merit of 
Christ's dt^th must be human merit ; for it 
was the man Jesus who died. Many of our 
opponents admit that it was -the man, or hu- 
man nature, only, that died, "^niey contend 
that the same nature that sinned must make 
faiBfactiop ior sin ; but it was hunum nature 



only that sinned. The merits of his death 
could only be the merits of him, or tliat, wliich 
died, which is acknowkxlged, even by our 
opixjnents, to lie merely human ; for, atter all 
they say about the Godhead of Clurist, they 
acknowledge tiiat the Godhead could neither 
suH'er nor die. lience it appears that the 
merit of Clmsfs death is, c\'en ontbe ground 
of bur opjXNients, human merit : and it is by 
his death, they suppose, he made satisfaction 
for sins : it follows that thesatiafection scheme 
changes the doctrine of salvation by grace for 
that of salvatk>n by human merit." 

Many like ourselves rtiay be unable to 
assent to tlie interpretation which Mr. W. 
has given of several passages of scripture ; 
but he is entitled to the praise after whic^ 
every theologian ought to aspirfe, of hav- 
ing scrupulously weighed tlie mean fug of 
every scriptural term which he produces 
in support of his system j and of having 
paid a strict regard to the conne^cion and 
original design of most of tlie passage* 
which he has quoted. 



SERMONS AND PRACTICAL THEOLOGY. 

A»T. XVI. — Semumi by Sir Henry Moncreipf Wellwood, Bart. D. D. and F, R. S. 
Edinka^ ; one qf the Minisicnf of St. Cuthberfs, £dinbun;k ; and Senior Chaplain im 
Ordinary in Scoiland, to his Royal Highness tlie Prince qf Urales.- 8vo. pp. 480. 



'WB have already remarked that our 
list of sermons for the present year is 
more than usually long, but at the same 
time honourably distinguished by several 
vahiable volomes. Among these^ the la- 
bours of rhe r^v. baronet justly desene- 
to be ranked ; and if tliey have not 
any ' pecoliar' ' they have certainly very 
pcive^* claims to tlie attention of the 
puUic. And we are persuaded that they 
wiU be ' neither useless nor unacceptable' 
to many who have not the felicity of be* 
longing to the congregation among, whom 
the author has laboured thhly years, for 
'«'hom these discourses were originally 
prepared, and to whom they are now 
chiefly addressed. *ITie character of this 
volume may be easily given. The sub- 
iects which the preacher has discussed are 
weighty and important — the manner in 
:which iliey are treated is worthy of the 
p momentous topics employed — grave, dig- 
'nified, impresisive — tlie style chaste, un- 
encarobered with showy ornament— but 
not destitute of eloquence. ' The doc- 
trines and tlie duties of Christianity are 
^presented as inseparably united, in the 
^di and practice of those who embrace 
It ;* those doctrines which are in unison 
*widi the establHhed creed of the church 

to which the preacher belongs, are in a 
'lew pagei brou^t forwards^ but not ex* 



I 



tensively : throughout the volume the an* 
thor appears actuated by the maxim with 
which he concludes his preface — ^that 
' practical religion is of much more im- 
portance than the solution of difficult 
questions, and the ^^ctification and sal- 
vation of tliose who profess the gospel^ 
than the soundest opinions.* 

This volume comprises fourteen ser- 
mons, upon the following .subjects.: 1, 
On the unequal allotments of Providence ; 
2, On the minute improvement of the 
blessings of Providence \ 3, On self-de- 
nial J 4, On tlie form of godliness ; 5, On 
christian faith and morality ; 6\ Ou the 
result of good and bad affections ; 7> On 
the inheritiuice of a good man's children -, 
8, On tlie doctrine of grace ; 9, On the 
conduct of Providence to good men ; 10, 
On the general spirit and effects of Chris- 
tianity 5 11,12, On the universal promul- 
gation of Christianity ; 13, Prospects of 
futurity ; 14, On Uie cultivation of per^ 
sonnl religion. 

Of these sermons, if we were required 
to select the most interesting and impor- 
tant, we should name the second, the 
third, the sixth, the seventh, tJie ninth, 
and the tenth. From one or two of these 
•we sliall subjoin some extracts, to justify 
tlie good opinion which we have expressed 
conceru'uig this ^oluiue. 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFF.imS. 



]54 

The subject of vthe second sermon is 
deduced from these words, recorded by 
John : ' Jesus said to liis disciples, gather 
Tip the fragments that remain that nothing 
be lost; And the preacher selects, as ex- 
amples to illustrate the minute improve- 
njent of the blessings of providence, sug- 
gested by these words : the fragments of 
the provision made for our temporal neces- 
wties; the fragments of our time ; tlie 
fragments of our private comfort or of 
our personal advantages 5 the fragments 
of our health, or of our vigour. The two 
first of these are common topics, and the 
merit of the preacher, in discussing these, 
consists, as might have been expected, 
not in introducing new thoughts, but in 
placing old truths in a striking and impres- 
sive point of view. The two last, though 
not less important, have been, we believe, 
less generally noticed^ and are here set 
forth with great ingenuity and force. 

Having briefly but severely rebuked tlie 
temper which is generally manifested 
under the loss of blessings once enjoyed, 
the preaclier proceeds thus : 

<« Tlicre is scarcely any situation in human 
life, in which there are not many couitbrts re- 
maining, wliatever the blessiiigs are, which 
•fcave been taken away. This is an unques- 
tionable fact, though we were not to consider 
the cases, in which providence compensates 
by subsequent events, the hcavit^t calamitit^ 
Which wc can experience. We niay have lost 
what we valued a§ our best advantages, and 
may regret them with a degree of tenderness 
which supposes that their place cannot sooii 
be supplied. We mav have nothing more 
than * the fragments' of oxir most precious 
blessings, which were once entire. But it is 
possible, that, by the grace of God, the 
liith which is purilied bv sorrow, may enable 
us to make n*orc of ' tfie fragments' than we 
were able to atUin by the full extent of our 
advantages. We arc not to sink uito despon- 
dency, whilst we are still pennitted to enjoy 
many blessings, for which wc give thanks to 
God : whilst Si the use of them there is still a 
ihity which wc feel to be binding on us, a good 
woiit which we have still the opportunity of 
fullillir\g» a service which we can still perfonn 
to tlwse around us, or a ^ood example, which 
the l)lessings which we still possess can enable 
us to shew them ; or if, wlulst ' we suffer af- 
tliction by the will of God,' there is still a 
.friend who helps our infirmities, whose face 
we can cheer by our gratitude, or by our 
•ympathy, or by our patience, or by our 
trust in Godw . . , i. 

" If we are still cqjable of activity and of 
active duties, no deprivation of past satisfac- 
tions will justify our inactivity. Much less 
Cim it entitle us to indulge the desjiondency, 
which looks only to the grave. On tlic other 
hand, if we shall estimate at their true value 



* the fragments which remain' to us of private 
or personal comfort, and shall use Uiem faith- 
fully, as the means of -fulhUing the dutica 
which we are not pennitted to rei!nqui5ii,thcy. 
will grow or will be multiplied in uur i^ossessioa 
by tlie influence of God. If we sliall pere©- 
vere till we reap tJie result of thcin, one satis- 
faction will be added to anoth* r, and God inay 
be pleased ' to bless our latter end,' Uke }iAi\ 
even more than the happiest paj-t of ouy ^last 
tune. 

" No man can have a right to r<*ject tba 
advantages which are left with hhn, or to re* 
hnquish tlio duties which he can still fulfil, on 
account of the blessings whk:h have been 
taken away. We may have good reason to 
regret tliat which wc no longer possess. M 
as long as our probation lasts, much will re- 
main after all that wc can lose, which we ait 
bound botli to value, and to enipby for dsp 
charging our uid'ispensible duties." 

Nor are the remarks under the last ex- 
ample ' the fragments of our health or of 
our vigour,* lesB forcible or important 

" Every man of understanding acknow- 
ledges our obligation to apply our talents to 
the business of hunjan life, or to the entls of 
our probation for the worid to come, as lowj 
as we are capable of exercising them, li n 
impossible seriously to doiibt that our persoual 
duties must be indlspensible, as long as wc 
have the means of fulfilling them. 

" But when the doctrine is applied to prac- 
tice, we are apt to take ver>' different view 
of the subject. Though it is a truth fully es- 
tablish*^ by experience, that it is bctA for 
every man, in the present life, and most for' 
his advantage as an immortal being, to perse- 
vere ui the active duties of his condrtion, as 
long as it is possible for liim to discharge 
them ; there is notiihig whicli men more w- 
jierallv allow to dwell on their thoughts 
through life, than the kiea, that a time shall 
come, long before tliey die, when they sluB 
be able to relinquish their usual or pnrfessioial 
occupations, and to spend the rest o{ their 
tinw, without labour or exertion, m the enjoj- 
mcnt of their private or domestic situations. 
Few in companson arf ever pennitted to rea- 
lise an idea, which so many allow to occuw 
their imaginations. Of tliose wIk) are enabted 
to relinquish their labours, if their lives arc 
prolonged, the greater part have reason to 
rcpeot what they have done. By tlic change 
produced on their hjbits, and by want of usj. 
their facnilties arc gradually impaired, as liifi 
sources of their activity are diminished ; an^ 
they meet with chagrui and disappointmtiit, 
where they expected to have found nothing 
but satisfaction or tranquillity. .^, 

" I do not sav that those who have retirw 
from the bustle of affairs cannot employ, «» 
employ faithfully, ' the (rd^eDi^ootnji 
their health and of their vigour. They 1^ 
ccrtainlv much hi their power, if t^'?,*?®: 
•crate tlieir leisure to real duties, J^ *f^ 
their talents occupied as tliey ought to di, 



WELLWOOO S SEEMONS. 



155 



Bsd) ^kh rdates to the discipline of their 
««D minds ; much which can be done in do- 
Bu^ life, for the advantage of the old or of 
the young, ta whom thev can give their atten- 
I tiDDor their tinie ; much by which they can 
b^ use6tl to those whose cliaracters they can 
■Ulntiice, whose hands they can stren^ien ; 
vbom th«7 can assist in their difiicuUies, or 
comfort in then- sickness, or fiimish with the 
means either of prosperity or of religion. 

" Those who apply the decl'uie of life to 
«orh puipoies as these, do not retire in vain 
from the bustle of the world. If they em- 
^ce heartily the opportunities of usefiilness 
which they still possess, nothing is lost which 
tht-y are capable of attamhig. ITiat which 
Ibi-y do in secret for the glory of God, or for 
the'ad\,antage of their fellow mortals^ is sane- 
Mvd bv the prayer of faith, and shall be ac- 
njunieJ io tiiein as good service, in ' thu day 
of Christ/ 

" But though I say this, I have no hesita- 
(kxi io add, that tliose who abide by their ac- 
tive occupations from a sense of duty, and 
who employ the la^t i)ortion of their talents 
wh'Te they spent their vigour, have much 
better reason to expect, that both their useful- 
ne»-s end tJieir perr^onal comfort sliall be con- 
tinued as lone as they five. 

" No good man's conscience will suggest to 
Km tliat heoughtto become wearj' of his la- 
bours, fie wfio delights in the service on 
vhich his duty or h'ts usefulness depend:;, can 
have no wish to relinquish it. He is anxious 
to* j)f rsevere in the duties which he can in 
ai.y degree accomplish, even when he is con- 
8.fx» of his decline. He looks up to God, 
to whom he thinks he shall soon return ; and 
ftough lie knows that his summons to die 
eannot be distant, it continues to be the first 
wish of his heart, that he may be fbimd em- 
pknnng the la'^t portions of his health and life, 
in the duties of nis proper place. 

" A man who is able to preserve this happy 
temper of mind to the end, has a fiar better 
prospect, than other habits could at'ibrd 
niro, of possessing the vigour of his faculties 
to his last hour ; and therefore of extending 
his bbours and his usefulness far bevond the 
ordinary term of human activity, fte hears 
(he voice of his master, urging liis duties and 
his fidelity on his conscience, till his strcn^h 
iSjfone: and he does not lose the unpression 
of it, till the last spark of life expires.^' 

In the tenth sermon preached in Edin- 
fcuigh, before the directors for the asylum 
for the blind, the rev. baronet very 
aUy illustrates this important doctrine-— 

*' That relief to the miserable, and the 
general instruction of ihc poor, essential 
rharacten of the Messiah's reiin)» as de- 
wibed by the prophets, were leading and pe- 
culiar features of the gospel of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, as it was promulgated by him- 
self and his apc^tles ; tnat they have univer- 
»11t folkiwed its.progres8, through all the ages 
»)u countries whick it has hitheito reached; 



and that, as well b^ means of those who have 
not believed, as ot those who have siucereiy 
^nib:a ed it, they have universally produced 
the most extensive and salutary eiiccts^ on the 
conditions of human life." 

The whole of this discourse is deserv 
ing of the serious and attentive perusal of 
every unbeliever, and suggests many gra- 
tifying reflections to every enlightened dis- 
ciple of Clirist Having shewn what was 
the aspect of Christianity among the poor, 
during the personal muiistry ot' our Lord^ 
sir Henry justly obscr^'es : 

" IJefore I attempt to trace its progress for- 
ther, it is necessary to retnark, tJiat both the 
distinguishing characters which I have suppos- 
ed to belong to it were at this period almost en 
tirely new to the world, and are not to be 
f )und eitiier in the history or in the institutions 
of the ancient nations. 

'* AVe are not to suppose men of any age 
or country to have been destitute of the" ftnj 
ings of hinnanity, or incapable of exercising 
them. But those who are acuuainted with 
human nature know well, how tnese may be 
controuled or |)erverted, by their superstitiousy 
by their laws, by their uiveterate prejudices, 
or by their general manners. 

" lliere were virtues among the ancient 
nations which we read with a glowing satisfac- 
tion, and relate with nride and reverends 
But their compassion for the helpless or tlie 
sick among the people, the kindness of the 
great to the poor, then- provision for the old, 
or for the dying, among the lower onlers, or 
then- general sympathy with their conditions, 
were certainly not among thoir virtues. SiA- 
ting aside what we fuid in the history of hf 
daism, there has not comedown to us one trace 
or vestige of com])assion to the mis^Table, to 
the sick, or to the dying, among the common 
ranlys of the people, wliich was sanctioned by 
the religion, or by the government, or by the 
institutions, or by the general manners of any 
ancient nation. 

" This fact is so well established, that a se- 
rious argiiment has been maintarnqd in modem 
times, in defence of the ancient sj'stem of sla- 
very, founded on the assertion that it held out 
to the great body of the people the only ef- 
fcctual seairity which they possessed, against 
the miseries of sickness,' of famine, and of 
age. 

" If this is in any respect a just view of the 
preceduig ages, it is no wonder that it sl.ould 
be given us as a disthictive character of the 
Messiah's reign, that, as the great deliverer 
and restorer of our fallen race, he was every 
where to heal the sick, and gladden the blmd, 
and bind up the broken heart, and * to com ; 
fort all that monrn ;* and that minrcy to the 
miserable should be represented to be as 
much a peculiar, as it is a universal, charactrr 
of the dis])ensation, over which he presides. 

'* The instinct ion of the great ma^s of tl e 
people, was a circumstance not less new or pe 
culiar. The wisdom of the most enli^teiied 



156 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 



nations of antiquity was confined to the schools 
of theif philosophers. Tlicir religion was 
yirnpt up in impenetrable fobles and mysteries, 
which but a few individuals were allowed to 
examine. The knowledge which the people 
at large were permitted to actjuire, was only 
calculated to. rivet cm their ramds the terrors 
of the most abject, irrational, and depressing 
superstitions. While the art of printing wa:^ 
not vet discovered, and the people wore effec- 
tually excluded from all the means of infor- 
mation, which have become so accessible in 
Biodem times, all culture an<l all real know- 
ledge were of necessity confined to tlie higher 
orders of men. The* instruction of the peo- 
ple could be no o^ect of attention, and never 
was attempted. They were universally left ta 
labour ana to ignorance. 

" We may no doubt recollect, that in the 
free states of Greece and Home, a certain 
portion of infonnation was uiseparable from 
the spirit of liberty, and from the effects of 
the doauence employed to work on the pas- 
sions of the multitude, either in public trials 
or i)olitical contentions. But it is not difficult 
to form an estimate of all the useful knoi^- 
ledge, which can be traced to this source, 
which, in its bat state, had certainly little in- 
tluence to promote either the virtue or the 
happiness of the people. And if this kind of 
information is excepted, which was accessible 
to a very inconsiaerable number of the hu- 
man race, the people of the ancient world 
were effectually excluded from every source 
of instruction bcjond the perceptions or the 
observations of an uncultivateid mind. 

*' It was therefore no common attribute of 
public teaching, that it was given universally 
to all the orders of human life ; and it was, of 
consequence, a character of the Messiah, as 
hew as it was peculiar, tliat he preached the 
gospel to all the people, * to the wise and to 
the unwise,' to the priests and to the slaves ; 
that he preached it through all the land ; and 
preached it to tlie lowest of mankind.'' 

In that part of the discourse in which 
it is the object of the preacher to show 
that the relief of the miserable, and the 
instruction of the people, have distinguish- 
ed the gospel from the first age of the 
gospel to the present times, we meet 
with the following passage ; which we 
quote, not as containing any thing new, 
but as deserving of being frequently incul- 
cated upon those, who, for want of due 
deliberation, are accustomed to under- 
value the gospel. 

*' tt is impossible to calculate the effects 
6i the knowledge which was rapidlv sprt^ 
from Judea through all the world, ' 'fhe peo- 
ple who sat in darkness, and in tlie sha«kyw of 
d<'ath, saw indeed a ^reat light;* and tlie 
knowledge of the doctrine of salvation by the 
son of Gotl, wa«i followed by a thousand 
•ources of light and information, from whkrh 
the peopte b^ boea effectually «xclu(kd in 



all the preceding ages. Indeed, tlic effed of 
the promulgation of Christianity to all order* 
of men, to disseminate every citlier s|>ecies of 
infonnation, as well as its own peculiar cioc- 
trincs, and its immediate and general mfluciioe 
on the manners and character of those who 
embraced ' it, cannot be either questioned or 
disguised, by those who have Inrstowcd any 
attention on the history of the times. Tht: 
emperor Julian, who renounced Christianity, 
and who laboured, with indefatigaT)1e zt-al, to 
bring back the people to the ancient supersti- 
tions, saw so much of the effects of the chris- 
tian discipline, and of tlie regular instructkia 
given by the ministers of the gospel to the 
great body of the ]x»ple, that, with a view 
to give the same advantages to the heathm 
supiTslitions, he proposed a fonn of diaci- 
pline, a system of publk: instruction, and even 
an institution for alms, after the model uf the 
christian i hurches, to be ado|>ted and iiicorpo- 
ratiNl in the temples of idolatr)-. No cons - 
c^ucnces followed from this design; fnc before 
the cxptTiment could be tried, the empeior'* 
death put an end to all his frenzy. The fact, 
howevcT, is a demonstratkin from the mouth 
of an enemy, of the power and success, 
with which Christianity was seen to have 
spread a general light and knowledge anMng 
the people. 

" The corruptions in the christian churchy 
which were imperceptibly muhiplied, till they 
at last produced the monstrous usurpations of 
the church of Rome, gave the lirst great check 
to the general information, which Christianity 
had ditlused. After the people were no loi^ri^ 
jiermitted to read the scriptures, and were 
conlined to a worsliip peitbrmed in an un- 
known tongue, the human undenstandii^ wat 
soon in worse fetters, than it had ever worn ; 
and the ignorance and barijarisin of the dark 
agc*s followed. 

" On tlie other hand, it is a fact equally 
certaui, tliat the reformation and re^ ival of the 
christian cluirch in the sixtiicnth century, was 
the signal of light and knowledge returning to 
the worid. Ihe general knowledge of the 
scriptures diffused among the people — the zea- 
lous and ciilightcned exhortations of the fint 
reformers— the art of printing l>cgun at this 
critical time — ^the books which the refonna- 
tion produced and circulated— created a new 
asm in the liistory of the world ; and sprnui, 
niore tlian ever, the sources of substantial 
information through every country. 

** We have been more indebted for the su- 
perior light of motleni times, and for the 
modern improvements in every art and science 
to the influence of Christianity, and to the 
means of information which it' has created : 
to the effects of its doctrines, of its spirit, and 
of its pn>givss; than to all other causes what- 
soever. • The gospel, preached to the poor,* 
has acUlod nuich uidecd, to the resources 
both of thi: rich and of the wise ; and has 
done so, by presi^rving in its progress, the 
same general and peculiar characters with 
whk:h it was at tint pEDaMllgat«d ^ Christ 
and liis apoatic-s.'^ 



CAPPB 6 DISCOUHSBS QN DEVOTIONAL SUBJECTf. 



HieekrcQth and twelfUi sermons^ upon 

the Diiiversa] proqiiilgation of the gospel^ 

ccidcain many valuable observations ; but 

ve lev that the preacher has not accurate* 

Ij intcipreted that passage of Aripture— ^ 

die 24th and 25th chapters of Matthew's 

go^l, upon which these sermons ar^ 

^ndcd. The events there predicted 

hare, surely, all received their accom- 

pltihmeot ; and once the gospel of tho 

kingdom was published l;hroughout the 

ivorid. Infideli^ has taken a strong hcid 



nt 

amidst the concessions whidi have beeii 
incautiously made on this and other sub* 
jects connected with these chapters ; and 
she cannot be completely dislodged till 
those concessions be removed. Upon 
this topic no one has treated so ably as 
Mr. Nisb,^tt, and we recommend hk 
writings to the attention of the rev. ba- 
ronet, and to all who are desirous of un- 
derstanding the history of tlie founder of 
diristianity^ and the epistles of his earliest 
ministers. 



Abt. XVIf. — Ducmirse», ddtftij an Devntional Suhfecis. By the late Rev. NswcoMfc 
Cappe. To which are prefixed, Afemoire of his Life. By Catharine Cappe. if^itk 
an Afjiemdix, containing a Sermon preached at the Interment of the Author, By the Rev. 
WiLUAM Wood. - Also a Sermon on occasion of ifu: death of Robert Cappe, M. D% 
vntk Memoirs qfhi9 Ufe, By the Rev. C. Wellbeloveo. 8vo. pp. 484. 



THE author of this posthumous vo- 
fome was not altogether unknown to fame, 
though he retired from the public eye, 
and spent all his life in a distant proving 
cial town, almost uninterruptedly occupi- 
ed in the study of the scriptures. During 
the American war he published several 
hu, sermoDSt which oblaiined for him the 
chiracter of an eloquent and faithful 
preacher, and the ^niration and esteem 
of many eminent persons. In the latter 
part of his life, when he was disabled by 
severe attacks of the palsy for performing 
the accustomed duties of his station as a 
aunister, he gave to the worlda series of 
difiooones on the pcovidenoe and govern- 
ment of God, which have been deservedly 
admired for the comprehensive view tliey 
take of an important subject, and the elo- 
quent and energetic manner in which tlie 
practice of piety is enforced, and its con- 
soiatioos recoaniDended. Since the au- 
thors deaths two volumes of critical re- 
iDnks and ^Ussertations^ on many impor- 
tant passages of scripture, have been pub- 
lished, which, however variously the novel 
priociples that they contain may be ap- 
preciated, must be universally acknow- 
ktiged to dbplay great research, and great 
erudition, and to suggest, upon some to- 
pics, enquiries of no trifling and iinim- 
portantkind. 

A more acceptable present could not 
have been offered than that which the ju- 
dicious editor has here made to the public. 
From the memoirs of the learned author 
piefixed to the Critical Bemarks, in which 
naiiy extracts from manuscript sermons 
«^ere inserted, as well as from former spe- 
cimens of his talents as a preacher, we 
yK^tte prepared to espect that, should the 
editor be induced to publish a sdectitm of 



discounes from tliose which his patient 
industry had rescued from the oblivion In 
which they must otherwise have been 
buried, th^ would prove eloquent, pious, 
adapted to improve the understancUng, to 
amend the heart, and to enforce the prac- 
tice of holiness, and virtue. Our expecta« 
tions have not been disappointed. A vo- 
lume, such as we ventured in the name of 
the public to solicit, is now before us ; und 
we will assure our readers that, although 
the £ng]ish press has teemed with thc^ 
discourses of able and eloquent divines, it 
has sent forth few tliat can claim a wipe* 
riority to tliose with respect to anyextel- 
lence that ought to mark a work of thm 
nature. 

The editor has done wisely in prefixing 
to these discourses the very interesting 
and improving biographical sketch, origi- 
nally drawn up for the Critical Remark^i. 
A few alterations have necessarily been 
made, but none of them are of great im- 
portance. 

llie volume consists of itventy-foter dis^ 
courses. The three first are uponyinc^ 
which the preaclier, with much ingenuity^ 
demonstrates to be a reasonable, a desire- 
able, and an important principle, not en*' 
thusiastic, nor independent of evidence^ 
nor peculiar to religion ; but a principle 
upon which the most contemptuous scoff- 
ers act in the commonest concerns of 
life— 4 principle suited to the wants and 
imperfections of the human mind, and in- 
troducing those who embrace it to the 
most delightfiil entertainments. The/o«r 
succeeding discourses have been selected 
from a series which was composed and de« 
livered by the author under the severest 
pressure of domestic afilictibns, amongst 
which the death of an amiable partner^ 



us 



THEOLOGY AKTD ECCLESIASTICAL AFFiURS. 



the affectionate mother of six children, 
wAg not the lightest Let the reader of 
these bear this information of the editor's 
in mind, and the pious let^sons tliey incul- 
cate will reach his heart witli greater 
force. In the first we are taught tlie un- 
xeasouableness and tlie folly ^of undue 
anxiety respecting any future evils tliat 
may arrive -, and, in die tliree tliat suc- 
ceed, we are taught the duty of joining 
prayer with thanksgiving, under such at- 
Mictions as no anxiety has been able to 
prevenL 

The exclamation of the psalmist^ ' Lord 
I am thine,' aflbrds the subjects of tlie 
Kvctuh discourse, in which many useful 
xeflecttons are suggested from this weighty 
and consoling truth, that man is the pro^ 
perty qf God, The aghtk and niiuh dis- 
courses are employed in deacribii^ the 
obligations, the importance, and tlie rea- 
aonableaeaft of the love of God. In a 
verj ibrclble and eloquent manner, tlie 
pr^cher proves that, 

•* The love of God is one of the most na- 
tural operations of the human heart, the most 
«)bvious and self-approved direction of its sen- 
timents ; for it is to admire, what is perceived 
to be truly admirable ; to esteem, what is in- 
finitely worthy to be esteemed ; and to che- 
rish in our hearts witli complacency and de- 
light, the id^a of what conffssedly deser\'cs 
ciir supreme affection: it Is, to cultivate a 
gratemi sense of kindness that exceeds our 
tenderest thoughts, and of beneficence tliat 
tfassetb knowledge. — ^To be devoid of the 
love of God, not only betrays an unnatural 
apposition to the dictates of self-love, and of 
chanty ; but also to that other powerful and 
amiable prindpte, by whatever name you cali 
it, whidi recommends all moral goodness to 
mu hrarts» It imj^es a strange insensibility 
lb our own happiness, to the happiness of our 
brethren, and to the noblest obligations ; a 
criminal prostitution of our aifections, and a 
perverseness and mconststency of character, 
alike wretched, deplorable, and guilty.'' 

But reasonable as the love of God is in 
itself, and essentially neces^ry to our 
own happiness, and the preser\'ation of 
our virtue, the preacher is aware that there 
may be some d'ifHculty in preserving and 
cultivating this divine affection : he there- 
fi;)re extends his enquiry into the causes 
firom which thia difficulty proceeds, and 
the' means by which it may be best over- 
come. We regret that our limits will 
not allow of the copious extracts which we 
could with great pleasure select from these 
very valuable discourses. In some mea- 
sure connected with these, are the four 
s^ucceeding discourses, the most philoso- 



phical, and, upon the whole, the most nn« 
portant in the volume. The subject of 
them is the lave qf pleasure, which is thus 
accurately defined ; 

" It happens that although we have names 
for many of our affections, «igiitticant of their 
general nature, significant abooftheatfcctibit 
in its excess or its defect ; yet, in very few 
instances are we provided with dUTcrcnt tenns 
whereby to distmguish it when inditferent, 
neitlier laudable nor blameable, from the same 
afiection in its excess, in which, it is in one 
way criminal, or in its defect, in whicli it is 
criminal in anotJier way. Pride, and anger, 
are two censurable ]>as6ioas ; tlie one being 
tlie excess of that alfection tliat is naturally 
excited by the consideration of what is woilhy 
in ourselves ; the other, the excess of that af- 
fection, which insults necessarily awaken. 
But, for these afTections, in their general na- 
tore, in which thrr ace indinerent ; or in their 
defect, in which tney are tehy, we have no 
appropriate terms. If we could speak of tibcm 
accurately and usefully, we must describe 
them in several temis, and carefully distin- 
guish them from pride and anger, which are 
the names only of^the excess. 

'' From this narrowness of language arises 
much confusion in our ideas, giving birth to 
many prejudices, which in tiieir eflfccts may 
be huilhil to the comfort, and even to the gooti 
conduct of life; and hence it becomes neces- 
sary, to attend closely, and distingiiisli accu- 
rately, when either the nature, or the obiitra- 
tions'of man, are the subjects of our medita- 
tion or discourse. 

" For that affection, or rather for that da^j 
of aftections which we comprehend under tlie 
denomination of the love ot pleasure, we have 
onljTthis single term to signify its general na- 
ture: we have no names to distinguish it ac- 
cording to the difterent objects it embraces, 
nor even to express its excesses or defects. 
Unless we enter into a particular descnptlbo 
of tliem, we hare nothing but this general 
term by which to express all these varioos 
senlimeiits, and all their different degrees. 
fiiit it is obvious, that with regard to some ob- 
jects of delight, our love of pleasure caimot bf 
criminally weak, aUhough in regard to othens 
it may beblamcably defective; in respect to 
some sources of denght, it is not probable, it 
is not perhaps possible, that it should nin into 
excess; inrespectof others, it is very prone a^ 
to do;' and there i^ hardly any class of plea- 
sures, in respect of which there is not sonw 
degree of afiection that is innocent, becaisie i 
natural and unavoidable: hence it follows, i 
that what b true of any one thing, which vc i 
call the love of pleoMire, b by no means tn» j 
of all that we mean at any time by that name. 

" The pleasures spoken of by "the apostfe^ 
between which and the love of God we pro- 
posed to show you that there is a real opposi-i 
tion, are those which we derive from seasibici 
and external objects. * In respect of ih<-3C, 
there are two ddfcrent species gf tlie love «f 



€AFFB*« 0IBCOVaSE3 ON DBVOTIONAL «VBJ£€T8« 



190 



llflHire, which altKoiigh» in the higha* ranks 
of Me especially, often combined, may how- 
eriT sobsist apart, and when they do, they 
coiuCitiite two ditf^^reni charactvrs; the one 
fursaa the grattficationt of a v^ imaguia- 
tian, and forms the character of tht* guldv and 
ihe fpy ; the other, the gratilication of the in- 
ifdor appetites, and forms the character of 
the carnal and debaxichcd. llie hearts of the 
one, are m scenes of dissipation and aniuse- 
ment, and there is their sovereign tmjoyment ; 
the debghi ami desires of the other, are in 
scenes ot sensual indulgence, in makmg or en- 
joying the provision they have macie, ' for 
the tieih to tuUii the lusts tliereof.* 

The opposition which must necessarily 
fnbsist between each of tliese species of 
die love of pleasure aind the love of God, 
is distinctly and forcibly marked, and a 
strong and afiecting appeal is then made- 
to the hearer^ whether to the degrading 
and the dangerous love of pleasure he can 
consent to sacrifice the pure and satisfying 
love of God. We cannot withhold the 
following just and striking passage : 

** If such solicitude, care, and attention, be 
leedfol to maintain and cultivate this divine 
aflection, can it llourish, can it live m Uie 
ht3it» of the giddy and the gay? Will they, 
to whom thought is fetigue, who ily from 
amusement to amusement to save themselves 
ftom their own minds ; will they be induced, 
will they be able, to abstract tiieir thoughts 
ftom viable and external things ; to fix them 
on God who is a ^int, whom no man hath 
xen or can see, and all whose excellences are 
ipiritually discerned ? — But what need have we 
^li PG40O OB the subject? Did ever any one ex- 
pect to find a man of pleasure at his devotions ? 
ddighklng in the opportunity of retiring to his 
doset; uleascd to indulge the sacred seiili- 
mcnts ot rel'^on, and assiduously cultivating 
fte teve of God } Is it the men of pleasure tliat 
crowd our rdigious assemblies ? Is it the men 
«f pleaiure that adorn our sanctuaries with 
^ truly decent, and serious demeanour? with 
an appearance that betiavs no constraint, no 
uneasiness, no impatient dissatisfaction^ or iii- 
didbence? Is it the men of pleasure that 
oartify the day of God? — But it is ijot neccs- 
lary in belialf of the doctrine I maintain, to 
miihipK' these inquiries ; even with themselves 
I Diay lodge the appeal: it is no part of tMr 
r pride that they are religious; this i»a charac* 
ter that they are more apt to deride tlian to 
affect; they do not ordinarily even pretend 
to be devout — ^^'et, my friends, sufl'er not 
yourselves to be deceived ; let no man con- 
clude that because he hath not fully arrived 
at the open contemnt, or even at the total ne- 
(kct of religion ana religious ordinances, tliat 
tboefore he b not a lover of pleaaues, mote 
than a kner of God. True religion cannot 
. aibiijt with the love of plea:iure, but the form 
; of godliness may consist with and encourage 
i i^ The olfices'»f devotkm^ both public and 



private, may be performed, may be imhAf 
and habitually perfomied from very ^ef^t 
motives, and tor ver}' different ends. To noit- 
rish the spirit, of devotion, to promote the lov^ 
of God, they caimot be pcifonned, where the 
love of pleasure is the ruling principle ; — to 
deceive the world, to deceive the persons 
themselves, they may. Try your devotions z 
do you mean to be really religious, or to ap* 
pear so? In refiectmg on thoui, do you consi- 
der the fruits of genuine piety that have arisen 
out of them ; or, are you itiore disposed to at* 
tend to the merit you think there is in them; 
and under the considoratbn of this merit, to. 
exaise or to conni\'e at those indulgences, of 
which you have at least some suspicion that 
tjiey are not right ? If it be so, your piety is 
irrciiffion, and however unwilling you may be 
to believe it, however averse to nave others 
think so, you are indeed lovers of pleasuxe 
more tlian lovers of God.^' 

The author then proceeds to specify 
9ome marks or signatures of that charac- 
ter in which the love of pleasiu^ fatally 
prevails; and the whole enquixy concludes 
thus : 

*' My friends, you have much to do with 
Go<I; yourselves and every thing m which 

Jfoii have any interest, are absolutely in hit 
lands. You have far more important tians- 
^ions with hhn tlian any that you are con- 
scious of in this world ; it will not be very long 
before the youngest of this audience will find, 
it so. ITie time will come, I could tell the 
day beyond which it will not be deferred, but 
the . day before which it will come, I cannot 
tell ; the time will come when you will find 
this world vanishing away, and another open- 
ing upcm you, this worlH of trial ending for 
ever unto you, and a sense of everiasting n- 
compence 'commencing. You know as well 
as I do, would to God that you would let tlie 
idea sink deep into your iiearts, that the 
round of this world's pleasures will not last for 
ever. The rose will fade, the eyes grow diiB^ 
and the heart ^row faint, and all tliat is of this 
world become incapable of adihinistering, even 
a momentaiy cordial or amusement. You 
know as well as I do, ]^ouid to God that you 
would let the thought take possession of your 
souls ! that the time wiU come when the warm- 
est S4>petites will be cold, whea tlie acute^t 
senses will be dull, >vhen the liveliest fancy 
will he languid, when the giddiest smner will 
beseriou<;, and the drowsiest conscicnci^ awake. 
The time will come, of which your preachers 
luive so often warned you, when your bodit^ 
shall be undistin^vi^hable from tlfe dust tliat 
ilies before the wind, and when that dust shall 
have as much mterest in th<; gaieties and sen- 
sualities of those upon whom it falls, as you ! 
Long before that tune arrives, the day may 
come upon you, wheu, on a dying bed, whife 
you watch tor the moment that is to stop that 
beating heart, you shall look back upon the 
hfe that you have spent, and forward mto the 
eternity that is to receive you* In that awM 



180 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRSf. 



season, whence will you derive your comfoft^ 
To whom will you apply yourselves, to plea- 
sure, orto God? I have seen devotion triiuuph 
in the arms of death, but you need not wait 
until that awiul period, to "be perfectly per- 
suaded, that pleasure cannot triumph there; 
It is not the remembrance, that you have 
loved pleakife more than God, that can give 
yoa conHdencc when you arc entering into his 
prefiencef it is not tnis conviction that can 
comfort your attending friends: if you love 
them, if )tju love your own souls, let God 
have your tirst attentions, let your duty regu- 
late your pleasures. 

** Jlie considerations that have been ad- 
dressed to you, arc considerations by which 
you ought to be impressed — you tnink so 
yourselves. Some of yOu, perhaps, are im- 
pressed by them. Cherish the nnpression. 
No artifice has been employed to fix any false 
impression on you. It is the simple truth that 
hs» been set before you, you will iind it to 
have been such, ere long. Carry the ideas^ 
carry tlie sentimei}ts tJiat liave been suggested 
to you into every scene of pleasure into which 
you go; that you may never at any timf^-he 
allectedby such scenes, otherwise thaiy* you 
ought to be aA'ected; that your pleasures may 
never be of any other kmd, or of any other 
measure, of repetition, or concurrence, than is 
innocent and laudable ; but being fKcrfectly 
consistent witli the spirit of devotion, and 
with all that tiie Lord your God requires of 
you, while you live niay be pursued witliout 
remorse or suspicion, and, when you die, re- 
flected on without apprehension or regret.*' 

Some instances of very desirable effects 

Eroduced by these excellent discourses 
ave, we are told, already occurred, and 
ive doubt not that they will be eminently 
useful in rescuing many from the fatal 
stream of lawless pleasure and of heedless 
gaiety. 

To these succeed two discourses of a 
very ingenious and pleasing character, on 
the appearance of Christ, after his resur- 
rection, to Mary Magdalene. In our pro- 
gress through these, the object of which 
is to shew the cause's of Mary's joy upon 
tlie unexpected discovery of her master 
and friend, we were fully convinced of the 
justness of a remark which occi^ in the 
conclusion : 

** That it is not a formal, careless, or cur- 
sory perussd of the sacred histoiT, that can 
di^over to us all its beauties, or {et in its just 
impressions to our hearts. This can be at- 
tained only b^ attentive meditation, and re- 
iterated reflection on the scenes and circum- 
stances of the events, and on the feelings and 
lanouage of the agents. Without this, many 
of me beauties of the sacrod story will lie hid* 
den from us, and therefore many things that 
might have confirmed our faith, and through 
that, our virtue, as well as many things that 



might have exercised the good aflcctioDS of 
our hearts, will remain undiscovered.*' 

The same remark is admirably il lustxafed 
in tlie three following discourses upon the 
words of the angel at tlie «npty tomb, 
* Come seethe place where the Lord lay." 
From these words Mr. C^pe has sug- 
gested many new and beautiful tlioughts, 
and derived no weak additional evidence 
to that of which we were before in pos* 
session, of the reality of that event upon 
which tiie faith and hope of the christian 
are built. 

The nineteenth, twentieth, and twenty-first 
Discourses are on David's Morning Hymn, 
of Praise. Tlie 19th Psalm is well' ex- 
plained, and the glory of God, as dis- 
played by the heavenly luminaries, is pleas- 
ingly illustrated. The three concluding 
Discourses are of a very peculiar and \'ery 
interesting kind. They are entitled. On 
the Use and Impravenient to be deritedfrom 
severe Illness; and were composed and de- 
livered by the author, ^ on recovery 
firom a fever, by which he had been con- 
fined to his bed several weeks, and hts 
life despaired of many days.' Many ex- 
tracts were given by Mrs. Cappe, in the 
first edition of her Biographical Sketch ; 
it is therefore unnecessary for us to say 
n;ore respecting these impressive dis- 
courses. We cordially join her in tlie 
hope and tlie expectation that many yet 
mibom may profit by the labours and the 
example of this excellent author, and thut 
have cause \o join their thankfulness to 
that of his family and connections, for the 
recovery which enabled him to suggest 
such awakening and important truths. 

One excellence in this volume we oiust 
not omit to mention, and to recorameod 
to tlie notice of those who publish ser- 
mons for the use of families : a short 
prayer is added to all except the two last 
discourses, suited to the general train of 
thought in the discourse to which it is af- 
fixed. Much pious seutiment is found in 
these prayers, expressed in simple and im- 
pressive language. 

We cannot take leave of this volume, 
by which we have been so much interest- 
ed, and we hc^ improved, better than in 
the words of the editor herself : 

** It is tme, indeed, that a ^yhit of devotioD 
is not tlie spirit of the times ; yet some per- 
sons, surely- tli o re ar c^ who wish to discnmi- 
nate accurately between steriing piety, which 
leads to every thing great, and noble, and con- 
solatory, and that wild enthusiasm which err- 
ingly assumes iti honoured name — some, who 
wciiild wish to keep stzictly within the bgi^ 



kij:RrcK*s discourse ov doctrike akd practiob. 



mn herotid which*, pleasure, even innocent 
lAsboiv, assumes a dinerent character— to 

«^i7<- if«». 1 . KEN RiQK. /rt ^tt-o ^oitimcs, 8oo. />/>. 391 flfff/ 373. 



iff I 

persons such as these, the Sermons here pre- 
sented to them, cannot be without their value." 



THIS, like, the preceding, is a posthu- 
mcus publication,. of considerable value 5 
the work of a well known and very re- 
jpectable character amongst that class of 
protestant dissenters, which is distinguish- 
ed by the title of Unitiirwn. Jt appears 
m cf»nse<iuence of a recjuest preferred to 
the author's widow-, by the congregation of 
vhich he had been long a pastor, and 
yhich, upon his uney.pocted dcntli, was 
^e^.irou5 of having some durable memo- 
rial of his virtues and his talents. 

^J^ ohjcct (obser\'es the editor) pro- 
pCKed m thtf sek^clion of the discourses which 
ciBiiiJOse (he two volumes now laid before the 
piolic, \a.< iK^n, not to tbrni a work \>hich 
roighl recx>mmend it:?elf to any religious i)arty, 
*T mourmg its s.-ntiments exclusively, but, 
as lar » possible, to exhibit the opinions of 
lae author, whether tlu-v concurred with those 
JtothcR, or iK>t. . Kvtrv man, who thinks for 
fiiaisdf, IS likely to dirti-r in some points of 
anjMrtance. even from those with whose views 
lib OH n may, for the most part, coincide, and 
with whom he may. theretore, be commoniv 
nnkwl by some discriminating a[)T)ellation'. 
Mr. Kennck did thijik fur himself; nor did 
ht htr<itate to declare the n-;u!t of his reflec- 
tor oq all i>rop<n- occu'cic.ns. U would not 
Wmfore have been to do jusUce to his cha- 
wtter, to have kept back anv of hisdiscouT^es, 
jLTdi/ because they were distinguished bvst n- 
tan.n(, widely differing from those which 
wt- embraced by the maj^Mity of christians. 
ID no one instance has tliis been done.'' 

.J^fgPneral character of these volumes 
Jul be apparent from these remarks by 
the editor. The greatest part of the di/- 
coOT^ are doctrinal, and the doctrines 
^iMch they are intended to recommend 
aresoch as are tisiially deemed heretical. 

The first Discourse is enlitled ' The Va- 
lue ot Truth and Danger of Error,' and 
abounds with forcible and important ob- 
wnations. The three following are ' On 
the Stare of the Dead 5' tlie design of 
^ch IS to prove that there is nointer- 
JMJduKe state of consciousness between 
tothand the resurrection j anS that all our 
iwpesot afuture life depend upon tliat great 
c^ent. The preacher's reasoning, though 
olten specious, is not always conclusive; 
^ in these discourses he has clearly 
•hewn diat they who insist so strenuously 
ttpon the necessity of a scrupnlous ad- 
lierence to die exigence of the place, and 
a minute examination of the genuine im- 
port of the phraseology of passages of 
scripture upon which any doctrine is to be 

Alts. Rsy. V9L. IV. 



founded, are themselves too prone to vio * 
late the principles of interpretation whic'^ 
they wisely recommend. A dispassionate 
enquirer will find many texts quoted in 
these discourses without that strict regard 
to tlieir terms and situation which so im- 
portant a subject as is here discussed re- 
quired. 

In two succeeding sermons the charac- 
ter of Paul is ably vindicated from tiie 
charges of Mr. Paine; and in the sevegth 
sermon, the epistles of that great apostle 
are defended against the attacks of the 
same rude champion of Infidelity. Mr. 
Paine's groundless invectives against the 
gospel, and its earlie:jt preachers, are now, 
we hope, and believe, despised or forgot- 
ten; but these discourses will be always 
valuable as a vindication of a truly exalted 
character, and as establishing diis fact, tiiat 
' the arguments employed agauist chrfsti- 
anily often betray a total ignorance of the 
subject on which tliey profess to decide ; 
are confident assertions without proof • or^ 
if they preserve any appearance of argu- 
ment, are shewn, by a little examination, 
to be wholly inconclusive.* (Vol. i. p. (>8.) 
The destruction of the seven nations of 
Canaan is explained and vindicated in the 
eighdi sermon, upon the principles usually 
received. 

The ninth sermon, on the religious in- 
stmction of children, is highly judicious 
and deserving of th« serious atteniioji of 
parents. Tliis is followed by one, in which 
the preacher endeavours to enforce the 
practice of giving the Lord's supper to 
children. Mr. Pierce and Dr. Priestley 
were strenuous advocates oil the same side. 
A valuable part of this publication suc- 
ceeds. ' An Inquiry into the best mediod 
ot communicating religious Knowledge to 
yo^ng Men -; witli, ' An Address to 
young Men at the conclusion of a course 
of Lectures upon the Evidences of natu- 
ral and revealed Religion, and upon other 
important Branches of religious Knov/- 
ledge.' To minisiers and young persons 
out of the pale of the estabhshmeut;, a se* 
rious perusal of these cannot he too stre- 
nuously recommended. 

We gladly tianscribe the following pas- 
sages from the address : 

"It is a truth, which cdnnot be too strongly 
mculcated upou young persons, that a rctjulaf 
and frequent perfonnatice of tfie exerci^/es of 
devotion is particulaily necessary for therh^ 
upo n this plaia priiwipie, that the kss there^ 
M 



162 



iWEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 



of a devotional spirit, the more cuUivalioii it 
requires. Those who have long perfonned 
these exercist»8 with proper attention, who 
have acquired JHSt notions of the Divine Be* 
ing, and impressed them deeply \\\wh their 
hearts^ may almost venture to truest them- 
selves to the habits they have alrrady form- 
ed : these will dictate to them such a"tcm[)er 
and behaviour towards God, upon all occa- 
sions, as it becomes human creatun*s to main- 
tain, or at U^ast tnid to strengthen and conlirm 
the dU|)ositions they have alreiidy acquired. 
The occasional oniiMiou of a religious c:ver- 
cise will do them comparatively little injury ; 
but to young persons it may be of fatal conse- 

Suence: by preventing them from forming a 
evout habit of mind, and thus leavmg it to 
J)e exposed, untincturcd with religion, to the 
corrupting influence of the world. Be con- 
stant and punctual, therefore, in observing the 
exercises of devotion. Avoid the practice of 
attending public worship one part of the day 
only* and still more ^he pernicious custom of 
spending the whole of the liord's day at home, 
in business or amusirment : a custom which, 
if it were to become general, vould do much 
towards banishing all serious piety from the 
kingdom. ' You have nci^d of all the assistance 
which you can obtain, and cannot neglect any 
without losing an important benefit.** 

Speaking of books, Mr. Kenrick ob- 
serves : 

" But I iriust caution >t)u to beware of 
spending much of your time m a S{>ecies of 
reading, which is very captivating to yoimg 
^rsons, and in which the publications of the 
present da^^ afford them abundant op|x)rtu* 
jkity of gratifying their inclinations. I refer to 
eucb books as come umli'r the d<*scription of 
novels and romances. That nctitious charac- 
ters nwy be so exhibited, as to afford useful 
instruction, cunnot be denied. Virtue may 
fee drawn in sucti just and strong colours, as to 
engage our' esteem and at! miration; and vice 
jepn^aifnted «o odious, as to excite disgust and 
aL>hurreucc; impressions, wliich are certainly 
calculated to make us cultivate Uie one, and 
avoid th«^ other. But when vicious characters 
are endowed with the striking qualities of ge- 
nius, courage, generosity, and pleasmg man- 
ners (;is is generality done, in order to rejider 
them interesting), 'tliese qualities lesscm that 
horror; which we ought to feel, at the sight 
of great crimes, and tend to impair rather thAn 
strengthen virtuous footings and habits. 1 o 
say thiit cliaracters of this kind, in wliich some 
of tlic worst vices are united with many ex- 
celltrncos, are natuial, tliat is, occur in real 
life, is indeed to asstTt no more than what is 
true ; but yet that does not destroy the force 
of liiy objection ; for they are not characters 
with whom atn' one, who has a regard to his 
own moral iinprovnnent, would choose to have 
frequent and intimate intercourse; and wliat 
is injurious in real life, must l>c so, in some 
degree, when exhibited in fable. If, besides 
produ4.*ing tl)is evil, these writings give men 
hUe ideas of humiui life> aad cucounige ex* 



pectations of happiness, which ean never M 
fultilled ; * if Uiey exhibit such scenes to the 
imagination, as tend to inflame passions, com- 
monly too violent already in young persund^ 
they become still more exceptionable. 

" 'Hie objections )ust mentioned lioW, with 
still greati*r force, against tiie entertainmeHi 
of the theatre ; liecause the language and t^ 
cliaracters iirr more licentious, anil being i 
nearer resemblance of real life, nn- belter W; 
culated to make a strong impreasion npon tbt 
mind. Both species of amusemenl, atthongki 
capable of being employed for useful ouM 
pG«es, are generally so conducted ^ to ufej 
an unfavourable inHtiencc upon the TiitiieaAl 
happiness of mankind. I cannot, theiefoRVi 
het]) considering those who read novels, or ai 
plays indiflcrtminately, as in danger of haviB| 
their morals corrupted, and by 9omt of tktt 
in no small degree. 

" Thev# who are pleased with the histoif ; 
of individuals, will And a more useful, and ■[ 
less agnH,'able employment, in reading ifa 
lives of men, who have taken a dtstingimhd 
part in the busiitess of life, and were, at til 
same time, emment tor their ywty and viitiA 
Partiadarly in reading the lives of those lAl 
have endured great calamities, on account m 
Uieir religkxM sentiments, 'llie unparaUclel 
sufferings of tliesemen (excite onr oonipasaoi 
and the deepest fbliorrence of those pcnv 
cious principles and passions, by whkh tht) 
wen; occasioned ; while the fortitude and Bia| 
nanimity, the meekness and patiaice ill 
which tliey were borne, fill us with admir 
and preixiVe the mind for passing throuilji 
scenes with the same temper ; or, alt> 
similar trials should never occur to call 
the exercise of these virtues, tlicy tend to «i 
derate our regard to the world, to which cMl 
tians are liable to be too much attached,1 
seasons of tranouillity and peace. Many \ 
lustrious examples ot this lund you wiQ il 
in the history of the puritans and noo-ca 
Ibrmists in Kngland ; among the prote<^ 
tlirou^hout Europe ; and among the priniilii 
christian martyrs, iji every part of thewoflM 
Brave and generous spirits, ye were the d! 
daunted advocates of truth; the omamfl 
and glory of human nature ; the gn-ate^l h 
nefactorsof the hmnan race; all ages wlHni 
your history witl\ adjniratkn, and ycxirfl 
amples will inspire the heart with virtue to! 
latest generatkMis." 

The thirteenth sermon treats upon 
much diiiputed subject of natural 
moral evil witL reference to the " 
benevolence of the Deity, with whidi 
vins attribute the preacher shows the pi 
mission of evil is not at variance. In t 
fourteenth sermon^ the scriptural pin 
' remission of sins>* Is explahied, W 
no little ability, upon unitarian princifJI 
The four jfbllowing sermons, on * G«| 
Motives,* deserve the attentive considdl 
tioh of the untieliever. ITic modi 
which Christ and his apostles proposed! 
lieit ibewn to have been^ kve cffd 



ninUW 

athid 

allM 



&£KltCK'6 DWCOtJHSEl ON DOCl'RlKB AND PKACTICB. 



I6t 



tod ftar of censure J rational self-interest 5 
heocfcknce to niefi) and a regard to 
Cod. 

« We sec then," observes our author, after 

t wrr accurate examination of this important 

' «bj«t, " that Clu-ist and his aposUe* recom- 

I iiMaded to men their duty by motives, which 

are not only ratbnal and powerfiil, and there- 

AnuadapUid lo their purpose, but by such also 

» U3xi to unprove and exalt the characters of 

those, who arc under thWr influence, to raise 

thrm faun one degree of virtue to another, 

until ihi'v aiuin the peifertbn of human be- 

aiws ionn the love of praise, and the pursuit 

©f fetf-mterest, to the practice of benevolence, 

to a Mffd to God ajui to ctuMcience. From 

bodiUKJSc considerations, therelbre, we may 

jwtly infer Uie excellence of the instructiong 

which they delivered. 

. '* If we compare the mode of instruction 

pMed by them, with that whic'h was followed 

I hy other leachere, we shall perceive their su- 

I pcnonty. The prccepfcj of morality made no 

i part ot the heathen religion, nor did their 

finesft enjoio tiie practice of it as necessary in 

f order to pPDcure tiie fiivoiir of tlieir divinities; 

<^eO'tojn5 that was requisite they represented 

; ^ coQSBtJDg m the performance of some 

; tomng ceremony, which had no connection 

! gghvinne. Their philosopliers, indeed, de* 

! liwa some excellent sentiments on the sub- 

; ject of morals'; but the motives by which they 

^ISL***^!^' ^'^ founded upon present 

•d^erest, the good of society, or the good 

rfthw country. Tlie grand moUvc to a good 

f ^ 1 *^^'"1 fro"" tJie doctrine of futiu-c 

•iT Ai?? P*'"*^"™*^"*^*' ^'*^ ^™ ^« belief 
« JmAhnightv Being, the present witness of 
wactions and our future judge, were left out 
I ci Uwr system. What feeble obstacles to the 
'25" headstrong passions other motives 
i a»wl, m comparison with these, I need not 
attempt to prove. 

" It may now be asked, how came Jesus, 
w» r-s only the son of a carpenter, and him- 
waa caipenter, or his apostles, several of 
^toa were iishennen,. so well acciuainted 
»mi human lUiture, as to know what motives 
»^ calculated to reach the human heart, 
»Hfto mve the greatest authority to those 
«ufh deserve most weight? Or. if natural dis- 
eajment taught them this, which is verv un- 
nWy, considering that they had escaperl the 
flj^eramcnt of the wisest philosophers ; bow 
ojnctfaey, ,f they were impostors, to iiKulcate 



l2«tl»-irtollowersthepraoticeof disinterested 
wvolence, and to tpach them, above all 
fS^'i^^^J^i ^^^ "Shts of conscience, and 
21? I ^^' **^"* ^***^'* iinpostore give 
'wMnscIves no concern? How came they to 
2** a contempt for worldly pleasure and 
fj^ and for a temporal' interest, and to 
jwctusto fix our principal regards on the 
fm^ of a future life, which happiness is 
»conj« not like the paradise of iMihomct, 
2?«s«al delights, but in the society of the 
«^s, and w serving God with improved 
^f When they promised honour to those 
■w complied witii their precepts, why was it 



honour ftom the few accompanied with dis* 
■ grace ftiom the multitude? Thi* was surely 
not to act the part of impostors, who endea* 
vour to suit tiieir doctrine to the taste of their 
hearew, and who, having in view temporal 
and present rewards themselves, propose tliem 
to others. This conduct can be accomited 
for only upon the suppositions that the reli- 
gion whicli they taught came from heaven, 
and that they were instructed by God himself 
m tlie motives by which it was to be enforced. 
If yoii set a value u\xm the best means of 
your improvement in goodness, you will not 
sulfer such a religion to be easily wrested out 
of your hands." . 

The nineteenth sermon treats of tho 
observance of the sabbath, and is distin- 
^ished by its piety no less than its entire 
freedom from austere and superstitious 
notions : and the volume concludes witli 
a brief view of wliat the author deemed 
incontrovertible evidence of the humanity 
of Christ. ^ 

The second volume opens with a ser- 
mon oh Public Worship j in which that 
practice is very ably defended. Many 
useful observations are found in the four 
following discourses : On the Fear of the 
Lord J the Moral Sense; against Indif- 
ference to Religious Truth ; and Christian* 
the Salt of the Earth. The twenty-sixth 
sermon, on the phraseolog}' of the epis- 
tles, is a useful epitome of Dr. Taylor's 
key to the apostolic writings. The seven 
discourses which follow, are upon the 
doctrine of atonement, and were delivered 
originally as lectures to a class of young 
men. Tiiey are entitled, Rej)entance and 
Reformation only required in order to 
acceptance with Grxl. On the design 
and ends of tlie death of Christ, The 
nature and design of the sacrifices of the 
Mosaic law explained. The figurative 
language applied to the death of Christ 
m tlie New Testament explained. ITie 
doctrine of Ciirist's atonement inconsist- 
ent with reason. On the language ap- 
plied in the New Testament to the death 
of Christ. And inferences from the false- 
hood of the doctrine of atonement. It ij| 
acknowledged in an advertisement pre- 
fixed to the^rst, that in various places of 
these the author has closely followed the 
essays on tlie death of Christ, &c. pub- 
lished by Dr. Priestley, under the name 
of Clemens, in theThecilogical Repository. 
To these succeed seven sermons of a mis- 
cellaneous nature. On the necessity of 
providing a subsistence for public instruc- 
tors, pr^ched in aid of a collection for 
the sup[X)rt of dissenting ministers in 
Devonshire and a neighbouring county. 
Ai^ainst persecution for reMgious opiuiwj. 



I64r 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 



On the fivture existence of infants ; print- 
ed before, but now published for the tirst 
time. On tlie vahie of life, aiul tlie law- 
fulness of wishing it terrainatiHi. On the 
d'linger of bad company, which contains 
several cautions tliat may prove highly 
useful to tlie young. A sermon preached 
liefore the western unitarian society : and 
FduYs valedictory prayer explained and 
improved. 

Such are tlie subjects, which in tiiese 
voKimes are presented to the notice of 
tlie public. Their value will be variously 
estimated, according to the ' measure of 
orthodox faith which may have fallen to 
the share of their various readers. Un- 
biassed by any partiality for the author or 
his opinioiLS, or any undue attachment to 



such parts of our own creed as !i^ rhay 
have opposed> we hehitote not to axow 
that we liave found in these discour-jes 
niany evidences of an enlightened under- 
stiulding, an extensive knowledge of the 
scriptures, and a^ spirit of rational piety. 
To the unl>eliev#r they suggest many 
striking proofs of the truth and value of 
tlie revelation he contemns ; to tlie young 
tliey ofter many salutary and inbtructive 
lessons ^ to the advocate of established 
creeds, they exhibit a pleasing denied* 
stration, that some good thing may stUi 
come out of Nazareth ^ aud in the brcart 
of those whose sentiments are here viinfi- 
cated, they will awaken tlie regret which 
must have been felt ♦ at 'the loss of si> 
zealous and able an advocate. 



Art. XIX. — Sermons on ran'ous Subjtcfff. By the Reverend Joseph Townsend, M, A, 
Hector of' Peii'sey, 8vo. pp. 384. ^ 



IT was the intention of the venerable 
author, as we arc informed in the preface, 
'* to have reserved the publication of 
these discourses for his executors. But 
lumenting to see that the progress of inli- 
dolity, and tlie morals of the age, are .such 
as to call loudly for die zealous exertions 
of all the friends of religion, piety, and 
virtue, he resolved to lose no time in 
committing his dioughts and admonitions 
to the press. They were composed more 
than twenty years ago, but constant oc- 
<'upation prevented their receiving those 
i.i>t toLicIios, which were required, before 
the author could venture to submit them 
to rho Inspection of the public.** Pref. 
T. V. vi. 

The volume is small, aud the subjects 
of investigation arc few 5 hut we recom- 
iiitucl it as containing much important 
iiibtruction, and peculiarly worthy of dia 
•trious rt^gard of youth. Would they 
but lihten to die counsels of age and ex- 
pt-rience which are here <3fi:ered, inlideiity 
v^uuld not be so prevalent, and Uie vices 
^f ilie age would be checked. 

The iirst .sc-rrnon is, on the being of a 
God. In this the pre:i«:ljer" exposes the 
absurdities of ailiclsni ; ijup^gests many 
arguments to prove the exStence of an 
intelligent first cause, drawn tVom the 
"Vvorks' of nature; and deduces from the' 
subject some good practical relleciions. 
The second and diird sermons are on the 
moral law. I'hey are designed to shew 
ti)at diere can be no consistency of con- 
duct, no stability in virtue, without re- 
spect to the laws of die Most High. These 
are sotVi«what 4iifu£e %Vkd decl^matoryi 



In the two succeeding sermons, on th« 
gospel, die preacher demonstrates by an 
a]>peal to the systems both of ancient and 
modern philosophers, that no satisfactory 
knowledge concerning religion can be ob- 
tained without the aid of revelation. These 
dis( over much ability. We transcribe the 
following passage from the fit'th sennoQ: 

" What then is the boast of human reasoi^ 
and where shall philosc^phy begin her tri- 
umph } 

" Let the impartial judge then tell us vhat 
advantage the wise and learned of this voA^ 
have acquiretl over die humble dk^ciples of 
tiie dcispised Jesus, if they have cto advan- 
tage, what occasion can there be to warn the 
christian against philosophers ? Is it presum- 
able that he should be plundered of his hopt 
by men who have no hope to animate tbar 
zeal, and no certainty to guide their steps? It 
is at least possible ; and the diuiger to be ap- 
prehended niav be jmputed, either to insa- 
tiable thirst for knowledge, to vanity and self- 
conceit, or to Inortliiiate deshe of lilenuT 
fame. ** Ye sliall be as Gods, knowing goud 
ajid evil," was the riret and prevalent teinpta* 
tion ; and from that fatal hour, whilst the way 
to the tree of life hath been almost des«*itc4 
and untrodden, -philosophers have been 
crowding round th«j tree of knowledge, and 
contending tor its fruit. 

"The desire of information cannot pioperiy 
be considered as fli^ sJource oi error. But 
when, impatient to be coiitined within' the 
bounds wfiich the God of nature hath esta- 
blisliedK men, eager in pursuit of science, quit 
tlie province whicii belongs* to reason, and 
follow Uieir speculations, where they can de- 
rive ne ■ assistance from revelation, tney imi^ 
XCander widely from the trutli. As long as 
they coniine their inquiries to numbers a6d U> 
quantity i ks long as their researches ntialt 



TOWNSENDS SERMONS. 



165 



oairUthow^ sciences and subjects, of which 

n'jr«t« i< coiiipKifit to judge, ihev will arrive 

3«rcfuJiK\'; aftid the juVtuess of their conclu- 

ntKHvilibe iiuivcrsaiJy acknowIedgtHl. Jki- 

ToiK this all is darkness, conjecturis and dis- 

fwee. ^Vh^^p reason is compiHcnt to jud^^e, 

the vlioie earth is of one language ; but when, 

■ihiwt authority, men attempt to build a 

loucr. whose top may reacli to heaven, all is 

QontuiioD, and the wisest appeal* to be void 

ufundenianding. 

"Optical deceptions in the two extremes 
of Y won, are not more frecmeht than those of 
llie cijid, when it is stretched to the full in- 
ienskfj of thought: w^hcn we are to comj)are 
iilejs which are distinct and clear, we may 
ttfciV draw conclusions: \ihen they are ob- 
scuffi 2nd faint ; when the mind can si arcely 
prasp them ; when it is either confounded at 
eiery step by ill defined resemblances, or 
urrhle to acquire ideas that are complete and 
C0iiipr«fhpnsivc ; w.e should suspend our as- 
sent, and rest sati§(i<>d with doubting. When ' 
the daud tluis remains u[)Oij our tabernacle, 
like Israel we should (x>ntinue in our tents. 

"Tarough the long period of revolving 
ap's murii hath been added to tJie common 
itixkoi science, innumerable facts have ber*n 
a>cx.»rt4ined, and'from them, as far as relates 
to f!'e ina(x:rial world, most important deduc- 
liwK have been made ; yet we may venture 
toa^ert, that, as to invisible antl eternal ob- 
k«i<, independently of revelation, we can 
wiitol no Nuch pn)!;ress, nor is one cloud re- 
moved which hung over the liead of our most 
nanotc progenitor." 

To these succeed eight sermons on 
Umptaiiofi. In these tlie progress of 
tempCatioo, tlie means of avoiding, of re- 
sisting, and of passing through it, supe 
lepresented with much ingertnily and 
fora\ ITiese di«conr>es might have lx{;fi 
compressed, perhaps, with advantage, and 
tlieir eil'ect wonld still be encreased were 
the arrangenieat which iJie author has 
with judgment adopted, more clearly 
panted out to the ordinary reader ; for 
the weighty trutlis they contain, and the 
tbitible manner in which these truths are 
proposed, they deserve imqualified com- 
mendation. The following passxigc, which 
exlubiis a fair specimen ot the wJiole si^ries 
of these discourdcs, will prove to our rend- 
ers that the judgment we have pronounced 
is not erroneous : 

" To avoid temptation, men of \irtuou$ 
prinriples must be careful upon all occuaioiis 
to appear what in reality llu'v are. It is not 
jecussarv that you should a»^ume pecuUiur «e« 
Tttity of manners, nor that you should make a 
witton dispkiy of your religious principles : 
hut that, if^you arc indeed a friend to virtue, 
you should never upon any account put on the • 
(lisorise of cold Indffierence to its interests, 
«M much kss sbculd you atfecl to be a friend 



to vice. Vriulsi yoQ carefully avoid ostenta- 
tion and hyptx-risy, takc^ hetnl that neither 
false imxlesty nor me fear of ridicule betray 
you into mischief. If religion be a cheat, re- * 
nounce it ; if it be true, be not ashamed to- 
own it, nor afraid to manifest the niost hivio- 
lable attachment to its precepts. 

" A word, a look, on some occasions, are ■ 
suflicieiit to encourage or to check tempta- 
tion. Few men have lost all regard to ciia- 
racter, nor will they venture to proceed, till- 
Uiey have felt their way ; more especially if 
any doubt remains upon their mind of the 
teniper, principles, and disposition of the per- 
son whoni they mean to gain. Guilt cannot 
meet the eyes of inncx-ence, but, covereil with 
confu>ion, shrinks back, when in danger of de- 
tection, and then either returns to the as.-ault 
with greater caution, if encouraged to proceed, 
or, if confmned in the opinion, that your 
virtue is not to be cormpted, makes a preci- 
pitate retreat. Only tor a moment let your 
conduct be inconsistent with ) our priiicii)ies ; 
understand by signs, and by signs j)arley wit !i 
sin ; or discover the least degree ot hesitation, 
and the tejnjiter will advance with the conli- • 
dencc of victory. None but the most prolli- 
gate and hardened wretch, void of understand- 
ing, and lost to all the feelings of luunanity, 
can propose a base and dishonourable action, 
without he has some reason to imagine that his 
proposition will be accepted. Uut, when you 
shall have lost your reputation for integrity, . 
no one will take the trouble to speak darkly. 
No : when inclin<?d to the commission oi a 
crime^^he will without reserve or fear make . 
known his p >rpose, and urge you to be a par- . 
taker of his guilt. Had Joab maintainetl a 
character for virtue, or had he been known to 
regard his honour us a soldier, he had not been 
calltKl upon to extHrute the base and execrable 
purpose of his sovereign. 

** A character for religious principle will be a 
strong bulwark against ihe assaults of sin, not • 
only as ke(»ping the wicked at a proper dis- 
tanc e, but as operating on that laudable kind 
of pride \vhich naturally is found in evtTy 
breast, the pride of character, the sense of , 
dignity, discovered in regard to tlie good 
0]»inio'n of mankind, which is only to be se» 
cunxl by consistency of conduct. .Suppose 
that your rejHitation stands uriimpeached ; you 
must of nwesslty desire to pn^st^rve it spotless : 
but if it be lost'aiid past redemption, you wiU 
be indilierent to the good 0|)inion of the 
world, and will bid a dieu to sliame, Hanislu^ 
from the society of those who*;e virtue niigl»t 
reclaim you, and condemned to pass your 
time in the miserable haunts of impii.ty and 
vic«' ; exposed conliimally to sin, and harden- 
ed by the bad examplt»s which sunvund you, 
you resw-n»ble the unhappy lejjcrs of Cartha- 
gena, in New Spain, who, whhout distinction 
of rank or fortune, are thrust out of the city 
and compelled lor ever to associate only with 
those loathsome objects, who are infected by 
the same disease. (UUoa, B. 16. 5.) 

<* Supposiiig that your character is not past 



166 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 



redemption, hut only wounded; yet your 
powers of resistance are thereby considerably 
weakened: for how can vou at any time pU'ad 
regard to conscience, when your conscience 
is known to be occasionally subservient to 
your evil inclinations ? Nay,* do but manifest 
in a single instance ths^t you csin violate ita 
dictates, and you will b« ashamed to urge it 
^ a plea for not complyhig with the di^ires 
of either friend or patron, from whom you 
have any tiling to hope or fear." 

Tlie volume concludes witli two ser- 
mons on the leaven of tlie Sadducees and 
Pharisees, designed as a caution agaibst 
infidelity and sensuality oii the one hand, 
and hypocrisy, spiritual pride, selfishness, 
and other crimes of die ancieot Pliarisees, 
ou the other. 

In the preface to this very useful vo- 
lume, we are infiirmed that, with the 
same view of leading men to the practice 
of virtue and tlie knowledge of truth, 
the autlior is now preparing for the pre^s 
Observations on the Character of Moses, 
lifi an historian, as a lawgiver, and as a 
prophet. 

<'This work will embrace a variety of in- 
teresting objects. 

" As an historian, Moses displays the work 
of creation in its progressive stages, till it ter- 
minated in the formation of tiK* human race. 
He gives an accoimt of our fall from a state 
of hinocence and virtue to the most abject 
conditk>n of depra\ity and vice, lie dt- 
scribes an universal delug** ; he speaks of tlie 
dispersion of mankind, and affirms, that, prior 
to this event, the whole earth was of one lan- 
guage ; he represents to us tlie sunplicity of 
manners which prevailed in the jjastoral ages, 
the nature of the patriarchal government, and 
the introduction of sacritice, with other reli- 

Sious observances universally prevalent from 
le most remote antiquity. 
** I'hese subjects lead to geological discus- 
tkMis, and to the examination of tlie various 



languages which are spoken in En^ope, AA, 

Africa, and Ajiierica. 

•' In his geological disaissions, the author 
has examined tlie Several strata whicii appear 
in every part of Europe ; but he lias paid 
more particular attention to such as prevail 
in Britain, and has described their usual bqcn 
cession, range, tlijckness, dip, and disloca- 
tion<«, the materials ol' which they are com- 
posed, with their extraneous fossils, and the 
Useful puriKJst^ for wliich tht^se materials are 
adapted, tiie nature and extent of springs, aod 
the regions to which both coals and uihieial 
productions are confined. 

"In his examtnatiop of languages, he hai 
sclt*cted 3,600 words, in English,^ all mono* 
syllabic, lus behig most aiicunit, aiid tfiese he 
has compared witli corresponding expn^oos 
in three score languages, in order to depioo- 
strate that they all originate in one. Thit 
part of his wort ma v be considered as a key ta 
the languages of Euro]H*, because, to any 
j^erson wlio is intimately acquainted with one 
of these, it facilitates tlie acquisition of all .the 
rest. 

" T\\e fii-st part of his work is almost ready 
for the press, and will appt-ar in one quarto 
volume. It has (x-cupied twelve years of 
close application and unremitting attcntioD. 
Indeed, the whole bent of his studies, for 
inorethan half a century, niay be cunsidercd 
as having been directed to this object, because 
it has4)tH^n constantly preparing hijn for the 
undcrtakhig. 

" Whem ver that volume shall appear, it 
must not be considered as incomplete with- 
out tlie succeetling volnm«% because it will 
thorrnighly investigate the character of Moses 
as an liistorian, which has no dependance oo 
what is meant to follow, respoctmg his com- 
parative merit as a legislator and a prophet. 
In a word, it will stana like the principal and 
central portion of a vast edilice, to which the 
wings may be occasionally added to' compocie 
one whole." 

We look for the appearance of this 
work with some degree of impatience. 



Art. XX. — SertTi^om Preached to a Country Congregation. To which are added, a few 
Hints for Sermons, intended chit fly for the Uae of the younger Clergif. By the late M'il- 
LiAM GiLFJN, M, A, Prebendary of Saiisbury, aiul f^car of Boldre, in New Forr^f. 
VoL IV, Published by his Trustees for the Benefit of his School at Boldre, 8vo. pp. 42 J. 



Mb. GILPIN's character as a plain and 
gerious preacher, hag been long known 
and highly esteemed ; and the well earned 
reputation which he enjoyed during lite, 
as a faithful parish-priest, will not be di- 
minished by this posthumous volume, 
prepared by himself tor the presg. Regret, 
indeed, will be felt that tliis has closed h\9 
labours ; and an ardent wish will be ex- 
cited in the breast of every reader who 
wishes well to his country, and to the 
(;;b8|)el of Christ, that the Lord of the har«i 



vest would graciously send other such 
labourers into his harvest. 

The first sermon in this volume wai 
preached before the bishop of Winchester 
at Southampton in the year ] JSS, and has 
already appeared in print. The object 
which the preacher had in view was to 
enforce upon his reverend brethren the 
atudy pf the scriptures: and many judi* 
cious and many candid remarks occur. 
The following is not the least deserving 
of Dotioe in au age too much distinguisbea 



61L?IN*S tBlMQKS* 



16; 



VyiWgotedattochnient tg meUphysical 

tbcolog)': 

"Thus again, with regard to the other im- 
port2m fubjfct, on which I touched, as there 
aie many px<sages of scripture relating to the 
Jmnuoitv of Christ as welh as his divinity, I 
cinmrt pe»uade myself, (as some pious people 
jttve doue), that an exact faith on tha head 
V Mcessary to salvation. Numbers, I have . 
no doubt, wii| bt- saved through the merits of 
ChrBt, H-ho conceive hiin qiiIv as their law- 
gifc^, aqd conseieiUiously oWy hi« laws; 
though thev mav not have those ex«iUed ideal 
of his divine nature, to which our Scriptural 
fule, 1 think, so directly leads. If their holy 
ixG iaveallained the principal end of a better 
toilb, they ttught not surely to be Ivandod 
^ hard nai«es, and c6nsid(»red among 
thi>i n'ko dctiff Christ before metiy 

♦* We arc sometimes told they ought ; be- 
cause without this exalted faith in the divine 
namrc of s^ s^vitwir, the mmd cannot attain 
thc}>eelev^t'<l heights of love, which the gos- 
pel pr(*«ribe?, — One should think so indeed : 
but before we pass these harsh censuri's on 
lihers, let any of us.wlio do hokl that doiv 
trinp, a<k our own carnal hearts, whether it 
purify thorn in this exalted manner?" 

The second sermon preached at a visi- 
talion, has also appeared before the public. 
The republication of it is well timed, and 
we a^ persuaded tliat if our clergy would 
attend to the admonitions which are here 
dpUveied, they would secure respect tq 
theuMelveis,and lessen the influence which 
ignorant aiid fanatical preachers so ^ta% 
possess. 

Thirteen sermons follow upon import- 
ant practical subjects, all distinguished by 
eittllent maxUns oif conduct, enforced 
with great seriousness, and delivered in 
chaste and simple language, level with the 
capacity of every rustic hearer^ and adapt- 
ed to make its way to the lieait. We 
could select, if it were necessary, in proof 
of the justness of tlie cliaracter which we 
ascribe to these sermons, and for the 
pleasure and improvement of our readers, 
many such passages a:^ the following i 

"Our aptness to deceive ourselves ipro-. 
feeds eniiriHy from self-love. If it was not 
thai we b%e ourselves better than our neigh- 
bour, we should be as quick-sighted to our 
ovn faults as we are to his. But self-love 
blinds us. As parents are blind to the ble- 
mishes of their cliiklren, and skreen theni 
often under harmle» names, so are we bl'md 
to our fiuilts, and have a tliousaiid excuses 
fcr than, which neither shew their nature nor 
our i^U, but merely our own self-love. — 
Pt^ps all your neighbours know you lead a 
wtlijh life: you spend much of your tune,, 
and much of your mdney, in company and 
bpor; youios« yonr businissi as few p^oE^e 



care to have dealings witU a man who can be 
so little depended on: your family suffers: 
in short, you have made yourself a very con- 
temptible felloxv. Yet still you stand high in 
yo\ir own esteem. You have your excuses 
always ready. Perhaps you can afford to 
spend vour money} so that you injure nobody 
but yourself; as if the kinder God is to you, 
the more right you have to squander what he 
gives. Or perhups, though you may hav.» 
been sometimes guilty of a little excess, yet 
it has been very si'ldom, and ne\'er without a 
good reason : you were fa^tigued, and wanted 
a little n-freshment ; or. you just stepjied in to 
talk with a neighbour on business; or, m 
short, there was something which makes your 
offence ver)' tritling in your own eyes, though 
the n»al cause was neither more nor less than 
a love for liquor ; and every body sqj.^ it but 
yo^uself. 

" Again, it is suspected tliat you have not 
always bc*en quite so honcsC as yoU should 
have been; that your bargains have not al- 
ways bexni fair and oix?n ; that you have some- 
times endeavoured to over-reach a neighbour 
secTetly, where you knew the law could not 
touch you ; tliat you liave taken the adv»itagu 
of the ignorance of a purchaser, to charge 
more than you knew your commodity was 
wortli ; that vou have praised the commoditjr 
YQu sold for qualities which you Wvll knew it 
ilid not possess.— Now, tho\igh you know all 
this to be true, you will prob^ibTy lesson it m 
your own eyes by a thousand little shuflling 
excuses. Let the purchaser (you may sug- 
gest to youTselO mind hfe business ; 1 mmd 
mine: I do not im|X)se upon him, he imposes 
on himself: he should examine what he buys ; 
I am not to teach him his business: ,am 1 to 
be both buyer and seller ?— there is an art m 
every thing— there is an art ot buying, and 
an art of selling ; and a man must live by his 
art.— By such self-deceit you can easily im- 
pose on yourself; but how are your eV^ions 
overturned by one plain question, whuh an 
honest conscience would suggest! Suppose a 

ron should treat you In this way. Suppose 
should sell you an unsound beast for a 
sound one, or a piece of damagc*d goods for 
what ought to have been perfect, and allege 
all the excuses which you have just alleged, 
would vou be imposed uiion by them? 
Would you, m short, call him an honest man ; 
or would not you be more ineUned, as I 
verily suppose you would, to thuik him, with 
all his tine excuses, an arrant knave ? 

'• You sec then, my brethren, how self-love 
imposes on us, ajid makes the same tlung, or 
nearly the same thing, appear trifling in our^ 
selves, whkh appeared so offensive in our 
neiRhbour. You see how difficult it ts for any 
one to sav to himself. Thou art the man ; 
though each of us is ready enough to condemn 
an offending brother," 

Nine sermons on St. Mattliew's gospel 
are published m this volume, "as a spe- 
cimen of a mode of preaching which Mr, 
Gilpin thought might be uscfva. to. « 



ijCft 



THEOLCXJY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFF-tVIRS. 



country congregation/' Theae deserve 
atuiuionj but they will be fcnind not 
t,iirticieut!y extended. Top large a por- 
ticki of scripture forms the subject of each 
dkscourhe. The utility of such a plan can- 
not be disputed. As Mr. Gilpin rightly 
observes, " The scriptures' will be read 
with more pleasure, the more each little 
difficulty which now and then stops an 
unlearned reader i.^ removed." 

The twenty-fifth and concluding ser- 
mon, following immedijtjly those on 
St. Matthew's gospel, is designed to shew 
fliat the words of eternal life are tlic only 
safe guides we can follow in the invest i- 
gation of truth, and in the government of 
our conduct. 

This volume contains twenty-three, 
gketche^ as hints for sermons. The 



younger clergy, e3pecially such as are set* 
tied in country villages, cannot do beitef 
either lor themselves or their tiock, than 
occasionally to fill up tliese outlines, faith- 
fully copying the style and colouring of 
tlie^e finished pictures of this master. 

Tiie volume concludes with two excel- 
lent tracts ; one an analysis of Pours 
epistle to the lloitta^ts ) tlie other entitled 
lUusti-ations used by St. Paul in his u-n/iiig-t. 
In the controversy, which is now agitatol 
within the pale of the established church, 
the first of these tracts may be foiuid use- 
ful. We recommend it to the serious 
con.sidera(i6n of those who are zealously 
coiit<*ruiing {or the calvinistic doctrine^ 
whioJi they assert is to be found in tli© 
seventeenth article of faitli.. 



Art, XXI. — Sermons for the UseofCoUcv^cs,.^chi)oh,andFnmilics. ^// John Xaple- 
Tov, D» D, Chancellor of the Diocese, and Canon lie$idcntiartj of the Cuthedral Church 
ofHtrrford. 8vo. pp. 382. 



THIS second volume will ably support 
the credit which the first conferred upon 
the autlior, as a sound and useful preacher. 
The sermons now published display a 
correct taste and an enlightened judg- 
ment : the discussion of mysterious and 
metaphysical doctrines gives place, as it 
ought, to practical theology j the style is 
plain without meanness, level with the 
attainments and the capacities of a nistic 
dudiencc, and at the same time not un- 
united to the chapel of a college. Nor 
ire tiic subjects upon which the preacher 
dwells unimportant, as will be seen by the 
following sketch of the contents of this 
volume : On setting God before us. On 
not caring for religion. On faith. On 
profession of faitli. On the miracles of 
Christ. On prophec)'. On the uses of 
the law. The great exemplar. On the 
feabbath. On religious knowledge and 
practice. On exemplary conduct. On 
temporal happiness. On sickness. On 
^e resurrection of Clirist. The divine 
nature hidden. On christian mourning. 
Approach towards perJection. On con- 
solation. These subjects aie well diss 
cussed in twenty sermons, 

Tlie following extract, very important 
in itself, will convey to our readers a just 
notion of the style and manner of our 
preacher. It is selected from the dir- 
course on miracles. Having shewn iii 
llie first place that the miracles of Jesus 
were such as could not possibly be effected 
by hiunan art or ir*du&try^ he thus piro* 
ceeds: 

^' Secondly, The miracles, of Jesus vere 



of such a niturc, and so circumstanced, that 
it was niipossihle for a witness of common sciise 
to iniagmn they were eflccted if tlirv wtre 
not ; or to doubt whether tht y were cifected 
or no. 'i'hey were no spectre, or apparition, 
presented for a moment to the eye; no 
sounds, or vi >iccs, otlercd for an instant to the 
ear ; passing away before tiie resiKrclive or- 
gans could seize their object, and distinctly 
examine it ; or before the rei)ort of oue seu>c 
could be tried bv that of another; bt-tbre 
reason could dci-ide upon the comjwund re- 
port of hot h. They Mere no objects exhibit '^1 
to the doubting senses, at undue di^tancc^. or 
through df^cinng mediums : no bumini; 
comets, or portentous appearances in the ^kv, 
or in the air. These miracles W4n*e laid bet'ore 
the witnesses in as clear a manner, and f<»r ji 
lonuj a time, as the ordinary works of uaturiv 
or the con)mon performances and transaciions 
of mankind. 'Ihey fell mjder tiiOiie senses 
wliirli ar«^ lea^t capable of being deceive<l: 
they were setni, tliey were heard, they were 
handled ; they had all tiio evidence*' whu h 
the faculties of man can ij:ive him of the ex- 
fstence of any tiling in tliis material w<irld. 
If 1 see " the man sick of a jwlsy arise, take, 
up his bed, and go into his house," 1 hu^e 
the same assurance of his cure, as I hatl \y> 
tore of his infimiity. If tiie fever, or tlie K^ 
prosy, deixirtat the touch ofJouSjthe healih 
and soundness of the patient is as numifei?t, ai 
if it had proceeded from the slow ojx^raiitKi 
of medicine, or the gradually a*tnrning 
healthy state of natu re. The wsten? of i^a/a- 
rus, and the Jews of Bethany, had not Kettt-r 
proof tliat Lazarus was bom, and liatl livi*d 
among them before his death, and that he wai 
dead and buried, than "that he 'returned to 
them from his grave, and lived with theni 
afterwards. The farts were' evident in Iheip 
nature ; complete in tlie cNecution ; lasthig oi 
thQi* eAecU Xaxxxsm reui^ed witl^ his '&• 



MORTONS SERMONS. 



169 



tians," and instmcted moreover by revelations 
from heaven. This people had, before the 
birth of our Saviour, in consequence of their 
captivities and olher circunistunpes, inter- 
mixed with various other civilized nations. 
Conquest and proselytisin had brought to 
them divers foreigners to administer their 
government, and to worship at their altarsl 
They had strangers from Rome, visitors from 
Africa, and from distant parts of Asia. It 
was probably from this intercourse .witii fo- 
reign nations, that they were become deger 
neratc in their religious principles. As the 
conversation of their idoiutrous neighbourdL 
had fonncrly seduced them into gross and 
horrid superstitions ; so now they had import-^ 
ed from distant countries the mOre rehned, 
but- not less d^gerous, poision of infidel ity^ 
The creed of the early ages was now question- 
ed among them by a presumptuous philoso- 
phy. What holy Job believed, and what 
Abniham knew by familiar experience, wai 
rejected by the pretended wisdom of these 
eniightent'cl tunes : for there were some among 
the disciples of Moses, and even in the sanhe- 
drim, who " said there was no resurrection ; 
neither angel, nor human spirit." But this un- 
happy prejudice, into whicli a part of tiie na- 
tion (the Saddiicees) had' fallen, confinns the 
incontestible n^ality of tlie miraclesx)f Jesus ; 
as ft rendered them more averse from hit 
person and doctrine ; more unbelieving of his 
- divine character, more ouick-sightod in the 
examination of his wondrous works ; more 
determined, had it been possible, to disallow 
them, and defeat their credit. As his reli- 
gious doctrine clashed with the notions of the 
Sadducee, so did the lowliness of his worldly 
situation and pretensions disaj^point the ex- 
pectations, and excite ilie aversion, of the 
Pharisee ; who, though he believed a resur- 
rection and a lifv* to come, yet could not re- 
sign the temrxiral dominion and prosjjerity, 
which he liad promised to himself fiom " the 
redeemer of Israel.*' It ajjpears then jjlainly, 
wliat was tiie scene of our Saviour's miracles, 
and who were tlie spectators. ** These thing? 
were not done in a comer,** nor before in^* 
competent or favourable judges." 



^Ekf n object of admiration to the people, 
tod of ienpor to the chief pne.-<ts. M ary Mag- 
4«{efl^ rescued fioui the, doininion of evil 
ipm^ irred to be a sober witness of her sa- 
vour's nsurrectioD. it b said also, that .many 
otiier^ who had in like manner experienced 
hs power and goodness, lived in the days of 
the apostles to extreme old age. 

" ihinlly. The miracles of Jesus were por- 
fcnned in a civiKzed nation ; m an enlight- 
ened age ; at public iistivals, and in other 
^rge as&»emblies ; befinre witnesses of various 
stations, cbamctecs, and countries. The Jews, 
amcmg whom our Saviour was bom, and be- 
fore whom he exiiibited his mightv works, 
had long since, from the special advantages 
wiuch they enjoyed, (though not always 
bom the use which tiiey made of them,) de- 
served the distinction of " a wise and under- 
standing oeople." They were in possessbn 
of an autfientic history of the world, be^n- 
nin^ at the creation, carried through the lirst 
ag€5, and tracing the origin of the earliest na- 
tions. They liad a system of tnie religion 
and soimd niorality, luiknown in the schools 
of Athens, or in the palaces of Rome, 'llwy 
had poetry not surpassed in any age or 
rountry. XU these confessedly were written 
by their anci'^tore, read in their synagogues, 
tdught in their schools, revered in' their tami- 
l*es. The spUfndour of their temple, the cu- 
rious manulacture of its furniture, their ajipli- 
Citioii of muMcal instruments and voices in 
surprisii^ nuinbcTs, to high strains of elo- 
iiucoice upon the noblest siiDJects, — all these, 
existing a thousand years before the coming 
of Christ, shew tiieir rank among the nations 
of tho« primitive times in the arts and em- 
bellbhiiienti of life. So that if any writer, 
:.nri«it or modern, has thought proper to 
>j»e.ik of tliem as an obsKJure, ignorant, or 
barharuus people, he seems to have been 
KUilc.1 by national or sceptical pRyudice ; or 
to have been influf»nced by a partial view of 
tlieir present hmnlliated state : forgetting how 
fifv, ifany, of the European nations, among 
vkom the providence ot God hath scatterccl 
iliem, can shew any evidence of cultivation, 
or^fven of existence,'at the time when '* Moses 
*as learned in all the wisdom of tlic Egyp- 

AiT. XXII. — Strmons on various interesting SubiecU. By the Reverend Joshua Morton, 
Hear ofRistL'li/ in the Counti/ of Bedford, and Chaplain m ordimiry to his Rot^U HigJu^s0- 
the Prince of '/rales, FoL 11. 8vo. pp. 385. 



TO those who have approved of the 
former volume, this also will be accepta- 
ble ; and (hat many have approved of it, 
may be reasonably concluded from the 
appearance of that now before us. Or- 
tuodox, coniitient, versed in a kind of 
phraseology higlily pleasing to the mul- 
Wude of christian bel ievers, Mr. Morton^ 
We have no doubt, is a popular preacher,^ 
and will easily find readers and admirers/ 
His bookseller we apprehend will never 
say of his discourses, as we are informed 
one of the trade said of a volume already 
flQiiccd^ tliat tkey arc too good for sale. 



Thirty sermons are contained in this vo*. 
lume, upoir the following subjects : Di- 
vine worship. The gospel the word of 
life. Thd fell of man. The fall general.. 
All men under the sentence of tl)e law. 
The redemption of man by Christ.- The* 
ministry of reconciliation^^ Dearfi. ' Tha» 
uncertainty of life. God chastiscth tig- 
for our • good. Prayer. Perseverance in> 
prayer. The strong hold, llie work of. 
salvation. The tnie rest of tlie gospel. 
The blessings resulting from tlie ascension 
of Christ. iJelshazzar's feast. The peni-» 
tout's prayer. The prodigal son, Hope, 



170 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 



passtonon him, and went to him and hcmni 
up hU wouncky pounn^ in oil and wine. In 
the obedience of fai^ lite was formi;d a periert 
righteousness, satlsfiictory to all the claims vi 
divBM;]ustice» inliiiitdy ssufficient ta justify ail 
who believe on h'unfroin all things from which 
they could never be justthcd by the law of 
Moses. Would you see Je»us m the very 
moment of his |tt:rfecting our ttxlemption ? 
Bdiold him in the garden of Gcthsemane 

8 rostrate upon the earth, and jm an agony ' 
[)ere, till the sweat falls as great drops oC 
blood to tlie ground. Trace hini to the 
courts of the Jcwiiti and Roinau judicature ; 
in the one you see him bla^^phenied and 
beaten, in the other, scourg<*d and crowned 
with thoma; follow him a little further, ami 
vou sec Jesqs suspended on the bloody tree; 
his nerves trembling with the torturing nails^ 
bis body writhing with dreadful agon\'. Would 
you sec Jesus ? look up to tlie cnMS guilty, 
but penitent; look up, and sec hifibrow bcfaifi^ 
uig benignity and love; behold the blood 
gushing from his opened side; there springs 
tiic fountain of your hcfie ; ther^ tiows the 
blood of Jesus Christ, the Son, of God, whicJi 
cleanseth from all sin. May esvrh of our 
. hearts catch tl^e healing stream, and be saved 
with an everlasting salvation. Once more^ 
we see liim nsiiig from the bed of death, tri- 
umphing over the grave, (for it was imposn 
sible that the grave should hold him), ascend* 
iug to heaven, there, exalted beyond all praiso 
and all thanksgiving, he ever lives to niako 
intercession for us, having our int«*rests still 
near his lieart, possessing the same love, pity, 
and tenderness, he is ready to communicate 
daily to all wlio seek his a^^sist^ipce, every 
grace ai)d every blessii;ig to help them in 
time of need." 

Art. XXIII. — Occaudnol Discourses on various Subjects, with copious Annotations^ h§ 
Richard Munkhouse, />. D. of HueetCs College, Oxford, and Minister of St. Jdm 
Biqftist's Church, Ifakejield, In Three Volumes, 8vo. pp. 343, 379, and 402. 



in GoJ, the good man's suf^ort Tho 
patwnce of God with mankind. God 
inarciful to the eleventh hour. Fast day 
termon, 1803. Tlie excellence of the 
scriptures. Tlie furnace of affliction. 
Tha blessedness of faith. The interest* 
iog character of Jesus. The one thing 
needful. Ti» deatli of Christ and his 
resurrection, llie close of FEmFs minis* 
try, and his hope asserted. We subjoin 
Ihe following extract as a specio^e^ of our 
Utttbor's manner ; 

. *' Would you have your plan of actk>n de« 
<nded in the whole of your intercourse with 
the wcirid, set his example always betbre you, 
listen to Ins instructions who spake as never 
man spoke. Had he been asked to i^ive you 
his own portraiture, wure you to put the (|ues- 
tion agam, •• Sir, we would see Jesus," j-ou 
will see lum in his own parable of the gtjrxl 
Samarltaii. Whilst the priejit and Levite 
p^ far fmak the scenes at miser>', benevo- 
Lnce draws near ui the person of a good Sa« 
maritan, to the robbed, wounded, dying tra- 
veller ; and, with all the tenderness of com- 
passion, applies the healing balsam to his 
wound, aud prompt relief to his necessities. 
In this scene we s<% national partiality sub- 
sidins, religious prejudices banished, no voice 
heard but that of goodness. Nay, we see 
something mon; ; we see Jesus Chnst as pos- 
aessing that promptitude and that power to 
save the children of men, which ought to 
raise him high in our estimation, and place 
him supreme in our aflections. He came 
\rhen man wa^ in tliis vale of guilt and of 
inisery, and when he saw him he had com- 



DR. Munkhouse does not now appear 
before the public for the first time. Of 
the twenty-five discourses of which these 
Tolumes are composed, several have been 
already submitteil to the judgment of the 
public, and with that judgment tlie author 
16 fully satisfied. He exults in the flat- 
tering reception wluch they experienced, 
tnd &ls himself relieved from a part of 
his apprehensions concerning the estima« 
tion in which the present volunies will be 
held. The style of these discourses is not 
destitute of a certain degree of energy 5 
and the principles which prevail throughout 
discoverafirm and zealous attachment to the 
civil and ecclesiastical establishments of our 
country. ' Concerning the subjects of these 
discourses, and his own sentiments and 
principles, the author thus speaks : 

•' The subjcKis that most freouenlly ocair 
in the ensuing discourses, are such as natimilly 
arose out of those occasional fasts and festivals, 
which have, m the course of the last twelve 



years, been appointed to be solemnized by 
royal proclamation, 'lliese, it isliojjed, breathe 
a spirit of piety and devotion, suited at all 
times to the nature of the service, whether of 
peniteiKC aud supplication, or of praise and 
thanksgiving. Questions also of a political na^v 
tiure are brought under discussk>n ; not from 
any desi^i, hi the breast of the author, to in- 
fusie politics into religion, but, on the same 
principle bv which so close a connexion exi^its 
between church and state, to iniiise religion 
into politk» ; and from an anxious wish to 
promote, to the extent of his abilit}-, tlie inter- 
. ests of his country, and the cause of social or* 
dt»r, by strenuously inculcating the virtues of 
})atriotism and loyaltv, in opposition to those 
plausible, but imposing and deceptious, doc« 
trines of liberty and 'equality, which have of 
late years been advanced with such shan»?U^ 
efl'roiitery, and circulated with a malevolciit 
assiduity. 

'' Inseparably connected with the pro^pe- 
rity of our country b the preservatipn of its 
political constitution, tlie "permanence of its 
establishments, civil and ecclesiastical. Hence 
the author's dislike of republkan tenets, be- 



fitRMONS OK IMPOHTAKT SUaiSCTS* 



m 



eft^aftheirlKMlilitTtothe fonner; and of 

t<ct]nsm»asbein2iiMre immetliatelv injurious 

tetiwbttcr: whJhout a wish, natwiUistauding, 

to retnin ti&e liberty of cUoicC; aad freedom 

of di^'Uttioo, fi^rthcr thaii as such restriction 

nax be nece»saiy to the peace of tiie church, 
and to the safcty of this vniteo kingdom. 
ncreaie, doubtless, virtuous characters under 
cTrtT form of civil government ; and he ven- 
taftft' to reckon, In the number of his friends, 
naav uprigl^ conscientious, good men, whose 
RKguMH tenets are very diiterent from his 

In these volumes we are presented with 
wmefoit samons ; three sermons on occa- 
sion of public thanksgiving ; four preached 
hetoie ditfprent lo^es of freemasons ; 
€Mie before a friendly society 5 one on 
tbc first Sunday in the year ; oue o;i 
tbt sk\'e trade ; one on the opening of 

AiT. XXIV. — Sermons, altered and adapted ta an EnglLih Pulpit, fron^ French fTr tier*. 
Bif Samuel Pai^tridge, M, A. F. S. A. Hear "of Boston, and of ff'igtoft vjtiik 
fttttdrim:, CJiaplai9 to the Right Honourable Lord Gwydir, and late Fellow qf' Mugdatt^ 
i^^l^CfOrford. The Second Edition. 8vo. |ip. 327. 

FEW of the French sermon- writers only to assail such ordinary intrenchmentt. 



St. John*s church 9 one previous to the 
introduction of Merrick* s psalms ; one far 
the benefit of the green-coat charity 
school ) one fur the beneht of the choir 
in St. John's church ; one preached apoa 
the delivering the colours to the royal 
Wakefield volunteers ; and one at Hona- 
gate wliilst they wereupon permanent duty. 
Each di<icourse,is either ** inscribed witk 
the name of a friend or benefactor, or de- 
dicated to some exalted personage : and 
tlms the autlior professes to bav6 alifeo 
indulged the fonduess of affection and the 
feelings of gratitude, and paid a willing 
tribute of respect and admiration to re- 
splendent virtue iu high places." Pref; p, 
xiv. The public prints bave lately an- 
nounced tliat Dr. Alunkhouse has bcem 
preferred to the vicarage qf Wakefield, 



deserve translation, fiossuet ^d Saurin 
have more .of thought, argument^ and of 
that sort of eloquent decoration which 
depends not on tlie language but the idea, 
than their competitors. Flcchier is over- 
rated* in his conntry. Massillon has 4 
brilliant oration on the consecratioti of 
colours. Boordaloqe is ingenious and 
stately, but wants originality and feeling. 
We hare here selections, not from the 
renowned but from the secondary French 
preachers; from the Cambaceres, the 
Ddboses, the Lecointes, and the Do- 
pespes. 

For 2| patriot, it is consolatory to observe 
bow iqferior ta the Jeremy 'taylors, the 
Halls, the Barrows, are these continental 
oiaton ; how much less of leari)ing, of 
sfy\e, of argument, has satisfied, has de- 
lighted, has convinced their hearers, has 
httshed their doubts, has warmed their 
real, has winged tlieir hopes. Well 
might infidelity triumph where it had 



Well might floundering piety des})air, 
whe^e it had oiily such wisps of straw t<» 
catch at. Better surely liad it been ta 
translate those sermons of our cotempo- 
rary Mercier, which have illustrated Ji 
London pulpit and a Ix)ndon press. 

We really cannot find a tolerable ex- 
tract. So much tlie better. These ser- 
mons are probably not intended to be 
read, but to be preached. They are tlie 
fitter for the pulpit, from being likely to 
escape domesdc circulation among the 
audience. Delivered by every-day men, 
tliey may well pass for originaL Listened 
to by every-day men, they may be staid 
out without fatigue ; for they have been 
abridged witliin limits which will accom- 
modate a three-church curate. In tlie 
doctrine there is nothing for orthodoxy to 
wince, or heresy to kick at : it is e\-eTy- 
d3y christiiinity witliout a specific cha- 
racter, little eiu>ugh to live with, much 
enough to diu wit]). 



Aet. XXV. — Txpeke Sermons on important Subjects. Addressed chiefly to the middle and 
lozver classes qf' Society, 8vo. pp. 3j2. 



THE suljects are ; the omnipresence of 
tbe Deity. The cross of Christ. The 
chmtian*s glory. Christianity consistent 
with reason. Christianity not seditious. 
The wisdom and power of God displayed 
in the redemption of the world. The 
uQifersal judgment' On hearing the word 
of God. The love of God. 'Hiedeceit- 
Wness of tHe heart. The equality of 
mankind. The divinity of Joiiu Christ. 
4k|i tpiiitual worship. 



"These sermons," the preacher informs 
us, " have been delivered at different 
times and to difJerent congregations* 
They have been heard wMth deep atten- 
tion, and often with considerable emotion." 
We do not donbt it. All that is excellent 
is- borrowed from our most celebrated 
pulpit orators, witli n© more than a ge- 
neral acknowledgment; and all tlie ori- 
ginal matter is of a sliewy tinsel nature, 
admirably adapted, if weU dttiivered, tu 



i7% 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 



make an impression upon the minds of 
the ordinary class of hearers. Eut we 
must enter our protest against, such lia- 
grant peculations as this anonymous di- 
vine confesses. As large portions of works 
already before the public are thus again to 
be carried through, the press^ they sliould 



be particularly marited, that there niay be 
no danger of their beir»g attributed by 
tliose who have not known them hi thirir 
original form, to the plagiarist in whose- 
pages they are confounded with his own 
matter. Cuique suum. 



Art. XXVI. — Strmans on.the Existence nfthe Drill/, the immorUdihi of the Saul, the j4u^ 
thcnticitij of the Bibie^ and other important subjects. Btj the Heir rend), Adams, J.-M, • 
Alasttr of the Academy at Putney, and Author qf several much-approved ki-^oricat Pub**' 



Heat ions, Bvo. pp. 314. 

IT is not very usual, perhaps, for an 
OHihor to review his own productions j • 
fcut as Mr. Adams is by his own confession 
little else than a compiler, we will allow 
him to be his own reviewer. Hear then : 

'' The following sermons will be very useful 
as a family hook, particularly ^vherc there are 
jxjung jK^ople ; for the sooner they begin to 
Iiave a veiu-ration for the Deify and the chris- 
tian reliffjon, they are the more likely to be 
good members of >oci. ty. They will be more 
dutiful ch lichen, bi-tter servants, better nuLs- 
ters, ami better aoUtiers too. " I fear Ciod, 
and I have no otlier fear,*' is the celebrated 
saying of a great man, who w.is dissuaded by 
his friends from a dangerous undertaking in a 
good cause. 

" It may very naturally be remarked, 
*' tliat nothing new can be said on such sub- 
jects." True. But as the. classical and hU-^ 
torical publications^ of the aulhor liave fallen 
into tlic hands of, at least, one hundred and 
thirt}^ thousand persons, many will be in- 
duced to read the sermons^ because tliey were 
pleased with Yds other literar>' pnxluclions. 

" The excellent writers consulted for ma- 
terials, are Stillingtlett, Abeniethy, Addison, 
Butler, Bryant, Clarke, King, Pearson, I'H- 
1ot:ion, ScoU, Sharp, Baxter, Swift, Sherlock, 



Porteus, - Palcy, Set^d, LanghoTDe, Stcme, , 
Mason, Grant, Burnet, 15arrow, Sherlock, i 
Wjrst, Ray, Derham, Atterbuiy, Blair, and. 
Leland. ^ 

" It may not be improper to add, thatth^re ^ 
is not, in the whole volume, a single senli- *' 
ment contraiy to the doctrinc»s of eitua' 
church established in Oreat Britain.** '] 

The materials which the industrioos- 
compiler has collected, are arranged under • 
the following heads : On the existence of 
the Deity. On the study of the work* of ' 
God. On the inmiortality of the .soul. 
On providence. On the omnipresence 
and omniscience of the Deity. On the 
divine origin of tl^e scriptures. On reli- • 
gious hojie. On the pleasures of religion. • 
On the internal excellency of the diristiau , 
religion. On the government of the 
thoughts. On religious retirement. Ojv 
true wisdom. On consideration. On the • 
character of Jcsn.s as a divine teacher. Oa 
christian benevolence. On the advantagt>» 
of prayer, and pious contemplation. On * 
the resurrection. On the joys of hea\on. 
On the certainty of future happiness. On 
the love of God. On human life, duel* 
ling, and suicide. 



Art. XXVII. — Three Sermons, preaclied at the IFcdncsday Evening Ij-fiurc af Sttlter^'HafK. 
London ; to zchich is added, the Siihstnnce of a Discourse delivered at Maze Pond, South- 
xvar/c, in aid- of the particular Baptist Fund. By James Dore. 8vo. pp. 135. 

THESE Sermons are upon the follow- peculiar excellence. The preadier adopts 



ing subjects : On M»dcsty in prosecuting 
Religious Enquiries. • On tlie proper U*je 
of the Figurative Language of the Scrip- 
tures. On the Spuitual Nature of the 
Crospel, and on the Harmony of ^le Di- 
vine Operations. They are not dcotitute 
Df merit, though not distinguished by .any 



not only the doctrine but the style of the 
old school ; tlie divisions and subdivisions 
artf tediously minute, and tlie studied bre- 
vity of almost every sentenco produces a 
monotony which no powers of delivery wc 
apprehend could reUeve. 



Art. XXVIII. — Tv:o^ Discourses, designed to recommend a general Observance of //« 
Lord* s Supper, i?^ T. Drumaiono. 8vo. pp. 43, 



THESE Discourses are 'weU composed 
and adapted to answer Hhe preaclier's de-- 
f ign.. The origin of the simple and so* 
cial service^, which .is^here recommended 
to geneml observance^ is clearly and justly 
stated^ and. tbe corruptione wJ^ch it iia>.. 



undergone are briefly but satisfurtoriJy 
detailed. The information which these 
discourses convey will be acceptable to 
tliose who may not approve . of all the 
principki o£ the author s creed. 



GAKDIKBR S SEItMOK. 



1^ 



SINGLE SERMONS,. 



^uJttl/ication hy Faith, A Serjnm preached at the Primarv VisitaHon of the 
William, Lord Bishop of Chester, held at Richmond 



kiT XXIX. — ^»o..,.w...i... -^ . ^... 
kidt K^T. Father in God, Henkv fi i^i../i>i«, x../, «, m.^^..^,. .y v.,*.o.c., «c .«. *.* ***.,*/ 
iMlorksUre, Aiis^uat *2'2, 1804, atid published ut his Lordship's request. By John IIead- 
ULM, A. M. Rector ofJf'i/cliJ/'e, 4to. pp. 30. 



TOE preacher has select^ for the sub- 
ject o{ his discourse the enquiry by Job, 
" How shall man bejust with God>". and 
from these words ba.s taken occasion to 
combat, with some ability, that large and 
daily increasing schism in the church, 
which calls itself the True Church qfEn- 
gland, Mr. H. b^ins by stating the 
orthodox 'doctrine of tlie fallen nature of 
flfio, and the reiuedy which has been pro- 
vided. He expresses his astonishment 
ihat, at the present period, any questions 
sse agitated concerning tiie justification of 
the sons of Adam by faith^ and proceeds 
to aiusider what the doctrine of the church 
is apon this subject -, and also the nature 
and ejects of some prevalent errors arising 
from a dillerent interpretation. After a 
very particular examination of the .nature 
aud consec^uencc of iaith, the preaolier ob- 
lenes; 

*'Tliis sc(^«:? then to be the sum of tiie 
doctrine-; oi" our church, founded upon tlie 
authority of Ncripture, on this important sub- 
JKi ; tiit we an." justified by faith alone ; tlidt 
faith means a siinplt- but sincere belief m the 
j5i>.{>f»l of Christ ; that justilication means the 
cbogc which is etTected in us on our becom- 



ing christians, and the difference tlieiice pro- 
duced between -our fallon and our retleenwd 
iiature ; that baptism is the only rite oniaia- 
ed by Christ himself, as the means whereby 
Wii receive Uiis gracious privilege ; tliat wliea 
Nve lire thus justilied in baptism, good works 
are absolutely necessary to make our caJlinc 
and election sure ; that although by faitit 
alone we are justiiicd, we must neverthdesi 
bring tbilh fruits meet for salvatiim, and can 
obtam eternal happiness only by pei'se\'eranoc 
in faith, in hope, aud holiness." 

In a few short observations on tlw na« 
ture and effects of tlie prevalent errors, 
Mr. H. charts tiiose who arrogate to 
themselves the title of tnie churchmen, 
with aftixing nn erroneous n\eaning to the 
word justificatiou, confounding acceptance 
here witli final acceptance at the day of 
judgment} by this means producing an uu- 
scriptural and baneful separation anKxigst 
christians, aud at the same time by their 
denial of die spiritual grace of baptism, 
opening a door to enthusiasm and delit- 
sion. This discourse is well written, and 
cleiu-ly convicts the True Churchmen of er- 
ror ^ but has Mr. H. himself, supported 
•s he is. by Hooker, Waterland, Jones, and 
Paky, discovered the truth ? 



Akt. XXX. — A Sermon, preacJurd before theUni-ctrsiiy ofOjford, at St. Mary\^, mMonr 
<iiy, .Vor. 5, 1804. Bif the Rrs. Henry Fhilltotts, M. yi. of St. Mary Magdakng 
College, and kicar of Kilrnersdon, in the County of Somerset. 4to. pp. 18. 



THE author of this -temperate and welT 
vritien discourse 1ms, of the two events 
by wliich, in the annals of our country, 
ll:« fiflli of November is distinguished, 
chosen for his subject the establishment 
ofkingWilliamlll. on the English tlurone. 
He first takes a retrospective \ iew of the 
principal circumstances in our liistory that 
Tendered some such great crisis unavoida- 
ble, and shews how favotirable, above all 
others, the period in which it did happen 
^3* to the preservation,. both of the peace 
tof the country and the integrity of its con- 



stitution. He then offers some remark? 
on tlie real character ot" tlie e\ent itself," 
affirming, that it was not a revolution but 
a measure devised, and happily accom- 
plished, to prevent a revolution of tiie very- 
worst kind i an awful crisis^ in its conse- 
quences but not in itself, the subject of re* 
jbicing j and he concludes witli pointing 
out some instruction resulting from that 
view of the subject which he has taken. 
The whole is well adapted to promote 
that political ^ moderation wliich tends to 
tlie peace and impiovement of the state. 



Art. XXXI. — The Faith and Hope of the Rixliteous ; a Sermon prenclied at the OclU" 
goa Chapel, Bath, on Sundai/, Dec. 2, 1804, on Occasion of the JMitti of the Rev. Archi- 
JlAU>^L4CLAlKE, />./>. BytheRev.JotnsGARmnEKjV.D. 8vo. pp.39. 



AFTER contrasting the righteous and 
the wicked, strugsUng with adversity and 



at the close of life. Dr. G. passes to tht 
eulogy of the pious and learned subject «^ 



lU Theology and ecclesiastical affairs. 

tbi* fiulesid discourse. This might, we ed td the character of the truly venerable 
think, have been done wich n^re judg- • person, on occasion of whdse dcalii it W3» 
ment, with more feeling, with much coaiposedk 
greater eftect> and in a maimer better suit* 

Art. XXXII.— ilnoc/*, or Ike Jidvmitagcs fif M^h Attainments in Heligion, A Sermon, 
preached at Oranee-street Chapel^ Leiceftter-squarr, London. By William Moseleit, 
Minister qf^ the Taheinacle^ Hemlay, 1 2mo. jip. 3:i. 

THE author of diis discourse sends it 5«ch an indiscriminating use of scripture 
into the world with a desire of promoting we have s<2ldom witnessed. The title- 
personal religion. The end is important, page proclaims the class of christians to 
and the means here employed likely, to a which the preacher belongs, and m whic^ 
certain degree, to accomplish that end. this discourse will be found most accept* 
Many pious observations occur, expressed able, 
ia a forcible and impressive manner^ but 

Art. XXXIIL— ^ Sermon, preached before the Honourable House tf Commons, at ttt 
CImrck of St. Margaret, Westmimtcr, on H^ednendatf, Feb. *iO, 1805, being ike Ifay ^p- 
pointed for a Gtnvral fast. By Charljbs Henry Ball, D.D. Canon of Christ Church, 
Cj^ford. 4to. pp. 133. 

FROM tlie wonis of the apostle Paul surprise, though it may odr indignation, 

m his epistle to tlie Romans, ch. viiL v, that in tliis part of the discourse the 

31. *' If God be for us who can be preacher has omitted the mention 6f that 

against us }** the preacher takes occa- abominable traffic wiiieh is still carried od 

•ion to enumei^ate many of the most visi- upon the blood-stained shores of Africa, 

ble and striking instances of Qod's favour This sermon is, upon the whole, well 

to us as a nation. He next proceeds to written j but neither in style nor senti* 

notice some spots and blemishes in our nieut differs much from the generality of 

national character. It ought not perliaps, sermons on similar occasions* 
ail circumstances considered, to excite our 

Art. XXXrS'^. — A Fast Scrpnon^ preached at the Abbey Church, Bath, on Wednesday^ Feb. 
20, 1 805. PublisJied at the Request qfthe Mayor and Corporation of Bath, and the Colonel 
and otiicr Officers of the Loyal Bath l^oluiUeers, By iJie Rev> Ed m vn d Po vltbr, M. A^ 
Frebendary qfli^incliestcr. 8vo#pp. 33. 

WITH much labour we got through cising their ingenuity in unraveling long 
this uninteresting ill-written discourse ; and intricate periods^ they may here find 
and^ if any of our readers are fond of e&er«- ample amusement. 

Art. XXXV. The fatal Use qfthe Sword : considered in a Sermon preached in St. Philips 
Cimrchf Birmingfuim, on f^'^ednesday, Feb. '20, 1805, tlie Day appointed for a General Fast. 
By the Rev, Sp£ncer Madan, A» M, 8vo. pp. 20. 

THE text chosen by Mr. M. is Matt, the same words, and of which an ample 

xxvi. 52. ** Then said Jesus unto him, account was given in our last volume. 

Put up again tliy sword into his place. These principles are here successfully 

•for all tliey that take the sword shall combated» but Mr. Madan is (perfectly 

penshwith the sword j" and the object right, when he observes in a postscript, that 

he has in view is to confute the princi- they *^ have been noticed by more com- 

pies which Mr. Warner advanced from petent examiners," 

Art.. XXXVI.— TA<f Holy Spirit, the Spirit of Truth ; a Sermon preached at the B<^Uid 
Monthly Association, at Mr. Burnside's pltice of IVorslup, Red Cross-street^ Cripple* 
gate, Feb. 2\, 1805. % James Dore. Publiskea at the Request qfthe Associated m- 
nisters and Brethren. 8vo. pp. 42. 

THE Holy Spirit, says the preacher, is flueuce. Upon the.se three topics Mr. 

the spirit of truth, because he revealed the Dore has enlarged in'such a manner as «ns 

truth, he authenticated the truth, and he can easily conceive was acceptable to the 

^ompanioB the truth with his divine in- congregation assembled as his auditocs. 



BAPTISMAL, FAiTH explained* 



173 



JUt. XXXVn.**-7*^ Progress 1/ Error concerning the Person of Christ ; represented in 
M Sermon, dtUvcred 4U the UniUarian ChapeL in £ssex*stre€t, March 3 1, 1805. By Tho» 
Mis Belsham. 8va pp. 35. 



THE first part of this discourse con* 
bins a very well written epitome of the 
hi<tory of opinions oonceming Christ, as 
It has oeen described more at large by Dr. 
Priesdey. This is followed by some re- 
flections arbing out of the preceding 
view of what tfae preacher deems the 
progress of error respecting the pef-son of 



the Messiah. A prayer appropriated ta 
the discourse and to the occasion on which 
it was preached, i& subjoined. The preach* 
er s hope ' that a double portion of the 
prophet\s* spirit might rest where his 
mantle falls,* aj^ars from thii discourse, 
likely to be realized* 



Aet. Wy^VUh-^Baptij^iiud Faith explained. .4I Sermon, preached before the University 
qf' Cambridge, Aprils, ISUA. 4to. pp. ^0, 



ItiE doctrine of this discourse would, 
we apprehend, be better suited to the 
dnpei in £sae&«street than to the church 
of the oniTersity of Cambridge. 

** It halh been observed, says the preacher, 
in fimwr of the christian religion, that its po- 
litiTeiiiitinitioDS arc not only few m number, 
intt ako m their whole nature perfectly simple 
and intelligibie. The obs^Tvation is certainly 
ji»t in itself ; but how few christians can con- 
sh>taitiy urge it against the adversaries of our 
tiilh, if they are themselves sincere in the re- 
presentation of these institutions which they 
publicly avow > Can the Roman-catholic, 
mho believes tiansubstantiation to be directly 
taught in one of them ? or the protestant, 
who contends that a belief of the doctrine, of 
the Thnitv b expressly required by the 
other? 

" I mean not to insinuate any comparison 
bKvcen these doctrines, or to afhrm the truth 
or £iischood of either. I only mean to ailirni, 

that whoever undertakes to prove the excel- 
lency of the christian revelation from tiie 

plainnes and simplicity of its external rites, 

must be able to shew clearly tliat the doctrine 

of the Trinity, as ^ted in the creeds and ar- 

tJek-s of religion owned by the generality of 

pratestants, hath no better foundation in tiie 

^mn of words used by our' Saviour in the in- 

stitutioD of one of them, than that of transub- 

Hantiatiuo hath in the form of words«used by 

him in the institution of the other, lliis I 

>haii attempt to do in the following discourse, 

Mt mMely for the sake of doin^ justice to the 

vgumcut'advsoiced in fsivour ot our religioa, 

Alt. XXXIX — The Use and Abuse of Re^on in Maltrrs of Faith. A Sermon, preached 
ot St. ChatPs, in ShreXKsbury, at the Triennial Institution qf the Hon, and Ris^ht Rev, 
Janus lord Bishop of Uchfield md Coventry, May 28, 1805. By Samuel Sutler, 
A/. A, Head Master qf Shrewsbury Scfiool, and late Fello:v qf St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge. 12010. pp. 22. 



from the perfect simplkrity of its positive oidi* 
nances, but for the higher purpose of ascec« 
taining tliat faith which is made necessary bj 
Christ and his apostles, to entitle a person to 
the name and privileges of a christian. Tliat 
some faith is necessary cannot be denied; but 
what that particular faith is, hath long been 
matter of great dbpute among chnitian^ 
themselves," * 

Of this faith Mr. T. thus sums up his 
account : 

*' Let hs not then be ashamed of the pure 
^p(?l of Christ. The belief of it consists not 
in beli«*Ang any other doctrine but that of 
eternal life, by the remission of sins and a re* 
surrectiou from the dead, tiuough the^maa 
Jesus Christ, the righteous Saviour anct dc»-^ 
tined- I»rd of niankmd. Neither our chrts- 
tiaii privileffes nor christian duties, depend oa 
any other faith. ^\'hat higher privilege can 
we enjoy, than that of being children of God ? 
which is secured to us by our faith in Jesus 
Christ: by that faith, whether we have been 
Jews or C« entiles, we are all the cliildren of 
God. What higher duty is enjoined us than 
that of conqueiinfi: the worid ? What nobler 
victory can be gained by any faith ? * And 
who,' says the apostle, ' is he that over- 
cometh the worid, but he that believeth that 
Jesus is tlie son of God ?" 

How general must have been the ex- 
clamation as the astonished gownamen re- 
turned to their home?,— ' We have heard 
strange tilings to-day 1* 



MATTERS of ^tb, says Mr. B. may 
be considered as of tliree kinds. They 
ue either matters of historic fact and rea- 
lon only, as that there was such a person 
« Jesui Christ, the history of whose life 



was written by his disciples, and is pre« 
served to us ; of they are matters of fact 
and revelatiin onhf, as that Jesus Christ 
was the son of (iod from all eternity; 
or they are matters of consequence, dedu« 



,^ The Bev'. T. Lbdsey, the founder of the chapel in Essex-street 



iTd 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 



cible from both the former. With the 
first of these learning is altogether ; with 
the second, in no degree ; and witli the 
third, partially concerned. Upon these 
principles the preacher censures all dis- 
putation upon tlie doctrines of election 
tuid reprobation, and the Trinity. But he 
has neglected the very important circum- 



stance, that these doctrines are discnst^ 
and by some rejected, not becaase they 
are above human reason, but because they 
are not to be found in the word of God. 
By tliose therefore, for whose benelit wt 
suppose the discourse before us was in- 
tended, the preacher's reasoning will bv 
considered as altogether irrelevant. 



Art. XL. —Tfie Umty qf the Christian Body stated, A Sermon preacktd in LamhtA \ 
Clmpel, on the 2Sth of April 1805, at the Consecration of the Right Rev. Htmrtj Bathnntf^\ 
LL, D. Lord Bishop of Norudch, and published at the Command of His Grace /M*^ 
Jj9rd Archbishop of Canterbury. By Richard Prosser, A Z>. Prebendary of Dux^ \ 
ham,"Ak.o, pp. 19. " 

A temperate but not a ver)' forcible defence of religious establishments j from h 
Sph. iv. 15, l6. 

ArI*. XLI. — A Funeral Oration, to the Memory of His Rot/al Highness the late Dute tf 
Gloneester and Edinburgh*, delivered at Grosvcnor C/uipel, Grosvennr Sguure, on Sundmi 
the Sth of September, 1805. By the Rev. T. Baseley, A. M. Chaplain to the Rigk ^ 
Rev. the Lord Bishop of Lincoln, 4to. pp. 23. 

COMMON place declamation, and one uniform tissue of ' pompous notliings/ 

Art. XLII. — The Origin of Sovereipi Poxver, and the Lawfulness of Defensive fTar. ' 
A Sermon preacfted in tlte Church of All Saints, If ainfteet, in the Cototty of Lincoln^ on i 
Tuesday y June 4ih 1805, to tlie Ifuinjiect Corps ofToluntetr Infantry, Jiy the Rev. Pe- 
ter BuLMER, A. B. 8vo. pp. 29. 

WE have had occasion formerly to 
•ommend Mr. BuJnier as an animated and 
& patriotic preacher, and that commenda- 



tion is further warranted by this discourse. 
We cannot sj^eak of him with equal praisf 
as a politician. 



PRACTICAL THEOLOGY. 



Art. XLIII.— .^ Guide to Heaven : seriously addressed to all 'who believe the Gospel to k 
the irord of God, By the Rev. C. S. Hawtrey, v(. B. Vicar ofH'idston, Monmouth- 
shire. 8vo. pp. 172. 



THIS little work has been composed 
e\'idently with the best intentions, but, we 
fear, riot altogether in such a manner as to 
secure tlie accomplishment of the author's 
J>iou3 wishes. Feeling, as he .informs us, 
an earnest desire, seconded by tbe impe- 
rious call of duty, as a minister of the 
gospel, to impress his fellow-creatures 
with a sense of the great importaiKe of a 
practical obedience to all its laws ; and 
convinced that, after what has been so. 
ably but so ineiFcctually written upon the 
subject, no arguments which he could use, 
no exhortations wliich he could utter, 
would be likely to avail— he determined 
to collect the numerous and urgent pre- 
cepts of practical piety which the gospel 
contains, and arrange them under proper 
heads. In this little Volume therefore, 
we have exhibited at one view the* greatest 
part of what the scripture directly teaches, 
concerning forgiveness. and mutual love j 



the duty of prayer, cove tousness, and 
wordly-mindedness j temperance and clias* 
tity, humilit}^ justice, honest}', and tmtbf 
swt^aring and blasphemy 3 repentnna^j 
the Lord's supper ; charity to the [xwr j 
fortitude in adversity ^ conjugal Jove ; 
parental and filial love j masters and ser- 
vants J obedience to goveriiorsi, and con- 
duct of .tiie <;lerg)% 

Every collection is followed by what is 
called an appfication ; but this is in several 
instaaces so short, and so deficient in 
energ}', as to produce no effects. We are 
convinced that a selection of this kind 
might be made eminently usefu\, but it 
should be formed by a person of judge- 
ment, of taste, and, at the same time, 
mighty in the scriptures. The precepts 
should be arranged as much as possible in 
some connected order, and closed or fol- 
lowed by something more than unmean- 
ing exclamations. 



Akt. XIAY. --The Holy Family ; being a complete Provision of Domestic Pielv, Intchid 
are Reflection^ qn £ducation, Prayer in its Public and Private Duties, and an Exhor 



fiSSAY 0!( Tfie XEPOHMATtOM OF tir^HEl. 



Ml 



tatum to the Sacrammt as Essential to Salvation ; to xvhich are add d Morning and 
EtcniMg Prayersjor I-amUies, ^c. ^c, Btj the ii^v, T. Oakley, ^. M. 8vo. pp. 116. 



THE title of this strange work will give 
cor readers some notion of its contents, it 
is for us to shew theai the value of this 
volume : we cannot do this better than by 
dting the author to ^peak for hhnself : 

" Christy in tlie lir>t view of his hcavehly 
povers, h the ris*.'n sua oi a new world, a lii- 
: mioary, uncoutined by nature, and expands 
through the ioliuily of Sjiacc : 1 am come 
* hght into tiic tvorid,' ui whom the morning 
dawns of the everiaNting day. — p. 91. 

♦" Christ is our propitiaikm, and liis niercici 
tendered in the latent hour ; but the hojie of 



glor}* is tlie fair penitent's, and to the inipeni-* 
tent no remission of sins. p. 9^. 

" Heaven is the maitiage of salvation, and 
its many mansions a court where guests throng 
from everv clime ; and angels hail tliL nup' 
tials Oi Christ, and his sjx)U84; tlie church ; 
his joys are the fallings that arc killed ; h\i 
diimer, everlasting lire. — p. y8. 

•• O! hallowed blood of Christ, bfuse 
thy vitaP powers into my soul, and through 
ever)' vein ol my body !"— p. 1 13. 

This, and much more like it, issues 
ftpm the university press of Oxford ! ! 



Arr. XLV. — A Br irf Treatise on Death, Phihs \ihicalhj. Moral fh, and PfactlcaUy con- 
sidered. By KoBK&T P'ellowes, A. AL Ox on. 12mo. pp. 134. 



THIS treatise is inscrllied to tlie me- 
mory of the lady Harriet Fitzroy — by the 
death of >vlioni, we conjecture, this va- 
feabie little work was suggested. The 
•entiments it contains are sucli as on dif- 
ferent occasions, and by different writers, 
hare been before inculcated j but tJiey 
replaced by Mr. F. in an interesting and 
impressive point of view, well adapted. 



according to hi:s puqiose, to reclaim th« 
thoughtless — to alarm the wicked — to in- 
crease the hoj)e of the righ teems — to cheer 
the dying — and to comfort the afflicted 
mounier. To those who belong to any 
of these classes of j>ersons, we earnestly 
recommend this pious and instructive per* 
forniance. 



ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 




never before printed ; twenty-eight ser- 
mons 3 expo.^ition of tlie creed, the Lord's 
prayer, and ten commandments f dis. 
C()urses on Matt. xxii. 37, 39. ; on Heb. 
viii. 10. ; and a short catechism. The 
prefhce by Dr. Doddridge was originally 
prefixed to an edition of the archbi^hop*9 
works, publisiied at Edinburgh in 1748, 
by Mr. D. \N'ilson. The life which ac- 
comp.inies the pre^ent edition, written by 
Mr. £. Middleton, is one of the worst ar- 
titles of biography we ever perused. 



ARCHBISHOP LEIGHTON was a 
man of considerable note hi his day, and 
Ms works have always been regarded -as 
valuable, on account of the spirit of piety 
that pervades them. The present collec- 
tion, which professes to be complete, con- 
tains his practical coimneutary on the lirst 
epistle (rf Peter 5 expository lectures on 
ft. xxxix.3 Is. vi. ; and Rom. xii. j several 
charge*, &c. to tlie clerg}' of the diocese of 
Danbhme ; seven letters on difterent occa- 
Uttis } rules and inbtnic^ions for a holy 
i£le^ MDoe biaitorical facts in his life, 

AiT.XLVIi.— iAj:.,iff;/ on the Spirit and Influence of the Reformation of luther ; tfie 
Ifork a/wcA Ol^ained the Prize on the ittujifion Proposed in 1.S02, by the National Jn^ 
shtiOe of J'nsHce ; ' ff'/tut has been the Jnfiuence of the Htformwion of Luther <^n the 
P^ic^ situaiion qf the dijt't rent States of Europe, and on the Progress qf Knowledge r 

! f^im a Sketch of the History of the Church, from its Ponnder to tfi€ Rrformation ; in- 

I tejW at an Appendix to the B'orlc. By Charles \ illers. Jrunslaled, and lUus- 

I tntedwith Copious Notes. By James Alilt, JSsq. 

lAlT-XLYUI.— £«rfl7/ on the Spirit and Influence of the Reformation by LiUher, ^c. ' 
! faat&fklty Translated Jrom the tost Paris Edition. By B. Lambert. 

I ACAI>EMIES may propose wiseques- wise answers. Tliey send abroad a qti«s- 
l«»s, bat tbey are not likely to receive tion which requires Ions: study and hi\z 
j A«».REy..VoL.IV. N •. .. * 



m 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 



thought, sfnd fix a day for the reply, later 
than which none can be received. It is 
very well for booksellers to do this> ^ose . 
journeymen bring home their work as 
punctually as the taylor and the shoe- 
maker, but any thing better than journey* 
work b rarely to be had for bespeaking it 
To the solution of a great historical ques- 
tion much previous knowledge and fbie- 
thought is necessary ; they wiio have ac- 
quire this knowledge are not likely to 
give the result in a manner prescribed for 
them ; they who have it not can produce 
nothing that is valuable. Coll<^ essays 
are one degree above school-boys' themes, 
and academical essays one degree above 
them : the candidates have to read for the 
subject ; they are volunteers who most be 
driUed, not soldien ready for service ; in- 
jitead of feeding the mind th^ cram it, as 
turkeys are served beting Christmas, and 
all that comes forth is crude and mdigest- 
ed : the understanding has had no time to 
concoct and assimilate what has been 
stuffed in. The Teylerian society has not « 
yet decided any one of the disputed points 
of theology, and all the poets who have 
emulonsiy contended for the profits of 
Mr. Beaton's Kislingbury estate, have not 
done quite so much honour to Cambridge 
as Edmund Spenser, who could not get a 
fellowship there, or as John Milt(»i, who 
was whipt across the buttery hatch.-— 
Prize rams and prize oxen may be had at 
reasonable notice, but the attempts at 
rearing prize poets and prize philosophers 
do not ^eem to have succeeded so well. 

All rules, it is said, have the'u* excep- 
tion, and we are truly pleased, that fortu- 
nately in tliis case, the exception lies be- 
fore us. Of all countries in the world we 
should least have expected a satisfiuitory 
dissertation on this subject firom France, a 
land wherein rational religion seems never 
to have been known, and of all times least 
should we have expected it at the present, 
when Bonaparte, most probably a bigoted 
cathollp himself, hus restored eatholicbm, 
shorn of its beams indeed, but still the 
same in spirit, still with transnbstantifltion 
and auricular confession, a Latin service 
and a celibate clergy. But France is 
liardly entitled to the credit of this work: 
she sent the seed indeed, and has received 
the firuit of the tree,, bat the tree itsetf 
was reared and thefi:uit matnred in a bet* 
SsrooontT'. ; ^. Villers is (German in his 
studies*, his opinions, and his philosophy* 
He isa pupil of Eickhom's schoot, and he 
hSs lesmt in Chat school a theology which 
no QtbvTfioaU have taught bim« 



It augurs well for France that the 
tional institute should have proposed 
a. question, still better that ueysl 
have awarded the prize to so truly lil 
and enli^ten^ an essay. A very 
markable sentence occurs in the 
mencement of the work : M* ViUen 
serves that the subject regards both 
gion and politics, which he calls the 
cardinal points <^ the lifo of mani ' 
qf ike fnt frerogad^ci t^ Uber^, i§ 
jwvcr'qffmaiid unconshtantd 
•a thote in^cTtaM subjects, and in 
cmmtry duu power is dxrcised, vfi 
th€U country it free.' 

With the opinions of the German 
ters M. ViUers has caught a little 
much of tbdr method; thdrover 
tod^ for anaDgement---of their 
and saoond-ii^ dividing and subdi^ 
sorting and separating. Order is an 
cellent thing, but these which are the 
remonials of order may well be " 
with. There is no necessity to label 
sonings if they follow in natural 
He employs also too mUch tinoe in < 
ing the road along which his procesacn i 
to pass ; this ought to be done, hot 
should be done before people are 
bled to see the show. It is right that 
himself should perfectly understand 
limits of his subject, but it was bj 
means necessary that the r^den 
Walk the bounds with hiih. All that 
of the first section, which is to show tk4 
every cause is itself an effect of 
other cause, till you arrive at a first cacnd^ 
is mere matter , of amplification ; M 
mouthful of froth which disaj^poiflli 
him who would drinker 

The second section is upon the essenct 
of reformations in general ; here the au- 
thor speaks of what are the hopes of msn^^ 
kind/and he speaks rationally, religioosiy/ 
rightly. 

** Do we th^ ||ive permlsnon folum vte^ 
contemplates the history of the hmnaii rMb« 
to a^ of himself whither tends that aicce** 
skm of tvmultuouft events, of commotkflM 
and of transmutatioQS in Uiings and h €fti 
nions ? Let him give free scope to hismM 
in pursuing the end of so many pragroRie^ 
revolutions. Hecan find it only m the aibiime^ 
idea of a stale of things^ to which the deskiBl*.^ 
tioB of the whole human race being foBf j 
consummated, all their physical and iiionl4 
powers havng attained their hidtfAdq^reeifti 
impcevenient, mankind would be as good».tt * 
wise, and as happy as the original qualiiiei i 
of their nature pennit. Net that ft caabeH 
demoMtrated that this aoldeni^of BMii»T^ 
latf^ this nifllfmnim oC pjotosophji » m 



28SAT OK THB RftFOSIlA^TZOy OF LUTBAR. 



179 



Were blended with them At last the light 
burst forth anew on all sides. During three ' 
ages, since its appearance, it has spread, and 
made a progress hitherto unexampled. 1 he 
illumination of Athens and of Rome is re- 
stored, not only throughout Europe, but at 
Philadelphia and Calcutta. Rome, and A- 
thens, which our knowledge and our arts would 
astonish, would admire also the philanthropy 
of Europe, which glories in the feelings of 
humanity, and allows not slavery to exist on 
its soil. Such are the efTects which have re* 
suited fix>m the dismal itaundatioa of the bar- 
barians in the fbuith centuiy; and in this 
manner does time at last vindicate the ways of 
Providence, whose power during the course 
of one or even of several generations appears 
sometimes entirely to have remitted its action. 
It behoved me bo make choice of this exam« 
p!e, because the apparent downfal of human 
nature, during the long interval of barbarity 
in th« middle ^es, is ffeneraliy the favourite 
theme on which the adversaries of perfectibi* 
lity descant in recommendation of their pwrn 
doctrine." 

The metaphysics of^this section cod« 
ceming the body and spirit of human in* 
stitutions m^ht well have been spared. In 
the following we arrive at the real subject 
of the essay : it contains a sketch of the po« 
litical, religious, and literary state of Enrope^ 
at the beginning of the l6th century, and of 
the political ef&cts which the reformation 
produced, such as breaking down the 
power of Austria, which would else have 
destroyed the liberties of Germany, es- 
tablishing the independence of Holland, 
and in fact that balance of power which it 
has been the object of all statesmen sinco 
to preserve. 

Conjectures foUow r^rding what w«uld 
have happened if the reformation had not 
taken place. The state of society in Austria, 
in Spain, and in Italy, answers the question. 
Fanaticism would every where have con* 
timied to make bonfires of reformers and 



as the dream of ^Qantbropy ex* 
ft to our own imaginatbn. But in the 
d BttOt m those of society, we cannot 
[fCRdring a tendency towards the bet- 
tNords an order of things more just^^ 
hnefioert, in which the rights of every 
better ooarded, and thosie rights more" 
dividea. Let us c;rant that absolute 
will never be me lot of mortals ; 
M the same time, let us acknowledge 
Hispcrfectkn forms the ideal object of 
hMe, that it is a want, a demand of 
^iKelkctual nature. It is not clear that 
'" ever arrive at it ; but it is certain 

T' « to it. Peiadventure the phe> 
the geometrical asymptote is 
to be repeated in the moral world, 
; we diall fc>r ever approximate tp the 
vilhout being able, to touch it 
iVf to oar tune the species has made 
|m ; it is credible that am successors 
bthe ame. Greece and Italy, barba- 
SlUidr cariv agp, were fiv behind Greece 
kafy in the brilliant dajys of their imjK-ove- 
L Batr however enunent, in many re- 
i^that improvement may have been, it 
iseaTiar to each of those nations, and ex- 
(ewith regard to the rest It bebixged 
edtizca of Athens, to the citizen of > 

Bit bdcmged not to man. All the 
^ th e globe was bom to an inheritance of 
inty, and slavery, of practical slavery, 
tfh a few millions of men. Was im* 
(Bent to be confined for ever to a few 
fio a narrow comer of the earth ? .Were 
likns of human beings who vegetated 
fcstore-faottse of nations between me Obi 
h Elbe to remain eternal stranffers to it, 
b be for ever only the swor&uen or 
j^ibves of the privileged orders > No ; 
iSRirediy ! Among them too the dis- 
IP of light was to take ^lace ; an inter- 
jivas to he formed by which the spirit of 
iia aad of Achaia was to be carried to the 
bna Chersonese. To accomplish this 
I it was accessary either that the small 
Icr of people with whom improvement 
Uodaed should subdue innumerable na- 
Rapa penetrate to the remotest comers of 
awt mrtaat re^ons ; or that the mass of philosophers, and pederasty to* walk abroad 
dtrrated nations should conquer the small in purple* Bigots would have persecuted 
Mr, aod become hicofporated with them, in stupid sincerity, and mitred atheists 



leaativepboe of iUuminatkm. After the 
sf those means bad been tried, aod the 
had penetrated as &r as was oonsbt- 
^a power aad a virtue worthy of eternal 
Mn^tbesecood, more natural, was set 
^ the mysterious Arbiter of human 
the diikten of the north poured 
es out upon the south of Europe, and 
sittcuowndaricness along with them. 
B9 SMcaied to come again. Scstcehr 
Wd theie a feeble nark of fight appear- 
like a^nl^t f/kim vhKh lasted the 
^INpartkned to thelofsign mass which 
Htved. TcnagBofferaaentation were 
Id aswmjlate aio many hetemgene* 
^ to the better iagredioits which 



have made a common cause with them 
against honesty and truth. Some valuable 
facts are mentioned in this chapter which 
show that though the giant Pope b by 
reason of age, and also of the many shrewd 
brashes that he met with in his younger 
days, * crown crazy and stiff in his joints/ 
he doth still ' sit in his cave's mouth» 

frinning at pilgrims as they* go by, and 
iting hts naUs because he cannot come at 
them.' The holy see has not to this hour 
recogmsed the king of Prussia. £very 
year the pope still doth * etcommunicate 
and anathematize, on the part of God Al- 



leO 



nrz.JlOOY A^O) ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS. 



a::-! .«. v^ en r»:r' csx. 'St.' i:<'tJjc T^rr.ii.t 

tii:se -k.-j, f J.-*- tie iimrL- .-e. :n2> -'i', 
an: i>:r^jiii^ jirrr^sj *' >L»r?-n L-tbcr, 

a^ ^_i. ftad ihc >^.Ii ::' L-- %. ! >: n .-., 

carry -- *:ji ti«rn: inj c^" •/*>?> p- - f^^nr, or 
c.^:i ;r::'T firi . ts. Trie bi^.--n:riii of 
L^ Jr.- *, 2 / 11* CTp— ri z J* the Mi>- 
riiw^i---- ,__ <r 'rce:^ ;*iril rjci is Germany 
u ,.>r .-iT. iz:;.^"! Xe»er lei it be 
c •-• ri T^.^ ii «i.-x-? Ds-y MeJeji were 
r. J — p iije cr.trT c^i r-'ni, he wiHild 

aCfci 2i> r ^_cti-tji Trrr :ii erer. M. Viiiers 
sir> iz. CT* of b^ r-cnes, • a str'kla^ xnona- 
ibtIjC ci the hmjor.!/ which neni.'ioeJ in 
CxrboLk Gencjar at The eiul cf the eigli- 
tet^ih ceacurr cs.lst< in tbe narration of 
the A^v£^t:rvs of >L Si*had, which has 
bcesi pcl.-ahed br iLit gentleman, profe>s- 
cr of pi^lai^TCiy inth^* uniFori'tyof Jena, 
viu mi K^rcierij been a Bencrdictiiie 
floci^k in the <XL.%e3t of Bjnz, whence he 
iGiie h-5 esc2.»e, f>nunjtely for hirn^ejf 
acii i-yr piJio«vYJy, ubich he s»till cuJti- 
^jirt w'.ih >:Lxcess. Yet tht^ monks of 
Baaz were re^rded as the i.c'-ti of catho- 
lic Ger.^iiiijy. It wo^Id be uinicult to be- 
iiet-e tl« e\ce>5 of ibrir stiperntiiion, if it 
were n.ic <5eNcnbeu by an eye-witno>5, and 
ODe who had himself been concerned in 
it.' It might be rcadering wnie servite 
to thi» counbT to translate the book thus 
Sfv4^ea of. B:^hop Gardiner has still his 
admirers in Ei^land ; convents have been 
re*e&tal>Ii>hed here in dedance of the law of 
the land, and the children of protectant 
puents perverted, and induced to enter 
theni- Howe\er we ha\'e been accustom- 
ed to hear the present time called die age 
of reason, and the age of intidelity^ it is 
more tnUy an age o( superstition. 

With this en«]uir)' the first or introduc- 
tory part of the ess:iy coiKludcs. Tlie se- 
cOnii, which bears lor its general title * iu- 
iijaence of the i-efvimiaiion ,-coramences with 
u ch.i;>:cr upon the political situation of the 
states oi Europe. ' Mens, agitat niolem* is 
the motto. Almost inwiediateJy after Lu^ 
tKer lud raised ilie ^unJard of re\olt, tlie 
po[K*> lose half the einpi/e, more than half 
J>vviiir.cvli«>d, all Denmark, Sweden, Hol- 
liiiui; nud England i the xi^sources n^l^iph 



iLey sapplied to Rome wt-re instnntl^ 
off i n /r was ilic succesaor of St. ' 
any loiiger the trecieiidous power I 
been, e\ en in those kingdoms whi« 
p."esen^ their feith. Instead of j 
tue hw be M-as now compelled to 1 
it. he >Aai now obliged to regulate j 
rtf jrm as tlje courts of Vienna or I 
or L'jS a found convenient 3 and la] 
ti.n^ri to d^bj!id his Janizaries, 
tri<ri and disciplined band. As lujj 
Grciined, the political in£ueuce ofcj 
Djeii lied away also. Richelieu ; 
zaiine are only exceptions. A 
manners was foired upon tlie ch 
the n-formation ; it lias had do 
since } nor was it possible longer ! 
c!-. -^»' to r-*maiu in their brutal 1 
i^n-^rauce ; when they could not 1 
iuTCi they were compelled to tryj 
men;, llic Je^uits stirted up, and t 
bad its age of learning, for which asii 
it is indebted to tlie reformat ion. 
woiiid have been no Laynez if 
been no Luther, no Baroiiius had ^ 
been no cenluriators at Magdenb 
Bellarmine and Bossuet Jiad there I 
protestants. 

The reformation furnishes 
parallel to the political fernienta 
later times. Oi the protestant 
M. Villers s.iys, * what the raost i 
nent danger (^t" tlie state could nol| 
obtiiined trom individuals, zeal for i 
o'juined witli ease. For the artists, 1 
ers, peasants, ran to arms, and no 
of ihem thought of murmmmg at( 
thrice as heavy as those which they^ 
taiucd before. In die violent ag 
inti» which die danger of religion 
the mind, people oftered goods and \ 
and they perceived not the eflbrts ( 
burdens widi which they would iiaye^ 
sidered themselves oppressed in a 
calm situation :' substitute king and { 
stitutiou for religion; and this is tl^i 
ture of our associations, and lives-and 
tunes men. Prodigious power was 
thrown into die hands of those proti 
pi-inces, who, like our Elizabeth, \ 
how to use it; and on the other had 
the struggle in catholic countries betwel 
the clcrg}' and the crpwn ceased for e^ 
and the one leagued itself wltli the ot&l 
for the comiuon vbject of deceiving a 
oppressing tlie people^ of enslaving thai 
body and soul. 

IM. Villers briefly notices the jacolniKiil 
of the relbrmation. We find, he styi 
among some of the extravagant secb, I 
that of th^ anabaptists, the same pretd 



15SAT OV THR ilEPOBMATIOW OF tUTHEJT. 



I8jr 



H fo absolute equality and iiberty, as 
K*iiich gave occasion to all the ex- 
es or ihe jacobins in France. Agra- 
Jaas, the plunder of tlie rich, formed 
of their doctrine also : and on their 
fcrdh raighthave lieen already written, 
IT with castles, and peace with cot- 
C ^Ve hiu e hi t>ur pv)ssi'hsion, a rare 
ciirious book, from whence the pa- 
rt may be continued. * It is the very 
^teofcomon people, namely of tiiese 
lynes, tkit wh;ii so ever they be per- 
ided nnto, agreablc to theyr;affections, 
Sy shal be ready, in a sodeyn gyere, to 
X>mplysh ; regardying nother daunger, 
conimoditc, though sone after they 
It tlieyin. And lyke as the people of 
11 brought th« jeweUes x)f their 
and chyldern to the makyns;e of 
gvilden caltc 5 so d j-d they brynge theyr 
'lies, bcades, ry'iges, outches, with 
y, both gold aad sylver, to the cora- 
i hutches so hai^ouudantly for this pro»- 
w, ih'Jt men doubted, iu some jjlace, 
icdier they had poore folke sijihcieiit to 
sume so excedynge heapes of ryches. 
> this dont was sone made a phi)'n 
! J for within a whyle after, the ar- 
te heat of theyr lyberali dviv(x:ion 
Led cold J and because tliey contynued 
styil in br)'ngynge in theyr oblations, 
hutches and coffers were.jemptye ere 
en vyst it. llien whyles ft was com- 
leed what waye mygiite l>e beste taken 
the preservation of tliis ordynaunce. 
Bite it shuld decaye, to xheyr confusion 
It began it j some gave counsell that it 
ilde be neces-sarye to depryve the 
g)' of theyr goodes, and to dysuibute 
possessions, landes, and rentes, 
ig lay people, and to throwe downe all 
isteries, and churches, makying coyftc 
!<rf crosses, chalesses, and other sscred 
Jeveh, for the sustentation of the poore, 
» they alleged.'* 

M. VilJers does noj^do justice to these 
Jacobins of the refoi-niation. Voltaire 
msj and says truly, of tlie manifesto which 
^Muncer drew up for them, that it might 
''nave been signed by Lycurgus. It is a 
»y«pm, says Robert Robinson, of justice, 
tirtoe, and happiness ; and so equally dis- 



tributed, that it is impossible to know any 
thing more of the religion of tlie authors, 
tiinu tliat they were christians, who held 
tliemselves bound to make the holy scrip- 
tures the rule of their actions. And h« 
bids us cociipnrc their memoriiil with the 
Augsburg confession J eacli article o' which 
Jbegins with docaity and ends with damnant. 
They desen-ed a niore resjx!ctful mention, 
in spite of the excesses to which they were 
induced by madmen, who can, in all ages 
and all countries, find followers enough. 
When we execrate the excesses of the 
peasants in Germiuiy, and of the jacque- 
rie in France, the heaviest portion ot the 
curse should M upon the oppressors who 
provoked them. The insun-ections in our 
own country, under Wat Tyler and John 
IJall, were disgraced by no such enormi- 
ties. England was free from tli^e reproach 
of national cruelly till tlie accursed pro-- 
ceedings in Ireland. 

Notwithstanding, however, the war of 
the peasants, Germany was infinitely in- 
debted to the* reformation. It served 
( 'oarles V. as a pretext for attacking those 
states of the empire which were hostile to 
his ambitious projects, and he probably 
regarded it as a happy circumstance. But 
it gave them tenfold strength ; it united 
them in an indissoluble bond of union ; 
the liberties of Geruiany were saved 3 and 
. the consequence is — that there is now 
broad sunshine in Saxony, and candle-light 
in Austria — ^that wiiat Eickhorn publishes 
at^Gottingen is prohibited at Vienna. This 
very essay M'iJl, no doubt,, be included in 
the list of prohibitions, and it \y> not our 
fault if the Annual Review be not tliought 
deserving of the same hououri 

M. Villers asserts, that Prussia owes 
much of its popularity, and nrnch of its 
success, to it.H religion. In Silesia, and 
in all the Austrian dominions, tlie num- 
ber of secret protestants, the descendants 
of those who had fought for freedom of 
coiLscieuce, under Zisca and Procopius, 
was very great. Prussia is every where - 
held up iu this volume as the Ormuzd, 
and Austria as the Mrinian, of Germany. 
I'he Uanslator makes some foolish objec- 
tions to this, which is the prevailing teeU 



I • The little volume from which this has been extracted is entitled, ' A Dialoge, describmg 
'^ ftcOngiiallGroimd of these Lutheran Faccions,and many of their abuses. Compiled by 

SyrWiiliafnBarlowe, Chanon, late Byshop of Bathe. Anno 1553.'— There had been an 
• tarfier editkm. I conceive this volume to be singularly rare ; it was certainly not knoMrn to 

thevrtiterof Sir William's life in the * Biographia Britannica.' Possibly he himself endva- 
[ jonred to suppress it, wlicn he thought lit to swun with the stream, rt?sign his house to lienry 
L \ 111. lakean active part in th«; divorce, and accept one of the new bisheoricks. It is a well- 
tvnitBi book; the product ipn of a cool, prudent, sensible maiv vho felt hmiself well otf, 
I afid <i,(i QQ( wi$h for any clianges m the state of affairs. 



282 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS^ 



lag throughout all the North of Germany ; 
but he states truly, that Prussia, liberal 
aod enlightened as its government is, is 
still a tmnny, and if the sceptre of Fre- 
derick-William should descend into the 
hands of a fool, or of a bigot, it would be- 
come, in practice^ what it already is in 
theory. There is, however, this security, 
that Prussia owes much of its ppwer to its 
popularity, and if it cease to be the head 
of the enlightened par^« it would cease to 
be formidable. 

In Denmark, the spoils of the cleigy 
fell to the nobles. Gustavus Vasa availed 
himself, in Sweden, of tlie reformation, 
to strengthen his own power ^ — ^his great 
successor saved the liberties of Germany ; 
but Sweden lias, from that day, declined. 
There is, however, something vital in the 
country 3 — ^its sovereigns have always been 
remarkable : — that &w of nature which 
produces what the Germans call kakkerlar 
kens, seems not yet to have begun its ac* 
tion there^ 

What relates to Switzerland is admir- 
ably said : 

*' Republicans and ardent friends of liberty, 
as were the Swiss, they should, in appearance, 
have flown to meet a reformation. Seven 
eantons, however, remained catholic; and 
another thing remarkable is, that the cantons 
Which wefe most decidedly rq>ubUcan, were 
of ^that number. This pnenomenon is not 
easy to explain by those who are not well 
acquwnted with the local circumstances. It 
has been already obserVed, that the catholic 
religion neither is nor can be in all places the 
same ; being modified in different situations, 
by the nature and circumstances of each. 
The Catholicism of the little cantons of 
Schwitz, Uri, and Underwald, precisely be- 
cause it was established among those moun- 
taineers, naturally republican, had assumed 
e form agreeable to their character, aod bent 
itself to their maniters. The imagiaaUon, 
besides, of the iuhabitants of mountains is 
lively, and receives.a strong impression from 
external objects. A worship, therefore, 
clothed witb many forms and ceremonies, 
must naturally please them better than one 
more simple and severe. Here had lived the 
foundei*i of Helvetic liberty ; and the memory 
of aU the events, and of all the great charac- 
ters of that epoch, were intimately associated 
in their fancy with the catholic worship, and 
its cerenK>ni^. The fields of famous battles, 
the acts of their ancestors, were On their soil 
designated, not by obelisks, but by chapels. 
Who lias travelled in Switzerland, and not 
been to see the chapel of William Tell ? A 
species of idolatry, a national fanaticism, was 
excited in the little cantons by this mixture of 
the worship of liberty with that of religion. 
Such, even at this day, is their Catholicism. 




They do not even conceive that thpreie m 
other. The abuses of the church had flcaceil 
been felt among them. The Popes scanei^ 
exacted any tnmite tif those poor n 
taineers ; aod their pri<sts, being tiie 
persons ai any information in their ^ ~ 
and towns, acquired, and have still pre 
a gp>eat ascendancy in the deliberatkait^ 
their assemblies, and in all their afiairs. 
to this, that knowledge bad made lessf 
aniong them than amon^ thdr rich a 
the plains; and that, havug already 1 
these, as it were, the present of liberty, i 
were not in a temper to let them] 
them a change in iheir religion.." 

Geneva also occaston« siame ex< 
remarks. " It may be truly 
says M. Villers, " that this little 
has had as grekt an influence cm the 
tiny and improvement of Europe^ a 
veral mighty monarchies. 

" This is a new proof of the uninense adv 
tage to human nature of little stat^ and} 
the employment which is inade by their me4 
of tlie concentrated pqiwer d each district i 
tlie ^ globe. Tliis proof is repeated at ef^ 
step in Gennany ; where we meet with i 
cities and principalities <rf moderate c"^" 
all of which have their principle of life, 
peculiar and independent. Each prides I 
oh making industry, the sciences ands 
flourish in its littfe capital* Universitiea I 
schools ^e. multiplied; and knowledge! 
comes more general in the nation. If tmtkl 
persecuted by fanatician in one quarter, it|i|| 
only to make a step, an^ it finds a secure av^ 
lum on passing the next firontier. In fiii& 
each state in this confederate system ^e§^ 
itself as something in itself; and by that sit^ 
circumstance becomes something. E?ay 
city, of moderate size, is ^not struck with t. 
paby by the idea that it is nothing; that 4 
one or two hundred leagues distance is anodier 
gPMter cit V, which is every thing, a gulph, n 
which its labours are swallowed up ; a pbce^ 
where the whole glory of the empire is CGfr 
centrated m one lummous point, away («b 
which there is no safety; nothing butwd^- 
ism, political, moral/ and literary, throngb- 
out an immense country. Had Athens, M 
Delphi, Cortnth, I^edemon, M^leoe^ 
Smyrna, not ei^oyed this individuality, and 
had one sovereign city monopolised the whole 
splendour of Greece, would so many asest 
men, and great virtues,, have every wW 
appeared ? Had not the arts and muses of 
Italy every where behetd courts and floqnslir 
ing republics in their nei^bourhood windi 
smiled upon them ; had genius not beet 
awakened by immediate celebrity and en- 
couragements at Ferrara, Mantua, Venfte, 
Florence, Guastalla, and Sienna, as at Romf 
and Naples ; had there not been in ail Itek 
but one center, one point ; one city, ^nm 
that country have become, in the arti, (te 
mosit cl3asy;al of ny)dem timet .'^ 



msSAT OH THB HBFOJIMATIOK OP tUTKBa* 



X8i 



HoQndwas distoxbed by contending 

mta, after its independence was secured. 

tt is wdl observed, that where the prince, 

» well as the people, became protestant, 

k Ifce old police was maintained with the 

merrel^ion: an important example to 

^Jitoi, who had always better lead reform- 

than be overtaken by it Inthesec- 

conoenuDf England, M. Viilfrs is 

[wonqxletely misl^l hy Hume, 

^ It is anuisii^ to iM»r M. Villers t^lk of 

rife gloony and inflexible character of the 

[Soglurfk Whathe skyg irf^Iidand is un- 

k^aly true; 

I ^' The leformatioD, which to other countries 
>im beeo the source of so many blesang^ has 
i^eoi to unhappy Ireland a most disastrous 
piDOUTge. Treated as a conquered people, and 
: |DDg at the discretion of England, the Irish 
^efasdmtciy remained catholics, precisely be» 
(aose then- oppressors wme protestants. 
Thrir chains were, on that account, rendered 
itfce heavier. Tbeir island was filled with ra- 
is Englishmen, by whom nearly all pro- 
was grasped, fhe despair of these 
l^j--^j.orated men at last broke out with fury 
SpI641. a massacre throughout the island 
Wied cf more than a hundred thousand pn>- 
^Ittants. CromweH afterwards took vengeance 
~ tbem, and delivered up ahnost the whole 
1 to bis soldiers. WUlikm III. established 
a 1^1 and constitutional tyranny. The 
Ucs were deprived of political existence, 
property, and even of education. It 
I Iwaaid to make of them a horde d 
i and barbarous mendicants. It is like 
tnans, accordingly, that they have tfiken 
^tta^/aaux on every occasion which has pre* 
[ med itself. Animosities of this n^ure re- 
QUD, and axe transmitted through many ^e- 
AxatkiDs. During the last war, the Irish 
kare sufficiently shewn, that several reigns of 
Waatkjn liave not entirety obliterated theif 
oe^ resentments*" 

We now come to the states of which 
thegoreroments have not embraced the 
reformation. Spain has been dismem- 
^)ered of its possessions iiT the Netherlands ^ 
'vitaoal\f it has been little changed, for 
tbe mqcisition is of elder date, and extir- 
ptted heresy by one vigorous persecution, 
^t^faich was a ipere nothing to its exploits 
aganst the ^ews, M. Villenr says, " the 
<iifeence between her language, and that 
of tbe other nations of Europe, was one 
obstacle to the new dQCtrine&." It WJis too 
•light a one to deserve mention, and in 
^, there is as much difierence between 
SBjr other £mx)pean language, and all its 
«»15M»WB. There were Spanish pro- 
ftttant writers, but their books were burnt, 
wd themselves too, if they were caught, 
ue state of S^^in mi Portugal, so fiur aa 




r^rds the freedom of eQQniry^ (andtha 
consiBqnedces extend to every thing,) may, 
with little hazard, be ascribed to a consti- 
tutional disease, not far removed from re* 
ligious madness, in Isabel of Castile, which 
became hereditary in her descendants. 
Such is despotism ! the state of one in« 
dividual*s stomach, or gall-bladder, affects 
the lives and destinies of unborn milliont. 

^ranOis the Rrst hated the reformation, 
because he had sense enough to see that 
the principles of civil. and religiona free- 
dom were closely connected, and being 
a sensual and a bad man, he was of conrso" 
hostile to liberty and morality. His snc* 
cessors were more bloody than himself | 
they disgraced their country, and their de- 
testable religion, and homan nature itself^ 
by the massacre of St. Bartholomew's, the 
foulest day in the whole histoxy of man* 
kind. But that throne and that altar which 
then leagued together for tliis accursed 
purpose, were overlhrownjtogether by tho 
ultimate consequences of that refbrmatlon 
against which they had so hellishly oon» 
spired. The leaven of liberty which Cal- 
vinism lef^ behind it ceased not to £»*« 
ment till it had produced the revolution. 

Italy was little affected t it was too im- 
mediately under the sword of the pope 
and of the emperor; and the few reasoning 
men who did not become either pagans or 
infidels, retired into other countries. It 
was the lot cf Po^md to receive the most 
illustrious I ignorance has extinguished 
all that formerly rendered that country 
ilhistriousA and the sociniffiis exist no 
where in any strength but in England. 

Second Inqmiy. External Situation qf 
the States <^ Europe in regard to one a$^ 
other.'^^The rdigioos struggle, produced 
the balance of power, France siding at first 
with the protestant princes, and calling in 
thck Turk, because France has always 
made religion subservient to policy. M. 
Villers thus recapitulates the effects of tho 
rej(bmaation, in regard to politics. 

«' Europe, plunged during several centuries 
into stupor and apathy, interrupted only by 
wars, or rather incursions and depredations^ 
without an object useful to.tlie human ^ pedes, 
all at once receives new life and activibr. A 
mighty and universal mterest agitates the na"* 
tbns ; their powers are unfolded ; and their 
minds opened to new political ideas. Ttk^ 
ceding revolutions had thrown mto action 
only the arms of men, this set their mmds 
also to work. The people, who till now had 
been counted oaly as cattle, pas^vely subject 
to the caprice of their leaders, begin to act 
from themselves, and to feel their own impor-t 
taacc and utiUty. Those wb^ emhraot tbi 



ttt 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAinS. 



i)p(b)*mation mdk«; ,i c oiirmon ciwse with their 
spverelgiii>, aud lioiicc ari^i-N a close union, a 
<Jomijiunity oLiuterc^t aud aclion between the 

Srince ipia his subjects. \k>\h arc for ever 
elivered from tlie t-xcessive an(l burthensomo 
power of the clergy, as wtrl! as from the stn^- 
^le, injurious to all Europe, and which lasted 
so ion:; between the poptb and the emperors, 
for the supreme doiuinion in that quarter of 
the globe. 'I he social ortler is regulated and 
Ijnproved. 'Ihe Austrian power is restrained 
within due limits ; that ot France is raised 
aiid opposes* it.; llie importance of durable 
alliance^; begins to be felt ; tlie bodi.-s poli- 
tic of Europe form a connected system in 
<v'hich one part is balance i by aj'iother; a 
whole regularly organi-sed, of which fonniTly 
ijot even an if lea was conceived. States, such 
as SJtveden and Turkey, which s^-arceiy till 
that time exist<kl with regard to the rest, ob- 
tain rank and importance in that .system. 
Others, such as Iiolland, are at once pro- 
ductid by the mighty siiock, and from the be- 
^hining acquire preponderance. The founda- 
tions are laid of the Prussian monarchy, and 
0f the American republic. In politics a ge- 
neral spirit is formed which embraces all Eu- 
rope, llie art of negotiation is improved ; 
becomes more frank and more certain ; and 
Ijie cQurse of alfairs more clear and simple. 
In tliis state of union and contact, commotions 
find wars become more general, but they be- 
come also of shorter duration, and their rigour 
is softened by belter and more humane laws 
of nations. 

" Jn one part of Europe the church ceases 
to form a foreign state within the state ; 
Vheuco it is easy to foresee that this change 
will every where be produced ; and that the 
head of the church will be contined to the 
incre spiritml sut)r^!macy. Finally the catho- 
lic'clergy reform liuir conduct by the exam- " 
I>le of the j^rotv^Ntants ; and they jxain in mo- 
ralsj^in knowlciii^c, and esteem, what they lose 
jn powtJr and riciies. 

. ^' At the same time all the governments in 
Jlurope increase their internal power ; thoje 
vhich arc proles tant by the union wiiich they 
fprm with the mass ot'the people, and by the 
Wealth, prorogalive^j, and jurisdiction ol the 
(*hyrch, uj)on wliirh they seize : those \vhich 
^e cathoiic by placing themselves on a for- 
rnidablc footing of war, by rtxkicinc; the pro- 
V'stants in. their own dominions, iind thus sub- 
i^uing one i^art of tiieir subjects bv the other,. 
the citizens by the soldier;." 

The consequent progress of knowledge 
is next investigated. The church of Rome 
3aid, Submit, without examination, to au- 
thority ; the protestant church said. Ex- 
amine and submit only to thine own con- 
viction. ProtCptaniism, says Grei ling, is 
tjie repulsive pow^r with which reason is 
eucjowed to remove and throw off what- 
ever would occupy its place. The first 
and 'immediate improvement was in theo- 
logical studies, yfh'ich M. Villers, after the 



German school^ divides into eatechettcat 
and hatniletical and exegesis, or the critical 
exnraination of the text of scripture, of 
whicli the kermcneutical is a part. The 
translator has taken occasion here to m^ 
troduce a \ ery b' go ted and unnecessary . 
note. The state of the pro.^stant clergy 
ii then described : — * protestant theology/ 
.s:i}'s tlieautlior, ' rests nn a system of exa- 
mination, on the unlimited use of msxm. 
It regards the d*x:tnnal part reduced to pa- 
rity and simplicity as only the body ot'religi- 
on, the positive form which it reijuires j mi 
it is .supi>orted by philosophy in the ex*» ; 
minaii(jn of the Ihws of nature, of mora- 
lity, and of the rela lions of man to tbft 
Divine Being, Whoever wishes to be xa- 
stmcted in history, in classical literatufe 
and philosophy, can chuse nothing better 
tlian a courre of protestant theology.' 

Jn reqard to Philosophy and to the Morai 
and Political Sciences. — The Romish 
church has always persecuted philosophy, 
as well before as afler the reformation. 
Witness Roger Bacon andGalildo, Jof- 
dano Bruno, and Vanini. If indeed a 
philosopher would work miracles like 
Thomas Aquinas, or sport problems con- 
cerning the Virgin Mary, like Duns Sco- 
tus, he might tlien metaphysicize as deeply 
as he pleased. But the reformation nec^es- 
sarily led to free inquiry j Luther might 
banihh Muncer, Melancthon might ciy 
out ai^ainst the fanatical anabaptists for 
disbelieving the devil, and Calviu might 
burn Servcius, but the flood-gates were 
oponed, and wlio was to stop tlie waters? 
Mnncer and Socinus, MiddietOQ and Eick- 
horn, are the legitimate successors of Mar- 
tin Luther, though Martin would hixe 
bespattered tliem as fiiriously with his ink 
as he did the devil with his ink -stand. lu 
this section M. Villcrs candidly admits 
that the number of lli inking men -who 
have appeared in France is very limited; 
and he asserts that tlie philosophical spiht 
has for a course of years seemed dead in 
England. This truth txcites the indigna- 
tion of the translator, who talks loudly of 
Ileid and lieattie. Morals have iiecessa- 
rilv b<?en better understood since the ca- 
suists have been laid aside, political science 
partakes of the general progression, and 
has been so far, and only so far, affected 
by tlie reformation. The same may be 
said of the physical and mathematical 
sciences, fine literature owes to it the 
German and English bibles^ which have 
iixed tliose languages. 

The fine arts have suffered every where, 
and in Scotland tliey have been extirpated; 



IteiAT OK T9£ RJBFOBMATJOK OP JLUTSBI. 



IB& 



dttt oooDdy is an exception to every thing 
ii^iuch has been asserted of the bepeiits of 
the leformatipa } the reformation pro- 
duced Dodung there but degradation, fa- 
oatkri^iD, and barbarity. John Knox \va» 
the l^larat of the reformation. 

€^H9eqwcnces of the events which accom- 
fwaed and follaii^ed the r^ormaiion, Dis* 
tarkmces and wars in the political xvorid ; 
coMttvcersies in the theological world. T]ie 
argument against the reformation, from 
the wars which it occasioned, is nuga- 
tory' and contemptible 3 it was the occasion 
of these wars^ not the cau^c^and the result 
has been favourable to tiie liberties and to 
the happiness and virtue of mankind. 
These wars produced a long exhaustion in 
Germany, indeed every where. Sweden 
and Spain are the only, countries which 
have not recovered it. The Austrian domi- 
ntons are the only part of the world which 
has, in every resj^ect, suffered by these 
wars, but they alone who opposed the re- 
£mnalion are guilty of all the evils 
which resulted from it. In like manner 
it was the occasion, not the cause, of much 
theok)gical controvers}' 5 by which, how- 
ever, DO harm is done. It is not indeed 
the best way of using white paper 3 but 
they who have ever seen an income-tax 
schedule, know that it is not the worst. 

A curious section traces the secret so- 
cieties of firee-masons, Rosycrucians, and 
Hlumioati, to the necessity which perse- 
cuted sectarians were driven to, of secret 
meeting and signs of recognition. Tt is 
added, diat there will soon appear a work 
in Germany, by M. Buhle, which will cer- 
tainljr establish what is thus advanced, and 
^ibilall the proofs. Some ytry curious 
remarks upon this siibject may be found 
in die Monthly Review (xxv. p. 50.) in 
the reviewal of Bamiel, one of the ablest 
articles that ever appeared in a work of 
periodical criticism. 

The Jesuits furnish tlie subject of ano- 
ther section, for this association of religi- 
oasantijacobins is certainly to be placed 
among the effects of the refoiiualion. Their 
system of education is thus admirably de- 
veloped. 

" Their directing principle was to cultivate 
aid carry to the nicest possible degree of 
perfection all those kmds of knowledge from 
which DO immediate danger could result to 

I the 8\5tem of hierarchic-ai power, and to ac- 
quire by this means the character and renown 
of (he most sd>le and learned pers<mges in'the 
christian world. By means of this cotiunand 
of the opinions of men, it became easv for 

I tbeoi either to prevent the growth of Chose 



tranche;} of knowledge which might b'mrfruif 
dangerous to the pjii^al power, or to bend, 
direct, and graft upon them at their plea- 
sure. Thus by inspiring a taste for classical 
learning, profane histoiy, and mathematics, 
they contrived dexterously to extinguish tlie 
taste for encjuiry into matters of religion and 
state, the spuit of philosophy and iuveoti^a- 
tion. The philosophy taught in their schoolf 
was calculated to excite av.Tsion and disgust. 
It was jio other tiian the scholastic system, re* 
viewed and corrected by them, applied to 
present circumstances^ arid the controversy 
with the reformers, whose arguments, it may 
well be supposed, were always there pre- 
sented in a manner to fall before the artillery 
ot the schools. With regard to the study of 
religion, it was confined to the books of tfieo- 
kjgy composed for that purpose by tlie-mcra- 
bevs of the society, to the casuists, and the 
Jesuitical moralists. The study of the origi- 
nal charters of religion was prevented ; or if 
tlie gospels and other pieces appeared som€^ 
times in the books of devotion, (and this it 
was impossible to avoid, wh;?n the transla- 
tions given by tjie protestants were public,) 
they were accompanied with interpretations, 
anci even alterations suitable to the main 
viev^'s of the society. Their great watchword 
was the utility of th^ sciences, and the 1>eautT 
of the belles-lettres. All that related to the 
moral improvement, to the ennobling of hu- 
man nature, all that relates to the phUosopbi- 
cal and theological sciences, the Jesuits en- 
deavoured, and in reality were enabled, to re^ 
tain in oblivion ; to render theology as well as 
philosopiiy a bari>arous system of subtleties, 
and even ridiculous to men of the world. 
How can it be (letermined to what a degree 
tliis Jesuitical mode of instniction, which be- 
came the prevailhig jnode in catholic coun- 
tries, and diifei-s so prodigiously from the 
mode of instniction among the IProtestants, 
modiiied the species of culture, and the par- 
ticular turn of mind in Catholic countries, so 
dit^'crent in general from what is discovered in 
the ProtestaJit > From all this however it fol- 
lows (and this consideration appears to me the 
key of the very contradictory Judgments 
passed on the plans of the Jesuits in the ailti- 
vation of the sciences) that this soci^Jty per- 
formed immeiise services to certain parts of 
literature, which it improved ; but that on the 
other hand, it retained, designedly, certain 
other iin})ortant parts in the dark, or so ob- 
structed the avenues to them with thorns, 
that nobody was tempted to enter. Thus, 
considered generally, the instruction given 
in their schools, very brilliant in one respect, 
continued very dart in another, was a system 
partial, incomph^te, and which set the mind 
m a wrong direction. But, as on the one side 
all was clearness, and illumination, and on the 
other all mystery and obscurity, the eyes of 
men were naturally directed to the illuminated 
'side, and disdained to dwell upon the oilier, 
which they acquired the habit of considering 
as altogether insignificant 



160 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AJTAIRS, 



"To model science according to the in- 
terests of the pontifical power, and render 
even science ignorant in all thin^ in which it 
was requisite tnat she should be ignorant ; to 
produce some things in tlie clearest lig^t, and 
to retain others in the thickest darkness ; to 
fertilize the kingdoms of the memory and the 
iniaginatipn, by rendering that of thought and 
Reason barren; to form minds, submissive 
without being icnorant of any thing but what 
could effect theur submission ; like those, high- 
ly valued slaves of the great men of antiquity 
wlio were g^a^^na^ians, riietoriciansy poets, 
Ahe dancers, and musicians, and knew every 
thing except -how to become free ; I cannot 
fear that I shall be contradicted by any mi- 
partial man, in stating that such was the sys- 
• tern of instruction ad^ed by the Jesuits. It 
was ingenious, and immitabfy adapted to the 
«nd they had in view. It was calculated to 
fonn illustrious, and elegant authors, learned 
men, orators, good Roman Catholics, Jesuits, 
it' you please, but not men in the full accepta* 
tion ot tiiatterm. He who became a man 
tinder their mtnagement, became so inde- 
f>endcntiy of that management, and in spite of 

As the Jesuits opposed the reformers, 
1^ the Jansenbts opposed the Jesuits, M. 
ViJiers ascribes all me fruits of this latter 
rivahry to Martin Luther. Without ,rhe 
reformation, he says, there would have 
been no Jesuits, and without the Jesuits 
no Port Royal j thus the works of Ar- 
jiauld, Tillemont, F^ucal, kc, are among 
the fruits of this prolific seed. This is 
fomething like the connection between the 
priest all shaven and shorn, and the XBt 
that eat the malt that lay in the housQ that 
Jack biltlt. There is no end of these re- 
jnoto consequences'} the price of nutmegs 
is one, and the archbishop of Canterbury's 
wig is another. 

Reflection cmceming the u$e$ made qf 
ihc wealth qf the church, M. Villers re- 
grets the little good use that has been 
made of this treasury, and yet he supposes 
the distribution in our own country to be 
more judicknis than it really is^ thus mach 
however we may fairly boast, that in no 
conntry has it been better applied. The 
Essay terminates with a brief recapitula- 
tion, in which the author ends as he be- 
gan, b^ shewing that the reformation, so 
active a cause to succeeding ages, was it- 
•elf an effect of the spirit of its own age/ 
What Dante and Petrarca were to poetry ; 
Michael Angelo and Raflfaello to the arts 
of design ; Bacon and Descartes to philo. 
•ophy 3 Copernicus and Galileo to astro> 
tiomy ; Columbus and Gama to geogra- 
)>hy • the same, vt'as Lutlier in regard to 
leli^on. All >yere tbfi first characters of 



their respective a^« bat (heir age irat 
ready for them. 

A sketch of the history of the chtttch 
down to the reformation is appended, it 
might with more pr<^riety have been pre- 
fixed. We shall transcribe from this tha 
character of the great founder of Christia- 
nity, as perfectly explanatory of the an- 
.thor's system of belief. 

" He preached with the tranquil majesty of 
a mind mvested with a superior miasioa, and 
which had no other buaness on the earth, but 
that of establishing tmth, piety, and love 
amon^ mortals, ^rious and cucumspect i^ 
his actions, ingenuous, simple, and sublune m 
his discourses, his mind appeared calm, trans- 
parent, and profound as the ether of heaven. 
Supremdy mild and benevolent, a holy aeal 
against impiety and vice could done move or 
a^ect lum with passion for an instant Thus 
is Jesus described to us by his four historians. 
If he was not such, tmdoubtedly we must ad- 
mire the genius of those who imagined so fine 
a picture, and still more the happy chance by 
Which the same picture presented itself exactly 
to four evangelists, who, in all probability, 
could not each copy from the other. But i( 
he Nvas such, as it is impossible to doubt, wbal 
then was the nature ofthis extraordinary be-^ 
ing, who resembles none of the great person- 
^1^ represented* to us in history, ana whose 
lite, without bleinlsh and without affectation^ 
exhibits not one of the weakness^ of human 
nature ? 

" Jesqs, dur'mgthe few years of his public 
ministry, sowed the hnpenshable seeds of a 
doctrine qf pure adoration, of love and justice; 
or rather he only sanctioned and vivified those 
seeds naturally sown in every heart. And 
what is not less wonderful and extraordinary 
than his whole mission and character is, that a 
Jew, a member apparently of a nation trnpa- 
raHeled for its selhshness, its exclusive spirit, 
and its enmity to the rest of mankind, iirst 
presented the notion of an universal relijgpon,, 
of a church for the human race, of a fratemity 
of all nien under the authority of a common 
father. One father, one family, one service^ 
one love ; this idea was miraculous in that age ; 
it was so in a much greater degree produoe4 
and established in Judea, Jesus ottered it a^ 
his only precept ; explained, and applied it 
to every case. He gave charge to no apos^ 
ties, plain, unlettered men, to go and diffuse it 
among all nations, declaring to them that 
every where its ^fleets would be great. They 
1^, tney speak, and the worid becomes chris- 
tian. Jesus meanwhile, pursued by the tana- 
ticism of the priests of the ancient law, was 
the same ami^ executioners and torments 
which he had been in the midst of his disci^ 
pies, a pattern more than human of patience 
and firmness, of mildness and sublimity. " Fa- 
ther," said he, praying fbr his executioners, 
" Father, forrave them, for they know not 
what they do.^ This last proof was wantioc ' 
tP enable biiQtoofferapracUcalexam|ple« 



KAWSBWes's SBKMOH*. 



HKf 



ftf HMSI difficuR liftiies. Aft«r this notiHng 
BOiereniaiiiedforhimtodo: ail was tf)tt>A«3 
tonse Us uwn Gqmssion ; tnd he med the 
Boble death of a mrriyr to teutfa and virtue.'' 

' Hie whole of this sketch displays a 
dtoraogh knowledge of ecclesiastical his- 

M. VUlers has touched lightly upon 
the evils which the refornaation has oc- 
casioned; he specifies its injurious efiect 
npoD the fine arts, and nothing more. A 
worse evil is the total stop which it has 
hitherto pat to the progress of christian- 
itj) the Danish and Moravian missions 
are too unimportant to be considered as 
. exceptions. Protestantism wants all the 
implements for conversion. The Jesuits 
truned up men for the purpose, always 
either the most enthusiastic or tlie mast 
able of their body, and not unfirequently 
both qualities were found united. Celi<» 
bacy enabled thsse adventurers to carry 
their lives loose about them, they looked 
CD to martyrdom as to the highest bless- 
u]g» and to canonization as Sie highest 
tommit of earthly glory — thrones in hea- 
ven and altars upon earth were to be 
their reward. But the Protestant church 
militant would find but few of its soldiers 
ready to volnnteer upon the forlorn hope. 
The missionary^rom a reformed covmtzy^ 
Ms OBt with only his own stock of ze^, 
there are no cooler heac^ at home to di- 
rect him ; he has no order to share in the 
f^oryofhis success, or sing triumphant 
hjmns for his martyrdom; he sees no 
charms in the stake and the foss, and 
^vontof all, he has no tools to work with, 
no idols which he can offer to the idolat'or 
, in exchange for his old gods. It is the 
Mate which must convert Hindostan and 
Polynesia, not the churchy 

The rdfonned churches may also envy 
the admirable skill with which Rome en- 
listed into its own service all such fanatics 
as create sects in protestant countries. 
TheWesleys and Whitfields of Catholicism 
kave been the founden of new orders, or 
the reformers of old ones, and proved its 
iDost useful labourers. In that wonder- 



ful system of impositioB every t^ing was 
made useful. The church of Rome sent 
enthusiasts abroad to extend its empire 
and be made its martyrs \ and those whe 
were too mad fbr any diing else, it kept at 
home to feed upon bread and water, fiog 
themselvesj wear hrfr-doth, see visions^^ 
receive revelations, and become sajpts. 
Our Bridgets and Gertrudes go to Bedlam, 
and our Jpnip^s to the parish ^ork* 
houses. 

It has been said, that the reformation 
was. premature, and would have been 
more efiectual had it been delayed } but 
the example of France does not prove 
that any great changes in the state of the 
church are conducted in these times more 
moderately, mor^ wisely> or to better end» 
than they were in the sixteenth century. 
Popeiy never could have fallen without 
violence. As for its reforming itself, have 
we yet to learn thatrefbnfb are never to 
be expected firom within; that for goi<« 
tres and cancers there is but one cure ? 

That the reformation has not been coin* 
plete we may acknowledge. What howw 
ever may be fiirther wanting in eur own 
country is in the body, not the spirit of 
the church. Our clergy have kept pace 
'^th thdr countrymen in imt>roVenient. 
Consubstantiation may l)e in' the articles, 
and transu^stantiation in the catechism; 
but neither do the men who subscribe to 
the articles think of the one, nor the chil* 
dren who repeat the catechism of the 
other $ they are not Insisted upon as points 
of faith, and they form no part of the na- 
tional belief. Were the churci^f Eng- 
land to improve the condition of its in- 
ferior clergy, and to make its articles cor- 
respond with its actual' belief, its friends 
would have little to wish, and its ene- 
mies nothing to hope. 

Mr. Lambert's translation has a life of 
Luther prefixed, which, if not more ne- 
cessary than Mr. Miirs notes, i^ not quite 
so Avorthless. Ic is from a later edition^ 
and contains a preface of M. Villers^ 
which ^he^'S that his book has excited, as 
miglitbe expected, some controversy. 



AxT. XLIX.~^fi Attrmpt to lUusfrate those Articles of the Church <^ England which the 
Cuhinists improperly consider as Caivinistical, In Eig/d Sermons, preached before the 
University ef Oxford, in tlie Year 1804, at the Lecture founded by J. Bampton, 3f. A, 
Canohff Satishury, By Richard LawrencBi LL. D. of University College, 8to» 
pp. «0. 



n" has been justly remarked by an en)!- 
Mt theological professor of one of our 
tvavDcuties, that in order to ascertain, or 
^ m^^ffk to ihf f Timitivt aeme of our 



articles, we must put ourselves in the 
place of those who compiled them. This 
is precisely what Dr. L. has attempted in 
the kclures now before us. Ho U ^ot 



tM. 



THEOLOGY AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS- 



indccd'the first, zi he adknowledges, by 
whom Uiis mode of illustration has been 
adopted; but lie lias been much more 
diligent,' and much more 8ucce3sful, than 
those who have preceded him. We will 
endeavour to give in a brief but faithful 
ftketch, the result of the dry and laborious 
investigationH through which he Ikis been 
uccessarily led in deternuning the state 
of religious opinion" at the begimiing of 
the reformation in England. 

Tl>e nature and extent of his design will 
be evident from the following paasagc in 
tlie iirst iiermon. 

" On one hand it has been contended, that 
onr articles are consonant with the crord of 
Calvin ; on the other with that of Aiminiws. 
It1s not my intention to follow thi:* contro- 
\crtrd question into particulars. Yet pcr- 
kaps it should be cursorily remarked, that 
c^vn the Calvinist has proved in the most con- 
t hieing modej-tliat they are not in their nc- 
Cfs: ary construction completely calvinisticAl ; 
*fliat something is wanting in thnn to prodncc 
entire satisfiction; for repeatedly has he la- 
Wirrd, although constantly labou'red in vain, 
ftrst to render them explicit on this liead, and 
aftenfarda to get his iavourite emendations 
«i>proved and established by public authority. 
I(ut with these points the elucidation, which 
1 propose, is l>y no mearis connected. It will 
Ihi canfmed to a comparison of our articles 
with the prevailing opinions of the tinu^when 
thev were composed, at least with those in 
whfch the)' immediately origiiiated, cm* from 
viiich they were collaterally derived. 

'* If we contemplate them in this view, or 
rather suth of them as will become the sub- 
ject of investigation, we find, that far from be- 
ing framed according to tlie system of Calvin 
m preference to all others, thejj were model- 
ed after the Lutheran in opposition to the Ho- 
inisli tenets of the day. The whole scope, 
thfTefoie, of ni}* design will be, instead of 
coiwideiing tbem ahstrat tediy, to survey them 
lelativdy, with reference to the particular 
tenet.s alluded to ; and tlie principal part of 
my obs( rvations will consist in developing 
tliese, if not minutely and in full detail, yet 
fufhciently for the purpose of illustration. 
But before I proceecl to explain the selected 
doctrines, it will be recjUisite more at large to 
point out the real basis u|)on which the super- 
structure of our chunh was raised ; and tlien 
to give the evidence which the articles them- 
wlvcs exliibit of having been erected upon 
the same foundatwn." 

The English reformation, which, as is 
well known, commenced under Ilenry 
VIII. was completed, according to Dr. 
L, in all it* essential parts under Edward 
VI. No subsequent alteration of any im- 
portance took place. The original, after 
which it was moulded, was tlie Protestant 



establishment m Gemiany. The " men 
of the new learning,*' as the English Pri>- 
testants were called, were all Lutherans ; 
and many attempts were made, both by 
Henry and Edward, to gaix) the personal 
assistance of Melancihon. The two most 
important publications of Henry's reign, 
the Bi.sliop'4 Book aud the King-s Ftook, 
with the exception of a few points breathed 
the spirit of lAitheranism. *' Cpon tlie ac- 
cession of Edward the oiBces of the 
church, observes Dr. L. were immediate- 
ly retbrmcd (which before had been but 
partially attempted) after tlie temixraie 
system of Luther, and not after the plan 
of subversion, rather than of reformation, 
which Calvin had recently exliibited at 
Geneva. Nor were any alterations of im- 
portance, one point alone excepted, made 
at their subsequent revision. At the 
same period also the first book of Homi- 
lies was composed : which, altliough 
equally Lutheran, yet containing nothing 
upon the subject of the sacramental pre- 
sence, has remained without the slightest 
emendation to the present day." p. 15. 
Soon after this Cranmer translated a Lu- 
theran catechism, which he editctl in lui 
own name, dedicated to the king, and 
strongly recommended as a treat i^e ad- 
mirably adapted to improve the principles 
as well as the morals of the rising genera- 
tion. 

" On the whole, therefore, the principles, 
upon wiiich our reformation was conducted, 
ought jwt lo remain in doubt : they were ma- 
nifestly Luthenui. With these the mind tjf 
him, to whom we are chiefly indebted for the 
sahitary measure, was deeply impressed, and 
hi contormity with them was our Liturgy 
drawn up, and tlie first book of our Hoinilies, 
all tliat were at tl>e time composed.*' 

The articles. Dr. L, asserts, w'^re drawn 
np by Cranmer, after the model of •* that 
boast of Germany and pride of tlie refor- 
mation, the confession of Augsburgh." Up- 
on one point only, the doctrine of consub- 
stantiation, a deviation from it was made ; 
and upon this point the author of the con- 
fession was himself suspected. Of their 
subsequent history Dr. L. observes, 

" When a permanent system of faith tv3$ 
settled by the clergy assembled in convoca- 
tion under Elizabeth, the see of Canteihury 
was filled by Archbishop Parker, who as an 
antiquarian and Saxon scholar still ranks hi^h 
in the republic of letters. J<or as the re- 
storer of our church did he acquire a les so- 
lid, if less brilliant, reputation. CaHed bv the 
)>rovidence of God to rebuild the walls of our 
Zion. rudely subverted by papal bigotry, 



lA'^aV.CB*) SBRHPIffS. 



169 



Iff oegif^ed not'the revered materiais of the 
toaaer fabric. After tlie revival of our litur- 
gy, bisalteiilion was directed to the considera- 
tion of speculative questions: and here the 
temperate procectlings of the assembly, which 
discussed then I, seemed perfectly to corres- 
pond with his most sanguine wishes. Instead 
of entering upon the task of innovation, in- 
stead of liringing forward a new code of doc* 
iTines, wIhcIi ^ume niig:ht have thought more 
adaptet) to the improved state of religious taste 
and seuti'.iient, the convocation was satisfied 
to tread in a beaten path ; t not only made 
the artkrJes ofCraunier the basis of the pro- 
posed system, but ado])ted them in general 
word for word. Of what was the intention in 
this re?|>ect no testimony can be more conclu- 
sive, than the evidence"^ of the original docu- 
nient itself, which is still preserved with the 
signatures of the clergy annexed to it, and 
uhich is iiothit^ more than an interlined and 
amended copy of the fonnulary, which had 
been adopted m the preceding reign. 

"\A'haisoever tiien might have been the dis- 
position*; of a few overzealous men, the mem- 
bers of this important convention displayed a 
remarkable proof of their moderation and 
jddgnnent, by generally reviving what had 
been before est^liahed, rather than, in order 
tognitify the restless sijirit of innovation, by 
inculcatmf^ novel doctrines. Instead of in- 
creasii^ the numl)er of the articles, they di- 
minished them ; instead of extending their 
sense, so as to make tliem embrace a greater 
proportion of speculative tenets, they con- 
tracted them, and appeared in every case 
more deposed to extinguish difference of opi- 
mon« than to anient it by add'uu; fuel to a 
&mie, already rising above controul. In one 
or two instances indeed additions, or rather 
additional elucidations, were admitted. Of 
the tendency however of these we cannot 
doubt, when we learn tiiat, with the exception 
of one ol>vious topic alone, they were not 
ori^pnal ; tlat they were neither the produc- 
tioitt of Parker nor the convocation ; and that 
they were not borrowed from any calvinistical 
or 2uinglian, but from a Lutheran creed. 
The creed to which 1 allude is the confession 
of Wirtemberg, which was exhibited in the 
council of Trent the very year, when our own 
articles were completely arranged by Cran- 
nier. That their resembkmce to this compo- 
litfOQ should have been hitherto overlooked 
is the more remarkable, because it seems too 
visible, oae would conceive, to have escaped 
the notice of the most superficial observer. 
For it was not confined to a mere afiinity of 
idea, or the occasional adoption of an indivi- 
<W expression ; but in some ca3es entire 
extracts were copied, without the slightest 
omission or minutest variation. 

"If then wc duly weigh the facts, which 
have been stated, and the consequences which 
sman to/esult from them, we shall not per- 
haps be at a loss to determine, from what 
quarter we are likely to collect the best ma- 
ttt^fefioc.illttstratingthe articles of our church* 



We perceive, that in the first compilatioa 
many promtucnt passages were taken from 
the Augsbourgh, and in the second froni ll>e 
'Wirtemberg' confession; the latter not being 
considered as a retractation of the forniT, 
but rather, M'hat only it professed to be, as a 
repetition and comi>endium of it, The.« 
were the creeds of Luthei-ans." 

Dr. Lawrence fiullier remarks : 

*' To the writings of Calvin it will be in ya'a 
to apply, as some have dofie^ irom any con- 
ception, that our clergy in loe last revitJion 
were eaqer to propagate the new pruiciples, 
which tiicy may be supposed to have imbil^ed 
during the sanguinary persecution under 
Mary. For, as if distrustful upon this heail, 
the prudent restorers of our church, unless on 
an individual question, where the uUerests ui 
truUi forbad a compromise, kept tlie creed of 
a diil'erent comrnunion in view ; the creed 
likewise of an iCra prior to thai event, whidi, 
by compelling many of our proscribed coun- 
trymen to take refuge on tii^ continent, par- 
ticularly at Geneva, laid tJic foundation oi a 
controversy respecting discipline and the fomif 
of divine worship, which /ong disturbed thd 
tranquillity of our ecclesiastical establishment, 
often threatened its existence, aikl unce actu- 
ally subverted it. * But to the name of Calvia, 
whose talents even jjrejudice must confess to 
have be«n not inferior to his piety, but wltoS4* 
love of hypothesis was perhaps superior U> 
both, from the celebrity which it aftenvard* 
acquired, too much importanca has bfea 
sometimes annexed. It has been forgotttii, 
that at ihe time under conteinplalion, Uic er- 
rors of the church of Rome were almost the 
sole objects of religious altercation, no public 
dissension of consequence liavmg. occurred 
among protestants, although thinking variously 
on various topics, except upon tlie single ptni.t 
of the eucharist: and that Calvin s system, 
upon this had not obtained its full reputation, 
his controversic»ii upon the subject not being 
then in existence ; controvevsie^, which first 
began to perpetuate his name, and to render 
Calvinism a cnaracteristical appellatwn. Nor 
has it been sufficiently observed, that his title 
to fame on this occasion arose not so niuch 
fix)m hb opinions themselves, which ditiered 
but little, except in temis, from What had been 
before advanced by Bucer and other media- 
tors between the two extremes of a coporeal 
and a spiritual presence, as ft-om the perspi- 
cuity, with which he explained, and the abi- 
lity, with which he defended them, when at- 
tacked by the Lutherans, who had not yet er,* 
tered the field of combat againf t hjm. But 
no more convincrog evidence, pcrliaps, can be 
alltdged, that the mcense of flattery, which 
was afterwards abimdantly offered up, had 
not then been received, than the total silence 
respectmg him preserved by a contemporary 
writer, who seemed pertinacbusly attached 
to all his opinions ; I mean the well known au- 
thor of an Ecclesiastical History, contaitiipg 
the acts and monuments of martyi:$. Fn^in 



190 



THEOLOGY AND kCCiJESlAsnCAL AFFAIRS. 



ihe Tohitninoiis pfodactibn alliideti t6, it ap* 
peara not that any of those, who niflfered in 
the reign of Mary> were acetified of having 
adoptcia the sentiments of Calvin; but either 
of Luther or of Zuingle: nor does the dtoIk 
historian himself, while he dwells in detail upon 
the writings and merits of both the latter, dis* 
tinguish the name, or attempt to immortaliae 
the memory, of the former. 

« It was indeed more to his theory of pre* 
dcstmation, than to that of the sacramental 
presence, that in process of time he was in- 
debted for his renown. Even this however^ 
at the period under review, had not passed 
the controversial flame, from which, m the 
estimation of his eealoiis adherents, it came 
forth with additional brilliancy and purity.