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tCREEK AND ROMAN
I FRANCIS VV. KF.LSEY, Pn.».
ALl-VN AN* l»r»N
GREEK AND ROMAN
FRANCIS VW^KELSEY, Ph.D.
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
ALLYN AND BACON
By Francis W. Kelsey.
John Wilson and Son, Cambridgb.
In the following pages an attempt is made to present
a brief but systematic outline of the main features of
tlie Greek and the Roman mythology, as a starting-
point for reading and study. In many of our schools
the subject receives less attention than it really de-
serves, Frequently students who are otherwise well
read in the classics find their ideas about mythology
vague and scattered, having no comprehension of the
subject as a whole, or of its full significance in relation
to the religious and philosophical doctrines, hterature,
art, and life of the Greeks and Romans. This outline
is put forth with the hope that it may prove helpful to
students of the classics and others who may wish to
pursue the subject further. A few books of reference
arc named at the end of each section. In the work
of preparation the writer has been most indebted to
Preller's ' Griechische Mythologie' and ' Romische
Mythologie," and Lang's * Myth, Ritual and Religion.'
Akk Abbor, Mickioah,
FRANCIS W. KELSEY.
GREEK AND ROMAN MYTHOLOGY.
i. Of Mythology in General.
A ^^VTH is a fictitious story, usually explaining some real
or imagined mystery and involving the action of a super-
natural agency. A myth thus differs from a fable, which is
a fictitious story designed to convey or illustrate some moral
teaching. In the broadest sense of the term, mythology in-
cludes the consideration of all myths of all peoples, together
with inquiry into their interpretation, origin, and influence.
But we may speak also of the mythology of any tribe or
people taken by itself, as the Greek mythology, the myth-
ology of the Fiji Islanders.
Especially in considering the beliefs of ancient peoples,
mythology should be carefully distinguished from religion.
The former deals with myths as matters of speculation, or
historical import; but the history of religions is concerned
ivith myths only so far as they reflect man's conceptions of
the Divine, or give direction to the forms of worship.
The beliefs of all savage and partially civilized peoples con-
tain a mythological element. In some cases, as in that of the
Bushmen, this is of the crudest and most fragmentary char-
acter. In others, as among the ancient Chaldaeans and
Peravians, there is a great body of myths, often elaborated
into a kind of system. Where myths are found current
among nations advanced in civilization, such as the Greeks
and Romans, there is abundant evidence to prove that they
are a survival from an earlier and ruder period.
Among the myths of all peoples there is a marked simi-
larity. This may be accounted for on the supposition either
that myths are everywhere the outgrowth of the same causes,
and are developed in the same stage of human progress, or
that certain mythical conceptions became prevalent in the
remote time before the race was dispersed from a common
centre, and were carried thence to every part of the earth.
For at least one great branch of the human family, — the
/ Indo-European, — the distribution of myths from a common
source seems well established. The comparison of languages
long ago made it clear that the Hindoos and Persians, the
Greeks, Romans, and Kelts, the Russians, and the Teutonic
peoples (represented by the Germans, Dutch, and English),
must have descended from a single stock. A like compari-
son of myths has brought to light so many that in outline at
least are common to all, or nearly all, of the Indo-European
peoples, that their dissemination from the parent-folk appears
certain. That a considerable number of myths should have
spread from one people to another, and hence all over the
world, is in the highest degree unlikely. But as researches
in Comparative Mythology are still in their infancy, it is un-
safe at present to state as established any conclusions regard-
ing the distribution of myths outside of the Indo-European
Myths may be classified either according to the subjects of
which they treat, or according to the kind of supernatural
personages appearing in them.
GREEK AND ROMAN MYTHOLOGY 7
According to subject, the principal classes are : —
Myths of the beginning and government of the world,
of the origin and eariy fortunes of man,
of the origin of arts, institutions, and observances,
of death and the hereafter,
of the heavenly bodies,
of heroic and romantic adventure or incident.
Classified according to their supernatural elements, there
Myths of deities,
of abnormal beings, such as witches, monsters, an-
imals with human traits, and the like.
The origin of myths has been accounted for in various
ways. Among the Greeks at least four explanations were
proposed. The earliest was, that the divinities of mythology
are a personification of the elements and powers of nature,
the relations and conflicts of which are thus figuratively set
forth. Some considered myths an invention of cunning rulers,
who thought by this means to inspire a feeling of awe in the
masses and keep them in check ; using the myths, as Aristotle
remarks, ' for the persuasion of the many, and as a means of
pressure in favor of laws.' • Others attached to them a hid<len
significance, and interpreted them as allegories intended to
suggest moral or religious truth. Euemertis, a Sicilian Greek
of the time of Alexander the Great, maintained that the gods
and heroes were originally men distinguished for their prowess
' Met. XI. S: Ti Bl Aourl /hiSikSi iftri Tpnir^;^^ Tf^i tiv' ->vv%U tu>-'
and exploits, and that mythology in a distorted way presents
facts of early history.
This last theory was favored by some of the early Christian
writers, though others considered the pagan deities as demons
who had troubled the world before the coming of Christ. In
modem times, especially since the sixteenth century, the view
has had wide prevalence that certain myths resembling the
Biblical narratives reflect, in a fragmentary and corrupt form,
a primitive divine revelation, which in its purity is preserved
in the Book of Genesis.
Recent investigators in Comparative Mythology agree in
attributing the origin of myths to purely natural causes. In
the explanations offered, however, there is considerable di-
Max Miiller and his followers, basing their conclusions
principally upon an exhaustive analysis of the names of the
divinities in the Indo-European languages, reduce all myths
to a primitive personification of the sky, earth, and heavenly
bodies, and the natural phenomena connected with these,
emphasizing particularly the sun, clouds, and dawn. The
extreme advocates of this theory make even the Trojan war
a form of the Sun-myth, Achilles representing the sun, and
Helen being " simply the radiant light, whether of the morning
or the evening." (Cox, ' Mythology of the Aryan Nations,*
p. 389.) With this view Herbert Spencer agrees in many
points, offering, however, his own explanation of the process
by which the powers of nature came ' to be looked upon as
animate, and involved in human relations.
But of recent theories perhaps that of which Andrew Lang
is a prominent advocate will be found as reasonable as any.
This view does not find the origin of myths in the personifi-
cation of any one class of objects or phenomena, but goes
GREEK AND ROMAN MYTHOLOGY 9
back to that far-away time in which the awakening intelli-
gence of primitive man personified pretty much everything
about hira. In the early days of the race men appear to
have thought of themselves as intimately related with all
animal life ; hence they considered changes of form of all
kinds both possible and natural, as savage tribes do to-day.
Perplexed with questions about the origin of the world, the .
processes of nature, and all forms of life, these early men
gave the freest scope to the fancy in suggesting explanations.
Thus myths originated. Though modified in countless ways,
in their development, by different conditions and influences,
they seem to have been primarily an attempted solution of
the problems of the i
Lang, ' Myth, Ritual and Religion.*
Lang, ' Mythology,' in Encyclopedia Britannica.
TvLOR, 'Primitive Culture.' z vols.
Keary, 'Outlines of Primitive Belief.'
Hearn, 'Aryan Household.'
MoRGAx, 'Ancient Society.'
Max MiJLLER, ' Lectures on the Science of Language,' Second
Max Muller, 'Chips from a German Workshop,' Vols. II., V.
Max Muller, ' Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Rp-
Cox, ' lolroduction to the Science of Comparative Mythology
Cox, ' Mythology of the Ar)^n Nations.'
FiSKE, ' Myths and Myth-Makers,'
WHrrNEV, 'Oriental and Linguistic Studies,' Second Series,
Spencer, ' Principles of Sociology,' Vol. II.
Grimm, 'Teutonic Mythology,' translated by Stallybrass, 3 vols.
11. Character of the Greek and the Roman
The Greek and the Roman Mythology, though often con-
fused, should be kept distinct. Both Greeks and Romans
no doubt inherited from the Indo-European parent-folk a
common fund of mythological conceptions. But these took
shape in accordance with the peculiar genius, surroundings,
and development of each people, with results widely different.
The Greek was by nature highly imaginative, speculative,
versatile, and poetic. He had, above all, an inborn feeling
for symmetry, for perfect proportion in parts and relations.
The early life of the Greek race lay in regions where the
diversity and striking character of the natural phenomena
must continually have aroused a feeling of wonder and have
stimulated the fancy. The lands about the Aegean Sea pre-
sent every variety of landscape. Rugged mountain ranges
alternate with narrow valleys and rolling plains. The ex-
tended coast-line is everywhere indented by inlets, with
islands in the distance or near by. These conditions produce
an endless variety of atmospheric changes. Here one finds
dawn and twilight, hazy vistas and storm-scenes, of matchless
beauty and impressiveness. Endowed with such a genius,
and placed amid such surroundings, the Greeks naturally de-
veloped a highly poetic mythology.
The earliest literary embodiment of the Greek myths is
in the poems of Homer and Hesiod. Here they appear in
their simplest and most naive form. The gods are believed
in as real existences, of unwearied activity, having intimate
GREEK AND ROMAN MYTHOLOGY 11
relations with the life of man. In the most flourishing period
of Greek history — the century after the Persian wars — the
myths were still accepted, but began to lose their hold upon
the educated classes. Men of culture treated them rever-
ently, but often gave them a rationalistic or ailegorical in-
terpretation. Nevertheless, they were intimately connected
with the beliefs of the national religion. Being thus an es-
sential part of the national thought and life, they permeated
literature, and furnished ideals for the noblest sculpture that
the world has ever seen. Afterwards they were more and
more discredited, and sometimes ridiculed. Though certain
forms and ceremonies of religion tended still to lend to them
an air of credence, they were treated in literature chiefly as
stock material for poetry. "
The Greek mythology stands alone among all as the fullest,
richest, most poetic, and most suggestive. It also reveals
more clearly the national traits of the people which devel-
oped it than any other system. From a very early time the
commercial and political relations of Greeks with orientals
had tended to introduce foreign mythological conceptions,
some of which, in a modified form, at last gained accept-
ance. Vet, as a whole, the Greek mythology is of indigenous
growth, — a monument of the inherent constmciive and ar-
tistic power of the Greek race. Its influence in literature ^
has been greater than that of any other body of myths.
First, it dominated the thought of the Greeks, and found
expression also in their immortal art. Then it became the
heritage of Rome. Finally, inwrought in the literatures of
all European and western nations, it remains a treasured and
imperishable possession of mankind.
The early Roman presented in all respects a contrast wUK
the Greek. Unimaginative, \)ra,CQcA,"cia\^5yn ,asA sja^jiiK.T''''^"^--
I Iz OUTLTNE ^^^^B
he viewed the beauties of nature with no kindling enthusiasm,
and contemplated her mysteries with comparative indifference.
His surroundings were less calculated to inspire poetic emotion
than were those of the Greek. The landscapes were less
rugged and impressive, the coast-hne monotonous. In ac-
cordance with his practical tendencies, he gave more thought
to devising and practising methods of propitiating his gods,
than to imagining what their relations were with one another
or with himself. In a word, the Roman's notions of the
Divine took the direction of worship rather than of myth-
making. The same is true of the other ancient Italian
peoples of the same stock as the Romans.
The native Roman mythology, therefore, is scanty. Com-
pared with the Greek, it is matter-of-fact and barren. Its
place was taken in the people's thought by minute ritualistic
regulations, with numberless prayers and incantations adapted
to all occasions. Every part of the body, every act and in-
cident of daily life, was supposed to be under the supervision
of a special divinity; but the very multiplicity and limited
province of the deities retarded the development of myths.
For the same reasons, also, the Romans produced no great
folk-epic, like the Iliad or the Niebelungen Lied.
In Mythology, as in literature and the arts, the Romans
borrowed freely from other nations. At an early time they
were no doubt much influenced by contact with the neigh-
boring Etruscans. In the Republican period their relations
with the Greeks became close, first through the Greek colonies
in Magna Graecia, then through commercial and political
connections with the cities of Asia Minor and Greece. The
worship of many Greek divinities was introduced. With these
came the whole body of Greek mythology. In many in-
staaces a Greek god was identified with a Roman and the
GRKEK AND ROMAN MYTHOLOGY 13
myths of the one ascribed to the other. As educated Romans
became saturated with the Greek culture, the Greek myths
came to be as famiUar to them as their own, and consequently
occupy as prominent a place in the Roman literature as in
The old gods remained too firmly intrenched in the affec-
tions of the common folk to be replaced by foreign deities ;
but only occasionally did Roman authors attempt to treat
the native myths, as Varro did in prose, and Ovid in his
'Calendar,' to some extent also in the last two books of
the ' Metamor[>hoses,' In later times, especially after the
commencement of the Christian era, the Romans turned to
the worship of Egyptian and other strange divinities.
The early Roman no doubt believed devoutly in bis gods
and what was said of them. But with the Greek mythol-
ogy came also the seeds of unbelief. The forms of the
state religion at Rome were kept up, as a matter of policy,
for several centuries after the majority of those belonging
to the higher classes of society liad ceased to believe in
their efficacy. The Roman writers, like those of the later
Greek literature, found their chief interest in the myths as
material for poetic treatment.
B ConLANGES, 'The Ancient City.'
I RiTTER, ' History of Ancient Philosophy,' Vol. IV.
■^^^ Saalfeld, ' Der Hellecismus in Lalium.'
Hi. Outline of the Greek Mythoi:ogy.
For the purposes of our outline, the Greek mythology may
be treated most conveniently in four divisions ; myths of the
origin and government of the world, myths of the origin and
early life of man, myths of deities, and myths of heroes.
I. Myths of the Origin and Government of the World.
The lUad vaguely mentions the all-encompassing border-
stream of the world, Okeanos^ as the origin of things, with-
out indicating by what process they were produced from it.
The myth of the origin of the world which gained wid-
est acceptance among the Greeks was that elaborated by
Hesiod in his * Theogony.* According to this, in the begin-
ning was Chaos y Yawning Abyss. Then Gaia^ wide-bosomed
Earth, murky Tartara^ a deep abyss under the Earth, Eros,
Love, EreboSy Darkness, and Nyx^ Night, came into being.
From Erebos and Nyx sprang Aither, clear upper Sky, and
Hemeray Day. Gaia produced Ouranos^ or Uranos, (Latin
Uranus) starry Heaven, Ourea great Mountains, home of the
nymphs, and Pontos, the unfruitful Sea.
Uranos became the spouse of Gaia. From them were
begotten the twelve Titans^ which apparently are to be con-
sidered personifications of the elementary forces of Nature.
Several of the Titans are mentioned in pairs, male and
female, as Okeanos (Latin Oceanus) and Tethys, Hypenon
and Theia, Kronos and Rhea, Of the same origin were
the three Kuklopes (Latin Cyclopes), Cyclops, or Round-
eyes, BronfeSy Thunder, Steropes, Lightning, and Arges, Thun-
^ In tht following pages long vowels in proper names occurring the
A'st time are marked long, except where final.
THE CREEK MYTHOLOGY 15
derbolt; and also the three Hundred- handed, Hekaton-
eheires, which were at first perhaps a persoaihcatioa of the
violent waves of the sea.
The Titans and Hekatoncheires bade fair to become too
mighty for their father Uranos, so he imprisoned them in
the earth. Gaia, resenting this treatment, incited the Titans
to vengeance. She fashioned a strong sharp sickle, and
showed Kronos how to do his father an irreparable hurt.
Kronos, lying in wait, inflicted the irremediable wound as
directed. The drops of blood, falling upon l^e earth from
the wounded Uranos as he ascended, produced the Erinyes,
Furies, and the Gtganies, Giants, a race of monsters with
legs of serpents. Other parts from the wound fell into the
sea and floated there, till from the sea-foam Aphrodite,
goddess of Love, was bom.
Kronos and Rhea now succeeded to the position of
Uranos and Gaia as deities of heaven and earth. Of
them were born Hestia, Dinufir, and Hera, Aides, or
Plulon, Poseidon, and Zeus. Kronos, having been warned
by his parents that he would sometime be overpowered
by a son, swallowed his first five children so soon as they
were bom. The sixth child, Zeus, was conveyed by the
mother to Crete. In place of it she gave Kronos a stone,
carefully wrapped up, which he gulped down without noticing
the deception. Zeus soon reached maturity, and with his
mother's help forced Kronos to disgo^e the other children.
They came forth uninjured, together with the stone. A
stone said to have been that swallowed by Kronos was pre-
served at Delphi as a most sacred relic. It appears to have
been a meteorite.
Then ensued a terrible struggle. The powers of sky
and earth gathered in two opposing forces, led by Kronos
■nd Zeus. The scene of the conftitt N«^a "VosssSsi- "^ofc
Titans with Kronos occupied Mt. Othrys, Zeus and the
other sons of Kronos entrenched themselves on Mt, Olym-
pus. The contest at first was even -matched. As a last
resort Zeus brought forward as allies the Cyclops, who fur-
nished him thunderbolts, and the Hckatoncheires, who shook
the earth. Sky and earth blazed, the earth rocked and was
rent asunder, all things seemed about to return to ancient
chaos. Finally the sons of Kronos gained the victory. The
Titans were hurled down under the earth and there guarded
by the Hckatoncheires.
The three sons of Kronos now divided up the government
of the universe by lot. As Kronos and Rhea had suc-
ceeded Uranos and Gaia, so they themselves gave place
to Zeus and Hera, Zeus henceforth being lord of heaven
and earth. Poseidon became ruler of the sea and all
waters; Aides, of the Underworld, the realm of darkness,
abode of the dead and storehouse of treasures.
The sovereignty of Zeus was by no means undisputed. '
Typkdeus, or lypkos, a hundred- headed monster, one of
the latest of Gaia's offspring, aspired to the mastery of
all things, and was overcome by Zeus only with the help
of the thunderbolt. Then the Giants attempted to scale
the heights of heaven, and after a prolonged straggle were
defeated in the same way. The war of the Giants (as-
signed by Ovid to the Iron Age) has often been confused
with that of the Titans.
Uraiws, Kronos, and Zeus all appear to have been origi-
nally personifications of the sky ; Uranos, as a fructifying
power, sending moisture and life to the earth ; Kronos, as
a maturing and ripening influence, hence extensively wor-
shipped in Greece as a harvest god ; and Zeus, the clear
shining vault of heaven as the source of light and health,
the symbol of order and fixed law, the organizing and^
THE GREEK MYTHOLOGY 17
directing power of (he world. In the wars of the Titans
and of the Giants, Titanomachia and Giganiomachia, there
may be a reminiscence of the volcanic activities and terrible
convulsions of Nature of which the traces are so abundant
in Greece and the Greek islands.
Each of the rulers of the universe has under him a host of
lesser deities, by whom his decrees are carried out. But in
the government of the world an important part is played by
Fate, or the Fates, Moirai, usually reckoned as three in
number, KBtho, Lacheus, and Atropas. At first they were
conceived of as carrying out the will of Zeus. But later
they were regarded as a personification of the inflexible,
invariable law of necessity. To this law, inherent in the
very nature of things, and inexorable, gods ai.d men alike
are subject. Even the will of Zeus may not change or
render ineffecttial its decrees.
2. MVTHS OF THE ORIGIN AND EaRLY LIFE OF MAN.
There was little agreement among the Greeks in I'egard
to the details of their myths setting forth the first gods and
the beginning of the world, A like diversity characterizes
their notions about the origin and early life of man. In
general it was thought that the first men sprang from the
earth or from natural objects, as woods, streams, stones, and
the like. Hence the name autochthones (sprung from the
land itself), used of people supposed to have come into
being in the land which they occupied.
The human race was thought to be as old as that of
the gods, extending at least as far back as the time of
Kronos. Under his rule was the Golden Age, a happy time
in which men were large in frame, pure in life, and fed
without effort of their own on the generous bounty of
earth. They lived long, in blessedness like that of the
gods, who often came to earth • and associated with them.
After death they became beneficent spirits, dwelling unseen
After the overthrow of Kronos came the Silver Age,
inferior to the Golden. Men were now slower in physi-
cal development, yet of larger and finer form than we.
Becoming haughty and self-willed, they even reftised to
give due honor to the gods, who more and more with-
drew from relations with them. Zeus took them from the
earth and made them ghosts of the Underworld.
Then followed the Bronze Age, full of strife and violence.
Men fell at one another's hands, or wore themselves
out in constant warfare, and perished soul and body.
Last came the Iron Age, Enfeebled man must now
earn his bread by the sweat of his brow. While men were
struggling in this hard condition, PrometheuSy Forethought,
son of the Titan lapetos, brought them fire from heaven
and taught them its uses, thus leading them to a knowl-
edge of the arts. For this Zeus condemned him to
unending torture. He was chained upon a bleak cliff.
Here an eagle each day ate out his liver, which grew
again at night.
But men were not content with honest toil, and tried
in every way to get the advantage of one another. They
became so desperately wicked that Zeus sent a great
flood upon the earth. All perished save two, Deucalion
and Pyrrha, These, directed by the gods, cast stones be-
hind them, which became men and women, progenitors of
the present race. But wickedness still remains. The gods
have long since ceased to visit the earth as they did of old,
and are often obliged to send punishment for sin.
THE GREEK MYTHOLOGY 19
3. Myths of Deities.
The divinities of the Greeks were so numerous, and the
myths connected with them were so many and of so great
variety, that only brief mention of them separately can here
be made. They may be considered in four groups ; divinities
of Heaven, divinities of the Sea and Waters, divinities of the
Earth, and divinities of the Underworld, The divinities of
Heaven were thought to have much to do also with the earth
and the life of men. Several of the divinities of the earth
tely connected with those of the Underworld.
d. Divinities of Heaven.
The divinities of Heaven were divided into two classes :
the Great Gods, and the Lesser Gods. They dwelt above Mt.
Olympus, whence they came to earth whenever invoked, being
ubiquitous rather than omnipresent.
The Great Gods were ten in numbe_r ; '
Zeus, greatest of gods, often called father of gods and men. '
He was regarded as gatherer of clouds and sender of
rain, the bestower of physical prowess and valor, the
protector of the relations based on kinship, friendship,
or treaties. He was the hurler of the thunderbolt against
the guilty, the refuge also of the penitent. He was re-
presented as often visiting the earth in various disguises,
and especially susceptible to the ciiarms of beautiful
women. Hence arose a great number of myths. As
the Greeks were monog.amists, the loves of Zeus are
difficult to account for unless they are interpreted as
different personifications of the same natural phenom-
' With these sometimes PoicUUh (see p. 23) and Dimtter (see p. ia.\
Itre teckoned, miking twelve " Gicai OoAk" 'm ii&.
ena, connected with the sky, or as originally different
forms of the same myth belonging to different locaHties.
Hera, wife of Zeus, queen of Heaven, and goddess of storms ;
considered also the helper of women in all wifely rela-
tions. She was represented as haughty, jealous, resent- '
ful, and often engaged in angry quarrels with Zeus.
Hlphaistos (Latin Hephaestus) ^ son of Zeus and Hera,
god of fire, maker of weapons, and deviser of other
works in metal for the gods. He was represented as
mighty in strength, but lame. According to one ac-
count he once took sides with Hera in a quarrel, where-
upon Zeus caught him by the foot and hurled him forth
from Olympus. Then, in the words of Milton, —
'* From mom
To noon he fell, from noon till dewy eve,
A summer's day ; and with the setting sun
Dropped from the zenith, like a falling star.
On Lemnos, the ^^Egean isle."
Athene^ said to have sprung full-armed from the head of
Zeus. She was' regarded as protector of states, hence
as goddess both of systematic war and of the arts of -
peace. She was also goddess of wisdom and of the
fine arts. As a virgin deity, she was considered the
special protectress of girls.
Apollo^ son of Zeus and Leto (Latin Latdna)^ brother of
Artemis; a favorite divinity of the Greeks. He was
worshipped as protector from evils, especially as guar-
dian of herds and flocks; as promoter of athletic de-
velopment and manly beauty ; as inspirer of music and
giver of oracles. He is usually considered a personifi-
cation of light.
^r/^m/s, daughter of Zeus and Leto, and goddess of the
Aunt^ in her devotion to which she was said \.o sco\ir
woods and monntains, accompanied by ^eeX Vvo\3LTvd"s ^\A
THE GREEK MYTHOLOGY 21
throngs of nymphs of forest and stream ; originally, no
doubt, a moon-goddess. The Ephcsian Artemis (cf.
Acts, chap, xix.), was a deity of oriental origin, later
identified with the Greek divinity.
Ares, son of Zeus and Hera, god of war and bitter hatred.
Aphrodite, goddess of love, sprung from the foam of the sea.
Her power was thought to make itself felt in sky, '
sea, and earth. She was also goddess of spring, of
gardens and flowers, the bestower of female beauty and
grace, the guardian of marriage and family life.
Hermes, son of Zeus and Maia, messenger of the gods and
conductor of souls in the Unde^^vo^ld. On earth he was
considered as the guardian of roads and guide of travel-
lers, the protector of herds, and patron-deity of thieves.
Hestia, daughter of Kronos and Rhea, goddess of the hearth.
As the hearth-fire was intimately connected with the
interests of the family, she was looked to as the dis-
penser of domestic blessings. She was also worshipped
at the public hearths as guardian of cities.
Among the Lesser Gods the most important were :
Helios, god of the sun, father oK Phaelhon.
Eos, goddess of the dawn.
Selene, goddess of the moon, also called Mene.
Phospkoros, Morning-star, Hesperos (Latin Hespents'),
Orton, a mighty hunter, loved by Eos, but slain by Artemis,
and after his death placed among the stars.
Winds, often personified under many different names. In
the later mythology they are represented as under the
rule of a King Aiolos (Latin Aeolus')^ whose V-fsro*. ■«■;&
on one of the Aco^an \s\a.TA^ TioVCtv qS-^n-Sc^ -
Themis, daughter of Uranos and Gaia, goddess of order, law,
and right, and mother of the Horai, Seasons.
Charites^ Graces, usually considered three m number, god-
desses of charm and bloom, both in nature and in
Mnemosyne, Memory, mother of the nine Mousai, Muses,
goddesses of music, poetry, and the sciences. The muses
were: i. KalUope (Latin Calliope^, of heroic poetry.
2. Klio (Latin Crio), of history. 3. Euterpe, of lyric
poetry. 4. Terpsichore, of the dance. 5. Erato, of
love-poetry. 6. Melpomene, of elegiac and tragic poe-
try. 7. Thalia, of comedy. 8. Polymnia, or Poly-
hymnia, of sacred music and poetry. 9. Urania, of
Nike, goddess of victory.
Iris, goddess of the rainbow, represented as a messenger of
the gods, particularly Zeus and Hera.
Hebe, daughter of Zeus and Hera ; a personification of girl-
Ganymedes, a beautiful boy, a personification of boyish
beauty. Zeus sent an eagle to bring him up to heaven,
and made him cup-bearer.
Erds, small but mighty god of love, companion of Aphro-
dite (cf. p. 14).
Aisklepios (Latm Aesculapius)^ god of healing and of
Tyche, daughter of Zeus, goddess of chance, or luck.
Nemesis, an avengmg or punishing goddess, who never fails
to overtake the wrong-doer.
Eris, a personification of strife.
THE GREEK MYTHOLOGY
The principal divinities of this class are :
Poseidon, ruler of the sea and the whole realm of watera.
His ensign of authority is the trident. He rides over
the deep in a chariot, now raising, now calming the
waves, and sometimes in his might makes the ea.rth
Amphttrite, wife of Poseidon, goddess of the sea.
Triton, son of Poseidon and Amphitrite, represented as
giving signals for storms or calm upon a hollow
Nefeus, a little " old man of the sea," friendly and kind,
dwelling in the shimmering depths with his fifty bright
and beautiful daughters, the Nereids.
Proteus, a sea-god, fond of changing into all kinds of forms.
Glaukos (Latin Giaucus), a sea-god, half man, half fish.
Sailors often reported having seen him. His appearing
was thought generally to portend ill-luck.
Seirenes (Latin Sirenes), Sirens, beautiful singers of the
sea, whose song, of resistless charm, enticed s^lors to
Skylla (Latin Scyila), a horrible monster lying at the foot
of a cliiT on the Italian shore opposite Charybdis. She
was represented as having six heads, which she stretched
forth from her cave to catch whatever came in her way.
AH Rivers, Springs, and Brooks were supposed to have
their special divinities, children of Okeanos and Telhys.
According to Hesiod there were three thousand sons of
Okeanos and Telhys who were river-gods, and three
thousand daughters, nymphs of brooks and springs.
vlJ'fl/, bearer of heaven and cb."e\.\v i3Q.\i!&V'ea&.as&.>sa»5si,
seems originally to have belonged to the number of sea-
gods, but was later identified with a mountain.
c. Divinities of the Earth.
Gaia (cf. p. 14), goddess of the earth, as the benign and
fruitful mother of all things.
Rhea (cf. p. 15), also called Kybele (Latin Cybele), a
goddess of the earth, and especially of mountains, where
she was worshipped with mystic rites.
Demefer (cf. p. 15), goddess of agriculture, especially ot
grain; mother of Persephone.
Dionysos (Latin Dionysus)^ also called Bacchos (Latin
Bacchus) y son of Zeus and Semele, god of the vine and
wine. He was said to have travelled throughout the
world, accompanied by hosts of satyrs and worshippers,
teaching the cultivation of the grape. He is the sub-
ject of many myths.
Nymphai (Latin NymphcB)^ the Nymphs, a numberless
class of inferior divinities, represented as beautiful
maidens, dwelling in groves and glens, on mountains, in
grottos, in springs and streams.
Satyroi (Latin Satyri), Satyrs, rough, sportive deities,
half goat, half man in form, inhabiting woods and
mountains, devoted to wine, music, and the chase.
Seilenos (Latin Sitenus), father of the satyrs and foster-
father of Dionysos ; represented as a fat, jovial old man,
with a bald head ; usually in the company of Dionysos,
and reeling with intoxication.
Fan^ son of Hermes and a wood-nymph ; a sportive, goat-
footed being, with horns and a long beard ; looked
upon as the guardian of pastures, flocks, and shepherds,
and the inventor of the shepherd's pipe.
THE GREEK MYTHOLOGY
The Underworld was conceived of as a vast, gloomy region
beneath the earth, the abode of the dead. The f
guarded hy Kerberos (Latin Cerberus'). ■a.\iaxri\Az n
three dog-like heads. Beyond the entrance on every side
flowed black water, across which Charon, stern and repulsive
boatman, ferried the spirits of the dead. The good fared well
in a place set apart for them. But the wicked suffered various
forms of punishment, according to the nature and extent of
their sins on earth. Tantalos, for example, a king who had
violated the confidence of Zeus, was placed in a lake ; though
always thirsty, always hungry, yet he was never able to touch
either the water, which receded as he tried to drink, or the
boughs laden with delicious fruit that hung just beyond his
reach. Sisyphos, a wicked king of Corinth, was compelled
to keep rolling up hill a huge stone, that rolled down again
as soon as he had brought it to the top. Ixion was bound
to an ever-revolving wheel ; and the daughters of Dartaos
(Latin Daiiaui) were forced to keep filling jars with holes
in the bottom.
The divinities of the Underworld were :
Piuton, also called Ahidnirus and Aiiiis (English Pluto),
ruler of the Underworld. As the Underworld was
thought of as ihe storehouse of seeds and source of
wealth, Pluto was also considered a giver of wealth. He
is sometimes confused with Pbutos (Latin Plutus), a
personification of wealth.
Persephone (Latin Proserpina), daughter of Zeus and
Demeter, and wife of Pluto. Zeus had promised her
to Pluto without the mottiaV^ Vmu^fiK&y:.. tc^^ssK.-
phone, a beautiful maiden, was one day gathering
flowers, the earth opened beside her ; Pluto appeared
and carried her down to the Underworid to be his
queen. Demeter, sorrowing, searched the world over
for the girl, whose fate she finally learned from Hekate
and Helios. As a compromise the daughter was
allowed to spend six months of the year on the earth,
the remaining six months in .the Underworld with her
Hekate (Latin Hecate) y a mysterious divinity, apparently
at first an earth-goddess, afterwards an attendant of
Persephone in the Lower World. At night she was
supposed to send forth demons who would meet at the
crossings of roads and at tombs.
Erinyes, Furies, horrible beings with serpents twining in
their hair, who pursued and punished the wicked.
Aiakos (Latin Aeacus), a son of Zeus and early king of
the Island Aeglna, who on account of his justice on
earth was made a judge in the Underworld after his
Minos, a son of Zeus and Eurdpa, and early lawgiver of
Crete, who after death became a judge in the Lower
Rhadamanthos (Latin Rhadamanthus) , a brother of Minos,
who also became a judge of the dead.
ThanatoSf Death, and Hypnos, Sleep, were both personified.
They were considered as brothers, living in the Under-
THE GREEK MYTHOLOGY
4. Myths op Hkroes.
The Greek heroes were a class of beings of mingled human
and divine parentage, endowed with godlike powers, courage,
and endurance. Their Uves, under divine direction and
help, were devoted to the accomplishment of great tasks,
mostly of a character calculated to benefic humanity, such
as the slaying of destnictive monsters and the founding of
cities. All the prominent cities of Greece had their particular
heroes, who were worshipped as patron deities, as Theseus
at Athens. The myths of heroic adventure are very
The heroes oftenest mentioned are :
Kadmes (Latin Cadmus'), son of Agirior, King of Phoeni-
cia ; founder of Thebes,
Atnphton and Zithas, sons of Antiope, queen of Thebes,
who rescued her from cruel treatment and bound her
tormentor, Dirke (Latin Dirce), to Ihe back of a bull
to be carried off into the wilderness. Amphion became
ihc husband of the Lydian princess Niobe, whose pre-
sumptuous pride led to the wretched death of her
children and herself.
Inachos (Latin Inachus), founder of Aigos.
Perseus, son of Zeus and Danae, who was a daughter of
Akrisius, King of Argos. He is prominent in several
mylhs, among which are the bringing of the head of
the Gorgon Medusa, and the release of Andromeda.
Bdlerophon, son of Glaukos. Mounted on I^gasos, a won-
derful winged steed, he despatched the Chimaera, a
fire-breaihing monster, part lion, part goat, and part
serpent. He also AefcsAei "Csve. Amai.Qivti, t^sss-aa.'s'^.
a race of warlike women in the northeastern part of Asia
Kastor and Polydeukes (Latin Castor and Pollux , the
Dioscuri)^ twin sons of TyndareuSy a king of Lacohia.
Kastor was famous for his horsemanship, Polydeukes
for his skill in boxing. The Dioscuri were venerated
especially as patrons of sailors.
Kekrops (Latin Cecrops), founder of Athens, said to have
introduced there the first elements of civilized Hfe.
PelopSy son of Tantalos and brother of Niobe, king of Elis ;
famous for having won his wife Hippodamia and his
kingdom in a chariot-race, on which he had staked
Meledgros (Latin Meleager)y a son of Oineus (Latin
Oeneus), who led a hunt and slew the Kalydonian
boar, a monster invulnerable to ordinary wounds, that
had long laid waste the country about Kalydon, in
lason, a, prince of Thessaly who led the expedition of the
ArgonautSj in which the chief heroes of the time joined
him. They sailed in the ship Argo to Kolchis (Latin
Colchis), at the southeastern part of the Black Sea.
Here, with the help of the princess Medea, a powerful
enchantress, lason obtained the Golden Fleece, the
object of the voyage. The heroes after many adven-
tures reached home again, Medea becoming the wife
of lason, who afterwards deserted her.
Theseus, the son of Aegeus, King of Attica. His heroic
exploits resemble those of Herakles. The principal
ones were, the killing of PeripKetes, Sinis, and Skiron,
all terrible robbers and murderers, with whom ordinary
men could not cope ; the slaying of Procrustes, who
THE GREEK MYTHOLOGY Zy
had been in the habit of killing victims by cutting
off their limbs or stretching them out to fit an
iron bedstead ; the victory over fifty giants, sons of
Pallai, who had tried to compass his destruction in
order to gain the throne of Attica; and finally the
slaying of the Minotaur (^Mtnotatiros, Latin Af'ino-
taiirtts), a flesh-eating monster of Crete, to which for
a long time Athens had been obliged to send each
year a tribute of young men and maidens for food.
The Minotaur lived in the Labyrinth, constructed by
Daidalos (Latin Daedalus), a cunning artificer. The-
seus, having slain the monster, found his way out of
this with the help of a thread furnished by Ariadne,
daughter of Minos. With her he sailed for Attica,
but abandoned her on the island of Naxos, where she
was foimd and wedded by Dionysos.
Herakles (Latin Hercules), the great national hero of the
Greeks, son of Zeus and Alkmene (Latin Alcntene).
Among his many wonderful exploits the Twelve Tasks,
imposed by King Eurystheus of Mykinai (Latin My-
unae), are the most noteworthy. They are —
1. The slaying of the Nemean lion, which ravaged
the plain of Neraea, in the northern part of Argolis,
2. The killing of the Lernean Hydra, a nine-headed
poisonous water-serpent, in the marsh near Leme, in
3. The destruction of the Eiymanthtan Boar, in
4. The slaying of the Keryneian Stag, a marvellous
animal with hoofs of brass, in Achaia.
S- The driving away of the Stymphalian Birds, the
pest of Stymphalus, in Arcadia.
6. The cleansing of the Stables of Angelas^ King of
Elis, by turning through them the waters of a river.
7. The bringing of the Cretan Bull, Poseidon's gift
to Minos, to Mykenai.
8. The fetching of the flesh-eating Horses of Dio-
medes, King of Thrace, to Mykenai.
9. The obtaining of the Girdle of Hippolyte^ queen
of the Amazons, for Eurystheus's daughter.
10. The securing of the Cattle of Geryon, a three-
headed monster in the far West.
11. The fetching of the three Golden Apples from
the Garden of the Hesperides, where they were guarded
by a dragon.
12. The dragging of Kerberos (see p. 25) to the
Herakles perished in a poisoned robe, given him by
his jealous wife, Deiantra, When he saw that death
was near at hand, he mounted his own funeral pyre,
whence his spirit passed away in a cloud.
The age in which the heroes lived is known as the Heroic
Age, The Greeks thought that it immediately preceded their
own time, and considered a good part of the myths connected
with it as true history. To this period belong also the Ken-
tauroi (Latin Centauri), Centaurs, mythical beings, half man,
half horse, celebrated for their conflicts with the Lapithai
(Latin lAipithae), a Thessalian people, and Herakles.
To the Heroic Age are ascribed two great military expedi-
tions. The one is the War against Thebes, or the expe-
dition of the Seven against Thebes, in which Polyneikes (Latin
Polyntces), aided by six other heroes and their forces, tried
to wrest the throne of Thebes from his brother Eteokles (Latin
THE GREEK MYTHOLOGY 31
The other is the Trojan War, the object of which was
the bringing back of Helen, who had been induced by the
Trojan Paris, King Priam's son, to leave her husband, Men-
elaos. King of Sparta, The chief heroes of the Trojan war
were, on the side of the Greeks, Agamemnon, Menelaos
(Latin Menelms), Achii/cus (Latin Achilies), Nestor, Odysseus
(Latin Ulixes), Ulysses and Aids (Latin Aiax) Ajax ; on the
side of the Trojans, Priam, Hektor (Latin Hector'), Paris.
Aeneas, and Anterior. The setting out, the conflict, and the
return of the heroes, are fraught with romantic incidents.
Many Greek families and tribes asserted relationship with
men of the heroic age as ancestors or founders or patrons.
The Eumolpiiiai. for example, claimed descent from Eumol-
pos ; the Herakleidai, from Heracles ; and the ten Attic tribes
instituted by Kleisthenes (Latin Clisthenes) bore the names
of ancient worthies. Heroes thus named and venerated were
known as Eponymous Heroes.
Murray, ' Manual of Mythology.'
COLLIGNOS, ' Manual of Mythology.'
Keightley, 'Greek and Roman Mythology.'
Bullfinch, 'Age of Fable,'
pRELLEB, ' Griechische Mythologle,' revised by Plew. 2 vols.
The first volume has lately been revised by Robert.
BuTTMANN, ' Mythotogus.'
Welcker, ' Griechische Gollerlehre.'
Cox, ' Mythology of the Aryan Nations.'
Bavmeister, ■ Denkmaler des klassisclien Allertums.' Valua-
ble for its numerous representations of monuments illustrating
iv. Outline of the Roman Mythology.
The development of the Roman mythology, as of the
Roman religion, was marked by three distinct stages, or
In the first, the prehistoric period, beliefs and worship were
of the simplest character. There were as yet no temples.
On mountain tops, by springs, lakes, and running streams, or
in the presence of fire, men worshipped the divine powers
that were supposed thus to manifest themselves. The gods,
too, were not represented by images, but by symbols, by
plants and animals considered sacred to them. Thus the
eagle and the oak were sacred to Jupiter, the wolf and the
woodpecker to Mars. In this period human sacrifices were
at times offered up.
^ The second period, known as that of Numa, covering the
earlier and middle part of the Roman kingdom, was charac-
terized by the establishment of priesthoods and minute,
often laborious regulations of worship, many of which were
no doubt derived from Etruria. From this time the Roman
religion was dominated by priestcraft.
The third period, including the latter part of the Roman
kingdom and the Roman republic, was marked by the in-
troduction of foreign divinities, beliefs, and ceremonies, chiefly
from the Greeks. During this period most of the Roman
temples were built.
Many elements of the Greek Mythology were introduced
into Rome so early and became so much a part of the na-
tional thought that they may best be treated along with those
that were indigenous. The few native ideas in regard to the
beginning of the world and the origin and early life of man
THE ROMAN MYTHOLOGY
were so completely replaced by the Greek myths that they
may here be passed over. Our outline of the Roman My-
thology will therefore comprise only two divisions : myths of
Deides, and myths of Demi-gods or Heroes.
»i. Myths of Deities.
a. Divinities of Heaven.
The Greater Gods ' were :
lanus, opener of the portals of heaven, god of all begin-
nings ; guardian of entraaces, doors, and passage-ways ;
represented with two faces looking in opposite
luppUer (Englishy/z/i/fr), ' best and greatest ' of all goc
t ruler of heaven and earth. His position and relations
correspond with those of the Greek Zeus, with whom u
later times he was fully identified.
luno (Enghshyi/ffu), wife of Juppiter and queen of heavci
in later times identified with the Greek Hera.
Minerva, goddess of wisdom and statecraft ; a natiifl
divinity soon identified with the Greek Athene.
Apollo, a purely Greek divinity, whose worship was trans-
planted to Rome at an early date and became very
Diana, an ancient Italian' moon -goddess, afterwards I
identified with the Greek Artemis and thought of a
Mars, an ancient Italian god of husbandry and cattle-
raising, of manly vigor and victorious strife, revered by
I The Romans in later limes also recognized a group of " Twelve
Great Gods," viz. : luffifir. Inns, Afinerva, Afvlla, Diana, Start,
I'cuiii, Ntftunus, Ctrts, Mertiirms, Vuliaiiui, Vesta.
* Thai is, worsliipped by other early Italian peoples as well as by
the Romans as next in power to Juppiter. In later
times Mars was identified with the Greek Ares,
Venus, an Italian goddess of flowers, gardens, vineyards,
and the quickening life of spring ; later identified
with the Greek Aphrodtte, as goddess of love and
Vulcanus (English Vulcan), an Italian god of fire, con-
sidered sometimes as a helpful and protecting, some-
times as a destroying deity. He is often confused
with the Greek Hephaistos,
Vesta, goddess of the hearth and protectress of the
home-life ; also guardian of the life of the City as
the home of the Romans. With her worship was
closely connected that of the Penafes, guardian spirits
watching over the sustenance of the household.
Vesta corresponds closely with the Greek Hestia,
Of the Lesser Gods the most important were :
Sol, the Sun, corresponding with the Greek Helios,
Luna^ the Moon, corresponding with the Greek Selene,
-^ Mater Matuta, goddess of the Dawn.
- Quirtnus, a god of war and guardian of the Romans;
apparently at first a Sabine divinity corresponding with
the Roman Mars, but afterwards identified with the
deified Romulus, mythical founder of Rome.
- MercuHus, in early times purely a divinity of commerce
and money-making. Later he was identified with the
Greek Hermes, and the myths of Hermes were at-
tributed to him.
Aesculapius, the Greek Aisklepios (cf. p. 22), whose
worship was introduced into Rome from Epidauros
THE ROMAN MYTHOLOGY 35
in Argolis, after a pestilence, in the year sgi n. c,
and gained so strong a hold upon the people that
it was among the last to die out after the promul-
gation of Christianity.
luvenfux, a personification of youth ; a divinity supposed
to watch over young manhood.
Terminus, god of boundaries, public and private.
Fides, a personification of good-faith ; worshipped es-
pecially in connection with Juppiter as god of
Maia, also called Bona Dea, wife of Vulcan, a ben-
eficent goddess of the field, to whose quickening
influence the starting of vegetation in the spring
was ascribed. From her the month of May takes
its name. In later times she was sometimes con-
fissed with the Greek Maia, Atlas's daughter, mother
Winds and Storms were personified, as by the Greeks,
with many difl'erent names and attributes.
Owing to the lack of familiarity of the early Romans
with the sea, their nautical myths were even more scanty
than those connected with the other elements of Nature.
The principal divinity of the sea was —
Neptunus, lord of all waters, later identified with the
Springs, Rivers, and Brooks, as among the Greeks, were
thought to be under the care of special Nymphs
c. Divinities of the Earth and Practical Life.
The chief divinities of the Earth and its products were :
TelluSy the Earth, personified as mother of all things,
in contrast with the fructifying Heaven; hence in
prayers and oaths Juppiter and Tellus Mater are often
Saturnus, Saturn, one of the most ancient Italian
deities, god of seeds and sowing, the introducer
of agriculture; often identified or confused with the
OpSy wife of Saturnus, goddess of sowing and harvest.
Ceres ^ an ancient Italian goddess, later, fully identified
with the Greek Demefer.
Liber, an early Italian deity of planting and fructification, in
later times identified with the Greek Dionysos or Bacchos,
Libera, an ancient Italian divinity, later completely
merged with the Greek Persephone, and also called
Faunus, an early Italian god of mountains, pasture-
lands, and meadows; a kindly deity, blessing with
increase fields, flocks, and the work of men.
Silvanus, a. divinity presiding over forests, fields, and
the labors of husbandmen.
Pales, tutelary deity of flocks and shepherds ; sometimes
spoken of as masculine, but worshipped usually as a
Feronia, an early Italian goddess of groves and of flowing
fountains; also the guardian of freedmen.
Flora, goddess of bloom and flowers.
Priapus, a divinity of Greek origin, god of gardens
and promoter of fertility.
THE ROMAN MYTHOLOGY 37
Vertumnus, god of fruits, guardian of vegetable products
from blossoming to maturity.
Pomona, wife of Vertumnus, goddess of fruit-trees and
■ Magna Mater, the Greek Rhea Kybclt, whose wor-
I ship was introduced from Pessiniis in Asia Minor.
V B. C. 204. Cf. p. 24.
r By the divinities of practical life are meant a great num-
I ber of personified abstractions, of which the following are
examples : —
Fortuna, goddess of Fortune.
Salus, good-health ; Febris, Fever.
Victoria, Victory; Bellona (cf. belluni), a goddess of \Var;
.Afeaoj, Honor; Fj>-/«j, Valor ; /'ijj:. Peace.
Ltbertas, Liberty ; Spes, Hope ; FilUitas, Good-luck ;
Bonus Mvenlus, Good Outcome.
Concordia, Harmony; Fiflas, Dutifuhiess; Pud'uilia,
Modesty; Mens, Intellect; Aeqiiitas, Fairness; Fiov-
d. Divinities of the Underworld and Death.
The early Roman notions about the Underworld, so far as
they went, were similar to those of the Greeks. But they were
not carried out so far in detail as the Greek, and were influ-
enced in their development by the Roman ancestor- worship.
The principal divinities of the underworld were :
Onus, lord of the Underworld, who like a harvester gath-
ers the souls of the dead into his treasure-house. In
later times Orcus was often identified with the Greek
MarieSy spirits of those who had recently died, living in the
Underworld, but permitted at times to return to earth
and mingle unseen with the living.
Lares, spirits of ancestors long dead, who were buried with
proper funeral rites. They were thought of as benefi-
cent divinities, protecting the descendants of their
families in all works and ways. The Lares Famtliares
in particular hovered about the hearth, bringing count-
less blessings to the homes where they were duly
worshipped. The Lares as guardian spirits of the
family, and the Penates as spirits ministering to the
material needs of the household, are often mentioned
together as representing the home.
Larvae, spirits of ancestors who did not have the proper
burial rites. These were supposed to be restless ghosts,
evil demons, wandering up and down the earth, having
no peace, bringing blight and curses wherever they
In the classical period, and after that time, the Greek myths
of the Underworld became current and found frequent expres-
sion in literature, as in the sixth book of Vergil's Aeneid and
in the works of other poets.
e. Introduction of Oriental Divinities.
Just before the beginning of the Christian era, and also
after that time, the worship of many divinities was brought
to Rome from the East. The most noteworthy were :
Lis, an Egyptian goddess of the earth.
Osiris, the Egyptian god of the Nile, husband of Isis.
Serapis, apparently another name for Osiris as manifesting
himself in Apis, the Egyptian Sacred Bull.
/ uf^'/Aras, Persian god of the Sun, whose worship was brought
THE ROMAN MYTHOLOGY.
HI to Rome in the early Empire and soon became wide-
I •-_ Elagal/alus, a Syrian sun-god, whose worship was intro-
I duced by the Emperor of tlie same name (also some-
I times called JJtliogabalus) , near the beginning of the
wL third century a. d.
Myths of Demi-cods and Heroes.
The Romans had no native heroes, using the word in the
Greek sense. But many of the heroes of Greek mythology
were venerated at Rome, and became connected with national
myths. Among those most commonly referred to are ;
Hercules, the Greek Heraklcs, said to have passed through
Italy, and celebrated in the legends connected with the
founding of Rome.
Ulixes (English Ulysses), the Greek Odysseus.
Castor and Pollux, the Greek Kastor and Pofydeukes.
Aeneas, son of Venus and the Trojan Anchlses ; he became
the national hero of the Romans.
Anlenor, also a Trojan hero, connected with legends of
settlements in Northern Italy.
To these are sometimes added certain characters in the
early Roman legends, as —
Lafinus, King of the Latins, the primitive inhabitants of
Lalium, whose daughter Lavinia Aeneas married,
Turnus, an Italian prince to whom Lavinia had been be-
trothed before Aeneas came to Italy.
Romulus, son of Mars and Rhea Silvia, founder of Rome.
Murray, ' Manual of Mythology.'
Keightley, ' Greek and Roman Mythology.'
Prisller, ' Rdtnische Mythologie,' revised by Jordan, 3 vols.
Baumeister, * Denkmaler des klassischen Altertums.*
Br^l, * Melanges de mythologie et de linguistique.'
Ihne, * Early Rome.*
AMPfeRE, * Histoire romaine k Rome.'
Lewis, * An Inquiry into the Credibility of Early Roman His-
tory.' 2 vols.
BoissiER, * La religion romaine d'Auguste aux Antonins.'
Smith, * Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and My-
thology.' 3 vols.
Constant, *Du polyth^isme romain consid^r^ dans ses rap-
ports avec la philosophic grecque et la religion chr^tienne.'
DuRUY, * History of Rome.' Useful because of its references
to Roman Mythology, but especially for its numerous tasteful
illustrations bearing on the subject. 6 vols.
Introaurfion Friren, Soretttber, 1/iSO,
ALLYN AND BACON,
p4, IVASHINGTON STREET. BOSTON.
,lJ.rs. Geo. A, Bacon.
BRANDT, H. C. G. G.Tman Ri-adtr for IJegiiiners, witli
Notes and complete Vocabulary. 12ino, 400 pages. $1.25.
The exlmcm nre divided into six seutions : Easy I'nise : Enny Poetry ;
Legends and TbIcb ; Songs and Lyrics ; Comedy ; Hiituricul Prnee. The
aim al tlie editor Iihs been (o present selections of carefully gmded diffleulCy
no less tlinn of reni Intrinsic value, and to prepare a book irhicli sliall li«
tlioruitglily attractive and useful.
G-HADATIM, a First Latin Reader, cootaining interesting nnd
carefully graded Storiea. Edited, with Vocabulary, by J. W.
SCDDDER, Albany Academy. l6mo. 50 cents.
Tliis bonk is based on an Eniitisb publication of the snme title, and. by
the addition of otber niaterinl illustrating further points <if syntax, is made
a more adequate preparation for Cteaar.
GREEK PROSE COMPOSITION. By Francis G.
Ali.inbox, Ph.D., University School, Baltimore. 16nio.
SCHILLER'S Der Neffe als Onkel. Edited, with Notes and
Vornbulary, by Professor C. F. Raddatz, Balliraore City
College. IGmo. 50 cents.
XENOPHON'S ANABASIS. Books I.-IV. Tilustrated
edition, with colored Plates, Ma[>. Pliins, Notes, nad Vocabti-
lury, by Professor Francis W. Kklskt, ISrao. tl.60.
Allyn <Sr* Bacon, Publishers. 364, Washington Street, Boston.
LATIN TEXT BOOKS.
(See pages 5-9.)
Abbott, Ei. A. Latin Prose through English Idiom ^.90
Bennett, G. L. Easy Latin Stories 70
First Latin Writer . 90
First Latin Exercises 70
Second Latin Writer 90
Ghamplin, J. T. Selections from Tacitus 1.10
Chase, R. H. Macleane's Horace 1.30
Comstock, D. Y. First Latin Book 1.00
Gradatim. Edited by J. W. Scudder 60
Hart, Samuel. Satires of Juvenal , . 1 10
Satires of Persius 75
Scipio's Dream .20
Holbrooke, G. O. Pliny's Letters 1.00
Kelsey, F. W. Caesar's Gallic War 1.26
Cicero de Amicitia 70
de Senectute 70
Amicitia and Senectute in one vol. . . . 1.20
Orations. In preparation 0.00
Selections from Ovid. In preparation 0.00
Macleane, A. J. Horace. Edited by Chase 1.30
Juvenal. Edited by Hart 1.10
Morris, £. P. Mostellaria of Plautus 1.00
Pennell, R. F. The Latin Subjunctive 26
Scudder, J. W. Gradatim, a First Latin Reader 50
Smith, E. H. Latin Selections 1.75
Stickney, A. Cicero pro Cluentio , bO
AUyn &* Bacon, Publishers. 364, Washington Street, Boston.
GREEK TEXT BOOKS.
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Allinson, P. G. Greek Prose Composition $1.20
Felton, C. C. Aristophanes' Birds 1.10
Isocrates' Fanegyricus 80
Modem Greek Writers 1.26
Fernaldy O. M. Selections from Greek Historians 1.60
Frost, W. G. Alpha, A Greek Primer 1.00
Jebb, R. C. The Ajax of Sophocles 1.10
Keep, Robert P. Homer's lUad. Books I.- VI 1.40
With Vocabulary .... 1.60
Books I-IU 90
With Vocabulary .... 1.20
Kelsey, F. W. Xenophon's Anabasis. Books I.-IV 1.60
Mather, R. H. Prometheus of ^schylus 1.00
Herodotus and Thucydides .90
Electra of Sophocles 1.10
Moss, Charles M. First Greek Reader 70
Sewall, J. B. Greek Conditional Sentences 18
Thurber, S. Vocabulary to Iliad, I.-VI 60
Tyler, W. S. Demosthenes de Corona 1.20
Olynthiacs and Philippics in one vol. 1.20
Wagoner, Wm. Plato's Apology and Crito 90
WilUams, C. R. Lucian, Selections 1.40
Short Extracts 80
Winans, S. R. Xenophon's Memorabilia 1.20
AUyn <Sr* Baton, Publishers. 364, Washington Street, Boston.
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Brandt, H. C. G. First German Book $1.00
German Grammar 1.25
German Reader 1.25
Chardeual, G. A. First French Course 60
Second French Course 60
Advanced Exercises 90
liOdemaiiy A. German Exercises 50
Baddatz, C. F. Der Neffe als Oukel 50
HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY.
(See pages 20-22.)
Boweiiy Francis. Hamilton's Metaphysi<:s 1.50
Treatise on Logic 125
Champlin, J. T. Constitution of tlie United States 80
Pennell, R. F. History of Greece 60
History of Rome 60
Tocquevllle, A. de. American Institutions 1.20
Democracy in America, 2 vols 4.00
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Cooke, J. P. Chemical Philosophy 3.&0
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MacDonald, J. W. Principles of Plane Geometry 30
Nelson, C T. Herbarium and Plant Descriptions 75
Sharpies, S. P. Chemical Tables 2.00
Taylor, J. M. College Algebra 0.00
Walker, J. Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene 1.20
Worthington, A. M. Physical Laboratory Practice 1.20
A/h'i l5^' Bacon, Publishers. 364, Washington Street, Boston.
LATIN TEXT BOOKS.
AbbotfB Latin Prose through Eoglish Idiom. Rules and
Kxercises oil Lalia Prose Conipoaition. By the Uev. Edwin A.
Abbott, D.D., Head-Master ot the City o£ Loniiuu Scliool,
ISitLO, 305 pages, $0,911
The anther's object U to prepare students for the stndj and cornpoBition
rif Latin Prose, \iy calUng their attention first to tlie peuulinrities of English
iilioui, and tlletl tu llie metliods of repretienling lhi> English in the corre-
sponding Lfltin idiom. A good deal of space liaa been given to t)ie Frepo-
siiiuns. The KxercisuB are purpoauly unarrangcd, as connected examples
are useless U\ lest a. pupil's knavrkJgc.
Prof. E. H. Griffin, Williams College, WiUianstBini. — Any book by the
author of " English Lessons" and the " Slmksperinn Grammnr " I siiould
e.ipect to he gnnil. This teems lo vac elmpl; ailmirable, and i|i guilp u
valuable for tlie study of English as for the study ot Latin.
BennetfB Latin Books. Dy Geouge L. Bennett, M.A.,
lU'Lul-Miister of Sutton Valence School.
I Easy Latin Stories for Beginners. With Voeahulnry
ami Notes. lOiti", ITiG pages, ?0.70.
n. First Latin Writer. Com|msing Accidence, the
easier Rules of Sj-ntai, illustrated by copiouB eiatnples and
Progreasive Exercises in Elementary Latin Proae, with Vo-
cabularies. ]6uio, ai8 pagea, *0.90.
IZI. First Latin Exercises. Containing all the Rnlcs,
J^xercisej, and Vocahulariea of the First Latis Writeb
but omitting the Accidence. 16mo, 161 pages, $0.70.
IV. Second Latin 'Writer. Containing Hints on Writ
ing Latin Pmsi.', with graduated continuous Eieroiaeg.
lOmo, IDS pages, $0.90.
Dr. A. C. Perkins, Phil'ipt-Exelir Aivdemg — We take Bennett's " First
I Writer "as the best Manual of Latin CoiiiposilioD fortheflrit two
I o( our eourse. The " Easy Latin Stories," by the same author, it
nellenlly fitted for pupils when they are beginning to read Latin.
Prof. C. L. Smith, llarrard (.W.y/fl. — The "Second Latin Writer" is
quite n useful book, and fonlains a very THiualle collection of exercises.
The Introduction gives the studenl sound advice, and many ex<.'elle«i.wA'».
Allyn &» Bacon, Publishers, 364, Washington Street, Boston,
Csesar's Gallic War. Books I. to VII., with Introduction,
Notes, Table of Idioms, Map, and twenty full page Illustrations.
By Professor Francis W. Kelsey. 12mo, half leather. $1.25.
This book has been accepted as superior to any other school edition of
Caesar in the aptness of the notes, the accuracy and consistency of the text
and vocabulary, the fulness of the introduction, and the beauty of the illus-
trations. In it every effort has been made, by way of illustration and com-
ment, to render the study of Caesar attractive and useful, a means of culture
as well as of discipline.
O. D. Robinson, Principal High School ^ Albany y N, Y. — As a text-book
it seems to me, if not absolutely perfect, to approach as near perfection as
any text-book I have ever examined. The introduction and colored plates
are invaluable as aids to a clear understanding of the text, and are superior
to anything of the kind elsewhere. The maps, notes, vocabulary, and table
of idioms are unsurpassed in any text-book of Caesar now in use.
Richard M. Jones, HeadMasler Wm. Penn Chaiier School, Philadelphia.
— Kelsey's Caesar is in my judgment the nearest approach yet made in this
country to what a school edition of an ancient classic should be.' We shall
Cicero De Senectute and De Amicitia. With Notes by
James S. Reid, M.A., Cambridge, England. American edition,
revised by Professor Francis W. Kelsey, University of Michi-
gan. Fourth Edition. 16mo, 279 pages, 11.20. Each part
Prof. M. M. Fisher, University of Missouri. — The edition is in every
respect the best I have seen, and I shall use it in my classes.
Prof. J. H. Chamberlin, Marietta College, Ohio. — It is certainly the best
edition of these works of Cicero with which I am acquainted. I have used
the edition by Reid, and consider it a work of high merit. Professor
Kelsey's revision seems to me to retain all the desirable features of the
original edition, while much has been added which is of especial value to
the American student.
Cicero Pro Cluentio. With Notes by Professor Austin
Stickney. Fourth Edition. 16mo, 156 pages, ?0.80.
This edition is intended for use as a college text-book, and the notes are
designed to supply the student only with such information in respect to the
facts of the case and the scope of the argument, as is necessary to the proper
understanding of the Oration.