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The Writings of the Fathers down to A.D. J2^. 


















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Tte NicEMB CooHau 


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This volume completes the American series, according to onr agreement Biit Itirill be 

found to afford much material over and above what was promised, and the editorial labour it has 

exacted has been much greater than might at first be suspected. The Bibliography with which 

the work is supplemented, and which is the original work of Dr. Riddle, has been necessarily 

thrown into the Index by the overgrowth of tfiis volume in original matter. 

The Apocryphal works of the Edinburgh coUection have been here brought together, and 
" Fragments " have been sifted, and arranged on a plan strictly practical. To my valued collabo^ 
rator Dr. Riddle I have committed a task which demanded a specialist of his eminent qualifica- 
tions. He has had, almost exclusively, the task of editing the P^eudo- Clementina and ^ 
Apocryphal New Testament To myself I assigned :the Thvelve Patriarchs and Excerpts, tiw^ 
Edessene Memoirs and other Syriac Fragments y the False Decretals, and the Remains of the First 
Ages, I have reserved this retrospect of historic truth and testimony to complete the volume. 
As in music the tune ends on tiie note with which it began, so, after the greater part of the 
volume had been surrendered to forgery and fiction (valuable, indeed, for purposes of comparison 
and reference, but otherwise unworthy of a place among primitive witnesses), I felt it refreshing to 
return to genuine writings and to authentic histories. The pages of Melito and others will restore 
something of the flavour of the Apostolic Fathers to our taste, and the student will not close his 
review of the Ante-Nicene Fathers with last impressions derived only from their fraudulent 
imitators and corrupters. 

The editor-in-chief renews his grateful acknowledgments to those who have aided him in his 
undertaking, with whose honoured names the reader is abeady acquainted. Nor can he omit an 
expression of thanks to the reverend brother ' to whom the hard work of the Indexes has been 
chiefly committed. It would be equally unjust not to mention his obligations to the meritorious 
press which has produced these pages with a general accuracy not easily ensured under difficul- 
ties such as have been inseparable from this undertaking.' The support which has been liberally 
afforded to the enterprise by Christians of divers names and communions ought not to be recog- 
nised by words of mere recognition : it is a token of their common interest in a common origin, 
and a sign, perhaps, of a longing for that precious unity and brotherhood which was the glory of 
the martyr ages, for which all should unite in praise to God. To the Christian press a grateful 
tribute is due from the editor and his publishers alike ; more especially as it has encouraged, so 
generally, the production of another series, of which the first volume has already appeared, and 
which will familiarize the minds and hearts of thousands with the living thought and burning piety 
of those great doctors of the post-Nicene period, to whom the world owes such immense obliga- 
tions, but who have been so largely unknown to millions even of educated men, except as bright 
and shining names. 

It is a cheering token, that, while the superficial popular mind may even be disposed to regard 

t Tbe Rev. C. W. Hayes, M.A., of Westfield, N.Y. * The Boston Press of Rand Avery Companj. 



this collection as a mere musetun of fossils, having little or no connection with anything that 
interests our age, there is a twofold movement towards a fresh investigation of the past, which it 
seems providentially designed to meet Thus, among Christians there is a general appetite for 
the study of primitive antiquity, stimulated by the decadence of the Papacy, and by the agita- 
tions concerning the theology of the future which have arisen in Reformed communions; 
while, on the other hand, scientific thought has pushed inquuy as to the sources of the world's 
enlightenment, and has found them just here, — in the school of Alexandria, and in the Christian 
writers of the first three centuries. " It is instructive," says a forcible thinker,' and a disciple of 
Darwin and Huxley, '' to note how closely Athanasius approaches the confines of modem scien- 
tific thought" And again he says : " The intellectual atmosphere of Alexandria for two centuries 
before and three centuries after the time of Christ was more modem than anything that followed, 
down to the days of Bacon and Descartes." 

It would be unmanly in the editor to speak of the diflSculties and hindrances through which 
he has been forced to push on his work, while engaged in other and very sacred duties. The 
conditions which alone could justify the publishers in the venture were quite inconsistent with 
such an editorial performance as might satisfy his own ideas of what should be done with such 
materials. Four years instead of two, he fdt, should be bestowed on such a work ; and he 
thought that two years might suffice only in case a number of collaborators could be secured for 
simultaneous employment. When it was found that such a plan was impracticable, and that the 
idea must be abandoned if not undertaken and carried forward as it has been, then the writer most 
reluctantly assumed his great responsibility in the fear of God, and in dependence on His loving- 
kindness and tender mercy. Of the result, he can only say that *^ he has done what he could " 
in the circumstances. He is rewarded by the consciousness that at least he has enabled many 
an American divine and scholar to avail himself of the labours of the Edinburgh translators, and 
to feel what is due to them, when, but for this publication, he must have remained in ignorance 
of what their erudition has achieved and contributed to Christian learning in the English tongue. 

And how sweet and invigorating has been his task, as page after page of these treasures of 
antiquity has passed under his hand and eye 1 With unfailing appetite he has risen before day- 
light to his work ; and &r into the night he has extended it, with ever fresh interest and delight 
Obliged very often to read his proofe, or prepare his notes, at least in their first draught, while 
journeying by land or by water, he has generally found in such employments, not additional 
fatigue, but a real comfort and resource, a balance to other cares, and a sweet preparation and 
invigoration for other labours. Oh, how much he owes, under God, to these ''guides, philoso- 
phers, and friends," — these Fathers of old time, — and to " their Father and our Father, their God 
and our God " I What love is due from all who love Christ, for the words they have spoken, and 
the deeds they have done, to assure us that the Everlasting Word is He to whom alone we can go 
for the words of life eternal I 

A,C. a 

> John FIske, Tkt td§a ^ GhI, Bottoo, x886, pp. 73* ^ 






IV. PSEUDO-CLEMENTINE LITERATURE. Rbcognitions of Clement . . 75 

The Clementine HomuES 215 

V. APOCRYPHA OF THE NEW TESTAMENT. The Protevangelium of James, 361 

The Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew 368 

The Gospel of the Nativity of Mary 384 

The History of Joseph the Carpenter 388 

The Gospel of Thomas • • 395 

The Arabic Gospel of the Infancy of the Saviour 405 

The Gospel of Nicodemus 416 

The Letter of Pontius Pilats concerning our Lord Jesus Christ . . 459 

The Report of Pilate the Procurator concerning our Lord Jesus Christ, 460 

The Report of Pontius Pilate 462 

The Giving up of Pontius Pilate 464 

The Death op Pilate 466 

The Narrative op Joseph « • • 468 

The Avenging of the Saviour • • • • • 472 

Acts of the Holy Apostles J^eter and Paul ••••.. 477 

Acts of Paul and Thecla 487 

The Acts of Barnabas • • • • 493 

The Acts of Philip • . • 497 

Acts and Martyrdom of the Holy Apostle Andrew 511 

Acts of Andrew and Matthias . • • •517 

Acts of Peter and Andrew = . . . 526 

Acts and Martyrdom of St. Matthew the Apostle 528 

Acts of the Holy Apostle Thomas 535 

Consummation of Thomas the Apostle 550 

Martyrdom of the Holy and Glorious Apostle Bartholomew • . 553 

Acts of the Holy Apostle Thadd^us 558 

Acts of the Holy Apostle and Evangelist John the Theologian. . 560 

Revelation of Moses 565 

Revelation of Esdras 571 

Revelation of Paul 575 

Revelation of John . 582 

The Book of John concerning the Falling Asleep of Mary . . .587 
The Passing of Mary .592 




VL THE DECRETALS. The ErvruB or Fane ZkHRXoni 609 

The EnsTLES or Pore Calurts ••• 613 

The EnsTLE or Pore Ukbah Fbst •••• 619 

The Epistles or Pors PdoniAsas •••• 622 

The Epistle or Pope Asttexus 626 

The Epistles or Pope Fabluv 630 

Decrees or Pope Yamia% 64a 


Stoet covcEKjnvG the Kixg or Edtcta ••••••• 651 

A CAjmcLE OP Mab Jacob the TEachee oar FnrsiA . • • • . 654. 
Extracts peom Vaeiocs Books covceesihg Abgae the Kisg axd Addcos 

THE Apostle ••••••• 655 

The Teachixg or Adomvs the Afostle ••••••• 65/ 

The Teachihg CfF the Apostles •••••••••• 667 

The Teachdig or Satox Cephas or the Orrr or Rome . • • • • 673 

Acts op Shaebo. 676 

The Maetyedom of Baxsamta 685 

Maetyeoom op Habib the Deaoobt 690 

Mabttrdom op the Holt Cokpesbohb Sbamoha, Gusia, axd Hard . 696 

Moses op Chorere 702- 

HoHiLT OR Habib the Martyr 708^ 

Homily or Guria ard Shamura 714. 

Bardesar •••• 723. 

A Letter of Mara, Son or Seraprmt • • 735 

Ambrose ••• 739 







This verjr curious fiagment of antiquity deserves a few words in anticipation of tiie transla- 
tor's valuable preface. Grabe's SficHegium is there referred to ; but it may be well also to 
consult his citations, in elucidation, of Bull's Defensio Fidei Niccma,^ where he treats the work 
with respect My most valued authority, however, on this subject, is Lardner,' who gives a very 
fiiU account of the work with his usual candor and learning. He seems to treat the matter with 
a needless profusion of space and consideration ; yet in a much later volume of his great treatise 
he recurs to the subject ' with expressions of satis£Eu:tion that he had dealt with it so largely before. 
Cave placed the composition of the Testaments about a.d. 192, but concedes a much earlier 
origin to the first portion of the work. Origen quotes from it, and Tertullian is supposed to have 
bonowed from it one of his expositions, as will be noted in its place. Lardner clears it from 
charges of Ebionitism,^ but thinks the author was so far in accord with that heresy as to use 
expressions savouring of ** Unitarianism." Of this charge he is not justiy susceptible, it appears 
to me : quite otherwise. If we can imagine Trypho coming to the light after his kindly parting 
with Justin,^ I can conceive of such a man as the author of this work. He is a Christian awaken- 
ing to the real purport of the Old-Testament Scriptures, and anxious to lead rather than drive his 
brethren after the flesh to the discovery of Him '' concerning whom Moses in the law and the 
prophets did write : " not a " Judaizing Christian," as Cave imagined, but the reverse, — a Chris- 
tianizing Jew. Now, I must think that such a writer would weave into his plan many accepted 
traditions of the Jews and many Rabbinical expositions of the sacred writers. He was doubtless 
aquainted with that remarkable passage in the Revelation in which the patriarchs are so honour- 
ably named,^ and with that corresponding passage which seems to unite the twelve patriarchs 
with the twelve aposties.' St. Paul's claim for the twelve tribes before Agrippa^ would naturally 
impress itself on such a mind. Whether the product of such a character with such a disposition 
would naturally be such an affectionate and filial attempt as this to identify the religion of the 
CrndSed with the faith of the Jewish fathers,^ may be judged of by my reader. 

' VoL T. p. 176, ed. 1897. 

* Crtdih.f ToL u. pp. 345*364. 

* Vol. Tl. p. 384. 

4 The hooour dooe to St PMd b enoogli to MCde any ii»pkioi\ of llrft M^ 
' See ToL L p. 370, note %, dus leries. 

* Rev. Tia. 4. I>iB b cicgp l e d. 

' Rer. vt, 4. See vol. yvL p. 348, dut Miieg. 

' Acts xxri. 7. 

9 See rA« CkrtMt pf ytwUk Hht^ry in Stanleir Leftthetf* Bmmplm L$etur€», p. si» ed. New Voile, 1874: also WeslDOtt, Iniroiuc- 
Um t§ Study 0/ tk4 Go9peU^ 3d ed., London, Mermillani, 1867. Note, on the Book of Hmoeh, pp. 69, 93-xoi ; on the Book 0/ Juhi- 
ku, p. S09. He pnis this book inio the fink century, hter than Henoch, earlier than the T^oolv* Pairiarckt. Cootult this work on the 
ikiaadrian Fathers, on inap ir atk m of ScripCnre, etc.; and note tha Jewish doctrine of the Messiah, pp. 86, 143, 151, also the apociyphal 
of words of our Lord, p. 498. 


It appears to me an ill-advised romance; not more a "pious fraud" than several fictiom 
which have attracted attention in our own times, based on the traditions of the Hebrews. The 
legends of the "Wandering Jew" have grown out of corresponding instincts among Christians. 
To me they appear like the pro&ne "Passion-plays" lately revived among Christians^ — a most 
unwarrantable form of teaching even truth. But as to the work itself, seeing it exists, I mvA 
acknowledge that it seems to me a valuable relic of antiquity, and an interesting specimen of the 
feelings and convictions of those believers over whom St James presided in Jerusalem : ' "Israd- 
ites indeed," but " zealous of the law." They were now convinced that Abraham and Isaac and 
Jacob, with Moses and all the prophets, looked for the Messiah who had appeared in Jesus of 
Nazareth. The author of this book was anxious to show that the twelve patriarchs were twdie 
believers in the Paschal Lamb, and that they died in Christian penitence and faith. 

He, then, ^o will read or study the following waif of the olden time, as I have done« will not 
find it unprofitable reading. It really supplies a key to some difficulties in the Scripture narrathre. 
It suggests what are at least plausible counterparts of what is written. "To the pure all thiQgi 
are pure ; " and I see nothing that need defile in any of the details which expose the sins, and 
magnify the penitence, of the patriarchs. In fact, Lardner's objection to one of the sections in die 
beautiful narrative of Joseph strikes me as extraordinary. It is the story of a heroic conflict widi 
temptation, the like of which was doubtless not imcommon in the days of early Christians liviqg 
among heathens ;' and I think it was possibly written to inspire a Joseph-like chastity in Chris- 
tian youth. " I do not suppose," says Lardner, " that the virtue of any of these ancient Hebrew! 
was complete according to the Christian rule." I am amazed at this ; I have always supposed 
the example of Joseph the more glorious because he flourished as the flower of chastity in a gioa 
and carnal age. Who so pure as he save John the Baptist, that morning star that shone so near 
the Sun of Righteousness in the transient beauty of his " heliacal rising " ? Surely Joseph was t 
type of Christ in this as in other particulars, and our author merely enables us to understand the 
" fiery darts " which he was wont to hurl back at the tempter. I own (reluctantly, because I 
dislike this form of teaching) that for me the superlative ode of the dying Jacob receives 
reflected lustre from this curious book, especially in the splendid eulogy with which the old 
patriarch blesses his beloved Joseph. "The author," says Lardner, "in an indirect manner 
bears a large testimony to the Christian religion, to the facts, principles, and books of the Net 
Testament He speaks of the nativity of Christ, the meekness and unblameableness of His lifi^ 
His crucifixion at the instigation of the Jewish priests, the wonderful concomitants of His d 
His resurrection, and ascension. He represents the character of the Messiah as God and man 
the Most High God with men, eating and drinking with them ; the Son of God ; the Saviour 
the world, of the Gentiles and Israel ; as Eternal High Priest and King. He likewise sp 
of the effusion of the Holy Spirit upon the Messiah, attended with a voice fcom heaven ; His 
righteous treatment by the Jews ; their desolations and the destruction of the Temple upon 
account ; the call of the Gentiles ; the illuminating them generally with new light ; the effusion 
the Spirit upon believers, but especially, and in a more abundant measure, upon the Gentiles. . 
There are allusions to the Gospels of St Matthew, St Luke and St John, the Acts of the Apostl* 
and of the Epistles to Ephesians, First Thessalonians, First Timothy, Hebrews, and First 
John, also to the Revelation. So far as consistent with the assumed character of his work, 
author declares the canonical authority of the Acts of the Apostles and the Epistles of St Paul' 
Of which of the minor writers among the Ante-Nicene Fathers can so much be said? 

Regarded as a sort of Jewish surrender \o Justin's argument with Trypho, this book is inter- 
esting, and represents, no doubt, the convictions of thousands of Jewish converts of the first ageu 
It is, in short, worthy of more attention than it has yet received. 

> Acts xxi. 18-46. To my mind a most touching histoiy, in which it is hard to taj whedwr St Pttul or St James is exhibited in tlB 
more charming light. It suggests the absolute harmooy of their Et w s t lei. 
< Vol. i. Eludd. II. p. 57i t^u* lenes. 


(i6ox)yaxid a bis. Icelandic translation of the ei^^teenth centoiyin the British Museum, add. ms 

For further information on the subject of the Testamenif, reference may be made, in additio: 
to works already mentioned, to the following:— Nitzsch, Commentatio CriUca de Testamenti 
XIL Patriarcharum^ Hbro V. T. Pseudepigrapho (Wittenberg, 1810) ; Ritschl, Die Entstehun^ 
der alAatholiscken Kirche (Bonn, 1850; ed. a, 1857), p. 171 sqq.; Vorstman, DisquisiHo a 
Testamentorutn XIL Patriarcharum ori^ne ei preUo (Rotterdam, 1857) ; Kayser in Reuss ani 
Cunitz's Beifrage su den AeoL Wissenschaften for 185 1, pp. 107-140; LQcke, Einleitung in di 
Qffendarung desjoh.^ voL L p. 334 sqq., ed. a. R. S. 


P§bfuary ai, 1S71. 

■\ \ 

' ■ ■\ 



admonitiqns of his fathers, as befell me also in 
my youth.^ 

And now, children, love the truth, and it shall 
preserve you. I counsel you, hear ye Reuben 
your father. Pay no heed to the sight of a 
woman, nor yet associate privately with a female 
under the authority of a husband, nor meddle 
with affairs of womankind. For had I not seen 
Bilhah bathing in a covered place, I had not 
fallen into this great iniquity.' For my mind, 
dwelling on the woman's nakedness, suffered me 
not to sleep until I had done the abominable 
deed. For while Jacob our father was absent 
with Isaac his father, when we were in Gader, 
near to Ephratha in Bethlehem, Bilhah was 
drunk, and lay asleep uncovered in her cham- 
ber ; and when I went in and beheld her naked- 
ness, I wrought that impiety, and leaving her 
sleeping I departed. And forthwith an angel 
of God revealed to my father Jacob concerning 
my impiety, and hd came and mourned over me, 
and touched her no more.* 

4. Pay no heed, therefore, to the beauty of 
women, and muse not up>on their doings; but 
walk in singleness of heart m the fear of the 
Lord, and be labouring in works, and roaming 
in study and among your flocks, until the Lord 
give to you a wife whom He will, that ye suffer 
not as I did. Until my father's death I had not 
boldness to look stedfastly into the face of Jacob, 
or to speak to any of my brethren, because of 
my reproach ; and even until now my conscience 
afflicteth me by reason of my sin. And my 
father comforted me ; for he prayed for me unto 
the Lord, that the anger of the Lord might pass 
away from me, even as the Lord showed me. 
From henceforth, then, I was protected, and I 
sinned not. Therefore, my children, observe all 
Ihings whatsoever I command you, and ye shall 
not sin. For fornication is the destruction of 
the soul, separating it from God, and bringing it 
near to idols, because it deceiveth the mind and 
understanding, and bringeth down young men 
into hell before their time. For many hath for- 
nication destroyed; because, though a man be 
old or noble, it maketh him a reproach and a 
laughing-stock with Beliar and the sons of men. 
For in that Joseph kept himself from every 
woman, and purged his thoughts from aii forni- 
cation, he found favour before the Lord and 
men. For the Egyptian woman did many things 
unto him, and called for magicians, and offered 
him love potions, and the purpose of his soul 
admitted no evil desire. Therefore the God of 
my fathers delivered him from every visible and 
hidden death. For if fornication overcome not 
the mind, neither shall Beliar overcome yoiu 

I Cf. Gen. XXXV. aa. The Gader mentioned below b the Edar of 
rer. ax .the Hd)rew p being reproduced, as often, by y, 

' [This aection is oenstued bv LarmMr as nnsiiittibte to dying 
adAMwitinQs. He forgets Oriental simplicity.] 

5. Hurtfiil are women, my children ; because, 
since they have no power or strength over the 
man, they act subtilly through outward guise how 
they may draw him to themselves ; and whom 
they cannot overcome by strength, him they over- 
come by craft. For moreover the angel of God 
told me concerning them, and taught me that 
women are overcome by the spirit of fornication 
more than men, and they devise in their heart 
against men ; and by means of their adornment 
they deceive first their minds, and instil the 
poison by the glance of their eye, and then they 
take them captive by their doings, for a woman 
cannot overcome a man by force. 

Therefore flee fornication, my children, and 
command your wives and your daughters that 
thhy adorn not their heads and their faces ; be- 
cause every woman who acteth deceitfully in 
these things hath been reserved to everlasting 
punishment For thus they allured the Watchers' 
before the flood ; and as these continually beheld 
them, they fell into desire each of the odier, and 
they conceived the act in their mind, and changed 
themselves into the shape of men, and appealed 
to them in their congress with their husbands ; 
and the women, having in their minds desire 
toward their apparitions, gave buth to giants, for 
the Watchers appeared to them as reaching even. 
unto heaven.^ 

6. Beware, therefore, of fornication; and iT 
you wish to be pure in your mind, guard your* 
senses against every woman. And command 
them Ukewise not to company with men, that: 
they also be pure in their mind. For constant 
meetings, even though the ungodly deed be not 
wrought, are to them an irremediable disease, 
and to us an everlasting reproach of Beliar ; foar 
fornication hath neither understanding nor god^ 
liness in itself, and all jealousy dwelleth in th^ 
desire thereof. Therefore ye will be jealous 
against the sons of Levi, and will seek to be 
exalted over them ; but ye shall not be able^ fo^ 
God will work their avenging, and ye shall die 
by an evil death. For to Levi the Lord gave the 
sovereignty, and to Judah,^ and to me sdso witlm 
them,^ and to Dan and Joseph, that we should 
be for rulers. Therefore I command you to 
hearken to Levi, because he shall know die la^ 
of the Lord, and shall give ordinances for judg' 
ment and sacrifice for all Israel until the com* 

3 This name, occurring once again in the Testatmgmtt ^JiTm^, «>» 
is onefreauently found applied to the angeb as the custodians of £• 
wmid ana of men. Thus, in the Chaldee of Daniel (ir. zo, 14, so: 
X3t X7> S3* £oS* Ver.), we find the expression l^j^, which Aquila and 

&punachus render fyptyyopof. The correqwnding Ethi<mic term k 
of frequent occurrence m the book of Enoch, not only of the Cstten 
ansels (e.g.( x. 9, 15, xri. i, etc), but of the pxxi (xiL a, 3, etc,cd. 
DiUmann). See also Gesenius, Tketaurus, s.v. l^J^. 

4 rCen. vi. 4; Revised maigin. x Cor. xL 10; Jude 6, ^.] 

5 [See Lardner on dus root idea cS our author, vol. li. p. 353} 
but he is wrong as to Leri and Mary. Also Joteph^ sec 19, noM 

9, «W/ra.] fc 

o The reading of OL Oxon., ficr* avrtfv, is doubtless to be pn* 



6. And when I came to my father I found a 
brazen shield ; ' wherefore also the name of the 
mounUdn is Aspis, which is near Gebal, on the 
right side of Abila ; and I kept these words in 
my heart I took counsel with my father, and 
with Reuben my brother, that he should bid 
the sons of Hamor that they should be circum- 
cised ; for I was jealous because of the abomi- 
nation which they had wrought in Israel. And 
I slew Shechem at the first, and Simeon slew 
Hamor. And after this our brethren came and 
smote the city with the edge of the sword ; and 
our father heard it and was wroth, and he was 
grieved in that they had received the circum- 
cision, and after that had been put to death, and 
in his blessings he dealt otherwise with us. For 
we sinned because we had done this thing against 
his will, and he was sick upon that day. But I 
knew that the sentence of God was for evil upon 
Shechem ; for they sought to do to Sarah as they 
did to Dinah our sister, and the Lord hindered 
them. And so they persecuted Abraham our 
father when he was a stranger, and they harried 
his flocks when they were multiplied upon him ; 
and Jeblae his servant, bom in his house, they 
shamefully handled. And thus they did to all 
strangers, taking away their wives by force, and 
the men themselves driving into exile. But the 
wrath of the Lord came suddenly upon them 
to the uttermost.* 

7. And I said to my father. Be not angry, shr, 
because by thee will the Lord bring to nought 
the Canaanites, and will give their kmd to thee, 

.and to thy seed after thee. For from this day 
''forward shall Shechem be called a city of them 
that are without understanding; for as a man 
mocketh at a fool, so did we mock them, be- 
cause they wrought folly in Israel to defile our 
sister. And we took our sister from thence, and 
departed, and came to Bethel. 

8. And there I saw a thing again even as the 
former, after we had passed seventy days. And 
I saw seven men in white raiment saying to me. 
Arise, put on the robe of the priesthood, and 
the crown of righteousness, and the breastplate 
of understanding, and the garment of truth, and 
the diadem of £uth, and the tiara of miracle, 
and the ephod of prophecy.^ And each one of 
them bearing each of these things put them on 
me, and said. From henceforth become a priest 
of the Lord, thou and thy seed for ever. And 

> «0irt«. The Latin venkm gives the other meaning to iioirlt 
herCf of asp or viper. The epithet x'^^"^* however, renders 
" shield " much more probable, as there seems nothing in the coo- 
text pointing to the " brazen servient." 

' A quotation from x Thess. iL 16, where the context also is simi- 
lar to the present. FSee Lardnei's refutation of the learned Grabe 
00 thisquotation. vol. ii. p. 359.] 

9 With die whole of this passage we may compare the descn^on 
of Uie vestments of Aaron. See ewpedaUy Ex. xxix. 5, 6 (LaX.). 
The rfroAor is die translation of V^V, the plate of gold on the fore- 
head of the high priest over the mitre. The Aoyioi^, or Aoyctoy, b 
the breas^late. with the Urim and Thummim. For the wod^pnif, see 
Ex. xxviii «7 (LXX.). 

the first anointed me with holy oil, and gave to 
me the rod of judgment. Tlie second washed 
me with pure water, and fed me with bread and 
wine, the most holy things,^ and clad me with a 
holy and glorious robe. The third clothed me 
with a linen vestment like to an ephod. The 
fourth put round me a girdle like unto purple. 
The fifth gave to me a branch of rich olive. 
The sixth placed a crown on my head. The 
seventh placed on my head a diadem of priest- 
hood, and filled my hands with incense, so that 
I served as a priest to the Lord. And they said 
to me, Levi, thy seed shall be divided into three 
branches,^ for a sign of the glory of the Lord 
who is to come ; and first shall he be that hath 
been ^thfiil ; no portion shall be greater than 
his. The second shall be in the priesthood. 
The third — a new name shall be called over 
Him, because He shall arise as King from 
Judah, and shall establish a new priesthood, after 
the fashion of the Gentiles, to all the Gentiles.^ 
And His appearing shall be unutterable, as of 
an exalted ' prophet of the seed of Abraham our 
father. Every desirable thing in Israel shall be 
for thee and for thy seed, and everything fisdr to 
look upon shall ye eat, and the table of the Lord 
shall thy seed apportion, and some of them 
shall be high priests, and judges, and scribes ; 
for by their mouth shall the holy place be 
guarded. And when I awoke, I understood that 
this thing was like unto the former. And I hid 
this also in my heart, and told it not to any man 
upon the earth/}. 

9. And after two days I and Judah went up to 
Isaac after ^ our father; and Uie father of my 
father blessed me according to all the words 
of the visions which I had seen : and he would 
not come with us to Bethel. And when we 
came to Bethel, my father Jacob saw in a vision 
concerning me, that I should be to them for a 
priest unto the Lord ; and he rose up early in 
the morning, and paid tithes of all to the Lord 
through me. And we came to Hebron to dwell 
there, and Isaac called me continually to put 
me in rememt)rance of the law of the Lord, 
even as the angel of God showed to me. And 
he taught me the law of the priesthood, of sacri- 
fices, whole bumt-oflferings, first-fruits, free-will 
offerings, thank-offerings. And each day he was 
instructing me, and was busied for me before 
the Lord. And he said to me. Take heed, my 
child, of the spirit of fornication ; for this shall 

4 On the possible reference here to the dements of the Eucharist, 
see Grabe's note, S^Hegium, in loc. 

5 Nitzsch (p. 19, n. ^7) explains this division into three o^x*''* ^ 
referring to the three oroers ot the Christian priesthood. This, how- 
ever, seems improbable. Of. Kajrser, p. ixo; Vorstman, p. 41. It 
is far more probable that die reference is to Moses, Aaron, and Christ 
Thus widi ritfrcv<rac we may compare Num. xii. 7. For this use of 

apx^, cf. Gen. ii. xo. fisa. ucvi. ax.] 

s [Rom. xvi 15, x6, X7, Greek. Compare Heb. v. x.] 
7 Or, if we follow the reading of Cd.Oxon.," Prophet < 



of the Most 

Or rather, with Cd. Oxoo., " with our fetber.' 



with harlots. Amid excesses ' will ye teach the 
commandments of the Lord, the women that 
have husbands will ye pollute, and the virgins of 
Jerusalem will ye defile; and with harlots and 
adulteresses will ye be joined. The daughters 
of the Gentiles mUl ye take for wives, punfying 
them with an unlawful purification; and your 
union shall be like unto Sodom and Gomorrah 
in ungodliness. And ye will be puflfed up because 
of the priesthood lifting yourselves up against 
men. And not only so, but being puffed up also 
against the commands of God, ye will scoff at 
the holy things, mocking in despitefulness. 

15. Therefore the temple which the Lord 
shall choose shall be desolate in uncleanness, and 
ye shall be captives throughout all nations, and 
ye shall be an abomination among them, and ye 
shall receive reproach and everlasting shame from 
the righteous judgment of God ; and all who see 
you shall flee fh)m you. And were it not for 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob our fathers, not one 
from my seed should be left upon the earth. 

16. And now I have learnt in the book of 
Enoch that for seventy weeks will ye go astray, 
and will profane the priesthood, and pollute the 
sacrifices, and corrupt the law, and set at nought 
the words of the prophets. In perverseness ye 
will persecute righteous men, and hate the godly ; 
the words of the faithful will ye abhor, and the 
man who reneweth the law in the po>^er of the 
Most High will ye call a deceiver ;* and at last, 
as ye suppose, ye will slay Him, not understand- 
ing His resurrection, wickedly taking upon yoiu: 
own heads the innocent blood.3 Because of Him 
shall your holy places be desolate, polluted even 
to the ground, and ye shall have no place that 
is clean ; but ye shall be among the Gentiles a 
curse and a dispersion, until He shall again look 
upon you, and in pity shall take you to Himself 
through faith and water.* 

17. And because ye have heard concerning 
the seventy weeks, hear also concerning the 
priesthood ; for in each jubilee there shall be a 
priesthood. In the first jubilee, the first who is 
anointed into the priesthood shall be great, and 
shall speak to God as to a Father; and his 
priesthood shall be filled with the fear of the 
Lord, and in the day of his gladness shall he 
arise for the salvation of the world. In the 
second jubilee, he that is anointed shall be con- 
ceived in the sorrow of beloved ones ; and his 
priesthood shall be honoured, and shall be glori- 
fied among all. And the third priest shall be 
held fast in sorrow ; and the fourth shall be in 

X The ivord irA«evc(ta, Uke the English " excess/' has not unfire- 
quently spedal refinenoe to sins of sensuality. Cf. x Cor. y. xx, Eph. 
iv. 19, ▼. 3, S, Col. iii. S» » Thess. iv. 6, the context in all of which 
passages points strongly to ^tM conclusion. See Suicer's Thtsaums, 

* Cf. Matt, xxvii. 63, where «ic«i»^ h vAavoc is said of our Lord. 

* [Matt, xxvii. as.] 

4 [John iii. 5; Isa. xiL 3; x Pet aiL aa] 

grief, because unrighteousness shall be laid upon 
him exceedingly, and all Israel shall hate each 
one his neighbour. The fifth shall be held &st 
in darkness, likewise also the sixth and thtt 
seventh. And in the seventh there shall be such 
pollution as I am not able to express, before the 
Lord and men, for they shall know it who do 
these things. Therefore shall they be in captivity 
and for a prey, and their land and their substance 
shall be destroyed. And in the fifth week they 
shall return into their desolate country, and shall 
renew the house of the Lord. And in the seventh 
week shall come the priests, worshippers of idols, 
contentious, lovers of money, proud, lawless, 
lascivious, abusers of children and beasts. 

18. And after their punishment shall have 
come from the Lord, then will the Lord raise up 
to the priesthood a new Priest, to whom all the 
words of the Lord shall be revealed ; and He 
shall execute a judgment of truth upon the earth,* 
in the fulness of days. And His star shall arise 
in heaven,^ as a king shedding forth the light of 
knowledge in the sunshine of day, and He shall 
be magnified in the world until His ascension. 
He shall shine forth as the sun in the earth, and 
shall drive away all darkness fh)m the world 
under heaven, and there shall be peace in all the 
earth. The heavens shall rejoice in His days, 
and the earth shall be glad, and the clouds shall 
be joyful, and the knowledge of the Lord shall 
be poured forth upon the earth, as the water of 
seas ; and the angels of the glory of the presence 
of the Lord shall be glad in Him. The heavens 
shall be opened, and from the temple of gloiy 
shall the sanctification come upon Him with the 
Father's voice, as from Abraham the father of 
Isaac. And the glory of the Most High shall 
be uttered over Him, and the spirit of under* 
standing and of sanctification shall rest upon 
Him in the water. He shall give the majesty of 
the Lord to His sons in truth for evermore ; and 
there shall none succeed Him for all generatioDSi 
even for ever.^ And in His priesthood shall al 
sin come to an end, and the lawless shall rest 
from evil, and the just shall rest in Him. And 
He shall open the gates of paradise, and shall 
remove^ the threatening sword against Adam] 
and He shall give to His saints to eat from the 
tree of life,^ and the spirit of holiness shall be 
on them. And Beliar shall be bound by HinL 
and He shall give power to His children to tread 

S Her. xsxIiL i<.] 

* IMatt. H. a. Omatant references to the GospeSs proofr of I 

' An additional clause occurs here in Cd. Oxon., which | 
has a tendency to omit; ^ the ooipyyax of Cd. Cam. having 
looked on to tfaie same initial words in the next clause: " An 
priesthood shall the Gentiles be multiplied in knowledge on the eai^ 
and shall be enlightened dirough the grace of the Lord; but Isni 
shall be minished m ignorance, and be darkened in sorrow." 

' The reading of Co. Oxon. here, avov^^tt, is to be pi e feii ed I 
Cd. Cam., or^ci. Grosseteste's Latin version, in all pralMbiill 
made from the latter, has ttartfacitt, [See p. 7, note z, Mr/ns.] 

9 [Rev. iL 7.] 



upon the evil spirits.' And the Lord shall re- 
joice in His chfldren^ and the Lord shall be well 
pleased in His beloved for ever: Then shall 
Abraham and Isaac and Jacob be joyful, and I 
win be glad, and all the saints shall put on 

19. And now, my children, ye have heard all ; 
choose therefore for yourselves either the dark- 
ness or the light, either the law of the Lord or 
the works of Beliar. And we answered our father, 

[Lake z. x8» 19.] 

saying, Before the Lord will we walk according 
to His law. And our father said, The Lord is 
witness, and His angels are witnesses, and I 
am witness, and ye are witnesses, concerning 
the word of your mouth. And we said. We are 
witnesses. And thus Levi ceased giving charge 
to his sons ; and he stretched out his feet, and 
was gathered to his fathers, after he had lived a 
hundred and thirty-seven years. And they laid 
him in a coffin, and afterwards they buried him 
in Hebron, by the side of Abraham, and Isaac, 
and Jacob. 



1. The copy of the words of Judah, what 
things he spake to his sons before he died. They 
gathered themselves together, and came to him, 
and he said to them : I was the fourth son bom 
to my father, and my mother called me Judah, 
saying, I give thanks to the Lord, because He 
hath given to me even a fourth son.' I was 
swift and active in my youth, and obedient 
to my father in everything. And I honoured my 
mother and my mother's sister. And it ^ame to 
pass, when I became a man, that my father Jacob 
prayed over me, saying, Thou shalt be a king, 
and prosperous in all things. 

2. And the Lord showed me favour in all my 
works both in the field and at home. When I 
saw that I could run with the hind, then I caught 
it, and prepared meat for my father. I seized 
upon the roes in the chase, and all that was in 
the plains I outran. A wild mare I outran, and I 
caught it and tamed it ; and I slew a lion, and 
plucked a kid out of its mouth. I took a bear 
by its paw, and rolled it over a cliff; and if any 
beast turned upon me, I rent it like a dog. I 
encountered the wild boar, and overtaking it in 
the chase, I tore it. A leopard in Hebron leaped 
upon the dog, and I caught it by the tail, and 
flung it from me, and it was dashed to pieces in 
the coasts of Gaza. A wild ox feeding in the field 
I seized by the horns ; and whirling it round and 
stunning it, I cast it from me, and slew it. 

3. And when the two kings of the Canaanites 
came in warlike array against our flocks, and much 
people with them, I by myself rushed upon King 
Sur and seized him ; and I beat him upon the 
iegs, and dragged him down, and so I slew him. 
And the other king, Taphue,* I slew as he sat 

^ Gen. xxix. 35. [The name a. Ptaise. So Gen. xlix. 3.] 
* In c. 5 we find thu name, with a slight Tariety of spelling, as that 
of a place over which this long may hare ruled. It is doubtless equiv- 
aleot to the Hdnew Tappual^ a name of several cities mentioned in 
the Old Testament. See Josh, xt, 34, anri. 8, zriL B, 1 Chnm. ii. 43. 
Gt Thapha, yuMtes, 34. 

upon his horse, and so I scattered all the people. 
Achor the king, a man of giant stature, hurling 
darts before and behind as he sat on horseback, I 
slew ; for I hiurled a stone of sixty pounds weight, 
and cast it upon his horse, and killed him. And 
I fought with Achor for two hours, and I killed 
him ; and I clave his shield into two parts, and I 
chopped off his feet And as I stripped off his 
breastplate, behold, eight men his companions 
began to fight with me. I wound round there- 
fore my garment in my hand ; and I slang stones 
at them, and killed four of them, and the rest 
fled. And Jacob my father slew Beelisa, king of 
all the kings, a giant in strength, twelve cubits 
high; and fear fell upon them, and they 
ceased from making war with us. Therefore 
my father had no care in the wars when I was 
among my brethren. For he saw in a vision 
concerning me, that an angel of might followed 
me everywhere, that I should not be overcome. 

4. And in the south there befell us a greater 
war than that in Shechem ; and I joined in bat- 
tle array with my brethren, and pursued a thou- 
sand men, and slew of them two hundred men 
and four kings. And I went up against them 
upon the wall, and two other kings I slew ; and 
so we freed Hebron, and took all the captives of 
the kings. 

5. On the next day we departed to Areta,3a 
city strong and walled and inaccessible, threat- 
ening us with death. Therefore I and Gad ap- 
proached on the east side of the city, and 
Reuben and Levi on the west and south. And 
they that were upon the wall, thinking that 
we were alone, charged down upon us ; and so 
our brethren secretiy climbed up the wall on 
both sides by ladders, and entered into the city, 
while the men knew it not. And we took it with 
the edge of the sword ; and those who had taken 

s Cd. Ozon. reads rr^por; butcC Aresa, JubtUes, 34. 



1 6. Observe therefore, my children, modera- 
tion in wine ; for there are in it four evil spirits 
— of (i) lust, of (2) wrath, of (3) riot, of (4) 
filthy lucre. If ye dirink wine in gladness, with 
shamefacedness, with the fear of God, ye shall 
live. For if ye drink not with shamefacedness, 
and the fear of God departeth fi-om you, then 
cometh drunkenness, and shamelessness stealeth 
in. But ' even if ye drink not at all, take heed 
lest ye sin in words of outrage, and fighting, and 
slander, and transgression of the commandments 
of God ; so shaU ye perish before your time. 
Moreover, wine revealeth the mysteries of God 
and men to aliens, even as I also revealed the 

* commandments of God and the mysteries of 
Jacob my father to the Canaanitish Bathshua, to 
whom God forbade to declare them. And wine 
also is a cause of war and confusion. 

1 7. I charge you, therefore, my children, not 
to love money, nor to gaze upon the beauty of 
women"]*, because for the sake of money and 
beauty'Twas led astray to Bathshua the Canaan- 
it e. For I know that because of these two things 
shall ye who are my race fall into wickedness ; 
for even wise men among my sons shall they 
mar, and shall cause the kingdom of Judah to 
be diminished, which the Lord gave me because 
of my obedience to my father.' For I never 
disobeyed a word of Jacob my father, for all 
things whatsoever he commanded I did. And 
Abraham, the father of my father, blessed me 
that I should be king in Israel, and Isaac fiirther 
blessed me in like manner." And I know that 
from me shall the kingdom 5& established. 

18. For I have read also in the books of 
Enoch the righteous what evils ye shall do in the 
last days. Take heed, therefore, my children, 
of fornication and the love of money ; hearken 
to Judah your father, for these things do with- 
draw you from the law of God, and blind the 
understanding of the soul, and teach arrogance, 
and suffer not a man to have compassion upon 
his neighbour : they rob his soul of all goodness, 
and bind him in toils and troubles, and take 
away his sleep and devour his flesh, and hinder 
the sacrifices of God ; and he remembereth not 
blessing, and he hearkeneth not to a prophet 
when he speaketh, and is vexed at the word of 
godliness. For one who serveth two passions 
contrary to the commandments of God cannot 
obey God, because they have blinded his soul, 
and he walketh in the day-time as in the 

19. My children, the love of money leadeth to 
idols ; because, when led astray through money, 
men make mention of those who are no gods, 
and it causeth him who hath it to fall into mad- 

' Cd. Oxoo. reads ri M Xiym\ iiii^ oknt witttrt, which seems 
much more suitable to the context. 
' [i Kings jd. I, and vcr. ii.] 

ness. For the sake of money I lost my childrei 
and but for the repentance of my flesh, and th 
humbling of my soul, and the prayers of Jaco 
my father, I should have died childless. Bu 
the God of my fathers, who is pitiful and merci 
fill, pardoned me, because I did it in ignorance. 
For the prince of deceit blinded me, and I wa 
ignorant as a man and as flesh, being comipte 
in sins; and I learnt my own weakness whil 
thinking myself unconquerable.^ 

20. 5 Learn therefore, my children, that tm 
spirits wait upon man — the spirit of truth m 
the spirit of error ; and in the midst is the sphi 
of the understanc^ng of the mind, to which I 
belongeth to turn whithersoever it will. And 111 
works of truth and the works of error are writM 
upon the breast of men, and each one of thd 
the Lord knoweth. And there is no time I 
which the works of men can be hid from Hia 
for on the bones of his breast hath he been wife 
ten down before the Lord. And the spirit d 
truth testifieth all things, and accuseth all ; M 
he who sinneth is burnt up by his own hefll 
and cannot raise his face unto the Judge J 

21. And now, my children, love Levi, that f 
may abide, and exalt not yourselves against hni 
lest ye be utterly destroyed. For to me the Lou 
gave the kingdom, and to him the priesthood 
and He set the kingdom beneath the priesthood 
To me He gave the things upon the earth ; tn 
him the things in the heavens. As the heavei 
is higher than the earth, so is the priesthood ol 
God higher than the kingdom upon the earth 
For the Lord chose him above thee, to dra^ 
near to Him, and to eat of His table and first 
fruits, even the choice things of the sons 
Israel, and thou shalt be to them as a sea. Fo 
as, on the sea, just and unjust are tossed about 
some taken into captivity while others are en 
riched, so also shall every race of men be ii 
thee, some are in jeopardy and taken captive 
and others shall grow rich by means of plundei 
For they who rule will be as great sea-monsten 
swallowing up men like fishes : free sons an( 
daughters do they enslave ; houses, lands, flock! 
money, will they plunder ; and with the flesh 
many will they wrongfiiUy feed the ravens an< 
the cranes ; and they will go on further in evi 
advancing on still in covetousness. And ther 
shall be false prophets like tempests, and the 
shall persecute all righteous men. 

22. And the Lord shall bring upon them di 
visions one against another, and there shall b 
continual wars in Israel; and among men c 
other race shall my kingdom be brought to a 
end, until the salvation of Israel shall come, unt 
the appearing of the God of righteousness, thi 

9 [Num. XV. as and Acts iii. X7.] 

4 [See cap. 23, p. 10, tufra.} 

f Cd. Oxon. omits uie whole of this chapter. 



iacob aiid all the Gentiles may rest in peace.' 
\nd he shall guard the might of my kingdom 
for ever : for the Lord sware to me with an oath 
that the kingdom should never fail from me, and 
from my seed for all days, even for ever. 

23. Now I have much grief, my children, 
becsoise of your lewdness, and witchcrafts, and 
idolatries, which ye will work against the king- 
dom, following them that have familiar spirits ; 
ve' will make your daughters singing girls ^ and 
harlots for divinations and demons of error, and 
)e will be mingled in the pollutions of the Gen- 
tiles : for which things' sake the Lord shall bring 
upon you ^unine and pestilence, death and the 
sffoid, avenging siege, and dogs for the rending 
in pieces of enemies, and revilings of friends, 
deletion and blighting of eyes, children slaugh- 
tered, wives carried off, possessions plundered, 
temple of God in flames, your land desolated, 
your own selves enslaved among the Gentiles, 
and they shall make some of you eunuchs for 
their wives ; and whenever ye will return to the 
Lord with humility of heart, repenting and walk- 
ing in all the commandments of God, then will 
the Lord visit you in mercy and in love, bringing 
you from out of the bondage of your enemies. 

24. And after these things shall a Star arise to 
yoQ from Jacob in peace, and a Man shall rise from 
my seed, like the Sun of righteousness, walking 
w^ the sons of men^ in meekness and right- 
eousness, and no sin shall be found in Him. And 
the heavens shall be opened above Him, to shed 
forth the blessing of the Spirit from the Holy 
Father ; and He shall shed forth a spirit of grace 
upon you, and ye shall be unto Him sons in 
truth, and ye shall walk in His commandments, 
the first and the last. This is the Branch of God 
Most High, and this the Well-spring unto life for 
all flesh. 5 Then shall the sceptre of my king- 

I rRom. xL a6.] . 

' The reading of Cd. Oxoo. is doubdess to be preferred, which 
lobtt jcAjfSoiri <c«t doAuotf'i irAavi|c to what precedes. 
* rEcdes. n. 8; Ecdus. ix. 4.I 

[nor. ▼m. 31,] 
i CcL Oaoo. omits from here to end of c as. 

dom shine forth, and from your root shall arise 
a stem ; and in it shall arise a rod of righteous- 
ness to the Gentiles, to judge and to save all that 
call upon the Lord. 

25. And after these things shall Abraham and 
Isaac and Jacob arise unto life, and I and my 
brethren will be chiefs, even your sceptre in 
Israel ; Levi first, I the second, Joseph third, 
Benjamin fourth, Simeon fifth, Issachar sixth, 
and so all in order. And the Lord blessed Levi ; 
the Angel of the Presence, me ; the powers of 
glory,^ Simeon ; the heaven, Reuben ; the earth, 
Issachar ; the sea, Zebulun ; the mountains, Jo- 
seph; the tabernacle, Benjamin; the lights of 
heaven, Dan; the fatness of earth, Naphtali; 
the sun. Gad ; the olive, Asher : and there shall 
be one people of the Lord, and one tongue ; and 
there shall no more be a spirit of deceit of Beliar, 
for he shall be cast into the fire for ever. And 
they who have died in grief shall arise in joy, 
and they who have lived in poverty for the Lord's 
sake shall be made rich, and they who have been 
in want shall be filled, and they who have been 
weak shall be made strong, and they who have 
been put to death for the Lord's sake shall awake 
in life.7 And the harts of Jacob shall run in joy- 
fulness, and the eagles of Israel shall fly in glad- 
ness ; but the ungodly shall lament, and sinners 
shall weep, and all the people shall glorify the 
Lord for ever. 

26. Observe, therefore, my children, all the law 
of the Lord, for there is hope for all them who 
follow His way aright. And he said to them : 
I die before your eyes this day, a hundred and 
nineteen years old. Let no one bury me in costly 
apparel, nor tear open my bowels,'* for this shall 
they who are kings do : and carry me up to He- 
bron with you. And Judah, when he had said 
these things, fell asleep ; and his sons did ac- 
cording to all' whatsoever he commanded them, 
and they buried him in Hebron with his fathers. 

'Eph. iii. 10.] 

7 [3 Kf ace. vii.'9-36 and Heb. xi. 35.] 
* Le., for the purpose of embahninent. 


I. The record of the words of Issachar. He 
called his sons, and said to them : Hearken, my 
children, to Issachar your father; give ear to 
my words, ye who are beloved of the Lord. I 
was the fifth son bom to Jacob, even the hire of 
Ae mandrakes.' For Reuben ' brought in man- 
liakes from the field, and Rachel met him and 
00k them. And Reuben wept, and at his voice 

' See Gen. xxx. 14 sqq. 

* Tbft Cam. ms. reads I«k«(S by an obriout enor. 

Leah my mother came forth. Now these man- 
drakes were sweet-smelling apples which the land 
of Aram produced on high ground below a ravine 
of water. And Rachel said, I will not give them 
to thee, for they shall be to me instead of chil- 
dren. Now there were two apples ; and Leah 
said, Let it suffice thee that thou hast taken the 
husband of my virginity : wilt thou also take 
these? And she said, Behold, let Jacob be to 
thee this night instead of the mandrakes of thy 




they set me to watch him until he was sold. And 
he remained in the pit three days and three 
nights, and so was sold famishing. And when 
Reuben heard that while he was away Joseph 
had been sold, he rent his clothes about him, 
and mourned, saying, How shall I look in the 
face of Jacob my father? And he took the 
money, and ran after the merchants, and found 
no one; for they had left the main road, and 
journeyed hastily through rugged byways.' And 
Reuben ate no food on that day. Dan therefore 
came to him, and said. Weep not, neither grieve ; 
for I have found what we can say to our father 
Jacob. Let us slay a kid of the goats, and dip 
m it the coat of Joseph ; and we will say. Look, 
if this is the coat of thy son : for they stripped 
off from Joseph the coat of our father when tiiey 
were about to sell him, and put upon him an old 
garment of a slave. Now Simeon had the coat, 
And would not give it up, wishing to rend it with 
his sword ; for he was angry that Joseph lived, 
imd that he had not slam him. Then we all 
rose up together against him, and said. If thou 
give it not up, we will say that thou alone didst 
this wickedness in Israel ; and so he gave it up, 
and they did even as Dan had said.J 

5. And now, my children, I bid you to keep 
the commands of the Lord, and to show mercy 
upon your neighbour, an4 to have compassion 
towards all, not towards men only, but dso to- 
wards beasts. For for this thing's sake the Lord 
blessed me ; and when all my brethren were sick 
I escaped without sickness, for the Lord knoweth 
the purposes of each. Have therefore compas- 
sion in your hearts, my children, because even as 
a man doeth to his neighbour, even so also will 
the Lord do to him. For the sons of my breth- 
ren were sickening, were dying on account of 
Joseph, because they showed not mercy in their 
hearts; but my sons were preserved without 
sickness, as ye kiiow. And when I was in Canaan, 
by the sea-coast, I caught spoil of fish for Jacob 
my father ; and when many were choked in the 
sea, I abode unhurt. 

-^ 6. I was the first who made a boat to sail 
upon the sea, for the Lord gave me understand- 
ing and wisdom therein ; and I let down a rudder 
behind it, and I stretched a sail on an upright 
mast in the midst ; and sailing therein along the 
shores, I caught fish for the house of my father 
until we went into Egypt ; and through compas- 
sion, I gave of my fish to'every stranger. And 
if any man were a stranger, or sick, or aged, I 
boiled the fish and dressed them well, and offered 
them to all men as every man had need, bringing 
them together and having compassion upon them. 
Wherefore also the Lord granted me to take 
much fish : for he that imparteth unto his neigh- 

' C a m. MS iiA rpay^KoXwrfrmy; Ox. MS. Ml rfimyko6vrm¥. 

hour, receiveth manifold more from the Lord. 
For five years I caught fish, and gave thereof to 
every man whom I saw, and brought sufficient 
for all the house of my father. In the sumner 
I caught fish, and in the winter I kept sheep 
with my brethren. 

7. Now I will declare unto you what I did. 
I saw a man in distress and nakedness in winter- 
time, and had compassion upon him, and stole 
away' a garment secretly from my house, and 
gave it to him who was in distress. Do you 
therefore, my children, from that which God be- 
stoweth upon ypu, show compassion and mercy 
impartially to all men, and give to every man 
with a good heart. And if ye have not at the 
time wherewith to give to him that asketh you, 
have compassion for him in bowels of mercy. I 
know that my hand found not at the time where- 
with to give to him that asked me, and I walked 
with him weeping for more than seven furlongs, 
and my bowels yearned towards him unto com- 

8. Have therefore yourselves also, my children, 
compassion towards every man with mercy, that 
the Lord also may have compassion upon you, 
and have mercy upon you ; because also in the 
last days God sendeth His compassion on the 
earth, and wheresoever He findeth bowels of 
mercy. He dwelleth in him. For how much 
compassion a man hath upon his neighbours, so 
much also hath the Lord upon him. For when 
we went down into Egypt, Joseph bore no malice 
against us, and when he saw me he was filled 
with compassion. And looking towards him, do 
ye also, my children, approve yourselves without 
malice, and love one another ; and reckon not 
each one the evil of his brother, for this breaketh 
unity, and divideth all kindred, and troubleth the 
soul : for he who beareth malice hath not bowels 
of mercy. 

9. Mark the waters, that they flow together, 
and sweep along stones, trees, sand ; but if they 
are divided into many streams, the earth sucketh 
them up, and they become of no account. So 
also shall ye be if ye be divided. Divide not 
yourselves into two heads, for everything which 
the Lord made hath but one head; He gave 
two shoulders, hands, feet, but all the members 
are subject unto the one head^^ I have learnt by 
the writing of my fathers, that in the last days 
ye will depart from the Lord, and be divided in 
Israel, and ye will follow two kings, and will work 
every abomination, and every idol will ye wor- 
ship, and your enemies shall lead you captive, and 
ye shall dwell among the nations with all infirm- 
ities and tribulations and anguish of soul. And 
after these things ye will remember the Lord, and 
will repent, and He will lead you back ; for He is 

* [" Pinis turn detenninat piobitatem actus."] 



brought upon me a disease of the heart ; and had 
not ^e prayers of Jacob my father intervened, it 
had hardly failed that my spirit had departed. 
For by what things a man transgresseth, by the 
also is he punished.' For in that my heart 
set mercilessly against Joseph, in my heart 
too I suffered mercilessly, and was judged for 
eleven months, for so long a time as I had been 
envious against Joseph until he was sold. 

6. And now, my children, love ye each one 
hit brother, and put away hatred from your 
hearts, loving one another in deed, and in word, 
ttid in thought of the soul. For in the presence 
of our father I spake peaceably with Joseph ; 
and when I had gone out, the spirit of hatred 
darkened my mind, and moved my soul to slay 
him. * Love ye therefore one another from your 
hearts ; and if a man sin against thee, tell him 
of it gently, and drive out the poison of hatred, 
and foster not guile in thy soul. And if he con- 
fm and repent, forgive him ; and if he deny it, 
itrive not with him, lest he swear, and thou sin 
doubly. Let not a stranger hear your secrets 
amid your striving, lest he hate and become thy 
enemy, and work great sin against thee ; for oft- 
times he will talk guilefully ^ with thee, or evilly 
overreach thee, taking his poison from himself. 
Therefore, if he deny it, and is convicted and 
pat to shame, and is silenced, do not tempt him 
on. For he who denieth repenteth, so that he 
no more doeth wrong against thee ; yea also, he 
trill honour thee, and fear thee, and be at peace 
with thee. But if he be shameless, and abideth 

« rWis. xi. 16.] 

* The Ox. MS. omits from here to the last clause of c. 7. 
^ For SoAM^ri^ai, the reading of the Cam. MS. here, Grabe 
W^liiUuu J doka^oth^u Probably teAo^m^i b to be pceferred. 

in his wrongdoing, even then foigive him from 
the heart, and give the vengeance to God. 

7. If a man prospereth more than you, be not 
grieved, but pray also for him, that he may have 
perfect prosperity. For perchance it is expedi- 
ent for you thus ; and if he be further exalted, 
be not envious, remembering that all flesh shall 
die : and offer praise to God, who giveth things 
good and profitable to all men. Seek out the 
judgments of the Lord, and so shall thy mind 
rest and be at peace. And though a man be- 
come rich by evil means, even as Esau the brother 
of my father, be not jealous ; but wait for the 
end of the Lord. For either He taketh His 
benefits away from the wicked, or leaveth them 
still to the repentant, or to the unrepentant re- 
serveth punishment for ever. For the poor man 
who is free from envy, giving thanks to the Lord 
in all things, is rich among all men, because he 
hath not evU jealousy of men. Put away, there- 
fore, hatred from your souls, and love one an- 
other with uprightness of heart 

8. And do ye also tell these things to your 
children, that they honour Judah and Levi, for 
from them shall the Lord raise up a Saviour to 
Israel.^ For I know that at the last your chil- 
dren shall depart from them, and sludl walk in 
all wickedness, and mischief, and corruption be- 
fore the Lord. And when he had rested for a 
litde while, he said again to them. My children, 
obey your father, and bury me near to my fathers. 
And he drew up his feet, and fell asleep in peace. 
And after five years they carried him up, and 
laid him in Hebron with his fathers. 

4 [The Virgin was the daughter of Judah, bat had Unship 
Levi. Lttke L 36. Compare Jex, sudii. so-as.] 

■ r 



I. The record of the testament of Asher, what 
tilings he spake to his sons in the hundred and 
tiventieth year of his life. While he was still in 
health, he said to them : Hearken, ye children 
of Asher, to your father, and I will declare to 
you all that is right in the sight of God. Two 
ways' hath God given to the sons of men, and 
two minds, and two doings, and two places, and 
two ends. Therefore all things are by twos, one 
corresponding to the other. There are two ways 
of good and evil, with which are the two minds 
in our breasts distinguishing them. Therefore 
if the soul take pleasure in good, all its actions 
aie in righteousness ; and though it sin, it straight- 
way repenteth. For, having his mind set upon 

* [See the Dum Vimt vol. vii., p. 377, this series.] 

righteousness, and casting away maliciousness, he 
straightway overthroweth the evil, and uprooteth 
the sin. But if his mind turn aside in evil, all 
his doings are in maliciousness, and he driveth 
away the good, and taketh unto him the evil, 
and is ruled by Beliar ; and even though he work 
what is good, he perverteth it in eviL For 
whenever he beginneth as though to do good, he 
bringeth the end of his doing to work evO, see- 
ing that the treasure of the devil is filled with 
the poison of an evil spirit. 

2. There is then, he saith, a soul which speak- 
eth the good for the sake of the evil, and the 
end of the doing leadeth to mischief.' There is 
a man who showeth no compassion upon him 

* [This sectitm is commrndcd by Dr. Lardner.] 





And wheresoever the Most High dwelleth, even 
though a man fall into envy, or slavery, or slan- 
der, the Lord who dwelleth in him, for his sobri- 
ety's sake not only delivereth him from evil, but 
also exalteth and glorifieth him, even as me. 
For in every way the man is guarded, whether 
in deed, or in word, or in thought My brethren 
know how my father loved me, and I was not ex- 
alted in my heart ; although I was a child, I had 
the fear of God in my thoughts. For I knew 
that all things should pass away, and I kept my- 
self within bounds, and I honoured my brethren ; 
and through fear of them I held my peace when 
I was sold, and revealed not my family to the 
Ishmaelites, that I was the son of Jacob, a great 
man and a mighty. 

11. Do ye also, therefore, have the fear of 
God in your works, and honour your brethren. 
For every one who worketh the law of the Lord 
shall be loved by Him. And when I came to 
the Indocolpitae with the Ishmaelites, they asked 
me, and I said that I was a slave from their 
house, that I might not put my brethren to shame. 
And the eldest of them said unto me. Thou art 
not a slave, for even thy appearance doth make 
it manifest concerning thee. And he threatened 
me even unto death. But I said that I was their 
slave. Now when we came into Egypt, they 
strove concerning me, which of them should buy 
ine and take me. Therefore it seemed good to 
all that I should remain in Egypt with a mer- 
chant of their trade, until they should return 
bringing merchandise. And the Lord gave me 
fevour in the eyes of the merchant, and he 
entrusted unto me his house. And the Lord 
blessed him by my means, and increased him in 
silver and gold, and I was with him three months 
and five days. 

12. About that time the Memphian wife of 
Potiphar passed by with great pomp, and cast 
her eyes upon me, because her eunuchs told her 
concerning me. And she told her husband con- 
cerning the merchant, that he had become rich 
by means of a young Hebrew, saying, And they 
say that men have indeed stolen him out of the 
land of Canaan. Now therefore execute judg- 
ment with him, and take away the youth to be 
thy steward ; so shall the God of the Hebrews 
bless thee, for grace from heaven is upon him. 

13. And Potiphar was persuaded by her words, 
and commanded the merchant to be brought, 
and said unto him. What is this that I hear, that 
thou stealest souls out of the land of the Hebrews, 
and sellest them for slaves? The merchant 
therefore fell upon his face, and besought him, 
saying, I beseech thee, my lord, I know not what 
thou sayest. And he said. Whence then is thy 
Hebrew servant? And he said. The Ishma- 
elites entrusted him to me until they should 
return. And he believed him not, but com- 

manded him to be stripped and beaten. And 
when he persisted, Potiphar said, Let tfie yondi 
be brought. And when I was brought in^I dH 
obeisance to the chief of the eunuchs — for be 
was third in rank with Pharaoh, being chief of 
all the eunuchs, and having wives and children 
and concubines. And he took me apart fion 
him, and said unto me, Art thou a slave or free J 
And I said, A slave. And he said unto mc^ 
Whose slave art thou? And I said unto hinip 
The Ishmaelites'. And again he said unto me^ 
Howbecamest thou their slave? And I sak^ 
They bought me out of the land of Canaan. Ami 
he believed me not, and said, Thou liest : an^ 
he commanded me to be stripped and beaten. 

14. Now the Memphian woman was lookiiMK 
through a window while I was being beaten, and 
she sent unto her husband, saying. Thy judg- 
ment is unjust ; for thou dost even punish a free: 
man who hath been stolen, as though he were a 
transgressor. And when I gave no other 
though I was beaten, he commanded that 
should be kept in guard, until, said he, the own*. 
ers of the boy shall come. And his wife saidi 
unto him. Wherefore dost thou detain in captivitfj 
this noble child, who ought rather to be set at, 
liberty, and wait upon thee ? For she wished toi 
see me in desire of sin, and I was ignorant coa-j 
ceming all these things. Then said he to hSi 
wife. It is not the custom of the Egyptians tOi 
take away that which belongeth to others before , 
proof is given. This he said concerning the 
merchant, and concerning me, that I must be 

15. Now, after four and twenty days came the 
Ishmaelites; and having heard that Jacob mr 
father was mourning because of me, they said^i 
unto me, How is it that thou saidst that thoa] 
wert a slave ? and lo, we have learnt that thonkj 
art the son of a mighty man in the land of Ctv 
naan, and thy father grieveth for thee in sackr^ 
cloth. And again I would have wept, but I : 
restrained myself, that I should not put mfj 
brethren to shame. And I said, I know not, t 
am a slave. Then they take counsel to sell vot^ 
that I should not be found in their hands. FoC^ 
they feared Jacob, lest he should work upoa. 
them a deadly vengeance. For it had beca, 
heard that he was mighty with the Lord audi 
with men. Then said the merchant unto them, 
Release me from the judgment of Potiphar. 
They therefore came and asked for me, saying, 
He was bought by us with money. And he sent 

us away. 

16. Now the Memphian woman pointed me 
out to her husband, that he should buy me ; for 
I hear, said she, that they are selling him. And 
she sent a eunuch to the Ishmaelites, and aske4 
them to sell me ; and since he was not williQ| 
to traffic with them, he returned. So when the 



7. Flee ye therefore, my children, the evil-do- 
ng of Beliar ; for it giveth a sword to them that 
sibeyeth, and the sword is the mother of seven 
stDs. First the mind conceiveth through Beliar, 
md first diere is envy; secondly, desperation ; 
Sibtflyy tribulation; fourthly, captivity; fifthly, 
neediness; sixthly, trouble; seventhly, desola- 
tion. Therefore also Cain is delivered over to 
Mven vengeances by God, for in every hundred 
fears the Lord brought one plague upon" Rim. 
Fwo hundred years he suffered, and in the nine 
Inmdredth year he was brought to desolation at 
die flood, for Abel his righteous brother's sake. 
In seven ' hundred years was Cain judged, and 
Lamech in seventy times seven ; because for ever 
those who are likened unto Cain in envy unto 
batred of brethren shall be judged with the same 

8. Do ye also therefore, my children, flee ill- 
doing, envy, and hatred of brethren, and cleave 
to goodness and love. He that hath a pure 
mind in love, looketh not after a woman imto 
fornication; for he hath no defilement in his 
heart, because the Spirit of God resteth in him. 
For as the sun is not defiled by shining over 
dung and mire, but rather drieth up bo& and 
driveth away the ill smell ; so also the pure mind, 
constrained among the defilements of the earth, 
lather edifieth, and itself suffereth no defilement. 

9. Now I suppose, from the words of the 
righteous Enoch, that there will be also evil- 
doings among you : for ye will commit fornica- 
tion with the fornication of Sodom, and shall 
perish all save a few, and will multiply inordinate 
hsts with women; and the kingdom of the 
Lord shall not be among you, for forthwith He 
will take it away. Nevertheless the temple of 
God shall be buUt in your portion, and shall be 
gtorious among you. For He shall take it, and 
tiie twelve tribes shall be gathered together there, 
and all the Gentiles, until the Most High shall 
send forth His salvation in the visitation of His 
only-begotten one. And He shall enter into the 
front' of the temple, and there shall the Lord 
be treated with outrage, and He shall be lifted 
up upon a tree. And the veil of the temple 
shall be rent, and the Spirit of God shall descend 
upon the Gentiles as fire potured forth. And He 
shall arise from the grave, and shall ascend from 
earth into heaven : and I know how lowly He 
ahaU be upon the earth, and how glorious in the 

10. Now when Joseph was in Egypt, I longed 
to see his visage and the form of his countenance ; 
and through the prayers of Jacob my father I 
saw him, while awake in the daytime, in his fuU 
and perfect shape. Know ye therefore, my chil- 
dren, that I am dying. Work therefore truth 

' For hmutomoit Snvtp die 0z« acs. reads timgllj iwri. 
* TUe would aeem to be the mraning of wpAnt wiii. 

and righteousness each one with his neighbour, 
and judgment unto faithful doing, and keep the 
law of the Lord and His commandments ; for 
these things do I teach you instead of all inherit- 
ance. Do ye also therefore give them to your 
children for an everlasting possession ; for so did 
both Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob. All these 
things they gave us for an inheritance, saying, 
Keep the commandments of God until the Lord 
shalT reveal His salvation to all nations. Then 
shall ye see Enoch, Noah, and Shem, and Abra- 
ham, and Isaac, and Jacob, arising on the right 
hand in gladness. Then shall we also arise, each 
one over our tribe, worshipping the King of 
heaven, who appeared upon the earth in the 
form of a man of humility. And as many as 
believed on Him on the earth shaU rejoice with 
Him ; 3 and then shall all men arise, some unto 
glory and some unto shame. And the Lord 
shall judge Israel first, even for the wrong they 
did imto Him ; for when He appeared as a de- 
hverer, God in the flesh, they believed Him not. 
And then shall He judge all the Gentiles, as 
many as believed Him not when He appeared 
upon earth. And He shall reprove Israel among 
the chosen ones of the Gentiles, even as He 
reproved Esau among the Midianites, who de- 
ceived their brethren, so that they fell into 
fornication and idolatry; and they were alien- 
ated from God, and became as they that were no 
children in the portion of them that fear the 
Lord. But if ye walk in holiness in the presence 
of the Lord, ye shall dwell in hope again in me, 
and all Israel shall be gathered unto the Lord. 

II. And I shall no longer be called a raven- 
ing wolf^ on account of your ravages, but a 
worker of the Lord, distributing food to them 
that work what is good. And one ^ shall rise up 
from my seed in the latter times, beloved of the 
Lord, hearing upon the earth His voice, en- 
lightening widi new knowledge all the Gentiles, 
bursting in upon Israel for salvation with the 
light of knowledge, and tearing it away from it 
like a wolf, and giving it to the synagogue of 
the Gentiles. And until the consummation of the 
ages shall he be in the synagogues of the Gen- 
tiles, and among their rulers, as a strain of music 
in the mouth of all ; ^ and he shall be inscribed 
in the holy books, both his work and his word, 
and he shall be a chosen one of God for ever ; 
and because of him my father Jacob instructed 
me, saying, He shall fill up that which lacketh 
of thy tribe. 

3 [Rev. XX. 5, 6. See p. 25, note 4, tupra\ 

4 Gen. xlix. 37. This passage, referrinjs to St. Paul fwho was of 
the tribe of Benjamin, Rom. xi. i, Phil. iii. 5), is quoted by Tertul- 
lian, Adversus Marciantm^ v. x. [See vol. lii. p. 430, this series] 

i Compare Scor/iace, cap. 13 [with reference to Gen. xxv. 34 
and xxvii. 3^, vol. iii. p. 646, this series. Lardner adds Origen, Horn, 
in E*tch,^ IV. torn. iii. p. 731 ; Theodoret, in Gen. Qumst.^ ex. torn. 
i. p. 77; and Augiutine, Serm., 379 (and p€utim) ^xom. v. ed. Bene- 

* ["Mdinorefmelosinftunfmelodiainoofde." — Sr.BiwfiUKO.] 



wymmmmmm , 

12. And when he finished his words, he said : 
I chaxge you, my children, carry up my bones 
out of Egypt, and bury me at Hebron, near my 
Withers. So Benjamin died a hundred and 
twenty-five years old, in a good old age, and they 
placed him in a coffin, ^d in the ninety-first 
year of the departure of the children ol Israel 

fix>m Egypt, th^ and their brethren brought vp 
the bones of ueir fiidiers secredy in a plaos 
which is called Canaan ; and they buried then 
in Hebron, by tiie feet of dieir £uhers. And 
they returned fix>m the land of Canaanj and 
dwelt in E^gypt until At day of their departipg 
torn the land of £!gypt 


I HAD prepared annotations for these pages which I find will require mote space than Ais 
overloaded volume can afibrd. Let me indicate some sources of information irfiich the student 
may find convenient Thus, in Liddon's Bampton Lecture (4th ed., London, 1869), consult p» 
71 for remarks on Fhilo and Alexandrian Jews; see also p. 91. Concerning the ''Book of 
Enoch," pp. 7 and 302 ; see Westcott, Study of the Gospels (London, 1867), P« ^^^ ^ reference to 
the Book of Jubilees^ and its lack of reference to Messiah. See Jewish doctrine of the Hessiali^; 
pp. Z6y 143, 151 ; the ''Book of Henoch," pp. 69, 93, loi ; apocr]rphal words of Jews, p. 418. 
He places the " Book of Henoch " earlier than the " Book of Jubilees," and the " Twelve PMa- 
archs " after that Compare Westcott's Historic Faith (London, 1883), a quotation fix>m Gold* 
win Smith, on " the blood of Christ," note 8, p. 237. 

I cannot forbear to note, among useful suggestions in these Testaments y that (on p. 11) of; 
the share of Simeon in the persecution of Joseph. It explains the real purpose of Joseph li 
selecting Simeon as the hostage to be left in Egypt (Gen. xlii. 21-24.) Joseph heard the mutal 
reproaches of his brothers, and foresaw that Simeon would be made to sufier as most guilty : so ki 
was withdrawn. Again, a like anxiety (Gen. xlv. 2) appears when Simeon was sent back wiAj 
them to his fisher. Other suggestions may be noted as substantially illustrating the 









Wk may thank Mr. WDson, the translator, for separating this collection, absolutely, from the 
noiks of Qement of Alexandria, to which it has been made an appendix. The reference to ** our 
Pantaenus " gives the only colour for such a collocation with so great a name. It is the work of 
a Montanist, perhaps, who may have had some relations with the Alexandrian school ; but it is 
hard to say precisely who, of three or four named Theodotus (all heretics), may have made the 
compilation, more especially because disjointed and contradictory fragments seem mixed up in it 
as it is commonly edited. Dupin (perhaps too readily copying Valesius) appears to think Clem- 
ent may have been the compiler, but that, like the HypotyposeSy the work was the product of 
days when he was imperfectiy educated in Christian truth. It seems to me more reasonable to 
conclude that these excerpts, and what goes by the name oi Fragments from the Hypotyposes, are 
alike corrupt or forged documents, for which Clement's name has been borrowed, to give them 
some credit ; and I can desire no better authority for this opinion than that of Jeremiah Jones, 
with the arguments to be found in his learned work on the Canon? 

The wretched performance, therefore, is valuable chiefly as illustrating certain heresies of the 
second century ; but, incidentally, it is of considerable importance as confirming the orthodox 
writers in those books and doctrines to which it bears witness in coincidence with them. 

I regret that the Ekiinburgh editors give us not a line of information as to their estimate of 
these extracts, or concerning authorship and like matters of interest and natural curiosity. 

* VoL L pp. 37X-376. These SeUcticns axe often quoted as " Eclogues.' 




vn. Now, regeneration is by water and spirit, 
as was all creation: ''For die Spirit of God 
moved on the abyss." ' And for this reason the 
Saviour was baptized, though not Himself need- 
ing' to be so, in order that He might consecrate 
the whole water for those who were being regen- 
erated. Thus it is not the body only, but the 
soul, that we cleanse. It is accordingly a sign 
of the sanctifying of our invisible part, and of 
the straining off from the new and spiritual crea- 
tion of the unclean spirits that have got mixed 
up with the soul. 

vra. "The water above the heaven." Since 
baptism is performed by water and the ^irit as 
a protection against the twofold fire, — that which 
lays hold of what is visible, and that which lays 
hold of what is invisible ; and of necessity, there 
being an immaterial element of water and a 
material, is it a protection against the twofold ' 
fire. And the earthly water cleanses the body ; 
but the heavenly water, by reason of its being 
immaterial and invisible, is an emblem of the 
Holy Spirit, who is the purifier of what is invisi- 
ble, as the water of the Spirit, as the other of the 

DC. God, out of goodness, hath mingled fear 
with goodness. For what is beneficial for each 
one, that He also supplies, as a physician to a 
sick man, as a father to his insubordinate child : 
" For he that spareth his rod hateth his son." ^ 
And the Lord and His apostles walked in the 
midst of fear and labours. When, then, the af- 
fliction is sent in the person of a righteous man,^ 
it is either from the Lord rebuking him for a sin 
committed before, or guarding him on account 
of the future, or not preventing by the exercise 
of His power an assault from witiiout,* — for some 
good end to him and to those near, for the sake 
of example. 

X. Now those that dwell in a corrupt body, 
like those who sail in an old ship, do not lie on 
their back, but are ever praying, stretching their 
hands to God. 

XI. The ancients were exceedingly distressed, 
unless they had always some suffering in the 
body. For they were afraid, that if they received 
not in this world the punishment of the sins which, 
in numbers through ignorance, accompany those 
that are in the flesh, they would in the other 
world suffer the penalty all at once. So that 
they preferred curative treatment here. What is 
to be dreaded is, then, not external disease, but 
sins, for which disease comes, and disease of the 

' Gen. i. a. 

' [ In a quotation which Jonet makes from the ExcerfU (not found 
here) the reverse is shamelessly asserted. Canon, vol. i. p. 375.] 
* iiirAdi|f — substantive. 

4 Prov. xiii. 94. 

5 orov odv irt<rrov 9miiar<rt if. 

^ The sense is hazy, but about as dear as that to be obtained by 
substituting coiyecturally for npocfioAi^v (assault), wpdc /SoA^f, or 
4ari/loAi|i', or iwifiovX^y. 

soul, not of the body : ^ For all flesh is grass,"' 
and corporeal and external good things are tem- 
porary; "but the things wbich are unseen are 
eternal" * 

xn. As to knowledge, some elements of it we 
already possess ; others, by what we do possess, 
we firmly hope A? attain. For neither have we 
attained all, nor do we lack alL But we have 
received, as it were, an earnest of the eternal 
blessings, and of the ancestral riches. The pro- 
visions for the Lord's way are the Lord's beati- 
tudes. For He said: "Seek," and anxiously 
seek, " the kingdom of God, and all these things 
shall be added to you : for the Father- knoweth 
what things ye have need of." 9 Thus He limits 
not only our occupations, but our cares. For 
He says : " Ye cannot, by taking thought, add 
aught to your stature." '^ For (kxl knows well 
what it is good for us to have and what to want 
He wishes, therefore, that we, emptying ourselves 
of worldly cares, should be filled with that which 
is directed towards God. " For we groan, desir- 
ing to be clothed upon with that which is incor- 
ruptible, before putting off corruption." For 
when faith is shed abroad, unbelief is nonplussed. 
Similarly also with knowledge and righteousness. 
We must therefore not only empty &e soul, but 
fill it with God. For no longer is there evil in 
it, since that has been made to cease ; nor yet is 
there good, since it has not yet received good. 
But what is neither good nor evil is nothing. 
" For to the swept and empty house return," " 
if none of the blessings of ssdvation has been put 
in, the unclean spirit that dwelt there before, 
taking with him seven other unclean spirits. 
Wherefore, after emptying the soul of what is 
evil, we must fill with the good God that which 
is His chosen dwelling-place. For when the 
empty rooms are filled, then follows the seal, that 
the sanctuary may be guarded for God. 

xm. " By two and three witnesses every word 
is established." " By Father, and Son, and Holy 
Spirit, by whose viritness and help the prescribed 
commandments ought to be kept. '3 

xiv. Fasting, according to the signification of 
the word, is abstinence from food. Now food 
makes us neither more righteous nor less. But 
mystically it shows that, as life is maintained in 
individuds by sustenance, and want of sustenance 
is the token of death ; so also ought we to fast 
from worldly things, that we may die to the 
world, and after that, by partaking of divine sus- 
tenance, live to God. Especially does fiasting 

7 Isa. xl. 6. 
• 9 Cor. iv. x8. 

9 Matt. vi. 33, 3a. 

10 Matt. vi. 37; Luke xiL 35. 
'< Matt. xii. 44. 

** Deut. xvii. 6. 

13 [This looks as if the text of the tkret tmtntstt had been m this 
compiler's copy of St. John's First Epistle. See vol. iti. Eludd. lU 
p. 631. St. Augustine also seems to me to sustain the African text > 1 
the Dt Civii., ub. v. cap. xi. p. 154, cd. Migne.] 



high in command is in the sum. For he is ap- 
pointed for rule over days ; as the moon is for 
ruling over night' Now angels are caUed days. 
Along with the angels in * the sun, it is said, they 
shall have assigned to them one abode, to be for 
some time and in some respects the sun, as it 
were the head of the body which is one. And, 
besides, they also are the rulers of the days, as 
that angel in the sun, for the greater purpose for 
which he before them^ migrated to the same 
place. And again destined to ascend progres- 
sively, they reach the first abode, in accordance 
with the past " He hath set : " so that the first- 
created angels shall no longer, according to provi- 
dence, exercise a definite ministry, but may be in 
repose, and devoted to the contemplation of God 
alone; while those next to them shall be pro- 
moted to the post which they have left ; and so 
those beneath them similarly. 

LVn. There are then, according to the aposde, 
those on the summit,^ the first-created. And 
they are thrones, although Powers, being the first- 
created, inasmuch as God rests in them, as also 
in those who believe. For each one, according 
to his own stage of advancement, possesses the 
knowledge of God in a way special to himself; 
and in this knowledge God reposes, those who 
possess knowledge being made immortal by 
knowledge. And is not '' He set His tabernacle 
in the sun " to be understood thus ? God " set 
in the sun,'' that is, in the God who is beside 
Him, as in the Gospel, Eli, £li,s instead of my 
God, my God. And what is "above all rule, 
and authority, and power, and every name that is 
named," are those fix>m among men that are 
made perfect as angels and archangels, so as to 
rise to the nature of the angels first-created. 
For those who are changed from men to angels 
are instructed for a thousand years by the angels 
after they are brought to perfection. Then those 

> Gen. L i8. 

• uc«' here cktf ly should be caf* or H*. 

s If we may venture to dumge avrov into Avrwy. 

4 'Br rj MM «««icaraaT«a«i. The kst word yieldt no suitable 
MBse, and conjecture as to the right reading u vain: and we have 
Isft it untraittlaied. The Latin tiinslator readers " qui in sununa 
aroe collocati sunt** 

< *HAtot b (with manrellotts ignorance of the Hcbftv lOBgue, m 

f*^y ^w .iL fi i.i Boiioat) hera Hm tifrl with SU, ^Stt. 

who have taught are translated to aichangelic 
authority ; and those who have learned instruct 
those again who fit>m men are changed to angek. 
Thus afterwards, in the prescribed periods, they 
are brought to the proper angelic state of the body. 

Lvra. " The law of God is perfect, convertii^ 
souls." ^ The Saviour Himself is called Law and 
Word, as Peter in "the Preaching," and the 
prophet : " Out of Zion shall go forth the Lair, 
and the Word of the Lord fix)m Jerusalem." ' 

Lix. "The testimony of the Lord is sure, mak- 
ing children wise." The covenant of the Lord 
is true, making wise children ; those free from 
evil, both the aposdes, and then also us. Be- 
sides, the testimony of the Lord, according to' 
which He rose again after His passion, having 
been verified by &ct, led the Church to confir- 
mation in faith. 

LX. " The fear of the Lord is pure, enduring 
for ever." He says that those who have been 
turned fix)m fear to &ith and righteousness endure 
for ever. 

"The judgments of the Lord are true," — sure, 
and incapable of being overturned ; and giving 
rewards according to what is right, bringing the 
righteous to the unity of the faith. For this is 
shown in the v^rds, "justified for the same."' 
"Such desires 9 are above gold and predov 

ua. " For also Thy servant keeps them." Not 
that David alone is called servant ; but the whole 
people saved is called the servant of God, ii 
virtue of obedience to the command. 

Lxn. "Cleanse me fix)m my secrety&»/fir;"— 
thoughts contrary to right reason — defects. For 
He calls this foreign to the righteous man. 

Lxm. " If they have not dominion over xne^ 
then shall I be innocent." If those who perse- 
cute me as they did the Lord, do not have 
dominion over me, I shall not be innocent For 
no one becomes a martyr unless he is persecuted; 
nor appears righteous, imless, being wronged, he 
takes no revenge ; nor forbearing . . • 

' Isa. ii. 3. 

* Rk six. IS, Sept ua | | nt. 

* «i TotavTM mfvia«4. tot irilidi tfM 




« • - 



bt professor m. b. riddle, dj>. 

Among the " Psendo-Clementina '' the 7W Epistles ctmceming Vtrginity must properly be 
placed. The evidence against the genuineness seems conclusive ; yet, with the exception of the 
homily usually styled the Second Epistle cf Clement^ no spurious writings attributed to the great 
Roroan Father can be assigned an earlier date than these two letters. Uhlhom, in view of the 
reference to the sub-introducta, thinks they were written shortly before the time of Cyprian ; ' and 
this seems very probable. Jerome was acquainted with the writings {Ad /ovinum, i. 12), and 
possibly Epiphanius (Har.^ xxx. 15). Hence we may safely allow an early date. Yet these 
evidences of age tell against the genuineness. 

1. Early works of this character would not have disappeared from notice to such an extent, 
had they been authenticated as writings of Clement Supporting, as they do, the ascetic tendency 
prevalent in the Western Church at and after the date when they are first noticed by Christian 
writers, they would have been carefully preserved and frequently cited, had they been genuine. 
The name of the great Roman Father would have been so weighty, that the advocates of celibacy 
mmld have kept the documents in greater prominence. The silence of Eusebius respecting the 
letters is an important fact in this discussion. 

2. A second argument against the genuineness is derived fix)m the ascetic tone itself. Such 
pronounced statements are not, we must firmly hold, to be foimd in the Christian literature of the 
^ub-apostolic age. This historical argument is further sustained by other indications in the epis^ 
ties. They point to a stage of ecclesiastical development which belongs to a much later period 
than that of Clement 

3. The use of Scripture in these letters seems to be conclusive against the Clementine author- 
ship. A comparison with the citations in the genuine Epistle of Clement shows that these writings 
make much greater use of the Pauline (particularly the Pastoral) Epistles ; that the Old Testament 
is less frequendy cited, and that the mode of handling probf-texts is that of a later age. 

4. The judgment of the most candid patristic scholars is against the genuineness. Of Protes- 
tants, Wetstein stands alone in supporting the Clementine authorship ; and his position is readily 
explained by the fact that he discovered the Syriac version which restored the writings to modem 
scholars (see below). The genuineness is defended by Villecourt and Beelen (see below), also by 
Uohler, Champagny, and Brttck. But such experts as Mansi, Hefele, Alzog, and Funk, among 
Koman Catholics, unite with Protestant scholars in assigning a later date, and consequently in 
denying the Qementine authorship. 

* See voL vfi. pp. 309-5*3. 

• hma&aA das cJais Cypiin mfoAg co iHwn d f d. 

Cyprian, AmU^kmt FmHUrt, toL v. pp. ss7f 358* 58r-S9** 





While the great mass of early Christian literature bearing the name of Clement of Rome it 
undoubtedly spurious, the case is somewhat different with regard to the two following epistles. 
Not only have Roman Catholic writers maintained their genuineness with great ingenuity and 
learning, but Wetstein, who first edited them, aigued powerfuUy for their being received as the 
authentic productions of Clement ; and even Neander has admitted that they may possibly have 
been written by that friend and fellow-labourer of the aposdes. 

Their literary history in modem times is somewhat curious. Wetstein unexpectedly discovered 
them appended to a copy of the Syriac Peschito version of the New Testament furnished to him 
by Sir James Porter, then Britbh ambassador at Constantinople. He soon afterwards (1753) 
published them in Syriac, accompanied by a Latin version of his own, with Prolegomena, in whidi 
he upheld their genuineness. This speedily called forth two works, one by Lardner (1753), aali 
a second by Venema (1754), in both of which their authenticity was disputed. To these writi 
Wetstein himself, and, after his death, Gallandius, published rejoinders; but the question 
mained as far from positive setdement as ever, and continues subjudice even at the present day* 

It is generally admitted (and, of course, asserted by those that maintain their truly Clementi 
origin) that Greek was the original language of these epistles. Many have argued that they 
tain plain references to the sub-introducttB spoken of. in the literature of the third centuiy, 
that therefore they were probably composed in the Oriental Church about that period. 

These epistles have been very carefully edited in recent times by the Roman Catholic 
Villecourt (1853) and Beelen (1856). Both have argued strenuously for the genuineness of 
letters, but it may be doubted if they have succeeded in repelling all the objections of 
and Venema. Beelen's work is a highly scholarly production, and his Prolegomena are 
by great fulness and perspicuity. 

A German translation of these episdes was published by Zingerle (xSsx). They are now 
the first time translated into the English language. 

The translation is made fix)m the text of Beelen. 

The division into chapters is due to Wetstein. 




of «uch a kizkd & iixipurt. auc dviwu;! i« ^ 
g^»d wrjriui. for * cveri "BBt wisaessjsfsz m. 
kiAOwu frcna iu frum./ * 5«t Ixac txi:ii xmaB?- 
ktand' what I «tv . GniC viL p^ i»t miier- 

to \n*T>,^:T\^ taxkctCT mio: ut cniiert vm ill 

the holy yjwtr */. ^xjL haxz, t »xx r 

he CTU';ifv ha *yjy^\ iit rx tut i&£i£ 'x 

of God •:vTXbK\ iiinaier' irjn. tac w:jri 

the ikript^rt i zoo. )aui ' "znt T-uoiu ioii mnc.- 

ply,"* aod rftarii: fcl 'ii^ ifscia? 201 

rt^'t^lritrb sziC r^ ^uxjCL^nnt»L mil u. js jzzxet 
ax^ t:auit. 2::iC vcxionnn nn tie tscet lot ^ 
this voTid, amc ^jol a marsL. sad les. anrf 
hhyimsicei. ; aziC. vxiiiu: timi viJiEdsc ^ tcol ±e 
earthy l#e: £c:sur>itt rxdc u.7 vcrx sad ±7 ~t 
be z£» o&art:^ 

CHAf*- nr. — c ^ ' . ' JJ. trrjg 'jr tsz 

oaheavBgin? Kn 

does not wit] 

nioos iKm il 

vuiL X haiw bodT, ^^od wi 

tt great ^^f] 

JTt'imy, jmf is ic fiir tioi that thoi 

Dm ifaoa leaDy 
ic B choa ait caser t 

i t 

"-ni. 12 

..'T .J*n 4. .4^.1. .M « ^TZ ^'.Tz 2»J« ^.L«. -^ ■- .... 

th^ lvx..vrc» '- of ihit ^•:r.: ct God," - a=d n^>ir ae 
mav i<frr*'^ Gr/i Alssi^.rr ±r>:::^ T-ess Crrsc 
for the sake of th.e kir^dota Gt bearen. O: ciis 
accoMnt he ^even h;s3sel: frc-s aZ ras appcrres 
of the iyyiv. And r,ot oclr does he excise 
hiiii5>:If from thU ci>mmanJ, " Be fr:i;:fiL az-d 
m'iltiply," but he longs for the " hope protsised " 
and prepared '• and Laid 'ip in heaven'' ^ by God. 
who has declared '••ith His moath, and He does 
not lie, t?ia: it is '' 'setter than sons and daugh- 
ter r\,'' • • hzA tha* He win give to %-irgins a notable 
\iji/^. \u fhe r.O'ise of God, which is scimtkin^ 
' 'M^r^ rhar. v.ns and daughters." and better 
t'.A.'» th^ pf/t<^ 0/ those who have passed a wedded 
\M :, t%.v.r;ty, ;irid whose '• bed has not been 
*>:^.^A "* for ''V'/i will give to \irgins the king- 
C'/f.'. *A t^fA'f*rTk^ a^ to the holy angels, by reason 
'A v./t Y/t^f. \rA noble profession. 

Ajt iTi'.ii n'Miinnigd. WSC& die noble task oi 
* rniiii? DcK ±iaL ksov hov. like a 



nr c&iseifj. diat tfaoa n 

aocraniQf ^^ and thai 

ooos ia trntw^h tfaiough 

icc«e''?=^ If s> be, then, thai 

' iJL ingsf' rfirngs conqocr the I 

^"m?yr sie j^c^ ci M e s at ibe flesh ; conqnc 

31 se Spocx GC God ; coiiqiier these 

cc JTTtt W23CL pooB away and gron 

lad. cocne to an end; conquc 

oGOTaer die iioo;'' conquer the 

Sarzn: — tfaroqgh Jesus C 

dich screoccben cbee by the bearing o 

d ±e cEvine Eochanst.'i ''Takeu 

arai xxjov "* ^ Him who makes thee < 

Chrsc thr Lord. Stirne to ran sd 

' U\tM tjk ^t 'M/'.m prv^hsMy LakeTi.44. — R.] 

* '/# •* vM4M>v * T>^r<» ft no pbj on wotds in tibe ^ _ 
^uuu^ 'v 7 UL A ^,, t^M yniatfA was tna intended in tbe Sfiiac. 

^/M "u^m, fcw 4/O^r Tbe readinc is pioUUy fuilty. 

c 'J U «::m;<m i» vwW^/ tr, U thm fifed op m these epittfes. [In 
awi H ii*^ <w<*^ «riu,<i. luM'/tr, Malk* win not be and. — R.1 

♦ KmW v.4i.cOml« k» ««#«'^cMii^ bj^tbe tnntcriber.or Ckment 

M* ^* W o4.4**y ." -HtuuMm, [SoA.V. The R. V. con«^ 
^f0n*y*4^tfff*, iiw tr irlnet w ,'' in cywy i—tanoc. — R.1 

fcmrd and Acidly, not with fear, bat with 
age. vtbrz% on the pfomise of thy Lord, 
d>Dc shjLt occain the Yictor-crown 's of thy ' 
iing OQ high "^ ^ thxoogh Jesus Christ For 
soe^r walks perKct in £uth, and not fej 
dcch in very (feed receive die czown of vii;g 
wiiich is great in its toQ and great in its re 
Dost thoa understand and know how honou 
a thing is sanctity ?*? Dost thou understanc 
great and exalted and excellent is the glo 
virginity ?** 


The womb of a holy virgin *9 carried our 
Jesus Christ, the Son of God; and the 

U I Cor. m. 34- 
^ » Tim. iL 5. 

u Thewonls.*'ittiheBi^ortb8Hfl^Spiiil,''ippHrtoi 
the sense. — BssLSX. 
19 Gii. ir. && 
•• Rer. xiL 7. 
" iPet.T.i 

•J L;r.**'thelachBifaiortb8Godhttd." [XUtbancfid 
Uier date than the sob-apostolic afe. — R.] 

S4 Matt.xTi. S4. 

M Lir ".crown of Wctofy.* 

•• PhiL iii> 14. 

>* i.e., continency. [The nae of the mat ** HBMlitf , *' 
etc.. in the limited sense of ** caoaaeaef," " rhanc," «lc, i 
evidence of the faiier origin. — R.] 

•• The last two s en te n c e s pfopcriy bdoqg to chap. yn. 

•9 Or «* the Holy"' " " 




not in it For this cause justly does the Scrip- 
ture say regarding such a generation as this : " My 
Spirit shall not dwell in men for ever, because 
they are flesh." » ** Whosoever, therefore, has 
not the Spirit of God in him, is none of His : " » 
as it is written, ** The Spirit of God departed 
from Saul, and an evil spirit troubled him, which 
was sent upon hira from God." ^ 


He in whomsoever the Spirit of God is, is in 
accord with the will of the Spirit of God ; and, 
because he is in accord with the Spirit of God, 
therefore does he mortify the deeds of the body 
and live unto God, '' treading down and subju- 
gating the body and keeping it under ; so that, 
while preaching to others," he may be a beauti- 
ful example and pattern to behevers, and may 
spend his life in works which are worthy of the 
Holy Spirit, so that he may "not be cast away,"* 
but may be approved before God and before 
men. For in " the man who is of God," s with 
him / say there is nothing of the mind of the 
flesh ; and especially in virgins of either sex; but 
the fruits of all of them are " the fruits of the 
Spirit " ^ and of life, and they are truly the city 
of God, and the houses and temples in which 
God abides and dwells, and among which He 
walks, as in the holy city of heaven. For in this 
" do ye appear to the world as lights, in that ye 
give heed to the Word of life," ^ and thus ye are 
in truth the praise, and the boast, and the crown 
of rejoicing, and the delight of good servants in 
our Lord Jesus Christ. For all who see you will 
"acknowledge that ye are the seed which the. 
Lord hath blessed ; " * in very deed a seed hon- 
ourable and holy, and "a priestly kingdom, a 
holy people, the people of the inheritance," 9 the 
heirs of the promises of God ; of things which 
do not decay, nor wither ; of " that which eye 
hath not seen, and ear hath not heard, and which 
hath not come up into the heart of man ; of that 
which God hath prepared for those who love 
Him and keep His commandments." '° 


Now, we are persuaded of you, my brethren, 
that your thoughts are occupied about those 

I Gen. vL 3. [This b an example of tbe ▼idous method of inter- 
preution, not vet extirpated, whicn carries Paul's disdnctiTe use of 
the term " flesh " back to the Pentateuch, where no ethical sense is 
necessarily implied. — R.] 

a Rom.vit.9. [TbeApo«lespeaksor'dkeSpWtofC4rA^.''--R.] 

3 I Sam. xn. x^. 

< 1 Cor. ix. 07. 

s I Tim. vL IX. 

* Gal. V. aa. 

7 Phn. u. xs, x6. 

* Isa. Ixi. Q. 
9 I Pet. it 9. 

^ I Cor. vu 9. 

things which are requisite for your sa 
But we speak thus " in consequence of 
rumours and repjorts concerning shame] 
who, under pretext of the fear of God, h 
dwelling with maidens, and so exj)ose th 
to danger, and walk with them along 
and in solitary places '^ alone — a course 
full of dangers, and full of stumbling-bl 
snares and pitfalls ; nor is it in any resp 
for Christians and those who fear God sc 
duct themselves. Others, too, eat and d 
them at entertainments allowing them 
loose behaviour and much uncleanness - 
ought not to be among believers, and e 
among those who have chosen for then 
life of holiness.'* Others, again, meet 
for vain and trifling conversation and m( 
and that they may speak evil of one 
and they hunt up tales against one anol 
are idle : persons with whom we do r 
you even to eat bread. Then, others g 
among the houses of virgin brethren or s 
pretence of visiting them, or reading tl 
tures to them, or exorcising them. Fc 
as they are idle and do no work, they 
those tilings which ought not to be inqui 
and by means of plausible words make r 
dise of the name of Christ. These are n 
whom the divine apostle kept aloof, be 
the multitude of their evil deeds; as it is 
" Thorns sprout in the hands of the idle \ 
" The ways of the idle are full of thorn* 


Such are the ways of all those who 
work, but go hunting for tales, and 
themselves that this is profitable and rigl: 
such persons are like those idle and prat 
ows " who go wandering about '* among h 
with their prating, and hunt for idle t 
carry them from house to house with r 
aggeration, without fear of God. And 
all this, barefaced men as they are,*® ur 
tence of teaching, they set forth a variety 
trines. And would that they taught the c 
of truth ! But it is this which is so dis 
that they understand not what they m 
assert that which is not true : because t 
to be teachers, and to display themselve 

" Or "life." 

>3 The words which follow, "conoeming those thin| 
speak/' appear not to be genuine. — Bbklkn. 

13 Beelen supposes a ck dta Ivwvi " along tfie lonely 

*< i.e., virginity. 

** Prov. xxvi. o. 

«6 Prov. Jtv. 19 (LXX.). 

>' Lit. " profit and righteousness." 

i^ Lit. *' go about and wander." 

*9 I Tim. V. 13. 

^ Lit. " in their barefiKedness." 



God. By' your fastings and prayers and per- 
petual watching, together with your other good 
works, mortify the works of the flesh by the 
power of the Holy Spirit. He who acts thus 
" is a temple of the Holy Spirit of God." * Let 
this man cast out demons, and God will help 
him. For it is good that a man help those that 
are sick. Our Lord hath said : '' Cast out 
demons," at the same time commanding many 
other acts of healing ; and, " Freely ye have re- 
ceived, freely give." ^ For such persons as these 
a goodly recompense is iaid up by God, because 
they serve their brethren with the gifts which 
have been given them by the Lord. This is also 
comely and helpful to the servants of God, be- 
cause they act according to the injunctions of 
our Lord, who hath said : *' I was sick, and ye 
visited Me, and so on."^ And this is comely 
and right and just, that we visit our neighbours 
for the sake of God with all seemliness of man- 
ner and purity of behaviour ; as the Apostle hath 
said : " Who is sick, and I am not sick ? who is 
offended, and I am not offended ? " 5 But all 
these things are spoken in reference to the love 
with whith a man should love his neighbour. 
And in these things let us occupy ourselves,^ 
without giving offence, and let us not do any- 
thing with partiality or for the shaming of others, 
but let us love the poor as the servants of God, 
and especially let us visit them. For this is 
comely before God and before men, that we 
should remember the poor, and be lovers of the 
brethren and of strangers, for the sake of God 
and for the sake of those who believe in God, as 
we have learnt from the law and from the proph- 
ets, and from our Lord Jesus Christ, concerning 
the love of the brotherhood and the love of 
strangers : for ye know the words which have 
been spoken concerning the love of the brother- 
hood and the love of strangers ; 7 powerfully are 
the words spoken to all those who do them. 



Beloved brethren ! that a man should build up 
and establish the brethren on the faith in one 

« Or •* in." 
> X Cor. vi. 19. 

3 Matt. X. 8. 

4 Lit. " and thbgs similar to ihtae,*' Matt. xxv. 36. 
s a Cor. xi. 30. 

6 Ltt. •• let us be." 

7 Beelen here omits, as spurious, die words, " beca u se this same 
Thing^ is pleasant and agreeable to yoai because ye are all taught of 
Ood. * 

God, this also is manifest and well-known. This 
too, again, is comely, that a man should not be 
envious of his neighbour. And moreover, again, 
it is suitable and comely that all those who work 
the works of the Lord should work the works of 
the Lord in the fear of God. Thus is it required 
of them to conduct theipselves. That '* the har- 
vest is great, but the workmen are few," this also 
is well-known and manifest Let us, therefore, 
** ask of the Lord of the harvest " that He would 
send forth workmen into the harvest;^ such 
workmen as " shall skilfully dispense the word of 
truth ; " workmen ''who shall not be ashamed ; "* ^ 
faithful workmen : workmen who shall be " die i 
light of the world ; " '** workmen who " work not i 
for the food that perisheth, but for that food ; 
which abideth unto life eternal;"" workmen ; 
who shall be such as the apostles ; workmen who : 
imitate the Father, and the Son, and the Hotf ' 
Spirit ; who are concerned for the salvation of I 
men ; not '' hireling" " workmen ; not workmen ! 
to whom the fear of God and righteousness ap- ] 
pear to be gain ; not workmen who " serve their ^ 
belly ; " not workmen who " with fair speeches j 
and pleasant words mislead the hearts of die t 
innocent ; " '^ not workmen who imitate the chil- ^ 
dren of light, while they are not light but daik- 
ness — " men whose end is destruction ; " *♦ not 
workmen who practise iniquity and wickednea 
and fraud ; not " crafty workmen ; " «s not work- 
men "drunken" and "faithless;"'* nor woA- 
men who traffic in Christ ; '7 not misleaders ; noK 
" lovers of money ; not malevolent." '* 

Let us, therefore, contemplate and imitate die S 
faithful who have conducted themselves well in ^ 
the Lord, as is becoming and suitable to otf ^ 
calling and profession. Thus let us do servke§ 
before God in justice and righteousness, aal^ 
without blemish, "occupying ourselves widi < 
things good and comely before God and abo..^ 
before men." '9 For this is comely, that God h 
be glorified in us in all things. 

^ere endeth the first Epistle of Clement --; 

• Matt. ix. 37, 38. 

9 Lit. " without shame/' a Tim. iL 15. 
" Matt. V. 14. 
'* John vi. 37. 
" lohn X. la, 13. 
'3 Kom. xvi. 18. 
U Phil. iu. 19. 
W a Cor. xi. 13. 
*6 See Matt. xxiv. 45-51. 

17 rComp. the term >(DiaTtffiirepof, " L,»....-.»m«i 
trafficker." in Teaching^ cnap. xiL 5, VoL viL p. 381. 
««iTim. iu. 3: Tit.L7. 
'9 Rom. xii. 17. 







who is not of God heareth not us. He who 
desires truly to keep sanctity heareth us ; and 
the virgin who truly desires to keep viridnity 
heareth us ; but she who does not truly desire 
to keep virginity doth not hear us. Finally, fare- 
well in our Lord, and rejoice in the Lord| all 

ye saints. Fteace and joy be with you fipom God 
the Father through Jesus Christ our Lord. So 
be it. 

Here endeth the Second Epistle of Clementi 
the disciple of Peter. His prayer be with usi 
So be it 






bt professor m. b. riddle, djx 

The name ''Pseado-Clementine Literatare'* (or, more briefly, ''Qementina") is applied to a 
leries of writings, closely resembling each other, purporting to emanate from the great Roman Father. 
But, as Dr. Schafif remarks, in this literature he is evidently confounded with ** Flavins Clement, 
kinsman of the Emperor Domitian." > These writings are three in number : ( i ) the RecogiUHons^ of 
vhich only the Latin translation of Rufinus has been preserved ; ' (2) the Homilies ^ twenty in num- 
ber, of which a complete collection has been known since 1853 ; (3) the Epiiomey ** an tminterest- 
ing extract from the Homilies^ to which are added extracts from the letter of Clement to James, 
from the Martyrium of Clement by Simeon Metaphrastes, etc." 3 Other writings may be classed 
with these ; but they are of the same general character, except that most of them show the influ- 
ence of a later age, adapting the material more closely to the orthodox doctrine. 

The Recognitions and the Homilies appear in the pages which follow. The former are given a 
prior position, as in the Edinburgh series. It probably cannot be proven that these represent the 
eariier form of this theological romance; but the Homilies ^ " in any case, present the more doc- 
trirally developed and historicaUy important form of the other treatises, which are essentially 
similar." * They are therefore with propriety placed after the Recognitions^ which do not seem to 
have been based upon them, but upon some earlier document.^ 

The critical discussion of the Clementina has been keen, but has not reached its end. It neces- 
sarily involves other questions, about which there is still great difference of opinion. A few 
results seem to be established : — 

(i) The entire literature is of Jewish-Christian, or Ebionitic, origin. The position accorded 
to " James, the Lord's brother," in all the writings, is a clear indication of this ; so is the silence 
respecting the Apostle Paul. The doctrinal statements, " though not perfectly homogeneous " 
(Uhlhom), are Judaistic, even when mixed with Gnostic speculation of heathen origin. This 
sendency is, perhaps, not so clearly marked in the Recognitions as in the Homilies ; but both 
lartake largely of the same general character. More particularly, the literature has been con- 
iccted with the Ebionite sect called the Elkesaites ; and some regard the Homilies as con- 
aining a further development of their system.^ This is not definitely established, but finds some 

' Histcry of ike Christian Churchy vol. ii. p. 436, new editUm. 
> See the Introductory Note of the Edinburgh translator. 

3 UhllMwn, article Clemtmtitus, Schaff-Henog, i. p. 497. A second Epitome has been published by Dreatel ; tee latrodactory 
oe to HomHiee. 

4 Lechler, Apostolic and Post-ApostoUe Times, U. p. a68, Edinburgh translation, x8M, from 3d edition. 

5 Uhlbom; see infra, 
« CoflBp. Uhlbora, p. 39a; Scfaafj^ History, vu p. 436; Lechler, ii. p. a88. See Schaff-Hersog, L art. ElkesaiUs, 



support in the resemblance between the baptismal forms, as given by Hippdytos in the case of die : 
Elkesaites/ and those indicated in the Recognitions and HomiUes^ especially the latter.* 

(a) The entire literature belongs to the class of fictitious writing '^ with a porpose." The Ger- \ 
mans properly term the HomiUes a " Tendenz-Romance." The many '* lives of Christ " written m j 
our day to insinuate some other view of our Lord's person than that given in the canonical Goi- | 
pels, furnish abimdant examples of the class. The Tubingen school, finding here a real spedmen ^ 
of the influence of party feeling upon quasi-historical hterature, naturally pressed the CiemeiUima " 
in support of their theory of the origin of the Gospels. 

(3) The discussion leaves it quite probable, though not yet certain, that all the woiks are 
** independent elaborations — perhaps at first hand, perhaps at second or third — of some older tnct 
not now extant.'* ^ Some of the opinions held respecting the relations of the two principal woiks 
are given by the Edinburgh translator in his Introductory Notice. It is only necessary here t0~ \ 
indicate the progress of the modem discussion. Neander, as early as 1818, gave some promi- i 
nence to the doctrinal view of the Homilies. He was followed by Baur, who found in these I 
writings, as indicated above, support for his theory of the origin of historical Christianity. It is / 
to be noted, however, that the heterogeneous mixture of Ebionism and Gnosticism in the doctrinal 
views proved perplexing to the leader of the Tubingen school. Schliemann ^ took ground against 
Baur, collecting much material, and carefully investigating the questicm. Both authors gave the 
priority to the HomiUes. While Baur went too far in one direction, Schliemann, periiaps, fiuled to 
recognise fully the basis of truth in the position of the former. The next important step in the 
discussion was made by Hilgenfeld,^ whose views are briefly given in the Notice which foDom. 
Hilgenfeld assigned the priority to the Recognitions^ though he traced all the literature to aa 
earlier work. Uhlhom ^ at first attempted to prove that the Recognitions were a revision of die 
Homilies, Further contributions were made by Lehmann' and Lipsius.^ The former dis- 
covered in the Recognitions two distinct parts by different authors (i.-iii., iv.-ix.), tracing all die- 
literature to the Kerygma of Peter. The latter finds the basis of the whole in the Acta Ptt% 
which show a strong anti-Pauline tendency. 

Influenced by these investigations, Uhlhom modified his views. Lechler,^ while not positiie 
in his convictions, makes the following prudent statement : " An older work lies at the basis botk 
of the Homilies and Recognitions^ bearing the title, Kerygmen des Petrus^^ To this documeni 
sometimes the HomiUes^ sometimes the Recognitions^ correspond more fiEiithftilly ; its histoiical- 
contents are more correctly seen firom the Recognitions^ its doctrinal contents firom the HomiMes? 
Other views, some of them quite fanciful, have been presented. 

The prevalent opinion necessarily leaves us in ignorance of the authors of this literature. 
The date of composition, or editing, cannot be definitely fixed. In their present form the seveni 
works may be as old as the first half of the third century, and the conmion- basis may be placed 
in the latter half of the second century. 

How far the anti-Pauline tendency is carried, is a matter of dispute. Baur and many otbei^ 
think Simon is meant to represent P^ul ; " but this is difficult to believe, though we must admit 

* See HippolyCiis, RifmUUwn ^ all Heretiet, book is. 8-18, Autt-Nietnt Fatktrs, toI. t. pp. 131-134. Tlw fcnu 

so, pp. 139, 133. 

* See R*t0iniH9n$t i. 45-48; H^miUett Epistle of Peter lo James, 4, Homily XIV. t. 

* Thu is the last optnion of Uhlhoni (Hersog, Rtal-£mcykl., 1877, ait. CUmuntin^n; comp. SchaiF-Henof, I. p. 498). TWi 
bad preriously defended the priority of the Homilies {Die Homilien nnd Rekogniiwnen dee Clemeiu JU mmmm t, CWttinftn, 1834; 
Henog, edition of 1854, art. Clementinen) . 

4 Die Clementinen nebtt den verwandien Sckri/ten^ uud d^r SUemtismue^ Hamburg, 1844. 

s Die Clementiniscken Rekognitionen und HcmHien, nmck ikrem [/rs/rungmnd InksU dmrgfUtgiU, Jtam, 1848. 

* See en/ra, note 3. Uhlhom found the nucleus of the literature in Hemiliee, ZTi.-aas. 
' Die ClemeniiniscAen Sckri/len, Gotha, 1869. 

* Die Qnellen der rdmiscken Peiruesage, Kiel, 187a. 
9 Apottelic and PesUApeeUlie Timet, irol. iL p. 870^ 

M So Hilgenfeld, Lehmann, UhlhcMrn. 

u Sea especially /f#M/iSMr, xrii. 19. Hera there ia ** probably only an iacidcatal snetr at Pwd" (Schaff, Hiti9ty, IL p. 4||l)» I 




! disposition to ignore the Apostle to the Gentiles. As to the literary merit of these produc- 
DS tiie reader must judge. 

For convenience in comparison of the two works, the following table has been prepared, based 
the order of the Recognitions, The correspondences are not exact, and the reader is referred 
the footnotes fiir fuller details. This table gives a general view of the arrangement of the 

, IIL. • 

Lt II. 








....••.. XVI.-XIX. 

X. XX. 


No conclusion has been reached in regard to the author. Some have believed that it is a { 
ine work of Clement. Whiston maintained that it was written by some of his hearers and 
panions. Others have attributed the work to Bardesanes. But most acknowledge that there 
possibility of discovering who was the author. 

Various opinions exist as to the date of the book. It has been attributed to the first, sec 
third, and fourth centuries, and some have assigned even a later date. If we were to bas4 
arguments on the work as it stands, the date assigned would be somewhere in the first half o: 
third century. A passage from the Recognitions is quoted by Origen ' in his Commentary on C 
siSf written in 231 ; and mention is made in the work of the extension of the Roman franchi 
all nations under the dominion of Rome, — an event which took place in the region of Canu 
A.D. 211. The Recognitions also contains a large extract from the work De Fato, ascribe 
Bardesanes, but really written by a scholar of his. Some have thought that Bardesanes c 
scholar borrowed from the Recognitions ; but more recently the opinion has prevailed, that 
passage was not originally in the Recognitions^ but was inserted in the Recognitions towards the 
die of the third century, or even later.' 

Those who believe the work made up of various documents assign various dates to these 
uments. Hilgenfeld, for instance, believes that the Kiypvy/bM nfrpav was written before die tin 
Trajan, and the Travels of Peter about the time of his reign. 

Nothing is known of the place in which the Recognitions was written. Some, as ScUien 
have supposed Rome, some Asia Minor, and recently Uhlhom has tried to trace it to Ea 

The Greek of the Recognitions is lost The work has come down to us in the form of a tni 
tion by Rufinus of Aquileia {d. 410 a.d.). In his letter to Gaudentius, Rufinus states tha 
omitted some portions difficult of comprehension, but that in regard to the other parts he 
translated with care, and an endeavour to be exact even in rendering the phraseology. 

The best editions of the Recognitions are those by Cotelerius, often reprinted, and by Gen 
lipsiae, 1838 ; but the text is not in a satisfactory condition. 

' Philoc«Uuit cap. aa. 

* See Men, Bardesanes von Edessa^ Hmlle, 1863, p. 1x3. 

s Die Hemilien und Rekegnitienen des Clemens Rffmanus, naek ihrem Urspmng und Inkait dmrge^eiiit tob Gcriard U 
GStdngen, 1854, p. 429. [SchafT thinks ** the Hemilies probably originated in Eart Syria, the Recognitions in Rome." Bat Rafimi 
no intimation of the Roman origin of the Greek wotk be tnintUtfil Still, Uw apparently more orthodox charactw of the ffin|gitfii 
gestt an editor from the Wettcm Church. — R.J 



not think it out of place to explain here what in 
that letter will perhaps seem to some to be incon- 
sistent For some ask, Since Linus and Cletus 
were bishops in the city of Rome before this 
Clement, how could Clement himself, writing to 
James, say that the chair of teaching was handed 
over to him by Peter?' Now of this we have 
heard this explanation, that Linus and Cletus 


* [The language of Rufinus oonfinnt that of Ireuetu, Euaduut, 
and Jerome, as to the episcopal succession at Rome (assuming that 
Cletus and Anadetus, named by Irenseus, is identical with Cletus). 
For other variations, see Cfaurdi Histories and Encyclopedias (under 
Citmetu Romaniu\ . The current ojinnion at Rome in the beguming 
of ihe fifth century is evident fromthupasMge. Comp. AnU^igtm 
Plnthtrt, vol. i. pp. i,s. — R.] 

were indeed bishops in the city of Rome befc 
Clement, but during the lifetime of Peter : that 
that they undertook the care of the episcopa 
and that he fulfilled the office of apostleship ; 
is found also to have been the case at Csesan 
where, when he himself was present, he yet h 
Zacchseus, ordained by himself, as bishop. A: 
in this way both statements will appear to 
true, both that these bishops are reckoned befc 
Clement, and yet that Clement received t 
teacher's seat on the death of Peter. But now 1 
us see how Clement, writing to James the Lore 
brother, begins his narrative. 



any one of the rude rabble should lay hands it, and standing befoie die door, I infonned 

upon him. While we were thus placed in con- doorkeeper fiiio I was, and whence I came ; a 

tact for a few days, I gladly heard him discours- behold, Barnabas ccMning out, as soon as he 

ing the word of truth ; jet he hastened hb me rubied into my arms, weeping for joy, a 

departure, saying that he must by all means eel- seizing me by the hand, led me in to Pe 

ebrate at Judaea a festal day of \ns religion which Having pointed him out to me at a distai 

was approaching, and that there he should re- ** This," said he, " is Peter, of whom I spoke 

main in future with his countrymen and his you as the greatest in the wisdom of God, i 

brethren, evidendy indicating that he was horri- to whom also I have spoken constandy of y 

fied at the wrong that had been done to him. Enter, therefore, as one well known to him. 1 

he is well acquainted with aU the good that h 

CHAP. XL — DEPARTURE OF BARNABAS. thee, and has carefully made himself aware 

Atlen^Isaidtohim " Onlv eroound to me your rehgious purpose, whence also he is gra 

the doSe^TdiS ^ wto vou^^ThJf S ^«^"^ to see you. Therefore I present yoi 

tne aoctrme oi tnai man wno you say nas ap- j^ ^^ ^^ ^^„ ^ ^ ^ 

peared, and I wiU arrange your saymgs m my p^nting\ne,he^^This, O Peter, is Ck 

language, and will preach the kmgdom and right- f*«^""*-6 "«^» "^ »-***» *««, x^ * ^^^, » x^ 

eousness of Almighty God; and after that, if ^^ 

you wish it, I shall even sail along with you, for ^^.^ „„„ „^ .r^«^».w «»^.*».«r^ ».r «» 


I am extremely desux)us to see Judaea, and per- 
haps I shall remain with you always." To this But Peter most kindly, ndien he heard 

he answered, *' If indeed you wish to see our name, immediately ran to me and kissed i 

country, and to learn those things which you de- Then, having made me sit down, he said, ^H 

sire, set sail widi me even now ; or, if there be didst well to receive as thy guest Bamal 

an>thing that detains you now, I shall leave with preacher of the truth, nothing fearing the i 

you directions to my dwelling, so that when you of the insane people. Thou shalt be bles! 

please to come you may easily find me ; for to- For as you have deemed an ambassador of 

morrow I shall set out on my journey." When truth worthy of all honour, so the truth hen 

I saw him determined, I went down with him to shall receive thee a wanderer and a stranger,] 

the harbour, and carefiilly took fix>m him the di- shall enroll thee a citizen of her own city; i 

rections which he gave me to find his dwelling, then there shall be great joy to thee, becai 

I told him that, but for the necessity of getting imparting a small fevour, thou shalt be writ 

some money which was due to me, I shoidd not heir of eternal blessings. Now, therefore, 

at all delay, but that I should speedily follow not trouble yourself to explain your mind to n 

him. Having told him this, I commended him for Barnabas has with fiuthful speech infon 

to the kindness of those who had charge of the me of all things about you and your dispositk 

ship, and returned sad ; for I was po^essed of almost daily and without ceasing, recalling 

the memory of the intercoiuse which I had had memory of your good qualities. And to pc 

with an excellent guest and a choice friend. out to you shordy, as to a friend already of i 

mind with us, what is your best course ; if A 

CHAP. xn. — CLEMENT'S ARRIVAL AT OGSAREA, AND is nothing to hinder you, come along with us^ I 

iNTRODUcn<»i TO PETER. hear the word of the truth, which we are go 

Having then stopped for a few days, and hav- 1° ^ "fS^ P**^ "°*" T? «>™« .' . , 
ing in sSme mea^finished the business of ^^'2^^°^' and now. if you wish « 
collecting what was owing to me (for I neglected ""^^^ speax. 
many things through my desire of hastening, ^^^^ ,„^ „^ ^r^^^r^r^^ ^« .^.»*. 

^1 ^ T • u*. * u u- J J r_^ \ CHAP. XIV. — HIS ACCOUNT OF HmSELT. 

that I might not be hindered from my purpose), «««— 

I set sail direct for Judsea, and after fifteen days Having detailed to him what purpose 1 1 

landed at Caesarea Stratonis, which is the largest conceived from the beginning, and how 1 1 

city in Palestine.' When I had landed, and was been distracted with vain inquiries, and aU dj 

seeking for an inn, I learned from the conversa- things which at first I intimated to thee, myl 

tion of the people, that one Peter, a most ap- James, so that I need not repeat the same till 

proved disciple of Him who appeared in Judaeia, now, I willingly agreed to travel with him;^ 

and showed many signs and miracles divinely that," said I, " is just what I was most 

performed among men, was going to hold a dis- desirous o£ But first I should wish the 

cussion of words and questions the next day with of truth to be expounded to me, that I may! 

one Simon, a Samaritan. Having heard this, I whether the soul is mortal or immortal; ai 
asked to be shown his lodging ; and having found : immortal, whether it shall be brought into 

ment for those things which it does hete. 

ii^lliyS^fSr'''^'"^'^'^ I ^^^ to know what that xighteoori 






[Book I. 

inhabitants of wicked races are routed, and they 
enter upon their paternal inheritance, which was 
distributed among diem by lot. ' For some time 
thereafter they were ruled not by kings, but 
judges, and remained in a somewhat peaceful 
condition. But when they sought for themselves 
tyrants rather than kings, then also with regal 
ambition they erected a temple in the place 
which had been appointed to them for prayer ; 
and thus, through a succession of wicked kmgs, 
the people fell away to greater and still greater 



" But when the time began to draw near that 
what was wanting in the Mosaic institutions should 
be supplied, as we have said, and that the Prophet 
should appear, of whom he had foretold that He 
should warn them by the mercy of God to cease 
fix)m sacrificing ; lest haply they might suppose 
that on the cessation of sacrifice diere was no 
remission of sins for them, He instituted baptism 
by water amongst them, in which they might be 
absolved from all their sins on the invocation of 
His name, and for the future, following a perfect 
life, might abide in immortality, being purified 
not by the blood of beasts, but by the purifi- 
cation of the Wisdom of God. Subsequentiy 
also an evident proof of this great mystery is 
supplied in the fact, that every one who, be- 
lieving in this Prophet who had been foretold by 
Moses, is baptized in His name, shall be kept 
unhurt from the destruction of war which im- 
pends over the unbelieving nation, and the place 
itself; but that those who do not believe shall 
be made exiles from their place and kingdom, 
that even against their will tiiey may understand 
and obey the will of God. 


"These things therefore having been fore- 
arranged, He who was expected comes, bringing 
signs and miracles as His credentials by which 
He should be made manifest. But not even so 
did the people believe, though they had been 
trained during so many ages to the belief of these 
things. And not only did they not believe, but 
they added blasphemy to unbelief, saying that 
He was a gluttonous man and a belly-slave, and 
that He was actuated by a demon,' even He 
who had come for their salvation. To such an 
extent does wickedness prevail by the agency of 
evil ones ; so that, but for the Wisdom of God 
assisting those who love the truth, almost all 
would have been involved in impious delusion. 
Therefore He chose us twelve,' the first who be- 
lieved in Him, whom He named apostles ; and 

* Matt, be; John viL 
> Matt. X, 

afterwards other seventy-two most approved dis- 
ciples,3 that, at least in this way recognising the 
pattern of Moses,^ the multitude might believe 
that this is He of whom Moses foretold, the 
Prophet that was to come.' 


'' But some one perhaps may say that it is pos- 
sible for any one to imitate a number ; but what 
shall we say of the signs and miracles which He 
wrought? For Moses had wrought miracles and 
cures in Egypt. He also of whom he foretold 
that He should rise up a prophet like unto him- 
self, though He cured every sickness and in- 
firmity among the people, wrought innumerable 
miracles, and preached eternal life, was hunkd 
by wicked men to the cross ; which deed wa% 
however, by His power turned to good. In 
short, while He was suffering, all the world suf- 
fered with Him ; for the sun was darkened, the 
mountains were torn asunder, the graves were 
opened, the veil of the temple was rent,^ as te 
lamentation for the destruction impending OYcr ■. 
the place. And yet, though all the world wai 
moved, they themselves are not even now moved 
to the consideration of these so great things. 


'' But inasmuch as it was necessary that the 
Gentiles should be called into the room of tho8e<-^ 
who remained unbelieving,' so that the numbet 
might be filled up which had been shown tot 
Abraham,^ the preaching of the blessed kin^ 
dom of God is sent into all the world. On dm 
account worldly spirits are disturbed, who ahraqfl 
oppose those who are in quest of liberty, and 
who make use of the engines of error to destrof 
God's building ; while those who press on to the 
glory of safety and liberty, being rendered biafcf 
by their resistance to these spirits, and by tte 
toil of great struggles against them, attain Ae 
crown of safety not without the psilm of vic-j 
tory. Meantime, when He had suffered, and' 
darkness had overwhelmed the world from the 
sixth even to the ninth hour,9 as soon as the soft 
shone out again, and things were returned t» 
their usual course, even wicked men returned 
to themselves and their former practices, their 
fear having abated. For some of them, watch-' 
ing the place with all care, when they could nol 
prevent His rising again, said that He was If 
magician ; others pretended that he was stoks 

3 Luke X. I 

* Num. xi-.,x6. ^ 

' Deut. xviii. 15. 

6 Matt, xxvii. 45, 51, cs. 

7 [Chaps. 4a, 43, show little of 

the Ebionitic 

the attempt to reduce d)e difference between Jews 
to the single point of belief in the Mrwiahship 01 Ji 

* Gen. XV. ; Acts xiiL 

9 Matt, xxvii. 45. 
>o Matt. xzviiL 13. 

-«•! \ 




of judging the people^ he judged of things clean 
and things unclean. But if any one else was 
anointed with the same ointment, as deriving vir- 
tue from it, he became either king, or prophet, 
or priest. If, then, this temporal grace, com- 
pounded by men, had such efficacy, consider now 
how potent was that ointment extracted by God 
from a branch of the tree of life, when that which 
was made by men could confer so excellent digni- 
ties among men. For what in the present age 
is more glorious than a prophet, more illustrious 
than a priest, more exalted than a king? " 


To this I replied : " I remember, Peter, that 
you told me of the first man that he was a proph- 
et ; but you did not say that he was anointed. 
If then there be no prophet without anointing, 
how could the first man be a prophet, since he 
was not anointed ? " Then Peter, smiling, said : 
*' If the first man prophesied, it is certain that 
he was also anointed. For although he who has 
recorded the law in his pages is sUent as to his 
anointing, yet he has evidently left us to under- 
stand these things. For as, if he had said that 
he was anointed, it would not be doubted that 
he was also a prophet, although it were not writ- 
ten in the law ; so, since it is certain that he was 
a prophet, it is in like manner certain that he 
was also anointed, because without anointing he 
could not be a prophet. But you should rather 
have said. If the chrism was compounded by 
Aaron, by the perfumer's art, how could the first 
man be anointed before Aaron's time, the arts 
of composition not yet having been discovered ? " 
Then I answered, " Do not misunderstand me, 
Peter ; for I do not speak of that compounded 
ointment and temporal oil, but of that simple 
and eternal ointment, which you told me was 
made by God, after whose likeness you say that 
that other was compounded by men." 


Then Peter answered, with an appearance of 
indignation : " What ! do you suppose, Clement, 
that all of us can know all things before the 
time ? But not to be drawn aside now from our 
proposed discourse, we shall at another time, 
when your progress is more manifest, explain 
these things more distinctly. 

** Then, however, a priest or a prophet, being 
anointed with the compounded ointment, putting 
fire to the altar of God, was held illustrious in 
all the world. But after Aaron, who was a priest, 
another is taken out of the waters. I do not 
speak of Moses, but of Him who, in the waters 
of baptism, was called by God His Son.' For 
it is Jesus who has put out, by the grace of 

^ Matt. iiL 17. 

baptism, that fire which the priest kindled f< 
sins ; for, from the time when He appeared, tl 
chrism has ceased, by which the priesthood < 
the prophetic or the kingly office was conferred 


"His coming, therefore, was predicted I 
Moses, who delivered the law of God to mer 
but by another also before him, as I have alreac 
informed you. He therefore intimated that B 
should come, humble indeed in His first comioj 
but glorious in His second. And the firsts ii 
deed, has been already accomplished ; since B 
has come and taught, and He, the Judge of al 
has been judged and slain. But at His secoo 
coming He shall come to judge, and shall indee 
condemn the wicked, but shall take the pioi 
into a sliare and association with Himself in H 
kingdom. Now the faith of His second comii 
depends upon His first. For the prophets - 
especially Jacob and Moses — spoke of the fin 
but some also of the second. But the excelleoc 
of prophecy is chiefly shown in this, that d 
prophets spoke not of things to come, accordn 
to the sequence of things ; otherwise they mij^ 
seem merely as wise men to have conjecture 
what the sequence of things pointed out 


** But what I say is this : It was to be expeds 
that Christ should be received by the Jews, I 
whom He came, and that they should believe o 
Him who was expected for the salvation of th 
people, according to the traditions of the £aitheii 
but that the Gentiles should be averse to Hoi 
since neither promise nor announcement ool 
ceming Him had been made to them, and i| 
deed He had never been made known to tfaej 
even by name. Yet the prophets, contzaxy 
the order and sequence of things, said that 
should be the expectation of die GentOes^ 
not of the Jews.' And so it happened, 
when He came. He was not at all acknoi 
by those who seemed to expect Him, in 
sequence of the tradition of their an< 
whereas those who had heard nothing at all 
Him, both believe that He has come, and 
that He is to come. And thus in aU 
prophecy appears faithful, which said that 
was the expectation of the Gentiles. The J( 
therefore, have erred concerning the first 
of the Lord ; and on this point only there k 
agreement betwixt us and them. For they 
selves know and expect that Christ shall 
but that He has come already in humili^] 
even He who is called Jesus — they do 
know. And this is a great confirmation of 
coming, that all do not believe on HioL 

' Gen. xliz. to. 





that when we enter into a city we should first 
learn who in it is worthy,' that we may eat with 
him, how much more is it proper for us to as- 
certain who or what sort of man he is to whom 
the words of immortality are to be committed 1 
For we ought to be careful, yea, extremely care- 
ful, that we cast not our pearls before swine.' 


'' But for other reasons also it is of importance 
that I should have some knowledge of this man. 
For if I know that in those things concerning 
which it cannot be doubted that they are good, 
he is faultiess and irreproachable, — that is to 
say, if he is sober, merciful, upright, gentle, and 
humane, which no one doubts to be good quali- 
ties, — then it will seem to be fitting, that upon 
him who possesses these good virtues, that which 
is lacking of faith and knowledge should be con- 
ferred ; and so his life, which is in other respects 
worthy of approbation, should be amended in 
those points in which it shall appear to be im- 
perfect. But if he remains wrapped up and pol- 
luted in those sins which are manifestly such, it 
does not become me to speak to him at all of 
the more secret and sacred things of divine 
knowledge, but rather to protest and confront 
him, that he cease from sin, and cleanse his 
actions from vice. But if he insinuate himself, 
and lead us on to speak what he, while he acts 
improperly, ought not to hear, it will be our part 
to parry him cautiously. For not to answer him 
at all does not seem proper, for the sake of the 
hearers, lest haply they may think that we decline 
the contest through want of ability to answer him, 
and so their faith may be injured through their 
misunderstanding of our purpose." 


When Peter had thus spoken to us, Niceta asks 
permission to say something to him ; ' and Peter 
having granted permission, he says : " With your 
pardon, I beseech you, my lord Peter, to hear me, 
who am very anxious for thee, and who am afraid 
lest, in the contest which you have in hand with 
Simon, you should seem to be overmatched. For 
it very frequently happens that he who defends the 
truth does not gain the victory, since the hearers 
are either prejudiced, or have no great interest in 
4ie better cause. But over and above all this, 
Simon himself is a most vehement orator, trained 
in the dialectic art, and in the meshes of syllo- 

> Matt. X. XX. 

* Matt. vii. 6. 

' FThe sutements of Nioeta and Aouila are introduced in the 
Hamtlut before the poatpooement of the discussion with Simon. 
Theie ia a remarkable variety in the minor details respecting Simon 
m siren in l^ two narxatiTet. — R.] 

gisms ; and what is worse than all, he is greal 
skilled in the magic art. And therefore I fes 
lest haply, being so strongly fortified on every sid 
he shall be thought to be defending the trut 
whilst he is alleging falsehoods, in the presence < 
those who do not know him. For neither shou 
we ourselves have been able to escape fh)m hit 
and to be converted to tlie Lord, had it not be< 
that, while we were his assistants, and the share 
of his errors, we had ascertained that he was 
deceiver and a magician." 


When Niceta had thus spoken, Aquila als 
asking that he might be permitted to speak, pn 
ceeded in manner following : '' Receive, I entre 
thee, most excellent Peter, the assurance of n 
love towards thee ; for indeed I also am extremd 
anxious on thy account. And do not blame us i 
this, for indeed to be concerned for any one coo 
eth of affection ; whereas to be indifferent is no la 
than hatred. But I call God to witness that I k^ 
for thee, not as knowing thee to be weaker in di 
bate, — for indeed I was never present at any da 
pute in which thou wert engaged, — but because 
well know the impieties of this man, I think of th 
reputation, and at the same time the souls of th 
hearers, and above all, the interests of the truli 
itself. For this magician is vehement towards d 
things that he wishes, and wicked above measuic 
For in all things we know him well, since from boy 
hood we have been assistants and ministers of U 
wickedness ; and had not the love of God rescua 
us from him, we should even now be engaged a 
the same evil deeds with him. But a certain m 
bom love towards God rendered his wickedna 
hateful to us, and the worship of God attractive 
to us. Whence I think also that it was the wQi| 
of Divine Providence, that we, being first made U 
associates, should take knowledge in what manne 
or by what art he effects the prodigies which bi 
seems to work. For who is there that would noi 
be astonished at the wonderful things which li 
does ? Who would not think that he was a 
come down from heaven for the salvation of i 
For myself, I confess, if I had not known him 
mately, and had taken part in his doings, I 
easily have been carried away with him. 
it was no great thing for us to be separated 
his society, knowing as we did that he d< 
upon magic arts and wicked devices. But if 1 
ako thyself wish to know all about him — 
what, and whence he is, and how he contrives 
he does — then listen. 


"This Simon's father was Antonius, a&f 
mother Rachel. By nation he is a Samaritan, 
a village of the Gettones ; by profession a n 


Chap. XXX.] 



said well, then you not at all well : for you do 
not understand that your statement is contrary 
to his, whose disciple you profess yourself to 


Then Peter : " Neither He who sent me did 
amiss in sending a sword upon the earth, nor do 
I act contrary to Him in asking peace of the 
hearers. But you both unskilfully and rashly 
find fault with what you do not understand : for 
you have heard that the Master came not to 
send peace on earth; but that He also said, 
' Blessed are the peace-makers, for they shall be 
called the very sons of God," you have not 
heard. Wherefore my sentiments are not differ- 
ent from those of the Master when I recommend 
peace, to the keepers of which He assigned 
blessedness." Then Simon said : " In your de- 
sire to answer for your Master, O Peter, you 
have brought a much more serious charge against 
him, if he himself came not to make peace, yet 
enjoined upon others to keep it. Where, then, 
is the consistency of that other saying of his, 
' It is enough for the disciple that he be as his 



To this Peter answered : " Our Master, who 
was the true Prophet, and ever mindful of Him- 
self, neither contradicted Himself, nor enjoined 
upon us anything different from what Himself 
practised. For whereas He said, ' I am not 
come to send peace on earth, but a sword ; and 
henceforth you shall see father separated from 
son, son from father, husband from wife and 
wife from husband, mother from daughter and 
daughter from mother, brother from brother, 
fether-in-law from daughter-in-law, friend from 
fiiend,* all these contain the doctrine of peace ; 
and I will tell you how. At the beginning of 
His preaching, as wishing to invite and lead all 
to salvation, and induce them to bear patiently 
labours and trials. He blessed the poor, and 
promised that they should obtain the kingdom 
of heaven for their endurance of poverty, in 
order that under the influence of such a hope 
they might bear with equanimity the weight of 
poverty, despising covetousness ; for covetous- 
ness is one, and ^e greatest, of most pernicious 
sins. But He promised also that the hungry and 
the thirsty should be satisfied with the eternal 
blessings of righteousness, in order that they 
might bear poverty patiently, and not be led by 
it to undertake any unrighteous work. In like 
manner, also. He said that the pure in heart 

' Matt. ▼. 9. 
* MatL X. 9$. 

are blessed, and that thereby they should see 
God, in order that every one desiring so great a 
good might keep himself from evil and polluted 


" Thus, therefore, our Master, inviting His dis- 
ciples to patience, impressed upon them that the 
blessing of peace was also to be preserved with 
the labour of patience. But, on the other hand. 
He mourned over those who lived in riches and 
luxury, who bestowed nothing upon the poor; 
proving that they must render an account, be- 
cause they did not pity their neighbours, even 
when they were in poverty, whom they ought to 
love as themselves. And by such sayings as 
these He brought some indeed to obey Him, but 
others He rendered hostile. The believers there- 
fore, and the obedient. He charges to have peace 
among themselves, and says to them, * Blessed 
are the peacemakers, for they shall be called the 
very sons of God.' ^ But to those who not only 
did not believe, but set themselves in opposition 
to His doctrine. He proclaims the war of the 
word and of confutation, and says that ' hence- 
forth ye shall see son separated from father, and 
husband from wife, and daughter from mother, 
and brother from brother, and daughter-in-law 
from mother-in-law, and a man's foes shall be 
they of his own house.* ^ For in every house, 
when there begins to be a difference betwixt be- 
liever and unbeliever, there is necessarily a con- 
test : the unbelievers, on the one hand, fighting 
against the faith ; and the believers, on the other, 
confuting the old error and the vices of sins in 


" In like manner, also, during the last period 
of His teaching, He wages war against the scribes 
and Pharisees, charging them with evil deeds and 
unsound doctrine, and with hiding the key of 
knowledge which they had handed down to them 
from Moses, by which the gate of the heavenly 
kingdom might be opened.s But when our Mas- 
ter sent us forth to preach, He commanded us, 
that into whatsoever city or house we should 
enter, we should say, * Peace be to this house.' 
* And if,' said He, * a son of peace be there, your 
peace shall come upon him ; but if there be not, 
your peace shall return to you.' Also that, going 
out from that house or city, we should shake off 
upon them the very dust which adhered to our 
feet. ' But it shall be more tolerable for the land 
of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment 
than for that city or house.* ^ This indeed He 

,11, I I ■ ^—■^^■^^^B ■ ■ ■ ■ ^ 

3 Matt. V. 9. 

4 Matt. X. j^^, 36: Luke xii. 53. 

5 Matt. xxm. ; Luke xi. 

6 Matt. X. za-15; Luke x. 5, 6. 

c»>p. xxxvinj RECOGNITIONS OF CLEMENT. 107 

Chap. XLV.] 



called by the name of him who sends, as is 
often done in respect of angels : for when they 
appear to a man, if he is a wise and intelligent 
man, he asks the name of him who appears to 
him, that he may acknowledge at once the 
honour of the sent, and the authority of the 
sender. For every nation has an angel, to whom 
God has committed the government of that 
nation ; and when one of these appears, although 
he be thought and called God by those over 
whom he presides, yet, being asked, he does not 
give such testimony to himself. For the Most 
High God, who alone holds the power of all 
things, has divided all the nations of the earth 
into seventy-two parts, and over these He hath 
appointed angels as princes. But to the one 
among the archangels who is greatest, was com- 
mitted the government of those who, before all 
others, received the worship and knowledge of 
the Most High God. But holy men also, as we 
have said, are made gods to the wicked, as having 
received the power of life and death over them, 
as we mentioned above with respect to Moses 
and the judges. Wherefore it is also written 
concerning them, *Thou shalt not curse the 
gods, and thou shalt not curse the prince of thy 
people.' ' Thus the princes of the several nations 
are called gods. But Christ is God of princes, 
who is Judge of all. Therefore neither angels, 
nor men, nor any creature, can be truly gods, 
forasmuch as they are placed under authority, 
being created and changeable : angels, for they 
were not, and are ; men, for they are mortal ; 
and every creature, for it is capable of dissolu- 
tion, if only He dissolve it who made it. And 
therefore He alone is the true God, who not only 
Himself lives, but also bestows life upon others, 
which He can also take away when it pleaseth 


"Wherefore the Scripture exclaims, in name 
of the God of the Jews, saying, ' Behold, behold, 
seein^^ that I am God, and there is none else 
besides me, I will kill, and I will make alive ; 
' will smite, and I will heal ; and there is none 
who can deliver out of my hands.'* See there- 
fore how, by some ineffable virtue, the Scripture, 
opposing the future errors of those who should 
affirm that either in heaven or on earth there is 
any other god besides Him who is the God of 
the Jews, decides thus : * The Lord your God is 
one God, in heaven above, and in the earth 
beneath; and besides Him there is none else.'^ 
How, then, hast thou dared to say that there is 
any other Cxod besides Him who is the God of 
the Jews ? And again the Scripture says, * Be- 

I EjEod. xxii-^ a8. 
* Deut. xxziL 39. 
3 DeuL iv. 39. 

hold, to the Lord thy God belong the heaven, 
and the heaven of heavens, the earth, and all 
things that are in them : nevertheless I have 
chosen your fathers, that I might love them, and 
you after them.* ^ Thus that judgment is sup- 
ported by the Scripture on every side, that He 
who created the world is the true and only 



" But even if there be others, as we have said, 
who are called gods, they are under the power 
of the God of the Jews; for thus saith the 
Scripture to the Jews, ' The Lord our God, He 
is God of gods, and Lord of lords.' 5 Him 
alone the Scripture also commands to be wor- 
shipped, saying, *Thou shalt worship the Lord 
thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve;** 
and, ' Hear, O Israel : the Lord thy God is one 
God.* 7 Yea, also the saints, filled with the Spirit 
of God, and bedewed with the drops of His 
mercy, cried out, saying, * Who is hke unto Thee 
among the gods? O Lord, who is like unto 
Thee?*» And again, 'Who is God, but the 
Lord ; and who is God, but our Lord ? * 9 There- 
fore Moses, when he saw that the people were 
advancing, by degrees initiated them in the 
understanding of the monarchy and the faith of 
one God, as he says in the following words : 
' Thou shalt not make mention of the names of 
other gods ; * *° doubtless remembering with what 
penalty the serpent was visited, which had first 
named ^e?//f." For it is condemned to feed upon 
dust, and is judged worthy of such food, for this 
cause, that it first of all introduced the name of 
gods into the world. But if you also wish to 
introduce many gods, see that you partake not 
the serpent's doom. 


" For be sure of this, that you shall not have 
us participators in this attempt ; nor will we suf- 
fer ourselves to be deceived by you. For it 
will not serve us for an excuse in the judgment, 
if we say that you deceived us ; because neither 
could it excuse the first woman, that she had 
unhappily believed the serpent; but she was 
condemned to death, because she believed badly. 
For this cause therefore, Moses, also commendv 
ing the faith of one God to the people, saya, 
* Take heed to thyself, that thou be not seduced 

from the Lord thy God.*" Observe that he 

■ I III I . 1 .1 

4 Deut. X. 14, 15. 

5 Deut. X. 17. 

^ Deut. vi. 13, X. aa 

7 Deut. vi. 4. 

* Ps. Ixxxvi. 8, Ixxi. 29. 

9 Ps. xviii. 31. 
'o Josh, xxiii. 7, in Sept. 

" Gen. iii. [The same thou^t occuxs in Homily X. so^ si.—R.] 
^ Deut. viii. zx. 




are from him, and do not know him, and he is 
truly their father?" 


Then Peter said : " You represent him as weak 
enough. For if, as you say, he is more powerful 
than all, it can never be believed the weaker 
wrenched the spoils from the stronger.' Or if 
God the Creator was able by violence to bring 
down souls into this world, how can it be that, 
when they are separated from the body and freed 
from the bonds of captivity, the good God shall 
call them to the sufferance of punishment, on the 
ground that they, either through his remissness 
or weakness, were dragged away to this place, and 
were involved in the body, as in the darkness of 
ignorance ? You seem to me not to know what a 
father and a God is : but I could tell you both 
whence souls are, and when and how they were 
made ; but it is not permitted to me now to dis- 
close these things to you, who are in such error in 
respect of the knowledge of God." Then said 
Simon : "A time will come when you shall be 
sorry that you did not understand me speaking of 
the ineffable power." Then said Peter : ** Give us 
then, as I have often said, as being yourself a 
new God, or as having yourself come down from 
him, some new sense, by means of which we 
may know that new God of whom you speak ; 
for those five senses, which God our Creator has 
given us, keep faith to their own Creator, and do 
not perceive that there is any other God, for so 
their nature necessitates them." 


To this Simon answered : " Apply your mind 
to those things which I am going to say, and 
cause it, walking in peaceable paths, to attain to 
those things which I shall demonstrate. Listen 
now, therefore. Did you never in thought reach 
forth your mind into regions or islands situated 
far away, and remain so fixed in them, that you 
could not even see the people that were before 
you, or know where yourself were sitting, by 
reason of the delightfulness of those things on 
which you were gazing?" And Peter said : "It 
is true, Simon, this has often occurred to me." 
Then Simon said : " In this way now reach forth 
your sense into heaven, yea above the heaven, 
and behold that there must be some place be- 
yond the world, or outside the world, in which 
there is neither heaven nor earth, and where no 
shadow of these things produces darkness ; and 
consequently, since there are neither bodies in 
it, nor darkness occasioned by bodies, there must 
of necessity be immense light ; and consider of 
what sort that light must be, which is never suc- 
ceeded by darkness. For if the light of this sun 

fills this whole world, how great do you sup 
that bodiless and infinite light to be? So g 
doubtless, that this Ught of the sun would s 
to be darkness and not light, in comparison. 



When Simon thus spoke, Peter answerc 
" Now listen patiently concerning both t 
matters, that is, concerning the example 
stretching out the senses, and concerning 
immensity of light I know that I mysel 
Simon, have sometimes in thought extended 
sense, as you say, into regions and islands : 
ated afar off, and have seen them with my i 
not less than if it had been with my eyes. ^ 
I was at Capernaum, occupied in the takin 
fishes, and sat upon a rock, holding in my I 
a hook attached to a line, and fitted for de< 
ing the fishes, / was so absorbed that I did 
feel a fish adhering to it while my mind e^ 
ran through my beloved Jerusalem, to whi< 
had frequently gone up, waking, for the sak 
offerings and prayers. But I was accusto 
also to admire this Csesarea, hearing of it I 
others, and to long to see it ; and I seeme 
myself to see it, although I had never bee 
it ; and I thought of it what was suitable t 
thought of a great city, its gates, walls, b 
streets, lanes, markets, and the like, in ace 
ance with what I had seen in other cities ; 
to such an extent was I delighted with th« 
tentness of such inspection, that, as you sa 
neither saw one who was present and stan 
by me, nor knew where myself was sitt; 
Then said Simon : " Now you say well." 


Then Peter : " In short, when I did not 
ceive, through the occupation of my mind, 
I had caught a very large fish which was atta 
to the hook, and that although it was dra| 
the hook-line from my hand, my brother Am 
who was sitting by me, seeing me in a re 
and almost ready to fall, thrusting his elbow 
my side as if he would awaken me fit)m s 
said : * Do you not see, Peter, what a large 
you have caught? Are you out of yoursc 
that you are thus in a stupor of astonishm 
Tell me. What is the matter with you?* 1 
was angry with him for a little, because he 
withdrawn me from the delight of those ti 
which I was contemplating; then I ansi 
that I was not suffering from any malady 
that I was mentally gazing on the beloved 
salem, and at the same time on Csesarea; 

s [This story (chaps. 69-65) is peculUr to the RteagmiA 
HomUy XVII. 14-19 tnere is an argument against the tnnMO 
of supernatural visions, which is soppoaed lo be aaii-FMlii 
aim. — R.] 


Chap. XXI.] 



Then Peter answered : " We do not propose to 
speak of this now, but only to state the fact that 
the existence of evil is not universally admitted. 
But the second question that you should have 
asked is, What is evil ? — a substance, an acci- 
dent, or an act? And many other things of the 
same sort. And after that, towards what, or how 
it is, or to whom it is evil, — whether to God, or 
to angels, or to men, to the righteous or the 
wicked, to all or to some, to one's self or to no 
one? And then you should inquire. Whence 
it is? — whether from God, or from nothing; 
whether it has always been, or has had its begin- 
ning in time ; whether it is useful or useless ? and 
many other things which a proposition of this 
tort demands." To this Simon answered : "Par- 
don me ; I was in error concerning the first ques- 
tion ; but suppose that I now ask first, whether 
evil is or not?" 



Then Peter said : " In what way do you put 
the question ; as wishing to learn, or to teach, 
or for the sake of raising the question? If 
indeed as wishing to learn, I have something to 
teach you first, that coming by consequence and 
the right order of doctrine, you may understand 
from yourself what evil is. But if you put the 
question as an instructor, I have no need to be 
taught by you, for I have a Master from whom 
I have learned all things. But if you ask merely 
for the sake of raising a question and disputing, 
let each of us first set forth his T^pinion, and so 
let the matter be debated. For it is not reason- 
able that you should ask as one wishing to learn, 
and contradict as one teaching, so that after my 
answer it should be in your discretion to say 
whether I have spoken well br ill. Wherefore 
you cannot stand in the place of a gainsayer and 
be judge of what we say. And therefore, as I 
said, if a discussion is to be held, let each of us 
state his sentiments; and while we are placed 
in conflict, these religious hearers will be just 


Then Simon said : " Does it not seem to you to 
be absurd that an unskilled people should sit in 
judgment upon our sayings ? " Then Peter : " It 
is not so ; for what perhaps is less clear to one, 
can be investigated by many, for oftentimes 
even a popular rumour has the aspect of a 
prophecy. But in addition to all this, all these 
people stand here constrained by the love of 
God, and by a desire to know the truth, and 
therefore all these are to be regarded as one, by 
reason of their affection being one and the same 
towards the truth ; as, on the other hand, two 

are many and diverse, if they disagree with each 
other. But if you wish to receive an indication 
how all these people who stand before us are as 
one man, consider from their very silence and 
quietness how with all patience, as you see, they 
do honour to the truth of God, even before they 
learn it, for they have not yet learned the greater 
observance which they owe to it. Wherefore 
I hope, through the mercy of God, that He 
will accept the religious purpose of their mind 
towards Him, and will give the palm of victory 
to him who preaches the truth, that He may 
make manifest to them the herald of truth." 



Then Simon : " On what subject do you wish 
the discussion to be held ? Tell me, that I also 
may define what I think, and so the inquiry may 
begin." And Peter answered : " If, indeed, you 
will do as I think right, I would have it done 
according to the precept of my Master, who first 
of all commanded the Hebrew nation, whom He 
knew to have knowledge of God, and that it is 
He who made the world, not that they should 
inquire about Him whom they knew, but that, 
knowing Him, they should investigate His will 
and His righteousness ; because it is placed in 
men's power that, searching into these things, 
they may find, and do, and obser\'e those things 
concerning which they are to be judged. There- 
fore He commanded us to inquire, not whence 
evil cometh, as you asked just now, but to seek 
the righteousness of the good God, and His 
kingdom ; and all these things, says He, shall 
be added to you." * Then Simon said : " Since 
these things are commanded to Hebrews, as/ 
having a right knowledge of God, and being of 
opinion that every one has it in his power to do 
those things concerning which he is to be judged, 
— but my opinion differs from theirs, — where 
do you wish me to begin? " 


Then said Peter: '^I advise that the first 
inquiry be, whether it be in our power to know 
whence we are to be judged." But Simon said : 
" Not so ; but concerning God, about whom all 
who are present are desirous to hear." Then 
Peter: *'You admit, then, that something is in 
the power of the will : only confess this, if it is 
so, and let us inquire, as you say, concerning 
God." To this Simon answered : " By no 
means " Then Peter said : " If, then, nothing 
is in our power, it is useless for us to inquire 
anything concerning God, since it is not in the 
power of those who seek to find ; hence I said 
well, that this should be the first inquiry, whether 

' Matt. ri. 33. 



[Book ni 


Then Simon : " It does not seem to me that 
the heaven, which has been made by God, can 
be dissolved. For things made by the Eternal 
One are eternal, while things made by a corrup- 
tible one are temporary and decaying." Then 
Peter: "It is not so. Indeed corruptible and 
temporary things of all sorts are made by mortal 
creatures ; but the Eternal does not always make 
things corruptible, nor always incorruptible ; but 
according to the will of God the Creator, so will 
be the things which He creates. For the power 
of God is not subject to law, but His will is law 
to His creatures." Then Simon answered : " I 
call you back to the first question. You said 
now that God is visible to no one ; but when that 
heaven shall be dissolved, and that superior con- 
dition of the heavenly kingdom shall shine forth, 
then those who are pure in heart * shall see God ; 
which statement is contrary to the law, for there 
it is written that God said, * None shall see my 
fece and live.' " » 


Then Peter answered : " To those who do not 
read the law according to the tradition of Moses, 
my speech appears to be contrar}' to it ; but I 
will show you how it is not contradictory. God 
is seen by the mind, not by the body ; by the 
spirit, not by the flesh. Whence also angels, 
who are spirits, see God ; and therefore men, as 
long as they are men, cannot see Him. But after 
the resurrection of the dead, when they shall 
have been made like the angels,^ they shall be 
able to see God. And thus my statement is not 
contrary to the law ; neither is that which our 
Master said, * Blessed are they of a pure heart, 
for they shall see God.* ' For He showed that 
a time shall come in which of men shall be made 
angels, who in the spirit of their mind shall see 
God." After these and many similar sayings, 
Simon began to assert with many oaths, saying : 
" Concerning one thing only render me a reason, 
whether the soul is immortal, and I shall submit 
to your will in all things. But let it be to-mor- 
row, for to-day it is late." When therefore Peter 
began to speak, Simon went out, and with him a 
very few of his associates ; and that for shame. 
But all the rest, turning to Peter, on bended 
knees prostrated themselves before him ; and 
some of those who were afflicted with diverse 
sicknesses, or invaded by demons, were healed 
by the prayer of Peter, and departed rejoicing, 
as having obtained at once the doctrine of the 

« Matt. V. 8. 
* Elx. xxxiii. 9o. 
3 Matt. xxii. 30. 

true God, and also His mercy. When therefore 
the crowds had withdrawn, and only we his at- 
tendants remained with him, we sat down on 
couches placed on the ground, each one recog- 
nising his accustomed place, and having taken 
food, and given thanks to God, we went to sleep. 


But on the following day, Peter, as usual, rising 
before dawn, found us already awake and ready 
to listen ; and thus began : " I entreat you, my 
brethren and fellow-servants, that if any of you 
is not able to wake, he should not torment him- 
self through respect to my presence, because 
sudden change is difficult ; but if for a long time 
one gradually accustoms himself, that will not be 

i distressing which comes of use. For we had not 
all the same training ; although in course of time 
we shall be able to be moulded into one habit, 
for they say that custom holds the place of a 

i second nature. But I call God to witness that 
I am not offended, if any one is not able to 
wake ; but rather by this, if, when any one sleeps 
all through the night, he does not in the course 
of the day fulfil that which he omitted in the 
night. For it is necessary to give heed intently 
and unceasingly to the study of doctrine, that 
our mind may be filled with the thought of God 
only ; because in the mind which is filled with 
the thought of God, no place will be given to 
the wicked one.** 


When Peter spoke thus to us, every one of us 
eagerly assured him, that ere now we were awake, 
being satisfied with short sleep, but that we were 
afraid to arouse him, because it did not become 
the disciples to command the master ; " and yet 
even this, O Peter, we had almost ventured to 
take upon ourselves, because our hearts, agitated 
with longing for your words, drove sleep wholly 
from our eyes. But again our affection towards 
you opposed it, and did not suffer us violently to 
rouse you." Then Peter" said : "Since therefore 
you assert that you are willingly awake through 
desire of hearing, I wish to repeat to you more 
carefully, and to explain in their order, the things 
that were spoken yesterday without arrangement. 
And this I propose to do throughout these daily 
disputations, that by night, when privacy of time 
and place is afforded, I shall unfold in correct 
order, and by a straight line of explanation, any- 
thing that in the controversy has not been stated 
with sufficient fulness." And then he began to 
point out to us how the yesterday's discussion 
ought to have been conducted, and how it could 
not be so conducted on account of the conten- 
tiousness or the unskilfulness of his opponent; 
and how therefore he only made use of assertioni 

Chap. XXXVI.] 



and only overthrew what was said by his adver- 
saxy, but did not expound his own doctrines 
cither completely or distinctly. Then repeating 
the several matters to us, he discussed them in 
regular order and with full reason. 


But when the day began to be light, after 
prayer he went out to the crowds and stood in 
his accustomed place, for the discussion; and 
seeing Simon standing in the middle of the 
crowd, he saluted the people in his usual way, 
and said to them : *' I confess that I am grieved 
with respect to some men, who come to us in 
this way that they may learn something, but when 
we begin to teach them, they profess that they 
themselves are masters, and while indeed they 
ask questions as ignorant persons, they contra- 
dict as knowing ones. But perhaps some one 
will say, that he who puts a question, puts it in- 
deed in order that he may learn, but when that 
which he hears does not seem to him to be right, 
it is necessary that he should answer, and that 
seems to be contradiction which is not contra- 
diction, but further inquiry. 


" Let such a one then hear this : The teaching 
of all doctrine has a certain order, and there are 
some things which must be delivered first, others 
in the second place, and others in the third, and 
so all in their order ; and if these things be deliv- 
ered in their order, they become plain ; but if they 
be brought forward out of order, they will seem to 
be spoken against reason. And therefore order is 
to be observed above all things, if we seek for the 
purpose of finding what we seek. For he who 
enters rightly upon the road, will observe the 
second place in due order, and from the second 
will more easily find the third ; and the further 
he proceeds, so much the more will the way of 
knowledge become open to him, even until he 
arrive at the city of truth, whither he is bound, 
and which he desires to reach. But he who is 
unskilfiil, and knows not the way of inquiry, — 
as a traveller in a foreign country, ignorant and 
wandering, if he will not employ a native of the 
country as a guide, — undoubtedly when he has 
strayed from the way of truth, shall remain out- 
side the gates of life, and so, involved in the 
darkness of black night, shall walk through the 
paths of perdition. Inasmuch therefore, as, if 
those things which are to be sought, be sought 
in an orderly manner, they can most easily be 
found, but the unskilful man is ignorant of the 
order of inquiry, it is right that the ignorant man 
should yield to the knowing one, and first learn 
the order of inquiry, that so at length he may 
find the method of asking and answering. 


To this Simon replied : " Then truth is not the 
property of all, but of those only who know the art 
of disputation, which is absurd ; for it cannot be, 
since He is equally the God of all, that all should 
not be equally able to know His will." Then 
Peter : " AH were made equal by Him, and to all 
He has given equally to be receptive of truth. 
But that none of those who are bom, are bom with 
education, but education is subsequent to birth, 
no one can doubt. Since, therefore, the birth 
of men holds equity in this respect, that all are 
equally capable of receiving discipline, the dif- 
erence is not in nature, but in education. Who 
does not know that the things which any one 
learns, he was ignorant of before he learned 
them?" Then Simon said: "You say truly." 
Then Peter said : " If then in those arts which 
are in common use, one first leams and then 
teaches, how much more ought those who pro- 
fess to be the educators of souls, first to learn, 
and so to teach, that they may not expose 
themselves to ridicule, if they promise to afford 
knowledge to others, when they themselves are 
unskilful?" Then Simon : "This is true in re- 
spect of those arts which are in common use ; 
but in the word of knowledge, as soon as any 
one has heard, he has leamed." 


Then said Peter : " If indeed one hear in an 
orderly and regular manner, he is able to know 
what is true ; but he who refuses to submit to the 
rule of a reformed hfe and a pure conversation, 
which truly is the proper result of knowledge of 
the truth, will not confess that he knows what he 
does know. For this is exactly what we see in 
the case of some who, abandoning the trades 
which they learned in their youth, betake them- 
selves to other performances, and by way of ex- 
cusing their own sloth, begin to find fault with 
the trade as unprofitable." Then Simon : " Ought 
all who hear to believe that whatever they hear is 
true ? " Then Peter : " Whoever hears an orderly 
statement of the truth, cannot by any means gain- 
say it, but knows that what is spoken is true, pro- 
vided he also willingly submit to the rules of life. 
But those who, when they hear, are unwilling 
to betake themselves to good works, are pre- 
vented by the desire of doing evil from acquies- 
cing in those things which they judge to be right. 
Hence it is manifest that it is in the power of 
the hearers to choose which of the two they pre- 
fer. But if all who hear were to obey, it would 
be rather a necessity of nature, leading all in one 
way. For as no one can be persuaded to be- 
come shorter or taller, because the force of nature 
does not permit it ; so also, if either all were 
converted to the truth by a word, or all were not 



be addressed to you which He spoke, ' Why call 
ye me Lord, Lord, and do not what I say ? " It 
is therefore the peculiar gift bestowed by God 
upon the Hebrews, that they believe Moses ; and 
the peculiar gift bestowed upon the Gentiles is 
that they love Jesus. For this also the Master 
intimated, when He said, * I will confess to Thee, 
O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because 
Thou hast concealed these things from the wise 
and prudent, and hast revealed them to babes.* 
By which it is certainly declared, that the people 
of the Hebrews, who were instructed out of the 
law, did not know Him ; but the people of the 
Gentiles have acknowledged Jesus, and venerate 
Him ; on which account also they shall be saved, 
not only acknowledging Him, but also doing His 
will. But he who is of the Gentiles, and who 
has it of God to believe Moses, ought also to 
have it of his own purpose to love Jesus also. 
And again, the Hebrew, who has it of God to 
believe Moses, ought to have it also of his own 
purpose to believe in Jesus; so that each of 
them, having in himself something of the divine 
gift, and something of his own exertion, may be 
perfect by both. For concerning such an one 
our Lord spoke, as of a rich man, * Who brings 
forth from his treasures things new and old.' ' 


" But enough has been said of these things ; 
for time presses, and the religious devotion of 
the people invites us to address them." And 
when he had thus spoken, he asked where there 
was a suitable place for discussion. And Maro 
said : " I have a very spacious hall* which can 
hold more than five hundred men, and there is 
also a garden within the house ; or if it please 
you to be in some public place, all would prefer 
it, for there is nobody who does not desire at 
least to see your face." Then Peter said : 
" Show me the hall, or the garden." And when 
he had seen the hall, he went in to see the garden 
also ; and suddenly the whole multitude, as if 
some one had called them, rushed into the house, 
and thence broke through into the garden, where 
Peter was already standing, selecting a fit place 
for discussion. 


But when he saw that the crowds had, like the 
waters of a great river, poured over the narrow 
passage, he mounted upon a pillar which hap- 
pened to stand near the wall of the garden, and 
first saluted the people in a religious manner. 
But some of those who were present, and who 
had been for a long time distressed by demons. 



> Luke vi. 46. 

* Matt xi. 35. [Luke X. ax; comp. Homily XVIII. 15-17. 

3 Matt xiii. sa. 

4 jEiitt, in the singular, probably a temple. 


threw themselves on the ground, while 
clean spirits entreated that they might be 
but for one day to remain in the bodies that 
had taken possession of. But Peter 
them, and commanded them to depart 
they went out without delay. After these, 
who had been afflicted widi long-standing 
nesses asked Peter that they might receive 
ing ; and he promised that he would en 
Lord for them as soon as his discourse of i 
tion was completed. But as soon as he 
ised, they were freed from their sicknesses; 
he ordered them to sit down apart, widi 
who had been fireed from the demons,! 
the fatigue of labour. Meantime, while 
going on, a vast multitude assembled, 
not only by the desire of hearing Peter, 
by the report of the cures which had been 
plished. But Peter, beckoning with his 
the people to be still, and settling the 
tranquillity, began to address them as fo! 


'' It seems to me necessary, at the outset 
discourse concerning the true worship of 
first of all to instruct those who have not a& 
acquired any knowledge of the subject, 
throughout the divine providence must be " 
tained to be jinthout blame, by which the 
is ruled and governed. Moreover, the 
of the present undertaking, and the occa^ 
offered by those whom the power of God 
healed, suggest this subject for a beginning 
to show that for good reason very many pes 
are possessed of demons, that so the justio 
God may appear. For ignorance will be k 
to be the mother of almost all evils. But 
let us come to the reason. 



"When God had made man after His 
image and likeness, He grafted into His 
certain breathing and odour of His divii 
that so men, being made partakers of His 
begotten, might through Him be also friend?* 
God and sons of adoption. Whence also i 
Himself, as the true Prophet, knowing with wl 
actions the Father is pleased, instructed them 
what way they might obtain that privilege. 1 
that time, therefore, there was among men d 
one worship of God — a pure mind and an I 
corrupted spirit. And for this reason eit 
creature kept an inviolable covenant with i 
human race. For by reason of their reverei 
of the Creator, no sickness, or bodily diSGi^ 
or corruption of food, had power over ttflf 

s [In HomiUes VIII. 8, 24, IX. 24, the 
the discourses. — R.] 




only be able yourselves to escape the incursions 
of the demon, but also to drive them away from 
others ; and at the same time you shall obtain 
the rewards of eternal good things. But those 
who shall refuse to receive those things which 
are spoken by us, shall be subject in the present 
life to diverse demons and disorders of sick- 
nesses, and their souls after their departure from 
the body shall be tormented for ever. For God 
is not only good, but also just ; for if He were 
always good, and never just to render to every 
one according to his deeds, goodness would be 
found to be injustice. For it were injustice if 
the impious and the pious were treated by Him 


"Therefore demons, as we have just said, 
when once they have been able, by means of 
opportunities aJOforded them, to convey them- 
selves through base and evil actions into the 
bodies of men, if they remain in them a long 
time through their own negligence, because they 
do not seek after what is profitable to their souls, 
they necessarily compel them for the future to 
fulfil the desires of the demons who dwell in 
them. But what is worst of all, at the end of 
the world, when that demon shall be consigned 
to eternal fire, of necessity the soul also which 
obeyed him, shall with him be tortured in 
eternal fires, together with its body which it 
hath polluted. 


" Now that the demons are desirous of occu- 
pying the bodies of men, this is the reason. 
They are spirits having their purpose turned to 
wickedness. Therefore by immoderate eating 
and drinking, and lust, they urge men on to sin, 
but only those who entertain the purpose of sin- 
ning, who, while they seem simply desirous of 
satisfying the necessary cravings of nature, give 
opixjrtunity to the demons to enter into them, 
because through excess they do not maintain 
moderation. For as long as the measure of na- 
ture is kept, and legitimate moderation is pre- 
ser\ed, the mercy of God does not give them 
liberty to enter into men. But when either the 
mind falls into impiety, or the body is filled with 
immoderate meat or drink, then, as if invited by 
the will and purpose of those who thus neglect 
themselves, they receive power as against ^ose 
who have broken the law imposed by God. 



" You see, then, how important is the acknowl- 
edgment of God, and the observance of the di- 
■iBA Mlidon, which not only protects tiiose who 

believe from the assaults of the demon, but tk 
gives them command over those who role or 
others. And therefore it is necessary for yoi 
who are of the Gentiles, to betake yourselves I 
God, and to keep yourselves from all unden 
ness, that the demons may be expelled, an 
God may dwell in you. And at the same tun 
by prayers, commit yourselves to God, and a 
for His aid against the impudence of the di 
mons ; for ' whatever things ye ask, believim 
ye shall receive.' ' But even the demons thei 
selves, in proportion as they see faith grow in 
man, in that proportion they depart from Uq 
residing only in that part in which sometU 
of infidelity still remains ; but from those vl 
believe with full faith, they depart without H 
delay. For when a soul has come to the U 
of God, it obtains the virtue of heavenly witt 
by which it extinguishes the demon like a sgti 
of fire. 



"There is therefore a measure of faith, whid 
if it be perfect, drives the demon perfectly M 
the soul ; but if it has any defect, somethii^d 
the part of the demon still remains in the pd 
tion of infidelity ; and it is the greatest difficrij 
for the soul to understand when or how, whew 
fully or less fully, the demon has been expefls 
from it. For if he remains in any quarter, viifl 
he gets an opportunity, he suggests thoughts t 
men's hearts ; and they, not knowing whoH 
they come, believe the suggestions of the di 
mons, as if they were the perceptions of Aq 
own souls. Thus they suggest to some to 
pleasure by occasion of bodily necessity; 
excuse the passionateness of others by excess 
gall ; they colour over the madness of othen 
the vehemence of melancholy ; and even 
uate the folly of some as the result of al 
of phlegm. But even if this were so, still nonei 
these could be hurtful to the body, except 
the excess of meats and drinks ; because, 
these are taken in excessive quantities, 
abundance, which the natural warmth is 
suflicient to digest, curdles into a sort of 
and it, flowing through the bowels and all 
veins like a common sewer, renders the 
of the body unhealthy and base. Wh< 
moderation is to be attained in all things, 
neither may place be given to demons, nor 
soul, being possessed by them, be delii 
along with tiiem to be tormented in 


"There is also another error 
which they suggest to the senses 

> Matt. xxL as. 

of the demfli 
es of men, 4 




«vil in substance. And although it would be 
sufficient to say to him that it is not suitable 
that the creature judge the Creator, but that to 
judge the work of another belongs to him who 
is either of equal skill or equal power ; yet, to 
come directly to the point, we say absolutely 
that {here is no evil in substance. But if this 
be so, then the Creator of substance is vainly 


" But you will meet me by saying, Even if it 
has come to this through freedom of will, was 
the Creator ignorant that those whom He cre- 
ated would fall away into evil? He ought there- 
fore not to have created those who. He foresaw, 
would deviate from the path of righteousness. 
Now we tell those who ask such questions, that 
the purpose of assertions of the sort made by us 
is to show why the wickedness of those who as 
yet were not, did not prevail over the goodness 
of the Creator.' For if, wishing to fiU up the 
number and measure of His creation. He had 
been afraid of the wickedness of those who were 
to be, and like one who could find no other way 
of remedy and cure, except only this, that He 
should refrain from His purpose of creating, lest 
the wickedness of those who were to be should 
be ascribed to Him ; what else would this show 
but unworthy suffering and unseemly feebleness 
on the part of the Creator, who should so fear 
the actings of those who as yet were not, that 
He refrained from His purposed creation? 



"But, setting aside these things, let us con- 
sider this earnestly, that God the Creator of the 
universe, foreseeing the future differences of His 
creation, foresaw and provided diverse ranks and 
different offices to each of His creatures, accord- 
ing to the peculiar movements which were pro- 
duced from freedom of will ; so that while all 
men are of one substance in respect of the 
method of creation, there should yet be diversity 
in ranks and offices, according to the peculiar 
movements of minds, to be produced from liberty 
of will. Therefore He foresaw that there would 
be faults in His creatures ; and the method of 
His justice demanded that punishment should 
follow faults, for the sake of amendment. It 
behoved, therefore, that there should be minis- 
ters of punishment, and yet that freedom of will 
should draw them into that order. Moreover, 
those also must have enemies to conquer, who 

' There is considerable variety of reading in this sentence, and 
the precise meaning is somewhat obscure, ilie general sense, how- 
ever, is sufficiently evident, that if God ImkI refrained from creating 
those who, He foresaw, would fall into evil, this would have been to 
subject His goodness to their evil. 

had undertaken the contests for the he 
rewards. Thus, therefore, neither are those 
destitute of utility which are thought to I: 
since the conquered unwillingly acquire < 
rewards for those by whom they are conq 
But let this suffice on these points, for in p 
of time even more secret things shall b 


" Now therefore, since you do not yet 
stand how great darkness of ignorance sun 
you, meantime I wish to explain to you v 
the worship of idols began in this world, 
by idols, I mean those Uifeless images whi* 
worship, whether made of wood, or earthe 
or stone, or brass, or any other metals : o: 
the beginning was in this wise. Certain ; 
having left the course of their proper 
began to favour the vices of men,* and ii 
measure to lend unworthy aid to their i 
order that by these means they might i 
their own pleasures the more; and thei 
they might not seem to be inclined of the 
accord to unworthy services, taught me 
demons could, by certain arts — that is, by 
cal invocations — be made to obey men 
so, as from a furnace and workshop of i» 
ness, they filled the whole world with the 
of impiety, the light of piety being withdi 


" For these and some other causes, a 
was brought upon the world,' as we hav 
already, and shall say again ; and all wh 
upon the earth were destroyed, except the 
of Noah, who survived, with his three soi 
their wives. One of these, by name Ha 
happily discovered the magical act, and 1 
down the instruction of it to one of hij 
who was called Mesraim, from whom the i 
the Egyptians and Babylonians and Persia 
descended. Him the nations who then < 
called Zoroaster,3 admiring him as the fi: 
thor of the magic art ; under whose nan 
many books on this subject exist. He the 
being much and frequentiy intent upon th( 
and wishing to be esteemed a god among 
began to draw forth, as it were, certain 
from the stars, and to show them to men, 
der that the rude and ignorant might be 
ished, as with a miracle ; and desiring to ii 
this estimation of him, he attempted these 
again and again, until he was set on fl 
consumed by the demon himself, whom 
costed with too great importunity. 

« rComp. Homily VIII. 13. — R.l 
3 [With chaps. 27-31 compare Hoauly IX. 3-7, T 
blances are quite dose. See auso book i. y>, 31. — R.] 



[Book I?. 

to set others free from sufTerings and sicknesses. 
For the demons themselves know and acknowl- 
edge those who have given themselves up to 
God, and sometimes they are driven out by the 
mere presence of such, as you saw a little while 
ago, how, when we had only addressed to you 
the word of salutation, straightway the demons, 
on account of their respect for our religion, be- 
gan to cry out, and could not bear our presence 
even for a little. 


" Is it, then, that we are of another and a su- 
perior nature, and that therefore the demons are 
afraid of us ? Nay, we are of one and the same 
nature with you, but we differ in religion. But 
if you will also be like us, we do not grudge it, 
but rather we exhort you, and wish you to be as- 
sured, that when the same faith and religion and 
innocence of life shall be in you that is in us, 
you will have equal and the same power and vir- 
tue against demons, through God rewarding your 
faith. For as he who has soldiers under him, 
although he may be inferior, and they superior 
to him in strength, yet *says to this one, Go, 
and he goethj and to another. Come, and he 
Cometh ; and to another. Do this, and he doeth 
it ; ' ' and this he is able to do, not by his own 
power, but by the fear of Caesar ; so every faith- 
ful one commands the demons, although they 
seem to be much stronger than men, and that 
not by means of his own power, but by means of 
the power of God, who has put them in subjec- 
tion. For even that which we have just spoken 
of, that Caesar is held in awe by all soldiers, 
and in every camp, and in his whole kingdom, 
though he is but one man, and p>erhaps feeble in 
respect of bodily strength, this is not effected 
but by the power of God, who inspires all with 
fear, that they may be subject to one. 


"This we would have you know assuredly, 
that a demon has no power against a man, 
unless one voluntarily submit himself to his de- 
sires.' Whence even that one who is the prince 
of wickedness, approached Him who, as we have 
said, is appointed of God King of peace, tempt- 
ing Him, and began to promise Him all the 
glory of the world ; because he knew that when 
he had offered this to others, for the sake of 
deceiving them, they had worshipped him. 
Therefore, impious as he was, and unmindful of 
himself, which indeed is the special peculiarity 
of wickedness, he presumed that he should be 

' Matt. viii. 9. [Luke yii. 8. — R.] 

' [The close of this discourse, chaps. 34-37, resembles that of 
the fust at Tripolis, in Homily VIII. 31, 24. As already indicated, 
much of Homily IX. finds a parallel in this book. — R.] 

worshipped by Him by whom he knew that he 
was to be destroyed. Therefore our Lord, con- 
firming the worship of one God, answered him: 
' It is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord dij. 
God, and Him only shalt thou serve.'' And h^ 
terrified by this answer, and fearing lest the tine 
religion of the one and true God should be re- 
stored, hastened straightway to send fordi inio 
this world false prophets, and false apostles, and 
false teachers, who should speak indeed in the 
name of Christ, but should accomplish the wiB 
of the demon. 


'' Wherefore observe the greatest caution, thii 
you believe no teacher, unless he bring isam 
Jerusalem the testimonial of James the 
brother, or of whosoever may come after 
For no one, imless he has gone up thither, 
there has been approved as a fit and fai 
teacher for preaching the word of Christ,-* 
unless, I say, he brings a testimonial thence, ii 
by any means to be received. But let neither 
prophet nor apostle be looked for by you at thir 
time, besides us. For there is one true Prophet 
whose words we twelve apostles preach ; for He 
is the accepted year of God, having us apostte 
as His twelve months. But for what reason 
world itself was made, or what diversities 
occurred in it, and why our Lord, coming fior 
restoration, has chosen and sent us twelve 
ties, shall be explained more at length at 
time. Meantime He has commanded us to 
forth to preach, and to invite you to the 
of the heavenly King, which the Father 
prepared for the marriage of His Son, and 
we should give you wedding garments, thit 
the grace of baptism ; 5 which whosoever obi 
as a spodess robe with which he is to 
the supper of the King, ought to beware 
be not in any part of it stained with sin, a 
he be rejected as unworthy and reprobate. 


" But the ways in which this garment mayl 
spotted are these : If any one withdraw 
God the Father and Creator of all, 
another teacher besides Christ, who adone is 
faithful and true Prophet, and who has sen 
twelve apostles to preach the word ; if any 
think otherwise than worthily of the substance i 
the Godhead, which excels all things; — 
are the things which even fatally pollute the 
ment of baptism. But the things which 
in actions are these : murders, adulteries, hati 
avarice, evil ambition. And the things Vi 

> Matt. iv. xo. [Luke ir. 8. — R.] 
4 [This is peculiar in this 00a 
gestion of anti*Pauline spirit in its 
^ [Matt. xxiL 3-14. J 


Time fa^ at 
. — R.] 



which is false. This b as if a drunk man should to suffer punishment, because he has spent k 

think himself to be sober, and should act indeed the sport of errors that portion of life wtuch ws 

in all respects as a drunk man, and yet think giren him to be spent in living well. Bat be 

himself to be sober, and should wish to be called who, hearing those things, willingly recei»» 

so by others. Thus, therefore, are those also who them, and is thankful that the teaching of gool 

do not know what is true, yet hold some appear- things has been brought to him, inquires moiK. 

ance of knowledge, and do many evil things as eagerly, and does not cease to learn, until 1b' 

if they were good, and hasten destruction as if ascertains whether there be truly another wali^: 

it were to salvation. in which rewards are prepared for the gootL 
And when he is assured of this, he gives thmW 

CHAP. V. — ADVANTAGES OF KNOWLEDGE. to God because He has shown him the light m 

« Wherefore we must, above all things, hasten t™* ' *"f foj the future directs his actions in M 

to the knowledge of the tnith, that, as with a goo<l ""j"^^' ^^ which he is a^ured that thmM 

light kindled thereat, we may be able to dispel ^ «'™^"i prepared in the world to come ; wU^ 

the darkness of errors: for ignorance, as we ^^ constantly wonders and is astonished it 

have said, is a great evil ; but bicause it has no ^^e errors of other men, and that no one sees tte 

substance, it is easily dispelled by those who are truth which is placed before his eyes. Vetto 

in earnest. For ignorance is nothing else than himself, rejoicing in the nches of wisdom whd 

not knowing what is good for us ; onci know this, ^e hath found, desires insatiably to enjoy tbM 

and ignorance perishes. Tlierefore the knowl- and is delighted with the practice of good wwta 

edge of truth ought to be eagerly sought after; hastening to attain, j«th a clean heart and ipB 

and no one cin confer it except the true conscience, the world to come, when he shiD W 

Prophet. For this is the gate of life to those ^t^'* ^«" t° «=<= ^^^- **^ "^8 °f ^ 
who will enter, and the road of good works to 

those going to the city of salvation. chap, vm.— desires of the fi-esh to n 


CHAP. VI. — FREE-WILL. " But the sole cause of our wanting and teii 
"Whether any one, truly hearii^ the word of deprived of all these things is ignorance. T^ 
of the true Prophet, is willing or unwilling to while men do not know how much good lb 
receive it, and to embrace His burden, that is, is in knowledge, they do not suffer the evQ' 
the precepts of life, he has either in his power, ignorance to be removed from them ; for n 
for we are free in will.' For if it were so, that know not how great a difference is involved 
those who hear had it not in their power to do the change of one of these things for the od> 
otherwise than they had heard, there were some VVherefore I counsel every learner willing^ 
power of nature in virtue of which it were not 'end his ear to the word of God, and to nol 
free to him to pass over to another opinion. Or with love of the truth what we say, that 
mind, receiving the best seed, may bring ft 

. JSSSi,™",S'S.T^S'„"£'S(ti--Si"°°^ '°''°' '"'"' '°i «^ ■'"*• ■'" "• "^^J 

• [HaaacuB tiKductrint CFf fiw.inii ii pnocd, ihe /^si-iiVri teach the things wMch pertain to 

rSiS; " ?Sf °^- ""' "" " •'—•"^ ■—" one to receive them, and strive, to i<d| 



[Book V 

— 7 

according to what Himself said, that every one 
is made die servant of him to whom he yields 


"Wherefore awake, and take to yourselves 
our Lord and God, even that Lord who is Lord 
both of heaven and earth, and conform your- 
selves to His image and likeness, as the true 
Prophet Himself teaches, saying, ' Be ye merci- 
ful, as also your heavenly Father is merciful, who 
makes His sun to rise upon the good and the 
evil, and rains upon the just and the unjust.' ' 
Imitate Him, therefore, and fear Him, as the 
commandment is given to men, * Thou shalt wor- 
ship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou 
serve.* ^ For it is profitable to you to serve this 
Lord alone, that through Him knowing the one 
God, ye may be fi-eed from the many whom ye 
vainly feared. For he who fears not God the 
Creator of all, but fears those whom he himself 
with his own hands hath made, what does he do 
but make himself subject to a vain and senseless 
fear, and render himself more vile and abject 
than those very things, the fear of which he has 
conceived in his mind? But rather, by the 
goodness of Him who inviteth you, return to 
your former nobleness, and by good deeds show 
that you bear the image of your Creator, that by 
contemplation of His likeness ye may be be- 
lieved to be even His sons. 


" Begin,^ therefore, to cast out of your minds 
the vain ideas of idols, and your useless and 
empty fears, that at the same time you may also 
escape the condition of unrighteous bondage. 
For those have become your lords, who coudd 
not even have been profitable servants to you. 
For how should lifeless images seem fit even to 
serve you, when they can neither hear, nor see, 
nor feel anything? Yea, even the material of 
which they are made, whether it be gold or silver, 
or even brass or wood, though it might have 
profited you for necessary uses, you have ren- 
dered wholly inefficient and useless by fashion- 
ing gods out of it. We therefore declare to you 
the true worship of God, and at the same time 
warn and exhort the worshippers, that by good 
deeds they imitate Him whom they worship, and 
hasten to return to His image and likeness, as 
we said before. 


" But I should like if those who worship idols 
would tell me if they wish to become like to 

' John viii. 34. 

* Luke vi. 36: Matt. ▼. 45. 

3 Deut. vi. 1^: Matt. iv. 10. 

4 [The paraUel with Homily X. recun at diis dapter, and con- 
tinues for several chapters. — R.] 

those whom they worship ? Does any one of yon 
wish to see in such sort as they see? or to hear 
after the manner of their hearing? or to have 
such understanding as they have ? Far be this 
fix>m any of my hearers ! For this were lather 
to be thought a curse and a reproach to a maiip 
who bears in himself the image of God, althoudi 
he has lost the hkeness. What sort of goS, 
then, are they to be reckoned, the imitation of 
whom would be execrable to their worshippei% 
and to have whose likeness would be a reprcMch? 
What then ? Melt your useless images, and make 
useful vessels. Melt the unserviceable and ioac- 
tive metal, and make implements fit for the use 
of men. But, says one, human laws do not aUov 
us.s He says well; for it is human laws, and 
not their own power, that prevents it. What 
kind of gods, then, are those which are defeDded 
by human laws, and not by their own energies} 
And so also they are preserved from thieves hf 
watch-dogs and the protection of bolts, at kail 
if they be of silver, or gold, or even of brass; ftif^ 
those that are of stone and earthenware are pa>f: 
tected by their own worthlessness, for no aui 
will steal a stone or a crockery god. Heno^ 
those seem to be the more miserable whoatil 
more precious metal exposes them to the greateil 
danger. Since, then, they can be stolen, sinoi 
they must be guarded by men, since they can ta| 
melted, and weighed out, and forged with han^ 
mers, ought men possessed of understanding m 
hold them as gods ? 1 






" Oh ! into what wretched plight the undoN 
standing of men has fallen ! For if it is reckonei 
the greatest folly to fear the dead, what shall «e 
judge of those who fear something that is woise 
than the dead are ? For those images are not 
even to be reckoned among the number of the^ 
dead, because they were never alive. Even 
sepulchres of the dead are preferable to 
since, although they are now dead, yet theyoi 
had Ufe ; but those whom you worship 
possessed even such base life as is in all, the 
of frogs and owls. But why say more 
them, since it is enough to say to him who 
them : Do you not see that he whom you 
sees not, hear that he whom you adore 
not, 'and understand that he understands 
— for he is the work of man's hand, and 
sarily is void of understanding. You 
worship a god without sense, whereas every 
who has sense believes that not even those 
are to be worshipped which have been made 
God and have sense,^ such as the sun, moon, 

s [This, with the more specific statement of Homiljr X. 8, t- 
to an cariy date. — R.] ^ J 

6 It was a very prevalent opinion amons the ancient philotafhfl 
that the heavenly bodies have some kind oflife and iatdttcaaoBi 1 



It tbe ffk of rain from God Almigh^, ■ 


who sin, that they may exact fixtm them the by the issue of things, and the most certs 

deserts of their sins by means of punishments of blessedness, 
inflicted, and may bring them purified to the 

general judgment of all, provided always that chap, xxxvl — conclusion of disoou: 

tiieir faith do not faU them in their chastisement. „ ^^^ therefore, although the serpen 

For the chastisement of unbehevere m Ae pres- j^^^ ^^^ i^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ , 

«nt hfe IS a judgment, by which they begm to ^^ ^^s of corruption, and throws in yo 

be separated from future blessings j but the ^ thousand obstacles, by which he may tu: 

chastisement of those who worship God, while ^^^ ^j^^ hearing of saving instruct 

It IS mflicted upon them for sins into which tiiey ^^^ '^^^ ^^^ t* ^j^t ^^ ^^j ^^ 

have fallen exacts from tiiem the due of what ^^ suggestions, to come together the mo 

they have done, that, preventing the judgment ^tJ^to hear the word and receive inst. 

they may paythe debt of their sin m the present ^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^ ,,^ ^ ^ 

bfe, and be freed, at least m half, from the eter- ^ ^^^ taught" ' 

nal punishments which are there prepared. ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^j ^^^^ speaking, he o 

those to be brought to him who were opi 

CHAP. XXXV. -JUDGMENT TO COME. ^y sicknesses or demons, and laid his 

^ But he does not receive these things as true upon them with prayer ; and so he dis 

who does not believe that there is to be a judg- the crowds, charging them to resort to the 

ment of God, and therefore, being bound by ing of the word during the days that he 

the pleasures of the present life, is shut out from remain there. Therefore, when the crow 

eternal good things ; and therefore we do not departed, Peter washed his body in the 

neglect to proclaim to you what we know to be which ran through the garden, with as m 

necessary for your salvation, and to show you the others as chose to do so ; and then o 

what is the true worship of God, that, beUeving the couches to be spread on the ground 

in God, you may be able, by means of good a very shady tree, and directed us to recli 

works, to be heirs with us of the world to come, cording to the order established at Ca 

But if you are not yet convinced that what we And thus, having taken food and given th^ 

say is true, meantime, in the first instance, you God after the manner of the Hebrews, as 

ought not to take it amiss and to be hostile to us was yet some portion of the day reroaini 

because we announce to you the things which ordered us to question him on any mattei 

we consider to be good, and because we do not we pleased. And although we were wit 

grudge to bestow also upon you that which we twenty in all, he explained to every one 

believe brings salvation to ourselves, labouring, ever he pleased to ask of him ; the part 

as I have said, with all eagerness, that we may of which I set down in books and sent 

have you as fellow-heirs of the blessings which some time ago. And when evening ca 

we believe are to befall ourselves. But whether entered with him into the lodging, and yf 

those things which we declare to you are cer- sleep, each one in his own place. 

tainly true, you shall not be able to know other- 

wise than by rendering obedience to the things « [The uiter half of thudiscounc, as already 

!• 1 '' jj^t.^ u^lj. onchap. 33), fmdsa paralld in Homfly XL 4-z8, v^uch 1 

which are commanded, that you maybe taught fixsthaOf of thatdiscoune.— r.] 


CHAP. I. — BOOK VL DiUGENCE IN STUDY. shorter; if, therefore, One desircs to occup] 

portion of the night in study, he must no 
But as soon as day began to advance the the same hours ' for waking at all seasoi 
dawn upon the retiring darkness, Peter having should spend the same length of time in 
gone into the garden to pray, and returning ! ing, whether the night be longer or shorU 
thence and coming to us, by way of excuse for . be exceedingly careful that he do not c 
Mnking and coming to us a little later than i torn the period which he is wont to hi 
ml this : * ** Now that the spring-time study, and so add to his sleep and less 
die day, of course the night is time of keeping awake. And this also h 

^tkhAmhaopftnOldiD the^pwi^ * It will he icmenbeied that die AMnrv were variabk 

' and began to be nrclroncd fiooi i 




that even my mind, from what it has conceived and I answered him : *' How have I so sinne 
through your instruction, shall be unable to re- against you, that you should distress me wit 
ceive aught else into its thoughts. Besides, I such a proposal ? " Then Peter: "If it is cr 
remember your saying at Caesarea, ' If any one that I said I should serve you, you were first i 
wishes to accompany me, without violating duti- fault in saying the same thing to me." The 
fulness, let him accompany me/ And by this said I : ** The cases are not alike : for it be 
you meant that he should not make any one sad, comes me to do this to you ; but it is grievon 
to whom he ought according to God's appoint- that you, who are sent as the herald of the Mas 
ment to cleave ; for example, that he should High God to save the souls of men, should sa; 
not leave a faithful wife, or parents, or the like, it to me." Then said Peter : " I should agre 
Now from these I am entirely free, and so I am with you, were it not that our Lord, who cam 
fit for following you ; and I wish you would for the salvation of the whole world, and iriii 
grant me that I might perform to you the ser- was nobler than any creature, submitted to bej 
vice of a servant." servant, that He might persuade us not to b 

ashamed to perform the ministry of servants l| 
CHAP. VI. — PETER'S siMPUOTy OF UFE. our brethren." Then said I : "It were fooM 

Then Peter, laughing, said : "And do you not J^^. •°eveXS'nve'^^iirto''El;3 

think, Clement that ve^^ necessity must make &7S S^^uSTlSTSeritc^to^E! 
you my servant? For who else can spread my .^ of Barents " 

sheets, and arrange my beautiful coverlets? ^^^ ^^^^ o« parents. 
Who will be at hand to keep my rings, and pre- 
pare my robes, which I must be constantly chap. vra. — Clement's family hbioby. 

changing? Who shaU superintend my cooks, jhen said Peter : « Is there then no one 
and provide various arid choice meats to be pre- f^Q surviving? " I answered : "11 

pared by most recondite and various art ; and ^^ ^^^^^^^ powerful men, coming of 

all those things which are procured at enormous gt^^^ ^f Casar; for Cssar himself gave a 
expense, and are brought together for men of ^^ ^t^ as being his relative, and edm 
delicate up-bnngmg, yea rather, for their appe- ^long with him, and of a suitably noble &. 
bte, as for some enormous beast? But perhaps, g ^er my father had twin sons, bom before 
although you live with me, you do not know my ^qj u^e one another, as my father told . 
manner of hfe. I live on bread alone, with ^^ j ^^^ ^^ ^^em. But indeed I have 
ohves, and seldom even with pot-herbs; and a distinct recollection even of my mother; _ 
my dress is what you see, a tunic with a paUium : j cherish the remembrance of her face, as if | 
and having these, I require nothmg more. This ^ad seen it in a dream. My mother's name M 
IS sufficient for me, because my mind does not Matthidia, my father's Faustinianus ; my bro* 
regard things present, but things eternal and ^^.^ Paustinus and Faustus.- Now, when 1 1 
therefore no present and visible Uiing dehghte barely five years old, my mother saw a visioo 
me. Whence I embrace and admire indeed so I learned from my father — by which she- 
your good mmd towards me ; and I commend ,,,amed that, unless she speedily left the dxji 
you the more, because, though you have been ^er twin sons, and was absent for ten yean, 
accustomed to so great abundance, you have ^^ ^er chUdren should perish by a 
been able so soon to abandon it, and to accom- f„^ 
modate yourself to this life of ours, which makes 

use of necessary things alone. For we — that is, ^^j^^ „_ _ disappearance op hb moiher 
I and my brother Andrew — have grown up fi-om , brothers. 

our childhood, not only orphans, but also ex- 
tremely poor, and through necessity have be- "Then my father, who tenderly loved his 
come used to labour, whence now also we easily put them on board a ship with their mother, 
bear the fatigues of our joumeyings. But rather, sent them to Athens to be educated, wid» sfa 
if you would consent and allow it, I, who am a and maid-servants, and a sufficient suppilf 
working man, could more easily discharge the money; retaining me only to be a comfort 
duty of a servant to you." him, and thankful for this, that the vision ^ 

not commanded me also to go with my 1 
CHAP. VII. — PETER'S HUMiLnY. And at the end of a year my father sent 

T, . T ^ I., J 1 » L J 1 • J Athens with money for them, desiring ate! 

But I trembled when I heard this, and my ^^^ ^ow they did ; but those who^eie 

tears immediately gushed forth, because so great _ 

a man, who is worth more than the whole world, , ^comp. HomUy xii. 8, where the i>«iies p^ «,«; 

had addressed such a proposal to me. Then he, Faustus (father) ; Fausunua and FaiutmiamuL £e twin fli 
«,U^«^ U« c««r «r»-a ..r^or^i'.^/* l^^^^l^^A *u^ *^»»^» . *^«*« namcs somc connect theUennan legend of Panit: 

When ne saw me weeping, inquired the reason; ffuicty,u.4^2,—K.] 





[Book VI 

could it in any way happen that, amongst that 
multitude of fragments, there should be found 
even one which should have any perfect figure 
and shape?" The old man answered: "It is 
impossible." " But," said Aquila, " if there be 
present a statuary, he can by his skilful hand 
and reasonable mind form the stone cut from 
the mountain into whatever figure he pleases." 
ITie old man said : " That is true." " There- 
fore," says Aquila, " when there is not a rational 
mind, no figure can be formed out of the mass ; 
but when Aere is a designing mind, there may 
be both form and deformity : for example, if a 
workman cuts from the mountain a block to 
which he wishes to give a form, he must first 
cut it out unformed and rough ; then, by de- 
grees hammering and hewing it by the rule of 
his art, he expresses the form which he has 
conceived in Ws mind. Thus, therefore, fi-om 
informity or deformity, by the hand of the work- 
man form is attained, and both proceed fh)m 
the workman. In like manner, therefore, the 
things which are done in the world are ac- 
complished by the providence of a contriver, 
although they may seem not quite orderly. And 
therefore, because these two ways have been 
made known to you, and you have heard the 
divisions of them, flee from the way of unbelief, 
lest haply it lead you to that prince who delights 
in evils ; but follow the way of faith, that you 
may come to that King who delighteth in good 



To this the old man answered : " But why 
was that prince made who delights in evil?' 
And from what was he made ? Or was he not 
made ? " Aquila said : " The treatment of that 
subject belongs to another time ; but that you 
may not go away altogether without an answer 
to this, I shall give a few hints on this subject 
also. God, foreseeing all things before the cre- 
ation of the world, knowing that the men who 
were to be would some of them indeed incline to 
good, but others to the opposite, assigned those 
who should choose the good to His own govern- 
ment and His own care, and called them His 
peculiar inheritance ; * but He gave over the gov- 
ernment of those who should turn to evil to 
those angels who, not by their substance, but by 
opiHDsition, were unwilling to remain viith God, 
being comipted by the we of envy and pride. 
Those, therefore, he made worthy princes of 
worthy subjects ; yet he so «lelivered them over 
to those angels, that they have not the power 
of doing what they will against them, unless they 
transgress the bounds assigned to them from the 

I [Od the creation oT the evil ooe, see book z. 3, etc, and the 
diicuMian with Simon in Hoaiibr XIX. »-i8. -> R.1 
• -T^— sniLt»iBLXX. 

beginning. And this is the bound assigned, th 
unless one first do the will of the demcHis, d 
demons have no power over him." 


Then the old man said : '' You have stated 
excellently, my son. It now remains only tfai 
you tell me whence is the substance of evil : ft 
if it was made by God, the evil fruit shows tfai 
the root is in fault ; for it appears that it also i 
of an evil nature. But if this substance iqj 
co-eternal with God, how can that which li 
equally unproduced and co-eternal be subject ij 
the other? " " It was not always," said Ac 
*' but neither does it necessarily follow, if it 
made by God, that its Creator should be 
to be such as is that which has been made 
Him. For indeed God made the substance 
all things; but if a reasonable mind, which i 
been made by God, do not acquiesce in the 
of its Creator, and go beyond the botmds of 
temperance prescribed to it, how does diis 
fleet on the Creator? Or if there is any 
higher than this, we do not know it; for 
cannot know anything perfectly, and es] 
concerning those things for our ignorance 
which we are not to be judged. But 
things for which we are to be judged are 
easy to be understood, and are despatched 
most in a word. For almost the whole tuk i 
our actions is summed up in this, that iriiat< 
are unwilling to suffer we should not do 
others. For as you would not be killed, 
must beware of killing another; and as 
would not have your own marriage yi< 
you must not defile another's bed; you 
not be stolen fix>m, neither must you steal ; 
every matter of men's actions is comprei 
within this rule." 


Then the old man : *' Do not take Bsxm, 
son, what I am going to say. Thou^ 
words are powerful, yet they cannot lead 
believe that anything can be done apart 
GENESIS. For I know that all things have 
pened to me by the necessity of genesis,' 
therefore I cannot be persuaded that either 
do well or to do ill is in our power; and 
we have not our actions in our power, it 
be believed that there is a jdugment to 
by which either punishments may be io: 
on the evil, or rewards bestowed on the 
In short, since I see that you are initiated in 
sort of learning, I shall lay before yoa t 
things from the art itself." " If," says 
" you wish to add anything fix>m that science, 

s [ConpL Homilj XIV. 3. cte. — R^ 


CHAP. I. — AM oPLAlfATIOH. memoTy the words which you spoke lAcT 

On the following day, Peter, along with us, ■g^™n>twas made, in which you tai^tl 

hastened early to the plkce in which die discus- " '^ mposs'Ue for nun to knm, anydm* 

sion had beei held the day before; and when 'f^ >" ^S™, *°°j''"' T ^"^rJS* 

he saw that great crowds had assatibled there f«'" ^f, ■ ^°» f<>. »« I"™ ">»' } "" 

to hear, and law the old man with them, he said l>n I shall now explain to you I spoke rf^ 

to him:' "Old mui, it was agreed yesterday "" ant^ purpose of God which He h^ M 

that you should confer to-day with Clement; the word was, and by which puipose He^ 

and that you should either show that nothing Jk' -"Id. appomted times, gave thela.,J 

lakes place apart from gtntsis, or that Clemeni »«' » "otld to come to the "ghteoos b 

should prore that there is no such thing as ««- «w«rf>ng of ft™ HP?^ dee^ uid dO 

lii, but that what we do is in our own poJer." Pumhments to the unjust accordmg to.t 

To this the old man answered : " I both te- ™ »*!"""• ' >"<1 *" ">■■ ^""fl "" 

member what was agreed upon, and I keep in "" »' <=<«' ™"« 5° 'T^ ?"JJ?,??U 

If L f cause no man can gather the mmd of GodI 

' [The diw»iin> b.»k ii. an pccuiiu to iix Xrnniiiciu conjectures and opinion, unless a pitipbd 

S.WSSL.rg"'^"'-'""'""-""'''^"- by Him declare it. I did not IhieforM 



account it is necessary that one work, and an- ' '"''^' **^* ^y striving with them the palm of ii 
other pay him for his work ; that one be servant. ] ^9^ *"'* "'^ ">«"* °^ rewards may accw 
ami another be master ; that one be subject, "** righteous, 
another be king. But this inequality, which is a 
necessary- provision for the life of men, divine 
providence has turned into an occasion of jus- 
tice, mercy, and humanity : that while these 
thin^ are transacted between man and man, 
every one may have an opportunit)- of acting 
justly with him to whom he has to pay wages 
for his work ; and of acting mercifully to him 
iibo, perhaps through sickness or poverty, can- 


" From this, therefore, it somedmcs happ 
that if any persons have acted incoiitiiiaitly,i 
have been willing not so much to resist H 

■ ICoimiucHaaulrXI. i6aadiiinwiiniBpt^ — B.] 
> (On ibe dacoiiH of itmgim nwijwt book ir. 1441'. B 




reaching the ears of men that a Prophet had ap- 
peared in Judaea to teach men with signs and 
miracles to worship one God, all were expecting 
with prepared and eager minds, even before the 
coming of my lord Peter, that some one would 
announce to them what He taught who had ap- 
peared. But lest I should seem to carry the 
enumeration too far, I shall tell you what con- 
clusion ought to be drawn from the whole. 
Since God is righteous, and since He Himself 
made the nature of men, how could it be that 
He should place genesis in opposition to us, 
which should compel us to sin, and then that 
He should punish us when we do sin ? Whence 
it is certain that God punishes no sinner either 
in the present life or in that to come, except 
because He knows that he could have conquered, 
but neglected victory. For even in the present 
world He takes vengeance upon men, as He did 
up>on those who perished in the deluge, who were 
all destroyed in one day, yea, in one hour, al- 
though it is certain that they were not all bom 
in one hour according to the order of genesis. 
But it is most absurd to say that it befalls us by 
nature to suffer evils, if sins had not gone before. 


"And therefore, if we desire salvation, we 
ought above all to seek after knowledge, being 
sure that if our mind remain in ignorance, we 
shall endure not only the evils of genesisy but 
also whatever other evils from without the demons 
may please, unless fear of laws and of the judg- 
ment to come resist all our desires, and check 
the violence of sinning. For even human fear 
does much good, and also much evil, unknown 
to GENESIS, as we have shown above. Therefore 
our mind is subject to errors in a threefold man- 
ner : from those things which come to us through 
evil custom ; or from those lusts which the body 
naturally stirs up in us ; or from those which 
hostile p>owers compel us to. But the mind has 
it in its own nature to oppose and fight against 
these, when the knowledge of truth shines upon 
it, by which knowledge is imparted fear of the 
judgment to come, which is a fit governor of 
the mind, and which can recall it from the preci- 
pices of lusts. That these things, therefore, are 
in our power, has been sufhciently stated. 


" Now, old man. if you have any thing to say 
in answer to these things, say on." Then said 
the old man : • ** Vou have most fully argued, 
my son ; but I, as I said at first, am prevented 
by my own consciousness from according assent 
to aU this incomparable statement of yours. For 

3»-3f a putul puaUd is ftnind in Homily XIV. 
~ a qoili diBittat, aad tbe dcuilt wy.— R.J 

I know both my own genesis and that of my wifi 
and I know that those things have hj^ijpene 
which our genesis prescribed to each of ns ; an 
I cannot now be withdrawn by words fix>m thos 
things which I have ascertained by facts ao' 
deeds. In short, since I perceive that you ar 
excellently skilled in this sort of learning, hea 
the horoscope of my wife, and yon shall find th 
configuration whose issue has occurred. For sb 
had Mars with Venus above the centre, and th 
Moon setting in the houses of Mars and the con 
fines of Saturn. Now this configuration lead 
women to be adulteresses, and to love their owi 
slaves, and to end their days in foreign trave 
and in waters. And this has so come to pass 
For she fell in love with her slave, and fearing al 
once danger and reproach, she fled with hiii^ 
and going abroad, where she satisfied her bfc; 
she perished in the sea." 

CHAP. xxxm. — AN approaching recogniive 


Then I answered : '' How know you that ihe 
cohabited with her slave abroad, and died in hi 
society? " Then the old man said : ** I knowl 
with perfect certainty ; not indeed that she «fl 
married to the slave, as indeed I had not eici 
discovered that she loved him. Bat after Ao 
was gone, my brother gave me the whole stoqn 
telling me that first she had loved himself; bal 
he, being honourable as a brother, woukl nol 
pollute his brother's bed with the stain oimttA 
But she, being both afraid of roe, and unable Ml 
bear the unhappy reproaches (and yet she shodi 
not be blamed for that to which her genesis ooo^ 
pelled her), pretended a dream, and said to me: 
' Some one stood by me in a vision, who ordeied 
me to leave the city without delay with mjtM 
twins.' When I heard this, being anxioas for 
her safety and that of my sons, I imm< 
sent away her and the children, retaining 
myself one who was younger. For this s^ 
that he had permitted who had given her 
in her sleep." 


Then I Clement, understanding that be 
chance was my fiither, was drowned in 
and my brothers also were ready to rush ~ 
and to disclose the matter; but Peter 
them, saying : " Be quiet, until I give yoa 
mission." Therefore Peter, answering, said 
the old man: "Uliat was the name of 
younger son?" And he said: ' 
llien Peter : '' If I shall this day restore to 
your most chaste wife and your three sooSi 
vou believe that a modest mind can 
imreasonable impulses, and that all things 
have been spoken by us are true, and that 
, SIS is nothing? " Tlien said die old mia: '^ 



knowing that their error does not proceed from day and the hour whose signs even He fore 

their unskilfidness in their art, but from the in- and referred the whole to the Father, how 

consistency of the whole system. For they do we account it disgraceful to confess that wc 

not know what those things are which we indeed ignorant of some things, since in this we 

desire to do, but in regard to which we do not the example of our Master? But this onl 

indulge our desires. But we who have learned profess, that we know those things whid 

the reason of this mystery know the cause, since, have learned from the true Prophet ; and 

having freedom of will, we sometimes oppose those things have been delivered to us bj 

our desires, and sometimes yield to them.' And true Prophet, which He judged to be soffi 

therefore the issue of human doings is uncertain, for human knowledge." 
because it depends upon freedom of will. For 

a mathematician can indeed indicate the desire chap. xv. — CLEBiENT's discourse. 

which a malignant power produc^ ; but whether ^h^^ j q^^^^^ ,^^ ^^ ^ s^ ^^ . 

^^fJ'^A''^ ''\^'' '"^""^ ""^ ^"^ ^^ '^ ^ Tripolis, when you were disputi^against 

fulfilled or not, no one can know before the ac- ^^ 1^^ p^^^ I gJeal^wc^deie 

compl^hnient of the thmg because it depends ^^ ^j^^ h you were insticted by 

upon freedom of wiU. And this is why ignonint ^^^j^^^ according to the fashion of the Heh 

astrologers have mvented to themselves thetelk ^^ ^ obsenraiices of your own law, and 

about chmactencs as their refuge m uncertam- ^^^^ Uuted by the stidies of Greek lean 

ties, as we showed fully yesterday. ^^^ ^^^ ^ Magnificently and so incomi 

bly: and that you even touched upon t 

CHAP, xm.— PEOPLE ADMriTED. ^y^^^^ couceming the histories of t£c j 

'' If you have anything that you wish to say to which are usually declaimed in the thea 
this, say on." Then my father : " Nothing can But as I perceived that their fables and I 
be more true, my son, than what you have stated.'' phemies are not so well known to you, I \ 
And while we were thus speaking among our- discourse upon these in your hearing, repei 
selves, some one informed us that a great multi- them from the very beginning, if it please f 
tude of people were standing outside, having Then says Peter: "Say on; you do wdl 
assembled for the purpose of hearing. Then assist my preaching." Then said I: **li 
Peter ordered them to be admitted, for the place speak, therefore, because you order me, nol 
was large and convenient And when they had way of teaching you, but of making puUic i 
come in, Peter said to us : " If any one of you foolish opinions the Gentiles entertain of 
wishes, let him address the people, and discourse gods." 
concerning idolatry." To whom I Clement an- 
swered : "Your great benignity and gentleness chap. xvi. — "would that all god's pW 
and patience towards all encourages us, so that were prophets." 
we dare speak in your presence, and ask what g^^ ^^^^ j ^^3 ^^^^ ^ g ^ Niccta,bi 
we please ; and therefore, as I said, the gentle- ^ jj beckoned to me to be silent Andii 
ness of your disposition mvites and encourages peter saw him, he said : "Why would yoa 
all to undertake the precepts of savmg doctrine. ^^ ^^^^ disposition and noble Mti 
This I never saw before m any orie else, but m ^^ ^^^d have him be sUent for my h 
you only, with whom Uiere is rieither envy nor ^j^^^ is nothing? Or do you not to 
mdignation. Or what do you thmk? ^^at if all nationsTsSter they have heard ft 

me the preaching of the truth, and haie 

CHAP. XIV. -NO MAN HAS UNIVERSAL KNOWL- li^^^d, would betake thcmsclves to teadj 

^^^^^* they would gain the greater glory fox wt 

Then Peter said: "These things come not indeed you think me desirous of gloiy? 1 

only from envy or indignation ; but sometimes what so glorious as to prepare disdpki . 

there is a bashfiilness in some persons, lest haply Christ, not who shall be silent, and shafl 

they may not be able to answer fully the ques- saved alone, but who shall speak what thef l| 

tions that may be proposed, and so they avoid learned, and shall do good to others? 1 1 

the discovery of their want of skill. But no one indeed that both you, Niceta, and you, ben 

oiq^t to be ashamed of this, because there is Aquila, would aid me in preaching the M^ 

^%An w^ftt% onicht to profess that he knows all God, and the rather because those tbiq 

^ only One who knows all which the Gentiles err are well known to 

made all things. For and not you only, but all who hear me, I 

** knew not the as I have said, so to hear and to lean, ftit 

~ may be able also to teach : for Uie woM\ 

°^ many helpers, by whom men may be 




that Ftometheus informed him that, if he lay 
with her, he who should be bom of her should 
be more powerful than his father ; and for fear 
of this, he gave her in marriage to one Peleus. 
Subsequently he had intercourse with Perseph- 
one, who was his own daughter by Ceres ; and 
by her he begot Dionysius,' who was torn in 
pieces by the Titans. But calling to mind, it is 
said, that perhaps his own father Saturn might 
beget another son, who might be more powedful 
than himself, and might expel him from the 
kingdom, he went to war with his father, along 
with his brothers the Titans ; and having beaten 
them, he at last threw his father into prison, and 
cut off his genitals, and threw them into the sea. 
But the blood which flowed from the wound, 
being mixed with the waves, and turned into 
foam by the constant churning, produced her 
whom they call Aphrodite, and whom with us 
they call Venus. From his intercourse with her 
who was thus his own sister, they say that this 
same Jupiter begot Cypris, who, they say, was 
the mother of Cupid. « 


'' Thus much of his incests ; I shall now speak 
of his adulteries. He defiled Europa, the wife 
of Oceanus, of whom was bom Dodonaeus; 
Helen, the wife of Pandion, of whom Musaeus ; 
Eurynome, the wife of Asopus, of whom Ogygias ; 
Hermione, the wife of Oceanus, of whom the 
Graces, Thalia, Euphrosyne, Aglaia ; Themis, his 
own sister, of whom the Hours, Eurynomia, Dice, 
Irene; Themisto, the daughter of Inachus, of 
whom Areas ; Idaea, the daughter of Minos, of 
whom Asterion ; Phoenissa, the daughter of Al- 
phion, of whom Endymion ; lo, the daughter of 
Inachus, of whom Epaphus ; Hippodamia and 
Isione, daughters of Danaus, of whom Hipp>o- 
damia was the wife of Olenus, and Isione of 
Orchomenus or Chryses ; Carme, the daughter 
of Phoenix, of whom was bom Britomartis, who 
was an attendant of Diana ; Callisto, the daugh- 
ter of Lycaon, of whom Orcas; Lybee, the 
daughter of Munantius, of whom Belus ; Latona, 
of whom Apollo and Diana ; Leandia, the daugh- 
ter of Eurymedon, of whom Coron ; Lysithea, 
the daughter of Evenus, of whom Helenus ; 
Hippodamia, the daughter of Bellerophon, of 
whom Sarpedon ; Megaclite, the daughter of 
Macarius, of whom Thebe and Locms ; Niobe, 
the daughter of Phoroneus, of whom Argus and 
Pelasgus ; Olympias, the daughter of Neoptole- 
mus, of whom Alexander ; I^ha, the daughter 
of Prometheus, of whom Helmetheus ; Protogenia 
and Pandora, daughters of Deucalion, of whom 
he besot ^thdius, and Dorus, and Melera, and 

*~~* ***4 KdMeauently in the text for Diony- 
''^-"^■•Mui Bacchus. Some of the 

P^dorus ; Thaicraciay the daughter of Pkoteu 
of whom was bom Nympheus; Salamia^ ti 
daughter of Asopus, of whom Saracen ; Tayget 
Electra, Maia, Plutide, daughters of Atlas, < 
whom respectively he begot Lacedasmon, Da 
danus. Mercury, and Tantalus ; Phthia, the daagl 
ter of Phoroneus, of whom he begot Achaeui 
Chonia, the daughter of Aramnus, of whom 1 
begot Lacon ; Chalcea, a nymph, of whom m 
bom Olympus; Charidia, a nymph, of whoi 
Alcanus ; Chloris, who was the wife of Ampyca 
of whom Mopsus was bom ; Cotonia, the daughti 
of Lesbus, of whom Polymedes; Hippodamii 
the daughter of Anicetus; Chrysagenia, A 
daughter of Peneus, of whom was Ix>m lU 


'' There are also innumerable adulteries oi 
his, of which no of&pring was the result, whid 
it were tedious to enumerate. But axaaof 
those whom we have mentioned, he violatBC 
some being transformed, like a magidan. h 
short, he seduced Antiope, the daughter of Njio 
tens, when tumed into a satyr, and of her wm 
bom Amphion and Zethus; Alcmene, iritfi 
changed into her husband Amphitryon, and df 
her was bom Hercules; iSgina, the daug^ 
of Asopus, when changed into an eag^, fli 
whom i^cus was bom. So also he defilei 
Ganymede, the son of Dardanus, being chai^ 
into an eagle ; Manthea, the daughter of Fhsxm^ 
when changed into a bear, of whom was 
Arctos ; Danae, the daughter of Acrisius, 
changed into gold, of whom Perseus ; £1 
the daughter of Phoenix, changed into a buD, 
whom were bom Minos, Rhadamanthus, 
Sarpedon ; Eurymedusa, the daughter of 
laus, being changed into an ant, of whom 
midon ; Thalia, the nymph, being changed ii 
a vulture, of whom were bom the Padisd, 
Sicily ; Imandra, the daughter of Geneanos, 
Rhodes, being changed into a shower; 
opeia, being changed into her husband 
and of her was bom Anchinos; Leda, 
daughter of Thestius, being changed into 
swan, of whom was bom Helen ; and again 
same, being changed into a star, and of her 
bom Castor and Pollux ; Lamia, being 
into a lapwing ; Mnemosyne, being changed ii 
a shepherd, of whom were bom the nine 
Nemesis, being changed into a goose ; the 
mian Semele, being changed into fire, and rfl 
was bom Dionysius. By his own daughter < 
he begot Persephone, whom also herself he 
filed, being changed into a dragon. 


" He also committed adultery with Enir 
the wife of his own uncle Oceanus, and 



of those to whom they are consecrated. But 
were one abstaining torn one thing, and another 
from another, by doing honor to one of the gods, 
they incur the anger of all the rest ; and there- 
fore, if they would conciliate them aU, they must 
abstain from all things for the honout of all, so 
that, being self-condemned by a just sentence 
before the day of judgment, tiiey should perish 
by a most wretched death through starvation. 


**But let us return to our purpose. What 
reason is there, yea, rather, what madness pos- 
sesses the minds of men, that they worship and 
adore as a god, a man whom they not only know 
to be impious, wicked, profane — I mean Jupiter 

— incestuous, a parricide, an adulterer, but even 
proclaim him publicly as such in their songs in 
the theatres? Or if by means of these deeds 
he has deserved to be a god, then also, when 
they hear of any murderers, adulterers, parricides, 
incestuous persons, they ought to worship them 
also as gods. But I cannot understand why they 
venerate in him what they execrate in others." 
Then Peter answered ; ** Since you say that you 
cannot understand it, learn of me why they ven- 
erate wickedness in him. In the first place, it is 
that, when they themselves do like deeds, they 
may know that they shall be acceptable to him, in- 
asmuch as they have but imitated him in his wick- 
edness. In the second place, because the ancients 
have left these things skilfully composed in their 
writings, and elegantly engrafted in their verses. 
And now, by the aid of youthful education, 
since the knowledge of these things adheres to 
their tender and simple minds, it cannot without 
difficulty be torn from them and cast away." 


When Peter had said this, Niceta answered : 
" Do not suppose, my lord Peter, but that the 
learned men of the Gentiles have certain plaus- 
ible arguments^ by which they support those 
things which seem to be blameworthy and dis- 
graceful. And this I state, not as wishing to 
confirm their error (for far be it from me that 
such a thing should ever come into ray thought) ; 
but yet I know that there are amongst the more 
intelligent of them certain defences, by which 
they are accustomed to support and colour over 
those things which seem to be absurd. And if 
it please you that I should state some of them 

— for I am to some extent acquainted with 
them — I shall do as you order me." And when 
Peter had given him leave, Niceta proceeded as 


Hfieeks which is 

is based upon many authorities, but 
two, Orpheus and Hesiod.' Now thei 
are divided into two parts, In respec 
meaning, — that is, the literal and the a) 
and the vulgar crowd has flocked to 1 
but all the eloquence of the philosoj 
learned men is expended in admirati 
allegorical. It is Orpheus, then, who 
at first there was chaos, eternal, unbou 
produced, and that from it all things w 
He says that this chaos was neither 
nor light, neither moist nor dry, neithi 
cold, but that it was all things mixed 
and was always one unformed mass ; } 
length, as it were after the manner of a 
it brought forth and produced fiiom itsel 
double form, which had been wrough 
immense periods of time, and which 
masculo-feminine, a form concrete frx>n 
trary admixture of such diversity ; and 
is the principle of all things, which can 
matter, and which, coming forth, effects 
ration of the four elements, and mac 
of the two elements which are first, 
air, and earth of the others, earik at 
and of these he says that all things nov 
and produced by a mutual participatioi 
So far Orpheus. 


" But to this Hesiod adds, that after 
heaven and the earth were made imi 
from which he says that those eleven 
duced (and sometimes also he speak 
as twelve) of whom he makes six male 
females. And these are the names tha 
to the males : Oceanus, Coeus, Crius, ] 
lapetus, Chronos, who is also called Sat 
the names of the females are : The 
Themis, Mnemosyne, Tethys.* And thi 
they thus interpret allegorically. The 
the number is eleven or twelve : that i 
nature itself, which also they would hi 
called Rhea, from flowing ; and they sa 
other ten are her accidents, which also 
qualities ; yet they add a twelfth, namelj 
who with us is cadled Saturn, and him 
to be time.3 Therefore they assert tl 
and Rhea are time and matter ; and th 
they are mixed with moisture and ■ dry 
and cold, produce all things. 


" She therefore (Rhea, or nature), i 
produced, as it were, a certain bubble i 
been collecting for a long time; and 



ot t%ieus aaa luebs.' m 




doings; in some measure also, if possible, by 
deeds of mercy towards the poor, to help their 
penitence : for by these means pardon will be 
more easily bestowed, and mercy will be sooner 
i^own to die merciful. 


" But if he who comes to repentance is of 
more advanced age, he ought the more to give 
thanks to God, because, having received the 
knowledge of the truth, after all the violence of 
carnal lust has been broken, there awaits him no 
fight of contest, by which to repress the pleasures 
of the body rising against the mind. It remains, 
therefore, that he be exercised in the learning of 
the truth, and in works of mercy, that he may 
bring forth fruits worthy of repentance ; and that 
he do not suppose that the proof of conversion 
is shown by length of time, but by strength of 
devo.tion and of purpose. For minds are mani- 
fest to God ; and He does not take account of 
times, but of hearts. For He approves if any 
one, on hearing the preaching of the truth, does 
not delay, nor spend time in negligence, but im- 
mediately, and if I may say so, in the same mo- 
ment, abhorring the past, begins to desire things 
to come, and bums with love of the heavenly 


" Wherefore, let no one of you longer dis- 
semble nor look backwards, but willingly ap- 
proach to the Gospel of the kingdom of God. 
Let not the poor man say, When I shall become 
rich, then I shall be converted. God does not 
ask money of you, but a merciful heart and a pious 
mind. Nor let tiie rich man delay his conver- 
sion by reason of worldly care, while he thinks 
how he may dispose the abundance of his fruits ; 
nor say within himself, ' What shall I do ? where 
shall I bestow my fruits ? ' Nor say to his soul, 
• Thou hast much goods laid up for many years ; 
feast and rejoice.' For it shall be said to him, 
*Thou fool, this night thy soul shall be taken 
from thee, and whose shall those things be which 
thou hast provided ? * ' Therefore let every age, 
■every sex, every condition, haste to repentance, 
that they may obtain eternal life. Let the young 
be thankful that they put their necks under the 
yoke of discipline in the very violence of their 
desires. The old also are themselves praise- 
worthy, because they change for the fear of God, 
the custom of a long time in which they have 
been unhappily occupied. 


'' Let no one therefore put off. Let no one 

wax 18 there for delaying 

to do well? Or are you afiaid, lest, wh 
have done well, you do not find the rev 
you supposed? And what loss will you 
if you do well without reward ? Wocdd n 
science alone be sufficient in this? But 
find as you anticipate, shall you not recei% 
things for small, and eternal for temporal 
I say this for the sake of the unbelieving 
the things which we preach are as we 
them ; because they cannot be otherwis< 
they have been promised by the propheti< 




" But if any one desires to learn exa( 
truth of our preaching, let him come t< 
and let him ascertain what the true Prop 
and then at length all doubtfulness will o 
him, unless with obstinate mind he resis 
things which he finds to be true. For th 
some whose only object it is to gain the 
in any way whatever, and who seek pn 
this rather than their salvation. These 
not to have a single word addressed to tht 
both the noble word suffer injury, and cc 
to eternal death him who is guilty of the 
done to it. For what is there in resp 
which any one ought to oppose our pres 
or in respect of which the word of our pn 
is found to be contrary to the belief of y 
true and honourable ? It says that the G 
Father, the Creator of all, is to be honov 
also His Son, who alone knows Him ai 
will, and who alone is to be believed con< 
all things which He has enjoined. For H 
is the law and the Lawgiver, and the ri^ 
Judge, whose law decrees that God, the I 
all, is to be honoured by a sober, chaste, ji 
merciful life, and that all hope is to be 
in Him alone. 


" But some one will say that precepts 
sort are given by the philosophers also.' 
ing of the kind : for they do indeed give 
mandments concerning justice and sobrie 
they are ignorant that God is the recoin 
of good and evil deeds ; and therefore the 
and precepts only shun a public accus< 
cannot purify the conscience. For why 
one fear to sin in secret, who does not knc 
there is a witness and a judge of secret t 
Besides, the philosophers in their precep 
that even the gods, who are demons, are 
honoured ; and this alone, even if in ott 
spects they seemed worthy of approbation, 
ficient to convict them of the most dread! 

3 [Compare the argument of Ckrnent, m m 
against the philoeophen, in Homily VL aOb— -R.] 




mons, he dismissed the crowds, while they gave 
thanks and praised God, charging them to come 
to the same place on the following days also for 
the sake of hearing. And when we were to- 
gether at home, and were preparing to eat, one 
entering told us that Appion Pleistonices,' with 
Anubion, were lately come from Antioch, and 
were lodging with Simon.* Then my father, 
when he heard this, rejoiced, and said to Peter : 
" If you permit me, I should like to go and sa- 
lute Appion and Anubion, for they are great 
friends of mine ; and perhaps I shall be able to 
persuade Anubion to dispute with Clement on 
the subject of genesis." Then Peter said : " I 
consent ; and I commend you, because you re- 
spect your friends. But consider how all things 
occur to you according to your wish by God's 
providence ; for, behold, not only have t/i€ ob- 
jects of proper affection been restored to you 
by the appointment of God, but also the pres- 
ence of your friends is arranged for you." Then 
said my father : " Truly I consider that it is so 
as you say." And when he had said this, he 
went away to Anubion. 


But we, sitting with Peter the whole night, 
asking questions, and learning of him on many 
subjects, remained awake through very delight 
in his teaching and the sweetness of his words ; 
and when it was daybreak, Peter, looking at me 
and my brothers, said : " I wonder what has be- 
fallen your father." And while he was speaking 
my father came in, and found Peter speaking to 
us about him. And when he had saluted he 
began to apologize, and to explain the reason 
why he had remained abroad. But we, looking 
at him, were horrified ; for we saw on him the 
face of Simon, yet we heard the voice of our 
father. And when we shrank from him, and 
cursed him, my father was astonished at our 
treating him so harshly and barbarously. Yet 
Peter was the only one who saw his natural 
countenance ; and he said to us : " Why do you 
curse your father?" And we, along with our 
mother, answered him : " He appears to us to 
be Simon, though he has our father's voice." 
Then Peter : " You indeed know only his voice, 
which has not been changed by the sorceries ; 
but to me also his face, which to others appears 
changed by Simon's art, is known to be that of 
your father Faustinianus." And looking at my 

^ The name is generally written Apion. The meaning of Pleis- 
looieea k doabdbl, kiimi nppoatng that it indicates his birthplace, 
mmmmm \Am. u % v . w»* ■■ ■ la iW it u tiken Bs an epithet, and it will 

_ ._ ■• cop l caf. [See Homily 

*^ fiiUofvin that homily 

-■ay XX. 


father, he said : ''The cause of the dismay • 
your wife and your sons is this, — the appe 
ance of your countenance does not seem to 
as it was, but the fisu:e of the detestable Sim 
appears in you." 


And while he was thus speaking, one of tfao 
returned who had gone before to Antioch, ai 
said to Peter : '' I wish you to know, my k) 
Peter, that Simon at Antioch, doing many sig 
and prodigies in public, has inculcated upi 
the people nothing but what tends to exd 
hatred against you, calling you a magician, 
sorcerer, a murderer; and to such an ezte 
has he stirred up hatred against you, that tb 
greatly desire, if they can find you anywhei 
even to devour your fiesh. And therefore i 
who were sent before, seeing the city great 
moved against you, met together in secret, ai 
considered what ought to be done. 


'' And when we saw no way of getting cot € 
the difficulty, there came Cornelius the centi 
rion, being sent by Csesar to the president o 
Caesarea on public business. Him we sent fi 
alone, and told him the reason why we were ad 
rowful, and entreated him that, if he coold dl 
anything, he should help us. Then he mail 
readily promised that he would straightway |4 
him to flight, if only we would aid Ips pM 
And when we promised that we would be actni 
in doing everything, he said, ' Caesar has ordeic^ 
sorcerers to be sought out and destroyed in th) 
city of Rome and through the provinces, and i 
great number of them have been already dil 
stroyed. I shall therefore give out, through Oi| 
friends, that I am come to apprehend that mapj 
cian, and that I am sent by Caesar for this p^ 
pose, that he may be punished with the rest d 
his fraternity. Let your people, therefore, ^ 
arc with him in disguise, intimate to him, as I 
they had heard it from some quarter, that I d 
sent to apprehend him ; and when he heais thi 
he is sure to take to flight Or if you think dl 
anything better, tell me. Why need I say mwe? 
It was so done by those of ours who were wid 
him, disguised for the purpose of acting as splQ 
on him. And when Simon learned that this 
come upon him, he received the informatioo 
a great kindness conferred upon him by 
and took to flight. He therefore departed 
Antioch, and, as we have heard, came 
with Athenodorus. 



" All we, therefore, who went before yoa,t^ 
sidered that in the meantime you dioakl not 




shall have sul)scrvcil the designs which we have 
in view, then I shall restore to you the true form 
of your countenance ; on condition, however, 
that you fir^t des|)atch what I shall command 
you." Ami when my father promised that he 
\\o\\\k\ with all his might fulfil everything that he 
niiglit charge him with, provided only that he 
might rci'over his own countenance, Peter thus 
hogan : " You have heanl with your own ears, 
tl\at one of those wlio had l)een sent before has ' 
rciurneil tmm Antioch, and told us h^w Simon, | 
while he w;is there, stirred up the multitudes 
.ig.iinst mo, and inflamed the whole cit>' into; 
hatred of me. declaring that I am a magician, : 
A\\\\ a munlcrer. and a deceiver, so that they are " 
eager, if they see me, even to eat my flesh. Do 
then'fon* what I tell you : leave Clement with 
iiu\ m\k\ go iHMore us to Antioch. with your wife, 
and your s^tus Kaustus and Faustinus. And I 
shall also send others with you. whom I think 
fii. who sh.Ul ol^sene whatsoever I command 

our. i:ci. — A MINE r»iv.. 

" When therefore \\v,i come with them to An- 
tux*h. .IS yo".: w;'.l Iv thou*; hi to Ix* Simon, stand 
!!'. a 'j^v.M'.c i^lace. and prvvlaim your repentance. 
• 1 Simon J.vvl.iix* to vou. and cor.fess 

:>.a: a'.'. :ha: I xv.d concor.iin*: IVier was talse : 

•.^T Si» «s :'.c::her a s<\i;u'er. nor a nugician. nor 

•\ • t.v 

a :u;:rv'.ori*r. nor a:".) of :hc ih-.v.pii :hat I spoke 
aj;ai::s: h::u ; V.:: 1 xi.d .ill those th:?.i:s under 

^ . w*^ 


. .%. ... . \ « • . 


\* - . • ^ * • « ■* H • . 



^ ^M 

• ahV . .C^ 

« . . ^a..%a«a* 

^ . ■ 

.* ^ - -J» 

'a. .a • .- V^. -. « ^^J^* ■ *C_^ 


■• ^ •-. . 

.. • >l 

the place." And Peter gave him further instn 
tion, saying : " When therefore you come to 1 
place, and see the people ttiroed by your d 
course, and laying aside their hatred, and retiu 
ing to their longing for me, send and tell n 
and I shall come immediately ; and when I con 
I shall without delay set you free from this straoi 
countenance, and restore to you your own, whi* 
is known to all your friends." And having sa 
this, lie ordered my brothers to go with hii 
and at the same time our mother Matthidia, ai 
some of our friends. But my mother refiised 
go along with him, and said : " It seems as if 
should be an adulteress if I were to associa 
with the countenance of Simon ; but if I I 
compelled to go along with him, it is at j 
events impossible that I can lie in the same Ix 
with him ; but I do not know if I can conse 
even to go with him." And when she stoat 
refused, Anubion began to exhort her, sayiq 
'* Belie^-e me and Peter. But does not en 
his voice persuade you that he is your husfaan 
Faustinianus, whom truly I love not less than yt 
do ? And. in short, I also m}3elf shall comewil 
you." And when Anubion had said this, n 
mother promised that she would go with him. 


Then said I : '* God arranges our affidis to oi 
likir.^ : for we have with us Anubion an astrob 
j:er. with whosi. if we come to Antioch, we sU 
dispute with all eamesmess on the subject d 
OTNESis." And when our Either had set o^ 
aft;fr the r.:iii'.e cf the ni^hi. with those i4mA 
Teter r.ii crdire\f to accora pony him, andvit 
Ar.ur:.^n : in the n:c~n^. before Peter went li 
the d.>v' js::n. thv>se men reramed who M 
c.^r.'.vve..: S:n::n. namely Appion and Athowto 
r-5. an.: c^me to us mc-iinng after my fiithe^ 
?-t Titer, when he w-is infomed of tlueirooflt 
--C. crier;£-i :h*n: to enter. And when 
»^::^ seate-i. ±?-v askec. "^^'here is Fa 

"We do not 
: he went to 
inim. Bat 
:v:r7.r.^ >i~:n c;in:«e -n-^-iirln^ for him; 
:<:a j>e w^ ci*'? i^n: =c ins*^r. I know not^ 

_^*^B •• 



* J .^. ^ . ^ I 

.: r.»; ss»i ±a; he w^s Fai 

■•v- . 

■f. ' 

■ _ ■ ■ 

■,--- .-J -.•- 

r"-: *";n n«-':*:iiT z^^jr^-sri '"-m he went 
* T::sel:" iixi a jteim^i ris be ve::: avav towanbl 

, r"-*.? 


— * ."-*.S3 .'•' ,VV?v-5>V»\ 

■j'v: •■ riis^i X its 

i those who 

* 5^' 

t ^ 


. ::i'i 

^^"hv did von 

my father Fz 

\ ucxn.] 



ikesf ikitigs ieing kfuntm^ Ptter ordered the 
k io meet on ^/oUomng day; and having 


The ofdinatioa of ft bUiop at And- 
ftn ftb wmlh y . It Ji unHkdy diftt ettn tiy 
woidd vcntun to woovo dit pravioui cnil* 
Ib dwt dt^i^Raj 

ordained one of his followers as bishops and oth- 
ers as presbyters^ he baptized also a great number 
of people^ and restored to heaWi all who had been 
distressed wUh sicknesses.^ 


oocmt onl^ in OM Mik 



We have already given an account of the CUmenHnes m the Introductory Notice to the Recog- 
nitions^ All that remains for us to do here, is to notice the principal editions of the HoMtUes. 
rhe first edition was published by Cotelerius in his collection of the Apostolic Fathers, from a 
Qoanuscript in the Royal Library at Paris, the only manuscript of the work then known to exist 
He derived assistance from an epitome of the work which he found in the same library. The 
text of Cotelerius was revised by Clericus in his edition of Cotelerius, but more carefully by 
Schwegler, Stuttgart, 1847. The Paris ms. breaks off in the middle of the fourteenth chapter of 
of the nineteenth book. 

In 1853 (Gottingen) Dressel published a new recension of the Homilies, having found a com- 
plete manuscript of the twenty Homihes in the Ottobonian Library in Rome. In 1859 (Leipzig) 
be published an edition of two Epitomes of the Homilies, — the one previously edited by Tume- 
bus and Cotelerius being given more fiilly, and the other appearing for the first time. To these 
Epitomes were appended notes by Frederic Wieseler on the Homilies. The last edition of the 
Clementines is by Paul de Lagarde (Leipzig, 1865), which has no new sources, is pretentious, but 
£ar from accurate. 

* [The reader is referred to the Introductory Notice prefixed to tfaisedition of the Qementiiie literature for a brief summary of the views 
TCspectiiig the relatioos of the two principal works. The footnotes throughout will aid in making a compariaoo. The preparation of these 
BQits has strengthened tha aonnction of the writer that the JtMogmtmu are not drpendrnl on the Jicmiiigt, but that the reverM may be 




CIS not be destroyed himself? " The elders, 
refore, being pleased with the sentiments of 
nesy exclaimed, " Blessed be He who, as fore- 
ing all things, has graciously appointed thee 
our bishop ; " and when they had said this^ 

we all rose up, and prayed to the Father and 
God of aU, to whom be glory for ever. Amen.* 

* [Rufinus, in hit pre&oe to the lUcogniHonit makes no aUusion 
to this letter. — R.] 


Clkhent to James, the lord,' and the bishop even to him who has journeyed with me 

of bishops, who rules Jemsalem, the Holy church the beginning to the end, and thus has het 

of the Hebrews, and the churches everywhere my homilies — who, in a tvord, having '. 

excellently founded by the providence of God, share in all my trials, has been found sted 

with the elders and deacons, and the rest of the the laith ; whom I have found, above all c 

brethren, peace be always. pious, pUl^thropic, pure, learned, chaste, 
upright, laige-hearted, and striving gene 

CHAP. I. — petzr's hartyrdoh. to bear the ingratitude of some of the ca: 

Be it known to you, my lord, that Simon, who, "^"^ Wherefore I communicate to hi] 

for the sake of the true faith, and the most sure P^vkt of binding and loosing so thai wi 

foundation of his doctrine, was set apart to be ^P^'i^ » everything which he shall ordain 

the foundation of the Church, and for this end ^"^h' " shall be decreed m the heavens, 

was by Jesus Himself, with His truthful mouth, "e shall bmd what ought to be bound, and 

named Peter, the first-fruits of our Urd, the w"^* °^&^^ W ^e loosed, as knowmg the i 

first of the aposdes ; to whom first the Father *"« Church. Therefore hear hmj, as kn 

revealed the Son; whom the Christ, with good ^'^^ he who gneves Ae president of the 

reason, blessed ; the called, and elect, and asso- ^ins against Chnst, and offends the Father 

ciate at table and in the joumeyings o/ Christ; Wherefore he shaU not live; and there! 

the excellent and approved disciple, who, as becomes him who presides to hold the pi 

being fittest of all, was commanded to enlighten « physician, and not to cherish the rage 

the darker part of the world, namely the West, "rational beast" 
and was enabled to accomplish it, — and to what 

extent do I lengthen my discouree, not wishing '^"*''' "i- — "O'-o episcopari. 

to indicate what is sad, which yet of necessity, While he thus spoke, I knelt to fain 

though reluctandy, I must tell you, — he him- entreated him, declining the honour ar 

self, by reason of his immense love towards men, authority of the chair. But he answered : ' 

having come as far as Rome, clearly and publicly ceming this matter do not ask me ; for 

testifying, in opposition to the wicked one who seemed to me to be good that thus it b 

withstood him, that there is to be a good King all the more if you decline it. For this 

over all the world, while saving men by his God- has not need of a presumptuous man, ami 

inspired doctrine, himself, by violence, exchanged of occupying it, but of one pious in conda 

this present existence for life. deeply skilled in the word of God, But 
me a better than yourself, who has travellec 

CHAP. n. — ORDINATION OP CLEHBNT. with me, and has heard more of my diso 

But about that time, when he was about to ^^ "^^ learned better the regulations . 

die, the brethren being assembled together, he Church, and I shaU not force you to d 

suddenly seized my hand, and rose up, and said ^S^^t yo"' "^"- ^"1 it wiD not be m 

in presence of the church : " Hear me, brethren PO""^' ^ show me your supenor ; for yi 

and fellow-servants. Since, as I have been taught ^^e choice first-frmts of the inultitudes 

by the Lord and Teacher Jesus Christ, whose through me However, consider this fi 

apostle I am, the day of my death is approach- *at if you do not undertake the admuuS 

ing, I lay hands upon this Clement as your bish- of ^^ Church, through fear of the danga 

op ; and to him I entrust my chair of discourse, Y"^ "^V ^ ^"^ ">** y?", ^^ '°°^' "^ 

. have it in your power to help the godly, in 

> Man|ininiii*"tiHL<nd'>bn)t)Kr.' So It muu ban been In as it were, at sca and In danger, aod Will : 
S aSZ^r- JtSS SSS. iSl?*i''S.S=; ;'=;.■>, providing only for your o™ inttrest, > 

>iu iwUdc hen: com. c^). B uid ihe opcDios KDUsa o( tiic for the common advantage of alL But 

CridS'-^rfcj'i^"^^"'""' """^ behoves you altogether W undertake the c 





does it profit me now to distress myself gratu- 
itously? And immediately after this another 
reasoning assailed me; for I said. Shall I not 
have something worse to suiTer then than that 
which distresses me now, if I have not lived 
piously ; and shall I not be delivered over, ac- 
cording to the doctrines of some philosophers, 
to Pyriphlegethon and Tartarus, like Sisyphus, or 
Tityus, or Ixion, or Tantalus, and be punished 
for ever in Hades? But again I replied, saying : 
But there are no such tihings as these. Yet 
again I said : But if there be ? Therefore, said 
I, since the matter is uncertain, the safer plan is 
for me rather to live piously. But how shall I be 
able, for the sake of righteousness, to subdue 
bodily pleasures, looking, as I do, to an uncer- 
tain hope? But I am neither fully persuaded 
what is that righteous thing that is pleasing to 
God, nor do I know whether the soul is immortal 
or mortal. Neither can I find any well-estab- 
lished doctrine, nor can I abstain from such de- 


What, then, am I to do, unless this ? I shall go 
into Egypt, and I shall become friendly with the 
hierophants of the shrines, and with the proph- 
ets ; and I shall seek and find a magician, and 
persuade him with large bribes to effect the call- 
ing up of a soul, which is called necromancy, as 
if I were going to inquire of it concerning some 
business. And the inquiry shall be for the pur- 
pose of learning whether the soul is immortal. 
But the answer of the soul that it is immortal 
shall not give me the knowledge fh)m its speak- 
ing or my hearing, but only from its being seen ; 
so that, seeing it with my very eyes, I may have 
a self-sufficient and fit assurance, from the very 
fact of its appearing, that it exists ; and never 
again shall the uncertain words of hearing be 
able to overturn the things which the eyes have 
made their own. However, I submitted this 
very plan to a certain companion who was a phi- 
losopher ; and he counselled me not to venture 
upon it, and that on many accounts. " For if," 
said he, " the soul shall not listen to the magi- 
cian, you will live with an evil conscience, as 
having acted against the laws which forbid the 
doing of these things. But if it shall listen to 
him, then, besides your living with an evil con- 
science, I think that matters of piety will not be 
promoted to you on account of your making this 
attempt. For they say that the Deity is angry 
with those who disturb souls after their release 
from the body."' And I, when I heard this, 
became indeed more backward to undertake 
such a thing, but I did not abandon my original 
plan ; but I was distressed, as being hindered in 
the execution of it 

m ipiMi 1/km iBtt la tiw CO! re sp o n ding passage of 


And, not to discuss such matters to yoa 
long speech, while I was occupied with such 
sonings and doings, a certain report, takinj 
rise in the spring-time,' in the reign of Tib< 
Caesar, gradually grew everywhere, and 
through the world as truly the good tiding! 
God, being unable to stifle the counsel of < 
in silence. Therefore it everywhere bee 
greater and louder, saying that a certain On 
Judaea, beginning in the spring season, 
preaching to the Jews the kingdom of the in 
ble God, and saying that whoever of them m 
reform his manner of living should enjoy it i 
in order that He might be believed that 
uttered these things full of the Godhead, 
wrought many wonderful miracles and signs 
His mere command, as having received po 
from God. For He made the deaf to hear, 
blind to see, the lame to walk, raised up 
bowed down, drove away every disease, put 
flight every demon; and even scabbed lq> 
by only looking on Him from a distance, w 
sent away cured by Him ; and the dead be 
brought to Him, were raised ; and there i 
nothing which He could not do. And as ti 
advanced, so much the greater, through the 
rival of more persons, and the stronger grew- 
say not now the report, but — the tru A of t 
thing ; for now at length there were meetingi 
various places for consultation and inquiiy ai 
who He might be that had appeared, and «l 
was His purpose. 


And then in the same year, in the anto 
season, a certain one, standing in a public pbi 
cried and said, " Men of Rome, hearken. T 
Son of God is come in Judaea, proclaiming en 
nal life to all who will, if they shall live accfli 
ing to the counsel of the Fadier, who hath sc 
Him. Wherefore change your manner of 1 
from the worse to the better, fh>m things to 
poral to things eternal ; for kiiow ye that tli^ 
is one God, who is in heaven, whose world ] 
unrighteously dwell in before His righteous ell 
But if ye be changed, and live according to fl 
counsel, then, being bom into the othermd 
and becoming eternal, ye shall enjoy His J9 
speakable good things. But if ye be 
ing, your souls, after the dissolution of the 
shall be thrown into the place of fire, 
being punished eternally, they shall xtjpal^ 
their unprofitable deeds. For eveiy one, 
term of repentance is the present life." I d 
fore, when I heard these things, was 
because no one among so great multitudes^ 1 

3 [This clause is r e pr e se nted in the Rwcapdtimu 
" which took its rise in the regions of Hatb Eatt.**— B*] 


thought true or false, according to the power of chap. xxi. — unalterable conviction. 
him who advocates it ; so that doctrines do not y/^^^^ ^le had thus spoken, I answered : " No 

appear as they are, but take the appearance of do I thank God ; for as I wished to be coi 

being or not being truth or falsehood from those winced, so He has vouchsafed to me. Howcw 

who advocate them.' On this account the whole so far as concerns me, be you so &r witfaa 

business of religion needed a true prophet, that anxiety that I shall never doubt ; so much 

he might tell us things that are, as they are, and t^^t if you yourself should ever wish to rem 

how we must believe concerning all things. So ^e from the prophetic doctrine, you shouU 

that it is first necessary to test the prophet by ^e able, so well do I know what I have rcc 

every prophetic sign, and having ascertained that ^nd do not think that it is a great thing 

he is true, thereafter to believe him in every promise you that I shaU never doubt ; for ii_ 

thing, and not to sit in judgment upon his several j myself, nor any man who has heard youfi 

sayings, but to receive them as certain, being course concerning the Prophet, can ever dc 

accepted indeed by seeming faith, yet by sure ^f ^^e true doctrine, having first heard and 

judgment For by our mitial proof, and by stnct derstood what is the trudi of the p 

inquiry on every side, all things are received with announcement Wherefore have confi< 

right reason. Wherefore before all things it is ^^ God-willed dogma ; for every art of 

necessary to seek after the true Prophet, because ^ess has been conquered. For against pi 

without Him it is impossible that any certainty neither arts of discourses, nor tricks of soi 

can come to men. ^^j, syllogisms, nor any other contrivance^ 

, prevail anything ; that is, if he who has h 

CHAP. XX. —PETER s SATrsFACTioN WFTH ^^^ ^^ Prophet really is desirous of truth, 

CLEMENT. ^^g ^^^ g.^^ j^^g^ ^^ aught elsc under 

And, at the same time, he satisfied me by ex- of truth. So that, my lord Peter, be not 

pounding to me who He is, and how He is found, certed, as though you had presented the i 

and holding Him forth to me as truly to be good to a senseless person; for you have 

found, showing that the truth is more manifest sented it to one sensible of the &vour, and 

to the ear by the discourse of the prophet than cannot be seduced from the truth that has " 

things that are seen with the eye ; so that I was committed to him. For I know that it is 

astonished, and wondered that no one sees those those things which one wishes to receive qiw 

things which are sought after by all, though they and not to attain slowly. Therefore I knoirl 

lie before him. However, having written this i should not despise, on account of the q 

discourse concerning the Prophet by his order, ness wi/A which I have got if, what has 

he caused the volume to be despatched to you committed to me, what is incomparable, and ^ 

from Caesarea Stratonis, saying that he had a alone is safe." 
charge from you to send his discourses and his 
acts year by year.' Thus, on the very first day, chap. xxn. — thanksgiytng. 

beginning only concerning the prophet of the ^^hen I had thus spoken, Peter said : «I . 

mith he confirmed me m every respect ; and ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^7^^ ^^^^^ ^ 

hen he spoke thus. "Henceforth give heed to satisfaction. For I am truly pleased to ta 
he discussions that take place between me and ^^^ apprehend what is the greatnml 

those on the other side ; and even if I come off { "g ^ ^ f if j ^ 

ata disadvantage lam not afi^d of your ever sUd ever wish- which Ckd forbid -to tS 
doubting of the truth that has been delivered to ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ j 3^^ ^^ ^ 
you, knowing well that I seem to be beaten but ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ to-morrow to at 

l''\^^^T'^^ ^^ ^^ ^f "^^^Tf ^"^ "' upon me in the discussions with the adven 
by the Prophet. However, I hope not to come ^^ to-morrow I have one with Simon Mi 
off m our mquines at a disadvantage with men ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ 
who have undei^tandmg-I mean lovers of truth, ^^^ J ^^ .^ ^ j^^ ^^^^ ^ 

who are able to knowwhat discourses are specious |^ rtake;3 and haVing blessed the food. 

artificial, and pleasant, and what are unartificial ^J ^^^^ ^^^^ J^^ ^- ^^^ 

and simple, trusting only to the truth thaf ts ^^^^^ |^ ^^ ^ ^^^^^^ J^^ ^^^ 

conveyed through them." went on to tay: "May God grant yoa 

> [Comp. Recoenitions, i. i6, where the discourse is more fully things to bc made like unto me, and haviogl 

*'''*'"The'toct is pn)babl7 corrupt or defective. As it stands, gram- baptized, tO partake of the SamC table With 

maiicaJly Peter writes the discourse and sends it, and yet "by hU And having thuS Spoken, he enjoined mC I 

order must also apply to Peter. The j?n-<i^//f;»«u make Qement ^ ^ c • j ^j i. j*i - - 

write the book and send it. Tlte passage U deemed important, and b tO reSt ; for nOW maeeo my EKXllly natOIC 

CSSSS'Ir ^r^^^^^:.\ l^^' ^«=S.^5LSf sanded sleep. 

R.] * [Coinp.HoiiuIyXm.4«Kli?Mtfm)ewfw,i.s9.— B.] 




blaspheme His Holy Spirit, through His love 
towards him He brings the soul to Himself by 
reason of His love towards it. And although it 
be sinful, it is His nature to save it, after it has 
been suitably punished for the deeds it hath 
done. But if anyone shall deny Him, or in any 
other way be guilty of impiety against Him, and 
then shall repent, he shall be punished indeed 
for the sins he hath committed against Him, but 
he shall be saved, because he turned and lived. 
And perhaps excessive piety and supplication 
shall even be delivered from punishment, igno- 
rance being admitted as a reason for the pardon 
of sin after repentance.* But those who do not 
repent shall be destroyed by the punishment of 
fire, even though in all other things they are 
most holy. But, as I said, at an appointed time 
a fifth * part, being punished with eternal fire, 
shall be consumed. For they cannot endure 
for ever who have been impious against the one 


" But impiety against Him is, in the matter of 
religion, to die saying there is another God, 
whether superior or inferior, or in any way say- 
ing that there is one besides Him who really is. 
For He who truly is, is He whose form the body 
of man bears ; for whose sake the heaven and 
all the stars, though in their essence superior, 
submit to serve him who is in essence inferior, 
on account of the form of the Ruler. So much 
has God blessed man above all, in order that, 
loving the Benefactor in proportion to the mul- 
titude of His benefits, by means of this love he 
may be saved for the world to come. 


" Therefore the love of men towards God is 
sufficient for salvation. And this the wicked 
one knows ; and while we are hastening to sow 
the love towards Him which makes immortal 
in the souls of those who from among the Gentiles 
are ready to believe in the one and only God, 
this wicked one, having sufficient armour against 
the ignorant for their destruction, hastens to sow 
the supposition of many gods, or at least of one 
greater, in order that men, conceiving and being 
persuaded of what is not wisdom, may die, as in 
the crime of adultery, and be cast out from His 


" Worthy, therefore, of rejection is every one who 
is willing so much as to hear an)'thing against the 
monarchy of God ; but if any one dares to hear 
anything against God, as trusting in the Scrip- 
tuxcSy let Imn first of all consider with me that 

> Tli« frt — nifciily cornipt 

if any one, as he pleases, form a dogma agi 
able to himself, and then caiefoUy search 
Scriptures, he will be able to produce many 1 
timonies fh>m them in favour of the dogma t 
he has formed. How, then, can confidence 
placed in them against God, when what ev 
man wishes is found in them? 


"Therefore Simon, who is going to disc 
in public with us to-morrow, is bold against 1 
monarchy of God, wishing to produce nu 
statements from these Scriptures, to die eff 
that there are many gods, and a certain one 1 
is not He who made this world, but who is sq 
rior to Him ; and, at the same time, he is goi 
to offer many scriptural proo&. But we also c 
easily show many passages from them that I 
who made the world alone is God, and til 
there is none other besides Him. But if B 
one shall wish to speak otherwise, he also dM 
be able to produce proofe firom them at k 
pleasure. For the Scriptures say all manner f 
things, that no one of those who inquire a 
gratefully may find the truth, but sim/fy wli 
he wishes to find, the truth being reserved i 
the grateful ; now gratitude is to preserve (R 
love to Him who is the cause of our being. 



" Whence it must before all things be ksod 
that nowhere can truth be found tmless frool 
prophet of truth. But He is a true Pro[W 
who always knows all things, and even M 
thoughts of all men, who is without sin, as bdi 
convinced respecting the judgment of Go( 
Wherefore we ought not simply to consider ifl 
specting His foreknowledge, but whether Hi 
foreknowledge can stand, apart from other dOM 
For physicians predict certain things, havii^Af 
pulse of the patient as matter submitted to 1 
and some predict by means of having foii|i») 
some by having sacrifices, and others by 
many various matters submitted to them; 
these are not prophets. 


''But if any one should say that the 
knowledge shanm by these predictions is 
to that foreknowledge which is really impl 
he were much deceived. For he only d( 
such things as being present, and diat if 
speaks truth. However, even these things I 
ser>'iceable to me, for they establish that da 
is such a thing as foreknowledge. But the fa 
knowledge of the one true Prophet docs i 
only know things present, but stretches < 
prophecy without limit as £sff as the worid 




perceive that which is reasonable in the Scrip- 
tures?' He makes the understanding of him 
stronger who voluntarily judges soundly. 



** And His sending to the scribes and teachers 
of the existing Scriptures, as to those who knew 
the true things of the law that then was, is well 
known. And also that He said, ' I am not come 
to destroy the law,' ' and yet that He appeared 
to be destroying it, is the part of one intimating 
that the things which He destroyed did not be- 
long to the law. And His saying, ' The heaven 
and the earth shall pass away, but one jot or one 
tittle shall not pass from the law," intimated 
that the things which pass away before the 
heaven and the earth do not belong to the law 
in reality. 


" Since, then, while the heaven and the earth 
still stand, sacrifices have passed away, and king- 
doms, and prophecies among those who are bom 
of woman, and such like, as not being ordinances 
of God ; hence therefore He says, ' Every plant 
which the heavenly Father has not planted shall 
be rooted up.' * Wherefore He, being the true 
Prophet, said, ' I am the gate of life ; * he who 
entereth through me entereth into life,' there 
being no other teaching able to save. Wherefore 
also He cried, and said, * Come unto me, all who 
labour,' 5 that is, who are seeking the truth, and 
not finding it ; and again, * My sheep hear my 
voice ; ' ** and elsewhere, * Seek and find,' ^ since 
the truth does not lie on the surface. 


'* But also a witnessing voice was heard from 
heaven, saying, *This is my beloved Son, in 
whom I am well pleased ; hear Him.* ^ And in 
addition to this, willing to convict more fully of 
error the prophets from whom they asserted that 
they had learned. He proclaimed that they died 
aesiring the truth, but not having learned it, say- 
ing, * Many prophets and kings desired to see 
what ve see, and to hear what vou hear ; and 
verily I say to you, they neither saw nor heard.* 9 
Still further He said, ' I am he concerning whom 
Moses prophesied, saying, A Prophet shall the 
Lord our Ck)d raise unto you of your brethren, 
hke unto me : Him hear in all things ; and who- 
soever will not hear that Prophet shall die.* 

« Matt. T, IT. 

* Matt. V. 1&. 
' Matt. XT. 13. 
4 lohn X. 9. 
s Man.xi.a8. 

* Joha X. 3. 




" Whence it is impossible without His te 
ing to attain to saving truth, though one se< 
for ever where the tifiing that is sought is 
But it was, and is, in the word of our J* 
Accordingly, He, knowing the true things ol 
law, said to the Sadducees, asking on what 
count Moses permitted to many seven," " M 
gave you commandments according to 
hard-heartedness ; for from the beginning it 
not so : for He who created man at first, n 
him male and female.' " 


''But to those who think, as the Script 
teach, that God swears, He said, ' Let youi 
be yea, and nay, nay; for what is more 
these is of the evil one.' '' And to those 
say that Abraham and Isaac and Jacob are d 
He said, ' God is not of the dead, but of 
hving.' '^ And to those who suppose that 
tempts, as the Scriptures say, He said, ' 
tempter is the wicked one,' '5 who also tem 
Himself. To those who suppose that God « 
not foreknow. He said, 'For your heav 
Father knoweth that ye need all these th 
before ye ask Him.* '^ And to those who 
lieve, as the Scriptures say, that He does nol 
all things. He said, ' Pray in secret, and ; 
Father, who seeth secret things, will rei 
you.* '7 


"And to those who think that He is not g 
as the Scriptures say. He said, ' From whic 
you shall his son ask bread, and he will 
him a stone ; or shall ask a fish, and he will 
him a serpent ? If ye then, being evil, kno 
give good gifts to your children, how much r 
shall your heavenly Father give good thing 
those who ask Him, and to those who do 
will ! * »* But to those who affirmed that He 
in the temple. He said, ' Swear not by hea 
for it is God's throne ; nor by the earth, for 
the footstool of His feet' '^ And to those 
supposed that God is pleased with sacrifices 
said, * God wishes mercy, and not sacrifice 
— the knowledge of Himself, and not holoca 


" But to those who are persuaded that I 
e\'il, as the Scriptures say. He said, 'Call 

^\ [A curious confusion of two Go^el naixatms, mistakii 
significance of both. — R.] 
12 Matt. xix. 8; Mark x. 5, 6. 
«3 Matt. ▼. ^7. 

^ Matt. xxu. 33: MarkxiL 97; Lokenc 38^ 
'5 Perhaps Matt. xiii. 99. 
«* .Matt. vi.8,3a. 
>' Man. Ti. 6. 
'• Matt, vii 9-1X. 
«9 Matu T. 34, 35. 
» Matt. iz. 13, m. 7. [Goa9wHoi.^6w~R.] 


nghtly regarded as the sister of Zeus, in respect j, thorougnly ; and that the more thai thi. 
of her ongm from the same substance, but as ,he first time I have heard it. And ih 
his spouse, as bein g inferior hke a wife. ^^j, ^^^^^ ^^at I am not ignorant of these 

'Thfiidfh dhabee ^ epitomizc what you have said, and 

emiiicd in iht iraMiaiinn. LobK^^f^jK " ai™' prime-,"* He" . In their order, as I have heard them from 
-iSdie ■'■*"""''*'""' " ^""'"'' '•n''"";" "^ *•*«'"■ ; the allegorical interpretations of those 

I ^"T^""*^"™'''' !'■""■' y^" ^''^^ omitted." And Appion said 

* [With chain. S-io compare ftnywnfwfu.i. ]i, 34. — R.] | SO." 



[Homily VU 



And on the fourth day of our stay in Tyre,' 
Peter went out about daybreak, and there met 
hira not a few of the dwellers round about, with 
very many of the inhabitants of Tyre itself, who 
cried out, and said, "God through you have 
mercy upon us, God through you heal us ! " 
And Peter stood on a high stone, that all might 
see him ; and having greeted them in a godly 
manner, thus began : — 


"God, who created the heavens and the 
whole universe, does not want occasion for the 
salvation of those who would be saved. Where- 
fore let no one, in seeming evils, rashly charge 
Him with unkindness to man. For men do not 
know the issue of those things which happen to 
them, nay, suspect that the result will be evil ; 
but (k)d knows that they will turn out well. So 
is it in the case of Simon. He is a power of 
the left hand of God, and has authority to do 
harm to those who know not God, so that he 
has been able to involve you in diseases ; but 
by these very diseases, which have been per- 
mitted to come upon you by the good providence 
of God, you, seeking and finding him who is 
able to cure, have been compelled to submit 
to the will of God on the occasion of the cure of 
the body, and to think of believing, in order 
that in this way you may have your souls as well 
as your bodies in a healthy state. 


** Now I have l>een told, that after he had 
sacrificed an ox he feasted you in the middle 
of the foRun. and that you, being carried away 
^•ith much wine, made friends with not onlv the 
evil demons, but their prince also, and that in 
this way the most of you were seized by these 
sicknesses, unwittingly draNxing upon yourselves 
with your own hands the sword of destruction. 
For the demons would never have had |x>wcr over 
you, had not you first sup|x.*d with their prince. 
For thus iTom the Ix^i^innini: was a law laid bv 
God, the Creator o\ all things, on each of the 
two princes, him of the right hand and him of 
the Ictt. thai neither should have jx^wer over 
anv one wiioin thev mi^ht wish to Ivenefit or to 
hurt, unless first he had sat down at the s^une 
table witli them. As, then, when you part<.)ok 
of meat orTercvi to idols, vou In^canie servants to 

the prince of evil, in like manner, if you 
from these things, and flee for refuge to 
through the good Prince of His right 
honouring Him without sacrifices, by 
whatsoever He wills, know of a truth that 
only will your bodies be healed, but your 
also will become healthy. For He only, d< 
ing with His left hand, can quicken with 
right; He only can both smite and raise 


" \\Tierefore, as then ye were deceived by 
forerunner Simon, and so became dead 
souls to God, and were smitten in yoiu" 
so now, if you repent, as I said, and submit 
those things which are well- pleasing to God, 
may get new strength to your bodies, and 
cover your soul's health. And the things 
are well-pleasing to God are these : to prq^] 
Him, to ask from Him, recognising that 
the giver of all things, and gives with 
nating law ; to abstain from the table of 
not to taste dead flesh, not to touch blood; 
be washed from all pollution ; and the rest 
one word, — as the God-fearing Jews have 
do you also hear, and be of one mind in 
bodies ; let each man be minded to do to 
neighbour those good things he wishes fix 
self. And you may all find out what is goo 
holding some such conversation as the foi 
with vourselves : You would not like to be 
dered ; do not murder another man : you 
not like your wife to be seduced by another; 
not you commit adultery : you would not 
any of your things to be stolen from you ; 
nothing from another. And so unders 
by yourselves what is reasonable, and dckof 
you will become dear to God, and will ol 
healing ; othen^ise in the life which now is 
bodies will be tormented, and in that wl 
to come your souls will be punished." * 


After Peter had spent a few days in t< 
them in this way, and in healing them, 
were luptized. And after that,' all sat 
together in the market-places in sackcloth 
asiios. grieving because of his other 
works, and repenting their former sins. 

> . The hiitoik-jd ^W:jitl» of this Homily also hive no puaUel in 

* [ Wit^ this discourse respecting Simon» compare J?«cM 
ii- 6-1 S. Bu; the statements respectung Simon's power and n 
of K are ir.uch >:ron^r than here. — R.J 

* We ha^-e adv>pted Wieseler's emendation. The lot 
tniBsLned thus: " And after that, among his other voodroa 
all the rest ^who had not been bapdaed) sat down/' etc 




of you, then," said Peter, " either hold conver- 
sation with these sorcerers, or have any thing to 
do with them." And as soon as the people 
heard this concise command, they took up sticks, 
and pursued them^ till they had driven them 
wholly out of the town. And they who were 
sick and possessed with devils came and cast 
themselves at Peter's feet. And he seeing all 
this, and anxious to free them from their terror, 
said to them : — 



Were I able to cause earthquakes, and do 
all that I wish, I assure you I would not destroy 
Simon and his friends (for not to destroy men 
am I sent) , but would make him my friend, that 
he might no longer, by his slanders against my 
preaching the truth, hinder the salvation of 
many. But if you believe me, he himself is a 
magician ; he is a slanderer ; he is a minister of 
evil to them who know not the truth. There- 
fore he has power to bring diseases on sinners, 
having the sinners themselves to help him in his 
power over them. But I am a servant of God 
the Creator of all things, and a disciple of His 
Prophet who is at His right hand. Wherefore 
I, being His apostle, preach the truth : to serve 

a good man I drive away diseases, for 
second messenger, since first the disea 
but after that the healing. By diat evi 
magician, then, you were stricken wit 
because you revolted from God. By n 
believe on Him ye shaU be cured : an^ 
ing had experience that He is able, you 
to good works, and have your souls sav 



As he said these things, aU fell on th 
before his feet. And he, lifting up his 
heaven, prayed to God, and heal^ th( 
his simple prayer alone. And he remx 
many days in Beyrout ; but after he h 
tomed many to the service of the one 
had baptized them, and had set ove: 
bishop from the elders who were wit! 
went to Byblus. And when he came t 
learned that Simon had not waited for 
a day, but had gone straightway to 
he remained there only a few days; 
that he had healed not a few, and 
them in the Scriptures, he followed ii 
track to Tripolis, preferring to pursue h 
than flee from him. 



Now, as Peter was entering Tripolis,* the 
people from Tyre and Sidon, Berytus and By- 
blus, who were eager' to get instruction, and 
many from the neighbourhood, entered along with 
him ; and not least were there gatherings of the 
multitudes from the city itself wishing to see him. 
Therefore there met with us in the suburbs the 
brethren who had been sent forth by him to as- 
certain as well other particulars respecting the 
city, as the proceedings of Simon, and to come 
and explain them. They received him, and 
conducted him to the house of Maroones.^ 


But he, when he was at the very gate of his 
lodging, turned round, and promised to the 
multitudes that after the next day he would con- 
verse with them on the subject of religion. And 

> [For the general parallelum of Homilies VIII. -XI. with Recopiu 
/fbft/y iv-vi., see (botnote on Recognitunu'xy. i. Homilies VIH., 
IX.. contain matter included in the single discourse of Recognitions, 
book iv.— R.] 

* Lit. : More willing to learn than the others, 

s [" Maro" in Recognitions^ iv. The resemblance between that 
teok and this Homily is quale marked. — R.] 

when he had gone in, the forerunners 
lodgings to those who had come with hi 
the hosts and the entertainers did not 
of the desire of those who sought h( 
But Peter, knowing nothing of this, bei 
by us to partake of food, said that he ^ 
himself partake until those who had a 
him were settled. And on our assui 
that this was already done, all having 
them eagerly by reason of their affectioi 
him, so that those were grieved beyond 
who had no guests to entertain, — Pete 
this, and being pleased with their eage 
thropy, blessed them and went out, an 
bathed in the sea, partook of food with 
runners ; and then, the evening having 


But awaking about the second cock 
he found us astir. We were in all sixl 
Peter himself, and I Clement, Nio 
Aquila, and the twelve who had prea 
Having therefore saluted us, he said, ' 

4 fComp. Recognitions, rr. 3.-— IL] 



CHAP. I. — THE THIRD DAY IN TRiPOLis. earth and water, as may be known from the verf 

Therefore on the third day in Tripolis,- fact that by his intelligence he brings down the 

Peter rose early and went into the gilrden, ^.^f ^^« ^'l? ^ '" V f ''.f"* ^?T "^ T 

where there w^ a great water-reservoir, into *iV"« ■? lu\^^E' ^"°1*°^ that are on die 

which a full stream of water constantly flowed, f "*> ^^ ^^^ i^^'f' ^^^^y "f ""<=^ f?^ 

There having bathed, and then having prayed, « strength Aan he ; I mean elephants, and bon^ 

he sat down ; and perceiving us sitting around ^^ ^"^ ^' 

and eagerly observing him, as wishing to hear 

something from him, he said : — chap. iv. — FArni and Dury. 

" While, therefore, he was righteous, he wtf 

CHAP. n. — IGNORANCE AND ERROR. also Superior to all sufferings, as being unable 

"There seems to me to be a great difference ^y.^'^ r?""^ ^^ *? '^^ ^V'T"^" ** 

between the ignorant and the erring. For the Pa>n; but when he siimwi, as I showed r» 

ignorant man seems to me to be like a man who Y^'^'^Y ^nd the day before, becoming as it 

does not wish to set out for a richly stored city, ^^i^ }^^ "^F^^ ?f ^•"' he became subject to 

through his not knowing the excellent thin^^ sufferings being by a righteous judgment 

that tit there; but the Irring man to be like P"^^<^ °[ ^i^'^^?"^"! *'?"«L ^f \^ 

one who has learned indeed the good things reasonable, the Giver having been forsaken, 

that are in the city, but who has forsaken the J^? 81^ should remam with the unpal 

k;^,. ;« r^^r^^^^Ai^r, *^«^^Ae. u ««^ o^ u«o Whence, of His abundant mercy, in oroer 

nignway m proceedmg towards it, and so has . . -^l ^i. /= ^ i //!. 1.1 • 

wiidered. Thus, therefore, it seems to me that ?^ «c«ving, ijniUi die first, idso futi« bl«r- 

there is a great difference between those who «« ^°* "'^ ^P'^^*- ,^^ the Prophet 

worship idols and those who are faulty in the P^!^'u^^ k°."\ i^^nu ril. 

worshif of God. For they who worehip idols to think, and what to do. Choose, theiefiw 

are igiiorant of eternal lifefand therefore they *°'*.*I"iV'J°"';rT' ^^ ^^^^ 

do not desire it; for what they do not know, ""g**' X^^^}^ " I'' ^° 1°"^^^ *? ^«,, 

they cannot love. But those who have chosen ™?<*? ^' *•"«?,' «'^°'° '[ y°" J?*="^ " 2f^ 

to worship one God, and who have learned of "'"^^-y^" shall receive from Him, along mj 

the etemd life given to the good, if they either ^'jt '1'^* ^"""^^^ ^"^' ^ *^ *^*^ ^*^ 

believe or do anything different from what is ^ssings. 

pleasing to God, are like to those who have chap. v. — the fear of god. 

gone out from the city of punishment, and are « Therefore you shaU be able to » 

desirous to come to the well-stored city, and on gi^es with respect to the things 4at 

the road have strayed from the right path. profitable, if, like charmers, you say to the [ 

rible serpent which lurks in your heart, *' 

chap. III. — MAN the lord OF ALL. Lord God thou Shalt fear, and Him alone 

WTiile he was thus discoursing to us, there ^halt ser\'e.' ^ On every account it is 

entered one of our people, who had been ap- tageous to fear Him alone, not as an unjust, 

pointed to make the following announcement ^^ a nghteous God. For one fears an ^ 

to him, and said: "My lord Peter, there are ^'^^> ^"^^^ ^^^^ wrongfully destroyed, but 

great multitudes standing before the doors." righteous one, lest he be caught m sm and — 

With his consent, therefore, a great multitude J^hed. You can therefore, by fear towards 

entered. Then he rose up, and stood on the ^^ ^5^^ ^^"^ many hurtful feais. Forifyt 

basis, as he had done the day l>efore ; and not fear the one Lord and Maker of dl, yoji 
having saluted them in religious fashion, he said : ^ ^}^ slaves of all evils to your own hurt, 1 1 
- Ciod having formed the heaven and the earth, i ^^ demons and diseases, and of eveT>nhing 

and having made all things in them, as the true ^^" ^^ ^^y ^'^y """^ y^"* 
Prophet has said to us, man, l>eing made after 

the image and likeness of God, was appointed chap. vi. — restoration of the divine 

to be ruler and lord of things, I say, in air and .. Therefore approach with confidence to ^ 

" ' you who at first were made to be nileis* 

« rn^ok ▼. of the Xe€«gniH0$tSt Msirocd to the second day at I _ 

"of tne matter in Diis Homily, but has many ~ 
Imn. — R.] I * Matt. IT. lo; [Luke ir. 8; Deut. vL 13. — R.]. 




condemned eats earth, he has power to eat him 
who through sin being dissolved into earth, has 
become earth, your souls going into his belly of 
fire. In order, therefore, that you may suffer 
these things, he suggests every thought to your 


" For all the deceitful conceptions against the 
monarchy are sown in your mind by him to your 
hurt. First, that you may not hear the dis- 
courses of piety, and so drive away ignorance, 
which is the occasion of evils, he ensnares you 
by a pretence of knowledge, giving in the first 
instance, and using throughout this presumption, 
which is to think and to be unhappily advised, 
that if any one do not hear the word of piety, 
he is not subject to judgments. Wherefore also 
some, being thus deceived, are not willing to 
hear, that they may be ignorant, not knowing 
that ignorance is of itself a sufficient deadly 
drug. For if any one should take a deadly dnig 
in ignorance, does he not die ? So naturally sins 
destroy the sinner, though he commit them in 
ignorance of what is right. 


" But if judgment follows upon disobedience 
to instruction, much more shall God destroy 
those who will not undertake His worship. For 
he who will not learn, lest that should make him 
subject to judgment, is already judged as know- 
ing, for he knew what he will not hear ; so that 
that imagination avails nothing as an apology 
in presence of the heart-knowing God. Where- 
fore avoid that cunning thought suggested by 
the serpent to your minds. But if any one end 
this life in real ignorance, this charge will lie 
against him, that, having lived so long, he did ' 
not know who was the bestower of the food sup- ] 
plied to him : and as a senseless, and ungrateful, ! 
and very unworthy servant, he is rejected from 
the kingdom of God. 


" Again, the terrible serpent suggests this sup- 
position to yon, to think and to say that very 
thing which most of you do say ; viz.. We 
know that there is one Lord of all, but there 
also are gods. For in like manner as there is 
one Caesar, but he has under him procurators, 
proconsuls, prefects, commanders of thousands, 
and of hundreds, and of tens ; in the same way, 
there being one great God, as there is one 
Caesar, there also, after the manner of inferior 
powers, are gods, inferior indeed to Him, but 
ruling over us. Hear, therefore, ye who have 
been led away by this conception as by a terri- 
ble poison — I mean the evil conception of this 

illustration — that you may know what is 
and what is evil. For you do not yet see 
do you look into the things that you uttei 

CHAP. XV. — rrs inconci^jsiveness. 

" For if you say that, after the mam 
Caesar, God has subordinate powers — 
namely, which are called gods — you do n( 
go by your illustration. For if you went 
you must of necessity know that it is not 
to give the name of Caesar to another, w 
he be consul, or prefect, or captain, or ar 
else, and that he who gives such a name sh 
live, and he who takes it shall be cut off", 
according to your own illustration, the na 
God must not be given to another ; and h 
IS tempted either to take or give it is dest 
Now, if this insult of a man induces punisl 
much more they who call others gods sh 
subject to eternal punishment, as insulting 
And with good reason ; because you sub; 
all the insult that you can the name which 
committed to you to honour, in order to Hi* 
archy. For God is not properly His nam( 
you having in the meantime received it, 
what has been given you, that it may be acc( 
as done against the real name, according ; 
use that. But you subject it to every ki 


" Therefore you ringleaders among the 
tians, boasting of meteorology, and prom is 
judge the natures of the stars, by reason ( 
evil opinion lurking in them, subjected that 
to all manner of dishonour as far as in the 
For some of them taught the worship of 
called Apis, some that of a he-goat, sor 
a cat, some of a serpent ; yea, even of < 
and of onions, and rumblings in the ston 
and common sewers, and members of irra 
animals, and to myriads of other base abo 
tions //ley gave the name of god.'* 



On Peter's saying this, the surrounding i 
tude laughed. Then Peter said to the lau 
multitude : " You laugh at their proceeding 
knowing that you are yourselves much raoi 
jects of ridicule to them. But you laugh a 
another's proceedings ; for, being led bj 
custom into deceit, you do not see your 
But I admit that you have reason to laugh 
idols of the Egyptians, since they, being rat 
worship irrational animals, and these altoj 
dying. But listen to what they say when 
deride you. We, they say, though we w( 

> yatrrp»v irytvfiara. 



[Homily XL 

do not the priests, more than the outside wor- 
shippers, carry off many of the offerings, thus 
acknowledging the uselessness of their worship ? 


" Nay, it will be said ; but they are detected 
by their foresight. It is false; for how many 
of them have not been detected? And if on 
account of the capture of some it be said that 
they have power, it is a mistake. For of those 
who rob tombs, some are found out and some 
escape ; but it is not by the power of the dead 
that those who are apprehended are detected. 
And such ought to be our conclusion with re- 
spect to those who steal and pilfer the gods. 
But it will be said, The gods that are in them 
take no care of their images. Why, then, do 
you tend them, wiping them, and washing them, 
and scouring them, crowning them, and sacri- 
ficing to them? Wherefore agree with me that 
you act altogether without right reason. For 
as you lament over the dead, so you sacrifice 
and make libations to your gods. 


" Nor yet is that in harmony with the illustra- 
tion of Caesar, and of the ix)wers under him, to 
call them administrators ; whereas you take all 
care of them, as I said, tending your images in 
every respect. For they, having no power, do 
nothing. Wherefore tell us what do they ad- 
minister? what do they of that sort which rulers 
in different places do? and what influence do 
they exert, as the stars of God ? Do they show 
anything like the sun, or do you light lamps be- 
fore them ? Are they able to bring showers, as 
the clouds bring rain, — they which cannot even 
move themselves, unless men carry them ? Do 
they make the earth fruitful to your labours, 
these to whom you supply sacrifices? Thus 
they can do nothing. 


" But if they were able to do something, you 
should not be right in calling them gods : for it 

is not right to call the elements gods, by wfakJi 
good things are supplied ; but only Hun who 
ordereth them, to accomplish all things for oar 
use, and who commandeth them to be service- 
able to man, — Him alo^e we call God in pro- 
priety of speech, whose beneficence you do not 
perceive, but permit those elements to rule over 
you which have been assigned to you as your 
servants. And why should I speak of the de- 
ments, when you not only have made and do 
worship lifeless images, but deign to be sub|ect 
to them in all respects as servants ? Wherefore^ 
by reason of your erroneous judgments, you have 
become subject to demons. However, by ac- 
knowledgment of God Himself, by good deedi 
you can again become masters, and command 
the demons as slaves, and as sons of God be 
constituted heirs of the eternal kingdom." 


Having said this, he ordered the demoniaa^ 
and those taken with diseases, to be brought to 
him ; and when they were brought, he laid fai| 
hands on them, and prayed, and dismissed dieoj 
healed, reminding them and the rest of th^ 
multitude to attend upon him there every dfj 
that he should discourse. Then, when 
others had withdrawn, Peter bathed in the 
voir that was there, with those who pleasedj 
and then ordering a table to be spread on 
ground under the thick foliage of the trees, 
the sake of shade, he ordered us each to rednM(| 
according to our worth ; and thus we partoolq 
of food. Therefore having blessed and haviiM| 
given thanks to God for the enjoyment, accoid^ 
ing to the accustomed faith of the Hebrews^ 
and there being still a long time before us, be 
permitted us to ask him questions about whit-, 
ever we pleased ; and thus, though there were 
twent}' of us putting questions to him all round, 
he satisfied every one. And now evening hav- 
ing descended, we all went with him into tbc 
largest apartment of the lodging, and there w 
all slept ^ 


were set down before him, he gave a 


Therefore on the fourth day at Tripolis, Peter ; touching the necessity of purity. And 
rising and finding us awake, saluted us and went thereafter it was day, he permitted the multii 
out to the reservoir, that he might bathe and 
pray ; and we also did so after him. To us, 

therefore, when we had prayed together, and i began to speak. 

to enter. Then, when a great crowd had t9i 
tered, he saluted them according to custom, ad! 




[Homily : 






But it will be said that the worshippers them- 
selves ought to be taken away by the true God, 
that others may not do it. But you are not 
wiser than God, that you should give Him coun- 
sel as one more prudent than He. He knows 
what He does ; for He is long-suffering to all 
who are in impiety, as a merciful and philan- 
thropic father, knowing that impious men be- 
come pious. And of those very worshippers of 
base and senseless things, many becoming sober 
have ceased to worship these things and to sin, 
and many Greeks have been saved so as to pray 
to the true God. 


" But, you say, God ought to have made us 
at first so that we should not have thought at all 
of such things. You who say this do not know 
what is free-will, and how it is possible to be really 
good ; that he who is good by his own choice is 
really good ; but he who is made good by another 
under necessity is not really good, because he is 
not what he is by his own choice.' Since there- 
fore every one's freedom constitutes the true 
good, and shows the true evil, God has contrived 
that friendship or hostility should be in each man 
by occasions. But no, it is said : everything 
that we think He makes us to think. Stop ! 
Why do you blaspheme more and more, in say- 
ing this ? For if we are under His influence in 
all that we think, you say that He is the cause of 
fornications, lusts, avarice, and all blasphemy. 
Cease your evil-speaking, ye who ought to speak 
well of Him, and to bestow all honour upon 
Him. And do not say that God does not claim 
any honour ; for if He Himself claims nothing, 
you ought to look to what is right, and to an- 
swer with thankful voice Him who does you good 
in all things. 


"But, you say, we do better when we are 
thankful at once to Him and to all others. Now, 
when you say this, you do not know the plot 
that is formed against you. For as, when many 
physicians of no power promise to cure one pa- 
tient, one who is really able to cure him does 
not apply his remedy, considering that, if he 
should cure him, the others would get the credit ; 
so also God does not do you good, when He is 
asked along with many who can do nothing. 
What ! it will be said, is God enraged at this, if, 
when He cures, another gets the credit ? I an- 
swer: Although He be not indignant, at all 
events He will not be an accomplice in deceit ; 

* rComp. Recognitions f iii. ax. etc. In that work the freedom of 
Ae wfl], as necessary to foodnen, is more frequently aflKrmcd. « R.] 

for when He has conferred a benefit, the id 
which has done nothing, is credited with the pa 
er. But also I say to you, if he who crouches 
adoration before senseless idols had not been i 
jured naturally, perhaps He (God) would hx 
endured even this. Wherefore watch ye th 
you may attain to a reasonable understanding < 
the matter of salvation.' For God being wit 
out want, neither Himself needs anything, nor f 
ceives hurt ; for it belongs to us to be profit! 
or injured. For in like manner as Caesar 
neither hurt when he is evil spoken of, nor piQ 
ited when he is thanked, but safety accrues \ 
the renderer of thanks, and ruin to the evil-speal 
er, so they who speak well of God indeed proi 
Him nothing, but save themselves ; and in lil 
manner, those who blaspheme Him do not a 
deed injure Him, but themselves perish. 


** But it will be said that the cases are n 
parallel between God and man; and I adm 
that they are not parallel : for the punishment) 
greater to him who is guilty of impiety again 
the greater, and less to him who sins against 4 
less. As, therefore, God is greatest of all, so 1 
who is impious against Him shall endure greall 
punishment, as sinning against the greater; M 
through His defending Himself with His o4 
hand, but the whole creation being indignantfj 
him, and naturally taking vengeance on fali 
For to the blasphemer the sun will not gi>'e k| 
light, nor the earth her fruits, nor the fountain i 
water, nor in Hades shall he who is there col 
stituted prince give rest to the soul ; since ewa 
now, while the constitution of the world subsisH 
the whole creation is indignant at him. Whew 
fore neither do the clouds afford sufficient raiai 
' nor the earth fruits, whereby many perish ; 
even the air itself, inflamed with anger, is 
to pestilential courses. However, whai 
good things we enjoy, He of His mercy 
the creature to our benefits. Still, against 
who dishonour the Maker of all, the whole 
ation is hostile. 



" And though by the dissolution of the 
you should escape punishment, how shall yottj 
able by corruption to flee from your soul, 
is incomiptible ? For the soul even of 
wicked is immortal, for whom it were better! 
to have it incorruptible. For, being 
with endless torture under unquenchable fiit|) 
never dying, it can receive no end of its 
But perhaps some one of you will say, 'Yon' 
rify us, O Peter.' Teach us then how we 

* We have adopted the reading of Codex O. The 
others is corrupt. 




satisfies even these unclean spirits, which lurk 
within you and cause you to take pleasure in 
the things that are transacted there, and in 
dreams surround you with false phantasies, and 
punish you with myriads of diseases. For under 
the show of the so-called sacred victims you are 
filled with dire demons, which, cunningly con- 
cealing themselves, destroy you, so that you 
should not understand the plot that is laid for 
you. For, under the guise of some injury, or 
love, or anger, or grief, or strangling you with a 
rope, or drowning you, or throwing you from a 
precipice, or by suicide, or apoplexy, or some 
other disease, they deprive you of life. 


** But no one of us can suffer such a thing ; 
but they themselves are punished by us, when, 
having entered into any one, they entreat us 
that they may go out slowly. But some one 
will say perhaps, Even some of the worshippers of 
God fall under such sufferings. I say that that is 
impossible. For he is a worshipper of God, of 
whom I speak, who is truly pious, not one who 
is such only in name, but who really performs 
the deeds of the law that has been given him. 
If any one acts impiously, he is not pious ; in 
like manner as, if he who is of another tribe 
keeps the law, he is a Jew ; but he who does not 
keep it is a Greek. For the Jew believes God 
and keeps the law, by which faith he removes 
also other sufferings, though like mountains and 
heavy.' But he who keeps not the law is mani- 
festly a deserter through not believing God ; and 
thus as no Jew, but a sinner, he is on account 
of his sin brought into subjection to those suffer- 
ings which are ordained for the punishment of 
sinners. For, by the will of God prescribed at 
the beginning, punishment righteously follows 
those who worshii) Him on account of trans- 
gressions ; and this is so, in order that, having 
reckoned with them by punishment for sin as for 
a debt, he may set forth those who have turned 
to Him pure in the universal judgment. For 
as the wicked here enjoy luxury to the loss of 
eternal blessings, so punishments are sent upon 
the Jews who transgress for a settlement of 
accounts, that, expiating their transgression here, 
they may there be set free from eternal punish- 


" But you cannot speak thus ; for you do not 
believe that things are then as we say ; I mean, 
when there is a recompense for all. And on this 
account, you being ignorant of what is advanta- 

* Biatt. xnL ao. 

geous, are seduced by temporal pleasures froi 
taking hold of eternal things. Wherefore w 
attempt to make to you exhibitions of what i 
profitable, that, being convinced of the promise 
that belong to piety, you may by good deed 
inherit with us the griefless world. Until tbo 
you know us, do not be angry with us, as if wi 
spoke falsely of the good things which we desin 
for you. For the things which are regarded bj 
us as true and good, these we have not scnii^ 
to bring to you, but, on the contiaiy, hxn 
hastened to make you fellow-heirs of gooc 
things, which we have considered to be such 
For thus it is necessary to speak to the unbe- 
lievers. But that we really speak the truth ii 
what we say, you cannot know otherwise thai 
by first listening with love of the truth. 


'^ Wherefore, as to the matter in hand, althoagi 
in ten thousand ways the serpent that lurfcs in 
you suggesting evil reasonings and hindnDCO^ 
wishes to ensnare you, therefore so much the 
more ought ye to resist him, and to listen to a 
assiduously. For it behoves you, consulting, ai 
having been grievously deceived, to know ho* 
he must be charmed. But in no other way is i 
possible. But by charming I mean the settiqi 
yourselves by reason in opposition to their cii 
counsels, remembering that by promise of knowl- 
edge he brought death into the world at the 


" Whence the Prophet of the truth, knowipg 
that the world was much in error, and seeing it 
ranged on the side of evil, did not choose tint 
there should be peace to it while it stood ift 
error. So that till the end he sets himstf 
against all those who are in concord witk 
wickedness, setting truth over against erroiii 
sending as it were fire upon those who are sobei»; 
namely wrath against the seducer, which % 
likened to a sword,^ and by holding forth 
word he destroys ignorance by knowledge, 
ting, as it were, and separating the living 
the dead. Therefore, while wickedness is 
conquered by lawful knowledge, war has 
hold of all. For the submissive son is, for 
sake of salvation, separated from the unl 
father, or the father fi-om the son, or the 
from the daughter, or the daughter from 
mother, and relatives from relatives, and 
from associates. 

3 [At this point the first discourse in die Rt 
ends; the following chapters (19-33) agree ~^'^ 
R$cognition*t vi. 4-14. — ILJ 

'Matt. X. 34. 





his enemies. And that it is so, listen : Philan- 
thropy is masculo-feminine ; and the feminine 
part of it is called compassion, and the male 

for any one except a prophet, who alone b 
omniscience, to know with respect to the thinj 
that are done by any one, which are his own, ax 

part is named love to our neighbour. But every which are not ; for all are seen as done by him 
man is neighbour to every man, and not merely ' Fhen I said, " I would learn how some ( 

this man or that; for the good and the bad, the men's wrong-doings or right-d^»: •-, are the 

friend and the enemy, are alike men. It be- own, and some belong to others, 
hoves, therefore, him who practises philanthropy 

to be an imitator of God, doing good to the chap. xxix. — sufferings of n- good. 
righteous and the unrighteous, as God Himself j^en Peter answered, - The 1 ., .t of tl 

vouchsafes His sun and His heavens to all m the ^^^y^ y^^ ^^^^ . q^^ things must ., . eds com 

present world. But if you wdl do good to the ^^^^ blessed, said he, is he by whom ihey conM 

good, but not to the evil, or even will punish j^ ^-^^ ^^^^^^ ^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^j. ^, 

them you undertake to do the work of a judge, ^^ ^^ j^j^ ^j^ l^ ^1^^^ ^ ^^^^ , , ^ 

you do not stnve to hold by philanthropy. ^^^j ^y^^^^ ^^me by means of evil men, and go( 

things are brought by good men, it mast nee 
CHAP, xxvn.— WHO CAN JUDGE. be in each man as his own to be either good . 

Then I said, "Then even God, who, as you bad, and proceeding fix>m what he has propose 

teach us, is at some time to judge, is not philan- in order to the coming of the subsequent go( 

thropic." Then said Peter, " You assert a con- or evil,^ which, being of his own choice, are 11 

tradiction ; for because He shall judge, on that arranged by the providence of God to 000 

very account He is philanthropic. For he who from him. This being so, this is the judgma 

loves and compassionates those who have been of God, that he who, as by a combat, com 

wronged, avenges those who have wronged through all misfortune and is found blamda 

them." Then I said, " If, then, I also do good he is deemed worthy of eternal life ; for tfaoi 

to the good, and punish the wrong-doers in re- who by their own will continue in goodness, 11 

spect of their injuring men, am I not philan- tempted by those who continue in evil by Ad 

thropic ? " And Peter answered, '' If along with own will, being persecuted, hated, slanderd 

knowledge ' you had also authority to judge, plotted against, struck, cheated, accused, tv 

you would do this rightly on account of your tured, disgraced, — suffering all these things b) 

having received authority to judge those whom which it seems reasonable that they shook! bl 

God made, and on account of your knowl- enraged and stirred up to vengeance, 
edge infallibly justifying some as the righteous, 

and condemning some as unrighteous. Then I chap. xxx. — offences must coms. 

said, " You have spoken rightly and tmly ; for it „ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^.^^^. ^^^ ^^^ ^ 

IS impossible for any one who has not knowledge f„i, jo these things afe guUty by mc^ 

to judge rightly. For sometimes some persons ^j- ^^^-^ ^^^^^ ^^ J^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ rf 

seem good, though they perpetrate wickedness m ^i^Uedness works these things by meaiioftH 
secret and some good persons are conceived to jj ^ counselled to compassionate ma? 

^ bad through the accusation of their enemies. ^^^^„^ ^^ ^ ^ej thTinstroinails 

But even if one judges, having the power of tor- wickedness through sin; and this counsd 

turing and examming. not even so should he ^^ ^^^^ ^^ His disciples as claiming phi 

altogether judge righteously For some persons. ^^^^ « ^^^ ^ ^^^^ J-^^ ^^ „ j^*;;^ 

being murderers, have sustamed the tortures, ^rong doer^ from condemnation, that, as it 

and have come off as innocent j while others, the timperate may help the druilken/bypi. 

being innocent, have not been able to sustain fastings, and benedictions, not r«d& 

he tortures, but have confessed felsely against ^^en^ng, lest they should compel themte 

themselves, and have been punished as guilty." ^^^l \^^ ^^^^ \ ^^^ .^ coSemnedby 

one to suffer, it is not reasonable for him to 
CHAP. xxvoL-DiFncuLTV OF juDGiNa ^g^ ^^^ him by whose means the 

Then said Peter, " These things are ordinary : comes ; for he ought to reason, that if he hi 

now hear what is greater. There are some men not ill-used him, yet because he was to be I 

whose sins or good deeds are partly their own, used, he must have suffered it by means 

and partly those of others ; but it is right that another. Why, then, should I be angry w* 

each one be punished for his own sins, and re- the dispenser, when 1 was condemn^ at I 

warded for his own merits. But it is impossible events to suffer? But yet, further: if we i 

« The wonl notedly rendered *«^/.^^a„d once omnuci- thcSC SamC things tO the evil On pretePCCj 

ence in this passage, properly signifies /orekntnultdge. The argu- \ "^^ ~ 

ment shows clearly that it means omniscience, of ti^uch ibreknowledge ' An mconrect quotatioo from Matt, jnrui. 7 ; Luke 
is the most signal manifestation. ^ I'his from a various " ~ 



[Homily X 



Now at break of day Peter entered, and 
said : ' " Clement, and his mother Mattidia, and 
my wife, must take their seats immediately on 
the waggon." And so they did straightway. 
And as we were hastening along the road to 
Balanaeae, my mother asked me how my father 
was ; and I said : '* My father went in search of 
you, and of my twin brothers Faustinus and 
Faustinianus, and is now nowhere to be found. 
But I fancy he must have died long ago, either 
perishing by shipwreck, or losing his way,' or 
wasted away by grief." When she heard this, 
she burst into tears, and groaned through grief; 
but the joy which she felt at finding me, miti- 
gated in some degree the painfuhiess of her 
recollections. And so we all went down together 
to Balanaeae. And on the following day we went 
to Paltus, and from that to Gabala ; and on the 
next day we reached Laodicea. And, lo ! before 
the gates of the city Nicetas and Aquila met us, 
and embracing us, brought us to our lodging. 
Now Peter, seeing that the city was beautiful 
and great, said : " It is worth our while to stay 
here for some days ; for, generally speaking, a 
populous place is most capable of yielding us 
those whom we seek."^ Nicetas and Aquila 
asked me who that strange woman was ; and I 
said : " My mother, whom God, through my lord 
Peter, has granted me to recognise." 


On my saying this, Peter gave them a sum- 
mary account * of all the incidents, — how, when 
they had gone on before, I Clement had ex- 
plained to him my descent, the journey under- 
taken by my mother with her twin children on 
the false pretext of the dream ; and furthermore, 
the journey undertaken by my father in search 
of her ; and then how Peter himself, after hearing 
this, went into the island, met with the woman, 
saw her begging, and asked the reason of her 
so doing; and then ascertained who she was, 
and her mode of life, and the feigned dream, and 
the names of her children — that is, the name 
borne by me, who was left with my father, and 

* [Comp. Recognitions^ rii. 95. Here the narrative is some- 
what fuller in detail. — R.] 

2 Cotelerius conjectureid o^aycVra for a^okivra — " being slain 
on our ioiimey." 

3 The first Epitome explains " those whom we seek " as those 
who are worthy to share in Christ or in Christ's Gospel 

* (In Recognitions^ vii. a6, 27, the recapitulation is more ex- 
tended. — R.J 

the names of the twin chfldren who travel 
along with her, and who, she supposed, had p 
ished in the deep. 


Now when this summary narrative had b< 
given by Peter, Nicetas and Aquila in ama 
ment said: ''Is this indeed true, O Rulers 
Lord of the universe, or is it a dream?" / 
Peter said : '' Unless we are asleep, it certai 
is true.*' On this they waited for a Uttle in d< 
meditation, and then said : '' We are Fausti 
and Faustinianus. From the commencement 
your conversation we looked at each other, i 
conjectured much with regard to ourseh 
whether what was said had reference to us 
not ; for we reflected that many coincidences M 
place in life. Wherefore we remained sib 
while our hearts beat fast. But when you ca 
to the end of your narrative, we saw dearly ' t) 
your statements referred to us, and then 
avowed who we were." And on saying tl 
bathed in tears, they rushed in to see tb 
mother ; and although they found her asle( 
they were yet anxious to embrace her. But Pd 
forbade them, saying : " Let me bring you ai 
present you to your mother, lest she should, 
consequence of her great and sudden joy, b 
her reason, as she is slumbering, and her spirit 
held fast by sleep." 


As soon as my mother had enough of sleep, sli 
awoke, and Peter at once began first to talk to hi 
of true piety, saying : " I wish you to know, 0«< 
man, the course of life involved in our religi<* 
We worship one God, who made the world whic 
you see ; and we keep His law, which has fori 
chief injunctions to worship Him alone, and t 
hallow His name, and to honoiu: our paieo) 
and to be chaste, and to live piously. Inadditil 
to this, we do not live with all indiscriminate) 
nor do we take our food from the same taUe 
Gentiles, inasmuch as we cannot eat along w 
them, because they live impurely. But when 
have persuaded them to have true thoughts, i 
to follow a right course of action, and have b 
tized them with a thrice blessed invocation, ti 
we dwell with them. For not even if it were 
father, or mother, or wife, or child, or brothei 

s The text is somewhat doubtfuL 
contained in the first Epiiomt, 

We have gbt& die mm 



as you interpreted the passage. For it i 
declared that He who made them is on< 
very first part of Scripture : '° * In th< 

hold, the heaven of heavens is the Lord's thy 
God, with all that therein is ; ' implying that, even 
if there are gods, they are under Him, that is, un- 
der the God of the Jews. And again : ' * The i ning God created the heaven and the 
Lord thy God, He is God in heaven above, and ! And it did not say, * the gods.* And soi 
upon the earth beneath, and there is none other else it says," * And the firmament show 
except Him.* And somewhere else the Scrip- handiwork.* And in another place it is \ 
ture says to the Jewish multitude,* * The Lord * The heavens themselves shall perish, b 
your God is God of gods ; * so that, even if there shalt remain for ever.* ** 
are gods, they are under the God of the Jews. 

And somewhere else the Scripture says in regard chap. dc. — simon tries to show th^ 

to Him,* * God, the great and true, who regard- scriptures contradict themselvi 

eth not persons, nor taketh reward. He doth exe- . , g. . , . « , adduced rlear 

cute the judgment of the fatherless and widow.* fr^'Tl^ 2^^^^^^ f^ i .vf . .1 

The ScriDture in calling the God of the Tews ^^^^ ^^^ Scnptures to prove that there i 

great and true, and executing judgment, marked S±,'.fi ^J'L '"^ .k^^^^^ ^'^^^! ^""^ 

out the others as small, and not toie. But also n2any<>r more from the same Scnptures 

somewhere else the S(;ripture says,3 'As I live, Jf^^^^^r'-H^.w^ '^' V V\ 

saith the Lord, there is no other God but me! ^^ ^J^ V a h f ""t """.f I «' ' 

I am the first, I am after this ; except me there AlZF"^^ f.l'' Z ^h "f ' 

is no God.' And again : ^ * Thou shalt fear the ^!^ ^ ^"/' J^P^^^^ ?^^f ^ ^^^ ^»^ ""^^ ^' 

Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve.' ^ V t Fu\ ?u ""^ ^ T 

A -J — J;» t <u— r» T,-»^i *u-. T^ I ought to maintain that there are gods, 

And again : ' Hear, O Israel, the Lord your . ° ccrintures also sav so vou showed 

God is one Lord.' And many passages besides '.lirri* .1 »fi »u^^ !°' y^" showed 

seal with an oath that God is oneTSid except ^^^^ "°V^, ""^' '^Z "i™^'. *^*^"^ 

Him there is no God. Whence I ;onder how, ^"P^. ^^ "»f "°"° """ ^^i °?"« 

when so many passages testify that there is one ^°^:. fTt'i*'^"' *^* very Scnptuit 

God, you say that tifere are Lny." °" V^ ^ * , "^ "^ "^""J! «°^'.^*^ ^ 

' ^ ^ •' that there is only one ; and sometimes t 

^«*« Trrrr e«*rAxr *i^ »,:....«.» r./Nxt..^T,T« ^^ ought not to be reviled, and at other tii 

CHAP. Vm. — SIMON AND PETER CONTINUE THE .1 u*. u *. 1 • i_^ 

DISCUSSION ^^^ ^^^^^ ' ^^^^ conclusion ought we 

to in consequence of this, but that the S 

And Simon said: 'My original stipulation themselves lead us astray?'* 
with you was that I should prove from the Scrip- 
tures that you were wrong in maintaining that we chap. x. — peter*s explanation of thi 
ought not to speak of many gods. Accordingly ent contradictions of scrifturi 
I adduced many written passages to show that * j t» j rj., ^ , 
the divine Scriptures themselves speak of many ^ ^"^ \^^^^ ^f'^: ^hey do not leac 
gods.** And Peter said : " Those very Scriptures ^"^ ^^"^^^^ ^J?^ J^""? }^, ^^^ ,5,^^ ^^^^ 
which speak of many gods, also exhorted us, say- tion agamst God which lurks hke a sei 
ing, 'The names of other gods shall not ascend each one. For the Scnptures lie befo 
upon thy lips.*^ Thus, Simon, I did not speak o«e h^^ "^^ny divers types. Each on 
contrary to what was written.'* And Simon said : ^^^ ^^^pwn disposition like wax, and ex 
" Do you, Peter, listen to what 1 have to say. ^}^ Scnptures and finding everything u 
You seem to me to sin in speaking against them,^ ^? moulds his idea of God according 
when the Scripture says,» 'Thou shalt not revile wish, laying upon them, as I said, his o 
fhe gods, nor curse the nilers of thy people.*** Position, which is like wax.'3 Smce, thi 
And Peter said: "I am not sinning, Simon, in one finds in the Scnptures whatever op^ 
pointing out their destniction according to the ^^^^ ^"^ ^^""^ in regard to God, for this 
Scriptures ; for thus it is written : 9 ' Let the gods ^^' ^'^^^' "^^.^*^s ^^^^ ,^^J^ ^% ^^^ 
who did not make the heavens and the earth "l^^^ g^,^^' ^.^^^^ ^^ moulded the form 
perish.* And He said thus, not as though some ^T^^ ^^^ ^^^i^' ^°™"^g ^^ ,^« ^^^^^ 
had made the heavens and were not to perish, ^^l^ ^^ ^? T- ^"^ ?^ sh^pe.'s Fc 
: edly the soul withm us is clothed with 1 

« Dcut. iv. 39. age for immortality. If I abandon the 

■ Dcut. X. 17. ^ ' 

3 Isa. xlix. x8, xIt. ai, xlhr. Cb — ^_^__^-^^-^_— ^_.^_____ 

4 Deut. vi 13. 10 Gen. L x. 
3 Dcut. vi. 4. " Ps. xix. I. 

6 Tosh, xxiii. 7, LXX. " Ps. cii. a6, 27. 

7 Namely, the gods. 13 [This statement of the sutjecdre method «f intexpR 
" Ex. xxii. 28. The mss. omit #«ovf, though they bscrt It in the curious harmony with the prevalent theory of this work 

passage as quoted a little before this. One MS. reads " the ruler " the mixture of error and truth in the Scriptures. — R.I 

with our version. 14 iScac. 

9 Jer. X. 11. «5 laop^^f. 



CHAP. I. — smoN COMES TO PFIER. those who woiship them, because they are 

Tm next day, therefore, .s Peter was to hold fe?' '''!,?!,^J"S™ ^ui^w *"! 

J- <'. (,- u _ 1- lU brass, or eold, or of some other lifeless ma 

a dm:uBs.on with Sunon, he rose earber than therefore th^ soul, because it knows that 

usual and prayed On ceasmg to pray Zaccha;,^ ; ; ^; ' ^ speU-bound b 

came in, and said : " Simon is seated without, „ _ , , *' > „ r „l . ■ 

J. . ■ L 1. 1 .u-.^ !■ f . ; m an equal deeree by means of what is vi 

discouisine with about thirty of his own special d . i i ■ . . _:i,i r- j .i.__ u .u 

, ,1 ^ A J u . J .1 1 . i._ . 11 .1 ""t looking to a temble God through the 

foUoweis." And Peter said : " Let him talk until „ , ,° ^ ^ ■■ ■. u ,, _ 

the altitude 3..»h,.,„d then let . begin the Z^^^S'I^^^'^^'aI ^X. «" 

iXtTas^'^:sx°^hr™dtwi^t^— ■^^f««y-»-«p»t^^^^^ 

, . ., ■ . i, . J J- 1. Peter; seemmg to free your souls from te 

our reply lo this, we shall go out and discourse." ■ , ' , ^-Jt „, j ,h» ™;„^ «<■.=, i, - 

, 1 "^ ' 31 -1 ° J ^ ■ .1. images,' drives mad the mind oi each one o 

And assuredly so It happened. Zacch^^, there- ^^/^^^^ t.^rible image, introducing God 

fore, went out, and not long after entered agam, ^ ^ ^ ^^ extremely just, 

and commumcated to Peter the discourse de- j^e ^hich is accompanied by what s te 

hvered by Simon agamst him." ^^^^1 ^^ ^^^ contemplative ^ul, by that . 

CHAP n — SIMON'S SPEECH AQUNSF PETER *^ entirely destroy the energy of a sound i 

CHAP. n.—siMONS SPEECH AGAINST PETER. Por the mind, when in the midst of such a s 

Now he said : " He accuses you, Peter, of is like the depth stirred by a violent wind, 
being the servant of wickedness, of having great turbed and darkened. Wherefore, if he c 
power in magic, and as charming the souls of to benefit you, let him not, while seeming K 
men in a way worse than idolatry.' To prove solve your fears which gently proceed from 
that you are a magician, he seemed to me to less shapes, introduce in their stead the te 
adduce the following evidence, saying ; ' I am shape of God. But has God a shiqw? I 
conscious of this, that when I come to hold a has, He possesses a figure. And if He I 
discussion with him, I do not remember a single figure, how is He not limited? And if lin 
word of what I have been meditating on by my- He is in space. But if He is in space, He i 
self. For while he is discoursing, and my mind than the space which encloses Him. And i 
is engaged in recollecting what it is that I than anything, how is He greater than a 
thought of saying on coming to a conference superior to all, or the highest of all? 
with him, I do not hear anything whatsoever of then, is the state of the case, 
what he is saying. Now, since I do not experi- 
ence this in the presence of any other than in chap. iv. — rr is asserted that Christ's h 
his alone. Is it not plain that I am under the ing is different from Peter's. 
influence of hb magic? And as to his doctrines ., ■ ^nd that he does not really bcUeve 
being worse than those of idolatry, I can make (he doctrines proclaimed by his icacheris 
that quite dear to any one who has understand- ^^^j f^^ ^^ proclaims doctrines opposite to 
ing. For there is no other benefit than this, that p^, ^e said to some one, as I lei^" Ol 
the soul should be freed from images ' of every ^^j good, for the good is one." Now, in s, 
kind. For when the soul bnngs an image before • ^f ^^^ ^ one, he no longer speaks of 
lis eye It is bound by fe^ and it pines away :^,t , ^^om the Scriptuils proclaim, 
through anxiety est it should suffer some calam- {^]^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ _ kills those who sin, 
1^ ; ajid being altered, it falls under the mfluence ^^^es alive those who live according to His 
Of a demon ; and being under his mfluence, it g^t that he did not really call Him who e 
seems to the mass to be wise. ^^^^^ of the world good, is plain to any OM 
can reflect. For the framer of the worid 
CHAP, m.- SIMON'S ACCiraATiON OF PETER. ^nown to Adam whom He had made, u 
" ' Peter does this to you while promising to Enoch who pleased Him, and to Noah whc 
make you wise. For, under the pretext of pro- seen to be just by Him ; likewise to Xbti 
claiming one God, he seems to free you from and Isaac, and Jacob ; also to Moses, and 
many lifeless images, which do not at all injure people, and the whole world. But Jesus 

' Thclmhu: "ininsi PtKi." ' [ThcHchapun an peculiar to the /bw'Ul.—R] 

■ [Coup. XKBtnitumi, UL 11, Ibi 1 ilmilar mzuiaUDu nude bj * M«L xix. ij. 

BOBi It the hiyiiiiiing of Uh MEaBd di^i duciuuon. — R.] ' The Gnoitic dUiincdoa txtweea the Cod «ka ii Jai 

' 4itmJimy, idolL God vho is good, i* hen 'rtiiTil on. 




of man, that the pure in heart ' may be able to 
see Him, that they may rejoice because they 
suffered. For He moulded man in His own 
shape as in the grandest seal, in order that he 
may be the ruler and lord of all, and that all 
may be subject to him. Wherefore, judging that 
He is the universe, and that man is His image 
(for He is Himself invisible, but His image man 
is visible), the man who wishes to worship Him 
honours His visible image, which is man. What- 
soever therefore any one does to man, be it 
good or bad, is regarded as being done to Him. 
Wherefore the judgment which proceeds from 
Him shaU go before, giving to every one accord- 
ing to his merits. For He avenges His own 

CHAP. vra. — god's ncuRE: smoN's objection 


" But someone will say. If He has shape, then 
He has figure also, and is in space ; but if He is 
in space, and is, as being less, enclosed by it, how 
is He great above everything ? How can He be 
everywhere if He has figure ? The first remark 
I have to make to him who urges these objec- 
tions is this : The Scriptures persuade us to have 
such sentiments and to believe such statements 
in regard to Him ; and we know that their dec- 
larations are true, for witness is borne to them 
by our Lord Jesus Christ, by whose orders we 
are bound to afford proofs to you that such is 
the case. But first I shall speak of space. The 
space of God is the non-existent, but God is that 
which exists. But that which is non-existent 
cannot be compared with that which is existent. 
For how can space be existent? unless it be a 
second space, such as heaven, earth, water, air, 
and if there is any other body that fills up the 
vacuity, which is called vacuity on this account, 
that it is nothing. For * nothing * is its more ap- 
propriate name. For what is that which is called 
vacuity but as it were a vessel which contains 
nothing, except the vessel itself? But being va- 
cuity, it is not itself space ; but space is that in 
which vacuity itself is, if indeed it is the vessel. 
For it must be the case that that which exists is 
in that which does not exist But by this which 
is non-existent I mean that which is called by 
some, space, which is nothing. But being noth- 
ing, how can it be compared with that which is, 
except by expressing the contrary, and saying 
that it is that which does not exist, and that that 
which does not exist is called space ? But even 
if it were something, there are many examples 
which I have at hand, but I shall content myself 
with one only, to show that that which encloses 
is not imquestionably superior to that which is 
enclosed. The sun is a circular figure, and is 

> Matt. V. 8. 

entirely enclosed by air, yet it lightens 
air, it warms it, it divides it ; and if the 
away from it, it is enveloped in darkne 
from whatsoever part of it the sun is n 
it becomes cold as if it were dead ; but 
is illuminated by its rising, and when it 1: 
warmed up by it, it is adorned with still 
beauty. ^And it does this by giving a s 
itself, though it has its substance limited, 
then, is there to prevent God, as be 
Framer and Lord of this and everythi 
fh)m possessing figure and shape and 
and having the communication of these < 
proceeding from Himself extended infin 



" One, then, is the God who truly exi 
presides in a superior shape, being the 1: 
that which is above and that which i 
twice,' which sends forth from Him as 
centre the life-giving and incorporeal pov 
whole universe with the stars and regions 
heaven, the air, the fire, and if anything 
ists, is proved to be a substance infinite in 
boundless in depth, immeasurable in I 
extending the life-giving and wise natu 
Him over three infinites.^ It must be, th 
that this infinite which proceeds fix>m I 
every side exists,^ having as its heart H 
is above all, and who thus possesses figv 
wherever He be. He is as it were in the 
of the infinite, being the limit of the u 
And the extensions taking their rise wit! 
possess the nature of six infinites ; of wh 
one taking its rise with Him penetrate 
the height above, another into the depth 
another to the right hand, another to the 1 
other in front, and another behind ; to 
He Himself, looking as to a number that i 
on every side,' completes the world in si 
poral intervals,* Himself being the res 
having the infinite age to come as His 
being the beginning and the end. For i 
the six infinites end, and from Him they 
their extension to infinity. 


" This is the mystery of the hebdomad 
He Himself is the rest of the whole who 

> The whole of this chapter is full of com ipti oo; '* twio 
in one ms. Various attempts have been made to amend tki 

i An emendation. 

4 The text is corrupt. We hare tnmslatnd iw' hnip 
Some think " three " sKouk) be omitted. Tbetlnee infin 
respect of height, depth, and breadth. 

^ As punctuated in Dressel, this reads, ** thM the infii 

^ The emendation of the transcriberof oncof theiBS. 

7 This refers to the following mode of exhibiting fht ua 
where each side presents the number three. 

* The creation of the world in six days. 

9 llie seventh day on which God lested, tbe tfpt «f i 
the future age. See RpittU ^BamaHtu, c xv. 




by Him, and became His apostle for a single 
hour, proclaim His utterances, interpret His say- 
ings, love His apostles, contend not with me 
who companied with Him. For in direct oppo- 
sition to me, who am a firm rock, the foundation 
of the Church,' you now stand. If you were not 
opposed to me, you would not accuse me, and 
revile the truth proclaimed by me, in order that 
I may not be believed when I state what I my- 
self have heard with my own ears from the Lord, 
as if I were evidently a person that was con- 
demned and in bad repute.* But if you say 
that I am condemned, you bring an accusation 
against God, who revealed the Christ to me, and 
jou inveigh against Him who pronounced me 
blessed on account of the revelation. But if, 
indeed, you really wish to work in the cause of 
truth, learn first of all from us what we have 
learned from Him, and, becoming a disciple of 
the truth, become a fellow- worker with us." 

I Matt. xvi. x8. 

' We have adopted an emendation of Schwegler's. The text 
reads, " in good repute/' [The word " oondemned " is supposed to 
be borrowed fiiom the acoount of the contest at Antioch in Gal. ii. xx, 
where it is applied to the Apostle Peter. This passage has therefore 
been regarded as a covert attack upon the Apostle Paul. — R.] 



When Simon heard this, he said : " F 
from me to become his or your disciple, 
am not ignorant of what I ought to kno 
the inquiries which I made as a leam< 
made that I may see if you can prove tha 
sight is more distinct than apparition.^ 1 
spoke according to your own pleasure ; ; 
not prove. And now, to-morrow I sha] 
to your opinions in regard to God, wh< 
affirmed to be the framer of the world ; 
my discussion with you, I shall show ths 
not the highest, nor good, and that your 
made the same statements as I now do 
shall prove that you have not imderstoo( 
On saying this he went away, not wis) 
listen to what might be said to the prop 
which he had laid down. 

s This passage is corrupt in the text. Dressd re 
activity is more distinct than apparitioo." By activity 
meant, "acting while one is awake, and in full per"** 
senses; |' and tnus the meaning would be neaiiy tne 



At break of day, when Peter went forth to 
discourse, Simon anticipated him, and said : 
"When I went away yesterday, I promised to 
you to return to-day, and in a discussion show 
that he who framed the world is not the highest 
God, but that the highest God is another who 
alone is good, and who has remained unknown 
up to this time. At once, then, state to me 
whether you maintain that the framer of the 
world is the same as the lawgiver or not? If, 
then, he is the lawgiver, he is just ; but if he is 
just, he is not good. But if he is not good, then 
it was another that Jesus proclaimed, when he 
said,* ' Do not call me good ; for one is good, 
the Father who is in the heavens.' Now a law- 
giver cannot be both just and good, for these 
qualities do not harmonize." * And Peter said : 
" First tell us what are the actions which in your 
opinion constitute a person good, and what are 
those which constitute him just, in order that 
thus we may address our words to the same 
mark." And Simon said: "Do you state first 
what in your opinion is goodness, and what 

' Matt. xix. 17. 

' [Comp. xviL 5, and Rec^gmUoiu, Ui. 37, 38.— R.] 


And Peter said : " That I may not ws 
time in contentious discussions, while 
the fair demand that you should give ; 
to my propositions, I shall myself answt 
questions which I put, as is your wish, 
affirm that the man who bestows ^ goods i 
just as I see the Framer of the world doin 
He gives the sun to the good, and the 
the just and unjust." And Simon said ; 
most unjust that he should give the same 
to the just and the unjust." And Pete 
"Do you, then, in your turn state to i 
course of conduct would constitute Him 
And Simon said: "It is you that mu« 
this." And Peter said : " I will. He wfc 
the same things to the good and just, a 
to the evil and unjust, is not even just ao 
to you; but you would with reason ca 
just if He gave goods to the good and 
the evil. What course of conduct, then 
He adopt, if He does not adopt the plan 
ing things temporal to the evil, if pej 
they should be converted, and things et< 
the good, if at least they remain good 
thus by giving to all, but by gratifying tl 

' There is a lacuna in one of the mss. befe, wbidi is 
various ways. We have inserted the word '* gooda ** 





"Why did you not receive him?" And when 
at the same time Athenodorus wished to say 
to me, " It was Faustus, your father ; " Appion 
anticipated him, and said, " We learned from 
gome one that Simon, finding him, urged him to 
go along with him,' Faustus himself entreating 
him, since he did not wish to see his sods after 
they had become Jews, And hearing this, wc 
came, for his own sake, in search of hiro. But 
since he is not here, it is plain that he spake the 
truth who gave us the information which we, 
hearing it from him, have given to you." And 
I Clement, perceiving the design of Peter, that 
he wished to beget a suspicion in them that he 
intended to look out among them for the old 
man, that they might be afraid and take to flight, 
assbted in his design, and said to Appion ; " Lis- 
ten to me, my dearest Appion. We were eager 
to give to him, as being our father, what we our- 
selves deemed to be good. But if he himself 
did not wish to receive it, but, on the contrary, 
fled from us in horror, I shaJl make a some- 
what harsh remark, ' Nor do we care for him.' " 
And when I said this, they went away, as if 
irritated by my savageoess; and, as we learn 
next day, they went to Judxa io the track of 

■ llukiiqifliedpiudrbjM^fectaMi 


Now, when ten days had passed away, then 
came one of our people ' from our father to an- 
nounce to us hoA- our father stood forward ■^^^a- 
licly in the sha|)e of Simon, accusing him ; > and 
how by praising Peter lie hail made the whole 
'"''■" "*" *"tioch long for him : and in consequence 
I said that they were eager to see him, 
there were some who were angry with 
ng Simon, on account of their surpass- 
on for Peter, and wished to lay handi 
s, believing he was Simon. Wherefore 
r that he might be put to death, had 
juest Peter to come immediately if he 
meet him alive, and to appear at the 
le to the city, when it was at the height 
iging for him.^ Peter, hearing this, 
multitude together to dehberate, and 
one of his attendants bishop ; and 
mained three days in Laodicea b^ 
healing, he hastened to the neighbor 
r Antioch. Amen. 

fmn the Rnefiiiliffni. 
t ii RUorcd by Dteau of I 
-ntiTe in the Ktctetiilitti 
[Ulead Df Ihu Kurvhu aI 

I (from tbe cioac of dup. ' 

bf XOIT- Ihc GCnfefVOO of tlK WB 

... , ituii, UM Apunk'i enir* iuo Aid- 

let dm, with tbc bun iHiaiDn of lb* endn fa^ 
bcbntit. It ihDiiidLt iddal. u iodicuia* te cbN 
two BBntim, Ikil tbo eIohiv nWBBa of Ikt Mm* 
■itb ili^ vuiMicQi, nifMvitMMt, x. iS.— K.] 







By professor BL B. RTODLE, D.D. 

Tbr translations which follow have been made from the critical edition of Tischendorf (see 
Bibliography at close of this volume). The text varies greatiy from that of Fabricius. It was 
found impossible to introduce the various readings and to cite the manuscript evidence supporting 
them. Those who are interested in such study will have recourse to the volumes of Tischendorf. 

The general character of the writings here grouped as *' Apocrypha of the New Testament " 
will appear from even a cursory perusal of them. It did not require any great discernment to 

i distinguish between these and the canonical books of the New Testament The negative internal 
evidence thus furnished in support of the authority of the latter need not be emphasized. But 
attention may well be called to certain historical facts in regard to these apocryphal writings : — 
£. I. No one of them ever obtained any general recognition among Christians ; still less, a place 

* in the Canon of the New Testament. A few so-called Gospels are referred to by early writers ; 
some obtained local recognition ; others, written for a purpose, were pressed into notice by the advo- 
cates of the tendency they were written to support : but, as a rule, the books were soon rejected, 
. and never obtained extensive circulation. 

2. Though a few of the Apocryphal Gospels are of comparatively early origin (see Transla- 
. tor's Introduction), there is no evidence that any Gospels purporting to be what our four Gospels 
tc are, existed in the first century, or that any other than fragmentary literature of this character 
i'-: existed even in the second century. The Canon of the New Testament was not formed out of a 
^~ mass of writings possessing some claim to recognition, though there is a popular impression to 

~ effect 

3. Here the character of the writings comes in as confirmatory evidence. Of the Apocryphal 
- Gospels in general, R. Hofmann ' well says : *' The method employed in these compositions is 

always the same, whether the author intended simply to collect and arrange what was floating in the 

tradition, or whether he intended to produce a definite dogmatical effect. Rarely he threw 

If on his own invention ; but generally he elaborated what was only hinted at in the Canoni- 

Gospels, or transcribed words of Jesus into action, or described the literal fulfilment of some 

ewish expectation concerning the Messiah, or repeated the wonders of the Old Testament in an 

hanced form, etc. The work done, he took care to conceal his own name, and inscribed his 

x>k with the name of some apostie or disciple, in order to give it authority." As a rule, there- 

fc, the Apocryphal Gospek give details regarding those periods of our Lord's life about which 

le New Testament is wisely silent 

* Schaff-Hcnog, i. p. 105. 



The genesis of much of the literature reaembles that of modem ** lives of Christ " written to 
present a view of the Person of our Lord which is not in accordance with the obvious sense of tiie 
New Testament. Probably some of the Apocryphal Gospels and Acts were not intended to be 
forgeries, but only novels with a purpose.' 

4. But while the early Church exercised proper discernment, and the Canon of the New 
Testament was soon definitely recognised and universally accepted, the apocryphal writings 
were not without influence. The sao^ legends, the ecclesiastical traditions, all too potent in 
their effi^ct, are in many cases to be traced to these writings. Much that Rome inculcates b 
derived from these books, which the Western Church constantly rejected. It is, therefore, not 
strange that modem Protestant scholarship has been most active in the investigation of this litera- 
ture. The study of these works furnishes not only a defence of the canonical books of the New 
Testament, but an effective weapon against that " tradition " which would overbear the authcmty 
of Holy Scripture. No attempt has been made to annotate the various works in illustration of 
the above positions, although the temptation to do so was very great. A few notes have been 
appended, but it was felt that in most cases the intelligent reader would not foil to draw the 
proper conclusions from the documents themselves. Those who desire to investigate further will 
find the best helps indicated either in the Introduction of the translator or in the Bibliography 
which closes this volume and series. 

It will be noticed that no Apocryphal Episdes are included in the literature which ft^ows. 
Such forgeries were less common, and the Apocryphal Acts furnished a more convenient channd 
for heretical opinions and argument. Of the few in existence, some appear, in connection 
with other works, in the Acts of Thaddaeus, in the Pseudo-Ignatian Episdes, in the Clementine 
Homilies (Epistles of Peter to James), and in Eusebius. The forged letters of Paul, to the 
Laodiceans and a third to the Corinthians, deserve little attention, being made to supply the sup- 
posed loss suggested by Col. iv. 16 and i Cor. v. 9. The correspondence of Paul and Seneca 
(six letters frt)m the former and eight fix)m the latter) has a certain interest, but scarcely deserves 
a place even among the apocryphal writings, 

> In most cases the vocabulary of the books furnishes positive evidence of the late origin. A great number of tenns can be traced tos 
particular period of ecclesiastical development, while the dogmatic tendencies which point to a given (and comparatively laie) period of €» 
trovcrsy are frequent and obvious. 


these translations has been to give a rendering of the original as literal as possible ; 

have adhered even in cases — and they are not a few — in which the Latin or the 

strict accordance with grammatical rule. It was thought advisable in all cases to 

the means of forming an accurate estimate of the style as well as the substance of 



i of the volume, extending from page 361 to page 476, comprising the Apocrypnal 
ly so called, consists of twenty-two separate documents, of which ten are written in 
ve in Latin. These twenty-two may be classed under three heads : (a) those re- 
story of Joseph and of the Virgin Mary, previous to the birth of Christ ; (d) those 
infancy of the Saviotu:; and {c) those relating to the history of Pilate. The 
traditions are the Protevangelium of James, the Gospel of Thomas, and the Acts 
^r most of the others can be referred to these three, as compilations, modifications, 

undant evidence of the existence of many of these traditions in the second century, 
>t be made out that any of the books were then in existence in their present form, 
mber of the authorities on the subject, however, seem to agree in assigning to the 
ies of the Christian era, the following five books : i. The Protevangelium of James ; 
of Pseudo-Matthew; 4. The History of Joseph the Carpenter; 5. The Gospel of 
he Gospel of Nicodemus. 
I to give a very brief notice of each of them. 

tevangeUum of James. — The name of Protevangelium was first given to it by Postel, 
rsion was published in 1552. The James is usually referred to St. James the Less, 
her ; but the titles vary very much.' Origen, in the end of the second century, 
k of James, but it is by no means clear that he refers to the book in question, 
n two passages, refers to the cave in which Christ was bom ; and from the end of 
iry down, there are numerous allusions in ecclesiastical writings to statements made 

ion Tischendorf made use of seventeen mss., one of them belonging to the ninth 
Greek is good of the kind, and free from errors and corruptions. There are trans- 
) English by Jones (1722) and Cowper (1867). 

spei of Pseudo-Matthew, — The majority of the mss. attribute this book to Matthew, 
s vary much. The letters prefixed, professing to be written to and by St. Jerome, 
of the MSS. ; but no one who is acquainted with the style of Jerome's letters will 
Luthentic. There are, however, in his works many allusions to some of the legends 
lis book. Chapters i.-xxiv. were edited by Thilo, chapters xxv. to the end are edited 

d's brother, in the earliest Christian literature, b not identified with Janice the ion of Alphaeus, one of die twehre. 
loCB oa fiat page oC text — R.] 



for the first time by Tischendorf. It is not very dear whether the Latin be origiDal, or 
translation from the Greek. In most part it seems to be originaL The list of epithi 
ever, applied to the triangles of the Alpha in chapter xxxL are pretty obviously mistzaDsli 
Greek technical terms, which it might not be difficult to reproduce. 

III. Gospel of ^ Nativity of Mary. — This work, which is in substance the same as ti 
part of the preceding, yet differs from it in several important points, indicating a later da 
different author. It has acquired great celebrity from having been transferred almost < 
the Historia Lombardica or Legenda Aurea in the end of the thirteenth century. Mediaev 
and sacred art have been very much indebted to its pages. 

The original is in Latin, and is not a direct translation fix)m the Greek. In many pa 
follows very closely the Vulgate translation. 

IV. The History of Joseph the Carpenter. — The original! language of this history i£ 
From the Coptic it was translated into Arabic. The Arabic was published by Wallin in i 
a Latin translation and copious notes. Wallin's version has been republished by Fabri 
later in a somewhat amended form by Thilo. This amended form of Wallin's version is 
adopted by Tischendorf. Chapters xiv.-xxiii. have been published in the Sahidic text by 
1810 with a Latin translation, and more correctiy by Dulaurier in 1835 ^^^ ^ French tn 

Tischendorf employs various arguments in support of his opinion that the work belon 
fourth century. It is found, he says, in both dialects of the Coptic : the eschatology of 
inconsistent with an early date : the feast of the thousand years of chapter xxvi. had beo 
of' heretical opinion after the third century. The death of the Virgin Mary in chapter v 
sistent with the doctrine of the assumption, which began to prevail in the fifth century. 

v., VI., VII. The Gospel of Thomas. — Like the Protevangelium of James, the G 
Thomas is of imdoubted antiquity. It is mentioned by name by Orlgen, quoted by Iren 
the author of the Philosophumena, who says that it was used by the Nachashenes, a Gnc 
of the second century. Cyril of Jerusalem {d. 386) attributes the authorship not to the 
but to a Thomas who was one of the three disciples of Manes. This fact, of course, 
that Cyril knew nothing of the antiquity of the book he was speaking of. This Manichae 
has been adopted by many writers, of whom the best known are in recent times R. Sii 

The text of the first Greek form is obtained from a Bologna ms. published by Mingare 
Latin translation in 1 764, a Dresden MS. of the sixteenth century edited by Thilo, a Vienn 
ment edited by Lambecius, and a Parisian fragment first brought to light by Coteler in hi 
of the Apostolical Constitutions, and translated into English by Jones. 

The second Greek form is published for the first time by Tischendorf, who got the m 
is on paper, of the fourteenth or fifteenth century, from one of the monasteries on Mount 

The Latin form is also published for the first time, from a Vatican MS. There is anotl 
text existing in a palimpsest, which Tischendorf assigns to the fifth century, and asserts to 
nearer the ancient Greek copy than any of the other mss. 

It seems pretty clear, from the contents of the book, that its author was a Gnostic, a 
and a Marcosian ; and it was held in estimation by the Nachashenes and the Manicna& 
bearing upon Christian art, and to some extent Christian dogma, is well known. 

The Greek of the original is by no means good, and the Latin translator has in ma 
mistaken the meaning of common Greek words. 

VIII. Arabic Gospel of the Saviour's Infancy, — Chapters i.-ix. are founded on the 
uke and Matthew, and on the Protevangelium of James ; chapters xxxvi. to the end 


VI. Acts of Andrew, — In the decree of Pope Gelasius (</. 496), a book under this name 
condemned as apocryphal. Epiphanius {d, 403) states that the Acts of Andrew were in fiivoi 
with the EncratiteSy the Apostolics, and the Origenians ; Augustine (d. 430) mentions that tl 
Acts of the Apostles written by Leucius Charinus — discipubis diaboHf as Pope Gelasius caDs hii 
— were held in estimation by the Manichaeans. The authorship generally is attributed to Leudi 
by early writers; Innocentius I. (^.417), however, says that the Acts of Andrew were compose 
by the philosophers Nexocharis and Leonidas. This book is much the same in substance with tb 
celebrated Presbyterorum et Diaconorum Achaia de martyrio S. Andrea aposloU episiola encycUci 
first edited in Greek by Woog in 1749, and by him considered to be a genuine writing of tii 
apostolic age, composed about a.d. 80. Thilo, while dissenting fh>m this opinion of Wopg^i 
concludes that it is a fragment from the Acts of Leucius, expurgated of most of its heresy, an 
put into its present shape by an orthodox writer. Cardinals Baronius and Bellarmine assig 
the epistle to the apostolic age ; Fabricius thinks it much later. 

The probability is that the book was written by Leucius, following earlier traditions, and tb 
it was afterwards revised and fitted for general reading by an orthodox hand. 

Though some of the traditions mentioned in the book are referred to by authors of the begin 
ing of the fifth centiuy, there does not seem to be any undoubted quotation of it before tb 
eighth and the tenth centuries. Some portions of Pseudo-Abdias, however, are almost in tbi 
words of our Greek Acts. 

The text is edited chiefly from two mss., — the one of the eleventh, the other of the ^ 
teenth century. 

The Greek of the original is good of the kind, and exhibits considerable rhetorical skOL 

VII. Acts of Andrew and Matthias. — Thilo assigns the authorship of these Acts also 10 
Leucius, and the use of them to the Gnostics, Manichaeans, and other heretics. Pseudo-AbM 
seems to have derived his account of Andrew and Matthias from the same source. Epiphaeii 
the monk, who wrote in the tenth century, gives extracts from the history. There is, besides, « 
old English — commonly called Anglo-Saxon — poem, Andrew and Helene, published by Jscofc 
Grimm in 1840, the argument of which in great part coincides with that of the Acts of Andret 
and Matthias. 

There is considerable doubt as to whether it is Matthias or Matthew that is spoken ot 
Pseudo-Abdias, followed by all the Latin writers on the subject, calls him Matthew. The Gie4; 
texts hesitate between the two. Tischendorf edits Matthias, on the authority of his oldest lAj 
There is also some discrepancy as to the name of the town. Some mss. say Sinope, oAafl 
Myrmene or Myma : they generally, however, coincide in calling it a town of ^Ethiopia. - 

Thilo, and Tischendorf after him, made use chiefly of three mss., only one of which, of 
fifteenth century, contains the whole book. The oldest is an uncial ms. of about the 

The Acts of Peter and Andrew, from the Bodleian ms., are inserted as an appendix to 
Acts of Andrew and Matthias. 

VIII. Acts of Matthew, — This book is edited by Tischendorf for the first time. It is a 
later production than the last, written in bad Greek, and in a style rendered very cumbrous bf < 
use of participial phrases. 

On the authority of the oldest ms., Matthew, not Matthias, is the name here. It is 
owing to this confusion between the names, that there is much uncertainty in the traditions 
ing St. Matthew. 

Tischendorf gives, in his Prolegonuna, a long extract from Nicephorus, which shows W^ 
was acquainted with this book, or something very like it. 

is edited from two mss., — a Piirisian of the eleventh century, and a 


IX. Acts of Thomas. — The substance of this book is of great antiquity, and in its original 
Ebnn it was held in great estimation by the heretics of the first and second centuries. The main 
lieresy which it contained was that the Apostle Thomas baptized, not with water, but with oil only. 
[t is mentioned by Epiphanius, Turribius, and Nicephorus, condemned in the decree of Gelasius, 
and in the Synopsis of Scripture ascribed to Athanasius, in which it is placed, along with the Acts 
of Peter, Acts of John, and other books, among the AntUegomena. St Augustine in three pas- 
sages refers to the book in such a way as to show that he had it in something very like its present 
form. Two centuries later, Pseudo-Abdias made a recension of the book, rejecting the more 
heretical portions, and adapting it generally to orthodox use. Photius attributes the authorship 
of this document, as of many other apocryphal Acts, to Leucius Charinus. 

The Greek text was first edited, with copious notes and prolegomena, by Thilo in 1823. The 
text fix>m which the present translation is made is a recension of five mss., the oldest of the tenth 

X. ConsummaHon of Thomas. — This is properly a portion of the preceding book. P^udo- 
Abdias follows it very closely, but the Greek of some chapters of his translation or compilation has 
not yet been discovered. 

The text, edited by Tischendorf for the first time, is fix)m a bis. of the eleventh century. 

XI. Martyrdom of Bartholomew. — This Greek text, now for the first time edited by Tischen- 
dorf, is very similar to the account of Bartholomew in Pseudo-Abdias. The editor is inclined 
to believe, not that the Greek text is a translation of Abdias, which it probably is, but that both it 
and Abdias are derived firom the same source. Tischendorf seems inclined to lay some weight 
upon the mention made by Abdias of a certain Crato, said to be a disciple of the Apostles Simon 
and Judas, having written a voluminous history of the apostles, which was translated into Latin by 
Julius Africanus. The whole story, however, is absiurd. It is very in^probable that Julius Africanus 
knew any Latin ; it is possible, however, that he may have compiled some stories of the apostles, 
tlu»t these may have been translated into Latin, and that P^udo-Crato and Pseudo-Abdias may 
have derived some of their materials from this source. 

The Greek text is edited fix)m a Venetian ms. of the thirteenth century. 

XII. Acts of Thctddctus. — This document, of which our text is the editio princeps^ is of some 
consequence, as giving in another form the famous letters of Christ to Abgarus. Eusebius ijl. E,y 
L 13) says that he found in the archives of Edessa the letters written by their own hands, and that 
he translated them firom the Syriac. The story of the portrait was a later invention. It is found 
in Pseudo-Abdias (x. i), and with great detail in Nicephorus i^H. E., ii. 7). There is consider- 
abk variety in the texts of the letters. They were probably written in Syriac in the third century 
by some native of Edessa, who wished to add to the importance of his city and the antiquity of 
his church. See the whole subject discussed in Dr. Cureton's Ancient Syriac Documents relative 
to ui^ earliest establishment of Christianity in Edessa. 

The Greek text, which is probably of the sixth or seventh century, seems, firom allusions to the 
synagogue, the hours of prayer, the Sabbath-day, etc., to have been written by a Jew. It is edited 
from a Paris Bfs. of the eleventh century, and a Vienna one of a later date. 

Xni. Acts of John. — A book under this title is mentioned by Eusebius, Epiphanius, Photius, 
aniong Greek writers; Augustine, Philastrius, Innocent I., and Turribius among Latin writers. 
Thu two last named and Photius ascribe the authorship to Leucius, discipulus diaboU^ who got 
the /nredit of all these heretical brochures. It is not named in the decree of Gelasius. 

Augustine {Trcutat. 124 in Johannem) relates at length the story of John going down alive 
into his grave, and of the fact of his being alive being shown by his breath stirring about the dust 
on ihe tomb. This story, which has some resemblance to the Teutonic legend of Barbarossa, is 
rep^jited by Photius. 


Tischendorfy upon what seems to be pretty good evidence, ascribes it to the year 380. It is 
fix>in a Milan MS. of not earlier than the fifteenth century. There is another ms. two centuries 
older ; but they both seem to be copied from the same original. The Syriac seems to be later 
than the Greek, and, according to Eastern &shion, fuller in details. 

IV. 77ie Apocalypse of John. — In the scholia to the Grammar of Dionysius the Thracian, 
ascribed to the ninth century, immediately after the ascription of the Apocalypse of Paul to Paul 
of Samosata, there occurs the following statement : ' And there is another called the Apocalypse of 
John the Theologian. We do not speak of that in the island of Patmos, God forbid, for it is most 
true ; but of a supposititious and spurious one.' This is the oldest reference to this Apocalypse. 
Asseman says he foimd the book in Arabic in three mss. 

The document was first edited by Birch in 1804, from a Vatican ms., collated with a Vienna 
MS. For his edition Tischendorf collated other five mss., two of Paris, three of Vienna, of from 
the fourteenth to the sixteenth century. 

Of other Apocalypses, Tischendorf in his Prolegomena gives an abstract of the Apocalypse of 
Peter, the Apocalypse of Bartholomew, the Apocalypse of Mary, and the Apocalypse of Daniel 
The Apocalypse of Peter professes to be written by Clement. There is an Arabic ms. of it in the 
Bodleian Library. It is called the Perfect Book, or the Book of Perfection, and consists of eighty- 
nine chapters, comprising a history of the world as revealed to Peter, from the foundation of the 
world to the appearing of Antichrist. 

The Apocalypse of Bartholomew, fh>m a ms. in the Paris Library, was edited and translated by 
Dulaurier in 1835. '^^ translation appears in Tischendorf 's Prolegomena. 

The Apocalypse of Mary, containing her descent to the lower world, appears in several Greek 
MSS. It is of a late date, the work of some monk of the middle ages. 

The Apocalypse of Daniel, otherwise called the Revelation of the Prophet Daniel about the 
consummation of the world, is also of a late date. About the half of the Greek text is given in 
the Prolegomena. We have not thought it necessary to translate it. 

v., VI., VII. The Assumption of Mary. — It is somewhat strange that the Greek text of this 
book, which has been translated into several languages both of the East and the West, is edited 
by Tischendorf for the first time. He assigns it to a date not later than the fourth century. A 
book under this title is condemned in the decree of Gelasius. The author of the Second Latin 
Form (see p. 595, note), writing under the name of Melito, ascribes the authorship of a treatise 
on the same subject to Leucius. This, however, cannot be the book so ascribed to Leucius, as 
Pseudo-Melito afiirms that his book, which is in substance the same as the Greek text, was writ- 
ten to condemn Leucius' heresies. 

There are translations or recensions of our text in Syriac, Sahidic, and Arabic. The Syriac was 
edited and translated by Wright in 1865, in his Contributions to the Apocryphal Literature of the 
New Testament. Another recension of it was published in XhtJoumcU of Sacred Literature for 
January and April, 1864. An Arabic version of it, resembling more the Syriac than the Greek or 
Latin, was edited and translated by Enger in 1854. The Sahidic recension, published and trans- 
lated by Zoega and Dulaurier, is considerably different from our present texts. The numerous 
Latin recensions also differ considerably from each other, as will be seen from a comparison of 
the First Latin Form with the Second. They are all, however, from the same source, and that 
probably the Greek text which we have translated. The Greek texts, again, exhibit considerable 
variations, especially in the latter portions. 

In the end of the seventh century, John Archbishop of Thessalonica wrote a discoiu:se on the 
falling asleep of Mary, mainly derived from the book of Pseudo-John ; and in some mss. this 
treatise of John of Thessalonica is ascribed to John the Apostle. Epiphanius, however, makes 
distinctive mention of both treatises. 


For his edition of the Greek text, Tischendorf made use of five iiss., the oldest of die deventh 

The First Latin Form is edited from three Italian biss., the oldest of the thirteenth century. 

The Second Latin Form, which has been previously published elsewhere, is fixnn a Venetian 
lis. of the fourteenth century. 

We have now concluded our notices, compiled chiefly from Tischendorf s Prolegomena^ of the 
Apocryphal literature of the New Testament 

While these documents are of considerable interest and value, as giving evidence of a wide- 
spread feeling in early times of the importance of the events which form the basis of our belief, 
and as affording us curious glimpses of the state of the Christian conscience, and of modes of 
Christian thought, in the first centuries of our era, the predominant impression which they leave 
on our minds is a profound sense of the immeasurable superiority, the unapproachable simi^dty 
and majesty, of the Canonical Writings. 

Sr. Amduws, Mk March, i8|0b 



magnified thy name, and thou shalt be blessed 
in all the generations of the earth. And Mary, 
with great joy, went away to Elizabeth her kins- 
woman,' and knocked at the door. And when 
Elizabeth heard her, she threw away the scarlet,^ 
and ran to the door, and opened it ; and seeing 
Mary, she blessed her, and said : Whence is this 
to me, that the mother of my Lord should come 
to me ? for, behold, that which is in me leaped 
and blessed thee.3 But Mary had forgotten the 
mysteries of which the archangel Gabriel had 
spoken, and gazed up into heaven, and said: 
Who am I, O Lord, that all the generations of 
the earth should bless me ? ^ And she remained 
three months with Elizabeth; and day by day 
she grew bigger. And Mary being afraid, went 
away to her own house, and hid herself from the 
sons of Israel. And she was sixteen $ years old 
when these mysteries happened. 

13. And she was in her sixth month; and, 
behold, Joseph came back from his building, 
and, entering into his house, he discovered that 
she was big with child. And he smote ^ his 
face,7 and threw himself on the ground upon the 
sackcloth, and wept bitterly, saying : With what 
face shall I look upon the Lord my God? and 
what prayer shall I make about this maiden? 
because I received her a virgin out of the temple 
of the Lord, and I have not watched over her. 
Who is it that has hunted me* down? Who has 
done this evil thing in my house, and defiled the 
virgin? Has not the history of Adam been 
repeated in me? For just as Adam was in the 
hour of his singing praise,' and the serpent 
came, and found Eve alone, and completely 
deceived her, so it has hapj)ened to me also. 
And Joseph stood up from the sackcloth, and 
called Mary, and said to her : O thou who hast 
been cared for by God, why hast thou done this, 
and forgotten the Lord thy God? Why hast 
thou brought low thy soul, thou that wast brought 
up in the holy of holies, and that didst receive 
food from the hand of an angel ? And she wept 
bitterly, saying : I am innocent, and have known 
no man. And Joseph said to her: Whence 
then is that which is in thy womb ? And she 
said : As the Lord my God liveth, I do not 
know whence it is to me. 

14. And Joseph was greatly afraid, and re- 
tired from her, and considered what he should 
do in regard to her.'° And Joseph said : If I 

I I.uke i. 39, 40. 

3 Other r«kdings are: the wool — what she had in her hand. 

3 Luke j. 43, 44. 

4 Luke I 48. 

5 Six Mss. have sixUen: ox»,/ourteen: tttOf fifteen: and one, 

6 The Latin translation has hungcUnun, 

7 Ezek. xxi. la; Jer. xxxi. 19. 
■ Two MSS. : her. 

9 Another reading is: As Adam was in Paradise, and in the hour 
of the singing of praise (doxology) to God was with the angels, the 
serpent, etc 
^^ Matt. i. 19. 

conceal her sin, I find myself fighting against 
the law of the Lord ; and if I expose her to 
the sons of Israel, I am afraid lest that whidi is 
in her be from an angel," and I shall be found 
giving up innocent blood to the doom of deatL 
What then shall I do with her? I will put her 
away from me secretly. And night came upon 
him ; and, behold, an angel of the Lord appears 
to him in a dream, saying : Be not afraid for 
this maiden, for that which is in her is of the 
Holy Spirit ; and she will bring forth a Son, smd 
thou shalt call His name Jesus, for He will save 
His people firom their sins." And Joseph arose 
from sleep, and glorified the God of Israel, who 
had given him tins grace ; and he kept her. 

15. And Annas the scribe came to him, and 
said : Why hast thou not appeared in our assem- 
bly? And Joseph said to him : Because I was 
weary from my journey, and rested the first day. 
And he turned, and saw that Maiy was witii 
child. And he ran away to the priest,'^ and said 
to him : Joseph, whom thou didst vouch for, has 
committed a grievous crime. And the priest 
said : How so ? And he said : He has defiled 
the virgin whom he received out of the temple 
of the Lord, and has married her by stealth, s)d 
has not revealed it to the sons of Israel And 
the priest answering, said: Has Joseph done 
this ? Then said Armas the scribe : Send offi- 
cers, and thou wilt find the virgin with chDd. 
And the officers went away, and found it as he 
had said ; and they brought her along with Jo- 
seph to the tribunal. And the priest said : Marj, 
why hast thou done this? and why hast then 
brought thy soul low, and forgotten the Lord thjr 
God ? Thou that wast reared in the holy of 
holies, and that didst receive food from the hand 
of an angel, and didst hear the hynms, and didst 
dance before Him, why hast thou done this? 
And she wept bitterly, saying : As the Lord ^ 
God liveth, I am pure before Him, and knot 
not a man. And the priest said to Joseph: 
Why hast thou done this? And Joseph said: 
As the Lord liveth, I am pure concerning her. 
Then said the priest : Bear not false witness, bat 
speak the truth. Thou hast married her bf 
stealth, and hast not revealed it to the sons of 
Israel, and hast not bowed thy head under the | 
strong hand, that thy seed might be Uessei 
And Joseph was silent 

16. And the priest said: Give up the viigii 
whom thou didst receive out of the temple of 
the Lord. And Joseph burst into tears. Anl 
the priest said : I will give you to drink of the 
water of the ordeal of the Lord,'^ and He sbl 
make manifest your sins in your eyes. And tke 

" Lit., angelic ; one MS. hai holy; the 
ing a slightly difierent reading, that it wonli met h§Jkirtn 

12 Matt. 1. ao. 

13 Three mss. haTC high priest, 

14 Num. V. XX, ff. 




hand. And, behold, an angel of the Lord stood 
by her, saying to her : Salome, Salome, the Lord 
hath heard thee. Put thy hand to the infant, 
and carry it, and thou wilt have safety and joy. 
And Salome went and carried it, saying : I will 
worship Him, because a great King has been 
bom to Israel. And, behold, Salome was im- 
mediately cured, and she went forth out of the 
cave justified. And behold a voice saying: 
Salome, Salome, tell not the strange things thou 
hast seen, until the child has come into Jeru- 

21. And, behold, Joseph was ready to go into 
Judaea. And there was a great commotion in 
Bethlehem of Judaea, for Magi came, saying: 
Where is he that is bom king of the Jews? for 
we have seen his star in the east, and have come 
to worship him. And when Herod heard, he 
was much disturbed, and sent officers to the 
Magi. And he sent for the priests, and examined 
them, saying : How is it written about the Christ? 
where is He to be bom? And they said: In 
Bethlehem of Judaea, for so it is written.' And 
he sent them away. And he examined the Magi, 
saying to them : What sign have you seen in 
reference to the king that has been bom? And 
the Magi said : We have seen a star of great 
size shining among these stars, and obscuring 
their light, so that the stars did not appear ; and 
we thus knew that a king has been bom to 
Israel, and we have come to worship him. And 
Herod said : Go and seek him ; and if you find 
him, let me know, in order that I also may go 
and worship him. And the Magi went out. And, 
behold, the star which they had seen in the east 
went before them until they came to the cave, 
and it stood over the top of the cave. And the 
Magi saw the infant with His mother Mary ; and 
they brought forth from their bag gold, and frank- 
incense, and myrrh. And having been wamed 
by the angel not to go into Judaea, they went into 
their own country by another road.* 

22. And when Herod knew that he had been 
mocked by the Magi, in a rage he sent murder- 
ers, saying to them : Slay the children ^ fix)m two 
years old and under. And Mary, having heard 
that the children were being kiUed, was afraid, 
and took the infant and swaddled Him, and put 
Him into an ox-stall. And Elizabeth, having 
heard that they were searching for John, took 
him and went up into the hill-coimtry, and kept 
looking where to conceal him. And there was 
no place of concealment. And Elizabeth, groan- 
ing with a loud voice, says : O mountain of God, 
receive mother and child. And immediately the 
mountain was cleft, and received her. And a 

I Two MSS. here add: And thou Bethlehem, etc., from Mtc. v. a. 
' Matt. ii. I-I3. One of the mss. here adds Matt. ii. 13-15, with 
two or three slight variations. 

* Four M88. bave«i//A# msig chiUrm,9»va. Mau. iL x6. 

light shone about them, for an angd of the Lord 
was with them, watching over them. 

23. And Herod searched for John, and sent 
officers to Zacharias, saying: Where hast thoa 
hid thy son? And he, answering, said to them: 
I am the servant of God in holy thingis, and I stt 
constantly in the temple of the Lord : 'I do not 
know where my son is. And the officers went 
away, and reported all these things to Herod. 
And Herod was enraged, and said : His son is 
destined to be king over IsraeL And he sent to 
him again, saying : Tell the truth ; where is thy 
son? for thou knowest that thy life is in my hand. 
And Zacharias said : I am God's martyr, if thou 
sheddest my blood ; for the Lord will receive my 
spirit, because thou sheddest innocent blood at 
the vestibule of the temple of the Lord. And 
Zacharias was murdered about daybreak. And 
the sons of Israel did not know that he had been 

24. But at the hoiu: of the salutation die 
priests went away, and Zacharias did not come 
forth to meet them with a blessing, according to ^ 
his custom.' And the priests stood waiting for 
Zacharias to salute him at the prayer,^ and to 
glorify the Most High. And he still delaying : 
they were all afraid. But one of them ventured 
to go in, and he saw clotted blood beside die 
altar ; and he heard a voice saying : Zacharias 
has been murdered, and his blood shall not be 
wiped up imtil his avenger come. And hearing 
this saying, he was afraid, and went out and told 
it to the priests. And they ventured in, and saw 
what had happened ; and the fretwork of die 
temple made a wailing noise, and they rent their 
clothes 7 from the top even to the bottom. And 
they found not his body, but they found his 
blood tiuned into stone. And they were afraid, 
and went out and reported to the people that 
Zacharias had been murdered. And all the 
tribes of the people heard, and mourned, and 
lamented for him three days and three nights. 
And after the three days, die priests consulted 
as to whom they should put in his place ; and 
the lot fell upon Simeon. For it was he who 
had been wamed by the Holy Spirit that he 
should not see deatii imtil he should see Hot 
Christ in the flesh.* 

And I James that wrote this history in Jerusa* 
lem, a commotion having arisen when Herod 
died, withdrew myself to the wilderness until 
the commotion in Jerusalem ceased, glorifying 

4 Another reading is: And Herod, ennged at diis, ordered biaB 
be slain in the midst of the altar before the dawn, thau the dsyiH 
of him might not be pr e v e nte d by the people. [tUi incideBt «■ 
probably suggested by the reference to ''Zacharias the too of Bi»> 
chias "m Matt xziii^s, Luke id. 5x; bat ooom a Quoa. adv. av"* 
-R.1 *». » 

^ ut.» the blessing of Zacharias did not oome feidi, etc 

6 Or. with pniw^ 

7 Another reading is: And was rent firom the top^ etc ^ 
* Luke ii. a6. One of the MSS. here adds Matt S. x9-«3f «■■ 

two or three veibal changes. 




die Lord God, ^rtio had given me the gift and the 
to write this history.' And grace shall 

* r A liming d att titft jg i non^ die mot ancjentof the Apocxy^ 
|HiGoipdSy it IS BOtewonhj taut newnterebetunsnoiii aeboratnig 
■KHiiMiiili en pointi fiilly aented in the Ceaonical Goepelt. The 
' cMttactar oi' the carikit of tiweewiitino is obvious. 

be with them that fear our Lord Jesus Christ, to 
whom be glory to ages of ages. Amen.' 

But whet s oontnst between the nnprcMnre 
ment nsnratiTeS| and the gamdity, not to 
drtailrd descriptions of the Nativx^l — R.] 
■ The Mss. Taiy mnch In the aoMoiogf, 

inddicac^f of these 


Here beginneth the book of the Birth of the 
Blessed Mary and the Infancy of the Saviour. 
Written in Hebrew by the Blessed Evangelist 
Matthew, and translated into Latin by the Bless- 
ed Presbyter Jerome. 

To their well-beloved brother Jerome the Pres- 
byter. Bishops Cromatius and Heliodoms in the 
Lord, greeting. 

The birth of the Virgin Mary, and the nativity 
and infancy of our Lord Jesus Christ, we find in 
apocryphal books. But considering that in them 
many things contrary to our faith are written, we 
have believed that they ought all to be rejected, 
lest perchance we should transfer the joy of 
Christ to Antichrist.' While, therefore, we were 
considering these things, there came holy men, 
Parmenius and Varinus, who said that your Holi- 
ness had found a Hebrew volume, written by the 
hand of the most blessed Evangelist Matthew, in 
which also the birth of the virgin mother herself, 
and the infancy of our Saviour, were written. 
And accordingly we entreat your affection by 
our Lord Jesus Christ Himself, to render it from 
the Hebrew into Latin,' not so much for the at- 
tainment of those things which are the insignia 
of Christ, as for the exclusion of the craft of 
heretics, who, in order to teach bad doctrine, 
have mingled their own lies with the excellent 
nativity of Christ, that by the sweetness of life 
they might hide the bitterness of death. It will 
therefore become your purest piety, either to 
listen to xis as your brethren entreating, or to let 
us have as bishops exacting, the debt of affec- 
tion which you may deem due. 


To my lords the holy and most blessed Bishops 
Cromatius and Heliodoms, Jerome, a humble 
servant of Christ, in the Lord greeting. 

He who digs in ground where he knows that 
there is gold,^ does not instantly snatch at what- 
ever the uptom trench may pour forth ; but, be- 
fore the stroke of the quivering spade raises aloft 
the glittering mass, he meanwhile lingers over 

' [This introduction is, of itself, an eridence of late origin. 
^ Lit., to Latin ears. 
3 Lit., conscious of gold. 



the sods to turn them over and lift them up, and 
especially he who has not added to his gaim 
An arduous task is enjoined upon me, since what 
your Blessedness has commanded me, the holy 
Apostle and Evangelist Matthew himself did not 
write for the purpose of publishing. For if he 
had not done it somewhat secredy, he would 
have added it also to his Gospel which he pub- 
lished. But he composed this book in Hebrew; 
and so little did he publish it, that at this day the 
book written in Hebrew by his own hand is in 
the possession of very religious men, to whom 
in successive periods of time it has been handed 
down by those that were before them. And thb 
book they never at any time gave to any one to 
translate. And so it came to pass, that when it 
was published by a disciple of Manichseus named 
Leucius, who also wrote the falsely styled Acts 
of the Apostles, this book afforded matter, not of 
edification, but of perdition; and the opinion 
of the Synod in regard to it was according to 
its deserts, that the ears of the Church should 
not be open to it. Let the snapping of those 
that bark against us now cease ; for we do not 
add this little book to the canonical writings, bat 
we translate what was written by an Apostle and 
Evangelist, that we may disclose the fiaLlsehood 
of heresy. In this work, then, we obey the com- 
mands of pious bishops as well as oppose impi- 
ous heretics. It is the love of Christy therefore, 
which we fulfil, believing that they will assist ns 
by their prayers, who through our obedience at- 
tain to a knowledge of the holy infimcy of oar 

There is extant another letter to the same 
bishops, attributed to Jerome : — 

You ask me to let you know what I think of 
a book held by some to be about the nativity of 
St. Mary. And so I wish you to know that there 
is much in it that is false. For one Seleucus, 
who wrote the Sufferings of the Aposdes, com- 
posed this book. But, just as he wrote what was 
true about their powers, and the miracles they 
worked, but said a great deal that was false about 
their doctrine ; so here too he has invented many 
untruths out of his own head. I shall take care 
i to render it word for word, exactly as it is in the 



should abide in the temple of God, they fell 
upon the plan of sending a herald through all 
the tribes of Israel, that on the third day all 
should come together into the temple of the 
Lord. And when all the people had come 
together, Abiathar the high priest rose, and 
mounted on a higher step, that he might be 
seen and heard by all the people; and when 
great silence had been obtained, he said : Hear 
me, O sons of Israel, and receive my words into 
your ears. Ever since this temple was built 
by Solomon, there have been in it virgins, the 
daughters of kings and the daughters of proph- 
ets, and of high priests and priests ; and they 
were great, and worthy of admiration. But 
when they came to the proper age they were 
given in marriage, and followed the course of 
their mothers before them, and were pleasing to 
God. But a new order of life has been found 
out by Mary alone, who promises that she will 
remain a virgin to God. Wherefore it seems to 
me, that through our inquiry and the answer of 
God we shoula try to ascertain to whose keep- 
ing she ought to be entrusted. Then these 
words found &vour with all the synagogue. And 
the lot was cast by the priests upon the twelve 
tribes, and the lot fell upon the tribe of Judah. 
And the priest said : To-morrow let every one 
who has no wife come, and bring his rod in 
his hand. Whence it happened that Joseph' 
brought his rod along with the young men. 
And the rods having been handed over to the 
high priest, he offered a sacrifice to the Lord 
God, and inquired of the Lord. And the Lord 
said to him : Put all their rods into the holy of 
holies of God, and let them remain there, and 
order them to come to thee on the morrow to 
get back their rods; and the man from the 
point of whose rod a dove shall come forth, and 
fly towards heaven, and in whose hand the rod, 
when given back, shall exhibit this sign, to him 
let Mary be delivered to be kept. 

On the following day, then, all having assem- 
bled early, and an incense-offering having been 
made, the high priest went into the holy of ho- 
lies, and brought forth the rods. And when he 
had distributed the rods,* and the dove came 
forth out of none of them, the high priest put 
on the twelve bells ^ and the sacerdotal robe; 
and entering into the holy of holies, he there 
made a burnt-offering, and poured forth a prayer. 
And the angel of the Lord appeared to him, 
saying : There is here the shortest rod, of which 
thou hast made no account : thou didst bring it 
in with the rest, but didst not take it out with 
them. When thou hast taken it out, and hast 

* One of the mss. adds: Seeine that he had not a wife, and not 
wishins to slisht the order of the nigh priest. 

' One of the mss. inserts: To the number of three thousand. 
3 See Protev. James 8. 

given it him whose it is, in it will appear tbe 
sign of which I spoke to thee. Now that wb 
Joseph's rod ; and because he was an old mm, 
he had been cast off, as it were, that he mi^ 
not receive her, but neither did he himself wAl 
to ask back his rod.^ And when he was humblj 
standing last of all, the high priest cried oat to 
him with a loud voice, saying : Come, Joseph, 
and receive thy rod ; for we are waiting for tiiee. 
And Joseph came up trembling, because tbe 
high priest had called him with a very loud 
voice. But as soon as he stretched forth liii 
hand, and laid hold of his rod, inunediit^ 
from the top of it came forth a dove iriuter 
than snow, beautiful exceedingly, which, after 
long flying about the looh of the temple, at 
length flew towards the heavens. Then all the 
people congratulated the old man, sa3nng : Them 
hast been made blessed in thine old age, 
father Joseph, seeing that God hath shown thee 
to be flt to receive Mary. And the priests hai^ 
ing said to him. Take her, because of all the 
tribe of Judah thou alone hast been chosen bf 
God ; Joseph began bashflilly to address theo^ 
saying : I am an old man, and have children; 
why do you hand over to me this infant, idio i 
younger than my grandsons? Then Abiathar 
the high priest said to him : Remember, Joaepk^ 
how Dathan and Abiron and Core peridied, b^ 
cause they despised the will of God. So wiDft 
happen to thee, if thou despise this idiich i 
commanded thee by God. Joseph ansireRi 
him : I indeed do not despise the will of God; 
but I shall be her guardian imtil I can ascextaii 
concerning the will of God, as to which of raf 
sons can have her as his wife. Let some viigii 
of her companions, with whom she may meifr 
while spend her time, be given for a consolatka 
to her. Abiathar the high priest answered arf ^ 
said : Five virgins indeed shall be given herte 
consolation, until the appointed day come ii 
which thou mayst receive her ; for to no other 
can she be joined in marriage. 

Then Joseph received Mary, with the other 
five virgins who were to be with her in J 
house. These virgins were Rebecca, Sci 
Susanna, Abigea, and Gael ; to whom the 
priest gave the silk, and the blue,' and the 
linen, and the scarlet, and the purple, and 
fine flax. For they cast lots among th( 
what each virgin should do, and the purple for 
veil of the temple of the Lord fell to the lot 
Mary. And when she had got it, those 
said to her : Since thou art ti^e last, and b 
and younger than all, thou hast deserved to 
ceive and obtain the purple. And thus 


* Another and more probable reading is: And diis w« M 
rod; and he was of an abject aDpeaianoe, seeing diat he W Mlf^ 
he would not ask back his rod, lest prrriwnor he n^^ bt fe^ 
receive her. 

< Or, hyacinth. 



what Thet is, and I will tell thee what Aleph is. 
And again Jesus said to them : Those who do 
not know Aleph, how can they say Thet, the 
hypocrites? Tell me what the first one, Aleph, 
is ; and I* shall then believe you when you have 
said Beth. And Jesus began to ask the names 
of the letters one by one, and said : Let the 
master of the law tell us what the first letter is, 
or why it has many triangles, gradate, subacute, 
mediate, obduced, produced, erect, prostrate, 
curvistrate.' And when Levi heard this, he was 
thunderstruck at such an arrangement of the 
names of the letters. Then he began in the 
hearing of all to cry out, and say : Ought such 
a one to live on the earth ? Yea, he ought to be 
hung on the great cross. For he can put out 
fire, and make sport of other modes of punish- 
ment. I think that he lived before the flood, 
and was bom before the deluge. For what womb 
bore him ? or what mother brought him forth ? 
or what breasts gave him suck ? I flee before 
him ; I am not able to withstand the words from 
his mouth, but my heart is astounded to hear 
such words. I do not think that any man can 
understand what he says, except God were with 
him. Now I, unfortunate wretch, have given 
myself up to be a laughing-stock to him. For 
when I thought I had a scholar, I, not knowing 
him, have found my master. What shall I say? 
I cannot withstand the words of this child : I 
shall now flee from this town, because I cannot 
understand them. An old man like me has 
been beaten by a boy, because I can find neither 
beginning nor end of what he says. For it is 
no easy matter to find a beginning of himself.* 
I tell you of a certainty, I am not lying, that to 
my eyes the proceedings of this boy, the com- 
mencement of his conversation, and the upshot 
of his intention, seem to have nothing in com- 
mon with mortal man. Here then I do not 
know whether he be a wizard or a god ; or at 
least an angel of God speaks in him. Whence 
he is, or where he comes from, or who he will 
turn out to be, I know not. Then Jesus, smiling 
at him with a joyful countenance, said in a com- 
manding voice to all the sons of Israel standing 
by and hearing : Let the unfruitful bring forth 
fruit, and the blind see, and the lame walk right, 
and the poor enjoy the good things of this life, 

* The original — triangulos gradatos^ svheuutoSy mediatos, 
ohducioSf prt^uctos. trectos^ stratos, curvistratas — is hopelessly 
corrupt. Compare tne ^issages in the following Apocrypha. [The 
Gospel of Thomas, first Greek form, chaps. 6, 7, suid parallel passages. 
— K . ] It obviously, however, refers to the Pentalpha , rentacle . or Solo- 
mon's 5^al, celebrated in the remains of the magical books that have 
come down to us under the names of Hermes and the Pythagoreans. 
The Pentalpha was formed by joining by straight lines the alternate 
angles of a regular pentagon, and thus contained numerous triangles. 
The Pythagoreans callca it the Hygiea or symbol of health, and it 
was frequently engraved on amulets and coins. It is still, if the 
books are to oe trusted, a symbol of power in the higher grades of 

' i.e.. It is not wonderful that we do not understand what he says, 
for we do not know what be is. 

and the dead live, that each may return to his 
original state, and abide in Him who b the root 
of life and of perpetual sweetness. And when 
the child Jesus haid said this, forthwith all who 
had fallen under malignant diseases were re- 
stored. And they did not dare to say anything 
more to Him, or to hear anything firom Hun. 

Chap. 32. — After these things, Joseph and 
Mary departed thence with Jesus into the dty 
of Nazareth ; and He remained there with His 
parents. And on the first of the week, wfaoi 
Jesus was playing with the children on the roof 
of a certain house, it happened that one of 
the children pushed another down from the roof 
to the ground, and he was killed* And the par- 
ents of the dead boy, who had not seen this, 
cried out against Joseph and Maiy, saying : Yoar 
son has thrown our son down to die ground, and 
he is dead. But Jesus was silent, and answered 
them nothing. And Joseph and Mary came in 
haste to Jesus; and His mother asked Him, 
saying : My lord, tell me if thou didst throw 
him down. And immediately Jesus went down 
fi'om the roof to the ground, and called the bo]r 
by his name, 2^no. And he answered Him : Mj 
lord. And Jesus said to him : Was it I that 
threw thee down from the roof to the ground? 
And he said : No, my lord. And the parents of 
the boy who had been dead wondered, and 
honoured Jesus for the miracle that had been 
wrought. And Joseph and Mary departed , 
thence with Jesus to Jericho. 

Chap. 33. — Now Jesus was six years old, and 
His mother sent Him with a pitcher to the foun- 
tain to draw water with the children. And it 
came to pass, after He had drawn the water, that 
one of the children came against Him, and struck 
the pitcher, and broke it. But Jesus stretched 
out the cloak which He had on, and took up -i 
in His cloak as much water as there had been in 
the pitcher, and carried it to His mother. hA 
when she saw it she wondered, and reflected widiin 
herself, and laid up all these things in her heart' 

Chap. 34. — Again, on a certain day. He went 
forth into the field, and took a little wheat fron 
His mother's bam, and sowed it Himselfl And 
it sprang up, and grew, and multiplied exceed* 
ingly. And at last it came to pass that He 
Himself reaped it, and gathered as the produce 
of it three kors,^ and gave it to His numeroni i 
acquaintances.' } 

Chap. 35. — There is a road going out of Joi' 
cho and leading to the river Jordan, to the ph^ 


3 Luke ii. 19. 

4 The kor or chomer wmi. 

to Jalm, •qml to 31 pK^ ' 

i MnltipUcibut tuu. 




pened to be absent, they used to wait until He 
should do this. And when He did not wish to 
come for refreshment, neither Joseph nor Mary, 
oorthe sons of Joseph, His brotibers, came. And, 
indeed, these brothers^ keeping His life as alamp 

before their eyes, observed Him, and feared 
Him. And when Jesus slept, whether by day 
or by night, the brightness of God shone upon 
Him. To whom be all praise and glory for ever 
and ever. Amen, amen. 


Chap. i. — The blessed and glorious ever-vir- 
gin Mary, sprung from the royal stock and family 
of David, bom in the city of Nazareth, was 
brought up at Jerusalem in the temple of the 
Lord. Her father was named Joachim, and 
her mother Anna. Her father's house was 
from Galilee and the city of Nazareth, but her 
mother's family from Bethlehem. Their life was 
guileless and right before the Lord, and irre- 
proachable and pious before men. For they 
divided all their substance into three parts. 
One part they spent upon the temple and the 
temple servants; another they distributed to 
strangers and the poor ; the third they reserved 
for themselves and the necessities of their family. 
Thus, dear to God, kind to men, for about twenty 
years they lived in their own house, a chaste mar- 
ried life, without having any children. Never- 
theless they vowed that, should the Lord happen 
to give them offspring, they would deliver it to 
the service of the Lord ; on which account also 
they used to visit the temple of the Lord at each 
of the feasts during the year. 

Chap. 2. — And it came to pass that the fes- 
tival of the dedication ' was at hand ; wherefore 
also Joachim went up to Jerusalem with some 
men of his own tribe. Now at that time Issa- 
char' was high priest there. And when he saw 
Joachim with his offering among his other fellow- 
citizens, he despised him, and spumed his gifts, 
asking why he, who had no offspring, presumed 
to stan4 among those who had ; saying that his 
gifts could not by any means be acceptable to 
God, since He had deemed him unworthy of off- 
spring : for the Scripture said. Cursed is every 
one who has not begot a male or a female in 
Israel.' He said, therefore, that he ought first 
to be freed from this curse by the begetting of 
children; and then, and then only, that he 
should come into the presence of the Lord with 
his offerings. And Joachim, covered with shame 
from tnis reproach that was thrown in his teeth, 

I X Mace W, sa-so; a Mace. x. z-8; John x. aa; Josephus, Am- 
tiq, xu. 7. 

> The spelling in the text is that in the Hebrew, the Samaritan 
Codex, theTargums, and Uie Textus Receptus. There is no Issa- 
char in the list of high priests. 

> Thb statement docs not occur in Scripture in so many words: 
Imu slerility wms lookwl upon as a punishment irom God. 


retired to the shepherds, who were in Aeir pa* 
tures with their flocks; nor would he retom 
home, lest perchance he might be branded vith 
the same reproach by those of his own tribc^ 
who were there at the time, and had heard thb 
from the priest 

Chap. 3. — Now, when he had been there tat 
some time, on a certain day when he was alone^ 
an angel of the Lord stood by him in a gmt: 
light And when he was disturbed at his a]^leil^i 
ance, the angel who had appeared to hun le^j 
strained his fear, saying : Fear not, Joachim, 
be disturbed by my appearance ; for I am 
angel of the Lord, sent by Him to thee to 
thee that thy prayers have been heard, and 
thy charitable deeds have gone up into His 
ence.^ For He hath seen thy shame, and 
heard the reproach of unfruitfulness wfaidi 
been unjustly brought against thee. For God 
the avenger of sin, not of nature : and, 
fore, when He shuts up the womb of any one, \ 
does so that He may miraculously open it 
so that that which is bom may be acknoi 
to be not of lust, but of the gift of God. 
was it not the case that the first mother of 
nation — Sarah — was barren up to her eight 
year? 5 And, nevertheless, in extreme dd 
she brought forth Isaac, to whom the 
was renewed of the blessing of aU 
Rachel also, so favoured of the Lord, and so 
loved by holy Jacob, was long barren ; and 
she brought forth Joseph, who was not oolyj 
lord of Egypt, but the deliverer of many; 
who were ready to perish of hunger, 
among the judges was either stronger than 
son, or more holy than Samuel? And yet 
mothers of both were barren. If, therefore^ < 
reasonableness of my words does not . 
thee, believe in fact that conceptions veiylitel 
life, and births in the case of women that 
been barren, are usually attended with 
wonderful. Accordingly thy wife Anna wiQ 1 
forth a daughter to thee, and thou shalt caB 
name Mary : she shall be, as you have 
consecrated to the Lord from heriD&iicyi 

4 Comp. Acts z. 4. 
f Gen. xriL 17. Sarah 





that, moreover, she herself had made to the Lord 
a vow of virginity, which she would never vio- 
late by any intercourse with man. And the high 
priest, being placed in great perplexity of mind, 
seeing that neither did he think that the vow 
should be broken contrary to the Scripture, 
which says. Vow and pay,* nor did he dare to 
introduce a custom unknown to the nation, gave 
order that at the festival, which was at hand, all 
the chief persons from Jerusalem and the neigh- 
bourhood should be present, in order that from 
their advice he might know what was to be done 
in so doubtful a case. And when this took 
place, they resolved unanimously that the Lord 
should be consulted upon this matter. And 
when they all bowed themselves in prayer, the 
high priest went to consult God in the usual 
way. Nor had they long to wait : in the hear- 
ing of all a voice issued from the oracle and from 
the mercy-seat, that, according to the prophecy 
of Isaiah, a man should be sought out to whom 
the virgin ought to be entrusted and espoused. 
For it is clear that Isaiah says : A rod shall come 
forth from the root of Jesse, and a flower shall 
ascend from his root ; and the Spirit of the Lord 
shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and 
understanding, the spirit of counsel and strength, 
the spirit of wisdom and piety ; and he shall be 
filled with the spirit of the fear of the Lord.' 
According to this prophecy, therefore, he pre- 
dicted that all of the house and family of David 
that were unmarried and fit for marriage should 
bring there rods to the altar ; and that he whose 
rod after it was brought should produce a flower, 
and upon the end of whose rod the Spirit of the 
Lord should settle in the form of a dove, was 
the man to whom the virgin ought to be en- 
trusted and espoused. 

Chap. 8. — Now there was among the rest 
Joseph, of the house and family of David, a man 
of great age : and when all brought there rods, 
according to the order, he alone withheld his. 
Wherefore, when nothing in conformity with the 
divine voice appeared, the high priest thought 
it necessary to consult God a second time ; and 
He answered, that of those who had been desig- 
nated, he alone to whom the virgin ought to be 
espoused had not brought his rod. Joseph, 
therefore, was found out. For when he had 
brought his rod, and the dove came from heaven 
and settled upon the top of it, it clearly appeared 
to all that he was the man to whom the virgin 
should be espoused. Therefore, the usual cere- 
monies of betrothal having been gone through, 
he went back to the city of Bethlehem to put 
his house in order, and to procure things neces- 
sary for the marriage. But Mary, the virgin of 

' Pi. Ixxvi. II. 
* In. xi. I, a. 

the Lord, with seven other viigins of her own 
age, and who had been weaded at the same 
time, whom she had received from the priest, 
returned to the house of her parents in Galilee. 

Chap. 9. — And in those days, that is, at the 
time of her first coming into GalOee, the angel 
Gabriel was sent to her by God, to announce to 
her the conception of the Lord, and to explain 
to her the manner and order of the conceptioiL 
Accordingly, going in, he filled the chsunber 
where she was with a great light; and most 
courteously saluting her, he said: Hail, Maryl 
O virgin highly favoured by the Lord, virgin M 
of grace, the Lord is with thee ; blessed art thou 
above all women, blessed above all men thrt 
have been hitherto bom.^ And the virgin, wto 
was already well acquainted with angelic hccSf 
and was not unused to the light from heaven, was 
neither terrified by the vision of the angel, not 
astonished at the greatness of the light, but cmfy 
perplexed by his words ; and she began to oonh 
sider of what nature a salutation so unusual could 
be, or what it could portend, or what end it 
could have. And the angel, divinely inspire^ 
taking up this thought, says : Fear not, Mauy, ai ■ 
if anything contrary to thy chastity were hid^ 
under this salutation. For in choosing chastity ^ 
thou hast found favour with the Lord ; and thae- 
fore thou, a virgin, shalt conceive without sii^, 
and shalt bring forth a son. He shall be greal^ 
because He shall rule fix}m sea to sea, and from 
the river even to the ends of the earth ; ♦ and 
He shall be called the Son of the Most Higb, 
because He who is bom on earth in humiliation, 
reigns in heaven in exaltation ; and the Lord 
God will give Him the throne of His father Da- 
vid, and He shall reign in the house of Jacob 
for ever, and of His kingdom there shall be no 
end j 5 forasmuch as He is King of kings and 
Lord of lords,* and His throne is from everlast- 
ing to everlasting. The virgin did not doubt 
these words of the angel ; but wishing to know 
the manner of it, she answered : How can that 
come to pass? For while, according to my 
vow, I never know man, how can I bring forth 
without the addition of man's seed ? To tbii 
the angel says : Think not, Mary, that thou shiM ■ 
conceive in the manner of mankind : for widh 
out any intercourse with man, thou, a virgin, wiH ] 
conceive ; thou, a virgin, wilt bring forth ; thoi^ 
a virgin, wilt nurse : for the Holy Spirit shaB 
come upon thee, and the power of the Mort 
High shall overshadow thee,^ without any of d* 
heats of lust ; and therefore that which shall be ; 
bom of thee shall alone be holy, because i\ 

> Luke z. 36-38. 
4 Ps. IxxiL 8. 
i Luke i. 33, 33. 
6 Rev. xix. 10. 
' Luke L 35. 



)ne, being conceived and bom without sin, 

aU be called the Son of God. Then Mary 

«tched forth her hands, and raised her eyes 

heaven, and said : Behold the hand-maiden 

the Lord, for I am not worthy of the name 

' lady ; let it be to me according to thy word. 

It will be long, and perhaps to some even 

dioas, if we insert in this little work every 

ing which we read of as having preceded or 

Ikmed the Lord's nativity : wherefore, omitting 

ose things which have been more fully written 

the Gospel, let us come to those wliich are 

ild to be less worthy of being narrated. 

Chap. 10. — Joseph therefore came from Ju- 

6a into Galilee, intending to marry the virgin 

K) had been betrothed to him; for already 

tee months had elapsed, and it was the begin- 

iig of the fourth since she had been betrothed 

him. Li the meantime, it was evident from 

r shape that she was pregnant, nor could she 

oceal this from Joseph. For in consequence 

his being betrothed to her, coming to her 

xe freely and speaking to her more familiarly, 

fimnd out that she was with child. He be- 

D then to be in great doubt and perplexity, 

cause he did not know what was best for him 

da For, being a just man, he was not willing 

expose her; nor, being a pious man, to in- 

pe her fiiir &me by a suspicion of fornication. 

He came to the conclusion, therefore, privately 
to dissolve tiieir contract, and to send her away 
secretly. And while he thought on these things, 
behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to him 
in his sleep, saying : Joseph, thou son of David, 
fear not ; that is, do not have any suspicion of 
fornication in the virgin, or think any evil of her ; 
and fear not to take her as thy wife : for that 
which is begotten in her, and which now vexes 
thy soul, is the work not of man, but of the 
Holy Spirit. For she alone of all virgins shall 
bring forth the Son of God, and thou shalt call 
His name Jesus, that is. Saviour ; for He shall 
save His people from their sins. Therefore Jo- 
seph, accordmg to the command of the angel, 
took the virgin as his wife ; nevertheless he knew 
her not, but took care of her, and kept her in 
chastity.' And now the ninth month from her 
conception was at hand, when Joseph, taking 
with him his wife along with what things he 
needed, went to Bethlehem, the city from which 
he came. And it came to pass, while they were 
there, that her days were fulfilled that she should 
bring forth ; and she brought forth her first-bom 
son, as the holy evangelists have shown, our 
Loid Jesus Christ, who with the Father and the 
Son» and the Holy Ghost lives and reigns God 
frpm everlasting to everlasting. 

> Matt. i. 18-34. 

* Thus in the originaL 



deed, the prophecy of my Father upon Adam, 
for his disobedience, has now been fulfilled. 
And all things are arranged according to the will 
and pleasure of my Father. For if a man rejects 
the commandment of God, and follows the 
works of the devil by committing sin, his life is 
prolonged ; for he is preserved in order that he 
may perhaps repent, and reflect that he must be 
delivered into ^e hands of death. But if any 
one has been zealous of good works, his life also 
is prolonged, that, as the fame of his old age in- 
creases, upright men may imitate him. But 
when you see a man whose mind is prone to an- 
ger, assuredly his days are shortened ; for it is 
these that are taken away in the flower of their 
age. Every prophecy, therefore, which my 
Father has pronounced concerning the sons of 
men, must be fulfilled in every particular. But 
with reference to Enoch and Elias, and how they 
remain alive to this day, keeping the same bodies 
with which they were bom ; and as to what con- 
cerns my father Joseph, who has not been al- 
lowed as well as they to remain in the body : 
indeed, though a man live in the world many 
myriads of years, nevertheless at some time or 
other he is compelled to exchange life for death. 

And I say to you, O my brethren, that they also, 
Enoch and Elias,' must towards Uie end of time 
return into the world and die — in the day, 
namely, of commotion, of terror, of perplexi^, 
and affliction. For Antichrist will slay four 
bodies,, and will pour out their blood hke water, 
because of the reproach to which they shall ex- 
pose him, and the ignominy with which they, in 
their Ufetime, shall brand him when they reveal 
his impiety. 

32. And we said : O our Lord, our God and 
Saviour, who are those four whom Thou hast 
said Antichrist will cut off lix)m the reproach they 
bring upon him? The Lord answered: They 
are Enoch, Elias, Schila, and Tabitha.' Whea 
we heard this from our Saviour, we rejoiced and 
exulted; and we offered all glory and thanks- 
giving to the Lord God, and our Saviour Jesos 
Christ He it is to whom is due glory, honour, 
dignity, dominion, power, and praise, as well as 
to the good Father with Him, and to the Ho^ 
Spirit that giveth life, henceforth and in all time 
for evermore. Amen. 

I Comp. Rev. zi. 3-19. 

* Acts IX. 36. S^U is pralMbly 

meut for the widov of lUA 




1 8. And some time after there occtirred a 
great commotion while a house was building, 
and Jesus stood up and went away to the place. 
And seeing a man lying dead, He took him by 
the hand, and said : Man, I say to thee, arise, 
and go on with thy work. And directly he rose 
up, and adored Him. And seeing this, the 
crowd wondered, and said : This child is from 
heaven, for he has saved many souls from death, 
and he continues to save during all his life. 

19. And when He was twelve years old His 
parents went as usual to Jerusalem to the feast 
of the passover with their fellow-travellers. And 
after the passover they were coming home again. 
And while they were coming home, the child 
Jesus went back to Jerusalem. And His parents 
thought that He was in the company. And 
having gone one day's journey, they sought for 
Him among their relations ; and not Ending Him, 
they were in great grief, and turned back to the 
city seeking for Him. And after the third day 
they found Him in the temple, sitting in the 
midst of the teachers, both hearing the law and 
asking them questions. And they were all at- 

tending to Him, and wondering that He, being 
a child, was shutting the mouths of the elden 
and teachers of the people, explaining the main 
points of the law and the parables of the 
prophets. And His mother Mary coming up, 
said to Him : Why hast thou done this to us, 
child ? Behold, we have been seeking for thee 
in great trouble. And Jesus said to them : Why 
do you seek me ? Do you not know that I must 
be about my Father's business ? ' And the scribes 
and the Pharisees said : Art thou the moliier of 
this child? And she said: I am. And thej 
said to her : Blessed art thou among women, for 
God hath blessed the fruit of thy womb ; for 
such gloiy, and such virtue and wisdom, we have 
neither seen nor heard ever. And Jesus rose up^ 
and followed His mother, and was subject to His 
parents. And His mother observed all these 
things that had happened. And Jesus advanced 
in wisdom, and stature, and grace.* To whom 
be glory for ever and ever. Amen. 

I [ThumsybereiKkiedjasm R. v., Laken.49, ''iBflajFaltaA 
home." The words are the nine as in that passage. — R.] 
* Luke iL 41-58. 



1. I Thomas the Israelite have deemed it 
necessary to make known to all the brethren of 
the heathen the great things which our Lord 
Jesus Christ did in His childhood, when He 
dwelt in the body in the city of Nazareth, going 
in the fifth year of His age. 

2. On one of the days, there being a rain- 
storm. He went out of tiie house where His 
mother was, and played on the ground where 
the waters were flowing. And He made pools, 
and brought in the waters, and the pools were 
filled with water. Then He says : It is my will 
that you become clear and excellent waters. 
And they became so directly. And a certain 
boy, the son of Annas the scribe, came past, and 
with a willow branch which he was carrying threw 
down the pools, and the water flowed out. And 
Jesus turning, said to him : O impious and 
wicked, how have the pools wronged thee, that 
thou hast emptied them ? Thou shalt not go on 
thy way, and thou shalt be dried up like the 
branch which thou art carrying. And as he went 
along, in a short time he fell down and died. 
And when the children that were playing with 
him saw this, they wondered, and went away 

and told the father of the dead boy. And he 
ran and found his child dead, and he went am^ 
and reproached Joseph. 

3. And Jesus made of that clay twelve spar- : 
rows, and it was the Sabbath. And a chUd m -. 
and told Joseph, saying : Behold, thy child b ■.: 
playing about the stream, and of the day he his; 
made sparrows, which is not lawfiil. And wbeij 
he heard this, he went, and said to the child: 
Why dost thou do this, profaning the Sabbath?j 
But Jesus gave him no answer, but looked 
the sparrows, and said : Go away, fly, and 
and remember me. And at this word they fleiTi^ 
and went up into the air. And when J( 
saw it, he wondered. 

4. And some days after, when Jesus was 
through the midst of the city, a boy threw 
stone at Him, and struck Him on the 
And Jesus said to him : Thou shalt not go 
thy way. And direcdy falling down, he 
died. And they that happened to be there wc 
struck with astonishment, saying : Whence 
this child, that every word he says is 
accomplished? And they also went and 
proached Joseph, saying: It is impossible 








When a commotion took place in conse- 
quence of the search made by Herod for our 
Lord Jesus Christ to kill Him, then an angel 
said to Joseph : Take Mary and her boy, and 
flee into Eg)rpt from the face of those who seek 
to kill Him. And Jesus was two years old when 
He went into Egypt.' 

And as He was walking through a field of 
com, He stretched forth His hand, and took of 
the ears, and put them over the fire, and rubbed 
them, and began to eat. 

And when they had come into Egypt, they 
received hospitality in the house of a certain 
widow, and they remained in the same place 
one year. 

And Jesus was in His third year. And see- 
ing boys playing, He began to play with them. 
And He took a dried fish, and put it into a 
basin, and ordered it to move about. And it 
began to move about. And He said again to 
the fish : Throw out thy salt which thou hast, 
and walk into the water. And it so came to 
pass. And the neighbours, seeing what had 
been done, told it to the widow woman in 
whose house Mary His mother lived. And as 
soon as she heard it, she thrust them out of her 
house with great haste. 



And as Jesus was walking with Mary His 
mother through the middle of the city market- 
place. He looked and saw a schoolmaster teach- 
ing his scholars. And behold twelve sparrows 
that were quarrelling fell over the wall into the 
bosom of that schoolmaster, who was teaching 
the boys. And seeing this, Jesus was very much 
amused, and stood still. And when that teacher 
saw Him making merry, he said to his scholars 
with great fury : Go and bring him to me. And 
when they had carried Him to the master, he 
seized Him by the ear, and said : What didst 
thou see, to amuse thee so much? A" 
said to him : Master, see my hand foT 
I showed it to them, and scatfeeiM 
among them, and they cany it oo 
of the street where they aie in 
this account they fought aim 
divide the wheat. And \ 

the place until it was accomplished, 
being done, the master began to thrust 
of the city, along with His mother. 


And, lo, the angel of the Lord met I 
said to her : Take up the boy, and re 
the land of the Jews, for they who so 
life are dead. And Mary rose up wii 
and they proceeded into the city of 
which is among the possessions of h 
And when Joseph went out of Egypt 
death of Herod, he kept Him in the d( 
there should be quietness in Jerusalet 
part of those who were seeking the t 
And he gave thanks to God because 
given him understanding, and because 
found favour in the presence of the L 



It is glorious that Thomas the Isra 
apostle of the Lord gives an account al 
works of Jesus after He came out of E 
Nazareth. Understand all of you, m 
brethren, what the Lord Jesus did whei 
in the city of Nazareth ; the first chapter 
is as follows : — 

And when Jesus was five years old, 
a great rain upon the earth, and the t 
walked up and down through it. And 
a terrible rain, and He collected it ic 
pond, and ordered it by His word to 
clear. And immediately it became sc 
He took of the clay which was of that f 
and made of it to the number of twe 
rows. And it was the Sabbath when 
this among the boys of the Jews. And 
of the Jews went away, and said to Jo 
father : Behold, thy son was playing al 
us, and he took clay and made spanov 
it was not lawful to do on. die Sabb 



oseph : Master, make me a couch, both and the master sat down beside Him, and lis* 

id beautiful. And Joseph was in dis- tened to Him with pleasure, and entreated Him 

:ause the wood which he had brought " to teach them more. And a great crowd being 

ork was too short. And Jesus said to gathered together, they heard all the holy teach- 

> not be annoyed. Take hold of this ing which He taught, and the choice words which 

wood by one end, and I by the other ; came forth from the mouth of Him who, child 

s draw it out. And they did so ; and as He was, spake such things, 

tely he found it useful for that which he And Joseph, hearing of this, was afraid, and 

Ajid He said to Joseph : Behold, do running ^ . . . the master, where Jesus was, said 

which thou wishest. And Joseph, see- to Joseph : Know, brother, that I have received 

: He had done, embraced Him, and thy child to teach him or train him ; but he is 

issed am I, because God hath given me filled with much gravity and wisdom. Lo, now, 

)n. take him home with joy, my brother ; because the 

gravity which he has, has been given him by the 

r. — HOW JESUS WAS HANDED OVER TO Lord. And Jesus, hearing the master thus speak- 

LEARN HIS LETTERS. iug, became cheerful, and said : Lo, now, master, 

Dseph, seeing that He had such favour, ^^^", ^f^\, ^^^ ^^f ^fVV '^k' ^"^ iT^^-^ 

He was increasing in stature, thoughi J^^ '^^ ^^^ ^«^- ^^ J^^^P^ ^^^ «"" 

5 take Him to learn His letters. And '^^"^^• 

;d Him over to another teacher to be 

And that teacher said to Joseph : What chap. xiv. — how jesus delivered james from 

ost thou wish me to teach that boy? the BrrE of a serpent. 

nswered and said : First teach him the ajt-.u ^.t^*. *.u 4^ j 

etters and then the Hebrew For the ^^ ^^^^P^ ^^^^ J^"^^ ^° ^^^^^^ ^^^' ^^ 

knew 'that He was verv intelligent and ^^^"^ followed him. And whUe James was gath- 

took Him in hand. And writing for ^^^^ '^^ ^^^'.f "^l^' Y^ ^'^.> ^^. ^^ ^^\ ^ 

firct i.n. ^h;.h ;. A .r.A R Us. fo„„Kf ^he gfouud, as if dead from the poison. And 

blew upon his wound ; and im- 
was made whole, and the viper 

rt indeed a master, and if thou indeed ^^ ' 

the letters, tell me the power 3 of the A, 

all tell thee the power of the B. Then chap. xv. — how jesus raised a boy to life. 

.ter was filled with fury, and struck .- , ^^ l-utt- -1.1. j»j 

the head. And Jesus was angry, and ^ few days after, a child His neighbour died, 

dm ; and he suddenly fell dowii and f ^ >'^ "^9^^" ™°"™^') ^°' '^"^ "^'^ J^^"^' 

' ^ ' hearing this, went and stood over the boy, and 

esus returned home. And Joseph gave !V'°*=''^^ ."P?" "^"^ ^^^"1 1"*^ "^f''. ? "^^i? 

vTo^r u;c «.^fu^.. «^«. *.^ 1^.. LJiJr ^r. thee, child, do not die, but live. And immedi- 

Mary His mother, not to let Him go ^ , ' , /-i j a j t -j *. ^.u 

e court of his house ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ "P- ^^^ J^^"^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

boy s mother : i ake thy son, and give him the 

„, breast, and remember me. And the crowd, see- 

OIL - HOW he was handed OVER TO .^^ ^^^^ ^.^^^j^^ ^^ ^ j^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ j^ 

another master. ^^^ \iQz,wtXi ; for already has he freed many 

days after came another teacher, a friend souls from death, and he has made whole all 

1, and said to him ; Hand him over to that hope in him. 

I with much sweetness will teach him The scribes and Pharisees said to Mary : Art 

s. And Joseph said to him : If thou thou the mother of this child ? And Mary said : 

take him and teach him. May it be Indeed I am. And they said to her : Blessed 

with joy. When the teacher had taken art thou among women,5 since God hath blessed 

went along in fear and in great firmness, the fruit of thy womb, seeing that He hath 

I Him with exultation. And when He given thee such a glorious child, and such a gift 

e to the teacher's house, He found a of wisdom, as we have never seen nor heard of. 

ig there, and took it and opened it, and Jesus rose up and followed His mother. And 

ead what was written in the book ; but Mary kept in her heart all the great miracles that 

His mouth, and spoke from the Holy Jesus had done among the people, in healing 

id taught the law. And, indeed, all who many that were diseased. And Jesus grew in 

iding there listened to Him attentively ; stature and wisdom ; and all who saw Him glo- 

s sectmm, cut, is the true reading, and not actum, * Some words have been omitted here in the MS., but the sense b 

his translation of <iri voAAi)K iapav. obvious enough. # 

gain he makes a mistranslation — ^vfo^if , foriitudo, < Luke L a8. 



rified God the Father Almighty, who is blessed 
for ever and ever. Amen. 

And all these things I Thomas the Israelite 
have written what I have seen, and have re- 
counted them to the Gentiles and to our breth- 
ren, and many other things done by Jesus, who 
was bom in the land of Judah. Behold, the 
house of Israel has seen aU, fix>m the first even 
to the last ; how great signs and wonders Jesus 
did among them, which were exceedingly good, 

and invisible to their fiuher,' as holy Scriptme 
relates, and the prophets have borne witness to 
His works in all the peoples of Israel And Ee 
it is who is to judge the woild according to the 
will of immortality, since He is the Son of God 
throughout all the world. To Him is due all 
glory and honour for ever, who Uves and tdpxi 
God through all ages of ages. Amen. 

I Thb, I think, momsi and wUdi dwir hOm Itnel, It. tUr 
lathen generally, had not 



Jesus Christ, which thereafter she wiped with the 
hair of her head.* Ten days after, they took 
Him to Jerusalem; and on the fortieth day* 
after His birth they carried Him into the tem- 
ple, and set Him before the Lord, and offered 
sacrifices for Him, according to the command- 
meet of the law of Moses, which is : Every male 
that openeth the womb shall be called the holy 
of God.3 

6. Then old Simeon saw Him shining like a 
pillar of light, when the Lady Mary, His virgin 
mother, rejoicing over Him, was carrying Him 
in her arms. And angels, praising Him, stood 
round Him in a circle, like Ufe guards standing 
by a king. Simeon therefore went up in haste 
to the Lady Mary, and, with hands stretched out 
before her, said to the Lord Christ : Now, O my 
Lord, let Thy servant depart in peace, according 
to Thy word; for mine eyes have seen Thy 
compassion, which Thou hast prepared for the 
salvation of all peoples, a light to all nations, and 
glory to Thy people Israel. Hanna also, a proph- 
etess, was present, and came up, giving thanks 
to God, and calling the Lady Mary blessed.* 

7. And it came to pass, when the Lord Jesus 
was bom at Bethlehem of Judaea, in the time of 
King Herod, behold, magi came from the east 
to Jerusalem, as Zeraduscht 5 had predicted ; and 
there were with them gifts, gold, and frankincense, 
and myrrh. And they adored Him, and present- 
ed to Him their gifts. Then the Lady Mary took 
one of the swaddling-bands, and, on account of 
the smallness of her means, gave it to them ; and 
they received it from her with the greatest marks 
of honour. And in the same hour there ap- 
peared to them an angel in the form of that star 
which had before guided them on their journey ; , 
and they went away, following the guidance of 
its light, until they arrived in their own country.^ 

8. And their kings and chief men came to- 
gether to them, asking what they had seen or 
done, how they had gone and come back, what 
they had brought with them. And they showed 
them that swathing-cloth which the Lady Mary 
had given them. Wherefore they celebrated a 
feast, and, according to their custom, lighted 
a fire and worshipped it, and threw that swath- 
ing-cloth into it; and the fire laid hold of it, 
and enveloped it. And when the fire had gone 
out, they took out the swathing-cloth exactly as 
it had been before, just as if the fire had not 
touched it. Wherefore they began to kiss it, 
and to put it on their heads and their eyes, say- 
ing : This verily is the truth without doubt. As- 
suredly it is a great thing that the fire was not 

* Luke vii. 37, 38, 

2 Lev. xii. 4. 

3 Ex. xiii. 2; Luke ii. 33. 
< Luke ii. 25-38. 

i For this prediction of Zoroaster, see Smith's Diet, of ike Bible ^ 
art. Magi. 

6 Matt, il x-ia. 

able to bum or destroy it Then they tool 
and with the greatest honour laid it up am 
their treasures. 

9. And when Ks^ivxi saw that the magi 1 
left him, and not come back to him, he si 
moned the priests and the wise men, and saic 
them : Show me where Christ is to be be 
And when they answered, In Bethlehem 
Judaea, he began to think of putting the L 
Jesus Christ to death. Then appeared an ao 
of the Lord to Joseph in his sleep, and sa 
Rise, take the boy and His mother, and go ai 
into Egypt.7 He rose, therefore, towards co 
crow, and set out. 

10. While he is reflecting how he is to 
about his journey, morning came upon him al 
he had gone a very little way. And now he i 
approaching a great city, in which there was 
idol, to which the other idols and gods of t 
Egyptians offered gifts and vows. And tlu 
stood before this idol a priest ministering to hi 
who, as often as Satan spoke from that idol, i 
ported it to the inhabitants of Egypt and its ti 
ritories. This priest had a son, three yeais ol 
beset by several demons ; and he made oud 
speeches and utterances ; and when the denw 
seized him, he tore his clothes, and remaine 
naked, and threw stones at the people. Aa 
there was a hospital in that city dedicated toth 
idol. And when Joseph and the Lady Maiybi 
come to the city, and had turned aside into til 
hospital, the citizens were very much afraid ; «■ 
all the chief men and the priests of the kid 
came together to that idol, and said to it : Wbl 
agitation and commotion is this that has arise 
in our land ? The idol answered them : A Goi 
has come here in secret, who is God indeed 
nor is any god besides Him worthy of divine wd 
ship, because He is truly the Son of God. Afl 
when this land became aware of His presence,! 
trembled at His arrival, and was moved aoi 
shaken ; and we are exceedingly afraid from th 
greatness of His power. And in the same boil 
that idol fell down, and at its fall all, inhabitu* 
of Egypt and others, ran together. 

1 1 . And the son of the priest, his usual S 
ease having come upon him, entered the hospiH 
and there came upon Joseph and the Lady M^ 
from whom all others had fled. The Lady Ma 
had washed the cloths of the Lord Chrk, a 
had spread them over some wood. That de0 
niac boy, therefore, came and took one oft 
cloths, and put it on his head. Then the demfl 
fleeing in the shape of ravens and serpents, be| 
to go forth out of his mouth. The boy, being i 
mediately healed at the command of the Ii 
Christ, began to praise God, and then to g 
thanks to the Lord who had healed him. ^ 

7 Matt. ii. 13, 14. 



and this being done, he was healed immedi- 

44. One day, when the Lord Jesus was again 
with the boys playing on the roof of a house, 
one of the boys fell down from above, and im- 
mediately expired. And the rest of the boys 
fled in all directions, and the Lord Jesus was left 
alone on the roof. And the relations of the boy 
came up and said to the Lord Jesus: It was 
thou who didst throw our son headlong from the 
roof. And when He denied it, they cried out, 
saying : Our son is dead, and here is he who has 
killed him. And the Lord Jesus said to them : 
Do not bring an evil report against me ; but if 
you do not believe me, come and let us ask the 
boy himself, that he may bring the truth to light. 
Then the Lord Jesus went down, and standing 
over the dead body, said, with a loud voice : 
Zeno, Zeno, who threw thee down from the 
roof? Then the dead boy answered and said : 
My lord, it was not thou who didst throw me 
down, but such a one cast me down from it. 
And when the Lord commanded those who were 
standing by to attend to His words, all who were 
present praised God for this miracle. 

45. Once up>on a time the Lady Mary had 
ordered the Lord Jesus to go and bring her 
water from the well. And when He had gone 
to get the water, the pitcher already full was 
knocked against something, and broken. And 
the Lord Jesus stretched out His handkerchief, 
and collected the water, and carried it to His 
mother ; ^and she was astonished at it. And she 
hid and preserved in her heart all that she saw. 

46. Again, on another day, the Lord Jesus 
was with the boys at a stream of water, and they 
had again made little fish-ix)nds. And the Lord 
Jesus had made twelve sparrows, and had ar- 
ranged them round His fish-pond, three on each 
side. And it was the Sabbath-day. Wherefore 
a Jew, the son of Hanan, coming up, and seeing 
them thus engaged, said in anger and great in- 
dignation : Do you make figures of clay on the 
Sabbath-day? And he ran quickly, and de- 
stroyed their fish-ponds. But when the Lord 
Jesus clapped His hands over the sparrows which 
He had made, they flew away chirping. 

Then the son of Hanan came up to the fish- 
pond of Jesus also, and kicked it with his shoes, 
and the water of it vanished away. And the 
Lord Jesus said to him : As that water has van- 
ished away, so thy life shall likewise vanish away. 
And immediately that boy dried up. 

47. At another time, when the Lord Jesus was 
returning home with Joseph in the evening, He 
met a boy, who ran up against Him with so much 
force that He fell. And the Lord Jesus said to 
him: As thou hast thrown me down, so thou 
rlhah fally and not rise again. And the same hour 

«nv M dow&y and expired. 

48. There was, moreover, at Jerusalem, a 
tain man named Zacchseus, who taught b 
He said to Joseph : Why, O Joseph, dost t 
not bring Jesus to me to learn his letters? 
seph agreed to do so, and reported the ma 
to the Lady Mary. They therefore took h 
to the master ; and he, as soon as he saw H 
wrote out the alphabet for Him, and told I^ 
to say Aleph. And when He had said Ale 
the master ordered Him to pronounce Be 
And the Lord Jesus said to him : Tell me t 
the meaning of the letter Aleph, and then I si 
pronounce Beth. And when the master thre 
ened to flog Him, the Lord Jesus explained 
him the meanings of the letters Aleph and Bet 
also which figures of the letter were Strang 
which crooked, which drawn round into a ^ii 
which marked with points, which without the 
why one letter went before another ; and m 
other things He began to recount and to dm 
date which the master himself had never eitii 
heard or read in any book. The Lord Jesi 
moreover, said to the master : Listen, and I sb 
say them to thee. And He began cleariy ai 
distinctly to repeat Aleph, Beth, Gimel, Met 
on to Tau. And the master was astonisbe 
and said : I think that this boy was bom befci 
Noah. And turning to Joseph, he said : Tk 
hast brought to me to be taught a boy moi 
learned than all the masters. To the Lady Md 
also he. said : This son of thine has no needc 

49. Thereafter they took Him to another la 
a more learned master, who, when he saw Hi« 
said : Say Aleph. And when He had said Akp^ 
the master ordered him to pronounce Bctl 
And the Lord Jesus answered him, and said 
First tell me the meaning of the letter .Alepl 
and then I shall pronounce Beth. And whc 
the master hereupon raised his hand and flogg* 

I Him, immediately his hand dried up, and h 
; died. Then said Joseph, to the Lady Ma^ 
I From this time we shall not let him go out ( 
i the house, since ever)' one who opposes him 
struck dead. 

50. And when He was twelve years old, tl 
I took Him to Jerusalem to the feast. And wl: 
■ the feast was finished, they indeed returned ; 1 
; the Lord Jesus remained in the temple am( 

the teachers and elders and learned men of 
sons of Israel, to whom He put various questi* 
upon the sciences, and gave answers in His tu 
For He said to them : Whose son is the Mesa 
They answered Him : The son of David. \VT« 
fore then, said He, does he in the Spirit call 1 
his lord, when he says, The Lord said to ray k 

* Luke ii. 4a-' 
of precocii , 
enoes.* — R.J 

; ii. 42-47. [A oompoirison of the two nam 
I. The Evaneelist L^ike does not present anr : 
ty, nor does oe adrentiue into dacussioBS '* \ 

[A comparison of the two narratii« b 

' such BO 

upon A 



^t at my right hand, that I may put thine ene- 
mies under thy footsteps? ' Again the chief of 
the teachers said to Him : Hast thou read the 
boolcs? Both the books, said the Lord Jesus, 
and the things contained in the books. And 
He explained the books, and the law, and the 
precepts, and the statutes, and the mysteries, 
which are contained in the books of the proph- 
ets — things which the understanding of no 
creature attains to. That teacher therefore said : 
I hitherto have neither attained to nor heard of 
such knowledge : Who, pray, do you think that 
boy will be ? 

51. And a philosopher who was there pres- 
ent, a skilful astronomer, asked the Lord Jesus 
whether He had studied astronomy. And the 
Lord Jesus answered him, and explained the 
number of the spheres, and of the heavenly bod- 
ies, their natures and operations ; their opposi- 
tion ; their aspect, triangular, square, and sextile ; 
their course, direct and retrograde ; the twenty- 
fourths,* and sixtieths of twenty-fourths ; and 
other things beyond the reach of reason. 

52. There was also among those phQosophers 
one very skilled in treating of natural science, 
and he asked the Lord Jesus whether He had 
studied medicine. And He, in reply, explained 
to him physics and metaphysics, hyperphysics 
and hypophysics, the powers likewise and hu- 
mours of the body, and the effects of the same ; 
also the number of members and bones, of veins, 
arteries, and nerves ; also the effect of heat and 
dryness, of cold and moisture, and what these 
give rise to ; what was the operation of the soul 
upon the body, and its perceptions and powers ; 
what was the operation of the faculty of speech, 
of anger, of desire ; lastly, their conjunction and 
disjunction, and other things beyond the reach 
of any created intellect. Then that philosopher 
rose up, and adored the Lord Jesus, and said : O 

I Ps. ex. z; Matt. xxii. 43-4^. [The Latin nads:vesii£i£s 
ptdunt tMorutHf " the footsteps of thy feet" The original term, 
** SooutooX," has evidently been misunderstood by some transcriber. 

3 llie seri^lum was the twenty-fourth part of the or. It is 
likehr here put for the motion of a planet during one hour. Pliny, 
N, H., iL 10, uses the word to signify an undefined number of de- 
grees, or patfts of a d^ree. 

Lord, from this time I will be thy disciple and 

53. While they were speaking to each other 
of these and other things, the Lady Mary came, 
after having gone about seeking Him for three 
days along with Joseph. She therefore, seeing 
Him sitting among the teachers asking them 
questions, and answering in His turn, said to 
Him : My son, why hast thou treated us thus? 
Behold, thy father and I have sought thee with 
great trouble. But He said : Why do you seek 
me ? Do you not know that I ought to occupy 
myself in my Father's house ? But they did not 
understand the words that He spoke to them. 
Then those teachers asked Mary whether He 
were her son ; and when she signified that He 
was, they said : Blessed art thou, O Mary, who 
hast brought forth such a son. And returning 
with them to Nazareth, He obeyed them in all 
things. And His mother kept all these words 
of His in her heart. And the Lord Jesus ad- 
vanced in stature, and in wisdom, and in favour 
with God and man.3 

54. And from this day He began to hide His 
miracles and mysteries and secrets, and to give 
attention to the law, until He completed His 
thirtieth year, when His Father publicly declared 
Him at the Jordan by this voice sent down from 
heaven : This is my beloved Son, in whom I am 
well pleased ; the Holy Spirit being present in 
the form of a white dove.^ 

55. This is He whom we adore with supplica- 
tions, who hath given us being and life, and 
who hath brought us from our mothers* wombs ; 
who for our sakes assumed a human body, and 
redeemed us, that He might embrace us in eter- 
nal compassion, and show to us His mercy ac- 
cording to His liberality, and beneficence, and 
generosity, and benevolence. To Him is glory, 
and beneficence, and power, and dominion from 
this time forth for evermore. Amen. 

Here endeth the whole Gospel of the Infancy^ 
with the aid of God Most High, according to 
what we have found in the original. 

3 Luke ii. 46-52. 

4 Matt. iii. 13-17; Lake iiL az-«3. 


Part I.— the acts of Pilate. 




Prologue. — I Ananias, of the proprsetor's March, in the consulship of Rufos and Rabdlii 
body-guard, being learned in the law, knowing in the fourth year of the two hundred and secGO 
our Lord Jesus Christ from the Holy Scriptures, Olympiad, Joseph Caiaphas being high priest o 
coming to Him by faith, and counted worthy of the Jews. 

the holy baptism, searching also the memorials Tke account that Nicodemus wrote in Hetnti 
written at that time of what was done in the case after the cross and passion of our Lord Jesa 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, which the Jews had Christ, the Saviour God, and left to those tin 
laid up in the time of Pontius Pilate, found these came after him, is as follows : — 
memorials written in Hebrew, and by the favour 

of God have ta^slated them into Greek for the Chap. i. - Having called a council, the hj^ 
infonnation of aU who cal upon the name of ^ests and scribes Annas and Caiaphas m 
our Master Jesus Christ, m the seventeenth year ^^^ ^^^ H^rhz&s, and Gamaliel, Judas, Lrt 
of the reign of our Lord Flavius Theodosius, and NephthaUm, Alexander and Jklrus,' and thi 
and the sixth of Flavius Valentinianus, m the ^^^^^ ^^^ j^^^ ^^^ ^^ Pilate accusing Jesa 
ninth indiction. j j . , . . about many things, saying : We know this ma 

All ye, therefore, who read and transfer into ^^ ^e the sbn of Joseph the carpenter, bom d 
other books, remember me, and pray for me, ^ ^^ ^^ J^ ^^^ ^^ -^ ^^ Son of Go4 
that God may be merciful to me and pardon my ^^^^ ^j moreover, he profanes the Sabte* 
sins which I have sinned against Him ^„^ ^jj^^f ^^ ^^ ^^ *^g 1^^ ^f ^ ^^ 

Peace be o those who read, and to those who ^-^^^^ . ^^ ^^a^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ,rt^ i, 
hear and to their households. Amen. ^^^ ^^ [^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ do awy with tiV 

The Jews say : We have a law not to cure as) 

In the fifteenth year' of the government of one on the Sabbath; but this man 5 has * 
Tiberius Caesar, emperor of the Romans, and the Sabbath cured the lame and the crooMi 
Herod being king of Galilee, in the nineteenth the withered and the blind and the paralytic, • 
year of his rule, on the eighth day before the dumb and the demoniac, by evil practices. KI* 
Kalends of April, which is the twenty-fifth of says to them: What evil practices? Thcjrm 

to him : He is a magician, and by BeelzcbulpriPjj 

« [The works which piwxjdcMUffht to lupijeinCTttte of the dcmous he casts out the demoos, tfi 

cal luurative m renrd to the eany fife of our Loid. attd Maiy Hit «« i_* a.^ i.- tci ^ _ "^ 

mother: those which ibUow are alto tuppkaMabBylW t-^ •» tii« ail are suDject to lum. iolate says 

*^i"K3;;^lf xib«i«.r- * «M*W8 ^ Uie demons by « and^ 

tus, was A.D. 99, A.U.C. Tte. v*^ ' ^MTtllapniS* 

the consulship oi C. Funi ' 

the 34th year of Hood AiH 

year — In the nmelBOOn ' 

forms. The variatioMk* 

the length of our Lofd* 

tutement of Lnki (tt . 

minittiy with tilt tfaM< »lkBSiKbMfcw( 




The Jews say : To what women did he speak? 
The men of the guard say : We do not know 
who they were. ITie Jews say : At what time 
was this ? The men of the guard say : At mid- 
night The Jews say : And wherefore did you 
not lay hold of them ? The men of the guard 
say : We were like dead men from fear, not ex- 
pecting to see the light of day, and how could 
we lay hold of them ? The Jews say : As the 
Lord liveth, we do not believe you. The men 
of the guard say to the Jews : You have seen so 
great miracles in the case of this man, and have 
not believed; and how can you believe us? 
And assuredly you have done well to swear that 
the Lord liveth, for indeed He does live. Again 
the men of the guard say : We have heard that 
you have locked up the man that begged the 
body of Jesus, and put a seal on the door ; and 
that you have opened it, and not found him. Do 
you then give us the man whom you were guard- 
ing, and we shall give you Jesus. The Jews say : 
Joseph has gone away to his own city. The men 
of the guard say to the Jews : And Jesus has risen, 
as we heard from the angel, and is in Galilee. 

And when the Jews heard these words, they 
were very much afraid, and said : We must take 
care lest this story be heard, and all incline to 
Jesus. And the Jews called a council, and paid 
down a considerable sum of money, and gave it 
to the soldiers, saying : Say, while we slept, his 
disciples came by night and stole him ; and if 
this come to the ears of the procurator, we shall 
persuade him, and keep you out of trouble. 
And they took it, and said as they had been in- 

Chap. 14. — And Phinees a priest, and Adas 
a teacher, and Haggai a Levite, came down from 
Galilee to Jerusalem, and said to the rulers of 
the synagogue, and the priests and the Levites : 
We saw Jesus and his disciples sitting on the 
mountain called Mamilch ; ' and he said to his 
disciples, Go into all the world, and preach to 
every creature : he that believeth and is baptized 
shall be saved, and he that believeth not shall 
be condemned. And these signs shall attend 
those who have believed : in my name they shall 
cast out demons, speak new tongues, take up ser- 
pents ; and if they drink any deadly thing, it 
shall by no means hurt them ; they shall lay 
hands on the sick, and they shall be well. And 
while Jesus was speaking to his disciples, we saw 
him taken up to heaven.^ 

> Three of the Latin versions say: And they took the money, but 
could not hide the truth. For they wanted to say, His disciples stole 
biro while we slept, and could not utter it; but said. Truly the Lord 
Jesus Christ has risen from the dead; and we saw an angel of God 
coining doMm from heaven, and he rolled back the stone, and sat on 
it.^ And this saying has been spread abroad among the Jews even to 
this day. 

' Other reading are: Malek, Mopbek, Mambre, Mabrecb. 
Comp. 3 Kings xxiii. 13. 

^ Mark zvi. 15-18. 

The elders and the priests and Levites i 
Give glory to the God of Israel, and confies 
Him whether you have heard and seen tl 
things of which you have given us an acco 
And those who had given the account said : 
the Lord liveth, the God of our £aitheis Abnh 
Isaac, and Jacob, we heard these things, and 
him taken up into heaven. The elders and 
priests and the Levites say to them : Have 
come to give us this announcement, or to c 
prayer to God? And they say : To offer pn 
to God. The elders and the chief priests i 
the Levites say to them : If you have come 
offer prayer to God, why then have you t 
these idle tales in the presence of all the peopl 
Says Phinees the priest, and Adas the tead 
and Haggai the Levite, to the rulers of the sy 
gogues, and the priests and the Levites : If w 
we have said and seen be sinful, behold, we 
before you ; do to us as seems good in yourq 
And they took the law, and made them s» 
upon it, not to give any more an account of tb 
matters to any one. And they gave them 
eat and drink, and sent them out of the d 
having given them also money, and three m 
with them ; and they sent them away to Galik 

And these men having gone into Galilee^ ti 
chief priests, and the rulers of the synagogi 
and the elders, came together into the synagogi 
and locked the door, and lamented with a gie 
lamentation, saying : Is this a miracle that h 
happened in Israel ? And Annas and Caiapb 
said: Why are you so much moved? ^Vhyd 
you weep ? Do you not know that his disc^ 
have given a sum of gold to the guards of tl 
tomb, and have instructed them to say that i 
angel came down and rolled away the stone ba 
the door of the tomb ? And the priests and A 
elders said : Be it that his disciples have stolfl 
his body ; how is it that the life has come in* 
his body, and that he is going about in Galilee 
And they being unable to give an answer to tho 
things, said, after great hesitation : It is not laffi 
for us to believe the uncircumcised. 

Chap. 15. — And Nicodemus stood up, «• 
stood before the Sanhedrin, saying : Yoa fl| 
well ; 5 you are not ignorant, you people of 4 
Lord, of these men diat come down from Gi 
lee, that they fear God, and are men of substand 
haters of covetousness, men of peace ; and U 
have declared with an oath. We saw Jesus ufl 
the mountain Mamilch with his disciples, and] 
taught what we heard fix)m him, and we sawh 
taken up into heaven. And no one asked then 
what form he went up. For assuredly, as the bo 
of the Holy Scriptures taught us, Helias also 1 
taken up into heaven, and Elissaeus cried < 

4 Lit., why then this trSfUn^ which ye have trifled, eic 
* Perhaps better as a qtaaattoa. 



the tenth hour, you locked me up, and I re- 
mained all the Sabbath. And at midnight, as I 
was standing and praying, the room where you 
locked me in was hung up by the four comers, 
and I saw a light like hghtning into my eyes/ 
And I was afraid, and fell to the ground. And 
some one took me by the hand, and removed 
me from the place where I had fallen; and 
moisture of water was poured from my head even 
to my feet, and a smell of perfumes came about 
my nostrils. And he wiped my face, and kissed 
me, and said to me. Fear not, Joseph; open 
thine eyes, and see who it is that speaks to thee. 
And looking up, I saw Jesus. And I trembled, 
and thought it was a phantom ; and I said the 
commandments, and he said them with me.' 
Even so you are not ignorant that a phantom, if 
it meet anybody, and hear the commandments, 
takes to flight. And seeing that he said them 
with me, I said to him, Rabbi Helias. And he 
said to me, I am not Helias. And I said to 
him. Who art thou, my lord? And he said to 
me, I am Jesus, whose body thou didst beg from 
Pilate; and thou didst clothe me with clean 
linen, and didst put a napkin on my face, and 
didst lay me in thy new tomb, and didst roll a 
great stone to the door of the tomb. And I said 
to him that was speaking to me. Show me the 
place where I laid thee. And he carried me 
away, and showed me the place where I laid 
him ; and the linen cloth was lying in it, and the 
napkin for his face. And I knew that it was 
Jesus. And he took me by the hand, and placed 
me, though the doors were locked, in the middle 
of my house, and led me away to my bed, and 
said to me, Peace to thee ! And he kissed me, 
and said to me, For forty days go not forth out 
of thy house ; for, behold, I go to ray brethren 
into Galilee. 

Chap. i6. — And the rulers of the synagogue, 
and the priests and the Levites, when they heard 
these words from Joseph, became as dead, and 
fell to the ground, and fasted until the ninth 
hour. And Nicodemus, along with Joseph, ex- 
horted Annas and Caiaphas, the priests and the 
Levites, saying : Rise up and stand upon your 
feet, and taste bread, and strengthen your souls, 
because to-morrow is the Sabbath of the Lord. 
And they rose up, and prayed to God, and ate 
and drank, and departed every man to his own 

And on the Sabbath our teachers and the 
priests and Levites sat questioning each other, 
and saying : What is this wrath that has come 
upon us? for we know his father and mother. 
Levi, a teacher, says : I know that his parents 

* Comp. Acts X. II. 

2 Or, and he spoke to me. 

fear God, and do not withdraw themsehes 
the prayers, and give the tithes thrice a 
And when Jesus was bom, his parents br 
him to this place, and gave sacrifices and I 
offerings to God. And when the great te 
Symeon took him into his arms, he said, 
Thou sendest away Thy servant. Lord, acco 
to Thy word, in peace ; for mine eyes have 
Thy salvation, which Thou hast prepared I 
the face of all the peoples : a light for the n 
tion of the Gentiles, and the glory of Thy p 
Israel. And Symeon blessed them, and s 
Mary his mother, I give thee good news 
this child. And Mary said. It is well, my 
And Symeon said to her, It is well ; behol 
Ues for the fall and rising again of many in 1 
and for a sign spoken against ; and of the< 
self a sword shall go through the soul, in 
that the reasoning of many hearts may b 

They say to the teacher Levi : How fan 
thou these things? Levi says to them : Dc 
not know that from him I learned the law? 
Sanhedrin say to him : We wish to sec 
father. And they sent for his father. And 
asked him ; and he said to them : Why have 
not believed my son? The blessed and 
Symeon himself taught him the law. The 
hedrin says to Rabbi Levi : Is the word 
you have said true ? And he said : It is 
And the rulers of the synagogue, and the pi 
and the Levites, said to themselves : Come 
us send into Galilee to the three men that c 
and told about his teaching and his taking 
and let them tell us how they saw him taken 
And this saying pleased all. And they sent a 
the three men who had already gone away 
Galilee with them ; and they say to them : 
to Rabbi Adas, and Rabbi Phinees, and Ra 
Haggai : Peace to you, and all who are with f 
A great inquiry having taken place in the San 
drin, we have been sent to you to call you 
this holy place, Jerusalem. 

And the men set out into Galilee, and fot 
them sitting and considering the law ; and tJ 
saluted them in peace. And the men who w 
in Galilee said to those who had come to the 
Peace upon all Israel ! And they said : PC 
to you ! And they again said to them : \Wiy^ 
you come ? And those who had been sent sa 
The Sanhedrin call you to the holy city Jen 
lem. And when the men heard that they ^ 
sought by the Sanhedrin, they prayed to C 
and reclined with the men, and ate and dr 
and rose up, and set out in peace to Jenisa 

And on the following day the Sanhedrir 
in the synagogue, and asked them, saying : 

3 This would seem to confirm the opinion that there wen 
tithes paid in the year. Comp. Smith's Z}ict., SMi voa, 
* Luke ii. 35-35. 



If, my lord, he who has dishonoured Caesar is 
worthy of death, how much more this man who 
dishonours God ! 

Then Pilate dismissed them, and they all went 
outside. Thereupon he says to Jesus: What 
dost thou wish that I shall do to thee ? Jesus 
says to Pilate : Do to me as is determined. Pilate 
says : How is it determined ? Jesus answered : 
Moses and the prophets wrote about me being 
crucified, and rising again. The Hebrews, hear- 
ing thisy said to Pilate : Why do you seek to hear 
a greater insult out of him against God? Pilate 
says : These words are not an insult against God, 
since they are written in the books of the prophets. 
The Hebrews said : Our Scripture says, If a man 
offend against a man, that is to say, if he insult 
him, he is worthy to receive forty strokes with a 
rod ; but if any one insult God, to be stoned.' 

Then came a messenger from Procle, the wife of 
Pilate, to him ; and the message said : Take care 
that thou do not agree that any evil should 
happen to Jesus the good man ; because during 
this night I have seen fearful dreams on account 
of him.» And Pilate spoke to the Hebrews, 
saying : If you hold as insult against God the 
words which you declare Jesus to have spoken, 
take and judge him yourselves according to your 
law.3 The Jews said to Pilate : We wish that you 
should crucify him. Pilate says : This is not good. 

And Pilate, turning towards the people, saw 
many weeping, and said : To me it seems that it 
is not the wish of all the people that this man 
should die. The priests and the scribes say : 
We on this account have brought all the people, 
that thou mightst have full conviction that all 
wish his death. Pilate says : For what evil hath 
he done ? The Hebrews said : He says that he 
is a king, and the Son of God. 

Chap. 5. — A God-fearing Jew, therefore, Nico- 
demus by name, stood up in the midst, and said 
to Pilate : I entreat your highness to permit me 
to say a few words. Say on, said Pilate. Nico- 
demus says : I, being present in the synagogue, 
said to the priests, and the Levites, and the 
scribes, and the people. What have you to say 
against this man ? This man does many miracles, 
such as man has never yet done nor will do. Let 
him go, therefore ; and if indeed what he does 
be from God, it will stand ; but if from man, it 
will be destroyed.^ Just as happened also when 
God sent Moses into Egypt, and Pharoah king 
of Egypt told him to do a miracle, and he did it. 
Then Pharoah had also two magicians, Jannes 
and Jambres ; and they also did miracles by 
the use of magic art, but not such as Moses did.s 

' Deut. XXV. 3; Lev. xxiv. i6. 
" Matt, xxvii. 19. 
3 John xviii. 31. 
< Comp. Acts V. 38. 
j Ex. vii. X0-14. 

And the Egyptians held these magicians 
gods ; but because they were not from Goc 
they did was destroyed. This Jesus, then, 
up Lazarus, and he is alive. On this acci 
entreat thee, my lord, by no means to allc 
man to be put to death. 

The Hebrews were enraged against N 
mus, and said : Mayst thou receive the tr 
Jesus, and have a portion with him. 
demus says : Amen, amen ; be it to me ; 

Chap. 6. — And when Nicodemus ha( 
spoken, another Hebrew rose up, and s 
Pilate : I beg of thee, my lord Pilate, ht 
also. Pilate answered : Say what thou y^ 
The Hebrew says : I lay sick in bed thirt 
years ; and when he saw me he was grieve 
said to me. Rise, take up thy couch, and [ 
thine house. And while he was saying th 
to me, I rose and walked about. The H 
say : Ask him on what day of the wee 
happened. He says : On Sabbath.^ Th 
said : And consequently we say truly, tl 
does not keep the Sabbath. 

Another, again, standing in the midst 
I was bom blind ; and as Jesus was going 
the road, I cried to him, saying, Have 
upon me. Lord, thou son of David. A 
took clay, and anointed mine eyes ; and st 
way I received my sight.7 Another said : 
crooked ; and seeing him, I cried, Have 
upon me, O Lord. And he took me 1 
hand, and I was immediately raised.* A 
said : I was a leper, and he healed me 
by a word.9 

Chap. 7. — There was found there also 
man named Veronica, and she said : 
years I was in an issue of blood, and 
touched the edge of his garment, and dir 
was cured. '° The Jews say : Our law do 
admit the testimony of a woman.** 

Chap. 8. — Other men cried : This mc 
prophet, and the demons are afraid of hir 
late says : And how were the demons not 
thus afraid of your parents also? The; 
We do not know. Others, again, said : L 
after having been four days in the tor 
raised by a single word.'^ Pilate therefon 
ing of the raising of Lazarus, was afrai 
said to the people : Why do you wish t 
the blood of a just man ? 

6 John v. 5-9. 

7 John ix. 6, 7. 

® Comp. Acts iii. 7. 

9 Luke xvii. 11-19. 
*o Matt. ix. 20-22. 
'* See note 9, p. 419. 
** John xi. 43. 



the God of Israel, and repent of these lies 

you have told. They answered : As the 

of our Others Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob 

■beth, we do not lie, but tell you the truth. 

ten the high priest spoke, and they brought 

old covenant of the Hebrews out of the tem- 

ey and he made them swear, and giving them 
> money, he sent them into another place, in 
ler that they might not proclaim in Jerusalem 

resurrection of Christ. 
And when these stories had been heard by all 
people, the crowd came together into the 
iple, and there was a great commotion. For 
ly said : Jesus has risen from the dead, as 
hear, and why did you crucify him? And 
and Caiaphas said : Do not believe, ye 
Jiews. what the soldiers say ; and do not believe 
'^ they saw an angel coming down from heaven. 
\>r we have given money to the soldiers, in 
ir that they should not tell such tales to any 
; and thus also have the disciples of Jesus 
in them money, in order that they should say 
-^lat Jesus has risen from the dead. 

Chap. 15. — Nicodemus says: O children of 
the inhabitants of Jerusalem, Uie prophet Helias 
-went up into the height of heaven with a fiery 
^chariot, and it is nothing incredible if Jesus too 
lias risen ; for the prophet Helias was a proto- 
"type of Jesus, in order that you, hearing that 
Jesus has risen, might not disbelieve. I there- 
fore say and advise, that it is befitting that we 
iKnd soldiers into Galilee, to that place where 
'these men testify that they saw him with his dis- 
ciples, in order that they may go round about 
and find him, and that thus we may ask pardon 
of him for the evil which we have done to him. 
This proposal pleased them; and they chose 
soldiers, and sent them away into Galilee. And 
Jesus indeed they did not fmd ; but they found 
Joseph in Arimathaea. 

When, therefore, the soldiers had returned, 
the chief priests, having ascertained that Joseph 
was found, brought the people together, and 
said : What shall we do to get Joseph to come 
to us? After deliberating, therefore, they wrote 
to him a letter to the following effect : — O father 
Joseph, peace be to thee and all thy house, and 
thy friends ! We know that we have offended 
against God, and against thee His servant. On 
account of this, we entreat thee to come here to 
ns thy children. For we have wondered much 
how thou didst escape from the prison, and we 
say in truth that we had an evil design against 
thee. But God, seeing that our designs against 
thee were imjust, has delivered thee out of our 
hands. But come to us, for thou art the honour 
of our people. 

This letter the Jews sent to Arimathsea, with 
seven soldiers, friends of Joseph. And they went 

away and found him; and having respectfully 
saluted him, as they had been ordered, they gave 
him the letter. And after receiving it and read- 
ing it, he glorified God, and embraced the sol- 
diers ; and having set a table, ate and drank with 
them during all the day and the night. 

And on the following day he set out with them 
to Jerusalem ; and the people came forth to meet 
him, and embraced him. And Nicodemus re- 
ceived him into his own house. And the day 
after, Annas and Caiaphas, the chief priests, hav- 
ing summoned him to the temple, said to him ; 
Give glory to the God of Israel, and tell us the 
truth. For we know that thou didst bury Jesus ; 
and on this account we laid hold of thee, and 
locked thee up in the prison. Thereafter, when 
we sought to bring thee out to be put to death, 
we did not find thee, and we were greatly as- 
tonished and afraid. Moreover, we prayed to 
God that we might find thee, and ask thee. Tell 
us therefore the truth. 

Joseph said to them : In the evening of XJCi^ 
Preparation, when you secured me in prison, I 
fell a-pra)dng throughout the whole night, and 
throughout the whole day of the Sabbath. And 
at midnight I see the prison-house that four an- 
gels lifted it up,' holding it by the four comers. 
And Jesus came in like lightning, and I fell to 
the ground from fear. Taking hold of me, 
therefore, by the hand, he raised me, saying, 
Fear not, Joseph. Thereafter, embracing me, 
he kissed me, and said. Turn thyself, and see 
who I am. Turning myself, therefore, and look- 
ing, I said. My lord, I know not who thou art. 
He says, I am Jesus, whom thou didst bury the 
day before yesterday. I say to him. Show me 
the tomb, and then I shall believe. He took 
me, therefore, by the hand, and led me away to 
the tomb, which had been opened. And seeing 
the linen and the napkin, and recognising him, 
I said. Blessed is he that cometh in the name 
of the Lord ; * and I adored him. Then taking 
me by the hand, and accompanied by the an- 
gels, he brought me to my house in Arimathaea, 
and said to me, Sit here for forty days ; for I go 
to my disciples, in order that I may enable them 
fully to proclaim my resurrection. 

Chap. 16. — When Joseph had thus spoken, 
the chief priests cried out to the people : We 
know that Jesus had a father and mother ; how 
can we believe that he is the Christ? One of 
the Levites answered and said : I know the 
family of Jesus, noble-minded men,3 great ser- 
vants of God, and receiving tithes from the peo- 
ple of the Jews. And I ^ow also Symeon the 

I jo-iKM^ay, which should be ivfytm99», b « modem Greek woid 
the aorist of <nfK6tna. 

* Ps. cxviiL 96; Matt xzL o. 

s Or, laterally, men oi fooo fiunfljr. 



elder, that he received him when he was an in- 
£mty and said to him : Now thou sendest away 
Thy servant, O Lord. 

The Jews said: Let ns now find the three 
men that saw him on the Mount of Olives, that 
we may question them, and learn the truth more 
accurately. They foimd them, and brought 
them before all, and made them swear to tell 
the truth. And they said : As the God of Israel 
liveth, we saw Jesus alive on the Mount of 
Olives, and going up into heaven. 

Then Annas and Caiaphas took the three 

apart, one by one, and questioned them a 
in private. They agreed with one anc 
therefore, and gave, even the three, one aco 
The chief priests answered, saying : Our S 
ture says that every word shall be establishe 
two or three witnesses.' Joseph, then, has 
fessed that he, along with Nicodemus^ attei 
to his body, and buned him, and how it is 
truth that he has risen.* 

< DeuL ziz. 15; Matt. xrm. 16. 

' This bst clanie would be better as a qiMitioB: Aadbn 
Ibe tnith that he has neat 



ing also upon his shoulders a cross, to whom the 
holy fathers said : Who art thou, who hast the 
look of a robber ; and what is the cross which 
thou bearest upon thy shoulders ? He answered : 
I, as you say, was a robber and a thief in the 
world, and for these things the Jews laid hold of 
me, and delivered me to the death of the cross, 
along with our Lord Jesus Christ. While, then. 
He was hanging upon the cross, I, seeing the 
miracles that were done, believed in Him, and 
entreated Him, and said. Lord, when Thou shalt 
be King, do not forget me. And immediately 
He said to me. Amen, amen : to-day, I say unto 
thee, shalt thou be with me in paradise. There- 
fore I came to paradise carrying my cross ; and 
finding the archangel Michael, I said to him. 
Our Lord Jesus, who has been crucified, has sent 
me here; bring me, therefore, to the gate of 
Eden. And the flaming sword, seeing the sign 
of the cross, opened to me, and I went in. 
Then the archangel says to me. Wait a little, for 
there cometh also the forefather of the race of 
men, Adam, with the just, that they too may come 
in. And now, seeing you, I came to meet you. 

The saints hearing these things, all cried out 
with a loud voice : Great is our Lord, and grett 
is His strength.' 

Chap. II (27). — All these things we saw and 
heard ; we, the two brothers, who also have been 
sent by Michael the archangel, and have been or- 
dered to proclaim the resurrection of the Lord, 
but first to go away to the Jordan and to be bap- 
tized. Thidier also we have gone, and have been 
baptized with the rest of the dead who have risen. 
Thereafter also we came to Jerusalem, and cele- 
brated the passover of the resurrection. But 
now we are going away, being unable to stay here. 
And the love of God, even the Father, and the 
grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the com- 
munion of the Holy Spirit, be with you alL* 

Having written these things, and secured the 
rolls, they gave the half to the chief priests, and 
the half to Joseph and Nicodemus. And they 
immediately disappeared : to the glory of oar 
Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. 

> Ps. cxlvii. 5. 
* a Cor. xiii. 15. 



lieve in Him shall be condemned.' On this ac- 
count I say to you all, in order that when you 
see Him you all may adore Him, that now only 
is for you the time of repentance for having 
adored idols in the vain upper world, and for 
the sins you have committed, and that this is 
impossible at any other time. 

Chap. 3 (19). — While John, therefore, was 
thus teaching those in Hades, the first created 
and forefather Adam heard, and said to his son 
Seth : My son, I wish thee to tell the forefathers 
of the race of men and the prophets where I sent 
thee, when it fell to my lot to die. And Seth 
said : Prophets and patriarchs, hear. When my 
father Adam, the first created, was about to faSl 
once upon a time into death, he sent me to make 
entreaty to God very close by the gate of paradise, 
that He would guide me by an angel to the tree 
of compassion, and that I might take oil and 
anoint my father, and that he might rise up from 
his sickness : which thing, therefore, I also did. 
And after the prayer an angel of the Lord came, 
and said to me: What, Seth, dost thou ask? 
Dost thou ask oil which raiseth up the sick, or 
the tree from which this oil flows, on account 
of the sickness of thy father? This is not to be 
found now. Go, therefore, and tell thy father, 
that after the accomplishing of five thousand five 
hiindred years* from the creation of the world, 
then shall come into the earth the only begotten 
Son of God, being made man; and He shall 
anoint him with this oil, and shall raise him up ; 
and shall wash clean, with water and with the 
Holy Spirit, both him and those out of him, and 
then shall he be healed of every disease ; but 
now this is impossible.^ 

When the patriarchs and the prophets heard 
these words, they rejoiced greatly. 

Chap. 4 (20). — And when all were in such 
joy, came Satan the heir of darkness, and said to 
Hades : O all-devouring and insatiable, hear my 
words. There is of the race of the Jews one 
named Jesus, calling himself the Son of God ; 
and being a man, by our working with them the 
Jews have crucified him : and now when he is 
dead, be ready that we may secure him here. 
For I know that he is a man, and I heard him 
also saying, My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even 
unto death.-* He has also done me many evils 
when living with mortals in the upper world. For 
wherever he found my servants, he persecuted 
them ; and whatever men I made crooked, blind, 
lame, lepers, or any such thing, by a single word 

* [Mark xvi. i6.]: John iii. x8. 

'5300 B.C. was the date commonly assigned to the creation. 
See CAcm.f Strvm., i.; Theoph. Aat,, ati A utoi., iii.', comp. Just., 

3 For this legend, see the Revelation of Moses. 

* Mark xv. 34. 

he healed them; and many idiom I 
ready to be buried, even these through 
word he brought to life again. 

Hades says : And is this man so po? 
to do such things by a single word ? or 
so, canst thou withstand him ? It seen 
that, if he be so, no one will be able to « 
him. And if thou sayest that thou di< 
him dreading death, he said this mockii 
and laughing, wishing to seize thee \ 
strong hand ; and woe, woe to thee, to 
nity ! 

Satan says: O aU-devouring and ii 
Hades, art thou so afraid at hearing of o 
mon enemy? I was not afraid of 1 
worked in the Jews, and they crucified h 
gave him also to drink gall with vinegar.: 
ready, then, in order that you may lay £ 
of him when he comes. 

Hades answered: Heir of darkness, 
destruction, devil, thou hast just now i 
that many whom thou hadst made read 
buried, he brought to life again by a sing 
And if he has delivered others from th( 
how and with what power shall he be la 
of by us ? For I not long ago swallowe 
one dead, Lazarus by name ; and not loi 
one of the living by a single word dragg 
up by force out of my bowels : and I th; 
it was he of whom thou speakest If, th 
we receive him here, I am afraid lest pe 
we be in danger even about the rest 
all those that I have swallowed from et 
perceive to be in commotion, and I am 
in my belly. And the snatching away of 
beforehand seems to me to be no good si 
not like a dead body, but like an eagle, 
out of me ; for so suddenly did the eartl 
him out. Wherefore also I adjure eve: 
for thy benefit and for mine, not to bra 
here ; for I think that he is coming here 
all the dead. And this I tell thee : by th 
ness in which we live, if thou bring hin 
not one of the dead will be left behind 

Chap. 5 (21). — While Satan and Had 
thus speaking to each other, there was 
voice like thunder, saying : Lift up you] 
O ye rulers ; and be ye lifted up, ye eve 
gates; and the King of glory shall coi 
When Hades heard, he said to Satan : G 
if thou art able, and withstand him. Satai 
fore went forth to the outside. Then Ha( 
to his demons : Secure well and stror 
gates of brass and the bars of iron, and 
to my bolts, and stand in order,^ and 

i Matt, xxvii. 34. 

6 Ps. xxiv. 7. 

7 Lit., erect. 



ing also upon his shoulders a cross, to whom the 
holy fathers said : Who art thou, who hast the 
look of a robber ; and what is the cross which 
thou bearest upon thy shoulders ? He answered : 
I, as you say, was a robber and a thief in the 
world, and for these things the Jews laid hold of 
me, and delivered me to the death of the cross, 
along with our Lord Jesus Christ While, then. 
He was hanging upon the cross, I, seeing the 
miracles that were done, believed in Him, and 
entreated Him, and said. Lord, when Thou shalt 
be King, do not forget me. And immediately 
He said to me. Amen, amen : to-day, I say unto 
thee, shalt thou be with me in paradise. There- 
fore I came to paradise carrying my cross ; and 
finding the archangel Michael, I said to him. 
Our Lord Jesus, who has been crucified, has sent 
me here; bring me, therefore, to the gate of 
Ekien. And the fiaming sword, seeing the sign 
of the cross, opened to me, and I went in. 
Then the archangel says to me. Wait a little, for 
there cometh also the forefather of the race of 
men, Adam, with the just, that they too may come 
in. And now, seeing you, I came to meet you. 

The saints hearing these things, all cried oot 
with a loud voice : Great is our Lord, and great 
is His strength.' 

Chap. II (27). — All these things we saw and 
heard ; we, the two brothers, who also have been 
sent by Michael the archangel, and have been or- 
dered to proclaim the resurrection of the Lord, 
but first to go away to the Jordan and to be bap- 
tized. Thitiier also we have gone, and have been 
baptized with the rest of the dead who have risen. 
Thereafter also we came to Jerusalem, and cele- 
brated the passover of the resurrection. But 
now we are going away, being unable to stay here. 
And the love of God, even the Father, and Ae 
grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the com- 
munion of the Holy Spirit, be with you all.* 

Having written these things, and secured the 
rolls, they gave the half to the chief priests, and 
the half to Joseph and Nicodemus. And they 
immediately disappeared : to the glory of onr 
Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. 

* Ps. cxlviL s« 

* a Cor. xiii. 15. 



should die? They say: Because he said that 
he was the Son of God, and a king. 

Chap. 5. — But one Nicodemus, a Jew, stood 
before the governor, and said : I entreat, mer- 
cifully allow me to say a few words. Pilate says 
to him : Say on. Nicodemus says : I said to 
the elders anil the priests and the Levites, and 
to all the multitude of the Jews, in the syna- 
gogue, What have you to do with this man? 
This man does many wonders and signs, which 
no one of men has done or can do. Let him 
go, and do not devise any evil against him : if 
the signs which he does are of God, they will 
stand ; but if of men, they will come to nothing. 
For Moses also, being sent by (k>d into Egypt, 
did many signs, which Cfod told him to do be- 
fore Pharaoh king of Kgypt. And the sorcerers 
Jamnes and Mambres were there healing, and 
they did, they also, the signs which Moses did, 
but not all ; and the Eg)'ptians deemed them as 
gods, Jamnes and Mambres. And since the ■ 
signs which they did were not of God, they ! 
perished, l)oth they and those who believed in , 
them. And now let this man go, for he is not 
desemng of ileath. ! 

The Jews say to Nicodemus : Thou hast be- ' 
come his disciple, and takest his part." Nico- ; 
demus s;iys to them : Has the governor also i 
l)ecome his disciple, and di^es he take his part ? I 
Has not Ctesar sot him over that dignity ? And ' 
the Jews wore raging and gnashing with their 
teeth against Nicodemus. l*ilate sa\*s to them : : 
Whv do vou i::nash with vour tooth ai^ainst him, 
when ViV/ are hoarimx the truth? The lows s;iv ■ 
to Nioodonius : Mayst thou receive his tnith, and 
a ]x>rtion with him ! Nicodemus s;ivs : Amen, 
amen, amen ; mav I receive //, as vou have said ! 

Chap. 6, — And of the lows a certain other 
one, starting: up, asks the governor that he might 
s;iv a woni. The i:v>\ ornor s^ivs : What thou 
wishest to s»iv. s.iv. And he s.iid : For iliinv- 
eiiihi vears I lav in infirmitv in mv lx.*d in vorv 
grievous pain. And at ti^.e coming of Jesus, 
nuny demoniacs, auvl ,vo\ ••;.»• hcKl do^-n by 
viivors intirmities, were healed by him. And 
some young uumi had pity on me ; and carrying 
me in :uv 1h\1. laid mo Ix^foro him. And Jesus. 
seev.';^. had pity on me. aiivl s^iid the word to 
me. Take up th\ bovl. and walk. And immedi- 
ately I \ ir.avie whole ; I tvv>k up my l>ed, a:ui 
w.i*.kc\i. The Tews s^iv to IMate : Ask him what 
was the day on \vhich he was he.dovl. He s^iid : 
The Sa?Ki:h. The Tew^ s<.iv : Have we not so 
intor.nevi thee. :hai on the Sabbath he heals, 
and dr.ves c;:: den:ons? 

Anvi a cenain o:hcr Tew st.irting up. s^iid : I 

« Ut. 

J '•wi vr 


was bom blind ; I heard a voice, and saw no 
man. And as Jesus was passing by, I cried oat 
with a loud voice, Have pity upon me, thoa son 
of David. And he had pity upon me, and laid 
his hands upon my eyes, and I saw immediately. 
And another Jew starting up, said : I was honcb- 
backed, and he straightened me with a woid. 
And another said : I was leprous, and he healed 
me with a word. 

Chap. 7. — And also a certain woman, Veron- 
ica by name, from afar off cried out to the gov- 
ernor : I was flowing with blood for twelve ycais; 
and I touched the fringe of his garment, and im- 
mediately the flowing of my blood stopped. 
The Jews say : We have a law, that a woman 
does not come to bear witness. 

Chap. 8. — And certain others, a multitude of 
men and women, cried out, saying : That man ii 
a prophet, and the demons are subject to hinL 
Pilate says to those who said the demons are 
subject to him : And your masters, why are they 
not subject to him ? They say to Pilate : We do 
not know. And others said to Pilate : He raised 
up dead Lazarus from the tomb after four dajs. 
The governor, hearing this, said trembling to aH 
the multitude of the Jews : Why do you wish In 
shed innocent blood ? 

Chap. 9. — And Pilate, calling Nicodemus and 
the twelve men who said that He was not bom of 
fornication. sa\-s to them : What am I to do, se^ 
ing that there is a sedition among the people? 
Thev sav to him : We do not know : let them sec 
to it. Again Pilate, calling all the multitude of 
the Jews, said : Vou know that you have a custom 
during the day of unleavened bread, that I 
should release to vou one that is bound. I have 
a notable one bound in the prison, a murderer 
who is called Barabbas. and Jesus who is called 
I'hrist, in whom I tmd no cause of deadt 
Whom do vou ^ish that I should release iin© 
vou ? And thev all cried out, sa\'ine : Retease 
unto us Barabbas. Pilate says to them: ^VMt 
then, am I 10 do with Jesus who is caUed ChrislM 
They .ill say : Let him be crucified. Again iWj 
Tews said : Thou art no friend of Caesar's if thfli' 
release this man. for he called himself theSonrf 
I lOii. and a king : unless, perhaps, thou wishetf i| 
:hi> man to In? king, and not Caesar. 

XTxt-zi, niled with fur>\ Pilate said to them : AK 
wa\*s has your nation been seditious, and ahi 
have yov* l>een opposed to those who were 
vou. The Tews answered : WTio are for 
niate >wi\'s to them : Vour God, — who lesc^ 
you iK^m the hard slaver\* of the Egyptians, «■ 
Ie\l you ibnh out of Egypt through the sea is if 
thavj^h crv" land, and fed vou in the desert wB; 
nunna and quail, and brought water to yon 



my officers at the same time were confoimded 
along with me. Nor could we keep that Laza- 
rus; buty shaking himself like an eagle, he 
sprang out, and went forth from us with all 
activity and speed, and the same ground which 
held the dead body of Lazarus immediately gave 
him forth alive. So now, I know that that man 
who could do these things is God, strong in 
authority, powerful in humanity, and He is the 
Saviour of the human race. But if thou bring 
Him to me, all who are here shut up in the cru- 
elty of the prison, and bound by their sins in 
chains that cannot be loosened. He will let loose, 
and will bring to the life of His divinity for ever. 

Chap. 5 (21). — And as Prince Satan and 
Hades were thus speaking to each other in turn, 
suddenly there was a voice as of thunders, and 
a shouting of spirits : Lift up your gates, ye 
princes; and be ye hfted up, ye everlasting 
gates; and the King of glory shall come in.' 
Hades hearing this, said to Ftince Satan : Re- 
tire from me, and go outside of my realms : if 
thou art a powerful warrior, fight against the 
King of glory. But what hast thou to do with 
Him ? And Hades thrust Satan outside of his 
realms. And Hades said to his impious officers : 
Shut the cruel gates of brass, and put up the 
bars of iron, and resist bravely, that we, holding 
captivity, may not take Him captive.* 

And all the multitude of the saints, hearing 
this, said to Hades, with the voice of reproach : 
Open thy gates, that the King of glory may 
come in. And David cried out, saying : Did I 
not, when I was alive upon earth, prophesy to 
you : Let them confess to the Lord His tender 
mercies and His wonderful works to the children 
of men : for He has shattered the brazen gates, 
and burst the iron bars ; He has taken them up 
out of the way of their iniquity P^ And after 
this, in like manner, Esaias said : Did not I, 
when I was alive upon earth, prophesy to you : 
The dead shall rise up, and those who are in 
their tombs shall rise again, and those who are 
upon earth shall exult ; because the dew, which 
is from the Lord, is their health ? ^ And again I 
said. Where, O Death, is thy sting? where, O 
Hades, is thy victory ?5 

And when all the saints heard this from Esaias, 
they said to Hades : Open thy gates. Since thou 
art now conquered, thou wilt be weak and pow- 
erless. And there was a great voice, as of thun- 
ders, saying : Lift up your gates, ye princes ; and 
be ye lifted up, ye infernal gates ; and the King 
of glory shall come in. Hades, seeing that they 

> Fb. xxrr. 7. 
•Fft.l3ma.18. G 

s n& ^ 

in dw text is probably a misprint 
«^d At Vcdgste. 

had twice shouted out this, says, a^ 
ing : Who is the king of glory? ] 
answer to Hades : I recognise tl 
the shout, since I prophesied the 
Spirit. And now, what I have saic 
to thee. The Lord strong and mi^ 
mighty in battie; He is the Ki 
And the Lord Himself hath look< 
heaven upon earth, to hear the \ 
prisoners, and to release the sons 
And now, most filthy and most fou 
thy gates, that the King of glory 
While David was thus speaking, t 
Hades, in the form of a man, the 
jesty, and lighted up the eternal 
burst asunder the indissoluble ch^ 
aid of unconquered power visited 
the profound darkness of transgrei 
the shadow of death of sins.® 

Chap. 6 (22). — When this was 
des and Deatl}, and their impious 
with their cruel servants, they trer 
ceiving in their own dominions th< 
so great a light, when they saw CI 
in their abodes; and they cried 
We have been overcome by thee. ' 
that to the Lord directest our confi 
art thou, that, undestroyed by c( 
uncorrupted proof of thy majesty, 
demnest our power? "\\Tio art t 
and little, lowly and exalted, sold 
mander, wonderful warrior in the fc 
and the king of glory dead and aliv 
the cross has carried ? Thou, who 
in the sepulchre, hast come down 
and in thy death every creature 1 
the stars in a body were moved ; i 
hast been made free among the d 
turbest our legions. Who art thoi 
free those who art held captive, bo 
nal sin, and recallest them to the 
erty? Who art thou, who sheddest 
splendid, and illuminating light up 
have been blinded by the darkness 

In like manner, also, all the legic 
mons, terror-stricken with like fe 
fearful overthrow, cried out, saying 
thou, O Jesus, a man so powerful 
in majesty, so excellent, without s 
from guilt ? For that world of ea 
been subject to us alwa)rs until no^ 
to pay tribute for our uses, has neve 
a dead man, has never destined sue 
powers below. Who therefore art t 

* Ps. xxiv. 7, 8. 
7 Ps. cii. 19, ao. 

* Comp. Isa. ix. a; Luke I. 79. 

9 Some Mss. have: Who art thoa, O man, di 
thy prayer to our coofusioaT The oocrect leadiQi 
thou, mat bringest confuaioo upon oar outstert 




Pontius Piiate to Tiberius Caesar the em- 
peror, greeting.' 

Upon Jesus Christ, whose case I had clearly 
set forth to thee in my last, at length by the will 
of the people a bitter punishment has been in- 
flicted, myself being in a sort unwilling and 
rather a&aid. A man, by Hercules, so pious and 
strict, no age has ever had nor wUl have. But 
wonderful were the efforts of the people them- 
selves, and the unanimity of all the scribes and 
diief men and elders, to crucify this ambassador 
of truth, notwithstanding that their own prophets, 
sod alter our manner the sibyls, warned them 

s [Compare the translatwn of the letter of Pilate to Claudius, found 
b die Acts 0/Pettr and Paul; alio a similar letter incorporated in 
Tht Gotp4l cf Nicodtmutf aecood part, Latin, first Tersxm, chap. 

against it : and supernatural signs appeared while 
he was hanging, and, in the opinion of phi- 
losophers, threatened destruction to the whole 
world. His disciples are flourishing, in their 
work and the regulation of their Uves not bely- 
ing their master ; yea, in his name most benefi- 
cent Had I not been afraid of the rising of a 
sedition among the people, who were just on the 
point of brealong out, perhaps this man would 
still have been aUve to us ; although, urged more 
by fidelity to thy dignity than induced by my 
own wishes, I did not according to my strength 
resist that innocent blood free from the whole 
charge brought against ity but unjustly, through 
the malignity of men, should be sold and suffer^ 
yet, as die Scriptures signify, to their own de^ 
struction. Farewell. 28th March. 




red to me, making a great uproar against me 
lat I should try him. I therefore ordered him 

> be crucified, having first scourged him, and 
iving found against him no cause of evil accu- 
tions or deeds. 

And at the time he was crucified there was 
irkness over all the world, the sun being dark- 
led at mid-day, and the stars appearing, but 
them there appeared no lustre ; and the moon, 
if turned into blood, failed in her light. 
ad the world was swallowed up by the lower 
gions, so that the very sanctuary of the tem- 
e, as they call it, could not be seen by the 
-ws in their fall ; and they saw below them a 
LEsm of the earth, with the roar of the thun- 
rrs that fell upon it.' And in that terror dead 
en were seen that had risen, as the Jews them- 
Ives testified ; and they said that it was Abra- 
jm, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the twelve pa- 
aichs, and Moses and Job, that had died, as 
ey say, three thousand five hundred years be- 
ne. And there were very many whom I also 
w appearing in the body ; and they were mak- 
j^ a lamentation about the Jews, on account of 
K wickedness that had come to pass through 
evn, and the destruction of the Jews and of 

And the fear of the earthquake remained from 
e sixth hour of the preparation until the ninth 
•or. And on the evening of the first day of 
e week there was a sound out of the heaven, 

► that the heaven became enlightened seven- 
U more than all the days. And at the third 

' Tbe text here tt veiy corrupt. 

hour of the night also the sun was seen brighter 
than it had ever shone before, lighting up all the 
heaven. And as lightnings come suddenly in 
winter, so majestic men appeared* in glorious 
robes, an innumerable multitude, whose voice 
was heard as that of a very great thunder, cry- 
ing out : Jesus that was crucified is risen : come 
up out of Hades, ye that have been enslaved in 
the undeiiground regions of Hades. And the 
chasm of the earth was as if it had no bottom ; 
but it was as if the very foundations of the earth 
appeared along with those that cried out in the 
heavens, and walked about in the body in the 
midst of the dead that had risen. And he that 
raised up all the dead, and bound Hades, said : 
Say to my disciples. He goes before you into 
Galilee ; there shall you see him. 

And all that night the light did not cease shin- 
ing. And many of the Jews died, swallowed up 
in the chasm of the earth, so that on the follow- 
ing day most of those who had been against 
Jesus could not be found. Others saw the ap- 
pearing of those that had risen, whom no one of 
us had ever seen.3 And only one* synagogue 
of the Jews was left in this Jerusalem, since all 
disappeared in that fall. 

With that terror, being in perplexity, and 
seized with a most frightful trembling, I have 
written what I saw at that time, and have re- 
ported to thy majesty. Having set in order also 
what was done by the Jews against Jesus, I have 
sent it, my lord, to thy divinity. 

* Or, so men appeared on high. 
^ This sentence also is very corrupt. 

4 Another and more probable readmg is, net 09U, [So B, a Paxil 
MS. of the fourteenth century. — R. J 



t full. And the stars also, and Orion, made a 
Dent about the Jews, on account of the wicked- 
ss that had been done by them.' 
And on the first of the week, about the third 
ur of the night, the sun was seen such as it 
d never at any time shone, and all the heaven 
s lighted up. And as lightnings come on in 
Iter, so majestic men of indescribable splen- 
nr of dress and of glory appeared in the air, 
1 an innumerable multitude of angels crying 
t, and saying : Glory in the highest to God, 
1 on earth peace, among men goodwill : come 
out of Hades, ye who nave been kept in slav- 
' in the underground regions of Hades. And 
their voice all the mountains and hiUs were 
iken, and the rocks were burst asunder ; and 
3t chasms were made in the earth, so that 
> what was in the abyss appeared. 
Kind, there were seen in that terror dead men 

of this last sentence, one of the mss. has: And the 
Ib world was shaken by unspeakable miracles, and all the crea- 
^RM like ID be swallowed up by the lower regions; so that also 
of their temple was rent from top to botttun. And 
diunder, and a mighty ndse from heayen, so that all 

■■d shook and trembled. Another: And there began to be aarth- 
■■■ in the hour in which the nails were fixed in Jesus' hands and 

raised up,' as the Jews that saw them said : We 
have seen Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and 
the twelve patriarchs, that died two thousand 
five hundred years ago ; and we have seen Noah 
manifestly in the body. And all the multitude 
walked about, and sang praises to God with a 
loud voice, saying : The Lord our God that has 
risen from the dead has brought to life all the 
dead, and has plundered Hades, and put him 
to death. 

All that night therefore, my lord, O king, the 
light ceased not. And many of the Jews died, 
and were engulphed and swallowed up in the 
chasms in that night, so that not even their 
bodies appeared. Those, I say, of the Jews 
suffered that had spoken against Jesus. And 
one synagogue was left in Jerusalem, since all 
those synagogues that had been against Jesus 
were engulphed. 

From that fear, then, being in perplexity, and 
seized with much trembling, at that same hour 
I ordered what had been done by them all to 
be written ; and I have reported it to thy might- 

* One MS. adds: To the niunber of fire hundred. 


And the writings having come to the city of 
the Romans, and having been read to the Caesar, 
with not a few standing by, all were astounded, 
because through the wickedness of Pilate the 
darkness and the earthquake had come over the 
whole world. And the Caesar, filled with rage, 
sent soldiers, and ordered them to bring Pilate 
a prisoner. 

And when he was brought to the city of the 
Romans, the Caesar, hearing that Pilate had 
arrived, sat in the temple of the gods, in the 
presence of all the senate, and with all the army, 
and all the multitude of his power ; and he or- 
dered Pilate to stand forward.' And the Caesar 
says to him : Why hast thou, O most impious, 
dared to do such things, having seen so great 
miracles in that man? By daring to do an evil 
deed, thou hast destroyed the whole world. 

And Pilate said : O almighty* king, I am inno- 
cent of these things ; but the multitude of the 
Jews are violent and guilty. And the Caesar 
said : And who are they ? Pilate says : Herod, 
Archelaus, Philip, Annas and Caiaphas, and all 
the multitude of the Jews. The Caesar says : 
For what reason didst thou follow out their 
counsel ? And Pilate says : Their nation is re- 
bellious and insubmissive, not submitting them- 
selves to thy power. And the Caesar said : When 
they delivered him to thee, thou oughtest to 
have made him secure, and to have sent him 
to me, and not to have obeyed them in crucifying 
such a man, righteous as he was, and one that 
did such good miracles, as thou hast said in thy 
report. For from such miracles Jesus was mani- 
fesdy the Christ, the King of the Jews. 

And as the Caesar was thus speaking, when he 
named the name of Christ, all the multitude of 
the gods fell down in a body, and became as 
dust, where the Caesar was sitting with the senate. 
And the people standing beside the Caesar all 
began to tremble, on account of the speaking of 
the word, and the fall of their gods ; and being 
seized with terror, they all went away, each to 
his own house, wondering at what had happened. 
And the Caesar ordered Pilate to be kept in 
security, in order that he might know the truth 
about Jesus. 

> Or, in the entnmce. 
' avTOxparwp. 


And on the following day, the Caesar, s 
in the Capitol with all the senate, tried ags 
question Pilate. And the Caesar says : Td 
truth, O most impious, because through &] 
pious action which thou hast perpetrated ag 
Jesus, even here the doing of thy wicked 3 
has been shown by the gods having been 
down. Say, then, who is he that has been c 
fied ; because even his name has destroyo 
the gods ? Pilate said : And indeed the rec 
of him are true ; for assuredly I m}'self was 
suaded from his works that he was greater 
all the gods whom we worship. And the C 
said : For what reason, then, didst thou I 
against him such audacity and such doin^ 
thou wert not ignorant of him, and altog< 
devising mischief against my kingdom? F 
said ; On account of the wickedness and n 
lion of the lawless and ungodly Jews, I 

And the Caesar, being filled with rage, he 
council with all his senate and his power, 
ordered a decree to be written against the 
as follows : — To Licianus, the governor of 
chief places of the East, greeting. The rec 
deed which has been done at the present 
by the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and the ( 
of the Jews round about, and their wicked ac 
has come to my knowledge, that they have k 
Pilate to crucify a certain god named Jesus 
on account of this great fault of theirs the v 
has been darkened and dragged to destnic 
Do thou then speedily, with a multitude of 
diers, go to them there, and make them prise 
in accordance with this decree. Be obed 
and take action against them, and scatter il 
and make them slaves among all the nations ; 
having driven them out of the whole of Jui 
make them the smallest of nations, so th 
may not any longer be seen at all, because 
are fiill of wickedness.^ 

And this decree having come into the re 
of the East, Licianus, obeying from fear of 
decree, seized all the nation of the Je^-s; 
those that were left in Judaea he scattered an 
the nations, and sold for slaves : ^ so that it 
known to the Caesar that these things had t 

3 The text is very corrupt. 

4 Lit, he made to be slaves in the diq>ersion of the GcauSa 



by Licianus against the Jews in the region 
le East ; and it pleased him. 
id again the Caesar set himself to question 
; and he orders a captain named Albius 
It off Pilate's head, saying : Just as he laid 
upon the just man named Christ, in like 
ler also shall he fall, and not find safety. 

Pilate, going away to the place, prayed 
lence, saying: Lord, do not destroy me 
with the wicked Hebrews, because I would 
ive laid hands upon Thee, except for the 
of the lawless Jews, because they were 
rebellion against me. But Thou know- 
I did it in ignorance. Do not then de- 
te for this my sin ; but remember not evil 
me, O Lord, and against Thy servant 
who is standing with me in this the hour 
death, whom Thou didst appoint to proph- 
tt Thou shouldest be nailed to the cross, 
condemn her also in my sin ; but pardon 

us, and make us to be nimibered in the portion 
of Thy righteous. 

And, behold, when Pilate had finished his 
prayer, there came a voice out of the heaven, 
saying : All the generations and families of the 
nations shall count thee blessed, because under 
thee have been fulfilled all those things said about 
me by the prophets ; and thou thyself shalt be 
seen as my witness at my second appearing, when 
I shall judge the twelve tribes of Israel, and those 
that have not owned my name. And the pre- 
fect struck off the head of Pilate ; and, behold, 
an angel of the Lord received it And his wife 
Procla^ seeing the angel coming and receiving 
his head, being filled with joy herself also, im- 
mediately gave up the ghost, and was buried 
along with her husband.' 

' One of the mss. adds: By the wQl and good pleasuxe of our 
Lord Jesua Christ, to whom be the glonr of the Tatber, and the Soo^ 
and the Holy Choca, aow aod ever, and to ages of agea. Amen. 



And when Tiberius Caesar, the emperor of the 
Romans, was labouring under a grievous disease, 
and understanding that there was at Jerusalem 
a certain physician, Jesus by name, who by a 
single word cured all infirmities, he, not knowing 
that the Jews and Pilate had put Him to death, 
ordered a certain friend of his named Volu- 
sianus : Go as quickly as possible across the seas ; 
and thou shalt tell Pilate, my servant and friend, 
to send me this physician, that he may restore 
me to my former health. And this Volusianus, 
having heard the emperor's command, immedi- 
ately departed, and came to Pilate, as he had 
been commanded. And he related to the same 
Pilate what had been entrusted to him by Tibe- 
rius Caesar, saying : Tiberius Caesar, the emperor 
of the Romans, thy master, having heard that 
in this city there is a physician who by his word 
alone heals infirmities, begs thee earnestly to send 
him to him for the curing of his infirmity. Pilate, 
hearing this, was very much afraid, knowing that 
through envy he had caused Him to be put to 
death. Pilate answered the same messenger 
thus, saying : This man was a malefactor, and 
a man who drew to himself all the people ; so a 
council of the wise men of the city was held, 
and I caused him to be crucified. And this mes- 
senger returning to his inn, met a certain woman 
named Veronica, who had been a friend of Jesus ; 
and he said : O woman, a certain physician who 
was in this city, who cured the sick by a word 
alone, why have the Jews put him to death? 
And she began to weep, saying : Ah me ! my 
lord, my God and my Lord, whom Pilate for 
envy delivered, condemned, and ordered to be 
crucified. Then he, being exceedingly grieved, 
said : I am vehemently grieved that I am una- 
ble to accomplish that for which my lord had 
sent me. And Veronica said to him : When 
my Lord was going about preaching, and I, much 
against my will, was deprived of His presence, 
I wished His picture to be painted for me, in 
order that, while I was deprived of His presence, 
the figure of His picture might at least afford 
me consolation. And when I was carrying the 
canvas to the painter to be painted, my Lord 
met me, and asked whither I was going. And 


when I had disclosed to Him the cause of 
journey, He asked of me the doth, and gncj 
back to me impressed with the image of 
venerable face. Therefore, if thy lori wiD 
voudy gaze upon His face/ he shall obtain 
with the benefit of health. And he said to 
Is a picture of such a sort procurable Iff 
or silver? She said to him: No; but bf 
pious influence of devotion. I shall 
set out with thee, and shall carry the pictme 
be seen by Caesar, and shall come back agm 

Volusianus therefore came with Veronici 
Rome, and said to Tiberius the emperor : ] 
whom thou hast been longing for, Pilate and 
Jews have delivered to an mijust death, 
have through envy afHxed to the gibbet of 
cross. There has therefore come with mc 
certain matron, bringing a picture of Jesus 
self; and if thou wilt devoutly look upon 
thou shalt immediately obtain the benefit of 
health. Caesar therefore ordered the way to 
strewn with silk cloths, and the picture to 
presented to him ; and as soon as he had lool 
upon it, he regained his former health. 

Pontius Pilate, therefore, by the command 
Caesar, is taken and brought through to Roi 
Caesar, hearing that Pilate had arrived at Roi 
was filled with exceeding fury against him, 
caused him to be brought to him. But 
brought down with him the seamless tunic 
Jesus ; and he wore it on him in presence of 
emperor. And as soon as the emperor saw 
he laid aside all his anger, and forthwith rose 
to meet him. Nor was he able to speak 
to him in anything ; and he who seemed so 
rible and fierce in his absence, now in his 
ence is somehow found to be mild. And 
he had sent him away, immediately he blazed 
against him terribly, crying out that he was 
wretch, inasmuch as he had not at all shown 
the fury of his heart. And immediately he 
him be called back, swearing and declaring 
he was the son of death, and that it was 
mous that he should bVe upon the earth, 
as soon as he saw him, he forthwith saluted 

> Or, upon the dght of Uiia. 


and threw away all the ferocity of his mind. 
All wondered ; and he himself wondered that he 
should thus blaze out against Pilate when he was 
absent, and that while he was present he could 
say nothing to him roughly. Then, by a divine 
unpulse, or perhaps by the advice of some Chris- 
tian,' he caused him to be stripped of that tunic, 
and immediately resumed against him his former 
ferocity of mind. And when at this the emperor 
wondered very much, it was told him that that 
tunic had belonged to the Lord Jesus. Then 
the emperor ordered him to be kept in prison, 
until he should deliberate in a council of the 
wise men what ought to be done with him. And 
a few days after, sentence was therefore passed 
upon Pilate, that he should be condemned to the 
most disgraceful death. Pilate, hearing this, 
killed himself with his own knife, and by such a 
death ended his Ufe. 

When Caesar knew of the death of Pilate, he 
said : Truly he has died by a most disgraceful 
death, whom his own hand has not spared. He 
is therefore bound to a great mass, and sunk 

I This is the first aypeai a no e of the word Christian m these writ- 

into the river Tiber. But malignant and filthy 
spirits in his malignant and filthy body, all rejoi- 
cing together, kept moving themselves in the 
waters, and in a terrible manner brought light- 
nings and tempests, thunders and hail-storms, in 
the air, so that all men were kept in horrible 
fear. Wherefore the Romans, drawing him out 
of the river Tiber, in derision carried him down 
to Vienna, and sunk him in the river Rhone. 
For Vienna is called, as it were, Via Gehenna^ 
the way of Gehenna, because it was then a place 
of cursing. But there evil spirits were present, 
working the same things in the same place. 
Those men therefore, not enduring such a visita- 
tion of demons, removed from themselves that 
vessel of malediction, and sent him to be buried 
in the territory of Losania.' And they, seeing 
that they were troubled by the aforesaid visita- 
tions, removed him from themselves, and sunk 
him in a certain pit surrounded by mountains, 
where to this day, according to the account of 
some, certain diabolical machinations are said to 
bubble up. 

' Losonium was the Roman name of Lausanne. For a disctiision 
of this legend concerning Mont Pilate, near Lucerne, see SmiUi's 
DidioKary of tkt BibU, under Pilate. 



Chap, i . — I am Joseph of Arimathaea, who 
begged fh)m Pilate the body of the Lord Jesus 
for burial, and who for this cause was kept close 
in prison by the murderous and God-fighting « 
Jews, who also, keeping to the law, have by 
Moses himself become partakers in tribulation ; 
and having provoked their Lawgiver to anger, 
and not knowing that He was God, crucified Him, 
and made Him manifest to those that knew God. 
In those days in which they condemned the Son 
of God to be crucified, seven days before Christ 
suffered, two condemned robbers were sent fi*om 
Jericho to the procurator Pilate ; and their case 
was as follows : — 

The first, his name Gestas, put travellers to 
death, murdering them with the sword, and oth- 
ers he exposed naked. And he hung up women 
by the heels, head down, and cut off their breasts, 
and drank the blood of infants' limbs, never having 
known God, not obeying the laws, being violent 
from the beginning, and doing such deeds. 

And the case of the other was as follows : He 
was called Demas, and was by birth a Galilasan, 
and kept an inn. He made attacks upon the 
rich, but was good to the poor — a thief like 
Tobit, for he buried the bodies of the poor.^ And 
he set his hand to robbing the multitude of the 
Jews, and stole the law ^ itself in Jerusalem, and 
stripped naked the daughter of Caiaphas, who 
was priestess of the sanctuary, and took away 
firom its place the mysterious deposit itself placed 
there by Solomon. Such were his doings. 

And Jesus also was taken on the third day be- 
fore the passover, in the evening. And to Caia- 
phas and the multitude of the Jews it was not a 
passover, but it was a great mourning to them, 
on account of the plundering of the sanctuary by 
the robber. And they summoned Judas Iscariot, 

* MS. C has God>kiIling. [C is the designation given by Tischen- 
dorf to the MS. from which Birch made his edition of the text. It is 
in Paris; date a.d. 1315. The mss. which Tischendorf himself col- 
lated are designated A (in the Ambrosian library at Milan, of about 
the twelfth century), B (Paris, fifteenth century), D (Harleian 
codex, of the same century). Only a small part ol the last MS. was 
used by Tischendorf; see his/roiegvmena, p. Ixxxi. — R.] 

* Tobit i. 17, 18. 

3 Perhaps Uie true reading is rooK, and not kiS/iok: plundered 
the temple. 


and spoke to him, for he was son of the biol 
of Caiaphas the priest He was not a dk 
before the face of Jesus ; but all the molt 
of the Jews craftily supported him, that he i 
follow Jesus, not that he might be obediei 
the miracles done by Him, nor that he n 
confess Him, but that he might betray Ho 
them, wishing to catch up some lying von 
Him, giving him gifts for such brave, honest 
duct to the amount of a half shekel of gold 
day. And he did this for two years w^ J 
as says one of His disciples called John. 

And on the third day, before Jesus was 
hold of, Judas says to the Jews : Come, fc 
hold a council ; for perhaps it was not the ro 
that stole the law, but Jesus himself, and lac 
him. And when these words had been spo 
Nicodemus, who kept the keys of the sancti 
came in to us, and said to all : Do not do : 
a deed. For Nicodemus was true, more 
all the multitude of the Jews. And the dauj 
of Caiaphas, Sarah by name, cried out, ands 
He himself said before all against this holy p 
I am able to destroy this temple, and in l 
days to raise it. The Jews say to her: *! 
hast credit with all of us. For theyrega 
her as a prophetess. And assuredly, aftei 
council had been held, Jesus was laid hold • 

Chap. 2. — And on the following day, 
fourth day of the week, they brought Him a 
ninth hour into the hall of Caiaphas. 
Annas and Caiaphas say to Him : Tell us, 
hast thou stolen our law, and renounced ' 
ordinances of Moses and the prophets? 
Jesus answered nothing. And again a s« 
time, the multitude also being present, the) 
to Him : The sanctuary which Solomon 
in forty and six years, why dost thou wish to 
stroy in oiic moment ? 'And to these things J 
answered nothing. For the sanctuar)' of 
synagogue had been plundered by the robbc 


4 MS. B has: iLad e>ey sajr xox. 

oCttie&iniiyof Abi 

5 Tiscjicn^ i/ vjfr/gfps iMffs^ii» blddn. Is m«kv^ 



ras not in his first form, as before John came ; 
nt he was like a king in great power, having on 
am the cross. And the voice of a great multi- 
snde was sent forth: Thou hast come to the 
place prepared for thee in paradise. We have 
aeen commanded by Him that has sent thee, 
ID serve thee until the great day. And after this 
poice, both the robber and I Joseph vanished, 
Bd I was found in my own house ; and I no 
mger saw Jesus. 

And I, having seen these things, have written 
them down, in order that all may believe in the 
crucified Jesus Christ our Lord, and may no 
longer obey the law of Moses, but may believe 
in the signs and wonders that have happened 
through Him, and in order that we who have be- 
lieved may inherit eternal life, and be found in 
the kingdom of the heavens. For to Him are « 
due glory, strength, praise, and majesty for ever 
and ever. Amen. 


This version of the legend of Veronica is written in very barbarous Latin, probably of the sev- 
enth or eighth century. An Anglo-Saxon version, which Tischendorf concludes to be derived torn 
the Latin, was edited and translated for the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, by C. W. Goodwin, in 
185 1. The Anglo-Saxon text is from a MS. in the Cambridge Library, one of a number presented 
to the Cathedral of Exeter by Bishop Leofric in the beginning of the eleventh century. 

The reader will observe that there are in this document two distinct legends, somewhat dum- 
tily joined together — that of Nathan's embassy, and that of Veronica. 


In the days of the Emperor Tiberius Caesar, 
when Herod was tetrarch, Christ was delivered 
under Pontius Pilate by the Jews, and revealed 
by Tiberius. 

In those days Titus ' was a prince under Ti- 
berius in the region of Equitania, in a city of 
Libia which is called Burgidalla. And Titus had 
a sore in his right nostril, on account of a can- 
cer, and he had his face torn even to the eye. 
There went forth a certain man from Judaea, by 
name Nathan the son of Nahum ; for he was an 
Ishmaelite who went from land to land, and from 
sea to sea, and in all the ends of the earth. 
Now Nathan was sent from Judaea to the Empe- 
ror Tiberius, to carry their treaty to the city of 
Rome. And Tiberius was ill, and full of ulcers 
and fevers, and had nine kinds of leprosy. And 
Nathan wished to go to the city of Rome. 
But the north wind blew and hindered his sail- 
ing, and carried him down to the harbour of a 
city of Libia. Now Titus, seeing the ship com- 
ing, knew that it was from Judaea ; and they all 
wondered, and said that they had never seen any 
vessel so coming from that quarter. And Titus 
ordered the captain to come to him, and asked 
him who he was. And he said : I am Nathan 
the son of Nahum, of the race of the Ishmael- 
ites, and I am a subject of Pontius Pilate in 
Judaea. And I have been sent to go to Tiberius 
the Roman emperor, to carry a treaty from Ju- 
daea. And a strong wind came down upon the 

' The Saxon version has Tinu. 


sea, and has brought me to a country that I do 
not know. 

And Titus says : If thou couldst at any time 
find anything either of cosmetics or herbs which 
could cure the wound that I have in my face, as 
thou seest, so that I should become whole, and 
regain my former health, I should bestow upon 
thee many good things. And Nathan said to 
him : I do not know, nor have I ever known, 
of such things as thou speakest to me about 
But for all that, if thou hadst been some time 
ago in Jerusalem, there thou wouldst have found 
a choice prophet, whose name was Emanuel, for 
He will save His people from their sins. And 
He, as His first miracle in Cana of Galilee, made 
wine from water ; and by His word He cleansed 
lepers. He enlightened the eyes of one bom 
blind. He healed paralytics. He made demons 
flee, He raised up three dead ; a woman cau^ 
in adultery, and condemned by the Jews to be 
stoned, He set free ; and another woman, named 
Veronica, who suffered twelve years fit^m an 
issue of blood, and came up to Him behind, and 
touched the fringe of His garment, He healed ; 
and with five loaves and two fishes He satisfied 
five thousand men, to say nothing of littie ones 
and women, and there remained of the frag- 
ments twelve baskets. All these things, and 
many others, were accomplished before His pas- 
sion. After His resurrection we saw Him in the 
flesh as He had been before. And Titus said 
to Him : How did he rise again from the dead, 
seeing that he was dead ? And Nathan answered 



Emperor Tiberius said to Velosianus : How hast 
thou it? And he answered : I have it in clean 
cloth of gold, rolled up in a shawl. And the 
Emperor Tiberius said: Bring it to me, and 
spread it before my face, that I, falling to the 
ground and bending my knees, may adore it on 
the ground. Then Velosianus spread out his 
shawl with the cloth of gold on which the por- 
trait of the Lord had been imprinted ; and the 
Emperor Tiberius saw it. And he immediately 
adored the image of the Lord with a pure heart, 
and his flesh was cleansed as the flesh of a little 
child. And all the blind, the lepers, the lame, 
the dumb, the deaf, and those possessed by va- 
rious diseases, who were there present, were 
healed, and cured, and cleansed. And the Em- 
peror Tiberius bowed his head and bent his 
knees, considering that saying: Blessed is the 
womb which bore Thee, and the breasts which 
Thou hast sucked ; and he groaned to the Lord, 
saying with tears : God of heaven and earth, do 
not permit me to sin, but confirm my soul and 
my body, and place me in Thy kingdom, be- 
cause in Thy name do I trust always : free me 
from all evils, as Thou didst free the three chil- 
dren from the furnace of blazing fire. 

Then said the Emperor Tiberius to Vdosianas : 
Velosianus, hast thou seen any of those men wiM 
saw Christ ? Velosianus answered : I have. He 
said : Didst thou ask how they baptize those who 
believed in Christ? Velosianus said : Here, my 
Lord, we have one of the disciples of Christ 
himself. Then he ordered Nathan to be sum- 
moned to come to him. Nathan therefore came 
and baptized him in the name of the Father, and 
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost Amen. 
Immediately ^e Emperor Tiberius, made whole 
from all his diseases, ascended upon his throoe, 
and said : Blessed art Thou, O Lord God Al- 
mighty, and worthy to be praised, who hast fieed 
me from the snare of death, and cleansed ne 
from all mine iniquities ; because I have gitil^< 
sinned before Thee, O Lord my God, and I m} 
not worthy to see Thy &ce. And then the Em4 
peror Tiberius was instructed in all the aitickli 
of the faith, fully, and with strong faith. I 

May that same God Almighty, who Is Kaf, 
of kings and Lord of lords. Himself shidd v ift 
His faith, and defend us, and deliver us from ' 
danger and evil, and deign to bring us to life 
lasting, when this life, which is temporaiy, 
fail ; who is blessed for ever and ev^. Amcft ' 



village of the Ledrians ; and we, having found 
there also a cave near the village, took refuge in 
it, and thus escaped them. And we were hid in 
the cave three days ; and the Jews having gone 
away, we came forth and left the place by night 
And taking with us Ariston and Rhodon, we 
came to the village of Limnes.' 

And having come to the shore, we found an 
Egyptian ship ; and having embarked in it, we 
landed at Alexandria. And there I remained, 

] Thk place does not appctt on U» aacknt maps, bnl there is a 

teaching the brethren that came the word of im 
Lord, enlightening them, and preaching what t 
had been taught by the apostles of Clmst, i^ 
also baptized me into liie name of Father, 
and Son, and Holy Ghost; who also changed 
my name to Mark in the water of baptism, by 
which also I hope to bring many to the gloiy of 
God through His grace ; because to Him is due 
honour and everlasting ^ory. Amen. 

The joumeyings and martyrdom of the holy 
apostle Barnabas have been fulfilled throodi 


of Christ, and adorned by His limbs as if with 
pearls. Assuredly before my Lord went up on 
thee, thou hadst much earthly fear ; but now in- 
vested with heavenly longing, thou art fitted up ' 
according to my prayer. For I know, from those 
who believe, how many graces thou hast in Him, 
how many gifts prepared beforehand. Free fi-om 
care, then, and with joy, I come to thee, that 
thou also exulting mayst receive me, the dis- 
ciple of Him that was hanged upon thee ; be- 
cause thou hast been always faithful to me, and 
I have desired to embrace thee. O good cross, 
which hast received comeliness and beauty from 
the limbs of the Lord ; O much longed for, and 
earnestly desired, and fervently sought after, and 
already prepared beforehand for my soul longing 
for thee, take me away from men, and restore me 
to my Master, in order that through thee He may 
accept me who through thee has redeemed me. 

And having thus spoken, the blessed Andrew, 
standing on the ground, and looking earnestly 
upon the cross, stripped himself and gave his 
clothes to the executioners, having urged the 
brethren that the executioners should come and 
do what had been commanded them ; for they 
were standing at some distance. And they hav- 
ing come up, lifted him on the cross ; and having 
stretched his body across with ropes, they only 
bound his feet, but did not sever his joints,* 
having received this order from the proconsul : 
for he wished him to be in distress while hang- 
ing, and in the night-time, as he was suspended, 
to be eaten up alive by dogs.^ 

And a great multitude of the brethren stood 
by, nearly twenty thousand ; and having beheld 
the executioners standing off, and that they had 
done to the blessed one nothing of what those 
who were hanged up suffer, they thought that they 
would again hear something from him ; for as- 
suredly, as he was hanging, he moved his head 
smiling. And Stratocles inquired of him : Why 
art thou smiling, Andrew, servant of God ? Thy 
laughter makes us mourn and weep, because we 
are deprived of thee. And the blessed Andrew 
answered him : Shall I not laugh at all, my son 
Stratocles, at the empty stratagem of ^geates, 
through which he thinks to take vengeance upon 
us ? We have nothing to do with him and his 
plans. He cannot hear; for if he could, he 
would be aware, having learned it by experience, 
that a man of Jesus is unpunished.^ 

* Another reading is: I am attached to thee. 

* The original is obscure. The meaning seems to be that he was 
tied only, not nailed. The nailing, however, seems to have been an 
essential part of the punishment of crucifixion. 

3 It was common to let loose wild beasts on the crucified (Sueton., 

4 Instead of this paragraph, one MS. [the Bodleian] has: And 
there ran up a great multitude, about twenty thousand in number, 
among whom was the brother of ^geas, Stratocles by name ; and he 
cried out with the people, It is an unjust judgment. And the holy 
Andrew, hitting uptm the thoughts of the bielicvers. exhorted them to 
endure the temporary trial, saying that the suffering counted for 
aothing when compared with the eternal recompense. 

And having thus spoken, he discoursed to 
them all in common, for the people ran together 
enraged at the unjust judgment of i£geates: Te 
men standing by me, and women, and childR% 
and elders, bond and free, and as many as wl 
hear ; I beseech you, forsake all this life, jtik 
have for my sake assembled here ; and iustoi 
to take upon you my life, which leads to hew- 
enly things, and once for aU despise all tenpo' 
rary things, confirming the purposes of tiiae 
who believe in Christ. And he exhorted thcA 
all, teaching that the sufferings of this traoaUf 
life are not worthy to be compared with tfaefih 
ture recompense of the eternal life. 

And the multitude hearing what was sdd If: 
him, did not stand off from the place, and M 
blessed Andrew continued the rather to sij to 
them more than he had spoken. And so om 
was said by him, that a space of three days 
nights was taken up, and no one was tired arf 
went away from him. And when also on thfi 
fourth day they beheld his nobleness, and te 
unweariedness of his intellect, and the muldtoih 
of his words, and the serviceableness of hisct 
hortations, and the sted fastness of his soul, 
the sobriety of his spirit, and the fixedness 
his mind, and the perfection of his reason, 
were enraged against .^geates ; and all with 
accord hastened to the tribunal, and cried 
against .^geates, who was sitting, saying: W 
is thy judgment, O proconsul ? Tliou hast j 
wickedly ; thy awards are impious. In what 
the man done i^Tong ; what evil has he done 
The city has been put in an uproar ; thou gner- 
est us all ; do not betray Caesar's city. Gnrt 
willingly to the Achaians a just man ; grant ft 
lingly to us a God -/earing man; do not pat to 
death a godly man. Four days he has be* 
hanging, and is alive; having eaten nothing, i< 
has filled us all. Take down the man from d*] 
cross, and we shall all seek after wisdom ; rc^i 
lease the man, and to all Achaia will mercy b^ 
shown. It is not necessary that he should sat 
fer this, because, though hanging, he does art 
cease proclaiming the truth. 

And when the proconsul refused to listen IB 
them, at first indeed signing with his hand toj 
the crowd to take themselves off, they 
to be emboldened against him, being in n 
about twenty thousand. And the proconsul 
ing beheld that they had somehow become 
dened, afraid that something frightful wodd 
fall him, rose up from the tribunal and 
away with them, having promised to set free 
blessed Andrew. And some went on befbie 
tell the apostle the cause for which they 
to the place. 

While all the crowd, therefore, was e 
that the blessed Andrew was going to be 
free, the proconsul having come up, and all 


the people, and to send to Caesar an accusation 
against both Maximilla and all the people. And 
while he was arranging these things in the pres- 
ence of his officers, at the dead of night he rose 
up, and unseen by all his people, having been 
tormented by the devil, he fell down from a 
great height, and rolling into the midst of the 
market-place of the city, breathed his last. 

And this was reported to his brother Strato- 
cles ; and he sent his servants, having told them 
that they should bury him among those who had 
diefi a violent death. But he sought nothing 
of his substance, saying : Let not my Lord Jesus 
Christ, in whom I have believed, suffer me to touch 
anything whatever of the goods of my brother, that 

the condemnation of him who dared to cut off 
the aposde of the Lord may not disgrace me. 

These things were done in the province of 
Achaia, in the city of Pktras on the day before 
the kalends of December/ where his good deeds 
are kept in mind even to this day, to the gkny 
and praise of our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom 
be glory for ever and ever. Amen.' 

> Lc, 30th November, St. Andrew's day. 

* One MS. thus ends : These things were done in die provhoeof 
Achaia. in the ci^ of Patzas, on the dav befiMC the kalends of Deot» 
ber ; where also nis glorious good deeds are shown even to dm d^; 
and so ^reat fear came upon all, that no one remained who did Mt 
believe m God our Saviour, who wishes all to be saved, and to 

to the knowled^ of the truth. To Him be fl^ory to a^ of in 
Amen, [lliis u the endins of the Latin rtxmoa (in Tnchaml; 
the Bodleian ms. has a simahur concluuoo, bat the teit is diflaMf : 
arranged. — R.] 



And Jesus having turned to us, said, Behold the 
sign of the cross ; for these are like the cherubim 
and the seraphim which are in heaven. Then 
, Jesus, having looked to the right, where the 
f sphinx was, said to it, I say unto thee, thou im- 
^age of that which is in heaven, which the hands 
' of craftsmen have sculptured, be separated from 
thy place, and come down, and answer and con- 
vict the chief priests, and show them whether I 
am God or man. 

And immediately at that very time the sphinx 
removed from its place, and having assumed a 
human voice, said, O foolish sons of Israel, not 
only has the blinding of their own hearts not 
been enough for them, but they also wish others 
to be blind like themselves, saying that God is 
man, who in the beginning fashioned man, and 
put His breath into all, who gave motion to those 
things which moved not; He it is who called 
Abraham, who loved his son Isaac, who brought 
back his beloved Jacob into his land ; He is the 
Judge of living and dead ; He it is who pre- 
pareth great benefits for those who obey Him, 
and prepareth punishment for those who believe 
Him not. Heed not that I am an idol that can 
be handled ; for I say unto you, that the sacred 
places of your synagogue are more excellent.* 
For though we are stones, the priests have given 
us only the name of a god ; and those priests 
who serve the temple purify themselves, being 
afraid of the demons : for if they have had in- 
tercourse with women, they purify themselves 
seven days, because of their fear ; so that they 
do not come into the temple because of us, be- 
cause of the name which they have given us, 
that we are a god. But you, if you have com- 
mitted fornication, take up the law of God, and 
go into the synagogue of God, and purify, and 
read, and do not reverence the glorious words 
of God. Because of this, I say unto you, that 
the holy things purify your synagogues, so that 
they also become churches of His only begot- 
ten Son. The sphinx having said this, ceased 

And we said to the chief priests, Now it is fit- 
ting that you should believe, because even the 
stones have convicted you. And the Jews an- 
swered and said, By magic these stones speak, 
and do not you think that it is a god ? For if 
you have tested what has been said by the stone, 
you have ascertained its deception. For where 
diri he find Abraham, or how did he see him ? 
P'or Abraham died many years before he was 
born, and how does he know him? 

And Jesus, having again turned to the image, 
said to it. Because these believe not that I have 
spoken with Abraham, go away into the land of 

' One MS. has: Do not say that I am a carved stone, and that 
you alone have a name, and axe called high priests. 

the Canaanites, and go away to the doubk'csve 
in the field of Mamre, where the body of Abo- 
ham is, and cry outside of the tomb, sayiq^ 
Abraham, Abraham, whose body is in the toob^ 
and whose soul is in paradise, thus speab Ik 
who fashioned man, who made thee from the 
beginning his friend, Rise up, thou and thj 
Isaac, and the son of thy son Jacob, and 
to the temples of the Jebusites, that we majoofr 
vict the chief priests, in order that theyn^ 
know that I am acquainted with thee, and thoi 
with me. And when the sphinx heard tlioe 
words, immediately she walked about in tbeptef* 
ence of us all, and set out for the land of 
Canaanites to the field of Mamre, and 
outside of the tomb, as God had co 
her. And straightway the twelve patriaids' 
came forth alive out of the tomb, and 
and said to her. To which of us hast thoa 
sent ? And the sphinx answered and said, I 
been sent to the three patriarchs for testi 
but do ye go in, and rest until the time of 
resurrection. And having heard, they went i 
the tomb and fell asleep. And the three 
•archs set out along with the sphinx to Jesus, 
convicted the chief priests. And Jesus said 
them. Go away to your places ; and they 
away. And He said also to the image, Go op 
thy place ; and straightway she went up 
stood in her place. And He did also many 
miracles, and they did not believe Him ; 
miracles y if I shall recount, thou wilt not be 
to bear. And Jesus answered and said to 
I can bear it ; for I prudently listen to profi 

And when the boat was about to come nef 
the land, Jesus bent down His head upon one of 
His angels, and was quiet. And Andrew ccas» 
speaking ; and he also, reclining his head up*: 
one of his disciples, fell asleep. And Jesus sail 
to His angels : Spread your hands under hiffli 
and carry Andrew and his disciples, and go and 
put them outside of the city of the man-eateis; 
and having laid them on the ground, return U 
me. And the angels did as Jesus commanded 
them, and the angels returned to Jesus : andH* 
went up into the heavens with His angels. 

And when it was morning, Andrew, havaj 
awakened and looked up, found himself sitri>| 
on the ground ; and having looked,^ he saw hi 
disciples sleeping on the ground ; and he wA 
ened them, and said to them : Rise up, my dA 
dren, and know the great dispensation that hJ< 
happened to us, and learn that the Lord «■ 
with us in the boat, and we knew Him not ; to 
He transformed Himself as if He were a pilot i( 

2 Gen. xxiii. 9, 17, following the version of the LXX. jsi"* 
older interpreters. \ 

3 Not one of the twelve patriarchs was buried in Machpdi^ j 

4 One MS. inserts: And oe saw the gate of that dor. ^ 



in the prison, and straightway they all received 
their sight. And again he laid his hand upon 
their hearts, and their minds were changed into 
human reason. Then Andrew answered them : 
Rise up, and go into the lower parts of the city, 
and you shall find in the way a great fig-tree, and 
sit under the fig-tree, and eat of its fruit, until I 
come to you ; but if I delay coming there, you 
will find abundance of food for yourselves : for 
the fruit shall not fail from the fig-tree, but ac- 
cording as you eat it shall produce more fruit, 
and nourish you, as the Lord has said. And 
they answered and said to Andrew : Go along 
■with us, O our master, lest perchance the wicked 
men of this city again see us, and shut us up, and 
infiict upon us greater and more dreadful tortures 
than they have inflicted upon us. And Andrew 
answered and said to them : Go ; for in truth I 
say to you, that as you go, not a dog shall bark 
with his tongue against you. And there were in 
all two hundred and seventy men and forty- nine 
women ' whom Andrew released from the prison. 
And the men went as the blessed Andrew said to 
them ; and he made Matthias go along with his 
disciples out of the eastern gate of the city. 
And Andrew commanded a cloud, and the cloud 
took up Matthias and the disciples of Andrew ; 
and the cloud set them down on the mountain 
where Peter was teaching,* and they remained 
beside him. 

And Andrew, having gone forth from the prison, 
walked about in the city; and having seen a 
brazen pillar, and a statue standing upon it, he 
came and sat down behind that pillar until he 
should see what should happen. And it hap- 
pened that the executioners went to the prison to 
bring out the men for their food,^ according 
to the custom ; and they found the doors of the 
prison opened, and the guards that guarded it 
lying dead upon the ground. And straightway 
they went, and reported to the rulers of the city, 
saying : We found the prison opened, and hav- 
ing gone inside we found nobody ; -♦ but we 
found the guards lying dead upon the ground. 
And the rulers having heard this, said among 
themselves : What, then, has happened ? You 
do not mean to say that some persons have gone 
into the prison of the city, and have killed the 
warders, and taken away those that were shut 
up ? And they spoke to the executioners, say- 
ing : Go to the prison, and bring the men that 
are dead, that we may eat them up to-day. And 
let us go to-morrow, and bring together all the 
old men of the city, that they may cast lots upon 
themselves, until the seven lots come, and we 
slay seven each day. And they shall be to us 

' Two Mss. have: two hundred azkd forty-nine men. 
^ Another reading is, praying. 
* i.e., to be eaten by them. 
4 Comp. Acts V. 30-45. 

for food until we may choose young men, and 
put them in boats as sailors, that they may g» 
away to the countries round about, and attid 
them, and bring some men here, that they naj 
be for food to us. 

And the executioners went to the prison, anl 
brought the seven men that were dead; and 
there was an oven built in the midst of the c^, 
and there lay in the oven a large trough in which 
they killed the men, and their blood ran doit 
into the trough, and they drew out of the hboi ; 
and drank it. And they brought the men, and 
put them into the trough. And when the en- 
cutioners were lifting their hands against thcm^ | 
Andrew heard a voice, saying : Behold, Andrat 
what is ha])pening in this city. And Andrnr 
having beheld, prayed to the Lord, saying: Lad 
Jesus Christ, who didst order me to come into 
this city, do not suffer those in this city to 
any evil, but let the knives go out of the 
of the wicked ones. And straightway the km?ei 
of the wicked men fell, and their hands 
turned into stone. And the rulers, having 
what had happened, wept, saying : Woe unto 
for here are the magicians who have gone into 
prison, and brought out the men ; for, 
they have bewitched these also. What, 
shall we do? Let us go now, and gather 
gether the old men of the city, seeing that 
are hungry. 

And they went and gathered them t 
and found two hundred and seventeen ; and 
brought them to the ruleni, and they made 
cast lots, and the lot came upon seven old 
And one of those taken by lot answered and 
to the officers : I pray you, I have for myself oi« 
son ; take him, and slay him instead of me, afll 
let me go. And the officers answered and said 
to him : We cannot take thy son, unless < 
bring him first to our superiors. And the ofr 
cers went and told the rulers. And the nild* 
answered and said to the officers : If he give < 
his son instead of himself, let him go. And 
officers went and told the old man. And 
old man answered and said to them : I ha\"e 
a daughter along with my son ; take them, 
kill them, only let me go. And he gave his 
dren to the officers, that they might kill 
And the children wept to each other, and pra; 
the officers, saying : We pray you do not kill 
as we are of so small a size ; but let us coropli 
our size, and so kill us. For it was a custom 
that city, and they did not bury their dead, W 
ate them up. And the officers did not hearki ' 
to the children, nor take pity upon them, 
carried them to the trough weeping and pra; 

And it happened, as they were leading 
away to kill them, that Andrew, having bcl 
what happened, shed tears ; and weeping, 
looked up to heaven and said: Lord )' 



mons answered and said to the devil : We can- 
not kill him, but kill him if thou art able ; for 
we knew him before he came into the distress 
of his humiliation. Then one of the demons 
answered and said : We cannot kill him, but 
come let us mock him in the distress of his 
humiliation. And the demons came and stood 
before him, and scoffed at him. And the 
blessed one hearing, wept ; and there came to 
him a voice sa3ring : Andrew, why weepest thou ? 
And it was the voice of the devil changed. And 
Andrew answered and said : I am weeping be- 
cause God commanded me, saying, Be patient 
toward them. And the devil said : If thou canst 
do anything, do it. And Andrew answered and 
said : Is it for this, then, that you do these 
things to me ? But forbid it that I should disobey 
the commandment of my Lord ; for if the Lord 
shall make for me a charge ' in this city, I shall 
chastise you as you deserve. And having heard 
this, they fled. 

And when it was morning they brought him 
out again, and having fastened a rope about his 
neck, they dragged him ; and again his flesh 
stuck to the ground, and his blood flowed to the 
ground like water. And the blessed one, as he 
was being dragged along, wept, saying: Lord 
Jesus Christ, be not displeased with me ; for 
Thou knowest. Lord, what the fiend has inflicted 
upon me, along with his demons. These tor- 
tures are enough, my Lord ; for, behold, I am 
dragged about for three days. But do Thou, 
Lord, remember that Thou wast three hours 
upon the cross, and didst cry out to the Father, 
My Father, why hast Thou forsaken me ? ^ Where 
are Thy words, Lord, which Thou spakest to us, 
confirming us, when we walked about with Thee, 
saying to us, Ye sliall not lose one hair ? ^ Con- 
sider, then, Lord, what has become of my flesh, 
and the hairs of my head. Then Jesus said to 
Andrew : O our Andrew, the heaven and the 
\ earth shall pass away, but my words shall not 
pass away.4 Turn thyself then, Andrew, and be- 
hold thy flesh that has fallen, and thy hair, what 
has become of them. And Andrew turned, and 
saw great trees springing up, bearing fruit ; and 
he glorified God. 

And when it was evening they took him up 
again, and cast him into the prison, having bound 
his hands behind him ; and he was exceedingly 
exhausted. And the men of the city said among 
themselves : Perhaps he dies in the night, and 
we do not find him alive on the following day ; 
for he was languid, and his flesh was spent. 

And the Lord appeared in the prison, and 
having stretched out His hand, said to Andrew : 

' Or, a bishopric 
* Matt, xxvii. 46. 
s Coop. Matt. X. 30. 
A Matt. ▼. 18. 

Give me thy hand, and rise up whole. And An- 
drew, having beheld the Lord Jesus, gave IGm 
his hand, and rose up whole. And ^ng dovi^ 
he worshipped Him, and said : I thank Tbee^ 
my Lord Jesus Christ, that Thou hast ^)eedilf 
brought help to me. And Andrew, having looked 
into the middle of the prison, saw a pillar stand- 
ing, and upon the pillar there stood an alabaster 
statue. And Andrew, having gone up to die 
statue, unfolded his hands seven times, and said 
to the pillar, and the statue upon it : Fear die 
sign of the cross, which the heaven and 
earth dread ; and let the statue set upon the 
lar bring up much water through its moodiyl 
until all who are in this city be punished, 
say not, I am stone, and am not worthy to piaiv 
the Lord, for the Lord fashioned us from die 
earth ; but you are pure, because that oat of 
you He gave the tables of the law.5 When die 
blessed Andrew had said this, straightway 
stone statue cast out of its mouth water i 
abundance, as if out of a canal. And the 
stood high upon the earth ; and it was 
ingly acrid, eating into the flesh of men. 

And when it was morning, the men of the 
saw it, and began to flee, saying in themsehci 
Woe to us ! because we are now dying, 
the water killed their cattle and their chOditi 
and they began to flee out of the city. 
Andrew prayed, saying : l/)rd Jesus Christ, i 
whom I have hoped that this miracle 
come upon this city, forsake me not, but 
Michael Thy archangel in a cloud of fire, 
be a wall round the city, that no one may 
able to escape out of the fire. And straightnfl 
a cloud of fire came dou-n and encircled the dty 
like a wall ; and the water was as high as die 
neck of those men, and it was eating them i? ^ 
exceedingly. And they wept, saying : Woe te 
us ! for all these things have come upon us be- 
cause of the stranger who is in the prison. L^ 
us go and release him, lest perchance we die. 

And they went out, crying with a loud voice: 
God of the stranger, take away from us dw 
water. And the apostle knew that they were ut 
great affliction, and said to the alabaster statue: 
Stop the water, for they have repented. .W I 
say to thee, that if the citizens of this citv' shatt 
believe, I will build a church, and place thee in 
it, because thou hast done me this ser\'ice. And 
the statue ceased flowing, and no longer brought 
forth water. And the men of the citv, baring 
come out to the doors of the prison, cried out, 
saying : Have pity upon us, God of the stranger, 
and do not according to our unbelief, and ac- 
cording to what we have done to this nun. Ini 

5 One MS. has : Yea, for assuredly you have been hotKWted : ■* 
God did not write the law for His people on plates of eoU ord** 
but on plates of stone. Now therefore, O statue, do this that 1 1^ 
^uireof thee. 



About that time Matthew, the holy apostle 
and evangelist of Christ, was abiding in the 
mountain resting, and praying in his tunic and 
apostolic robes without sandals ; and, behold, 
Jesus came to Matthew in the likeness of the 
infants who sing in paradise, and said to him : 
Peace to thee, Matthew ! And Matthew having 
gazed upon Him, and not known who He was, 
said : Grace to thee, and peace, 0> child highly 
fevoured ! And why hast thou come hither to 
me, having left those who sing in paradise, and 
the delights there ? Because here the place is 
desert ; and what sort of a table I shall lay for 
thee, O child, I know not, because I have no 
bread nor oil in a jar. Moreover, even the winds 
are at rest, so as not to cast down from the trees 
to the ground anything for food ; because, for the 
accomplishing of my fast of forty days, I, partak- 
ing only of the fruits falling by the movement of 
the winds, am glorifying my Jesus. Now, therefore, 
what shall I bring thee, beautiful boy? There is 
not even water near, that I may wash thy feet. 

And the child said : Why sayest thou, O 
Matthew ? Understand and know that good dis- 
course is better than a calf, and words of meek- 
ness better than every herb of the field, and a 
sweet saying as the perfume of love, and cheer- 
fulness of countenance better that feeding, and a 
pleasant look is as the appearance of sweetness. 
Understand, Matthew, and know that I am para- 
dise, that I am the comforter, I am the power of 
the powers above, I the strength of those that 
restrain themselves, I the crown of the virgins, I 
the self-control of the once married, I the boast 
of the widowed, I the defence of the infants, I 
the foundation of the Church, I the kingdom of 
the bishops, I the glory of the presbyters, I the 
praise of the deacons. Be a man, and be strong, 
Matthew, in these words. 

And Matthew said : The sight of thee hast 
altogether delighted me, O child ; moreover also, 
thy words are full of life. For assuredly thy face 
shines more than the lightning, and thy words 
are altogether most sweet. And that indeed I 
saw thee in paradise when thou didst sing with 
the other infants who were killed in Bethlehem, 

I know right well ; but how thou hast i 
come hither, this altogether astonishes n 
I shall ask thee one thing, O child : that 
Herod, where is he ? The child says 
Since thou hast asked, hear his dweUii 
He dwells, indeed, in Hades ; and there 
prepared for him fire unquenchable, ( 
without end, bubbling mire, worm tha 
not,' because he cut off three * thousand 
wishing to slay the child Jesus, the an 
the ages ; but of all these ages I am fath< 
therefore, O Matthew, take this rod of n 
go down from the mountain, and go intc 
the city of the man-eaters, and plant i 
gate of the church which thou 3 and 
founded ; and as soon as thou hast plan 
shall be a tree, great and lofty and wi 
branches, and its branches shall extend 
cubits, and of each single branch the fi 
be different both to the sight and the 
and from the top of the tree shall flc 
much honey ; and from its root there sh 
forth a great fountain, giving drink to th 
try round about, and in it creatures x\ 
and creep ; and in it the man-eaters si 
themselves, and eat of the fruit of the tn 
vine and of the honey ; and their bodies 
changed, and their forms shall be alten 
to be like those of other men ; and t] 
be ashamed of the nakedness of their b 
they shall put on clothing of the ram: 
sheep, and they shall no longer eat 
things ; and there shall be to them fire i 
abundance, preparing the sacrifices for ( 
and they shall bake their bread with f 
they shall see each other in the likenes 
rest of men, and they shall acknowledge 
glorify my Father who is in the heaven 
therefore make haste, Matthew, and g 
hence, because the departure from tl 
through fire is at hand, and the crown ol 

1 Or, that dies not 

2 The other [Vienna] MS. has, eleven. 

3 In some of the mss. of the previous book tbe name 
appears in place of that of Matthias — Matthaiaa for Mad 

4 Comp. Rev. xxii. a. 


and his son, and his daughter-in-law, rejoiced 
for a time at their purification ; but seeing that 
they were inseparable from Matthew, he was 
seized with rage and anger, and endeavoured to 
put him to death by fire. And on that night ' 
in which the king intended to lay hands on 
Matthew, Matthew saw Jesus saying to him : I 
am with thee always to save thee, Matthew ; be 
strong, and be a man. 

And the blessed Matthew, having awoke, and 
sealed himself over all the body, rose up at 
dawn, and proceeded into the church ; and hav- 
ing bent his knees, prayed earnestly. Then the 
bishop having come, and the clergy, they stood 
in common in prayer, glorifying God. And 
after they had ended the prayer, the bishop 
Plato said : Peace to thee, Matthew, apostle of 
Christ ! And the blessed Matthew said to him : 
Peace to you ! And when they had sat down, 
the apostle said to the bishop Plato, and to all 
the clergy : I wish you, children, to know, Jesus 
having declared it to me, that the king of this 
city is going to send soldiers against me, the 
devil having entered into him, and manifestly 
armed him against us. But let us give ourselves 
up to Jesus, and He will deliver us from every 
trial, and all who have believed in Him. 

And the king, plotting against the blessed 
Matthew how he should lay hands on him, and 
seeing also that the believers were very many, was 
very much at fault, and was in great difficulty. 

Therefore the wicked and unclean devil who 
had come forth from the king's wife, and his 
son, and his daughter-in-law, put to flight by 
Matthew, having transformed himself into the 
likeness of a soldier, stood before the king, and 
said to him : O king, why art thou thus put to 
the worse by this stranger and sorcerer ? Knowest 
thou not that he was a publican, but now he has 
been called an apostle ^ by Jesus, who was cruci- 
fied by the Jews ? For, behold, thy wife, and 
thy son, and thy daughter-in-law, instructed by 
him, have believed in him, and along with him 
sing in the church. And now, behold, Matthew 
is going forth, and Plato with him, and they are 
going to the gate called Heavy ; but make haste, 
and thou wilt find them, and thou shalt do to 
him all that may be pleasing in thine eyes. 

The king having heard this, and being the 
more exasperated by the pretended soldier, sent 
against the blessed Matthew four soldiers, hav- 
ing threatened them, and said : Unless you bring 
Matthew to me, I shall bum you alive with fire ; 
and the punishment which he is to undergo, you 
shall endure. And the soldiers, having been 
thus threatened by the king, go in arms to where 
the Apostle Matthew and the bishop Plato are. 
And when they came near them, they heard 

I Comp. Acts xviii. 9, zxiiL xi. 
* Or, M an apostle. 

their speaking indeed, but saw no one. Ai 
having come, they said to the king : We pn 
thee, O king, we went and found no one, bi 
only heard the voices of persons talking. Ad 
the king, being enraged, and having blazed n 
like fire, gave orders to send other ten soldieis- 
man-eaters — saying to them : Go stealthily I 
the place, and tear them in pieces alive, and a 
up Matthew, and Plato, who is with him. Ah 
when they were about to come near the bkasei 
Matthew, the Lord Jesus Christ, having come I 
the likeness of a most beautiful boy, hoMii^ i 
torch of fire, ran to meet them, burning (Ml 
their eyes. And they, having cried out aai 
thrown their arms from them, fled, and came ti 
the king, being speechless. , 

And the demon who had before appeared 1^ 
the king in the form of a soldier, being 
transformed into the form of a soldier, 
before the king, and said to him : Thou 
O king, this stranger has bewitched them 
Learn, then, how thou shalt take him. The 
says to him : Tell me first wherein his 
is, that I may know, and then I will draw 
against him with a great force. And the dc 
compelled by an angel, says to the king : 
thou wishest to hear accurately about him, 
king, I will tell thee all the truth. Really, 
he shall be willing to be taken by thee of 
own accord, thou labourest in vain, and 
wilt not be able to hurt him ; but if thou 
to lay hands on him, thou wilt be struck by 
with blindness, and thou wilt be paralyzed, 
if thou send a multitude of soldiers against 
they also will be struck with blindness, and 
be paralyzed. And we shall go, even seven 
clean demons, and immediately make away 
thee and thy whole camp, and destroy ail 
city with lightning, except those naming 
awful and holy name of Christ ; for whe: 
a footstep of theirs has come, thence, p 
we flee. And even if thou shalt apply fire 
him, to him the fire will be dew ; and if t* 
shalt shut him up in a furnace, to him the 
nace will be a church ; and if thou shalt put 
in chains in prison, and seal up the doois, 
doors will open to him of their own accord, 
all who believe in that name will go in, 
they, and say. This prison is a church of 
living God, and a holy habitation of those 
live alone.3 Behold, O king, I have told 
all the truth. The king therefore says to 
pretended soldier: Since I do not know 
thew, come with me, and point him out to 
from a distance, and take from me gold, as 
as thou mayst wish, or go thyself, and with 
sword kill him, and Plato his associate.^ 
demon says to him : I cannot kill him. I 

3 i.e., monks. 

4 Lit., of the same form with him. 


Christians surrounding him play with the fire, 
and walking in it with naked feet, laugh at us/ 
and we have fled ashamed. 

Then he ordered a multitude to carry coals 
of fire firom the furnace of the bath in the palace, 
and the twelve gods of gold and silver; and 
place them, says he, in a circle round the sorcerer, 
lest he may even somehow bewitch the fire from 
the furnace of the palace. And there being 
many executioners and soldiers, some carried 
the coals ; and others, bearing the gods, brought 
them. And the king accompanied them, watch- 
ing lest any of the Christians should steal one 
of his gods, or bewitch the fire. And when they 
came near the place where the apostle was nailed 
down, his face was looking towards heaven, and 
all his body was covered over with the paper, 
and much brushwood over his body to the height 
of ten cubits. And having ordered the soldiers 
to set the gods in a circle round Matthew, five 
cubits off, securely fastened that they might not 
fall, again he ordered the coal to be thrown on, 
and to kindle the fire at all points. 

And Matthew, having looked up to heaven, 
cried out, Adonai eloi sabaoth marmari mar- 
MUNTH ; that is, O God the Father, O Lord Jesus 
Christ, deliver me, and bum down their gods 
which they worship ; and let the fire also pursue 
the king even to his palace, but not to his de- 
struction : for perhaps he will repent and be 
converted. And when he saw the fire to be 
monstrous in height, the king, thinking that 
Matthew was burnt up, laughed aloud, and said : 
Has thy magic been of any avail to thee, Mat- 
thew? Can thy Jesus now give thee any help? 

And as he said this a dreadful wonder ap- 
peared ; for all the fire along with the wood 
went away from Matthew, and was poured round 
about their gods, so that nothing of the gold or the 
silver was any more seen ; and the king fled, and 
said : Woe's me, that my gods are destroyed by 
the rebuke of Matthew, of which the weight was 
a thousand talents of gold and a thousand tal- 
ents of silver. Better are the gods of stone and 
of earthenware, in that they are neither melted 
nor stolen.^ 

And when the fire had thus utterly destroyed 
their gods, and burnt up many soldiers, there 
came to pass again another stranger wonder. For 
the fire, in the likeness of a great and dreadful 
dragon, chased the tyrant as far as the palace, 
and ran hither and thither round the king, not 
letting him go into the palace. And the king, 
chased by the fire, and not allowed to go into 
his palace, turned back to where Matthew was, 
and cried out, saying : I beseech thee, whoever 
thou art, O man, whether magician or sorcerer 

' The other rViennal ms. has: at our gods. 
• The other iVictma] ms. adds: How my forefathers toiled, and 
■•I trouble made the gods; and now, behold, they have been 
. \:j 

or god, or angel of God, whom so greai 
has not touched, remove fi-om me this < 
and fiery dragon ; forget the evil I ha^ 
as also when thou madest me receive n 
And Matthew, having rebuked the fire, \ 
flames having been extinguished, and the 
having become invisible, stretching his 
heaven, and praying in Hebrew, and coi 
ing his spirit to the Lord, said : Peace i 
And having glorified the Lord, he weni 
rest about the sixth hour. 

Then the king, having ordered more 
to come, and the bed to be brought fi 
palace, which had a great show of gold 
dered the apostle to be laid on it, and 
to the palace. And the body of the apo 
lying as if in sleep, and his robe and his ti 
stained by the fire ; and sometimes they s 
on the bed, and sometimes following, anc 
times going before the bed, and with h 
hand put upon Plato's head, and singing 
with the multitude, so that both the ki 
the soldiers, with the crowd, were stru< 
astonishment. And many diseased pers( 
demoniacs, having only touched the be 
made sound ; and as many as were sa^ 
appearance, in that same hour were c 
into the likeness of other men. 

And as the bed was going into the pala< 
all saw Matthew rising up, as it were, fn 
bed, and going into heaven, led by the h 
a beautiful boy ; and twelve men in shinii 
ments came to meet him, having never 
and golden crowns on their head ; and 
how that child crowned Matthew, so a; 
like them, and in a flash of lightning th( 
away to heaven. 

And the king stood at the gate of the 
and ordered that no one should come in 
soldiers carrying the bed. And having si 
doors/ he ordered an iron coffin to be ma 
the body of Matthew into it, and sealec 
with lead ; through the eastern gate of the 
at midnight put it into a boat, no one Ic 
of it, and threw it into the deep part of t 

And through the whole night the breih 
mained before the gate of the palace, sp 
the night, and singing; and w^hen the 
rose there was a voice : O bishop Plate 
the Gospel and the Psalter of David ; gi 
with the multitude of the brethren to t 
of the palace, and sing the AUeluia, an 
the Gospel, and bring as an offering tl; 
bread ; and having pressed three cluster 

3 The change of person is noticeable. 

4 In the other ms. the king prays: And now, since tbert 
me a httle unbelief, I beseech thee that thou wilt bring ^ 
Matthew from the sea. For, behold, I will oixler the b 
thrown into the depths of the sea: and if thou delirer it as 
deliver it in the funeral pUe, I will forsake all my gods at 
believe in thee alone. [The Vienna ms., here ctted, interpt 
more. — R.] 



^T that time we the apostles were all in Jeru- 
em — Simon called Peter, and Andrew his 
)ther ; James the son of Zebedee, and John 

brother ; Philip and Bartholomew ; Thomas, 
i Matthew the tax-gatherer ; James of Alphseus 
i Simon the Canansean ; and Judas of James ; ' 
and we portioned out the regions of the world, 
order that each one of us might go into the 
^on that fell to him, and to the nation to which 
; Lord sent him. By lot, then, India fell to 
las Thomas,* also called Didymus. And he 
I not wish to go, saying that he was not able 
go on account of the weakness of the flesh ; 
1 how can I, being an Hebrew man, go among 

Indians to proclaim the truth? And while 
was thus reasoning and speaking, the Saviour 
>eared to him through the night, and said to 
I : Fear not, Thomas ; go away to India, and 
claim the word ; for my grace shall be with 
e. But he did not obey, saying : Wherever 
)u wishest to send me, send me elsewhere ; 
to the Indians I am not going, 
rnci as he was thus speaking and growing 
ry, there happened to be there a certain 
-chant come from India, by name Abbanes, 
t from the king Gundaphoros, and having 
*ived an order from him to buy a carpenter 
. bring him to him. And the Lord, having 
n him walking about in the market at noon, 
i to him : Dost thou wish to buy a carpenter ? 
d he said to Him : Yes. And the Lord said 
him : I have a slave a carpenter, and I wish 
sell him. And having said this, He showed 
a Thomas at a distance, and agreed with him 

three pounds of uncoined silver; and He 
)te a bill of sale, saying : I Jesus, the son of 
«ph the carpenter, declare that I have sold 

slave, Judas by name, to thee Abbanes, a mer- 
uit of Gundaphoros, the king of the Indians, 
d the purchase ^ being completed, the Saviour 
ing Judas, who also is Thomas, led him to 
banes the merchant ; and Abbanes seeing 
1, said to him : Is this thy master? And the 
«tle answered and said : Yes, He is my Lord. 

This list is a transcript of Matt. x. 3^^, except in the last name. 
This double name is in accordance witn a tradition preserved by 
bius {,H. E., x. 13), that the true name of Thomas was Judas. 
Or, bUl of sak. 

And he says : I have bcrught thee from him. And 
the apostle held his peace. 

And at dawn of the following day, the apostle 
having prayed and entreated the Lord, said : I 
go wherever Thou wishest, O Lord Jesus ; Thy 
will be done. And he went to Abbanes the 
merchant, carrying nothing at all with him, but 
only his price. For the Lord had given it to 
him, saying : Let thy worth also be with thee 
along with my grace, wherever thou mayst go. 
And the apostle came up with Abbanes, who 
was carrying his effects into the boat. He 
began therefore also to carry them along with 
him. And when they had gone on board and 
sat down, Abbanes questioned the apostle, say- * 
ing : What kind of work dost thou know ? And 
he said : In wood, ploughs, and yokes, and 
balances,^ and boats, and boats' oars, and masts, 
and blocks ; in stone, slabs,* and temples, and 
royal palaces. And Abbanes the merchant said 
to him : Of such a workman, to be sure, we have 
need. They began, therefore, to sail away. And 
they had a fair wind, and they sailed fast until 
they came to Andrapolis, a royal city. 

And having gone out of the boat, they went 
into the city. And, behold, the voices of flute- 
players, and of water - organs, and trumpets, 
sounding round them ; and the apostle inquired, 
saying : What festival is this in this city ? And 
those who were there said to him : The gods 
have brought thee also, that thou mayst be 
feasted in this city. For the king has an only- 
begotten daughter, and he is now giving her to 
a husband in marriage : this festival, then, which 
thou seest to-day, is the rejoicing and public 
assembly for the marriage. And the king has 
sent forth heralds to proclaim everywhere that 
all are to come to the marriage, rich and poor, 
bond and free, strangers and citizens. And if 
any one shall refuse and not come to the mar- 
riage, he will be answerable to the king.^ And 
Abbanes having heard, said to the apostle : Let 
us also go, then, that we may not offend the king, 
and especially as we are strangers. And he said : 
Let us go. And having turned into the inn, and 

4 Or, scales. 

5 i.e., monuments. 

^ Comp. Matt. xxii. 3-14. 




rested a little, they went to the marriage. And 
the apostle seeing them all reclining, reclined he 
also in the midst. And they all looked at him as 
a stranger, and coming from a foreign land. And 
Abbanes the merchant, as being a lord, reclined 
in another place. 

And when they had dined and drunk, the 
apostle tasted nothing. Those, then, about him 
said to him : Why hast thou come hither, nei- 
ther eating nor drinking? And he answered and 
said to them : For something greater than food 
or even drink have I come hither, even that I 
might accomplish the will of the King. For the 
heralds proclaim the wishes of the King, and 
whoever will not hear the heralds will be liable to 
the judgment of the King. When, therefore, 
they had dined and drunk, and crowns and per- 
fumes had been brought, each took perfume, 
and one anointed his face, another his cheek,' 
and one one part of his body, and another an- 
other. And the apostle anointed the crown of 
his head, and put a little of the ointment in his 
nostrils, and dropped it also into his ears, and 
applied it also to his teeth, and carefully anointed 
the parts round about his heart; and having 
taken the crown that was brought to him 
wreathed of myrtle and other flowers, he put it 
on his head, and took a branch of reed in his 
hand, and held it. 

And the flute-girl, holding the flutes in her 
hand, went round them all ; and when she came 
to the place where the apostle was, she stood 
over him, playing the flute over his head a 
long time. And that flute-girl was Hebrew by 

And as the apostle looked away to the ground, 
a certain one of the wine-pourers ^ stretched \ 
forth his hand and struck him. And the apos- 
tle, having raised his eyes, and regarded him 
who had struck him, said : My God will forgive 
thee this wrong in the world to come, but in this 
world He will show His wonders, and I shall j 
soon see that hand that stnick me dragged along I 
by a dog. And having thus spoken, he began 
to sing and to repeat this song : — 

Maiden, daughter of the light, in whom there 
exists and abides the majestic splendour of, 
kings ; and delightsome is the sight of her, re- 
splendent with brilliant beauty. Her garments 
are like spring flowers, and the odour of a sweet 
smell is given forth from them ; and on the , 
crown of her head the king is seated, feeding ' 
with his own ambrosia those who are seated be- ' 
side him • and truth rests upon her head, and ' 

with her feet ; and becom- 

^•er mouth; thirty-and-two 

vaises, and their tongue 

is like a curtain of the door which is drawn 
them who go in ; and her neck is made in t 
likeness of the stairs which the first Creal 
created ; and her two hands signify and repi 
sent the choral dance of the blessed ages, pi 
claiming it ; and her fingers represent the pt 
of the city. Her chamber lighted up breath< 
forth scent from balsam and every perfume, an 
gives forth a sweet odour of myrrh and savour 
herbs ; and within are strewn myrtles and swed 
smelling flowers of all kinds ; and the bak 
chambers are adorned with calamus.^ And ha 
grodmsmen, of whom the number is seven, wiioa 
she has chosen for herself, surround her like i 
wall ; and her bridesmaids are seven, who dance 
before her; and twelve are they in number wb 
minister before her and are at her bidding, lu^ 
ing their gaze and their sight upon the bnde> 
groom, that through the sight of him they mf 
be enlightened. And they shall be with him •; 
everlasting in that everlasting joy, and they 
sit down in that wedding to which the great 
are gathered together, and they shall abide 
the festivities of which the eternals are d 
worthy ; and they shall be arrayed in royal 
ment, and shall put on shining robes; and 
joy and exultation both of them shall be, 
they shall glorify the Father of the 
whose majestic light they have received, 
they have been enlightened by the sight of 
their Lord, whose ambrosial food they have 
ceived, of which there is no failing at all; 
they have drunk also of the wine which brings 
them no thirst, neither desire of the flesh; 
they have with the living spirit glorified 
praised the father of truth and the mother of 

And when he had sung and finished this sonj^ 
all who were there present looked upon him m 
kept silence, and they also saw his form changedj 
and what had been said by him they did n* 
understand, since he was a Hebrew, and «h* 
had been said by him had been said in He 
But the flute-girl alone heard all, for she 
Hebrew by race, and standing off from him d 
played the flute to the others ; but at 
she mostly turned her eyes and looked, for ^ 
altogether loved him as a man of the same 
with herself, and he was also beautiful m api 
ance above all who were there. And when 
flute-girl had come to the end of all her ft 
playing, she sat down opposite him, and lool 
and gazed upon him. But he looked at no 
at all, neither did he regard any one, but 
kept his eyes on the ground, waiting until 
should depart thence. And that wine-poorti 
that struck him came down to the fountain •I 
draw water ; and there happened to be a W 

' Ex. XXX. zy. Cant iv. 14; Ezek. xxvii. 19. 



and through the grief and imposition which the 
king suffered he was grievously depressed ; and 
having sent for the king, he said to him : My 
brother the king, I commend to thee my house 
and my children ; for I, on account of the insult 
that has befallen thee, have been grieved, and 
am dying ; and if thou do not come down with 
vengeance upon the head of that magician, thou 
wilt give my soul no rest in Hades. And the 
king said to his brother : During the whole night 
I have considered this, how I shall put him to 
death ; and this has seemed good to me — to 
flay him and bum him up with fire, both him and 
with him the merchant that brought him. 

And as they were talking together, the soul 
of Gad his brother departed. And the king 
mourned for Gad exceedingly, for he altogether 
loved him. And he ordered him to be prepared 
for burial in a royal and costly robe. And as 
this was being done, angels received the soul of 
Gad the king's brother, and took it up into 
heaven, showing him the places and dwellings 
there, asking him : In what sort of a place dost 
thou wish to dwell ? And when they came near 
the edifice of Thomas the apostle, which he had 
built for the king, Gad, seeing it, said to the 
angels, I entreat you, my lords, permit me to 
dwell in one of the underground chambers of 
this palace. And they said to him : Thou canst 
not dwell in this building.' And he said : 
Wherefore ? They say to him : This palace is 
the one which that Christian built for thy brother. 
And he said : I entreat you, my lords, permit 
me to go to my brother, that I may buy this 
palace from him ; for my brother does not know 
what it is like, and he will sell it to me. 

Then the angels let the soul of Gad go. And 
as they were putting on him the burial robe, his 
soul came into him. And he said to those stand- 
ing round him : Call my brother to me, that I 
may beg of him one request. Straightway, 
therefore, they sent the good news to their king, 
saying : Thy brother has come alive again. And 
the king started up, and along with a great mul- 
titude went to his brother, and went in and stood 
beside his bed as if thunderstruck, not being able 
to speak to him. And his brother said : I know 
and am persuaded, brother, that if any one asked 
of thee the half of thy kingdom, thou wouldst 
give it for my sake ; wherefore I entreat thee to 
grant me one favour, which I beg of thee to do 
me. And the king answered and said : And 
what is it that thou askest me to do for thee ? 
And he said : Assure me by an oath that thou 
wilt grant it me. And the king swore to him : 
Of what belongs to me, whatev er thou shalt ask, 

* One MS. has: But if thou buy it, thou shalt live in it. And he 
said to them: Can I buy it? And they said to him: See that thou 
obtain one like this which thou secst, or better if thou wilt, that 
when thou comest hither again, thou mayst not be driven into the 

I will give thee. And he says to him : S 
that palace which thou hast in the heavens 
the king said: Whence does a palace 
heavens belong to me? And he said 
which the Christian who is now in the 
whom the merchant bought from a certain 
and brought to thee, built for thee. And 
was at a loss, he says to him again : I sp 
that Hebrew slave whom thou didst wish t 
ish, as having suffered some imposition firoi 
on account of whom I also was grieved an< 
and now have come alive again. 

Then the king, having come to know, 
stood about the eternal benefits that wen 
ferred upon him and destined for him, anc 
That palace I cannot sell thee, but I pray t 
go into it, and dwell there, and become \ 
to be of its inhabitants ; but if thou really v 
to buy such a palace, behold, the man is 
and will build thee a better than that* 
having sent immediately, he brought out 
prison the apostle, and the merchant wh 
been shut up along with him, saying : I e 
thee, as a man entreating the servant of 
that thou wilt pray for me, and entrea 
whose servant thou art, to pardon me, and 
look what I have done to thee, or even '^ 
meant to do, and that I may be worthy to 
inhabitant of that house for which indeed I 
laboured nothing, but which thou labouring 
hast built for me, the grace of thy God w( 
with thee ; and that I may become a sen 
also, and slave of this God whom thou procla 
And his brother, falling down before the aj 
said : I entreat thee, and supplicate befoi 
God, that I may become worthy of this m: 
and service, and may be allotted to Ik 
worthy of those things which were shown i 
his angels. 

And the apostle, seized with joy, said : I 
ftill confession ^ to Thee, Lord Jesus, that 
hast revealed Thy truth in these men : for 
alone art a God of truth, and not another 
Thou art He who kno^vest all things that aj 
known to many : Thou art He, Lord, who 
things showest compassion and mercy to 
for men, through the error that is in them, 
overlooked Thee, but Thou hast not overk 
them. And now, when I am entreating 
supplicating Thee, accept the king and 
brother, and unite them into Thy fold, h 

2 One of the Mss. here ends the history in these words: 
he sent, and brought out Thomas, and said to him: Pardon i 
have in ignorance been in any way harsh to thee; and aiakc 
partakers of him whom thou preaches!. And the apostle say 
rejoice with you, that you are made partakers of His kingdofl 
he took and cnligluciicJ ihcm, having given them the «as 
grace in the name of Father, and Son, and Holy Spirit, to » 
due all glory and kingdom without end. And whei iher ^ 
up straightway out of the water, the Saviour appeared to inoi 
the apostle wondered, and a great light shone brighter than i 
of the SUM. And having confirmed their faith, be «rot out,S 
his way in the Lord. 

3 i.e., give thanks, as in Matt. xi. 25, Luke x. ax, etc 



And the apostle seeing this, said to them: 
Nothing strange or unusual has that demon 
shown, but his own nature, in which also he shall 
be burnt up ; for the fire shall consume him, and 
the smoke of him shall be scattered abroad. 
And he began to say : O Jesus Christ, the secret 
mystery which has been revealed to us. Thou 
art He who disclosest to us all manner of mys- 
teries, who hast set me apart from all my com- 
panions, and who hast told me three words with 
which I am set on fire, and I cannot tell them 
to others ; O Jesus, man slain, dead, buried ; 
Jesus, God of God, and Saviour who bringest 
the dead to life, and healest those who are dis- 
eased ; O Jesus, who appearest to be in want, 
and savest as if in want of nothing, catching the 
fishes for the morning and the evening meal, and 
establishing all in abundance with a little bread ; 
Jesus, who didst rest from the toil of the journey 
as a man, and walk upon the waves as God ; ' 
Jesus Most High, voice arising from perfect 
compassion, Saviour of all, the right hand of the 
light overthrowing him that is wicked in his own 
kind, and bringing all his kind into one place ; 
Thou who art only begotten, the first-bom of 
many brethren,* God of God Most High, man 
despised until now ; Jesus Christ, who overlook- 
est us not when we call upon Thee ; who hast 
been shown forth to all in Thy human life ; who 
for our sakes hast been judged and kept in prison, 
and freest all that are in bonds ; who hast been 
called a deceiver,^ and who deliverest Thine own 
from deception : I entreat Thee in behalf of those 
standing and entreating Thee, and those that 
believe in Thee ; for they pray to obtain Thy 
gifts, being of good hope in Thine aid, occupying 
Thy place of refuge in Thy majesty ; they give 
audience, so as to hear from us the words that 
have been spoken to them. Let Thy peace 
come and dwell in them, that they may be puri- 
fied from their former deeds, and may put off 
the old man with his deeds, and put on the new 
now declared to them by me/ 

And having laid his hands on them, he blessed 
them, saying : The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ 
be upon you for ever ! s And they said, Amen. 
And the woman begged of him, saying : Apostle 
of the Most High, give me the seal, that that foe 
may not come back upon me again. Then he 
made her come near him ; and putting his hand 
upon her, he sealed her in the name of Father, 
and Son, and Holy Ghost. And many others 
also were sealed along with her. And the apostle 
ordered his servant* to set out a table ; and they 

> Matt. xiv. 17: John xxi. xz; JohniT. 6; Matt ziv.35. 
' Rom. viii. 39. 

3 Matt. Mvti. 63. 

4 Col . iii. ^. 

s Rom. XVI. ao> 
* Or, deacon. 

set out a bench 7 which they found diei* 
having spread a linen cloth upon it, he p 
the bread of the blessing. And the 
standing by it, said : Jesus Christ, Son i 
who hast deemed us worthy to communi 
the Eucharist of Thy sacred body and 1 
able blood, behold, we are emboldened 
thanksgiving^ and invocation of Thy 
name; come now, and communicate i 
And he began to say : Come, perfect comi 
come, communion with mankind ; com< 
that knowest the mysteries of the chosi 
come, Thou that communicatest in all tl 
bats 9 of the noble combatant ; come, pea 
revealest the great things of all greatness 
Thou that disclosest secrets, and makest i 
things not to be spoken ; the sacred dovn 
has brought forth twin young ; come, thoi 
mother ; come, Thou who art manifest i 
deeds, and givest joy and rest to those « 
united to Thee; come and communicat 
us in this Eucharist, which we make i 
name, and in the love '^ in which we are 
in calling upon Thee." And having thu 
he made the sign of the cress upon the 
and broke it, and began to distribute it 
first he gave it to the woman, saying : Th 
be to thee for remission of sins, and the 
of everlasting transgressions. And after 
gave also to all the others who bad receii 


And there was a certain young man w 
done a nefarious deed ; and having come 
apostle, he took the bread of the Euchai 
his mouth, and his two hands immediate! 
ered, so that he could no longer bring t 
his mouth. And those who were prese 
saw him told the apostle what had haf 
And he, having summoned him, said : 1 
my child, and be ashamed of nothing,' 
thou hast done, and why thou hast come 
for the Eucharist of the Lord has convicte 
For this gracious gift coming to many is es] 
healing to those who approach it throu| 
and love ; but thee it has withered aw: 
what has happened has happened not 
some working cause. And the young m 
had been convicted by the Eucharist of tl 
came up, and fell at the apostle's feet, and 
him, saying : An evil deed has been d 
me, yet I thought to do something good. 

7 trvfi^liiKXioVf which is not Giedc, is obvioody tiie 

s Or, Eucharist. 

9 Or, prizes. 

10 Or, love-feast. 

" Or, in Thy calling. 

» Or, stand in awe of no one. 



i that had been said to us beforehand 
ig Him.' 

le report of him ran through all the 
countries; and all who had persons 
tormented by unclean spirits brought 
i they were healed. Some also they 
le road by which he was to pass, and 
them all by the power of the Lord.* 
1 all with one accord who had been 
' him, with one voice : Glory to Thee, 
lo givest Thy healing to all alike by 
f Thy servant and apostle Thomas, 
ig in good health, and rejoicing, we 
e that we may be of Thy flock, and 
ered among Thy sheep; receive us, 
O Lord, and consider not our trans- 
and former offences which we did, be- 

le apostle said : Glory to the only-be- 
►m the Father ; 3 glory to the first-bom 
t)rethren ; ^ Glory to Thee, the defender 
T of those who come to Thy place of 
rhou that sleepest not, and raisest those 
sleep; that livest and bringest to life 
: are lying in death ; O God Jesus Christ, 
le living God, redeemer and helper, re- 
rest of all that labour in Thy work, 

Luke xxiv. 46. 
\cts V. 15. 

HL 39. 

who affordest health to those who for Thy name's 
sake bear the burden of the day, and the icy 
coldness of the night; we give thanks for the 
gracious gifts that have been given us by Thee, 
and for the help from Thee bestowed upon us, 
and Thy providential care that has come upon us 
from Thee. Perfect these things upon us, there- 
fore, unto the end, that we may have confidence 
in Thee ; look upon us, because for Thy sake we 
have left our homes, and for Thy sake have be- 
come strangers gladly and willingly ; look upon 
us, O Lord, because for Thy sake we have aban- 
doned our possessions, that we may have Thee 
for a possession that shall not be taken away ; 
look upon us, O Lord, because we have left those 
related to us by ties of kindred m order that we 
may be united in relationship to Thee; look 
upon us, O Lord, who have Je'.t our fathers and 
mothers, and those that noridshed us, that we 
may behold Thy Father, and be satisfied with His 
divine nourishment : look upon us, O Lord, be- 
cause for Thy sake we have left our bodily yoke- 
fellows,5 and our earthly fruit, in order that we 
may share in that intercourse which is lasting 
and true, and bring forth true fruits, whose nature 
is from above, the enjoym;:nt of which no one 
can take away from us, mtn which we abide, and 
they abide with us. 

s te., wiTM. 



to be of this opinion, granted them their own 
will. And all the brethren assembled together 
For the blessed one had made Syphorus ' a pres- 
byter in the mountain, and Juzanius ' a deacon, 
when he was led away to die. And the Lord 
helped them, and increased the faith by means 
of them. 

And after a long time, it happened that one 
of the sons of Misdeus was a demoniac ; and 
the demon being stubborn, no one was able to 
heal him. And Misdeus considered, and said : 
I shall go and open the tomb, and take a bone of 
the apostle's body, and touch my son with it, 
and I know that he will be healed. And he went 
to do what he had thought of. And the blessed 
apostle appeared to him, and said : Thou didst 
not believe in me when alive ; how wilt thou be- 
lieve in me when I am dead ? Fear not. Jesus 

* These names are slightly difierentin torn hi this paragraph. 

Christ is kindly disposed to thee, through Hii 
great clemency. And Misdeus, when he did 
not find the bbnes (for one of the brethren had 
taken them, and carried them into the regions 
of the West'), took some dust fix)m where tbe 
bones had lain, and touched his son with it, and 
said : I believe in Thee, Jesus, now when he has 
left me who always afHicts men, that they may 
not look to Thy light which giveth understand- 
ing, O Lord, kind to men. And his son being 
healed in this manner, he met with the rest of 
the brethren who were under the rule of Sypho* 
rus, and entreated the brethren to pray for hii% 
that he might obtain mercy from our Lord Jesa 
Christ ; to whom be glory for ever and evcL^ 

3 Abdias: and buried them in the city of E 
lator cites the readings of Pieudo*Abdias, as given by 
(from Fabridus) , as those of *' Abdias." The same form of i 
appears in the footnotes to the Ma H j r do m ff 

pp- 553-557.— R-l 



a demoniac set to work to cry out : Apostle of 
the Lord, Bartholomew, thy prayers are burning 
me up. Then said the aposde to him : Hold 
thy peace, and come out of him. And that very 
hour, the man who had suffered from the demon 
for many years was set free. 

And Polymius, the king of that country, hap- 
pened to be standing opposite the apostle ; and 
he had a daughter a demoniac, that is to say, a 
lunatic. And he heard about the demoniac that 
had been healed, and sent messengers to the 
apostle, saying : My daughter is grievously torn ; 
I implore thee, therefore, as thou hast delivered 
him * who suffered for many years, so also to 
order my daughter to be set free. And the 
apostle rose up, and went with them. And he 
sees the king's daughter bound with chains, for 
she used to tear in pieces all her limbs ; and if 
any one came near her, she used to bite, and no 
one dared to come near her. The servants say 
to him : And who is it that dares to touch her ? 
The apostle answered them : Loose her, and let 
her go. They say to him again : We have her 
in our power when she is bound with all our 
force, and dost thou bid us loose her? The 
apostle says to them : Behold, I keep her enemy 
bound, and are you even now afraid of her? Go 
and loose her ; and when she has partaken of 
food, let her rest, and early to-morrow bring her 
to me. And they went and did as the apostle 
had commanded them ; and thereafter the demon 
was not able to come near her. 

Then the king loaded camels with gold and 
silver, precious stones, pearls, and clothing, and 
sought to see the apostle ; and having made 
many efforts, and not found him, he brought 
everything back to his palace. j 

And it happened, when the night had passed, i 
and the following day was dawning, the sun hav- 
ing risen, the apostle appeared alone with the 
king in his bed-chamber, and said to him : Why ! 
didst thou seek me yesterday the whole day with 
gold and silver, and precious stones, pearls, and 
raiment ? For these gifts those persons long for 
who seek earthly things ; but I seek nothing 
earthly, nothing carnal. Wherefore I wish to 
teach thee that the Son of God deigned to be 
bom as a man out of a virgin's womb. He was 
conceived in the womb of the virgin ; He took 
to Himself her who was always a virgin, having 
within herself Him who made the heaven and 
the earth, the sea, and all that therein is. He, 
bom of a virgin, like mankind, took to Himself 
a beginning in time. He who has a beginning 
neither of times nor days ; but He Himself made 
* '* ^ni everything created, whether 

^^^ And as this virgin 
•«TOig her vir- 

ginity, vowed a vow' to the Lord God. lai 
she was the first who did so. For, fioiB the 
time that man existed fh>m the beginning of the 
world, no woman made a vow of this oaode of 
life ; but she, as she was the first among vonen 
who loved this in her heart, said, I offer to Thee^ 
O Lord, my virginity. And, as I have sud to 
thee, none of mankind dared to speak tfaiswoni; 
but she being called for the salvation of di^i 
observed this — that she might renuunariisi 
through the love of God, pure and uodefiU 
And suddenly, when she was shut up in hff 
chamber, the archangel Gabriel appeared, gte 
ing like the sun ; and when she was tended tf 
the sight, the angel said to her. Fear not, Minj 
for thou hast found favour in the sight of v 
Lord, and thou shalt conceive. And she ctf 
off fear, and stood up, and said. How shall di 
be to me, since I know not man? The 
answered her. The Holy Ghost shall come 
thee, and the power of the Most High shall 
shadow thee; wherefore also that holy 
which is bora of thee shall be called Son 
God.3 Thus, therefore, when the angel had 
parted from her, she escap>ed the temptation 
the devil, who deceived the first man whet 
rest. For, having tasted of the tree of 
ence, when the woman said to him, Eat, he 
and thus the first man was cast out of 
and banished to this life. From him ha^t 
bom the whole human race. Then the Sol 
God having been bom of the virgin, and 
become perfect man, and having been ba; 
and after His baptism having fasted forty 
the tempter came and said to Him : If thoa 
the Son of God, tell these stones to bccoae 
loaves. And He answered : Not on bread ak* 
shall man hve, but by every word of God.* IT* 
therefore the devil, who through eating bad c* 
quered the first man, was conquered through M 
fasting of the second man ; and as he 
want of self-restraint had conquered the 
man, the son of the virgin earth, so ^t 
conquer through the fasting of the second A 
the Son of the Virgin Mary. 

The king says to him : i^d how is it that 
saidst just now that she was the first virgin 
whom was bom God and man? And the 
tie answered : I give thanks to the Lord 
thou hearest me gladly. The first man, 
was called Adam ; he was formed out of 
earth. And the earth, his mother out of 
he was, was virgin, because it had neither 
polluted by the blood of man nor opened 
the burial of any one. The earth, then, was 
the virgin, in order that he who conquered 

* Or, prayed a prayer. 

3 Comp. Luke i. 36-38. Abdias goes on : He then, after w' 
suffered Himself to be tempted bv that devfl who bad OMfCOi 
first man, persuading him to eat 01 the tree foibiddni bf Goi 

4 Comp. Luke tv. 1-13. 



they set about weeping and making accusations ' 
before the king. Then King Astreges in a rage 
sent a thousand armed men along with those 
priests, in order that, wherever they should find 
the apostle, they might bring him to him bound. 
And when they had done so, and found him, and 
brought him, he says to him : Art thou he who 
has perverted my brother from the gods ? To 
whom the apostle answered : I have not per- 
verted him, but have converted him to God. 
The king says to him : Art thou he who caused 
our gods to be broken in pieces ? The apostle 
says to him : I gave power to the demons who 
were in them, and they broke in pieces the 
dumb and senseless idols, that all men might be- 
lieve in God Almighty, who dwelleth in the 
heavens. The king says to him : As thou hast 
made my brother deny his gods, and believe in 
Ay God, so I also will make you reject thy God 
and believe in my gods. The apostle says to 
him : If I have bound and kept in subjection 
tiie god which thy brother worshipped, and at 
my order the idols were broken in pieces, if thou 
also art able to do the same to my God, thou 
canst persuade me also to sacrifice to thy gods ^ 
but if thou canst do nothing to my God, I will 
break all thy gods in pieces ; but do thou believe 
m my God. 

And when he had thus spoken, the king was 

■mformed that his god Baldad > and all the other 

idols had fallen down, and were broken in pieces. 

Then the king rent the purple in which he was 

. dothed, and ordered the holy apostle Bartholo- 

< Lit.. caUing out. 

■ AbdiaB calu him Vnaldatb. 

mew to be beaten with rods ; and after having 
been thus scourged, to be beheaded. 

And innumerable multitudes came fi*om all 
the cities, to the number of twelve thousand, 
who had believed in him along with the king ; 
and they took up the remains of the apostle with 
singing of praise and with all glory, and they laid 
them in the royal tomb, and glorified God. And 
the king Astreges having heard of this, ordered 
him to be thrown into the sea ; and his remains 
were carried into the island of Liparis. 

And it came to pass on the thirtieth day aftei 
the apostle was carried away, that the king As- 
treges was overpowered by a demon and misera- 
bly strangled ; and all the priests were strangled 
by demons, and perished on account of their 
rising against 3 the apostle^ and thus died by an 
evil fate. 

And there was great fear and trembling, and 
all came to the Lord, and were baptized by 
the presbyters who had been ordained by the 
holy apostle Bartholomew. And according to 
the commandment of the apostle, all the clergy 
of the people made King Polymius bishop ; and 
in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ he re- 
ceived the grace of healing, and began to do 
signs. And he remained in the bishopric twenty 
years ; and having prospered in all things, and 
governed the church well, and guided it in right 
opinions,^ he fell asleep in peace, and went to 
the Lord : to whom be glory and strength for 
ever and ever. Amen. 

3 Or it may mean: that the apostle might be established. 

4 Or, in orthodoxy. 



LsBBiCUS, who also is Thaddaeus, was of the 
city of Edessa — and it is the metropolis of 
Osroene, in the interior of the Armenosjrrians 
— an Hebrew by race, accomplished and most 
learned in the divine writings. He came to 
Jerusalem to worship in the days of John the 
Baptist; and having heard his preaching and 
seen his angelic life, he was baptized, and his 
name was c^ed Thaddaeus. And having seen 
the appearing of Christ, and His teaching, and 
His wonderful works, he followed Him, and be- 
came His disciple ; and He chose him as one 
of the twelve, the tenth apostle according to the 
Evangelists Matthew and Mark. 

In those times there was a governor of the 
city of Edessa, Abgarus by name. And there 
having gone abroad the fame of Christ, of the 
wonders which He did, and of His teaching, 
Abgarus having heard of it, was astonished, and 
desired to see Christ, and could not leave his 
city and government. And about the days of 
the Passion and the plots of the Jews, Abgarus, 
being seized by an incurable disease, sent a letter 
to Christ by Ananias the courier,' to the follow- 
ing effect : — To Jesus 3 called Christ, Abgarus 
the governor of the country of the Edessenes, 
an unworthy slave. The multitude of the won- 
ders done by thee has been heard of by me, that 
thou healest the blind, the lame, and the para- 
lytic, and curest all the demoniacs ; and on this 
account I entreat thy goodness to come even to 
us, and escape from the plottings of the wicked 
Jews, which through envy they set in motion 
against thee. My city is small, but large enough 
for both. Abgarus enjoined Ananias to take ac- 
curate account of Christ, of what appearance 
He was, and His stature, and His hair, and in 
a word everything. 

And Ananias, having gone and given the letter, 
was carefully looking at Christ, but was unable 

* [Cisrioiuly enough, the Vienna ms. has in the title: "one of 
dw aevcaftr*" instead of " ooe of the twelve." The same confusion 
•dMijB PMi ■ ■hiiM * aT Fiia^bius and JcRwie. — R.] 

I in Kosdnus (f/tst. Bed., 
Mm daims that he had seen 

to fix Him in his mind. And He knew as tall 
ing the heart, and asked to wash EQmself ; fli 
a towel ^ was given Him ; and when He U 
washed Himself, He wiped His fece with 
And His image having been imprinted upon] 
hnen. He gave it to Ananias, saying : Give 
and take back this message, to him that 
thee : Peace to thee and thy city ! Fot 
of this I am come, to suffer for the worid, nil 
rise again, and to raise up the fore&then. 
after I have been taken up into the 
shall send thee my disciple Thaddaeus, triioi 
enlighten thee, and guide thee into all die 
both thee and thy city. 

And having received Ananias, and fiillen 
and adored &e hkeness, Abgarus was cmcd^ 
his disease before Thaddaeus came. 

And after the passion, and the resaned^ 
and the ascension, Thaddaeus went to Abprij 
and having found him in health, he gave hnn i 
account of the incarnation of Christ, and bi| 
tized him, with all his house. And ha\'ing ii 
structed great multitudes, both of Hebrews to 
Greeks, Syrians and Armenians, he baptized tha 
in the name of the Father, and Son, and Hd 
Spirit, having anointed them with the holy pe 
fume ; and he communicated to them of then 
defiled mysteries of the sacred body and blo« 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, and delivered to the 
to keep and observe the law of Moses, and ] 
give close heed to the things that had been si 
by the apostles in Jerusalem. For year by J« 
they came together to the passover, and agi 
he imparted to them the Holy Spirit 

And Thaddaeus along with Abgarus destroy 
idol-temples and built churches ; ordained i 
bishop one of his disciples, and presb>teis,H 
deacons, and gave them the rule of the psalnw 
and the holy Htturgy. And having left them,' 
went to the city of Amis, great metropolis d^ 
Mesechaldeans and Syrians, that is, of Meso(jj 
tamia-Syria, beside the river Tigris. And 
having gone into the synagogue of the Jews 
with his disciples on the Sabbath-day, after 

4 Lit., doubled in four. 




When Agrippa, whom, on account of his 
plotting against Peace, they stoned and put to 
death, was king of the Jews, Vespasian Caesar, 
coming with a great army, invested Jerusalem ; 
and some prisoners of war he took and slew, 
others he destroyed by famine in the siege, and 
most he banished, and at length scattered up 
and down. And having destroyed the temple, 
and put the holy vessels on board a ship, he sent 
them to Rome, to make for himself a temple of 
peace, and adorned it with the spoils of war. 

And when Vespasian was dead, his son Do- 
mitian, having got possession of the kingdom, 
along with his other wrongful acts, set himself 
also to make a persecution against the righteous 
men. For, having learned that the city was filled 
with Jews, remembering the orders given by his 
father about them, he purposed casting them all 
out of the city of the Romans. And some of 
the Jews took courage, and gave Domitian a 
book, in which was written as follows : — 

O Domitian, Caesar and king of all the world, 
as many of us as are Jews entreat thee, as sup- 
pliants we beseech of thy power not to banish 
us from thy divine and benignant countenance ; 
for we are obedient to thee, and the customs, 
and laws, and practices, and policy, doing wrong 
in nothing, but being of the same mind with the 
Romans. But there is i new and strange nation, 
neither agreeing with other nations nor consent- 
ing to the religious observances of the Jews, un- 
circumcised, inhuman, lawless, subverting whole 
houses, proclaiming a man as God, all assem- 
bling together * under a strange name, that of 
Christian. These men reject God, paying no 
heed to the law given by Him, and proclaim to 
be the Son of God a man bom of ourselves, 
Jesus by name, whose parents and brothers and 
all his family have been connected with the 
Hebrews ; whom on account of his great blas- 
nv anA iiw wickcd fooleries we gave up to 

: who is present to 
I will bear the inters 

the cross. And they add another blaspl 
lie to their first one : him that was nailed 
and buried, they glorify as having risen from 
dead; and, more than this, they falsely 
that he has been taken up by ' clouds into 

At all this the king, being affected with 
ordered the senate to publish a decree that 
should put to death all who confessed 
selves to be Christians. Those, then, who 
found in the time of his rage, and who 
the fruit of patience, and were crowned in 
triumphant contest against the works of the 
received the repose of incorruption. 

And the fame of the teaching of John 
spread abroad in Rome ; and it came to the 
of Domitian that there was a certain Hebrew 
Ephesus, John by name, who spread a 
about the seat of empire of the Romans, sa] 
that it would quickly be rooted out, and that 
kingdom of the Romans would be given over 
another. And Domitian, troubled by what 
said, sent a centurion with soldiers to seize J 
and bring him. And having gone to Epl 
they asked where John lived. And ha\ing 
up to his gate, they found him standing 
the door ; and, thinking that he was the 
they inquired of him where John lived. And 
answered and said : I am he. And they, d< 
ing his common, and low, and poor ap 
were filled with threats, and said : Tell us 
truth. And when he declared again that he 
the man they sought, the neighbours m( 
bearing witness to it, they said that he was to 
with them at once to the king in Rome. 
urging them to take provisions for the } 
he turned and took a few dates, and si 
went forth. 

And the soldiers, having taken the public 
veyances, travelled fast, having seated him in 
midst of them. And when they came to 
first change, it being the hour of break&st, 

•Or, in. 


and the seat of the ages ; Thou who hast been 
edled all these for our sakes, that now we, call- 
iDg upon Thee through these^ may recognise 
Thine illimitable majesty, presented to us by 
Thy presence, that can be seen only by the pure, 
.necn in Thine only Son. 

And having broken the bread, he gave it to 

UB, praying for each of the brethren, that he 

might be worthy of the Eucharist of the Lord. 

He also therefore, having likewise tasted it, said : 

■ To me also let there be a portion with you, and 

r^ peace, O beloved. And having thus spoken, 

F|^'«nd confirmed the brethren, he said to Euty- 

^^ches, also named Verus : Behold, I appoint thee 

minister ' of the Church of Christ, and I entrust 

thee the flock of Christ. Be mindful, there- 

:, of the commandments of the Lord ; and if 

Tx^'lGhou shouldst fall into trails or dangers, be not 

^".afraid : for thou shalt fall under many troubles, 

id thou shalt be shown to be an eminent wit- 

^iiess * of the Lord. Thus, then, Verus, attend to 

ibe flock as a servant ojf God, until the time 

^■appointed for thy testimony. 

And when John had spoken this, and more 
than this, having entrusted to him the flock of 
^Christ, he says to him: Take some brethren, 
:.'.with baskets and vessels, and follow me. And 
*; Eutyches, without considering,^ did what he was 
>.bid. And the blessed John having gone forth 
*|^fix)m the house, went outside of the gates, having 
l:told the multitude to stand off" from him. And 
having come to the tomb of one of our brethren, 
^be told them to dig. And they dug. And he 
lys : Let the trench be deeper. And as they 
[dug, he conversed with those who had come out 
the house with him, building them up, and 
[Jnmishing them thoroughly into the majesty of 
le Lord. And when the young men had fin- 
ished the trench, as he had wished, while we 
lew^ nothing, he takes off" the clothes he had 
? on, and throws them, as if they were some bed- 
ding, into the depth of the trench ; and, stand- 
[ing in only his drawers,5 stretched forth his 
hands, and prayed. 

O God, who hast chosen us for the mission ^ 
f of the Gentiles, who hast sent us out into the 
world, who hast declared Thyself through the 
mpostles ; who hast never rested, but always sav- 
jest from the foundation of the world ; who hast 
ttade Thyself known through all nature ; who 
bast made our wild and savage nature quiet and 
a| peaceable ; who hast giveYi Thyself to it when 
yfliirsting after knowledge ;7 who hast put to 

tt death its adversary, when it took refiige in Thee ; 


' Or, deacon. 
^ « ie., martyr. 

- > The other mss. has: not without concern. 

4 Or, saw. 
-> 3 The word 8iypM<riy is not to be found ia any of the dictionaries. 

FeriuuM it is a misreading of <ia^M«Tpf . 

* Or, apostleship. 

' Lit., words or reasons. 

who hast given it Thy hand, and raised it from 
the things done in Hades; who hast shown it 
its own enemy; who hast in purity turned its 
thoughts upon Thee, O Christ Jesus, Lord of 
things in heaven, and law of things on earth, the 
course of things aerial, and guardian of things 
etherial, the fear of those under the earth, and 
grace of Thine own people, receive also the soul 
of Thy John, which has been certainly deemed 
worthy by Thee, Thou who hast preserved me 
also till the present hour pure to Thyself, and 
free from intercourse with woman; who, when 
I wished in my youth to marry, didst appear to 
me, and say, I am in need of thee, John ; who 
didst strengthen for me beforehand my bodily 
weakness ; who, when a third time I wished to 
marry, didst say to me at the third hour, in the 
sea, John, if thou wert not mine, I would let thee 
marry; who hast opened up the sight of my 
mind, and hast favoured my bodily ^ eyes ; who, 
when I was looking about me, didst call even 
the gazing upon a woman hateful; who didst 
deliver me from temporary show, and preserve 
me for that which endureth for ever ; who didst 
separate me from the filthy madness of the flesh ; 
who didst stop up 9 the secret disease of the soul, 
and cut out its open actions ; who didst afflict 
and banish him who rebelled in me ; who didst 
establish my love to Thee spotless and unim- 
paired ; who didst give me undoubting faith in 
Thee ; who hast drawn out for me pure thoughts 
towards Thee ; who hast given me the due re- 
ward of my works ; who hast set it in my soul 
to have no other possession than Thee alone : 
for what is more precious than Thou ? Now, O 
Lord, when I have accomplished Thy steward- 
ship with which I was entrusted, make me 
worthy of Thy repose, having wrought that which 
is perfect in Thee, which is ineffable salvatiorf. 
And as I go to Thee, let the fire withdraw, let 
darkness be overcome, let the furnace be slack- 
ened, let Gehenna be extinguished, let the an- 
gels follow, let the demons be afraid, let the 
princes be broken in pieces, let the powers of 
darkness fall, let the places on the right hand 
stand firm, let those on the left abide not, let 
the devil be muzzled, let Satan be laughed to 
scorn, let his madness be tamed, let his wrath be 
broken, let his children be trodden under foot, 
and let all his root be uprooted ; and grant to 
me to accomplish the journey to Thee, not in- 
sulted, not despitefully treated, and to receive 
what Thou hast promised to those that live in 
purity, and that have loved a holy life. 

And gazing towards heaven, he glorified God ; 
and having sealed himself altogether, he stood 
and said to us. Peace and grace be with you. 

* Or, visible. 
9 Or, muisle. 


brethren 1 and sent the brethren away. And 
when they went on the morrow they did not find 
him, but his sandals, and a fountain welling up. 
And after that they remembered what had been 
said to Peter by the Lord about him : For what 
does it concern thee if I should wish him to re- 

main until I come? * And they glorified Grf 
for the miracle that had happened. And ianf 
thus believed, they retired praising and Ueaaij 
the benignant God ; because to Hun is due ^| 
now and ever, and to ages of ages. Amen. 

> John 




And the prophet said: I walked about with 
Moses also on the mountain, and it comes not 
forth thence. And the angels said : We can put 
it forth through the points of thy nails. And the^ 
prophet said : My feet also have walked about 
on the altar. And the angels went away without 
having done anything, saying : Lord, we cannot 
get his soul. Then He says to His only begotten 
Son • Go down, my beloved Son, with a great 
host of angels, and take the soul of my beloved 
Esdras. For the Lord, having taken a great 
host of angels, says to the prophet : Give me the 
trust which I entrusted to thee ; the crown has 
been prepared for thee.' And the prophet said : 
Lord, if Thou take my soul from me, who will 
be left to plead with Thee for the race of men ? 
And God said : As thou art mortal, and of the 
earth, do not plead with me. And the prophet 
said : I will not cease to plead. And God said : 
Give up just now the trust ; the crown has been 
prepared for thee. Come and die, that thou 
mayst obtain it. Then the prophet began to 
say with tears : O Lord, what good have I done 
pleading with Thee, and I am going to fall down 
into the earth ? Woe's me, woe's me, that I am 
going to be eaten up by worms ! Weep, all ye 
saints and ye righteous, for me, who have 
pleaded much, and who am delivered up to 
death. Weep for me, all ye saints and ye right- 
eous, because I have gone to the pit of Hades. 
And God said to him : Hear, Esdras, my be- 
loved. I, who am immortal, endured a cross ; 
I tasted vinegar and gall ; I was laid in a tomb, 
and I raised up my chosen ones ; I called Adam 
up out of Hades, that I might save "^ the race 
of men. Do not therefore be afraid of death : 
for that which is from me — that is to say, the 

* Comp. a Tim. iv. 8. 

> The word b wanting in the MS. 

soul — goes to heaven ; and diat which is 
the eardi — that is to say, the body — goes 
the earthy from which it was taken.3 And 
prophet said : Woe's me ! woe's me ! what 
I set about? what shall I do? I know 
And then the blessed Esdras began to say: 
eternal God, the Maker of the ^diole c 
who hast measured the heaven with a span, 
who boldest the earth as a handfril,^ who 
upon the cherubim, who didst take the 
Elias to the heavens in a chariot of fire,^ 
givest food to all flesh, whom all things 
and tremble at from the £ace of Thy 
listen to me, who have pleaded mudi, and 
to all who transcribe this book, and have i 
remember my name, and honour my 
give them a blessing from heaven; and 
him ^ in all things, as Thou didst bless } 
last, and remember not his former wick 
the day of his judgment And as many as 
not believed this book shall be burnt up 
Sodom and Gomorrah. And there came to 
a voice, saying : Esdras, my beloved, all 
whatever thou hast asked will I give to each 
And immediately he gave up his predous 
with much honour, in the month of Octol 
the twenty-eighth. And they prepared 
burial with incense and psalms ; and his pi 
and sacred body dispenses strength of soul 
body perpetually to those who have 
him from a longing desire. To whom is 
glory, strength, honour, and adoration, 
the Father, and to the Son, and to the 
Spirit, now and ever, and to ages of 

3 Eccles. xii. 7. 

4 Or, in a measure. Apox^v in the text should be Spaca. 
Isa. xl. I a in the LXX. 

5 Comp. I Kings ii. zx; Ecdus- xlviii. o. 

^ So the MS. Perhaps thtm would be oetter. 


5.8 1 

of things in heaven, and things in earth, and 
things under the earth, lamented and mourned 
with a great lamentation, but the impious and 
insensate Jews did not understand; wherefore 
there has been prepared for them the fire ever- 
lasting, and the worm that dies not. 

While he was yet speaking, there came other 
three, and saluted me, saying : Welcome, Paul, 
beloved of God, the boast of the churches, and 
model of angels. And I asked : Who are you ? 
And the first said : I am Isaiah, whom Manasseh 
sawed with a wood saw.' And the second said : 
I am Jeremiah, whom the Jews stoned, but they 
remained burnt up with everlasting fire. And 
the third said : I am Ezekiel, whom the slayers 
of the Messiah pierced ; all these things have we 
endured, and we have not been able to turn the 
stony heart of the Jews. And I threw myself on 
my &ce, entreating the goodness of God, because 
He had had mercy upon me, and had delivered 
me from the race of the Hebrews. And there 
<:ame a voice saying: Blessed art thou, Paul, 
beloved of God; and blessed are those who 
through thee have believed in the name of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, because for them has been 
prepared everlasting life. 

While this voice was yet speaking, there came 
another, crying : Blessed art thou, Paul. And I 
asked the angel: Who is this, my lord? And 
he said to me : This is Noah, who lived in the 
time of the deluge. And when we had saluted 
each other, I asked him : Who art thou? And 
he said to me : J am Noah, who in a hundred 
years built the ark, and without putting off the 

s For this traditian, see the Bibk 
Oonp. Heb. xL 37. 

^i p4 tf AlMisueh. 

coat which I wore, or shaving my head ; more- 
over, I practised continence, and did not come 
near my wife ; and in the hundred years ray coat 
was not dirtied, and the hair of my head was not 
diminished. And I ceased not to proclaim to 
men, Repent, for, behold, a deluge is coming. 
And no one paid heed ; but all derided me, not 
refraining fix)m their lawless deeds, until the 
water of the deluge came and destroyed them 

And looking away, I saw other two from afar 
off. And I asked the angel: Who are these, 
my lord? And he said to me : These are Enoch 
and Elias. And they came and saluted me, say- 
ing : Welcome, Paul, beloved of God ! And I 
said to them: Who are you? And Elias the 
prophet answered and said to me : I am Elias 
the prophet, who prayed to God, and He caused 
that no rain should come down upon the earth 
for three years and six months, on account of the 
unrighteousness of the sons of men. For often, of 
a truth, even the angel besought God on account 
of the rain ; and' I heard, Be patient until Elias 
my beloved shall pray, and I send rain upon the 

* Here die rOicek] MS. abruf>tlT ends. The Syriac dius con- 
tinues: — And He save not until I called upon Him anun; then He 
gave unto them. But blessed art thou, O Paul, that thy eeneration 
and those thou teachest are the sons of the kinedom. And know 
thou, O PauL that every man who believes through thee hath a great 
blesnng, and a blessing is reserved for him. Then he departed from 

And the anjsel who was with me led me forth, and said unto me: 
Lo. unto thee is given this mystery and revelation. As thou pl«isest, 
make it known unto the sons of men. — And then follow details of 
the depositing of the revelation under the foundation of the house in 
Tarsus, — details which Tischendoif says the translator of the Syriac 
did not find in his original. [The close of the English translation 
of the Syriac version is given in full by Tischendorf (pp. 68, 69) . It 
varies greatly from the above paragraph in the text, boudes the addi- 
tion of the d^ails which Tischendorf regards as spurious. — R.] 



After the taking up of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
I John was alone upon Mount Tabor/ where also 
He showed us His undefiled Godhead ; and as 
I was not able to stand, I fell upon the ground, 
and prayed to the Lord, and said : O Lord my 
God, who hast deemed me worthy to be Thy ser- 
vant, hear my voice, and teach me about Thy 
coming. When Thou shalt come to the earth, 
what will happen? The heaven and the earth, 
and the sun and the moon, what will happen to 
them in those times? Reveal to me aU; for I 
am emboldened, because Thou listenest to Thy 

And I spent seven days praying; and after 
this a cloud of light caught me up from the moun- 
tain, and set me before the face of the heaven. 
And I heard a voice saying to me : Look up, 
John, servant of God, and know. And having 
looked up, I saw the heaven opened, and there 
came forth from within the heaven a smell of 
perfumes of much sweet odour ; and I saw an 
exceeding great flood of light, more resplendent 
than the sun. And again I heard a voice say- 
ing to me : Behold, righteous John. And I 
directed my sight, and saw a book lying, of the 
thickness, me thought, of seven mountains ; ^ and 
the length of it the mind of man cannot com- 
prehend, having seven seals. And I said : O 
Lord my God, reveal to me what is written in 
this book. And I heard a voice saying to me : 
Hear, righteous John. In this book which thou 
seest there have been written the things in the 
heaven, and the things in the earth, and the 
things in the abyss, and the judgments and 
righteousness of all the human race.3 And I 
said : Lord, when shall these things come to 
pass? and what do those times bring? And I 
heard a voice saying to me : Hear, righteous 
John.* There shall be in that time abundance 

' For the history of the tradition that the transfiguration occurred 
on Mount Tabor, see Robinson's Researches^ ii. 358. 
^ One MS. has: 700 cubits. 

3 MS. B adds: And they shall be manifested at the consummation 
of the age, in the judgment to come. Just as the prophet Daniel saw 
the judgment, I sat, and the books were opened. Then also shall the 
twelve apostles sit, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. And when I 
heard this from my Lord, I again asked: Show me, my Lord, when 
these things shall come to pass, etc. [B is the designation of a Paris 
manuscript dated 1533. All the manuscriots are comparatively re- 
cent; see Hschendorf, pp. xviii., xix. — R.j 

4 MS. B here inserts Luke 

XXI. J I. 

of com and wine, such as there hatfa m 
upon the earth, nor shall ever be ux 
times come. Then the ear of com s 
duce a half choenix,' and the bend of tl 
shall produce a thousand clusters, and tl 
shall produce a half jar of wine ; andi 
lowing year there shall not be found upoi 
of aU the earth a half choenix of com < 
jar of wine. 

And again I said : Lord, thereafter i 
Thou do ? And I heard a voice saying 
Hear, righteous John. Then shall ap 
denier, and he who is set apart in the c 
who is called Antichrist And again I sai< 
reveal to me what he is like. And I 
voice saying to me : The appearance of 
is dusky ; ^ the hairs of his head are sh 
darts ; his eyebrows like a wild beast's ; 
eye hke the star which rises in the mom 
the other like a lion's; his mouth ab 
cubit; his teeth span long; liis fing< 
scythes ; the print of his feet of two spai 
on his face an inscription. Antichrist; 
be exalted even to heaven, and shall 
down even to Hades, making false d 
And then will I make the heaven brazen 
it shall not give moisture ^ upon the ear 
I will hide the clouds in secret places, 
they shall not bring moisture upon tht 
and I will command the horns of the ' 
that the wind shall not blow upon the ea 

And again I said : Lord, and how ma 

s The choenix of com was a man's daily allowance. I 
to two pints according to some, a pint and a half accordini 
* Or, gloomy. 

7 MS. B adds: And he will love most of all the natioa 
brews; and the righteous shall hide themselves, and 60 
tains and caves. And he shall take veneeazMX on many 
eous; and blessed is he who shall not beUeve in him. 

8 Or, dew. 

9 To the description of Antichrist, MS. E adds: He I 
hand a cup of death ; and all that worship him drink <d it. 
eye is like the momine star, and his left like a lion's: 
was taken i>risoner by tne archangel Michael, uid he vn 
head from him. And I was sent from the bosom of my Fa 
drew up the head of the polluted one, and his eve wis 
And when they worship him, he writes on their rignt hand 
may sit with him in tne outer fire; and for all who ha« 
baptized, and have not believed, have been reserred all 
wrath. And I said : My Lord, and what miiades does be • 
righteous John : He shall remove mountains and hills, ai 
beckon with his polluted hand. Come all to me; and thixic 
plays and deceits they will be brought together to his ovn 
will raise the dead, and show in everything like God. [i 
the Venice manuscripts. — R.] 




wilt Thou do? and what is to become of the 
world? Reveal to me all. And I heard a 
voice saying to me : Hear, righteous John. 
After that there is no pain, there is no grief, there 
is no groaning ; there is no recollection of evils, 
there are no tears, there is no envy, there is no 
hatred of brethren, there is no unrighteousness, 
there is no arrogance, there is no slander, there 
is no bitterness, there are none of the cares of 
life, there is no pain from parents or children, 
there is no pain from gold, there are no wicked 
thoughts, there is no devil, there is no death, 
there is no night, but all is day.' As I said 
before. And other sheep I have, which are not 
of this fold, that is, men who have been made like 
the angels through their excellent course of life ; 
them also must I bring, and they will hear my 
voice, and there shall be one fold, one shepherd.' 
And again I heard a voice saying to me : Be- 
hold, thou hast heard all these things, righteous 

* . Rer. viL 17, xxL 4. 

* Tohn z. x6. [The correct text of John x. x6 is: " one 6ock, 
one sbepherd' " but it wm altered quite early. — R.] 

s Le., the things heard. 
4 Matt. Yii. 6. 
i Ps. cvt 3. 

* John xvr. 23. 

7 As a specimen of the eschatology of these documents, Tischen- 
dorf gires the following extracts from the termination of us. E: — 

Hear, ri^teous John: All these shall be assembled, and they shall 
be in the pit of lamentation; and I shall set my throne in the place, 
and shall sit with the twelre apostles and the four and twenty caders, 
and thou thyself an elder on account of thy blameless life; and to 
finish three wrvices thou shalt receire a white robe and am uniading 
crown from the hand of the Lord, and thou shalt sit with the four 
and twenty elders, etc. And afteif this the angels shall come forth, 
having a golden censer and shining lamps; and they shall gather 
togetmr on the Lord's right hand thrae who have lived well, and done 
His will, and He shall make them to dwell for ever and ever in light 
and joy, and they iha\\ obtain life everlasting. And whecf He sludl 
separate the sheep from the goats, that is, the nghteous from the sin- 
ners, the righteous on the right, and the sinners on the left; then shall 
He send the angel Raguel, saying: Go and sound the trumpet for the 
angels of cold and snow and ice, and bring together eveiy kind of 

John ; deliver them to fiuthfiil men, t 
also may teach others, and not tiiink 1 
them,3 nor cast our pearls before swine, 
chance they should trample them with ti 
And while I was still hearing this ^ 
cloud brought me down, and put me o 
Thabor. And there came a voice to m< 
Blessed are those who keep judgmeni 
righteousness in all time.s And bless 
house where this description lies, as t 
said. He that loveth me keepeth my sa 
Christ Jesus our Lord; to Him be 
ever. Amen.^ 

wrath upon those that stand oo the left. Because I wi 
them wnen they see the ^oiy of God, the impioos and 
and the priestt who did not what was oominamled. ^ 
tears, weep for the sinners. And Temeluch shall call oc 
open the punishinentS| thou keeper of the keys; open tb 
open the worm that dieth not, and the wicked dragon; 
Hades; open the darkness: let loose the fienr river, and 
darkness m the depths of Hades. Then tne pitiml si 
their works, and having no consolatioo, shall go down 
streams as it were of blood. And there is nooe to pity t 
fiither to help, nor modier to compassionate, but rane 
going against them, and saying: Ye poor wretches, i 
weeptngT In the world you had no oompaasioo on tl 
did not help them. And these go away into everlasting 
There yxAi will not be able to bnr the si^ of Him idio 
the virgin; you lived unrraenting in the world, and yo 
pity, but everiasting punisnment. And Temdoch says 
Rouse up the fat three-headed serpent; sovmd the tra 
frightful wild beasts to gather them together to feed apa 
the sinners) : to open tM twelve pla^;ues, that all the ere 
may be brought t^ether a^inst the impious and unrepe 
Temeluch wiU gather togeuer the mulntude of the dna 
lack the earth; and the earth will be wpih up in diverse 
the sinners will be melted in frightful punishments. Tht 
send Michael, the leader of His hosts: and having seak 
Temeluch shall strike them with the precious cross, az 
shall be brought together as before. "Hien their angels L 
ceedinfl^y, them the all-holy VirgiM and all the saints we 
and they shall do them no good. And Jcrfm says: Why 
ners thus punished? And I heard a voice saying n 
walked in the world each after his own will, and thereic 
thus punished. 

Blessed is the man who reads the writing: blessed b 
transcribed it, and given it to other Catholic cnurches: bk 
who fear God. Hear, ye priests, and ye readers; bear ye 



the Sodomites struck with blindness.' Nothing 
now is left to us but to perish. But when they 
heard the words of the chief who had been cured 
speaking, they believed in the Lord Jesus Christ ; 
and when he put the palm over their eyes, they 
recovered sight. Five of them remaining in 
hardness of heart died. And the chief of the 
priests going forth, carried back the palm to the 
apostles, reporting all things whatsoever had 
been done. 

15. And the apostles, carrying Mary, came to 
the place of the Valley of Jehoshaphat which the 
Lord had showed them ; and they laid her in a 
new tomb, and closed the sepulchre. And they 
themselves sat down at the door of the tomb, as 
the Lord had commanded them ; and, behold, 
suddenly the Lord Jesus Christ came with a 
great multitude of angels, with a halo of great 
brightness gleaming, and said to the apostles : 
Peace be with you ! And they answered and 
said : Let Thy mercy, O Lord, be upon us, as 
we have hoped in Thee.* Then the Saviour 
spoke to them, saying: Before I ascended to 
my Father I promised to you, saying that you 
who have followed me in the regeneration, when 
the Son of man shall sit upon the throne of His 
majesty, will sit, you also, upon twelve thrones, 
judging the twelve tribes of Israel.^ Her, there- 
fore, did I choose out of the tribes of Israel by 
the command of my Father, that I should dwell 
in her. What, therefore, do you wish that I 
should do to her? Then Peter and the other 
apostles said : Lord, Thou didst choose before- 
hand this Thine handmaid to become a spotless 
chamber for Thyself, and us Thy servants to 
minister unto Thee. Before the ages Thou didst 
foreknow all things along with the Father, with 
whom to Thee and the Holy Spirit there is one 
Godhead, equal and infinite power. If, there- 
fore, it were possible to be done in the presence 

« Gen. xix. xx; Wisd. xix. ij, 
* Ps. xxxiii. aa. 
3 Matt. xix. a8. 

of the power of Thy grace, it had seemed to os 
Thy servants to be ri^t that, just as Thou, hay- 
ing vanquished death, reignest in glory, so, rais- 
ing up again the body of Thy mother, 'Hioa 
shouldst take her with Thee in joy into heaven. 

16. Then the Saviour said : Let it be accord- 
ing to your opinion. And He ordered the arch- 
angel Michael to bring the soul of St Mary. 
And, behold, the archangel Michael * rolled back 
the stone from the door of the tomb ; and the 
Lord said : Arise, my beloved and my nearest 
relation ; thou who hast not put on corruptioQ 
by intercourse with man, suffer not destmctioo 
of the body in the sepulchre. And immediately 
Mary rose fix)m the tomb, and blessed the Lord, 
and falling forward at the feet of the Lord, 
adored Him, saying : I cannot render suffideot 
thanks to Thee, O Lord, for Thy boundless ben- 
efits which Thou hast deigned to bestow upon 
me Thine handmaiden. May Thy name, R^ 
deemer of the world, God of Israel, be blessed 
for ever. 

1 7. And kis^g her, the Lord went back, and 
delivered her soul to the angels, that they should 
carry it into paradise. And He said to the apos> 
ties : Come up to me. And when they had come 
up He kissed them, and said : Peace be to yoo! 
as I have always been with you, so will I be even 
to the end of the world. And immediatdyi 
when the Lord had said this. He was lifted 19 
on a cloud, and taken back into heaven, and the 
angels along with Him, carrying the blessed 
Mary into the paradise of God. And the apos- 
tles being taken up in the clouds, returned eadi 
into the place allotted 5 for his preaching, telling 
the great things of God, and praising our Lord 
Jesus Christ, who liveth and reigneth with the 
Father and the Holy Spirit, in perfect unity, anl 
in one substance of Godhead, for ever and ever. 

4 The other MS. has GabiieL 
« Lit, the lot. 






I- J 



1 6. An EpisUe of Telesphorus. — False dates, patched fix)m subsequent authors, etc 

1 7. An EpisUe of Hygintis. — Anachronisms, etc. 

18. ^ Second of the Same. — Stuffed with anachronisms, and wisely dated by consub not ( 

his age. 

19. An Epistle of Hus I, — Full of absurdities, and quotes " the Theodosian Code " 1 

20. A Second. — It is addressed to Justus, etc. Bad Latin, and wholly imknown to antiquit 
though Baronius has tried to sustain it. 

21. A Third Letter, etc. — Addressed to Justus, bishop of Vienna. False for the same le 

22. An Epistle of Anicetus. — Full of blunders as to dates, etc. Mentions names, titles, aE 
the like, unheard of till later ages. 

23. An Epistle of Soter. — Dated under consuls who lived before Soter was bishop of Roiw 

24. A Second Letter, etc. — Speaks of " monks," " palls," and other things of later times; i 
patched out of writings of subsequent ages, and dated under consuls not his contemporaries. 

25. An Epistle of EUutherus. — Subject to like objections. 

26. A Second Letter, etc. — Anachronisms. 

2^. A Third letter, etc. — Addressed to " Desiderius, bishop of Vienna." There was no sod 
bishop till the sixth century. 

28.-^4 Fourth Letter, etc. — Quotes later authors, and is disproved by its style. 

29. An Epistle of Zephyrinus. — Little importance to be attached to anything fipom sodi 1 
source ; but Dupin (who lived before his bad character came to light in the writings of Hippo^ 
ytus) convicts it of ignorance, and shows that it is a patchwork of later ideas and writers. 

30. A Second Letter. — " Yet more plainly an imposture," says Dupin. 

31. An Epistle of St. Callistus. — What sort of a "saint" he was, our readers are abe^ 
informed. This epistle is Hke the preceding ones of Zephyrinus. 

32. ^ Second Epistle, etc. — Quotes from writings of the eighth century. 

33. An Epistle of Urban. — Quotes the Vulgate, the Theodosian Code, and Gregory th 

34. An Epistle of Pontianus. — Anachronisms. 

Z^. A Second Epistle, etc, — Barbarous and impossible. 

36. An Epistle of Anterus. — Equally impossible ; stuffed with anachronisms. 

37. An Epistle of Fabianus. — Contradicts the facts of history touching Cyprian, ComcfiD^ 
and Novatus. 

38. A Second Epistle, etc, — Self-refuted by its monstrous details of mistake and the like. 

39. A Third Epistle, etc. — Quotes authors of the sixth century. 

40. An Epistle of Cornelius, — Contradicts historical facts, etc. 

41. ^ Second Epistle, etc, — Equally full of blunders. "But nothing," says Dupin, "sho«s 
the imposture of these two letters more palpably than the difference of style from those truly 
ascribed to Cornelius in Cyprian's works." 

42. -^ Third Letter, etc, — Equally false on its face. Dupin, with his usual candour, remarks- 
" We find in it the word * Mass,* which was unknown to the contemporaries of Cornelius." 

43. An Epistle of Lucius, — It is dated six months before he became Bishop of Rowe, and 
quotes authors who lived ages after he was dead. 

44. An Epistle of Stephen. — " Filled with citations out of subsequent authors." 

45. A Second Epistle, etc, — Open to the like objection ; it does not harmonize with the tiinfi 
to which it is referred. 

Here Dupin grows weary, and winds up his review as follows : — 

"For like reasons, we must pass judgment, in like manner, on the two Epistles of Siztus II.; the two « 
Dionysius ; the three of St, Felix I. j the two of Eutychianus ; one of Caius ; two of Marcellinus and ^^ 



been granted to this holy seat alone are found 
embodied both in the constitutions of the apos- 
tles ' and their successors, and in very many 
others in harmony with these. For the apostles 
have prefixed seventy* decrees, together with 
very many other bishops, and have appointed 
them to be kept. For to judge rashly of the 
secrets of another's heart is sin ; and it is unjust 
to reprove him on suspicion whose works seem 
not other than good, since God alone is Judge 
of those things which are unknown to men. He, 
however, " knoweth the secrets of the heart," * 
and not another. For unjust judgments are to 
be guarded against by all, especiaUy however by 
the servants of God. " And the servant of the 
Lord must not strive," * nor harm any one. For 
bishops are to be borne by laity and clergy, and 
masters by servants, in order that, under the 
exercise of endurance, things temporal may be 
maintained, and things eternal hoped for. For 
that increases the worth of virtue, which does not 
violate the purpose of religion. You should be 

'This means the seventy-third apostolic canon, in which it is 
ordained that episcopal cases oe not deculed but by superior bishops, 
councils, or the Roman pontiff. [See note i, p. 6ia.1 

' Another readins has six^, and another mky. Whatever be the 
reading, it is triie tnat by tnese decrees are meant the apostolic 
omons: and although their number was only fifty, yet, because some- 
times several decrees are ccHnprehended in one canon, there would be 
no inconsistency between the number of sixty or seventy apostolic 
decrees and the ntmiber of fifty apostolic canons (Sev. Bin.). 

9 Ps. xliv. ax. 

4 t Tim. iLfl4. 

earnestly intent that none of your bro 
grievou^y injured or imdone. Therei 
ought to succour the oppressed, and 
them from the hand of Uieir peisea 
order that with the blessed Job you n 
" The blessing of him that was ready t 
will come upon me, and I consoled die 
heart. I put pn righteousness, and clot 
self with a robe and a diadem, my jv 
I was eye to the blind, and foot to tl 
I was a £sither to the poor, and the cause 
knew not I searched out most carefully, 
the grinders of the wicked, and pluc 
spoil out of his teeth ; " s and so fort 
therefore, who have been placed in emii 
God, ought with all your power to cl: 
repel those who prepare snares for bre 
raise seditions and offences against the 
it is easy by word to deceive man, not 
God. Therefore you ought to keep i 
and be on your guard against them, ui 
darkness is done away utterly, and the 
star shines upon them, and gladnes 
most holy brethren. Given on the 20th 
ber, in the consulship of the most il 
Satuminus and Gallicanus.^ 

s Job xxix. 13-17, according to the Vulgate 
6 Or. GaUus. But Satuminus and Giultis 
year 198, while Victor was yet alive. 



Zephyrinus, archbishop of the city of Rome, 
to the most beloved brethren who serve the Lord 
in Egypt. 

So great trust have we received from the Lord, 
the Founder of this holy seat and of the apos- 
tolic church, and from the blessed Peter, chief of 
the apostles, that we may labour with unwearied 
affection ' for the universal Church which has 
been redeemed by the blood of Christ, and aid 
all who serve the Lord, and give help to all who 
live piously by apostolic authority. All who will 
live^ piously in Christ must needs endure re- 
proaches from the impious and aliens, and be 
despised as fools and madmen, that they may be 
made better and purer who lose the good things 
of time that they may gain those of eternity. But 
the contempt and ridicule of those who afflict 
and scorn them will be cast back upon them- 

I Or, diligence. [See note a, p. 6za.] 
3 a Tim. li. 94. 

selves, when their abundance shall cb 
want, arid their pride to confusion. 


On the Spoliation or Expulsion of certain Bish 

It has been reported at the seat of the i 
by your delegates,' that certain of our bi 
bishops to wit, are being expelled fro 
churches and seats, and deprived of tlieii 
and summoned, thus destitute and spo 
trial ; a thing which is void of all reasc 
the constitutions of the ap>ostles and tl: 
cessors, and the statutes of emperors, 
regulations of laws, prohibit it, and the a 
of the seat of the apostles forbids it to b 

3 By these apocrisarii are meant the deputies of the fa 
their locum te*teHtes,9& it were, who manage the a&irs o( 
hear the cases of individuals, and refer them to the bish< 
are therefore called a^rtsarit\ i.e., responders, from ai 
to respond. Mention is made of them in Justinian NovelL 
oporteat E^iscopos, chap. xii. Albericus undentaAds 1 
legates of the Pope. [Note 3.] 



this duty advance tried and learned men, that 
ye may be greatly gladdened by their fellowship 
and help. Place ^e confidence of your hearts 
without ceasing on the goodness of God, and de- 
clare these and the other divine words to suc- 
ceeding generations : '' For this is our God for 

ever and ever, and He will guide us to eten 
Given on the 7th Novem^, in the cons 
of the most illustrious Satuminus and 


•Or.GaUnt. [See note s« p. 6ial 


1. The translator's reference to Canon 73 is a mistake, and quite misleading. See vc 
Canon 74, p. 504. 

2. It is worth while to recall who and what Zephyrinus was. See voL v. p. 156, Eh]ci< 
V. ; also same volume of this series, p. 157, Elucidation VI. This unhappy prelate was a 
tic ; and his decrees and opinions are worthless, as Hippolytus shows. Hence this letter, 
were it genuine, would be of no value whatever. Consult also voL v. p. 156, in EluddatioD 
also same volume, Elucidation III. 

3. On p. 610, Ep. 2, sec. i, observe the reference to the ''statutes of Emperors," wba 
wily forger forgot himself, as if the Caesars of this date had legislated for the Christian Q 
On the spirit of the ancient Canons, refuting all these Decretals, compare the Canons iji N 
4, 5, 6, 7, and 15 ; of Constantinople, 2 and 3 ; of Ephesus, 8 ; and of Chalcedon, 9 an 
To these Canons, against the claims of the Paparchy, the Church of England appealed at 



widi one mind, and one month, and one acoocd, 
the Hcty Triniqr may be glorified for ever. No 
primate, no metropolitan, nor any of the other 
bishops, is at liberty to enter die seat of another, 
or to occupy a possession winch does not pertain 
to him, aiKl which forms part of the parish of 
another bishop, at the dire^on of any one, un- 
less he is invited by him to whose jurisdiction 
it is acknowledged to belong; nor can he set 
about any arrangement or ordinance, or judg- 
ment thm, if he wishes to keep the honour of 
his station. But if he presume to do otherwise, 
he shall be condemned ; and not only he, but 
tiiose who co-operate and agree with him : for 
just as the power of making appointments (ordt- 
natio) is interdicted in such circumstances, so 
also is the power of judging or of disposing of 
other matters. For if a man has no power to 
appoint, how shaU he judge? Without doubt, 
he shall in no wise judge or have power to judge : 
for just as another man's wife cannot intermarry 
with anyone (aduiierari)^ nor be judged or dis- 
posed of by any one but by her own husband so 
long as he liveUi ; so neither can it in anywise 
be allowed that the wife of a bishop, by whom 
undoubtedly is meant his church or paiish, should 
be judged or disposed of by another without his 
(the bishop's) judgment and good-will so long 
as he liveth, or enjoy another's embrace, that is, 
his ordaining. Wherefore the apostle says : "The 
wife is bound by the law so long as her husband 
liveth ; but if he be dead, she is loosed from the 
law of her husband." ' in like manner also, the 
spouse of a bishop (for the church is called his 
spouse and wife) is bound to him while he liveth ; 
but when he is dead she is loosed, and may be 
wedded to whomsoever she will, only in the Lord, 
that is, according to order. For if, while he is 
alive, she marry another, she shall be judged to 
be an adulteress. And in the same manner, he 
too, if he marry another of his own will, shall 
be held to be an adulterer, and shall be deprived 
of the privilege of communion. If, however, he 
is persecuted in his own church, he must flee to 
another, and attach himself to it, as the Lord 
says : " If they persecute you in one city, flee 
ye into another." ^ If, however, the change be 
made for the sake of the good of the church, he 
may not do this of himself, but only on the in- 
vitation of the brethren, and with the sanction 
of this holy seat, and not for ambition's sake, 
but for the public good. 


(Of marriages among blood-relations, and of those who are 
bom of tnem ; and of accusations which the laws reject) 

Moreover, marriages among blood-relations 
are forbidden, since all laws, both sacred and 

secdar, forbid sodi. Wherefore tiie 
not on^ czpd, but even anatfacmatiie, 
do so, and diose who ^xipg from tfaem. 
lar laws, again, call sndi peisoos infii 

interdict tfaem from inheriting. And ve) 
Allowing our fiuhers, and keeping dose Yni 
footsteps, brand sodi with infrmy, aodj 
them to be infeunons, becanse they are 
with the stains of in£uny. Neither txiglht 
admit diose men ex- tfaeir aocosatiaiis, that 
lar laws reject. (For who doobcs that 
laws, when they are not inconsistent with 
and honour, are to be embraced, 
they either forther the public good or 
authority of the ecdeaastical office, and 
it as a help?) And we caD those 
whom divine laws, and those of the 
bodi Roman and Greek, name blood 
and niiom diey admit to the ri^t of i 
and cannot exclude from diat. MarriagOi 
between sudi are neither lawfid nor 
holding good, bat are to be rejected 
if any such are attempted in ra^ 
come to be rescinded by apostc^c am 


(Of those who ooglit not to be admitted to pftlarW 
txMi, or to bear witness ; and that evidence f 
ghren but oo thh^ happcnini^ in the pcnoa^ 

Whosoever, therefore, has ix>t been 
married, or has been united without the 
tide (doiati Htulo) and the blessing of a 
cannot by any means bring a charge 
priests, or those who are hwfully 
bear witness against them, since every one' 
is polluted with the stain of incest is ii 
and is not allowed to accuse the above-i 
And consequently not only they, but ail 
too who agree with them, are to be rej< 
and are rendered infamous. We hold thiij 
same should also be the case with rol 
with those who assault the elderly. The 
of the world, indeed, put such persons to * 
but we, with whom mercy has the first pjatf^j 
ceive them under the mark of infamy to 
ance. That infamy also with which they 
stained, we are not able to remove ; but 0Br< 
sire is to heal their souls by pubhc peoil 
and by satisfaction made to the Chuidi: 
public sins are not to be purged by secret i 
rection. Those, again, who are suspected] 
the matter of the right faith, should by no 
be admitted to prefer charges against po 
and against those of whose £auth there t 
doubt; and such persons should be hdd 
doubtful authority in matters of human t 
mony. Their voice, consequently, shonid 
reckoned invalid whose faith is doubted; ' 
no credit should be given to those who art W" 
rant of the right faith. Accordingly, in rit 



to healing those of others by preaching, and by 
making offering to God. Thus the shedding of 
tears moves the mind*s feeling {passionem). And 
when the satis^tion is made good, the mind is 
turned aside from anger. For how does that man 
think that mercy will be shown to himself, who 
does not forgive his neighbour? If offences 
abound, then, let mercy also abound ; for with the 
Lord there is mercy, and with Him is plenteous 
redemption.' In the Lord's hand there is abun- 
dance of all things, because He is the Lord of 
powers (virtutum) and the King of glory.* For 
the apostle says : '' All have sinned, and come 
short of the glory of God ; being justified freely 
by His grace, through the redemption that is in 
Jesus Christ : whom God hath set forth to be a 
propitiation through faith in His blood, to de- 
clare His righteousness for the remission of sins 
that are past, through the forbearance of God ; 
to declare, ' I say,' at this time His righteousness, 
that He might be just, and the justifier of him 
which believeth in Jesus." ^ And David says: 
" Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, 
and whose sins are covered." * Man, therefore, 
is cleansed of his sin, and rises again by the 
grace of God though he has fallen, and abides 
in his first position, according to the above-cited 
authorities. Let him see to it that he sin no 
more, that the sentence of the Gospel may abide 
in him : " Go, and sin no more." 5 Whence the 
aposde says: "Let not sin therefore reign in 
your mortal body, that ye should obey the lusts 
thereof: neither yield ye your members as in- 
struments of unrighteousness unto sin : but yield 
yourselves unto God, as those that are alive from 
the dead, and your members as instruments of 
righteousness unto God. For sin shall not have 
dominion over you : for ye are not under the 
law, but under grace. What then ? shall we sin 

* Ps. cxxx. 7. 

* P$. xxiv. xo. 

3 Rom. iii. 33-96. 

4 Ps. xxxiL X. 
i John viu. zt. 

because we are not under the law, but under 
grace? God forbid. Know ye not, that to 
whom ye 3rield yourselves servants to obey, his 
servants ye are to whom ye obey ; whether of 
sin unto death, or of obedience unto righteous- 
ness? But God be thanked, that ye were the 
servants of sin ; but ye have obeyed fi-om the 
heart that form of doctrine which was delivered 
you. Being then made free from sin, ye became 
the servants of righteousness. I speak after the 
manner of men." ^ For greater is the sin of him 
who judgeth, than of him who is judged. " Think- 
est thou," says the apostle, " O man, that judgest 
them that do such things, and doest the same, 
that thou shalt escape the judgment of God? or 
despisest thou the riches of His goodness, and 
forbearance, and long-suffering? Dost thou not 
know that the goodness of God leadeth thee to 
repentance? But, after thy hardness and int- 
penitent heart, thou treasurest up unto thyself 
wrath against die day of wrath and revelation of 
the righteous judgment of God ; who will ren- 
der to every man according to his deeds: to 
them who, by patient continuance in welfddi^ 
seek for glory, and honour, and immortali^, 
eternal life ; but unto them that are contentioo^ 
and do not obey the truth, but obey unrig^teooi* 
ness, indignation and wrath, tribulation and as- 
guish, upon every soul of man that doeth eH^. 
of the Jew first, and also of the Greek : but gJcR 
honour, and peace, to every man that wc^on 
good." 7 My brethren, shun not only the hoMiflg^ 
but even the hearing, of the judgment that batf 
mercy ; for better is mercy than all whole twmil- 
offerings and sacrifices.^ We have replied toyoar 
interrogations shortly, because your letter fou«l 
us burdened overmuch, and preoccupied wiA 
other judgments. Given on the 8th day of Oc- 
tober, in the consulship of the most illustriott 
Antonine and Alexander." ^ 

6 Rom. yi. xa-x9. 

7 Rora. iii. 3-xo, 
' Mark xii. 33. 

9 In the year 999. 


See p. 613, note i. For Callistus and his times, see the testimony of Hippolytas,voL%^ 
pp. 158, 159, 160; Elucidations X., XI., XII., XIIL, XIV., XV. It must be owned that Ae' 
forgery is better than the genuine productions of this forerunner of the Popes of the ninth vA^ 
tenth centuries. The titie " Pope," in its later sense, seems not inappropriate to such « 





ON THX HOWWit TO BE BISTOWSD ON PUESIS. heareth you, heareth me ; and he that des 

PONmms, bishop, to Felu Sutecribonius, l!""' ."'•fP'S?' "=■ """ '«' Jal desponl 

creetiiie despiseth Hun that sent me.' Hence thi 

Our heait is exceedingly lejoiccd with youi f ^ 1^ 5''!?""'',>1 l>onou,ed Ai 
goodness, m that von strife by aU means in yout ""p" Ihe Lord H.mselfu honoured whose 
Sower to cany out the pracdie of holy reliiion, F"^"" Ih^ execute. They accordingly, « 
Imd strengthen sad and destitute biethren in happen to Ml are to be raised up and susl 
faith and reUgion. Wherefore we implore the by the faithful. Jtad again, they ate not 1 
mercy of our Redeemer, that His giice may ""^^ by the infamous, or the wicked,, 
support us in all things, and that He may grant '^^ or by the memben of another se 
us to carry out m effect what He has given ns to "''S'"''- . " ""f •'»., ">! >■ atj to be airai 
aspire after. In this good thing, therefore, the !'!' <?« J*" f"<^ ■ '"■*«'. *Jy »«.'? 1« 
benefits of recompeni are mjltiplied just in "ijheclr {a,^lnnganUr) by the chief pot 
proportion as our seal for the work increases. ^ *"? "' "i"' "> ^ ™S.=? <>' "»" 
And because in all these things we need the by seculars or by men of evd hfe. Not d 
assistance of divine glace, we iSploie with con- lierefore, is our gnef in hearaig that yea 1 
Slant prayers the clemency of Omnipotent God, '° """J '" J?"' btolhe' ' P»f "g away (J 
that He may bodi gnmt is the desire for these "*)■. >'»' ""'='' reason we beseech Ma, 
good works which should ever be wrought by us, God to console you by the breathing W 
and give us power also to perform them, and di- "'"']. °' "'= |™=. "?■> ''"P !">° ""* I""" 
reel us in that way, for the frait of well-doing - |:""<?;i>nship horn evil spints and pervose . 
which way the Pastor of pastors declared Him- ^f '< >" ■>"' '° .I"" "? '™°'' »' " 
self to be -so that ye my be able to carry «<iveniaries after his disease, do not thiJ 
out through Him, without whom nothing can be "™S= •'"'"e'> l""' "^ «='', » =W fi 
done, those good works which you have begun. T"' o™ =ounlry-that is m the Und o 
Moreover, with respect to the priests of the fiird '""»8- ^" '» '^" ™' "»"8S »' 1"> !>"* 
whom we have hearf you aid against the plots ««" "1 " "•."«' country. For the presmt 
of wicked men, and whose cause you susuin, " ' "journing; and to him who sighs ate 
know ye that in so doing ye please God greatly, "?': fatherland, the place of his sojounuaji 
who has called them to the iivice of Himself, "»'■ ''J"'"" Plfasa»t "t may seem. And « 
and has honoured them with so intimate a fel. l"™ 7'«' «='' ','>« '"'>"'»°''. '«"™8 >*= 1 
lowship with Him, that through them He accepts "''"'■ >'.« '""' ' '"''' "J" 8™«?= ''" "' '" 
the oblations of others, and pardons their sins, oppression rising. And this happens by 1 
and reconciles them with Him They also make -ondeiful dispensation of Almighty God, 
the body of the Loid with their own mouthOlr.- »"•" """• »>"'= ""= '"? f* '"'°.'° '°^^ 
/»7-o m nrpu, Domini cm/iiiuni), and give it P"!?" ""»''? "'l" 'f , '"'I' y^ ""w""" * 
to the people. For of them it is said : He that 'tself through the tribulations which it Imjto 
hurteth you. hurteth me i and he that doeth you ""4, """.""^ ??"' »»? ^ >o much iht » 
an injury, shall receive again that which he hath »"','>■ <!«'»■"«<' f'om the love of thiswHd. « 
done unrighteously.! And elsewhere ; He that 's also impeUed while it is called. ThetefcW 
you have begun, give heed to the duty of w 

'i,««,»,p«,il«,m™bbiv,,j,l,H.™.d,.Kj Pitalityi labour most urgenUy m piamJJ 

fiw or III vcan dio-i}} A.ri.). He luccccdcd Ucbanut. Tin tCaiS ; dCVOtC yOUtSelveS mOK libctally SM "" 

knen an llx foigcrici of tSe picudo-bidonu. 

■ Muni. Cm«7, Catltcl., L 73J. ' 

> Pciluii* Zcch- ii. S. 4 Ijjkc s. iS. 



Lord, and put not off fix>m day to day. For 
sqddenty shaU His wrath come^ and in the time 
oif vengeance He win destroy thee. Set not 
Aine heart upon goods unjustly gotten, for they 
rittdl not profit thee in the day of veiling (for exe- 
cution, obducUonis) and vengeance. Move not 
vi^ every wind, and go not into every way ; for 
so is the sinner proved with the double-tongue. 
Be stedfast in the way of the Lord, and in the 
ftnidi of thine understanding, and in knowledge ; 
^and let the word of peace and righteousness 
^-ipttend thee. Be courteous in hearing the word, 
^fliat thou mayest understand it, and with wisdom 
a true answer. If thou hast understanding, 
thv neighbour ; if not, lay thy hand upon 
mourn, lest thou be caught in a word of 
, and be confounded. Honour and glory 
in the talk of the intelligent man; the 
le of the unwise is his faU. Be not called 
irer, and be not caught in thy tongue, 
confounded. For confusion and penitence 
upon the the thief, and the worst condemna- 
upon the double-tongued. Moreover, for 
whisperer there is hatred, and enmity, and 
le. Justify the small and the great alike." ' 
of a friend, become not an enemy to 
neighbour. For the evil man shall inherit 


reproach and shame, and every sinner in like 
manner that is envious and double-tongued. 
Extol not thyself in the counsel of thine own 
heart as a bull, lest perchance thy virtue be 
shattered in folly, and it consume thy leaves, 
and destroy thy fruits, and thou be left as a 
dry tree in the desert. For a wicked soul shall 
destroy him that hath it, and makes him to be 
laughed to scorn by his enemies, and shall bring 
him down to the lot of the impious." ^ Most 
dearly beloved, study to lift up the oppressed, 
and always help the necessitous j for if a man 
relieves an afflicted brother, delivers a captive, 
or consoles a mourner, let him have no doubt 
that that will be recompensed to him by Him 
on whom he bestows it all, and who says : '' In- 
asmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least 
of my brethren, ye have done it unto me."' 
Strive, then, unceasingly to do what is good in 
such wise that ye may both obtain the fruit of 
good works here, and enjoy the favour of God 
in the future, to the intent that hereafter ye may 
be worthy to enter the court of the heavenly 
kingdom. — Given on the fourth day before the 
kalends of May (the 28th of April), in the con- 
sulship of the most illustrious Severus and Quin- 

• EcduH yL x-h* 


Ix Bower's Hisiory of Ou Pbpes (ed. Philadelphia, 1847), voL L p. 22, may be seen an 
note on the '* Pontifical " of Bucherius, under the name of Pontianus. It was this 
who is said to have condemned Origen. He probably shared the frtte of Hippolytus in 
and was martyred under Maximin the Thradan. 





To the brethren, most dearly beloved, consti- 
tuted to be bishops in the provinces of Boetica 
and Toletana, Bishop Anterus sends greeting in 
the Lord. 

I should wish, my dearest brethren, always to 
receive the glad account of your sincere love 
and peace, so that the signs of your welfare 
might be promoted in turn by the dissemination 
of our letters among you, if our ancient enemy 
should give us quiet and deliverance from his 
attacks ; who was a liar from the beginning,' the 
enemy of the truth, the rival of man — \a order 
to deceive whom he first deceived himself, — 
the adversary of modesty, the master of luxury. 
He feeds on cruelties ; he is punished by absti- 
nence ; he hates fasts, and his ministers preach 
to that effect, as he declares them to be super- 
fluous, having no hope of the future, and echoing 
that sentence of the apostle, in which he says, 
" Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we shall 
die." 3 O miserable boldness ! O subtlety of 
a desperate mind ! For he exhorts to hatred, 
and puts concord to flight. And because the 
mind of man is easily drawn over to the worse 
part, and chooses rather to walk by the broad 
way than laboriously to take its course by the 
narrow way, for this reason, brethren most dearly 
beloved, follow ye the better, and always leave 
the worse behind you. Do good, avoid evil, in 
order that ye may be found to be the disciples 
of the Lord in truth. 

Now, of the transference of bishops, on which 
subject it has been your wish to consult the holy 
seat of the apostles, know ye that that may law- 
fully be done for the sake of the common good, 
or when it is absolutely necessary, but not at the 
mere will or bidding of any individual. Peter, 
our holy master, and the prince of the apostles, 
was translated for the sake of the common good 

' Anienis succeeded Pontianus in the bishopric of the Roman 
church (2^3-336 A.D. ) . The letter ascribed to him is one of the pseudo- 
Isidorian forgeries. 

* John vtii. 44. 

'' I Cor. XV. 3a. 


from Antioch to Rome, in order that he 
be in a position there of doing more 
Eusebius also was transferred from a 
minor city to Alexandria by apostolic aa 
In like manner Felix, on account of the 
and the good life which he maintained, 
translated by the common consent of Am 
ops and the other priests, and the people 
the city in which, on the election of the 
he had been ordained, to Ephesus. For 
man is not chargeable with shifting fromd^l 
city who does not do that of his own i 
or by the force of ambition, but who is 
ferred for the general good, or in virtue of 
necessity, by the counsel and with the 
of the chief parties. Nor can he be said 
transfer himself from a smaller city to a 
who is placed in that position not by his ( 
self-seeking or his own choice, but either as* 
ing driven out of his own proper seat by 
or as being compelled by some necessity, 
who without pride and in humility has 
translated and installed there by others for 
good of the place or the people : for man 
eth on the countenance, but the Lord secth 
heart. And the Lord, speaking by the 
says, "The Lord knows the thoughts of 
that they are vanity." * That man, thi 
does not change his seat who does not 
his mind. Nor does he change his city wbo 
changed not of his own will, but by the d 
and election of others. And accordingly 
does not shift from city to city who docs 
leave his own city for the sake of gain to 
self, or of his own choice, but who, as h«$ 
ready been said, has been translated to 
city either in consequence of being driven 
of his own seat, or compelled by some n 
or in virtue of the election and injunction of 
priests and people. For as the bishops 
power regularly to ordain bishops and 
orders of priests, so, as often as any matter 
advantage or necessity constrains them, 
have power in the above-mentioned 

* Ps. xciv, IX. 



self destruction with the works of your hands ; 
for God made not death, neither hath He pleas- 
ure in the destruction of the living. For He 
created all things that they might have their 
being, and He wished the nations of the world 
to be healthful There is no poison of destruc- 
tion in them, nor the kingdom of death upon 
the earth of the living. Righteousness is per- 
petual and immortal, but unrighteousness is the 
acquisition of death. And ungodly men with 
their hands and words called it to them; and 
when they thought to have it their friend, they 
consumed to nought, and made a covenant 
with it ; because they are worthy of death who 
take part with it" ' " For they said, reason- 
ing with themselves, but not aright. The time 
of our life is short and tedious ; and in the 
death of a man there is no remedy, neither was 
there any man known to have returned from the 
grave. For we are bom of nothing, and we 
shall be hereafter as though we had never been. 
For the breath in our nostrils is as smoke, and 
speech is a little spark for the moving of our 
heart ; which being extinguished, our body shall 
be turned into ashes, and our spirit shall vanish 
as the soft air. And our life shall pass as the 
trace of a cloud, and shall be dispersed as a 
mist that is driven away with the beams of the 
sun, and overcome with the heat thereof. And 
our name shall be forgotten in time, and no man 
shall have otu: works in remembrance. For our 
time is a very shadow that passeth away, and 
after our end there is no returning ; for it is fast 
sealed, and no man shall come again." * And 
for this reason every one must see to it that he 
keep himself with all care, and watch himself for 
his own good, so that when his last day and the 
end of Ws life come upon him, he may not pass 
over to everlasting death, but to eternal life. 
For the deeds of those put under us are judged 
by us, but our own doth God judge. Sometimes, 
moreover, bishops are perverted through the 
fault of the people, to the end that those fall 
more precipitately who follow them. When the 
head languisheth, the other members of the body 
are affected thereby. And viler are those who 
corrupt the life and morals of the good, than 
those who spoil the property and goods of others. 
Let each one take care that he have neither an 
itching tongue nor itching ears ; that is to say, 
that he neiSier be a detractor of others himself, 
nor listen to others in their detractions. " Thou 
sattest," saith he, " and spakest against thy 
brother ; and thou didst slander thine own moth- 
er's son." 3 Let every individual abstain from a 
detracting tongue, and keep a guard upon his 
own words, and understand that all that they say 

« Wi«d.t 
» Wisd. it. x-s. 
» Pi. i. ao. 

of Others shall enter into the jndgmeot^ 
they themselves shall be judged. No o 
refers to an imwilling auditor. Let it b 
of all of you, most dearly beloved^ to 
only your eyes, but also your tongue, pa 
let not another house ever know by jc 
what is done in any man's house. Let 
the simplicity of die dove, that they d 
guile against any one ; and die sabde 
serpent, that they be not evertfarom 
crafty designs of others. It does not 1 
my humble station and measure to jud| 
and to say anything un&vourable of tl 
ters of the churches. Far be it torn i 
should say anything un&vourable of t! 
are the successors to the apostolic s* 
make the body of Christ with the 
mouth ; by whose instrumentality we 
Christians, and who have the keys of 
dom of heaven, and exercise judgme 
the day of judgment. Moreover, it is 
in the ancient law, that whoever has 
obedience to the priests should either 1 
outside the camp by the people, or wit] 
beneath the sword should expiate his 
tion by his blood.* Now, however, th 
dient is cut off by spiritual chastisen 
being cast out of tiie church, is torn b) 
mouth of demons.^ For it becomes 1 
have God in their heritage, to serve 
from all the hindrances of the world, s( 
may be able to say, " The Lord is the ] 
mine inheritance." * " O how good i 
ant is Thy Spirit, O Lord, in all things 
Thou sparest all because they are Thin< 
who lovest souls. Therefore chasten 
them by littie and little that offend, an 
them of those things wherein they c 
dost address them, that leaving their w 
they may believe on Thee, O Lord. 
Thou, our God, art gracious and true 
fering, and in mercy ordering all thi 
if we sin, we are Thine, knowing T 
And if we sin not, we know that we ar 
Thine." 9 "The spirit of those thai 
Lord shall be required of him ; and i 
gard they shall be blessed." *° Where 
beloved brethren, "let no corrupt co 
tion proceed out of your mouth, but tJ 
is good to the use of edifying, that it 
ister grace to the hearers. And griev( 
Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are se; 
the day of redemption. Let all I 
and wrath, and anger, and clamour, 
speaking, be put away from you, with a 

* Deut. xvii. 

^ Thus far Jeronie. 

* Ps. xvi, 5. 

' Wisd. xii. z. 

* Wisd. xii. 9. 

9 Wisd. XV. X, a. 
1° Ecclus. xxxiv. 13, 14. 



i^ed is cursed ; for he has destroyed many 
^t were at peace. A backbiting {tertid) tongue 
ii disquieted many, and driven them from 
ion to nation. Strong cities of the rich hath 
pulled down, and overthrown the houses of 
At men. It has destroyed the strength of 
3plesy and has scattered strong nations. A 
;:kbiting tongue hath cast out virtuous women 
iraiasj spirited), and deprived them of their 
K>urs. Whoso hearkenetii unto it shall never 
d resty and shall never have a friend on whom 

may repose. The stroke of the whip maketh 
izks ; but the stroke of the tongue will break 
t bones. Many have fallen by the edge of 
e sword, but not so many as have fallen by 
e tongue. Well is he that is defended from the 
it tongue, and hath not passed through the 
nom thereof; who hath not drawn the yoke 
?reof, nor hath been bound in her bands. 
>r the yoke thereof is a yoke of iron, and the 
ads thereof are bands of brass. The death 
sreof is an evil death, and the grave were 
tter than it. Its endurance shall not abide, 
t it shall possess the ways of the unrighteous. 

its flame it shall not bum the righteous. 
dkk as forsake the Lord shall fall into it ; and 
shall bum in them, and not be quenched; 
i it shall be sent upon them as a lion, and de- 
ar them as a leopard. Hedge thine ears {sapi 
^^s) about with thorns, and refuse to listen to 
- evil tongue, and make a door for thy mouth 
di bars for thine ears. Smelt {confld) thy 
Id and thy silver, and make a balance for thy 
^tds, and a right bridle for thy mouth. And 
'^are lest thou slide perchance in thy tongue, 
■^ &11 in the sight of thine enemies that be in 

wait for thee, and thy fall be irremediable unto 
death." ' Let all beware of these things, and 
" keep thy tongue from evil, and thy lips from 
spealung guile." * " Finally, dearly beloved, be 
strong in the Lord, and in the power of His 
might. Put on the armour of God, that ye may 
be able to stand against the wiles of the devil ; 
for we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but 
against principalities and powers, against the 
rulers of the darkness of this world, against spirit- 
ual wickedness in heavenly places (cockstibus) . 
Wherefore take unto you the armour of God, that 
ye may be able to withstand in the evil day, and 
to stand perfect in all {omnibus petfecH) . Stand 
therefore, having your loins girt about with tmth, 
and having on the breastplate of righteousness, 
and your feet shod with the preparation of the 
Gospel of peace ; in all {in omnibus) taking the 
shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to 
quench all the fiery darts of the wicked one. And 
take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the 
Spirit, which is the word of God." ^ it is our 
wish, brother, that those things which we have 
written to you should be made known generally 
to all, in order that things which touch the others 
should be made known to all. May Almighty 
God protect you, brother, and all our brethren 
everywhere situate, even to the end, — even He 
who has thought good to redeem the whole world, 
our Lord* Jesus Christ, who is blessed for ever. 
Amen. — Given on the i6th day of October, in 
the consulship of the most illustrious Africanus 
and Decius. 

X Ecdus. xxviiL 
* P«. xxxiv. 13. 
9 Eph. vi. Z0-X7. 


It should be bome in mind by the reader that the holy martyr Fabian must not be less 
i^feemed because this forgery was put upon him long after his decease. The forger puts many 
^ things into his work, to make it accord with the character to which he attributes good and 
K. together. So with all the Decretals : they are made specious by piety and texts of Scripture. 



That the man who refnaes to be reconcfled to Wa brother 
should be reduced by the severest fastings.' 

If any injured person refuses to be reconciled 
to his brother, when he who has mjured him 
offers satisfaction, he should be reduced by the 
severest fastings, even until he accepts the satis- 
faction offered him with thankful mind. 


The man is rendered infamous who knowingly presumes to 

forswear himself.' 

Whosoever has knowingly forsworn himself, 
should be put for forty days on bread and water, 
and do penance also for the seven following 
years ; and he should never be without penance ; 
and he should never be admitted to bear witness. 
After this, however, he may enjoy communion. 


A man and a woman subject to madness cannot enter into 


Neither can a mad man nor a mad woman 
enter into the marriage relation. But if it has 
been entered, then they shall not be separated. 


Marriage relations in the fifth generation may unite with each 
other ; and in the fourth generation, if they are found, they 
should not be separated.^ 

Concerning relations who enter affinity by the 
connection of husband and wife, these, on the 
decease of wife or husband, may form a union 
in the fifth generation ; and in the fourth, if they 
are found, they should not be separated. In the 
third degree of relationship, however, it is not 
lawful for one to take the wife of another on his 
death. In an equable manner, a man may be 
united in marriage after his wife's death with 
those who are his own kinswomen, and with the 
kinswomen of his wife. 

' Dist. 90, Si quis contristatus. Basil, in Reg.^ c 74. 

* 6, Q. 1, Quicunque sciens. Reeino in the Book of Penance, 

^ 3*. V- 7» ^eque furiosus. And in the Decret. fvo.^ book vi., 
Regino adduces it from the law of Rome. 

* 35» Q. « *n<l 3f ^' propinqnis. From the Ptenitentiale of 


To the immediately preceding notke 

Those who marry a wife allied by I 
are separated, shall not be at libert] 
as bodi parties are alive, to unite ot 
with them in marriage, unless they • 
the excuse of ignorance. 


Blood connections alone, or, if ofifspring entirely 
and trustworthy, should reckon the nuitter of 
in the synod.^ 

No alien should accuse blood conn< 
reckon the matter of consanguinity in 1 
but relations to whose knowledge it p 
that is, father and mother, sister anc 
paternal uncle, maternal uncle, patei 
maternal aunt, and their children. If, 
offspring entirely fails, the bishop si 
inquiry canonically of the older and n 
worthy persons to whom the same re 
may be known ; and if such relationshi] 
the parties should be separated. 


Every one of the faithful should communicate t 


Although they may not do it more f 
yet at least three times in the year s 
laity communicate, unless one happt 
hindered by any more serious offei 
wit, at Easter, and Pentecost, and t 


A presbyter should not be ordained younger than 

of age.' 

If one has not completed thirty yea 
he should in no way be ordained as ] 
even although he may be extremely wo 
even the Lord Himself was baptized c 
He was thirty years of age, and at th 
He began to teach. It is not right, 
that one who is to be ordained should 1 
crated until he has reached this legitini 

5 From the same. 

^ 3$; Q* 6» ConsangHtneos extr-aneontm. And m 

IvO.t VII. 

7 De Consecr., dist. a, Etsi non. And in the Deer 
* Dist. 78, Si quis, 30: and in the Decret. Ivc.^ vL; 
Bracar, ch. 30. 





at the oblation of the altar should be made each Lord's day. 

We decree that on each Lord's day the obla- 
n of the altar should be made by men and 
men m bread and wine, in order that by 
:ans of these sacrifices they may be released 
m the burden of their sins. 

That an illiterate presbyter may not venture to celebrate mass. 

The sacrifice is n*ot to be accepted from the 
hand of a priest who is not competent to dis- 
charge the prayers or actions {actiones) and 
other observances in the mass according to re- 
ligious usage. 



(From Clement to Melchiades, p. 607.) 

TiHE early Bishops of Rome, who till the time of Sylvester (a.d. 325) were, with few excep- 
iSy like him pure and fisuthful shepherds, and not lords over God's heritage, shall here be enu* 
lated. But first let us setde in few words the historic facts as to the See. 
St. Paul was, clearly, the Apostolic founder of the Roman church, as appears from Holy 
ipture. St. Peter seems to have come to Rome not long before his martyrdom. Linus and 
stxis could not have been Bishops of Rome, for they were merely coadjutors of the Apostles 
ting their lifetime, Clement was the first who succeeded to their work after their death; 
d thus he should unquestionably be made the first of the Roman bishops, — a position of which he 
9 eminently worthy, for his was the spirit of St. Peter himself,' as set forth in that incomparable 
itage of his first Epistle,' in which the Apostle bids all his brethren to be shepherds indeed, and 
i^&samples to the flock." We may therefore give the outline of this history as follows : — 

1. St Paul was the " Apostle of the Gentiles," and St. Peter of " the Circumcision." 

2. St. P&ul came first to Rome, and organized the Christians he found there after the pattern 
^dained in all the churches." 

3. He had Linus for his coadjutor, being himself a prisoner, until he went into Spain. 

4. St Peter came to Rome (circa a.d. 64), and laboured with the Jewish Christians there, 
Jaul recognising his mission among them. 

5. This Aposde (soon thrown into prison) had Cletus for his coadjutor. 

^. In the Neronian persecution Linus seem to have suflered with St. Paul, and probably 
bs as well. The latter died before St. Peter. 

7. St Peter, therefore, about to suffer himself, ordains Clement to succeed him. 
4B« As he was the first '' successor of the Apostles," therefore, in the See of Rome, and the 
- who had jurisdiction there (for the Apostles certainly never surrendered their mission to 
^ coadjutors), it follows that Clement was the first Bishop of Rome. 
S>. This is confirmed by the earliest testimony, — that of Ignatius. 
^o. It agrees with Tertullian's testimony, and he speaks (as a lawyer and expert) from ''the 

." Irenseus, speaking less precisely, may be harmonized with these testimonies without 

to what he reports. 

Iiis fenuine Epistle, iroL L p. i, dib leries. Compare vol. L pp. 69, 4x6, with ru. p. 478. 

T. s-4. The Bahops of Rome have only to restore themsdves to the spirit of St. Peter at bera Ml fetd|» lad Ikt 
ofdwdMuchtswiil be at an Old. For TertoUiaiirs testimony, see foL iiL p. 958, note 9. 



AJ>. 68 to 



16. Antems • • 

" 72 '* 



17. Fabianus. , 

. " 109 " 



18. Cornelius • 

, " 117 " 



19. Lucius • . 

. « 127 *' 



20. Stephen • . 

. • « 139 " 



21. XystusII. . 

. " 142 " 



22. Dionysius . 

. " 156 " 



23. Felix . . . 

. " 168 " 



24. Eutychianus 

. " 176 " 



25. Caius . . , 

. « 190 " 



26. Marcellinus . 

. " 201 " 



27. Marcellus 

. « 218 " 



28. Eusebius. « 

. " 223 *' 



29. Melchiades , 

. " 230 " 



30. Sylvester. , 

> AJ>. 335 to AJX 

" 236 *' « 

u j,j, u m 

'* 252 « « 

. " 253 « « 

. " 257 « « 

" 259 " * 

" 269 " « 

. " 27s ** « 

. " 283 '* « 

. " 296 '* « 

" 308 " " 

" 310 " " 

. " 311 " « 

. " ^14 " « 


1. Clement • • 

2. Evaristus 

3. Alexander • 

4. Xystus I. • 

5. Telesphorus. 

6. Hyginus . • 

7. Pius . • • 

8. Anicetus . • 

9. Soter . . • 

10. Eleutherus • 

11. Victor . • 

12. Zephyrinus • 

13. Callistus . • 

14. Urban . . 

15. Pontianus . 

N.B. — After a.d. 325 the Bishops of Rome are canonical primates; the Bishops of 
Romf primates equally, but second on the list; then Alexandria, Antioch, Ephesos. 
Councils of Constantinople and Chalcedon state that these primacies were awarded bed 
Rome and New Rome were the capitals of the cecumene, or empire. The primacy coon 
no authority over the sister Sees of Apostolic foundation, and recognised no inequality m 
bishops, save those of such honorary distinction. 


1. From (a.d. 325) Sylvester to Gregory the Great, and his successor, who lived but one 1 
the Bishops of Rome were canonical primates. 

2. Boniface III. accepted the court title of " Universal Bishop" (a.d. 606) from the Empfl 
Phocas, but it was not recognised by the Church. 

3. From this time to Adrian I. many Bishops of Rome vied with those of Constantisi 
to augment their honour and power. The establishment of the Western Empire (A.D.a 
made their ambitious claims acceptable to the Latins ; and they became primates of aU Chrfi^ 
dom in Western estimation, with extra-canonical and indefinite claims as " successois rf 

4. Nicholas I. (a.d. 863), by means of the False Decretals, gave shape to these extra-canofli 
claims, abrogated the Nicene Constitutions in the West by making these Decretals canofri 
and asserted a supremacy over the old patriarchates, which they never allowed : hence 1 
schism of the West from the Apostolic Sees of the East, and from the primitive discipline ti 
established the Papacy, as now understood. 

5. From Nicholas I. (who died a.d. 867) the Latin churches recognised this Papacy mort 
less ; the Gallicans resisting, though feebly, by asserting their " liberties," according to Nici 

6. Gregory VII., honestly persuaded that the Decretals were authentic, enforced these spari 
canons without reference to antiquity, and pronounced the title of " Pope " the sole and pccJ 
dignity of the Bishops of Rome a.d. 1073. He reigned from a.d. 1061 to 1085. 

7. The churches of England and France, which claimed to be outside of the " holy Ro> 
Empire," under kings whose own crowns were "imperial," maintained a perp)etual contest! 
the Papacy, admitted the extra-canonical " primacy," but resisted all claims to " supremacy." 


8. School-doctrines were framed and enforced, but were extra-symbolic, and of no Catholic 
lority. They abased the episcopate to exalt the Papacy. 

1,9. The Council of Trent, after the Northern revolt from the Papacy and School-doctrine, sat 
jenteen years (from a.d. 1545 to aj>. 1563) framing the " Roman-Catholic Church " out of the 

ruder of national churches, depriving them of their nationalities, and making out of them all, 
the missions in America, one mioced confederation^ to which it gave a new creed and new 
kuiic laws ; debasing the entire episcopate (which it denied to be an order distinct from that 
^jresbyters), and making the Pope the ''Universal Bishop,'' with other bishops reduced to 
Isbyters, acting as his local vicars. 

( 10. The Gallicans feebly withstood these changes, and strove to maintain the primitive Consti- 
Ions by accommodations with their theory of the '' Gallican liberties," as foimded by St. Louis. 

11. Gallicanism was extinguished by Pope Pius IX., who proclaimed the Pope "infallible," 
1 thus raised his " supremacy " into an article of the Roman-Catholic faith. 

12. The following is the modem creed of " Roman Catholics," which, with the latest additions, 
tx>dies a library of dogmas in the eleventh article, and now, since the decree of InfaUibility 
ces the entire BuUary (a vast library of decrees and definitions), equally part of the Creed.' 


I. I most stedfastly admit and embrace Apostolical and ecclesiastical traditions, and all other observances 
constitutions of the Church. 

3. I also admit the Holy Scripture according to that sense which our holy mother the Church has held, and 
\ hold, to which it belongs to judge of the true sense and interpretations of the Scriptures. Neither will I 
take and interpret them otherwise than according to the unanimous consent of the Fathers. 
3. I also profess that there are truly and properly seven sacraments of the New Law, instituted by Jesus 
St our Lord, and necessary for the salvation of mankind, though not all for every one ; to wit. Baptism, Con- 
ition, Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Order, and Matrimony ; and that they confer grace ; and that 
tiese. Baptism, Confirmation, and Order cannot be reiterated without sacrilege. I also receive and admit 
received and approved ceremonies of the Catholic Church in the solemn administration of the aforesaid 

4. I embrace and receive all and every one of the things which have been defined and declared in the holy 
Bndl of Trent concerning original sin and justification. 

5. I profess, likewise, that in the Mass there is offered to God a true, proper, and propitiatory sacrifice for the 
and the dead ; and that in the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist there is truly, really, and substan- 

^, the body and blood, together with the soul and divinity, of our Lord Jesu^ Christ ; and that there is made 
iversion of the whole substance of the bread into the body, and of the whole substance of the wine into the 

lod, which conversion the Catholic Church calls Transubstantiation. I also confess that under either kind 

ne Christ is received whole and entire, and a true sacrament. 

6. I constantly hold that there is a Purgatory, and that the souls therein detained are helped by the suffrages 
iie faithful. 

7. Likewise, that the saints, reigning together with Christ, are to be honoured and invocated, and that they 
r prayers to God for us, and that their relics are to be respected. 

8. I most firmly assert that the images of Christ, of the mother of God, ever virgin, and also of the saints, 
ht to be had and retained, and that due honour and veneration is to be given them. 

9. I also affirm that the power of indulgences was left by Christ in the Church, and that the use of them is 
t wholesome to Christian people. 

10. I acknowledge the Holy Catholic Apostolic Roman Church for the mother and mistress of all churches ; 
I promise true obedience to the Bishop of Rome, successor to St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles, and Vicar 
esus Christ. 

II. I likewise undoubtedly receive and profess all other things delivered, defined, and declared by the sacred 
lonSy and general Councils, and particularly by the holy Council of Trent. 

s De Maistre, thinking to overthrow the Anglicans, and imagining the Thirty-nine Articles to be " terms of communion " in the Anglican 
icily which they never were, commits himself rashly to the following position: " If a people possesses one of these Codet of Belief we 
be sure of this: that the religion 0/ ruck a people is false** No people on earth has such an enormous Code of Belief as those who 
as the creed of Pius the Fourth, and who accept the decrees of Pius the Ninth. See De Maistre, Le Principe Ginirateur, etc., 
^ Puis, 1853. This Trent Creed is the fruit of the Decretals. 


12. And I condemn, reject, and anathematize all things contrary thereto, and all heresies wl 
condemned, rejected, and anathematized by the Church. 

This true Catholic ^th, without which no one can be saved, I N.N. do at this present freely confeai 
^cerely hold ; and I promise most constantly to retain, and confess the same entire and onviolated, with i 
assistance, to the end of my life. Amen. 

N. B. ^ (i) To this was added, Dec. 8, 1854, the new article of the Tmmaoilate Concepdon of the 
Mary, to be believed as necessary to salvation. 

N. B. — (2) To which was added (December, 1864) the whole Syllabus, 

N. B. — (3) To which was added (July 18, 1870) the new dogma of Infallibility. 

Observe, this '' Creed " is imposed on all in the Roman Obedience, and especially on thosei 
enter it from other communions, as that without which no one can be saved. The Catholic 
of Nicseais not sufficient. But the Seventh Canon of Ephesus not only forbids the composition 1 
any other creed, but especially adds : "Those who shall presume to compose another creed^ orl 
produce or offer it to persons desiring to return to the acknowledgment of the truth . 
any heresy whatever, shall be deposed ... if bishops or other clergy, and if they be laymen 
shall be anathematized." 


(Donation of Constantine, p. 607.) 
On this stupendous fraud I quote from Dupin, as follows : — 

'* Among the number of Constantine*s edicts I do not place the Donation which goes under his 
Some have attributed this false monument to the author of the collection (Decretals) ascribed to Isidore, 
being a notorious forger of such kind of writings ; and this conjecture is more probable than some others. 

" By this Donation, Constantine is supposed to give to the Bishops of Rome the sovereignty of the dty, 
of the provinces of the Western Empire. I note some of the reasons which clearly prove this instrument to 
a forgery : — 

'* (i) Not one of the ancients mentions this pretended liberality of the emperor. How could Eusebios, 
all the other historians who wrote about Constantine, have passed over in silence, had it been a reality, the 
a Western Empire to the Bishop of Rome ? 

'* (2) Not one of the Bishops of Rome ever refers to such a donation, though it would have been mud v 
their advantage so to do. 

** (3) It is dated falsely, and under consuls who flourished when Constantine was unbaptized ; yet his baptia 
is referred to in this instrument. Again, the city of Constantinople is mentioned in it, although it was calk^ 
Byzantium for ten years subsequent to its date. 

" (4) Not only is the style very different from the genuine edicts of the emperor, but it is full of terms isk 
phrases that came into use much after the time of Constantine. 

** (5) How comes it that he should have given one-half of his empire to the Bishop of Rome, including d« 
city of Rome itself, without any one ever hearing of it for hundreds of years after? 

" (6) The falsities and absurdities of this edict demonstrate that it was composed by an ignorant impostor. 
Thus by it, for example, the Pope is permitted to wear a crown of gold, and a fabulous history is given i 
the emperor*s baptism by Sylvester: also, it contains a history of the emperor's miraculous cure of leprosy tf 
Sylvester, all which do plainly prove the forgery. It is certain that the city of Rome was governed by the empcroi, 
and that the Bishops of Rome were subject to him, and obeyed him, as all his other subjects. 

" All that we have said plainly shows that the edict of Donation that bears the name of Constantine is wbollr 
supposititious ; but it is not so easy to find out who was the author. However it be, this document has neither a&T 
use nor authority." * 

I Dupin, ut supra, p. tj. See also Biyce's Holy Roman Empire, pp. 43 and 100. He pronounces " the Donation of Coostaotiae 
to be " the mott stupendous of all the mediacyal forgeries. The Decretals certainly surpass it in their nature and their efiects: boi ^ 
Bryce's re fe rence to these is very feeble and unsatislactory, after Dupin. See p. 156 of his work, ed. Macmilljui, x88o. 








The Syriac Documents here subjoined are to be regarded as interesting relics of the primitive 
;, but neither wholly genuine nor in details authentic. They have been interpolated and cor- 
ed so as to reflect, in some particulars, ideas wholly repugnant to those of Christian antiquity, 
which first received currency in the period of the Iconoclastic controversy.' Yet the pages 
^usebius bear witness to the Edessene legends as of very early origin, and it is reasonable to 
>ose that they rest on some inquiries made by the contemporary Abgar concerning the great 
3het who had appeared in Galilee. The visit of the Wise Men from the East, and the history 
<^aaman the Syrian, lend antecedent probability to the idea that such inquiries may have been 
ie. The mission of Thaddseus seems a historical fact ; and if he found Abgar predisposed to 
?ve, and familiar with the story of the Christ, the growth of the whole fable is sufficiently 
>unted for. Let me quote Wake in the Preliminary Discourse to his Apostoli^ Fathers. He 
:' "That both the intercourse reported by Eusebius between our Saviour and this prince 
gams) , and the report of the picture being brought to him, have been received as a matter 
nquestionable truth in those parts, the authority of Gregorius Abulpharagius ^ will not suffer 
3 doubt. . . . But Gelasius ^ pronounced the epistle of our Saviour to be apocryphal. . . . 
ilis Alexander judges both it and the reply of Abgar supposititious ; and Dupin, after him, yet 
I solidly convicts it of such manifest errors as may satisfy all considering persons that 
fbius and Ephraem were too easy of belief in this particular, and did not sufficiently examine 
it." 5 

Jut I cannot do better than refer the inquirer to Jones' work On the Canon^ where, 
in early youth, I found the whole matter, and the story of the portrait of our Saviour, 
ctive reading. I owe to that work my initiation into the study of what I am now endeavour- 
o elucidate, in some degree, for others. I subjoin the words of Lardner,^ in concluding his 
id examination of the matter, as follows : " The whole history is the fiction of some Chris- 
at Edessa, in the time of Eusebius or not long before. The people of Edessa were then 
rally Christians ; and they valued themselves upon it, and were willing to do themselves the 
►ur of a very early conversion to the Christian faith. By some one of them, or more united 
ther, this history was formed, atui was so far received by Eusebius as to be thought by him 
mproper to be inserted in his Ecclesiastical History,*^ 
\ conclude that Eusebius was led to put some confidence in it by the antecedent probability to 

Had the early Christians used iV^mu, — i.e., pictures in their churches, — the churches themselves would everywhere have beei 
; proof against the Council of Franldbrt and all who oondemned icont* Scu^urtd images are not icotUt technaeally. 
< Abridged. 

' Jacobite primate, died 1986. 
> Bishop of Rome a.d. 499-496. 

Wake, Apottolie Fathers^ p. 4. 

Vol. iL pp. 1-31. 

Crtdti,, vi. 605. 



which I have referred, favouring the idea that some knowledge of Christ had penetrated I 
mind and heart of Abgar even in our Saviour's lifetime. This idea receives some countenai 
from the fact recorded by St Matthew:* "His fame went throughout all Syria; and tii 
brought imto Him all sick people that were taken with divers diseases/' etc. 

The remarks I have quoted from the learned will sufficiently prepare the reader for the otli 
Syriac Documents which follow these Edessetu Memoirs^ as I find it convenient to call them. 
Here follows the Introductory Notice by the translatcn: : — 

These Documents were selected by the late Dr. Cureton, from manuscripts acquired \fi ti 
British Museum from the Nitriau Monastery in Lower Egypt, of which the first portion arrived i 
1841, the second in 1843, and a third in 1847. '^^ preparation of them for puUication occq»e 
the closing days of his life. It is to be regretted that his death occurred before he was aUe I 
write a preface : the more so because, to use the words of Dr. W. Wright, the editor of the postki 
mous work, '' he had studied the questions connected with this volume for years and fiiom evq 
point of view." In a note occurring in the preface to his Festal Letters of Athatuisiusf he sqii 
'' I have found among the Syriac mss. in the British Museum a considerable portion of the origU 
Aramaic document which Eusebius cites as preserved in the archives of Edessa, and various pv* 
sages from it quoted by several authors, with other testimonies which seem to be sufficient to »; 
tablish the fact of the early conversion of the inhabitants of that city, and among them of the 
himself, although his successors afterwards relapsed into paganism. These, together with 
of the martyrdom of some of the first bishops of that city, forming a most interesting 
to our knowledge of the early propagation of Christianity in the East down to about a.d. joo^l 
have already transcribed, and hope to publish." '' He was himself firmly persuaded," adds 
Wright, " of the genuineness of the Epistles attributed to Abgar, king of Edessa, and our Lord: 
opinion which lie shared with such illustrious scholars as Baronius, Tillemont, Cave, R. M( 
(Bishop of Norwich), and Grabe." 

Without attempting here to decide what degree of historical value belongs to these 
it may be proper to observe that the several matters contained in them are so far distinct 
one another that they do not necessarily stand or fall together. Such matters are : the celel 
Epistles, the conversion of King Abgar Uchomo, the visit of Thaddaeus, and the early prevalatf! 
of Christianity at Edessa. With regard to the letters said to have passed between Abgar and o(t 
Lord, it seems sufficient, without referring to the internal evidence, to remark, with Lardncraal 
Neander, that it is inconceivable how anything written by Christ should have remained down to 
the time of Eusebius unknown to the rest of the world.3 The conversion of Abgar is a distind 
matter of inquiry. But on this again, doubt, to say the least, is cast by the statement that A^pi 
Bar Manu, who reigned between the years 160 and 170 a.d., is the first king of Edessa on whoi 
coins the usual symbols of the Baal- worship of the country are wanting, these being replaced la 
his case by the sign of the Cross.** If this refers to a complete series of the coins of Edessa, thf 
evidence afforded must be considered very strong. For although, to take a parallel instance, "f« 
seek in vain for Christian emblems on the coinage of Constantine, the first Christian emperor,*' 
this may readily be accounted for by his preference of military distinction to the humbler honooB 
conferred by his new faith, whilst it does not appear that a/x/r-Christian emblems are found, ibI 
on the coins of his son and successor Christian emblems do make their appearance. The other 
two subjects referred to do not lie under the same suspicion. There is nothing in the nature rf 
the case to disprove the visit of Thaddaeus (or Addseus) — nothing improbable in the fact itselt 
whatever judgment may be formed of the details of it presented to us here. If, however, the vifl^ 

of Thaddaeus also should have to be ranked among apocryphal stories, this would not aflfect the, 

_ ^ _^^^ I 

« Cap. iv. 24. 3 Hist, of the Churchy vol. i. p. 109 (Fozdgn TbeoL LiL). 

s P. xxiii. 4 Bayer, Historia Edtstena $ nummit iUustnUa, I ■ m. p. i7> 

i Humphreys' Coin-Collector* s Manual, p. 364. 


maining point — that with which we are chiefly concerned in these Documents. *' It is certain," 
ys Neander, " that Christianity was early diffused in this country." How early, is not so certain. 
It the evidence furnished by the later portions of these Documents, which there is nothing to 
»ntradict and much to confirm, proves that early in the second century Christianity had already 
ade many converts there. The martyrdoms of Sharbil and Baisamya are said to have occiured 
D. 113,' the year in which Trajan conquered the Parthian kingdom, of which Edessa was a part ; 
id, whilst the pagan element was plainly predominant, we find the Christians sufficiently numer- 
is to have a bishop and presbyters and deacons. This sufficiently falls in with the proof abready 
Iduced of the conversion of even a king of Edessa about fifty years later. 

To the Documents which are presumably of the ante-Nicene age. Dr. Cureton added two Met- 
zal Homilies by Jacob of Serug, who lived in the next century. But, as they are so closely 
nmected with the most interesting portions of the rest, the martyrdoms, and are besides of con- 
lerable merit as compositions, the decision of the editors to insert them will, it is presumed, be 
pptoved by roost readers. The two supplemental portions, one from the Latin of Simeon Meta- 
iiastes, and the other from Le Vaillant de Florival's French translation of Moses of Chorene, 
we also been inserted. 

The translation of the Syriac portions, although made with Dr. Cureton's version constantly in 
^t, may fairly be considered as independent. The only matter in which his authority has been 
led on is — in the case of proper names, the supply of the necessary vowels, — for the text is 
MPelless. And even to this, one exception occurs, in the Martyrdom of Barsamya, where 
Svaristus " has been adopted instead of his " Erastus." In regard to the sense, it has been 
quently found necessary to differ from him, while a style somewhat freer, though, it is hoped, 
t less feithful, has been employed. The Metrical Homilies also have been arranged so as to 
2aent the appearance of poetry. The results of Dr. Wright's collation of the text with the mss. 
ve also contributed to the greater correctness of the work. 

The translator desires very thankfully to acknowledge his obligations to Dr. R. Payne Smith, 
Kgius Professor of Divinity in the University of Oxford,' the progress of whose Thesaurus Syriacus 
regarded with so much satisfaction and hope, for his kindness in furnishing much valuable infor- 
tttbn respecting matters on which the lexicons are silent 

The notes marked Tr. are by the translator. The others, where the contrary is not indicated, 
■t, at least in substance, Dr. Cureton's : though their citation does not always imply approval.' 

' It shonld ha^e been iis. 

* Moir Dean of Cantexbuiy. 

B The translator takes the opportunity of co rr e ctin g the error by which the preparation of Tatian's work b voL iiL of the Edia- 
^gk Series was ascribed to him. The credit of it is due in the first instance to his lamented fiiend M\\ J. E. Ryland, at whose requests 
Hflteeqnentiy by that of the editors, he undertook to correct the manuscript, but was soon obliged bf'otber engagementt to relinquish 
illMk. [The coraection was duly made in this series* See toL ii* pp. S9» 6i.] 


• #* 





"Now the story relating to Thaddsus was on 
is wise : — 

While the Godhead of our Saviour and Lord 
SSQS Christ was proclaimed among all men by 
sason of the astonishing mighty-works which 
fc wrought, and myriads, even from countries 
taote from the land of Judaea, who were af- 
Hcted with sicknesses and diseases of every 
Bind, were coming to Him in the hope of being 
■ealed. King Abgar* also, who was renowned 
tDong the nations on the east of the Euphrates 
ar his valour, had his body wasting away with 
grievous disease, such as there is no cure for 
feBong men. And when he heard and was in- 
krmed of the name of Jesus, and about the 
llghty works which He did, — for every one ahke 
Ore witness concerning Him, — he sent a letter 
F request by a man belonging to him,^ and 
ught Him to come and heal him of his 

But our Saviour at the time that he asked Him 
^ not comply with his request. Yet He 

s By Euscbius of Caesarea. — Tr. The ms. from which this ex- 
bom Euscbius is uken is numbered 14*639, foL 15 b. It is de- 
d in Cureton's Corpus Ignatianum, p. 350. 
Book L chapter the thirteenth. — Tr. 

Ptop eriy Urrkoi, or OrrM y^Aaiho\\. It seems proba- 

the word is connected with Osrhoene, the name of the prov- 
in which Edessa heM an important place, the correct form of 

b supposed to be Orrhoent. The name Edessa \\ai^\ 
oohr ooce in these Documents, viz., in the " Acts of Skardt'l" 

*- " By this title all the tooarchs of Edessa were called, just as the 
3rs were callea Caesars, the kings of Egypt Pharaohs 
he kings of Syria Antiocht.*' Assem., ffioi. Or., vol. 
emani adds: " Abgar in Svriac means lame** Moses 
, however, with more probability, derives it from the Ar> 
Avag-alr, " grand homme, & cause de sa grande mansu^ttide 
sa£esse, et de plus, i cause de sa taille." See below the ez- 
HiHary of Armenia, book ii. ch. 26. 
Ensebras has & iiriaTeAiy^^v. 
Boce OB r«xwM#^««* <» nest page.— >TlL 

deigned to give him * a letter in reply : for He 
promised him that He would send one of His 
disciples, and heal his sicknesses, and give sal- 
vation 7 to him and to all who were connected 
with him.* Nor did He delay to fulfil His 
promise to him : but after He was risen from 
the place of the dead, and was received into 
heaven, Thomas ^ the apostle, one of the twelve, 
as by an impulse from God, sent Thaddaeus,'** 
who was himself also numbered among the sev- 
enty" disciples of Christ, to Edessa, to be a 
preacher and proclaimer of the teaching of 
Christ ; and the promise of Christ was through 
him fulfilled. 

Thou hast in writing the evidence of these 
things, which is taken from the Book of Records " 
which was at Edessa : for at that time the king- 
dom was still standing. '3 In the documents, then, 
which were there, in which was contained what- 
ever was done by those of old down to the time 
of Abgar, these things also are found preserved 
down to the present hour. There is, however, 
nothing to prevent our hearing the very letters 
themselves, which have been taken by us '^ from 

* Ut. " deemed him worthy of." — Tr. 

7 Gr. (Twnjptav : and so the Syriac word, meaning " life,'* is gener- 
ally to be translated in this collection. — Tr. 

• Syr. " near to him; " Gr. twi^ «-f>o<n|icdKrwy. 
9 His real name was Judas Thomas: see p. 8. 

'o The name is taken from Eusebius, but in the original Syriac 
treatises, which follow, he is called Addaeus. 

I' In The Teaching of the Apostles he is said to have been one of 
the " seventy-two apostles." His naune, like that of Thomas, seems 
to have been the very common one, Judals. 

'' These were kept in the archives of the kingdom, which were 
transferred by Ab^ar from Nisibis to Edessa whoi he made it the 
capiul of his dominions. See Moses Chor. B. ii. ch. ay, infra. The 
archives siopcaiT to have been still kept at Edessa in a.d. ^50. [Com- 
pare this (act with Tertullian's statement, vol. iii. p. 164.] 

>s The kingdom of Edessa was brought to an eml and entirely sub- 
jected to the Romans in ad. ax? or ai8. 

\* The extract from the archives was probably made by Sextus 
Julius Afrtcanus, and copied by Eusebius from his Chronogra/Auh 

6; I 



the archives, and are in words to this effect^ 
translated from Aramaic into Greek. 

Copy of the letter which was written by King ' 
Abgar to Jesus, and sent to Him by the hand of 
Hananias,' the Tabularius,' to Jerusalem : — 

" Abgar the Black/ sovereign 5 of the country, 
to Jesus, the good Saviour, who has appeared in 
the coimtry of Jerusalem : Peace. I have heard 
about Thee,* and about the healing which is 
•wrought by Thy hands without drugs and roots. 
For, as it is reported. Thou makest the blind to 
see, and the lame to walk ; and Thou cleansest 
the lepers, and Thou castest out unclean spirits 
and demons, and Thou healest those who are 
tormented with lingering diseases, and Thou 
raisest the dead. And when I heard all these 
things about Thee, I settled in my mind one of 
two things : either that Thou art God, who hast 
come down from heaven, and doest these things ; 
or that Thou art the Son of God, and doest these 
things. On this account, therefore, I have writ- 
ten to beg of Thee that Thou wouldest weary 
Thyself to come to me, and heal this disease 
which I have. For I have also heard that the 
Jews murmur against Thee, and wish to do Thee 
harm. But I have a city, small and beautiful, 
which is sufficient for two." 

Copy of those things which were written ' by 
Jesus by the hand of Hananias, the Tabularius, 
to Abgar, sovereign of the country : — 

" Blessed is he that hath believed in me, not 
having seen me. For it is written* concerning 
me, that those who see me will not believe in 
me, and that those will believe who have not 
seen me, and will be saved. But touching that 
which thou hast written to me, that I should come 
to thee — it is meet that I should finish here all 
that for the sake of which I have been sent; 
and, after I have finished it, then I shall be taken 
up to Him that sent me ; and, when I have been 
taken up, I will send to thee one of my disciples, 
that he may heal thy disease, and give salvation 
to thee and to those who are with thee." 

To these letters, moreover, is appended the 
following also in the Aramaic tongue : — 

" After Jesus was ascended, Judas Thomas sent 
to him Thaddaeus the apostle, one of the Seventy. 

* Gr. T6irapx<K. 

^ Called Hanan in the original Syriac document : and so in Moses 
Chor. : Eusebius has 'AvaviaK. which is copied here. 

3 Gr. raxvSpofiov. But tne post held by Hananias must have 
been one of more dignity than thai of a courier. He was probably 
a Secretary of State. In Tke Acts of Addeeus {infra) he is called, in 
connection with the name Tabularius, a skarir, or confidential servant. 

It would seem that Tabularius has been confounded with Tabella- 
rius, a letter-carrier. — Tr. 

* Or " Abgar Uchomo." The epithet was peculiar to this King 
Abgar. He was the fourteenth king: the eleventh was called Abgar 
Sumoco, or *' the Red." 

The occasion of the name " Black" is doubtful: it can hardly 
hare arisen from the fact that Abgar was suffering, as Cedreniu 
asserts, from the black leprosy. — Tr. 

5 ''Head," or " chief" — Tr. 

^ Comp. Matt. iv. 34 : " And His fame went throughout all Syria,** 
etc. Sec also Moses Chor. B. ii. c. 30. 

^ Gr. «myp«^«l^ra, " written in reply." 

' [John ijt. 39, and xx. 39, 31 : Hab. i. s: with Isa. lii. 15, liiL x.] 

And, when he was come, he lodged with Tobiu^ 
son of Tobias. And, when the news about \m 
was heard, they made it known to Abgar: ''llie 
apostle of Jesus is come hither, as He sent thee 
word." Thaddaeus, moreover, began to hoi 
every disease and sickness by the power of God 
so that aU men were amazed. And, when Abgi 
heard the great and marvellous cures whidi hi 
wrought, he bethought himself that he was tin 
person about whom Jesus had sent him wop 
and said to him : When I have been taken ^ 
I will send to thee one of my disciples, that b 
may heal thy disease. So he sent and calk 
Tobias, with whom he was lodging, and said t 
him : I have heard that a mighty man has com 
and has entered in and taken up his lodging i 
thy house: bring him up, therefore, to me. Ao 
when Tobias came to lliaddaeus he said to him 
Abgar the king has sent and called me, and coo 
manded me to bring thee up to him, that tho 
mayest heal him. And Thaddaeus said: I«i 
go up, because to him have I been sent wit 
power. Tobias therefore rose up early the no 
day, and took Thaddaeus, and came to Abgii: 
" Now, when they were come up, his prinot 
happened to be standing ^ there. And inuK 
diately, as he was entering in, a great visioi 
appeared to Abgar on the countenance of Thad 
daeus the apostle. And, when Abgar saw Huri 
daeus, he prostrated himself before him.'^ A« 
astonishment seized upon all who were staodfll 
there : for they had not themselves seen tbi 
vision, which appeared to Abgar alone. Andh 
proceeded to ask Thaddaeus : Art thou in trf 
the disciple of Jesus the Son of God, who saic 
to me, I will send to thee one of my disajte 
that he may heal thee and give thee salvationi 
And Thaddaeus answered and said : Becau* 
thou hast mightily " believed on Him that seal 
me, therefore have I been sent to thee; ^ 
again, if thou shalt believe on Him, thou siul 
have the requests of thy heart. And Abgar saiii 
to him : In such wise have I believed on Hin^ 
that I have even desired to take an amiyaiw 
extirpate those Jews who crucified Him ; ^ 
it not that I was restrained by reason of the do- 
minion of the Romans.'* And Thaddsussaid: 
Our Lord has fulfilled the will of His Father; 
and, having fulfilled it, has been taken up to Hfl 
Father. Abgar said to him : I too have believd 

9 Cureton, |* were assembled and standing; " nearly as ^^s oj 
irapoyrMV icoa corwrwr. But in a Sam. xx. i, the ooly rc»t»o 

given by Castel for the word s.A90£bA| is used for the Heb. K'^p^ 
" he chanced."— Tr. 

'^^ f-^P* ^c ^ vpo9tKvin|o>c of Eusebius, mxf be Rttlfl* 
" worshipped." — Tr. 

" iJiJiho'M Gr. t^vfMXmK, Ut. "greatly:" C "noWy" * 

nothing more than intensity is necessarily deooced by eitbet •" 
Compare, for the Svriac, Ps. cxix. 107, i^; Dan. iL tt.—TL 
*2 Compare the letters of Abgar aod Tiberius, iVr«. 



m and in His Father. And' Thaddaeus 
Therefore do I lay my hand upon thee in 
ame. And when he had done this, imme- 
y he was healed of his sickness and of the 
;e which he had. And Abgar marvelled, 
ise, Uke as he had heard concerning Jesus, 
: saw in deeds by the hand of Thaddaeus 
lisciple : since without drugs and roots he 
d him ; and not him only, but also Abdu,* 
)f Abdu, who had the gout: for he too 
in, and fell at his feet,^ and when he 
d over him he was headed. And many 
people of their city did he heal, and he 
reat works, and preached the word of God. 
iter these things Abgar said to him : Thou, 
daeus, doest these things by the power of 
we also marvel at them. But in addition 
these things I beg of thee to relate to me 
tory about the coming of Christ, and in 
manner it was ; and about His power, and 
lat power He wrought those things of which 
e heard. 

nd Thaddaeus said : For the present I will 
ent;* but, because I have been sent to 
h the word of God, assemble me to-morrow 
le people of thy city, and I will preach 
; them, and sow amongst them the word 
t ; and wi// tell them about the coming of 
:, how it took place ; and about His mis- 

another piece. The Teetching of Addttus, i.e., Thaddaeus, 
a portion ct the original Syriac from which Eusebius' trans- 
as made. The only portions that correspond are: in the 
pioce, from this place to " — accept that ol others," near the 
(^ in the foUowing one, fnnn the beginning to " — that which 
UTS." Some of the variations are worthy of notice. 
B note 9, p. 657, in/ra, 

lis answers suffiaently well to the Greek: o«^ koI avrbf 
wr jhrb rouf v66af avrov cvccrry; but, as the original Syriac, 
ids '* he too brought his feet to him, and he laid his hands upon 
td healed him," the Greek translation must have been at 

^rvMfht TtaA J^esented. — Tr. 

e original Syriac has '* I will not hold 

my peace from dedar- 

sion,5 for what purpose he was sent by His 
Father ; and about His power and His deeds, 
and about the mysteries which He spake in the 
world, and by what power He wrought these 
things, and about His new preaching,^ and about 
His abasement and His humiliation, and how 
He humbled and emptied and abased Himself, 
and was crucified, and descended to Hades,^ and 
broke through the enclosure * which had never 
been broken through beforey and raised up the 
dead, and descended alone, and ascended with 
a great multitude to His Father.9 

"Abgar, therefore, commanded that in the 
morning all the people of his city should assem- 
ble, and hear the preaching of Thaddaeus. And 
afterwards he commanded gold and silver to be 
given to him ; but he received it not, and said : 
If we have forsaken that which was our own, how 
shall we accept that of others ? " 

These things were done in the year 340.'® 

In order, moreover, that these things may not 
have been translated to no purpose word for word 
from the Aramaic into Greek, they are placed in 
their order of time here. 

Here endeth the first book. 

5 So Euseb. The orig. Syr. has " His sender." 

6 The orig. Syr. has " the certitude of His preaching." The enor 

seems to have arisen from the Greek translator confounding I^Zo^LA^bM 

More probably with \AoA^» "newness (of his preaching),** 

which was freely translated by him (ircpi) rn« icaii% avrou n|pv|cM«; 
and this, again, was by the ^rian re-translator rendered literally, as 
in the text. 

The word eertitudt (above) may be rendered untrring truth, 
— Tr. 

7 Or " Sheol," as in Hebrew. The orig. Syr. gives " the place of 
the dead.".. 

* Eph. ii. 14. 

9 Comp. Matt. xxviL 59. 

10 Valesius says that the Edessenes commenced their era with the 
zx7th Olympiad, the first year of the reign of Seleucus. . The year 
340 correspcnids, therefore, with the fifteenth year of Hberius. 

It should be the beginning oS. the zzjth Olympiad. — Tr. 



Edessa sent to Christ by an epistle to come 
to her and enlighten her. On behalf of all the 
peoples did she make intercession to Him that 
He would leave Zion, which hated Him, and 
come to the peoples, who loved Him. 

She despatched a messenger to Him, and 
begged of Him to enter into finendship with her. 
By the righteous king she made intercession to 
Him, that He would depart from the Jewish 
people, and towards the other peoples direct His 

From among all kings one wise king did the 
daughter of the peoples find. Amba^ador she 
made him. To her Lord she sent by him : 
Come Thou unto me ; I will forget in Thee all 
idols and carved images. 

The harlot heard the report of Him from afar, 
as she was standing in the street, going astray 
with idols, playing the wench with carved images. 
She loved, she much desired Him, when He was 
far away, and begged Him to admit her into His 

Let the much-desired Bridegroom kiss me : 
with the kisses of His mouth let me be blessed. 
I have heard of Him from afar : may I see Him 
near ; and may I place my lips upon His, and 
be delighted by seeing Him with mine eyes. 

Thy breasts are better to me than wine : for 
the fragrance of Thy sweetness is life for ever- 
more. With Thy milk shall I be nourished ; 
with Thy fragrance shall I grow sweet from the 
smoke of idols, which with its rank odour did 
make me fetid. 

Draw me after Thee into Thy fold : for I am 

> Or " My Lord," or " Mr." — Tr. 

3 Ihis is taken from Cod. Add 17, 158, fol. 56, where is added: 
*' when she sent to our Lord to come to her." 


a sheep gone astray in the world. After 
do I run, and Thy converse do I seek : tbati 
me may be completed that number of a 
dred, by means of a lost one which is fotmls | 

Let Gabriel rejoice and be exceeding 
wi& the company of all the angels, in T^/ 
Good Shepherd, who on Thy shoulders 
carry the maimed sheep, that that number of i 
hundred might be preserved. 

Thy love is better than wine ; than Ac 
of the upright Thy affection. By wine letal 
reminded of Thee, how by the cup of Thy 
Thou didst grant us to obtain new life, and 
upright did celebrate Thy love. 

A church am I from among the peoples,! 
I have loved the Only-begotten who was 
by God: whereas His betrothed hated Hia,l 
have loved Him ; and by the hands of Abgarl' 
Black* do I beseech Him to come to mc 
visit me. 

Black am I, yet comely. Ye daughteis 
Zion, blameless is your envy, seeing that the Soi 
of the Glorious One hath espoused me, to biaf 
me into His chamber. Even when I was h** 
ful, He loved me, for He is able to make » 
fairer than water. 

Black was I in sins, but I am comely: fori 
have repented and turned me. I have put aif 
in baptism that hateful hue, for He hath wasbel 
me in His innocent blood who is the Savionrrf 
all creatures. 

Here end the Extracts from the Canticle « 

3 FLukc XV. 6.] 
* bee note on p. 659 

3 [This ancient imitation of the Canticles shows bow thtf book V 
understood, as of Christ and His Church.] 




the separation which will be made between the 
sheep and the goats, and between the faithful 
and those who believe not. 

And he said to them : Because the gate of life 
is strait and the way of truth narrow, therefore 
are the believers of the truth few, and through 
unbelief is Satan's gratification. Therefore are 
the liars many who lead astray those that see. 
For, were it not that there is a good end await- 
ing believing men, our Lord would not have 
descended from heaven, and come to be bom, 
and to endure the suffering of death. Yet He 
did come, and us did He send' ... of the 
£uth which we preach, that God was crucified 
for ' all men. 

And, if there be those who are not willing ' to 
agree with these our words, let them draw near 
to us and disclose to us what is in their mind, 
that, like as in the case of a disease, we may 
apply to their thoughts healing medicine for the 
cure of their ailments. For, though ye were not 
present at the time of Christ's suffering, yet from 
the sun which was darkened, and which ye saw, 
learn ye and understand concerning the great 
convulsion 3 which took place at that time, when 
He was crucified whose Gospel has winged its 
way through all the earth by Uie signs which His 
disciples my fellows do in all the earth : yea, 
those who were Hebrews, and knew only the lan- 
guage of the Hebrews, in which they were bom, 
lo ! at this day are speaking in all languages, 
in order that those who are afar off may hear and 
believe, even as those who are near. For He it 
is that confounded the tongues of the presump- 
tuous in this region who were before us ; and He 
it is that teaches at this day the faith of truth 
and verity by us, humble and despicable * men 
from Galilee of Palestine. For I also whom ye 
see am from Paneas,5 from the place where the 
liver Jordan issues forth, and I was chosen, to- 
gether with ray fellows, to be a preacher. 

For, according as my Lord commanded me, 
k) ! I preach and publish the Gospel, and lo ! 
His money do I cast upon the table before you, 
and the seed of His word do I sow in the ears 
of all men ; and such as are willing to receive it, 
theirs is the good recompense of the confession 
of Christ; but those who are not persuaded, the 
dust of my feet do I shake off against them, as 
He commanded me. 

> The remainder of" The Teaching of Addaus" is taken from 
another ms. of the Nitrian collection m the Brit. Mus., Cod. Add. 
14,644. It is one of those which were procured in the year of the 
Greeks 1243 (a.d. 911) by the abbot Moses during his visit to Bag- 
dad. It appears to be of the sixth century. 

• Both " for" and " willing" are conjectural, the ms. being dam- 
aged. — Wright. 

3 Possibly " earthquake," for which sense sec Mich., p. 161 ; and 
•oon p. 659, infra. — Tr. 

< Property " miserable." Compare Rom. vii, 24 : 1 Cor, xv. 19. 
— Tr. 

S Otherwise Caesarea Paneas, or C. Philippi: now Banias. — Tr. 

Repent therefore, my beloved, of evj 
and of abominable deeds, and turn yon 
towards Him with a good and hcmest wiB, 
hath turned Himself towards you with tiie 
of His rich mercies ; and be ye not as tli 
erations of former times that have passed 
which, because they hardened their heart : 
the fear of God, received punishment < 
that they themselves might be chastise 
that those who come after them may t 
and be afraid. For the purpose of oar 
coming into the world assuredly was,^ tf 
might teach us and show us that at the a 
mation of the creation there will be a ra 
tion of all men, and that at that time their 
of conduct will be portrayed in their persa 
their bodies will be volumes for the writ! 
justice ; nor will any one be there ndu) is 
quainted with books, because every one wi 
that which is written in His own book.' 

• • • • • • • 


Ye that have eyes, forasmuch as ye < 
perceive, are yourselves also become like 
who see not and hear not ; and in vain d 
ineffectual voices strain themselves to dead 
Whilst they are not to be blamed for not h 
because they are by ^ nature deaf and dui 
the blame which is justly incurred fisdls upoi 
because ye are not willing to perceive — n 
that which ye see. For the dark cloud o 
which overspreads your minds suffers you 
obtain the heavenly light, which is the 
standing of knowledge." 

Flee, then, from things made and cres 
I said to you, which are only called gods ir 
whilst they are not gods in their nature 
draw near to this Beings who in His 112 
God from everlasting and from etemit 
is not something made, like your idols, no 
a creature and a work of art, like those im 
which ye glory. Because, although this " 
put on a body, yet is He God with His I 
For the works of creation, which tremble< 
He was slain and were dismayed at His si 
of death, — these bear witness that He is 
self God the Creator. For it was not on a 
of a man that the earth trembled,'^ but 

6 Cureton: "the whole object of our LonTs 

world was." But OlNo is « omuino. — Tb. 

f A few lines are wanting here in the MS. 

> The greater part of the word rendered " deaf** b cae^ 

The "your" looks as if it were impenooal: "k is ■ 
any one to talk to the deaf."— Tr. 

9 " By * {^) is not b the printed text — Tr. 

'o Lit. " the blame in which justice is ioTohred (pcop.*' 
yours." — Tr. 

»» Comp. Phnr. xix. 95.— Tr. 

x« " This " u doubtful. — Wright. 

13 I have very little doubt that we dioakl tobttitiiiK |2i 

— the earth trembled — for t^i| ^^9 — «mI# is firm « 
— Wrkuit. [Words in italics are by the tsMttblar.] 



things which are made — a mind in which is 
portrayed the image of verity and of truth, oi . 
the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy | 
Spirit ; believing and being baptized in the triple 
and glorious names. For this is our teaching 
and our preaching. For the belief of the truth 
of Christ does not consist of many things.' And 
those of you as are willing to be obedient to 
Christ are aware that I have many times repeated 
my words before you, in order that ye might 
learn and understand what ye hear. 

And we ourselves shall rejoice in this, like the 
husbandman who rejoices in the field which is 
blessed ; God also will be glorified by your re- 
pentance towards Him. While ye are saved 
hereby, we also, who give you this counsel, shall 
not be despoiled of the blessed reward of this 
work. And, because I am assured that ye are 
a land blessed according to the will of the Lord 
Christ, therefore, instead of the dust of our feet 
which we were commanded to shake off against 
the town that would not receive our words, lo ! 
I have shaken off to-day at the door of your ears 
the sayings of my lips, in which are portrayed 
the coming of Christ which has already been, 
and also that which is yet to be ; and the resur- 
rection, and the resuscitation of all men, and the 
separation which is to be made between the faith- 
ful and the unbelieving ; and the sore punishment 
which is reserved for those who know not God, 
and the blessed promise of future joy which they 
shall receive who have believed in Christ and 
worshipped Him and His exalted Father, and 
have confessed Him and His divine Spirit.' 

And now it is meet for us that I conclude my 
present discourse ; and let those who have ac- 
cepted the word of Christ remain with us, and 
those also who are willing to join with us in | 
prayer ; and afterwards let them go to their 

And Addaeus the apostle was rejoiced to see 
that a great number of the population of the city 
stayed with him ; and they were dut few who did 
not remain at that time, while even those few 
not many days after accepted his words and 
believed in the Gospel set forth in ^ the . preach- 
ing of Christ. 

And when Addaeus the apostle had spoken 
these things before all the town of Edessa, and 
King Abgar saw that all the city rejoiced in his 
teaching, men and women alike, and heard them 
saying to him, " True and faithful is Christ who 
sent thee to us '* — he himself also rejoiced 
greatly at this, giving praise to God ; because, 
like as he had heard from Hanan,** his Tabu- 
larius, about Christ, so had he seen the wonder- 

* Lit. " the truth of Christ is not believed in many things." — Tr. 
> Lit. " the Spint of His Godhead " a His Spint of Godhead = 
His divine Spirit. ' — Tr. 

» Lit. " the Gospel of." — Tr. 
4 See p. 65a, note 3, M/ro. 

ful mighty-works which Addaeus the aqpostl 
in the name of Christ. 

And Abgar the king also said to him : Ac 
ing as I sent to Christ in my letter to Him 
according as He also sent to me, so have I 
received fix>m thine own self this day; » 
I believe all the days of my life, and in the 
same things will I continue and make my 1 
because I know also that there is no other ( 
in whose name these signs and wonders are 
but the power of Christ whom thou preadu 
verity and in truth. And henceforth Him 
worship — I and my son Maanu,^ and Auga 
and Shalmath the queen. And now, n^ 
thou desirest, build a church, a place of me 
for those who have believed and shall belie 
thy words; and, according to the comi 
given thee by thy Lord, minister thou at thi 
sons with confidence ; to those also who 
be with thee as teachers of this Gospel I an 
pared to give large donations, in oitler that 
may not have any other work beside the min 
and whatsoever is required by thee for dj 
penses of the building I myself will give 
without any restriction,' whilst thy word sh 
authoritative and sovereign in this town ; 
over, without the interuention of any othc 
son do thou come into my presence as c 
authority, into the palace of my royal maj< 

And when Abgar was gone down to his 
palace he rejoiced, he and his princes witb 
Abdu son of Abdu, and Garmai, and She 
gram,^ and Abubai, and Meherdath,^ toj 
with the others their companions, at all thai 
eyes had seen and their ears also had h 
and in the gladness of their heart they too 
to praise God for having turned their 
towards Him, renouncing the paganism in 
they had lived, '° and confessing the Gosp 
Christ. And when Addaeus had built a c 
they proceeded to offer in it vows and obb 
they and the people of the city ; and there 
continued to present their praises all the da 
their hfe. 

And Avida and Barcalba,' * who were chiel 
and rulers, and wore the royal headband," 

5 Abgar had two sons of this luune. This is probably tfa 
who succeeded his father at Edessa, and reigned sevea years, 
makes him the fifteenth king of Edessa. 

6 Abgar's mother: see p. 657. 

7 Lit. "reckoning." — Tr. 

B The vowels in this name are supplied from the treatise 
desan. Whiston, from the Armenian form, writes the naine 
gram. He was sent, together with Hanan and Mar7hab,ii 
to Marinus. See Mos. Chor. B. ii. c. 30. 

9 See Tac, /!««., xii. 12. 

»o Lit. "stood." — Tr. 

** The son of Zati (see p. 663, note 7, sufra), 

^2 Or " the headbands of the kings." Nothing apfwao 

known of the derivation of the word |?&^i», which does atf 
in the ordinary lexicons. Dr. Payne Smith has favtwitd t» 

lator with the following note: " l^&rf* is evidendy sooe k 

.* ». r 

ornament. In Ephs. ii. 379 (in the form |9&i«ft) it b an on 
worn by young people. B. A. (Bar Aln Ltx, SjrH 



in a rugged country, among the Jews the cruci- 
fiers, and the deluded pagans : for with these two 
parties have ye to fight, in order that ye may 
show the truth of the faith which ye hold ; and, 
though ye be silent, your modest and decorous 
appearance will fight for you against those who 
hate truth and love falsehood. 

" Buffet not the poor in the presence of the 
rich : for scourge grievous enough for them is 
their poverty. 

"Be not beguiled by the hatefiil devices of 
Satan, lest ye be stripped naked of the faith 
which ye have put on." ' . . . " And with the 
Jews, the crucifiers, we will have no fellowship. 
And this inheritance which we have received from 
thee we will not let go, but in that will we depart 
out of this world ; and on the day of our Lord, 
before the judgment-seat of His righteousness, 
there will He restore to us this inheritance, even 
as thou hast told us." 

And, when these things had been spoken, 
Abgar the king rose up, he and his chief men 
and his nobles, and he went to his palace, all 
of them being distressed for him because he was 
dying. And he sent to him noble and excellent 
apparel, that he might be buried in it. And, 
when Addaeus saw it, he sent to him, saying: In 
my lifetime I have not taken anything from thee, 
nor will I now at my death take anything from 
thee, nor will I firustrate the word of Christ 
which He spake to us : Accept not anything 
from any man, and possess not anything in this 

And three days more after these things had 
been spoken by Addaeus the apostle, and he had 
heard and received the testimony concerning the 
teaching set forth in their preaching from those 
engaged with him in the ministry, in the presence 
of all the nobles he departed out of this world. 
And that day was the fifth of the week, and the 
fourteenth of the month lyar,^ nearly answer- 
ing to May, And the whole city was in great 
mourning and bitter anguish for him. Nor was 
it the Christians only that were distressed for 
him, but the Jews also, and the pagans, who 
were in this same town. But Abgar the king was 
distressed for him more than any one, he and 
the princes of his kingdom. And in the sad- 
ness of his soul he despised and laid aside the 
magnificence of his kingly state on that day, and 
with tears mingled with moans he bewailed him 
with all men. And all the people of the city 
that saw him were amazed to see how greatly he • 
suffered on his account. And with great and | 

' One leaf apparently is lost from the MS. in this place. i 

What follows appears to be part of the reply of those addressed — . 
their " testimony concerning the teaching set forth in their preach- 
ing."- Tk. 

^ The reference seems to be to Matt. x. 7-10. 

^ May. The death of Addxus occurred before that of Ab^ar, 
which took place a.d. 45. It would appear, therefore, that his minis- 
^"^ at Edessa lasted about ten or eleven years. 

surpassing pomp he bore him, and buried I 
like one of the princes when he dies ; and 
laid him in a grand sepulchre adorned with sco 
ture wrought by the fingers — that in which ir 
laid those of the house of Ariu, the ancesbxs 
Abgar the king : there he laid him sommfo 
with sadness and great distress. And all I 
people of the church went there from time 
time and prayed fervently; and they kept 
the remembrance of his departure from year 
year, according to the command and directi 
which had been received by them from Adda 
the apostle,^ and according to the woid 
Aggseus, who himself became Guide and Ral 
and the successor of his seat after him, bf ti 
ordination to the priesthood which he had r 
ceived from him in the presence of all men. 

He too, with the same ordination which I 
had received from him, made Priests and Goidi 
in the whole of this country of Mesopotua 
For they also, in like manner as Addons A 
aposde, held fast his word, and listened to ai 
received //, as good and faithful successofsd 
the apostie of the adorable Christ But siliB 
and gold he took not from any man, nor did Al 
gifts of the princes come near him : for, insttd 
of receiving gold and silver, he himseff enridrf 
the Church of Christ with the souk of I* 

Moreover, as regards the entire state * of fc 
men and the women, they were chaste and d^ 
cumspect, and holy and pure : for they lived Bfcft 
anchorites^ and chastely, without spot— in * 
cumspect watchfulness touching the rainistiy,* 
their sympathy ^ toward the poor, in their viatJ' 
tions to the sick : for their footsteps were fraugljt 
with praise from those who saw theniy and thflf 
conduct was arrayed in commendation fe* 
strangers — so that even the priests of the hocc 
of^ Nebu and Bel divided the honour with thea 
at all times, by reason of their dignified aspect 
their truthful words, their frankness of speed) 
arising from their noble nature, which was neitba 
subservient through covetousness nor in bondaf 
under the fear of blame. For there was no on 
who saw them that did not nm to meet thee 
that he might salute them respectfully, beau: 
the very sight of them shed peace upon tl 
beholders : for just like a net "^ were their vor 
of gentleness spread over the contumacious, ai 
they entered within the fold of truth and veni 
For there was no man who saw them that « 

* Compare the Teachingo/tke Apostles^ Ord. xviii. p. ^ •'«' 

5 This seems to apply to those who especially belonged » 
ministry of the Church. 

This is the only passage in the Documents in which »t^'Ma 
spoken of as connected with the ministry. — Tr. [The estatt crf« 
concsses was of Apostolic foundation. Kom. xvi. i.l 

6 The reference is only to their purity of life. 1 1 is nc< iap 
that th«ry lived in seclusion. — Tr. 

7 Lit. " their burden-bearing." — Tr. 

8 Or "belonging to." — Tr. 

9 An allusion to Matt. iv. 19: ** I will make you fishers d sc 




A Non BT THE "numLATOiu— The fbUowiog list of die Syrian names of moatim, i 
dbe enpiie and dniiiq; tbe en of die Seleoridae^ sevenl of which have been mentioiied 
DocnmentB, is taken fiom CasmnU Caimdtmmm Sfriaemwi^ edited in Andnc and Latin b 
1859. Tlie later Hebiew names also are here added fer co m p ari son. It must, hoir 
noticed that ''the yean employed im Ae Syrimn Cdimdctr^ mxt, 9t least after the ina 
|riian yean^ c o m po se d of Roman months." (See L*Art di ver^fUr Us dates: Paris^ 18 
1* P< 45O '^^ c o rr e spondence widi the Hebiew months, tberefixre, is not so dose as fin 
would indicate, since these commenced with the new moons, and an intercalaiy month, 
Vkmiog their twelfth month Adar, was added. 



Octoliw .... Thlui priof* 

Xiihri, or Ethanim. 

NoTtailMr 4 

. Tisliri poftirioci 

BoM, or MardMilmaL 


. Camm prior. 




Fefamij . 

. • Shubftt 


Mvdi. . 

. . Adar. 


April . < 

. mnn. 


MMf . 

. . AJtt. 


J«M • 



J«ftr . . 




. . AK 
. . SkiL 




At that time Christ was taken up to His 
Father ; ^and how the apostles received the gift 
of the Spirit ; and the Ordinances and Laws of 
the Church ; and whither each one of the apos- 
tles went ; and from whence the countries in the 
territory of the Romans received the ordination 
to the priesthood. 

In the year three hundred and * thirty-nine of 
the kingdom of the Greeks, in the month Hezi- 
ran,5 on the fourth * day of the same, which is 
the first day of the week, and the end of Pente- 
cost 5 — on the selfsame day came the disciples 
from Nazareth of Galilee, where the conception 
of our Lord was announced, to the mount which 
is called that of the Place of Olives,^ our Lord 
being with them, but not being visible to them. 
And at the time of early dawn our Lord lifted up 
His hands, and laid them upon the heads of the 
eleven disciples, and gave to them the gift of 
the priesthood. And suddenly a bright cloud re- 
ceived Him. And they saw Him as He was 
going up to heaven. And He sat down on the 
right hand of His Father. And they praised 
God because they saw His ascension according 
as He had told them ; and they rejoiced because 
they had received the Right Hand conferring on 
them the priesthood of the house of Moses and 

And from thence they went up to the cityy and ' 
proceeded to an upper room — that in which our 
Lord had observed the passover with them, and 

' This work is taken, and printed verbatim, from the same ms. as 
the preceding. Cod. Add. 14,644, fol. xo. That ms., however, has 
been carefully compared with another in the BriL Mas. in which it is 
found. Cod. Add. 14,531, fol. 109; and with a third, in which the 

CV - - 

piece is qtK>ted as Camm* 0/ the ApottUs^ Cod. Add. X4tX73i fol. 
«7. In using the second, a comparison has idso been made 01 De 
I^arde's edition of it (Vienna, 1856). This treatise had also been 
published before in Eb*dietu Meiroiolitm Soba et Armenim colUc- 
Ho cancnum SynadicorMm by Cardinal Mai. It is also dted bv Bar 
Hebraeus in his NotnocanoHt printed by Mai in the same voltmie. 
These three textt are referred to in the notes, as A. B. C. respectively. 
[It seems to me that this and the Bryennios fraqpnent are alike relics 
of some original older than both. To 'that of voL vii. (p. 377) and 
the Apostelic ConstHutiont^ so called, this b a natural prefece.] 

* A. omiu " three bundled and." They are supplied tram B. The 
feading of C. is 343. 

9 'nns month answers to Sivan, which began with the new mooo 
of June. — Tr. 

4 C. reads *' fourteenth." 

< The day of Pentecost seems to be put for that of tbt AaeennoB. 

* Svr. *' Baith Zaithe." Comp. Lidse xxiv. 50 tqq. 
7 Comp. Acu i. It iqq. 

the place where the inquiries had been made : 
Who it was that should betray our Lord to the 
crucifiers ? There also were made the inquiries : * 
How they should preach His Gospel in the world ? 
And, as within the upper room the mystery of 
the body and of the blood of our Lord began to 
prevail in the world, so also from thence did the 
teaching of His preaching begin to have author- 
ity in the world. 

And, when the disciples were cast into this 
perplexity, how they should preach His Gospel 
to men ^strange tongues * which were unknown 
to them, and were speaking thus to one another : 
Although we are confident that Christ will per- 
form by our hands mighty works and miracles in 
the presence of strange peoples whose tongues 
we know not, and who themselves also are un- 
versed in our tongue, yet who shall teach them 
and make them understand that it is by the 
name of Christ who was crucified that these 
mighty works and miracles are done ? — while, I 
say, the disciples were occupied with these 
thoughts, Simon Cephas rose up, and said to 
them : My brethren, this matter, how we shall 
preach His Gospel, pertaineth not to us, but to 
our Lord ; for He knoweth how it is possible for 
us to preach His Gospel in the world ; and we 
rely on His care for us, which He promised us, 
saying : " When I am ascended to my Father I 
will send you the Spirit, the Paraclete, that He 
may teach you everything which it is meet for 
you to know, and to make known." 

And, whilst Simon Cephas was saying these 
things to his fellow-apostles, and putting them 
in remembrance, a mysterious voice was heard 
by them, and a sweet odour, which was strange 
to the world, breathed upon them ;9 and tongues 
of fire, between the voice and the odour, came 
down from heaven '° towards them, and alighted 
and sat on every one of them ; and, according 
to the tongue which every one of them had sev- 
erally received, so did he prepare himself to go 

* [It is evident that the apostles had no such ideas until after the 
vision of St. Peter, Actt x. 9-35.] 

9 The reading of B. and C : A. reads " answered them." 
io B. reads " suddenly." [The translator interpolates up0n him,\ 




to the country in which that tongue was spoken 
and heard. 

And, by the same gift of the Spirit which was 
given to them on that day, they appointed Ordi- 
nances and Laws — such as were in accordance ; 
with the Gospel of their preaching, and with the 
true and faithful doctrine of their teaching : — 

1. The apostles therefore appointed : Pray ye 
towards the east : ' because, " as the lightning 
which lightened! from the east and is seen even 
to the west, so shall the coming of the Son of 
man be : " * that by this we might know and 
understand that He will appear from the east 

2. The apostles further appointed : On the 
first day of the week let there be service, and 
the reading of the Holy Scriptures, and the obla- 
tion : ^ because on the first day of the week our 
Lord rose from the place of the dead, and on 
the first day of the week He arose upon the 
world, and on the first day of the week He 
ascended up to heaven, and on the first day of 
the week He will appear at last with the angels 
of heaven.5 

3. The apostles further appointed : On the 
fourth ^ day of the week let there be service : 
because on that day our Lord made the disclo- 
sure to them about His trial,^ and His suffering, 
and His crucifixion, and His death, and His 
resurrection ; and the disciples were on account 
of this in sorrow.* 

4. The apostles further appointed : On the 
eve of the Sabbath? at the ninth hour, let there 
be service : because that which had been spoken 
on the fourth day of the week about the suffering 
of the Saviour was brought to pass on the same 
eve ; the worlds and creatures trembling, and 
the luminaries in the heavens being darkened. 

5. The apostles further appointed : Let there 
be elders and deacons, like the Levites ; '° and 
subdeacons," like those who carried the vessels 
of the court of the sanctuary of the Lord ; and 

« On praying toward the cast, comp. Apost. Constitutions, ii. 
37, vii. 44; and Tcrtullian, Apol., x6. 

A. C, ii. 57, contains an interesting account of the conduct of 
public worship. It may be consulted in connection with Ordinances 
a, 8, and 10, also. — Tr. 

* Matt. xxiv. 27. 

3 B. and C. read *• at the last." Ebediesu has " from heaven." 

4 i.e., the Euch.irist. — Tr. 

5 C. re.tds '* Hi.s holy angels," 

* For Onls. 3 and 4, sec A p. Const., v. 13-15. 
' K. re.ids " rlis manifestation." 

' llic reading of C. 

This reading is preferable to that of A.: "were in this sorrow." 
— Tr. 

9 Lit. " the evening," hut used in particular of the evening of ihc 
sixth day of the week, the eve of the seventh: the evening being re- 
garded, as in (Jen. i. s, as the first p:irt of the day. Similarly, iropaa- 
itfvfj, which the Pcshito translates by our word, is u>cd in the Gospels 
for the sixth day, with a prospective reference to the seventh. — 1 R. 

*° See Ap. i oHst., ii. 25. 

*' Comp. Kicl. Cnftflfis, No. 43. The Or. ifvoSLaKovot is here 
used, though for " deacon " the Syriac word is employed, 
meaning "minister" or '* seivnnt." From Riddle, Christian An- 
''W-. P- 30'i with whom Neander agrees, it would seem that sub- 
d^nrnnc were first appointed at the end of the third century or the 
* ' ^he fourth. — Tr. [Sec vol. v. p 4»7.1 

an overseer/* who shall likewise be the Guide of 
all the people/3 like Aaron, the head and chief 
of all the priests and Levites of the whole city.** 

6. The aposdes further appointed : Celebrate 
the day of the Epiphany 's of our Saviour, which 
is the chief of the festivals of the Church, on 
the sixth day of the latter Canun,'^ in the loDg 
number of the Greeks. '' 

7. The aposdes further appointed : Forty '' 
days before the day of the passion of our Saviour 
fast ye, and then celebrate the day of the pas- 
sion, and the day of the resurrection : because 
our Lord Himself also, the Lord of the festival, 
fasted forty days ; and Moses and Elijah, who 
were endued with this mystery, likewise each 
fasted forty days, and then were glorified. 

8. The apostles further appointed : At the con- 
clusion of all the Scriptures other let the Gospd 
be read, as being the seal '9 of all the Scriptures; 
and let the people listen to it standing upon their 
feet : because it is the Gospel of the redemption 
of all men. 

9. The apostles further appointed : At the 
completion of fifty '** days after His resurrection 
make ye a commemoration of His ascension to 
His glorious Father. 

10. The aposdes appointed : That, beside the 
Old Testament, and die Prophets, and the Gos- 
pel, and the Acts (of their exploits), nothing 
should be read on the pulpit in the church.** 

11. The apostles further appointed : Whoso- 
ever is unacquainted with the faith of the Church 
and the ordinances and laws which are appointed 
in it, let him not be a guide and ruler ; and who- 
soever is acquainted with them and departs from 
them, let him not minister again : because, not 
being true in his ministry, he has lied. 

12. The apostles further appointed: WTioso- 
ever sweareth, or*^ lieth, or beareth false witness, 
or hath recourse to magicians and soothsayers 
and Chaldeans, and putteth confidence in fates 
and nativities, which they hold fast who know 
not God, — let him also, as a man that knoweth 
not God, be dismissed from the ministry, and not 
minister again. 

^^ V^09, equivalent, not to ciriVicovof, but to crxoTOf s watci^ 

man, as in Ezek. xxxiii. 7. 

^J For this B. reads " world." 

>^ B. has " camp." 

*5 See A/>. Const., v. 13. 

Christmas, of which no mention is made in these OrdiDaDce&, ii 
called " the first of all," the Epiphany being ranked next to it in the 
Constitutions. — Tr. JSee vol. vii. p. 493^ 

*6 January: the Jewish Tebeth. Tne former Canun " is Deccn*- 
ber, i.e., Chisleu. — Tr. 

*7 The era of the Seleucidac, 311 a.c, appears to be reierzed ta 
In this new names were given to certain months, and Canun was ooc 
of them. Seep. 666, *«/r<j. 

^^ Eccl. Can., No. 69. — Tr. See Ap. Const. ^ v. 13-X5. 

*9 Properly *' the scaler: " for, although the word is not found ir 
the lexicons, its formation shows that it denotes an agcnL Tb« 
meaniti^; seems to be, that the Gospel gives completeness and ralidit) 
to the Scriptures. — Tr. 

20 C. reads " forty." 

2t See Ap. Const., ii. 57; Teaching of Sinum Cephas, ad fin , 
Eccl. Can., Nos. 60, 85. — Tr, 

" B. and C, as well as Ebediesu, read " and." 



for themselves, but for those who should come 
after them — for they were apprehensive that in 
time to come wolves would put on sheep's cloth- 
ing : since for themselves die Spirit, the Para- 
clete, which was in them, was sufficient : that, 
even as He had appointed these laws by their 
hands, so He would guide them lawfully. For 
they, who had received fix)m our Lord power 
and authority, had no need that laws should be 
appointed for them by others. For Paul also, 
and Timothy,' while they were going from place 
to place in the countiy of Syria and Cilicia, 
committed these same Commands and Laws of 
the apostles and elders to those who were under 
the hand of the apostles, for the churches of the 
countries in which they were preaching and pub- 
lishing the Gospel. 

The disciples, moreover, after they had ap- 
pointed these Ordinances and Laws, ceased not 
from the preaching of the Gospel, or from the 
wonderful mighty-works which our Lord did by 
their hands. For much people was gathered 
about them every day, who believed in Christ ; 
and they came to them from other cities, and 
heard their words and received them. Nicode- 
mus also, and Gamaliel, chiefs of the synagogue 
of the Jews, used to come to the apostles in 
secret, agreeing with their teaching. Judas, 
moreover, and Levi, and Peri, and Joseph, and 
Justus, sons of Hananias, and Caiaphas' and 
Alexander the priests — they too used to come 
to the apostles by night, confessing Christ that 
He is the Son of God ; but they were afraid 
of the people of their own nation, so that they 
did not disclose their mind toward the disciples. 

And the apostles received them affectionately, 
saying to them : Do not, by reason of the shame 
and fear of men, forfeit your salvation before 
God, nor have the blood of Christ required of 
you ; even as your fathers, who took it upon 
them : for it is not acceptable before God, that, 
while ye are, in secret, with His worshippers, ye 
should go and associate with the murderers of 
His adorable Son. How do ye expect that 
your faith should be accepted with those that are 
true, whilst ye are with those that are false ? But 
it becomes you, as men who believe in Christ, 
to confess openly this faith which we preach .3 

And, when they heard these things from the 
Disciples, those sons of the priests, all of them 
alike, cried out before the whole company of the 
apostles : We confess and believe in Christ who 
was crucified, and we confess that He is from 
everlasting the Son of God; and those who 
dared to crucify Him do we renounce. For 

* Acta xvi. ^ ; comp. ch. xv. 

' The belief was common among the Jacobites that Calaphas, 
whose full name was Joseph Caiapha^, was the same j>erson as the 
historian Josephus^ and that he was converted to Christianity. See 
KuKOi.^ibL Orient. t vol. ii. p. 165. 

, ' .[The visible Church and sacraments are necessary, on this 
prindple, to the conversion of the worid.] 

even the priests of the people in secret co 
Christ ; but, for the sake of the headship ai 
the people which they love, they are not wj 
to confess openly ; and they have forgotten 
which is written : ^ ''Of knowledge is He 
Lord, and before Him avail not crafty devii 

And, when their fathers heard these tl 
from their sons, they became exceedin^y 
tile to them : not indeed becaose they had 
lieved in Christ, but because they had ded 
and spoken openly of the mind of their fiu 
before the sons of their people. 

But those who beUeved clave to the disci 
and departed not from them, because thej 
that, whatsoever they taught the multitude, 
themselves carried into practice before all n 
and, when affliction and persecution arose agi 
the disciples, they rejoiced to be afflicted ' 
them, and received with gladness stripes 
imprisonment for the confession of tiieir i 
in Christ ; and all the days of their life t 
preached Christ before the Jews and the Sam 

And after the death of the apostles there w 
Guides and Rulers ^ in the churches ; and, wb 
soever the apostles had committed to them i 
they had received from them, they continued 
teach to the multitude through the whole spi 
of their lives. They too, again, at their dcat 
committed and delivered to their disciples afl 
them whatsoever they had received from i 
apostles ; also what James had written fiom Jer 
salem, and Simon from the city of Rome, a 
John from Ephesus, and Mark from Alexandr 
the Great, and Andrew from Phrygia, and Lul 
from Macedonia, and Judas Thomas from India 
that the epistles of an apostle ^ might be receivt 
and read in the churches that were in evei 
place, just as the achievements of their Act 
which Luke wrote, are read ; that hereby tk 
apostles might be known, and the prophets, an 
the Old Testament and the New ;* that j^«^^ 
be seen one truth was proclaimed in them all 
that one Spirit spake in them all, from one Go 
whom they had all worshipped and had a 
preached. And the divers countries reca^ 
their teaching. Everything, therefore, which!* 
been spoken by our Lord by means of the apoi 

4 [Perhaps a metaphrase of Job v. la, 13.] . ^ 

5 This would seem to have iJecn written anterior to the tg*'|? 
the title of Bishop, as specially aporopriated to those vfao saco^ 
to the apostolic office, jiad generally obtained in the East 11^ 

A K. A iicrc la iiu iiicuiiun iicrc ui uic cipistles oi I'au*. »-^/ ■: 

not at this early period have been collected and becone S"^ 
known in the East. The Epistle of Jiide is also omitted b0C>B<^ 
was never received into the dyriac canon: see De Wetie,&*^" 
ed. P- 34»- .^ . 

' So the printed text. But " the apostles " seems to be *>•• 

8 See note 10 on p. 668. — Tr. It is plain from this tta^ 
Epistles were not at that time considered part of whtt *» ^ 
the New Testament, nor the prophets of the OU. 



and moreover all the countries on all sides, re- 
ceived the apostles' ordination to the priesthood 
from Aggseus, a maker of silks/ the disciple of 
Addseus the apostle. 

The other remaining companions of the apos- 
tles, moreover, went to the distant countries of 
the barbarians; and they made disciples from 
place to place and passed on ; and there they 
ministered by their preaching ; and there occurred 
their departure out of this world, their disciples 
after them going on with the work down to the 
present day, nor was any change or addition 
made by them in their preaching. 

Luke, moreover, the evangelist had such dili- 
gence that he wrote the exploits of the Acts of 
die Aposdes, and the ordinances and laws of the 

> See note 6 on p. 66zf 

ministry of their priesthood, and whither each 

one of them went. By his diligence, I say, did 

Luke write these things, and more than these; 

and he placed them in the hand of Friscos* 

and AquUus, his disciples ; and they accompanied 

him up to the day of his death, just as Timotfaf 

and Erastus of Lystra, and Menaus,^ the fint 

disciples of the apostles, accompanied Paul ontfl 

he was taken up to the city of Rome because be 

had withstood Tertullus the orator.^ 

And Nero Caesar despatched with the swoid 

Simon Cephas in the city of .Rome.s 

» B. reads "Priscma,"C"Pri8cillas.'' Pxiaca and Fdsdai « 
the fonxu in which the name occurs in the New Testament 

3 Probably the same as Manaen, ment ioned m Acts nL ^a 
associated with Paul at Antioch. 

4 [The failure to praise the woilc of him who "1 ^ 
abundantly than all " others, is noteworthy, and can only be \ 
for by Miadle-Age corruptions of the text.] 

s C. adds, ** crucifying him on a croM." C Jte addi^'HMj 
endeth the treatise of Addeus the apostle." 

[Possibly the Dua Via^ etc., followed here, as a second book; voL viL p. 577.] 



cieatioiit and die world has obtained the eyes of 
the mind, that every man may see and under- 
•tand that it is not fit that creatiues should be 
worshipped instead of the Creator, nor together 
widi the Creator : because everything which is a 
creature is made to ieti worshipper ^its Bfaker, 
and is not to be worshipped like its Creator. 
But this One who came to us is God, the Son of 
Gody in His own naturei notwithstanding that 
He mingled ' His Godheul with our manhood, 
in order that He might renew our manhood by 
tiie aid of His Godl»ead. And on this account 
it is rig^t duit we should worship Him, because 
He is to be worshipped together with His Father, 
and that we should not worship creatures, who 
were created fiir the worship of the Creator. 
For He is Himself the God of truth and verity; 
He is Himself fix>m before aO worids and 
creatures ; He is Himself the veritable Son, and 
the s^orious firuit* which is fix>m the exalted 

But ye see the wonderful works which accom- 
panv and foUow these words. One would not 
credit it: thetimelol is short since He ascended 
to His Father,and see how His Gospel has winged 
its flight through the whole creation — that there- 
by it may be known and believed that He Him- 
self is the Creator of creatures, and that by His 
bidding creatures subsist And, whereas ye saw 
the sun become darkened at His death, ye your- 
selves abo are witnesses. The earth, moreover, 
quaked when He was slain, and the veil was rent 
at His death. And concerning these things the 
governor Pilate also was witness : for he himself 
sent and made them known to Caesar,' and these 
things, and more than these, were read before 
him, and before the princes of your city. And 
on diis account Caesar was angry against Pilate, 
because he had imjustly listened to the persuasion 
of the Jews ; and for this reason he sent and took 
away from him the authority which he had given 
to him. And this same thing was published and 
known in all the dominion of the Romans. 
That, therefore, which Pilate saw and made 
known to Caesar and to your honourable senate, 
the same do I preach and declare, as do also my 
fellow-apostles. And ye know that Pilate could 
not have written to the imperial government of 
that which did not take pkce and which he had 

' The word so rendered b much eflbced in B., but it leemi to be 
^S&O," humbled." 

This, however, mi^ require a fiir^r change of the text, such 
as Cureton suggests, so as to give the sense, ** He humbled His God- 
head Mv meecuni of our manhood^" unless we translate *' in our man- 
hood"— neither 01 which renderings seems to give so good a sense 
as that m the text of A. — Tr. . . 

Respectmg the word "mingled" ( ^iSm). which was sup- 
posed to countenance the Eutychian heresy, see Assemanl, Bibl, 
Ori*ni», vol. i. p. 8x. 

«Or"oflfcpnng."— Tr. 

) [0nthei4cte qf Pilatg seeLaxdner, Credth.^vx. p. 605. and 
Jones, On tJU Canon, vol. iL p. 349. IiLeudus Channus forged 
what goes by the name, it docs not ptove that genuine records of the 
Vad asvsr exbicd. Tbe icvwm isprabaUe. See vol. i. p. 179.] 

not seen with his own eyes ; but diat ' 
take {dace and was actually done — l 
that te wrote and made known. Mdi 
watchers of the sepulchre abo were wi 
those things which took place there: 
came as dead men ; and, when those 
were questioned before Pilate, they 
before him how laxge a bribe die di 
of the Je«rs had mven tbem, wo that tl 
say that we His disciples luui stolen tl 
of Christ Lol then, ye have heaidmai 
and moreover, if ye be not wiDiqg ti 
snaded by those ttdngs which ye bm 
at least persuaded by the mighty-wQiki 
see, which are done by I£s name. 

Let not Sunon the sorcerer ddnd 
semblances which are not realities ^ 
exhibits to you, as to men who have i 
standing, who know not how to discern 1 
they see and hear. Send, dierefore, \ 
him to idiere all your city is assembled 
and choose you some sign for us to 
you ; and, whichever ye see do diat i 
it will be your part to believe in it 

And immediatelv they sent and fetch 
the sorcerer ; ^ and the men who were 
of lus opinion said to him : As a man 
ing whom we have confidence that then 
in thee to do anything whatsoever,' do 1 
sign before us alt and let this Simon the 
who preaches Christ, see it /unit n 
were thus speaking to him, there hsf 
be passing along a dead person, a son 
those who were chiefe and men of 
renown among them. And all of ther 
were assembled together, said to him 
ever of you shall restore to life this dei 
he is true, and to be believed in and 
and we will all follow him in whatsoev( 
to us. And they said to Simon the 
Because thou wast here before Simon 
Isean, and we knew thee before him, es 
first the power which accompanieth th 

Then Simon reluctandy drew near t< 
person ; and they set down the bier b 
and he looked to the right hand and t 
and gazed up into heaven, saying ma 
some of them he uttered aloud, anc 
them secretly and not aloud. And I 
a long while, and nothing took place, 
ing was done, and the dead person was 
his bier. 

And forthwith Simon Cephas drew i 
towards the dead man, and cried al^ 

4 [Vol vii. p. ^53. Compare vol. vi. p. 438, note 
p. 171. On Justin s sinqile narrative all the rest was c 
a later hand. J 

9 From this place to " a gadiering-plaoe,** p. 675. 
the text of A. is lost. 

* [St. Peter's visit oould not have been prerious to 
up to that time Simon had certainlr not corruflti 
(Rom. i. 8). The sul]ject may be eluodaled Iqr what f 



until the executioners pressed it and brought it 
up to his side. 

The judge said : Put on incense, and go 
whithersoever thou wilt, and no one shall com- 
pel thee to be a priest again. But, if thou wilt 
not, I will show thee tortures bitterer than these. 

Sharbil said : As for gods that made not the 
heavens and the eardi, may they perish from un- 
der these heavens 1 But thou, menace me not 
with words of threatening ; but, instead of words, 
show upon me the deeds of threatening, that I 
hear thee not again making mention of the de- 
testable name of gods ! 

The judge said : Let him be branded with the 
brand of bitter fire between his eyes and upon 
his cheeks. 

And the executioners did so, until the smell 
of the branding reeked forth in the midst of the 
judgment-hall : but he refused to sacrifice. 

Sharbil said : Thou hast heard for thyself from 
me, when I said to thee " Thou art not aware of 
the smoke of the roasting of the fire which is 
prepared for those who, lUce thee, confess idols 
made by hands, and deny the living God, after 
thy fashion." 

The judge said: Who taught thee all these 
things, that thou shouldest speak before me thus 
— a man who was a friend of the gods and an 
enemy of Christ, whereas, lo ! thou art become 
his advocate. 

Sharbil said : Christ whom I have confessed. 
He it is that hath taught me to speak thus. But 
there needeth not that I should be His advocate, 
for His own mercies are eloquent advocates for 
guilty ones like me, and these will avail to plead ' 
on my behalf in the day when the sentences shall 
be eternal. 

The judge said : Let him be hanged up, and 
let him be torn with combs upon his former 
wounds ; also let salt and vinegar be rubbed into 
the wounds upon his sides. Then he said to 
him : Renounce not the gods whom thou didst 
formerly confess. 

Sharbil said : Have pity on me and spare me 
again from saying that there be gods, and pow- 
ers, and fates, and nativities. On the contrary, 
I confess one Gk)d, who made the heavens, and 
the earth, and the seas, and all that is therein ; 
and the Son who is from Him, the King 

The judge said : It is not about this that thou 
art questioned before me — viz. : what is the 
belief of the Christians which thou hast con- 
fessed ; but this is what I said to thee, " Re- 
nounce not those gods to whom thou wast made 

Sharbil said : Where is that wisdom of thine 
and of the emperors of whom thou makest thy 

« lit "to be a plea." — Tk. 

boast, that ye worship the work of tiie hands o 
the artificers and confess them, whilst the aiti 
cers themselves, who made the idols, ye ioni 
by the burdens and imposts which ye layopa 
them ? The artificer standeth up at thy pvexia 
to do honour to thee; and thou staiuiest ^ ii 
the presence of the work of the artificer, id 
dost honour it and worship it. 

The judge said : Thou art not the man tool 
others to account for ' these things ; but fioij 
thyself a strict account is demanded, as to fe 
cause for which thou hast renounced the god^ 
and refusest to offer them incense like thyfi^Qof 

Sharbil said : Death on account of this is M 
life : those who confess the King Christ, He tf 
will confess before His glorious Father. 

The judge said : Let lighted candks' bl 
brought, and let them be passed round about 
face and about the sides of his wounds, 
they did so a long while. 

Sharbil said : It is well that thou buniest 
with this fire, that so I may be delivered 
" that fire which is not quenched, and the 
that dieth not," which is threatened to 
who worship thinp made instead of the 
for it is forbidden to the Christians to honoar 
worship anything except the nature of Him 
is God Most High. For that which is made 
is created is designed to be ^. worshipper of 
Maker, and is not to be worshipped along 
its Creator, as thou supposest. 

The governor said : It is not this for yivM 
the emperors have ordered me to demand ^ 
account at thy hands, whether there be judgmcrf 
and the rendering of an account after the dci4 
of men ; nor yet about this do I care, whctte 
that which is made is to be honoured or not • 
be honoured. What the emperors have com- 
manded me is this ; that, whosoever will not sso- 
rifice to the gods and offer incense to them, I 
should employ against him stripes, and comb^" 
and sharp swords. 

Sharbil said : The kings of this world are cot^ 
scious of this world only; but the King of J! 
kings. He hath revealed and shown to us tirf 
there is another world, and a judgment in rescm^ 
in which a recompense will be made, on the orf 
hand to those who have served God, and ontte 
other to those who have not served Him ri 
confessed Him. Therefore do I cry aloud, tWj 
I will not again sacrifice to idols, nor will I oW 
oblations to devils, nor will I do honour to ^ 
mons ! 

The judge said : Let nails of iron be driven ii 
between the eyes of the '\T\&o\tTi\, fellow ^ and W 

2 Or *' thou art not the avenger oC" — T«. 

3 Lit. " caidles of fire." — Tk. 
* The passage from this place to " in the eyes,' 

A., and supplied from B. 




which' I shall exhibit in the torment of thy 
body, because thou wilt not consent to sacrifice 
to the gods whom thou didst formerly wor- 

Sharbil said : Those things which I have said 
and repeated before thee, thou in thine unbelief 
knowest not how to hear : now, supposest thou 
that thou knowest those things which are in my 

The judge said : The answers which thou 
givest will not help thee, but will multiply upon 
thee inflictions manifold. 

Sharbil said : If the several stories of thy sev- 
eral gods are by thee accepted as true, yet is it 
matter of shame to us to tell of what sort they 
are. For one had intercourse with boys, which 
is not right; and another fell in love with a 
maiden, who fled for refuge into a tree, as your 
shameful stories tell. 

The judge said : This fellow, who was for- 
merly a respecter of the gods, but has now turned 
to insult them and has not been afiaid, and has 
also despised the command of the emperors and 
has not trembled — set him to stand upon a 
gridiron* heated with fire. 

And the executioners did so, until the under 
part of his feet was burnt off. 

Sharbil said : If thy rage is excited at my 
mention of the abominable and obscene tales 
of thy gods, how much more does it become 
thee to be ashamed of their acts ! For lo ! if a 
person were to do what one of thy gods did, 
and they were to bring him before thee, thou 
wouldest pass sentence of death upon him. 

The judge said : This day will I bring thee to 
account for thy blasphemy against the gods, and 
thine audacity in insulting also the emperors ; 
nor will I leave thee alone until thou offer incense 
to them, according to thy former custom. 

Sharbil said : Stand by thy threats, then, and 
speak not falsely; and show towards me in deeds 
the authority of the emperors which they have 
given thee ; and do not thyself bring reproach 
on the emperors with thy falsehood, and be thy- 
self also despised in the eyes of thine attend- 
ants ! 

The judge said : Thy blasphemy against the 
gods and thine audacity towards the emperors 
have brought upon thee these tortures which 
thou art undergoing; and, if thou add further 
to thine audacity, there shall be further added 
to thee inflictions bitterer than these. 

Sharbil said : Thou hast authority, as judge : 
do whatsoever thou wilt, and show no pity. 

The judge said : How can he that hath had 

« " Which " is not in the printed text. — Tr. 
* The word used looks like a corruption of the Latin craticula. 
, Hist* Eccl. V. z, uses the Gk. word for this (ri/yai^oK) in 
the nurtyrdom of Attains, who " was set in the nfyavwi', 
' all over, till the savour of his burnt flesh ascended ih>m 

no pity on his own body, so as to avoid soffcnf 
in it these tortures, be afraid or ashamed of not 
obeying the command of the emperors? 

Sharbil said : Thou hast well said that I a« 
not ashamed : because near at hand is He daft 
justifieth me, and my soul is caught up in iqKore 
towards him. For, whereas I once prorobd 
Him to anger by the sacrifices of idols, I am tUi 
day pacifying Him by the inflictions /enditfek 
my person : for ray soul is a captive to God wk 
became man. 

The judge said : It is a captive, then, tbt 
I am questioning, and a madman without semi 
and with a dead man who is burnt, \o ! la I 

Sharbil said : If thou art assured that I a 
mad, question me no further : for it is a nudnfl 
that is being questioned ; nay, rather, I aal 
dead man who is burnt, as thou hast said. 

The judge said : How shall I count theeadedj 
man, when lo ! thou hast cried aloud, ''I "^ 
not sacrifice ? " 

Sharbil said : I myself, too, know not bov 
return thee an answer, since thou hast calM 
a dead man and yet tumest to question me 
as if alive. 

The judge said : Well have I called thtt 
dead man, because thy feet are burnt and 
carest not, and thy face is scorched and 
boldest thy peace, and nails are driven in 
thine eyes and thou takest no account of it, 
thy ribs are seen between the furrows (^ 
combs and thou insultest the emperors, and I 
whole body is mangled and maimed with 
and thou blasphemest against the gods; 
because thou hatest thy body, lo ! thou saj 
whatsoever pleaseth thee. 

Sharbil said : If thou callest ;«^ audacious ifri 
cause I have endured these things, it is fit 
thou, who hast inflicted them upon me, sho 
be called a murderer in thy acts and a 
phemer in thy words. 

The judge said : Lo 1 thou hast insulted 
emperors, and likewise the gods ; and lo I 
insultest me also, in order that I may prom 
sentence of death upon thee quickly. Bot 
stead of this, which thou lookest for, I am 
pared yet further to inflict upon thee bitter 
severe tortures. 

Sharbil said ; Thou knowest what I have 
to thee many times : instead of den 
of threatening, proceed to show upon me 
performance of the threat, that thou mayesl 
known to do the will of the emperois. 

The judge said : Let him be torn with 
upon his legs and upon the sides of his tl 

And the executioners did so, until his 
flowed and ran down upon the ground. 

Sharbil said : Thou hast well done in 
me thus : because I have heard that one of 









he settled and drew up the sentence ' which he 
should pronounce against him publicly. 

And suddenly the curtain was drawn back 
again ; and the judge cried aloud and said : As 
regards this Sharbil, who was formerly priest of 
the gods, but has turned this day and renounced 
the gods, and has cried aloud " I am a Chris- 
tian/' and has not trembled at the gods, but has 
insulted them ; and, further, has not been afraid 
of the emperors andxheir command ; and, though 
I have bidden him sacrifice to the gods accord- 
ing to his former custom, has not sacrificed, but 
has treated them with the greatest insult : I 
have looked in/t? thf matter^ and decided, that 
towards a man who doeth these things, even 
though he were now to sacrifice, it is not fit that 
any mercy should be shown ; and that it is not 
fit that he should any longer behold the sun of 
his lords, because he has scorned their laws. I 
give sentence that, according to the law of the 
emperors, a strap * be thrust into the mouth of 
the insulter, as into the mouth of a murderer, 
and that he depart outside of the city of the 
emperors with haste, as one who has insulted 
the lords of the city and the gods who hold au- 
thority over it. I give sentence that he be sawn 
with a saw of wood, and that, when he is near to 
die, then his head be taken off with the sword 
of the headsmen. 

And forthwith a strap was thrust into his mouth 
with all speed, and the executioners hurried him 
off, and made him run quickly upon his burnt 
feet, and took him away outside of the city, a 
Ctowd of people running after him. For they 
had been standing looking on at his trial all day, 
and wondering that he did not suffer under his 
afflictions : for his countenance, which was cheer- 
ful, testified to the joy of his heart. And, when 
the executioners arrived at the place where he 
was to receive the punishment of death, the 
people of the city were with them, that they 
might see whether they did according as the 
judge had commanded, and hear what Sharbil 
might say at that season, so that they might in- 
form the judge of the country. 

And they offered him some wine to drink, 
according to the custom of murderers to drink. 
But he said to them : I will not drink, because I 
wish to feel the saw with which ye saw me, and 
the sword which ye pass over my neck ; but in- 
stead of this wine, which will not be of any use 
to me, give me a little time to pray, while ye 
stand. And he stood up, and looked toward 
the east,3 and lifted up his voice and said : For- 
give me, Christ, all the sins I have committed 
against Thee, and all the times in which I have 

* The Gk. ano^oAri^. 

* This expression voAii^v ittfiaXtiv is used similarly in the life 
of Euthymus in Eccl. Grmc. Monumenta^ vol ii. p 240. 

» See Teaching^ the Apostles , Ord. x, p. 668, note 1. — Tr. 

provoked Thee to anger by the polluted saciifioa 
of dead idols ; and have pity on me and me 
me,^ and deliver me from the judgment to come; 
and be merciful to me, as Thou wast merdibltt) 
the robber; and receive me like the peniloli 
who have been converted and have tuined te 
Thee, as Thou also hast turned to them ; a4 
whereas I have entered into Thy vineyard, at tie 
eleventh hour, instead of judgment, deliver 
from justice : let Thy death, which was for tk 
sake of sirmers, restore to life again my sfai 
body in the day of Thy coming. 

And, when the Sharirs of the city heard tbev, 
things, they were very angry with the execatiGoarj 
for having given him leave to pray. 

And, while the nails were remaining wiiidi 
had been driven in between his eyes, and 
ribs were seen between the wounds of Ae conAi^ 
and while from the burning on his sides and 
soles of his feet, which were scorched and 
and from the gashes of the combs on his 
and on his sides, and on his thighs, and on 
legs, the blood was flowing and mnning 
they brought carpenters' instruments, and 
him into a wooden vice, and tightened it opoi' 
him until the bones of his joints creaked witk 
the pressure ; then they put upon him a savof 
iron, and began sawing him asunder; and,wfaa| 
he was just about to die, because the saw [ 
reached to his mouth, they smote him with 
sword and took off his head, while he was 
squeezed down in the vice. 

And Babai his sister drew near and spread cdt 
her skirt and caught his blood ; and she said to 
him : May my spirit be united with thy spirit i 
the presence of Christ, whom thou hast 
and believed. 

And the Sharirs of the city ran and came arf 
informed the judge of the things which Sharbi^ 
had uttered in his prayer, and how his sister hal; 
caught his blood. And the judge commanded^ 
them to return and give orders to the €«*] 
tioners that, on the spot where she had cat 
the blood of her brother, she also should 
the punishment of death. And the executic 
laid hold on her, and each one of them se^ 
put her to torture ; and, with her brother's 
■ upon her, her soul took its flight from her, W 
I they mingled her blood with his. And, wh*J 
the executioners were entered into the city, tfcf j 
brethren and young men 5 ran and stole a«Jf] 
their two corpses ; and they laid them in 
burial-place of the father of Abshelama '^\ 
bishop, on the fifth of Ilul, the eve of ^ S^ 

I wrote these Acts on paper — I, Maritf%] 
and Anatolus, the notaries ; and we placed tW 

4 Lit. " have pity on my salvation.** — Tr 
^ By a transposition of letters, B. reads *' 



which he made Sharbil a disciple, and in all that 
he spoke to him, and in all M^ instruction that 
Sharbil received from him, so that he was per- 
suaded by him, and died for the sake of that 
which he heard fh>m him. 

And the Sharirs of the city came, and said to 
the judge : Barsamya, as thine Excellency com- 
manded, lo 1 is standing at the door of the judg- 
ment-hall of thy Lordship ; ' and honourable 
chief-persons of the city, who became disciples 
along with Sharbil, lo ! are standing by Bar- 
samya, and crying out, "We will all die with 
Barsamya, who is our teacher and guide." 

And, when the judge heard those things which 
the Sharirs of the city had told him, he com- 
manded them to go out and write down the 
names of the persons who were crying out, "We 
will die with Barsamya." And, when they went 
out to write down the names of these persons, 
those who so cried out were too many for them, 
and they were not able to write down their 
names, because they were so many : for the cry 
kept coming to them from all sides, that they 
"would die for Christ's sake along with Bar- 

And, when the tumult of the crowd became 
great, the Sharirs of the city turned back, and 
came in to the judge, and said to him : We are 
not able to write down the names of the persons 
who are crying aloud outside, because they are 
too many to be numbered. And the judge com- 
manded that Barsamya should be taken up to the 
prison, so that the crowd might be dispersed 
which was collected together about him, lest 
through the tumult of the multitude there should 
be some mischief in the city. And, when he 
went up the gaol, those who had become disci- 
ples along with Sharbil continued with him. 

And after many days were passed the judge 
rose up in the morning and went down to his 
judgment-hall, in order that he might hear the 
case of Barsamya. And the judge commanded, 
and they brought him from the prison ; and he 
came in and stood before him. The officers said : 
Lo, he standeth before thine Excellency. 

The judge said : Art thou Barsamya, who hast 
been made ruler and guide of the people of the 
Christians, and didst make a disciple of Sharbil, 
who was chief-priest of the gods, and used to 
worship them? 

Barsamya said : It is I who have done this, 
and I do not deny it ; and I am prepared to die 
for the truth of this. 

The judge said : How is it that thou wast not 
afraid of the command of the emperors, so that, 
when the emperors commanded that every one 
should sacrifice, thou didst induce Sharbil, when 
he was standing and sacrificing to the gods and 

« lit " authority."— Tr. 

offering incense to them, to deny diat 
had confessed, and confess Christ who: 

Barsamya said: I was assuredly' 
shepherd of men, not for the sake of 1 
who are found, but also for the sake 
who have strayed fix)m the fold of trutl 
come food for the wolves of paganism \ 
I not souglit to make Sharbil a disci] 
hands woijdd his blood have been requi 
if he had not listened to me, I should 1 
innocent of his blood. 

The judge said : Now, therefore, si 
hast confe^ed that it was thou that mac 
bil a disciple, at thy hands will I re 
death ; and on this account it is right 
rather than he shouldest be condemne 
me, because by thy hands he has died t 
ble deaths of grievous tortures for havi 
doned the command of the emperors aD( 
thy words. 

Barsamya said : Not to my words di( 
become a disciple, but to the word 
which He spoke : " Thou shalt not 
images and the likenesses of men." . 
not I alone that am content to die the 
Sharbil for his confession of Christ, bu 
the Christians, members of the Church, 
wise eager for this, because they know 
will secure their salvation before God th 

The judge said : Answer me not in t 
ner, like Sharbil thy disciple, lest thine 
ments be worse than his ; but promise 
wilt sacrifice before the gods on his beh 

Barsamya said : Sharbil, who knew i 
I taught to know Him : and dost thou bi( 
have known God from my youth, to 
God ? God forbid that I should do thi 

The judge said : Ye have made tl 
creation disciples of the teaching of Ch 
lo ! they renounce the many gods whom 
worshipped. Give up this way of thinl 
I make those who are near tremble a 
they behold thee to-day, and those als( 
afar off as they hear of the torments 
thou art condemned. 

Barsamya said : If God is the help 
who pray to Him, who is he that c 
them ? Or what is the power that ca 
against them? Or thine own threats — 
they do to them : to men who, before i 
commandment concerning them that t 
die, have their death already set bef 
eyes, and are expecting it every day? j 

The judge said : Bring not the si 
Christ before my judgment-seat; but, 
of this, obey the command of the emp© 
command to sacrifice to the gods. 

a See note 6 on p. 658. — Tr, [The Syriac for " a» 
3 Ut. "thismind." — TS. 



expound in my judgment-haU that thou wast 
brought in before me, because the trial on which 
thou standest has but little concern with expound- 
ing, but much concern with the punishment of 
death, for those who insult the emperors and 
comply not with their laws. 

Barsamya said: Because God is not before 
your eyes, and ye refuse to hear the word of 
God ; and graven images that are of no use, 
** which have a mouth and speak not," are ac- 
counted by you as though they spake, because 
your understanding is blinded by the darkness 
of paganism in which ye stand — 

The judge interrupting said : Leave off those 
things thou art saying, for they will not help thee 
at all, and worship the gods, before the bitter 
iearings ^ combs and haish tortures come upon 

Barsamya said : Do thou too leave off the 
many questions which lo ! thou askest me, and 
give command for the stripes and the combs 
with which thou dost menace me : for thy words 
will not help thee so much as thy inflictions will 
help me. 

The judge said : Let Barsamya be hanged up 
and torn with combs. 

And at that very moment there came to him 
letters from Alusis ' the chief proconsul, father 
of emperors.' And he commanded, and they 
took down Barsamya, and he was not torn with 
combs ; and they took him outside of the hall 
of judgment. 

And the judge commanded that the nobles, 
and the chief persons, and the princes, and the 
honourable persons of the city, should come be- 
fore him, that they might hear what was the order 
that was issued by the emperors, by the hand of 
the proconsuls, the rulers of the countries under 
the authority of the Romans. And it was found 
that the emperors had written by the hand of the 
proconsuls to the judges of the countries : 3 
" Since our Majesty commanded that there should 
be a persecution against the people of the Chris- 
tians, we have heard and learned, from the Sharirs 
whom we have in the countries under the do- 
minion of our Majesty, that the people of the 
Christians are persons who eschew murder, and 
sorcery, and adulter)', and theft, and bribery and 
fraud, and those things for which the laws of our 
Majesty also exact punishment from those who 
commit them. We, therefore, in our impartial 
justice, have commanded that on account of 
these things the persecution of the sword shall 
cease from them, and that there shall be rest and 

quietness in all our dominions, they continuing 


* This seems to be Lusius Quietus, Trajan's general in the East 
at this time. 

2 Or "kings." — Tr. 

3 We have here probably the most authentic copy of the edict of 
Trajan commanding the stopping of the persecution of the Christians, 
as it was taken down at the time by the reporters who heard it rend. 

to minister according to their custom x 
man hindering them. It is not, however, tc 
them that we show clemency, but towaids 
laws, agreeing as they do with the bvs i 
Majesty. And, if any man hinder diem aft 
our command, that sword which b oida 
us to descend upon those who despise on 
mand, the same do we command to A 
upon those who despise this decree o 

And, when this command of the em] 
clemency was read, the whole city rejoice 
there was quietness and rest for every man. 
the judge commanded, and they release 
samya, that he might go down to his c 
And the Christians went up in great numl 
the judgment-hall, together with a great 
tude of the population of the city, and tl 
ceived Barsamya with great and exc 
honour, repeating psalms before him, ac( 
to their custom ; there went also the wives 
chief of the wise men. And they th 
about him, and saluted him, and called hii 
persecuted confessor," " the companion of 
the martyr." And he said to them : Per 
I am, like yourselves ; but from the tortu 
combs of Sharbil and his companions I ai 
escaped.-* And they said to him: W 
heard from thee that a teacher of the Chi 
said, " The will, according to what it is, 
accepted." 5 And, when he was entered i 
church, he and all the people that were wi 
he stood up and prayed, and blessed th< 
sent them away to their homes rejoici 
praising God for the deliverance which '. 
wrought for them and for the Church. 

And the day after Lysinas ^ the judge 
country had set his hand to these Acts, 
dismissed from his authority. 

I Zenophilus and Patrophilus are the 
who wrote these Acts, Diodorus and Ei 
Sharirs of the city, bearing witness witi 
setting-to their hand, as the ancient laws 
ancient kings command. 

This ® Barsamya, bishop of Edessa, who mj 
ciple of Sharbil, the priest of the same citv, 
the days of Fabianus, bishop of the citv of Ron 
ordination to the priesthood was received by E 
from Abshelama, who was bishop in Edes^a 
Abshelama ordination was received from Palut t! 
and by Palut ordination was received from li 
bishop of Antioch; and by Serapion ordinal 
received from Zephyrinus, bishop of Rome : am 
rinus of Rome received ordination from Vict<: 

* Lit. "am far removed." — Tr. 

5 2 Cor. viii. 12. ^ Both the Peshilo and the Greek 
rejected) have " what it hath : " not " what it «." — Tk. 

6 See note on p 678. — Tr. 

7 Perhaps " Eutropius." 

* What follows, down to the end, is a much later *- 
dently made by the same ignorant person as that at p. 635i- 
note a there. 



VS., Rome ; and Victor received ordination 
;rius; and Eleutherius received it from 
>oter received it from Anicetus; and Ani- 
1 it from Dapios ; ' and Dapius received it 
lorus; and Telesphorus received it from 
XjTStus received it from Alexander ; and 
ceived it from Evartis;' and Evartis re- 
m Cletus; and Cletus received it from 
\nus received it from Simon Cephas ; and 
s received it from our Lord, together with 
ostles, on the first day of the week, tAf 
ension of our Lord to His glorious Father, 

ius." The blunder arose firom taking the prefix D 

he name. 

IS." — Tr. 

i." The person referred to is" Evaristos." Cuxeton 

" it does not app^** vl>y* — 1^ 

ist^seepti 67S*note3.~TR. 

which was the fourth day of Heziran,' which was in 
the nineteenth^ year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, 
in the consulship of Rufus and Rubelinus, which year 
was the year 341 ; for in the vear 309 occurred the advent' 
of our Saviour in the world, according to the testimony 
which we ourselves have found in a correct register^ 
among the archives, which errs not at all in whatever it 
sets forth. 

Ifere endeth the martyrdom of Barsamya, 
bishop of Edessa. 

5 See note 3^ on p. 667. — Tr. FAlso see p. 666, stt/'ra.] 

6 Put by mistake for " sixteentn," which agrees with the state- 
ment of Juhus Africanus as to the date of our Lord's death; also with 
the year of the consulate of Rubellius Geminus and Fufius Geminus 
(the persons intended bdow), and with the year of the Greeks 341, 
which was a.d. 99 or 30. 

' Prop. " rising," as of the 8un.^TR. 

* The Greek ctAigr^oi': see Du Fiene, Ghstariunu 


(See p. 665, note 4. Also, p. 685, note i, of Barsamya.) 

• at the Armenian Convent of St. Lazarus, near Venice, a version of the Letter of 
slated into French " from the Armenian version of the fifth century," and published 
lich is now before me. It ascribes the original to Laboubniay and adds : " The name 
nentioned only by Moses of Chorine, was not repeated after him by any one else, 
DS, Mekhitar d^Airivank (one of our chroniclers of the thirteenth century), who puts 
our historians, between Taiien and Mar Ibas Gadina, but without affirming whether 
n only by name or also by his writings." The editor goes on to speak of his corre- 
writh Dr. Cureton (a.d. 1864) which is referred to in note 4, p. 665, supra. He notes 
lete and mutilated character of the Syriac copies used by Cureton, and congratulates 
the entire and integral condition of the Armenian, which he found in 1852 in the 
brary at Paris, as Codex No, 8S, MSS. Armen. Here the name of the author is given 
(/'a, and agrees with the Syriac. The interpolations he regards as made after the 



thine Excellency also has demanded an account 
at my hands, that I might know and see whether 
it was of his own free will that he came hither, 
or whether the compulsion of thine Excellency 
brought him by the hand of others ; and, when 
I heard from him that he came of his own ac- 
cord, I carefully brought him to the honourable 
door of the judgment-hall of thy Worship.' 

And the governor hastily commanded, and 
they brought in Habib before him. The officers 
said : Lo ! he standeth before thine Excellency. 

And he began to question him thus, and said 
to him : What is thy name ? ' And whence art 
thou? And what art thou? 

He said to him : My name is Habib, and I am 
from the village of Telzeha, and I have been 
made a deacon. 

The governor said : Wherefore hast thou trans- 
gressed the command of the emperors, and dost 
minister in thine office of deacon, which thou 
art forbidden by the emperors to do, and re- 
frisest to sacrifice to Zeus, whom the emperors 
worship ? 

Habib said : We are Christians : we do not 
worship the works of men, who are nothing, 
whose works also are nothing ; but we worship 
God, who made the men. 

The governor said : Persist not in that daring 
mind with which thou art come into my presence, 
and insult not Zeu9, the great boast of the em- 

Habib said : But this Zeus is an idol, the 
work of men. It is very well for thee to say 
that I insult him. But, if the carving of him 
out of wood and the fixing of him with nails pro- 
claim aloud concerning him that he is made, 
how sayest thou to me that I insult him? since 
lo ! his insult is from himself, and against him- 

The governor said : By this very thing, that 
thou refusest to worship him, thou insultest him. 

Habib said : But, if because I do not worship 
him I insult him, how great an insult, then, did 
the carpenter inflict on him, who carved him 
with an axe of iron ; and the smith, who smote 
him and fixed him with nails ! 

And, when the governor heard him speak thus, 
he commanded him to be scourged without pity. 
And, when he had been scourged by five men, 
he said to him : Wilt thou now obey the em- 
perors ? For, if thou wilt not obey them, I will 
tear thee severely with combs, and I will torture 
thee with all kinds of tortures, and then at last 
I will give command concerning thee that thou 
be burned with fire. 

Habib said : These threats with which lo ! 
thou art seeking to terrify me, are much meaner 
and paltrier than those which I had already set- 

« Ut. "rectitude." — Tr. 

tied it in my mind to endure : therefore 
and made my appearance before thee. 

The governor said : Put him into 
cask 3 for murderers, and let him be sec 
he deserves. And, when he had been s 
they said to him : Sacrifice to the go 
he cried aloud, and said : Accursed 
idols, and so are they who join with yot 
shipping them like you. 

And the governor commanded, and tl 
him up to the prison ; but they refused \ 
mission to speak with his family, or \ 
inhabitants of his village, according to t 
mand of the judge. Qq that day was tl 
val of the emperors. 

And on the second of Bui the govem 
manded, and they brought him from the 
And he said to him : Wilt thou renou 
profession thou hast made * and obey tl 
mand which the emperors issue ? For, 
wilt not obey, with the bitter tearings 01 
will I make thee obey them. 

Habib said : I have not obeyed th( 
morever it is settled in my mind that I 
obey them — no, not even if thou lay u 
punishments still worse than those wli 
emperors have commanded. 

The governor said : By the gods ] 
that, if thou do not sacrifice, I will 1) 
harsh and bitter sufferings untried with 
will not torture thee : and we shall see 
Christ, whom thou worshippest, will delr 

Habib said : All those who worship C 
delivered through Christ, because they 
not creatures along with the Creator of c 

The governor said : Let him be stretc 
and be scourged with whips, until there 
not a place in his body on which he 
been scourged. 

Habib said : As for these infliction 
thou supposest to be so bitter with thei 
tions,5 out of them are plaited crowns 
for those who endure them. 

The governor said : How call ye a 
ease, and account the torments of you 
a crown of victory ? 

Habib said : It is not for thee to ask 1 
ceming these things, because thine un 
not worthy to hear the reasons of them 
I will not sacrifice I have said alrcad 
say so still. 

The governor said : Thou art subje 
these punishments because thou desen'es 
I will put out thine eyes, which look uj 
Zeus and are not afraid of him; an( 
stop thine ears, which hear the laws of 1 
perors and tremble not. 

a Ut. "then."— Tr. 

5 Sec note 3 on p. 681. — Tr. 

4 Lit. " Wilt thou renounce that in which thou staodes 

5 Lit. " scourgings." — Tr. 




In the six hundredth year from the empire 
of Alexander the Macedonian, when Diocletian 
had been nine years sovereign of the Romans, 
and Maximian was consul for the sixth time, and 
Augar son of Zoaras was prsetor, and Cognatus 
was bishop of the Edessenes, a great persecution 
was raised against the churches in all the coun- 
tries which were under the sway of the Romans. 
The name of Christian was looked upon as exe- 
crable, and was assailed and harassed with abuse ; 
while the priests and the monks,3 on account of 
their staunch and unconquerable stedfastness, 
were subjected to shocking punishments, and the 
pious we^-e at their wits' end with sadness and 
fear. For, desiring as they did to proclaim the 
truth because of their yearning affection for 
Christ, they yet shrunk back from doing so for 
fear of punishment. For those who took up 
arms against true religion were bent on making 
the Christians renounce Christianity and embrace 
the cause of Saturn and Rhea, whilst the faithful 
on their part laboured to prove that the objects 
of heathen worship had no real existence. 

At this period it was that an accusation was 
preferred before the judge against Guria and 
Shamuna. The former was a native of Sarcigitua, 
and the latter of the village of Ganas ; they were, 
however, both brought up at Edessa — which 
they call Mesopotamia, because it is situated 
between the Euphrates and the Tigris : a city 
previously to this but little known to fame, but 
which after the struggles of its martyrs obtained 
universal notoriety. These holy men would not 
by any means spend their lives in the city, but 
removing to a distance from it, as those who 
wished to be remote from its turmoils, they 
made it their aim to be manifest to God only. 

* Cureton gives it in Latin. — Tr. 

* This piece is taken from the well-known work of Surius, De 
^robatis Sanctorum vitis. It does not appear who made this 
Latin translation. 

Mciaphrastes is a celebrated Byzantine writer, who lived in the 
ninth and tenth centuries. He derives his name from having written 
paraphrases, or metaphrases, of the lives of the saints. Fabricius 

E'ves a list of 539 lives commonly attributed to liim. — Dr. W. Plate, 
Smith's Diet. Biog. and /T/yM. — Tr. 
^ [A token of mediaeval origin.] 


Guria's purity and lovingness were to himtpR* 
cious and honourable possession, and from Ml 
cultivation of the former the surname oiAepui 
was given him : so that from his name yonvbolJ 
not have known who he was, but only wheo jv 
called him by his surname. Shamuna devm 
his body and his youthful and active mind totk 
service of God, and rivalled Guria in exceUcBa 
of character. Against these men an indictmetf 
was laid before the judge, to the effect that tk^ 
not only pervaded all the country round aM 
Edessa with their teaching and encouraged Al 
people to hold fast their faith, but also led tiA 
to look with contempt on their persecutors, ai4 
in order to induce them to set wholly at noq^ 
their impiety, taught them agreeably to tli 
which is written : "Trust not in princes— in tht 
sons of men, in whom is no safety." * By the« 
representations the judge was wrought up to i 
high pitch of madness, and gave orders that il 
those who held the Christian religion in hooo* 
and followed the teaching of Shamuna and GaiB» 
together with those who persuaded them to tb^ 
should be apprehended, and shut up in safe 
keeping. The order was carried into etol! 
and, seizing the opportunity, he had soioe oi | 
them flogged, and others tortured in various wai^ 
and induced them to obey the emperor's coo- 
mand, and then, as if he were behaving kiiKi^ 
and mercifully, he allowed others to go to thcff 
homes ; but our two saints, as being the rinf' 
leaders and those who had communicated tbeff 
piety to others, he ordered to be still furtlJ* 
maltreated in prison. They, however, rejoicw 
in the fellowship of martyrdom. For they heard 
of many in other provinces who had had to pa* 
through the same conflict as themselves : amoag 
them Epiphanius and Petrus and the most h(^ 
Pamphilus, with many others, at Caesarea » 
Palestine ; Timotheus at Gaza ; at Alexandn** 
Timotheus the Great ; Agapetus at Thessalonica; 
Hesychius at Nicomedia ; Philippus at Adrian- 
opolis ; at Melitina Petrus ; Hermes and hB 

* Ps. cxlvi. 3. -— Tr. 



hath pleased Thee that we should carry on to 
its close the conflict we have entered upon, and 
that we should also receive at Thy hands the 
brightness that shall never fade away. 

When, therefore, the governor saw their un- 
yielding firmness, and how they had heard the 
final sentence with exultation of soul, he said to 
the saints : May God search into what is being' 
done, and be witness that so far as I was con- 
cerned it was no wish of mine that you should 
lose your lives ; but the inflexible command of 
the emperor to me compels me to this. He 
then ordered a halberdier to take charge of the 
martyrs, and, putting them in a carriage, to 
convey them to a distance from the city with 
some soldiers, and there to end them with the 
sword. So he, taking the saints out at night by 
the Roman gate, when the citizens were buried 
in profound slumber, conveyed them to Mount 
Bethelabitla on the north of the city. On their 
arrival at that place, having alighted from the 
carriage with joy of heart and great firmness of 
mind, they requested the halberdier and those 
who were under his orders to give them time to 
pray ; and it was granted. For, just as if their 
tortures and their blood were not enough to 
plead for them, they still by reason of their hu- 
mility deemed it necessary to pray. So they 
raised their eyes to heaven and prayed earnestly, 
concluding with the words : God and Father of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, receive in peace our spirits 
to Thyself. Then Shamuna, turning to the hal- 
berdier, said : Perform that which thou hast 
been commanded. So he kneeled down along 
with Guria, and they were beheaded, on the 15th 
of November. This is the account of what hap- 
pened to the martyrs. 

But forasmuch as the number sought for a 
third in order that in them the Trinity might be 
glorified, it found, oh admirable providence ! 
Habib — at a subsequent time indeed : but he 
also, along with those who had preceded him, 
had determined to enter on the journey, and on 
the very day * of their martyrdom reached his 
consummation. Habib, then, great among mar- 
tyrs, was a native of the same place as they, 
namely of the village of Thelsaea ; ^ and he had 
the honour of being invested with the sacred 
office of the diaconate. But, when Licinius 
swayed the sceptre of the Roman empire and 
Lysanias had been appointed governor of Edessa, 
a persecution was again raised against the Chris- 
tians, and the general danger threatened Habib. 
For he would go about the city, teaching the 
divine Scriptures to all he met with, and cour- 
ageously seeking to strengthen them in piety. 
When this came to the ears of Lysanias, he gave 
information of it to the Emperor Licinius. For 

* i.e., the anniversary. — Tr. 

^ In the Syriac account " Telzeha: " see p. 69o,5«/rrt. — Tr. 

he was anxious to be himself entrusted with die 
business of bringing the Christians to trial, aod 
especially Habib: for he had never been en- 
trusted with it before. The emperor, then, sent 
him a letter and commanded him to put Habib 
to death. So, when Lysanias had received the 
letter, search was made everywhere for Habib^ 
who on account of his office in the Church lived 
in some part of the city, his mother and some 
of his relations residing with him. When he got 
intelligence of the matter, fearing lest he shoold 
incur punishment for quitting the ranks of mar- 
tyrdom, he went of his own accord and presented 
himself to a man who was among the chief of 
the body-guard, named Theotecnus, and pres- 
ently he said : I am Habib for whom ye are 
seeking. But he, looking kindly at him, said: 
No one, my good man, is as yet aware of tfaf 
coming to me : so go away, and look to thjr 
safety ; and be not concerned about thy mother 
nor about thy relations : for they cannot possibif 
get into any trouble. Thus far Theotecnus. 

But Habib, because the occasion was one diit 
called for martyrdom, refused to yield to a well: 
and cowardly spirit and secure his safety in itaf 
underhand way. He replied, therefore ; It ii 
not for the sake of my dear mother, nor for tk 
sake of my kinsfolk, that I denounce mjfsdf; 
but I have come for the sake of the confesaoi 
of Christ For lo 1 whether thou consent or do^ 
I will make my appearance before the governoi^ 
and I will proclaim my Master Christ bcfoce 
princes and kings. Theotecnus, accordiq^i 
apprehensive that he might go of his own accord 
to the governor, and that in this way he mighi 
himself be in jeopardy for not having denounced 
him, took Habib and conducted him to the 
governor : Here, said he, is Habii), for whom 
search has been made. When Lysanias learned 
that Habib had come of his own accoRi to the 
contest, he concluded that this was a mark oi 
contempt and overweening boldness, as if he >et 
light by the solemn dignity of the judicial sea:: 
and he had him at once put on his trial. He in* 
Cfuired of him his condition of life, his name, and 
his country. On his answering that he was i 
native of the village of Thelsaea, and intimating 
that he was a minister of Christ, the governor 
immediately charged the martyr with not obey- 
ing the emperor's commands. He insisted ilu* 
a plain proof of this was his refusal to offer in- j 
cense to Jupiter. To this Habib kept rephiQs I 
that he was a Christian, and could not forsake 
the true God, or sacrifice to the lifeless works ot 
meti's hands which had no sensation. The gov- | 
ernor hereupon ordered, that his arms should be ^ 
bound with ropes, and that he should In? raided 
up high on a beam and torn with iron claws.^ 

* Compare the ** combs " of the Syriac, p. 684, xw/m. — Tt 



hanging up was far more difficult to bear 
t the tearing : for he was in danger of being 
sd asunder, through the forcible strain with 
:h his arms were stretched out. 
1 the meantime, as he was hanging up in 
air, the governor had recourse to smooth 
Is, and assumed the guise of patience. He, 
ever, continued to threaten him with severer 
shments unless he should change his resolu- 
But he said : No man shall induce me to 
ike the faith, nor persuade me to worship 
ons, even though he should inflict tortures 
s and greater. On the governor's asking 
what advantage he expected to gain from 
ires which destroyed his whole ' body, Habib, 
st's martyr, replied: The objects of our 
rd do not last merely for the present, nor do 
>uisue the things that are seen ; and, if thou 
art minded to turn thy look towards our 
e and promised recompense, possibly thou 
even say with Paul : " The sufferings of this 
* are not worthy to be compared with the 
y which is to be revealed in us."* The 
emor pronounced his words to be the lan- 
ge of imbecility ; and, when he saw that, not- 
istanding all the efforts he made, by turns 
ig smooth words and assuming the part of 
ence, and then again threatening him and 
lacing him with a shocking 3 death, he could 
in either way prevail with him, he said, as he 
:iounced sentence upon him : I will not in- 

Scadin^ " totum " for " solum." — Tk. 
Kom. viiL 18. — Tr. 
I-rt,«*bittcr." — Tr. 

flict on thee a sudden and speedy death ; I will 
bring on thy dissolution gradually by means of 
a slow fire, and in this way make thee lay aside 
thy fierce and intractable spirit. Thereupon, 
some wood was collected together at a place 
outside the city on the northward, and he was 
led to the pile, followed by his mother, and also 
by those who were otherwise by blood related to 
him. He then prayed, and pronounced a bless- 
ing on all, and gave them the kiss in the Lord ; 
and after that the wood was kindled by them, 
and he was cast into the fire ; and, when he had 
opened his mouth to receive the flame, he yielded 
up his spirit to Him who had given it. Then, 
when the fire had subsided, his relatives wrapped 
him in a costly piece of linen and anointed him 
with unguents ; and, having suitably sung psalms 
and hymns, they laid him by the side of Shamuna 
and Guria, to the glory of the Father, and of 
the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, who constitute 
a Divine Trinity, which cannot be divided : to 
whom is due honour and worship now and always, 
and for evermore. Amen. Such was the close 
of the life of the martyr Habib in the time of 
Licinius, and thus did he obtain the privilege of 
being laid with the saints, and thus (hd he bring 
to the pious rest from their persecutions. For 
shortly afterwards the power of Licinius waned, 
and the rule of Constantine prospered, and the 
sovereignty of the Romans became his ; and he 
was the first of the emperors who openly pro- 
fessed piety, and allowed the Christians to live 
as Christians. 




TROOPS ; HIS brother's son, JOSEPH, IS KILLED. 

Abgar, son of Archam, ascends the throne in 
the twentieth year of Archavir, king of the Per- 
sians. This Abgar was called Avak-air (great 
man), on account of his great gentleness and 
wisdom, and also on account of his size. Not 
being able to pronounce well, the Greeks and the 
Syrians called him Abgar. In the second year of 
his reign, all the districts of Armenia become 
tributary to the Romans. A command is given 
by the Emperor Augustus, as we are told in the 
Gospel of St. Luke, to number all the people in 
every part. Roman commissioners, sent for that 
purpose into Armenia, carried thither the statue 
of the Emperor Augustus, and set it up in all 
the temples. At this very time, our Saviour 
Jesus Christ, the Son of God, came into the 

At the same period there was trouble between 
Abgar and Herod : for Herod wished that his 
statue should be erected near to that of Caesar 
in the temples of Armenia. Abgar withstood 
this claim. Moreover, Herod was but seeking a 
pretext to attack Abgar : he sent an army of 
Thracians and Germans to make an incursion 
into the country of the Persians, with orders to 
pass through the territories of Abgar. But Ab- 
gar, far from submitting to this, resisted, saying 
that the emperor's command was to march the 
troops into Persia through the desert. Herod, 
indignant, and unable to act by himself, over- 
whelmed with troubles, as a punishment for his 
wicked conduct towards Christ, as Josephus re- 
lates, sent his nephew to whom he had given 
his daughter, who had been married in the first 

instance to Ph^ror, his brother. Herod's Se 
tenant, at the head of a considerable army, in 
tened to reach Mesopotamia, met Abgar at d 
camp in the province of Pouknan, fell in i 
combat, and his troops were put to flight Soo 
afterwards, Herod died : Archelaus, his son, « 
appointed by Augustus ethnarch of Judasa. 



A little while afterwards, Augustus dies, J 
Tiberius becomes emperor of the Romans ii 
his stead. Germanicus, having become CxsMt 
dragging in his train the princes of the kingdfli 
of Archavir and of Abgar, celebrates a triafflpk 
in respect of the war waged with them, in winck 
these princes had killed Herod's nephew. Ab- 
gar, indignant, forms plans of revolt and pff* 
pares himself for combat. He builds a town® 
the ground occupied by the Armenian amiy« 
observation, where previously the Euphrates li» 
been defended against the attempts of ^^^ 
this new town is called Edessa. Abgar reinorto 
to it his court, which was at Medzpine, all bB. 
gods, Naboc, Bel, Patnicagh, and Tarata. ^^ 
books of the scliools attached to the tempH 
and even the royal archives. 

After this, Archavir being dead, Ardaches,!* 

son, reigns over the Persians. Though it is d* 

! in the order of the histor}' with respect to tss^- 

nor even the order according to which we ^' 

begun these annals, yet, as we are treating 


* This extract is taken from the edition, in two volumes, printed 
at Paris, of which the following is the title: MOlSE DF. KHO- 
RtSE,auUurdu Ve SiMe : HISTOIRE D'ARMENIE, thxtk 
ARM^NiEt^ ET TRADUCTION Francaise, avec notes explhatives ft 
Pricis historigues sur fArfHiniet par P. E. Lb Vaili-ant db 

> Book iL chapter xxvi. 


the descendants of the king Archavir, even » 
the blood of Ardaches his son, we \iilUoop 
honour to these princes, place them, by antio* 
pating the time, near to Ardaches, in order th» 
the reader may know that they are of the >^ 
race, of the race of the brave Archag ; then *^ 
will indicate the time of the arrival o\ «^ 
fathers in Armenia, the Garenians and the y^' 
renians, from whom St. Gregory and the Ga^ 

3 Chapter xxviL 



.^ixakoiro ^o fiHr'r.K 

i-.-i'.T i-itt^ '.:-)rfl Ti: 'iti>i: tr.tii '. ■'.•! f^'fi"; ■■ >I 

'''''^'''}X''1W^X^^ .PQCUMiBNTa, 

:lif!,. ;,. 

■ ":: .ir,-^ i"^? -r;j"/'"' 

jsamtx <f^ '^XBSb rax vimvs(;',ti0i!l^gsi> |y iitAS. 3aoq&> 

; 0taMn^omfl;! nAat, to Um t 

Ot}MeJi«wwvu Oe&c^'kd the Oaioe 
not near diem : 
Bat one wu burned; sod bcnrdulll 
Tlut the Fomtfa Jiirm k that of Him wt 
down into tite midst of the fonuc 
Hut He mi^ Cuhion an ima^ for 
there along with Atf// 1^ the thie 
He gireth a plan in the fire to him « 
That he may be, instead of Him the 
by the side of the conquerors. 

And, if of the three the beauties be g 
though they were not burned. 
How Bhall not this one, who itias bur 
mingled with the glorious ? 
If a man have the power either to be bur 
not to be burned. 
Of this man, who was burned, more 
was the beauty than that of the th 
But, inasmuch as the Lord b the control 
jEflr is to be praised, ^tk where He : 
and where He delivers up. 

Moreover, too, the will of the three yih 
not burned. 
And of him who was burned, is one a 
same, in this case and in that ; * 
And, had its Lord commanded the fire 1 
£veH those three on their part, bume> 
would have bear ; 

■ tit."ha«udtbnc.~— T«. 



She looked upon him while the fire consumed 
his frame, 
And, forasmuch as his crown was very noble, 
she grieved not 

The sweet root was thrown into the fire, upon the 
And it turned to incense, and cleansed the air 
fix)m pollution. 
With the fumes of sacrifice had the air been pol- 
And by the burning of this martyr was it 
The firmament was fetid with the exhalations 
from ■ the altars ; 
And there rose up the sweet perfiime of the 
martyr, and it grew sweet thereby. 
And the sacrifices ceased, and there was peace 
in the assemblies ; 
And the sword was blunted, that it should no 
more lay waste the fiiends of Christ 

> Lit "thencrifioetoC''— Tk. 

With Sharbil it began, with Habib it coded, in 
our land ; 
And from that time' even untO now not one 
has it slain, since he was burned. 
Constantine, chief of conquerors, took the em- 
And the cross has trampled on the diadem d 
the emperor, and is set upon his head. 
Broken is the lofty horn of idolatry, 
And firom the burning of the martyr even im> 
til now not one has it pierced. 
His smoke arose, and it became incense to die 
And by it was the air purged which was tainted 
by paganism. 
And by his burning was the whole land cleansed: 
Blessed be he that gave him a crown, and 
glory, and a good name ! 

Here endeth the Homfly on Habib die mff- 
tyr, composed by Mar Jacob. 

•lit "from hiiii.''—Tk. 


Shamuna and Guria, martyrs who made them- 
selves illustrious in their afflictions, 
Have in love required of me to tell of their 
illustrious deeds. 
To champions of the feith the doctrine calleth 
That I should go and behold their contests 
and their crowns. 
Children of the right hand, who have done bat- 
tle against the left, 
Have called me this day to recite the marvel- 
' lous tale of their conflicts : — 

Simple old men, who entered into the fight like 
And nobly distinguished themselves in the 
strife of blood : 
Those who were the salt of otur land, and it was 
sweetened thereby. 
And its savour was restored, which had become 
insipid through unbelief: 
Candlesticks of gold, which were fiill of the oil 
of the crucifixion. 
By which was lighted up all our region, which 
had turned to darkness : 
Two lamps, of which, when all the winds were 
Of every kind of error, the lights were not 
put out : 

Good labourers, who fit)m the spring of day la- 

In the blessed vineyard of the house of God 
right duteously : 
Bulwarks of our land, who became to us as it 
were a defence 
Against all spoilers in all the wars that sin<- 
rounded us : 
Havens of peace, a place also of retreat for all 
that were distressed. 
And a resting-place for the head of every one 
that was in need of succour : 
Two precious pearls, which were 
An ornament for the bride of my lord AbgUi 
the Aramaean's son. 

Teachers they were who practised their teadiing 
in blood. 
And whose faith was known by their sofierings. 
On their bodies they wrote the story <rf the Son j 
of God . / 

With ihe marks of combs and scourges wbick 
thickly covered them. 
They showed their love, not by words of tbc 
mouth alone. 
But by tortiu^ and by the rending of tW 
limbs asimder. _ 

For the love of the Son of God they gave ifP J- 
their bodies : 



noad of Aee it our coaaixy^ ai of a ixomuy 
wbich is fbD of gold : 
Since wealth art thoa to vm, and a coveted 
store wiiich cannot be st6len>hMi iv. 


Gnria, mar^y staunch hero of our fiuthi 
Who ihw suflke thee, to recount Ihy beaniies 
Lot tortures on diy body are set like. gems of 
And the sword on thy neck like a chain of 

. ■ c Qnic e guNU. 

%y Uood upon thy fomn is a robe^of g^oiy full 

of beauty, / 

And the scquiging^ thy back a vesture with 

friuch the sun may not compare. 
Radiant tfaiou art and comely bf vntue of these 

thy sufiiBruqK so aboundm^ ; 
. And req)lendcpt are thy beauties^ because of 

dM pains irfiich are iv severe upon diee. 

* . " ■ ■ 

Shammia, our xidies, richer art dioa than the 

- For.Jol the rich stand at thy door, that thou 

mayest relieve them. 

Small diy village, poor thy country : who, dien, 

gave thee 
. That lords of viDages and ddes should caort 

thy favour? 
Lo 1 judc^ in their robes aod vestments 
Take dust fiom Ay direshcdd, as Ao§tig^ it 

were the medicine of Hfe. 
The cross is rich, and to its worshippers in- 

creaseth riches ; 
And its poverty despiseth all the riches of the 


Shamuna and Guria, sons of the poor, lo 1 at 
your doors 
Bow down the rich, that they may receive 
from you sufpUesfor their wants. 
The Son of God in poverty and want 

Showed to the world that all its riches are as 
His disciples y all fishermen, all poor, all weak, 
All men of little note, became illustrious 
throu^ His £rith. 
One fisherman, whose "village " too was a home 
of fishermen,' 
He made chief over the twelve, yea head of 
the house.* 
One a tentmaker, who aforetime was a persecutor, 
He seized upon, and made him a chosen 
vessel for the faith. 

Shamuna and Guria came from villages that were 

not wealthy, 
. And lo ! in a great city became they lords ; 

> i.e./'Bethsuda." — Til 
• Or^uewBrd."— Tb. 

And its, its jodgeiidMi, adi 
then: doors, 
And they solicit dieir chaiilj to h 
From their confession of die fiuth of t 
These blessed men acquired ridic 
Poor did He Himself beoome, and 
made He rich ; 
And lo I enriched is the whole creatic 
His poverty. 

The chosen martyrs did battle agunst 
. Andin the confession of die Son of I 

they firm like valiant men. 
They went in and confessed Him I 
judge with look undaunted,' 
That He too mi^t confess them 
tliey confessed Him, before Hi 
There arose against them the war of p 
a tempest; 
But the cross was dieir helmsman, ai 
them on. 
They were required to sacrifice to lifele 
^t they departed not fix>m Aeir \ 
of the Son of God. 
The wind of idolatry blew in dieur fisci 
But they themselves were as rocks 
agsinst the huiricaneii 
Like a swift whiriwind, error snatched 
Bttt^ forasmuch as they were shehei 
crucifixion, it hurt them not 
The Evil One set on all his dogs to 
they might bite them ; 
But, forasmuch as they had the c 
staff, they put them all to flight 

But who is sufficient to tell of their co 

Or their sufferings, or the rending a 

their limbs? 

Or who can paint the picture of their cc 

How they went up fh)m the conte 

with glory ? 

To judgment they went in, but of the j 
took no account ; 
Nor were they anxious what they s 
when questioned. 
The judge menaced tkem^ and mult 
words of threatening ; 
And recounted tortures and all kifuL 
tions, that he might terrify then 
He spake great words,^ that by fiiight ai 
By menaces too, he might incline 

3 Lit. " with openness of countmance.* — Tki 

4 liL *' fjortny tlie image of their gtowm."— I^ 

5 Ut."magnffie(lhiswonls.''~Tk. 



Shamuna and Guria gave up their bodies for His 
To sufferings and tortures and to all the various 
forms of woe." 
At Him they looked as He was mocked by 
wicked men, 
And thus did they themselves endure mockery 
without a groan. 

Edessa was enriched by your slaughter, O blessed 

ones : 
For ye adorned her with your crowns and with 

your sufferings. 
Her beauty are ye, her bulwark ye, her salt 


Her riches and her store, yea her boast and 
all her treasure. 
Faithful stewards are ye : * 
Since by your sufferings ye did array the bride 
in beauty. 
The daughter of the Parthians, who was espoused 
to the cross,3 
Of you maketh her boast : since by your teach- 
ing lo 1 she was enlightened. 
Her advocates are ye ; scribes who, though silent, 
All error, whilst its voice was uplifted high in 

Those old men ^ of the daughter of the Hebrews 
were sons of Belial^s 
False witnesses, who killed Naboth, feigning 
themselves to be true. 

« Lit. " to the forms (<rx*?^aTtt) of all afflictions." — Tr. 

' This seems preferable to Cureton's " Ye are the stewards of 
(her) faith." The expression exactly corresponds in form to that in 
lAike xvi. 8 (Peshito) : " the steward of injustice" = '* die ux^ust 

3 Lit. " crucifixion." — Tr. 

4 Or " ciders." — Tr. 

s By this name the men referred to (not, however, the elders, but 
the two (alse witnesses suborned by them^ are called m z Kings xxi. 
2o, 13. The expression in the text is literally "sods of iniquity/' 
and is that used by the Peshita — Tr. 

Her did Edessa outdo by her two old men U 
of beauty. 
Who were witnesses to the Son of God, and 
died like Naboth. 
Two were there, and two here, old men ; 
And these were called witnesses, and witnesMS 
Let us now see which of them were witnesses 
chosen of God, 
And which city is beloved by reason of her oU 
men and of her honourable ones. 
Lo ! the sons of Belial idio slew Naboth aie 
And here Shamuna and Guria, again, axe wi^ 
Let us now see which witnesses, and which old 
And which city can stand with confidence* 
before G<kL 
Sons of Belial were those witnesses of that adul- 
terous woman, 
And lo ! their shame is all portrayed in tfadr 
Edessa's just and righteous old men, her lit* 
Were like Naboth, who himself also was sfah 
for righteousness' sake. 
They were not like the two lying sons of Be&l ^ 
Nor is Edessa like Zion, whidi also cmdfrf 
Like herself her old men were false, yea dazed |^ 
To shed on the ground iimocent blood wid* 
But by these witnesses here lo ! the truth a 
spoken. — 
Blessed be He who gave us the treasore-stae j ^ 
of their crowns ! 

Here endeth the Homily on Guria and Sb; 

t * 


6 Or " have an open ooantenance." — Tr. 

\\ _■ 


1 ; 

I -- 



a. He thus introduces the treatise of Bardesanes : — 

" Bardesan, or Bardesanes, according to one account, was bom at Edessa in 154 a-ix, and it is soppoiedtbt 
he died sometime between 224 and 23a Eosebins says that he flourished in the time of Marcos AnrdiiB. He 
was for some time resident at the court of Abgar VI^ King of Edessa, with whom he was on i«»tmat» tenoi 
He at first belonged to the Gnostic sect of the Valentinians ; bat abandoning it, he seemed to come nearer tk 
orthodox beliefs. In reality, it is said, he devised errours of his own. He wrote manj works. Eoscbiai 
attributes the work now translated, Tht Book of Laws^ or On FaU^ to Bardesanes. Many modem critics hate 
come to the conclusion that it was written by a scholar of Bardesanes, but that it gives us the genuine opinion 
and reasonings of Bardesanes. The question is of interest in connection with the Clementine RectgmHimu^ wtick 
contain a large portion of the work. The Syriac was first published by Cureton m his 

3. In introducing the Mara bar Serapion and the Ambrose^ he thus refers to his fiiend 
Dr. Payne Smith : — 

The text of the two following short pieces* is found in the SpidUgium Syriacum of the late Dr. CnRtoL 
This careful scholar speaks of the second of these compositions as containing " some very obscure passages.* 
The same remark holds good also of the first Dr. Payne Smith describes them both as ** full of difficaltiei.' 
So ^ as these arise from errors in the text, they might have been removed, had I been able to avail mp& 
of the opportunity kindly offered me by Dr. Rieu, Keeper of the Oriental MSS. at the British Museum, of inqtect- 
ing the original MS. As it is, several have, it is hoped, been successfully met by conjecture. 

To Dr. R. Payne Smith, Dean of Canterbury, who^ as on two previous occasions, has most kindly ui 
patientiy afforded me hb valuable assistance, I beg to offer my very grateful acknowledgments. 


< VoL xxtv., ed. Edinburgh. The latter wMfimiieilyafCilbed to Juidn Martyr. 
* The Ambrose and the S^ra^ioM. 




SoMs days since we were calling^ to pay a 
visit to our brother Shemashgram, and Baitiesan 
came and found us there. And when he had 
made inquiries after his health,^ and ascertained 
that he was well, he asked us, ** What were you 
talking abput? fori heard your voice outside as 
I was coming in." For it was his habit, when- 
ever he found us talking about anything before 
he came,s to ask us, "What were you saying?" 
that he might talk with us about it 

" Avida here," said we to him," was sa3dng to 
Ufi, ' If God is one, as ye say, and if He is the 
creator of men, and if it is His will that you 
should do that which you are commanded, why 
did He not so' create men that they should not 
be able to do wrong, but should constantly be 
doing that which is right? for in this way His 
will would have been accomplished.' " 

" Tell me, my son Avida," said Bardesan to 
him, " why it has come into thy mind that the 
God of all is not One ; or that He is One, but 
doth not will that men should behave themselves 
justly and uprightly?" 

" I, sir," said Avida, " have asked these dretk- 
retiy persons of my own age, in order that ' they ' 
may return me an answer." 

** If," said Bardesan to him, " thou wishest to 
learn, it were for thy advantage to leam from 
some one who is older than they ; but if to teach, 
it is not requisite for ' thee ' to ask ' them,' but 
rather that diou shouldst induce ' them ' to ask 
* thee ' what they wish. For teachers are ' asked ' 
questions, and ao not themselves ask them ; or, 
if they ever do ask a question, it is to direct 
the mind of the questioner, so that he may ask 

' Lit. " Son of Daism/* ficom a river to called near Edessa.— 
Hahn. [BuddatioD I. " Tlie Laws of Cotmtries" is the title. For 
" Various Countries" I have used " Divtrtn 

> Called by Euaebtus, Hist. EecL^ it. 30, 7!l# Di$€ourte am FaU 
fO »tp4 ci^iopfMriM AUAoYOf). This is more correct than the tide 
above gn«n: the '* Laws*^ are addnced only as Uhtstrations of die 
argument of the piece. The subject woud, howerer, be mora 
propeiljr given as ''The Freedom oTthe WiU." 

s Lit " going in." Cureton renden, ** w 

gomg in. 
4 Lit. "fi^tfim.* 
s Lit "befiMehim.* 


Men: " ehe er kam." 

properly, and they may know what his desire is. 
For it is a good thing that a man should know 
how to ask questions." 

" For my part," said Avida, " I wish to leam ; 
but I began first of all to question my brethren 
here, because I was too bashful to ask thee." 

" Thou speakest becomingly," * said Bardesan. 
'' But know, nevertheless, that he who asks ques- 
tions properly, and wishes to be convinced, and 
approaches the way of truth without contentious- 
ness, has no need to be bashful ; because he is 
sure by means of the things I have mentioned to 
please him to whom his questions are addressed. 
If so be, therefore, my son, thou hast any opin- 
ion of thy own 7 respecting this matter about 
which thou hast asked, tell it to us all ; and, if 
we too approve of it, we shall express our agree- 
ment witii thee ; and, if we do not approve of it, 
we shall be under obligation to show thee why we 
do not approve of it But if thou wast simply 
desirous of becoming acquainted with this sub- 
ject, and hast no opinion of thy own about it, 
as a man who has but lately joined the disciples 
and is a recent inquirer, I will tell thee respect- 
it^ it; so that thou mayest not go from us empty 
away. If, moreover, thou art pleased with those 
things which I shall say to thee, we have other 
things besides to tell thee ^ concerning this mat- 
ter ; but, if thou art not pleased, we on our part 
shall have stated our views without any personal 

'' I too," said Avida, " shall be much gratified ^ 
to hear and to be convinced : because it is not 
from another that I have heard of this subject, 
but I have spoken of it to my brethren here 
out of my own mind ; and they have not cared* 
to convince me; but they say, 'Only believe, 

' The word used is formed from the Greek cwvii tt drMC. [Here 
observe what IS said (in Eluddadon L) bx NUdke oo ihe Hdlenuation 
theory of Mommaen, with reference to this very work; p. 74a, infra.\ 

1 Lit. ** hast anything in thy mind." 

* LiL " thera are for thee other things also." 

9 ^^ is here siibsdtnted far the X|) of the text, which 





" I have read books of astrology," ' said Avida, 
'' but I do not know which are those of the Baby- 
lonians and which those of the Egyptians." 

" The teaching of both countries," said Bar- 
desan, " is the same." 

" It is well known to be so," said Avida. 

" Listen, then," said Bardesan, " and observe, 
that that which the stars decree by their Fate 
and their portions is not practised by all men 
alike who are in all ^rfs of the earth. For 
men have made laws for themselves in various 
countries, in the exercise of that freedom which 
was given them by God : forasmuch as. this gift 
is in its very nature opposed to that Fate ema- 
nating from the Potentates, who assume to them- 
selves that which was not given them. I will 
begin my enumeration of these lawsy so far as I 
can remember them^ from the East, the begin- 
ning of the whole world : — 

**Laws of the Seres. — The Seres have laws 
forbidding to kill, or to commit impurity, or to 
worship idols ; and in the whole of Serica there 
are no idols, and no harlots, nor any one that 
kills a man, nor any that is killed : although they, 
like other men, are bom at all hours and on all 
days. Thus the fierce Mars, whensoever he is 
* posited * in the zenith, does not overpower the 
freedom of the Seres, and compel a man to shed 
the blood of his fellow with an iron weapon; 
nor does Venus, when posited with Mars, com- 
pel any man whatever among the Seres to con- 
sort with his neighbour's wife, or with any other 
woman. Rich and poor, however, and sick peo- 
ple and healthy, and rulers and subjects, are 
there : because such matters are given into the 
power of the Governors. 

" Zmws of the Brahmans who are in India, — 
^gain, among the Hindoos, the Brahmans, of 
whom there are many thousands and tens of 
thousands, have a law forbidding to kill at all, or 
to pay reverence to idols, or to commit impurity, 
or to eat flesh, or to drink wine ; and among 
i these people not one of these things ever takes 
place. Thousands of years, too, have elapsed, 
during which these men, lo ! have been gov- 
erned by this law which they made for them- 

" Another Law which is in India, — There is 
also another law in India, and in the same zone, ^ 
i)revailing among those who are not of the caste 3 
T)f the Brahmans, and do not embrace their 
(teaching, bidding them serve idols, and commit 
impurity, and kill, and do other bad things, 
which by the BnJimans are disapproved. In 
the same zone of India, too, there are men who 
are in the habit of eating the flesh of men, just 

' Lit. " Ghakbuna." 

* TKe Greek c\&|fMi, deaodng one of the seven belts (see p. voa, 
^«>'«-'^ iMo which the earth's latitude was said to be dtnded. The 

as all other nations eat the flesh of 
Thus the evil stars have not compelled d 
mans to do evil and impure things; i 
the good stars prevailed on the rest of t 
doos to abstain from doing evil things ; ; 
those stars which are well ' located * in 
gions which properly belong to them,^ 
the signs of the zodiac favourable to a 
disposition,^ prevailed on those who eat 
of men to abstain from using this foul an 
inable food. 

" Laws of the Persians. — The Persiai 
have made themselves laws permitting 
take as wives their sisters, and their d 
and their daughters' daughters ; and t 
some who go yet further, and take e\ 
mothers. Some of these said Persians 
tered abroad, away from their country, 
found in Media, and in the country of 
thians,^ and in Egypt, and in Phrygia < 
called Magi) ; and in all the countries a 
in which they are founds they are govt 
this law which was made for their ^thc 
we cannot say that for all the Magi, an( 
rest of the Persians, Venus was posited 
Moon and with Saturn in the house o 
in her portions, while the aspect of ft 
toward them.' There are many places 
the kingdom of the Parthians, where i 
their wives, and their brothers, and their i 
and incur no penalty ; while among the 
and the Greeks, he that kills one of the« 
capital punishment, the severest of pena 

" Laws of the Geli, — Among the ( 
women sow and reap, and build, and pei 
the tasks of labourers, and wear no rail 
colours, and put on no shoes, and use n 
ant ointments ; nor does any one find fa 
them when they consort with strangers, 
tivate intimacies with their household 
But the husbands of these Gelae are dre 
garments of colours, and ornamented wi 
and jewels, and anoint themselves with \ 
ointments. Nor is it on account of any 
nacy on their part that they act in this n 
but on account of the law which has beei 
for them : in fact, all the men are fond ol 
ing and addicted to war. But we cane 
that for all the women of the Geli Ven 
posited in Capricorn or in Aquarius, in J 
tion of ill luck ; nor can we possibly say t 
all the CJeU Mars and Venus were f<)s: 

4 That is, their own " houses.** as below. Each home ti 
the heavenly bodies as its " lord," who was stroofer. or b 
cated " in hts own house than in any other. Al^ ol t* 
equally strong in other respects, that whkh was in the sti(«( 
was the stronger. The strength of the houses was (kteros 
order in which they rose, the strongest being that about to i 
was called the ascendant. 

5 lit. " the signs of humanity." 

6 llie text adds o^l*AOe. 

7 lit. " while Man was witness to 



stand it by strength, but by wickedness and 
enor. And this may go on for a little while, 
because He is kind and forbearing towazxis all 
beings that exist/ so as to let them remain as 
they are, and be governed by their own will, 
whilst notwithstancSng they are held in check by 
the works which have b^n done and by the ar- 
rangements which have been made for dieir help. 
For this well-ordered constitution of things* and 
this government which have been instituted, and 
the intermingling of one with another, serve to 
repress the violence of ^se beings,' so that they 
should not inflict harm on one another to tht fuU, 
nor yet to the full suffer harm, as was the case 
with them before the creation of the worid. A 
time is also coming when Ms propensity to inflict 
harm which still remains in them shall be brought 
to an end, through the teaching which shall be 
given them amidst intercourse of another kind. 
And at the establishment of that new world all 
evil commotions shall cease, and all rebellions 
terminate, and the foolish shall be convinced, 
and all deficiencies shall be filled up, and there 
shall be quietness and peace, throu^ the gift of 
the Lord of all existing beings." 

Here endeth the Book of the Laws of Coun- 

Bardesan, therefore, an aged man, and one 
celebrated for his knowledge of events, wrote, 
in a certain work which was composed by him, 
concerning the synchronisms^ with one another 

s Lit. " aU natures." 
a Lit. " this ofder." 
S Lit. " natures."* 
4 The Greek ovvotei. 

of die lonunaries of heaven, speaking as fel- 
lows s — 

Two revolutions of Satum,^ 60 years; 
5 revolutions of Jupiter, 60 years ; 
40 revolutions of Mars, 60 years ; 
60 revolutions of the Skm, 60 years ; 
72 revolutions of Venus, 60 years ; 
150 revolutions of Mercury, 60 years ; 
720 revolutions of the Moon, fy> years. 

And this," says he, ''is one synchronism of them 
all ; that is, the time of one such synchronism 
of them. So that from hence it appears tiuU to 
complete 100 such synchronisms &ere will be 
required six thousands of years. Thus : — 

200 revolutions of Saturn, six thousands of 

500 revolutions of Jupiter, 6 thousands of 

4 thousand revolutions of Mars, 6 thoonndi 

of years ; 
Six thousand revolutions^of the Son, 6 dioo- 

sands of years ; 
7 thousand and 200 revolutions of Venas^ h 

thousands of years ; 
12 thousand revolutions of Mercoiy, 6 thou- 
sands of years ; 
72 thousand revolutions of the Moon, 6 tiioo- 

sands of years." 

Hiese things did Bardesan thus compote vhei 
desiring to show that this world would stand 
only six thousands of years. 

S The fiv«planett are called by their Gteeknamet^Kp^MCfCVi^ 





Hf therefore, thou shalt behave with under- 
standing> and ^lalt diligently watch over thy con- 
ducty God will not refrain frx)m helping thee, nor 
men from loving thee. 

Let that which thou art able to acquire suffice 
thee ; and if, moreover, thou art able to do with- 
out property, thou shalt be called blessed, and 
no man whatsover shall be jealous of thee. 

And remember also this, that nothing will dis- 
turb thy life very* greatly, except ii be Af l&oe of 
gain ; and that no man after his death is called 
an owner of property : because it is by the de- 
sire of this that weak men are led captive, and 
they know not that a man dwells among his pos- 
sessions only in the manner of a chance-comer, 
and they are haunted with fear because these 
possessions are not secured to them: for they 
have abandoned that which is their own, and 
seek that which is not theirs. 

What are we to say, when the wise are dragged 
by force by the hands of tyrants, and their wis- 
dom is deprived of its freedom ' by slander, and 
they are plundered for their superior intelligence, 
without the opportunity of making a defence ? 
TTiey are not wholly to be pitied. For what bene- 
fit did the Athenians obtain by putting Socrates 
to death, seeing that they received as retribution 
for it famine and pestilence ? Or the people of 
Samos by the burning of Pythagoras, seeing that 
in one hour the whole' of their country was 
covered with sand? Or the Jews by the murder 
of their Wise King, seeing that from that very 
time their kingdom was driven am^yfrom them ? 
For with justice did God grant a recompense to 
the wisdom of all three of them.. For the Athe- 
nians died by famine ; and the people of Samos 
were covered by the sea without remedy ; and 
the Jews, brought to desolation and expelled from 
their kingdom, are driven away into every land. 
Nay^ Socrates did " not " die, because of Plato ; 
nor yet Pythagoras, because of the statue of 
Hera ; nor yet the Wise King, because of the 
new laws wluch he enacted. 

Moreover I, my son, have attentively observed 
mankind, in what a dismal state of ruin they are. 
And I have been amazed that they are not utterly 
prostrated 3 by the calamities which surround 
them, and ^at even their wars ^ are not enough 
for them, nor the pains they endure^ nor the d^- 
eases, nor the deadi, nor the poverty ; but thaty 
like savage beasts, they must needs rush upon 
one another in their enmity, /ryi«(g^ which of them 

> Lit., " nude capthre." 

* For oi^^bSiO read OL^^fi. 

> No Teib is finmd in the leziooos to wUch itn^ 4»| can be 

referred. It may pcifaapt be Kahtaphd of « fwb (jo, cognate with 

4 For \a^ leMi \ay^ 

shall inflict the greater mischief on his fellow. 
For they have broken away from the bounds of 
truth, and transgress all honest laws, because 
they are bent on fulfilling their selfish desires ; 
for, whensoever a man is eagerly set on obtaining 
that which he desires, how is it possible that he 
should fitiy do that which it behoves him to do t 
and they acknowledge no restraint,5 and but sel- 
dom stretch out their hands towards truth and 
goodness, but in their manner of life behave like 
the deaf* and the blind. Moreover, the wicked 
rejoice, and the righteous are disquieted. He 
that has, denies that he has; and he that has 
not, struggles to acquire. The poor seek helpy 
and the rich hide their wealthy and every man 
laughs at his fellow. Those that are drunken 
are stupefied, and those that have recovered 
themselves are ashamed.^ Some weep, and some 
sing ; and some laugh, and others are a prey to 
care. They rejoice in things evil, and a man 
that speaks the truth they despise. 

Should a man, then, be surprised when the 
world is seeking to wither him with its scorn, 
seeing that they and he have not one and the 
same manner of life ? " These " are the things for 
which they care. One of them is looking for- 
ward to the time when in battle he shall obtain 
the renown of victory ; yet the valiant perceive 
not by how many foolish objects of desire a man 
is led captive in the world. But would that for 
a little while self-repentance visited them ! For, 
while victorious by their bravery, they are over- 
come by the power of covetousness. For I 
have made trial of men, and with this result : 
that the one thing on which they are intent, is 
abundance of riches. Therefore also it is that 
they have no settled purpose ; but, through the 
instabiUty of their minds, a man is of a sudden 
cast down from his elation of spirit to be swal- 
lowed up with sadness. They look not at the 
vast wealth of eternity, nor consider that every 
visitation of trouble is conducting us all alike to 
the same final period. For they are devoted to 
the majesty of the belly, that huge blot on ^ 
character of the vicious. 

Moreover, as regards this letter which it has 
come into my mind to write to thee, it is not 
enough to read it, but the best thing is diat it 
be put in practice.* For I know for myself 
that when thou shalt have made experiment of 

9 Or *' moderatioa." 

6 Curetoo: "dumb." The word |^|^ has both senses. 
» Or "penitent" 

' So Dr. Payne Smith, who is inclined to take OLS >e|.Q^ in 
the sense, " It goes before, it is best, with respect to it." Cureton 
translates, " it should also proceed to practice," joining )ooiJ with 
the participle just mentioned; whereas Dr. Smith connects it with 
|| nSo?. thus; "but that it should be >w/ la practice is best with 
reqtect to it." 



this mode of life, it will be very pleasant to 
thee, and thou wilt be free from sore vexation ; 
because it is only on account of children that 
we tolerate riches.' 

Put, therefore, sadness away from thee, O 
most beloved of mankind, — a thing which never 
in anywise benefits a man ; and drive care away 
from thee, which brings with it no advantage 
whatsoever. For we have no resource or skill 
that can avail us — nothing but a great mind 
able to cope with the disasters and to endure the 
tribulations which we are always receiving at the 
hands of the times. For at these things does it 
behove us to look, and not only at those which 
are fraught with rejoicing and good repute. 

Devote thyself to wisdom, the fount of all 
things good, the treasure that faileth not. There 
shalt thou lay thy head, and be at ease. For 
this shall be to thee father and mother, and a 
good companion for thy life. 

Enter into closest intimacy with fortitude and 
patience, those virtues which are able successfully 
to encounter the tribulations that befall feeble 
men. For so great is their strength, that they 
are adequate to sustain hunger, and can endure 
thirst, and mitigate every trouble. With toil, 
moreover, yea even with dissolution, they make 
right merry. 

To these things give diligent attention, and 
thou 'shalt lead an untroubled life, and I also 
shall have comfort,* and thou shalt be called 
" the delight of his parents." 

For in that time of yore, when our city was 
standing in her greatness, thou mayest be aware 
that against many persons among us abomi- 
nable words were uttered ; but for ourselves,^ we 
acknowledged long ago that we received love, 
no less than honour, to the fullest extent from 
the multitude of her people : it was the state of 
the times o?ily that forbade our completing those 
things which we had resolved on doing.* And 
here also in the prison-house we give thanks to 
God that we have received the love of many : 
for we are striving to our utmost to maintain a 
life of sobriety and cheerfulness ; 5 and, if any 

* This appears to show that the life of learned seclusion which 
he has been recommendine is one of celibacy — monasticism. 

2 Or, " and thou shalt oe to me a comfort/' as Curcton. 

3 That is, "myself." 

< Such appears to be the sense of this obscure passage. The 
literal rendering is, " We acknowledged of old that we received equal 
love and honour to the fullest extent from her multitude " (or, from 
her greatness) ; " but the time forbade our completing those things 
which were already accomplished in our mind." What things he 
refers to (for his words seem to have a particular reference) is not 
clear. The word rendered "greatness," or " multitude," is in reality 
two words in pointeli mss. Here it does not appear, except from the 
sense, which is intended. 

s Lit., " We are putting ourself to the proof to see how far we 
can stand in wisdom," etc. 

one drive us by force, he will but be bearing pub- 
lic testimony against himself, that he is estranged 
from all things good, and he will receive disgrace 
and shame from the foul mark of shame that is 
upon him. For we have shown our truth — that 
truth which in our now ruined kingdom we pos- 
sessed not.^ But, if the Romans shall permit us 
to go back to our own country, as called upon by 
justice and righteousness to do^ they will be act- 
ing like humane men, and will earn the name of 
good and righteous, and at the same time wUl 
have a peaceful country in which to dwell : for 
they will exhibit their greatness when they shall 
leave us free men, and we shall be obedient to 
the sovereign power which the time has allotted 
to us. But let them not, like tyrants, drive us 
as though we were slaves. Yet, if it has been 
already determined what shall be done, we shall 
receive nothing more dreadful than the peaceful 
death which is in store for us. 

But thou, my little son, if thou resolve dili- 
gently to acquaint thyself with these things, fiist 
of all put a check on appetite, and set limits 
to that in which thou art induing. Seek the 
power to refrain from being angry ; and, instead 
of yielding to outbursts of passion, listen to dit 
promptings of kindness. 

For myself, what I am henceforth solidtoo 
about is this — that^ so far as I have recoDectioas 
of the pas tf I may leave behind me a book r*f- 
taining them, and with a prudent mind finish the 
journey which I am appointed to take^ and d^ 
part without suffering out of the sad afHictioos 
of the world. For my prayer is, that I may re- 
ceive my dismissal ; and by what kind of death 
concerns me not. But, if any one should be 
troubled or anxious about this^ I have no counsel 
to give him : for yonder, in the dwelling-place 
of all the world, will he find us before him. 

One of his friends asked Mara, son of Sera- 
pion, when in bonds at his side : " Nay, by thy 
life, Mara, tell me what cause of laughter thou 
hast seen, that thou laughest." " I am laughing." 
said Mara, " at Time ; ^ inasmuch as, althougn 
he has not borrowed any evil from me, he is pay- 
ing me back." 

Here endeth the letter of Mara, son of Sen- 

6 "This b a very hopdess passage. . . . PfeAaps the coda bs 

— Lm^QJ0i * the kingdom of our ruin/ Lc, the ruined coo«nr ° 

which we used to dwell. For possibly it refers to what be to* **" 
before about the ruined greatness of his city, captured by the R***^ 
I suppose Mara was a Persian." — Db. Paykb SiiniL 

7 Or,** the time." 



RIAL* which Ambrose, a chief man of 
x)te : who became a Christian, and all 
^nators raised an outcry against him ; 
1 fh>m them, and wrote and pointed 
n all their foolishness, 
ig his discourse,' he answered and 

ot, men of Greece, that my separation 
customs has been made without a just 
• reason. For I acquainted myself with 
sdom, consisting of poetry, of oratory, 
)hy ; and when I found not there any- 
*abU to what is right, or that is worthy 
ne nature, I resolved to make myself 
[ with the wisdom of the Christians also, 
n and see who they are, and when they 
rise, and what is the nature of t\m new 
e wisdom of theirs,^ or on what good 
t who are imbued with it rely, that they 
that which is true. 

Greece, when I came to examine the 
writings, I found not any folly s in them, 
und in the celebrated Homer, who has 
iming the wars of the two trials : * 
3f Helen, many of the Greeks perished 
vay from their beloved home."^ For, 
we are told * concerning Agamemnon 
that by reason of the foolishness of 
r Menelaus, and the violence of his 

e has mtsch in common with the DUcourst to tkt 
r rp^t'EAAiivaf), ascribed by many to Justin, which is 
A. L pp. 971-073 of this senes. Two thin^ seem to 
That neither of the two pieces is the origmal compo> 
contains something not found in the other ; (a) That the 
. Greek : ibr the Syriac has in some instanora evidently 
lie Greek, 
k itvoii-vinLara, 

I in the beginning of his words.** 
U is the newness and strangjeness of h.** 
also means " sin; ** and this notion is the more promi- 
in what follows. 

cult to assign any satisfactory meaning to the word 
hich appears, however, to be the reading of the MS., 

ndeavours to justify the rendering given. *' Calamities," 
d will also heax. seons no easier of explanation. If we 
ie meaning to be " nations'* (natiffngs), a word simi- 
that found m the text, explaining it of heathen peoples, 
. Testullian, De idol., aa, " per deos nationum"), this 
neet the difficulty. But diere is no trace in this com- 
//M influence: if a foreign word smM^ be used, we should 
)ected the Greek iBvn, 

ry say. 

madness, and the uncontrollable nature of his pas- 
sion, he resolved to go and rescue Helen from 
the hands of a certain leprous 9 shepherd ; and 
afterwards, when the Greeks had become victo- 
rious in the war, and burnt cities, and taken wo- 
men and children captive, and the land was filled 
with blood, and the rivers with corpses, Agamem- 
non himself also was found to be taken captive 
by his passion for Briseis. Patroclus, again, we 
are told, was slain, and Achilles, the son of the 
goddess Thetis, mourned over him ; Hector was 
dragged along the ground, and Priam and Hecuba 
together were weeping over the loss of their chil- 
dren ; Astyanax, the son of Hector, was thrown 
down from the walls of Ilion, and his mother 
Andromache the mighty Ajax bore away into cap- 
tivity ; and that which was taken as booty was 
after a little while, all squandered in sensual in- 

Of the wiles of Odysseus the son of Laertes, 
and of his murders, who shall tell the tale ? For 
of a hundred and ten suitors did his house in 
one day become the grave, and it was filled with 
corpses and blood. He, too, /'/ was that by his 
wickedness gained the praises of men, because 
through his pre-eminence in craft he escaped 
detection ; he, too, // was who, you say, sailed 
upon the sea, and heard not the voice of the 
Sirens only because he stopped his ears with wax.'° 

The famous Achilles, again, the son of Peleus, 
who bounded across the river, and routed '* the 
Trojans, and slew Hector, — this said hero of 
yours became the slave of Philoxena, and was 
overcome by an Amazon as she lay dead and 
stretched upon her bier ; and he put off his ar- 
mour, and arrayed himself in nuptial garments, 
and finally fell a sacrifice to love. 

9 It has been proposed to substitute in the Greek copy Aisropov, 
dainty," for Atirpot;. But the Syriac confirms the MS. reatung. 

The term is thought to be expressive of the contempt in which shep- 
herds were held. See vol. i. p. aji, note x. 

10 In the Greek this is adduced as an evUenoe of hit weakness: 
" because he was unable to stop his ears by ku self-control 

" ^1^^^ t^ reading of the text, which can only mean " Bed," 
is manifestly bcorrect The Aphel of this veib, > **iMi " caused 


to fl^,** is suggested by Dr. Payne Smith, who also proposes 
" exstirpavit." 





Thus much concerning your great " men 

»» I 

and thou, Homer, hadst deserved forgiveness, if 
thy silly story-telling had gone so far only as to 
prate about men, and not about the gods. As for 
what he says about the gods, I am ashamed even 
to speak of it : for the stories that have been in- 
vented about them are very wicked and shock- 
ing \ passing strange,' too, and not to be believed ; 
and, if the truth must be told,3 fit only to be 
laughed at. For a person will be compelled to 
laugh when he meets with them, and will not be- 
lieve them when he hears them. For Ihink of 
gods who did not one of them observe the laws 
of rectitude, or of purity, or of modesty, but 
were adulterers, and spent their time in de- 
bauchery, and yet were not condemned to death, 
as they ought to have been ! 

Why, the sovereign of the gods, the very 
" father of gods and men," not only, as ye say, 
was an adulterer (this was but a light thing), but 
even slew his own father, and was a paederast. 
I will first of all speak of his adultery, though I 
blush to do so: for he app>eared to Antiope as a 
satyr, and descended upon Danae as a shower 
of gold, and became a bull for Europa, and a 
swan for Leda \ whilst the love of Semele, the 
mother of Dionysus, exposed both his own ar- 
dency of passion and the jealousy of the chaste 
Hera. Ganymede the Phrygian, too, he carried 
off disguised as an eagle, that the fair and come- 
ly boy, forsooth, might serve as cup-bearer to 
him. This said sovereign of the gods, moreover, 
killed his father Kronos, that he might seize upon 
his kingdom. 

Oh ! to how many charges is the sovereign of 
the gods amenable,'* and how many deaths does 
he deserve to die, as an adulterer, and as a sor- 
cerer,5 and as a paederast ! Read to the sover- 
eign of the gods, O men of Greece, the law 
concerning parricide, and the condemnation pro- 
nounced on adultery, and about the shame that 
attaches to the vile sin of paederasty. How 
many adulterers has the sovereign of the gods in- 
doctrinated in sin! Nay, how many paederasts, 
and sorcerers, and murderers ! So that, if a man 
be found indulging his passions, he must not be 
put to death : because he has done this that he 
may become like the sovereign of the gods ; and, 
if he be found a murderer, he has an excuse in 
the sovereign of the gods ; and, if a man be a 
sorcerer, he has learned it from the sovereign of 
the gods ; and, if he be a paederast, the sover- 
eign of the gods is his apologist. Then, again, 

translation of ^^os^, which b 

* Or, "^/>«r heroes." 
^ This is not intended as a 

literally "conquered." Dr. Pa>rne Smith thinks it just possible that 
there was in the Greek some derivative of vn-cp^oAAw s= " to surpass 
belief/' which the Syrian translator misunderstood. 

^ This is coniectured to be the meaning of what would be Uteially 
rendered, " et ia quod coactum est." 

* Lit., " of how many censures is . . . full." 

s Since he could change his form to suit his purpose. 

if one should speak of couragey Achilles vis 
more valiant that this said sovereign of the gods : 
for he slew the man that slew his friend ; but the 
sovereign of the gods wept over Sarpedon his 
son when he was dying, being distressed f0r 

Pluto, again, who is a god, carried off Roia,^ 
and the mother of Kora was hurrying hither and 
thither searching for her daughter in all desot 
places ; and, although Alexander P^iris, when he 
had carried off Helen, paid the penal^ of ven- 
geance, as having made himse^ her lover bj 
force, yet Pluto, who is a god, when he canied 
off Kora, remained without rebuke ; and, alihmt^ 
Menelaus, who is a man, knew how to search for 
Helen his wife, yet Demeter, who b a goddes^ 
knew not where to search for Kora her daugh- 

Let Hephaestus put away jealousy from him, 
and not indulge resentment.' For he 
hated,^ because he was old and lame; while 
Ares was loved, because he was a youth aod 
beautiful in form. There was, however, a re- 
proof administered in respect of the adoheij. 
Hephaestus was not, indeed, at first aware of 
the love existing between Venus 9 his wife and 
Ares; but, when he did become acquainted 
with it, Hephaestus said : " Come, see a ridioh 
lous and senseless piece of behaviour — how to 
me, who am her own, Venus, the daughter of 
the sovereign of the gods, is offering in«ilt— to ^• 
me, / sayy who am her own, and is paying hoooar 
to Ares, who is a stranger to her." But to the 
sovereign of the gods it was not displeasing : fe 
he loved such as were like these. Penelope, 
moreover, remained a widow twenty years, be- 
cause she was expecting the return of her hus- 
band Odysseus, and busied herself with cunning 
tasks, *° and persevered in works of skill, while aH 1 
those suitors kept pressing her to marry them: \ 
but Venus, who is a goddess, when Hephsestns 
her husband was close to her, deserted hina, b^ i 
cause she was overcome by love for Ares. Heark- 
en, men of Greece : which of you would hast \ 
dared to do this, or would even have endured to i 
see it ? And, if any one " should ** dare to act if ^ \ 
what torture would be in store for him, or what 
scourgings ! 

Kronos, again, who is a god, who devoured all 
those children of his, was not even brought be- 
fore a court of justice. They further tell us that 
the sovereign of the gods, his son, was the only 

6 That is, " the Daughter" ^namely, of Demeter), iIk 
der which Proserpine was worshipped in Attica. 

7 Because the behaviour of wiuch be had to '^^""pt*''' was 
tioned by the highest of the gods. 

• For ^f»*i^] " was tried," read . ^^««» /| The Greek ba» 

fitfilariTo. Cureton: "forgotten." 

9 The word is " Balthi." 

lo Dr. Payne Smith reads {Jil^^ instead of (^^^^ 
word which, as Cureton says, is noc in the Irriront. 




;(Mara, son of Serapion, p. 7354 

I CANNOT withhold fix)m the student the valuable hints concerning ** the dialect of Edessa " bf 
which Professor Ndldke ' corrects the loose ideas of Mommsen, more especially because tbe 
fresh work of Mommsen will soon be in our hands, and general credit will be attached to specioai 
representations which are sure to have a bearing on his ulterior treatment of Christianity and te 
Roman Empire. 

Of the Syriac language Professor Noldke says : — 

" It was the living language of Syria which here appears as the language of writing. In Syria it had long ago 
been compeUed to yield to the Greek as the official language^ but private writings were certainly yet to a grot 
extent written in Aranuic. We cannot lay much stress upon the fact that the respectable citizen in the Oriem 
would have the schoolmaster of the village compose a Greek inscription for his tomb, of which he undonbtedlj 
understood but little himself. And what a Greek this often was 1 That no books written by Aramaic Gentiles have 
been preserved for us, does not decide against the existence of the Aramaic as the language of literature in dot 
day ; for how could such Gentile works have been preserved for us ? To this must be added, that thai partiadar 
dialect which afterward became the common literary language of Aramaic Christendom — namely ^ that of Edessa^ 
certainly had in the Gentile period already been used for literary purposes. The official report of the great flood 
in the year 201, which is prefixed to the Edessa Chronicles, is written by a Gentile. To the same time must be 
ascribed the letter, written in good Edessan language by the finely educated MarA bar Serapion, from the ne^ 
bouring Samosata, who, notwithstanding his good-will toward youthful Christianity, was no Christian, but xtpn- 
sented rather the ethical stand-point of the Stoicism so popular at that time. The fixed settling of Syriac orthoj^ 
raphy must have taken place at a much earlier period than the hjrmns of Bardesanes and his school, which aie 
for us very old specimens of that language, since these hymns represent a versification much younger than the 
stage of development which is presupposed in this orthography. In general, it must be granted that the dialed 
of Edessa had been thoroughly developed already in pre-Christian times ; otherwise, it could not have been so fixed 
and firm in writing and forms of expression. And the Syriac Dialogue on FatCy which presupposes throughout 
the third century, treats of scientific questions, according to Greek models, with such precision that we again see 
that this was not the beginning, but rather the close, of a scientific Syriac literature, which flourished alreadj 
when there were but few or possibly no Christians there. Of course I recognise, with Mommsen, that Edessa | 
offered a better protection to the national language and literature than did the cities of Syria proper; but circHB- 
stances were not altogether of a different nature in this regard in Haleb, Hems, and Damascus than they vere 
in Edessa and Jerusalem. If, as is known, the common mass spoke Aramaic in the metropolitan city of Antiochta, 
it cannot safely be accepted that in the inland districts the Greek was not the language of the * educated,* but oolj 
of those who had sp>ecially learned it. The Macedonian and Greek colonists have certainly only in a very small 
part retained this language in those districts down to the Roman period. In most cases they have been io } 
minority from the beginning over against the natives. Further, as the descendants of old soldiers, they caa 
scarcely be regarded as the called watchmen of Greek customs and language." 


(No verb is found in the lexicons, etc., note 3, p. 737.) 

The study of Syriac is just beginning to be regarded as only less important to the theologian 
than that of the Hebrew. The twain will be found a help, each to the other, if one pursues the 
study of the cognate languages together. In fact, the Book of Daniel demands such a prepara- 
tion for its enjoyment and adequate comprehension.* Let me commend to every reader the 

* For previous quotations refer to p. 721, supra. 

* It must not be inferred that I speak as a Syriac scholar. I have k^ured uosuooMsfuOf , «ad lale in Ufe, Co lepwr mj t$d ae^ect at 
Ma earlier period; and I can speak only as a penitent. 



admirable example of Beveridge, who at eighteen yeais of age produced a grammar of the Syriac 
language, and also a Latin essay on the importance of cultivating this study, as that of the ver- 
nacular of our Lord Himself. This little treatise is worthy of careful reading ; and right worthy 
of note is the motto which he prefixed to it, — " Estote imitatores mei, sicut et ego sum ChrisH ^ 
(i Cor. xi. i). 

When one thinks of the difficulties even yet to be overcome in mastering the language, — the 
want of a complete lexicon, etc.,' — it is surprising to think of Beveridge's pioneer labours in extreme 
youth. Gutbir's Lexicon Syriacum had not yet appeared, nor his edition of the Peshito, which 
preceded it, though Brian Walton's great name and labours were his noble stimulants. Nobody 
can read the touching account which Gutbir ' gives of his own enthusiastic and self-sacrificing 
work, without feeling ashamed of the slow progress of Oriental studies in the course of two cen- 
turies since the illustrious Pocock gave his grand example to English scholarship. All honour to 
our countryman Dr. Murdock, who late in life entered upon this charming pursuit, and called on 
others to follow him.' May I not venture to hope that even these specimens of what may be 
reaped fix>m the field of Aramaic literature may inspire my young countrymen to take the lead in 
elucidating the Holy Scriptures firom this almost unopened storehouse of ** treasures new and old " ? 

* Dean Piiyoe Smith has aawimwl die imfinlshed task of Bernstein. 

> See his FkefiKe to the Testament, pahlished at Hamburg a.d. 1664. He had the type cot at his personal expense, and set up the 
and lodged the printers in his own house. 
< See his translation of the Peshito Sjriac Tersion, Stanford & Swords (Bishop Hobart's publishers). New York, 1855. 


; ^ 







Under the title of Fragments of the Second and Third Centuries are grouped together, in the 
•dinburgh series, a mass of valuable illustrative material, which might have been distributed with 
reat advantage through the former volumes, in strict order of chronology. Something is due, 
lowever, to the unity of authorship, and to the marked design of the editors of the origin^d 
•dition to let these Fragments stand together, as the work of then: accomplished collaborator, the 
iev. B. P. Pratten, with whose skill and erudition our readers are already familiar.' 

I have contented myself, therefore, with giving approximate order and continuity, on chrono- 
ogical grounds, to the series of names subjoined. Bardesanes has been eliminated here, and 
Placed more appropriately with the Syriac authors. The reader will find references which may 
lid him in seeking further information. Some of these names are of lasting value and interest 
n the Church. I prefer to call these " Fragments " their " Remains." 

To each of the following names I have prefixed some details of information, with such dates 
s the learned supply. 

The following is the 


The fragments that follow are the productions of writers who lived during the second century 
r the beginning of the third. Little is known of the writers, and the statements made in regard 
' them are often very indefinite, and the result of mere conjecture. 

1. Quadratus was one of the first of the Christian apologists. He is said to have presented 
s apology to Hadrian while the emperor was in Athens attending the celebration of the Eleu- 
:iian mysteries. 

2. Aristo of Fella, a Jew, was the author of a work called The Disputation of yason and 
^^scus. Nothing further is known of him. He flourished in the first half of the second 

3. Melito was bishop of Sardis, and flourished in the reign of Marcus Aurelius. He wrote 
^ny works, but all of them have perished except a few fragments. The genuineness of the 
Tiac firagments is open to question. 

4. Hegesippus also flourished in the time of Antoninus Pius and Marcus Atu^lius. He is 
e first ecclesiastical historian ; but his book was rather notes for an ecclesiastical history, than a 

5. Dionysius was bishop of Corinth in the reign of Marcus Aurelius. He wrote letters to 
tious churches. 

s See vol U. (p. las), etc 



6. Rhodon went from Asia to Rome, and became a pupil of Tatian. After the lapse of 
master into heresy he remained true to the faith, and wrote against heretics. 

7. Maximus flourished about the same time as Rhodon, under the emperors Conmiodus and 

8. Claudius Apollinaris was bishop of Hierapolis, and presented a defence of the Christians 
to Marcus Aurelius. He wrote many important works, of which we have only a few fragments. 

9. Polycrates was bishop of Ephesus. He took part in the controversy on the F^issover 
question. He died about 200 a.d. 

10. Theophilus was bishop of Cassarea. He was a contemporary of Poljrcrates, and, like 
him, engaged in the Passover controversy. 

1 1. Serapion was ordained bishop of Antioch aj>. 190, but almost no other fact of his life is 
known. He wrote several works. 

12. ApoUonius wrote a work against the Montanists, probably in the year aj>, sio. This is 
all that is known of him. 

13. Ptotsenus, probably a Sicilian by birth, passed from Stoicism to Christianity, and went to 
Judaea to proclaim the truth. He returned to Alexandria, and became president of the catechetical 
school there, in which post he remained till his death, which took place about the year 212 aj). 

14. 7>l^ I^Uer of the Churches in Vienne and Lyons was written shortly after the persecution 
in Gaul, which took place in a.d. 177. It is not known who is the author. Some have supposed 
that Irenaeus wrote it, but there is no historical testimony to this effect 




[aj>. 1 26.] Quadratus * is spoken of by Eusebius as a '' man of understanding and of Apostolic 
aith." And he celebrates Aristides as a man of similar character. These were the earliest apolo- 
lists ; both addressed their writings to Hadrian, and they were extant and valued in the churches 
Q the time of Eusebius. 


Our Saviour's works, moreover, were always 
)resent : for they were real, consisting of those 
rho had been healed of their diseases, those 
irho had been raised from the dead ; who were 
lot only seen whilst they were being healed and 

raised up, but were afterwards constantly pres- 
ent. Nor did they remain only during the 
sojourn of the Saviour on garth, but also a con- 
siderable time after His departure ; and, indeed,, 
some of them have survived even down to our 
own times.4 


[a.d. 140.] Aristo of Pella ' is supposed to have been a Jew, whose work was designed to help^ 
he failing Judaism of his coimtry. Though his work is lost, alike the original and the Latin 
tanslation of one '' Celsus," it seems to have been a popular tract among Christians of Cypi:ian's^ 
ime, and the Latin preface is often suffixed to editions of that Father. 

The work of Aristo is known as the Disputation of Papiscus and yason^ and Celsus tells us 
hat Jason was a Hebrew Christian, while his opponent was a Jew of Alexandria. Now, Papiscus 
i¥ns himself convinced by the arguments of Jason, and concludes by a request to be baptized. 
Telsus, who seems to have been a heathen or an Epicurean, derides the work with scornful com- 
:iiseration ; but Origen rebukes this, and affirms his respect for the work. All this considered, 
ne must think Aristo was ''almost persuaded to be a Christian," and deserves a place among. 
Christian writers. 


** I remebiber," says Jerome {Comm. ad GaL, 
vp. iii. comm. 13), "in iht Dispute between 
^4is0n and Papiscus^ which is composed in 
xeek,, to have found it written : ' The execra- 
:>n of God is he that is hanged.' 



Jerome likewise, in his Hebrew Questions on^ 
Genesis y says : " In the beginning God made the 
heaven and the earth. The majority believe, as 
it is affirmed also in the Dispute between Jason 
and Papiscus, and as Tertullian in his book 

s BatieeLiglidbot,^./l,partfi.voLLp. 04. 

a OnQoadnumaodAzistideSyOOiisiiURoiiSifi?. J.,p.7iS alio 
^9JbeOft,On tht Canom,ja, 09. 
3 In EmcMiii, Ifitt, Jua., hr. 3. 

4 [Westcott suppoaes the Dioputut of Matbetes (voL i. p. 93) 
may be the work ot Quadratus; Canons P* 96.] 

s Routh. R, S., voL L p. 93. Westcott, Comoh, p. zo6. Gtabe's 
mentkm. Routh's «tiiicnwfcn, in amurtatioiis, it motC leamed and. 



Against Praxeas contends, and as Hilarius too, 
in his exposition of one of the Psahns, declares, 
that in the Hebrew it is : 'In the Son, God made 
the heaven and the earth.' But that this is false, 
the nature of the case itself proves." 


. . . And when the man himself' who had 
instigated them ' to this folly had paid the just 
pen^ty (says Eusebius, ^w/., iv. 6), " the whole 
nation from that time was strictly forbidden to 
set foot on the region about Jerusalem, by the 
formal decree and enactment of Adrian, who 
commanded that they should not even from a 
distance look on their native soil 1 " So writes 
Aristo of Pella. 


I have found this expression Seven heavens 
(says Maximus, in Scholia on the work conetrmi^ 
the Mystical Theology , ascribed to Dionysius the 
Areopagite, cap. i.) also in the Dispute between 
Fapiscus and Jason, written by Aristo of Pdla, 
which Clement of Alexandria, in the sixth book 
of the Outlines f^ says was composed by Saint 


Thus writes Origen .* * . . . in which hook a 
Christian is represented disputing with a Jew 
from the Jewish Scriptures, and showing that the 
prophecies concerning the Christ apply to Jesas; 
although his opponent addresses himself to the 
argument with no common ability,^ and in % 
manner not unbefitting his Jewish character. 


[a.d. 160-170-177.]* Melito^ may have been the immediate successor of the "angel" (or 
" apostle ") of the church of Sardis, to whom our Great High Priest addressed one of the apocalyptic 
messages. He was an " Apostolic Father " in point of fact ; he very probably knew the blessed Poly- 
carp and his disciple Irenaeus. He is justly revered for the diligence with which he sought oat 
the evidence which, in his day, established the Canon of the Old Testament, then just complete. 

In the following fragments we find him called Bishop of Sardis, Bishop of Attica, and Bishop 
of Ittica. He is also introduced to us as "the Philosopher," and we shall find him styled "the 
Eunuch " by Polycrates. It is supposed that he had made himself a coelebs " for the kingdom 
of heaven's sake," without mistaking our Lord's intent, as did Origen. He was not a monk, but 
accepted a single estate to be the more free and single-eyed in the Master's service. From the 
encyclopedic erudition of Lightfoot we glean some particulars, as follows : — 

1. I have adopted his date, as Lightfoot gives it, — that is, the period of his writings, — under 
the Antonines. The improbability of seventy years in the episcopate is reason enough for reject- 
ing the idea that he was himself the " angel of the church of Sardis," to whom our Lord sent the 
terrible rebuke. 

2. His silence concerning persecutions under Vespasian, Trajan, and Antoninus Pius cannot 
be pleaded to exempt them from this stain, against positive evidence to the contrary. 

3. A coincidence with Ignatius to the Ephesians ^ will be noted hereafter. 

4. Melito, with Claudius Apollinaris and even Polycrates, may have been personally acquainted 
with Ignatius ; ^ of course, one with another. These lived not far from Smyrna ; Asia Minor was, 
in the first century, the focus of Christian activity. 

5. We know of his visit to the East from his own account, preserved by Eusebius. The 
Christians of proconsular Asia were accustomed to such journeys. Even Clement of Alexandria 
may have met him, as he seems to have met Tatian and Theodotus.9 

6. Melito vouches for the rescript of Hadrian, *° but his supposed reference to the edict of 
Antoninus does not bear close scrutiny as warrant for its authenticity." 

The Jews. 
Contra Celsum, iv. 5a. 

^ Routh, R. S., vol. i. p. 1x3. And see Westcott, Canon, p. t45. 

7 Lightfoott A. F.f vol. ii. p. 48. 

' lb., vol. i. p. 428. 

9 Vol. ii. {Stromata) j). 30X, this 

*o Vol. i. p. 186, this series. 

" Lightfoot, A. F,y vol. i. p. 468. 


Vpology of our author was addressed to Aurelius in his mid-career as a sovereign, 

70. Justin, Melito, Athenagoras, and Theophilus all tell the same sad story of im- 

^ Even when Justin wrote to Antoninus^ Marcus was supreme in the councils of the 


ecame a martyr, probably tmder Marcus Aurelius, circa A.D. 177;* some eminent 

3ven dated his Apology as late as this. 


to speak as follows : — 
•t easy," said Melito, " speedily to 
e right way the man who has a long 
sly been held fest by error. It may, 
J eflfected : for, when a man turns 
little from error, the mention of the 
sptable to him. For, just as when 
eaks ever so little there comes fair 
Q so, when a man turns toward God, 
•ud of error which deprived him of 
is quickly withdrawn from before 
rror, like disease *♦ and sleep, long 
ose who come under its influence ; 5 
es the word as a goad, and smites 
2rs, and awakens them; and when 
ke they look at the truth, and also 
it: they hear, and distinguish that 
Dm that which is not. For there 
10 call iniquity righteousness : they 
icample, that it is righteousness for a 
rith the many. But I, for my part, 
is not a good excuse y2?r error that 
with the many. For, if one man 
s sin is great: how much greater 
in when many sin together/ 
t sin of which I speak is this : when 
dons that which really exists, and 
vhich does not really exist. There 
2h really exists, and it is called God. 
*ally exists, and by His power doth 
ubsist. This being is in no sense 
lid He ever come into being; but 
ted from eternity, and will continue 
ever and ever. He changeth not, 
ling else changes. No eye 7 can see 
5ught apprehend Him, nor language 
a ; and those who love Him speak 
: ' Father, and God of Truth.* 

^If, therefore, a man forsake the light, and 
say that there is another God, it is plain from 
what he himself says that it is some created 
thing which he calls God. For, if a man call 
fire God, it is not God, because it is fire ; and, 
if a man call water God, it is not God, because 
it is water ; and, if he so call this earth on which 
we tread, or these heavens which are seen by us, 
or the sun, or the moon, or some one of these 
stars which run their course without ceasing by 
Divine command, and do not speed along by 
their own will, neither are these gods ; and, if a 
man call gold and silver gods, are not these ob- 
jects things which we use as we please ? and, if 
he so call those pieces of wood which we bum, 
or those stones which we break, how can these 
things be gods ? For, lo ! they are for the use 
of man. How can * they ' escape the commission 
of great sin, who in their speech change the 
great God into those things which, so long as 
they continue, continue by Divine command ? 

" But, notwithstanding this, I say that so long 
as a man does not hear, and so does not discern 
or imderstand that there is a Lord over these 
creatures, he is not perhaps to be blamed : be- 
cause no one finds fault witii a blind man though 
he walk ever so badly. For, in the same man- 
ner as the blindy so men also, when they were 
seeking after God, stumbled upon stones and 
blocks of wood ; and such of them as were rich 
stumbled upon gold and silver, and were pre- 
vented by their stumblings from finding that 
which they were seeking after. But, now that 
a voice has been heard through all the earth,^ 
declaring that there is a God of truth, and there 
has been given to every man an eye wherewith 
to see, those persons are without excuse who are 
ashamed of incurring the censure ^ their former 
companions in error, and yet desire to walk in 
the right way. For those who are ashamed to 
be saved must of necessity perish. I therefore 
counsel them to open their eyes and see : for, 
lo ! light is given abundantly 9 to us all to see 
thereby ; and if, when light has arisen upon us. 

. F., vol. u. 

Ls delivtrtd in the presence . . . and in which 
rs to be the sense intended, and is that given by 
mo qui (actus est." Cureton renders, " Who was in 
," and supposes that Melito first saw and conversed 
and afterwards wrote this discourse. Melito speaks 
ice as written. This view, however, does not dis- 
at Melito is here affirmed to have '* exhorted (lit., 
tc." It was deariy meant to be understood that 

the discourse, or speteh, was spoken : the references to writing merely 
show that it was written, either before or after the delivery. 

4 Cureton: " passion." The word |^^a takes both mf nhigt. 

5 Lit. "scjoum beneath it." 

6 Cureton: " act foolishly.'' 

* Comp. Kom. X. z8. 

9 Cureton: ** li^t without envy.** But the expfCMioQ le^emfalit 
the Ok. i^rMf , ungnidgingly, indiout stint. 



any one close his eyes so as not to see, into the 
ditch he must go.' But why is a man ashamed 
of the censure of those who have been in error 
along with himself? Rather does it behove him 
to persuade them to follow in his steps ; and, if 
they should not be persuaded by him, then to 
disengage himself from their society. For there 
are some men who are unable to rise from their 
mother earth, and therefore also do they make 
them gods from the earth their mother; and 
they are condemned by the judgments of truth, 
forasmuch as they apply the name of Him who 
is unchangeable to those objects which are sub- 
ject to change, and shrink not from calling those 
things gods which have been made by the hands 
of man, and dare to make an image of God 
whom they have not seen. 

" But I have to remark further, that the Sibyl' 
also has said concerning them that it is the im- 
ages of deceased kings that they worship. And 
this is easy to understand : for, lo ! even now 
they worship and honour the images of those of 
Caesarean rank^ more than their former gods; 
for from those their former gods both pecuniary 
tribute and produce accrue to Caesar, as to one 
who is greater than they. On this account, 
those who despise them, and so cause Caesar's 
revenue to fall short, are put to death. But to 
the treasury of other kings also it is appointed 
how much the worshippers in various places shall 
pay, and how many vesselfuls* of water from 
the sea they shall supply. Such is the wicked- 
ness of the world — of those who worship and 
fear that which has no sensation. Many of them, 
too, who are crafty, either for the sake of gain, 
or for vainglory, or for dominion over the multi- 
tude, both themselves worship, and incite those 
who are destitute of understanding to worship, 
that which has no sensation. 

" I will further write and show, as far as my 
ability goes, how and for what causes images 
were made to kings and tyrants, and how they 
came to be regarded 5 as gods. The people of 
Argos made images to Hercules, because he 
belonged to their city, and was strong, and by 
his valour slew noxious beasts, and more espe- 
cially because they were afraid of him. For he 
was subject to no control, and carried off the 
wives of many : for his lust was great, like that 
of Zuradi the Persian, his friend. Again, the 
people of Acte worshipped Dionysus,^ a king, 

» Lit. " lo the ditch is his way." Comp. Matt. xv. ijj. 
' See vol. i. p. 380, this series, where the following lines are 
quoted by Justin Martyr from the Sibylline Oracles : — 

" But we have strayed from the Tmmortal's ways. 
And worship with a dull and senseless mind 
Idols, the workmanship of our own hands, 
And images and figures of dead men." 

3 Cureton: " those belonging to the Csesan." But the Caesars 
themselves are clearly meant. 

4 Cureton: " sacks full." The first word is used of a leathern 
pouch or wallet, as in Luke x. 4 (Peshito) for inipo. 

3 Lit., '• they became." 

6 Cureton, without necessity, reads the word " Dionysius." 

because he had recently ' planted the Yine m 
their coimtry. The Egyptians worshipped JoKoh 
the Hebrew, who was called Serapis, becaoae he 
supplied them with com during die yean of 
fanune. The Athenians worshipped Athene, tbe 
daughter of Zeus, king of the island of Crete, 
because she built the town of Athens, and nude 
Ericthippus her son king there, whom she hid 
by adultery with Hephs^tus, a blacksmith, son 
of a wife of her father. She was, too, always 
courting the society of Hercules, becanae he 
was her brother on her father's side. For Zens 
the king became enamoured of Alcmene, titt 
wife of Electryon^ who was from Aigos, and 
committed adultery with her, and she gave faiitli 
to Hercules. The people of Phoenicia wor- 
shipped Balthi,^ queen of Cyprus, because she 
fell in love with Tamuz, son of Cuthar king of 
the Phoenicians, and left her own kingdom and 
came and dwelt in Gebal, a fortress of the FhoB- 
nicians, and at the same time made all die 
Cyprians subject to King Cuthar. Also, beibie 
Tamuz she had fallen in love with Ares, and 
committed adultery with him ; and Hephxstn^ 
her husband, caught her, and his jealousy was 
roused against her, and he came and kOkd 
Tamuz in Mount Lebanon, as he was hunting* 
wild boars ; and from that time Balthi remained 
in Gebal, and she died in the city of AphOd,*^ 
where Tamuz was buried. The Ellamites wa- 
shipped Nuh, daughter of the king of Elam: 
when the enemy had carried her captive, her 
father made for her an image and a temple in 
Shushan, a royal residence which is in Elam. 
The Syrians worshipped Athi, a Hadibite, who 
sent the daughter of Belat, a person skilled in 
medicine, and she healed Simi, the daughter 
of Hadad king of Syria ; and some time after- 
wards, when Hadad himself had the leprosf 
upon him, Athi entreated Elisha the Hebret, 
and he came and healed him of his leprosr. 
The people of Mesopotamia also worshipped 
Cuthbi, a Hebrew woman, because she delivoed 
Bakru, the paternal hing^^ of Edessa, from his 
enemies. With respect to Nebo, who is twf- 
shipped in Mabug, why should I write to yon? 
For, lo ! all the priests who are in Mabug kno^ 
that it is the image of Orpheus, a Thracia: 

7 Curetoq renders " originally." But oomp. Judith ir. 3, vbo* 
the same word answers to irpoo^rwf . 

8 Venus. 

9 Cuxeton's conjecture of I j i i* 1 ^ \\ • 4ii1 km \^»^ ^ 

been adopted. 

^o Some have identified it with Apheic, Josh, ziac 9a The rtss 
observed here were specially abominable. 

*' Cureton: *' the patriaan." Dr. Pajrne Smith, Tkes. Sjr.i^^ 
regards the word as equivalent to irari)p r^ iroAcM«,^/>r tmiuA: 
" a title of honour found in the Byzantine writers," and \s uicUoe'-t: 
think it a term belonging to the dialect of Ede«a^ A ixsAvi \s 
of the same adjective is quoted from Buxtorf, Lex. Ckald, T*^^ 
p. 13: " ^^3K cognomen K. Nachmanis, qui a celebritate hnaiat tf 

cognominatus est, quasi Pairitiu*.** This view appears 10 be <9{^ ! 
ported by the similar use of an adjective for a substantive «bo*e* 
^* persons of Caesarean rank," for *'^^ " 


before thee objects in great number, that thou 
on thy part mayest distinguish the nature oft^f^ 
thing and choose for thyself that which is good ; 
He has set before thee the heavens, and placed 
in them the stars ; He has set before thee the 
sun and the moon, and they too every day run 
their course therein; He has set before thee 
the multitude of waters, and restrained them by 
His word; He has set before thee the wide 
earth, which remains at rest, and continues be- 
fore thee without variation : ■ yet, lest thou 
shouldst suppose that of its own nature it so 
continues. He makes it also to quake when He 
pleaseth; He has set before thee the clouds, 
which by His command bring water from above 
and satisfy the earth — that from hence thou 
mayest understand that He who puts these things 
in motion is superior to them all, and mayest 
accept thankfully the goodness of Him who has 
given thee a mind whereby to distinguish these 
things from one another. 

"Wherefore I counsel thee to know thyself, 
and to know God. For understand how that 
there is within thee that which is called the 
soul — by it the eye seeth, by it the ear heareth, 
by it the mouth speaketh; and how it makes 
use of the whole body ; and how^ whenever He 
pleaseth to remove the soul from the body, this 
falleth to decay and perisheth. From this, there- 
fore, which exists within thyself and is invisible, 
understand how God also moveththe whole by 
His power, like the body ; and that, whenever 
it pleases Him to withdraw His power, the 
whole world also, like the body, will fall to decay 
and perish. 

" But why this world was made, and why it 
passes away, and why the body exists, and why 
it falls to decay, and why it continues, thou canst 
not know until thou hast raised thy head from 
this sleep in which thou art sunk, and hast opened 
thine eyes and seen that God is One, the Lord 
of all, and hast come to serve Him with all thy 
heart. Then will He grant thee to know His 
will : for every one that is severed from the 
knowledge of the living God is dead and buried 
ei^en while in his body. Therefore is it that 
thou dost wallow on the ground before demons 
and shadows, and askest vain petitions from that 
which has not anything to give. But thou, stand 
thou up from among those who are lying on the 
earth and caressing stones, and giving their sub- 
stance as food for the fire, and offering their 
raiment to idols, and, while themselves possessed 
of senses, are bent on serving that which has no 
sensation ; and offer thou for thy imperishable 
soul petitions for that which decayeth not, to 
God who suffers no decay — and thy freedom 
will be at once apparent ; and be thou careful of 

* Lit. " in one fashion." 

it,' and give thanks to God who made thee, and 
gave thee the mind of the free, that thou ndgfat- 
est shape thy conduct even as thou wilt He 
hath set before thee all these things, and shoveth 
thee that, if thou follow after evil, thou shalt be 
condemned for thy evil deeds ; but that, if after 
goodness, thou shalt receive fix>m Him abundant 
good,' together with immortal life for ever. 

''There is, therefore, nothing to hinder thee 
from changing thy evil manner of life, becanse 
thou art a free man ; or from seeking and find- 
ing out who is the Lord of all ; or from serving 
Him with all thy heart : because with Him there 
is no reluctance to give the knowledge of Him- 
self to those that seek it, according to the meas- 
ure of their capacity to know Him. 

" Let it be thy first care not to deceive thy- 
self. For, if thou sayest of that which is not 
God : This is God, thou deceivest thyself, and 
sinnest before the God of truth. Thou fod ! is 
that God which is bought and sold? Is that 
God which is in want? Is that God which must 
be watched over? How buyest thou him as a 
slave, and servest him as a master? How askest 
thou of him, as of one that is rich, to give to 
thee, and thyself givest to him as to one that ii 
poor? How dost thou expect of him that he 
will make thee victorious in battle ? for, lo ! when 
thy enemies have conquered thee, they strip him 

" Perhaps one who is a king may say : I can- 
not behave myself aright, because I am a king; 
it becomes me to do the will of the many. He 
who speaks thus really deserves to be laughed 
at : for why should not the king himself lead the 
way ^ to all good things, and persuade the people 
under his rule to behave with purity, and to knot 
God in truth, and in his own person set befofC 
them the patterns of all things excellent — since 
thus it becomes him to do ? For it is a shameful 
thing that a king, however badly he may conduct 
himself, should yet judge and condemn those 
who do amiss. 

" My opinion is this : that in * this ' way a king- 
dom may be governed in peace — when the sov- 
ereign is acquainted with the God of truth, and 
is withheld by fear of Him from doing wrong ^ 
to those who are his subjects, and judges every- 
thing with equity, as one who knows that he 
himself also will be judged before God ; while, 
at the same time, those who are imder his rule ' 
are withheld by the fear of God from doing 
wrong to their sovereign, and are restrained by 
the same fear from doing wrong to one another. 

» Or, " of what pertains to it." 
3 Lit. *' many good things." 
< Lit. " be the beginner?* 

^ Cureton is probably right in so taking the words, ahboofh <^ 
construction is not quite die sanw as in the similar sentenct a licl* 

below. If so, for oLl^ ivt must read 9lX^. 




r of circumcision among the children of senes, the Galileans, the Hemerobaptists, the 
Israel, held by those who were opposed to the Masbothsei, the Samaritans, the Sadducees, the 
bribe of Judah and to Christ : such as the Es- j I%arisees. 


[aj>. 1 70.1 Eusebius is ahnost diffiise in what he tells us of this Dionysius,' " who was appointed 
over the churcn at Corinth, and impaned &eely, not only to bis own people, but to others, and 
ttiose abroad abo, the blessings of his divine Ubouis." He wrote "Catholic Epistles;" he 
addressed an epistle to the Spartans and the Athenians ; and, as Eusebius says, Dionysius the 
Areopagite, the convert of St. Paul, was the first bishop of Athens.* He wrote to the Nicomedians, 
refuting Marcion, and closely adhering to " the rule of faith." In an epistle to the Gortynians and 
others in Crete, he praises Philip for his courageous ministry, and warns them against the heretics. 
He seems to recognise Palmas as bishop of Amastiis and Pontus, and adds expositions of Scripture, 
and rules regarding marriage, its purity and sanctity. He also inculcates tenderness to penitent 
bpsers and backsliders. With Pinytus, bishop of the Gnossians, he corresponds on similar sub- 
jects ; but Pinytus, while he thanks him and commends his clemency, evidently regards him as 
too much inclined to furnish " food for babes," and counsels him to add " strong meat for those 
of full age." He also writes to Chrysophora, his most ^thful sister, Imparting spiritual instructioiL 


For this has been your custom from the be- frou the same. 

ginning, to do good to dl the brethren in van- Therefore you also have by such admonition 
ous ways, and to send resources to many -^^^ -^ ^^^ ^^^ ^ ckurchti that were 
churches which are m every city, thus refreshing ''^^^ by Peter and Paul, that of the Romans 
the poverty of the needy, and grantmg subsidira ^^ t^at of the Corinthians : for both of them 
to the brethren who are m the mines.* Tlmjugh ^„j , ^ ^^^ corinth, and taught us in the same 
the resources which ye have sent from the begin- ^ ^ ^t you when they went to Italy ; 

ning, ye Rom^. keep up the custom of the ^J having Uught Jou, they suff^ martyrdom 
Romans handed down by the fathers, which your ^^ jhe sa^ time ' 
blessed Bishop Soter has not only preserved, but 
added to, sending a splendid gift to the saints, 
and exhorting wiUi blessed words those brethren 
who go up to Rome, as an affectionate &ther his 


For I wrote letters when the brethren re- 
quested me to write. And these letters the 
aposdes of the devil have filled with tares, tak- 
We passed this holy Lord's day, in which we ing away some things and adding others, for 
read your letter, from the constant readmg of whom a woe is in store. It is not wonderful, 
ii^ch we shall be able to draw admonition, even then, if some have attempted to aduherate the 
as from the reading of the former one you sent Lord's writings, ^en they have formed designs 
us written through Clement against those which are not sucb.^ 

Sec Woocsn, OH'ilu"C*iint, ]^ K16. " "" 

■ Sec Light^ot. Af. Fatktrt, put li, vol. L p. 355. wbeta ho 
uw ip ca Ebe readuig vat Hoi^Km^was, 

' [Routli (■In on Kirnui and Sola), R. S., p. 177. Thb loti*, 
ToL VL p. lai, note). NoM ■!» LicUfoot, ^. ^., V*It 3. toLU. 
p. 19*, unei; and Wotcen, Cm**, p. aoi.J 

* [Ca^ ttZ^l " 

ic t, tufra. Alio Ifutliu, <n>I. i, p. 6], 

* The tut u evideDtlT corrupt. 

r [ForibeRplrof I*iDTtiu,ui>]wli>tliiui]bTBitiebniis(KVcm 
oOei epiitlo, ue R«ld^ K. S., nl. L pp. iBi-iSi.] 
■ Lc, oT nich impocttBa 01 of luch m cliancMi. 



his supposition any more than on the other, to 
peak of God as not the cause of evil, it seems 
o me superfluous to add matter to Him, as if 
%at were the cause of eviL If you have any re- 
sly to make to this, begin your argument." 

*' If, indeed, our discussion had arisen from a 
ove of contention, I should not be willing to 
lave the inquiry raised a second time about the 
fr^^in ^evil ; but, since we are prompted rather 
yf friendship and the good of our neighbour to 
mgage in controversy, I readily consent to have 
the question raised afresh on this subject. You 
bave no doubt long been aware of the character 
af my mind, and of the object at which I aim in 
dispute : that I have no wish to vanquish false- 
bood by plausible reasoning, but rather that 
bmth should be established in connection with 
diorough investigation. You yourself, too, are 
of the same mind, I am well assured. Whatever 
method, therefore, you deem successful for the 
discovery of truth, do not shrink from using it. 
For, by following a better coiurse of argument, 

KQ will not only confer a benefit on yourself, 
t most assuredly on me also, instructing me 
concerning matters of which I am ignorant." 

**You seem clearly to agree with' me, that 
things evil are in some sort substances:' for, 
apart from substances, I do not see them to have 
any existence. Since, then, my good friend, 
you say that things evil are substances, it is 
necessary to inquire into the nature of substance. 
Is it your opinion that substance is a kind of 
bodily structure ? " ' 

" It is." 

" And does that bodily structure exist by itself, 
without the need of any one to come and give it 


And does it seem to you that things evil are 
connected with certain courses of action ? " 

" That is my belief." 

''And do actions come into existence only 
ndien an actor is there ? " 

" Yes." 

" And, when there is no actor, neither will his 
action ever take place ? " 

" It will not." 

" If, therefore, substance is a kind of bodily 
Btracture, and this does not stand in need of 
some one in and through whom it may receive 
its existence, and if things evil are actions of 
some one, and actions require some one in and 
through whom they receive their existence, — 
things evil will * not * be substances. And if things 
evil are not substances, and murder is an evil, 
and is the action of some one, it follows that 

< Migne, instead of veuMtar^yai, coojectures irapaoT^aeu, which, 
however, would not suit what acpptan to oe the meaning, 
s Ovcrtot rii^af. 
9 Jmit-o-rMt^ r%va trivrtuviv. 

murder is not a substance. But, if you insist 
that agents are substance, then I myself agree 
with you. A man, for instance, who is a mur- 
derer, is, in so &r as he is a man, a substance ; 
but the murder which he commits is not a sub- 
stance, but a work of the substance. Moreover, 
we speak of a man sometimes as bad because he 
commits murder ; and sometimes, again, because 
he performs acts of beneficence, as good : and 
these names adhere to the substance, in conse- 
quence of the things which are accidents of it, 
which, however, are not the substance itself. For 
neither is the substance murder, nor, again, is it 
adultery, nor is it any other similar evil. But, 
just as the grammarian derives his name from 
grammar, and the orator from oratory, and the 
physician from physic, though the substance is 
not physic, nor yet oratory, nor grammar, but 
receives its appellation from the things which 
are accidents of it, from which it popularly re- 
ceives its name, though it is not any one of 
them, — so in like manner it appears to me that 
the substance receives name from things re- 
garded as evil, though it is not itself any one of 

" I must beg you also to consider that, if you 
represent some other being as the cause of evil 
to men, he also, in so far as he acts in them, and 
incites them to do evil, is himself evil, by reason 
of the things he does. For he too is said to be 
evil, for the simple reason that he is the doer of 
evil things ; but the things which a being does 
are not the being himself, but his actions, from 
which he receives his appellation, and is called 
evil. For if we should say that the things he 
does are himself, and these consist in murder, 
and adultery, and theft, and such-like, these 
things will be himself. And if these things are 
himself, and if when they take place they get, 
to have a substantial existence,* but by not tak- 
ing place they also cease to exist, and if these 
things are done by men, — men will be the 
doers of these things, and the causes of existing 
and of no longer existing. But, if you affirm 
that these things are his actions, he gets to be 
evil from the things he does, not from those 
things of which the substance of him consists. 

" Moreover, we have said that he is called evil 
from those things which are accidents of the 
substance, which are not themselves the substance : 
as a physician from the art of physic. But, if 
he receives the beginning of his existence from 
the actions he performs, he too began to be evil, 
and these evil things likewise began to exist. 
And, if so,"an evil being will not be without a 
beginning, nor will evil things be imoriginated, 
since we have said that they are originated by 

4 Ti|r owTa<ny ^x*^ 




The argument relating to the opinion I be- 
fore expressed, you seem to me, my friend, to 
have h^mdled satisfactorily : for, from the prem- 
ises you assumed in the discussion, I think you 
have drawn a fair conclusion. For, beyond 
doubt, if matter was at first destitute of qualities, 
and if God is the fashioner of the qualities // 
now has, and if evil things are quaUties, God is 
the author of those evil things. The argument, 
then, relating to that opinion we may consider 
as well discussed, and to me it now seems false 
to speak of matter as destitute of qualities. 
For it is not possible to say of any substance ' 
whatsoever that it is without qualities. For, in 
the very act of saying that it is destitute of quali- 
ties, you do in fact indicate its quality, represent- 
ing of what kind matter is, which of course is 
ascribing to it a species of quality. Wherefore, 
if it is agreeable to you, rehearse the argument 
to me from the beginning: for, to me, matter 
seems to have had qualities from all eternity.' 
For in this way I can affirm that evil things also 
come from it in the way of emanation, so that 
the cause of evil things may not be ascribed to 
God, but that matter may be regarded as the 
cause of all such things." 

" I approve your desire, my friend, and praise 
the zeal you manifest in the discussion of opin- 
ions. For it assuredly becomes every one who is 
desirous of knowledge, not simply and out of 
hand to agree with what is said, but to make a 
carefvil examination of the arguments adduced. 
For, though a disputant, by laying down false 
premises, may make his opponent draw the con- 
clusion he wishes, yet he will not convince a 
hearer of this; but only when he says that 
which ^ it seems possible to say with fairness. 
So that one of two things will happen : either 
he will, as he listens, be decisively helped to 
reach that conclusion towards which he already 
feels himself impelled, or he will convict his ad- 
versary of not speaking the truth. 

" Now, it seems to me that you have not suf- 
ficiently discussed the statement that matter has 
qualities from the first. For, if this is the case, 
what will God be the maker of? For, if we 
speak of substances, we affirm these to exist be- 
forehand ; or if again of qualities, we declare 
these also to exist already. Since, therefore, 
both substance and qualities exist, it seems to me 
unreasonable to call God a creator. 

" But, lest I should seem to be constructing 
an argument to suit viy purpose, be so good as 
to answer the question : In what way do you as- 
sert God to be a creator? Is He such because 
He changed the substances, so that they should 
no longer be the same as they had once been, 

' Migne reads ovviot for airiaf. 

9 Reading, with Migne, ci o ri for «I Ti. 

but become different from what they were ; or 
because, while He kept the substances the same 
as they were before that period. He changed 
their qualities ? " 

'' I do not at aU think that any alteration took 
place in substances : for it appears to roe absurd 
to say this. But I affirm that a certain change 
was made in their qualities ; and it is in respect 
of these that I speak of God as a creator. Just 
as we might happen to speak of a house as made 
out of stones, in which case we could not saj 
that the stones no longer continue to be stones 
as regards their substance, now that they are 
made into a house (for I affirm that the house 
owes its existence to the quality of its construc- 
tion, forasmuch as the previous quality of the 
stones has been changed), — so does it seem to 
me that God, while the substance remains At 
same, has made a certain change in its qualities ; 
and it is in respect of such change that I speak 
of the origin of this world as having come from 

''Since, then, you maintain that a certain 
change — namely, of qualities — has been pro- 
duced by God, answer me briefly what I am de- 
sirous to ask you." 

" Proceed, pray, with your question." 

'' Do you agree in the opinion that evil diings 
are qualities of substances ? " 

" I do." 

'' Were these qualities in matter from the first, 
or did they begin to be?" 

" I hold that these qualities existed in combi- 
nation with matter, without being originated." 

" But do you not affirm that God has made a 
certain change in the qualities?" 

" That is what I affirm." 

" For the better, or for the worse ? " 
For the better, I should say." 
Well, then, if evil things are qualities of 
matter, and if the Lord of all changed its quali- 
ties for the better, whence, it behoves us to ask, 
come evil things? For either the qualities re- 
mained the same in their nature as they previ- 
ously were, or, if they were not evil before, bat 
you assert that, in consequence of a change 
wrought on them by God, the first qualities of 
this kind came into existence in coimection wiA 
matter, — God will be the author of evil, inas- 
much as He changed the qualities which were 
not evil, so as to make them evil, 

"Possibly, however, it is not your view that 
God changed evil qualities for tfie better; but 
you mean that all those other qualities whidi 
happened to be neither good nor bad,* were 
changed by God with a view to the adornment 
of the creation ^^ 

" That has been my opinion from the outset" 

4 Or " indifferent: " oaii^poi. 







^ How, then, can you say that He has lefl the 
qualities of bad thmgs just as they were? Is it 
that, although He was able to destroy those qual- 
ities as well as the others, He was not willing ; 
or did He refrain because He had not the 
I>ower? For, if you say He had the power, but 
not the will, you must admit Him to be the 
cause of these qualities : since, when He could 
have put a stop to the existence of evil, He 
chose to let it remain as it was, and that, too, at 
the very time when He began to fashion matter. 
yor, if He had not concerned Himself at all with 
matter. He would not have been the cause of 
those things which He allowed to remain. But, 
aeeing that He fashioned a certain part of it, and 
left a certain part as we have described it, al- 
though He could have changed that also for the 
"better, it seems to me that He deserves to have 
the blame cast on Him, for having permitted a 
X>art of matter to be evil, to the ruin of that 
^tk€r part which He fashioned. 

"Nay, more, it seems to me that the most se- 
rious wrong has been committed as regards this 
part, in that He constituted this part of matter 
so as to be now affected by evil. For, if we were 
to examine carefully into things, we should find 
that the condition of matter is worse now than 
in its former state, before it was reduced to 
order. For, before it was separated into parts, 
it had no sense of evil ; but now every one of 
its parts is afflicted with a sense of evil. 

"Take an illustration from man. Before he 
was fashioned, and became a living being through 
the art of the Creator, he was by nature exempt 
from any contact whatever with evil; but, as 
soon as ever he was made by God a man, he 
became liable to the sense of even approaching 
evil : and thus that very thing which you say was 
brought about by God for the benefit of matter,' 
is found to have turned out rather to its detri- 

" But, if you say that evil has not been put a 
stop to, because God was unable to do away with 
it, you will be making God powerless. But, if 
He is powerless, it will be either because He is 
weak by nature, or because He is overcome by 
fear, and reduced to subjection by a stronger. 
If, then, you go so far as to say that God is weak 
by nature, it seems to me that you imperil your 
salvation itself; but, if you say that He is weak 
through being overcome by fear of a greater, 
things evil will be greater than God, since they 
frustrate the carrying out of His purpose. But 
this, as it seems to me, it would be absurd to say 
of God. For why should not ' they * rather be 
considered gods, since according to your account 
they are able to overcome God : if, that is to 
say, we mean by God that which has a control- 
ling power over all things? 

> Migne reads iv tiftpyvl^ for icriv tiffywia. 

" But I wish to ask you a few questions con- 
cerning matter itself. Pray tell me, therefore, 
whether matter was something simple or com- 
pound. I am induced to adopt this method of 
investigating the subject before us by considerit^ 
the diversity that obtains in existing things. For, 
if perchance matter was something simple and 
uniform, how comes it that the world is com- 
pound,' and consists of divers substances and 
combinations ? For by * compound ' we denote 
a mixture of certain simple elements. But if, on 
the contrary, you prefer to call matter compound, 
you will, of course, be asserting that it is com- 
pounded of certain simple elements. And, if it 
was compounded of simple elements, these simple 
elements must have existed at some time or other 
separately by themselves, and when they were 
compounded together matter came into being : 
from which it of course follows that matter is 
created. For, if matter is compound, and com- 
pound things are constituted from simple, there 
was once a time when matter had no existence, 
— namely, before the simple elements came to- 
gether. And, if there was once a time when 
matter was not, and there was never a time when 
the uncreated was not, matter cannot be uncre- 
ated. And hence there will be many uncreated 
substances. For, if God was uncreated, and the 
simple elements out of which matter was com- 
pounded ivere also uncreated, there will not be 
two uncreated things only, — not to discuss the 
question what it is which constitutes objects 
simple, whether matter or form. 

" Is it, further, your opinion that nothing in 
existence is opposed to itself? '* 

" It is." 

" Is water, then, opposed to fire ? " 

" So it appears to me." 

" Similarly, is darkness opposed to light, and 
warm to cold, and moreover moist to dry ? " 

" It seems to me to be so." 

"Well, then, if nothing in existence is opposed 
to itself, and these things are opposed to each 
other, they cannot be one and the same matter ; 
no, nor yet be made out of one and the same 

" I wish fiuther to ask your opinion on a mat- 
ter kindred to that of which we have been speak- 
ing. Do you believe that the parts of a thing 
are not mutually destructive?" 

" I do." 

" And you believe that fire and water, and so 
on, are parts of matter? " 

" Quite so." 

" Do you not also believe that water is subver- 
sive of fire, and light of darkness, and so of all 
similar things?" 

" Yes." 

^ > The text bas, <rvt^rro« M h Kd«-fMc; which Migne changes to^ 



" Well, then, if the parts of a whole are not 
mutually destructive, and yet the parts of matter 
are mutually destructive, they cannot be parts 
of one matter. And, if they are not parts of 
one another, they cannot be composed of one 
and the same matter ; nay, they cannot be mat- 
ter at all, since nothing in existence is destruc- 
tive of itself, as we learn from the doctrine of 
opposites : for nothing is opposed to itself — an 
opposite being by nature opposed to something 

else. White, for example, is not opposed to 
itself, but is said to be the opposite of black; 
and, similariy, light is shown not to be opposed 
to itself, but is considered an opposite in rdi- 
tion to darkness ; and so of a very great number 
of things besides. If, then, matter were some 
one thing, it could not be opposed to itsel£ 
This, then, being the nature of opposites, it is 
proved that matter has no existence." 


[a.d. 160-180.] This author, an early apologist, is cluefly interesting as a competent witness, 
who tells the story of the Thundering Legion ' in an artless manner, and gives it the simple char- 
acter of an answer to prayer. This subject is treated by Lightfoot, in his recent work on die 
Apostolic Fathersy^ in an exhaustive manner ; and the story, reduced to the simple narrative as 
Apollinaris gives it, receives from him a just and discriminating approval. 

Apollinaris, as well as Rhodon, has been imagined the author of the work (ascribed to Asterins 
Urbanus) against Montanism, dedicated to Abiricius Marcellus.^ This is sufficiently refuted by 
Routh,5 whose Greek text, with notes, must be consulted by the studious.^ 

Apollinaris was bishop of Hierapolis on the Mseander, and, Lightfoot thinks, was probablf 
with Melito and Polycrates, known to Polycarp, and influenced by* his example and doctrine.' 
He addressed his Apology^ which is honourably mentioned by Jerome, to M. Antoninus, the em- 
peror. He also wrote Adversus Gentes and De Veritate; also against the Jews. Serapion caQs 
him* " most blessed." 


"This narration (says Eusebius, Hist.y v. 5) 
is given " (it relates to that storm of rain which 
was sent to the army of the Emperor M. Anto- 
ninus, to allay the thirst of the soldiers, whilst 
the enemy was discomfited by thunderbolts 
hurled upon them) " even by those historians 
who are at a wide remove from the doctrines 
that prevail among us, and who have been simply 
concerned to describe what related to the empe- 
rors who are the subjects of their history ; and it 
has been recorded also by our own writers. But 
historians without the pale of the Church, as being 
unfriendly to the faith, while they have recorded 
the prodigy, have refrained from acknowledging 
that it was sent in answer to our prayers. On 
the other hand, our writers, as lovers of truth, 
have reported the matter in a simple and artless 
way. To this number Apollinaris must be con- 
sidered as belonging. * Thereupon,* he says, 
* the legion which had by its prayer caused the 

prodigy received from the emperor a tide suit- 
able to the occurrence, and was called in tbe 
Roman language the Thunder-hurling Legion^ 


There are, then, some who through ignorance 
raise disputes about these things (though their 
conduct is pardonable : for ignorance is no sub- 
ject for blame — it rather needs further instruc- 
tion), and say that on the fourteenth day the 
Lord ate the lamb with the disciples, and that 
on the great day of the/r<w/ ^unleavened bread 
He Himself suffered ; and they quote Matthew 
as speaking in accordance with their view. 
Wherefore their opinion is contrary to the law, 
and the Gospels seem to be at variance with 


The fourteenth day, the true Passover of the 
Lord ; the great sacrifice, the Son of God instead 

' Westcott, Canon, p. 248. 

■ See vol. i. p. i87j this series, and references in my note (11.) 
on same page. The mcident occurred during the war against the 
Quadi, A.D. 174. 

* Part ii. vol. i. pp. 469-476. 

* See p. 766, note 3, supra ; also vol. vii.,this scries, p. 338. 
' iP//. Sac, torn. u. p. 196; and Ibtd.f torn. i. pp. I57-Z74' 

6 Rel. Sac, torn. i. p. 173. 

7 Ap. Fathers, part ii. vol. i. p. 4a8. 
■ See p. 775, infra. 

9 [See vol. i. p. 187, note 2.] 

1° This extract and the following are taken fitnn die presMe to^ 
Chronicon Paschale. 

" [Routh, R. 5., vol. i. p. x6o.] 



if the lamb, who was bound, who bound the 
itvongy and who was judged, though Judge of liv- 
Qg and dead, and who was deUvered into the 
laixls of sinners to be crucified, who was lifted 
ip on the horns of the unicorn, and who was 

pierced in His holy side, who poured forth from 
His side the two purifying elements,* water and 
blood, word and spirit, and who was buried on the 
day of the passover, the stone being placed upon 
the tomb. 


[a.d. 130-196.] This author 3 comes in as an appendix to the stories of Polycarp and Irenseus 
and good Anicetus, and his writings also bear upon the contrast presented by the less creditable 
Ustory of Victor. If, as I suppose, the appearance of our Lord to St. John on '' the Lord's 
day" was on the Paschal Sunday, it may at first seem surprising that this Apostle can be claimed 
by Polycrates in behalf of the Eastern custom to keep Easter, with the Jews, on the fourteenth 
day of the moon. But to the Jews the Apostles became " as Jews " in all things tolerable, so long 
II die Temple stood, and while the bishops of Jerusalem were labouring to identify the Paschal 
Iamb with their Passover. The long survival of St. John among Jewish Christians led them to 
prolong this usage, no doubt, as sanctioned by his example. He foreknew it would quietly pass 
away. The wise and truly Christian spirit of Irenaeus prepared the way for the ultimate unanimity 
of the Church in a matter which lies at the base of " the Christian Sabbath," and of our own ob- 
servance of the first day of the week as a weekly Easter. Those who in our own times have 
revived the observance of the Jewish Sabbath, show us how much may be said on their side,^ and 
doddate the tenacity of the Easterns in resisting the abolition of the Mosaic ordinance as to the 
Paschal, although they agreed to keep it '' not with the old leaven." 

Our author belonged to a family in which he was the eighth Christian bishop ; and he pre- 
sided over the church of Ephesus, in which the traditions of St. John were yet fresh in men's 
minds at the date of his birth. He had doubtless known Polycarp, and Irenaeus also. He seems 
to have presided over a synod of Asiatic bishops (a.d. 196) which came together to consider this 
matter of the Paschal feast. It is siu-ely noteworthy that nobody doubted that it was kept by a 
Christian and Apostolic ordinance. So St. Paul argues from its Christian observance, in his rebuke 
of the Corinthians.5 They were keeping it " unleavened " ceremonially, and he urges a spiritual 
imleavening as more important. The Christian hallowing of Pentecost connects with the Paschal 
ngnment^ The Christian Sabbath hinges on these points. 

who is laid to rest at Hierapolis ; and his two 
daughters, who arrived at old age unmarried ; " 
his other daughter also, who passed her life" 
under the influence of the Holy Spirit, and re- 
poses at Ephesus; John, moreover, who re- 
clined on the Lord's bosom, and who became 
a priest wearing the mitre,'' and a witness and a 
teacher — he rests at Ephesus. Then there is 
Polycarp, both bishop and martyr at Smyrna; 
and Thraseas from Eumenia, both bishop and 


As for us, then, we scrupulously observe the 
day,^ neither adding nor taking away. 
Plor in Asia great luminaries ^ have gone to their 
KSty who shall rise again in the day of the com- 
ag of the Lord, when He cometh with glory 
lom heaven and shall raise again all the saints. 
r speak of Philip, one of the twelve apostles,'** 

* lUAur KoN^ca, qn. vaA«rKa#«po'ta a ** re-purifiers/' 

• Wesloott, Canon, p. 438, note x ; Lightfimt, Ap, Fathers , pp. 

^« See Liurdner, Credib.. toI. ii. cap. 93, p. 259. 

4 They camioc be sadsactorilv answered, it seems to me, save 
Y the sppeal to John xx. xo, 96, Acts xx. 7, x Cor. xvi. 9, and Rev. 
, so^ lot die Lord's day, and to the Council of Jerusalem (Acts 
V. fl§; CoL u. x6) fiw toe repeal ci Sabbatical ordnances; and to 
■C laws (Ifatt. xri. 19; John xiv. 96: Matt. xxviiL so) of 
au t hwity ghcn by Chrnt Himself to His Apostles. 

s X Cor. 7, 8, and margin of Revised Version: also Acts xii. a 
and X9. 

6 Acts ii. X, XX. x6; x Cor. xvL 8. 
' In Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., v. 94. 
* ' KpftaJbiOvfTfifTov iyoiiMP Ti|r iifiipav, 

'<> [See vol. vii. p. 500, n. 6. Great^oonfusions adhere to this nama.] 
XX ^yo Bvyariptu avroO ^ryi^poxviot wapBivoi, 
" noAcTtvtraii^. fPhil. iu. 90, Greek.] 
13 n^oAoi^. [Probably the ornament of the high priest; Exod. 
3anm, 35, 36.] 



character of that book, which Grabe and others suppose to be the work of Leucius, a noted forger 
and falsifier. It had never been heard of in the great See of Antioch, and this famous bishop 
could only get sight of it by fishing it out of the dirty pool of the Docetse. 



That ye may see also that the proceedings of 
this lying confederacy,' to which is given the 
name of New Prophecy, is abominated among 
the whole brotherhood throughout the world, I 
have sent you letters of the most blessed Clau- 
dius Apollinarius, who was made bishop of 
Hieiapolis in Asia. 


VKOM the book concerning THE GOSPEL OF 


For we, brethren, receive both Peter and the 
rest of the apostles as Christ Himself, But those 
writings which are falsely inscribed with their 
name,^ we as experienced persons reject, know- 
ing that no such writings have been handed 
down to us.s When, indeed, I came to see you, 
I supposed that all were in accord with the 
orthodox faith; and, although I had not read 
through the Gospel inscribed with the name of 

Peter which was brought forward by them, I 
said : If this is the only thing which threatens * 
to produce ill-feeling among you, let it be read. 
But, now that I have learnt from what has been 
told me that their mind was secretly cherishing 
some heresy ,7 I will make all haste to come 
to you again. Expect me therefore, brethren, 
shortly. Moreover, brethren, we, having dis- 
covered to what kind of heresy Marcion ad- 
hered, and seen how he contradicted himself, 
not understanding of what he was speaking, as 
you will gather from what has been written to 
you* — for, having borrowed this said Gospel 
from those who were familiar with it from con- 
stant perusal, namely from the successors of 
those who were his leaders in the heresy ^ whom 
we call Docetae (for most of the opinions held 
by him are derived from their teaching), we 
were able to read it through ; and while we found 
most of its contents to agree with the orthodox 
account of the Savioiu*, we found some things 
inconsistent with that, and these we have set 
down below for your inspection. 


[a.d. 211.] He was a most eloquent man, according to St. Jerome ; and his writings against 
Montanism were so forcible as to call forth TertuUian himself, to confute him, if possible. He 
flourished under Commodus and Severus, and probably imtil the times of Caracalla. He bears 
testimony to the existence of a canon of Scripture,'** and to its inspired authorit}' as the rule of 
.laith and practice ; and he witnesses, by citation, to the Gospel of St. Matthew. The Revelation 
.of St. John also, according to Eusebius, was employed by him in his works ; and he preserves a 

tradition that our Lord bade the Apostles continue in Jerusalem for the space of twelve years. 

We cannot affirm that he was invested with any office in the Church. 



But who is this new teacher? His works and 
teaching inform us. This is he who taught the 
dissolution of marriage ; who inculcated fasting ; 
who called Penlga and Tymius, small towns of 
.Fhrygia, Jerusalem, because he wished to collect 
thither people from all parts ; who set up exact- 
ors of money ; who craftily contrives the taking 
of gifts under the name of voluntary offerings ; 

who grants stipends to those who publish abroad 
his doctrine, that by means of gluttony the teach- 
ing of the doctrine may prevail. 


We declare to you, then, that these first proph- 
etesses, as soon as they were filled with the 
spirit, left their husbands. Of what falsehood, 
then, were they guilty in calling Prisca a maiden ! 

> In Euselriiu, Hitt, Eccl., v. 19. 

' In Etuebius, Hist. Eccl., ▼. za. 

^ The reading of Migne. ^koimtc, is adcqyted instead of ov^iMira. 

S T^ rouurr* ov vapcAa/tofMr. 

' Aipc<rci rivi 6 vov9 avrwv ^rt^wAcvcv, 
* The construction is not again resumed. 
9 Routh, Rel. Sac., vol. i. pp. 465-485. 

'o Westcott, Cafum, p. 433. 

" In Eusebius, Htst, Bccl.t t. 18. 



Do you not think that all Scripture forbids a 
prophet to receive gifts and money? When, 
therefore, I see that Sie prophetess has received 
gold and silver and expensive articles of dress, 
now can I avoid treating her with disapproval? 


Moreover, Themison also, who was clothed in 
a garb of plausible ' covetousness, who declined 
to bear the sign of confessorship, but by a large 
sum of money put away from him the chains o/ 
martyrdom, although alter such conduct it was 
his duty to conduct himself with humility, yet 
had the hardihood to boast that he was a martyr, 
and, in imitation of the apostle, to compose a 
general epistle, in which he attempted to in- 
struct' in the elements of the faith those who 
had believed to better purpose than he, and de- 
fended the doctrines of the new-fangled teach- 
ing,3 and moreover uttered blasphemy against 
the Lord and the apostles and the holy Church. 


But, not to dwell further on these matters, let 
the prophetess tell us concerning Alexander, who 
calls himself a martyr, with whom she joins in 
banqueting ; who himself also is worshipped by 
many;^ whose robberies and other deeds of 
daring, for which he has been punished, it is not 
necessary for us to speak of, since the treasury 5 
has him in keeping. Which of them, then, con- 
dones the sins of the other? The prophet the 
robberies of the martyr, or the martyr the covet- 
ousness of the prophet ? For whereas the Lord 
has said, " Provide not gold, nor silver, nor two 
coats a-piece,^ ^ these men have, on the flat con- 
trary, transgressed the command by the acquisi- 
tion of these forbidden things. For we shall 
show that those who are called among them 
prophets and martyrs obtain money not only from 
the rich, but also from the poor, from orphans 

and widows. And if they are confident ikatAey 
are right in so doing, let them stand fotwari 
and discuss 0u point, in order that, if they be 
refuted, they may cease for the future so to trans- 
gress. For the fruits of the prophet must needs 
be brought to the test : for '' from its fruit is the 
tree known." ^ But that those that desire it may 
become acquainted with what relates to Alexan- 
der, he was condemned by i£milius Frontinos, 
proconsul at Ephesus, not on account of tbe 
name of Christ, but for the daring robberies be 
committed when he was already a transgressor.' 
Afterwards, when he had spoken falsely of tbe 
name of the Lord, he was released, having de- 
ceived the faithful there ; 9 and even the bretitm 
of his own district,'® from which he came, did 
not receive him, because he was a robber. Tbns, 
those who wish to learn what he is, have the 
public treasury of Asia to go to. And yet die 
prophet, although he spent many years with him, 
}sxiQi9i% forsooth nothing about him ! By convict- 
ing " him," we by his means clearly convict of mis- 
representation " the prophet likewise.* Wc are 
able to prove the like in the case of many o^urt 
besides. And if they are confident of ^uiruh 
nocence, let them abide the test 


If they deny that their prophets have taken 
gifts, let them confess thus much, that if diey 
be convicted of having taken them, they are not 
prophets; and we will adduce ten thousand 
proofs that they have. It is proper, too, that all 
the fruits of a prophet should be examined. TcU 
me : does a prophet dye his hair f Does a prophet 
use stibium on his eyes ? Is a prophet fond of 
dress? Does a prophet play at gaming-taUes 
and dice ? Does a prophet lend money on in- 
terest ? " Let them confess whether these things 
are allowable or not. For my part, I will prove 
that these practices have occurred among them. 


[a.d. 182-192-212.] The world owes more to Pantaenus than to all the other Stoics pot 
together. His mind discovered that true philosophy is found, not in the Porch, but in Nazareth, 
in Gethsemane, in Gabbatha, in Golgotha ; and he set himself to make it known to the woiid. 
We are already acquainted with the great master of Clement,'* " the Sicilian bee," that forsook 

9 avvaytavL^toBcLK roif rijf iraiKO^aivtaf Aoyoif. 

<_ Or, " whom many of them (the Montanists — reading avrwi' for 

r«, worship." 

5 hitiaQ6witM.6^, a chamber at the back of the temple of Minerva, in 
wfaich public money was kept. 

6 Matt. X. 9. 

^ Matt. xii. 33. 

* nafM^drn^^ here meaning am apostate, 

9 This is explained by Ruhnus to mean: " When certain breth* 

ten who had influence with tbe judge interceded fior him, be pnmied 
that he was suffering for the name of Christ, and by this meass ^ 
was released." 

^^ irapoiKia. 

II viroorairiy, from v^iimiin, probably in the scDse of mitt&»*' 
in£one thing/or another. 

*3 Vol. ii. p. 342; Westcott, Canon, pp. 90, 381; Roalh,l>^-« 
vol. i. pp. 375-379- - 

14 Vol. ti. pp. 165, etc., and p. 301, note 9; also p. 34t,Ebddu« 
this series. 



die flowers of Enna, to enrich Alexandria with what is '' sweeter than honey and the honey-comb ; " 
md we remember that he became a zealous missionary to the Oriental Ethiopia, and found there 
tfie traces of St Matthias' labours, and those also of St. Bartholomew. From this mission he 
leems to have returned about a.d. 192. Possibly he was master of the Alexandrian school before 
!ie went to India, and came back to his chair when that mission was finished. There he sat till 
ibout AJ>. 212, and under him this Christian academy became famous. It had existed as a 
»techetical school from the Apostles' time, according to St. Jerome. I have elsewhere noted some 
reasons for supposing that its founder may have been Apollos.* All the learning of Christendom 
may be traced to this source ; and blessed be the name of one of whom all we know is ennobling 
to the Church, and whose unselfish career was a track of light ''shining more and more unto the 
perfect day." 

** In the sun hath He set His tent." 3 Some 
dBnn that the reference is to the Lord's body, 
which He Himself places in the sun : ^ Hermo- 
floies, for instance. As to His body, some say 
s is His tent, others the Church of the faithful. 
Bat our Fantsnus said : " The language em- 
ployed by prophecy is for the most part indefi- 
nite, the present tense being used for the future, 
and again the present for the past." 


This mode of speaking Saint Dionysius the 
Areopagite declares to be used in Scripture to 
denote predeterminations and expressions of the 
divine will.^ In like manner sdso the follow- 
eis of Pantssnus,7 who became the preceptor of 
tte great Clement the Stromatist, affirm that 
tfiey are commonly used in Scripture for expres- 
aons of the divine will. Accordingly, when asked 
by some who prided themselves on the outside 
learning,^ in what way the Christians supposed 
Ciod to become acquainted with the universe,'' 
flieir own opinion being that He obtains His 

knowledge of it in different ways, — of things 
falling within the province of the understanding 
by means of the imderstanding, and of those 
within the region of the senses by means of 
the senses, — they replied : " Neither does He 
gain acquaintance with sensible things by the 
senses, nor with things within the sphere of the 
understanding by the understanding: for it is 
not possible that He who is above all existing 
things should apprehend them by means of ex- 
isting things. We assert, on the contrary, that 
He is acquainted with existing things as the 
products of His own volition." '** They added, 
by way of showing the reasonableness of their 
view : '' If He has made all things by an act of 
His will (and no argument will be adduced to 
gainsay this) , and if it is ever a matter of piety and 
rectitude to say that God is acquainted with His 
own will, and if He has voluntarily made every 
several thing that has come into existence, then 
siurely God must be acquainted with all existing 
things as the products of His own will, seeing 
that it was in the exercise of that will that He 
made them." 


[a.d. 177.] This letter should have been made a preface to the works of Irenseus, or at least 
appendix. It is worthy of his great name ; '' the finest thing of the kind in all antiquity," says 
Lardner. Critics of no mean name have credited it to Irenaeus ; but, as this cannot be proved, I 
have accordingly marked it as 2l pseudonym. The same writer condenses the arguments of others^ 
ya which he decides to adhere to the later chronology of Eusebius, assigning its date to the 
leventeenth year of Marcus Aurelius." Natiurally humane and comparatively gentle in other 
lespects he was ; but Stoicism, as well as heathenism, showed what it could exact of such a char- 
icter in maintenance of the popular and imperial superstitions. Terrible is the summary of 

* Vol. ▼!* p. 936. St Lakci^ in the company of ApoUot, may 
-n met a cmieckumen of his m that '* excellent Theophilus " of 
irtitiDgs (St. Luke t. 4, Greek) , whoce history shows that cate* 
jical teachmg was already part of the Christian system, 
s In Sxtrmcttfrom the Pro^ktts, written probablv by Theodo- 
, mad collected oy Clement of Alexandria or some otner writer. 
'« F^ adx. 4. 

3 In the Scholia of Maximoson St. Gregory the Divine. 

7 Ot wtfk nimaivov. [VoL ii. pp. 165-167, this series.) 
* Tifr «{•* woiScvoir. 

10 '0« Mia ««A4m«t«. 

" Vol ir. p. Its, this series. Compare Lightfbot, A^. Fm^kirt, 
part iL voL L pp. 499, etc., 510, etc 



Lightfoot concerning the barbarities of this darling of the '* philosophers : " '' It is a plain furt, 
that Christian blood flowed more freely under M. Aurelius than at any time previously during the 
half century since the Bithynian martyrdoms under Trajan, or was yet to flow at any time during 
the decades which would elapse before the Severian persecution. These persecutions extend 
throughout his reign : they were fierce and deliberate ; aggravated, at least in some cases, by aud 
tortures. They had the emperor's direct personal sanction. They break out in all parts of the 
empire, — in Rome, in Asia Minor, in Gaul, in Africa, possibly also in Byzantium." « 

Bishop Lightfoot accounts for the fact, that, in spite of this sanguinary character of the period, 
little complaint is heard from the suffering Church, by a simple statement which is honourable to 
Aurelius as a Roman and an emperor. He was such a contrast to the Neros and Caligulas, that 
the wretched Romans loved him as a father ; to reproach him was, therefore, poor policy for 
Christians. They would have been answered, practically : " If so good a sovereign finds it necessary 
to punish you, the fault is your own ; you have only to be as we are, and he will treat you as 
well as he does us." 

Of this awful outbreak in Lyons and Vienne, says Lightfoot : ' " The persecution was wh6l^ 
sale, so that it was not safe for any Christian to appear out of doors. No difference of age or sa 
was made. The prisoners were put to the most cruel tortures. All the elements of power com- 
bined to crush the brethren." 

To forbear threatenings, to revile not again, to conquer through patient suffering, to peIS^ 
vere, " looking unto Jesus," and to be silent, like Him, before their murderers, was therefore 
the world-wide conduct of the saints. This golden letter shows what they were called to endure, 
and how they glorified Christ by their deaths, from the utmost Orient to the extreme limits of the 



It began thus : — " The servants of Christ 
who sojourn in Vienna and Lugdunum of Gaul 
to the brethren throughout Asia and Phrygia, 
who have the same faith and hope of redemp- 
tion as ourselves, peace, grace, and glory from 
God the Father, and from Christ Jesus our 

After some further preliminary remarks the 
letter proceeds : — " The greatness of the tribula- 
tion in this region, and the exceeding anger of 
the heathen nations against the saints, and the 
sufferings which the blessed Witnesses ^ endured,, 
neither are we competent to describe accurately, 
nor indeed is it possible to detail them in writ- 
ing. For with all his strength did the adversary 
assail us, even then giving a foretaste of his ac- 
tivity among us which is to be without restraint ; 
and he had recourse to every means, accustom- 
ing his own subjects and exercising them before- 
hand against the servants of God, so that not 
only were we excluded from houses,'* baths, and 
the forum, but a universal prohibition was laid 

against any one of us appearing in any place 
whatsoever. But the grace of God acted as 
our general against him. It rescued the weak: 
it arrayed against him men like firm pillars, who 
could through patience bear up against the whok 
force of the assaults of the wicked one. Tbej<r 
came to close quarters with him, enduring every 
form of reproach and torture ; and, making ligh: 
of grievous trials, they hastened on to Christ, 
showing in reality that the ' sufferings of the 
present time are not worthy to be compared 
with the glory that is to be revealed in us.'^ 
And first they nobly endured the evils which 
were heaped on them by the populace,— 
namely, hootings and blows, draggings, plun- 
derings, stonings, and confinements/^ and e\-ery- 
thing that an infuriated mob is wont to perpetrate 
against those whom they deem bitter enemies 
And at length, being brought to the forum by 
the tribune of the soldiers, and the magistrates 
that had charge of the city, they w^ere examined 
in presence of the whole multitude ; and having 

* At>. Fathers^ part ii. vol. i. p. 499. 

* This letter has come down to us in fragments quoted by Euse- 
bius. Wc have used the translation of Tx)rd Hailes as the basis of 
ours. [Compare Vol. i. p. 309, this series, and note the adhesion of 
th« primitive Gallican Church to the East, — to the land of Polycarp 
and Pothinus. Concerning Pothinus, see Roulh, Rel. Sac, i. p. 328, 
and the correction by Lightfoot, A^. F., part li. vol i. p. 430, etc. 
The Gallican Church may yet arise from the dust, and restore the 
primitive primacy of Lyons. God grant it! J 

3 We have translated fjLdprvfx^ " witnesses ** and tt.afiTvpka " vs> 
mony " throughout. 

4 Houses of friends and relatives. Olshausen takes tbeatcbe 
public buildings. 

5 Rom. viii. i8. [On quotations from Scripture, etc, see WefiaA 
Canon, p. 378, ed. 1855. 1 

^ By " confinements' in this passage evidently is meant tbat ^ 
populace prevented them from resorting to pubuc plaoes, aad ^ 
shut them up in their own houses. 


confessed, they were shut up in prison until the 
anival of the governor. 

" After this, when they were brought before 
the governor, and when he displayed a spirit of 
savage hostility to us, Vettius Epagathus, one 
of the brethren, interposed. For he was a man 
who had contained the full measure of love 
towards God and his neighbours. His mode 
of life had been so strict, that though he was a 
jfoung man, he deserved to be described in the 
words used in regard to the elderly Zacharias : 

* He had walked therefore in all the command- 
ments and ordinances of the Lord blameless.' ' 
He was also eager to serve his neighbour in any 
way, he was very zealous for God, and he was 
fervent in spirit. Such being the character of 
the man, he could not bear that judgment should 
be thus unreasonably passed against us, but was 
moved with indignation, and requested that he 
himself should be heard in defence of his breth- 
ren, undertaking to prove that there is nothing 
ungodly or impious amongst us. On this, those 
who were round the judgment-seat cried out 
against him, for he was a man of distinction ; and 
the governor, not for a moment listening to the 
just request thus made to him, merely asked him 
if he himself were a Christian. And on his con- 
fessing in the clearest voice that he was, he also 
was taken up into the number of the Witnesses, 
receiving the appellation of the Advocate of the 
Christians,' and having himself the Advocate, 
the Spirit,} more abundantly than Zacharias ; 
which he showed in the fulness ^ of his love, in 
that he had of his own good-will offered to lay 
down his own life in defence of the brethren. 
For he was and is a genuine disciple of Christ, 

* following the Lamb whithersoever He goeth.' s 

" After this the rest began to be distinguished,^ 
for the proto-martyis were decided and ready, 
and* accomplished the confession of their testi- 
mony with all alacrity. But there appeared also 
those who were unprepared and unpractised, and 
who were still feeble, and unable to bear the 
tension of a geat contest. Of these about ten in 
nmnber proved abortions; causing great grief 
and immeasurable sorrow amongst us, and damp- 
ing the ardour of the rest who had not yet been 
apprehended. For these, although they suffered 
every kind of cruelty, remained nevertheless in 
the company of the Witnesses, and did not for- 
sake them. But then the whole of us were 
greatly alarmed on account of our uncertainty 

to confession, not because we feared the tor- 

> Luke i. 6. 

* From the heathen judge. 

* Luke i. 67. 

4 The writer refers to St. John's Gospel (xv. 13) : " Greater love 
bath no man than this, that a man lay dcnim his life for his friends." 

* Rev. xiv. 4. 

* This expression seems to refer to what took place in athletic 
bsts. The athletes were tested before fighting, and those in evenr 

qualified were permitted to fight, while the others were rejectea. 
Ttw testing, Valesius supposes, was called ^Mucpieit. 

tures inflicted, but because we looked to the end, 
and dreaded lest any one should fall away. 
Those who were worthy, however, were daily 
apprehended, filling up the number of the others : 
so that out of the two churches all the excellent, 
and those to whom the churches owed most of 
all their estabhshment and prosperity, were col- 
lected together in prison. Some heathen house- 
hold slaves belonging to our people were also 
apprehended, since the governor had given 
orders publicly that all of us should be sought 
out. lliese, through the instigation of Satan, 
and through fear of the tortures which they saw 
the saints enduring, urged on also by the soldiers, 
falsely accused us of Thyestean banquets and 
CEdipodean connections, and other crimes which 
it is lawful for us neither to mention nor think 
of; and, indeed, we shrink from believing that 
any such crimes have ever taken place among 
men. When the rumour of these accusations 
was spread abroad, all raged against us like wild 
beasts ; so that if any formerly were temperate 
in their conduct to us on account of relationship, 
they then became exceedingly indignant and 
exasperated against us. And thus was fulfilled 
that which was spoken by our Lord : * The time 
shall come when every one who slayeth you 
shall think that he offereth service to God.* 7 

" Then at last the holy Witnesses suffered tor- 
tures beyond all description, Satan striving ea- 
gerly that some of the evil reports might be 
acknowledged by them.* But in an exceeding 
degree did the whole wrath of mob, general, and 
soldiers fall on Sanctus, a deacon from Vienna, 
and on Maturus, a newly-enlightened but noble 
combatant, and on Attalus, a native of Perga- 
mus, who had always been the Pillar ^ and 
foundation of the church there, and on Blandina, 
through whom Christ showed that the things that 
to men appear mean and deformed and con- 
temptible, are with God deemed worthy of great 
glory, on account of love to Him, — a love which 
is not a mere boastful api>earance, but shows 
itself in the power which it exercises over the life. 
For while we were all afraid, and especially her 
mistress in the flesh, who was herself one of the 
combatants among the Witnesses, that she would 
not be able to make a bold confession on account 
of the weakness of her body, Blandina was filled 
with such power, that those who tortured her one 
after the other in every way from morning till 
evening were wearied and tired, confessing that 
they had been baffled, for they had no other 
torture they could apply to her ; and they were 

' John xvi. 9. 

B llie words here admit of two meanings: that something blas- 
phemous might be uttered by them — such as speaking against 
Christ and swearing by Caesar: or that some accusation against the 
Christians might be uttered by them — confirming, for instance, the 
reports of infanticide and incest prevalent against the Christians. Tht 
latter in this passage seems unquestionably to be the meaning. 

9 t Tim. lii. 15. 


astonished that she remained in life, when her 
whole body was torn and opened up, and they 
gave their testimony' that one only of the 
modes of torture employed was sufficient to have 
deprived her of life, not to speak of so many 
excruciating inflictions. But the blessed woman, 
like a noble athlete, recovered her strength in 
the midst of the confession ; and her declsuration, 
'I am a Christian, and there is no evil done 
amongst us,' brought her refreshment, and rest, 
and insensibility to all the sufferings inflicted on 

" Sanctus also nobly endured all the excessive 
and superhuman* tortures which man could 
possibly devise against him ; for the wicked 
hoped, on account of the continuance and great- 
ness of the tortures, to hear him confess some of 
the unlawful practices. But he opposed them 
with such firmness that he did not tell them even 
his own name, nor that of his nation or city, nor 
if he were slave or free ; but in answer to all these 
questions, he said in Latin, ' I am a Christian.' 
lliis was the confession he made repeatedly, 
instead of giving his name, his city, his race, 
and indeed in reply to every question that was 
put to him ; and other language the heathens 
heard not from him. Hence arose in the minds 
of the governor and the torturers a determined 
resolution to subdue him; so that, when every 
other means failed, they at last flxed red-hot 
plates of brass to the most delicate parts of his 
body. And these indeed were burned, but he 
himself remained inflexible and unyielding, firm 
in his confession, being bedewed and strength- 
ened by the heavenly fountain of the water of 
life which issues from the belly of Christ.^ But 
his body bore witness to what had happened : 
for it was all wounds and weals, shrunk and 
torn up, and had lost externally the human 
shape. In him Christ suffering wrought great 
wonders, destroying the adversary, and showing 
for an example to the rest that there is nothing 
fearful where there is the Father's love, and 
nothing painful where there is Christ's glory. 
For the wicked after some days again tortured 
the Witness, thinking that, since his body was 
swollen and inflamed, if they were to apply the 
same tortures they would gain the victory over 
him, especially since the parts of his body could 
not bear to be touched by the hand, or that 
he would die in consequence of the tortures, and 

* Heinichcn construes difTerently. He makes the ** torturers 
astonished that RIandina gave her testimony that one kind of torture i 
was sufficient to deprive her of Hfe." Perhaps the right construction 
is to make on mean " because " or " for: " " They were astonished 
at Blandina hearing her testimony, for one kind of torture was suf- 
ficient to have killed her." 

2 The words uirfp/SeflATj/xeVco^ koX virip iravra avBpwiroy naturally 
go with vnofi*vuy, and therefore intimate that Sanctus' endurance 
was greater than human; hut we doubt if this is intended by the 

^ 3 John vii. q8: " He that believeth on me, as the Scripture hath 
said, out of his oosom shall flow rivers of living water." 

thus inspire the rest with fear. Yet not only did 
no such occurrence take place in regard to him, 
but even, contrary to every expectation of man, 
his body unbent itself and became erect in dw 
midst of the subsequent tortures, and resumed 
its former appearance and the use of its limbic 
so that the second torture turned out throng 
the grace of Christ a cure, not an affliction. 

''Among those who had denied was a woman 
of the name of Biblias. The devil, thinking tfiat 
he had already swallowed her, and wishing to 
damn her still more by making her accuse fidse- 
ly, brought her forth to punishment, and em- 
ployed force to constrain her, already feeble and 
spiritless, to utter accusations of atheism against 
us. But she, in the midst of the tortures^ 
came again to a sound state of mind, and 
awoke as it were out of a deep sleep ; for the 
temporary suflering reminded her of ^e eternal 
punishment in Gehenna, and she contradicted 
the accusers of Christians, saying, ' How can 
children be eaten by those who do not think it 
lawful to partake of the blood of even brute 
beasts? ' And after this she confessed herself a 
Christian, and was added to the number of Wit- 

" But when the tyrannical tortures were ren- 
dered by Christ of no avail through the patience 
of the blessed, the devil devised other omtiir- 
ances — confinement in the darkest and roost 
noisome cells of the prison, the stretching of Ac 
feet on the stocks,^ even up to the fifth hole, and 
the other indignities which attendants stirred up 
by wrath and full of the devil are wont to inflict 
on the imprisoned. The consequence was, that 
very many were suffocated in prison, as many at 
least as the Lord, showing His glor>% ;^nshed to 
depart in this way. For there were others who 
were tortured so bitterly, that it seemed impos- 
sible for them to survive even though they were 
to obtain every kind of attention ; and yet they 
remained alive in prison, destitute indeed of care 
from man, but strengthened by the Lord, and 
invigorated both in body and soul, and they ani- 
mated and consoled the rest. But the new con- 
verts who had been recently apprehended, and 
whose bodies had not previously been tortured, 
could not indure the confinement, but died in 
the prison. 

" Now the blessed Pothinus, who had been 
entrusted with the service of the bishopric in 
Lugdunum, was also dragged before the judg- 
ment-seat. He was now upwards of ninety years 
of age, and exceedingly weak in body. Though 
he breathed with difficulty on account of the 
feebleness of the body, yet he was strengthened 

* The holes were placed in a line, so that the further the bok a 
which one leg was put from the hole in which the other teg w |A 
the more nearly would the two legs form a straight line, and d» 
greater would be the pain. 



ly the eagerness of his spirit, on account of his 
earnest desire to bear his testimony. His body, 
indeed, was akeady dissolved through old age 
and disease, yet the life was preserved in him, 
that Christ might triumph through him. When 
he was brought by the soldiers to the judgment- 
seat, under a convoy of the magistrates of the 
city, and amid exclamations of every kind from 
the whole population, as if he himself were the 
Christ, he gave the good testimony. Being 
asked by the governor who was the God of the 
Christians, he said, ' If thou art worthy, thou 
shalt know.' Thereupon he was unmercifully 
dragged about, and endured many blows; for 
those who were near maltreated him in every 
way with their hands and feet, showing no re- 
^>ect for his age, while those at a distance hurled 
against him each one whatever came to hand, 
an of them believing that they would sin greatly 
and act impiously if they in any respect fell short 
in their insulting treatment of him. For they 
thought that in this way they would avenge their 
gods. And Pothinus, breathing with difficulty, was 
cast into prison, and two days after he expired. 

" Upon this a grand dispensation ' of God's 
providence took place, and the immeasurable 
mercy of Jesus was made manifest, — such an 
occurrence as but rarely happens among the 
brotherhood, yet one that does not fall short of 
the art of Christ. For those who in the first 
apprehension had denied, were imprisoned along 
wiUi the others, and shared their hardships. 
Their denial, in fact, turned out at this time to 
be of no advantage to them. For while those 
who confessed what they really were, were im- 
prisoned simply as Christians, no other accusa- 
tion being brought against them, those who 
denied were detained as miurderers and profli- 
gates. They, moreover, were doubly punished. 
For the confessors were lightened by the joy of 
their testimony and their hope in the promises, 
and by their love to Christ, and by the Father's 
l^irit But the deniers were tormented greatly 
by their own consciences, so that when they were 
led forth their countenances could be distin- 
guished among all the rest. For the confessors 
went forth joyous, with a mingling of glory and 
abundant grace in their looks, so that their 
chains lay like becoming ornaments around them, 
as around a bride adorned with golden fringes 
wrought with divers colours." And they breathed 
at the same time the fragrance of Christ,^ so that 
some even thought that they were anointed 
with this world's perfume. But the deniers were 
downcast, humbled, sad-looking, and weighed 

' The disfMsnsation is, that those who denied were not set free. 
Imt confined with the others: and that this harsh treatment and sad 

of mind confirmed the resolution of those not yet apprehended 
to oonfiess Christ. Various other explanations have been given, but 
this seems the most reasonable. 

• Ps. xIt. 13. 

* s Cor. it. 15. 

down with every kind of disgrace. They were, 
moreover, reproached even by the heathens with 
being base and cowardly, and charged with the 
crime of murder ; they had lost the altogether 
honourable, glorious, and life-giving appellation.* 
When the rest saw this, they were strengthened, 
and those who were apprehended confessed un- 
hesitatingly, not allowing the reasoning of the 
devil to have even a place in their thoughts." 

Eusebius omits something, saying that after a 
little the letter proceeded as follows : — 

"After these things, then, their testimonies took 
every shape through the different ways in which 
they departed.5 For, plaiting a crown from dif- 
ferent colours and flowers of every kind, they 
presented it to the Father. It was right there- 
fore that the noble athletes, after having endured 
divers contests and gained grand victories, should 
receive the great crown of incorruption. 

" Maturus, therefore, and Sanctus, and Blan- 
dina, and Attains were publicly ^ exposed to the 
wild beasts — that common spectacle of heathen 
barbarity; for a day was expressly assigned to 
fights with wild beasts on account of our people. 
And Maturus and Sanctus again endured every 
form of torture in the amphitheatre, as if they 
had had no suffering at all before. Or rather, 
like athletes who had overthrown their adver- 
sary several times,^ and were now contending 
for the crown itself, again they endured the 
lashes * which were usual there ; and they were 
dragged about by the wild beasts, and suffered 
every indignity which the maddened populace 
demanded in cries and exhortations proceeding 
from various parts of the amphitheatre. And 
last of all they were placed in the iron chair, 
on which their bodies were roasted, and they 
themselves were filled with the fumes of their 
own flesh. But the heathens did not stop even 
here, but became still more frantic in their de- 
sire to overcome the endurance of the Chris- 
tians. But not even thus did they hear anything 
else from Sanctus than the utterance of the con- 
fession which he had been accustomed to make 
from the beginning. These, then, after life had 
lasted a long time throughout the great contest, 
were at last sacrificed,^ after they alone had 

* Of Christian. 

s We have adopted here an emendation of Routh's. The literal 
version of the common text is: '* The testimonies of their departure 
were divided into every form." 

6 The Greek is ci« rh &titi6o'iov^ was led " to the public ittildinr" 
to the wild beasts. The public building is taken to oe the amphilhe* 

' The words " several times " are represented in Greek by did vAc»- 
6¥mv icAiypwy, lit. " through several k>ts." ^ When there were several 
athletes to contend, the pairs were determined by lot. After the first 
contest the victors were again formed into pairs by lot, until finally 
there should be but one pair left. See the process at the Olympic 
games described in Lucian Hermotimus, c. xf. p. 78a. 

* The bestiarii, before fighting with wild beasts, had to nm the 

9 Rufinus tmifAztes jMgvlatt suHi. Probably, "killed with the 
sword." The term may have been a technical one, being applied to 
the gladiators or bestiarii, whose death ouy have been looked on as 
a sacrifice to a god or a d<ad hero. 



formed a spectacle to the world, throughout that 
day, instead of all the diversity which usually 
takes place in gladiatorial shows. 

" Blandina ' was hung up fastened to a stake, 
and exposed, as food to the wild beasts that 
were let loose against her ; and through her pre- 
senting the spectacle of one suspended on some- 
thing like a cross, and through her earnest 
prayers, she inspired the combatants with great 
eagerness : for in the combat they saw, by means 
of their sister, with their bodily eyes. Him who 
was crucified for them, that He might persuade 
those who trust in Him that every one that has 
suffered for the glory of Christ has eternal com- 
munion with the living God. When none of 
the wild beasts at that time touched her, she was 
taken down from the stake and conveyed back 
to prison. She was thus reserved for another 
contest, in order that, gaining the victory in 
many preparative conflicts, she might make the 
condemnation of the Crooked Serpent * unques- 
tionable, and that she might encourage the 
brethren. For though she was an insignificant, 
weak, and despised woman, yet she was clothed 
with the great and invincible athlete Christ. On 
many occasions she had overpowered the adver- 
sary, and in the course of the contest had woven 
for herself the crown of incorruption. 

"Attains also was vehemently demanded by 
the mob, for he was a man of mark. He en- 
tered the lists a ready combatant on account of 
his good conscience, since he had been truly 
practised in the Christian discipline, and had 
always been a Witness of the truth among us. 
He was led round the amphitheatre, a tablet 
going before him, on which was written in Latin, 
* This is Attalus the Christian ; * and the people 
swelled with indignation against him. But the 
governor, learning that he was a Roman, ordered 
him to be taken back to prison and kept with 
the rest who were there, with regard to whom he 
had written to the Caesar, and was now awaiting 
his determination. 

" The intervening time did not prove barren 
or unfruitful to the Witnesses, but through their 
patient endurance the immeasurable love of 
Christ was made manifest. For through the liv- 
ing the dead were made alive ; and the Witnesses 
conferred favours on those who were not Wit- 
nesses, and the Virgin Mother had much joy in 
receiving back alive those whom she had given 
up as dead abortions. For through the Wit- 
nesses the greater number of those who had 
denied returned, as it were, into their mother's 
womb, and were conceived again and re-quick- 
ened j and they learned to confess. And being 
now restored to life, and having their spirits 

' Blandina was a slave : hence the mode of punishment. On this 
matter see Lipsius, De Cruce. [And my note, p. 784.J 
^ Lord Hules remarks tha( this alliuies to Isa. xxvix, i. 

braced, they went up to the judgment-seat to be 
again questioned by the governor, while that 
God who wishes not the death of the sinner,' 
but mercifully calls to repentance, put sweetness 
into their souls. This new examination took 
place because the Caesar had given orders that 
the Witnesses should be punished, but that if an? 
denied they should be set free. And as nov 
was commencing here the fair, which is attended 
by vast numbers of men assembling from all 
nations, he brought the' blessed up to the judg- 
ment-seat, exhibiting them as a theatrical show 
and spectacle to the mobs. Wherefore also he 
again questioned them, and whoever appeared 
to have had the rights of Roman citizenship 
he beheaded, and the rest he sent to tiie wild 

" Now Christ was greatly glorified in those 
who formerly denied; for, contrary to every 
expectation of the heathen, they confessed. For 
these were examined separately, under the be- 
lief that they were to be set free ; but confessing, 
they were added to the number of the Witnesses. 
But there were also some who remained without; 
namely, those who had no trace of faith, and no 
perception of the marriage garment,* nor notioD 
of the fear of God, but through their conduct 
caused evil reports of our way of life, that is, 
sons of perdition. But all the rest were added 
to the Church. 

" Present at the examination of these was ooe 
Alexander, a native of Phrygia, a physician bf 
profession. He had lived for many years in 
Gaul, and had become well known to all for his 
love to God and his boldness in proclaiming the 
truth, for he was not without a share of apostolic 
grace. He stood near the judgment-seat, and. 
urging by signs those who had denied to confess, 
he looked to those who stood round the judg- 
ment-seat like one in travail. But the mobs, 
enraged that those who had formerly denied 
should now confess, cried out against Alexander 
as if he were the cause of this change. Then the 
governor summoned him before him, and in- 
quired of him who he was ; and when Alexan- 
der said he was a Christian, the governor burst 
into a passion, and condemned him to the wild 
beasts. And on the next day he entered the am- 
phitheatre along with Attalus ; for the governor, 
wishing to gratify the mob, again exposed Attains 
to the wild beasts. These two, after being tor- 
tured in the amphitheatre with all the instni- 
ments devised for that purpose, and having un- 
dergone an exceedingly severe contest, at last 
were themselves sacrificed. Alexander uttered 


3 Ezek. xxxiii. 

* Heinichen renders " the bride's garment," and explains b ti« 
following manner. The bride is the Church, the garment Christ: toi 
the sons of perdition had no idea what garment the Church of Christ 
should wear, had no idra that they should be clothed with Quist,aBd 
be filled with His Spirit. It is generally taken to be Uie marnap 
garment of Matt. xzii. za. 



no groan or murmur of any kind, but conversed 
in his heart with God ; but Attains, when he was 
placed on the iron chair, and all the parts of his 
Ixxly were burning, and when the fumes from 
his body were borne aloft, said to the multitude 
in Latin, ' Lo ! this which ye do is eating men. 
But as for us, we neither eat men nor practise 
any other wickedness.' And being asked what 
name God has, he answered, 'God has not a 
name as men have.' 

" After all these, on the last day of the glad- 
iatorial shows, Blandina was again brought in 
along wijth Ponticus, a boy of about fifteen years 
of age. These two had been taken daily to the 
amphitheatre to see the tortures which the rest 
endured, and force was used to compel them to 
swear by the idols of the heathen ; but on ac- 
count of their remaining stedfast, and setting all 
their devices at nought, the multitude were 
furious against them, so as neither to pity the 
tender years of the boy nor to respect the sex 
of the woman. Accordingly they exposed them 
to every terror, and inflicted on them every tor- 
ture, repeatedly trying to compel them to swear. 
But they failed in effecting this; for Ponticus, 
encouraged by his sister,' so plainly indeed that 
even the heathens saw that it was she that en- 
couraged and confirmed him, after enduring 
nobly every kind of torture, gave up the ghost ; 
while the blessed Blandina, last of all, after 
having like a noble mother encouraged her chil- 
dren, and sent them on before her victorious to 
the King, trod the same path of conflict which 
her children had trod, hastening on to them with 
joy and exultation at her departure, not as one 
thrown to the wild beasts, but as one invited to a 
marriage supper. And after she had been 
scourged and exposed to the wild beasts, and 
roasted in the iron chair, she was at last enclosed 
in a net and cast before a bull. And after hav- 
ing been well tossed by the bull, though without 
having any feeling of what was happening to 
her, through her hope and firm hold of what 
had been entrusted to her and her converse with 
Christ, she also was sacrificed, the heathens 
themselves acknowledging that never among 
them did woman endure so many and such fear- 
ful tortures. 

"Yet not even thus was their madness and 
their savage hatred to the saints satiated. For 
wild and barbarous tribes, when excited by the 
Wild Beast, with difficulty ceased from their 
xage, and their insulting conduct found another 
and peculiar subject in the bodies of the Wit- 
nesses. For they felt no shame that they had 
been overcome, for they were not possessed of 
human reason ; but their defeat only the more 

* She may have been his sister bv birth, as some have supposed, 
tat die term " sister" would have been applied had she been coo- 
■tctcd by no other tie than that of acommon fiuih. 

inflamed their rage, and governor and people, 
like a wild beast, showed a hke unjust ha- 
tred of us, that the Scripture might be ful- 
filled, 'He that is unjust, let him be unjust 
still; and he that is righteous, let him be 
righteous still.'* For they threw to the dogs 
those who had been suflbcated in prison, care- 
fully watching them day and night, lest any one 
should receive burial from us. They then laid 
out the mangled remains left by the wild beasts, 
and the scorched remains left by the fire, and 
the heads of the rest along with their trunks, and 
in like manner for many days watched them ly- 
ing unburied with a military guard. There were 
some who raged and gnashed their teeth at them, 
seeking to get from them further vengeance. 
Others derided and insulted them, at the same 
time magnifying their own idols, and ascribing 
to them the punishment inflicted on the Chris- 
tians. There were persons also of a milder 
disposition, who to some extent seemed to sym- 
pathize ; yet they also frequently upbraided, say- 
ing, * Where now is their God, and what good 
have they got from that religion which they 
chose in preference to their life ? ' Such was the 
diversity which characterized the conduct of the 
heathens. But our state was one of deep sor- 
row that we could not bury the bodies. For 
night aided us not in this matter ; money failed 
to persuade, and entreaty did not shame them 
into compliance ; but they kept up the watch in 
every way, as if they were to gain some great 
advantage from the bodies of the Christians not 
obtaining burial. 

Something is omitted. The letter then goes 
on: — 

"The bodies of the Witnesses, after having 
been maltreated in every way, and exposed in 
the open air for six days, were burned, reduced 
to ashes, and swept by the wicked into the river 
Rhone, which flows past, in order that not even 
a vestige of them might be visible on earth. 
And these things they did, as if they had been 
able to overcome God, and deprive them of 
their second birth,^ in order, as they said, that 
* they may not have hope in a resurrection, trust- 
ing to which they introduce some strange and 
new mode of worship, and despise dangers, and 
go readily and with joy to death. Now let us 
see if they will rise again, and if their God can 
help them, and rescue them out of our hands.* " 

Eusebius here breaks off* his series of con- 
tinuous extracts, but he makes a few more for 
special purposes. The first is the account 
which the churches gave of the character of 
the Witnesses : — 

"Who also were to such an extent zealous 

^_ ' Rev. xxii. i x. Lardner thinks the passage is quoted from Dan. 
jdi. xo. Credii.f part ii. c. x6. 

3 iraAiyycvtvia. The term refm here to the new state of affidis 
at the end 01 the woiid. 



followers and imitators of Christ, who, being in 
the shape of God, thought it not an object of 
desire to be treated like God ; ' that though they 
were in such glory, and had borne their testi- 
mony not once, nor twice, but often, and had 
been again taken back to prison after exposure 
to the wild beasts, and bore about with them the 
marks of the burnings and bruises and wounds 
all over their bodies, yet did they neither pro- 
claim themselves Witnesses, nor indeed did they 
permit us to address them by this name ; but if 
any one of us on any occasion, either by letter 
or in conversation, called them Witnesses, they 
rebuked him sharply. For they willingly gave 
the title of Witness to Christ, * the faithful and 
true Witness,' ' and first-bom from the dead, 
and the leader to the divine life. And they re- 
minded us of those Witnesses who had already 
departed, and said : * These indeed are now 
Witnesses, whom Christ has vouchsafed to take 
up to Himself in the very act of confession, thus 
putting His seal upon their testimony through 
their departure. But we are mean and humble 
confessors.' And with tears they besought the 
brethren that earnest prayers might be made for 
their being perfected. They in reality did all 
that is implied in the term 'testimony,* acting 
with great boldness towards all the heathen; 
and their nobleness they made manifest through 
their patience, and fearlessness, and intrepidity. 
But the title of Witness, as implying some su- 
periority to their brethren,' they refiised, being 
fiilled with the fear of God." 

After a little they say : — 

" They humbled themselves ^ under the power- 
ful hand by which they are now highly exalted. 
Then they pleaded for all,5 but accused none ; 

« Phil. ii. 6. 

* Rev. i. 5 and iii. 14. 

3 The Greek is rriv trpoK rovf aScA^vf rStv uaprvfuav irpo<n^o« 
piavt generally translated, " oflered to them by their brethren." 

* 1 Pet. V. 6. 

5 The Greek is, ira<ri fiiv dircAoyovrro. Rufinus translated, 
•• Placabant omnes, ncminem accusabant." Valesius thought that 
the words ought to be translated, " They rendered an account of 
their Caith to all;" or, "They defended themselves before all." 
Heinichen has justified the translation in the text by an appeal to a 
passage in Eusebius, Hist. Ecci., iv. 15. 

they absolved all, they bound none ; and thej 
prayed for those who inflicted the tortures, even 
as Stephen the perfect Witness, ' Lord, lay not 
this sin to their charge.' ^ But if he prayed fbr 
those who stoned him, how much more for the 
brethren ! " 

After other things, again they say : — 

" For they had this very great conflict with 
him, tk^ devily on account of their genuine love, 
in order that Uie Beast being choked, might vom- 
it forth those whom he thought he had already 
swallowed. For they assumed no airs of supen* 
ority over the Men, but with those things in 
which they themselves abounded they aided die 
needy, displaying towards them the compaasioD 
of a mother. KxA pouring out many tears for 
them to the Father, they begged life ; ' and He 
gave it to them, and they shared it with their 
neighbours. And departing victorious over aH 
to God, having always loved peace, and having 
recommended peace to us, in peace they went 
to God, leaving no sorrow to their Mother, nor 
division and dissension to their brethren, but joy 
and peace, and concord and love." 

"The same writing of the fore-mentioned 
martyrs," says Eusebius, " contains a story worth 

" For there was one of them of the name of 
Alcibiades, who lived an exceedingly austere life, 
confining his diet to bread and water, and par- 
taking of nothing else whatsoever. He tried to 
continue this mode of life in prison ; but it was 
revealed to Attains after the first conflict whidi 
he underwent in the amphitheatre that Alcibiades 
was not pursuing the right course in refusing to 
use the creatures of God, and in leaving an ex- 
ample which might be a stumbling-block to 
others. And Alcibiades was persuaded, and par- 
took freely of all kinds of food, and thaiied 
God. For they were not without the oversight 
of the grace of God, but the Holy Spirit was 
their counsellor." 

6 Acts vii. 60. 

7 Ps. XX. 4. 


A French writer has remarked, " Ce n'est pas Spartacus qui a suppriip^ Tcsclevage ; c'est 
bien plutot Blandine." 



(In every soccession, p. 764.) 

Here our author mentions that he noted the succession of Bishops at Rome, but he gives his 
with no remark about Rome in particular. He adds that " in every succession and in every 
city (Le., in every See) a primitive accordance with the law and the Gospel is maintained." 
How can our excellent Lightfoot ' give it a colour wholly gratuitous in these words : " He inter- 
ested himself in the succession of the Roman See, tn^nf, like JretuBus in the next generation, on 
« showing the permanence of the orthodox tradition, through the continuity of the Roman episco- 
pate." Irenaeus, who, above all the Westerns, is identified with the Orient ! 

Where is the evidence of any such idea or '' intent " ? As for Irenseus, his testimony has been 
sufficiently illustrated before, with proof that his words have not the slightest reference to the 
continuity of the Roman more than any other See, save only as the influx of visitors from 
other Sees helped to give it orthodoxy by their concurrent testimony.' 


It may be worth while to state here, that I have uniformly (mistakes excepted) put my chron- 
ological statements, at the head of introductions, into brackets, so as to make the reader sure 
that the Edinburgh edition is not to be responsible for them. Some have inferred, therefore, that 
what follows is from the Edinburgh ; but I think my modes of expression sufficient, generally, to 
guard against misconception. Notes (like this) are sometimes marked, '' By the American Editor," 
when I have feared a misleading ambiguity. Otherwise, I have been unguarded. All the intro- 
ductions in these ''Remains" are mine, save the prefatory paragraphs of the translator on 
pp. 747, 748. Annotations on my own material are not bracketed. The very large amount of 
work bestowed upon this edition can only be known by comparison with the Edinburgh. In 
several instances of delicate criticism I have obtained valuable aid from my beloved friend, F. P. 
Nash, Esq., of Hobart College, especially in questions of the low Latin or ambiguous Greek. 

AM V^. W« 

< A^, ^«/A/rr, pavtu. voLLp.435; and the lame Uudty, p. 384, coincident wfah hb tfaeoryas toap/r#i«i/|m»ApoitoUc devdopmrK 
Qi episcopacy. 

* Compan toL L pp. 415, 460, and voL ▼. Ehidd. VL; alio Ebdd. XL pp. 157-1591 this aeriei. 


i * 

"1 ■ 

i r 

• I 



Abyss, what is meant bjr» 43. 

A^el, the guardian ot imants, 48; 
of generation, 49; of the sun, 50. 

Angels, appearance of, how caused, 
49; the fallen, taught men as- 
tronomy, divination, and other 
arts, 49; are called days, 59; dif- 
ferent orders of, co. 

Anger, the mischief of, 25. 

Arethas referred to, 36. 

Asher, the patriarch, speaks to his 
children concerning two faces of 
vice and virtue, ^ 31 ; exhorts 
them to walk in tne way of truth 
and righteousness, 31 ; death 
of, 32. 

Augustine referred to, 35, 37, 44. 

Baptism, the sign oi regeneration, 
4;j; compared to a stream, 43; 
with Spirit and fire, meaning of, 
46; of Christ, why, 44. 

Beatitudes of the Lord, provisions 
for the Lord's wav, 44. 

Benjamin, the patriarcn, speaks of his 
birth, 35, of his being recog- 
nised by Joseph, 36 ; exhorts his 
children to follow the example 
of Joseph, 36, to have a pure 
mind, 36, to flee the evil-doing 
of Beliar, 37, that they may have 
a part in the kingdom of the 
Lord, 37 ; concludes with a ref- 
erence to the Apostle Paul, 37. 

Bernard, St., quoted, ^7. 

Boat, the first, made by Zebulun, 24. 

Caesar, earthly things to be rendered 

to, 46. 
Cave referred to, 3. 
Chiliasm of Barnabas referred to, 26. 
Christ, why baptized, 44 ; called the 

I^w and Word, 50. 
Church, the, minister of the Lord's 

power, 4j. 
Clement of Alexandria referred to, 13. 
Clementine Homilies referred to, 15. 
Clementine Recognitions referred to, 

Commandments, witnesses to the, 44. 
Communication, oral and written, dif- 
ference between, 46. 

Comprehension connected with sci- 
ence, 47. 
Cyril referred to, 36. 

Dan, the patriarch, warns nis children 
against anger and lying, 2C-26; 
speaks of their captivity, 26; ex- 
horts them to fear the Lord, 26, 
to take heed of Satan, 26 ; his 
death, 26. 

Day, meaning of, 491 

Detects, secret, foreign to the right- 
eous man, 50. 

Demons tempted Solomon, 40. 

Devi], the, tempted Christ, why, 49. 

Disease, external^ not to be dreaded, 

Dorner referred to, 26. 

Encyclopedia Britannica referred to, 

Enoch, Book of, referred to, 10, 12, 

13, 15, 16,20,23,27,37,43. 
Envy, its effect, 11. 
Epiphanius referred to, 35. 

Faith and knowledge, 44, 45; and 
righteousness, effect of, 50. 

Faithful, the, are called kings, 48. 

Fasting, meaning of the word, 44. 

Fear is mingled with goodness by 
God, 44. 

Fire, the power of, 46. 

Fornication, its effects, 10, 12. 

Free choice is given to the soul, 45. 

Gad, the patriarch, speaks of his 
youth, 29, of his hatred against 
Joseph, 29, of his punishment, 
30; warns his children against 
hatred, 29, and envy, 30; his 
death and burial, 3a 

Generation, the angel of, 49. 

Gesenius referred to, 10. 

Gnostic, teaching of, 45 ; life of, 47 ; 
virtue, effect of, 48. 

God, the creator of man, 45, also his 
Saviour, 44 ; how to be conceived, 
45 ; why called a consuming fire, 
46; we ought to render to, the 
things belonging to, 46 ; mingles 
fear with goodness, 44 ; the judg- 

ment of, is good, 48 ; how to be 

glorified, 48. 
GraM referred to, 3, 14. 
Grace, the saving, effect of, 45. 
Grosseteste referred to, 6. 

Hatred, effects of, 29. 

Heavens, meaning of, 49 ; the seven^ 

Herodotus referred to, 19. 

** Israelites indeed," who thev are, 4jr. 

Issachar, the patriarch, speaKS of his 
birth, 22, his occupation and up- 
rightness, 22, exhorts his chil- 
dren to walk in simplicity of 
heart, minding their own anairs, 
22 ; his death, 23. 

{ones referred to, 27, 29, 32, 36. 
oseph, the patriarch, narrates his 
early life, 32, his misfortunes in 
£gypt, 32-35 ; speaks of his mar- 
riage, 35, of his visions concern- 
ing the Lamb of God, 35, 36; 
exhorts his children to follow 
after sobriety and purity, in pa- 
tience and humility of heart, ^3, 
34, 35; his death, 35; descrip- 
tion of, by Simeon, 11, 12 ; a type 
of Christ, 4. 

Josephus referred to, 27, 29, 32, 36. 

Joshua called a saviour, 4^. 

Jubilees, Book of, referred to, 13, 17, 

Judah, the patriarch, speaks of his 
fortitude, 17, 18, of his marriage 
and that of his sons, 18, of his 
fall, 19; warns his children 
against drunkenness, which leads 
to fornication, and against the 
love of money, 19, 20; predicts 
the coming of the Messiah, who 
shall be the Saviour of all, 21 ; 
his death and burial, 21. 

Kayser referred to, 14. 
Knowledge and righteousness, 44. 

Lardner referred to, 3, 4, 10, 14, 23, 

Leathes referred to, 3. 



Levi, the patriarch, speaks of his 
vengeance on Hamor, 13, 14, of 
his revelations, 13, of the seven 
heavens, 13, of the seven men 
in white raiment, investing him 
with the insignia of the priest- 
hood, 14 ; is instructed in the law 
of the priesthood and sacrifices, 
I4t 15* speaks of his marriage, 
15; admonishes his children to 
fear the Lord, 15; foretells that 
the3r will act ungodly against the 
Saviour, 15, 16, that they will be 
led into captivity, 16^ and finally 
be saved through the Lord, 16 ; 
his death and burial, 17. 

Lightfoot referred to, 6. 

Long-suffering, effect of, 48. 

Love of money, its evil fruits, 19, 2a 

Man, created by God, 4c 

Mandrakes, the, of Reuben, 21, 22. 

Martyr, the so-called, must be per- 
secuted, 50. 

Matter, how represented, 43. 

Midrash Breshith Rabba referred to, 

Money, love of, its evil fruits, 19^ 20. 

Kaphtali, the patriarch, speaks of 
his birth, 27, of his youth, 2^, 
of his dreams, 28; exhorts his 
children not to change the order 
of nature, 27, 28 ; his death and 
burial, 28. 

Nitzsch referred to, 14. 

Order of nature, how illustrated, 27, 

Origen referred to, 3, 5, 37. 

Paris, M., referred to, 6. 

Passions are called spirits, 48. 
Plutarch referred to, 9. 
Property, how to be managed, 48. 
Prophecy is ottered indefinitely, 49. 
Protevangelium Jacobi referred to, 

Psalm zix., verses of, explained by 

Theodotus, 49, 5a 

Punishments produced from sins, 


R^encration by water and Spirit, 44* 

Reuben, the patriarch, speaJra of his 
sin and sufferings, 9; warns 
against women and fornication, 
10; his death and burial, 11. 

Righteous, the so-called, must be 
wronged, 50. 

Righteousness, must be added to 
knowledge, 44, and faith, effect 
of, 50. 

Salvation, things necessary to, 47. 

Science, mysteries of, how often re- 
garded, 47. 

Scriptures, why to be searched, 47. 

Servant of God, who so called, 50. 

Sick are ever praying, 44. 

Simeon, the patriarch, speaks of his 
hostility to Joseph, 11; warns 
his children against envy, 11, 12; 
his death and ourial, 12. 

Simplicity of heart recommended, 

Son of God is the beginning, 43. 

Soul, the, has free choice, 45. 

Spirits, in man, 9 ; of error, 9. 

Stars, what they are, 49. 

Study necessary for teachers, 48. 

Sufferings, why desired by the an- 
cients, 44. 

Suicer referred to, 16. 

" Tabernacle in the son,** meaning a^ 

Targum referred to, 11, 18, 2^ t^ 


Tatian, referred to, 13 ; refuted, 48. 

Teachers ought always to study, ^S. 

Tertullian referred to, 3, St 37' 

Testaments, the, of the Twelve Patri- 
archs, introductory notice to^ 
3-8; time of composition, 3,5; 
character of, 3, 4, c; object oj^ 
5 ; author of, 3, 5 ; nis religion 
stand-point, 5, 6 ; language of, 5; 
(luoted by Tertullian, 5, and dr- 
>gcn, 5; manuscripts of, 6^ 7; 
editions of, 7 ; versions, 7 ; liter- 
ature on, 8 ; contents of, 9-37. 

Testimony of the Lord, effect oi 51 

Theodoret referred to, 37. 

Theodotus, Excerpts of, or Selectioos 
from the Prophetic Scriptorei^ 
43-50; introductory notice to, 41; 
notes on verses from Psalm xix, 

Tischendorf referred to, 7. 

Vorstman referred to, 7, 14. 

Watchers, the, 10, 27. 
Westcott referred to, 3, 5. 

Zebulnn, the patriarch, speaks of lui 
relation to Joseph, 23, of hii 
building the nrst boat, 24, of tlie 
five years he spent as a fisher, 
supplying every one with fish, 
24 ; exhorts his children to show 
mercy and compassion torards 
all, 24; warns them against di- 
visions, 24; points to the com- 
ing of the God-Man, 25; his 
death and burial, 25. 







i. 18. . 

ii. 10 • 

vi. 4 

xxiii. 9 . 

XXV. 34 

xxvii. 25 

xxix. 33 


XXX. 8 . 

XXX. 14 seq 

XXX. 20 

XXXV. 22 

xxxvii. 22, 

xxxvii. 28 

xxxviii. I 

xxxviii. 5 

xxxviii. 12 

xxxix. I (LXX.) 

xlii. 22 . . . 

xlviii. 7 (LXX.) 

xlviii. 16 

xlix. 3 . 

xlix. 7 . 

xlix. 21 

xlix. 27 

£xod. xxviii. 27 (LXX.), 14 

xxix. 5, 6 (LXX.), 14 

Lev. ii. 13 .... 15 

xi. ^ 7 • 
Num. xii. 27 

XV. 25 . 
Deot. ii. 23 . 

xvii. 6. 
Josh. XV. 34 . 

XV. 44 . 

zvi. 8 . 

xvii. 8.