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Ta apyava. Wrj JcpaTcirta. 

The Nicene Council. 





The Writings of the Fathers down to A.D. J2^, 














-' I' 

Copyright, 1885, by 




This volume, containing the equivalent of three volumes of the Edinburgh series of the Ante- 
NiCENE Fathers, will be found a library somewhat complete in itself. The Apostolic Fathers 
and those associated with them in the third generation, are here placed together in a handbook, 
which, with the inestimable Scriptures, supplies a succinct autobiography of the Spouse of Christ 
for the first two centuries. No Christian scholar has ever before possessed, in faithful versions of 
such compact form, a supplement so essential to the right understanding of the New Testament 
itself. It is a volume indispensable to all scholars, and to every library, private or public, in 

this country. 

The American Editor has performed the humble task of ushering these works into American 
use, with scanty contributions of his own. Such was the understanding with the public : they 
were to be presented with the Edinburgh series, free from appreciable colour or alloy. His duty 
was (i) to give historic arrangement to the confused mass of the original series; (2) to supply, 
in continuity, such brief introductory notices as might slightly popularize what was apparently 
meant for scholars only, in the introductions of the translators ; (3) to supply a few deficiencies by 
short notes and references ; (4) to add such references to Scripture, or to authors of general 
repute, as might lend additional aid to students, without clogging or overlaying the comments 
of the translators; and (5) to note such corruptions or distortions of Patristic testimony as 
have been circulated, in the spirit of the forged Decretals, by those who carry on the old impos- 
ture by means essentially equivalent. Too long have they been allowed to speak to the popular 
mind as if the Fathers were their own ; while, to every candid reader, it must be evident that, 
alike, the testimony, the arguments, and the silence of the Ante-Nicene writers confound all 
attempts to identify the ecclesiastical establishment of " the Holy Roman Empire," with " the 
Holy Catholic Church " of the ancient creeds. 

In performing this task, under the pressure of a virtual obligation to issue the first volume in 
the first month of the new year, the Editor has relied upon the kindly aid of an able friend, as 
typographical corrector of the Edinburgh sheets. It is only necessary to add, that he has 
bracketed all his own notes, so as to assume the responsibility for them ; but his introduc- 
tions are so separated from those of the translators, that, after the first instance, he has 
not thought it requisite to suffix his initials to these brief contributions. He regrets that the 
most important volume of the series is necessarily the experimental one, and comes out under 
disadvantages from which it may be expected that succeeding issues will be free. May the Lord 
God of our Fathers bless the undertaking to all my fellow-Christians, and make good to them the 
promise which was once felicitously chosen for the motto of a similar series of publications : " Yei 
shall not thy teachers be removed into a corner any more, but thine eyes shall see thy teachen." 

A. C. C. 
jAiruARY 6, 1885. 


N.B. — The following advertisement of the original editors will be useful here : — 

The Ante-Nicene Christian Library is meant to comprise translations into English of all the extant 
works of the Fathers down to the date of the first General Council held at Nice in a.d. 325. The sole pro- 
Tisional exception is that of the more bulky writings of Origen. It is intended at present only to embrace in the 
scheme the Contra Celsum and the De Principiis of that voluminous author; but the whole of his works will be 
included should the undertaking prove successful. 

The present volume has been translated by the Editors.' Their object has been to place the English reader 
as nearly as possible on a footing of equality with those who are able to read the original. With this view they 
have for the most part leaned towards literal exactness ; and wherever any considerable departure from this has 
been made, a verbatim rendering has been given at the foot of the page. Brief introductory notices have been 
prefixed, and short notes inserted, to indicate varieties of reading, specify references, or elucidate any obscurity 
which seemed to exist in the text. 

Edinburgh, 1867. 

 This refers to the first tcIusm only of the ori^iaal serlea. 



[a.d. 1 00-200.] The Apostolic Fathers are here understood as filling up the second century 
of our era. Irenaeus, it is true, is rather of the sub-apostolic period ; but, as the disciple of 
Polycarp, he ought not to be dissociated from that Father's company. We thus find ourselves con- 
ducted, by this goodly fellowship of witnesses, from the times of the apostles to those of TertuUian, 
from the martyrs of the second persecution to those of the sixth. Those were times of heroism, 
not of words ; an age, not of writers, but of soldiers ; not of talkers, but of sufferers. Curiosity is 
baffled, but faith and love are fed by these scanty relics of primitive antiquity. Yet may we well 
be grateful for what we have. These writings come down to us as the earliest response of con- 
verted nations to the testimony of Jesus. They are primary evidences of the Canon and the 
credibility of the New Testament. Disappointment may be the first emotion of the student who 
comes down from the mount where he has dwelt in the tabernacles of evangelists and apostles : 
for these disciples are confessedly inferior to the masters ; they speak with the voices of infirm 
and fallible men, and not like the New-Testament writers, with the fiery tongues of the Holy 
Ghost. Yet the thoughtful and loving spirit soon learns their exceeding value. For who does not 
close the records of St. Luke with longings to get at least a glimpse of the further history of the 
progress of the Gospel? What of the Church when its founders were fallen asleep? Was the 
Good Shepherd " always " with His little flock, according to His promise? Was the Blessed Com- 
forter felt in His presence amid the fires of persecution? Was the Spirit of Truth really able to 
guide the faithful into all truth, and to keep them in the truth ? 

And what had become of the disciples who were the first-fruits of the apostolic ministry? 
St. Paul had said, " The same commit thou to faithful men, who shall be able to teach others 
also." How was this injunction realized? St. Peter's touching words come to mind, "I will 
endeavour that ye may be able after my decease to have these things always in remembrance." 
Was this endeavour successfully carried out ? To these natural and pious inquiries, the Apostolic 
Fathers, though we have a few specimens only of their fidelity, give an emphatic reply. If the 
cold-hearted and critical find no charm in the simple, childlike faith which they exhibit, ennobled 
though it be by heroic devotion to the Master, we need not marvel. Such would probably object : 
" They teach me nothing ; I do not relish their multiplied citations from Scripture." The answer 
is, " If you are familiar with Scripture, you owe it largely to these primitive witnesses to its Canon 
and its spirit. By their testimony we detect what is spurious, and we identify what is real. Is it 
nothing to find that your Bible is their Bible, your faith their faith, your Saviour their Saviour, your 
God their God?" Let us reflect also, that, when copies of the entire Scriptures were rare and 
costly, these citations were " words fitly spoken, — apples of gold in pictures of silver." We are 
taught by them also that they obeyed the apostle's precept, " Let the word of Christ dwell in 
you richly in all wisdom ; teaching and admonishing," etc. Thus they reflect the apostolic care 
that men should be raised up able to teach others also. 



Their very mistakes enable us to attach a higher value to the superiority of inspired writers. 
They were not wiser than the naturalists of their day who taught them the history of the Phoenix 
and other fables ; but nothing of this sort is found in Scripture. The Fathers are inferior in kind 
as well as in degree ; yet their words are lingering echoes of those whose words were spoken "as 
the Spirit gave them utterance." They are monuments of the power of the Gospel. They were 
made out of such material as St. Paul describes when he says, " Such were some of you." But 
for Christ, they would have been worshippers of personified Lust and Hate, and of every crime. 
They would have lived for " bread and circus-shows." Yet to the contemporaries of a Juvenal 
they taught the Decalogue and the Sermon on the Mount. Among such beasts in human form 
they reared the sacred home ; they created the Christian family ; they gave new and holy mean- 
ings to the names of wife and mother ; they imparted ideas unknown before of the dignity of 
man as man ; they infused an atmosphere of benevolence and love ; they bestowed the elements 
of liberty chastened by law ; they sanctified human society by proclaiming the universal brother- 
hood of redeemed man. As we read the Apostolic Fathers, we comprehend, in short, the mean- 
ing of St. Paul when he said prophetically, what men were slow to believe, " The foolishness of 
God is wiser than men ; and the weakness of God is stronger than men. . . . But God hath chosen 
the foolish things of the world to confound the wise ; and God hath chosen the weak things of 
the world to confound the things which are mighty ; and base things of the world, and things 
which are despised, hath God chosen, yea, and things which are not, to bring to nought things 
that are." 

A. C. C. 

December, 18S4. 

Contents of Volume I. 




I. ST. CLEMENT. Epistle to the Corinthians . . i 

II. MATHETES. Epistle to Diognetus 23 

III. POLYCARP. Epistle to the Philippians 31 

Martyrdom 37 

IV. IGNATIUS. Epistle to the Ephesians 45 

Epistle to the Ephesians: Shorter and Longer Versions ... 49 

Epistle to the Magnesians 59 

Epistle to the Trallians 66 

Epistle to the Romans ^ •73 

Epistle to the Philadelphians 79 

Epistle to the Smyrn^eans 86 

Epistle to Polycarp 93 

Appendix. Syriac Version 97 

Spurious Epistles 105 

Martyrdom 127 

V. BARNABAS. Epistle 133 

VI. PAPIAS. Fragments 151 

VII. JUSTIN MARTYR. The First Apology 159 

The Second Apology 188 

Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew 194 

The Discourse to the Greeks 271 

Hortatory Address to the Greeks . 273 

On the Sole Government of God 290 

On the Resurrection, Fragments 294 

Other Fragments 300 

Martyrdom 303 

VIII. IREN^US. Against Heresies 309 

Fragments . o 568 







[a.d. 30-100.] Clement was probably a Gentile and a Roman. He seems to have been at 
Philippi with St. Paul (a.d. 57) when that first-bom of the Western churches was passing 
through great trials of faith. There, with holy women and others, he ministered to the apostle 
and to the saints. As this city was a Roman colony, we need not inquire how a Roman happened 
to be there. He was possibly in some public service, and it is not improbable that he had visited 
Corinth in those days. From the apostle, and his companion, St. Luke, he had no doubt learned 
the use of the Septuagint, in which his knowledge of the Greek tongue soon rendered him an 
adept. His copy of that version, however, does not always agree with the Received Text, as the 
reader will perceive. 

A co-presbyter with Linus and Cletus, he succeeded them in the government of the Roman 
Church. I have reluctantly adopted the opinion that his Epistle was written near the close of his 
life, and not just after the persecution of Nero. It is not improbable that Linus and Cletus both 
perished in that fiery trial, and that Clement's immediate succession to their work and place occa^ 
sions the chronological difficulties of the period. After the death of the apostles, for the Roman 
imprisonment and martyrdom of St. Peter seem historical, Clement was the natural representa- 
tive of St. Paul, and even of his companion, the " apostle of the circumcision ; " and naturally 
he wrote the Epistle in the name of the local church, when brethren looked to them for advice. 
St. John, no doubt, was still surviving at Patmos or in Ephesus ; but the Philippians, whose inter- 
course with Rome is attested by the visit of Epaphroditus, looked naturally to the surviving 
friends of their great founder ; nor was the aged apostle in the East equally accessible. All 
roads pointed towards the Imperial City, and started from its Milliaritim Aureum. But, though 
Clement doubtless wrote the letter, he conceals his own name, and puts forth the brethren, who 
seem to have met in council, and sent a brotherly delegation (Chap. lix.). The entire absence of 
the spirit of Diotrephes (St. Jolm, Ep. III. 9), and the close accordance of the Epistle, in humility 
and meekness, with that of St. Peter (Ep. I, v. 1-5), are noteworthy features. The whole will be 
found animated with the loving and faithful spirit of St. Paul's dear Philippians, among whom the 
writer had learned the Gospel. 

Clement fell asleep, probably soon after he despatched his letter. It is the legacy of one who 
reflects the apostolic age in all the beauty and evangelical truth which were the first-fruits of the 
Spirit's presence with the Church. He shares with others the aureole of glory attributed by St. 
Paul (Phil. iv. 3), " His name is in the Book of Life." 

The plan of this publication does not permit the restoration, in this volume, of the recently 
discovered portions of his work. It is the purpose of the editor to present this, however, with 
other recently discovered relics of primitive antiquity, in a supplementary volume, should the 



undertaking meet with sufficient encouragement. The so-called second Epistle of Clement is now 
known to be the work of another, and has been relegated to another place in this series. 

The following is the Introductory Notice of the original editors and translators, Drs. Roberts 
and Donaldson : — 

The first Epistle, bearing the name of Clement, has been preserved to us in a single manu- 
script only. Though very frequently referred to by ancient Christian writers, it remained un- 
known to the scholars of Western Europe until happily discovered in the Alexandrian manuscript. 
This MS. of the Sacred Scriptures (known and generally referred to as Codex A) was presented 
in 1628 by Cyril, Patriarch of Constantinople, to Charles I., and is now preserved in the British 
Museum. Subjoined to the books of the New Testament contained in it, there are two writings 
described as the Epistles of one Clement. Of these, that now before us is the first. It is 
tolerably perfect, but there are many slight lacunce, or gaps, in the ms., and one whole leaf is 
supposed to have been lost towards the close. These lacunce, however, so numerous in some 
chapters, do not generally extend beyond a word or syllable, and can for the most part be easily 

Who the Clement was to whom these writings are ascribed, cannot with absolute certainty be 
determined. The general opinion is, that he is the same as the person of that name referred to 
by St. Paul (Phil. iv. 3). The writings themselves contain no statement as to their author. The 
first, and by far the longer of them, simply purports to have been written in the name of the 
Church at Rome to the Church at Corinth. But in the catalogue of contents prefixed to the ms. 
they are both plainly attributed to one Clement ; and the judgment of most scholars is, that, in 
regard to the first Epistle at least, this statement is correct, and that it is to be regarded as an 
authentic production of the friend and fellow-worker of St. Paul. This belief may be traced to 
an early period in the history of the Church. It is found in the writings of Eusebius {Hist. EccL, 
ni. 15), of Origen {Comm. in Joan., i. 29), and others. The internal evidence also tends to 
support this opinion. The doctrine, style, and manner of thought are all in accordance with it ; 
so that, although, as has been said, positive certainty cannot be reached on the subject, we may 
with great probability conclude that we have in this Epistle a composition of that Clement who 
is known to us from Scripture as having been an associate of the great apostle. 

The date of this Epistle has been the subject of considerable controversy. It is clear from 
the writing itself that it was composed soon after some persecution (chap, i.) which the Roman 
Church had endured ; and the only question is, whether we are to fix upon the persecution under 
Nero or Domitian. If the former, the date will be about the year 68 ; if the latter, we must 
place it towards the close of the first century or the beginning of the second. We possess no 
external aid to the settlement of this question. The lists of eariy Roman bishops are in hopeless 
confusion, some making Clement the immediate successor of St. Peter, others placing Linus, and 
others still Linus and Anacletus, between him and the apostle. The internal evidence, again, 
leaves the matter doubtful, though it has been strongly pressed on both sides. The probability 
seems, on the whole, to be in favour of the Domitian period, so that the Epistle may be dated 
about A.D. 97. 

This Epistle was held in very great esteem by the eariy Church. The account given of it by 
Eusebius {Hist. Eccl., iii. 16) is as follows : "There is one acknowledged Epistle of this Clement 
(whom he has just identified with the friend of St. Paul), great and admirable, which he wrote 
in the name of the Church of Rome to the Church at Corinth, sedition having then arisen in 
the latter Church. We are aware that this Epistle has been publicly read in very many churches 
both in old times, and also in our own day." 'J^he Epistle before us thus appears to have been 
read in numerous churches, as being almost on a level with the canonical writings. And its place 
in the Alexandrian ms., immediately after the inspired books, is in harmony with the position thus 
assigned it in the primitive Church. There does indeed appear a great difference between it and 



the inspired writings in many respects, such as the fanciful use sometimes made of Old-Testament 
statements, the fabulous stories which are accepted by its author, and the general diffuseness and 
feebleness of style by which it is distinguished. But the high tone of evangelical truth which 
pervades it, the simple and earnest appeals which it makes to the heart and conscience, and the 
anxiety which its writer so constantly shows to promote the best interests of the Church of 
Christ, still impart an undying charm to this precious relic of later apostolic times. 

[N.B. — A sufficient guide to the recent literature of the Clementine mss. and discoveries may 
be found in The Princeton Review, iStj, p. 325, also in Bishop Wordsworth's succinct but 
learned Church History to the Council of Niccea, p. 84. The invaluable edition of the Patres 
Apostolici, by Jacobson (Oxford, 1840), with a critical text and rich prolegomena and annota- 
tions, cannot be dispensed with by any Patristic inquirer. A. C. C] 



The Church of God which sojourns at Rome, 
to the Church of God sojourning at Corinth, to 
them that are called and sanctified by the will 
of God, through our Lord Jesus Christ : Grace 
unto you, and peace, from Almighty God through 
Jesus Christ, be multiplied. 

Owing, dear brethren, to the sudden and suc- 
cessive calamitous events which have happened 
to ourselves, we feel that we have been somewhat 
tardy in turning our attention to the points re- 
specting which you consulted us ; ^ and especially 
to that shameful and detestable sedition, utterly 
abhorrent to the elect of God, which a few rash 
and self-confident persons have kindled to such 
a pitch of frenzy, that your venerable and illus- 
trious name, worthy to be universally loved, has 
suffered grievous injury.^ For who ever dwelt 
even for a short time among you, and did not 
find your faith to be as fruitful of virtue as it was 
firmly established?'* Who did not admire the 
sobriety and moderation of your godliness in 
Christ ? Who did not proclaim the magnificence 
of your habitual hospitality? And who did not 
rejoice over your perfect and well-grounded 
knowledge ? For ye did all things without re- 
 spect of persons, and walked in the command- 
ments of God, being obedient to those who had 
the rule over you, and giving all fitting honour to 
the presbyters among you. Ye enjoined young 
men to be of a sober and serious mind ; ye 
instructed your wives to do all things with a 
blameless, becoming, and pure conscience, loving 
their husbands as in duty bound ; and ye taught 
them that, living in the rule of obedience, they 
should manage their household affairs becomingly, 
and be in every respect marked by discretion. 


Moreover, ye were all distinguished by humil- 
ity, and were in no respect puffed up with pride, 

l; In the only known MS. of this Epistle, the title is thus given at 
the t' '°se. 

2 [Note the fact that the Corinthians asked this of their brethren, 
the I ■'ersonal friends of their apostle St. Paul. Clement's own name 
does "°.' appear in this Epistle.] 

3 Literally, " is greatly blasphemed." 

I * Literally, " did not prove your all-viituous and firm faith." 

but yielded obedience rather than extorted it,s 
and were more willing to give than to receive.'^ 
Content with the provision which God had made 
for you, and carefully attending to His words, ye 
were inwardly filled ^ with His doctrine, and His 
sufferings were before your eyes. Thus a pro- 
found and abundant peace was given to you all, 
and ye had an insatiable desire for doing good, 
while a full outpouring of the Holy Spirit was 
upon you all. Full of holy designs, ye did, with 
true earnestness of mind and a godly confidence, 
stretch forth your hands to God Almighty, be- 
seeching Him to be merciful unto you, if ye had 
been guilty of any involuntary transgression. 
Day and night ye were anxious for the whole 
brotherhood,^ that the number of God's elect 
might be saved with mercy and a good con- 
science. 9 Ye were sincere and uncorrupted, and 
forgetful of injuries between one another. Every 
kind of faction and schism was abominable in 
your sight. Ye mourned over the transgression-, 
of your neighbours : their deficiencies you 
deemed your own. Ye never grudged any act 
of kindness, being " ready to every good work." '° 
Adorned by a thoroughly virtuous and religious 
life, ye did all things in the fear of God. The 
commandments and ordinances of the Lord were 
written upon the tablets of your hearts." 



Every kind of honour and happiness '^ was be- 
stowed upon you, and then was fulfilled that 
which is written, " My beloved did eat and 
drink, and was enlarged and became fat, and 
kicked." '^ Hence flowed emulation and envy, 
strife and sedition, persecution and disorder, 
war and captivity. So the worthless rose up 
against the honoured, those of no reputation 

s Eph. V. 2i; I Pet. v. 5. 

6 Acts XX. 35. 

7 Literally, " ye embraced it in your bowels." [Concerning th« 
complaints of Photius (ninth century) against Clement, see Bull's 
Defensio Fidei NiccFnce, Works, vol. v. p. 132.] 

8 I Pet. ii. 17. 

9 So in the MS., but many have suspected that the text is here 
corrupt. Perhaps the best emendation is that which substitutes 
(Tuvato-C^o-eios, " compassion," for <ru«'ei5^(7€i«s, " conscience." 

'o Tit. iii. I. 

" Prov. vii. 3. 

'^ Literally, " enlargement." 

13 Deut. xxxii. 15. 


against such as were renowned, the foolish 
against the wise, the young against those ad- 
vanced in years. For this reason righteousness 
and peace are now far departed from you, inas- 
much as every one abandons the fear of God, 
ind is become bhnd in His faith,' neither walks 
in the ordinances of His appointment, nor acts 
a part becoming a Christian,^ but walks after his 
own wicked lusts, resuming the practice of an 
unrighteous and ungodly envy, by which death 
itself entered into the world. ^ 


For thus it is written : " And it came to pass 
after certain days, that Cain brought of the fruits 
of the earth a sacrifice unto God ; and Abel also 
brought of the firstlings of his sheep, and of the 
fat thereof. And God had respect to Abel and 
to his offerings, but Cain and his sacrifices He 
did not regard. And Cain was deeply grieved, 
and his countenance fell. And God said to 
Cain, Why art thou grieved, and why is thy 
countenance fallen? If thou offerest rightly, 
but dost not divide rightly, hast thou not sinned ? 
Be at peace : thine offering returns to thyself, and 
thou shalt again possess it. And Cain said to 
Abel his brother, Let us go into the field. And 
it came to pass, while they were in the field, 
that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and 
slew him."-* Ye see, brethren, how envy and 
jealousy led to the murder of a brother. Through 
envy, also, our father Jacob fled from the face of 
Esau his brother.s Envy made Joseph be per- 
secuted unto death, and to come into bondage.^ 
Envy compelled Moses to flee from the face of 
Pharaoh king of Egypt, when he heard these 
words from his fellow-countryman, " Who made 
thee a judge or a ruler over us? wilt thou kill 
me, as thou didst kill the Egyptian yester- 
day ? " 7 On account of envy, Aaron and Miriam 
had to make their abode without the camp.** 
Envy brought down Dalhan and Abiram alive to 
Hades, through the sedition which they excited 
against God's servant Moses.9 Through envy, 
David underwent the hatred not only of for- 
eigners, but was also persecuted by Saul king of 

 It seems necessary to refer avrou to God, in opposition to the 
translation given by Abp. Wake and others. 

* Literally, " Christ; " comp. 2 Cor. i. 21, Eph. iv. 20. 
3 Wisd. ii. 24. 

* Gen. iv. j-8. The writer here, as always, follows the reading 
of the Septuagint, which in this passage both alters and adds to the 
Hebrew text. We have given the rendering approved by the best 
critics; but some prefer to translate, as in our English version, " unto 
thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him." Set, for an 
•ncient explanation of the passage, Irenseus, Adv. Har., iv. 18, 3. 

' Gen. xxvii. 41, etc. 
' Gen. xxxvii. 
7 Ex. ii. 14. 

* Num. xii. 14, 15. [In our copies of the Septuagint (hit is not 
affirmed of Aaron.] 

9 Num. xvi. 3j. 
*° 1 Kings xviii. 8, etc. 



But not to dwell upon ancient examples, let 
us come to the most recent spiritual heroes." 
Let us take the noble examples furnished in our 
own generation. Through envy and jealousy, 
the greatest and most righteous pillars [of the 
Church] have been persecuted and put to 
death. '^ Let us set before our eyes the illustri- 
ous '3 apostles. Peter, through unrighteous envy, 
endured not one or two, but numerous labours ; 
and when he had at length suffered martyrdom, 
departed to the place of glory due to him. 
Owing to envy, Paul also obtained the reward of 
patient endurance, after being seven times 
thrown into captivity,'"' compelled 's to flee, and 
stoned. After preaching both in the east and 
west, he gained the illustrious reputation due to 
his faith, having taught righteousness to the 
whole world, and come to the extreme limit of 
the west,''' and suffered martyrdom under the 
prefects. '7 Thus was he removed from the world, 
and went into the holy place, having proved 
himself a striking example of patience. 


To these men who spent their lives in the 
practice of holiness, there is to be added a great 
multitude of the elect, who, having through envy 
endured many indignities and tortures, furnished 
us with a most excellent example. Through 
envy, those women, the Danaids '^ and Dircse, 
being persecuted, after they had suffered terrible 
and unspeakable torments, finished the course 
of their faith with stedfastness,'^ and though weak 
in body, received a noble reward. Envy has 
alienated wives from their husbands, and changed 
that saying of our father Adam, "This is now 
bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh." 
Envy and strife have overthrown great cities, 
and rooted up mighty nations. 


" Literally, " those who have been athletes." 

'2 Some fill up the lacuna here found in the MS. .so as to read, 
" have come to a grievous death." 

" Literally, " good." [The martyrdom of St. Peter is all that is 
thus connected with his arrivaj in Rome. His numerous labours 
were restricted to the Circumcision.] _ _ 

»< Seven imprisonments of St. Paul are not referred to in Scnp- 

»s Archbishop Wake here reads " scourged." We have followed 
the most recent critics in filling up the numerous lacuna in this 
chapter. . . 

'6 Some think Rome, others Spain, and others even Britain, to 
be here referred to. [See note at end.] 

J7 That is, under Tigellinus and Sabinus, m the last year of the 
Emperor Nero; but some think Helius and Polycletus referred to; 
and others, both here and in the preceding sentence, regard the words 
as denoting simply the witness borne by Peter and Paul to t!i^ tru'n 
of the gospel before the rulers of the earth. . '1 

" Some suppose these to have been the names of two emm«nt 
female martyrs under Nero; others regard the clause as an interpola- 
tion. [Many ingenious conjectures might be cited; but see Jacc^b- 
son's valuable note, /'a^>'« y4/<'.s/<'A, vol. i. p. 30.] ^^ 

»9 Literally, " have reached to the stedfast course of faith. ^ 

"o Gen. ii. 23. 




These things, beloved, we write unto you, not 
merely to admonish you of your duty, but also 
to remind ourselves. For we are struggling on 
the same arena, and the same conflict is assigned 
to both of us. Wherefore let us give up vain and 
fruitless cares, and approach to the glorious and 
venerable rule of our holy calling. Let us at- 
tend to what is good, pleasing, and acceptable 
in the sight of Him who formed us. Let us 
look stedfastly to the blood of Christ, and see 
how precious that blood is to God,' which, hav- 
ing been shed for our salvation, has set the grace 
of repentance before the whole world. Let us 
turn to every age that has passed, and learn 
that, from generation to generation, the Lord 
has granted a place of repentance to all such as 
would be converted unto Him. Noah preached 
repentance, and as many as listened to him were 
saved.2 Jonah proclaimed destruction to the 
Ninevites ; ^ but they, repenting of their sins, 
propitiated God by prayer, and obtained salva- 
tion, although they were aliens [to the covenant] 
of God. 


The ministers of the grace of God have, by 
the Holy Spirit, spoken of repentance ; and the 
Lord of all things has himself declared with an 
oath regarding it, " As I live, saith the Lord, I 
desire not the death of the sinner, but rather his 
repentance ; " •♦ adding, moreover, this gracious 
declaration, " Repent, O house of Israel, of your 
iniquity.5 Say to the children of My people, 
Though your sins reach from earth to heaven, 
and though they be redder^ than scarlet, and 
blacker than sackcloth, yet if ye turn to Me with 
your whole heart, and say. Father ! I will listen 
to you, as to a holy ^ people." And in another 
place He speaks thus : " Wash you, and become 
clean ; put away the wickedness of your souls 
from before mine eyes ; cease from your evil 
ways, and learn to do well ; seek out judgment, 
deliver the oppressed, judge the fatherless, and 
see that justice is done to the widow ; and 
come, and let us reason together. He declares, 
Though your sins be like crimson, I will make 
them white as snow ; though they be like scar- 
let, I will whiten them like wool. And if ye be 
willing and obey Me, ye shall eat the good of 
the land ; but if ye refuse, and will not hearken 
unto Me, the sword shall devour you, for the 

' Some insert " Father." 
^ Gen. yii.; i Pet. iii. 20; 2 Pet. ii. 5. 
3 Jonah iii. 
* Ezek. xxxiii. 11. 
S Ezek. xviii. 30. 
*> Comp. Isa. i. 18. 

' These words are not found in Scripture, though they are quoted 
again by Clem. Alex. {^Padag., i. 10) as from Ezelciel. 

mouth of the Lord hath spoken these things." ^ 
Desiring, therefore, that all His beloved should 
be partakers of repentance, He has, by His 
almighty will, established [these declarations]. 


Wherefore, let us yield obedience to His ex- 
cellent and glorious will ; and imploring His 
mercy and loving-kindness, while we forsake all 
fruitless labours,^ and strife, and envy, which 
leads to death, let us turn and have recourse to 
His compassions. Let us stedfastly contem- 
plate those who have perfectly ministered to His 
excellent glory. Let us take (for instance) 
Enoch, who, being found righteous in obedi- 
ence, was translated, and death was never known 
to happen to him.'° Noah, being found faithful, 
preached regeneration to the world through his 
ministry ; and the Lord saved by him the ani- 
mals which, with one accord, entered into the 


Abraham, styled "the friend,"" was found 
faithful, inasmuch as he rendered obedience to 
the words of God. He, in the exercise of obe- 
dience, went out from his own country, and from 
his kindred, and from his father's house, in order 
that, by forsaking a small territory, and a weak 
family, and an insignificant house, he might in- 
herit the promises of God. For God said to 
him, " Get thee out from thy country, and from 
thy kindred, and from thy father's house, into 
the land which I shall show thee. And I will 
make thee a great nation, and will bless thee, 
and make thy name great, and thou shalt be 
blessed. And I will bless them that bless thee, 
and curse them that curse thee ; and in thee 
shall all the families of the earth be blessed." '^ 
And again, on his departing from Lot, God said 
to him, " Lift up thine eyes, and look from the 
place where thou now art, northward, and south- 
ward, and eastward, and westward ; for all the 
land which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and 
to thy seed for ever. And I will make thy seed 
as the dust of the earth, [so that] if a man can 
number the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed 
also be numbered." '^ And again [the Scrip- 
ture] saith, " God brought forth Abram, and 
spake unto him. Look up now to heaven, and 
count the stars if thou be able to number them ; 
so shall thy seed be. And Abram believed God, ^ 
and it was counted to him for righteousness." '■♦  
On account of his faith and hospitality, a son 

' Isa. i. 16-20. 

9 Some read /uaTacoAoyiai', " vain talk." 

'° Gen. V. 24; Heb. xi. 5. Literally, "and his death was not 

'' Isa. xli. 8; 2 Chron. xx. 7; Judith viii. 19; James ii. 23. 

'2 Gen. xii. 1-3. 

■3 Gen. xiii. 14-16. 

'■♦ Gen. XV. 5, 6; Rom. iv. 3. 



was given him in his old age ; and in the exer- 
cise of obedience, he offered him as a sacrifice 
to God on one of the mountains which He 
showed him.' 


On account of his hospitahty and godliness, 
Lot was saved out of Sodom when all the coun- 
try round was punished by means of fire and 
brimstone, the Lord thus making it manifest 
that He does not forsake those that hope in 
Him, but gives up such as depart from Him to 
punishment and torture.^ For Lot's wife, who 
went forth with him, being of a different mind 
from himself and not continuing in agreement 
with him [as to the command which had been 
given them] , was made an example of, so as to 
be a pillar of salt unto this day.^ This was done 
that all might know that those who are of a 
double mind, and who distrust the power of 
God, bring down judgment on themselves,'* and 
become a sign to all succeeding generations. 


On account of her faith and hospitality, Rahab 
the harlot was saved. For when spies were sent 
by Joshua, the son of Nun, to Jericho, the king 
of the country ascertained that they were come 
to spy out their land, and sent men to seize 
them, in order that, when taken, they might be 
put to death. But the hospitable Rahab receiv- 
ing them, concealed them on the roof of her 
house under some stalks of flax. And when 
the men sent by the king arrived and said, 
" There came men unto thee who are to spy out 
our land ; bring them forth, for so the king com- 
mands," she answered them, "The two men 
whom ye seek came unto me, but quickly de- 
parted again and are gone," thus not discovering 
the spies to them. Then she said to the men, 
" I know assuredly that the Lord your God hath 
given you this city, for the fear and dread of you 
have fallen on its inhabitants. When therefore 
ye shall have taken it, keep ye me and the house 
of my father in safety." And they said to her, 
" It shall l)e as thou hast spoken to us. As 
soon, therefore, as thou knowest that we are at 
hand, thou shalt gather all thy family under thy 
roof, and they shall be preserved, but all that 
are found outside of thy dwelling shall perish." s 
Moreover, they gave her a sign to this effect, 
that she should hang forth from her house a 
scarlet thread. And thus they made it manifest 
that redemption should flow through the blood 
of the Lord to all them that believe and hope 

• Gen. xxi. 22; Heb. xi. 17. 

2 Gen. xix.; comp. 2 Pet. ii. 5-q. 

3 So Joseph., Antiq., i. 11, 4; Irenseus, Adv. Har., iv. 31. 

* Literally, " become a judgment and sign." 
5 Josh. ii. ; Heb. xi. 31. 

in God.^ Ye see, beloved, that there was not 
only faith, but prophecy, in this woman. 


Let us therefore, brethren, be of humble 
mind, laying aside all haughtiness, and pride, 
and foolishness, and angry feelings ; and let us 
act according to that which is written (for the 
Holy Spirit saith, " Let not the wise man glory 
in his wisdom, neither let the mighty man glory 
in his might, neither let the rich man glory in 
his riches ; but let him that glorieth glory in the 
Lord, in diligently seeking Him, and doing judg- 
ment and righteousness"''), being especially 
mindful of the words of the Lord Jesus which 
He spake, teaching us meekness and long-suffer- 
ing. For thus He spoke : " Be ye merciful, 
that ye may obtain mercy ; forgive, that it may 
be forgiven to you ; as ye do, so shall it be done 
unto you ; as ye judge, so shall ye be judged ; 
as ye are kind, so shall kindness be shown to 
you ; with what measure ye mete, with the same 
it shall be measured to you." '^ By this precept 
and by these rules let us stablish ourselves, that 
we walk with all humility in obedience to His 
holy words. For the holy word saith, " On whom 
shall I look, but on him that is meek and peace- 
able, and that trembleth at My words? "9 



It is right and holy therefore, men and breth- 
ren, rather to obey God than to follow those 
who, through pride and sedition, have become the 
leaders of a detestable emulation. For we shall 
incur no slight injury, but rather great danger, 
if we rashly yield ourselves to the inclinations 
of men who aim at exciting strife and tumults, so 
as to draw us away from what is good. Let us 
be kind one to another after the pattern of the 
tender mercy and benignity of our Creator. For 
it is written, " The kind-hearted shall inhabit the 
land, and the guiltless shall be left upon it, but 
transgressors shall be destroyed from off the face 
of it." '° And again [the Scripture] saith, " I 
saw the ungodly highly exalted, and lifted up 
like the cedars of Lebanon : I passed by, and, 
behold, he was not ; and I diligently sought his 
place, and could not find it. Preserve inno- 
cence, and look on equity : for there shall be a 
remnant to the peaceful man." " 

* Others of the Fathers adopt the same allegorical interpretation, 
e.g., Justin Mar., Dial. c. 'fryph., n. in: Irenseus, Adzi. Httr., iv. 
20. [The whole matter of symbolism under the law must be more 
thoroughly studied if we would account for such strong language as 
is here applied to a poetical or rhetorical figure.] 
' Jer. IX. 23, 24; I Cor. i. 31; 2. Cor. x. 17. 
^ GMmp. Matt. vi. 12-15, ^ii. a; Luke vi. 36-38. 
9 Isa. Ixvi. 2. 
'° Prov. ii. 21, 22. 

" Ps. xxxvii. 35-37. "Remnant" probably refers either to the 
memory o\ posterity of the righteous. 




Let US cleave, therefore, to those who culti- 
vate peace with godliness, and not to those who 
hypocritically profess to desire it. For [the 
Scripture] saith in a certain place, "This peo- 
ple honoureth Me with their lips, but their heart 
is far from Me." ' And again : " They bless 
with their mouth, but curse with their heart." ^ 
Aiid again it saith, " They loved Him with their 
mouth, and lied to Him with their tongue ; but 
their heart was not right with Him, neither were 
they faithful in His covenant." 3 " Let the de- 
ceitful lips become silent," ■» [and " let the Lord 
destroy all the lying lips,5] and the boastful 
tongue of those who have said. Let us magnify 
our tongue ; our lips are our own ; who is lord 
over us ? For the oppression of the poor, and 
for the sighing of the needy, will I now arise, 
saith the Lord : I will place him in safety ; I 
will deal confidently with him." ^ 


For Christ is of those who are humble-minded, 
and not of those who exalt themselves over His 
flock. Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Sceptre of 
the majesty of God, did not come in the pomp 
of pride or arrogance, although He might have 
done so, but in a lowly condition, as the Holy 
Spirit had declared regarding Him. For He 
says, " Lord, who hath believed our report, and 
to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed ? We 
have declared [our message] in His presence : 
He is, as it were, a child, and like a root in 
thirsty ground ; He has no form nor glory, yea, 
we saw Him, and He had no form nor comeli- 
ness ; but His form was without eminence, yea, 
deficient in comparison with the [ordinary] 
form of men. He is a man exposed to stripes 
and suffering, and acquainted with the endur- 
ance of grief: for His countenance was turned 
away ; He was despised, and not esteemed. 
He bears our iniquities, and is in sorrow for our 
sakes ; yet we supposed that [on His own ac- 
count] He was exposed to labour, and stripes, 
and affliction. But He was wounded for our 
transgressions, and bruised for our iniquities. 
The chastisement of our peace was upon Him, 
and by His stripes we were healed. All we, like 
sheep, have gone astray ; [every] man has wan- 
dered in his own way ; and the Lord has deliv- 
ered Him up for our sins, while He in the midst 

' Isa. xxix. 13; Matt. xv. 8; Mark vii. 6. 

2 Ps. Ixii. 4. 

3 Ps. Ixxviii. 36, 37. 
* Ps. xxxi. 18. 

s These words within brackets are not found in the MS,, but have 
been inserted from the Septuagint by most editors. 
' Ps. xii. 3-5. 

of His sufferings openeth not His mouth. He 
was brought as a sheep to the slaughter, and as 
a lamb before her shearer is dumb, so He open- 
eth not His mouth. In His humiliation His 
judgment was taken away ; who shall declare 
His generation? for His life is taken from the 
earth. For the transgressions of my people was 
He brought down to death. And I will give the 
wicked for His sepulchre, and the rich for His 
death,7 because He did no iniquity, neither was 
guile found in His mouth. And the Lord is 
pleased to purify Him by stripes.^ If ye make '^ 
an offering for sin, your soul shall see a long- 
lived seed. And the Lord is pleased to relieve 
Him of the affliction of His soul, to show Him 
light, and to form Him with understanding,'" to 
justify the Just One who ministereth well to 
many ; and He Himself shall carry their sins. 
On this account He shall inherit many, and 
shall divide the spoil of the strong ; because 
His soul was delivered to death, and He was 
reckoned among the transgressors, and He bare 
the sins of many, and for their sins was He de- 
livered." " And again He saith, " I am a worm, 
and no man ; a reproach of men, and despised 
of the people. All that see Me have derided 
Me ; they have spoken with their lips ; they 
have wagged their head, [saying] He hoped in 
God, let Him deliver Him, let Him save Him, 
since He dehghteth in Him." " Ye see, be- 
loved, what is the example which has been given 
us ; for if the Lord thus humbled Himself, what 
shall we do who have through Him come under 
the yoke of His grace ? 


Let us be imitators also of those who in goat- 
skins and sheep-skins '^ went about proclaiming 
the coming of Christ ; I mean Elijah, Elisha, and 
Ezekiel among the prophets, with those others to 
whom a like testimony is borne [in Scripture]. 
Abraham was specially honoured, and was called 
the friend of God ; yet he, earnestly regarding 
the glory of God, humbly declared, " I am but 
dust and ashes." "* Moreover, it is thus written 
of Job, " Job was a righteous man, and blame- 
less, truthful. God-fearing, and one that kept 
himself from all evil." '5 But bringing an accu- 

7 The Latin of Cotelerius, adopted by Hefele and Dressel, trans- 
lates this clause as follows: " I will set free the wicked on account of 
His sepulchre, and the rich on account of His death." 

8 The reading of the MS. is t^s irXriyfi^, " purify, or free, Him 
from stripes." We have adopted the emendation of Junius. 

9 Wotton reads, " If He make." 

'° Or, "_/f// Him with understanding," if ttA^ctoi should be read 
instead of n-Aacrai, as Grabe suggests. 

" Isa. liii. The reader will observe how often the text of the 
Septuagint, here quoted, differs from the Hebrew as represented by 
our authorized English version. 

12 Ps. xxii. 6-8. 

'3 Heb. xi. 37. 

'■1 Gen. xviii. aj. 

IS Job i. I. 



sation against himself, he said, " No man is free 
from defilement, even if his life be but of one 
day." ' Moses was called faithful in all God's 
house ; ^ and through his instrumentality, God 
punished Egypt ^ with plagues and tortures. Yet 
he, though thus greatly honoured, did not adopt 
lofty language, but said, when the divine oracle 
came to him out of the bush, " Who am I, that 
Thou sendest me? I am a man of a feeble 
voice and a slow tongue." "• And again he said, 
" I am but as the smoke of a pot." s 


But what shall we say concerning David, to 
whom such testimony was borne, and of whom ^ 
God said, " I have found a man after Mine own 
heart, David the son of Jesse ; and in everlast- 
ing mercy have I anointed him ? " ^ Yet this 
very man saith to God, " Have mercy on me, 

Lord, according to Thy great mercy ; and 
according to the multitude of Thy compassions, 
blot out my transgression. Wash me still more 
from mine iniquity, and cleanse me from my 
sin. For I acknowledge my iniquity, and my sin 
is ever before me. Against Thee only have I 
sinned, and done that which was evil in Thy sight ; 
that Thou mayest be justified in Thy sayings, 
and mayest overcome when Thou^ art judged. 
For, behold, I was conceived in transgressions, 
and in my sins did my mother conceive me. 
For, behold, Thou hast loved truth ; the secret 
and hidden things of wisdom hast Thou shown 
me. Thou shalt sprinkle me with hyssop, and 

1 shall be cleansed ; Thou shalt wash me, and I 
shall be whiter than snow. Thou shalt make me 
to hear joy and gladness ; my bones, which have 
been humbled, shall exult. Turn away Thy face 
from my sins, and blot out all mine iniquities. 
Create in me a clean heart, O God, and renew a 
right spirit within me. 9 Cast me not away from 
Thy presence, and take not Thy Holy Spirit from 
me. Restore to me the joy of Thy salvation, 
and establish me by Thy governing Spirit. I 
will teach transgressors Thy ways, and the un- 
godly shall be converted unto Thee. Deliver 
me from blood-guiltiness, '° O God, the God ot 
my salvation : my tongue shall exult in Thy 
righteousness. O Lord, Thou shalt open my 
mouth, and my lips shall show forth Thy praise. 
For if Thou hadst desired sacrifice, I would have 
given it ; Thou wilt not delight in burnt-offerings. 

' Job xiv. 4, 5. [Septuagint.] 

* Num. xii. 7; Heb. iil. 2. 

' Some fill up the /acuna which here occurs in the MS. by 
" Israel." 

* Ex. iii. II, iv. 10. 

5 This is not found in Scripture. [They were probably in Clem- 
ent's version. Comp. Ps. cxix. 83.] 

* Or, as some render, " to whom." 
' Ps. Ixxxix. 21. 

' Or, " when Thou judgest." 
9 Literally, " in my inwards." 
>o Literally, " bloods." 

The sacrifice [acceptable] to God is a bruised 
spirit ; a broken and a contrite heart God will 
not despise." " 



Thus the humility and godly submission of so 
great and illustrious men have rendered not only 
us, but also all the generations before us, better ; 
even as many as have received His oracles in 
fear and truth. \V'herefore, having so many 
great and glorious examples set before us, let us 
turn again to the practice of that peace which 
from the beginning was the mark set before 
us ; '^ and let us look stedfastly to the Father and 
Creator of the universe, and cleave to His mighty 
and surpassingly great gifts and benefactions of 
peace. Let us contemplate Him with our 
understanding, and look with the eyes of our 
soul to His long-suffering will. Let us reflect 
how free from wrath He is towards all His crea- 



The heavens, revolving under His govern- 
ment, are subject to Him in peace. Day and 
night run the course appointed by Him, in no 
wise hindering each other. The sun and moon, 
with the companies of the stars, roll on in har- 
mony according to His command, within their 
prescribed limits, and without any deviation. 
The fruitful earth, according to His will, brings 
forth food in abundance, at the proper seasons, 
for man and beast and all the living beings upon 
it, never hesitating, nor changing any of the ordi- 
nances which He has fixed. The unsearchable 
places of abysses, and the indescribable arrange- 
ments of the lower world, are restrained by the 
same laws. The vast unmeasurable sea, gathered 
together by His working into various basins,'^ 
never passes beyond the bounds placed around 
it, but does as He has commanded. For He 
said, " Thus far shalt thou come, and thy waves 
shall be broken within thee." '^ The ocean, im- 
passible to man, and the worlds beyond it, are 
regulated by the same enactments of the Lord. 
The seasons of spring, summer, autumn, and 
winter, peacefully give place to one another. 
The winds in their several quarters '5 fulfil, at the 
proper time, their service without hindrance. 
The ever-flowing fountains, formed both for en- 
joyment and health, furnish without fail their 
breasts for the life of men. The very smallest 

" Ps. li. 1-17. 

'2 Literally, " Becoming partakers of many great and glorious 
deeds, let us return to the aim of peace delivered to us from the b«- 
ginning." Comp. Heb. xii. i. 

'3 Or, " collections." 

'* Job xxxviii. ii. 

•5 Or, " stations." 



of living beings meet together in peace and con- 
cord. All these the great Creator and Lord of 
all has appointed to exist in peace and har- 
mony ; while He does good to all, but most 
abundantly to us who have fled for refuge to 
His compassions through Jesus Christ our Lord, 
to whom be glory and majesty for ever and ever. 


Take heed, beloved, lest His many kindnesses 
lead to the condemnation of us all. [For thus 
it must be] unless we walk worthy of Him, and 
with one mind do those things which are good 
and well-pleasing in His sight. For [the Scrip- 
ture] saith in a certain place, " The Spirit of the 
Lord is a candle searching the secret parts of 
the belly." ' Let us reflect how near He is, and 
that none of the thoughts or reasonings in which 
we engage are hid from Him. It is right, there- 
fore, that we should not leave the post which 
His will has assigned us. Let us rather offend 
those men who are foolish, and inconsiderate, 
and lifted up, and who glory in the pride of 
their speech, than [offend] God. Let us rever- 
ence the Lord Jesus Christ, whose blood was 
given for us ; let us esteem those who have 
the rule over us ; ^ let us honour the aged ^ 
among us ; let us train up the young men in the 
fear of God ; let us direct our wives to that 
which is good. Let them exhibit the lovely 
habit of purity [in all their conduct] ; let them 
show forth the sincere disposition of meekness ; 
let them make manifest the command which 
they have of their tongue, by their manner "* of 
speaking ; let them display their love, not by 
preferring s one to another, but by showing 
equal affection to all that piously fear God. 
Let your children be partakers of true Chris- 
tian training ; let them learn of how great avail 
humility is with God — how much the spirit of 
pure affection can prevail with Him — how ex- 
cellent and great His fear is, and how it saves 
all those who walk in^ it with a pure mind. 
For He is a Searcher of the thoughts and de- 
sires [of the heart] : His breath is in us ; and 
when He pleases, He will take it away. 


Now the faith which is in Christ confirms all 
these [admonitions]. For He Himself by the 
Holy Ghost thus addresses us : " Come, ye chil- 

* Prov. XX. 27. 

^ Comp. Heb. xiii. 17; 1 Thess. v. 12, ij. 

* Or, " the presbyters." 

* Some read, " by their silence." 
S Comp. I Tim. v. 21. 

'' Some translate, " who turn to Him." 

dren, hearken unto Me ; I will teach you the fear 
of the Lord. What man is he that desireth life, 
and loveth to see good days ? Keep thy tongue 
from evil, and thy lips from speaking guile. De- 
part from evil, and do good ; seek peace, and 
pursue it. The eyes of the Lord are upon the 
righteous, and His ears are [open] unto their 
prayers. The face of the Lord is against them 
that do evil, to cut off the remembrance of 
them from the earth. The righteous cried, and 
the Lord heard him, and delivered him out of 
all his troubles." 7 " Many are the stripes [ap- 
pointed for] the wicked ; but mercy shall com- 
pass those about who hope in the Lord." ^ 



The all-merciful and beneficent Father has 
bowels [of compassion] towards those that fear 
Him, and kindly and lovingly bestows His fa- 
vours upon those who come to Him with a 
simple mind. Wherefore let us not be double- 
minded ; neither let our soul be lifted ^ up on 
account of His exceedingly great and glorious 
gifts. Far from us be that which is written, 
" Wretched are they who are of a double mind, 
and of a doubting heart ; who say, These things 
we have heard even in the times of our fathers ; 
but, behold, we have grown old, and none of 
them has happened unto us." '° Ye foolish 
ones ! compare yourselves to a tree : take [for 
instance] the vine. First of all, it sheds its 
leaves, then it buds, next it puts forth leaves, 
and then it flowers ; after that comes the sour 
grape, and then follows the ripened fruit. Ye 
perceive how in a little time the fruit of a tree 
comes to maturity. Of a truth, soon and sud- 
denly shall His will be accomplished, as the 
Scripture also bears witness, saying, " Speedily 
will He come, and will not tarry ; " " and, "The 
Lord shall suddenly come to His temple, even 
the Holy One, for whom ye look." '^ 



Let us consider, beloved, how the Lord con- 
tinually proves to us that there shall be a future 
resurrection, of which He has rendered the Lord 
Jesus Christ the first-fruits '^ by raising Him from 
the dead. Let us contemplate, beloved, the res- 
urrection which is at all times taking place. Day 
and night declare to us a resurrection. The 
night sinks to sleep, and the day arises ; the 
day [again] departs, and the night comes on. 

7 Ps. xxxiv. 11-17. 

8 Ps. xxxii. 10. 

9 Or, as some render, " neither let us have any doubt of." 

•° Some regard these words as taken from an apocryphal booli, 
others as derived from a fusion of James i. 8 and 2 Pet. iii. 3, 4. 
" Hab ii. 3; Heb. x. 37. 
'2 Mai. iii. i. 
'3 Comp. I Cor. xv. 20; Col. i. iS. 



Let us behold the fruits [of the earth], how the 
sowing of grain takes place. The sower ' goes 
forth, and casts it into the ground ; and the seed 
being thus scattered, though dry and naked when 
it fell upon the earth, is gradually dissolved. 
Then out of its dissoliition the mighty power of 
the providence of the Lord raises it uj) again, and 
from one seed many arise and bring forth fruit. 


Let us consider that wonderful sign [of the 
resurrection] which takes place in Eastern lands, 
that is, in Arabia and the countries round about. 
There is a certain bird which is called a phoenix. 
This is the only one of its kind, and lives five 
hundred years. And when the time of its disso- 
lution draws near that it must die, it builds itself 
a nest of frankincense, and myrrh, and other 
spices, into which, when the time is fulfilled, 
it enters and dies. But as the flesh decays a 
certain kind of worm is produced, which, being 
nourished by the juices of the dead bird, brings 
forth feathers. Then, when it has acquired 
strength, it takes up that nest in which are the 
bones of its parent, and bearing these it passes 
from the land of Arabia into Egypt, to the city 
called Heliopolis. And, in open day, flying in 
the sight of all men, it places them on the altar 
of the sun, and having done this, hastens back 
to its former abode. The priests then inspect 
the registers of the dates, and find that it has 
returned exactly as the five hundredth year was 


Do we then deem it any great and wonderful 
thing for the Maker of all things to raise up 
again those that have piously served Him in the 
assurance of a good faith, when even by a bird 
He shows us the mightiness of His power to 
fulfil His promise ? ^ For [the Scripture] saith 
in a certain place, " Thou shalt raise me up, and 
I shall confess unto Thee ; " ■* and again, " I laid 
me down, and slept ; I awaked, because Thou 
art with me ; " s and again. Job says, " Thou 
shalt raise up this flesh of mine, which has suf- 
fered all these tnings." ^ 


Having then this hope, let our souls be bound 

' Comp. Luke viii. 5. 

* This fable respecting the phoenix is mentioned by Herodotus (ii. 
73) and by Pliny {Nat. Hist., x. 2), and is used as above by Ter- 
tuUian {De Resurr., § 13) and by others of the Fathers. 

3 Literally, " the mightiness of His promise." 

* Ps. xxviii. 7, or from some apocryphal book. 
5 Comp. Ps. lii. 6. 

* Job x.ix. 25, 26. 

to Him who is faithful in His promises, and just 
in His judgments. He who has commanded us 
not to lie, shall much more Himself not lie ; for 
nothing is impossible with God, except to lie.^ 
Let His faith therefore be stirred up again within 
us, and let us consider that all things are nigh 
unto Him. By the word of His might** He estab- 
lished all things, and by His word He can over- 
throw them. " Who shall say unto Him, What 
hast thou done? or. Who shall resist the power 
of His strength ?" 9 When and as He pleases 
He will do all things, and none of the things 
determined by Him shall pass away.'° All things 
are open before Him, and nothing can be hidden 
from His counsel. "The heavens" declare the 
glory of Ciod, and the firmament showeth His 
handy-work. Day unto day uttereth speech, and 
night unto night showeth knowledge. And there 
are no words or speeches of which the voices are 
not heard." "^ 


Since then all things are seen and heard [by 
God], let us fear Him, and forsake those \vicked 
works which proceed from evil desires ; '^ so that, 
through His mercy, we may be protected from 
the judgments to come. For whither can any of 
us flee from His mighty hand ? Or what world 
will receive any of those who run away from 
Him ? For the Scripture saith in a certain place, 
"Whither shall I go, and where shall I be hid 
from Thy presence ? If I ascend into heaven, 
Thou art there ; if I go away even to the utter- 
most parts of the earth, there is Thy right hand ; 
if I make my bed in the abyss, there is Thy 
Spirit." '■» Whither, then, shall any one go, or 
where shall he escape from Him who compre- 
hends all things? 


Let US then draw near to Him with holiness of 
spirit, lifting up pure and undefiled hands unto 
Him, loving our gracious and merciful Father, 
who has made us partakers in the blessings of 
His elect.'s For thus it is written, " When the 
Most High divided the nations, when He scat- 
tered '^ the sons of Adam, He fixed the bounds 
of the nations according to the number of the 
angels of God. His people Jacob became the 
portion of the Lord, and Israel the lot of His 

7 Comp. Tit. i. 2; Heb. vi. 18. 

8 Or, "majesty." 

9 Wisd. xii. 12, xi. 22. 
'o Comp. Matt. xxiv. 35. 

" Literally, " If the heavens," etc. 

»2 Ps. xix. 1-3. 

'3 Literally, " abominable lusts of evil deeds." 

•* Ps. cxxxix. 7-10. 

>5 Literally, " has made us to Himself at part of election." 

'* Literally, " sowed abroad." 



inheritance." ' And in another place [the Scrip- 
ture] saith, " Behold, the Lord taketh unto Him- 
self a nation out of the midst of the nations, as 
a man takes the first-fruits of his threshing-floor ; 
and from that nation shall come forth the Most 



Seeing, therefore, that we are the portion of 
the Holy One, let us do all those things which 
pertain to holiness, avoiding all evil-speaking, 
all abominable and impure embraces, together 
with all drunkenness, seeking after change,^ all 
abominable lusts, detestable adultery, and exe- 
crable pride. " For God," saith [the Scripture], 
" resisteth the proud, but giveth grace to the 
humble."'' Let us cleave, then, to those to 
whom grace has been given by God. Let us 
clothe ourselves with concord and humility, ever 
exercising self-control, standing far off from all 
whispering and evil-speaking, being justified by 
our works, and not our words. For [the Scrip- 
ture] saith, " He that speaketh much, shall also 
hear much in answer. And does he that is ready 
in speech deem himself righteous? Blessed is 
he that is born of woman, who liveth but a short 
time : be not given to much speaking." 5 Let 
our praise be in God, and not of ourselves ; for 
God hateth those that commend themselves. 
Let testimony to our good deeds be borne by 
others, as it was in the case of our righteous fore- 
fathers. Boldness, and arrogance, and audacity 
belong to those that are accursed of God ; but 
moderation, humility, and meekness to such as 
are blessed by Him. 


Let us cleave then to His blessing, and con- 
sider what are the means ^ of possessing it. Let 
us think ^ over the things which have taken place 
from the beginning. For what reason was our 
father Abraham blessed ? was it not because he 
wrought righteousness and truth through faith ? ^ 
Isaac, with perfect confidence, as if knowing 
what was to happen,^ cheerfully yielded himself 
as a sacrifice.'" Jacob, through reason" of his 
brother, went forth with humility from his own 
land, and came to Laban and served him ; and 

* Deut xxxii. 8, 9. 

* Formed apparently from Num. xviii. 27 and 2 Chron. xxxi. 14. 
Literally, the closing words are, " the holy of holies." 

3 Some translate, " youthful lusts." 

* Prov. iii. 34; James iv. 6; i Pet. v. 5. 

s Job xi. 2, 3. The translation is doubtful. [But see Septuagint.J 

' Literally, " what are the ways of His blessing." 

' Literally, " unroll." 

' Comp. James ii. 21. 

9 Some translate, " knowing what was to come." 
'" Gen. xxii. 
" So Jacobson: Wotton reads, " fleeing from his brother.'' 

there was given to him the sceptre of the twelve 
tribes of Israel. 


Whosoever will candidly consider each par- 
ticular, will recognise the greatness of the gifts 
which were given by him.'^ For from him '^ have 
sprung the priests and all the Levites who min- 
ister at the altar of God. From him also [was 
descended] our Lord Jesus Christ according to 
the flesh. '•♦ From him [arose] kings, princes, 
and rulefs of the race of Judah. Nor are his 
other tribes in small glory, inasmuch as God 
had promised, " Thy seed shall be as the stars of 
heaven." '5 AH these, therefore, were highly 
honoured, and made great, not for their own 
sake, or for their own works, or for the right- 
eousness which they wrought, but through the 
operation of His will. And we, too, being called 
by His will in Christ Jesus, are not justified by 
ourselves, nor by our own wisdom, or under- 
standing, or godliness, or works which we have 
wrought in holiness of heart ; but by that faith 
through which, from the beginning, Almighty 
God has justified all men ; to whom be glory for 
ever and ever. Amen. 



What shall we do, then, brethren ? Shall we 
become slothful in well-doing, and cease from 
the practice of love ? God forbid that any such 
course should be followed by us ! But rather 
let us hasten with all energy and readiness of 
mind to perform every good work. For the 
Creator and Lord of all Himself rejoices in His 
works. For by His infinitely great power He 
established the heavens, and by His incompre- 
hensible wisdom He adorned them. He also 
divided the earth from the water which sur- 
rounds it, and fixed it upon the immoveable 
foundation of His own will. The animals also 
which are upon it He commanded by His own 
word'^ into existence. So likewise, when He had 
formed the sea, and the living creatures which 
are in it. He enclosed them [within their proper 
bounds] by His own power. Above all,'? with 
His holy and undefiled hands He formed man, 
the most excellent [of His creatures], and truly 
great through the understanding given him — 
the express likeness of His own image. For 

'2 The meaning is here very doubtful. Some translate, " the gifts 
which were given to Jacob by Him," i.e., God. 

'3 MS. ouTo)!', referring to the gifts: we ha\ e followed the emenda- 
tion avTov, adopted by most editors. Some refer tlie word to God. 
and not yacob. 

'^ Comp. Rom. ix. 5. 

's Gen. xxii. 17, xxviii. 4. 

^^ Or, "commandment." 

'7 Or, " in aduition to all-" 



thus says God : " Let us make man in Our 
image, and after Our likeness. So God made 
man ; male and female He created them." ' 
Having thus finished all these things, He ap- 
proved them, and blessed them, and said, " In- 
crease and multiply."- We see,^ then, how all 
righteous men have been adorned with good 
works, and how the Lord Himself, adorning 
Himself with His works, rejoiced. Having 
therefore such an example, let us without delay 
accede to His will, and let us work the work of 
righteousness with our whole strength. 



The good servant '^ receives the bread of his 
labour with confidence ; the lazy and slothful 
cannot look his employer in the face. It is 
requisite, therefore, that we be prompt in the 
practice of well-doing ; for of Him are all 
things. And thus He forewarns us : " Behold, 
the Lord [cometh], and His reward is before 
His face, to render to every man according to 
his work." 5 He exhorts us, therefore, with our 
whole heart to attend to this,^ that we be not 
lazy or slothful in any good work. Let our 
boasting and our confidence be in Him. Let 
us submit ourselves to His will. Let us consider 
the whole multitude of His angels, how they 
stand ever ready to minister to His will. For 
the Scripture saith, " Ten thousand times ten 
thousand stood around Him, and thousands of 
thousands ministered unto Him,^ and cried, 
Holy, holy, holy, [is] the Lord of Sabaoth ; the 
whole creation is full of His glory." ^ And let 
us therefore, conscientiously gathering together 
in harmony, cry to Him earnestly, as with one 
mouth, that we may be made partakers of His 
great and glorious promises. For [the Scrip- 
ture] saith, " Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, 
neither have entered into the heart of man, the 
things which He hath prepared for them that 
wait for Him." ^ 



How blessed and wonderful, beloved, are the 
gifts of God ! Life in immortality, splendour in 
righteousness, truth in perfect confidence,'" faith 
in assurance, self-control in holiness ! And all 
these fall under the cognizance of our under- 

' Gen. i. 26, 27. 

2 Gen. i. 28. 

3 Or, " let us consider." 

* Or, " labourer." 

i Isa. xl. 10, Ixii. 11; Rev. xxii. 12. 

* The text here seems to be corrupt. Some translate, " He 
warms us with all His heart to this end, that," etc. 

' Dan. vii. 10. 

* Isa. vi. ^. 

9 I Cor. ii. 9. 
•° Some translate, " in liberty." 

Standings [now] ; what then shall those things 
be which are prepared for such as wait for Him ? 
The Creator and Father of all worlds," the Most 
Holy, alone knows their amount and their 
beauty. I^et us therefore earnestly strive to be 
found in the number of those that wait for Him, 
in order that we may share in His promised 
gifts. But hew, beloved, shall this be done? 
If our understanding be fixed by faith towards 
God ; if we earnestly seek the things which are 
pleasing and acceptable to Him ; if we do the 
things which are in harmony with His blameless 
will ; and if we follow the way of truth, casting 
away from us all unrighteousness and iniquity, 
along with all covetousness, strife, evil practices, 
deceit, whispering, and evil-speaking, all hatred 
of God, pride and haughtiness, vainglory and 
ambition.'- For they that do such things are 
hateful to God ; and not only they that do them, 
but also those that take pleasure in them that 
do them.'^ For the Scripture saith, " But to the 
sinner God said. Wherefore dost thou declare 
my statutes, and take my covenant into thy 
mouth, seeing thou hatest instruction, and cast- 
est my words behind thee? When thou sawest 
a thief, thou consentedst with '^ him, and didst 
make thy portion with adulterers. Thy mouth 
has abounded with wickedness, and thy tongue 
contrived '5 deceit. Thou sittest, and speakest 
against thy brother ; thou slanderest '^ thine own 
mother's son. These things thou hast done, 
and I kept silence ; thou thoughtest, wicked 
one, that I should be like to thyself. But I will 
reprove thee, and set thyself before thee. Con- 
sider now these things, ye that forget God, lest 
He tear you in pieces, like a lion, and there be 
none to deliver. The sacrifice of praise will 
glorify Me, and a way is there by which I will 
show him the salvation of God." '' 


This is the way, beloved, in which we find our 
Saviour,'^ even Jesus Christ, the High Priest of 
all our offerings, the defender and helper of our 
infirmity. By Him we look up to the heights of 
heaven. By Him we behold, as in a glass. His 
immaculate and most excellent visage. By Him 
are the eyes of our hearts opened. By Him our 
foolish and darkened understanding blossoms '9 
up anew towards His marvellous light. By Him 
the Lord has willed that we should taste of im- 

" Or, "of the ages." 

'2 The reading is doubtful: some have a<^iAofei'iai', "want of a 
hospitable spirit." [So Jacobson.] 

'J Rom. i. 32. 

'< Literally, " didst run with." 

's Literally, " didst weave." 

'* Or, " layest a snare for." 

'7 Ps. 1. 16-23. The reader will obsenre how the Scptuagint fol- 
lowed by Clement differs from the Hebrew. 

" Literally, " that which saves us." 

'9 Or, " rejoices to behold." 



mortal knowledge,' " who, being the brightness 
of His majesty, is by so much greater than the 
angels, as He hath by inheritance obtained a 
more excellent name than they." ^ For it is thus 
written, " Who maketh His angels spirits, and 
His ministers a flame of fire." ^ But concerning 
His Son •♦ the Lord spoke thus : " Thou art my 
Son, to-day have I begotten Thee. Ask of Me, 
and I will give Thee the heathen for Thine in- 
heritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth 
for Thy possession." 5 And again He saith to 
Him, " Sit Thou at My right hand, until I make 
Thine enemies Thy footstool." ^ But who are 
His enemies? All the wicked, and those who 
set themselves to oppose the will of God.? 



Let us then, men and brethren, with all energy 
act the part of soldiers, in accordance with His 
holy commandments. Let us consider those 
who serve under our generals, with what order, 
obedience, and submissiveness they perform the 
things which are commanded them. All are not 
prefects, nor commanders of a thousand, nor of 
a hundred, nor of fifty, nor the like, but each 
one in his own rank performs the things com- 
manded by the king and the generals. The 
great cannot subsist without the small, nor the 
small without the great. There is a kind of 
mixture in all things, and thence arises mutual 
advantage.^ Let us take our body for an ex- 
ample.' The head is nothing without the feet, 
and the feet are nothing without the head ; yea, 
the very smallest members of our body are neces- 
sary and useful to the whole body. But all 
work '° harmoniously together, and are under one 
common rule " for the preservation of the whole 



Let our whole body, then, be preserved in 
Christ Jesus ; and let every one be subject to his 
neighbour, according to the special gift '^ be- 
stowed upon him. Let the strong not despise 
the weak, and let the weak show respect unto 
the strong. Let the rich man provide for the 

* Or, " knowledge of immortality." 
^ Heb. i. 3, 4. 

' Ps. civ. 4; Heb. i. 7. 

* Some render, " to the Son." 
5 Ps. ii. 7,8; Heb. i. 5. 

<> Ps. ex. i; Heb i. 13. 

7 Some read, " who oppose their own will to that of God." 

' Literally, " in these there is use." 

9 I Cor. xii. 12, etc. 
*° Literally, " all breathe together." 
" Literally, " use one subjection." 
'* Literally, " according as he has been placed in his charism." 

wants of the poor ; and let the poor man bless 
God, because He hath given him one by whom 
his need may be supplied. Let the wise man 
display his wisdom, not by [mere] words, but 
through good deeds. Let the humble not hen 
testimony to himself, but leave witness to uc 
borne to him by another.'^ Let him that is pure 
in the flesh not grow proud '^ of it, and boast, 
knowing that it was another who bestowed on 
him the gift of continence. Let us consider, 
then, brethren, of what matter we were made, — 
who and what manner of beings we came into 
the world, as it were out of a sepulchre, and 
from utter darkness. 's He who made us and 
fashioned us, having prepared His bountiful gifts 
for us before we were born, introduced us into 
His world. Since, therefore, we receive all these 
things from Him, we ought for everything to give 
Him thanks ; to whom b'^ glory for ever and 
ever. Amen. 


Foolish and inconsiderate men, who have 
neither wisdom '^ nor instruction, mock am, 
deride us, being eager to exalt themselves in 
their own conceits. For what can a mortal man 
do ? or what strength is there in one made out 
of the dust ? For it is written, " There was no 
shape before mine eyes, only I heard a sound,'' 
and a voice [saying] , What then ? Shall a man 
be pure before the Lord ? or shall such an one 
be [counted] blameless in his deeds, seeing He 
does not confide in His servants, and has 
charged '^ even His angels with perversity? The 
heaven is not clean in His sight : how much less 
they that dwell in houses of clay, of which also 
we ourselves were made ! He smote them as a 
moth ; and from morning even until evening 
they endure not. Because they could .furnish no 
assistance to themselves, they perished. He 
breathed upon them, and they died, because 
they had no wisdom. But call 'now, if any one 
will answer thee, or if thou wilt look to any of 
the holy angels ; for wrath destroys the foolish 
man, and envy killeth him that is in error. I 
have seen the foolish taking root, but their habi- 
tation was presently consumed. Let their sons 
be far from safety ; let them be despised '^ before 
the gates of those less than themselves, and 
there shall be none to deliver. For what was 
prepared for them, the righteous shall eat ; and 
they shall not be delivered from evil." ^<* 

'3 Comp. Prov. xxvii. 2. 

'< The MS. is here slightly torn, and we are left to conjecture. 

■5 Comp. Ps. cxxxix. 15. 

■6 Literally, " and silly and uninstructed." 

t7 Literally, " a breath." 

■* Or, " has perceived." 

'9 Some render, " they perished at the gates," 

2° Job iv. 16-18, XV. 15, iv. 19-ai, V. T-5. 




These things therefore being manifest to us, 
and since we look into the depths of the divine 
knowledge, it behoves us to do all things in 
[their proper] order, which the Lord has com- 
manded us to perform at stated times.' He has 
enjoined offerings [to be presented] and service 
to be performed [to Him], and that not thought- 
lessly or irregularly, but at the appointed times 
and hours. Where and by whom He desires 
these things to be done, He Himself has fixed 
by His own supreme will, in order that all things 
being piously done according to His good pleas- 
ure, may be acceptable unto Him.^ Those, 
therefore, who present their offerings at the ap- 
pointed times, are accepted and blessed ; for 
inasmuch as they follow the laws of the Lord, 
they sin not. For his own peculiar services are 
assigned to the high priest, and their own proper 
place is prescribed to the priests, and their own 
special ministrations devolve on the Levites. 
The layman is bound by the laws that pertain to 



Let every one of you, brethren, give thanks 
to God in his own order, living in all good con- 
science, with becoming gravity, and not going 
beyond the rule of the ministry prescribed to 
him. Not in every place, brethren, are the daily 
sacrifices offered, or the peace-offerings, or the 
sin-offerings and the trespass-offerings, but in 
Jerusalem only. And even there they are not 
offered in any place, but only at the altar before 
the temple, that which is offered being first care- 
fully examined by the high priest and the min- 
isters already mentioned. Those, therefore, who 
do anything beyond that which is agreeable to 
His will, are punished with death. Ye see,^ 
brethren, that the greater the knowledge that 
has been vouchsafed to us, the greater also is 
the danger to which we are exposed. 


The apostles have preached the Gospel to us 
from '• the Lord Jesus Christ ; Jesus Christ [has 
done so] from ^ God. Christ therefore was sent 
forth by God, and the apostles by Christ. Both 
these appointments,5 then, were made in an 
orderly way, according to the will of God. 
Having therefore received their orders, and 

' Some join icora xaipovi TiTayfifvov^, " at stated times," to the 
next sentence, [i Cor. xvi. i, 2.1 

2 Literally, " to His will." [Comp. Rom. xv. 15, 16, Greek.] 

3 Or, " consider." [This chapter has been cited to prove the 
earlier date for this Epistle. But the reference to Jerusalem may be 
an ideal present.] 

* Or, " by the command of." 

* Literally, " both things were don«." 

being fully assured by the resurrection of oui 
Lord Jesus Christ, and established^ in the word 
of God, with full assurance of the Holy Ghost, 
they went forth proclaiming that the kingdom of 
God was at hand. And thus preaching through 
countries and cities, they apjoointed the first-fruits 
[of their labours], having first proved them by 
the Spirit,7 to be bishops and deacons of those 
who should afterwards believe. Nor was this any 
new thing, since indeed many ages before it was 
written concerning bishops and deacons. For 
thus saith the Scripture in a certain place, " I 
will appoint their bishops ^ in righteousness, and 
their deacons^ in faith." '° 


And what wonder is it if those in Christ who 
were entrusted with such a duty by God, ap- 
pointed those [ministers] before mentioned, 
when the blessed Moses also, " a faithful servant 
in all his house,"" noted down in the sacred 
books all the injunctions which were given him, 
and when the other prophets also followed him, 
bearing witness with one consent to the ordi- 
nances which he had appointed? For, when 
rivalry arose concerning the priesthood, and the 
tribes were contending among themselves as to 
which of them should be adorned with that glo- 
rious title, he commanded the twelve princes of 
the tribes to bring him their rods, each one be- 
ing inscribed with the name '^ of the tribe. And 
he took them and bound them [together], and 
sealed them with the rings of the princes of the 
tribes, and laid them up in the tabernacle of 
witness on the table of God. And having shut 
the doors of the tabernacle, he sealed the keys, 
as he had done the rods, and said to them, Men 
and brethren, the tribe Avhose rod shall blossom 
has God chosen to fulfil the office of the priest- 
hood, and to minister unto Him. And when 
the morning was come, he assembled all Israel, 
six hundred thousand men, and showed the 
seals to the princes of the tribes, and opened 
the tabernacle of witness, and brought forth the 
rods. And the rod of Aaron was foi-nd not 
only to have blossomed, but to bear fruit upon 
it.'3 What think ye, beloved ? Did not Moses 
know beforehand that this would happen ? Un- 
doubtedly he knew ; but he acted thus, that 
there might be no sedition in Israel, and that 

6 Or, " confirmed by." 

7 Or, " having tested them in spirit." 

8 Or, " overseers." 

9 Or, " servants." 

'° Isa. Ix. 17, Sept. ; but the text is here altered by Clement. The 
LXX. have " I will give thy rulers in peace, and thy oversee»s in 

'■ Num. xii. 10; Heb. iii. 5. 

12 Literally, " every tribe being written according to its name." 

•3 See Num. xvii. 



the name of the true and only God might be 
glorified ; to whom be glory for ever and ever. 



Our apostles also knew, through our Lord 
Jesus Christ, and there would be strife on ac- 
count of the office ' of the episcopate. For this 
reason, therefore, inasmuch as they had obtained 
a perfect fore-knowledge of this, they appointed 
those [ministers] already mentioned, and after- 
wards gave instructions,^ that when these should 
fall asleep, other approved men should succeed 
them in their ministry. We are of opinion, 
therefore, that those appointed by them,^ or 
afterwards by other eminent men, with the • con- 
sent of 'the whole Church, and who have blame- 
lessly served the flock of Christ in a humble, 
peaceable, and disinterested spirit, and have for 
a long time possessed the good opinion of all, 
cannot be justly dismissed from the ministry. 
For our sin will not be small, if we eject from 
the episcopate '* those who have blamelessly and 
holily fulfilled its duties. 5 Blessed are those 
presbyters who, having finished their course be- 
fore now, have obtained a fruitful and perfect 
departure [from this world] ; for they have no 
fear lest any one deprive them of the place now 
appointed them. But we see that ye have re- 
moved some men of excellent behaviour from 
the ministry, which they fulfilled blamelessly and 
with honour. 



Ye are fond of contention, brethren, and full 
of zeal about things which do not pertain to 
salvation. Look carefully into the Scriptures, 
which are the true utterances of the Holy Spirit. 
Obser\'e ^ that nothing of an unjust or counter- 
feit character is written in them. There ^ you 
will not find that the righteous were cast off by 
men who themselves were holy. The righteous 
.were indeed persecuted, but only by the wicked. 
They were cast into prison, but only by the un- 
holy ; they were stoned, but only by transgress- 
ors ; they were slain, but only by the accursed, 
and such as had conceived an unrighteous envy 

1 Literally, " on account of the title of the oversight." Some 
understand this to mean, " in regard to the dignity of the episco- 
pate; " and others simply, " on account of the oversight." 

2 The meaning of this passage is much controverted. Some ren- 
der, " left a list of other approved persons; " while others translate the 
unusual word cTrifo/iij}, which causes the difficulty, by " testamentary 
direction," and many others deem the text corrupt. We have given 
what seems the simplest version of the text as it stands. [Comp. 
the versions of Wake, Chevallier, and others.] 

3 i.e., the apostles. 

* Or, " oversight." 

* Literally, " presented the offerings." 

* Or, " Ye perceive." 
7 Or, " For." 

against them. Exposed to such sufferings, they 
endured them gloriously. For what shall we 
say, brethren ? Was Daniel ^ cast into the den 
of lions by such as feared God ? Were Ananias, 
and Azarias, and Mishael shut up in a furnace 9 
of fire by those who observed '° the great and 
glorious worship of the Most High ? Far from 
us be such a thought ! Who, then, were they 
that did such things? The hateful, and those 
full of all wickedness, were roused to such a 
pitch of fury, that they inflicted torture on those 
who served God with a holy and blameless pur- 
pose [of heart], not knowing that the Most 
High is the Defender and Protector of all such 
as with a^ure conscience venerate " His all-ex- 
cellent name ; to whom be glory for ever and 
ever. Amen. But they who with confidence 
endured [these things] are now heirs of glory 
and honour, and have been exalted and made 
illustrious '^ by God in their memorial for ever 
and ever. Amen. 


Such examples, therefore, brethren, it is right 
that we should follow ; '^ since it is written, 
" Cleave to the holy, for those that cleave to 
them shall [themselves] be made holy." '•♦ And 
again, in another place, [the Scripture] saith, 
" With a harmless man thou shalt prove '5 thy- 
self harmless, and with an elect man thou shalt 
be elect, and with a perverse man thou shalt 
show '^ thyself perverse." ^^ Let us cleave, there- 
fore, to the innocent and righteous, since these 
are the elect of God. Why are there strifes, 
and tumults, and divisions, and schisms, and 
wars '^ among you? Have we not [all] one God 
and one Christ? Is there not one Spirit of 
grace poured out upon us ? And have we not 
one calling in Christ? "^ Why do we divide and 
tear to pieces the members of Christ, and raise 
up strife against our own body, and have reached 
such a height of madness as to forget that " we 
are members one of another?"^" Remember 
the words of our Lord Jesus Christ, how^' He 
said, "Woe to that man [by whom^' offences 
come] ! It were better for him that he had 
never been born, than that he should cast a 
stumbling-block before one of my elect. Yea, 
it were better for him that a millstone should be 

8 Dan. vi. 16. 

9 Dan. iii. 20. 

'° Literally, "worshipped." 

" Literally, " serve." 

12 Or, " lifted up." 

" Literally, " To such examples it is right that we should cleave." 

'* Not found in Scripture. 

'5 Literally, "be." 

'6 Or, " thou wilt overthrow." 

'7 Ps. xviii. 25, 26. 

'8 Or, " war." Comp. James iv. i. 

•9 Comp. Eph. iv. 4-6. 

2° Rom. xvii. 5. 

21 This clause is wanting in the text. 



hung about [his neck], and he should be sunk 
in the depths of the sea, than that he should 
cast a stumbling-block before one of my little 
ones.' Your schism has subverted [the faith of] 
many, has discouraged many, has given rise to 
doubt in many, and has caused grief to us all. 
And still your sedition continueth. 


Take up the epistle of the blessed Apostle 
Paul. What did he write to you at the time 
when the Gospel first began to be preached ? ^ 
Truly, under the inspiration ^ of the Spirit, he 
wrote to you concerning himself, and Cephas, 
and Apollos,'' because even then parties 5 had 
been formed among you. But that inclination 
for one above another entailed less guilt upon 
you, inasmuch as your partialities were then 
shown towards apostles, already of high reputa- 
tion, and towards a man whom they had ap- 
proved. But now reflect who those are that have 
perverted you, and lessened the renown of your 
far-famed brotherly love. It is disgraceful, be- 
loved, yea, highly disgraceful, and unworthy of 
your Christian profession,^ that such a thing 
should be heard of as that the most stedfast and 
ancient Church of the Corinthians should, on 
account of one or two persons, engage in sedi- 
tion against its presbyters. And this rumour has 
reached not only us, but those also who are 
unconnected ? with us ; so that, through your 
infatuation, the name of the Lord is blasphemed, 
while danger is also brought upon yourselves. 


Let us therefore, with all haste, put an end * 
to this [state of things] ; and let us fall down 
before the Lord, and beseech Him with tears, 
that He would mercifully ' be reconciled to us, 
and restore us to our former seemly and holy 
practice of brotherly love. For [such conduct] 
is the gate of righteousness, which is set open 
for the attainment of life, as it is written, " Open 
to me the gates of righteousness ; I will go in by 
them, and will praise the Lord : this is the gate 
of the Lord : the righteous shall enter in by it." '° 
Although, therefore, many gates have been set 
open, yet this gate of righteousness is that gate 
in Christ by which blessed are all they that have 

' Comp. Matt, xviii. 6, xxvi. 24; Mark ix. 42; Luke xvii. 2. 

" Literally, " in the beginning of the Gospel." [Comp. Philipp. 

3 Or, " spiritually." 

* I Cor. lii. 13, etc. 

5 Or, " inclinations for one above another." 

* Literally, " of conduct in Christ." 

' Or, " aliens from us," i.e., the Gentile*. 

* Literally, " remove." 

9 Literally, " becoming merciful." 
•*" Ps. cxviii. 19, ao. 

entered in and have directed their way in holi- 
ness and righteousness, doing all things without 
disorder. Let a man be faithful : let him be 
powerful in the utterance of knowledge ; let him 
be wise in judging of words ; let him be pure 
in all his deeds ; yet the more he seems to be 
superior to others [in these respects], the more 
humble-minded ought he to be, and to seek the 
common good of all, and not merely his own 


Let him who has love in Christ keep the com- 
mandments of Christ. Who can describe the 
[blessed] bond of the love of God? What man 
is able to tell the excellence of its beauty, as it 
ought to be told? The height to which love 
exalts is unspeakable. Love unites us to God. 
Love covers a multitude of sins." Love beareth 
all things, is long-suffering in all things.'^ There 
is nothing base, nothing arrogant in love. Love 
admits of no schisms : love gives rise to no sedi- 
tions : love does all things in harmony. By love 
have all the elect of God been made perfect ; 
without love nothing is well-pleasing to God. In 
love has the Lord taken us to Himself. On ac- 
count of the Love he bore us, Jesus Christ our 
Lord gave His blood for us by the will of God ; 
His flesh for our flesh, and His soul for our 
souls. 'J 


Ye see, beloved, how great and wonderful a 
thing is love, and that there is no declaring its 
perfection. Who is fit to be found in it, except 
such as God has vouchsafed to render so ? Let 
us pray, therefore, and imploije of His mercy, that 
we may live blameless in love, free from all 
human partialities for one above another. All 
the generations from Adam even unto this day 
have passed away ; but those who, through the 
grace of God, have been made perfect in love, 
now possess a place among the godly, and shall 
be made manifest at the revelation ''♦ of the king- 
dom of Christ. For it is written, " Enter into 
thy secret chambers for a little time, until my 
wrath and fury pass away ; and I will remember 
a propitious '5 day, and will raise you up out of 
your graves." '^ Blessed are we, beloved, if we 
keep the commandments of God in the harmony 
of love ; that so through love our sins may be 
forgiven us. For it is written, " Blessed are they 
whose transgressions are forgiven, and whose sins 
are covered. Blessed is the man whose sin 

" James v. 20; i Pet. iv. 8. 

** Comp. I Cor. xiii. 4, etc. 

>3 rComp. Irenzus, v. i ; also Mathetes, £p. to Diognettis, cap. iz.] 

>< Literally, " visiution." 

>5 Or, " good." 

" Ita. xxvi. BO. 



the Lord will not impute to him, and in whose 
mouth there is no guile." ' This blessedness 
Cometh upon those who have been chosen by 
God through Jesus Christ our Lord ; to whom 
be glory for ever and ever. Amen. 


Let US therefore implore forgiveness for all 
those transgressions which through any [sug- 
gestion] of the adversary we have committed. 
And those who have been the leaders of sedition 
and disagreement ought to have respect ^ to the 
common hope. For such as live in fear and love 
would rather that they themselves than their 
neighbours should be involved in suffering. And 
they prefer to bear blame themselves, rather than 
that the concord which has been well and 
piously 3 handed down to us should suffer. For 
it is better that a man should acknowledge his 
transgressions than that he should harden his 
heart, as the hearts of those were hardened who 
stirred up sedition against Moses the servant of 
God, and whose condemnation was made mani- 
fest [unto all]. For they went down alive into 
Hades, and death swallowed them up.-* Pharaoh 
with his army and all the princes of Egypt, and 
the chariots with their riders, were sunk in the 
depths of the Red Sea, and perished,^ for no 
other reason than that their foolish hearts were 
hardened, after so many signs and wonders had 
been wrought in the land of Egypt by Moses the 
servant of God. 



The Lord, brethren, stands in need of noth- 
ing ; and He desires nothing of any one, except 
that confession be made to Him. For, says the 
elect David, " I will confess unto the Lord ; and 
that will please Him more than a young bullock 
that hath horns and hoofs. Let the poor see it, 
and be glad." ^ And again he saith, " Offer ^ 
unto God the sacrifice of praise, and pay thy 
vows unto the Most High. And call upon Me 
in the day of thy trouble : I will deliver thee, 
and thou shalt glorify Me." ^ For " the sacrifice 
of God is a broken spirit." 9 



Ye understand, beloved, ye understand well 
the Sacred Scriptures, and ye have looked very 

* Ps. xxxii. I, 2. 
' Or, " look to." 

3 Or, " righteously." 

* Num. xvi. 
5 Ex. xiv. 

' Ps. Ixix. 31, 3a. 
^ Or, " sacrifice." 
« Ps. 1. 14, 15. 
» Pi. li. 17. 

earnestly into the oracles of God. Call then 
these things to your remembrance. When Moses 
went up into the mount, and abode there, with 
fasting and humiliation, forty days and forty 
nights, the Lord said unto him, " Moses, Moses, 
get thee down quickly from hence ; for thy peo- 
ple whom thou didst bring out of the land of 
Egypt have committed iniquity. They have 
speedily departed from the way in which I com- 
manded them to walk, and have made to them- 
selves molten images." '° And the Lord said 
unto him, " I have spoken to thee once and 
again, saying, I have seen this people, and, be- 
hold, it is a stiff-necked people : let Me destroy 
them, and blot out their name from under 
heaven ; and I will make thee a great and won- 
derful nation, and one much more numerous than 
this." " But Moses said, " Far be it from Thee, 
Lord : pardon the sin of this people ; else blot 
me also out of the book of the living." '^ O mar- 
vellous '3 love ! O insuperable perfection ! The 
servant speaks freely to his Lord, and asks for- 
giveness for the people, or begs that he himself 
might perish ^* along with them. 



Who then among you is noble-minded? who 
compassionate ? who full of love ? Let him de- 
clare, " If on my account sedition and disagree- 
ment and schisms have arisen, I will depart, I 
will go away whithersoever ye desire, and I will 
do whatever the majority 's commands ; only let 
the flock of Christ live on terms of peace with 
the presbyters set over it." He that acts thus 
shall procure to himself great glory in the Lord ; 
and every place will welcome '^ him. For " the 
earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof." '7 
These things they who live a godly life, that is 
never to be repented of, both have done and 
always will do. 


To bring forward some examples from among 
the heathen : Many kings and princes, in times 
of pestilence, when they had been instructed by 
an oracle, have given themselves up to death, in 
order that by their own blood they might deliver 
their fellow-citizens [from destruction]. Many 
have gone forth from their own cities, that so 
sedition might be brought to an end within 

'° Ex. xxxii. 7, etc.; Deut. ix. 12, etc. 

" Ex. xxxii. 9, etc. 

'* Ex. xxxii. 32. 

" Or, " mighty." 

'■♦ Literally, " be wiped out." 

'5 Literally, " the multitude." [Clement here puts words into the 
mouth of the Corinthian presbyters. It has been strangely quoted to 
strengthen a conjecture that he had humbly preferred Linus aad 
Cletus when first called to preside.] 

"> Or, " receive." 

'7 Ps. xxiv. I ; I Cor. x. 26, a8. 



them. We know many among ourselves who 
have given themselves up to bonds, in order that 
they might ransom others. Many, too, have 
surrendered themselves to slavery, that with the 
price ' which they received for themselves, they 
might provide food for others. Many women 
also, being strengthened by the grace of God, 
have performed numerous manly exploits. The 
blessed Judith, when her city was besieged, 
asked of the elders permission to go forth into 
the camp of the strangers ; and, exposing her- 
self to danger, she went out for the love which 
she bare to her country and people then be- 
sieged ; and the Lord delivered Holofernes into 
the hands of a woman.^ Esther also, being per- 
fect in faith, exposed herself to no less danger, 
in order to deliver the twelve tribes of Israel 
from impending destruction. For with fasting 
and humiliation she entreated the everlasting 
God, who seeth all things ; and He, perceiving 
the humility of her spirit, delivered the people 
for whose sake she had encountered peril.^ 



Let us then also pray for those who have 
fallen into any sin, that meekness and humility 
may be given to them, so that they may submit, 
not unto us, but to the will of God. For in this 
way they shall secure a fruitful and perfect re- 
membrance from us, with sympathy for them, 
both in our prayers to God, and our mention of 
them to the saints."* Let us receive correction, 
beloved, on account of which no one should 
feel displeased. Those exhortations by which 
we admonish one another are both good [in 
themselves] and highly profitable, for they tend 
to unite 5 us to the will of God. For thus saith 
the holy Word : " The Lord hath severely chast- 
ened me, yet hath not given me over to death." ^ 
" For whom the Lord loveth He chasteneth, and 
scourgeth every son whom He receiveth." ^ 
" The righteous," saith it, " shall chasten me in 
mercy, and reprove me ; but let not the oil of 
sinners make fat my head." ^ And again he 
saith, " Blessed is the man whom the Lord re- 
proveth, and reject not thou the warning of the 
Almighty. For He causes sorrow, and again 
restores [to gladness] ; He woundeth, and His 
hands make whole. He shall deliver thee in six 
troubles, yea, in the seventh no evil shall touch 
thee. In famine He shall rescue thee from 
death, and in war He shall free thee from the 

' Literally, " and having received their prices, fed others." 
[Comp. Rom. xvi. 3, 4, and Phil. ii. 30.] 

^ Judith viii. 30. 

3 Esther vii., viii. 

■* Literally, " there shall be to them a fruitful and perfect remem- 
brance, with compassions both towards God and the saints." 

5 Or, " they unite." 

6 Ps. cxviii. 18. 

7 Prov. iii. 12; Heb. xii. 6. 
* Ps. cxli. 5. 

power '^ of the sword. From the scourge of the 
tongue will He hide thee, and thou shalt not 
fear when evil cometh. Thou shalt laugh at the 
unrighteous and the wicked, and shalt not be 
afraid of the beasts of the field. For the wild 
beasts shall be at peace with thee : then shalt 
thou know that thy house shall be in peace, and 
the habitation of thy tabernacle shall not fail.'° 
Thou shalt know also that thy seed shall be 
great, and thy children like the grass of the 
field. And thou shalt come to the grave hke 
ripened corn which is reaped in its season, or 
like a heap of the threshing-floor which is gath- 
ered together at the proper time."". Ye see, 
beloved, that protection is afforded to those that 
are chastened of the Lord ; for since God is 
good. He corrects us, that we may be admon- 
ished by His holy chastisement. 


Ye therefore, who laid the foundation of this 
sedition, submit yourselves to the presbyters, 
and receive correction so as to repent, bending 
the knees of your hearts. Learn to be subject, 
laying aside the proud and arrogant self-confi- 
dence of your tongue. For it is better for you 
that ye should occupy '^ a humble but honourable 
place in the flock of Christ, than that, being 
highly exalted, ye should be cast out from the 
hope of His people. '^ For thus speaketh all- 
virtuous Wisdom : '+ " Behold, I will bring forth 
to you the words of My Spirit, and I will teach 
you My speech. Since I called, and ye did not 
hear ; I held forth My words, and ye regarded 
not, but set at naught My counsels, and yielded 
not at My reproofs ; therefore I too will laugh at 
your destruction ; yea, I will rejoice when ruin 
cometh upon you, and when sudden confusion 
overtakes you, when overturning presents itself 
like a tempest, or when tribulation and oppres- 
sion fall upon you. For it shall come to pass, 
that when ye call upon Me, I will not hear you ; 
the wicked shall seek Me, and they shall not 
find Me. For they hated wisdom, and did not 
choose the fear of the Lord ; nor would they 
listen to My counsels, but despised My reproofs. 
Wherefore they shall eat the fruits of their own 
way, and they shall be filled with their own un- 
godliness." ... '5 

9 Literally, " hand." 

'° Literaiyy, " err " or " sin." 

" Job V. 17-26. 

*^ Literally, " to be found small and esteemed." 

'3 Literally, " His hope." [It has been conjectured that eArrtSot 
should be eTrauAiSos, and the reading, "out of the fold of his people." 
See Chevallier.] 

'< Prov. i. 23-31. [Often cited by this name in primitive writers.] 

'5 Junius (Pat. Young), who examined the MS. before it was 
bound into its present form, stated that a whole leaf was here lost. 
The next letters that occur are ittoi-, which have been supposed to 
indicate eln-oi' or iKiitov. Doubtless some passages quoted ky tho 
ancients from the Epistle of Clement, and not now found in it, OO" 
curred in the portion which has thus been lost. 





May God, who seeth all things, and who is 
the Ruler of all spirits and the Lord of all flesh 
- — who chose our Lord Jesus Christ and us 
through Him to be a peculiar ' people — grant 
to every soul that calleth upon His glorious and 
holy Name, faith, fear, peace, patience, long-suf- 
fering, self-control, purity, and sobriety, to the 
well-pleasing of His Name, through our High 
Priest and Protector, Jesus Christ, by whom be 
to Him glory, and majesty, and power, and 
honour, both now and for evermore. Amen. 



Send back speedily to us in peace and with 
joy these our messengers to you : Claudius 
Ephebus and Valerius Bito, with Fortunatus : 

I Comp. Tit. ii. 14. 

that they may the sooner announce to us the 
peace and harmony we so earnestly desire and 
long for [among you], and that we may the 
more quickly rejoice over the good order re-es- 
tablished among you. The grace of our Lord 
Jesus Christ be with you, and with all everywhere 
that are the called of God through Him, by 
whom be to Him glory, honour, power, majesty, 
and eternal dominion,^ from everlasting to ever- 
lasting.3 Amen.'* 

2 Literally, " an eternal throne." 

3 Literally, " From the ages to the ages of ages." 
* [Note St. Clement's frequent doxologies.] 

[N.B. — The language of Clement concerning the Western 
progress of St. Paul (cap. v.) is our earliest postscript to his Scripture 
biography. It is sufficient to refer the reader to the great works of 
Conybeare and Howson, and of Mr. Lewin, on the Li/e and Epistles 
of St. Paul. See more especially the valuable note of Lewin (vol. 
ii. p. 294) which takes notice of the opinion of some learned men, 
that the great Apostle of the Gentiles preached the Gospel in Britain. 
The whole subject of St. Paul's relations with British Christians is 
treated by Willianis, in his Antiqiiities of the Cyiiiry, with learning 
and in an attractive manner. But the reader will find more ready 
to his hand, perhaps, the interesting note of Mr. Lewin, on Claudia 
and Pudens (2 Tim x. 21), in his Lz/e and Epistles of St. Paul, 
vol. ii. p. 392. See also Paley's Horce Paulime, p. 40. London, 




[a.d. 130.] The anonymous author of this Epistle gives himself the title (Mathetes) "a 
disciple ' of the Apostles," and I venture to adopt it as his name. It is about all we know of him, 
and it serves a useful end. I place his letter here, as a sequel to the Clementine Epistle, for 
several reasons, which I think scholars will approve: (i) It is full of the Pauline spirit, and 
exhales the same pure and primitive fragrance which is characteristic of Clement. (2) No 
theory as to its date very much conflicts with that which I adopt, and it is sustained by good 
authorities. (3) But, as a specimen of the persuasives against Gentilism which early Christians 
employed in their intercourse with friends who adhered to heathenism, it admirably illustrates the 
temper prescribed by St. Paul (2 Tim. ii. 24), and not less the peculiar social relations of con- 
verts to the Gospel with the more amiable and candid of their personal friends at this early 

Mathetes was possibly a catechumen of St. Paul or of one of the apostle's associates. I 
assume that his correspondent was the tutor of M. Aurelius. Placed just here, it fills a lacuna in 
the series, and takes the place of the pseudo (second) Epistle of Clement, which is now relegated 
to its proper place with the works falsely ascribed to St. Clement. 

Altogether, the Epistle is a gem of purest ray ; and, while suggesting some difficulties as to 
interpretation and exposition, it is practically clear as to argument and intent. Mathetes is, 
perhaps, the first of the apologists. 

The following is the original introductory notice of the learned editors and translators : — 

The following interesting and eloquent Epistle is anonymous, and we have no clue whatever 
as to its author. For a considerable period after its publication in 1592, it was generally ascribed 
to Justin Martyr. In recent times Otto has inserted it among the works of that writer, but 
Semisch and others contend that it cannot possibly be his. In dealing with this question, we 
depend entirely upon the internal evidence, no statement as to the authorship of the Epistle 
having descended to us from antiquity. And it can scarcely be denied that the whole tone of the 
Epistle, as well as special passages which it contains, points to some other writer than Justin. 
Accordingly, critics are now for the most part agreed that it is not his, and that it must be ascribed 
to one who lived at a still earlier date in the history of the Church. Several internal argu- 
ments have been brought forward in favour of this opinion. Supposing chap. xi. to be genuine, 
it has been supported by the fact that the writer there styles himself "a disciple of the apostles." 
But there is great suspicion that the two concluding chapters are spurious ; and even though 

* a7roo'ToAioi< yevd^ti'ot /laSTjTTjs. Cap. xL 


admitted to be genuine, tlie expression ([uoted evidently admits of a different explanation from 
that which implies the writer's personal acquaintance with the apostles : it might, indeed, be 
adopted by one even at the present day. More weight is to be attached to those passages in 
which the writer speaks of Christianity as still being a 7iew thing in the world. Expressions to 
this effect occur in several places (chap, i., ii., ix.), and seem to imply that the author lived very 
little, if at all, after the apostolic age. There is certainly nothing in the epistle which is incon- 
jistent with this opinion ; and we may therefore believe, that in this beautiful composition wi 
possess a genuine production of some apostolic man who lived not later than the beginning of the 
second century. 

The names of Clement of Rome and of ApoUos have both been suggested as those of the 
probable author. Such opinions, however, are pure fancies, which it is perhaps impossible to 
refute, but which rest on nothing more than conjecture. Nor can a single word be said as to the 
person named Diognetus, to whom the letter is addressed. We must be content to leave both 
points in hopeless obscurity, and simply accept the Epistle as written by an earnest and intelli- 
gent Christian to a sincere inquirer among the Gentiles, towards the close of the apostolic age. 

It is much to be regretted that the text is often so very doubtful. Only three mss. of the 
Epistle, all probably exhibiting the same original text, are known to exist ; and in not a few pas- 
sages the readings are, in consequence, very defective and obscure. But notwithstanding this 
drawback, and the difficulty of representing the full force and elegance of the original, this 
Epistle, as now presented to the English reader, can hardly fail to excite both his deepest interest 
and admiration. 

[N.B. — Interesting speculations concerning this precious work may be seen in Bunsen's 
Hippolytiis a?id his Age, vol. i. p. i88. The learned do not seem convinced by this author, but 
I have adopted his suggestion as to Diognetus the tutor of M. Aurelius.] 



Since I see thee, most excellent Diognetus, 
exceedingly desirous to learn the mode of wor- 
shipping God prevalent among the Christians, 
and inquiring very carefully and earnestly con- 
cerning them, what God they trust in, and what 
form of religion they observe,' so as all to look 
down upon the world itself, and despise death, 
while they neither esteem those to be gods that 
are reckoned such by the Greeks, nor hold to 
the superstition of the Jews ; and what is the 
affection which they cherish among themselves ; 
and why, in fine, this new kind or practice [of 
piety] has only now entered into the world,^ and 
not long ago ; I cordially welcome this thy de- 
sire, and 1 implore God, who enables us both to 
speak and to hear, to grant to me so to speak, 
that, above all, I may hear you have been edi- 
fied,3 and to you so to hear, that I who speak 
may have no cause of regret for having done so. 


Come, then, after you have freed* yourself 
from all prejudices possessing your mind, and 
laid aside what you have been accustomed to, 
as something apt to deceive s you, and being 
made, as if from the beginning, a new man, inas- 
much as, according to your own confession, you 
are to be the hearer of a new [system of] doc- 
trine ; come and contemplate, not with your eyes 
only, but with your understanding, the substance 
and the form ^ of those whom ye declare and 
deem to be gods. Is not one of them a stone 
similar to that on which we tread ? Is ' not a 
second brass, in no way superior to those vessels 
which are constructed for our ordinary use ? Is 
not a third wood, and that already rotten ? Is 
not a fourth silver, which needs a man to watch 
it, lest it be stolen? Is not a fifth iron, con- 

' Literally, " trusting in what God, etc., they look down." 

^ Or, " life." 

3 Some read, " that you by hearing may be edified." 

* Or, " purified." 
5 Literally, " which is deceiving." 

* Literally, " of what substance, or of what form." 
' Some make this and the following clauses affirmative instead of 

interrogative. | 

sumed by rust? Is not a sixth earthenware, in 
no degree more valuable than that which is 
formed for the humblest purposes ? Are not all 
these of corruptible matter? Are they not fab- 
ricated by means of iron and fire ? Did not the 
sculptor fashion one of them, the brazier a sec- 
ond, the silversmith a third, and the potter a 
fourth? Was not every one of them, before 
they were formed by the arts of these [workmen] 
into the shape of these [gods], each in its ^ own 
way subject to change ? Would not those things 
which are now vessels, formed of the same ma- 
il terials, become like to such, if they met with the 
same artificers? Might not these, which are 
now worshipped by you, again be made by men 
vessels similar to others ? Are they not all deaf? 
Are they not blind ? Are they not without life ? 
Are they not destitute of feeling ? Are they not 
incapable of motion ? Are they not all liable to 
rot ? Are they not all corruptible ? These things 
ye call gods ; these ye serve ; these ye worship ; 
and ye become altogether like to them. For 
this reason ye hate the Christians, because they 
do not deem f/iese to be gods. But do not ye 
yourselves, who now think and suppose [such to 
be gods], much more cast contempt upon them 
than they [the Christians do] ? Do ye not muck 
more mock and insult them, when ye worship 
those that are made of stone and earthenware, 
without appointing any persons to guard them ; 
but those made of silver and gold ye shut up by 
night, and appoint watchers to look after them 
by day, lest they be stolen ? And by those gifts 
which ye mean to present to them, do ye not, if 
they are possessed of sense, rather punish [than 
honour] them ? But if, on the other hand, they 
are destitute of sense, ye convict them of this 
fact, while ye worship them with blood and the 
smoke of sacrifices. Let any one of you suffer 
such indignities ! 9 Let any one of you endure 
to have such things done to himself ! But not a 
single human being will, unless compelled to it, 

8 The text is here corrupt. Several attempts at emendation hav« 
been made, but without any marked success. 

9 Some read, " Who of you would tolerate these things? " etc. 




endure such treatment, since he is endowed with 
sense and reason. A stone, however, readily 
bears it, seeing it is insensible. Certainly you 
do not show [by your ' conduct] that he [your 
God] is possessed of sense. And as to the fact 
that Christians are not accustomed to serve such 
gods, I might easily find many other things to 
say ; but if even what has been said does not 
seem to any one sufficient, I deem it idle to say 
anything further. 


And next, I imagine that you are most desir- 
ous of hearing something on this point, that the 
Christians do not obsen'e the same forms of 
divine worship as do the Jews. The Jews, then, 
if they abstain from the kind of service above 
described, and deem it proper to worship one 
God as being Lord of all, [are right] ; but if 
they offer Him worship in the way which we 
have described, they greatly err. For while the 
Gentiles, by offering such things to those that 
are destitute of sense and hearing, furnish an 
example of madness ; they, on the other hand, 
by thinking to offer these things to God as if He 
needed them, might justly reckon it rather an 
act of folly than of divine worship. For He 
that made heaven and earth, and all that is there- 
in, and gives to us all the things of which we 
stand in need, certainly requires none of those 
things which He Himself bestows on such as 
think of furnishing them to Him. But those 
who imagine that, by means of blood, and the 
smoke of sacrifices and burnt-offerings, they 
offer sacrifices [acceptable] to Him, and that 
by such honours they show Him respect, — these, 
by^ supposing that they can give anything to 
Him who stands in need of nothing, appear to 
me in no respect to differ from those who studi- 
ously confer the same honour on things destitute 
of sense, and which therefore are unable to en- 
joy such honours. 


But as to their scrupulosity concerning meats, 
and their superstition as respects the Sabbaths, 
and their boasting about circumcision, and their 
fancies about fasting and the new moons, which 
are utterly ridiculous and unworthy of notice, — 
I do not 3 think that you require to learn any- 
thing from me. For, to accept some of those 
things which have been formed by God for the 
use of men as properly formed, and to reject 
others as useless and redundant, — how can this 

' The text is here uncertain, and the sense obscure. The mean- 
ing seems to be, that by sprinkling their gods with blood, etc., they 
tended to prove that these were not possessed of sense. 

* The text is here very doubtful. We have followed that adopted 
by most critics. 

J Otto, resting on MS. authority, omits the negative, but the sense 
<cems to require its insertion. 

be lawful ? And to speak falsely of God, as if 
He forbade us to do what is good on the Sabbath- 
days, — how is not this impious ? And to glory 
in the circumcision  of the flesh as a proof of 
election, and as if, on account of it, they were 
specially beloved by God, — how is it not a sub- 
ject of ridicule? And as to their observing 
months and days,5 as if waiting upon ^ the stars 
and the moon, and their distributing,^ according 
to their own tendencies, the appointments of 
God, and the vicissitudes of the seasons, some 
for festivities,** and others for mourning, — who 
would deem this a part of divine worship, and 
not much rather a manifestation of folly? I 
suppose, then, you are sufficiently convinced 
that the Christians properly abstain from the 
vanity and error common [to both Jews and 
Gentiles], and from the busy-body spirit and 
vain boasting of the Jews ; but you must not 
hope to learn the mystery of their peculiar mode 
of worshipping God from any mortal. 


For the Christians are distinguished from other 
men neither by country, nor language, nor the 
customs which they observe. For they neither 
inhabit cities of their own, nor employ a pecul- 
iar form of speech, nor lead a life which is 
marked out by any singularity. The course of 
conduct which they follow has not been devised 
by any speculation or deliberation of inquisitive 
men ; nor do they, like some, proclaim them- 
selves the advocates of any merely human 
doctrines. But, inhabiting Greek as well as bar- 
barian cities, according as the lot of each of 
them has determined, and following the customs 
of the natives in respect to clothing, food, and 
the rest of their ordinary conduct, they display 
to us their wonderful and confessedly striking ^ 
method of life. They dwell in their own coun- 
tries, but simply as sojourners. As citizens, they 
share in all things with others, and yet endure 
all things as if foreigners. Every foreign land 
is to them as their native country, and every 
land of their birth as a land of strangers. They 
marry, as do all [others] ; they beget children ; 
but they do not destroy their offspring. '° They 

* Literally, " lessening." 
5 Comp. Gal. iv. lo. 

* This seems to refer to the practice of the Jews in fixing the be- 
ginning of the day, and consequently of the Sabbath,A'om the rising 
of the stars. They used to say, that when three stars of moderate 
magnitude appeared, it was night; when two, it was twilight; and 
when only one, that day had not yet departed. It thus came to pass 
(according to their night-day (yv\6-i\iLt(tov) reckoning), that who- 
soever engaged in work on the evening of Friday, the beginning of 
the Sabbath, after three stars of moderate size were visible, was held 
to have sinned, and had to present a trespass-offering; and so on, ac- 
cording to the fanciful rule described. 

7 Otto supplies the lacuna which here occurs in the Mss. so as to 
read fcaTaSioipetv. 

* The great festivals of the Jews are here referred to on the one 
hand, and the day of atonement on the other. 

9 Literally, " paradoxical." 
•° Literally, " cast away foetuses." 



have a common table, but not a common bed.' 
They are in the flesh, but they do not Hve after 
the flesh.^ They pass their days on earth, but 
they are citizens of heaven.^ They obey the 
prescribed laws, and at the same time surpass 
the laws by their lives. They love all men, and 
are persecuted by all. They are unknown and 
condemned ; they are put to death, and restored 
to life.'* They are poor, yet make many rich ; 5 
they are in lack of all things, and yet abound 
in all ; they are dishonoured, and yet in their 
very dishonour are glorified. They are evil 
spoken of, and yet are justified ; they are re- 
viled, and bless ; ^ they are insulted, and repay 
the insult with honour ; they do good, yet are 
punished as evil-doers. When punished, they 
rejoice as if quickened into life ; they are as- 
sailed by the Jews as foreigners, and are per- 
secuted by the Greeks ; yet those who hate 
them are unable to assign any reason for their 



To sum up all in one word — what the soul 
is in the body, that are Christians in the world. 
The soul is dispersed through all the members 
of the body, and Christians are scattered through 
all the cities of the world. The soul dwells in 
the body, yet is not of the body ; and Chris- 
tians dwell in the world, yet are not of the 
world.7 The invisible soul is guarded by the 
visible body, and Christians are known indeed 
to be in the world, but their godliness remains 
invisible. The flesh hates the soul, and wars 
against it,^ though itself suffering no injury, be- 
cause it is prevented from enjoying pleasures ; 
the world also hates the Christians, though in 
nowise injured, because they abjure pleasures. 
The soul loves the flesh that hates it, and [loves 
also] the members ; Christians likewise love 
those that hate them. The soul is imprisoned 
in the body, yet preserves ^ that very body ; and 
Christians are confined in the world as in a 
prison, and yet they are the preservers ^ of the 
world. The immortal soul dwells in a mortal 
tabernacle ; and Christians dwell as sojourners 
in corruptible [bodies] , looking for an incorrup- 
tible dwelling '° in the heavens. The soul, when 
but ill-provided with food and drink, becomes 
better; in like manner, the Christians, though 
subjected day by day to punishment, increase 

' Otto omits " bed," which is an emendation, and gives the sec- 
ond " common " the sense of unclean. 

* Comp. 2 Cor. X. 3. 

* Comp. Phil. iii. ao. 

* Comp. 2 Cor. vi. 9. 
' Comp. 2 Cor. vi. 10. 

* Comp. 2 Cor. iv. 12. 
' John xvii. 11, 14, 16. 

* Comp. I Pet. ii. 11. 

9 Literally, " keeps together." 
'° Literally, " incorruption." 

the more in number." God has assigned them 
this illustrious position, which it were unlawful 
for them to forsake. 


For, as I said, this was no mere earthly inven- 
tion which was delivered to them, nor is it a 
mere human system of opinion, which they 
judge it right to preserve so carefully, nor has a 
dispensation of mere human mysteries been com- 
mitted to them, but truly God Himself, who is 
almighty, the Creator of all things, and invisible, 
has sent from heaven, and placed among men, 
[Him who is] the truth, and the holy and in- 
comprehensible Word, and has firmly estab- 
lished Him in their hearts. He did not, as one 
might have imagined, send to men any servant, 
or angel, or ruler, or any one of those who bear 
sway over earthly things, or one of those to 
whom the government of things in the heavens 
has been entrusted, but the very Creator and 
Fashioner of all things — by whom He made 
the heavens — by whom he enclosed the sea 
within its proper bounds — whose ordinances " 
all the stars '^ faithfully observe — from whom 
the sun '■♦ has received the measure of his daily 
course to be observed 'S — whom the moon obeys, 
being commanded to shine in the night, and 
whom the stars also obey, following the moon 
in her course ; by whom all things have been 
arranged, and placed within their proper limits, 
and to whom all are subject — the heavens and 
the things that are therein, the earth and the 
things that are therein, the sea and the things 
that are therein — fire, air, and the abyss — - the 
things which are in the heights, the things which 
are in the depths, and the things which lie be- 
tween. This [messenger] He sent to them. 
Was it then, as one '^ might conceive, for the 
purpose of exercising tyranny, or of inspiring 
fear and terror? By no means, but under the 
influence of clemency and meekness. As a king 
'sends his son, who is also a king, so sent He 
Him ; as God '^ He sent Him ; as to men He 
sent Him ; as a Saviour He sent Him, and as 
seeking to persuade, not to compel us ; for vio- 
lence has no place in the character of God. As 
calling us He sent Him, not as vengefuUy pur- 
suing us ; as loving us He sent Him, not as 
judging us. For He will yet send Him to judge 
us, and who shall endure His appearing? '**,.. 
Do you not see them exposed to wild beasts, 

" Or, " though punished, increase in number daily." 

'2 Literally, " mysteries." 

'3 Literally, " elements." 

'* The word " sun," though omitted in the mss., should manifestly 
be inserted. 

's Literally, " has received to observe." 

I* Literally, " one of men." 

'7 " God " here refers to the person sent. 

" [Comp. Mai. iii. 2. The Old Testament is frequently in mind, 
if not expressly quoted by Mathetes.] A considerable gap here 
occurs in the MSS. 



that they may be persuaded to deny the Lord, 
and yet not overcome? Do you not see that 
the more of them are punished, the greater 
becomes the number of the rest? This does 
not seem to be the work of man : this is the 
power of God ; these are the evidences of His 


For, who of men at all understood before 
His coming what God is? Do you accept of 
the vain and silly doctrines of those who are 
deemed trustworthy philosophers? of whom 
some said that fire was God, calling that God to 
which they themselves were by and by to come ; 
and some water ; and others some other of the 
elements formed by God. But if any one of 
these theories be worthy of approbation, every 
one of the rest of created things might also be 
declared to be God. But such declarations are 
simply the startling and erroneous utterances of 
deceivers ; ' and no man has either seen Him, 
or made Him known,^ but He has revealed 
Himself. And He has manifested Himself 
through faith, to which alone it is given to be-*^ 
hold God. For God, the Lord and Fashioner 
of all things, who made all things, and assigned 
them their several positions, proved Himself not 
merely a friend of mankind, but also long-suffer- 
ing [in His dealings with them.] Yea, He was 
always of such a character, and still is, and will 
ever be, kind and good, and free from wrath, 
and true, and the only one who is [absolutely] 
good ; ^ and He formed in His mind a great and 
unspeakable conception, which He communi- 
cated to His Son alone. As long, then, as He 
held and preserved His own wise counsel in 
concealment,'' He appeared to neglect us, and 
to have no care over us. But after He revealed 
and laid open, through His beloved Son, the 
things which had been prepared from the begin- 
ning, He conferred every blessing 5 all at once 
upon us, so that we should both share in His 
benefits, and see and be active^ [in His ser- 
vice]. Who of us would ever have expected 
these things? He was aware, then, of all things 
in His own mind, along with His Son, according 
to the relation ^ subsisting between them. 



As long then as the former time^ endured, 

' Literally, " these things are the marvels and error 

2 Or, " known Him." 

3 Comp. Matt. xix. 17. 

* Literally, " in a mystery." 
5 Literally, " all things." 

* The sense is here very obscure 
Otto, who fills up the lacuna in the MS. as above 
" to see, and to handle Him." 

7 Literally, " economically." 

* Otto refers for a like contrast between these two times to Rom. 
iii. 21-26, v. 2o, and Gal. iv. 4. [Comp. Acts xvii. 30.] 

We have followed the text of 
Others have, 

He permitted us to be borne along by unruly 
impulses, being drawn away by the desire of 
pleasure and various lusts. This was not that 
He at all delighted in our sins, but that He sim- 
ply endured them ; nor that He approved the 
time of working iniquity which then was, but 
that He sought to form a mind conscious of 
righteousness,^ so that being convinced in that 
time of our unworthiness of attaining life through 
our own works, it should now, through the kind- 
ness of God, be vouchsafed to us ; and having 
made it manifest that in ourselves we were un- 
able to enter into the kingdom of God, we might 
ithrough the power of God be made able. But 
when our wickedness had reached its height, 
and it had been clearly shown that its reward,"" 
punishment and death, was impending over us ; 
and when the time had come which God had 
before appointed for manifesting His own kind- 
ness and power, how" the one love of God, 
through exceeding regard for men, did not 
regard us with hatred, nor thrust us away, nor 
remember our iniquity against us, but showed 
great long-suffering, and bore with us,'^ He Him- 
self took on Him the burden of our iniquities. 
He gave His own Son as a ransom for us, the 
holy One for transgressors, the blameless One 
for the wicked, the righteous One for the un- 
righteous, the incorruptible One for the corrupti- 
ble, the immortal One for them that are mortal. 
For what other thing was capable of covering 
our sins than His righteousness ? By what other 
one was it possible that we, the wicked and un- 
godly, could be justified, than by the only Son 
of God ? O sweet exchange ! O unsearchable 
operation ! O benefits surpassing all expecta- 
tion ! that the wickedness of many should be hid 
in a single righteous One, and that the righteous- 
ness of One should justify many transgressors ! '^ 
Having therefore convinced us in the former 
time '•♦ that our nature was unable to attain to 
life, and having now revealed the Saviour who is 
able to save even those things which it was [for- 
merly] impossible to save, by both these facts 
He desired to lead us to trust in His kind- 
ness, to esteem Him our Nourisher, Father, 
Teacher, Counsellor, Healer, our Wisdom, Light, 
Honour, Glory, Power, and Life, so that we 
should not be anxious '5 concerning clothing and 

9 The reading and sense are doubtful. 

''' Both the text and rendering are here somewhat doubtful, but 
the sense will in any case be much the same. 

" ^L-lny variations here occur in the w.iy in which the lacuna 
of the Mss. is to be supplied. They do not, however, greatly affect 
the meaning. 

'2 In the MS. " saying" is here inserted, as i( the words had been 
regarded as a quotation from Isa. liii. ii. 

" [See Bossuet, who quotes it as from Justin Martyr (Tom. iii. 
p. 171). Sermon on the Circumcision.] 

■< That is, before Christ appeared. 

'5 Comp. Matt. vi. 25, etc. [Mathetes, in a single sentence, ex- 
pounds a most practical text with comprehensive views.] 





If you also desire [to possess] this faith, you 
hkewise shall receive first of all the knowledge 
of the Father.' For God has loved mankind, 
on whose account He made the world, to whom 
He rendered subject all the things that are in 
it,^ to whom He gave reason and understanding, 
to whom alone He imparted the privilege of 
looking upwards to Himself, whom He formed 
after His own image, to whom He sent His 
only-begotten Son, to whom He has promised a 
kingdom in heaven, and will give it to those 
who have loved Him. And when you have 
attained this knowledge, with what joy do you 
think you will be filled ? Or, how will you love 
Him who has first so loved you? And if you 
love Him, you will be an imitator of His kind- 
ness. And do not wonder that a man may be- 
come an imitator of God. He can, if he is 
willing. For it is not by ruling over his neigh- 
bours, or by seeking to hold the supremacy over 
those that are weaker, or by being rich, and 
showing violence towards those that are inferior, 
that happiness is found ; nor can any one by 
these things become an imitator of God. But 
these things do not at all constitute His majesty. 
On the contrary he who takes upon himself the 
burden of his neighbour ; he who, in whatsoever 
respect he may be superior, is ready to benefit 
another who is deficient ; he who, whatsoever 
things he has received from God, by distributing 
these to the needy, becomes a god to those 
who receive [his benefits] : he is an imitator of 
God. Then thou shalt see, while still on earth, 
that God in the heavens rules over [the uni- 
verse] ; then thou shalt begin to speak the mys- 
teries of God ; then shalt thou both love and 
admire those that suffer punishment because 
they will not deny God ; then shalt thou con- 
demn the deceit and error of the world when 
thou shalt know what it is to live truly in heaven, 
when thou shalt despise that which is here es- 
teemed to be death, when thou shalt fear what 
is truly death, which is reserved for those who 
shall be condemned to the eternal fire, which 
shall afflict those even to the end that are com- 
mitted to it. Then shalt thou admire those who 
for righteousness' sake endure the fire that is 
but for a moment, and shalt count them happy 
when thou shalt know [the nature of] that fire. 


I do not speak of things strange to me, nor 
do I aim at anything inconsistent with right 

' Thus Otto supplies the lacuna; others conjecture somewhat 
different supplements. 

' So Bohl. Sylburgius and Otto read, " in the earth." 

reason ; ^ but having been a disciple of the 
Apostles, I am become a teacher of the Gen- 
tiles. I minister the things delivered to me to 
those that are disciples worthy of the truth. 
For who that is rightly taught and begotten by 
the loving  Word, would not seek to learn accu- 
rately the things which have been clearly shown 
by the Word to His disciples, to whom the 
Word being manifested has revealed them, 
speaking plainly [to them], not understood in- 
deed by the unbelieving, but conversing with the 
disciples, who, being esteemed faithful by Him, 
acquired a knowledge of the mysteries of the 
Father ? For which 5 reason He sent the Word, 
that He might be manifested to the world ; and 
He, being despised by the people [of the Jews], 
was, when preached by the Apostles, believed on 
by the Gentiles.^ This is He who was from the 
beginning, who appeared as if new, and was 
found old, and yet who is ever born afresh in 
the hearts of the saints. This is He who, being 
from everlasting, is to-day called ^ the Son ; 
through whom the Church is enriched, and 
grace, widely spread, increases in the saints, 
furnishing understanding, , revealing mysteries, 
announcing times, rejoicing over the faithful, 
giving** to those that seek, by whom the limits 
of faith are not broken through, nor the boun- 
daries set by the fathers passed over. Then the 
fear of the law is chanted, and the grace of the 
prophets is known, and the faith of the gospels 
is established, and the tradition of the Apostles 
is preserved, and the grace of the Church exults ; 
which grace if you grieve not, you shall know 
those things which the Word teaches, by whom 
He wills, and when He pleases. For whatever 
things we are moved to utter by the will of the 
Word commanding us, we communicate to you 
with pains, and from a love of the things that 
have been revealed to us. 


When you have read and carefully listened to 
these things, you shall know what God bestows 
on such as rightly love Him, being made [as ye 
are] a paradise of delight, presenting 9 in your- 
selves a tree bearing all kinds of produce and 
flourishing well, being adorned with various 
fruits. For in this place '° the tree of knowledge 
and the tree of life have been planted ; but it is 
not the tree of knowledge that destroys — it 

3 Some render, " nor do I rashly seek to persuade others." 
* Some propose to read, " and becoming a friend to the Word." 
5 It has been proposed to connect this with the preceding sen- 
tence, and read, " have known the mysteries of the Father, viz., for 
what purpose He sent the Word," 
^ [Corap. I Tim. iii. i6.] 

7 Or, " esteemed." 

8 Or, "given." 

9 Literally, "bringing forth." 
10 That is, in Paradise. 



is disobedience that proves destnictive. Nor 
truly are those words without significance which 
are written, how God from the beginning planted-^ 
the tree of hfe in the midst of paradise, reveal- 
ing through knowledge the way to life,' and 
when those who were first formed did not use 
this [knowledge] properly, they were, through 
the fraud of the Serpent, stripped naked.^ For 
neither can life exist without knowledge, nor is 
knowledge secure without life. Wherefore both 
were planted close together. The Apostle, per- 
ceiving the force [of this conjunction], and blam- 
ing that knowledge which, without true doctrine, 
is admitted to influence life,^ declares, " Knowl- 
edge puffeth up, but love edifieth." For he 
who thinks he knows anything without true 
knowledge, and such as is witnessed to by life, 
knows nothing, but is deceived by the Serpent, 
as not •♦ loving life. But he who combines knowl- 

' Literally, " revealing life." 

- Or, " deprived of it." 

3 Literally, " knowledge without the truth of a command exer- 
cised to life." See i Cot. viii. i. 

* The MS. is here defective. Some read, " on account of the 
loYC of liti." 

edge with fear, and seeks after life, plants in 
hope, looking for fruit. Let your heart be your 
wisdom ; and let your life be true knowledge 5 
inwardly received. Bearing this tree and dis- 
playing its fruit, thou shalt always gather'' in 
those things which are desired by God, which 
the Serpent cannot reach, and to which decep- 
tion does not approach ; nor is Eve then cor- 
rupted, ^ but is trusted as a virgin ; and salvation 
is manifested, and the Apostles are filled with 
understanding, and the Passover ^ of the Lord 
advances, and the choirs 9 are gathered together, 
and are arranged in proper order, and the Word 
rejoices in teaching the saints, — by whom the 
Father is glorified : to whom be glory for ever. 

s Or, " true word," or " reason." 

* Or, " reap." 

7 The meaning seems to be, that if the tree of true knowledge 
and life be planted within you, you shall continue free from blemishes 
and sins. 

' [This looks like a reference to the Apocalypse, Rev. v. 9., xix. 
7., XX. 5.] 

9 [Here Bishop Wordsworth would read xA^poi, cites i Pet. v. 3, 
and refers to Suicer (Lexicon) in voce icA^pos.] 
•° [Note the Clement-like doxology.] 




[a.d. 65-100-155.] The Epistle of Polycarp is usually made a sort of preface to those of 
Ignatius, for reasons which will be obvious to the reader. Yet he was born later, and lived to a 
much later period. They seem to have been friends from the days of their common pupilage 
under St. John ; and there is nothing improbable in the conjecture of Usher, that he was the 
" angel of the church in Smyrna," to whom the Master says, " Be thou faithful unto death, and I 
will give thee a crown of life." His pupil Irenaeus gives us one of the very few portraits of an 
apostolic man which are to be found in antiquity, in a few sentences which are a picture : " I 
could describe the very place in which the blessed Polycarp sat and taught ; his going out and 
coming in ; the whole tenor of his life ; his personal appearance ; how he would speak of the 
conversations he had held with John and with others who had seen the Lord. How did he make 
mention of their words and of whatever he had heard from them respecting the Lord." Thus he 
unconsciously tantalizes our reverent curiosity. Alas ! that such conversations were not written 
for our learning. But there is a wise Providence in what is withheld, as well as in the inestimable 
treasures we have received. 

Irenaeus will tell us more concerning him, his visit to Rome, his rebuke of Marcion, and inciden- 
tal anecdotes, all which are instructive. The expression which he applied to Marcion is found in 
this Epistle. Other facts of interest are found in the Martyrdom, which follows in these pages. 
His death, in extreme old age under the first of the Antonines, has been variously dated ; but we 
may accept the date we have given, as rendered probable by that of the Paschal question, which 
he so lovingly settled with Anicetus, Bishop of Rome. 

The Episde to the Philippians is the more interesting as denoting the state of that beloved 
church, the firstborn of European churches, and so gready endeared to St. Paul. It abounds in 
practical wisdom, and is rich in Scripture and Scriptural allusions. It reflects the spirit of St. John, 
alike in its lamb-Hke and its aquiline features : he is as loving as the beloved disciple himself when 
he speaks of Christ and his church, but "the son of thunder" is echoed in his rebukes of threat- 
ened corruptions in faith and morals. Nothing can be more clear than his view of the doctrines 
of grace ; but he writes like the disciple of St. John, though in perfect harmony with St. Paul's 
hymn-like eulogy of Christian love. 

The following is the original Introductory Notice : — 

The authenticity of the following Epistle can on no fair grounds be questioned. It is abun- 
dantly established by external testimony, and is also supported by the internal evidence. Irenaeus 
says {Adv. Hcer., iii. 3) : "There is extant an Epistle of Polycarp written to the Philippians, 
most satisfactory, from which those that have a mind to do so may learn the character of his 


faith," etc. This passage is embodied by Eusebius in his Ecclesiastical History (iv. 14) ; and in 
another place the same writer refers to the Epistle before us as an undoubted production of Poly- 
carp {Hist. EccL, iii. 36). Other ancient testimonies might easily be added, but are superfluous, 
inasmuch as there is a general consent among scholars at the present day that we have in this 
letter an authentic production of the renowned Bishop of Smyrna. 

Of Polycarp's life little is known, but that little is highly interesting. Irenaeus was his disciple, 
and tells us that " Polycarp was instructed by the apostles, and was brought into contact with 
many who had seen Christ " i^Adv. Hcet., iii. 3 ; Euseb. Hist. EccL, iv. 14). There is also a very 
graphic account given of Polycarp by Irenaeus in his Epistle to Florinus, to which the reader is 
referred. It has been preserved by Eusebius {Hist. EccL, v. 20). 

The Epistle before us is not perfect in any of the Greek mss. which contain it. But the chap- 
ters wanting in Greek are contained in an ancient Latin version. While there is no ground for 
supposing, as some have done, that the whole Epistle is spurious, there seems considerable force 
in the arguments by which many others have sought to prove chap. xiii. to be an interpolation. 

The date of the Epistle cannot be satisfactorily determined. It depends on the conclusion 
we reach as to some points, very difficult and obscure, connected with that account of the martyr- 
dom of Polycarp which has come down to us. We shall not, however, probably be far wrong if 
we fix it about the middle of the second century. 


PoLVCARP, and the presbyters ^ with him, to 
the Church of God sojourning at Philippi : 
Mercy to you, and peace from God Ahiiighty, 
and from the Lord Jesus Christ, our Saviour, be 



I have greatly rejoiced with you in our Lord 
Jesus Christ, because ye have followed the ex- 
ample 3 of true love [as displayed by God], and 
have accompanied, as became you, those who 
were bound in chains, the fitting ornaments of 
saints, and which are indeed the diadems of the 
true elect of God and our Lord ; and because 
the strong root of your faith, spoken of in days "* 
long gone by, endureth even until now, and 
bringeth forth fruit to our Lord Jesus Christ, who 
for our sins suffered even unto death, [but] 
" whom God raised from the dead, having loosed 
the bands of the grave." s " In whom, though 
now ye see Him not, ye believe, and believing, 
rejoice with joy unspeakable and full of glory ; " ^ 
into which joy many desire to enter, knowing 
that " by grace ye are saved, not of works," ^ 
but by the will of God through Jesus Christ. 


" Wherefore, girding up your loins," ^ " serve 
the Lord in fear " ^ and truth, as those who have 
forsaken the vain, empty talk and error of the 
multitude, and " believed in Him who raised up 
our Lord Jesus Christ from the dead, and gave 
Him glory," '° and a throne at His right hand. 
To Him all things " in heaven and on earth are 
subject. Him every spirit serves. He comes 
as the Judge of the living and the dead.'^ His 

' The title of this Epistle in most of the MSS. is, " The Epistle of 
St. Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna, and holy martyr, to the Philippians." 

2 Or, " Polycarp, and those who with him are presbyters." 

3 Literally, "ye have received the patterns of true love." 

* Phil. i. 5. 

s Acts ii. 24. Literally, " having loosed the pains of Hades." 
6 I Pet. i. 8. 
^ Eph, ii. 8, 9. _ 

* Comp. I Pet. i. 13; Eph. vi. 14. 
9 Ps. ii. II. 

1° I Pet. i. 21. 

" Comp. I Pet. iii. 22; Phil. ii. 10. 

'* Comp. Acts xvii. 31. 

blood will God require of those who do not be- 
lieve in Him. '3 But He who raised Him up from 
the dead will raise "^ up us also, if we do His will, 
and walk in His commandments, and love what 
He loved, keeping ourselves from all unright- 
eousness, covetousness, love of money, evil- 
speaking, falsewitness ; " not rendering evil for 
evil, or railing for railing," '5 or blow for blow, or 
cursing for cursing, but being mindful of what 
the Lord said in His teaching : " Judge not, that 
ye be not judged ; '^ forgive, and it shall be for- 
given unto you ; '? be merciful, that ye may ob- 
tain mercy ; '^ with what measure ye mete, it shall 
be measured to you again ; '^ and once more, 
" Blessed are the poor, and those that are perse- 
cuted for righteousness' sake, for theirs is the 
kingdom of God." ^° 



These things, brethren, I \vrite to you con- 
cerning righteousness, not because I take any- 
thing upon myself, but because ye have invited 
me to do so. For neither I, nor any other such 
one, can come up to the wisdom ^' of the blessed 
and glorified Paul. He, when among you, ac- 
curately and stedfastly taught the word of truth 
in the presence of those who were then alive. 
And when absent from you, he wrote you a let- 
ter,^- which, if you carefully study, you will find 
to be the means of building you up in that faith 
which has been given you, and which, being 
followed by hope, and preceded by love towards 
God, and Christ, and our neighbour, "is the 
mother of us all." ^^ For if any one be inwardly 

'3 Or, " who do not obey him." 

'■♦ Comp. I Cor. vi. 14; 2 Cor. iv. 14; Rom. viii. 11. 

'5 I Pet. iii. 9. 

•6 Matt. vii. I. 

'7 Matt. vi. 12, 14; Luke vi. 37. 

'^ Luke vi. 36. 

•9 Matt. vii. 2; Luke vi. ^8. 

20 Matt. V. 3, 10; Luke vi. 20. 

2' Comp. 2 Pet. iii. 15. 

22 The form \i plural, but one Epistle is probably meant. (So. 
even in English, " letters " may be classically used for a single letter, ais 
we say " by these presents." But even we might speak of St. Paul 
as having written his Epistles to us; so the Epistles to Thessalonica 
and Corinth might more naturally still be referred to here]. 

*3 Comp. Gal. iv. 26. 




possessed of these graces, he hath fulfilled the 
command of righteousness, since he that hath 
love is far from all sin. 



" But the love of money is the root of all 
evils." ' Knowing, therefore, that "as we brought 
nothing into the world, so we can carry nothing 
out," ^ let us arm ourselves with the armour of 
righteousness ; ^ and let us teach, first of all, our- 
selves to walk in the commandments of the Lord. 
Next, [teach] your wives [to walk] in the faith 
given to them, and in love and purity tenderly 
loving their own husbands in all truth, and loving 
all [others] equally in all chastity ; and to train 
up their children in the knowledge and fear of 
God. Teach the widows to be discreet as re- 
spects the faith of the Lord, praying continually * 
for all, being far from all slandering, evil-speak- 
ing, false-witnessing, love of money, and every 
kind of evil ; knowing that they are the altar 5 
of God, that He clearly perceives all things, and 
that nothing is hid from Him, neither reasonings, 
nor reflections, nor any one of the secret things 
of the heart. 


Knowing, then, that " God is not mocked," ^ 
we ought to walk worthy of His commandment 
and glory. In like manner should the deacons 
be blameless before the face of His righteous- 
ness, as being the servants of God and Christ,^ 
and not of men. They must not be slanderers, 
double-tongued,** or lovers of money, but tem- 
perate in all things, compassionate, industrious, 
walking according to the truth of the Lord, who 
was the servant ^ of all. If we please Him in 
this present world, we shall receive also the future 
world, according as He has promised to us that 
He will raise us again from the dead, and that 
if we live '° worthily of Him, " we shall also reign 
together with Him," " provided only we believe. 
In like manner, let the young men also be blame- 
less in all things, being especially careful to pre- 
serve purity, and keeping themselves in, as with 
a bridle, from every kind of evil. For it is well 
that they should be cut off from '^ the lusts that 
are in the world, since "every lust warreth against 
the spirit ; " '^ and " neither fornicators, nor ef- 

' I Tim. vi. lo. 

2 I rim. vi. 7. 

3 Comp. Eph. vi. II. 

* Comp. I Thess. v. 17. 

5 .Some here read, " altars." 

* Gal. vi. 7. 

' Some read, " God in Christ." 

* Comp. I Tim. iii. 8. 
9 Comp. Matt. xx. 28. 

»f IIoAtTeu(7u>|ki(da, referring to the whole conduct; comp. Phil. i. 27. 
" 2 Tim. ii. 12. 

'- Some read, ai'ttfcuTTTco'iJai, " to emerge from." [So Chcvallier, 
but not Wake nor Jacobson. See the note of latter, aii ioc.\ 
'3 1 Pet. ii. II. 

feminate, nor abusers of themselves with man- 
kind, shall inherit the kingdom of God," '♦ nor 
those who do things inconsistent and unbecom- 
ing. Wherefore, it is needful to abstain from all 
these things, being subject to the presbyters and 
deacons, as unto God and Christ. The virgins 
also must walk in a blameless and pure con- 



And let the presbyters be compassionate and 
merciful to all, bringing back those that wander, 
visiting all the sick, and not neglecting the widow, 
the orphan, or the poor, but always " providing 
for that which is becoming in the sight of God and 
man ; " 's abstaining from all wrath, respect of per- 
sons, and unjust judgment ; keeping far off from 
all covetousness, not quickly crediting [an evil re- 
port] against any one, not severe in judgment, as 
knowing that we are all under a debt of sin. If 
then we entreat the Lord to forgive us, we ought 
also ourselves to forgive ; '^ for we are before the 
eyes of our Lord and God, and " we must all 
appear at the judgment-seat of Christ, and must 
every one give an account of himself." '^ Let us 
then serve Him in fear, and with all reverence, 
even as He Himself has commanded us, and cs 
the apostles who preached the Gospel unto us, 
and the prophets who proclaimed beforehan 1 
the coming of the Lord [have alike taught us]. 
Let us be zealous in the pursuit of that which is 
good, keeping ourselves from causes of offence, 
from false brethren, and from those who in hy- 
pocrisy bear the name of the Lord, and draw 
away vain men into error. 



" For whosoever does not confess that Jesus 
Christ has come in the flesh, is antichrist ; " '^ and 
whosoever does not confess the testimony of the 
cross,"^ is of the devil ; and whosoever perverts 
the oracles of the Lord to his own lusts, and 
says that there is neither a resurrection nor a 
judgment, he is the first-born of Satan.^° Where- 
fore, forsaking the vanity of many, and their 
false doctrines, let us return to the word which 
has been handed down to us from^' the begin- 
ning ; " watching unto prayer," " and persever- 
ing in fasting ; beseeching in our supplications 
the all-seeing God " not to lead us into tempta- 

■* I Cor. vi. 9, lo. 

15 Rom. xii. 17: 2 Cor. viii. 31. 

'6 Matt. vi. 12-14. 

'7 Rom. xiv. 10-12; 2 Cor. v. 10. 

'8 t John iv. 3. 

'9 Literally, '' the martyrdom of the cross," which some render, 
" His suffering on the cross." 

=^° [The original, perhaps, of Eusebius {Hist. iv. cap. 14). It be- 
came a common-place expression in the Church.] 

=' Comp. Jude 3. 

=2 I Pet. iv. 7. 



tion," ' as the Lord has said : " The spirit truly 
is willing, but the flesh is weak." ' 


Let us then continually persevere in our hope, 
and the earnest of our righteousness, which is 
Jesus Christ, "who bore our sins in His own 
body on the tree," ^ " who did no sin, neither 
was guile found in His mouth," '* but endured 
all things for us, that we might live in Him.s 
Let us then be imitators of His patience ; and 
if we suffer^ for His name's sake, let us glorify 
Him. 7 For He has set us this example * in Him- 
self, and we have believed that such is the case. 


I exhort you all, therefore, to yield obedience 
to the word of righteousness, and to exercise all 
patience, such as ye have seen [set] before your 
eyes, not only in the case of the blessed Igna- 
tius, and Zosimus, and Rufus, but also in others 
among yourselves, and in Paul himself, and the 
rest of the apostles. [This do] in the assurance 
that all these have not run ^ in vain, but in faith 
and righteousness, and that they are [now] in 
their due place in the presence of the Lord, 
with whom also they suffered. For they loved 
not this present world, but Him who died for 
us, and for our sakes was raised again by God 
from the dead. 



Stand fast, therefore, in these things, and fol- 
low the example of the Lord, being firm and 
unchangeable in the faith, loving the brother- 
hood," and being attached to one another, joined 
together in the truth, exhibiting the meekness of 
the Lord in your intercourse with one another, 
and despising no one. When you can do good, 
defer it not, because " alms delivers from 
death." " Be all of you subject one to another,'^ 
having your conduct blameless among the Gen- 
tiles," ■■* that ye may both receive praise for your 
good works, and the Lord may not be blas- 
phemed through you. But woe to him by whom 
the name of the Lord is blasphemed ! '5 Teach, 
therefore, sobriety to all, and manifest it also in 
your own conduct. 

' Matt. vi. 13, xxvi. 41. 

2 Matt. xxvi. 41 ; Mark xiv. 38. 

3 I Pet. ii. 24. 

* I Pet. ii. 22. 

5 Comp. I John iv. 9. 

* Comp. Acts V. 41 ; i Pet. iv. 16. 
' Some read, " we glorify Him." 

* Comp. I Pet. ii. 21. 

9 Comp. Phil. ii. 16; Gal. ii. 2. 

'° This and the two following chapters are preserved only 
Latin version. [See Jacobson, ad loc\ 
" Comp. I Pet. ii. 17. 
'^ Tobit iv. 10, xii. 9. 
'3 Comp. I Pet. v. 5. 
'■♦ I Pet. ii. 12. 
'S Isa. Ui. 5. 



I am greatly grieved for Valens, who was once 
a presbyter among you, because he so little un- 
derstands the place that was given him [in the 
Church]. I exhort you, therefore, that ye ab- 
stain from covetousness,'^ and that ye be chaste 
and truthful. " Abstain from every form of 
evil." '7 For if a man cannot govern himself in 
such matters, how shall he enjoin them on 
others ? If a man does not keep himself from 
covetousness,'^ he shall be defiled by idolatry, 
and shall be judged as one of the heathen. 
But who of us are ignorant of the judgment of 
the Lord? "Do we not know that the saints 
shall judge the world? " '* as Paul teaches. But 
I have neither seen nor heard of any such thing 
among you, in the midst of whom the blessed 
Paul laboured, and who are commended '^ in the 
beginning of his Epistle. For he boasts of you 
in all those Churches which alone then knew the 
Lord ; but we [of Smyrna] had not yet known 
Him. I am deeply grieved, therefore, brethren, 
for him (Valens) and his wife ; to whom may 
the Lord grant true repentance ! And be ye 
then moderate in regard to this matter, and " do 
not count such as enemies," ^° but call them 
back as suffering and straying members, that ye 
may save your whole body. For by so acting 
ye shall edify yourselves.^' 



For I trust that ye are well versed in the 
Sacred Scriptures, and that nothing is hid from 
you ; but to me this privilege is not yet granted.^* 
It is declared then in these Scriptures, " Be ye 
angry, and sin not," ^^ and, " Let not the sun go 
down upon your wrath." ""^ Happy is he who 
remembers ^s this, which I believe to be the case 
with you. But may the God and Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, and Jesus Christ Himself, 
who is the Son of God, and our everlasting 
High Priest, build you up in faith and truth, and 
in all meekness, gentleness, patience, long-suf- 
fering, forbearance, and purity ; and may He 
bestow on you a lot and portion among His 
saints, and on us with you, and on all that are 
under heaven, who shall believe in our Lord 

'6 Some think that incontinence on the part of Valens and his 
wife is referred to. [For many reasons I am glad the translators have 
preferred the reading n-Aeofef las. The next word, chaste, sufficiently 
rebukes the example of Valens. For once I venture not to coincide 
with Jacobson's comment.] 

" I Thess. V. 22. 

'* I Cor. vi. 2. 

'9 Some read, " named; " comp. Phil. i. 5. 

20 2 Thess. iii. 15. 

2' Comp. I Cor. xii. 26. 

^2 This passage is very obscure. Some render it as follows : "But 
at present it is not granted unto me to practise that which is writtea. 
Be ye angry," etc. 

23 Ps. iv. 5. 

24 Eph. iv. 26. 

** Some read, " believes." 


Jesus Christ, and in His Father, who "raised 
Him from the dead.' Pray for all the saints. 
Pray also for kings/ and potentates, and princes, 
and for those that persecute and hate you,^ and 
for the enemies of the cross, that your fruit may 
be manifest to all, and that ye may be perfect in 


Both you and Ignatius ^ wrote to me, that if 
any one went [from this] into Syria, he should 
carry your letter 5 with him; which request I 
will attend to if I find a fitting opportunity, 
either personally, or through some other acting 
for me, that your desire may be fulfilled. The 
Epistles of Ignatius written by him ^ to us, and 
all the rest [of his Epistles] which we have by 
us, we have sent to you, as you requested. They 

« Gal. i. I. . .. 
^ Comp. I Tim. ii. 2. 
3 Matt. V. 44. 

* Comp. Ep. of Ignatius to Polycarp, chap. viii. 
s Or, " letters." 

* Reference is here made to the two letters of Ignatius, one to 
Polycarp himself, and the other to the church at Smyrna. 

are subjoined to this Epistle, and by them ye 
may be greatly profited ; for they treat of faith 
and patience, and all things that tend to edifica- 
tion in our Lord. Any^ more certain infor- 
mation you may have obtained respecting both 
Ignatius himself, and those that were ^ with him, 
have the goodness to make kno\vn9 to us. 


These things I have \vritten to you by Cres- 
cens, whom up to the present ■" time I have 
recommended unto you, and do now recom- 
mend. For he has acted blamelessly among us, 
and I believe also among you. Moreover, ye 
will hold his sister in esteem when she comes 
to you. Be ye safe in the Lord Jesus Christ. 
Grace be with you all." Amen. 

7 Henceforth, to the end, we have only the Latin version. 

8 The Latin version reads " are," which has been corrected as 

9 Polycarp was aware of the death of Ignatius (chap, ix.), but 
was as yet apparently ignorant of the circumstances attending it. 
[Who can fail to be touched by these affectionate yet entirely calm 
expressions as to his martyred friend and brother? Martyrdom was 
the habitual end of Christ's soldiers, and Polycarp expected his own; 
hence his restrained and temperate words of interest.] 

'° Some read, " in this present Epistle." 

'^ Others read, " and in favour with all yours." 




Internal evidence goes far to establish the credit which Eusebius lends to this specimen of the 
martyrologies, certainly not the earliest if we accept that of Ignatius as genuine. As an encycli- 
cal of one of " the seven churches " to another of the same Seven, and as bearing witness to their 
aggregation with others into the unity of " the Holy and Catholic Church," it is a very interesting 
witness, not only to an article of the creed, but to the original meaning and acceptation of the 
same. More than this, it is evidence of the strength of Christ perfected in human weakness ; and 
thus it affords us an assurance of grace equal to our day in every time of need. When I see in 
it, however, an example of what a noble army of martyrs, women and children included, suffered 
in those days " for the testimony of Jesus," and in order to hand down the knowledge of the 
Gospel to these boastful ages of our own, I confess myself edified by what I read, chiefly because 
I am humbled and abashed in comparing what a Christian used to be, with what a Christian is, in 
our times, even at his best estate. 

That this Epistle has been interpolated can hardly be doubted, when we compare it with the 
unvarnished specimen, in Eusebius. As for the " fragrant smell " that came from the fire, many 
kinds of wood emit the like in burning ; and, apart from Oriental warmth of colouring, there 
seems nothing incredible in the narrative if we except "the dove" (chap, xvi.), which, however, 
is probably a corrupt reading,' as suggested by our translators. The blade was thrust into the 
martyr's left side; and this, opening the heart, caused the outpouring of a flood, and not a mere 
trickling. But, though Greek thus amended is a plausible conjecture, there seems to have been 
nothing of the kind in the copy quoted by Eusebius. On the other hand, note the truly catholic 
and scriptural testimony : " We love the martyrs, but the Son of God we worship : it is impossi- 
ble for us to worship any other." 

Bishop Jacobson assigns more than fifty pages to this martyrology, with a Latin version and 
abundant notes. To these I must refer the student, who may wish to see this attractive history in 
all the light of critical scholarship and, often, of admirable comment. 

The following is the original Introductory Notice : — 

The following letter purports to have been written by the Church at Smyrna to the Church at 
Philomelium, and through that Church to the whole Christian world, in order to give a succinct 
account of the circumstances attending the martyrdom of Polycarp. It is the earliest of all the 
Martyria, and has generally been accounted both the most interesting and authentic. Not a few, 
however, deem it interpolated in several passages, and some refer it to a much later date than the 

* S«» an ingenious conjecture in Bishop Wordsworth's Hippolytus and the Church of Rome, p. 318, C. 




middle of the second century, to which it has been commonly ascribed. We cannot tell how 
much it may owe to the writers (chap, xxii.) who successively transcribed it. Great part of it 
has been engrossed by Eusebius in his Ecclesiastical History (iv. 15) ; and it is instructive to 
observe, that some of the most startling miraculous phenomena recorded in the text as it now 
stands, have no place in the narrative as given by that early historian of the Church. Much 
discussion has arisen respecting several particulars contained in this MartjTium ; but into these 
disputes we do not enter, having it for our aim simply to present the reader with as faithful a 
translation as possible of this very interesting monument of Christian antiquity. 



The Church of God which sojourns at Smyrna, 
to the Church of God sojourning in Philome- 
hum/ and to all the congregations ^ of the Holy 
and Catholic Church in every place : Mercy, 
peace, and love from God the Father, and our 
Lord Jesus Christ, be multipHed. 


We have written to you, brethren, as to what 
relates to the martyrs, and especially to the 
blessed Polycarp, who put an end to the perse- 
cution, having, as it were, set a seal upon it by 
his martyrdom. For almost all the events that 
happened previously [to this one], took place 
that the Lord might show us from above a mar- 
tyrdom becoming the Gospel. For he waited 
to be delivered up, even as the Lord had done, 
that we also might become his followers, while 
we look not merely at what concerns ourselves, 
but have regard also to our neighbours. For it 
is the part of a true and well-founded love, not 
only to wish one's self to be saved, but also all 
the brethren. 



, All the martyrdoms, then, were blessed and 
noble which took place according to the will of 
God. For it becomes us who profess ^ greater 
piety than others, to ascribe the authority over 
all things to God. And truly,'* who can fail to 
admire their nobleness of mind, and their pa- 
tience, with that love towards their Lord which 
they displayed ? — who, when they were so torn 
with scourges, that the frame of their bodies, 
even to the very inward veins and arteries, was 
laid open, still patiently endured, while even 

' Some read, " Philadelphia," but on inferior authority. Philome- 
lium was a city of Phrygia. 

^ The word in the original is nopoiKiais, from which the English 
" parishes " is derived. 

■3 Literally, " who are more pious." 

■* The account now returns to the illustration of the statement 
made in the first sentence. 

those that stood by pitied and bewailed them. 
But they reached such a pitch of magnanimity, 
that not one of them let a sigh or a groan escape 
them ; thus proving to us all that those holy 
martyrs of Christ, at the very time when they 
suffered such torments, were absent from the 
body, or rather, that the Lord then stood by 
them, and communed with them. And, looking 
to the grace of Christ, they despised all the tor- 
ments of this world, redeeming themselves from 
eternal punishment by [the suffering of] a single 
hour. For this reason the fire of their savage 
executioners appeared cool to them. For they 
kept before their view escape from that fire 
which is eternal and never shall be quenched, 
and looked forward with the eyes of their heart 
to those good things which are laid up for such 
as endure ; things " which ear hath not heard, 
nor eye seen, neither have entered into the 
heart of man," 5 but were revealed by the Lord 
to them, inasmuch as they were no longer men, 
but had already become angels. And, in like 
manner, those who were condemned to the wild 
beasts endured dreadful tortures, being stretched 
out upon beds full of spikes, and subjected to 
various other kinds of torments, in order that, 
if it were possible, the tyrant might, by their 
lingering tortures, lead them to a denial [of 



For the devil did indeed invent many things 
against them ; but thanks be to God, he could 
not prevail over all. For the most noble Ger- 
manicus strengthened the timidity of others by 
his own patience, and fought heroically^ with 
the wild beasts. For, when the proconsul 
sought to persuade him, and urged him 7 to 

5 I Cor. ii. 9. 

6 Or, " illustriously." 

7 Or, " said to him." 




take pity upon his age, he attracted the wild 
beast towards himself, and provoked it, being 
desirous to escape all the more quickly from an 
unrighteous and impious world. But upon this 
the whole multitude, marvelling at the nobility 
of mind displayed by the devout and godly 
race of Christians,' cried out, " Away with the 
Atheists ; let Polycarp be sought out ! " 


Now one named Quintus, a Phrygian, who 
was but lately come from Phrygia, when he 
saw the wild beasts, became afraid. This was 
the man who forced himself and some others 
to come forward voluntarily [for trial]. Him 
the proconsul, after many entreaties, persuaded 
to swear and to offer sacrifice. Wherefore, 
brethren, we do not commend those who give 
themselves up [to suffering], seeing the Gospel 
does not teach so to do.^ 



But the most admirable Polycarp, when he 
first heard [that he was sought for], was in no 
measure disturbed, but resolved to continue in 
the city. However, in deference to the wish of 
many, he was persuaded to leave it. He de- 
parted, therefore, to a country house not far dis- 
tant from the city. There he stayed with a few 
[friends], engaged in nothing else night and 
day than praying for all men, and for the 
Churches throughout the world, according to his 
usual custom. And while he was praying, a vis- 
ion presented itself to him three days before he 
was taken ; and, behold, the pillow under his 
head seemed to him on fire. Upon this, turn- 
ing to those that were with him, he said to them 
prophetically, " I must be burnt alive." 


And when those who sought for him were at 
hand, he departed to another dwelling, whither 
his pursuers immediately came after him. And 
when they found him not, they seized upon two 
youths [that were there], one of whom, being 
subjected to torture, confessed. It was thus 
impossible that he should continue hid, since 
those that betrayed him were of his own house- 
hold. The Irenarch ^ then (whose office is the 
same as that of the Cleronomus'*), by name 
Herod, hastened to bring him into the stadium. 
[This all happened] that he might fulfil his 

' Literally, " the nobleness of the God-loving and .God-fearing 
race of Christians." 

2 Comp. Matt. X. 23. 

3 It was the duty of the Irenarch to apprehend all seditious 
troublers of the public peace. 

* Some think that those magistrates bore this name that were 
elected by lot. 

special lot, being made a partaker of Christ, 
and that they who betrayed him might undergo 
the punishment of Judas himself. 


His pursuers then, along with horsemen, and 
taking the youth with them, went forth at sup- 
per-time on the day of the preparation,s with 
their usual weapons, as if going out against a 
robber.^ And being come about evening [to 
the place where he was], they found him lying 
down in the upper room of 7 a certain little 
house, from which he might have escaped into 
another place ; but he refused, saying, " The 
will of God** be done."^ So when he heard 
that they were come, he went dowTi and spake 
with them. And as those that were present 
marvelled at his age and constancy, some of 
them said, " Was so much effort '° made to cap- 
ture such a venerable man?"" Immediately 
then, in that very hour, he ordered that some- 
thing to eat and drink should be set before 
them, as much indeed as they cared for, while 
he besought them to allow him an hour to pray 
without disturbance. And on their giving him 
leave, he stood and prayed, being full of the 
grace of God, so that he could not cease '^ for 
two full hours, to the astonishment of them that 
heard him, insomuch that many began to repent 
that they had come forth against so godly and 
venerable an old man. 



Now, as soon as he had ceased praying, hav- 
ing made mention of all that had at any time 
come in contact with him, both small and great, 
illustrious and obscure, as well as the whole Cath- 
olic Church throughout the world, the time of his 
departure having arrived, they set him upon an 
ass, and conducted him into the city, the day 
being that of the great Sabbath. And the Iren- 
arch Herod, accompanied by his father Nicetes 
(both riding in a chariot '^), met him, and taking 
him up into the chariot, they seated themselves 
beside him, and endeavoured to persuade him, 
saying, " What harm is there in saying, Lord 
Caisar,''* and in sacrificing, with the other cere- 
monies observed on such occasions, and so make 
sure of safety?" But he at first gave them no 
answer ; and when they continued to urge him. 

5 That is, on Friday. 
^ Comp. Matt. xxvi. 55. 

7 Or, " in." 

8 Some read " the Lord." 

9 Comp. Matt vi. 10; Acts xM. 14. 
'° Or, "diligence." 

" Jacobson reads, " and [marvelling] that they had tised so great 
diligence to capture," etc. 

" Or, " be silent." 

" Jacobson deems these words an interpolation. 

'* Or, " Caesar is Lord," all the MSS. having Kvpiot instead of 
Kvpie, as usually printed. 



he said, " I shall not do as you advise me." So 
they, having no hope of persuading him, began 
to speak bitter ' words unto him, and cast him 
with violence out of the chariot,^ insomuch that, 
in getting down from the carriage, he dislocated 
his leg 2 [by the fall]. But without being dis- 
turbed,^ and as if suffering nothing, he went 
eagerly forward with all haste, and was conducted 
to the stadium, where the tumult was so great, 
that there was no possibility of being heard. 



Now, as Polycarp was entering into the sta- 
dium, there came to him a voice from heaven, 
saying, " Be strong, and show thyself a man, O 
Polycarp ! " No one saw who it was that spoke 
to him ; but those of our brethren who were 
present heard the voice. And as he was brought 
forward, the tumult became great when they 
heard that Polycarp was taken. And when he 
came near, the proconsul asked him whether 
he was Polycarp. On his confessing that he was, 
[the proconsul] sought to persuade him to deny 
[Christ], saying, " Have respect to thy old age," 
and other similar things, according to their cus- 
tom, [such as], " Swear by the fortune of Caesar ; 
repent, and say, Away with the Atheists." But 
Polycarp, gazing with a stern countenance on all 
the multitude of the wicked heathen then in the 
stadium, and waving his hand towards them, 
while with groans he looked up to heaven, said, 
" Away with the Atheists." 5 Then, the procon- 
sul urging him, and saying, " Swear, and I will 
set thee at liberty, reproach Christ ; " Polycarp 
declared, " Eighty and six years have I served 
Him, and He never did me any injury : how then 
can I blaspheme my King and my Saviour? " 


And when the proconsul yet again pressed 
him, and said, " Swear by the fortune of Caesar," 
he answered, " Since thou art vainly urgent that, 
as thou sayest, I should swear by the fortune of 
Caesar, and pretendest not to know who and 
what I am, hear me declare with boldness, I am 
a Christian. And if you wish to learn what the 
doctrines ^ of Christianity are, appoint me a day, 
and thou shalt hear them." The proconsul re- 
plied, " Persuade the people." But Polycarp 
said, " To thee I have thought it right to offer 
an account [of my faith] ; for we are taught to 
give all due honour (which entails no injury upon 
ourselves) to the powers and authorities which 

 Or, " terrible." 

^ Or, "cast him down" simply, the following words being, as 
above, an interpolation. 

3 Or, " sprained his ankle." 

* Or, " not turning back." 

5 Referring the words to the heathen, and not to the Christians, 
as was desired. 

' Or, " an account of Christianity."  

are ordained of God.7 But as for these, I do 
not deem them worthy of receiving any account 
from me." ** 



The proconsul then said to him, " I have wild 
beasts at hand ; to these will I cast thee, except 
thou repent." But he answered, " Call them 
then, for we are not accustomed to repent of 
what is good in order to adopt that which is 
evil ; 9 and it is well for me to be changed from 
what is evil to what is righteous." '° But again 
the proconsul said to him, " I will cause thee to 
be consumed by fire, seeing thou despisest the 
wild beasts, if thou wilt not repent." But Poly- 
carp said, " Thou threatenest me with fire which 
burneth for an hour, and after a little is extin- 
guished, but art ignorant of the fire of the 
coming judgment and of eternal punishment, 
reserved for the ungodly. But why tarriest 
thou? Bring forth what thou wilt." 



While he spoke these and many other like 
things, he was filled with confidence and joy, 
and his countenance was full of grace, so that 
not merely did it not fall as if troubled by the 
things said to him, but, on the contrary, the 
proconsul was astonished, and sent his herald 
to proclaim in the midst of the stadium thrice, 
" Polycarp has confessed that he is a Christian." 
This proclamation having been made by the 
herald, the whole multitude both of the heathen 
and Jews, who dwelt at Smyrna, cried out with 
uncontrollable fury, and in a loud voice, " This 
is the teacher of Asia," the father of the Chris- 
tians, and the overthrower of our gods, he who 
has been teaching many not to sacrifice, or to 
worship the gods." Speaking thus, they cried 
out, and besought Philip the Asiarch '^ to let 
loose a lion upon Polycarp. But Philip answered 
that it was not lawful for him to do so, seeing 
the shows '^ of wild beasts were already finished. 
Then it seemed good to them to cry out with 
one consent, that Polycarp should be burnt 
alive. For thus it behooved the vision which 
was revealed to him in regard to his pillow to be 
fulfilled, when, seeing it on fire as he was pray- 
ing, he turned about and said prophetically to 
the faithful that were with him, " I must be burnt 

7 Comp. Rom. xiii. 1-7; Tit. iii. i. 
^ Or, " of my making any defence to them." 

9 Literally, " repentance from things better to things worse is a 
change impossible to us." 

'° That is, to leave this world for a better. 
" Some read, " ungodliness," but the above seems preferable. 
■2 The Asiarchs were those who superintended all arrangements 
connected with the games in the several provinces. 
'3 Literally, " the baiting of dogs." 




This, then, was carried into effect with greater 
speed than it was spoken, the multitudes imme- 
diately gathering together wood and fagots out 
of the shops and baths ; the Jews especially, 
according to custom, eagerly assisting them in it. 
And when the funeral pile was ready, Polycarp, 
laying aside all his garments, and loosing his 
girdle, sought also to take off his sandals, — a 
thing he was not accustomed to do, inasmuch 
as every one of the faithful was always eager 
who should first touch his skin. For, on ac- 
count of his holy life,' he was, even before his 
martyrdom, adorned ^ with every kind of good. 
Immediately then they surrounded him with 
those substances which had been prepared for 
the funeral pile. But when they were about also 
to fix him with nails, he said, " Leave me as I 
am ; for He that giveth me strength to endure 
the fire, will also enable me, without your secur- 
ing me by nails, to remain without moving in 
the pile." 


They did not nail him then, but simply bound 
him. And he, placing his hands behind him, 
and being bound like a distinguished ram 
[taken] out of a great flock for sacrifice, and 
prepared to be an acceptable burnt-offering unto 
God, looked up to heaven, and said, " O Lord 
God Almighty, the Father of thy beloved and 
blessed Son Jesus Christ, by whom we have re- 
ceived the knowledge of Thee, the God of angels 
and powers, and of every creature, and of the 
whole race of the righteous who live before thee, 
I give Thee thanks that Thou hast counted me 
worthy of this day and this hour, that I should 
have a part in the number of Thy martyrs, in 
the cup 3 of thy Christ, to the resurrection of 
eternal life, both of soul and body, through the 
incorruption [imparted] by the Holy Ghost. 
Among whom may I be accepted this day before 
Thee as a fat  and acceptable sacrifice, accord- 
ing as Thou, the ever-truthful 5 God, hast fore- 
ordained, hast revealed beforehand to me, and 
now hast fulfilled. Wherefore also I praise Thee 
for all things, I bless Thee, I glorify Thee, along 
with the everlasting and heavenly Jesus Christ, 
Thy beloved Son, with whom, to Thee, and the 
Holy Ghost, be glory both now and to all com- 
ing ages. Amen.'"' 

* Literally, " good behaviour." 

* Some think this implies that Polycarp's skin was believed to 
possess a miraculous efficacy. 

■* Comp. Matt. XX. 22, xxvi. 39; Mark x, 38. 

* Literally, " in a fat," etc., for, " in a rich"]. 
5 Literally, " the not false and true God." 

*" Eusebius {Hist. Eccl., iv. 15) has preserved a grcnt portim 
of this Martyrium, but in a text considerably differing from that 
we have followed. Here, instead of " and," he has " in the Holy 



When he had pronounced this amen, and so 
finished his prayer, those who were appointed 
for the purpose kindled the fire. And as the 
flame blazed forth in great fury,'' we, to whom it 
was given to witness it, beheld a great miracle, 
and have been preserved that we might report 
to others what then took place. For the fire, 
shaping itself into the form of an arch, like the 
sail of a ship when filled with the wind, encom- 
passed as by a circle the body of the martyr. 
And he appeared within not like flesh which is 
burnt, but as bread that is baked, or as gold and 
silver glowing in a furnace. Moreover, we per- 
ceived such a sweet odour [coming from the 
pile], as if frankincense or some such precious 
spices had been smoking ** there. 


At length, when those wicked men perceived 
that his body could not be consumed by the 
fire, they commanded an executioner to go near 
and pierce him through with a dagger. And on 
his doing this, there came forth a dove,'' and a 
great quantity of blood, so that the fire was ex- 
tinguished ; and all the people wondered that 
there should be such a difference between the 
unbelievers and the elect, of whom this most 
admirable Polycarp was one, having in our own 
times been an apostolic and prophetic teacher, 
and bishop of the Catholic Church which is in 
Smyrna. For every word that went out of his 
mouth either has been or shall yet be accom- 



But when the adversary of the race of the 
righteous, the envious, malicious, and wicked one, 
perceived the impressive "^ nature of his martyr- 
dom, and [considered] the blameless life he had 
led from the beginning, and how he was now 
crowned with the wreath of immortality, having 
beyond dispute received his reward, he did his 
utmost that not the least memorial of him should 
be taken away by us, although many desired to 
do this, and to become possessors " of his holy 
flesh. For this end he suggested it to Nicetes, 
the father of Herod and brother of Alee, to go 
and entreat the governor not to give up his body 
to be buried, " lest," said he, '' forsaking Him 

7 Literally, " a great flame shining forth." 

' Literally, " breathing." 

9 Eusebius omits all mention of the dove, and many have thought 
the text to be here cornipt. It has been proposed to read kit' apia- 
Tcpa, " on the left hand side," instead of TeptoTepa, " a dove." 

'0 Literally, " greatness." 

" The Greek, literally translated, is, " and to have fellowship with 
his holy flesh." 



that was crucified, they begin to worship this 
one." This he said at the suggestion and ur- 
gent persuasion of the Jews, who also watched 
us, as we sought to take him out of the fire, be- 
ing ignorant of this, that it is neither possible for 
us ever to forsake Christ, who suffered for the 
salvation of such as shall be saved throughout 
the whole world (the blameless one for sinners '), 
nor to worship any other. For Him indeed, as 
being the Son of God, we adore ; but the mar- 
tyrs, as disciples and followers  of the Lord, we 
worthily love on account of their extraordinary ^ 
affection towards their own King and Master, of 
whom may we also be made companions ^ and 
fellow-disciples ! 


The centurion then, seeing the strife excited 
by the Jews, placed the body* in the midst of 
the fire, and consumed it. Accordingly, we 
afterwards took up his bones, as being more 
precious than the most exquisite jewels, and 
more purified 5 than gold, and deposited them in 
a fitting place, whither, being gathered together, 
as opportunity is allowed us, with joy and rejoi- 
cing, the Lord shall grant us to celebrate the 
anniversary ^ of his martyrdom, both in memory 
of those who have already finished their course,^ 
and for the exercising and preparation of those 
yet to walk in their steps. 



This, then, is the account of the blessed Poly- 
carp, who, being the twelfth that was martyred 
in Smyrna (reckoning those also of Philadel- 
phia), yet occupies a place of his own** in the 
memory of all men, insomuch that he is every- 
where spoken of by the heathen themselves. 
He was not merely an illustrious teacher, but also 
a pre-eminent martyr, whose martyrdom all de- 
sire to imitate, as having been altogether consis- 
tent with the Gospel of Christ. For, having 
through patience overcome the unjust governor, 
and thus acquired the crown of immortality, he 
now, with the apostles and all the righteous [in 
heaven], rejoicingly glorifies God, even the 
Father, and blesses our Lord Jesus Christ, the 
Saviour of our souls, the Governor of our bodies, 
and the Shepherd of the Catholic Church through- 
out the world.*^ 

' This clause is omitted by Eusebius: it was probably interpolated 
by some transcriber, who had in his mind i Pet. iii. i8. 

2 Literally, " unsurpassable." 

3 Literally, " fellow-partakers." 

* Or. " him." 

5 Or, " more tried." 

6 Literally, " the birth-day." 

7 Literally, " been athletes." 

* Literally, " is alone remembered." 

9 Several additions are here made. One MS. has, " and the all- 
holy and life-giving Spirit; " while the old Latin version reads, "and 
the Holy Spirit, by whom we know all things." 


Since, then, ye requested that we would at 
large make you acquainted with what really took 
place, we have for the present sent you this 
summary account through our brother Marcus. 
When, therefore, ye have yourselves read this 
Epistle,'° be pleased to send it to the brethren at 
a greater distance, that they also may glorify the 
Lord, who makes such choice of His own ser- 
vants. To Him who is able to bring us all by 
His grace and goodness" into his everlasting 
kingdom, through His only-begotten Son Jesus 
Christ, to Him be glory, and honour, and power, 
and majesty, for ever. Amen. Salute all the 
saints. They that are with us salute you, and 
Evarestus, who wrote this Epistle, with all his 


Now, the blessed Polycarp suffered martyr- 
dom on the second day of the month Xanthicus 
just begun,'^ the seventh day before the Kalends 
of May, on the great Sabbath, at the eighth 
hour.'^ He was taken by Herod, Philip the 
Trallian being high priest,''* Statins Quadratus 
being proconsul, but Jesus Christ being King 
for ever, to whom be glory, honour, majesty, and 
an everlasting throne, from generation to gener- 
ation. Amen. 


We wish you, brethren, all happiness, while 
you walk according to the doctrine of the Gos- 
pel of Jesus Christ ; with whom be glory to God 
the Father and the Holy Spirit, for the salvation 
of His holy elect, after whose example '5 the 
blessed Polycarp suffered, following in whose 
steps may we too be found in the kingdom of 
Jesus Christ ! 

These things '^ Caius transcribed from the copy 
of Irengeus ( who was a disciple of Polycarp ) , 
having himself been intimate with Irenaeus. 
And I Socrates transcribed them at Corinth 
from the copy of Caius. Grace be with you all. 

And I again, Pionius, wrote them from the 
previously written copy, having carefully searched 
into them, and the blessed Polycarp having 

'° Literally, " having learned these things." 

" Literally, " gift." 

'2 The translation is here very doubtful. Wake renders the words 
/njjt'b? l<TTaixii'ov, " of the present month." 

'3 Great obscurity hangs over the chronology here indicated. 
According to Usher, the Smyrnxans began the month Xanthicus 
on the 25th of March. But the seventh day before the Kalends of 
May is the 25th of April. Some, therefore, read "ATrptAAiwf instead of 
Matiiji'. The great Sabbath is that before the passover. The " eighth 
hour" may correspond either to our 8 a.m. or 2 p.m. 

!■* Called before (chap, xii.) Asiarch. 

15 Literally, " according as." 

'* What follows is, of course, no part of the original Epistle. 



manifested them to me through a revelation, 
even as I shall show in what follows. I have 
collected these things, when they had almost 
laded away through the lapse of time, that the 

Lord Jesus Christ may also gather me along 
with His elect into His heavenly kingdom, to 
whom, with the Father and the Holy Spirit, be 
glory for ever and ever. Amen. 




[a.d. 30-107.] The seductive myth which represents this Father as the httle child whom the 
Lord placed in the midst of his apostles (St. Matt, xviii. 2) indicates at least the period when 
he may be supposed to have been born. That he and Polycarp were fellow-disciples under St. 
John, is a tradition by no means inconsistent with anything in the Epistles of either. His subse- 
quent history is sufficiently indicated in the Epistles which follow. 

Had not the plan of this series been so exclusively that of a mere revised reprint, the wTitings 
of Ignatius themselves would have made me diffident as to the undertaking. It seems impossible 
for any one to write upon the subject of these precious remains, without provoking controversy. 
This publication is designed as an Eirenicon, and hence " few words are best," from one who 
might be supposed incapable of an unbiassed opinion on most of the points which have been 
raised in connection with these Epistles. I must content myself therefore, by referring the studi- 
ous reader to the originals as edited by Bishop Jacobson, with a Latin version and copious annota- 
tions. That revered and learned divine honoured me with his friendship ; and his precious edition 
has been my frequent study, with theological students, almost ever since it appeared in 1840. It 
is by no means superannuated by the vigorous Ignatian literature which has since sprung up, and 
to which reference will he made elsewhere. But I am content to leave the whole matter, without 
comment, to the minds of Christians of whatever school and to their independent conclusions. It 
is a great thing to present them in a single volume with the shorter and longer Epistles duly com- 
pared, and with the Curetonian version besides. One luxury only I may claim, to relieve the 
drudging task-work of a mere reviser. Surely I may point out some of the proverbial wisdom of 
this great disciple, which has often stirred my soul, as with the trumpet heard by St. John in Pat- 
mos. In him, indeed, the lions encountered a lion, one truly begotten of " the Lion of the tribe of 
Judah." Take, then, as a specimen, these thrilling injunctions from his letter to Polycarp, to 
whom he bequeathed his own spirit, and in whom he well knew the Church would recognize a sort 
of survival of St. John himself. If the reader has any true perception of the rhythm and force 
of the Greek language, let him learn by heart the originals of the following aphorisms : — 

1. Find time to pray without ceasing. 

2. Every wound is not healed with the same remedy. 

3. The times demand thee, as pilots the haven. 

4. The crown is immortality.' 

5. Stand like a beaten anvil.^ 

6. It is the part of a good athlete to be bruised and to prevail. 

*■ — r 

• Does not this seem a pointed allusion to Rev. ii. lo? • Jt^Si ut ax>iwi' rvn-rd/uLCKOt. 



7. Consider the times : look for Him who is above time. 

8. Slight not the menservants and the handmaids. 

9. Let your stewardship define your work. 

10. A Christian is not his own master, but waits upon God. 

Ignatius so delighted in his name Theophorus (sufficiently expounded in his own words to 
Trajan or his official representative), that it is worth noting how deeply the early Christians felt 
and believed in (2 Cor. vi. 16) the indwelling Spirit. 

Ignatius has been censured for his language to the Romans, in which he seems to crave mar- 
tyrdom. But he was already condemned, in law a dead man, and felt himself at liberty to glory 
in his tribulations. Is it more than modem Christians often too lightly sing? — 

" Let cares like a wild deluge come, 
And storms of sorrow fall," etc. 

So the holy martyr adds, " Only let me attain unto Jesus Christ." 

The Epistle to the Romans is utterly inconsistent with any conception on his part, *.hat Rome 
was the see and residence of a bishop holding any other than fraternal relations with himself. It 
is very noteworthy that it is devoid of expressions, elsewhere made emphatic,' which would have 
been much insisted upon had they been found herein. Think what use would have been made of 
it, had the words which he addresses to the Smyrnaeans (cap. viii.) to strengthen their fidelity to 
Polycarp, been found in this letter to the Romans, especially as in this letter we first find the 
use of the phrase " Catholic Church " in patristic writings. He defines it as to be found " where 
Jesus Christ is," words which certainly do not limit it to communion with a professed successor of 
St. Peter. 

The following is the original I^a'RODUCTORY Notice : — 

The epistles ascribed to Ignatius have given rise to more controversy than any other docu- 
ments connected with the primitive Church. As is evident to every reader on the very first glance 
at these writings, they contain numerous statements which bear on points of ecclesiastical order 
that have long divided the Christian world ; and a strong temptation has thus been felt to allow 
some amount of prepossession to enter into the discussion of their authenticity or spuriousness. 
At the same time, this question has furnished a noble field for the display of learning and acuteness, 
and has, in the various forms under which it has been debated, given rise to not a few works of the 
very highest ability and scholarship. We shall present such an outline of the controversy as may 
enable the reader to understand its position at the present day. 

There are, in all, fifteen Epistles which bear the name of Ignatius. These are the following : 
One to the Virgin Mary, two to the Apostle John, one to Mary of Cassobelae, one to the Tarsians, 
one to the Antiochians, one to Hero, a deacon of Antioch, one to the Philippians ; one to the 
Ephesians, one to the Magnesians, one to the Trallians, one to the Romans, one to the Philadel- 
phians, one to the Smyrnceans, and one to Polycarp. The first three exist only in Latin : all the 
•est are extant also in Greek. 

It is now the universal opinion of critics, that the first eight of these professedly Ignatian 
letters are spurious. They bear in themselves indubitable proofs of being the production of a later 
age than that in which Ignatius lived. Neither Eusebius nor Jerome makes the least reference to 
them ; and they are now by common consent set aside as forgeries, which were at various dates, 
and to serve special purposes, put forth under the name of the celebrated Bishop of Antioch. 

But after the question has been thus simplified, it still remains sufficiently complex. Of the 
seven Epistles which are acknowledged by Eusebius {Hist. EccL, iii. 36), we possess two Greek 
recensions, a shorter and a longer. It is plain that one or other of these exhibits a corrupt text, and 

' See To the Trallians, cap. ij. Much might have been made, had it be«n found here, out of the reference to Christ the High Priest 
(Phil.idelphians, cap. 9). 


scholars have for the most part agreed to accept the shorter form as representing the genuine letters 
of Ignatius. This was the opinion generally acquiesced in, from the time when critical editions 
of these Epistles began to be issued, down to our own day. Criticism, indeed, fluctuated a good 
deal as to which Epistles should be accepted and which rejected. Archp. Usher (1644), Isaac 
Vossius (1646), J. B. Cotelerius (1672), Dr. T. Smith (1709), and others, edited the writings 
ascribed to Ignatius in forms differing very considerably as to the order in which they were 
arranged, and the degree of authority assigned them, until at length, from about the beginning of 
the eighteenth century, the seven Greek Epistles, of which a translation is here given, came to be 
generally accepted in their shorter form as the genuine writings of Ignatius. 

Before this date, however, there had not been wanting some who refused to acknowledge the 
authenticity of these Epistles in either of the recensions in which they were then known to exist. 
By far the most learned and elaborate work maintaining this position was that of Daill^ (or Dal- 
laeus), published in 1666. This drew forth in reply the celebrated Viiidicice of Bishop Pearson, 
which appeared in 1672. It was generally supposed that this latter work had established on an 
immoveable foundation the genuineness of the shorter form of the Ignatian Epistles ; and, as we 
have stated above, this was the conclusion almost universally accepted down to our own day. The 
only considerable exception to this concurrence was presented by Whiston, who laboured to main- 
tain in his Prhnitive Christianity Revived (1711) the superior claims of the longer recension of 
the Epistles, apparently influenced in doing so by the support which he thought they furnished to 
the kind of Arianism which he had adopted. 

But although the shorter form of the Ignatian letters had been generally accepted in preference 
to the longer, there was still a pretty prevalent opinion among scholars, that even it could not be 
regarded as absolutely free from interpolations, or as of undoubted authenticity. Thus said Lard- 
ner, in his Credibility of the Gospel History (1743) : " I have carefully compared the two editions, 
and am very well satisfied, upon that comparison, that the larger are an interpolation of the smaller, 
and not the smaller an epitome or abridgment of the larger. . . . But whether the smaller them- 
selves are the genuine writings of Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, is a question that has been much 
disputed, and has employed the pens of the ablest critics. And whatever positiveness some may 
have shown on either side, I must own I have found it a very difficult question." 

This expression of uncertainty was repeated in substance by Jortin (1751), Mosheim (1755), 
Griesbach (1768), Rosenmiiller (1795), Neander (1826), and many others; some going so far 
as to deny that we have any authentic remains of Ignatius at all, while others, though admitting 
the seven shorter letters as being probably his, yet strongly suspected that they were not free from 
interpolation. Upon the whole, however, the shorter recension was, until recently, accepted with- 
out much opposition, and chiefly in dependence on the work of Bishop Pearson above mentioned, 
as exhibiting the genuine form of the Epistles of Ignatius. 

But a totally different aspect was given to the question by the discovery of a Syriac version of 
three of these Epistles among the mss. procured from the monastery of St. Mary Deipara, in the 
desert of Nitria, in Egypt. In the years 1838, 1839, and again in 1842, Archdeacon Tattam visited 
that monaster}', and succeeded in obtaining for the English Government a vast number of ancient 
Syriac manuscripts. On these being deposited in the British Museum, the late Dr. Cureton, who 
then had charge of the Syriac department, discovered among them, first, the Epistle to Polycarp, 
and then again, the same Epistle, with those to the Ephesians and to the Romans, in two other 
volumes of manuscripts. 

As the result of this discovery, Cureton published in 1845 a work, entitled. The Ancient Syriac 
Version of the Epistles of St. Ignatius to St. Polycarp, the Ephesians, and the Roniatis, etc., in 
which he argued that these Epistles represented more accurately than any formerly published what 
Ignatius had actually written. This, of course, opened up the controversy afresh. While some 
accepted the views of Cureton, others very strenuously opposed them. Among the former was 


the late Chev. Bunsen ; among the latter, an anonymous writer in the English Review, and Dr. 
Hefele, in his third edition of the Apostolic Fathers. In reply to those who had controverted his 
arguments, Cureton published his Vindicice Ignatiana in 1846, and his Corpus Jgnatianum in 1849, 
He begins his introduction to the last-named work with the following sentences : " Exactly three 
centuries and a half intervened between the time when three Epistles in Latin, attributed to St. 
Ignatius, first issued from the press, and the publication in 1845 of three letters in S>Tiac bearing 
the name of the same apostolic writer. Very few years passed before the former were almost 
universally regarded as false and spurious ; and it seems not improbable that scarcely a longer 
period will elapse before the latter be almost as generally acknowledged and received as the only 
true and genuine letters of the venerable Bishop of Antioch that have either come down to our 
times, or were ever known in the earliest ages of the Christian Church." 

Had the somewhat sanguine hope thus expressed been realized, it would have been unnecessary 
for us to present to the English reader more than a translation of these three Syriac Epistles. But 
the Ignatian controversy is not yet settled. There are still those who hold that the balance of 
argument is in favour of the shorter Greek, as against these Syriac Epistles. They regard the 
latter as an epitome of the former, and think the harshness which, according to them, exists in the 
sequence of thoughts and sentences, clearly shows that this is the case. We have therefore given 
all the forms of the Ignatian letters which have the least claim on our attention.' The reader may 
judge, by comparison for himself, which of these is to be accepted as genuine, supposing him dis-" 
posed to admit the claims of any one of them. We content ourselves with laying the materials 
for judgment before him, and with referring to the above-named works in which we find the whole 
subject discussed. 

As to the personal history of Ignatius, almost nothing is known. The principal source of in- 
formation regarding him is found in the account of his martyrdom, to which the reader is referred, 
Polycarp alludes to him in his Epistle to the Philippians (chap, ix.), and also to his letters (chap, 
xiii.). Irenseus quotes a passage from his Epistle to the Romans {Adv. Hccr., v. 28; Epist. ad 
Rom., chap, iv,), without, however, naming him. Origen twice refers to him, first in the preface 
to his Comm. on the Song of Solomon, where he quotes a passage from the Epistle of Ignatius to 
the Romans, and again in his sixth homily on St. Luke, where he quotes from the Epistle to the 
Ephesians, both times naming the author. It is unnecessary to give later references. 

Supposing the letters of Ignatius and the account of his martyrdom to be authentic, we learn 
from them that he voluntarily presented himself before Trajan at Antioch, the seat of his bishopric, 
when that prince was on his ^rj/ expedition against the Parthians and Armenians (a.d. 107) ; and 
on professing himself a Christian, was condemned to the wild beasts. After a long and dangerous 
voyage he came to Smyrna, of which Polycarp was bishop, and thence wrote his four Epistles to 
the Ephesians, the Magnesians, the Trallians, and the Romans. From Smyrna he came to Troas, 
and tarrying there a few days, he wrote to the Philadelphians, the Smymoeans, and Polycarp. He 
then came on to Neapolis, and passed through the whole of Macedonia. Finding a ship at Dyr- 
rachium in Epirus about to sail into Italy, he embarked, and crossing the Adriatic, was brought to 
Rome, where he perished on the 20th of December 107, or, as some think, who deny a twofold 
expedition of Trajan against the Parthians, on the same day of the year a.d. 116. 

' The other Epistles, bearing the name of Ignatius, will be found in the Appendix; so that the English reader possesses in this volume 
a complete collection of the Ignatian letters. 



Ignatius, who is also called Theopho- 
rus, to the Church which is at 
Ephesus, in Asia, deservedly tnost 
happy, being blessed in the greatness 
and fulness of God the Father, and 
predestinated before the beginning^ 
of time, that it should be always for 
an enduring and unchangeable glory, 
beitig united^ and elected through 
the true passion by the will of the 
Father, and Jesus Christ, our God: 
Abundant happiness through Jesus 
Christ, and His midefiled grace. 

Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to the Church 
which is at Ephesus, in Asia, deservedly most happy, 
being blessed in the greatness and fulness of God the 
Father, and predestinated before the beginning ' of time, 
that it should be always for an enduring and unchange- 
able glory, being united^ and elected through the true 
passion by the will of God the Father, and of our Lord 
Jesus Christ our Saviotir : Abundant happiness through 
Jesus Christ, and His undefiledjoy.^ 


I HAVE become acquainted with 
your name, much-beloved in God, 
which ye have acquired by the habit 
of righteousness, according to the faith 
and love in Jesus Christ our Saviour. 
Being the followers  of God, and stir- 
ring up 5 yourselves by the blood of 
God, ye have perfectly accomplished 
the work which was beseeming to you. 
For, on hearing that I came bound 
from Syria for the common name and 
hope, trusting through your prayers 
to be permitted to fight with beasts at 
Rome, that so by martyrdom I may 
indeed become the disciple of Him 
" who gave Himself for us, an offering 
and sacrifice to God," ^ [ye hastened 
to see me 7], I received, therefore,^ 
your whole multitude in the name of 
God, through Onesimus, a man of 
inexpressible love,^ and your bishop 
in the flesh, whom I pray you by 
Jesus Christ to love, and that you 
would all seek to be like him. And 
blessed be He who has granted unto 
you, being worthy, to obtain such an 
excellent bishop. 

I HAVE become acquainted with your greatly-desired 
name in God, which ye have acquired by the habit of 
righteousness, according to the faith and love in Christ 
Jesus our Saviour. Being the followers *♦ of the love of 
God towards man, and stirring up 5 yourselves by the blood 
of Christ, you have perfectly accomplished the work 
which was beseeming to you. For, on hearing that I came 
bound from Syria for the sake of Christ, our common 
hope, trusting through your prayers to be permitted to 
fight with beasts at Rome, that so by martyrdom I may 
indeed become the disciple of Him " who gave Himself 
for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God," ^ [ye hastened 
to see me 7] . I have therefore received your whole mul- 
titude in the name of God, through Onesimus, a man of 
inexpressible love,'' and who is your bishop, whom I pray 
you by Jesus Christ to love, and that you would all seek 
to be like him. Blessed be God, who has granted unto 
you, who are yourselves so excellent, to obtain such an 
excellent bishop. 

' Literally, " before the ages." ^ These words may agree with " glory," but are better applied to the " Church." 

3 Some read, as in the shorter recension, " grace." ■* Literally, " imitators; " comp. Eph. v. i. s Comp. in the Greek, 2 Tim. i. 6. 

* Eph. V. 2. 7 This is wanting in the Greek. * Literally, " since therefore," without any apodosis. 9 Or, "unspeakably beloved. '• 





As to my fellow-servant Burrhus, 
your deacon in regard to God and 
blessed in all things," I beg that he 
may continue longer, both for your 
honour and that of your bishop. And 
Crocus also, worthy both of God and 
you, whom I have received as the 
manifestation^ of your love, hath in 
all things refreshed ^ me, as the Father 
of our Lord Jesus Christ shall also re- 
fresh 3 him ; together with Onesimus, 
and Burrhus, and Euplus, and Fronto, 
by means of whom, I have, as to love, 
beheld all of you. May I always have 
joy of you, if indeed I be worthy ot 
it. It is therefore befitting that you 
should in every way glorify Jesus 
Christ, who hath glorified you, that by 
a unanimous obedience " ye may be 
perfectly joined together in the same 
mind, and in the same judgment, and 
may all speak the same thing concern- 
ing the same thing," s and that, being 
subject to the bishop and the presby- 
tery, ye may in all respects be sancti- 


I do not issue orders to you, as if I 
were some great person. For though 
I am bound for the name [of Christ], 
I am not yet perfect in Jesus Christ. 
For now I begin to be a disciple, and 
I speak to you as fellow-disciples with 
me. For it was needful for me to 
have been stirred up by you in faith, 
exhortation, patience, and long-suffer- 
ing. But inasmuch as love suffers me 
not to be silent in regard to you, I 
have therefore taken'' upon me first 
to exhort you that ye would all run 
together in accordance with the will 
of God. For even Jesus Christ, our 
inseparable life, is the [manifested] 
will of the Father ; as also bishops, 
settled everywhere to the utmost 
bounds [of the earth], are so by the 
will of Jesus Christ. 

As to our fellow-servant Burrhus, your deacon in regard 
to God and blessed in all things, I pray that he may con- 
tinue blameless for the honour of the Church, and of your 
most blessed bishop. Crocus also, worthy both of God 
and you, whom we have received as the manifestation ^ of 
your love to us, hath in all things refreshed ^ me, and 
" hath not been ashamed of my chain," •♦ as the Father 
of our Lord Jesus Christ will also refresh ^ him ; together 
with Onesimus, and Burrhus, and Euplus, and Fronto, by 
means of whom I have, as to love, beheld all of you. 
May I always have joy of you, if indeed I be worthy of 
it. It is therefore befitting that you should in every way 
glorify Jesus Christ, who hath glorified you, that by a 
unanimous obedience " ye may be perfectly joined to- 
gether in the same mind and in the same judgment, and 
may all speak the same thing concerning the same thing," 5 
and that, being subject to the bishop and the presbytery, 
ye may in all respects be sanctified. 


I do not issue orders to you, as if I were some great 
person. For though I am bound for His name, I am 
not yet perfect in Jesus Christ. For now I begin to be a 
disciple, and I speak to you as my fellow-servants. For 
it was needful for me to have been admonished by you 
in faith, exhortation, patience, and long-suffering. But 
inasmuch as love suffers me not to be silent in regard to 
you, I have therefore taken ^ upon me first to exhort you 
that ye would run together in accordance with the will of 
God. For even Jesus Christ does all things according to 
the will of the Father, as He Himself declares in a cer- 
tain place, " I do always those things that please Him." ^ 
Wherefore it behoves us also to live according to the will 
of God in Christ, and to imitate Him as Paul did. For, 
says he, " Be ye followers of me, even as I also am of 
Christ." 8 


Wherefore it is fitting that ye should 
nm together in accordance with the 
will of your bishop, which thing also 
ye do. For your justly renowned 
presbytery, worthy of God, is fitted as 
exactly to the bishop as the strings 
are to the harp. Therefore in your 

Wherefore it is fitting that ye also should run together 
in accordance with the will of the bishop who by God's 
appointment 9 rules over you. Which thing ye indeed of 
yourselves do, being instructed by the Spirit. For your 
justly-renowned presbytery, being worthy of God, is fitted 
as exactly to the bishop as the strings are to the harp. 
Thus, being joined together in concord and harmonious 

' Or, " your most blessed deacon in all things pertaining to God." 
* Comp. 2 Tim. i. i6. s i Cor. i. lo. *> Comp. Philem. 8, 9. 

2 Literally, " pattern." 
? John viri. 39. ^ i Cor. 

3 Comp. I Cor. xvi. 18, etc. 
i. I. 9 Literally, " according to God ' 



concord and harmonious love, Jesus 
Christ is sung. And do ye, man by 
man, become a choir, that being 
harmonious in love, and taking'up the 
song of God in unison, ye may with 
one voice sing to the Father through 
Jesus Christ, so that He may both 
hear you, and perceive by your works 
that ye are indeed the members of 
His Son. It is profitable, therefore, 
that you should live in an unblameable 
unity, that thus ye may always enjoy 
communion with God. 


For if I in this brief space of time, 
have enjoyed such fellowship with 
your bishop — I mean not of a mere 
human, but of a spiritual nature — how 
much more do I reckon you happy 
who are so joined to him as the Church 
is to Jesus Christ, and as Jesus Christ 
is to the Father, that so all things may 
agree in unity ! Let no man deceive 
himself : if any one be not within the 
altar, he is deprived of the bread of 
God. For if the prayer of one or two 
possesses •♦ such power, how much 
more that of the bishop and the whole 
Church ! He, therefore, that does 
not assemble with the Church, has 
evens by this manifested his pride, 
and condemned himself. For it is 
written, " God resisteth the proud." ^ 
Let us be careful, then, not to set 
ourselves in opposition to the bishop, 
in order that we may be subject to 

love, of which Jesus Christ is the Captain and Guardian, 
do ye, man by man, become but one choir ; so that, 
agreeing together in concord, and obtaining ' a perfect 
unity with God, ye may indeed be one in harmonious 
feeling with God the Father, and His beloved Son Jesus 
Christ our Lord. For, says He, " Grant unto them. Holy 
Father, that as I and Thou are one, they also may be one 
in us." ^ It is therefore profitable that you, being joined 
together with God in an unblameable unity, should be the 
followers of the example of Christ, of whom also ye are 


For if I, in this brief space of time, have enjoyed such 
fellowship with your bishop — I mean not of a mere human, 
but of a spiritual nature — how much more do I reckon you 
happy, who so depend ^ on him as the Church does on the 
Lord Jesus, and the Lord does on God and His Father, 
that so all things may agree in unity ! Let no man de- 
ceive himself: if any one be not within the altar, he is 
deprived of the bread of God. For if the prayer of one 
or two possesses ■* such power that Christ stands in the 
midst of them, how much more will the prayer of the bishop 
and of the whole Church, ascending up in harmony to God, 
prevail for the granting of all their petitions in Christ ! 
He, therefore, that separates himself from such, and does 
not meet in the society where sacrifices ^ are offered, and 
with " the Church of the first-born whose names are 
written in heaven," is a wolf in sheep's clothing, ^ while he 
presents a mild outward appearance. Do ye, beloved, be 
careful to be subject to the bishop, and the presbyters and 
the deacons. For he that is subject to these is obe- 
dient to Christ, who has appointed them ; but he that is 
disobedient to these is disobedient to Christ Jesus. And 
" he that obeyeth not ^ the Son shall not see life, but 
the wrath of God abideth on him." For he that yields 
not obedience to his superiors is self-confident, quarrel- 
some, and proud. But " God," says [the Scripture] " resist- 
eth the proud, but giveth grace to the humble ;" ^ and, 
"The proud have greatly transgressed." The Lord also 
says to the priests, " He that heareth you, heareth Me ; and 
he that heareth Me, heareth the Father that sent Me. He 
that despiseth you, despiseth Me ; and he that despiseth 
Me, despiseth Him that sent Me." 


Now the more any one sees the The more, therefore, you see the bishop silent, the more 

bishop keeping silence, '° the more do you reverence him. For we ought to receive every 

ought he to revere him. For we 
ought to receive every one whom the 
Master of the house sends to be over 
His household," as we would do Him 
that sent him. It is manifest, there- 
fore, that we should look upon the 
bishop even as we would upon the 

one whom the Master of the house sends to be over His 
household, " as we would do Him that sent him. It is 
manifest, therefore, that we should look upon the bishop 
even as we would look upon the Lord Himself, standing, 
as he does, before the Lord. For " it behoves the man 
who looks carefully about him, and is active in his 
business, to stand before kings, and not to stand before 

' Literally, " receiving a union to God in oneness." ^ John xvii. 11, 12. 3 Sonie read, " mixed up with." * Malt, xviii. 19. 
S Or, " already." *> Literally, " in the assembly of sacrifices." ^ Matt. vii. 15. ^ Or, " believeth not " (John iii. 36). 
9 Prov. iii. 34; James iv. 6; i Pet. v. 5. '° That is, "showing forbearance." " Comp. Matt. xxiv. 25. 



Lord Himself. And indeed Ones- 
imus himself greatly commends your 
good order in God, that ye all live ac- 
cording to the truth, and that no sect ' 
has any dwelling-place among you. 
Nor, indeed, do ye hearken to any one 
rather than to Jesus Christ speaking 
in truth. 

slothful men." ' And indeed Onesimus himself greatly 
commends your good order in God, that ye all live accord- 
ing to the truth, and that no stct ^ has any dwelling-place 
among you. Nor indeed do ye hearken to any one rather 
than to Jesus Christ, the true Shepherd and Teacher. And 
ye are, as Paul wrote to you, "one body and one spirit, be- 
cause ye have also been called in one hope of the faith. ^ 
Since also " there is one Lord, one faith, one baptism, 
one God and Father of all, who is over all, and through 
all, and in all." •♦ Such, then, are ye, having been taught 
by such instructors, Paul the Christ-bearer, and Timothy 
the most faithful. 


For some are in the habit of carry- But some most worthless persons are in the habit of 

ing about the name [of Jesus Christ] carrying about the name [of Jesus Christ] in wicked 
in wicked guile, while yet they prac- guile, while yet they practise things unworthy of God, 
tise things unworthy of God, whom and hold opinions contrary to the doctrine of Christ, to 
ye must flee as ye would wild beasts. their own destruction, and that of those who give credit 
For they are ravening dogs, who bite to them, whom you must avoid as ye would wild beasts, 
secretly, against whom ye must be on For " the righteous man who avoids them is saved for 
your guard, inasmuch as they are men ever ; but the destruction of the ungodly is sudden, and 
who can scarcely be cured. There is a subject of rejoicing." 5 For " they are dumb dogs, 
one Physician who is possessed both that cannot bark,"^ raving mad, and biting secretly, 
of flesh and spirit ; both made and against whom ye must be on your guard, since they 
not made ; God existing in flesh ; true labour under an incurable disease. But our Physician 
life in death ; both of Mary and of is the only true God, the unbegotten and unapproach- 
God ; first possible and then impossi- able, the Lord of all, the Father and Begetter of the only- 
ble, — 7 even Jesus Christ our Lord. begotten Son. We have also as a Physician the Lord 

our God, Jesus the Christ, the only-begotten Son and 
Word, before time began,*^ but who afterwards became 
also man, of Mary the virgin. For " the Word was made 
flesh." 9 Being incorporeal, He was in the body; being 
impassible, He was in a passible body ; being immortal, 
He was in a mortal body ; being life, He became subject 
to corruption, that He might free our souls from death 
and corruption, and heal them, and might restore them 
to health, when they were diseased with ungodliness and 
wicked lusts. 


Let not then any one deceive you, Let not then any one deceive you, as indeed ye are 

as indeed ye are not deceived, inas- not deceived ; for ye are wholly devoted to God. For 
much as ye are wholly devoted to when there is no evil desire within you, which might de- 
God. For since there is no strife file and torment you, then do ye live in accordance with 
raging among you which might dis- the will of God, and are [the ser\'ants] of Christ. Cast 
tress you, ye are certainly living in ye out that which defiles '° you, who are of the ' ' most holy 
accordance with God's will. I am Church of the Ephesians, which is so famous and cele- 
far inferior to you, and require to brated throughout the world. They that are carnal can- 
not do those things which are spiritual, nor they that are 
spiritual the things which are carnal ; even as faith can- 
not do the works of unbelief, nor unbelief the works of 
faith. But ye, being full of the Holy Spirit, do nothing 
according to the flesh, but all things according to the 
Spirit. Ye are complete in Christ Jesus, " who is the 
Saviour of all men, specially of them that believe." " 

be sanctified by your Church of 
Kphesus, so renowned throughout 
the world. They that are carnal 
cannot do those things which are 
spiritual, nor they that are spiritual 
the things which are carnal ; even 
as faith cannot do the works of un- 

' Prov. xxii. 29, after T,XX. 2 Or, " heresy." ^ ^ Kph. iv. 4. * Eph. iv. 5, 6, 5 Prov. x. 25, xi. 3. * Isa. Ivi. 10. 

' This clause is wantini; in the Greek, and has been supplied from the ancient Latin version. ^ Or, " before the ages." 9 John 1. 14. 

"0 It is difficult to translate ntpiijiriiia in this and similar passages; comp. i Cor. iv. 13. " Literally, " and the." " i Tim. iv. 10. 



belief, nor unbelief the works of faith. 
But even those things which ye do 
according to the flesh are spiritual ; 
for ye do all things in Jesus Christ. 



Nevertheless, I have heard of some 
who have passed on from this to you, 
having false doctrine, whom ye did 
not suffer to sow among you, but 
stopped your ears, that ye might not 
receive those things which were sown 
by them, as being stones ' of the tem- 
ple of the Father, prepared for the 
building of God the Father, and 
drawn up on high by the instrument 
of Jesus Christ, which is the cross,^ 
making use of the Holy Spirit as a 
rope, while your faith was the means 
by which you ascended, and your love 
the way which led up to God. Ye, 
therefore, as well as all your fellow- 
travellers, are God-bearers, temple- 
bearers, Christ-bearers, bearers of 
holiness, adorned in all respects with 
the commandments of Jesus Christ, 
in whom also I exult that I have 
been thought worthy, by means of 
this Epistle, to converse and rejoice 
with you, because with respect to 
your Christian life ^ ye love nothing 
but God only. 

Nevertheless, I have heard of some who have passed 
in among you, holding the wicked doctrine of the strange 
and evil spirit; to whom ye did not allow entrance to 
sow their tares, but stopped your ears that ye might 
not receive that error which was proclaimed by them, as 
being persuaded that that spirit which deceives the peo- 
ple does not speak the things of Christ, but his own, 
for he is a lying spirit. But the Holy Spirit does not 
speak His own things, but those of Christ, and that not 
from himself, but from the Lord ; even as the Lord also 
announced to us the things that He received from the 
Father. For, says He, " the word which ye hear is not 
Mine, but the Father's, who sent Me." ^ And says He 
of the Holy Spirit, " He shall not speak of Himself, but 
whatsoever things He shall hear from Me." ^ And He 
says of Himself to the Father, " I have," says He, " glori- 
fied Thee upon, the earth ; I have finished the work which. 
Thou gavest Me ; I have manifested Thy name to men." 5 
And of the Holy Ghost, " He shall glorify Me, for He 
receives of Mine." ^ But the spirit of deceit preaches 
himself, and speaks his own things, for he seeks to please 
himself. He glorifies himself, for he is full of arrogance. 
He is lying, fraudulent, soothing, flattering, treacherous, 
rhapsodical, trifling, inharmonious, verbose, sordid, and 
timorous. From his power Jesus Christ will deliver you, 
who has founded you upon the rock, as being chosen 
stones, well fitted for the divine edifice of the Father, and 
who are raised up on high by Christ, who was crucified 
for you, making use of the Holy Spirit as a rope, and be- 
ing borne up by faith, while exalted by love from earth to 
heaven, walking in company with those that are undefiled. 
For, says [the Scripture], " Blessed are the undefiled in 
the way, who walk in the law of the Lord."** Now the 
way is unerring, namely, Jesus Christ. For, says He, " I 
am the way and the life." ^ And this way leads to the 
Father. For " no man," says He, " cometh to the Father 
but by Me." '° Blessed, then, are ye who are God-bearers, 
spirit-bearers, temple-bearers, bearers of holiness, adorned 
in all respects with the commandments of Jesus Christ, 
being " a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a peculiar peo- 
ple," " on whose account I rejoice exceedingly, and have 
had the privilege, by this Epistle, of conversing with " the 
saints which are at Ephesus, the faithful in Christ Jesus." '* 
I rejoice, therefore, over you, that ye do not give heed 
to vanity, and love nothing according to the flesh, buf 
according to God. 


And pray ye without ceasing in be- And pray ye without ceasing in behalf of other men ; 

half of other men. For there is in for there is hope of the repentance, that they may attain 
them hope of repentance that they to God, For " cannot he that falls arise again, and he 

' Comp. I Pet. ii. 5. 2 Comp. John xii. 32. 3 John xiv. 24. * John xvi. 13. 5 John xvii. 4, 6. * John xvi. 14. 

' Literally, " according to the otlier life." ' Ps. cxix. i. 9 John xiv. 6. '° John xiv. 6. " i Pet. ii. 9. " Eph. i. t 



may attain to God. See,* then, that 
they be instructed by your works, if 
in no other way. Be ye meek in 
response to their wrath, humble in 
opposition to their boasting : to their 
blasphemies return "♦ your prayers ; in 
contrast to their error, be ye stedfast s 
in the faith ; and for their cruelty, 
manifest your gentleness. While we 
take care not to imitate their conduct, 
let us be found their brethren in all 
true kindness ; and let us seek to be 
followers of the Lord (who ever more 
unjustly treated, more destitute, more 
condemned?), that so no plant of the 
devil may be found in you, but ye may 
remain in all holiness and sobriety in 
Jesus Christ, both with respect to the 
flesh and spirit. 

that goes astray return?" ' Permit them, then, to be in- 
structed by you. Re ye therefore the ministers of God, 
and the mouth of Christ. For thus saith the Lord, " If 
ye take forth the precious from the vile, ye shall be as 
my mouth." 3 Be ye humble in response to their wrath; 
oppose to their blasphemies your earnest prayers ; while 
they go astray, stand ye stedfast in the faith. Conquer ye 
their harsh temper by gentleness, their passion by meek- 
ness. For " blessed are the meek ; " ^ and Moses was 
meek above all men ; ^ and David was exceeding meek." 
Wherefore Paul exhorts as follows : " The servant of the 
Lord must not strive, but be gentle towards all men, apt 
to teach, patient, in meekness instructing those that op- 
pose themselves." ^ Do not seek to avenge yourselves on 
those that injure you, for says [the Scripture], " If I have 
returned evil to those who returned evil to me." '° Let 
us make them brethren by our kindness. For say ye 
to those that hate you, Ye are our brethren, that the 
name of the Lord may be glorified. And let us imitate 
the Lord, "who, when He was reviled, reviled not 



when He was crucified. He answered not ; 

" when He suffered. He threatened not ;" " but prayed 
for His enemies, " Father, forgive them ; they know not 
what they do." '^ If any one, the more he is injured, dis- 
plays the more patience, blessed is he. If any one is 
defrauded, if any one is despised, for the name of the 
Lord, he truly is the servant of Christ. Take heed that 
no plant of the devil be found among you, for such a 
plant is bitter and salt. " Watch ye, and be ye sober," ■'♦ 
in Christ Jesus. 


The last times are come upon us. Let us therefore be 
of a reverent spirit, and fear the long-suffering of God, 
lest we despise the riches of His goodness and forbear- 
ance. '5 For let us either fear the wrath to come, or let 
us love the present joy in the life that now is ; and let 
our present and true joy be only this, to be found in 
Christ Jesus, that we may truly live. Do not at any 
time desire so much as even to breathe apart from Him. 
For He is my hope ; He is my boast ; He is my never- 
failing riches, on whose account I bear about with me 
these bonds from Syria to Rome, these spiritual jewels, 
in which may I be perfected through your prayers, and 
become a partaker of the sufferings of Christ, and have 
fellowship with Him in His death. His resurrection from 
the dead, and His everlasting life.'^ May I attain to this, 
so that I may be found in the lot of the Christians of 
Ephesus, who have always had intercourse with the apos- 
tles by the power of Jesus Christ, with Paul, and John, 
and Timothy the most faithful. 

The last times are come upon us. 
Let us therefore be of a reverent 
spirit, and fear the long-suffering of 
God, that it tend not to our condem- 
nation. For let us either stand in 
awe of the wrath to come, or show 
regard for the grace which is at pres- 
ent displayed — one of two things. 
Only [in one way or another] let us 
be found in Christ Jesus unto the true 
life. Apart from Him, let nothing 
attract '^ you, for whom I bear about 
these bonds, these spiritual jewels, by 
which may I arise through your pray- 
ers, of which I entreat I may always 
be a partaker, that I may be found in 
the lot of the Christians of Ephesus, 
who have always been of the same 
mind with the apostles through the 
power of Jesus Christ. 


I know both who I am, and to I know both who I am, and to whom I write. I am 

whom I write. I am a condemned the very insignificant Ignatius, who have my lot with '" 
man, ye have been the objects of those who are exposed to danger and condemnation. 

 Jer. viii. 4. ' Literally, " permit." 3 Jer. xv. 19. * The verb is here omitted in the original. ' Comp. Col. i. 23. '' Mat'- v. 4. 
7 Num. xii. 3. * Ps. cxxxi. 2. 9 2 Tim. ii. 24, 25. '° Ps. vii. 4. " 1 Pet. ii. 23. '^ i Pet. ii. 23. " Luke xxiii. 34. 
'< I Pet. iv. 7. 'i Rom. ii. 4. >* Literally, " let nothing become you." " Phil. iii. 10. '* Literally, " am like to." 



mercy ; I am subject to danger, ye 
are established in safety. Ye are the 
persons through ' whom those pass 
that are cut off for the sake of God. 
Ye are initiated into the mysteries of 
the Gospel with Paul, the holy, the 
martyred, the deservedly most happy, 
at whose feef* may I be found, when 
I shall attain to God ; who in all his 
Epistle 5 makes mention of you in 
Christ Jesus, 

But ye have been the objects of mercy, and are estab- 
lished in Christ. I am one delivered over [to death], 
but the least of all those that have been cut off for the 
sake of Christ, " from the blood of righteous Abel " ^ 
to the blood of Ignatius. Ye are initiated into the mys- 
teries of the Gospel with Paul, the holy, the martyred, 
inasmuch as he was " a chosen vessel ;" 3 at whose feet 
may I be found, and at the feet of the rest of the saints, 
when I shall attain to Jesus Christ, who is always mindful 
of you in His prayers. 


Take heed, then, often to come to- 
gether to give thanks to God, and 
show forth His praise. For when ye 
assemble frequently in the same place, 
the powers of Satan are destroyed, 
and the destruction at which he aims ^ 
is prevented by the unity of your faith. 
Nothing is more precious than peace, 
by which all war, both in heaven and 
earth,^ is brought to an end. 

Take heed, then, often to come together to give thanks 
to God, and show forth His praise. For when ye come 
frequently together in the same place, the powers of 
Satan are destroyed, and his " fiery darts " ^ urging to sin 
fall back ineffectual. For your concord and harmonious 
faith prove his destruction, and the torment of his assist- 
ants. Nothing is better than that peace which is accord- 
ing to Christ, by which all war, both of aerial and terres- 
trial spirits, is brought to an end. " For we wrestle not 
against blood and flesh, but against principalities and 
powers, and against the rulers of the darkness of this 
world, against spiritual wickedness in heavenly places." 9 


None of these things is hid from 
you, if ye perfectly possess that faith 
and love towards Christ Jesus '° which 
are the beginning and the end of life. 
For the beginning is faith, and the end 
is love." Now these two, being in- 
separably connected together,'^ are of 
God, while all other things which are 
requisite for a holy life follow after 
them. No man [truly] making a pro- 
fession of faith sinneth ; '^ nor does he 
that possesses love hate any one. The 
tree is made manifest by its fruit ; 's so 
those that profess themselves to be 
Christians shall be recognised by their 
conduct. For there is not now a de- 
mand for mere profession,'^ but that a 
man be found continuing in the power 
of faith to the end. 

Wherefore none of the devices of the devil shall be 
hidden from you, if, like Paul, ye perfectly possess that 
faith and love towards Christ '° which are the beginning 
and the end of life. The beginning of life is faith, and 
the end is love. And these two being inseparably con- 
nected together, do perfect the man of God ; while all 
other things which are requisite to a holy life follow after 
them. No man making a profession of faith ought to 
sin, nor one possessed of love to hate his brother. For 
He that said, " Thou shalt love the Lord thy God," '* said 
also, " and thy neighbour as thyself." '* Those that pro- 
fess themselves to be Christ's are known not only by what 
they say, but by what they practise. " For the tree is 
known by its fruit." 's 


It is better for a man to be silent 
and be [a Christian] , than to talk and 
not to be one. It i^good to teach, if 
he who speaks also acts. There is 
then one Teacher, who spake and it 
was done ; while even those things 
which He did in silence are worthy of 

It is better for a man to be silent and be [a Christian] , 
than to talk and not to be one. " The kingdom of God 
is not in word, but in power." '^ Men " believe with the 
heart, and confess with the mouth," the one " unto right- 
eousness," the other " unto salvation." '^ It is good to 
teach, if he who speaks also acts. For he who shall both 
"do and teach, the same shall be great in the kingdom." '^ 

 Literally, " ye are the passage of." ^ Matt, xxiii. 35. 3 Acts ix. 15. * Literally, " footsteps." 

5 Some render, " in every Epistle." * Eph. vi 16. 7 Literally, " his destruction." ' Literally, " of heavenly and earthly things.'' 
9 Eph. vi. 12. '° I Tim. i. 14. " i Tim. i. 5. '^ Literally, "being in unity." '^ Comp. i John iii. 7. '■♦ Luke x. 27. 
'i Matt. xii. 33. ■* Literally, " there is not now the work of profession." " i Cor. iv. 20. '* Rom. x. 10. '9 Matt. v. 19. 



the Father. He who possesses the 
word of Jesus, is truly able to hear 
even His very silence, that he may be 
perfect, and may both act as he speaks, 
and be recognised by his silence. 
There is nothing which is hid from 
God, but our very secrets are near to 
Him. Let us therefore do all things 
as those who have Him dwelling in 
us, that we may be His temples,^ and 
He may be in us as our God, which 
indeed He is, and will manifest Him- 
self before our faces. Wherefore we 
justly love Him. 


Do not err, my brethren. ^ Those 
that corrupt families shall not inherit 
the kingdom of God.* If, then, those 
who do this as respects the flesh have 
suffered death, how much more shall 
this be the case with any one who 
corrupts by wicked doctrine the faith 
of God, for which Jesus Christ was 
crucified ! Such an one becoming 
defiled [in this way], shall go away 
into everlasting fire, and so shall every 
one that hearkens unto him. 

Our Lord and God, Jesus Christ, the Son of the living 
God, first did and then taught, as Luke testifies, " whose 
praise is in the Gospel through all the Churches." ' There 
is nothing which is hid from the Lord, but our very secrets 
are near to Him. Let us therefore do all things as those 
who have Him dwelling in us, that we may be His tem- 
ples,^ and He may be in us as God. Let Christ speak in 
us, even as He did in Paul. Let the Holy Spirit teach 
us to speak the things of Christ in like manner as He did. 


Do not err, my brethren. ^ Those that corrupt families 
shall not inherit the kingdom of God.'* And if those that 
corrupt mere human families are condemned to death, 
how much more shall those suffer everlasting punishment 
who endeavour to corrupt the Church of Christ, for which 
the Lord Jesus, the only-begotten Son of God, endured 
the cross, and submitted to death ! Whosoever, " being 
waxen fat," 5 and " become gross," sets at nought His 
doctrine, shall go into hell. In like manner, ever}' one 
that has received from God the power of distinguishing, 
and yet follows an unskilful shepherd, and receives a false 
opinion for the truth, shall be punished. " ^Vhat com- 
munion hath light with darkness? or Christ with Belial? 
Or what portion hath he that believeth with an infidel? 
or the temple of God with idols? "^ And in like manner 
say I, what communion hath truth with falsehood? or 
righteousness with unrighteousness ? or true doctrine with 
that which is false ? 


For this end did the Lord suffer 
the ointment to be poured upon His 
head,7 that He might breathe immor- 
tality into His Church. Be not ye 
anointed with the bad odour of the 
doctrine of the prince of this world ; 
let him not lead you away captive 
from the life which is set before you. 
And why are we not all prudent, since 
we have received the knowledge of 
God, which is Jesus Christ ? Why do 
we foolishly perish, not recognising 
the gift which the Lord has of a truth 
sent to us? 

For this end did the Lord suffer the ointment to be 
poured upon His head,^ that His Church might breathe 
forth immortality. For saith [the Scripture], "Thy name 
is as ointment poured forth ; therefore have the virgins 
loved Thee : they have drawn Thee ; at the odour of Thine 
ointments we will run after Thee." ^ Let no one be 
anointed with the bad odour of the doctrine of [the prince 
of] this world ; let not the holy Church of God be led 
captive by his subtlety, as was the first woman.'^ Why 
do we not, as gifted with reason, act wisely? When we 
had received from Christ, and had grafted in us the faculty 
of judging concerning God, why do we fall headlong into 
ignorance? and why, through a careless neglect of ac- 
knowledging the gift which we have received, do we fool- 
ishly perish? 


Let my spirit be counted as noth- 
ing '° for the sake of the cross, which 
is a stumbling-block " to those that do 
not believe, but to us salvation and 

The cross of Christ is indeed a stumbling-block to 
those that do not believe, but to the believing it is salva- 
tion and life eternal. "Where is the wise man? where 
the disputer?"'^ Where is the boasting of those who 

 2 Cor. viii. i8. ^ i Cor. vi. 19. ^ Comp. James i. 16. * i Cor. vi. 9, 10. 5 Deut. xxxii. 15. * 2 Cor. vi. 14-16. 
' Comp. John xii. 7. * Song of Sol. i. 3, 4. 9 Literally, " before the ages." '" Again nepiifiriixa, translated " offscouring," i Cor. 
" Comp. I Cor. i. i3. '- i Cor. i. 20. 


life eternal. " Where is the wise are called mighty ? For the Son of God, who was be- 

man? where the disputer ?" ' Where gotten before time began,^ and established all things 

is the boasting of those who are styled according to the will of the Father, He was conceived in 

prudent ? For our God, Jesus Christ, the womb of Mary, according to the appointment of God, 

was, according to the appointment ^ of the seed of David, and by the Holy Ghost. For says 

of God, conceived in the womb by [the Scripture], "Behold, a virgin shall be with child, 

Mary, of the seed of David, but by and shall bring forth a son, and He shall be called Im- 

the Holy Ghost. He was born and manuel." ^ He was born and was baptized by John, that 

baptized, that by His passion He He might ratify the institution committed to that prophet, 
might purify the water. 


Now the virginity of Mary was hid- Now the virginity of Mary was hidden from the prince 

den from the prince of this world, as of this world, as was also her offspring, and the death of 

was also her offspring, and the death the Lord ; three mysteries of renown,5 which were 

of the Lord ; three mysteries of re- wrought in silence, but have been revealed to us. A star 

nown,5 which were wrought in silence shone forth in heaven above all that were before it, and 

by ^ God. How, then, was He mani- its light was inexpressible, while its novelty struck men 

fested to the world ? ? A star shone with astonishment. And all the rest of the stars, with 

forth in heaven above all the other the sun and moon, formed a chorus to this star. It far 

stars, the light of which was inex- exceeded them all in brightness, and agitation was felt as 

pressible, while its novelty struck men to whence this new spectacle [proceeded]. Hence 

with astonishment. And all the rest worldly wisdom became folly ; conjuration was seen to 

of the stars, with the sun and moon, be mere trifling ; and magic iDCcame utterly ridiculous, 

formed a chorus to this star, and its Every law ^ of wickedness vanished away ; the darkness 

light was exceedingly great above of ignorance was dispersed ; and tyrannical authority was 

them all. And there was agitation destroyed, God being manifested as a man, and man dis- 

felt as to whence this new spectacle playing power as God. But neither was the former a 

came, so unlike to everything else mere imagination,^ nor did the second imply a bare hu- 

[in the heavens]. Hence every kind manity ; '° but the one was absolutely true," and the other 

of magic was destroyed, and every an economical arrangement.'^ Now that received a be- 

bond of wickedness disappeared ; ig- ginning which was perfected by God.'^ Henceforth all 

norance was removed, and the old things were in a state of tumult, because He meditated 

kingdom abolished, God Himself be- the abolition of death, 
ing manifested in human form for the 
renewal of eternal life. And now 
that took a beginning which had been 
prepared by God. Henceforth all 
things were in a state of tumult, be- 
cause He meditated the abolition of 


LETTER. Stand fast, brethren, in the faith of Jesus Christ, and in 

If Jesus Christ shall graciously per- His love, in His passion, and in His resurrection. Do ye 

mit me through your prayers, and if all come together in common, and individually, '5 through 

it be His will, I shall, in a second lit- grace, in one faith of God the Father, and of Jesus 

tie work which I will write to you, Christ His only-begotten Son, and " the first-born of 

make further manifest to you [the na- every creature," '^ but of the seed of David according to 

ture of] the dispensation of which I the flesh, being under the guidance of the Comforter, in 

have begun [to treat] , with respect to obedience to the bishop and the presbytery with an undi- 

the new man, Jesus Christ, in His vided mind, breaking one and the same bread, which is 

faith and in His love, in His suffering the medicine of immortality, and the antidote which pre- 

and in His resurrection. Especially vents us from dying, but a cleansing remedy driving away 

[will I do this '■♦] if the Lord make evil, [which causes] that we should live in God through 

known to me that ye come together Jesus Christ. 

' I Cor. i. 20. 2 Literally, " before the ages." 3 Or, " economy," or " dispensation." Comp. Col. i. 25 ; i Tim, i. 4. 

* Isa. vii. 14; Matt. i. 23. s Literally, " of noise." (> Or, " in the silence of God " — divine silence. ^ Literally, " to the ages." 

8 Some read, " bond." 9 Literally, " opinion." '° Literally, " bareness." '^ Literally, "truth." '^ Htgrally, " an economy." 

13 Or, " that which was perfect received a beginning from God." ** The punctuation and meaning are here doubtful 

■5 Literally, " by name." ^^ Col. i. 15. 



man by man in common through 
grace, individually,' in one faith, and 
in Jesus Christ, who was of the seed 
of David according to the flesh, be- 
ing both the Son of man and the Son 
of God, so that ye obey the bishop 
and the presbytery with an undivided 
mind, breaking one and the same 
bread, which is the medicine of im- 
mortality, and the antidote to prevent 
us from dying, but [which causes] 
that we should live for ever in Jesus 


My soul be for yours and theirs^ 
whom, for the honour of God, ye 
have sent to Smyrna ; whence also I 
write to you, giving tiianks unto the 
Lord, and loving Polycarp even as I 
do you. Remember me, as Jesus 
Christ also remembered you. Pray 
ye for the Church which is in Syria, 
whence I am led bound to Rome, be- 
ing the last of the faithful who are 
there, even as I have been thought 
worthy to be chosen* to show forth 
the honour of God. Farewell in God 
the Father, and in Jesus Christ, our 
common hope. 


My soul be for yours and theirs ^ whom, for the hon- 
our of God, ye have sent to Smyrna; whence also I 
write to you, giving thanks to the Lord, and loving Poly- 
carp even as I do you. Remember me, as Jesus Christ 
also remembers you, who is blessed for evermore. Pray 
ye for the Church of Antioch which is in Syria, whence I 
am led bound to Rome, being the last of the faithful that 
are there, who ^ yet have been thought worthy to carry 
these chains to the honour of God. Fare ye well in God 
the Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ, our common hope, 
and in the Holy Ghost. Fare ye well. Amen. Grace 
[be with you] .5 

' Literally, " by name." 
3 Some read, " even as." 

2 Some render, " May I, in my turn, be the means of refreshing you and those," etc. 
* Literally, " to be found for." 5 Some omit, " Grace [be with youj." 



Ignatius, who is also called Theopho- 
rus, to the \_Church'\ blessed iti the 
grace of God the Father, in Jesus 
Christ our Saviour, in whom I 
salute the Church tvhich is at Mag- 
?iesia, near the Mteander, and wish 
it abundance of happiness in God 
the Father, and in Jesus Christ. 

Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to the \_Church'\ 
blessed in the grace of God the Father, in Jesus Christ 
our Saviotir, in whom I salute the Church which is at 
Magnesia, near the Mceander, and wish it abundance 
of happiness in God the Father, arid in Jesus Christ, 
our Lord, in whom may you have abundance of hap- 


Having been informed of your 
godly ' love, so well-ordered, I re- 
joiced greatly, and determined to 
commune with you in the faith of 
Jesus Christ. For as one who has 
been thought worthy of the most hon- 
ourable of all names,^ in those bonds 
which I bear about, I commend the 
Churches, in which I pray for a union 
both of the flesh and spirit of Jesus 
Christ, the constant source of our life, 
and of faith and love, to which nothing 
is to be preferred, but especially of 
Jesus and the Father, in whom, if we 
endure all the assaults of the prince 
of this world, and escape them, we 
shall enjoy God. 

chap. II. — 

Since, then, I have had the privi- 
lege of seeing you, through Damas 
your most worthy bishop, and through 
your worthy presbyters Bassus and 
Apollonius, and through my fellow- 
servant the deacon Sotio, whose friend- 
ship may I ever enjoy, inasmuch as he 
is subject to the bishop as to the grace 
of God, and to the presbytery as to the 
law of Jesus Christ, [I now write ** to 

Having been informed of your godly ' love, so well- 
ordered, I rejoiced greatly, and determined to commune 
with you in the faith of Jesus Christ. For as one who 
has been thought worthy of a divine and desirable name, 
in those bonds which I bear about, I commend the 
Churches, in which I pray for a union both of the flesh 
and spirit of Jesus Christ, " who is the Saviour of all men, 
but specially of them that believe ; " ^ by whose blood 
ye were redeemed ; by whom ye have known God, or 
rather have been known by Him ; '• in whom enduring, 
ye shall escape all the assaults of this world : for " He 
is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above 
that which ye are able." s 


Since, then, I have had the privilege of seeing you, 
through Damas your most worthy ^ bishop, and through 
your worthy ^ presbyters Bassus and Apollonius, and 
through my fellow-servant the deacon Sotio, whose friend- 
ship may I ever enjoy,^ inasmuch as he, by the grace of 
God, is subject to the bishop and presbytery, in the law 
of Jesus Christ, [I now write ** to you] . 

' Literally, " according to God." 
or to that of " martyr " or " confessor.' 

^ Literally, " whom may I enjoy." 
as above. 

* Literally, " of the most God-becoming name," referring either to the appellation " Theophorus," 
3 I Tim. iv. lo. * Comp. Gal. iv. 9. Si Cor. x. 13. * Literally, " worthy of God." 
' The apodosis is here wanting in the original, but must evidently be supplied in some such way 




Now it becomes you also not to 
treat your bishop too familiarly on 
account of his youth,' but to yield him 
all reverence, having respect to ^ the 
power of God the Father, as I have 
known even holy presbyters do, not 
judging rashly, from the manifest 
youthful appearance 3 [of their bishop], 
but as being themselves prudent in 
God, submitting to him, or rather not 
to him, but to the Father of Jesus 
Christ, the bishop of us all. It is 
therefore fitting that you should, after 
no hypocritical fashion, obey [your 
bishop], in honour of Him who has 
willed us [so to do], since he that 
does not so deceives not [by such 
conduct] the bishop that is visible, 
but seeks to mock Him that is invisi- 
ble. And all such conduct has refer- 
ence not to man,'° but to God, who 
knows all secrets. 


Now it becomes you also not to despise the age of your 
bishop, but to yield him all reverence, according to the 
will of God the Father, as I have known even holy pres- 
byters do, not having regard to the manifest youth [of 
their bishop], but to his knowledge in God ; inasmuch as 
" not the ancient are [necessarily] wise, nor do the aged 
understand prudence ; but there is a spirit in men."  
For Daniel the wise, at twelve years of age, became pos- 
sessed of the divine Spirit, and convicted the elders, who 
in vain carried their grey hairs, of being false accusers, 
and of lusting after the beauty of another man's wife. 5 
Samuel also, when he was but a little child, reproved Eh, 
who was ninety years old, for giving honour to his sons 
rather than to God.^ In like manner, Jeremiah also re- 
ceived this message from God, " Say not, I am a child." ? 
Solomon too, and Josiah, [exemplified the same thing.] 
The former, being made king at twelve years of age, gave 
that terrible and difficult judgment in the case of the two 
women concerning their children.** The latter, coming to 
the throne when eight years old,^ cast down the altars and 
temples [of the idols], and burned down the groves, for 
they were dedicated to demons, and not to God. And he 
slew the false priests, as the corrupters and deceivers of 
men, and not the worshippers of the Deity, Wherefore 
youth is not to be despised when it is devoted to God. 
But he is to be despised who is of a wicked mind, although 
he be old, and full of wicked days." Timothy the Christ- 
bearer was young, but hear what his teacher writes to him : 
" Let no man despise thy youth, but be thou an example 
of the believers in word and in conduct." " It is becoming, 
therefore, that ye also should be obedient to your bishop, 
and contradict him in nothing ; for it is a fearful thing to 
contradict any such person. For no one does [by such 
conduct] deceive him that is visible, but does [in reality] 
seek to mock Him that is invisible, who, however, cannot 
be mocked by any one. And every such act has respect 
not to man, but to God. For God says to Samuel, 
*' They have not mocked thee, but Me," '^ And Moses 
declares, " For their murmuring i^ not against us, but 
against the Lord God." '* No one of those has, [in fact,] 
remained unpunished, who rose up against their superiors. 
For Dathan and Abiram did not speak against the law, 
but against Moses, '5 and were cast down alive into Hades. 
Korah also,'^ and the two hundred and fifty who conspired 
with him against Aaron, were destroyed by fire. Absalom, 
again, '7 who had slain his brother, became suspended on 
a tree, and had his evil-designing heart thrust through 
with darts. In like manner was Abeddadan '^ beheaded 
for the same reason, Uzziah,'^ when he presumed to 
oppose the priests and the priesthood, was smitten with 
leprosy. Saul also was dishonoured,^'" because he did not 
wait for Samuel the high priest. It behoves you, there- 
fore, also to reverence your superiors. 

• Literallyj " to use the age of your bishop." ^ Literally, " according to." ^ Literally, " youthful condition." 

* Job xxxii. 8,9. 5 Dan. xiii. (Apoc). ' i Sam. iii i. ' Jer. i. 7. * i Kings lii. 16. 

» 2 Kings xxii. xxiii. '° Literally, " to flesh." '• Dan. xiii. 52 (Apoc). '^ i Tim. iy. 12. 
" I Sam. viii. 7. '< Ex. xvi. 8. '5 Num. xvi. i. "> Num. xvi. 31. |' 2 Sam. xviii. 14. 
" Sheba is referred to under this name: see 2 Sam xx. 22. >9 2 Chron. xxvi. 20. ^° i Sam. xiii. 11. 





It is fitting, then, not only to be It is fitting, then, not only to be called Christians, but 
called Christians, but to be so in real- to be so in reality. For it is not the being called so, 
ity : as some indeed give one the title but the being really so, that renders a man blessed. To 
of bishop, but do all things without those who indeed talk of the bishop, but do all things 
him. Now such persons seem to me without him, will He who is the true and first Bishop, 
to be not possessed of a good con- and the only High Priest by nature, declare, " Why call 
science, seeing they are not stedfastly ye Me Lord, and do not the things which I say?" ' For 
gathered together according to the such persons seem to me not possessed of a good con- 
commandment, science, but to be simply dissemblers and hypocrites. 


Seeing, then, all things have an 
end, these two things are simulta- 
neously set before us — death and 
life ; and every one shall go unto his 
own place. For as there are two 
kinds of coins, the one of God, the 
other of the world, and each of these 
has its special character stamped upon 
it, [so is it also here.] ^ The unbe- 
lieving are of this world ; but the be- 
lieving have, in love, the character of 
God the Father by Jesus Christ, by 
whom, if we are not in readiness 
to die into His passion, ^ His life is 
not in us. 


Seeing, then, all things have an end, and there is set 
before us life upon our observance [of God's precepts], 
but death as the result of disobedience, and every one, 
according to the choice he makes, shall go to his own 
place, let us flee from death, and make choice of life. 
For I remark, that two different characters are found 
among men — the one true coin, the other spurious. 
The truly devout man is the right kind of coin, stamped 
by God Himself. The ungodly man, again, is false coin, 
unlawful, spurious, counterfeit, wrought not by God, but 
by the devil. I do not mean to say that there are two 
different human natures, but that there is one humanity, 
sometimes belonging to God, and sometimes to the devil. 
If any one is truly religious, he is a man of God ; but if he 
is irreligious, he is a man of the devil, made such, not by 
nature, but by his own choice. The unbelieving bear 
the image of the prince of wickedness. The believing 
possess the image of their Prince, God the Father, and 
Jesus Christ, through whom, if we are not in readiness to 
die for the truth into His passion, ^ His life is not in us. 


Since therefore I have, in the per- 
sons before mentioned, beheld the 
whole multitude of you in faith and 
love, I exhort you to study to do all 
things with a divine harmony,'* while 
your bishop presides in the place of 
God, and your presbyters in the place 
of the assembly of the apostles, along 
with your deacons, who are most dear 
to me, and are entrusted with the 
ministry of Jesus Christ, who was with 
the Father before the beginning of 
time,5 and in the end was revealed. 
Do ye all then, imitating the same 
divine conduct,^ pay respect to one 
another, and let. no one look upon his 
neighbour after the flesh, but do ye 
continually love each other in Jesus 
Christ. Let nothing exist among you 
that may divide you ; but be ye united 
with your bishop, and those that pre- 
side over you, as a type and evidence 
of your immortality.** 

Since therefore I have, in the persons before men- 
tioned, beheld the whole multitude of you in faith and 
love, I exhort you to study to do all things with a divine 
harmony,'* while your bishop presides in the place of 
God, and your presbyters in the place of the assembly 
of the apostles, along with your deacons, who are most 
dear to me, and are entrusted with the ministry of Jesus 
Christ. He, being begotten by the Father before the 
beginning of time,5 was God the Word, the only-begotten 
Son, and remains the same for ever ; for " of His king- 
dom there shall be no end," ^ says Daniel the prophet. 
Let us all therefore love one another in harmony, and let 
no one look upon his neighbour according to the flesh, 
but in Christ Jesus. Let nothing exist among you which 
may divide you ; but be ye united with your bishop, 
being through him subject to God in Christ. 

* Luke vi. 46. ^ The apodosis is wanting in the original, and some prefer finding it in the following sentence. 
3 Or, " after the likeness of His passion." ■* Literally, " in harmony of God." 5 Literally, " before the ages." 
' Dan. ii. 44, vii. 14, 27 ^ Literally, " receiving the like manners of God." ^ The meaning is here doubtful. 




As therefore the Lord did nothing 
mthout the Father, being united to 
Him, neither by Himself nor by the 
apostles, so neither do ye anything 
without the bishop and presbyters. 
Neither endeavour that anything ap- 
pear reasonable and proper to your- 
selves apart ; but being come together 
into the same place, let there be one 
jjrayer, one supplication, one mind, 
one hope, in love and in joy undefiled. 
There is one Jesus Christ, than whom 
nothing is more excellent. Do ye 
therefore all run together as into one 
temple of God, as to one altar, as to 
one Jesus Christ, who came forth from 
one Father, and is with and has gone 
to one. 


Be not deceived with strange doc- 
trines, nor with old fables, which are 
unprofitable. For if we still live 
according to the Jewish law, we ac- 
knowledge that we have not received 
grace. For the divinest prophets 
lived according to Christ Jesus. On 
this account also they were perse- 
cuted, being inspired by His grace to 
fully convince the unbelieving that 
there is one God, who has manifested 
Himself by Jesus Christ His Son, who 
is His eternal Word, not proceeding 
forth from silence,5 and who in all 
things pleased Him that sent Him. 

As therefore the Lord does nothing without the Father, 
for says He, " I can of mine own self do nothing," ' so 
do ye, neither presbyter, nor deacon, nor layman, do any- 
thing without the bishop. Nor let anything appear com- 
mendable to you which is destitute of his approval.^ 
For every such thing is sinful, and opposed [to the will 
ofj God. Do ye all come together into the same place 
for prayer. Let there be one common supplication, one 
mind, one hoi)e, with faith unblameable in Christ Jesus, 
than which nothing is more excellent. Do ye all, as one 
man, run together into the temple of God, as unto one 
altar, to one Jesus Christ, the High Priest of the unbe- 
gotten God. 


Be not deceived with strange doctrines, "nor give 
heed to fables and endless genealogies," ^ and things in 
which the Jews make their boast. "Old things are 
passed away : behold, all things have become new." '• 
For if we still live according to the Jewish law, and the 
circumcision of the flesh, we deny that we have received 
grace. For the divinest prophets lived according to 
Jesus Christ. On this account also they were persecuted, 
being inspired by grace to fully convince the unbelieving 
that there is one God, the Almighty, who has manifested 
Himself by Jesus Christ His Son, who is His Word, not 
spoken, but essential. For He is not the voice of an 
articulate utterance, but a substance begotten by divine 
power, who has in all things pleased Him that sent Him.'' 


If, therefore, those who were brought If, then, those who were conversant with the ancient 

up in the ancient order of things ^ Scriptures came to newness of hope, expecting the corn- 
have come to the possession of a new** ing of Christ, as the Lord teaches us when He says, '* If 
hope, no longer observing the Sab- ye had believed Moses, ye would have believed Me, for 
bath, but living in the observance '" of he wrote of Me ; " '^ and again, " Your father Abraham 
the Ivord's Day, on which also our rejoiced to see My day, and he saw it, and was glad ; for 

l)efore Abraham was, I am ; " " how shall we be able to 
live without Him? The prophets were His servants, 
and foresaw Him by the Spirit, and waited for Him as 
their Teacher, and expected Him as their Lord and 

life has sprung up again by Him and 
by His death — whom some deny, by 
which mystery we have obtained 
faith, '^ and therefore endure, that we 
may be found the disciples of Jesus Saviour, saying, " He will come and save us." '^ Let us 

Christ, our only Master — how shall 
we be able to live apart from Him, 
whose disciples the prophets them- 
selves in the Spirit did wait for Him 
as their Teacher? And therefore He 
whom they rightly waited for, being 
come, raised them from the dead.'^ 

therefore no longer keep the Sabbath after the Jewish 
manner, and rejoice in days of idleness ; for " he that 
does not work, let him not eat." '^ For say the [holy] 
oracles, " In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat thy 
bread." '5 But let every one of you keep the Sabbath 
after a spiritual manner, rejoicing in meditation on the 
law, not in relaxation of the body, admiring the work- 

' John V. 30. * Or, " contrary to his judgment. " * i Tim. i. 4. * 2 Cor. v. 17. 5 Some have argued that the Gno.stic Siyij, 
tilence, is here referred to, and have consequently inferred that this epistle could not have been written by Ignatius. 

6 Some read viTO<xTri(TavTi, " that gave Him His hypostasis, or substance." 7 Literally, " in old things." » Or, " newness of." 
9 John v. 46. '° Or, " according to." " John viii. 56, 58. " Literally, " we have received to believe." " Isa. xxxv. 4. 
•< 2 Thess. iii. 10. '5 Gen. iii. 19. •'' Comp. Matt, xxvii. 53. 



manship of God, and not eating things prepared the day 
before, nor using lukewarm drinks, and walking within a 
prescribed space, nor finding delight in dancing and 
plaudits which have no sense in them.' And after the 
observance of the Sabbath, let every friend of Christ 
keep the Lord's Day as a festival, the resurrection-day, 
the queen and chief of all the days [of the week]. 
Looking forward to this, the prophet declared, " To the 
end, for the eighth day," "= on which our life both sprang 
up again, and the victory over death was obtained in 
Christ, whom the children of perdition, the enemies of 
the Saviour, deny, " whose god is their belly, who mind 
earthly things," ^ who are "lovers of pleasure, and not 
lovers of God, having a form of godliness, but denying 
the power thereof." ^ These make merchandise of Christ, 
corrupting His word, and giving up Jesus to sale : they 
are corrupters of women, and covetous of other men's 
possessions, swallowing up wealth 5 insatiably ; from whom 
may ye be delivered by the mercy of God through our 
Lord Jesus Christ ! 


Let us not, therefore, be insensible 
to His kindness. For were He to 
reward us according to our works, we 
should cease to be. Therefore, hav- 
ing become His disciples, let us learn 
to live according to the principles of 
1 Christianity.'' For whosoever is called 
by any other name besides this, is not 
of God. Lay aside, therefore, the 
evil, the old, the sour leaven, and be 
ye changed into the new leaven, which 
is Jesus Christ. Be ye salted in Him, 
lest any one among you should be 
corrupted, since by your savour ye 
shall be convicted. It is absurd to 
profess '^ Christ Jesus, and to Judaize. 
For Christianity did not embrace '^ 
Judaism, but Judaism Christianity, 
that so every tongue which believeth 
might be gathered together to God. 

Let us not, therefore, be insensible to His kindness. 
For were He to reward us according to our works, we 
should cease to be. For " if Thou, Lord, shalt mark 
iniquities, O Lord, who shall stand?" ^ Let us therefore 
prove ourselves worthy of that name which we have 
received. For whosoever is called by any other name 
besides this, he is not of God ; for he has not received 
the prophecy which speaks thus concerning us : " The 
people shall be called by a new name, which the Lord 
shall name them, and shall be a holy people." ** This 
was first fulfilled in Syria ; for " the disciples were called 
Christians at Antioch," ^ when Paul and Peter were lay- 
ing the foundations of the Church. Lay aside, therefore, 
the evil, the old, the corrupt leaven, '° and be ye changed 
into the new leaven of grace. ASide in Christ, that the 
stranger " may not have dominion over you. It is absurd 
to speak of Jesus Christ., with the tongue, and to cherish 
in the mind a Judaism which has now come to an end. 
For where there is Christianity there cannot be Judaism. 
For Christ is one, in whom every nation that believes, 
and every tongue that confesses, is gathered unto God. 
And those that were of a stony heart have become the 
children of Abraham, the friend of God ; '•• and in his 
seed all those have been blessed '5 who were ordained to 
eternal life "'' in Christ. 


These things [I address to you]. These things [I address to you], my beloved, not that 

my beloved, not that I know any of 1 know any of you to be in such a state ; '^ but, as less 

you to be in such a state ; '^ but, as than any of you, I desire to guard you beforehand, that 

less than any of you, I desire to guard ye fall not upon the hooks of vain doctrine, but that you 

you beforehand, that ye fall not upon may rather attain to a full assurance in Christ, who was 

the hooks of vain doctrine, but that begotten by the Father before all ages, but was afterwards 

' Reference is here made to well-known Jewish opinions and practices with respect to the Sabbath. The Talmud fixes 2000 cubits as the 
space lawful to be traversed. Philo {De Tkerap.) refers to the dancing, etc. ^ Ps. vi. xii. (inscrip.). 3 Phil. lii. 18, 19. 

* 2 Tim. iii 4. 5 Literally, " whirlpools of wealth." * Ps. cxxx. 3. 1 Literally, " according to Christianity." * Isa. Ixil. 2, 12. 

9 Acts xi. 26. '° I Cor. V. 7. " Or, "enemy " '^ Some read, " to name." '^ Literally, " believe into," merge into. 
'* Matt, iii 9; Isa xli. 8; James ii. 23. Some read, " children of God, friends of Abraham." '5 Gen. xxviii. 14. '» Acts xiii. 48. 
'' i.e., addicted to the error of Judaizing. 



ye attain to full assurance in regard to 
the birth, and passion, and resurrec- 
tion which took place in the time of 
the government of Pontius Pilate, be- 
ing truly and certainly accomplished 
by Jesus Christ, who is our hope," 
from which may no one of you ever 
be turned aside. 

born of the Virgin Mary without any intercourse with 
man. He also lived a holy life, and healed every kind of 
sickness and disease among the people, and wrought signs 
and wonders for the benefit of men ; and to those who 
had fallen into the error of polytheism He made known 
the one and only true God, His Father, and underwent 
the passion, and endured the cross at the hands of the 
Christ-killing Jews, under Pontius Pilate the governor and 
Herod the king. He also died, and rose again, and as- 
cended into the heavens to Him that sent Him, and is 
sat down at His right hand, and shall come at the end of 
the world, with His Father's glory, to judge the living 
and the dead, and to render to every one according to 
his works.2 He who knows these things with a full assur- 
ance, and believes them, is happy ; even as ye are now 
the lovers of God and of Christ, in the full assurance of 
our hope, from which may no one of us ^ ever be turned 
aside ! 


May I enjoy you in all respects, if 
indeed I be worthy ! For though I 
am bound, I am not worthy to be 
compared to any of you that are at 
liberty. I know that ye are not puffed 
up, for ye have Jesus Christ in your- 
selves. And all the more when I 
commend you, I know that ye cherish 
modesty  of spirit; as it is written, 
"The righteous man is his own ac- 
cuser." 5 

May I enjoy you in all respects, if indeed I be worthy ! 
For though I am bound, I am not worthy to be compared 
to one of you that are at liberty. I know that ye are not 
puffed up, for ye have Jesus in yourselves. And all the 
more when I commend you, I know that ye cherish mod- 
esty * of spirit ; as it is written, " The righteous man is 
his own accuser ; " 5 and again, " Declare thou first thine 
iniquities, that thou mayest be justified ; " ^ and again, 
" When ye shall have done all things that are commanded 
you, say, We are unprofitable servants ; " 7 " for that which 
is highly esteemed among men is abomination in the sight 
of God." ^ For says [the Scripture], "God be merciful 
to me a sinner." 9 Therefore those great ones, Abraham 
and Job,'° styled themselves " dust and ashes" " before 
God. And David says, "Who am I before Thee, O Lord, 
that Thou hast glorified me hitherto ? " '^ And Moses, who 
was " the meekest of all men," '^ saith to God, " I am of 
a feeble voice, and of a slow tongue." "* Be ye therefore 
also of a humble spirit, that ye may be exalted ; for " he 
that abaseth himself shall be exalted, and he that exalteth 
himself shall be abased." 's 


Study, therefore, to be established 
in the doctrines of the Lord and the 
apostles, that so all things, whatsoever 
ye do, may prosper both in the flesh 
and spirit ; in faith and love ; in the 
Son, and in the Father, and in the 
Spirit ; in the beginning and in the end ; 
with your most admirable bishop, and 
the well-compacted spiritual crown 
of your presbytery, and the deacons 
who are according to God. Be ye 
subject to the bishop, and to one an- 
other, as Jesus Christ to the Father, 

Study, therefore, to be established in the doctrines of 
the Lord and the apostles, that so all things, whatsoever 
ye do, may prosper, both in the flesh and spirit, in faith 
and love, with your most admirable bishop, and the well- 
compacted '^ spiritual crown of your presbytery, and the 
deacons who are according to God. Be ye subject to 
the bishop, and to one another, as Christ to the Father, 
that there may be a unity according to God among you. 

> 1 Tim. i. I. * 2 Tim. iv. i : Rom. ii. 6. 3 Some read, " of you." * Literally, " are reverent." 5 Prov. xvm. 17 (LXX.). 
* Isa. xliii. 26. 7 Luke xvii. 10. » Luke xvi. 15. 9 Luke xviii. 13. >o Some read, "Jacob." " Gen. xviii. 27; Job xxx. 19 
»» I Chron. xvii. 16. " Num. xii. 3. '< Ex. iv. 10. '5 Luke xiv. 11. >«> Literally, "well-woven." 



according to the flesh, and the apos- 
tles to Christ, and to the Father, and 
to the Spirit ; that so there may be a 
union both fleshly and spiritual. 


Knowing as I do that ye are full of 
God, I have but briefly exhorted you. 
Be mindful of me in your prayers, 
that I may attain to God ; and of the 
Church which is in Syria, whence I 
am not worthy to derive my name : 
for I stand in need of your united 
prayer in God, and your love, that 
the Church which is in Syria may be 
deemed worthy of being refreshed ^ 
by your Church. 


Knowing as I do that ye are full of all good, I have but 
briefly exhorted you in the love of Jesus Christ. Be 
mindful of me in your prayers, that I may attain to God ; 
and of the Church which is in Syria, of whom I am not 
worthy to be called bishop. For I stand in need of your 
united prayer in God, and of your love, that the Church 
which is in Syria may be deemed worthy, by your good 
order, of being edified ' in Christ. 



The Ephesians from Smyrna 
(whence I also write to you), who are 
here for the glory of God, as ye also 
are, who have in all things refreshed 
me, salute you, along with Polycarp, 
the bishop of the Smymsans. The 
rest of the Churches, in honour of 
Jesus Christ, also salute you. Fare ye 
well in the harmony of God, ye who 
have obtained the inseparable Spirit, 
Ivho is Jesus Christ. 

The Ephesians from Smyrna (whence I also write to 
you), who are here for the glory of God, as ye also are, 
who have in all things refreshed me, salute you, as does 
also Polycarp. The rest of the Churches, in honour of 
Jesus Christ, also salute you. Fare ye well in harmony, 
ye who have obtained the inseparable Spirit, in Christ 
Jesus, by the will of God. 

' Literally, " of being fed as by a shepherd." ^ Literally, " of being sprinkled with dew." 

[N.B. — In cap. ix., note 6, the reference is to the title of these two psalms, as rendered by the LXX. Eis to t«Aos vnep t^j 6y6d>is.] 



Ignatius, who is also called Theoph- 
orus, to the holy Church which is 
at Tralles, in Asia, beloved of God, 
the Father of fesus Christ, elect, 
and worthy of God, possessing peace 
through the flesh, and blood, and 
passion of Jesus Christ, who is our 
hope, through our rising again to 
Him,^ 7vhich also I salute in its 
fulness,^ and in the apostolical char- 
acter,'^ and wish abu?idance of hap- 

Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to the holy Church 
which is at Tralles, beloved by God the Father, and 
Jesus Christ, elect, and worthy of God, possessing peace 
through the flesh and Spirit of Jesus Christ, 7vho is our 
hope, in His passion by the cross and death, and in His 
resurrection, which also I salute in its fulness,^ and in 
the apostolical character,^ and wish abundance of 



I know that ye possess an unblame- 
able and sincere mind in patience, and 
that not only in present practice,^ but 
according to inherent nature, as Po- 
lybius your bishop has shown me, who 
has come to Smyrna by the will of God 
and Jesus Christ, and so sympathized 
in the joy which I, who am bound in 
Christ Jesus, possess, that I beheld 
your whole multitude in him. Having 
therefore received through him the 
testimony of your good-will, according 
to Ciod, I gloried to find you, as I 
knew you were, the followers of God. 

I know that ye possess an unblameable and sincere 
mind in patience, and that not only for present use,"* but 
as a permanent possession, as Polybius your bishop has 
shown me, who has come to Smyrna by the will of God 
the Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ, His Son, with the 
co-operation of the Spirit, and so sympathized in the joy 
which I, who am bound in Christ Jesus, possess, that I 
beheld your whole multitude in Him. Having therefore 
received through him the testimony of your good-will 
according to God, I gloried to find that you were the 
followers of Jesus Christ the Saviour. 


For, since ye are subject to the Be ye subject to the bishop as to the Lord, for " he 

bishop as to Jesus Christ, ye appear watches for your souls, as one that shall give account to 

to me to live not after the manner of God." ^ Wherefore also, ye appear to me to live not after 

men, but according to Jesus Christ, the manner of men, but according to Jesus Christ, who 

who died for us, in order, by believing died for us, in order that, by believing in His death, ye 

in His death, ye may escape from may by baptism be made partakers of His resurrection, 

death. It is therefore necessary that, It is therefore necessary, whatsoever things ye do, to do 

as ye indeed do, so without the bishop nothing without the bishop. And be ye subject also to 

ye should do nothing, but should also the presbytery, as to the apostles of Jesus Christ, who is 

' Some render, " in the resurrection which is by Him." ^ Either, " the whole members of the Church," or, " in the fulness of blessing." 
5 Either, " as an apostle," or, " in the apostolic form." ■• Literally, " not for use, but for a possession." 
S Literally, " not according to use, but according to nature." * Heb. xiii. 17. 




be subject to the presbytery, as to the 
apostle of Jesus Christ, who is our 
hope, in whom, if we Uve, we shall 
[at last] be found. It is fitting also 
that the deacons, as being [the min- 
isters] of the mysteries of Jesus Christ, 
should in every respect be pleasing to 
all.' For they are not ministers of 
meat and drink, but servants of the 
Church of God. They are bound, 
therefore, to avoid all grounds of 
accusation [against them], as they 
would do fire. 

our hope, in whom, if we live, we shall be found in Him. 
It behoves you also, in every way, to please the deacons, 
who are [ministers] of the mysteries of Christ Jesus ; for 
they are not ministers of meat and drink, but servants of 
the Church of God. They are bound, therefore, to avoid 
all grounds of accusation [against them], as they would a 
burning fire. Let them, then, prove themselves to be 


In like manner, let all reverence the 
deacons as an appointment ^ of Jesus 
Christ, and the bishop as Jesus Christ, 
who is the Son of the Father, and the 
presbyters as the sanhedrim of God, and 
assembly of the apostles. Apart from 
these, there is no Church.'* Concern- 
ing all this, I am persuaded that ye 
are of the same opinion. For I have 
received the manifestation s of your 
love, and still have it with me, in your 
bishop, whose very appearance is 
highly instructive, ^ and his meekness 
of itself a power ; whom I imagine even 
the ungodly must reverence, seeing 
they are ^ also pleased that I do not 
spare myself. But shall I, when per- 
mitted to write on this point, reach 
such a height of self-esteem, that 
though being a condemned ^ man, I 
should issue commands to you as if 
I were an apostle? 

And do ye reverence them as Christ Jesus, of whose 
place they are the keepers, even as the bishop is the rep- 
resentative of the Father of all things, and the presbyters 
are the sanhedrim of God, and assembly ^ of the apostles 
of Christ. Apart from these there is no elect Church, no 
congregation of holy ones, no assembly of saints. I am 
persuaded that ye also are of this opinion. For I have 
received the manifestation 5 of your love, and still have it 
with me, in your bishop, whose very appearance is highly 
instructive, and his meekness of itself a power ; whom I 
imagine even the ungodly must reverence. Loving you 
as I do, I avoid writing in any severer strain to you, that 
I may not seem harsh to any, or wanting [in tenderness] . 
I am indeed bound for the sake of Christ, but I am not 
yet worthy of Christ. But when I am perfected, perhaps 
I shall then become so. I do not issue orders like an 


I have great knowledge in God,9 
but I restrain myself, lest I should 
perish through boasting. For now it 
is needful for me to be the more fear- 
ful, and not give heed to those that 
puff me up. For they that speak to 
me [in the way of commendation] 
scourge me. For I do indeed desire 
to suffer, but I know not if I be worthy 
to do so. For this longing, though it 
is not manifest to many, all the more 
vehemently assails me.'^ I therefore 
have need of meekness, by which the 
prince of this world is brought to 

But I measure myself, that I may not perish through 
boasting : but it is good to glory in the Lord.'° And even 
though I were established " in things pertaining to God, 
yet then would it befit me to be the more fearful, and not 
give heed to those that vainly puff me up. For those that 
commend me scourge me. [I do indeed desire to 
suffer "], but I know not if I be worthy to do so. For the 
envy of the wicked one is not visible to many, but it wars 
against me. I therefore have need of meekness, by which 
the devil, the prince of this world, is brought to nought. 

 It IS doubtful whether this exhortation is addressed to the deacons or people; whether the former are urged in all respects to please 
latter, or the latter in all points to be pleased with the former. ^ Literally, " commandment." The text, which is faulty in the MS., 
been amended as above by Smith. 3 Or, " conjunction." ■* Literally, " no Church is called." 5 Or, " pattern." 

^ Literally, " great instruction." ' Some here follow a text similar to that of the longer recension. 

* Both the text and meaning are here very doubtful ; some follow the reading of the longer recension. 

9 Literally, " I know many things in God." '° i Cor. i. 31. " Or, " confirmed." '^ Omitted in the MS. 
'3 A different turn altogether is given to this passage in the longer recension. 





Am I not able to write to you of 
heavenly things? But I fear to do so, 
lest I should inflict injury on you who 
are but babes [in Christ]. Pardon 
me in this respect, lest, as not being 
able to receive [such doctrines], ye 
should be strangled by them. For 
even I, though I am bound [for Christ] , 
yet am not on that account able to un- 
derstand heavenly things, and the 
places * of the angels, and their gather- 
ings under their respective princes, 
things visible and invisible. Without 
reference to such abstruse subjects, I 
am still but a learner [in other re- 
spects 5] ; for many things are wanting 
to us, that we come not short of God. 

For might ' not I write to you things more full of mystery ? 
But I fear to do so, lest I should inflict injury on you 
who are but babes [in Christ]. Pardon me in this re.- 
spect, lest, as not being able to receive their weighty im- 
port, ^ ye should be strangled by them. For even I, though 
I am bound [for Christ], and am able to understand heaven- 
ly things, the angelic orders, and the different sorts ^ of 
angels and hosts, the distinctions between powers and do- 
minions, and the diversities between thrones and author- 
ities, the mightiness of the ALons, and the pre-eminence 
of the cherubim and seraphim, the sublimity of the spirit, 
the kingdom of the Lord, and above all, the incomparable 
majesty of Almighty God — though I am acquainted with 
these things, yet am I not therefore by any means per- 
fect ; nor am I such a disciple as Paul or Peter. For 
many things are yet wanting to me, that I may not fall 
short of God. 


I therefore, yet not I, but the love 
of Jesus Christ, entreat you that ye use 
Christian nourishment only, and ab- 
stain from herbage of a different kind ; 
I mean heresy. For those ? [that are 
given to this] mix" up Jesus Christ 
with their own poison, speaking things 
which are unworthy of credit, like 
those who administer a deadly drug in 
• sweet wine, which he who is ignorant 
of does greedily '^ take, with a fatal 
pleasure, '*♦ leading to his own death. 

I therefore, yet not I, but the love of Jesus Christ, " en- 
treat you that ye all speak the same thing, and that there 
be no divisions among you ; but that ye be perfectly joined 
together in the same mind, and in the same judgment." ^ 
For there are some vain talkers^ and deceivers, not 
Christians, but Christ-betrayers, ^ bearing about the name 
of Christ in deceit, and " corrupting the word " '° of the 
Gospel ; while they intermix the poison of their deceit with 
their persuasive talk,'^ as if they mingled aconite with 
sweet wine, that so he who drinks, being deceived in his 
taste by the very great sweetness of the draught, may 
incautiously meet with his death. One of the ancients 
gives us this advice, " Let no man be called good who 
mixes good with evil." '5 For they speak of Christ, 
not that they may preach Christ, but that they may re- 
ject Christ ; and they speak '^ of the law, not that they 
may establish the law, but that they may proclaim things 
contrary to it. For they alienate Christ from the Father, 
and the law from Christ. They also calumniate His be- 
ing born of the Virgin; they are ashamed of His cross; 
they deny His passion; and they do not believe His resur- 
rection. They introduce God as a Being unknown ; 
they suppose Christ to be unbegotten ; and as to the 
Spirit, they do not admit that He exists. Some of them 
say that the Son is a mere man, and that the Father, Son, 
and Holy Spirit are but the same person, and that the 
creation is the work of God, not by Christ, but by some 
other strange power. 


Be on your guard, therefore, against 
such persons. And this will be the 
case with you if you are not puffed 
up, and continue in intimate union 
with '7 Jesus Christ our God, and the 

Be on your guard, therefore, against such persons, that 
ye admit not of a snare for your own souls. And act so 
that your life shall be without offence to all men, lest ye 
become as " a snare upon a watch-tower, and as a net 
which is spread out." '** For " he that does not heal him- 

' (^ovXofnjv apparently by mistake for eSvfanriv. ^ Literally, " their force." 
5 Literally, " passing by this; " but both text and meaning are very doubtful. 

3 Or, " varieties of."  Or, " stations." 
* I Cor. i. ID. 7 The ellipsis in the original is here 

Very variously supplied.^ ' ' Tit. i. lo. 9 Literally, " Christ-sellers." "^ 2 Cor. ii. 17. " Literally, " interweave." 

■2 Literally, " sweet address." 'J Or, " sweetly." '* The construction is here difficult and doubtful. '5 Apost. Constitutions, -vi.i-i. 
"• Supplied from the old Latin version. " Literally, " unseparated from." ■* Hos. v. i. 


bishop, and the enactments of the self in his own works, is the brother of him that destroys 
apostles. He that is within the altar himself." ' If, therefore, ye also put away conceit, arro- 
is pure, but ^ he that is without is not gance, disdain, and haughtiness, it will be your privilege 
pure ; that is, he who does anything to be inseparably united to God, for " He is nigh unto 
apart from the bishop, and presbytery, those that fear Him." ^ And says He, "Upon whom 
and deacons,-* such a man is not pure will I look, but upon him that is humble and quiet, and 
in his conscience. that trembles at my words? " 5 And do ye also reverence 

your bishop as Christ Himself, according as the blessed 
apostles have enjoined you. He that is within the altar 
is pure, wherefore also he is obedient to the bishop and 
presbyters : but he that is without is one that does any- 
thing apart from the bishop, the presbyters, and the 
deacons. Such a person is defiled in his conscience, and 
is worse than an infidel. For what is the bishop but one 
who beyond all others possesses all power and authority, 
so far as it is possible for a man to possess it, who accord- 
ing to his ability has been made an imitator of the Christ 
of God?^ And what is the presbytery but a sacred 
assembly, the counsellors and assessors of the bishop? 
And what are the deacons but imitators of the angelic 
powers,? fulfilling a pure and blameless ministry unto him, 
as the holy Stephen did to the blessed James, Timothy 
and Linus to Paul, Anencletus and Clement to Peter? 
He, therefore, that will not yield obedience to such, 
must needs be one utterly without God, an impious man 
who despises Christ, and depreciates His appointments. 


Not that I know there is anything Now I write these things unto you, not that I know 

of this kind among you ; but I put there are any such persons among you ; nay, indeed I 
you on your guard, inasmuch as I hope that God will never permit any such report to reach 
love you greatly, and foresee the my ears. He " who spared not His Son for the sake of 
snares of the devil. Wherefore, cloth- His holy Church." ** But foreseeing the snares of the 
ing" yourselves with meekness, be ye wicked one, I arm you betbrehand by my admonitions, 
renewed '- in faith, that is the flesh of as my beloved and faithful children in Christ, furnishing 
the Lord, and in love, that is the you with the means of protection ^ against the deadly 
blood of Jesus Christ. Let no one disease of unruly men, by which do ye flee from the 
of you cherish any grudge against his disease '° [referred to] by the good-will of Christ our 
neighbour. Give no occasion to the Lord. Do ye therefore, clothing " yourselves with meek- 
Gentiles, lest by means of a few fool- ness, become the imitators of His sufferings, and of His 
ish men the whole multitude [of those love, wherewith '^ He loved us when He gave Himself a 
that believe] in God be evil spoken ransom '•♦ for us, that He might cleanse us by His blood 
of. For, " Woe to him by whose from our old ungodliness, and bestow life on us when we 
vanity my name is blasphemed among were almost on the point of perishing through the de- 
any." ■? pravity that was in us. Let no one of you, therefore, 

cherish any grudge against his neighbour. For says our 
Lord, " Forgive, and it shall be forgiven unto you." '5 
Give no occasion to the Gentiles, lest " by means of a 
few foolish men the word and doctrine [of Christ] be 
blasphemed." '^ For says the prophet, as in the person 
of God, " Woe to him by whom my name is blasphemed 
among the Gentiles." '' 


Stop your ears, therefore, when any Stop your ears, therefore, when any one speaks to you 
one speaks to you at variance with '** at variance with '* Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who was 

' Prov. xviii. 9 (LXX.). * This clause is inserted from the ancient Latin version. ^ Ps. Ixxxv. 9.  The text has "deacon." 
S Isa. Ixvi. 2. 6 Some render, " being a resemblance according to the power of Christ." 7 Some read, " imitators of Christ, 

ministering to the bishop, as Christ to the Father." ' Rom. viii. 32. 9 Literally, " making you drink beforehand what will preserve you." 
•° Or, " from which disease." " Literally, " taking up." '^ Or, " renew yourselves." '^ Comp. Eph. ii. 4. 
'* Comp. I Tim. ii. 6. 's Matt. vi. 14. '* i Tim. vi. i; Tit. ii. 5. '^ Isa. lii. 5. " Literally, " apart from." 



Jesus Christ, who was descended from 
David, and was also of Mary ; who 
was truly born, and did eat and drink. 
He was truly persecuted under Pon- 
tius Pilate ; He was truly crucified, 
and [truly] died, in the sight of be- 
ings in heaven, and on earth, and 
under the earth. He was also truly 
raised from the dead. His Father 
quickening Him, even as after the 
same manner His Father will so raise 
up us who believe in Him by Christ 
Jesus, apart from whom we do not 
possess the true life. 

descended from David, and was also of Mary ; who was 
truly begotten of God and of the Virgin, but not after 
the same manner. For indeed God and man are not the 
same. He truly assumed a body ; for " the Word was 
made flesh," ' and lived upon earth without sin. For 
says He, "Which of you convicteth me of sin?"^ He 
did in reality both eat and drink. He was crucified and 
died under Pontius Pilate. He really, and not merely in 
appearance, was crucified, and died, in the sight of be- 
ings in heaven, and on earth, and under the earth. By 
those in heaven I mean such as are possessed of incor- 
poreal natures ; by those on earth, the Jews and Romans, 
and such persons as were present at that time when the 
Lord was crucified ; and by those under the earth, the mul- 
titude that arose along with the Lord. For says the 
Scripture, " Many bodies of the saints that slept arose," ^ 
their graves being opened. He descended, indeed, into 
Hades alone, but He arose accompanied by a multitude ; 
and rent asunder that means  of separation which had 
existed from the beginning of the world, and cast down 
its partition-wall. He also rose again in three days, the 
Father raising Him up ; and after spending forty days 
with the apostles, He was received up to the Father, and 
" sat down at His right hand, expecting till His enemies 
are placed under His feet." s On the day of the prepa- 
ration, then, at the third hour. He received the sentence 
from Pilate, the Father permitting that to happen ; at the 
sixth hour He was crucified ; at the ninth hour He gave 
up the ghost ; and before sunset He was buried.^ Dur- 
ing the Sabbath He continued under the earth in the tomb 
in which Joseph of Arimathaea had laid Him. At the 
dawning ot the Lord's day He arose from the dead, ac- 
cording to what was spoken by Himself, " As Jonah was 
three days and three nights in the whale's belly, so shall 
the Son of man also be three days and three nights in 
the heart of the earth." ^ The day of the preparation, 
then, comprises the passion ; the Sabbath embraces the 
burial ; the Lord's Day contains the resurrection. 


But if, as some that are without 
God, that is, the unbelieving, say, that 
He only seemed to suffer (they them- 
selves only seeming to exist), then 
why am I in bonds ? Why do I long 
to be exposed to ^ the wild beasts ? 
Do I therefore die in vain ? 9 Am I 
not then guilty of falsehood '° against 
[the cross of] the Lord? 

But if, as some that are without God, that is, the un- 
believing, say, He became man in appearance [only], 
that He did not in reality take unto Him a body, that 
He died in appearance [merely], and did not in very 
deed suffer, then for what reason am I now in bonds, 
and long to be exposed to ** the wild beasts ? In such a 
case, I die in vain, and am guilty of falsehood '° against 
the cross of the Lord. Then also does the prophet in 
vain declare, " They shall look on Him whom they have 
pierced, and mourn over themselves as over one be- 
loved." " These men, therefore, are not less unbelievers 
than were those that crucified Him. But as for me, I do 
not place my hopes in one who died for me in appear- 
ance, but in reality. For that which is false is quite 
abhorrent to the truth. Mary then did truly conceive a 

' John i. 14. ^ John viii. 46. 3 Malt, xxvii, 52. * Literally, " hedge," or " fence." 5 Heb. x. 12, 13. 
^ Some read, " He was taken dowr. from the cross, and laid in a new tomb." ' Matt. xii. 40. 8 I^iterally, "' to fight with." 
9 Some read this and the following clause affirmatively, instead of interrogatively. '° The meaning is, that if they spoke the truth 

concerning the phantasmal character of Christ's death, then Ignatius was guilty of a practical falsehood in suffering for what was false. 
" Zech. xii. 10. 



body which had God inhabiting it. And God the Word 
was truly born of the Virgin, having clothed Himself with 
a body of like passions with our own. He who forms all 
men in the womb, was Himself really in the womb, and 
made for Himself a body of the seed of the Virgin, but 
without any intercourse of man. He was carried in the 
womb, even as we are, for the usual period of time ; and 
was really born, as we also are ; and was in reality nour- 
ished with milk, and partook of common meat and drink, 
even as we do. And when He had lived among men for 
thirty years, He was baptized by John, really and not in 
appearance ; and when He had preached the Gospel 
three years, and done signs and wonders. He who was 
Himself the Judge was judged by the Jews, falsely so 
called, and by Pilate the governor ; was scourged, was 
smitten on the cheek, was spit upon ; He wore a crown 
of thorns and a purple robe ; He was condemned : He 
was crucified in reality, and not in appearance, not in 
imagination, not in deceit. He really died, and was 
buried, and rose from the dead, even as He prayed in a 
certain place, saying, " But do Thou, O Lord, raise me 
up again, and I shall recompense them." ' And the 
Father, who always hears Him,^ answered and said, 
" Arise, O God, and judge the earth ; for Thou shalt 
receive all the heathen for Thine inheritance." ^ The 
Father, therefore, who raised Him up, will also raise us up 
through Him, apart from whom no one will attain to true 
life. For says He, "I am the life ; he that believeth in 
me, even though he die, shall live : and every one that 
liveth and believeth in me, even though he die, shall live 
for ever." ^ Do ye therefore flee from these ungodly 
heresies ; for they are the inventions of the devil, that 
serpent who was the author of evil, and who by means of 
the woman deceived Adam, the father of our race. 


Flee, therefore, those evil offshoots 
[of Satan], which produce death- 
bearing fruit, whereof if any one 
tastes, he instantly dies. For these 
men are not the planting of the Father. 
For if they were, they would appear 
as branches of the cross, and their 
fruit would be incorruptible. By it ^ 
He calls you through His passion, as 
being His members. The head, there- 
fore, cannot be bom by itself, without 
its members ; God, who is [the Sav- 
iour] Himself, having promised their 

Do ye also avoid those wicked offshoots of his, s Simon 
his firstborn son, and Menander, and Basilides, and all 
his wicked mob of followers,^ the worshippers of a man, 
whom also the prophet Jeremiah pronounces accursed. ^ 
Flee also the impure Nicolaitanes, falsely so called,** who 
are lovers of pleasure, and given to calumnious speeches. 
Avoid also the children of the evil one, Theodotus and 
Cleobulus, who produce death-bearing fruit, whereof if 
any one tastes, he instantly dies, and that not a mere 
temporary death, but one that shall endure for ever. 
These men are not the planting of the Father, but are 
an accursed brood. And says the Lord, " Let every plant 
which my heavenly Father has not planted be rooted 


" II 

For if they had been branches of the Father, 

they would not have been " enemies of the cross of 
Christ," '^ but rather of those who " killed the Lord 
of glory." '3 But now, by denying the cross, and being 
ashamed of the passion, they cover the transgression of 
the Jews, those fighters against God, those murderers 
of the Lord ; for it were too little to style them merely 

' Ps. xli. 10. 2 Comp. John xi. 42. 3 Pg. Ixxxli. 8.  John xi. 25, 26. 5 i.e., Satan's. * Literally, " loud, confused noise." 
' The Eblonltes, who denied the divine nature of our Lord, are here referred to. ^ It seems to be here denied that Nicolas was the 

founder of this school of heretics. 9 i.e., the cross. '° Both text and meaning are here doubtful. " Matt. xv. 13. '- Phil. iiL 18. 
» I Cor. ii. 8. 



murderers of the prophets. But Christ invites you to 
[share in] His immortality, by His passion and resurrec- 
tion, inasmuch as ye are His members. 


I salute you from Smyrna, together 
with the Churches of God which are 
with me, who have refreshed me in all 
things, both in the flesh and in the 
spirit. My bonds, which I carry about 
with me for the sake of Jesus Christ 
(praying that I may attain to God), 
exhort you. Continue in harmony 
among yourselves, and in prayer with 
one another ; for it becomes every 
one of you, and especially the presby- 
ters, to refresh the bishop, to the hon- 
our of the Father, of Jesus Christ, 
and of the apostles. I entreat you in 
love to hear me, that I may not, by 
having written, be a testimony against 
you. And do ye also pray for me, 
who have need of your love, along 
with the mercy of God, that I may 
be worthy of the lot for which I am 
destined, and that I may not be found 

I salute you from Smyrna, together with the Churches 
of God which are with me, whose rulers have refreshed 
me in every respect, both in the flesh and in the spirit. 
My bonds, which I carry about with me for the sake of 
Jesus Christ (praying that I may attain to God), exhort 
you. Continue in harmony among yourselves, and in 
supplication ; for it becomes every one of you, and espe- 
cially the presbyters, to refresh the bishop, to the 
honour of the Father, and to the honour of Jesus Christ 
and of the apostles. I entreat you in love to hear me, 
that I may not, by having thus written, be a testimony 
against you. And do ye also pray for me, who have need 
of your love, along with the mercy of God, that I may 
be thought worthy to attain the lot for which I am now 
designed, and that I may not be found reprobate. 


The love of the Smymgeans and 
Ephesians salutes you. Remember 
in your prayers the Church which is 
in Syria, from which also I am not 
worthy to receive my appellation, 
being the last ' of them. Fare ye 
well in Jesus Christ, while ye continue 
subject to the bishop, as to the com- 
mand [of God], and in like manner 
to the presbytery. And do ye, every 
man, love one another with an un- 
divided heart. Let my spirit be sanc- 
tified ^ by yours, not only now, but 
also when I shall attain to God. For 
I am as yet exposed to danger. But 
the Father is faithful in Jesus Christ 
to fulfil both mine and your petitions : 
in whom may ye be found unblame- 

The love of the Smyrnseans and Ephesians salutes you. 
Remember our Church which is in Syria, from which I 
am not worthy to receive my appellation, being the last ' 
of those of that place. Fare ye well in the Lord Jesus 
Christ, while ye continue subject to the bishop, and in 
like manner to the presbyters and to the deacons. And 
do ye, every man, love one another with an undivided 
heart. My spirit salutes you,^ not only now, but also 
when I shall have attained to God ; for I am as yet ex- 
posed to danger. But the Father of Jesus Christ is faith- 
ful to fulfil both mine and your petitions : in whom may 
we be found without spot. May I have joy of you in the 

' i.e., the least. * The shorter recension reads ayvCitrt, and the longer also hesitates between this and acrjrd^eToi. 
leading the meaning is rery obscure : it has been corrected as above to iyvi^riTai. 

With the fonner 



Ignatius, who is also called Theopho- 
rus, to the Church which has ob- 
tained mercy, through the majesty 
of the Most High Father, and Je- 
sus Christ, His only-begotten Son; 
the Church which is beloved and 
enlightened by the will of Him 
that willeth all things which are ac- 
cording to the love of Jesus Christ 
our God, 7vhich also presides in 
the place of the region of the Ro- 
mans, ivorthy of God, worthy of 
honour, tvorthy of the highest hap- 
piness, worthy of praise, worthy of 
obtaining her every desire, worthy 
of being deemed holy^ and which 
presides over love, is named frofn 
Christ, and from the Father, which 
I also salute in the name of Jesus 
Christ, the Son of the Father : to 
those who are united, both accord- 
ing to the flesh and spirit, to every 
one of His commandments ; who 
are filed inseparably with the grace 
of God, and are purified from every 
strange taint, \_Jwish'\ abundance 
of happiness unblameably, in Jesus 
Christ our God. 

Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to the Church 
which has obtained mercy, through the majesty of the 
Most High God the Father, and of Jesus Christ, His 
only-begotten Son ; the Church which is sanctified and 
enlightened by the will of God, who formed all things 
that are according to the faith and love of Jesus Christ, 
our God and Saviour ; the Church which presides in the 
place of the region of the Romans, and 7vhich is worthy 
of God, worthy of honour, worthy of the highest happi- 
ness, worthy of praise, worthy of credit,^ zt'orthy of be- 
ing deemed holy,^ afid which presides over love, is named 
from Christ, and from the Father, and is possessed of 
the Spirit, which I also salute in the name of Almighty 
God, and of Jesus Christ His Son: to those who are 
united, both according to the flesh and spirit, to every 
one of His commandments, who are filled inseparably 
with all the grace of God, and are purified from every 
strange taint, [/ wisli] abundance of happiiiess un- 
blameably, in God, even the Father, and our Lord 
Jesus Christ. 


Through prayer ^ to God I have 
obtained the privilege of seeing your 
most worthy faces/ and have evens 
been granted more than I requested ; 
for I hope as a prisoner in Christ 
Jesus to salute you, if indeed it be 
the will of God that I be thought 
worthy of attaining unto the end. 
For the beginning has been well or- 


Through prayer to God I have obtained the privilege of 
seeing your most worthy faces,'* even as I earnestly begged 
might be granted me ; for as a prisoner in Christ Jesus I 
hope to salute you, if indeed it be the will [of God] that 
I be thought worthy of attaining unto the end. For the 
beginning has been well ordered, if I may obtain grace 
to cling to ^ my lot without hindrance unto the end. For 
I am afraid of your love,^ lest it should do me an injury. 
For it is easy for you to accomplish what you please ; 

^ Or, " most holy." 3 Some read, " since I have," leaving out the following " for," and finding the 
rally, " worthy of God." 5 Some read, " which I much desired to do." 6 Literally, " to receive." 

' Or as in the shorter recension. 

apodosisin " I hope to salute you."  Lite ^, ^ , , 

' He probably refers here, and in what follows, to the influence which their earnest prayers in his behalf might have with God 




dered, if I may obtain grace to cling but it is difficult for me to attain to God, if ye do not 

to ' my lot without hindrance unto spare me/ under the pretence of carnal affection. 

the end. For I am afraid of your 

love,^ lest it should do me an injury. 

For it is easy for you to accomplish 

what you please ; but it is difficult for 

me to attain to God, if ye spare me. 


For it is not my desire to act 
towards you as a man-pleaser,'* but 
as pleasing God, even as also ye 
please Him. For neither shall I ever 
have such [another] opportunity of 
attaining to God ; nor will ye, if ye 
shall now be silent, ever be entitled 
to 5 the honour of a better work. 
For if ye are silent concerning me, I 
shall become God's ; but if you show 
your love to my flesh, I shall again 
have to run my race. Pray, then, do 
not seek to confer any greater favour 
upon me than that I be sacrificed to 
God while the altar is still prepared ; 
that, being gathered together in love, 
ye may sing praise to the Father, 
through Christ Jesus, that God has 
deemed me, the bishop of Syria, 
worthy to be sent for^ from the 
east unto the west. It is good to 
set from the world unto God, that I 
may rise again to Him. 

For it is not my desire that ye should please men, but 
God, even as also ye do please Him. For neither shall 
I ever hereafter have such an opportunity of attaining to 
God ; nor will ye, if ye shall now be silent, ever be en- 
titled to 5 the honour of a better work. For if ye are 
silent concerning me, I shall become God's ; but if ye 
show your love to my flesh, I shall again have to run my 
race. Pray, then, do not seek to confer any greater 
favour upon me than that I be sacrificed to God, while 
the altar is still prepared ; that, being gathered together 
in love, ye may sing praise to the Father, through Christ 
Jesus, that God has deemed me, the bishop of Syria, 
worthy to be sent for^ from the east unto the west, and 
to become a martyr 7 in behalf of His own precious ^ suf- 
ferings, so as to pass from the world to God, that I may 
rise again unto Him. 



Ye have never envied any one ; ye 
have taught others. Now I desire 
that those things may be confirmed 
[by your conduct], which in your 
instructions ye enjoin [on others]. 
Only request in my behalf both in- 
ward and outward strength, that I 
may not only speak, but [truly] will ; 
and that I may not merely be called 
a Christian, but really be found to 
be one. For if I be truly found [a 
Christian], I may also be called one, 
and be then deemed faithful, when I 
shall no longer appear to the world. 
Nothing visible is eternal.^ " For the 
things which are seen are temporal, 
but the things which are not seen 
are eternal." '° For our God, Jesus 
Christ, now that He is with" the 
Father, is all the more revealed [in 

Ye have never envied any one ; ye have taught others. 
Now I desire that those things may be confirmed [by 
your conduct], which in your instructions ye enjoin [on 
others]. Only request in my behalf both inward and 
outward strength, that I may not only speak, but [truly] 
will, so that I may not merely be called a Christian, but 
really found to be one. For if I be truly found [a 
Christian] , I may also be called one, and be then deemed 
faithful, when I shall no longer appear to the world. 
Nothing visible is eternal. " For the things which are 
seen are temporal, but the things which are not seen are 
eternal.'" The Christian is not the result'* of persuasion, 
but of power.'s When he is hated by the world, he is 
beloved of God. For says [the Scripture], " If ye were 
of this world, the world would love its o^vn ; but now ye 
are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of it : 
continue in fellowship with me." '^ 

• Literally, " to receive." ^ Some read ye instead of mt> and translate as in shorter recension. 3 He probably refers here, and in 
what follows, to the influence which their earnest prayers in his behalf might have with God. * Some translate as in longer recension, but 
there is in the one case uiiii-, and in the other ujia?. 5 Literally, " have to be inscribed to." * Literally, " to be found and sent for." 
' The text is here in great confusion. ' Literally, "beautiful." Some read, " it is good," etc. 9 Some read, " good." 
'° 2 Cor. iv. i8. This quotation is not found in the old Latin version of the shorter recension. '^ Or, " in." '- Literally, " work." 
'•* The meaning is here doubtful. '* John xv. 19. 


His glory] . Christianity is not a thing ' 
of silence only, but also of [manifest] 


I write to the Churches, and im- I write to all the Churches, and impress on them all, 
press on them all, that I shall willingly that I shall willingly die for God, unless ye hinder me. 
die for God, unless ye hinder me. I I beseech of you not to show an unseasonable good- 
beseech of you not to show an unsea- will towards me. Suffer me to become food for the wild 
sonable good-will towards me. Suffer beasts, through whose instrumentality it will be granted 
me to become food for the wild beasts, me to attain to God. I am the wheat of God, and am 
through whose instrumentality it will ground by the teeth of the wild beasts, that I may be 
be granted me to attain to God. I found the pure bread of God. Rather entice the wild 
am the wheat of God, and let me beasts, that they may become my tomb, and may leave 
be ground by the teeth of the wild nothing of my body ; so that when I have fallen asleep 
beasts, that I may be found the pure [in death], I may not be found troublesome to any one. 
bread of Christ. Rather entice the Then shall I be a true disciple of Jesus Christ, when 
wild beasts, that they may become the world shall not see so much as my body. Entreat the 
my tomb, and may leave nothing of Lord for me, that by these instruments '^ I may be found 
my body ; so that when I have fallen a sacrifice to God. I do not, as Peter and Paul, issue 
asleep [in death], I maybe no trouble commandments unto you. They were apostles of Jesus 
to any one. Then shall I truly be a Christ, but I am the very least [of believers] : they were 
disciple of Christ, when the world free,^ as the servants of God ; while I am, even until 
shall not see so much as my body, now, a servant. But when I suffer, I shall be the freed- 
Entreat Christ for me, that by these man of Jesus Christ, and shall rise again emancipated in 
instruments ^ I may be found a sacri- Him. And now, being in bonds for Him, I learn not to 
fice [to God] . I do not, as Peter desire anything worldly or vain, 
and Paul, issue commandments unto 
you. . They were apostles ; I am but 
a condemned man : they were free,' 
while I am, even until now, a servant. 
But when I suffer, I shall be the freed- 
man of Jesus, and shall rise again 
emancipated in Him. And now, be- 
ing a prisoner, I learn not to desire 
anything worldly or vain. 


From Syria even unto Rome I fight From Syria even unto Rome I fight with beasts,* both 
with beasts,'* both by land and sea, by land and sea, both by night and day, being bound to 
both by night and day, being bound ten leopards, I mean a band of soldiers, who, even when 
to ten leopards, I mean a band of they receive benefits,^ show themselves all the worse, 
soldiers, who, even when they receive But I am the more instructed by their injuries [to act as 
benefits,^ show themselves all the a disciple of Christ] ; " yet am 1 not thereby justified." ^ 
worse. But I am the more instructed May I enjoy the wild beasts that are prepared for me ; 
by their injuries [to act as a disciple and I pray that they may be found eager to rush upon 
of Christ] ; " yet am I not thereby me, which also I will entice to devour me speedily, and 
justified." ^ May I enjoy the wild not deal with me as with some, whom, out of fear, they 
beasts that are prepared for me ; and have not touched. But if they be unwilling to assail me, 
I pray they may be found eager to I will compel them to do so. Pardon me [in this] : I 
rush upon me, which also I will entice know what is for my benefit. Now I begin to be a dis- 
to devour me speedily, and not deal ciple, and have ^ no desire after anything visible or invisi- 
with me as with some, whom, out of ble, that I may attain to Jesus Christ. Let fire and the 
fear, they have not touched. But if cross ; let the crowds of wild beasts ; let breakings, tear- 
they be unwilling to assail me, I will ings, and separations of bones ; let cutting off of mem- 
compel them to do so. Pardon me bers ; let bruising to pieces of the whole body ; and let 

' Literally, " work." ^ j e., by the teeth of the wild beasts, 3 " Free," probably from human infirmity. < Comp. i Cor. xv. 32, 
where the word is also used figuratively. ' Probably the soldiers received gifts from the Christians, to treat Ignatius with kindness. 

6 I Cor. iv. 4. ' In the shorter recension there is i'ljAoJ*}), .ind in the longer C,-i\\i)aa.i.\ hence the variety of rendering, but the tran*. 

lation is by no means certain. 




[in this] : I know what is for my 
benefit. Now I begin to be a (hsci- 
ple. And let no one, of things visi- 
ble or invisible, envy ' me that I 
should attain to Jesus Christ. Let 
fire and the cross ; let the crowds of 
wild beasts ; let tearings,^ breakings, 
and dislocations of bones ; let cutting 
off of members ; let shatterings of the 
whole body ; and let all the dreadful ^ 
torments of the devil come upon me : 
only let me attain to Jesus Christ. 

the very torment of the devil come upon me : only let 
me attain to Jesus Christ. 



All the pleasures of the world, and All the ends of the world, and all the kingdoms of this 

all the kingdoms of this earth,'* shall earth,'* shall profit me nothing. It is better for me to die 
profit me nothing. It is better for for the sake of Jesus Christ, than to reign over all the 
me to die in behalf of 5 Jesus Christ, ends of the earth. " For what is a man profited, if he 
than to reign over all the ends of the gain the whole world, but lose his own soul?" I long 
earth. " For what shall a man be after the Lord, the Son of the true God and Father, even 
profited, if he gain the whole world, Jesus Christ. Him I seek, who died for us and rose 
but lose his own soul?"^ Him I again. Pardon me, brethren: do not hinder me in 

attaining to life ; for Jesus is the life of believers. Do 
not wish to keep me in a state of death, ^ for life without 
Christ is death. While I desire to belong to God, do 
not ye give me over to the world. Suffer me to obtain 
pure light : when I have gone thither, I shall indeed be 
a man of God. Permit me to be an imitator of the 

seek, who died for us : Him I desire, 
who rose again for our sake. This is 
the gain which is laid up for me. 
Pardon me, brethren : do not hinder 
me from living, do not wish to keep 
me in a state of death ; ^ and while I 

desire to belong to God, do not ye passion of Christ, my God. If any one has Him within 

give me over to the world. Suffer 
me to obtain pure light : when I have 
gone thither, I shall indeed be a man 
of God. Permit me to be an imitator 
of the passion of my God. If any 
one has Him within himself, let him 
consider what I desire, and let him 
have sympathy with me, as knowing 
how I am straitened. 


The prince of this world would fain 
carry me away, and corrupt my dispo- 
sition towards God. Let none of you, 
therefore, who are [in Rome] help 
him ; rather be ye on my side, that 
is, on the side of God. Do not speak 
of Jesus Christ, and yet set your de- 
sires on the world. Let not envy 
find a dwelling-place among you ; nor 
even should I, when present with you, 
exhort you to it, be ye persuaded to 
listen to me, but rather give credit to 
those things which I now write to you. 
For though I am alive while I write to 
you, yet I am eager to die. My love ^ 
has been crucified, and there is no 

himself, let him consider what I desire, and let him have 
sympathy with me, as knowing how I am straitened. 


The prince of this world would fain carry me away, 
and corrupt my disposition towards God. Let none of 
you, therefore, who are [in Rome] help him ; rather be 
ye on my side, that is, on the side of God. Do not 
speak of Jesus Christ, and yet prefer this world to Him. 
Let not envy find a dwelling-place among you ; nor even 
should I, when present with you, exhort you to it, be ye 
persuaded, but rather give credit to those things which I 
now write to you. For though I am alive while I write 
to you, yet I am eager to die for the sake of Christ. My 
love ^ has been crucified, and there is no fire in me that 
loves anything ; but there is living water springing up in 
me, 9 and which says to me inwardly. Come to the Father. 
I have no delight in corruptible food, nor in the pleasures 
of this life. I desire the bread of God, the heavenly 
bread, the bread of life, which is the flesh of Jesus Christ, 

' In the shorter recension there is ^tjAioot?, and in the longer ^jjAuxrai; hence the variety of rendering, but the translation is by no means 
certain. ^ Some deem this and the following word spurious. 3 Literally, " evil." * Literally, " this age." 5 Literally, " into." 

<> Matt. xvi. 26. Some omit this quotation. 7 Literally, "to die." ' Some understand by /eve in this passage, Christ Himsti/; 

others regard it as referring to the natural desires 0/ the heart. 9 Comp. John iv. 14. 



fire in me desiring to be fed ; ' but the Son of God, who became afterwards of the seed of 
there is within me a water that Uveth David and Abraham ; and I desire the drink, namely His 
and speaketh,^ saying to me inwardly, blood, which is incorruptible love and eternal life. 
Come to the Father. I have no de- 
light in corruptible food, nor in the 
pleasures of this life. I desire the 
bread of God, the heavenly bread, 
the bread of life, which is the flesh of 
Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who 
became afterwards of the seed of 
David and Abraham ; and I desire 
the drink of God, namely His blood, 
which is incorruptible love and eter- 
nal life. 


I no longer wish to live after the manner of men, and 
my desire shall be fulfilled if ye consent. " I am cruci- 
fied with Christ : nevertheless I live ; yet no longer I, 
since Christ liveth in me." ^ I entreat you in this brief 
letter : do not refuse me ; believe me that I love Jesus, 
who was delivered [to death] for my sake. " What shall 
I render to the Lord for all His benefits towards me?"'' 
Now God, even the Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ, 
shall reveal these things to you, [so that ye shall know] 
that I speak truly. And do ye pray along with me, that 
I may attain my aim in the Holy Spirit. I have not writ- 
ten to you according to the flesh, but according to the 
will of God. If I shall suffer, ye have loved me ; but if 
I am rejected, ye have hated me. 

I no longer wish to live after the 
manner of men, and my desire shall 
be fulfilled if ye consent. Be ye will- 
ing, then, that ye also may have your 
desires fulfilled. I entreat you in 
this brief letter ; do ye give credit to 
me. Jesus Christ will reveal these 
things to you, [so that ye shall know] 
that I speak truly. He 5 is the mouth 
altogether free from falsehood, by 
which the Father has truly spoken. 
Pray ye for me, that I may attain 
[the object of my desire]. I have 
not written to you according to the 
flesh, but according to the will of God. 
If I shall suffer, ye have wished [well] 
to me ; but if I am rejected, ye have 
hated me. 


Remember in your prayers the Remember in your prayers the Church which is in 

Church in Syria, which now has God Syria, which, instead of me, has now for its shepherd the 
for its shepherd, instead of me. Lord, who says, " I am the good Shepherd." And He 
Jesus Christ alone will oversee it, and alone will oversee it, as well as your love towards Him. 
your love [will also regard it] . But But as for me, I am ashamed to be counted one of them ; 
as for me, I am ashamed to be for I am not worthy, as being the very last of them, and 
counted one of them ; for indeed I one born out of due time. But I have obtained mercy to 
am not worthy, as being the very last be somebody, if I shall attain to God. My spirit salutes 
of them, and one born out of due you, and the love of the Churches which have received 
time.^ But I have obtained mercy to me in the name of Jesus Christ, and not as a mere passer- 
be somebody, if I shall attain to God. by. For even those Churches which were not near to me 
My spirit salutes you, and the love of in the way, have brought me forward, city by city, 
the Churches that have received me 
in the name of Jesus Christ, and not 
as a mere passer-by. For even those 
Churches which were not ^ near to me 
in the way, I mean according to the 
flesh,^ have gone before me,9 city by 
city, [to meet me.] 

' Literally, " desiring material." * The text and meaning are here doubtful. We have followed Hefele, who understands by the watei 

the Holy Spirit, and refers to John vii. 38. 3 Gal. ii. 20. * Ps. cxvi. 12. 5 Some refer this to Ignatius himself. 

*> Comp. I Cor. XV. 8, 9. ' Some refer this to the jurisdiction of Ignatius. * i.e., the outward road he had to travel. 
9 Or, " have sent me forward; " comp. Tit. iii. 13. 




Now I write these things to you 
from Smyrna by the Ephesians, who 
are deservedly most happy. There is 
also with me, along with many others, 
Crocus, one dearly beloved by me.' 
As to those who have gone before me 
from Syria to Rome for the glory of 
God, I believe that you are acciuainted 
with them ; to whom, [then,] do ye 
make known that I am at hand. For 
they are all worthy, both of (iod and 
of you ; and it is becoming that you 
should refresh them in all things. I 
have written these things unto you, on 
the day before the ninth of the Kal- 
ends of September (that^ is, on the 
twenty-third day of August). Fare 
ye well to the end, in the patience of 
Jesus Christ. Amen. 

Now I write these things to you from Smyrna by the 
Ephesians, who are deservedly most happy. There is 
also with me, along with many others. Crocus, one dearly 
beloved by me." As to those who have gone before me 
from Syria to Rome for the glory of God, I believe that 
you are acquainted with them ; to whom, [then,] do ye 
make known that I am at hand. For they are all worthy, 
both of God and of you ; and it is becoming that you 
should refresh them in all things. I have written these 
things unto you on the day before the ninth of the 
Kalends of September. Fare ye well to the end, in the 
patience of Jesus Christ. 

I Literally, " the name desired to me." * This clause is evidently an explanatory gloss which has crept into the text. 



Ignatius, who is also called Theopho- 
rus, to the Church of God the 
Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ, 
which is at Philadelphia, in Asia, 
which has obtained mercy, and is 
established in the harmony of God, 
and rejoiceth unceasingly ' iri the 
passion of our Lord, and is filled 
with all mercy through his resur- 
rection ; which I salute in the blood 
of Jesus Christ, who is our eternal 
and enduring joy, especially if 
\men'\ are in u?iiiy with the bishop, 
the presbyters, and the deacons, who 
have been appointed according to 
the mind of Jesus Christ, whom He 
has established in security, after His 
own will, and by His Holy Spirit. 

Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to the Church of 
God the Father, and of the Lord Jesus Christ, which 
is at Philadelphia, which has obtained mercy through 
love, and is established in the harmony of God, and 
rejoiceth unceasiiigly,^ in the passion of our Lord Jesus, 
and is filled with all mercy through His resurrection ; 
which I salute in the blood of Jesus Christ, who is our 
eternal and enduring joy, especially to those who are in 
unity with the bishop, and the presbyters, and the dea- 
cons, who have been appointed by the will of God the 
Father, through the Lord Jesus Christ, zvho, according 
to His own will, has firjuly established His Church 
upon a rock, by a spiritual bziilding, not ?nade with 
hands, against which the winds and the floods have 
beaten, yet have not been able to overthrow it:'^ yea, 
and may spiritual wickedness never be able to do so, but 
be thoroughly weakened by the power of Jesus Christ 
our Lord. 


Which bishop,' I know, obtained 
the ministry which pertains to the 
common [weal], not of himself, neither 
by men,'* nor through vainglory, but 
by the love of God the Father, and 
the Lord Jesus Christ ; at whose 
meekness I am struck with admiration, 
and who by his silence is able to ac- 
complish more than those who vainly 
talk. For he is in harmony with the 
commandments [of God], even as 
the harp is with its strings. Where- 
fore my soul declares his mind to- 
wards God a happy one, knowing it to 
be virtuous and perfect, and that his 
stability as well as freedom from all 
anger is after the example of the in- 
finite ^ meekness of the living God. 

Having beheld your bishop, I know that he was not 
selected to undertake the ministry which pertains to the 
common [weal], either by himself or by men,"* or out of 
vainglory, but by the love of Jesus Christ, and of God 
the Father, who raised Him from the dead ; at whose 
meekness I am struck with admiration, and who by His 
silence is able to accomplish more than they who talk a 
great deal. For he is in harmony with the command- 
ments and ordinances of the Lord, even as the strings 
are with the harp, and is no less blameless than was 
Zacharias the priest.5 Wherefore my soul declares his 
mind towards God a happy one, knowing it to be virtuous 
and perfect, and that his stability as well as freedom from 
all anger is after the example of the infinite meekness of 
the living God. 

CHAP. II. — maintain union WITH THE BISHOP. 

Wherefore, as children of light and 
truth, flee from division and wicked 

Wherefore, as children of light and truth, avoid the 
dividing of your unity, and the wicked doctrine of the 

' Or, " inseparably." * Comp. Matt. vii. 25. 3 The bishop previously referred to.  Comp. Gal. i. i. s Luke i. 6. * Literally, " alL" 




doctrines ; but where the shepherd is, 
there do ye as sheep follow. For 
there are many wolves that appear 
worthy of credit, who, by means of a 
pernicious pleasure, carry captive ^ 
those that are running towards God ; 
but in your unity they shall have no 

heretics, from whom " a defiling influence has gone forth 
into all the earth." ' But where the shepherd is, there 
do ye as sheep follow. For there are many wolves in 
sheep's clothing,^ who, by means of a pernicious pleasure, 
carry captive ^ those that are running towards God ; but 
in your unity they shall have no place. 


Keep yourselves from those evil 
plants which Jesus Christ does not 
tend, because they are not the plant- 
ing of the Father. Not that I have 
found any division among you, but 
exceeding purity. For as many as 
are of God and of Jesus Christ are 
also with the bishop. And as many 
as shall, in the exercise of repentance, 
return into the unity of the Church, 
these, too, shall belong to God, that 
they may live according to Jesus 
Christ. Do not err, my brethren. 
If any man follows him that makes a 
schism in the Church, he shall not 
inherit the kingdom of God. If any 
one walks according to a strange 5 opin- 
ion, he agrees not with the passion 
[of Christ]. 

Keep yourselves, then, from those evil plants which 
Jesus Christ does not tend, but that wild beast, the de- 
stroyer of men, because they are not the planting of 
the Father, but the seed of the wicked one. Not that I 
have found any division among you do I write these 
things ; but I arm you beforehand, as the children of 
God. For as many as are of Christ are also with the 
bishop ; but as many as fall away from him, and embrace 
communion with the accursed, these shall be cut off along 
with them. For they are not Christ's husbandry, but the 
seed of the enemy, from whom may you ever be delivered 
by the prayers of the shepherd, that most faithful and 
gentle shepherd who presides over you. I therefore ex- 
hort you in the Lord to receive with all tenderness those 
that repent and return to the unity of the Church, that 
through your kindness and forbearance they may recover ■* 
themselves out of the snare of the devil, and becoming wor- 
thy of Jesus Christ, may obtain eternal salvation in the 
kingdom of Christ. Brethren, be not deceived. If any 
man follows him that separates from the truth, he shall not 
inherit the kingdom of God ; and if any man does not 
stand aloof from the preacher of falsehood, he shall be 
condemned to hell. For it is obligatory neither to sepa- 
rate from the godly, nor to associate with the ungodly. 
If any one walks according to a strange s opinion, he is 
not of Christ, nor a partaker of His passion ;but is a fox,^ 
a destroyer of the vineyard of Christ. Have no fellow- 
ship 7 with such a man, lest ye perish along with him, even 
should he be thy father, thy son, thy brother, or a mem- 
ber of thy family. For says [the Scripture], " Thine eye 
shall not spare him." ^ You ought therefore to " hate 
those that hate God, and to waste away [with grief] on 
account of His enemies." 9 I do not mean that you 
should beat them or persecute them, as do the Gentiles 
" that know not the Lord and God ; " '° but that you 
should regard them as your enemies, and separate your- 
selves from them, while yet you admonish them, and ex- 
hort them to repentance, if it may be they will hear, if it 
may be they will submit themselves. For our God is a 
lover of mankind, and " will have all men to be saved, 
and to come to the knowledge of the truth." " Where- 
fore " He makes His sun to rise upon the evil and on the 
good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust ; " '^ 
of whose kindness the Lord, wishing us also to be imita- 
tors, says, " Be ye perfect, even as also your Father that 
is in heaven is perfect." '^ 

' Jer. xxiii. 1.5. " Comp. Matt. vii. 15. 3 Comp. 2 Tim. iii. 6. * 2 Tim. ii. 26. 5 i.e., heretical. * Comp. Song of Sol. ii. 15. 
7 Comp. I Cor. v. 11. " Deut. xiii. 6, 8. 9 Ps. cxix. 21. »o i Thess. iv. 5. " 1 Tim. ii. 4. " Matt. v. 45. " Matt. v. 4a 




Take ye heed, then, to have but 
one Eucharist. For there is one 
flesh of our Lord Jesus Christ, and 
one cup to [show forth '] the unity of 
His blood ; one altar ; as there is one 
bishop, along with the presbytery and 
deacons, my fellow-servants : that so, 
whatsoever ye do, ye naay do it ac- 
cording to [the will of] God. 

I have confidence of you in the Lord, that ye will be 
of no other mind. Wherefore I write boldly to your love, 
which is worthy of God, and exhort you to have but one 
faith, and one [kind of] preaching, and one Eucharist. 
For there is one flesh of the Lord Jesus Christ ; and His 
blood which was shed for us is one ; one loaf also is broken 
to all [the communicants], and one cup is distributed 
among them all : there is but one altar for the whole 
Church, and one bishop, with the presbytery and deacons, 
my fellow-servants. Since, also, there is but one unbe- 
gotten Being, God, even the Father ; and one only-be- 
gotten Son, God, the Word and man ; and one Comforter, 
the Spirit of truth ; and also one preaching, and one faith, 
and one baptism ; ^ and one Church which the holy apos- 
tles established from one end of the earth to the other by 
the blood of Christ, and by their own sweat and toil ; it 
behoves you also, therefore, as " a peculiar people, and a 
holy nation," ^ to perform all things with harmony in 
Christ. Wives, be ye subject to your husbands in the 
fear of God ; * and ye virgins, to Christ in purity, not 
counting marriage an abomination, but desiring that which 
is better, not for the reproach of wedlock, but for the 
sake of meditating on the law. Children, obey your par- 
ents, and have an affection for them, as workers together 
with God for your birth [into the world] . Servants, be 
subject to your masters in God, that ye may be the freed- 
men of Christ.5 Husbands, love your wives, as fellow- 
servants of God, as your own body, as the partners of 
your life, and your co-adjutors in the procreation of 
children. Virgins, have Christ alone before your eyes, 
and His Father in your prayers, being enlightened by the 
Spirit. May I have pleasure in your purity, as that of 
Elijah, or as of Joshua the son of Nun, as of Melchizedek, 
or as of Elisha, as of Jeremiah, or as of John the Baptist, 
as of the beloved disciple, as of Timothy, as of Titus, as 
of Evodius, as of Clement, who departed this life in [per- 
fect] chastity.^ Not, however, that I blame the other 
blessed [saints] because they entered into the married 
state, of which I have just spoken.^ For I pray that, 
being found worthy of God, I may be found at their feet 
in the kingdom, as at the feet of Abraham, and Isaac, 
and Jacob ; as of Joseph, and Isaiah, and the rest of 
the prophets ; as of Peter, and Paul, and the rest of the 
apostles, that were married men. For they entered into 
these marriages not for the sake of appetite, but out of 
regard for the propagation of mankind. Fathers, " bring 
up your children in the nurture and admonition of the 
Lord ; " ^ and teach them the holy Scriptures, and also 
trades, that they may not indulge in idleness. Now [the 
Scripture] says, " A righteous father educates [his chil- 
dren] well; his heart shall rejoice in a wise son."^ 
Masters, be gentle towards your servants, as holy Job has 
taught you ; '° for there is one nature, and one family of 
mankind. For " in Christ there is neither bond nor 
free." " Let governors be obedient to Caesar ; soldiers to 
those that command them ; deacons to the presbyters, as 

» Literally, " into." 


. IV. 5. 

» Tit. 

11. 14; I 


* Eph. V. 22. S I Cor. vii. 22. 

* There was a prevalent opinion among the ancient Christian writers, that all these holy men lived a life of [chaste] celibacy. 

7 Or, *• it is not because, etc., that I have mentioQ*d these." • Eph. vi. 4. 9 Prov. xxiii. 24. '" Job xxxi. 13, 15. " Gal. iii. 28. 



to high-priests ; the presbyters, and deacons, and the rest 
of the clergy, together with all the people, and the 
soldiers, and the governors, and Caesar [himself], to the 
bishop ; the bishop to Christ, even as Christ to the Father. 
And thus unity is preserved throughout. Let not the 
widows be wanderers about, nor fond of dainties, nor 
gadders from house to house ; but let them be like Judith, 
noted for her seriousness ; and like Anna, eminent for her 
sobriety. I do not ordain these things as an apostle : for 
" who am I, or what is my father's house," ' that I should 
pretend to be equal in honour to them? But as your 
" fellow-soldier," ^ I hold the position of one who [simply] 
admonishes you. 



My brethren, I am greatly enlarged 
in loving you ; and rejoicing exceed- 
ingly [over you], I seek to secure 
your safety. Yet it is not I, but Jesus 
Christ, for whose sake being bound I 
fear the more, inasmuch as I am not 
yet perfect. But your prayer to God 
shall make me perfect, that I may 
attain to that portion which through 
mercy has been allotted me, while I 
flee to the Gospel as to the flesh of 
Jesus, and to the apostles as to the 
presbytery of the Church. And let 
us also love the prophets, because they 
too have proclaimed the Gospel,"* and 
placed their hope in Him, 5 and waited 
for Him ; in whom also believing, they 
were saved, through union to Jesus 
Christ, being holy men, worthy of 
love and admiration, having had wit- 
ness borne to them by Jesus Christ, 
and being reckoned along with [us] 
in the Gospel of the common hope. 

My brethren, I am greatly enlarged in loving you ; and 
rejoicing exceedingly [over you], I seek to secure your 
safety. Yet it is not I, but the Lord Jesus through me ; 
for whose sake being bound, I fear the more, for I am 
not yet perfect. But your prayer to God shall make me 
perfect, that I may attain that to which I have been called, 
while I flee to the Gospel as to the flesh of Jesus Christ, 
and to the apostles as the presbytery of the Church. I 
do also love the prophets as those who announced Christ, 
and as being partakers of the same Spirit with the apostles. 
For as the false prophets and the false apostles drew [to 
themselves] one and the same wicked, deceitful, and se- 
ducing 3 spirit ; so also did the prophets and the apostles 
receive from God, through Jesus Christ, one and the same 
Holy Spirit, who is good, and sovereign,^ and true, and 
the Author of [saving] knowledge.^ For there is one 
God of the Old and New Testament, " one Mediator be- 
tween God and men," for the creation of both intelligent 
and sensitive beings, and in order to exercise a beneficial 
and suitable providence [over them]. There is also one 
Comforter, who displayed** His power in Moses, and the 
prophets, and apostles. All the saints, therefore, were 
saved by Christ, hoping in Him, and waiting for Him ; 
and they obtained through Him salvation, being holy 
ones, worthy of love and admiration, having testimony 
borne to them by Jesus Christ, in the Gospel of our com- 
mon hope. 


But if any one preach the Jewish 
law 9 unto you, listen not to him. For 
it is better to hearken to Christian 
doctrine from a man who has been 
circumcised, than to Judaism from 
one uncircumcised. But if either of 
such persons do not speak concerning 
Jesus Christ, they are in my judgment 
but as monuments and sepulchres of 
the dead, upon which are written only 
the names of men. Flee therefore the 
wicked devices and snares of the prince 

If any one preaches the one God of the law and the 
prophets, but denies Christ to be the Son of God, he is a 
liar, even as also is his father the devil,'° and is a Jew 
falsely so called, being possessed of ' ' mere carnal circum- 
cision. If any one confesses Christ Jesus the Lord, but 
denies the God of the law and of the prophets, saying 
that the Father of Christ is not the Maker of heaven and 
earth, he has not continued in the truth any more than 
his father the devil, '° and is a disciple of Simon Magus, 
not of the Holy Spirit. If any one says there is one God, 
and also confesses Christ Jesus, but thinks the Lord to be 
a mere man, and not the only-begotten '^ God, and Wis- 


> I Sam. xviii. i8; 2 Sam. vii. 18. ^ Phil. ii. 25. 3 Literally, "people-deceiving."  Literally, "have proclaimed in reference 

the Gospel." 5 In Christ. <> Comp. Ps. li. 12 (LXX.). 7 Literally, " teaching.'^ 8 Qr, " wrought." 9 Literally, "Judaism." 
>o Comp. John viii. 44. " Literally, " beneath." '^ Comp. the reading sanctioned by the ancient authorities, John 1. 18. 



of this world, lest at any time being 
conquered ' by his artifices,^ ye grow 
weak in your love. But be ye all 
joined together ^ with an undivided 
heart. And I thank my God that I 
have a good conscience in respect to 
you, and that no one has it in his 
power to boast, either privately or 
publicly, that I have burdened^ any 
one either in much or in little. And 
I wish for all among whom I have 
spoken, that they may not possess that 
for a testimony against them. 

dom, and the Word of God, and deems Him to consist 
merely of a soul and body, such an one is a serpent, that 
preaches deceit and error for the destruction of men. 
And such a man is poor in understanding, even as by 
name he is an Ebionite.-* If any one confesses the truths 
mentioned,5 but calls lawful wedlock, and the procreation 
of children, destruction and pollution, or deems certain 
kinds of food abominable, such an one has the apostate 
dragon dwelling within him. If any one confesses the 
Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost, and praises 
the creation, but calls the incarnation merely an appear- 
ance, and is ashamed of the passion, such an one has 
denied the faith, not less than the Jews who killed Christ. 
If any one confesses these things, and that God the Word 
did dwell in a human body, being within it as the Word, 
even as the soul also is in the body, because it was God 
that inhabited it, and not a human soul, but afifirms that 
unlawful unions are a good thing, and places the highest 
happiness 7 in pleasure, as does the man who is falsely 
called a Nicolaitan, this person can neither be a lover of 
God, nor a lover of Christ, but is a corrupter of his own 
flesh, and therefore void of the Holy Spirit, and a stranger 
to Christ. All such persons are but monuments and 
sepulchres of the dead, upon which are written only the 
names of dead men. Flee, therefore, the wicked devices 
and snares of the spirit which now worketh in the children 
of this world,^ lest at any time being overcome,' ye grow 
weak in your love. But be ye all joined together ^ with 
an undivided heart and a willing mind, " being of one ac- 
cord and of one judgment," 9 being always of the same 
opinion about the same things, both when you are at ease 
and in danger, both in sorrow and in joy. I thank God, 
through Jesus Christ, that I have a good conscience in 
respect to you, and that no one has it in his power to 
boast, either privately or publicly, that I have burdened 
any one either in much or in little. And I wish for all 
among whom I have spoken, that they may not possess 
that for a testimony against them. 


For though some would have de- 
ceived me according to the flesh, yet 
the Spirit, as being from God, is not 
deceived. For it knows both whence 
it comes and whither it goes,'° and 
detects the secrets [of the heart]. 
For, when I was among you, I cried, 
I spoke with a loud voice : Give heed 
to the bishop, and to the presbytery 
and deacons. Now, some suspected 
me of having spoken thus, as knowing 
beforehand the division caused by 
some among you." But He is my 
witness, for whose sake I am in bonds, 
that I got no intelligence from any 
man. '3 But the Spirit proclaimed 

For though some would have deceived me according 
to the flesh, yet my spirit is not deceived ; for I have 
received it from God. For it knows both whence it 
comes and whither it goes, and detects the secrets [of 
the heart]. For when I was among you, I cried, I 
spoke with a loud voice — the word is not mine, but 
God's — Give heed to the bishop, and to the presbytery 
and deacons. But if ye suspect that I spake thus, as 
having learned beforehand the division caused by some 
among you. He is my witness, for whose sake I am in 
bonds, that I learned nothing of it from the mouth of 
any man. But the Spirit made an announcement to me, 
saying as follows : Do nothing without the bishop ; keep 
your bodies '^ as the temples of God ; love unity ; avoid 
divisions ; be ye followers of Paul, and of the rest of the 
apostles, even as they also were of Christ. 

' Literally, " oppressed." ^ Or, " will." 3 Some render, " come together into the same place." 

■* From a Hebrew word meaning " poor." S Or, " these things." ^ Apparently by attempting to impose the yoke of Judaism. 
7 Literally, " the end of happiness." 8 Comp. Eph. ii. 2. 9 Phil. ii. 2. ^° John iii. 8. " Some translate, "as foreseeing the 
division to arise among you." '^ Literally, " your flesh." '3 Literally, " did not know from human flesh." 



these words : Do nothing without the 
bishop ; keep your bodies ' as the 
temples of God ; ^ love unity ; avoid 
^' Visions ; be the followers of Jesus 
Christ, even as He is of His Father. 


I therefore did what belonged to 
me, as a man devoted to^ unity. 
For where there is division and wrath, 
God doth not dwell. To all them 
that repent, the Lord grants forgive- 
ness, if they turn in penitence to the 
unity of God, and to communion 
with the bishop.* I trust [as to you] 
in the grace of Jesus Christ, who shall 
free you from every bond. And I ex- 
hort you to do nothing out of strife, 
but according to the doctrine of Christ. 
When I heard some saying, If I do 
not find it in the ancient ^ Scriptures, 
I will not believe the Gospel ; on my 
saying to them, It is written, they 
answered me. That remains to be 
proved. But to me Jesus Christ is 
in the place of all that is ancient : 
His cross, and death, and resurrection, 
and the faith ^ which is by Him, are 
undefiled monuments of antiquity ; 
by which I desire, through your 
prayers, to be justified. 

I therefore did what belonged to me, as a man devoted 
to unity ; adding this also, that where there is diversity 
of judgment, and wrath, and hatred, God does not 
dwell. To all them that repent, God grants forgiveness, 
if they with one consent return to the unity of Christ, and 
communion with the bishop.-* I trust to the grace of 
Jesus Christ, that He will free you from every bond of 
wickedness. 5 I therefore exhort you that ye do nothing 
out of strife,^ but according to the doctrine of Christ. 
For I have heard some saying, If I do not find the Gos- 
pel in the archives, I will not believe it. To such persons 
I say that my archives are Jesus Christ, to disobey whom 
is manifest destruction. My authentic archives are His 
cross, and death, and resurrection, and the faith which 
bears on these things, by which I desire, through your 
prayers, to be justified. He who disbelieves the Gospel 
disbelieves everything along with it. For the archives 
ought not to be preferred to the Spirit.^ " It is hard to 
kick against the pricks ; " '° it is hard to disbelieve Christ ; 
it is hard to reject the preaching of the apostles. 


The priests " indeed are good, but 
the High Priest is better; to whom 
the holy of holies has been com- 
mitted, and who alone has been 
trusted with the secrets of God. He 
is the door of the Father, by which 
enter in Abraham, and Isaac, and 
Jacob, and the prophets, and the 
apostles, and the Church. All these 
have for their object the attaining to 
the unity of God. But the Gospel 
possesses something transcendent 
[above the former dispensation], viz., 
the appearance of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, His passion and resurrection. 
For the beloved prophets announced 
Him, '7 but the Gospel is the perfec- 
tion of immortality.'" All these things 
are good together, if ye believe in 

The priests ' ' indeed, and the ministers of the word, 
are good ; but the High Priest is better, to whom the 
holy of holies has been committed, and who alone has 
been entrusted with the secrets of God. The ministering 
powers of God are good. The Comforter is holy, and 
the Word is holy, the Son of the Father, by whom He 
made all things, and exercises a providence over them all. 
This is the Way '- which leads to the Father, the Rock,"^ 
the Defence,"* the Key, the Shepherd, '5 the Sacrifice, the 
Door '^ of knowledge, through which have entered Abra- 
ham, and Isaac, and Jacob, Moses and all the company 
of the prophets, and these pillars of the world, the apos- 
tles, and the spouse of Christ, on whose account He 
poured out His own blood, as her marriage portion, that 
He might redeem her. All these things tend towards 
the unity of the one and only true God. But the Gospel 
possesses something transcendent [above the former dis- 
pensation], viz., the appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ, 
His passion, and the resurrection itself. For those things 
which the prophets announced, saying, " Until He come 
for whom it is reserved, and He shall be the expectation 

• Literally, "your flesh." ^ Comp. i Cor. iii. i6, vi. 19. ' Literally. " prepared for.' 

* Literally, " to the assembly of the bishop." S Comp. Isa. Iviii. 6. ° Phil. ii. 3. 

' The meaning here is very doubtful. Some read iy Toi? af>xaio^i!, as translated above; others prefer iv TOi? apx*ioi.t, as in the longet 
recension. * i.e., the system of Christian doctrine. 9 Or, " the archives of the Spirit are not exposed to all." '° Acts xxvi. 14. 
»' i.e., the Jewish priests. " John xiv. 6. " i Cor. x. 4. u Literally, " the hedge." 'S John x. 11. »* John x. 9. 
*^ Literally, " proclaimed as to him." <* The meaning is doubtful. Comp. 2 Tim. i. 10. 


of the Gentiles," ' have been fulfilled in the Gospel, [our 
Lord saying,] " Go ye and teach all nations, baptizing 
them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of 
the Holy Ghost." ^ All then are good together, the law, 
the prophets, the apostles, the whole company [of others] 
that have believed through them : only if we love one 


Since, according to your prayers, Since, according to your prayers, and the compassion 

and the compassion which ye feel in which ye feel in Christ Jesus, it is reported to me that 

Christ Jesus, it is reported to me that the Church which is at Antioch in Syria possesses peace, 

the Church which is at Antioch in it will become you, as a Church of God, to elect a bishop 

Syria possesses peace, it will become to act as the ambassador of God [for you] to [the breth- 

you, as a Church of God, to elect a ren] there, that it may be granted them to meet together, 

deacon to act as the ambassador of and to glorify the name of God. Blessed is he in Christ 

God [for you] to [the brethren there], Jesus, who shall be deemed worthy of such a ministry; 

that he may rejoice along with them and if ye be zealous [in this matter], ye shall receive 

when they are met together, and glo- glory in Christ. And if ye are willing, it is not altogether 

rify the name [of God]. Blessed is beyond your power to do this, for the sake of ^ God; as 

he in Jesus Christ, who shall be also the nearest Churches have sent, in some cases 

deemed worthy of such a ministry ; bishops, and in others presbyters and deacons, 
and ye too shall be glorified. And if 
ye are willing, it is not beyond your 
power to do this, for the sake^ of 
God ; as also the nearest Churches 
have sent, in some cases bishops, and 
in others presbyters and deacons. 


Now, as to Philo the deacon, of Now, as to Philo the deacon, a man of Cilicia, of high 

Cilicia, a man of reputation, who still reputation, who still ministers to me in the word of God, 

ministers to me in the word of God, along with Gaius and Agathopus, an elect man, who has 

along with Rheus Agathopus, an elect followed me from Syria, not regarding * his life, — these 

man, who has followed me from Syria, also bear testimony in your behalf. And I myself give 

not regarding  his life, — these bear thanks to God for you, because ye have received them : 

witness in your behalf; and I myself and the Lord will also receive you. But may those that 

give thanks to God for you, that ye dishonoured them be forgiven through the grace of Jesus 

have received them, even as the Lord Christ, " who wisheth not the death of the sinner, but his 

you. But may those that dishonoured repentance." s The love of the brethren at Troas salutes 

them be forgiven through the grace you ; whence also I write to you by Burrhus,^ who was 

of Jesus Christ ! The love of the sent along with me by the Ephesians and Smyrnseans, to 

brethren at Troas salutes you ; whence show their respect : ^ whom the Lord Jesus Christ will re- 

also I write to you by Burrhus, who quite, in whom they hope, in flesh, and soul, and spirit, 

was sent along with me by the Ephe- and faith, and love, and concord. Fare ye well in the 

sians and Smyrnaeans, to show their Lord Jesus Christ, our common hope, in the Holy Ghost. 
respect.7 May the Lord Jesus Christ 
honour them, in whom they hope, in 
flesh, and soul, and faith, and love, 
and concord ! Fare ye well in Christ 
Jesus, our common hope. 

> Gen. xlix. lo. ^ Matt, xxviii. 19. J Literally, "for the name of." * Literally, "bidding farewell to." 

5 Comp. Ezek. xviii. 23, 32, xxxiii. 11; 2 Pet. iii. 9. ^ The Ms. has " Burgus." ' Or, " for the sake of honour." 



Ignatius, who is also called Theopho- 
rus, to the Church of God the Father, 
and of the beloved Jesus Christ, 
which has through mercy obtained 
every kind of gift, which is filled 
with faith and love, and is deficient 
in no gift, most worthy of God, and 
adorned with holiness: ' the Church 
which is at Smyrna, in Asia, wishes 
abundance of happiness, through 
the immaculate Spirit and word of 

Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to the Church of 
God the most high Father, and His beloved Son Jesus 
Christ, which has through mercy obtained every kind of 
gift, which is filled 7vith faithand love, and is deficient 
in no gift, most 7vorthy of God, and adorned with holi- 
ness: ' the Church which is at Smyrna, in Asia, wishes 
abundance of happiness, through the immaculate Spirit 
and word of God. 


I GLORIFY God, even Jesus Christ, 
who has given you such wisdom. For 
I have observed that ye are perfected 
in an immoveable faith, as if ye were 
nailed to the cross of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, both in the flesh and in the 
spirit, and are established in love 
through the blood of Christ, being 
fully persuaded with respect to our 
Lord, that He was truly of the seed 
of David according to the flesh,^ and 
the Son of God according to the will 
and power ^ of God ; that He was 
truly born of a virgin, was baptized 
by John, in order that all righteous- 
ness might be fulfilled 5 by Him ; and 
was truly, under Pontius Pilate and 
Herod the tetrarch, nailed [to the 
cross] for us in His flesh. Of this 
fruit 7 we are by His divinely-blessed 
passion, that He might set up a stand- 
ard ^ for all ages, through His resur- 
rection, to all His holy and faithful 
[followers], whether among Jews or 
Gentiles, in the one body of His 

I GLORIFY the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
who by Him has given you such wisdom. For I have 
observed that ye are perfected in an immoveable faith, 
as if ye were nailed to the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
both in the flesh and in the spirit, and are established in 
love through the blood of Christ, being fully persuaded, 
in very truth, with respect to our Lord Jesus Christ, that 
He was the Son of God, " the first-born of every crea- 
ture," ^ God the Word, the only-begotten Son, and was of 
the seed of David according to the flesh,^ by the Virgin 
Mary ; was baptized by John, that all righteousness 
might be fulfilled 5 by Him ; that He lived a life of holi- 
ness without sin, and was truly, under Pontius Pilate and 
Herod the tetrarch, nailed [to the cross] for us in His 
flesh. From whom we also derive our being,^ from His 
divinely-blessed passion, that He might set up a standard 
for the ages, through His resurrection, to all His holy and 
faithful [followers], whether among Jews or Gentiles, in 
the one body of His Church. 

 Literally, " holy-bearing." ^ Col. i. 15. 3 Roni. i. 3. •* Theodoret, in quoting this passage, reads, " the Godhead and power " 
i Matt ill. 15. 6 Literally, " we axe." ^ i.e., the cross, " fruit " being put for Christ on tlu tree. * Isa. v. 26, xlix. 22. 




CHAP. II. — Christ's true passion. 

Now, He suffered all these things 
for our sakes, that we might be saved. 
And He suffered truly, even as also 
He truly raised up Himself, not, as 
certain unbelievers maintain, that He 
only seemed to suffer, as they them- 
selves only seem to be [Christians]. 
And as they believe, so shall it hap- 
pen unto them, when they shall be 
divested of their bodies, and be mere 
evil spirits.3 

Now, He suffered all these things for us ; and He 
suffered them really, and not in appearance only, even as 
also He truly rose again. But not, as some of the unbe- 
lievers, who are ashamed of the formation of man, and 
the cross, and death itself, affirm, that in appearance 
only, and not in truth. He took a body of the Virgin, 
and suffered only in appearance, forgetting, as they do, 
Him who said, " The Word was made flesh ; " ' and 
again, " Destroy this temple, and in three days I will 
raise it up ; " '• and once more, " If I be lifted up from 
the earth, I will draw all men unto Me." * The Word 
therefore did dwell in flesh, for " Wisdom built herself an 
house." 5 The Word raised up again His own temple 
on the third day, when it had been destroyed by the 
Jews fighting against Christ. The Word, when His flesh 
was lifted up, after the manner of the brazen serpent in. 
the wilderness, drew all men to Himself for their eternal 


For I know that after His resurrec- 
tion also He was still possessed of 
flesh, 7 and I believe that He is so 
now. When, for instance, He came 
to those who were with Peter, He 
said to them, " Lay hold, handle Me, 
and see that I am not an incorporeal 
spirit." * And immediately they 
touched Him, and believed, being 
convinced both by His flesh and 
spirit. For this cause also they de- 
spised death, and were found its con- 
querors.'^ And after his resurrection 
He did eat and drink with them, as 
being possessed of flesh, although 
spiritually He was united to the 

And I know that He was possessed of a body not only 
in His being born and crucified, but I also know that He 
was so after His resurrection, and believe that He is so 
now. When, for instance. He came to those who were 
with Peter, He said to them, " Lay hold, handle Me, and 
see that I am not an incorporeal spirit." ^ " For a spirit 
hath not flesh and bones, as ye see Me have." 9 And 
He says to Thomas, " Reach hither thy finger into the 
print of the nails, and reach hither thy hand, and thrust 
it into My side ; " '° and immediately they believed that 
He was Christ. Wherefore Thomas also says to Him, 
" My Lord, and my God." " And on this account also 
did they despise death, for it were too little to say, indig- 
nities and stripes. Nor was this all ; but also after He 
had shown Himself to them, that He had risen indeed, 
and not in appearance only. He both ate and drank with 
them during forty entire days. And thus was He, with 
the flesh, received up in their sight unto Him that sent 
Him, being with that same flesh to come again, accom- 
panied by glory and power. For, say the [holy] oracles, 
" This same Jesus, who is taken up from you into heaven, 
shall so come, in like manner as ye have seen Him go 
unto heaven." '^ But if they say that He will come at 
the end of the world without a body, how shall those 
" see Him that pierced Him," "^ and when they recognise 
Him, " mourn for themselves ? " 's For incorporeal beings' 
have neither form nor figure, nor the aspect '^ of an ani- 
mal possessed of shape, because their nature is in itself 


I give you these instructions, be- I give you these instructions, beloved, assured that ye 

loved, assured that ye also hold the also hold the same opinions [as I do]. But I guard you 
same opinions [as I do]. But I beforehand from these beasts in the shape of men, from 

' John i. 14. 2 John ii. ig. 3 Or 
 John xii. 32. s Prov. ix. i. 6 

r, " seeing that they are phantasmal and diabolical," as some render, but the above is preferable 
Num. XXI. 9; John iii. 14. ' Literally, "in the flesh." 8 Literally, "demon." According 

Jerome, this quotation is from the Gospel of the Nazarenes. Comp. Luke xxiv. 35. 
" John XX. 28. 12 Literally, " above d«ath." '3 Acts i. 11. '■« Rev. i. 7, 

9 Luke xxiv. 39. 
'5 Zech. xii. 10. 

'° John XX. 27. 
JP Or, "mark." 




guard you beforehand from those 
beasts in the shape of men, whom 
you must not only not receive, but, if it 
be possible, not even meet with ; only 
you must pray to God for them, if by 
any means they may be brought to 
repentance, which, however, will be 
very difficult. Yet Jesus Christ, who 
is our true life, has the power of [ef- 
fecting] this. But if these things 
were done by our Lord only in ap- 
pearance, then am I also only in ap- 
pearance bound. And why have I 
also surrendered myself to death, to 
fire, to the sword, to the wild beasts? 
But, [in fact,] he who is near to the 
sword is near to God ; he that is 
among the wild beasts is in company 
with God ; provided only he be so in 
the name of Jesus Christ. I undergo 
all these things that I may suffer to- 
gether with Him, ' He who became a 
perfect man inwardly strengthening 

whom you must not only turn away, but even flee from 
them. Only you must pray for them, if by any means 
they may be brought to repentance. For if the Lord 
were in the body in appearance only, and were crucified 
in appearance only, then am I also bound in appearance 
only. And why have I also surrendered myself to death, 
to fire, to the sword, to the wild beasts ? But, [in fact,] 
I endure all things for Christ, not in appearance only, 
but in reality, that I may suffer together with Him, while 
He Himself inwardly strengthens me ; for of myself I 
have no such ability. 



Some ignorantly ^ deny Him, or Some have ignorantly denied Him, and advocate false- 

rather have been denied by Him, hood rather than the truth. These persons neither have 
being the advocates of death rather the prophecies persuaded, nor the law of Moses, nor the 
than of the truth. These persons Gospel even to this day, nor the sufferings we have in- 
neither have the prophets persuaded, dividually endured. For they think also the same thing 
nor the law of Moses, nor the Gospel regarding us. For what does it profit, if any one com- 
even to this day, nor the sufferings mends me, but blasphemes my Lord, not owning Him 
we have individually endured. For to be God incarnate ? 5 He that does not confess this, 
they think also the same thing regard- has in fact altogether denied Him, being enveloped in 
ing us.-* For what does any one death. I have not, however, thought good to write the 
profit me, if he commends me, but names of such persons, inasmuch as they are unbelievers ; 
blasphemes my Lord, not confessing and far be it from me to make any mention of them, 
that He was [truly] possessed of a until they repent, 
body? 5 But he who does not ac- 
knowledge this, has in fact altogether 
denied Him, being enveloped in 
death.^ I have not, however, 
thought good to write the names of 
such persons, inasmuch as they are 
unbelievers. Yea, far be it from me 
to make any mention of them, until 
they repent and return to [a true be- 
lief in] Christ's passion, which is our 


Let no man deceive himself. Both Let no man deceive himself. Unless he believes that 

the things which are in heaven, and Christ Jesus has lived in the flesh, and shall confess His 

the glorious angels, ^ and rulers, both cross and passion, and the blood which He shed for the 

visible and invisible, if they believe salvation of the world, he shall not obtain eternal life, 

not in the blood of Christ, shall, in whether he be a king, or a priest, or a ruler, or a private 

' Comp. Rom. viii. 17. * Comp. Phil. iv. 13. ' Or, " foolishly." * i.e., As they imagine Christ to have suffered only in appear* 
ance, so they believe that we siifTer in vain. S Literally, " a flesh-bearer." * Literally, " a death-bearer." 
' Literally, " the glory of the angels." 



consequence, incur condemnation.' 
" He that is able to receive it, let him 
receive it." ^ Let not [high] place 
puff any one up : for that which is 
worth all is ^ faith and love, to which 
nothing is to be preferred. But con- 
sider those who are of a different 
opinion with respect to the grace of 
Christ which has come unto us, how 
opposed they are to the will of God. 
They have no regard for love ; no 
care for the widow, or the orphan, or 
the oppressed ; of the bond, or of the 
free ; of the hungry, or of the thirsty. 

person, a master or a servant, a man or a woman. " He 
that is able to receive it, let him receive it." ^ Let no 
man's place, or dignity, or riches, puff him up ; and let 
no man's low condition or poverty abase him. For the 
chief points are faith towards God, hope towards Christ, 
the enjoyment of those good things for which we look, 
and love towards God and our neighbour. For, " Thou 
shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and thy 
neighbour as thyself."* And the Lord says, "This is 
life eternal, to know the only true God, and Jesus Christ 
whom He has sent." 5 And again, "A new command- 
ment give I unto you, that ye love one another. On 
these two commandments hang all the law and the 
prophets."^ Do ye, therefore, notice those who preach 
other doctrines, how they affirm that the Father of Christ 
cannot be known, and how they exhibit enmity and de- 
ceit in their dealings with one another. They have no 
regard for love ; they despise the good things we expect 
hereafter; they regard present things as if they were 
durable ; they ridicule him that is in affliction ; they laugh 
at him that is in bonds. 


They abstain from the Eucharist 
and from prayer,7 because they con- 
fess not the Eucharist to be the flesh 
of our Saviour Jesus Christ, which 
suffered for our sins, and which the 
Father, of His goodness, raised up 

1 again. Those, therefore, who speak 
against this gift of God, incur death" 

\ in the midst of their disputes. But it 
were better for them to treat it with 
respect,'^ that they also might rise 
again. It is fitting, therefore, that ye 
should keep aloof from such persons, 
and not to speak of '5 them either in 
private or in public, but to give heed 
to the prophets, and above all, to the 
Gospel, in which the passion [of 
Christ] has been revealed to us, and 
the resurrection has been fully proved.'^ 
But avoid all divisions, as the begin- 
ning of evils. 

They are ashamed of the cross ; they mock at the 
passion ; they make a jest of the resurrection. They are 
the offspring of that spirit who is the author of all evil, 
who led Adam,* by means of his wife, to transgress the 
commandment, who slew Abel by the hands of Cain, who 
fought against Job, who was the accuser of Joshua 9 the 
son of Josedech, who sought to " sift the faith " '° of the 
apostles, who stirred up the multitude of the Jews against 
the Lord, who also now "worketh in the children of dis- 
obedience ; " '^ from whom the Lord Jesus Christ will de- 
liver us, who prayed that the faith of the apostles might 
not fail,'-* not because He was not able of Himself to pre- 
serve it, but because He rejoiced in the pre-eminence of 
the Father. It is fitting, therefore, that ye should keep 
aloof from such persons, and neither in private nor in 
public to talk with '5 them ; but to give heed to the law, 
and the prophets, and to those who have preached to you 
the word of salvation. But flee from all abominable here- 
sies, and those that cause schisms, as the beginning of 


See that ye all follow the bishop, 
even as Jesus Christ does the Father, 
and the presbytery as ye would the 
apostles ; and reverence the deacons, 
as being the institution '7 of God. 
Let no man do anything connected 
with the Church without the bishop. 
Let that be deemed a proper'* Eu- 
charist, which is [administered] either 

See that ye all follow the bishop, even as Christ Jesus 
does the Father, and the presbytery as ye would the apos- 
tles. Do ye also reverence the deacons, as those that 
carry out [through their office] the appointment of God. 
Let no man do anything connected with the Church with- 
out the bishop. Let that be deemed a proper '* Eucharist, 
which is [administered] either by the bishop, or by one 
to whom he has entrusted it. Wherever the bishop shall 
appear, there let the multitude [of the people] also be ; 

' Literally, "judgment is to them." ^ Matt. xix. 12. 3 Literally, " the whole is." * Deut. vi. 5. > John xvii. 31. 

* John xiii. 34; Matt. xxii. 40. ' Theodoret, in quoting this passage, reads rrpo<r0opds, "offering." 

* Literally, " drove Adam out of." 9 Zech. iii. i. '° Luke xxii. 31. " Literally, "die disputing." '^ Eph. ii. 2. 
'3 Literally, " to Iotc." Some think there is a reference to the agapce, or love-feasts. ■* Luke xxii 32. 

'S ITie reading is Trtpt in the one case, and fifrd in the other, thougli the latter meaning seems preferable. Most of the MSS. of the longer 
recension read fffpi, as in the shorter. '6 Literally, " perfected." " Or, " command." " Or, " firm." 



by the bishop, or by one to whom he 
has entrusted it. Wherever the bishop 
shall appear, there let the multitude 
[of the people] also be ; even as, 
wherever Jesus Christ is, there is the 
Catholic Church. It is not lawful 
without the bishop either to baptize 
or to celebrate a love-feast ; but what- 
soever he shall approve of, that is also 
pleasing to God, so that everything 
that is done may be secure and valid.* 

even as where Christ is, there does all the heavenly host 
stand by, waiting upon Him as the Chief Captain of 
the Lord's might, and the Governor of every intelligent 
nature. It is not lawful without the bishop either to 
baptize, or to offer, or to present sacrifice, or to cele- 
brate a love-feast.' But that which seems good to him, 
is also well-pleasing to God, that everything ye do may 
be secure and valid. 


Moreover,^ it is in accordance with 
reason that we should return to sober- 
ness [of conduct], and, while yet we 
have opportunity, exercise repentance 
towards God. It is well to reverence 5 
both God and the bishop. He who 
honours the bishop has been honoured 
by God ; he who does anything with- 
out the knowledge of the bishop, does 
[in reality] serve the devil. Let all 
things, then, abound to you through 
grace, for ye are worthy. Ye have 
refreshed me in all things, and Jesus 
Christ [shall refresh] you. Ye have 
loved me when absent as well as when 
present. May God recompense you, 
for whose sake, while ye endure all 
things, ye shall attain unto Him. 

Moreover, it is in accordance with reason that we 
should return to soberness [of conduct], and, while yet 
we have opportunity, exercise repentance towards God. 
For " in Hades there is no one who can confess his sins." * 
For "behold the man, and his work is before him.'"' 
And [the Scripture saith], "My son, honour thou God 
and the king." 7 And say I, Honour thou God indeed, 
as the Author and Lord of all things, but the bishop as 
the high-priest, who bears the image of God — of God, 
inasmuch as he is a ruler, and of Christ, in his capacity 
of a priest. After Him, we must also honour the king. 
For there is no one superior to God, or even like to 
Him, among all the beings that exist. Nor is there any 
one in the Church greater than the bishop, who ministers 
as a priest to God for the salvation of the whole world. 
Nor, again, is there any one among rulers to be compared 
with the king, who secures peace and good order to those 
over whom he rules. He who honours the bishop shall 
be honoured by God, even as he that dishonours him 
shall be punished by God. For if he that rises up against 
kings is justly held worthy of punishment, inasmuch as he 
dissolves public order, of how much sorer punishment, 
suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, ^ who presumes 
to do anything without the bishop, thus both destroying 
the [Church's] unity, and throwing its order into con- 
fusion ? For the priesthood is the very highest point of all 
good things among men, against which whosoever is mad 
enough to strive, dishonours not man, but God, and Christ 
Jesus, the First-born, and the only High Priest, by nature, 
of the Father. Let all things therefore be done by you 
with good order in Christ. Let the laity be subject to the 
deacons ; the deacons to the presbyters ; the presbyters 
to the bishop ; the bishop to Christ, even as He is to the 
Father. As ye, brethren, have refreshed me, so will Jesus 
Christ refresh you. Ye have loved me when absent, as 
well as when present. God will recompense you, for 
whose sake ye have shown such kindness towards His 
prisoner. For even if I am not worthy of it, yet your 
zeal [to help me] is an admirable '^ thing. For " he who 
honours a prophet in the name of a prophet, shall receive 
a prophet's reward." '° It is manifest also, that he who 
honours a prisoner of Jesus Christ shall receive the re- 
ward of the martyrs. 

' Some refer the words to the Lord's Supper. 

' • Comp. Heb. x. 29, 

6 Isa. ixiL IX. 

7 Prov. xxiv. 31. 

2 Or, " firm." » Or, " finally." ■• Ps. vL 5. 
9 Or, " graau" »" Matt. x. 41. 

* Literally, " to know." 




Ye have done well in receiving Philo 
and Rheus Agathopus as servants ' of 
Christ our God, who have followed 
me for the sake of God, and who give 
thanks to the Lord in your behalf, 
because ye have in every way re- 
freshed them. None of these things 
shall be lost to you. May my spirit 
be for you,3 and my bonds, which ye 
have not despised or been ashamed 
of; nor shall Jesus Christ, our perfect 
hope, be ashamed of you. 

Ye have done well in receiving Philo, and Gaius, and 
Agathopus, who, being the servants ' of Christ, have fol- 
lowed me for the sake of God, and who greatly bless the 
Lord in your behalf, because ye have in every way re- 
freshed them. None of those things which ye have done 
to them shall be passed by without being reckoned unto 
you. " The Lord grant " to you " that ye may find 
mercy of the Lord in that day ! " ^ May my spirit be for 
you,3 and my bonds, which ye have not despised or been 
ashamed of. Wherefore, neither shall Jesus Christ, our 
perfect hope, be ashamed of you. 


Your prayer has reached to the 
Church which is at Antioch in Syria. 
Coming from that place bound with 
chains, most acceptable to God,'^ I 
salute all ; I who am not worthy to 
be styled from thence, inasmuch as I 
am the least of them. Nevertheless, 
according to the will of God, I have 
been thought worthy [of this honour], 
not that I have any sense 5 [of hav- 
ing deserved it], but by the grace of 
God, which I wish may be perfectly 
given to me, that through your prayers 
I may attain to God. In order, there- 
fore, that your work may be complete 
both on earth and in heaven, it is fit- 
ting that, for the honour of God, your 
Church should elect some worthy dele- 
gate ; ^ so that he, journeying into 
Syria, may congratulate them that 
they are [now] at peace, and are re- 
stored to 7 their proper greatness, and 
that their proper constitution^ has 
been re-established among them. It 
seems then to me a becoming thing, 
that you should send some one of 
your number with an epistle, so that, 
in company with them, he may re- 
joice 9 over the tranquillity which, ac- 
cording to the will of God, they have 
obtained, and because that, through 
your prayers, they have now reached 
the harbour. As persons who are 
perfect, ye should also aim at '° those 
things which are perfect. For when 
ye are desirous to do well, God is 
also ready to assist you. 


The love of the brethren at Troas The love of your brethren at Troas salutes you ; 
salutes you ; whence also I write to whence also I write to you by Burgus, whom ye sent with 

' Or, "deacons." ^ 2 Tim. i. 18. ' Comp. Epistle of Ignatius to Ephesians, chap, xxi.; to Polycarp, chap ii. vi. 

* Literally, " most becoming of God." 5 Or, " from any conscience." ^ Literally, " God-ambassador." 7 Or, " have received." 

* Literally, " body." » Literally, " may glorify with them." '<> Or, " think of." 

Your prayers have reached to the Church of Antioch, 
and it is at peace. Coming from that place bound, I 
salute all ; I who am not worthy to be styled from thence, 
inasmuch as I am the least of them. Nevertheless, ac- 
cording to the will of God, I have been thought worthy 
[of this honour], not that I have any sensed [of having 
deserved it], but by the grace of God, which I wish may 
be perfectly given to me, that through your prayers I 
may attain to God. In order, therefore, that your work 
may be complete both on earth and in heaven, it is fitting 
that, for the honour of God, your Church should elect 
some worthy delegate ; ^ so that he, journeying into Syria, 
may congratulate them that they are [now] at peace, 
and are restored to their proper greatness, and that their 
proper constitution ^ has been re-established among them. 
What appears to me proper to be done is this, that you 
should send some one of your number with an epistle, so 
that, in company with them, he may rejoice over the 
tranquillity which, according to the will of God, they 
have obtained, and because that, through your prayers, I 
have secured Christ as a safe harbour. As persons who 
are perfect, ye should also aim at '° those things which 
are perfect. For when ye are desirous to do well, God 
is also ready to assist you. 



you by Burrhus, whom ye sent with 
me, together with the Ephesians, your 
brethren, and who has in all things 
refreshed me. And I would that all 
may imitate him, as being a pattern 
of a minister ' of God. Grace will 
reward him in all things. I salute 
your most worthy ^ bishop, and your 
very venerable ^ presbytery, and your 
deacons, my fellow-servants, and all 
of you individually, as well as gener- 
ally, in the name of Jesus Christ, and 
in His flesh and blood, in His passion 
and resurrection, both corporeal and 
spiritual, in union with God and you.* 
Grace, mercy, peace, and patience, 
be with you for evermore ! 

I salute the families of my brethren, 
with their wives and children, and the 
virgins who are called widows. 5 Be 
ye strong, I pray, in the power of the 
Holy Ghost. Philo, who is with me, 
greets you. I salute the house of 
Tavias, and pray that it may be con- 
firmed in faith and love, both corpo- 
real and spiritual. I salute Alee, my 
well-beloved,^ and the incomparable 
Daphnus, and Eutecnus, and all by 
name. Fare ye well in the grace of 

me, together with the Ephesians, your brethren, and who 
has in all things refreshed me. And I would that all may 
imitate him, as being a pattern of a minister of God. 
The grace of the Lord will reward him in all things. I 
salute your most worthy bishop Polycarp, and your vener- 
able presbytery, and your Christ-bearing deacons, my 
fellow-servants, and all of you individually, as well as 
generally, in the name of Christ Jesus, and in His flesh 
and blood, in His passion and resurrection, both corporeal 
and spiritual, in union with God and you. Grace, mercy, 
peace, and patience, be with you in Christ for evermore ! 


I salute the families of my brethren, with their wives 
and children, and those that are ever virgins, and the 
widows. Be ye strong, I pray, in the power of the Holy 
Ghost. Philo, my fellow-servant, who is with me, greets 
you. I salute . the house of Tavias, and pray that it may 
be confirmed in faith and love, both corporeal and spirit- 
ual. I salute Alee, my well-beloved,^ and the incom- 
parable Daphnus, and Eutecnus, and all by name. Fare 
ye well in the grace of God, and of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, being filled with the Holy Spirit, and divine and 
sacred wisdom. 

I Or, " the ministry." ^ Literally, " worthy of God." 3 Literally, " most becoming of God." 

* Literally, " in the union of God and of you." * The deaconesses seem to have been called widows, 

6 Literally, " the mme desired of m«." 



Ignatiiis, who is also called Theopho- 
riis, to Poly carp, Bishop of the 
Church of the Smyrnceans, or 
rather, ivho has, as his own bishop, 
God the Father, and the Lord 
Jesus Christ: \wishes'\ abundance 
of happiness. 

Ignatius, bishop of Antioch, and a witness for Jesus 
Christ, to Polycarp, Bishop of the Church of the Smyr- 
nceans, or rather, tvho has, as his own bishop, God the 
Father, and Jesus Christ: [wishes'] abundance of 


Having obtained good proof that 
thy mind is fixed in God as upon an 
immoveable rock, I loudly glorify 
[His name] that I have been thought 
worthy [to behold] thy blameless 
face,' which may I ever enjoy in 
God ! I entreat thee, by the grace 
with which thou art clothed, to press 
forward in thy course, and to exhort 
all that they may be saved. Maintain 
thy position with all care, both in the 
flesh and spirit. Have a regard to 
preserve unity, than which nothing is 
better. Bear with all, even as the 
Lord does with thee. Support^ all 
in love, as also thou doest. Give thy- 
self to prayer without ceasing.^ Im- 
plore additional understanding to what 
thou already hast. Be watchful, pos- 
sessing a sleepless spirit. Speak to 
every man separately, as God enables 
thee."* Bear the infirmities of all, as 
being a perfect athlete [in the Chris- 
tian life] : where the labour is great, 
the gain is all the more. 

Having obtained good proof that thy mind is fixed in 
God as upon an immoveable rock, I loudly glorify [His 
name] that I have been thought worthy to behold thy 
blameless face,' which may I ever enjoy in God ! I en- 
treat thee, by the grace with which thou art clothed, to 
press forward in thy course, and to exhort all that they 
may be saved. Maintain thy position with all care, both 
in the flesh and spirit. Have a regard to preserve unity, 
than which nothing is better. Bear with all, even as the 
Lord does with thee. Support ^ all in love, as also thou 
doest. Give thyself to prayer without ceasing.^ Implore 
additional understanding to what thou already hast. Be 
watchful, possessing a sleepless spirit. Speak to every 
man separately, as God enables thee.'' Bear the infirmi- 
ties of all, as being a perfect athlete [in the Christian 
life], even as does the Lord of all. For says [the Scrip- 
ture] , " He Himself took our infirmities, and bare our 
sicknesses." s Where the labour is great, the gain is all 
the more. 


If thou lovest the good disciples, 
no thanks are due to thee on that 
account ; but rather seek by meek- 
ness to subdue the more troublesome. 
Every kind of wound is not healed 
with the same plaster. Mitigate vio- 

If thou lovest the good disciples, no thanks are due 
to thee on that account ; but rather seek by meekness to 
subdue the more troublesome. Every kind of wound 
is not healed with the same plaster. Mitigate violent 
attacks [of disease] by gentle applications.^ Be in all 
things " wise as a serpent, and harmless always as a 

' i.e., to make personal acquaintance with one esteemed so highly. ^ Or, " tolerate." 3 Comp. i Thess. v. 17. 
* Some read, " according to thy practice." S Matt. viii. 17. ^ Literally, " paroxysms by embrocations." 




lent attacks [of disease] by gentle 
applications.' Be in all things " wise 
as a serpent, and harmless as a 
dove."^ For this purpose thou art 
composed of both flesh and spirit, 
that thou mayest deal tenderly ^ with 
those [evils] that present themselves 
visibly before thee. And as respects 
those that are not seen,'' pray that 
[God] would reveal them unto thee, 
in order that thou mayest be wanting 
in nothing, but mayest abound in 
every gift. The times call for thee, 
as pilots do for the winds, and as one 
tossed with tempest seeks for the 
haven, so that both thou [and those 
under thy care] may attain to God. 
Be sober as an athlete of God : the 
prize set before thee is immortality 
and eternal life, of which thou art also 
persuaded. In all things may my 
soul be for thine, 5 and my bonds also, 
which thou hast loved. 

dove." ^ For this purpose thou art composed of both 
soul and body, art both fleshly and spiritual, that thou 
mayest correct those [evils] that present themselves visi- 
bly before thee ; and as respects those that are not seen, 
mayest pray that these should be revealed to thee, so 
that thou mayest be wanting in nothing, but mayest 
abound in every gift. The times call upon thee to pray. 
For as the wind aids the pilot of a ship, and as havens 
are advantageous for safety to a tempest-tossed vessel, so 
is also prayer to thee, in order that thou mayest attain 
to God. Be sober as an athlete of God, whose will is 
immortality and eternal life ; of which thou art also per- 
suaded. In all things may my soul be for thine,5 and my 
bonds also, which thou hast loved. 


Let not those who seem worthy of 
credit, but teach strange doctrines,^ 
fill thee with apprehension. Stand 
firm, as does an anvil which is beaten. 
It is the part of a noble ^ athlete to be 
wounded, and yet to conquer. And 
especially, we ought to bear all things 
for the sake of God, that He also may 
bear with us. Be ever becoming more 
zealous than what thou art. Weigh 
carefully the times. Look for Him 
who is above all time, eternal and 
invisible, yet who became visible for 
our sakes ; impalpable and impassible, 
yet who became passible on our ac- 
count ; and who in every kind of way 
suffered for our sakes. 

Let not those who seem worthy of credit, but teach 
strange doctrines,^ fill thee with apprehension. Stand 
firm, as does an anvil which is beaten. It is the part of a 
noble 7 athlete to be wounded, and yet to conquer. And 
especially we ought to bear all things for the sake of God, 
that He also may bear with us, and bring us into His 
kingdom. Add more and more to thy diligence ; run 
thy race with increasing energy ; weigh carefully the times. 
Whilst thou art here, be a conqueror ; for here is the 
course, and there are the crowns. Look for Christ, the 
Son of God ; who was before time, yet appeared in time ; 
who was invisible by nature, yet visible in the flesh ; who 
was impalpable, and could not be touched, as being with- 
out a body, but for our sakes became such, might be 
touched and handled in the body ; who was impassible as 
God, but became passible for our sakes as man ; and who 
in every kind of way suffered for our sakes. 


Let not widows be neglected. Be 
thou, after the Lord, their protector^ 
and friend. Let nothing be done 
without thy consent ; neither do thou 
anything without the approval of God, 
which indeed thou dost not, inas- 
much as thou art stedfast. Let your 
assembling together be of frequent ^ 
occurrence : seek after all by name.'° 
Do not despise either male or female 
slaves, yet neither let them be puffed 
up with conceit, but rather let them 

Let not the widows be neglected. Be thou, after the 
Lord, their protector and friend. Let nothing be done 
without thy consent ; neither do thou anything without 
the approval of God, which indeed thou doest not. Be 
thou stedfast. Let your assembling together be of fre- 
quent ^ occurrence: seek after all by name.'° Do not 
despise either male or female slaves, yet neither let them 
be puffed up with conceit, but rather let them submit 
themselves " the more, for the glory of God, that they may 
obtain from God a better liberty. Let them not wish 
to be set free [from slavery] at the public expense, that 
they be not found slaves to their own desires. 

' Literally, " paroxysms by embrocations." * Matt. x. i6. ' Literally, " flatter." * Some refer this to the mysteries of Go4 

and others to things yet future. s Comp. Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians, chap, xxi., etc. * Comp. i Tim. i. 3, vi. 3. 
'' Literally, " great." ' The word in the original ((f)poi'Tio-T7)s) denotes one who thinks or cares for another. 

9 Some refer the words to moK frequent meetings, and others to these meetings being more numerous; DO comparison is necessarily 
'o i.e., so as to bring them out to the public assembly. " Or, " act the part of slaves." 




submit themselves ' the more, for the 
glory of God, that they may obtain 
from God a better liberty. Let them 
not long to be set free [from slavery] 
at the public expense, that they be 
not found slaves to their own desires. 


Flee evil arts ; but all the more 
discourse in public regarding them.^ 
Speak to my sisters, that they love the 
Lord, and be satisfied with their hus- 
bands both in the flesh and spirit. In 
like manner also, exhort my brethren, 
in the name of Jesus Christ, that they 
love their wives, even as the Lord the 
Church.3 If any one can continue 
in a state of purity,  to the honour 
of Him who is Lord of the flesh,5 let 
him so remain without boasting. If 
he begins to boast, he is undone ; and 
if he reckon himself greater than the 
bishop, he is ruined. But it becomes 
both men and women who marry, to 
form their union with the approval of 
the bishop, that their marriage may be 
according to God, and not after their 
own lust. Let all things be done to 
the honour of God.^ 

Flee evil arts ; but all the more discourse in public re- 
garding them. Speak to my sisters, that they love the 
Lord, and be satisfied with their husbands both in the 
flesh and spirit. In like manner also, exhort my brethren, 
in the name of Jesus Christ, that they love their wives, 
even as the Lord the Church. If any one can continue 
in a state of purity,-* to the honour of the flesh of the 
Lord, let him so remain without boasting. If he shall 
boast, he is undone ; and if he seeks to be more promi- 
nent'' than the bishop, he is ruined. But it becomes both 
men and women who marry, to form their union with the 
approval of the bishop, that their marriage may be ac- 
cording to the Lord, and not after their own lust. Let 
all things be done to the honour of God.' 



Give ye ^ heed to the bishop, that 
God also may give heed to you. My 
soul be for theirs '' that are submissive 
to the bishop, to the presbyters, and 
to the deacons, and may my portion 
be along with them in God ! Labour 
together with one another ; strive in 
company together ; run together ; suf- 
fer together ; sleep together ; and 
awake together, as the stewards, and 
associates,'" and servants of God. 
Please ye Him under whom ye fight, 
and from whom ye receive your wages. 
Let none of you be found a deserter. 
Let your baptism endure as your 
arms ; your faith as your helmet ; 
your love as your spear; your pa- 
tience as a complete panoply. Let 
your works be the charge '^ assigned 
to you, that ye may receive a worthy 
recompense. Be long-suffering, there- 
fore, with one another, in meekness, 
as God is towards you. May I have 
joy of you for ever ! '^ 

Give ye ^ heed to the bishop, that God also may give 
heed to you. My soul be for theirs ^ that are submissive 
to the bishop, to the presbytery, and to the deacons : 
may I have my portion with them from God ! Labour 
together with one another ; strive in company together ; 
run together ; suffer together ; sleep together ; and awake 
together, as the stewards, and associates,'" and servants of 
God. Please ye Him under whom ye fight, and from 
whom ye shall receive your wages. Let none of you be 
found a deserter. Let your baptism endure as your arms ; 
your faith as your helmet ; your love as your spear ; your 
patience as a complete panoply. Let your works be the 
charge assigned to you, that you may obtain for them a 
most worthy" recompense. Be long-suffering, therefore, 
with one another, in meekness, and God shall be so with 
you. May I have joy of you for ever ! '^ 

' Or, " act the part of slaves." 2 Some insert firi, and render, " rather do not even speak of them." 3 Eph. v. 25. 

* i.e., in celibacy. S Some render, " to the honour of the flesh of the Lord," as in the longer recension. 

* Literally, " if he be known beyond the bishop." ' Comp. i Cor. x. 31. * As this Epistle, though sent to the bishop, was meant 
to be read to the people, Ignatius here directly addresses them. 9 Comp. chap, ii., etc. '" Or, " assessors." 

" Literally, " worthy of God." '* A military reference, simply implying the idea of faithful eflbrt leading to future rewaed. 
" Comp. Ignatius' Epistle to the Ephesians, cKap ii. 




Seeing that the Church which is at 
Antioch in Syria is, as report has in- 
formed me, at peace, through your 
prayers, I also am the more encour- 
aged, resting without anxiety in God,' 
if indeed by means of suffering I may 

Seeing that the Church which is at Antioch in Syria is, 
as report has informed me, at peace, through your prayers, 
I also am the more encouraged, resting without anxiety 
in God,' if indeed by means of suffering I may attain to 
God, so that, through your prayers, I may be found a dis- 
ciple [of Christ]. It is fitting, O Polycarp, most blessed 
attain to God, so that, through your in God, to assemble a very solemn 3 council, and to elect 
prayers, I may be found a disciple [of one whom you greatly love, and know to be a man of 
Christ] .== It is fitting, O Polycarp, most activity, who may be designated the messenger of God ^-^ 
blessed in God, to assemble a very sol- and to bestow on him the honour of going into Syria, so 
emn ^ council, and to elect one whom that, going into Syria, he may glorify your ever active love 
you greatly love, and know to be a man to the praise of God. A Christian has not power over 
of activity, who may be designated the himself, but must always be ready for s the service of 
messenger of God ; * and to bestow on God. Now, this work is both God's and yours, when ye 
him this honour that he may go into shall have completed it. For I trust that, through grace, 
Syria, and glorify your ever active love ye are prepared for every good work pertaining to God. 
to the praise of Christ. A Christian Knowing your energetic love of the truth, I have exhorted 
has not power over himself, but must you by this brief Epistle, 
always be ready for s the service of God. 
Now, this work is both God's and yours, 
when ye shall have completed it to His 
glory .^ For I trust that, through grace, 
ye are prepared for every good work 
pertaining to God. Knowing, therefore, 
your energetic love of the truth, I have 
exhorted you by this brief Epistle. 


Inasmuch as I have not been able 
to write to all the Churches, because 
I must suddenly sail from Troas to 
Neapolis, as the will ^ [of the emperor] 
enjoins, [I beg that] thou, as being 
acquainted with the purpose * of God, 
wilt write to the adjacent Churches, 
that they also may act in like manner, 
such as are able to do so sending 
messengers,^ and the others transmit- 
ting letters through those persons who 
are sent by thee, that thou '° mayest be 
glorified by a work " which shall be re- 
membered for ever, as indeed thou art 
worthy to be. I salute all by name, 
and in particular the wife of Epitropus, 
with all her house and children. I 
salute Attains, my beloved. I salute 
him who shall be deemed worthy to 
go [from you] into Syria. Grace shall 
be with him for ever, and with Poly- 
carp that sends him. I pray for your 
happiness for ever in our God, Jesus 
Christ, by whom continue ye in the 
unity and under the protection of 
God.'* I salute Alee, my dearly be- 
loved. '^ Fare ye well in the Lord. 

Inasmuch, therefore, as I have not been able to write 
to all Churches, because I must suddenly sail from Troas 
to Neapolis, as the will 7 [of the emperor] enjoins, [I beg 
that] thou, as being acquainted with the purpose^ of 
God, wilt write to the adjacent Churches, that they also 
may act in like manner, such as are able to do so sending 
messengers, and the others transmitting letters through 
those persons who are sent by thee, that thou mayest be 
glorified by a work " which shall be remembered for ever, 
as indeed thou art worthy to be. I salute all by name, 
and in particular the wife of Epitropus, with all her house 
and children. I salute Attains, my beloved. I salute 
him who shall be deemed worthy to go [from you] into 
Syria. Grace shall be with him for ever, and with Poly- 
carp that sends him. I pray for your happiness for ever 
in our God, Jesus Christ, by whom continue ye in the 
unity and under the protection of God. I salute Alee, 
my dearly beloved. '3 Amen. Grace [be with you] . Fare 
ye well in the Lord. 


' Literally, " in freedom from care of God." ^ Some read, " in the resurrection. 
 Literally, " God-runner." s Literally, " at leisure for." * Literally, " to Him." 7 
perhaps to God Himself ^ Or, " as possessed of the judgment." 9 Literally, " men 
" Literally, " an eternal work." '^ Some propose to read, " and of the bishop." ' 

3 Literally, " most befitting God." 
7 Some suppose the reference to be to the soldiers, 
on foot." '° Some have the plural " ye " here. 
3 Literally, " name desired by me." 



When the Syriac version of the Ignatian Epistles was introduced to the English world in 
1845, by ^^' Cureton, the greatest satisfaction was expressed by many, who thought tVie inveterate 
controversy about to be settled. Lord Russell made the learned divine a canon of Westminster 
Abbey, and the critical Chevalier Bunsen ' committed himself as its patron. To the credit of the 
learned, in general, the work was gratefully received, and studied with scientific conscientiousness 
by Lightfoot and others. The literature of this period is valuable ; and the result is decisive as to 
the Curetonian versions at least, which are fragmentary and abridged, and yet they are a valuable 
contribution to the study of the whole case. 

The following is the original Introductory Notice : — 

Some account of the discovery of the Syriac version of the Ignatian Epistles has been 
already given. We have simply to add here a brief description of the mss, from which the 
Syriac text has been printed. That which is named a by Cureton, contains only the Epistle to 
Polycarp, and exhibits the text of that Epistle which, after him, we have followed. He fixes its 
age somewhere in the first half of the sixth century, or before the year 550. The second ms., 
which Cureton refers to as (3, is assigned by him to the seventh or eighth century. It contains 
the three Epistles of Ignatius, and furnishes the text here followed in the Epistles to the Ephe- 
sians and Romans. The third ms., which Cureton quotes as y, has no date, but, as he tells us, 
"belonged to the collection acquired by Moses of Nisibis in a.d. 931, and was written apparently 
about three or four centuries earlier." It contains the three Epistles to Polycarp, the Ephesians, 
and the Romans. The text of all these mss. is in several passages manifestly corrupt, and the 
translators appear at times to have mistaken the meaning of the Greek original. 

[N.B. — Bunsen is forced to allow the fact that the discovery of the lost work of Hippolytus 
" throws new light on an obscure point of the Ignatian controversy," i.e., the Si'ge in the Epistle 
to the Magnesians (cap. viii.) ; but his treatment of the matter is unworthy of a candid scholar.] 

^ See the extraordinary passage and note in his Hippolytus^ vol. i. p. 58, etc. 



Ignatius, who is {also called'\ Theophorus, to 
Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, or rather, who 
has as his own bishop God the Father, and our 
Lord Jesus Christ: {wishes^ abundance of 


Because thy mind is acceptable to me, inas- 
much as it is established in God, as on a rock 
which is immoveable, I glorify God the more ex- 
ceedingly that I have been counted worthy of 
[seeing] thy face, which I longed after in God. 
Now I beseech thee, by the grace with which 
thou art clothed, to add [speed] to thy course, 
and that thou ever pray for all men that they 
may be saved, and that thou demand^ things 
which are befitting, with all assiduity both of the 
flesh and spirit. Be studious of unity, than 
which nothing is more precious. Bear with all 
men, even as our Lord beareth with thee. Show 
patience ^ with all men in love, as [indeed] thou 
doest. Be stedfast in prayer. Ask for more 
understanding than that which thou [already] 
hast. Be watchful, as possessing a spirit which 
sleepeth not. Speak with every man according 
to the will of God. Bear the infirmities of all 
men as a perfect athlete ; for where the labour is 
great, the gain is also great. 


If thou lovest the good disciples only, thou 
hast no grace ; [but] rather subdue those that 
are evil by gentleness. All [sorts of] wounds 
are not healed by the same medicine. Mitigate 
[the pain of] cutting ^ by tenderness. Be wise 
as the serpent in everything, and innocent, with 
respect to those things which are requisite, even 
as the dove. For this reason thou art [com- 
posed] of both flesh and spirit, that thou mayest 

.^ £ The inscription varies in each of the three Syriac MSS., being in 
" Tu^i' • , "*= Epistle of my lord Ignatius, the bishop; " in the second, 
1 he tpistleof Ignatius; and in the third, " The Epistle of Ignatius 
bishop of Antioch. 

^ For " vindicate thy place" in the Greek. 

3 Literally, " draw out thy spirit." 

•♦ Cureton observes, as one alternative here, that " the Syrian 
translator seems to have read ■napo.^vay.a for n-apo{u<r/ioOs. " 

entice s those things which are visible before thy 
face, and mayest ask, as to those which are con- 
cealed from thee, that they [too] may be re- 
vealed to thee, in order that thou be deficient in 
nothing, and mayest abound in all gifts. The 
time demands, even as a pilot does a ship, and 
as one who stands exposed to the tempest does a 
haven, that thou shouldst be worthy of God. Be 
thou watchful as an athlete of God. That which 
is promised to us is life eternal, which cannot be 
corrupted, of which things thou art also per- 
suaded. In everything I will be instead ^ of thy 
soul, and my bonds which thou hast loved. 


Let not those who seem to be somewhat, and 
teach strange doctrines, strike thee with appre- 
hension ; but stand thou in the truth, as an ath- 
lete 7 who is smitten, for it is [the part] of a great 
athlete to be smitten, and [yet] conquer. More 
especially is it fitting that we should bear every- 
thing for the sake of God, that He also may 
bear us. Be [still] more diligent than thou yet 
art. Be discerning of the times. Look for Him 
that is above the times. Him who has no times, 
Him who is invisible, Him who for our sakes be- 
came visible, Him who is impalpable. Him who 
is impassible. Him who for our sakes suffered, 
Him who endured everything in every form for 
our sakes. 

CHAP, rv. 

Let not the widows be overlooked ; on ac- 
count of ^ our Lord be thou their guardian, and 
let nothing be done without thy will ; also do 
thou nothing without the will of God, as indeed 
thou doest not. Stand rightly. Let there be 
frequent 9 assemblies : ask every man [to them] 
by his name. Despise not slaves, either male or 
female ; but neither let them be contemptuous, 
but let them labour the more as for the glory of 

5 Or, " flatter," probably meaning to " deal gently with." 
^ Thus the Syriac renders kvri^vxov in the Greek. 

7 The Greek has aic/oiwi', " an anvil." 

8 The Greek has Mfra, " after." 

9 Or, " constant," " regular." 




God, that they may be counted worthy of a more 
precious freedom, which is of God. Let them 
not desire to be set free out of the common 
[fund], lest they be found the slaves of lust. 


Flee wicked arts ; but all the more discourse 
regarding them. Speak to my sisters, that they 
love in our Lord, and that their husbands be 
sufficient for them in the flesh and spirit. Then, 
again, charge my brethren in the name of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, that they love their wives, as 
our Lord His Church. If any man is able in 
power to continue in purity," to the honour of 
the flesh of our Lord, let him continue so with- 
out boasting ; if he boasts, he is undone ; if he 
become known apart from the bishop, he has 
destroyed himself.^ It is becoming, therefore, 
to men and women who marry, that they marry 
with the counsel of the bishop, that the marriage 
may be in our Lord, and not in lust. Let every- 
thing, therefore, be [done] for the honour of God. 


Look ye to the bishop, that God also may 
look upon you. I will be instead of the souls of 

' i.e., " in celibacy." 

' Or, " corrupted himscit* 

those who are subject to the bishop, and the 
presbyters, and the deacons ; with them may I 
have a portion in the presence of God ! Labaur 
together with one another, act as athletes ^ to- 
gether, run together, suff'er together, sleep to- 
gether, rise together. As stewards of God, and 
of His household,"* and His servants, please Him 
and serve Him, that ye may receive from Him the 
wages [promised]. Let none of you be rebel- 
lious. Let your baptism be to you as armour, 
and faith as a spear, and love as a helmet, and 
patience as a panoply. Let your treasures be 
your good works, that ye may receive the gift of 
God, as is just. Let your spirit be long-suffering 
towards each other with meekness, even as God 
[is] toward you. As for me, I rejoice in you at 
all times. 


The Christian has not power over himself, but 
is [ever] ready to be subject to God.s 


I salute him who is reckoned worthy to go to 
Antioch in my stead, as I commanded thee.5 

3 Literally, " make the contest." 
* Literally, " sons of His house." 

s These are the only parts of chaps, vii. am4 vi. in the Greek 
that are represented in the Syriac. 


Ignatius, who is \also called'] TJieophorus, to the 
Church which is blessed in the greatness of God 
the Father, and perfected ; to her who was 
selected^ frofn eternity, that she might be at all 
times for glory, which abide th, and is unchange- 
able, and is perfected and chosen in the purpose 
of truth by the will of the Father of Jesus Christ 
our God ; to her who is worthy of happiness ; 
to her who is at Ephesus , in Jesus Christ, in joy 
which is unblameable : ^wishes] abundance of 


Inasisiuch as your name, which is greatly be- 
loved, is acceptable to me in God, [your name] 
which ye have acquired by nature, through a 
right and just will, and also by the faith and love 
of Jesus Christ our Saviour, and ye are imitators 
of God, and are fervent in the blood of God, and 
have speedily completed a work congenial to you ; 
[for] when ye heard that I was bound,^ so as to 
be able to do nothing for the sake of the com- 
mon name and hope (and I hope, through your 
prayers, that I may be devoured by beasts at 
Rome, so that by means of this of which I have 
been accounted worthy, I may be endowed with 
strength to be a disciple of God), ye were dih- 
gent to come and see me. Seeing, then, that 
we have become acquainted with your multitude * 
in the name of God, by Onesimus, who is your 
bishop, in love which is unutterable, whom I 
pray that ye love in Jesus Christ our Lord, and 
that all of you imitate his example,5 for blessed 
is He who has given you such a bishop, even as 
ye deserve [to have].^ 

CHAP, in.7 
But inasmuch as love does not permit me to 

' Another inscription is, " Epistle the Second, which is to the 

2 Literally, " separated." 

3 Literally, " bound from actions." 

* Cureton renders, " have received your abundance," probably 
referring the words to gifts sent by the Ephesians to Ignatius. 

5 Literally, " be in his image." 

* There is no Apodosis, unless it be found in what follows. 

7 The following clause is the whole of chap. iii. in the Greek, 
which is represented in the Syriac. 

be silent in regard to you, on this account I 
have been forward to entreat of you that ye 
would be diligent in the will of God. 

CHAP, vin.^ 

For, so long as there is not implanted in you 
any one lust which is able to torment you, be-, 
hold, ye live in God. I rejoice in you, and offer 
supplication 9 on account of you, Ephesians, a 
Church which is renowned in aU ages. For 
those who ai"e carnal are not able to do spiritual 
things, nor those that are spiritual carnal things ; 
in like manner as neither can faith [do] those 
things which are foreign to faith, nor want of 
faith [do] what belongs to faith. For those 
things which ye have done in the flesh, even 
these are spiritual, because ye have done every- 
thing in Jesus Christ. 


And ye are prepared for the building of God 
the Father, and ye are raised up on high by the 
instrument of Jesus Christ, which is the cross ; 
and ye are drawn by the rope, which is the Holy 
Spirit ; and your pulley is your faith, and your 
love is the way which leadeth up on high to 


Pray for all men ; for there is hope of repent- 
ance for them, that they may be counted wor- 
thy of God. By your works especially let them 
be instructed. Against their harsh words be ye 
conciliatory, by meekness of mind and gentle- 
ness. Against their blasphemies do ye give your- 
selves to prayer ; and against their error be ye 
armed with faith. Against their fierceness be ye 
peaceful and quiet, and be ye not astounded by 
them. Let us, then, be imitators of our Lord in 
meekness, and strive who shall more especially 
be injured, and oppressed, and defrauded. 

8 Chaps, iv. V. vi. vii. of the Greek are totally omitted in the 

9 Thus Cureton renders the words, referring in confirmation to the 
Peshito version of Phil. i. 4, but the meaning is doubtful. 





The work is not of promise,* unless a man be 
found in the power of faith, even to the end. 


It is better that a man should be silent while 
he is something, than that he should be talking 
when he is not ; that by those things which he 
speaks he should act, and by those things of 
which he is silent he should be known. 


My spirit bows in adoration to the cross, 
which is a stumbling-block to those who do not 
believe, but is to you for salvation and eternal 

' Chaps, xi. xii. xiii. of the Greek are totally wanting in the 
Syriac, and only these few words of chaps, xiv. and xv. are repre- 

* The meaning seems to be that mere profession, without con- 
tinuous practice^ is nothing. 

3 Chaps. XVI. and xvii. of the Greek are totally wanting in the 


There was concealed from the ruler of this 
world the virginity of Mary and the birth of our 
Lord, and the three renowned mysteries '» which 
were done in the tranquillity of God from the 
star. And here, at the manifestation of the Son, 
magic began to be destroyed, and all bonds 
were loosed ; and the ancient kingdom and the 
error of evil was destroyed. Henceforward all 
things were moved together, and the destruction 
of death was devised, and there was the com- 
mencement of that which was perfected in God. 5 

* Literally, " the mysteries of the shout." The meaning is here 
confused and obscure. See the Greek. 

s Chaps. XX. and xxi. of the Greek are altogether wanting in the 

[N.B. — See .spurious Epistle to Philippians, cap. 4, iiifra. This 
concealment from Satan of the mystery of the incarnation is the expla- 
nation, according to the Fathers, ol kis tempting the Messiah, and 
prompting His crucifixion. Also, Christ the more profoundly humbled 
himself, " ne subtilis ille diaholioculus magnum hoc pietatisdepre- 
heiideret sacramentum" (St. Bernard, opp. ii. 1944). Bernard also 
uses this opinion very strikingly (opp. ii. 1953) in one of his sermons, 
supposing that Satan discovered the secret too late for his own pur- 
pose, and then prompted the outcry, Come down from the cross, to 
defeat the triumph of the second Adam. (Comp. St. Mark i. 24 and St. 
Luke iv. 34, where, after the first defeat of the tempter, this demon 
suspects the second Adam, and tries to extort the secret).] 


Ignatius, 7vho is \_also caUed~\ TTieophorus, to the 
Church which has received grace through the 
greatness of the Father Most High ; to her who 
presideth in the place of the region of the Ro- 
mans, who is worthy of God, and worthy of 
life, and happiness, and praise, and rejnem- 
brance, and is worthy of prosperity, and pre- 
sideth i?i love, and is perfected in the law of 
Christ unblatfieable : \_wishes'\ abundance of 


From of old have I prayed to God, that I 
might be counted worthy to behold your faces 
which are worthy of God : now, therefore, be- 
ing bound in Jesus Christ, I hope to meet you 
and salute you, if it be the will [of God] that I 
should be accounted worthy to the end. For 
the beginning is well arranged, if I be counted 
worthy to attain to the end, that I may receive 
my portion, without hindrance, through suffer- 
ing. For I am in fear of your love, lest it 
should injure me. As to you, indeed, it is easy 
for you to do whatsoever ye wish ; but as to me, 
it is difficult for me to be accounted worthy of 
God, if indeed ye spare me not. 


For there is no other time such as this, that I 
should be accounted worthy of God ; neither 
will ye, if ye be silent, [ever] be found in a bet- 
ter work than this. If ye let me alone, I shall 
be the word of God ; but if ye love my flesh, 
again am I [only] to myself a voice. Ye can- 
not give me anything more precious than this, 
that I should be sacrificed to God, while the 
altar is ready ; that ye may be in one concord 
in love, and may praise God the Father through 
Jesus Christ our Lord, because He has deemed 
a bishop worthy to be God's, having called him 
from the east to the west. It is good that I 
should set from the world in God, that I may 
rise in Him to life.^ 

* Another inscription is, " The Third Epistle." 
2 Literally, " iu life." 

CHAP. in. 

Ye have never envied any man. Ye have 
taught others. Only pray ye for strength to be 
given to me from within and from without, that 
I may not only speak, but also may be willing, 
and that I may not merely be called a Christian, 
but also may be found to be [one] ; for if I am 
found to be [so], I may then also be called [so]. 
Then [indeed] shall I be faithful, when I am no 
longer seen in the world. For there is nothing 
visible that is good. The work is not [a mat- 
ter 3] of persuasion ; but Christianity is great 
when the world hateth it. 


I write to all the Churches, and declare to all 
men, that I willingly die for the sake of God, if so 
be that ye hinder me not. I entreat of you not 
to be [affected] towards me with a love which 
is unseasonable. Leave me to become [the 
prey of] the beasts, that by their means I may 
be accounted worthy of God. I am the wheat 
of God, and by the teeth of the beasts I shall 
be ground,* that I may be found the pure bread 
of God. Provoke ye greatly s the wild beasts, 
that they may be for me a grave, and may leave 
nothing of my body, in order that, when I have 
fallen asleep, I may not be a burden upon any 
one. Then shall I be in truth a disciple of 
Jesus Christ, when the world seeth not even my 
body. Entreat of our Lord in my behalf, that 
through these instruments I may be found a sac- 
rifice to God. I do not, like Peter and Paul, 
issue orders unto you. They are ^ apostles, but 
I am one condemned ; they indeed are free, 
but I am a slave, even until now. But if I suf- 
fer, I shall be the freed-man of Jesus Christ, 
and I shall rise in Him from the dead, free. 
And now being in bonds, I learn to desire noth- 

3 The meaning is probably similar to that expressed in chap, xiv 
of the Epistle to the Ephesians. 

* Literally, " I am ground." 

5 Literally, " with provoking, provoke." 

* Literally, " they are who are." 





From Syria, and even unto Rome, I am cast 
among wild beasts, by sea and by land, by night 
and by day, being bound between ten leopards, 
which are the band of soldiers, who, even when 
I do good to them, all the more do evil unto 
me. I, however, am the rather instructed by 
their injurious treatment ; ' but not on this ac- 
count am I justified to myself. I rejoice in the 
beasts which are prepared for me, and I pray 
that they may in haste be found for me ; and I 
will provoke them speedily to devour me, and 
not be as those which are afraid of some other 
men,2 and will not approach them : even should 
they not be willing to approach me, I will go 
with violence against them. Know me from 
myself what is expedient for me.^ Let no one •* 
envy me of those things which are seen and 
which are not seen, that I should be accounted 
worthy of Jesus Christ. Fire, and the cross, 
and the beasts that are prepared, cutting off of 
the limbs, and scattering of the bones, and 
crushing of the whole body, harsh torments of 
the devil — let these come upon me, but 5 only 
let me be accounted worthy of Jesus Christ. 


The pains of the birth stand over against me.^ 


And my love is crucified, and there is no fire 
in me for another love. I do not desire the 
food of corruption, neither the lusts of this 
world. I seek the bread of God, which is the 

' Literally, " by their injury." 

* Literally, " and not as that which is afraid of some other men." 
So Cureton translates, but remarks that the passage is evidently cor- 
rupt. The reference plainly is to the fact that the beasts sometimes 
refused to attack their intended victims. .See the case of Blandina, 
as reported by Eusebius {Hist. EccL, v. i). 

3 Cureton renders interrogatively, " What is expedient for me ? " 
and remarks that " the meaning of the Syriac appears to be, ' I 
crave your indulgence to leave the knowledge of what is expedient 
for me to my own conscience.' " 

* Literally, " nothing." 
5 Literally, " and." 

* The Latin version translates the Greek here, " H« adds gain to 

flesh of Jesus Christ ; and I seek His blood, a 
drink which is love incorruptible. 


My spirit saluteth you, and the love of the 
Churches which received me as the name of 
Jesus Christ ; for those also who were near to 
[my] way in the flesh, preceded me in every 

^ [Now therefore, being about to arrive shortly 
in Rome, I know many things in God ; but I 
keep myself within measure, that I may not per- 
ish through boasting : for now it is needful for 
me to fear the more, and not pay regard to 
those who puff me up. For they who say such 
things to me scourge me ; for I desire to suffer, 
but I do not know if I am worthy. For zeal is 
not visible to many, but with me it has war. I 
have need, therefore, of meekness, by which the 
prince of this world is destroyed. I am able to 
write to you of heavenly things, but I fear lest I 
should do you an injury. Know me from my- 
self. For I am cautious lest ye should not be 
able to receive [such knowledge] , and should be 
perplexed. For even I, not because I am in 
bonds, and am able to know heavenly things, 
and the places of angels, and the stations of the 
powers that are seen and that are not seen, am 
on this account a disciple ; for I am far short of 
the perfection which is worthy of God.] Be ye 
perfectly strong ^ in the patience of Jesus Christ 
our God. 

Here end the three Epistles of Ignatius, bishop 
and martyr. 

7 Chap. viii. of the Greek is entirely omitted in the Syriac. 

8 The following passage is not found in this Epistle in the Greek 
recensions, but forms, in substance, chaps, iv. and v. of the Epistle 
to the Trallians. Diverse views are held by critics as to its proper 
place, according to the degree of authority they ascribe to the Syriac 
version. Cureton maintains that this passage has been transferred by 
the forger of the Epistle to the Trallians, " to give a fair colour to the 
fabrication by introducing a part of the genuine writing of Ignatius; " 
while Hefele asserts that it is bound by the "closest connection" to 
the preceding chapter in the Epistle to the Trallians. 

9 Or, as in the Greek, " Fare ye well, to the end." 

[N.B. — The aphoristic genius of Ignatius seems to be felt by his 
Syrian abbreviator, who reduces whole chapters to mere maxims.} 




To the following introductory note of the translators nothing need be prefixed, except a 
grateful acknowledgment of the value of their labours and of their good judgment in giving 
us even these spurious writings for purposes of comparison. They have thus placed the mate- 
rials for a complete understanding of the whole subject, before students who have a mind to subject 
it to a thorough and candid examination. 

The following is the original Introductory Notice : — 

We formerly stated that eight out of the fifteen Epistles bearing the name of Ignatius are now 
universally admitted to be spurious. None of them are quoted or referred to by any ancient 
writer previous to the sixth century. The style, moreover, in which they are written, so differ- 
ent from that of the other Ignatian letters, and allusions which they contain to heresies and 
ecclesiastical arrangements of a much later date than that of their professed author, render it 
perfectly certain that they are not the authentic production of the illustrious bishop of Antioch. 

We cannot tell when or by whom these Epistles were fabricated. They have been thought 
to betray the same hand as the longer and interpolated form of the seven Epistles which are 
generally regarded as genuine. And some have conceived that the writer who gave forth to the 
world the " Apostolic Constitutions " under the name of Clement, was probably the author of 
these letters falsely ascribed to Ignatius, as well as of the longer recension of the seven Epistles 
which are mentioned by Eusebius. 

It was a considerable time before editors in modem times began to discriminate between 
the true and the false in the writings attributed to Ignatius. The letters first published under 
his name were those three which exist only in Latin. These came forth in 1495 ^^ Paris, be- 
ing appended to a life of Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. Some three years later, eleven 
Epistles, comprising those mentioned by Eusebius, and four others, were published in Latin, 
and passed through four or five editions. In 1536, the whole of the professedly Ignatian letters 
were published at Cologne in a Latin version ; and this collection also passed through several 
editions. It was not till 1557 that the Ignatian Epistles appeared for the first time in Greek at 
Dillingen. After this date many editions came forth, in which the probably genuine were still 
mixed up with the certainly spurious, the three Latin letters only being rejected as destitute of 
authority. Vedelius of Geneva first made the distinction which is now universally accepted, in 
an edition of these Epistles which he published in 1623 ; and he was followed by Archbishop 
Usher and others, who entered more fully into that critical examination of these writings which 
has been continued down even to our own day. 

The reader will have no difficulty in detecting the internal grounds on which these eight letters 



are set aside as spurious. Tlie difference of style from the other Ignatian writings will strike 
him even in perusing the English version which we have given, while it is of course much more 
marked in the original. And other decisive proofs present themselves in every one of the 
Epistles. In that to the Tarsians there is found a plain allusion to the Sabellian heresy, which 
did not arise till after the middle of the third century. In the Epistle to the Antiochians 
there is an enumeration of various Church officers, who were certainly unknown at the period 
when Ignatius lived. The Epistle to Hero plainly alludes to Manichaean errors, and could 
not therefore have been written before the third century. There are equally decisive proofs of 
spuriousness to be found in the Epistle to the Philippians, such as the references it contains to 
the Patripassian heresy originated by Praxeas in the latter part of the second century, and the 
ecclesiastical feasts, etc., of which it makes mention. The letter to Maria Cassobolita is of a 
very peculiar style, utterly alien from that of the other Epistles ascribed to Ignatius. And it is 
sufficient simply to glance at the short Epistles to St. John and the Virgin Mary, in order to see 
that they carry the stamp of imposture on their front ; and, indeed, no sooner were they pub- 
lished than by almost universal consent they were rejected. 

But though the additional Ignatian letters here given are confessedly spurious, we have 
thought it not improper to present them to the English reader in an appendix to our first vol- 
ume.' We have done so, because they have been so closely connected with the name of the 
bishop of Antioch, and also because they are in themselves not destitute of interest. We have, 
moreover, the satisfaction of thus placing for the first time within the reach of one acquainted only 
with our language, all the materials that have entered into the protracted agitation of the 
famous Ignatian controversy. 

' [Spurious writings, if they can be traced to antiquity, are always useful. Sometimes they are evidence of facts, always of opinions, 
ideas and fancies of their date ; and often they enable us to identify the origin of corruptions. Even interpolations prove what later 
partisans would be glad to find, if they could, in early writers. They bear unwilling testimony to the absence of genuine evidence 
in favour of their assumptions.] 


Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to the 
Church which is at Tarsus, saved in Christ, 
worthy of praise, worthy of retnembrance, and 
worthy of love : Mercy and peace from God 
the Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ, be ever 


From Syria even unto Rome I fight with beasts : 
not that I am devoured by brute beasts, for these, 
as ye know, by the will of God, spared Daniel, 
but by beasts in the shape of men, in whom the 
merciless wild beast himself lies hid, and pricks 
and wounds me day by day. But none of these 
hardships " move me, neither count I my life 
dear unto myself," ' in such a way as to love it 
better than the Lord. Wherefore I am prepared 
for [encountering] fire, wild beasts, the sword, 
or the cross, so that only I may see Christ my 
Saviour and God, who died for me. I therefore, 
the prisoner of Christ, who am driven along by 
land and sea, exhort you : " stand fast in the 
faith," ^ and be ye stedfast, "for the just shall 
live by faith ; " ^ be ye unwavering, for " the 
Lord causes those to dwell in a house who are 
of one and the same character." '• 


I have learned that certain of the ministers of 
Satan have wished to disturb you, some of them 
asserting that Jesus was born [only 5] in appear- 
ance, was crucified in appearance, and died in 
appearance ; others that He is not the Son of 
the Creator, and others that He is Himself God 
over all.^ Others, again, hold that He is a mere 
man, and others that this flesh is not to rise again, 
so that our proper course is to live and partake 
of a life of pleasure, for that this is the chief 
good to beings who are in a little while to perish. 

' Acts XX. 24. 

* I Cor. xvi. 13. 

3 Hab. ii. 4; Gal. iii. 11. 

* Ps. Ixviii. 7 (after the LXX.). 
S Some omit this. 

* That is, as appears afterwards from chap, y., so as to have no 
personality distinct from the Father. 

A swarm of such evils has burst in upon us.' 
But ye have not " given place by subjection to 
them, no, not for one hour." ** For ye are the 
fellow-citizens as well as the disciples of Paul, 
who " fully preached the Gospel from Jerusalem, 
and round about unto Illyricum," ^ and bare 
about " the marks of Christ " in his flesh. '° 


Mindful of him, do ye by all means know that 
Jesus the Lord was truly bom of Mary, being 
made of a woman ; and was as truly crucified. 
For, says he, " God forbid that I should glory, 
save in the cross of the Lord Jesus." " And He 
really suffered, and died, and rose again. For 
says [Paul], " If Christ should become passible, 
and should be the first to rise again from the 
dead." '^ And again, " In that He died. He died 
unto sin once : but in that He liveth, He liveth 
unto God." '^ Otherwise, what advantage would 
there be in [becoming subject to] bonds, if 
Christ has not died ? what advantage in patience ? 
what advantage in [enduring] stripes? And 
why such facts as the following : Peter was cru- 
cified ; Paul and James were slain with the sword ; 
John was banished to Patmos ; Stephen was 
stoned to death by the Jews who killed the 
Lord ? But, [ in truth,] none of these sufferings 
were in vain ; for the Lord was really crucified 
by the ungodly. 



And [know ye, moreover], that He who was 
bom of a woman was the Son of God, and He 
that was crucified was " the first-born of every 
creature," '•♦ and God the Word, who also created 
all things. For says the apostle, " There is one 
God, the Father, of whom are all things ; and 

"> The translation is here somewhat doubtful. 

8 Gal. ii. 5. 

9 Rom. XV. 19. 
'o Gal. vi. 17. 
" Gal. vi. 14. 

'2 Acts xxvi. 23 (somewhat inaccurately rendered in English ve» 
sion) . 

13 Rom. vi. 10. 
u Col. i. 15. 




one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things." ' 
And again, "For there is one God, and one Medi- 
ator between God and man, the man Christ 
Jesus ; " ^ and, " By Him were all things created 
that are in heaven, and on earth, visible and in- 
visible ; and He is before all things, and by Him 
all things consist." ^ 


And that He Himself is not God over all, and 
the Father, but His Son, He [shows when He] 
says, " I ascend unto my Father and your Father, 
and to my God and your God." ^ And again, 
" When all things shall be subdued unto Him, 
then shall He also Himself be subject unto Him 
that put all things under Him, that God may be 
all in all." 5 Wherefore it is one [Person] who 
put all things under, and who is all in all, and 
another [Person] to whom they were subdued, 
who also Himself, along with all other things, 
becomes subject [to the former]. 


Nor is He a mere man, by whom and in whom 
all things were made ; for " all things were made 
by Him." ^ " When He made the heaven, I 
was present with Him ; and I was there with 
Him, forming [the world along with Him], and 
He rejoiced in me daily." 7 And how could a 
mere man be addressed in such words as these : 
"Sit Thou at My right hand?"** And how, 
again, could such an one declare : " Before 
Abraham was, I am?"9 And, "Glorify Me with 
Thy glory which I had before the world was? " '° 
What man could ever say, " I came down from 
heaven, not to do Mine own will, but the w^ill of 
Him that sent Me ? " " And of what man could 
it be said, " He was the true Light, which light- 
eth every man that cometh into the world : He 
was in the world, and the world was made by 
Him, and the world knew Him not. He came 
unto His own, and His own received Him not?" '^ 
How could such a one be a mere man, receiving 
the beginning of His existence from Mary, and 
not rather God the Word, and the only-begotten 
Son ? For " in the beginning was the Word, and 
the Word was with God,'^ and the Word was 
God.""* And in another place, "The Lord cre- 
ated Me, the beginning of His ways, for His ways. 

 I Cor. viii. 6. 
^ I Tim. ii. 5. 
3 Col. i. 16, 17. 

* John XX. 17. 
s 1 Cor. XV. 28. 

* John i. ^. 

7 Prov. viiu 37, 30. 

' Ps. ex. I. 

9 John viii. 58. 

'° John xvii. 5. 

" John vi. 38. 

'^ John i. 9, 10, II. 

'3 John i. I. 

^* Some insert here John L 3. 

for His works. Before the world did He found 
Me, and before all the hills did He beget Me." 'S 


And that our bodies are to rise again. He 
shows when He says, " Verily I say unto you, 
that the hour cometh, in the which all that are 
in the graves shall hear the voice of the Son of 
God ; and they that hear shall live." '^ And 
[says] the apostle, " For this corruptible must 
put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on 
immortality." '7 And that we must live soberly 
and righteously, he [shows when he] says again, 
" Be not deceived : neither adulterers, nor effem- 
inate persons, nor abusers of themselves with 
mankind, nor fornicators, nor revilers, nor drunk- 
ards, nor thieves, can inherit the kingdom of 
God." '^ And again, " If the dead rise not, then 
is not Christ raised ; our preaching therefore is 
vain, and your faith is also vain : ye are yet in 
your sins. Then they also that are fallen asleep 
in Christ have perished. If in this life only we 
have hope in Christ, we are of all men most 
miserable. If the dead rise not, let us eat and 
drink, for to-morrow we die." '^ But if such be 
our condition and feelings, wherein shall we differ 
from asses and dogs, who have no care about the 
future, but think only of eating, and of indul- 
ging ^° such appetites as follow after eating ? For 
they are unacquainted with any intelligence 
moving within them. 


May I have joy of you in the Lord ! Be ye 
sober. Lay aside, every one of you, all malice 
and beast-like fury, evil-speaking, calumny, 
filthy speaking, ribaldry, whispering, arrogance, 
drunkenness, lust, avarice, vainglory, envy, and 
everything akin to these. " But put ye on the 
Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for 
the flesh, to fulfil the lusts thereof."^' Ye pres- 
byters, be subject to the bishop ; ye deacons, to 
the presbyters ; and ye, the people, to the pres- 
byters and the deacons. Let my soul be for 
theirs who preserve this good order; and may 
the Lord be with them continually ! 


Ye husbands, love your wives ; and ye wives, 
your husbands. Ye children, reverence your 
parents. Ye parents, " bring up your children 
in the nurture and admonition of the Lord." " 

'S Prov. viii. 22, 23, 25. 
■6 John V. 25, 28. 
" I Cor. XV. 53. 
" I Cor. vi. 9. 

'9 I Cor. XV. 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 32. 

2° Literally, "coming also to the appetite of those things aftel 
eating." The text is doubtful. 
" Rom. xiii. 14. 
" Eph. vi. 4. 



Honour those [who continue] in virginity, as 
the priestesses of Christ ; and the widows [that 
persevere] in gravity of behaviour, as the altar 
of God. Ye servants, wait upon your masters 
with [respectful] fear. Ye masters, issue orders 
to your servants with tenderness. Let no one 
among you be idle ; for idleness is the mother 
of want. I do not enjoin these things as being a 
person of any consequence, although I am in 
bonds [for Christ] ; but as a brother, I put you 
in mind of them. The Lord be with you ! 


May I enjoy your prayers ! Pray ye that I 

may attain to Jesus. I commend unto you the 
Church which is at Antioch. The Churches of 
Philippi," whence also I write to you, salute you. 
Philo, your deacon, to whom also I give thanks 
as one who has zealously ministered to me in 
all things, salutes you. Agathopus, the deacon 
from Syria, who follows me in Christ, salutes 
you. " Salute ye one another with a holy 
kiss." ^ I salute you all, both male and female, 
who are in Christ. Fare ye well in body, and 
soul, and in one Spirit ; and do not ye forget 
me. The Lord be with you ! 

* Literally, " of the Philippians." 

* I Pot. V. 14. 


Ignadus, who is also called Theophorus, to 
the Church sojourning in Syria, tvhich has 
obtained mercy /ro?n God, and been elected by 
Christ, and which first ' received the name of 
Christ, \wishes'\ happiness in God the Father, 
and the Lord Jesus Christ. 


The Lord has rendered my bonds light and 
easy since I learnt that you are in peace, and 
that you live in all harmony both of the flesh 
and spirit. " I therefore, the prisoner of the 
Lord,^ beseech you, that ye walk worthy of the 
vocation wherewith ye are called," ^ guarding 
against those heresies of the wicked one which 
have broken in upon us, to the deceiving and 
destruction of those that accept of them ; but 
that ye give heed to the doctrine of the apostles, 
and believe both the law and the prophets : that 
ye reject every Jewish and Gentile error, and 
neither introduce a multiplicity of gods, nor yet 
deny Christ under the pretence of [maintaining] 
the unity of God. 


For Moses, the faithful servant of God, when 
he said, " The Lord thy God is one Lord," * and 
thus proclaimed that there was only one God, 
did yet forthwith confess also our Lord when he 
said, "The Lord rained upon Sodom and Go- 
morrah fire and brimstone from the Lord." 5 
And again, " And God ^ said. Let Us make man 
after our image : and so God made man, after 
the image of God made He him." ^ And further, 
" In the image of God made He man." * And 
that [the Son of God] was to be made man, 
[Moses shows when] he says, " A prophet shall 

' Comp. Acts xi. 26. 

2 Literally, " in the Lord." 

3 Eph. iv. I. 

* Deut. vi. 4: Mark xii. 29. 

5 Gen. xix. 24. 

6 The MS. has " Lord." 

7 Gen. i. 26, 27. 

* Gen V. I, ix. 6. 


the Lord raise up unto you of your brethren, 
like unto me."^ 



The prophets also, when they speak as in the 
person of God, [saying,] " I am God, the first 
[of beings], and I am also the last,'° and besides 
Me there is no God," " concerning the Father 
of the universe, do also speak of our Lord Jesus 
Christ. " A Son," they say, has been given to 
us, on whose shoulder the government is from 
above ; and His name is called the Angel of 
great counsel. Wonderful, Counsellor, the strong 
and mighty God." '^ And concerning His in- 
carnation, " Behold, a virgin shall be with Child, 
and shall bring forth a Son ; and they shall call 
his name Immanuel." '^ And concerning the pas- 
sion, " He was led as a sheep to the slaughter ; 
and as a lamb before her shearers is dumb, 
I also was an innocent lamb led to be sacri- 
ficed." "» 


The Evangelists, too, when they declared that 
the one Father was " the only true God," '5 did 
not omit what concerned our Lord, but wrote : 
" In the beginning was the Word, and the Word 
was with God, and the Word was God. The 
same was in the beginning with God. All things 
were made by Him, and without Him was not 
anything made that was made." '^ And con- 
cerning the incarnation : " The Word," says [the 
Scripture], "became flesh, and dwelt among 
us." '7 And again: "The book of the genera- 
tion of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of 
Abraham." '^ And those very apostles, who said 
"that there is one God,"'^ said also that " there 

9 Deut. xviii. 15; Acts iii. 22, vii. 37. 

° Literally, " after these things." 

' Isa. xliv. 6. 

- Isa. ix. 6. 

^ Isa. vii. 14; Matt. i. 23. 

* Isa. liii. 7; Jer. xi. 19. 

5 John xvii. 3. 

f" John i. I. 

^ John i. 14. 

8 Matt. i. I. 

9 I Cor. viii. 4, 6; Gal. iii. 30. 


1 1 1 

is one Mediator between God and men." ' 
Nor were they ashamed of the incarnation and 
the passion. For what says [one] ? " The man 
Christ Jesus, who gave Himself " ^ for the Hfe 
and sah^ation of the world. 


Whosoever, therefore, declares that there is 
but one God, only so as to take away the divinity 
of Christ, is a devil,^ and an enemy of all right- 
eousness. He also that confesseth Christ, yet 
not as the Son of the Maker of the world, but 
of some other unknown* being, different from 
Him whom the law and the prophets have pro- 
claimed, this man is an instrument of the devil. 
And he that rejects the incarnation, and is 
ashamed of the cross for which I am in bonds, 
this man is antichrist.5 Moreover, he who affirms 
Christ to be a mere man is accursed, according 
to the [declaration of the] prophet,'' since he 
puts not his trust in God, but in man. Where- 
fore also he is unfruitful, like the wild myrtle-tree. 


These things I write to you, thou new olive- 
tree of Christ, not that I am aware you hold 
any such opinions, but that I may put you on 
your guard, as a father does his children. Be- 
ware, therefore, of those that hasten to work 
mischief, those " enemies of the cross of Christ, 
whose end is destruction, whose glory is in their 
shame." 7 Beware of those "dumb dogs," those 
trailing serpents, those scaly ^ dragons, those asps, 
and basilisks, and scorpions. For these are 
subtle wolves,^ and apes that mimic the appear- 
ance of men. 



Ye have been the disciples of Paul and Peter ; 
do not lose what was committed to your trust. 
Keep in remembrance Euodias,'°your deservedly- 
blessed pastor, into whose hands the government 
over you was first entrusted by the apostles. 
Let us not bring disgrace upon our Father. Let 
us prove ourselves His true-born children, and 
not bastards. Ye know after what manner I 
have acted among you. The things which, when 
present, I spoke to you, these same, when absent, 
I now write to you. " If any man love not 
the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be Anathema." " 

' Eph. iv. 5, 6; i Tim. ii. 5. 


11. s- 

3 Comp. John vi. 70. Some read, " the son of the devil." 

* Or, " that cannot be known." 

s Comp. I John ii. 22, iv. 3; 2 John 7. 
6 Jer. xvii. 5. 
^ Phil. iii. 18, 19. 

* The text is here doubtful. 

9 Literally, " fox-like thoes," lynxes being perhaps intended. 

'° Some thi ik that this is the same person as the Euodias referred 
to by St. Paul, Phil. iv. 2; but, as appears from the Greek (ver. 3, 
atTii'es) , the two persons there mentioned were ■women. 

"1 Cor. xri. 11. 

Be ye followers of me." My soul be for yours, 
when I attain to Jesus. Remember my bonds.'^ 



Ye presbyters, " feed the flock which is among 
you," '■♦ till God shall show who is to hold the rule 
over you. For " I am now ready to be offered," '5 
that I " may win Christ." '^ Let the deacons 
know of what dignity they are, and let them study 
to be blameless, that they may be the followers 
of Christ. Let the people be subject to the pres- 
byters and the deacons. Let the virgins know to 
whom they have consecrated themselves. 



Let the husbands love their wives, remember- 
ing that, at the creation, one woman, and not 
many, was given to one man. Let the wives 
honour their husbands, as their own flesh ; and 
let them not presume to address them by their 
names. '7 Let them also be chaste, reckoning 
their husbands as their only partners, to whom 
indeed they have been united according to the 
will of God. Ye parents, impart a holy training 
to your children. Ye children, " honour your 
parents, that it may be well with you." '^ 


Ye masters, do not treat your servants with 
haughtiness, but imitate patient Job, who de- 
clares, " I did not despise '^ the cause ^° of my 
man-servant, or of my maid-servant, when they 
contended with me. For what in that case shall 
I do when the Lord makes an inquisition regard- 
ing me?"^' And you know what follows. Ye 
servants, do not provoke your masters to anger 
in anything, lest ye become the authors of in- 
curable mischiefs to yourselves. 


Let no one addicted to idleness eat," lest he 
become a wanderer about, and a whoremonger. 
Let drunkenness, anger, envy, reviling, clamour, 
and blasphemy "be not so much as named 
among you." ^^ Let not the widows live a life 
of pleasure, lest they wax wanton against the 
word.^'* Be subject to Caesar in everything in 
which subjection implies no [spiritual] danger. 

'2 Comp. I Cor. iv. i6. 

13 Comp. Col. iv. i8. 

'•* I Pet. v. 2. . 

'S 2 Tim. iv. 6. ^ 

16 Phil. iii. 8. • 

17 Comp. I Pet. iii. 6. 
" Eph. vi. I, 3. 

19 Literally, " If I did despise." 
''o Or, "judgment." 

21 Job xxxi. 13, 14. 

22 Comp. 2 Thess. iii. 10. 

23 Eph. V. 3. 

I 24 I Tim. V. 6, II. 

1 12 


Provoke not those that rule over you to wrath, 
that you may give no occasion against yourselves 
to those that seek for it. But as to the practice 
of magic, or the impure love of boys, or mur- 
der, it is superfluous to write to you, since such 
vices are forbidden to be committed even by 
the Gentiles. I do not issue commands on 
these points as if I were an apostle ; but, as 
your fellow-servant, I put you in mind of them. 


I salute the holy presbytery. I salute the 
sacred deacons, and that person most dear to 
me,' whom may I behold, through the Holy 
Spirit, occupying my place when I shall attain 
to Christ. My soul be in place of his. I salute 
the sub-deacons, the readers, the singers, the 
doorkeepers, the labourers,^ the exorcists, the 
confessors.^ I salute the keepers of the holy 
gates, the deaconesses in Christ. I salute the 
virgins betrothed to Christ, of whom may I 
have joy in the Lord Jesus.'* I salute the peo- 
ple of the Lord, from the smallest to the great- 
est, and all my sisters in the Lord. 

 Literally, " the name desirable to me," referring to Hero the 

* A class of persons connected with the Church, whose duty it 
vas to bury the bodies of the martyrs and others. 

3 Such as voluntarily confessed Christ before Gentile rulers. 

* Some insert here a clause referring to widoits. 



I salute Cassian and his partner in life, and 
their very dear children. Polycarp, that most 
worthy bishop, who is also deeply interested in 
you, salutes you ; and to him I have commended 
you in the Lord. The whole Church of the 
Smyrnseans, indeed, is mindful of you in their 
prayers in the Lord. Onesimus, the pastor of 
the Ephesians, salutes you. Damas,5 the bishoj) 
of Magnesia, salutes you. Polybius, bishop of 
the Trallians, salutes you. Philo and Agatho- 
pus, the deacons, my companions, salute you, 
" Salute one another with a holy kiss." ^ 


I write this letter to you from Philippi. May 
He who is alone unbegotten, keep you stedfast 
both in the spirit and in the flesh, through Him 
who was begotten before time ^ began ! And 
may I behold you in the kingdom of Christ \ I 
salute him who is to bear rule over you in my 
stead : may I have joy of him in the Lord ! 
Fare ye well in God, and in Christ, being en- 
lightened by the Holy Spirit. 

5 Or, as some read, " Demas." 

' 2 Cor. xiii. I2. 

7 Literally, " before agos." 



Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to Hero, 
the deacon of Christ, and the servant of God, 
a man honoured by God, and tnost dearly 
loved as well as esteemed, who carries Christ 
afidthe Spiritwithin him, and who is jnine own 
son in faith and love: Grace, mercy, and peace 
from Almighty God, and from Christ Jesus our 
Lord, His only-begotten Son, " who gave Him- 
self for our sins, that He might deliver us from 
the present evil world, " ' and preserve us u?ito 
His heavenly kingdom. 



I EXHORT thee in God, that thou add [speed] 
to thy course, and that thou vindicate thy dignity. 
Have a care to preserve concord with the saints. 
Bear [the burdens of] the weak, that " thou 
mayest fulfil the law of Christ." ^ Devote ^ thy- 
self to fasting and prayer, but not beyond meas- 
ure, lest thou destroy thyself  thereby. Do not 
altogether abstain from wine and flesh, for these 
things are not to be viewed with abhorrence, 
since [the Scripture] saith, " Ye shall eat the 
good things of the earth." s And again, " Ye 
shall eat fl.^sh even as herbs." ^ And again, 
" Wine maketh glad the heart of man, and oil 
exhilarates, and bread strengthens him." ^ But 
all are to be used with moderation, as being the 
gifts of God. " For who shall eat or who shall 
drink without Him ? For if anything be beauti- 
ful, it is His ; and if anything be good, it is His."^ 
Give attention to reading, 9 that thou mayest not 
only thyself know the laws, but mayest also ex- 
plain them to others, as the earnest servant '° 
of God. " No man that warreth entangleth 
himself with the affairs of this life, that he may 

» Gal. i. 4. 

* Gal. vi. 2. 

3 Literally, " have leisure for." 

* Literally, "cast thyself down." 

* Isa. i. 19. 

* Gen. ix. 3. 
' Ps. civ. 15. 

* Eccles. ii. 25 (after LXX.) ; Zech. Ix. 17. 
9 Comp. I. Tim. iv. 13. 

•o Literally, " athlete." 

please him who hath chosen him to be a soldier ; 
and if a man also strive for masteries, yet is he 
not crowned except he strive lawfully." " I that 
am in bonds pray that my soul may be in place 
of yours. 


Every one that teaches anything beyond what 
is commanded, though he be [deemed] worthy 
of credit, though he be in the habit of fasting, 
though he live in continence, though he work 
miracles, though he have the gift of prophecy, 
let him be in thy sight as a wolf in sheep's 
clothing,'^ labouring for the destruction of the 
sheep. If any one denies the cross, and is 
ashamed of the passion, let him be to thee as 
the adversary himself. " Though he gives all his 
goods to feed the poor, though he remove moun- 
tains, though he give his body to be burned," '^ 
let him be regarded by thee as abominable. If 
any one makes light of the law or the prophets, 
which Christ fulfilled at His coming, let him be 
to thee as antichrist. If any one says that the 
Lord is a mere man, he is a Jew, a murderer of 



"Honour widows that are widows indeed." '* 
Be the friend of orphans ; for God is " the Father 
of the fatherless, and the Judge of the widows." '5 
Do nothing without the bishops ; for they are 
priests, and thou a servant of the priests. They 
baptize, offer sacrifice,'^ ordain, and lay on hands ; 
but thou ministerest to them, as the holy Stephen 

" 2 Tim. ii. 4. 

'2 Comp. Matt. vii. 13. 

'3 I Cor. xiii. 2. 

'< I Tim. V. 3. 

'5 Ps. Ixviii. 5. 

'* The term Upovpyem, which we have translated as above, is one 
whose signification is disputed. It occurs once in the New Testa- 
ment (Rom. XV. 16) where it is translated in our English version 
simply "ministering." Etymologically, it means " to act as a priest," 
and we have in our translation followed Hesychius (Cent, iv.), who 
explains it as meaning "to offer sacrifice." [The whole passage in 
the Epistle to the Romans, where this word occurs may be compared 
(original Greek) with Mai. i. n, Heb. v. i, etc.] 




did at Jerusalem to James and the presbyters. 
Do not neglect the sacred meetings ' [of the 
saints] ; inquire after every one by name. " Let 
no man despise thy youth, but be thou an ex- 
ample to the believers, both in word and con- 
duct." ^ 



Be not ashamed of servants, for we possess the 
same nature in common with them. Do not 
hold women in abomination, for they have given 
thee birth, and brought thee up. It is fitting, 
therefore, to love those that were the authors of 
our birth (but only in the Lord), inasmuch as a 
man can produce no children without a woman. 
It is right, therefore, that we should honour those 
who have had a part in giving us birth. " Neither 
is the man without the woman, nor the woman 
without the man," ^ except in the case of those 
who were first formed. For the body of Adam 
was made out of the four elements, and that of 
Eve out of the side of Adam. And, indeed, the 
altogether peculiar birth of the Lord was of a 
virgin alone. [This took place] not as if the law- 
ful union [of man and wife] were abominable, 
but such a kind of birth was fitting to God. For 
it became the Creator not to make use of the 
ordinary method of generation, but of one that 
was singular and strange, as being the Creator. 


Flee from haughtiness, " for the Lord resisteth 
the proud."  Abhor falsehood, for says [the 
Scripture], "Thou shalt destroy all them that 
speak lies." •' Guard against envy, for its author 
is the devil, and his successor Cain, who envied 
his brother, and out of envy committed murder. 
Exhort my sisters to love God, and be content 
with their own husbands only. In like manner, 
exhort my brethren also to be content with their 
own wives. Watch over the virgins, as the 
precious treasures of Christ. Be long-suffering, ^ 
that thou mayest be great in wisdom. Do not 
neglect the poor, in so far as thou art prosperous. 
For " by alms and fidelity sins are purged away." ^ 



Keep thyself pure as the habitation of God. 
Thou art the temple of Christ. Thou art the in- 
strument of the Spirit. Thou knowest in what way 
I have brought thee up. Though I am the least 
of men, do thou seek to follow me, be thou an 
imitator of my conduct. I do not glory in the 

' Specially, assemblies for the celebration of the Lord's Supper. 

* I Tim. IV. 12. 
3 I Cor. xi. II. 

* las. iv. 6: I Pet. v. 5. 
5 Ps. V. 6. 

^ Prov. xiv. 29. 

' Prov. XV. 27 (after LXX. : xvi. 6 in English versiom) 

world, but in the Lord. I exhort Hero, my son ; 
" but let him that glorieth, glory in the Lord." * 
May I have joy of thee, my dear son, whose 
guardian may He be who is the only unbegotten 
God, and the Lord Jesus Christ ! Do not be- 
lieve all persons, do not place confidence in all ; 
nor let any man get the better of thee by flattery. 
For many are the ministers of Satan ; and " he 
that is hasty to believe is light of heart." ^ 



Keep God in remembrance, and thou shalt 
never sin. Be not double-minded '° in thy 
prayers ; for blessed is he who doubteth not. For 
I believe in the Father of the Lord Jesus Christ, 
and in His only-begotten Son, that God will show 
me. Hero, upon my throne. Add speed, there- 
fore," to thy course. I charge thee before the 
God of the universe, and before Christ, and in 
the presence of the Holy Spirit, and of the 
ministering ranks [of angels], keep in safety that 
deposit which I and Christ have committed to 
thee, and do not judge thyself unworthy of those 
things which have been shown by God [to me] 
concerning thee. I hand over to thee the Church 
of Antioch. I have commended you to Polycarp 
in the Lord Jesus Christ. 


The bishops, Onesimus, Bitus, Damas, Polyb- 
ius, and all they of Philippi (whence also I 
have written to thee), salute thee in Christ. 
Salute the presbytery worthy of God : salute my 
holy fellow-deacons, of whom may I have joy 
in Christ, both in the flesh and in the spirit. 
Salute the people of the Lord, from the smallest 
to the greatest, every one by name ; whom I 
commit to thee as Moses did [the Israelites] to 
Joshua, who was their leader after him. And 
do not reckon this which I have said presump- 
tuous on my part ; for although we are not such 
as they were, yet we at least pray that we may 
be so, since indeed we are the children of Abra- 
ham. Be strong, therefore, O Hero, like a hero, 
and like a man. For from henceforth thou shalt 
lead '^ in and out the people of the Lord that 
are in Antioch, and so " the congregation of the 
Lord shall not be as sheep which have no shep- 
herd." -3 


Salute Cassian, my host, and his most serious- 
minded partner in life, and their very dear chil- 

8 I Cor. i. 31 ; 2 Cor. x. 17. 

9 Ecclus. XIX. 4. 

10 Comp. las. i. 6, 8. 

" Comp. Epistle to the Antiochians, chap. xiL 

'2 Comp. Peut. xxxi. 7, 33. 

'i Num. xxvii. 17. 



dren, to whom may " God grant that they find 
mercy of the Lord in that day," ' on account of 
their ministrations to us, whom also I commend 
to thee in Christ. Salute by name all the faithful 
in Christ that are at Laodicea. Do not neglect 
those at Tarsus, but look after them steadily, 
confirming them in the Gospel. I salute in the 
Lord, Maris the bishop of Neapolis, near Ana- 
zarbus. Salute thou also Mary my daughter, 

' 2 Tim. i. 18. 

distinguished both for gravity and erudition, as 
also " the Church which is in her house." ^ May 
my soul be in place of hers : she is the ver/ 
pattern of pious women. May the Father of 
Christ, by His only-begotten Son, preserve thee 
in good health, and of high repute in all things, 
to a very old age, for the benefit of the Church 
of God ! Farewell in the Lord, and pray thou 
that I may be perfected. 

s CoL iv. 15. 


^^natius, who is also called Theophorus, to the 
Church of God which is at Philippi, which 
has obtained mercy in faith, and patience, and 
love unfeigned: Mercy and peace from God 
the Father, a fid the Lord Jesus Christ, " who 
is the Saviour of all 7nen, specially of thetti that 
believe.'^ ' 



Being mindful of your love and of your zeal 
fn Christ, which ye have manifested towards us, 
we thought it fitting to write to you, who display 
such a godly and spiritual love to the brethren,^ 
to put you in remembrance of your Christian 
course,^ " that ye all speak the same thing, being 
of one mind, thinking the same thing, and walk- 
ing by the same rule of faith," •♦ as Paul ad- 
monished you. For if there is one God of the 
universe, the Father of Christ, " of whom are 
all things ; " 5 and one Lord Jesus Christ, our 
[Lord], "by whom are all things ;" s and also 
one Holy Spirit, who wrought ^ in Moses, and in 
the prophets and apostles ; and also one baptism, 
which is administered that we should have fellow- 
ship with the death of the Lord ; ^ and also one 
elect Church ; there ought likewise to be but 
one faith in respect to Christ. For " there is 
one Lord, one faith, one baptism ; one God and 
Father of all, who is through all, and in all." "^ 


There is then one God and Father, and not 
two or three \ One who is ; and there is no other 
besides Him, the only true [God]. For "the 
Lord thy God," saith [the Scripture], "is one 
Lord." 9 And again, " Hath not one God created 
us? Have we not all one Father?" ■" And there 
is also one Son, God the Word. For "the only- 

' 1 Tim. iv. lo. 

* ^Literally, " to your brother-loving spiritual lore according to 

* Literally, " course in Christ." 

* t Cor. i. id; Phil. ii. 2, iii. 16. 
S I Cor. viii. 6. 

* I Cor. xii. II. 

1 Literally, " which is given unto the death of th« Lord." 

* Eph. iv. 5. 

* Deut. vi. 4; Mark xii. 20. 
«o Mai. ii. 10. 


begotten Son," saith [the Scripture], "who is in 
the bosom of the Father." " And again, " One 
Lord Jesus Christ." " And in another place, 
" What is His name, or what His Son's name, 
that we may know? "'3 And there is also one 
Paraclete. '•♦ For " there is also," saith [the Scrip- 
ture], "one Spirit," '5 since "we have been called 
in one hope of our calling." '^ And again, " We 
have drunk of one Spirit," '5 with what follows. 
And it is manifest that all these gifts [possessed 
by believers] "worketh one and the self-same 
Spirit." '7 There are not then either three Fa- 
thers,'^ or three Sons, or three Paracletes, but 
one Father, and one Son, and one Paraclete. 
Wherefore also the Lord, when He sent forth the 
apostles to make disciples of all nations, com- 
manded them to " baptize in the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost," '^ 
not unto one [person] having three names, nor 
into three [persons] who became incarnate, but 
into three possessed of equal honour. 



For there is but One that became incarnate, 
and that neither the Father nor the Paraclete, 
but the Son only, [who became so] not in ap- 
pearance or imagination, but in reality. For 
" the Word became flesh." ^° For " Wisdom 
builded for herself a house." ^' And God the 
Word was born as man, with a body, of the Vir- 
gin, without any intercourse of man. For [it is 
written], "A virgin shall conceive in her womb, 
and bring forth a son." ^^ He was then tmly 
born, truly grew up, truly ate and drank, was 
truly crucified, and died, and rose again. He 
who believes these things, as they really were, 

" John i. i8. 

'^ I Cor. viii. 6. 

'i Prov. XXX. 4. 

'♦ i.e., " Advocate" or " Cotoforter; " comp. John xir. 16. 

•5 Eph. iv. 4. 

'* I Cor. xii. 13. 

" I Cor. xii. II. 

i^ Comp. Athanasian Creed. 

'9 Matt, xxviii. 15. 

20 John i. 14. 

»' Prov. ix. I. 

*' Isa. vii. 14. 



and as they really took place, is blessed. He 
who believeth them not is no less accursed than 
those who crucified the Lord. For the prince 
of this world rejoiceth when any one denies the 
cross, since he knows that the confession of 
the cross is his own destruction. For that is 
the trophy which has been raised up against his 
power, which when he sees, he shudders, and 
when he hears of, is afraid. 


And indeed, before the cross was erected, he 
(Satan) was eager that it should be so ; and he 
" wrought " [for this end] " in the children of dis- 
obedience." ' He wrought in Judas, in the 
Pharisees, in the Sadducees, in the old, in the 
young, and in the priests. But when it was just 
about to be erected, he was troubled, and in- 
fused repentance into the traitor, and pointed 
him to a rope to hang himself with, and taught 
him [to die by] strangulation. He terrified also 
the silly woman, disturbing her by dreams ; and 
he, who had tried every means to have the cross 
prepared, now endeavoured to put a stop to its 
erection ; ^ not that he was influenced by repent- 
ance on account of the greatness of his crime 
(for in that case he would not be utterly de- 
praved), but because he perceived his own de- 
struction [to be at hand]. For the cross of 
Christ was the beginning of his condemnation, 
the beginning of his death, the beginning of his 
destruction. Wherefore, also, he works in some 
that they should deny the cross, be ashamed of 
the passion, call the death an appearance, muti- 
late and explain away the birth of the Virgin, and 
calumniate the [human] nature ^ itself as being 
abominable. He fights along with the Jews to a 
denial of the cross, and with the Gentiles to the 
calumniating of Mary,-* who are heretical in hold- 
ing that Christ possesseei a mere phantasmal 
body. 5 For the leader of all wickedness assumes 
manifold ^ forms, beguiler of men as he is, incon- 
sistent, and even contradicting himself, project- 
ing one course and then following another. For 
he is wise to do evil, but as to what good may 
be he is totally ignorant. And indeed he is full 
of ignorance, on account of his voluntary want of 
reason : for how can he be deemed anything 
else who does not perceive reason when it lies 
at his very feet? 


For if the Lord were a mere man, possessed 

' Eph. ii. 2. 

^ [This is the idea worked out by St. P>ernard. See my note 
{sufira) suffixed to the Syriac Epistle to Ephesians.] 

3 The various Gnostic sects are here referred to, who held that 
matter was essentially evil, and therefore denied the reality of our 
Lord's incarnation. 

* The MS. has noyec'a?, " of magic; " we have followed the emen- 
dation proposed by Faber. 

s Literally, " heretical in respect to phantasy." 

'^ Literally, is " various," or " manifold." 

of a soul and body only, why dost thou mutilate 
and explain away His being bom with the com- 
mon nature of humanity? Why dost thou call 
the passion a mere appearance, as if it were any 
strange thing happening to a [mere] man ? And 
why dost thou reckon the death of a mortal to 
be simply an imaginary death? But if, [on the 
other hand,] He is both God and man, then why 
dost thou call it unlawful to style Him " the 
Lord of glory," 7 who is by nature unchangeable ? 
Why dost thou say that it is unlawful to declare 
of the Lawgiver who possesses a human soul, 
"The Word was made flesh," ^ and was a per- 
fect man, and not merely one dwelling in a man ? 
But how came this magician into existence, who 
of old formed all nature that can be appre- 
hended either by the senses or intellect, accord- 
ing to the will of the Father; and, when He 
became incarnate, healed every kind of disease 
and infirmity? 9 


And how can He be but God, who raises up 
the dead, sends away the lame sound of limb, 
cleanses the lepers, restores sight to the blind, 
and either increases or transmutes existing sub- 
stances, as the five loaves and the two fishes, and 
the water which became wine, and who puts to 
flight thy whole host by a mere word ? And why 
dost thou abuse the nature of the Virgin, and 
style her members disgraceful, since thou didst 
of old display such in public processions, '° and 
didst order them to be exhibited naked, males 
in the sight of females, and females to stir up 
the unbridled lust of males ? But now these are 
reckoned by thee disgraceful, and thou pretend- 
est to be full of modesty, thou spirit of fornication, 
not knowing that then only anything becomes 
disgraceful when it is polluted by wickedness. 
But when sin is not present, none of the things 
that have been created are shameful, none of 
them evil, but all very good. But inasmuch as 
thou art blind, thou revilest these things. 


And how, again, does Christ not at all appear 
to thee to be of the Virgin, but to be God over 
all," and the Almighty? Say, then, who sent 
Him ? Who was Lord over Him ? And whose 
will did He obey ? And what laws did He fulfil, 
since He was subject neither to the will nor 
power of any one? And while you deny that 
Christ was bom," you afifirm that the unbegotten 

was begotten, and that He who had no begin- 

. — - — 1 

7 I Cor. ii. 8. 

8 John i. 14. 

9 Matt. iv. 23, ix. 35. 

'° Reference seems here to be made to obscene heathen practices. 
" i.e., so as to have no separate personality from the Father 
Comp. Epistle to the Tarsians, chap. ii. 

1- Literally, " and taking away Christ from beina; born " 



ning was nailed to the cross, by whose permis- 
sion I am unable to say. But thy changeable 
tactics do not escape me, nor am I ignorant that 
thou art wont to walk with slanting and uncer- 
tain ' steps. And thou art ignorant who really was 
born, thou who pretendest to know ever>'thing. 


For many things are unknown ^ to thee ; [such 
as the following] : the virginity of Mary ; the 
wonderful birth ; Who it was that became incar- 
nate ; the star which guided those who were in 
the east ; the Magi who presented gifts ; the salu- 
tation of the archangel to the Virgin ; the 
mar%'ellous conception of her that was betrothed ; 
the announcement of the boy- forerunner re- 
specting the son of the Virgin, and his leaping 
in the womb on account of what was foreseen ; 
the songs of the angels over Him that was bom ; 
the glad tidings announced to the shepherds ; the 
fear of Herod lest his kingdom should be 
taken from him ; the command to slay the in- 
fants ; the removal into Egypt, and the return 
from that country to the same region ; the infant 
swaddling-bands ; the human registration ; the 
nourishing by means of milk ; the name of 
father given to Him who did not beget; the 
manger because there was not room [elsewhere] ; 
no human preparation [for the Child] ; the 
gradual growth, human speech, hunger, thirst, 
journeyings, weariness ; the offering of sacrifices, 
and then also circumcision, baptism ; the voice 
of God over Him that was baptized, as to who 
He was and whence [He had come] ; the testi- 
mony of the Spirit and the Father from above ; 
the voice of John the prophet when it signified the 
passion by the appellation of "the Lamb;" 
the performance of divers miracles, manifold 
healings ; the rebuke of the Lord ruling both 
the sea and the winds ; evil spirits expelled ; 
thou thyself subjected to torture, and, when af- 
flicted by the power of Him who had been 
manifested, not having it in thy power to do any- 


Seeing these things, thou wast in utter per- 
plexity.3 And thou wast ignorant that it was a 
virgin that should bring forth ; but the angels' 
song of praise struck thee with astonishment, as 
well as the adoration of the Magi, and the ap- 
pearance of the star. Thou didst revert to thy 
state of [wilful] ignorance, because all the cir- 
cumstances seemed to thee trifling ; '' for thou 
didst deem the swaddling-bands, the circumcision. 

' Literally, " double." 

2 According to many of the Fathers, Satan was in great ignorance 
as to a multitude of points connected with Christ. [See my note at 
end of the Syriac Epistle to Ephesians, su/>ra.\ 

■• Literally, " thou wast dizzy in the head." 

* Literally, " on account of the paltry things." 

and the nourishment by means of milk con- 
temptible : 5 these things appeared to thee un- 
worthy of God. Again, thou didst behold a man 
who remained forty days and nights without 
tasting human food, along with ministering an- 
gels at whose presence thou didst shudder, when 
first of all thou hadst seen Him baptized as a 
common man, and knewest not the reason there- 
of. But after His [lengthened] fast thou didst 
again assume thy wonted audacity, and didst 
tempt Him when hungry, as if He had been an 
ordinary man, not knowing who He was. For 
thou saidst, " If thou be the Son of God, com- 
mand that these stones be made bread." ^ Now, 
this expression, *' If thou be the Son," is an indi- 
cation of ignorance. For if thou hadst possessed 
real knowledge, thou wouldst have understood 
that the Creator can with equal ease both create 
what does not exist, and change that which al- 
ready has a being. And thou temptedst by means 
of hunger 7 Him who nourisheth all that require 
food. And thou temptedst the very " Lord of 
glory," ^ forgetting in thy malevolence that " man 
shall not live by bread alone, but by every word 
that proceedeth out of the mouth of God." 
For if thou hadst known that He was the Son of 
God, thou wouldst also have understood that He 
who had kept his ^ body from feeling any want for 
forty days and as many nights, could have also 
done the same for ever. Why, then, does He 
suffer hunger? In order to prove that He had 
assumed a body subject to the same feelings as 
those of ordinary men. By the first fact He 
showed that He was God, and by the second 
that He was also man. 

CHAP. X. continuation: AUDACITY OF SATAN. 

Barest thou, then, who didst fall " as lightning " '° 
from the very highest glory, to say to the Lord, 
"Cast thyself down from hence " [to Him] to 
whom the things that are not are reckoned as if 
they were," and to provoke to a display of vain- 
glory Him that was free from all ostentation? 
And didst thou pretend to read in Scripture con- 
cerning Him : " For He hath given His angels 
charge concerning Thee, and in their hands they 
shall bear Thee up, lest thou shouldest dash Thy 
foot against a stone ? " '^ At the same time thou 
didst pretend to be ignorant of the rest, furtively 
concealing what [the Scripture] predicted con- 
cerning thee and thy servants : " Thou shalt tread 
upon the adder and the basilisk ; the lion and 
the dragon shalt thou trample under foot." '•♦ 

5 Literally, " small." 

6 Matt. iv. 3. 

7 Or, " the belly." 

8 I Cor. ii. 8. 

9 Some insert, " corruptible." 
10 Luke X. 18. 

" Matt. iv. 6. 

•2 Comp. Rom. iv. 17. 

13 Matt. iv. 6. 

'■* Ps. xci. 13. 




If, therefore, thou art trodden down under 
the feet of the Lord, how dost thou tempt Him 
that cannot be tempted, forgetting that precept 
of the lawgiver, " Thou shall not tempt the Lord 
thy God?"' Yea, thou even darest, most ac- 
cursed one, to appropriate the works of God to 
thyself, and to declare that the dominion over 
these was delivered to thee.^ And thou dost 
set forth thine own fall as an example to the 
Lord, and dost promise to give Him what is 
really His own, if He would fall down and wor- 
ship thee.3 And how didst thou not shudder, 

thou spirit more wicked through thy malevo- 
lence than all other wicked spirits, to utter such 
words against the Lord? Through thine appe- 
tite 4 was thou overcome, and through thy vain- 
glory wast thou brought to dishonour : through 
avarice and ambition dost thou [now] draw on 
[others] to ungodliness. Thou, O Belial, dragon, 
apostate, crooked serpent, rebel against God, out- 
cast from Christ, alien from the Holy Spirit, exile 
from the ranks of the angels, reviler of the laws 
of God, enemy of all that js lawful, who didst 
rise up against the first-formed of men, and 
didst drive forth [from obedience to] the com- 
mandment [of God] those who had in no re- 
spect injured thee; thou who didst raise up 
against Abel the murderous Cain; thou who 
didst take arms against Job : dost thou say to the 
Lord, " If Thou wilt fall down and worship me ? " 
Oh what audacity ! Oh what madness ! Thou 
runaway slave, thou incorrigible 5 slave, dost thou 
rebel against the good Lord ? Dost thou say to 
so great a Lord, the God of all that either the 
mind or the senses can perceive, " If Thou wilt 
fall down and worship me? " 


But the Lord is long-suffering, and does not 
reduce to nothing him who in his ignorance 
dares [to utter] such words, but meekly replies, 
" Get thee hence, Satan." ^ He does not say, 
" Get thee behind Me," for it is not possible that 
he should be converted ; but, ," Begone, Satan," 
to the course which thou hast chosen. " Begone " 
to those things to which, through thy malevo- 
lence, thou hast been called. For I know Who 

1 am, and by Whom I have been sent, and 
Whom it behoves Me to worship. For " thou 
shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only 
shalt thou serve." ^ I know the one [God] ; I am 
acquainted with the only [Lord] from whom 
thou hast become an apostate. I am not an ene- 

' Deut. vi. 16. 

- Luke iv. 6. 

3 Matt. iv. g. 

" Or, " belly." 

5 Or, " that always needs whipping.' 

* Matt. IV. 10. 
' Matt. iv. 10; 

Deut. vi. 


my of God ; I acknowledge His pre-eminence ; 
I know the Father, who is the author of my 


These things, brethren, out of the affection 
which I entertain for you, I have felt compelled 
to write, exhorting you with a view to the glory 
of God, not as if I were a person of any conse- 
quence, but simply as a brother. Be ye subject 
to the bishop, to the presbyters, and to the dea- 
cons. Love one another in the Lord, as being 
the images of God. Take heed, ye husbands, 
that ye love your wives as your own members. 
Ye wives also, love your husbands, as being one 
with them in virtue of your union. If any one 
lives in chastity or continence, let him not be 
lifted up, lest he lose his reward. Do not lightly 
esteem the festivals. Despise not the period of 
forty days, for it comprises an imitation of the 
conduct of the Lord. After the week of the 
passion, do not neglect to fast on the fourth and 
sixth days, distributing at the same time of thine 
abundance to the poor. If any one fasts on the 
Lord's Day or on the Sabbath, except on the 
paschal Sabbath only, he is a murderer of Christ. 



Let your prayers be extended to the Church 
of Antioch, whence also I as a prisoner am bemg 
led to Rome. I salute the holy bishop Poly- 
carp ; I salute the holy bishop Vitalius, and the 
sacred presbytery, and my fellow-servants the 
deacons ; in whose stead may ray soul be found. 
Once more I bid farewell to the bishop, and 
to the presbyters in the Lord. If any one 
celebrates the passover along with the Jews, or 
receives the emblems of their feast, he is a 
partaker with those that killed the Lord and 
His apostles. 


Philo and Agathopus the deacons salute you. 
I salute the company of virgins, and the order 
of widows ; of whom may I have joy ! I salute 
the people of the Lord, from the least unto the 
greatest. I have sent you this letter through 
Euphanius the reader, a man honoured of God, 
and very faithful, happening to meet with him at 
Rhegium, just as he was going on board ship. 
Remember my bonds, ^ that I may be made 
perfect in Christ. Fare ye well in the flesh, the 
soul, and the spirit, while ye think of things per- 
fect, and turn yourselves away from the workers 
of iniquity, who corrupt the word of truth, and 
are strengthened inwardly by the grace of our 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

* Comp. Col. iv. x8b 



Maria, a proselyte of Jesus Christ, to Ignatius 
Theophorus, tnost blessed bishop of the apostolic 
Church which is at Antioch, beloved in God the 
Father, and Jesus: Happiness and safety. We 
all^ beg for thee joy and health in Him. 


Since Christ has, to our wonder,^ been made 
known among us to be the Son of the living God, 
and to have become man in these last times by 
means of the Virgin Mary,^ of the seed of David 
and Abraham, according to the announcements 
previously made regarding Him and through 
Him by the company of the prophets, we there- 
fore beseech and entreat that, by thy wisdom, 
Maris our friend, bishop of our native Neapolis,s 
which is near Zarbus,^ and Eulogius, and Sobelus 
the presbyter, be sent to us, that we be not des- 
titute of such as preside over the divine word ; 
as Moses also says, " Let the Lord God look out 
a man who shall guide this people, and the con- 
gregation of the Lord shall not be as sheep 
which have no shepherd." ^ 


But as to those whom we have named being 
young men, do not, thou blessed one, have any 
apprehension. For I would have you know that 
they are wise about the flesh, and are insensible 
to its passions, they themselves glowing with all 
the glory of a hoary head through their own^ 
intrinsic merits, and though but recently called 

' Nothing can be said with certainty as to the place here referred 
to. Some have conceived that the ordinary reading, Maria Casso- 
boliia, is incorrect, and that it should be changed to Maria Casta- 
balHis, supposing the reference to be to Castabala, a well-known city 
of Cilicia. But this and other proposed emendations rest upon mere 

2 Some propose to read, " always." 

3 Or, " wonderfully." 

 The MS. has, " and." 

5 The MS. has 'H^eAdTrrj^, which Vossius and others deem a mis- 
take for T)ne&a-nj)<; , as translated above. 

* The same as Azarbus (comp. Epist. to Hero, chap. ix.). 
7 Num. xxvii. i6, 17. 

• Literally, " in themselves." 


as young men to the priesthood.^ Now, call 
thou into exercise '° thy thoughts through the 
Spirit that God has given to thee by Christ, and 
thou wilt remember" that Samuel, while yet a 
little child, was called a seer, and was reckoned in 
the company of the prophets, that he reproved the 
aged Eli for transgression, since he had honoured 
his infatuated sons above God the author of all 
things, and had allowed them to go unpunished, 
when they turned the office of the priesthood into 
ridicule, and acted violently towards thy people. 


Moreover, the wise Daniel, while he was a 
young man, passed judgment on certain vigorous 
old men,'^ showing them that they were aban- 
doned wretches, and not [worthy to be reck- 
oned] elders, and that, though Jews by extraction, 
they were Canaanites in practice. And Jeremiah, 
when on account of his youth he declined the 
office of a prophet entrusted to him by God, 
was addressed in these words : " Say not, I am a 
youth ; for thou shalt go to all those to whom 1 
send thee, and thou shalt speak according to all 
that I command thee ; because I am with thee." '^ 
And the wise Solomon, when only in the twelfth 
year of his age,'-* had wisdom to decide the impor- 
tant question concerning the children of the ^^\o 
women, '5 when it was unknown to whom these 
respectively belonged ; so that the whole people 
were astonished at such wisdom in a child, and 
venerated him as being not a mere youth, but a 
full-grown man. And he solved the hard ques- 
tions of the queen of the Ethiopians, which had 
profit in them as the streams of the Nile [have 
fertility], in such a manner that that woman. 

9 Literally, " in recent newness of priesthood." 

'° Literally, " call up." 

" Literally, " know." 

^- The ancient Latin version translates lufj-oytpovTat " cruel old 
men," which perhaps suits the reference better. 

" Jer. i. 7. 

'< Comp. for similar statements to those here made. Epistle to the 
M.agnesians (longer ), chap. iii. 

'5 Literally, " understood the great question of the ignorance of 
the women respecting their children." 


though herself so wise, was beyond measure as- 


Josiah also, beloved of God, when as yet he 
could scarcely speak articulately, convicts those 
who were possessed of a wicked spirit as being 
false in their speech, and deceivers of the people. 
He also reveals the deceit of the demons, and 
openly exposes those t)iat are no gods ; yea, 
while yet an infant he slays their priests, and 
overturns their altars, and defiles the place where 
sacrifices were offered with dead bodies, and 
throws down the temples, and cuts down the 
groves, and breaks in pieces the pillars, and 
breaks open the tombs of the ungodly, that not 
a relic of the wicked might any longer exist.^ 
To such an extent did he display zeal in the 
cause of godliness, and prove himself a punisher 
of the ungodly, while he as yet faltered in speech 
like a child. David, too, who was at once a 
prophet and a king, and the root of our Saviour 
according to the flesh, while yet a youth is 
anointed by Samuel to be king.^ For he himself 

• Literally, " out of herself." 

2 2 Kings xxii. xxiii. 

3 I Sam. xvi. 

says in a certain place, " I was small among my 
brethren, and the youngest in the house of 
my father."  


But time would fail me if I should endeavour 
to enumerate 5 all those that pleased God in their 
youth, having been entrusted by God with either 
the prophetical, the priestly, or the kingly office. 
And those which have been mentioned may suf- 
fice, by way of bringing the subject to thy re- 
membrance. But I entreat thee not to reckon 
me presumptuous or ostentatious [in writing as 
I have done]. For I have set forth these state- 
ments, not as instructing thee, but simply as 
suggesting the matter to the remembrance of my 
father in God. For I know my own place,^ and 
do not compare myself with such as you. I sa- 
lute thy holy clergy, and thy Christ-loving people 
who are ruled under thy care as their pastor. 
All the faithful with us salute thee. Pray, blessed 
shepherd, that I may be in health as respects 

* Ps. cl. I (in the Septuagint; not found at all in Hebrew). 

5 Literally, " to trace up. ' 

' Literally, " measure " or " limits." 



Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to her 
who has obtained mercy through the grace of 
the most high God the Father, and Jesus 
Christ the Lord, who died for us, to Mary, my 
daughter, most faithful, worthy of God, and 
bearing Christ \in her heart\ wishes abun- 
dance of happiness in God. 



Sight indeed is better than writing, inasmuch 
as, being one ' of the company of the senses, it 
not only, by communicating proofs of friendship, 
honours him who receives them, but also, by 
those which it in turn receives, enriches the 
desire for better things. But the second har- 
bour of refuge, as the phrase runs, is the prac- 
tice of writing, which we have received, as a 
convenient haven, by thy faith, from so great a 
distance, seeing that by means of a letter we 
have learned the excellence that is in thee. For 
the souls of the good, O thou wisest ^ of women ! 
resemble fountains of the purest water ; for they 
allure by their beauty passers-by to drink of 
them, even though these should not be thirsty. 
And thy intelligence invites us, as by a word of 
command, to participate in those divine draughts 
which gush forth so abundantly in thy soul. 


But I, O thou blessed woman, not being now 
so much my own master as in the power of 
others, am driven along by the varying wills of 
many adversaries,^ being in one sense in exile, 
in another in prison, and in a third in bonds. 
But I pay no regard to these things. Yea, by 
the injuries inflicted on me through them, I ac- 
quire all the more the character of a disciple, 
that I may attain to Jesus Christ. May I enjoy 
the torments which are prepared for me, seeing 
that " the sufferings of this present time are not 

* Literally, " a part." 

» Literally, " all-wise." 

5 Literally, " by the many wills of the adversaries." 

worthy [to be compared] with the glory which 
shall be revealed in us."  


I have gladly acted as requested in thy letter,5 
having no doubt respecting those persons whom 
thou didst prove to be men of worth. For I am 
sure that thou barest testimony to them in the 
exercise of a godly judgment,'' and not through 
the influence of carnal favour. And thy numer- 
ous quotations of Scripture passages exceedingly 
delighted me, which, when I had read, I had no 
longer a single doubtful thought respecting the 
matter. For I did not hold that those things 
were simply to be glanced over by my eyes, of 
which I had received from thee such an incon- 
trovertible demonstration. May I be in place 
of thy soul, because thou lovest Jesus, the Son 
of the living God. Wherefore also He Himself 
says to thee, " I love them that love Me ; and 
those that seek Me shall find peace." ^ 


Now it occurs to me to mention, that the 
report is true which I heard of thee whilst thou 
wast at Rome with the blessed father* Linus, 
whom the deservedly-blessed Clement, a hearer 
of Peter and Paul, has now succeeded. And by 
this time thou hast added a hundred-fold to thy 
reputation ; and may thou, O woman ! still fur- 
ther increase it. I greatly desired to come unto 
you, that I might have rest with you ; but " the 
way of man is not in himself." ^ For the mili- 
tary guard [under which I am kept] hinders my 
purpose, and does not permit me to go further. 
Nor indeed, in the state I am now in, can J 
either do or suffer anything. Wherefore deem- 
ing the practice of writing the second resource 

< Rom. viii. i8. 

5 Literally, " I have gladly fulfilled the things commanded by thea 
in the letter." 

* Literally, " by a judgment of God." 

1 Prov. viii. 17 (loosely quoted from LXX.). 

* The original is trdirf , ]commoa to primitive bishops.] 
9 Jer. X. 23. 



of friends for their mutual encouragement, I sa- 
lute thy sacred soul, beseeching of thee to add 
3till further to thy vigour. For our present 
labour is but little, while the reward which is 
expected is great. 


Avoid those that deny the passion of Christ, 
and His birth according to the flesh : and there 
are many at present who suffer under this disease. 
But it would be absurd to admonish thee on 

other points, seeing that thou art perfect in every 
good work and word, and able also to exhort 
others in Christ. Salute all that are like-minded 
with thyself, and who hold fast to their salvation 
in Christ. The presbyters and deacons, and 
above all the holy Hero, salute thee. Cassian 
my host salutes thee, as well as my sister, his 
wife, and their very dear children. May the 
Lord sanctify thee for evermore in the enjoyment 
both of bodily and spiritual health, and may I 
see thee in Christ obtaining the crown ! 


Ignatius, and the brethren who are with him, to 
John the holy presbyter. 

We are deeply grieved at thy delay in strength- 
ening us by thy addresses and consolations. If 
thy absence be prolonged, it will disappoint 
many of us. Hasten then to come, for we be- 
lieve that it is expedient. There are also many 
of our women here, who are desirous to see 
Mary [the mother] of Jesus, and wish day by 
day to run off from us to you, that they may 
meet with her, and touch those breasts of hers 
which nourished the Lord Jesus, and may inquire 
of her respecting some rather secret matters. 
But Salome also, [the daughter of Anna,] whom 
thou lovest, who stayed with her five months at 
Jerusalem, and some other well-known persons, 
relate that she is full of all graces and all virtues, 
after the manner of a virgin, fruitful in virtue 
and grace. And, as they report, she is cheerful 
in persecutions and afflictions, free from mur- 
muring in the midst of penury and want, grate- 
ful to those that injure her, and rejoices when 
exposed to troubles : she sympathizes with the 
wretched and the afflicted as sharing in their 
afflictions, and is not slow to come to their as- 

sistance. Moreover, she shines forth gloriously 
as contending in the fight of faith against tb 
pernicious conflicts of vicious' principles t 
conduct. She is the lady of our new religiok 
and repentance,^' and the handmaid among the 
faithful of all works of piety. She is indeed 
devoted to the humble, and she humbles herself 
more devotedly than the devoted, and is won- 
derfully magnified by all, while at the same time 
she suffers detraction from the Scribes and 
Pharisees. Besides these points, many relate to 
us numerous other things regarding her. We 
do not, however, go so far as to believe all in 
every particular; nor do we mention such to 
thee. But, as we are informed by those who 
are worthy of credit, there is in Mary the mother 
of Jesus an angelic purity of nature allied with 
the nature of humanity.3 And such reports as 
these have greatly excited our emotions, and 
urge us eagerly to desire a sight of this (if it be 
lawful so to speak) heavenly prodigy and most 
sacred marvel. But do thou in haste comply 
with this our desire ; and fare thou well. Amen. 

' Literally, "of vices." 

* Some Mss. and editions seem with propriety to omit this word 

« Literally, "a ixature of angelic purity is allied to human nature." 



His friend^ Ignatius to John the holy 

If thou wilt give me leave, I desire to go up 
to Jerusalem, and see the faithful ^ saints who 
are there, especially Mary the mother, whom 
they report to be an object of admiration and of 
afifection to all. For who would not rejoice to 
behold and to address her who bore the true 
God from her^ own womb, provided he is a 
friend of our faith and religion? And in like 

' Literally, " his own." 
* Some omit this word. 

3 Literally, " of herself." Some read, instead of " de se," 
rum," when the translation will be, " the true God of sods. 


marmer [I desire to see] the venerable James, 
who is sumamed Just, whom they relate to be 
very like Christ Jesus in appearance,'* in life, 
and in method of conduct, as if he were a twin- 
brother of the same womb. They say that, if I 
see him, I see also Jesus Himself, as to all the 
features and aspect of His body. Moreover, 
[I desire to see] the other saints, both male and 
female. Alas ! why do I delay? Why am I 
kept back ? Kind 5 teacher, bid me hasten [to 
fulfil my wish], and fare thou well. Amen. 

* Or, " face." Some omit the word, 
s Or, " good.* 



Her friend^ Ignatius to the Christ-bearing 


Thou oughtest to have comforted and con- 
soled me who am a neophyte, and a disciple of 
thy [beloved] John. For I have heard things 
wonderful to tell respecting thy [son] Jesus, and 
I am astonished by such a report. But I desire 
with my whole heart to obtain information con- 
cerning the things which I have heard from thee, 
who wast always intimate and allied with Him, 
and who wast acquainted with [all] His secrets. 
I have also written to thee at another time, and 
have asked thee concerning the same things. 
Fare thou well ; and let the neophytes who are 
with me be comforted of thee, and by thee, and 
in thee. Amen. 

• Literally, " her own." [Mary is here called xP^'^totoxos, and 
not i>€OTditos, which suggests a Nestorian forgery.] 


The lowly handmaid of Christ Jesus to Igna- 
tius, her beloved fellow-disciple. 

The things which thou hast heard and learned 
from John concerning Jesus are true. Believe 
them, cling to them, and hold fast the profession 
of that Christianity which thou hast embraced, 
and conform thy habits and Hfe to thy profes- 
sion. Now I will come in company with John 
to visit thee, and those that are with thee. 
Stand fast in the faith,^ and show thyself a man ; 
nor let the fierceness of persecution move thee, 
but let thy spirit be strong and rejoice in God 
thy Saviour.^ Amen. 

* I Cor. xvi. 13. 
3 Luke i. 47. 





The learned dissertation of Pearson, on the difficulties of reconciling the supposed year of 
the martyrdom with the history of Trajan, etc., is given entire in Jacobson (vol. ii. p. 5 24) , against 
the decision of Usher for a.d. 107. Pearson accepts a.d. 116. Consult also the preface of 
Dr. Thomas Smith,' in the same work (p. 518), on the text of the original and of the Latin 
versions, and on the credibility of the narrative. Our learned translators seem to think the text 
they have used, to be without interpolation. If the simple-minded faithful of those days, so near 
the age of miracles, appear to us, in some degree, enthusiasts, let us remember the vision of Col. 
Gardiner, accredited by Doddridge, Lord Lyttleton's vision (see Boswell, anno 1784, chap, xi.), 
accepted by Johnson and his contemporaries, and the interesting narrative of the pious Mr. 
Tennent of New Jersey, attested by so many excellent and intelligent persons, almost of our own 

The following is the Introductory Notice of the translators : — 

The following account of the martyrdom of Ignatius professes, in several passages, to have 
been written by those who accompanied him on his voyage to Rome, and were present on the 
occasion of his death (chaps, v. vi. vii.). And if the genuineness oi this narrative, as well as of 
the Ignatian Epistles, be admitted, there can be little doubt that the persons in question were 
Philo and Agathopus, with Crocus perhaps, all of whom are mentioned by Ignatius {Epist. to 
Smyr., chap. x. ; to Philad., chap. xi. ; to Rom., chap, x.) as having attended him on that journey 
to Rome which resulted in his martyrdom. But doubts have been started, by Daill^ and others, 
as to the date and authorship of this account. Some of these rest upon internal considerations, 
but the weightiest objection is found in the fact that no reference to this narrative is to be traced 
during the first six centuries of our era.^ This is certainly a very suspicious circumstance, and 
may well give rise to some hesitation in ascribing the authorship to the immediate companions and 
friends of Ignatius. On the other hand, however, this account of the death of Ignatius is in 
perfect harmony with the particulars recounted by Eusebius and Chrysostom regarding him. Its 
comparative simplicity, too, is greatly in its favour. It makes no reference to the legends which 
by and by connected themselves with the name of Ignatius. As is well known, he came in course 
of time to be identified with the child whom Christ (Matt, xviii. 2) set before His disciples as a 
pattern of humility. It was said that the Saviour took him up in His arms, and that hence Ignatius 

' He published an edition of Ignatius, Oxford, 1709. 

» [A most remarkable statement. " References" may surely be traced, at least in Eusebius (iii. 36) and Irenaeus ( Adv. Hceres, 
». 28) , if not in Jerome, etc. But the sermon of St. Chrysostom (Opp. ii., 593^ seems almost, in paru, a paraphrase.] 



derived his name of TJieophorus; ' that is, according to the explanation which this legend gives of. 
the word, one carried by God. But in chap. ii. of the following narrative we find the term explained 
to mean, " one who has Christ in his breast ; " and this simple explanation, with the entire silence 
preserved as to the marvels afterwards connected with the name of Ignatius, is certainly a strong 
argument in favour of the early date and probable genuineness of the account. Some critics, 
such as Usher and Grabe, have reckoned the latter part of the narrative spurious, while accepting 
the former ; but there appears to be a unity about it which requires us either to accept it in toto, 
or to reject it altogether.^ 

* [See on this matter Jacobson's note (vol. ii. p. 262), and reference to Pearson ( Vind. Ignat., part ii. cap. 12). The false accentuation 
(eco^iopo;) occurs in some copies to support the myth of the child Ignatius as the God-borne instead of the God-bearing; i.e, carried by 
Christ, instead of carrying the Spirit of Christ within.] 

s [But see the note in Jacobson, vol. iL p. aj'\ 



When Trajan, not long since,' succeeded to 
the empire of the Romans, Ignatius, the disciple 
of John the apostle, a man in all respects of an 
apostolic character, governed the Church of the 
Antiochians with great care, having with difficulty 
escaped the former storms of the many persecu- 
tions under Domitian, inasmuch as, like a good 
pilot, by the helm of prayer and fasting, by the 
earnestness of his teaching, and by his [constant ==] 
spiritual labour, he resisted the flood that rolled 
against him, fearing [only] lest he should lose 
any of those who were deficient in courage, or 
apt to suffer from their simplicity.^ Wherefore 
he rejoiced over the tranquil state of the Church, 
when the persecution ceased for a little time, but 
was grieved as to himself, that he had not yet 
attained to a true love to Christ, nor reached the 
perfect rank oV a disciple. For he inwardly re- 
flected, that the confession which is made by 
martyrdom, would bring him into a yet more 
intimate relation to the Lord. Wherefore, con- 
tinuing a few years longer with the Church, and, 
like a divine lamp, enlightening every one's un- 
derstanding by his expositions of the [Holy 4] 
Scriptures, he [at length] attained the object of 
his desire. 


For Trajan, in the ninth 5 year of his reign, 
being lifted up [with pride], after the victory he 
had gained over the Scythians and Dacians, and 
many other nations, and thinking that the reli- 
gious body of the Christians were yet wanting to 
complete the subjugation of all things to himself, 
and [thereupon] threatening them with persecu- 
tion unless they should agree to ^ worship dae- 
mons, as did all other nations, thus compelled 7 

' The date of Trajan's accession was A.D. g8. 

2 The text here is somewhat doubtful. 

3 Literally, " any of the faint-hearted and more guileless." 
* This word is of doubtful authority. 

5 The numeral is uncertain. In the old Latin version we find 
" the fourth," which Grabe has corrected into the nineteenth. The 
choice lies between " ninth " and " nineteenth," i.e., a.d 107 or 116. 

6 Literally, " would choose to submit to " 

7 Some read, " fear compelled." 

all who were living godly lives either to sacrifice 
[to idols] or die. Wherefore the noble soldier 
of Christ [Ignatius], being in fear for the Church 
of the Antiochians, was, in accordance with his 
own desire, brought before Trajan, who was at 
that time staying at Antioch, but was in haste 
[to set forth] against Armenia and the Parthians. 
And when he was set before the emperor Trajan, 
[that prince] said unto him, "Who art thou, 
wicked wretch,^ who settest 9 thyself to transgress 
our commands, and persuadest others to do the 
same, so that they should miserably perish?" 
Ignatius repUed, " No one ought to call Theoph- 
orus'° wicked ; for all evil spirits" have departed 
from the servants of God. But if, because I 
am an enemy to these [spirits], you call me 
wicked in respect to them, I quite agree with 
you ; for inasmuch as I have Christ the King of 
heaven [within me], I destroy all the devices 
of these [evil spirits]." Trajan answered, "And 
who is Theophorus ? " Ignatius replied, " He 
who has Christ within his breast." Trajan said, 
" Do we not then seem to you to have the gods 
in our mind, whose assistance we enjoy in fight- 
ing against our enemies ? " Ignatius answered, 
" Thou art in error when thou callest the daemons 
of the nations gods. For there is but one God, 
who made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and 
all that are in them ; and one Jesus Christ, the 
only-begotten Son of God, whose kingdom may 
I enjoy." Trajan said, " Do you mean Him who 
was crucified under Pontius Pilate?" Ignatius 
replied, " I mean Him who crucified my sin, 
with him who was the inventor of it," and who 
has condemned [and cast down] all the deceit 
and malice of the devil under the feet of those 
who carry Him in their heart." Trajan said, 
" Dost thou then carry within thee Him that was 
crucified?" Ignatius replied, "Truly so; for it 
is written, ' I will dwell in them, and walk in 

8 Literally, " evil-daemon." 

9 Literally, " art zealous." 

'° Or, " one who carries God." 
" Literally, " the daemons." 

*2 The Latin version reads, " Him who bore my sin, with its in- 
ventor, upon the cross." 




them.' " ' Then Trajan pronounced sentence 
as follows : " We command that Ignatius, who 
affirms that he carries about within him Him 
that was crucified, be bound by soldiers, and 
carried to the great [city] Rome, there to be 
devoured by the beasts, for the gratification of 
the people." When the holy martyr heard this 
sentence, he cried out with joy, " I thank thee, 
O Lord, that Thou hast vouchsafed to honour me 
with a perfect love towards Thee, and hast made 
me to be bound with iron chains, like ^ Thy 
Apostle Paul." Having spoken thus, he then, 
with delight, clasped the chains about him ; and 
when he had first prayed for the Church, and 
commended it with tears to the Lord, he was 
hurried away by the savage ^ cruelty of the sol- 
diers, like a distinguished ram,'* the leader of a 
goodly flock, that he might be carried to Rome, 
there to furnish food to the bloodthirsty beasts. 


Wherefore, with great alacrity and joy, through 
his desire to suffer, he came down from Antioch 
to Seleucia, from which place he set sail. And 
after a great deal of suffering he came to Smyrna, 
where he disembarked with great joy, and has- 
tened to see the holy Polycarp, [formerly] his 
fellow-disciple, and [now] bishop of Smyrna. 
For they had both, in old times, been disciples 
of St. John the Apostle. Being then brought to 
him, and having communicated to him some 
spiritual gifts, and glorying in his bonds, he en- 
treated of him to labour s along with him for the 
fulfilment of his desire ; earnestly indeed asking 
this of the whole Church (for the cities and 
Churches of Asia had welcomed ^ the holy man 
through their bishops, and presbyters, and dea- 
cons, all hastening to meet him, if by any means 
they might receive from him some ^ spiritual 
gift), but above all, the holy Polycarp, that, by 
means of the wild beasts, he soon disappearing 
from this world, might be manifested before the 
face of Christ. 


And these things he thus spake, and thus tes- 
tified, extending his love to Christ so far as one 
who was about to '^ secure heaven through his 
good confession, and the earnestness of those 
who joined their prayers to his in regard to his 
[approaching] conflict ; and to give a recom- 

' 2 Cor. vi. 16. 

- Literally, " with." 

3 Or, " beast-like." 

* [Better, "like the noble leader," etc.; remitting xpibs to the 
margin, as an ignoble word to English ears.] 

5 It is doubtful if this clause should be referred to Polycarp. 

^ Or, " received." 

' Literally, " a portion of." 

* The Latin version has, "that he was to." [But compare the 
martyr's Epistle to the Romans (cap. 5), "yet am I not thereby 
justified," — a double reference to St. Paul's doctrine, i Cor. iv. 4 and 
xiii. 3. See also his quotation {Sept., Prov. xviii. 17). Epistle to 
Magnesians, cap. 12.] 

pense to the Churches, who came to meet him 
through their rulers, sending ^ letters of thanks- 
giving to them, which dropped spiritual grace, 
along with prayer and exhortation. W' herefore, 
seeing all men so kindly affected towards him, 
and fearing lest the love of the brotherhood 
should hinder his zeal towards the Lord,'° while 
a fair door of suffering martrydom was opened 
to him, he wrote to the Church of the Romans 
the Epistle which is here subjoined. 
(See the Epistle as formerly given.) 


Having therefore, by means of this Epistle, 
settled," as he wished, those of the brethren at 
Rome who were unwilling [for his martyrdom] ; 
and setting sail from Smyrna (for Christophorus 
was pressed by the soldiers to hasten to the pub- 
lic spectacles in the mighty [city] Rome, that, 
being given up to the wild beasts in the sight 
of the Roman people, he might attain to the 
crown for which he strove), he [next] landed 
at Troas. Then, going on from that place to 
Neapolis, he went [on foot] by Philippi througli 
Macedonia, and on to that part of Epirus which 
is near Epidamnus ; and finding a ship in one 
of the seaports, he sailed over the Adriatic Sea, 
and entering from it on the Tyrrhene, he passc-l 
by the various islands and cities, until, when 
Puteoli came in sight, he was eager there to d:;- 
embark, having a desire to tread in the footsteps 
of the Apostle Paul.'^ But a violent wind arising 
did not suffer him to do so, the ship being driven 
rapidly forwards ; '^ and, simply expressing his 
delight '* over the love of the brethren in that 
place, he sailed by. Wherefore, continuing to 
enjoy fair winds, we were reluctantly hurried on 
in one day and a night, mourning [as we did] 
over the coming departure from us of this right- 
eous man. But to him this happened just as he 
wished, since he was in haste as soon as possible 
to leave this world, that he might attain to the 
Lord whom he loved. Sailing then into the 
Roman harbour, and the unhallowed sports be- 
ing just about to close, the soldiers began to be 
annoyed at our slowness, but the bishop rejoi- 
cingly yielded to their urgency. 



They pushed forth therefore from the place 
which is called Portus ; '5 and (the '^ fame of all 
relating to the holy martyr being already spread 

9 The punctuation and construction are here doubtful. 

'° Or, " should prevent him from hastening to the Lord." 

" Or, " corrected." 

'= Comp. Acts xxviii. 13, 14. 

'3 Literally, " the .ship being driven onwards from the stern." 

'< Literally, " declaring happy." 

'5 [Of which we shall learn more when we come to Hippolytus. 
Trajan had just improved the work of Claudius at this haven, near 

'6 Literally, " for the." 



abroad) we met the brethren full of fear and 
joy ; rejoicing indeed because they were thought 
worthy to meet with Theophorus, but struck 
with fear because so eminent a man was being 
led to death. Now he enjoined some to keep 
silence who, in their fervent zeal, were saying ' 
that they would appease the people, so that 
they should not demand the destruction of this 
just one. He being immediately aware of this 
through the Spirit,^ and having saluted them all, 
and begged of them to show a true affection 
towards him, and having dwelt [on this point] 
at greater length than in his Epistle,^ and hav- 
ing persuaded them not to envy him hastening 
to the Lord, he then, after he had, with all the 
brethren kneeling [beside him], entreated the 
Son of God in behalf of the Churches, that a 
stop might be put to the persecution, and that 
mutual love might continue among the brethren, 
was led with all haste into the amphitheatre. 
Then, being immediately thrown in, according 
to the command of Caesar given some time ago, 
the public spectacles being just about to close 
(for it was then a solemn day, as they deemed 
it, being that which is called the thirteenth ^ in 
the Roman tongue, on which the people were 
wont to assemble in more than ordinary num- 
bers 5), he was thus cast to the wild beasts close 
beside the temple,^ that so by them the desire 
of the holy martyr Ignatius should be fulfilled, 
according to that which is written, " The desire 
of the righteous is acceptable 7 [to God]," to 
the effect that he might not be troublesome to 
any of the brethren by the gathering of his re- 
mains, even as he had in his Epistle expressed 
a wish beforehand that so his end might be. 
For only the harder portions of his holy remains 

I Literally, " boiling, and saying." 

^ Or, " in spirit." 

3 i.e., in his Epistle to the Romans. 

* The Saturnalia were then celebrated. 

5 Literally, " they came together zealously." 

* The amphitheatre itself was sacred to several of the gods. 
[But (jrapa Tcu vaw) the original indicates the cella, or shrine, in the 
centre of the amphitheatre where the image of Pluto was exhibited. 
A plain cross, until the late excavations, marked the very spot.] 

' Prov. X. 24. 

were left, which were conveyed to Antioch and 
wrapped* in linen, as an inestimable treasure 
left to the holy Church by the grace which was 
in the martyr. 



Now these things took place on the thirteenth 
day before the Kalends of January, that is, on 
the twentieth of December,^ Sura and Senecio 
being then the consuls of the Romans for the 
second time. Having ourselves been eye-wit- 
nesses of these things, and having spent the 
whole night in tears within the house, and hav- 
ing entreated the Lord, with bended knees and 
much prayer, that He would give us weak men 
full assurance respecting the things which were 
done,'° it came to pass, on our falling into a brief 
slumber, that some of us saw the blessed Igna- 
tius suddenly standing by us and embracing us, 
while others beheld him again praying for us, 
and others still saw him dropping with sweat, as 
if he had just come from his great labour, and 
standing by the Lord. When, therefore, we 
had with great joy witnessed these things, and 
had compared our several visions " together, we 
sang praise to God, the giver of all good things, 
and expressed our sense of the happiness of the 
holy [martyr] ; and now we have made known 
to you both the day and the time [when these 
things happened], that, assembling ourselves 
together according to the time of his martyr- 
dom, we may have fellowship with the champion 
and noble martyr of Christ, who trode under 
foot the devil, and perfected the course which, 
out of love to Christ, he had desired, in Christ 
Jesus our Lord ; by whom, and with whom, be 
glory and power to the Father, with the Holy 
Spirit, for evermore ! Amen. 

^ Or, "deposited." 

9 [The Greeks celebrate this martyrdom, to this day, on the twen- 
tieth of December.] 

'° To the effect, viz., that the martyrdom of Ignatius had been 
acceptable to God. 

'* Literally, " the visions of the dreams." 



[a.d. ioo.] The writer of this Epistle is supposed to have been an Alexandrian Jew of the 
times of Trajan and Hadrian, He was a layman ; but possibly he bore the name of " Barnabas," 
and so has been confounded with his holy and apostolic name-sire. It is more probable that the 
Epistle, being anonymous, was attributed to St. Barnabas, by those who supposed that apostle to 
be the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, and who discovered similarities in the plan and pur- 
pose of the two works. It is with great reluctance that I yield to modern scholars, in dismissing 
the ingenious and temperate argument of Archbishop Wake ' for the apostolic origin of this trea- 
tise. The learned Lardner ^ shares his convictions ; and the very interesting and ingenious views 
of Jones 3 never appeared to me satisfactory, weighed with preponderating arguments, on the other 

The Maccabsean spirit of the Jews never burned more furiously than after the destruction of 
Jerusalem, and while it was kindling the conflagration that broke out under Barchochebas, and 
blazed so terribly in the insurrection against Hadrian.5 It is not credible that the Jewish Chris- 
tians at Alexandria and elsewhere were able to emancipate themselves from their national spirit ; 
and accordingly the old Judaizing, which St. Paul had anathematized and confuted, would assert 
itself again. If such was the occasion of this Epistle, as I venture to suppose, a higher character 
must be ascribed to it than could otherwise be claimed. This accounts, also, for the degree of 
favour with which it was accepted by the primitive faithful. 

It is interesting as a specimen of their conflicts with a persistent Judaism which St. Paul had 
defeated and anathematized, but which was ever cropping out among believers originally of the 
Hebrews.^ Their own habits of allegorizing, and their Oriental tastes, must be borne in mind, if 
we are readily disgusted with our author's fancies and refinements. St. Paul himself pays a prac- 
tical tribute to their modes of thought, in his Epistle to the Galatians (iv. 24). This is the ad 
ho?fiinem form of rhetoric, familiar to all speakers, which laid even the apostle open to the slander 
of enemies (2 Cor. xii. 16), — that he was "crafty," and caught men with guile. It is interesting 
to note the more Occidental spirit of Cyprian, as compared with our author, when he also con- 
tends with Judaism. Doubtless we have in the pseudo-Barnabas something of that oeconomy which 

' Discourse (p. 148) to his Genuine Epistles of the Apostolical Fathers. Philadelphia, 1846. 
^ Works, ii. 250, note; and iv. 128. 
5 On the Canon, vol. ii. p. 431. 

* To those who may adhere to the older opinion, let me commend the eloquent and instructive chapter (xxiii.) in Farrar's Life of 
St. Paul. 

5 Hadrian's purpose to rebuild their city seems to be pointed at in chap. xvi. 

* M. Renan may be read with pain, jmd yet with profit, in much that his Gallio-spirit suggests on this subject. Chap, v., St. Paul, 
Paris, 1884. 




is always capable of abuse, and which was destined too soon to overleap the bounds of its morai 

It is to be observed that this writer sometimes speaks as a Gentile, a fact which some have 
found it difficult to account for, on the supposition that he was a Hebrew, if not a Levite as well. 
But so, also, St. Paul sometimes speaks as a Roman, and sometimes as a Jew ; and, owing to the 
mixed character of the early Church, he writes to the Romans (iv. i ) as if they were all Israelites, 
and again to the same Church (Rom. xi. 13) as if they were all Gentiles. So this writer some- 
times identifies himself with Jewish thought as a son of Abraham, and again speaks from the 
Christian position as if he were a Gentile, thus identifying himself with the catholicity of the 

But the subject thus opened is vast ; and " the Epistle of Barnabas," so called, still awaits a 
critical editor, who at the same time shall be a competent expositor. Nobody can answer these 
requisitions, who is unable, for this purpose, to be a Christian of the days of Trajan. 

But it will be observed that this version has great advantages over any of its predecessors, and 
is a valuable acquisition to the student. The learned translators have had before them the entire 
Greek text of the fourth century, disfigured it is true by comiptions, but still very precious, the 
rather as they have been able to compare it with the text of Hilgenfeld. Their editorial notes 
are sufficient for our own plan ; and little has been left for me to do, according to the scheme of 
this publication, save to revise the " copy " for printing. I am glad to presume no further into 
such a labyrinth, concerning which the learned and careful Wake modestly professes, " I have 
endeavoured to attain to the sense of my author, and to make him as plain and easy as I was 
able. If in anything I have chanced to mistake him, I have only this to say for myself: that he 
must be better acquainted with the road than I pretend to be, who will undertake to travel so 
long a journey in the dark and never to miss his way." 

The following is the original Introductory Notice : — 

Nothing certain is known as to the author of the following Epistle. The writer's name is Bar- 
nabas, but scarcely any scholars now ascribe it to the illustrious friend and companion of St. Paul. 
External and internal evidence here come into direct collision. The ancient writers who refer to 
this Epistle unanimously attribute it to Barnabas the Levite, of Cyprus, who held such an hon- 
ourable place in the infant Church. Clement of Alexandria does so again and again {Strom., ii. 
6, ii. 7, etc.). Origen describes it as " a Catholic Epistle " {Cont. Cels., i. 63), and seems to rank 
it among the Sacred Scriptures {Comin. in Rom., i. 24). Other statements have been quoted 
from the fathers, to show that they held this to be an authentic production of the apostolic Bar- 
nabas ; and certainly no other name is ever hinted at in Christian antiquity as that of the writer. 
But notwithstanding this, the internal evidence is now generally regarded as conclusive against 
this opinion. On perusing the Epistle, the reader will be in circumstances to judge of this matter 
for himself. He will be led to consider whether the spirit and tone of the writing, as so decidedly 
opposed to all respect for Judaism — the numerous inaccuracies which it contains with respect to 
Mosaic enactments and observances — the absurd and trifling interpretations of Scripture which 
it suggests — and the many silly vaunts of superior knowledge in which its writer indulges — can 
possibly comport with its ascription to the fellow-labourer of St. Paul. When it is remembered 
that no one ascribes the Epistle to the apostolic Barnabas till the times of Clement of Alexandria, 
and that it is ranked by Eusebius among the " spurious " writings, which, however much known 
and read in the Church, were never regarded as authoritative, little doubt can remain that the 
external evidence is of itself weak, and should not make us hesitate for a moment in refusing to 
ascribe this writing to Barnabas the Apostle. 

The date, object, and intended readers of the Epistle can only be doubtfully inferred from 
some statements which it contains. It was clearly written after the destruction of Jerusalem, 


since reference is made to that event (chap, xvi.), but how long after is matter of much dispute. 
The general opinion is, that its date is not later than the middle of the second century, and that 
it cannot be placed earlier than some twenty or thirty years before. In point of style, both as 
respects thought and expression, a very low place must be assigned it. We know nothing certain 
of the region in which the author lived, or where the first readers were to be found. The inten- 
tion of the writer, as he himself states (chap, i.), was "to perfect the knowledge" of those to 
whom he wrote. Hilgenfeld, who has devoted much attention to this Epistle, holds that " it was 
written at the close of the first century by a Gentile Christian of the school of Alexandria, with 
the view of winning back, or guarding from a Judaic form of Christianity, those Christians belong- 
ing to the same class as himself." 

Until the recent discovery of the Codex Sinaiticus by Tischendorf, the first four and a half 
chapters were known only in an ancient Latin version. The whole Greek text is now happily 
recovered, though it is in many places very corrupt. We have compared its readings throughout, 
and noted the principal variations from the text represented in our version. We have also made 
frequent reference to the text adopted by Hilgenfeld in his recent edition of the Epistle (Lipsiae, 
T. O. Weigel, 1866). 



All hail, ye sons and daughters, in the name 
of our Lord ^ Jesus Christ, who loved us in 

Seeing that the divine fruits ^ of righteousness 
abound among you, I rejoice exceedingly and 
above measure in your happy and honoured 
spirits, because ye have with such effect received 
the engrafted * spiritual gift. Wherefore also I 
inwardly rejoice the more, hoping to be saved, 
because I truly perceive in you the Spirit poured 
forth from the rich Lord 5 of love. Your greatly 
desired appearance has thus filled me with aston- 
ishment over you.^ I am therefore pursuaded of 
this, and fully convinced in my own mind, that 
since I began to speak among you I understand 
many things, because the Lord hath accompanied 
me in the way of righteousness. I am also on 
this account bound ^ by the strictest obligation 
to love you above my own soul, because great 
are the faith and love dwelling in you, while you 
hope for the life which He has promised.*^ Con- 
sidering this, therefore, that if I should take the 
trouble to communicate to you some portion of 
what I have myself received, it will prove to me 
a sufficient reward that I minister to such spirits, 
I have hastened briefly to write unto you, in 
order that, along with your faith, ye might have 
perfect knowledge. The doctrines of the Lord, 

' The Codex Sinaiticus has simply "Epistle of Barnabas" for 
title; Dressel gives, " Epistle of Barnabas the Apostle," from the 
Vatican MS. of the Latin text. 

^ The Cod. Sin. has simply, " the Lord." 

3 Literally, " the judgments of God being great and rich towards 
you; " but, as Hefele remarks, SiKaiuifia seems here to have the mean- 
ing of righteousness, as in Rom. v. i8. 

*■ This appears to be the meaning of the Greek, and is con- 
firmed by the ancient Latin version. Hilgenfeld, however, following 
Cod. Sin., reads "thus," instead of "because," and separates the 

5 The Latin reads, " a spirit infused into you from the honourable 
fountain of God." 

'' This sentence is entirely omitted in the Latin. 
' ' The Latin text is here quite different, and seems evidently cor- 
tupt. We have followed the Cod. Sin., as does Hilgenfeld. 

8 Literally, " in the hope of His life." 

then, are three : 9 the hope of life, the beginning 
and the completion of it. For the Lord hath 
made known to us by the prophets both the 
things which are past and present, giving us also 
the first-fruits of the knowledge '° of things to 
come, which things as we see accomplished, one 
by one, we ought with the greater richness of 
faith " and elevation of spirit to draw near to 
Him with reverence." I then, not as your 
teacher, but as one of yourselves, will set forth 
a few things by which in present circumstances 
ye may be rendered the more joyful. 


Since, therefore, the days are evil, and Satan '3 
possesses the power of this world, we ought to 
give heed to ourselves, and diligently inquire 
into the ordinances of the Lord. Fear and 
patience, then, are helpers of our faith ; and 
long-suffering and continence are things which 
fight on our side. While these remain pure in 
what respects the Lord, Wisdom, Understanding, 
Science, and Knowledge rejoice along with 
them."* For He hath revealed to us by all the 
prophets that He needs neither sacrifices, nor 
burnt-offerings, nor oblations, saying thus, " What 
is the multitude of your sacrifices unto Me, saith 
the Lord ? I am full of burnt-offerings, and de- 
sire not the fat of lambs, and the blood of bulls 
and goats, not when ye come to appear before 

9 The Greek is here totally unintelligible: it seems impossible 
either to punctuate or construe it. We may attempt to represent it 
as follows: " The doctrines of the Lord, then, are three: Life, Faith, 
and Hope, our beginning and end; and Righteousness, the beginning 
and the end of judgment; Love and Joy and the Testimony of glad- 
ness for works of righteousness." We have followed the ancient Latin 
text, which Hilgenfeld also adopts, though Weitzacker and others 
prefer the Greek. 

'° Instead of "knowledge" {yvoiaeat':) , Cod. Sin. has "taste" 

" Literally, " we ought more richly and loftily to approach His 

■2 Instead of " to Him with fear," the reading of Cod. Sin., the 
Latin has, " to His altar," which Hilgenfeld adopts. 

'3 The Latin text is literally, "the adversary;" the Greek has, 
"and he that worketh possesseth power;" Hilgenfeld reads, "he 
that worketh against," the idea expressed above being intended. 

'■< Or, " while these things continue, those which respect the Lord 
rejoice in purity along with them — Wisdom," etc. 




Me : for who hath required these things at your 
hands ? Tread no more My courts, not though 
ye bring with you fine flour. Incense is a vain 
abomination unto Me, and your new moons and 
sabbaths I cannot endure." ' He has therefore 
abohshed these things, that the new law of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, which is without the yoke of 
necessity, might have a human oblation.^ And 
again He says to them, " Did I command your 
fathers, when they went out from the land of 
Egypt, to offer unto Me burnt-offerings and sac- 
rifices? But this rather I commanded them, Let 
no one of you cherish any evil in his heart against 
his neighbour, and love not an oath of falsehood. "^ 
We ought therefore, being possessed of under- 
standing, to perceive the gracious intendon of our 
Father ; for He speaks to us, desirous that we, 
not t going astray like them, should ask how we 
may approach Him. To us, then. He declares, 
" A sacrifice [pleasing] to God is a broken spirit ; 
a smell of sweet savour to the Lord is a heart 
that glorifieth Him that made it." 5 We ought 
therefore, brethren, carefully to inquire concern- 
ing our salvation, lest the wicked one, having 
made his entrance by deceit, should hurl ^ us 
forth from our [true] life. 



He says then to them again concerning these 
things, " Why do ye fast to Me as on this day, 
saith the Lord, that your voice should be heard 
with a cry? I have not chosen this fast, saith 
the Lord, that a man should humble his soul. 
Nor, though ye bend your neck like a ring, and 
put upon you sackcloth and ashes, will ye call it 
an acceptable fast." ' To us He saith, " Behold, 
this is the fast that I have chosen, saith the Lord, 
not that a man should humble his soul, but that 
he should loose every band of iniquity, untie the 
fastenings of harsh agreements, restore to liberty 
them that are bruised, tear in pieces every unjust 
engagement, feed the hungry with thy bread, 
clothe the naked when thou seest him, bring the 
homeless into thy house, not despise the humble 
if thou behold him, and not [turn away] from 
the members of thine own family. Then shall 
thy dawn break forth, and thy healing shall 
(juickly spring up, and righteousness shall go 
forth before thee, and the glory of God shall en- 
compass thee ; and then thou shalt call, and God 

' Isa. i. 11-14, from the Sept., as is the case throughout. We 
have given the quotation as it stands in Cod. Sin. 

^ Thus in the Latin. The Greek reads, " might not have a man- 
made oblation." The Latin text seems preferable, implying that, in- 
stead of the outward sacrifices of the law, there is now required a 
dedication of man himself. Hilgenfeld follows the Greek. 

3 Jer. vii. 22; Zech. viii. 17. 

* So the Greek. Hiljjenfeld, with the Latin, omits " not." 

5 Ps. li. 19. There is nothing in Scripture corresponding to the 
last clause. 

*> Literally, " sling us out." 

' Isa. Iviii. 4, 5. 

shall hear thee ; whilst thou art yet speaking, He 
shall say. Behold, I am with thee ; if thou take 
away from thee the chain [binding others], and 
the stretching forth of the hands '^ [to swear 
falsely], and words of murmuring, and give 
cheerfully thy bread to the hungry, and show 
compassion to the soul that has been humbled." '^ 
To this end, therefore, brethren, He is long- 
suffering, foreseeing how the people whom He 
has prepared shall with guilelessness believe in 
His Beloved. For He revealed all these things 
to us beforehand, that we should not rush for- 
ward as rash acceptors of their laws.'" 



It therefore behoves us, who inquire much 
concerning events at hand," to search diligently 
into those things which are able to save us. Let 
us then utterly flee from all the works of iniquity, 
lest these should take hold of us ; and let us 
hate the error of the present time, that we may set 
our love on the world to come : let us not give 
loose reins to our soul, that it should have power 
to run with sinners and the wicked, lest we be- 
come like them. The final stumbling-block (or 
source of danger) approaches, concerning which 
it is written, as Enoch '^ says, " For for this end 
the Lord has cut short the times and the days, 
that His Beloved may hasten ; and He will come 
to the inheritance." And the prophet also speaks 
thus : " Ten kingdoms shall reign upon the earth, 
and a little king shall rise up after them, who 
shall subdue under one three of the kings. '^ In 
like manner Daniel says concerning the same, 
" And I beheld the fourth beast, wicked and 
powerful, and more savage than all the beasts of 
the earth, and how from it sprang up ten horns, 
and out of them a little budding horn, and how 
it subdued under one three of the great horns." "* 
Ye ought therefore to understand. And this also 
I further beg of you, as being one of you, and 
loving you both individually and collectively 
more than my own soul, to take heed now to 
yourselves, and not to be like some, adding 
largely to your sins, and saying, *' The covenant 
is both theirs and ours." '5 But they thus finally 
lost it, after Moses had already received it. For 
the Scripture saith, " And Moses was fasting in 

* The original here is xsiporoviav , from the LXX. Hefele re- 
marks, that it may refer to the stretching forth of the hands, either 
to swear falsely, or to mock and insult one's neighbour. 

9 Isa. Iviii. 6-10. 

'" The Greek is here unintelligible: the Latin has, "that we 
should not rush on, as if proselytes to their law." 

'' Or it might be rendered, " things present." Cotelerius reads, 
"de his instantibus." 

'- The Latin reads " Daniel " instead of " Enoch ; " comp. Dan. 
ix. 24—27. 

■5 Dan. vii. 24, very loosely quoted. 

'* Dan. vii. 7, 8, also very inaccurately cited. 

'5 We here follow the Latin text in preference to the Greek, which 
reads merely, " the covenant is ours." What follows seems to show 
the correctness of the Latin, as the author proceeds to deny that the 
Jews had any further interest in the promises. 



the mount forty days and forty nights, and re- 
ceived the covenant from the Lord, tables of 
stone written with the finger of the hand of the 
Lord ; " ' but turning away to idols, they lost it. 
For the Lord speaks thus to Moses : " Moses, 
go down quickly ; for the people whom thou 
hast brought out of the land of Egypt have 
transgressed." == And Moses understood [the 
meaning of God], and cast the two tables out 
of his hands ; and their covenant was broken, in 
order that the covenant of the beloved Jesus 
might be sealed upon our heart, in the hope 
which flows from believing in Him.^ Now, be- 
ing desirous to write many things to you, not as 
your teacher, but as becometh one who loves 
you, I have taken care not to fail to write 
to you from what I myself possess, with a view 
to your purification. '' We take earnest 5 heed 
in these last days ; for the whole [past] time of 
your faith will profit you nothing, unless now 
in this wicked time we also withstand coming 
sources of danger, as becometh the sons of God. 
That the Black One ^ may find no means of en- 
trance, let us flee from every vanity, let us utterly 
hate the works of the way of wickedness. Do 
not, by retiring apart, live a solitary life, as if 
you were already [fully] justified ; but coming 
together in one place, make common inquiry 
concerning what tends to your general welfare. 
For the Scripture saith, " Woe to them who are 
wise to themselves, and prudent in their own 
sight ! " 7 Let us be spiritually-minded : let us 
be a perfect temple to God. As much as in us 
lies, let us meditate upon the fear of God, and 
let us keep His commandments, that we may 
rejoice in His ordinances. The Lord will judge 
the world without respect of persons. Each will 
receive as he has done : if he is righteous, his 
righteousness will precede him ; if he is wicked, 
the reward of wickedness is before him. Take 
heed, lest resting at our ease, as those who are 
the called [of God], we should fall asleep in 
oui sins, and the wicked prince, acquiring power 
over us, should thrust us away from the kingdom 
of the Lord. And all the more attend to this, 
my brethren, when ye reflect and behold, that 
after so great signs and wonders were wrought 
in Israel, they were thus [at length] abandoned. 
Let us beware lest we be found [fulfilling that 

' Ex. xxxi. 18, xxxiv. 28. 

^ Ex. xxxii. 7; Deut. ix. 12. 

' Literally, " in hope of His faith." 

* The Greek is here incorrect and unintelligible; and as the Latin 
omits the clause, our translation is merely conjectural. Hilgenfeld's 
text, if we give a somewhat peculiar meaning to iWinelv, may be 
translated: " but as it is becoming in one who loves you not to fail in 
giving you what we have, I, though the very offscouring of you, have 
been eager to write to you." 

5 So the Cod. Sin. Hileenfeld reads, with the Latin, " let us 

* The Latin here departs entirely from the Greek text, and quotes 
as a saying of" the Son of God "the following precept, nowhere to be 
found in the New Testament: " Let us resist all iniquity, and hold it 
in hatred." HilgenfCld joins this clause to the former sentence. 

' Isa. V. ai. 

saying], as it is written, "Many are called, but 
few are chosen." ^ 



For to this end the Lord endured to deliver 
up His flesh to corruption, that we might be 
sanctified through the remission of sins, which is 
effected by His blood of sprinkling. For it is 
written concerning Him, partly with reference 
to Israel, and partly to us ; and [the Scripture] 
saith thus : " He was wounded for our trans- 
gressions, and bruised for our iniquities : with 
His stripes we are healed. He was brought as 
a sheep to the slaughter, and as a lamb which is 
dumb before its shearer." 9 Therefore we ought 
to be deeply grateful to the Lord, because He 
has both made known to us things that are past, 
and hath given us wisdom concerning things 
present, and hath not left us without understand- 
ing in regard to things which are to come. 
Now, the Scripture saith, " Not unjustly are 
nets spread out for birds." '° This means that 
the man perishes justly, who, having a knowl- 
edge of the way of righteousness, rushes off into 
the way of darkness. And further, my brethren : 
if the Lord endured to suffer for our soul. He 
being Lord of all the world, to whom God said 
at the foundation of the world, " Let us make 
man after our image, and after our likeness," " 
understand how it was that He endured to suffer 
at the hand of men. The prophets, having ob- 
tained grace from Him, prophesied concerning 
Him. And He (since it behoved Him to ap- 
pear in flesh), that He might abolish death, and 
reveal the resurrection from the dead, endured 
[what and as He did], in order that He might 
fulfill the promise made unto the fathers, and 
by preparing a new people for Himself, might 
show, while He dwelt on earth, that He, when 
He has raised mankind, will also judge them. 
Moreover, teaching Israel, and doing so great 
miracles and signs. He preached [the truth] to 
him, and greatly loved him. But when He 
chose His own apostles who where to preach 
His Gospel, [He did so from among those] 
who were sinners above all sin, that He might 
show He came " not to call the righteous, but 
sinners to repentance." " Then He manifested 
Himself to be the Son of God. For if He had 
not come in the flesh, how could men have been 
saved by beholding Him? '^ Since looking upon 

8 An exact quotation from Matt. xx. i6 or xxii. 14. It is worthy 
of notice that this is the first example in the writings of the Fathers of 
a citation from any book of the New Testament, preceded by the 
authoritative formula, " it is written." 

9 Isa. liii. 5, 7. 

'° Prov. i. 17, from the LXX., which has mistaken the meaning. 
" Gen. i. 26. 

'2 Matt. ix. 13; Mark ii. 17; Luke v. 32. 

'3 The Cod Sin. reads, " neither would men have been saved by 
seeing Him." 



the sun which is to cease to exist, and is the 
work of His hands, their eyes are not able to 
bear his rays. The Son of God therefore came 
in the flesh with this view, that He might bring 
to a head the sum of their sins who had perse- 
cuted His prophets ' to the death. For this 
purpose, then. He endured. For God saith, 
"The stroke of his flesh is from them ; " ^ and ^ 
"when I shall smite the Shepherd, then the 
sheep of the flock shall be scattered." ^ He 
himself willed thus to suffer, for it was necessary 
that He should suffer on the tree. For says he 
who prophesies regarding Him, " Spare my soul 
from the sword, 5 fasten my flesh with nails ; for 
the assemblies of the wicked have risen up 
against me." ^ And again he says, " Behold, I 
have given my back to scourges, and my cheeks 
to strokes, and I have set my countenance as a 
firm rock." ^ 


When, therefore. He has fulfilled the com- 
mandment, what saith He ? " Who is he that 
will contend with Me ? let him oppose Me : or 
who is he that will enter into judgment with 
Me? let him draw near to the servant of the 
Lord." ^ " Woe unto you, for ye shall all wax 
old, like a garment, and the moth shall eat you 
up." 9 And again the prophet says, " Since '° as 
a mighty stone He is laid for crushing, behold 
I cast down for the foundations of Zion a 
stone, precious, elect, a corner-stone, honoura- 
ble." Next, what says He? "And he who 
shall trust" in it shall live for ever." Is our 
hope, then, upon a stone? Far from it. But 
[the language is used] inasmuch as He laid his 
flesh [as a foundation] w^ith power ; for He says, 
" And He placed me as a firm rock." '^ And 
the prophet says again, " The stone which the 
builders rejected, the same has become the 
head of the corner." '^ And again he says, 
"This is the great and wonderful day which 
the Lord hath made.'-* I write the more simply 
unto you, that ye may understand. I am the off- 
scouring of your love. '5 What, then, again says 

' Cod. Sin. has, " their prophets," but the corrector has changed 
it as above. 

2 A very loose reference to Isa. liii. 8. 

3 Cod. Sin. omits " and," and reads, " when they smite their own 
shepherd, then the sheep of the pasture shall be scattered and fail." 

* Zech. xiii. 7. 
5 Cod. Sin. inserts " and." 

<> These arc inaccurate and confused quotations from Ps. xxii. 21, 
»7, and cxix. 120. 

7 Isa. 1. 6, 7. 

8 Isa. 1. 8. 

9 Isa. 1. 9. 

'° The Latin omits " since," but it is found in all the Greek mss. 
" Cod. Sin. has " believe." Isa. viii. 14, xxviii. 16. 
•2 Isa. 1. 7. 
" Ps. cxviii. 22. 
'* Ps. cxviii. 24. 

'5 Comp. 1 Cor. iv. 13. The meaning is, " My love to you is so 
gnat, I am rc.ndy to be or to do all things for you." 

the prophet? " The assembly of the wicked sur- 
rounded me ; they encompassed me as bees do 
a honeycomb," '^ and " upon my garment they 
cast lots." '7 Since, therefore. He was about to 
be manifested and to suffer in the flesh. His suf- 
fering was foreshown. For the prophet speaks 
against Israel, " Woe to their soul, because they 
have counselled an evil counsel against them- 
selves,'*^ saying, Let us bind the just one, because 
he is displeasing to us." '^ And Moses also says 
to them,^° " Behold these things, saith the Lord 
God : Enter into the good land which the Lord 
sware [to give] to Abraham, and Isaac, and 
Jacob, and inherit ye it, a land flowing with 
milk and honey." ^' What, then, says Knowl- 
edge?^^ Learn: "Trust," she says, "in Him 
who is to be manifested to you in the flesh — 
that is, Jesus." For man is earth in a suffering 
state, for the formation of Adam was from the 
face of the earth. What, then, meaneth this : 
" into the good land, a land flowing with milk and 
honey?" Blessed be our Lord, who has placed 
in us wisdom and understanding of secret things. 
For the prophet says, " Who shall understand 
the parable of the Lord, except him who is wise 
and prudent, and who loves his Lord ? " ^3 Since, 
therefore, having renewed us by the remission of 
our sins. He hath made us after another pattern, 
[it is His purpose] that we should possess the 
soul of children, inasmuch as He has created us 
anew by His Spirit.-"* For the Scripture says 
concerning us, while He speaks to the Son, 
" Let Us make man after Our image, and after 
Our likeness ; and let them have dominion over 
the beasts of the earth, and the fowls of heaven, 
and the fishes of the sea." ^5 And the Lord said, 
on beholding the fair creature ^^' man, " Increase, 
and multiply, and replenish the earth." ^^ These 
things [were spoken] to the Son. Again, I will 
show thee how, in respect to us,^** He has accom- 
plished a second fashioning in these last days. 
The Lord says, " Behold, I will make ^^ the last 
like the first." ^° In reference to this, then, the 
prophet proclaimed, " Enter ye into the land 

''' Ps. xxii. 17, cxviii. 12. 

'7 Ps. xxii. 19. 

'8 Isa. iii. 9. 

'9 Wisd. ii. 12. This apocryphal book is thus quoted as Scripture, 
and intertwined with it. 

-° Cod. Sin. reads, " What says the other prophet Moses unto 
them? " 

^' Ex. xxxiii. I ; I^ev. xx. 24. 

22 The original word is " Gnosis," the knowledge peculiar tn 
advanced Christians, by which they understand the mysteries of 

'3 Not found in Scripture. Comp. Isa. xl. 13; Prov, i. 6. Hil- 
genfeld, however, changes the usual punctuation, which places a 
colon after prophet, and re.ids, " For the prophet speakelh the para- 
ble of the I^rd. Who shall understand," etc. 

^* The Greek is here ver^- elliptical and obscure: " His Spirit" is 
inserted above, from the Latin. 

25 Gen. i. 26. 

^^ Cod. Sin. has " our fair formation." 

" Gen. i. 28. 

*' Cod. Sin. inserts, " the Lord says." 

'9 Cod. Sin. has " I make." 

3° Not in Scripture, but comp. Matt. xx. 16, and 2 Coc. v. 17. 



flowing with milk and honey, and have domin- 
ion over it." ' Behold, therefore, we have been 
refashioned, as again He says in another prophet, 
■' Behold, saith the Lord, I will take away from 
these, that is, from those whom the Spirit of the 
Lord foresaw, their stony hearts, and I will put 
hearts of flesh within them," ^ because He ^ 
was to be manifested in flesh, and to sojourn 
among us. For, my brethren, the habitation of 
our heart is a holy temple to the Lord.-* For 
again saith the Lord, "And wherewith shall I 
appear before the Lord my God, and be glori- 
fied ? " 5 He says,'' " I will confess to thee in 
the Church in the midst ^ of my brethren ; and I 
will praise thee in the midst of the assembly of 
the saints." ^ We, then, are they whom He has 
led into the good land. What, then, mean the 
milk and honey? This, that as the infant is 
kept alive first by honey, and then by milk, so 
also we, being quickened and kept alive by the 
faith of the promise and by the word, shall live 
ruling over the earth. But He said above,^ " Let 
them increase, and rule over the fishes." '° Who 
then is able to govern the beasts, or the fishes, or j 
the fowls of heaven ? For we ought to perceive 
that to govern implies authority, so that one 
should command and rule. If, therefore, this 
does not exist at present, yet still He has prom- 
ised it to us. When ? When we ourselves also 
have been made perfect [so as] to become heirs 
of the covenant of the Lord." 



Understand, then, ye children of gladness, 
that the good Lord has foreshown all things to 
us, that we might know to whom we ought for 
everything to render thanksgiving and praise. 
If therefore the Son of God, who is Lord [of 
all_ things], and who will judge the living and 
the dead, suffered, that His stroke might give 
us life, let us believe that the Son of God could 
not have suffered except for our sakes. More- 
over, when fixed to the cross, He had given 
Him to drink vinegar and gall. Hearken how 
the priests of the people '^ gave previous indica- 
tions of this. His commandment having been 
written, the Lord enjoined, that whosoever did 
not keep the fast should be put to death, be- 
cause He also Himself was to offer in sacrifice 

 Ex. xxxiii. 3. 

^ Ezek. xi. 19, xxxvi. 26. 

3 Cod. Sin. inserts " Himself; " comp. John i. 14. 

 Comp. Eph. ii. 21. 

5 Comp. Ps. xlii. 2. 

^ Cod. .Sin. omits " He says." 

' Cod. Sin. omits " in the midst." 

* Ps. xxii. 23; Heb. ii. 12. 

9 Cod. Sin. has " But we said above." 
J" Gen. i. 28. 

" These are specimens of the " Gnosis," or faculty of bringing out 
the hidden spiritual meaning of Scripture referred to before. Many 
more such interpret.itions follow. 

'^ Cod. Sin. reads " lemplc," which is adopted by Hilgenfeld. 

for our sins the vessel of the Spirit, in order 
that the type established in Isaac when he was 
offered upon the altar might be fully accom- 
plished. What, then, says He in the prophet? 
" And let them eat of the goat which is offered, 
with fasting, for all their sins." '^ Attend care- 
fully : " And let all the priests alone eat the 
inwards, unwashed with vinegar." Wherefore? 
Because to me, who am to offer my flesh for 
the sins of my new people, ye are to give gall 
with vinegar to drink : eat ye alone, while the 
people fast and mourn in sackcloth and ashes. 
[These things were done] that He might show 
that it was necessary for Him to suffer for 
them,''^ How,'5 then, ran the commandment? 
Give your attention. Take two goats of goodly 
aspect, and similar to each other, and offer 
them. And let the priest take one as a burnt- 
offering for sins.'^ And what should they do 
with the other? "Accursed," says He, "is the 
one." Mark how the type of Jesus '^ now comes 
out. "And all of you spit upon it, and pierce 
it, and encircle its head with scarlet wool, and 
thus let it be driven into the wilderness." And 
when all this has been done, he who bears the 
goat brings it into the desert, and takes the 
wool off from it, and places that upon a shrub 
which is called Rachia,'''^ of which also we are 
accustomed to eat the fruits "^ when we find 
them in the field. Of this ^° kind of shrub alone 
the fruits are sweet. Why then, again, is this ? 
Give good heed. [You see] " one upon the 
altar, and the other accursed ; " and why [do 
you behold] the one that is accursed crowned ? 
Because they shall see Him then in that day 
having a scarlet robe about his body down to 
his feet ; and they shall say. Is not this He 
whom we once despised, and pierced, and 
mocked, and crucified? Truly this is^' He who 
then declared Himself to be the Son of God. 
For how like is He to Him ! ^^ With a view 
to this, [He required] the goats to be of goodly 
aspect, and similar, that, when they see Him 
then coming, they may be amazed by the like- 
ness of the goat. Behold, then,^^ the type of 
Jesus who was to suffer. But why is it that they 

'3 Not to be found in Scripture, as is the case also with what fol- 
lows. Hefele remarks, that " certain false traditions respecting the 
Jewish rites seem to have prevailed among the Christians of the 
second century, of which Barnabas here adopts some, as do Justin 
{Dial. c. Try. 40) and Tertullian {adv. jud. 14; adv. Marc. 
iii. 7)." 

'■t Cod. Sin. has " by thera." 

'5 Cod. Sin. reads, " what commanded He? " 

'6 Cod. Sin. reads, " one as a burnt-offering, and one for sins." 

'7 Cod. Sin. reads, " type of God," but it has been corrected to 

•8 In Cod. Sin. we find " Rachel." The orthography is doubtful, 
but there is little question that a kind of bramble-bush is intended. 

'9 Thus the Latin interprets; others render " shoots." 

^° Cod. Sin. has " thus " instead of" this." 

2' Literally, " was." 

-- The text is here in great confusion, though the meaning is 
plain. Dressel reads, " For how are they alike, and why [does He 
enjoin] that the goats should be good and alike?" The Cod. Sin. 
reads, " How is He like Him? For this that," etc. 

23 Cod. Sin. here inserts " the goat." 



place the wool in the midst of thorns ? It is a 
type of Jesus set before the view of the Church. 
['I'hey ' place the wool among thorns] , that 
any one who wishes to bear it away may find it 
necessary to suffer much, because the thorn is 
formidable, and thus obtain it only as the result 
of suffering. Thus also, says He, " Those who 
wish to behold Me, and lay hold of My king- 
dom, must through tribulation and suffering ob- 
tain Me." " 


Now what do you suppose this to be a type 
of, that a command was given to Israel, that 
men of the greatest wickedness ^ should offer a 
heifer, and slay and burn it, and that then boys 
should take the ashes, and put these into vessels, 
and bind round a stick  purple wool along with 
hyssop, and that thus the boys should sprinkle 
the people, one by one, in order that they might 
be purified from their sins ? Consider how He 
speaks to you with simplicity. The calf 5 is 
Jesus : the sinful men offering it are those who 
led Him to the slaughter. But now the men are 
no longer guilty, are no longer regarded as sin- 
ners.'' And the boys that sprinkle are those that 
have proclaimed to us the remission of sins and 
purification of heart. To these He gave author- 
ity to preach the Gospel, being twelve in number, 
corresponding to the twelve tribes ^ of Israel. 
But why are there three boys that sprinkle ? To 
correspond * to Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, 
because these were great with God. And why 
was the wool [placed] upon the wood? Be- 
cause by wood Jesus holds His kingdom, so 
that [through the cross] those believing on Him 
shall live for ever. But why was hyssop joined 
with the wool? Because in His kingdom the 
days will be evil and polluted in which we shall 
be saved, [and] because he who suffers in body 
is cured through the cleansing'^ efticacy of hys- 
sop. And on this account the things which 
stand thus are clear to us, but obscure to them, 
because they did not hear the voice of the Lord. 


He speaks moreover concerning our ears, how 
He hath circumcised both them and our heart. 

' Cod. Sin. reads, " for as he who ... so, says he," etc. 
' Comp. Acts xiv. 22. 

5 Literally, "men in whom sins are perfect." Of this, and much 
more that follows, no mention is made in Scripture. 

* Cod. .Sin. has " upon sticks," and adds, " Behold again the type 
of the cross, both the scarlet wool and the hyssop," — adopted Dy 

S Cod. Sin. has, " the law is Christ Jesus," corrected to the above. 

<> The Greek text is, " then no longer [ sinful ] men, no longer the 
glory of sinners," which Dressel defends and Hilgenfeld adopts, but 
which is surely corrupt. 

7 Literally, " in witness of the tribes." 

* " In witness of" 

9 Thus the sense seems to require, and thus Dressel translates, 
though it is difRcult to extract such a meaning from the Greek 

The Lord saith in the prophet, " In the hearing 
of the ear they obeyed me." '° And again He 
saith, " By hearing, those shall hear who are afar 
off; they shall know what I have done." " And, 
"Be ye circumcised in your hearts, saith the 
Lord." '^ And again He says, " Hear, O Isri,el, 
for these things saith the Lord thy God." '^ And 
once more the Spirit of the Lord proclaims, 
" Who is he that wishes to live for ever ? By 
hearing let him hear the voice of my servant." '+ 
And again He saith, " Hear, O heaven, and give 
ear, O earth, for God '5 hath spoken." '^ These 
are in proof. '^ And again He saith, " Hear the 
word of the Lord, ye rulers of this people." '"* 
And again He saith, " Hear, ye children, the 
voice of one crying in the wilderness." "•' There- 
fore He hath circumcised our ears, that we 
might hear His word and believe, for the cir- 
cumcision in which they trusted is abolished.^" 
For He declared that circumcision was not of 
the flesh, but they transgressed because an evil 
angel deluded them. ^' He saith to them, 
" These things saith the Lord your God " — 
(here" I find a new^^ commandment) — "Sow 
not among thorns, but circumcise yourselves to 
the Lord." '^ And why speaks He thus : " Cir- 
cumcise the stubbornness of your heart, and 
harden not your neck ? " ^5 And again : " Behold, 
saith the Lord, all the nations are uncircumcised ^^ 
in the flesh, but this people are uncircumcised 
in heart." ^7 But thou wilt say, " Yea, verily the 
people are circumcised for a seal." But so also 
is every Syrian and Arab, and all the priests of 
idols : are these then also within the bond of His 
covenant ?^*^ Yea, the Egyptians also practise 
circumcision. Learn then, my children, con- 
cerning all things richly, ^"^ that Abraham, the 
first who enjoined circumcision, looking forward 
in spirit to Jesus, practised that rite, having re- 
ceived the mysteries ^° of the three letters. For 
[ the Scripture ] saith, "And Abraham circum- 

'° Ps. xviii. 44 

" Isa. xxxiii. 13. 

'^ Jer. iv. 4 

'3 Jer. vii. 2. 

'♦ Ps. xxxiv. 11-13. The first clause of this sentence is wanting 
in Cod. Sin. 

'5 Cod. Sin. has " Lord." 

'* Isa. i. 2. 

■7 In proof of the spiritual meaning of circumcision; but Hilgen- 
feld joins the words to the preceding sentence. 

'" Isa. i. 10. 

'9 Cod. Sin. reads, " it is the voice," corrected, however, as above. 

2° Cod. Sin. has, " that we might hear the word, and not only be- 
lieve," plainly a corrupt text. 

21 Cod. Sin., at first hand, has " slew them," but is corrected as 

2- The meaning is here very obscure, but the above rendering and 
punctuation seem preferable to any other. 

23 Cod. Sin., with several other MSS., leaves out " new." 

24 Jer. iv. 3. Cod. Sin. has " God" instead of" Lord." 

25 Deut. x. 16. 

26 This contrast seems to be marked in the original. Cod. Sin. 
has, " Behold, receive again." 

27 Jer. ix. 25, 26. _ 

28 Dressel and Hilgenfeld read, " their covenant," as does Cod. 
Sin. ; we have followed Hefele. 

29 Cod. Sin. has " children of love ," omitting " richly," and insert 
ing it before " looking forward." 

■W Literally, "doctrines." 



cised ten, and eight, and three hundred men 
of his household.'" What, then, was the knowl- 
edge given to him in this ? Learn the eighteen 
first, and then the three hundred. ^ The ten 
and the eight are thus denoted — Ten by I, and 
Eight by H. ^ You have [the initials of the 
name of] Jesus. And because •♦ the cross was 
to express the grace [of our redemption] by the 
letter T, he says also, "Three Hundred." He 
signifies, therefore, Jesus by two letters, and the 
cross by one. He knows this, who has put 
within us the engrafted 5 gift of His doctrine. 
No one has been admitted by me to a more 
excellent piece of knowledge^ than this, but I 
know that ye are worthy. 


Now, wherefore did Moses say, " Thou shalt 
not eat the swine, nor the eagle, nor the hawk, 
nor the raven, nor any fish which is not possessed 
of scales ? " ^ He embraced three doctrines in 
his mind [in doing so]. Moreover, the Lord 
saith to them in Deuteronomy, " And I will es- 
tablish my ordinances among this people." ** Is 
there then not a command of God that they 
should not eat [these things] ? There is, but 
Moses spoke with a spiritual reference.^ For 
this reason he named the swine, as much as to 
say, " Thou shalt not join thyself to men who 
resemble swine." For when they live in pleas- 
ure, they forget their Lord ; but when they come 
to want, they acknowledge the Lord. And [in 
like manner] the swine, when it has eaten, does 
not recognize its master; but when hungry it 
cries out, and on receiving food is quiet again. 
" Neither shalt thou eat," says he " the eagle, 
nor the hawk, nor the kite, nor the raven." 
" Thou shalt not join thyself," he means, " to 
such men as know not how to procure food for 
themselves by labour and sweat, but seize on 
that of others in their iniquity, and although 
wearing an aspect of simplicity, are on the watch 
to plunder others." '° So these birds, while they 
sit idle, inquire how they may devour the flesh 

' Not found in Scripture; but comp. Gen. xvii. 26, 27, xiv. 14. 

2 Cod. Sin. inserts, " and then making a pause." 

3 This sentence is altogether omitted by inadvertence in Cod. Sin. 
•* Some MSS. here read, " and further:" the above is the reading 

in Cod. Sin., and is also that of Hefele. 

5 This is rendered in the Latin, " the more profound gift," re- 
ferring, as it does, to the Gnosis of the initiated. The same word is 
used in chap. i. 

* Literally, " has learned a more germane (or genuine) word 
from me," bemg an idle vaunt on account of the ingenuity in inter- 
preting Scripture he has just displayed. 

^ Cod. Sin. has " portion," corrected, however, as above. See 
Lev. xi. and Deut. xiv. 

8 Deut. iv. I. 

9 Literally, " in spirit." 

'° Cod. Sin. inserts, " and gaze about for some way of escape on 
account of their greediness, even as these birds alone do not procure 
food for themselves (by labour),, but sitting idle, seek to devour the 
flesh of others." The text as above seems preferable: Hilgenfeld, 
however, follows the Greek. 

of Others, proving themselves pests [to all] by 
their wickedness. " And thou shalt not eat," he 
says, " the lamprey, or the polypus, or the cuttle- 
fish." He means, " Thou shalt not join thyself 
or be like to such men as are ungodly to the 
end, and are condemned" to death." In like 
manner as those fishes, above accursed, float in 
the deep, not swimming [on the surface] like 
the rest, but make their abode in the mud which 
hes at the bottom. Moreover, " Thou shalt 
not," he says, "eat the hare." Wherefore? 
"Thou shalt not be a corrupter of boys, nor 
like unto such." " Because the hare multiplies, 
year by year, the places of its conception ; for 
as many years as it lives so many "^ it has. 
Moreover, "Thou shalt not eat the hyena." 
He means, "Thou shalt not be an adulterer, 
nor a corrupter, nor be like to them that are 
such." Wherefore? Because that animal an- 
nually changes its sex, and is at one time male, 
and at another female. Moreover, he has rightly 
detested the weasel. For he means, "Thou 
shalt not be like to those whom we hear of as 
committing wickedness with the mouth,'^ on ac- 
count of their uncleanness ; nor shalt thou be 
joined to those impure women who commit ini- 
quity with the mouth. For this animal conceives 
by the mouth." Moses then issued '5 three doc- 
trines concerning meats with a spiritual signifi- 
cance ; but they received them according to 
fleshly desire, as if he had merely spoken of 
[literal] meats. David, however, comprehends 
the knowledge of the three doctrines, and speaks 
in like manner : " Blessed is the man who hath 
not walked in the counsel of the ungodly," '^ 
even as the fishes [referred to] go in darkness 
to the depths [of the sea] ; " and hath not 
stood in the way of sinners," even as those who 
profess to fear the Lord, but go astray like swine ; 
" and hath not sat in the seat of scorners," '7 even 
as those birds that lie in wait for prey. Take a 
full and firm grasp of this spiritual ^^ knowledge. 
But Moses says still further, " Ye shall eat every 
animal that is cloven-footed and ruminant." 
What does he mean? [The ruminant anima'v 
denotes him] who, on receiving food, recognizes 
Him that nourishes him, and being satisfied 
by Him,'9 is visibly made glad. Well spake 
[Moses], having respect to the commandment. 

" Cod. Sin. has, " condemned already." 

'2 Dressel has a note upon this passage, in which he refers the 
words we have rendered " corrupters of boys," to those who by their 
dissolute lives waste their fortunes, and so entail destruction on their 
children; but this does not appear satisfactory. Comp. Clem. Alex. 
Pcedag. ii. lo. 

•3 We have left Tpuiras untranslated. [Cavities, i.e. of conception]. 

'■* Cod. Sin. has, " with the body through uncleanness," and so 
again in the last clause. 

'5 Cod. Sin. inserts, " having received." 

'6 Ps. i. I, 

17 Literally, "of the pestilent." 

'^ Cod. Sin. reads " perfectly " instead of " perfect," as do most 
MSS.; but, according to Dressel, we should read, "have a perfect 
knowledge concerning the food." Hilgenfeld follows the Greek. 

'9 Or, " resting upon Him." 



What, then, does he mean ? That we ought to 
join ourselves to those that fear the Lord, those 
■who meditate in their heart on the command- 
ment which they have received, those who both 
utter the judgments of the Lord and observe 
them, those who know that meditation is a work 
of gladness, and who ruminate ' upon the word 
of the Lord. But what means the cloven- 
footed? That the righteous man also walks in 
this world, yet looks forward to the holy state ^ 
[to come]. Behold how well Moses legislated. 
But how was it possible for them to understand 
or comprehend these things ? We then, righdy 
understanding his commandments,^ explain them 
as the Lord intended. For this purpose He cir- 
cumcised our ears and our hearts, that we might 
understand these things. 


Let US further inquire whether the Lord took 
any care to foreshadow the water [of baptism] 
and the cross. Concerning the water, indeed, 
it is written, in reference to the Israelites, that 
they should not receive that baptism which leads 
to the remission of sins, but should procure •• 
another for themselves. The prophet therefore 
declares, " Be astonished, O heaven, and let the 
earth tremble 5 at this, because this people hath 
committed two great evils : they have forsaken 
Me, a living fountain, and have hewn out for 
themselves broken cisterns.^ Is my holy hill 
Zion a desolate rock ? For ye shall be as the 
fledglings of a bird, which fly away when the 
nest is removed." ^ And again saith the prophet, 
" I will go before thee and make level the moun- 
tains, and will break the brazen gates, and bruise 
in pieces the iron bars ; and I will give thee the 
secret,^ hidden, invisible treasures, that they 
may know that I am the Lord God." '^ And 
" He shall dwell in a lofty cave of the strong 
rock." '° Furthermore, what saith He in refer- 
ence to the Son ? " His water is sure ; " ye shall 
see the King in His glory, and your soul shall 
meditate on the fear of the Lord." '^ And again 
He saith in another prophet, "The man who 
doeth these things shall be like a tree planted 
by the courses of waters, which shall yield its 
fruit in due season ; and his leaf shall not fade, 
and all that he doeth shall prosper. Not so are 

' Cod. Sin. here has the singular, " one who ruminates." 

2 Literally, " holy age." 

3 Cod. Sin. inserts again, " rightly." 
* Literally, " should build." 

5 Cod. Sin. has, " confine still more," corrected to " tremble still 

*> Cod. Sin. has, " have dug a pit of death." See Jer. ii. 12, 13. 

7 Comp. Isa. xvi. i, 2. 

8 Literally, " dark." Cod. Sin. has, " of darkness." 

9 Isa. xlv. 2, 3. 

'° Isa. xxxiii. 16. Cod. Sin. has, " thou sh.ilt dwell." 
" Cod. Sin. entirely omits the question given above, and joins 
** the water is sure " to the former sentence. 
'^ Isa. xxxiii. 16-18. 

the ungodly, not so, but even as chaff", which the 
wind sweeps away from the face of the earth. 
Therefore the ungodly shall not stand in judg- 
ment, nor sinners in the counsel of the just ; for 
the Lord knoweth the way of the righteous, but 
the way of the ungodly shall perish." '^ Mark 
how He has described at once both the water and 
the cross. For these words imply. Blessed are 
they who, placing their trust in the cross, have 
gone down into the water ; for, says He, they 
shall receive their reward in due time : then He 
declares, I will recompense them. But now 
He saith,'-* " Their leaves shall not fade." This 
meaneth, that every word which proceedeth out 
of your mouth in faith and love shall tend to 
bring conversion and hope to many. Again, 
another prophet saith, " And the land of Jacob 
shall be extolled above every land." '5 This 
meaneth the vessel of His Spirit, which He shall 
glorify. Further, what says He ? " And there 
was a river flowing on the right, and from it 
arose beautiful trees ; and whosoever shall eat 
of them shall live for ever." '^ This meaneth, '^ 
that we indeed descend into the water full of 
sins and defilement, but come up, bearing fruit 
in our heart, having the fear [of God] and trust 
in Jesus in our spirit. " And whosoever shall 
eat of these shall live for ever." This meaneth : 
Whosoever, He declares, shall hear thee speak- 
ing, and believe, shall live for ever. 



In like manner He points to the cross of Christ 
in another prophet, who saith, '^ " And when shall 
these things be accomplished? And the Lord 
saith. When a tree shall be bent down, and again 
arise, and when blood shall flow out of wood." '^ 
Here again you have an intimation concerning 
the cross, and Him who should be crucified. 
Yet again He speaks of this ~° in Moses, when 
Israel was attacked by strangers. And that He 
might remind them, when assailed, that it was 
on account of their sins they were delivered to 
death, the Spirit speaks to the heart of Moses, 
that he should make a figure of the cross,-' and 
of Him about to suffer thereon ; for unless they 
put their trust in Him, they shall be overcome 
for ever. Moses therefore placed one weapon 
above another in the midst of the hill," and 

13 Ps. i. 3-6. 

>4 Cod. Sin has, " what meaneth? " 

'5 Zeph. iii. 19. 

'*> Ezek. xlvii. 12. 

'7 Omitted in Cod. Sin. 

'8 Cod. Sin. refers this to God, and not to the prophet. 

'9 From some unknown apocryphal book. Hilgenfeld compares 
Hab. ii. II. 

20 Cod. Sin. reads, " He speaks to Moses." 

2' Cod. .Sin. omits " and." 

" Cod. Sin. reads n-uy/nij?, which must here be translated " heap " 
or " mass." According to Hilgenfeld, however, nvytiri is here equiva- 
lent to TTvynaxia, " a fight." The meaning would then be, that 
" Moses piled weapon upon weapon in the midst of the battle,' in- 
stead of " hill " ("')■)")«), as above. 



standing upon it, so as to be higher than all the 
people, he stretched forth his hands,' and thus 
again Israel acquired the mastery. But when 
again he let down his hands, they were again 
destroyed. For what reason ? That they might 
know that they could not be saved unless they 
put their trust in Him.^ And in another prophet 
He declares, "All day long I have stretched 
forth My hands to an unbelieving people, and one 
that gainsays My righteous way." ^ And again 
Moses makes a type of Jesus, [signifying] that 
it was necessary for Him to suffer, [and also] 
that He would be the author of life** [to others], 
whom they believed to have destroyed on the 
cross 5 when Israel was falling. For since trans- 
gression was committed by Eve through means 
of the serpent, [the Lord] brought it to pass 
that every [kind of] serpents bit them, and they 
died,^ that He might convince them, that on ac- 
count of their transgression they were given over 
to the straits of death. Moreover Moses, when 
he commanded, " Ye shall not have any graven 
or molten [image] for your God," ^ did so that 
he might reveal a type of Jesus. Moses then 
makes a brazen serpent, and places it upon 
a beam,"^ and by proclamation assembles the 
people. When, therefore, they were come to- 
gether, they besought Moses that he would offer 
sacrifice ^ in their behalf, and pray for their re- 
covery. And Moses spake unto them, saying, 
" When any one of you is bitten, let him come 
to the serpent placed on the pole ; and let him 
hope and believe, that even though dead, it is 
able to give him life, and immediately he shall 
be restored." "^ And they did so. Thou hast 
in this also [an indication of] the glory of 
Jesus ; for in Him and to Him are all things." 
What, again, says Moses to Jesus (Joshua) the 
son of Nave, when he gave him '^ this name, as 
being a prophet, with this view only, that all the 
people might hear that the Father would reveal 
all things con-^erning His Son Jesus to the son '^ 
of Nave? This name then being given him 
when he sent him to spy out the land, he said, 
"Take a book into thy hands, and write what 
the Lord declares, that the Son of God will in 
the last days cut off from the roots all the house 
of Amalek." '■♦ Behold again : Jesus who was 

' Thus standing in the form of a cross. 

2 Or, as some read, " in the cross." 

3 Isa. Ixv. 2. 

* Cod. Sin. has, " and He shall make him alive." 
5 Literally, *' the sign." 

* Comp. Num. xxi. 6-9; John iii. 14-18. 

7 Deut. xxvii. 15. Cod. Sin. reads, " molten or graven." 
' Instead of iv Sokw, " on a beam," Cod. Sin. with other MSS. has 
•VJdfois, " manifestlv," which is adopted by Hilgenfeld. 
9 Cod. Sin. simply reads, " offer supplication." 
'" Num. xxi. 9. 
" Comp. Col. i. 16. 

" Cod. Sin. has the imperative, " Put on him; " but it is connected 
as above. 

'3 Cod. Sin. closes the sentence with "Jesus, and inserts, " Moses 
said therefore to Jesus." 
'■* Ex. xvii. 14. 

manifested, both by type and in the flesh,'5 is 
not the Son of man, but the Son of God. Since, 
therefore, they were to say that Christ was the 
son ^^ of David, fearing and understanding the 
error of the wicked, he saith, "The Lord said 
unto my Lord, Sit at My right hand, until I 
make Thine enemies Thy footstool." '^ And 
again, thus saith Isaiah, "The Lord said to 
Christ,'** my Lord, whose right hand I have 
holden,'9 that the nations should yield obedience 
before Him ; and I will break in pieces the 
strength of kings." ^° Behold how David calleth 
Him Lord and the Son of God. 


But let us see if this people ^' is the heir, or 
the former, and if the covenant belongs to us 
or to them. Hear ye now what the Scripture 
saith concerning the people. Isaac prayed for 
Rebecca his wife, because she was barren ; and 
she conceived. ^^ Furthermore also, Rebecca went 
forth to inquire of the Lord ; and the Lord said 
to her, " Two nations are in thy womb, and two 
peoples in thy belly ; and the one people shall 
surpass the other, and the elder shall serve the 
younger." ^^ You ought to understand who was 
Isaac, who Rebecca, and concerning what per- 
sons He declared that this people should be 
greater than that. And in another prophecy 
Jacob speaks more clearly to his son Joseph, 
saying, " Behold, the Lord hath not deprived 
me of thy presence ; bring thy sons to me, that 
I may bless them." ^-^ And he brought Manasseh 
and Ephraim, desiring that Manasseh ^5 should 
be blessed, because he was the elder. With 
this view Joseph led him to the right hand of 
his father Jacob. But Jacob saw in spirit the 
type of the people to arise afterwards. And 
what says [the Scripture] ? And Jacob changed 
the direction of his hands, and laid his right 
hand upon the head of Ephraim, the second 
and younger, and blessed him. And Joseph 
said to Jacob, " Transfer thy right hand to the 
head of Manasseh,^5 for he is my first-born son." '^^ 
And Jacob said, " I know it, my son, I know it ; 
but the elder shall serve the younger : yet he also 
shall be blessed," ^^ Ye see on whom he laid^'* 
[his hands], that this people should be first, and 

'5 Comp. I Tim. iii. i6. 

'6 That is, merely human: a reference is supposed to the Ebio- 

" Ps. ex. I ; Matt. xxii. 43-45. 

'* Cod. Sin. corrects " to Cyrus," as LXX. 

'9 Cod. Sin. has, " he has taken hold." 

20 Isa. xlv. I. 

2t That is, " Christians." 

22 Gren. XXV. 21. 

23 Gen. XXV. 23. 

2* Gen. xlviii. 11,9. 

25 Cod. Sin. reads each time " Ephraim," by a -nanifest miiiake, 
instead of Manasseh. 

26 Gen. xlviii. 18. 
2' Gen. xlviii. 19. 

»« Or, " of whom he willed." 



heir of the covenant. If then, still further, the 
same thing was intimated through Abraham, we 
reach the perfection of our knowledge. What, 
(hen, says He to Abraham ? " Because thou 
hast believed,' it is imputed to thee for right- 
eousness : behold, I have made thee the father 
of those nations who believe in the Lord while 
in [a state of] uncircumcision." ^ 


Yes [it is even so] ; but let us inquire if the 
Lord has really given that testament which He 
swore to the fathers that He would give ^ to the 
people. He did give it ; but they were not 
worthy to receive it, on account of their sins. 
For the prophet declares, " And Moses was fast- 
ing forty days and forty nights on Mount Sinai, 
that he might receive the testament of the Lord 
for the people." "^ And he received from the 
Lord 5 two tables, written in the spirit by the 
finger of the hand of the Lord. And Moses 
having received them, carried them down to give 
to the people. And the Lord said to Moses, 
" Moses, Moses, go down quickly ; for thy peo- 
ple hath sinned, whom thou didst bring out of 
the land of Eg>'pt."^ And Moses understood 
that they had again ^ made molten images ; and 
he threw the tables out of his hands, and the 
tables of the testament of the Lord were broken. 
Moses then received it, but they proved them- 
selves unworthy. Learn now how tve have re- 
ceived it. Moses, as a servant,** received it ; but 
the Lord himself, having suffered in our behalf, 
hath given it to us, that we should be the people 
of inheritance. But He was manifested, in order 
that they might be perfected in their iniquities, 
and that we, being constituted heirs through 
Him,"^ might receive the testament of thfe Lord 
Jesus, who was prepared for this end, that by 
His personal manifestation, redeeming our hearts 
(which were already wasted by death, and given 
over to the iniquity of error) from darkness. He 
might by His word enter into a covenant with 
us. For it is written how the Father, about to 
redeem '° us from darkness, commanded Him 
to prepare " a holy people for Himself. The 
prophet therefore declares, " I, the Lord Thy 
God, have called Thee in righteousness, and will 

' Cod. Sin. has, " when alone believing," and is followed by Hil- 
genfeld to this effect: " What, then, says He to Abraham, when, 
alone believing, he was placed in righteousness? Behold," etc. 

' Gen. XV. 6, xvii. 5; comp. Rom. iv. 3. 

3 Cod. Sin. absurdly repeats " to give." 

* Ex. xxiv. 18. 

5 Ex. xxxi. 18. 

' Ex. xxxii. 7; Deut. ix. n. 

' Cod. Sin. reads, "for themselves." 

' Comp. Heb. iii. 5. 

9 Cod. Sin. and other MSS. read, " through Him who inherited." 
*' Cod. Sin. refers this to Christ. 

" Cod. Sin. reads, "be prepared." Hilgenfeld follows Cod. Sin. 
so far, and reads, " For it is written how the Father commanded Him 
who was to redeem us from darkness (aiiTui — A vTpu<rd/x< fos) to pre- 
pare a holy people for Himself." 

hold Thy hand, and will strengthen Thee ; and 
I have given Thee for a covenant to the people, 
for a light to the nations, to open the eyes of the 
blind, and to bring forth from fetters them that 
are bound, and those that sit in darkness out of 
the prison-house." '^ Ye perceive, '^ then, whence 
we have been redeemed. And again, the prophet 
says, " Behold, I have appointed Thee as a light 
to the nations, that Thou mightest be for salva- 
tion even to the ends of the earth, saith the Lord 
God that redeemeth thee." '■♦ And again, the 
prophet saith, " The Spirit of the Lord is upon 
me ; because He hath anointed me to preach 
the Gospel to the humble : He hath sent me to 
heal the broken-hearted, to proclaim deliverance 
to the captives, and recovery of sight to the 
blind ; to announce the acceptable year of the 
Lord, and the day of recompense ; to comfort 
all that mourn." '5 


Further, '^ also, it is written concerning the 
Sabbath in the Decalogue which [the Lord] 
spoke, face to face, to Moses on Mount Sinai, 
" And sanctify ye the Sabbath of the Lord with 
clean hands and a pure heart." '^ And He says 
in another place, " If my sons keep the Sabbath, 
then will I cause my mercy to rest upon them."'** 
The Sabbath is mentioned at the beginning of 
the creation [thus] : " And God made in six 
days the works of His hands, and made an end 
on the seventh day, and rested on it, and sancti- 
fied it." '9 Attend, my children, to the meaning 
of this expression, "He finished in six days." 
This implieth that the Lord will finish all things 
in six thousand years, for a day is ^° with Him a 
thousand years. And He Himself testifieth, ^' 
saying, " Behold, to-day ^^ will be as a thousand 
years." ^^ Therefore, my children, in six days, 
that is, in six thousand years, all things will be 
finished. " And He rested on the seventh day." 
This meaneth : when His Son, coming [again], 
shall destroy the time of the wicked man, ^* and 
judge the ungodly, and change the sun, and the 
moon,^5 and the stars, then shall He truly rest 
on the seventh day. Moreover, He says, "Thou 
shalt sanctify it with pure hands and a pure 
heart." If, therefore, any one can now sanctify 

'2 Isa. xlii. 6, 7. 

" Cod. Sin. has, " we know." 

'< Isa. xlix. 6. The text of Cod. Sin., and of the other mss., is 
here in great confusion : we have followed that given by Hefele. 

'5 Isa. Ixi. I, 2. 

'* Cod. Sin. reads " because," but this is corrected to " moreover." 

'7 Ex. XX. 8; Deut. v. 12. 

'* Jer. xvii. 24, 25. 

'9 Gen. ii. 2. The Hebrew text is here followed, the Septuagint 
reading " sixth " instead of " seventh." 

2° Cod. Sin. reads " signifies." 

2' Cod. Sin. adds, " to me." 

22 Cod. Sin. reads, " The day of the Lord shall be as a thousand 

23 Ps. xc. 4; 2 Pet. iii. 8. 

'* Cod. Sin. seems properly to omit " of the wicked man." 
2* Cod. Sio. places stars before tnoon. 



the day which God hath sanctified, except he is 
pure in heart in all things,' we are deceived.^ 
Behold, therefore : ^ certainly then one properly 
resting sanctifies it, when we ourselves, having 
received the promise, wickedness no longer ex- 
isting, and all things having been made new by 
the Lord, shall be able to work righteousness/ 
Then we shall be able to sanctify it, having been 
first sanctified ourselves.s Further, He says to 
them, " Your new moons and your Sabbaths I 
cannot endure." ^ Ye perceive how He speaks : 
Your present Sabbaths are not acceptable to Me, 
but that is which I have made, [namely this,] 
when, giving rest to all things, I shall make a 
beginning of the eighth day, that is, a beginning 
of another world. Wherefore, also, we keep the 
eighth day with joyfulness, the day also on which 
Jesus rose again from the dead.^ And ** when 
He had manifested Himself, He ascended into 
the heavens. 


Moreover, I will also tell you concerning the 
temple, how the wretched [Jews], wandering in 
error, trusted not in God Himself, but in the 
temple, as being the house of God. For almost 
after the manner of the Gentiles they worshipped 
Him in the temple.^ But learn how the Lord 
speaks, when abolishing it : " Who hath meted 
out heaven with a span, and the earth with his 
palm ? Have not I ? " '° " Thus saith the Lord, 
Heaven is My throne, and the earth My foot- 
stool : what kind of house will ye build to Me, 
or what is the place of My rest?" " Ye per- 
ceive that their hope is vain. Moreover, He 
again says, " Behold, they who have cast down 
this temple, even they shall build it up again." '^ 
It has so happened. '3 For through their going to 
war, it was destroyed by their enemies ; and now 
they, as the servants of their enemies, shall re- 
build it. Again, it was revealed that the city 
and the temple and the people of Israel were to 
be given up. For the Scripture saith, " And it 
shall come to pass in the last days, that the Lord 

' Cod. Sin. reads " again," but is corrected as above. 

2 The meaning is, " If the Sabbaths of the Jews were the true 
Sabbath, we should have been deceived by God, who demands pure 
hands and a pure heart." — Hefele. 

3 Cod. Sin. has, " But if not." Hilgenfeld's text of this confused 
passage reads as follows: " Who then can sanctify the day which God 
has sanctified, except the man who is of a pure heart ? We are de- 
ceived (or mistaken) in all things. Behold, therefore," etc. 

* Cod. Sin. reads, " resting aright, we shall sanctify it, having 
been justified, and received the promise, iniquity no longer existing, 
but all things having been made new by the Lord." 

5 Cod. Sin. reads, " Shall we not then?" 

*> Isa. i. 13. 

' " Barnabas here bears testimony to the observance of the Lord's 
Day in early times." — Hefele. 

8 We here follow the punctuation of Dressel : Hefele places only a 
comma between the clauses, and inclines to think that the writer im- 
plies that the ascension of Christ took place on the first day of the 

9 That is, " they worshipped the temple instead of Him." 
'° Isa. xl. 12. 

'' Isa. Ixvi. I. 

*2 Comp. Isa. xlix. 17 (Sept.). 

'3 Cod. Sin. omits this. 

will deliver up the sheep of His pasture, and 
their sheep-fold and tower, to destruction." "^ 
And it so happened as the Lord had spoken. 
Let us inquire, then, if there still is a temple of 
God. There is — where He himself declared 
He would make and finish it. For it is written, 
" And it shall come to pass, when the week is 
completed, the temple of God shall be built in 
glory in the name of the Lord." '5 I find, there- 
fore, that a temple does exist. Learn, then, how 
it shall be built in the name of the Lord. Before 
we believed in God, the habitation of our heart 
was corrupt and weak, as being indeed like a 
temple made with hands. For it was full of 
idolatry, and was a habitation of demons, through 
our doing such things as were opposed to [the 
will of] God. But it shall be built, observe ye, 
in the name of the Lord, in order that the tem- 
ple of the Lord may be built in glory. How ? 
Learn [as follows]. Having received the for- 
giveness of sins, and placed our trust in the name 
of the Lord, we have become new creatures, 
formed again from the beginning. Wherefore 
in our habitation God truly dwells in us. How ? 
His word of faith ; His calling '^ of promise ; 
the wisdom of the statutes ; the commands of 
the doctrine ; He himself prophesying in us ; 
He himself dwelling in us ; opening to us who 
were enslaved by death the doors of the temple, 
that is, the mouth ; and by giving us repentance 
introduced us into the incorruptible temple. '? He 
then, who wishes to be saved, looks not to man,'** 
but to Him who dwelleth in him, and speaketh 
in him, amazed at never having either heard him 
utter such words with his mouth, nor himself 
having ever desired to hear them.'^ This is the 
spiritual temple built for the Lord. 



As far as was possible, and could be done 
with perspicuity, I cherish the hope that, accord- 
ing to my desire, I have omitted none ^° of those 
things at present [demanding consideration], 
which bear upon your salvation. For if I should 
write to you about things future,^' ye would not 
understand, because such knowledge is hid in 
parables. These things then are so. 

- ■» : 

•* Comp. Isa. v., Jer. xxv. ; but the words do not occur in Scrip- 

'5 Dan. ix. 24-27; Hagg. ii. 10. 

'6 Cod. Sin. reads, " the calling." 

■7 Cod. Sin. gives the clauses of this sentence separately, each 
occupying a line. 

■8 That is, the man who is engaged in preaching the Gospel. 

■9 Such is the punctuation adopted by Hefele, Dressel, and Hil- 

20 Cod. Sin. reads, " my soul hopes that it has not omitted any- 

2' Cod. Sin., " about things present or future." Hilgenfeld's text 
of this passage is as follows: " My mind and soul hopes that, accord- 
ing to my desire, I have omitted none of the things that pertain to 
salvation. For if I should write to you about things present or 
future," etc. Hefele gives the text as above, and understands the 
meaning to be, " points bearing on ihc present argument." 




But let US now pass to another sort of knowl- 
edge and doctrine. There are two ways of doc- 
trine and authority, the one of light, and the 
other of darkness. , But there is a great differ- 
ence between these two ways. For over one 
are stationed the light-bringing angels of God, 
but over the other the angels ' of Satan. And 
He indeed (i.e., God) is Lord for ever and 
ever, but he (i.e., Satan) is prince of the time ^ 
of iniquity. 



The way of light, then, is as follows. If any 
one desires to travel to the appointed place, he 
must be zealous in his works. The knowledge, 
therefore, which is given to us for the purpose of 
walking in this way, is the following. Thou 
shalt love Him that created thee : ^ thou shalt 
glorify Him that redeemed thee from death. 
Thou shalt be simple in heart, and rich in spirit. 
Thou shalt not join thyself to those who walk in 
the way of death. Thou shalt hate doing what 
is unpleasing to God : thou shalt hate all hypoc- 
risy. Thou shalt not forsake the commandments 
of the Lord. Thou shalt not exalt thyself, but 
shalt be of a lowly mind.'' Thou shalt not take 
glory to thyself. Thou shalt not take evil coun- 
sel against thy neighbour. Thou shalt not allow 
over-boldness to enter into thy soul.s Thou 
shalt not commit fornication : thou shalt not 
commit adultery : thou shalt not be a corrupter 
of youth. Thou shalt not let the word of God 
issue from thy dips with any kind of impurity.^ 
'I'hou shalt not accept persons when thou reprov- 
est any one for transgression. Thou shalt be 
meek : thou shalt be peaceable. Thou shalt 
tremble at the words which thou hearest.7 
Thou shalt not be mindful of evil against thy 
brother. Thou shalt not be of doubtful mind ^ 
as to whether a thing shall be or not. Thou 
shalt not take the name'^ of the Lord in vain. 
Thou shalt love thy neighbour more than thine 
own soul.'° Thou shalt not slay the child by 
procuring abortion ; nor, again, shalt thou destroy 
it after it is bom. Thou shalt not withdraw thy 
hand from thy son, or from thy daughter, but from 
their infancy thou shalt teach them the fear of 
the Lord." Thou shalt not covet what is thy 

' Comp. 2 Cor. xii. 7. 

* Cod. Sin. reads, " of the present time of iniquity." 

s Cod. Sin. inserts, " Thou shalt fear Him that formed thee." 

* Cod. Sin. adds, " in all things." 

5 Literally, " shalt not give insolence to thy soul." 

* " That IS, while proclaiming the Gospel, thou shalt not in any 
way be of corrupt morals." — Hefele. 

^ Isa. Ixvi. 2. All the preceding clauses are given in Cod. Sin. in 
distinct lines. 

* Comp. James i. 8. 

9 Cod. Sin. has " thy name," bat this is corrected as above. 
■° Cod. Sin. corrects to, " as thine own soul." 
«" Cod. Sin. has, " of G.xl." 

neighbour's, nor shalt thou be avaricious. Thou 
shalt not be joined in soul with the haughty, but 
thou shalt be reckoned with the righteous and 
lowly. Receive thou as good things the trials " 
which come upon thee.'^ Thou shalt not be of 
double mind or of double tongue,'^ for a double 
tongue is a snare of death. Thou shalt be sub- 
ject '5 to the Lord, and to [other] masters as the 
image of God, with modesty and fear. Thou-.^ 
shalt not issue orders with bitterness to thy maid- 
servant or thy man-servant, who trust in the same 
[God '^], lest thou shouldst not '7 reverence that 
God who is above both ; for He came to call 
men not according to their outward appearance, '** 
but according as the Spirit had prepared them."' 
Thou shalt communicate in all things with thy 
neighbour ; thou shalt not call ^^ things thine 
own ; for if ye are partakers in common of 
things which are incorruptible,^' how much more 
[should you be] of those things which are cor- 
ruptible ! ^^ Thou shalt not be hasty with thy 
tongue, for the mouth is a snare of death. As 
far as possible, thou shalt be pure in thy soul. 
Do not be ready to stretch forth thy hands to 
take, whilst thou contractest them to give. 
Thou shalt love, as the apple of thine eye, every 
one that speaketh to thee the word of the Lord. 
Thou shalt remember the day of judgment, 
night and day. Thou shalt seek out every day 
the faces of the saints,^^ either by word examin- 
ing them, and going to exhort them, and medi- 
tating how to save a soul by the word,^-* or by 
thy hands thou shalt labour for the redemption 
of thy sins. Thou shalt not hesitate to give, :^ 
nor murmur when thou givest. " Give to every' 
one that asketh thee," -5 and thou shalt know 
who is the good Recompenser of the reward. 
Thou shalt preserve what thou hast received [in 
charge], neither adding to it nor taking from it. 
To the last thou shalt hate the wicked ^" [one].^^ 
Thou shalt judge righteously. Thou shalt not 
make a schism, but thou shalt pacify those that 
contend by bringing them together. Thou shalt 

'2 " Difficulties," or " troubles." 

'3 Cod. Sin. adds, " knowing that without God nothing happens." 

'< Cod. Sin. has " talkative," and omits the following clause. 

'S Cod. Sin. has, " Thou shalt be subject (i/7roTay>)OT) — untouched 
by the corrector) to masters as a type of God." 

"> Inserted in Cod. Sin. 

■'' Cod. Sin. has, " they should not." 

'8 Comp. Eph. vi. p. 

■9 Comp. Rom. viii. 29, 30. 

2° Cod. Sin. has, " and not call." 

2' Cod. Sin. has, " in that which is incorruptible." 

" Cod. Sin. has, " in things that are subject to death," but is «4)r» 
rected as above. 

2i Or, " the persons of the saints." Cod. Sin. omits this clause, 
but it is added by a corrector. 

2* The text is here confused in all the editions; we have followed 
that of Dressel. Cod. Sin. is defective. Hllgenfeld's text reads, 
" Thou shalt seek out every d.ay the faces of the saints, either labour- 
ing by word and going to exhort them, and meditating to save a soul 
by the word, or by thy hands thou shalt labour for the redemption of 
thy sins" — almost identical with that given above. 

*5 Cod. Sin. omits this quotation from Matt. v. 42 or Luke vi. 30 
but it is added by a corrector. 

** Cod. Sin. has, " hate evil." 

w Cod. Sin. inscrU " and." 



confess thy sins. Thou shalt not go to prayer 
with an evil conscience. This is the way of 


But the way of darkness ^ is crooked, and full 
of cursing ; for it is the way of eternal ^ death 
with punishment, in which way are the things 
that destroy the soul, viz., idolatry, over-con- 
fidence, the arrogance of power, hypocrisy, 
double-heartedness, adultery, murder, rapine, 
haughtiness, transgression,"* deceit, malice, self- 
sufficiency, poisoning, magic, avarice, 5 want of 
the fear of God. [In this way, too,] are those 
who persecute the good, those who hate truth, 
those who love falsehood, those who know not 
the reward of righteousness, those who cleave 
not to that which is good, those who attend not 
with just judgment to the widow and orphan, 
those who watch not to the fear of God, [but 
incUne] to wickedness, from whom meekness 
and patience are far off ; persons who love vanity, 
follow after a reward, pity not the needy, labour 
not in aid of him who is overcome with toil ; 
who are prone to evil-speaking, who know not 
Him that made them, who are murderers of 
children, destroyers of the workmanship of God ; 
who turn away him that is in want, who oppress 
the afflicted, who are advocates of the rich, who 
are unjust judges of the poor, and who are in 
every respect transgressors. 



It is well, therefore,^ that he who has learned 
the judgments of the Lord, as many as have 
been written, should walk in them. For he who 
keepeth these shall be glorified in the kingdom 

' Cod. Sin. omits this clause: it Jxinserted by a corrector. 

2 Literally, " of the Black One. 

3 Cod. Sin. joins " eternal " with way, instead of death. 
* Cod. Sin. reads " transgressions." 

5 Cod. Sin. omits " magic, avarice." 

6 Cod. Sin. omits " therefore." 

of God ; but he who chooseth other things "^ 
shall be destroyed with his works. On this 
account there will be a resurrection,* on this 
account a retribution. I beseech you who are 
superiors, if you will receive any counsel of my 
good-will, have among yourselves those to whom 
you may show kindness : do not forsake them. 
For the day is at hand on which all things shall 
perish with the evil [one]. The Lord is near, 
and His reward. Again, and yet again, I be- 
seech you : be good lawgivers '' to one another ; 
continue faithful counsellors of one another ; 
take away from among you all hypocrisy. And 
may God, who ruleth over all the world, give to 
you wisdom, intelligence, understanding, knowl- 
edge of His judgments,'^ with patience. And 
be ye " taught of God, inquiring diligently what 
the Lord asks from you ; and do it that ye may 
be safe in the day of judgment.'^ And if you 
have any remembrance of what is good, be 
mindful of me, meditating on these things, in 
order that both my desire and watchfulness may 
result in some good. I beseech you, entreating 
this as a favour. While yet you are in this fair 
vessel, '3 do not fail in any one of those things,'* 
but unceasingly seek after them, and fulfil every 
commandment; for these things are worthy. '5 
Wherefore I have been the more earnest to 
write to you, as my ability served,'^ that I might 
cheer you. Farewell, ye children of love and 
peace. The Lord of glory and of all grace be 
with your spirit. Amen.'^ 

7 The things condemned in the previous chapter. 

8 Cod. Sin. has " resurrections," but is corrected as above. 

9 Cod. Sin. has, " lawgivers of good things." 
•° Cod. Sin. omits the preposition. 

" Cod. Sin. omits this. 

'^ Cod. Sin. reads, " that ye may be found in the day of judgment," 
which Hilgenfeld adopts. 

" Literally, " While yet the good vessel is with you," i.e., as long 
as you are in the body. 

'■* Cod. Sin. reads, " fail not in any one of yourselves," which is 
adopted by Hilgenfeld. 

'S Corrected in Cod. Sin. to, " it is worthy." 

16 Cod. Sin. omits this clause, but it is inserted by the corrector. 

'7 Cod. Sin. omits " Amen," and adds at the close, " Epistle of 




[a.d. 70-155.] It seems unjust to the holy man of whose comparatively large contributions to 
early Christian literature such mere relics have been preserved, to set them forth in these ver- 
sions, unaccompanied by the copious annotations of Dr. Routh. If even such crumbs from his 
table are not by any means without a practical value, with reference to the Canon and other 
matters, we may well credit the testimony (though disputed) of Eusebius, that he was a learned 
man, and well versed in the Holy Scripture. ' All who name poor Papias are sure to do so with 
the apologetic qualification of that historian, that he was of slender capacity. Nobody who attrib- 
utes to him the millenarian fancies, of which he was but a narrator, as if these were the characteris- 
tics rather than the blemishes of his works, can fail to accept this estimate of our author. But more 
may be said when we come to the great name of Irenaeus, who seems to make himself responsible 
for them. ^ 

Papias has the credit of association with Polycarp, in the friendship of St. John himself, and of 
" others who had seen the Lord." He is said to have been bishop of Hierapolis, in Phrygia, and 
to have died about the same time that Polycarp suffered ; but even this is questioned. So little 
do we know of one whose lost books, could they be recovered, might reverse the received judgment, 
and establish his claim to the disputed tribute which makes him, like Apollos, " an eloquent man, 
and mighty in the Scriptures." 

The following is the original Introductory Notice : — 

The principal information in regard to Papias is given in the extracts made among the frag- 
ments from the works of Irenaeus and Eusebius. He was bishop of the Church in Hierapolis, a 
city of Phrygia, in the first half of the second century. Later writers affirm that he suffered mar- 
tyrdom about A.D. 1 63 ; some saying that Rome, others that Pergamus, was the scene of his 

He was a hearer of the Apostle John, and was on terms of intimate intercourse with many 
who had known the Lord and His apostles. From these he gathered the floating traditions in 
regard to the sayings of our Lord, and wove them into a production divided into five books. This 
work does not seem to have been confined to an exposition of the sayings of Christ, but to have 
contained much historical information. 

' See Lardner, ii. p. 119. 

* Against Heresies, book v. chap, xxxiii. See the prudent note of Canon Robertson (^History of the Christ. Church, vol. i. p. 116). 


Eusebius ' speaks of Papias as a man most learned in all things, and well acquainted with the 
Scriptures. In another passage ^ he describes him as of small capacity. The fragments of Papias 
are translated from the text given in Routh's Reliquice Sacrce, vol. i. ^ 

' Hist. EccL, iii. 39. 

* Ibid. 

i [Where th« fragments with learned annotations and elucidations fill forty-four pages.] 





[The writings of Papias in common circulation 
are five in number, and these are called an Ex- 
position of the Oracles of the Lord. Irenseus 
makes mention of these as the only works writ- 
ten by him, in the following words : " Now 
testimony is borne to these things in writing by 
Papias, an ancient man, who was a hearer of 
John, and a friend of Polycarp, in the fourth 
of his books ; for five books were composed by 
him." Thus wrote Irenaeus. Moreover, Papias 
himself, in the introduction to his books, makes 
it manifest that he was not himself a hearer and 
eye-witness of the holy apostles ; but he tells us 
that he received the truths of our religion ^ from 
those who were aquainted with them [the apos- 
tles] in the following words :] 

But I shall not be unwilling to put down, 
along with my interpretations, ^ whatsoever in- 
structions I received with care at any time from 
the elders, and stored up with care in my mem- 
ory, assuring you at the same time of their truth. 
For I did not, like the multitude, take pleasure 
in those who spoke much, but in those who 
taught the truth ; nor in those who related 
strange commalndments,'* but in those who re- 
hearsed the commandments given by the Lord 
to faith, 5 and proceeding from truth itself. If, 
then, any one who had attended on the elders 
came, I asked minutely after their sayings, — 
what Andrew or Peter said, or what was said by 
Philip, or by Thomas, or by James, or by John, 
or by Matthew, or by any other of the Lord's 
disciples : which things ^ Aristion and the pres- 

' This fragment is found in Eusebius, Hist. EccL, iii. 39. 

2 Literally, " the things of faith." 

3 Papias states that he will give an exact account of what the 
elders said ; and that, in addition to this, he will accompany this ac- 
count with an explanation of the meaning and import of the statements. 

* Literally, " commandments belonging to others," and therefore 
strange and novel to the followers of Christ. 

5 Given to faith has been variously understood. Either not 
stated in direct language, but like parables given in figures, so that 
only the faithful could understand; or entrusted to faith, that is, to 
those who were possessed of faith, the faithful. 

* Which things: this is usually translated, "what Aristion and 
John say; " and the translation is admissible. But the words more 
naturally mean, that John and Aristion, even at the time of his 
writing, were telling him some of the sayings of the Lord. 

byter John, the disciples of the Lord, say. For 
I imagined that what was to be got from books 
was not so profitable to me as what came from 
the living and abiding voice, 


[The early Christians] called those who prac- 
tised a godly guilelessness^ children, [as is stated 
by Papias in the first book of the Lord's Exposi- 
tions, and by Clemens Alexandrinus in his 


Judas walked about in this world a sad '° ex- 
ample of impiety ; for his body having swollen 
to such an extent that he could not pass where 
a chariot could pass easily, he was crushed by 
the chariot, so that his bowels gushed out." 


[As the elders who saw John the disciple of 
the Lord remembered that they had heard from 
him how the Lord taught in regard to those 
times, and said] : " The days will come in which 
vines shall grow, having each ten thousand 
branches, and in each branch ten thousand twigs, 
and in each true twig ten thousand shoots, and 
in every one of the shoots ten thousand clusters, 
and on every one of the clusters ten thousand 
grapes, and every grape when pressed will give 
five-and-twenty metretes of wine. And when 
any one of the saints shall lay hold of a cluster, 
another shall cry out, ' I am a better cluster, 
take me ; bless the Lord through me.' In like 
manner, [He said] that a grain of wheat would 

7 This fragment is found in the Scholia of Maximus on the works 
of Dionysius the Areopagite. 

8 Literally, " a guilelessness according to God." 

9 This fragment is found in CEcumenius. 
>° Literally, " great." 

" Literally, " were emptied out." Theophylact, after quoting 
this passage, adds other particulars, as if they were derived from 
Papias. [But see Routh, i. pp. 26, 27.] He says that Judas 's eyes 
were so swollen that they could not see the light; that they were so 
sunk that they could not be seen, even by the optical instruments of 
physicians; and that the rest of his body was covered with run- 
nings and worms. He further states, that he died in a solitary spot, 
which was left desolate until his time; and no one could pass the 
place without stopping up his nose with his hands. 

'2 From Irenseus, Htrr., v. 32. [Hearsay at second-hand, and 
handed about among many, amounts to nothing as evidence. Note 
the reports of sermons, also, as they appear in our daily Journals. 
Whose reputation can survive if such be credited ? ] 

»53 ^ 



produce ten thousand ears, and that every ear 
would have ten thousand grains, and every grain 
would yield ten pounds of clear, pure, fine flour; 
and that apples, and seeds, and grass would 
produce in similar proportions ; and that all ani- 
mals, feeding then only on the productions of 
the earth, would become peaceable and harmo- 
nious, and be in perfect subjection to man." ' 
[Testimony is borne to these things in writing 
by Papias, an ancient man, who was a hearer 
of John and a friend of Polycarp, in the fourth of 
his books ; for five books were composed by 
him. And he added, saying, "Now these 
things are credible to believers. And Judas 
the traitor," says he, "not believing, and ask- 
ing, ' How shall such growths be accomplished 
by the Lord ? ' the Lord said, ' They shall see 
who shall come to them.' These, then, are the 
times mentioned by the prophet Isaiah : ' And 
the wolf shall lie down with the lamb,' etc. 
(Isa. xi. 6ff.)."] 


As the presbyters say, then^ those who are 
deemed worthy of an abode in heaven shall go 
there, others shall enjoy the delights of Paradise, 
and others shall possess the splendour of the 
city ; '• for everywhere the Saviour will be seen, 
according as they shall be worthy who see Him. 
But that there is this distinction between the 
habitation of those who produce an hundred- 
fold, and that of those who produce sixty-fold, 
and that of those who produce thirty-fold ; for the 
first will be taken up into the heavens, the sec- 
ond class will dwell in Paradise, and the last will 
inhabit the city ; and that on this account the 
Lord said, " In my Father's house are many 
mansions : " 5 for all things belong to God, who 
supplies all with a suitable dwelling-place, even 
as His word says, that a share is given to all by 
the Father,'^ according as each one is or shall be 
worthy. And this is the couch ? in which they 
shall recline who feast, being invited to the wed- 
ding. The presbyters, the disciples of the 
ai)Ostles, say that this is the gradation and ar- 
rangement of those who are saved, and that they 
advance through steps of this nature ; and that, 
moreover, they ascend through the Spirit to the 
Son, and through the Son to the Father ; and 
that in due time the Son will yield up His work 
to the Father, even as it is said by the apostle, 
" For He must reign till He hath put all enemies 
under His feet. The last enemy that shall be 

" [See Grabe, a^ud Routh, i. 29.] 

* This fragment is found in Irenseus, Hctr., v. 36; but it is a mere 
guess that the saying of the presbyters is taken from the work of 

3 In the future state. 

* The new Jerusalem on earth. 

5 John xiv. 2. 

6 Commentators suppose that the refeKnce here is to Matt. xx. 23. 
^ Matt. xxii. lo. 

destroyed is death." * For in the times of the 
kingdom the just man who is on the earth shall 
forget to die. " But when He saith all things 
are put under Him, it is manifest that He is 
excepted which did put all things under Him. 
And when all things shall be subdued unto 
Him, then shall the Son also Himself be subject 
unto Him that put all things under Him, that 
God may be all in all." 9 


[Papias, who is now mentioned by us, affirms 
that he received the sayings of the apostles from 
those who accompanied them, and he moreover 
asserts that he heard in person Aristion and the 
presbyter John." Accordingly he mentions them 
frequently by name, and in his writings gives 
their traditions. Our notice of these circum- 
stances may not be without its use. It may also 
be worth while to add to the statements of 
Papias already given, other passages of his in 
which he relates some miraculous deeds, stating 
that he acquired the knowledge of them from 
tradition. The residence of the Apostle Philip 
with his daughters in Hierapolis has been men- 
tioned above. We must now point out how 
Papias, who lived at the same time, relates that 
he had received a wonderful narrative from the 
daughters of Philip. For he relates that a dead 
man was raised to life in his day.'^ He also men- 
tions another miracle relating to Justus, surnamed 
Barsabas, how he swallowed a deadly poison, and 
received no harm, on account of the grace of 
the Lord. The same person, moreover, has set 
down other things as coming to him from unwrit- 
ten tradition, amongst these some strange para- 
bles and instructions of the Saviour, and some 
other things of a more fabulous nature.'^ Amongst 
these he says that there will be a millennium 
after the resurrection from the dead, when the 
personal reign of Christ will be established on 
this earth. He moreover hands down, in his own 
writing, other narratives given by the previously 
mentioned Aristion of the Lord's sayings, and 
the traditions of the presbyter John. For infor- 
mation on these points, we can merely refer our 
readers to the books themselves ; but now, to the 
extracts already made, we shall add, as being a 
matter of primary importance, a tradition re- 
garding Mark who wrote the Gospel, which he 
[Papias] has given in the following words] : And 
the presbyter said this. Mark having become the 

* I Cor. XV. 25, 26. 
9 I Cor. XV. 27, 28. 

'° From Eusebius, Hist. Ecc!., iii. 39. 

" [A certain presbyter, of whom see Apost. Constitutions, vii. 46, 
where he is said to have been ordained by St. John, the Evangelist.] 

'^ " In his day " may mean " in the days of Papias," or " in the 
days of Philip." As the narrative came from the daughters of 
Philip, it is more likely that Philip's days are meant. 

'5 [Again, note the reduplicated hearsay. Not even Irenaeus, 
much less Eusebius, should be accepted, otherwise than as retailing 
vague reports.] 



interpreter of Peter, wrote down accurately what- 
soever he remembered. It was not, however, in 
exact order that he related the sayings or deeds 
of Christ. For he neither heard the Lord nor 
accompanied Him. But afterwards, as I said, 
he accompanied Peter, who accommodated his 
instructions to the necessities [of his hearers], 
but with no intention of giving a regular narrative 
of the Lord's sayings. Wherefore Mark made no 
mistake in thus writing some things as he remem- 
bered them. For of one thing he took especial 
care, not to omit anything he had heard, and 
not to put anything fictitious into the statements. 
[This is what is related by Papias regarding 
Mark ; but with regard to Matthew he has made 
the following statements ] : Matthew put together 
the oracles [of the Lord] in the Hebrew lan- 
guage, and each one interpreted them as best 
he could. [The same person uses proofs from 
the First Epistle of John, and from the Epistle 
of Peter in like manner. And he also gives an- 
other story of a woman ' who was accused of 
many sins before the Lord, which is to be found 
in the Gospel according to the Hebrews.] 


Papias thus speaks, word for word : To some 
of them [angels] He gave dominion over the 
arrangement of the world, and He commissioned 
them to exercise their dominion well. A7id he 
says, imtnediately after this : but it happened 
that their arrangement came to nothing.^ 


With regard to the inspiration of the book 

' Rufinus supposes this stoiy to be the same as that now found in 
the textus receptus of John's Gospel, viii. i-ii, — the woman taken 
in adultery. 

2 This extract is made from Andreas Caesariensis, [Bishop of 
Caesarea in Cappadocia, circiter, a.d 500]- 

3 That is, that government of the world's affairs was a failure. 
An ancient writer takes raf is to mean the arraying of the evil an- 
gels in battle against God. 

* This also is taken from Andreas Caesariensis. [See Lardner, 
Yol. V. 77.] 

(Revelation), we deem it superfluous to add 
another word ; for the blessed Gregory Theolo- 
gus and Cyril, and even men of still older date, 
Papias, Irenaeus, Methodius, and Hippolytus, 
bore entirely satisfactory testimony to it. 


Taking occasion from Papias of Hierapolis, 
the illustrious, a disciple of the apostle who 
leaned on the bosom of Christ, and Clemens, 
and Pantsenus the priest of [the Church] of the 
Alexandrians, and the wise Ammonius, the an- 
cient and first expositors, who agreed with each 
other, who understood the work of the six days 
as referring to Christ and the whole Church. 


(i.) Mary the mother of the Lord; (2.) 
Mary the wife of Cleophas or Alphaeus, who was 
the mother of James the bishop and apostle, 
and of Simon and Thaddeus, and of one Joseph ; 
(3.) Mary Salome, wife of Zebedee, mother of 
John the evangelist and James ; (4.) Mary Mag- 
dalene. These four are found in the Gospel. 
James and Judas and Joseph were sons of an 
aunt (2) of the Lord's. James also and John 
were sons of another aunt (3) of the Lord's. 
Mary (2), mother of James the Less and Joseph, 
wife of Alphgeus was the sister of Mary the mother 
of the Lord, whom John names of Cleophas, 
either from her father or from the family of the 
clan, or for some other reason. Mary Salome 
(3) is called Salome either from her husband 
or her village. Some affirm that she is the same 
as Mary of Cleophas, because she had two 

5 This fragment, or rather reference, is taken from Anastasius 
Sinaita. Routh gives, as another fragment, the repetition of the 
same statement by Anastasius. 

^ This fragment was found by Grabe in a MS. of the Bodleian 
Library, with the inscription on the margin, " Papia." Westcott 
states that it forms part of a dictionary written by " a mediaeval 
Papias. [He seems to have added the words, " Maria is called 
Illuminatrix , or Star of the Sea," etc, a middle-age device.] The 
dictionary exists in MS. both at Oxford and Cambridge." 





[a.d. 110-165.] Justin was a Gentile, but bom in Samaria, near Jacob's well. He must have 
been well educated : he had travelled extensively, and he seems to have been a person enjoying at 
least a competence. After trying all other systems, his elevated tastes and refined perceptions made 
him a disciple of Socrates and Plato. So he climbed towards Christ. As he himself narrates the 
story of his conversion, it need not be anticipated here. What Plato was feeling after, he found in 
Jesus of Nazareth. The conversion of such a man marks a new era in the gospel history. The sub- 
apostolic age begins with the first Christian author, — the founder of theological literature. It 
introduced to mankind, as the mother of true philosophy, the despised teaching of those Galileans 
to whom their Master had said, " Ye are the light of the world." 

And this is the epoch which forced this great truth upon the attention of contemplative minds. 
It was more than a hundred years since the angels had sung " Good-will to men ; " and that song 
had now been heard for successive generations, breaking forth from the lips of sufferers on the 
cross, among lions, and amid blazing faggots. Here was a nobler Stoicism that needed interpreta- 
tion. Not only choice spirits, despising the herd and boasting of a loftier intellectual sphere, 
were its professors ; but thousands of men, women, and children, withdrawing themselves not 
at all from the ordinary and humble lot of the people, were inspired by it to live and die heroi- 
cally and sublimely, — exhibiting a superiority to revenge and hate entirely unaccountable, praying 
for their enemies, and seeking to glorify their God by love to their fellow-men. 

And in spite of Gallios and Neros alike, the gospel was dispelling the gross darkness. Of 
this, Pliny's letter to Trajan is decisive evidence. Even in Seneca we detect reflections of the day- 
break. Plutarch writes as never a Gentile could have written until now. Plato is practically sur- 
passed by him in his thoughts upon the " delays ' of the Divine Justice." Hadrian's address to 
his soul, in his dying moments, is a tribute to the new ideas which had been sown in the popular 
mind. And now the Antonines, impelled by something in the age, came forward to reign as 
" philosophers." At this moment, Justin Martyr confronts them like a Daniel. The " little stone " 
smites the imperial image in the face, not yet " in the toes." He tells the professional philoso- 
phers on a throne how false and hollow is all wisdom that is not meant for all humanity, and that 
is not capable of leavening the masses. He exposes the impotency of even Socratic philosophy : 
he shows, in contrast, the force that works in the words of Jesus ; he points out their regenerating 
power. It is the mission of Justin to be a star in the West, leading its Wise Men to the cradle 
of Bethlehem. 

' See Amyot's translation, and a more modem one by De Maistre {^CEuvres , vol. ii. Paris, 1833). An edition of Tke Delays (the 
original, with notes by Professor Hackett) has appeared in America (Andover, circ, 1842), and is praised by Tayler Lewis. 



The writings of Justin are deficient in charms of style ; and, for us, there is something the reverse 
of attractive in the forms of thought which he had learned from the philosophers.' If Plato had 
left us nothing but the Timsus, a Renan would doubdess have reproached him as of feeble in- 
tellectual power. So a dancing-master might criticise the movements of an athlete, or the writhings 
of St. Sebastian shot with arrows. The practical wisdom of Justin using the rhetoric of his times, 
and discomfiting false philosophy with its own weapons, is not appreciated by the fastidious 
Parisian. But the manly and heroic pleadings of the man, for a despised people with whom he 
had boldly identified himself; the intrepidity with which he defends them before despots, whose mere 
caprice might punish him with death ; above all, the undaunted spirit with which he exposes the 
shame and absurdity of their inveterate superstition and reproaches the memory of Hadrian whom 
Antoninus had deified, as he had deified Antinous of loathsome history, — these are characteristics 
which every instinct of the unvitiated soul delights to honour. Justin cannot be refuted by a 

He wore his philosopher's gown after his conversion, as a token that he had attained the only 
true philosophy. And seeing, that, after the conflicts and tests of ages, it is the only philosophy 
that lasts and lives and triumphs, its discoverer deserves the homage of mankind. Of the philo- 
sophic gown we shall hear again when we come to TertuUian.^ 

The residue of Justin's history may be found in " The Martyrdom " and other pages soon to 
follow, as well as in the following Introductory Note of the able translators, Messrs. Dods and 
Reith : — 

Justin Martyr was born in Flavia Neapolis, a city of Samaria, the modem Nablous. The 
date of his birth is uncertain, but may be fixed about a.d. 114. His father and grandfather were 
probably of Roman origin. Before his conversion to Christianity he studied in the schools of 
the philosophers, searching after some knowledge which should satisfy the cravings of his soul. 
At last he became acquainted with Christianity, being at once impressed with the extraordinary 
fearlessness which the Christians displayed in the presence of death, and with the grandeur, 
stability, and truth of the teachings of the Old Testament. From this time he acted as an 
evangelist, taking every opportunity to proclaim the gospel as the only safe and certain philo- 
sophy, the only way to salvation. It is probable that he travelled much. We know that he was 
some time in Ephesus, and he must have lived for a considerable period in Rome. Probably he 
settled in Rome as a Christian teacher. While he was there, the philosophers, especially the 
Cynics, plotted against him, and he sealed his testimony to the truth by martyrdom. 

The principal facts of Justin's life are gathered from his own writings. There is little clue to 
dates. It is agreed on all hands that he lived in the reign of Antoninus Pius, and the testimony 
of Eusebius and most credible historians renders it nearly certain that he suffered martyrdom in 
the reign of Marcus Aurelius. The Chronicon Paschale gives as the date 165 a.d. 

The writings of Justin Martyr are among the most important that have come down to us from 
the second century. He was not the first that wrote an Apology in behalf of the Christians, but 
his Apologies are the earliest extant. They are characterized by intense Christian fervour, and 
they give us an insight into the relations existing between heathens and Christians in those days. 
His other principal writing, the Dialogue with Trypho, is the first elaborate exposition of the 
reasons for regarding Christ as the Messiah of the Old Testament, and the first systematic attempt 
to exhibit the false position of the Jews in regard to Christianity. 

Many of Justin's writings have perished. Those works which have come to us bearing his 
name have been divided into three classes. 

" He quotes Plato's reference, e.g., to the X. ; but the Orientals delighted in such conceits. Compare the Hebrew critics on the H (»" 
G«n. i. 4), on which see Nordheimer, Gram., vol. i. p. 7, New York, 1838. 

» It survives in the pulpits of Christendom — Greek, Latin, Anglican, Lutheran, etc. — to this day, in slightly different forms. 


The first class embraces those which are unquestionably genuine, viz. the two Apologies, and 
the Dialogue with Trypho. Some critics have urged objections against Justin's authorship of the 
Dialogue ; but the objections are regarded now as possessing no weight. 

The second class consists of those works which are regarded by some critics as Justin's, and 
by others as not his. They are : i. An Address to the Greeks ; 2. A Hortatory Address tD the 
Greeks; 3. On the Sole Government of God; 4. An Epistle to Diognetus ; 5. Fragments from 
a work on the Resurrection; 6. And other Fragments. Whatever difficulty there may be in 
settling the authorship of these treatises, there is but one opinion as to their earliness. The latest 
of them, in all probability, was not written later than the third century. 

The third class consists of those that are unquestionably not the works of Justin. These are : 
I. An Exposition of the True Faith; 2. Replies to the Orthodox; 3. Christian Questions to 
Gentiles; 4. Gentile Questions to Christians; 5. Epistle to Zenas and Serenus ; and 6. A Refu- 
tation of certain Doctrines of Aristotle. There is no clue to the date of the two last. There can 
be no doubt that the others were written after the Council of Nicaea, though, immediately after 
the Reformation, Calvin and others appealed to the first as a genuine writing of Justin's. 

There is a curious question connected with the Apologies of Justin which have come down to 
us. Eusebius mentions two Apologies, — one written in the reign of Antoninus Pius, the other 
in the reign of Marcus Aurelius. Critics have disputed much whether we have these two Apolo- 
gies in those now extant. Some have maintained, that what is now called the Second Apology 
was the preface of the first, and that the second is lost. Others have tried to show, that the so- 
called Second Apology is the continuation of the first, and that the second is lost. Others have 
supposed that the two Apologies which we have are Justin's two Apologies, but that Eusebius was 
wrong in affirming that the second was addressed to Marcus Aurelius ; and others maintain, that 
we have in our two Apologies the two Apologies mentioned by Eusebius, and that our first is his 
first, and our second his second. 



To the Emperor Titus ^lius Adrianus Anto- 
ninus Pius Augustus Caesar, and to his son 
Verissimus the Philosopher, and to Lucius the 
Philosopher, the natural son of Caesar, and the 
adopted son of Pius, a lover of learning, and to 
the sacred Senate, with the whole People of the 
Romans, I, Justin, the son of Priscus and grand- 
son of Bacchius, natives of Flavia Neapolis in 
Palestine, present this address and petition in be- 
half of those of all nations who are unjustly hated 
and wantonly abused, myself being one of them. 


Reason directs those who are truly pious and 
philosophical to honour and love only what is 
true, declining to follow traditional opinions,' if 
these be worthless. For not only does sound 
reason direct us to refuse the guidance of those 
who did or taught anything wrong, but it is in- 
cumbent on the lover of truth, by all means, and 
if death be threatened, even before his own life, 
to choose to do and say what is right. Do you, 
then, since ye are called pious and philosophers, 
guardians of justice and lovers of learning, give 
good heed, and hearken to my address ; and if 
ye are indeed such, it will be manifested. For 
we have come, not to flatter you by this writing, 
nor please you by our address, but to beg that 
you pass judgment, after an accurate and search- 
ing investigation, not flattered by prejudice or 
by a desire of pleasing superstitious men, nor 
induced by irrational impulse or evil rumours 
which have long been prevalent, to give a decis- 
ion which will prove to be against yourselves. 
For as for us, we reckon that no evil can be 
done us, unless we be convicted as evil-doers, 
or be proved to be wicked men; and you, 
you can kill, but not hurt us. 


But lest any one think that this is an unrea- 
sonable and reckless utterance, we demand that 
the charges against the Christians be investi- 

' Literally, " the opinions of the ancients." 

gated, and that, if these be substantiated, they 
be punished as they deserve ; [or rather, indeed, 
we ourselves will punish them.] ^ But if no one 
can convict us of anything, true reason forbids 
you, for the sake of a wicked rumour, to wrong 
blameless men, and indeed rather yourselves, 
who think fit to direct affairs, not by judgment, 
but by passion. And every sober-minded per- 
son will declare this to be the only fair and 
equitable adjustment, namely, that the subjects 
render an unexceptional account of their own 
life and doctrine ; and that, on the other hand, 
the rulers should give their decision in obe- 
dience, not to violence and tyranny, but to piety 
and philosophy. For thus would both rulers 
and ruled reap benefit. For even one of the 
ancients somewhere said, "Unless both rulers 
and ruled philosophize, it is impossible to make 
states blessed." 3 It is our task, therefore, to 
afford to all an opportunity of inspecting our life 
and teachings, lest, on account of those who are 
accustomed to be ignorant of our affairs, we 
should incur the penalty due to them for mental 
blindness ; ^ and it is your business, when you 
hear us, to be found, as reason demands, good 
judges. For if, when ye have learned the truth, 
you do not what is just, you will be before God 
without excuse. 



By the mere application of a name, nothing is 
decided, either good or evil, apart from the ac- 
tions implied in the name ; and indeed, so far 
at least as one may judge from the name we are 
accused of, we are most excellent people, s But 

2 Thirlby regarded the clause in brackets as an interpolation. 
There is considerable variety of opinion as to the exact meaning of 
the words amongst those who regard them as genuine. 

3 Plat. J?ep., V. i8. 

* That is to say, if the Christians refused or neglected to make 
their real opinions and practices known, they would share the guilt of 
those whom they thus kept in darkness. 

5 Justin avails himself here of the similarity in sound of the words 
Xpto-To? (Christ) and xPICto? (good, worthy, e.vcellent). The play 
upon these words is kept up throughout this paragraph, and cannot 
be always represented to the English reader. [But Justin was merely 
quoting and using, ad hominein, the popular blunder of which Sueto- 
nius {Life of Claudius, cap. 25) gives us an example, " impulsore 
Ckresto." It will be observed again in others of these Fathers J 



1 64 


as we do not think it just to beg to be acquitted on 
account of the name, if we be convicted as evil- 
doers, so, on the other hand, if we be found to 
have committed no offence, either in the matter 
of thus naming ourselves, or of our conduct as 
citizens, it is your part very earnestly to guard 
against incurring just punishment, by unjustly 
punishing those who are not convicted. For 
from a name neither praise nor punishment 
could reasonably spring, unless something excel- 
lent or base in action be proved. And those 
among yourselves who are accused you do not 
punish before they are convicted ; but in our 
case you receive the name as proof against us, 
and this although, so far as the name goes, you 
ought rather to punish our accusers. For we are 
accused of being Christians, and to hate what 
is excellent (Chrestian) is unjust. Again, if any 
of the accused deny the name, and say that he 
is not a Christian, you acquit him, as having no 
evidence against him as a wrong-doer ; but if 
any one acknowledge that he is a Christian, you 
punish him on account of this acknowledgment. 
Justice requires that you inquire into the life 
both of him who confesses and of him who de- 
nies, that by his deeds it may be apparent what 
kind of man each is. For as some who have 
been taught by the Master, Christ, not to deny 
Him, give encouragement to others when they 
are put to the question, so in all probability do 
those who lead wicked lives give occasion to 
those who, without consideration, take upon 
them to accuse all the Christians of impiety and 
wickedness. And this also is not right. For of 
philosophy, too, some assume the name and the 
garb who do nothing worthy of their profession ; 
and you are well aware, that those of the an- 
cients whose opinions and teachings were quite 
diverse, are yet all called by the one name of 
philosophers. And of these some taught athe- 
ism ; and the poets who have flourished among 
you raise a laugh out of the uncleanness of Jupi- 
ter with his own children. And those who now 
adopt sue instruction are not restrained by you ; 
but, on the contrary, you bestow prizes and hon- 
ours upon those who euphoniously insult the gods. 


Why, then, should this be ? In our case, who 
pledge ourselves to do no wickedness, nor to 
hold these atheistic opinions, you do not ex- 
amine the charges made against us ; but, yielding 
I to unreasoning passion, and to the instigation 
of evil demons, you punish us without con- 
sideration or judgment. For the truth shall be 
spoken ; since of old these evil demons, effecting 
apparitions of themselves, both defiled women 
and corrupted boys, and showed such fearful 
sights to men, that those who did not use their 
reason in judging of the actions that were done, 

were struck with terror ; and being carried away 
by fear, and not knowing that these were de- 
mons, they called them gods, and gave to each 
the name which each of the demons chose for 
himself.' And when Socrates endeavoured, by 
true reason and examination, to bring these 
things to light, and deliver men from the de- 
mons, then the demons themselves, by means of 
men who rejoiced in iniquity, compassed his 
death, as an atheist and a profane person, on the 
charge that " he was introducing new divinities ; " 
and in our case they display a similar activity. 
For not only among the Greeks did reason 
(Logos) prevail to condemn these things through 
Socrates, but also among the Barbarians were 
they condemned by Reason (or the Word, the 
Logos) Himself, who took shape, and became 
man, and was called Jesus Christ ; and in obe- 
dience to Him, we not only deny that they who 
did such things as these are gods,^ but assert 
that they are wicked and impious demons,^ whose 
actions will not bear comparison with those even 
of men desirous of virtue. 



Hence are we called atheists. And we con- 
fess that we are atheists, so far as gods of this 
sort are concerned, but not with respect to the 
most true God, the Father of righteousness and 
temperance and the other virtues, who is free 
from all impurity. But both Him, and the Son 
(who came forth from Him and taught us these 
things, and the host of the other good angels 
who follow and are made like to Him),^ and the 
prophetic Spirit, we worship and adore, knowing 
them in reason and truth, and declaring without 
grudging to every one n^ho wishes to learn, as we 
have been taught. 


But some one will say, Some have ere now 
been arrested and convicted as evil-doers. For 

' [i. Cor. X. 20. Milton's admirable economy in working this 
truth into his great poem (i. 378) affords a sublime exposition of the 
mind of the Fathers on the origin of mythologies.] 

2 The word ha.i\3.t,iv means in Greek a god, but the Christians 
used the word to signify an evil spirit. Justin uses the same word 
here for god and demon. The connection which Justin and other 
Christian writers supposed to exist between evil spirits and the 
gods of the heathens will be apparent from Justin's own statements. 
The word SiajSoAos, devil, is not applied to these demons. There is 
but one devil, but many demons. 

3 This is the literal and obvious translation of Justin's words. 
But from c. 13, 16, and 61, it is evident that he did not desire to incul- 
cate the worship of angels. We are therefore driven to adopt another 
translation of this passage, even though it be somewhat harsh. Two 
such translations have been proposed: the first connecting " us" and 
" the host of the other good angels " as the common object of the verb 
" taught; " the second connecting " these things" with" the host of," 
etc., and making these two together the subject taught. In the first 
case the translation would stand, " taught these things to us and to 
the host," etc.; in the second case the translation would be, " taught 
us about these things, and about the host of the others who follow 
Him, viz. the good angels." [I have ventured to insert parenthetic 
marks in the text, an obvious and simple resource to suggest the 
manifest intent of the author. Grabe's note in loc. givss another and 
very ingenious exegesis, but the simplest is best.] 



you condemn many, many a time, after inquiring 
into the life of each of the accused severally, 
but not on account of those of whom we have 
been speaking.' And this we acknowledge, that 
as among the Greeks those who teach such theo- 
ries as please themselves are all called by the 
one name " Philosopher," though their doctrines 
be diverse, so also among the Barbarians this 
name on which accusations are accumulated is 
the common property of those who are and 
those who seem wise. For all are called Chris- 
tians. Wherefore we demand that the deeds of 
all those who are accused to you be judged, in 
order that each one who is convicted may be 
punished as an evil-doer, and not as a Christian ; 
and if it is clear that any one is blameless, that 
he may be acquitted, since by the mere fact of 
his being a Christian he does no wrong.^ For we 
will not require that you punish our accusers ; ^ 
they being sufficiently punished by their present 
wickedness and ignorance of what is right. 



And reckon ye that it is for your sakes we 
have been saying these things ; for it is in our 
power, when we are examined, to deny that we 
are Christians ; but we would not live by telling 
a lie. For, impelled by the desire of the eternal 
and pure life, we seek the abode that is with 
God, the Father and Creator of all, and hasten 
to confess our faith, persuaded and convinced 
as we are that they who have proved to God  
by their work= that they followed Him, and 
loved to abide with Him where there is no sin 
to cause disturbance, can obtain these things. 
This, then, to speak shortly, is what we expect 
and have learned from Christ, and teach. And 
Plato, in like manner, used to say that Rhada- 
manthus and Minos would punish the wicked 
who came before them ; and we say that the 
same thing will be done, but at the hand of 
Christ, and upon the wicked in the same bodies 
united again to their spirits which are now to 
undergo everlasting punishment ; and not only, 
as Plato said, for a period of a thousand years. 
And if any one say that this is incredible or 
impossible, this error of ours is one which con- 
cerns ourselves only, and no other person, so 
long as you cannot convict us of doing any 


And neither do we honour with many sacri- 
fices and garlands of flowers such deities as men 

' i.e., according to Otto, "not on account of the sincere Chris- 
tians of whom we have been speaking." According to TroUope, 
" not on account of (or at the instigation oQ the demons before men- 

^ Or, " as a Christian who has done no wrong." 

s Compare the Rescript of Adrian appended to this Apology. 

* Literally, " persuaded God." 

have formed and set in shrines and called gods ; 
since we see that these are soulless and dead, 
and have not the form of God (for we do no); 
consider that God has such a form as some say 
that they imitate to His honour), but have the 
names and forms of those wicked demons which 
have appeared. For why need we tell you who 
already know, into what forms the craftsmen, 5 
carving and cutting, casting and hammering, 
fashion the materials ? And often out of vessels 
of dishonour, by merely changing the form, and 
making an image of the requisite shape, they 
make what they call a god ; which we consider 
not only senseless, but to be even insulting to 
God, who, having ineffable glory and form, thus 
gets His name attached to things that are cor- 
ruptible, and require constant service. And that 
the artificers of these are both intemperate, and, 
not to enter into particulars, are practised in 
every vice, you very well know ; even their own 
girls who work along with them they corrupt. 
What infatuation ! that dissolute men should be 
said to fashion and make gods for your worship, 
and that you should appoint such men the guard- 
ians of the temples where they are enshrined ; 
not recognising that it is unlawful even to think 
or say that men are the guardians of gods. 



But we have received by tradition that God 
does not need the material offerings which men * 
can give, seeing, indeed, that He Himself is the • 
provider of all things. And we have been 
taught, and are convinced, and do believe, that 
He accepts those only who imitate the excel- 
lences which reside in Him, temperance, and 
justice, and philanthropy, and as many virtues 
as are peculiar to a God who is called by no 
proper name. And we have been taught that 
He in the beginning did of His goodness, for 
man's sake, create all things out of unformed 
matter ; and if men by their works show them- (  
selves worthy of this His design, they r-'^ deemed/ 
worthy, and so we have received — o^ feigning 
in company with Him, being delivered from 
corruption and suffering. For as in the begin- 
ning He created us when we were not, so do we 
consider that, in like manner, those who choose 
what is pleasing to Him are, on account of their 
choice, deemed worthy of incorruption and of 
fellowship with Him. For the coming into be- 
ing at first was not in our own power ; and in 
order that we may follow those things which 
please Him, choosing them by means of the 
rational faculties He has Himself endowed us 
with. He both persuades us and leads us to faith. 
And we think it for the advantage of all men 
that they are not restrained from learning these 

i [Isa. xliv. 9-30; Jcr. s. 3.] 



things, but are even urged thereto. For the 
restraint which human laws could not effect, 
the Word, inasmuch as He is divine, would have 
effected, had not the wicked demons, taking as 
their ally the lust of wickedness which is in 
every man, and which draws variously to all 
manner of vice, scattered many false and pro- 
fane accusations, none of which attach to us. 


And when you hear that we look for a king- 
dom, you suppose, without making any inquiry, 
that we speak of a human kingdom ; whereas 
we speak of that which is with God, as appears 
also from the confession of their faith made by 
those who are charged with being Christians, 
though they know that death is the punishment 
awarded to him who so confesses. For if we 
looked for a human kingdom, we should also 
deny our Christ, that we might not be slain ; and 
we should strive to escape detection, that we 
might obtain what we expect. But since our 
thoughts are not fixed on the present, we are 
not concerned when men cut us off; since also 
death is a debt which must at all events be paid. 


And more than all other men are we your 
helpers and allies in promoting peace, seeing 
that we hold this view, that it is alike impossible 
for the wicked, the covetous, the conspirator, 
and for the virtuous, to escape the notice of God, 
and that each man goes to everlasting punish- 
ment or salvation according to the value of his 
actions. For if all men knew this, no one 
would choose wickedness even for a little, know- 
ing that he goes to the everlasting punishment 
of fire ; but would by all means restrain himself, 
and adorn himself with virtue, that he might ob- 
tain the good gifts of God, and escape the pun- 
ishments. For those who, on account of the 
laws and punishments you impose, endeavour to 
escape detection when they offend (and they 
offend, too, under the impression that it is quite 
possible to escape your detection, since you are 
but men), those persons, if they learned and 
were convinced that nothing, whether actually 
done or only intended, can escape the knowledge 
of God, would by all means live decently on ac- 
count of the penalties threatened, as even you 
yourselves will admit. But you seem to fear lest 
all men become righteous, and you no longer 
have any to punish. Such would be the concern 
of public executioners, but not of good princes, 
liut, as we before said, we axe |>ersuaded that 
these things are prompted by evil spirits, who 
demand sacrifices and service even from those 
who live unreasonably ; but as for you, we pre- 
sume that you who aim at [a reputation for] 
piety and philosophy will do nothing unreason- 

able. But if you also, like the foolish, prefer 
custom to truth, do what you have power to do. 
But just so much power have rulers who esteem 
opinion more than truth, as robbers have in a 
desert. And that you will not succeed is de- J 
clared by the Word, than whom, after God who 
begat Him, we know there is no ruler more 
kingly and just. For as all shrink from succeed- 
ing to the poverty or sufferings or obscurity of 
their fathers, so whatever the Word forbids us to 
choose, the >fensible man will not choose. That 
all these things should come to pass, I say, our 
Teacher foretold. He who is both Son and Apos- 
tle of God tlie Father of all and the Ruler, Jesus 
Christ ; from whom also we have the name of 
Christians. Whence we become more assured 
of all the things He taught us, since whatever 
He beforehand foretold should come to j)ass, is 
seen in fact coming to pass ; and this is the 
work of God, to tell of a thing before it hap- 
pens, and as it was foretold so to show it happen- 
ing. It were possible to pause here and add no 
more, reckoning that we demand what is just 
and true ; but because we are well aware that it 
is not easy suddenly to change a mind possessed 
by ignorance, we intend to add a few things, for 
the sake of persuading those who love the truth, 
knowing that it is not impossible to put ignorance 
to flight by presenting the truth. 


What sober-minded man, then, will not ac- * 
knowledge that we are not atheists, worshipping 
as we do the Maker of this universe, and declar- 
ing, as we have been taught, that He has no need 
of streams of blood and libations and incense ; 
whom we praise to the utmost of our power by 
the exercise of prayer and thanksgiving for all 
things wherewith we are supplied, as we have 
been taught that the only honour that is worthy 
of Him is not to consume by fire what He has 
brought into being for our sustenance, but to use 
it for ourselves and those who need, and with 
gratitude to Him to offer thanks by invocations 
and hymns ' for our creation, and for all the means 
of health, and for the various cjualities of the 
different kinds of things, and for the changes of 
the seasons ; and to present before Him peti- 
tions for our existing again in incorruption 
through faith in Him. Our teacher of these 
things is Jesus Christ, who also was born for this 
purpose, and was crucified under Pontius Pilate, 
procurator of Judaea, in the times of Tiberius 
Caesar; and that we reasonably worship Him, 
having learned that He is the Son of the true 

I jTO/ifo? xai iijui/ovv. " Grabe, and it should seem correctly, un- 
derstands nofjuroK; to be solemn prayers. ... He also remarks, 
that the ii/tn'ot were either psalms of David, or some of those psalms 
and songs made by the primitive Christians, which are mentioned in 
Eusebius, H. E., v. 28."— Tkollopk. 




God Himself, and holding Him in the second 
place, and the prophetic Spirit in the third, we 
will prove. For they proclaim our madness to 
consist in this, that we give to a crucified man a 
place second to the unchangeable and eternal 
God, the Creator of all ; for they do not discern 
the mystery that is herein, to which, as we make 
it plain to you, we pray you to give heed. 


For we forewarn you to be on your guard, lest 
I those demons whom we have been accusing 
I should deceive you, and quite divert you from 
reading and understanding what we say. For 
they strive to hold you their slaves and servants ; 
and sometimes by appearances in dreams, and 
sometimes by magical impositions, they subdue 
all who make no strong opposing effort for their 
own salvation. xA.nd thus do we also, since our 
persuasion by the Word, stand aloof from them 
(i.e., the demons), and follow the only unbegot- 
,ten God through His Son — we who formerly de- 
lighted in fornication, but now embrace chastity 
alone ; we who formerly used magical arts, dedi- 
cate ourselves to the good and unbegotten God ; 
we who valued above all things the acquisition of 
wealth and possessions, now bring what we have 
into a common stock, and communicate to every 
one in need ; we who hated and destroyed one 
another, and on account of their different man- 
ners would not live ' with men of a different 
tribe, now, since the coming of Christ, live famil- 
iarly with them, and pray for our enemies, and 
endeavour to persuade those who hate us unjustly 
to live comformably to the good precepts of 
Christ, to the end that they may become par- 
takers with us of the same joyful hope of a re- 
ward from God the ruler of all. But lest we 
should seem to be reasoning sophistically, we 
consider it right, before giving you the prom- 
ised ^ explanation, to cite a few precepts given 
by Christ Himself. And be it yours, as powerful 
I rulers, to inquire whether we have been taught 
and do teach these things truly. Brief and con- 
cise utterances fell from Him, for He was no 
.sophist, but His word was the power of God. 


Concerning chastity. He uttered such senti- 
ments as these : ^ " Whosoever looketh upon a 
woman to lust after her, hath committed adul- 
tery with her already in his heart before God." 
And, " If thy right eye offend thee, cut it out ; 
for it is better for thee to enter into the kingdom 
 of heaven with one eye, than, having two eyes, 

* Literally, " would not use the same hearth or fire." 

2 See the end of chap. xii. 

3 The reader will notice that Justin quotes from memory, so that 
there are some slight discrepancies between the words of Jesus as 
here cited, and the same sayings as recorded in our Gosp«ls. 

to be cast into everlasting fire." And, " Who- 
soever shall marry her that is divorced from 
another husband, committeth adultery."  And, 
" There are some who have been made eunuchs 
of men, and some who were born eunuchs, and 
some who have made themselves eunuchs for the 
kingdom of heaven's sake ; but all cannot re- 
ceive this saying." s So that all who, by human -. 
law, are twice married,^ are in the eye of our 
Master sinners, and those who look upon a 
woman to lust after her. For not only he who 
in act commits adultery is rejected by Him, but 
also he who desires to commit adultery : since 
not only our works, but also our thoughts, are 
open before God. And many, both men and 
women, who have been Christ's disciples from 
childhood, remain pure at the age of sixty or 
seventy years ; and I boast that I could produce 
such from every race of men. For what shall I 
say, too, of the countless multitude of those who 
have reformed intemperate habits, and learned 
these things? For Christ called not the just nor 
the chaste to repentance, but the ungodly, and 
the licentious, and the unjust ; His words being, 
" I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to 
repentance." 7 Yov the heavenly Father desires 
rather the repentance than the punishment of 
the sinner. And of our love to all. He taught 
thus : " If ye love them that love you, what new 
thing do ye ? for even fornicators do this. But 
I say unto you. Pray for your enemies, and love 
them that hate you, and bless them that curse 
you, and pray for them that despitefully use 
you." ^ And that we should communicate to the v 
needy, and do nothing for glory. He said, " Give 
to him that asketh, and from him that would 
borrow turn not away ; for if ye lend to them ot 
whom ye hope to receive, what new thing do ye ? 
even the publicans do this. Lay not up for 
yourselves treasure upon earth, where moth and 
rust doth cornipt, and where robbers break 
through ; but lay up for yourselves treasure in 
heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth cor- 
rupt. For what is a man profited, if he shall 
gain the whole world, and lose his owoi soul? 
or what shall a man give in exchange for it? 
Lay up treasure, therefore, in heaven, where 
neither moth nor rust doth corrupt." ^ And, 
" Be ye kind and merciful, as your Father also is 
kind and merciful, and maketh His sun to rise 
on sinners, and the righteous, and the wicked. 

 Matt. V. 28, 29, 32. 
s Matt. xix. 12. 

6 Stya^tas Troio vjuevoi , lit. contracting a double marriage. Of 
double marriages there are three kinds: the first, marriage with 3 
second wife while the first is still alive and recognised as a lawfu) 
wife, or bigamy; the second, marriage with a second wife after di- 
vorce from the first, and third, marriage with a second wife after the. 
death of the first. It is thought that Justin here refers to the second 

7 Matt. ix. 13. 

* Matt. V. 46,44; Luke vi 28 

9 Luke vi. 30, 34; Matt vi 19, xvi e6, vi. ao. 


1 68 


/Take no thought what ye shall eat, or what ye 
'shall put on : are ye not better than the birds and 
the beasts? And God feedeth them. Take no 
thought, therefore, what ye shall eat, or what ye 
shall put on ; for your heavenly Father knoweth 
that ye have need of these things. But seek ye 
the kingdom of heaven, and all these things 
shall be added unto you. For where his treasure 
is, there also is the mind of a man." ' And, 
*' Do not these things to be seen of men ; other- 
wise ye have no reward from your Father which 
is in heaven." ^ 


And concerning our being patient of injuries, 
and ready to serve all, and free from anger, this 
is what He said : " To him that smiteth thee on 
the one cheek, offer also the other ; and him that 
taketh away thy cloak or coat, forbid not. And 
whosoever shall be angry, is in danger of the 
fire. And every one that compelleth thee to go 
with him a mile, follow him two. And let your 
good works shine before men, that they, seeing 
them, may glorify your Father which is in 
heaven." ^ For we ou^ht not to strive ; neither 
has He desired us to be imitators of wicked 
men, but He has exhorted us to lead all men, 
by patience and gentleness, from shame and the 
love of evil. And this indeed is proved in the 
case of many who once were of your way of 
thinking, but have changed their violent and 
tyrannical disposition, being overcome either by 
the constancy which they have witnessed in their 
neighbours' lives,-* or by the extraordinary forbear- 
ance they have observed in their fellow-travellers 
when defrauded, or by the honesty of those with 
whom they have transacted business. 

And with regard to our not swearing at all, and 
always speaking the truth. He enjoined as fol- 
lows : " Swear not at all ; but let your yea be 
yea, and your nay, nay ; for whatsoever is more 
than these cometh of evil." ® And that we ought 
to worship God alone. He thus persuaded us : 
" The greatest commandment is, \l'hou shalt wor- 
ship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou 
serve, with all thy heart, and with all thy strength, 
the Lord God that made thee." '' And when a 
certain man came to Him and said, " Good 
Master," He answered and said, " There is none 
* good but God only, who made all things." ^ 
And let those who are not found living as He 
taught, be understood to be no Christians, even 
though they profess with the lip the precepts of 

»» I 

•• 2 
•• 3 
•» 4 
• • S 

I.uke vi. 36; Matt. v. 45, vi. 25, 26, 33, ai. 

Matt. vi. I. 

Luke vi. 2^; Matt. vi. 22, 41, x6. 

i.e., Christian neighbours. 

Matt. v. 34, 27. 
♦* * Mark xii. 30. 
•• ' Matt, xix. 6, 17. 

Christ; for not those who^make^ profession, but 
those who do the works, shall be saved, accord- 
ing to His word : " Not e\-ery one who saith to 
Me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of 
heaven, but he that doeth the will of My Father 
which is in heaven. For whosoever heareth Me, 
and doeth My sayings, heareth Him that sent 
Me. And many will say unto Me, Lord, Lord, 
have we not eaten and drunk in Thy name, and 
done wonders? And then will I say unto them. 
Depart from Me, ye workers of iniquity. Then 
shall there be wailing and gnashing of teeth, 
when the righteous shall shine as the sun, and 
the wicked are sent into everlasting fire. For 
many shall come in My name, clothed outwardly 
in sheep's clothing, but inwardly being ravening 
wolves. By their works ye shall know them. 
And every tree that bringeth not forth good 
fruit, is hewn down and cast into the fire." '^ 
And as to those who are not living ])ursuant to 
these His teachings, and are Christians only in 
name, we demand that all such be punished by 


And everywhere we, more readily than all 
men, endeavour to pay to those appointed by ^ 
you the taxes both ordinary and extraordinary,^ 
as we have been taught by Him ; for at that 
time some came to Him and asked Him. if one 
ought to pay tribute to Csesar ; and He an- 
swered, " Tell Me, whose image does the coin 
bear?" And they said, " Csesar's." And again 
He answered them, " Render therefore to Csesar 
the things that are Caesar's, and to God the 
things that are God's." "° Whence to God alone 
we render worship, but in other things we gladly 
serve you, acknowledging you as kings and 
rulers of men, and praying that with }our kingl)- 
power you be found to possess also sound judg- 
ment. But if you pay no regard to our prayers 
and frank explanations, we shall suffer no loss, 
since we believe (or rather, indeed, are per- 
suaded) that every man will suffer ])unishment in 
eternal fire according to the merit of liis deed, 
and will render account according to the power 
he has received from God, as Christ intimated 
when He said, " To whom God has given more, 
of him shall more be require^i." " 


For reflect upon the end of each of the pre- 
ceding kings, how they died the death common 
to all, which, if it issued in insensibility, would 

' Matt. vii. 21, etc.; Luke xiii. 26; Matt. xiii. 42, vit. 15, 16, 19. 
9 (^opovf (toi cto-i^opaf. The former is the annual tribute; th" 
latter, any occasional assessment. See Otto's Note, and Thucyd. 

w Matt. xxii. 17, 19, 20, 21. 
" Luke xii. 48. 



te ^ godsend ' to all the wicked. But since 
sensation remains to all who have ever lived, 
and eternal punishment is laid up (i.e., for the 
wicked), see that ye neglect not to be convinced, 
and to hold as your belief, that these things are 
true. For let even necromancy, and the divina- 
tions you practise by immaculate children,^ and 
the evoking of departed human souls,^ and those 
who are called among the magi, Dream-senders 
and Assistant-spirits (Familiars),'* and all that 
is done by those who are skilled in such matters 
— let these persuade you that even after death 
sc';ls are in a state of sensation ; and those who 
are seized and cast about by the spirits of the 
dead, whom all call dsemoniacs or madmen ; 5 
and what you repute as oracles, both of Amphil- 
ochus, Dodana, Pytho, and as many other such 
as exist ; and the opinions of your authors, 
Empedocles and Pythagoras, Plato and Socrates, 
and the pit of Homer,*^ and th6 descent of 
Ulysses to inspect these things, and all that has 
been uttered of a like kind. Such favour as 
you grant to these, grant also to us, who not less 
but more firmly than they believe in God ; siiice 
we expect to receive again our own bodies^ 
though they be dead and cast into the earth, for 
we maintain that with God nothing is impossible. 



And to any thoughtful person would anything 
appear more incredible, than, if we were not in 
the body, and some one were to say that it was 
possible that from a small drop of human seed 
bones and sinews and flesh be formed into a 
shape such as we see ? For let this now be said 
hypothetically : if you yourselves were not such 
as you now are, and born of such parents [and 
causes], and one were to show you human seed 
and a picture of a man, and were to say with 
confidence that from such a substance such a 
being could be produced, would you believe be- 
fore you saw the actual production? No one 

J ffili-aiov, a piece of unlooked-for luck, Hermes being the re- 
puted giver of such gifts: vi'd. Liddell and Scott's Lex.; see also the 
Scholiast, quoted by Stallbaum in Plato's Phaed., p. 107, on a passage 
singularly analogous to this. 

^ Boys and girls, or even children prematurely taken from the 
womb, were slaughtered, and their entrails inspected, in the belief 
that the souls of the victims (being still conscious, as Justin is argu- 
ing) would reveal things hidden and future. Instances are abun- 
dantly cited by Otto and TroUope. 

3 This form of spirit-rapping was familiar to the ancients, and 
Justin again {Dial. c. Tryph., c. 105) uses the invocation of Samuel 
by the witch of Endor as a proof of the immortality of the soul. 

* Valesius (on Euseb. H. £., iv. 7) states that the magi had two 
kinds of familiars: the first, who were sent to inspire men with 
dreams which might give them intimations of things future; and the 
second, who were sent to watch over men, and protect them from 
diseases and misfortunes. The first, he says, they called (as here) 
oi'tipoTroairoO?, and the .second irapeSpou?. 

5 Justin is not the only author in ancient or recent times who has 
classed dsemoniacs and maniacs together; neither does he stand alone 
among the ancients in the opinion that daemoniacs were possessed by 
the spirits of departed men. References will be found in Trollope's 
note. [See this matter more fully illustrated in Kaye's Justin Mar- 
tyr, PP- 105-1H.] ^ 

<> See the Odyssey, book xi. line 25, where Ulysses is described 
as digging a pit or trench with his sword, and pouring libations, in 
order to collect around him the souls of the dead. 

will dare to deny [that such a statement would 
surpass belief]. In the same way, then, you are 
now incredulous because you have never seen a 
dead man rise again. But as at first you would 
not have believed it possible that such persons 
could be produced from the small drop, and yet 
now you see them thus produced, so also judge 
ye that it is not impossible that the bodies of 
men, after they have been dissolved, and like 
seeds resolved into earth, should in God's ap- 
pointed time rise again and put on incorruption. 
For what power worthy of God those imagine 
who say, that each thing returns to that from 
which it was produced, and that beyond this not 
even God Himself can do anything, we are un- 
able to conceive ; but this we see clearly, that 
they would not have believed it possible that 
they could have become such and produced from 
such materials, as they now see both themselves 
and the whole world to be. And that it is better 
to believe even what is impossible to our owr 
nature and to men, than to be unbelieving lila* 
the rest of the world, we have learned ; for w(? 
know that our Master Jesus Christ said, tha* 
" what is impossible with men is possible with 
God," 7 and, " Fear not them that kill you, and 
after that can do no more ; but fear Him who 
after death is able to cast both soul and body 
into hell."^ And hell is a place where those 
are to be punished who have lived wickedly, and 
who do not believe that those things which God 
has taught us by Christ will come to pass. 



And the Sibyl ^ and Hystaspes said that there 
should be a dissolution by God of things corrupt- 
ible. And the philosophers called Stoics teach 
that even God Himself shall be resolved into 
fire, and they say that the world is" to be formed 
anew by this revolution ; but we understand that 
God, the Creator of all things, is superior to the 
things that are to be changed. If, therefore, on 
some points we teach the same things as the 
poets and philosophers whom you honour, and 
on other points are fuller and more divine in our 
teaching, and if we alone afford proof of what we 
assert, why are we unjustly hated more than all 
others ? For while we say that all things have 
been produced and arranged into a world by 
God, we shall seem to utter the doctrine of 

' Matt. xix. 26. 

* Matt. X. 28. 

9 The Sibylline Oracles are now generally regarded as heathen 
fragments largely interpolated by unscrupulous men during the early 
ages of the Church. For an interesting account of these somewhat 
perple.xing documents, see Burton's Lectures on the Ecclesiastical 
History of the First Three Centuries, Lect. xvii. The prophecies 
of Hystaspes were also commonly appealed to as genuine by the enrly 
Christians [.See (on the .Sibyls and Justin M.) Casaubnn, H.xcrti- 
tationes, pp. 65 and 80. This work is a most learned and diversified 
thesaurus, in the form of strictures on Card. Baronius. Geneva. 





Plato ; and while we say that there will be a 
burning up of all, we shall seem to utter the 
doctrine of the Stoics : and while we affirm that 
the souls of the wicked, being endowed with 
sensation even after death, are punished, and 
that those of the good being delivered from 
I)unishment spend a blessed existence, we shall 
seem to say the same things as the poets and 
philosophers ; and while we maintain that men 
ought not to worship the works of their hands, 
we say the very things which have been said by 
the comic poet Menander, and other similar 
writers, for they have declared that the workman 
is greater than the work. 



And when we say also that the Word, who is 
the first-birth ' of God, was produced without 
sexual union, and that He, Jesus Christ, our 
Teacher, was crucified and died, and rose again, 
and ascended into heaven, we propound nothing 
different from what you believe regarding those 
whom you esteem sons of Jupiter. For you 
know how many sons your esteemed writers 
ascribed to Jupiter : Mercury, the interpreting 
word and teacher of all ; ^sculapius, who, though 
he was a great physician, was struck by a thunder- 
bolt, and so ascended to heaven ; and Bacchus 
too, after he had been torn limb from limb ; and 
Hercules, when he had committed himself to the 
flames to escape his toils ; and the sons of Leda, 
and Dioscuri ; and Perseus, son of Danae ; and 
Bellerophon, who, though sprung from mortals, 
rose to heaven on the horse Pegasus. For what 
shall I say of Ariadne, and those who, like her, 
have been declared to be set among the stars? 
And what of the emperors who die among your- 
selves, whom you deem worthy of deification, 
and in whose behalf you produce some one who 
swears he has seen the burning Caesar rise to 
heaven from the funeral pyre? And what kind 
of deeds are recorded of each of these reputed 
sons of Jupiter, it is needless to tell to those who 
already know. This only shall be said, that they 
are written for the advantage and encouragement^ 
of youthful scholars ; for all reckon it an honour- 
able thing to imitate the gods. But far be such 
a thought concerning the gods from every well- 
conditioned soul, as to believe that Jupiter him- 
self, the governor and creator of all things, was 
both a parricide and the son of a parricide, and 
that being overcome by the love of base and 
shameful pleasures, he came in to Ganymede 

 i.e., first-bom. 

* 6i.a<f>opav (coi TrpoTpowiji'. The irony here is so obvious as to 
make the proposed reading (5ta(/)9opai' koX iraparponriv, corruption 
and depravation) unnecessary. Otto prefers the re.ading adopted 
above. 'I'rollope, on the other hand, inclines to the latter reading, 
mainly on the score of the former expressions being unusual. See his 
very sensible note in loc. 

and those many women whom he had violated, 
and that his sons did like actions. But, as we 
said above, wicked devils perpetrated these 
things. And we have learned that those only 
are deified who have lived near to God in holi- 
ness and virtue ; and we believe that those who 
live wickedly and do not repent are punished in 
everlasting fire. 



Moreover, the Son of God called Jesus, even 
if only aTmaiT by ordinary generation, yet, on 
account of His wisdom, is worthy to be called 
the Son of God ; for all writers call God the 
Father of men and gods. And if we assert that 
the Word of God was born of God in a peculiar 
manner, different from ordinary generation, let 
this, as said above, be no extraordinar}' thing to 
you, who say that Mercury is the angelic word 
of God. But if any one objects that He was 
crucified, in this also He is on a par with those 
reputed sons of Jupiter of yours, who suffered as 
we have now enumerated. For their sufferings 
at death are recorded to have been not all alike, 
but diverse ; so that not even by the peculiaritj 
of His sufferings does He seem to be inferior to 
them ; but, on the contrary, as we promised in 
the preceding part of this discourse, we will now 
prove Him superior — or rather have already 
proved Him to be so — for the superior is re- 
vealed by His actions. .\nd if we even affirm 
that He was born of a virgin, accept this in com- 
mon with what you accept of Perseus. And in 
that we say that He made whole the lame, the 
paralytic, and those born blind, we seem to say 
what is very similar to the deeds said to have 
been done by ^sculapius. 


And that this may now become evident to 
you — (firstly ') that whatever we assert in con- 
formity with what has been taught us by Christ, 
and by the prophets who preceded Him, are 
alone true, and are older than all the writers 
who have existed ; that we claim to be acknowl- 
edged, not because we say the same things as 
these writers said, but because we say true 
things : and (secondly) that Jesus Christ is the 
only proper Son who has been begotten by God, 
being His Word and first-begotten, and power ; 
and, becoming man according to His will, He 

3 The Benedictine editor, Maranus, Otto, and Trollope, here not* 
that Justin in this chapter promises to make good three distinct posi- 
tions: ist, That Christian doctrines alone are true, and are to be re- 
ceived, not on account of their resemblance to the sentiments of poets 
or philosophers, but on their own account; 2d, that Jesus Christ is 
the incarnate Son of God, and our teacher; 3d, that before His incar- 
nation, the demons, having some knowledge of what He would ac- 
complish, enabled the heathen poets and priests in some points to 
anticipate, though in a distorted form, the facts of the incarnatioa 
The first he establishes in chap, xxiv-xxix.; the second in chap 
xxx.-liii. ; and the third in chap. liv. et sq. 



taught us these things for the conversion and 
restoration of the human race : and (thirdly) 
that before He became a man among men, 
some, influenced, by the demons before men- 
tioned, related beforehand, through the instru- 
mentality of the poetSj those circumstances as 
having really happened, which, having fictitiously 
devised, they narrafed, in the same manner as 
they have caused to be fabricated the scandal- 
ous reports against us of infamous and impious 
actions,' of which there is neither witness nor 
proof — we shall bring forward the following 


^ In the first place [we furnish proof], because, 
though we say things similar to what the Greeks 
say, we only are hated on account of the name 
of Christ, and though we do no wrong, are put 
to death as sinners ; other men in other places 
worshipping trees and rivers, and mice and cats 
and crocodiles, and many irrational animals. 
Nor are the same animals esteemed by all ; but 
in one place one is worshipped, and another in 
another, so that all are profane in the judgment 
of one another, on account of their not worship- 
ping the same objects. And this is the sole ac- 
cusation you bring against us, that we do not 
reverence the same gods as you do, nor offer to 
the dead libations and the savour of fat, and 
crowns for their statues,^ and sacrifices. For 
you very well know that the same animals are 
with some esteemed gods, with others wild 
beasts, and with others sacrificial victims. 


And, secondly, because we — who, out of 
every race of men, used to worship Bacchus the 
• son of Semele, and Apollo the son of Latona 
(who in their loves with men did such things as 
it is shameful even to mention), and Proserpine 
and Venus (who were maddened with love of 
Adonis, and whose mysteries also you cele- 
brate), or ^sculapius, or some one or other of 
those who are called gods — have now, through 
Jesus Christ, learned to despise these, though 
we be threatened with death for it, and have 
dedicated ourselves to the unbegotten and im- 
passible God ; of whom we are persuaded that 
never was he goaded by lust of Antiope, or such 
other women, or of Ganymede, nor was rescued 
by that hundred-handed giant whose aid was 
obtained through Thetis, nor was anxious on 

' We have here followed the reading and rendering of TroUope. 
[But see reading of Langus, and Grabe's note, in the edition already 
cited, I. 46.] 

2 61/ ypa<J>ars o'Te<J)ai'ou5. The only conjecture which seems at 
all probable is that of the Benedictine editor followed here. [Grabe 
after Salmasius reads ev pa^iai'; and quotes Martial, Sitiih's aptetnr 
rosa crinibus. Translate, " patch-work garlands."! 

this account ^ that her son Achilles should de- 
stroy many of the Greeks because of his concu- 
bine Briseis. Those who believe these things 
we pity, and those who invented them we know 
_e devils. 


And, thirdly, because after Christ's ascension 
into heaven the devils put forward certain men 
who said that they themselves were gods ; and 
they were not only not persecuted by you, but 
even deemed worthy of honours. There was a 
Samaritan, Simon, a native of the village called 
Gitto, who in the reign of Claudius Caesar, and 
in your royal city of Rome, did mighty acts of 
magic, by virtue of the art of the devils operat- 
ing in him. He was considered a god, and as 
a god was honoured by you with a statue, which 
statue was erected on the river Tiber, between 
the two bridges, and bore this inscription, in the 
language of Rome : — 

" Simoni Deo Sancto," * 
" To Simon the holy God." 

And almost all the Samaritans, and a few even 
of other nations, worship him, and acknowledge 
him as the first god ; and a woman, Helena, who 
went about with him at that time, and had for- 
merly been a prostitute, they say is the first idea 
generated by him. And a man, Meander, also 
a Samaritan, of the town Capparetaea, a disciple 
of Simon, and inspired by devils, we know to 
have deceived many while he was in Antioch by 
his magical art. He persuaded those who ad- 
hered to him that they should never die, and 
even now there are some living who hold this 
opinion of his. And there is Marcion, a man of 
Pontus, who is even at this day alive, and teach- 
ing his disciples to believe in some other god 
greater than the Creator. And he, by the aid 
of the devils, has caused many of every nation 
to speak blasphemies, and to deny that God is 
the rnaker of this universe, and to assert that 
some other being, greater than He, has done 
greater works. All who take their opinions from 
these men, are, as we before said,5 called Chris- 
tians ; just as also those who do not agree with 

3 i.e., on account of the assistance gained for him by Thetis, and 
in return for it. 

■< It is very generally supposed that Justin was mistaken m under- 
standing this to have been a statue erected to Simon Magus. This 
supposition rests on the fact that in the year 1574 there was dug up 
in the island of the Tiber a fragment of marble, with the inscription 
"Semoni Sanco Deo," etc., being probably the base of a statue 
erected to the Sabine deity Seme Sancus. This inscription Justin is 
supposed to have mistaken for the one he gives above. This has 
always us very slight evidence on which to reject so pre- 
cise a statement as Justin here makes; a statement which he would 
scarcely have hazarded in an apology addressed to Rome, where 
every pelrson had the means of ascertaining its accuracy. If, as is 
supposed, he made a mistake, it must have been at once exposed, and 
other writers would not have so frequently repeated the story as they 
have done. See Burton's Bampton Lectures, p. 374. [See Note 
in Grabe (i. 51), and also mine, at end.] 

5 See chap. vii. 




the philosophers in their doctrines, have yet in 
common with them the name of philosophers 
given to them. And whether they perpetrate 
those fabulous and shameful deeds ' — the up- 
setting of the lamp, and promiscuous intercourse, 
and eating human flesh — we know not ; but we 
do know that they are neither persecuted nor 
put to death by you, at least on account of their 
opinions. But I have a treatise against all the 
heresies that have existed already composed, 
which, if you wish to read it, I will give you. • 


But as for us, we have been taught that to ex- 
pose newly-born children is the part of wicked 
men ; and this we have been taught lest we 
^ should do any one an injury, and lest we should 
sin against God, first, because we see that almost 
all so exposed (not only the girls, but also the 
males) are brought up to prostitution. And as 
the ancients are said to have reared herds of 
oxen, or goats, or sheep, or grazing horses, so now 
we see you rear children only for this shameful 
use ; and for this pollution a multitude of females 
and hermaphrodites, and those who commit un- 
mentionable iniquities, are found in every nation. 
And you receive the hire of these, and duty and 
taxes from them, whom you ought to extermi- 
nate from your realm. And any one who uses 
such persons, besides the godless and infamous 
and impure intercourse, may possibly be having 
intercourse with his own child, or relative, or 
brother. And there are some who prostitute 
even their own children and wives, and some are 
openly mutilated for the purpose of sodomy ; 
and they refer these mysteries to the mother of 
the gods, and along with each of those whom 
you esteem gods there is painted a serpent,^ a 
great symbol and mystery. Indeed, the things ^ 
which you do openly and with applause, as if 
the divine light were overturned and extin- 
guished, these you lay to our charge ; which, in 
truth, does no harm to us who shrink from doing 
any such things, but only to those who do them 
and bear false witness against us. 

CHAP. xxvm. — god's care for men. 

For among us the prince of the wicked spirits 
is called the serpent, and Satan, and the devil, as 
yoa can learn by looking into our writings. And 
that he would be sent into the fire with his host, 
and the men who follow him, and would be pun- 
ished for an endless duration, Christ foretold. 
For the reason why God has delayed to do this, 

' Which were commonly charged against the Christians. 

° Thirlby remarks that the serpent was the symbol specially of 
eternity, of power, and of wisdom, and that there was scarcely any 
divine attribute to which the heathen did not find some likeness in 
this animal. See also Hardwick's Christ and otSier Masters, vol. 
ii. 146 (zd ed.). 

3 [Note how he retaliates upon th« caluouiy (cap. xxvi.) of the 
" upsetti"g of the lamp."] 

is His regard for the human race. For He fore- 
knows that some are to be saved by repentance, 
some even that are perhaps not yet born.'* Jn_ 
the beginning He made the human race with the 
power of thought and of choosing the truth and 
doing right, so that all men are without excuse 
before God ; for they have been born rational 
and contemplative. And if any one disbelieves 
that God cares for these things,^ he will thereby 
either insinuate that God does not exist, or he 
will assert that though He exists He delights in 
vice, or exists like a stone, and that neither 
virtue nor vice are anything, but only in the 
opinion of men these things are reckoned good 
or evil. And this is the greatest profanity and v 


And again [we fear to expose children], lest 
some of them be not picked up, but die, and we 
become murderers. But whether we marry, it is 
only that we may bring up children ; or whether 
we decline marriage, we live continently. And 
that you may understand that promiscuous inter- 
course is not one of our mysteries, one of our 
number a short time ago presented to Felix the 
governor in Alexandria a petition, craving that 
permission might be given to a surgeon to make 
him an eunuch. For the surgeons there said that 
they were forbidden to do this without the permis- 
sion of the governor. And when Felix absolutely 
refused to sign such a permission, the youth re- 
mained single, and was satisfied with his own 
approving conscience, and the approval of those 
who thought as he did. And it is not out of 
place, we think, to mention here Antinous, who 
was alive but lately, and whom all were prompt, 
through fear, to worship as a god, though they 
knew both who he was anci what was his origin.^ 


But lest any one should meet us with the ques- < 
tion. What should prevent that He whom we call 
Christ, being a man born of men, performed 
what we call His mighty works by magical art, 
and by this appeared to be the Son of God? we 
will now offer proof, not trusting mere assertions, 
but being of necessity persuaded by those who 
prophesied [of Him] before these things came 
to pass, for with our own eyes we behold things 
that have happened and are happening just as 

 Literally, " For He foreknows some .about to be saved by repent- 
ance, and some not yet perhaps bom." • 

5 Those things which concern the salvation of man; so Trollope 
and the other interpreters, except Otto, who reads Toircur mascu- 
line, and understands it of the men first spoken of. [See Plato (/V 
Legibus, opp. ix. p. 98, Bipont., 1786), and the valuable edition of 
Book X. by Professor Tayler Lewis (p. 52. etc.), New York, 1845.] 

<> For a sufficient account of the infamous histon,' here alluded to 
and the extravagant grief of Hadrian, and the servility of the people, 
see Smith's Dictionary of Biography : " Aniinous." [Note, "all 
were prompt, through /ear," etc. Thus we may measure the defian^t 
intrepidity of this stmging sarcasm addressed to the " uhilosophers, 
with whose sounding titles this Apology begins.] 



they were predicted ; and this will, we think, 
appear even to you the strongest and truest evi- 


There were, then, among the Jews certain men 
who were prophets of God, through whom the 
prophetic Spirit published beforehand things that 
were to come to pass, ere ever they happened. 
And their prophecies, as they were spoken and 
when they were uttered, the kings who happened 
to be reigning among the Jews at the several 
times carefully preserved in their possession, 
when they had been arranged in books by 
the prophets themselves in their own Hebrew 
language. And when Ptolemy king of Egypt 
formed a library, and endeavoured to collect the 
writings of all men, he heard also of these proph- 
ets, and sent to Herod, who was at that time 
king of the Jews,' requesting that the books 
of the prophets be sent to him. And Herod the 
king did indeed send them, written, as they were, 
in the foresaid Hebrew language. And when 
their contents were found to be unintelligible to 
the Egyptians, he again sent and requested that 
men be commissioned to translate them into the 
Greek language. And when this was done, the 
books remained with the Egyptians, where they 
are until now. They are also in the possession 
of all Jews throughout the world ; but they, 
though they read, do not understand what is said, 
but count us foes and enemies ; and, like your- 
selves, they kill and punish us whenever they 
have the power, as you can well believe. For 
in the Jewish war which lately raged, Barcho- 
chebas, the leader of the revolt of the Jews, 
gave orders that Christians alone should be led 
to cruel punishments, uniess they would deny 
Jesus Christ and utter blasphemy. In these 
books, then, of the prophets we found Jesus our 
Christ foretold as coming, born of a virgin, grow- 
ing up to man's estate, and healing every disease 
and every sickness, and raising the dead, and 
being hated, and unrecognised, and crucified, 
and dying, and rising again, and ascending into 
heaven, and being, and being called, the Son of 
God. We find it also predicted that certain per- 
sons should be sent by Him into every nation 
to publish these things, and that rather among 
the Gentiles [than among the Jews] men should 
believe on Him. And He was predicted before 
He appeared, first 5000 years before, and again 
3000, then 2000, then 1000, and yet again 800 ; 
for in the succession of generations prophets 
after prophets arose. 


Moses then, who was the first of the prophets, 

' Some attribute this blunder in chronology to Justin, others to his 
transcribers: it was Eleazar the high priest to whom Ptolemy applied. 

spoke in these very words : " The sceptre shall 
not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from be- 
tween his feet, until He come for whom it is 
reserved ; and He shall be the desire of the na- 
tions, binding His foal to the vine, washing His 
robe in the blood of the grape." ^ It is yours to 
make accurate inquiry, and ascertain up to whose 
time the Jews had a lawgiver and king of their 
own. Up to the time of Jesus Christ, who taught 
us, and interpreted the prophecies which were 
not yet understood, [they had a lawgiver] as was 
foretold by the holy and divine Spirit of prophecy 
through Moses, " that a ruler would not fail the 
Jews until He should come for whom the king- 
dom was reserved " (for Judah was the forefather 
of the Jews, from whom also they have their 
name of Jews) ; and after He (i.e., Christ) ap- 
peared, you began to rule the Jews, and gained 
possession of all their territory. And the proph- 
ecy, " He shall be the expectation of the nations," 
signified that there would be some of all nations 
who should look for Him to come again. And 
this indeed you can see for yourselves, and be 
convinced of by fact. For of all races of men 
there are some who look for Him who was cruci- 
fied in Judaea, and after whose crucifixion the 
land was straightway surrendered to you as spoil 
of war. And the prophecy, " binding His foal 
to the vine, and washing His robe in the blood of 
the grape," was a significant symbol of the things 
that were to happen to Christ, and of what 
He was to do. For the foal of an ass stood 
bound to a vine at the entrance of a village, and 
He ordered His acquaintances to bring it to Him 
then ; and when it was brought. He mounted and 
sat upon it, and entered Jerusalem, where was 
the vast temple of the Jews which was afterwards 
destroyed by you. And after this He was cruci- 
fied, that the rest of the prophecy might be ful- 
filled. For this " washing His robe in the blood 
of the grape " was predictive of the passion He 
was to endure, cleansing by His blood those 
who believe on Him. For what is called by the 
Divine Spirit through the prophet " His robe," 
are those men who believe in Him in whom 
abideth the seed ^ of God, the Word. And what 
is spoken of as " the blood of the grape," signi- 
fies tliat He who should appear would have blood, 
though not of the seed of man, but of the power 
of God. And the first power after God the 
Father and Lord of all is the Word, who is also 
the Son ; and of Him we will, in what follows, 
relate how He took flesh and became man. For 
as man did not make the blood of the vine, but 
God, so it was hereby intimated that the blood 
should not be of human seed, but of divine 

2 Gen. xlix. lo. 

3 Grabe would here read, not oiripua, but Trvdifna, the spirit. 


the Benedictine, Otto, and TroUope all think that no change shoulc* be 



power, as we have said above. And Isaiah, 
another prophet, foretelling the same things in 
other words, spoke thus : " A star shall rise out 
of Jacob, and a flower shall spring from the root 
of Jesse ; and His arm shall the nations trust." ' 
And a star of light has arisen, and a flower has 
sprung from the root of Jesse — this Christ. 
For by the power of God He was conceived by 
a virgin of the seed of Jacob, who was the father 
of Judah, who, as we have shown, was the. father 
of the Jews ; and Jesse was His forefather ac- 
cording to the oracle, and He was the son of 
Jacob and Judah according to lineal descent. 




And hear again how Isaiah in express words 
foretold that He should be born of a virgin ; for 
he spoke thus : " Behold, a virgin shall conceive, 
and bring forth a son, and they shall say for His 
name, ' God with us.' " * For things which were 
incredible and seemed impossible with men, 
these God predicted by the Spirit of prophecy 
as about to come to pass, in order that, when 
they came to pass, there might be no unbelief, 
but faith, because of their prediction. But lest 
some, not understanding the prophecy now 
cited, should charge us with the very things we 
have been laying to the charge of the poets who 
say that Jupiter went in to women through lust, 
let us try to explain the words. This, then, " Be- 
hold, a virgin shall conceive," signifies that a 
virgin should conceive without intercourse. For 
if she had had intercourse with any one what- 
ever, she was no longer a virgin ; but the power 
of God having come upon the virgin, over- 
shadowed her, and caused her while yet a virgin 
to conceive. And the angel of God who was 
sent to the same virgin at that time brought her 
good news, saying, " Behold, thou shalt conceive 
of the Holy Ghost, and shalt bear a Son, and 
He shall be called the Son of the Highest, and 
thou shalt call His name Jesus ; for He shall 
save His people from their sins," ^ — as they 
who have recorded all that concerns our Saviour 
Jesus Christ have taught, whom we believed, 
since by Isaiah also, whom we have now ad- 
duced, the Spirit of prophecy declared that He 
should be born as we intimated before. It is 
wrong, therefore, to understand the Sjjirit and 
the power of God as anything else than the 
Word, who is also the first-born of God, as the 
'foresaid prophet Moses declared ; and it was 
this which, when it came upon the virgin 
and overshadowed hei*, caused her to conceive, 
not by intercourse, but l)y power, And the name 
Jesus in the Hebrew language means 'Siurrrjp 

' Isa. xi. I. 

* Isa. vii. 14. 

3 Luke i. }2; Matt. i. 31. 

(Saviour) in the Greek tongue. Wherefore, too, 
the angel said to the virgin, " Thou shalt call His 
name Jesus, for He shall save His people from 
their sins." And that the prophets are inspired * 
by no other than the Divine Word, even you, as 
fancy, will grant. 



And hear what part of earth He was to be 
born in, as another prophet, Micah, foretold. He 
spoke thus : " And thou, Bethlehem, the land 
of Judah, art not the least among the princes of 
Judah ; for out of thee shall come forth a Gov- 
ernor, who shall feed My people." 5 Now there 
is a village in the land of the Jews, thirty-five 
stadia from Jerusalem, in which Jesus Christ 
was born, as you can ascertain also from the 
registers of the taxing made under Cyrenius, 
your first procurator in Judaea. 


And how Christ after He was born was to es- 
i^pe the notice of other men until He grew to 
man's estate, which also came to pass, hear 
what was foretold regarding this. There are the 
following predictions : ^ — " Unto us a child is 
born, and unto us a young man is given, and 
the government shall be upon His shoulders ;" ^ 
which is significant of the power of the cross, 
for to it, when He was crucified, He applied 
His shoulders, as shall be more clearly made 
out in the ensuing discourse. And again the 
same prophet Isaiah, being inspired by the pro- 
phetic Spirit, said, " I have spread out my hands 
to a disobedient and gainsaying people, to those 
who walk in a way that is not good. They now 
ask of me judgmen*, and dare to draw near 
to God."** And again in other words, through 
another prophet, He says, " They pierced My 
hands and My feet, and for My vesture they 
cast lots." 9 And indeed David, the king and 
prophet, who uttered these things, suffered none 
of them ; but Jesus Christ stretched forth His 
hands, being crucified by the Jews speaking 
against Him, and denying that He was the Christ. 
And as the prophet spoke, they tormented Him, 
and set Him on the judgment-seat, and said, 
Judge us. And the expression, " They pierced 
my hands and my feet," was used in reference 
to the nails of the cross which were fixed in 
His hands and feet. And after He was cruci- 
fied they cast lots upon His vesture, and they 

* 9(o<l>opovvTat, lit. are borne by a god — a word used ol those 
who were supposed to be wholly under the influence of a deity. 

5 Micah V. 2. 

'' These predictions have so little reference to the point Justin in- 
tends to make out, that some editors have supposed that a passage 
has here been lost. Others think the irrelevancy an insufficient 
ground for such a supposition. [See below, cap. xl.J 

' Isa. ix. 6. 

' Isa. Ixv. 2, Iviii. 2. 

9 Ps. xxii. i&. 



that crucified Him parted it among i^hem. And 
that these things did happen, you can ascertain 
from the Acts of Pontius Pilate. ' And we will 
cite the prophetic utterances of another prophet, 
Zephaniah, ^ to the effect that He was foretold 
expressly as to sit upon the foal of an ass and to 
enter Jerusalem. The words are these : " Rejoice 
greatly, O daughter of Zion ; shout, O daughter of 
Jerusalem : behold, thy King cometh unto thee ; 
lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt 
hthe foal of an ass." ^ 



But when you hear the utterances of the 
prophets spoken as it were personally, you must 
not suppose that they are spoken by the inspired 
themselves, but by the Divine Word who moves 
them. For sometimes He declares things that 
are to come to pass, in the manner of one who 
foretells the future ; sometimes He speaks as 
from the person of God the Lord and Father of 
all ; sometimes as from the person of Christ ; 
sometimes as from the person of the people an- 
swering the Lord or His Father, just as you can 
see even in your own writers, one man being the 
writer of the whole, but introducing the persons 
who converse. And this the Jews who possessed 
the books of the prophets did not understand, 
and therefore did not recognise Christ even when 
He came, but even hate us who say that He has 
come, and who prove that, as was predicted, He 
was crucified by them. 


V^ And that this too may be clear to you, there 
were spoken from the person of the Father, 
through Isaiah the prophet, the following words : 
"The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his 
master's crib; but Israel doth not know, and> 
My people hath not understood. Woe, sinful 
nation, a people full of sins, a wicked seed, chil- 
dren that are transgressors, ye have forsaken the 
Lord." 4 And again elsewhere, when the same 
prophet speaks in like manner from the person 
of the Father, " What is the house that ye will 
build for Me ? saith the Lord. The heaven is My 
throne, and the earth is My footstool." s And 
again, in another place, " Your new moons and 
your sabbaths My soul hateth ; and the great day 
of the fast and of ceasing from labour I cannot 


1 OLKToiv, These Acts of Pontius Pilate, or regular accounts of 
his procedure sent by Pilate to the Emperor Tiberius, are supposed 
to have been destroyed at an early period, possibly in consequence 
of the unanswerable appeals which the Christians constantly made to 
them. There exists a forgery in imitation of these Acts. See Trol- 

2 The reader will notice that these are not the words of Zephaniah, 
but of Zechariah (ix. 9) , to whom also Justin himself refers them in the 
Z>iaL Tryph., c. 53. [Might be corrected in the text, therefore, as 
a clerical slip of the pen.] 

^ Zech. ix.g. 

 Isa. i. 3. This quotatioa varies only ia one word from that of 
Ae LXX. 

i Isa. bcvL I. 

away with ; nor, if ye come to be seen of Me, 
will I hear you : your hands are full of blood ; 
and if ye bring fine flour, incense, it is abomina- 
tion unto Me : the fat of lambs and the blood of 
bulls I do not desire. For who hath required 
this at your hands? But loose every bond of 
wickedness, tear asunder the tight knots of vio- 
lent contracts, cover the houseless and naked, 
deal thy bread to the hungry." ^ What kind of 
things are taught through the prophets from [the 
person of] God, you can now perceive. 


And when the Spirit of prophecy speaks from 
the person of Christ, the utterances are of this 
sort : " I have spread out My hands to a disobe- 
dient and gainsaying people, to those who walk 
in a way that is not good." ^ And again : " I 
gave My back to the scourges, and My cheeks 
to the buffetings ; I turned not away My face 
from the shame of spittings ; and the Lord was 
My helper : therefore was I not confounded : 
but I set My face as a firm rock ; and I knew 
that I should not be ashamed, for He is near 
that justifieth Me." ** And again, when He says, 
" They cast lots upon My vesture, and pierced 
My hands and My feet. And I lay down and 
slept, and rose again, because the Lord sustained 
Me." 9 And again, when He says, "They spake 
with their lips, they wagged the head, saying, 
Let Him deliver Himself." '° And that all these 
things happened to Christ at the hands of the 
Jews, you can ascertain. For when He was cru- 
cified, they did shoot out the lip, and wagged 
their heads, saying, " Let Him who raised the 
dead save Himself." " 



And when the Spirit of prophecy speaks as 
predicting things that are to come to pass, He 
speaks in this way : " For out of Zion shall go 
forth the law, and the word of the Lord from 
Jerusalem. And He shall judge among the na- 
tions, and shall rebuke many people ; and they 
shall beat their swords into ploughshares, and 
their spears into pruning-hooks : nation shall not 
lift up sword against nation, neither shall they 
learn war any more." '^ And that it did so come 
to pass, we can convince you. For from Jeru-'^ 
salem there went out into the world, men, twelve 
in number, and these illiterate, of no ability in 
speaking : but by the power of God they pro- 1 
claimed to every race of men that they were sent 

6 Isa. i 14, xviii. 6. 

7 Isa. Ixv. 2. 

8 Isa. 1. 6. 

9 Ps. xxii. i3, iii. $. 
'° Ps. xxii. 7. 

" Comp. Matt, xxvii. 39. 

12 Isa, ii. 3. 



by Christ to teach to all the word of God ; and 
we who formerly used to murder one another do 
not only now refrain from making war upon our 
enemies, but also, that we may not lie nor de- 
ceive our examiners, willingly die confessing 
Christ. For that saying, " The tongue has sworn, 
but the mind is unsworn," ' might be imitated 
by us in this matter. But if the soldiers enrolled 
by you, and who have taken the military oath, 
prefer their allegiance to their own life, and par- 
ents, and country, and all kindred, though you 
can offer them nothing incorruptible, it were 
verily ridiculous if we, who earnestly long for 
incorruption, should not endure all things, in 
order to obtain what we desire from Him who is 
able to grant it. 


\ And hear how it was foretold concerning those 
who published His doctrine and proclaimed 
His appearance, the above-mentioned prophet 
and king speaking thus by the Spirit of prophecy : 
" Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto 
night showeth knowledge. There is no speech 
nor language where their voice is not heard. 
Their voice has gone out into all the earth, and 
their words to the ends of the world. In the 
sun hath He set His tabernacle, and he as a 
bridegroom going out of his chamber shall re- 
joice as a giant to run his course." - And we 
have thought it right and relevant to mention 
some other prophetic utterances of David be- 
sides these ; from which you may learn how the 
Spirit of prophecy exhorts men to live, and how 
He foretold the conspiracy which was formed 
against Christ by Herod the king of the Jews, and 
the Jews themselves, and Pilate, who was your 
governor among them, with his soldiers ; and 
how He should be believed on by men of every 
race ; and how God calls Him His Son, and has 
declared that He will subdue all His enemies 
under Him ; and how the devils, as much as 
they can, strive to escape the power of God the 
Father and Lord of all, and the power of Christ 
Himself; and how God calls all to repentance 
before the day of judgment comes. These things 
were uttered thus : " Blessed is the man who 
hath not walked in the counsel of the ungodly, 
nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the 
seat of the scornful : but his delight is in the law 
of the Lord ; and in His law will he meditate 
day and night. And he shall be like a tree 
planted by the rivers of waters, which shall give 
his fruit in his season ; and his leaf shall not 
wither, and whatsoever he doeth shall prosper. 
The ungodly are not so, but are like the chaff 

which the wind driveth away from the face of 
the earth. Therefore the ungodly shall not stand 
in the judgment, nor sinners in the council of 
the righteous. For the Lord knoweth the way 
of the righteous ; but the way of the ungodly 
shall perish. Why do the heathen rage, and the 
people imagine new things? The kings of the 
earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel 
together, against the Lord, and against His 
Anointed, saying, Let us break their bands asun- 
der, and cast their yoke from us. He that dwell- 
eth in the heavens shall laugh at them, and the 
Lord shall have them in derision. Then shall He 
speak to them in His wrath, and vex them in 
His sore displeasure. Yet have I been set by 
Him a King on Zion His holy hill, declaring the 
df^ree of the Lord. The Lord said to Me, 
Thou art My Son ; this day have I begotten 
Thee. Ask of Me, and I shall give Thee the 
heathen for Thine inheritance, and the uttermost 
parts of the earth as Thy possession. Thou 
shalt herd them with a rod of iron ; as the ves- 
sels of a potter shalt Thou dash them in pieces. 
Be wise now, therefore, O ye kings ; be in- 
structed, all ye judges of the earth. Serve the 
Lord with fear, and rejoice with trembling. 
Embrace instruction, lest at any time the Lord 
be angry, and ye perish from the right way, when 
His wrath has been suddenly kindled. Blesse(-1 
are all they that put their trust in Him." 3 



I Eurip., Hipp., 608. 

- Ps. xix. 2, etc. [Note how J. excuses himself for the apparent 
irrelevancy of some of his citations (cap. xxxv., note), though quite 
in the manner of Plato himself. These Scriptures were of novel in- 
terest, and he was stimulating his reade/s to study the Septuagint.] 

And again, in another prophecy, the Spirit of 
prophecy, through the same David, intimated 
that Christ, after He had been crucified, should 
reign, and spoke as follows : " Sing to the Lord, 
all the earth, and day by day declare His salva- 
tion. For great is the Lord, and greatly to be 
praised, to be feared above all the gods. For 
all the gods of the nations are idols of devils ; 
but God made the heavens. Glory and praise 
are before His face, strength and glorying are in 
the habitation of His holiness. Give Glory to 
the Lord, the Father everlasting. Receive grace, 
and enter His presence, and worship in His holy 
courts. Let all the earth fear before His face ; 
let it be established, and not shaken. Let them 
rejoice among the nations. The Lord hath 
reigned from the tree." ■* 


But when the Spirit of prophecy speaks of 
thiogs that are about to come to pass as if they 
had already taken place, — as may be observed 
even in the passages already cited by me, — that 

3 Ps. i. ii. 

* Ps. xcvi. I, etc. This List clause, which is not extant in our 
copies, either of the LXX. or of the Hebrew, Justin charged the Jews 
with erasing. See Dial. Tryph., c. 73. [Concerning the eighteen 
Jewish alterations, see Pearson on the Creed, art. iv. p. 335. 
Ed. London, 1824. J 



this circumstance may afford no excuse to read- 
ers [for misinterpreting them], we will make 
even this also quite plain. The things which He 
absolutely knows will take place, He predicts as 
if already they had taken place. And that the 
utterances must be thus received, you will per- 
ceive, if you give your attention to them. The 
words cited above, David uttered 1500 ' years 
before Christ became a man and was crucified ; 
and no one of those who lived before Him, nor 
yet of His contemporaries, afforded joy to the 
Gentiles by being crucified. But our Jesus 
Christ, being crucified and dead, rose again, and 
having ascended to heaven, reigned ; and by 
those things which were published in His name 
among all nations by the apostles, there is ipy 
afforded to those who expect the immortality 
)romised by Him. 



It lest some suppose, from what has been 
said by us, that we say that whatever happens, 
happens by a fatal necessity, because it is fore- 
told as known beforehand, this too we explain. 
We have lea.rned from the prophets, and we hold 
it to be true, that punishments, and chastisements, 
and good rewards, are rendered according to the 
merit of each man's actions. Since if it be not 
so, but all things happen by fate, neither is any- 
thing at all in our own power. For if it be fated 
that this man, e.g., be good, and this other evil, 
neither is the former meritorious nor the latter 
to be blamed. And again, unless the human 
race have the power of avoiding evil and choosing 
 good by free choice, they are not accountable 
for their actions, of whatever kind they be. 
But that it is by free choice they both walk 
uprightly and stumble, we thus demonstrate. 
We see the same man making a transition to op- 
posite things. Now, if it had been fated that he 
were to be either good or bad, he could never 
have been capable of both the opposites, nor of 
so many transitions. But not even would some 
be good and others bad, since we thus make fate 
the cause of evil, and exhibit her as acting in 
opposition to herself; or that which has been 
already stated would seem to be true, that neither 
virtue nor vice is anything, but that things are 
only reckoned good or evil by opinion ; which, 
as the true word shows, is the greatest impiety 
and wickedness. But this we assert is inevitable 
fate, that they who choose the good have worthy 
rewards, and they who choose the opposite have 
their merited awards. For not like other things, 
as trees and quadrupeds, which cannot act by 
choice, did God make man : for neither would he 
be worthy of reward or praise did he not of him- 
self choose the good, but were created for this 

' A chronological error, whether of the copyist or of Justin him- 
self cannot be known. 

end ; '^ nor, if he were evil, would he be worthy 
of punishment, not being evil of himself, but 
being able to be nothing else than what he was 


■^'And the holy Spirit of prophecy taught us this, 
telling us by Moses that God spoke thus to the 
man first created : " Behold, before thy face are 
good and evil : choose the good." ^ And again, 
by the other prophet Isaiah, that the following 
utterance was made as if from God the Father 
and Lord of all : " Wash you, make you clean ; 
put away evils from your souls ; learn to do well ; 
judge the orphan, and plead for the widow : and 
come and let us reason together, saith the Lord : 
And if your sins be as scarlet, I will make them 
white as wool ; and if they be red like as crimson, 
I will make them white as snow. And if ye be 
willing and obey Me, ye shall eat the good of the 
land \ but if ye do not obey Me, the sword shall 
devour you : for the mouth of the Lord hath 
spoken it." ■* And that expression, "The sword 
shall devour you," does not mean that the dis- 
obedient shall be slain by the sword, but the 
sword of God is fire, of which they who choose 
to do wickedly become the fuel. Wherefore He 
says, " The sword shall devour you : for the 
mouth of the Lord hath spoken it." And if He 
had spoken concerning a sword that cuts and at 
once despatches. He would not have said, shall 
devour. And so, too, Plato, when he says, " The 
blame is his who chooses, and God is blameless," 5 
took this from the prophet Moses and uttered it. 
For Moses is more ancient than all the Greek 
writers. And whatever both philosophers and 
poets have said concerning the immortality of the 
soul, or punishments after death, or contemplation 
of things heavenly, or doctrines of the like kind, 
they have received such suggestions from the 
prophets as have enabled them to understand 
and interpret these things. And hence there 
seem to be seeds of truth among all men ; but 
they are charged with not accurately understand- 
ing [the truth] when they assert contradictories. 
So that what we say about future events being 
foretold, we do not say it as if they caine about 
by a fatal necessity; but God foreknowing all 
that shall be done by all men, and it being His 
decree that the future actions of men shall all be 
recompensed according to their several value, 
He foretells by the Spirit of prophecy that He 
will bestow meet rewards according to the merit 
of the actions done, always urging the human 

2 Or, "but were made so." The words are, aMa touto yefOiuero"; 
and the meaning of Justin is sufficiently clear. 

3 Deut. XXX. 15, 19. 
< Isa. i. 16, etc. 

5 Plato, Rep. X. [On this remarkable passage refer to Biog. Note 
above. See, also, brilliant note of the sophist De Maistre, iMuvres, 
ii. p. 105. Ed. Paris, 1853.] 



race to effort and recollection, showing that He 
cares and provides for men. But by the agency 
of the devils death has been decreed against 
those who read the books of Hystaspes, or of 
the Sibyl,' or of the prophets, that through fear 
they may prevent men who read them from re- 
ceiving the knowledge of the good, and may 
retain them in slavery to themselves ; which, how- 
ever, they could not always effect. For not only 
do we fearlessly read them, but, as you see, bring 
them for your inspection, knowing that their con- 
tents will be pleasing to all. And if we persuade 
even a few, our gain will be very great ; for, as 
good husbandmen, we shall receive the rew 
from the Master. 

J\ CHAP. XLV. — Christ's session in heaven 


And that God the Father of all would bring 
Christ to heaven after He had raised Him from 
the dead, and would keep Him there ^ until He 
has subdued His enemies the devils, and until 
the number of those who are foreknown by Him 
as good and virtuous is complete, on whose ac- 
count He has still delayed the consummation — 
hear what was said by the prophet David. These 
are his words : " The Lord said unto My Lord, 
Sit Thou at My right hand, until I make Thine 
enemies Thy footstool. The Lord shall send to 
Thee the rod of power out of Jerusalem ; and rule 
Thou in the midst of Thine enemies. With Thee 
is the government in the day of Thy power, in the 
beauties of Thy saints : from the womb of morn- 
ing 3 have I begotten Thee." '• That which he 
says, " He shall send to Thee the rod of power 
out of Jerusalem," is predictive of the mighty 
word, which His apostles, going forth from Jeru- 
salem, preached everywhere ; and though death 
is decreed against those who teach or at all con- 
fess the name of Christ, we everywhere both em- 
brace and teach it. And if you also read these 
words in a hostile spirit, ye can do no more, as 
I said before, than kill us ; which indeed does 
no harm to us, but to you and all who unjustly 
hate us, and do not repent, brings eternal punish- 
ment by fire. 



\^ But lest some should, without reason, and for 
the perversion of what we teach, maintain that 
we say that Christ was born one hundred and 
fifty years ago under Cyrenius, and subsequently, 
in the time of Pontius Pilate, taught what we say 

 [On the Orphica and Sibyllina, see Bull, Works, vol. vi. pp. 

^ So Thirlby, Otto, and TroUope seem all to understand the word 
Ka.ti\fiv\ yet it seems worth considering whether Justin has not 
borrowed both the sense and the word from 2 Thess. ii. 6, 7. 

3 Or, " before the morning star. " 

■* Ps. ex. I, etc. 

He taught ; and should cry out against us as 
though all men who were born before Him were 
irresponsible — let us anticipate and solve the 
difficulty. We have been taught that Christ is 
the first-born of God, and we have declared 
above that He is the Word of whom e\-ery race 
of men were partakers ; and those who lived 
reasonably 5 are Christians, even though they 
have been thought atheists ; as, among the 
Greeks, Socrates and Heraclitus, and men like 
them ; and among the barbarians, Abraham, 
and Ananias, and Azarias, and Misael, and Elias, 
and many others whose actions and names we now 
decline to recount, because we know it would be 
tedious. So that even they who lived before 
Christ, and lived without reason, were wicked 
and hostile to Christ, and slew those who lived 
reasonably. But who, through the power of the 
Word, according to the will of God the Father 
and Lord of all. He was born of a virgin as a 
man, and was named Jesus, and was crucified, 
and died, and rose again, and ascended into 
heaven, an intelligent man will be able to com- 
prehend from what has been already so largely 
said. And we, since the proof of this subject is 
less needful now, will pass for the present to the 
proof of those things which are urgent. 


That the land of the Jews, then, was to be laid 
waste, hear what was said by the Spirit of proph- 
ecy. And the words were spoken as if from the 
person of the people wondering at what had hap- 
pened. They are these : " Sion is a wilderness, 
Jerusalem a desolation. The house of our sanc- 
tuary has become a curse, and the glory which 
our fathers blessed is burned up with fire, and 
all its glorious things are laid waste : and Thou 
refrainest Thyself at these things, and hast held 
Thy peace, and hast humbled us very sore."^ 
And ye are convinced that Jerusalem has been 
laid waste, as was predicted. And concerning 
its desolation, arid that no one should be per- 
mitted to inhabit it, there was the following 
prophecy by Isaiah : " Their land is desolate, 
their enemies consume it before them, and none 
of them shall dwell therein." ^ And that it is 
guarded by you lest any one dwell in it, and 
that death is decreed against a Jew apprehended 
entering it, you know very well.*^ 



v^And that it was predicted that our Christ 

5 fieri Aoyou, " with reason," or " the Word." [This remarkable 
passage on the salvability and accountability of the heathen is note- 
worthy. See, on St. Matt. xxv. 32, Morsels of Criticism by the 
eccentric but thoughtful Ed. King, p. 341. London, 1788J. 

*> Isa. Ixiv. 10-12. 

^ Isa. i. 7. 

8 \Ad homitiem, referring to the cruel decree of Hadrian, which 
the philosophic Antonines did not annul.] 




should heal all diseases and raise the dead, hear 
what was said. There are these words : " At 
His coming the lame shall leap as an hart, and 
the tongue of the stammerer shall be clear speak- 
ing : the blind shall see, and the lepers shall be 
cleansed ; and the dead shall rise, and walk 
about." ' And that He did those things, you 
can learn from the Acts of Pontius Pilate. And 
how it was predicted by the Spirit of prophecy 
that He and those who hoped in Him should be 
slain, hear what was said by Isaiah. These are 
the words : " Behold now the righteous perish- 
eth, and no man layeth it to heart ; and just 
men are taken away, and no man considereth. 
From the presence of wickedness is the righteous 
man taken, and his burial shall be in peace : he 
/is taken from our midst." ^ 



And again, how it was said by the same Isaiah, 
that the Gentile nations who were not looking 
for Him should worship Him, but the Jews who 
always expected Him should not recognize Him 
when He came. And the words are spoken as 
from the person of Christ ; and they are these : 
" I was manifest to them that asked not for Me ; 
I was found of them that sought Me not : I said. 
Behold Me, to a nation that called not on My 
name. I spread out My hands to a disobedient 
and gainsaying people, to those who walked in 
a way that is not good, but follow after their own 
sins ; a people that provoketh Me to anger to 
My face." ^ For the Jews having the prophecies, 
and being always in expectation of the Christ to 
come, did not recognise Him ; and not only so, 
but even treated Him shamefully. But the Gen- 
tiles, who had never heard anything about Christ, 
until the apostles set out from Jerusalem and 
preached concerning Him, and gave them the 
prophecies, were filled with joy and faith, and cast 
away their idols, and dedicated themselves to the 
Unbegotten God through Christ. And that it 
was foreknown that these infamous things should 
be uttered against those who confessed Christ, 
and that those who slandered Him, and said 
that it was well to preserve the ancient customs, 
should be miserable, hear what was briefly said 
by Isaiah ; it is this : " Woe unto them that gall 
sweet bitter, and bitter sweet." * 

:hat call 


But that, having become man for our sakes, 
He endured to su ffer and to be dishonoured, and 
that_H£_ shall comeagam with glofy7 hear the 
prophecies which relateto~thTs";~EEey are these : 

' Isa. XXXV. 6. 

2 Isa. Ivii. I. 

3 Isa. Ixv. 1-3. 
 Isa. V. 20. 

" Because they delivered His soul unto death, 
and He was numbered with the transgressors, 
He has borne the sin of many, and shall make 
intercession for the transgressors. For, behold. 
My Servant shall deal prudently, and shall be 
exalted, and shall be greatly extolled. As many 
were astonished at Thee, so marred shall Thy 
form be before men, and so hidden from them 
Thy glory ; so shall many nations wonder, and 
the kings shall shut their mouths at Him. For 
they to whom it was not told concerning Him. 
and they who have not heard, shall understand. 
O Lord, who hath believed our report? and to 
whom is the arm of the Lord revealed? We 
have declared before Him as a child, as a root 
in a dry ground. He had no form, nor glory ; 
and we saw Him, and there was no form nor 
comeliness : but His form was dishonoured and 
marred more than the sons of men. A man 
under the stroke, and knowing how to bear 
infirmity, because His face was turned away : 
He was despised, and of no reputation. It is 
He who bears our sins, and is afflicted for us ; 
yet we did esteem Him smitten, stricken, and 
afflicted. But He was wounded for our trans- 
gressions. He was bruised for our iniquities, the 
chastisement of peace was upon Him, by His 
stripes we are healed. All we, like sheep, have 
gone astray ; every man has wandered in his own 
way. And He delivered Him for our sins ; and 
He opened not His mouth for all His affliction. 
He was brought as a sheep to the slaughter, and 
as a lamb before his shearer is dumb, so He 
openeth not His mouth. In His humiliation. 
His judgment was taken away." 5 Accordingly, 
after He was crucified, even all His acquaint- 
ances forsook Him, having denied Him ; and 
afterwards, when He had risen from the dead 
and appeared to them, and had taught them to 
read the prophecies in which all these things were 
foretold as coming to pass, and when they had 
seen Him ascending into heaven, and had ber 
lieved, and had received power sent thence by 
Him upon them, and went to every race of men, 
they taught these things, and were called apostles. 



/ And that the Spirit of prophecy might signify 1 
to us that He who suffers these things has an 
ineffable origin, and rules His enemies. He spake 
thus : " His generation who shall declare ? be- 
cause His life is cut off from the earth : for their 
transgressions He comes to death. And I will 
give the wicked for His burial, and the rich for 
His death ; because He did no violence, neither 
was any deceit in His mouth. And the Lord is 
pleased to cleanse Him from the stripe. If He 
be given for sin, your soul shall see His seed 

5 Isa. lii. 13-15, liii. i- 




prolonged in days. And the Lord is pleased to 
deliver His soul from grief, to show Him light, 
and to form Him with knowledge, to justify the 
righteous who richly serveth many. And He 
shall bear our iniquities. Therefore He shall 
inherit many, and He shall divide the spoil of 
the strong ; because His soul was delivered to 
death : and He was numbered with the trans- 
gressors ; and He bare the sins of many, and 
He was delivered up for their transgressions." ' 
Hear, too, how He was to ascend into heaven 
according to prophecy. It was thus spoken : 
" Lift up the gates of heaven ; be ye opened, 
that the King of glory may come in. Who is this 
King of glory? The Lord, strong and mighty." ^ 
And how also He should come again out of 
heaven with glory, hear what was spoken in refer- 
ence to this by the prophet Jeremiah. ^ His 
words are : " Behold, as the Son of man He 
Cometh in the clouds of heaven, and His angels 
yvith Him." •♦ 


Since, then, we prove that all things which 
have already happened had been predicted by 
the prophets before they came to pass, we must 
necessarily believe also that those things which 
are in like manner predicted, but are yet to come 
to pass, shall certainly happen. For as the things 
which have already taken place came to pass 
wlien foretold, and even though unknown, so 
shall the things that remain, even though they 
be unknown and disbelieved, yet come to pass. 
For the prophets have proclaimed two advents 
of His : the one, that which is already past, 
when He came as a dishonoured and suffering 
Man ; but the second, when, according to proph- 
ecy, He shall come from heaven with glory, ac- 
companied by His angelic host, when also He 
shall raise the bodies of all men who have lived, 
and shall clothe those of the worthy with immor- 
tality, and shall send those of the wicked, endued 
with eternal sensibility, into everlasting fire with 
the wicked devils. And that these things also 
have been foretold as yet to be, we will prove. 
By Fzekiel the jirophet it was said : " Joint shall 
be joined to joint, and bone to bone, and flesh 
shall grow again ; and every knee shall bow to 
the Lord, and every tongue shall confess Him." 5 
And in what kind of sensation and punishment 
the wicked are to be, hear from what was said 
in like manner with reference to this ; it is as 
follows : " Their worm shall not rest, and their 
fire shall not be quenched;"^ and then shall 
they repent, when it profits them not. And what 

' Isa. liii. 8-12. 

* Ps. xxiv. 7. 

3 This prophecy occurs not in Jeremiah, but in Dan. rii. 13. 

* Dan. vii. 13. 

5 Ezek. xxxvii. 7, 8; Isa. xlv. 34. 
<> Isa. Ixvi, 34. 

the people of the Jews shall say and do, when 
they see Him coming in glory, has been thus 
predicted by Zechariah the prophet : " I will 
command the four winds to gather the scattered 
children ; I will command the north wind to 
bring them, and the south wind, that it keep not 
back. And then in Jerusalem there shall be 
great lamentation, not the lamentation of mouths 
or of lips, but the lamentation of the heart ; and 
they shall rend not their garments, but their 
hearts. Tribe by tribe they shall mourn, and 
then they shall look on Him whom they have 
pierced ; and they shall say, Why, O Lord, hast 
Thou made us to err from Thy way ? The g\ory 
which our fathers blessed, has for us been turned 
^nto shame." ^ 


vJThough we could bring forward many other 
prophecies, we forbear, judging these sufficient 
for the persuasion of those who have ears to hear 
and understand ; and considering also that those 
persons are able to see that we do not make 
mere assertions without being able to produce 
proof, hke those fables that are told of the so- 
called sons of Jupiter. For. with what reason 
should we believe of a crucified man that He is 
the first-born of the unbegotten God, and Him- 
self will pass judgment on the whole human race, 
unless we had found testimonies concerning Him 
published before He came and was born as man, 
and unless we saw that things had happened ac- 
cordingly — the devastation of the land of the 
Jews, and men of every race persuaded by His 
teaching through the apostles, and rejecting 
their old habits, in which, being deceived, they 
had had their conversation ; yea, seeing ourselves 
too, and knowing that the Christians from among 
the Gentiles are both more numerous and more 
true than those from among the Jews and Samar- 
itans ? For all the other human races 3Je called 
Gentiles by the Spirit of prophecy ; but the Jew- 
ish and Samaritan races are called the tribe of 
Israel, and the house of Jacob. And the prophecy 
in which it was predicted that there should be 
more believers from the Gentiles than from the 
Jews and Samaritans, we will produce : it ran 
thus : " Rejoice, O barren, thou that dost not 
bear ; break forth and shout, thou that dost not 
travail, because many more are the children of 
the desolate than of her that hath an husband." '^ 
For all the Gentiles were " desolate " of the true 
(iod, serving the works of their hands ; but the 
Jews and Samaritans, having the word of God 
delivered to them by the prophets, and always 
expecting the Christ, did not recognise Him 
when He came, except some few, of whom the 
Spirit of prophecy by Isaiah had predicted that 

7 Zech. xii. 3-14; Isa. Ixiii. 17, Uiv. 11. 
* Isa. liv. I. 



Aey should be saved. He spoke as from their 
ijerson : " Except the Lord had left us a seed, we 
should have been as Sodom and Gomorrah." ' 
For Sodom and Gomorrah are related by Moses 
to have been cities of ungodly men, which God 
burned with fire and brimstone, and overthrew, 
no one of their inhabitants being saved except 
a certain stranger, a Chaldaean by birth, whose 
name was Lot ; with whom also his daughters 
were rescued. And those who care may yet see 
their whole country desolate and burned, and 
remaining barren. And to show how those from 
among the Gentiles were foretold as more true 
and more believing, we will cite what was said 
by Isaiah ^ the prophet ; for he spoke as follows : 
" Israel is uncircumcised in heart, but the Gen- 
tiles are uncircumcised in the flesh." So many 
things therefore, as these, when they are seen 
with the eye, are enough to produce conviction 
and behef in those who embrace the truth, and 
are not bigoted in their opinions, nor are g9v- 
erned by their passions. ^ /[/ 


But those who hand down the myths which the 
poets have made, adduce no proof to the youths 
who learn them ; and we proceed to demon- 
strate that they have been uttered by the influ- 
ence of the wicked demons, to deceive and lead 
astray the human race. For having heard it 
proclaimed through the prophets that the Christ 
was to come, and that the ungodly among men 
were to be punished by fire, they put forward 
many to be called sons of Jupiter, under the 
impression that they would be able to produce in 
men the idea that the things which were said 
with regard to Christ were mere marvellous tales, 
like the things which were said by the poets. And 
these things were said both among the Greeks 
and among all nations where they [the de- 
mons] heard the prophets foretelling that Christ 
would specially be believed in ; but that in 
hearing what was said by the prophets they 
did not accurately understand it, but imitated 
what was said of our Christ, like men who are in 
error, we will make plain. The prophet Moses, 
then, was, as we have already said, older than 
all writers ; and by him, as we have also said be- 
fore, it was thus predicted : " There shall not 
fail a prince from Judah, nor a lawgiver from 
between his feet, until He come for whom it is 
reserved ; and He shall be the desire of the Gen- 
tiles, binding His foal to the vine, washing His 
robe in the blood of the grape." ^ The devils, 
accordingly, when they heard these prophetic 
words, said that Bacchus was the son of Jupiter, 
and gave out that he was the discoverer of the 

' Isa. i. Q. 

^ The following words are found, not in Isaiah, but in Jer. ix. 26. 

' Gen. xlix. 10. 

vine, and they number wine ^ [or, the ass] among 
his mysteries ; and they taught that, having been 
torn in pieces, he ascended into heaven. And 
because in the prophecy of Moses it had not 
been expressly intimated whether He who was 
to come was the Son of God, and whether 
He would, riding on the foal, remain on earth 
or ascend into heaven, and because the name of 
" foal " could mean either the foal of an ass or 
the foal of a horse, they, not knowing whether 
He who was foretold would bring the foal of an 
ass or of a horse as the sign of His coming, nor 
whether He was the Son of God, as we said 
above, or of man, gave out that Bellerophon, a 
man born of man, himself ascended to heaven 
on his horse Pegasus. And when they heard it 
said by the other prophet Isaiah, that He should 
be born of a virgin, and by His own means as- 
cend into heaven, they pretended that Perseus 
was spoken of. And when they knew what was 
said, as has been cited above, in the prophecies 
written aforetime, " Strong as a giant to run his 
course," s they said that Hercules was strong, 
and had journeyed over the whole earth. And 
when, again, they learned that it had been fore- 
told that He should heal every sickness, and 
raise the dead, they produced ^sculapius. 


But in no instance, not even in any of those 
called sons of Jupiter, did they imitate the be- 
ing crucified ; forjt was not understood by them, 
all the things said of it having been put symboli- 
cally. And this, as the prophet foretold, is the 
greatest symbol of His power and rule ; as is also 
proved by the things which fall under our obser- 
vation. For consider all the things in the world, 
whether without this form they could be admin- 
istered or have any community. For the sea is 
not traversed except that trophy which is called 
a sail abide safe in the ship ; and the earth is 
not ploughed without it : diggers and mechanics 
do not their work, except with tools which have 
this shape. And the human form differs from 
that of the irrational animals in nothing else than 
in its being erect and having the hands extended, 
and having on the face extending from the fore- 
head what is called the aose, through which 
there is respiration for the living creature ; and 
this shows no other form than that of the cross. 
And so it was said by the prophet, " The breath 
before our face is the Lord Christ." ^ And the 
power of this form is shown by your own sym- 
bols on what are called " vexilla " [banners] and 

< In the MS. the reading is olvov (wine) ; but as Justin's argu.rn;nt 
seems to require oi'oi' (an ass), Sylburg inserted this latter word in 
his edition; and this reading is approved by Grabe and Thirlby, and 
adopted by Otto and TroUope. It may be added, that<\)0\jai 
is much more suitable to avov than to oii'oi'. 

5 Ps xix. 5. 

b From Lam. iv. 20 (Sept.). 



trophies, with which all your state possessions are 
made, using these as the insignia of your power 
and government, even though you do so unwit- 
tingly.' And with this form you consecrate the 
images of your emperors when they die, and you 
name them gods by inscriptions. Since, there- 
fore, we have urged you both by reason and by 
an evident form, and to the utmost of our ability, 
we know that now we are blameless even though 
you disbeheve ; for our part is done and fin- 


But the evil spirits were not satisfied with say- 
ing, before Christ's appearance, that those who 
were said to be sons of Jupiter were born of 
him ; but after He had appeared and been bom 
among men, and when they learned how He had 
been foretold by the prophets, and knew that 
He should be believed on and looked for by 
every nation, they again, as was said above, put 
for\vard other men, the Samaritans Simon and 
Menander, who did many mighty works by magic, 
and deceived many, and still keep them de- 
ceived. For even among yourselves, as we said 
before,^ Simon was in the royal city Rome in 
the reign of Claudius Caesar, and so greatly 
astonished the sacred senate and people of the 
Romans, that he was considered a god, and 
honoured, like the others whom you honour as 
gods, with a statue. Wherefore we pray that the 
sacred senate and your people may, along with 
yourselves, be arbiters of this our memorial, in 
order that if any one be entangled by that man's 
doctrines, he may learn the tmth, and so be able 
to escape error ; and as for the statue, if you 
please, destroy it. 


Norcan the devils persuade men that there 
will be no conflagration for the punishment of 
the wicked ; as they were unable to effect that 
Christ should be hidden after He came. But 
this only can they effect, that they who live irra- 
tionally, and were brought up licentiously in 
wicked customs, and are prejudiced in their 
own opinions, should kill and hate us ; whom 
we not only do not hate, but, as is proved, pity 
and endeavour to lead to repentance. For we 
do not fear death, since it is acknowledged we 
must surely die ; and there is nothing new, but 
all things continue the same in this administra- 
tion of things ; and if satiety overtakes those who 
enjoy even one year of these things, they ought 
to give heed to our doctrines, that they may 
live eternally free both from suffering and from 

• [The Orientals delight in such refinements, but the " scandal of 
the cioss" led the early Christians thus to retort upon the heathen; 
and the Labarum may have been the fruit of this very suggestion.] 

- [See cap. «xvi. above, and note p. 187, below.J 

want. But if they believe that there is nothing 
after death, but declare that those who die pass 
into insensibility, then they become our benefac- 
tors when they set us free from sufferings and 
necessities of this life, and prove themselves to 
be wicked, and inhuman, and bigoted. For they 
kill us with no intention of delivering us, but 
cut us off that we may be deprived of life and 



And, as we said before, the devils put forward 
Marcion of Pontus, who is even now teaching 
men to deny that God is the maker of all things 
in heaven and on earth, and that the Christ pre- 
dicted by the prophets is His Son, and preaches 
another god besides the Creator of aU, and like- 
wise another son. And this man many have 
believed, as if he alone knew the truth, and 
laugh at us, though they have no proof of what 
they say, but are carried away irrationally as 
lambs by a wolf, and become the prey of atheis- 
tical doctrines, and of devils. For they who are 
called devils attempt nothing else than to seduce 
men from God who made them, and from Christ 
His first-begotten ; and those who are unable to 
raise themselves above the earth they have riveted, 
and do now rivet, to things earthly, and to the 
works of their own hands \ but those who de- 
vote themselves to the contemplation of things 
divine, they secretly beat back ; and if they have 
not a wise sober-mindedness, and a pure and 
passionless life, they drive them into godless- 


And that you may learn that it was from om 
teachers — we mean the account given through 
the prophets — that Plato borrowed his state- 
ment that God, having altered matter which was 
shapeless, made the world, hear the very words 
spoken through Moses, who, as above shown., 
was the first prophet, and of greater antiquity 
than the Greek writers ; and through whom the 
Spirit of prophecy, signifying how and from what 
materials God at first formed the world, spake 
thus : " In the beginning God created the heaven 
and the earth. And the earth was invisible and 
unfurnished, and darkness was upon the face oi 
the deep ; and the Spirit of God moved over 
the waters. And God said. Let there be light ,■ 
and it was so." So that both Plato and they 
who agree with him, and we ourselves, have 
learned, and you also can be convinced, that by 
the word of God the whole world was made out 
of the substance spoken of before li^' Moses. 
And that which the poets call Erebus, we kno»v 
was spoken of formerly by Moses.^ 

3 Comp. Deut. xxxii. 11. 





And the physiological discussion ' concerning 
the Son of God in the Tiviceus of Plato, where 
he says, " He placed him crosswise ^ in the uni- 
verse," he borrowed in like manner from Moses \ 
for in the writings of Moses it is related how at 
that time, when the Israelites went out of Egypt 
and were in the wilderness, they fell in with 
poisonous beasts, both vipers and asps, and every 
kind of serpent, which slew the people ; and 
that Moses, by the inspiration and influence of 
God, took brass, and made it into the figure of 
a cross, and set it in the holy tabernacle, and 
said to the people, " If ye look to this figure, 
and believe, ye shall be saved thereby." ^ And 
when this was done, it is recorded that the ser- 
pents died, and it is handed down that the 
people thus escaped death. Which things Plato 
reading, and not accurately understanding, and 
not apprehending that it was the figure of the 
cross, but taking it to be a placing crosswise, 
he said that the power next to the first God was 
placed crosswise in the universe. And as to 
his speaking of a third, he did this because he 
read, as we said above, that which was spoken 
by Moses, " that the Spirit of God moved over 
the waters." For he gives the second place to 
the Logos which is with God, who he said was 
placed crosswise in the universe ; and the third 
place to the Spirit who was said to be borne 
upon the water, saying, " And the third around 
the third." -* And hear how the Spirit of proph- 
ecy signified through Moses that there should be 
a conflagration. He spoke thus : " Everlasting 
fire shall descend, and shall devour to the pit 
beneath." s It is not, then, that we hold the same 
opinions as others, but that all speak in imitation 
of ours. Among us these things can be heard 
and learned from persons who do not even know 
the forms of the letters, who are uneducated and 
barbarous in speech, though wise and believing 
in mind ; some, indeed, even maimed and de- 
prived of eyesight ; so that you may understand 
that these things are not the effect of human 
wisdom, but are uttered by the power of God. 


I will also relate the manner in which we 

, dedicated ourselves to God when we had been 

' made new through Christ ; lest, if we omit this, 

we seem to be unfair in the explanation we are 

' Literally, " that which is treated physiologically." 

2 He impressed him as a X'ao-Mo, i.e., in the form of the letter y 
"P?" '"^ universe." Plato is speaking of the soul of the universe 
[Timjeus, Opp., vol. ix. p. 314. And see note of Langus (p. 37) on 
p. 113 of Orabe. Here crops out the Platonic philosopher speaking 
alter the fashion of his contemporaries, perhaps to conciliate his 
sovereign. See Professor Jowett's Introduction to the Tiinaus Vk-hich 
will aid the students.] ' 

3 Num. xxi. 8. 

4 Ta 5e Tolra. Trept Toc TpiTOi', 

5 Deut. xxxii. 22. 

making. As many as are persuaded and believe 
that what we teach and say is true, and under 
take to be able to live accordingly, are instructed 
to pray and to entreat God with fasting, for the 
remission of their sins that are past, we praying 
and fasting with them. Then they are brought 
by us where there is water, and are regenerated 
in the same manner in which we were ourselves 
regenerated. For, in the name of God, the 
Father and Lord of the universe, and of our 
Saviour Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit, 
they then receive the washing with water. For 
Christ also said, " Except ye be born again, ye 
shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven."^ 
Now, that it is impossible for those who have 
once been born to enter into their mothers' 
wombs, is manifest to all. And how those who 
have sinned and repent shall escape their sins, 
is declared by Esaias the prophet, as I wrote 
above ; "^ he thus speaks : '' Wash you, make you 
clean ; put away the evil of your doings from 
your souls ; learn to do well ; judge the father- 
less, and plead for the widow : and come and 
let us reason together, saith the Lord. And 
though your sins be as scarlet, I will make them 
white like wool ; and though they be as crimson, 
I will make them white as snow. But if ye re- 
fuse and rebel, the sword shall devour you : for 
the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it." ^ 

And for this [rite] we have learned from the 
apostles this reason. Since at our birth we were 
born without our own knowledge or choice, by 
our parents coming together, and were brought 
up in bad habits and wicked training • in order 
that we may not remain the children of necessity 
and of ignorance, but may become the children 
of choice and knowledge! and may obtain in the 
water the remission of sins formerly committed, 
there is pronounced over him who chooses to be 
born again, and has repented of his sins, the | 
name of God the Father and Lord of the uni- ' 
verse ; he who leads to the laver the person that 
is to be washed calling him by this name alone. 
For no one can utter the name of the ineffable 
God ; and if any one dare to say that there is a 
name, he raves with a hopeless madness. And 
this washing is called illumination, because they 
who learn these things are illuminated in their 
understandings. And in the name of Jesus 
Christ, who was crucified under Pontius Pilate, ! 
and in the name of the Holy Ghost, who through 
the prophets foretold all things about Jesus, he 
who is illuminated is washed. 


Arid the devils, indeed, having heard this 
washirig published by the prophet, instigated 

* John iii. 5. 
7 Chap. xliv. 

• Isa. i. 16-30. 

1 84 


those who enter their temples, and are about to 
approach them with hbations and burnt-offerings, 
also to sprinkle themselves ; and they cause them 
also to wash themselves entirely, as they depart 
[from the sacrifice], before they enter into the 
shrines in which their images are set. And the 
command, too, given by the priests to those who 
enter and worship in the temples, that they take 
off their shoes, the devils, learning what hap- 
pened to the above-mentioned prophet Moses, 
have given in imitation of these things. For at 
that juncture, when Moses was ordered to go 
down into Egypt and lead out the people of the 
Israelites who were there, and while he was tend- 
ing the flocks of his maternal uncle ' in the land 
of Arabia, our Christ conversed with him under 
the appearance of fire from a bush, and said, 
" Put off thy shoes, and draw near and hear." 
And he, when he had put off his shoes and drawn 
near, heard that he was to go down into Egypt 
and lead out the people of the Israelites there ; 
and he received mighty power from Christ, who 
spoke to him in the appearance of fire, and 
went down and led out the people, having done 
great and marvellous things ; which, if you desire 
to know, you will learn them accurately from his 





And all the Jews even now teach that the 
nameless God spake to Moses ; whence the 
Spirit of prophecy, accusing them by Isaiah 
the prophet mentioned above, said " The ox 
knoweth his owner, and the ass his master's crib ; 
but Israel doth not know Me, and My people do 
not understand." 2 And Jesus the Christ, be- 
cause the Jews knew not what the Father was, 
and what the Son, in like manner accused them ; 
and Himself said, " No one knoweth the Father, 
but the Son ; nor the Son, but the Father, and 
they to whom the Son revealeth Him." ^ Now 
the Word of God is His Son, as we have before 
said. And He is called Angel and Apostle ; for 
He declares whatever we ought to know, and is 
sent forth to declare whatever is revealed ; as 
our Lord Himself says, " He that heareth Me, 
heareth Him that sent Me." * From the writ- 
ings of Moses also this will be manifest ; for 
thus it is written in them, " And the Angel of 
God spake to Moses, in a flame of fire out of 
the bush, and said, I am that I am, the God 
of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of 
Jacob, the God of thy fathers ; go down into 
Egypt, and bring forth My people." 5 And if 
you wish to learn what follows, you can do so 

 Thirlby conjectures that Justin here confused in his mind the 
histories of Moses and Jacob. 

2 Isa. i. 3. 

3 Matt. xi. 27. 
* Luke X. i6. 
S Ex. iii. 6. 

from the same writings ; for it is impossible to 
relate the whole here. But so much is written 
for the sake of proving that Jesus the Christ is 
the Son of God and His Apostle, being of old 
the Word, and appearing sometimes in the form 
of fire, and sometimes in the likeness of angels ; 
but now, by the will of God, having become 
man for the human race, He endured all the 
sufferings which the devils instigated the sense- 
less Jews to inflict upon Him ; who, though they 
have it expressly affirmed in the writings of 
Moses, " And the angel of God spake to Moses 
in a flame of fire in a bush, and said, I am that 
I am, the God of Abraham, and the God of 
Isaac, and the God of Jacob," yet maintain that 
He who said this was the Father and Creator of 
the universe. Whence also the Spirit of proph- 
ecy rebukes them, and says, " Israel doth not 
know Me, my people have not understood Me." ^ 
And again, Jesus, as we have already shown, while 
He was with them, said, " No one knoweth the 
Father, but the Son ; nor the Son but the Father, 
and those to whom the Son will reveal Him." 7 
The Jews, accordingly, being throughout of 
opinion that it was the Father of the universe 
who spake to Moses, though He who spake to 
him was indeed the Son of God, who is called 
both Angel and Apostle, are justly charged, both 
by the Spirit of prophecy and by Christ Himself, 
with knowing neither the Father nor the Son. 
For they who affirm that the Son is the Father, 
are proved neither to have become acquainted 
with the Father, nor to know that the Father of 
the universe has a Son ; who also, being the 
first-begotten Word of God, is even God. And 
of old He appeared in the shape of fire and in 
the likeness of an angel to Moses and to the 
other prophets ; but now in the times of your 
reign,^ having, as we before said, become Man 
by a virgin, according to the counsel of the 
Father, for the salvation of those who believe on 
Him, He endured both to be set at nought and 
to suffer, that by dying and rising again He 
might conquer death. And that which was said 
out of the bush to Moses, " I am that I am, the 
God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and 
the God of Jacob, and the God of your fathers," "^ 
this signified that they, even though dead, are 
yet in existence, and are men belonging to Christ 
Himself. For they were the first of all men to 
busy themselves in the search after God ; Abra- 
ham being the father of Isaac, and Isaac of 
Jacob, as Moses wrote. 


From what has been already said, you can 

'i Isa. i. 3. 

7 Matt. xi. 27. 

' [Rather, " of your empire."] 

9 Ex. iii. 6. 



understand how the devils, in imitation of what 
was said by Moses, asserted that Proserpine was 
the daughter of Jupiter, and instigated the peo- 
ple to set up an image of her under the name 
of Kore [Cora, i.e., the maiden or daughter] at 
the spring-heads. For, as we wrote above,' 
Moses said, " In the beginning God made the 
heaven and the earth. And the earth was with- 
out form and unfurnished : and the Spirit of 
God moved upon the face of the waters." In 
imitation, therefore, of what is here said of the 
Spirit of God moving on the waters, they said 
that Proserpine [or Cora] was the daughter of 
Jupiter.^ And in like manner also they craftily 
feigned that Minerva was the daughter of Jupiter, 
not by sexual union, but, knowing that God con- 
ceived and made the world by the Word, they 
say that Minerva is the first conception [o/i/ota] ; 
which we consider to be very absurd, bringing 
forward the form of the conception in a female 
shape. And in like manner the actions of those 
others who are called sons of Jupiter sufficiently 
/Condemn them. 


^'-^But we, after we have thus washed him who 
has been convinced and has assented to our 
teaching, bring him to the place where those 
who are called brethren are assembled, in order 
that we may offer hearty prayers in_ oommoii for 
ourselves and for the baptized [illuminated] per- 
son, and for all others in every place, that we 
may be counted worthy, now that we have learned 
the truth, by our works also to be found good 
citizens and keepers of the commandments, so 
that we may be saved with an everlasting salva- 
tion. Having ended the prayers, we salute one 
another with a kiss.^ There is then brought to 
the president of tlie brethren •♦ bread and a cup 
of wine mixed with water; and he taking them, 
gives praise and glory to the Father of the uni- 
verse, through the name of the Son and of the 
Holy Ghost, and offers thanks at considerable 
length for our being counted worthy to receive 
these things at His hands. And when he has 
concluded the prayers and thanksgivings, all the 
people present express their assent by saying 
Amen. This word Amen answers in the Hebrew 
language to yeVoiro [so be it]. And when the 
president has given thanks, and all the people 
have expressed their assent, those who are called 

* Chap. lix. 

2 And therefore caused her to preside over the waters, as above. 

3 The kiss of charity, the kiss of peace, or "the peace" (r; 
eiprji'r;), was enjoined by the Apostle Paul in his Epistles to the Cor- 
inthians, Thessalonians, and Romans, and thence passed into a com- 
mon Christian usage. It was continued in the Western Church, under 
regulations to prevent its abuse, itntil the thirteenth century. Stanley 
remarks (^Corinthians, i. 414), " It is still continued in the worship 
of the Coptic Church." 

* TO) TrpoecTTuiTi Twv a6« Acfitov. This expression may quite legiti- 
mately be translated, " to that one of the brethren who was presid- 

by us deacons give to each of those present to 
partake of the bread and wine mixed with water 
over which the thanksgiving was pronounced, 
and to those who are absent they carry away a 



And this food is called among us Y^vxa-pia-Tia^ 
[the Eucharist], of which no one is allowed to 
partake but the man wlio believes that the things 
which lve~TeacR~are true, and who has been 
washed with the washing that is for the remis- 
sion of sins, and unto regeneration, and who is so 
living as Christ has enjoined. For not as com- 
mon bread and common drink do we receive 
these ; but in like manner as Jesus Christ our 
Saviour, having been made flesh by the Word 
of God, had both flesh and blood for our salva- 
tion, so likewise have we been taught that the 
food which is blessed by the prayer of His word, 
and from which our blood and flesh by transmu- 
tation are nourished, is the flesh and blood of 
that Jesus who was made flesh.^ For the apos- 
tles, in the memoirs composed by them, which 
are called Gospels, have thus delivered unto us 
what was enjoined upon them ; that Jesus took 
bread, and when He had given thanks, said, 
" This do ye in remembrance of Me,^ this is My 
body ; " and that, after the same manner, hav- 
ing taken the cup and given thanks. He said, 
" This is My blood ; " and gave it to them alone. 
Which the wicked devils have imitated in the 
mysteries of Mithras, commanding the same 
thing to be done. For, that bread and a cup of 
water are placed with certain incantations in the 
mystic rites of one who is being initiated, you 
either know or can learn. 


And we afterwards continually remind each 
other of these things. And the wealthy among •" 
us help the needy ; and we always keep to- 
gether ; and for all things wherewith we are sup- 
plied, we bless the Maker of all through His Son 

5 Literally, thanksgiving. See Matt. xxvi. 27. 

6 This passage is claimed alike by Calvinists, Lutherans, and 
Romanists; and, indeed, the language is so inexact, that each party 
may plausibly maintain that their own opinion is advocated by it. 
[But the same might he said of the words of our Lord himself; and, if 
such widely separated Christians can all adopt this passage, who can 
be sorry?] The expression, " the prayer of His word," or of the 
word we have from Him, seems to signify the prayer pronounced 
over the elements, in imitation of our Lord's thanksgiving before 
breaking the bread. [I must dissent from the opinion that the lan- 
guage is " inexact: " he expresses himself naturally as one who be- 
lieves it is bread, but yet not " common bread." So Gelasius, Bishop 
of Rome (a d. 490.), " By the sacraments we are made partakers 
of the divine nature, and yet the substance and nature of bread and 
wine do not cease to be in them," etc. (See the original in Bing- 
ham's Antiquities, book xv. cap. 5. See Chrysost., Epist. ad. 
Cdsarium, tom. iii. p. 753. Ed. Migne.) Those desirous to pursue 
this inquiry will find the Patristic authorities in Historia Transuo- 
stantionis Papalis, etc., Edidit F. Meyrick, Oxford, 1858. The 
famous tractate of Ratranin (a.d. 840) was published at Oxford, 1838, 
with the homily of j'Elfric (a.d. 960) in a cheap edition.] 

^ Luke xxii. iq. 

1 86 


Jesus Christ, and through the Holy Ghost. And 
on the day called Sunday,' all who live in cities 
or in the country gather together to one place, 
and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings 
of the prophets are read, as long as time per- 
mits ; then, when the reader has ceased, the 
president verbally instructs, and exhorts to the 
imitation of these good things. Then we all 
rise together and pray, and, as we before said, 
when our prayer is ended, bread and wine and 
water are brought, and the president in like man- 
ner offers prayers and thanksgivings, according 
to his ability,^ and the people assent, saying 
Amen ; and there is a distribution to each, and 
a participation of that over which thanks have 
been given,^ and to those who are absent a por- 
y^ tion is sent by the deacons. And they who are 
well to do, and wilTing, give what each thinks 
fit ; and what is collected is deposited with the 
president, who succours the orphans and widows, 
and those who, through sickness or any other 
cause, are in want, and those who are in bonds, 
and the strangers sojourning among us, and in 3. 
word takes care of all who are in need. But 
Sunday is the day on which we all hold our 
common assembly, because it is the first day on 
which God, having wrought a change in the 
darkness and matter, made the world ; and 
Jesus Christ our Saviour on the same day rose 
from the dead. For He was crucified on the 
day before that of Saturn (Saturday) ; and on 
the day after that of Saturn, which is the day of 
the Sun, having appeared to His apostles and dis- 
ciples, He taught them these things, which we have 
submitted to you also for your consideration. 


And if these things seem to you to be reason- 
able and true, honour them ; but if they seem 
nonsensical, despise them as nonsense, and do 
not decree death against those who have done 
no wrong, as you would against enemies. For 
we forewarn you, that you shall not escape the 
coming judgment of God, if you continue in 
your injustice ; and we ourselves will invite you 
to do that which is pleasing to God. And 
though from the letter of the greatest and most 
illustrious Emperor Adrian, your father, we could 
demand that you order judgment to be given as 
we have desired, yet we have made this appeal 
and explanation, not on the ground of Adrian's 
decision, but because we know that what we ask 
is just. And we have subjoined the copy of 

* TJj Tou 'HAiou A«yOfie»'7) ^uepa. 

* ocTT) Sui'ttfiit avTiZ, — a phrase over which there has been much 
contention, but which seems to admit of no other meaning than that 
given above. [No need of any " contention." Langus renders, Pro 
vtrili suii, and Grabe illustrates by reference to Apost. Const., lib. 
viii. cap. 12. Our own learned translators render the same phrase 
(cap. xiii., above) " to the utmost of our power." Some say this fa- 
vours extemporary prayers, and others object. Oh! what matter 
either way ? We all sing hymns, " according to our ability."] 

J Or, of the eucharistic elements. 

Adrian's epistle, that you may know that we are 
speaking truly about this. And the following is 
the copy : — 


I have received the letter addressed to me by 
your predecessor Serenius Granianus, a most 
illustrious man ; and this communication I am 
unwilling to pass over in silence, lest innocent 
persons be disturbed, and occasion be given to 
the informers for practising villany. Accord- 
ingly, if the inhabitants of your province will so 
far sustain this petition of theirs as to accuse the 
Christians in some court of law, I do not pro- 
hibit them from doing so. But I will not suffer 
them to make use of mere entreaties and out- 
cries. For it is far more just, if any one desires 
to make an accusation, that you give judgment 
upon it. If, therefore, any one makes the accu- 
sation, and furnishes proof that the said men do 
anything contrary to the laws, you shall adjudge 
punishments in proportion to the offences. And 
this, by Hercules, you shall give special heed to, 
that if any man shall, through mere calumny, 
bring an accusation against any of these persons, 
you shall award to him more severe punishments 
in proportion to his wickedness. 


The Emperor Caesar Titus ^lius Adrianus 
Antoninus Augustus Pius, Supreme Pontiff, in the 
fifteenth year of his tribuneship, Consul for the 
third time. Father of the fatherland, to the Com- 
mon Assembly of Asia, greeting : I should have 
thought that the gods themselves would see to it 
that such offenders should not escape. For if 
they had the power, they themselves would much 
rather punish those who refuse to worship them ; 
but it is you who bring, trouble on these persons, 
and accuse as the opinion of atheists that which 
they hold, and lay to their charge certain other 
things which we are unable to prove. But it 
would be advantageous to them that they should 
be thought to die for that of which they are ac- 
cused, and they conquer you by being lavish of 
their lives rather than yield that obedience which 
you require of them. And regarding the earth- 
quakes which have already happened and are 
now occurring, it is not seemly that you remind 
us of them, losing heart whenever they occur, 
and thus set your conduct in contrast with that 
of these men ; for they have much greater confi- 
dence towards God than you yourselves have. 
And you, indeed, seem at such times to ignore 
the gods, and you neglect the temples, and make 

* Addressed to Minucius Fundanus. [Generally credited as 
genuine. ] 

s [ Regarded as spurious. ) 



no recognition of the worship of God. And 
hence you are jealous of those who do serve Him, 
and persecute them to the death. Concerning 
such persons, some others also of the governors 
of provinces wrote to my most divine father ; to 
whom he replied that they should not at all dis- 
turb such persons, unless they were found to be 
attempting anything against the Roman govern- 
ment. And to myself many have sent intima- 
tions regarding such persons, to whom I also 
replied in pursuance of my father's judgment. 
But if any one has a matter to bring against any 
person of this class, merely as such a person,' let 
the accused be acquitted of the charge, even 
though he should be found to be such an one ; 
but let the accuser he amenable to justice. 


The Emperor Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoni- 
nus, Germanicus, Parthicus, Sarmaticus, to the 
People of Rome, and to the sacred Senate, 
greeting : I explained to you my grand design, 
and what advantages I gained on the confines of 
Germany, with much labour and suffering, in 
consequence of the circumstance that I was sur- 
rounded by the enemy ; I myself being shut up 
in Carnuntum by seventy-four cohorts, nine miles 
off. And the enemy being at hand, the scouts 
pointed out to us, and our general Pompeianus 
showed us that there was close on us a mass of a 
mixed multitude of 977,000 men, which indeed 
we saw ; and I was shut up by this vast host, 
having with me only a battalion composed of the 
first, tenth, double and marine legions. Having 
then examined my own position, and my host, with 
respect to the vast mass of barbarians and of 
the enemy, I quickly betook myself to prayer to 
the gods of my country. But being disregarded 
by them, I summoned those who among us go 
by the name of Christians. And having made 
inquiry, I discovered a great number and vast 
host of them, and raged against them, which was 
by no means becoming ; for afterwards I learned 
their power. Wherefore they began the battle, 
not by preparing weapons, nor arms, nor bugles ; 
for such preparation is hateful to them, on ac- 
count of the God they bear about in their con- 
science. Therefore it is probable that those 
whom we suppose to be atheists, have God as 
their ruling power entrenched in their con-. 

' That is, if any one accuses a Christian merely on the ground of 
his being a Christian. 

^ [Spurious, no doubt ; but the literature of the subject is very rich. 
See text and notes, Milman's Gibbon, vol. ii. 46.] 

science. For having cast themselves on the 
ground, they prayed not only for me, but also 
for the whole army as it stood, that they might 
be delivered from the present thirst and famine. 
For during five days we had got no water, be- 
cause there was none ; for we were in the heart 
of Germany, and in the enemy's territory. And 
simultaneously with their casting themselves on 
the ground, and praying to God (a God of whom 
I am ignorant), water poured from heaven, upon 
us most refreshingly cool, but upon the enemies 
of Rome a withering ^ hail. And immediately we 
recognised the presence of God following on the 
prayer — a God unconquerable and indestruc- 
tible. Founding upon this, then, let us pardon 
such as are Christians, lest they pray for and 
obtain such a weapon against ourselves. And I 
counsel that no such person be accused on the 
ground of his being a Christian. But if any one 
be found laying to the charge of a Christian that 
he is a Christian, I desire that it be made mani- 
fest that he who is accused as a Christian, and 
acknowledges that he is one, is accused of nothing 
else than only this, that he is a Christian ; but 
that he who arraigns him be burned alive. And 
I further desire, that he who is entrusted with the 
government of the province shall not compel 
the Christian, who confesses and certifies such a 
matter, to retract ; neither shall he commit him. 
And I desire that these things be confirmed by 
a decree of the Senate. And I command this 
my edict to be published in the Forum of Trajan, 
in order that it may be read. The prefect Vi- 
trasius Pollio will see that it be transmitted to all 
the provinces round about, and that no one who 
wishes to make use of or to possess it be hin- 
dered from obtaining a copy from the document 
I now publish. 



3 Literally, " fiery." , 

[Note I. (See capp. xxvi. and Ivi.) 
In 1851 I recognised this stone in the Vatican, and read it with 
emotion. I copied it, as follows: 

" Semoni 


Deo Fidio 


Sex. Pompeius. S. P. F. Col. Mussianvs. 


The explanation is possibly this: Simon Magus was actually recog- 
nised as the God Seino, just as Barnabas and Paul were supposed to 
be Zeus and Hermes (Acts xiv. 12.), and were offered divine honours 
accordingly. Or the Samaritans may so have informed Justin on 
their understanding of this inscription, and with pride in the success 
of their countryman (Acts viii. 10) , whom they had recognised " as the 
great power of God." See Orelli (No. i860), Insc, vol. i. 337. 

Note n. (The Thundering Legion.) 
The bas-relief on the column of Antonine, in Rome, is a very 
striking complement of the story, but an answer to prayer is not a 
miracle. I simply transcribe from the American Translation of 
Alzog's Universal Church History the references there given to 
the Legio Fulminairix : " Tertull., Apol.,cap. 5; Ad Scap., cap. 4: 
Euseb., V. s: Greg. Nyss. Or., 11 in Martyr.; Oros., vii. 15; Dio. 
Cass.-Epit.: Xiphilin., lib. Ixxi. cap. 8; Jul. Capitol, in Marc 
Antonin., cap. 24."] 




Romans, the things which have recently ' 
happened in your city under Urbicus/ and the 
things which are Hkewise being everywhere 
unreasonably done by the governors, have 
compelled me to frame this composition for 
your sakes, who are men of like passions, and 
brethren, though ye know it not, and though ye 
])e unwilling to acknowledge it on account of 
}Our glorying in what you esteem dignities.^ 
For everywhere, whoever is corrected by father, 
or neighbour, or child, or friend, or brother, or 
husband, or wife, for a fault, for being hard 
to move, for loving pleasure and being hard to 
urge to what is right (except those who have 
been persuaded that the unjust and intemperate 
shall be punished in eternal fire, but that the 
virtuous and those who lived like Christ shall 
dwell with God in a state that is free from suf- 
fering, — we mean, those who have become 
Christians), and the evil demons, who hate us, 
and who keep such men as these subject to 
themselves, and serving them in the capacity of 
judges, incite them, as rulers actuated by evil 
spirits, to put us to death. But that the cause 
of all that has taken place under Urbicus may 
become quite plain to you, I will relate what has 
been done. 


A certain woman lived with an intemperate ■» 
husband ; she herself, too, having formerly been 
intemperate. But when she came to the knowl- 
edge of the teachings of Christ she became 
sober-minded, and endeavoured to persuade her 

IJ Literally, " both yesterday and the day before." 

= [See Grabe's note on the conjecture of Valesius that this pre- 
lect was LoUius Urbicus, the historian (vol. i. p. i, and notes, p. i).] 

3 [He has addressed them as " Romans," because in this they 
gloried together, — emperor, senate, soldiers, and citizens.] 

* aito.\a<TTa.ifoi'ri, which word includes unchastity, as well as the 
other form.-, of intemperance. [As we say, dissolute.] 


husband likewise to be temperate, citing the 
teaching of Christ, and assuring him that there 
shall be punishment in eternal fire inflicted 
upon those who do not live temperately and 
conformably to right reason. But he, continu- 
ing in the same excesses, alienated his wife from 
him by his actions. For she, considering it 
wicked to live any longer as a wife with a hus- 
band who sought in every way means of indul- 
ging in pleasure contrary to the law of nature, 
and in violation of what is right, wished to be 
divorced from him. And when she was over- 
persuaded by her friends, who advised her still 
to continue with him, in the idea that some 
time or other her husband might give hope of 
amendment, she did violence to her own feeling 
and remained with him. But when her hus- 
band had gone into Alexandria, and was reported 
to be conducting himself worse than ever, she 
— that she might not, by continuing in matri- 
monial connection with him, and by sharing his 
table and his bed, become a partaker also in his 
wickednesses and impieties — gave him what you 
call a bill of divorce,5 and was separated from 
him. But this noble husband of hers, — while 
he ought to have been rejoicing that those actions 
which formerly she unhesitatingly committed 
with the servants and hirelings, when she de- 
lighted in drunkenness and every vice, she had 
now given up, and desired that he too should 
give up the same, — when she had gone from 
him without his desire, brought an accusation 
against her, affirming that she was a Christian. 
And she presented a paper to thee, the Em- 
peror,"^ recjuesting that first she be permitted to 
arrange her affairs, and afterwards to make her 
defence against the accusation, when her affairs 
were set in order. And this you granted. And 

5 penovSiov, i.e., " repudium," a bill of repudiation. 

6 [Rather, " to thee, autocrat:" a very bold apostrophe, like that 
of Huss to the Emperor Sigismund, which crimsoned his forehead with 
a blush of shame.] 



her quondam husband, since he was now no 
longer able to prosecute her, directed his as- 
saults against a man, Ptolemaeus, whom Urbicus 
punished, and who had been her teacher in the 
Christian doctrines. And this he did in the 
following way. He persuaded a centurion — 
who had cast Ptolemseus into prison, and who 
was friendly to himself — to take Ptolemreus 
and interrogate him on this sole point : whether 
he were a Christian ? And Ptolemaeus, being a 
lover of truth, and not of a deceitful or false 
disposition, when he confessed himself to be a 
Christian, was bound by the centurion, and for 
a long time punished in the prison. And, at 
last, when the man ' came to Urbicus, he was 
asked this one question only : whether he was a 
Christian? And again, being conscious of his 
duty, and the nobihty of it through the teaching 
of Christ, he confessed his discipleship in the 
divine virtue. For he who denies anything, 
either denies it because he condemns the thing 
itself, or he shrinks from confession because he 
is conscious of his own unworthiness or aliena- 
tion from it \ neither of which cases is that of 
the true Christian. And when Urbicus ordered 
him to be led away to punishment, one Lucius, 
who was also himself a Christian, seeing the 
unreasonable judgment that had thus been given, 
said to Urbicus : " What is the ground of this 
judgment? Why have you punished this man, 
not as an adulterer, nor fornicator, nor murderer, 
nor thief, nor robber, nor convicted of any crime 
at all, but who has only confessed that he is 
called by the name of Christian? This judg- 
ment of yours, O Urbicus, does not become the 
Emperor Pius, nor the philosopher, the son of 
Csesar, nor the sacred senate." ^ And he said 
nothing else in answer to Lucius than this : " You 
also seem to me to be such an one." And when 
Lucius answered, "Most certainly I am," he 
again ordered him also to be led away. And 
he professed his thanks, knowing that he was 
delivered from such wicked rulers, and was go- 
ing to the Father and King of the heavens. 
And still a third having come forward, was con- 
demned to be punished. 


I too, therefore, expect to be plotted against 
and fixed to the stake, by some of those I have 
named, or perhaps by Crescens, that lover of 
bravado and boasting ; 3 for the man is not 
worthy of the name of philosopher who publicly 
bears witness against us in matters which he 

' i e., Ptolemseus. 

2 On this passage, see Donaldson's Critical History, etc., vol. 
ii. p. 79. 

3 Words resembling " philosopher" in sound, viz. <j>L\o>p6(}>ov Kai 
<!}i.\oKOfjLnov. [This passage is found elsewhere. See note, cap. viii., 
in the text preferred by Grabe.l 

does not understand, saying that the Christians 
are atheists and impious, and doing so to win 
favour with the deluded mob, and to please 
them. For if he assails us without having read 
the teachings of Christ, he is thoroughly de- 
praved, and far worse than the illiterate, who 
often refrain from discussing or bearing false 
witness about matters they do not understand. 
Or, if he has read them and does not understand 
the majesty that is in them, or, understanding it, 
acts thus that he may not be suspected of being 
such [a Christian], he is far more base and 
thoroughly depraved, being conquered by illib- 
eral and unreasonable opinion and fear. For I 
would have you to know that I proposed to him 
certain questions on this subject, and interro- 
gated him, and found most convincingly that 
he, in truth, knows nothing. And to prove that 
I speak the truth, I am ready, if these disputa- 
tions have not been reported to you, to conduct 
them again in your presence. And this would 
be an act worthy of a prince. But if my ques- 
tions and his answers have been made known to 
you, you are already aware that he is acquainted 
with none of our matters ; or, if he is acquainted 
with them, but, through fear of those who might 
hear him, does not dare to speak out, like Soc- 
rates, he proves himself, as I said before, no 
philosopher, but an opionative man ; ■* at least he 
does not regard that Socratic and most admi- 
rable saying : " But a man must in no wise be 
honoured before the truth." 5 But it is impos- 
sible for a Cynic, who makes indifference his 
end, to know any good but indifference. 



But lest some one say to us, " Go then all or 
you and kill yourselves, and pass even now to 
God, and do not trouble us," I will tell you why 
we do not so, but why, when examined, we fear- 
lessly confess. We have been taught that God 
did not make the world aimlessly, but for the 
sake of the human race ; and we have before 
stated that He takes pleasure in those who imi- 
tate His properties, and is displeased with those 
that embrace what is worthless either in word or 
deed. If, then, we all kill ourselves, we shall 
become the cause, as far as in us lies, why no 
one should be born, or instructed in the divine 
doctrines, or even why the human race should 
not exist ; and we shall, if we so act, be ourselves 
acting in opposition to the will of God. But 
when we are examined, we make no denial, be- 
cause we are not conscious of any evil, but count 
it impious not to speak the truth in all things, 
which also we know is pleasing to God, and be- 

4 (^lAoSofoi, which may mean a lover of vainglory. 

5 See Plato, Rfp., p. 595. 



cause we are also now very desirous to deliver 
you from an unjust prejudice. 


But if this idea take possession of some one, 
that if we acknowledge God as our helper, we 
should not, as we say, be oppressed and perse- 
cuted by the wicked ; this, too, I will solve. 
God, when He had made the whole world, and 
subjected things earthly to man, and arranged 
the heavenly elements for the increase of fruits 
and rotation of the seasons, and appointed this 
divine law — for these things also He evidently 
made for man — committed the care of men 
and of all things under heaven to angels whom 
He appointed over them. But the angels trans- 
gressed this appointment, and were captivated 
by love of women, and begat children who are 
those that are called demons ; and besides, they 
afterwards subdued the human race to them- 
selves, partly by magical writings, and partly by 
fears and the punishments they occasioned, and 
partly by teaching them to offer sacrifices, and 
incense, and libations, of which things they 
stood in need after they were enslaved by lust- 
ful passions ; and among men they sowed mur- 
ders, wars, adulteries, intemperate deeds, and 
all wickedness. Whence also the poets and 
mythologists, not knowing that it was the angels 
and those demons who had been begotten by 
them that did these things to men, and women, 
and cities, and nations, which they related, as- 
cribed them to god himself, and to those who 
were accounted to be his very offspring, and 
to the offspring of those who were called his 
brothers, Neptune and Pluto, and to the chil- 
dren again of these their offspring. For what- 
ever name each of the angels had given to 
himself and his children, by that name they 
called them. 


But to the Father of all, who is unbegotten, 
there is no name given. For by whatever name 
He be called, He has as His elder the person 
who gives Him the name. But these words. 
Father, and God, and Creator, and Lord, and 
Master, are not names, but appellations derived 
from His good deeds and functions. And His 
Son, who alone is properly called Son, the Word, 
who also was with Him and was begotten before 
the works, when at first He created and arranged 
all things by Him, is called Christ, in reference to 
His being anointed and God's ordering all things 
through Him ; this name itself also containing 
an unknown significance ; as also the appella- 
tion " God " is not a name, but an opinion im- 
planted in the nature of men of a thing that can 
hardly be explained. But "Jesus," His name 

as man and Saviour, has also significance. For 
He was made man also, as we before said, hav- 
ing been conceived according to the will of God 
the Father, for the sake of believing men, and 
for the destniction of the demons. And now 
you can learn this from what is under your 
own observation. For numberless demoniacs 
throughout the whole world, and in your city, 
many of our Christian men exorcising them in 
the name of Jesus Christ, who was crucified, 
under Pontius Pilate, have healed and do heal^ 
rendering helpless and driving the possessing 
devils out of the men, though they could not 
be cured by all the other exorcists, and those 
who used incantations and drugs. 



Wherefore God delays causing the confusion 
and destruction of the whole world, by which 
the wicked angels and demons and men shall 
cease to exist, because of the seed of the Chris- 
tians, who know that they are the cause of pres- 
ervation in nature.' Since, if it were not so, 
it would not have been possible for you to do 
these things, and to be impelled by evil spirits ; 
but the fire of judgment would descend and 
utterly dissolve all things, even as formerly the 
flood left no one but him only with his family 
who is by us called Noah, and by you Deucalion, 
from whom again such vast numbers have sprung, 
some of them evil and others good. For so we 
say that there will be the conflagration, but not 
as the Stoics, according to their doctrine of all 
things being changed into one another, which 
seems most degrading. But neither do we affirm 
that it is by fate that men do what they do, or 
suffer what they suffer, but that each man by 
free choice acts rightly or sins ; and that it is by 
the influence of the wicked demons that earnest 
men, such as Socrates and the like, suffer perse-^ 
cution and are in bonds, while Sardanapalus, 
Epicurus, and the like, seem to be blessed in 
abundance and glory. The Stoics, not observ- 
ing this, maintained that all things take place 
according to the necessity of fate. But since 
God in the beginning made the race of angels 
and men with free-will, they will justly suffer in 
eternal fire the punishment of whatever sins they 
have committed. And this is the nature of all 
that is made, to be capable of vice and virtue. 
For neither would any of them be praiseworthy 
unless there were power to turn to both [virtue 
and vice]. And this also is shown by those 
men everywhere who have made laws and phi- 
losophized according to right reason, by their 
prescribing to do some things and refrain from 
others. Even the Stoic philosophers, in their 

' This is Dr. Donaldson's rendering of a clause on which the 
editors differ both as to reading and rendering. 




doctrine of morals, steadily honour the same 
things, so that it is evident that they are not 
very fehcitous in what they say about principles 
and incorporeal things. For if they say that 
human actions come to pass by fate, they will 
maintain either that God is nothing else than 
the things which are ever turning, and altering, 
and dissolving into the same things, and will 
'appear to have had a comprehension only of 
things that are destructible, and to have looked 
on God Himself as emerging both in part and 
in whole in every wickedness ; ' or t'lat neither 
vice nor virtue is anything ; which is contrary to 
every sound idea, reason, and sense. 



And those of the Stoic school — since, so far 
as their moral teaching went, they were admira- 
ble, as were also the poets in some particulars, 
on account of the seed of reason [the Logos] 
implanted in every race of men — were, we 
know, hated and put to death, — Heraclitus for 
instance, and, among those of our own time, 
Musonius and others. For, as we intimated, 
the devils have always effected, that all those 
who anyhow live a reasonable and earnest life, 
and shun vice, be hated. And it is nothing won- 
derful ; if the devils are proved to cause those 
to be much worse hated who live not according 
to a part only of the word diffused [among men] , 
but by the knowledge and contemplation of the 
whole Word, which is Christ. And they, having 
been shut up in eternal fire, shall suffer their 
just punishment and penalty. For if they are 
even now overthrown by men through the name 
of Jesus Christ, this is an intimation of the pun- 
ishment in eternal fire which is to be inflicted 
on themselves and those who serve them. For 
thus did both all the prophets foretell, and our 
own teacher Jesus teach.^ 


And that no one may say what is said by those 
who are deemed philosophers, that our assertions 
that the wicked are punished in eternal fire are 
big words and bugbears, and that we wish men 
to live virtuously through fear, and not because 
such a life is good and pleasant ; I will briefly 
reply to this, that if this be not so, God does 
not exist ; or, if He exists, He cares not for men, 
and neither virtue nor vice is anything, and, as 
we said before, lawgivers unjustly punish those 
who transgress good commandments. But since 
these are not unjust, and their Father teaches 
them by the word to do the same things as Him- 

' Literally, " becoming (yLvoiJ.evoi') both through the parts and 
through the whole in every wickedness. 

^ [Here, in Grabe's text, comes in the passage about Crescens.] 

self, they who agree with them are not unjust. 
And if one object that the laws of men are di- 
verse, and say that with some, one thing is con- 
sidered good, another evil, while with others 
what seemed bad to the former is esteemed good, 
and what seemed good is esteemed bad, let him 
listen to what we say to this. We know that the 
wicked angels appointed laws conformable to 
their own wickedness, in which the men who are 
like them delight ; and the right Reason,^ when 
He came, proved that not all opinions nor all 
doctrines are good, but that some are evil, while 
others are good. Wherefore, I will declare the 
same and similar things to such men as these, 
and, if need be, they shall be spoken of more 
at large. But at present I return to the subject. 


Our doctrines, then, appear to be greater than 
all human teaching ; because Christ, who ap- 
peared for our sakes, became the whole rational 
being, both body, and reason, and soul. For 
whatever either lawgivers or philosophers uttered 
well, they elaborated by finding and contem- 
plating some part of the Word. But since they 
did not know the whole of the Word, which is 
Christ, they often contradicted themselves. And 
those who by human birth were more ancient 
than Christ, when they attempted to consider 
and prove things by reason, were brought before 
the tribunals as impious persons and busybodies. 
And Socrates, who was more zealous in this direc- 
tion than all of them, was accused of the very same 
crimes as ourselves. For they said that he was 
introducing new divinities, and did not consider 
those to be gods whom the state recognised. 
But he cast out from the state both Homer "* and 
the rest of the poets, and taught men to reject 
the wicked demons and those who did the things 
which the poets related ; and he exhorted them 
to become acquainted with the God who was to 
them unknown, by means of the investigation of 
reason, saying, " That it is neither easy to find the 
Father and Maker of all, nor, having found Him, 
is it safe to declare Him to all." 5 But these 
things our Christ did through His own power. 
For no one trusted in Socrates so as to die for 
this doctrine, but in Christ, who was partially 
known even by Socrates (for He was and is the 
Word who is in every man, and who foretold the 
things that were to come to pass both through 
the prophets and in His own person when He 
was made of like passions, and taught these 
things), not only philosophers and scholars be- 
lieved, but also artisans and people entirely un- 
educated, despising both glory, and fear, and 

3 These words can be taken of the Logos as well as of the right 
reason diffused among men by Him. 

* Plato, Kep., X c. i. p. 595. 

S Plat., Timirus, p. a8, C. (but "possible," and not "safe," is 
the word used by Plato) . 




death ; since He is a power of the ineffable 
Father, and not the mere instrument of human 


But neither should we be put to death, nor 
would wicked men and devils be more powerful 
than we, were not death a debt due by every 
man that is born. Wherefore we give thanks 
when we pay this debt. And we judge it right 
and opportune to tell here, for the sake of Cres- 
cens and those who rave as he does, what is re- 
lated by Xenophon. Hercules, says Xenophon, 
coming to a place where three ways met, found 
Virtue and Vice, who appeared to him in the 
form of women : Vice, in a luxurious dress, and 
with a seductive expression rendered blooming 
by such ornaments, and her eyes of a quickly 
melting tenderness,^ said to Hercules that if he 
would follow her, she would always enable him 
to pass his life in pleasure and adorned with the 
most graceful ornaments, such as were then upon 
her own person ; and Virtue, who was of squalid 
look and dress, said, But if you obey me, you 
shall adorn yourself not with ornament nor 
beauty that passes away and perishes, but with 
everlasting and precious graces. And we are 
persuaded that every one who flees those things 
that seem to be good, and follows hard after 
what are reckoned difficult and strange, enters 
into blessedness. For Vice, when by imitation 
of what is incorruptible (for what is really in- 
corruptible she neither has nor can produce) 
she has thrown around her own actions, as a dis- 
guise, the properties of Virtue, and qualities 
which are really excellent, leads captive earthly- 
minded men, attaching to Virtue her own evil 
properties. But those who understood the ex- 
cellences which belong to that which is real, are 
also uncorrupt in virtue. And this every sensible 
person ought to think both of Christians and of 
the athletes, and of those who did what the poets 
relate of the so-called gods, concluding as much 
from our contempt of death, even when it could 
be escaped.^ 


For I myself, too, when I was delighting in 
the doctrines of Plato, and heard the Christians 
slandered, and saw them fearless of death, and 
of all other things which are counted fearful, 
perceived that it was impossible that they could 
be living in wickedness and pleasure. For what 

' [Certainly the author of this chapter, and others like it, c.innot 
he accused of a feeble rhetoric] 

' Another reading is ■rTp'o(; Ta<; 6;//f i<r, referring to the eyes of the 
beholder-, and which may be rendered, "speedily fascinating to 
the sight." 

* Kai ijidiKTOu SaraToii may also be rendered, "even of death 
ivhicli iitin Jlce Jrom." 

: mperate man, or who that counts 

; t on human flesh,-* could welcome 

» might be deprived of his enjoy- 

1' jld not rather continue always the 

] id attempt to escape the observa- 

t iilers ; and much less would he 

( ;elf when the consequence would 

1 lis also the wicked demons have 

r be done by evil men. For having 

I ath on account of the accusations 

f against us, they also dragged to 

t domestics, either children or weak 

w / dreadful torments forced them 

tt 'abulous actions which they them- 

Si_..^o K^jj^,ny perpetrate; about which we are 
the less concerned, because none of these actions 
are really ours, and we have the unbegotten and 
ineffable God as witness both of our thoughts 
and deeds. For why did we not even publicly 
profess that these were the things which we es- 
teemed good, and prove that these are the 
divine philosophy, saying that the mysteries of 
Saturn are performed when we slay a man, and 
that when we drink our fill of blood, as it is said 
we do, we are doing what you do before that 
idol you honour, and on which you sprinkle the 
blood not only of irrational animals, but also of 
men, making a libation of the blood of the slain 
by the hand of the most illustrious and noble 
man among you? And imitating Jupiter and 
the other gods in sodomy and shameless inter- 
course with woman, might we not bring as our 
apology the writings of Epicurus and the poets? 
But because we persuade men to avoid such in- 
struction, and all who practise them and imitate 
such examples, as now in this discourse we have 
striven to persuade you, we are assailed in every 
kind of way. But we are not concerned, since 
we know that God is a just observer of all. But 
would that even now some one would mount a 
lofty rostrum, and shout with a loud voice,5 " Be 
ashamed, be ashamed, ye who charge the guilt- 
less with those deeds which yourselves openly 
commit, and ascribe things which apply to your- 
selves and to your gods to those who have not 
even the slightest sympathy with them. Be ye 
converted ; become wise." 



For I myself, when I discovered the wicked 
disguise which the evil spirits had thrown around 
the divine doctrines of the Christians, to turn 
aside others from joining them, laughed both at 
those who framed these falsehoods, and at the 
disguise itself, and at popular opinion ; and I 
confess that I both boast and with all my strength 

* Alluding to the common accusation against the Christians. 
5 Literally, " with a tragic voice," — the loud voice in which the 
Greek tragedies were recited through the mask \J>erso>ia]. 



strive to be found a Christian ; not because the 
teachings of Plato are different from those of 
Christ, but because they are not in all respects 
similar, as neither are those of the others. Stoics, 
and poets, and historians. For each man spoke 
well in proportion to the share he had of the 
spermatic word,' seeing what was related to it. 
But they who contradict themselves on the more 
important points appear not to have possessed 
the heavenly ^ wisdom, and the knowledge which 
cannot be spoken against. Whatever things were 
rightly said among all men, are the property of us 
Christians. For next to God, we worship and 
love the Word who is from the unbegotten and 
ineffable God, since also He became man for 
our sakes, that, becoming a partaker of our suf- 
ferings, He might also bring us healing. For 
all the writers were able to see realities darkly 
through the sowing of the implanted word that 
was in them. For the seed and imitation im- 
parted according to capacity is one thing, and 
quite another is the thing itself, of which there 
is the participation and imitation according to 
the grace which is from Him. 


And we therefore pray you to publish this little 
book, appending what you think right, that our 
opinions may be known to others, and that these 
persons may have a fair chance of being freed 
from erroneous notions and ignorance of good, 
who by their own fault are become subject to 

' The word disseminated among men. [St. James i. 21.] 
• Liteiiilly, dimly seen at a distance. 

punishment ; that so these things may be pub- 
lished to men, because it is in the nature of man 
to know good and evil ; and by their condemning 
us, whom they do not understand, for actions 
which they say are wicked, and by delighting in 
the gods who did such things, and even now re- 
quire similar actions from men, and by inflicting 
on us death or 'bonds or some other such pun- 
ishment, as if we were guilty of these things, they 
condemn themselves, so that there is no need of 
other judges. 


And I despised the wicked and deceitful doc- 
trine of Simon ^ of my own nation. And if you 
give this book your authority, we will expose him 
before all, that, if possible, they may be converted. 
For this end alone did we compose this treatise. 
And our doctrines are not shameful, according 
to a sober judgment, but are indeed more lofty 
than all human philosophy ; and if not so, they 
are at least unlike the doctrines of the Sotadists, 
and Philaenidians, and Dancers, and Epicureans, 
and such other teachings of the poets, which all 
are allowed to acquaint themselves with, both as 
acted and as written. And henceforth we shall 
be silent, having done as much as we could, and 
having added the prayer that all men everywhere 
may be counted worthy of the truth. And would 
that you also, in a manner becoming piety and phi- 
losophy,* would for your own sakes judge justly ! 

3 [Simon Magus appears to be one with whom Justin is perfectly 
familiar, and hence we are not to conclude rashly that he blundered 
as to the divine honours rendered to him as the Sabine God.] 

* [Another apostrophe, and a home thrust for " Pius the philoso- 
pher " and emperor.] 





While I was going about one morning in the 
walks of the Xystus," a certain man, with others 
in his company, having met me, and said, " Hail, 
O philosopher ! " And immediately after say- 
ing this, he turned round and walked along with 
me ; his friends likewise followed him. And I in 
turn having addressed him, said, " What is there 

And he replied, " I was instructed," says he, 
" by Corinthus the Socratic in Argos, that I 
ought not to despise or treat with indifference 
those who array themselves in this dress,^ but to 
show them all kindness, and to associate with 
them, as perhaps some advantage would spring 
from the intercourse either to some such man 
or to myself. It is good, moreover, for both, if 
either the one or the other be benefited. On 
this account, therefore, whenever I see any one 
in such costume, I gladly approach him, and now, 
for the same reason, have I willingly accosted 
you ; and these accompany me, in the expecta- 
tion of hearing for themselves something profit- 
able from you." 

"But who are you, most excellent man?" 
So I replied to him in jest.' 

Then he told me frankly both his name and 
his family. "Trypho," says he, "I am called; 
and I am a Hebrew of the circumcision,'' and 
having escaped from the war s lately carried on 
there, I am spending my days in Greece, and 
chiefly at Corinth." 

' "This Xystus, on the authority of Euseb. (iv. i8), was at Ephe- 
sus. 1 here, Philostratus mentions, Appolonius was wont to have 
disputations. — Otto. 

w rd of^G^'d "'"' "^' "J"^''"' '" Philosopher's garb, preached the 
3 I" jest, no doubt, because quoting a line from Homer, //., vi. 123. 

Tis &i <TV e<r<7-i, <)>epi<TTt, KaTa9vriToif at'OpMirutv. 

* li.-^' " ^ Hebrew of the Hebrews" (Phil. iii. 5).] 
5 The war instigated by Bar Cochba. 


" And in what," said I, " would you be profited 
by philosophy so much as by your own lawgiver 
and the prophets?" 

"Why not?" he replied. "Do not the phi- 
losophers turn eveiy discourse on God ? and do 
not questions continually arise to them about 
His unity and providence? Is not this truly the 
duty of philosophy, to investigate the Deity?" 

" Assuredly," said I, " so we too have believed. 
But the most^ have not taken thought of this, 
whether there be one or more gods, and whether 
they have a regard for each one of us or no, as 
if this knowledge contributed nothing to our hap- 
piness ; nay, they moreover attempt to persuade 
us that God takes care of the universe with its 
genera and species, but not of me and you, and 
each individually, since othenvise we would surely 
not need to pray to Him night and day. But it 
is not difificult to understand the upshot of this ; 
for fearlessness and license in speaking result to 
such as maintain these opinions, doing and say- 
ing whatever they choose, neither dreading pun- 
ishment nor hoping for any benefit from God. 
For how could they? They affirm that the same 
things shall always happen ; and, further, that I 
and you shall again live in like manner, having 
become neither better men nor worse. But there 
are some others,^ who, having supposed the soul 
to be immortal and immaterial, believe that 
though they have committed evil they will not 
suffer punishment (for that which is immaterial 
is insensible), and that the soul, in conseciuence 
of its immortality, needs nothing from God." 

And he, smiling gently, said, "Tell us your 
opinion of these matters, and what idea you en- 
tertain respecting God, and what your philosophy 


' The opinions of Stoics. — Otto. 
' The Platonisls. 




, " I will tell you," said I, '' what seems to me ; 
for philosophy is, in fact, the greatest possession, 
and most honourable before God,' to whom it 
leads us and alone commends us ; and these are 
truly holy men who have bestowed attention on 
philosophy. What philosophy is, however, and 
the reason why it has been sent down to men, 
have escaped the observation of most ; for there 
would be neither Platonists, nor Stoics, nor Peri- 
patetics, nor Theoretics,^ nor Pythagoreans, this 
knowledge being one? I wish to tell you why 
it has become many-headed. It has happened 
that those who first handled it [i.e., philosophy], 
and who were therefore esteemed illustrious men, 
were succeeded by those who made no investi- 
gations concerning truth, but only admired the 
perseverance and self-discipline of the former, 
as well as the novelty of the doctrines ; and each 
thought that to be true which he learned from 
his teacher : then, moreover, those latter persons 
handed down to their successors such things, 
and others similar to them.; aiid* tjws system was 
called by the name of'him who' was styled the 
father of the doctrine. " Being at first desirous of 
personally conversing with one of these men, I 
surrendered myself to a certain Stoic ; and hav- 
ing spent a considerable time with him, when I 
had not acquired any further knowledge of God 
(for he did not know himself, and said such 
instruction was unnecessary), I left him and 
betook myself to another, who was called a Peri- 
patetic, and as he fancied, shrewd. And this 
man, after having entertained me for the first 
few days, requested me to settle the fee, in order 
that our intercourse might not be unprofitable. 
Him, too, for this reason I abandoned, believing 
him to be no philosopher at all. But when my 
soul was eagerly desirous to hear the peculiar 
and choice philosophy, I came to a Pythagorean, 
very celebrated — a man who thought much of 
his own wisdom. And then, when I had an in- 
terview with him, willing to become his hearer 
and disciple, he said, ' What then? Are you ac- 
quainted with music, astronomy, and geometry? 
Do you expect to perceive any of those things 
which conduce to a happy life, if you have not 
been first informed on those points which wean 
the soul from sensible objects, and render it fitted 
lor objects which appertain to the mind, so that 
It can contemplate that which is honourable in its 
essence and that which is good in its essence ? ' 

Having commended many of these branches of 
learning, and telling me that they were necessary, 
he dismissed me when I confessed to him my 
ignorance. Accordingly I took it rather impa- 
tiently, as was to be expected when I failed in 
my hope, the more so because I deemed the man 
had some knowledge ; but reflecting again on the 
space of time during which I would have to 
linger over those branches of learning, I was not 
able to endure longer procrastination. In my 
helpless condition it occurred to me to have a 
meeting with the Platonists, for their fame was 
great. I thereupon spent as much of my time as 
possible with one who had lately settled in our 
city,4 — a sagacious man, holding a high position 
among the Platonists, — and I progressed, and 
made the greatest improvements daily. And the 
perception of immaterial things quite overpowered 
me, and the contemplation of ideas furnished my 
mind with wings,5 so that in a little while I sup- 
posed that I had become wise; and such was 
my stupidity, I expected forthwith to look upon 
God, for fhis is the end of Plato's philosophy. 



'.p^^' ^°T """u' ^'^^ P"' ^"^ °^ P''«^- cl- in this cl., reading so: 
Philosophy IS the greatest possession, and most honourable: and 
introduces us to God, etc. ' 

2 Maranus thinks that those who are different from the masters of 
I)ractical philosophy are called Theoretics. I do not know whether 
tney may be better designated Sceptics or Pyrrhonists — Otto 

Julian, Orat.y\., says: " Let no one divide our philosophy into 
many parts or cut it into many parts, and especially let him not make 
many out o\ one : for as truth is one, so also is philosophy " 

"And while I was thus disposed, when I wished 
at one period to be filled with great quietness, 
and to shun the path of men, I used to go into 
a certain field not far from the sea. And when 
I was near that spot one day, which having 
reached I purposed to be by myself, a certain old 
man, by no means contemptible in appearance, 
exhibiting meek and venerable manners, followed 
me at a little distance. And when I turned 
round to him, having halted, I fixed my eyes 
rather keenly on him. 

" And he said, ' Do you know me ? ' 

" I replied in the negative. 

" ' Why, then,' said he to me, ' do you so look 
at me ? ' 

" ' I am astonished,' I said, ' because you have 
chanced to be in my company in the same place ; 
for I had not expected to see any man here.' 

" And he says to me, ' I am concerned about 
some of my household. These are gone away 
from me ; and therefore have I come to make 
personal search for them, if, perhaps, they shall 
make their appearance somewhere. But why are 
you here ? ' said he to me. 

" ' I delight,' said I, ' in such walks, where my 
attention is not distracted, for converse with my- 
self is uninterrupted ; and such places are most 
fit for philology.' ^ 

" ' Are you, then, a philologian,' ^ said he, ' but 

^ Either Flavia Neapolis is indicated, or Ephesus. — Otto. 

5 Narrating his progress in the study of Platonic philosophy, he 
elegantly employs this trite phrase of Plato's. — Otto. 

6 Philology, used here to denote the exercise of the reason. 

"> Philology, used here to denote the exercise of speech. The two- 
fold use of A070S — oratio and ratio — ought to be kept in view The 
old man uses it in the former, Justin in the latter, sense. 



no lover of deeds or of truth ? and do you not 
aim at being a practical man so much as being a 
sophist? ' 

" ' What greater work,' said I, ' could one ac- 
complish than this, to show the reason which 
governs all, and having laid hold of it, and being 
mounted upon it, to look down on the errors of 
others, and their pursuits? But without philos- 
ophy and right reason, prudence would not be 
present to any man. Wherefore it is necessary 
for every man to philosophize, and to esteem this 
the greatest and most honourable work ; l)ut 
other things only of second-rate or third-rate 
importance, though, indeed, if they be made to 
depend on philosophy, they are of moderate 
value, and worthy of acceptance ; but deprived 
of it, and not accompanying it, they are vulgar 
and coarse to those who pursue them.' 

" ' Does philosophy, then, make happiness ? ' 
said he, interrupting. 

"'Assuredly,' I said, 'and it alone.' 

" ' What, then, is philosophy ? ' he says ; ' and 
what is happiness? Pray tell me, unless some- 
thing hinders you from saying.' 

" ' Philosophy, then,' said I, ' is the knowledge 
of that which really exists, and a clear perception 
of the truth ; and happiness is the reward of 
such knowledge and wisdom.' 

" ' But what do you call God? ' said he. 

" ' That which always maintains the same na- 
ture, and in the same manner, and is the cause 
of all other things — that, indeed, is God.' So 
I answered him ; and he listened to me with 
pleasure, and thus again interrogated me : — 

" ' Is not knowledge a term common to differ- 
ent matters? For in arts of all kinds, he who 
knows any one of them is called a skilful man, 
in the art of generalship, or of ruling, or of heal- 
ing equally. But in divine and human affairs it 
is not so. Is there a knowledge which affords 
understanding of human and divine things, and 
then a thorough acquaintance with the divinity 
and the righteousness of them ? ' 

" ' Assuredly,' I replied. 

" ' What, then ? Is it in the same way we 
know man and God, as we know music, and 
arithmetic, and' astronomy, or any other similar 
branch ? ' 

" ' By no means,' I replied. 

" ' You have not answered me correctly, then,' 
he said ; ' for some [branches of knowledge] 
come to us by learning, or by some employment, 
while of others we have knowledge by sight. 
Now, if one were to tell you that there exists in 
India an animal with a nature unlike all others, 
but of such and such a kind, multiform and 
various, you would not know it before you saw 
it ; but neither would you be competent to give 
any account of it, unless you should hear from 
one who had seen it.' 

" ' Certainly not,' I said. 

" ' How then,' he said, * should the philoso- 
phers judge correctly about God, or speak any 
truth, when they have no knowledge of Him, 
having neither seen Him at any time, nor heard 
Him ? ' 

" ' But, father,' said I, ' the Deity cannot be 
seen merely by the eyes, as other living beings 
can, but is discernible to the mind alone, as 
Plato says ; and I believe him.' 



" ' Is there then,' says he, ' such and so great 
power in our mind ? Or can a man not perceive 
by sense sooner? Will the mind of man see 
God at any time, if it is uninstructed by the 
Holy Spirit ? ' 

" ' Plato indeed says,' replied I, ' that the 
mind's eye is of such a nature, and has been 
given for this end, that we may see that very 
Being when the mind is pure itself, who is the 
cause of all discerned by the mind, having no 
colour, no form, no greatness — nothing, indeed, 
which the bodily eye looks upon ; but It is 
something of this sort, he goes on to say, that 
is beyond all essence, unutterable and inexplica- 
ble, but alone honourable and good, coming sud- 
denly into souls well-dispositioned, on account 
of their affinity to and desire of seeing Him.' 

" ' What affinity, then,' replied he, ' is there 
between us and God? Is the soul also divine 
and immortal, and a part of that very regal 
mind? And even as that sees God, so also is 
it attainable by us to conceive of the Deity in 
our mind, and thence to become happy ? ' 

" ' Assuredly,' I said. 

" ' And do all the souls of all living beings 
comprehend Him ? ' he asked ; ' or are the souls 
of men of one kind and the souls of horses and 
of asses of another kind ? ' 

" ' No ; but the souls which are in all are 
similar,' I answered. 

" ' Then,' says he, ' shall both horses and asses 
see, or have they seen at some time or other, 

" ' No,' I said ; ' for the majority of men will 
not, saving such as shall live justly, purified by 
righteousness, and by every other virtue.' 

"'It is not, therefore,' said he, 'on account 
of his affinity, that a man sees God, nor because 
he has a mind, but because he is temperate and 
righteous ? ' 

" ' Yes,' said I ; ' and because he has that 
whereby he perceives God.' 

" ' What then? Do goats or sheep injure any 

" ' No one in any respect,' I said. 

" ' Therefore these animals will see [God] 
according to your account,' says he. 



" ' No ; for their body being of such a nature, 
is an obstacle to them.' 

" He rejoined, ' If these animals could assume 
speech, be well assured that they would with 
greater reason ridicule our body ; but let us now 
dismiss this subject, and let it be conceded to 
you as you say. Tell me, however, this : Does 
the soul see [God] so long as it is in the body, 
or after it has been removed from it ? ' 

" ' So long as it is in the form of a man, it is 
possible for it,' I continue, ' to attain to this by 
means of the mind ; but especially when it has 
been set free from the body, and being apart by 
itself, it gets possession of that which it was 
wont continually and wholly to love.' 

" ' Does it remember this, then [the sight of 
God] , when it is again in the man ? ' 

" ' It does not appear to me so,' I said. 

" ' What, then, is the advantage to those who 
have seen [God] ? or what has he who has seen 
more than he who has not seen, unless he re- 
member this fact, that he has seen ? ' 

" ' I cannot tell,' I answered. 

" ' And what do those suffer who are judged 
to be unworthy of this spectacle ? ' said he. 

" ' They are imprisoned in the bodies of cer- 
tain wild beasts, and this is their punishment.' 

" ' Do they know, then, that it is for this rea- 
son they are in such forms, and that they have 
committed some sin ? ' 

'" I do not think so.' 

" ' Then these reap no advantage from their 
punishment, as it seems : moreover, I would say 
that they are not punished unless they are con- 
scious of the punishment.' 

" ' No indeed.' 

" ' Therefore souls neither see God nor trans- 
migrate into other bodies ; for they would know 
that so they are punished, and they would be 
afraid to commit even the most trivial sin after- 
wards. But that they can perceive that God 
exists, and that righteousness and piety are hon- 
ourable, I also quite agree with you,' said he. 

" ' You are right,' I replied. 


" ' These philosophers know nothing, then, 
about these things ; for they cannot tell what a 
soul is.' 

" ' It does not appear so.' 

" ' Nor ought it to be called immortal ; for if 
it is immortal, it is plainly unbegotten.' 

" ' It is both unbegotten and immortal, accord- 
ing to some who are styled Platonists.' 

" ' Do you say that the world is also unbegot- 

" * Some say so. I do not, however, agree 
with them.' 

" ' You are right ; for what reason has one for 
supposing that a body so solid, possessing resist- 
ance, composite, changeable, decaying, and re- 
newed every day, has not arisen from some cause ? 
But if the world is begotten, souls also are neces- 
sarily begotten ; and perhaps at one time they 
were not in existence, for they were made on 
account of men and other living creatures, if you 
will say that they have been begotten wholly 
apart, and not along with their respective bodies.' 
" 'This seems to be correct.' 
" ' They are not, then, immortal ? ' 
" ' No ; since the world has appeared to us to 
be begotten.' 

" ' But I do not say, indeed, that all souls die ; 
for that were truly a piece of good fortune to 
the evil. VVhAt then? The souls of the pious 
remain in a better place, while those of the un- 
just and wicked are in a worse, waiting for the 
time of judgment. Thus some which have ap- 
peared worthy of God never die ; but others 
are punished so long as God wills them to exist 
and to be punished.' 

" ' Is what you say, then, of a like nature with 
that which Plato in TimcBus hints about the 
world, when he says that it is indeed subject to 
decay, inasmuch as it has been created, but that 
it will neither be dissolved nor meet with the 
fate of death on account of the will of God? 
Does it seem to you the very same can be said 
of the soul, and generally of all things? For 
those things which exist after ' God, or shall at 
any time exist, ^ these have the nature of decay, 
and are such as may be blotted out and cease 
to exist ; for God alone is unbegotten and incor- 
ruptible, and therefore He is God, but all other 
things after Him are created and corruptible. 
For this reason souls both die and are punished : 
since, if they were unbegotten, they would nei- 
ther sin, nor be filled with folly, nor be cowardly, 
and again ferocious ; nor would they willingly 
transform into swine, and serpents, and dogs ; 
and it would not indeed be just to compel them, 
if they be unbegotten. For that which is unbe- 
gotten is similar to, equal to, and the same with 
that which is unbegotten ; and neither in power 
nor in honour should the one be preferred to 
the other, and hence there are not many things 
which are unbegotten : for if there were some 
difference between them, you would not discover 
the cause of the difference, though you searched 
for it ; but after letting the mind ever wander to 
infinity, you would at length, wearied out, take 
your stand on one Unbegotten, and say that this 
is the Cause of all. Did such escape the obser- 
vation of Plato and Pythagoras, those wise men,' 

« " Beside." 

2 Otto says: If the old man begins to speak here, then lx«' must 
be read tor exf"- The received text makes it appear that Justin con- 
tinues a quotation, or the substance of it, from Plato. 



I said, 'who have been as a wall and fortress 
of philosophy to us ? ' 



" ' It makes no matter to me,' said he, * whether 
Plato or Pythagoras, or, in short, any other man, 
held such opinions. For the truth is so ; and 
you would perceive it from this. The soul as- 
suredly is or has life. If, then, it is life, it would 
cause something else, and not itself, to live, even 
as motion would move something else than itself. 
Now, that the soul lives, no one would deny. 
But if it lives, it lives not as being life, but as the 
partaker of life ; but that which partakes of any- 
thing, is different from that of which it does 
partake. Now the soul partakes of life, since 
God wills it to live. Thus, then, it will not even 
partake [of life] when God does not will it to 
live. For to live is not its attribute, as it is 
God's ; but as a man does not live always, and 
the soul is not for ever conjoined with the body, 
since, whenever this harmony must be broken 
up, the soul leaves the body, and the man ex- 
ists no longer ; even so, whenever the soul must 
cease to exist, the spirit of life is removed from 
it, and there is no more soul, but it goes back to 
the place from whence it was taken.' 


"'Should any one, then, employ a teacher?' 
I say, ' or whence may any one be helped, if not 
even in them there is truth ? ' 

" ' There existed, long before this time, certain 
men more ancient than all those who are es- 
teemed philosophers, both righteous and beloved 
by God, who spoke by the Divine Spirit, and 
foretold events which would take place, and 
which are now taking place. They are called 
prophets. These alone both saw and announced 
the truth to men, neither reverencing nor fear- 
ing any man, not influenced by a desire for glory, 
but speaking those things alone which they saw 
and which they heard, being filled with the Holy 
Spirit. Their writings are still extant, and he 
who has read them is very much helped in his 
knowledge of the beginning and end of things, 
and of those matters which the philosopher 
ought to know, provided he has believed them. 
For they did not use demonstration- in their 
treatises, seeing that they were witnesses to the 
truth above all demonstration, and worthy of be- 
lief; and those events which have happened, 
and those which are happening, compel you to 
assent to the utterances made by them, although, 
indeed, they were entitled to credit on account 
of the miracles which they performed, since they 
both glorified the Creator, the God and Father 
of all things, and proclaimed His Son, the Christ 

[sent] by Him : which, indeed, the false proph- 
ets, who are filled with the lying unclean spirit, 
neither have done nor do, but venture to work 
certain wonderful deeds for the purpose of aston- 
ishing men, and glorify the spirits and demons 
of error. But pray that, above all things, the 
gates of light may be opened to you ; for these 
things cannot be perceived or understood by all, 
but only by the man to whom God and His 
Christ have imparted wisdom.' 



" When he had spoken these and many other 
things, which there is no time for mentioning at 
present, he went away, bidding me attend to 
them ; and I have not seen him since. But 
straightway a flame was kindled in my soul ; 
and a love of the prophets, and of those men 
who are friends of Christ, possessed me ; and 
whilst revolving his words in my mind, I found 
this philosophy alone to be safe and profitable. 
Thus, and for this reason, I am a philosopher. 
Moreover, I would wish that all, making a reso- 
lution similar to my own, do not keep themselves 
away from the words of the Saviour. For they 
possess a terrible power in themselves, and are 
sufficient to inspire those who turn aside from 
the path of rectitude with awe ; while the sweet- 
est rest is afforded those who make a diligent 
practice of them. If, then, you have any con- 
cern for yourself, and if you are eagerly looking 
for salvation, and if you believe in God, you may 
— since you are not indifferent to the matter ' — 
become acquainted with the Christ of God, and, 
after being initiated,^ live a happy life." 

When I had said this, my beloved friends ^ 
those who were with Trypho laughed ; but he, 
smiling, says, "I approve of your other remarks, 
and admire the eagerness with which you study 
divine things ; but it were better for you still to 
abide in the philosophy of Plato, or of some 
other man, cultivating endurance, self-control, 
and moderation, rather than be deceived by false 
words, and follow the opinions of men of no 
reputation. For if you remain in that mode of 
philosophy, and live blamelessly, a hope of a 
better destiny were left to you ; but when you 
have forsaken God, and reposed confidence in 
man, what safety still awaits you ? If, then, you 
are willing to hsten to me (for I have already 
considered you a friend), first be circumcised, 
then observe what ordinances have been enacted 
with respect to the Sabbath, and the feasts, and 

' According to one interpretation, this clause is applied to God: 
" If yovi believe in God, seeing He is not indifferent to the matter," 
etc. Maranus says that it means: A Jew who reads so much of 
Christ in the Old Testament, cannot be indifferent to the things 
which pertain to Him. 

2 Literally: having become perfect. Some refer the words t« 
perfection of character; some to initiation by baptism. 

3 Latin version, " beloved Pompeius. " 



the new moons of God ; and, in a word, do all 
things which have been written in the law : and 
then perhaps you shall obtain mercy from God. 
But Christ — if He has indeed been born, and 
exists anywhere — is unknown, and does not even 
know Himself, and has no power until Elias 
come to anoint Him, and make Him manifest 
to all. And you, having accepted a groundless 
,report, invent a Christ for yourselves, and for his 
sake are inconsiderately perishing." 


" I excuse and forgive you, my friend," I said. 
" For you know not what you say, but have been 
persuaded by teachers who do not understand 
the Scriptures ; and you speak, like a diviner, 
whatever comes into your mind. But if you are 
willing to listen to an account of Him, how we 
have not been deceived, and shall not cease 
to confess Him, — although men's reproaches 
be heaped upon us, although the most terrible 
tyrant compel us to deny Him, — I shall prove to 
you as you stand here that we have not believed 
empty fables, or words without any foundation, 
but words filled with the Spirit of God, and big 
with power, and flourishing with grace." 

Then again those who were in his company 
laughed, and shouted in an unseemly manner. 
Then I rose up and was about to leave ; but he, 
taking hold of my garment, said I should not 
accomplish that ' until I had performed what I 
promised. " Let not, then, your companions be 
so tumultuous, or behave so disgracefully," I 
said. " But if they wish, let them listen in 
silence ; or, if some better occupation prevent 
them, let them go away ; while we, having re- 
tired to some spot, and resting there, may finish 
the discourse." It seemed good to Trypho that 
we should do so ; and accordingly, having agreed 
upon it, we retired to the middle space of- the 
Xystus. Two of his friends, when they had ridi- 
culed and made game of our zeal, went off. 
And when we were come to that place, where 
there are stone seats on both sides, those with 
Trypho, having seated themselves on the one 
side, conversed with each other, some one of them 
having thrown in a remark about the war waged 
in Judaea. 



And when they ceased, I again addressed 
them thus : — 

" Is there any other matter, my friends, in 
which we are blamed, than this, that we live not 
after the law, and are not circumcised in the 
flesh as your forefathers were, and do not observe 

 According to another reading, " I did not leave." 

sabbaths as you do ? Are our lives and customs 
also slandered among you ? And I ask this : 
have you also believed concerning us, that we 
eat men ; and that after the feast, having ex- 
tinguished the lights, we engage in promiscuous 
concubinage ? Or do you condemn us in this 
alone, that we adhere to such tenets, and believe 
in an opinion, untrue, as you think?" 

" This is what we are amazed at," said Trypho, 
" but those things about which the multitude 
speak are not worthy of belief ; for they are most 
repugnant to human nature. Moreover, I am 
aware that your precepts in the so-called Gospel 
are so wonderful and so great, that I suspect no 
one can keep them ; for I have carefully read 
them. But this is what we are most at a loss 
about : that you, professing to be pious, and sup- 
posing yourselves better than others, are not in 
any particular separated from them, and do not 
alter your mode of living from the nations, in that 
you observe no festivals or sabbaths, and do not 
have the rite of circumcision ; and further, rest- 
ing your hopes on a man that was crucified, you 
yet expect to obtain some good thing from God, 
while you do not obey His commandments. 
Have you not read, that that soul shall be cut 
off from his people who shall not have been cir- 
cumcised on the eighth day ? And this has been 
ordained for strangers and for slaves equally. 
But you, despising this covenant rashly, reject 
the consequent duties, and attempt to persuade 
yourselves that you know God, when, however, 
you perform none of those things which they do 
who fear God. If, therefore, you can defend 
yourself on these points, and make it manifest in 
what way you hope for anything whatsoever, 
even though you do not observe the law, this we 
would vel^ gladly hear from you, and we shall 
make other similar investigations." 


" There will be no other God, O Trypho, nor 
was there from eternity any other existing " (I 
thus addressed him), "but He who made and 
disposed all this universe. Nor do we think that 
there is one God for us, another for you, but that 
He alone is God who led your fathers out from 
Egypt with a strong hand and a high arm. Nor 
have we trusted in any other (for there is no oth- 
er), but in Him in whom you also have trusted, 
the God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob. 
But we do not trust through Moses or through 
the law ; for then we would do the same as your- 
selves. But now ^ — (for I have read that there 
shall be a final law, and a covenant, the chiefest 

2 Editors suppose that Justin inserts a long parenthesis here, from 
" for " to " Egypt," It is more natural to take this as an anacoluthon. 
Justin was going to say " But now we trust through Christ," but feels 
that such a statement requires a preliminary explanation. 



of all, which it is now incumbent on all men to 
observe, as many as are seeking after the inherit- 
ance of God. For the law promulgated on Horeb 
is now old, and belongs to yourselves alone ; but 
this is for all universally. Now, law placed 
against law has abrogated that which is before it, 
and a covenant which comes after in like manner 
has put an end to the previous one ; and an 
eternal and final law — namely, Christ — has 
been given to us, and the covenant is trustworthy, 
after which there shall be no law, no command- 
ment, no ordinance. Have you not read this 
which Isaiah says : ' Hearken unto Me, hearken 
unto Me, my people ; and, ye kings, give ear 
inito Me : for a law shall go forth from Me, and 
My judgment shall be for a light to the nations. 
My righteousness approaches swiftly, and My 
salvation shall go forth, and nations shall trust in 
Mine arm ? ' ' And by Jeremiah, concerning 
this same new covenant, He thus speaks : ' Be- 
hold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I will 
make a new covenant with the house of Israel 
and with the house of Judah ; not according to 
the covenant which I made with their fathers, 
in the day that I took them by the hand, to bring 
them out of the land of Egypt ' -) . If, therefore, 
God proclaimed a new covenant which was to 
be instituted, and this for a light of the nations, 
we see and are persuaded that men approach 
God, leaving their idols and other unrighteous- 
ness, through the name of Him who was crucified, 
Jesus Christ, and abide by their confession even 
unto death, and maintain piety. Moreover, by 
the works and by the attendant miracles, it is 
possible for all to understand that He is the new 
law, and the new covenant, and the expectation 
of those who out of every people wait for the 
good things of God. For the true spiritual Israel, 
and descendants of Judah, Jacob, Isaac, and 
Abraham (who in imcircumcision was approved 
of and blessed by God on account of his faith, 
and called the father of many nations), are we 
who have been led to God through this crucified 
Christ, as shall be demonstrated while we pro- 


I also adduced another passage in which 
Isaiah exclaims : " ' Hear My words, and your 
soul shall live ; and I will make an everlasting 
covenant with you, even the sure mercies of 
David. Behold, I have given Him for a witness 
to the people : nations which know not Thee 
shall call on Thee ; peoples who know not Thee 
shall escape "to Thee, because of thy God, the 
Holy One of Israel ; for He has glorified Thee.'^ 

' According to the LXX., Isa. li. 4, 5. 

* Jer. xxxi. 31, 32. 

^ Isa. Iv. 3 n. according to LXX. 

This same law you have despised, and His new 
holy covenant you have slighted ; and now you 
neither receive it, nor repent of your evil deeds. 
' For your ears are closed, your eyes are blinded, 
and the heart is hardened,' Jeremiah ■* has cried ; 
yet not even then do you listen. The Lawgiver 
is present, yet you do not see Him ; to the poor 
the Gospel is preached, the blind see, yet you 
do not understand. You have now need of a 
second circumcision, though you glory greatly 
in the flesh. The new law requires you to keep 
perpetual sabbath, and you, because you are idle 
for one day, suppose you are pious, not discern- 
ing why this has been commanded you : and if 
you eat unleavened bread, you say the will of 
God has been fulfilled. The Lord our God does 
not take pleasure in such obser\-ances : if there 
is any perjured person or a thief among you, let 
him cease to be so ; if any adulterer, let him 
repent ; then he has kept the sweet and true 
sabbaths of God. If any one has impure hands, 
let him wash and be pure. 



" For Isaiah did not send you to a bath, there to 
wash away murder and other sins, which not even 
all the water of the sea were sufficient to purge ; 
but, as might have been expected, this was that 
saving bath of the olden time which followed 5 
those who repented, and who no longer were 
purified by the blood of goats and of sheep, 
or by the ashes of an heifer, or by the offerings 
of fine flour, but by faith through the blood of 
Christ, and through His death, who died for this 
very reason, as Isaiah himself said, when he 
spake thus : ' The Lord shall maka bare His 
holy arm in the eyes of all the nations, and all 
the nations and the ends of the earth shall see 
the salvation of God. Depart ye, depart ye, de- 
part ye,^ go ye out from thence, and touch no 
unclean thing ; go ye out of the midst of her, be 
ye clean that bear the vessels of the Lord, for ^ 
ye go not with haste. For the Lord shall go be- 
fore you ; and the Lord, the God of Israel, shall 
gather you together. Behold, my servant shall 
deal ])rudently ; and He shall be exalted, and be 
greatly glorified. As many were astonished at 
Thee, so Thy form and Thy glory shall be marred 
more than men. So shall many nations be as- 
tonished at Him, and the kings shall shut their 
mouths ; for that which had not been told them 
concerning Him shall they see, and that which 
they had not heard shall they consider. Lord, 

< Not in Jeremiah; some would insert, in place of Jeremiah, Isaiah 

'3t. John xii. 40; Isa. vi. 10: where see full references in 

margin. But comp. Jeremiah vii. 24, 26, xi. 8, and xvii. 

s I. Cor. X. 4. Otto reads: which he mentioned and which wai 
for those who repented. 

* Three times in Justin, not in LXX. 

7 Deviating slightly from LXX., omitting a clause. 



who hath beheved our report ? and to whom is 
the arm of the Lord revealed? We have an- 
nounced Him as a child before Him, as a root 
in a dry ground. He hath no form or comeHness, 
and when we saw Him He had no form or beauty ; 
but His form is dishonoured, and fails more than 
the sons of men. He is a man in affliction, and 
acquainted with bearing sickness, because His 
face has been turned away ; He was despised, 
and we esteemed Him not. He bears our sins, 
and is distressed for us ; and we esteemed Him 
to be in toil and in affliction, and in evil treat- 
ment. But He was wounded for our transgres- 
sions. He was bruised for our iniquities ; the 
chastisement of our peace was upon Him. With 
His stripes we are healed. All we, like sheep, 
have gone astray. Every man has turned to his 
own way ; and the Lord laid on Him our iniqui- 
ties, and by reason of His oppression He opens 
not His mouth. He was brought as a sheep to 
the slaughter ; and as a lamb before her shearer 
is dumb, so He openeth not His mouth. In His 
humiliation His judgment was taken away. And 
who shall declare His generation ? For His life 
is taken from the earth. Because of the trans- 
gressions of my people He came unto death. 
And I will give the wicked for His grave, and 
the rich for His death, because He committed 
no iniquity, and deceit was not found in His 
mouth. And the Lord wills to purify Him from 
affliction. If he has been given for sin, your 
soul shall see a long-lived seed. And the Lord 
wills to take His soul away from trouble, to show 
Him light, and to form Him in understanding, to 
justify the righteous One who serves many well. 
And He shall bear our sins ; therefore He shall 
inherit many, and shall divide the spoil of the 
strong, because His soul was delivered to death ; 
and He was numbered with the transgressors, 
and He bare the sins of many, and was delivered 
for their transgression. Sing, O barren, who 
bearest not ; break forth and cry aloud, thou 
who dost not travail in pain : for more are the 
children of the desolate than the children of 
the married wife. For the Lord said, Enlarge 
the place of thy tent and of thy curtains ; fix 
them, spare not, lengthen thy cords, and strength- 
en thy stakes ; stretch forth to thy right and thy 
left ; and thy seed shall inherit the Gentiles, and 
thou shalt make the desolate cities to be inherited. 
Fear not because thou art ashamed, neither be 
thou confounded because thou hast been re- 
proached ; for thou shalt forget everlasting 
shame, and shalt not remember the reproach of 
thy widowhood, because the Lord has made a 
name for Himself, and He who has redeemed 
thee shall be called through the whole earth the 
God of Israel. The Lord has called thee as ' a 

> LXX. " not as," etc. 

woman forsaken and grieved in spirit, as ' a wo- 
man hated from her youth.' ^ 



" By reason, therefore, of this laver of repent- 
ance and knowledge of God, which has been 
ordained on account of the transgression of God's 
people, as Isaiah cries, we have believed, and 
testify that that very baptism which he announced 
is alone able to purify those who have repented ; 
and this is the water of life. But the cisterns 
which you have dug for yourselves are broRen 
and profitless to you. For what is the use of 
that baptism which cleanses the flesh and body 
alone? Baptize the soul from wrath and from 
covetousness, from envy, and from hatred; and, 
lo ! the body is pure. For this is the symbolic 
significance of unleavened bread, that you do not 
commit the old deeds of wicked leaven. But 
you have understood all things in a carnal sense, 
and you suppose it to be piety if you do such 
things, while your souls are filled with deceit, 
and, in short, with every wickedness. According- 
ly, also, after the seven days of eating unleavened 
bread, God commanded them to mingle new 
leaven, that is, the performance of other works, 
and not the imitation of the old and evil works. 
And because this is what this new Lawgiver de- 
mands of you, I shall again refer to the words 
which have been quoted by me, and to others 
also which have been passed over. They are re- 
lated by Isaiah to the following effect : ' Hearken 
to me, and your soul shall live ; and I will make 
with you an everlasting covenant, even the sure 
mercies of David. Behold, I have given Him 
for a witness to the people, a leader and com- 
mander to the nations. Nations which know not 
Thee shall call on Thee ; and peoples who know 
not Thee shall escape unto Thee, because of Thy 
God, the Holy One of Israel, for He has glorified 
Thee. Seek ye God ; and when you find Him, 
call on Him, so long as He may be nigh you. 
Let the wicked forsake his ways, and the un- 
righteous man his thoughts ; and let him return 
unto the Lord, and he will obtain mercy, because 
He will abundantly pardon your sins. For my 
thoughts are not as your thoughts, neither are 
my ways as your ways ; but as far removed as the 
heavens are from the earth, so far is my way re- 
moved from your way, and your thoughts from 
my thoughts. For as the snow or the rain de- 
scends from heaven, and shall not return till it 
waters the earth, and makes it bring forth and 
bud, and gives seed to the sower and bread for 
food, so shall My word be that goeth forth out of 
My mouth : it shall not return until it shall have 

2 Im. liL 10 fif. following the LXX. on to liv. 6. 



accomplished all that I desired, and I shall make 
My commandments prosperous. For ye shall 
go out with joy, and be taught with gladness. 
For the mountains and the hills shall leap while 
they expect you, and all the trees of the fields 
shall applaud with their branches : and instead 
of the thorn shall come up the cypress, and in- 
stead of the brier shall come up the myrtle. And 
the Lord shall be for a name, and for an ever- 
lasting sign, and He shall not fail ! ' ' Of these 
and such like words written by the prophets, O 
Trypho," said I, " some have reference to the 
first advent of Christ, in which He is preached 
as inglorious, obscure, and of mortal appearance : 
l)ut others had reference to His second advent, 
when He shall appear in glory and above the 
clouds ; and your nation shall see and know Him 
wiiom they have pierced, as Hosea, one of the 
twelve prophets, and Daniel, foretold. 




" Learn, therefore, to keep the true fast of God, 
as Isaiah says, that you may please God. Isaiah 
has cried thus : ' Shout vehemently, and do not 
spare : lift up thy voice as with a trumpet, and 
show My people their transgressions, and the 
house of Jacob their sins. They seek Me from 
day to day, and desire to know My ways, as a 
nation that did righteousness, and forsook not 
the judgment of God. They ask of Me now 
righteous judgment, and desire to draw near to 
God, saying. Wherefore have we fasted, and Thou 
seest not ? and afflicted our souls, and Thou hast 
not known ? Because in the days of your fasting 
you find your own pleasure, and oppress all those 
who are subject to you. Behold, ye fast for 
strifes and debates, and smite the humble with 
your fists. Why do ye fast for Me, as to-day, so 
that your voice is heard aloud ? This is not the 
fast which I have chosen, the day in which a man 
shall afflict his soul. And not even if you bend 
your neck like a ring, or clothe yourself in sack- 
cloth and ashes, shall you call this a fast, and a 
day acceptable to the Lord. This is not the fast 
►which I have chosen, saith the Lord ; but loose 
levery unrighteous bond, dissolve the terms of 
wrongous covenants, let the oppressed go free, 
and avoid every iniquitous contract. Deal thy 
bread to the hungry, and lead the homeless poor 
under thy dwelling ; if thou seest the naked, clothe 
him ; and do not hide thyself from thine own 
flesh. Then shall thy light break forth as the 
morning, and thy garments ^ shall rise up quickly : 
and thy righteousness shall go before thee, and 
the glory of Ciod shall envelope thee. Then 
shalt thou cry, and the Lord shall hear thee : 

' Isx Iv. 3 to end. 
ifxaria ' some read laixara, as in LXX., " thy health," the better 

reading probably. 

while thou art speaking, He will say, Behold, I 
am here. And if thou take away from thee the 
yoke, and the stretching out of the hand, and the 
word of murmuring; and shalt give heartily thy 
bread to the hungry, and shalt satisfy the afflicted 
soul ; then shall thy light arise in the darkness, 
and thy darkness shall be as the noon-day : and 
thy God shall be with thee continually, and thou 
shalt be satisfied according as thy soul desireth, 
and thy bones shall become fat, and shall be as 
a watered garden, and as a fountain of water, or 
as a land where water fails not.'^ 'Circumcise, 
therefore, the foreskin of your heart,' as the words 
of God in all these passages demand." 


"And God himself proclaimed by Moses, 
speaking thus : ' And circumcise the hardness of 
your hearts, and no longer stiffen the neck. For 
the Lord your God is both Lord of lords, and a 
great, mighty, and terrible God, who regardeth 
not persons, and taketh not rewards.' •♦ And in 
Leviticus : ' Because they have transgressed against 
Me, and despised Me, and because they have 
walked contrary to Me, I also walked contrary to 
them, and I shall cut them off in the land of their 
enemies. Then shall their uncircumcised heart 
be turned.' s For the circumcision according to 
the flesh, which is from Abraham, was given for 
a sign ; that you may be separated from other 
nations, and from us ; and that you alone may 
suffer that which you now justly suifer ; and that 
your land may be desolate, and your cities burned 
with fire ; and that strangers may eat your fruit 
in your presence, and not one of you may go up 
to Jerusalem.'^ For you are not recognised among 
the rest of men by any other mark than your 
fleshly circumcision. For none of you, I suppose, 
will venture to say that God neither did nor does 
foresee the events, which are future, nor fore- 
ordained his deserts for each one. Accordingly, 
these things have happened to you in fairness 
and justice, for you have slain the Just On^, and 
His prophets before Him ; and now you reject 
those who hope in Him, and in Him who sent 
Him — God the Almighty and Maker of all 
things — cursing in your synagogues those that 
believe on Christ. For you have not the power 
to lay hands upon us, on account of those who 
now have the mastery. But as often as you 
could, you did so. Wherefore God, by Isaiah, 
calls to you, saying, ' Behold how the righteous 

3 Isa. Iviii. 1-12. 
* Deut. X. 16 f. 

5 Lev. xxvi. 40, 41. 

6 See Apol., i. 47. The Jews [By Hadrian's recent edict] were 
prohibited by law from entering Jerusalem on pain of death. And so 
Justin sees in circumcision their own punishment. 



man perished, and no one regards it. For the 
righteous man is taken away from before iniquity. 
His grave shall be in peace, he is taken away 
from the midst. Draw near hither, ye lawless 
children, seed of the adulterers, and children of 
the whore. Against whom have you sported 
yourselves, and against whom have you opened 
the mouth, and against whom have you loosened 
the tongue ? ' ' 



" For Other nations have not inflicted on us and 
on Christ this wrong to such an extent as you have, 
who in very deed are the authors of the wicked 
prejudice against the Just One, and us who hold 
by Him. For after that you had crucified Him, 
the only blameless and righteous Man, — through 
whose stripes those who approach the Father by 
Him are healed, — when you knew that He had 
risen from the dead and ascended to heaven, as 
the prophets foretold He would, you not only 
did not repent of the wickedness which you had 
committed, but at that time you selected and 
sent out from Jerusalem chosen men through all 
the land to tell that the godless heresy of the 
Christians had spnmg up, and to publish those 
things which all they who knew us not speak 
against us. So that you are the cause not only 
of your own unrighteousness, but in fact of that 
of all other men. And Isaiah cries justly : ' By 
reason of you. My name is blasphemed among 
the Gentiles.' ^ And : ' Woe unto their soul ! be- 
cause they have devised an evil device against 
themselves, saying. Let us bind the righteous, for 
he is distasteful to us. Therefore they shall eat 
the fruit of their doings. Woe unto the wicked ! 
evil shall be rendered to him according to the 
works of his hands.' And again, in other 
words : ^ ' Woe unto them that draw their iniqui- 
ty as with a long cord, and their transgressions 
as with the harness of a heifer's yoke : who say. 
Let his speed come near ; and let the counsel 
of the Holy One of Israel come, that we may 
know it. Woe unto them that call evil good, 
and good evil ; that put light for darkness, and 
darkness for light ; that put bitter for sweet, and 
sweet for bitter ! '  Accordingly, you displayed 
great zeal in publishing throughout all the land 
bitter and dark and unjust things against the only 
blameless and righteous Light sent by God. 

For He appeared distasteful to you when He 
cried among you, ' It is written. My house is the 
house of prayer ; but ye have made it a den of 
thieves ! ' 5 He overthrew also the tables of the 

* Isa. Ivii. 1-4. 

2 Isa. Hi. 5. 

3 Isa. iii. 9 ff. 

* Isa. V. 18, 20. 
5 Matt. xxi. 13. 

money-changers in the temple, and exclaimed, 
' Woe unto you. Scribes and Pharisees, hypo- 
crites ! because ye pay tithe of mint and rue, but 
do not observe the love of God and justice. Ye 
whited sepulchres ! appearing beautiful outward, 
but are within full of dead men's bones.' ^ And 
to the Scribes, ' Woe unto you. Scribes ! for ye 
have the keys, and ye do not enter in yourselves, 
and them that are entering in ye hinder ; ye 
blind guides ! ' 



" For since you have read, O Trypho, as you 
yourself admitted, the doctrines taught by our 
Saviour, I do not think that I have done fool- 
ishly in adding some short utterances of His to 
the prophetic statements. Wash therefore, and 
be now clean, and put away iniquity from your 
souls, as God bids you be washed in this laver, 
and be circumcised with the true circumcision. 
For we too would observe the fleshly circumcision, 
and the Sabbaths, and in short all the feasts, if 
we did not know for what reason they were en- 
joined you, — namely, on account of your trans- 
gressions and the hardness of your hearts. For 
if we patiently endure all things contrived against 
us by wicked men and demons, so that even 
amid cruelties unutterable, death and torments, 
we pray for mercy to those who inflict such 
things upon us, and do not wish to give the least 
retort to any one, even as the new Lawgiver 
commanded us : how is it, Trypho, that we 
would not observe those rites which do not harm 
us, — I speak of fleshly circumcision, and Sab- 
baths, and feasts? 


" It is this about which we are at a loss, and 
with reason, because, while you endure such 
things, you do not observe all the other customs 
which we are now discussing." 

"This circumcision is not, however, necessary 
for all men, but for you alone, in order that, as I 
have already said, you may suffer these things 
which you now justly suffer. Nor do we receive 
that useless baptism of cisterns, for it has noth- 
ing to do with this baptism of life. Wherefore 
also God has announced that you have forsaken 
Him, the living fountain, and digged for your- 
selves broken cisterns which can hold no water. 
Even you, who are the circumcised according to 
the flesh, have need of our circumcision ; but we, 
having the latter, do not require the former. 
For if it were necessary, as you suppose, God 

6 This and following quotation taken promiscuously from Matt 
xxiii. and Luke xi. 



would not have made Adam uncircumcised ; 
would not have had respect to the gifts of Abel 
when, being uncircumcised, he offered sacrifice ; 
and would not have been pleased with the uncir- 
cumcision of Enoch, who was not found, because 
God hatl translated him. I^t, being uncircum- 
cised, was saved from Sodom, the angels them- 
selves and the Lord sending him out. Noah 
was the beginning of our race ; yet, uncircum- 
cised, along with his children he went into the 
ark. Melchizedek, the priest of the Most High, 
was uncircumcised ; to whom also Abraham, 
the first who received circumcision after the flesh, 
gave tithes, and he blessed him : after whose 
order God declared, by the mouth of David, 
that He would establish the everlasting priest. 
Therefore to you alone this circumcision was 
necessary, in order that the peoi)le may be no 
people, and the nation no nation ; as also Hosea,' 
one of the twelve prophets, declares. Moreover, 
all those righteous men already mentioned, 
though they kept no Sabbaths,^ were pleasing to 
God ; and after them Abraham with all his de- 
scendants until Moses, under whom your nation 
appeared unrighteous and ungrateful to God, 
making a calf in the wilderness : wherefore God, 
accommodating Himself to that nation, enjoined 
them also to offer sacrifices, as if to His name, 
in order that you might not serve idols. Which 
precept, however, you have not observed ; nay, 
you sacrificed your children to demons. And 
you were commanded to keep Sabbaths, that you 
might retain the memorial of God. For His 
word makes this announcement, saying, ' That 
ye may know that I am God who redeemed 
you.' 3 


" Moreover, you were commanded to abstain 
from certain kinds of food, in order that you 
might keep God before your eyes while you ate 
and drank, seeing that you were prone and very 
ready to depart from His knowledge, as Moses 
also affirms : ' The people ate and drank, and 
rose up to play.'  And again : ' Jacob ate, and 
was satisfied, and waxed fat ; and he who was 
beloved kicked : he waxed fat, he grew thick, he 
was enlarged, and he forsook God who had made 
him.' 5 For it was told you by Moses in the 
book of Genesis, that God granted to Noah, 
being a just man, to eat of every animal, but not 
of flesh with the blood, which is dead.'' ^' And 

 Hos. i. and ii. 

^ [They did not Sabbatiie; but Justin does not deny what is im- 
plied in many Scriptures, that they marked the week, and noted the 
seventh day. Gen. ii. 3, viii. 10, 12.] 

3 Kzek. XX. 12. 

* Ex. xxxii. 6. 

5 Deut. xxxii. 15. 

6 vfKf>^^i.^.\ov, or " dieth of itself;" com. reading was eKptnaiov, 
which was supposed to be derived from eicpiiTTu), and to mean " which 
ought to be cast out: " the above was suggested by H. Stcphanus. 

as he was ready to say, " as the green herbs," I 
anticipated him : " Why do you not receive this 
statement, ' as the green herbs,' in the sense in 
which it was given by Ciod, to wit, that just as God 
has granted the herbs for sustenance to man, even 
so has He given the animals for the diet of flesh ? 
But, you say, a distinction was laid down there- 
after to Noah, because we do not eat certain 
herbs. As you interpret it, the thing is incredi- 
ble. And first I shall not occupy myself with 
this, though able to say and to hold that every 
vegetable is food, and fit to be eaten. But 
although we discriminate between green herbs, 
not eating all, we refrain from eating some, not 
because they are common or unclean, but be- 
cause they are bitter, or deadly, or thorny. But 
we lay hands on and take of all herbs which are 
sweet, very nourishing and good, whether they 
are marine or land plants. Thus also God by the 
mouth of Moses commanded you to abstain 
from unclean and improper ^ and violent animals : 
when, moreover, though you were eating manna 
in the desert, and were seeing all those wondrous 
acts wrought for you by God, you made and wor- 
shipped the golden calf.*^ Hence he cries con- 
tinually, and justly, 'They are foolish children, 
in whom is no faith. ' ^ 


" Moreover, that God enjoined you to keep 
the Sabbath, and impose on you other precepts 
for a sign, as I have already said, on account of 
your unrighteousness, and that of your fathers, — 
as He declares that for the sake of the nations, 
lest His name be profaned among them, there- 
fore He permitted some of you to remain alive, — 
these words of His can prove to you : they are 
narrated by Ezekiel thus : I am the Lord your 
God ; walk in My statutes, and keep My judg- 
ments, and take no part in the customs of Egypt ; 
and hallow My Sabbaths ; and they shall be a 
sign between Me and you, that ye may know that 
I am the Lord your God. Notwithstanding ye 
rebelled against Me, and your children walked 
not in My statutes, neither kept My judgments 
to do them : which if a man do, he shall live in 
them. But they polluted My Sabbaths. And I 
said that I would pour out My fiiry upon them 
in the wilderness, to accomplish My anger upon 
them ; yet I did it not ; that My name might 
not be altogether profaned in the sight of the 
heathen. I led them out before their eyes, and 

8 " The reasoning of St. Justin is not quite clear to interpreters. 
As we abstain from some herbs, not because they are forbidden by law, 
but because they are deadly; so the law of abstinence from improper 
and violent animals was imposed not on Noah, but on you as a yoke 
on account of your sins." — Maranus. 

9 Deut. xxxii. 6, so. 



I lifted up Mine hand unto them in the wilder- 
ness, that I would scatter them among the 
heathen, and disperse them through the coun- 
tries ; because they had not executed My judg- 
ments, but had despised My statutes, and polluted 
My Sabbaths, and their eyes were after the devices 
of their fathers. Wherefore I gave them also 
statutes which were not good, and judgments 
whereby they shall not live. And I shall pollute 
them in their own gifts, that I may destroy all 
that openeth the womb, when I pass through 
them.' ' 




" And that you may learn that it was for the 
sins of your own nation, and for their idolatries, 
and not because there was any necessity for such 
sacrifices, that they were likewise enjoined, listen 
to the manner in which He speaks of these by 
Amos, one of the twelve, saying : 'Woe unto you 
that desire the day of the Lord ! to what end 
is this day of the Lord for you ? It is dark- 
ness and not light, as when a man flees from the 
face of a lion, and a bear meets him ; and he 
goes into his house, and leans his hands against 
the wall, and the serpent bites him. Shall not 
the day of the Lord be darkness and not light, 
even very dark, and no brightness in it ? I have 
hated, I have despised your feast-days, and I 
will not smell in your solemn assemblies : where- 
fore, though ye offer Me your burnt-offerings 
and sacrifices, I will not accept them ; neither will 
I regard the peace-offerings of your presence. 
Take thou away from Me the multitude of thy 
songs and psalms ; I will not hear thine instru- 
ments. But let judgment be rolled down as 
water, and righteousness as an impassable torrent. 
Have ye offered unto Me victims and sacrifices 
in the wilderness, O house of Israel? saith the 
Lord. And have ye taken up the tabernacle of 
Moloch, and the star of your god Raphan, the 
figures which ye made for yourselves ? And I will 
carry you away beyond Damascus, saith the Lord, 
whose name is the Almighty God. Woe to them 
that are at ease in Zion, and trust in the moun- 
tain of Samaria : those who are named among 
the chiefs have plucked away the first-fruits of 
the nations : the house of Israel have entered for 
themselves. Pass all of you unto Calneh, and see ; 
and from thence go ye unto Hamath the great, and 
go down thence to Gath of the strangers, the 
noblest of all these kingdoms, if their boundaries 
are greater than your boundaries. Ye who come 
to the evil day, who are approaching, and who hold 
to false Sabbaths ; who He on beds of ivory, and 
are at ease upon their couches ; who eat the 
lambs out of the flock, and the sucking calves out 

' Ezek. XX. 19-26. 

of the midst of the herd ; who applaud at the 
sound of the musical instnmients ; they reckon 
them as stable, and not as fleeting, who drink 
wine in bowls, and anoint themselves with the 
chief ointments, but they are not grieved for the 
affliction of Joseph. Wherefore now they shall 
be captives, among the first of the nobles who are 
carried away ; and the house of evil-doers shall 
be removed, and the neighing of horses shall be 
taken away from Ephraim.^ And again by Jere- 
miah : 'Collect your flesh, and sacrifices, and 
eat : for concerning neither sacrifices nor liba- 
tions did I command your fathers in the day in 
which I took them by the hand to lead them out 
of Egypt.3 And again by David, in the forty-ninth 
Psalm, He thus said : ' The God of gods, the 
Lord hath spoken, and called the earth, from the 
rising of the sun unto the going down thereof. 
Out of Zion is the perfection of His beauty. God, 
even our God, shall come openly, and shall not 
keep silence. Fire shall burn before Him, and it 
shall be very temptestuous round about Him. He 
shall call to the heavens above, and to the earth, 
that He may judge His people. Assemble to 
Him His saints ; those that have made a cove- 
nant with Him by sacrifices. And the heavens 
shall declare His righteousness, for God is judge. 
Hear, O My people, and I will speak to thee ; 
O Israel, and I will testify to thee, I am God, 
even thy God. I will not reprove thee for thy 
sacrifices ; thy burnt-offerings are continually 
before me. I will take no bullocks out of thy 
house, nor he-goats out of thy folds : for all 
the beasts of the field are Mine, the herds and 
the oxen on the mountains. I know all the 
fowls of the heavens, and the beauty of the field 
is Mine. If I were hungry, I would not tell thee ; 
for the world is Mine, and the fulness thereof 
Will I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of 
goats? Offer unto God the sacrifice of praise, 
and pay thy vows unto the Most High, and call 
upon Me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver 
thee, and thou shalt glorify Me. But unto the 
wicked God saith, What hast thou to do to de- 
clare My statutes, and to take My covenant into 
thy mouth? But thou hast hated instruction, 
and cast My words behind thee. When thou 
sawest a thief, thou consentedst with him ; and 
hast been partaker with the adulterer. Thy mouth 
has framed evil, and thy tongue has enfolded 
deceit. Thou sittest and speakest against thy 
brother; thou slanderest thine own mother's 
son. These things hast thou done, and I kept 
silence ; thou thoughtest that I would be like 
thyself in wickedness. I will reprove thee, and 
set thy sins in order before thine eyes. Now con- 
sider this, ye that forget God, lest He tear you 
in pieces, and there be none to deliver. The 

2 Amos V. 18 to end, vi, 1-7. 

3 J«r. vii. 31 f. 



sacrifice of praise shall glorify Me ; and there is 
the way in which I shall show him My salvation.' 
Accordingly He neither takes sacrifices from 
you nor commanded them at first to be offered 
because they are needful to Him, but because 
of your sins. For indeed the temple, which is 
called the temple in Jerusalem, He admitted to 
be His house or court, not as though He needed 
it, but in order that you, in this view of it, giving 
yourselves to Him, might not worship idols. 
And that this is so, Isaiah says : ' What house 
have ye built Me ? saith the I.ord. Heaven is 
My throne, and earth is My footstool.' ^ 


" But if we do not admit this, we shall be lia- 
ble to fall into foolish opinions, as if it were not 
the same (lod who existed in the times of Enoch 
and all the rest, who neither were circumcised 
after the flesh, nor observed Sabbaths, nor any 
other rites, seeing that Moses enjoined such ob- 
servances ; or that ( iod has not wished each 
race of mankind continually to perform the 
same righteous actions : to admit which, seems 
to be ridiculous and absurd. Therefore we 
must confess that He, who is ever the same, has 
commanded these and such like institutions on 
account of sinful men, and we must declare Him 
to be benevolent, foreknowing, needing nothing, 
righteous and good. But if this be not so, tell 
me, sir, what you think of those matters which 
we are investigating." And when no one re- 
sponded : " Wherefore, Trypho, I will proclaim 
to you, and to those who wish to become prose- 
lytes, the divine message which I heard from 
that man.3 Do you see that the elements are 
not idle, and keep no Sabbaths? Remain as 
you were born. For if there was no need of 
circumcision before Abraham, or of the observ- 
ance of Sabbaths, of feasts and sacrifices, before 
Moses ; no more need is there of them now, 
after that, according to the will of God, Jesus 
Christ the Son of God has been born without 
sin, of a virgin sprung from the stock of Abra- 
ham. For when Abraham himself was in un- 
circumcision, he was justified and blessed by 
reason of the faith which he reposed in God, 
as the Scripture tells. Moreover, the Scriptures 
and the facts themselves compel us to admit 
that He received circumcision for a sign, and 
not for righteousness. So that it was justly re- 
corded concerning the people, that the soul 
which shall not be circumcised on the eighth 
day shall be cut off from his family. And, fur- 
thermore, the inability of the female sex to 
receive fleshly circumcision, proves that this 

» Ps. i. (inE. v.). 

* Isa. Ixvi. I. 

' The man he met by the sea-shore. 

circumcision has been given for a sign, and 
not for a work of righteousness. For God has 
given likewise to women the abihty to observe 
all things which are righteous and virtuous ; but 
we see that the bodily form of the male has 
been made different from the bodily form of the 
female ; yet we know that neither of them is 
righteous or unrighteous merely for this cause, 
but [is considered righteous] by reason of piety 
and righteousness. 



" Now, sirs," I said, " it is possible for us to 
show how the eighth day possessed a certain 
mysterious import, which the seventh day did 
not possess, and which was promulgated by God 
through these rites. But lest I appear now to 
diverge to other subjects, understand what I 
say : the blood of that circumcision is obsolete, 
and we trust in the blood of salvation ; there 
is now another covenant, and another law has 
gone forth from Zion. Jesus Christ circumcises 
all who will — as was declared above — with 
knives of stone ; * that they may be a righteous 
nation, a people keeping faith, holding to the 
truth, and maintaining peace. Come then with 
me, all who fear God, who wish to see the good 
of Jerusalem, Come, let us go to the light of 
the Lord ; for He has liberated His people, 
the house of Jacob. Come, all nations ; let 
us gather ourselves together at Jerusalem, no 
longer plagued by war for the sins of her peo- 
ple. ' For I was manifest to them that sought 
Me not ; I was found of them that asked not 
for Me ; ' 5 He exclaims by Isaiah : ' I said. 
Behold Me, unto nations which were not called 
by My name, I have spread out My hands all 
the day unto a disobedient and gainsaying peo- 
ple, which walked in a way that was not good, 
but after their own sins. It is a people that 
provoketh Me to my face.' s 



" Those who justify themselves, and say they 
are sons of Abraham, shall be desirous even in 
a small degree to receive the inheritance along 
with you ; ^ as the Holy Spirit, by the mouth of 
Isaiah, cries, speaking thus while he personates 
them : ' Return from heaven, and behold from 
the habitation of Thy holiness and glory. Where 
is Thy zeal and strength ? Where is the multi- 
tude of Thy mercy? for Thou hast sustained us, 
O Lord. For Thou art our Father, because 
Abraham is ignorant of us, and Israel has not 
recognised us. But Thou, O Lord, our Father, 

* Josh. V. 2; Isa. xxvi. 2, 3. 
5 Isa. Ixv. 1-3. 

* Other edd. have, " with u«.' 



deliver us : from the beginning Thy name is up- 
on us. O Lord, why hast Thou made us to err 
from Thy way? and hardened our hearts, so 
that we do not fear Thee ? Return for Thy ser- 
vants' sake, the tribes of Thine inheritance, that 
we may inherit for a httle Thy holy mountain. 
We were as from the beginning, when Thou 
didst not bear rule over us, and when Thy name 
was not called upon us. If Thou wilt open the 
heavens, trembling shall seize the mountains 
before Thee : and they shall be melted, as wax 
melts before the fire ; and fire shall consume 
the adversaries, and Thy name shall be manifest 
among the adversaries ; the nations shall be put 
into disorder before Thy face. When Thou 
shalt do glorious things, trembling shall seize 
the mountains before Thee. From the begin- 
ning we have not heard, nor have our eyes seen 
a God besides Thee : and Thy works,' the mercy 
which Thou shalt show to those who repent. 
He shall meet those who do righteousness, and 
they shall remember Thy ways. Behold, Thou 
art wroth, and we were sinning. Therefore we 
have erred and become all unclean, and all our 
righteousness is as the rags of a woman set 
apart : and we have faded away like leaves by 
reason of our iniquities ; thus the wind will take 
us away. And there is none that calleth upon 
Thy name, or remembers to take hold of Thee ; 
for Thou hast turned away Thy face from us, 
and hast given us up on account of our sins. 
And now return, O Lord, for we are all Thy 
people. The city of Thy holiness has become 
desolate. Zion has become as a wilderness, 
Jerusalem a curse ; the house, our holiness, and 
the glory which our fathers blessed, has been 
burned with fire ; and all the glorious nations ^ 
have fallen along with it. And in addition to 
these [misfortunes], O Lord, Thou hast refrained 
Thyself, and art silent, and hast humbled us 
very much.' " ^ 

And Trypho remarked, "What is this you 
say? that none of us shall inherit anything on 
the holy mountain of God? " 


And I replied, " I do not say so ; but those 
who have persecuted and do persecute Christ, 
if they do not repent, shall not inherit any- 
thing on the holy mountain. But the Gen- 
tiles, who have believed on Him, and have 
repented of the sins which they have committed, 
they shall receive the inheritance along with the 
patriarchs and the prophets, and the just men 
who are descended from Jacob, even although 

' Otto reads: " Thy works which Thou shalt do to those who 
wait for mercy." 

^ Some suppose the correct reading to be, "our glorious institu- 
tions [manners, customs, or ordinances] have," etc., ISi) for eSirj. 

3 Isa. Ixiii. 15 to end, and Ixiv. 

they neither keep the Sabbath, nor are circum- 
cised, nor observe the feasts. Assuredly they 
shall receive the holy inheritance of God. For 
God speaks by Isaiah thus : ' I, the Lord God, 
have called Thee in righteousness, and will hold 
Thine hand, and will strengthen Thee ; and I 
have given Thee for a covenant of the people, 
for a light of the Gentiles, to open the eyes of 
the blind, to bring out them that are bound 
from the chains, and those who sit in darkness 
from the prison-house.' ^ And again : ' Lift up a 
standard 5 for the people ; for, lo, the Lord has 
made it heard unto the end of the earth. Say 
ye to the daughters of Zion, Behold, thy Saviour 
has come ; having His reward, and His work 
before His face : and He shall call it a holy na- 
tion, redeemed by the Lord. And thou shalt 
be called a city sought out, and not forsaken. 
Who is this that cometh from Edom ? in red gar- 
ments from Bosor? This that is beautiful in ap- 
parel, going up with great strength? I speak 
righteousness, and the judgment of salvation. 
Why are Thy garments red, and Thine apparel 
as from the trodden wine-press ? Thou art full 
of the trodden grape. I have trodden the wine- 
press all alone, and of the people there is no 
man with Me ; and I have trampled them in 
fury, and crushed them to the ground, and 
spilled their blood on the earth. For the day 
of retribution has come upon them, and the year 
of redemption is present. And I looked, and 
there was none to help ; and I considered, 
and none assisted : and My arm delivered ; and 
My fury came on them, and I trampled them 
in My fury, and spilled their blood on the 
earth.'" ^ 


And Trypho said, "Why do you select and 
quote whatever you wish from the prophetic writ- 
ings, but do not refer to those which expressly 
command the Sabbath to be observed? For 
Isaiah thus speaks : ' If thou shalt turn away thy 
foot from the Sabbaths, so as not to do thy pleas- 
ure on the holy day, and shalt call the Sabbaths 
the holy delights of thy God ; if thou shalt not 
lift thy foot to work, and shalt not speak a word 
from thine own mouth ; then thou shalt trust in 
the Lord, and He shall cause thee to go up to 
the good things of the land ; and He shall feed 
thee with the inheritance of Jacob thy father : 
for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it.' " ^ 

And I replied, " I have passed them by, my 
friends, not because such prophecies were con- 
trary to me, but because you have understood, and 

* Isa. xUi. 6, 7. 

5 (TV(T(Tei.(TiJ.6v, "a shaking," is the original reading: but LXX 
has <Tuo-<r7)^o»', a standard or signal, and this most edd. adopt. 

6 Isa. Ixii. 10 to end, Ixiii. i-6. 
^ Isa. Iviii. 13, 14. 



do understand, that although God commands you 
by all the prophets to do the same things which 
He also commanded by Moses, it was on account 
of the hardness of your hearts, and your ingrati- 
tude towards Him, that He continually proclaims 
them, in order that, even in this way, if you re- 
pented, you might please Him, and neither sac- 
rifice your children to demons, nor be partakers 
with thieves, nor lovers of gifts, nor hunters after 
revenge, nor fail in doing judgment for orphans, 
nor be inattenti\e to the justice due to the widow, 
nor have your hands full of blood. ' For the 
daughters of Zion have walked with a high neck, 
both sporting by winking with their eyes, and 
sweeping along their dresses." For they are all 
gone aside,' He exclaims, ' they are all become 
useless. There is none that understands, there 
is not so much as one. With their tongues they 
have practised deceit, their throat is an open 
sepulchre, the poison of asps is under their lips, 
destruction and misery are in their paths, and 
the way of peace they have not known.' ^ So 
that, as in the beginning, these things were en- 
joined you because of your wickedness, in like 
manner because of your stedfastness in it, or 
rather your increased proneness to it, by means 
of the same precepts He calls you to a remem- 
brance or knowledge of it. But you are a peo- 
ple hard-hearted and without understanding, 
both blind and lame, children in whom is no 
faith, as He Himself says, honouring Him only 
with your lips, far from Him in your hearts, 
teaching doctrines that are your own and not 
His. For, tell me, did God wish the priests to 
sin when they offer the sacrifices on the Sabbaths ? 
or those to sin, who are circumcised and do cir- 
cumcise on the Sabbaths ; since He commands 
that on the eighth day — even though it happen 
to be a Sabbath — those who are born shall be 
always circumcised ? or could not the infants be 
operated upon one day previous or one day sub- 
sequent to the Sabbath, if He knew that it is a 
sinful act upon the Sabbaths ? Or why did He 
not teach those — who are called righteous and 
pleasing to Him, who lived before Moses and 
Abraham, who were not circumcised in their 
foreskin, and observed no Sabbaths — to keep 
these institutions ? " 


And Trypho replied, "We heard you adducing 
this consideration a little ago, and we have given 
it attention : for, to tell the truth, it is worthy of 
attention ; and that answer which pleases most — 
namely, that so it seemed good to Him — does 
not sadsfy me. For this is ever the shift to which 

' Isa. iii. i6. 

' Various passages stninc together; comp. Rom. iii. lo, and foil, 

those have recourse who are unable to answei 
the question." 

Then I said, "Since I bring from the Scriptures 
and the facts themselves both the proofs and the 
inculcation of them, do not delay or hesitate to 
put faith in me, although I am an uncircumcised 
man ; so short a time is left you in which to be- 
come proselytes. If Christ's coming shall have 
anticipated you, in vain you will repent, in vain 
you will weej) ; for He will not hear you. ' Break 
up your fallow ground,' Jeremiah has cried to the 
people, 'and sow not among thorns. Circumcise 
yourselves to the Lord, and circumcise the fore- 
skin of your heart.' ^ Do not sow, therefore, 
among thorns, and in untilled ground, whence 
you can have no fruit. Know Christ ; and be- 
hold the fallow ground, good, good and fat, is in 
your hearts. ' For, behold, the days come, saith 
the Lord, that I will visit all them that are cir- 
cumcised in their foreskins ; Kgypt, and Judah,- 
and Edom, and the sons of Moab. For all the 
nations are uncircumcised, and all the house of 
Israel are uncircumcised in their hearts.' 5 Do 
you see how that God does not mean this cir- 
cumcision which is given for a sign ? For it is 
of no use to the Egyptians, or the sons of Moab, 
or the sons of Edom. But though a man be a 
Scythian or a Persian, if he has the knowledge 
of God and of His Christ, and keeps the ever- 
lasting righteous decrees, he is circumcised with 
the good and useful circumcision, and is a friend 
of God, and God rejoices in his gifts and offer- 
ings. But I will lay before you, my friends, the 
very words of God, when He said to the people by 
Malachi, one of the twelve prophets, ' I have no 
pleasure in you, saith the Lord ; and I shall not 
accept your sacrifices at your hands : for from 
the rising of the sun unto its setting My name 
shall be glorified among the Gentiles ; and in 
every place a sacrifice is offered unto ISIy name, 
even a pure sacrifice : for My name is honoured 
among the Gentiles, saith the Lord ; but ye pro- 
fane it.' ^ And by David He said, ' A people 
whom I have not known, served Me ; at the 
hearing of the ear they obeyed Me.' ^ 


" Let us glorify God, all nations gathered to- 
gether ; for He has also visited us. Let us glorify 
Him by the King of glory, by the Lord of hosts. 
For He has been gracious towards the Gentiles 
also ; and our sacrifices He esteems more grate- 
ful than yours. What need, then, have I of cir- 
cumcision, who have been witnessed to by God? 
What need have I of that other baptism, who 

3 Jer. iv. 3. 

* So in A. v., but supposed to be Idumsea. 

5 Jer. ix. 25 {. 

*> Mai. i. 10, etc. 

' Ps. xviii. 43. 



have been baptized with the Holy Ghost? I 
think that while I mention this, I would persuade 
even those who are possessed of scanty intelli- 
gence. For these words have neither been pre- 
pared by me, nor embellished by the art of man ; 
but David sung them, Isaiah preached them, 
Zechariah proclaimed them, and Moses wrote 
them. Are you acquainted with them, Trypho ? 
They are contained in your Scriptures, or rather 
not yours, but ours.' For we believe them ; but 
you, though you read them, do not catch the 
spirit that is in them. Be not offended at, or 
reproach us with, the bodily uncircumcision with 
which God has created us ; and think it not 
strange that we drink hot water on the Sabbaths, 
since God directs the government of the universe 
on this day equally as on all others ; and the 
priests, as on other days, so on this, are ordered 
to offer sacrifices ; and there are so many right- 
eous men who have performed none of these 
legal ceremonies, and yet are witnessed to by 
God Himself. 


" But impute it to your own wickedness, that 
God even can be accused by those who have no 
understanding, of not having always instructed 
all in the same righteous statutes. For such 
institutions seemed to be unreasonable and un- 
worthy of God to many men, who had not re- 
ceived grace to know that your nation were called 
to conversion and repentance of spirit,^ while 
they were in a sinful condition and labouring 
under spiritual disease ; and that the prophecy 
which was announced subsequent to the death 
of Moses is everlasting. And this is mentioned 
in the Psalm, my friends.^ And that we, who 
have been made wise by them, confess that the 
statutes of the Lord are sweeter than honey and 
the honey-comb, is manifest from the fact that, 
though threatened with death, we do not deny 
His name. Moreover, it is also manifest to all, 
that we who believe in Him pray to be kept by 
Him from strange, i.e., from wicked and deceit- 
ful, spirits ; as the word of prophecy, personat- 
ing one of those who believe in Him, figuratively 
declares. For we do continually beseech God 
by Jesus Christ to preserve us from the demons 
which are hostile to the worship of God, and 
whom we of old time served, in order that, after 
our conversion by Him to God, we may be blame- 
less. For we call Him Helper and Redeemer, 
the power of whose name even the demons do 
fear ; and at this day, when they are exorcised 

' [This striking claim of the Old Testament Scriptures is note- 

^ Or, " repentance of the Father; " n-arpos for irceO/xoTos. Mara- 
nus explains the confusion on the ground of the similarity between 
the contractions for the words, Trpv and irfj. 

3 Ps. xix. 

in the name of Jesus Christ, crucified under 
Pontius Pilate, governor of Judaea, they are 
overcome. And thus it is manifest to all, that 
His Father has given Him so great power, by 
virtue of which demons are subdued to His 
name, and to the dispensation of His suffer- 




" But if so great a power is shown to have fol- 
lowed and to be still following the dispensation 
of His suffering, how great shall that be which 
shall follow His glorious advent ! For He shall 
come on the clouds as the Son of man, so Daniel 
foretold, and His angels shall come with Him. 
These are the words : ' I beheld till the thrones 
were set ; and the Ancient of days did sit, whose 
garment was white as snow, and the hair of His 
head like the pure wool. His throne was like 
a fiery flame. His wheels as burning fire. A 
fiery stream issued and came forth from before 
Him. Thousand thousands ministered unto 
Him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood 
before Him. The books were opened, and the 
judgment was set. I beheld then the voice of 
the great words which the horn speaks : and the 
beast was beat down, and his body destroyed, 
and given to the burning flame. And the rest 
of the beasts were taken away from their do- 
minion, and a period of life was given to the 
beasts until a season and time. I saw in the vis- 
ion of the night, and, behold, one like the Son 
of man coming with the clouds of heaven ; and 
He came to the Ancient of days, and stood 
before Him. And they who stood by brought 
Him near ; and there were given Him power 
and kingly honour, and all nations of the earth 
by their families, and all glory, serve Him. And 
His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which 
shall not be taken away ; and His kingdom shall 
not be destroyed. And my spirit was chilled 
within my frame, and the visions of my head 
troubled me. I came near unto one of them 
that stood by, and inquired the precise meaning 
of all these things. In answer he speaks to me, 
and showed me the judgment of the matters : 
These great beasts are four kingdoms, which 
shall perish from the earth, and shall not receive 
dominion for ever, even for ever and ever. Then 
I wished to know exactly about the fourth beast, 
which destroyed all [the others] and was very 
terrible, its teeth of iron, and its nails of brass ; 
which devoured, made waste, and stamped the 
residue with its feet : also about the ten horns 
upon its head, and of the one which came up, 
by means of which three of the former fell. 
And that horn had eyes, and a mouth speaking 
great things ; and its countenance excelled the* 



rest. And I beheld that horn waging war against 
the saints, and prevailing against them, until the 
Ancient of days came ; and He gave judgment 
for the saints of the Most High. And the time 
came, and the saints of the Most High possessed 
the kingdom. And it was told me concerning 
the fourth beast : There shall be a fourth king- 
dom upon earth, which shall prevail over all 
these kingdoms, and shall devour the whole 
earth, and shall destroy and make it thoroughly 
waste. And the ten horns are ten kings that 
shall arise ; and one shall arise after them ; ' and 
he shall surpass the first in evil deeds, and he 
shall subdue three kings, and he shall speak 
words against the Most High, and shall over- 
throw the rest of the saints of the Most High, 
and shall expect to change the seasons and the 
times. And it shall be delivered into his hands 
for a time, and times, and half a time. And the 
judgment sat, and they shall take away his 
dominion, to consume and to destroy it unto the 
end. And the kingdom, and the power, and the 
great places of the kingdoms under the heavens, 
were given to the holy people of the Most High, 
to reign in an everlasting kingdom : and all 
powers shall be subject to Him, and shall obey 
Him. Hitherto is the end of the matter. I, 
Daniel, was possessed with a very great astonish- 
ment, and my speech was changed in me ; yet I 
kept the matter in my heart.' " ^ 


And when I had ceased, Trypho said, " These 
and such like Scriptures, sir, compel us to wait 
for Him who, as Son of man, receives from the 
Ancient of days the everlasting kingdom. But 
this so-called Christ of yours was dishonourable 
and inglorious, so much so that the last curse 
contained in the law of God fell on him, for he 
was crucified." 

Then I replied to him, " If, sirs, it were not 
said by the Scriptures which I have already 
quoted, that His form was inglorious, and His 
generation not declared, and that for His death 
the rich would suffer death, and with His stripes 
we should be healed, and that He would be led 
away like a sheep ; and if I had not explained 
that there would be two advents of His, — one 
in which He was pierced by you ; a second, 
when you shall know Him whom you have 
])ierced, and your tribes shall mourn, each tribe 
by itself, the women apart, and the men apart, 
— then I must have been speaking dubious and 
obscure things. But now, by means of tlie con- 
tents of those Scriptures esteemed holy and pro- 

' Literally, " And the ten horns, ten kings shall arise after them." 
2 Dan. vii. 9-28. 

phetic amongst you, I attempt to prove all [that I 
have adduced], in the hope that some one of you 
may be found to be of that remnant which has 
been left by the grace of the Lord of Sabaoth 
for the eternal salvation. In order, therefore, 
that the matter inquired into may be plainer to 
you, I will mention to you other words also 
spoken by the blessed David, from which you 
will perceive that the Lord is called the Christ 
by the Holy Spirit of prophecy ; and that the 
Lord, the Father of all, has brought Him again 
from the earth, setting Him at His own right 
hand, until He makes His enemies His footstool ; 
which indeed happens from the time that our 
Lord Jesus Christ ascended to heaven, after He 
rose again from the dead, the times now running 
on to their consummation ; and he whom Daniel 
foretells would have dominion for a time, and 
times, and an half, is even already at the door, 
about to speak blasphemous and daring things 
against the Most High. But you, being ignorant 
of how long he will have dominion, hold another 
opinion. For you interpret the ' time ' as being 
a hundred years. But if this is so, the man of 
sin must, at the shortest, reign three hundred 
and fifty years, in order that we may compute 
that which is said by the holy Daniel — ' and 
times ' — to be tivo times only. All this I have 
said to you in digression, in order that you at 
length may be persuaded of what has been de- 
clared against you by God, that you are foolish 
sons ; and of this, ' Therefore, behold, I will 
proceed to take away this people, and shall take 
them away ; and I will strip the wise of their 
wisdom, and will hide the understanding of their 
prudent men ; ' ^ and may cease to deceive 
yourselves and those who hear you, and may 
learn of us, who have been taught wisdom by 
the grace of Christ. The words, then, which 
were spoken by David, are these : * ' The Lord 
said unto My Lord, Sit Thou at My right hand, 
until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool. The 
Lord shall send the rod of Thy strength out of 
Sion : rule Thou also in the midst of Thine ene- 
mies. With Thee shall be, in the day, the chief 
of Thy power, in the beauties of Thy saints. 
From the womb, before the morning star, have 
I begotten Thee. The Lord hath sworn, and 
will not repent : Thou art a priest for ever after 
the order of Melchizedek. The Lord is at Thy 
right hand : He has crushed kings in the day of 
His wrath : He shall judge among the heathen, 
He shall fill [with] the dead bodies.s He shall 
drink of the brook in the way ; therefore shall 
He lift up the head.' 

3 Isa. xxix. 14. 

5 TrXrtpuKTei TTTuifxaTa; Lat. version, im^lebit ruinas. Thirlby 
suggested that an omission has taken place in the MSS. by the tran- 
scriber's fault. 






" And," I continued, " I am not ignorant that 
you venture to expound this psalm as if it re- 
ferred to king Hezekiah ; but that you are mis- 
taken, I shall prove to you from these very words 
forthwith. ' The Lord hath sworn, and will not 
repent,' it is said; and, 'Thou art a priest for 
ever, after the order of Melchizedek,' with what 
follows and precedes. Not even you will ven- 
ture to object that Hezekiah was either a priest, 
or is the everlasting priest of God ; but that this 
is spoken of our Jesus, these expressions show. 
But your ears are shut up, and your hearts are 
made dull.' For by this statement, ' The Lord 
hath sworn, and will not repent : Thou art a 
priest for ever, after the order of Melchizedek,' 
with an oath God has shown Him (on account 
of your unbehef) to be the High Priest after 
the order of Melchizedek ; i.e., as Melchizedek 
was described by Moses as the priest of the 
Most High, and he was a priest of those who 
were in uncircumcision, and blessed the circum- 
cised Abraham who brought him tithes, so God 
has shown that His everlasting Priest, called also 
by the Holy Spirit Lord, would be Priest of 
those in uncircumcision. Those too in circum- 
cision who approach Him, that is, believing 
Him and seeking blessings from Him, He will 
both receive and bless. And that He shall be 
first humble as a man, and then exalted, these 
words at the end of the Psalm show : ' He shall 
drink of the brook in the way,' and then, 'There- 
fore shall He lift up the head.' 


" Further, to persuade you that you have not 
understood anything of the Scriptures, I will re- 
mind you of another psalm, dictated to David 
by the Holy Spirit, which you say refers to Solo- 
mon, who was also your king. But it refers also 
to our Christ. But you deceive yourselves by 
the ambiguous forms of speech. For where it 
is said, ' The law of the Lord is perfect,' you 
do not understand it of the law which was to be 
after Moses, but of the law which was given by 
Moses, although God declared that He would 
establish a new law and a new covenant. And 
where it has been said, ' O God, give Thy judg- 
ment to the king,' since Solomon was king, you 
say that the Psalm refers to him, although the 
words of the Psalm expressly proclaim that ref- 
erence is made to the everlasting King, i.e., to 
Christ. For Christ is King, and Priest, and God, 
and Lord, and angel, and man, and captain, and 
stone, and a Son born, and first made subject to 

I TrcTT^poji'Tai. Maranus thinks irtnupuvTai more probable, 
" hardened." 

suffering, then returning to heaven, and again 
coming with glory, and He is preached as hav- 
ing the everlasting kingdom : so I prove from all 
the Scriptures. But that you may perceive what I 
have said, I quote the words of the Psalm ; they 
are these : ' O God, give Thy judgment to the 
king, and Thy righteousness unto the king's son, 
to judge Thy people with righteousness, and Thy 
poor with judgment. The mountains shall take 
up peace to the people, and the little hills right- 
eousness. He shall judge the poor of the peo- 
ple, and shall save the children of the needy, 
and shall abase the slanderer. He shall co- 
endure with the sun, and before the moon unto 
all generations. He shall come down like rain 
upon the fleece, as drops falling on the earth. 
In His days shall righteousness flourish, and 
abundance of peace until the moon be taken 
away. And He shall have dominion from sea 
to sea, and from the rivers unto the ends of the 
earth. Ethiopians shall fall down before Him, 
and His enemies shall lick the dust. The kings 
of Tarshish and the isles shall offer gifts ; the 
kings of Arabia and Seba shall offer gifts ; and 
all the kings of the earth shall worship Him, and 
all the nations shall serve Him : for He has de- 
livered the poor from the man of power, and the 
needy that hath no helper. He shall spare the 
poor and needy, and shall save the souls of 
the needy : He shall redeem their souls from 
usury and injustice, and His name shall be hon- 
ourable before them. And He shall live, and to 
Him shall be given of the gold of Arabia, and 
they shall pray continually for Him : they shall 
bless Him all the day. And there shall be a 
foundation on the earth, it shall be exalted on 
the tops of the mountains : His fruit shall be on 
Lebanon, and they of the city shall flourish like 
grass of the earth. His name shall be blessed 
for ever. His name shall endure before the sun ; 
and all tribes of the earth shall be blessed in 
Him, all nations shall call Him blessed. Blessed 
be the Lord, the God of Israel, who only doeth 
wondrous things ; and blessed be His glorious 
name for ever, and for ever and ever ; and the 
whole earth shall be filled with His glory. 
Amen, amen.' ^ And at the close of this Psalm 
which I have quoted, it is written, ' The hymns 
of David the son of Jesse are ended.' ^ More- 
over, that Solomon was a renowned and great 
king, by whom the temple called that at Jerusa- 
lem was built, I know ; but that none of those 
things mentioned in the Psalm happened to him, 
is evident. For neither did all kings worship 
him ; nor did he reign to the ends of the earth ; 
nor did his enemies, falling before him, lick the 
dust. ]^ay, also, I venture to repeat what is 

" Ps. Ixxii. 

3 [A striking passage in De Maistre {CEuvres, vol. vi. p. 275) is 
worthy of comparison.] 

2 12 


wTitten in the book of Kings as committed by 
iiim, how through a woman's influence he wor- 
shipped the idols of Sidon, which those of the 
Gentiles who know God, the Maker of all things 
through Jesus the crucified, do not venture to 
do, but abide every torture and vengeance even 
to the extremity of death, rather than worship 
idols, or eat meat offered to idols." 


And Trypho said, " I believe, however, that 
many of those who say that they confess Jesus, 
and are called Christians, eat meats offered to 
idols, and declare that they are by no means 
injured in consequence." And I replied, " The 
fact that there are such men confessing them- 
selves to be Christians, and admitting the cruci- 
fied Jesus to be both Lord and Christ, yet not 
teaching His doctrines, but those of the spirits 
of error, causes us who are disciples of the true 
and pure doctrine of Jesus Christ, to be more 
faithful and stedfast in the hoi)e announced by 
Him. For what things He predicted would 
take place in His name, these we do see being 
actually accomplished in our sight. For he 
said, ' Many shall come in My name, clothed 
outwardly in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they 
are ravening wolves." ' And, ' There shall be 
schisms and heresies.' ^ And, ' Beware of false 
prophets, who shall come to you clothed out- 
wardly in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they 
are ravening wolves.'  And, ' Many false Christs 
and false apostles shall arise, and shall deceive 
many of the faithful.' ^ There are, therefore, 
and there were many, my friends, who, coming 
forward in the name of Jesus, taught both to 
speak and act impious and blasphemous things ; 
and these are called by us after the name of the 
men from whom each doctrine and opinion had 
its origin. (For some in one way, others in 
another, teach to blaspheme the Maker of all 
things, and Christ, who was foretold l)y Him as 
coming, and the God of Abraham, and of Isaac, 
and of Jacob, with whom we have nothing in 
common, since we know them to be atheists, 
impious, unrighteous, and sinful, and confessors 
of Jesus in name only, instead of worshippers of 
Him. Yet they style themselves Christians, just 
as certain among the Gentiles inscribe the name 
of God upon the works of their own hands, and 
partake in nefarious and impious rites.) Some 
are called Marcians, and some Valentinians, and 
some liasilidians, and some Saturnilians, and 
others by other names ; each called after the 
originator of the individual opinion, just as each 
one of those who consider themselves philoso- 

' Matt. vii. 15. 
' 1 Cor. xi. 19. 
* Matt. xxiv. II. 

phers, as I said before, thinks he must bear the 
name of the philosophy which he follows, from 
the name of the father of the particular doctrine. 
So that, in consequence of these events, we 
know that Jesus foreknew what would happen 
after Him, as well as in consequence of many 
other events which He foretold would befall 
those who believed on and confessed Him, the 
Christ. For all that we suffer, even when killed 
by friends. He foretold would take place ; so 
that it is manifest no word or act of His can be 
found fault with. Wherefore we pray for you and 
for all other men who hate us ; in order that you, 
having repented along with us, may not blaspheme 
Him who, by His works, by the mighty deeds 
even now wrought through His name, by the 
words He taught, by the prophecies announced 
concerning Him, is the blameless, and in all things 
irreproachable, Christ Jesus ; but, believing on 
Him, may be saved in His second glorious ad- 
vent, and may not be condemned to fire by Him." 


Then he replied, " Let these things be so as 
you say — namely, that it was foretold Christ 
would suffer, and be called a stone ; and after 
His first appearance, in which it had been an- 
nounced He would suffer, would come in glor}% 
and be Judge finally of all, and eternal King 
and Priest. Now show if this man be He of 
whom these prophecies were made." 

And I said, " As you wish, Trypho, I shall 
come to these proofs which you seek in the fit- 
ting place ; but now you will permit me first to 
recount the prophecies, which I wish to do in 
order to prove that Christ is called both God 
and Lord of hosts, and Jacob, in parable by the 
Holy Spirit ; and your interpreters, as God says, 
are foolish, since they say that reference is made 
to Solomon and not to Christ, when he bore the 
ark of testimony into the temple which he built. 
The Psalm of David is this : ' The earth is the 
Lord's, and the fulness thereof; the world, and 
all that dwell therein. He hath founded it 
upon the seas, and prepared it upon the floods. 
Who shall ascend into the hill of the Lord ? or 
who shall stand in His holy place ? He that is 
clean of hands and pure of heart : who has not 
received his soul in vain, and has not sworn 
guilefully to his neighbour : he shall receive 
blessing from the Lord, and mercy from God 
his Saviour. This is the generation of them 
that seek the Lord, that seek the face of the 
God of Jacob.'* Lift up your gates, ye rulers ; 

* Maranus remarks from Thirlby: "As Justin wrote a little be- 
fore, ' and is called Jacob in parable,' it seems to convince us thar 
Justin wrote, ' thy face, O Jacob.' " [/Ihe meaning in this latter case 
becomes plain, if we observe that " O Israel" is equivalent to, and 
means, "O house of Jacob: " an a[>ostrophe to the Church of th« 
ancient people.] 



and be ye lift up, ye everlasting doors ; and the 
King of glory shall come in. Who is this King 
of glory? The Lord strong and mighty in 
battle. Lift up your gates, ye rulers ; and be 
ye lift up, ye everlasting doors ; and the King of 
glory shall come in. Who is this King of glory? 
The Lord of hosts, He is the King of glory.' ' 
Accordingly, it is shown that Solomon is not the 
Lord of hosts ; but when our Christ rose from 
the dead and ascended to heaven, the rulers in 
heaven, under appointment of God, are com- 
manded to open the gates of heaven, that He 
who is King of glory may enter in, and having 
ascended, may sit on the right hand of the Father 
until He make the enemies His footstool, as has 
been made manifest by another Psalm. For 
when the rulers of heaven saw Him of uncomely 
and dishonoured appearance, and inglorious, not 
recognising Him, they inquired, ' Who is this 
King of glory ? ' And the Holy Spirit, either 
from the person of His Father, or from His own 
person, answers them, ' The Lord of hosts. He 
is this King of glory.' For every one will con- 
fess that not one of those who presided over the 
gates of the temple at Jerusalem would venture 
to say concerning Solomon, though he was so 
glorious a king, or concerning the ark of testi- 
mony, ' Who is this King of glory ? ' 



" Moreover, in the diapsalm of the forty-sixth 
Psalm, reference is thus made to Christ : ' God 
went up with a shout, the Lord with the sound of 
a trumpet. Sing ye to our God, sing ye : sing to 
our King, sing ye ; for God is King of all the 
earth : sing with understanding. God has ruled 
over the nations. God sits upon His holy throne. 
The rulers of the nations were assembled along 
with the God of Abraham, for the strong ones 
of God are greatly exalted on the earth.' - And 
in the ninety-eighth Psalm, the Holy Spirit 
reproaches you, and predicts Him whom you do 
not wish to be king to be King and Lord, both 
of Samuel, and of Aaron, and of Moses, and, 
in short, of all the others. And the words of the 
Psalm are these : ' The Lord has reigned, let the 
nations be angry : [it is] He who sits upon 
the cherubim, let the earth be shaken. The Lord 
is great in Zion, and He is high above all the 
nations. Let them confess Thy great name, for it 
is fearful and holy, and the honour of the King 
loves judgment. Thou hast prepared equity ; 
judgment and righteousness hast Thou performed 
in Jacob. Exalt the Lord our God, and wor- 
ship the footstool of His feet ; for He is holy. 
Moses and Aaron among His priests, and Sam- 

' Ps. xxiv. 
- Ps. xlvi. 5-9. 
' Selah."] 

[The diapsalm is heje used for what follows the 

uel among those who call upon His name. They 
called (says the Scripture) on the Lord, and He 
heard them. In the pillar of the cloud He spake 
to them ; for ^ they kept His testimonies, and 
the commandment which he gave them. O 
Lord our God, Thou heardest them : O God, 
Thou wert propitious to them, and [yet] taking 
vengeance on all their inventions. Exalt the 
Lord our God, and worship at His holy hill ; for 
the Lord our God is holy.' " "♦ 



And Trypho said, " Sir, it were good for us if 
we obeyed our teachers, who laid down a law 
that we should have no intercourse with any of 
you, and that we should not have even any com- 
munication with you on these questions. For 
you utter many blasphemies, in that you seek to 
persuade us that this crucified man was with 
Moses and Aaron, and spoke to them in the 
pillar of the cloud ; then that he became man, 
was crucified, and ascended up to heaven, 
and comes again to earth, and ought to be 

Then I answered, " I know that, as the word 
of God says, this great wisdom of God, the 
Maker of all things, and the Almighty, is hid 
from you. Wherefore, in sympathy with you, I 
am striving to the utmost that you may under- 
stand these matters which to you are paradoxi- 
cal ; but if not, that I myself may be innocent 
in the day of judgment. For you shall hear other 
words which appear still more paradoxical ; but 
be not confounded, nay, rather remain still more 
zealous hearers and investigators, despising the 
tradition of your teachers, since they are con- 
victed by the Holy Spirit of inability to perceive 
the truths taught by God, and of preferring to 
teach their own doctrines. Accordingly, in the 
forty-fourth [forty-fifth] Psalm, these words are 
in like manner referred to Christ : ' My heart has 
brought forth a good matter ; s l tell my works 
to the King. My tongue is the pen of a ready 
writer. Fairer in beauty than the sons of men : 
grace is poured forth into Thy lips : therefore 
hath God blessed Thee for ever. Gird Thy 
sword upon Thy thigh, O mighty One. Press 
on in Thy fairness and in Thy beauty, and pros- 
per and reign, because of truth, and of meek- 
ness, and of righteousness : and Thy right hand 
shall instruct Thee marvellously. Thine arrows 
are sharpened, O mighty One ; the people shall 
fall under Thee ; in the heart of the enemies of 
the King [the arrows are fixed]. Thy throne, 
O God, is for ever and ever : a sceptre of equity 

3 " For" wanting in both Codd. 

< Ps. xcix. 

5 [Hebrew and Greek, " a good word," i.e. the Logos. 



is the sceptre of Thy kingdom. Thou hast loved 
righteousness, and hast hated iniquity ; therefore 
thy God ' hath anointed Thee with the oil of glad- 
ness above Thy fellows. [He hath anointed 
Thee] with myrrh,^ and oil, and cassia, from 
Thy garments ; from the ivory palaces, whereby 
they made Thee glad. Kings' daughters are in 
Thy honour. The (jueen stood at Thy right 
hand, clad in garments ^ embroidered with gold. 
Hearken, O daughter, and behold, and incline 
thine ear, and forget thy people and the house 
of thy father : and the King shall desire thy 
beauty ; because He is thy Lord, they shall 
worship Him also. And the daughter of Tyre 
[shall be there] with gifts. The rich of the 
people shall entreat Thy face. All the glory of 
the King's daughter [is] within, clad in embroid- 
ered garments of needlework. The virgins that 
follow her shall be brought to the King ; her 
neighbours shall be brought unto Thee : they 
shall be brought with joy and gladness : they 
shall be led into the King's shrine. Instead of 
thy fathers, thy sons have been born : Thou 
shalt appoint them rulers over all the earth. I 
shall remember Thy name in every generation : 
therefore the people shall confess Thee for ever, 
and for ever and ever.' 



" Now it is not surprising," I continued, " that 
you hate us who hold these opinions, and con- 
vict you of a continual hardness of heart.'' For 
indeed Elijah, conversing with God concerning 
you, speaks thus : ' Lord, they have slain Thy 
prophets, and digged down Thine altars : and I 
am left alone, and they seek my life.' And He 
answers him : ' I have still seven thousand men 
who have not bowed the knee to Baal.' 5 There- 
fore, just as God did not inflict His anger on ac- 
count of those seven thousand men, even so He 
has now neither yet inflicted judgment, nor does 
inflict it, knowing that daily some [of you] are 
becoming disciples in the name of Christ, and 
(juitting the path of error ; who are also receiv- 
ing gifts, each as he is worthy, illumined through 
the name of this Christ. For one receives the 
spirit of understanding, another of counsel, an- 
other of strength, another of healing, another of 
foreknowledge, another of teaching, and another 
of the fear of God." 

To this Trypho said to me, " I wish j^ou knew 
that you are beside yourself, talking these senti- 

» Or, " God, thy God." 

* CTTOKTlj. 

3 Literally, " garments of gold, variegated." 

* Literally, " of a hard-hearted opinion." 
> I Kings .\ix. 14, 18. 

And I said to him, " Listen, O friend,^ for I 
am not mad or beside myself; but it was proph- 
esied that, after the ascent of Christ to heaven, 
He would deliver 7 us from error and give us 
gifts. The words are these : ' He ascended up 
on high ; He led captivity captive ; He gave 
gifts to men.' * Accordingly, we who have re- 
ceived gifts from Christ, who has ascended up on 
high, prove from the words of prophecy that you, 
'the wise in yourselves, and the men of under- 
standing in your own eyes.' 9 are foolish, and 
honour God and His Christ by lip only. But 
we, who are instructed in the whole truth, '° hon- 
our Them both in acts, and in knowledge, and 
in heart, even unto death. But you hesitate to 
confess that He is Christ, as the Scriptures and 
the events witnessed and done in His name 
prove, perhaps for this reason, lest you be perse- 
cuted by the rulers, who, under the influence of 
the wicked and deceitful spirit, the serpent, will 
not cease putting to death and persecuting those 
who confess the name of Christ until He come 
again, and destroy them all, and render to each 
his deserts." 

And Trypho replied, "Now, then, render us 
the proof that this man who you say was cru- 
cified and ascended into heaven is the Christ 
of God. For you have sufficiently proved by 
means of the Scriptures previously quoted by 
you, that it is declared in the Scriptures that 
Christ must suffer, and come again with glory, 
and receive the eternal kingdom over all the 
nations, every kingdom being made subject to 
Him : now show us that this man is He." 

And I repUed, " It has been already proved, 
sirs, to those who have ears, even from the facts 
which have been conceded by you ; but that you 
may not think me at a loss, and unable to give 
proof of what you ask, as I promised, I shall do 
so at a fitting place. At present, I resume the 
consideration of the subject which I was dis- 


" The mystery, then, of the lamb which God 
enjoined to be sacrificed as the passover, was a 
type of Christ ; with whose blood, in proportion 
to their faith in Him, they anoint their houses, 
i.e., themselves, who believe on Him. For that 
the creation which God created — to wit, Adam 
— was a house for the spirit which proceeded 
from God, you all can understand. And that 

f> u> 0UT09. [Or, Look you, listen!] 

7 Literally, carry us captive." 

* Ps. Ixviii. 19. 

9 Isa. V. 21. 

'° Constrasting either Catholics with heretics, or Christians w ith 
Jews. [Note this word Catholic, as here used in its legitimate 
primitive sense.] 



this injunction was temporary, I prove thus. God 
does not permit the lamb of the passover to be 
sacrificed in any other place than where His 
name was named ; knowing that the days will 
come, after the suffering of Christ, when even the 
place in Jerusalem shall be given over to your 
enemies, and all the offerings, in short, shall cease ; 
and that lamb which was commanded to be 
wholly roasted was a symbol of the suffering of 
the cross which Christ would undergo. For the 
lamb,' which is roasted, is roasted and dressed 
up in the form of the cross. For one spit is 
transfixed right through from the lower parts up 
to the head, and one across the back, to which 
are attached the legs of the lamb. And the two 
goats which were ordered to be offered during 
the fast, of which one was sent away as the scape 
[goat], and the other sacrificed, were similarly 
declarative of the two appearances of Christ : the 
first, in which the elders of your people, and the 
priests, having laid hands on Him and put Him 
to death, sent Him away as the scape [goat] ; and 
His second appearance, because in the same place 
in Jerusalem you shall recognise Him whom you 
have dishonoured, and who was an offering for 
all sinners willing to repent, and keeping the 
fast which Isaiah speaks of, loosening the terms ^ 
of the violent contracts, and keeping the other 
precepts, likewise enumerated by him, and which 
I have quoted,^ which those believing in Jesus 
do. And further, you are aware that the offer- 
ing of the two goats, which were enjoined to be 
sacrificed at the fast, was not permitted to take 
place similarly anywhere else, but only in Jeru- 


" And the offering of fine flour, sirs," I said, 
" which was prescribed to be presented on behalf 
of those purified from leprosy, was a type of the 
bread of the Eucharist, the celebration of which 
our Lord Jesus Christ prescribed, in remem- 
brance of the suffering which He endured on 
behalf of those who are purified in soul from all 
iniquity, in order that we may at the same time 
thank God for having created the world, with all 
things therein, for the sake of man, and for deliv- 
ering us from the evil in which we were, and for 
utterly overthrowing  principalities and powers by 
Him who suffered according to His will. Hence 
Cxod speaks by the mouth of Malachi, one of 
the twelve [prophets], as I said before,5 about 
the sacrifices at that time presented by you : ' I 
have no pleasure in you, saith the Lord ; and I 

' Some think this particularly refers to the paschallarab, others to 
any lamb which is roasted. 

2 Literally, " cords." 

3 Chap. XV. 

* Literally, " overthrowing with a perfect overthrow." 
S Chap, xxviii. 

will not accept your sacrifices at your hands : for, 
from the rising of the sun unto the going down 
of the same, My name has been glorified among 
the Gentiles, and in every place incense is offered 
to My name, and a pure offering : for My name 
is great among the Gentiles, saith the Lord : but 
ye profane it.' ^ [So] He then speaks of those 
Gentiles, namely us, who in every place offer 
sacrifices to Him, i.e., the bread of the Eucha- 
rist, and also the cup of the Eucharist, affirming 
both that we glorify His name, and that you pro- 
fane [it] . The command of circumcision, again, 
bidding [them] always circumcise the children 
on the eighth day, was a type of the true circum- 
cision, by which we are circumcised from deceit 
and iniquity through Him who rose from the 
dead on the first day after the Sabbath, [namely 
through] our Lord Jesus Christ. For the first 
day after the Sabbath, remaining the first '' of all 
the days, is called, however, the eighth, accord- 
ing to the number of all the days of the cycle, 
and [yet] remains the first. 


" Moreover, the prescription that twelve bells ^ 
be attached to the [robe] of the high priest. 
which hung down to the feet, was a symbol of 
the twelve apostles, who depend on the power 
of Christ, the eternal Priest ; and through their 
voice it is that all the earth has been filled with 
the glory and grace of God and of His Christ. 
Wherefore David also says : ' Their sound has 
gone forth into all the earth, and their words to 
the ends of the world.' 9 And Isaiah speaks as 
if he were personating the apostles, when they 
say to Christ that they believe not in their own 
report, but in the power of Him who sent them. 
And so he says : ' Lord, who hath believed our 
report? and to whom is the arm of the Lord 
revealed? We have preached before Him as if 
[He were] a child, as if a root in a dry ground.' '° 
(And what follows in order of the prophecy 
already quoted.") But when the passage speaks 
as from the lips of many, ' We have preached 
before Him,' and adds, ' as if a child,' it signifies 
that the wicked shall become subject to Him, 
and shall obey His command, and that all shall 
become as one child. Such a thing as you may 
witness in the body : although the members are 
enumerated as many, all are called one, and are 
a body. For, indeed, a commonwealth and a 
church,'^ though many individuals in number, 

* Mai. i. 10-12. 
7 Or, "being the first." 

5 Ex. xxviii. 33 gives no definite number of bells. Otto presumes 
Justin to have confounded the bells and the gems, which were twelve 
in number. 
9 Ps. xix. 4. 
'° Isa. liii. I, 2. 
'' Chap. xiii. 
12 e/cxAjjcria. Lat. vers, has ccnvcntus. 



are in fact as one, called and addressed by one 
appellation. And in short, sirs," said I, "by 
enumerating all the other appointments of Moses, 
I can demonstrate that they were types, and 
symbols, and declarations of those things which 
would happen to Christ, of those who it was 
foreknown were to believe in Him, and of those 
things which would also be done by Christ Him- 
self But since what I have now enumerated 
appears to me to be sufficient, I revert again to 
the order of the discourse.' 



" As, then, circumcision began with Abraham, 
and the Sabbath and sacrifices and offerings and 
feasts with Moses, and it has been proved they 
were enjoined on account of the hardness of 
your people's heart, so it was necessary, in ac- 
cordance with the Father's will, that they should 
have an end in Him who was born of a virgin, 
of the family of Abraham and tribe of Judah, 
and of David ; in Christ the Son of God, who 
was proclaimed as about to come to all the world, 
to 1)6 the everlasting law and the everlasting cove- 
nant, even as the forementioned prophecies show. 
And we, who have approached God through 
Him, have received not carnal, but spiritual cir- 
cumcision, which Enoch and those like him 
observed. And we have received it through 
baptism, since we were sinners, by God's mercy ; 
and all men may equally obtain it. But since the 
mystery of His birth now demands our attention, 
I shall speak of it. Isaiah then asserted in regard 
to the generation of Christ, that it could not 
be declared by man, in words already quoted : ^ 
' Who shall declare His generation? for His life 
is taken from the earth : for the transgressions of 
my peoj)le was He led ^ to death.'  The Spirit 
of prophecy thus affirmed that the generation of 
Him who was to die, that we sinful men might 
be healed by His stripes, was such as could not 
be declared. Furthermore, that the men who 
believe in Him may possess the knowledge of 
the manner in which He came into the world, 5 
the Spirit of prophecy by the same Isaiah fore- 
told how it would happen thus : ' And the Lord 
spoke again to Ahaz, saying. Ask for thyself a 
sign from the Lord thy God, in the depth, or 
in the height. And Ahaz said, I will not ask, 
neither will I tempt the Lord. And Isaiah said. 
Hear then, O house of David ; Is it a small 
thing for you to contend with men, and how do 
you contend with the Lord? Therefore the 

' Literally, " to the discourse in order." 

^ Chap. xiii. 

3 Or, " was I led." 

* Isa. liii. 8. 

S Literally, " He wa» in the world, being born." 

Lord Himself will give you a sign. Behold, the 
virgin shall conceive, and shall bear a son, and 
his name shall be called Immanuel. Butter and 
honey shall he eat, before he knows or prefers 
the evil, and chooses out the good ; ^ for before 
the child knows good or ill, he rejects evil 7 by 
choosing out the good. For before the child 
knows how to call father or mother, he shall 
receive the power of Damascus and the spoil 
of Samaria in presence of the king of Assyria. 
And the land shall be forsaken,^ which thou 
shalt with difficulty endure in consequence of the 
presence of its two kings.^ But God shall bring 
on thee, and on thy people, and on the house 
of thy father, days which have not yet come 
upon thee since the day in which Ephraim took 
away from Judah the king of Assyria.' '° Now 
it is evident to all, that in the race of Abraham 
according to the flesh no one has been bom of 
a virgin, or is said to have been born [of a vir- 
gin], save this our Christ. But since you and 
your teachers venture to affirm that in the proph- 
ecy of Isaiah it is not said, ' Behold, the virgin 
shall conceive,' but, ' Behold, the young woman 
shall conceive, and bear a son ; ' and [since] you 
explain the prophecy as if [it referred] to Heze- 
kiah, who was your king, I shall endeavor to 
discuss shortly this point in opposition to you, 
and to show that reference is made to Him who 
is acknowledged by us as Christ. 



" For thus, so far as you are concerned, I 
shall be found in all respects innocent, if I strive 
earnestly to persuade you by bringing forward 
demonstrations. But if you remain hard-hearted, 
or weak in [forming] a resolution, on account 
of death, which is the lot of the Christians, and 
are unwilling to assent to the truth, you shall 
appear as the authors of your own [evils] . And 
you deceive yourselves while you fancy that, be- 
cause you are the seed of Abraham after the flesh, 
therefore you shall fully inherit the good things 
announced to be bestowed by God through Christ. 
For no one, not even of them,'' has anything to 
look for, but only those who in mind are assimi- 
lated to the faith of Abraham, and who have 

* See Chap. l.wi. 

7 Literally, "disobeys evil" {aneiOet Tronjpa). Conjectured: 
oTriofltc, and aneiOei irovripCa. 

8 The MSS. of Justin read, "shall be taken:" KaTaAT)'t9>i<j-cTai . 
This is plainly a mistake for KaTa\ei.<j>Ori(TeTai ; but whether the mis- 
take is Justin's or the transcribers', it would be difficult to say, as 
Thirlby remarks. 

9 The rendering of this is doubtful: literally, "from the face o! 
the two kinj^s," and the words might go with " shall be forsaken." 

'<^ Isa. vii. 10-17 with Isa. viii. 4 inserted. The last clause may 
also be translated, " in which He took away from Judah Ephraim, 
even the king of Assyria." 

" i.e , of Abraham's seed. 



recognised all the mysteries : for I say,' that 
some injunctions were laid on you in reference 
to the worship of God and practice of righteous- 
ness ; but some injunctions and acts were like- 
wise mentioned in reference to the mystery of 
Christ, on account of- the hardness of your peo- 
ple's hearts. And that this is so, God makes 
known in Ezekiel, [when] He said concerning 
it : 'If Noah and Jacob ^ and Daniel should beg 
either sons or daughters, the request would not 
be granted them.' + And in Isaiah, of the very 
same matter He spake thus : ' The Lord God 
said, they shall both go forth and look on the 
members [of the bodies] of the men that have 
transgressed. For their worm shall not die, and 
their fire shall not be quenched, and they shall 
be a gazing-stock to all flesh.' s So that it be- 
comes you to eradicate this hope from your souls, 
and hasten to know in what way forgiveness of 
sins, and a hope of inheriting the promised good 
things, shall be yours. But there is no other 
[way] than this, — to become acquainted with 
this Christ, to be washed in the fountain ^ spoken 
of by Isaiah for the remission of sins ; and for 
the rest, to live sinless lives." 



And Trypho said, " If I seem to interrupt 
these matters, which you say must be investi- 
gated, yet the question which I mean to put is 
urgent. Suffer me first." 

And I replied, " Ask whatever you please, as 
it occurs to you ; and I shall endeavour, after 
questions and answers, to resume and complete 
the discourse." 

Then he said, " Tell me, then, shall those who 
lived according to the law given by Moses, live 
in the same manner with Jacob, Enoch, and Noah, 
in the resurrection of the dead, or not ? " 

I replied to him, "When I quoted, sir, the 
words spoken by Ezekiel, that ' even if Noah and 
Daniel and Jacob were to beg sons and daugh- 
ters, the request would not be granted them,' 
but that each one, that is to say, shall be saved 
by his own righteousness, I said also, that those 
who regulated their lives by the law of Moses 
would in like manner be saved. For what in the 

' Justin distinguishes between such essential acts as related to 
God's worship and the establishment of righteousness, and such cere- 
monial observances as had a mere temporary significance. The recog- 
nition of this distinction he alleges to be necessary to salvation: 
necessar\- in this sense, that justification must be placed not on the 
latter, but on the former; and without such recognition, a Jew would, 
as Justin says, rest his hopes on his noble descent from Abraham. 

2 More probably, " or on account of," etc. 

3 In Bible, "Job;" Maranus prefers "Jacob," and thinks the 
mention of his name very suitable to disprove the arrogant claims of 
Jacob's posterity. 

■* Ezek. xiv. 20. 
' Isa. Ixvi. 24. 

* Some refer this to Christ's baptism. See Cyprian, Adv. Jud. 
I. 24. — Otto. 

law of Moses is naturally good, and pious, and 
righteous, and has been prescribed to be done 
by those who obey it ; ^ and what was appointed 
to be performed by reason of the hardness of the 
people's hearts ; was similarly recorded, and done 
also by those who were under the law. Since 
those who did that which is universally, naturally, 
and eternally good are pleasing to God, they 
shall be saved through this Christ in the resur- 
rection equally with those righteous men who 
were before them, namely Noah, and Enoch, and 
Jacob, and whoever else there be, along with 
those who have known ^ this Christ, Son of God, 
who was before the morning star and the moon, 
and submitted to become incarnate, and be born 
of this virgin of the family of David, in order 
that, by this dispensation, the serpent that sinned 
from the beginning, and the angels like him, may 
be destroyed, and that death may be contemned, 
and for ever quit, at the second coming of the 
Christ Himself, those who believe in Him and 
live acceptably, — and be no more : when some 
are sent to be punished unceasingly into judg- 
ment and condemnation of fire ; but others shall 
exist in freedom from suffering, from corruption, 
and from grief, and in immortality." 



" But if some, even now, wish to live in the 
observance of the institutions given by Moses, 
and yet believe in this Jesus who was crucified, 
recognising Him to be the Christ of God, and 
that it is given to Him to be absolute Judge of 
all, and that His is the everlasting kingdom, can 
they also be saved?" he inquired of me. 

And I replied, " Let us consider that also to- 
gether, whether one may now observe all the 
Mosaic institutions." 

And he answered, " No. For we know that, 
as you said, it is not possible either anywhere to 
sacrifice the lamb of the passover, or to offer the 
goats ordered for the fast ; or, in short, [to pre- 
sent] all the other offerings." 

And I said, " Tell [me] then yourself, I pray, 
some things which can be observed ; for you will 
be persuaded that, though a man does not keep 
or has not performed the eternal^ decrees, he 
may assuredly be saved." 

Then he replied, " To keep the Sabbath, to be 
circumcised, to observe months, and to be washed 
if you touch anything prohibited by Moses, or 
after sexual intercourse." 

And I said, " Do you think that Abraham, 
Isaac, Jacob, Noah, and Job, and all the rest be- 

' It, i.e., the law, or" what in the law," etc. 

* Those who live after Christ. 

9 " Eternal," i.e., as the Jew thinks. 



' fore or after them equally righteous, also Sarah 
the wife of Abraham, Rebekah the wife of Isaac, 
Rachel the wife of Jacob, and Leah, and all the 
rest of them, until the mother of Moses the faith- 
ful ser\-ant, who observed none of these [stat- 
utes], will be saved?" 

And Trypho answered, " Were not Abraham 
and his descendants circumcised? " 

And I said, " I know that Abraham and his 
descendants were circumcised. The reason why 
circumcision was given to them I stated at length 
in what has gone before ; and if what has been 
said does not convince you,' let us again search 
into the matter. But you are aware that, up to 
Moses, no one in fact who was righteous observed 
any of these rites at all of which we are talking, 
or received one commandment to observe, except 
that of circumcision, which began from Abraham." 

And he replied, " We know it, and admit that 
they are saved." 

Then I returned answer, "You perceive that 
God by Moses laid all such ordinances ujjon you 
on account of the hardness of your people's 
hearts, in order that, by the large number of them, 
you might keep God continually, and in every 
action, before your eyes, and never begin to act 
unjustly or impiously. For He enjoined you to 
place around you [a fringe] of purple dye,^ in 
order that you might not forget God ; and He 
commanded you to wear a phylactery,^ certain 
characters, which indeed we consider holy, being 
engraved on very thin parchment ; and by these 
means stirring you up ^ to retain a constant re- 
membrance of God : at the same time, however, 
convincing you, that in your hearts you have not 
even a faint remembrance of God's worship. 
Yet not even so were you dissuaded from idola- 
try : for in the times of Elijah, when [God] re- 
counted the number of those who had not bowed 
the knee to Baal, He said the number was seven 
thousand ; and in Isaiah He rebukes you for 
having sacrificed your children to idols. But we, 
because we refuse to sacrifice to those to whom 
•we were of old accustomed to sacrifice, undergo 
extreme penalties, and rejoice in death, — be- 
lieving that God will raise us up by His Christ, 
and win make us incorruptible, and undisturbed, 
and immortal ; and we know that the ordinances 
imposed by reason of tlie hardness of your peo- 
ple's hearts, contribute nothing to the perform- 
ance of righteousness and of piety." 


And Trypho again inquired, " But if some one, 
knowing that this is so, after he recognises that 

* Literally, " put you out of counteaance." 

* Num. XV. 38. 

* Deut. vi. 6. 

* Literally, " importuning." 

this man is Christ, and has believed in and obeys 
Him, wishes, however, to observe these [institu- 
tions], will he be saved?" 

I said, " In my opinion, Trj'pho, such an one 
will be saved, if he does not strive in every way 
to persuade other men, — I mean those Gentiles 
who have been circumcised from error by Christ, 
to observe the same things as himself, telling 
them that they will not be saved unless they do 
so. This you did yourself at the commencement 
of the discourse, when you declared that I would 
not be saved unless I observe these institutions." 

Then he replied, " Why then have you said, 
' In my opinion, such an one will be saved,' un- 
less there are some 5 who affirm that such will not 
be saved?" 

" There are such people, Trj^pho," I answered ; 
" and these do not venture to have any inter- 
course with or to extend hospitality to such per- 
sons ; but I do not agree with them. But if 
some, through weak-mindedness, wish to observe 
such institutions as were given by Moses, from 
which they expect some virtue, but which we 
believe were appointed by reason of the hardness 
of the people's hearts, along with their hope in 
this Christ, and [wish to perform] the eternal 
and natural acts of righteousness and piety, yet 
choose to live with the Christians and the faith- 
ful, as I said before, not inducing them either to 
be circumcised like themselves, or to keep the 
Sabbath, or to observe any other such ceremo- 
nies, then I hold that we ought to join ourselves 
to such, and associate with them in all things as 
kinsmen and brethren. But if, Trypho," I con- 
tinued, " some of your race, who say they be- 
lieve in this Christ, compel those Gentiles who 
believe in this Christ to live in all respects ac- 
cording to the law given by Moses, or choose 
not to associate so intimately with them, I in 
like manner do not approve of them. But I 
believe that even those, who have been per- 
suaded by them to observe the legal dispensa- 
tion along with their confession of God in Christ, 
shall probably be saved. And I hold, further, 
that such as have confessed and known this man 
to be Christ, yet who have gone back from some 
cause to the legal dispensation, and have denied 
that this man is Christ, and have repented not be- 
fore death, shall by no means be saved. Further, 
I hold that those of the seed of Abraham who 
live according to the law, and do not believe in 
this Christ before death, shall likewise not be 
saved, and especially those who have anathema- 
tized and do anathematize this very Christ in the 
synagogues, and everything by which they might 
obtain salvation and escape the vengeance of 
fire.'' For the goodness and the loving-kindness 

S " Or, Are there not some," etc. 

f" The text seems to be corrupt. Otto reads: " Dn •J>«ihematize 
those who put their trust iu this very Christ so as to o » Vi i n salva- 
tion," etc. 



of God, and His boundless riches, hold righteous 
and sinless the man who, as Ezekiel ' tells, re- 
pents of sins ; and reckons sinful, unrighteous, 
and impious the man who falls away from piety 
and righteousness to unrighteousness and ungod- 
liness. Wherefore also our Lord Jesus Christ 
iaid, ' In whatsoever things I shall take you, in 
these I shall judge you.' " ^ 



And Trypho said, " We have heard what you 
think of these matters. Resume the discourse 
where you left off, and bring it to an end. For 
some of it appears to me to be paradoxical, and 
wholly incapable of proof. For when you say 
that this Christ existed as God before the ages, 
then that He submitted to be born and become 
man, yet that He is not man of man, this [asser- 
tion] appears to me to be not merely paradoxi- 
cal, but also foolish." 

And I replied to this, " I know that the state- 
ment does appear to be paradoxical, especially 
to those of your race, who are ever unwilling to 
understand or to perform the [requirements] of 
God, but [ready to perform] those of your teach- 
ers, as God Himself declares.^ Now assuredly, 
Trypho," I continued, " [the proof] that this 
man •» is the Christ of God does not fail, though 
I be unable to prove that He existed formerly as 
Son of the Maker of all things, being God, and 
was born a man by the Virgin. But since I have 
certainly proved that this man is the Christ of 
God, whoever He be, even if I do not prove that 
He pre-existed, and submitted to be bom a man 
of like passions with us, having a body, accord- 
ing to the Father's will ; in this last matter alone 
is it just to say that I have erred, and not to deny 
that He is the Christ, though it should appear 
that He was born man of men, and [nothing 
more] is proved [than this], that He has become 
Christ by election. For there are some, my 
friends," I said, " of our race,5 who admit that 
He is Christ, while holding Him to be man of 
men ; with whom I do not agree, nor would I,^ 
even though most of those who have [now] the 
same opinions as myself should say so ; since we 
were enjoined by Christ Himself to put no faith 

' Ezek. xxxiii. 11-20. 

2 [Comp. St. John xii. 47, 48.] Grabius thinks this taken from 
the [apocryphal] Gospel according to the Hebrews. It is not in the 
New or Old Testament. [Query. Is it not, rather, one of the tradi- 
tional sayings preserved among early Christians ?] 

3 Comp. Isa. xxix. 13. 
* Or, " such a man." 

5 Some read, " of your race, " referring to the Ebionites. Mara- 
nus believes the reference is to the Ebionites, and supports in a long 
note the reading " our," inasmuch as Justin would be more likely to 
associate these Ebionites with Christians than with Jews, even though 
they were heretics. 

^ Langus translates: " Nor would, indeed, many who arc of the 
same opinion as myself say so." 

in human doctrines,^ but in those proclaimed by 
the blessed prophets and taught by Himself." 



And Trypho said, " Those who affirm him to 
have been a man, and to have been anointed by 
election, and then to have become Christ, appear 
to me to speak more plausibly than you who 
hold those opinions which you express. For we 
all expect that Christ will be a man [born] of 
men, and that Elijah when he comes will anoint 
him. But if this man appear to be Christ, he 
must certainly be known as man [born] of men ; 
but from the circumstance that Elijah has not 
yet come, I infer that this man is not He [the 

Then I inquired of him, " Does not Scripture^ 
in the book of Zechariah,^ say that Elijah shall 
come before the great and terrible day of the 

And he answered, " Certainly." 

"If therefore Scripture compels you to admit 
that two advents of Christ were predicted to 
take place, — one in which He would appear suf- 
fering, and dishonoured, and without comeliness ; 
but the other in which He would come glorious, 
and Judge of all, as has been made manifest in 
many of the fore-cited passages, — shall we not 
suppose that the word of God has proclaimed 
that Elijah shall be the precursor of the great 
and terrible day, that is, of His second advent?" 

" Certainly," he answered. 

" And, accordingly, our Lord in His teaching," 
I continued, "proclaimed that this very thing 
would take place, saying that Elijah would also 
come. And we know that this shall take place 
when our Lord Jesus Christ shall come in glory 
from heaven ; whose first manifestation the Spirit 
of God who was in Elijah preceded as herald in 
[the person of] John, a prophet among your 
nation ; after whom no other prophet appeared 
among you. He cried, as he sat by the river 
Jordan : ' I baptize you with water to repentance ; 
but He that is stronger than I shall come, whose 
shoes I am not worthy to bear : He shall baptize 
you with the Holy Ghost and with fire : whose 
fan is in His hand, and He will thoroughly purge 
His floor, and will gather the wheat into the 
barn ; but the chaff He will burn up with un- 
quenchable fire.' 9 And this very prophet your 
king Herod had shut up in prison ; and when 
his birth-day was celebrated, and the niece '° of 
the same Herod by her dancing had pleased 
him, he told her to ask whatever she pleased. 

^ [Note this emphatic testimony of primitive faith.] 

8 Mai. iv. 5. 

9 Matt. iii. 11, 12. 

1° Literally, " cou-sin." 



Then the mother of the maiden instigated her 
to ask the head of John, who was in prison ; and 
having asked it, [Herod] sent and ordered the 
head of John to be brought in on a charger. 
Wherefore also our Christ said, [when He was] 
on earth, to those who were affirming that Elijah 
must come before Christ : ' Elijah shall come, 
and restore all things ; but I say unto j^ou, that 
Elijah has already come, and they knew him not, 
but have done to him whatsoever they chose.' ' 
And it is written, ' Then the disciples understood 
that He spake to them about John the Jiaptist.'" 

And Trypho said, " This statement also seems 
to me paradoxical ; namely, that the prophetic 
Spirit of God, who was in Elijah, was • also in 

To this I replied, " Do you not think that the 
same thing happened in the case of Joshua the 
son of Nave (Nun), who succeeded to the com- 
mand of the people after Moses, when Moses 
was commanded to lay his hands on Joshua, and 
God said to him, ' I will take of the spirit which 
is in thee, and put it on him? ' " ^ 

And he said, " Certainly." 

"As therefore," I say, "while Moses was still 
among men, God took of the spirit which was 
in Moses and put it on Joshua, even so God was 
able to cause [the spirit] of Elijah to come upon 
John ; in order that, as Christ at His first com- 
ing appeared inglorious, even so the first coming 
of the spirit, which remained always pure in 
Elijah 3 like that of Christ, might be perceived 
to be inglorious. For the Lord said He would 
wage war against Amalek with concealed hand ; 
and you will not deny that Amalek fell. But if 
it is said that only in the glorious advent of 
Christ war will be waged with Amalek, how great 
will the fulfilment * of Scripture be which says, 
' God will wage war against Amalek with con- 
cealed hand ! ' You can perceive that the con- 
cealed power of God was in Christ the crucified, 
before whom demons, and all the principalities 
and powers of the earth, tremble." 


And Trypho said, " You seem to me to have 
come out of a great conflict with many persons 
about all the points we have been searching into, 
and therefore quite ready to return answers to 
all questions put to you. Answer me then, first, 
how you can show that there is another God be- 
sides the Maker of all things ; and then you will 
show, [further], that He submitted to be born 
of the Virgin." 

* Matt. xvii. 12. 

^ Num. xi. 17, .ipoken of the seventy elders. Justin confuses what 
is said here with Num. xxvii 18 and Dent, xxxiv. 9. 

3 The meaning is, that no division of person took place. Elijah 
remained the same after as before his spirit was shed on John. 

■« Littr.illy, " fruit." 

I replied, " Give me permission first of all to 
quote certain passages from the prophecy of 
Isaiah, which refer to the office of forerunner 
discharged by John the Baptist and prophet be- 
fore this our Lord Jesus Christ." 

" I grant it," said he. 

Then I said, " Isaiah thus foretold John's fore- 
running : ' And Hezekiah said to Isaiah, Good 
is the word of the Lord which He spake : Let 
there be peace and righteousness in my days.' 5 
And, ' Encourage the people ; ye priests, speak 
to the heart of Jerusalem, and encourage her, 
because her humiliation is accomplished. Her 
sin is annulled ; for she has received of the Lord's 
hand double for her sins. A voice of one cry- 
ing in the wilderness, Prepare the ways of the 
Lord ; make straight the paths of our God. 
Every valley shall be filled up, and every moua- 
tain and hill shall be brought low : and the 
crooked shall be made straight, and the rough 
way shall be plain ways ; and the glory of the 
Lord thall be seen, and all shall see the sal- 
vation of God : for the Lord hath spoken it. A 
voice of one saying, Cr}' ; and I said, What shall 
I cry ? All flesh is grass, and all the glory of 
man as the flower of grass. The grass has with- 
ered, and the flower of it has fallen away ; but 
the word of the Lord endureth for ever. Thou 
that bringest good tidings to Zion, go up to the 
high mountain ; thou that bringest good tidings 
to Jerusalem, lift up thy voice with strength. 
Lift ye up, be not afraid ; tell the cities of Judah, 
Behold your God ! Behold, the Lord comes 
with strength, and [His] arm comes with author- 
ity. Behold, His reward is with Him, and His 
work before Him. As a shepherd He will tend 
His flock, and will gather the lambs with [His] 
arm, and cheer on her that is with young. Who 
has measured the water with [his] hand, and 
the heaven with a span, and all the earth with 
[his] fist ? Who has weighed the mountains, and 
[put] the valleys into a balance? Who has 
known the mind of the Lord? And who has 
been His counsellor, and who shall advise Him? 
Or with whom did He take counsel, and he in- 
structed Him? Or who showed Him judgment? 
Or who made Him to know the way of under- 
standing? All the nations are reckoned as a 
drop of a bucket, and as a turning of a balance, 
and shall be reckoned as spittle. But Lebanon 
is not sufficient to burn, nor the beasts sufficient 
for a burnt-offering ; and all the nations are con- 
sidered nothing, and for nothing.' " ^ 


And when I ceased, Trypho said, "All the 
words of the prophecy you repeat, sir, are am- 

5 Tsa. xxxix. 8. 
^ Isa. xl. 1-17. 



biguous, and have no force in proving what you 
wish to prove." Then I answered, " If the 
prophets had not ceased, so that there were no 
more in your nation, Trypho, after this John, it 
is evident that what I say in reference to Jesus 
Christ might be regarded perhaps as ambiguous. 
But if John came first calhng on men to repent, 
and Christ, while [John] still sat by the river 
Jordan, ha/ing come, put an end to his proph- 
esying and baptizing, and preached also Himself, 
saying that the kingdom of heaven is at hand, 
and that He must suffer many things from the 
Scribes and Pharisees, and be crucified, and on 
the third day rise again, and would appear again 
in Jerusalem, and would again eat and drink with 
His disciples ; and foretold that in the interval 
between His [first and second] advent, as I pre- 
viously said,' priests and false prophets would 
arise in His name, which things do actually ap- 
pear ; then how can they be ambiguous, when 
you may be persuaded by the facts ? Moreover, 
He referred to the fact that there would be no 
longer in your nation any prophet, and to the 
fact that men recognised how that the New Tes- 
tament, which God formerly announced [His 
intention of] promulgating, was then present, i.e., 
Christ Himself ; and in the following terms : 
' The law and the prophets were until John the 
Baptist ; from that time the kingdom of heaven 
suffereth violence, and the violent take it by 
force. And if you can^ receive it, he is Elijah, 
who was to come. He that hath ears to hear, 
let him hear.' ^ 



" And it was prophesied by Jacob the patri- 
arch -♦ that there would be two advents of Christ, 
and that in the first He would suffer, and that 
after He came there would be neither prophet 
nor king in your nation (I proceeded), and that 
the nations who believed in the suffering Christ 
would look for His future appearance. And for 
this reason the Holy Spirit had uttered these 
truths in a parable, and obscurely : for," I added, 
" it is said, ' Judah, thy brethren have praised 
thee : thy hands [shall be] on the neck of thine 
enemies ; the sons of thy father shall worship 
thee. Judah is a lion's whelp ; from the germ, 
my son, thou art sprung up. Reclining, he lay 
down like a lion, and like [a lion's] whelp : who 
shall raise him up? A ruler shall not depart 
from Judah, or a leader from his thighs, until 
that which is laid up in store for him shall come ; 
and he shall be the desire of nations, binding 
his foal to the vine, and the foal of his ass to the 

1 Chap. 3txv. 

2 "Are willing." 

3 Matt. xi. 12-15. 

* [Gen. xlix. 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 18, 24. 
referred to by Justin.] 

These texts are frequently 

tendril of the vine. He shall wash his garments 
in wine, and his vesture in the blood of the 
grape. His eyes shall be bright with s wine, and 
his teeth white like milk.' ^ Moreover, that in 
your nation there never failed either prophet or 
ruler, from the time when they began until the time 
when this Jesus Christ appeared and suffered, 
you will not venture shamelessly to assert, nor 
can you prove it. For though you affirm that 
Herod, after ^ whose [reign] He suffered, was 
an Ashkelonite, nevertheless you admit that there 
was a high priest in your nation ; so that you 
then had one who presented offerings according 
to the law of Moses, and observed the other 
legal ceremonies ; also [you had] prophets in 
succession until John, (even then, too, when 
your nation was carried captive to Babylon, when 
your land was ravaged by war, and the sacred 
vessels carried off) ; there never failed to be a 
prophet among you, who was lord, and leader, 
and ruler of your nation. For the Spirit which 
was in the prophets anointed your kings, and es- 
tablished them. But after the manifestation and 
death of our Jesus Christ in your nation, there 
was and is nowhere any prophet : nay, further, 
you ceased to exist under your own king, your 
land was laid waste, and forsaken like a lodge 
in a vineyard ; and the statement of Scripture, 
in the mouth of Jacob, ' And He shall be the 
desire of nations,' meant symbolically His two 
advents, and that the nations would believe in 
Him ; which facts you may now at length dis- 
cern. For those out of all the nations who are 
pious and righteous through the faith of Christ, 
look for His future appearance. 



" And that expression, ' binding his foal to 
the vine, and the ass's foal to the vine tendril,' 
was a declaring beforehand both of the works 
wrought by Him at His first advent, and also of 
that belief in Him which the nations would re- 
pose. For they were like an unharnessed foal, 
which was not bearing a yoke on its neck, until 
this Christ came, and sent His disciples to in- 
struct them ; and they bore the yoke of His 
word, and yielded the neck to endure all [hard- 
ships], for the sake of the good things promised 
by Himself, and expected by them. And truly 
our Lord Jesus Christ, when He intended to go 
into Jerusalem, requested His disciples to bring 
Him a certain ass, along with its foal, which was 
bound in an entrance of a village called Beth- 
phage ; and having seated Himself on it. He 

5 Or, " in comparison of." 
' Gen. xlix. 8-12. 

' a(j>' ov ; many translated " under whom," as if (<(>' ov. This 
would be erroneous. Conjectured also i<i>vye for inadiv. 

2 22 


entered into Jerusalem. And as this was done 
by Him in the manner in which it was prophe- 
sied in precise terms that it would be done by 
the Christ, and as the fulfilment was recognised, 
it became a clear proof that He was the Christ. 
And though all this happened and is proved 
from Scripture, you are still hard-hearted. Nay, 
it was prophesied by Zechariah, one of the 
twelve [prophets], that such would take place, 
in the following words : ' Rejoice greatly, daugh- 
ter of Zion ; shout, and declare, daughter of 
Jerusalem ; behold, thy King shall come to thee, 
righteous, bringing salvation, meek, and lowly, 
riding on an ass, and the foal of an ass.' ' Now, 
that the Spirit of prophecy, as well as the pa- 
triarch Jacob, mentioned both an ass and its 
foal, which would be used by Him ; and, further, 
that He, as I previously said, requested His 
disciples to bring both beasts ; [this fact] was a 
prediction that you of the synagogue, along with 
the Gentiles, would believe in Him. For as the 
unharnessed colt was a symbol of the Gentiles, 
even so the harnessed ass was a symbol of your 
nation. For you possess the law which was 
imposed [upon you] by the prophets. More- 
over, the prophet Zechariah foretold that this 
same Christ would be smitten, and His disciples 
scattered : which also took place. For after 
His crucifixion, the disciples that accompanied 
Him were dispersed, until He rose from the 
dead, and persuaded them that so it had been 
prophesied concerning Him, that He would 
suffer; and being thus persuaded, they went 
into all the world, and taught these truths. 
Hence also we are strong in His faith and doc- 
trine, since we have [this our] persuasion both 
from the prophets, and from those who through- 
out the world are seen to be worshippers of 
God in the name of that crucified One. The 
following is said, too, by Zechariah : ' O sword, 
rise up against My Shepherd, and against the 
man of My people, saith the Lord of hosts. 
Smite the Shepherd, and His flock shall be 
scattered.' ^ 



" And that expression which was committed 
to writing ^ by Moses, and prophesied by the 
patriarch Jacob, namely, ' He shall wash His 
garments with wine, and His vesture with the 
blood of the grape,' signified that He would 
wash those that believe in Him with His own 
blood. For the Holy Spirit called those who 
receive remission of sins through Him, His gar- 
ments ; amongst whom He is always present in 
power, but will be manifestly present at His 

' Zech. ix. 9. 

- Zech. xiii. 7. 

5 Literally, " inquired into." 

second coming. That the Scripture mentions 
the blood of the grape has been evidently de- 
signed, because Christ derives blood not from 
the seed of man, but from the power of God. 
For as God, and not man, has produced the 
blood of the vine, so also [the Scripture] has 
predicted that the blood of Christ would be not 
of the seed of man, but of the power of God. 
But this prophecy, sirs, which I repeated, proves 
that Christ is not man of men, begotten in the 
ordinary course of humanity." 



And Trypho answered, " We shall remember 
this your exposition, if you strengthen [your 
solution of] this difficulty by other arguments : 
but now resume the discourse, and show us that 
the Spirit of prophecy admits another God be- 
sides the Maker of all things, taking care not 
to speak of the sun and moon, which, it is writ- 
ten,'* God has given to the nations to worship 
as gods ; and oftentimes the prophets, employ- 
ing 5 this manner of speech, say that ' thy God 
is a God of gods, and a Lord of lords,' adding 
frequently, ' the great and strong and terrible 
[God].' For such expressions are used, not as 
if they really were gods, but because the Scrip- 
ture is teaching us that the true God, who 
made all things, is Lord alone of those who are 
reputed gods and lords. And in order that the 
Holy Spirit may convince [us] of this. He said 
by the holy David, ' The gods of the nations, 
reputed gods, are idols of demons, and not 
gods ; ' ^ and He denounces a curse on those 
who worship them." 

And I replied, " I would not bring forward 
these proofs, Trypho, by which I am aware 
those who worship these [idols] and such like are 
condemned, but such [proofs] as no one could 
find any objection to. They will appear strange 
to you, although you read them every day ; so 
that even from this fact we ^ understand that, 
because of your wickedness, God has withheld 
from you the ability to discern the wisdom of 
His Scriptures ; yet [there are] some excep- 
tions, to whom, according to the grace of His 
long-suffering, as Isaiah said, He has left a seed 
of* salvation, lest your race be utterly destroyed, 
like Sodom and Gomorrah. Pay attention, 
therefore, to what I shall record out of the holy 
Scriptures, which ^ do not need to be expounded, 
but only listened to. 

* Deut. iv. 19, an apparent [i.e., evident] misinterpretation of 
the passage. [But .see St. John x. 33-36.] 

5 Or, " misusing." 

* Ps. xcvi. 5. 

7 Com. reading, " you; " evidently wrong. 

8 Literally, " for." 

9 Two constructions, " which " referring either to Scriptures as 
I whole, or to what he records from them. Last more probable. 


2 2 ' 


" Moses, then, the blessed and faithful servant 
of God, declares that He who appeared to Abra- 
ham under the oak in Mamre is God, sent with 
the two angels in His company to judge Sodom 
by Another who remains ever in the superceles- 
tial places, invisible to all men, holding personal 
intercourse with none, whom we believe to be 
Maker and Father of all things ; for he speaks 
thus : ' God appeared to him under the oak in 
Mamre, as he sat at his tent-door at noontide. 
And lifting up his eyes, he saw, and behold, 
three men stood before him ; and when he saw 
them, he ran to meet them from the door of his 
tent ; and he bowed himself toward the ground, 
and said ; "" (and so on ; ) ^ " ' Abraham gat 
up early in the morning to the place where he 
stood before the Lord : and he looked toward 
Sodom and Gomorrah, and toward the adjacent 
country, and beheld, and, lo, a flame went up 
from the earth, like the smoke of a furnace.' " 
And when I had made an end of quoting these 
words, I asked them if they had understood 

And they said they had understood them, but 
that the passages adduced brought forward no 
proof that there is any other God or Lord, or 
that the Holy Spirit says so, besides the Maker 
of all things. 

Then I replied, " I shall attempt to persuade 
you, since you have understood the Scriptures, 
[of the truth] of what I say, that there is, and 
that there is said to be, another God and Lord 
subject to 3 the Maker of all things ; who is also 
called an Angel, because He announces to men 
whatsoever the Maker of all things — above whom 
there is no other God — wishes to announce 
to them." And quoting once more the previous 
passage, I asked Trypho, " Do you think that 
God appeared to Abraham under the oak in 
Mamre, as the Scripture asserts? " 

He said, " Assuredly." 

"Was He one of those three," I said, "whom 
Abraham saw, and whom the Holy Spirit of 
prophecy describes as men?" 

He said, " No ; but God appeared to him, be- 
fore the vision of the three. Then those three 
whom the Scripture calls men, were angels ; two 
of them sent to destroy Sodom, and one to an- 
nounce the joyful tidings to Sarah, that she would 
bear a son ; for which cause he was sent, and 
having accomplished his errand, went away."  

" How then," said I, " does the one of the 
three, who was in the tent, and who said, ' I shall 
return to thee hereafter, and Sarah shall have a 

' Gen. xviii. i, 2. 

^ Gen. xix. 27, 28; " and so on " inserted probably not by Justin, 
but by some copyist, as is evident from succeeding words. 
3 .Some, " besides; " but probably as abov«. 
* Or, " going away, departsd." 

son,' 5 appear to have returned when Sarah had 
begotten a son, and to be there declared, by the 
prophetic word, God ? But that you may clearly 
discern what I say, listen to the words expressly 
employed by Moses ; they are these : ' And Sarah 
saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian bond-woman, 
whom she bore to Abraham, sporting with Isaac 
her son, and said to Abraham, Cast out this 
bond-woman and her son; for the son of this 
bond-woman shall not share the inheritance of 
my son Isaac. And the matter seemed very 
grievous in Abraham's sight, because of his son. 
But God said to Abraham, Let it not be grievous 
in thy sight because of the son, and because of the 
bond-woman. In all that Sarah hath said unto 
thee, hearken to her voice; for in Isaac shall 
thy seed be called.'^ Have you perceived, 
then, that He who said under the oak that He 
would return, since He knew it would be neces- 
sary to advise Abraham to do what Sarah wished 
him, came back as it is written ; and is God, as 
the words declare, when they so speak : ' God 
said to Abraham, Let it not be grievous in thy 
sight because of the son, and because of the 
bond-woman?'" I inquired. And Trypho said, 
" Certainly ; but you have not proved from this 
that there is another God besides Him who ap- 
peared to Abraham, and who also appeared to 
the other patriarchs and prophets. You have 
proved, however, that we were wrong in believ- 
ing that the three who were in the tent with 
Abraham were all angels." 

I replied again, " If I could not have proved 
to you from the Scriptures that one of those 
three is God, and is called Angel,? because, as I 
already said. He brings messages to those to 
whom God the Maker of all things wishes [mes- 
sages to be brought], then in regard to Him who 
appeared to Abraham on earth in human form 
in like manner as the two angels who came with 
Him, and who was God even before the creation 
of the world, it were reasonable for you to enter- 
tain the same belief as is entertained by the 
whole of your nation." 

" Assuredly," he said, " for up to this moment 
this has been our belief." 

Then I replied, " Reverting to the Scriptures, 
I shall endeavour to persuade you, that He who 
is said to have appeared to Abraham, and to 
Jacob, and to Moses, and who is called God, is 
distinct from Him who made all things, — nu- 
merically, I mean, not [distinct] in will. For I 
affirm that He has never at any time done ** any- 

5 Gen. xviii. 10. 

* Gen. xxi. 9-12.' 
7 Or, " Messenger." [The "Jehovah-angel" of the Pentateuch, 

passim.] In the various passages in which Justin assigns the reason 
for Christ being called angel or messenger, Justin uses also the verb 
ayyiWio, to convey messages, to announce. The similarity between 
ayyeAos and ayyeAAw cannot be retained in English, and therefore 
the point of Justin's remarks is lost to the English reader. 

* Some supply, " or said." 



thing which He who made the world — above 
whom there is no other God — has not wished 
Him both to do and to engage Himself with." 

And Trypho said, " Prove now that this is the 
case, that we also may agree with you. For we 
do not understand you to affirm that He has 
done or said anything contrary to the will of the 
Maker of all things." 

Then I said, "The Scripture just quoted by 
me will make this plain to you. It is thus : ' The 
sun was risen on the earth, and Lot entered into 
Segor (Zoar) ; and the Lord rained on Sodom 
sulphur and fire from the Lord out of heaven, 
and overthrew these cities and all the neighbour- 
hood.' " ' 

Then the fourth of those who had remained 
with Trypho said, "It ^ must therefore necessa- 
rily be said that one of the two angels who went 
to Sodom, and is named by Moses in the Scrip- 
ture Lord, is different from Him who also is God, 
and appeared to Abraham." ^ 

" It is not on this ground solely," I said, " that 
it must be admitted absolutely that some other 
one is called Lord by the Holy Spirit besides 
Him who is considered Maker of all things ; not 
solely [for what is said] by Moses, but also [for 
what is said] by David. For there is written by 
him : ' The Lord says to my Lord, Sit on My 
right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy foot- 
stool,' •♦ as I have already quoted. And again, 
in other words : ' Thy throne, O God, is for ever 
and ever. A sceptre of equity is the sceptre of 
Thy kingdom : Thou hast loved righteousness 
and hated iniquity : therefore God, even Thy 
God, hath anointed Thee with the oil of glad- 
ness above Thy fellows.' s If, therefore, you 
assert that the Holy Spirit calls some other one 
God and Lord, besides the Father of all things 
and His Christ, answer me ; for I undertake to 
prove to you from Scriptures themselves, that 
He whom the Scripture calls Lord is not one of 
the two angels that went to Sodom, but He who 
was with them, and is called God, that appeared 
to Abraham." 

And Trypho said, " Prove this ; for, as you 
see, the day advances, and we are not prepared 
for such perilous repHes ; since never yet have 
we heard any man investigating, or searching in- 
to, or proving these matters ; nor would we have 
tolerated your conversation, had you not referred 
everything to the Scriptures : ^ for you are very 
zealous in adducing proofs from them ; and you 

' Gen. xix. 23. 

* Or, " We must of necessity think, that besides the one of the two 
angels who came down to Sodom, and whom the Scripture by Moses 
calls Lord, God Himself appeared to Abraham." 

3 This pass.ige is rather confused; the translation is necessarily 
free, but, it is believed, correct. Justin's friend wishes to make out 
that tmo distinct individuals are called Lord or (7od in the narrative. 

* Ps. ex. I. 

5 Ps. xlv. 6, 7. 

' [Note agam the fidelity of Justin to this principle, and the 
fact that in no other way could a Jew be persuaded to listen to a 
Christian. Acts xvii. ii.J 

are of opinion that there is no God above the 
Maker of all things." 

Then I replied, " You are aware, then, that 
the Scripture says, ' And the Lord said to Abra- 
ham, Why did Sarah laugh, saying, Shall I truly 
conceive? for I am old. Is anything impossible 
with God ? At the time appointed shall I return 
to thee according to the time of life, and Sarah 
shall have a son.' 7 And after a little interval : 
' And the men rose up from thence, and looked 
towards Sodom and Gomorrah ; and Abraham 
went with them, to bring them on the way. And 
the Lord said, I will not conceal from Abraham, 
my servant, what I do.' ^ And again, after a 
little, it thus says : ' The Lord said, The cry of 
Sodom and Gomorrah is great,'' and their sins 
are very grievous. I will go down now, and see 
whether they have done altogether according to 
their cry which has come unto me ; and if not, 
that I may know. And the men turned away 
thence, and went to Sodom. But Abraham was 
standing before the Lord ; and Abraham drew 
near, and said, Wilt Thou destroy the righteous 
with the wicked? ' " '° (and so on," for I do not 
think fit to write over again the same words, 
having written them all before, but shall of neces- 
sity give those by which I established the proof 
to Trypho and his companions. Then I pro- 
ceeded to what follows, in which these words are 
recorded:) "'And the Lord went His way as 
soon as He had left communing with Abraham ; 
and [Abraham] went to his place. x\nd there 
came two angels to Sodom at even. And Lot 
sat in the gate of Sodom ; ' '^ and what follows 
until, ' But the men put forth their hands, and 
pulled Lot into the house to them, and shut to the 
door of the house ; ' '^ and what follows till, ' And 
the angels laid hold on his hand, and on the 
hand of his wife, and on the hands of his daugh- 
ters, the Lord being merciful to him. And it 
came to pass, when they had brought them forth 
abroad, that they said, Save, save thy life. Look 
not behind thee, nor stay in all the neighbour- 
hood ; escape to the mountain, lest thou be taken 
along with [them]. And Lot said to them, I be- 
seech [Thee], O Lord, since Thy servant hath 
found grace in Thy sight, and Thou hast magnified 
Thy righteousness, which Thou showest towards 
me in saving my life ; but I cannot escape to 
the mountain, lest evil overtake me, and I die. 
Behold, this city is near to flee unto, and it is 
small : there I shall be safe, since it is small ; 
and my soul shall live. And He said to him. 
Behold, I have accepted thee "» also in this mat- 

7 Gen. xviii. 13, 14. 

8 Gen. xviii. 16, 17. 

9 Literally, " is multiplied. " 
'° Gen. xviii. 20-23. 

" Comp. Note 2, p. 223. 

'^ Gen. xviii. 33, xix. i. 

'3 Gen. xix. 10. 

>< Li(«rally, " 1 have admired thy face." 



ter, so as not to destroy the city for which thou 
hast spoken. Make haste to save thyself there ; 
for I shall not do anything till thou be come 
thither. Therefore he called the name of the 
city Segor (Zoar). The sun was risen upon the 
earth ; and Lot entered into Segor (Zoar) . And 
the Lord rained on Sodom and Gomorrah sulphur 
and fire from the Lord out of heaven ; and He 
overthrew these cities, and all the neighbour- 
hood.' " ' And after another pause I added : 
" And now have you not perceived, my friends, 
that one of the three, who is both God and Lord, 
and ministers to Him who is in the heavens, is 
Lord of the two angels ? For when [the angels] 
proceeded to Sodom, He remained behind, and 
communed with Abraham in the words recorded 
by Moses ; and when He departed after the con- 
versation, Abraham went back to his place. And 
when he came [to Sodom], the two angels no 
longer conversed with Lot, but Himself, as the 
Scripture makes evident ; and He is the Lord 
who received commission from the Lord who 
[remains] in the heavens, i.e., the Maker of all 
things, to inflict upon Sodom and Gomorrah the 
[judgments] which the Scripture describes in 
these terms : ' The Lord rained down upon Sodom 
and Gomorrah sulphur and fire from the Lord 
out of heaven.' " 




Then Trypho said when I was silent, " That 
Scripture compels us to admit this, is manifest ; 
but there is a matter about which we are deserv- 
edly at a loss — namely, about what was said to 
the effect that [the Lord] ate what was prepared 
and placed before him by Abraham ; and you 
would admit this." 

1 answered, " It is written that they ate ; and 
if we believe ^ that it is said the three ate, and not 
the two alone — who were really angels, and are 
nourished in the heavens, as is evident to us, even 
though they are not nourished by food similar to 
that which mortals use — (for, concerning the sus- 
tenance of manna which supported your fathers 
in the desert. Scripture speaks thus, that they 
ate angels' food) : [if we believe that three ate], 
then I would say that the Scripture which affirms 
they ate bears the same meaning as when we 
would say about fire that it has devoured all 
things ; yet it is not certainly understood that 
they ate, masticating with teeth and jaws. So 
that not even here should we be at a loss about 
anything, if we are acquainted even slightly with 
figurative modes of expression, and able to rise 
above them." 

And Trypho said, " It is possible that [the 

' Gen. xix. 16-25. 

2 Literally, " hear." 

question] about the mode of eating may be thus 
explained : [the mode, that is to say,] in which 
it is written, they took and ate what had been 
prepared by Abraham : so that you may now pro- 
ceed to explain to us how this God who appeared 
to Abraham, and is minister to God the Maker 
of all things, being born of the Virgin, became 
man, of like passions with all, as you said pre- 

Then I replied, " Permit me first, Trypho, to 
collect some other proofs on this head, so that 
you, by the large number of them, may be per- 
suaded of [the truth of] it, and thereafter I shall 
explain what you ask." 

And he said, " Do as seems good to you ; for 
I shall be thoroughly pleased." 



Then I continued, " I purpose to quote to you 
Scriptures, not that I am anxious to make merely 
an artful display of words ; for I possess no such 
faculty, but God's grace alone has been granted 
to me to the understanding of His Scriptures, of 
which grace I exhort all to become partakers 
freely and bounteously, in order that they may 
not, through want of it,^ incur condemnation in 
the judgment which God the Maker of all things 
shall hold through my Lord Jesus Christ." 

And Trypho said, " What you do is worthy of 
the worship of God ; but you appear to me to 
feign ignorance when you say that you do not 
possess a store of artful words." 

I again replied, " Be it so, since you think so ; 
yet I am persuaded that I speak the truth. "♦ But 
give me your attention, that I may now rather 
adduce the remaining proofs." 

" Proceed," said he. 

And I continued : " It is again written by 
Moses, my brethren, that He who is called God 
and appeared to the patriarchs is called both 
Angel and Lord, in order that from this you may 
understand Him to be minister to the Father of 
all things, as you have already admitted, and may 
remain firm, persuaded by additional arguments. 
The word of God, therefore, [recorded] by Moses, 
when referring to Jacob the grandson of Abra- 
ham, speaks thus : ' And it came to pass, when 
the sheep conceived, that I saw them with my 
eyes in the dream : And, behold, the he-goats 
and the rams which leaped upon the sheep and 
she-goats were spotted with white, and speckled 
and sprinkled with a dun colour. And the Angel 
of God said to me in the dream, Jacob, Jacob. 
And I said. What is it, Lord ? And He said. Lift 
up thine eyes, and see that the he-goats and rams 
leaping on the sheep and she-goats are spotted 

3 Literally, " for this sake." [Note here and elsewhere the 
primitive rule as to the duty of all men to search the Scriptures.] 
* Or, " speak otherwise." 



with white, speckled, and sprinkled with a dun 
colour. For I have seen what Laban doeth unto 
thee. I am the God who appeared to thee in 
Bethel," where thou anointedst a pillar and vowedst 
a vow unto Me. Now therefore arise, and get 
thee out of this land, and depart to the land 
of thy birth, and I shall be with thee.^ And 
again, in other words, speaking of the same Jacob, 
it thus says : ' And having risen up that night, he 
took the two wives, and the t\vo women-servants, 
and his eleven children, and passed over the ford 
Jabbok ; and he took them and went over the 
brook, and sent over all his belongings. But 
Jacob was left behind alone, and an Angel ^ 
wrestled with him until morning. And He saw 
that He is not prevailing against him, and He 
touched the broad part of his thigh ; and the 
broad part of Jacob's thigh grew stiff while he 
wrestled with Him. And He said. Let Me go, 
for the day breaketh. But he said, I will not let 
Thee go, except Thou bless me. And He said 
to him. What is thy name ? And he said, Jacob. 
And He said, Tliy name shall be called no more 
Jacob, but Israel shall be thy name ; for thou 
hast prevailed with God, and with men shalt be 
powerful. And Jacob asked Him, and said, Tell 
me Thy name. But he said. Why dost thou ask 
after My name? And He blessed him there. 
And Jacob called the name of that place Peniel,-* 
for I saw God face to face, and my soul rejoiced.' 5 
And again, in other terms, referring to the same 
Jacob, it says the following : ' And Jacob came 
to Luz, in the land of Canaan, which is Bethel, 
he and all the people that were with him. And 
there he built an altar, and called the name of 
that place Bethel ; for there God appeared to 
him when he fled from the face of his brother 
Esau. And Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, died, and 
was buried beneath Bethel under an oak : and 
Jacob called the name of it The Oak of Sorrow. 
And God appeared again to Jacob in Luz, when 
he came out from Mesopotamia in Syria, and He 
blessed him. And God said to him. Thy name 
shall be no more called Jacob, but Israel shall be 
thy name.' ^ He is called God, and He is and 
shall be God." And when all had agreed on 
these grounds, I continued : " Moreover, I con- 
sider it necessary to repeat to you the words which 
narrate how He who is both Angel and God and 
Lord, and who appeared as a man to Abraham, 
and who wrestled in human form with Jacob, was 
seen by him when he fled from his brother Esau. 
They are as follows : ' And Jacob went out from 
the well of the oath,^ and went toward Charran.^ 

* Literally, " in the place of God." 

2 Gen. xxxi. 10-13. 

3 Some, " a man." 

* Literally, " the face of God." 
5 Gen. xxxii. 22-30. 

* Gen. XXXV. 6-10. 

7 Or, " Beersheba." 

» So LXX. and N. T.; Heb. " Haran.' 

And he lighted on a spot, and slept there, for 
the sun was set ; and he gathered of the stones 
of the place, and put them under his head. And 
he slept in that place ; and he dreamed, and, 
behold, a ladder was set up on the earth, whose 
top reached to heaven ; and the angels of God 
ascended and descended upon it. And the Lord 
stood y above it, and He said, I am the Lord, the 
God of Abraham thy father, and of Isaac ; be not 
afraid : the land whereon thou liest, to thee will 
I give it, and to thy seed ; and thy seed shall be 
as the dust of the earth, and shall be extended to 
the west, and south, and north, and east : and in 
thee, and in thy seed, shall all families of the 
earth be blessed. And, behold, I am with thee, 
keeping thee in every way wherein thou goest, 
and will bring thee again into this land ; for I 
will not leave thee, until I have done all that I 
have spoken to thee of. And Jacob awaked out 
of his sleep, and said. Surely the Lord is in this 
place, and I knew it not. And he was afraid, and 
said. How dreadful is this place ! this is none 
other than the house of God, and this is the gate 
of heaven. And Jacob rose up in the morning, 
and took the stone which he had placed under 
his head, and he set it up for a pillar, and poured 
oil upon the top of it ; and Jacob called the name 
of the place The House of God, and the name of 
the city formerly was Ulammaus.' " '° 



When I had spoken these words, I continued : 
" Permit me, further, to show you from the book 
of Exodus how this same One, who is both An- 
gel, and God, and Lord, and man, and who 
appeared in human form to Abraham and Isaac," 
appeared in a flame of fire from the bush, and 
conversed with Moses." And after they said they 
would listen cheerfully, patiently, and eagerly, I 
went on : " These words are in the book which 
bears the title of Exodus : ' And after many 
days the king of Egypt died, and the children 
of Israel groaned by reason of the works ;' '^ 
and so on until, ' Go and gather the elders of 
Israel, and thou shalt say unto them, The Lord 
God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, 
the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath 
appeared to me, saying, I am surely beholding 
you, and the things which have befallen you in 
Egypt.' " '^ In addition to these words, I went 
on : " Have you perceived, sirs, that this very 
God whom Moses speaks of as an Angel that 
talked to him in the flame of fire, declares to 

9 Literally, " was set up." 

1° Gen. xxviii. 10-19. [OuAomAov^. Sf/i. Luz Eng.] 

'' Some conjecture " Jacob," others insert " Jacob " after " Isaac." 
[Gen. xxii. The Jehovah-angel was seen no doubt by Isaac, as well 
as by his father.] 

»2 Ex. ii. 23. 

'3 Ex. iij. 16. 



Moses that He is the God of Abraham, of Isaac, 
and of Jacob?" 



Then Trypho said, " We do not perceive this 
from the passage quoted by you, but [only this] , 
that it was an angel who appeared in the flame 
of fire, but God who conversed with Moses ; so 
that there were really two persons in company 
with each other, an angel and God, that ap- 
peared in that vision." 

I again replied, " Even if this were so, my 
friends, that an angel and God were together 
in the vision seen by Moses, yet, as has already 
been proved to you by the passages previously 
quoted, it will not be the Creator of all things 
that is the God that said to Moses that He was 
the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and 
the God of Jacob, but it will be He who has 
been proved to you to have appeared to Abra- 
ham, ministering to the will of the Maker of all 
things, and likewise carrying into execution His 
counsel in the judgment of Sodom ; so that, 
even though it be as you say, that there were 
two — an angel and God — he who has but the 
smallest intelligence will not venture to assert 
that the Maker and Father of all things, having 
left all supercelestial matters, was visible on a 
little portion of the earth." 

And Trypho said, " Since it has been pre- 
viously proved that He who is called God and 
Lord, and appeared to Abraham, received from 
the Lord, who is in the heavens, that which He 
inflicted on the land of Sodom, even although 
an angel had accompanied the God who appeared 
to Moses, we shall perceive that the God who 
communed with Moses from the bush was not 
the Maker of all things, but He who has been 
shown to have manifested Himself to Abraham 
and to Isaac and to Jacob ; who also is called 
and is perceived to be the Angel of God the 
Maker of all things, because He publishes to 
men the commands of the Father and Maker of 
all things." 

And I replied, " Now assuredly, Trypho, I 
shall show that, in the vision of Moses, this 
same One alone who is called an Angel, and who 
is God, appeared to and communed with Moses. 
For the Scripture says thus : ' The Angel of the 
Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire from 
the bush ; and he sees that the bush burns with 
fire, but the bush was not consumed. And 
Moses said, I will turn aside and see this great 
sight, for the bush is not burnt. And when the 
Lord saw that he is turning aside to behold, 
the Lord called to him out of the bush.' ' In 
the same manner, therefore, in which the Scrip- 

• Ex. iii. a-4. 

ture calls Him who appeared to Jacob in the 
dream an Angel, then [says] that the same An- 
gel who appeared in the dream spoke to him,^ 
saying, * I am the God that appeared to thee 
when thou didst flee from the face of Esau thy 
brother ; ' and [again] says that, in the judgment 
which befell Sodom in the days of Abraham, the 
Lord had inflicted the punishment ^ of the Lord 
who [dwells] in the heavens ; — even so here, 
the Scripture, in announcing that the Angel of 
the Lord appeared to Moses, and in afterwards 
declaring him to be Lord and God, speaks of the 
same One, whom it declares by the many testi- 
monies already quoted to be minister to God, 
who is above the world, above whom there is no 
other [God]. 



"I shall give you another testimony, my 
friends," said I, " from the Scriptures, that God 
begat before all creatures a Beginning,'* [who 
was] a certain rational power [proceeding] from 
Himself, who is called by the Holy Spirit, now 
the Glory of the Lord, now the Son, again 
Wisdom, again an Angel, then God, and then 
Lord and Logos ; and oii another occasion He 
calls Himself Captain, when He appeared in 
human form to Joshua the son of Nave (Nun). 
For He can be called by all those names, since 
He ministers to the Father's will, and since He 
was begotten of the Father by an act of will ; 5 
just as we see ^ happening among ourselves : 
for when we give out some word, we beget the 
word ; yet not by abscission, so as to lessen the 
word 7 [which remains] in us, when we give it 
out : and just as we see also happening in the 
case of a fire, which is not lessened when it has 
kindled [another] , but remains the same ; and 
that which has been kindled by it likewise ap- 
pears to exist by itself, not diminishing that from 
which it was kindled. The Word of Wi