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E Works of Bliimeubacli edited in this volume are the first 
third or last edition of hia famoua Treatise On the JVo- 
•al Variety of Mankind; which were published in 1775 aiid 
5 respectively: the Contribvtions to Natural History, in two 
; and a slight notice of three skullii which appeared in 
Gottingi^che geleftrte Aiizeigen of Nov. 1833, only remark- 
Bble for being the laat printed utterance of the author. Two 
I of Blumeabach have been prefixed, which contain 
r almost everything of interest concerning the circum- 
inces of his life. 1 have also added an account of his once 
tnous anthropological collection, written by his successor, now 
himself lately deceased, Professor RudolpJi Wagner, one of 
the original Honorary Fellows of the Anthropological Society, 

Blumenbach has related in the little autobiographical frag- 
kent, which has been incorporated by Marx in his memoir, 
) causes which led to his selection of an anthropological 
ibject as the thesis for hia doctoral dissertation. It was 
•livered in 1775, and reprinted word for word in 177(>- A 
»nd edition, enlarged by as much as would make about 


fifteen prmted pagea unifonn with this translation, was iaaued 
in 1781 ; and finally a third in 1795, which in arrangement, 
and matter was almost a new work. I hesitated some tim) 
as to which of tlie two first editions it would be most satis- 
factory to give to the public; for, on the one hand, the first 
is obviously most interesting for the history of the science, 
and the additional matter contained in the second has scarce 
any intrinsic value in the present day; but, on the other hand, 
in the first mankind is divided into four races only, and the 
now famous division of the Caucasian, Asiatic, American, 
Ethiopian, and Malay races, occurs^ for the first time in the 
edition of 1781. 

To give them both in their entirety would have perhaps 
been less troublesome to myself, but certainly tedious to the 
reader, for not only are the Plates the same, but much the 
greater part of the second edition is a mere repetition. At 
last I determined to use the first as my text, and appended in 
a note the important pentagenist arrangement. Accordingly 
the translation haa been made from the reprint of 1776, which 
differs in the title-page alone, and that I have taken from the 
copy in the British Museum. The preface To the Readei' has 
been omitted as of no value. But this is not the case with 
the Letter to Sir Joseph Banks, which forma the preface to 
the third edition of 1795, and contains a system of natural 
history, with appendices giving an account of Blumenbach's 
Collection as it then was. 

The Contnhutions to Natural History consists of two parts; 
the first of which went through two editions. The first in 
1790, and the second, from which the translation is made, in 
1806. The second part appeared in 1811. That part in the ori- 
ginal is composed of two sections; the first upon Peter, the Wild 
Boy. and wild boys io general: and the second on Egyptian 



mumniiGs. This latter essay, as may be supposed, la considerably 
behind the knowledge of the present day, and though in it. 
as well as in that written by Blumenbach in English and 
printed in the Philosophical Transactioiis of 179+. he Iiad 
observed the varieties in the national character of the 
Egyptian mumniiea and artistic representations, yet the whole 
essay has been pronounced lately by a competent writer to 
be "in some sort not worthy of that great authority'." The 
fact that the incisors of the mummies resembled in shape the 
molar teeth wha thought by Blumenbach to be a discovery 
much greater importance than modem writers are willing 
allow. I have therefore come to the concluaioa that it is 
lot worth while to edit this part of the Contributions, especi- 
ally as it is quite distinct by itself, and has no immediate bear- 
ing on general anthropology. 

The treatise On the Ifatural Variety of Mankind cannot be 
idered obsolete even at the present day. All subsequent 
writers, including Lawrence, Prichard, Waitz, &c., have ac- 
knowledged their obligations and proved them, especially Law- 
rence, by borrowing iai^ely from it. "Blumenbach may still 
be considered a chief authority," says Waitz'. And his classi- 
fication of mankind, though avowedly neither final nor rigidly 
scientific, has survived a very considerable Dumber of preten- 
tious improvements, and still holds its ground in the latest 
elementary text-booka of ethnology'. "The illustrious natu- 
;t, iu whom, after guffbn, we ought to acknowledge the 
ler of anthropology, has made two important advances in 





1 Perier (J. A. N.l, Sur Tdhnogmie Egyptiennt. ii(m. de la Sm, dt rA»lhn>. 

pUogic de Pari*, Tom. I. p. 443. 

> p. 39. Eng. TrL bj J. F. CoffingwooJ. 8»o. Lond. 1863, 

■ S« Page D. Jnlroduclory Tert Book of Pkytical Gtographi), p. i;8, Edinb. 

ud Loud. 1863, iimo. 

^H that sc 

^V he con 

^V derivei 

Ifl classifi 


that science, in his views on the classification of races. Although 
he continued to place at the head of all the characterietica that 
derived from colour, Bliimenbach is the first who founded his 
classification in great part on those presented by the general 
conformation of the head, so different in di£ferent races, as to 
the proportion of the skull to the face, and of the encephalon 
to the organs of sense and the jawa. This progress led also 
to a second. It is because Blumenbach attributed a great 
importance to that order of characteristicB ; it is because he was 
the first who devoted himself to determine exactly, by the 
assistance of a great number of observations, the essential 
elements which distinguished the types of man that he was 
also the first who made a very clear distinction of several 
races in which it is impossible to fail of recognizing so many 
natural groups. Thus it has happened that these races, after 
having been once introduced into science by Blumenbach, 
have been retained there; and we may assert that they will 
always be retained, with some rectifications in their charac- 
teristics and in their several boundaries. But are the five 
nicea of Blumenbach ttie only ones possible to distinguish in 
mankind ? And if all the five must be considered ns natural 
^^ groups, is it proper to place them in the same rank, and allow 

^H them all the same zoological value ? Blumenbach himself did 

^H not think this. 

^^M " In the first place his five races are not the only ones whose 

^^1 existence he is disposed to admit; but what is very different, 

^^1 the five principal ones. Varteiates quince priiuyipes, says BIu- 

^^m meuboch in his treatise On the Varieties of Mankind. He uses 

^H the same expression in his Repreaentations. The unequal im- 

^H portance of these races in a zoological point of view, is also, at 

^^L least by implication, admitted by Blumenbach. Of the five 

^^^^^^^ races there are three which he considei's alcove all as the pniici- 


pal races; and therefore he deals with those first. These are 
the Caucofii^, whicli ia not ooly for Blumenbac h th e moa t 
...beStUti f iil, a nd that to which the pre-eminence belongs, but the 
C pri mitive ra ^g; then, the Mongolian and Ethiopian, in which 
the author sees the extreme degenerations of the human species. 
As to the other races, they arc only for Blumenbach, transitional : 
that ia, the American is the passage from the Caucasian to 
the Mongolian; and the Malay, from the Caucasian to the 
Ethiopian. These two races are put off till the last, instead of 
being treated of intermediately, as they ought to be, if they 
Hgfere not considered as divisions of an inferior rank. 
^|p "It is apparent that Blumenbach was more or less aware of 
^Tliree truths whose importance no one can dispute in anthropo- 
logical taxinomy, that is to aay. The plurality of races of man; 
the importance of the characteristics deduced from the confor- 
mation of the head; and the necessity of not placing in the 
same rank all the divisions of mankind, which bear the common 
title of races, in spite of the unequal importance of their anato- 
mical, physiological, and let us also add, psychological charac- 
^b This criticism taken from one of the latest essays of a most 
HWstinguiahed modem naturalist and anthropologist will relieve 
me from the arduous task of passing this work of Blumenbaoli 
in review. The Contributions as is pointed out by M. Flourens 
is altogether a production of a lighter kind. It contains many 
curious observations, and though its geological theories are long 
since obsolete, the chapters on anthropological collections and 
on the Negro may still bo read with considerable interest. 
I^awrence has largely borrowed from the last in bis lectures on 

* b. Q«i]fio]r-Saiii(-Hilaire, Clauifiealvnt Anthmpotorpqai. Mim. dc la &je. 
fAntkrvp, it Parit, Tom. i, p. 


the Naturai History of Man. The history of Peter the Wild Boy 
has, so far as I know, never been translated into English in it-s 
entirety, but all that has been said of him and the other wild 
men there mentioned has heen borrowed from Elumenbach. 

I had at one time intended to edit the Decades Craniorum, a 
book now become somewhat scarce. Inquiries were made by the 
President and Publishing Committee of the Anthropological 
Society as to the probable expense which would be incurred in 
reproducing the 65 plates of which that work is composed. The 
results showed that such an undertaking would be beyond the 
present means of the Society; and an opinion was also expressed 
by some who are worthy of all attention in such a matter that 
more typical, characteristic, and hitherto iindelineated skulls 
scattered about in the different English Museums should have a 
preference, in case such an outlay as the pubUcation of so many 
crania with their descriptions should at any time be seriously 
contemplated. Whilst I do not for a moment doubt the wisdom 
of the decision, or deny the expediency of preferring hitherto 
inedited materials, I still think that if the present possessors 
of the Blumenbachian Collection could be induced to join not 
only in furnishing entirely fresh drawings of the skulls contained 
in it, but also in publishing the very minute and accurate 
descriptions, certificates, and documents relating to each particu- 
lar one, which form by no means the least instructive portion of 
the inedited remains of Blumenbach, the result would not only 
be a great stimulus to those international exertions without 
which the science of Anthropology cannot hope to make the 
progress so much to be desired for it. but would also confer the 
greatest credit on the Societies which might be principally con- 
cerned in carrying out such an undertaking. Witli respect to 
the last utterance of Blumenbach, which has been extracted 
from the GiJttingen Magazine, I am indebted to Professor 



Marx for the following information. " The Spicilegium wm not 
printed. It had been the intention of Blumenhach to work out 
in greater detail the short lecture which was read at the session 
of the 3rd August, 1833, but he did not fulfil it. Therefore the 
short notice in the 177th number of the Odttingiscke Gelehrtf, 
!eigen, for 1833, is the only conimimication on that point 
t we have of his." 
I The Memoir of Prof. Marx has been previously translated 
V the Edinburgh iVew Philosophical Magazine, hut many in- 
ssting details about the life and habits of Blumenbaeh were 
[kitted. It was mode great use of by M. Flourens, as he acknow- 
^es; but since his own memoir contains many original details 
^id remarks from an independent point of view, I have thought 
it would be equally accept^able. 

A singular mistake has however been made by M. Flourens, 

tb in this memoir, and in his larger book' on Buffon, which I 
not help pointing out. The reader will probably observe 
t he gives as the title of Blumenha^h's book The Unity of 
the Human Gentis, which is obviously wrong. This would be of 
no importance; but in the work above referred to we have this 
reflexion: "Nothing promotes clearness of ideas so much as 
precision in the use of words. Blunienbach wrote a book to 
^■Rove the unity of the liuman species', and entitled it On the 
^^Bnittf of die Hmnan Genvs; now, a genus is made up of specie^. 
^^Hspeciee only of varieties. Buffon writing on the same subject, 
^^■id pntting before himself the same oliject, said excellently, 
^^Karitties in the Hvinan Species." 
1^^ Blumenhach never once gave as a title, The Vvity, &c.; and 

■ Uitt. da traraax tt dt$ idlet dt Suffbn, p. i6g, aecond eJ, Paris, i 
• Df VnnUt du goiTt hnmain tl <U ta rarilUi, Trail, Fnmr. P»ria, tSo^. 


Dotwitlistanding the elaborate ingenuity of M. Flourens as to the 
word gentts, I have preferred to translatG the Latin worda 
humanuvi genuB, by the ambiguous, and as I believe correct 
expression, mankind, 

I have thought the reader would prefer for many reasons to 
find each of the several treatises in this volume with an exact 
copy of its original title-page prefized. Those which had no titl^ 
page have still one made up of that of the porio<iica!, and the 
heading prefixed to each in its original form of publication. 

M. Flourens had appended to his Memoir a list of some of 
Blumenbach's works. A much more perfect one, with notices of 
many of their translations, and of the different portrait-s and en- 
gravings taken of Blumenbach at various periods of his life, is 
to be found in Callisen (A. C. P. von), Medidniaches SchnftateUer- 
Lexieon, B. II. pp. 346 — 356, 1830. Copenhagen, 12mo. An 
will be observed it occupies ten pages, and therefore is far too 
long for insertion here, yet is still neither quite complete nor 
quite correct. 

The treatise of John Hunter, delivered in June 1775, hu 
been added. It will be interesting to compare it with the 
contemporaneous effort of Blumenbach. But to enter intoi 
the question why the study of anthropology never bet 
popular in Edinburgh, whilst it continued to be cultivated' 
in GSttingen, would cany us beyond the limits of a Prel 


Knra'a Couasi, Caxbbidqb. 
Jan. I, iSfis. 


£DiTOB*a Pbupaoi 

Mbmoib of J. F. Blumembaoh bt Pbof. Mabx 




M. Floubskb 

On TEE Natubal Vabixtt of MAmmrD, ed. 1775 




TEIBD ED. 1795 

Ck>2rTBiBunovB to Natubal Hibtobt, Pabt I. 





Pabt II. 


Ak Aoooubt OF THX Blumbhbaohian Mubbtjx bt Pbof. Buoolfb 
Waovbb ...... 









IvAUOUBAL Disputation ov thb Vabibtibs of Mav, bt Johv 

Huhtbb, Jubb, 1775 - • • • • 357 

IiTDEz OF Subjects 

IxDEX of Authors 



For Jesus Stiftch, p. 35, read Jesus the son of Sinch. 
... MoDgox Lemur, p. 90, twd Lemur Mongoz. 



K. F. H. MARX. 

UWBB hi 

Though a very vivid and imeffaceable recollection of the man, 
who has lately departed from our circle, can never cease to 
dwell in us, still I may be permitted to sketch with a few 
strokes a picture of his occupations and his personality, and in 
that way to strew a flower upon the grave of him who in life 
honoured by all of us, but was especially dear to myself. 

It was bis happy lot to fulfil the office of iostructor far 
id the limits of the ordinary age of man, and to direct 
the afTatrs of our socjety for a longer time than any one of 
those here present can remember. For more than half a cen- 
tury the most important events of this Univereity are bound up 
with his memory and his name ; and the development of one of 
the greatest and most important branches of science is essen- 
tially involved with his undertakings, his accomplishments, and 
the efforts he made to advance it. 

He stood at last like a solitary column from out the ranks 
i.f those who had shared. his stnigglea and his enterprises, and 
'lid tro<lden in the same path, or as an old-world pyramid, a 
titnulating example to us juniors, how nature will sometimea 
■ aiap her crowning seal on high mental powers, by adding to 
I ln-ra the firmness and long continuance of the outer form. 

John Frederick Blumenbach waa bom at Ootha on the 11th 
May 1752. His father was a zealous admirer of geography and 
natural history, and lost no time in arousing a love for them 
in his aon. It will be convenient to insert here a note in his 

1— a 


own handwriting, wliich I (jtfo to the kindness of the dej 
npon the earl ipstriuci dents which happened to him while stS 
under .the paterhal' roof, and his earliest promotion on his 1 
en^cance into "the great world; for it will tell a clearer tale thl 
.■"if J'-werti to turn it into an historical form. 
■ '• " My father was bom at Leipdg, and died at Gotha in 17flfi 
proctor and professor of the gymnasium '. He owed his scientifl 
culture to two men especially, Menz and Christ, two heipdg 
professors of philosophy, and so, indirectly throiigh him, they 
contributed a great deal to my own. Amongst other things, he 
owed to the first his love for the history of literature and for 
the natural sciences, to the second hia antiquarian and artistic 
tastes, And so in this way I also acquired a taste and a love 
for these branches of knowledge, which I never found to sta 
in the way of my medical studies, to which in very early ( 
I had addicted myself from natural inclination, and sometim 
they were even in that way of great service. 

" I began my academical career at Jena, and there I deriv( 
nourishment for literature and book -lore from Baldinger, whi 
my relation, J. E. I. Walch, the professor of rhetoric, perforr 
the same office for me as to natural history and the s 
arcbrcology. I wont from there to Gsttingen to fill up son 
remaining gaps in my medical studies; and my old rector i 
Gotha, the church-councillor Geisler, gave me a letter for Heyfl 
As I was giving it to him, I showed him at the same time i 
antique signet-ring, which I had bought when at school i 
a goldsmith. Such a taste in a medical student attracted h 
attention, and this little gem was the first step to the intimatl 
acquaintance which I subsequently enjoyed in so many ways 
witli that illustrious man. 

" Tboro resided then at Gottingen professor Chr. W. BUttner, 

^ Bwda the more conHderohle communi cation in tlie tc3ct Blumenbach has IcR 
oolj > fiw •Ckltereil notices of hu life. So fur lU thne linve come to rov kooir- 
Icilga, I bitve nude good nae of them. He bod &□ idea of conponug hi* own 
tut^nphy, And two puas^, written b; him in hi* pocket-book, aeem to piHnt to 
thia intcntiuD. "Manj bnvo written their own lives frmn feelings of sbumiM 
ntthcr thuiof conctdl." — "Without f>vonr orunbitioD, bat inducad bj the rcwan 
of \ good connciencc." 

^H UAKX. 5 

aa extraordinary man, of singularly extensive learning. He 

had at one time been famous for the great number of lan- 
guagea he was skilled in, but had for many years given up 
delivering lectures, and was then quite unknown to the stu- 
dents. Just, however, about the time I camo, the eldest son of 
hia Mend and great admirer, our orientalist, Michaelis, had 
then begun to study medicine ; and his father had enjoined him 
to do his best and get EUttner to deliver a lecture upon natural 
history, which in old days he could do very well, and for which 
he had a celebrated collection. Immediately on my arrival I 
also was invited to the course, and as the hour was one I had 
at my disposal, I put my name down, and so came to know the 
whimsical but remarkable BUttner. The so-called lecture 
became a mere converaation, where for weeks together not a 
.word was said of natural history. Still he had appointed as a 

r:i-book the twelfth edition of the System of Nature; though 
the whole six montlis we did not got beyond the mammalia, 
■because of the hundred-and-one foreign matters he used to 

" He b^an with man, who had been passed over unnoticed 
in his readings by Walch of Jena, and illustrated the subject 
with a quantity of books of voyages and travels, and pictures 
wf foreign nations, out of his extensive library, It was thus I 
waa led to wiite as the dissertation for my doctorate. On the 
natural vanety of mankind,; and the further jMroseoutiou of this 
interesting subject laid the foundation of my anthropological 
collection, which has in process of time become eveiywhere 
quite famous for its completeness in its way. 

" In that very first winter, through Heyne'a arrangement, 
the University undertook the purchase of Biittner's collection 
uf coins and natural history. But in consequence of the unex- 
ampled disorder, in which the natural objects hod been let lie 
utterly undistinguisliod from each other by this most unhandy 
of men, he was first of all in want of an assistant to arrange 
and get them ready for delivery. So Heyne said to him, 
^ou give lectures on natural history? and haven't you 
one among your pupils whom you can employ for thatH" 


' Tliat I have/ said Biittner, and named rae. ' Ali, I know 
too;' so the office of Etssiatant was offered to me, and I gli 
undertook it without any fee, and found it most inatructive. 

"Sometime after, when everything had been handed ov( 
and the collection had found a temporary home in the former 
medical lecture-room, the honourable minister and curator of 
the University, von Lenthe, came to visit our institute, ao these 
things too had to be shown him, and as the worthy Biittner 
did not seem quite fit to do it, I waa hastily summoned, and 
acquitted myself so well, that the minister directly he got 
out took Heyne aside, and said, ' We must not let this young 
man go.' I took my degree in the autumn of '75, on the anni- 
versary day of the University, and directly afterwards in the 
ensuing winter I commenced, as private tutor, my first readings 
on natural history, and during the same term, in February '76, 
was nominated extraordinary, and afterwards in November '78, 
ordinary professor of medicine." 

Such was Blumenbach'a very promising beginning. How 
progressed onwards in his scientific and municipal career, 
he became in 1784 member of this society, in 1788 aulic 
cillor, in 1812 perpetual secretary of the physical and mai 
matical class of this society, in 1815 member of the libi 
committee, in 1S16 knight of the Order of the Guelpb, and in 
the flame year chief medical councillor, and in 1822 commander of 
the Order, all that is so well known and so fresh in everybody's 
recollection, that I need make no further mention of any of those 

Much more appropriate will it be to describe here the 
direction he followed himself and also imparted to the sciences, 
hb activity as teacher, his relations to the exterior world, and, 
in a few characteristic outlines, the principal features of his 
personal appearance and character. 

First of all it may fairly be asserted of Blumenbach, that he 
it was especially, who in Germany drew the natural sciences 
out of the narrow circle of booka and museums, into the wide 
cheerful stream of life. He made the results of his own per- 
severing researches intelligible and agreeable to every educated 


Reelect v 

r tbe c 

>ii who was anxious for instruction, and understood very 

how to interest the upper classes of society in them, and 

to excite them. Taking a comprehensive view over the 

domain of the exertions of natural science, he knew how 

whatever could arouse or sharpen observation, to give 

lear prospect of what was in the distance, and to clothe the 

ttical necessities in a pleasing dress. This feeling and tact 

common interest, this inclination for popular exposition 

easy comprehension was meantime no obstacle to his solid 

He laboured away on the most diverse departments 

science with single and earnest application, and arrived at 

which threw light on the darkest corners. 

Equipped with classical knowledge, perpetually sharpening 

eniiching his intellect with continuous reading, and kept in 

y intercourse with the first men of his day, he knew how 

not only to look at the subjects of his attention from new points 

of view, but also how to invest them with a worthy form of 

iipression and representation. 

loked upon every result either of his own 
.rches, or those of other people, as secd-cora for better 
id greater disclosures. He busied himself unceasingly by 
writing, conversation, and instruction in disseminating them, 
and endeavoiu'ing to fix them in a productive soil. Thus it 
came to pass, that he soon came to be regarded as the supporter 
and representative of natural science, and collected crowds of 
young men about him, and by words as well as deeds continued 
increasing influence upon the entire circle of 
ly for many decades of years. 

Blumenliacfa soon became known to the Society of Sciences 
an industrious student of physic, and in the meeting of 
the 15tb January, 1774. he communicated' the remarkable dis- 
covery he had made (which had been already done by Braun in 
U59 at St. Petersburg) of how to freeze quicksilver. 



' GSUing. gd. Antigen, T774, st. 13, f. roi;— 7. Blumentwali bimaeirset little 
Men by thia experiment : Tor he «upe<!ted thst hu tneada might be too but? in 
oenddering tlie Tact to bo proved. 


In 178i he became member of this Socioty, and immediatel] 
afterwards read his firat paper On tlie eyes of (/« Leuccetliiopiat 
and tlte nuyvement of the iria'. 

It waa a happy chance, that hia first literary work waa 
cemed with the races of roeo, and thus physical Anthrupoloj 
became the centre of the crystallization of liis activity. 

Few dissertations have passed through ho many editions, (a 
procured their author such a wide recognition, as that On thf 
natural variety of niankijuff. It operated as an introduction to 
the subsequent intermittent publication of the Decades', on the 
forms of the skull of different people and nations, as well i 
the foundation of a private collection'. This was unique in ii 
way ; and princes and the learned alike contributed to its formi 
tion by giving everything which could characterize the corporei 
formation and the shape of the skull in man. Bluinenbi 
used to call it his "Golgotha," and though they do not often 
to a place of skulls, still the curious and the inquisitive of both. 
sexes came there to wonder and reflect. 

Perhaps it is worth while remarking that the theme of 
earliest work of his youth was likewise that of his last scienl 
writing, for after the 3rd August, 1833, on the exhibitii 
of an Hippocratic Macropephalus before the Society, when 1 
communicated his remarks" thereon, he came no more befo 
the public except to read a memoir upon Stroraeyer, and 
say a few ncver-to-bc-forgotten words at the festival meeting 
the centenarian foundation feast. 

One of Blumenbach's great endeavours was to illustrate the 
difference between man and beast; and ho insisted particular! 

appeared ii 
Nova PcKti 


' De octdit LcucalMopam tl irldia mo(u. Commml. Sac. R. Gdll. Vol. vn. 

' * Degmerii hnnani nativa rarittaie. lit ed. 177;. 

Tbo Qist decado of his uollectiDD of skulls of di^rent DB,liana with iUutt 
in Vol. X. of the Commtnt. Soc tc. Tbe lunt tmdvr the 
tioni* mie craniorum divtrmrvm ircnfiiim tan/pmat atmplcmentiai 
•rum dtcadum oAlbita in eonituit tadtlatii S Jat 1816. CVmincnt. rccmfiar. 
Comp. OSIt. gti. Ata. 1816. it. lU, t. itoi— 6. 
Comp. his paper On OMthropologicat cvUtrtiofit m the oeooud edition of tiia 
Batrane zur ffolUTyrtrhkhle 1806. Th. 1. fl. iS—66. 

* GUtt. 3d. An:. 1833, >t, 177, fl. 1761. [Eiiiu.-a in tLia volume. Ed.] 

upon the importancQ of the upright walk of man, and tbe 
vertical line. Hi! asserted the claims of human nature, as such, 
to all the privileges and rights of humanity, for, without deny- 

K altogether the inHueuce of climate, soil, and heredity, he 
rded them in their progressive development, as the imme- 
j conseqiieuces of civilization onii cultivation. Man was to 
"the most perfect of all domesticated animals." What he 
it becomo by himself in his natural condition, without the 
tance of society, and what would be the condition of liis 
innato conceptions, he showed ia his unsurpassable description 
of the wild^ -or. savage Peter von Hamebi'. How the osseous 
^^toucture of tho-skuU will approximate nearer and nearer to 
^^■Bfor m of tbg beast, when unfortunate exterior circumstances 
^^^^^fcrior relations have stood in the way of the development 
^^P thcni^her facnlt icSj miff ht be seeuJnJiiacoUectioa-Jromtho 
crwtin's skull, which, not without meaning, lay side by side 
by that of the orang-utan; whilst, at a little distance off, the /" 
[ly beautiful shape of that of a female Georgian ^ 
every one's attention. 
At the time wlien the negroes and the aa\agEa were still 
idered as Jialf animal$, and no one had yot conceived the 
of tlie emancipation of the slaves, Blumenbach raised bis 
and showed that their psychical qualities were not inferior 
those of tho European, tliat even amongst the latter them- 
the greatest possible differences existed, and that oppor- 
,ty alone was wonting for the development of their higher 

Blumenbach had no objection to a joke, especially when it 

no one, or when the subject in hand coidd be elucidated 

jby, and with this view ho wrote a paper on Haman and 

st, 6, B. <o9— 415, On (Ac caiiai 

I IdCbtonberg »xtA Voigl, Magaan filr dot n 

aia dcr PUyiik, B. ' 

;^wl!^/i.ywjA._^/ \^)_>t 


\ Maat always was and coutiiiued to be bis c)uef subject, m 
from a transcendental point of view, which be gave up to tl 
p^ilosophersanrtbeologians, but man aa he stands in the 
world. Not only did be contribute essentially to hia 
comprehension and treatment, but it was not very easy for 
one to surpass him iu practioal knowledge of men. 

Natural history, not the description of nature, was the 
he placed before him. Witli Bacon he considered that as tl 
first subject of philosophy. He understood how to indicate 
peculiarity of the subject with a few characteristic strokes ; 
showed also how the inner* properties, relations, and attributes 
of the individual were connected with each other, and t^eir 
connexion and position to the whole. With this view he buaed 
himself actively on organic and also on animal nature. Nc 
was be a stranger to the study of geology and minerali^y, 
is clear from De Luc's letters* to Blumenbacb, besides what 
himself communicated about Button's theory of the earth, 
bis paper on the impressions in the bituminous marl-slates 

The name of Blumenbach must certainly be recorded 
amongst those who have signally contributed through the 
research and discovery of the traces of the old world to the 
history of the condition of our earth and of its earliest inhi 
t&nts. He, too, it was who, long before any others, pre] 
a collection of fossils for the illustration and systematic 
ledge of the remains of the preadamite times*. 


to tbe public. Th&t he hiul reflected on llie posribilitjp of n PhUotopkf ty 
Biitory uiay be ttfn, unongst other prooti, by > letter to Moll in " " 
ti'oiM, Ablb. 1. iSiQ, ». 60. 

' Uagaz. fOr dot mb. ant dcr Phyil:, B. TllL at, 4. 1753. Comp. OM, K 


' In Eohlera AoymonnmA. Journ. Frajber^ '79'i Jahrg. IV. B. i. 1 
Blumenbach proved tlut tbongli tfaej woe the marks of a miumuftl, Uwj t 
DOt tbose oT ■ child, v>il Iberdbre no withropolitlu. 

' The fcHsi] genus Oxvponu. wliich is fouod in unber. and vu repretieDted bi 
GisTchoonit in MonOfrmpkia ColropterorHm MKniplrronm, Goltinn, 1S06, 8»o, p. 
ijt, eiista *lao in Blumeabocb's colieclioD. Speaking of the Iwit, that su^ho^ 
aai^a, "1 wish BlurocBbach would gite us a deacription of the numei-Diiii niSMU 
pnaerred iu amber, which hn poaaeaaea, and compare them with the aliicd uieeda 
of tbe present Uaj. Eia weil-knoiTa genius for natanl history, so long and sa 


HAItX. 1 1 

In 1790 he wrote Contributioiis to Hie Natural History oftlie 
mitive World'. He devoted two papers before the society 
the remains with which he waa acquainted of that oldest 
ich, principally from the neighbouring country*. He also 
:d an opinion upon the connection of the knowledge of 
itrifactioua with that of geology, thinking by that meaua a 
ire accurate knowledge of the relative age of the different 
ita of the earth's crust might be obtained', and he was the 
it who set this branch of study going. On the occasion of a 
twisa journey, he drew particular attention to those fossils, 
hose living representatives are still to be found iu the same 
luntry, to those whose representatives exist, but in very dis- 
tant regions of the earth, and to those of which no true repre- 
eentative has yet been found in the existing creation'. Later 
he elucidated the so-called fossil human bones iu Guada- 

His views on opinions of that kind, aa also on more compre- 

inaive considerations, such as On the gradation in iiature', or, 

the 80-called proofs of de«iijn^, generally like to abide within 

le limits of experience, and the conclusions which may fairly 

jiutlj famonii, might funiiBh ua with some well<«eii;1icd and aound hjpothed 

(be wi^n >nd rnriiiaLiaii of uuber." 
' Mofjiat. ib., B- VI. «t. 4, 8, T — 17. 

' j^wi'nwn arcliitnliigia Irllarii tefraramqiie imprlmit HannoTtranarum, I 
im Ommteiit Vol. XV. p, 131—156. Spie. alttmtn 1813. Vol. 111. re 

« 0/ tlie difcreut EarOi-eataitrophti. Btilr. 1 

j— 14. 

* Om At lucenaion r. 
r». lodod. 1806, Th 

■ject, nuaely, LiDk, in hia work Tht Primeral K'arld and Anti'ittilg tlitci- 
ly fi'ataTOl- Sneaet, wbich hedodltalea to hit Uacher, aaya in tlia prefocs, tbnt 
'>n of the priioHval wurld, aa ifuita iliifertiut Irom tli&t of the pra- 
the sdeace of Blumeabuih and Cnvier, To the aamn effect Von 
10 i> well enlitlud hi a mica iu thii mntter, expresaea himoelf {Thnuijhli on 
'l Servifa to Geologii. Gothn, 1S61, *. 3.}: "Amongst uaiuniJista 
B«h ii the firat who aMigntd to a knowledge of pelrirnatiooi ita true 
n tbs foniidation of Geology. Ha considered [hem M tbe moat neceaaary 
o thftt atudj. Ha aMtrted with determinfttion, that from a knowliidge of 
'' — and eepeoiftUy from so mcqoiuutiuicu with the different position of 
it important r«eulu for the cosmoj^eniual put uf minenlo^y might lie 

* Lichtenbei^ and Voigt'a ifag, tc. 178S. B. \ 

* Gm.geLA«i. i8ij, at, 177. a. \^ii. 

* Bdtr. RU- NMarg. sud ad. 1806, Tb. !. a. io< 
T Ik . .«> 



be deduced therefrom. Brilliant hypotheses, subtle and imagi- 
nary combinations, phautastic analogies, were not to his taste. 

If it can be said of any scientific work of modem times, 
. that its utility ha^been incalculable, such a sentence must be 

pronounced oi (Blumenbach'B Handbook of N atwal History'. 
Few cultivated circles or countries arc ignorant of it It con- 
tains in a small space a marvellous quantity of well-arranged 
material, and every fresh edition* aimounccd the progrejis of its 
author. Still in spite of the effort after a certain grade of 
perfection the skill is unmistakeablo, vrith which only the actual 
is set forth ; and with which by a word, or a remark, attention 
is directed to what is truly interesting, agreeable, and useful, 
and an incentive given to further study. 

Not only did Blumcnbach well know how to set out the 
whole domain of this study in a simple, easily comprehensible 
and transparent way, so as to utilize it for instruction; but he 
also, by bringing to its assistance allied occupations, obtained 
new points of view, and enlarged its boundaries. 

H.t^VoiitributiaMjO-.^^^J:^ Histo ry*, f^d his ten numbers 
of Refpresentatioits of Subjects of Natural History*, hava by 
interesting translations, prudent selection, and accuracy in hand- 
ling the subjects, done profitable service in the extension and 
foundation of this science. He took special pains to throw 
light on doubtful questions, and to clear up overshadowing and 
difficult undertakings in natural history from old monuments 
arf*, and the traditions of the poets'. He looked on the 

* It apptiared first in i Tjg. 

* The publiabura oIodi! iaiued it, the last in iSjo, not including the re 
imd the tmualntiona [nto ilniuat all civilixud lon^UHgeB. 

' The GcBt part appeaml in 1790, the second id iSi i. They contnineil t 
lowing essajs: Part 1. On viunnljility in creation. A gUnoa al the primeval 
worR On antbropologioal EolloctionB. On the diiisioii of mankind into five 

ffidpal raoes. On the ^dalion in nature. On the Bo-called proors of deaign. 
', u. On the komo lapitnt ftrut. On the Egyptian mummieB. 

* 1796-1810. 

* Speameu hut. not. antv/aa aiiit opcritiu illiulr, eaq. ciduim Ula^r., 
CammeM, Vol. xvi. p. iGi)^ — ig%. 

' 9p. hitl. not. tx aiiclor. cUui, prattrilm pociit iUiuW. Cotq. vie. HiMttr., 
tSij. Comm. reoHil. VoL lu. p. 61—78. Comp. am. gel. Aia., iSij, it " 
8. «03j— 2040. 



s of animals and their appearance at difTercnt times, and 
r wide dispersion in enormous numbers as a great, but not 
sessarily insoluble riddle ; and he contributed bia mite also to 
B future solution of this weighty question'. 

Blumenbach was blamed somewhat here and there for fol- 
wing with little divergence th e ar tificial classific ation of 
Linnreus, But this conservatism was not the consequence either 
of convenience, or want of knowledge, but from the conviction 

(that the time for a natural system was not yet come. That he 
fblt the want of such a system is plain, because as early as 
Wt75 he sketched out' an attempt at a natural arrangement of 
Ihe mammalia, according to which attention is paid not to 
single, or a few, but to every outward mark of distinction, and 
the whole organization of the animals. 

His communications. On the Lovea of Anitruds*. &nd_O n the _ 

Vaiural History of Serpents*, display not only the critical, but 

J judicious observer. Manifold interest attaches to his re- 

uks on the kangaroo', which he kept for a long time alive in 

B house, on the pipa", and on the tape-worm'. 

Blumenbach was thoroughly penetrated with the truth, that 
B are only then in a proper position to understand the appear- 
»8 of the present, when we attempt to clear up as far aa 
isible their condition in the beginning, and from early times 
aown to the present He considered archfeology and history 
not only as the foundations of true knowledge, but also as the 
sources of the purest pleasures. He was not afraid of being 
reproached with encroaching upon foreign ground', for he knew 
his own moderation : nor did he shiink from the trouble of 
seeking and collecting, for he had too often had experience 

, ^^^^ ^^ ^^ 

tpmlc mlnr., live caiu 

M tindio ab hom. alion 


Comm. itaM.' VoL v. p 
fr* am gil. Ata. at, n 

-ii6. Oomp. G6U. gzl 


i8m), be. 

S7. s. 

, ■- 


■ * (Kit. Mag-a, 1781, 



I ;*ofl«/*-^dc««.a« 

..ferpfty-., B.V, >t. I, 

.7S8, s 


■ • am.'^'. Am.^■l'S^ 


JO, s. rss3— rsss. 

■ »■ lb. 1774. "t. rs4, ». 



■ • He ■pproveU of Sanee* 

"I ofton pass in 

to tlio 


camp, D 

Kwrt«r, but ru t, tpy." 



that tliouyl] the roots of a solid undertoking may be bitter, the 
firuit miiy be sweet. Busides ho knew well how, by keeping 
at a distance from UHclei^a diBtroctions, and by intenml coUec- 
tivunt-as art<l regulated arrangement of work, to bring together 
in one much that lay widely separated. 

Some yeant after he had written hia paper On the Teeth of 
the Old Egyptiana, and on Atummies', he had an opportunity 
during his stay in London on the 18th February, 1791, of 
opening nix mummiea, and derived considerable reputation from 
his communication' to Banks on the results he obtained there- 
fVom. He took hia part also in the opinion' pronounced by the 
Society of Sciences of that day on Sickter's new method of 
unfolding the Herculaneum maniiscripts, which he had invented. 

He showed that our granite answers to the syenite of Pliny*. 
He possessed a collection of ancient kinds of stone to illustrate 
the history of tiie art of antiqnity, on which account his opinioji 
was often consulted on the determination of doubtful antique.s, 
for example, those given out as such made of soap-stone'. 

He had himself, principally with a view to natnral hist^iry 
and the varieties of man, a collection of beautiful cngraviugB 
Aiid piotnres, and set great store besides on the woodcuts in old 
irorks which give representations of animals*, for in that way 
tJie proper position of observing the art of that time is easily 
Arrived at. And so also lie endeavoured to become better 
Aoquainleil with "the first anatomical wood-cuts," and drew 
Attention to them, when otherwise they would have remained 
quite «nnotic«i'. 

After a careful comparison of the objects of ancient art, v 

7 of ft? 

' OMt M<m. i;So, Jmlkr^. I. ■. 109—1.19. 

* mim. iVaM. %Z0*. [Tbe iHiviniJ MS. of Ihi* Twper u in Lhe libnrj nf ft 
Aathnfik Soc nf Ija(id«a. Ko,) Uis leller to Sr JiiHrph BiuikB vaa piinled is 
U* lUnl adilioa i<r Om'tlf Crwru //■•>. r. ■ t;9;- Tim sabject ia tiiaRHij;hly 
twtii o[ b; Um in Ih* ntitr. fur yalmry. Tb. U. t. 45—144. 

* Ottt ill. Ata. 1814. M. too. ■. IV9.V 

I * lb. iBiO, •. M08. BluiDOilNicb G>v«)iis Hem bcfora in tht ■woo'l put of 

^'IW cdlliMi M ffttwrat Bittorj In 17S0, on tho proper dutinelion U the kinds 

* GmL Mngm. 1781, rt. 4, «. i^tf— 15ft. 
' IUiGa(c*, .Vfiiia Afnft, i;8i. 


wbu^ he woH acqaainted, his opioiou' was thatwe ought to be 
chaiy m our praise of the anatomical knowledge of the artists 
of antiquity, but that their aecurafy in the representation of 
characteristic expression had not been sufficiently appreciated. 

In the history of literature ^lumegbac h emulated h is origi- 
nal and pattern. Albert Von Haller. whose acquaintance he had 
maile when studying at Giittingen, by sending to him at Berne 
a hook', on the suggestion of Heyne, which Haller had men- 
tioned in one of his works as unknown to liim, and which he 
bad picked up at an auction'. Later in the day he often fur- 
nished him with many additions and supplements to the already 
published volumes of the Practical Medical Library*. 

Among the bibliographical labours of that great writer Elu- 
meabach esteemed moat highly the Bihliotheca Anatomica. In 
^^Us own pocket copy he wrote down especially all the volumes 
^^bid editions of it which wem at that time to be found in the 
^^^bal library, and to the first volume he added a supplement. 
^^H He wrote a preface" to Haller's Journal of Medical Litera- 
^^K^ in which bia services as critic received their due. 
^^V However little vahie the l>o<ly of physicians generally attach 
^To literary performances, still there is no doubt that most of 
them are acquainted witliC Blumenhach's Intr oduct ion to t he. 
JAterary History of Medicin^. ^'itli a prudent selection, pre- 
i; and brevity the wHole fieT3 of medicine, quite up to the 
1 of the preceding century, is there described in a compre- 
lasire snrvev'. 

' De rtterum arff^cum ana/oniieir ftritia landt Ifaotandit, ctiAranda rtro 
B in diaraden gentititio ecprimatdo accvraliont. Tbe tre&tise itself mu never 
ted, liotoniUcontinitHOORip. (Ultl. gd. Aia. 1813, at. 115, ■. 1341. 

* Ohtrvationum atuitomicaram coUeyii privaii Amtdodamtmu Pari itttira. 
AaM. tfi7j. iimo. 

* Haller'a uunrer is dated iSth Marcli, 1775, 

« BiUinger't .V. Magai. far AmK, lySo, B. 11. ■. 33. 

' Braids this perhapa icBFCsly nay ons WM »> well ocqnuated tritb all tlie 
writing* of thot moet famous of OottingeQ teachers aa Blumenbncli. He loamt 
mocb troai the collectinn of letten to and from Hulier, for tliere he found, among 
mmiij other remarkable obnerratiaBa for the bistary of mertiome, the iDode nf 
curing deofnen hy piercing the tympuium. GBli. gd. Am. [S06, st. I47, >, ^JQ 

* Tieili. Bern. 1790. 

' IntnStuiie in hiitorian mediflia liitrariani, 1786. 



On tlie occasion of the fifty-year Jubilee of our Univei 
Rity he brought together all the literary performances of t 
medical profoBsora of Gottingen in a catalogue', which 1 
equally the effect of serving aa a memorial to them, and i 
a cause of emulation to their successors. 

He frequently celebrated the memorials of distinguished 
men, especially in his Medical Library', that almost 
passable journal, and then as secretary of our Society, id 
which capacity he worthily fulfilled this painful duty over his 
departed colleagues, in the memorial orations over Kichter 
(1812), Crell {181G), Osiander (1822), Bouterwek (1828), MayeaJ 
(1831), Mende (1832), and Stromeyer (1835). 

His Honourable mention of RegimentaUSurgeon Joltann En 
Wreden' is so far of importance for the history of the career a 
medicine, as that long-forgotten surgeon was the first on I 
continent, and that in Hanover, to introduce inoculation I 
the small-pox. 

The lover of literature should not pass unnoticed his iVbCiid 
of Hie Meibomian Collection of Medical MS8. preserved in t 
Gottingen Library*. 

What has already been done goes sorao way to place Blumei 
bach's merits and excellenco in a right light. But the moi 
important of all have not been mentioned yet, and from thg 
exposition it will be clear how many things were imited in o 
man, of which each by itself would have gone far to coirf 
reputation upon the possessor. 

The branches of learning in which the name of Blumenbac 
shines forth without ceasing arc physiology and comparati«( 
anatomy. What he performed both by woi-d of mouth and 1 
his writings in these departments, will all the less easily | 

' Synopm ii/ilanalica uriplorata, gvibtit indl ab inav^mliatu Aeti 
Oeorgia A itgutUe atque ad loUnmia iiUja inaagarationit tna ilaeularia ducipUnam 
tuam a«ga^ d oriuat MadutrunI profoKtra midia GOltingetuti, 17S8. 

' B. I— III. nSt—itas. 

S9, Jftbrg. in. tt. t, B. 389—396. 


MA EX. 17 

■gotten by his fatherland, because foreign countries first took 
a liking to these studies through hira, and expressed their grati- 
tude not only to liim, but above all to Gorman erudition. 

The obscure learning of generation, nutrition, and repro- 
duction received light and critical elucidation from him. If 
after the lapse of sixty years since he first strenuously employed 
bis mind to sift the existing materials and make particular 
investigations, more comprehensive results than he expected 
have been obtained, still it is but just to observe, that his ideas 
•yj uive certainly been expanded and here and there connected, 

t have not in any way been controverted. 
On the 9th of May, 1778, his observations upon green 
, then in the act of reproduction, first led him to the 

mprehension, and afterwards to the further investigation of 

i incredible actisity of the powers of nature in the circle of 
organized life. In 1780 appearcti his essay O n th' Formtfj^ve 
Force and its Injluence on Oeneratdon and M eproduction' : and 
the iifelt year the monograph, Q ii the ForTnative Force and- on 
the Operation a o f Generat ion'. )At the same time he expressed 
himaelf On an unconivionlr/ simple method of Propagation', — 
namely, on that of the conferva in wells, whose mode qf propa- 
gation he had discovered on the 18th of Febniary, 1781. 

He sent in on the 2ath of May a short reply to the question 
proposed by the Academy of St. Petersburg, On the Force of 
Nutrition*, which he wrote on the preceding day, and obtained 
half the prize. He wrote some remarks on Troja'a experi- 

■stta on the production of new bone'. On the occasion of 


GtU. Mag. ,jSo, .. .47-i6(i. G-'oU.-*.-.. lVv«..^^ 

Tben in tbe Comment. T. viii. p. 4 r— 68 : Ik «uu formalini d gmera- 
, i;8j. In all living- cre»tnre« there ie ft peoiiliar, inhorant, liTB-lonff 
»«ti*e enotgy, whi^ first of all causes them to put on their definite apponmnce, 
then to pmcrve it, anil if it should be diBturbed, u for u pouiblo to restore it. 
The tlieorv of ilevetopment from Bpcrtniitio knimalcule, or hy means of Mnapermj, 
lie ihowed is wilhont fuondatjoo. [A IratiaUtion of thi« treatJiB by Dr Crichton 
wu pablubad in i;gi, London, iitno. ES.] 

• Gun. Mag. ijSi, ei. T, s. 80—89. 

' Ik n-Uriliooe ultra vaia. The prize was awarded Dec. 4, 1788, Tbe ess.ijt 
•™t in were 14. AWa Acia Sn. Petmpol. T. VI. ijgo: Bittoirt. Cntnp. Zvei 
attuaidl. merdk NiUntioTulrafl, K. F. Wolf, St, Peterab. I78y. (Tbe second i« 
by C. F. Born.) 

• Eiohtar'a Ckir. BOiiothfi; K v(. it. 1, i;Bi, s. 107. 



The Oeneration of the Eye of a Water-Lizard, he cominunicatfldfl 
in a sitting of this Society' the fact that he had amputata 
four-fifths of the apple of the eye, and a new eye had 1 

WitJi clear insight and unusual experience he distinguished 
the anomalous' and morbid aberrations of the formative fore 
and showed' how The Artificial or Accidental MutiUUions inM 
Animals degenerate in Pi-ocess of Time into Hereditary Mark^M 
His studies upon the formative force were taken up by greatl 
thinkers, and were made use of, though with alterations < 
expression and manner of representation, as foundations for 
further developments, by Kant' in hia Critique of the Un^er' 
etandin-g, Fichte in the System of Morality, Schelling in the 
Sovl of the World, and Goethe in the Morphology. From thif I 
he derived particular satisfaction, as it was a proof of th^M 
solidity and productiveness. T 

Hia Elements of FhysiologTf ia remarkable not less for tba 
elegance of its language, than, like all his books, for a well- 
selected display of reading, and the profusion of his own 

He ijusied himself much' with the investigation, whethwj 
a peculiar vital energy ought to he attributed to the bloc 
or not And also with the origin of the black colour of then 
negroes'. He confirmed the principal discovery of Qalvanl^ I 



in /ormatiri abmtitionibiu, 1811. 

* MagazinfUr diu y. aiu ikr Pkyni. 1789, B. VI. at. 1, a. 13. 

* Witb reftrence tu Kiuit's manner of eiprcBsion, he remarked (GSU. gtl. Awf 
iSoo, at. 61, (. 611), "that tbs oroithorjnchiu KlTonla a Bpeikiag example of ' 
foimative foroe, u ahowing the connection of thoie two prindplea, the m * 
Kid the teleolagical, in the oibibition of an end binng alio a product of Di 

' /nitifulioRc* Pht/iiologiae, 1787. Amongst the many editions sni 

UoiiB of thia work, Blutncnbach set the moat value upon the edition of Elliotaon^ 
tmulatioD, published by Btntley, London. 1874 ; beoause thia waa tba firat book 
nhich waa ever printod euCiiely b; a moobiue. Comp. GSU. grl. Am. 1818, it 
17a,.. 1713. 

* De n rtiali ianguinit, 1787. CommtjU. Vol. tJL. p. 1 — 13. And >g«n on 
the appearance of the poithumons work of John Hunter On the Blood, on On 
oocaston of the degree of aeveti candidates in i;g5, tba ar^ment he gave was XM 
vi ci<ali mnifvini dentganda, lita autttn propria $iilidia quHisidam eorp. Amm. 
partiiui aditrenda cura iterala. 

' Dt gen. hum. rar. nal. p. in. ed. 3. 

reposing on hia own observations'. With respect to the eyes of 
tlie LeucEetliiopians' and the movement of the iris, lie took 
great pains to ascertain their probable reasons by collecting 
and criticizing the experiences of others, and by personal 
observation. On the 23rd Aug. 1782, he examined two Albinos 
at Cham Dun L 

In 178i he discovered', during the dissection of the eye of 
the remarkable property by means of which these 
lals are enabled to shorten or lengthen the axis of the eye- 
ball at pleasure, eo that they can see clearly just as well under 
the water as in the air, two mediums of very different density, 
He was the first* who accurately distinguished the nature'and 
destination of the frontal sinuses, as also their condition in 
disesfie. He showed the intersection of the optic nerves to he 
a settled fact". He would not adopt the belief in a muscular 
coat of the gall-bladder". With regard to the protrusion of the 
eyes in the case of persona beheaded, he drew attention to the 
fact that the phenomenon was not, as in the case of those who 
have been hanged, caused entirely by congestion'. On the 
opportunity of a communication On a ram which given milk', 
he expressed himself on the presence of t"ilk in the breasts of 
men, and attempted an explanation. 

His History and Description of tlie Bones of the Human 
Body*, in Which this naturally dry subject is treated in the 
mo-it interesting way and from fresh points of view, will always 
n-'tain an enduring valne. 

His Handbook of Comparative Anatomy^" was the first of 

kind, not only in Germany but throughout the learned 

> Oea. gtl. J«. 1703. It. 31, «. 310. 

* A oevlii LeueittAiapain It iridu moEu, fjS^. Comn. Vol. vir. pp. ig — Ci. 
>. 09tt, gtl. Am. i;84. It. 175. Mat. BibliotKei. B, u, a. 5j;— 47, 
Oommtht. Vol TII. 17S4, p. 46. Haadlnieli der vtrgl. ^nal. Aufl, 3, ■. 40t. 

* Ptvlm, anal, tfa timbia jrcmtal. 1779. Ui< tbeau on Lecoming onlinarj Pro- 

Catap. G6U, gtl, Ans. l^^g, s. gij — gi6. 
Btf. gtl. Am. J 793, at, 34, t 334. 
■ lb. 1806, It. 1.15, a. 1351. 

f JbhimtU. da-fki/: vud. toeUt. lu Erlangm. iSlo, Tb.,t. b. 471. 
' Baimonr Mag. 1787, st. 4S, 9, 733—761, 

> Pint .'n 178F, (hm in igo£. 
■» Fint in 180:. 




world. Before his time there was no book ou the totality 
this liranoh of learning; he was the first to find a place for it 
the circle of Bubjects of instruction. One of his earliest com- 
munications was upon AhyonelUe in the Gotttngen ponda'.i 
Then he furnished a running comparison between the 
and cold-blooded animals*, and afterwards between the w( 
blooded viviparous ajid oviparous animals'. Nor can we 
over in silence his remarks upon the structure of the 
thorynchus*, on the bill' of the duck and toucan, and on 
sack in the reindeer's neck*. 

Inasmuch as Blumenbach regarded physiology as the true 
foundation of the science of medicine, it is not difficult to per- 
ceive from what point of view his contributions to practical 
medicine are to be criticized: besides, he let slip no opportunity 
of proving his sympathy in that particular direction. Thus he 
gave his opinions on the frequency of ruptures in the Alps'; 
nostalgia* on melancholy' and suicide in Switzerland; on tbs 
expulsion of a scolopendra electrica'" from the nose; and 
a case of water in the head of seventeen yeais' standing". Hoi 
also contributed to the extension of the science of medicine 
by experiments" with gases on live animals, and by the commu- 
nication" of a new sort of dragon's blood from Botany Bay on 

1 am._Mag. i^8o,i. 117-117.^ 

• Spreim. jAgnU. romp, inter animantia calidi et frigidi langulnlt, 1 78 
Vol, VUI. pp, 69—100. 

' Spre. pkyt. eomp, int. a«im. eal. tang. riap. et orijj. 17B8. Comm. 
pp. 108 — iig. Comp. Oea. gtl, Anz. i;Bq, Bt. 8, s. 7.1 — 77. In tbu t 
also gKTe his riswa upon the sppeanncd nf yellow mrpuiclci in the uniinprei 
ovam ; on the fonnaUoa of the double beart ; oo tba period when the riM » 
dned in the embiyo. 

• St OrHilhorynchi paredoxi fabrica lAttrv. gnadam anal. Man. dt la m 
ntd. dEaiuialion,T. rv. PariB, 1779, pp. 310—313, OStL gd. Ant. iSao, « 

' Spec. pAu. comp, iW. anin. eal. tang, timp, tt ovip. 1789. 

• G6II. gd. Ant. 1783, rt. 7, a. 68. 
' In bU Medic. BiUiotlut. B. 1. ». 715. 

• lb. (. 731. Camp. SrhlSier'i Corrapondenft, Th. m. 1778, n. ill. 

• Mfd. £ib. B. n. : 163-173. 

>° Feoer-Mael. Comp. J. L. Welge, IHu. dt nuniU tinuum /romtoliw 
OBtliog. 1 786, 4tA. g TV. p. 10. 

" "Oin- dfn togennanl Wagler'trJien." Med. BUI. B. m. s. 616—630. 
" Mrd-Bib. B. I.!. I7,v 

Omlnhutiimt to Hu Materui Mediea frvm thi Uairmitg Muteum ^ A 


I. 166— 


east coast of New HoUoiid, and by a description of the 
true Winter's bark, 

BIumenbacli'B reputation as a learned man was so great, 
'that every hint of his was considered and followed up, as that 
the beat meihoda of putting together collectanta and eairacts'; 
id his works, especially his handbooks, stood in such esteem, 
that authors and bookselicra' alike connidered a prefoce from 
hini as the beat recommendation for their works. In this way 
he introduced Cheselden's Anatomy", Neergard's' Comparative 
Anatmny and Physiology of tite Digestive Onjans, and Gilbert 
Blane's' Elements of Medical Logic. 

I must take notice here of one branch of learning, in which 
Blumenbach Lad scarce his like, I mean hia familiarity with 
voyages and travels. All the books of the sort in the library 
of this place he had read through over and over again, and 
made extracts of, and prepared a triple analysis, namely, one 
arranged geographically, a chronological and an alphabetical 
To this occupation, as he frequently took occasion to 
intion, he owed no small part of hia knowledge; and for his 
forches in natural history and ethnography it was a most 
id foundation. 

He himself had made but few long journeys* in proportion, 

ly through a part of Switzerland' and Holland to England, 

rather to London', which afterwards he used to say was to 

the sixth part of the world; and a diplomatical one to Paria, 

ill order, during the time of the kingdom of Westphalia, to 

» lb. B. HI. 8. 547. 

■ He wrote k preface to QmeliD*B Gackiektc dtr Ihiti-iich, u. inincral. y'fie. Et- 

, 1805. 

» Ooniuw ly A. F. Wolf. Qiitling. fjSg. 

* Berlin, lS«6. In Cha preface Blumenbach (peuka of the influenot of Com- 
~*'~'e Atiktom; on tba pbiliiBD])liic study of nBturoJ liiatory in gcncml, and on 

ymologj <d Iba human body and the mcdiual iLiiuwIed^e of beuts hi 

* aeitingen, 1819. 

* When he wuited to take a journey for recrealioii, he likeJ going to iLo 
widowed Prinoea Chriitjuio von Waldcck at Arolaea, who hod proved liarself very 
nwftll to bjm ; or to Pynnont, or to Gotha, Hehbui^, Wciniar, and Dresden. 

' Ib 1783. 

* lo 1791—91. 


propitiate the good will of Napoleon for the Univemty, » 
which occasion De Lacepede was his advocate and guide, 
kept a journal on his travels, ui which he made short not« 
of all that wa3 worth noticing. Up to this time very few < 
these very multifarious remarks hffve been made public 

He piiblisbed a translation of the medical observations i 
the second part of Ives' Travels*; he wrote a Preface to the &n 
part of the Collection of Rare Travels*, and a Pre&ce t 
Remarks to Volkmann's translation of Bruce's Travels*. 

It is not perhaps too much to assert, what 1 may be allowi 
to say here, that the desire which was aroused in many idoi 
distinguiHhed men to undertake great expeditions for the g 
of natural history, and the results, which have accrued in c 
sequence to the knowledge of the earth and of mankind, wei 
particidarly prompted through the medium of BlumenbadL 
Homemanu', Alex, von Humboldt, Laugsdoi-f, Seetzen, RSnt- 
gen, Sibthorp, Prince Max von Neuwied, were and are hia 
grateful pupils. 

Amongst the unknown, or, at all events, the insuffitnent^ 
appreciated services of Blnmenbach to literature belong I 
beyond measure numerous reviews, which he continued to writ^ 
for a long series of years, not only in the BiUiothek, whiol 
ho edited himself, but also particularly in the Gotlinf. 
ffelekrtf A ngeigt, on all the books in hia various provincea 
first criticism was upon Xenocrates, On the Altvient in Aqiu 
AntTtiala, in 17/3, in Walch's Philological Lihrarij*. 

■ Bemulu on some trxveli in WalJettk oollwted in Sohlozer'g Brl^-tmi. 
Til- UI. ij;P, it. i6, B. 359—137. Thon: Somr RemarU upoyi Xaivroi Hittory mM 
lAe oenaioa 0/ a SuHiijoHnei/. In Slagai. /lir dot tuiiaU aui drr Phgtii, B. IV,, F 
■t, 3, 'T87.»- '; B- 1, 1778. •- 13. I 

* Tho rpnuuning part of (hii )'Djnj;t to India woa tranBUleii b; Bohm. Lttps, ■ 
1775- ■ 

* Mrniiningen, 1789. 
' Ld|z'g, 1790, in Bre valumt*. 
' Od Jul; 1, 1794 HDraemftnn Grst of all eipregseil a wish to bil U 

to travel into the interior of ArHcn, Zadi'i Gai/r. Epktm, B. I. Weimar, 
a. li6-~rio, R. 368—371, and in B. in. >. 193. BiDTniiiiWh gave a public i 
of thi> aotive young nun and of the fortanate completion of his ptan. 

* n. n. at. C, a. 533. Blararnbach corrected nud added to the edition or XqmhI 
crati'S vtpi T^i arc Tbfr ervSpur rpo^s by Franz. 

He himself bad in the beginning to experience how unfairly 
aiid carelessly reviews are often scribbled off'. He always 
iidbereii to the rule of separating the man from the thing, and 
tried to make his judgment as objective as possible, and not 
to pervert the scientific judgment -seat with which he was 
entniated to gratifying his personal bkes or dislikes. His 
reviews may be known by their convincing brevity, tljeir clear 
exposition of the essential points, the witticisms scattered here 
and there, and the instructive observations and remarks of 
the writer. 

One of hiB manuscript observatione is worthy of notice, 
which I found in a pocket-book that he once allowed me to 
examine, because it explains to some extent how the facility 
and power of finishing off work of this kind became in & 
certain sense habitual to him. It is as follows: 'In church, 
which we continually attended, I was always obliged whilst at 
school to write down an abstract of the sermon. This has beea 
since of the greatest utility to me in my reading, extracting, 
reviewing, and in many matters of business, &c., for it has 
enabled me to detect the essential point with rapidity, to 
exhibit it, and briefly to express it again.' 

AlUiongb Blumenbach beyond all others was involved in few 
litenuy feuds', and it did not ca.sily happen that any of his 
reviews occasioned him any complaint' or enmity, still he could 
not help frequently calling things by their right names, and 
displ&ying false celebrities in their nakedness*, 

And now we must turn our attention from Blumenbach the 
author, to the Gottingen professor, to whose lecture-rooms youth 

' Wten hi* Baadlook «/ Xalural HiiloTy hid been not only awkwardly but 
in«innderKtel;r criticized, he «rol« bia On a litcraiy inddinl uvrCA notice, v:hich 
ua/erlunattly it "O rariXt/ in Goll. Mag. 1780, B. 46; — 484. 

■ On one with hu old ooUeagus Msioen, comp. Btitr. lar Nalurg, Aufl. I. 
1790, Th. t. s. 6j. 

> Bis crititann oil K^mpf's new method of curing the most obaUnate diaordera 
of the kbdnmen {Med. Bibl. B. n. st. 1). wu however Ukea iU by him, hut kfter- 
U wu the Bulgect of open tliuikB to Blumenbach, in the lecond edition of that 
!, Lcjpx. 1786, ■. 36fi. 
- ■ a the review of Sander's Trow/i. GliU. yd. Am. 1784, at. J7. 


and age alike pressed, in order to receive words of lasl 
instruction from the wit and humour which overflowed 
his mouth. 

The undivided approval, which was paid to his discoui 
undem'ent do diminution in hie extreme old age, and he gai 
up teaching, not because either the wish or the power fail 
him, or because he siiffered any diminution of audience 
pathy, but solely in accordance with the entreaties of his friends." 
He knew well how in a very singular and inimitable way to 
unite the valuabla with the amusing, the relation of dry facta 
and scientiJic dediictions with wit and humour, and to st 
them with keen well-pMnted anecdotes. Every one enjoyed 
lecture. Grave or gay, every one went away stimulated 
the better for it. 

As listeners came to him from all parts of the world 
went home full of his praises, his name wa£ carried into coi 
tries where previously German literati had been little thoi 
of. With a letter of recommendation from Blumcnbacb, a 
might have travelled in all the zones of the earth. 

He had the art of never giving too much, of confining him- 
self to the principal points, and of deeply impressing what was 
essential by well-varied repetitions. He assisted the compre- 
hension by appealing to the senses in every way; by outlines 
which he drew with chalk on a board, by the e.^bibition of 
copies and preparations, by happy quotations of wcU-kno' 
sayings. He laid stress on the fact, that from him might 
leamt the art of observing; but that it is necessary, accoi 
to circumstances, to listen, smell, and taste. 

Hg made it plain, that be held no propositions such as could 
be written out prettily on law-paper; his subject was the entire 
man, his whole inner activity in representation, comparison, and 

The means he employed to obtain this result were indeed 
manifold, but it is very di£Gcult to give a satisfactory account of 
them; they are too much bound up with his peculiar personal 
appearance. One must have heard him speak himself, with the 
expressive play of countenance, the remarkable tone of voice, 


MA Its. 25 

wlitcb now fell upon the ear in sharp abrupt sentences, now 
estried your senses along with him in overwhelming cadences, 
and witJi the imposing eflect with which he knew how, to some 
extent, to throw life into the natural objects before him and 
bring them into unexpected relations, 

I could give many examples' of his numerous clever and 

' For Ihe silte of exampla I will giva an inkling o£ tbem. Ho wished people 
would aocuatom Uiemxdvee to get a dear uid deliiiite uotioD of ButijacU, aiul lo 
reproduce Ihn whole from a pai t, for, tuil he, " 1 ciuiDOt bring sTerytliitig into Lha 
lecture, ■■ the eUphuit or rhinocerog," 

He tiled also to preveot peoplo from deriving false ideas from their impreasions 
and Dbaervatioiu: vie. "IT yon wish Co fotm %n idea of tha loweaC liepth to which 
men baie deaceoded in the interior of the earth, pile up jour lihnuy al honia, jour 
Corpna Juris, your eccleaiaatical hiatucy, &nd medicnl books, until jou hava put 
ti,cxM leaves, that is, 14,000 psgva ona apon the other. Aod how fur do you 
tbink we have got into the heart o( the earth! just so for as the fiiM and ssoand 
leaf in thickoesB. And yet people are not ashamed lo apeak of the kernel of the 
ewtb. When the poet apeidiB of the bonoli of the earth, we ought to traoskto 
•tha epidenoia of the earth.'" 

Be knew his aodieuoe so well, that if he wanted to get anything, be folt no 
neoeiaity for maldog long manieuvres, >tUl less for Gndini; fault. He appealed to 
the ienae of wtiat wae right and proper, not with jiallielic demonalratioos, but 
eimorily, as by an electric shock. If, for instnoce, be saw that his sabjiictB were 
handled rudely a* thtj went romid, he called out with an intelligible gnture ; 
■■ They an best laid on your oost'hippet or on cotton ; hut I know one word la 
better than an hnndnid-weight of cotton." 

Smuetimei he was fond of speakiog in aphorisms, leaving the connecting Unka 
to be mada out by his attentive hearers, though he always stirred up and set in 
motion the moat spathetia by his overflowing humour. Once, for instance, wht^n 
lecturing on natural history, he told the alory how tbey ahavitd a bear, and gave 
bim out ui a new sort of man. "A beast in Gottiiigen, In whom Buffon would 
have diacovored a good deal that was human: — it showed ono particuhu- Irait of 
Dindetty, beuuie it would nut allow Its atockbgs to be taken oS Behind the 
■tore in the Golden Angpl was the areature in question to be found, elad in a Hus- 
sar's coat with an over-cloak. The breast was visible — of a most inviting colour. 

The mouth was nient ; large claws witli long ruEBes — a Bnasar with rufflu That 

waa •umelhing to think of, — Now I'm the man who gives the lectures here ou 
natural hintory, the lecture-room Is gone mad ; — you show me this avciiing the 
beast as (iod created it, or rather as you hava shaved It, or I shall stand lor 
oolhing, for it ia no laughing matter to play with the Profenor in his lectuiB-iooin. 
The nuui'a hair stood up with tiig^t, like spikes : later in the day Blumenbaoh wua 
prCHiit at ill evening kiilette. The waistcoat had been nailed to it." 

Sometimes be did not disdain to Bay a word of fun to the students: viz. 
" Haoy eiegetiats tbink that the whale cast out the prophet Jonah, because where 
K hoiM can End a place, a prophet might do ao too. filumenbach however stands 
rather by tbe opinion of Hermann vun der Hardt in Helmstadt, who has written 
a Tcry nasty commentary on that man of God ; that he lodged in Nineveh at the 
Whale; that his cash ran out; the landlord would give him no more credit— he 
waa turned out of the club; or— the Whale cast him out." 

Or; "John Hunter used to inquire whether it was not possible for men to be 
thrown Into the cbrysalia state: — that would be good for the couserlplion, forced 
loans, or when the aludent is summouadj 'No, no, says the chatnbennaid, our 
master U became a cliry sails.* " 



humorous illustratioDs, but I sbooU be afraud, that deprived of 
the spirit of his pantomimic nepresentatioQ. ami iinsupported 
bj his cheerful but still higbtjr imposing deliTei;, they might 
easily appear in a faise light. 

It might sometimea have seemed that Blumenbach attached 
too much value to the singnlar and the curious, but wben *»*■ 
one came to look into the matter more closely, he soon 1 
conviuced, that though what was estraoniiuary attracted hii 
above all things, still, it was principally because it had remaiiu 
unnoticed by others, or because it served him as a means, 
through which he could direct the attention to what was truly 
worth knowing. His business was with knowledge sad eaqili^ 
nation; yet he knew too well that the majority of men mub 
have miracles to make them believe. 

In literature he sometimes mentioned long-forgotten and 
obsolete works, and noticed with particular emphasis such aa 
were not to be found in the royal library ; but all that was only 
to excite the love of learning, and keep it at full stretch, 
haps no teacher understood so well as he how to instil by I 
way a lasting interest in literature, and to accompany the i 
quaiutance with the best and most select with opport 

The extraordinary reputation which remained to the famw 
teacher in full strength for more than half a century maji 
partly be attributed to the influence of authority, which wa| 
then of more weight than it is now ; partly perhaps to th^fl 
more comprehensive view tliat though the University was ia 
other ways crowded with teachers, he had no rival in hia par- 
ticular proviuce ; partly that he in all his outward circnmstancM 
and throTigh his continuous good health was in a position io 
concentrate on his immediate objects alt the materials which 
stood in his power ; stiU wo cannot help always admiring the 
greatness of his personality, and the wonderful insight and c 
flistency with which he know how to keep all this together. I 
For a long period of time he continued to be the chief centre J 
of instructioD at Oitttiugeu. 

Not only did fathers send their sous, but grandfathers thei 

gnndchildren, in order tbat tliese might hear Blumenbach as 
they had done themselves, and so participate in that particuiar 
kind of learning, which had remained eo Bingularly indelible in 
their recollection. Many first heard of Gottingen through its 
connection with Blumenbach, and lighted by his titar, journeyed 
to the place of his operations. 

In the summer of 1776 he arranged for the public vivisec- 
tions and physiological experiments on living animals in the 
great theatre. Also in 1777 he gave there public readings on 
the natural history of mankind. In the same year he gave 
lectures on the dissection of the domestic animals of the coun- 
try. Though he began very early to treat upon comparative 
osteology, it wa-s not till after 1785 that he gave lessons on 
comparative anatomy in general. For a long time he delivered 
lectures on pathology, after Gaub, on the history of authorities 
on medicine and physiology, and at last in the winter term of 
1836-37 on natural history, which he read 118 times. 

The three Englbh princes, who had arrived here on the 6th 
July 1785, attended the course on natural history in the winter 
of 1786". Nor did the present king of Bavaria, then crown- 
prince, disdain to take his seat on the allotted benches, and in 
August, 1803, Blumenbach was his companion in theHarz as far 
as Magdeburg. This same royal patron of the sciences never 
forgot his student's time, or his teaclior individually, as he 
proved not only by sending him valuable presents, especially 
the skull of an ancient Greek and his order of merit, but par- 
ticularly by this, that he despatched in 1829 the present Crown- 
prince to be the alumnus of the Georgia Augusta and of Blu- 
menbach. When our king, on the occasion of the hundred- 
year jubilee feast of the University, honoured us with his 
iUustrious presence, he did not omit to visit his old preceptor 
in the house which he had so often entered as a student. 

Blumenbach was a bom professor ; in this occupation he 
sought and found bis satisfaction and his pride. What ho 

' Wilh whiob agree* Ihe paatage of Hejns {Opuie. Vol. IV. p. 143), "tho 
rojkl priDce* of Grrat Britun attended the lacturee ortoma of tli« Profeaaor^ Hid 

~D the bcDchea of the nudipnce.'' 


prompted and accomplished in that capacity is seen from 
history of tho literati of later years ; innumerable are thoM 
who prize him as their teacher, benefactor, and friend. Who 
can enumerate the dedications in great and small books which 
were offered to him from far and near, partly out of gratitude, 
partly as expressiona of praise and recognition ? Out of all the 
great number of dissertations which Lave appeared here, the 
best have been accomplished with and through him. Kead 
the words of affection and love in the elder Sbmmerring'a 
inaugural dissertation on Bluraenbach', which has since become 
80 famous, and you will want nothing more. 

When his pupil Rudolphi, in conjunction with Stieglitz and 
Lodejuann, who had eqii^illy been instructed by him in science, 
canvassed the German physicians, in order to celebrate the doc- 
tor's jubilee of their groat teacher in a worthy manner, all to 
whom he had been a leader either by speech or writing rose 
like one man, and perpetuated the recollection of the event wiA 
a medal* and by the foundation of a travelling scholarship'. 

Tho naturalists of bis day endeavoured to recognize the 
vices of tho Nestor of their science by naming after him plants, 
animals, and stones. It was for him a particular pleasure, that 
on the morning of the day of his doctor's jubilee (Sept. 18, 
1S25), his colleague Schrader showed him a drawing of tb^J 
new kind of plant, Bliimenbackia itmjnis'. ^M 

^ De t<ai SnetphaU, Giitt. 1778, 4to. And Bnldin^r'a title to it: rpieome ••» 
rtjiogvx phgticiogico-patkoUjffiftt, Mid in the Cnrrurtdun rita SGnmfrringj p. 15: 
" Etc. Blumenbkch wai not onl; mj most deairabls instructor in geneml xootog?, 
niineralogy. phjaiolo^, pBlhola)jy, the pBrticuUr history of mftn, and in reUliug 
the traditions of medicine, but aba a distinguished patiun, who deigned to tiCkt me 
aa a frienil. Such was his kiadneet that be Dot only often look me u his oompanion 
in hia zoological and miDeralogical eicuniong, but alio ia bis Tiviiectiooi and M' 
periments, which be catried on at his own expense in order to illuilrale publickty 
the physiological part of oatund history, ho permitted me tuodl kindly to pre Mm 
ray persona] and manual uaistance." 

' The dedication runs; Viro illustri GennaniK decori diem Bemis«culaRn> 
Pbysiophili Gerinanici liele gratulanlur. On the medal are drawn aa Europoui. 
EthiD|uan, and MooKoUan skull with the legend: Natune in(«rpn)ti. osaa knui 
I iobenti PhyviophLli GennaDid. d. 19 Sepl. i8if. [Wood-cula JiDm thk medal 

turn been giiva aa the title-page. ED.) 

* The valne of the tnvelling aoliolanhip was 60D goU thaleis. Comp. GStL 
ga.A,a. 1819, sL 73, s. 751. 

k' Comp. Cvtmmmt. 1^. R. S-. GB>t. Vol. vi. 1818, p. 91— 138.— A HiOMH- 
. J 

Although the confidence of tlie world in the learning of the 
aged veteran rested on firm foundations, still notwithstanding 
that be never left off continually improving it, for he was 
always putting fresh life into what he knew, and endeavouring 
to add new matter to his acquisitions. In his pocket-book we 
find the following 'remark made in later days. "Although I 
have been many years now delivering lectures, still up to this 
time I have never once been into the lecture-room without 
having prepared myself afresh, and specially for every particu- 
lar hour, because I know from experience how much injury 
many teachers have done to themselves, by considering as 
unnecessary these perpetual preparations for lectures, which 
they have read already twenty times and more," 

Blumeobach never, above all, allowed himself to repose 
upon his happy natural advantage-s, but was always endeavour- 
ing without ceasing to procure for them the greatest possible 
development. Only I may remark here, that his manner of 
speaking and wilting never grew old, but on the contraiy 
remained interesting and in many respects masterly, and was 
such aji to fix the attention of hearer and reader in a remark- 
able way. 

It is worth while to bring into notice the following extract 
from his note-book, which is intimately connected with the 
solidity and repose of his delivery. "Amongst the rules on 
which my father most strongly insisted in our education, was 
one especially, that when we had once commenced a sentence 
with a certain form of construction we must go on with it, and try 
to carry it out completely, and we were never allowed to begin 
over again, and join another construction on to the first. This was 
afterwards of groat assistance to me towards an easy delivery." 

Bluraenbach not only developed himself into a most superior 
teacher by natural talent, refiection and experience, but he also 
possessed both by practice and by natural advantages the gift, 
in ordinary conversation, of bringing out the main points in his 

^~' Bical Magazine, Vol. 64J 


nnawcra and Btories, partly by aliort terse" sentences, partly by 
unexpected bints. He wtw always lucky enough to hit the nail 
on thtf head, to bring the subject into a fresh position, and to 
altiick it in now and interesting ways. He would sometimes 
doscribo rottaon as " the desire of perfecting oneself, or the 
determination to accommodate oneself to circumstances," and 
his manner Iwth of address and of doing business was a standing 
commentary on this definition. 

Generally he preferred listening to speaking; frequently he 
would only let fall isolated sentences, leaving people to guess 
at tlio connection; ho avoided direct contiudictiou, and was 
pleastnl when his meaning was understood, without his having 
lieon obliged to express himself in ao many words. In this way 
ho spared the personal foelings of others, gladly i 
a.<tststanco from without, and was tender to human weaknef 
i<specially the vanity of authorship*. 

Ortunnior had sometimes to give way in his cursory dia- 
oourso for his immediate objects. In other respects his talk, 
just like at>ove all his style and delivery, was the result of con- 
Et'ious detiheration. In his note-book I find written down the 
f^illowiug remark : " In the delivery of my lectures, as in my 
writings, 1 havo always endeavoured to follow Quintilian's 
(mttem' This is it. 'I* tried to throw in some brilliancy, not the sake of displaying my genius, but that in tlus way I 
might ntoro reiadily attract yuuth to the acquaintance of those 
ttiin^ which are considereil necessary for study. For it seemed 
probable that if the lecture had anything [deasant in it they 

ifM Ik MM fc a^M M I Mil— I bn^r- Han ke Med to nt^ «■ tb* 

in inis way 
' recogniz^^l 

■^ til a i liiM j itwy to W ifc. ■*» «f M» toM«. *--" ■«■■■ - 

«fa* Mik ^««c> «'MBMil kfaton^ im.-3l7a ' -. . . 

^MARX. 31 

ould be more glad to learn; whereas a dry and barren modu 
of teaching would probably turn their minds away, and grate 
rudely against ears tender by nature.' " 

After what has been said already about Blumenbach'e rela- 
tions to the outer world, it seema almost superfluoua to go on 
mentioning in detail how numerous and honourable liia con- 
^^Bections with that world became, 

^H It might be sufficient to mention, that 78 learned societies 

^Tflected him aa a member. There was scarcely any scientific 

body of reputation in the wide extent of cultivated nations 

which did not send him its diploma by way of testifying their 


One of the necessary consequences of this was a very exten- 
sive correspondence, and thoiigli much of the correspondence 
between him and distinguished persona has already been 
printed', there must etill remain, on the other hand, a great 
deal, which will one day be made pubUc, Blumenbach himself 
laid the greatest stress upon bis correspondence with Haller, 
Camper and Bonnet, and considered those as amongst the 
fortnnate incidents of his life*. 

He was made Secretary to the Ph3rsical and Mathematical 
branches of our Society in 1812, and in 181i General Secretary. 
In this capacity, it was his duty to keep up the connection 
between it and allied institution.'!, as well as with the individuals 
who belonged to it, both at home and abroad ; to prepare the 
raemoriab of deceaaed members, and to compose the intro- 
ductions to the printed volumes of our Society. We are all 
witnesses of the zeal and devotion with which he fiilfilled these 

1 Via. with Zncb, to whom particulvly he gave toformition about distant tm- 
Tdlma. Allgem. Otogr. EiAtn. B. ll. a. 66, 158. B. 111. a. 101. With Cul Eren- 
baR vwiHoll in his MilVttil. aa> iiui». liri<ficre\K>, iSiQ, AbthL I. ■- 56—6,;, 
on nun*! stlbjeclB of natunJ histoc^. With Johann Heinrich Merk m h,U Britfen, 
paUisboJ t^ K. Wagner, DomiBtaidt, 1835, Noa. 197, iiB, ijo, priaoipally □□ 
phmeTal bonei. 

* 1/tdif. BiU. B. lit. ■. 734. Tbeae entriea &re to befoundiiihia jonrnal; " 1775, 
Not. I, My first Mj-iiiaintaiicB mith De Luo ; 1777, Nov. 11, with G. Forater, 
i;;8, m •nuuner, wilh Camper. In the ■ame year my oorraapondenee with Baron 
AkA bpgan, I ;8i ■■ith R. Forster in Halle ; in Bern. 1 781, my aoquainfanoo and 
lubactinent coi reapunjancu with Buniiut ; in 1 786 my cotTir3[H>ncli'noa witii BanltB." 



boooonUe dtitie& He hatl kid down hinaelf tbe S4tb year' 
at tbe tutanl temunatkn of bmaao hSa, ami so it mi^iit be 
regBrded ai cne of hk mutj pecnlisiitiG^ that it wss ttot till 
hia 8Sth year that he exp«sae<I s iri^ in a 1 
to be teliered of tbat office^ 

There are still some of hta official relatiaos to be ao4 
wbicb broogfat bim into mani&ld oonnecti<m with otbeis, ■ 
into business ttaosactiona icith coUeagnea and 
namely, bis poeition towards the Faculty, the Library, and the 
public Natuia] Histoir CollMrtioos. In all these different 
orciee it may be s^d, that he oondocted himself to universal 
satisTactioQ, and gave proo& in CTerr, detail of his knowledge^ 
his expeiience, his furbeaiance and good feeling. 

As member of the Faculty <^ Honours*, be distinguished 
himself tliroughoat by oonscientiousness in delivering the judg- 
ments demanded of him, by giving out his individual sUt& 
ment« of the prizes, by mtld and modenUe examinations. He 
did neither too little nor too much. During his decanate in 
1818 he created 76 d<}ctors, the greatest number since^the 
foundation of the Univei^ty. He fulfilled that office with all 
itfi obligations up to 1835. On the 20th Feb. 1826, his Pro- 
fessor's jubilee was celebrated. Blumenbacb himself considered 
it a remarkable occurrence, that he id his 60th year' should be 
already not only the senior of the medical faculty, but also that 
of the whole Senate. He showed that the case had now really 
occurred which Micbaells' had declared was scarcely possible. 

Ab member of the Library Committee he vbs always readjiJ 
to give his advice and influence for the improvement of &!(■ 
institulioQ he held so dear. He arranged', as its Director, 1 

1 Mtdk. BOt. B. m. B 
but few put by." 
- • 17836" " 

" The goU which DUkoy old people airire ■ 
I he ahkred the post with Gmelin, and if 


'When BidiWr, July 53, iSii, hwl died, 71 yean old, 

* In hi* flaitrnmement flier die protaC. Vnireriit. Th. n. B. 343: "The ■ , 
ol ft whola UoSTeriity ctn hardly be « mui of nity jean, but geaenJly Kimewbat.9 
younger or older thwi 80." 

» Gim.gtL Am. 1778, it. 111, », 9*5. 


(MARX. 33 

niversity Museum, and continiiej to overlook it to extreme 
old age, when he could no more attend to it personally. To 
his name also it was owing that many preaents were sent to it 
from far and near'. 

Bluiaenbacli never undertook the office of Proctor of the 
University, although he knew as well as anybody else how to 
deal properly with the students, and to remain in the best 
understanding possible with older persons and with his supe- 
riors. Veiy early in the day he had asked it as a favour of the 
Curator, that he might never be chosen for that office. His 

iliarity with the older conditions of discipline, and the then 
inavoidable disturbances which agitated the University, and hia 
fear' of being withdrawn from pure scientific activity by this 
official business determined him to come to this conclusion. 

But this refusal did not prevent him from doing all the 
services in hia power, both to the University and the town, 
by deputations of all kinds. On the 10th June, 1803, he went 
with Martens to Hanover, and on the 5th Nov, 1805, to 
CaMcI, in the same company, to visit Mortier, On the part of 
the higher authorities such a value was set upon these two 
organs of the University, that it was mode its duty never to put 
them aside on any important occasion*. 

' Cotaj). SoBie Natica of the Univcriiig Mutrum in Annaim Atr Sntumfftiir. 
Miif*. CAur/oBcfc. JaJ.iig. i, 1787, St. 3, a. 84— 99. Jiibrg. 11. 1788, Bt. », 8.35—35. 
In hii skctchvfl of auljjecM of natural hwloiy, he alwiiyg mentioni where the 
eiunplei quot«d were to be Found in oar MnaeuiD. 

* In hu journal I find written with a lead pencil: "From the year when 
Buhnkeii wai mode Koctor Magnificua. aaya hia biocfrspher WjtteubAch (Ludg. 
B. 1799, Svo. p. 14.1), b« became loat to literor; pursuita." 

• In a P.M. of the UniTBTBity and School dapartment at Hanover to the 
Unirenily d. iiJao. 1S05: " Id reapect of (he boalneaa which under the present 
didUDaUuice* are to be aeen to by tbe Privy Councillor von Martena, which do 
not ordinarily belong to the duties of Proctor, it will continue to bo the ciue, and 
10 long as the condition of Ihinga rendera It necenary, that all and every cominnni- 
rstion with the French genersla, wbatever name they may have, aball be conducted 
by Privj Cooncillor Martena, or, if he is unable, by Privy Councillor BlumonbacL, 
nnee both are known to the French generahi through tbe Univenity deputatiaiiB 
th»y have already been employed upon. In oonaequenoe, the rulea hitherto at- 
tended to miuC be reiumed, according to which, in all cMiaea where it ia ueceaaary 
M send a deputation oE honour, the Proctor of the day doea not go himaalr, but 
mual send a deputation, and (hat mutt consist, when there ia no neceasity for its 
l-ting more nnmeroDS, of Privy Councillora von Martena and Blumeubnch, and if a 

e be aenl, then tbeae two must always be meuibera of it." 


On the 28tli Aug. 1800, Bhimenljach and Martens set o 
for Paris : on the 28th Sept. tbey bad an audience of the Ei 
peror. On the 30th Oct. 1812, Blumeubach went, as deputy 
the University, with Sartoriiis to Heiligenstadt, to the heai£ 
quarters of Bernadotte, the subsequent King of Sweden. 

In consequence of these important services, combined wi) 
bis other academical exertions, the town-magistrates resolved 1 
give him a most unusual proof of their recognition of then 
namely, on tho 1st March, 182+, the magistracy of the tow 
decreed him a twenty years' exemption from the municip 
taxes imposed upon his house. 

With respect to the outer appearance and personal effe 
of the departed, they are undoubtedly still fresh in our m 
mory. Still perhaps some outlines may be of use to preaer 
them fresb, especially since in hi» last years he lived very mui 
retired in his apartments, and so many had very little oppc 
tunity of coming in contact with him. 

No one who had once seen or conversed with Blumenba 
could easily forget him; and he knew how to make bimse 
valuable to every one who lived with him. Even in extreme 
old oge, when the weight of years had bent even his resisting 
l)ack, there be stood and sat, as if cast in bronze, in every look 
a man. Any one who beard the stout voice with which 
answered, "Come in," to a knock at his door; or saw 
wonderfid play of muscles in his expressive face, and remarl 
in any interview bis undisturbed equanimity and collectedn< 
and the freshness and cheerfiilness of his spirit, soon knew wii 
whom he had to do. 

No one left his presence without receiving either an 
structive narrative, a cheerfiil sttiry of old times, or sol 
weighty bint. He understood a joke, and knew bow to returt- 
one. If any one let slip in conversation an expression, or a 
Huggestion, which was wanting in due consideration or respect, 
or if any one appeared as if bo wanted to impose upon the 
man, he must have been wonderfully put down, when 
snatched at his cap, and bared his snow-white bead, with 



words, "Old Blumenbacli is obliged to you." I cannot leave 
uutold how Astley Cooper, in 1839, said in a letter of recom- 
mendatioo, tbat King George IV, Lad declared that he had 
never seen ao imposing a man as Blumenhach. 

Uis health suffered on an average little disturbance. Blu< 
inenbach refused to be ill ; he had no time for it. In his youth 
he waa delicate, and was liable to violent bleedings at the nose, 
and even to spitting blood; but by taking the greatest care, 
and by regularity in his mode of life, he arrived in the course 
of years to a very sound state of health. He declared that the 
occupying himself with natural history had done him this good 
among others, that he could sleep hke a marmot, and had 
acquired the digestion of an ostricli, Every now and then he 
suffered from dry coughs, inflammation of the eyes, or lumbago, 
which he called the thorn in the flesh If he found it impos- 
sible to subdue or conceal the complaint, he went to a phy- 
sician, and followed hia prescriptions most punctually. Glad 
indeed was he when he found himself relieved of the incon- 
venience, and thankfully did he exclaim with Jesus Sirach, 
"A short madness is the best." 

Extreme old age can scarcely avoid bringing with it some 
unpleasant consequences, but altogether the still intellectual 
old man enjoyed sound bodily health. After he bad got over 
the cold days in the middle of the past January pretty well, he 
was seized at the commencement of the mild but stormy 
neather with his cough, which however left him again. Only 
the old annoyance, of not being able conveniently to void his 
phlegm, drew from him the remark, that in the pathology which 
he possessed, this chapter had not beea satisfactorily accom- 

Oa Saturday the 18th Jan. I was summoned between eight 
and nine o'clock in the morning from the lecture to visit him. 
He bad chosen to get out of bed, hut had been unable to walk or 
to stand. On the first seizure they had placed him in bis arm- 
chair, close to the stove, and covered him with pillows. When 
I came I saw what I had never before remarked in him, and 
4iat imnaediately filled me with uneasiness; his body trembled 



all over, and wna cold to the toucli; his expression was altei 
his pulse was irregular in the highest degree; nothing coi 
enable him to throw off his dtijection. 

Still by good luck this threatening storm passed 
The remedies which were applied might congratulate them- 
selves on a happy result. When I saw liim again two hours 
afterwards, he gave me hia hand, he had recovered hia usual 
expression, and the natural motions seemed to have suffered 
essential interference. 

However tranquillizing this might appear, still there was 
apprehension that so lamentable and powerful an accident, 
which had proceeded from the central organ of the nervous sya- 
tom, in an organism which had hitherto gone on working with 
such regularity, might only too easily occur again, and at lajst 
bring to a standstill the machine which was kept going by habit 
alone. When I saw him again at 5 o'clock in the evening, he 
stretched out his arras towards me, and spoke aloud; still 
thought that he felt as if he must not consider the circumstaiu 
as so trivial. About 8 o'clock I found him in a sound a) 
which continued throughout the night. 

Sunday and Monday passed off well enough, and he 
them, with the exception of his siesta, in his arm-ohair. 
I entered his room, he gave me so loud a " good day," that, 
cording to his own expression, the angels in heaven might have 
heard him. When I asked him how he was, I received fotj 
answer, " Quite in the old way." He had books brought 
him again, read them, had himself read to at intervals, and 
particularly cheerful. But I could only share this happy 
of mind by constraint, for his pulse became more and mi 
irregular, and fainter, and when he spoke I missed the old toi 
of voice. 

On Tuesday one might still have been deceived as to his 
condition on the first glance, because when I asked to feel his 
pulse, he thrust out bis arm with energy, ia his usual way : and 
he showed by all hia other motions that the power of the will 
over the Ixxly was yet entire. Tliis was the first time that he 
spent the whole day in bed. Still in the evening I conversed 




WitL liim upon subjects of natural history, and recounted to him 
some bygoae passages of his life, at which the expression of hia 
face, his cheerful humour, and many a subtle remark showed 
^^^te clearness of his mind. 

^^K Wednesday morning, the 22nd, about 8 o'clock, contrary to 
^^n previous custom, be did not extend his hand to me ; &till he 
^^Bockly recognized me, and was as friendly as usual. On my 
^^■peated inquiry whether be felt anywhere any pain, any 
^H^ression, or any anxiety, he answered straight and decided 
with "No, nowhere at all." The only thing which annoyed him 
was, that be could not expel the phlegm from the windpipe. 
He began to doze, and spoke at intervals a few words to him- 
self; but when a question was put to him he always gave an 
answer. As I was going away he said, "Adieu, dear friend." 
These were the last words which I heard him speak plainly and 
connectedly. The t-one of his voice remained good till midday. 
Dozing and feebleness increased; but his consciousness re- 
mained undisturbed till evening, and when I asked him several 
times if I should give him something stiniulatiug, he opened 
hb eyes readily, and fixed them hard. At half-past 8 I coidd 
feel no pulse, and the inspirations were numbered. I laid my 
hand upon him and eaid, "Adieu;" but the dear well-known 
voice, which had so often heartily responded to the greeting, 
was silent for ever. Five minutes afterwards he was in another 

There still remain some isolated strokes to be given, which 
may help to the better comprehension of this generous aud 
unusual character, who retained his innate harmony even in 
the very hour of departure. 

Blumenbach never shed t.ears\ After a heavy domestic 
misfortune I found h im collected, reading some travels of natu- 

■ " Lnok for the kobiymd gluid after 1117 death," bo uid BometimH, "you will 
find none," or "I musthiive nerves likeconie, ornon«at &11." Tliu diaaoctioo never 
hiok pU<«, It woutd have heen moBt intarciting in nmnj reipecli for the mors 
wKurate knowledge of the particular parts of the brain, and tliuir connection with 
ekch otbur. the cooipariaon of the *kuU, the windpipe aud the lunus. with the well- 
kouwn *7aipton» which were aeeo during the life of the old man, who wu 
reinvkalile even in a pbyu<«l point ot *isw. Still, with reipect eren to the 


ral history, and calling my attention to the pictures in tliem.J 
He suffered through his whole organization, yet he made i 
complaint, and shed no tear, but tried to occupy himself as fat 
aa he possibly could. 

He never used spectacles, and in his 88th year read with e 
the smallest letters and type. His handwriting changed remark-^ 
ably according to the different epochs of his existence. In I 
youth and active manhood he wrote beautifully. Tlien he i 
afflicted with a difficulty of using his writing finger, and a 
he had tried hard to conquer it without success, he 
himself to write with the left hand, guiding the pen with i 
right. For this purpose he used a swan's quill, and the thickei 
lead-pencil. In his 87th year however he again attempted t 
write with the right hand, and the strokes by their f 
and clearness recalled the best performances of his earlier jet 
If you ever got him to talk on the chapter of writing, he t __ 
care never to forget to recommend the art of writing handily in 
your pocket, which had been of great service to hini on diplo- 
matic missions, through the agency of a short thick lead-pencil 
and strong parchment paper. 

Blumenbach waa a man of the watch, which always 1 
beside him No one could be more punctual than he was. 
any one expected anything from him to no purpose, he might h 
quite certain that it had not been forgotten, but that he ha^ 
let it go, because he considered that the proper thing to do. 

Immediately after he had got up in the morning 1 
frizzled and powdered, according to the old-fashioned style, j 
then put on his boots and kept them on till he went to bed. 
took a great deal of trouble to get him at last to use slip] 
and a footstool. Even his physician scarcely ever saw him i 
his night-shirti. Aa he 8j>ent the whole day entirely in I 
dress, so also he scarcely in other ways indulged himself in thJ 
slightest relaxation. He had a sofa for visitors in his studjM 

peculiariliea m?iittanFd, it. munt be cooaidered thnt tile fantii binted at wei« euT 
to b« teta, aaA u nomi^ u might bo ; but long-codtiaued doiign, iron will. Mid 
cuitom. whioh had atmoat beooms Inw, bid made thdr influeaoo dittinoUf UU 




but be never made any use himself. Only on one single 
ficcasion, when he was ill and obliged to lay up, did I tind him 
upon it. He pronounced against arm-chaira for a long time, 
and 8aid tbere ought to be pricks in the. back of them ; and 
it was only by degrees that this position was made agreeable 
to him. 

It was one of his principles never to sleep in the day-time ; 
only in his very last years did he allow himself a siesta. It wa.t 
liis opinion that a man ought always to be wakeful, active, and 
cheerful, and on that account lie was slow to understand how 
he sometimes in his 88th year went oS into a doze in the day- 
tirae, in the abaeuce of any outward excitements. 

He kept himself free from eveiy confining habit ; after 
allowing himself to smoke for some time, he gave it up again, 
and did the same by snufT-taking too, which had occupied the 
place of the other. After his 86th year I saw his auuff-box no 

Moderation at table wat! his habit ; he always took exactly 
the same quantity. He used to tell of himself that he had 
never been drunk'. 

With respect to this unusual self-reliance which Bluraen- 
bach arrived at so early, and which he retained to the end, it 
will bo interesting to hear bis own account, to what influence 
he principally ascribed this important result. It stands written 
in his joTimal. " My parents, among other wise and serviceable 
principles of education, as I consider, never allowed us children 
to know that they had any possessions. All we knew was this, 
that everything which they had was entirely their own unen- 
cumbered property, That fortunate ignorance was for me a 
mainspring to more earnest exertion to help myself on alone, 
and it is that priudpally which has made of me an useful man. 
How many unhappy examples thert are, on the other hand, of 
young people, who have neglected to cultivate their natural 
capacities solely for the reason, that their parents have too 

' He 

R»j mtii Juhii 

uc, tempernnc 

' early let them become acquainted with tbe lucrative ioherit- 
ance wliich was awaiting them." 

Blumenbach was economical, but he understood also how 
to give. He knew how to appreciate the value of money, with- 
out at the name time Betting any higher consideration upon it. 
There was once a passage in bia note-book which some time 
later waB written down: "However singular it may appear to 
many, stilJ it ia literally true, that up to the date at which I am 
now writing, I have never onco solicited any emolument, 
salary, or addition, or anything else of the kind concerning 
myself, but have received everything throughout from the 
Hanoverian government, from my first appointment up to the 
last addition allotted to me in the summer of 1813, entirely 
from free gifts, that is, without any exertion of my own; and so 
also under the kingdom of Westphalia." 

As Blumenbach himself wa« beyond all things discreet, 
both in pubhc and in private affairs, so also he expected the 
same from those he associated with. He had no objection to a 
piece of newa, especially when it was of a pitfuant nature, but 
beyond that, he troubled himself little about the concerns 
of other people, Ee used to say, " De occultis aon judical 

If any one complainetl to him of his position, and solicited 
his intercession, he would encourage hira with the saying, 
" Lipeia vult expectari." K it appeared to hira that the peti- 
tioner stepped beyond the proper bounds, he would exclaim, 
"I shall remember you," and with these words the negotiation 
would be closed. 

Blumenbach was always hiraaelf, never distracted, never pre- 
occupied. Had he been woke up in the middle of the night 
and questioned upon the most important subjects, he would 
certainly have given the same distinct answer && at midday. 
Hi) acted according to definite inner determination. He acted 
or declined to do so acconling to certain rules of the under- 
8t«ndi»g, which became at last a sort of machiaery of hie 

Ho was never wanting in attention to othere, and he had 




the faculty of attaching to himself in a subtJe way men of all 
classes, but especially superior men. It was his plan to bring 
up and, as it were, accidentally to allude to whatever must 
necessarily have an agreeable effect, and to stir beforehand all 
the strings in harmony; and in this way he won for himself 
jaaay well-wishers, and knew how to keep them when they 
won. Politeness he considered as a duty, aud he knew 
well how to use it, both to attract people and to keep 
tiiem at a distance. 

Not only did be closely adhere to what was demanded by 
custom, and all the observances of society and official relations, 
but his attention to these things put many younger men to 
the blush. 

Blumenhacb was always anxious to leam, and was never 
idle for a moment. He used to say, ho only knew ennui by 
reputation. As he was reckoned the great curiosity of GOttin- 
gen, and scarcely any traveller omitted to visit him, he was 
kept continually on the stretch through the quantity of fresh 
information. To this also contributed his imceasing reading — 
in the evenings he preferred to be read to — and his unexampled 
memory, which he was always trying to strengthen by taking 
memoranda. He often used to laugh at the perverted mannora 
of certain men who wanted to be taken for clever, and com- 
plained about their bad memory, when that was the very thing 
they could exercise a certain power over. One hears people 
say, "I have a most wretched memory," but never "What a 
miaerable judgment I have." 

It will serve to show how attentive he still was in extreme 
old age, that one Wednesday morning when the Literary 
Notices had been published, and in one of the Reviews, without 
naming him, I had hinted at something which concerned him, 
he greeted me with the words, "To-day old Blumenbach has 

He was not in the habit of speaking his opinion or his ideas 
hi out, but he left them to be seen through a hint, or only 
jest; any one who knew his way of speaking wanted no 
ler explanation 



He was not one of those wlio received everytlnug immfi 
diately as true and certain'; but he guarded himself and alao 
warned others against carrying their scepticism too far. He 
sfiid it would be a subject for a very acute head to decide, 
whether too much credulity or hyper-scepticism had done tb< 
most harm to science, and he iDclined to the latter epinioi 
He considered it as above all necessary, on every assertion i 
keep in view the individual from whom it proceeded". 

He always found fault when any one lost himself in comm(d 
figures of speech, instead of seeing the way clearly to tlutS 
foundation of appearances from the immediately COQQeotM^ 
facts. Thus he used to express himself: "The lament, 
mankind is always growing weaker, is a miserable Jeremiad. 
Lay upon one of our horses the horse-trappings of the middle 
ages — it will be crushed under them as a pancake. Yet these 
<lrink no tea or coffee, and do not suffer from the evil, whidi 
Las been given us by America. Habit does it alL" 

In his thought as iu his action all was considerate, c 
Dccted and moderate. 

In what has been done already, an attempt has been t 


* Tlii« lay ftt ths bottom of ■ playfully toUl story. "In Mnravin on ■ mm- 
bright dny there Kiwatbundur-cbp, aud stones like pigeoni' eggs full from the aky. 
The testJmany of those who heard it in romarluble, aa B ■paciin?n uf whU ofteo 
ncoura Id courts of law. "DiJ yon hoar tbe noiset vrhat did you think it mu 
like I' 'Likeplfttoon-firiog.' 'What areyoul' 'Muakoteor.' 'Did you bear id' 
'Yea.' 'And what did you thick of itT' 'It wulike an old oarriage ndling^ong 
the itreet.' ' What are you I ' 'Postilion.' 'Aadyou!' 'Yea.' 'Wbatdidnu 
think it waa liket' 'Janiesuy musio.' 'Hare you ever heard JatuMM-y moiKir 
'Never in my life, but I tliink it muit loujid loniething like thif" 

He uned to take op[iartunitie« of slinwing boo people aoDietiniea propagate an, 
error from a sdf-pleaaing delumon, vii. :— "The Hungarisns boaflt that 01 " "^ 
Tokay grapes you will often flad grains of pure goliL Alt a not gold, 
gtiltcis. Looked at more closely it is no real gold, but glitti.'iing yellow ci 
la"' "ggs-" 

His oriticiam was intelligible, and yet wan 
moit elaborate expoiition. Thus, "The SlotI 

feet at the aams ume. When it goes it moves first one foot, stops ai 
It could not bare bwii in the unirrrsal menagerie of Mount Ararat 
lires in Branl only: if it had had to come from Ararat to Braxil, i 
have been there yet." 

1 thA,^ 

HARX. 43 

to throw off a BilLouette of Blumenbach'a exertions and per- 
sonal appearance; in conclusion, I may be allowed to give some 
account of bis nearest external connections. 

His father, Henrich Blumenbach, was first of all private tutor 
in Leipzig, and in 1737 became tutor to the chancellor of Oppet 
in Gotha, and in the same year waa made professor in tlie 
school there. He had a very choice hbrary, and many ea- 
graTing§ and maps. For Leipzig, the place of his birth, he bad 
8nch a preference, that when his son went, against his wisliea, 
to Gottingen, he alluded in a school prospectus to the new 
University as the quasi modo genita; but however at last ho 
changed, and later in the day ceased to refuse it the well- 
merited honour of being the Optimo modo genita. 

His mother, Charlotte Elenore Hedwig, was the daughter 
ofBuddeuft, the Vice-Chancellor of Gotha, grand-daughter of the 
Jena theologian; she died in 1793, sixty-eight years old. Tlie 
departed left behind him, in bis journal, this remark upon her. 
" A woman full of great and at the same time domestic virtues, 
and perfectly faultless." He had a brother who died in the 
prime of life, in an employment at Qotba, and his sister was the 
wife of Professor Voigt, who afterwards came to Jena. 

In 17-59 Blumenbach went to the school of Michaelis. In 
[J768 he delivered an address on two occasions : on the Ditke's 
rth-day, and the marriage of the then Crown-prince. 

Amongst the iuterestiug men in Gotha, to whom he often 
snt, and who were glad to see him, was the Vice-President 
KiKlQppel, who took a great share in the Gotha Literary Journal, 
, which began to appear in 1771- 

On tbo 12th October, 1769, Blumenbach, then seventeen 
years old. wont from school to Jena, where Baldinger was then 
Proctor, principally to attend the lectures of the then famous 
Kaltscbmidt; but on the very day when bis lectures commenced, 
he dropped down dead, from a stroke of apoplexy, at the wed- 
ding dance of one of bis friends. In his place at Easter, 1770r 
Hhubauer came to Jena, to whom Blumenbach took prodirij 
^E|]y, and to whom he was very grateful. 


After he had studied there for three years, he felt 
necessity of getting instruction from other teachers, and : 
made his choice, in consequence of the renown Gottingen 1 
enjoyed. On the 15th October, 1772, he arrived here; on 
18th September, 1775, a Sunday, he took his degree'; and 
the 3Ist October he began to read his first lecture. 

For his learned career he considered it the greatest of gi 
luck that he came to Gmtingcn. He shared, as ho ot 
remarked, with regard to a learned life the saying of Schli 
'■ To live out of Giittingen is not to Uve at all." 

Nor did he conceal from himself that the fact of his career 
coinciding with the necessities of that day, and his personal 
position to influential men, had had an important influence on 
the recognition of his labours'. 

By his marriage (on the 19th Oct. 1778) he became 
brother-in-law of Heyne, and as his father-in-law Gooi 
Brandes, and afterwards his brother-in-law Ernst Erand< 
managed the affairs of the University, we can see partly 
least how Blumenhoch came to have so much influence in it. 

: on 


' Hia itponsOT wu hln old Jena tutor Baldingcr. who in tlie meantime hwl boeit 
■ummoaeij here, BU<1 who od Chat occuioo hiid wriiteo bin theaia Dt ntaliffnilaU m 
morbii tx meaU HippDcraiii, 1775, on vhich depended Blumeabftuh'i cuver in ]ite. 
According to him Blum«nb>ch hui atteaded tha fallowiag lectnna. In Jcmi; 
logic with Hennings; pure mathematic* and ph^aica with Succow; botanj, phju- 
oloffy. pathology, and the history uf medicine with Baldinger; matomy, aui^eiT. 
ana midwifery with Neubauer; practical msdiciBe and patbology with NiooUi; 
natuni liiHtory and archnology with Walcb; Gennan antiijnities with MQUor ; 
EngliBh tangunge with Tanner. In Qiittingen : on the power or medicine, on the 
nature and cure of diseanea with Vogel; pharmaceutical chemistry and the prepar- 
ation of roodiciQeg, the art of preauribing and clinical lecluree with Baldinger; 
botany and materia modica with Murray; anatomy and midwifery with Wriaberg; 
pathology and ooular diieaaea with Richter; mineralogy with Kiatner; hittory at 
the mainiualia with Eriloben ; natural hietory wit^ Buttner ; on Che odea of Horace 
with Heyne: the English litnguage with Dietz; tha Swediah with Schlozer. 

On die occanion of that anQircraary, Heyne said (OjiMC. VoL n. p. 113); 
" Blnmenbiieh, from whore geniua and luaming we expect Bomothitig very great." 

■ In hia lil'e written by filumenbocb himself. Gutting. 1801, a. 197. 

■ H? bad early made a mark agninat the two following pnaaagea: ''Itmskeea 
great difference on what times a man'a peculiar Tirtuea fali" (Plin. Nat, Hilt, \ii. 
19). "Nor can any one have ao splendid a genius tliaC he can come to light 
without materiHl, opportunity, or even a patron and someone to recommend him' 
(PUn. £p. VI. 33). 



What he was to this institution of learning in general^ 
and our society in particular, that the world knows well, and 
history will not forget In our tablets of memory his name 
will always endure, and his recollection will always renew in 
us the picture of a great and beautiful activity. 

He who like him has satisfied the best of his time, he has 
lived for all time. 



^ ^ 






PARIS. 1847. 



" tion 

Some years since died at Osttingen a member of our Academy, 
whose great works have rendered him famous, and whose par- 
ticular works, applied to the new Htudy of man himself, have 
rendered dear to huraaoity. It is to M. Blumenbach that our 
age owes Anthropology. The history of mauktud had been 
disfigured by errors of every kind, physical, social and moral. 

sage appeared. He contended against the physical errors; 

1, by 80 doing, destroyed in the surest manner the founda- 
tioQ of all the othera. 

John Frederick Blumenbach was bom at Gotha, in 1752. 
From his very birth nature seemed to devote him to education. 
His father was professor at Gotha ; his mother belonged to a 
family at Jena, which was attached to the universities. 

It was iu one of those German interiors, where the love 
of retirement, the necessity of study, the habits of an honourable 
independence reign with such a charm, that the httle Blumen- 
bach lirst saw the light. A brother, a sister, a father studious 
and grave, a mother tender and enlightened, formed at firet 
all his world. It was soon observed that this child, surrounded 
by such soft affections, was occupied by quite a dreamy 
curiosity. It played but little, and began to observe very early. 
It endeavoured, and sometimes with great ingenuity, to com- 
prehend or to explain to itself the structure of a plant or an 

Everything ia taken seriously in Germany, even the earliest 
education of the infant. The father of M. Blumenbach, who 

> Mtatoiru ik VlnHitvt ii Franct, Tom. xu. p. i. Piiri«. 1847. 


iateoiied liim for education, never permitted him, even from the 
most tender age, to break short a sentenee badly commenced 
in order to put something else in its place. The sentence 
badly commenced had to be finished. The child had to get 
itself out of the little difficulty it had got into. In this way it 
leamt naturally, without effort, or rather by scarcely appreciable 
efforta, to think clearly and express itself with precision. 

Hia mother, a woman of elevated spirit and noble heart, 
inspired him with ideas of glory. The aoul of the mother is the 
deBtiny of her son. These tirst impressions have never ceased to 
influence the whole life of M. Blumenbach. Of his numerous 
writings there is only one which is foreign to the sciences, and 
that ia the panegyric of his mother. He ends it by saying, 
" She had all, and knew how to cherish all the family virtues." 

To return to the child. At ten years old he already took 
up the subject of comparative osteology, and this was the way. 
There was then but one sohtary skeleton in the town of Goth&. 
This skeleton belonged to a doctor, who was the friend of tho 
family of our little scholar, who often told afterwards the story 
of the many visits he used to make, during which be took 
no notice of the doctor, but a great deal of the skeleton. Hia 
visits became, by little and little, more assiduous and more 
frequent. He came, on purpose, when his old friend was oat ; 
and, under pretence of waiting for him, spent whole houn in 
looking at the skeleton. After having well fixed in his memory 
the form of the different bones and their relations, be conceived 
the bold idea of composing a copy. For this purpose he mode 
frequent journeys in tho night to the cemeteries. But, as he 
was determined to owe nothing except to chance, he soon found 
out that he would have to content himself with the bones of 
our domestic animals. In consequence, he directed his private 
researches in such a way as to provide himself with all sorts of 
that kind of bones. Then he carried them all to his bed-room, 
concealed them as well as he could, and shut himself too up 
there, in order to give himself up at his leisure, and with on 
enthusiasm beyond his age, to the studies he had marked out 
for himself. 





UnfoKunately, at last a servant discovered the child's 
secret treasure ; she saw that ingenious commencemeDt of a 
human- skeleton, and cried out sacrilege and scandal. Young 
Btumenbach, all in tears, ran to his mother; and she, under the 
advice of the good doctor, prudently decided that the precious 
collection should be removed into one of the lofts. Such was the 
modest beginning of the famous collection whose reputation 
has become universal 

At seventeen, young Blumeubach quitted hb family for the 
University of Jena. There he found Siinimerring: the same 
age, the same tastes, the same passion for study, which already 
concealed another, that for fame. They soon became friends; 
and for these two friends everytiiing was in common, library 
and laboratory. Blumenbach lent his books; Sommerring lent 
anatomical preparations, la their coutideatial intimacies 

ley often allowed themselves to give way to their illusions, 
Jcting for one another the first rank in the sciences they 

titivated. Nor were they deceived; the one became the first 
naturalist, the other the first anatomist of Qermany. 

After spending three years at Jena, Blumenbach went to 
i-^e university of Gottingen, then famous for the residence of 

great man, the great Haller, one of the grandest geniuses 

icnce has ever had; a first-rate author, poet, profound ana- 
tomist, a botanist equal to LinufeuB in his way, a physiologist 
without parallel, and of an erudition almost unlimited. Haller 
indeed bad left the place ; but his reputation was everywhere. 
UU the sight of reputation the cry of genius is always the same ; 
ItHd Blumenbach said with Correggio, " I too am a painter." 
r There lived then, at Qiittingen, an old professor, forgotten 
Dy the students and very oblivions himself of delivering lec- 
tures, but in other respects very learned, and, besides, the 
possessor of an immense collection, remarkable for its books 
of geography, philology, voy^es, and pictures of di.s-tant nations. 
Young Blumenbach, who was already dreaming of a history 
of man, was delighted at finding materials of this kind, so labori- 
ously and diligently brought together. He foresaw with a 
nngiilar clearness all the ailvantages that might be got from it. 


and 1 
^^-iiis ai 



He li§tened to and atlmired the old profeaaor; and let him gi 
on talking for a whole twelvemonth; then, rich with the* 
treaaiires of erudition, of history, and continuous studies of th 
physiognomy of peoples, he wrote his doctor's dissertation H 
T/ie Unity of Mankhtd. ' 

This was quite a new way of opening the science which )| 
was destined to found and to render attmctiye. He coiu 
menced from that time his anthropological collection. He dil 
more; he got the University to buy the collections of his cA 
master, he became their conservator, he arranged them; aD 
very soon brought them into notice by the great inatructioi 
in natural history he added to them. His teaching in this w^ 
marks quite an epoch in the studies of Germany. 

The peculiar genius of that nation is well known; th 
genius of thought governed by imagination; devoted at OM 
to tnith and to systems; brilliant, and rejoicing in elevate 
combinations, bold, surprising, and, if I may use the expressio) 
given up to the adventures of thought. M. Blumenbach was a 
exception to this genius; but he developed, with a wondeif 
good nature, all the wisest points of it. 

The fifty years during which be was professor, and, if I nu 
say so, a kind of sovereign, was, for natural history in Oerman] 
the time of tho most positive and the soundest study. The 
day of systems did not re-appear till he was gone ; and when 
they did, although recalled to life by a man of astonishing 
vigour of mind', they never could regain the empire they had 
lost. They had to deal with an entirely new power. The 
eTjKrimental method bad been established. The great revohl 
tion which has made the modern human intellect what it i 
had been effected, 

iL Blumcnbach has published four works which give tu 
pretty well the whole of his great course of instruction: the 
first, on The Human Species'; the second, on Xalural Histort/; 


1, &•:., uid III* Dicadci cr 

Hnd eflpeciatly of Uie phUovopbf 

Auimal Eingdom. 

nation, Dt GtnrrU hvvumi 


tkiid, an PAymotogy; und the foarth, on Comparatin 

To fona « Fnper (qiiiiioo ttf these wot^s, it Is Bec»ssar}r 
to cwMJdcr the tine when they eppewed. Abuut th« miiUl« 
of the ei^Ceenth oentarr, Buffbo, Lintueos and Haller had 
foonded nwdeni BManl histoiT. Tovmrds tli« end of th« 
oentniy, at the wrj moment when MieDcc lost these three 
great men, M. Blam^ibacb wiete his first work'. 

The gloTj of iL BimneDbacfa is that he preceded (I^Tirr. 
There was indfed between these two famous men more than 
ODe rdation; both introduced Compamtirt Anatomy into their 
own countiT, both created a new 9eieiK?e; the ooe. Anthropo- 
logy; the other, the science of Foe^ Anatomy: both cou- 
G^ved the science of Animal Organization in its eotiralr; but 
G. Cuner, impeited by a gnater bias towards abetraet combi- 
nations, did more to display a method; whilst Blnnieubaefa, 
gnided by a most delicate sensibility, did muie to elucidate 

Everything belonging lo method was neglected by Bhiuien- 
bach; he confined himself t« following Lannsiis; he adopted 
fix-m him almoet all his dirtMous with whatever advantages they 
had, and oUu with all their defects, their narrowness of study, 
and tbeir caprice. 

In Germany, where they will not easily admit that M. Blu- 
menliach was deficient in anything, this kind of forgetfulness 
with which that great iuleUect treated method is explained 
and excused by his deference for Linmbus, the master, in that 
way, of a whole century. In France, where greater liberty of 
speech is allowed, without going beyond the bounds of rospwl, 
we say, plainly enough, that Bliimenbacb had not the genius 
of method; a genius so rare, that Aristotle alone, of autiiiuity, 
1 it; and only three or four men in modern times have 

' BU duMVtatioD, Dt Grutrit kumani taritlalt ttatira, ie 
d'BiMinrt XatvnlU u of 1779; hU Jtanurl dt I'Ayn'nlagir, 
on the AnlmiHX i uittg eKaud ttAtangfroiJ. im the Jni 
titiparet tt rrriyarct, m of 1786 and 1781^; biafint Dteaiero 
iaattrnut eomfarit, cA tSoj. 



k a degree, LiimiEiis, the two Jussieu : 

had it in t 
G. Cuvier. 

All the writings of M. Blumeiibach indicate the < 
and, if I may say bo, the stamp of the physiologist. In 
Comparative Anatomy he aiTanges his facta accordiog to I 
organs, which is pre-eminently the physiological order. In t 
Physiology, property bo called, he first of all considers I 
forces of life, which is the point of view at once the mo* 
elevated and the most essentially peculiar to that science 
His works on the cold-blooded and hot-blooded animals, and o 
the hot-blooded viviparous and oviparous animals aie a true 
Comparative Physiology, and that too at an epoch when the 

very name 

of that science was unknown'. He has submitted 

the great question of the formation of beings to the most j 
found researches*, and always as a physiologist. Facts were Ii 
study; and from facts he tried to mount up to the force whid 
produced them. Nothing ia more famous than the formatil| 
force of M. Blumenbach', 

Three principal ideas about the formation of beings bav^ 
been successively in vogue; the idea of spontaneous ffeneratU 
which was the idea, or rather the error, of all antiquity ; t 
idea of the pre-existence of germs, conceived by Leibnitz, ; 
popularized by Bonnet; and the idea of the formative force 
M. Blumenbach. No doubt the new idea does not clear up tbl 
difficulty any more than the two othera; but at least it d« 
not add to it. It does not contradict the facts, like the idea fi 
spontaneous generation; nor does it exact of the mind all that 
mob of suppositions and concessions which is demanded I 
the idea of the pre-existence of germs'. 

The formative force of M. Blumenbach is only a mode t 
expressing a fact, like irritability or senxihility; and whate 

' 1 coDsiiler liiin 
Ll£'oded"»nd "hot-b 
* And dirongh them 

be the Gnit who «mplo;sd in hi* wotIlb (he h 
d«d uimials." 

made tbe b«utiliit ducoveiy of the wuhilkal m 

• Hi« Nina /ormativu: 

* The Muleenla ortiani'jutt of Baffon are only ths pre-adMlng germ* tn lulDll 
n. See my Uiit, dct traraux ct da idici dc B«ffvn, pp. 6f, 71. 




ly be said of it, ia not more obscure. Every origiiuil force is 
obscure for the very reason that it is original. "The first 
veil," says Fontenelle, " which covered the Isis of the li^yptians 
has been lifted a long time; a second, if you please, has been so 
in our time; a third never will be, if it ia really the last'." 

Great studies absorb those who pursue them. Blumenbach 
travelled little. His labours were only interrupted by some 
journeys in the interior of bia country; and what was remark- 
able, these very journeys were of ju,st as much use to natural 
liistory as bis works. The old Oemiany, with its old chateaux, 
seemed to pay no homage to science; still the lords of these 
ancient and noblo mansions had long since mode it a business, 
almost a point of honour, to form with care what were 
Cabinets of Curiosities. Their successors, attracted by 
warlike tastes of the great Frederick, had forgotten these 
collections. Blumenbach cams and reclaimed these trea-sures 
in the name of science, and everything was granted to him. 
Natural history began everywhere to have its museums, and so 
had civil history; and all this was due to what Blumeitbach 
used to call, laughinglv, his Voyages of Ditcoverij. 

Of all these collections, the most peculiar to Blumenbach, 
most important, the most precious at least for its object, 
his collection of human skulls; an admirable monument of 
;ity, laliour and patience, and the best established and 
surest foundation of the new science, which interests us all 
to-day, of Anthropology. Anthropology sprung from a great 
thought of Buffon. Up to his time man had never been 
studied, except as an individual; Buffon was tlio first who, 
in man, studied the species'. 

After Buffon came Camper. Buffon bad only considered 
the colour, the physiognomy, the exterior traits, the aiiperjicial 
characteristica of peoples; Camper, more of an anatomist, con- 
sidered the more real characteristics. With Camper began the 
study of skulls. Camper had a quick apprehension, and was as 


^Bbd ain 

^^^e wai 

■jhe n 

' PlMwyri< 

da lra*a<U tt det idea dc liiifon, p. 



ready at seizing a happy view as prompt to abandon it. SS'^ 
compared the skull of the European with that of the negro; 
the skull of the negro with that of the orang-utan; he atruok 
out the idea of his facial angle, and very soon greatly exa^e- 
rated its importance. 

Blumenbaoh has pointed out what a veiy unsatisfacto 
and incomplete characteristic the facial angle is-, he has shom 
that we must compare all the skull and all the face; 1 
laid down rules for that learned and perfect comparison, t 
was the first to deduce that division which is almost everywhai 
now adopted, of the human species into five races; 
European, or white race; the Asiatic, or yellow; the African, a 
black; the American, or red; and the Malay. 

I confess at once, and without difficulty, that this diviHioa 
of races is not perfect. Tbe division of races is the real diffi- 
culty of the day, the obscure problem of Anthropology, and will 
be so for a long time. The Malay race is not a simple or a 
single race'. Precise characteristics have been sought, but not 
yet found, by which to describe the American race. There are 
three principal races, of which all the others are only varietitt, 
or sub-races; I mean the three races of Europe, Asia and 
Africa. But the idea, the grand idea, which reigns and rulss 
and predominates throughout in the admirable studies of Blu- 
menbach is the idea of the unity of the human species, or, as 
it has also been expressed, of the human genus. Blumenba^ 
was the first who wrote a book undeix the express title of tliQ.:^ 
Unity of the Human Qentis*. 

The Unity of Mankind is the great result of tbe Bdence c 
Blumenbach, and the great result of all natural history. Antii 
quity never had any hut the most confused ideas on thl 
physical constitution of man. Pliny talks seriously of peopi 
with only one leg, of others whose eyes were on their shoi 

■ Bat a mixture of t<ro athen, the Caucuian uid the Mongol. 

* BlnmenlMdi tvft Human Genus. We now ny, what u much prefenble, 
the Humui Species. The use of then tvo words U no longer arbitnu;. Tin 
chancterulic of geuus ia luoiled fecuodity ; the characteristic of ipeciei a ntilillllt- 
ed fecuadity. See Hut. da. t. rl da i. d€ Bvfon, p. 177. 


or wbo had no liead, Ac In the sixteenth century, Roodelet, 
an excellent naturalist, gravely describes sea-men, who live 
in the water, and have scales and an oozy beard. In the 
eighteenth century Maupertuis describes the Patagonians, as 
giants whose ideas ought to correspond to their stature; but tts 
a compensation, for the credit of the century, Voltaire laughed 
at Maupertuis. Finally, what speaks volumes, Liniueus, the 
great Liuoieus, puts into the same family man and the orang- 
utan. The homo nocturnua, the fwmo U-oglodytes, the hovw 
sylvestria of linnieus is, in fact, the orang-utan. 

To raise the science out of this chaos, Blumenbach laid 
down first of all three rules. The first is, to draw a distiuctiaa 
everywhere between what belongs to the brute and what 
belongs to man. A profound interval, without connexion, 
without passage, separates the human species from all others. 
No other species comes near the human species; no genus even, 
or family. The human species stands alone. Guided by his 
facial angle, Camper approximated the orang-utan to the negro. 
He saw the shape of the skull', which gives an apparent 
resemblance ; he failed to see the capacity of the skull, which 
:e8 the real difference. In form nearly, the skull of the 
is as the skull of the European ; the capacity of the two 
akalls is the same. And what is much more essential, their 
brain is absolutely the same. And, besides, what has the brain 
to do with the matter? The human mind is one. The soul is 
one. In spite of its misfortunes, the African race has liad 
heroes of all kinds. Blumenbach, who has collected everything 
in \ta favour, reckons among it the most humane and the bravest 
men; authors, learned men and poets. He had a library 
itirely composed of books written by negroes. Our age will 
ibtless witness the end of an odious traffic. Philanthropy, 
scneace, politics, that is true politics, all join in attacking it; 
humanity will not be without its crusades. The second rule of 
Blumenbach is, not to admit any fact except when supported 


■' scnei 

* Or, more preciselj. tha [orm and promiaeuce o 
Mt tfaa i. rfc Bitffim, p. i8j. 


by truatwortby documents; and in this way, everything whi 
is puerile and cxaggerateif , everything which is legend, will (I 
excluded from science. The third rule is the very baaia ' 
Bcience. Once nothing hut extremes were compared ; Blumet 
bach laid down the rule not to paaa from one extreme to I 
other, except by all the intermediate terms and all the shac 
possible. The extreme cases seem to separate the hui 
species into decided races; the grailuated shades, the contJouoi 
intermediate terms make all men to form but one mankind. 

There never waa a scholar, author or philosophei 
seemed more adapted to endow us with the admirable science 
of Anthropology. Blumenbach joined to vast knowledge a 
power of criticism still rarer than the most unbounded eru- 
dition, and much more precious; he had that art which dis- 
criminates and judges ; he had a clear sweep of view, a sure 
tact, and a good sense not easily deceived. He knew every- 
thing, and had read everything; histories, chronicles, relations, 
travels, &c. ; and he took pleasure in saying, that it was from 
travels that he had received the moat instruction. ' The study of 
man is founded on thro? science-s, besides anthropology propt 
so called : geography, philology and history. Geography givf 
us the relations of races to climates; history teaches us i 
follow the migrations of peoples and their intermixtures; i 
when once they have been mixed, it is philology which teai^ 
us how to separate them again. But whatever be the progi 
which these three sciences have made in our days, none has J 
arrived at the original and certain unity of man ; each fore 
it and prophesies it; all tend in that direction; thanks j 
Blumenbach, that unity, which these sciences still are in sea 
of, has boon demonstrated by natural history. And here let D 
speak out, without being afraid of esi^geration. Voltaire « 
of Montesquieu, that he restored its lost rights to the hum 
race. The human race had forgotten its original unity, i 
Blumenbach restored it. 

I have examined the principal works of Blumenbachfj 
mean those works which have made him famous; but there | 
another I cannot omit, a work veiy diflferent from those, 1 

■ FLOtlRENS, 59 

leitBt, in the fonn; a work full of ideas, and one of the most 

intellectual, tlie nioet discriminating, or, to npeak like Descartes, 

the moBt sensible that have ever been written oa the sciences. 

That work is composed of two little volumes. The title is very 

simple, that is, Contributions to N'atural History'. The true 

title Bhoutd be. The Philosophy of Naturcd History. Tliere 

Blumcnbach passes in review all the philosopliical questions 

of his science; the question of the original unity of man, the 

question of the scale of beings, that of innate ideas, that of the 

so-caUed man of nature, and the others. The author's object 

is to point out, in each instance, where the truth ends and 

system commences. And to get to that point, there is no 

apparatus of learning, no long ratiocination, no phrases; a word, 

a witty sally, an anecdote are enough. As to the original unity 

man, he sayg it was an honest German doctor, who not 

able to reconcile the different colour of men with the fact 

their single origin, imagined, in order to settle the ques- 

that God had created two Adams, one white and the 

ler black. As to the scale of beings, it was the opinion of 

English naturalist, who proposed to establish two, in order 

place in the second everything that could find no place 

the first As to innate ideas and the man of nature, the 

iwing are the facts. Towards the middle of the year 172+, 

lere was found, in the north of Germany, near a village called 

Hameln, a young boy quite naked, who could not speak, but 

eagerly devoured all the fruits he could get hold of. At that 

le the dispute about innate ideas was at its highest. Imme- 

itely the imagination of the philosophers was excited. The 

that had been found was no doubt the wild man, the man 

of nature; and the man of nature would finally resolve the 

problem of innate ideas. The Count de Zinzendoi-f, who was 

afterwards the founder of the Moravian brothers, hastened to 

ask him of the Elector of Hanover. The Elector of Hanover 

sent him to England. In England the curiosity was as great 

as in Germany. Peter de Hameln, as the young savage was 

' [EJilcd ia Ibia Tolumo. Ec] 




life. AftS 
lis usual eU^I 
)st important^ 

called, became famous. Dr Arbuthnot wrote Lis life, 
him Lord Monboddo wrote it again; and, with his i 
thustasm, proclaimed the youDg savage as the most importanE^ 
discovery uf the ago. At last, M. Blumenbach wished in bis 
turn to see what it all was ; be undertook the examination of 
the facts as a philosopher, but as a calm and judicious one; and 
he found that the wild man, the so-called man of nature, the 
most important discover; of the age, was only a poor child, bora 
dumb, and driven from the paternal roof by a step-mother. 

It will be seen what sort of book it is I am speaking abc 
The tone is that of learned and delicate raillery. The auth< 
rallies, but so as to make you think. It is the ironical phi 
aophy of Socrates, or at least what Socrates is said to have h 
and what Voltaire really possessed. He who has read 1 
book has the whole key to Blumenbach's character. He wiU 
understand the charm of his conversations, the success of his 
lessons, and his vast renown, so dear to all those who ap> 
proached him. Above all, he will have the secret of his soul, 
born essentially for that general virtue defined by Uontesquieu, 
tlie love of all. Even in this book, where however raillery pre- 
dominates, as soon as Blumunbach toudies on the great question 
of the unity of men, he jokes no more; his language immedi- 
ately alters, and takes naturally the tone of the truest sensibility. 
He never speaks of men, or of any men, but with affection. 
'According indeed to his doctrine, all men are born, or might 
have been bom, from the same man. Ho calls the i 
our black brothers. It is an admirable thing that science e 
to add to Christiaji charity, or, at all events, to extend it, i 
invent what may be called human charity. The word Hqj 
manity has its whole effect in Blumenbach alone. 

I have already said that Blumenbach, always wrapped up if 
his great works, had seldom quitted Germany. Still he i 
two journeys, one to England and one to Franco. In these tw 
journeys he observed everything, but all as a naturalist Thi 
man, who had passed so many years in meditating ou the n 
important questions, on the highest problems of natural history, 
had at last only one idea, one object, one all-powerful pre- 

occupation; a pre-occupation so strong as to be sometimes 
quite ludicrous, as we may judge from the two instances he 
used to relate himself. 

Being entertained in London by all the English professors, 
they one evening took him to the theatre. The actor Kemble 
played the part of the Moor of Venice. Some days after, 
Kemble met Blumcnbach at a party, and said, " M. Blumen- 
bach, bow did you think I succeeded in repre.senting the cha- 
racter of a negro ^" " Well enough, as far as the moral character 
goes," said our naturalist, and then added, " but all the illusion 
was destroyed for me the moment you opened your hand ; for 
you had on black gloves, and the negroes have the inside of the 
hand of a flesh-colour." Every one laughed except Blumen- 
bacb; he had spoken quite in earnest. 

After the peace of Til-ut, the town of Gottingen was included 
in the kingdom of Westphalia, and the University thought 
it necessary to solicit the protection of the great Emperor. 
Blumcnbach was chosen as a deputy. " I found," said he, " all 
the French men of letters aa eager to support me as if the 
question had been the preservation of a French institution; 
I owed to that generous zeal the success of my mission." 
Admitted, at last, to take leave in solemn audience, he attended 
in an antechamber with many of the foreign ambassadora 
Napoleon appeared ; all turned their attention to him except 
Blumeubach ; for how could he? " I had," said he, "before me 
the ambassadors of Persia and Marocco, of two nations whom 
I bad never yet seen." 

To his passion for natural history Blumenbach joined a 
passion for all the great studies. Erudition, philosophy, letters 
had a share of his attention, but did not exhaust it, He was a 
good man of business. He had, in a high degree, that delicate 
and calm judgment which business demands. More than once, 
when charged with important missions, he brought them to an 
end with singular good fortune. In fact, the town of Gottingen 
decreed, in consideration of his sor\'ices, that hia property 
should be exempted from taxes. G&ttingeii indeed ought to 
have been grateful to him in every way. During sixty years 


the celebrity of the mau of leaniing and the profesao 
cause of its prosperity. His name alone brought there a crowd 
of pupils ; a population brilliant, moving, always being changeil, 
always young and always learned. Nothing could equal the 
veneration all that population had for liim. Almost all those 
of his pupils who became famous dedicated their works to him ; 
and these dedications were not the mere homage of admiration. 
A touching and higher sentiment is found in them, and i 
indeed is better still, an affection abnost filial. What more c 
I say? M. do HimiboUlt was a pupil of his', and the highei 
intellects of Germany, the Fichtea, the Kants, the Schel 
have interpreted his ideas*. 

In private bfe Blumenbach was a thorough German, g 
naturcd, frank, open and mild in manner. In him an honest 
character shone throughout. Essentially a man of good sense, 
after more than forty years spent in education, he wrote t^ese 
words: "I never enter the amphitheatre without having par- 
ticularly prepared each lesson, for I know that many professors 
have lost reputation by thinking that they know well enough ^ 
a course they have delivered twenty times." Ho worked up b 
the end of his life. "I only know satiety by reputation," 
he. It is said also that he preferred listening to speaking, 
was prudent in everything. As La Fontaine says, 

"Tha wise know how to inaimge time and words." 
He had a maxim which displays his character; "One mui 
know how to attract and retain by indulgence." 

All happiness was his; a great reputation, a quiet life, 
a family tenderly beloved, illustrious pupils, a son worthy of 
his name. His long and beautiful old age was surrounded 
with the mast touching homages. Every anniversary, whicb 
still preserved him to science, wan celebrated as a festival 
Seventy-eight learned societies elected him an associate. Me- 
dals were struck in his honour. Prizes were instituted in his 

' In 1 786 he IimI llie honoor to see the Briliiih Prircej Jittetid his lecturM ; uiJ 
. 1803, the King of Biiviiri»; anil in iHiq, hi* >on, the now Piinca nojil. 
* ParticuUrlj Lis iilesi of ti formatite /oret. 

^^P FL0UKCN3. 03 

name; useful foundations atill exist which perpetuate his me- 
mory by benefactions'. This universal cnthuBiaam made no 
difference in him; he remained always good, simple, even 
familiar; everything in him was natural; no pretension, no 
affectation; nothing by which he tried to distinguish himself 
from others. "Wlien one has a great deal of merit," says Fon- 

relle, " it is the crown of all to be like the rest of the world." 
Blumenbach died on the 22nd Jan. ISiO, being nearly a 
M esntmy old ;■ a man of a high intellect, an almost universal 
scholar, philosopher and sage; a naturalist, who had the glory, 
or rather the good fortune, of making natural history the means 
of proclaiming the noblest and, without doubt, the highest 
truth that natural history ever had proclaimed, He Physical 
Unity, and througli the physical unity tlic moral unity, of the 
human race. 

' Id 1S30, the friondi of BIumoDbocli, irben Ihey met to celebrate the Grtieth 
AoniverKkry of hu doctonta, conceived tba idea of perpetuntitig the recollection ol 
the d»y lo oiemorahla for ncienco, by mulling up a purse of 5,000 Jullnrfl, aliuuC 
£Soo, of wMch the interest should he adj udgml every three yeiirs by way of pmo, 
to a young doctor, to ba both phyeidnn and naturalist, oho must have taken hii 
degree in a German univeraiCy, and be, aaya the deed, young, poor, bill fil, Blu- 
menbach biinaelf gave out the priie twice, in 18^3 and in 183G; after hia death, 
it ie to be adjudged altenmldy hy the faoulties of Tuedicloe at Qiittiagen and 









H. L. Q. 8. 







iDUfTios; generation ; climate; mode of life and uliment; hybrid 
generatioD; fertile hybriils; sterile liyhrids ; copulation of auimals of 
[liiTerent species, barren; on Jumai's; no human hybrids; difference 
between man and other aniinalB ; mental endowments; inBtincts of 
■n very few and very simple ; reason the property of man alone ; 
'ch the same; properties of the human body; erect position; two 
ids; the human body naked and defenceless; laughter and tears; 
menstniation ; other difl'erences falsely supposed; internal 
Btmcture of the human body ; the brain of the papio mandril; inter- 
maxillary bone; niembrana nu^litaim; the suspensory ligament of the 
neck i orang-utan and other anthropomorphouB apes; is there one or 
more specie* of mankindl one species alone; the varieties very arbi- 
trary; division of mankind intoytwtr varieties; [note from edition of 
1781, containing the division into Jive]; observations on national 
dtfierencea; vaiiety of the human stature; causes of this varietv, 
.ie, food, 4c.; colour of man; caiwea of its variety; effi«:t of 
■te; examples from other organic bodies; effect of mode of life; 
colour of the reticulum in apes; black men become white; 
ite men black; mulattoes, 4c.; spotrted skin; different shape of 
.lis; examples of the first variety; the second, third, and fourth; 
; physiognomy; examples of the 6rdt, second, third, and 
)k variety; difference in hair, teeth, feet, breasts; singularities 
pronunciation; artificial varieties; circumcision; castration; beard- 
lesa Americans; other mutilations ; monstrous ears; other deformities; 
jiaintiogs; conclusion; digression on n/6i'ni#m.y white rabbits; white 
mice; diseased whiteness in other animals; human albinism; symp- 
toms of the disease; unhenlthy whiteness; affection of the eyes; re- 
maining conditions of body; mental condition; disease known to the 
Uidente; recent examples from the world at large; stories of the 
about men with tails; fictitious )'eii(ni/e of the Hottenfot 


Plato I. Fig. 1. Btixe o/tlie ihdl of a Papio mandrU. 

A. Posterior lobea of the !>rain. E. Anterior lobes of thetl 
brain. C. Fossa Sylvii. D. Cerebellum. E. Commeno*' J 
ment of the Bpiual marrow. F. Region where in man the pynuni-r 
dal and olivary bodies are inserted. G. Place where in the humiQ^ 
bniin the pons Varolii is divided by a fissure from the meduT 
oblongata. H. Poos A'arolii. 

1, 2, 3, i, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. Pairs of the nerves of the brain, 
m&mmillary eminences, infundibulum, &a. cannot bo seen in c( 
quence of the size, of the junction of the optic nerves. 

Plate II. Fig. 1. TtrUbra of tJie neck nftht aami Papio. 
bodies of the vcrtebrte descend by a kind of scaly processes in fi 
downwards, and stand upon each other like tiles. 

Fig. 2. Pi/di and sixth verlehret of the neck of an adult t 
In these the liodies are parallel, smooth, and disciform. 

Fig. 3. Skin froin, tJie Jbrehead of tlie Papio mandril. 
varieties and diminution of the bhickness in the reticulum are fa 

Fig. 4. TVifl diloria o/an Arabian girl, circumcised. 

Fig. 5. A cailltrix, or tome otlier tailed ape copied from Brt 
baeh'a Travels. This has been made more and more hunitin by s' 
sive copyings till at last il has come out [in Martini's Buffon] a tt 



^ I am going to write about the natural variety of mankind, I 
ink it worth while to begin from the beginning, that is, with 
the proceas of generation itself. I do not intend to put forth 
ri system, or frame hypotheses, or enter into the intricacies of a 
hibyrinth, out of which I should scarce find an exit; or, lastly, 
Btir up cud already chewed a thousand times. Nor am I one to 
write the Iliad after Homer, that is to say, the universal lustory 
of generation after the immortal labours of the great Elaller; but 
to spend only a few words upon a, matter, which may be c(»n- 
sidercd as deraoustrated from the repeated observations and 
profound judgment of the most learned men, and which will 
^hrow BO me light on my subject. 

^L The part which each sex takes in the generation of the 
^bBttUi, and which of the two has the greatest influence has occu- 
pied the principal philoaophei's and physicians for many thou- 
-;ind years. It was reserved at last for the profound sagacity of 
llaller, to be the first who was bold enough to break open the 
li!»rs of nature's doors, and to unfold, from observing the iucu- 
l>:ition of ^gs^, so often investigated before by eminent men, 
tiiat great mystery, which it was thought could be explained 
bv nature alone; aud in the fewest possible words I must here 
give his account of the matter'. A close dissection of impreg- 


Dated eggs shows tlut the int^stiiie of the duck is so of a piec 
with the envelopes of the yolk that the fiist eovelope forms the 
ekin of the ftEtos; the second envelope forms the exterior lining 
of the intestine jointly with the mesentery and the peHtonsum 
of the tcetus; the third is the covering of the interior inteettne, 
and is produced from the same membrane as the ventricle, the 
(esophagus, the throat and the mouth, from what is in fact t 
■ skin and the epidermis of the fietus : that the yolk takes i 
the arteries from the mesenteries of the chicken itself. It folloi 
from this, that the whole egg is part of the mother, in whi 
the ovarium lies with all its t^s quite perfect, before any o 
tact with the male has taken place. Then, that the fcetuB j 
part of the egg, or at all events is joined to the egg by an ii 
separable bond, for the yolk (and that alone) constitutes t]ie 
^g, together with its envelope, whilst it is in the mother, but 
that yoke is so united with the fiEtus by its duct, that it forms 
but one continuous body. Hence it is proved, by direct demon- 
stration, that the embryo is contained in the maternal egg, and 
that the female supplies the true stamina of the future foetus. 
That primeval germ would lie buried as it were in eternal slum- 
ber, were it not aroused by the access and stimulus of the fertil- 
izing seed of the male, and particularly by the subtle odour of 
his parts, which are p&rticulariy adapted for causing irritation; 
and then it breaks forth from the Graafian follicle in which it 
was shut up, runs through the cansd, and in this way comes inlo 
the womb; there again it is finally unfolded and developed, and 
changed in some of its parts by the influence of the male, comes 
out like its parents. It leaves a manifest trace of its formET 
habitation in the ovarium, in the shape of an opaque body, 
which takes its place'. The offspring at last brought to lighl, 
and in the process of time become adult, can produce like with 
the other sex of its species, whose posterity ought to go on fur 
ever like their first parents. What then are the causes of the 

> Ai to tbu little boilf , which wu njan iltiiatnited bj the Isbnurs of the snU 
HsUcr, *« Bin. de rAead. da Se. dt ParU. 1753, No. vii.. ind Phenol. T. viii. 
p. 30. Il a well delineited from cliaaeetod bodwa bj W. Hunter, Anatoniia f/in 
livmixni Graiidi. Binn, 1774, Tab. IJ, 39, 31. 



cODtmry event? What b it which changeB the course of gene- 
ration, and now produces a worse and now a better progeny, at 
all eventa widely different from its original progenitorst This 
it will be our business to answer in the course of this disscrta- 
tiun. But in order not to break the thread of the discussion, it 
will be better to make a few preUminary observations. 

First of all I will say a few words about the influence of 
climate, whose effects seem so great that distinguished men 
have thought that on this alone depended the different shapes, 
colour, manners and institutions of men'. There are, however, 
two ways, in wliich men may gather experience of a change of 
climate, both of which are to our purpose. They may emigrate 
and so change the climate, and also it may happen that the 
climate of their native country may sensibly become more mild 
er more severe, and so the inhabitants may degenerate. Several 
^Bkumples of each kind will be given in the proper place. It 
^^Hll be sufficient to say here that there is no diversity of habit, 
which may not be produced by varieties of climate; which is 
extremely apparent, even from the history of brute animals. 
If European horses are transported towards the east, as to 
Siberia, China, &c., in process of time they, as it were, dwindle, 
and become much smaller in body, so that at last you would 
acarcoly recognize them as being of the same species. Cattle, 
on the contrary, whether they are sent to the Yakutan penin- 
sula, or Kamtshatka, or Archangel, turn out taller and more 
robust, and the same thing has been experienced with English 
sheep in Sweden. 

The squirrels on the river Obi are larger by one third than 
those which are found at Obdorsk', &c., to say nothing of the 
difference in colour, which observation shows to vary with still 
greater facility. But that the climate of the same country may 

' Polyb. T, I. p. 461, ed 
iliiTer most from each other 
in (li^ie, and culour, and In mont of our iniUtu 
Uipp. Jh atr. aq. tt Uk. p. aiS, who goes it lea 
ImmaD bodiet. 

< Stellar, ron ymdrrb. MterAierta, p. 41 xtil- 

ati : "for through this cause uid no other 

sthuica! and uruveiBol diatitictiuDS. in uustot 

of our iniUtutiona." Comp. beiiiles, Curdui 

into the eSecti of alimale 






oiulergo a change, no oae can donlit, who will ottly oomi 
this very GermaoT of to-day wiih ancient GenoasT. or our own 
cuDlemporaries with oar aacestcm'. There was a lime when the 
elk, now only an inhabitant of the extreme north, was common 
on the banks of the Rhine, and when that very rivn- was go 
often frazen that the Gauls tfaeioselves osed to offer sacrifices 
to prerenl its affording a passage to our aitceston, their netgh- 
bouTB; when the most [«odigioBS forest covered afanost the 
whote countiy, and when there woe bo Tintagea, and other 
very good reasons of the same kind, whidi will account lor ot^ 
being enable to find the hage bodies of «vir aaoestofa, powei 
only for attack, their firm limbs, threatening conntenancea, 
fierce eyes, in the GCTinans of onr age. 

Besides the climate there are other causes, which have indeed 
an influence in altering bodies: many of these yoo might say 
depended, however, upon the climate themselves, but there are 
others which it is very clear have nothing to do with it 
Amongst these influences above all we most set down the 
mode of Kfe and of bringing up. The examples of domestic 
■ntmala are trite, which manifestly have diverged into astonish- 
ing varietieB. and almost put off their original nature. I have 
mentioned the effect climate has upon hoises, and we shall 
now see how they are affected by mode of life. It is quite 
astonishing how wild horses* difler from our geldings by their 
small stature, their large heads, their muTrey colour, their 
sha^;y coats, and by a ferocity of ditposition, which is almost 
untameable, so that they seem to approach almost nearer to the 
ass than to our domestic horses. Inde<ed, the fiunous Qmelin 
had scarcely any hesitation in belienng that the tame horse, 
the wild horse, and the ass. were all of the same species, and 
that the latter had by circomstaQces alone degenerated from 
the tame hoise; but this b going too far, because the ass ban 


B toterior oi^ns irhich ore mmtisg in the horae*. and the 
rere ra e also is tne. However, among horses certoinl; wild, 
&od aba amotig our own, we may perceive a great diAi-'reuce in 
Rtreogth between tbr^e which feed upon natural padtiire«', and 
those wbkb ara kept tn stables. For example, it b kuown that 
a colt, if it is bom in a feeding-ground uf the fi>mier kind, 
witfaio half-aD-honr after its iurth will run after iXa dam 
seeking food, but if it is bom in a stable, it will freqiieutlv 
I br twenty-four hours and more on the grwund, before it 

I to stand on its feet. 
f As jet I have touched on two catuee wbieh change the 
I of auimals. climate and mode of life. It remains to speak 
I'the third, namely, the conjunction of different species, and 
B hybrid animals ibenee produced. It is a difficult suViject, 
iBougb after the labours of recent authors* I may treat it 

There are three cases in the discussion about hybridity 

^^Aicb ought to be cleaily distinguished. First, the mere 

^^ftinlation of different animals; secondly, the birth of offspring 

^^En such copulation; and, thirdly, the fertility of such off- 

^^■iDg and their capacity for propagation. 

^H^ The tatter case, although rare, (and that by the providence 

^^pthe Supreme Being, lest new s|>ecies should be multiplied 

iodeiinitely,) I would admit of in beings closely alUud. At all 

eventa there are many testimonies to the fertility of mules*. 

l%ere is no reason for doubting that hybrids have sprtmg from 

1 of the fox and the dog, and those t-oo capable of 

I, as the Spartan dogs or alopckides of the ancients. 

■ Od Uw Brgma of the voioc, Beniuut. Jfrat. tk FAtad. da Seitntn dt Parit, 

* A> ttae LtppauKt. Ooinp. J. G. Prinliiu, Pom SntuT grttOtt. l^^%, 8<ro. 
' Duffon frT^u«Titly but cuncid&lly on tbe deKenention of uiimftl*. Xiv. p. 148, 

i.i,A Sappl. T. in. p. I. H. S. Retmiu-, Natitrt. HHi-jim. p. 4TT. Glmclien, 
&ianatUima, p. 14; «nd nbove all Hallir, Ph^ol. VIII. pp. 8, loO. 

• Aristot. be yrn. •>«. n. 8, says thuj cam only be mn-'oivml At » ourtain 
time. V»fro. De re not. U. 1, 1;, Columella, 71. 3;, 3. Plin, VIII. 44, mil 
HarduinuB. B«rt1iil Advmar. 41. Bochiirt, Il'irrot, I, I, v>. Itcocutly Rixirr, 
Mn mr III phgt. 1 711. Cmnp. G1eiehi.-D, /. e. p. 15. tjuch thing! *n onto men- 
Unwd »mDnf; Ui« ptodiguB reLited by Lirf uid ObaequsM. 


There is stiil at Oiittingen the daughter of a fox (from wHci 
many children have been bom) which was impregnated by I 
domestic dog; and in it you may still recognize the smooUl 
forehead and other marks of the ancestr^ form. The expei* 
ments of Sprenger' prove the prolificacy of hybrid birda. 

The number of infertile hybrids is so copious as to be tire* 
some to count. Of all these, mules, bo far as we know, are th 
most ancient. For although we may doubt their being ant« 
diluviau*, nor dare ascribe their discovery to Anah', yet thei 
extreme antiquity appears even from profane authors*, am 
almost the first monuments of art'. To these rarer hybrids c 
be added the one Linneeus saw from the copulation of t 
Copra reveraa with the Capra depressa'. But I do not qui 
trust Hesychiua, when he says that the jackal comes from 
the union of the hycena and the common wolf. With respect t 
the union of dogs and apes', and the hybrids eo bom, I * 
remain in doubt. The animals seem too different; still I ban 
known two instances, where bitches are said to have been ia 
pregnated by male apes, to which I should think it wrong % 
refuse credit. One took place in the territory of Schwartzburgj 
and a picture of this hybrid, carefully drawn, is in the possessioi 
of Biittner, who very kindly lent it to me. It represents a dog, 
of smaller size than the domestic dog, and of a dirty yellow 
colour; its eyes, ears, and hairy collar differed from the common 
dog, but it is said were very like those parts in the father. The 
other instance is related by an eye-witness, worthy of all belief, 
to have occurred about three years ago at Frankfort-on-tho- 
Maine; that a bitch brought forth offspring by the SimiaDiaM 
of LinnsuB, in ferocity, disposition, and in its gibbous haln 

1 Opute. Plii/tieoinatA. Hmnoi. 1753, p. 17, 

■ Fareriui, on Gmau, T. tl. p. 1S5, disciuaes at leoglh Ibe quGStioa if 
mule entered Noah'a ark or not) 

■ Oene: c. 36, v. I4, Bocliiirt, I. c. at tengtii. 

* Horn. n. B. %i%, wbo derives them from Enca. 

' On the coffer of CjiiaeliB. Hoyne, fiier dm huitn da Cgpt. p. 58, 1 

D. 0. fifio. 

' In the Cliffonl menagerie. S<jit. A'al. od. XU. p. 96. 

' Bochwt, Uieroi. 1. p. 831. 

" Oabeck, Oilindiik Kaa. p. 99. 



and long tail, exactly like its father. I leave this business to 
be investigated by those who, perhaps, may have an opportunity 
of more accurately observing it; for the difEcultieB are well 
known which occur in experiments of this kind. It is very 
hard to prevent the animals upon whom the esperiment is to 
be made from consorting with others, and at the same time not 
to destroy the desire of copulation; moreover, if offspring have 
anything pecubar by accident, it is instantly attributed to a 
ibversity of parentage. And what makes mo suspicious about 
these things is this especially, that I have seen many apes of 
both seses and different species constantly living for many 
years in the midst of dogs, also of different sexes, and yet never 
saw anytJiing of the kind. On the other hand, instances of 
false reports are very common, as that of a cat, born together 
with two puppies, the report of which reached this neighbour- 
hood a few years ago; but when it was properly examined, the 
little creature which they called a cat, was easily recognized by 
the more sagacious as a puppy slightly deformed, and the whole 
prodigy became a joke. Nor can I otherwise interpret 
CTauder's account' of a cat being impregnated by a squirrel, of 
whose Utt«r one is said to have been bke the father, and the 
rest like the mother; and other stories of the same kind. 

From all this we must carefully separate the plainly fruitless 
unions of animals of different species. I will allow that male 
brutes when burning with desire, and uuable to obtain females 
of their own species, may sometimes be so excited by others, 
whom they come in contact with, as perchance to copulate with 
them; but I think that with very few, and those only very 
nearly allied, is this actually successful, and in most cases the 
attempt is ineffectual. There are, however, good reasons for 
refusing to believe that from any incongruous attempt of this 
kind, offspring can be bom or even conceived. Here let us 
consider the unequal proportions of the genital oigans in many'; 
which parts are providently and carefully adapted for copulation 



in either sex of the same species; but in distant ; 
render the whole thing impossible, or at all events very difficult, 
and certainly unfit for tbe purposes of conception. Besides, I 
do uot see according to what laws tlio offspring of this kind, 
coming from diverse parents, is to be formed in the womb, 
since in each species of animals there are certain and very 
definite periods for the gestation and pregnancy of the mother, ^^ 
the formation and progressive development of the fietus. 
will, however, be worth while to relate some instances of cod' 
nesions of this kind which have been formed contrary to naturaj 

Of aJl these the most paradoxical seems to be the union of 
a rabbit with a hen, so celebrated by Reaumur'; but on 
which doubt has been thrown by his own pupil Buffoo*, Haller*, 
and others; indeed, BufPon could not even succeed in rajsing i 
progeny from the hare and tbe rabbit, animals so nearly allie* 
although he suspected copulation took place. That iUustrioui 
philosopher seems, therefore, correct in supposing that if t 
rabbit of Reaumur ever did tread the ben, it must have I 
done from extreme lasciviousness, and had there been qo heo 
the animal would have made use of something else for the b 
purpose. Meanwhile there are other evidences to thia retnftrki< 
able fact. Thus my revered tutor Buttner, himself, often &a< 
rabbits treading hens, and they afterwards laid empty egg 
Qiypoiiemia or zephijrea as the ancients called them). 

I have often seen a rabbit ninuing about alone among! 
broods of fowls, and playing with and imitating them, but J 
never could observe that it attempted anything more, or rea]l| 
had connexion with them. I have been told the same sto^ 
about a house dog of Matthew Geener, who they say also naed'; 
to tread hi'na. I am not much surpri.scd at this, since it b well 
known that dogs, when in heat, make use of inanimate things 
sometimes in order to effect their purpose. It is said that tJrt' 
Gallits cakciUicus has been known to tread the duck, and in tba 

fl rf( fain ttlorre let pouleti, T. n. p. 340, 

itt. Nat. VI. p, no,1. 

c. aud in Boon^t, Corpt Organ. 11. |i. ]ii. 


s way that the drake treads the ben, and that chickens of 

wonderful forms are the result'. They have often been obsen'ed 

to copulate. There ig still in the town a drake which treads 

3 hens, but they are barren. But I will pass over many in- 

loces of this sort of monstrous and fruitless copidation, since 

K^ish to say a tittle about the jumars, those famous hybrids 

1 two clearly difl'erent species, tlio bovine ami the equine. 

I do not know whence Buffbn* took it, that Columella 

I mentioned jumars, and that he had been quoted by Con- 

I Gesner. I cannot find either the mention in the one, 

fcthe quotation in the other. On the contrary, I think Gesner 

I the first to mention jnraars*. For I cannot take notice 

B of the 6lly born from a cow at Sinneaaa in Livy', since he 

i of it as a most unheard-of prodigy. But Tigurinua 

biybistor says "that he once heard that a particular kind of 

owas to be found in Gaul, near Grenoble, which was Eprung 

] an asa and a bull, and called in the vulgar tongue Jumar. 

1 in the Swiss Alps near Coire, in the Splugen coimtry, he 

1 heard on credible testimony, that a hoi-se had been bom 

I bull and a mare'." Jerome Cardan, a contemporary of 

psner, has also mentioned jumars, and says they have superior 

Eth', and are very strong and bold'. After him Job. Baptist 

a, reports that he himself had seen at Ferrara an auimal of 

s kind, in shape like a mule, with a calf's head, two protu- 

the place of horns, blnck in colour, and with the 

res of a bull". Things of this kind are repeated down to the 

time of John Leger, who discourses at great length' about 

them, and also gives a iiriot of them'". He says "that jumars 

I Piytir-. BdMliff. p. jgi. SpoJ'atiEHi'ii ia Mcmorit loj-ra 1 mali, p. iS. 

« T. iiv. p. 1*8, 

■ Milt, gnadrup. ntip. pp, 19, :o6, anil 799. 

* Dee. 111. L 3. 

* Cdiup. J*c. Bueff, Dt fonerpta, p. ^H n, in tbc bistoiy oE moneten. 

* Ounlraiiir. Mtdu. I. II, tr. yi. Coatrad, 18, p. ^44. 
' 11. p. 448. 

* Mag. A'at. 1. i. c 9. He adit ihut they wcro common iu some porta nf 
Mioa, BlthoDgli he (lid not see one when he pasied tlirough. 

* P. Zoaluwi, Quizil. mtd. Itjiil, T. I. p. 5 j.i, from a man uid bull, 

'" Zfut. generait dtt Egtitet tvave/tli^ia dt ratlla ilt PU/nonl ca Vauduua, 
Lejdi!, 1669, p, 7, Mid in AlmanatK dt Gotha, 1767, p. 63, 



are bom from tlie union either of a bull and a mare, or a b 
and an ass: the former are taller, and called Baf; the latt 
smaller, and Bif; that the former have the upper jaw evident 
much shorter than the lower, like swine; that the upper te< 
are placed fiirther back than the lower, to the distance o 
thumb, or two fingers. In the latter, the Bif, the lower jai 
shorter than the upper, as is the case in hares, and the i 
teeth project beyond the lower. So that neither kind can , 
in the fields, unless the grass is so long, that they can crop il 
with the tongue. These hybrids are exactly like an ox in the 
head and tail, and the places for horns are marked by small 
protuberances. As to the rest, they are exactly like an afis or 
horse. Tlieir strengtli is wonderful, especially compared with 
their small body; they are smaller than common mules; they 
eat little and are swift; that he himself went in one day 18 J 
miles among the mountains with a jumar of this kind, and thttfl 
much more comfortably than he could have done with a horee." | 

After this account more recent' authorities have received 
others in good faith, and report that jumars are to be found 
elsewhere besides in Piedmont; according to Shaw' at Tunis 
and Algiers, according to Merolla" at Cape Verde, and by othei 
in Languedoc*. 

Naturalists gradually became more sceptical of the fact a 
were disposed to dissect this kind of hybrid. Rearimur' 
with a disappointment and so did Albinus, who had order 
one from Africa, which perished on the way. Bourgelat, 
veterinary surgeon, was afterwards fortunate enough to be abl 
to dissect a jumar in the theatre of Lyons', but the resul 

' Venctl*, p. 3)4, froln a horee and cow. It ww reported that the of&pring of 
Wi ae* and b. cow b«d dovsn hoofs. Boiirguet, LiUra philotophifuti, IV. p. i6o, and 
tmm a bull and an ms Manuel Laiqat, Faria, 1755. Encj/dop. Parii. T. tx. p. 
57. B. S. Albinua in PraUc. phi/iiiol. Mipti>. Still more recently thu author ol 
the book CouTi O'hitl. not. ou laUtau dt io nafiw*. T, I. Paru, ijjo, " 
Gleicbeo, Ux. dt. ]>. 19. 

' TrartU, p. ijg, ed. Oif., 1738, there called Kumrah. 

' Vasagt to Congo in Uhurehill'a CoIIm. T. i. p. 655. 

* Didton. LanjpiedocUn FrancoU, par M. niAt de S... k NiroM, 1; 
p. ijfi. 

' Mm, tepra 1 mu7i', p. 6. 

* Aranl-awrrur, 1767, No. jo »], 

r his labours are not satisractory, because he seems to have 
trusted too much to report. " The ventricle was in shape like 
that of the horse, but much larger. Tlie jumar had altogether 
much more of the mare than of the bull both m to its external 
form, and its interior constitution, especially as regards the 
ventricle, whose singular structure in the bovine genus, on 
account of their rumination, is well known. And thus the 
observation of those physicians stands confirmed, who assert 
that the mother has a larger share in the formation of the 
foetus than the father." The consequence therefore of this 
investigation was that the learned knew less what to think 
than ever'. Afterwards Bufifon had two jumars dissected; one 
from the Pyrenees, the other from DauphinA In neither of 
them was any trace of a bull to be fomid'. 

All this however was not enough for inquirers into natural 
history. And at last, at the request of some men of great note, 
Bonnet, namely, and Spallanzani, Cardinal deUe Lanze had two 
jumars' dissected by a skilful hand, and ordered anatomical 
plates of them to be engraved. It is very clear from these 
efforts that the pretended jumar is nothing more than a 
mere hinny* (bardeau). Tiie larynx, glottis, ventricle, biliary 
(iiicta, are all specifically equine and not bovine. 

Thus was finally proved what was suspected from the first 
by the great Haller'. I myself have lately seen at Cassel quite 
closely two hinnies, which report asserted to be Jumars. They 
were of the size of a large ass, and very like one in shape, 

^F^ Diaiotm. du ofHnmiia-, T. ii. p. 555. Uumare, Dirt. Mat. T. vi, p. 1 J4, 

• Bunnet on 3pallanx. ep. Jfcm. K^tra i muli, p. 1 1. Emyclt^. par De Felice, 

• Ftdhi the lUUion uid Bhe-ua. Vmto, De n rutt, 11. 8, i. Columella, vl, 
37, 5. Plin. nn. c lUV. J, Heejch. "Uinn;, oF which tlie Father ia a hoiM, 
uul the noUicr u tuu." Smaller than the nulv, very patient of labour, tail tilia 
an aa, Ite. Liniiana eridentlj traD*]>i>sed the tenni of hinny and mule in J man, 
A Old- VI. p. I f , y^ ambig, 

• /. e. p. o. ' 'Thii seems to me too mtioh. nor {■ the™ any proportion between 
the pinle of the ball and the vogiua of the mare." The game difhculty whieb I 

with the Dndecimotnl of the m 


no vestige j^H 

black in colour, with hOTsea' teetb in each jaw'; 
nimioatioD, &c. 

But to return trom this digresdon. TVhat has ab^ady 
been said serves partly to show the difficulty of dealing 
with the accounts of hybrids of species very different from 
each other, and partly as some sort of proof of development; 
and will afterwards be of use to ns when in varietJes alone 
it will help to show that the greater part of the form in 
animals is derived from the mother, and veiy little from the 

Let me say only a very few words about those human 
hybrids which credulous antiquity so frequently declared to he 
bom or generated from brutes', but to which not only physical 
arguments but also moral ones of the greatest importattoa ^ 
forbid us to attach the slightest faith; so that it seetns i 
tremely likely that the Supreme Being foresaw these disgustii 
kind of unions and took care to render them futile. 

ITiose points which ought to be carefully attended to in ■ 
discussion upon hybrids, and which I took notice of above', 
not be neglected here. 

That men have very wickedly had connexion with beasts 
seems to be proved by several passages both in , ancient* and 
modem writers^ That however such a monstrous connexiOD 

' Camp, liie Bem«rk~ tinti ra'tend. dureh DniiieMand, Pranlr. Engl. h. HcU. 
1 1%. p. 60 cq. 

* Jul. Buct^ Paneiu, AldravBiidiu, Schenk, Licetiu, and other cmnpilenuf 
prodigie*. On the Swcdisb girl rsTiihed \>y ■ beu-, mnd the hero iibe ^le birtli to, 
■OS &LI. Grunm. uid Olsus Magniu. (The rags of beua agninit pregnsnt woniFn 
mnd the mngnlar remedy for it perhaps occagionpd this f»hlB.) A giniilw •Imy 
Dccun in Viae, le BUnc, Yagorin, p. \ 19 gq. Tbe inatADces in the writinei of llie 
Bucient* have l>een atudinuily collated b; Kortun. Fidelia, Dt rdaL Mtdic p. 493 
•q. Slorch, Kindcrkrankk. I. p. iG, reUtea aome more recent ones. 

■ r ;j. 

* Plutarch in ncTeral pU^ea !n tbe Sympana and the ParalMt. VirgO, Eeiey. 
m. 8. Tbut Seminunia carried her paaaion for a horse to that point ia laaerted by 
Juba, in Pliny, vin. 0. 4J. 

' Oa the 3000 Italian atuilianea to the Due de Nfinnan, in 1563, who wert 
KDt into Daaphinf, and who rarisbcd the ahe-g:oal^ aee Bayle, IHel., Art. Balkft- 
int, T. I. p. 469. Th. Warton on TUeoer. Idylt. (Oiford. 1770. 4I0.), 1. 88. p, 19. 
"I have beard from a learned friend, that when he wa« trareUing in Sioilj, and 
<TU aceoralel; inveatigHting tbe ancient man u men ta and the manners of the propK 
that one of the naual pointa of oonfeuion which the prieata war* La tiie hatal of 

-tatioa ^ 


^any where ever been fruitful there is no well-established 
nee to prove. Indeed those tilings which are related of 
intercourse of Indian women vrith the larger apes and of 
tneir aulhropotDorphoua oiftipring' seem dubious and fabulous 
even to James Bonlius', who is in other respects sufficiently cre- 
dulous. And even if it be granted that the lascivious male apes 
^Btttack women, any idea of progeny resulting cannot lie enfer- 
^^^uned for a moment, since those very travellers relate that 
^Hae women perish miserably in the brutal embraces of their 

I now leave this disgusting theme, and all the more 

willingly, because I must draw near our goal; but still a few 

fords must be said upon the actual ways in which man differs 

1 other animals, before we investigate the varieties of men 

themselves. The theme ia indeed a most fruitful and 

admirable one, but the narrow limits of this book do not 

permit me to linger long over it, and it ia necessary in this 

place to dismiss it in a few words ; although the slender matter 

which I have got together on this interesting subject, I will 

gladly promise to give elsewhere to the public. 

^^ I think I shall here perform my duty best, if I first say 

^^b little about the endowments of the mind, and then about 

^^Bie bodily structure. Not indeed that these two points have 

^^Bjqwrently the slightest relation to each other. For it would 

clearly be impossible to draw any inference from compariDg 

the organic stnicture of animals with the human body, as to 

their respective mental faculties: which will easily appear to 

any one who compares an elephant or a horse with an ape 

(which Reines' calls the copy of a man, or even a man as 

ex&miniiig the Sicilum Lenlflmon who flpent a solitftrj life upon tho moontaioa 
ftboDt, vu wbethir tbej hul ui^lblng t'l do wilh tbeir bowb," 

II ia raid that the orguu of the Jlannlia are so like those of womtin that the 
Arab* oopolate vith them. Comp. Michaelis, Fms. an die nach Arab, nutnden, 
p. US- 

> See Zncdiell;. RelaX. di Conga, p. I48. 

» Hilt. JVa(. tt MtiL 'Ivid. V, c. 31. "Let boya believe who have not jot to 

* Comp- Wiolantl's degatit diascrtatios on this point agauist RousBcau, Beylr, 
rm- odLgaek. da M, V.u.U, 11. p. ja. 

* Far. led. p. 69. 


regards the stnicture of the fiice, the <f>opdii and the motions of 
the limbs), 

Ajs to the discussions, which in this age particularly, have 
stirred up so many barren disputes about the mind, the 
and the speech, &e. of brutes, they do not seem to me to be 
really so difficult or confused, if a man have only a moderate 
familiarity with the habits of animals, some knowledge of the 
physiology of the human boily, and be sufficiently free from 

Man then alone is destitute of what are called inatincts, 
is, certain congenital faculties for protecting himself from e: 
nal injury, and tor seeking nutritious food, &c. All his instil 
are artificial (kuitetrtriebe), and of the others there are only 
BmallfcBt traces to bo aeon. Mankind therefore would be v< 
wretched were it not pre8or\-ed by the use of reaaon, of wl 
other animals are plainly destitute, I am sure tbey are 
endowed with innate or common and truly material sense (whk 
is not wanting either to man), especially after comparing ei 
thing which I have read ' upon the rational miud of animals 
their mode of life and actions, and what perhaps is the 
important speculation, and demands most attention, with 
phenomena of death, which are very much like both in 
and men'. Instinct always remains the same, and is not ad' 
ed bj cultivation, nor is it smaller or weaker in the yoi 
animal than in the adult Beason, on the contrary, may 
compared to a developing germ, which in the process of time, 
and by the accession of a social life and other external circum- 
stances, is as it were developed, formed, and cultivated. The 
bullock fecla its strength bo much as to threaten, though 
weapons of otfence do not yet exist ; 

Before bia bom adorn the calf, tbey're there, 
AU wcuponlen be butti, and furioui beats the ur' 

' Very recently in DtiilicA. Stfriur. 177J, Septeniher, October. 

» Caniao, Dttubtil. 1. 11. p. 551, T. 111. Oper. "Mvi U no nii 

than an auimal ii a (ilant, For if au animal, although it ia Dojruhed 

livea, does not deserve Ibe naine of a plant, nor ii entirely a plant, bcciiue it liai _ 
life which feels over and above the plant, (inoe nuui bju a mLDd ever and above the 
aniniat, be coaiea to be aa animal," k,a. 

* Laeret. v, 1033. Comp. Beimar, IVifd. Ar (A. 




whence unless from some interior scnsatifm ? To man, on tho 
contrary, nothing of the kind happens, He ia bom naked and 
weaponless, furnished with no instinct, entirely dependent on 
society and education. This excites the flamo of reason by de- 
grees, which at last shows itself capable of happily supplyuig, by 
_itBelf, all the defecta in which animals aeeni to have the advan- 
ige over men. Man brought up amongst the beasts, destitute 
pintorcourse with man, comea out a beast. Tho contrary how- 
r never occurs to beasts which live with man. Neither the 
savers, nor the sealfi, who live in company, nor the domestic 
Lais who enjoy our familiar society, come out endowed with 

From what has been said, the direct difference between the 

and speech of animals is plain', since wc consider that man 

le ought to be held to possess speech', or the voice of reason, 

beaats only the language of tlie aflections. In process of 

le, the mind becomes developed, and tindi; out how to express 

ideas with the tongue. Young children give names to those 
they love, which is the case with no animal, although they can 
distinguish their master and those familiar to them welt enough. 
Tliwse stories are utterly undeserving of attention which the old 
travellers related about the language of certain distant nations, 
who they said were endowed with nothing but an inarticulate 
and, a/t it were, brutish voice. It is indeed beyond all doubt 
that the fiercest nations, the Califomiana, the inhabitants of the 
Cape of Good Hope, &c. have a pecuUar sort of speech, and 
plenty of definite words, and that animals on the contrary, 
whether they be like man in structure, as the famous orang- 
utan is', or approach man in intelligence, to use the words of 

ly about the elephant, are destitute of speech, and can only 


Plan aetUTOl d-K mondt primilif, p. lo, 
and of the ideu. Thu Brat U 
inui;li mors perfsol iu tho former. 

^„. , ... .. j»n only be idipled to bim, icM- 

m%\oa» to which he alouo oE all the beings who inhabit 

Ctmut de Gebelin «ajii ■ 
"Luigija^ IB twofold: that .. 
comniUQ both to miiii and the animola, thuu^h 

The BBcond in abeolutely peculiar to '■— ■' ' 

macb as it amwera to ibe opei 
the c«rth can elerato himadf.' 

» HencewnuaoftheEabbiiiBnotmaptly callniw»ii<ipeaiinpoHimai. 

• Th. Bowrey, Jfa/ayo Diaionary, London, i jot, ^to. Ott. Fr. v. d. at&ten, 
Qnintiiche rritfiKtchr. p. 51, 




emit a few and thrae equivocal sounds. That speech is the vt 
of reason alone, appeaj-s from this, that other animals, althoof^ 
they have neiirly the same organs of voice as man, are entire 
destitute of it'. 

K DOW any one casta an eye on the human body, it would c 
tainly be more easy to distinguish man from every other animal 
at the very first glance, than to lay down any fixed criterion' iij 
which he differs from the rest. It would seem as if the Siiprem 
Power had avoided giving any distinct and persistent cbara 
to the human body, juat in exactly the same proportion s 
its highest master-piece far excels all other animals in its noble 
part, which is reason. 

But it will be worth while to reckon up, one by one, a few d 
those things which seem peculiar to onr bodies. First of all I 
would speak of the erect position of man, which I cannot leai^ 
^^ untouched because of the recent paradoxes of P. Moscati"f 

^L although it is very tedious to serve np, and as it were to chew 

^H over again a matter which has been most thoroughly invesH- 

^H gated, and is clearer than the noon-day sun. It is true, I can 

^H believe that this elegant author, who is in other ways worthy of 

^H all praise, composed this book as an attempt and not quite 

^H seriously, partly because he has mode use of arguments which 

^H you would scarcely expect to find from a man not only acquaint- 

^H ed with human and comparative anatomy, but from one who 

^H constantly appeals to both ; and partly because he leaves quite 

^M unnoticed points of indisputably great importance as to the 

^M bipedal structure of man, which have already been most dili- 

^M gently handled by the great Galen*, and the immortal Barth. 

^M EuBtachiue'. I could easily allow our author' that there is Uttle 


' I h»VB iny»elf found tlio iivnla in aped, &tic] the other parte of ths I^rynr 
eXMtl; like tloM In mini. Beoon Ihe Pygmy, Tjaon, p. si. 

' LinuBius oonlil discover no point bv which man could bi diBtinirtiiiiheil trom 
tbe apo. Prir/. atl Faun. Surcic. " 

' Mir rarporet difcnnct enenardi, c/u pattano fra la ttrutlHTa da' bruti, e la 

. It5sqq.,o. l6, 
ed. Tenet. 1564, 4to. 

• EinociiOly in hb procioas hooks Dt ntu partium, 1. 
» Throughont tbe Ottiun examtn, pp. 175— 181, ed. 

' P. 34 


weight in those common arguments for the erect position of 
man, deduced from the position of the great occipital foramen', 
the proportion of the feft to the hands, the mamniEe, the chest', 
and the shape of the shoulder-blade ; although there remain the 
greater difficulties of the parts which so wonderfully prove that 
the walk should be bipedal, I say nothing of tlie apes of the 
heart and its direction in the embryos of man and the brutes ; 
this indeed our author' mentions, but yet eiplains in such a way 
that he seems to give a handle to the opposite opinion. I aay 
nothing of that powerful argument deduced from the movement 
of the head and its connexion with the first cervical vertebrae, 
and I omit it tlie more readily, because of that elaborate work 
of Eustachiiis on the point*, which I should have to transcribe 
almost in its integrity. The pelvis alone, and the construction 
of the feet would easily bruig over to my view those in other 
respects acquainted with anatomy, if thoy would compare even 
cursorily the composition of the bones of the quadrupeds with 
those of man. Let any one look at the broad flanks of the 
human skeleton, ending below in a narrow hip, the short pelvis 
largely dilated above but narrowed below so as to open an 
escape for the foatus, yet carefully provide for the prolapsus of 
the womb, and then compare these things with the oblong right- 
angled and almost cylindrical pelvis of quadrupeds with their 
wide hip, and their outwardly curved ischiatic prominences; 
lastly, let him observe the construction of the glutei muscles, 
and the connexion of the muscles of the leg in man and the 
brutes, and then let him say if he thinks it probable that they 
can have the same mode of locomotion. Let any one make the 
ejcperiment on some freSh animal skeleton, or at least let him 
look at Goiter's picture" of the erect skeleton of a fox, going along 
in the moat ridiculous manner on its hind-feet, and then let him 
imagine a human skeleton resting upon its arms and feet, and 

' Dftubenton, S^ir ta diffirtn^r* de la titualion da grand trou ceeipilai dtmt 
rkimiHt tt ilnni la animujix. Mlm. d* t'Aead.tkt Scda Ptru, 1764, p. 568. 
■ S« Kustacb. I. c. p. 175. 
• P. 16. 


Norib. t57S. ful- mag- Tab. I 


he will not but see that a bipedal brute and a quadrupedal 
would equally paas for prodigieB. Inseparable also from thai 
general consideration of the pelvis is that other proof derived 
from the acetabulum, and the head and neck of the thigh-bonsai 
And that this neck is oblong in man. and goes downwards witkil 
a sensible oblii^uity, hut is short in brutes, even in apea, aad< 
nearly horizontal; and the head more obliquely articulated with- 
the hip ; bo the whole structure of the bones of the feet, the thick 
caJcaneum of man, the juncture of the ancle with the sole of the 
foot, which in man too is oblong and broader, and many other 
things of the kind which point in this direction, disagreeably 
trite and too well known ta students of anatomy, but difficult to 
be nnderstood by those unacquainted with medicina For whioh 
reason I think it would be foolish to say much about thei 
especially as I have indicated the sources to wliich those shot 
go who want still more proofs of so easy a matter. 

Another property of man comes directly from the foregoing, 
namely, his two hands, which I consider belong to mankind 
alone; whereas apes, on the contrary, must either have four or 
none at all, of which the great toe being separated from the other 
fingers of the feet serves the same purposes which the thumbs 
do in the bauds. This is so certain, that on that account alone 
the fcetus said by Kobinet' to be that of a pongo, must certainly 
l»e considered a hnman embryo, even if no notice be taken of the 
other proportions of the bodily parts, and the whole structure 
which is entirely human. Hahn* besides Galen* has writi 
expressly on the admirable formation of the human hand. 

All these things therefore being duly weighed, I am induced 
conader even that famous animal the orang-utan as a quadni] 
I know indeed that several authors of voyages have esud a 
deal about him. and given him out as a biped. The 
which induce me to come to a different conclusion, be^des the 
tendency of many travellers to exaggerate a little what is extra- 

^of^M^ a 


y, are the fullowiag; in the first place, some wlio hare 
described these animals have saiil only that it /requfntlit' goes 
on its binder feet, which at least excites a suspicion, that they 
do go on all fours like other animals: moreover, many are de- 
picted in the plates as leaaing upon a club, after the fashion of 
dancing bears'. Tlie pahn of their bands is as deeply furrowed, 
and marked with folds and slits as the soles of their foet*. 
The depressed and receding becl-bonea prevent their walking 
firmly. If you examine them more closely, the elongated pelvia, 
and especially the muscle called eUvalor c/aricu^c*,mako it highly 
probable that a quadrupedal gait is cntural to this animal. The 
inotance of the long-armed ape is favourable to the same opinion*. 
Man therefore is the only biped, unless any one likes to ])ut for- 
ward the manati, birds, (especially penguins,) or the lizard 
Siren, The example of those unfortunate creatures who, 
according to accounts, have been here and there brought up 
amongst wild bea:^, goes no way to sbow that the erect posi- 
tion is not natural to man. Hard necessity, perhaps too imita- 
tion, taught these wretches to go on their hands and feet at the 
same time that they were obliged to creep through woods and 
fruit-bearing copses, and even into the dens and receptacles of 
wild beasts; nor is it quite certain that it was the case with all. 
The Hessian boy' found amongst the wolves sometimes only 
walked as a qnadniped; the girl of Zell', and the girl of 
Champagne', and the boy of Hameln' went upright. And the 
argument deduced from the first crawlinga of infants is much 
weaker still, since it must be very well known to any one who 
has observed them, that they scarcely ever crawl aa quadru- 
peds, but rather squat upon their buttocks, rest upon their 

' Leguat, T. u. n. gi—iouirnt — Tulp. 1. in. e. i6—miiltolia. 

» TjsoD. EdwirdB, Buiibn. The orang-utan which I raw tovKilf alive At Jon* 
in 1770 could not go od iu hinder feet wiiliout tlie osaist&nce of > stick, nor walk 
•liont tmnlj at aU. 

» L« Cat. TVai'W da rnouivnifnl tmuiculalre. Tab. I. 

• Tjaoa, Anat. vfapt/gniff.Sga. ^, li, p.Sj. Ojiiic. London, ij5i, 

• /f<mo lar. Una. 

• Dilkh, Htmttht Chnmlck. P. n. p. 187. 
' Brttl. Samml, January 1718, AugusI and October i;ii. 

• JKil. d'liTuJflU lauvage, 4c. Parie, 1761, Mmo. 

• Srtd. SampU. Dae«tDber, 1715. 


hands', and as it were row with their feot Pliny* therefore was 

not quite correct when he said that the first promise of w 
and the first gift of life was to make a man like a quadruped. 

As to those who make out the erect position to be 1 
fomenter of disurders, they must forget botli veterinary practil 
and the disea^en' which we find afflict both wretched men e 
fierce quadrupeds. 

Besides his erect position and his two hands there are soi 
other things to be considureii which also seem pecidiar to n 
Of all animals he alone seems to be placed on the earth altO' 
gether naked and defenceless, since ho has neither powerful 
teeth, nor horns, nor talons, nor a shaggy hide, nor any other 
protection. It is no use objecting that there are other animals 
equally unprovided; something will always be found which 
keeps them protected to some extent*. He is usually without 
hair, whereas the quadiiipeds which expose their body to tiiB 
heavens and the seasons are provided either with a shaggy hid* 
or a thick skin, or shells, or scales, or spikes. Few parts of J 
man's body can be called hairy^ and his back is nearly b 
which is certainly another argument for the erect position t 
man. His ti^eth all on a level, round, smooth, 
regular, are in oue word so constructed, that it is clear from t 
finit glance, they were given to man principally to chew bia foq 
with, partly also for speech, and in no wise as weapons i 
attack". Even tho teeth of apes difl'er greatly in form i 
those of men. Their canines are longer, sharper, and more d 

' Thus the lioj of Hiraeln. Breil. Samml. I. e. -■ 

* Til. 1. T. 1. p. 369, ed. Hard. 
' &ee the liypouhoadrioa tumors of Ihe j'uiviiu hihtrnUB in Tulp. IV. to. 

* Tbe polypua has saircolj any onfmiea, and whoa it is nccidenUUy w 
fresh snimsls uf its own apeciia uv the nsulC of tbe excrasceace. 

' The iiutuictB of bury men are no objection, and J lun incliaeil to OomiilM' 
(hem a> prodigiea. Tlie haii^ family of tbe Canarr Iilauds, in Aldroraudni, 
MontUr. hilt. p. 16 sqq , even a we cod trust a fcintirally oredulous autbor. are no 
more to be nonJereit at than the six-fiugered fsmiliei. Comp. Zohn, Sptvd. 
phyiico-malA, kill. T. ni. p. 70. I recollect mya^lf tbat thg baak of that maa- 
oatiug sheplierd, who was executed io 1771, st Berck, near Jtma, wbcm he had 
be.n fostcDed to the wheel fur Borne weeks anil exposed to the weather, and Ida 
olotbea fell off, appeared conipletcly covered with shaggy hair. 

* Man ia an animal mllil and soft, whosu strength and power conailt Hon It 
wisdom than ia force of body. Euatach. Dt tUnlilnt, p. m. Sj. 

it from their ne^boors : ihe molars deepiv incisive, brisUing 
as it were with enonnoos tti^ks. Besides the teeth, man is 
marked out as a gentle and unanned being, by the small bone 
which is covered by the lipe. bj which also ho is distinguiabed 
from tbe apes and the other beasts like him. 

It has been disputed whether brutes have tbe same aflW- 
tioQS* of tbe mind as man. This is a very difficult question, if 
we examine tbe ways in which men express joy and sorrow, and 
especially laughter and t^ara. That animals can cry is certain, 
sinoe they have otgans* exactly like those in man for weeping; 
but we must go deeper and enquire whether they do go in con- 
sequence of feeling sonow. It is said to be so with some 
animals, as tlie orang-utan*, tbe sloth*, seals', the horse*, the 
stag", tbe turtle', the tortoise*, Ac, TTie nairatiTe of Steller, 
amongst otheis, deserves certainly great credit; so that it is 
probable that weeping from sadness is common to animals and 
man. Altout lau^ter as the effect of juy there seems more 
doubt. Some animals have peculiar ways of expressing" tran- 
quillity or joy, but I do not think that a change in the muscles 
o( the face", or the utterance of cacchination, has been observed 

any other animal but man. The croaking of apes, or the 
of the sloth, have no more to do with this than tbe barking 

doge, or the songs of birds, as the indications of joy. 
Women have sometbuig peculiar, which seems to be denied 
to all other animals, even if they remain untouched; I mean the 
hymen, which has been granted to woman-kind perhaps much 
more for moral reasons", than because It has any physical uses. 

< Be 

r> etfiJMt iTiuMMaKE. Miwt. lie 

On UiU poiDt, wo Hoacati, I. e. p. 38. 
BerliD, Smr Ic foe natal im taerjmai dt ptar 
: 1766, p. 181. 

» Bonthn, L T. c. 3). 1* Oit, ^ e. p. 35. 
-Bmoli to Ibe ape, in hia ctufeavoar to m&lu < 
"U« tiaiuitioD from miui to the rest of tbe uiimaji. 

An«di m dorr. Mnt. Sthrt, i. p. 53. 

StcUer. V. maderb. narti. p. r40. 

* Sehneiiler, dt CalarrKo, p. j^i. 

T Soma kx^ OD ibeto i/oa aa ^irl, omeaus concretioo, Jtc. 

* Qinquarui, Lavd.yrmint. p. 3,6. 

* LigoD, Barbad. p. 36. 

I* "Tbe mspag of the dog'a tail, the p«cnliar purring of cata, hs. 
U Jamea PanoD, Hnnan Phfiioyttomj/ rT}>!iiiiit<l, p. 73. 
" Bead the gnat Uallar, Pliptni. L utui, p. 9;. 


I am Iiiclmed to allow the meMtrual flux to th 
human kind atone'. There are some who say thai 
animals of that sex have also their menstrual excretions', and 
Buffon' has particularly asserted this of many apes. The whole 
point depends upon the notion of a periodic flux, which, if pro- 
perly considered, will scarcely he allowed to apes. I have care- 
fully observed many female apes of more than one species, and 
that for many yeat^, in the menagerie of Biittuer, yet I cannokj 
undertjike to say that they have menstrual excretions. M( 
while it is certain that they arc afflicted with liwmorrhagea 
the womb, which however do not occur at any fixed period, 
sometimes after one week, and sometimes after three or mi 
return in the same ape, which otherwise is enjoying good heall 
in some however it never appears at alL 

These two things then, the liymen and periot^cal meiul 
ation, I consider as peculiar to mankind*. As to the diiaria 
the nymphte', there is no doubt that other animals also hi 
them too; and in some the clitoris appears very large 
almost enormous. The hymen, the guardian of chastity, 
adapted to man who is alone endowed with reason ; but 
clitoris, the obscene organ of brute pleasure, is given to beaBi 
also. A few examples are enough : in the papio mandril [Si 
viaiinonides Linn.) which I dissected last winter, I observed 
clitoris of half-an-ouQce in weight, swelling, wrapped in a li 
prepuce, and so prominent that it might easily have 
incautious observer think the animal was an hermaphrodite, and 
all the more because a little fold, which was visible in the apex 
of the member and impervious, increased the genemi 
blance to the virile gland. The nymphcs seemed worn down, 
had coalesced with the callous and gaping lips of the pudendi 
And I have observed those as well as the cUtoris distinctly i 
Mongos Lemur, which I myself saw alive last summer at Got! 

' Thus Pliniua, vii. 15. p. e 

> Bee in HJier, I. c. p. 13; 

' T. ire, XT. frequently. 

' A» to some of tlie old wiveB* atones nbout 

I nut to meutnute, >t this timo oF daj thej 

' It ia doubled by Linoaua, Si/it. Nat. ed, X 


I, o r J 


p. 381. SoliouB er Dmocrilo, I. p. m. 6, 

.B natinng of Amerioa, wllO m 




geo. Hie Didaciylus igname of the Rnyal Museum lias a, vei-y 
round clitoris between the swelling lips of the pudendum. But 
the great Haller has collected many instances', These therefore 
are some of the points which are peculiar to mankind and which 
can be easily distinguished without any very delicate anatomy. 
I leave out others, as the immobility of the ears', or the hairs of 
K^tber eye-brow', which were formerly attributed to man alone. 
^ A very extensive and at the same time a very pleasant field 
1 ivoiild be open to us, if we could now investigate the internal 
Btracturo of the human i>ody, in so fiw as it differs plainly from 
the Btructure of other animals. But the limits of this our book 
do not allow us to wander so far. It is therefore the business 
of those who want information on these points to go to the 
authors of- comparative anatomy, and, aliove all, to those who 
have dissected carefully the animals which are most like man ; 
among^ whom it will be sufficient to mention Eustacliius*, 
Goiter', Riolani*, and Tyson'. Let them study those who think 
that perhaps the orang-utan and some other apes are not so 
much unlike man, but that they may be considered as of the 
same species, or, at al! events, as animals veiy closely allied to 
man. It is now my present intention to select a few points 
^om many, and reckon tliem up briefly. 

As the brain, the most noble eutrail of the animal body, for 
numberless reasons which everybody knows, demands particular 
attention beyond all other parts, men of the greatest reputation 
have laboured' on its comparative anatomy and have stirred up 
others', when there was an opportunity, to similar labours. 

' I^ e. p. 80. Besidei thou is the perfi 
bUdder of tbe Cooeang Lemar (hmfijmuf Lini 
to pire it the nwno of it* country) in DKulKOtoD, T. x 
Cm) it be likely tliat thio w&b >n nbnonnal accident 1 

> Aristot. IJt pari. aniiH. U. ii, 

• Paualt, Jliil. da anim. P. iiT. p. 1 11. cd. PftriM, 173*. He Baw it in tli 
elephiMt. thii oatrich, the vulture, 1 lutve eesn thiiiga very like tlm humikD giiea i 
muiT' apn. 

• Freqneotly. • Prindpal. mrp, h. part. lah. Norib. I ^7.^. (ol. inaj. 

• Jo. RioL Jo. lil. Oilfoloyia timia, Par. ifir4, gvo. ' Op. o'l. 
Sam. OoUin's CmnparafJw Analomy. Hullor, Physiol. T, tv. and Op. Minoi 


• lUler, PAynot. T. v. p. jig. 


Becollecting thia, as I have been fortooate ewn^ to dJaseot 
upea, last winter, of more thaa one kiml, I have, above aO, 
tnve>tig«(ed their Imbuis, and I exhibit as a specimeu the ba« | 
of OM*. It is the hnin trf that very maDilnl I k&s just speak- 
ii^ o£ Cut off at the great ucdpital fotaiueu, and takeo out ) 
of the skull, it weighed three ounces and one drachm, whilst 
the rest of the body of the ape weighed eight common pounds 
and a half. The principal points in which its base differs from 
the human oi^au are these. The two aatenor lobes of the 
bnun are almost eatirelr unified. The cerebellum is large iu 
proportion to the braiu, more than is the case with the pygmy. 
The pons varolii is separated Irom the meduBa oblongata by no 
apparent fissure, but is joined mi, and down continuously with 
iL Not a vestige of the pyramidal or olivary bodies, as is also 
the case m the pygmy- The meduUa fiblot>gata much thicker 
than in the man or the pygmy. The second pair of nervea 
which were united iu one great mass and then again divided 
at the very entrance of the orbits, was cut off before the sepa- 
ration. No rtte miraltile. I omit other things of less import- 
ance, which any one who i^ skilled in anatomy will easilv 
recognize ; and I can assure such an one that the figure is 
most accurately drawn*. 

I have subjoineil to the brain the skull of the same p(q>io, 
in which, besides thedeeperorbit5.ihethickuessof the zygomata, 
the widely divergent teeth, the immense canines, and other 
Uiings of smaller importance, that peculiar bone in which the 
incisoiB are set deserves particular attention. This man is with- 
out, although all the apes and most of the other mammals' 
have it. I doubted whether it was to be found in the orang-utan; 
since in the figures of Tyson* and Daubeuton' the skuUs were 
not drawn in such a way that the sutures could be well distin- 

> PL I. fig. I. 

' CotDpikre irilh my Sgon tfaa bnun of Tyson's fyftaj, £g. i j, aoct thkt mat 
■k^Uit cbikrt b; HaUer of the bus of tb« hmsBo LiniiC Fuc. vil. Tkb. L To tD^ 
ttw compuinBi nser, I hare preKrrcd the unw lettering, by which in Halln'i 
cfaart the pute of the brain are marked. 

' The Mfrieeapiaga diiiattfia, whom ikoll I hcTo, duca not poMcai it. 

' i. e. fig- 5. 

' Mtm. dt Par. ,^4, Tab. XXi. fig, t. 


P: nor did tbe Eo^ish author speak precisely about 
: but Fr. Oabr. Sulzer has settled the point, for he kindly 
writes me word that Camper, a great authority, has disserted 
) of this kind, and fonnd this bone in them. An-rther 
Ibrence flows from this singular structure, namely, in the 
! of the nose, which is double in the human head, and 
nearly of a rhomboidal figure, whereas it is seen to he single in 
the apes, and also triangular, which however, like tbe other 
things which may be observed in this figure, are very patent, 
and will easily be seen by those who know anything of osteology, 
and therefore do not want any further explanation. 

Among^ other differences between the human bo<Iy and 
that of the beasts there are some which are better known, 
and may be briefly touched upon. As, for example, the niem- 
hrana niclttans, periophthahnium, or third eyelid, which Haller' 
eays is in man a very slight imitation of tbe organ in animals, 
although in animals also according to their class and order, 
^^^Mr mode of life, and their size, it differs much in position and 

^^B Besides this, tbe bulbous or suspensory muscle of tbe eye is 
^^Smmon to nearly all' quadrupeds, and so is the suspensory liga- 
ment of the neck, which is said to be wanting in man and tbe 
apes alone'. This white and tendonoua part which is known to 

> The Sgnre Of the skeleton of -the long-huuled ape in Buffan, T. Zlv. Tkb. Ti, 
haathenm« fault; ui>1 even Ca'tter, wbo is Vinous in other thlti^ hu umitloil to 
muk tbi* t»Qe in the skeletoD of tlie t*iled ape, the figure of which ia added to in 
the book and plaoe already qnott^ fitill it is moiit diitinctlj vuiiUe in the skulla 
of fire diSereiit kind* uf ape* nhieh I have before me. 

' P. 65. "In ft moDkej I obaerred that pecnliar Butare Riolan mentionB, bat 
did Dot find it in the P;gmie, onl; in the pabte of the Pjgade I obaerred a 
nittrn. not from the dens canisua, as wu in the monkey, but from the eecond ot 
tbe dmtca indsorea." 

* PAyno/, T. T. p. 318, where there are a good many interesting thiogii about 
this raeinbnne. Thpre is a ^ood deal about it alao in Peter Tarrarruii. Cok anaf»- 
miVAfin Atti dt' fiiico-critin d% Siom, T. UL p. ii;. De Pauir. Rcdierch. philot. 
nr la Americ. T. 11. p. ;oB. 

* In BOTce I cenaiid; found a few tnea, m in the Xemur Mongol. It is email 
too in the kpes. 

* It is wanting' in l^eon'a oreng-iitan. p. 85. AnJr. Vtnaliaa had falnelr and 
oMinatclj Mligned it to man. Camp. Ualler. I. e. p. 411. DougUu Schreibcri, 
p. 40. 

' Unnam, S/d. XaL cd. xn. T. t. p, ^%. 



everybody, and is called by my countrymen, haarwachs; by i 
English', pachwax, taxwcuc, jixfax and wkiteleather ; by 1 
Belgians', vast, &c. is inserted fur the purpose of sustaining the 
head and neck of quadrupeds'. But although man shares the 
absence of this with the apes, yet it by no meaus follows that 
apes are meant to walk upright, since in thorn the subtle 
structure of tlie vertebra of the neck, and in man the peculiar 
bipedal walk, supply the defect of this ligament The whole 
point about the bodies of these vertebi's is host explained 
by a comparison of these bones themselves, as they appear 
in the skeleton of the man and the ape, and for this reaac B. * 
I have had engraved the whole construction of the vertebne a^| 
the neck in the same papio * (PI. il. fig. 1), the base of whostf^ 
brain and whose skull we have just seen, because in that it 
may be seen as clearly as possible why he scarcely ever goes 
on two feet. I have subjoined the fifth and sixth vertebns 
of the human neck (PI. IL fig. 2). In these the bodies i 
nearly parallel, aud almost disciform, whereas in the ape tfa^ 
descend by a sort of scaly process in front, and one is pla 
upon and dove-tailed into the other. So it can easily be r 
plain by experiment that the vertebtEe in these aoimalg son 
port each other, and serve to sustain the bead, which could i 
be done with man if placed in a quadrupedal position, on I 
count of the smooth surfaces of the body of the vertebne, for f 
it woidd be excessively difficult to sustain the mass of the ver 
heavy human head, which would more and more collapse and 
subside by its own weight. 

I have selected a few out of many points in which man d 
most clearly from the other animals. I have said that there a 
many which go to demonstrate his natural position to be an e 
one, and to separate him fairly from the apes, especially trom tl 
orang-utan. I have been induced to do this because of t 

■ Allen Mullen, Anatotitieal Aaouat of the EUph. p. 14. liny, Wiidom IffGoi, 
pp. i6[, 338, sud Syaopi. gvadmptdum, p, 136. Dertuuu, Phyiico-tkeol. [1. J14. 

' VeakL Jh eorp. ham fabr. p. 36 1 . 

» L» Fomo, Conn iTlUppiatriqvt, Tib. 11 s. 

* Il would hft'a IweQ tedious to trarscribe from Eiwtachius und Coi 
□tber poiaU in which the vertebne of the »pea diverge from those of oia 


opinioBB lately expressed by some famous men', wlio however 
are iil-inatructed in natural history and anatomy, but who are 
not ashained to say that this ape is vary nearly alltod, and indeed 
of the same Epecie^ with tliemsclvcs. 

I do not tliink this opinion deserves any lengthened refutar- 
tion for those who are adepts in the matter; but it will clearly 
not be foreign to our purpose if I say a few words about the 
orang-utan himself. Alter the labours of Euffon and othcra it is 
not worth while to spend any time on his habits and mode of 
life'. But it would be worth while if the species were a little 
more accurately defined. For although this remarkable animal 
has very seldom been seen in Europe, and few authentic repre- 
sentations of it exist, still such as they are they differ so much 
from each other that they can in no way be considered as belong- 
ing to one and the same species. I shall pass by the delineations 
which are manifestly fictitious, or carelessly drawn, such as those 
of Bontius, Neuhof, Jiirgen Andersen, Jo. Jac. Saar, and Franc. 
Leguat; and examine more closely the authentic ones alone, 
These are those of Tulp, Tyson, Edwards, Scotin', Le Cat, and 
Bufibn, which when they are compared together manifestly 
difi'er very much both in form and size. Recent authors have 
deduced from this a variety of species, and have called one the 
larger, and the other the smaller oraug-utau. I do not however 
place much trust in this distinction. Some of the specimens 
which have been brought to Europe were very young, and there 
were indications which, considering that they all died prema- 
turely*, forbid us to come to any conclusion as to their size. Still 

' Own d'hUt, not, T. i. That gnod oitiioii of Geneva Sur VinigaliU panai la 
AijntBM* p. IJ7D, T** Orv/FH(;rtcii'rojr«j»i)/Zanjuoj<, VoLi, pp. 17J, 189. Mitt. 
o/Jamait^ Vol. U, p. nftj. Lond. ij;<, 4to. 

* 1 sb*!! out; remiirk oa tbe nuns oraag-utan, that it U inoorrtotly tnuulnted 
"wiM imu)," honio tj/ltiatrii. Man in MiJa/ ia Mantma, but tbe word oran U 
■f [iliwl nut only to nuui, bnt >Ibo to the alephaat, vhom the ludiuns think U 
lenaible. Biiltner, to whom I am indebteiL for thii obaarvatioQ, tnaaUtea it 
iHUlligtnt being. 

' Soolln'i Miimal, Cluiiipansi, brought by H. Howe, mmter olihe akip Sptattr, 
rrom Angola to Lomlon. in .^ug. 1738, wa* Sgured Heparatcly by Sloaiie, and 
rrpeateil in Xnri acta erttd. Lipi. Sept. 1739, Tab. V. p. 564. Linn. AvlArop, Am. 
at. Vol. »t. Hauber, Bibl. mafjica, a. 35, La Cat, above. The others are well 

< Tbe one Bufibn law wae two yean old. Tyson's bad nol yet cut all its teoth. 

, ana 

96 OBASO-UTAlt. 

the babit of their whole body »nd ibe caafonaaXion of its 
seem to me much more justlr to constitiiie tbeta into specie 
I maj be allowed therefore to admit at least two species, and 
in order that names may not be onDecesearily multiplied, I shall 
give them some which occur in Linnieiis. one which has been 
improperly appended tu man by that ilhKtnoDs author, the other 
to the firai spe«es of apes. Let then be then, — 

L Simia troffhdt/tes or CUm^tamai; iepres«ited by 
and Scotin, macrocephalous, sinewy, haiiy on the back of 
body alone; the front, except the shooidefs, being bare. 

2. ScUynU or OnuMf-utan of Tyson, Edwards, Le Cat, 
BnBbn; rather slntder, with small head, clothed with thick bmr, 
the hairs of the aim and for^anu being in oppueite directions. 
Such was the male wbkh I mentioiied having seen olive at Jena 
It came Tery near to the figniQ of lyson. and at the Bist glance 
was roost unniistakeaUy difierent from the Simia vyfniniu, &c. 
I made a drawing at that time of Urn rare animal, but I r«^l 
that I neglected to measure its parts mors accuiately. 

These are the obserrations made portly by myself, and partly 
hy my first preceptor in natural history, I. K Im. Walch. The 
stature was that of a boy about ten years old, colour brown, 
face sufficiently human, the fingers of the hands and feet mther 
long, the thumb widely separated, the calves more fleshy than 
in other apes, the scrotum pendulous almost square, rather 
white, the penis small like Tj-sou's figure. It was so much in 
the habit of leanii^ on a stick, that though it could stand and 
walk on two feet, most persons would attribute that way of 
walking to the effect of education. The same might be said ef 
his way of drinking and eating, in which actions he used spoon 
and cnpi He showed a great desire for the other sex. 

IJniwus doubted whether the animals which ve have 
divided into two species, but which in his o|union were only 
varieties, differed in anything more than in sex. It is quite true 
that those represented by Tulp and Sootin were female and the 
others males; but still the silence of travellers and eye-witnesses 
like Bontiuaand Th. Bowrey, on any different form in the sexes, 
convinces me that besides the difference of sex there must Bhi> 



a variety of ^lecies. I cannot dismiss these anjmab witiiout 
nieDliotuDg two points, of which one is concerned with a eingu- 
Ur character of them which has been generally neglected, and 
the other regards their native country. I owe the knowledge of 
the former character to my great &iend Sulzer, who repeated to 
me the words of Camper, who, I just mentioned, dissected these 
Satyri himself, "that in the front hands of these animals the 
nails of the thumbs were wanting." There are indeed nails in the 
plates of Tyson, Etlwards, and LeCat; but that singular and 
paradoxical character might very easily have been unnoticed ; nor 
did I pay any attention myself to the nails of the Jena satyr. 
Was this a third species? that I cannot decide. The other 
point that remains to be mentioned is as to the native country 
of both species (chimpansi and orang-utan). By almost all zoo- 
logical writers the torrid zone of the ancient world is given out 
as theirnative country. Bancroft' however relates a report of the 
inhabitants, that the orang-utan may also be found In the thick 
froods of Guiana. This account deserves further attention, but 
is this against it, that the author adds that the animal has 

yet been seen by Europeans resident there. 

There is another animal nearly allied to the Troglodyte and 
the Satyr, which is the Simia longimana (Homo Lar, Linn., Gib- 
bon, Buff.}, an animal exactly like man, if you look at its &ce: 
but differing from almost all other animals if you consider the 
enormona length of its anterior feet. They are indeed represented 
as somewhat shorter in the figure of the Bengalese ape, which 
ia inserted in the Philosophical Transactions', and taken for the 
S. longtTnana, which however is clearly drawn by the hand of 
no artist, as is shown by the unequal length of either fore arm, 
and by other particulars. 

Enough then has been said about the Troglodyte and Satyr. 
And now we must come more closely to the principal argument 
of our dissertation, which is concerned with this question; Ar« 

' A'of. Silt of Gviaiut, p. 130. 

■ VoL ui. P. I. for 1769, p. 71, TA. UL, of wther he. The Teiiule ia 
rppettcd ia Gent. Mag, 1770, Svptnnber, p. 4M. Camp. Peuiuuit, Synoft. iff 
(piadr. p. lOOi 



men, and have the ni«n of all times and of eeery race been 
and die same, or clearly of nutre than one epeciesi A qm 
much discuBBed in these days, but so far as I knov, seldooi 
expressly treated o£ 

lU-feeliiig, negligence, and the love of novelty have induced 
peraoDfl to take up the latter opinion. The idea of the plorali^ 
of human species has found particular favour' with those who 
made it their buGJness to throw doubt on the accuracy of Scrip- 
ture. For ou the 6ret discovery of the Ethiopians, or the beard- 
less inhabitants of America, it was much ea-sier to pronounce 
them different species' than to inquire into the structure of the 
human body, to conHult the numerous anatomical authors and 
travellers, and carefully to weigh their good faith or carelesaneas, 
to compare parallel examples from the universal circuit of natiual 
history, and then at last to come to an opinion, and investigate 
the causes of the variety. For such ia the subtlety of the 
human intellect, and such the rush for novelty, that many would 
rather accept a new, though insuflSciently considered opinion, 
than subscribe to ancient truths which have been commonly 
accepted for thousands of years. 

I have endeavoured to keep free of all these mistakes; 
have written this book quite unprejudiced, and I have dt 
nothing so much as that the arguments which I have broi 
forward for the unity of the human species, and for its m< 
varieties, may seem as satisfactory to my learned and 
readers as they do to myself. 

For although thera seems to be so great a dlfiFerence betwt 
widely separate nations, that you might easily take the 
tants of the Cape of Good Hope, the Greenlanders, and the 
cassians for so many different species of man, yet when 
matter is thoroughly considered, you see that all do so run inl 
one another, and that one variety of mankind does so senFtibly 

' Simon Tynot do P«tot, Voyagtt tt aTtnhaxt dt Jaqiia Maate, T. i. p. 36. 
B»nn (VolUirel, Pkilonn/Au dt I'hittoirt, p. 45. IJem in Qaal. lur PEn^op. 
T. IV. p. I la, T. VII. p. 98, 175, IB completely refuted by BaDer. Brirfm SArr 
«'liii« SimiHrfi noA Irimd. Freii/a'iter vidtr dit Offenh. i. Th. pp. 101, 1 ^4. t^. 

' Of this opjoion were Griffith Hughei, Nat. But. of Barbados, p. 14. Heorr 
n<mt. SktUhf <^ Ihc HUtPry,/ Man, Vol I. p. IJ. ' -^ i- 



pass into the other, that you cannot caaik out the limita between 

Very arbitraxy indeed both in number and defimtioo have 
been the varieties of mankind accepted by eminent men. Lin- 
meua' allotted four classes of inhabitants to the four quarters of 
the globe respectively. Oliver Goldsmith* reckons sis, I have 
followed Linnieus in the number, but have defined my varieties 
by other boundaries. Tlie first and most important to us (which 
is also the primitive one) is that of Europe, Asia this side of the 
Ganges, and all the country situated to the north of the Amoor, 
together with that part of North America, which is nearest both 
in position' and character of the inhabitants. Though the men of 
theae countries seem to differ very much amongst each other in 
form and colour, still when they are looked at as a whole they 
seem to agree in many things with ourselves. The second in- 
cludes that part of Asia beyond the Ganges, and below the river 
Amoor, which looks towards the south, together with the islands, 
and the greater part of those countries which are now called 
Australian. Men of dark colour, snub noses, with winking eye- 
lid? drawn outwards at the comers, scanty, and stiff hair. Africa 
makes up the third. Tliere remains finally, for the fourth, the 
rest of America, except so much of the North as was included 
in the first vanety*. 

It will easily appear from the progress of this dissertation in 

> syit, iVal. p. 75. » ffiX. of the Rarth, Vol. n. p, an. 

' Comp. beudt» the Engiuli terraqoeouB globtt, which by the liberalitj of nnr 
qnevn the anivernty hbnuy poBaFSAea, antl the Swedish ODefl of AkenoAn, A copy 
■if which i» due In the kiadoeu of J. Andr, Murmy, the maps of D'Ansille, 
SUlitio, and Engel, and the more reoent labours of de Vnugondy, Sur Itt pai/t dc 
CAtieeCdtrAnijiqintitattaaNarddrlania-duSud. Par. 1774, ^to, 

' [33. Mankind divided into firt rariaita. Formerly jn the lint edition of 
thia work I divideil all nuukiud into four varietiea ; but after I had nioro acon- 
rately inTeitigated the different nattons of Eaatem Ana and Amerioa, and, ■□ to 
■peak, looked M them mora closely, I was compelled to f\vv up that diriiiDn, sod 
to place ID ill atcad tbe following five varietjee, ae more consauant to nature. 

The fint of tbeae and the largest, which ia also tbe primifvat one, embraces tbe 
■thole of Europe. iDcluding the X^ppa, whom I uannot in any way geparate from 
the rest of tbe Baropeans, when their appearance and their language bear such 
teslimony to tbeir FiDoish origin ; and that western part of Asia which lie* 
towaMii ua, this fide of tbe Obi, the Caspian eea, mount Taurua and the Ganges ; 
alan nortbeni Africa, and lastly, in America, the GreenlandecB and the Emuinuui, 
for I see in these people ■ wonderful difierence from the otber inhabitanti of 
AaiMDo; and, Doleaa I am altDgBlher deceived, 1 think they must be derived from 





which of the four varieties most discrepancies arc still to 1 
found, and on the contrary, that many in other varieties t 
some points in common, or in some anomalous way differ fi 
the rest of their neighbours. Still it will be found serviceal 
to the memory to have constituted certain classes into which the 
f our planet may be divided ; and this I hope I have not 
;her failed in doing, since for the reason I have given 
before I have tried this and that, but found them less satis 
tory. Now I mean to go over one by one the points in whi 
man seems to differ from man by the natural conformation of ll 
body and in appearance, and I will investigate as far as I c 
the causes which tend to produce that variety. 

First of all I shall speak of the whole bodily constitution 
stature, and colour, and then I shall go on to the particular 
structure and proportion of individual parts. It will then be ne- 
cessary carefully to distinguish those points which are due to art 
alone, and finally, though with reluctance, I shall tguch upon 

the Finns. All tlieae nfttions ncsrded u i. whole are vbite in colour, and, if 
con^KTMt with tha rest, beautiful in form. 

The second variety compriieB thst of tlie rest of Asia, which Ii«s bejotid tbs 
Ganga, aniJ the port lying b«;oDd the Caipiui Soa and the river Obi tomud* 
Nova Zembla. The inhabituiW of this oountrj &re cligtinguinhed by bdniE ot 
btowniili colour, more or less verging to ths olive, straight face, narrow ejie-fidi, 
and Hsaaty bur. Thii whole variety may be ■ub.divided into two races, northoni 
and aautbem ; of which one may embrace China, the Corea, the kingdoms of 
Tonkin, F«gD, Siam, and Ava, using rather mono*yl)abio language*, and diadn- 
guUbed for deptarity and perfidiouanesB of tpiiit and of iiiaiinerai and the other 
tJie nations of northern Aeia, Ihe Oitiaks, and the other Siberians, the TunguMB, 
the Mantcboos, the Tartars, the Calmuoks, and the Japanese. 

The third variety coinprisfs what rcouuus of Africa, beaides that nortbeni part 
wbSch I have already mentioned. Bl^k men, muscular, with prominent upper 
jaws, swellina lipa, turned up nose, very black curly hair. 

The foorUl comprises the rest of America, whose Inhnbitants are dutinpushed 
by their copper colour, their thin habit of body, and acuity luJr. 

Finally, the new aoathem world makes up the fifth, with which, unless I am 
miitaken, the Sunda, the Molucca, and tbe Philipjiinc Inlands should he nekODed; 
the men throughout being ofa veiy deep brown colour, with broad nose, and thick 
hair. Those who Inhabit the Padfio AnJiipelago are divided again by John Reinh. 
Forster' into two tribes. One made up of the Otaheitans, the New Zealando^ 
and the inhabttanta of the Friendly Isles, iLe Sutiety, Easter Island, and tb* 
Marquesoa, &c, men of elegant appearance and milii disposidon; whereas llkS 
otbers who inhabit New Caledonia, Tanns, and the New Hebrides. &c., are 
blacker, more cnrly, and in disposition more distrustful and ferocious. Edit. 
tySi, pp. J I, 51. — This is the first sketch of the still famous division of mankind 
by Blumenbach: tha well-known terms Caucasian, Ac. will be found in the third 
•d. below.— Ed.] 

OiwrrafioiH, p, 118. 


nosology and practical metiiciue, bf>t^ wImcIi chapters recent 
authors have tried to obtrude into natui-al hi-jtpry, but which 
I shall endeavour to vindicate for and restore to pathology. 

The firat three things I mean to discuss, the wholo bodily 
constitution, the stature, and the colour, are owing almost ea- 
tirely to climate alone. I must be brief on the first of these 
points, since I have hod no opportunity of exercising my personal 
observation on the matter, and but few and scanty traces are to 
be gathered from authors. That in hot countries bodies become 
drier and heavier; in cold and wet ones softer, more full of 
juice and spongy, is easily noticed. It has long since been 
noticed by W. Cavendish, Marquis of Newcastle, that the bones 
of the wild horse have very small cavities, and those of the 
Frisian horses much larger ones', &c Thia was confirmed by 
the elegant experiments of Kersting, a physician of Cossel, and 
a most skilled in the treatment of animals. He observed*, 
amongst other things, that the bones of an Arab horse, of six 
years old, when subjected to the same degree of heat, were dis- 
solved with much more difficulty in the machine of Papinus than 
those of a Frisian of the same age. It is very Ukcly that simitar 
differences would be observed in the bones of men bom in 
different countries, although observations are wanting, and con- 
clusions drawn from a few facts are unsatisfactory. Here and 
there indeed we find bones of Ethiopians' which are thick, com- 
pact, and hard ; but I should be unwilling to attribute these 
properties to every skeleton coming from hot countries, since 
other instances occm* of skulls of Ethiopians, about which the 
same remark has not been made*. The differences moroever are 
very great between the skidls of Europeans of the same country 
and the same a^, which seem to depend, amongst other things, 

' Oen. Sy>t. of HortemantAip. [Tbe pusa^ alluited to atandB tlioB in the edi- 
tion of 1743, VoL I, p. 11. " I have exporieDCed this differenca between tbe bona 
of tbfl Irg of A Bftrbaiy bone, and oaa from FLanden, tbat the cjavitj of tbe booa 
in the one shall hardly adniil of a atraw whilat jou maj thrust jour Eogar into 
that of tbe other."— Ed.) 

' Horaea' bona arc much more easily disaolved than those of mulea, and aasea' 
(rith rtill greater difficulty. 

' B. S. Albini, SuptiUx Rar. n. ixix. P. Paaw, Prim. A nnt. p. 59. 

* In the Ltg. Ran. n. Xin. and □, iii, it is aaid that the boaea of the Malabar 
women are wery thin. See also J. Eeni. de Fischer, Dt ntodo jiio oaa k vicla. 
aeconm. part., L.B. 1743, Tab. in. 


principally upon the ilii>Je of life '. Perhaps the same is tlu 
case aa to the §iiturea,' which ArriaE* aaya the heada of thw 
Ethiopians lire 'vrtthout, and Herodotus' says the same of thu 
Persian, skulls after the battle of Plataea. The observatiott 
aijmit the whole habit of the body, that the northern* nations 
are'moie sinewy and square, and the aouthera* more elegant, 
seems more reliable. 

I go on to the human stature. It is an old opinion, that in J 
very ancient times men were much larger and taller, and thal^ 
they degenerate and diminish in size even now, that childre 
are now bom smaller than their parents, and all the things a 
this kind which the old poets' and philosophers' have said t< 
discredit their 

But although this may he going too far, stUl we must alloi 
something to climate, so far as that itself is altered by the lapc 
of time. The soil itself becomes milder, so that it may at L 
make its men less gigantic and less fierce. We have alreadw 
spoken of an example of this change in our own Germanjj 
But the idea that these differences of bodies in ancient i 
modem times have been enormous, is refuted by the mumn 
of Egypt, the fossil human skeletons ^ the sarcophagi, and I 
thousand other proofa 

Nor do a few skulls conspicuous for their age and size*, 

I J.^.Coia.iiCovolo, l}tnut.ditor.oti.ped.inquad.aZiqmil,&maa. 1765, p. jl 

■ ifipa^it ut^dXai, Amto. 

» QeL Kbodig. L<cl. A-nt. \m. 18. p. 501. ed. Froben, 
* For the Lappi and fiiini, Loom, Lulu, Uiigatrom, CaltnMcki, PtU 

Grtmlandert, Crnntz, io. 

» For N«w ZeiJand, New Holland, Ac. See a ParkinKin, Ilia iiihalntalil| 
of tlie ulimd of Millicolo, lately visited by Forater, are renmrkable for their aleitda 
armii and feet, aa I have been kindly told by G. C. LJcbteaberg sioce bin retuf 
from England . 

■ Homer says repeatedly that Tjdides, Hector, Ajai, Telamon, toj. (who 
giganUc kuee-oaii Pauaaniaa deioribea ta being shown long afterwarJij went much 
mora BtroDg and laige Iban the men of hu day, alsi vSy PfioTol ilai. And he liM 
Ijean imitated in tliie by Virgil, who repreisnla Turaiu aa equally large, not to ba 
EomiMired with ' Such hum.-ui forma tie earth produc" ' 

' PliD. VIL c, 16. Solin. V. C- - -- - 
Anthrnpom. p. 31, ed. 1663. 

■ There is iu the Museum of our UiiiTersity a (oaail skull tolrrablj oooiplete, ol 
the greatest antiquity, the bones of the head very tbiok, but neither in magnituda 
nor furm diSeHng from a cotnmon skulL 

■ Fabridua Hildan. Ftirtreffi. nub and nethv. d. atvtt. Bern. 1614, p. 109. Hm 
of Uarch. Dietzmano killed at Leipzig, 1307. Glafey, Saeehu. KtrtikM. Hw 

9 upon this point J. S. EUholU, 



of th 



tered about here atid tliei-c, prove anything more than those solid 
ones destitute of suturos, about which 1 was lately speaking. 
Some, it is clear, are diseased'. But as to the bones which cre- 
dulous antiquity showed as those of giants, they have long 
since been restored to elephants and whales'. The investigation 
_ of the causes which in our days make the men of one country 
11 and another short is more subtle. The principal one seems 
I be the degree of cold or heat. The latter obstructs the 
Lcrease of organic bodies, whilst the former odds to them 
aod promotes their growth. It would be tedious even to touch 
upon a thing so well known and so much confirmed in both king- 
doms, were it not that in our time men have como forwai-d, and 
with the greatest confidence have presumed to think otherwise*. 
Experience teaches that both plants and animals are smaller in 
northern countries than in southern; why should not the same 
law hold good as to mankindt Linmeus long ago remarked in 
hia Flora Lapponica*, that alpine plants commonly reached 
twice as great an altitude out of the Alps. And tlie same thing 
may be observed frequently in those plants, some specimens of 
which are kept in a conservatory, while others stand out in a 

Flen, of which the former come out much larger and taller 
I the others. 
I have before me the most splendid specimens in a collection 
ot plants from Labrador and Greenland, chosen by Braaen', 
which I owe to the liberality of my great friend, J. Sam. Lieber- 
kiihn, in which the common ones are almost all smaller than 
those which are obtained in Germany; and in some, as the 

of Henry ot Austria iu the bnioua burjing-place of Kieoigsfeld. FaeBi, Erdb. der 

' Fonil held of Blieuiu. Durgenville, Qri/et, T. i ;, f. 3, tno osieous heulB L^. 
'. in Albiti. p. 4. 

• J. WallM, Antiq. of North Koierland. Dnm. Gagliardi, An, On. p. 103. 
•n Felix PUter, wbo wae the best lecturer of hia ilny in all Europe, sufiered him- 

f to be led into error b; the booes dug U]i at Lucerne in i^T;, and after careful 
■BpariaoQ jn^ve tbem out afl thOM of a human giant, O&jr. Mtd. L ill. Wflgner, 
" !. ffal. adv. p. ly; but they have lately been provad to bo elephant's bones. 
.. C. dir QemSld avfdie Sapel&r. m Lucent. Thu ia alio the case with the Hbs 
ftf Ibe Hdd in the chnrcb ot QiitUngen. 

■ Ai Uenr. Home, loc. eit. p. 1 1. Hit in vain to oKriht to the eliauiit the lota 
tm eftkt Eiquimaux, ftc. 

• PniUsem. ivi. 8. Coinp. Arwid Ehrenraalm, Aiehlt. p. 386. 

• The NUDB obaervatloii haa been made by Uidler, UUl. Stirp. Htlt: U. p. 31 7. 



SJiodiola rosea, which are common to both those re^ons 
America, although their native soil is so near, yet the 
difference is observed that the specimens from Labrador 
somewhat larger than those from Greenland. 

The same is the case with animals. The Greenland 
are smaller than those of the temperate zone'. The 
and Scotch horses are low and small, and in the coldest 
of North Wales so little as scarcely to exceed dogs in size*, 
however useless to bring a long string of examples about a thi 
so evident, when the difference of a few degi-ees 
countries exhibits clearly the same difference. Thus, Heniy 
EUia' observed in Hudson's Strait, on its southern coasts, trees 
and men of fair size; at 61" shrubs only, and that the mea 
became smaller by httle and little, and at last at 67° that not 
vestige of either was to be seen. And likewise Murray, withil 
the limits of a few degrees, and in Gotha alone., declared 
could observe eo well, that whilst he was travelling, although he 
took no notice of the mife-stones, yet he could easily distinguish 
the different provinces by the difference of the inhabitants and 
of the animals. In Scania* the men are tall of stature and bony, 
the horses and cattle lai^c, &c. : in Smalaud they become sensi- 
bly smaller, and the cattle are active but little, which at 
in Ostrogotliia strikes the eye more and more. 

The same thing may be observed in the opposite part of 
world, almost under the same degrees, towards the antarctic 
clo. One example will suffice, taken from the most southi 
part of America, and compared with those European uations 
have just been speaking of The bodies of the notorious Pata^ 
gonians answer to the lofty stature of the Scandinavians. A. 
credulous antiquity indeed invented fabulous stories of their 
enormous size'. But in the progress of time, after Pata^onis 


' Cnox, Hill. v.Gr.p. 97. ' Th. Birch, HiM. 0/ At Unt/nl Soc. m. p. 171. 

■ roy. Ig £lud*oit'» Sag, p. ij6. * Coiup. Linn. Pauna SuedeOt p. i. 

■ Comp. da Brunei, 1, p. 193; n. be;;. Ac. Da Pftuw, I. c. I p. iSi, mi l/lA 
gin. de VAi. Afr. tt AmiH. par M. L. A. R. VoL xiti. Pu-. us-;, p. 50. TIm. 
Vtikaer, Detrr. of Patagonia, p. 116. " The PttK^omai)^ or Puelahei, >r« > Urge- 
bodied people ; bat 1 never hennt of tliat gigantic nun, wbich nthn* ban mm- 
tioned, though J havo aeea pomas of kU the difierent tribea oiaouthan Indiaoi." 


i often been visited by Europeans, the inhabitants, like that 
famous dog of Gellert, became sensibly smaller, until at last in 
our o»-n days they retained indeed a sufficiently large stature, 
but were happily deprived of their gigantic form. If you go 
down from them towards the south, you will find much smaller 
men in the cold laud of Terra del Fuego',who must be compared 
to the Smalands and the Ostrogoths, and by that example you 
will ^^n see how nature is always like itself even in the most 
widely separated regions. 

But besides the climate, there are other causes which exercise 
influence upon stature. Already, at first, I alluded to the mode 
of life', and it would be easy to bring here copious examples 
taken from the vegetable and animal kingdoms, in which the 
difference of nutrition may be detected by the greater or smaller 
stature. But these things are too well known ali-eady, and so 
many experiments of the kind have been made on Swiss cows, 
Frisian horses, &c., that I may easily pass over any proofe of this 
point. I omit also the causes of smaller importance which 
change the stature of organic bodies, which have been already 
most diligently handled by Haller', and I hasten to the last of 

^ptbose things which must be considered in the variety of mankind, 

^■hat is, colour. 

^P There seems to be so great a difference between the Kthiop- 
lan, the whit«, and tho red American, that it is not wonderful, 
if men even of great reputation have considered thom as forming 
different species of mankind. But although the discussion of 
this subject seems particularly to belong to our business, still so 
many important things have been said about the seat and the 
causes of this diversity of colour, by eminent men, that a good- 
sized volume would scarcely contain them ; so that it is necessaiy 
for me to be brief in this matter, and only to mention those 
things which the industry of learned men has placed beyond 
all doubt. The skin of man and of most animals consists of 

> Svdney ParkinHiD, p. 7, PL I 
inohe* Ujjb-" 

"None of (hem s 
» Fhyiint. 1, JUt: 

id sbdve flvo UiA 
I, 5 16. 



three parts; tbe external epidermis, or cuticle; the reticuit 
mjicomim, called from its discoverer the Malphigian ; and lastly, 
the inoer, or corium. The middle of theae, which very mach 
resembles the external, so that by many it ia considered as 
another scale of it, is evidently more spongy, thick, and blaek 
in the Ethiopians; an<I in them, as in the rest of men, is the 
primary seat of the diversity of colour. For in all the corium is 
white, excepting where, here and there, it is slightly coloured by 
the adhering reticulum ; but the epidermis seems to shade off into 
the same colour as the reticulum, yet still so, that being diaphaa- 
Otis' like a plat« of horn, it appears even in black men, if pi 
perly separated, to be scarcely grey; and therefore can ha» 
little if any influence on the diversity of the colour of men. 
The seat of colour is pretty clear, but for a very long 
back there have been many and great disputes about the caui 
of it, especially in the Ethiopians. Some think it to he a sign 
tlie curse of Cain' or Cham', and their posterity; others* hai 
brought forward other hypotheses, amongst which the bile plaj 
the most prominent part, and this was particularly advocated by- 
Peter Barrere', following I>. Santorini'. Although this view 
has been opposed by many', I do not think it ought altogether 
to be neglected. The instances of persona affected with jaundice, 
or chlorosis, of the fish mullet', and moreover the black bile' of 
the Ethiopians, are all the less open to doubt, since more recent 
authors" have observed the blood to be black, and tbe brain and 
the spinal nmrrow to be of an ashy colour; and the phlegm of 

1 If ttiH apidsrmu wore leu thin and not bo trsnapiLrent, perb^pi it would aBem 
juit a> duV »» tht reticuluoi ; Jo. Fnjiton, Dm. FJI. Anat. pr. renor. Tannnt, 
1741. 8*n. p. »7. 

• A rccFDt supporter of this opinion is the IcaroeU Sun. Engd in Em. »ttr ctOe 
qiuititm ipiand el romm. PJ m^r. a. t tilt lU ptupiit, T. rv. p. 96. 

• Mnn. dt TrrjvHx, T. lxxjv. p, 1155. 

■ B. S. AlbiDiu bu collected many id Dt Hdt el eauta color. aOi. tl fet. Ikom. 
L. B, 1737, with the benutifullfeolaured pUtes of that capital artiat, J, Lodmind. 

• Dm. T la cauK phy. de la cualeurda nigra. Paris, I741, umo. Coiou. 
Diet. Enq/tL by De Felico, T. xxx. p. 199. 

' Oi*. Anat, p. 1. ' Le Cat, Da la coal, dt la peau, him. p. ;). 

' Saolorioi, J. <;. ' Barrere, I. e. 

>° Mocksl, Mim. dc Btrl. iTn, 1757. Th« lioe of the negroea are blwl^ Long. 
IL p. 3SI. 


^H COLOUR. 107 

tii« northern nattons and other things of this kind seem to add 
wuight to this opinion. But amongst all other causes of their 
blackness, climate, and the influence of the soil, and the tempe- 
rature, ti^ether with the mode of life, have the greatest influ- 
ence. This is the old opinion of Aristotle, Alexander, Strabo, 
and others', and one which we will try and confirm by instances 
and arguments brought forward separately. 

In the first place, then, there is an almost insensible and in- 
definable transition from the pure white skin of the German 
lady through the yellow, the red, and the dark nations, to the 
Ethiopian of the very deepest black, and wo may observe this, 
as we said just now in the case of stature, in the space of a few 
degrees of latitude. Spain offera some trite examples; it is well 
known that the Biscayan women are a shining white, the inha- 
bitants of Granada on the contrary dark, to such an extent that 
in this region the pictures of the Blessed Virgin and other saints 
are painted of the same colour'. Those who live upon the 
northern hank of the river Senegal are of ashy colour and 
small body ; but those beyond are black, of tall stature and 
robust, as if in that part of the world one district was green, and 
the other burnt up'. And the same thing was observed by some 
learned Frenchmen on the Cordilleras, that those who live im- 
mediately under the mountains towards the west, and exposed 
to the Pacific Ocean, seem almost as white as Europeans, 
whereas on the contrary, the inhabitants of the opposite side, 
who are exposed to constant burning winds, are Ukc the rest of 
the Americans, copper-coloured*. 

It is an old observation of Vitmvius' and Plluy* that the 
northern nations are white, and this is clearly enough shown by 
many Instances of other animals and plants. For partly the 

1 CkL Rbixlig. Ced. AnL ix. 15, p. 439, ed. Aid. Comp. Maorub. in Somn. 
Sdp. ti. 118, ed. H. Steph. oiJM^ ux atStnit u^. 

' Comp. K Kale of colour in Utin. dr Tnr. I, t. p. 1190. 

* Hmet, Carduiiu, Lt ivbtilit. L. 11. T. ill. Oper. p. 555. 

* Boagaer, Vogagt i Peroa, Mim, lie rA(^. da 8e. de Parit, ij44, p, ijt. 

* In t£« north ore to be loimJ n&tiooB of white coloor. p. 104, ed. De L>ert. 

* On tbo oppoaite and icj ude of Uie world am natioiu of white ikiii, T. I. 
p. til. ed. Hvit. 



flowers' of planU, tike the .animals of the nortbem r^ons, a 
white, though they produce other colours in more southern lati- 
tudes; and partly in the more temperate zones animals only be- 
come white in winter, and in spring put on again their own natural 
colour. Of the former we have instances in the wolves*, dogs*, 
hares*, cattle*, crows', the chaffinch', itc, of the latter in the er- 
mines', the squirrels*, harea", the ptarmigan ", the Corsican dog". 
All of us are bom nearly red, and at last in progress of time the 
skin of the Ethiopian infants turns to black", and oun to white, 
whereas in the American the primitive red colour remans, except- 
ing so far as that by change of climat« and the effects of their mode 
of life those colours sensibly change, and as it were d^enerata 
It is scarce worth while to notice the well-known difference 
which occurs in the inhabitants of one and the same country, 
whose skin varies wonderfully in colour, according to the kind of 
life that they lead. The lace of the working man or the artizan, 
exposed to the force of the sim and the weather, differs as much 
^m the cheeks of a delicate female, as the man himself does 
from the dark American, and he again from the Ethiopian. 
Anatomists not un frequently fall in with the corpeea of the lowest 
sort of men, whose reticulum comes much nearer to the black- 
ness of the Ethiopians than to the brilliancy of the higher class 
of European. Such an European, blacker than an Ethiop, was 
dissected by Chr. GottL Ludwig"; & very dark reUculum has 
been obserrcd by Gilnz", and very frequently by many othecB''jt_ 

) Cooip. Vtanj, Prodr. SHrf. GttO. ^ 

na^ Ike ooioBoa {icannMi ftci. 

■ C!n»^ OnmL p. 91- * lb. p. loo. 


Jo. Nkk. PkUb. Ik Uiiii «t colon J^Aium 

EDoo. 1677, Svo. p. i4l>B 

" lb. p. 10. Jaia, JfMHjr. Lab. 1749, Stol 
II Cr^s, I. c. p. toi. ■* limn. 3nt. K 

" AJaiiwm,Lr. p. 11. Oo^ Cuqiw, Am. AmaL i>ttdL. L p^ t.,{ 
>* J>. W ffaUn-. Stnpt. ToL L p. 39J. " <)■ Hirv«L A la 

•* Fnoc da Ket, ill t*& ff. i» *»IL Balkr, T. rr. p. ra^ . 
F^mL T. r. ^ iS. 

and I recollect that I myself dissected at Jena a man's corpse of 
this kind, whose whole skin was brown, and In some parts, as in 
the scrotum, almost black ; for it is well known that some parts 
of the human body become more black than others, as, for ex- 
ample, the genilals of either Bex, the tips of the breasts, and 
other parts which easily verge towards a dark colour. Haller ob- 
served in the groin ofa woman the reticulum so black' that it did 
not seem to differ much irom that of an Ethiopian ; one as dark 
io the groin of a man was in the possession of B. S. Albinus ; and 
it is so common an occurrence in a woman's breast, that I cannot 
be enough astonished that eminent men have been found to 
^^Kckon the dark teats of the Samoyeds as prodigies', and there- 
^Hhn to consider that nation as a particular species of man'. 
^^B Such a diversity of the reticulum is seen in other animals 
^t3so, and especially in the face of the Papio mavdril, a part of 
which I have therefore had engraved, (PI. n. fig. 3.) There ia 
a repon of the upper part of the eyelids, of the root of the nose, 
and of the eye-brows, in which you may observe almost eveiy 
vaj'iety of reticulum; the nose is plainly black, and also the part 
where the eye-brows are inserted ; but that part which i^ lower 
and more on the outside is sensibly brown, and at length 
towards the outer comers of the eyes becomes pale. Not indeed 
that I have found this blackness of the nose equally intense in 
all the specimens of this ape which I have seen, since in apes, as 
in man and in other animals, the greatest variety of ci>lour 
occurs in the reticulum. In two specimens of the Simla cyno-. 
moUfua the tint of the face was not very different from that of an 
Ethiopian or a dark European; and this difference is so well 
known and so common throughout the animal kingdom, espe- 
y in the domestic quadruped.s, but above all in the vegetable' 


^ I. e. Abr. EutT. Boerh. Ftripir. Hipp. p. 1 1 ; bo dark in tlio piidond», Uut 
jtia wootd not believe the iikin to be tlmt t>{ an European. 

» itevt. nir It* Savugtdet tt let lajiitum, 176], Hvo. ji. 44. 

' Lonl KuDca, L c. 

• Two liandreil yeare igo it waa only the yellow tulip wliicli wu koown 
in Europe; bnt what ■ vftriely at different coloured one* horticulturutl kra 4 
now wyjiuunted with I See Ualler, on the subject of tlie vorietiea of auM. £iU. 
raitrrnnie, 174+. 

kingdom, that I can scarcely take notice of it, but prefer to r 
turn at once to man. 

We see white men in a lower class rendered brown by a hai 
life; and it is equally certain that men of eouthem regioi 
become whiter when they are less exposed to the effects I 
the weather and the sun. We have the moat copious accoui 
by travellers of the inhabitants of Guzerat', of the Malal 
coast*, of the Caffres", of the Canadians*, and the Otaheitans*. 
But besides their mode of life, old age and the change of country 
have an influence in making the Ethiopians more white. For 
■when the Ethiopians begin to approach their seventieth 3 
the reticulum sensibly loses its dark colour, so that at last t 
bulbs come out yellow', and the hair and beard are grey li 
other nations; and if the young Ethiopian infante are brou| 
into colder climates, it is certain that they lose a sensible qua| 
tity of their blackness', and their colour begins to vei^e moj 
and more towards brown, 
, On the other hand, it is apparent that when white men 1 
side a considerable time in the torrid zones they become l 
and sensibly vei^e towards black with much greater facilifl 

^ . e thoy dwell towsrfi 

the tiortb, snd the more KgreoabU tbe raoii ia, the more their bliuik colour cbaugn 
into brown, red, Mid yellow. The people of Barer an for tbe moat pKrt vs^ 
bUck, and for the wliole dnj long tbuy work and an burnt up in Bwe.-it uid 4vtt 
by tbe rrtya of the bud. The better cIodb oFpeojile d<i not go so much into the lun, 
nnd coDneqaentl; they ore not ao black, &a. Comp, 30. ConisH. p. 660. 

* MlUlcr. Linn. Syil. Nat. I. p, 95. 

• Sir Francis Roberval in Hakluyt, Vol. in. p. 141. "Tbe e»T»ges ot Canlda 
are very while, but tbey are all aakcd, and if they were apparelled u tbe French 
are they would be white and as fayre. But tbey paint themselvaa for fearo of beat 
and gunne burning." "Thow who are paint«d and who wear clothea, bee>ni>e w 
delicate in colour that tbey would be more readily taken for Spaaiarda Uian for 
'- '"' — " 'a Hontan, I. ep. 16, 

* Hawkeaworth, n. p. 197. 
" Wilh. J. Muller, Fetu, p. 170. Mich. Hemmersam, Watind. Rdnen, p. 38. 
I of Herodotus ware still black and bail curly haif. 

p. 115, ed. Gronuv. Leo AMo. P. I. B. 3. L. M. A, a moat competent judge, uM 
ID bia Iiuiit. Phytiolng. Pntav. 1773, Sro. p. 194 : "A cobbler of this nation Uitill 

Upse of y 
le looks ai 

tbia country) boa so aenailily diniiniehod that be k 

J*Hindice." And I myself have seen a mulatto woman bom from an EtUopian 
atber and a white mother near Uotha, who in her very earliest infancy was sulBd- 
ently dark; but in progreaa of time baa so deBencrated from her native colour, thai 
aho now only retains a aort of cherry or yellow tint of skin. 

He Spaniards who dwell under the equator in the new world 
have so much degenerated towards the native colour of the soil, 
that it has seemed very probable to eminent men', that had they 
not taken care to preser\'e their paternal constitution by inter- 
marrying with Europeans, but had chosen to follow the same 
kind of life as the Ameiican nations, in a short time tbey would 
have fallen into almost the same coloration, which we see in the 
natives of South America. An Englishman who had spent only 
three years with the Virginians, became exactly like them in 
colour, and Smith', his countryman, could only recognize him by 
his language. A colony of Portuguese, who were carried to 
^—Afiica' in the fifteenth century, can scarcely now be distinguished 
^■nm the aborigines. The French, whether they emigrate to 
^^Bfrica or America, are invariably tinged with the brown colour 
^^ff those countries*. I do not adduce here the numerous exam- 
ples of Europeans who have become unnaturally black in their 
own country*, or have brought forth black children*, nor of 
Ethiopians who have been, at ail events in some parts of their 
bodies, suddenly turned white^, since all these cases seem to in- 
clude something diseased or morbid. 

As by the climate so also by the mode of life the colours of 
the body are seen to be changed. And this appears most clearly 
in the unions of people of different tint«, in which cases the 
most distinct and contrary colours so degenerate, that white men 
may sensibly pass and be changed into black, and the contrary. 
The hybrid offspring (if we may use that word) are distin- 
guished by particular names; in using which, however, the 
authors of travels vary so much, that it seemed to me worth 
while to collect as many of these synonyms as I could, to reduce 
them into grades of descending affinity, and exhibit them in 
a qrnoptic form. 

* Mem. de Trevousc, I, 

' Han; inataacea are Dollected bj Le Cat, Coul, de la pcaii, p. I to 
• r._i i.i._j-_ T . _ — g Froben, Lb C»t, p. 109. A black prmi 
M4m. lU TVeroujc, 1. e. p. 1 1 

' CbL Rhod'tg. I. e. p. 77G. Frnben, Le Cat, p. log. A black nruioa 
to tbe queeu of Louii XIV. M4in. lU TVenwz, I. e. p. I t6S. Abr. Ki 
imptl. fiK. p. 354. 

' Lt Cat, p. 100. Frank, Philii. Tr. VoL LI. Part i. p. (76. 



1. The offspring of a black man and a white woman, 6 
the reverse, is called Mulatto^, Mollaka', Meltitta; by 
Italians, Berlin, Creole and Criole'; by the Inhabitana of Ma- 
labar, Meati^\ The offspring of an American man and an 
European woman, Mameluck", and Metif*. 

2. The ot!spring of an European male with a Mulatt 
female is called Terceron^, Caati^-o'. The son of an Europe 
female from a Metif is called a Qiiarteroon'. The ofispring i 
two Mulattoes is called Casque"; and of blacks and Mulatto 

3. A Terceron female and an European produce quaterons* 
postifos". Biit the American qnarteroon (who is of the s&a 
degree as the black Terceron) produces from an Europe! 

4. The offspring of a quateroon male and a white femal 
a quinteroon"; the child of an European woman with an J 
rican octavoon is called by the Spaniards Puchuela^*. 

It is plain therefore that the traces of blackness are pro 
pagated to great-grandchildren ; but they do not keep complete 

' Hitt. of Jamaica, II, p. 360. Aublet, Planttt dt la Guiait Franfoite, T. 
p. [M, App. 

■ Hemmsmin, t. e. p. 30. 

* Thomiu H^fde on Abr. Perisol. Cormograph. p. 99, eel. Oian. 1691, 4ta. 

* Christ. TdogliMi'a Oitiitd. Rate. y. 116. TranijuAur Mm. Btr. Cont. 33, 
gig. Mtiiifo Luiilan. that ia, of mixed nee. 

* Hitt. deVAcdttSc. de ParU, 17J4, p. 18. 
" Lftbat, Foy. ata MftdeFAmfr. 11, p. lyi. RtiOurch. tttr ta Amir. t. p. igj; 

Kewly-born matirs are diutiDjfuislied by tha colour of tbe geniUla fntm true bl■ok!^ 
for it is well known that thoie pnrts are bloclc evaii in tbe Ethiopian fcstua. Phit, 
Fennio, Sur Ceeeonomie animale, Port I. p. :8o. Tliia aathor oulla the offiipriDK 
of the blnck male and tbe Indian fem^Le KahougU, and the offipring of these atA 
the whites Midaltat. p, 179. " 

' Hitt. of Jamaica, i. c, 

< Langhnn's Traaqa. Btr. I. c. Caati^, de hoa cotla, of a ^ood stock. 

■ De Pauw, I. c " Canmml. Pari*. I. e. 
" lb. p. 17. It is plain thkt the offspring of » Meslijo snd a Malabw 

are bUck. Rtlal. Traaqscb. I f. Those irma a Mulatto on culled Samba to Hi 
of Jamaica, I. C. p. 161, and the offspring of tbeao and bluika become blacka 

" SUtofJam.L r. p. i6o. 

" iianghaa'a Jlel. Tfaiiq. I. C. Posti^ means ad^Ud: thus a^ello PMlifO, (> 

'* De Pauw, I. e. p. laa. 

" llitt. of Jam. I. c. Tha children of Foati^ and whites are olearty whilti 
TVonTu. Bir. I. c. According ta the aiithnr at the Bill, of Jamaica the cl " ' 
of a quinteroon and a white man became white. 

" Db Pauw, I. c. 

w omi 



ibe d^rees we have just noticed, for tnins tjometimes are bom of 
different colours; eiich as Femiin' says came from au EtLii-ipian 
woman, of which tbe male waa a mulatto, but the female, like 

mother, au intcQso block. And from all these cases, this 
Icle^y proved, which I have been endeavouring by what has 
said to demonstrate, that colour, whatever be its cause, be 
it bile, or the influence of the sun, the air, or the climate, is, 
at all events, an adventitious and easily changeable thing, and 
can never constitute a diversity of species. 

A great deal of weight has attached tc this opinion in con- 
sequence of the veil-known examples of those men, whose 
reticulum has been conspicuously variegated and spotted with 
different colours. Lamothe' has described very carefully a boy 
of this kind from the Antilles. Labat' saw the wife of a 
Grifole like this, a native of Cayenne, and in other respects 
baudsome. Chr, D, Schreber* has collected many examples; and 
I myself had lately an opportunity of seeing an instance of this 
sort of variegated skin. One of my friends, a physician, has a 
reticulum of almost a purple colour, and distinctly marked with 
very white spots, of different sizes, but eijual in other rospecLs, 
and similar to the most sliining skin. And on the bock of his 
right hand there were five white spots of tlie same kind, of which 
each was almost equal to a thumb's breadth in diameter, inter- 
spersed with numerous smaller ones. This phenomenon very 
seldom occurs in men; but is very common in animals, espe- 
cially in the reticulum of qnodnipeds. The throats of rams, for 
example, are frequently so variegated, that you may observe in 
idem the greatest similarity, both to the black skin of the 
Ethiop and the white skin of the European. I have examined 
many flocks of sheep in their pastures witli this object, and 
I think 1 have observed, that the greater or smaller number of 
black spots in the jaws answer to the greater or smaller quan- 

of black wool on the animals themselves, 

I, e. p. 178. * Uantb. Mag. x 

I will say uo more of colour ; and now, harii^ diaposed of bU 
tbe general Tarieties of tlie vbole htmun bodr, I will go on to 
the direraty of the eep&nte puts and members; and will make 
a beginning with the head and its craifonuatioiL. In tbe same 
way that it is always tbe case thai tbeT« is tbe greatest posuble 
differeoce between tbe skeletcci of tb« embryo and the adolt, 
so above all, tbe bones of the eknll differ to such an extent 
in both, that you woald' scarcely recogniae them as part« of the 
same body. For the boaea which, in the adalt. constitute a 
very solid case, and the hardest possiUe receptacle of what 
is at once the softest and noUest entrait, in the embryo appear 
only as tbin but broad scales, " which,' to tise the words of 
Goiter', "are just &stened together by soft, broad, loose and 
flaccid bonds, sutures and commissures" Now tbe skull of the 
inlant is wet and sofl clay, and fit to be moulded into many 
forms before it b perfectly solidified, so that if you consider the 
innnmerable and simultaneous external and adventitious causes 
in operation, you will no longer be able to wonder that the 
forms of skulls tn adults should be different. But since fw 
a considerable period of time singnlar shapes of the head havai 
belonged to particidar nations, and peculiar skulls have 
shaped out, in some of tliera certainly by artificial means, i1 
will be our business to look at these things a little more 
fully, and to consider how far they constitute different varieties 
of the human race. For, although I only intend to recki 
up in a passing way tho.<;e differences of tbe buman body whii 
are due to art alone, still I intend to treat now a little more 
length upon that part of the argument which has to do witli' 
skulls, since things very nearly allied may be conveniently 
embraced and handled at the same tima Claudius Galen*, be- 
sides the common and symmetrical skull*, had ali-eady described 
other skulls, which in some of their porta manifestly diffe 


ft/M. iu™.rt.B/. OM, p. jg. 

J)c uiu part, 1. IX. p. m. 544 >nd Dt oa. T. 1, 
ruionni, 1603, fol. p. 68, Bg. 1—4. 

• See tlie dLmeiuiong aud liefinitioiu of tbcM ii 
■port. Fol. P. and Q. ad, I ji8. ElitoU. I. c. p. li. 
p. 61, ed. 1634. 

Fh. iDgTuoc ia h. L C 


1 the common structure; and Andrew Veealius' and Barth. 
Eustachiua* endeavoured to draw figures of them. But the forma 
of these skulls seem to be so arbitrary and so monstrous, tjiat 
Ihey are of little or no use to us at present, and seem rather 
to belong to some morbid constitutions of the bones than to 
auy natui-al varieties of heads. Let us follow nature herself, 
and we shall reckon up the various shapes of the head in the 
various nations, according to the four varieties of mankind 
which we constituted. 

To be^n with Germany itself, Vesalius' says that its inhabit- 
ants are generally remarkable for having the occiput compressed 
and the head wide ; and gives as a reason that infants in their 
cradles generally sleep on their backs, and besides being wrapped 
in swaddling-clothes, generally have their hands tied to tbeir 
sides. This author also saw in the cemeteries of Styria and 
Carinthia wonderfully di£ferent skulls, which from their extraor- 
dinary shape seemed to be sports of nature'. Lauremberg' says 
the female inhabitants of Hamburg of his day were long- 
beaded, because they by bgaments and a foolish practice were 
accustomed to elongate the head from the birth. The Belgians 
are said to have their skulls more oblong' than other nations, 
because the mothers permit their infanta to sleep wrapped up in 
swaddling-clothes very much on the side and the temples'; but 
however the description of a Batavian skull by De Fischer does 
not answer to this', who praises in it the bones of the skull for 
being but httle depressed around the sides, and making there 
almost an equal arch. Albinus' declares that the skulU of the 

' lie Corp. hum. /al/r, p. II, eiL tm. 

' Tab. XLVI. f. lo, 15, 17, n little less moDslioUB thui th« figUT«a o{ Yeatiiut 
uid lugrMsuu. Tlie nurst of all are in Matth. Meriajii, Via. ic part, carp. Aunt. 
iaC.Vvikm.TA.AaaC. L.m. T.i. Cump. Bertini, OMtrolog. at ths end of Put U. 
. $. and JD ful. Ajiol. cxata. (G»br. Cunena), p. 838, Opervm. Insfeldt 
the aii&in of ibe (.lermun akuU is h&lf-waj between the oblung ot the Delgiuu 
tlie rounJ ikul) of tbs Tiuka. IM Im. nal. L. B. 1771, p. 10. 
OUm. PaUoi.. nam. p. 71^8, ed. B. S. Allilni. 
I. e. p. 63, ' Inafaldt, I. c. '' Vegalint, I. t. 

J, B. da Fischer, Dttanda fpa> ouuu ricinitaccomnoda«l parubut. r..B. 174 J, 

4tOL Tab. Ut. A ravened copy ii given by J. Cusp. Lavater, Fliytiagnom. Fragm. 


Vol. I 

i Uif. Sat, p. i 


English, the SfMrnisfc, and lYeBcb. are witboDt aaj peculiarity d 
structure at all; and be is in most resipecta a veiy accurate I 
obeerrcr of varieties of that kiod. Christopher Pflag informed 1 
Yeaaliua that the skulls of the inhabitants of the Styrian AlpV^ 
were of a nngiil*r shape. The same YesaUus is of opinion that 
the heads of the Genoese, and still more of the Greeks and the 
Turks, are nearly of the shape of a sphere, and that it is done 
through the care of the midwiTes when they bring their assists 
ance, and sometimes thnn^h the great eolicitade of the mothers'. 
There is a passage in Hippixrates' about tho skulls of the 
Scythians, which is most worthr of notice. He says that after 
they had applied artificial means fur a very long period in 
shaptug tlieir heads, at last a kind of natural degeneration had 
taken place, so that in his day there was no more necessity f 
manual pressure to arrive at the end in view, but that the skd 
grew up to be elongated of their own accortL And this kind a 
thing should be examined in other varieties of mankind, e 
cially as to form and colour, and their various causes, climate, 
&c, which in the progress of time become hereditary and con- 
stant, although they may have owed their first origin to advei 
titious causes. The nations towards our north have genera 
flatter faces'. Ebcr, Rosen is, so far as I know, the onJy write 
who says that the Lapps of Lulah can, for the most part by .the 
face being broad above*, attenuated below, with the cheeks 
tailing in, and terminated in a long chin, be distinguished froi 
the other Scandinavians'. J. B. de Fischer* has published J 
drawing of a Calmuck's skull, and it is ugly, and nearly i 

1 bad 



„ con-^^ 




' /. f. But I do not Ke how Winkelm.nn {Oaeh. der Ku^il da Aliertk. T. l. 
p. n) cao UBB Ibie paeaage of VcBaliue to prove ths influenm of n more fKVaantbla 
climale Mil sky, wLen tlic Brusaela luiftloinist sttributei it to art nlope. MoreoTCT 
those ikulla of the Turks which are presersBl in tho Royal Mustiim are much 1cm 
oval, and of much leu elegant shape than the oomnion bends i.f onr countrjmBu : 
and tlioretore a man so loanied in his art ousht to have »uJ iesii alAtat their 

' Dl «r, ojB. rt loc. 35. 
• ' OoUmnith, I. e, p. 114. 

I T?"".!"** °i ""' ■'"'I' ".''" M»Ubar woman are also narrow. Leg. Aw. p. ^M 

Dt Mtdit. Cappon. LuUia. Lond. Goth. 1751. Engmvod 


* I. f. p. ■. 

, Tab. I. 

Insteldt, I. c. al»a calk the head of the Calmuck Bqui 

SKDLL8. 117 

pnMcbee a sqn&re in shape, and in many ways testifies to barba- 
rism. But tiiis single example shows bow unfair it is to drav ■ 
conclusions as to the conformation of a whole race from one or 
two specimens. For Pallas' describes the Calmucks as men of a 
symmetrical, beautiful, and even round appearance, so that he 
says their girls would find admirers in cultivated Europe. Nor 
do the said skulls answer to the two very accurate representa- 
tions of that Calrauck, a boy of eleven years old, who lately 
^jjfuno from Russia with the court of Darmstadt, drawings of 
^H^m I received from Carlsruhe. They represent a young man 
^Hthandaome shape, lofty forehead and eye-brows; and whose 
^^■oe agrees in this respect with the description of Pallas, and 
diverges from the skuU in question, that the mouth mokes nearly 
an equilateral triangle with the eyes furthest from it, which brings 
^^glt the bead round instead of square. Passing from the most 
^■Mb-casterly part of Asia by the Anadirski Archipelago into 
^^Bprth America, we come to the tribes whose name is derived 
^^■^ the singular form of their heads*. Either I am very much 
^^BjBtaken, or it is a skutl of this sort which has been de.scrihed 
^Hp) Winslow', and engraved by him. With its very protracted 
occiput, its somewhat fiat forehead, the shape of the orbits, and 
other aberrations of that sort from tho common structure, it seems 
to present some similarity to the skull of a dog. We know at 
present too little of the history of that country and its inhabit- 
anta to l)e able to add the cause of that singular conformation : 
but whatever it be, it seems that it must rather be iu the mode 
of life, since the same peculiarity is observed sometimes in the 
skulls of Europeans. I myself have in my possession a skull, 
very ancient, dug out last summer from the city cemetery, which 
is as like that American in the points I have mentioned', and in 
every thing else, as one egg is to another. 


, Slit. I, pp. 307. 3"- 

,•* Ttli^plattt, or plati eSia dt ehient. De Vaug;otidj', I. e. p. 17, Int. Gj", long. 

^ Engel, Tab. Am. Bona!. 

Jfem, dt I'Ae. da &. dt Par!', 171J, p. 313, Tub. 16. It is laid to have 
Men found in Hond-Eylani), lit. 78". long. 310". 

* It tneuuTst ail Phiii inches and mons from the tpex of tli» iiHil bone to tbe 
eitreme bnlgiog put of the occipital bone ; but only four in diameter from tbe 



Finally, as to tlie inhabitants of Greenland, and of Labrador,'^ 
the former we are told by Cranz\ and the latter by Henry Eliia', 
are longheaded and have flat faces. But I am afraid that the 
accounts of these most trustworthy men have beon badly under- 
stood by many, who have thence come to the conclusion that J 
these nations are ba^Uy formed and almost monstrous in shape'ifl 
Craoz himself says that a great many Greenlanders are to b*l 
found with faces so oblong that it is difficult to distinguish tljem 
from Europeans'; but as to the Esquimaux, I am led to a contrary 
opinion by some very accurate drawings of three inhabitants of 
Labnulor, whicli have lately come intiO my possession, and arej 
painted in colours with great care by that excellent artist J" 
Swertner, from copies sent by the Hernnhut Brothers, who ha« 
an ejitablishment there. One is a male; and the two femalei 
according to the custom of their nation, are clad with immenf 
greaves, nearly reaching to their hips, and one of them carries I 
child in her right saudaP; all however are of a reasonably ayi 
me'trical and well-proportioned form. The face of the male 
rather flat, and the nose but little prominent, though by nd 
means turned up, the body square, and the heail large, ( 
be equal to the sixth part of his whole height; but the womei 
are taller, and are seven of their own heads in length"; and iQ 
you except their colour', which verges towards brown, are i 
other respects of good appearance. 

Let us turn to Asia, and look at our second variety, whid 
dwells beyond the Ganges, and on the Islands, &c. The firat 

oondflaid &pophf aea of tlio foramrn magnum tti tin? top of tbe IiFad : the focBin«B 
mogaum is plact^d rallier tnwinlB tli« fniiit, and so tba occiput is Innger, and the 
bonea of tbs head dncend in a more acute nnglc towartia the bue of the ikntl tlun 
in Winilow'ii exiimple ; and so in that it memblea tbe ukuU of Cowper'e nkeletoa. - 
Myot. rtform. Rg. ivin. • 

I But. ofGrrtia. p. ijg. 

' Voy. to Budton't Bay. p. 131, 

' Henr. Home. L c. Bnffon, T. m, p, 485. 

* Thii It conGnncd by the pictures of ilie Oroenlandsn made after the Ufa b 
Adam OlsariuB, liattorf. Kantk. Tab. III. F. .—3. 

» Cnmz, FotUeti. p. 310. Elliii, p. \}fi. 

' They are placed by Alb. Diircr in his tables between Al and Br. 

' Which is caused by their mode of life. Cnmx, Furtte/i. L c, Cemp, t 
Uil. p. 17S. 


tiling -we Bee ai*e the Aracaiil on the Ganges, who flatten the 
foreheads of the newly-born with shoete of lead. 

After these, going up to the Amur (Sahalien ula), the 
northern termination of this variety, come the Chinese, who, 
unless I am wrong, are less content than any other of the inha- 
bitants of this world, with the natural conformation of their 
body, and therefore use so many artificial means to distort it, 
and squeeze it, that they differ from almost all other men in 
most parts of their bodies. Their heads are usually oval, their 
&ceH fiat, their eyes narrow, drawn up towards the external 

lere, their noses small, and all their other peculiarities of 
this kind are well known from the numerous pictures of them, 
and from their china and pottery figures. Those Chinese 
whom Blittner saw at London were exactly of this kind, and so 
also was the great botanist Whang-at-tong (the yellow vian of 
the East), whose acquaintance was made there by LicJitenhsrg. 
But these artificial ways of moulding the head seem to have 
more to do with the soft parts of the face than the bony struc- 
ture, for Daubenton' reckons up many skulls of the Chinese and 
Tartars, and declares that they differ in no way from the ordi- 
nary skulls of Europeans, ITie other nations of this variety 
looked at as a whole answer to those characters which I laid 
down above as belonging to them. 

The New Hollanders make such a transition to the third 
variety, that we perceive a sensible progress in going from the 
New Zealanders through the Otaheitans to the fourth. The 
inhabitants of the Island Mallicolo', whom I was just speaking 
of. differ from their neighbours by the strange form of head, in 
vhicb late travellers assure us they approach nearest to the 
figure of apes'. I do not see anything remarkable in the skulls 

JJraa-. d» Ca'j. d.i ro/, Vol. XIV. n. M.CCO.XX.tlX. 

ll is utuatod with Tumi and Ns« Caladonia in ij" S. L., and ia nearlj u 
Buny degrees rrom the east cout of Naw Hollajid, 

* I hope it will b« agreeable tu mj readura if I nppend a sbort description of 
tbeae men, takea (ram tbe account of the younger Fnratcr, uid anmmutiicBted to 
ne by Liohtenbn'g. " Contnixy to all expectation, we found tlie inliabitanla dif- 
ferine in everything from all the other people «e liad hillierto seen in the .Southern 
Ocean. They were of imnll stature, mrely exceeding 5 ft. 4 in. Their limbs were 
•lender, and ill-ihaped \ their colour biackuh. brown, which waa made mure intense 


of tbe remaining iuhabitanU of the Pacific Occjld ; and so we wilt 
go on to the third variety of mankind, that is, the Aiiicaa 
nations, about whom we may be brief, since what thei'e is 1« bo 
said about their skulls is of small importance. Those skulls of 
mummies which I have seen are of round and spherical, but still 
of elegant and symmetrical form. 

The head of an Ethiop from the southern part of Africa baft 
been carefully described by J. Beni de Fischer, as 1 quoted 
above^. Broader in the upper region, suddenly narrowed, sharp- 
ened from the front towards the middle of the frontal bone and i 
over the eyes, and widely stretched out below these, and very 
globular behind, he says that in its whole periphery it comes 
be nearly of a triangular shape. And yet this description iff 
scarcely satisfactory when I compare it with the Ethiopians that 
I have seen myself and carefully examined, or with that skuU d 
Peter Pauw*; for this latter, if you except tbe large occiput an^ 
the narrow orbits, has very little resemblance to the descriptioa 
and very accurate engraving of Fischer. 

There rcinaius the fourth variety of the human race belong'* 
ing to America', except that part we have just been speaking o£ 
The same thing may be said of the iuhabitanta of this quarter, 
which I have just observed about tbe Chinese, that they taki 
great pains, and employ artiScial means, to distort the natura 
form of their bodies into some other. This is especially the ca» 
with the head ; and the most numerous evidences of the wonder 
ful ways in which they compress it are to be found in the storiei 
of travellers; but stilt wo are deficient in any accurate ezamina 

n the face, and the greater part of the br>dy, by a blRck piguient. Their haad w 
~'~ 'y formed, for it receiled mare from thu root of the dobs tbiui other a 

■ingalarly fo 
and preBcDtc 

d preBcDteJ audi a resemblance tn that of the ape, that with one acoord wa all 
CTq^reafled our aritoniihrntfot at it. Their noaea and lipa did not aeem more v^- 
ibiipeD than thoae of otber nations of tbe Southern Ocean. The hiur of ihmr hi*d 
wu lihtck, curly, and wuollj ; their heard tbick and long, uid leas like wool. 

~ ■•■••• tightly, that it leeini Hen 

other covering, except iv 
g what other nation! try ui i 
tnade it only atill mora cDDa|ncuaQa." 

' I. e. Tab. ttl. pp, 14, i6. Ib it the aaine in LtffOl. Rat. d. XIII. 
The bead of the Ethiopiaiia approaches the tiiangular ahupe. 

• Prlmit. Ama. p. 19. ' Rccherch. pliUui. tar fw A m 




skulls of this kiod, nor is it sufficiently clear in what 
of the head the greatest change takes place. J. Cardan* 
that the heads of the iohabitants of the old Portus Provin- 
cise were square, and deficient in the occiput, Hunauld' has 
exhibited the skull of a Carib, but it has been either so care- 
lessly engraved, or is so misshapen, that 1 should prefer to con- 
sider it a£ a monstrosity, than to believe such to be the osseous 
conformation of a whole nation. The enormous bones of the 
the little holes which give an exit to the nerves and 
'ties of the same size as the external auditory canal, the 
;ular and large-lobed zygoma, the upper jaw deeply incised 
the;,matrices of the teeth, and other things of this sort, excite 
suspicion that this di'awing was done in a hurry'. Finally, as 
North America, Charlevoix describes the heads of one of the 
ladiau nations as globular, and the other as flat*. 
So much then about the shape of skulls. From what has 
;d said I trust that it is more than euflUciently clear, that 
Imoat all the diversity of the form of the head in different 
nations is to lie attributed to the mode of life and to art: 
although I should very willingly admit the position of Hippocra- 
that with the progress of time art may degenerate into a 
md nature, since it has a very considerable influence in all 
other variations of mankind. 

The physiognomy and the peculiar lineaments of the whole 
countenance iu different nations opens up a very vast and agree- 
able field. In many they are sufficiently settled, and are such 
.thful exponents of the climate and the mode of life, that even 
many generations spent in a foreign climate they can still 
recognized. But, besides other reasons, the want of suffi- 
ciently faithful and accurately delineated pictures forbids ine to 
wander in that direction. 1 took a great deal of pains to com- 
pare pictures drawn from the life of more remote and, at pre- 
sent, little known nations; but 1 have been able to obtain very 

» St rtr. rarifl. I. Vlll. c. XLlll. p. i6j. T. hi. Oprr. Cap. Mnrngnon, Brmil. 

• Men. dt VA r. den &:. dr Pari; 1 7+0. p. 3; j. Tab. 16. fig. 1 . 

• BUt. di la BOHwUe Frana, in. pp. 187, JJ4. Algonquirn. Tfllei in Boiilc. 
' /i. p. 3*3. Fl«t biadi ; eoob r work of art. 


■ 142 

few; aad tbere ue not many amkocs td tisv^ whose pictare^ 
M Eu-M legmk tbe Kkenewe* of iftioiw, ata be tmsted. If 
JOB exoqA tbe tmI wodt of tbs bntken De Bfjr, the 6nt 
edHioas of the tnnjs of OoneGwB Le Bnm, tbe Tutaiy of Nic. 
IViteen, tbe diazy of 3 y da^ BnkiiMoe, and tbe voyages of Oook 
bimnel^ and except ■ome gc a mo e wpM e nto t ioM scattered about 
here and tbere in Tarieaa faoi^ eapedalljr in tbe work of 
S. R. Lavatei on phniognoaiy. then ate man; oaUo&s of whom 
you cao find no tnistwoithy pMturafc 

Heanwhile, it wiQ be eaoogb to bring fn-ward a few ex- 
amples, of wbich the Jewish nice presents the most notorioos 
and least deceptive, which can easily be rect^nized everywhere 
by their eyes alone, which breathe of the East The Yallones, 
thongh they have hved among the Swedes toi many yeara, still 
preserve tbe lineaments of the &ce, wbSdi are peculiar to tbem, 
and by which they can be distinguished at the first glance from 
the aborigines'. The clear and open countenance of the Swiss, 
tbe cheerful one of the young Savoyard^ the manly and serioua 
Turks', the simple and guileless look of the nations of the 
extreme north', can easily be distinguished, even by those 
skilled in physiognomy. 

The matter is a bttle more difficult in some nations of tfa»| 
especially in the west of Europe, who, it has been ob-; 
by some eminent men, from some reason or other, ars 
•-^beerful and sanguine in youth, but, as manhood advances, be- 
come more morose, and inclined to be of a melancholy tem- 
perament*. In our other varieties the lineaments of the face 
are very much more persistent To say nothing of the Chinese, 
who I have mentioned make their heads so much out of shape 
that it would be hazardous to say how much in them ia to 

' Clu AtotrttnieT On dtn Jh-alti^ /Sr-avdn. Stock. 1770, iie. p. 76. I 

* RoMtil, JUppo, Niebi^r, Bom. &o. I 

* Samojcd. L« Bruii, Vog, Amit. 1716. f. n. 7. 8, and p. 9. He Txrlus o^ 
Hlb«riB, it. p. 104. Tha OMi»ki, p. 1 u. Tha Greenliindi!™ in Oittr. l.e, Tb« ' 
Enqiiiiakui ID our jiiutures ■pproicb very much lu the Swaojeil. Le Brun, a. 7 
■mi 8, 

* BoHThaftve, Pral, mpropr. intt. i. 879. "Tho luliktu, pDrtutmeie. uid Spaniih 
too rividouf and pUjful up to the eighteenth year : after tha thirtieth year thqj 
all bcuome ud, moroM, melancholy, uid lubject to bnmorrhjkgee." ' 







referred to nature and how much to art, the inhabitants of 
Pacific Ocean retain evident examples of persistent physio- 
Ipiomy. Every one, for instance, will recognize the fierce and 
aav^e countenance of the New- Hoi landers and New-Zealanders 
by looking at the magnificent plates of Parkinson', whereas the 
Otaheitans, on the contrary, looked at as a whole, seem to be 
s milder disposition, aa also the many picturea* of them by 
B same well-known author testify*. 
Although almost all the nations of Africa are sufficiently dis- 
tinguished by persistent and peculiar lineaments of face, still the 
ancient Egyptians, and the inhabitants of the south of Africa, 
differ very much by their singular physiognomy from the rest, 
both of the Africans and of mankind. All the monuments of the 
oldart of the ancient Egyptians, from the statue of Memnon down 
to the pottery seals which are found with the mummies, show 
likeDessea veiy similar, and all closely resembling each other. 
The face ia somewhat long, but by no means emaciated, the nose 
minent, broad towards the nostrils, and ending in a sharpish 
ibe, and finally the mouth small, girdled with sweUing lips, all of 
'hich are most positive and unmistakeable signs of the Egyp- 
tian head. The appearance of the Ethiopians is so well known 
that it would be superfluous to say much on that point. Their 
depressed nose, which has been attributed by some to art*, most 
.recent authors, and those eye-witnesses, have shown to be due 
nat^re^ and the two Ethiopian fcetiises pre-served in the 
lyal Museum are exactly like the figures of Buysch' and 
Seba^. and answer to this description. For although the nose 
in almost all human embryos is depressed, still the Ethiopians 

> PLi 

III. £c. 

' PL V 

I > Whui their facea arn secD in praflle, they are verj distinct from tfas (moutti 
I »«H oqUAble couuten&nce of tho Chinefle, Ihrough thair distiactly prominent nose, 
lip«, )uid chin, Ac. This vu often obierTetl in the men of both natioiu liy Lich- 
tenberj, who knew the Chiuene i wmi spcuking of und tha OtoheiCui O-msi (whitj] 
is commonlj, but wrongly made > triayUabla Omiu-a) at LoudoQ, und haa afteu 
wondend at lh« divenity of Iheir facn. 

* Henuoeraam, p. 37. ' Muller, Fria, p. jt. 

■ TAet. Anat. lU. t. 1. The forehend ia more narrow than in any other (mtus, 
■■ ia alieon by one of the ipecimeas in the Koyal Mnwum. 

' IXw. T. L Tab. CM. f, 3. 


■ of wk 

at wham ve are ^lakiae hnc tkcsr wrTi. or iutefsticeB ( 
OK tfaa I i|MiMi« of ladom) ■> 1 i | i ■ ■ t i ! . tlut even a 
wide Aa swdKag 1^ aay «ae ca«y tdl the Dftiioo from tbei 

A few ndttkH of &■ hann hoij nmaui t 
siiicii I think dnoU be rttTanM la art alone, wad w1 
bare to do Titk Aa p"**"**— • t™«*»«" of memben and 
The luur wiea verf mwh aaMipt mast men, both in colcwr 
and fonn. bat in aone ■T**"Tt k oJT a eoBrtant character. And 
ae it is said to be nniranl that whibt eoioats obtain more in 
the DOTth, and brown in tbe aoatk, ao blaiA hair and black eyeii 
se«m to be asaai in the lonid aooe^ and l^t hair with 
ejes in tbe oolda- refions'. Bat, beyond all, the hair of 
Ethiopians is oonspicDoos for its intense Uack ami its fdngolar 
wooliiness, whidi bowevira' is 00 more coi^Enital with them than 
the colour <^ their skin, bat both have berai contracted, as 
we have seen, br the progress of time and the beat of the sun*. 
For tbe Ethiopian foetus, 1 mentioned, is covered with hght 
brown straight bair^ whkh scarcely differ from the down of the 
Eunf>ean embryo; so that it is probable that the tint of 
akin and the hair are changed sensibly at the same time; 
have already, observed that the Ethiopians get paler in old 
and that their hair aUo grows white; and it is a well-knoi 
thing, tbat in other men, in proportion as their skin is broi 
BO are tlie genitals covered with curly hair. We are also 
in his last work, by D. Antonios de UUoa', that the Ethiopians 
of Darien have hair, though black, still straight, Others too 
have declared, and I myself have often observed, that the sti 
tore of the Ethiopian liair is the same as that of other mi 
and the bulb of it as white. 

Many authors tell us that the feet of the Ethiopians 
badly formed, in more than one way. The author of ti 


' Avlosrins, Canon, h. I. Pm. I. i. , _ 

■ CbI. KhoJigin, t. «, p. 440, ed. Aid. For drieil-n| 

* IVolkiat Anurifoniu. Madrid, 1733, 4I0. £ 

u tumad b 
1. xvn. p. 305. 


Mordum (said to be Virgil) reckona up their many defects as 

With leg* at) tbin, snd feet ao v'uleXy sptajed, 

Tlie wrinkled becta peri^clanl slita betrajed. 

And Hier, Mercurialis agrees with him, for he says that these 
slita in the feet arc endemic to the Ethiopians*. Another 
passage worthy of notice in to be foimd in Petroniua', which, as 
Heyne* tella us, refers to the Ethiopian slaves, bke those we 
call negroes. Csel. Rhodiginua' says that the Egyptians and 
Ethiopians have splay feet, &c., which, however, do not seem 
to be by any means common to entire nations; for Albert 
Djirer', after speaking of these deformities in the feet of tlie 
Ethiopians, adds that he has seen many well and symmetri- 
cally formed; nor was I able to observe anything of this kind 
^^H the Ethiopians I have seen myself. 

^^h That the breasts of Uie Ethiopian' and other* southern 
^PBimen are pendulous and contracted, from their mode of life 
^Tijid habits of lactation, wants scarcely any testimony adduced. 
To those mutations of tlie human body which are occasioned 
by the mode of life, we may also add those which owe their 
origin to the difference of langu^es, and which are sometimes 
to be found in the very organs of speech. To attribute this 
difference, with J. Senebier', to the influence of beat or cold, 
is forbidden by a slight comparison of neighbouring languages. 
Wlio could possibly attribute to the chmate the tact that the 
Ephraimites said Sibolet instead of Schiboht; that the Chinese 
cannot pronounce the letters R and D ; or the Spaniards the final 
M, or the inhabitants of the Marquesas and the Greenlanders 
of Kamtschadale Tech and ks. But the prodigious labours of 

^K ' T. 3S, ' Dc deroral. p. roj. 

^ * A lot. "Cui nre fill our lips with an I3g]j iwelliogt con we crisp our hair 
with Ml iroDt mvI mark our foralje&d with Rcnra? and distend our abutLs into a 
curvsl >nd draw oar heeb down to the earth! and change our beard into a foniifu 
faahionl " 

* Ad ifonti, I. e. ' (. t. ed. Aid. 

■ I.e. FnLT. in. ' rermin, (Ecoa. Aniia. p. itj. 

* Hottsntota. Kolben, Vorg^, dt g. H. p. 474. The inhabituita of Horn 
Idkitd to Is. Mure, and Schonlen in DalrTmpls'i 6'o/fae(. T. n. p. 5S. 

* '" -' ■"-' Gcnev. 1775, 8vo. T. Jl. p. iJ?. 



BUttner on this point forbid me to be more prolix on the matttf. 
for be bus coliecteil with incredible labour all that relat«B 
the subject, and will very soon give it to the press. 

I pass on to those things which, besides the shape of thai 
head, are apt to be changed by the aid of art in tbfi other 
of the body amongst various nations. Aud first of all I mean 
speak of mutilations, where members and parts of the body aw"' 
cut or torn out, &c. The Scriptures, and the stories of Hero- 
dotus' about the Colcbians, the Egyptians and the Ethiopians, 
and the wide extent of the practice", all prove that circumcision 
is exceedingly ancient. Nor is it confined entirely to the< 
stronger sex, for amongst many oriental people it is applied ii'' 
the weaker sex, and that part of their pudenda which answers* 
to the prepuce of the virile member is cut off; of which cer«* 
moiiy copious testimony both from ancient and modem writer* 
has been collected by Mart, Schurigius' and Theod. TroncbinVi 
It will be enough for us at present to give our readers a draw^' 
ing (PI. II. fig. 4) of the genitals of a circumcised girl rfl 
eighteen years old, which I owe to the kindness of Niebuhr, 
who has also allowed me to give- it to the public. When that 
famous company went to travel in Asia, one of the questions 
proposed to them was about this circumcision of both seies'j 
and this illustrious man', who was the sole survivor of the ex- 
pedition, settlcii this, as well as almost all the others; so much 
so as to bring back this drawing I am speaking of, which the 
great artist, 0. W. Baureufeind, had taken from tlie life. In it 
you can see the body itself of the clitoris, bare and deprived of 
its prepuce, hanging from the upper commissure of the labia, 

Fonter, l.c . -_,. 

' So klio t*. B«Uon, 01:1. III. c l8; Althougb lia addi obicurel;, tb&t tbe put 
irliich U in Greek csIIbiI Aysunfo U in Lftlin alat, TbeveooC lays thej do not 
eptle even thcae dice or viogB. Vtn/. L n. c. 74, Howover the Greek worda for 
these piula ve oflrii contouuded: see their genuine eipLuiKtioni in H. Slephani 
Vietion. Mtd. pp. jjC, uiil 599, uid Joaeli. Camenrias, C'ontninl. utniu;. jtnywp, 

* Mulithr. pp. 116, 141. ParOitml. p. 379, 
' Diit. de Clitoridf, p. m. Jj. 

• Miohnelia, Frnipn. p, IJJ. ' Bachr. r, Arji. p. 7;, 



nader the pubis, which is abraded, and below it lie the orifices 
of the urethra, and the vagina: if percliance some may think 
these things are not particularly well done, they must excuse 
the baste of the draughtsman'. 

£uQucb8 have not so much to do with the matter in hand, as 
monorchides, one of whose testicles is extracted during infancy. 
First, this custom prevails amongst the Hottentots, who gene- 
rally in the eighth, and sometimes, if we can trust Kolben', in 
the eighteenth year, are made monorchides. They suppose it 
makes them run quicker; but travellers remark that at the 
same time it affects their fertility*. The Swiss peasants not 
unfrequeutly imdergo the like loss of a testicle, that being the 
way in which the neiglibours used to cure ruptures'. 

To mutilations I refer the custom of eradicating the hair in 
different parts of the body practised by some nations. Thus 
the Bursts keep only the hair below the chin, and pluck out 
the rest'^ the Turks destroy' by various unguents the hair in 
every part of the body except on the liead and the heard : the 
Otaheitans eradicate' the hairs under the armpit; and almost 
all the people of America extirpate the beard, which gave rise 
to the old idea', that the Americans were naturally beardless. 
But this story scarcely needs refutation. Lionel Wafer* ex- 
pressly says about the inhabitants of Darien, that they would 
have beards if they did not pluck them out : and there is still 
a little beard in our picture of the male Esquimaux, though 
the rest of his face is smooth'*. I say nothing of the artificial 
keniDg of the teeth " amongst others, and other mutilations 

^m ■ Bad 

BaureufBUid desigued it after nature, bnt wlLb a 

• L« BniD, Fbj. p. I 

* Leonh. RaDwoir, Rata 
' HawkesworUi, T. ii. p. 188. 
■ Kepeated Utely in Siclitrch. lur la A mtricaini, T. I. p. 37. Quttt. tur I'En- 

ryet. T. yn. p. of 

/•(Am. of Afriea, p. io6. 

' Tlie bearded raw of the Enqniniaui. Charlotoix, m. p. 179. A btarded 
liUnt ofnemdelFuEe"* P^lciiooii, VoL I. Thui from kil pirla of America, 
Elhiapiani. Henuneraam, p. J7. 

so as 


of equally little importance. First of all, I refer to deformitai 
those OQOrraoua and pendulous ears, which from a very loo^ 
time have been so much in favour among many nations, so as 
to give a foundation to the old story about the Scythian popu- 
lations in Pontus, that they have such large ears that they c 
cover tlieir whole bodies with them'. We have certain i 
formation about the inhabitants of Malabar, of C. Comoria^ 
Benares, the Moluccas*, and MaUicolo*, that they use various 
artifices to make their ears a^ large as possible, and truly mon- 
strous. The picture of a man of the south in Com. Le Brun 
represents them as disfigured in a wonderful way*. We are 
told by some English travellers in southern countries how thfl 
New Zealaudera studiously prolong the prepuce of the penis*. 
The immense nails of the Chinese' are well knowiu The 
custom of making women thin by a particular diet is very 
ancient, and has prevailed amongst the most refined nations*, 
so pohteness and respect forbid us to cla^ it, with Linnaeus' 
amongst deformities. Though the use of pigments and dif- 
ferent kinds of paint does not cliange the shapes of the mem- 
bers themselves, yet it is so constant in some nations, that 
it would clearly be wrong to leave it untouched. Some merely 
smear their skin with pigments, whilst others first of all prick 
it with a needle, and then rub the colours in, which in this 
way adhore most tenaciously. Both customs have prevailed 
amongst the most remote and different nations. The Eana- 
gystie'", the Califomiaus", the Turks", the inhabitants of the 
island of Santa Croce", and Mallicolo, of New Holland", and 

Pompon. Mela, 1. m. dc Uitp. tt Sept. imidU. 
Ziibn, Bptc. T. lit. p. fi 

' SohrBjer, p. 1 1 7, 

» MuimU. TnDsylv. in . , 

* They perfonte Uiem with reeil>. * n. iqy. 

* Uawkeiirartb, VoL m. p. 50, ' 01. Toree, p. 69. 
■ Chiena in TeTcDca, Bunueh. u. 3. 11. 

* Sytt. Nat. xu. [. p, 39. 

" In the Kul-jolc ibIiuuIs of the OlutorUn >rchi|ielAga. SUchlin, t. e p. Ji. 

» Bogert, p. 109. 

" RjHiwolt, IIiiwbI, Nitbuhr, in eitlier work. 

»» Intensely bUck. Alvaro MenJana da Ni^yra in Dalrymplo, Vol. I. p. 78. 

'* ParkiiuoD, PL XXTII. The abdomi^n iind the legi distinguiihed bj whits 

Cupa Terde', paint themselves'. We know that tlie Tungus', 
the Tschuktschi* the Arabians', the Esquiiaaux*, the New-Zear 
landeis', the Otaheitaas', and many nations over all America' 
draw designs in the skin with a needle, or what we call tattoo 

And thia is pretty well all that I have to tell about the 
variations of the human body and its members, whether oc- 
casioned by climate, or mode of life, or diverse miions, or finally, 
by artificial means. Any one will easily see that our discussion 
has been about the varieties of whole nations, and that we have 
nothing to do with those peculiarities which happen acciden- 
tally to one or two individuals; and therefore I am quite justi- 
fied in making no mention here of those unfortunate children, 
who have been now and then found amongst wild beasts ; and 
all the more because everything which is known of those in- 
stances has been diligently collected and dealt with in a regular 
way by the industry of some famous men". Their more im- 
portant, and more uoble part, that is reason, remains unculti- 
vated; but hard necessity has so perverted their human nature, 
that I should be inclined to refer these antluroporaorphous 
creatures, who are so like beasts, to the Itominea nionatroai of 

* In blua. GrBbm, p. 19. 

' On the WMjient PicW, see Martini OD Buff. AU/>. JVat Qrteh. vi. p. 158. 
> La Sialic oucerlf, Petenb. 1774, fol. Foao, I. Tab. v. Coloured plates. La 
Bmn, p. 1 16. J. G. Giaelin, Rtit. 1. p. 77, u. p. S47, 

* Knachoilnikiif, EamlKkatta, Part II. p. 151- 

' Niebnhr, Reia. i. Tab. 1.11. An irabUn woman of Tehima. 

* Tba womHi in ray plat* are depicU'd witb a double raw of punctures on the 
fronted aicb, and a single one under tbe lower lip. 

' Parkinaon, PI. xvi. xu. sun. ' lb. PI. vn, 

' At letigth, John de Laet. adti. Hug. Grot, dt Orig. Gnt, Anttrk, Aniat. 1G43, 
Sto. p. 104. CoDfulluis in M«t. AVrdt. ed, BnttamE. Rom. 1773, fol. Pai-t L 
Tab. L a. coL plalei. In IlcTra del Fuego, Parkins. PL I. Instuicei of anoieot 
liibes are collected by Ph. Cluver, Oermaa. avtiipia, p. 119. 

JO For ancient initaacea sea .Elian, r. i. L in. 0. ^■*. Aloi. ab Alex. Otnial. 
dirr. L II. c. 31. Herudot. 1. I. hail doubts about Cfrus. Livj, 1. t. 0. 4, aliout 
Homulus and Bemua. Plin; defends tlie utary, vilL 15, XV. 18, and Plutarch 
tCotmi. c. II. On the child of Gargnris by his daughter see Justin. L XLIV. c 4. 

Among raeent authon see for a well-vritten DoUectioD of hiBtories, Henr. Conr. 
Ecpnig, ScAed. dt horn, inter ferm educai. ilatu not. aolilario, Haoover, 1730, ^to. 
Ph. l^iii.Bo»:Ur,dtSlatii,Amniar. Uon.fer. Argent. 1756, 4to. iAtm. AnSuroptm. 
T. TL Amanil. ac. p. 6j, and Syi, Nat. I. e. p. 18, at l^igth Martini, I. c. p. ifij. 

130 Ai.Bi)n»f. 

The diseases to which the human body is subject wouU 
appear to be much less to our purpose than even the wild etaU 
of those children ; and yet I am anwiUingly compelled to in- 
trude here upon pathology, because of the recent mistaJces of 
some famous men, who have not hesitated to consider the a 
flicted perrons about whom I am going to speak, not only a 
peculiar species of the human race, but even as the ss 
the apes. There is a disorder affecting both the skin and t 
eyes at the same time', which sometimes occurs amongst met 
of the most different nations, and amongst some kinds of qui 
rupedfl, and birds. Aa we saw above that the whiteness « 
organized bodies was due to cold, so now we have to considi 
another kind of diseased whiteness which does not depend upt 
cold. It seems to be found in plants* also, but is more fre- 
quently observed, and appears with stronger and more remark- 
able symptoma in animals, whose skin and hair, or whose 
feathers and quills, become of an unnaturally chalky, or milky 
hair, and their eyes grey, or reddish. In some few genera this 
singular condition seems to become a second nature, so th»t_ 
they produce offspring like themselves, and the same colour a 
preserved to all generations ; in most however instances of t 
sort seem scattered and anomalous ; they spring from parents d| 
the usual colour, and very often have offspring like them a 
or at all events the case is conBned within the limits of a fell 
fain i ties. 

Of the first sort the best known examples are white rabbU^ 
which are called, not inaptly, by Nic. le Cat', the leuccethiops ■ 
their kind. Their fur is always a constant snowy white, whin 
their eyes are rosy or red, but in other rabbits grey or bla 
They are deficient in that black pigment which Unes interoaUijI 

' I un Buqiriacd to see ttiat soina eminp 
this leuctethiapia to be a duease, and go bo 
whitencBB which comea U> animiilB in the w' 
paGtad from man aldUed io physiology, and 
tauce of the bUck pigment vrhich is dniwn 
u entirely defioient in thij duordor. 

■ Hyuinthl, rosat, Ac. obnnge uioDi»IanBl; their native coloor into iriiit*. 

len to ttx differ from ma ■■ to dtny 
u to confound it with tlut nMonl 
; wiiich I ahDald acuealy hnv ex- 
must bo awarp of the great impor- 
the internal ytxta of tbe ejrn, and 

» Colli, dt i 

pttt". p. JJ. 


the ejes of all the mammalia, the birds, the acaphibious a 
many of the fishes, and even insects, and whose seat is to be 
foondin the cellular web which lines the choroidal membraue.aad 
the uvea, &c That this blackness is of the greatest coDsefjucnce 
towards sound and good rision is proved, besides other ways, by 
tile iveak eye-sight of those animals in whom, as in the white 
rabbit, that pigment is entirely wanting, or even in some consider- 
able proportion'. For even, those animals in whom the tapetum 
is blue or green are less able to bear a clear and noonday light, 
in proportion as they have that part larger or more conspicuous; 
OS may bo observed in the cat and other animals whosa habita 
are nocturnal. But yet in them the external side of I 
choroid, and whatever internal part there is besides the tape- 
tum, is covered with the usual blackness, of wliich however not 
a vestige appears in the rabbits we are speaking of Hence an 
immense quantity of vessels, if they are turgid with blood, seem 
to be transparent with a sort of rosy or auburn colour through 
the pupil and in the iris; but this beautiful rosy hue perishes 
if the bulb of the eye is taken away from the orbit and the 
blood flows out; and it remains, if you first of all replenish the 
same vessels with dull-red suot. The pupil is, as in all the 
animals of which we shall speak, very large, even after death ; 
the iris, if cut off from the vessels, white, and bai-ely fibrous; 
which, if it is the case with the iiis of other animals, clearly 
shows that the absence of circular fibres is connected with this 
deficiency of extraneous pigment: its vessels are beautifully 
curved; so also the folds of the ciliary processes, if the injection 
lias b«en properly pcrfunued, &c. As this defect of the eyes 
) common to this kind of rabbits, that their females, when 
nbraced by black or grey males, produce ofispring with white 
i red eyes, it is not to be wondered at if they become easily 
iustomed to the light, and able to endure the glare of day, 
I The nature of white mice is otherwise compounded, for 
though they preserve for many generations the snowy colour 
r fur, and the red colour of their eyes, ao far, lite rabbits. 

' The eborotd growi pale in olU men. 


rt ■!)> be iH«fa—iLi»iad» breed pecafiw 
; far ^Aaa^ Amb b«« vkite hair, jtA tbeir 
booA and ejes we bleek, ead, Mwdi ng to the ofaaenBtioos 
of Kenting, tbej btve alio tbe nif Jfe ^ i»yU «MM i brara. 

I mjri^ hftve ■een wUte de^ whb led eyes ; a *»»"*irtT of 
the nine tott I owe to tbe libetalitj' of Snls; and eocfa ■ 
•qairrel wac kept living hy J. J. Wagner*. 

Amongst binbt, wfatte varietieB are known to oocur in 
Canaiy-birds, pwrota and oocks, and toj seldom, but oocfr- 
aionallj', in ctowb. 

Finally, as to men who sofler from this defect, the aceoants 
of tbem have been by some recent anthora so deformed, and so 
mixed up with fables, thai we may easily panlon those who 
have allowed themselves to be deceived, and have not heatated 
to make out of tbem a particular species of mankind. It wiU j 
therefore be our busineas to separate tbe stones from the trutli 
to show that the disease, so (ax from forming a species, does n 
even form a peculiar variety of maukind ; to narrate 
Hymptoms in detail; and to show that it was known to thaS 
ancients, and has spread over almost all the world 

The other immense merits of Linnieiis, and my own r 
for so greai a man, forbid me to say much about his { 
mintake, repeated in so many editions* of his magnificent woil 
and wliicb other learned men declare was put forth in all { 

■ PKytUal. l<liulit 

' Edni. CliB)ini>n, di 'Lrudtth. 

* Hill. AW. HrlTTl p. iSj. 


£utlt. espedaUy after the severe oensuroB of Buffon' aiul Puiw*. 
It will be BuScient to sam it up tn a few words: that the 
attnbates of apes are there mixed ap with those of men— for 
a body UsM than oun ty Aa{^ <y«s deep in their orUt, joined 
fo the membrana mctUaitat and a lateral vigion at the same time 
on both sides', (&« Jatgtn of the hand touching the knees when 
in on erect position, the wrinkled skin of the pubis', and finaUy, 
the whispering tongue and those arrogant conceits, the hope 
of future dominion, etc. have nothiog to do with the highest 
work of the Supreme Being, but must be relegated to tho 
r^on of fable. 

There is a disease of the human body, for the most part 
congenital, exactly like that which I have shown to attack 
certain animals ; it is, however, different in this, that it plays 
with the symptoms, and now attacks man lightly, and now 
severely; in some countries it is rare, in others more frequent 
and endemic; here it is propagated in families, there it seizes 
people capriciously and individually. It affects the skiu and 
the eyes at the same time, and therefore seems referable either 
to tetter or to luscitio*: that it is relatt-d to both, will be plain 
from an enumeration of the symptoms. A^ to the skin, or 
rather the cuticle, which is the principal sest of disease, in 
this disease it is affected in more than one way; it is indeed 
always of a diseased whiteness, and the hair* or groin are co- 
loured in the same way; but the nature of the epiderm itself 
undergoes all sorts of mutations, though it is not always entirely 

' T. XIV. * BeA. turUiAm.T. ii. p. 69. 

» Dalin. J*>. And. T. vi. p. 74. * lb. i>. 73. 

* Lutcitio: A coinphintof the ejee, when the ught is better iatheeTeuing thut 
at nud-dii;. Fatna. In the suiiB leim HippocntsB usei the rvxraXnTlai. 
Prorrh. u. Gden, Iiag. Plin. I. uviii. 0. 1 1, uid Thood. PrwcUn, L I. c. 10. 
Vuro, on the oonlrmr;, ctUt thoee hucilum who cumot see ia the eveuing^ kod 
.^tiiu, P>Tviu, Actiuriui, ftad Uriruiu* call thosu luiraXwirfi wbo «h during 
Uii day. but not to well when the mn sets, and at nigbt not at all. See more 
about Uua mafunon of tcrnu in H. Stephan. Dicl. Med. p. 4:8, Ann. Foea, (Earn. 
Uiypotr. p. 163. Tr. Tannnann on PUul. Mil. m. jj, and Jo. Hanluin on Plin, 
I, c p. 471. R. Aug. Vogel futlowa Hippocr. dt tagn. el ear. e, k, nff. p. 475, 
where the nnctalopia of the andcnta U uid to be blindnam by day (Hemtmlopiti 
of the iDodenu), and the hemeralopia of the andents {nactalopia of the modema) 
U laid to be the periodical bhndneaa whicb cornea on at twilight, 

' See Aotoar. I. a,, ». iiayr. niffiiiw, c. 13. 

affected, bst, ia nra tmett A* pines an scuured over the 
antaee of Um body. Tka^ busMU. ^o are ill in this way 
man be eanfiBj Mfvatad friB Ask uaa vfao hare the re« 
paiti-coloined. nd «f vfaoa I kne spok^ above'. la the 
diBesM of vhkk I am ■iii niiaHiii. it haa been observed in 
the Ettt Lidie^ by Bado^*, dat tba ipoCa an roogh and ckd 
be dirtbigniAed by tbe toot^ fcn the net of the akin. 
Strablenbezg' and Joba Bdl* ny a rt that parti-ooloared peiwmc 
of tnia kind are feoDd ■mnagnl tiie Tartars; and tbe aocoonti 
of Hall' deaoibe the Xalabara aa laaikcd hj large qiotfl of 
the same kind, of a jeOowish white, and make the disorder 
•otnethhig like leprosy. CSooely alUed to this sort of disease is 
that in which the skin of the body becoiDee white, with spots of 
another colonr, as yellow*, scattered over il', or where the colour 
ia a mixture of red and white*, or where the &ce at least 
retuns its natural redness*. 

In most cases however, the whole skin, though not in the 
same way, becomes n^te. For in many, little or nothing at 
all in the epidermis is changed, except the colour, so that in 
other respects there is no s^'mptom of any dbe-ase at all. Such 
are many of the inhabitants of the isthmus of Darien, most 
carefully described by Lionel Wafer", who are said t^i be covered 
with a copious, though thin and snowy down. Like this also 
was a beautiful woman from the neighbouring island of Temata, 
whom Le Brun" says was a concubine of the king of Bantam; 
and also a boy of five years old, shown to the Academy of Paris". 
The English poet" speaks of another, lately shown in London, 

' !>. 5. • Sohreb«r, SacuglA. p. ij. 

' In Siberia. A'^rdoif/. Ear. u. Atta, p. 111. 

• Zolims. See Ball's TraitU from Prtenb. toditerttporUof Aiia.GUug. 1763, 
4to. T. I. p- Sg. He kttril>iite« ic to »currj, 

> Tranqueb. Mia. Ber. Contin. ZXI. p. 741. So tiao horHa tun; ba wen 
tpottsd black unci wbite. 

• Like treoltlo*. ^ Trtaujutb. Str. Cmtin. cvi. p. ijji. 
' lb. Conlia. ILVI. p. iljp- 

' OUt. Goldamitb, i/^iiK. of ike Earth, T. It. p. 141. Wbethar tha OtaheiiMl ia 
Parkinton, p. 17, wu of this kind I dare not decide. 

" p. 107. " p. 3J3. 

" JJitl. dt TAe. da Sri, 1 744, o. T. p. 1 3. Volt»ii^ Jttlmg. T. ra. p. 316. 
Manpertuin, Vrmu phi/iiquc, p. 147. 

■> Goldnnilh, I. e. 

1 a skin like that of an European. In many, however, the 
epidermia too is scabby. I read the same about a Tamiil 
schooLm aster, whose skin as it were came oti' in scales, and be- 
came almost of a red colour'. The disease is called the white 
leprosy, in Malabar Wonkuschiam or WeHkuschtam'. Allied to 
this also is the crusted leprosy of some inhabitanta of Paraguay, 
recalling the scales of fish, painless, and in no ways affecting 
the general health". The white Ethiopians too are made 
lepers by Ludolph', and so are the inhabitants of Guinea by 
Isaac Voss'. I myself have been acquainted for many years 
with a Saxon youth, whose whole akin, not excepting even his 
face and the palms of the hands, was rough with white, and 
as it were calcareous scales, which appeared red through the 
numerous interstices, and as it were fissures, of the crust. 
Sometimes these scales peeled off, and then the limbs looked 
redder; but new ones instantly grew up. The groin was white; 
the hair and the eye-brows, if I recollect right, of a mouse 
colour. For those hairs do not, like that on the groin, keep 
the same colour in this disease, but vary in the most capricious 
way. Most have white', soft hair, exactly like goats' wool'. 
Nor in these is the colour constant, but as they grow older 
is often changed into rosy', Voss" attributes red and yellow 
hair to his LeuccBthiopians : the hair was yellow in the Malabar 

Kiily", golden in the Manilla girl of G. Jos. Camelli". 
So much about one phase of our disorder, which occurs 
h tetter ; the other phase, as I have said, affects the eyes, 
and belongs to lv«citio, yet it is wonderful how the symptoms 
of it differ. In many the eyelids become turgid, winking"; the 

ri GotU. Anut. Freylioghauwo, neuert MUtum* Otielikliie, 8 bL p. 107:. 
* Traiu/urb. U. B. Cmt. cvi. p. 1133 not. 
=■ LtUi'cM cdiSiinttt, Rec. xiv. ji. 111. * Iliit. jBlhiopiea, t. e. 14 g 33, 

* De iVi/i cl alior. Jtut, origiai:, p. 68. 

' See da Gruben, I. e. Wafer, p. ;o8. Tnin'imli. Mia. So: Conlin. M,n. 
c. vt. ka. 

' /A. Goldsmith, I, c. "The hur «■> white and woollj, uul veiy unlike *n; 
thing I had ■ecu befors." 

■ Trangwb. M. B. CmU. ovi. p. :i83 not. • (. e. 

'" Mia. JSer. Cmt. ou. p. 6jj. 

" PKitot. Tram. a. 307, p. 2568. " Lo Bnm, K c. 

a of WiM f iq,', wfc^ A> B^ im too rtrong. It 
■e ijw>lHiii» I latdy de- 
tk faiK afcita height daring 
L he coaU aoC nwlii] the hn E hti w i of the 

L of ioa. 1m ao^tt the iris is in 
, and the p^di «t mtgiiiet that they can 
mrwte cljectat es kttci o'. The colours of 
, but all rather pale, so that 
Imb l^kk is absrabed, >nd the retina all the more affected. 

Id some the cyee are rosy, as in the ftnimaU we meotioDed. 
I have myself known soch, two sooe and the daughter of b 
Freech peasant*. Maupertois and Voltaire difEer in their de- 
ecriptioo of the eyes of 17M LeocfBthiopiaBs who weie seen at 
Paris ; for one calls them rosy, the other akyHxloured, They 
may however be reconciled if we follow Fontenelle*, who eap 
that the iris, &c. appears red in a certain position of the eyes only. 
The man that Goldsmith saw had red eyes. Sky-coloured eyes 
are not however uncommon in this disease. For as this colour 
always denotes weak vision, according to A\-icemia and Averroes, 
aa quoted by Hermann Conring*. so espemlly it often occurs 
in our nuttalopes. The young man I knew had sky-coloured 
eyea And those Malabars who suffer from white leprosy com- 
bined with luscitio, have eyes of a similar colour' ; and so also 
tliose who are said to exist in the kingdom of Loango*. Dap- 
per says they have grey eyes. I am not quite siue whether 
this is the (Hseasc under which the family of Jerome Cardan 

' Wnfer, p. 108. "Their eyelidi band >Dd op«n in an oblong fipire, pointing 
downward at the comm, und forming an iircii or Ggnra of k orMcant with the 
poinU downwards. From henne, and from their geeing bo dear as they do in > 
nioon*hinr night, we uiied to cjill them moon^ejod." „ „ , „ 

* De vitafil. hum. rfijWic. in Nor. Conm. Sot S. 8c. Omting. T. m. p. 179. 
■ Mif. Str. Coal. Xhvi. p. 1140. 

* In the pw^h of Ch«npniei«, one-and-a-hftlf Icaguee from Civray, 1763, vara 

• I. e. Hill. An. Par. ' Oe hob. Gtm. 
' TVoM. JtfiM. fl«r, Oonl. OT. p. 637, and CVI. p. 1*83. 

• VoB. I. c p. 68. 



labonred. For he aaya, in his own life', "my father waa red, 
aod had white eyes, and saw by night;" and again, ".my eldest 
son had eyee exactly like bim;" and again, about the same 
child', "like my father, with amall, white eyes, which were 
never at rest;" and elsewhere about himself: "In my early 
youth, immediately I awoke, though in extreme darkness, I 
saw everything exactly as if it had been bright day-light : but 
in a short time I lost this power. Even now I can see a little, 
but not so as to discern anything." 

Let 80 much suffice about external condition of the skin 
and eyefl in those suffering under this disorder. There is still 
a little to be aaid about the rest of the constitution of their 
body. In the first place, it does nqt follow that they all are 
either foul or dirty. We are told that many of them belong to 
the court of the king of Loango'. Certainly another was the 
mistress of the king of Bantam", and such a woman of Malabar* 
married an European soldier. She is described as of square body 
and round cheeks, And they seem at all events strong enough 
to do their business by night, In fact, it ia said that they make 
hostile incursions into the neighbouring countries by night', and 
that the Portuguese have carried off others from Guinea to 
Brazil, to make them work in the gold mines : this certainly 
would be a kind of life in which nuctalopia would be of some use. 

Others seem to be of weak and feeble constitution. So 
Wafer speaks of the inhabitants of Darien'. The French of the 
parish of Champniers can scarcely stand being in the open air. 
The Malabars certainly cannot endure long journeyH* and are 
speedily fatigued'" with the wind and the heat". The brightness 
of the sun makes their eyes water", but they see pretty well in 
cloudy weather". 

» p. 70- 
i6i, T, m, (W«. 

' Ik rer. raritt, 1. Tin. 

* VoamiM, t. c. ' Le Bnin, I.e. 

' Miu. Ber. Cant, on, p. iiSi. 

' De Gtoben, l. e. Georg, Agricola, de Anim. tulterr. They 
by bumiiig ftuienkl pilei, backuas they ouinat benr (be lighta, 

people in oompuiioa of the other." 
Frnylingluasaii, I. e. '" Mill. Ber, CotU. ixvi. p. iji. 

'■'"•■■' '" W»fer, " FreyUnghuiMn. 

Frnylingluasaii, I. e. 
' lb. Mid Freylingh. I. e. 

< IWi>iin wUbi her Amnr 

r iq> fivB iafaa^, nipliiM tke '■^oig BHUer to tbs 
I too «M vfcot^' okjs bei, "wbon I trowgh i v^ 
) UfBa of tno a gi w widi tbe preaeat w^ of Um 
1 ihe M niraoleeB j«>n M, vhich is jusi the ticM 
» fiTpaiwI MocvOTcr. tke appeusDce of the f^st 
it ; uai I reoognao that tbe wkole aspect of tbe 
, and the beaatifBl figvra wltkh ~ 
with Alt iriuch I then saw*.' Peihafs also ibe attay of tha 
tfhmalr child Aristotle* qnaks of nuT be thna eoplaiiia^ 
which wa* bam of the adi^tamn cenDerion of a SicUiat) wvaaa 
with an .^thiop; and did not have the ooloor of her &tber. 
bat in process of time gave Inrth to a son, vbo was entirely 
black, like bU graDdEfttber. Tbe andentE knew this disorder 
also as endemic, so tbat tbev gave names to whole nations and 
regiotkB in conseqoence. It seeros probaMe thst Albania, on 
tbe omfines of the Caucasian mountains and Anoenia', had 


firom this, about which Isigonua of Nice' speaks thus: 
" Some are bom there with grey eyes, white from early child- 
hood, who see better by night than by day'. Another nation 
of this kind acquired the name of LeuccEthiopes, hence trans- 
ferred to all who suffer from this disease. They are mentioned 
by Pomponius Mela', Pliny', Ptolemy', and Agathemerus*, but 
are not noticed by Strabo, Julius Honorius', Lster jEthicua', 
the amooyinous writer of Ravenna, &c They do not however 
agree as to the country which the Leuocethiopes are said to 
inhabit. Mela and Pliny place them with the libyco-Egyptians, 
near the Libyan sea. Job. Reinhold, in the plates to his edition 
,Qf Mela, about long. 50" N. lat. 15°,' But Ptolemy says the 
" icoethiopea live under Mount Ryssa, which, according to 
'Anville, is the name for Cape Verde. However that may be, 
for our purpose, that this disease was not unknown 
to the ancients. 

We have seen that there are modem instances in the most 
difiereut and widely separated parts of the earth ; and it will 
worth our while to add a few more, and in a few words 
reckon them up in the order of our four varieties. I have 
carefully described a youth of our own Germany. Edm. Chap- 
man relates that instances have been known in Spain and 
France. Nic Le Cat saw some children bom at Batisbon. 
I have already noticed the case of those in the parish of Champ- 
niera, and what Cardan says of his Itahan family, G. Agricola 
and Olaufi Magnus found men of this kind in Scandinavia. 
The accounts from Tranquebar tell us of many Malabars. They 
contemptuously called there kakerUicken^', from their resem- 
Lce t-o the eastern moth, which is a parti-coloured and noc- 
tnmaJ insect. And this disorder occurs in Labrador, if indeed 

»PliQ.l.vm. 0. J,p. 37,. 

■ Camp. Silmiu. ad Soliii. c, I1, and GeUina, Noa. All. I. IX. o. 4. 

» L. I. c. 4, p. II, ed.L. B. ijia. Oq wliioh BBS John de Watt. Thna they call 
tome Elhio|dan8, who in oomparuon nilh otliera may be wid to be whibiih, neither 
aXteaeihtT while, nor altogether bUok, p. 15;, ed. Bna. 1543, 

* L, V. c 8, p. ISI. Hard. 

• Im. rv. c. 6, p. 77, ed. Mich. Scrveti, Lu([d. 1541. 

' Oeor^. 1. I. 0. 5. ' Excirpt, eotmogr. > A> » thtw^t. 

' HarduiD on Viiti. In the desert of Sahara. 

" DUkalaken, Mitt. Btr. ami. an. p. 1183. KalkaUtton, eont. Olt. p. 637, 







the Champagne girl, Le Blanc, belonged to the Esquimaux, u 
is most likely'. 

Lenccethiopians (if we may apply the old term to theM 
also) of the second variety of mankind have been known 1 
the islands of Java", Borneo*, Manila', and others 
Ternata, and in New Guinea' and Otaheite'. Of the third 
variety, are found instances to the south beyond the foun- 
tains of the Nile', and towards the river Senegal', whoa 
mouth lies under the Ryssadian promontory, and still furtht 
south in Guinea* and its kingdom of Loaugo, and, tinally, in ti 
interior of Kaflfraria" and the island of Madagascar". The foul 
variety can produce its Blafarda on the isthmus of Darien, i 
the kingdom of Mexico", in Tucuman, and Paraguay. 

But our digressioD from the subject of natural history and 
the varieties of mankind to pathology and diseases has been 
already too long. Those must bear the blame who have con-_ 
founded men sufi'ering under disease with the beasts, which t! 
dignity of mankind demanded should be separated, and ( 
referred to their own place. 

It would be an immcDse and irrelevant labour, if I were 
to give an account of all the disorders which, according to the 
authors of medical observations, journals, &c., 
in the human body, in every quarter, contrary to nature, 
transition from hence to monsters would be easy, and so on ti 
general nosology; and thus the divine study of natural hist« 
woidd nm up into a confused and formless mass. Let us leave 
therefore unnoticed, for physiologists and pathologists, the black 
and homy epidermis of the Italian boy", or the Englishman"! 
and others, and similar peculiar aberrations from the natu) 
condition. Nor have we anything to do with the dire disord 

' Iliit. d'ane jeune JilU tauragf, ftc. Pur. 1761, ximo. H«r oountrymet 
-fsre nucialopes, and did buiiDcu bj night, fto., uid »he had Uucilio, p, 36, &«. 
' Lflgoat. T. u. p. 136. > Yon. • Camclli, I. e. 

' VoM. • HnwtoBWOrtli, Vol. 11, p. 188. Parkinson, p. J7. 

' Tom. « Cbapmui. ' Grolxin, VoFiiot. FortUK Atbiwit. 

" Sim. t. d. 8tel in T»oluirt, Sion, p. 1 10. 

" De CoMigny in HUt. <U CAc. da &i. I. e. " lb. 

" SUlf. V. d. WiHl, Ob$. cent. u. p. 376, Tab. n. itub. 1 1, fig. i, j, 3. I 

" The porcupine roan. G. Edwardj, OirontnjtD/jVaturalffiHory, Vo£ r, p,llM 



en. i^l 

y and 
J eon- 

to the 





of cretinism, irliich is by no means peculiar to the inhabitants 
of the Vallaia, but has been noticed elsewhere', though dis- 
torted here and there by wonderful stories'. 

It seems almost too much even to name in this place the 
centaurs, sirens, cynocephali, satyrs, pigmies', giants, herma- 
phrodites, and other idle creatures of that kind. Still, I con- 
aider it necessary to spend a little time upon the men with 
tails, since they have fallen in with some modern patrons. 
There ia an old story about the islands of the Satyrs in Pliny*, 
Ptolemy', and Pausaniaa', and often repeated afterwards by 
Marco Polo, Munster and others, that men exist there with 
■ha^y tails, like the pictures of the satyrs, who are of iucre- 
Hble swiftness, Ac. When the passages in these writers have 
ipared, it soems most likely that these islands of the 
Satyrs answer to our Borneo, Celebes', &c., and that the tailed 
apes have been taken for men. But a new story about men 
with tails to be found here and there lias made much more 
to do. For partly, it is said, that men having tails are found 

lUt thecity of Turkestan*, in the island of Formosa*, Borneo", 
icobar", &c.;partly the very pictures of tailed men of this kind 
have been exhibited". But upon a full consideration of the 
matter, there is much which leads to the behef that the whole 
story is founded upon the fictions I have spoken of For, as to 
the accounts about them, many of them manifestly depend upon 
the narrations of others; and they who say they have themselves 
seen tailed men of this kind bear no very good reputation. 

_ shagg 
Hi tod 

1 HalW, A rmW Ruptmi, Nor. Comm. GatU. T. i. p. ^3. 

' See in Guiaduit, Yariat. dt la nat. daas Vapire kvin. Pam, 1771, 8vb, in 
Bnrytt. dt Par. altered in ed. De Felice, T. XII, p. ,^11. 

' Comp. the book of Tyaon on tbe«e Bloriea. Apes ware genenllj palmeiJ upon 
tnidlen, »nd thii I auipect to h«vo been the cam with the Mftdagucar pijjmiaa of 
Commenon, ia De la Lande. See Boxier, O61. Sept. 1775. 

* 1. Ti. •m. c ». p.m. 374. » 1. Ti. c. II. • Id Ailtea. 

' Baa after ll^aon. Jo. Caverhiil, On Ihi htoutedge of the uneimt* in At Eatt 
IndUi. Phil. Trant. Vol. LVii. p. 1;]. 

• Pel. EytaohkoT. Orttiburg. Topogr. T. n, p. 34. 

■ J. Ott. Helbig. EpK N. C. Peo. h. aan. ix. p. 4J6, Hane, Ow. ind. diar. 
-, i\6. 

" Will. Hanaj, de Gta. p. 194, ed. oper. Lend. ij66. 

" Nila MatthnoD Kening, Rtta, ed. 4to. Waaterai, 1759, Svo, p. rji. 

■* Martini on Buff. b%. not. Getrk.T. v[. p. 44, Ta.^). a. drr ga^wantU Maach. 















Non hie Oentavrotj non Oorgonat, ffarpya$jue 
Invenia; hominem pagina nodra aapit. 

MabtiaLi Lib. X. Epigr. 4. 

Letter to Sir Joaepli BatJta. 

Index of the anthropological collection of the author, vhich ho 
illustrating this new edition, viz. 

Bkulta of different rucea. 
I. Very characteristic ftetuacs of the middle and the two 
extreme Tarictics. 

III. Htiir and hatrs of diffurent races. 

IV. Anatomical preparations. 

V. Collection of pictures. 
Explanation of the platea. 



^H DifBculty of the question ; order of discussion ; external conform - 
HbJon; erect position; proved natural to man; broad and flat pelvis; 
^Tdation of the soft jMirts to the human j)elvia; the hymen, nymphte, 
snd clitoris; man a bimanous animid; apes ami kindred animals 
quadnunanous; properties of the human teeth ; other peculiarities of 
man; internal peculiarities; internal iHirts which man has not; 
intermaxillary bone; difference of internal paiiis; functional pecu- 
liarities of man; mental peculiarities, laugliter and teais; diseases 
BCpliar to man; recapitulation of diffei-encea falaely ascribed to man. 



Object of this undei-taking ; what is species; application to the 
question of human species, or varieties; how the primitive species 
degenerates Into varieties; phenomena of degeneration in animals; 



coloDT, hair; BtstDre; proportion; form of tlie fltull; caases of de- 
^eatniaoa; forautire force; climale; aliment; mode of life; 
hybriiUty; diseased bereditary dispoMtions; mutilstione; tre tbo; 
{■n^agftted? canttona to be observed in inTestigating degeueraticai. 

OH TBI ouna Am vats ik iraicK icaiikikd hatz dbozssu 


Order of ducnsgion; seat of colonr; Tarietiea of racial colour; 
canaes of this Tarietv; further illustration of cansee ; Creoles; mulat- 
toes; diirlc nkin witli white spots; Eiugnlar niatations of colonrj 
other propertic)! of racial akin; agreemeot of hair and akin; varietiei 
of racial hair; agreement of the iris «dth the Lair; colonn of thfr 
aye; racial face; varieties of racial face; caascs tliercof ; racial fbra. 
of bIcuIIh; fiu:ial line of Camper; remarks; norma verlicalis; isciil 
varieties of skulls; can-scs of the same; racial varieties of teetli, ai 
causes; other racial varieties; eara; breoste; genitals; legs; feet and 
hands; varieties of stature; Fabtgonians; Quimos; causes of r, 
stature; fabulous varieties of mankiiid; story of tailed nations) 
diseased variety; epili^e. 



Varieties of mankind run into one anotlier; five principal va 
ties; cliftrftctori sties and limits; Caucasian; Mongolian; Ethiopi 
American; Malay; divisions of other authors; remarks on the Oaa*- 
cftsian, &c. ', conclusion. 


There are many reasons, illustrious Sir, why I ought to 

I'Offer and dedicate to you this book, whatever it may be worth. 

' besides my wish to express some time or other my 

B of gratitiido for the innumerable favours you have con- 

. upon me, from the time I came to have a nearer ac- 

i^uaintauce witli you; this very edition of my book, which now 

a out with fresh care bestowed uiion it. owes in great part 

) your hberality the splendid additions and the very remark- 

lable ornaments in which it excels the former ones. For many 

Vyears you have spared neither pains nor expense to 

VBiinch my collection of the skulls of diffcrt^nt nations with those 

l^pecimens I was so anxious above all to obtain, Z mean of 

T Americans, and the inhabitants of the inlands of the Southern 

VOcean. And besides, when I visited London about three years 

igo, with the same generous liberality with which you extended 

3 uae of your nursery to our Gaertner, and other riches of your 

' museum to others, you gave me in my turn the unrestricted 

use of all the collections of treasures relating to the study of 

Anthropology, in which your library abounds ; I mean the pic- 

■ turea, and the drawings, &c. taken by the best artists from the 

9 itself. So I have been able to get copies of them and to 

^describe whatever I Uked, and at last, assisted by so many new 

Hid important additions, to proceed to the recasting of my 

x>ok, and am bold enough to say, now it has been amplified in 

150 LINSXU?. 

80 nuiDy ways, without incurring any suspicion of boasting, that 
it has been poliabed and perfected as far as ita nature permita. 

Accept then graciously this little work, which is so much in 
fact your own; and I hope that in this way it will not be dis- 
pleasing to you because it treats of a part of natural history, 
which though second to no other in importance, slill hag most 
surprisingly been above all others the longest neglected 

It is one of the merits of the immortal Linnaeus, that more 
than sixty years ago, in the first edition of his Sijstcma Ifatunx, 
ho was the first, as far as I know, of writers on natural history, 
who attempted to arrange mankind in certain varieties according 
to their external characters; and that with sufficient accuracy, 
considering that then only four parts of the terraqueous globo 
and its inhabitants were known. 

But after your three-years' voyage round the world, illostri- 
ous Sir, when a more accurate knowledge of the nations who 
are dispersed far and wide over the islands of the SouthenL 
Ocean had bcon obtained by the cultivators of natural history 
and anthropology, it became very clear that the Linnsean di- 
vision of mankind could no longer be adhered to; for which 
reason I, in this little work, ceased like others t? follow UuA 
illustrious man, and had no hesitation in arranging the varieties 
of man according to the truth of nature, the knowledge of 
which we owe principally to your industry and most carefiil 

Indeed though the general method of Linnxus, of arranging 
the mammalia according to their mode of dentition, was very 
convenient at the time he founded it, yet now afler so many 
and such important species of this class have been discovered, 
I think that it will be useful and profitable to the students of 
zoology, to give it up as very imperfect and liable to vast 
exceptions, and to substitute for that artificial system one mora 
natural, deduced from the universal characteristics of the mam- 

I am indeed very much opposed to the opinions of those, 
who, especially of late, have amused their ingenuity so much 






witli what they call tlie continuity or gradation of nature; and 
have aought for a proof of the wisdom of the Creator, and tbo 
perfection of the creation in the idea, as they say, that oaturo 
takea no leaps, and that the natural productions of the three 
igdoma of nature, as far as regards their external confonnar 
Bon, follow one upon another like the stops in a scale, or like 
points and joinings in a chain. But those who examine the 
matter without prejudice, and seriously, see clearly that even 
in the animal kingdom there are whole clasaea on the one hand, 
Rs that of birds, or genera, as that of cuttle-fish, which can only 
be joined on to the neighbouring divisions in those kinds of 
plans of the gradation of natural productions but indifferently 
and by a kiud of violence. And on the other hand, that there 
are genera of animaJs, as silkworms, in whicli there is so gi'eat 
A difference in the appearance of either sex, that if you wanted 
to refer them to a scale of that kind, it would be necessary to 
aeparato the males as far as possible from their females, and to 
place the different sexes of the same species in the moat diffe- 
rent places possible. 

And in this kind of systems, ao far from their being filled 

up. there are large gaps where the natural kingdoms are very 

plainly separated one from another. There are other things 

of tliia kind; and so although after due conaideratlou of theao 

things I cannot altogother recognize so much weiglit and im- 

-tance in this doctriue of the gradation of nature, as ia com- 

rnly ascribed to it by tbo physico-thcologians, still I will 

iw this to belong to both these metaphorical and allegorical 

usemeuta, that they do not throw any obstacle in facihtating 

method of the study of natural history. 

For they make as it were tho basia of every natural system, 

way in which things rank according to their universal con- 

ition, and the greatest number of external qualities in which 

ley coincide with each other, whereas the artificial systems, on 

e contrary, recognize single characters only as the foundation 

their arrangement. 

And when I found it was beyond all doubt that a natural 
tm of that kind was preferable to an ai-tificial one, because 


it is of meb we in A»y^Mg Ab ji\gMft *nd assisting tlw I 
menKHT, I apffiod mjmM aB A* aan to bai^ the claas e' 
Tnam"}*''* into Ife MO^ of s Batnl syitaa of I 
especiaOj as that ailifiiiU <Be 4f liaavai^ dedaoeil from o 
panscm of the UnA , ib caaaeqa^wB rf tk« aoDeBnoii of so n 
recently detected ipeda ia Acaa tiiaia, tame evenr day to l 
enciunbeied widi awn ti na Ma we ■wt—Bfii and exceptioni 
So that, for t 

we now are acqoaiated vnh tao ipeaea of 
their habit as Hke as posnUe to oack other, hot ao 
in their deatitioa, that if «e aeie amr obliged 
linnsAii Bystem, «« Bhoald have to lefcr one 
B^tue, and the other to tbe Otirtt. And ia 
would be oeceesaij to Temore the Ethiopian boar, i^ 
destitute of the piimaiy teeth, froB the other B^Iucb and place 
it among the Bnta of linnaeoB. I say nothing of that African 
Myrmecophaga dnlata wfaidt, aocordiitg to the idea of Linna»i^ 
would have to be 8c|iaiated from the genus edtntaUi, or of 
of the Lemoree (the t'wlri aiid laniger) which, on acoouni' 
of the anomalies of their dentitioD, woold have to be eepi^ 
rated from the Linnaaan genus of Lemores No one will deny 
that this confusion threw the greatest possible obstacles in 
the way of the study of zooI<^y, and I have tried to remedy it 
by constructing the following ten natural orders of mammalia, 
a statement of which I may here subjoin, because I shall b^ 
quently make mention of them in the present work. 

na»i^ ■ 



Bradvpoda. i 




Bradypua. " 






















■ I am leiy far indeed from tbat itch far innovation which kfilicti 
t])« roodorus, *lin lake a wonderful dalight in giving new namea to 

Epoduotioni which hnve already reoeired names very well known to i 
Inil of plnjing at onomatojieia hu been m great miarortuiie to the study 

ui; lor toil I 


ORDKns. 153 

V. Clip 






32. Squm. 







33. Camelm. 



34. Capra. 



3.5. Antii^pe. 



36. Boa. 



37. Cira/o. 



38. Certm. 



39. Moachua. 

VL Fone. 





10. «ur. 



41. Tapir. 



42. Elephaa. 



43. Rliimcmia 



44. Hippopatamm. 



45. Trichecm. 







46. Monodon. 



4". Baltxna. 



48. Piyirfo-. 



49. Dalphiima. 



Uitoi;. So I luiTe rei; uldoin deserted the (enninology «f LinnBui in the 
(;«tatiu:Ha tuttnes of the nummiOu, and then mmt unwillingly, snd only when the 
Dune adopted bj th<it learned aau evidently involved «a eiToneoni and fnliio 
notion. Bo, for eiample, I have restored to the armaililloea the native neneric 
name of Tatit, for the Linniean Darsput h&d ootbiny to justify it. Wb all know 
Uiia Dame i> Greek, vaA denotea lui ■nimnl remvknble for ite bairj Feet, and so 
was fpyea by the anciecUi to the hars and the rabbit, becaU:ie in tbem above atl 
Mhen the palms and mlei are moat hairy, whereas it is lorcely Decenary to men- 
tion bow »ery diHerent in habit the airoour-bearing animali in the new world are 
from the rabbit. And to in the geniix of bata, I think the name of vampyre should 
be reitored Vi that specica of South America which Linnnui called eptdrMia, and 
nte on the eontrary the title of vampyre to that bat of the East Indie* and of the 
MaiidB of the Southern Ocean, which ia oommoDly Oalled tbe flying dog. But now 
h a known that the word mmpyrt meana Uood-tudxr, and therefore la particularly 
applicable to that American bat, whiob ia on thia account Very obnoxious to other 
ftninuls and especially to man : but doca not apply at nil to the olher one I men- 
tioned, namely, the canine, which is entirety frugivoroua, and oever, ai fur as I 
know, sucks the blood of other onimala. 

loi coscLcaos. 

These with eremhing else, where in the woik of which 
this is the pre&ce, I have on many points deputed in opinicm 
from others, I sabmit to your judgment, illofltrioos Sir, witii 
equal respect and confidence, to tou under whose moBt dignified 
and worthy presidency the Royal Society ijf Sdenoe rejoices to 
be, whose golden motto from its infiuicy has been, 'Nullius in 

Farewell, illustrious Sir, and be graoous to your most 
devoted servant. 

Dated from the University of the GecMgia Augusta^ April 
11, 1795. 




There are threa special reasona why I liave thought it worth 
lile to insert here this index, 
ilrst, that my loamed and candid readent may know the qnnn- 
r and tho quality of the oaaistance taken from nature itttolf, with 

1 I have succeeded at loet iu publishing this book. 
Secondly, that a toatiiuony of my gratitmlo Uiity remain for tho 
Boble munificence which my patrons and triendH tiave thus far abown 
In enrichtug my materials for the extension of aathropological 

lastly, that what I am still in want of may be known, which 
g tiioae aamo friends may fiirther eni-ich me with, if they have a good 
Mrtnnity and are still so disposed. 


Of thja collection, which in number and variety in, so far as I 
mow, unique in its kind, since the similar colicctiona of Camper and 
John Hunter cannot in these respecte be comjiared to it, I have pub- 
lished a selection, which I hare described moat fiilly in three decades, 
and illtistrated with the most accurate cngiaviDgs, and there I have 
given an account of the time and the way iu which each skull came 
into my possession. And I always keep together with these trea- 
Bures a collection of autograph letters, by wliich documentary evi- 
Kibnce the genuine history of each is preserved. Those which seem to 
B in any way doubtful or ambiguous, I put in a separate place. 

A. Five VBiy choice examples of the princiiml Tarieties of man- 

(a) The middle, or Caucasian variety. 

1. A Georgian woman, PI, in. Fig. 2, PI. rv. Fig. 3 (Dec 
cranior. illustr. m. Tab. ixi.), a gift of de Asck 


Tben the two extreme, or (b) Mongoliui and (c) Ethlopie v 

2. A Reindeer Tungua, PL in. Fig. 1, PI. n. Kg. J 
u. Tab. XVI.), a gift of de Ascb. 

3. A female African of Guinea, PI ill. Fig. 3, PL n 
Fig. 5 {Dei^ IL Tab. ux), a gift of SUjih. Jo. Vua Goun^ 
Professor at UtrecbL 

Lastly, the two intermediate rarietiea. 

(d) The American, (e) The Malay. 
i. A Carib chief from the tsle of St Vincent, PL IT, 

Fig. 2 (Deo. i. Tab. x.), a gia of Sir Joseph Bank^ 

5. An Otiiheitan, PL iv. Fig. i (Dec. ul Tab. xxtl), t 
the same. 

R FItc other specimens selected in the same way. 

(a) The Oaacasian rariety. 

6. Natolian of Tocat, giftofdeAacb. 

(b) Mongolian. 

7. Chinese or D^iirtan Tougus (Dec. IIL Tab. Xltil.), fron 

(c) Ethiopian. 

8. Ethiop. (Dec I. PI. 8), from Michael., aulio-counselloc 
of Hesse-Caswl, and Professor of Marburg. 

(J) American. 

9. Indian of North America (Dec l Tab. tx.), from the sai 

(e) Malay. 

10. Kew Hollander (Dea m. TaK uvil), from Banks. 
For the demonstration of the norma vertiealu, & 61. 

Caucaaian variety. 

1 1. Tartar of Kaan (Dec. u. TaK Xii.), gift of de Asch. 


12. Yacutan (Dec. u. Tab. xv.), de Asch. 


13. Ethiopian. Souunening, au lie-counsellor, and Prot 


te other specimens by which, although they are partly deformed 
on purpose and partly by disease, the iwrma verlicalu Btill is 
well elucidated. 

14. Catteatian. Turk, de Asch. 

15. MongoluiTt. Cftlrauck {Dec. n. Tab. xiv.), de Asch. 

16. Ethiopian. Ethiop. (Deo. n. Tab, xvii.), de Aftoh. 

Bkulle nf infanta, okarly demonstrating the norma verticalit. 

17. CaticasiaTi. Jewish girl (Dec. iii. Tab. xsvin.). 

18. Mongolian. Burat girl (Deo. ili. Tub. xxix), de Asch. 

19. Ethiopian. New-lmrn Ethiop. (Deo. lU. Tab. ixx.), 
BillmaDn, Cassel surgeon. 

amcns renuu-kable for the manifest transitions by wlich they 
conned the different varieties of mankind. These hold a mid- 
dle place between the Caucasian and Mongolian. 

20. Sknll of a Cossaek of the Don (Doc. i. Tab. iv.), de Asch. 

21. Kiips-CoBsack {Dec. ii. Tab. xm.), dc Asch, 

22. Another of the same, de Asch. 
These between the Caucasian and Ethiopian. 

23. Egyptian mummy (Dec, I- Tab. i.). 

24. Genuine Zingari (Dec. ii. Tab. u.), Pataki, physician of 

These between the Mongolian and American. 

25. 26. Esquimaux (Dec. m. Tabb. x.tiv. xxv.), Jo. Loreti. 
Skulls deformed by particular arts in infancy. 

27. Macrocephalic, probably Tartar (Dec. i. Tab. iii.), 
de Asch. 

28. Carib female pea in. Tab. xi.). Banks, 

Remaining cranial collection. 

29. German. 

30. Female German. 

31. Toung Jew. 

32. Old Jew. 

33. Dutch. Wolff, Utrecht physician. 

34. Frenchman. Siimmerring. 

35. Italian, de Asch, 




Italian, Vonetian. Miclia«HB, oamp-pliysiciati of Han- I 

over. fl 


Lombard. Jb. H 


Anoiont Roman pKetorian eoldicr. Coi-d. Stepb. Borgia, fl 


Litliuaninn of Sanuatiih. de Ascb. 1 


Culvaria of ancient Cimbrian. BoienLard, imperial H 

consul genei-al iu Denmark. H 


4S. Finn, de AgcL J 


Female Finn. ^H 


Russian Zingari. ^^| 


Ruaaian youth'. ^^^^| 


RuHsian old man. j^^^^^^f 


48, 49, 50, 51. KussianB of Mubcovj'. ^^^^H 


Fomalo of Muscovy. ^^^^^^| 


Ruaaian of Swonigorod. ^^^^^| 


Old Huaaian ^^^^H 


KusHian of Weuo\FBk). ^^^^^H 


Romanolf. '^^^^^| 


Ribno. ^^^^^1 


Ribnisoi. ^^^H 


Kostroman. -j^^^^^^l 


Femalo of Enuno. de Ascb. ,^^^^^| 


Hus-'^ian of Kyscbenovogorod. ^^^^^| 


Rai^k ^^^H 




Tartar of Orenburg. ^^^^^^H 


Tartai- (probably of Eiuan). ^^^^^| 








Qeoi^Q. ^^^^^^H 


73, 74. Female Tnrlc ^I^^H 


76, 77, 78, 79, 80. Calmucka of Orenbni^ (76, Sec^H 

Tab. v.). ■ 


Creole Ethiopian from New York. Micbaelia, Marbut^^^ 


Ethiopian of Congo (Dec, ii. Tab. xvrri,). in AbcH. ^| 

■hews gre.t d 

Slkiopian. Male Etlttopian, tiftli month, Mej'or, chief [>hf aiciau, 

Hair and Haibs of different Nations. 
Atthongh at first sight these things tna; Bocm too minute, still 
Jt cannot be denied that a collectiou of thia kind, wlien very varied, 
Ib of considerable use for accurate anthropological studies. I have 
iere upecimona of all the five principal varieties of mankind; some 
nf ihem are Bufficiently remarkable, about whicli I eLatl speak 
below; as the piebald hair of the negress, variegat«d with white 
whom I saw at London, tie. 



Cawxuian variety. German twins of either sex, remarkable for 
'tiiMT extreme beauty, foiir months old. 

Mongdian. Colinuck of Orenburg, female, third month. From 

Anatomical FaKPAKATiona 
The greater part of theae belong to the natural history of the 
Ethiopians. 1 have made copious mention of them in various ports 
the book. 

Collection of Picttreb of different Natioks, 


It is clear that a collection of this kind, eepecinlly whenever it 
!■ invariably compared with such a collection of sknlls as I have 
Jen pving an account of, is one of the first, principal, and authen- 
c sources of anthropological studies; and bo for the last twenty 
years I have taken an immenae deal of trouble to collect a quantity 
f such drawings, taken from life, and what is vary important, by 
[Ood artists. There is indeed a large quantity of similar drawings 
I the books of travels and voyages; but when they are critically 

ifflMW at Cm. de Bnin n U> P« 


e MoMidnTaee ot tlw iaiHortal Oook, iOaitnln] b^ hia 
, ntd pbtea drawn hf Hodga, ve i&all aoon £nd 
tbrt in alaiMt aD tka odMn tk« platai, Itowsnr qdendid tb(7 ma; 
b^ Then w« eyMMuw tlwai ilntly, and uapaic tfasn vjtli gennine 
wywMi ti t io — , or vHli aatan, an mmioIj of anj om lor tb« natu- 
ral hiftoTj of maakiBd. It » nuKwiiiy, tbereJon^ far this object 
to bring together all tlt« extant w pi o w n titka n of fareigs races, aud 
the engravingB, a« veil thcee edited aepaiatelj aa thaae scattered op 
Mid down in booka, and alao the -verj drawings niade by the artist's 
own hand I hare collected a conaidenible quantity of them, amongst 
which are {nrticoUrly oon^icooiu the fignree of Wenc HotUr, a 
great artiiit in this line, which are drawn ui aqiia f</Hi*, and also 
the splendid plAtee of some modeni English engravera ; to mentiiHi 
them singly would transgress the limita of an index. I will only 
give a list of some of the most remarkable of those which are done 
by the hand. 

CaiLcaiian variety. 

1. Turkish woman; drawn with red chalk from the life at I 
Hd, by Diiu. Cliodowiecki, who gave it me with his autograph. 

2. Hindostan woman; drawn by an Indian painter with ii 
derful refinement and accuracy : given to me at London by E 

Mongolian variety. 

3. CoBsim AH Khan, formerly nawab of Bengal, who aft^ " 
wards became a Mohammedan faquir at Delhi. Prawn in coloun 
by a Mohammedan painter, a Moor. It waa given to mo with the 
following one by Braun, now deceased, formerly Biitish reeident ti m 
Berne, and once a colonel in India. m 

i. The wife of the last Mogul Emperor, Shah Alliim, vha 
died 1790; also drawn by an artistic hand'. * 

5. Portrait of Foodor Irvanowitsch, a Calmuck, by himself; 
drawn in black uhalk by his own hand, with incomparable skill and 

' Comp, k pMBOgo to this effect !□ Volney, Rainei, m medilalwn »ur Ui tHbIh- 
timi liti fiapira, Ji. 349. 

' I hsvB «»cnl)ed thosB to the Mongolian vmety, having rcgnni ia the otigm 

of the prsBent rulora of India, although from obrioiw oauaat thoj « 

the HindoBt*nee in »ppe»iiuicf. 


lost exiiDt likeneai. Done &t Rome, wh«« be atndied 
punting trith the gnatoKt eaootsK. This lumdaome present was sent 
me from BtNae br Tatter, of the prirate British embassy. 

6. Two Chinese ^lont. Painted at Tieona. A gift from Nic 
Jo*. d« Jacqnin, oonneiUor of the imperial miot. 

7- Ettoiack, ma Smpusaanx. magician; brought to London in 
1773 from the cout of LAbndor. This, &a weU as the following 
piclate, according to tbe auto^^mph of Kathui. Dance in Bank^' 
mmieiun, was nioet carefuUy painted bj the funous London painter, 
G. Hnnnemann. 

8. Etqniioitnx woman, hy name Caubvic (which in the langnage 
of tboM barbariaos means a blind b«ar) ; libe w«s brought wiib 
^^Gtbaiadc to Loudon by Cartwright. 

^^^ EtJtiopian. 

^^r 9. Hottentot female of Amaqui. This, with the following one, 
eomea from tlie collection of Banks. 

10. Bosduuan, with wife and child. 

11. Hottentot female. This portrait and the four sueceeding 
ones were drawn from the life at the Cape of Good Hope, and sent to 
the Kmperor Joseph II. at Vienna. Moat careful oopiea given me 
bj de Jacquiu. 

12. Karmup, Hottentot female of Namaqui 

13. Eoejo, Hottentot female of Oonaga, oi 

114. Koha, Caffir chief. 
Id. Fuaeica, his daughter. 

Lfae borders of 


An inhabitant of Tierra del Fiiego, from Magellai 
Female of tlie same tribe. 

Two New Zealanders. 
New Zealand cliie£ 
20. Two yonthB of the same nation. 

A ll theae, as well aa the Fuegians, are Uken from the collection 
bj Sir Joseph Banks in his voyage. 



Plate in. 
A synoptic armngcmeiit to illu«trat« tlie nomta verticali 
Fig. 1 msvtn to fig. 1 of PI. lY. 

nf.i fig.s 

■fig. 3 fig. s 

Plate IV. 

Five very select skulls of my cotlectiou, to demonstrute tlie d 
fiity of the fi^-o jirincipal huiuan races. 

Fig. 1. A Tuugus, one of tliose commonly called the Beindc 
Tungus. Hia naiue was Tscbewiu Amureew, of tbe family of Gilg 
girsk. He lived nbout 350 versts from tbo city Bargus; and cut a 
uwii throat in 1791. Schilliug, the head army-surgeoa, wassentthen 
by Worchnolldiuski, to make a legal iBquiry as to the cause of 1 
deAth ; be brought baok the skull with bis own hand, and gave it I 
Bai-on de Atich. 

Fit/. 2. The bctui of a Carib chief, who died at St Yincenfc el 
yeiiffl ago, and whose bouee, at the request of Banks, were dug i 
thoTO by Audoi-soii, the head of the royal garden in that island. 

Fi>/. 3. A young Georgian female, made captive in the t 
Turkiali war by the Bussiaos, anil brought to Mnseo»y. There i 
■lied suddenly, and an examination was mnde of the cause of de* 
by Hiltebrandt, the most learned anatomical professor in Bus 
Ho carefully preserved the skull for the extreme elegance of i 
iiliape, and sent it to St Petersburg to de Asch. 

Fig. i. The skull of a Tahitian female, brought at the reqnol 
of Banks by the brave and energetic Captain Bligh, on his return 
from his famous voyage, during which he ti-ansported with the greatest 
success stocks of the bre{id-fmit tree from the Society Isl&nds to the 
East Indies. 

Fig. 3. An Ethiopian female of Guinea; the concubine of j 
Dutchman, who died at Amsterdam in her 2dth ye&r. She was i 
sected by Steph. J". Van Geuns, the learned professor at Utrecht. 


Diffimlty of the sfihject. He who means to write about 
? variety of mankind, and to describe the pointB in which the 
a of men differ from each other in bodily constitution, muKt 
ret of ail investigate those differences wliich separate man him- 
F from the rest of the animals. The same thing occurs here 
1 we often sec happen in the study of natural history, ami 
!cially of zoology, that it is much easier to distinguish any 
s from its congeners at the first glance by a sort of divino- 
i of the senses, than to give an account of, or express in 
words those distinctive characters themselves. Thus we find it 
very easy to distinguish the rat from the domestic mouse, or 
|.tiie rabbit from the hare, but difficult to lay down the charac- 
teristic marks on which that diversity, which we all feel, de- 
lends. This difficulty of our present subject has been candidly 
nd publicly confessed by the great authorities of the science ; 
I much so that the immortal Linnseus, a man quite created 
r investigating the characteristics of the works of nature, and 
hQging them in systematic order, says, in the preface of hia 
'fauna Sxtecica, " that it is a matter for the most arduous in- 
Bstigation to enunciate in what t)ie peculiar and specific dif- 
ference of man consists;" nay more, he confesses "that up to 
the present lie has been unable to discover any character, by 
which man can be distinguished from the ape;" and in hta 
iyalema Natura, he gives it as his opinion, "that it is won- 
lerful how little the most foolish ape differs from the wisest 

U— 2 


ERECT PosrrroN. 

man, so that we have still to seek for that measurer nf nature, 
who is to define their bDundaries;" fioally, he did not attribute 
to man any generic or specific character, but, on the contrary, 
ranked the long-handed ape as his congener, 

2. Order of treatment. Meanwhile I may be allowed to 
enumerate the points, in which, if I have any powers of obtwr^ 
vation, man differs from other auimals, and I mean to treat the 
subject thus: 

First, I shall onumerate those things which affect the es- 
ternal conformation of the human body. 

Secondly, those which affect the internal conformation. 

Thirdly, the fiinctions of the animal economy. 

Fourthly, the endowments of the mind. 

Fifthly, I mean to add a few words about the diBordore 
peculiar to man. 

And sixthly, I shall reckon up those points, in whicU 
man is commonly, but wrongly, thought to differ from the 

3. External conformation. Under this head I place soma 
characters, which, although they are closely connected with tha- 
structure of the skeleton, yet are shown by the external habit 
of body, whicli depends upon it ; and then the subsequent cl 
racters, especially if they are looked at collectively, seem 
-suffice for a definition of mankind: 

(A) The erect po.sition ; 

(B) The broad, flat pelvis; 

(C) The two hands; 

(D) Tlie regular and close set rows of teeth. 

To these heads all the other peculiarities which the hum 
body exhibits, may be easily referred ; and now let us exi 
them one hy one. 

4. TIw erect positioTU Here it is necessary for us to jhovs J 
two points: first, whether the erect position is natural to e 
secondly, whether it iw peculiar to man (nf which below, s. 10), 

WILD MEN. 165 

The former is evident A priori, as tliey say, from tlie very 
nicture of the human body; and d posteriori from the unani- 
llaious concurrence of all the nations of all time that we are 
acquainted with. It is no more necessary to spend any time on 
this, than on the argument to the contrary, which some are in 
tlie habit of bringing from the instances of infants wJio have 
been brought up among wild beasts, and found to go on all- 
fours. Those who look carefully at the matter will easily see 
that no condition can be conceived more different to that which 
nature has designed for man, than that of those wretched chil- 
dren alluded to; for we might just as well take some monstrous 
, birth as the normal idea of human conformation, as take ad- 
otage of those wild children to demonstrate the natural 
lethod of man's gait and life. Indeed, if we look a little more 
closely into these st-ories of wihl children, it is more likely to 
turn out in the instances which are the most authentic, and 
placed beyond all doubt, as that of our famous Peter of Hamein' 
(Peter the wild boy, Juvenis Hannoveraims Linn.), of the girl of 
Champagne*, the Pyrentean wild man', and of others, that these 
wretclies used to walk upright; but in the stories of the others 
^Briio are commonly said to go on all-fours, as the Juvenis ovimis 
^^Kiberniis Linn., there are many things which make the story 
^^Bry doubtful, and of but inditi'erent credit*; so that the Homo 
sapiens ferua of Linnasus {Syst Kat. ed. 12, Tom. L p. 28) 
seems no more entitled to the epithet of four-footed than that 
of shaggy. 

K birth 


Comn. particulorlj Voigt, Magaiin far Phynk und Natartjach. T. IT, P»rt ill 
, ancfftlio Mnnbnddo, Anliaa \Setapl.yiia, Vol. It:. L " ~ 
much importance Ibe Scotch philrwaplier attocbes b_ _ 

proved amoD git otlior paisagm liy tba followin([: "thU phianoiL ,_._ 

ordinary, I think, than the new planet, or (ban if we were to discover 30,000 inoro 
liied Htan, baidea tboM lately dUcoTcred." 

■ (Do la CondamiiiB) Ilitloire d'aat jeane fille lauvagt. Pxria, 1761, nmn. 

* Camp. Leroj, Sur raploitaHon de ia nalan dam Ui Pyrhiitt. Load. 1 77S, 
4(c. p. 8. 

* [Blumenbach'a note hero consisls of extract! from tbe account of this Jtiimit 
Hibemur by Tulp : but at that author is rare, I give instead tbe wbole account nt 
lengtli. "Tbo moat acute iiense of bearing would bave been deceived by tbat 
(^uine bleating whicli «u heard by many others w well as uiyself to procecl 
Inim that triab youth, who wan brou^t up fmin iufsncy auiinig nlievp, anil whom 
tbcrBf'>re it will \m buro worth whila to duBUtibe oxuctly aa lis was, Thvro wns 


5. Man't i J U'M U ll H '* JWVWa Vuit he was made t^mght by 
nature. It is bfaoma and tedious to gtt a loDg way alwut to 
demonstrate a thiag so manifest and evident of itself; but that 
pair of learned men, P. Moecati the Italian, and A. Schrage' 
the Belgian, who Lave patronized the opposite paradox, prevent 
mv leav'mg it quite alone. Still it will be enough to touch on 
a few points out of many. 

The length of his legs, in proportion to his tnink and hia 
arms, show, at the first glance, that man was intended to be 
upright by nature. For, although I cannot agree with Dau- 
benton, who thinks' that no animal besides man has such 
large hind feet, which are equal in length to the breadth of 
his trunk and head ; for this is negatived by the examples of 
several mammals, as theiStrnta lar and the Jtrboa Capentia; 
still it 13 plain to every one, that man ia so made that he can 
in no wise go on all-foura; for even infants crawl by resting 
on their knees, although at that tender age the legs are smaller 
in tlie proportion we spoke of than in adults. 

It is not however the length only, but the remarkable 

bnnieht to Amttetdam, and ripowd to the eyes of idl, ■ joatli of nitaai jeua, 
who, being liMt ptalmpa b)i hja pkrrnU anil bruaght ap from hia cndle amoDi^ 
the wild Bbwp in IreUnd, hj<l uquim] a aort of orine uttiire. He wu nnd id 
bod;, nimble of foot, of fierce couatenaace, film flsh, coonshed (kin, rigid limba, 
with retmting and deprawil forehead, but convei and knottj occiput, mde, E>^ 
ignoruit oT fenr. and dcelilDte of all loflnev. In otfaer ropeeti aaaad, amt in 
KOud health. Being withont human rwoe he bleated like a ibf^i, aiid bung 
aTcrse to the food and drink that we are accustomed to. he chewed gnn only and 
faaj, and that with the aame choiDe a« the moat particular sheep. Turning in tha 
■anie way ererj moulbful round, and taking account of each bLule >epiirat«ly, he 
made bii teUctinn, and taat<d now only thii, and now only that, as they aeemcd 
monjntefnt, and more agreeable to hia ieoae of cmell and taate. 

"He had lived on rough niotmtMtu and in desert pbc«, himself eqmilly Genu 
and untamed, dEligfating iu cans and patlil«u and inaccessible dens. He was as^ 
cnatomed to apend all his time in the open air. and to put up equally with winter 
and summer. He kept as far as he oonid away from the Inrea of huntnren, bvt 
at last fell into their neta, although he fled oTsr vneven nvkx, and p>«diHt«tu 
cliSs. Bitd threw himaelf moat boldly into thomy brakes and aharp Jun^c% in 
which being at last entangled he fell into the power of the huntniian. Iwi apfieai^ 
ance wai more that of a wild beast than a man ; and tboa^ kept in reatoaint and 
compelled to live among men, moat unwilling];, and onl; after a long time did i» 
put off hia wild character. 


Hia throat waa Urge and broad, bia tongue aa it were fattened Ic 

Tnip, 06.. Mfd. I I 
■ See rttiamdtlinf 

>, ,^th ed. p. ig6. LuJg. BaL i 


T A longbfring in tlie journal called GtKtn ATo/iuir-ai- ] 

laMomtiiadifif JaatfHKin, T. n 
' MHunra dt FAcad. da Seiciuxt dt Pant, 1 7G4, p. 169. 


rtrongth of the legs compareil with Uic more delicate arnie, 
which cleavly shows that the former are intended by nature for 
the sole purpose of supporting the body. This is particularly 
made manifest by a fact derived from osteogeny, namely, that 
in the new-bom infant the tarsal bones, and especially the 
heel -bone, ossify much quicker, and become perfect much 
sooner than the carpal This is a natural provision, because 
the little hands have no necessity for exercising any force in 
the first years of life, whereas the feet have to be ready to sup- 
[xnl the body, and provide for the erect gait towards the end 
of the first year. I say nothing of the powerful muscles of the 
f of the leg, especially of the gastrocnemii interni, though 
are made so strong and so prominent by nature to keep 
upright, that, on that account, Aristotle, with the old 
ibropologift-ta, thought that true calves should be ascribed to 


The whole construction of tlie chest shows that man cannot 
any way walk like the quadrupeds. For in the long-legged 
iiuasts the cheat adheres to tlie sides as if squeezed forwards in 
a keel-like shape, and they have no collar-bone, so that the feet 
can more easily converge towards one another from each side, 
and in that way sustain the weight of the body more easily and 
more firmly. Besides, quadrupeds are provided either with 
a longer brea-st-bone, or with a larger number of ribs, descending 
nearer to the cristie ilei, in order to sustain the viscera in the 
horizontal line of the ti'unk. But all these things are dififerent 
ifi man, the biped. His chest is more flattened throughout, 
his sboidders are widely divaricateti by the insertions of the 
shoulder-blades, his sternum is short, his abdomen more desti- 
of bony supports than is the case with those animals we 
ire speaking of; and there are things of the same kind which 
inot escape any one who compares with the human skeleton 
even a few of the quadrupeds, especially the long-legged ones. 
All these considerations show how ill adapted the human 
&ame is to a quadrupedal walk, and that it cannot be any- 
elae to him but unsteady, trembJing, and very irksomo 


ilniBil I Ai <( Ik ntf if tke I 
I I I III til. Mi. IW ki^ 

«ke Aire af tW km> pM> On ^ atbri 

*«fc«o«.ll • 1 afl.BhMlkk>tlkiig 

ikM Ike InaM. a< kbl Ikr cditt • n; gnllrl 

! u> a bHia wUtfc «* spoke ef is weiy i 
wUefa maoaomfiemma m ■■■•liai^ ta the iihwmimi of the 
bonea of the ifioH over the Smtm imeoaHla, and in the 
delicaiy of the syndinntbvn^ sad alto is the eumiore of the 
oe mam from the pnNMOtafy and in the directioD of the 
TrrtebtK of the ceoe;s towaida the front. 

7. The rttatitm (/ As adjoimimff »Ji porta to tite Jhrm 9/ 
the human peUit. The hinder &k of the pelvis gives the 
finnlatiMi to the glutei rooscles, of which the outennost or 
larger exceed in thicknes all other muscles of the body, and 
btbig CDDceoled by a remarkable stratum of firt from tbe 
buttocka. Tbeir fleshy, useful, and semicircular amplitude, in 
wbich the podex is hidden, fonn, not only in tbe opinion of tbe 
claiMca] authoreof natural bistory,such as Aristotle' and Buffon*, 


bot also of the best physiologists, as Galen' and Haller* the 
principal character in which man especially differs from the 
apes, wlio are manifestly destitute of fundament. 

Moreover, in consequence of that curvature of the os sacrum 

^^and the coccyx we mentioned, depends particularly the never- 

to-be- forgotten direction of the interior genital members of the 

^Lfemale, and of the vagina also, the axis of which declines much 

^Ktnore in front than in other female mammals from what is 

■ commonly called the ajtis of the pelvis. This makes, it is true, 

parturition more difficult, but, on the other hand, admirably 

guards against many other inconveniences, to which, especially 

-during pregnancy, the woman, from her erect position, would 

be exposed. 

It is iu consequence of this same direction of the vagina, 
tiiat in mankind the weaker sex is not, like the females- of 
ibrutes, rctromingent. And also because in animals (as far as 
we know at present) the opening of the m-ethra does not 
inate as in woman, between the exact lips of the pudeu- 
dam, but opens backwards into the v^ina itself, as I have 
observed in these same anthropomorphous animals, the Pipio 
ptaimon and the Simia cynomolgu8, which I have anatomically 

And, according to this same direction of the female vagina, 
that question must be settled which has been often discussed 
from the time of Lucretius, what position is most convenient 
to man for copulation? 

" How Xirai to prolongate the aoh delight t" 
jFor although man may perform this ceremony in more ways 
fhan one, and this variety of worship has been considered by 
the low Latinista as one of the things in which he differs 

> ^ uni parh'um, IV. 8. Spiget, Di h-ummti corpora fairiai, p. 9, I1M dovwlv 
^bunted the phyaico-theological theory of thia prerogative. "Msd alone of nU 
ammala cui ait convenient];, since be tuu larffe Knd floah; buttocliB, whicli tatye 
' ' ■ " ' ie Btomaoh is full, in order that ha nuiy ait without 

reflection on divine aubjectB, 
^. 57. "Nor are the iipca distingDiehed 
D b; an; mark eMier than bj thia." 

•Dnojance, and euily applji bli mind ti 
I ■ Dt Corp. hum. fundionibui, T, 1. 


from brutes, still physical causes sometimes interfere to in- 
duce bim to coptilate' 

" Like beuU or qnadrupeda an naed ts do." 
Still the proportion of the virile member to the vagina eeems 
lietter adapted for the usual mode of venery'. 

8. Remarks on the hymen, ni/niphte, and clitorit. In order 
to finish at one and the same time all those delicat« matters 
which belong to the female pJtrt of mankind, I must here throw 
in something about the h^-men, which littfe membrane, so far as I 
know, has hitherto been found in no other animal. Though I 
have examined the females of apes and papios with that view, I 
have never been able to find any vestige of it, or any remiuna 
changed info the carunculoB myrtiformes; nor was I more 
successful with the female elephant which was led about Ger-' 
many many years ago, whose genitals I particularly examined, 
because I had been told that Trendelnburg, a famous physician 
of that day at Lubeck, had observed some kind of hymen in 
that beast, This little appendage to the female body is all 
the more remarkable, because I cannot imagine that any physi- 
cal utility attaches to it. At the same time I am not much 
satisfied with the conjectures the physiologists offer as to the 
purpose of the hymen; and least of all with what Haller rather 
weakly suggests, "since it is found in mankind alone, it must 
be admitted that this sign of virginity was given for moral 

' Oomp. C«rp" (Bprongariu"), Cimnnlaria mprr anat'-mm Hundini, p. 13, 
''Han of all uniiDkli copalntes by embrnc«a »n<l cartatea in liitFcient pouUoni, mm 
1 deteitalilo lor Uxh, hecttime be ia more wicked ami votuptuuus anil dialioliEal 

than n 


* K«m]>r. Endiiriiiium Mtdiaim, p. t8i. 

' When I was at London two ye»r» ngi 
enffravings |ire»erved in the library of tlie King ■ 
Urij Btrnck with vtA muat carefully studini that famoi 
lating both to human ami oomparatiTB anatomy, etched by tbe great painter Leon- 
ardo da Vinci. Amonget them I ob*erved particalnrly ttutt remarkable and, in iU 
way. unique representstinn of the copulation of a man with a woman, in which the 
tronk oi each is iso FXpOBed to view, that the rslaUnn I hinted at, of the ganital 
member when in a atate of tenirion In the direction of tiie Tsgina, U made quite 
ninin. I am indebted for a moat accurate copy of this very cltver print to tiie 
liindDCM or that mreit amiable man and oocUentartiat, John Chamber'"'"" •!•—"-- 
of that Itoyal collection. 

I looked over tbe Tut treuuiy of 
g of Great Britain ; and wai particu- 





Lmoieus seems to have been in doubt whether the feina.lcs 

other kinds besides women are endowed with the uymphse 

id the clitoris. But I have proved myself that neither of 

parts is peculiar to mankind. I have, following many 

ler most competent witnesses, clearly observed the clitoris 

many sorts of mammab of different orders, and frequently 

found it very large as in the Papio maivum and the 

tardigradus; but most prodigious of all, about the 

a fiah, in a specimen of the Baltena boops about 

fifty-two feet in length, which I carefully examined when it 

was thrown on the shore in Dec, 1791, near Sandfurt in 

Holland. As to the nymphse, I have found them exactly 

like human ones in a Lemur Mongoz, which I kept alive 

myself for many years. 

9. Mam a bimanoua aniviaL From what has been so far 
stud about the erect stature of man follows that highest pre- 
rogative of his external conformation, namely, the freest use of 
two moat perfect haiids. By this conformation he so much ex- 
the rest of the animals, a& to liave given rise to that old 
tying of Anaxagoras, which baa been cooked up again in our 
le by Helvetius, " that he thought roan was the wisest ani- 
mal, because he was furnished with hands." This is rather too 
paradoxical : the assertion of Aristotle seems nearer the real 
truth, "that man alone has hands, which are real hands." 
For in the anthropomorphous apes themselves, the principal 
feature of the bands, I mean the thumb, is short in pro- 
portion, and almost nailless, and to use the expression of 
Eustacliius, quite ridiculous: so that it is true 
lat no other band, except the human hand, deserves the 
ion of the organ of organs, with which the samo 
'rite glorifies it. 

Apes avd the allied animals are quadru/manoiis. Apes 
the other animals, which are commonly called anthropo- 
lious, of the genera of Papiones, Cercopithect and Lemures, 
;ht not in reality to be called either bipeiis or quailrupeds, 
Quadntmana. For their hind feet arc furnished with a 
nd genuine tliumb, not with the great toe, which is given 


to the biped, nun, akiae*; ini ko d ibeirEBet iluMiv* 

of bands more tfaao tbeir anterior extremitiea^ since H 

that they are adapted for pmpoaes of prehenaoa ; and ooe kind 

of cetcopithecns {C. pmucM) is eikdowed with a tbamb. which 

is wanting in the anterior hands ; bat it has nerer been ob* 

served of any quadmmajious Tri""*!, that it is destitute of tbK 

thumb of the hind-baods. 

Henoe too it will be easy to settle the dispute whid) baa 
been raised about the iSi'mMi aatynu and other aDtbropomor- 
pfaoua ^>es, namely, whether it is natural for them in their 
own woods to go as bipeds, or as quadrupeds. Neither one 
Dor the other. For since the hands are not meant for walking 
upon, but for prehension, it is at once plain, that nature has 
designed these animals to spend their lives principally in tieefl. 
These they climb, on these they seek for their food, and b»| 
they want one pair of bauds to snpport them, and the othet 
pair to pluck fruits with, and other things of the kind; and 
for the same end nature has provided many of the cercopitheci, 
who are Jumisbed with but imperfect hands, with a preheunle 
tail, in order that they may have a more secure hold upon, 

It is scarcely necessary to point out that it is the result 
art and discipline if any apes are ever seen to walk erect, and 
plain from any drawings of the Sitnia eatipiie*, which have been 
taken carefiilly from the life, how inconvenient and unnatural; 
that affected position of theirs ts, in which they are made 
lean with their fore-hands on a stick, their hind-hands meanwhi 
being collected in an unmeaning way into a fist*. Nor ha' 
I ever come across any example of an ape, or any other mi 
mal except man, who can, like him, preserve an equilibriui 

I Th*t cxtreonlinary lover of puMjoira, Rnlunet (T. v, De la natttrt. Tab, 9), 
eshibita the drawing of nn embryo, whloh he giva out for tlst of the Simia ntyr- 
•u; klthnugb it ill plain at the linrt glance from the feet alcme, which are fiinuihed 
with a great toe. not a thumb, thai it it a human fcetua. 

• See for example the monngraph of VoBmaer. 

* Linnaua therefore wm miataken wheu he nud, "that there were apes whii 
walked with body erect on two feet like man, anil whn reminded one uf tlie hnnit 
■pvoiea by the uau they mnde of their fcit auJ liaiiilB," 




when standing erect on one leg at a lime. Hence it is clear 
that the erect posture, as we find it to be naturally convenient 
to man, so also is it peculiar to hira. Thus 

"Mankind alnoe can lift the head on high 
And stand with tronli erect." 
Properties of the human teeth. The teeth of man are 
more regular than those of any other mammals. The lower 
inciaoTS are more erect, which I reckon amongst the distinctive 
characters of the human body. The lauiarii are neither too 
prominent, nor set too far back, but joined in the same line 
with their neighbours. The molars have singularly round ob- 
tuse crowns, by which they most clearly differ from the molar 
teeth of the Simia satyrus and the 8. hngimana, and all the 
other species of this genus whose skulls I have examined. 
Finally, the mandibles of man are distinguished by three cha- 
racters: by their excessive shortness; the prominence of the 
chin, which corresponds with the erect incisors; but, above all, 
by the singular shape, direction, and junction of the condyles 
with the temporal bones, which certainly differ from the jaws 
of all other animals I am acquainted with, and which clt-arly 
prove that man is destined by nature for all kinds of food, or is 

IU) animal truly omnivorous. 
y 12. OtJiei- tilings which 8e.em. peculiar to the exterior of man, 
tU his hairless body, &c. I shall say nothing about some points 
pi less importance which are frequently classed among the dis- 
^ctive characters of man, such as the lobe of the ear. the 
Bwelling of the lips,- especially the under one, and other things 
of that kind. But I must dispose in a few words of the glassy 
Binoothness of the human body, and inquire how far it can be 

P'- *' ided among the diagnostic signs by which man differs from 
p mammals, who are in some way hke him. Linnteus in- 
asserts, " that there are some regions where there arc apes 
less hairy than man;" but I candidly confess that I have 
hitherto made fruitless inquiries as to whereabouts these apes 
may be. On the contrary, it is proved by the unanimous con- 
lil travellers who are worthy of credit, and by the spe- 
lena of those animals which have been seen frequently in 



Europe, that those anthropomorphous apes which are nenall^ 
inchided under the common MaUy name of Orang-utan, anil 
which are indigenous to Angola as well as to Borneo, and also 
the if, longimana, are naturally much more shaggy than 
insomuch that those which are not even adult, and have deli- 
cate health, still are more haiiy than man. Tliough this po-. 
sition ia beyond all doubt, yet it is the fact that men have bees- 
observed everywhere, and especially in some of the islands 
the Pacific ocean, remarkable for their ehaggy bodies; but accu- 
rate descriptions of them are still wanting. 

The first mention of them occurs in the nautical expeditions 
of the famous Spangberg', who, on his return to Katnschatka 
from the coast of Japan, relates that he found a nation of this 
kind on the most southern of the Kurile islands' (lat. +3*50')., 
Anomalous individuals of the same kind were observed, but! 
only hero and there, among the inhabitants of the islands ofj 
Tanna, MaliieoUo, and New Caledonia, by J. R. Forster', Theiflj 
is a report of a similar race in Sumatra', which is eaid to in- 
habit the interior of the island, and is called Orang-gugu. 
however, man ia in general conspicuous for his smooth and ev( 
skin, so, on the other hand, some particular parts of the humi 
body seem to he more hairy than in brute animals, bb the groi 
and the arm-pit, which- characteristic has accordingly be( 
ranked among those peculiar to man. 

13. Remarkable properties of ike hmnan. body as to its irt*] 
temal fabric. Having mentioned what was necessary about t! 
absolute properties of the external human body, we are noi 
brought to another point of the discussion, that Ls his internal 
fabric; about which however our narrow limits compel us to 
follow Neoptolemus, and philosophize in a very few worda It 
will be necessary to divide this discussion into two heads; fire^ 


' MUller's Sammlunj Ruaiiehrr garhichU, T. ni. p. 174. 1 

* Beyond <!oaht Nadigida iaUnd, tibout whois inbahitantt, though only \lj 
heusay, the oorapaninn nf the grent Oxik, Jkme* King, rectiiTed tlie axfoa atorj. 
Fai/agr In Iht Norlkmi Hrmitpherc, T. m, p. 377. 

'* See his Brmerkanym mif lemrr niMvm die Well. p. iiS. 

* MniKlen, the cliwaicBl author on Uutt iiUiiid, tells us whKt he bMrd abaci — 
th™. nitl. of Sumatra. Y-Zio. 



investigating those things which man alone, or only a few 
other auimals with liim, has not got; secondly, those things 
which are peculiar to him. 

Internal parts which man is vnthmU. Those parts 
lich are found in mammala, and especially in the domestic 
were once, when the opportunities of dissecting human 
rare or were entirely neglected with the taste 
for dissection, generally almost all attributed to man. Thus, 
for example, the pannicidua carnomia or subcutaneous muscle, 
irhich was wrongly ascribed to him by Oalen and his followers, 
pad even by the restorer of human anatomy himself, I mean 
^esalius, who was an acute critic of the mistakes of Galen, was 
properly denied to him by Nicolas of Steno, and ascribed to 
bnite animals alone. 

The rete mirabile arteriosum, which was also reckoned by 

Oalen amongst the parts of the human body, was demonstrated 

to be wanting in man by Veaaliua, following Berengaxiua of Carpi. 

The mtisculus ociili suspensoriua s. bidbosas a. septi/tnus, with 

Ftiich the four-footed mammals are furnished, was fii-st shown 

be wanting in man according to the plan of nature by 

lopius. It has lately been found out that the human fcetus 

no allantoid membrane, which is common to almost every 

I say nothing of other parts wliich though found in hut few 
lera of brute animals, nevertheless have been sometimes 
ily attributed to man, as the so-called pancreas a»elli, ductus 
hepaticystid, corpus Higlvmorianum, &c. or those which are be- 
stowed on some orders of mammala alone, bat are so manifestly 
denied to man, that no one would readily attribute them to him; 
among which I mean the membmtia nictitans (which for the 
;e of the order of discussion I thought it better to mention 
although it rather belongs to the external parts) and the 
^ajnentum suapenaorium colli, and all other things of that kind. 
Man shares the foramen, iiictsiviim behind the upper primary 
teeth with the quadrupeds, but it is smaller in proportion and 
nple, whereas in most of the other mammals it is double, and 
many of vast size. 


hoatmat Ae v/ 

stikv, and keep aB a^ eaA of the vfiper teeA find a ti 
plaocv in botn Me tpTalai horn aat waaAKrhj a 
tliiiilliiii ^[11 il fill ■ rrTf nrrrlri Tiil iirii ihiM TIm 
bone m called b; BaOertfae m iwwwiw, bnwue Oe ■ppw 
tnciMa {where ttMie «c aaj) are fittad m iL As how L i — it ■ 
■faofbond m thaee miMiili ^a are deatitatB af ■ 

thonwUdt bdo^ to tbr Bdeatota, aa the i 
ThWiMT. I think H had bettsbacaBed the at i 
In BCMte thiB booe k one and indmnbl^ but in many biiMrtit^ 
&ad in all distb^tnabed br its ovn sotares froia the na^bonr' 
tng bones of the dcoll ; one, tbe &cial, genoaDj' exten^ng in 
botb lUrectioiu aloi^ tbe Dose to the extraae aodcete of the 
iuciflon, the other, the pahtiae, rootling in a coired diieetion 
from thoae ■odceta to the fiwamiiia pabrtina. 

When, tbeieftwe, Cunper bongs fonnud tbe want of tbii 
bone as one of tbe principal chsmcten hf which man difien 
friom other matDmab, a double qtMBtion aiises ; First, Is man 
really without it ? secondlr. Are all the rest of tbe mammab 
provided with it ? It was aboat two centuries and a half ago 
when this question first gave scope to a most bitter dispute 
between anatomiMs. Galen indeed has reckoned the sntores 
of wbat we have c^led tbe intAToaxtllary bone among the 
others of the skuU, but Tesaliiis macle use of this aigument 
besides many others, to show that Galen had compoeed his 
cisteological hand-book, which bad so long been accepted as law, 
not horn tbe skeleton of a man, but &om that of an ape. It 
was thought after the vain attempts of Jac Sylvius to vindi- 
cate' his Galen by the moat wretched excuses, that this whole 

' It in called by the fuDoiu lontomiata Yilet anil Via). d'AifT M 
in/iriuM; and b; Blair, in hii oaleographj uf the elephuit, otfolati. 

' H< (o twiaU about in encUavounng to nve his divine Ga'.en, lliat at laat b* 
dfnjM dovn to this eicnse, that altbnBgh men of the pi^Knt daj hare no iatar- 
niMitnB>7 bone, jot at the time of Galen Ibev might have ' ' " " 

md 10 tU>ii '^H 



I oompletel3r put &ii end to, when beyond all 
1 time, Vicq d'Azyr has attemptod 
! an analogy betweea tlie human and animal 
comstttutioii as far as the oa iniermaxitlare goes, as if it were 
qttite a itew thing*. The only vestige of similitude on which 
that analogy rests, namely, the semilunar fissure, which may 
be seen in the maxillary bones of the human fcetus, and of 
infants, in a transverse direction behind the sockets of the 
incisors, and which sometimes remains even in adults, has long 
been very well known'. It was, however, well pointed out more 
than two hundred years ago accorxling to natural tnith by the 
sagacious Fallopius', that the fissure in question was ill desig- 
nated by the term suture. It is not necessary to mention that 
the facial side of the maxillary bones in the human skull is 
marked by no tissure, or even suture, of this kind, though it 
is conspicuously so in apes '. 

As to the other question, whether man is the only mammal 
who is destitute of the intermasillary bone, I must equally 
confess, that I have in vain sought for it in many skulls of the 
Quadrumana. The sutures which would indicate this bone oro 
wanting in the skeleton of the dead female Cercopithecus which 
is preserved in the museum of the University, whose skull 
in other ways shows the remaining sutures well enough. Nor 
did I find them either in another skeleton of the same species, 
belonging to BJUmann, the clever surgeon of Cassel, which how- 
ever was old at the time of death and has many of the sutures 
obliterated, so that from this single specimen it would have 
been impossible t-o come to any conclusion. 

I fnr attacking the prince ot HimtumiBta — "but there ue tame oatunl 
iiu, which hsve taken pomKaaiun of our bodiei (tdiu intempennce in diet 
kod venery. Mid from immodBnite vice." 

' Mfmoirti dc FArtid. dtt Sritjini de Pari; 1 780. 

• See tha figures of Vesoliug uicj Coitei'. 

■ "I do not agree," »;b he, " with thoao who give out publicly thnt tboy linro 

found out a luttirt uader the palate attached in a traniverac direction to oithor 

nine, which ia plain in boji, but bo obliterated in ailulla, that no ve»tige of it 

luiu. For I conrider this M be rather an indentation Iban a luture, bidos it 

• not lepaiate one bone from another, nor ahow on the ontude." 

• EuaUchiua, Tab. Ami. 46, fig. 9. 



B<tt I am acqaaint^d with m third specimeD of Uie samo 
CercopiAecHt, for the koowledge of which I am indebted to mj 
friend Sdiacht, the wtnthr ProfesSK^' of Harderovicb, and in thiB 
too that bone ia absent. So that it seems scarcely worth while 
to inqaire about the presence or absence of this bone in any 
other specimens of this nnimfil In the ugly skeleton of that 
truly vast anthiv>pomorpbou9 ape from the island of Borneo, 
vhich I have examined careftiHy over and over again in the 
ooUectioD of Natural History belonging to the I^nce of Orange 
at the He^e, I did not see the Gmallest vestige of thoM 
sutures ; but that this ape was full grown is proved not only 1^ 
the general eonditiou of the skeleton, but also by the coalitioa 
of most of the sutures of the skull'. 

Such, however, is not the case wiih the skull of a younger 
anthropomorphous animal of the same kind, the remains of 
whose skeleton I dissected at London in the British Museum. 
An old label yet attached to it informs us that it belongs to the 
ape they call orang-utan, and was brought from the island of 
Sumatra, by the captain of the ship ' Aprice.' In this skull not 
a shadow of the sutures of the intermaxillary bone w 
be found, although the remains of all the others are without 
exception still apparent Neither did Tj-son find them in hii 
Angolese Satyr, nor does the figure in Daubenton of the skuU 
of ft similar animal, from the same locality, eshibit tbem. How- 
ever then this may be, it is certain, what may also be held 
character of man, that in the skulls of the apea I have Ijeen 
speaking of, the jaws are very prominent aud projected forward 
aa in the other mammals, 

16. Differences between some internal parts of man and 
those of other animals. It must be seen at once that we 
only speak here of a few of these differences, and those the most 
remarkable. To begin with the head, besides some things of 
less moment, man had, as it seems, the smallest crydtalliue lens 

' I wouJec Cmupsr tbouM be of the upposite upiaioD, for he uvs thkt lUi if 
tbeakeletcmof BaaDlliropomorptiouapeiiotfDtMliilt. JVaMrycKilMU((ieid«P| 
tUnnjf, p. 146, ^^^ 

(tlie eetacea excepted) in proportion, and it is less conves in the 
adult than in other animals; the large occipital foramen ia placed 
more forward than in quadi-upeds ', and there are other things of 
the same kind. The mass of the brain is the largest of all, 
not indeed (according to tho opinion which has prevailed from 
the time of Aristotle) in proportion to the whole body, but, 
according to the able observation of SSmmerring, when account 
is taken of the slendemesa of the nerves which issue from it'. 
For if the whole nervous system was divided from a physiolo- 
gical point of view into two parts, one, the nervous part properly 
so called, which embraces the nerves themselves and that por- 
tion both of the brain and the spinal marrow which lies close to 
■fceir commenuemL-nt; and the other, or sensorial part, which 
Bbs nearer the knot where the functions begin to coincide with 
the faculties of the mind, we should find that man has much 
the largest share of that nobler sensorial part. 

That too is equally remarkable, the knowledge of which we 
also owe to the sagacity and acuteness of SSmmerring, that the 
arenulie of the pineal gland so often already observed hy others, 
are bo constantly and perpetually found iu human brains, from 
tlie fourteeolh year of age upwards, that they also deserve to 
reckoned amongst the peculiarities of man'. Once only, in 
: pineal gland of a stag, did he Bud similar arenulie. And if 
they are ever really aVisent in the encephalon of an adult man, 
it certainly must be considered a very rare anomaly, One in- 
stance of this absence I owe to the famous physiologist of 
Padua, L. M. A. Caldani, who writ«s me word, that out of four 
human brains which he examined in 1786 with that object, 
there was only one, and that of an old man, in which no vestige 

ta pineal arenula was to be found. 
The position of the heart is peculiar to man, and is said to 
in the chest, because that entrail does not rest as in quodm- 

> DautMUton, Mfmoiif dt VAmd. da Se. dt Par!t, i/i^i*. 
' Seehii Wu. lU baa Enerphaii. Geitin^. i7;8. lb. Uber die KSrptrlkht Ycr- 
' dtHktit det Ntgen rom Earopaer, and Ebel (J. 0.), OlmrTaiiontt ntumtoff. et 
ueoaiparata, Fnnkf. ad Viwl. 1788. 

Utminerring, Dt tapUlii rel prope rtl intra glandulam pineaitm titU. Mogimt. 
A Bpire ii given in Dim. dt dtcuuationc ntrrorvm ajiliearum, ib. 1786. 



pede upon the etcmum, but in accordaooe with the erect posi- 
tion, on the diaphrsgiD. Its base too is not as ia them at right 
angles to the bead, but to the vertebrae of the chest, like the 
tip of the left breast, and hence in them the heart lies right and 
left, whereas in man it rather has a front and back. Scarcely 
any other mammals beside man have the pericardium adhering 
to the diaphragm. The alimentatj canal is just as perfect as 
it ought to be in an omnivorous animal. You might say man 
resembled the carnivores in the structure of the ventricle, and 
the shortness of the blind intestine; on the other hand, he is 
different from the herbivores in the length of the thin intestine, 
and it^ great diversity from the thick one; in the bulbous 
colon; in the absence of the sebaceous glands which secrete 
smell behind the anus. The muliebria too are different in, 
man besides what has been already mentioned, in the singular] 
parenchyma of the womb; and the early ft&tus is remarkable 
for the texture of the placentum, the length of the umbilical 
funnel and the singular umbilical vein. So far as I know, the 
hitherto enigmatical vesicula umbiliadia is peculiar to the young 
human embryo; and I have mentioned elsewhere', that it i|] 
common and natural to every human ftstus about the fc 
month after conception, where I also have said something aboi 
the analogy it bears to the yolk-like bag of the chicken di 

17. Peculiaritiea of man, in respect of the funciMnt 
animai economy. Here especial mention must be made of 
peculiar tenderness and dehcat« softness of the human 
mucosa, or cellulosa, a-s it is commonly called. It is well known 
that there is a most remarkable difference in the different 
genera and species of animals as reganls the substance of this 
tissue; that of ecla being very tenacious, that of the herring 
being very tender: and so it was long since observed by our 
Zinn, a most eagle-eyed anatomist, that man, other things being 
equal, had beyond all other mammals the most delicate 
subtle cellular substance. 


' Comment. Soc. Rtij. SelaU. GeiUay. T. u 

It delicate ai^H 


I am either very much mistaken, or the softness of tLat 
ivelope 18 to be counted amongst the chief prerogatives by 
which man excels the rest of the animals. For as this mem- 
brane ia on the one side diffused over all parts of the body 
from the corium to its inmost marrow, and is interwoven like a 
cluun with all and every part of the whole machine, and on the 

ler is the seat of that most universal of all vital forces, con- 
ility, next to which the dynamic power called after Stahl 
seems to come, I am thoroughly persuaded that to the flexible 
softness of this mucous membrane in man ia owing his power 
of accustoming himself more than every other mammal to every 
climate, and being able to live in every region under the sun. 
As then nature has made man onmlvorous in the matter of 
food as we have seen, so in respect of habitation it has intended 
him to dwell in every country and climate (■jravToSa-jrov) : and so 
his body has been composed of a most delicate mucous compo- 
sition, that he may adapt and accommodate himself more 
easily to the multifarious effects of different climates. 

To this aptitude for accommodation admirably answers that 
other physiological property of man, namely, hia slow growth, 
hng infancy and late puberty. In no other mammal docs the 
ekull unite or the teeth appear so late; no other animal is 
so long learning to stand upon its feet, or in arriving at its full 
stature, or so late in coming to the exercise of the sexual 
functions. In another point of view no other animal, consider- 
ing the moderate size of his body, has allotted him by nature 
so protracted a term of life'. This incidental mention of his 
stature recalla to my mind that other singular property which, 
as far as I know, has been observed in no other animal, and 
pUch depends upon his erect position, namely, that his height 

■ It U Ksroely posnble to define the lutiiral dura^OD of bunun life, though 
•e ms; considut It to be the more common ajid, aa it were, ordioKry goal of pro- 
tncted old aga. It 13 worthy of remtti-k, what I hsvo learnt from a careful com- 
panion of maoj talilea, that a considenible Dumber m proportiao of European old 
men attain the age of S4, wbilst fav gurvivB it. Account therefars being taken of 
human longevity, and conipariag it with tbe diiraUan of the Uvea of othdr mom- 
Dula, it ia at once leen what a prerogative ia bestowed upon man under that name, 
or at kli eventi that hia loog ioftuicy ia compeneated for with iutereat. 

» k eoneBded 1^ ptmgiiire of 

I of tbe hedUqp, 

t thM im mt^ h» tbcnbr freed from 
mIm «f i^olBias KBCB wlken H is soitafab 
t of ha toapm^MBk or ooostitntioit. TlM 
neoMmil fiox, OS the atber not ten pecoliar to women, 
snd » moce muTeml aod *■■— ■>™' to all, so that I tliink FUny 
mM ri^t in callii^ wom an the tmij matstonating animal 
am indeed awaie that a flux of the mme kind baa been fn* 
qoently attnbttted by aotbon to other female animals, egpeatSf 
thoM of the qnadrnmaiioas order; thos, for example, the SumA 
Diana ia aid to menstmate from the tip of its tail. Sec Bolt 
for twenty years I hare had o^^rtnaities of seeing female ttpem 
and papioa, Ilc in menageries, or in travellii^ caravana, and 
have made inqoiries aboat this subject. I often found that one 
or other of them sometiroea safiered from uterine hemorrhage^ 
but that they occurred at no regular period Such was the 
aaaertion of the more honest keepers, who looked on it as a kind 
of diseased affection contrary to nature, and moat of them can- 
didly oonfuMned, that they generally gave it out for a menstruoiU 
flux, in onlor to excite the astonishment of the mob. As to the 
fabulous Btoriea of credulous antii]uity about whole nations 
whoflO women are destitute of the menstruous flux, I sbfdl 
briefly Bpeak of them in another place. 

18, facuUies of (/« mind wkicit are peciiUar to man. AU. 
with one voice declare that here is tbe highest and best pr&^ 

lflv» (whloji U dxllcjitivl to Joiin 
"un on thn olhur 

BEASOir. 1S3 

TOgative of man, the use of reason. But when any one inquires 
more particularly what these words mean, we must needs 
wonder how many different reasons about the meaning of reason 
are entertained by the most reasonable philosophers. Some 
think it is altogether a quite unique and peculiar faculty of 
man, others but the elevated and very superior grade of a 
faculty, of which only slight vewtiges are to be found in the aoui 
of brutes. Some look upon it aa the union of all and singular 

^tho highest faculties of man; others a particular direction of 

^■fce faculties of the human mind, &c. 

^^P ' It ia not oan to settle Bach dUpatea.' 

I trust to resolve the question more briefly and safely, h pos- 
teriori aa thoy say, by consideriug it aa that prerogative of man 
which makes him lord and master of the rest of the animals'- 
That he has this kind of dominion ia obvious. It is also equally 
plain that the cause of this dominion does not reside in his 
bodily strength. It must therefore be referred exclusively to 
the gifts of the mind and their superiority. And these gifts 
in which man so far surpasses the rest of the animals, of what- 
ever disposition and nature they may be, we will call reaaon. 
Nature, as we have seen, has made man so as to be omnivorous 
and an inhabitant of the whole world. But this unlimited 
liberty of diet and locality, according to the almost infinite 
variety of climate, soil and other circumstances, brings with it 
also multifarious wants which cannot be met or remedied in 
one way alone. His Creator has therefore fortified him with 
the power of reaaon and invention, in order that he may accom- 
modate himself to those conditions. Hence, even from the 
most ancient times, by the wisest nations, this chief power of 
man, that \a, the genius of invention, has been celebrated with 
divine honours. Thoth, for example, by the Egyptians, Hermes 

hI^ the Greeks. Thus, to compress a good deal in a few words, 

I > " Whoever tbou art vho aojuBtl? depreoiats the lot of man, tUak wliat gifU 
OUT pijent hu bntowod upon us, wtiat muoh mors powerTnl anini&li we put unJei 
oar yoke, what much fleeter ftnimala we capture, and how there i* nothing mortal 
which U not pat under our ntroke." — Seneca. 


man b&s raaile tocJs for faimaetf, atwl so Franklin has acutely 
d^ned him as a toot-maUng anitnat; thus he has prepared for 
himself aims aod we^ions; thus he ha£ found out ways of 
eliciting fire; and thu^ in order that one man may use the 
advaDtages and assistance of another, he has invented langaag«, 
which agaia must be consideTed aa one of the things peculiar to 
man', since it is not like the sounds of animals, coDventional, 
hut, as the arbitrary variety of languages proves, has been 
- invented and turned to use by him*. 

19. Something about laughter and tears. Besides that other 
manifestation uf the mind I have just spoken of, I mean lan- 
guage, two others must be meutioned. about which there has 
hitherto been less doubt, whether. like speech, they are the 
property of man alone, since they have not been invented by, 
but are as it were congenital to him, and do not so much be- 
long to the use of reason, as to the passions of the mind; I 
mean, laughter, the companion of cheerfulness, and tean, 
'Ttie belter pan of ftU oui aenict.' 

It is well known that many animals secrete tears, besides 
man. But it is a question whether they weep from sorrow. 
Competent witnesses assert it of some; as Stetler' of the Phoca 
ursiita, and Pallas' of camels. It seems however more doubtful 
whether brute animals display pleasure by laughter, although 
many instances aie given in authors. Le Cat, for example, 
asserts that he had seen the Satyma Angolensia both weeping 
and laughing*. 

' The aubtletieeor tho old and mors recent achoolmen od tbo Uugimgie of brute! 
are inliiiit«. As a Bjiediiien it will be anough to cite Albertiu cilleU Mugniu, who 
kUowa UDgua{[e to one knthropomorpliouH ape, I mciui the p^eoiieuB, b^dei man, 
jrot not without a. memornble reatrioUon. "The pygmy Bpeaka although it is ui 
knlnud destitate of reaion, haf cannot dUixurte, nor maka nie of abatnot lenni, 
but its wordi are rather diracted to the cODCrete things aboat which it Bpe&bs." 

* Hobbes loDj( (dncfl perceired that mao had hiniHelf invented langua^ (about 
which the, in other respects, most accurate Susamiloh still doubts in our daji); 
" Vbie most noble and profitable iaventiuD of all other waa that of speech, wberebj 
mm declare their thougbls one to another for mutual utilit; and conTeraatJOD ; 
without whiuh there hud been among>it men neither comnum wealth, nor society, do 
.mnngsC UoDS, bears and wolm." — LtpiaOufn, p. ii, ed. i6ji. 

' Nov, ComiMHt. Acad. Seienli. Peiropelit. T. tl. p. 353. 

* iViic*ri>A(cn liber die Mon-jolitclitn Velicricliaflrn, T. I. ; 

• TraiU lie VEriiteitct du Jluitle dtt nerft, p, 35. 



20. The most iwte-wortky diseases peculiar to vian. Al- 

^ough these pathological affections seem af first sight to have 

rery little to do with tho natural history of man, still I may 

i allowed to spend a few words ia borrowing a summary of 

ihe principal diseases, which are also peculiar to man, especially 

) these phenomena, which are against nature .tud peculiar to 

him, depend on the temperament and constitution of his body, 

and his animal economy ; and may with the same justice be 

noticed here, as the diseases of some animals peculiar to them 

are recounted in their natural history, as the Lues bovilla, the 

Coryza maligna of horses, or the voluntary madness which seems frequent in dogs, &c It will be understood that we shall 

BjDcly speak here of the most reraarkahle disorders, and that 

^Mren those few, chosen out of many others, are not yet placed 

^lieyond all doubt, since the nosology of brutes, if we once leave 

aside our few domestic animals, is almost entirely uncultivated 

OB account of its grave and partly insuperable difficulties. Still 

J we may enumerate the following disea-fes as being with great 

■Jirobability some of those peculiar to mankind; — 

Very nearly all the eruptive fevers; or at all events par- 
icularly among them. 

Variola', Miliaria, 

Morbilli, Petechiie, 

Scarlatina, Pestis, 

Amongst the haemorrhages ; 
Epistaxia (?), 


AmoDgst the nervous affections; 

' Some yean Bgo I wu informed b; lett«r by tl 
Liniterdaiu, that an apo tbere had cuulractad a loca 
DDtagioD, but no fever of that kind. 

Dttoiden oi tbe mind, proftedy mt esDed, M i 
IFottalgia, Ac aad peiti^M Satyriama and yymphoMamc^ 

Of the cachectic disorders; 
Scrofula (T), 
Lnes Venerea, 
Lepra and Elepbantiasis. 

Of the local disorders; 


Cancer (f), 


Hernia congenita (1). 
The various sorts of iVoIopsus. ta that of the veHea u 
inversa, of which we owe a very accurate notice to the sagacity I 
of the famous Boon'. 

Herpes (?), 

Tinea capitis, 

I am doubtful whether I ought to include here the intea- I 
tinal wonns of man and two species of the genus pedicuta, ob- I 
served in no other raammal, as far as I know, but him. I say ] 
nothing of those disorders which, though not peculiar to man, | 
are far more frequent in him than in other animals ; such i 
tooth-acbc, miscarriage, abortions, difficult parturition, &C. 

21. Short Iwt of- those ihinga, in which it is commonly, I 
though wTonghj thought, that man differs from the brutes. Most I 
of these points have been referred to above as opportunities j 
occurred. Those which are lefl shall be briefly recounted. J 
Such, for example, is the proximity of the eyes, whereas, in I 

' I tbink tho reuon vrhj this rcmarknble defect ii 
obaarved in huuutn iuFinU, but cot, u far aa I knoir, in ttie fii;tu« of knj otber 
DiBiQinal, u to be sought fur in tbe lurrnwer proportjoaato BjaohnndroBia of tha 
|iubifl in mftt], that atn^ular aoil, aa it were, bipartite Gssure, whicb alao baa been 
80 accurately inveaUgated by Bonn. See Rooae, Diu, de B ' 
inrrria prolapiii, GOtting. 1793, 4U1, witb engniTinga. 



Rpes, the eyes are much closer together than in man. The 
in either eyo-hd, which have been furnished not only to 
but to many other quadrumanous animals, and even to 
the elephant. The Stmia rostrata has a more prominent nose 
ihan man". The ears are not immoveable in all men, nor are 
they moveable in all the rest of the mammab. For example, 
the Myrvtecopliagfe must be excepted. The organ of touch is 
common to most of the quadruraana with man ; and bo is the 
uvula. I am aehamed to mention some things which are too 
worthless, as emctation, which has been reckoned one of the 
prerogatives of man'; and that man cannot, like brutes, bo 
,bened', and other stuS* of the same kind. 

finffoo, Eiit. da guadrupida. Suppl. T. vii. T>b. ii. ii. 

» jjlmilianui, Ve ruminantilna, p. 50. "Aa man alone waJlis upright, bo 1i« 
■lone, out of bo muiy ftnim>l», oan eruot ; for >■ tlie breath is light it loeki k 
higher n^OD, uid, by > Bort of nutural impPtuB, is rarrinl to tbo top." 

■ Lotrji in UiM. tic la BoeUtt dt Mldicine, k. 1779. 



22. Stibject proposed. Hitherto we hare mvestigated those 
things ill which man differs &om the rust of the animals. Now 
we come nearer to the primary object of the whole treatise, for 
we are to inquire of what kind and how great is the natural 
diversity which separates the races and the multifarious nations 
of meu; and to consider whetlier the origin of this divereity 
can be traced to degeneration, or whether it is not bo great aa 

Qipel us rather to conclude that there is more than ona 
original species of man. Before this can be done, there are 
two questions which must be considered: First, what is apeciet 
in zoology? StKondly, how in general a primordial species may 
degenerate into varieties! and now of each separately. 

23, What is speciest Wc say that animals belong to ona 
and the same species, if they agree so well in form and consti- 
tution, that those things in which they do differ may have' 
arisen from degeneration. We say that those, on the other 
hand, are of different species, whose essential difference ie such 
OS cannot be explained by the known sources of degeneratioD^ 
if I may be allowed to use such a word. So far well in th« 
abstract, as they say. Now we come to the real difficulty,.i 
which is to set forth the characters by which, in the natural 
world, we may distinguish mere varieties from genuine species. 

The immortal Ray, in the last century, long before BuffoQ, 
thought those animals should be referred to the same species, 


which copulate t<^ther, and have a fertile progeny. But, as 
in the domestic animals which man has subdued, this character 
seemed ambiguous and uncertain, on account of the easlaved 
life they lead; in the beginning of this century, the sagacious 
Frisch restricted it to wild animals alone, and declared that 
_ .tliose were of the same species, who copulate in a natural state'. 
But it must be confessed that, even with this limitation, we 
■■ but little progress. For, in the first place, what very 
ittle chance is there of bringing so many wild animals, espe- 
Jly the exotic ones, about which it is of the greatest possible 
nterest for us to know whether they arc to be considered as 
e varieties, or as different species, to that test of copulation ? 
icially if their native countries are widely apart; as is the 
B with the Saiyrus Angolensis (Chimpanzee) and that of the 
island of Borneo (Orang-utan), 

Then it is universally the case that the obscurity and doubt 
is much smaller, and of much less importance, in the case of 
■wild animals on the point in question, than of those very ani- 
mals which are excluded by this argument, that is, the domestic. 
Here, in truth, is the great difficulty. Hence the wonderful 
;h of opinion about, for example, the common dog, 
irhose races you see are by some referred to many primitive 
; by others are considered as more degenerated varieties 
rom that stock which is called the domestic dog {Chxen de 
trger); again, there are others who think that all these varie- 
mes are derived from the jackal; and, finally, others contend 
tat the latter, together with all the domestic dogs and their 
rieties, are descended from the wolf, and so forth. 
As then the principle sought to be deduced from copulation 
I not sufiBcient to define the idea of species and its difference 

' "WhsQ beuta bf nuture copuUtp with e&ch other, it Is an anfulingaign thftt 
thsj «» of the ume ffpeciea." Bcrtbout Tan Borchem HI. haii late); adnpted tbo 
tune t«*t of speciea, "if animals mix whea in a natural state." But he miiluH xv> 
meDtion of Fciich, or even of Ray, oa;, he eajs, "M. de BufToD, who nu the 
fint to abandon the little- tO' be- depended -upon liiitiuctious of the nomonclatora. 
wu also die fint to make it understood that uopulation wa« the best criterion f'lr 
taecjtiining upeciet." See Mtm. dt h Sodilt drt Seirnai Phytiqvti de Lautaunc, 

r. II. p. 49- 


from variety, so neither are the other things which are adduced 
with this object, for example, the constancy of any character, 
Thus the anowy colour and the red pupils of the white vantty 
of rabbit are as constant as any specific character could poo< 
Bibly be. So that I almost despair of being able to deduce any 
notion of species in the study of zoology, except from anatogj/ 
and resemblance. I see, for example, that the molar teeth rf 
the African elejihant differ most wonderfully in their conforma- 
tion from those of the Asiatic. I do not know whether thesa 
elephants, which come from such different parts of the worid, 
have ever copulated together; nor do I know any more how 
constant this conformation of the teeth may be in each, Bu* 
since, 80 far in all the specimens which I have seen, I have ob- 
served the same difference; and since I have never known any 
example of molar teeth so changed by mere degeneration, I 
conjecture from analogy that those elephants are not to be 
considered as mere varieties, but must be held to be different 

The ferret, on the contrary, does not seem to me a separate 
Hpecies, but must be considered as a mere variety of the pold' 
cat, not so much because I have known them copulate together, 
as because the former has red pupils, and from all analogy I 
consider that those mammals in whom the internal eye is desti* 
tute of the dark pigment, must be lield to be mere varietiefl 
which have degenerated from their original stocks. 

2*. jipjitication of what lias been said to the question 
whether we should divide ■mankiitd into varieties or sptciet. 
It is easily manifest whither what we have hitherto said hai: 
been tending. We have no other way, but that of analogy, by 
which we are likely to arrive at a solution of the problem abovtt 
proposed. But as we enter upon this path, we ought alwajfs to 
have before our eyes ttie two golden rules which the great 
Newton has laid down for philosophizing. First, 'iliat the tavi^ 
causes sfundd be assigned to account for natural effects of tht 
same kind. We must therefore assign the same causes for the 
bodily diversity of the races of mankind to which we a „ 
a similar diversity of body in the other du^nestic animals which. 

m k 


are widely scattered over the world. Secondly, That tee o»(fhi 
not to admit more causes of natural things than what aiv 
auficient to explain the phenomena. If therefore it shall appear 
tliat the causes of degeneration arc sufficient to ezplaiii the 
phenomena of the corporeal diversity of mankind, we ought not 

t admit anything else deduced from the idea of the plurality 
liuman Bpecies. 
25. Myw doea the primitive species degenerate into varietiest 
we are now about to treat of the modes of degeneiution, I 
Lope best to consult perspicuity in dealing with the subject if 
I arrange it again under two Leads; of which the first will 
H^«fly relate tlie principal phenomena of the degeneration of 
^Bnite animals; and the second will inquire into the causes of 
^||pis d^;eneration. This being done, it will be easier in the 
^Tfaliowing section to compare the phenomena of variety in man- 
kind as well with those phenomena of degeneration in brute 
animals as with tLe causes of them. 

26. Principal phenomena of the degeneration of brute ani- 
mals. A few instaaces, and those taken from the warm-bloodod 
animab alone, and also as far as possible from the mammals 
which are most like man in their corporeal economy, will be 
enough to show that there is no native variety in mankind 
which may not be observed to arise amongst other animals 

ra mere variety and by degeneration. But it ia better to go 
cr these things in separate chapters. 
27- Colour. Thus in the way of cohjur, tLe pigs in Nor- 
mandy are all white; ia Savoy, black; in Bavaria', chesnut. 
The Pecue buhulum in Hungary generally varies from white to 
y; in Franeonia they are red, &c. In Corsica the dogs and 
s are beautifully spotted. lu Normandy, the peacocks are 
; ours, on the other hand, are generally white. On the 
t coast, the birds, especially of the hen tribe', and the 
, we black like the aborigines; and, what is particularly 
markablo, the Guinea dog (which IJnnseus calls C. ^gyptiua, 



I do not kMv wkj) i^ &B tke *« of th»( diinate, ilistin- 
g gwh ed fcr Ae TBh w ^f mAbms «f Ins wmooth skin, and t 
gnat aad a e Mly ifedfie ealiaMMi ptmiiiliiiii*. 

S8L Toftm qT lb kmr. A* to the teztare of hair, 
« J iftwmPB M tkera Mt. I aik. IB &B wooi alone of the s 
of ifigiiiiil -* — *-rL bvm tka tader TlboUQ up to the t 
•ad alatort Miff KtUopaa! Or ■■ the bristles of the i 
whidi ue a» aoft ta than of Hcaamadj, that they ai« i 
fit (or seooiiBg-bnuheat And vhai a dift i ence there i^ in ti 
raapedt between the bear and the deatcalie aow, espedatlj' aa ■ 
the short Tool wlodh gnmu betwtau the briatlee'. Wjw r 
at4e too is the eAsct of ereiy ngioa cf the ^be npoo the h 
of more than one kind at the dnwertic mammiK ■ 
of the cbmate of QaUtia on the bearded cattle of Angora, a 
on the raUuts and cat^ vfao an an eonsincaous for t 
softness and the eitrawdinaiy length and geaenllj i 
whiteness of their coats. 

29. Statmrt. As to stature the difference between ' 
J^tagonian and the I^ptander is much smaller than what iu 
observed eTerywhere in other domestic animals of different 
parts of the world Thus iHgs. when tnuisported to Caba from 
Earope, grow to double their natural size'. So also do oowb 
when transported to Faraguaj*. 

30. Fiffun amtproportioK t^ parts. Aa to the proportion of 
parts, what a great difference there is between the horses of 
Arabia or Syria and of northeni Germanv; between the thick- 
footed cows of the Cape of Good Hope and the thiD-footed ones 
of England' The hinder legs of the sows of Normandy are 
much higher than the front legs, 3k. The cows in some parts 
of England and Ireland hare no horns at all'; in Stdly, on the 
other band, they have verj' large ones; but I must not say 
anything of the vast horns of the Ahy^inian oxen, which Sir 
Joseph Banks showed mc, for they, if vre are to trust Bruoa, 

* Pacblin, Dt Babilit tt Cotort jftXiapmn, KHoa. 1677, Bro. p. 56. 
' Vmgt, Magaan. L c 

' F. 8>T«r. Clmtigcm, Strria Anliea dd Mtaica, T. W. p, I41. 

* Comp. *Ua Hippocnte*, Dt aeriiiu, aqu'l, <t lutit, a. 44. 


^blather to be referred to some morbific disposition. Wo 

may however meolion here the Ovis polycerata; and as to tJie 

variety of hoofs, there are whole races of sows with sohd and 

ith three-cloven hoofs'. As to some other parts, we have 

jep with broad tails; the fringes of tho crested canary (what 

r people call kapp. vdget) and other things of this kind- 

31. Above all, the sitape of tJte skull. Tho shape has been 
ired to differ everywhere in the varieties of mankind; but 

I this difference is not a whit gruator, if indeed it can bo 

compared to tliat which may be observed amongst tho differerit 

races of other domestic animals. The skull of the Ethiopian 

s not differ more from that of tho European than that of tho 

mestic sow from the osseous head of the boar; or than the 

1 of the Neapohtan horse, which is called from its shape 

n-headed, from that of the Hungarian horse, which the 

raed know well is conspicuous for iu singular lownesa and 

B size of its inferior jaw. In the urns, the progenitor of our . 

mestic race of bulls, according to the observations of Camper, 

r large fovete lacrymales are visible; which, on the contrary, 

) entirely obsoletti in our country cattle. I say nothing of 

tat manifestly monstrous degeneration of skull in the variety 

t hen they call the Paduan*. 

32. Causes of degeneration. Animal Ufe supposes two faoul- 
ties, depending upon the vital forces as primary conditions and 
principles of all aud singular its functions; the one, namely, of so 
receiving the force of the stimuli which act upon the body that 
the parts are affected by it; the other of so reacting from this 
affection that tho living motions of the body are in this way set 
in action and perfected. So there is no motion in tho animal 

lilne without a preliminary stimulus aud a consefiuent re- 
^OD. These are the hinges ou which all the physiology of 
s animal economy tunis. And these are th.e fountains from 
Lich, just as tlio business itself of generation, so also the causea 

' Voigt, Madiuin, I. a. 
' PfJliu. tpiciltg, zoolnjpc. faac. IT. p. ii, and SainJtfort, Itfmlam Anatom, Acad, 
L«gd. Batat. T, i. p. io6. 



(if deffenerati'oii flow ; but in order to make this clear to thoa 
even who know but little of physiology, it will be BS well t 
premise with a fuw words from that science. 

33. Formative force. I have in another plticc profes 
and in a separate book devoted to this subject, endeavoured i 
show that the vulgar system of evolution, as i 
(according to which it is taught that no animal or plant i 
generated, but that. all individual organic bodies were at t 
very earliest dawn of creation already fonned in the shape i 
undeveloped germs and are now being only successively evolved 
answers neither to the phenomena themselves of nature, nor ^ 
sound philosophic reasoning. But on the contrary, by proper 
joining together the two principles which explain the natm 
of organic bodies, that is the phy si co-mechanical with 
teleological, we are conducted both by the phenomena of g 
ration, and by so\ind reasoning, to lay down this proposition p 
That the genital hquid is only the shapeless material of organic 
bodies, composed of the innate matter of the inorganic king- 
dom, but differing in the force it shows, according to the ph&-^ 
nomena; by which its first business is under certain { 
stances of maturation, mixture, place, &c. to put on the fiMi 
destined and determined by them ; and afterwards through tU 
perpetual function of nutrition to preserve it, and if by chai 
it should be mutilated, as far as lies in its power to resta 
it by reproduction. 

Let me be allowed to distinguish this energy, so as to {I 
vent its being confused witli the other kinds of vital for 
or with the vague and undefined words of the ancients, 1 
plastic force, &c. by the name of the formative force (ni 
formativus) ; by which name I wish to designate not so mm 
the cause as some kind of perpetual and invariably c 
effect, deduced dposteriori, as they say, from the very cons 
and universality of phenomena. Just in the same way i 
use the name of attraction or gravity to denote certain foro 
the causes of which however still remain hid, as they say, i 
Cimmerian darkness. 

As then other vital forces, when they are excited By t 



Rpp<»nted and proper stimuli, become active and ready for re- 
action, so also the fonnative force is excited by the etirauli 
which belong to it, that is, by the kindling of heat in the egg 
ig the process of incubation. But as other vital forces, as 

itractiiity, irritability, &c. put themselves out only by the 
>|Bode of motion, this, on the other haiid^ of which we are talk- 
ing, manifests itself by increase, and by giving a determinate 
form to matter; by wluch it happens that every plant and 
eveiy animal propagates its species in its offspring (either im- 
iately, or gradually by the successive access and change of 

ler stimuli, through metamorphosis). 

Now the way in which the formative force may sometimes 
turn aside from its determined direction and plan is principally 
in three forms. First, by the production of monsters; then by 
hybrid generation through the mixture of the genital liquid of 
different species; finally, by degeneration into varieties, pro- 
perly so called. The production of monsters, by which, whether 
through some disturbance and as it were mistake of the forma- 
tive force, or even through accidental or adventitious circum- 
stances, as by external pressure, &c. a structure manifestly 
faulty and unnaturally deformed is intruded upon organic 
bodies, has nothing to do with our present purpose. Nor is 
tills the place to consider hybrids sprung from the commingling 
of the generation of different species, since by a most wise law 
of nature (by which the infinite confusion of specific forms is 
guarded against) hybrids of this kind, especially in the animal 
kingdom, scarcely ever occur except through the interference of 
man: and then they are almost invariably sterile, so as to be 
unable to propagate any further their new ambiguous shape 
sprung firom anomalous venery. 

Still, meanwhile, this subject we are now discussing may 
be illustrated by the history of hybrids sprung from different 
species; partly on account of their analogy with those hybrids 
which spring from different varieties, of which we shall speak 
by and by; partly, because, like everything else, they go as 
proofs to refute that theory about the evolution of pre-formed 
germs, and to display clearly the power and efficacy of the for- 



; force; & conaderatton, wlii<4 will escape no ooe who 
ngfady appn.'cijit«s tfao^ Ttrll-kamvn anil very remarkable C 
perimetits, id which, in tltc n^rr rare instiuicos q( prolific )if- 
brida, whm their fecuodalioo k&s been &>?i|ueQt]y repeated i 
many geaentions by the aid of the male seed of the same s 
caes, th&t new appearance of hybrid poetesity has so i 
deflected from the maternal fonn as more and more to ] 
into the paternal form of the other species, and so, finally, 
fbimer seems to become quite traosmut«d into the latter, by I 
Bort of arbitruy metaniorpbosts'. 

But the mixture of specifically different g^neratiou, al- 
though it cauiiot overturn, or as it wore suffiL>cate, all ths 
eicitabiiity of the formattre force, still can impart to it ik 
singular and anomalous direction. And so it happens that tin 
continuous action, carried on for several series of generati<aife 
of some peculiar stimuli in organic bodies, again has great i 
fluence in sensibly diverting the formative force from its accu 
tomed path, which deflection is the most bountifril source ofi 
degeneration, and the mother of varieties properly so oaUefti 
So now let us go to work and examine one by one the (diief <l 
these etimulL 

31. Climate. That the power of climate must be almost 
infinite, as on all organic bodies, so especially on warm-blooded 
animals, will quickly appear to any one who considers first, hj.i 
how intimate and how constant a bond these animals : 
bound while alive to the action of the atmospheric air in whioi 
they dwelL Besides, how wonderfully this air (which was ono( 
held to he a simple element of itselt) is made up of what th^ 
call multifarious elements, such as gasiform constituents, 1" 
accessories of light, heat, electricity, &c. Then of what diffee 
ent proportions of these matters docs it not consist, and ifl 
oonsefiuence of this variety how different must be the ataiti 
liberie action on those we call auiniab! Especially when i 

j pbtita, ft 
ind of plut 


F in the consideration of so mnoj other things, by whose 
saion climates differ so much, as the poHition of countries 
I respect of the zones of the globe, the elevation of the soil, 
lOUDtains, the vicinity of the sea or lakes and rivers, the cus- 
Y winds, and innumerable other things of this kind. 
This air, then, which those we call animals suck in by 
breathing from the time of birth, modified so greatly by the 
variety of chmates, is dccompofied in their lunga as it were in a 
living lalwratory. Part of what they inhale is distributed with 
|he arterial blood over the whole body; but as a balance to 
mother portion of this point, elements are liberated, which are 
tly deposited on the peripheral integuments of tlie body, and 
tly are carried back by the flow of venous blood to the re- 
r»t<>ry organs; hence arise the various modifications of the 
1 itself, and the remarkable influxes of these humours, es- 
Jly of fat, bilo, &c. into the sGcretions. Hence finally the 
ition of all these things as so many stimuli on a living solid, 
nd hence the resulting reaction as well of this thus aflected 
lolid, as what especially belongs to our disciission, the direction 
tod detennination of tlie formative force. This great and per- 
petual influence of climate on the animal economy and the 
habit and conformation of the body, although there has been no 
time when it has not attracted the attention of good olaervera, 
has in our own time above all been illustrated and confirmed by 
the great advance that has been made in chemistry, and by a 
deeper study of physiology. Still it is always a difBcult aufl 
jduous thing, in the discussion of these varieties, to settle 
rhat is to be attributed exclusively to climate, what rather 
a other causes of degeneration, and finally to the joint action 
F both. Meanwhile I will bring forward one or two instances 
i degeneration which seem moat clearly to be derived from the 
rts of climate. For example, the white colour of many 
aals in northern regions, whieh have other colours in the 
inperate aones. Instances are, those of wolves, bares, cattle, 
I, crows, blackbirds, thrushes, chaffinches, &c. Tliat this 
prhitenesa must be attributed to cold, we learn from the analogy 
f animals of the same kind who, under the same climate 

198 DIET. 

daring winter, change their summer colour into white or 
grey; aa weasels and ermines, hares, squirrels, reindeer, i 
ptarmigan, snow-bunting, and others'. So also I am nrn 
inclined to attribute to climate that snowy fleece so w 
spicuoue for it>; silhy softness of some of the animal'i of AngM 
tlion to the kind of diet, because that is diared by those « 
fi*ed on all sorts of difierent things, by the carnivorous, as I 
cat fur example, equally with the herbivorous ruminanlt^ 
goats, &C. 

Sudi too seems to be the explanation of the coally 
which under some dislnds of the tomd iodc, as on the 
of Guinea, animals of difierent orderH, mammalia as well 
binJs, are seen to pat on with the colour of the 
(9. 27). And it b aborc all worthy of remark that thk 
blackn«sa, just like that Syrian whitef>i<ss, althongfa the 
may he transported into regitms of a I'ery differrat 1^hn■tT^. 
still (uvsvrred permanently fer many series of generstiona. i 
is the power and influ^ice of climate 00 the stature of ocga 
8 at all inferior ; sinee oM obstructs their increue, wU 
tibe oontmy is manifestly ai^m^ted and promoted by be 
B the boraee of ScoUand. or eokl North Wales, are smaD; 
via the horses and Uw cattle, Eb the iodigenoiis tw 
• of tall and stalwart stataie; n tTnwIaBil they are aeauil 

pr> and in the aartb of B 
»tle«t >tf all 
&^ Aw. It se«n« extreowly prahahle, what has be 
dmui^n^r:i!t^l prinHpaDy by tbe sagacity of G. Fordyee, th 
th<- 1 < ^its, af they arv odled. of every kind 

al^i wbv-lher il he taken bom the animal 

th. ^ lu. are dM «ne. U«ttoe the ame sort 

i4< vtbeswwkiBdafbkod. is ^bonlail 1 

Kli ^ ^wtfhkooM anwftaK tmnavenaa as «i 

a» i< I tbo masi dMLnit Unfa cf a 

Vfint^- it h.v Kxii (wopifty Mbautted to tbe wgaasflfi 


' tion. Still, however much tliis may appear to be true, it cannot 
be denied that the innumerable adventitious qualities of different 
matters of food, have had great power in changing the natures 
tsd properties of animals; to prove which a few instances will 
i enough. 
Singing birds show that thero in some specific power in some 
Kinds of food to change the colour of animals ; sspecially some 
fOrts of larks and finches, which it has been proved, if they 
fed Upon hemp seed alone, sensibly grow black. The 
fricaa sheep when transported to England is a proof how 
ronderfuily, when the diet is changed, the texture of the hairs 
II change also; for its wool which is common by nature, and 
fltiff like the hair of a camel, after it has been fed one year upon 
English pastures becomes of a most magnificent deUcacy'. The 
influence food has towards changing the stature and the pro- 
~ fortiooa, is plain from the comparison of domestic animals. 
porses which in marshy countries (called in the vernacular 
_Haachld7tder) live upon rich food, as the Fri-sian especially, grow 
laige; whereas, on the contraiy, in rocky and stony countries, 
such as those of tElaud, or on dry heathy soils, they remain 
stunted. Thus it is surprising how fat and bellied horses be- 
come on a fat soil, though their legs become shorter in propor- 
tion. But when they are fed upon drier grass, as, for example, 
^the Cape grass, they secrete less fat, but are remarkable for 
^Ubeir strong and fleshy legs ; to say nothing of the multifarious 
^^mversities of the taste and weight of fiesh, which again depend 
^H^n the variety of diet. 

^R 36. Mode of life. When I speak of the kind of life as 
HL cause of degeneration, I include under that head all those 
^^ointa besides climate and diet which so far have to do with the 
natural economy of animals, that when they act long and con- 
tinuously upon the same condition of body they are at length 
jh to change it to some extent The principal of 
3 are cultivation and the force of custom, whose power and 

' Comp, JuD. Bktea On 1^ Literal Doctrine o/ Original Sin, Load, 1766, Sro. 


200 nrBBiDiTT. 

iofluence are again so manifestly conspicuous in our ilomesttc 

Consider, for instance, tbo vast difference which separates 
the conformation and the proportions of the parts of the 
generous horse trained in the school, and the wHd horse, which 
they call a wild beast. The latter, when it fights with others 
bites rather than kicks; the fonner, on the other hand, when 
bridled and armed with iron feet, prefers to attack his enemy 
with them, and almost unlearns to bite. Many kinds of mam- 
mala when subdued by man show by the hanging of their 
tails and the lapping of their ears a spirit tamed and subdued 
hy slavery, In many the very corporeal functions of secretion, 
generation, &c. are changed in a wonderful way. In the do- 
mestic pig, for example, the adipose membrane appears in r 
vast mass, which is quite: wanting in the boar, wliose tender and 
as it were woolly liairs, on the contrary, inserted between tha 
bristles, sensibly disappear in that domestic variety. These 
domestic animals are much more liable to monstrous births than 
their wild aborigines; and also to troops of new diseases, and 
especially to new kinds of worms of which no vestige is to be 
found in their wild and original variety; the truth of which 
assertion, though paradoxical, is not to be invalidated, as may 
be proved by the instance of the Hydae intercutis, called, in tlie 
vernacular, Finnen, Ital. LaiaroW. 1 place under this head 
also stunted stature from premature and unseasonable venery, 
and everything of that kind. 

37. Hybrid generation. So much for the triple sources of 
degeneration which only by long and daily action, continued 
through many series of generations, arc sufficiently strong, 
slowly, and by little and little, to change uie primeval character 
of animals and produce varieties. But the case is different, and 
a new character is imijartcd to the immediate offspring, when 
different varieties of this kind, sprung at length from those 

' MiJpighu Op<ra Puahuma, [>. 8+. eil. L.ind. 1697. fol.— «o J. A. E, Gorao, 
DtttvKTg: thai the /lyilatiilt in mMajleih an no ^lander dtteaie, (uf trw hladdtr- 

wurnu. Svu. Hal 17H4. 


csaBee, come to copulate together, foo thus they ^ve rise to 
a hybrid offspring, like neither parent altogether, but partici- 
pating in the form of each, and being as it were a mean be- 
1 the two. Hybrid is the name commonly given to the 
ipring of parentis of manifestly different species, as mules 
5>rung from the horse and ass, or birda from the union of the 
rested canary with the linnet But this is not the place for 
B to speak of these, for there is no account to be taken of them 
\ varieties of the human race. Not indeed that horrid stories 
3 wanting of the union of men with brutes, when either men 
tove had to do with the females of beasts (whether carried 
ray by unbridled lust", or from some mad idea of continence*, 
t because they expected some medicinal aid from this sort of 
le*), or when we are told that women have been made use 
F by male brutes (whether that has happened through any 
Violent rape', or because women have solicited them in the 
Incas of lust', or have prostituted themselves from religious 
iQperstition'), still we have never known any instance related 
a good authority of any such connexion being fruitful, or that 

' Camp. Th. Warton on Theocriti Idsll. i. 88, p. ig. " I have been told by a 

Mrtain leuned biend, thnt wben he wns Imrelling in Sicil}' and invflBti)^Ung 

olnwl; not only the ancient monuments but >Ihu tlie manners of the people, that 

even their own prieita lued Id uk the shupberds, who spend a eolitary life in the 

I HdKui mountama, im b m»tter of course among the articlM of oonfcfmon, whether 

■■they bad had anything to do Bith the ahe-goati." 

' See Mart, li Baumgarten Eriu. Qenn. Tranlt in Egypt, Arabia, ftc. p. 73, 
. J we went out or Alkan, in Egypt, we came to a village called Belbes, where 
^^.re join«<t a aaravui going to Damascus. There we saw a SuraceniD aaiut, sitting 
Bbd Cat beapn uf lanJ. ai n&keJ ns he came out of Mb mother'a womb. We heard 
■aintwbom we saw in that place publicly proiied above a3i thintci; that he 
a holy man, divine and perfect beyond itll uieasuro, because he never hod any 
leiion with women or bmrii, but only with mara and mutta." 

* tVilh this object Pall^tMiya that when the Peraiana laffer from hip-gout they 
ppulate with the otiagnt. A'ru« Nordufhc btyMtgt, P. 11, p. 38. 

. * Baboons. Camp. Ph. Phillipg'a TrmitU in Guinta in Churchill's Cotleftiim of 
WTof/aga, T. Tl. p. 111. " Here ore a vast number of overgrown large baboons, 
F.Mmie M big as a large moiliff do^, which go in drovca of fo aod 100 [ogelhcr, nnci 
■n TOly dongerout to be met with, oapecioUy by women, who, I have becu credi- 
bly asnired, th^ have oden aiized upon, ravished, aad in that kind abused cue 
alter anoUier, tiD they have i>illed them." 

' Tlnu Steller aays that the women of Kamlwhatka formerly copulated with 
di^, BmrArriAunff Ton JTim'^rAaM-n. p. 289. 

* As the women of Mendee with the aafred goat; on which singular cuitoni nee 
a coidauB disKTtatioii b; D'Uaacarville, Rtdur^uM wr CiD'y/int da jlrU dt la Orict, 
T. 1. p. 310. 


■ay bjfarid 1im orer been prodoc^d from the bonid 
bfn>t, and nuuu Bat we have ool; In do with 
wiuth Wftiog from the iatereoiuve of different 
iad tbe aame apcciea, aa wheD, fur ex&mple, the 
bird H pwred with the white Tarietj, &c^ wLicfa coDnexioo 
wonderful cRuct io changing the colour and conformation of the 
n«w pro};eiijr which resiilu tberefircim ; so that this ia oftoi 
ajiplicd with thft great«.4t adviuiUige in the impTegoatioa of 
dorncwtic anitoab for the purpose of iraproTing and enaobling 
tliu ofTNpring, oRpecinlly in the case of horses and sheep. 

38. Ileredilan/ i>eculiarities of animals from dxMased tent* 
periiment. An hun:ditiiry disj>ofiition to disease woald seem at 
firnt Night ratlnir to belong to the pathology than to the natural, 
hixtiiry of aiiimiilx. Gut when the matter is more careftdly 
liiukcd into, it is plain that in more wa^ than one it has some- 
thing to ilo with thoso cuuhos of degeneration we are concenuid 
with. For. in the first place, some extemal qualities of animal^ 
iillliiiugh iu!Cording to common ideas they are never referred 
tu u truly diN(tiu«!<l coimtitutioii, still seem to come very nearly 
to I'liat, Miiicn t'hity are for the most part found in conjunctioD 
with iin uiiniiturally weak affection. I include among these, for 
ii»nmi)ln, that pomtliar whitontss of some animals, which the 
wlnii Vonilani long ago callwl the colour of defect We learn 
hy the osamplu of thf Hungarian oxen, whose woolly skin only 
riiimm atU'r cjuitratioii. that wo may frequently recognize as 
n CU1INK Die vioinuB constitution and defect of the corpore^ 
iiwHioniy, On tho other hand, it is proved by the instances of 
tliH Aiigiu'H oatii and dogx, that morbid symptoms follow extra- 
iinllhiiry wliiloniiiii of that kind, for it is a common observation 
tllAt tli<Mn uttimatji aro almost always barj of hearing. 

tl JH hIho thi> iMuw that some genuine diseases when the 
Ullinal ntilim. hnn \m'n as it were used to them for a long 
mn\fm iif Kounratioiw nooni to get sensibly milder and milder 
UlA Iww iin^juvfiiitfut. no tlmt at last they can scarcely be con- 
•Mvrvd inmi' than a diseawtl affi-etion. An example is afforded 
hjl tltttl v'lvwM inioin»wt of whiteness which, when united to a 

»l»uuy of thw lilftok pigment whioh lines the internal eye of 


hot-blooded animals, U known by the name of leucjethiopia. 
ibis when it seizes sporadically one or other of a family (for 
is always a congenital atFection) exhibits plainly the symp- 
totDS of cachexia, which everywhere comes very near to a 
'leprous constitutioD. But in other cases when it has been esta- 
Uished by a sort of hereditary right for many generations, it 
becomes a second nature, so that in the white variety of rab- 
ibits not a vestige remains of tho original morbific affection, 
itiie existence of which however is determined by the analogy 
of other animals which have anomalously white pupils and red 
eyes. The ferret has been considered by some zoologists as a 
peculiar species of the genus Mustela, whereas, unless I am 
altogether deceived, it is as I have said above (s. 23) a mere 
vsiiety of the pole-cat, and that of diseased origin through 

Problevi proposed. Can mutilations and other artijkes 
'•give a oovimencement to native vaneties of animals? It is dis- 
puted whether deformities or mutilations, effected upon animals 
either by accident or advisedly, especially in those cases where 
they have been repeated for many series of generations, can at 
length in progress of time terminate in a sort of second nature, 
that what before was done by art now degenerates into a 
congenital conformation. Some' have asserted this, whilst 
others* on the contrary have denied it. Those who are for the 
affirmative point to the examples of the young of different 
kinds of animals, dogs and cats for example, which are bom 
vithout tails or ears after those parts have been cut off from 
tiieir parents, as is proved by credible witnesses. And of boys 
lunong circumcised nations who are frequently bom naturally 
and of scars which parents bear from wounds, whose 
(narks afterwards are congenital in the infanta. Buffon, indeed, 
80 far as to derive from the same source the peculiar 
tbaracters of some animals, as the callosities on the breast and 

Hippoenlea uid Aristotle. And very recently KlUgel, in Tom. I. of the Enoy- 
abpedia, n. 541, ed. ind. 

* See Kaut. in Berliner Ifonitiaehrift, 1 7S5, T. VI. p. 400. 
Voigt, Moffaan, T. VI. P, 1, p. ji, irad P. iv. p, +0. 



legs of camels, or ibe bald scurfy foreliead of tUe rook (fiorma 
/ruffiUpm). Those who do not allow these last iDstances wJl 
not unwi&ely reject this opinion of Butfon, as what is called | 
petitio prtRcipii; but the other instances we spoke of thef 
will think should rather be attributed to chance, 

I have not at present adopted as my own either the affirms 
tive or the negative of these opinioDs; I would willingly giw 
my suffrage with those on the negative side, if they could ei 
plaiu why peculiarities of the same sort of conformatioi 
wldcb are first made intentionally or accidentally, cannot i 
any way be handed down to descendants, when we see 
other marks of race which have come into existence : 
other causes which up to the present time are unknown, esp< 
ally in the face, as nosoa, Upa. and eye-brows are onivers 
propagated in families for few or many generations with lesB q 
greater constancy, just in the same way tin organic^ disordeH 
as deficiencies of speech and pronunciation, and such likfti 
imless perhaps they prefer saying that all these occur also b 

40. Some conmderations to he observed in the examinatia 
of the cames of degeneration. Many of the causes of degcne 
ration we have already spoken of are so very clear, and so plao 
beyond all possibility of doubt, that most phenomena of deg 
neration above enumerated may by an easy process be undoubl 
edly referred to them, as effects to their causes. But on tlM 
other hand even in that very way there is frequently such I 
concurrence or such a conflicting opposition of many of them; 
Bucli a diverse and multifarious proneness of organic bodies t{ 
degeneratiou, or reactiou from it; and besides, these causa 
have such effects upon these bodies according as they act ink 
mediately (so to speak) or otherwise ; and finally, such is tb( 
difference of these effects by wlilch they are preserved ii 
paired by a sort of tenacious constancy through long e 
generations, or by some power of change withdi 

in tl 



in a Bhort space of time, tliat in consequence of tliia diver- 
sitied and various relation tliere is need of the greatest caution 
the examination of varieties. 

Let me then, if only for the benefit of the student, at the 
of this discourse, before we pass to thu varieties of men 
lemselves, lay down some maxims of caution at least, aa corol- 
laries to be carefully borne in mind in the discussion we are 
entering upon : 

1. The more causes of degeneration which aet in conjnnc- 
, and the longer they act upon the eame species of animals, 
more palpably tiiat species may fall off from its primeval 

iformation. Now no animal can be compared to man in this 
respect, for he is omnivorous, and dwells in every climate, and 
is far more domesticated and far more advanced from his first 
innings thou any other animal ; and so on him the united 
of climate, diet, and mode of life must have acted for a 
long time. 

2. On the other hand an otherwise suflSciently powerful 
cause of degeneration may be changed and debiUtated by the 
accession of other conditions, especially if they are as it were 

iposed to it. Hence everywhere in various regions of the 
ueous globe, even those which lie in the same geographi- 
latitude, still a very different temperature of the air and 
eqxially different and generally a contrary effecj on the con- 
ation of animals may be observed, according as they differ in 
le circumstances of a higher or lower position, proximity to 
the sea, or marshes, or mountains, or woods, or of a cloudy or 
serene sky, or some peculiar character of soil, or other circum- 
stances of that kind. 

t3. Sometimes a remarkable phenomenon of degeneration 
ight to be referred not so much to the immediate, as to the 
Bdiate, more remote, and at the first glance concealed in6u- 
ence of some cause. Hence the darker colour of peoples is 
not to be derived solely from the direct action of the sun upon 
the skin, but also from its more remote, as its powerful iullu- 
upon the functions of the liver. 
. Mutations which spring from the mediate influence of 



cnusea of this sort seem to strike root all the dci^per, and so tc 
be ail the more tenaciously propagated to following generatiM 
Hence, if I mistake not, we are to look for the reaaon why t 
brown colour of skin contracted in tfie torrid zone will lu 
longer in another climate than the white colour of northei 
animals if they are transported towards the south. 

5. Finally, the mediate influences of those sort of caus 
may Ue hid and be at such a distance, that it may be impossible 
even to conjecture what they are, and hence we ahaJl have to 
refer the enigmatical phenoniena of degeneration to them, as to 
their fountains. Thus, without doubt, we must refer to met 
causes of this kind, which still escape our observation, 
racial and constant forms of skulls, the racial colour of t 



41. Order of proceeding. Now let us come to the matter in 
ind, and lot us apply what we have hitherto been demonstrat- 

Dg about tlie ways in and the causes by which aniniids in 
sneral degenerate, to the native variety of mankind, so as to 
iBJiuinerate one by one the modes of degeneniting, and allot to 
each the particular cause to wliiL'h it is to be referred. We 
must bfgin with the colour of the skin, which although it 
Sometimes deceives, still ia a much more constant character, and 
bore generally transmitted than the others', and which most 
clearly appears in hybrid progeny sprung from the union of 
Tarietiea of different colour composed of the tint of either pa- 
tent. Besides, it has a great connection with the colour of the 
r and the iris, and a great relation to the temperament of 
men: and, moreover, it especially strikes everywhere the eyes 
jven of the most ignorant. 

42. Seat of the colour of the shin. The mucous, commonly 
called the cellular membrane, about whose most important 
function in the economy of the human body we have spoken 
above, affords as it were a foundation t^D the whole machine. It 

8 interwoven with almost all parts alike, even to the marrow of 
es, and is collected on the outermost surface of the body 

' Kvit, ID Berliner MoniUachTi/t, t^%i, 1. VI. p. 391, and in TcuUclitn Ma-htr, 


into a thick wliite universal integTiment, calleil the corivm. 
this the rest of the body is surrounded and included; 
above all it ia penetrated by a most enormous apparatus < 
cutaneous nerves, lymphatic veins, and Baally with a most clos 
and subtle net of sanguiferous vessels. 

The nerves comumnicate sensation to the corium, so as to 
make it the organ of touch, and aa it were the sentinel of thq 
whole body. The lymphatic veins make this same corium the 
instrument of absorption and inhalation. But the sanguiferou*' 
vessels have most to do with the subject under discussion, aft 
being the constituent parts of the common integuments of the 
body, and equally wiDi the luug.4 and the alimentary canal maka 
up the great purifier and chemical laboratory of the humaQ 
machine; whose surfaces, as will soon he seen, have a good deal 
to do with giving its colour to the skin. The corium is lined 
with a veiy tender mucus, which from the erroneous descriptioa 
of it-s discoverer, is called the reticubtm Malpighii: this afford 
a sort of glutinous bond, by which the most external stratum o 
the integuments, tlie epidermis, or cuticle, stretching over a 
protecting the surface of the body, and which in the horn n 
is exposed immediately to the atmospheric air, adheres to th« 
corium. .The reticulum, just like the epidermis, is a mof 
simple structure, entirely destitute of nerves and vessels, differ^ 
ing both of them as much as possible from tho nature of the 
corium. They agree themselves in more than one way, so that 
it seems most probable that these similar parts are allied, ot 
that the exterior cuticle draws its origin in some way from its 
substratum, the reticulum. Besides, each of these allied strata 
of integuments so make up the seat of colour, that in clear-com- 
plesioned men, where they are stained with no pigment, they 
permit the natural roseate whiteness of the corium to be seeD 
through: and in brown or coloured men, although the principal 
cutaneous pigment may adhere to the Malpighian reticulum^. 
although the epidermis may he paler, still it will manifestljr 
partake of its tint, Tlie darker the reticulum the thicker it \a, 
and the more it approaches the appearance of a membrane 
peculiar to itself; the more transparent it is on the contrary 


the more tentJer it becomee, and only appears to have the con- 
stitution of a diffused mucus. 

43. liaciul varieties of colour. AIthou«;h the colour of the 
human fikin scciua to play in numberless ways between the 
snowy whiteness of the European girl and the deepest black of 
the Ethiopian woman of Senegambia' ; and though not one of 
these phases is common either to all men of the same nation, 
or iiO peculiar to any nation, but what it sometimes occurs in 

^^^.hers, though greatly different in other respects; still, in geue- 

^£■1,811 the varieties of national colour seem to be most referable 

^Pb the live following classes. 

~ - 1, The white colour holds the first place, such as b that of 
most European peoples. The redness of the cheeks in this 
variety is almost pecuhar to it : at all events it is but seldom to 
be seen in the rest. 

2. The second is the yellow, olive-tinge, a sort of colour 
half-way between grains of wheat and cooked oranges, or the 

^mdry and exsiccated rind of lemons: veiy usual in the Mongolian 


^^f 3. The copper colour (Fr. hronse) or dark orange, or a sort 
of iron, not uuhke the bruised bark of cinnamon or tanner's 
bark: peculiar almost to the Americans. 

4. Taiffnt/ (Fr. baaan^), midway between the colour of fresh 

^Kpfthogany and dried pinks or chesnuts: common to the Malay 

^^pce and the men of tlio Southern Arcliipelago. 

^V' 5. Lastly, the tawvy-black, up to almost a pitchy blackness 

^( jet-black), principally seen in some Ethiopian nations. Though 
this tawny blackness is by no means pecuhar to the Ethiopians, 
but is to be found added to the principal colour of the skin in 
""Mbers of the most different and the most widely-separated 


The indeRDite and nrbilrury eeriBe in nhicb mnst autbora uia the n&mes of 
n hall caused vast iliSculty !□ all the Btui]}' of natural histoi7: and wiU cer- 
Uiiuly 1« partiealarly traiibleBome in thU anthropologica! diaquisilion. That I may 
not be accused of the samo fault, I must aive notice that I am fw from ccnaiduriiig 
Buch wonJi for example aa tbe English ytllute onii oUvt tinge, ko. which I liave tab- 
joined to each of the five principal colours which J ha^o distioguiahni, aa genuine 
eynonynu. All 1 wanted to do wop to show that these words bad been used by 
iliierciit authon, and Ihosa closuual ones, in dcuotiug tho naliootl colour of oos 
oud the saiDe tux. 


IniTi^, mai tk Mmm Urn «f the S iw riw i a Otaa. » 
fcr ■iliiii. the K«i 

&W Ae tMn^eoiovr of Uke( 
the rhtmir-eehMeJ lafcafciUrwlK «f I 
TcaglteN, to the immnjAitaA of Ae Xew I 

**, OtmMf ef tUa warittf. The aeat «f the e 
D0« beea pheed bejnnd an doobt 1^ ^ 
ofnlow.aBd their Atrihotki 

phiB aad p el ■ p ie W W. B«k te dig eat the etmmi of tbts i 

M the tadt ani the tnmUe. Anthcts h>v« hboored moet b 
enJewooriag to explain the eolour of the EthiopianB, which 
ahoreaD other national eoiaars bma the nkoet remote period 
baa tUvek the eyea of Enropeana, and excited tbtdr tninds to 
inquireL Nor it it nuprishig that with that object all sortB of 
bypotbcace dwald be elaborated, vbkh, however, I peas bjr 
VDDOticed, as being saffidentlr known', and altc^y explained 
all together li3r others', and shall go into the details of that 
Ofnnion alone, which, unless I am mach mlst^en, t 
come nearest the troth. I think, myself, the proximate c 

> On tha BnoIiaM tamp. (i. Farttur on Wibcni'i A'adndUca n 
/bw/h. p. j6. On tb* Califoniiuu, Btgcrt, A'«AntAtn von Ciii/onto, ^ 8^ I 

* Buffoa kttribula mnrt to climalc. Hijit. A'aUrtlU, T. m. p. 516. Zimd 
niMUi, Gtojrrapll. Ofckicilr drt JtaueMen. T. I. p. 77. Abb. Katrton in JeMf 
dt Wmivm, T, »»iii. Sept. I ;8i. P. Btmrt to hik. Din. tur la eaue j " 
lU laCviUar drt Sryrtt, rcrng. 1741, l^mo. To Ute blood beltdea otben a, 
"ni. Towa* ia PhiUt. Trmi*. X. 1. p. 398, who *l*a baa d^mbU kboot the unrer «f 
tti* ran to life tlie ikin of tba EUuopuiu. To put of the globule* of Uie Uood 
MtbariBg lo tlw •kin tbo ■Dtborof the rardiai qimtion of Piria, an opinioa ani- 
purtad on mure than one ooeattoo, *m by De« Mole) in 1741. and by Moimi«t a 
1775. Kant in Engd, Pliilot. fUr dit Wrtl, P. II. p. is'. to ~ 
Irun Id ths binod of the Ethiopian!, precipitated b; the traiupin 
add on tba rrtt muTOtum. 1 lay nouiing of a aort of mii 
Julo> and aome •ecnl lii]uid ia the nerroiu and arterial papa of ^ii 
whleli Im Cat, who *aa a ffyttti phvainli'gut as lar aa dreaming 1 
that h* hail aiplained tbe blailoiiiU of the Ethiopiaaa, in hii Tn * ' 
4l la Pm» llmvUite, Anut, 176;, 8vo , or tbe elongated fibre* in 
ffuUa, tti* diMHilutlon of tlie red bluod, the eraporation of tbe • 

flxwl lalliie particle* of tbe blood, remtioing (uly and fat in ^e 

whioh Attumonelli, EltaimU lU PiKoiagia Mediea, Neap. 1787, T. 1. p. 14^ ■ 
to eiplata the —irat tiling. 

' Thiu the "pinion* of the ancientd have been collected bj B. S. Albino*, Ik 
lidc tt taata Colrfli iSthiopum, Lndg. BaUv. 1737, 4to. Those of the modenf 
by QallMr, tCUnunt. Phymolog. T. T. p, 10. A heap of authorB are cited bj Krtt 

ijiteh M'lS'ii' 

t. P- 379- 

B cited by Krtn^^ 



of the adust or tawny colour of the external integuments of the 
skin, is to be looked for in the abundance of the carbon in the 
human body, which, when it is excreted with the hydrogen 
through the corium, and precipitated by the contact of tho 
atmospheric oxygen, becomes imbedded in the Malpighian 
mucus. Hence it is well known that the national colour of 
their skin is not congenital even to the Ethiopians themselves, 
but is acquired by the access of the external air after birth 
and after the intercourse with the mother, by which the fcetus 
was nourished, has been taken away. 

Besides this, the action of the sanguineous vessels of the 
corium seems necessary as well for secreting as for storing up 
the carbon. For if this is disturbed or comes to a stop, an 
unnatural and diseased colour is everywhere brought upon the 
skin in dark men just as much as in Ethiopians. But on 
the other hand, although in a white skin that action of the 
corium may be stimulated, cphelides and spots of tawny colour 
occur, and sometimes it ia found that it puts on an Ethiopic 

Generally carbon seems to be in greater quantity in the 
atrabilious ; for the connexion of the manufactory of the bile with 
the common integuments, and those which belong to them, aa the 
hair, is plain : indeed both organs, that is, the liver and the 
.•ikin, must be considered as by far the principal and mutually 
lo-operating purifiers of the mass of the blood. 

Then there ia the vast influence of climate upon the action 
of the liver, which in tropical countries is wonderfully excited 
and increased by the solar heat. Hence the various kinds of 
bilioua and endemic disorders in the tropics. Hence also the 
temperament of most inhabitants of tropical countries is cho- 
leric and prone to anger. Hence also, what was first observed 
by physicians', the bilious constitution and habit of Europeans 
who dwell in India, and especially in the children which are 
bom there. But there is no other climate, in the vehumence 
and duration of the heat, or in the peculiar chemical constitu- 

' Da Haen, pTaUctanm in ^iKi'Aan'i Intfilui, Paihalojira, 

r. p, 155- 

212 COLOUR. 

ents that make up the atmosphere there, such as particula»n 
winds, and rains, wliich can be compared to that burning and 
scorching climate which is to be found on the wet and marshy 
regions both of eastern and western Africa under the torrid zone 
Now the aboriginal Ethiopians have been for a long time and 
for many series of generations exposed to the action of that 
climate, since they must without doubt be ranked amongKt the 
most ancient nations of the world'. So we must not be sn 
prised if they propagate unadulterated, even under anotb 
climate to succeeding generations, the eame disposition whi 
has spread such deep and perennial roots in their i 
from the most distant auti<.]uity. But, on the other hand, fro 
this tenacity and constancy of the constitution of the Eth 
pians, this comes out all the clearer, that such a power ( 
only be contracted after a long series of generations, and ao D 
must be considered as a miracle, and against all natural law, if 
it be true, what we find frequently related that the present 
descendants of some Portuguese colonists who emigrated I" 
Guinea in the 15th century, have in so short an interval of 
time, only through the influence of the climate', been able to 
contract the Ethiopian habit of liody. 

io. Finai exjfositton of the causes of the colour of the skin. 
What I have summarily and succinctly already laid down about 
the causes of the colour of the skin is strongly corroborated, 
on more accurate inquiry, by all sorts of arguments answering 
most accurately to each other, and taken from actual observa- 
tion of human nature. 

We have discovered from the antipldogistic chemistry ^i' 
the French* that carbon belongs to the radical elements of lli;' 

' Thow who like mtiy coinult tbreB very Je»med work*: Jnc. Bryant. .^.-■ 
Sgilem of Andenl Atj/thologSi Vol. I. ; Jit. Bruce, Jowntj/ to tKt Dacortrf of ihl 
Soarca iff the Xile, Yul. l., am] Sir W. Jodm, Dm. in Aiiatic lUttardia, Vnb. IL 

■ We alt know thM bUck men have been found kt the Gsiabik deacandtd fnnp 
the oricin^ Portuguase. BuL it teeaa most probable that their blacknea turn b.-Ml 
derived pritioipally from the union of men witi the indigenou* Ethiopiao WMM*, 
for thii reason, thai European women when taken direc^ from thdr own nosstiT 
to Guinea can vcr; leldoni preaerTe lire there ; for the effect of the clinoato to ndl 
•a to produce very copious menatrunUon, which ahuost always in • abort apaee d 
time dida in fatal luemorrbagea of the uterus. 

■ Sao GaUJiaer, At\fanytgr<in<U dtr AnlipMoghtiiehen Chimie, p. loi. 

animal Ixjtly, and is also the cause of dark colour, whether it l)e 
jX'Uow, tawny, or hlackiah. In order that the animal economy 
may not be disturbed and endangered by a redundancy of this 
liubstance varinus emunctories have been provided, in which 
the liver and the akin occupy by no means the lowest place. 
Pathology, here as elsewhere so often the instructor of phy- 
siology, shows together with the phenomena just mentioned, 
the co-operation of the functions of the bile with the common 
integuments. For although I do not wish to insist too much 
on the analogy of jaundice with national tints of the skin, still 
there are various peculiar phenomena which deserve attention, 
common to those suffering under the regius morbus, anil the 
uationa of colour (ao to speak) to which I refer, the fact of the 
albuminous part of the eye being tinged with yellow, a thing 
common to tawny nations and specially to the Indians', the 
lericans*, and the Ethiopiana'. Besides it not unfrequently 
ipens with jaimdiced persons, according to the varieties of the 
tase, that the skin, even after the disorder has been re- 
moved, remains always tinged with a different shade, very like 
the skin of coloured natitms*. Nor are examples wanting of a 
genuine sooty blackness being sometimes deposited in atra- 
lious disorders by a sort of true metamorphosis of the skin', 
d from the affinity of the bile with fat' it is clear that this 
of cherry tint has been observed in tawny peoples'. Hence, 
le^s I am mistaken, wo must look for the reason why nations 


* I wjatU luve often abaerved thia in tbose on Uiia aide Lha Gviges. On thoM 
and the Gaiigea see De In Loubero iu Deiiripl. dn Soi/aunc de Siam, T. i. 
Jr. On tbo Niooli&ra, Nia. Fonlann in AtmUi Hamrcha, VoL III. p. 15 r. 
I On tlie Coribbeoa Ha Roslierort, llittoire NalurtUt da Antilla, p. 383, 
' SSmmBirirjg, Vbcr dU Kirperikie rmehiedimitit dri Ntgm vom EarapiUr, p. 1 1 . 

* See Stnck, Obtervationa dt Fcbribtit Intrrmittenlibat, I 11:. c. i, dt Ulen rx 
VAre iHltnniUeHU. " I have teen," aaya he, p. 194, " from such a jaunitiue that 
an olive cxiloiired akin, jaat lilco thut iif Asiutica, hau remuneJ in tlis childrsn. 

a person lias l>Lcame aiiooat »a lilack a* an Iniliun from Faier. The wbola 
V of another baa prtaetved a bUck oomiileiioD, u if he hiul been bom from an 
MB father and an European mother ; but like luoh he bad the lolea of his fcst 
d tbe ptitat of bia handa wbiln," &a. 
» Lorry, Dt MtlanchUia, T. 1. p. j;j. 

* Foupoioy, PkiloiofhU C/iimi^ut, p. nr. 

* Obaerveit in the EthiopUns by J. Fr. Meckel, ffiitoin dt VAcadcmit drs 
SeimUM dt Berlin, 17JJ, p. 91, and by aomniBirini;, (. C. p. 43' 


who feed coptouslj on animal oil not only smell of it, but ■ 
contract a dark colour of skia'; while tlie more elegant Ota- 
heitans on the contrary, who try to be of a pale colour, live 
every year for some montlia on the bread-fruit alone, to the use 
of which they attribute great virtue in whitening the skin'; 
altbongh part of that effect mast be attributed to the fact that 
during the same period they remain at home, covered with 
clothes, and never go out. Uow great an influence abstinence 
from the free and open air has in giving whiteness to the skio, 
our own experience teaches us every year, when in spring very 
elegant and delicate women ahow a most brilliant whiteness of 
Hkiu, contracttHl by the indoor life of winter. Whilst those who 
are less careful in this way, after they have exposed themselves 
freely to the summer sun and air, lose that vernal beaut; 
before the arrival of tbe next autumn, aud become sensibly 

If then under one and the same climate the mere difference 
of the annual seasons has such influence in changing the colour 
of the skin*, is there anything surprising in the lact that climates, 
in the sense defined above (s. S^i), according to their diversi^ 

* Cruiz, Hitlorie ran Gr^itlaml. T. :, p. 178, kttribul« ths tawny ikin at ths 
GrMnlmDderB to their particuUriy oily diet. Sloane declarea, Votfage to Jamaira, 
Vol. L Intrud. p. 18, and Vul. il. p. 331, that the skin of Europeui* in the Eiut 
Indiea becomta yiiUow from copiout meiilfl of duhea prepared from the alipaah 
of turtles, 

' See the account of the surgeon Andenon in Cook's VtH/ajt to lAt Ifprthtn 
Hemiiphert, Vol. 11. p. 147. 

' Prom the cloud of witneuM who hkve obnerved the gams weU-known oCfect 
of the mode of life in other p»rtj of the world, 1 will quote only odp, Poiret, «bout 
the Moors in Voyagt en Harbarir, p. 31. "The Moors »re by no meana naturally 
black, apite of ths proverb, though many wrilen think ao; thay are bom whits 
and remaJQ whit« all their live^ when their husiness doea not expoae them to the 
boat of the ran. In the towni the women are of such a bnlliant white:ien that 
they eolipae moat Europeans; but the Mauritaninn mountaineera, burnt ODceMingly 
by the nun and always half-naked, booome, even from infancy, of a brown anlour, 
which cornea very near to that of aoot." 

• A few ejiamplea out of ninny will suffice. We know the Biaoayan wonm 
are of a hrilliant white, those of Granada on the coutrat; brownleh. so that in this 
Kouthum province the pictures of the Virgin Mary are painted of the same national 
--' IS observed by 01. Toree, Rtae nocA Surale, p. 9. We are told expressly 

>g$X aN Uwoy, 


ciii:uLi:s. 215 

fiboulii have the greatest and most permanent influence over 

national colour : everywhere witbiD the limits of a few degrees 

of geographical latitude, and still more when a m\iltifarious 

eoncoiu^e of the caueeii' ahove-raentioned has occurred even 

» luder the same latitude, a manifest difference in the colour of 

I the inhabitants may be observtd'. 

46, Creoles. The same power of affecting colour, about 

which we are speaking, is showu very clearly in Creoles, under 

which name {a<j frequently improperly confounded even by good 

I authors' with the word Mulattos) in a narrower sense' we uu- 

I'deratand those men bom indeed either In the East or the West' 

riudioe. but of European }iarent». In tbetse the face and colour are 

BO constant and impossible to be mistaken, breathing as it were 

of the south, and particularly besides tiiL- hair and the almost 

burning eyes, that the most brilhaut in other respects and most 

beautiful women may easily be distinguished by those peculiar 

characters from others, even their relatives, if these are bom in 

Europe*. Nor docs this appear only in Europeans, but also in 

Maradcn, I/iitory of Sumaln, p. 43, naUen the effect of na-iur upoTi the 
■kin, ud to Wallia in HavkeBWortb't CoUrrtum 0/ VoyagtM, Vol. i. p. 16a Hartii- 
ink, Hut td woodi, Buchryvitif mn Guinta, T. :. p. 9. Bouguer of mounUiu, 
Plynn dt la Teire, iDtr. p. lot, da Pinto of Iha ftltiluik of the country, in Bobert- 
■on'a Bit. of Amtriea, Vol. u. n. ^03. 

* On Uiia point ZimmemiatiD fau Bome deep anit leameH remarks when diecui- 
rins tlw probleni why we do not God Ktbio|>i*iu in America olao in eqnatoriol 
regtOQI. Otogmpli. gackit-hlt da Mmirhtn, T. 1. p. 86. 

* A* Tbomu Hyde in the note* to Abr. Prritaol, Itinera nHnrft, in I'golini, 
7%aaitr¥*Jnii'/uilatumSarTarHtR,T.vii.p. u'. 

* lliii word uriginated with the Ethiopian ilarn trannporlcd in the aiitorath 
Oentuiy to the minm in America, who lint i>f all called their own cliildren who 
We bom there, Vriolloiiaid Crinllat: Ibis nune was afterwards boTTowful fniiu the 
%uiiBrdi, and iropoaed upoo their children bom in the new world, i^i Gurcilauo, 
M Orijfnt dt lot iTViu, p. m. 155. Now this word hae been extemled in the Eoat 
Indiea to tbe domestic aninml' which are not indieenoua in America, but have 
liMD Inuisplanted there by Europeans. Oidtindorp, Ottchirkk dtr Miuion auf dm 
Oanib. Itutln, T. I. p. 131. 

* On theee Creoles of the Anlillea, see the ciirioue and ebtborato works of Gir- 
tmntT, abrr dit Praiabi'afht Semlalion, T. 1. p. 60—71, and ed. 

* H»wk*mrorth"B CalUction of Fogwja, T. ill. p. m. 374. •' If two native* of 
England marry in their own country Mid afterwskrd* rrmove to our •ettlemeuta in 
Ihe West Indiea, the children that an- oonceivtd and born there will have the com- 
plexion and out of countrnanoe that diatinguiah the Creole ; if the)' return, the 
children eoncnved and bom afterwards will have no such characteristics," &r. 



Aatatics who are bom in the East Indies from Persian or M< 
golian parent* who have emigrated there '. 

+7. Mulattos, (frc. Remarkable too is the constancy wil 
which oti&pring bom from parents of different colours present 
middle tint made up as it were from that of either parent. For 
although we read everywhere of *ingle specimens of hybrid in- 
fants bom from the union (s. 37) of different varieties of this sort, 
who have been of the colour of one or other parent alone*; still, 
generally speaking, the course of this mixture is so consijiteatly 
hereditary, that we may suspect the accuracy of James Bruce 
about the Ethiopians of some countries in the kingdi 
Tigre, who keep their black colour unadulterated, altboi 
some of the parents were of one colour and some of anothi 
or about the Arabians, who beget white children with the female 
Ethiopians like the father alone'. But as *ho hybrids of 
lliis sort of origin from parents of various colours are diatia- 
guishcd by particular names, it will bo worth while to exhihil 
them here arranged in synoptical order. 

A, The first generation. The offspring of Europeans 
Ethiopians are called Mulattos'. Of Europeans and Indi 
Mestizos'. Of Europeans and Americans abo Mestisos* 
Mestinde^, or Meti/s', or Mamlncks*. Of Ethiopians 
Americans Zambos"; by those called also Mulattos", Ldbos' 
Curibocas and Kabuglos". All these present an appearance 
colour compounded of either parent, and that more or h 

■ S«e Hudgeo'a Trajtli in India, p. 3, 

• Coiu]., J»o. Pbisum in PMot. hvni; Vol. LV. p. 47, 

* Joumrg to ike Sourm af tit A'iie, VoL ur. p. 106, lUid Vol. IT. p. 470. i 
the romwks of TyehmiQ nt T. v. p. 357. 

* So« > Uw-auit wliicb tamed npon the habit ami character! of muUtlM 1| 
Klein, Annatm der 0«t&s**HBy in lUa PreuainiJUH Slaalen, T. vii. p. ri6. 

' See tbo %urB cl tbe Cingalese Mmtixo io da Bruin, JUIir* over M 
p. m. 3SH, and of the Temntese though lets rvmarkitbhi lu Valeutyn, Oud tt 
Oott-Inilie'i.T.i. H. i, p. 18. 

' (.ikreiliweo, " Por dair jw lomiu matladiH, de ambat Nateimri." 

' Twim' Tntvclt lArouffk Foft»!jat and Spain, p. jj), (rom piotatM asen 1^ 
him at Mnliigii. 

' Labnt, Vojiage aux itltt de CAmeriqae, T. 11. p. 131. 

• De Unulflriva, lliit. de I'Aead. daSt. dt Pant, 1794, p- t8- 
" Oily, A'toria Amsrieatia, T. iv. p. 310. " GftrolUwo, J 
■' Twlu, I. e. ■' MarrgrikV, Traf(atia liroiUia, p. 1 



rownisTi or muddy, with scarcely any redness visible in the 
Aiceka The hair of Mulattos is generally curly, that of the 
st straight, of almost all black ; the iris of the eye is brown, 

B. The second generation. Mulattos forming unions with 
ich other produce Casquaa'; Europeans and Mulattos Ter- 

, which othera call QUarterons', others Moriecos* and 
feetitos'. The countenance and hajrof all is that of Europeans, 
be « very lightly stained with a brownish tint, and the 
heeks ruddy. The lips of the female mouth and pudenda 
k»Iet coloured; the scrotum of the male blackish. The Ethi- 
pians with the Mulattos produce Gnffs*, called by others 
> Midattoa^, and by others Cahros". The Europeans with 
e Indian Mestizos, Castissi*. Those bom of Europeans and 
merican Mestizos are called QuarferoKa'" or Quatralvi^^, and by 
be Spaniards also C'aatissi". Those bom of the AmericanB 
h^nselves and their Mestizos are called TresalvV*. Those of 
■■ Americans and the Mulattos are also called Mestizos'*. 
iliose of Europeans and Zambos ur Lobos of the first generation 
e called indifferently Sfulattos". Those of the Americans and 
ese same Zambos or Lobos Zambaigi". The progeny of the 
unl>08 or Lobos tbemselves are called contemptuously by tlio 
Ipaniards Ckoloa". 

C, The third generation. Some call those who are bora of 
Suropeans and Tercerons Quakrotis", others Ochawns", or 

Octavons. and the Spaniards Ah-iiws*'. In these it ia asserted 

' Da H&uteriTe, I. «. ' Long, Iliitorff of Jamaica, T. it. p. 160. 

» Aublot, Hidoirt dt* PUnita dt la Ouiant, T. 11. Apn. p. 111. * Twi«. 

* UoretOQ'a Mannert and Cattomi in-lht Wftt India li!aiidi, p, 113. 

* De Hxularive, I. e. ' Uiit. of Jamaica, I. c. 

» BoDUtre, IMctiannaire tTU'tloin Xalurdle. ed. 4, T, 11. Art m'jr*. 

* Tranqudtarijche MMont-IStriditt, Cuntin. XXSin. p. 919. 
" GumilU, OriarKa tlliiMmdn, T. I. ]>. B3, 

" GiroiUuo, I, «., "to show Ant tht-y are one-foiirth Indian, RoJ three-fourllii 

*' Qarcilssao, " to show that Ihej are three puts ludian imil ono part Spanish," 

'* Bitl. iff Jamaiai. 

'• tenam. Sur rfEcon. Jni«t<ile, T. I. p. 179. '• Twiw, 

^ Oareitaaao, " Cbolo U a wnrd »( tha iiilanils of Bttrlovento, meatiinj; Uiu gains 

Doe; and the Spaniard! uw it by way of contempt or repruouh." 



by tbe most aciile observers that no trace of their Etbiopiaa 
origin can be found', Those of Mulattos and Tercerons Salta- 
tnts'. Of Europeans and Castissi, Poatissi'. Of Europeans and 
American Qiiarterons of tlie second generation Oclavons*. Of 
Qiiarterons and American Mestizos of the 6rst generatioD, 
Coyotaa". Of Griffs and Zambo Mulattos with Zambos of the] 
first generation Gi«ei*o«°. Of Zambaigis and Mulattos Camr 
bujoa''. There are those wlio extend even into the fourth gem 
ration this kind of pedigree, and say that those bom from! 
Europeans from Quarterona of tbe third generation are called, 
Quinterons', in Spanish Puchuulas', but this name is alaocl 
applied to those who are born of Europeans and American 
Octavons". But that the slightest permanent vestige of their 
mixed origin" is to be found in productions like these, after what 
we have been told by most credible eye- witnesses about the 
men of the third generation, that as to colour and constitutioQ 
they are exactly like the aboriginal Europeans, is a thing 
seems almost incredible. 

■48. Brown skin variegated with white spots. What I 
above (s. 44) about the action of the sanguiferous vessel 
the corium in excreting tho carbon, which is afterwards 
cipitated by the addition of oxygen, is singularly confirmed by 
the instances of dark-coloured men, especially Ethiopians, 
whose skin, and that too uot always from their firet tender 
infancy ", is distinguished by spots of a snowy whiteness (Fr, vi' 
ffreS'pies; Eug. piebald neijr^jea). 

I saw an Ethiupian of this kind at London, by name John 
Richardson, a servant of T. Clarke, who exhibited there (ini 
Exeter Cliange), live exotic animals as shows and also for sale. 




311- ■ 

(. of Jatuaiea, ' Tmnyatbariiiclit Miamnt-UeriAlt, 
> Twin. ' Hutor}/ of Jamaiea. 

' Hal, of Jantaiea. 
dbk, p. 86. '" la. p. 83. 

11 Tbui Ihow boru From the Cuyolea of tlir third generalion Mtd tba AmaritxBI 
"" ' " — '" " from the Cumliujoa and MuImttoB, AlbaruitatUt. 

> Aulilel. 
* Utunilla. I 
« TwiM. 

a/n ocIleJ //ami 

T«riu, vbant I havu no ofteo iiuotcd 

Mut&ttoa, BaTtinot. 

" W. Byrd, in PhUo,. Tmnt Vo 
Ethiopian bo^ in whoin thi) tpola did i 
u[ tiiue bi'(;sn to EQcrosas iu nm. 

', c(dU Ihoae biin 


t rtppear till hii fourtli fear, and in 


e young man vas perfectly black except in the umbilical and 
epigastric region of the abdomen, and in the middle part of 
either leg, that is the knees, with the adjoiniog regions of the 
thigh and the tibia, which were remarkable for a most brilliant 
and snowy whiteness, and were themselves again distinguished 
hy black scattered spots, like those of a panther. His Lair was 
I^Ubo parti-coloured. For the middle part of his sinciput de- 
»nding in an acute angle &om the vertex towards the fore- 
1 was white, not however like the regions of the skin we have 
ten speaking of, but a tittle suowy with a tinge of yellow, 
"fae rest of the liair was, as is usually the case with Ethiopians, 
fcurly; and this cnrliness still continues unaltered up to this 
time, in a Kpecimen of each kind of hair which I obtained from 
the man himself more than two years ago. I had also a picture 
taken of the man, which on comparison with three others 
equally of Ethiopians, which 1 have by me, a boy and two girls, 
ihows that in all, the regions of the abdomen and legs were 
'. or less white, but that the hands and feet, that is, those 
jparts which with the groin are the first to grow black in new- 
born Ethiopians, were perfectly tawny, and that in all the 
isposition of the white regions was thoroughly symmetrical 
rhe gums, to go on to that also, in the man I saw, the tongue 
1 all the jaws, were of an equable and beautiful red. 
Both the parents of the man I am speaking of, as of all the 
Ettber spotted Ethiopians' of whom I have found descriptions, were 
|»erfectly black, bo that the conjecture of Buffon seems badly 
founded when he attributes such offspring to the union of Etbio- 
1 and LeucsEttbiopian women, when sufTering under a dis- 
ased affection of the skin and the eyes, about which I shall 
ike an opportunity of speaking more particularly below. 
Care must always be taken that the spots we are speaking 
d which can only be distinguished by a snowy white- 

See ■ print of a girl ot IIiJh liind in Buffon, Sapj.!. T. iv. Tub. 1, p. jlf. 
nil, unlm I un miaUlien, ia Chn uuuii wbicb bu bern deuribiHl &t length by 
Gimull>, Orinoeo lUuitrado, T. I. p. log. Otber insUuces of tbia kinJ o! Elbio- 
roMia are found in lj» Motbe, Bibtuifhigiie Impartlatt. Apr. 17^1. See D, Morgui 
n TrantaOifit i/ tU PhUimiikical Samti/ at PkUadtlphia, Vol. Ii. p. 391. 

f boa tiie rest of Ute tkin, the epulennis beng in othefl 

if p frfi onaflactol. be nut improperif ooofoancled with t' 
by whidi tbc wbote tDtegnnwot is covered, wbidi are to Ii 
reeagmxed not to moch by a differrat cdoor aahy ^i 
tion of tbe texture of the corinm ilselt «1im^ beooroes roii^ 
atx) M it were aealy or seurvjf. Writere hare obserred this 
kiuil of cutaneoua duorder paiticnUrly amoi^st tbe Malaban*. 
and the Tiichiilftnik Tartars*. Eul these snowy, equable and 
noootb spot;! which only occur in a disordered action of tbfl 
nnaUeat Tcmels of the coriuin, »« by no means confined to 
tbe Ethiopianti, but sometimes occur amnngat our own peo- 
ple. 1 hav<: tnyw.lf had the opportunity of observing two in- 
■tanccit of thU kind in CJerraan men, one a young man, th©: 
other more than iiixtyyear? ol<}. The skin of each was brown- 
inh, ntudded here and there with very white spots of different 
xizeK. In neither were these congenitaj, but had appeared sud- 
denly and RpontaneouRly in one during infancy, in the other in 

49. Similar remarkable mutattonn of Oie colour of the tkin, 
An the«c inxtances I have just been mentioning seem to demoo- 
Htrato the power of the smaller vessels of the corium in modi- 
fying the colour of the skin ; so there are other phenomena' 
which often occur, and point in this direction, by which, unless 
1 am much mistaken, those conjectures I made above (s. 44i, \Sj 
about the abundance of carbon, and the impressions of tbe Md- 
pighian mucus being as it were the proximate cause of that 
Colour, nro woll illustrated. 

Above all othera I shall consider in thU place tho singulai^ 
change of colour so often observed in European women", in somtf 


l"mBji«*ar«eA< MitiontStrickU, Cont, JUtl. p, 741, oompare tho d 

H Strahlmlinv, Nord.ottUcK Enropa und Atirn, p. lAA, wbo siupecta UieS' 
Id bo IhaauDuTnrtnrtianlo whicli went under Ui> Dune of Fii'jaja or Patraji orda, 
J, O. Umolin nltribuWit il to iliiuus, Jlelw rfurrt Sibirltn. prof. T. 11. sad J. B^ 
tu wmo •oatbulio ftffoctiou, Traitlt /ram St Ptlrrtiurg lo dUtrie itarl* n/ Alio, Vo 

' " In many wonwn th» nndsr part of tho body (Ihs abdomen) md tho ring 
about tilt hniutu <t1mt )■ Ibo teati) when lliey uv ill, Iwcnmo 'iiiito black. 
Campsp, SUm »Ari/K T. 1. P. 1. p. 47. '■ In our uwii lime u eim" 


f wlioni, and those in other refipccts particularly wliite, at the 
I time of pregnancy a larger or smaller numljer of the parts of 
' Uie Iwdy are darkened with a cnaly blackness, which however 
gradually disappears again after child-birth, when the original 
deamess is restored to the body. The solutioa of tliis puz- 
zling problem is to be found in tlie application of mo<lern che- 
mistry to the physiology of pregnancy. ^Vhen the woman ia not 
jregnant the moderate portion of carbon of her own body is 
'«asily excreted by superfluous cutaneous perspiration ; but in a 
|>regnaiit woman, l^sides her own share, another quantity 
accrues from the foetus, which immersed in ammonia! liquid 
■does not as yet breathe. Thus the blood of the mother be- 
comes too much laden with the carbon arising from two human 
1x>die8 joined as it were in one, so that all of it cannot as 
usual be excreted with the perspiration of the mother : ao part 
«f it is precipitated in the Malpighian mucus, and there re- 
mains, tinging the skin, until the child being delivered, the 
original equilibrium between the carbon of her own body and 
tbe perspiring vessels of the skin is r&stored ; and the epider- 
mis, which with the mucus lying under it ia constantly de- 
jtroyed by degrees and again renewed at last, recovers its 
natural whiteness. 

In difierent circumstances the same reason seems to hold 
good in BO many instances of Europeans, in whom the differ- 
ent parts of the body are unnaturally affected by a smoky 
Itlackness ; since here also it may be referred to a congestion of 
carbon, Thus, for instance, a similar blackness is observable in 
women who never menstruate'. So also in other atrabilious 

phoais hoa been renewed Bitnuall; in the person oF > lulj of diatinotion, at » gocxl 
flwroplolioo, uid a very w)dte sbiii. Aa soon an sbi> vmt pregnant, she heg^n la 
fet brown, md towarda the and of her time abo ImeBino a Irue n^re«B. AFler lirr 
Aelireria Itie black colour disnppearod little by little, her originut wMtenCHS re- 
huned, uid ber proevn; bod no trace of blackuvaa. " Boiuare, Lc. Art. Nl(/rt. Le 
fSati I.e. in mau; pbtcea ; for ex, p- ifl. "A peasant of the enviroua nf PirU, a 
Jlone bj pnir««iioa, had ihe belly resularly quite bUck at every preguancy, and 
Uiat oaloor diaappi^ared aller delivery." " Another always had the left leg blaok 
- Quae oocosirauV' kc. Ho also Lorr;, De Sfelan^halia, T. i. p. lyS, ka. 
) Oonp, Jm. Yongs in PhilotoiiK. Trant. Vol. xxvi. p. 4jj. 

men', especially of the lowest sort, uul those who suffer from 
cachexia caused by want and dirt. Thts is often the case too in 
scurry', Ac. On the other hand we know by experieQco that 
the btackneaa of the Ethiopians is not so oonstant but what it 
Bometimes is rendered paler, or even changed quite into a whit« 
colour. It has been recorded that Ethiopians, when they have 
changed their climate in early infancy, and from that time 
forward have inhabited a temperate zone, hare gone on getting 
paler by degrees'. The same thing happens also somewhat 
quicker to the same negroes when they suffer under severe 
disorders*. Many instances also are to be found where, apart 
from any particular Btat« of health, the natural blackness of 
the Ethiopian skin has sensibly and spontaneously been changed 
into a whiteness, such as that of Europeans'. 

50. Some other national properties of skin. Besides colour, 
other singular qualities are often attributed to the skin of 
some nations, about which I must say a few words at all 
events. Amongst these there is that smoothness and softness 
of akin which has been compared to silk, and has been noUced 

' I have in m; stiatomiol collectioa aipeoimen of the mtegmiieDta of (ha 
abdomen oT ■ beggar wfao died hen Mine jeara ago, whioh does tiol jiold at all ia 
blackncM to the «kin of the Ethiop. Otben too hare ahomi tDtaj inituuei of 
that kind in Eiuopeani. See for ex. Halter, f/inmit. Phytiol. T. v. p. tS. 
Ludwig, Bputola ad NaiUmn ttripia, T. I. p. 3QJ. De Riet, Di or^oiM 
iatiai, p. 13, Albiniu, Dt teiU tl caum folorit Jilhiopum, p. g. Klinkoadi, J)t 
futieula, p. 46. SouTnemng. Uker dir L&rpert. terKhitdenAett da Ntym ppA 
Europder, p, 4S. Comp. Loivhga in A'otiir/or«fA*r, P. mil. p. 114. ib. P. IVI. 
p. 170, for (ho dswription of noma brown {Dunkdiyraun) spoti of diffsrent UM, 
■nme of the duuncter of a Kpan, obierYed in a man then sixty yean old, in wbom 
t\ny appeared when joung during a quBrtan fever. 

■ Comp. beudeB otben, Jo. Narborougb's Vogagt to tht Straili 0/ itagdlait, 
p. m. 64. "Their legs and thighs are turned as black as a but," &c. So alao 
Phillip** Voj/age U> Botiatg Bag, p. 119. 

■ "Tliere is a cobbler of tbia nation st 
after a great tnanj yein, (f>ir be came to this conntry a bo;) ha 
diininiibed, tliat be aevaa like one Buffering From a slight jaundice." Caldan^ 
iHMtitst Pkyi'inl. p. Iff, ed. 1786. Comp, also Peehliu, Dt kalntn tt 
^liioyum. p, 116, and Oldendorp, T. 1. p. 40G. 

* " I hnvo soon thoni of so tiglit a colour that it was dISault U> i_. . 
tbem fiom a vhite man of a bad complexion." Labat, Bdalion d'Afriqm i 
lalt, T. II. p. i6d. And Klinkowih, I. c. p. 48. 

* Comp. Ju. Bale in Pkilotoph, Trum. Vol. 

kt Vonioe, whoae blackness. 

» dialingaiah ^H 



by writers in many nations, as the Caribs', the Ethiopian', the 
Otaheitans' and even the Turks*, It is clear that in al! these 
it depends either upon a more tender epidermis, or a thicker 
stratum of the Malpighian mucus. The cause of the coldness 
to the touch which has been observed in the akin of various 
nations of Africa' and the East Indies' seems diffcrenl, and 
must be referred rather to the chemical affinities of the body 
and the atmospheric elements. Here also is to be considered 
that insensible perspiration of Sanctorius, which is accompa- 
nied in some nations with a peculiar smell, as in the Caribs', 
Ethiopians', and others ; in the same way that in some varieties 
of domestic animals, as among dogs, the I^ptian, among horses, 
those of a reddish-white are well known to have a specific and 
pcculiai- perspiration*. 

51. Consensus of the hair and sf.'in. As the hair, especially 
that of the head, is generated and nourished by the common 
integuments, bo it has invariably a great and multifarious 
agreement with them. Hence, those variegated Etliiopious we 
spoke of have also hair of different colour. Men whose whito 
skin is marked with ephelitic spots have red hair". Besides, 

^ " TboT Besb ii vety dark and soft ; when jou tauub Iheir akin, it f«c[i like 
n." Biet, Voyage dt la Pranei Equinon'ale, p, 351. 
* Peohlin, I. e, p. 54. anil SiiiniDeiTing, 1. 1. p, 45. 


■' Thai ikin u 

It dglicattily Bmootb aud eofC." Hawkes. Coll. T. Ii. p. ra. 

is (Turkfy) haM a akin su soft tlmt 

m. 198. 

T. JL p. jjj, T. lY. p. 471 nnd 

"The irife of B»ei7 labourer or mutio in A 
you teem to touch a fine velvet." Belon, (Hu, p. 

* Bnice'i YofOfft lo the Stmrta of tht Niit, 

' On t^e Tnaiani we Knut in En(,->1, Pkilmophie fur die Well, P. II. p. 154. 
On the inhahitanta of Iriuniatra, MamJen, p. 41. 

' " Thsy all have ■ atrnni^ftncl (linagieealile nnell. I know notliii>B whiuh can 
gira an h)w of it. When anything ainelli like it, thty my in the AiitilTga, ' a Hniell 
of Carib,' which fhowa the difficulty of eipraiBing it." Tliibault de Charwaiou, 
Voj/agt dt la Marlinifa/, p. 44. 

* Comp. Sdhotta Chi tin tj/nochat alrabiiioia, p. 104. JTiit, ofjantaim, n. pp. 
35'. *■'!■■ 

' So Faiuanias in his Phoeiea telU us that the OiolinnB. an indigenous people, 
of Locri), smelt diHguatingly on account of Bumelhiug iii Uie air. Comp. Lavatcr, 
PkyBOgHOm. Fragmenle, T. IV. p. i63.~ Add J. h\ Ackennan, De ditcrinine 
MXtnrm prater gemtalia, p. i 

there U a remarkable correspondence of tlie hair with 1 
wliole constitution and temperament of the body. This, i 
v-v lonrn from pathological phcDomeDa, such for example i 
that those who have yellow hair {blondiJis), in consequence i 
the tenderer and more impressible cellular texture, break out 
more easily in raiihes and similar eruptions; whilst those who 
have black hair are almost always of a costive and atrabitioua 
temperament, so much bo that it has long since been obeerv 
that far the greater number of men in mad hospitals and jai 
have black hair. 

52. Principal national varieties of hair. In general, i 
national diversity of hair seems capable of being rednoed I 
four principal varieties : 

1. The first of a brownish or nutty colour {ceruire), sbadifl 
off on the one side into yellow, on the other into black : f 
long, and undulating. Common in the nations of temp< 
Europe ; formerly particularly famous among the inhaluta 
of ancient Germany '. 

2. The second, black, stiff, straight, and scanty ; such i 
common to the Mongolian and American nationa 

3. The third, black, soft, in locks, thick and exuben 
such as the inhabitants of most of the islands of tbe ] 
Ocean exhibit 

4. The fourth, black and curly, which is generally comp 
to the wool of sheep ; common to the Ethiopians. 

Thus, a general division of this kind may be made, whi 
18 not without its use. That it ia no more a purely natui 
dinsion than other divisions of the national varieties of bumad 
races, is not necessary to dwell upon here. This I will show, 
though it is quite uanecesaary, by one or two argumenta, 
namely, that curliness is not peculiar to the Ethiopians, 
blackness to the three varieties I put in the last place. 

Timur »re uf a copper colonr with red bur : nee Van I 
tiui Arf Batavia/Uih Oinoolirliap, T. I. p. m. 31Q. 
iromitD with an undoubted red akin and rod hair, Trat 
' Conring, Z>c Aaftitw carporum Cermanicuram nnli^i 

of Ethiopians are found with long hair' ; other copper- 
coloured cations again have curly hair', like that of the Ethio- 
pian& There are others, the New Hollanders, whose hair, as I 
see from the specimens I have in hand, holds so perfectly the 
middle place between the curliness of tho Ethiopians and the 
locks of the inhabitants of the islands in the Pacific Ocean, that 
a wonderful difference of opinion is to be found in the ac- 
counts of expeditions Iruui the tirst Dutch ones of the last 
century to the very latest of the English, as to which variety of 
hair it should be considered to belong. As to the various 
colour of hairs, occurring amongst those nations also, who gene- 
rally have black hair, it ia sufficient to cite good witnesses, who 
say that red hair is frequently found in the three other varieties 
I reckoned besides the first. 

53. Hie iris of the eye conforms to the colour of the hair. 
We have seen that the hair coincides with the common integu- 
ments of the body. Aristotle' had, however, long ago taught 
that the colour of the eyes followed that of the skin. Those 
'hose colour was white had grey eyes ; black, black eyes. 
lufl very often amongst ouiac-lves new-born infants have grey 
and light hair, which afterwards in thoso who become dark 
(bninet), is slowly and as it wore simultaneously darkened also. 
In old men as the hair grows white the pigment of the internal 
eye loses much of its usual dark colour. In the Leucjethiopians, 
about whom I shall speak more particularly below, as the bair 
passes from a yellowish tinge to white, so the pigment of the 
eye is cleaily nothing, and hence a pale rosy kind of ins. 

It is remarkable that in no case at all is there any variation 
in the eyes of animals, except in tho^e who vary in the colour 
^ their skin and hair, as we know to be the case not only in 
and horses, which was the opinion of the ancients, but also 


18 inhabit. 

' Coirp. Bruce on the GsIIah. Joumw, drr. Vol. n. p. 114. 
lUiti of Ibe kingdom of Baroou. Procetdmi/t of >he Aitoeiatii/ti, y, m. lui. 

> The inhabiUuita oi the Duks of York'* laUnd not in from the Nev Ireland 
of the Sontheni Oo««n. See J . Hunter's Hinlarieal Journal of ike Tranmeiioaii at 
For* Jadaon, Se. p. ijj : " they uro nf & lijhl copper colour, th« hulr is wooUy," 

• ProUemat. i. 10. p. 4:6, ed. Casaub. 



drrided well dke pinaiy ealans ofUic kw rf iIm 
into tluce; fini, Ubcj soooBd, daik vttagt, oAfld 
(yeMT dc cUxro*} ; thiid. dsik brovB. AH 
oecnr et wy n h ae in iodindink of cbb aad 
also aie tlwj to be aotieed at mmn oanti 
neial io diflfannt fanUies of the 
limits of ■ few degrees ttgeegrmfhialht^tmAt. 
sttribatee tluee amoog tbe Sndidi pepafatii 

nee, wbo hare white kur, with tbe ins ef the ere of a daHc- 
Mae colour; to the Finnic, those with jdlow hair and dark iiis^ 
to the lApp, finallj, thoee with Uaek hair and Uackish tria. Blae 
eyea eqoally with tcUow hair were fonneriy conadered as nata- 
ral cfaankctenstim of tbe ancient G^mans. Bat they are found 
eretywhere amoi^st the meet widely separated nations*. The 
very black irides of the Ethiopians are such that, especially in liv- 
ing subjects, they cannot be tUstingutahed, excepting when very 
doee, from the pupil itself*. 

05. National /are. I now turn naturally enooj^ tcom Ihe 

' Coinp. Holinelli in Comnirntnr. huIiVi 
* ThoM B » middle cmloor betwBEn gn 
1 H it wen grwa green. wMdi i> to » si 
b ipoU"! with rrKklc*. Corap. tb>t ■ 

. fiwon. T. m. p *8i. 
■nd mngv of K ilT&ngv grMoiih tinl. 
-n in men wbo tuTe firty faur, and ilaa 
igular book Poitiaa, Siia. Di cobnitBt 

oeniofWBi, FlormiiL , _ . 
' Pa«vi Suteica, p. >. 

* I turn collMFted iho itiitaiice* 
yu*. T. ». p. ..,9- 

* Thui miiit ba und'tfiMrd the vordi of J. O. Waltf*. Dt 
' Tti» EUiii'iiian ho* no irii." 4c. 

J. Bruce, Stitriu dm yirffca Jw 
««W{, p. ■> 


eyes to tEe rest of the faee, the diversities of which are all over 
the world so great and ao remarkable in individuals that it is 
little short of a miracle to find even two who cannot be distin- 
gaished from each other, and are, aa they say. cast in the same 
monld. Be^des it is certain that this difference of faces may be 
obser%ed not only in Europeans but also among barbarous na- 
tions'. Yet, however true all this may be, it ia not the less 
undoubtedly a fact that every different variety of mankind {and 
everywhere, even in the inhabitants of single provinces'^ all over 
Id has a racial face peculiar to each of them by which it 
ly be easily distinguished from the remaining varieties. 

Racial varieties of the/ace. I have made an attempt, 
aft«r assiduously comparing a quantity of prints of foreigner 
made for me from the life by skilled artists, and after seeing 
myself a great number of men in the markets which are prin- 
cipally frequented by foreigners, to reduce these racial vaiielics 
of the face into certain classes. And unless I am much mis- 
taken, although open to particular exceptions, still they will 
come close lo natural truth if they are reduced in the following 
way to five, as modeb and principal forms of the other diversi- 
ties of small moment: 

1st. Face oval, straight, the parts moderately marked. 
The forehead smooth. Nose narrow, slightly hooked, or at all 
events somewhat high. The jugal bones in no way prominent. 
Mouth small, hps {especially the lower) gently pronounced, 
Chin full, round. In general that kind of face, which, accord- 

' Tfaai OD the kboriginea of Ihs FrUndiy IsluidB th;it mmt (agwiious olwerriir, 
W. Amlenwn: "their [eMuraa are yerf vftrioui, in to mueh that it ii w«ra«lT 
poHible to &i on aoy genenl likeoeai by which to cbBractrriKe them, tiDteH it be 
a fuliieH at the point of the nose, which ii very commini. But, on the other huid, 
we met oilh bundretla of ti^l; Eurojiean faces, aad majij genuine Romnn nosa 
amongBt tbem," Conk'a last vaynge, Vol. t, p. 3S0. Othw ioatnnces of this kind 
Db«ar*ed amongit EthJopana and Americana will hn spoken nf bulnw. On the 
olber hand the nmiiarit; of individuaJ Buropeane with the EthiopianB ot Mon- 
golians IB ao common a« to liare passed into a proverb. 

■ On Ihia point Libaviu.', an aulhor by no meaoi to be de«pi»ed, <ayl two 
hundred yean ago: "The a«pe<:t of the Thuringiana ia one thing; that of tlie 
Smom another ; and that of the SneTi another, and nearly every village has it* 
own, Mthat it you chose tOBtudy the aubject, you could nearly teli a tniinV coontrj' 
l>y hia appeantnce." 


B of ijiiiiwlij. we tfcnk beeoMag a 
e Imd of face opMitirtB^ M it 1 
F I7 degiaaatka ■ 

, of «kM^ tkOMI&plMS« 

nrifllaB^ vUeh en bert be i&CiagnAed bwii«adh« 

For tkea otw of tbrae 1 
aad like r ei Da h i ntg parto mmk wbit ind 

her. la tbe other tbey ^ipwr deeper, «^ 

tm WKj. cot cNit, and, as it vcte, r« *y*«i"g ai^iilarij. llnK 
! to lixm the fcnr reinanDiig Taoetiee betides that I 
• type. 
I A. Oa« pair wiA lie fate dm&petf m widA:— 

SmL Face wide, at the same time flat and depressed; tbtf 
pwt^ tbenfiffe, indistiiKi and numii^ into ooe another. In* 
terqnoe between the eyes, or glabdla, nnootfa, veij wUqi 
Nose fla tte aed- Qieeka osoaU j roonded, projecting oatwafds 
Opening of the eyelids nanow, linear (yaue ftnAr). CXkU| 
Mmewbat pnininenL This i« the ooUDtesiaBoe common to th 
MtH^olian natirats (lis Fortor _^io0 from the common figure d 
speedi which we shall toach on below, ooafaandiiig the Tartui 
with the Hoi^olians). 

3nl Face also wide and cheeks promiDeot, iboogfa not flah 
or depressed, bat the parts when seen in profile more worked 
and. as it were, deeply cut oat. Forehead low. Eyes deeplf 
eoL Nose somewhat turned ap, bat promioeiit This is tba 
Eace of most Americans. 

R Pair of varUties 0/ the /ace donyaied bdow'. — 

Ith. yarrow face,prominent below. Forehead dtort,vrinMej 
Ej-es very promiDeut id Hevr-de-tfU). Nnee tfaidc 1 
confused with ihe extended cheeks {U nei ipaif). Lips (Gsp6> 
dally the upper) full and swelling. Jaw^ stretched out. Chin 
falling back. This is the Guinea face. 

6th. Face less narrow, somewhat prominent below, whes 
seen in profile the parts more projecting and distinct from e 
other. Nose full, somewhat broad, fis it were difiuse, end thidt 

takndMil I iBMtfMe to^Mkkereof Ite < 

r fa I 
b tbi* aaj ft ■ rnfaabk tfat i» tkeir ««t 

otherhi^rfthg— MtMsBotocwio'rfBWMl; mjtmma^ 
iMtMirr (d^pM Iij^ «fe uiBuipfei of &e piaw awl iwfeJ 

IB KJBB ewBiKriw «f ■Mrtki* Eotope (m the iiiibibIii Mm- 
dommafitcBi^i or caHtntiiMHd htxaij, in wUdl Ae aoAaad 
pflpfi i ntBl e OtsbcitBitB » aweh exed tlw wmadj and poveiM 

Bat oar ImwJim bi ii vtth the cBmes of the noBl ht». ^« 
ii^ tif Uie eosBteBBBce Haeif Bad the pcoportiiM aad <fireetiaB of 
tt> pBrt^ alflf which we kc to be pecolter aad dnnetaiHtK to 
the di flefcn t vmiietieB of mankiDil Tike mere iam nma ik. bow- 
erer, of theBS CBMei k orerwhelmed with sodi dtffiadtkB thai 
we CBD onlj feUow pnfaBble eoajectates. I am penaaded, 
mywe\t, that diniate ia the prindpal eaoBe of the lacial &oe, oa 
three gnnrnda aiperially; lat, we see the rBctal Eace so uiuT«r- 
aal in aasDe popolatiaiis under « particalar dunate, and alwars 
exactly the ante in men of di^rent dasses and modes ivf lif«. 
that H can acaredjr be referred to any other caase. Thece arc 
the Chineee^ for example, amongst whom a sort of fiattcncd (aoe 
iH jttstas dtaraicieristic a& a symmetric^ and particular heanly 
ifl oommon antongst as Eoropeans to the English and inhabit- 
ajitfi of Majorca'. 

2nd. Uuless^I am mistaken there are instancee of peoples 
who after they bare changed their localities and have migrated 

of lliia nod fsedoa and aathropoptuigoiw n 
b Cmmtn. and d' Andnds. 
dm Cw^mI 4€ It^t, T. in. p. m- 

Pottammt Btadaa^ di Cmman. and d' Andnds. 

■ lr«HM ■--■■-- — 


'here, in process of time have dtauged blso their origin^ 
of oounteoance for & new one, peculiar to the new climate. 
Thus the Yakutes have be«ti referred to a Tartar ori^n by most 
authors oa northem autiquities. Careful eye-witnesses assert 
that DOW their face is Mongolian, and I myself see it plainly la , 
the skull of a Takute, with which the munificence of Baron Tond 
A.sch has enriched my anthropological collection'. Something ] 
of the same kind will be observed below about the Americans of J 
either coldest zone (s. 88). I have already shown that the Creoles I 
sprung from Engliiili parents and ancestors in the AntUlett, bavA J 
finally exchanged to some extent the native British counbenancal 
for one more like the aborigines of America, and have acquired J 
their deep-set eyes and their more prominent cheeks'. 

Egyptv however, and India this dde the Ganges afford ucl 
the clearest exampUs of all. For as this peninsula has been,! 
frequently subdued by the most diHerent nations, because thft'^ 
first conquerors becoming effeminated by living in fiucb a soft 
climate were at last conquered by other and stronger northern 
nations who came after them, so also their appearance seems as 
it were to have accommodated iUelf to the new climate. In 
fact, we only know the racial aspect of the old possessors of 
India and their manifest characteristics from tlie most ancient 
works of Indian art, I mean those stupendous statues, whiob J 
are carved out in a wonderful way in the subterranean templeaJ 
of the islands of Salsette and Elephanta, wonderful copies of" 
which I saw at London, both in the British Museum, as amongst 
the antiquarian treasures of the polished C. Townley'. The 
more modem conquerors of India, that is, the Mongolians, have 
lost much of their original features under a new climate, and J 
approached nearer the Indian type, of which I have had ocular] 
experience from the Indian pictures shown me by John Wal 
a most learned man on Indian antiquity. 

As to the racial face of the ancient Egyptians, I am i 
surprised that some famous archaeologists, and those most lee 


1 art, liave been able to attribute one and the same 
mou countenance to all alike'; when a careful contempla- 
i comparison of these monumenta has easily taught me 
"^To distinguish three sorts of face amongst them. The first like 
the Ethiopian ; the second the Indian ; and the third, into which 
both of the others have by the progress of time and the effect of 
the specific and peculiar climate of Egypt degenerated, spongy 
and flaccid in apiiearance, with short chin, and somewhat pro- 
minent eyes', 

3rd. We see nations which ai'e reputed to be but colonies of 
one and the same stock have contracted in different climates 
different racial faces. Thus the Hungarians are couRidered to 
be of the same primitive stock as the Lapps", The latter living 
in the furthest North have acquired the face so peculiar to the 
most northern nations, whereas the former living in the tempe- 
rate zone, in the neighbourhood of Greece and Turkey, have 
gained a more elegant form of face. 

Every one knows that much in all these cases must be attri- 
buted to the marriages between different nations, and I myself 
intend soon to say something about their influence in changing 
the racial face. Stilt it seoms most probable that the influence 
of climate alone ia very great on this point, especially when wc 
add what was noticed above about the causes and ways in which 
^brute animals degenerate. 

^^m To find out the reason why one climate turns out this and 
^^^other that kind of racial face seems extremely difficult; yet 
^^Bost sagacious men have made the attempt when endeavouring 
to explain the face of different nations; as Kant upon the Mon- 
golian* and Volney upon the Ethiopian'. That accessorj- 

' WiDkeluium, Vacription da pierrel grarfa de SlofA. p. lo, and Blsewhate. 
D'HanokTvilla, Rrclirrdiei »ur I'origint <Ut arit de la Grirr, T(>m. I. p. 300. 

• I t&va uid more abnut thit triple character of tbe uicitnt ait of Ef^TptLui 
maDuments >d Philmoph, TVqtu. 1794, P. II. p. 191. 

• Cutnp. 01. Budbeck, Jun., Analogia lingua Pinnaniea «« Vvgarica, it the 
nid of Sjitcin. luu* lingua Gmhica, Upiwl. 1717, 4to, p. 77 ; and nmongit ntiitr 
nwnt Kriters, J. Usger, Ncvt Beueise dtr vcraandltc^mfl der i^UNj/nm nit dm 

pplSiuUm, Wim, 1794, 8ra. 

• In EngB\, PhiUmph. fBr dU WtU, T. 11. p. 146. 

• Yeygt m Syrie tt en E^plt, T. I, p. 74. " In fact T a?e tkit the fncc nf the 


caases sometimes endemical to peculiar climates, sucb ae 
slant clouds of gnats, may do something towards contracting the 
natural face of the inhabitants, may be gathered from the 
obaer\'ation of Dampier about the inhabitants of the south of 
New Holland'. 

I am not sure whether the opinion of oiir Leibnitz about 
similitude of nations to the indigenous animals of the cour 
ia to be interpreted as referring to the inHuence of climate on 
the conformation of man and brute animals alike ; as it seems 
that the Lapps recall the face of the bear, the Negroes of the 
ape, of which also the people of the extreme East likewiaa 

Besides the climate we find it stated that the kind of 
sometimes contributes to the racial form of face, as in 
instance of the Ethiopians, whose thick nose and swelling 
are always attributed to the way in which, whilst in 
infancy, they are generally carried on the backs of their moth) 
who give them suck whilst they pound millet, or during 
hard and heav)' tasks*. 


Negruea indicBtM eiutlj that state of cootnctiaii wbich Ktiea o 

luuoe, vbni it u struck bj the light &ad * strong reHectJou of btai. 

brow frowna : tie cheek bonM become elevitted, the ejelid cloees, the moiiUi I 

(unchod up. Cumot thU coatnution wluch ii perpctoKlly taking place in tb« I 

uiU wifDi country of the Kegroea, become ih» peculiu ebancteiiatio of t! 

' "Tbeir ejelida »re alwftfi }ukIf-olo«<l to pnTent the gn&ti getting into th^ 
ejea. Hence it hsppena, that being incommodal by these inaecta from tbdr 
infuicy, tbej never open tbeir eyei like other people." T. ii. p. 169. 

* Feller, Otiunt Ilanovtranum, p. ijo. 1 will add here, on aoconDl of Sl» 
rcaembluice of the argument, ■ paraa^ from Mandeo, lliilorg 0/ Suwtatra, p. 173 : 
" Some writer hiH remarked that a reBemblance is uaually (oond between Ute di*- 
poiitioti and quiditje* of the lieiats propor to any country, and thoH of the in- 
digenoni inhabitanta oE the hunum npeciea. wbere mi intereourae with foreignen 
liaa not deatroyrd the genuineneaa of tbeir character. The Malay may ba eompMvJ 
to the buffalo aod Che tiger. In his domeBtic stat^ he U indolent, stubboa, md 
Tolnptnoua aa the fonaer. and in his adventuroiu life, be is iniidioua, tdnod-thintf 
Bud rapacious aa the latter. Hiua the Arab ic aaid to resemble hi* eauel, and tha 
phwid Genloo bii oow." 

* Comp. besides many othera, Barbot in Cburehilli ColUclion of Foyagei, VoL ». 
p, 36. "The wiiea of the better sort of men being put to no auoh bjird Uboor as 
the meaner, it baa been observed that their children linve not i^nenUy such flat 
Diisea u the othen ; vhenoe it may be inferred that the noiea of these poor infanta 

-e flattened by Ik hig so long carried about on their mothcn' backs, becatise tbn 

nually beating on them when the n 

n uf their aima or bodka 



In various barbarous nations also, such 6s the Etliiopians', 

Brazilians', Caribs*, the Suniatrans*, and the inhabitants of 

Soriety Islands in the Southern Ocean', it is placed beyond 

doubt by the testimony of eye-witnesses most worthy of 

lit that considerable force is used to depress and, as it were, 

ibdue into shape the noses of the new-bom infants; although 

irhaps it is going too far in what they say about the bones of 

le noee being broken or dislocated in this way*. 

It is however scarcely necessaiy to recollect that the natural 

conformation of the nose can only be exa^erated by this 

%-iolent and long continued compression of the nose when soft, 

but can in no wise bo made thus originally, since it is well 

town that the racial face may be recognized even in abor- 


Knally, these hinds of racial face just like the colour of the 
ekin, become mingleti, and as it were mn together in the off- 
spring from the unions of different varieties of mankind, so that 
the children present a countenance which ia a mean between 
either parent. Hence the mixed appearance of the Mulattos; 
hence the progeny of the Cossacks' and the Kirghis* becomes 
^sensibly deformed by marriages with the Calmucks, whereas 
H^ offspring of the Nogay Tartars is rendered more beautiful 
^BliTOUgh unions with the Georgians*. 

^B The ancient Germans" gave formerly instances of the un- 
^Kdulterated countenance of nations unaffected by any union with 
^Rd; other nation, and to-day the genuine Zingari, inhabitants 

uijUiiog violent ; eapcdkll; vhed they ue beating or pnunding tboir millet every 
moniiag, trfaicb Ib th« cotiaUut t»k of tbe wonaeo of infenar rank." 

' Beiides > Tumt of other evidence see Report n/ tht LorrU of the Comnitttt <if 
CinaicU for the Corttideralion 0/ the Slavt Trade, 1780, foL P. 1. fol. 0. ib. 

' Lerr, Voyage en la lerre du Brftil, p. m, 98, 165. 

* De 1& BiyrdB, lUiatian da CarafAci, in the nnaUer caUeoUao □[ M. TheTeoot, 
Paru, 1674, 4to, p. 29. 

* HMidm, Batary of Sumalnx, p, jS. 

' J. R. Forator, flrawrtunjm auf finer riiie un dif WfU, pp. +81, S 16, 
' Comp. Kolbe, BtMckrtibitHg da vorgibtirga rftr gvltn BtfffnMng. p, 567. 
' J}ccat cranioram jinma, p. 18. 

* Dtrai craRioruni allera, p. 8. 

* PeyNiDnel, Svr U ammrrre dt lu. Mer Noirt, T. I. p, 177. 
'* Tioitui, Di norHnu GtmanoTum., c. 4. 

of TraDsylvani&' do the same ; and above all the nation of the 
Jews, who, under every climate, remain the same as far as the 
tundaroental configuration of face goes*, remarkable for a racial 
character almost universal, which can be distinguiahed at the 
first glance even by those little skilled in physiognomy, althoughi 
it is difficult to limit and express by words', J 

£8. Racial form of skulls. That there is an intimate rela^ 
tion between the external face and it^ osseous substratum is so 
manifest*, that even a blind man, if he has any idea of the vast 
difference by which the Mongolian face difiers from the Ethio- 
pian, can undoubtedly, by the mere touch, at once distinguish 
the skull of the Cahniick from that of the Negro. Kor would 
you persuade even tlie most ignorant person to bend over the 
head of one or other of them as he might over those after whose 
models the divine wurks of ancient Greece were sculptured. 
This, I say, is clear and evident so far as the general habit goes. 

Eut it might have been expected that a more careful anato- 
mical investigation of genuine skulls' of different nations would 
throw a good deal of light upon the study of the variety of man- 
kind; because when stripped of the soft and changeable parts 
they exhibit the firm and stable foundation of the head, and can 
be conveniently handled and examined, and considered under 
dififerent aspects and compared together. It is clear &om 
comparison of this kind that the forms of skuUa take all »ort« 

' Dfeat minwram altrra, p. 3. 

» Honce it i> gKnerally conaiJered u the highest proof of thn wt of th> Dnidi 
(Engraver, Bemh. Picart, tint in hi» woll knpnti work, Cirfnumies t( coHMnNf 
rtligiruia, bo hoe reprcKenteil an immense Dumber of Jown, atlat an tbe lineiuiientt 
oT tbe fkce go, each dilFerin^ from one aaotber, yet ail bearing tbe nci&l chancier, 
and most clearlj diatinguiahcd from the men intermingled with them of (ttjur 




■ The gteai tftiat Beoj. Weit, Prendent o( the Royal Acndeioy of Arti, « 
whom I conversed about tbe racial face ol the Jews, tbotigbt that it abine |i 
othen had oomethlitg pin-tioDlaiiy eoot-lika about it. which be waa of npinkn 1) 
Dot to much in thr hooked nose oa in the tnuuit and oonflax <rf tbe s ~ 
■eporates tbe noBtHIa Troui the middle of the u[iper lip. 

* Comp. Sir ThoB. Brown'a Diftvurtr 0/ tht StJHl^^■Ar<^t irnufoWTui in KorftJH, 
p.m. ij. TbieaagaoiouBauthnrwas the fint, oi far ae I know, who attended to As 
moiol lofm of the Ethiopian akull: "tt is hard to be deceived in the diatincUon of 

e for this obji 

icUon of 
ing on opiidoa upOB^i 


CAHPEB. 235 

: in uxlividuala, jtut as the colour of skins and other 
rarieties of the same kind, one ruiuuDg aa it were into the other 
by all sorts of shades, gradually and inseneiibly : but that still, in 
general, there is in tfaem a constancy of characteristics which 
cannot be denied, and is indeed remarkable, which has a great 
deal to do with the racial habit, and which answers most accu- 
rately to the nations and their peculiar physiognomy. That 
constancy has induced some eminent anatomists from the time 
of Andr. Spigel' to set up a certain rule of dimensions to which 
as to a scale the varieties of skulls might be referred and 
ranked; amongst which, above all others, the facial line of the 
iDgenious Camper deserves special mention'. 

59. Facial line of Camper. He imagined, on placing a 
skull in prohle, two right lines intersecting each other. The 
first was to be a horizontal line drawn through the estemal 
auditory meatus and the bottom of the nostrils. The second 
was to touch that part of the frontal bone above the nose, and 
then to be produced to the extreme alveolar limbus of the upper 
jaw. By the angle which the intersection of these two lines 
would make, this distinguished man thought that he could 
determine the difference of skulls as well in brute animals as in 
the different nations of mankind. 

60. Jiemark-i upon it But, if I am correct, this rule con- 
tains more than one error. First; what indeed is plain from 
those varieties of the racial face I was speaking of (s. 56), this 
universal facial line at the best can only be adapted to those 
varieties of mankind which differ from each other in the direc- 
tion of the jawa, but by no means to those who, in exactly the 
contrary way, are more remarkable for their lateral differences. 

Secondly: it very often happens that the skulls of the most 
different nations, who are separated as they say by the whole 
heaven from one another, have still one and the same direction 
of the facial line: and on the other hand many skulls of one and 
the same race, agreeing entirely with a common disposition, have 

' Dt corporU hitmani fatriea, ■D. vt. 17. 

• See Klanert Kktiftet, T. 1, P. 1. p. I£, snd NatvrgrttkiekU da Orang Man, 
pp. iSi, 1 1 1 ; lUid )ii> ■r|>*ratc book, UhtTdtnnaHrliehenitiiitnehitddrrjniehliillge. 

> TUiAr. Ml a—By. fhiiwf 111 I ir m Ae jktm 

to «Uik WkM A»Km thea, i^ apw vfckk 

fc Miia tfat heh iwwlf ii w i ert«w, Mdha iilrtw m Ae ^pli»^ 
tkaflftkcB. ~ 

6L Fa-fiarf makjm- iftiifiij ftg mc»at<A»«ter« yd 
The man my dufy expcnenoB and, as it were^ uy E 
ntk arf «wHw*Mn of ikidi of AftraU i 
wtaA Hm Bon iMiinMMB d»I&dit to radnoe time i 

ttOCOCT wiwMi Mini flIWBT BttOBS OOCST ID UW fVOpOrtiOll I 

I of tbe puts ot the inilj rasBT-fcnDed skoU, kll hav- 
i cr le» to do with the twdal cfaancter — to the nm- 
ti and aa^BB at aa; tn^te tale. That riew of the 
went wena tobepnfembto lor the diigitoeia lAiA b 
mta tog et h e r ai oae glanoe the most and 

tbe principdd parts best adapted fer a eoinpanscn oT i 
cfaarMtere. With this ol^ect I have found after manj e 
mentB that poEation answer be^ in which skoUs are seea 
ahore and from behind, placed in a row oq tbe same plane^ n 

't>aai^mm,Tiiiy J. 

: bones directed towards tlie same hoiizontal 'u 
jointly with the ioferior maxillHries. Then all that most nin- 
duces to the racial character of skulls, whether it he the direc- 
tion of the jaws, or the cheekbraies, the breadth or narrowness 
of the skull, the advancing or receding outline of the forehead, 
&c strikes tie eye so distinctly at one glance, that it is not out 
of the way to call that view the vertical scale {norma verti'calis). 
The meaning and use of this will easily be seen by an exami- 
nation of Plate III., which represents, by way of specimen, three 
skulls disposed in the order mentioned. The middle one (fig. 2) 
i& a very symmetrical and beautiful one of a Georgian female ; 
on either aide are two skulls differing from it in the most 
oppoMte way. The one (fig. 3) elongated in front, and as it 
were keeled, is that of an Ethiopian female of Guinea ; the 
other (fig. 4) dilated outwardly toward the sides, and as it were 
flattened, is that of a Reindeer Tungus. 

In the first, the margin of the orbits, the beautifully nar- 
rowed malar bones, and the mandibles themselves under the ' 
bones, are concealed by the periphery of the moderately ex- 
panded forehead; in the second, the maxillary bones are com- 
pressed laterally, and project ; and in the third, the malar bones, 
placed in nearly the same horizontal plane with the Ultle bones 
of the nose and the glabella, project enormously, and rise on 
each side. 

62. Racial varieties of skulls. All the diversities in the 
skidls of different nations, just like those of the racial face we 
enumerated above, seem capable of reduction also to five prin- 
cipal varieties ; of which specimens selected out of many are 
exhibited in Plate rv. 

^1. That in the middle is beautifully symmetrical, some- 
kat globular; the forehead moderately expanded, the maleir 
nefl somewhat narrow, nowhere projecting, sloping down 
hind from the malar procep-s of the frontal bone ; the alveolar 
ridge somewhat round; the primary teeth of each jaw perpen- 
dicular. As a specimen (Plate iv. fig. 3) I have given a moat 
lutiful skull of a Georgian female. This beautiful furm of 
B between two extremes ; of which one hivs 

HM t» Ac Sq^BMk M (PUte IV. % q 
i fint and those two c 

4i TlMtwidi hwJer «fc wfa bwt anre irAed Mid r 
dm in Ibe MoogofiM noetT' ■»« •> in tin sbetdted out c 
eacfandeMMlai^iibr; the orlitts geMnDrdwp; the form t 
the fmebead sad Tertex fretiaentlr aitificxftDy distorted ; 
»koll naoallyl^t- Thia is the Americwi Tarietr. PL rr, fig. ! 
is the bead of a Carib diief from the ishmd of St Viocent 

&. The calraria moderately nurowed ; forehead slightl]^! 
Bwellii^ ; cheek haaes by no meaiw psomineDt ; upper jawbon* ' 
somewhat prominent; the parietal booes exteuding laterally. 
Common to the Malay race throughout the Southern Ocean. 
A Hpeciraen in PL rv. fig. 4, the ekull of an Otaheitan. This 
ldal form of the skull is ao universally constant that it ma/ J 
i obiiorveil even in the BknlU of young in&nts. Thus I po»4 
■ the fkull of a Bur&t infant' with very manifest Mongt^ia 
chanvctprs ; and another of a newly-boni Negro' ae maaifiB 

pr:-pn t.j th^ 'Xb^r *>lyi {nru ; sdll it is td-^-i' 

jitii mini 111 ■■il|ihjiiiitin^ii il i ■[iiiiiiiiiili il 

liable ti j perpetual mvtatioBS tkaa (be soA p&r 

<'-- ':•=«, ■hfawi^ iMfwnwptiTiI:. 

n ~i<d FGflnx ^ BBu nvsa tocrt ' 

-: an^ deponted in tbeir ; 

^ thkooittm 

La perprtaaOygoii . 

_ ' .iiti, and are to no 

1 — -. ^ —-:.- ^— ^^Iv erident tnm the ooafigontisa «f 

tbe ikuU to adrsneed ags. iW them the intevnal bna «f tha 
skaD gtrea; m h weie. a sort of cut of tbe lobw aad cobvoIb- 

tioM of tbe favam to whicfa tt was IhtML Tbe extenor c bbo o — 
face gives tmnuitakeable loarks ae veil of tbe actioa of tbe 
isnadn as of tbe whole ooantenance. whose geoeral i4^>eanuioe 
aad diazacter may very easily be divioed from tbe skaU when 
stripped of flesh. So, if it ia trae, and it seems very true indeed, 
that the iafloenee of eiimate oo the racial face is great, it is 
at once dear that the same caoae must have a great thot^ an 
indirect share in focmiiig the racial character of the skull, 
cepeciaUy as regmnls tbe booes of the boe itsdf 

Besidea this principal caose, it aeems to me very {^obable 
that o^CTB alao are aooessory, as the rioleat and long-continued 
preanire, to baring an effect apon these facial bones. My col- 
lection rejoices, owing to the liberality of the illustrious Banks, 
in the very rare skull of a New Hoilander' from the neighbour- 
hood of Botany Bay, conspicuous beyond all others for the 
singular smoothness of the upper jaw, where the upper teeth 
and the canines are inserted But it is now known that those 
bubarians have a paradoxical custom of perforating the septum 

> Dtra* UHia, Tkb. 17. 

Brt h« ■milwiii — Mm^ hmit to the Be^aiM. 

Ham alnthe wild 
as New Mexioa mw nmmkaiiB far b>vng dep 

whkfa tfa« 'abmt* wrtwrt Inm thEv kw poaboa » ti 

in -wixk llM*r Wad smJ tba weight at thor wfaofe ] 

RpoBOi iiauM wMy b a aMall big illed wHli and'. As I 

otLCT artificei^ nd> aa the pnaaore of dw hands, and iher 

tian of the heMl of aew^-hofB ■■^'■^t br bands or other il 

Mntments into some nasi fana, ther, it ia ««U known. 1 

been in ase eqnsUj smoogst the a 

to-day, unangst oiusetns as in the Esost renote j 


ii«MSM kki^of o^fa, wha« ha 
hooMtal padtHB;-kii bad Wwh Uck bite > bain, 
it, >Wn be btara Ifa diicf part •( b inMA •> ik^ 
^d b^ of MBd. >illHiat Ui^ ■ )1« ta« >Ut 
■n^ iMl Ikair tkM lilliM^ Ik* en 
Ikdr baa* tUi^ wrf tUr (MM h«a4.' 
■ "Tban^Bwtddi tbs Atbaro 
■dta*; veHnMhsTe tboa BodcllBd f 
br rtJ-T-rhiT- — •'^ Ckiiba MM Ban 
Kaawii, £>a^ T. L p. m. 19. 


find it stated that solemn rit<:3 of tins kind take 
place even now, or at all events did recently among the inha- 
Iiitants of some provinces of Germany', as well as amongst the 
Belgians*, the Gauls', some of the Italians', the islanders of the 
Grecian archipelago', the Turks', the ancient Sigynnea', and the 
Macruoepitali on the Euxine sea°, the Sumatrans^ of to-day, 
and the Nicobais"', but especially amongst di£ferent people of 
America, such as the inhabitants of Nootka Sound", the Shac- 
tas", an indigenous race of Georgia, the Waxsaws of Carolina", 
the Caribs", the Peruvians", and the free Ethiopians of the 
Antilles". Strange to say there have been lately some authors 
who have dared to throw doubts upon the whole of this arti- 
ficial habit of moulding the heads of infanta". Yet it is a 
thing proved by the unanimous testimony of many eyc-wit- 
frou which a name has been given to several nations 

^^ « On 

On the Varisoi of to-dny, mq J. C. G. AckTmimn in Riliiinger, iV"nin« 
Magasiiifij' Arrstt. T. n. p. fo6. On the Eiunliu igbukoi) of liu <tsy, wa Lniirma- 
ben, Piuioimiilt, p. fij. 

' Kpipil, Oe Hmmiau Carporit PiJirim. p. 17. 

* On Uie PMMiiiia, bm Audry, ikUiopfil'K, T. n. p. j. 

* On the Genoese, nee Vemlius, Dr Carp. lima. PaMca, p. m, JJ. S|>i){el, I.e. 
' My dear old pupil, Phititex, M, D. of Epiriu, an eje-wiUicss, told me pur- 

Hnally about tbe Cbiiiilfl. 

* B»ion da Asch infonncd me in n letter dated the loth July, 17SS, that tha 
roidwiven nf ConHtaulJDople geacnMy uu(ulrH of the molber, after tbo biitii, what 
fiirm (he would like to hare ^vcn to the head of tho nuwly-lHim inFarit i and tliat 
the Asiaticfl prefer that, wbiob if* produeeil bj a bandage paaeed over the fortbuad 

Bcrvmugi l&ey ui 
no, PL J. 

' SInbn, 1. n. p. 358, ed. Caaaub. 
■ Bippocratea, Dt lurihut, aquii, et Ukim, ed. Charter. T. vi. p. 106. 

* MATsden, HUt. of Sumatra, p, i». 
'" Niu. Fontona in Aiiaiic RatanJiet, Vul. ni. p. tji. 
'' Mekmi* Vin/affa, p. 149. 

'* Ailair. I. e. pp. 8, 184. Comp. Dtem Oranionim /irivta, PI. 9. 

■* Lawma'a Hitl'iry of Carolina, p. 33. . 

^' Oriedo, Hitloria Ommd dt ha IwUia, Sovilla, ls3S, fnl. p. ij6. Raviuimd 

■n, Dirtioamtirt Caraibe-Ftan^U, Auxerre, 1665, Bvo, pp. 5R. 91. i.|f. 1K9. 

I. Decat Vfamiorvm jirima, PL 10, and the platui appended to Ibia worit, PL 
.1. s. Iktat teeunda, PL 10. 

' Torqaemadu, Manarehia lWia»o, SorilL r6i.^, fol. T. in. p. 6ij. De 
a, R^adon del rittge para medir atf/unnt ffnuiia dt intriiUaiu), Madr. 1 74S, foL 

r. p. S33. 

" '^l^baull de Chanvalon, Voyiuir il In ifarlU'"i"r, p. fi). 
" See Uallvr, Catiiper, Babativr, t:p, 



both of North' an>J Siiuth' Amerio. Two hu&dred re 
ire know it was foiinddeo to tbe faarbariatui of the new world 
by the coancila of the Spanish etewgw*. We have the particular 
points of each method most aiccantelv described, and the 
machines uid bands* br which tbej impress apon the flexible 
io&nt calruia a form they like throogh a daily cootinuons 
and imiform preflsttre kept op for many years. And Goally, the 
heads of these very barbarians, tdiich have been broogfat (a 
Europe and long dnce represented in jmnl^*. exactly bimI b$ 
every point answer to all these things. AJthongli however thd 
&ict itself ia beyond all doubt, still there U some question aboi 
what we read has ohea been asserted from tbe timea of Hi] 
pocrates, that peodiar forms of the skull of this sort, thous 
formed first on purpose and by artifice, when tliey have been kei 
up and repeated for a long series of generations, become at 
in process of time to t>e a sort of hereditary prerogative aod! 
congenital, and finally a second nature. There is to be foun^' 
in that golden little treatise of Hippocrates On Air, Water, and 
Soil, a celebrated passage about the Macrocephali, a natjoit' 
living near the Euxiae sea, alxiut whom he speaks first and 
almost chiefly, because no other nation at all was known to 
have heads like theirs. He says, that in the beginning custom 
was the reason of their having such long heads, but thi 

' " The un>« nf Omftgius io Uia Penivua Unguage, like tlut of C«mbcn% 
wliich ia givra theiD bj ibe Portiignefie of Pua. in tbe BraiilUn, meiuia FUt>Le>d ; 
in fKt, theae people tuie the ftrftnge custoia of ptesiing the heads of their diil-' — 
M aooD u thej itrii botn between two planke, and of uusin); thetn to taki 
■tnuigp shape which is the reiult, to make them more like the full tnoon, u 
uy." Di-U Condiiinine in Mfin, dt CAnid. da Scitnca dt Farit, 17+5. p. 4*7, 

' Eullet-hendi und Flal-howi», Comp. Charlevuii, HUtain r"- ' " 
Fmna. T. lu, pp. 1B7, 313. 

* Jo«, Ssanz tie Aguiire, Caltietio max. cimci!. omnium llapanii 
■<]. 1, Rom. IJ5S, foL 'f-"- P- '04. "l""" in the historj of the hjiichI of tb* 
third diooeso of Lima. July 17, IjSs, i» the deoree th&t tbe Indians am nal la 
■bape UiB heads of their children io moulds. " Being deairous entirelj- to extirpala 
tbe abuK and napentitioli uudec which the IdiHaii* everywhere impreaa oprtaJa 
thapM on the heada of their children, nhlch they theinuilveB eall Catlo, C^a 
Qfolla, wo order and enjuin," *o. various puniahmenti for the delinooenta. m 
that a woman who hu done so "shall attend the instruction tor 
days, momiiig and evening, for theGrst offince : for the second, twenty," Ac 

* Comp. the carcrul pictures of the bands of tbis sort mads use of hj the Caribf 
in Jnamaldf {'hpl'iii*, Aug. r;9i. p. 13a. 

' [11 JVifiii. rfr I'Arnd. dri *- d' Pnrit. 1740, PI. 16, fig. 1. 

!rwards nature had acted in concert with custom. It was 
thought the most honourable thing among the Uacroccphali 
to have the head as long as possible. This was the begianing 
of the custom ; when an infant of theirs was just born, its 
head being like wax, or wet and soft clay, they pinched it 
as sooQ as possible with their hands, and modulated it so as to . 
compel it to increase in length, and besides, confined it with 
bands, and tied it round with proper contrivances, so as to 
prevent the head becoming round and make it iucrease in 
length. This custom had at length effected the production of 
heads of this kind, and in process of time they had been pro- 
duced naturally, so that it was no longer necessary to use this 
custom for that purpose. The old man of Cos endeavours to ex- 
plain the cause of this singrdar phenomenon by his celebrated 
hypothesis of generation, which is not very different from that 
nf Buffou : his idea was that the genital liquid proceeded and was 
as it were elaborated from all the members of the body; and bo 
the forms of the parts, of which moulds, so to speak, were thus 
taken, conduced to the formation of the fojtus. Hence it hap- 
pened that bald men produced bald children ; grey men, grey; 
and macrocephali, long-headed. Something of the same kind 
has been lately reported of other nations, the Peruvians' and 
Genoese' for example. I leave this matter however in the 
abstract just as it is, and shall only refer to what I said above 
(s. 39) on the occasion of other similar phenomena. 

64. Some racial varieties of dentition, and their causes. 
varieties of teeth generally closely accompany the forms 

skulls, as has been observed in some nations. Thus, as long 
as 1779, I observed a singular anomaly of the primary 

ith both in the fragment of & mammified Egj'ptlan, as in the 
entire skull of a mummy'; for the coronse are not shaped for 
incision, or fiimished with a delicate edge, but are thick and like 
truncated cones, and the coronse of the canines cannot be dis- 

' On Lhe iobkbiUTtti of the prnvinos of Pari 
^ari'late, T. tiT. p. i6i, «d. Sponn, 

' J. C. Sciliger, Commrul. in Thnphr. dt d 
' Dtral Cranuyrtan prima, PI. i. 

1 Vecohio see Cuduiai. De Reratn 

tinguubed from their nd^boon exoqitiiig hf pontum. 
flune Mfignk*- oonfimutkK haa been natjced alao in < 
manLnuea ; as in a mommj at OuDbrid^*, cud OumI* ; 
tbiiig of U>e same kind abo at Stottgard* : and 1 1117KIC * 
1 was in London two yean agc^ foimd exaetlj tlw t 
iae^an in a jsxmg mttmmr, wluc}i its poneasor, J. Sjnunotia^ 
▼eiy kindly allowed me tu unrol'. Altbongfa it n eauceij neeea- 
aaiy to observe that doiii^ racfa a secies of ages as the cnsUm J 
td preaenring ooqnee pi«Tailed in Egypt, and under the 1 
sitodes of the lords of ha gcnI and its inhalntant^ a Teiy g 
diversity rnnrt necesaanly be ftrand between 1 
their skulls, and that no sane pereon oonld ever expeet to fiu 
in ail mammies the same eztiaordinaiy fimn of teeth I 1 
qiealdi^ of. The variety is however remarkable and pethafs 
may sometimes be of utili^ as a distinctive chaiader, by which 
the mummieB of ooe age oat nee may be distitigui&hed frvm 
those of another. It would be difficult to discover the caiues of 
this pecoliar cuofonnation : but it seems vety likely that it is iu 
great part to be attributed to the ki»d of diet, which we am 
expressly told by Diodoms Sicnlus, wa« of a rustic sort a 
the ancieut Egyptians, and consisted of cabbages and 1 
Heace the teeth became much worn ; and when teeth 1 
worn or flattened purposely it has been obsened that t 
increase in thickness, iu the case botli of mcu* and brutes^ 
Considerable weight is added to this coujecture &om the o 
vatiou of Wioslow^ who noticed a similar remarkable thidtnei 
of the iDcisorB, and the like similarity to the molars, in the a 
of a Greenlander taken from the Island of Dogs*, and attributed ' 

> Middktnii, ifuBummla Antiquilatit. Open, T. IT. p. [;o. 
arv itill round firmlj ufbermg to the nppcr jaw; whmt hovrevrr 
Dtay be cntuiileml aliDOM » liotHgj, ■■ that tbe aDterinr inoiaofs ai 
Mbwled (or cuttiiig, bm an Irroad and flat, jiut like the molaia." 

* Comp. the aooonnt by BrickmaBii, tha head phjnmaa «f Brmmrick, «( H 
mDmmf. BnuuniEk, 1781.1(0. 

■ StoTT, Pndr. mtlKodi MammiUiawi. Tuldng. (780, 4to, p. 14- 

* PhUi*>ph. Tnuu. (;9+, Part it. p. 184. 
' Itircli* Jiubrry uf On RoyU Soattf, T. iv. il i. 

* On tha tiiwy tuaks of el■;1lhBub^ wi 

' Mtm. df TAaid- da Sc. <lf Pmn. 1711, 

* /{uBill-sI«"<l ■• This !, lyiiig in Didio Steail od the WMt rf •< 


bto the fact that thoee barlmrians live on raw fleHh'. Tlim 
servatton is also supported by thick and wonderfully 
1 teeth in two E8i|iiimaux ukulls which have lately cmne to 
me from the colony of Nain in Labrador'. It is well known 
that the Esquimaux and the Greenlanders belong to one and 
the same stock, and their rarial name is commonly derived from 
their habit of eating raw flesh. What several aiithors have 
related about the teeth of the Calmiieks', that they are very 
long and separated by large interetices, I find at hwt has been 
taken originally, and then not quite accurately, from the ac- 
count of Yvo, a priest of Narbonne, originally written in 1243, 
and afterwards garbled by many, nor does it agree with the 
modem Mongolian skulls which I now have in my collection. 
Finally, other racial peculiarities of the teeth are due eicclu- 
fiively to artifice, as in some groups of negroes who by filing their 
teeth sharpen them like aaws* ; or, as in some Malay nations, who 
remove a great part of the enamel of the teeth', or cut furrows 

aH good geoijniphioiJ 
of tbiil oouotrj from the Ume of ZorgJnifer, that 1 rauot oonfe» 

Greenland, u bo well known, and «o clearlj laid doi 
in(i|M of tbiil oouotrj froln the Un ' ~ ' 
UDilentaud what Cunper meiuit 

far u to »ccuMe Wioekiw d 

.^_ , _.. . ording to Hiibner'n j^ogmjiliy, in wbicli fucsooth 

thn IbIuiiI of Dog! u relegated to tlie PaL-iDc Oceiui under the tropin of C&priconi. 
Did be not know that this aoutliem inlaud was duscrilwd by itc dianivercr Schouten 
in i6i6, ID bia well-known joutnej, aa being altogether uninhabited, and, to !sr ai 
I know, fram that time forth ucTer Tinted again by any Europeanl Wborea* 
that noTthem land from which Wiiisluw received bis ikull i» Ereiiuented by numbor. 
tens Europettna engagrd in the whaie-Gebery," 

' "Tlia inciaon are ahort," Bays Wiiulow, "targe behind and flat, itiBtantl ot 
being qotUnu, and are more Ukt raolara thai, iiidiora. M. lliuofco (the finder of 
the «kull) tella me that the inhaliitanta of thM i«l>nd eat Snah cjaite raw. They 
Baku many extrsardinarymoTenienti with the jaw, and auuty gnmacea in ohewmg 
and FWallowin;,'. It was ofaiefly the sight of lliis whiah induced M. Biecke to look 
for thocorparaof theie islanders to aee it their jawi and their teeth h d any peculiar 

' Comp. Buffon, Erxleben, Ao. 

* Van Llachoten, Sctipi-aert natr Oott, Part i. p. m. 6o. Von der GrJibmi, 
OniiHifi-Jie JtanebatArrilmng.jip. .11, 94. Bnrbotin Ch(irchitr»Co//ec(uwiY Vos/aga, 
VoL V. pp. 139, 143, jRj. Scbotte in PkHoiopk. Tram. Vol. LXXIU. Part I. p. yi. 
Rrport 0} Ihi LonU of ike Committee of Cnncil for Ihe amtideratioa of tkt Start 
Trade, fola. L and M. 

' I am (U'priaed that some fampaa authors, as Bemer and Niehuhr, have taken 
thie artificial Jefonnatiiin of the teeth for a natarsT diaposition. Sec ESnier, 
Efterrrtimj am Kyttat Ouinea, p. jr. Xiubiihr, Diu. in Dealtdit Mmrum, 17S;, 
Part L p. 415, 

• On the Philippinn of Mnginda, Bee Fon'est, Y'lyni/t (o New llainta, p. 33;. 
On the Sumatrana, Manden, p. 41^. 

246 EAH3. 

in it', &c. I have seeu soniethiug of tlie same kiuJ myself itt 
some Chinese from Java, who had carefully and r^ularlj 
destroyed with a wlietstone the same substance from the ex* 
tremity of the primary teeth. 

65. Some other racial varieties in respect to particular pa\ 
of Ote body. Thus far we have investigated the chief varieties 
of different nations, which ai-e observable either in their colour 
(as that of their skin, hair, or eyes) or in their countenance and 
form of the skull. Some few things still remain to be observed 
respecting other parts of the body, which although certainly 
less importance can by no means be passed over unnoticed, ano 
80 I may say a little of each of them in a few words. AnSi. 
although it would he impossible to explain with equal cleami 
the causes and reasons of them all, still there is nothing so sin* 
gular or so enigmatical but what may be rendered more easy 
comprehension by comparing with analogous phenomena su< 
observations as we have compiled in the section above on tl 
brute animals. 

66. Ears. It is known to antiquarians that many of the ido^ 
of ancient Egypt, both of bronze and pottery, or those cut o 
of different kinds of stones or sycamore wood, and finally tho 
painted on the sarcophagi, are remarkable for having the ea 
too high up. A recent author* has summarily been pleased 
attribute this to the tault of the artists, unskilled in the art 
drawing. But I cannot quite give my adhesion to this view, 
because of the elaborate art and taste with which I see many i 
them are executed, and also because I have observed it partici 
larly in those which have an Indian cast of countenance"; and 
similar collocation is to be found in genuine pictures of 
which have been executed with the greatest care. Altogetbi 
however this diversity is no greater than what we see everj 
where in varieties of domestic animals, especially in horses at 
pigs, in the position and coUocation of the ears, especially mat 
much as, if we take ii^ consideration in these same Egyptiai 

' Oil the Jnnnese, Hawkeaworth, Vo!. m. p. 349. 

' JUrhirriia Fhiliaopkiqtut iur la Ei/yplirtit, T. I. p. »11. 

' Trant. i~^f, Part U. p. lyi, Plflte 16, fig. 3. 

UEAST5. 347 

of tbe i^Ktlure uf {be erelkls. from 
flf the aon toviidB tbe can, we akaD find thu tbe 
of Ae ens depeods np<m the way in wbiefa tbe bnd 
earned, the oedpot beii^ elerat«d, and tbe dun defvessed. 
We find abo, luyt onlr from pwaagee in tbe aacieot aatlkon. bat 
also fitini andent represeotataoDS, that the ears of the aboiyginal 
Batarians were remarkable tor their form and podtioti'. So 
also tbe ears of tbe Bucajwis were remarkable for their dze*. 

It is well koovB that ia baitiaroas nations the ears oAea 
stand out a good deal from the head. And are moreable ; artd in 
many raoei, eapectalljr of tbe East Indies and the Pacific Oceso, 
the lobe of the ear is enlarged and prodigioosly elongated by 
Tiirious srfifioes. This absurd cu^om baa no doubt given rise 
to the exaggerated stories of ancient writers about the enormous 
ean of certain races. 

67- Bitaxtg. There is a cloud of witnesses to prove that the 
breaats of the females in some nations, especially of Afrii'a' and 
some Islands of the Pacific Ocean*, are very long and pendulous. 
Meanwhile I most observe first, that their proportions have 
been exaggerated beyond the truth ; and also that this conform- 
is not common to all the women of tbe same race. Even 
the Islands of the Southern Ocean* many women, and also 
ly Ethiopians* every day in the European markets, are to be 


' Bmetiai bu tna» ilrairi: 
Ckouegteter. Dr BriUmtutyii, ilatribiu BriU'i, kc' p. I . . 

■ tiee CotiDttH d'Aunoy, Rr/alion da Vofoi/t tfEipagnt, T. I. p. m. IJ. DJela 
ID hii DDtet to Paentc, itrii du-trK Spiuiiat, T. n. p. 171, liiulkate* the ■utboncy 
o( ttda dewrving itork. 

* Cinop. kboDt tbe Ethmpuuii, Fomia, Sitr FEcnttomU Anitaalt, T. t. p. 11;, 
About the UotlentoU, KoUh, p. 474. 

* Sm the idubiunta of Horn ItUiuI in Scboaten ia Dslrymple'a CoUtctxan, 
VoL n. p. 58. 

* See the xnertioD et Townon io HkVlujrt'a CoHtetion, T. n. p. 16. about tbe 
mgroe* of the Iile of 8t Vincent, " DiTen of tbe women ha*e such eiconJb|; 
long breuta, that vome of them will Uj the suoa upon the groand ud lie dovne 
hj cbero." And of Bruce, about the breaetn of tbe Sbangalla, which in loma of 
them hang down aLnoat to tbe knees. Rrwe nach dot QiK^frn da Sil*, T, II. p. 
546. Kor have I any greater fiith in the elory oF Mentnl about tbe tobacco. 
pouchea made out of the breaau of Hottentot women, and sold in great quantity at 
the Cape of Good Hope. BtiehmbMng dn Verpbirge drr ffulm Hoffnung, T. It. 
p. S64. 

* J. R. Fonter. Btmriunjm, Jtc. p. 14:, 

seen, who nre rem&i-kable for the extreme beauty of tbeil 
breiists. Besi(lt;», this excessive siae is bj no means peculiar 
barliarous nutions alune, bat bsa been observett frequently 
Europeans, as amongst the Irisb', and up to this du; amoi 
the Morlactiians*. It seems the ptincipal re^ou is to be looki 
for in the way the mother gives suck to the mfaut attached 
its back, and partly because lactation is kept up long, som 
for yeara And we read too that the breasts are often 
ctally elongated amongst nations, who reckon that feature 

Other nations are conspicuous for the size and turgesc^ioei 
the breastti, like tlie E^-yptians. Juvenal long ago siuJ, 

"Or bruat* M Meroe big aa gouduEed babo*." 
Bsifspeakingof atbingcommonand well known to all And ta 
only the women, but also the men in Egypt, are said to be 
large-breasted*. Amongst European nations the Portngni 
women have very large breasts', whilst those of the Spanish 
the contrary are thin and small; and in the last century es] 
ally they took piuns to compress them and obstruct tbeil 
growth*. That by taking pains the circumference of the bi 
can be incr^sed is indubitable. How far, moreover, precocd( 
vonery may operate in that direction is shown by the remark- 
able instances amongst the immature and girlish prostitutes who 
flock to London, especially from tlie neighbouring suburbs, and 
offering themselves for hire, wander about the streets by 
in great numbers. 


' Utligow'g Bare AdimlvTa and PaimfuU Pertgrnatiot*, p. ni. 433. 
in IrcUnd'i North pitrtu womtQ tnvnyliug tho wsv, or toyMg at hom^ 1 iiij 
thar infants about their ncckm, aniJ laying the (luggES Brer umir ■hoDlJsra, irouU 
g!ve aucke to the babe« behitiile tLeir hackes. without takhig tbem in their arem; 
■uch kind of breutg, me thinkath, wan vurjr Bt, lo be made moDej bag* for Eiai 
or \T«1 Indiiui merchuitB, beiu); more thoD bnife a yftnj Inn^, iui<l « wsU wtquj^j 
u uij luioBT. in the like obsi^, conM e«er molliSe Buob leather." 

' Fortis, i'iagyio in Dalvaoa, T. 1. p. 8 1 . 

' On the inhabitiuits of the oout of Western A.Mai, between the 
r Bnd the river Sen^al, «a CBdiimeato in Ramiuio, T, I. p. m. too. 
, i'4/"V™ '' f* pntplt Afrieaiu, Pari*, 1 J89, 8vo, p. 45. " In 
the young girls study to nuJtn their hreula ilcpvnJ, in order dial the} tn 
thought women, luul treated with mure respect." 

* Alpinut HUluria A'ofurott* ^ijgpii, T. i. ji. 14. 
' I huve thi" from Abililyiuml, jiwt returned from a inumev in PortiuriJ, 

• CouiiU-ss J-Aouoy, (. t. T. XI. p. I18. 



Genitals. Linnazua says in the prolegomena of his Sys- 
I Xatiirw, "that a too minute inspection of the genitals is 
wroinable and disagreeable," It is evident however by the 
termlDology of his conchylla that in process of time he came to 
think otherwifle, and above all we find it so from the Venm 
Dione, depicted by him in a sufficiently licentious meta- 
phorical style. The shade therefore of this illustrious raan 
will no doubt pardon me if I enumerate here shortly what 
seem to rae worthy of mention about some racial varieties of 
the genitals. 

It is generally said that the penis in the Negro is very large. 
And this assertion is so far borne out by the remarkable geni- 
tory apparatus of an jEthiopian which I have in my anatomical 
collection. Whether this prerogative be constant and peculiar 
to the nation I do not know'. It is aaid that women when 
eager for venery prefer the embraces of Negroes to those of 
other men'. On the other hand, that Ethiopian' and Mulatto' 
women are particularly sought out by Europeans. The cause of 
this preference may be various, but I do not know what it is. 
Perhaps they resemble the Mongolian' women and those of 
eome American tribes", about whom we are told that the muli- 
ebria remain small, not only after marriage but even after child- 
bearing. Stelier' attributes the contrary character to the 
pudenda of the Kamtschadales. He also says that many of them 
are remarkable for long and protruding nymphse; which some 
say in Hottentot women come to be appendages like fingers'. 
But this ainvs pudoiHi, as Linnaeus called it, seems rather to 

' The ume «« aaid of the nnrtliern Bcntch, wlia do not wear Iriwarn, by 
Fiiost, Wit de QathlrchMriiA dcT Maitrhat in Ordnng m brlngcn, p. 57. I biivo 
■howD homner on tlie weightiest testimony tlint this aiuertiiin u incorrect, iu 
MtdieiftUcit BiUiothic T. m. p. .413. 

' Siw, Ottinditcht Krirgndiaulg, p. m. 45. 

* Chiiiivaloii, Tnyn^ (i la Martiaiqut, p. 61, SparrmMin, Itciie natk dem Yor- 
yt/wryr dfr ■i«U„ ll«gn-n-j, p. 71. 

' Lit Wtrh'i r.ii: Vf. V. Fooquenbrsoh, T. it. p. 411. 

' C.ori;i, Hirrliriilmnn oiler Nationm drt R'lulir&ai Reirht, Part IL p. ijo, 

' V'eijjutel, Licltra a Lmtnta dt' Mtdiei, p. 1 to, «1. Baudiiu. RiolMii fiL An- 

', wtiicb is aaiil 

a faukdle for that rtoir 

aBlhors have tboi^t 

the podeDdaof 

Xofs. Some dtfleteoee in the proportkiQ and ^»{Kar- 
•Bee of the kgs is fcmntB to exist id eatain nati on* Thus the 
Indiaiis are wmaitalih far the kagth at thetr legs*, the Mongo- 
liaafi OB the other hand far kfaeir alHrtaeaB*. The Irish women 
are said lo hare rery hcge thi^'. Ihe l^s of the Xew Zea- 
hMfasare »o thiAaa to^ipeMarirMstoiis*. Others tell us that 
Ibeae antipodes of onis hare those ante kgs cn^ked and de- 
fonned, and that sach erfli are ooatneted from the pontion in 
which tbej Bsoallf sit '. Bendj begs howero- are rery oomnioa 
•nougat the (^faniicki^ and are ascribed as wdl to the kind <rf' 
aadles their chiUreti haTc, as to the bet that they are aaei»- 
tomed to be on hoiaeback from tnder Tonth". The feet of the 
Tiena del Fu^ians", lAo are called by De BoogainTiUe" Ptt- 
dteras, are described as being remarkahtr de&cmed. 

That the popoUtioas of Africa, bowem. ace thijee in which 
defotnuties of the legs and feet are lacial. has been noticed fay 
the ancients, espeoally in the case of the Egyptians", the Elfai- 

* Bnkanvtk'i CWfcrtiM, T. n). fL m. jS& I *^ la Ik lb«alitT rf Sr 
Jm. BhakM oM^AMiMtar tka &n*rBriM« tdM boa wlB* M Ik 0*p* <r 
GMd Bm«. la «m </ tk<B Ike bkw «• m> aliMMMal tkM tkn ■ 
iw^^ Ml ■ klf irtiai Imil mtumri 

•SM*priui>^TnM. riPV "—«-«■ T 

<rM«, M ivvn t^ 
nfianvcai. £MB 

W nftfnd M the Ml 
Ofcr. T. U.T. p. a. ii*. 

• T*i> " iliii !■■! in iUttfcf FM*s JfoanB JTi^, al Wata. p. 53a. 
' Twin' fWr m /nd aa J . p. w. 

■ Mb— cwa ■ Je k B.«fe tfW« A h Ifa- rf- 5aJ; T. P. p. Iff. 

• a Ttautt Tf^ fwW tk r<rW. TA iL p. ,8a. 

■• Palh*^ Fdhr ^ Mwmmii^tm FiUhrMfti^Aa. T. L ^ 9S. 
■* J. R Fanlv, WftriaMfTa. p. }!}. -"TV fcat tear so pntpottioB fe_ _ 
■ an Um, tbt tip cn>ak*< Ike kaav beat ottivu^ ri 

I, p. 431, ed, C^aob, 

, and the negro siaves*. lu the legs of bluck slaves of 
our day tliree defects are to be seen, attributed to three differ- 
ent causes; bandy legs' {fr. janibes caniir^ea); disagreeable thick- 
ness*; and the chinks and fissures in which they are said fre- 
quently to open '. The crookedness appears to be due principally 
from the posture in which the infants whilst sucking are 
obliged to hold tight by the knees to the mother's back*. Some 
deformities of this kind may also ho traced to morbitic causes'. 
The thickness of the feet (unless this too is to be referred to 
pathological caiwes) is most probably brought about by severe 
and continuous labour. Finally, there is scarcely any reason to 
jJDubt but what the fissures into which the thick epiderrais of 
le Ethiopiaus is liable to break out, especially in the sole of the 

i are due to their sandy soil". 
\ 70. Feet and hands. Lastly, good observers have remarked 
i, the hands and fcot of some nations are of singularly small 
lortions. This is said of the Indians*, the Chinese", the 
aitschadales", the Esquimaux", the Peruvians", New Hol- 
Uiuders'' and Hottentots". That artifice has a good deal to do 

Comp. I 

ii NoCa, T. IV. Op. VirgU. 

' Virgil, Montan, 3J, 

* Petronii Salnrieoa, c. loi. 

' Saoiioeriing, Ueber dit Sarptrlkhe VerK\iidnJirit del Ntgtn, 4c. p. 40. 
knnlcm, Voj/offt d la MarttniifXt, p. jS. "lluit (urm ul llie li'gi 11 (utEvieatly 
imon sIni uaoiig ths Americana, but aoroetimH leu ubiervtblu tliiui uuuugut 

* Alb. Dflrer, Von MmKhlicher ProporUon, hi T. m, td. ijjB. 
OMiky. Oit Iht Trtatmtnt and Contmiun of African Slartt, p, 117. 

* 1 received in Jon. 1789 tbe frimli right leg, perfectly snuncl in adier rrtpMtt, 
of na Elbfupian who had jiut died sC QajisA, porC or which I still h«vo in my 
uiiktonniuiJ collection ; the epiilermia of the >oIe uf the foot it wouJvrfully thick, 
HiinkleJ, and gapiug in muuy divided Bakes. 

' Chajiifaloti, l.e. 

* Fr. AUftiuiiad in JV«>a Ada AauUmia Nalurm (7«ri'aionini, T. IV. p. »<}. 
' See Hiw. Mereuriali*. De dteoraUont, p. m. loj. 

> "It hu been ob«erced of the srmi of the Hindooa fre<|uontly brought le 
EogUnd. that the grijie of the aabre i» too amkll for moat Europeui hiuiila." 
Hodgea, Tranli in India, p. 3. 

" DMiDpirr, Suite lie Yoyagt aviour dt Mondf, p. 100. De U Barhinail, Voyagt 
avloar da Minde, T. U. p. 63. O.buct'a Oitmdwk Reta, p. 171. 

'" Sleller. I. c. 

" H. Elli*. Cmni, Ac. »nd Utoly the ramoug Mtronomer W»la«, in FKUoiijih. 
Traai. Vol. lx. p. 100, «nd CurUa, lb. Vol. lxiv. p. 38J. 

*' De DUo«, NaAncktrti, ftc. T. 11. p. gj. 

'* WMJtiBTcn<i'».ifroiin(n/Mf ■W((mm<a( Pott Jadaon. p. ijg. 

" Spsirmsnn, /. f. p, 171. 


wilb ttiifi we know from the ostrich feet of tlie CLinese woiuen. 
Biit it seems very likely that the mode of life' aud poor sort 
of diet' may also be to blame. 

71. Racial varieties in respect of stature. Having now 
despatched what seems most worthy of remark about the rela- 
tive proportion and conformation of particular parts, it eeems 
proper to inveatigat* briefly the vaiietiea of the entire stature. 
This chapter uf anthropological discussion has been handed 
down to us deformed almost entirely by fables, hyperbolical 
over-layers, and raiainterpretation. These have, howcrer, in 
our day been in a great part so refuted and esplajned, and re- 
duced to their genuine sources, that it is scarcely necessaty to 
mention them further, much less discuss them over agun with 
fresh attention. 

Thiia it has been shown that under the Ethiopian pigmies 
of the anciente nothing else was intended hut a symbolioJ 
signification of the degrees in the Nilometer. Thus the enor- 
mous bones dug up everywhere in our own country, which pre- 
judiced opinion formerly attributed to giants, have been restored 
to the beasts by a more carefid osteological study*. On the 
contrary, all the relics which have survived to our day, and the 
ancient furniture from which we may estimate the stature 
ancient races, as mummies, bones, and especially the hoi 


re <4^m 

' "An (Amerioui) ludiiin man u aiiuill in the hand uid wrist, for Ihe nnw 
reuon fur which a anilor in largB one! atrong in the arnii; >n<1 ahonlden, Mtd • 
porter in the leg* uiil IhighB." JeCTDraoD in Morse's Ameriean Uaifenat Gtogra- 
phi/. Vol. 1. p. 87. 

* Hee TeDoh, from tha obaervntiona of the Governor of the Cape: "CdIomI 
Oonloa tflU lae thnt it indic&tal poverty and inadequiuiT of living. He Inituioed 
to me the Hottentots and Cafirog; Che former fnre poorly, and hava nnall handi 
iu>d feet; the Csffrec, tbair neighbours, live plenteoiuly, and have VBry large one*." 

* It ia Btnuige tbM in tste times BufTon oould have attributed many fossil boM* 
of this kind, du|j ap at difTerent timat and plao««, to ginnti, io the <>th ToL c^ Uw 
supplement of hu claaaioal work: such m cliosa which in 1577 «er« dug np n 

and prcse 
That in 

Luoeme and preserved up to the pres nt day in 

myself, and rBon^ised tl 

Dciurt-hiiiiso of tbat oitj, when 

SictnTQ of a humao skvlet. 
ouit's College at Luurnic 
thp very evidence of the bl- 

I of that magnitude, which is still to be 
a memorable wxani pic of the power of prejndi 
iciB, when oiicp it ha^ atnicli root in the oiind. 




teeth found in urns and sepulchres', armour, Ac, tend to the 
conviction that those nations by no means aiirpaKsed men of tJie 
present day in stature. Amongst these also there is an indis- 
putable racial diversity. Amongst European races the Scandi- 
navians and some of tho Swixs, an the Suitens, are tall : the 
Lapps short In the nuw world the Abipones are large in size, 
the Esquimaux shorter : but neither more than moderately bo. 
Altogether there is no variety in respect of stature so great 
amongst nations of the present day, but what may be easily 
explained by the common modes of degeneration, and the 
analogous pheuomena which may be observed in other mam- 
mals. There are, however, two varieties of this kind which 
must be treated separately, of which it is said that even in 
these present times one differs greatly in excess, and the other 
}n defect, from the common stature of mankind. 

72, Paiagonians. There is at the extremity of the conti- 
it of South America, towards the north-east, a nation, which 
the time of Uageilan's voyage has been known to 
Europeans, who invented for them the composite name of 
Patagonians, because they thought ihem related to theu* ncigti- 
buurs the Choni, and that their feet, which they used to wrap 
in the skins of the guanaco, were like the shaggy feet of brutes, 
called in Spanish patas. Their proper and indigenous name, 
however, is TehueletE. Tliese people, (he% commonly called 
Patagonians, Anton. Pigafetta, the companion of Magellan in 
his voyage, was the first in his account to pretend were giants 
double the size of Europeans'. From that time on for two 
centuries and a half the stories about the expeditions under- 
taken by the Europeans in that part of the new world are so 
repugimnt to each other, and so contradictory and so wonder- 
fully inconsistent as far a^ their notices of the Patagonians, 
that, once for all, they may serve as a warning to us to be 

■ I owe to the liber^itj nf Boienlwrd, iniiwrul ooniol •general in Denmark, 
■ ealnria nnd other bones of a miui of adrMUwd >gefoun<l Dot Wt^aiT" in B very 

It CimliriaD tomb, iu projiortumB Kud aie yieldiiti; nothing to the Ci)iiim<m 
._.<B of our coantrjnien. 

■ S«i! hia Viogf^o atorno U mondn, in Bamaain, T. i i"l. t. p if.i 

■ tftom 

I the BccottBts of traTelleTR 
give in s note a daade of snUxm'. far tbe benefit of those « 



■ and componng these diff««Dt 
I, and tbe ofHiiian of anthrDpologistB about them. It 
wiD be BoSdieot for na at preaent to pot Ibrth those resoll 
whii^ seem nioet like the truth, after w«ighii^ aiu] duly ciita 
ing eTeiTthuig. 

It is then a race at men bj no means of gigantic height, but 
conspicnoae for taD bodies and a rery moBcolar and knotty 
habit*. To define their exact statare wnidst such a quantity of 
amb^nom stories iroold be imposabte. From the evidence of 
the best witnesses, howerer, it aeetaa ecarcely to exceed six feet 
and a half of English meaaure; and this is the lees to be 
thought prodigious, since it has long been known that oth* 
indigenous races of America (especially in tbe South] are 
tall. It is very probably the case with them what Tacitus tel 
ufl about the ancient Germans, that they never mix with 
other nation in marriage, and preserve their race peculii 
unadulterated, and always like itself. They are Nomads, li! 
the people of Tierra del Fuego, and the other wandering natinas 
of South America; and thence it is not surprising if they have not 
always appeared] to he men of the same lofty stature to thi 
Europeans who have approached the same coasts indeed of tl 
country, but at differeot times. 

It is not difficult, on the other hand, to understand how t! 
story of the Patagonian giants arose. First, that old traditi) 
about the giants of the old world preoccupied all minds, and 
those travellera in the new world who were on the look out 

I Buffhn, HUloin Xalnrdlt, T. ill. ond Sujipl. T. T. Da BroM«, Hitbt^di 
f/angatinai aax terrtt Avtlraltt, T. t. De Pauw, ArrAnvAu nr la Anitritah 
T. 1. Ortegi, Viagi dtl Cemimd, Bj/nrn at ifd/ilor rltl muiuja. trodue. i 

I. RubiTtinD'B Bifary of AiKtrita, Vol. I. Ziramemianii, OMgr^Mttit 
GfteKiehtt dtt SI'iitrhm, T. I. J, B. Fo«ter, Brmrrl-ungf*. Comp. Oirii Hvbln, 
itUrrt imtrieaM, T. L PeoDaiit, 0/ lit Palagoniant. Sdwion ibl wWwo i^y 
al i'tlndo dt MagaUajiei ai 1 78.=, y 86. 

■ Such tbe; are tmaDiuiousI; Jeacnlwd by Ihe moot creilibi* cye-witnMH*. 
Such tno were thiwe whi> towirdi tha end of the aitUetith ceotuir ware brongh 
to Spain ; Iho *o\t wid only PaUgonUni, M f H u I know, whmo Europe h** •»« 
■" n Linachoten, ■ great and truly classical ' "— *-"' •'■— — ~ -• 

s, and iay> of tliem : "tbey were of gnod el 

h large imuiclea," lt^^| 



proJigiea, reverted to that when they found men who were in 
rtality tall and muscular, and tombs of wonderful length', and 
every where in them bones of a large size'. The Spaniards too 
might also have had the design of deterring the other nations 
of Europe from navigating the Straits of Magellan by atories of 
thiskind'. And in others blind fear, and the desire of boasting, 
such a^ oven in the present century has induced the author of a 
Dutch account of the voyage of Roggewein, to give out the 
inhabitsLDts of Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean a^ giants of 
twelve feet high*. 

TS. Qwimos. There was an old story which even in the last 
century was exposed by the classical writer Stephen Flacourt as 
a fictitious invention, that there existed In the inner mountains 
of the Island of Mad^ascar a nation, pigmy in stature, but of a 

rf warlike spirit, and which afflicted the other inhabitants by 
sudden invasions. They were called Quimos or Kinioa. 
This story haa lately found defenders in our time, in the 
pilot Modave, and the famous botanist Coramerson. But if you 
take away all that is mere hearsay iu their accounts, and their 
discrepancies, which are not few, all that remains wiU be that the 
pilot bought a certain small servant maid, who was sold to him 

• Conip. Ed. Brown'* Travdn, p.m. JO. "Mr Wood, whohM mnde veiyiooa- 
mtc maps ol the StraiU of Magellao, k.c. told me, ihitt he hid neen dlvurs ((ravai 
iu tha aoullKm porta of America dbbt four jaiAa long, which siirprined him tha 
iiior*. beoauw he had never >e«a ^ay AnniHcan thitt hu two jordi liigh, uid 
therefuiB he opened one of theoo long Bepulcliroa from one end to tha other, anrl 
Ibund ID it ■ man *nd & womnn, so placed, that the woman's haail lay at the mui'g 
feet, and bo might reMonahl; require a tomh of near that length." 

* or b<ira« In fact, whoa? akeletona thuy plnce nciir the tombs of their nlationn. 
Sfe Falknar, B^chttibang ton Palagonitn, p. m. i^q. A moat ancient cuatom 
ev«rywh<.-re, and which hu prevailed amoagat the 

the oldrsl sepulchrea of 3 
the aaronphagi of Chrirtian 
■ ' " ;e«, besides their c 


leria: aee J.^Gmelin, Arum. T. Ul. p. yj. Even in 
□ighta, buried in churi^bea, during wbaC are oaUed the 
ra arma and bones, thoae of hunes alio are found. See 

Sir J. Nar- 
bonragh'* I'o^ojk to Ike SlraiU of Magell'in. p. m- Qo. 

* See Anon, Taeejaarigt Rej/i roiidom it VKreld. Dordr. 1718. 4to. Mueh 
more tnutwortliv and accurate, on the other hand, is Behreno (by prufeanon a 
ftoofecdoner), who waa in the aanifl vnjAge, in AetM durrh die Stid LAnder unci 
un dui WeU, Francof. 1737, 8vo, where, p. S7, he oalla the inhabitanta of Easter 
Island, then Grat diaoovered, only *' well-hiiilt, with strong Umba." 



for a Quimo, pale iq colour, with pendulous brcaats, and remai 
able for the leugth of her anna, which reachud nearly to 1 
knees. Barou de Clugny, moreover, who spent nearly 
whole month in the same ship with this identical pigmy, ( 
showed that she was only a dwarf of bail conformation i 
diseased constitution, macrocephalous, stupid, and an uttercrd 
confused sounds; from all which circunistanct^s I am persuadeil 
that her malady should be referred to Cretinism, since the* 
symptoms occur in Cretins; and the length of the arms has been 
noticed in many of them, and particularly in those of Salzburg, 
in express words, by observers. On the other hand Sonnent 
has ingeniously explaintsi the whole tradition as if it was to b 
understood about the Znphe-Racquimusi, that is, the sis chifll 
of the race who inhabit Manatana, a province of that lalsi 
which chiefs are dosceuded from an ancestor who was ' 
small; a fact expressed by that barbaious word'. 

7-i. Cauaea of Racial Stature. We must allow then thi 
there is no entire nation of gianbi or pigmies. But the rat 
variety of stature which we touched upon above (s. 71) s 
be confined within smaller limits in proportion than those wbich 
have been everywhere observed in the case of other domestic 
animals (a. 2il) ; and this will easily be understood by a consi- 
deration of what has been said about the causes of degeneration. 
That climate has something to do with it, besides many other 
proofs, is seen from a comparison of the Laplan<lers with the 
Hungarians, who are two colonies from one race, but have 
reached a very different stature under a different climate. 
Physiology also clearly shows the great influence of diet in 
augmenting or diminishing the stature. Hence the tail bodi'.'^ 
of the nobles of Otabeite is ascribed to the more generous dici 
they indulge in'. 

' Pftllfl* loeniB to have ilorluoKl the origin of t 
gunemtion. Sue liU Obtervalioiu tar la furwalion 
on ths origin of ths Rthinpmna he ntysT— "Wo need not In 
OMo to Kay iiapruper connection of the liuTrLKn HfuTcin, nhich 
the cBiM in the productlim of the lim^anned mmiaiaiueim oi 


Se« J. It. Fonlcr, Bmrrtmviten, p. m. ajG, 


On the other Lund we are told that the stature of some bar- 
barous niitions has diminished sensibly for a series of generations 
after they have accustomed themselves to the abuse of aqua- 
vitas and ardent spirits'. 

Here also mention ought to he made of the period of puberty, 
which differs in different nations, and has a good deal to do with 
the racial stature, since those who remain longest before arriving 
at puberty, by this constancy {as Citsar long since observed of 
the ancient Germans) increase their stature : whereas the best 
authors have with oae voice observed that under every sort of 
climate and place premature venery is injurious to procerity of 
body'. Nations preserve their peculiar stature when they 
mingle least with tlie immigrants and strangers of other races: 
as on the other hand racial stature is altered after a series of 
generations when they have been mingled in union with other 
nations of a different size*. Lastly, we learn from indisputable 
instances of families remarkable for height or shortness that the 
influence of the ancestral constitution is great as to the stature 

fi{f the offspring. 
I 7^. Fabulous varieties of mankind. Infinite in number 
Jwe the stories we have received firom the time of Herodotus 
downwards, fix>m all sorts of sources, principally from Aristeus, 
Ctesio«, and Megasthenes, and which the Cosmographists have 
told us about nations of monstrous appearance, such as the 
Arimaspi, with only one eye; the Cynamolgi, with dogs' heads; 
the Monoscelea, with only one leg; the wild men of the Imaun, 
with their feet fronting the back part of the legs, &c* It is not 
my business to spend any time upon these things here ; though 
the investigation of these matters brings both pleasure and 
profit ; for that is equally true of anthropology which prevails in 

* Comp. besides otbcn on the KMntaolihdales, Behm in Cook's Tcyagt lo I 
NorAtrn BimitphtTr, Vol. in. p. ^71. On the OlaLntuu, Cook in EawkEBWOrtl 
CtdUetion, Vol, 11. p.m. 187. On the Somntnins, Maraden, p. 41. 

* MMipertais, Vrtnu Phytiqur, p.m. 131. 

* Comp. J, A. Fftbriciua, Din. ilt hnmliiibui orbii noitri innU', &o, Hut 



every otber department of natural bistory, that scarcely any 
Btoiy, however abeurd and foolieh. has ever been told in it, 
which does not contain some foundation of truth, but perverted 
by hyperbohcal exaggeration or misinterpretation '. I mean W 
touch here upon only one instance out of this crowd of prodigies, 
that ia,4.he often repealed story of nations with Uiils, as being 
one which we have been told of again and again by all sort^ rf 
authors of all sorts of timee*. 

76. Reports of natitms with tails. First Pliny, then 
njas, make mention of the tailed men of India: then 
middle ages their existence waB asserted by the Nubian GeogrSr- 
pher, the Venetian Maroo Polo, and others; lastly, in mora 
recent times many writers of travels Lave brought back similar 
reports about the various tailed islandeis of the Indian Archipft- 
lago*; others about people of the same kind in some province of 
Russia*; and others other stories'. 

Proper consideration however will easily show that very littla 
weight ia to be attached to these assertions. Many authora 
have derived their information entirely from hesrsay, Thea 
again it cannot be denied that many of their witnesses who 
boast of having seen the thing themselves are undoubtedly of 
very dubious rcpxite'. Moreover the stories themselves on thi» 
point differ very suspiciously from each other'. On the other: 

■ Tho luo^t recent pAtron md B!iBerter of meo vitli tuli in Monboitdo, in bolk 
hie worlu. The Ongin and Pragna of Lmgnogt, Vol, I, p. Ji^, ud Ai ' 
Mttaphy>ia, Vol. in. p. 150. 

■ Ocsides the sutliora cited by and by, see Hftrve;ir, Dt QtnuTaLiaBt AnimaiUtmf 
p. m. lo, about the inhabituits of Bomro. 

* Rjiechtow, OrmbvrgiKhe Topntpvphlt, T. U. p, 34, Falk, Srpte&gt 
Kcnnluiu da Ruttitchen Rtithi, T. HI. p. S^S- 

> On the iaiand of Tiem Af\ Fuegu ks the geograpliical lablei in AIoDI. 
il'OT»elie, Belatimc dd Regno di lilt, Bom. ;6^6, fol. 

• On the Nioobura Bee, full of the most fuoliBh ttorie*, Btitr^nii^ om t% 

anom Atia, Africa. <£-e. »f. N. Matlhm, Koping (Sktpt-LityU.), p.m. 131; ■ , 

liowever LinniHua c«lla a moit tnistworthy account in bis letlsn lo Monboddo, Q^ 
tilt Origin of Lan^arje, I. e. Da». Tappe, 1 i-Jdhrigt Mtindieche Rtittbrtdtrtiiuitpt 
p. 44, on the Suuatnuia 

' Comp obout tlie luled Pormottnns a trind of witneaaea wliu call thenuelTW' 
rye-witD«»eii : J. Rtrauu, J. O. Helli^, and El. Huw. The flml h^.jh, Rtimt, 
p. m, 33, " A Fotniuaim fruin thv suutb side of the Island K-ith a tiul a good fool 



hand the boldest and most careful explorers of those countries 
are either silent about that monstrous prodigy; or relying on 
the authority of the inhabitants plainly declare it a lying fiction'. 
And finally, some expressly tell us what it is that has given rise 
to this erroneous report ; viz. : either a pendulous addition to the 
clothes of the back'; or some tailed anthropomorphous apes'. 
So that not one single instance of a tailed race can be proved by 
the couaeut of any number of trustworthy eye-witneasea, nay, 
not even of a single family remarkable for such a monstrous 
tmomaly; whilst instances of monstrosities in families, in which, 
tea example, six fingers have been hereditary for generations, are 
very well known. A3 to individuals, who are here and there to 
ba seen amongst Europeans, remarkable for a monstrous excres- 
cence of the OS coccygis, it is at once understood that we do not 
jnean to say anything uf them here, any more than of number- 
Jess other monstrous productions. 

77. Racial variety fnrm. morbijic affection. I have spoken 
ttbove on the subject of the morbific disorders which so change 
the appearance and even the colour of animals, that when that is 
propagated by hereditary causes for a long series of generations it 
shades sensibly away into a sort of second natiu'e, and in some 
.'Species uf animals gives rise to peculiar and constant varieties. 
We have cited the well-known examples of the white variety of 
the domestic mouse and the rabbit, whose snowy fur and rosy 
pupils are most certainly due to a nnsrbific affection, in fact to 
leuccBthiopia. Tlie same kind of affection is frequently seen in 
maskind. Still only sporadically, certainly nowhere is it so 
frequent and so constant as in the brute animals just spoken 
for in them it degenerates into a particular and copious 

iety. Still, even hinnan Icucopthiopia must >>e spoken of, 


lir." ThB »eoond in Ephrm. Nafvra CuTumr. 

Ii like thoaeof inga." Tlis thini, Oilindurh. 

S: ''Among our other eUth Dt tlie raiDe we had t.h<> 

to'uta lieul wu dbfigured behind with % ihort atuinp 

long, md nil covered wil 
Deo. t. »nn. II. p. 456, 
Riinhitelire&viig, p. m. 
a feiii»l* tUve wbe like 

iir goat's lul." 

I Thin»l)outtliBPhnipphi(«, LoGsntil, Toy. dumlammderindt. T. :i. p. j; 
' Nic. Fontnna On the Nieohar Ida. in Aaalic Raearrlu; Vol ItT. p. I51. 
* [I have omitted hrre ■ ]img note wliicli repeat* what was mid before ()i. 14 
"m figore rcpnsrnted in ri. *. Ed ] 



tJiot^h briefly. Bncfiv, I Bay. Ixitb l>ecause iu man it csA 
scarcely be said to constitute a particular variety, and aluO 
because it vrould be te<lious to repeat those things which I haW 
ID another place ftaid about this remaricable disonler'. 

78. Human leucathiopia. The affection must be considered 
cachectic, which ia plain from two pathokigic&l and constant 
Bymptoms. One of these consbts in a singular colour of the 
skin, a ^ckly white partly shading into an unnatural redness, 
very often presenting the appearance of a sliglit leprosy'; and 
also in an anomalous whiteness of the hair an<l groin, not silver 
white as in old men, nor nicely yellowish, verging to dnericial^ 
as may be seen in many of our own countrymen, who are thei** 
fore called yellow (fr. Mondins), bnt rather straw-coloured, or- 
cream-coloured. The other affects the organs of sight, and 
deprives them of their dark pigment which in sound eyes Unei 
some of the internal membranes, and i» destined for the ahsorp^ 
tion of the excess of light, a thing of the utmost importance for, 
good and clear vision. Hence the iris of the eye of a lcuccethi(^ 
is of a pale rose, and half transparent: the pupil is bright and 
of a more intense red, like a sardonyx or carbuncle of a palA 

These two symptoms occur united with a singular con- 
Btancy, so that, as far as I know, that peculiar redness of ths 
eye is never seen alone, or without that false whiteness of thei 
hair on the head and elsewhere. It is not, however, to bt; 
wondered at if the redness of the pupils has not always been 
noticed by observers, since the other symptoms we have spokes 
of strike the eye more, and the leuccethiopians not being able 
endure the light have a habit of constantly winking the eye- 

The di.sease is always congenital ; never, so far as I kno' 
being contracted after birth. Always incurable; for there 
no single known instance of the blaek pigment being evi 
added to the eyes after birth. It is very often liereditary; f 

' Comnunlal. Son, Reg, Seioillar. GottiivjeM. T. Vll. p. jg, and iitdicatil 

Iwl/iet: T, n. p, S.17- 

» Cum|i, Hftwk.-Bwortli'a ColltaUm, Vol. ir. |i. [n. i88. 


it is him what has been said by some that leuccetliiupians are 
sterile or incapable of generating or conceiving. Generally, all 
the accounts we have of this remarkable disorder are wonder- 
fully deformed with errors of all sorts. Tims some have doubted 
whether leuctethiopia ought to be considered as a true morbific 
affection; others have fooliahly confounded it with cretinism, 
others with the history of the Stmia aatyrua; others have 
rashly asserted that this affection is only to he seen within the 
tropics. For although it was no doubt first observed amongst 
the Ethiopians, for the reason that in a black nation this white- 
ness of the skin and hair would necessarily strike most every 
one's eye, and lience the name of leucoethiopians (fr. n^grea blanca) 
was given to those suffering under that malady (who are called 
in the East Indies contemptuously by the Batavians Kackerl- 
aehen, after a light-ehunning insect, by the Spaniards Albinos, 
the French Blafarda, &c) ; it is so far from being the case that 
it occurs only amongst the negroes, or even only in the torrid 
zone, that on the contrary nothing is more certain tlian that 
there is no variety of mankind, no part of the world which is 
uniit for the manifestation of that diseajie. 

Sixteen examples of leucoethiopians have already come under 
ray notice bom in different provinces of Germany', Then in 
the rest of Europe some among the Danes*, the English*, the 
Irish', the French*, the Swiss", the Italians', the islanders of the 
Archipelago*, the Hungaiians', Then out of Europe araongat 

' Aa iocoQnt of mwiy iigivm in Mtdidnitchc BibtioAel, T. in. p. 161, 

• '1- p, ^70- ^ 

[.. ,ofi. 

* C. Penwral io Tnuttofliont of tiie Irixk Academy, Vol, 17. p. 97. 

* Le Cut, De ta CoHlnir de trt pean Ouiaaine, p. 103, 

• MrdieJnitcie SiUiotAtt. T. 1, p. j ^s, 

'' About tlw Sarajixili whflm I haro descriUdcl myself, Bea .Skaasore, Voj/ai/a 
dam Itt Alpa, T. iv, p. m. 303. Bourgaet makm mention of ft VBDOtian in IMtra 
PhiloiopM//aa hit la formattm da uU, p. 163. Burai diMeoted a Milanaae, sse 
Ilia DiaerUaiinu topra una Varitla PaTtiaAare d'L'omini Bianthi Mw/obi, MedioL 
t yS^, 4t«. Jo. Hawkins informed me that ho B»w a nmllar girl at Rome. 

° From the aoconnt of the same Jobn Hawkins, my frii^nd whom 1 bhve just 
quoted, who law two twln-brotbers, leucoetliiopiuwi about twelve yean old in his 
" it journey to the Archipelugo and tbe Beaa in the ialand of Cyprua, Datives of 

>, !'■ IS- 

262 m ANIMALS. 

the Arabians', tlje JJalabars', Mada^ascans', Caffres*, Negrwea' 
{as well those burc in Airica itself as amongst the Ethiopi 
Creoles of the new world). Then amongst the Americans of tbt 
Isthmus of Darien", and Brazil'. Finally, amongst the bar? 
barous islanders of the Indian and Pacific Oceana; as in 
niatra', Bali', Amboyua'", Manilla", Now Guinea", 
Friendly" ami Society Islands". 

Moreover, this affection of which we are speaking is by 
means peculiar to mankind, but has been observed in mi 
other warm-blooded animals of both classes. Of the mammi 
besides the common instauces of the rabbits, the mice, till 
weasels and horses (in which four kinds of animals this atTectit 
in process of time seems to have become a sort of second nature] 
instances of apes" have been reported to mo, squirrels", rats"; 
hamsters", guinea-pigs* moles*", opossums", martins", we* 
aels", and goats*". Amongst birds, crows", thrushes", canaii 
birds, partridges*^, hens and peacocks. It is remarkable thi 

' I^yard in Fracetdingt of lie African AiiodaiioB, p. 4J. 

* TrartqitbaTiKkt MinioTU-brriekte, Contm. ILTI. p. 1139. 

* CoHigDT in Hixtiiire dt FAcad. da Se. lU ParU, tt. 1I44, p. 13. 

* Deln Nux, lb. >. 1760, p. 17. 
' Out o( the crowd of e^ie-nitnenie* it will be enough to quote tliree 

QoldBuiitli, Biilorg of the Earth, Vol. n. p, S^O. Buffnn. Sappltment A ' ' 
Natunlk. T. IV. Pi 5J.J, and Arthsnd in Journal A Phyt^ue. Oct. 1783. 

' Wafer's Dticription of the Iilhmu4 of Anenca, eil. 1, p. toj. 

' Db Pinto in KoberlBon, Hiitori/ of Amerita, Vol. II. p. ^05. 

' Van Speren in Vtrhanddiagai van Act Balaeiameh Oaioultckap, T. I. p. 314. 

" Id. Le. wiUi»pliito. 

'° Vftlsntyn, Bachryving van AvAoina, T. n. p. I46. 

>' Cuuslli in PKiloKifhiail Trantattioa; Vol. xxv. p. i]6B. 

" Argeniolii, Cowiuuta dr. Uu islia Malueat, p. 71. 

" Cook'fl Foyaffel (o thr flTortAem ffemi»phrt. Vol. 1. p. jSl. 

" Hkwk«a worth'! CoUtelum, Vol. ji. p. m und i83. 

" Sir It. CUyton in Mrnuiirt oftht Soe. <^ MancKattr, Vol. ID, p. 170. 

" Wkgner, Uitlor. Natar, Utlntia, p. i8j. Gunntf on LoeiD, Dt 
nSmt FiTimarekia, p. 107. 

" Gaanm, Dr quadruprdi'iut, p. Sjg. 

^' The author tSalur) of the Chuuieal Ponograph on the hunrter gkTS mo 
of this kind. 

" Boddaett, Natimrhtndige Btiehoutrliig dcf Diertn, T. I. p. 310. 

«■ Jb. •> Jb. 

*• Kruner, Elmek. AntJiialium Atulr. p. 3I]. " BoddMK, t c. 

•* TbemeliQ ObeitJ'ZiitMrijUfha Jonmal, Freyberg, 17^8, 8»o, P. I. p. 47. 

" From the account of mj friend Sulier. 

" Jo. Hunter, (M ecrlain ParU of the Animal Ecowimy, p. 104. 

" Buflbn, Hiitoirt NatarclU rffj OiitaMX, T. n. p, t^f.. 



not a single example, so far as I know, of this affection has 
been observed in any cold-blooded animal. 

79. Epilogue to this section. Let so much suffice about the 
causes and ways in which mankind degenerates into varieties 
in respect of colour, structure, proportion, and stature. In this 
enumeration I have left untouched no point that I know of 
which can in any way help to unravel the famous question about 
the unity or plurality of the species of man. We shall see in 
the following section, after this general discussion, how that 
species is in reality composed according to nature. 

. Innumerable varieties of nuinlrind run into om atwther 
bij iiisensible decrees. We have now completed a universal sui^ 
sey of tLe genuine varieties of mankind. And as, on the ona 
hand, we have not found a single one wliich does not (as ia 
shown in the last section but one) even among other warm- 
blooded animals, especially the domestic ones, very plwnly, and 
in a very remarkable way, take place as it were under our eyes, 
and deduce its origin from manifest causefi of defeneration ; 
so, on the other hand (as is shown in the last section), 
variety exists, whether of colour, countenance, or stature, &<■,, so 
singular as not to be connected with othera of the same kind 
by such an imperceptible transition, that it is very clear the;.! 
are all related, or only differ from each other in degree. 

81. Five principal varieties of mankitid may be reckoned. 
As, however, even among these arbitrary kinds of divisions, one 
is said to be better and preferable to another ; after a long and 
atteutivc cousidcration, all mankind, as far as it is at present 
known to us, seems to me as if it may best, according to natural 
tnith, be divided into the five following varieties ; which may 
be designated and distinguished from each other by the nami 
CaTicasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, and Malay. I hai 
allotted the first place to the Caucasian, for the reasons given 
below, which make me esteem it the primeval one. This divergog. 
ill both directions into two, most remote and very different from 
each other ; on the one side, namely, into the Ethiopian, and on 
the other into the Mongolian. The remaining two occupy the 
intermediate positions between that primeval one and iht-ae 





me Twirtiw ; Utat is. tbe Amoicui bet«««) the Cvt- 
1 ^ai H^igofiaa ; the Halaj between tbe samp Cuicmsua 

b €lOTei»r» oiJ ttwitt tf&ae tarietim. In the £dUo>w- 

• these fire varieties most be genenlly 

\ To thb floiiinentiMi, however, I must prefix & double 

, that oi acoooDt of the molti&rioas diveisity 

!, according to their degrees, one or two alone 

, but we iDost take Bereral joined together; 

1 that thia anioo of cbaiacters is not so coastaiit but 

a Gable to inmnnerable exoeptioos in all and dngnlar 

StOl this enumeration is so coneeired «a to 

' plain and perspicuous notion oS them in 

Colour white, cheeks rosy (a. 43) ; hair 
d (a. 5S) ; bead Eubglobular (s. 6S) ; face 
;fat, tta parts moderately defined, forehead smooth, 
r, di^ctlj hooked, mouth small (s. 56). The primary 
!t phoed peipeDdicularly to each jaw (a €S) ; the lips (espe- 
Ibe lower one) moderately open, the chin full and 
tded (b. 56). In general, that kind of appearance lAucb, 
»niing to our opinion of symmetry, wc consider most handsome 
Imd becoming. To tLLi first v^ety belong the inhabitants of 
Enrope (except tbe Lapps and the remaining descendants of 
Itbe Finna) and those of Eastern Asia, as far as the river Obi, 
■ the Caspian Sea and the Ganges; and lastly, those of Northeni 
I. Africa. » 

Mongolian variety. Colour yellow (s. 43) ; hair blaek, stiff, 
Ifltraight a^d scanty (s. 52); head almost square (a, 62); fa<'e 
i, at tbe same time flat and depressed, tbe parts therefore 
s distinct, as it were runaiag into one another; glabella flat, 
T broad; nose small, apish; cheeks usually globular, pronii- 
Dent outwardly; tbe opening of tbe eyelids narrow, linear; chin 
sli^tly prominent (s. 56). Thia variety comprehends tbe re- 
maining inhabitants of Asia (except the Malays on tbe extre- 
Imity of the tians-Gangetic pemnstda) and tbe Fiunisb popula- 
tions of tbe ci^ld part of Europe, the Lapps, &c~ and the race of 


Esquimaux, so widely diffused over Nortli America, from Beli- 
ring's fltrftits to the inhabited extremity of Greenland. 

Ethiopian variety. Colour black (s, 43); hair black and 
curly (s. 62); head narrow, compressed at the aides (a. 62) 
forehead knotty, uneven; malar bones protruding outwards; 
eyes very prominent ; nose thick, mixed up as it were with the 
wide jaws (s. 5ti) ; alveolar edge narrow, elongated in front; the 
upper primaries obliquely prominent (s. 62); the Ups (espe- 
cially the upper) verypufl'y; chin retreating (a, 36). Mauj 
bandy-legged (s. 69). To this variety belong all the Africans, 
except those of the north. 

Avtei'ican variety. Copper-coloured (s. 43) ; hair black, eti^ 
straight and scanty (a. 52); forehead short; eyes set very deep; 
nose somewhat apish, but prominent; the face invariably broad, 
with cheeks prominent, but not flat or depressed ; its parts, if 
aeen in profile, very distinct, and as it were deeply chiselled 
(a. fi6) ; the shape of the forehead and head in many artificially 
distorted. This variety comprehends the inhabitants of Ame- 
rica except the Esquimaux. 

Malay variety. Tawny-coloured (s. 43); hair black, soft, 
curly, thick and plentiful (s. 52); head moderately narrowed 
forehead slightly swelling {a, 62) ; nose full, rather wide, as i' 
were diffuse, end thick; mouth large (a. 56), upper jaw some- 
what prominent with the parts of the face when seen in profile, 
sufficiently prominent and distinct from each other (s. 56). 
This hist variety, includes the islanders of the Pacific Ocean, 
together with the inhabitants of the Marianne, the PhiUppin^ 
the Molucca and the Sunda Islands, and of the Malayan pen- 

83. DivieioHS of the varieties oftnankind by other authora. 
It seems but fair to give briefly the opinions of other authoi 
ulso, who have divided mankind into varieties, so that the 
reader may compare them more easily together, and n 
them, and choose which of them he likes best. The first per- 
son, as far as I know, who made an attempt of this kind was a 
certain anonymous writer who towards the end of the last 
century divided mankind into four races; that is, first, one 


of all Europe, Laplaotl aloae excepted, and Southern Asia, 
Northern Africa, and the whole of America; secondly, that 
of the rest of Africa; thirdly, that of tlie rest of Asia with the 
iglands towards the east; fourthly, the Lapps'. Leibnitz di- 
vided the men of our continent into four classes. Two extremes, 
the Laplanders and the £thiopians; and as many intermediates, 
me eastern (MongfjHan), one western (as the European)*, 

Linnseua, following common geography, divided men into 
jl) the red American, (2) the white European, (3) the dark 
Asiatic, and (■*) the black Negro*. Buffon distinguished six varie- 
ties of man: (1) Lapp or polar, (2) Tartar (by which name ac- 
cording to ordinary language he meant the Mongolian), (3) south 
, (4) European, (5) Ethiopian, (G) American*. 
Amongst those who reckoned three primitive nations of 
nankind answering to the number of the sons of Noah, Governor 
Pownali is first entitled to praise, who, as far as I know, was also 
the first to pay attention to the racial form of skull as connected 
wilh this subject He divided these stocks into white, red and 
black. In the middle one he comprised both the Mongolians 
and Americans, a^ agreeing, besides other characters, in the con- 
figuration of their skulla and the appearance of their hair*. 
Abb^ de la Croix divides man into white and black. The 
former again into white, properly so called, brown {bruns), 
^njiellow (jaundtres), and olive-coloured'. 

^h Eant derives four varieties from dark-brown Autochthones: 
^Bhe white one of northern Europe, the copper-coloured Amc- 
^^bcan, the black one of Senegambia, the olive- colon red Indian*. 
^^Bbhn Hunter reckons seven varieties: (I) of black men, that is, 

' Jofirrud dtt SeavaM, %. :684, p. 133. Cooip. Bob. do Vitugoudy, Gl. Nouvel 
AtUu portalif. Puis, 177S, ^to, PL 4. 

' In Feller in Oliun ifanOFCTitnum, p. 1 59. 

■ After the yew 1735, in aJl tiie ediUaas o( hia immortal wark. Gmelin hu 
added to the hat odJtioD, brought out by himaelf, my division, T, I. p, aj. 

* The«e six v»rietie« hsvu been besutifullj described, aad in tact painted m it 
wen by the gloning brueh of Haller, in his clowical work, Idten tur iJiilotojAie 
der gackichlt dtr mawckhrit, T. n. p, m. 4. — 68. 

» Comp. A Nfw ColUction of Vogaga, Sx. Lond. 1 767. 8vo, Vol. h. p. 173. 

• See BtagrapiM nodeme, T. 1. p. 61, od. 5, and Vaugondy. I. r, PL f. 
T Both b Bagel, Pkilotopk. fOr dit Well. T. n. and in BtrUmr tnotiaHnrhn/t, 

fcfSj, T. Ti, 




EthiofMaos, PaptuBs, Sec; (2) the blat^i^ inhabiuints of Maun- 
lADta and the Cape of Good Hope; (3) the copper-coiuured of 
eastern India; (4) the red Americans; (a) the tawnr, as Tartars, 
Arabs, Pra:dians, Chinese. &&; (6) browniafa, as the southern 
EuropeoDs, Spaniards, iui, Tntb, Abyesiniaiis, Samotedes and 
lApps ; (7) white, as the renaaining Europeans, the Geoi 
Mingrelians and KAbanHoski'. 

Zinunermann is amongst those who place the aborigines of 
mankind in the eleTat«d Scvthico-Asiatic plain, near the sources 
of the Indus, Gaines and Obi rirets; and thence deduces the 
varieties of Europe (1), noith^n Asia, and the great part of 
North America (S), Arabia, India, and the Indiau Art^pe- 
lago(31, Asia to the north-east, China, Corea, Ac (4). He is 
of opinion that the Ethiopians deduce dieir origin from eitht 
the first or the third of these varieties'. 

Ueiners refers all nations to two stocks: (1) handsomt^l 
(^) ugly; the Srst white, the latter dark. He iueludea in tbAj 
handsome stock the Celts, Sarmatians, and oriental nationtt,^ 
The ugly stock embraces all the rest of mankind' 
distinguishes four stocks: (}) the primitive, autochthones of tliati 
vlevated Asiatic plaiu we were speaking of^ from which bAi 
derives the inhabitants of all tho rest of Asia, the whole of 
Europe^ the extreme north of America, and oorthem Ainca; 
(2) the N^roes; (3) the Americans, except those of the extr^ne 
north ; (4) the Islanders of the southern oceAu*. Metzger makes 
two principal varieties as extremes: (1) the white man natiTe 
of Europe, of the northern parts of Asia. America and Afrks; 
(i) the black, or Ethiopian, of the rest of AMca. The transitimi 
between the two is made bv the rest of (bo Asiatics, the in- 
babitants of South America, and the Islaudvrs of the soutbera. 

ft4. JVotef on tke fin vnrMltw of Mankind. But we mi 

> Ditpal. di iammmm rmri l mi a mt, RUnh. >;7S p. 9. 

■ In that nrj tofkm work GtefrapiixJkt faeAidttt 4m J 

• tehi.£«|vivMsT. Lp.5i2.«L ». 

■ See his Pkjmelapf ja A / Jktr i mit w , p. f . 


rtnini to -.or j». aU^i . f ihe varieties of mankind I Iiavc indi- 
cat-i ■• i..::i:- :■ r .. ii, i -.M-h of the cJuuaders which I attrilmte 
to xu-.m 111 ;r]-; --■;: ti- ;.bove, Now, I will string together, «t 
the end of mv little w. >rk, as a finish, some ecaUered notes which 
heiaug to each of them in genenJ. 

8S. CVnnwwiJi rariWy. I have taken the name of this rarietv 
from Mcnmt CancaHis, both because its neighbourhood, and es- 
peeiaiDj Hs Knutbem slope, produces the must beautiful race of 
men, I mean the Georgian ' ; and because all physiological rea- 
■OBS eoaTcige to this, that in that region, if anywhere, it seems 
we oi^t with the greater probability to place the autochthones 
of mankind. For in the first pla^e, that stock displays, as we 
bareaeeo fs, 62), the most beautifdl form of the skull, from which, 
M from a moat and primeval type, the others direrge by most 
eai^ gndattons on both sides to the two ultimate eictremes (that 
is, on the one side the Mongolian, on the other the Ethiopian). 
Bemdea, it is white in colour, which we may fairly assume to 
have been the primitive colour of mankind, since, as we have 
shown above (s. 4o), it is very easy for that to degenerate into 
brown, but very much more difficult for dark to become white, 
when the secretion and precipitation of thia carbonaceom pig- 
ment (s. 44) has once deeply struck root 

8C, MwigcAian variety. This is the same as what was for- 
merly caUed, though in a vague and ambiguous way. the Tartar 
variety*; which denomination has given rise to wonderful mis- 
takes in the study of the varieties of mankuid which we are now 
baay abont. So that Bufibn and bis followers, seduced by that 
title, have erroneously transferred to the genuine Tartars, who 

> FmiD a cloniJ oT eje irilnenKa it u ennogh to qaola aae duaiaJ one, 
Jo. Cbvitin, T. 1. p. m. 171. "Tlie tiluucl of Qeor^a ia the beBl of tlie Ekat, uid 
pcriups in th« world, 1 tuve Dot ob«erT«d ■ ongle ugly Taco in thjiL couutrj, in 
eilUcr Ki : but I hnic teen in^UoU ones. N&ture hu there lavisbed upon the 
wnmien bekutica wfaich are not to be teva elaewhrre. I coniider it to be inipnoible 
to loiA M tliem without loTing them. It would be iiupcnible to puint taan ohknn. 
ing *ing««, or better fignr«fl, tbvi those of the Georgiuii." 

On the origin of thii erroneoui confmion, by which the name of Tirtum 


ta ba tnuinferred to the Mongnlijui natioiK, coDipare J. Eberti. I^Mjirr. 
mtrdegemlr d lunfiw Tataronim in hia Quirttiima PttrapoUbuta, p. 46, uid 
SiiiriKht OtMAifhtf, T. (. p. if, HI. 

doobt bcloi^ to our fint vanetj', tke ndal tbmutHeu 
of tbe Hoi^oli, boRowed fron mcient antban', «k» JotribaJ 
tlMOt onder the make of Tartan. 

But tbe T«nan ihade any thnx^ tbe Ki^gbis and tbe 
nei^iboiniBg ncea iDto tbe Hoacob. in tbe aame way ms Aem 
ma.j be umI to paa tbraogb tbe l%etaaa* to tbe lodiaaB, 
ibimt^ tbe Eeqaimsiu to tbe Amerieans. and also in a son of 
way tfaroagfa tbe PhUippine Islaodera' to tbe men of tbe Malay 

87. Ethiopian variety. This Tahety, principally becaoae it 
ia so different in colour firom oar own, has induced many to ooO' 
■der it, with tbe winy, bat badly instructed in physiology, V(d- 
taire, as a peculiar species of mankind. Bat it is not neceasarj 
for me to ^pend any time here apoo refoting this opinion, whoi 
it has to clearly been shown above that there is do single 
cliaracter so peculiar and so uniTersal among the Ethiopians, 
but what it may be obaerred on the one hmtd everywhere in other 
vaneties of men'; and on the other that many Xegroes are seen 

' Tiic tonrce, frnm whicti tbe dtwiiptinu of tke Moognla whidi lua 
bcfli wo ohai reputed, ttmi whitb bu bnv copied M if Uut of Tartan by n 
IDUi; withon on nstanU hulory. I have fomid in the letter o/ a oertaio 7*4, S 
eburcbmao of Nart»nn«, dated at Vienoa in [I43. and aent bi GinUn*, Biifr 
Ukhop oT Bofdrani, and inaerted by hit caat.-fnponfy AIiMbev P«n^ Oa 
EnKUsb mcmlc ot St Albans, in wbat i« called bii hutoria Major, p. jjo, ed. Lmd. 
i6B6. fol. Tbi* letter of Vv<i ii about Ifae terrible dRvaiitation* of tbat ixiboiBUi 
nation called the Tartan, ai>d he ipeaki ni them in the following vonla: "X 
Tartan have haid and (trong hreuU. tbin and pde fac«. atiffaiid upright obatJ 
bonaa, abort and twiited noan, chinB pmminent aiid aharp, the upper jaw * 
and deep, tho teeth lung and few, tiie ejelunwa reaoLiDg from the hair of Uie F 
to tbe noae, lbs eyei black and unaetlled, the coantenance one-iudod Uiil fli 
tlia ettramiliM bony and nervous, tbf! legs also big, Intt the calf-honea aho 
Mature liDXever tbe luuue an oiir own ; for what i* wanting in tba legs, u n 
for in tbe nppep part of the body." 

' Thai, at IcMt, 1 coinidor niy«lf entitW to cnncludB frnm ihr iH^tora ... 
Tibvtaiu, pkioted from nature by the great artiit Kettle, and abowa ma bj Wui 

' Tbe Indian from the Philippine lalanda, wbrma T antv ulivo in Londos S 
Aim. Dalrjii4iln'i, van in appewftDoe fxattly Ihlx sort of middle man. 

' Tliers in iinly niii^ tiling I ahuuld like to add to what boa bciai more cnpioiuty^ 
dincuued almut Mr, point in the lectiun above, lL« the sort of p..»'<ter-like • ■ 
which can be diatingiiiahed in the *iiin of black nen, can bv nn meaiu, aa ao 
antban think, bs peculiar to the Mnlpigbian inucui of tbe Ethi<>[NanB, Ixcaun 
hava perfi'ctly obarrved the name thing, although more •oattercl and leas aquallj 
dintributcd, in «> many of tlioae Indian aailoi* who iro callnl Laacan. Id oaa _ 

Id, I ean »*^| 


be without each. And btsidea there is do character which 
does not shade away by iitGensible gradation fi-om this variety of 
mankind to its neighhoura, which is clear to every one who has 
carefully considered the differimce between a few stocks of this 
variety, such as the Foiilaha, the Wolufs, and Mandingoe, and 
how by these shades of difference tliey pass away into the 
Moors and Arabs. 

The assertion that is made about the Ethiopians, that they 
le nearer the apes than other men, I willingly allow so far as 
this, that it is in the same way that the solid-hoofed (s. 30) 
variety of the domestic sow may be said to come nearer to the 
horse than other sows. But how little weight is for the most 
part to be attached to this sort of comparison is clear from this, 
that there is scarcely any other out of the principal varieties of 
mankind, of which one nation or other, and that too by careful 
observers, has not been compared, as far as the face goes, with 
the apes; as we find said in express words of the Lapps', the 
Esquimaux*, the Oaaiguas of South America', and the inhabit- 
auta of the Island MallicoUo*. 

88. Atiiencan varieti/. It is astonishing and humiliating 

what quantities of fables were formerly spread about the racial 

tractera of this variety. Some have denied beards to the men', 

lera menstruation to the women'. Some have attributed 


■ Tbui Regnard concludm h\a dsscripdoa of the Lnpfw in tbena « 
is the dincripCion of tliat little mini the; cull the L&giUuiler, mnd I 
tbrrv i« do uuubJ, after the ape, which ao nearlj ap|)roauheB the man." d'utn), 
T. 1. i^;i- 

* Wbca ihr &quiiii>ui Altuloch, Hhoae picture taken from the Ufa I owe to 
Sir Joeeph Bnnki, aaw an ape in London for th« fint time, he aaked bia companiun 
I'urtwrigbt in astoniiihnieDt, "Is that an Esquimaun t" and he adds in his 
Hccount, " I mnat confeas, that hoth tlie colour and contoiir of the cotintu 
bad conmderahle reeemblsoce to tlie people of their nutioo." 

' " Aa like apes aa men," says Nic del Teobo of Chcni, Rrlaliam de Can 



one and tlic same colour' to each and all the Americai 
others a perfectly simiiar coiinteDancc to all of them*. It hna 
been so clearly demonstrated now by the unanimous consent of 
accurate and truthful observers, that the Americans are not 
naturally bear<lless, that I am almost ashamed of the unneoes- 
Bary trouble I formerly took to get together a heap of testi- 
mony', by which it is proved that not only throughout the 
whole of America!, from the Esquimaux downwards to the inha- 
bitants of Tierra del Fuego, are there groups of inhabitajits who 
cherish a beard ; but also it is quite undeniable as to the other 
beardless ones that they eradicate and pluck out their own by 
artifice and on purpose, in the same way as has been customary 
among so many other nations, the Mongolians * for example, and 
the Malays". We all know that the beard of the Americans iq 
thin and scanty, as is also the case with so many Mougolii 
nations. They ought therefore no more to be called beardlei 
than men with scanty hair to be called bald, Tliose therefqd 
who thought the Americans were naturally beardless fell i 
the same error as that which induced the ancients to suppi 
and persuade others, that the birds of pai'adise, from ' 
corpses the feet are often cut ofif, wore naturally destitute I 

The fabulous report that the American women have no men 
struation, sc^ems to have had its origin in this, that the Eui 
peans when they discovered the new world, although they i 
numbers of the female inhabitants almost entirely naked, nei 
seem to have observed in them the stains of that exoretii 
For this it seems likely that there were two reasons; first, tbt 

' Sea Home in Sirleiei of Iht HUlory of Man, Vol t. p. 
' OoDip. Bubi^rtaoa'u Uittorg of A tntrka, Vol. n. p. ro. i. 
' I ciU-d ft Sew out at muiy uthera some yaixt ogu in GoUingiirk. Magaam, id 
jBar, P. \t. p. 4ig. 

* See beaiHea many otliera J. G. Gmelin, JUUt durrA Sihlrien, T, II. p, U.S. 
" It is very dllGcult tn Hril siDougaC the Tungua, or uny of thwe pivple, » beknt 
For u Boon u one tip|iean, the; pull the hair out, and at lut bring U to thii that 
there id nothing tnore spring up." 

' Comp. on the Sumatnna, Iil&nden ; on the MagtnJiina, Forrest; oo th« 
Pelaw laUndcni, Wilson; on the P»puuifl, Civn«ret; on the iohabitanti of tLi 
'" "iviiiator'B uroup, BougiunviUo, Ac. 

* Lory, Vttgnfff. f'ikt en U Irrre du Breiil. p. in, 170. 

coLonL 273 

amtmgAtkmB maiaBft «f AxMnea, tW wkmen during nMoatni- 

MS fiiMwIiil frm Htcisl irtcfooajse, and fat wtoiig e^foy « 
^T— ^'^ ic]K»e m the Bore Fecfaideil bats ftr from the view 
of >i^*; ■eesnd^. bccwue, as La? beea aotioed', tkey are a» 
OBMMBilaUf ckaa in tlkeir bodies, and the oamnusstne of their 
Iqgl •» oondaoea to vaadtatr. that no Testiges of the catamema 
flier ftrike the eje. 

Jit to the eokiur of the skia of this TarietT, on the one haod 
ikhaa faecB ahaerred above, that it is by do raeans ao oonstaat as 
■St in tOMitj cases to ihade away into bladt (s. 43) ; aod oo the 
Mfaer, that it it euily sifen, frum the nature of the Americao di- 
■ate*. and the laws of degeneratioo when applied to the ex- 
tnmdj proboUe origio of the Americaas from northeni A^*, 
wlijr ther are not liaU^ to such great div^isities of ooLour, as the 
other descendaats of Asiatic autocbtbooes, who peopled the 
ancieat wocld. Tte aaine reason huliU good as to the appear- 
aaee of the Ameiicaaa. Careful ere-v itoossoa long ago laired 
at th« Ibulish, or possibly facetious h«-pcrboIc of some, who 
asserted that the tohabitants of the new worM were so exactly 
alike, that when a man had seen one, be oould say tliat be bad 
seen all', Ac It is, on the contrary, proved by tbe finished 
drawings of Americana by the best artists, and by the testimony 
^^fl tl>e most txubtwortby eye-witnesses, that io this rariety of 

Vu Bo^'* Sriten hvA H. <tt Btriia wad Siin'iuin, & 46. 
Samttmaan, Gmyrai^ tde itttkifbt da mrrncbcm, T. 1. p. 87, 
Kut. in TiMtKAm Mimr, ■. tjfS, T. t. p. 1 19. 

Sec Uol'U. finUa itir.'a malnntlt drl Chili, p. 33^. " I laugh in mj iImtv 

I mil ID octtain mnilern «-rit?n, •njip'iBeJ to be diligEiiI ctk-erven. tliat alJ 

iiu^caoa liATe die vatnc ftpp«arau», and that vli< n a man hai teva am, Im 

aT that he baa (kd tliem all. Kach autLon allow themoclTn to be loo 

\\j jecetrnl by cvrtaio Tague appcaranca of aimilaritj wliich have bo do for th« 

■t foit inUi colour, atul which vauUh it (ood aa evtt tbe iiiiliridu*!a of one 

ion an coofrontrd with those uf another. A ChiliaQ doea not dilfur icn in 

,«)t from a PeruTJan, than an Italian from a Gtrman. I have teea m;iwir 

'uuoajaDfM, Cttlauoa, and Magellauoa, all cif whom haie Uieir pacnliar lintamsnla 

hlcD are eaiil; diatinguitheil frum thow of the aUien." 

' Thui, to bring a few eiamplei from South America aloor. Hie. dd Techo 

doKTib^ the Caaigual with apiah Doatrili : Man. Dahriihotfai ajt that the n(ii){)f 

* Kut. in 

H * S<« Uci-'. 

^^■pa AnicncBn* 
^S flT faatrtd 


in generai tJjat sort of racial conformatiun may be amsiJcTeil as 
jnoperly belonging to them which we attributed to tliem above 
(a, 56). It was justly observed by the first Europeans' who 
visited the new continent, that the Americans camo very near to 
the Itfongolians, which adds fresh weight to the very probable 
opinion that the Americans came from northern Asia, and 
derived their origin fram the MongoHan nation. It is probable 
that raigrationa of that kind took place at di6Ferent times. aftCT 
considerable intervals, according as various physical, geolc^eal, 
or politioaJ catastrophes gave occasion to them ; and hence. If 
any place is allowed for ooujecture in tliese investigations, the 
reason may probably be derived, why the f^squimaiix have still 
much more of the Mongolian appearance' about them than the 
rest of the Americans: partly, because the catastrophe wl 
drove them from northern Asia must be much more recent, 
BO they are a much later arrival'; and partly because the climate 
of the new countiy, which they now inhabit, is much more homo- 
geneous with that of their original country, In fact, unless I : 
much mistaken, we must attribute to the same influence I mi 
tioned above (a, 67), which the climate has in preserving 
restoring the racial appearance, the fact that the inhabitants of 
the cold southern extremity of South America, as the barbarow 
inhabitants of the Straits of Magellan, seem to come ni 
and as it were fall back, to the original Mongolian countenanc6* 

I the 


mate I 

>aroiu m 

bnuring AblponcB, on tlie contruy, &re often remarkable for wiuiliue noMs: Ulloi 
Ktlributes a nurrnn' >nd booked hobo to tlie Fvruviaiia: Molina, one (nmewlul 
brotd to the Cbiliuig ; G. Fonler, one verj deprtued to lbs iilauditn of Tierr* M 

' l.tlUrt ill A-mfr. I'Biyucn, p. 9, ed. Bandini. "Ther are not TCfy hmd- 
(ome, tiecume tbeir Sac'b are widr, wliioli makca thtm like Tartars." 

* TIWb I aee moat clearly Irath in two Erniuimaut skulls from Nain, a coIodt ef 
L&lindor, wljit^h ndom my coUeotion. and in tbe pictures of thoae barltanuii 
taken from the life b^ good artisti, which I owo to the libemlity of Sir J. Buka. 

' The paradox ol Itnbertion, who derived the EH|uimaiu( trom the NDnnuni. 
in bi> Hitlorji of Ameriea, Vol. u. p. 40, acorcely deaervei a rcfutstiun at tliin 

* Thus that uliBsical Argonsut and papilal eye-witneaa and obaervar, Linsohot. 
enmpari'B the iiiiialiitanta uf the stmit of Mogelian whom be aaw, in phyriogaomT, 
appeanince, oiluur. hair and beaid, to tbe Samoirdei, with whom he wu lerj wdl 
acquainted ihrnugh hii fiDiouB joumej to the itrut of NtwoTilch, in b' 
io Aee^a. p. 46 A. 

uoTiich, in U* n^^— 


HO. The Malay variety. As tbc Americana in respect of 
racial appearance hold as it were a place between the mediaJ 
variety of maukiud, which we callud tlie Caucasian, and one of 
the two extieraos, that is the Mongolian i so the Malay variety 
makes the transition from tliat medial variety to the other ex- 
treme, namely, the Ethiopian. I wiiih to call it the Malay, 
because the majority of the men of this variety, especially those 
vho inhabit the Indian inlands close to the Malacca peninsula, 
as well as tbe Sandwich, the Society, and the Friendly Islanders, 
uid also the Malambi of Madagascar down to the inhabitants of 
Easter Island, use the Malay idiom'. 

Meanwhile even these differ so much between themselves 
through various degrees of beauty and other corporeal attributes, 
th&t there are some who divide the Otaheitans themselves into 
two distinct races'; the first paler in colour, of lofty stature, 
with face which can scarcely be distinguished from that of the 
European; the second, on the other hand, of moderate stature, 
colour and face little different from that of Mulattos, curly 
hair, &c.' This last race then comes very near those men who 
inhabit the islands more to the south in the Pacific Ocean, of 
whom the inhabitants of the New Hebrides in particular come 
sensibly near the Papuans and New Hollanders, who finally on 
their part graduate away so insensibly towards the Ethiopian 
variety, that, if it was thought convenient, they might not 
unfairly be classed with them, in that distribution of the varie- 
ties we were talking about. 

90. Conclusion. Thus too there is with this that insensible 
transition by which as we saw the other varieties also run toge- 
tlier, and which, compared with what was discussed in the earlier 

^^P > Sir J. Bittiki fint of ikll ahownl thi> in Hawkenrnrtli'i ColUrtion, Vol. in. 
^^^ J73, tben ifter liim Br;uit in Cook's Voyage to Ike Xvrlktm Uemliphtrt, Vol. 
m. App. No. 1, p. Sl8, »nd Maiwieii in Arehaologia, Vol VI. p. Ij*. 
' Kro BoogMnviile in Vegageautoir iIh Motulr,f. 113. 

* Thiia laiij; *go tbe inimartal Do Quiros, who Gmt discovered the Society 
Tdftlidi, occunttnly dialinguialiod th«ae TurieCieB unoug ths inliabitiuita of the 

fA» in the Pncific Ocean. wLen ha called, aoma whito, and compared some to 
Mulattin, uid some to Ibe E;hiupUns. Sm Dalrytnple, Celketkn of Voy- 
(a Oil Sovth Patific (Man, Voi. 1. p. 164. 



Kaquimaux, so widely diffused over North America, from Beln 
ring's straits to the inhabited extremity of Greenlaud. 

Ethiopian variety. Colour black (b. 43) ; Lair black ( 
curly (b. 52); head narrow, compressed at the aides (s. ( 
forehead knotty, uneven; malar bones protruding outwai 
eyes very prominent; nose thick, mixed up as it were v ' ' 
wide jaws (a 56) ; alveolar edge narrow, elongated in front; 
upper primaries obliquely promiueot (s. 62); the lips (ea 
cially the upper) very puffy; chin retreating (s. 56). 
bandy-legged (s. 69), To this variety belong all the Airicc 
except those of the north. 

American variety. Copper-coloured (s, 43); bair black, i 
straight and scanty (s, 52); forehead short; eyes set very dee 
nose somewhat apish, but prominent; the face invariably broad, 
with cheeks prominent, but not flat or depressed ; its parts, if 
Been in profile, very distinct, and aa it were deeply chiselled 
(s. 56) ; the shape of the forehead and head in many artificially 
distorted. This variety comprehends the inhabitants of Ame- 
rica except the Esquimaux, 

Malay vanety. Tawny-coloured (s. 43); hair black, 
curly, thick and plentiful (a 52) ; head moderately narroweda 
forehead slightly swelling (s. 62); nose full, rather wide, 
were diffuse, end thick; mouth large (s. 56), upper jaw s 
what prominent with the parts of the fece when seen i 
sufficiently prominent and distinct from each other {s. 
This last variety^ includes the islanders of the Pacific < 
together with the inhabitants of the Marianne, the Fhilippi 
the Molucca and the Sunda Islands, and of the Malayan pen- 

83. Ditidons of tJie varieties of viankind by other authors. 
It seems but fair to give briefly the opinions of other autbon 
also, who have divided mankind into varieties, so that the 
reader may compare them more easily together, and wei^ 
them, and choose which of them he likes best The firat peiv 
son, as far as I know, who made an attempt of this kind was a 
certain anonymous writer who towards the end of the last 
century divided mankind into four races; that is, first, < 



of aU Europe, Lapland alone excepted, and Southern Asia, 
Northern Africa, and t"he whole of America; secondly, that 
of the rest of Africa; thirdly, that of the rest of Asia with the 
islands towards the east; fourthly, the Lapps'. Leibnitz di- 
vided the men of our continent into four classes. Two extremes, 

Laplanders and the Ethiopians; and as many intermediates, 
eastern (Mongolian), one western (as the European)'. 

linnsus, following common geography, divided men into 
.) the red American, (2) the white European, (3) the dark 
Asiatic, and (i) the black Negro^ BuEFon distinguished six varie- 
ties of man: (!) Lapp or polar, (2) Tai-tsir (by which name ac- 
cording to ordinary language he meant the Mongolian), (3) south 
Asian, (4) European, (5) Ethiopian, (6) American*. 

Amongst those who reckoned three primitive nations of 
mankind answering to the number of the sons of Noah, Governor 
Pownall is first entitled to praise, who, as far as I know, was also 
the first to pay attention to the racial form of skull as connected 
with this subject. He divided these stocks into white, red and 
black. In the middle one he comprised both the Mongolians 
and Americans, a^ agreeing, besides other characters, in the con- 
figuration of their skulls and the appearance of their hair'. 
Abb^ de la Croix divides man into white and black. The 
former again into white, properly so called, brown (frntne), 
yellow (jaundtres), and obve-coloured', 

Kant derives four varieties from dark-brown Autochthones : 
the white one of northern Europe, the copper-coloured Ame- 
rican, the black one of Senegambia, the olive-coloured Indian'. 
John Hunter reckons seven varieties: (1) of black men, that is, 

' JrnLmal dti Saivaru, a. 1684, p. 133. Comp. Bob. de Vaugonily, Gl. Ifmnftl 
Atlod poTtatif, Paris, 1778, 410, PL 4. 

■ In Feller in Oliam J/anoivraaum, p. 1 59. 

' After the year 1735, in &1I Ihe editiona ot hia immortkl work. Gmelin hai 
ttddod to the lut edidon, bronglit out by bimself, mj divigioo, T. !. p. 33. 

* Tbese tix variittive bsTe been beautifully described, aud in fact painted aa it 
teere b}' tbe glowing bniih of Uallcr, in his clauical work, Idecn zur philaiophie 
der guiJiichtt drr mmtchlidt, T. n. p. in. 4 — 68. 

» Comp, A JVno Collettitm of Vogaga, &a. Lond. 1J67, 8vo, Vol. H. p. 173. 

• See Qeo^rajikie modtrae, T. I. p. 61, ed. 5, uid Vaugondy, I. e, PI. 3. 

' Both in Engel, PkHotopk. /fir dit Wdt. T. a. and in Btiiiatr moMUuAfifi, 
i;85. T. Tl, 


I. Ou Mutability in the Creation. 

IL A Glance into the Primitive World. 

III. A Preadamite Primitive World has already lived out its 


IV. Hemodelling of the Primitive World. 

V, Changes in the present Creation. 

YI. Degeneration of Organized Bodies. 

VII. Especially in the Domestic Animals. 

VIII. Degeneration of the most perfect of all domestic animals — 

IX. A very peculiar physiological singularity of the Human Body. 

X. Something tranquillizing on a common family conceiiL 

XI. On Anthropological Collections. 

XII. Division of Mankind into^ve principal Kaces. 

XI IL On the Negro in particular. 

XIV. On the Kakerlacken. 


1 On the Gradation in Nature. 

2. On the Succession of different Earth-catastrophes. 

3. On the so-called Objects of Design. 


beyond a, doubt belong to our first variety, the racial charocteni 
of the Mongols, borrowed from ancient authors', who describe ~ 
them under the nam« of Tartars, 

But the Tartars shade away through the Kirjjhia and 
neighbo\iring races into the Mongols, in the same way as thee 
may be said to pans through the Tibetans* to the Indiana 
through the Esquimaux to the Americans, and also in a sort e 
way through the Phihppine Islanders' to the men of the Mal^ 

87- Ethiopian variety. This variety, principally because ic| 
is BO different in colour from our own, has induced many to cour 
aider it, with the witty, but badly instructed in physiology, Vol- 
taire, as a peculiar species of mankind. But it is not neceasaiy 
for me to spend any time here upon refuting this opinion, whe4 ^ 
it has so clearly been shown above that there is no singlel 
character so peculiar and so universal among the Ethiopian^ 
but what it may be observed on the one hand everywhere in othm 
varieties of men' ; and on the other that many Negroes are & 

I Tile nrigii:itl source, frnm which tbo cltBciiptinii (if the Mongnls which hu 
been so <irten rtpented, and which baa been cupiiic! aa if Uutt of Tiu1:>n hj M> 
ronn; Kathara ou naturni histury, 1 have found in the leltar of a certain Tva, t 
cliurchnian of Nsrbonne, dated at Vienna in 1143. and sent to Oirnldiu, arcb- 
bUhop of Bordeaux, and inaerted b; his conb-'mporary Mattbew Pari*, the 
Knclikh monk of Sc Albans, in what is ualled bis Hit^oria Major, p. jjo, tA. Load. 
1G86, fnl. Tliis letter of Ytk is abflut tlie terrible ilevaitaticinn of that ii ' 
nation called the Tartars, and be epenki of thom in the foUawing- words: 
TarUirs h.ive bard and itroag breaaLa. tliiii and pala fanes, stiff and upright obl 
bonea. short and tviileil noaea, ohina |iri>mineut and ahurp, the upper jMW 
and deep, the teetli lutig nnd few, the e^clirowa reacLiDg from the hsir of Um *" 
to the noae, the eyea fihiclt and unaotUfd. the countenance one-aided am" 
tliB extremitiea bony and nervnus, tlii.' le^ alao big, but the calf.boiies shnrt, tl« 
alature however tlie same as our own ; far wliaC is wanting in tbn l^^a. Is nutdo n[i 
for in the upper part of the liody." 

■ Thua. at leaat, I consiili^r n<,viu4f entithid to cnnchide fmni the (lictum ol tU 
Tibetans, punted from nature by the great artist Kettle, and ahowD me bf Wi 

' The Indian from the Philippine Iilanda, whom I anw ivlive in London 
Alex. Dalrymplea, was in appearance exactly Ihia »ort nl 

* Tliero ia only oni tiling I ahuuld like to add lo wha 
disouaaed abnut ihia |»int in llie aeclion above, that tbe aoit of pnwiler-lilie 
wliioh can be distJnijiUHtied in the akiii of btack u-^n, can hr nei rneuu. M 1 
authors think, be peeuliar to the Malpigbian mucua of the Kthi-ipiana, beoattM 
hare perft'ctly observed the sbdib thing, although more aoatteroil and lew eqi " 
diBtribiited, in ao many of tlj'iae Indian snilois who are calird lAflcan. ' 


■e of Bom 

ay, wbo 

n mj I 

>UHhold, I a 



lo Iks without each. And beaidea there is no character which 
does not shade away by insensible gradation from this variety of 
maakind to its neighbours, which ia clear to every one who has 
carefully considered the difference between a few stocks of this 
variety, such as the Foulahs, the Wolufs, and Mandingos, and 
how by these shades of difference they pass away into the 
Moors and Arabs. 

The assertion that is made about the Ethiopians, that they 
come nearer the apes than other men, I willingly allow so far as 
this, that it is in the same way that the solid-hoofed (s. 30) 
variety of the domestic sow may be said to come nearer to the 
horse than other sows. But how little weiglit is for the most 
part to be attached to this sort of comparison is clear from this, 
that there is scarcely any other out of the principal varieties of 
mankind, of which one nation or other, and that too by careful 
observers, has not been compared, as far aa the face goes, with 
the apes; as we find said in express words of the Lapps', the 
ii^quimaui*, the Caaiguas of South America', and the inhabit- 
auts of the Island UallicoUo'. 

88. Ajiierican vanelif. It is astonishing and humiUating 
what quantities of fables were formerly spread about the racial 
characters of this variety. Some have denied beards to the men', 
others menstruation to the women'. Some have attributed 

M time goes on, tho tame blitckn^i in tho I 
in other respects (he predpiMted cwbon n 
eSiised unfJEr tbe eptderrniii. 

^ ThuB Begniird concludea hia description of the Lappa in Ibsse words -. " Rneh 
ii the description of that little nijin they call the Laplandor, •nd I may siy thnt 
thpre ia do uiimnl, iSia the ape. which so nearly approaches the mui." Q^nvrtt, 
T. I. p-;i. 

* \Vhpn the E-quimMi Altuioch, whose picture Uken from the life 1 owe lo 
Sir Joseph Bunks, saw ui ape in London for th« first time, he asked his companion 
Curtwright in antonisbment, "Is that an Esqiilmaaii I" and he add* in liis 
account, " I must confess, that liotb the colour and contour of the cauuttDanoe 
hid considerahle resemblance to the people of their nHtion." 

• "As like apes as men," says Nio. del Teeho of them, lirlaiioiie dt Cnaigua- 

I- 3<- 

"The inhabiUnU 


a new plaut lias a[)peared, tlie Peloi'ia, that is uiidoubteJly i 
sort of new creatioD." " Ah," they answer, " nature ia an old> 
hen, which will certainly lay nothing more fresh at this time ofv 
day." " Certainly not," decides Haller; "and such errors should* 
be denoiinced, because they will be eagerly snapped up by the 
atheists, who will be only too glad to demonstrate the instability 
of nature as well by the appearance of new species, as by the 
pretended esterminatton of old kinds. And this must notj 
lie ; for if order in the physical world comes to an cod, so alw 
will order ia the moral world, and at last it is all over with s 

If I may presume to put in a word here myself, my opinioftl 
is that on all sides too much has been made of the matter. Tin 
niurex exists up to the present day just as much as in the timeil 
of the old Phcenicians and Greeks;^the peloria ia a monstroiu 
freak of nature, anil no new particular independent special 
Nature is made common, but is not exactly an old hen, — and thi 
creation is something more solid than that statue of Minei 
— and it will not go to pieces even if one species of creatures ■ 
dies out, or another ia newly created, — and it is more than merely 
probable, that both cases have happened before now, — and all 
this without the slightest danger to order, either in the physical — 
or in the moral world, or for religion in general. For my o 
part it is exactly in these things that I find the guidance ( 
a higher hand most unmtstakeable; so that in spite of thi 
recognized instability of nature, the creation continues going oili 
its quiet way; and on that very account it is ray opinion that il 
is well worth the trouble, after such an immea'je deal lias beein 
written upon the pretended unchangeableness of the creation, 
just once to recollect on the other hand the proofs of the g 
alterations in it. To do this I shall be obliged to go some way J 

A Peep into the Primitive World. 

Every paving-^one in Oottingpn ia a proof that species, or 
r whole genera, of creatures must have disappeared. Oui- 
limestone swarms likewiBe with uumerous kinds of lapidified 
marine creatures, among which, aa far as I know, there is only 
one single species that so much resembles any one of the pre- 
sent kinds, that it may be considered as the original of it; 
and this is that particular kind of the Terebratulae in the Medi- 
terranean and Atlantic waters, which from their appearance 
have received the name of the cock and hen'. Fur one of 
the two delicate bellied shells rises behind over the other at the 
junction, and so when it is seen in profile it has some resem- 
blance to a cock which is treading a hen. 

Amongst the quite countless host of other lapidified marine 
creatures, who have found their grave in our soils, there are no 
doubt many (as amongst the Mytilites, Chamite*, Pectinites, 
&c.) to which most naturalists attribute as many distinct origi- 
nals, but I have very often compared, in these instances, the 
petrifaction* with the pretended original, and it is not my fault 
if I have come to the conclusion that both are unmistakeably 
npi-cifically diatinct from each other', 

In a very great number of the remaining lapidiGcations of 
this country the forms differ so very surprisingly from all 
creatures now known, that I hope no one will in futui'e really 


ra. Chen 


» ConekgiifB-nUtiB 

:. T»b. L»ivin. (ig. 

1 rthr 
r/oft, , 

'hree wordf are employer] gomewbnt loniuly by Blumenbikch ; rtnlvintrtmy, 
/aet, foaii: I have IrBEaUted them, lapidifcation, parijaction, and /otiil 
rmpecU vel V. — E». ] 

' Nenrlj: tbe only, bat therefore nil Ihe more importADt, nw of tbe knowledge 

of UjiidiGcationa, is die sotution vliich Ihe history of the chnngua nf the enrth'i 

«urf»co deriTea from it; but unfortunately lo arrive at tbie remiirm the moiii ei- 

^l«ne Homuscy of obsermtion, eBpeoiallj when wb come to the coniparinon of |if- 

'~ ctiani with thnr pretended origintilB. Want of Accuracy in tbig has *lre:uly 

lue«d Uw Diott eitnordinaT^ ccninogonical errom. 


tiy to rt'ckou them amongst these last', I will mcntioii tw 
genera only out of all, the Belemnites' and the Ammonite 
of both of which I have before me all sorts of different spetuei 
from moat of the countries of Europe, and even from Asia, aDffl 
which will also most likely be found in the other parts of th<a 
world, the islands of the fifth part cscopted*. At present thejj^ 
reckon about 200 different species of the Ammonite genus;! 
and I do not think this is an exaggeration', although I have 
never considered it worth while to count them up advisedly. 
No true representative of any one of these 200 species haa 
yet been found in the existing creation. It is plain also from 
observing well-preserved Ammonites, that notwithstanding some 
ai'e of quite colossal size, they must have been very slender- 
shelled, light, and unattached conchylia, and could not bavaj 
lived, as was at first suggested as an evasion, sunk in the depthi 
of our seas. And as we now, by the great voyages through 
which the king' has caused the larger portion of the fifth j 
of the world to be discovered, and the boundaries of our e 
to be ascertained, are coming to be better acquainted with the ■ 

> Superintendent SoLrEiter ooniidera it aa one of tho chief ubm which we d«rin 
from the itudy of petrificatiana, tbat they help us to fill up the gape in the grM)»- 
lion of luture, "Without them," »;■ he, id the jnl Vol! of hi« Einldlitiiy in di* 
Gndiichtt dtr Sttine, ile., l. 94, " we should fiud the moat vandcrful g»pi in thii 
gntdatiau uid chiin ol luture, wUch are tortunittfl^ filled up forusby meuu of tht 
Mienoe of UpidiScklJona." If we found this remark iu uiy other writer, we ebonld 
coDBider it u BiimethiDg witty upon the asserted gradstion of naturu with regard 
to the generation of her creaturea; for all thia ton only mean that what the Creator 
haa not given ua in nalnra, at leaat He baa had caat In eSgy for the asaiatance of 
the physico-thetlogiuu and their allvgoiical imaeea of ofaaini and linka in Hii 
creation. On this I will Bay a little more in the additiom, at the end of thia part. 

• Belamnites are oven atill lonie of the cominoneat of tapidifioationi. Tie 
Chevalier D' Hancarviile, Rtcherrha kit rorigiru du Arif de la Grift, B. La.!, — ao 
unparalleled book — givea aa a reaaon why we do not find them in itjlt larger nomben 
— that »o many of them were ihol away, if we can truat hia aaiertion, m tha cbild- 
hood of mankind. For, aaya ho, " before they uaed copper or iron to arm tba 
poinb of their darta with, they used to employ these Bdemnites. The Arundel 
inarblea place the epoch of the diacorery of iroo in the year 87 after the arriral of 
Cadmus in Greeoe. Before Oiat epoch the spean ol the Greeka were neftttarilf 
armed with th»a Bclemnitea, the name of which boa been banded down to our 
time, and abowi tho nao." 

• J. K. Forstcr, BraeriuR^ira avf Kiiur rtitt unt rfiV Wtlt, a. ig. 

* In the Btalaver SamtKhingrn of i;)':, it ia atated that the ai»Ioua and aaga- 
cinua collootor of petrifacUuna, KouQua of Monden, bad alreadj' collected over 3M 
aorta of Ammonitea. 

* George III. 


ocenD tb&n the firm land of our planet, we must consequently 
give up the hope that the representatives of these widely scat- 
tered animals, like tliousaads of other foseils, are still living, 
BUnk in our oceans. 


An old Preadamite Creation has already lived out its existence. 

Putting all these things together, in my opinion it becomes 
more than merely probable that not only one or more species, but 
a whole organized preadamite creation has disappeared from the 
&ce of our planet. Out of all existing theories of the earth 
vith which I am acquainted, there is no single one by which the 
instantly apparent peculiarities of the petrifactions in our cal- 
careous strata can be brought into any order. But they will be 
at once easily explained, as soon aa it is understood, as I have 
said, that our earth has already suffered a complete revolution, 
and experienced one last day. It is plain that other so-called 
cosmogonical phenomena, as, for instance, the quantity of fossil 
bones of the elephant, rhinoceros, and other animals of the 
present earth, which have been dug up in this country, and 
more of the same kind, must unfortunately be accurately sepa- 
rated and divided from that complete revolution. This it ia, if 
I mistake not, which has till now always been the rock on which 
even the most sagacious theories of the earth have foundered, 
80 soon OS they have endeavoured to refer all these phenomena, 
which are so different from one another, to one single common 
revolution, and to explain all by one and the same catastrophe'. 
A naturalist, who is aa sagacioua as amiable, has recently 
attempted to connect the origin of those fossil bones found in 

> Tn oppoiilion to this view, I hire in Cbe Specimen Ardnrolngia Tellurii, &c 
Gotl. 'Sof, 4W, endcaTonred to explnin the old liiatory of our plsnul, and especially 
tbe nature, and alio in geueial the lequenctB of the totally diHoreut aaCwtruphei it 
hut gooe Ihrougli, by whicb the numerous foaail remains of former organic creabioni 
have come into their present pDaitions. prlDcipnlly by a critical comparison oFtbeae 

286 P0S9ItB. 

iLlu couulry LiL-Iouging to foreigu land- animals and the actui 
lapidilicatious of the marine creatures in our calcareous fitra 
in this way with each other, by supposing that the pre 
position of those land-animals is not their original home, bi^ 
that after their death they fell into rivers, and so by degre 
were huddled together by the currents on the existing floor a 
the 800. But those localities, at all eventn where I myself hav^f 
examined the position of the large exotic bones, are very diffi- 
cult to reconcile with that hypothesis. Thus, for instance, I have 
myself examined at Burgtouna, in Ootha, the bed of both th« 
elephants which were dug up there in 1695 and 1799, and foui ' 
that it was so completely made up of strong layers of c 
which were so full of small, delicate, and for the most ] 
uninjured land and river sheik and the like, that I con«deril 
is quite impossible this bed could ever have been the floor < 
the sea; but that most likely the elephants, rhinoceroses, i 
tortoises, of all of which I have got together' instructive ape* 
mens for my collection from the Tonua niarl-strato, muBt hav^ 
been naturalized at one time in that country, no one knows h<n 
long after the supposed general revolution. This general rev( 
lution, from which may he dated the countless extinct orgaaia 
creatures in the calcareous Btrata, is ^ain quite different i 
the subsequent later one, which must have occnrred when t 
earth was remodelled'. 

' C«np. Hofr. Vnigt, I'ehtr Einigt P^jinealiKhr mtrlnmrdiglitilen dir *^— , 
rim Buryiomut im Umoglhum, Gotka '\a Ua MagaziH fiir Phyaik und Nabufi 
»tkidtlr. B. in. it. 4. 

' Tliura wna it time wlien Uie origin of kll petrifacliona, ami th« gonenl rvdIi 
tion uf thH eartb it«tf, wu ileiruoed from tliH Noacliiin deliiga. But, h Ob* i. 
th* moat neuinui and aiao aertainlj ana a! tha miwt ortbod^'i UieologUai. Kfl 
Wklsh, hu lusuml me, ve toe S*i tima doing the s%bteiit violenoe to the aulbnriW'* 
at Boly Boriplnre, when ve druy the univatHality of tbo floixl of Noah; and nt 
like manner, I cannot for mj own part rurm any aitiafactoiy idea, alter wfaal I 

Stber from the hiaUir? of animals themieliei, about the uiiirenalitj of Oat 
liigp. Thua, for initanc?, the pilgrtmag« which the doth (an aoioikl «)iieh takM 
II whole hour in cnwling ux Sett) niuM in that caHi have perConned [ram Anral If 

Boulh Ain«nca, i» alwaji a liUls iDoomprebemible. Wa ar " "* 

Auiplntine, to call in the aoiatiuioe of ihs luigrita, who jian Dti 

expnuta biiniuilf. firat of all oolleotcd iktl the animal kinploni in the ark, and IL. 
dittributed them ag^i <x' '•Mvni inde, in the diataut iiUnda aiul quarior* »f tl 


Remodellmj of the Pntnitive World. 

After therefore that organic creation in the Preaiiamite 
oitive epoch of our planet had fulfilled its purpose, it was 
Jeatroyed by a general catastrophe of its surface or shell, which 
probably lay in ruins some time, until it was put together again, 
enlivened with a fresh vegetation, and vivified with a new 
animal creation. In order that it might provide such a harvest, 
the Creator took care to allow in general powers of nature to 
bring forth the new organic kingdoms, similar to those which 
had fulfilled that object in the primitive world. Only the for- 
mative force having to deal with materials, which must of course 
have been much changed by such a general revolution, was com- 
pelicd to take a direction differing more or less from the old one 
ia the production of new species'. 

So that we naturally find very few creatures in the present 
creation which are exactly like the lapidifi cations of the primi- 
tive world, as, for instance, the shell-fish of the Atlantic aud the 
Terebratula mentioned above of our calcareous rocks of the pre- 
sent day. Outhe other hand, there are quantities of such petri- 
factions which appear like the present organic bodies, and 
therefore, as I have said already, on a mere hasty comparison 
are often taken to be identical with them, but which upon 
closer inspection present mostunmifttakeable differences in their 
formation, and may serve as an example how the fonnative 
force iTi these two creations has acted in a similar, but not 
exactly in the same way. As to the possible objection, that this 
difference might also have been occasioned solely by degenera- 
tion acting for a long series of thousands of years, it can be very 

^K ' So llMt the formative power nf nature In tlieee remodeliingi partly reproduceB 

H^D cmtnm at a Jiiiuiliir tjpo to Ihoae of the old world, whioh howvver in b; far 

^Ba Brenbeat number of initaaceB have pat on forma mors uppiicahle to otbero in 

Iha new order of things, ao thnt in tl>e new creaturva the laws of tbs fonn&Livii 

(aroe have been aoniewbat modiSod, u LucretiuB expreaaei himself: 

' quoJ potujt, neqticnt ; poiixit. 


easily refuted by those examples in which the difference hetwes 
fosail and recent sheila, which are sufficiently hke each oth( 
in general, ia still of that quality that it unfortunately coDtu 
be considered either as a coDseqnence of degeneration, or aa a 
accidental monstroBity, but can hardly be considered as anytliiag 
else than an altered direction of the fonnative force. To give 
one example out of many. In the North Sea there is a shell, 
whose pretty house ia generally known under the oatne of 
Murex despectua; and at Harwich on the coast of Essex there is 
found a fossil shell, which in its general habit has ao strong a> 
resemblance to that Murex, that at the lii-st glance one might fa 
mistaken for the other. But, in the recent species, as usiu 
happens, the twistings are to the right; whereas, on the contra 
in the fossil species the twists are exactly the other way, to tJ 
left' ; and it is just as contrary to expeiience to find the foaa 
Murex marked to the right as the recent Murex to the lei 
Such a thing is not a consequence of degeneration, but a 
remodelling through an altered direction of the formative force. 


Mutations in the Existivj Creation. 

) been su^^J 
^ver to hj^M 

According to all probability therefore a whole ores 
organized bodies has already become extinct, and has been t 
ceeded by a new one. So much variation is however t 
observed, or, as Ualler called it, but falsely, inatabihty of nature^ 
eveu in this new one, that a person might easily, d priori as they 
say, embrace the idea in this too of the extinction of whole spe- 
cies, and the fresh appearance of others, even if both these 
observations were not made more than merely probable hj 
actual data. 

. . il lioinil'U' fbrail, Sfurtx emlmrltit, fmm joj M 
lection, in thewcoud tmitoftiie A blrildimgtH XittKrhutorlicAer Gfgrii4!dHitl. CM 
1797, T»b, XX. 

Tliua there was still to be found in the time of our fathers, 
on the Isle of France and on some of the small neighbouring 
islands, but in no other place in the world, so far as is known, a 
species of large, phimp, lazy land-birds, whose flesh is repulsive, 
the Dodos^; whose locality was circumscribed, because they 
could fly no better than the Cassowary, But according to the 
account of M. Morel, who instituted a search with that view 
at the very place itself, this bird has ceased now to exist. It 
has been exterminated out and out This is no more incompre- 
hensible or improbable than that the last wolf in Scotland, as ia 
known to have been the case, should have been shot in 1680, 
although a hundred years before great wolf-hunts used to be 
held. Just in the same way, but somewhat earlier in England, 
and thirty years later in Ireland, these beasts of prey were 
destroyed also. Thus plainly neith«r the fauna nor the flora 
(as these lists of indigenous beasts and plants are called) of a 
coimtry remain always the same. Creatures enough die away 
in a locality, and fresh ones again become naturalized and spread 
themselves. It may he by design, aa the CArp which has now 
been artificially naturalized in many northern countries; or 
accidentally, as the rats of the old world have managed to 
engraft themselves on the new. So there is nothing contradic- 
tory in the idea that also once in the universal flora or fauna of 
the creation (but especially in the latter), as we have said, a 
species may have become extinct; and on the other hand a 
fresh one may likewise be sometimes very easily created sub- 

The pimple-worm' in pigs, which Malpighi was the first to 
discover, is quite as real and perfect an animal in its kind as man 
and the elephant in theirs. But, as is well known, this animal is 
only found in tame swine, and never in any way in the wild pig, 
from which however the former is descended. It would seem 
therefore that this worm was no more created at the same time 

' Didui intplia. See Ahbildungw yalurhittoritchiir G^^nUdruU Part IT. 
Cittt. 1799, Tab. uxv. 

* Byaatit Jmho, See Ahbltdnnstti S'alurhitloritfhtr GegtviUxniii *.. i,. O. Tilh. 



HS tbe origiiuil eUrck ot tLc iiog than, accordiog tu probabilil 
the allied species of the bladder woniis, which have beea lately 
discovered, just like those hydatids, ia the flesh and amoog the 
uiitrails in human bodies, which must needs have been created 
after the original parents of mankind. How indeed this subse- 
quent creation took place, that I can no more say than bow in 
early times the first Bpermatic animalcule came into being; that 
however they were subsequently created seems to me UDdeniat 
and 1 lay that to the account of the great mutability in nati 
and this great mutabibty itself to the active and wise detci 
nation of the Creator. 

How very limited would be even the sphere of man's opera- 
tions without this capacity for variation in nature through the 
labour be may himself bestow upon it. Is it not precisely 
through this attribute that he becomes really the lord and 
ntaster of the rest of the creation ! To see how much may he 
done in this way let a man only consider the astonishing all 
tiona which since the discovery of the New World have 
cally been caused and been experienced by it and the Old. 



The degentration of organized bodies. 

The degeneration of animals and plants from thcii 
stocks into varieties also belongs to the astonishing experiences 
of variability in creation, In the middle of the 16th centtuy 
the only tulip known in Europe was the common yellow one 
Two hundred years later no kind of flower bad a more pas- 
sionate admirer than these, of which the then Margrave of 
Baden- Durlach collected no less than three thousand specimens 
of different varieties'. It is not much longer since the first 
wild green canary bird was brought from its home to Europe, 
yet tliese creatures liave long since branched oiit into every sort 
of variety, not only of colour but also of appearance itselC 



The origin of this degeLeration Las been souglit principally ■, 
B the influence of climate, aliraeiit, and mode of life; and cer- 
inly many eflects of these three things in degeneration appear 
unmistakeable. Thus, taken altogether, growth is retarded by i 
cold, and the particular climate of this or that part of the world 
will have certain manifest operations on the organized bodies 
which are indigenous to it. As in Syria, many kindB of 
raammals have astonjshiugly long and silken hair. Of course 
very often some of the principal effects which are ascribed to 
degeneration either run into and destroy one another, or one may 
equally counteract the other and take away its effect ; so that 
no decided opinion can be arrived at on many of the phenomena 
of degeneration. Enough that the phenomena themselves must 
be held as unmistakeable consequences of the variability of 



In domestic animals especiaUy. 

The eflects of degeneration must naturally have operated in 
the most profound and various way on those domestic animals 
which man has for bo many generations kept in subjection to 
himself, to such an extent that they propagate in that con- 
dition, and with whom it is not, as in the case of elephants. 
necessary to catch every individual in the wilderness ; and 
which also can inhabit foreign climates, and are not, like the 
reindeer, confined within a narrow fatherland. 

The common domestic hog is the best example of all, and I 
select it the more readily because the pedigree of this animal 
is far less dubious than that of many others. The dog dege- 
nerates in many ways, even under our very eyes, but it is not 
completely made out, and would be very difficult completely to 
make out, whether all dogs are only varieties of one and the 
same species or not. Many great naturalists have avowedly 
considered the shepherd's dog as the common original stock 
of all the others. Others have put the wolf, the jackal, and the 


dqgtogetkec Oikar*, agun, think it ttot inqwobable that m' 
fN^^ to BHiaM mmt tbaa one original atock amangvt <k^ 
llMiiwIiia iBH^ofiBMB tkcRkagmtdeaTto be aaid for 
the laak ide«. Koi only have we a gnat dUfae n c e of appear- 
aaee in dogs in and of thenadrea; hot ihej most be xktj mach 
changed dmn^ the laog thooHBd* cf jvaza aince man brooght 
up tJiig — »i»— I ncre than any ether in doaer intimacy with 
httMwH; and partlj trantplaated it aloag with htm iato foreign 
dtmates, ao that peih^ia the oci^nal wild* d«)g can no more 
be fimnd. And this seemc to me a gmtad for anDmii^ that 
theie is nwre than mm o»igia»l face of dogs, because many, 
aa the faadger-dog. hare a boild ao marked, and bo ^^pn^inate 
for partJCTilar pnipooe^ that I Wioald find H Teij difficult to 
peniiadft my e tf that tins aateoidnng figure was aa accident^ 
fnnwqnrTirr of degeoentMNi, and ninst not lather be ooosidered 
as an original pmpoaed oooatroctiaa to meet a ddibentte olgect 
of design*. 

Iq the hog, again, the power of mere degeneraxioQ is mudt 
more cleariy visible. So Ebt as I know, no naturalist baa earned 
his Bcepdcism so far as to doubt that oar domestic b<^ is 
desc^ided from the wild boar, aod beades ibis ia ooe of the 
beasts which was utterly uoknawn in America before the 
arrival of the Spaniards, and was first tnnsplanted there from 
Europe. Meanwhile, Dotwithstandiiig the abort space of time 
which is iucontroTertibly proved bv documentfi, some of these 
Bwine which have been trans[4anted into that part of the world 
have degenerated io the most astonishing way into the most 
extraordinary varieties. Those which were brought from Spain 
in 1509 to the West India islaod Cabagua, which was then 

' Tbe diSeretee brt*eeii being wiM origtiullj aaJ beooming wikl mtut In mM 
cmfaUj obaervMl daring inrcvIigKlion* of thukind. Hum in both worUi wctuin 
imintDM Bimibm of honn wbicb b»T« bwame wild; but aa ooe m m^dubIhI 
witb the original wild Itonw. Tbiu ersD m Um bcgrhminf of tbe past ocDtnrj wild 
goUt mod tlao w3d coro were to be foand oa iii» tiule ieUnd (4 Joui Fenxadrl 
<tbe ■olitar^ abode for four ynn of poor Selkiil, irfaaee true bictoij De Foa IM 
workai op in bia RobiiiHxi CWioe) ; bnt ndtbcr of ibeae bBlonged originaltj to the 
coantiT anj mon than the viJd monkej* whidi have pmpxgale) Ut^ivln* •KS 
up In the pteecnt timr on tfa« rtidc of tiifanltar. 

> S«e the adJiii^iiiA at the end of thU Pan. 



Teverywhere for its pearl BBheries, degenerated into an 
extraordinary race, witli toes which were half a span long'. 
Those in Cuba became more than twice as large again as their 
^European progenitors'. 

B This was not the way In which in the old world the tame 
ptkog degenerated from the wild hog; but rather in its covering, 
especially with respect to the woolly hair between the bristles; 
in the strikingly different form of the skull; in the whole 
growth, &c. How endless again is the difFerence in the varie- 
ties of the domestic hog itself; that of Piedmont being almost 
without exception black; that of Bavaria reddish brown; that 
of Normandy white, &c. How different is the breed of the 
English hog, with its curved back and pendent belly, from that 
of the north of France, which is easily distinguished from the 
former by its elevated croup and its down-hanging head, and 
both again from the German hog. Hogs with undivided hoofs 
are to be found gregarious both in Hungary and Sweden, and 
were known long ago to Aristotle, to eay nothing of other more 
urkable varieties. 


tegeneration of Man, the most perfect of all domestic Animals. 

But what in the reason that the hog degenerates so particu- 
Irly? why so much more than any other domestic animal? 
riie solution of this problem flows directly from what has been 
said above. For the very reason that it is just this animal which 
is more exposed than any other to the causes of degeneration. 
No other of our commonly called domestic animals has experi- 
enced Kuch a manifold influence of climate as the hog; for no 
other has been so widely scattered as this over the five parts of 
the world. None has been subjected so much to the operation 

' Herren, Htdun de lot CatUUanoi m lai Itla* <U Tierra Firmt del liar Oceano 

1- I- p. 139. Midrid, 1601. 

■ Ctavi^cro, Ston'o Aalica M MatKO, T. iv. p. l^j. 


VVuiet; of aliment; for no animal is go omnivt 
hog, &c. There is onij one domestic animal besides (At 
in the erne sense, if not in the ordinary acceptadon of tltia 
word') that alao snrpasses all others in these respects, and that 
is man. The difference between him and other domestic ani- 
mah ia only thin, that they are not so completely bom to 
dmnest: cation as he is. having been created by nature inunedi- 

^ ately a domestic anirnaL The exact original wild condition of 
^j most of the domestic aoimaJs ia knovn. But no one knows 
the exact original wild condition of man'. There a none, for 
nature haa limitwl him in no wise, bat has created him for evenf 
mode of life, for every climate, and every sort of aliment, and 
has set before him the whole world as bis own and given him 
both organic kingdoms for his aliment. Bat the consequence 
of this ts that there ia no second animal besides him in the 
ereation upon whoee aolidutn rivum so endless a quantity of 
vanons rtimw/i', and therefore so endless a quantity of concur- 1 

1/ ""8 causes of degeneration, must needs operate. 


A very peculiar ph7/gictorfic<d siitgidanty of the huvian body. 

In order to receive those stimuli the solidum vivwn has beeQ J 
prepared by the forces 1^ hfe which reside within it, whoi 
diverse although ntill concurring kinds I have in another pla 
endeavoured to set out and distinguish more precisely*. Ajuoi 

• Even horreret in the wjnunnn ncceptiitinn of the woni man hu been btfoH 
now coDiidoivd ■ dumHttc sniin&I. Ve Lac asjs thiit & very profouii<t pi 
of III* uiigaiuiitanDe could find m> tltthi conneclion betweeu Ilie limited power d 
Rikn'a ooniprcLaniion >od tbe circumrerence and depth o[ Mit Actual knowW 
thri there mnM likve been in the priiiiiliie world & cliui of Ligbcr exlsteliMi 
earth, to wbrnn muiiicted u ■ tort uf domestio KDimal and bare so rccetvad a 
bate&i from th* thf^ lord of the orBKtioii, 

• Mure pktlicu'arljr an this in Part ii. 

' 1 mnkc uiB «r both theao words of art which are univernalt; Hxepird is tli« 
phyaiolngji of organiicd bodiei and hnve an univeTSally undentoJci meaning with- 
out turning them inlo German, tince Ihey. m wbU ai tbe wonli orgmiited bocK* 
botntelTC*, would certainly lo«u in clearncis by transLition. 

• /Md'fUt. PAfliol:g. ». tV. 



w, by for the most common, and wbicli preiluuiuates in both 
kingdonu of organized creatures, is contractility, which is very 
nearly the same thing that Stahl, one of the most profound 
physiologists, spoke of under the not sulEciently distinct name 
of tone, or, after the Leiden school, actxiositij. 

The locality of this coraraonest of vitai forces is the mucous 
itbrane, {commonly, but improperly called the cellular tissue.) 
tch constitutes the foundation of almost the whole of an 
led body. Thus iu a human body, except the enamel of 
B teeth aud some of the outermost coveriugs of the skin, all 
> remaining parts consist principally of the mucous mem- 
aie, saturated, so to say, and incorporated with other sub- 
stances. Besides, the mucous membrane is the first organic 
substance which nature forms out of inorganic saps. Thus the 
plastic lymph which is squeezed out by inflammations of the 
ia first turned into loose mucous membrane, and this 
into the so-called pseudo-membranes with true blood- 
Bsels, &c. The greater or smaller compactness of the mucous 
lembrane however itself differs exceedingly in the dififerent 
riods of life, and also according to the specific diversity of the 
a of organized bodies. In the eel, for instance, it is infinitely 
r than in the trout It has been observed, aud that long 
to, by sagacious zootomists, for instance, our own Zinn, that 
, in comparison with other creatures, which are most nearly 
Bied to him in respect of bodily economy, namely the rest of 
I mammals, has, ceteris paribus, the finest and most com- 
mucous membrane. Let it be well understood ceteris 
ribaa, kv we must not compare an old gipsy with an unborn 

^ This exceptional compactness of the mucous membrane and 
B consequent superior quality of the commonest vital force is, 
.0 me, one of the most distinctive and greatest pri- 
(eges of man. It is exactly this privilege by which he is 
l^bled to arrive at his greatest object, the habitation of the 
tole earth, just in the same way as the various kinds of com, 
rough their delicate and compact cellular texture, are better 
Ubled to thrive in the most different climates than the stronger 

296 OKANQ-UT&N. 

cedars aad oaks. In proportion as this exceptionally 
membrane is m man, bs I have Baid, the first and most impur- 
tant factory of the formative force, it will be easily understood 
from ail these things taken together, how in consequence man 
is exposed in the formation of his body and its parts to all sorts 
of degeneration into varieties. It ia not improbable moreover 
that this is the reason why the hog exactly like man can live In 
the most different climates, and also exactly like him degene- 
rates in manifold ways. At all events there are many remarkable 
singularities in both creatures with respect to their mucous 
membrane, as appears most strikingly in the peculiar skin 
(corium), which at bottom is nothing else than the mucous mem- 
brane of the outer surface of the body indurated and penetrated, 
with nerves and vessels. Perhaps here too may be found 
reason of the similarity which has so often been asserted sii 
the time of Galen between the taste of man's and hog's fleshk' 
As to the reason why, on the other hand, both creatures differ 
BO much from one another in a thousand other ways besides 
their bodily structure, no one will ask, who knows anything from 
phywology of the strikingly peculiar pri\nlege» by which man, 
especially with respect to the other noble kind of vital powen, 
the reaction of the sensorium, &c,, is elevated above all the reit 
of the animal creation. 


e ail Lne ren ■ 

tly protesters 
Lural systeq^H 
■ntots. Aa^^ 

Somethinrj (ra7\qnilliiing on a common family 

There have been persons who have most earnestly protesi 
against their own noble selves being placed in a natural 
in one common species with Negroes and Hottentots, 
again, there have been other people who have hod no compunc- 
tion in declaring themselves and the orang-utan to be creatures 
of one and the same species. Thus the renowned philosopher 
and downright caprice-monger Lord Monboddo says in blunt 
words, "the orang-utans are proved to be of our species by 
marks of humanity that I think are incontestable." 



On the other hand, another, but nut quite bo straight fur warii 
a cap rice- moDger, the world- renowned fire-philosopher Theo- 
phrastua Paiaceisua Bombastus, cannot comprehend how all men 
can belong to one and the same original stock, and contrived on 
■sper for the solution of this difficulty his two Adams. 

Perhaps, however, it will contribute something to the tran- 
quillization of many upon this common family affair, if I name 
three philosophers of quite a different kind, who however much 
they may have differed otherwise in many of their ideas, still 
were completely of accord with each other on this point; possi- 
bly because it is a question which belongs to natural history, 
and all three were the greatest naturalists whom the world has 
itely lost — Hailer, Linnjeus, and Buffon — all these three consi- 
man different by a whole world from the orang-utan, and 

the other band all true men, Europeans, Negroes, &c., as 
varieties of one and the same original species. It will 
iwever be very likely of much more service to most of my 
readers, if instead of these three names I give the three principal 
rules which I have always followed, as I have reason to think, 
with the greatest advantage in my investigations on this subject, 
and through which T have fortunately escaped many an other- 
wise sufficiently common, but false conclusion. 

I. In these investigations we must have principally before 
Oor eyes the physiology of organized bodies. We must not 
■Tetnain attentive merely to man, and act as if he waa the only 

Oi^anized body in nature ; and must expect to find some differ- 
ences in his species which are strange and puzzling, without for- 
getting that all these differences are not a whit more surprising 
or unusual than those by which so many other species of organ- 
ized bodies, equally degenerate under our eyes. 

II. Neither must we take merely one pair of the races of 
tnaa which stand strikingly in opposition to each other, and put 
these one against the other, omitting all the intermediate races, 
which make up the connection between them. We must never 
forget that there is not a single one of the bodily differences in 

one variety of man, which does not run into some of the 
itbers by such endle-ss shades of all sorts, that the naturalist or 



physiologist baa yet to be bora, wlio can with aoy pounds 
certainty attempt to lay down any fixed bounds between these 
Bhades, and consequently between their two extremes. 

III. Inasmuch as no firm steps can be taken in the deter- 
mination of the varieties in mankind, any more than in the 
of natural history, without actual knowledge, I have laid do' 
for myself as the third principal rule for a considerable numi 
of years, since I busied myself with these investigations, to nii 
use of everything, so as to provide myself always more and mi 
supports in this behalf out of nature itself. For all the accousl 
on that point which one adopts, even with the most critii 
judgment possible, from others, are in reality, for the tru1 
seeking investigator of nature, nothing more and nothing fi 
ther than a kind of symbolical writing, which Le can only so far 
subscribe to with a good conscience, as they actually coincide 
with the open book of nature. And in order to pass an opinit 
upon that, he must make himself as well read and through 
gather as much experience as possible in this book; and this 
what I have always endeavoured to do to the beat of my abi 
in my studies on the natural history of mankind. The result of 
this earnest labour has surpassed all my original expectations, 
so that I now find myself in possession of a collection 
natural history of mankind, which was the first regular 
instructive, and complete one, and so far as I know remaina 
the only one of its kind. 



On Avthropological Collections. 

It seems above everything else hard to understand fiowH 
that considering the zeal with which natural history has 
cultivated at all times amongst all scientifically civilized natit 
the naturalist was so very late in finding out that maa also ia & 
natural product, and consequently ought at least as much 
any other to be handled from the point of natural bistoij 
according to the difference of race, bodily and national pecul" 



ittes, &0. Already in the last century the great collectors of 
writings on natural history, — Gesner, Aldrovandus, Jonstou, and 
Ray, — in their numerous, and also voluminous, and alwayn clas- 
sical works, embraced the histoiy of all the three natural king- 
doms; everything in fact, with the single and solitary exception 
of the natural history of man himself. And, if I am not mis- 
taken, it was no naturalist by profession, but a mathematician 
in TJpsata, Harald Waller, who was the first that fiuaUy in the 
beginning of the last century attempted to fill up this void 
which had for such a wonderful length of time remained open in 
a writing', which was a large one for those days, and which 
forma quite an epoch in the history of natural history. 

It is not, however, less astonishing that still for many decades 
of years after this, the natural history collectors, though in 
other matters their boundless acquisitiveness not only degene- 
rated into luxury, but very often into folly, still, in order to fill 
their cabinets, preferred making incursions all over the creation, 
rather than into that department which could assist the natural 
history of mankind and his varieties'. It is of course easily seen 
that the construction of such a regular and instructive appara- 
tus for this department is implicated with incomparably greater 
difficulties than in most other departments of natural collections. 
That, however, these are not insuperable when the collector 
shows zeal and perseverance, and can obtain the active co-ope- 
ration of men who have opportunities of helping him in his 
object, is shown by the moat remarkable portion of my anthro- 
pological collection, I mean the skulls of foreign nations. 

De Varia HoBiinum Forma Externa, 1705, *to. Aftrr h[m cams in 1 jii the 
to-be-foT^tten polybiBtor of Hamburg, J. A. FnliriaiuK, with hU IHti. 
d« AonUaibiM oHiit noiiri ineolii, Iptdt tl orta aviU inlcr « bob differmtibia. 
Wh«t perverted iind eitraordinary nolionii, even till latfly, (iiBtinguiahed 
'■liiU bod of wh*t ought tu be comprised In sucb a natunil.hiatoricBl or 
jntbropological collection, ma; be seen frnm the fnlloffing possHge in Boniare's 
Dietion. T. V[. p, 6.13, 1791, whent he ia saying what a cabinet of natiuTil bistoty 
Duglil W pgmesi. "The eupboard which conlaioB the history of man, cvDsiatB ol 
na entire inyolo)|^, aMtpsrate heiul preserved, a brain, the parts of generaliioti el 
nitlier MX, a ncuTOlogy, an oateolngy, embtyoa of evety ago with their after-birth, 
monalroui producliona, and an Egyptian uiummy. There should alio be ironie 
nioe piecca of anatomy represented in wax and wood, and lOme atony c-ncretioD* 
taken from the hnman body." 



There are two questions wbicli have often been puL to 
on the sight of these skulls, namely, what utility can be made 
this collection? and then how can any one be certain of 
genuineness of the foreign skulls? These questions are 
natural and so reasonable, that the anawera to them may pi 
perly find a place here. 

1. This collection has amongst other things been useful 
me in determining the principal corporeal characteristics 
humanity, which it is my opinion I have found to consist in ' 
prominent chin and the consequently resulting upright positiM' 
of the under front teeth. In the animals there is scarcely a par- 
ticular chin which can be considered as comparable to that of 
man: and in those men who, as is often said, seem to have 
something apish in their countenance, this generally resides in 
a deeply- retreating chin. The upper front teeth have indeed in 
many nations of different races a more or less oblique directi< 
whereas, on the other hand, the under ones in all that are km 
to me stand up vertically. 

2. Also for the determination of the really most beautiful 
form of skull, which in my beautiful typical head of a young 
Georgian female always erf itself attracts every eye, however 
little obser\-ant 

3. As a leading argument for the identity of mankind 
general, since here also the boundless passages between the 
extremes in the physical scale of nations, from the Calmuck 
the Negro, join unobservedly into each other. 

4. Then also as an evidence of the natural division of 
whole species into the five principal races of which I shall 
in the next section. 

5. Of the mixture of these races with each other, which 
as clearly expre.=ised in the skulls of the Cossacks, Kirghis, Sdc, 
as anywhere in the Mulattos. 

6. For the refutation of many erroneous conclusiooB as to 
the pretended similarity of structure, and consequently of rel»- 
tionship between distant nations, as between the old E^yptJani 
and the Chinese, or between these and the Hottentots, &c. 

7. On the other hand, for a nearer conclusion on the 









bable parentage of puzzling populations, as of the old Guanches 
of the Fortunate Islands from the Libyan stock of the old 

8. For this is learnt from a comparison of the mummy 

skulls with the Egyptian works of art, that they distinguish 

three aorta of national characters, which differ very decidedly 

from one another, of which one is moat like the Ab^'ssinians, 

another the Hindoos, and the third the Berbers, or ancient 

. Libyans. 

^^ 9. This collection also helps to explain many physiologi- 

^Bkl and national peculiarities, as the extremely wide passages in 

**"ihe nostrils of the keen-scented Negroes and North American 


10. And also, as an example of what has been lately dis- 
puted in some quarters, of the constantly enduring shapeless- 
ness which many savage tribes, as, for instance, the Caribs and 
the Choctawa artificially infix upon the heads of their chil- 
liren by continual pressing and binding. Of the various other 
interesting ideas which the inspection of this collection of skulls 
calls up, I can only think of the truly melancholy one — that it 
contains so many relics of former respectable tribes, who have 
been from time to time, and now are, almost entirely destroyed 
liy their conquerors, just as the Caribs of the West India 
Islands, the Guanches of the Canary Islands, &c. who have suf- 
fered the same fate as some useful varieties of domestic 
animals, such as the great Irish hound, and the St Bernard's 
dog, which seem now to be exterminated from the creation. 

As to the other of the two questions mentioned above, it will 
1)6 most easily answered by this fact, that every skull is num- 
!>ered, and has its own particular description in a special col- 
lection of the incidents belonging thereto, which contains all the 
certificates of them, and the original letters, notices, and a 

' Of the rtlne of aucli really portrait- like and chnraoterUitii; rrprMtntaUonB 
(wilh which nnfiirtuimtely their ranty etanJn in eiact projMirlio") for comparuon 
with the altuUa, I can giva one einmple out of man;. Tn-elve yeus ngo I ro- 


collected a rare apparatus, and also with the characteristic d 
scriptions of the most exact writers of natural history, and t 
travellers: in short everything that makes up complete wai 
ranties, as they have been used in the Decades which have , 
been composed from this collection. Besides this, care has 
been taken in the mode of arrangement, that where it was 
possible to obtain more than one skull of any savage nations, 
these, at all events, should stand side by side together, in ordei^ 
to show at the firet glance the persistent resemblance with whicil 
the heads of each one of those peoples who have mingled only I 
with each other, so far as concerns their national character, 
seem to be all cast in one mould. They are in this way so 
easy and so securely distinguished and recognized, that it i 
to be hoped no one at the sight of this collection will b 
condition of the Cynic Menippus' after his suicide, who, 
his arrival in the nether world, said of the skulls which ^ 
collected, that foraooth they all looked exactly alike, and i 
was too obtuse to pick out even that of the beautiful Hel^ 
from the others. 

Piviswn of Mankind into Five principal Racea. 

To return again to the three rules laid down above, which 
have given rise to this digression. After many a year's indus- 
trious observance of them I have arrived at no new striking 

nngalioal brntlicrhood. She had been 

795, thmugh the iiiuBlonary rcportB or 
en in Lonrjon in 1796, wlien Sir Jos. had I 

RuM.'lL Th. 

that skull Btiikea orery obgerviuit eye thnt ootngisrei th«ni tngetLer. Id oidtr 
prove it to the UDobiei-vant, I have hiid the clrcamfereoee of that akiill, and alM 
tbxt of the picture dniHn by mesns of a gliui pUt«, and then traced from that oD 
two IcRves, and when tUeso two are beU exactly upon one another againat ita 
light, the two drawing in nil thuir parla cover each otlier lite a pur ^ sqojJt; 




discovery, but what must be just as satisfactory a conclusion to 
me, the conviction of an old truth in natural historj', on which 
doubt has been recently cast in some quarters. I have en- 
deavoured particularly to depend upon sensible experience, and 
■where I could not avail nijaelf of this, on the accounts of active 
and trualworthy witnesses, and after all that I have thus learnt 
about the bodily differences in mankind, and all the com- 
parisoDB thus made with the bodily differences in other species 
of organized beings.espccially in the case of the domestic animals, 
1 have found no aingle difference in the former which may not 
also be observed in many of the latter, and that too as an un- 
mistakeable consequence of degeneration. Consequently I do 
not see the slightest shadow of reason why I, looking at the 
matter from a physiological and scientific point of view, should 
have any doubt whatever that all nations, under all known 
climates, belong to one and exactly the same common species. 

Still, in the same way as we classify races and degenerations 
of horses and poultry, of pinks and tulips, so also, in addition, 
raust we class the varieties of mankind which exist within their 
common original stock. Only this, that as all the differences in 
mankind, however surprising they may be at the first glance, 
seem, upon a nearer inspection, to run into one another by 
unnoticed pa-^aages and intermediate shades; no other very 
definite boundaries can be drawn between these varieties, 
especially if, as is but fair, respect is had not only to one or the 
other, but also to the pecuharities of a natiiral system, de- 
pendent upon all bodily indications alike. Meanwhile, so far 
as I have made myaelf acquainted with the nations of the 
earth, according to my opinion, they may be moat naturally 
divided into these five principal races: 

1, The Caucasian' race. The Europeans, with the excep- 
tion of the Lapps, and the rest of the true Finns, and the 
weslem Asiatics this side the Obi, the Caspian Sea, and the 
Ganges along with the people of North Africa. In one word. 



the inhabitants nearly of the world known to the ancieD0 
Greeks and Romans. They are more or less white in coloiir, 
with red cheeks, and, according to the European conception of 
beauty in the countenance and shape ot the skull, the most 
handsome of men. 

2. The Mongolian. The remaining Asiatics, except the 
Malays, with the Lapps in Europe, and the Esquimaux in the 
north of America, from Behring's Straits to Labrador and Green- 
land. They are for the most part of a wheaten yellow, with 
scanty, straight, black hair, and have fiat faces with laterally 
projecting cheek-bones, and narrowly slit eyelids. 

3. The Ethiopian. The rest of the Africans, more or lei 
black, genei-ally with curly hair, jaw-bones projecting forwai 
puffy lips, and snub noses. 

4. Th^ American. The rest of the Americans; genei 
tan-coloured, or like molten copper, with long straight huq 
and broad, but not withal flat face, but with strongly dtstiiu 
tive marks. 

5. The Malay. The South-sea islanders, or the inhabiU 
ants of the fifth part of the world, back again to the 
Indies, including the Malays, properly so called. They i 
generally of brownish colour (from clear mahogany to the vei 
deepest chestnut), with thick black ringleted hair, broad noa 
and large mouth. 

Each of these five principal races contains besides one or 
more nations which are distinguished by their more or less 
striking structure from the rest of those of the same division. 
Thus the Hindoos might be separated as particular sub-varieticH 
from the Caucasian ; the Chinese and Japanese from the Mod> 
gilian; the Hottentot-s from the Ethiopian; so also the Nortli 
American Indians from those in the southern half of the new J 
world; and the black Papuans in New Holland. &c. from thtfl 
brown Otaheitang and other islanders of the Pacific Ocean. 

Of the Negro in particular. 

" God's image he too," as Fuller says, " although made out 
of eljony." This has been doubted Boinetimes, and, on the 
contrary, it has been asserted that the negroes are specifically 
different in their bodily structure from other men, and must 
also be placed considerably in the rear, from the condition of 
their obtuse mental capacities. Personal observation, com- 
bined with the accounts of trustworthy and unprejudiced wit- 
nesses, has, however, long since convinced me of the want of 
foundation in both these assertions. But I need not repeat 
everything which I have elsewhere publicly expressed in oppo- 
sition to those views; though there are one or two points I 
cannot leave quite untouched'. I am acquainted with no single 
distinctive bodily character which is at once peculiar to the 
negro, and which cannot be found to exist in many other and 
distant nations; none which ia in like way common to the 
negro, and in which they do not again come into contact with 
other nations through imperceptible passages, just as eveiy 
other variety of man runs into the neighbouring populations. 

The colourof the skin they share more or less with the inha- 
bitants of Mad^ascar, New Guinea, and New Holland. And 
there are imperceptible shades, up from the blackest negroes in 
North Guinea to the Moors : amongst whom many, especially the 
women, according to the assurance of Shaw, have the very whit- 
est skin that it is possible to imagine. The curly woolly 
hair is well known not to be common to all the negroes, for 
Barbot says, even of those in Nigritia itself, that some have 
curly and some have straight hair; and UUoa says just the 
same of the negroes in Spanish America. Secondly, this 3o- 

Itfdf, U 

</ tkt NatitK ifr 

it; of the moat instmctive retnarki on thia pomt, tAea from na 
found in the pnuBeworthy Dr Th. Winterbotlom's Ciaancal Aca 
in the S'tyhboarhaad of .Vima Leone, wboM thu »u 
ent four ycvi KS pli}'«Icuui to the culonj. 


called woolly hair is very far from being peculiar to the negrooB, 
for it Ib found in many people of the fifth race, aa io the 
Ygolotes in the Philippines, in the inhabitants of Cliai-lotto 
Island and Van Diemen's Land, and also in many of the third 
variety, who, however, are not reckoned as negroes. Many 
Abyssiniau3 have it, as the famous Abba Gregorins, whose 
handsome likeness, which Heiss engraved in 1691, after Von 
Sand, I have before me'. Sparrmann also says of the Hotljin- 
tots, that their hair is more like wool than that of the negroes 
themselves; and this I find confirmed by the pictures of Hot- 
tentots and KafBra, which many years ago were forwarded with 
some transplanted plants from the Cape to Joseph 11., and of 
which I have obtained exact copies, through the kindness of 
Counsellor von Jacquin. As to the physiognomy of the negro, 
the difference no doubt is astonishing if you put an ugly negro 
(and there are ugly negroes as well as ugly Europeuis]^. 
exactly opposite the Greek ideal. But this is precisely 1 
offend against one of the rules given above. If, on the < 
trary, one investigates the transitional forms in tliis case abo, 
the striking contn-ist between the two very different extremes 
vanishes away; and, of course, there must he extremes hero 
as well as in the case of other cieatui-ea which degenerate i 
all sorts of races and varieties. 

I can, on the contrary, declare that amongst the negroes a 
negressea whom I have been able to observe attentively, snil 
I have seen no small number of tliem, as in the portrait-like 
drawings and profiles of others, and in the seven skulls of adult 
negroes which are in my collection, and in the others which 
have come under my notice, or of which I have drawini^ and 
engravings before rae, it is with difficulty that two can be found 
who are completely like each other in form ; but all are i 
or less difi'ereat from one another, and through all sorts i 
gradations run imperceptibly into the appearance of men fl 
other kinds up to the most pleasing conformation, Of thia t 

leuisy _ 

'■ abo,* 


" was & female cieole, with whom I conversed in Yverdun, at the 
house of tlic Chevalier Treytotrens, who had brought her from 
St Domingo, and both whose parents were of Congo, Such 
a countenance — even in the nose and the somewhat thick lips — 
was so far from being surprising, that if one couhi have set aside 
the disagreeable skin, the same features witli a white skin must 
have universally pleased, just as Le Maire says in his travels 
through Senegal and Qamliia, that thei'e are negresses, who, 
abstxactioti being made of the colour, are as well formed aa our 
European ladies. So also Adanson, that accurate naturalist, 
asserts the same of the Senegambia negresses ; " they have 
beautiful eyea, small month and lips, and well-proportioned fea- 
tm'es: some, too, are found of pert"ect beauty'; they arc full nf 
vivacity, and have especially an easy, free and agreeable pre- 
sence." Now this was exactly the case with the negress of 
Yverdun, and with several other negresses and negroes, whose 
closer acquaintance I have since that had the opportunity of 
making, and who have cijualiy convinced me of the truth of 
what so many unsuspected witnesses have assured me about 
the good disposition and faculties of these our black brethren ; 
namely, that in those respects as well as in natural tenderness of 
heart', they can scarcely be considered inferior to any other race 
of mankind taken altogether'. I say quite deliberately, taken 
altogether, and natural tenderness of heart, which haa never 
been benumbed or extirpated on board the transport vessels or 
on the West India sugar plantations by the brutality of their 
white executioners. For these last must be nearly as much 
without head as without heart, if after such treatment they still 

' ■' Of a perfect benuty." 

* "The mildness of tbe Negro cbaraeter," anjs Lneu, the fiuuous Africui 
tmveller, in tha Pracudiagt of the African Anoriation. 

' LiMea to one guaruitee for ftll, our own iocompftrable Niabahr: "The 

Erindpil charade ristic of the negro is, eapBciuillj when he is resaunaUy treiled, 
onesty tonnrdii his tnOBteis and beaeractoTs. Mohammedan marchiuita in Cairo, 
Jeddftb, Surat, and other cilies, are glad to buy boys of tbis kiod ; tbey have them 
taught vnting and arithmetio, mrry ou thwr eitsiuive buiineas almost entirely 
tbroagh negro slaves, and send them to establish buiiuosa placca in foreign 
Gouutriea. I asked ooe of these mercbantB, How he could Iruat a slave with whole 
cargow of goods t and was told in reply. ' My negto is true to me ; but If I were 
to conduct my business eutirely by wliito men, I should have to take cue thut 
they dill not run off wilh my jirnpcrtj.' " 




expect to find true attachment and love from these 
managed slaves. That excellent observer of nature, Aublet, in 
his true and masterly description of the natural gpodness of 
the negro's character, rests upon the confessions of the Europeans 
who have heen in captivity amongst the Algerines, and 1 
openly admitted that in that position they felt just as ill ( 
posed and just as hostile to their then masters, as a negro i 
like case could possibly feel towards his master in the colonia 
On the other hand, I have daily for a long time had an boned 
Degress before my eyes, of whom I often said in my mind, whij 
Wieland's Democritus says of his good, soft-hearted, curly-lockS 
black, and what has also been so frequently asserted by otm 
unprejudiced observers of uncorrupted blacks, ajid amon] 
others very recently with true and warm gratitude by the s 
Mungo Park, that it is not worth while to scrape together h^ 
the proofs of these facts' , 

At the same time it will not be at all superfluous to poid 
out here some not so well known thongh remarkable exampi 
of the perfectibihly of the mental faculties and the talents q 
the negro, which of course will not come unexpectedly up 
any one who has perused the accounts of the most cret 
travellers about the natural disposition of the negro. Thus the 
classical Barbot, in his great work on Guinea, expresses himself 
as follows; "Tlie blacks have for the most part head and under- 
standing enough: they comprehend easily and correctly, and J 
their memory is of a tenacity almost incomprehensible; for ev«i 
when they can neither read nor write, they still remain in the(d| 
place amidst the greatest bustle of business and traffic, ; 
seldom go wrong." — " Since they have been so often deceived B 
Europeans, they now stand carefiilly on their guard in tra£ 
and exchange with them, carefully examine all our wares, pioi 

' Manjr Bpeaking exanipIeR of the real gr*(itude. anil ftbove iJI of tlic hni 

ebaractiT. ann a'aoaf the eicellent capacltiusofour black brethren, are to be fmind 
in the following thrte worka, whcwe merilorioua authora were lung in the W»l 
Indies And are ainongit the moat capable anc! unprejudieed obaenrera of the Ktgm 
Oldeiidorp'i Satliirhlt iter JUiaion rier rcanyiiliir/ieit Brildtr an/. S. Thamat, Ac 
1777 i Ratniay's ffwny on tht Trratmml aid Cor.ifrf'nn 0/ Afiv-Jin fiara, ijS^j 
Niibett's dintfily of Hrjroet for Rrliginut aad lloral /mjtrvrnnrt - -" ' 


TriK NBiiRO. 

' piece, wLutlier tliey are of the samples bargniuud for iu 
cjuality and quantity; wlietlier the cloths and stuffs are lasting, 
wlietherthey were dyed in Haarlem orLeyden, &c."..," in short, 
ihey try everything with as much prudence and cunning as any 
European man of business whatever can do." Their aptitude 
for learning all sorts of fine handy-work is well known. It is 
estimated that nine-tenths of the ordinary craftsmen in the 
West Indies are negroes '. 

With respect to their talents for music, there ia no necessity 
for me to call attention to the instances in which negroes have 
earned so much by them in America, that they have been able 
to purchase their freedom for large sums, since there is no want 
of examples in Europe itself of blacks, who have shown them- 
sulvea true virtuosos. The negro Freidig was well known in 
Vienna aa a masterly concertist on the viol and the violin, and 
also as a capital draughtsman, who had educated himself at the 
academy there under Schrautzer, As examples of the capacity 
of the negro for mathematical and physical sciences, I need only 
meiitSbn the Russian colonel of artillery, Hannibal, and the 
negro Lislet, of the Isle of France, who on account of his su- 
perior meteorological observations and trigonometrical measure- 
ments, was appointed their correspondent by the Paris Academy 
of Sciences. 

Dr Rush of Philadelphia is at work upon a history of the 
negro. Fuller, in Maryland, who has lately become so famous 
through his extraordinary capacity for calculation. In order to 
teat him on this point, he was asked in company how many 
seconds a man would have lived who was seventy years and so 
many months, &c. old. In a minute and a half Fuller gave 
the number. Othere then calculated it, but the result was not 
the same. " Have you not forgotten," said the negro, " to bring 
into account the days of the leap-years?" These were then 

' On the Moepliunil ikill for art, "of tbo >ott and UneTolent " negrofS in 
Hoiiwa or SouJm in Ibe interiur of Africa, lec our Hornemann'a Tagthach miner 
rtitt von Cairo 6ri MHrzut, Tliia book tixvei us much iiii(iorWut iiifonuition upon 
the condilion of tliB aail and population of tUii teiaiu-kable part of the eitrtli, wliiolt 
nu EurojieaD before bin bad riaJtDd. 

BoBJ. Bmmkcr, k^ nlL«tonii. «fa» bid Mqoired liia i 

neniral k iwkjg e gi lh a l «al imIi im Ikih, entiidj 1 

private ttmir «f FagwBBi mtb and ovr Toh. Mayn-'s taUes', 
Ac riiiul .ill Hmb, SBil Dr BbA* have pren tbe aiort 

pnfji'^ laoficia e- X^roea bare alK> been known to make 
mj I mfli ill niij^uiii Aad dw l^ a nrifii l n egiiLan of YTcrfna. 
wlioB I m m tioi J . ia kaown far and nfe in Fiencfa Switaer- 
bncl as an excdlent uaA w ^ ^ aa^id Aill, and of a deficnte 
and w«&-«zperie»eed kaad I enit the Wcaleran Xetbodut 
pradMT, Vadoz. aad al» tke two aegtws wbo latdy died 
is liondon, Ignaths Saneho and GastaTns Tasa, of wbc»n tbe 
kmaer, a great Gnuorite bothof Ganick and Sterne, was known 
to me by toneapooieaee*; and tbe latter, wbom I knew per- 
aooaltf, baa laade himself a name by bis tateiiestti^ anlobio- 
gi^iby* ; and abo many oUnt negroes and negiesses who hare 
distn^itidied thesBelTes by their talents for poetry. I poanew 
Ei^liah, Dntdi, and I^n poems hj serentl of these Latter, 
amongst which bowerer abore all, those of Phillis Wbeatiey 
of Boston, who is justly fiuaons fot them, deserve mentti 

* J. WUaaj, «l BataiaMn, haa pmlwd l^agnfiUBl ■■ 

■ad, u he rifrtmtm Uaadt, icfisda "tliii BCgra *• s ac 
fMotlia bear bo iililiiiii ts the lijIiiiu oT Ae iUn.~ 

* Thb i^ikwi^uB iibnicin vritn cf in •ledlail ■igi o vbo (a nrkDvwM^B 
U (till IJTing, to Dt Dctssb in Xcv Orlaun: "J ban omTSaad viU Um opoa 
iDort of Um koit* and tpiiiiwac diwaaca of tkc oonatrj vhcrc he li*«^ and waa 
nieawd la find him jwrfectl; ■oqaainted mUh tbe DMiln uapl* mode of prweAm 

n Unne £k«k*. I «»pe«««d lo ha™ •— ^-t — — - "' 

b* MggMad BBO^ Bora to ma. Ha ia 

aad Sm bamoitm to the amooal of 3000 di^lan a jvar." 

■ ItOm t/t*4lala lyaatiia SatdM. a» Afri<m, tlmd ed. Loodoo, 1794, Bn^ 
with lL> baantifull; oagiavnl likcoea Vr BaniiJoai, afls Gunabttoagb'a pdnra. 

* TV /iXfran'ajr .Varrafriv «/ »i< X</( r/ Wanda* SfBtmu. or G^Hmrm Faaa, 
Eridn lifkauttf, tbjcd ed. LoadoD. 1791, Svn; la German. GdUinrcs, 1791, 8*» 

* i>>>nu <m Varimt SabjtrU. Rdi^at hikI Moni, bf Pbillii Wbeatlej, ?f«n 
Htrrani lo Mr J<An WhtalUg of BotUjn. 1773, 8to. A oollectian whkfa Marnly 
atiir on* who hat anj taate for poetiy cmild ntA without plcaanre. Some paftico- 
Un; bcMMtiriil nlectiMU from them are to be (band in the famo<iapriM«M^o(lli^_ 
worthy OaAMOn, On tht Slarrry and Commtme of At Samoa «-— '— ■ 



There are still two negroes who Jiave got Bome reputation 
K authors, and whose works I possess, whom I may nieutiou. 
Our Hollniami, when he was still professor at Wittenberg;, 
created in 1734 the negro. Ant. WilkAmo, Doctor of Philosophy. 
He had shown great merit hoth in writing and teaching ; and I 
have two treatises by him, of which one especially sliows a most 
nnexpected and well-digested course of reading in the best 
physiolo^cal works of that day'. In an nccount of Amo's life, 
vbich on that occasion was printed in the name of the University 
Senate, great praise is allotted to his exceptional uprightness, 
his capacity, his industry, and his learning. It says of liis 
]^ilosophicaI lectures: "he studied the opinions hoth of the 
ancients and moderns ; he selected the best, and explained his 
selections clearly and at full length." It was in his fortieth 
^ear that the n^o Jac. EHsa Joh. Capitein studied theology 
at Leyden ; he had been kidnapped when a hoy of eight years 
old, and was bought by a slave-dealer at St Andrew's river, and 
got to Holland in this way at third-hand, I have several ser- 
mons' and poems by him, which I will leave to their own 
merits; but more interesting and more famous is his Disseriatio 
foUHco-iheohgica de sercituie Ubertati Cliristianai non cotUrana, 
which he read publicly on the 10th March, 17i2, in Leyden, 
iud of which I have a translation in Dutch", of which again 
four editions were stmck off, one immediately after the other. 
Upon this he was ordained preacher at Amsterdam in the church 
'tfElmina, whither he soon afterwards departed. Professor Brug- 
mans of Leyden, who procured for me the writings of this 

> TLe title of the fint u, Ola. inavff. FMltmiphiea de hunana ntntit ira- 
i (ca tutionii ae Jatullatii Kntieodi in mtntc Auwana ahtenUa, el tarum ia tor- 
pen no*™ orj/aniflffl ae vixe pnaentia, uuffo^Ant. Guil. Amo, Gainta-A/ro. The 
c4her U antitl^, Oitp. fiukiopkica emtittentaeam ditlmetam mnint qua! tomjKttml 
vU (MHtf vtl eorpori noitn n're wl organin. 

* UitgraragU Pndikalkn in* OnKmhage en t'Ovdcrierh nan rfm Amttel gnlaan 
i (toor Jm. EUm Jo. Cajateiii, Afrieaamchc Moor, ttrot^x frcdiUant op D Sbnina 
ft won hel Ktulitl St Gearje, Amst. i;4], 4(0. 

I ' Slaaliuiidig-OodfftliXTd Onda-achelirift otvr de Sturemy, alt niet ilrydig ttgm 
rdt CkrytUlgke VrgMd, Leiden, TT41, ^to, with tlif bi'ttutifiilly enfrtved Ukenen 
I 6t the »uthor by F. von BUyswjck. AnnlLcr portrait of him, nfter P. Tan Dyok. 
I liu been riven bj me in the first part o( the AbLildwgen NaliirkiiioritchtT Gtgan- 
I tanie, Tkb. 5. 

31S T 

ordained negro, sends me wonl also that aooording to the cir-' 
cumstances there are two slone& aboat his fate there; either 
namely that he was mnrdered, or that he went back to his own 
savage countrrnien, and exchanged their Eapeistlt ions and mode 
of life for what he had l^amt in Europe. In this last case, bis 
history forms a pendent to that of the Hottentot who was 
brought up in Europe and civilized, whose Mmilar and thorough 
patriotism has been immortalized hj Rousseau'. 14or is this 
irresistible attraction to the ancestral penates at all events a bit 
more strange than the fact, that, as is known, Europeans enoogh, 
who have been made prisoners of war by the North American 
Indians, or even by the Caribs of the West Indies, when these 
still constitnted a respectable and warlike nation, and have 
lived a long time with them and become used to them, have 
found such a great delight in this wild state of nature as to lose 
all desire of changing it, and coming back to their own country- 
men ; nor are there wanting instances, especially among the 
French Canadians, who of their own free-will have gone over 
to the savages there, and taken up the same kind of life 

Finally, I am of opinion that after all these numerotiB ii 
stances I have brought together of negroes of capacity, it w< 
not be difficult to mention entire well-known provinces of En- 
rope, from out of which you would not easily expect to obtain 
off-hand such good authors, poets, philosophers, and correspond- 

■^ ents of the Paris Academy; and on the other hand, there is no 
so-called savage nation known under the sun which has so much 

, distinguiahed itself by such examples of perfectibility and origi- 
nal capacity for scientific culture, and thereby attached itself 
so closely to the most civilized nations of the earth, aa the JTijjjrro. 

' See the Tignett« to hiB Dimvri mr VintaaliU parmi la kommei. 

* Licat. PMenoa ipuki of ft Geimaa at the Cftp«, wbo bad complstelj a 
over in thii way to the Holtentota, »nd b*d then already lived twenty youa in || 
midft of them, and waa entirsly naturalized and coniidarBd aa od ' '' 

fe aa 


The Kakerlacleen. 

These poor sufferers have come off in the history of man 
; a bit better than the honest negroes. There have been 
sceptics who were as unwilling to recognize the Kakerlacken for 
men of the same species with ourselves as the Moors. The lat- 
ter were too black for them, and the former too white. In 
reality the examination of the Kakerlacken has nothing what- 
ever to attach it to the domain of natural history, for it holongs 
to pathology. Meanwhile, as it has once been dragged into the 
former, and so has given handle to many wonderful mistakes, I 
think I may go so far as to say a few words about them ; and 
^tfiey join on aJl the more easily to the former section, because 
^Bfc^r history was originally confounded with that of the negroes. 
^^M For at the very first of all a sort of men was remarked 
^■Smongst these last, who were distinguished by an unusual 
whiteness or even redness of skin, and by hair of a yellowish 
white and pale red eyes; and of course these singularities would 
strike people more in negroes than in white men; and for that 
reason the Kakerlacken wore first of all known by the name of 
Leuccethiopians. But just about the end of the last century 
they were found amongst the Americans also, and very shortly 
afterwards, besides these, amongst the East Indian populations. 
Still later Cook saw some on Otaheite and the Friendly Islands ; 
and now at last it is clear that they are also to be found in 
Europe itself, and that too in greater numliers than we can alto- 
gether desire. Since I laid before the Royal Society of Sciences 
my observations on tha'ie two well-known Savoyards, whom I had 
the opportunity of examining in 1783, on an excursion which I 
made in company with the younger De Luc, from Geneva to 
Faucigny. and who afterwards went for some years to London, 
where they were described by the directors of the circus, I have 
received accounts of a round dozen of other Kakerlacken who 
e been found up and down in Germany alone, and have from 
n specimens of their own quite peculiar hair. It 

314 ALBINO-lf 

seems to Iiave buea tLc casts with the KakerlaiAken as with Uii 
otiier wonders of nature, that they liave been for a long time 
overlooked in many countriea, because they wore considered too 
great rarities to be expected. In one word, the Eakerlackeu 
occur in all the five races of mankind. 

Besides, this singularity is not peculiar to mankind aloi 
but shows itself also just as much in other warm-bit 
animals, as in mammals and in birds. Amongst the former, 
have notoriously the white rabbits and the white mice 
amongst the latter the white canary birds. On the other 
in spite of all the researches I have mode iu that direction, 
have not been able to find any single example of Kakerlack< 
among the animals with red cold blood, cither amongst the ai 
pliibia or fish. That above all I consider the Kakerlacken as 
diseased, and consequently while canaries, &c. the same, will bo 
strange to no one who is acquainted with their constitution. 
Their chief symptom consists in the singular colour of their 
eyes, the iris of which is a pale pink colour, and the pupils of the 
colour of a dark carnation, or very much like blackberry juice, 
whereas iu a sound eye these last, whatever the colour of the 
iris may be, whether blue or brown, must always be entirely 
black. The reason of that redne^ Ul-s in a total want of tl 
part which is indispensable to clear sight, namely, the dark broi 
mucus which is spread over a great part of the inner appli 
the eye, in order to absorb the superfluous rays of light, Coi 
quently, the Kakerlacken through this deficiency are generally 
more or less shy of light. But this deficiency of the black pig- 
ment seems always to be only a symptom of an univei 
cachexia, which in human Kakerlacken finds its particular 
pression through the peculiar aspoct of the skin and the yelh 
ish-white colour of the hair ; at least so far as I know, no one 
ever observed that disease of the eyes without this quality 
skin and hair. 

The disorder is invariably congenital, and frequently heredi- 
tary in families. It seems to be incurable; at least I ^now of 
no case in which the symptoms related have ever been got rid of 
by any single Kakcrlack. On the causes of this remarkabl 



lt a^^l 



ALlilNOS. 315 

i^ieease I do not know how at this moment to say auytliing satiii- 
factory ; for as to the remark that au otherwise quick-seeing 
traveller, Foucher d'Obsonville, has made, that Leucajthiopiana 
•re begotten when the parents are taking mercury or cinna- 
bar at the time, it is impossible to imt^ine it correct in many of 
iiie cases of the nations mentioned, and in many of the animals 
among whom Eakerlackea are found, even if the whole idea 
were not to the last extent extremely improbable. So also the 
old assertion, that no Leucoetbiopian of either sex was capable 
of procreation, is completely untrue. De Brue has already 
'fimnd an instance in which a Lencoethiopian became pregnant 
'hj a negro, and a perfect young negro was bom, and the well- 
known negro Vasa, in his above-mentioned interesting work, 
has given a remarkable account of a Leucoetbiopian female, who 
was lately married in England to au European, and has borne 
him three genuine Mulattos with light hair. 

APPENDIX I. To p. 284 n. 

On the gradation in nature. 

^^ Two scientific societies, the one at Rouen and the other at 
B^arlem, have lately given out as the subject for a prize, Wlie- 
r the asserted gradation in nature has any real fonndation or 
not? I am acquainted with only one essay in answer to this 
question which was sent in to the last-mentioned learned society, 
vhose renowned author, our worthy Professor De Luc, has 
handled the whole subject only from a metaphysical A priori 
point of view, and even in this way comes to tbe'conclusion that 
ibetB is neither continuity nor imperceptible gradation in the 
weation, and that the harmony of the creation is rather sup- 
:|K)rt«d by marked diifereuces, having sharply defined boundaries 
"between them. On the other hand, I long ago' pointed out 
considerations against the reality of the structural conceptions 
6f the gradation of creatures according to their mere exterior 


316 cnADATiox. 

fiirm, ami agniust the very well-meant, but at the bottom vi 
presumptuous tendency towards this idea, which ia found in 
many physico-theologiaos; and these are entirely empirical, 
taken from natural history itself, and from the visible constraint 
which, in all the various essays on such gradations, is done to 
nature. Who does not feel how constrained he is when Bradley 
carries up his scale from the simplest fossils through the vegeta- 
ble and animal kingdom up to man, but has to put off what he 
cannot readily make fit into this scale into a second, by which he 
descends on the other side again from that elevation ? or, when in 
order to stand fast by particular passages and connecting links, 
Vailisueri brings forward the analogy of grasshoppers with birds, 
Oehme the analogy of birds with house-flies and other Dipterce, 
and wlieii Bonnet chooses the shield-lice as creatures of the 
transition from other insects to the tape-worm, &c. We should 
find it much easier to excuse the older describers of naturer 
when, deceived by the great resemblance of the exterior, they Im 
cated the armadilloes of the genus Mania with the lizards, or Um 
sertularia, and above all the corals, with the ciyptogamic plantlM 
since with certainly quite as much reason, in consequence of uU 
extremely superficial view of an outward structure very neadjfl 
resembling them, many even phanogeramtc species of plants oat 
of the genera Satri/ra^a, Androviedm, A retice, &c in spite of all 
their remaining heterogeneity, have had a place found for them 
on the ladder close to the large-leaved moss. 

When that extraordinary wonder-animal of the fifth part of 
the world, the OmithorhynckiLS paradoxus, was discovered, many 
partisans of gradation looked upon it as a fresh support of 
theory, whereas, it seems to me much rather to be a new 
dence against its reality. It seems to me so very isolated 
creature of its sort, that it can bo no more brought into the 
natural arrangement of the animal kingdom without visible con- 
straint, than the tortoises, cuttle-fish, &c., or than many genera 
of plants, as the Viiis, Cissus, &c. in that of the vegetable king- 
dom. Besides this, in the scale of Bonnet, and simple ones of 
that kind, the transition department from the birds to the quad- 
rupeds has been long since filled up by the bat ; and yet it 



be difficult to imagine two forma of mammals, which differ more 
Burpriaingly from each other, and which must therefore in any 
gradation stand further apart from each other, than those of the 
bat and the omithorhynchus. 

It muHt be understood that alt that has been said here, as well 
as what was suggested above (p. 283), by the expressions quoted 
from an otherwise meritorious writer on the use of petrifaetions, 
is only to be regarded as a warning against the misuse of the 
common conception of gradation, according to the outward form 
of creatures under the favourite images of ladders and links : 
since, on the other hand, the very greatest use may be made of 
this very metaphorical image not only towards the exercise of 
observation, but also with the greatest advantage towards the 
regular use of a natural system In the description of nature, and 
also for the most advantageous arrangement of natural collec- 
tions. Only instead of the partisans of this gradation acknow- 
ledging its value in dividing the productions of nature into 
kingdoms, classes, &C, and as a means of methodizing study and 
an assistance to the memory, but allowing that it has no real 
existence in nature itself; exactly the opposite seems to have come 
of those structural conceptions, whose unmistakeable value for 
the science of method cannot be denied, but which are ao very 
far from having any real ground in nature itself, that it has often 
happened to well-meaning physico-theologians that " they have 
attributed it to the Creator in the plan of His creation, and 
have mode its completeness and connexion to be sought for in 
fihe fact that nature, as the expression goes, mahes no leap, 
viuae creatures with respect to their outward habit can he 
inged so closely in gradation one with another." 

APPENDIX IL To p. 285. 

On the Succesmon of the different Eartk-catastrophes. 

If petrifactions can be made of regular use for the archas- 
logy and the physical geography of the earth, as the surest 



documents ia the archives of nahire for tbe fruitAil histoiy 
the catastrophes which have been connecteti with our pUnet 
since its creation, the study of them, and its t^nd^icj, demands 
as well a lliorougli critical comparison of them with the ot^aoiied 
bodies of the present creation, as also au accurate inTestigatiun 
of their different localities, and their geognostical relations. 
The firet important and instructive result which is immediately 
derived from Uiis two-fold consideration is, that tie lapidifica- 
tions are of extremely unequal antiquity ; many, as the still fresh 
Salmo arcticua of the west coast of Greenland, which is. so to 
speak, merely mummified in the thin clayisb-marl beds, is only 
of yesterday or the day before, in comparison with the thoroughly 
itrange and puzzling impressions of unknown plants which are 
found in the grau-wacke strata of the Harz on the borders of 
the Gangberg in the depths of the earth, and which belong to 
the very oldest evidences of an oi^nized creation on our planet 
A wider examination of these differently made fossils, and of 
their equally various sort of condition, brings us to a closer 
conclusion as to the oldest history of the body of this earth, and 
upon the sort and consequences of the numerous catastrophes 
it has gone through, and through which its crust has acquired 
its present appearance, which has been built out of such great 
convulsions. It is therefore my opinion, that the petrifactions 
may be arranged off-band, according to their different antiquity, 
most easily in three principal divisions. First, those whose 
complete similarity with still existing repreaentativea, as well 
as the positions they are found in, prove that they must be 
paratively the most recent; secondly, those far older, whiiAi 
have not indeed similar but still more or less allied analogues 
them in the present creation, although in climates very distant 
from those which contain such fossil remains; finally, in the 
third place, the very oldest of all, consisting for the most part of 
creatures completely unknown, the records of a perfectly strange 
creation which has been completely destroyed. These three 
divisions may to a certain extent be compared to the three 
epochs in the oldest profane writings of an historical, heroic, and 
mythical porinil. 





The first of these divisions comprises, therefore, the rela- 
tively most modern I up idi£ cations, those uamely which seeDi to 
have been occasioned by partial local revolutions since the last 
generai catastrophe which our planet suffered; and conse- 
(luently, nothing but those whoae representatives are still in 
existeDCo, and which are closcily allied to tlie fossil remains in 
the same country. Amongst them I reckon the uncommonly 
clear casts and remains from all six classes of the animal king- 
dom, and the numerous kinds of plants which are to he found 
in, and have made famous, the stinking slnte-quarries at Oen- 
ingen on the Bodenscc. When I travelled in that country I 
mode a collection of thtm, and I have seen still more in other 
collections; but amongst all, which I have myself been able 
to examine accuratt'ly, 1 have unfortunately found nothing ex- 
^etic, nothing which miglit not be referred either unmistakeably, 
^■pr at all events with the greatest probability, to the fauna ao<i 
^■lora of that present country and its waters, 
^ft To the second of these principal divisions belong fossils of 
^B^uite another sort and far higher origin -, namely, the now innu- 
Hwierable elephants, rhinoceroscH, and other now tropical crea- 
* tares found in this country, which most probably must have 
been once naturalized here, as is particularly demonstrated by 
the enormously large dens of huge species of bears in the 
summits of the Harz, the Fichtelbeig, in the Thuringian 
irest and on the Cai-pathians. Evorything goes to show that 
lose bears came alive into those caves, and fouud their graves 
But there arc also foimd in these caves with them 
ibones and t«eth of beasts of prey, like the lions and hyaenas 
the present earth, of which I have specimens, from moat of 
le dens mentioned, in my collection. Consequently, according 
ail probability that species of bears was also a tropical one, 
aa bears still live in many of the tropical zones of the 
id world; and aa those bears and lions are found in positions 
'here it would be difficult for them to have bfen floated in by 
ly current after death, so this seems very unlikely to have 
.ppened either to the elephants or rhinoceroses. Especially 
when it is considered that quite little flocks of many of these 


knebeoi fiaod lopaha, m Am 
•D tk Utker &n, vhoK find 
Md deaenbol with » I '» fca^ br «r ■ 
^um; aad AaC «f otWnt a* «f tke two ckfibnte from Tooim. 
■iiliiiwii ilwii, llii iMiililii ifceletiMB have been dagoo^ Ac 
Ami faally, all tkv demaa k new iaqMctutee frosn another 
geolopcal fibaiaaeBM^ wbkh atxnuiitig to my connctiao be- 
loagi to a KB&r dniHon, and BraM be joined ia idose connec- 
tion with it; I ntean the reaaina of tra^neal mimalw in certain 
iJHiial laa ■ Thaa in the iih iiimii ctntn of F^penheim there 
have been fijand amOBgitMt tnaay other trofacalcreatares a kind 
of MaUaaean'vstex'-^ei.aiKithe idH articolated ann bones of m 
tfetiet at bat, -rtxj mach like tlie fijring-dog. and all these so well 
preaeiTed, eren ap to the moat debcate Indian atar-fishes, w 
dew and in aocfa perfection, that no notion can remain of uay 
tianBport of them tfaroogh a genenl flood from the Boothem 
btmi^here here. On the oontraij, it ia qoite clear that those 
elephaou, riiinooerofies, and hjsna-Iike mimyb must once have 
been just aa these waler-fieas, star-fishea, Sx., domesticated ia 
oar latitudes, ontil throogh some cause which we cannot now 
determine with any certainty, a total alteration of the climate 
took place, which occasioned the destruction of the then living 
generation of thoae tropical creatures, as of manv other genera 
and species of organized bodies which existed along with tbem, 
of which in the present creation no exactly similar, to say 
nothing of specifically like, representatives are to be found : as 
the unknown of Ohio among great land-animals, and amongst 
the manne-animals in the Pappenheim slate-qu&rries, 
altogether strange species of crabs, the singular hard-a 
medusa bead, and many others. 

This revolution, which seems to have been merely climatic 
must be distinguished from those earlier and much more forci- 
ble ones, from which we must date the petrifactions of the third 

so matfH 




division, the oldest of alL In those the firm crust of the earth 
itself suffered such powerful shocks, that the floors of tho pre- 
i-iouB seas of the primeval world began to cover high mountains 
with their still uninjured shells ; and on tlie other hand, the pre- 
vious vegetation of the land was buried deep under the present 
surface of the sea. It is at once observed that these destructive 
catastrophes themselves were again of more tlian one sort, and 
were very far from happening aU at the same time; although it 
is scarcely possible at present to dtitermine with any certainty 
the chronological arrangement of the succeaaive periods in which 
they happened, to say nothing of the causes of them. 


APPENDIX UL To p. 292. 

On tlie so-called Objects of Design. 

Few scientific theories have been supported and opposed 
with such incredible prejudices on the one side and on the other, 
as those about the objects of design of the Creator. With many 
indeed, who contested this point, it was merely a question of 
words, whether one ought to speak of design or utility. Others 
considered the whole question of final causes as entirely useless; 
and Bacon's bon-mot is well known, who compared it to a 
prudent virgin, who weds heaven, and consequently produces 
nothing for the world. The great thinker would however have 
come to a diffcTent conclusion if he had been reminded out of 
the literature of phyaic^ogy and natural history, what complete- 
ness in these important sciences and what useful results to man- 
kind the search into the final purposes of nature has produced. 
But certainly the teleologists have laid themselves wonderfully 
open by anxiously catching at those things, and have also used 
great force to them, because they have thought themselves 
obliged to demonstrate clearly the aim and object of every dis- 
position of nature, especially in the organic creation. Thus the 
otherwise praiseworthy anatomist Spigel declares that the reason 
why in man that part on which he sits has been so visibly more 



mtm. ftim rf QbiiIImIihi^ ^* hM m evo^ mr «vn great 
»dBB ia ■ilaril hirtMy. dNk W b* nfated thk tDHteke oat 
d'MteiehcariC ndbw Ams Am the diAs on tbefeeitf 
Abm HBeete a*e aot penetated; ^id en— igacn^ Una 
fllfeet vUdb via vitk good iHialiiiii atmbuted fca 
Onalor will aot itnd 

Othei^ >am<>tmM, «b As oarizaiT, handodrted the raalh; 
of «B7 anangemeBt ia aataie tor the vsiy reaaon tint tb«v can- 
not find ia it any deagn ol the Oeat<K. When I pcooted oat to 
m; aeTer-to-be4bfgatteii fiiend Cbmper, that, in nature, contmjr 
to erery conaaanofi^tm, the tw^ioles of the ptpa of SariiuuD weie 
regularly taikd, he wax dtspased at first to confer* the instance 
I diowed him as an unnatural monstroatj. because he ooold not 
ondentaiM] of what use this fin-tail coold be to these little crea- 
torai who nt nestled on the back of their mothers Others, 
again, have swqit the whole road quite clean, and completelf 
denied all design in the creation. Not many years ago a distin- 
goisbed member of the tlien Academy of Sciences of Pans 

' " Man aloiu of tU sojnula lita comrorUbty, becuue he ha* Urg«r flcahj 
bnttockl, U)d tlicas wen giTm btm m s nuppart ui J a cwluon, •■> that when hit 
•Unuch wia Full, he could (it wi^out inroDiemciKw, md apply hii mind more 
readllj' to reflectiun open dirina nmltcra."—" There nae howenx a re«peclabie 
Baffliih e]rrgymiM of aoother oinnion, ivha amongit otb«- ■oggEHtiona a* to tbe 
dilloata and particulai' propriet; of conduct which ihould be otuerred in chordi, 
uincl to urge Tvrj lealaiuty that the psalmi ahonld he mng tUniUDg, becaiBt it 
•nt Impuuibls the; could come right from the be*rt in a ■itting po*ture;" lee 
Hnuirla m thi Public Sernet o/ lAt Church, wiA torn Dircakmi for our AnUnwiir 
tirri, Ughiji proper to ie undenlood by FeopU of all Sank* and Ago, Lond. 1748, 

• Commmt. .Soe. Ptg. Srlmt. Getting.. T, ix. p. tig. 




declared that it was as ridiculous to suppose that the aye was 
made to see with ', as to assert that stones were appointed for the 
purpose of breaking a man's head. This however, please God, 
will scarcely be satisfactory to any one who has ever had the 
opportunity of comparing the interior structure of any animal 
which is remarkable for striking singularities in its mode of lifo 
and functions, and can in this way persuade himself from nature 
itself most incontrovertibly of this pre-established harmony, as it 
may easily he called, between the purposed structure of crea- 
tures and their mode of life. It would be difhcult for anyone 
who is well acquainted with the natural histoty of the mole or 
the seal, and will consider with some little reflection the skele- 
ton and muscular system of the former, and the peculiarities of 
the circulation and the organs of sense of the latter, to allow 
himself seriously to utter such an expression as the one men- 
tioned above. The hundredfold proofs which may be deduced 
from comparative anatomy deprive the weak superficialities of 
some ancient sophists, who supposed that the animal structure 
was not ordained for its functions, but tliat the occupations of 
animals were only the mere consequence of their organization, 
of the last shadow of speciousneaa. Thus the production of so 
many mere temporary organs which only exist in the animal 
economy for transitory and extremely limited purposes, and 
which all the same are as good as those which are most durable 
in all the rest of the atructure of those animals in which they 
are found, are wonderfully atlapted to their mode of life. Thus, 
to produce only one instance of the kind, in the hedgehog, which 
rolls itself up in defence with such great muscular power, even 
the unborn ftetusee are completely funiimhed with one of these 
powerful springs, most accurately arranged, but which is after- 
wards in its way an after-birth' quite anomalously deformed, 
thick, and solid, under which the tender immature creature re.^tB 

' Hiiu lud Laeratiua long ago : 

"Lumins ne rocLii ociilonini dnra creata 
ProHpicere ut poaaimus," kc. 
' I lu""* given repretentatipni of this Liglily remnrkable p»rt in my llamlhiieb 


as under a shield, in order to be as completely as possible pro- 
tected, on any powerful constriction of the pr^fnant mother, 
against the dangerous consequences of that strong grasp from 
which its abdomen and entrails might thereby su£fer. 






PBor. in Gomiroiv. 






r * • • 


- V. 


L J i 


:^ ^. - - 




On the ffamo Sapiens Fents Linn. : cmd particularly of Wild 

.^ Feter o/Hameln. 

How'KWild PetoT-was found and brought prisoner to Hameln ; 
what happenSd'to Wild Peter in Hamehi ; Peter arrives in England, 
and now becomes £Eunoas ; Peter*s origin ; Peter's life and conduct 
in England; mistaken accounts by the biographers of Peter; genuine 
sources for Peter's history ; Peter compared with other so-called wild 
children; neither Peter, nor any other Homo sapiens ferus of Linneus, 
can ser ve as a specimen of the or igin al man of n ature : no originally 
wild condition of nature is to be attributed to Man, who is bom 
a domesfic' i£5iL ' 


On Egyptian Mummies, 
[Inedited, see Pre/.] 




I Moio Wild Peter was/ourtd and brought prisoner to Uavieln. 

"'On Friday, July 27t.b, 172-t, at the time of hay-harvest, JUrgen 
Meyer, a townsman of Hameln, met, by a stile in his field, 
not far from Helpensen, with a naked, brownish, black-haired 
creature, who was running up and down, and was about the size 
of a boy of twelve years old. It uttered no human sound, but 
was happily enticed, by its astonished discoverer showing it two 
apples in his hand, into the town, and entrapped within the 
Bridge-gate. There it was at first received by a mob of street 
boys, but was very soon afterwards placed for safe custody in 
the Hospital of the Holy Ghost, by order of the Burgomaster 

I What itappened to Wild Feter in Hameln. 

Peter — that was the name given him on his first ap- 
pearance in Hameln by the atreet-boys, and he retained it up 
to quite old age — Peter showed himself rather brutish in the 
first weeks of hia captivity; seeking to get out at doors and 

wiodowi, lotmg now ami then opoa bts knees and elbows, i 

rtAiBg hiwwwtf Eron side to nde oq his stzaw bed ontil he f 

aalccfi He did not Hke bnad at fint, bat be eagerly peeled 

gicen atido, and chewed tbe ped for the jnioe, as he aUo did 

vegetables, grass, and beaa-sbeOa. By degrees be grew tam«r 

and cleaner, so be was allowed to go about the town and pay 

ynata. When aojAing was offered him to eat, he first smelt 

■- it. and then either pot it in his moath, or laid it aside with a 

•^ shake of the head. In the same way he woold-smell people's 

V^ hands, and then stnke his breast if pleased, or if otherwise 

shake his head. When be particularly liked anything, as 

green beans, peas, tomips, mulberries, fmitt and particularly 

onions and hazel-nuts, he indicated his Batisfaction by sinking 

repeatedly on his chest. Just when he was found by Jiirgea 

Ueyer be had caoght some birds, and ca^rly dismembered 


When his first shoes were pat on him he was unahle to 
walk in them, but appeared glad when he could go about again 
bare-footed. He was just as httle pleased with any c 
on his head, and extremely enjoyed throwing his hat or cap ii 
the water and seeing it swim. He first of all became uss 
to go with clothes on, after they had tried him with a 1 
kilt. In other respects he appeared of quite a sanguine t 
perament, and liked hearing music; anil bis hearing and i 
were particularly acute. Whenever he wanted to get axq 
thing he kissed his hands, or even the ground 

After some time Peter was put out to board with a cloth- 
maker. He adhered to this man with true attachment, and 
was accompanied by him when he went from thence, in 
Oct, 1725, to Zell, into the hospital there, situated by the House 
of Correction ; but about Advent in the same year Kin) 
George I. sent for him to Hanover. 


Peter arnvea in England, and now becomes famous. 

la Fwb.. 1726^ Peter, under the safeguard of a royal servant, 
by name Rauteiiberg, was brought from Hanover to London ; 
and with his arrival there began his since so widely-spread 
celebrity. Tliis was the very time when the controversy about 
the existe nce of itiTI"'" '■^p"'' was being carried on with the 
greatest vivacity and warmth on both sides. Peter seemed the 
rauch-wished-for subject for determining the question. A genial 
fellow. Count Ziiizendorf, who afterwards became bo famous 
as the restorer and Ordinary of the Evangelical Brotherhood, as 
early as the beginning of 1726, made an application in London, 
to the Countess of Schaumburg-Lippe, for her interest, that 
Peter might be entrusted to his charge, in order that he might 
watch the devclopement of his innate ideas ; but he received 
for answer that the king had made a pre.sent of hira to the 
then Fpa cesa of W ales, afterwards Queen Caroline, welt known 
as one of the moet enlightened princesses of any age ; and that 
she had cotifided him in trust to Dr Arbuthnot, the intimate 
friend of Pope ^^anJ- Swift , and tEe Vinous collaborator of Gul- 
liver's Travels, still for the purpose of iuvestigatiag the innate 
ideas of Wild Peter. 

owift himself has immortalized him, in his humorous pro- 
duction, It cannot rain, but it pours', Linuseua gave him a 
niche in the Systema Natura, under the title o{ Juvenis M<m- 
nOTOrgnus; and Buffon, de Pauw, and J. J. Rousseau, have 
extolled him as a specimen of the'- true .natural man;-, Still 
more recently he has found an enthusiastic biographer in the 
famous Monboddo, who declares his appearance to be more 
remarkable than the discovery of Uranus, or than if astrono- 
mers, to the catalogue of stars already known, had added thirty 
thousand new ones*. 

^ (Or, tsadon Hmctd irfrtflfw^r Ed.] '_■ "^ 
"I coTuider IiTb bistaty ns B^n^chKnicIe or abstntcl of tha faiitoiy of the 
S9 of huTnuD nature. Trom the men) nnimol to the first itkge of eivitized Ur«." 
it SfdapAytics, Vol. m. p. f 7. 


Peter's Origin. 

It 13 a pity, aftet all the importance which the f| 
attached to Wild Peter, that two little circu 
history of his discovery should be left out of sig 
which I will here repeat, as far as possible, from the earliest 
original documenta, which I have before me. First, when Peter 
was, as I said, met with by the tovnisman of Hameln, the small 
fragment of a torn shirt was still fastened with string about 
his neck. Secondly, the singularly superior whiteness of his 
thighs compared to his legs, at his first entry into the town, 
occaBioued and confirmed the remark of a townswoman, that 
the child must have worn breeches, but no stockings. Thirdly, 
upon closer examination, the tongue was found unusually thick, 
and little capable of motion, so that an army surgeon at Ha- 
meln thought of attempting au operation to set it free, but 
did not perform it. Fourthly, some boatmen related, that 1 
they were descending in their boat from Poll, in the sum 
they bad seen at difiWreut times a poor naked child on t 
banks of the Wesor, and had given him a piece of brea 
Fifthly, it was soon ascertained, that Kruger, a widower ( 
Liichtringen, between Holzmiuden and Hoxter, in Paderbom 
had had a dumb child which had run away into the woods, ii 
1723, and had been found again in the following year, quit« ii 
a different place; but meanwhile his father had married i 
second time, and so ho was shortly afterwards thn:iat out e 
by his new step-mother. 

Peters Life and Conduct in London. 

Dr Arbuthnot soon found out that no instructive discoveriea 
in psychology or anthropology were to be expected from t 
imbecile boy; and so, after two mouths, at the request of thsl 


philosophic physician, a sufficient pension was settled upon him, 
anJ he was placed first with a chamber- woman ol' the Queen, 
and then with a fanner in H ertfords hire, where at last he 
ended hiaCvegetatoTxi^eJti a tence a s a kind of very old child, 
in :Feb. 1';^. 

Peter was of middle size, but when grown up of fresh 
robust appearance, and strong muscular developement ; hia 
physiognomy was by no means so stupid; he had a respectable 
beard, and soon_ accustomed hitoafiI£to a mixed diet of flesh, 
&c., but retained all his Ufe his early love for onions. As 
he grew older he became more moderate in bis eating, since in 
the first year of his captivity he took enough for two men. 
He relished a glass of brandy, he liked the fire, but he showed 
all his life the most perfect indifference for money, and what 
proves, above all, the more than brutish and invincible stupidity 
of Peter, just aa complete an indifference for tho other sex. 

Whenever bad weather came on, he was always ill-tfmpered 
and sad. He was never able to speak properly. Peter, ki 
echo, and qui ca (by the two last wonls meaning to express 
the names of his two benefactors. King George and Queen Caro- 
line), were the plainest of the few articulate sounds he was 
ever known to produce. He seemed to have a taste for music, 
and would hum over with satisfaction tunes of all kinds which 
he had often heard : and when an instrument was played, ho 
would hop about with great delight until he was quite tired. 
No one, however, ever saw him laugh — that cheerful prero- 
gative of mankind. In other respects he conducted himself as 
a good-natured, harmless, and obedient creature, so that ho 
could be employed in all sorts of httle domestic offices in the 
kitchen, or in the field. But they could not leave him alone to 
hia own devices in these matters ; for once when he was luft 
alone by a cart of dung, which he had just been helping to 
Bioftd, he immediately on the same spot began diligently to un- 

l it again. 

! probably lost himself several times in the neighbour- 
l during the first ten years of his residence in England ; 

; at all events one day, in 17*6, he unwittingly strayed a 



long way, and at last got as far as Norfolk, where lie i 
brouglit before a justice of the peace aa the suspicioua Unknovi 
— this was at the time when there was a look-oiit for th« 
supposed emissaries of the Pretender. As he did not speak, he 
was committed for the moment to the great prison-boiifle in 
Norwich for safe custody. A groat fire broke out there ( 
that very night, so that the prison waa opened as i 
as pOBsihle, and the detained were let out Wh 
the first fright the prisoners were counted up, the most in 
portant of them all was missing, the dumb Unknown, 
warder rushed through the Barnes of the wide prison, and fow 
Peter sitting quietly at the back in his corner ; he was enjtq 
iiig the illumination and the agreeable warmth, and it was n 
without difficulty that he could bo dragged forth : and bo« 
afterwards, from the advertisements for lost things, he was p 
cognized as the innocent Peter, and forwarded to his farmer 
again. Briefly, as an end to the tale, this pretended ideal of— 
pure human nature, to which later aopldsts have elevated t 
wihl Pgter, waa altogether nothing more tha n a dum b imb< 


Mistaken accounta by tJie hiograpliers of Peter. 

Meanwhile the history of this idiot is always remarkable, d 
a striking example of the uncertainty of human testimony < 
historical credibility. For it is surprising how divergent a 
partly contradictory are even the first contemporary accounted 
the circumstances of his appearance in Hameln. No tflH 
stories agree in the year, season, or place where and when \ 
was found by the townsman of Hameln, and brought into the ci 
The later printed stories are utterly wrong ; how he was found 
by King George I. when huntiug at Herrenhausen, or, accord- 
ing to others, on the Harz ; how it was necessary to cut down 
the tree, on the top of which he had taken refuge, in order to 
get at him ; how his body waa covered with hair, and that he 
ran upon all-fours ; how he jumped about trees like a squirr 


IBS" was very clever in getting the baits out of wolves' 
tmpe ; how he was carried over to England in an iron cage ; 
how he learnt to speak in nine months at the Queen's court; 

rhe was baptized by X)r Arbothnot, and soon after died, &c. 
Genuine sources/or Peter's histonj. 

I have critically examined everything that there is in print' 
about Wild Peter, and collected besides other accounts of the 
history of his discovery, The chief of these is a particular 
manuscript account by Severin, the Burgomaster of Hamein 
already mentioned, which he despatched in Feb. 172G to the 
minister at Hanover, and for which I am indebted to the 
kindness of the moat worthy master of the head school in 
Hamcin, Avenarius. There are, besides, nunierous national 
chronicles, and the unpriatod collections of the chamberlain 
Redcker in the town-house of Hanover. With respect to his 
later mode of life in England, besides what I found out there 
myself, many of my friends there, such as the ambassadors of 
Hanover, Dr Domford and M. C'raufurd, have communicated to 
me accurate accounts, which they themselves got together in 
Hertfordehire itself, and which I have made use o£ 

As to the likenesses of Peter which are in existence, I possess 
two masterly engravings, which, I am asauretl, bear a close 
resemblance to him. The one is a great sheet, in a dark style, 

^ Leiiaigir Zrilimtjm mm jjel. Saehert, 1755, Nn, 104, 1716, Nob. 17, 61, 88. 

Srttiaucr Sannlunytn, Vol Xixiv. Deo. 1715, p. 659, Vol. ilivi. Ap. 1716, 
p. S06. 

Zmtrlauigi nachrieU iioit dtm hei ffamrln gc/undrnen wildcra ki%abtn. ICuiri 
<IlMai t^itanu figttT in Kupftr galocheu btfiadlidt, 1716, 4to. 

SpknjfHiibers'a tebin da Gr. Ziiutndorff, tl. B. p. j8o. 

Swift's Warla, Vol. m. P. i, p. tjj, ed. 1755, ^^a. 

Ein irir/ ila Ham^trAen IlurytTotiKlfri Palm, v. 1741, in C. F. Fein'* Snllart- 
tor Pattt von A Higanffr iter nSmtUckea Kindrr, HuioT. 1 749, 4ta, p. 36. 

Ooilieman'* Ma-}. VoL JOli, 1751, p- S", Vol. lv. ijBj, P. i. pp. iiji »3*> 
P.n. p, 851. 

Monboddn, inrioii Uttaphyiia, Vol. m. Lend, 1784. 4I0, pp. S7i .1^7- 

[Comp. PcUrr ItiC Wild Boy. An enrjuiry bow tLc Wild Yonth lal*ly Uken 
inths woods DBarUanover, &c,&c. iimo. Lond.— A cop; in the Brit. Miia. En.] 


l>y Val. Green, from the picture by P- Falconet ; 
him as sitting, a full-length figure, in about bis fiftieth year, 
and was painted at London in 1767, when he was presented to 
the kin<'. The other is by Bartolozzi, after the three-quart«r 
figvire painted by J, Alefounder three years before Peter's death, 
quite a well-looking old man, whom any one who knew no 
better, might suppose to be more cunning than he looked. 

Peter Cc 


ivith other so-called wild children. 

It seems, perhaps, well worth the pains once for all to exa- 
mine and settle critically the accounts of poor Peter, who has 
been considered of so much importance by so many of our 
greatest naturalists, sophists, &c.; principally, because this is 
first story which can be set forth according to the real k 
for all the other instances of so-called wild children, alini 
without exception, are mixed up with so many beyond 
sure extraordinary and astonishing untruths or contradictioi 
that their credibility has become in consequence highly pi 
blematical altogether. 

Taking those instances only, which LinnsDUs has set out 
his rubric on the Homo sapiens Ferus, and with wliich ho 
introduced his Systema Naiurat; hia Juvenis ovinus Hibemva, who 
when sixteen years old was carried about as a show in Holland, 
where he was described by the elder Tulp', even entirely accord- 
ing to that account was an imbecile, dumb, and also outwardly 
deformed creature, but which could hardly have grown up from 
the cradle among wild sheep in Ireland, because they exist no 
more there than anywhere else. That he eat grass and hay 
at Amsterdam in the presence of astonished beholders, is, I 
.think, just as credible, as that the pretended South-seals) 
from Tanna, who some years ago was carried round at tiarvi 

' Obt. Med. lib. IV. c. X. p, 396, fifth ed, L,B. 1716. 



f WILD MEN. 337 

■time and fairs, used to muncli stonca. BL-sides the estraordi- 
narj- descriptiou, which that otherwise eo worthy Burgomaster 
of Amsterdam gives us of this boy, and also the fact, that so far 
as I know, no contemporary or even more recent author upon 
the natural history of Ireland, alludes to him even by a single 
word, makes me extremely suspicious on the matter ; and at all 
events, I do not think it worth the attention which haa been 
bestowed upon it by our own SchlSzer and Herder. 

As to the Juvenia bovinus Bamhergensis of Linnffius, so far 
as I know, we have no other testimony, except what we are told 
by the worthy Ph. Camerarius, who says', that this Bamberg 
savage, who at that time had entered into the condition of holy 
jaatrimony, informed bira that he had been brought up on the 
igbbouring hills by the cows. 

More precise, but still more suspicious, is the account of the 
e^ht years old Juvenia lupinue Hessensis of 134i (not 1554, as 
LinniEus' and all Lis copyists give out), who celebrated the good 
reception which he had met with from the wolves when they 
had carried him ofiF about five years before. They had made him 
a sofl nest of leaves, laid all round him, and kept him warm, 
brought him a share of their spoil', &c. 

Much also must, at all events, be subtracted from tlie 
Juvenis ursinva LWmanus ; aa, for instance, what we are 
assured by the authority, the imaginative Connor, in his Medi- 
cina Myatica aeu de Miraculia', that it is nothing uncommon 
in Poland for a bear giving suck, if it happens to find a child, 
to take it to its lair, and bring it up from its own breast. 
Many instances indeed are given by the elder Joh. Dan. Geyer, 
in his monograph On Vie LHhuanian Bear^ien; one Polaok 
in particular of about eight or nine years old, whom 

Oper. horar. inbieeirar. Cent, I. p. 343, ed. i6oj. 
(In Iho tenlh ed. liniueUB wrote, 13(4; the 5 i« 'li 
ft minpriat. BlumenbMh teemt to me n1w&;i in 

* Additionft ad Laabtrt. Schafaabitrii. Apjiotitir ab Erphetfordtnil mom 
tinoit. in Piatorii tcrip. rir. a Oerm. gatar. Frf. 16 1 3, fill. p. 164. 

* P- "3,i. "d- 'Sp'J' Comp. lie Hulfn-y nf Pvlaa-I. Li.ii.l. iSgti, Rvo. Vn 
p. J4j: whuTO & litlls Poloak in repnieitleil in 11 rmipattalilo copprplnle, ns 
lUcked the old bear-ioother between two yoiirg hertrJ, 



King John III. met with, and had baptized ; and who i 
made fife-player to the militia, notwithstanding that he ] 
feired going on four feet iniitead of two". 

It is said of the PueUa T'ran^mVana* that she was abc 
eighteen years old, when, in the winter of 1717, she was caught 
in a net on a search-hunt organized for tliat purpose by one 
thousand Kraueuburg peasants. She was quite naked except 
for a scanty straw apron, her skin had become hard and black, 
but in a little time after her capture it fell off, and upon that 
a bcautifid fresh skin came to light, &c (I have kept quite 
close to the account of the witnesses.) 

In other respects this wild girl waa very friendly, and of 
good cheerful temper, and was stolen from her parents when 
a little child in May, 1700. 

The PiteUa Cawpanica, as she was called by Linnfcus, or 
Mad"^' le Blanc, according to her French biographers*, wliu 
considered her as an Esquimaux girl seat to Frauce, was first 
of all oljserved in the water, where two girls about the siae 
of children of ten years old, and armed with clubs, swam about 
and ducked in and out like water-hens. They soon quarrelled 
about a clmplet of rases, which they found ; one of them was 
struck on the head by the other, but slie immediately bound 
up the wound with a plaster made out of a frog's skin tieJ 
with a strip of bark. Since then, however, she was seen no 
more, but Mad"*" le Blanc, tlie victress, covered only with taga 
and skins, and with a gourd-bottle instead of a bonnet oa b 
head, was entrapped into a neighbouring &c. 

Jo/iannea Leodicensis was, according to the account of i 
credulous Digby* a peasant youth of Liege, who ran away I 

' I"A man of credit wiauieJ m", that tbere was found in Dmmark, i 
nun. of about fourteen or fifteen yi'im otiJ, nho lived In tbo woods with tbc m 
and wbo ciuld not be dLetinguia)jt.iI from tbem but bj hia ahape. Thej took H 

and lenrnel hiin to apeak; he mud then, he could remember nothing but oiiljd 

tbe time the; took hiiD from Bmongat the bean." Life ijf Vanini, Aoim. 1714. SnJ 

■ Sri)!, Kamml, lUI. a. 437. 

' Hill, tfanejeanefillt mapar/t. Far. 17S5. 9vo. 

* la Tim Teaaita, is the one o/uMcli tkc Hotire of BviUt m the orter lb 


.64+. i 

1. S47. 


fear when the soliliurs plunJored hia village into the forest of 
Arileiines, anil lodged there for many years, and lived upon 
roots, wild pean, and acorns. 

There still remain, what are called hy LinnEeus, Puen 
Pyrenaici of 1719, on whose traces however I have not yet 
been able to come again'. Meanwhile, what I have here set 
down about the othtrs will, I hope, tend to give tlie proper 
value to thoso wonderful and various stories about these pre- 
mded m£i L of nat ure in a philoao phic natural hiator y of 


1^ se 

WtAer Peter twt any otiier Hovio sapima ferus of Liniueus can 
as a Speciinen of the original Man of Nature. 

If we make a fair deduction from the really too tasteless 
ficUoM in those stories, and let the rest pass muster ever so 
indulgently, still it will be at once seen, that these were alto- \^ 
gether min atural deformed creat uresTjand yet, what also goes ^ .. 
very much to show how ah no rmal they were, no two of them 
were at all like each other, according to any critical com- 
parison of the accounts we have of them. Taken altogether, 
they were very unm anlike, but each in liis own way, a^ording 
to the standard of his bwc individual wants, imperfections, and 
unnatural properties. Only in this were they like each other, 
that contrary to the instinct of nature, they lived alone, sepa- 
rated from the society of men, wandering about here and 
there ; a condition, whoso opposition to what is natural has 
been already compared by Voltaire to that of a lost solitary 


' [But see AntieiU MetapKytiet, Vol. IV. pp. i1, 3S, uid the Spaniah work, 
Saatnario Srudilo, of i;88, there rofarroil to. Ec] 

■ " If one nuxia with » waiidbriug bee, ought one to coaclude that the bee ia ia 
' " '0, and that those who work in company in the hive havn 

D. »l»o Fil»ngicri, Sck'ix iktia Usialazioiic, T. I. p. 64, 





Above alt n o orvfinalhf "Wild Cond iti rfu ( ( /' Haium i^ to U 
dttn^ujeiiio Jfun^j#o is bom a domestic animoL 

Bjaa^ifr a- jknoeati c an im al'.y But in order that other 
animals might be made domestic about bim, individuals of 
their species were first of all torn from their wild condition, 
and made to live under cover, and become tame ; whereas be 
on the contrary was bom and appointed by nature the most 
completely domesticated animal Other domestic aoimala wc 
first brought to that state of perfection through him. He 
the only one wbo brought hintael/to perfection. 

rBut whilst so many other domestic animals, as cats, 
goats, &c. when they by accident return to the wilderness, 
very soon degenerate into the natural condition of the wild 
\ species ; so on the other hand, as I have said, all those so- 
" calle j wild chi ldren in their other behaviour, and nature, &c, 
strikingly differed one from another, for the very reason that 
tlicy—had no originally wild species to degenerate into, for 
such a race of mankind, which is the most- per&ct of al! 
sorts of domestic animak that have been. created^_Dq where 
exists, nor is there any position, any mode of life, or even 
climate which would be suitable for it. 




177 STUCK. 

DEK 4 NOVEMBER, 1833. 





The lecture delivered by the Chief Physician-Royal, filumen- 
bach, in the sitting of the Royal Society, of the 3rd August, 
coDsiated of a Spicilegiitm observatiomim de generis kumani va- 
rietate naiiva, a suliject, tliat since his ina^igural dissertation 
which appeared under this title nearly sixty years ago, the author 
baB always taken pleasure in working at. It was only some- 
thing on the national characteristics of the three chief races 
among the five, into which he had thought it most according 
to nature to divide mankind. Therefore, first of the Caucasian 
8tem, or middle race ; and of its two extremes, which are 

iy, the Ethiopian, and thirdly, the Mongolian. 

the first race we have but one skull, but that of the very 
interest An old Hippocratic macrocephalus from the 
iea, exactly answering to the description given by the 
&ther of medicine in his golden treatise On air, water, and soil. 
Blumenbach owed this present for his rich collection of national 
eikuUs to the kindness of the excellent and much travelled 
physician of Augsburg, Dr Stephan, who, at the very time when 
the Russian Government had the ancient funeral mounds of the 
kings of the Boaphonis opened, which exist on the water-shed 
of the steppe hills in the vicinity of Kertch (the Panticapjpum 
of the ancienta) happened to be there, and obtained the skull in 

' GSlling. 'jdtlirU At\zriy. 177 at. B. 11, t 



qnestion. Tliis caetlj resembles id shape the others w 
were foatul there with it Od acccmnt of the great age of the 
burial place it was vei; rotten aiul fragile; Thia was also the 
case with the other skolls, which were laid by him previously 
before the Royal Society, of old Greeks, Germaos, Cimbriaiis, 
Tscfaadifl, &C. which have been described in their Transaction. 
The striking characteristic of the Tauric Macrocephalus, of 
which we are dot epeakiog, displays itself io a high, but not 
much vatilted forehead : the parietal bones on the other hand 
being exceedingly high, quite macrocephalic. The sagittiJ 
suture, as well us the other two prinnpal sutures of the occipui 
were quite obliterated. 

Secondly, of the Ethiopian race, which indeed at the Rtux 
glance contrasts so furcibl; with the others that one can easily 
uaderstand the exclamation of the naturalist Pliny; "Who 
would have beUeved in an Ethiopian before he bad seen him!" 
Almost exactly at the same time as that ancient long-headed 
skull Blumenbacb received bom bis old friend and pupil, Kauf- 
mann, the court pbjsiciau of Hanover, something of just as 
great importance to him for his collection, although of quite 
another kind. It was the fresh clean head of a negro boy from 
Congo, who had died unfortunately in his fifteenth year, and 
who might be considered as the most perfect ideal of this race 
of man. This gave the author of the lecture an opportunity 
of passing a critical review upon many of the to a great extent 
groundless assertions on the liodily pecullaritiea of the ne^o, 
which he refuted by the exhibition of preparations. Amongst 
tliese were some embryos, and this gave him an opportuni^ 
of saying something also on the third priucipal race. 

The Mongolian : not, indeed, iipon the character of their sknlh^; 
of which Blumenbacb, through the kindness of the never-to-be- 
forgotten Baron von Asch, possesses a most instructive series; 
but only to contrast with those uuboru n^roes the fiEtus of a 
female Calmuck three months old, already possessed of the ex- 
pressive national physiognomy, displaying, Damcly, that striking 
oblique direction of the bifurcation of the eyelids towards the 
root of the nose. Bl. 







NO. 14. 








Whek after the death of the respected Blumeubitch (Jan. 22, 
18-10) the undersigned received his smnmons to this University, 
and entered npon his present post in tlie autumn of 18tO, the 
collection of the venerable naturalist ha<l preAnously by the care of 
the Curatorium been purchased from the heira, and the ^eator 
part of it had ah-eady Iwen incorporated in the Academical 
Institute. The most valuable part of it was undeniably the 
collection of skulls, which Bhiraenbach, supported by pupils 
of his scattered over all parts of the world, and other numerous 
donors, had been collecting zealously for his whole life, and 
which it is well known had served him as the principal founda- 
tion for his investigations on the natural histoiy of mankind. 
Together with the Craniological Collection there was ranked a 
more extensive body of materials for completing the knowledge 
of the diflferent accompanying conditions of form and structure 
in respect of Ethnology, and for illustrating the Lectures on the 
General Natural History of Mankind. 

Already, in 1795, Blumenbach had given a sketch of this, as 
well of the Craniological Collection, which he incorporated with 
the third edition of his famous treatise Be generis huTnani varte- 
tate nativa, under the title Indea: suppeUecUlia aiiUiroiiologicas 


auctoris, qua in adomaiuia nova hacce editione maxivie usu^ a 
He divided the appaa-atus into five parts. The first divi^M 
comprised tho eighty-two race-skulls tlien existing in his < 
lection, separately detailed, and of which he had alrea 
represented thirty in the three first Decades of his Decades 
cranioTum. Blumenbach here remarked that bis craniological 
collection was unique of its kind, and that the richest museums 
of that sort then in Europe, namely, the anatomical collections 
of John Hunter and Peter Camper could not be compared with 
it. The other divisions of the so-called anthropological collection 
consisted of anatomical preparations, specimens of the skin and 
hair of different nations, and some embryos; then, very good 
drawings, especially some by the hand, paintings, also engrav- 
ings, and besides excellent portraits of distinguished individuals 
of difierent nations of our planet, executed in water-colours, oil, 
and crayons. 

All this material was handed over by the heirs to the Uni- 
versity, and likewise most of the original manuscripts of Blu- 
meuhach's works on general natural history, and upon the raceo,— 
of man: they were first of all deposited in the rooms oft 
academical museum allotted to me, until the erection of i 
physiological institute in which the whole collection was i 
ranged in the year 1842; wbere it remains in its entirety undfl^l 
the name of the Elumenbachian Anthropological Museuni,-J 
in lasting remembrance of that highly deserving man. Aim 
present it fills two rooms. In the first room are the skulls, aryl 
ranged in cabinets on the walls; outside which in like manners 
stand a collection of plaster easts; and in the middle are some 
mummies; whilst the other room contains the remaining objecta, 
especially the portraits. From what Blumenbach himself l«ft 
we hftve 245 whole skulls and fragments, and an Egyptian ami 
Guanche mummy. 

So far as my means and the great difficulty of making acqui- 
sitions in an inland country, have permitted, I have endeavoured to 
make the Collection still more complete But up to the present 
time I have been only moderately successful. By purchase we 
have obtained some interesting mummies and skulls from Pen! 

Kvrliich Dr von Tschudi had collected; and I have lately received 
fts a legacy from Professor de Fremcry in Utrecht some skulls 
and the skeleton of a negro. H. M. King Louis of Bavaria, 
liberal as he liad already shown himself in donations to Elu- 
menbach, sent ua aome years ago seven in part very well pre- 
served skulls from an old cemetery at Nordendorf on the Lech 
(probably of the second and third century), which were found 
on the occasion of making the raiboad. Hia Highness the Graf 
von GSrtz Schlitz, who as a pupil of our high school had always 
kept up a friendly recollection of it, sent us 6ye old Peruvian 
skulls, which he had dug up himself on the spot, and in the 
place, on bis voyage round the world. Professor Carl Schmidt 
of Dorpat, likewise a pupil of the Georgia Augusta, presented us 
■with two Lett skulls ; Professor Bidder, of Dorpat, added to tliem 
au Esthonian skull. To my brother, Dr Moritz Wagner, we 
owe two ekulla from the Crimea and a Greek skull. In this 
way, and by some recently prepared skulls, some of them mur- 
derers for example, the number of skulls and fragments of skuJls 
B reached 310. 

The want of skeletons has always been very great; the few 
I; behind by Blumenbach were very defective and useleKs. 
IT the Collection possesses several Europeans of different ages, 
1 a well-prepared negro skeleton. 

Besides the Egyptian and Guanche mummies we have three 
fleruvian mummies. Some mummified beads, for example one 
f a New Zealander, some negro heads in spirits of wine, &c. 

As for the Craniological Collection, it can no longer pass 
for the richest existing. That of Morton, which is now in 
Philadelphia, is already much richer. Still it has much that 
)8 interesting, as will be seen from the following sunmiary, 
1 which, for the most part, I follow the old an'augcnieut of 




UUBEUU. ^^^^^^H 

A. Peoples 

OF THE Old Woeld. ■ 

I. Caucasian Koces (Indo- Allan tic peoples). fl 

2 Indiau. 

1 Icelander. 

1 Persiau. 

1 Norwegian. ^ 

3 Georgiau, 

8 Hollander. 

1 LesgLi. 

1 Wend. 

1 Arraeuiaii. 

1 Bohemian. 

i Gipsy. 

3 Hungarian. 

5 Grtek. 

1 Pole. 

C Turk. 

■i Lithuanian 

7 Italian. 

1 Eathouian. 

1 Old Etruscan. 

2 Slavonian. 

5 Old Roman. 

2 Galician. 

6 French. 

22 Russian. 

1 Lothtiriugtan. 

5 Cossack. ^^^H 

I Burgundiaii. 

3 ^^^H 

1 Spaniard. 

4 Lappa ^^^| 

3 Engiieh. 

2 01.1 Tschudi. ■ 

1 Irish. 

1 Bulgarian. V 

5 Scot. 

i Jew. fl 

1 Hebridean. 

-I' Egyptian mummy akuU^I 


The remainder German. B 


^" IL Mongolian 

Races (Asiatic nations). ^| 


1(1 Tartar. 

1 ^^H 


7 Calmuck. 

Tungus. ^^^H 

2 Baschkir. 

1 Yakuta ^^^1 


1 Saraoiede, 

1 ^^^H 


1 Kamtachatdaic. 

2 Buruian. ^^^^^H 


1 Tachuvas-ch. 




IIL Woolly-haired African Nations (Ethiopian race). 

16 Negro skulls. 
1 Mulatto. 
1 Kafir. 

1 Hottentot. 
1 Bushman. 

R Peoples of the New World. 

IV. Americans. 

3 Esquimaux. 

4 Greenlander& 

1 Komager from Eadjak. 

1 Illinois. 

4 From Missouri. 

2 From Columbia River (ar- 

tificially flatteued). 

2 Carib (one artificially flat- 

1 Huanca (Peru, artif. de- 

1 Mexican. 

3 Schitgaganen. 

2 Algonquin. 
1 Iroquois. 

1 Modem Peruvian. 

8 Chincha- Peruvian (some 

artif. deformed). 
1 Ature. 
1 Botocudo. 
6 Brazilian. 
1 From Quiana. 

V. Malays and South-Sea Islanders. 

6 Javanese. 

3 From Ball 

2 From Celebes. 

1 Mestizo from Celebes. 

1 From Otaheite. 

2 Nukuhiva. 

2 From New HoUand. 
1 Papuan. 

2 From Madeira. 

The remaining skulls have reference to congenital depar- 
tures from the ordinary form, or pathological alterations, as 
microcephaly, hydrocephalus, &c. 

In the original collection the plastic representation of the 
outward forms of races was limited to one bust of a negro and 
one of a Botocudo, both moreover of indifferent workmanship. 


WtA ctedEt IB doe to Piofe«ar nm ''-"nifr of ] 

bn taOBttieom in [HnmoEing this above aQ j 

much ne^cteit means of forwanting the kiunvle 

natural hiabvry of mankimj hj the aid of ph 

hna execQbttl a ne^ though evea now : 

aeries of nce-lxuts with great titielity to oaAire i 

haodlii^, from indtvidiutla who came in his way at ] 

I have obtained same beantifni esMs toe a 
basts executed by Herr -ma T^nnit* They ira as i 

Benjamin Gait^na, CtmataatiiiopolitaD J«k 

I, Jew, 

TItmnn, Vabian. 

Abdallah, X«^ro. 

Zeno Or^o, bearded negro from GoadaJMipe. 

Native North-Amaicao. 


CmC tma the head of a Chinese. 

A GipHy GirL 

Model of the &ce of an HuDgari^a, by Fr. KOi 
done by a yoong 9ca]pt<>r of Gottingen. 

A Phrenolo^cal Collection, baaeii npm geonme 1 
the life, ia now for the fiiat time in process of bong i 
The above-named yoong artist, Ft. ESsthanlt, baa ; 
got some materiaU together for it. There la no departmaiftl 
8o mnch in want of critically selected materials as this, whk^fl 
has been so seldom treated scientiBcally. 

Another kind of collection, which ia now eqnalfy for' tbtl 
6rBt time projected, would be that of the form of tbe I 
beads in different individuals. A number of foreheads i 
the form preserved as much as possible is ready collet 
and it seems that a careful comparison of the foreheads ( 
difTerent tndividuaU might really lead to very intcrestini 
results, on which perhaps I may say more at another oppof^ | 
tiinity. Unfortunately no one in Europe appears as yet t« I 
have thought of making ft collection of race-forehcada of any [ 

MISELH. 363 

nnist be an iinportaiit bonaen lor the 

e abo endeavoured to pnunote the ot^ecUoo of Kpn- 
I of difiierent nations and tried to complete it, and 
mtlj hare had the neceeeity of instroctum or educatioa 
f before toy eyea. 
With the interest, which reiy lately the natond histoi; 
of EthnographjF has excited, in consequence of the noto- 
rious disputes about the origin of mankind, I became par- 
ticularly alJTe to the necessity of anthropological collections 
of that aorl Much lies scattered in private cotleictions in 
Holland and England, and a fresh youthful yigour which would 
give itself up witb zeal and a spirit of investigation to this 
task, and study the museums in Europe and Xorth America 
with this object, might bring interesting results to light I 
^k1 in eazlier yean piopoeed to myself the task at some time 
^fr other of editing an anatomy of the races and nations of 
Bpn, and lodted upon my natural history o! mankind, pub- 
uihed twenty-six years ago, as a juveuile prelude. But the 
difficulties, first of getting together suffident materials and 
then of inspecting witb that object all the public and private 
ctions in Europe were so great, that I have long since been 
i to give up this plan, especially since my health has 
r some years past b^un to fail me. The preservation and 
I of the Blumenbachian Museum, and the utilization 
' the same partly for the purposes of instruction and partly 
' foreign inquirers, I have considered incumbent on me as 
Kpoedtive duty. In general, however, the furtherance of anato- 
, physiological and zoological investigation in the last 
B years has been turned so much in other directions, that the 
~ ^tioa has been used less than I could have wished both by 
itive and foreign students, and in Cact has only been honoured 
l an ordinary inspection. I have, however, pleasure in men- 
ning these gentlemen : Ht-nle, Buschke, Van der Hoeven, 
ziufl, Tourtual, Von Tscbudi, and Andr. Wagner, who, some- 
mes in my company, and sometimes alone, have gone through 


t have made public use of it for tbd 


OUT Collection, and i 
own inquiries. 

Tlie notice given of it now ia perhaps sufficient to attract 
anew the attention of foreign inquirers to our little museum. 
It seems scarcely necessary to remark that our material i.s much 
too scanty for any extended questions upon the individuality 
and affinity of the nations of our planet. We must have not 
single, but hundreds of skulls of one and the same nation, to 
settle certain questions. Blumenbach, with the eye of genius, 
though from very slender materials, early drew the ground 
lines, and accurately recognized the typical differences. We 
have only got beyond Blumenbach's investigations and results 
in some particulars, and on the whole not much and not essen- 
tially. The longer we busy ourselves about the subject, the 
more again and i^ain we shall have to come back to the 
ground-plan and the divisions of Blumenbach. Still here I 
must mention above all as to the present time the works a 
the famous Retzius' in Stockholm, who has himself got to( 
ther a great apparatus, and must be considered at pre 
as by far the greatest proficient in scientific ethnology. 

With respect to our Collection I may remark, that i 
greatest wealth and value consists in the skulls of Asiatien 
(Mongolian) nations, which — perhaps with the exception of 
that of St Petersburgh — are still probably very uncommon 
in all collections. Nearly all these skulls came from a grateful 
pupil of Blumenbach, whom he often mentions, the imperial 
physician, Dr von Asch, in St Petersburgh. Notwithstanding 
my narrow means and small opportunity for acquisition, I have 
especially laboured to enlarge the series of particular nationa 
From this point of view the Negro, the Peruvian, and the 
Chinese skulls present a particular interest With a special 
view to that object, viz, the bringing together large numbers 
of skulls of one and the same people, I am anxious for assistance 



from foreign inquirers as well as from naturalists^ and grateful 
should I be in this respect for such support as has lately been 
given me by Herr Professor Schrdder van der Kolk, of XTtrecht 
Especially, however, should I be thankful for the acquisition 
of information about well-formed foreheads of known individuals 
amongst the nations of Europe, or the foreign races of man. 



8tpi, i6, 1856. 













scOTO-BBiTAmnia, sooiet. mkd. soo. ho 

" The Bpacioiw We«, 
And mil Ibg teeming legioaB or the Soutiv 
Hold not K (gokiTy, to tlie curioos fliglit 
Uf knowlolge, ludf to tumpCing or «o Sail 



ACADEUIjE typooraphos. 




It is not necessary for me when going to write about the 
v^etiea of man, and the causes of thein, to try and prove the 
importance of the subject. Much has been written by many 
about animated beings, nature, and the gods; and there are 
and have been those, who havt; attempted to gauge the strength 
and faculties of the human mind. But nothing has yet been 
written clearly by any writer upon the matters which regard the 

' Mbdj pencMUi, amongat otliflra. J. A. M»g« of PhilBdelpbia, iwvs been under 
the ida» (•eu Nott and fjliddon, Indtgcnnut Rata of Man, p. 7 16), deceived by the 
■imiJarity of UKnie, that tLts creatisti u the production of tbe celetmted sDrgean 
Jobn Hunter, A considerBlion of the dnte 177s, would bare lienn quite enougb to 
prove the cMutraiy, rior does Ike Hunter appear at any time to have taken the 
d^ree uf M.D. Not much is known about tha author. He waa a phyHictan to 
tbe amy, and wrote some pnpen on tbe bealth of tbe service, which are to be 
fuund in the medical journal*. The principal interest attaching to this trentiae 
anses from the fact that it appeared in the very aamo year, and a month or two 
before the more famoua work of Blumenbach on the same subject. It is very 
inferior in its mode of treating the subject to the effort of the German naturalist ; 
nor does the author seem to have prosecuted his researches further in this i^j-ectioDl 
Still anthropology has progresse<l so very little, that some uarts of it are quite on t. 
level with the science of the present day, and it may still be read with interest. 
The original has become very rare, though four copies are to be found in the British 
Museum ; but it has been thoaght that a translation would be aCMptable to many 
who tnight not caie to wade through the Latin at a modern physician. 

eaBn^bnc Ihwighl than too gnat to beaaciibed lo utonl 
iiiiH bat Art Act^mU be idUml to Ute wiU of tbe 
QoTCtaor of an tteigi^ tbe MfnBD Iav of nktoxe, as if He bad 
IB Ibe beginaing maiked oat awn bj m mui; diverae distiaiD> 
Nov if ve take up tbis mode of phitnanjAmitg^ and 
ettrilnite erefytbiBg fcr vbicfa we am gire do ressoo lo tha 
ItiTiue interference, ve tbot tbe door and Btop op all the soune* 
frocD which all tboae tbiagi ifini^ which adorn life, pcomote 
tbe arts, bimI finally inoease the force and the CMmldes of tbe 
hamao mind. And therefore it b worth while first of all to 
ijviuire what amount of proof there may be for tbe opimoD of 
tboee who impute all diremtiee to tbe DeHj, and tberefore 
imagine man to coiaist of different speciea. 

Tlioae who belieie in the diversity of species contend that 
the direnatiea are such that they cannot be explained in any 
other wiiy, whether by climate or other external causca. What. 
thtj oxk, ia tbe cause of the copper colour and the beardless 
chin of ibe Americansi or of tbe black teats of the Samoidc 

• VttltUa of Ike Ilinofg ,./ Man, VoL i. Si. I. 



HEA30K3. 361 

women ? of the black colour and thick lips of the Africans ? of 
the swelling pudenda of the female inhabitants of the Cape of 
Good Hope? What man has ever eiplained these and similar 
things? So they affirm these things cannot be explained, but 
must be attributed to God'. 

How much this superstition, which refers everything that 
Beems to us inexphcabic, to the Divine hand and the will of 
God, stands in the way of science, has been said above. 

Beaidea these diversities which it is true we cannot explain, 
tiiere occur others equally inexplicable, where the notion of 
a diversity of species cannot be entertained. Who has ever 
explained the high cheek-bones of the Scotch? No one ; but is 
that a reason for considering them a difl'erent species! Nor 
has any explanation ever yet been given for the blue eyes of 
the Goths'. And are they then of a different species? By this 
lode of reasoning, it would follow that there are different 
in the same family. 
In order to prove diversity of species, writers have had 
lurse even to the mental faculties'. This one is brave; that 
timid. How then can they be of the same species? This 
receives strangers with pleasure ; that one keeps them 
much as ever he can. Are they therefore of tie same 


this were so, and discrepancies of this kind were accepted 

signs and certain proofs of diversities of species, would not 

ferent species be produced in almost every single family? 

uld it not be said of the same man at different times that ho 

like way was of a different species from himself? 

Those who defend this opinion of the diversity of species, 

hot content with these arguments, seek out others from the 

Final Cause. For inasmuch i^ the regions inhabited by man 

are excessively different in climate, soil, heat, and innumerable 

pther points, therefore they believe that different species of 

to different regions', J 
agreeable to perfect v 
kind of Qatui 
date themselves to whj 

Bui who en aa; tkat H k not i 

dcm to ban ptva to < 

hj wiaA ihej cmid eadj' 

erer m^t k^ipes. than to ItaTecreatod a ftedi species adapted 

to eadi change of external areanutaBeeat 

This question has with JBstioe been most fiercely agitated. 
Ibr it is by BO means one of mere cariosity. For if it be 
allowed that men are of different species, tben they must be 
ao eonsideied in medical, natural, civil, and theological di»- 
qniations, and lastly, in all works which treat of man ; 
whatever m^ht be said of one species, might possibly be i 
emmeoosly predicated of another. 

For if it were so. it wotild be incredible that the Wisdom 
which &amed the univeise should have created different spedes, 
distinguished only by colour, or thick lips, or a depressed nose, 
and not of a different nature, and intended for some particula 
end. So, whatever learned men have written about one specie^V 
which has been applied to another, falls to the ground ; and 1 
the sources of reasoning, &om which it has often been thought 
that truth is derived, that is the comparisons made between 
various nation^, are altogether sealed up. But what are wa^ 
to think of those, who, although they consider men to rajr* 
in species, nevenheless persist in discoursing of man, a£ if heV 
were always in all regions and in every place the same ? 

There is another error which must be noticed here. Whil* 
authors dispute in this way with each other about speeieg, thejj 
do not explain what sense they attach to that word. The defi-j 
nition given by Ray, and adopted by Buffon, they reject i 
refuted, but they give no other in its place. And yet, without! 
in any way defining species, tliey go on to pronounce thfti 
species of men to be different But this is surely quite un-«r 
justifiable, unless the meaning of the word species is first of aHM 

Afl this is the case, in order that others may not make thi 

. aw- 




' Shlchu n/Uu Hatori/ of Mait, Vol. I. p. i 


3Jection to us, pray aecept our defmition of the word 
species, and our idea of the way ia which these uotioiui are con- 
ceived in the mind. 

As all our ideas of everything arise from nature, and its 
contemplation, so from the same source, and nut &om tho 
dogmas of the schools, or the disquisitions of logic, is the mean- 
ing of the word species to be deduced. Whoever looks round 
the earth, will find it full of animals, everywhere offering them- 
selves to his eyes, and will iind amongst aome of them an 
almost perfect resemblance, and a very strong affinity, but 
amongst more, the greatest possible difference. He who ex- 
amines this diversity or congruity, will quickly come to distri- 
bute animals into various classes, according to their various 
likenesses or uulikenesses. And since nature, as they say, 
makes no leaps, it frequently happens, that auimals are at the 
same time so like and so unlike each other, that it is sometimes 
doubtful to which class any particular one should be referred. 

What is to be the rule, or criterion for deciding this ! If 
any two animals, whose likeness to each other is not quite per- 
fect enough to compel one to assign them to the same species, 
produce an offspring which is either at once like, or afterwards 
becomes like either parent ; then however they may differ from 
each other in many points, yet they must be considered to bo 
of the same species. And with these preliminary obaervations, 
this is the way in which I think species should be defined. 

A class of animals, of which the members procreate with 
each other, and the offspring of whicli also procreate other 
animals, which are either like their class, or afterwards he- 
come 80. 

This definition of species may be conveniently illustrated by 
taking an instance from man, about whom our business now is. 
Take, of all who bear the name of man, a man and a woman 
most widely different from each other ; let the one be a most beau- 
tiful Circassian woman and tlio other an African bom in Guinea, 
as black and ugly as possible. Take, moreover, as you certainly 
te males and females sprung from this pair, and Join 
i children of the latter in marriage with their maternal race. 


and the children of the fonner ^th the paternal, and thi 
if after several generations the ofepring of the female becomi 
in all things to resemble the muther, and the of&priag of the 
male the father, we mar come to the delinite conclusion that 
the parents were of the same speciea That this is a fact, is 
proved every day by the unions of the black and the whita 
And if any one denies the truth of this deBuilion, what order, 
what certainty does he leave in the animal kingdom? One 
species may change into another. The ox may become a hoi«e, 
the ape a man. And if reason and common sense did not 
revolt from such absurd and monstrous positions, some woi 
eagerly declare that such things might take place. Let a 
look round the world, and contemplate nature. What doea 
find '. Does the varied appearance of things supply any proofs 
by which such a notion can be confirmed? Have not the 
classes of animals always remained distinct up to this time I 
and why Bhould they not remain so for ever? A lawless and 
blind wish has often desired the existence of such mutations, 
and even of new genera, if it were possible. And many have tried 
very hard to bring about something of the kind, but no one 
yot succeeded in making a new species, or turning one inl 
another. From all which wc may conclude that each 
every species of animals has been circumscribed within fix) 
boundaries from the beginning by Divine Wisdom ; and 
desire, Uke those which are contrary to the laws of nature, 
strong enough to cause nature's divisions, that is, her ani 
to be commingled, or disordered. And in truth, about mc 
animals there is no doubt, because they are distinguished 
the first glance, by external appearance, and manifest token*; 
and the sole contention is about man, and a few other specif 
principally of the domestic animals. As to these there aro ti 
reasons, why writers have had doubts about them. First, 
cause every variety and aberration from the general order taki 
place before our eyes, and is moat easily oljservod. The 
second and more pijwerful reason is, because animals, placed 
under our care, entirely contrary to their instincts, and sub- 
jected to duties and modes of life which do not at all suit 



tt all sUlt^H 

for this reason especially, and all the more, the more 
care we take of them, become altered'. 

The varieties of dogs seem almost infinite ; for they pass 
their lives with men, suffer like them, and share their sports 
and their hearths. If any one should say that the varieties 
of do^ indicate a diversity of species, would it not be the 
same thing as to affirm that the dog can carry different species 
at the same time in its womb t For it is common enough 
for a bitch to bring forth in tho same litter v^eties of 
whelps, which varieties such persons would call speciea And to 
those who think what they call the different and permanent 
orders of dogs are of great weight in proving them to be of 
different species, we may answer that no such orders are per- 
manent and constant without the careful interference of man. 
Who does not know how difficult it is to produce the Cants 
GaUicus (Grai'is Linn.) or the Cants Odorus {Sagax Linn')? 

For these reasons, my opinion is that men must be held to 
be of the same species. And as in the vegetable kingdom, the 
tiame species sometimes comprehends many varieties, which all 
depend upon the climate, the soil, and cultivation, so to use the 
language of botanists, the diversities of men are to be con- 
sidered as varieties of the same species, and, in the same way, 
to be deduced from natural causes. 

No one can be ignorant how much influence events have in 
affecting and changing men. On these depend almost all dis- 
orders, and the numerous changes in the human body. To ex- 
plain properly their effects and the varieties of the human spe- 
cies, and to show clearly how they take place, not only is an 
intimate knowledge of human nature required, as far as regards 
its motions and mutations, and its increase and decrease, but 
also a deep knowledge is necessary of all things which can affect 
man, so far as regards their qualities, and mode of action. For 
to give an explanation of how two bodies act upon each other, 
the natiire of each must be imderstood. Who possesses this 
gcienceT Who ha« explained the nature of the human body? 


Who has investigated the powers of nature? No one. Many^ 
things are obscure, which can oiily be brought to light by great 
labour, and the united powers of many men in a long space of 
time. Thus it will easily be understood how difficult is the task 
I have imposed upon myself. I approach it, however, not froW J 
any love of writing, but from a sort of necessity. And bo t 
from b«ing sorry, I shall be glad, if, as I may hope, these i 
endeavours will call away able men, especially at this tlm 
when natural history is so Bourishing, from shells and bittter>fl 
flies, to studies worthy of man. 

In order that I may conduct my work on some plan, I have 
thought it best to divide it into four parts; in the first of which 
I shall treat of the colour of men; in the second, of stature and _ 
form; in the third, of the excess or defect, of parts, or other d 
ferences; and in the fourth, of the mental faculties, TheBs] 
chapters will comprise almost everything which all the curioni 
investigators of this planet have seen and told. 


Chapteh I. 

0/ Colour. 

The varieties of colour are wonderful Thus in men we moet 
with white, black, brown, copper -colour ; lastly, all shades be- 
tween white and black, some having one, and others another. 
And in order to show this more clearly, I have subjoined a tab! 
of the colours of man, as they difler according to race, which ^ 
put forward, not as an absolutely correct history of colours, I 
only as an example and specimen of varieties. 

Table of Colours. 

Black. Africans under the direct rays of the Son. ] 

Inhabitants of New Guinea, and of New ] 



The Moora of Nortbem Africa. 
The Hottentots, dwelling towards the south 
of the Continent. 
Dopper-coloured. The East-Indians ', 

Africans dwelling on the Mediterranean Sea. 

Southern Europeans. 

Turks and others. 
Samoeides and Laplanders. 
Almost ail the remaining Europeans, aa 
Poles and others. 
f "Georgians. 

What is the cause of such diflerent colours? To this the 
answer is difficult. Yet many philosophera have attempted to 
discover it. Those who boiTow their philosophy from Scripture, 

' Ttme altboDgh the; twj in culaar, u b^ng > little duker or lighter, >1I more 
or l«a «pproBch s copper colour, 

* Thia colour scarcely diflerB from copper. Those who inhabit the Northern part 
of America are eo much whiter, that they nearly lose the rod colour altogether. 

* The Chinese are of aU coloon belweeu brown anduAii*; in the aouth, brown; 
towards tbe north, white. 

* Buffon, Tom. v. p. lo. 

■ Ferhapa we ought to put here the inhabitiuits of soma oE the iilanda in the 
gT«»t Pacific Ocean. 


w^ 4b fMB «Me ^a^ MK voy ftaatir far &m', 
U^^* kai !■ i^panea. Sine take rrfoee m 
1^ M Ac ho* ^ the sh, d^ik npnM*, and tbe 

trite tfaoK «fiwM% tirt liAs to deAwe Bj OMi- 


bat o^y coenfMB* 


tkityMt vfeiA kqJhilhaialiili. vUA m made op «f die 
tfiittmim tmd Ae MlkdiBi and «f tbeae two, nodes pcmci- 
pdjr m Ae httaL h Ac UmIs Ae caticle ia thkker aad 
kailii Iha ntfe wUtalo tki> extent, tbattn the latter tbe 
liliiriaB ii a nrt of tUa bwm^ nd i> tbe htter a tlu^ 
iimbIihim* The tiwuMiral fy id fmw «f the white* ha« the 

tppiaamoB at a voy thia dice of hoan: tl 
vflfj ASeseait fma ooagalated Bneag.aiid the ejndennis aeenc 
to coB^t of the ame; hafdeoed. And aone teac^' that this ii 
ita real baa aad laatcnaL Bnt ahhoi^k anatomistB are by no 
meaM agieed en ttat point, and it it not fi» me to settle t 
matter, I ant obliged, from the natttre of my sabject. to ssjg 
few words about it. 

In the whites, the parts under the dun, or rather the c 
de, which change colonr, cause the coloar of the body to t 
cbaoged. on accoinit of the transparency of the cuticle, 
jsaodice the skin beeomes yellow, because the blood is 1 
with bile; and the nish of more blood tKan usual into the ^ 
scis of the Uux causes btoshing. And a kind of t^Tihus, nei 
peculiar to the West Indies, is called the yellow ferer, I 
from ttie congestion of yellow senira in Ute vessels of the skin 

< £mai tar la Fnp^iiat, lU fAmtrvjut, Tom. [t. lir. 7. c i<>. 

' Id. Mn. I ,|. ■ Sprtlaeh dt la Satmre. 

• La mUioAiqVf impartiaU, Tom. T. Uui et Avril, p. iij. 

* AIUdiu. dt Colon jSthtopuK, p. 6. * aiUlcr. />AyMa'°7. T. * 
' lb. p. 13, 



mea yellow. Moreover, if pigments are applied inside 
the epidennU, they stamp on it 8o permanent a colour, that it 
remaioB to the end of life. If gunpowder is burnt into the 
skin, who does not know how long it remains there? And in 
some such fashion many barbarous nations', like our ancestors*, 
used to paint and mark their skin with various figures, for the 
sake of ornament. 

Hence we may draw these conclusions. First, the cuticle 
must have no vessels, or at all events extremely few. For, if 
it were furnished with only a few more vessels, it would admit 
bile mixed with blood to its innermost parts and furthest re- 
cesses, and then what would stand in the way of yellowness 
remaining in it a long time, like any other colour caused by 
pigments! Moreover, the fact of the condition of the pig- 
ment when coloured being fixed, shows that it consists of parts 
which are very permanent, and therefore are furnished with 
very few, if any, vessels. Writers do not attribute bones to 
those parts of the body which abound in vessels; yet these 
parts, when stained with any colour, do not cease to change all 
their particles, until they have recovered their original tint 
Hence we may conclude for certain that the cuticle is furnished 
with very few, if any, vessels, and that its component parts 
scarcely ever change. 

So much being premised about colour, and the structure of 
its seat, we must investigate the causes of it, and, first of all, of 
blackness. And perhaps it will be worth while to begin by in- 
quiring into the causes of the change of colour in the regions of 
the epidermis and the reticulum; and this all the more, because 
nature, in its simplicity, generally uses the same means to eflfect 
the same ends. 

Air, dirt, and the heat of the sun, the transparency of the 
cuticle being destroyed, give it a brown colour, and at the same 
time make it harder. 

He who wishes to have his hands shining and white will 
not find it enough to protect them from the sun and the heat. 

I ' H»wkc«wortL'a Vogaga, VoL li. p. 191. ' Caesar, Comnml. Lib. v. £»p. I 

hm mmm. aim haep tk^ fi^ the av, m h weB kaoKa t< 
■MiB. «W MB g ^ w at ■■ twcK Beaded tfae colour of 
tke fan ■ anw «• finr m ii ■Ao- jmHb of Ife body whidi 
•re ahrmn tmoed, ahka^Bh it W aevcr expcaed to Uke nuL 

naae «k« h«>« to wfc hiid ak naadal bbonr, never bar> 
■wfcite haadL OaqiMpdn; m has been Bid, when introdact- 
Mav the qw l wit . »fcn tke coloar fabck. Dirt and pii- 
Beats eiB d» the nma tUn^ Iboogli ia a annor degree. A'\ : 
ddi aeeaM to be Baagnweil b;^ tbe use of waives, wHb wfaiJ 
Ae blaiAi btiaaw t hu ae el r ai , ao u to make tbenuelvi;- 

Tlie beat of the son ii the oioet pownfol canse. Its force 
ii abcnni if yoa expose to it tbe wbiteM ponble lace, for it will 
kjae all tta vbtteneas in one dar, mad come oat brown or red. 
ll is particniarij efSaaaoa in tbe summer od red-haired pa- 
■ooa witb light skin ; and eao afliscl the whole fikin wiUi brovn 
•poti^ but espenally tbe hands and lao^ because tbejr are most 
exposed to it, which linnKiu' makes a disorder, and calb 
Ephfiida. Nor is there any deobt, that if the heat wen; kept 
up long enough, tbe whole skin would become of the same 
brown colmir. 

If then these causes, the air, namely, and the heat of the 
mm. can cause such changes in theee regions where, by means of 
houses and dothe», we are ao mncb protected from them, at all 
«rvent« we need not be surprised that greater blackDeea if 
thereby effected in much hotter regions where men are ex] 
naked to a burning sun at alnjoiit all time& 

But besides the heat of the sun, and tbe effects of t!ie sit, 
where any one is exposed to it, other causes bring on greater 
blackness like that of tbe Africans. 

Tlie parts of the cuticle are very rarely changed, as was said 
before, and all the more rarely the thicker it is. And, there- 
fore, when the same particles are expo§ed for a long time to 
l^roat heat, the effect is great, that ia, much blackness is oeces- 
sarily sub-introduced. And, moreover, it ia certain that pig- 

ess Ml 


ments tan do nrncli to increase thia, by wLicli, as has been 
said, their bodios arc rendered blacker, or, as they think, more 
, ' beautiful 
^■k ' The cuticle of the blacks is said to be thicker and less 
^■tensparont than that of the whitei), and therefore, when the 
■ ' causes of blackness are induced, will also be blacker ; if ludeed 
iJiat want of transparency has the effect of putting more par- 
ticles in the way of the influences which produce blackness. 
For all, who are skilled in optics, know well, that transparent 
and coloured plates make colour more vivid and more intense, 
the more of them there are which are put one above the other : 
because the rays of light transmitted by the one are reflected 
by the other, and the brightness of colour is always in propor- 
tion to the number of reflected rays. But when the colour of 
the plates is that of blackness, which consists of the absence of 
light, the rays which are not suffocated by one are effaced by 
the other, and so, the light being neither transmitted nor 
reflected, black colour is produced. If, indeed, it bo askcA how 
it is that the cuticle of the blacks is less transparent than that 
of the whites, although I cannot perfectly explain it, I will try 
and illustrate it in a few words. 

The action of the sun and the air is a sort of stimulus to 
our bodies, and therefore acts according to those laws which 
regulate stimulants, The effect of this stimulant, burning and 
irritating the skin, is to render it harder and thicker, as is the 
case with the hands of labourers, and with the use of all parts 
of the body which are affected by stimulants. In the same 
way the air and the rays of the sun, by their stimulating action, 
render the skin less transparent The eflicient cause, why the 
skin becomes thicker, is clear, and the way in which it is made 
thick, whether by the sun or by other irritating subjects, is 
I jxetty much the aaane. The irritation of the parts brings with 
^Ht a lai;ger influx of humours, and increases the action of the 
^^vesaels, which are used in their increment or reparation. And 
as the continuous action of the sun, and other influences which 
stimulate the skin, diHplay a great resemblance of action, so 
the progress of the acting power is the same in either case. 


372 PEOors. 

Stimulants and irritantB, wben lirst applied to a yet tender si 
cause the appearance of many pimples; but after a certain 
lapse of time, it becomes harder, thicker, and at last callous, 
and can nerer afterwards be inflated into pimples by tlie same 
causes. And in like manner, although the rays of a southem 
sun bum our bodies, and cause many pimples (o rise on the 
skin, still bodies accustomed to those regions, or those wIio_ 
have always been in the way of it, are not affected in the & 

The &ct therefore of the ^in being made thicker by t] 
intemperance of the climate and the heat of the sun, ) 
blacker by the direct rays of the sun and by pigments, 
our whole theory of colour. 

We must next inquire how far the explanation we I 
given is supported by fact^ and how iar it goes towards t 
plaining fitcts. 

Since all blacks are bom white', and remain so for sold 
little time, it is clear from this that the sun and the air i 
necessary agents in turning the skin to a black colour. AnJ' 
this is proved besides by the (act, that when blisteriogs and 
burnings are applied to the bodies of the blacks, they change 
such parts so into white, that the black colour is not brought 
back to the body for some days'. Those parts of the body too 
which are most protected, and defended from the sun and the 
air, do not lose their original white colour, as is observed in 
those blaeks who have the gland covered with the prepuce'. 
All the nations wbich dwell within the torrid zone have their 
colour more and more verging towards black. This almost 
universal fact doubtless tends to support the opinion given 
above. But that such is not the fact is objected by some, 
because there are no small number of white people in the 
torrid zoue*. And although I cannot deny this, still it is quite 
plain that the inhabitants of the torrid zone are blacker than 

> MiiL afttiralt 3n Vofaga, pu M. I'Abbd Prevost, Tom. 
lb. ToiD. m. p. 1163. 

* //iV. dt VAratUatic da ScUnea, An. 170], p. 31, 

* Anti tur hx Fopaialiim dt CAintnqnt, Tom. IT. liv. 7. e. 

1 iiiat almost all are of a dark colour approaching 

Ici black. 

However, since ihe cause of blackness, as we give it, is by no 
means simple, and does not entirely depend upon a nearer 
or greater distance from the Equator, and since when one or 
other of the eflicient causes is absent, the whole effect ceases, 
it will not be foreign to our purpose, if we inquire whether the 
fact of the whiter peculations of the torrid zone goes to refute 
or confirm what we have advanced. 

To render our labours lighter, some general obeervations 
maj be premised. 

The beat is not always found less or greater in exact 
proportion to the distance of the respective regions from the 

Islands are not so hot as contlnenta, on account of the 
vapours which rise from the sea, and of the winds which are 
constantly blowing from it, both oi which tend to refrigerate 
the soil 

^^ Mountainous countries, or countries in the neighbourhood of 

H^'O^^^''^- gi'^^tty temper the heat. The reason of this will be 

■ ^ven immediately. 

Besides, the wind, sometimes by increasing, sometimes by 
diminishing them, variously affects heat and cold : coming from 

Kliot coimtriea burnt up by the sun it bringS' heat ; blowing from 

^■ipowy and cold mountains, cold. 

■( Finally, in places where the heat is the same, the same 
colour is not always tlie result; for the different mode of life 
has a great influence in changing it, 

I will illustrate these observations by a few examples. As 
to the first point : many islands enjoy a veiy temperate clinwite, 
and particularly those which are situate furthest from conti- 
nents', H»w faj- their inhabitants preserve their whiteness 
may he learnt from the instance of those who inhabit the 
islands of the Southern, or great Pacific ocean'. Almost all the 
East Indies, as tliey verge towards the south, split up into 

^ Uiwkeiwoitli'B Toj/aga, Vol. ii. p^nS. 

» lb. Vol. II. p. tSj, 

374 HEAT. 

islaiids or peninsulaa ; whicli partly explaius why the 
found there is copper or brown, aaii not black. 

As to the other observation : the Abyssinians, althot 
placed under the Eiiuator, still are white. In that count 
the mercury never stands above twenty finger-breadths high in 
the barometer ; whence it appears that Abyssinia is perhi^ 
the highest part of the world iuh.abited by man, at least two 
miles above the level of the sea. No one, who has ever 
up a mountain, is unaware how much such an altitude 
lessen the heat. Thus some mountains of America, thoi 
placed exactly under the Equator, are covered the whole 
with deep snow and ice. Even the highest point of Etna 
covered with perpetual snow'. That altitude therefore 
derates heat is a fact, and is proved by these examples, 
is the explanation difficult. And although I cannot go into 
matter at full length, yet I will say a few words about it. 

Heat is caused by the rays of the sun, when they fall eitl 
directly or by refraction upon anything. But it is not foi 
to be the same in every substance, on which the raya 
to fall : as when they fall on a transparent body, they do not 
cause the same heat as when they fall on an opaque one. 
This is most clearly shown by the fact, that when the focua 
of a concave metal mirror, opposed to the sun's rays, is thrown 
upon water, it does not boil, or show any sense of heat 
although if copper, or any other mf^tal, is opposed to the mil 
it liquefies, or evaporates, in a moment. And since in 
passage of light through a transparent body, a smaller quanl 
of heat is thrown out, in proportion to the thinness or trans- 
parency of the body, but the air is more rarefied as it is higher 
above the earth ; so it on that account transmits light more 
easily, and almost without any obstacle. Fur hght seen 
cause the more heat in proportion to the obstacles to itd 
grcBu. But enough has been said oo this point. 

How much iufiuence the wind has in altering heat, may 
seen from the instance of America, where, when the north wi 


blows, the cold becomes so great tbat in one night the rivers 
become frozen and unnavigable. The same thing is shown in 
Africa, where the winds, sweeping over and rolling about burn- 
ing sands for many miles, stir up an almost intolerable heat. 

I will now point out the effects of the mode of life. Those 
who are always clothed, and generally live in-doors, are seldom 
exposed to the causes which produce a change of colour, and ho 
retain their whiteness, Tliis happens to Europeans who in- 
habit hot countries, who retain their original mode of life, and 
continue to wear their clothes; whereas the aborigines' are 
always naked, and exposed to the force of the sun and the 
winds. But if any of them never do expose themselves to the 
air and the sun, as often happens to the women', they come off 
better in the way of colour than the rest. 

As to the objection, that white men are to be -found in 
hot regions, where the observations above collected do not 
explain their whiteness in any way, and that it is a fact, 
tliat in Abyssinia, and in the islands of Java and Madagascar', 
whitd and black men are found together, that must be 
explained otherwise. For it must be observed that these black 
and white men are of different origin, and diffiir not only in 
colour but in mode of living, and in many other external 
circumstances. For it is certain, and has been discovered, that 
those differences have not crept in among those who have 
always inhabited those countries from the beginning, but have 
come from elsewhere out of countries whose temperature was 
more favourable to wliiteness or, with the original 
inhabitants of such regions. And let no one suppose this can 
be contradicted. For so far their similarity is of importance, 
because you can easily in consequence of it trace the origin 
of individuals to some neighbouring nation ; and thus you may 
gather tbat the black inhabitants of Abyssinia came thither 
1 other neighbouring parts of Africa. And in the same way 

» I/iit. Gen. da Voga-jei, [).ir M- I'AbW Prei 
■ Buflbn, HiU. Naiartllt, Tom, v, pp. 40, 41; 

' lb. n>. 41, 160. 

te &3 tbe Europeatt^l 


people as blade as the Africans and as wliHe t _ 

iohabit tbe islands of the great Pacific ocean': of whom the 
tornier have without doubt emigrated from the countries called 
New Guinea ; and the latter, as is likel.y, from those ttacU 
ef Asia which trend more towards the north. 

It may still be objected to my view, that two natiai 
differing at the outset, when they come to inhabit the « 
r^ona, although they are exposed to the same external cauM 
still remain different. But on this point two things are to ( 
considered, namely, that different nations by no means liM 
in the same, but, on the contrary, in very different ways. 
it is by no means necessary to have causes so strong, or t 
ences so energetic, to preserve an effect when it is once doi 
as to produce the same originally. In this way, altbou^ J 
the i^ands of the Pacific ocean above mentioned, the 1 
of the sun cannot change the colour from white to blade ; 
when that is once done, it can keep it so. 

Brown colour, diverging from white, is by no meaoB c 
fined to tlie torrid zone; for the men of northern Eum 
Eund Asia, where cold and frost and snow reign in perpetu 
junction, are of a brown colour*. 'ITiey lead a most wret 
life; their food consists of fish and wild beasts. For bread, 1 
dig up roots out of the earth. In winter they hide in hovel 
except when compelled to go out by hunger. Thoy conf 
their hovels under the earth, which is necessary, on account e 
the intolerable cold. This mode of life is no doubt very unfavour- 
able towards causing or preserving whiteness. And whilst they 
are catching fish, or bunting wild beasts, they must needs % 
a great deal exposed to the intemperance of the air. And t 
inclemency of the air and constant fish-diet have the (^ 
possible influence in making the skin harder and thicker ; 
living in dwellings always filled with smoke is- certainly j 
remedy. This is an example of how far the severity oCl 
climate may of itself go to change the colour. 



So much, then I have to say aboiit colour, in general terms, 
it is true, because the limits of this little treatise did not 
permit me to speak more fully or copiously : still, I hope there 
is enough to tend somewhat towards the explanation of colour 
in all instances. 

^ Chap. II. 

Of Stature and Form. 

The differences of human stature are far from being small. 
The inhabitants of some part of Soutli America grow to a height 
of seven feet'; whilst the inhabitants of the frigid zone scarcely 
attain the height of four or five feet'. The islands called 
Huaheine and Marianne produce men of six or even seven feet 
high'; on the other hand, the inhabitants of the promontory 
of South America, called Cape Horn, are of small stature*. 
But why should I say more, when one sees almost always 
one and the same country producing mea of all kinds of 
heights! What is the reason of this? 

ITie way in which aliment is taken up into our bodies 
has scarcely yet been thoroughly investigated) nor are the laws 
found out by which they grow. But although such is the case, 
stiil, until some greater light is thrown on the matter, I may be 
allowed to say what I think is true, or at least probable. 

Growth seems to be due to the action of the heai-t, by whose 
renewed pulsations our fibres are rendered longer, and are am- 
plified, and directed to all parts. This is illustrated by the un- 
folding of the whole human body, and especially of the womb. 
But the action of the heart is not a cause of itself; nor do men 
and plants share the same nature. The latter have no power 
f locomotion, and merely increase and grow to a certain height ; 

' IT»wkMWO.-th'a Toy. Vol. I. p. 31. 

' HUL Gin. da Voij. par I'AbW PrevoBt, Tom. lix. p. 65. 

* Hawkeiworth, Vol. u. p. 154. BuS»i, Tom. v. p. 51, 

* Hkwkea. Vol. 1. p. 391. 

a, tne 


it oV 

378 CAU8E3. 

but it is different with man, who can scarcely come to perfett 
tion without movement and action. The action aud movemei 
of the body must therefore be conjoined with tiie reitem 
pulaations of the heart, which increase, by a sort of dtstentiM 
all our parts, both in length and size. How extremely impor- 
tant thia cause is will be clear to every one, who has obacired 
the Bingular increase of every part when much csercised, the 
very unnatural size which comes, as in many tumoura, 
distracting causes, and that well-known increase of the i 
which is caused by earrings of great weight'; increase, therefor 
will be in proportion to the actions of the heart aud the mo 
tions of the body. But though these may be perpetually con- 
tinued, the body does not go on for ever increasing, because 
the great rigidity which is the effect of the action of the mu) 
cular fibres puts an end sometimes not only to increase, but ^ 
life itself. That this rigidity depends upon the amount < 
action is proved by this, that if any one, when young, uses 
immoderate exercise, he scarcely ever attains the full size of a 
man ; and those who are obliged always to labour, and to lead 
a hard life, do not arrive at old age, or even the confines of it, 
but perish before their time; and though early in years, still 
with the appearance and constitution of old men. In this « 
the causes of growth come at last to neutralize themselves. 

This, then, being the immediate cause of man's growth, t 
is to say, the action of the heart and the movement c 
body, and the rigidity of the parts the cause of the stoppage q 
that effect, we must now find out what are the remote exit 
causes which affect the prosimate one, aud explain the varieti^ 
of human stature. 

Of these the principal arc climate, food, exercise, and labota 

Climate acts either by heat or cold. 

Heat, which is almost the origin of many animals, 
sary to all growing bodies; and in ourselves, if it is not I 
cause of motion and sense, at all events these faculties to son 
extent, and our other actions, cannot be deprived of it for J 

' BuBuD, Tom. Tl, p. 34, Dumpier, Vol. T. p. 31. Hawkeswurtb, Vol. I. p. jlJ 



t without injury. By stimulating the heart, it greatly 
iDcreaseB the sharpness of all our senses, and the motrility of the 
human body. Hence the iuhabitanta of warm regions very 
soon reach their full size, and those who are unrestrained in 
every way arrive at maturity much later than those who live in 
warm regions. In the eighth, ninth, or tenth year, women be- 
come menstruous, in the twelfth ihe men are fit for venery'; 
whereas in cold regions, the menses do not appear before the 
fourteenth, sixteenth, and somelimes the twentieth year: nor 
are they fit for marriage before the eighteenth or sometimes the 
twentieth year. Heat too does not seem able to increase the 
human body, or diminish it much; for both in hot and in tem- 
perate countries, small and large men are equally produced. 
And if it has anything to do with growth, it would seem as if it 
would be more likely to diminish it, because that violent action 
of the heart, and great movement of the body, on one side 
make the increase rapid, and on the other, at the same time, 
accelerate the rigidity, or rather the firmness of the fibres. And 
in fact, the inhabitants of hot countries generally yield in sta- 
ture to those of the temperate zone, 

Cold, the exact opposite of heat, or to speak more accurate- 
ly, the absence of heat', the force in which it consists abating, 
by diminishing all motions and all irritability, and blunting 
every stimulus, tends to lessen the size of the body. In all 
very cold regions, torpor is induced; the action of the body, 
especially in infants, is small: and therefore little adapted to 
estend or increase it. So that almost all the increase of the 
body is carried on by the action of the heart. For which reason, 
since the effect of action and exercise is to make the body beau- 
tiful and elegant, it is not to be wondered at, if the men in very 
cold countries are neither tall nor elegant And this b con- 
firmed by the observations of writers about the inhabitants of 
Greenland, and other parts of Northern Europe and Asia'. 
Cold, as it confines all other things in nature, so it does our 

' FraUel., Dr. Black, Truf, CLum. 


bodies, but not in the same way, that la, not b^* taking aw 
the heat For its principal action is on the fibres Vfbich serve 
for sense a^d motion, which atb in conyecjiience coii^>el]ed to 
contract themselves more ; for the heat of the human body is 
almost exactly tlje same in all countries, however different the 
climate may be : tbat conatrictiou, therefore, will stand in the 
way of every force which tends to increase the parts of our 
bodies in length or breadth. The contrary relaxation, which 
comes from heat, and about which I meant to speak, when I 
was speaking about heat as a cause of rapid growth, produces 
also this effect, by acting on the fibres of motion 

Exercise aud labour must both be treated of under the ti 
of corporeal motion; for they both consist in the action of ll 
body, and only differ in this, that volition can command I 
former, but the latter demands the use of reason. 

Bodily motion may be violent, moderate, ov slight 

Violent action, by the stiffness which follows too freqtu 
exertion, and the exhaustion of the vital force, retards and t 
pedes the growth. Slight motion, or rest, does not impart sn 
ficient streugth to the organs to enable them to fulfil 1 

fitnctions; nor can it endow the body with that firmness or tL 

Umbs with that solidity, which action alone con produce. But 
it is worthy of remark, that those results of motion and rest 
take place most in tender years before use and custom have 
formed the body, which is then still unchanged by the powers 
of nature. For labour is a good thing for adult bodies, or rarely 
docs thom harm, and in them rest may ci-eate or increase plethora. 

The condition of artisans as far as their stature is cencemedtj 
confirms, unless I am mistaken, what I have just said. 
being obliged to exercise their respective occupations from i: 
fancy, pass their lives in work-shopa Bowed down to the 
ground, and cru.shed with toil, they turn out deformed, almost 
dwarfs, hunchbacked, aud uever arrive at the full stature or 
size of a man; so that those lines of Martial may wcU be a 
plied to them : 

JuHgeil bj his head, the maa a Ht.'(iti>t i'. 
But ui Astjaoai judgtj bj bu jiliii; — 



in feet they generally have large heads. Those who inhabit 
countries very much to the north or to the south', are like 
them, and partly from the same cause, because, in tender years, 
Iwth have too much repose. 

Between these extremes a mean, or moderate exercise, 
vhich is the principal means of increasing the Iwdy. should 
without doubt he chosen. But what is moderate, is difficult to 
define: its latitude, to use the words of those who lay down 
rules of health, may be so great. 

I now pass on to that cause which has the gi-eatest influence 
augmenting or diminishing the stature and magnitude of 
I mean diet. Food, although the first necessaiy for 
kuman life, still varies much in the quantity which ia con- 
sent for souod health, being one amount for one, another 
>T another. When it is scanty, it is clear small stature will be 
le result ; for the body cannot grow and be enlarged, if part 
the material necessary for supporting it be taken away, 
the other hand, the first effect of frequent and ample diet 
to increase the body. Every herdsman knows of h«w much 
iportanee food is towards improving cattle and other beasts. 
Oxen brought forth on the barren mountains and plains of 
Scotland, and afterwards brought up in the more fertile fields 
of England, grow to double the size. 

But there are diversities not only in the quantity, but the 

quality of food. Thus flesh and vegetables are by no means of 

the same importance in nourishing the human body. Some- 

les when spices are added to some aliments, as flesh, wine, 

lb, there is more stimulus in them. This makes the increase 

rapid, but, in such a way, that the body much sooner 

lys, worn out as it were by continual stimulus. Food pre- 

:d partly from flesh, partly from farinaceous matters, as it 

be digested more easily than any other, so does it accelerate 

growth more than any other. 

So much for the causes of growth treated separately ; now 
i would seem that I ought to speak about them in conjunction, 

' Buflbn, Tom. v. p. 3. HawlteBwoHh, Voi-aga, Vol. 1, pp. jgi.; 



a totbfl 
i aspe^H 

end thmX «0 the moie, beeaoae m dmost eveiy case they act H 
fimjitiwtk" Bat sinoe the limits of my papn* forbid me to 
apnk at that sabject, and to af^y the conclusioiia to the 
varioos oatioDs of mem. therefore I omit them, and go on to the 
next point 

I roii*t now speak of the varieties of furm. They are in E 
as nam^Doa as men. For who has not a &ce, form, and a 
of countenance pecuhar to himfelf, and which can be distio- 
goished from all other? ! And besides these which every one 
has of his oim, signs and marks peculiar to each race and 
nation are not wanting; thus a depressed nose, thick hps, 
small or large eyes, and other marks common to thousands of 
individuals, distinguish one race from another. What are t 
causes of this ? That these diver^ties have nothing to do ii 
diversity of species is clear from this, that this same de] 
don of the nose, or thickness of the Upe is frequently to he s 
amoDgst ourselves. Many' attribute the depressed nose of I 
Negroes not to nature, hut to art ; and, allow it to be the n 
of art, difficulties, not easy to be overcome, still remain, 
k-ast, as far as I am concerned, I confess that I cannot and€| 
stand how the forms of men and the lineaments of the i 
come to be so diverge from each other as they are. But when 
such effects have once been produced. I shall have an occadon 
of showing, when I come to treat of generation, how they may 
be retained. 

Chap. III. 

On iJte defect or excess of parts of the Human Bod^. 

If any one is ready to trust the reports of writers, he i 
find ample material on this subject to deal with. Thus we r 


of the Arimaspi, who arc remarltable for liaving but one eye, 
and that in the forehead; of the Androgyni, who are male and 
female joined In one ; of men with dogs' heads, and men who 
have no neck and carry their heads on their shoulders'. The 
stature of the Patagonians, which a few years ago, as we used to 
hear, was scarcely set SO low as twelve feet, haa now been 
reduced to seven. But everybody will easily see that all these 
things are beyond all behef 

And even those who tell more probable stories differ in 
their testimony so from one another, one denying that which 
another saya he has seen, ever was or could be seen, that it 
becomes quite uncertain which we ought to believe most, and 
which not at all. And since I found it at first so very difficult 
to decide which were true or the contrary, I selected some 
of the more reliable and better examined varieties to deal with 
for my present purpose, I am not therefore going to inquire 
whether there are any men fumiahed with legs mucli thicker 
than others, or with one leg much thicker than the other", or 
tails as some still beheve"; because these stories are not con- 
firmed by any facts or observations worthy of credit, by which 
we might find a way to explain, or propose some theory about 

So the defects or excesses about which our business is, are 
of this kind ; namely, the beardless chin, hanging breasts, or 
prominent pudenda. 

The beard among our.'!elves, though sometimes more scanty 
and sometimes thicker, ia scarcely ever wanting altogether. So, 
as to those nations, to whom almost all the writers had de- 
clared that no beard was given by nature, in most cases more 
recent testimonies show tliat the beard had not been denied by 
nature, but was plucked out by the people themselves*. This 

' C. Plin. JVaf. mn. Lib. YU. Oap. 1. 

« Buffnu, Vol. V. p. 64. 

' Oriyinavd Proi/rtii of Lam/«afff, Vol. IV. p. ifg, ind ed. Erlin. IJ74. 

* Dampier, Vol. i. p. 407. Iliit. Gin. da Yoy. pv M. I'Abbd Prsvott, Tom. 
ivrij, p. go3. BankeflwoTUk'i Vegaga, Vol. i. p. 608. BuSbo, Turn. ,V. p. 104. 
CharlcVfux, m. p. 179. 

Vm^K iMf^dftMto the ■■■■■. l»t«b>«t 
hi^ Mi jiilJi«lj'«— gw» HboH ndiie to i 
fnJwwf ■• wtiA A* «nHB o&r Buft to tbdr t 
F«r if » part kBoacs ^ser Aaa aS itheii bj- dmLeamoa or 
i«B, M it viMdeifnl tfakt tbe 
■twl, wbcn flm^ orer the 
(T by '*■*■»*» desirous of 

Thve kw beea andk i^pj fiManna >b<Mt the pndeoda of 
the ««nea of the extraiK mi^k at JUbnm; •ome dccUie tlwt 
they are fT'^-'^f^ wkh m ^^^^et etz«<ehed mder the nato- 
nfi^ whiht othen oontcaid that thej bsve notluDg bej and the 
lailiaaj aakOR of aoww. Theee mindee, or rather tDOD- 
atrailae^ if Aej cut at all, seem by the most recent teati- 
Batiea ta be radaeed to thia, that in tb&t eoantiy the nympluf 
we a bde Boie tmgid and prosuaeDt, a defect tbe less to be 
MtoniAed at in that ooontzr, because it is certain t 
tiff f^ ocean in tbiaV 

Differtnea of the hair. Hair differs, especially ia f 
between which too aiwl the Ain there seems to be aome f 
neiion. In all ooontnes blade hair always accompuues a 

ooloar of skiD, or one which dJTerges from white. And. c 
other hand, red or white hair is joioett with white skin. And 
tbe colour of both, that ia of the skin and the bur, seems to 
dapetul upon the same causes, that is, the exposure to air and 
heat. A proof of which is that the more or less Imr is exposed 
to these causes, the more or less black its colour is. Thus the 
hair which ia not exposed is always less dark than what is. 

Aa to the texture of hair, there seems to be a great difl 
CDce, for that of some is soft and curly like wool, and that ( 
othem harsh and dense. What the cause of this may be, since 
pliyMiologists are as yet by no means agreed as to the nature 

' Buff.,11, Tom. V. pp. 4, j5. ■ H»wk. roy, VoL in. p. 791 

liat ^1 





Phair, I dare not give any decided opinion, and must be con- 
tent with one or two conjectures. 

Since the haira are situated on the surface of the body, 
therefore wliatcvcr affects the body, affects them; besides per- 
haps other influences, bo especially does the conflux thither of 
humours; and in this way, in proportion as the conflux is 
greater or smaller, so is their increase greater or less. Hence, 
as is known to all hair-cutters, the hairs grow more in sumtoer 
than iti winter. And this may be observed more frequently in 
the case of the beard. Therefore the hair grows more luxu- 
riously in hot countries than in cold, and on that account will 
be thicker and stronger; which, in fact, happens in almost all 
countries, as in the West and East Indies, 

Still, exceptions to this are not wanting. Thus in Africa, 
the hottest of all countries, and where therefore the hair ought 
to be thickest, on the contrary, it is scanty, and something like 
wool. This, although I cannot explain, still I may illustrate 
by a comparison. In many cutaneous disorders, little ulcere 
throw out a great deal of matter, which shows that there is a 
rush of humours to some of the vessels of the skin. And tliese 
sorts of disorders are often cured by remedies which cause per- 
spiration. How is this! When a quantity of humour is ex- 
creted in the shape of sweat tlirough healthy vessels, thus the 
excess is averted from the diseased vessels. And thus the little 
ulcers, which before were moist, become dried up, and crusts 
are formed, which afterwards fall off, and tlien show the sound 
skin underneath. In this way, a rush towards the skin being 
made in the first instance, the hairs increase in growth; and 
when this becomes greater and greater, and the humours are 
more easily eliminated through the vessels of perspiration from 
the body, the quantity which serves to make the hair increase 
is diminished, and the attenuated hairs come out like wool. 
What seems to confirm this opinion is, that in the negroes, 
whose hair is like wool, the bulbs or roots of the hair are at- 
tenuated and smalP, as if through deficiency of nourishment: 

' H«llw, SI. PhyMog. 1 

'■ r- 33- 



anil it is only in the case of tliose who inhabit the hottest r 
gions, or who are liom olsewhi,-re from the natives of such, tbl 
the hoir becomes almost a kind of wool. 

OlAP. IV. 

On Generation. 

Thus the causes are esptaincd which change the colour, in- 
duce a large or small stature, and nffuct the hair and other 
parts. It may be objected that they are in no respect oflEcieut 
causes, and that men are to Ite distinguished by tho marks and 
varieties just mentioned, as soon as they arL- bom, or at all 
events that such appear, long before they can be attributf-d to 
cictenial causes. And this also, no doubt, is true. And how 
tlicn is it to be explained J For either our ezplanatious are 
idle and futile, or many properties which have been acquired b 
the parent are transferred to the offspring. Are they then 4 
transferred^ It would certainly seem so. Thus the father b 
gets a son like himself in eveiy way in form of body, exprc 
of countenance, colour of Lair, and sound of voice. The t 
perument too descends from the father to tho son. So t 
peculiar marks loug continue to disLinguish the siune familyfl 
men. But this ia particularly shown by the history of d 
ders; of which there are instances known to all in tho c 
gout, scrofula, and maduess. Again, diarrhoja and unnatural 
dilatations of the arch of the aorta long infest the s.'une 
family. These diseased conditions muet be lookeil on in 
same light as other mutaticms of the corporeal condition. 
to speak of both from the same point of view, surely 1 
chaugo which is the origin of the production of black akin r 
just as easily be communicated by the parent to its ofEspi 
and is no more difficult to explain, than that by which gouti 
handed down in the same way. Nor is it at all more diffici 



understand, why the skin begins to grow black a certain 
time after birth, than why some yeara aftenvards the oflspring 
of Bcrufulous parents ia infested with ulcera. 

Still oil the same it is a fact which we cannot explain; and 
yet there is no manner of doubt that peculiarities acquired by 
men do descend to their posterity. 

Thua the fact being once established, it will be no longer 
obscure why men undergo, from the causes induced, such great 
changes of colour, Htature, and the other matters we have men- 
tioned. Tho black colour of the parent may become blacker in 
the son, if bo ia exposed to the same external influences, and 
80 in the course of i^a may approacli more and more to actual 
blackness ; and in that way at last great effects may How from 
cauBOH ao small as to escape our notice, if each generation con- 
tributes something to increase them. 

Why one form of appearance and coimtenauce becomes per- 
manent in one nation, and one in another, ia explained by this, 
that parents always produce offspring like themselves. 

It would however be difficult to say, how mnny centnriea it 
takes to change the Bkiu from white to black, or in any other 
way. But if wo may conjecture at all from the sudden effect of 
the Biin and the air iu changing the skin, a long time is not 
necessary. But that Europeans who inhabit hot regions do not 
acquire even after a very long time a brown or black colour, 
and that negriDes after being a long time in Europe do not grow 
white, may be for this reason; that the former never try those 
modes and ways of life, and other external circumstances, which 
we have said are ao powerful in effecting change ; and if they 
do suffer from necessity or adverse fortune, then they do change 
coloiU''; and that the latter wretched mortals never are able to 
enjoy that easy kind of life, by which whiteneaa is ao greatly 
brought about. 

Moreover, the way in which the remote cauaes of whiteness 
and ljla<;kne3s act ia somewhat different ; and dark colour is 
much more easily impressed, and much longer retained, than 


clear colour. Thus the fierceness of one day of sun will i 
a greater amount of hrownness than can be effaced by fit j 
cautions taken for a long time to got rid of its effects. And this 
observation, in the way that those who after having acquired 
peculiar marks in any region retain them, when removed to 
another, may lio applied ao as tp make it easy to understand 
how blackness may still remain in permanence even when its 
causes are taken away. 

Thus tlien the question, how those marks which distinguish 
individuals may be transferred by parents to their ctdldren, 
is answered. And now recurs the other, how those markii 
differ from the ones which are not ao transferred, and what 
is the reason why some marks peculiar to the parent are 
transferred, and others are not. I must confess this is one 
I cannot answer. For the Creator has hidden the business 
of generation ic the deepest recesses of nature, and has kepi 
all its processes sunk and overwhelmed in the deepest dark- 
ness, never perhaps to be brought to light. And therefore 
lo explain things depending upon such a cause would be a 
vain and idle imdertaking. 

But, although this may be so, still I cannot help mal 
mention of some things relating to generation, which, tliot 
wonderful, are nevertheless true, 

White men are sometimes bom amongst the negroes', fl 
I have no doubt that other whites are propagated from them. ^ 

We only know of one instance of a black being bom 
amongst the whites*; and according to the account of James 
Lind, & clover man, a physician, and an investigator of fan 
who says he saw it with his own eyes, this man begot a ^ 
like himself 

I indeed am unwilling to appear to compel all nature fl 
ray opinion ; but these observations, as they show that difl 
sity of species is not necessary for causing blackness of o 

a be B 


hem, ^B 

' SM. Otn. dt Voy. pv M. TAbbe FreTort, Tom. i 
iBS. Maiipertnia, Tarn. u. p. ilfi. 
' Phit. TraH,. No. 414. 

. V- 590- Hftwki. Vdj 


and that this property, ]ike others, may be acquired through 
external cm;umstancea, aad ao descend from father to son, 
BO also do they in some way confirm the doctrine about colour 
I have laid down. 

The skin of those white men amongst the negroes is, as 
it were, scurfy'; that is, the cuticle peels off in scales, and does 
not remain long enough to become quite black. The skin 
of the black man among the whites, as also that of his son, 
was thick and hard', which fact shows that thickneaa has a 
great deal to do with causing colour, and is in favour of my 


Chap. V. 

Oil the Varietiea of Mind. 

HE mental varieties seem equal to and sometimes greater 
than the bodily varieties of man. And on this point I meant 
to say little, as it seems to be part of our subject. 

This chapter seems as if it ought properly to be divided 
into two parts : in one of which reason and prudence, and in 
the other manners, should be dealt with. And, in order that 
ray notion may be more easily understood, I will illustrate 
both by an example before I begin to deal with either. If 
one man is sharp, and of an acute and docile genius, and 
another heavy, stupid, and averse to all discipline, that must 
be referred to the difference of reason and prudence. But if 
one is sanguine, vivacious, alert and happy, and his opposite 
is sad, sorrowful and wretched, we call that an affair of man- 

In the former division, the question instantly occurs to 
the mind. What is the cause of difference? Is it to be referred 
to God? and is it credible that a Deity who is just and equi- 

anfljrl Ceitanly sot, in mjr opiniiNi; and i 
I etjnttaUc to ftttiibiite to ttatiiTal e»i 
of mind which wu k& 

To mveKtigate the mattor brieA;: bgd'a nhida do not 
Mem to tne t<i tliOvr to macb by the fortune of biitli as hj 
tb* tm Mtd exercise of reaeon, mad the Cumltiea of tite mtiul 
conw oat imaller or greater hy xae, almoel in tbe same war 
u tboae of the body. And as there are Bereral reasoas for 
diis cxcTciae, I will consider them ooder three heads ; poatwD, 
eJucnlion, and affections of tbe mind. 

As to the first ; If one be in a place where insuperaUe 
tntp<''Jiniciitd, or none at all, are ]daced in the way of action, 
ill tlie first case be gives himself ap to despair, in tbe other 
to idtencsi, and equally in either case doea nothing. And, b 
fact, the Samocides and tho negroes seem placed in similat 
drcumstfincca. If, on the contrary, all the nocesssries of life 
arc uncertain to any one on account of the climate, tbe eoil, 
or some other reason, what diiea be do? Instantly he straggles 
to make tbem more secure by art and industr}-. He looks out 
for ctittle. Hence plenty, and with that offspring increase. 
I'loldn have to bo cultivated to provide food, and now abuud- 
iiiico ODSues. And as you will say the desires of the human 
mind arc not satisfied with this, be adds comfort to necessaries; 
then Books elegance, and lastly luxury. With an increasing 
cultivation of life, arts always, and often sciences, increase. 
Observe tlie man, first wild, and tben carried to tbe highest 
pitcii of cultivation and polisli, how much the same man differs 
from himself? Look back upon tbe steps by which he has 
prfigresHOil. In no two successive steps can a greater exercise 
of reason and prudence be observed tlian in the Samoeide 
constructing bis hut below the earth against the cold, or in 
the nogro fabricating an umbrella to protect himself from 
the built. 

Besides, sometimes a groat difference is seen l>etwcen men 
placed under tlie same circumstaDoes. What au interval 


tween Isaac Newton and Bacon, and almost all their cmitcin- 
porariea ! And yet tliey never coneidered that they were poa- 
seased of any particular faculty, which others had not, by which 
they could comprehend sciGUce, They observed nature more 
accurately, and reasoned better on their obficrvationa than 
others. That was not a natural power, but acquired only by 
use and custom. What however contributed to form that fortu- 
nate habit, no one but themselves could easily say, nor is it 
necessary to do so ; and the matter is so subtle a one, that it 
might easily escape themselves ; since we see every day that 
many small things create a habit, without tliose being con- 
Bcioua who ara affected by it. In fact, many who have hajjpijy 
promoted the sciences by their labour, confess that thoy were 
ltd by mere accident to give their minds up to it. Since then 
the force of circumstances is ao powerful to excite and amplify 
the reason, ao also the afioctions of the mind, and especially the 
desires, are of great influence towards the same end. 

What haa not been done for science and knowledge, espe- 
cially in the government and administration of public affairs, 
through benevolence, or emulation, or envy, ambition, and glory J 

No one doubts the important part that education and dis- 
cipline play in forming and stimulating the mind. But that 
discipline is by far the best, which not only delivers precepts, 
but also exercises the faculties of the mind, and compels it as it 
were to anticipate commands'. So also the teachers of youth 
stimulate the mind to learn by emulation, curiosity, blandisli- 
ments, and very often by fear. Which influence is the more 
powerful, let others decide. 

Has conformation any thing to do with the increase or dimi- 
nution of the mental faculties 1 If the operations of the mind 
do not altogether depend upon the nervous system, especially 
the brain, as those think who deny that the mind is any- 
thing without matter, still there is no doubt they are most 
intimately connected with it, and vary with its variations. 
This is proved by the variations of the mind of the same man. 


according as he is in health, or sickness; sanguine, or depressei). 
When the skull is broken, or the brain Buffers compre^on, he 
who previously gave utterance to the most shrewd obsemt* 
tions, now seems almost destitute of reason and sense. A 
who ever doubted, from these instances, that when the com 
tion of the braiu is changed, the mind changes abo 1 

It is a question also whether any peculiar condition of tl 
brain, affecting the mind, can be handed down from parent 
son ? It has been said above that temperament at all evra 
is so communicated. But different temperaments are so et 
necteJ with different tones and conditions of mind, that, 
common parlance, they are referred to mind alone. Therefo 
if certain conditions of the bruin, from which some opentif 
of the mind proceed, are transmitted by the accident of bir 
what is to prevent the peculiar condition of that part of U 
brain, which is appropriated to reason, being transmitted in 
similar way ? And this will appear much more probable to oi 
who considers that a diseased conditioD, like that of madne 
ia propagated from father to son in the same family for gei 

What has been said goes then to show that something mt 
be attributed to congenital conformation and stamina, h 
more to exertion, so far as calls are made for it by positu 
mental affections, and education, in the matter of reason s 

Travellers have exaggerated the mental varieties £ar beya 
the truth, who have denied good qualities to the inhabitants 
other countries, because their mode of life, manners, and ci 
toma have heen excessively different from their own. For th 
have never considered, that when the Tartar tames his 
and the Indian erects bis wig-wam, he exhibits the same 
nuity which an European general does in manoeuTTing 
army, or Inigo Jones in building a palace. 

There is nothing in which men differ so much as in 
customs. They are of innumerable origins. Climate', 


■ Eipril da Loi4, Liv. 14, 15, 10, 17. 

CUBTOHfl. 393 

;t', occupations, laws, religion, individual men, governratnt, 
the institution of monarchy, or & republic', witli a thousand 
other things, create and alter their customs in a, marvellous 

As for climate, let me quote the words of a distinguished 
man. " Under the extremes of heat or of cold, the active range 
of the human soul appears to be limited, and men are of 
inferior importance, either as friends or as enemies. In the 
one extreme, they are dull and slow, moderate in their desires, 
regular and pacific in their manner of life ; in the other, they 
are feverish in their passions, weak in their judgments, and 
addicted by temperament to animal pleasure'," 

Many instances of the effects which come from the causes 
mentioned are palpable, but my time does not allow me to 
mention all. And therefore I shall be content with one or 
two examples, which clearly show how much influence one man 
may have. The laws and customs of Lycurgus, the former 
being taken into exile along with him, which were not insti- 

ited for pleasure, but for the sake of public and private 
lUiity, and to produce an austere virtue, lasted for the space 
of seven hundred years. So also Peter, justly called the Great, 
Emperor of the Russians, who bestowed politeness and culti- 
vation on a nation barbarous, rude, and unheard of, or neg- 
lected, and, in the teeth of their most deep-seated prejudices, 
adorned them with customs, amended their laws, and handed 
down to posterity an empire which is an object of fear to 

te nation long very powerful, and of suspicion to other 
>les and nations, is another splendid instance of the same 

However various the causes may be, which create and alter 
the customs of men, there is but one which can make them 
lasting, stable and, as it were, eternal. This is imitation, the 
most powerful principle in man. By this we acquire customs, 
manners, and almost everything. Sometimes indeed its power 

aitiorn ofCivU Soeitty, P. l 






in such Uial s^alost our will ve are compelled to imitate oUiei 
Prom this soane depends the rceemblADoe of ctutonw id tlid 
fatnilj. the city, or in tbe whole nstioo. This was well known 
to the poet, who had seen through the whole noge of the 
hamaa mind. "Falstaf. It is « wooderfol thing to see the 
scmhlable coh^reoce of his men's sjnrits and bis: %hey, hj 
ol^erving of him, do hear themselves like foolish justices : he. 
by coDTersing with them, b turned into a jostioe-tike serving 
man. Tbeir spirits Bxe so named in conjnDCtion, with tUti 
putidpation of eodety, that they fiock together in consent, 
like so many wild geese. It is certain, that ehber wise bearing 
or ignorant carriage is csngbt, aa men take diaeaaes, one of 
anodier.* Shakespeare, K. Htmry TV. 

They are tnly few, who judge for tbanselrefl what enatoDU 
are right or wrong, and they are still fewer who, whilst tber 
think for themselves, and didei from tbe moh, go oa to ac- 
commodate and alter their i 


■^^■■■■^^ 1 



AFWCiM, 123,861,363 

Calmncks, 116 "^^^B 

AlbiiioH, LIS 

Canis, varieties of, 365 ■ 

Capo of Good Hippo, 93, i)8, 361 ■ 

Americana. 98, 120, ISG, 161, 240, 

266, 271, 307, 361 

Carib, 131 ■ 

Cnrinthia. 116 ■ 


Cunilina, 240 fl 

Antbropological Collections, 29S, 347 

Casque. 112 ■ 

Cat, 75 ■ 

Arctic animals, 101 

Cattle acclimatisation of, 71 ■ 

ArenulM, 173 

Cancasian. 155 ^ 

AriniMpi, 2.^7 

Ash, 7^, 101 

CcrcopithecuB, 177 

Aatyaims, 380 

Cliain of nature, 151 

Cliampagno, S7 


Chest, 167 

Banks, Sir JoBepli, M7 

Chimpansi, 96, 97 


Chin. 383 

Batavians, 115 

Cliinese. 367 

Beleninites, 28* 

CirtMsMans, 98. 363 

Circnmcisiim of fomnlo. 126 

Benin, 112 

Clnssificntinn of man, 90 

Bir, 78 

Climate, Inflnonee of, 73, 1U6 

fiimaua, 17) 

aitoris, 90, 126, 170 

Bii>gra)ihf of Blumenb icli, 1 
Biscavan wr>mon, 1 07 

CoccTX, 142 
Colchian, 110 

Cnid, 378 

Blacks, 371 

Colour. 509 

Borneo, 14l 

Colour in mon, 106, 367 

Brain, 303 

Colt, modifications in tlio, 73 

Brain of ape. 92 

BrenaU. 12fl, 24T 

Cordilloras, 107 

Bulbs of the liiur, 38a 

Corium, 106 

Ball, 77 

Cow, 77 

Buttocks in man, 169 

Creation, mutability in, SSO 

Creole, 112,215 

Caffires, 110 

Oriole. 1)2 

Cain, 1468 

Customs. 392 

California, 83 

Cutnneous disorders, 3S5 

OaUitricbus, 142 


Cuticle, 368, 369, 371 


Cynamolgi, 267 

Griff*, 112 

Gonpowder, 370 

Darien, iohabitanU of, 136 

Guzerat, 110 

Dauphin^, SO 

Degeneration of bnito animals, 191, 

Hiiir on man, 124, 127, 159, 173, 1« 


224, 384 

Dentition. 243 

Hairy men, S8 

Design, 321, 324 

Ham, 363 

Diana monkey, 74 

Ilanieln, 87 

Didiictflua iguavui, 91 

Hands of man, 86, 1S9, 251 

Diet, 198 

Heart of man, 179, 377 

Diseases in man, 130, 135 

Jlcatofsun, 370, 374 

Dadoe, 289 

Hector, 3S0 

Hog. 73, 74 

HcmeriUopia, 133 

Domestic aninutla, 72, 291 

}lon, 76 

Duck, 7Q 

Hereditary peculiarities, 203, 367 

Hessian boy, 87 

Ears, 12P, 24S 

Hinuy, 79 

Klevator claTiculie, 87 

Hog, 292 

Kuibryo, developaiout of, 70 

Homines monstrosi, 120 

Epholis. 373 

Homo Bupions ferns, 166, 336 

Erect position of man, 84, 1G4 

Horn, Cape, 377 

Eaquimaui, 99 

Horses, 71, 72, 80, 101, 132, 193 

Ethiopians, 98, 101, 120, IGI, 267, 

Himgnrians, 231 

270, 304 


Europcnns, 101 

HjbriJity, 73, 80, 112 

Eiercise, 391 


Eyeofmbbit, 131 

Hymen, 89, 170 

Eyes of man, 223 

Hya;ua. 74 

Hjponemia, 76 

Fabulona yarietios of man, 257 

Pace, varietioB of, 227 


Facial line, 235 

Imitation, 394 ^^^^H 

Feet, 126, 253 

Instincts of man, 83 ^^^^^M 


Final cauaoB, 361 

Intelligent negroes, 309 f^^^^H 

Intermaxilliary boac, 17S4^^^H 

Fish diet, 37G 

Ishmael, ^^^^^M 

FcBtiia, 09, 139 

Formative force, 194 

74 ^^^^H 

Fox, tbe, 73 



Gallus caiecuticas, 76 

Juvenis bovinuB, 337 ^^^^^^H 

Generation, 386, 368 

lupiuus, 337 ^^^^^^H 

Generis hmnaui variolate nativa,65 

ovuius, 336 ^^^^H 

Genital liqaiJ, 243 

ursiuuB, 337 ^^^^^^H 

Genital organs, 73, 109, 247 

Genoese, UG 

Kakcriaelien, 139, 313 {^^^^H 

Gianta, 104 

Goata, 80 

Lubrodor, lia ^^^^H 

Gottingen, 348 

Lapps, !>9, 116,231 ^H 

Graafian follicle, 70 

Granada, 107 

Laughter, 89, 184 ^H 

Grconlander, 98 

Legs, 250, 363 ^M 

Greenlanders,9i), 118 

L>:prosy, 130 ^H 


Macrocepliitli, 241, 243 
Malabar, 110, I3<!. 137 
Miilav, 156, lei, Qfiii, 2TS, 304 
Mdlpliigian reto, 106 
Manieluck, 112 
Man, deceneration of, 293 

Mandril, 92, 109 

Mnnual laboar, 370 

Mare, 77 

Marianne, 377 

Melatta, 112 

Memlirana nictitans, 93 

Menstrual flui, 90, 192 

Mental affoctionH of bruU», 69, 389 

Mestizo, 1 12 

Mctif. 112 

Mice, 132 

Mollaba. 112 

Mongolian variety, SGS, 2G9 

MoDgoliiins. 156, 304 

Monorchides, 12? 

Monoscoles, 257 

Morbific affection, 259 

MulnttoB, 112,216 

MnleB, lUI 

Morej!, 2S1, 288 

Musculua oculi mispensorius, 173 

Museum, 155 

Kails, 128 

Naked condition of man, SS 

A'atnral canscB, 390 

Katural sciences in Gcnnaiij, 6 

Natural varietiea. 224 

Naitnre, ctiain of, 151 

Negroes, 9, 305 

Kew Hollanders. 1 19, 239 

Nocturnal poDutioDH, 1S2 

Norma vertical is, 237 

tivimAemit, 1.33 

Kymphse, 90, 170 

Obi river, sqnirrels on. 71 
Octaroon, 112 
I OmasuflH, 242 

"^ B uton, 83, 91, 94, 96, 97 

Pacific Ocean, inhaliitanls of, 123, 

Packwax, 94 
Panniculixg oamoeus, 173 
Papio, 92, 94 
Patngonians, 253 
Patliologncol variation, 140 
Pcloriii, 282 

Pelvis ui quadrupeds, 85 
— — in man, 168 

in negro, 249 

Pontagcnist elaasiflcation of luan, 

Poriophtholmiam, 93 
Pomiaus, 101 
Peter von llameln, 9 
Pictures, 1 59 
Pigments, 123 
Pimple worm, 289 
Pimples, 372 
Pineal gland, 179 
Plates, ox planation oT, 68, 162 
Pluralitjr of species, 98 
Pollutions, nocturnal, 182 
PoBJlJon for copulation, 169 

PoBtifOK, 112 

Pre -Adamite creation, 285 
Promaiillarj bone, 92 
Primitive world, 283 

Pulwrty, 181 

PucUa Coinpanica, 338 

Pueri Pjrenaici, 339 
Puppy, a deformed, 7S 

Quadnimana, 171 
Quarteroon, U2 
Quimos, 255 

Babbit, 76 

Jlabbita, white, 130 

Racial varieties of the face, 227 

Ratna, throats of, 113 

Reason, 1S2 

Reto mirabile nrtoriosum, 175 

Reticulum, 113 

Retromingency, 169 

Sacrum, 142 
Salniu arcticus, 318 
Samoetdes, 361 
Satyr, 97, 141 


ScjiliiauB, 113 

SemiraaiiH, 60 

Benegal, 107 

ftoiicgambia ncgreMOfi, ilOT 

Bexe», port tiikoii by in tlie gencia- 

tion of the ftstuB, 69 
BlcUiEm womou, 13H 
Biinia cyuomolguB, 109 

diaoa, 7* 

loDgitoann, 97 

SiUjTua, 96 

troglmljtes, 96 - 

Siiigiiig birds, 1U9 
Sinuoasa, 77 

Biren, lizU'd, 87 

Bkin, 20H, 3({4 

Skin diseases of ninn, 134 

Bkulls, 101, 114,234 

Spiirtiui (logs, 73 

Buecies, l^S, 3t)0 

Si>eoc-b, 83 

Spotted skiu, 113 

Squirrel*, 71, 7 J 

Btaturo. 102, 232, SSS 


Bun and air, 371 

Supreme Bciiig, iirovidcnce of tlic, 73 

SvreUisii girl and bear, SO 

Tailed me 
I'ails, 383 
TarsiU bones, 1G7 
Tattooing, 129 

142, 2G3 

Tears, 184 

Tootli of man, 88, 173, 213 
Tehnolcta), 2S3 
TelaiQucoaa, IHO 
Temperature, 1U3 
Tercel on, 112 
Tcrebratulo, 283 
Tetea do Boulc. 121 
TliroaUof ramsilin 
Tierra dol Fuego, 105 
Trails raiauou, 3SS 

Vagina, its direction, 169 

Vttriegiatod skin, 218 

Varieties and Hpecie§, 190, 2G4, ! 

Vertiual at^o, 837 

Veotrale, 143 

VirginiunB, iio 

VitniviuB, 107 

White, 371 

Wild children, ISiS 

Womb, 377 

Yellow fever, 368 


Abilmuaii, 24S 
Ackennaiui, 223, 341 
ActnarioB, 133 
Adair, 240, 241 
Adaiuoii, 307 
Adelong, 30 
.£lian, 129 
.fmiluDoi, 187 
A'AlM*, 133 
Ag:itljuiui.'nu. 139 
A^L'ulii, l:l7, 139 

Aji'iuu*,' :s 101, lOa, 113, 143, 210, 

222, 359 
AliIroTaodus, 80, 143, 299 
AM'/findcr, .13)> 
Alc'Aaudcr. 107 
AUimuuid, 251 
Alpiniu, 248 
AIatr6mcr, 122 
AufLxugoraR. 171 
AmlcrB^-n, -227 
Anderson, J Grgen, 90 
ArbnUmot, 60, 335 
AtvonBola, 262 
AmtoUe, 03, 73, »1, 106, 139, 178, 

179, 2U3,2S0 
Arriiui, 102 
Arlodi, 19 
Artband, 262 
Ascfa, de, I56,1S7, 108,230,241, 349, 

AUnkicb, 271 
Attumocdli, 210 
ATomM;«, 136 
ATJcetma, 124, 13B 
Anblet, 112,217, C07 
Anguitine, B. 386 
Annoy, 248 


Baldingcr, 4, 14, IS, 38, 43, 44 

Bancroft, 97 

BankoEi, 250, 270 

Banks, 14,31,140,149,156,161,192, 

Itarbot, 214, 2^-2, 240, 303 
" " , lud, 2HJ 



Bartolozzi, 310, 336 
Bates, 199 
Bauliin, 115,142 
Baungartiier, 2)1 
Buorcnfiend, 126, 127 
Baylc, SO 

Bell, 134 
BolIoD, 126 
Belon, 223 
Borchcm, 188 
Berencariiis, 170 
BcrkoL 273 
BernaduUi, 34 
Bertin, &S, 115,175 
Biddor, 349 
Biet, 223 

Billmann, 157, 177 
Birch, 104, 244 
Blair, 17fl 

Blanc, Vincent le, to 
Blancluu-d, 142 
Blano, 21 




^ ^^Rvf^^^^C 




Blumenbach, 3S9 

Carpi, 170 ^^^^^| 

Bochart, 73 

Boddacrl, 262 

Cartwright, ^^^^^| 

Boeder, 1S9 

Bocrbiwre, 108, 123, 308 

Caverhill.Ml ^^^^H 

Bomare, 217. 221,299 

Chamberlaine, 170 ^^^H 

BonQet,31,S4, 69, 7S,3I6 

Chanvalon, 249, 251 ^^^M 

BontiuB, 81,69 

CfaapmEui, 139 ^M 

Borilc, 233 

Chardin, S69 ■ 

Borgia, 158 

Charlevoix, 121, 127, 242, 383 H 

Bom, 17 

ChemoitE, 283 ^M 

BougMirille, 250, 272, 283 

Chewldeu, 21 ^M 

Bouguor, 107, 216 

Cfaodowiocki, 160 ■ 

Bouliaj-le-Goui, 250 

Clirist, 4 ^H 

Bouterwek, 16 

Churchill, 78, S4S __^^ 

Clarbion, 310 ^^^^H 


Clauder, 76 ^^^^H 

Bouenhard, 253 

Clavigero, 192, 293 ^^^^H 

Bnuides, 46 

Clapton, 262 ^^^^H 

Braaeo, 103 

Clugny, 256 ^^^^^| 

Bntun, IGO 

129 ^^^H 

Breton, 241 

Cotter, 91,114,177 ^^^^H 

Breydcnbftch, 148 

91 ^^^^1 

BroaseB,Des, 104,254 

Columella. 73, 77 ^^^^M 

Brown, 234 

Coninierson, 2SS ^^^^^^1 

Bruce,212,223, 225, 226 

Brue, 310 

Connor, 337 ^^^^^1 

Bruin, 192 

Conring, 224 ^^^^H 

Bruin, Dc, ICO, 21S 

Cook, 122, 160, 214, SG7, hS^S^H 

Bran, Le, 122, 127, 128, 129, I3S 
Bry, De, 122 

Correggio, 61 ^H 

Couwn;. 140, 263 ^M 
Corora,102 ^M 



Cranz, 102, 104, 103, 118, SlfH 

Butknan, 2« 


Craiifurd, 335 ^M 

Buffou, 63, 03, 78, 78, 67,90, 133, 

CroU, IG ■ 

187, 189, 210, 218, 243, 252, 

Croii, de]a,267 ^M 

254, 2fi2, 277, 331, 362, 365, 

Ciinotu. lie ^H 

367, 375, 378, 361, 382, 389, 

Curtis, 28 ^M 


CuTier, 11,53 ^M 

BOttner, 4, 44, 73, 76, 119. 


DaliTinple, 125, 247, 260, 2?S ^M 


Danipier, 232, 251, 378. 383 ^M 

D'Anvilte, 99 H 

CiidfunoBtiO, 248 

Dawer, 136 -H 
IVArgeDvillo, 103 ^M 

Ciesar. 3G9 

Caldoni, 179,222 

DanbeDlon, 85, 91,178 ^M 

Camelli, 135, 140, 262 

Bcfuc, 292 ^M 

Camerarius, 126 

Deluc, 233 ,^1 

Camper, 31,63, 57. 97. 108,176,220, 

berhani, 98 ^^^^M 


Dc8Cftrt«B, 59 J^^^^l 

Cfinnegieter, 247 

D'Hancarvillo, S84 ^^^^M 


Cflrdan, 7l, 77, 81, 107, 121, 136, 

44 ^^^^1 

Pietimann, IDS ^^^^^M 


247 ^^^^H 

Dfgfcy. 338 
ViMi, 87 

DiodonuSicnloB, 244 
liobrixholTer. ST3 
Ducreron, 143 
I'oniford, 339 
Dorville, 235 

liQror, 114,11S, 12fl,25l 
llyok, Vqu,3II 

EbeL !79 

Edwards, 87, 97, 140 

Khrumnaltn, 103, 108 

Ellioteiin, 18 

Eliig, UH, 118,201,257 

Elsboltz, 1U2. 114,142 

Eiigol. U9, 106, 117, 210, 230, SCT 

Eiiieiiti, 71 

Enlcben, 44, 245 

Eufltacliius, 85, ill, 115, 177 

Fabricius, 257,299 

Falconet, 33e 

Falk, ass 

Falkner, 104. 255 

Ftdlopift, 142,113, 175 

FoDton, 106 

FeiD, 33fi 

Feller, 232, 267 

ForguBOD, 31(3 

Fennin, 113,125,217,247 

Fcatoa, 133 

Fithte, 18, 62 

Fidelia, 80 

Filangieri, 339 

Fiacber,101, 115, 116, 120,269 

Flonrens, 47 

Focqnenbrach, 249 

Foee. 133 

KoDtainci, 62 

Fimtaiia,2l3, 24l,2.-.s 

Fonteuello, 65, 62, 13(i 

Fordyce, 199 

Forrest, 245, 272 

For»ter.G.,31, 100,119. 174.210,223, 

2)3, 247, 24», 2i0, 2i4, 2j6, 271, 

273, 2»4 
Forater, H., 31 
Foucher d'Obsonville, 315 
Fonrcrov. 213, 
Franklin, 184 
Freniery, 319 
Frcyliiighaiuen, 137 
FriKb, 1D8, 180 

Fuller, 305 

Gacrlner, 149 

Gogli^di, 103 

Ooiuaborough, 310 

Gt>lon,86, 114,133,174, 170 

GurcUoiMO, 215, 216, 217 

Gelielia, 83 

Gentil, 257 

George 1., 330, 334 

G corgi, 249 

Gesner, 76, 77, 143, 262, 299 

Gouns, 156, 162 

Geyer, 337 

Gioalur, 4 

Gilj, 210 

Girtaunor, 212 

Glafe^, lu2 

GleichoD, 73 

GineUn,21. 71, 139, 220, 25.1, 272 

Goethe, IS 

Goldmiith, 99, 116, 134, 135, 136, 

Ggra SchliU, 349 
OnrdoD. 252 
Goze, 322 

Ori>beii,83, 129, 135,137, 
Grotias, 129 
Guindaut, 141 
Gtimilla, 218, 219,220 

Ilalm, I 


Hnklujt, 247 

U.JI, 134 

Hallor, 15, 31, 51, 53, 69, 73, 75, 78, 
7», 69, 91, 98, 103, 105, 108, 109, 
124, 127, 141, 170, 176, 210, 222, 

IlanoarriJle, 201, 231 

Hiird, 107 

Il4U-dt, 25 

Ilurduin, 133, 139 

IJiirtsink, 213 

lUrrej, 141,258 

Ilaabor, 95 

IJautenvc, 210, 217 

Hnwkea, 223 

Uuwkcsivorth, 127, 126, 140, 143,215, 
246, 250, 2S9, 202, 275, 369, 373, 
377, 381, 383, 384, 388 


402 ISDEX OF ACTHOKS. ^^^^| 


JohlMOV. 39 ^^^H 


JOM^ SIS ^^^^1 


Jonston,39» i^^^H 

Ja>ne(i,S4 ^^^H 

Htfratna^ 171 

Eiemprer, 170 ^^^^H 

Hale, 353 

Kaime«,I09 ^H 

Herder, 337 


K*mpf;23 H 

K»nt, IS, 62, 203, 907. 410. SS^^H 


250, 267, 273 H 


KMbKT, 44 ^1 

Kemb^eo ■ 

H*jne, 4, 27, 44, 73, 125, iSl. 25S 

Kemins, 101, 132 H 


Ketde, 270 ^M 

King, 174 ^M 


KIdD, 216,261 ■ 

Bippocntes, 108, lie, 133, 192, 203, 

Klinkosdi, 222 ^_^B 


KIoger.SGs _^^H 

Bobbes, IM 

Klui»el, 43 ^^^H 

Hodgca, IGO, 21S 

Ko^m, 142 ^^^H 

HoeTeo, 3JS3 

Kdhler, 10 ^^^H 

■ Htqccndorp, 224 

KolbcD. 125, 127, 223, 24?^^^H 

L Hogg. 11 

Kolreuter, 196 V 

1 aS'*^ 

Kaoig, 143 ■ 

K5iMug, 141, 25S M 

■ HuUinann, 310, 320 

Kramer, 262 M 

Home, 88, 103, 118, 272 

Kraschcniiiikof; 129 H 

Honoriua, 13D 

Kriigcr, 332 ■ 

nonce, 30 

KrGuiz, 210 ■ 

IloniemiuiD, 22 

Eu^lhanlt, 352 ^H 

■ Howo, 93 

■ Hughes. 98, 126 

Labat, 112, 113,216, 222 ■ 

■ Uumboldt, 22 

■ HoDttuId, 121 

Lac^pedc, 22 ■ 
L'Adiuini], lits M 

Lacrt, 107 fl 

■. Hunter, 2C, 259, 261, 262, 348 

Lact,I29 fl 

■ Hunter, Jo., 357 

La FosM, 94 ^M 

■ Hunter, Jo. (Got.), 225 

Lamolbe, 113 ^H 

■ Hnnter, W, 70 

Lankan, 112 ^^^^H 

■ Hutton, 10 

Laogsdorff, 22 ^^^H 

■ IIoBchke, 533 

Launitz, 352 ^^^^H 

■ Hyde, 112,215 


Laratcr, 1 1 5, 122, 323 ^^^H 

Lftwson, 241 ^H 

Ingnssiati, 114, IIS 

Lo Bnin, 134 ^M 

luBfeldt, 116 
Isidore, 124 
liter Atiucaa, 139 

he Cat, 89, 96, 97, lofl, 130, l39,sS 
LodjaH 262 H 

Ives, 22 

Locni, 102 ■ 

Jacquin, 161 
Jnnien, 18S 
Jefforeon, 2,'i2 

hcger, 77 ■ 
1.(4)^1:11,87,140,250 ^M 
LeibnitE, 64 ^^^^M 
LunUie, Von, 6 ,^^^H 

Jctie, 1 

» L 

Leonardo da Viad. I7»J^^^H 



Lmoj, 165 

Lefj, 232, -272 

Liliaviua, 2-27 

Licetus, SO 

Lichtenberg and Voigt, 9, 119 

Lieberkuhii, 1U3 

LigoD, 89 

Lintl, 3SS 

Link, 11 

LiiiDseiis, 13, 61, 54, 57, 73, S4, SO, 
93, yS, 9a, 138, 129, 142, 100, lr,2, 
IC3, 165, 172, 173, 191, 1U8, 226, 
249, 258, 267, 2S1, 297, 331, 337, 

LinKbot, 274 

Umtchoten, 254 

Liscboten, Vaa, 245 

Lithgow, 248 

Livy. 73, 129 

LodcmcLDn, 2S 

Long, 106, 217 

Lorry, 187,213,221 

Lonbert, 213 

Lonis of BaTaria, 349 

Lnc, de, 10, 31, 313 

Ladnig, 108,222 

Lucas, 3117 

Lnciait, 302 

Liicretiiis,8l, 297, 323 

Ludolpb, 135, 306 

Ljeons, 160 

MacrobiuB, 107 

Mngellan, 233 

Mtur£, Le, 307 

MaJpighi, 200, 289 

MaitffiraT, 216, 224 

Marsden, 174, 215, 223, 232, 241, 

240, 257, 272 
Martene, 33 
Martial, 146 
Martini, 129, 141, 142 
Man, 3 

Manpertids, 134, 13G, 257, 38S 
ManmtUaD, 128 
Majcr, 16 
Mearea, 241 
MoHenry, 310 
Meckel, 213 

Maige, 309 

Mela, 139 

Meiiiie, 16 

__Meiiippua, 302 

Mentiel, 247 

Mens, 4 

Morcuriolis, 12I>, 251 

Meriani, 115, 142, 143 

Merk, 31 

Merolla, 78 

MetKger, 268 

Hey or, Jurgen, 329 

MichaaliB, 32, 43, 80, 156, 158 

MiddletoD, 244 

Modavc, 255 

MoIm, 210 

Molina. 273, 274 

Molinclli, 226 

Moll, 10, 31 

Monboddo, 60, 165, 258, 290, 331, 

MoRneron, 250 
Montesquieu, 07, 60 
Moreton, 217 

Morel, 289 — 

Morgan, 219 
Morse, 252 
Morton, 349 
Moscati, 88, 166 
Motlo, 219 
Mullen, 94 
Muller, 44, 123, 174 
Murray, 99, 104, 108 
MjootV, 302 

Napoleon, 21, 60 

Karborough, 222, 252 

Naudin, 210 

Neergard, 21 

Neoptolemns, 174 

Neubauer, 43, 44 

Nouwild, 22 

Nicolni, 44 

Niebuhr, 122, 126, 129, 129, 245, 307 

Kipho, 182 

Kisbett, 308 

Nott and Gliddon, 359 

Nux, de la, 262 

Obacqaens, 73 
Oehme, 316 

Olaus Magnus, 80, 138 
Oldondorp, 2lfl, 222, 30S 
Oleariiis, 118 
Oribaains, 133 
Ortega, 204 
Osbeck, 17, 25 
Osiauder, 16 

B^^^^^^l ^^1 



"Bchrage, 166 

Thctne!, 262 ^M 

Bchrcber, 113, 13< 

ThoYCDot, 127 ^1 

Schreibor, 93 

Tliibault, 223 H 

Schrcjer, 127, 128 

Thibanlt de Chanvalon, 241 ^H 

Bdiroclor vau der Kolk, 3J5 

Tignrinus FolThutor, 77 ^^^^M 

Schroter, 284 

Toree, 214 ^^^^H 

StJinrigiiis, 126,271 

Torqtiemadft, 241 ^^^^^M 

Scotin, 96 

Tourtool, 3.^3 ^^^^H 

Seba, 123 

TowdIc;. 230 ^^^^^H 

Seetzen, 2-2 

Hawaii, 210 ^^^^^H 

Senecft, 13 

Severio, 335 

Tritbemios, 14:3 ^^^^^H 

Sbaw, 78, 305 


Sibtlwrp, 2-2 

Truncbin, 126 ^^^^H 

Bidder, 14 

Tschudi, 349, 353 ^^^^^H 

Sloaue, -214 

Tulp,96, 165, 336 ^^^^^H 
TwiM, 216, 217, 250 ^^^^H 

Sinetina, 247 

Socrates, (10 

TKbsen, 216 ^^^^| 

Solinua, aO 

T;8on, 84, 87, 91, 92, 93, 96, 07, 141, ■ 

179 V 


SpnllaDxani, 79 

nioft, 124,251, 273, 303 _■ 

Spaugeaberg, 335 

UmfroviUe, 257 ^M 

eparrmann, 249, 251, 30G 

Vtiillaiit. 250 ^1 

Spcren, 2G2 

VulcDtTD, 216, 262 ^H 

8j)igcl, Hi9, 235, 241,331 

V>Jli>uicri, 316 ^^^H 

Sprt'liger, 73 

Tarn,, 73, 73 ^^^M 

Stahliu. SS 

Vaea, 315 ^^^^^| 

8te1, 140 

Vaugouajr, 99, 117, 267 ^^^^| 

StelJer, 89, 184,201,2-,! 

Venette, 78 ^B 

Steno, NicolM of, 175 

Venilam, 203 ' 

Stepban, 133, 343 

VeBalm,93, 115, 116, 142, 175, 176, 

Stit^liti, 28 



Vesling, 143 

Storr, 244 

Veapncci, 249 

Strabo, 107, 139,241 

Vicq d'Aiyr, 176 

Strack, 213 

Virgil, 125,251 

Vitrf, 176 

StrauBB, 25M 

VitniTiua, 107 

Stromeyor, 16 

Vogel, 133 

Sula, 132 

Voigt, 0,43,165,181,203,286 

SuUer, 93, 87. 262 

Swift, 331, 3;i5 

Volney, 231 

Syiuinons, 244 

Voltttire, 56, 57,60, 134. 136, 250, 270, 


Yoamaor, 172 

Tiibciranni, 143 

Vossius, 135, 137, 140 

T.ic\tm, 233 

Tanner, 44 

Wafer, 127, 134, 135, 136, 137. 262 

Tarpo, 258 

Wagner, K,, 31, 108, 108, 132, 262, 

Tatter, 161 

•Ml, 349 

Tiitinuanii, 133 

Walcb, 4, 22, 44, 96 

Tecbo, 271, 273 


Tench, 251,253 

WalkT, 2911 




Wallia, 103, 215 
Walsh, 230, 286 
Walter, 226 
Warton, 201 
Wasso, 182 
Wasteras, 141 
West, 234 

Whanff-at-toDg, 119 
Wheatley, 310 
Wieland, 81, 308 
Wilson, 210, 272 
Winckelmann, 116, 231 
Winslow, 117, 244, 245 
Winter, 265 
Winterfoottom, 305 
Witsen, 122 
Wolff, 157 

Wreden, 16 
WriBberg, 136 
W jttenbach^ 33 

Xenocratesy 22 

Tonge, 221 

Yvo, 246, 250, 270 

Zach, 31 

Zachias, 77 

Zahn, 88 

Zain, 180 

Zimmermaim, 210, 215, 254, 268^ 

Zingendorf, 59, 331 
Zucchelli, 81 









or TBB 


or THB 

^nl]^r0p0l00ual Somt]^ af ^avttim. 

(Oorrected to Jcmuary 17 th^ 1865.) 



JAMES HUNT, Esa., Ph.D., F.S.A., F.R.S.L., Honorsry Foreign S 
rettrj of the Rojal Society or Lilaratoro of Oreal Britain, Forei 
Aa8D0i«te of tbe Anthropalogical Sooietf of VUta, Honorary Fellow i 
the EtimoIogidBl Sacietj' of LoodoD, CarreBponding Member of t 
Upper Hesse Society for Natarat and Sleilieal Science, etc. 

CAPTAIN RICHARD F. BURTON. F.R.G.S., H.M. Consnl at Santos, e 

AsBOoialo of the AuthTopological Soeiet]' of Paria. 

Sonorars Ztctttztita. 
GEORGE E. ROBERTS, ESQ.. F.O.S., Foreign A»itociat« of the Aothn 

pological Sociel; of Paris. 

WILLIAM BOLLAERT, ESQ., Coir. Mem. Univ. Chile, and I 

Socs. London and New York. 

jyonoTars JFoitign £cnrlitis, 

ALFRED HIQGINS. ESQ.. Foreign AaBociatB of the Anthiopologied 

Society of Paria. 



Foreign AaBociate of the Anthropological Society of Paria. 

S. E, B. BOUVERlE-ruSEY, ESQ.. F.E.3. 
W. inNWOOD READE, ESQ., F.R.Q.S., Corr. Mem. Geographieal Sodelj 

of Paris. 


President of the Numiamatic Society of London. 

Cnialcr, Hibrxiian, anS ^uistant JScnttars. 

CHARLES CARTER BLAKE. ESQ.. F.G.S., Foreign Associate of tif 

Anthropological Society of Paria. 




7%e names with * before them are those of Fellows who have com- 
pounded for their Annual Suhteription. 

U Tlieae Fellows have contrihuled Papers to the Society. 
t Then Fellotci are Members of Council. 
i X These Fellows are also Local Secretaries, 

"4 Beckett, Arthur W., Egq. 17 King Street, S. James's, S.W. 
Adams, Henry John, Esq. 14 Tkornhill Square, N. 
Adlam, WiUiQin, Esq. Manor House, Chew Magna, Somerset. 
Aley, Frederick W., Esq. 8 Thurloe Place, South Kensington, W. 
Arden, R. E., Esq., F.O.S., F.R.G.S.. Sunlury Pari, Middlesex, S.E. 
Armitage, W., Esq. Townfeld House, Allrincham. 
Arraitstead, T. B., Esq. 

Arundel], Uodolph, Esq. 34 Upper Montagu Street, Montagu Square. 
Ash, Charles Frederick, Esq., 20 anrf 21 Upper Thames Street, E.C. 
Ashbury, John, Esq. 9 Sussex Place, llgde Park Gardens, W, 
Atkinaon,HeiiryGeoige,Esq., F.O.S. 18 Upper Gloucester Place,'N.W. 
Austin, Richard, Esq. Femamhuco. 
Aiiken, Thomas, Esq., M.D,, Member of the Anthropological Society 

of Paris, District Lunatic Asylum, Inverness. 
Airslon, Willinm Baird, Esq., M.D. S. Andrew's, Fife. 
Avery, John Gould, Esq. 40 Bchiie Parfc, N,W. 

• Babington, C. Cardale, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.L S., F.G.S., Sec. 

Cambridge Phil. Soc., Prof. Botany, Cambridge. S. John's 

College, Cambridge. 
Babinglon, William, Esq. Bulk "Princess Rogal," Bonny River, 

West Coast of Africa. 
Baker, Benson, Esq., M.R.C.S.E. 6 Cross Street, Islington. 
Baker, J. P., Esq., M.R.C.S. 6 York Place, Portman Square, W. 
Barr, W. R., Esq. Park Mills, Stockport. 

BaiT, Joseph Henry, Esq., M.R.C.S. Ardwick Green, Manchester. 
Bartlett, Edw., Esq. 8 King William Street, E.C. 
Barton, Alfred, Esq., F.R.Q.S. 31 Graven Street, Strand; and 

Oriental Club, W. 
Beal, The Rev. S., Chaplain Royal Marine Artillery. Fort Cumher- 

kmd, Pertimouth. 


le, John S,, Esq. 4 Porteiia Road, W. 
tBeavan, Hugh J. C, Esq., F.B.O.S. 13 Bhnd/ord Square, Regen 

Park, N.W; and Grafton Club, W. 
Ueardsley. Amos, Eaq,, F.L.S., F.O.S. The Orange, near Uleertla 

Bcddoe, John, Esq., M.D., F.E.S,, Foreign Associale of the Antli 

pological Society of Paris. Clifton. 
*tl| Bendyshe, ThoB., Esq., M,A, Vice-Pbbsident. 88 Cam 

Street, Pimlico, S.W. 
Benson, W. F. O., Esq. SnutA Road, Waterloo 
Bertram, George, Esq. Sciennet Street, Edinhurgh. 
Best, the Hon. Capt. Convict Prison, Prineetown, Dartmoor, JJe9i 
Bingham, H. C, Esq. Wartnaby Hall, near Melton Mowbray. 
^ Blake, Charles Carter, Esq., F.G.S., Foreign Associate of 

the Anthropological Society of Paris, Member of the Coroite 

d'ArcheoIogie Amcricdiae de France. Cub&tob, Libbabian, and 

Assistant Secbetaby. 4 S. Martin' t Place, W.C; and 6 Ktnj 

wood Place, Soui/i Lamhelh, S. 
Blakely, T. A., Capt. 84 Montpellier Square, S.W. 
Bledsoe, A. T., Esq., LL.D. 33 Argyll Road, Kensington, W. 
Blonnt, J. Hillier, Esq., M.D. Bagshol, Surrey. 
ttBollaert, Wm., Esq.,Corr. Mem. Ethno. Socs., London, NewYoi 

and Univ. Chile. Honorakt Secheiaht. 2\^ Hanover Square,"^ 
Bond, Walter M., Esq. Tlie Argory, May, Irei 
Bonney, Rev, T. George, M,A., F.G.S. S John's College, Cambrii 
Boase, Henry8.,Esq.,M.D.,F.n.S.,F.G.S. Claverfm 
JBosworth, The Kev, Joseph, D,D., Trin. Coll., Cambridge, and rfi 

Christ Church, Oxford, Prof. Anglo-Saxon, Dr.Phil. of Leyden. 

F.R.S., F.S.A., F.E.S.L., Corresponding Member of the RoyJ 

Institute of theNetheilandH, etc , etc. 20 .Sea union f Square, Oxford; 

and Water Stratford, Buckingham. 
Boulton, George, Esq. I Gordon Square, W.C. 
1 1] Bouverie-Puaey, S. E. B., Esq., F.E.S. 7 Green Street, W. 
Borohara, W. W., Esq., F.R.A.8. Haverhill, Suffolk, 
Boys, Jacob, Esq. Grand Parade, Brighton. 
Brabrook, E. W., Esq,, F.S.A. 3 Parliament Street, S.W. 
Braddon, Henry, Esq. 5 Dane's I„ti, W.C. 
Brady, Antonio, Esq., F.G.S. Man/land Point, Stratford, Etstx. ' 
Braggiotti, George M., Esq. Neto York. (Care of Meair*. Ceq 

and Co., 10 Austin Friars.) 
Brainsford, C„ Esq., M.D. Hatierhill, Suffolk. 
Brinton, John, Esq. The Shrubbery, Kidderminster. 
Brebner, James, Esq,, Advocate. 20 Albgn Place, Abenlem. 
Brickwood, J, S., Esq. Claremont House, Timbridge Wells. 
Brodhurst, Bernard Edward, Esq., F.R.C.S. 20 Grosvenor St., W. 
Brooke, His Highness, Rajah Sir James, K,C,B. Burralon, Uorra- 

bridge, Devon. 
Brookes, Henry, Esq. 26 Great Winchester Street, E.C. 

Btown, Edward, Esq. Oak mil, Surhiton Hill, S. 

Brown, E. O., Esq. C7iemical Department, Royal Argenal, WoolwicA. 

Brown, Jamca RoberlB, Esq., F.R.a.N.A. Copenhagen. Scaleby 

Lodge, Camden Road, Ilolloway, N. 
Bunkell, Henry Christopher, Esq. I Penn Road, Caledonian Road, 

Jiolloway, N. 
Burke, John S,, Esq. 4 Queen Square, Weitminiter, S.W. 

tH Burton, CaptE 

Santos, firaitil. 

Montagu Squnr> 
Burton, Samuel, £ 
Butler, Henry, Es. 
*Buston, Charles, Esq., 
Bjerley, J., Esq. 

Richard Fenwick, F.R.Q.S., H.M. Consul, 
iCK-PfiEsiDENT. 34 Upper Montagu Street, 
^ ; and Santos, Braul. 

Chnrchill House, Davmtry. 
Admiralty, Somemet House, W.C, 

7 Grosvenar Crescent, S.W, 


Byham, Oeorge, Esq. War Qffiee, Pall Mall, S.W. ; and Ealing. 

•Cabbell, Benj. Bond, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 62 Portland Place, W. 
Cameron, Captain, H.M. Consul, MasMouah, Abyssinia. 
Campbell, Henry, Esq. 6 Claremont Gardens, Glasgow. 
•Campbell, J. Bangkok, Siam. (Care of Messrs. Smith and Elder, 

Pall Mali.) 
Campbell, Montgomery, Esq, 39* WigmoreStreet,CavendiskSqiiare,''ff . 
Cannon, Thomas, Esq. 13 Paternoster Row, E.C. 
Caplin, Dr. J. F. 9 Vork Place, Porlman Square, W. 
Capper, Charles, Esq. 9 Mincing Lane, E.C. 
Carlwright, Samuel, Professor. 32 Old Burlington Street, W. 
^Camlla, Facundo, Esq., Honorary Member Manchester Scientific 

Sludent's Association. (Care of) Messrs. J. Daglieh and Co., Har- 

rington Street, Liverpool; and 91 Paieo de Julio, Buenos Ayrea. 
ill, John, Esq. La Belle Sauvage Yard, Ludgale Hill, E.C. 
+ Chambers, Charles Harcourt, Esq., M.A. 2 Chesham Place, S.W. 
Chambers, William, Eaq. Aberystunlh. 
Charlton, Henry, Esq. Birmingham. 

Chamberlin, William, Esq. 4 Hervey Terrace, Brighton. 
Chance, F., Esq., M.D. 48 Ecersjield Place, S. Leonard's on Sea. 
I^Chamock, Richard Stephen, Esq., Ph.D., F.S.A., F.R.G.S., 

F.R.S.S.A., Foreign Afiaociate of the Anthropological Society 
m of Paris, Foundation Member of the Royal Society of Northern 
I Antiquaries, Corresponding Member of the New England Historic- 
F tienealogical Society, Trbabueee. 4 5. Martin's Place, W.C; 

8 Gray's Inn Square, W.C; and 30 The Grove, Hammersmith. 
ChigneU, Hendrick Agnis, Esq. 47 York Road, Brighton. 
Clare, Rev. Henry, M.A., F.R.S.L. Crossens, North Meats, Ormshirk. 
aarendon. The Right Honourable The Earl of, K.O., G.C.B., F.R.8. 

Grosfenor Crescent, W. 
Clement, William James,Esq.,F-E.S. The Council House, Shrewsbury. 
Clerk, Lieutenant- Colon el H., R.A. Royal Arsenal, Woolwich. 

nek, John, E 

, F.R.H.S., 

I.S.A. South J 



CoekingB, W. Spencer, Elaq,, F.E.S. 

Colea, Henry, Esq, Science and Art Department, Kensingli 

Collier, J. Payne, Esq., F.S.A. Maidenhead. 

t Collingwood, J. Frederick, Esq., F.E.S.L., F.G 8., Foreign Aasociatf 

of the Anthropological Society of Paris. Vick-Prbsident, 4 8. 

Martin's Place, W.C; and 54 Gloucester Street, Belgrate Road, S.W. 
t Collingwood, S. Edwin, Esq., F.Z.S. 2&Buckingkam Place, BrisfttML. 
Cooke, \V. Folhergill, Esq. Electric Telegraph OJice, Loudon 
Cooper, Sir Daniel, Bart. 20 Prince's Terrace, W. 
Cory, W., Esq. 4 Gordon Place, W.C. 
CoBsham, Handel, Esq., F.O.S. Shortteood Lodge, Bristol. 
Courtauld, Samuel, Esq. Gosfield Mall, Essex. 
Cowell, J. Jermyn, Esq. 41 Gloucester Terrace, Hgde Park, W. 
Cos, J. W. Conrad, Esq., B.A. 32 Westboume Place, Eaton 

aftd 4 Grove Hill, IVoodford, N.E. 
Cos, W. T., Esq. The Hall, Spornton, Derby. 

• Cozens, J. F. W., Esq. Larkbcrt Lodge, Clapham Park, S. 
CrasBweller, Henry Valentine, Esq, 133 Leighton Road, Ktntiih 

Town, N.W. 
Critchett, George, Esq. 75 RarUg Street, Cavendish Square, W. 
CroUy. The Rev. J. M., Ph.D. Trimdon. 
Crowley, Henry, Esq. Corporation Street, Manchester. 
Croxford, George Bayner, Esq. Forest Gate, Essex, E. 

* Culhbert, J. R., Esq. Chapel Street, Liverpool. 

Daniell, Hurst, Esq. 4 Highbury Park West, Highbury Hill, N. 

Davey, J. G., Esq., M.D. Northwoods, near Bristol. 

Davies, F. Drwmmond, Esq. Hare Court. Temple. 

H Davis, J. Barnard, Esq., M.D., F.S.A., FoTcign Associate of ti 

Anthropological Society of Paris. Shellon, Staffordshire 
Dawson, George, Esq., M.A., F.O.S. 40 Belgrave Road, BirmingAoi 
De Home, John, Esq. 137 Offord Road, Barnsburg Park, Lond<m,i 
Dibley, G., Esq. 72 Maiden Road, N.W. 
Dickinson, Henry, Esq., Colonial Surgeon. Ceglon. 
*Dingle, Itev. John, M.A. Lanchesler, near Durham. 
Dobson, Thomas J., Esq. Kingston upon Hull. 
Donaldson, Prof. John, Advocate. Marchjield House, near Edinlurg 
Dowie, James, Esq. Strand 
Drake, Francis, Esq., F.G.S. Leicester. 
Driver, H., Esq. Windsor. 
Drummond, John, Esq. The Bogle Court, Gloucester. 
t Du Cliflillu, M. Paul Belloni, F.R.G.S., (care of) 129 Mount Slrnt,Vf. 
Duncan, Peter Martin, M.U., P.G.S., Secretary of the Gcologicat 

Society of London. 8 Belmont, Lee, 8.E, ^ 

Du Val, C. A., Esq. Carlton Grove, Greenhags, Manchester. 
Duggan, J. R., Esq. 42 Walling Street, E.C. 


Easaie, William, Esq., F.L.S., P.G.S. 11 Park Road, Reanifs 

Park, N.W. 

Charles WiUmm, Esq., R.N. HM.S Victoria. 
Evans, E. Dickertoo, £h(]. WMibourne Hall, Doddenham, near 


■ans, John, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.S.A., Secretary to the Numis- 
matic Society of London, Nash Mills, Hemel Henipilead. 
Ewart, William, Esq. United Univenil'j Club, S.W. 
Eyre, Sir Edward John. Governor of Jamaica, King' s House, Jamaica. 
JKFairbank, Frederick RoystoQ, Esq., M.D,, F.E.S. S. Mary's 

Terrace, Hulme, Manchester. 
Farmer, Edmund, Esq, 80 C/ieapsidt, E.G. 
fFarrar, Rev. Frederic W., M.A., F.E.S. Barrow, N.W. 
Fearon, Frederick, Esq. 13 Pall Mall, 8.W.; and Maidenhead. 
Ferguson, William, Esq., F.L.S., F.Q.S. (Of Kinnendy, Ellon, 

Aberdeen.) 2 S. Aidan's Terrace, Birkenhead, 
Firhy, Edwin Foxton, Esq Gravelthorpe, near Ripon, Yorkihire. 
Firebrace, Frederick, Esq., Lieufenant Royal Engineers. Shorncliffe. 
Fleming, Captain, 3rd HuBSara. Cavalry Barracks, Manchester. 
Flight, Walter, Esq. Queenwood College, near Stockbridge, Hants. 
Forrester, Joseph James, Esq. 6 S. Helen's Place, E.G. 
Foster, Balthazar W., Esq., M.D., Professor of Anatomy at Queen's 

College, Birmingham. 55 Caltkorpe Street, Edybaston, Birmingham. 
Foster, M., Esq., M.D. Huntingdon. 

Fiaser, Adolphua Alexander, Esq. War Office, Pall Mall. 
Freeman, Henry Stanhope, Esq., Governor of Lagos. 27 Bury Street, 

S. James's. 
Freme, Major. Army and Navy Clnb, St. James's Square, S.W. 
Freuler, H. Albert, Esq,. M.D. North Street, S. Andrew's. 
Fuller, Stephen D,, Esq. 1 Eaton Place, S.W, 
Furnell, M. C, Esq., M.D. Cochin, Madras Presidency. 
Garrett, William H., Esq, 98 Guildford Street^ W.C, 
Gardner, Charles Henry, Esq. 5 Clarcnilon Villas, Loughhoro Park, S. 
Georgei, Professor. 18 Wimpole Street, Cavendish Square, W. 
tUGibb, George Puacan, Esq., M.D., LL.D., M.A., F.G.S. 

19a Portman Street, Portman Square, W. 
Gibson, G. S., Esq. Sufron Waldeti. 
Glaucopidea, Spyridon, Esq. 7 Maitland Park Crescent, Saverstoet 

Hill, N. 
Glennie, J. Stuart, Esq. 6 Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, E.G. 
Goadby, Edwin, Esq. Loughborough, Leicestershire. 
Gooch, Thomas, Esq. 03 London Wall, Oitg. 

nOore,R!chardThos.,Eaq., F.R.C.S.,F.E.S, 6 Queen's Square, Bath. 
Gay, David, Esq, 74 Cheapaiiie, K.C. 

Green, Sidney Faithhom, Esq. Montagu House, Eltham, Kent. 
Gregor, Rev, Walter, M.A, Pitsliyo Manse, Rosehearty, Aberdeenshire. 
rercgory. J, R., Esq. 25 Golden Square, W. 

J tr^ tr- rf^^ 

Gri&U. June* OUtt, E«i. 3 MiJJU TemyU Lmmt. KC. 

^ Gnppj, H. F. i^ E^. Porto/Sptum, Trimdad. 

HaU, Hugh F., Ewi. 17 Oi/c Strttt, iMtrpocl. 

HammoDd, C. D., Ew].. M.D. II CkarlatU Sirtrt, BtJford Sy^W.if 

Hancock, H. J. B., Es^. DuUi HiU, Bas'^'ot. 

Hwdman, William, Ewj. Norbiton Uali, KiByilon-on-Thamtt. 5.W. 

Harcourt, CUrencc, £«{. 2 King'* Armt Yard, E.C.; 

Fii22a, ZiodyweU, LeieUhant. 
Harland, Cbsrlel J., Esq. Madeira Place, Tortfuay. 
HsiUn, Thonua, Esq. Brook S/reel, Kingilon on Tiamf, 
Hairii, Oeorge, E«q., F.8.A., Regutxar of the Coort of 

MiUicheRter. Cornbrook Park, Uvime, Manchetttr. 
Haughton, Richard, Esq. Ramtgate. 

Hawkint, A. O., Esq. 88 B!*hopigalt Street Wilhoul, EC. 
Haj, Major W. E. 16 Queen Street, Ma'jfair, S.W. 
Healej, Edward C, Esq. Joldicgnds, near Doling, Surrey. 
Heath, the Rev. Dunbar 1., F.R.S.L. EiAer, Surrey. 
Hepworlh, John Mason, Eaq., J. P. Aekteorth, Tork*hire. 
Hewlett, Alfred, Esq. The Grange, Copputt, near Wigam, 
Higgin, James, Esq. Hopaood Avenue, Manchttter. 
t Higgins, Alfred, Esq., Foreign Associate of the Anthropological 

Society of Paris. HoKORt^sy Forbiojc Secrbiaby. ^S. itartm't 

Place, W.C.; and 26 Mancheiter Street, W. 
Hillier, J., Esq. Sandwich. 

Hobbs, W. 0. E., Esq. The Grammar School, Wareeide, Ware, Rerlt. 
Hobler, F. H., Esq. Chemical Department, Royal Arsenal, JFoolwicL 
Hodge, Thomas, Esq. South Street, S. Andrew't, 
Hodgson, B. H., E*q. The liangers, Durtley. 
Holland, Colonel James. 24 Princes Square, Hyde Pari. 
Horton, W. I. S., Esq., F.R.A.8., F.E.S. Talbot Villa, Rugeky. 
Hotze, Henry, Esq., C.S.A. 17 Savile Row, W. 
Hudson, Professor F., F.C.B. 69 Corporation Street. Maneketltr, 
Hudson, Henry, Esq.. M.D. ' Olenville, Fermoy, Co. Cork. 
Hunt, Augustus H., Esq. Birlley House, Chester-le- Street. 
Hunt, O. S. Lennox, Esq., F.E.S., H.B.M. Consul. Rio de Jan, 
t^ Hunt, James, Esq., Ph.D., F.S.A., F.R.S.L., Honorary Forei^ 

Secretary of the Koyal Society of Literature of Great Britain, 

Foreign Associate of the Anthropological Society of Paris, Corr. 

Mem, of Upper Hesse Society for Natural and Medical Science, 

Honorary Fellow of the Ethnological] Society of London. F 

BiDENi. 4 S. Martin's Place, W.C.; 35 Jermyn Street, S.W .; 

Ore House, near Ilattinys. 
Hunt, John, Esq. 42 North Parade, Grantham. 
Hutchinson, Jonathan, Esq., F.R.C.S. 4 Finsbury Circus, KC. 
Huldiinson, T. J,, Esq., F.R.G S,, F.R.S.L., F.E.S., Membre Titu- 

Inirc de Ilnslitut d'Afrique i Ports, Corresponding Member of iho 

Lilcriiry and Philosophic Society of Liverpool. Cotttui ' 

Rusario, Argentine VonJ'ederation. 




loannideSy A., Esq., M.D. 8 Chepstow Place, Bayswater, W. 
Izardy Frederick R., Esq. 141 High Holbom. 

Jackson, Henry, Esq., F.E.S. S. James' Row, Sheffield. 

Jackson, H. W., Esq., M.R.C.S. Surrey County Asylum, Tooting. 

Jack^n, J. Hughlings, Esq., M.D., M.R.C.P., Professor of Physiology 
at tne London Hospital Medical College. 5 Queen Square, Russell 
Square, W.C. 

^Jackson, J. W., Esq. 39 S, George's Road, Glasgow, 

Jacob, Major-General Le Grand, C.B. Bonchurch, Isle of Wight. 

Jardine, Sir William, Bart., F.R.S., F.L.S. Jardine Hall, Lockerhy. 

Jarratt, The Rev. John, M.A. North Cave, Brough, Yorkshire. 

Jeffery, William S., Esq. 5 Regent Street, Pall Mall, S.W. 

Jellicoe, Charles, Esq. 23 Chester Terrace, Regent's Park, N.W. 

♦Jennings, William, Esq., F.R.G.S. la Victoria Street, S.W. 

Jenyns, The Rev. Leonard, M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. Darlington Place, 
Bathwick, Bath. 

Jessopp, The Rev. J., M.A., Head Master King Edward the Sixth's 
School. The School House, Norwich. 

Johnson, Henry, Esq. 39 Grutched Friars. 

Johnson, Henry James, Esq. 8 Suffolk Place, S.W. 

Johnson, Richard, Esq. Langton Oaks, Fallowfield. 

Jones, J. Pryce, Esq. Grove Park School, Wrexham. 

Jones, C. Treasure, Esq., H.M. Consul, Shanghae. British Consulate, 

Jones, W. T., Esq. 1 Montague Place, Kentish Town, N.W. 

Kelly, William, Esq. 28 Rue Neuve Chaussie, Boulogne-sur-Mer. 

Kemm, the Rev. William Henry, B.A. Swanswick, near Bath. 

Kendall, T. M., Esq. St. Margaret's Place, King's Lynn, Norfolk. 

Killick, Joshua Edward, Esq. 137 Strand, W.C. 

JKing, Kelburne, Esq., M.D., Lecturer on Anatomy, Hull; Presi- 
sident of the Hull Literary and Philosophical Society. 27 George 
Street, Hull. 

Kinlay, W. R. H., Esq., F.R.S.E. 2 New Smithills, Paisley. 

La Barte, Rev. W. W., M.A. St, John's College, Newbury f Berks), 

*lf Laing, Samuel, Esq., F.G.S. 6 Kensington Gardens Terrace, 
Hyde Park, W. 

Lampray, Thomas, Esq. Warrior Lodge, The Grore, Hammersmith. 

Lancaster, John, Esq., F.G.S. Hindley Hall, near Wigan, 

Land, T. A. Augustus, Esq. Bryanston Street, Bryanston Square. 

Langley, J. N., Esq. Mowbray Park, Wolverhampton. 

Lawrence, Edward, Esq. Brachmount, Aigburth, Liverpool. 

Lawrence, Frederick, Esq. Essex Court, Temple, E.C. 

% ^ Lee, Rd'i Esq. Wilmot House, Leeds Road, Bradford, Yorkshire. 



Leea, Samubl, Esq. Portland Plaee, Athlon-tmJer-Lyne. 

Leitner, O. W., Esq., M,A.. Ph.D., F.B.A.S., F.E.8., F.P.S., P« 

fesaor of Arabic and Mohammedan Law, and Dean of the Oiionu^ 

Section, King's College, Loodon ; Hon. Member and Master of Ihe 
Free Ocrraan Hochslift; Rs a miner in Oriental Langua^s at the 
College of Preceptors. Gotemtnenl College, Lnhort, India. 

Levy, W. Hanlct, Esq., Director of the ABSocistion for Promatuig tlft— 
Oencral Welfare of the Blind ; 127 Euaton Road, W.C. J 

Lister, John, Esq., F.O S. 28 Porchttler Terrace, Baynealtr ; a»fl 
Shebdon Rail, near IhiU/ax, Yarhhirt. ^ 

Lockyer, J. Norman, E«q., F.R.A.8., M.R.I. War Office, PaU 
Malt, 8.W. ; and 24 t'ictoria Rood, Fmchley Road, N.W. 

Longman, William, Esq., F.G.8., F.R.8.L., F.R.G.S. 86 flyJe Pari 
Square, W. 

Lonsdale, Henry, Esq., M.D. Carlisle. 

Lord, Edward, Esq. Canal Street Workt, Todmorden. 

Lucas, Thomas, Esq. Belvedere Road, Lambeth, S.; and 10 JJy^ 
Park Gardens, W. ^ 

Lucy, W. C, Esq., F.G.S. Claremont Home, GloHctster. 

Lukia, Rev. W. C. Walk Rectory, Rtpon. 

Luxmoore, Coryndon H., Esq., F.S.A. 18 S. John's Wood Park. N.\V^ 

Lybbe, Philip Powya Lybbe, Esq., M.P. 88 S. Jamet'e Street. 

M'Arthur, Alexander Mc, Esq. Raleigh Hall, Brirton Rite. 
Macelellnnd, James, Esq. 73 Keiiiington Gardens Square, Baytti 
\ M'Donald, William, I'>q., M.D., P.L.S., F.G.S., Professor of Ciri 

and Nat. Hisl. in the University of St. Andrew's. Si, Andrew's. 
McCallum, Arthur E., Esq , 39th Madras Native Infantry. (Car* of) 

Messrs. Smith, Eltkr, ami Co., Pall Mall, S.W. 
McDoiLiell, John, Esq., F.C.S.L. Clare Villa, Rathminee. Dublin. 
McHenry, George, Esq. (Care of) 17 Savile Row, W. 
Mackenzie, Kenneth Robert Henderson, Esq., F.S.A. Or/ord Uou 

CAisirick Mull, W. 
Maekinder, Draper, Esq,, M.D, Gainsborough. 
Mackintosh, Charles E., Esq. New Cross, S.E. 
Mftcleay, George, Esq., F.L.8. If^de Pari GarJnis. 
McLood, Waller. Esq. Alilitary Hospital, CAelsea, S.W. 
Marsden, Robert C, Esq. 14 Hanover Terrace, Regmfs Part, N.\ 
Marshall. George W,, Esq., L.L.B. 116 Jermtjn Street. 8.W.; 

Neie Univtrnly Club, S. James's Street, S.W. 
Marshall, RobeTt, Esq. Haverstoet Villa, Hnceratock Hilt, N. 
Mnrtin, Sir J. Ranald. F.R.8. 24 Upper Brook Street, W.; 

Keydell, near Hortulean, Hants. 
Martin, John, Esq., F.L S., F.G.S. Cambridge House, PortsnontA.^ 
Marlindalo, N., Esq. The Lodge, Clapham Common, 8. 
Mathieson, James, Esq. U Tele'/raph Street, Bank, E.C. ; onrf i 

Beliiha Villas, Barnsbunj Park, N. 



Matthews, Henry, Esq. 30 Gower Street, W.C. 

Mayall, J. E., Esq. The Grove, Pinner. 

May son, John S., Esq. Oak Hill, near Fallotcfield, Manchester, 

Medd, William H., Esq. TJie Mansion House, Stockport, 

Messenger, Samuel, Esq. Birmingham, 

Michie, Alexander, Esq., F.R.G.S. 26 Austin Friars, E.G.; and 
Sha?ighae, China. (Care of) Messrs. Smith, Elder, and Co. 

Mill, John, Esq. 1 Foundling Terrace, W.C. ; and Gresham House 
City, E.C. 

Milligan, Joseph, Esq., M.D., F.G.S., F.L.S. 15 Northumberland 
Street, Strand, W.C; and Royal Society of Tasmania, Hobart Town, 

Milner, W. R., Esq. Wakefield. 

t* Milton, The Right Honourable the Lord Viscount, F.R.G.S. 
4 Grosvenor Square, W.C. 

Mirrlees, J. B., Esq. Sauchiehall, Glasgow. 

Mitchell, Wm. Hen., Esq. Junior Carlton Club; and Hamps lead, N.W. 

Mitchell, William Stephen, Esq. Gonville and Caius College, 
Cambridge; New Univeraitg Club, S. James's Street; and S. 
George's Lodge, Bath. 

Mivart, St. George J., Esq., F.L.S. , M.R.I. (Care of) Royal Institu- 
tion, Albemarle Street, and Abrth Bank, N.W. 

Modeliar, C. Poorooshottum, Esq. 33 Western Villas, Blomfield 
Road, Paddington, W. 

Monk, Frederick William, Esq. Faversham. 

Montgomerie, F. B., Esq. 2 Cleveland Row, S. Jameses, S.W. ; and 
Conservative Club, St. Jameses Street, S.W. 

Moon, the Rev. M. A. Cleator, Whitehaven, 

Moore, J. Daniel, Esq., M.D., F.L.S. County Lunatic Asylum, 

Moore, John, Esq. 104 Bishopsgate Street, E.C. 

Moore, George, Esq., M.D. Hartlepool, 

Morgan, Fortescue J., Esq. High Street, Stamford. 

JMorris, David, Esq., F.S.A. Market Place, Manchester. 

Morris, J. P., Esq. Ulverstone. 

Morison, J. Cotter, Esq., F.R.S.L. 7 Porchester Square, Bayswater, W. 

Morshead, Edward John, Esq. War Office, Pall Mall, S.W. 

Mortimer, John, Esq. Pippingham Park, Uckfield, S. 

Mould, The Rev. Joseph, M.A. 16 Bernard Street, Russell Sq., W.C. 

Mosheimer, Joseph, Esq. 10 Alexander Square, Brompton, S,W\; 
and II Newton Street, Manchester. 

Miiller, Prof. August. Konigsberg, Prussia. 

Murphy, Edward W., Esq. 41 Cumberland Street, Bryanstone Sq., W. 

Mus^ave, John George, Esq. Andover. 

Naoroji, Dadabhai, Esq. 32 Great 8. Helen's, E.C. 

Nash, D. W., EJsq. 21 Bentinck Street, Manchester Square. 

\ Nesbitt, George, Esq. 4 St, Nicholas Buildings, Newcastle-on- Tyne. 


Newmarch, WiHium, Esq., F.L.S. 17 Palace Garden* Terraei^ 

Notlmg mil, W. 
Newnham, The Rev. P. H., M.A. SBehederc Terrace, Timirttfje R'ft 
Newton, Henry, Esq. 13 Bood Street, Neiecatlle-on-Tyne. 
Nicholson, Sir Charles, Bart., D.C.L., LL.D., F.G.S. 19 Porilam 

Place, W.C. 
Nicholson, John Peede Segrave Carington, Esq, Cantle Hon 

Wh itttesea, Ca mbridgesh ire. 
Noel, The Hon. Roden. Warlies, Wallhai,, Abbey. 
Noldwrilt, J. 8., Esq. 5 WaUr Lane, Tower Street, E.C. 
Norlh, Samuel W., Ksq. YorJt. 
\ North, George, Esq. 4 Dane's Inn, W.C. 

O'Connor, Colonel L. Sm}-th, Inspecting Field Officer. BelfattS 

Union Club, Trafalgar Sqitare ; and l/nttert Service Club, Pali Ma^ 

Ogston, 0. H., Esq. Mincing Lane, E.C. 
O'Sullivan, The Honourable J. L. (of New York), late U.S. Minist« 

to Portugal. 7 Park Street, Grasvenor Square. 
Osborne, Major J. W. WiUoughhy, C.B., F.G.S. 

India. (Care of) Metsrs. Grindlai/ and Co., 56 Parliament Street^ 
Owen, Robert Briscoe, Esq., M.D., F.L.S. Haul/re, Beaumaria. 
Owen, H. Gurnard, Fsq., F.R.S.L,, F.R.G.S. 72 Goiver , 

Bedford Square, W.C. 
Owen, Captain Samuel B. John, P.H. Asa. King's College, London. 

113a. Strand. 

Packman, J. D. V., Esq., F.L.S. Braughiiig. Ware, Hert*. 

\ Palmer, S., F.sq., M.D., F.S.A. London Road, Nncbury. 

Parker, J. W., Esq. Warren Comer House, near FarnAani. 

ParncU, John, Esq, Upper Clapton, S, 

Parry, Dashwood G., Esq. Hope, near IVrexham. 

Peacock, Edward, Esq , F.S.A. Botteeford Manor, Ltncolnihirt. 

f Pcacook, Thomas Bevill, Esq., M.D. 2Q Finsbury Circus, E.C. 

Pciser, John, Esq. Barnsfield House, Oxford Street, Manchettar. 

IPongelly, William, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. Lamoma, Toryuaj/. 

Pcrtin, John Bcswick, Esq. Ivy House, Ahram, near Wigan. 

Pcrrj, Gerald, Esq., H.M. Consul. French Guiana. 

Petherick, Horace W., Esq. 3 Denmark Villai, U'adron End i 

Croydon, S. 
Picsse, G. W. Septimus, Esq., Ph.D., F.C.8. Chittoick, W. 
t li Pike, Luke Owen, Esq., M.A. 25 Carlton Villas, Maida VaU, \ 
Pinkorton, W., Esq.. F S.A. Ilounstow, W. 
Plummer, Charles. 21 Old Square, Lincoln' f Inn, tV.C. 
Prigg, Henry, Esq., jun. Bury St. Edmunds. 
I H Pritchard, William T., Esq. Spring Hill, Birminghar 

HadcUffe, John, Esq. Oldham. 
[.James, Esq. 32 PtiUlimon 

w. Ji 

Gardens, KemOiglon, W^ 


Samsay, A., jun., Esq. 45 Norland Squart, Nolting Hill, W. 

Rankin, Q. C, Esq. Comerfalive Club, S.W. 

Eateliff, Charles, Esq., F.L.S,, F.S.A., F.Q.S., F.E.S. The 

Wyddringtona, Edybatlon, Jiirminghatn. 
tUKeade, William Winwood, Esq., F.R.G.S., Corr. Mera. Geo- 
graphical Society of Paris. Contervalive Club, S.W. 
^^Reddie, James, Eaq, The Admiralty, Somerset House, Vf.C; and 

Bridge House, Hammertmitk, W. 
Hcnehaw, Charles J., Esq., M.D. Aahiou-on-Mersey, Manchester. 
Bicardo, M,, Esq. Brighton. 

Richards, Franklin, Esq. 12 Addison Crescent, Kensington, W. 
( Ricbards, Colonel. Wyndham CM, Si. James's. 
Richardson, Charles, Esq, Almandsburg, Bristol. 
I Eiddell, H. B„ Esq. The Palace, Maidstone. 
I t^RoberM, George E., Esq., F.G.S., Foreign Aaaociate of the 

Anthropological Society of Paris. Hdkokary Secbet&ht. 

Geological Society, Somerset House, W.C.; 7 Caversham Road, 

N.W,; and & Bull Ring, Kidderminster. 
Robertson, Alexander, Esq. Chanlreg Park, Sheffield. 
Bobertson, D. B., Eaq., H.M. Consul, Canton. Canton. (Care of 

Messrs. Smith, Elder, and Co., Pall Mall.) 
Rock, James, Esq., jun. St. Leonard' a-on-Sea. 
Rogers, Alfred S., Esq., L.D.S. St. John's Street, Manchester. 
, f Rolph, George Frederick, Esq., M.A.C.R. {Tar Office, Pall Mall, 

" ""' ; and 10 Leinster Square, Bayswaler. 
I RouasiUon, The Duke of. 17 Weymouth Street, Portland Place, W, 
Eouth, E. J., Esq., F.G.S. S. Peter's College, Cambridge. 
■(Ruffi^res, Charles Robert dea, Esq., F.G.8., F.E.S. Wilmot Lodge, 

Rochester Row, Camden Town, N.W. 
Ruskin, v., Esq. Northwich, Chohire. 
Russell, Captain A.H, Hawke's Bay, Napier, Neto Zealand. 

Sanders, Alfred, Eyq. 22 Beaufort Villas, Brixton, 8. 

Saint David's, The Right Rev. Connop Thirlwall, the Lord Bishop 

of, President of the Royal Society of Literature. Abergwyli Palace, 

near Carmarthen; and 1 Regent Street, W. 
St. John, Spencer, Esq., F.R.G.S. H.M. Consul. Hayti. 
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of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Sluhlteeisaenberg, Hungary. 
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Scott, Wcntwonh L., Esq., F.C.S. 12 Comicall Villas, Baysicater. 
■fSeemann, Berthold, Esq., Ph.D., F.L.S., F.R.G.S , Adjunct Pr»- 

sidii of tlie Impel ial L. C. Academia Naturie " ' 

Vice-Pbesident. 22 Canonbury Square, Islington, J 


Sclwyn, the Reverend William, D.D., Canon of Ely, Lady Mat^ret'ft 

Reader in Theology, Camhridge. 
Seymour, George, Esq. 94 Cambridge Street, Pimlico. 
Sharp, Peter, Esq. Oakjteld, Ealing, W. 

Sharp, Samuel, Esq , F.S.A., F.G.S. Daltmglon Hall, Northampton, 
Sharpe, W. J., Esq. Beulah Spa Villa, Norwood, S. 
Shaw, Alexander Mackintosh, Esq. Clifford Terrace, Leicester Street, 

Sheridan, H. B., Esq., M.P. S. Peter's, Margate. 
% Shortt, John, Esq., M.D., Zillah Surgeon. Chinglepul, Madras, 
Shute, Thomas B. O., Esq. The Rookery, Watford. 
Skene, J. II., Esq., Her Majesty's Consul. Aleppo. 
Skuea, Dr. Mackenzie, Surgeon H.M. 109th Regiment. Aden. 
Silva-Fen-o, Don Ramon de, F.G.S., F.U.Q.S., Consul foi th« 

Republic of Chile. 21a Hanover Square, W. 
St. Clair, George, Esq., F.G.S., F.E.f 
Smith, Abell, Ksq. 1 Great George Street,- WestmiMler, S.W. 
Smith, Sir Andrew, M.D. 51 Tkarloe Square, W. 
Smith, John, Esq., F.E.S, 1 Great George Street, Westminster, 

Smith, Protheroe, Esq,, M.D. 25 Park Street, W. 
Smith, Thomas, Esq., M.D. Portland Uome, Cheltenham. 
Smith, T. J., Esq., F.G.S., F.C.S. Heede, near Hull. 
Smith, W., Esq. 6 Stockport Road, Marwhevter. 
Smith, Wm. Nugent, Esq. Apsley Lodge, WeUington Road, Brighton, 
Smyth, John, Esq,, jun. Milltown, Banhridge. 
Snell, George Blagrove, Esq. 24 Lower Calthorpe Street, Gray' 

Inn Road, W.C. 
Solly, Samuel, Esq., 6 Savile Row, W. 
Southesk, The Right Honourable the Eml of, F.R.S. Kinnairi 

Caalle. Brechin, N.B. 
Spark, H. K., Esq. Colliery Office, Darling/o 
Spencer, W. H., Esq. High Wycombe, Buch 

Pendleton Alutn Works, Newton HealA, 

Spooner, The Rev. Edward, D.D., LL.D,, Ph.D., M.R.H.S.L., clc. 

The Parsonage, Brechin, N.R. 
Spry, Francis R., Esq., Fh.L. Ashford, Sornsey, N. 
JStanbridge, W. E., Esq. Wombat, Victoria, Australia. 
•Stanley, The Right Honourahle the Lord, M.P„ F.K.S. 23 S. 

Jamei-e Square, S.W. 
Stanley, The Hon. John, Lieul.-Col. Guards' Club, Pall Mall. 
Sienmng, Charles, Esq. 4 Weel&ourne Park Place, Bayncater, W. 
Stevenson, John, Esq. 4 Brougham Street, Edinburgh. 
Stirrup, Mark, Esq. 3 Witkington Terrace, Moss-nde, MancAtsttr. 
Stone, Alderman D. H, 33 Poultry, E.C. 
Strachan, Juhn, Esq. 1 Avondale Place, Glasgow. 



K'Stunnan, Edward, Esq. Camdm House, Si/dtnham Park. 
Sydenham, D., Esq. 104 Edgware Road, W. 

Tale, A. Norman, Esq. Hamiet/, Iile of Man. 

Taylor, \V., Eaq. Sigh Garrett, Boding, Essex. 

Taylor, W. E., Esq. Millfield Houie, Enfield, near Accrrngton. 

Tenison, E.T.Ryan, Esq., M.D. ^ Keith Terrace,Shepherd:> Bu»h,\f. 

Thin, Robert, Esq. 13 Hill Place, Edinburgh. 

♦Thompson, F., Esq. South Parade, Wakefield. 

Thnnipsoii, Joseph, Eaq, Beeeh Grove, Bowdon, near Manchetler. 

John, Esq., M.D., F.S.A., F.E.S. Deeizet. 
Tinsley, E., Esq, Catherine Street, Strand. 
Travers, S. Smith, Esq. Swithin's Lane, E.C. 
+ Travers, William, Esq., F.R.C.8., L.R.C.P. Charing Croit 

UoepiCal, W.C. 
Trevelyan, Arthur, Esq., J.P. Teinholm, Tranent, N.B. 

bner, Nicolas, Esq. 60 Palerttotter Rom, E.C, 
Tuckett, Charles, Esq., jun. British Museum, W.C. 
Tylor, Edward Burnet, Esq., F.R.G.S. Linden, Wellington, Somerset. 

fVaus, William Sandys Wright. Esq., M.A., F.S.A., F. & Hon. Sec. 

R.S.L., Pres. Numismatic Society of London. British Museum, 

Vernon, George Venables, Esq., F.R.A.S., M.B.M.S., Mem. Met. Soc. 

Scot., Mem. de la Soci^te Mgt6orologique de la France. Old Traf- 

ford, Manchester. 

^Wake, Charles StanJland, Esq. 16 Oxford Road, EUlum, N.W. 

Walker, Robert, Esq. 42 CarJtarvon Street, Glasgow. 

Walker, Roliert Bruce Napoleon, Esq. 10 Mibome Grove tfest, 

Walsh, Sir John Benn, Bart., M.P. 28 Berkeley Square, \V. ; and 

Carlton Club. Pall Mall, S.W. 
Walton, J. W., Eaq. 21b Savile Bow, W. 
Warwick, Richard Archer, Esq., M.D., M.R.C.P, 5 EUl Rise, 

Richmond, S.W. 
Waahbourn, Buchanan, Esq., M.D„ M.R.C.P., F.8.S. East Gate 

House, Gloucester. 
Waterficld, O. F., Esq. Temple Grave, Eaal Sheat, S.W. 
Wataon, Samuel, Esq., 12 Bouverie Street, E.C. 
Watts, J. King, Esq., F.R.G.S. St. Ives, Hunts. 
"Westropp, Hodder M., Esq. Rookhurst, Monklown, Cork. 
Whitehead, J. B., Esq. Oakley House, Rawtenilall, near Manchester. 
Whitehead, Peter O., Eaq. Holly House, Rautenstall. 
Whitehead, Thomas K., Esq. Bolly Mount, Ratatenstall. 
Wickes, Henry William, Esq. Pixfield, Bromleg, Kent. 
Wickes, Thomas Haines, Esq. Pixfitid, Bromley, Kent. 


Williams, Eric, Esq. Newton Houte, Kensington, W. 
Williama, Thomas, Esq., M.D., F.R.S. SiEansta. 
"Wilson, William Newton, Esq. 144 Eiyh Holborn, E.G. 
Windus, Commander, A. T., H.M. late Indian Nacy. 14 Si. Jamtt'* 

Witt, Oeorge, Esq., F.R.S. 22 Princii Terract, HyA Park, 8.W. 
Witllch, Prof. von. Klimyiberg, Prussia. 
Wollaston, George, Esq. 1 Barnepark Terract, Teignmouth. 
Woodd, Charles H. L., Esq., F.G.S, R-jslyn, Bampitead, N.W. 
Wood, F. Henry, Esq. Eollin Hall, near Ripon, Yorkshire. 
Wood, the Kev. William S., D.D. The School, Oahkam, Rutland. 
Wright, William Cort, Esq. JVhalley Range, Manchester. 

Yonge. Robert, Esq., F.L.S., Hon, Mem. York Phil. Soc. Grey- 
stones, Shejielil, 


of Zoology at Yale College, Cambridge 
.S. Cambridge, MamaehaseU, U.S. 
Boudin, M., M^decin en Chef de I'H^pital Militaire St. Martin. 

210 Rue de RivoU, Paris. 
^ Broca, M. Paul, S^cr&taire-gen^ral a. la Society d' Anthropologic ds 

Paris. 1 Rue dee Saintspires, Paris. 
Baer, Von, M. Carl Ernst, Foreign Associate of the Anthropological. 

Society of Paris. SI. Petersburg. 
Boucher de Crevecceur de Perthes, M., Honorary Fellow of tbw 

Anthropological Society of Paris, Foreign Correspondent of th» 

Geological Society of London. Abbeville. 
^Carus, Professor C. G., Comes Palalinus, President of the Imperial 

L. C. Academia Naturze Curiosonim. Dresden. 
Crawfurd, John, Esq., F.R.S., Vice-President of the Ethnological 

Society of London, F.Il.Q.S., etc. Alhenaum Club. 
Dareste, M. Camille, Secretaire de la Soci^t4 d'Anthiopologie dS' 

Paris. Rue de P Abbaye, Paris. 
Darwin, Charles, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.L.8., F.G.S. Oomt, 

Bromlcg, Kent. 
Eckhard, M,, Professor of Physiology at the University of Qiewen*; 

Giessen. t 

Gratiolet, M. Pierre, D. M. P., President de la Soci^t^ d'Anthropolo^i 

de Paris. 15 Rue Guy Labrosse, Paris. 
Kingsley, The Rev. Charies, M.A., F.L.8., F.G.S., Rector ot 

Eversley, Professor of Modem History in the University of Cam- 
bridge. Everaley, near Winchfield, Hants. 
Larlet, M. Edouard, For. Member Q.S. 15 Rue Lacipide, Pari*. 
Lawrence, Wra., Esq., F.R.S., F.R.C.S. 18, MTtitehaU Place, S.W._ 
Lucae, Dr. J. C. 8. Ff<mkfoTt. 


Lyell, Sir Chariea, Hart., D.C.L.. LL.D., F.R.S., V.P.G.8., Eq. Ord. 
Boruss. "pour le merile," Hon.M.R.S.Ed., F.S.L., President 
of the BriiiBh Association for the Advancement of Science. 
53 HarUy Street, W. 

Meigs, Dr. J. Aitken, Foreign Associate of the Anthropological 
Society of Paris. Philadelphia. 

Milne-Edwards, Dr. Henry, Memher of the Institute, Pot. Mom. 
U.S., For. Mem. G.8., Professor of Natural History, Jnrdin des 
Plantes. Paris. 

Nott, Dr. J. C, Foreign Associate of the Anthropological Society of 
Paris. MobiU (Alabama, C.S.A.J 

Owen, Richard, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.C.S.E., F.R.S., F.G.S,, 
F.L S., Hon. M.R.S.Ed., Hon. F.R. College of Surgeons of Ireland, 
Eq. Ord. Boruss. "pour te metito," Foreign Associate of the 
Anthropological Society of Paris, Chev. Leg. Hon. InsUtut 
(Imp. Acad. Sci.) Paris, Director of the Natural History Depart- 
ment, British Museum. British Muieum ; and Sheen Lodge, 
liichmond Park, S.W, 

Pruner-Bey, M., Vice-President de la Societfe d'Anthropologie. 
28, Place St. Victor, Paris. 

Quatrefagcs, M. Alphonse de, Professor of Anthropology in the 
Museum of Natural History, Paris. Sue Geoffroy St. Hilairt, Farit. 

Kenan, M., Membre Honoraire de la Society d'Anthropologie. ^5 
Rue Madame, Parts. 

Van der Hoeven, Professor. Leyden. 

Vogt, Professor Carl, Professor of Natural History, Gettera. 

Wright, Thomas, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., Hon. F.H.S.L., Corr. Mem. of 
the Imperial Academy of Paris, Honorary Secretary of the Ethno- 
logical Society of London, 14 Sydney Sireet, Brampton, S.W. 


Erucke, Dr. Vienna, 

Biichner, Dr. Ludwig. Darmstadt. 

^Burgholzhausen, Count A. F. Marschall von, For. Corr, G.S., Cham- 

bellain de I'Empcreur. WoUzeil, Vienna. 
Burmeister, Hermann. Buenos Ayres. 
Buschmann, Professor. Berlin. 
Castelnau, M. de. Paris. 
Dally, Dr. E. Paris. 

Desnoyers, M. Jules, For. Corr. G.S. Paris. 
Dom, General Bernard. St. Petersburg. 
D'Omalius d'Halloy, Professor, For. Mem. G.S. 
Duhousset, M. le Commandant. (French Army i 
Gerraifl, M. Dr., For. Corr. G,8. Montpellier. 
OigUoli, Professor. Pavia. 
OoBse, M. A. L. (pere). Geneva. 
QoBse, M. H. J. OeneTa. 

a the) Atlas. 


His. Prof. Qanle. 

Hochatetter, Professor von. Vieiina. 

Hyrtl, Professor, Vienna. 

Eaup, Professor, Dr., For. Corr, G.S. DatmsUdt. 

Leuckart, M. Gieasen, 

Martin -Magton, M. 26 Rue Madame, Paris. 

MoleschoU, Prof. Turin. 

Morlol, M., For. Corr. G.S. Berne. 

Nicolueci. Prof. Naples. 

Pictet, Prof. F. G., For. Corr. G.S. Geneva. 

Pouchct, George M. Rouen. 

Raimondy, Profeasur. Lima. 

Reichert, M. 

Rickard, Major Francis Ignacio, F.G.8., F.C.S, Argentine Republic. ' 

21a. Hanover Square. 
Rutimeyer, Professor. Basle. 
Scherzer, Dr. Carl von. Vienna. 
Schlagintweit, Hermann de. Paris, 
Steinhauer, Herr Carl. Copenhagen. 
Stocnstrup, Professor, Dr., For. Corr. G.S. Copenhagen. 
Thomscn, Le Cheralifer. Copenhagen. 
Uhde, C. W. V. Herr. Berlin. 

Vibraye, Marquis de. For. Corr. G.S. Abbeville and Paris. 
Welcker, Dr. H., Professor. Halle. 
Wilson, Professor Daniel. Toronto. 
Woraaae, Professor. Copenhagen. 


Bed FOBS SSI RE Hitjham Ferrars.. 

Bbrkshire Ntahary 

CuEsaisB Bebbington 

DsvoNSHiBB Tarquag 



DcBHAX Sloekton-en-Tea.. 

CtuiDOSSTEBBBiaB ...Pendotk, near 

Havpbhi&b i.Isleof Wight ,,,., 

Kkwt ChaAam 

J. Palmer, Esq., M.D., P.AS.L. 
.Craig OibBOD, Esq., M.B. 
W. Pengelly, Esq., F.R.8., P.O.a, 
F.A.8.L., Lamorna, nr. Torquay. 
Professor Buokman, F.L.8.. 

.Frederick T ravers, Esq. 
.Charles Qrovos, Esq. 
,Dr. Farquharson. 
Rev. W. S. Sjmonds, F.O.S. 


.Hyde Pullen, Esq. 
,Rev. n. P. Rivers, M.A., 
□ear Chat bam. 




Lahcashiue ManchetUr Dr. F. Rojston Fairbank, F.A.S.L., 

St. Mary's Terrace, Hulme. 

Dayid Morris, Esq., F.8.A., Market 

}>(oB,rnvuBEBLhASJ>,.,Alnmci George Tite, £&<}., F.G.S., Secretary 

to the Berwickshire Naturalists' 
Field Club, Corresponding Mem- 
ber of the Soc. of Antiq. Scotl. 

NewccuiU George Nesbitt, Esq., F.A.S.L., 4 St. 

Nicholas Buildings. 

OxFOBDsniBB Oxford The Rer. Joseph Bosworth, D.D., 

F.R.S., F.S. A., 20 Beaumont Sq. 

Banhury George St. Clair, Esq., F.G.S.,F.A.S.L., 


SoMBBSETSHiBB Boik R. T. Gore, Esq , F.A.S.L., F.R.C.S., 

6 Queen's Square, Bath. 

STAFroBDSHiBB Wolvtrhampton ...Charles Alfred Rolph, Esq., Waterloo 


Sussex Hastings Thomas Tate, Esq., F.R.A.S., Essex 

Cottage, Fairught. 

Brighton S. E. CoUingwood, Esq., F.A.S.L.> 

47 York Road. 

Wabwickshibe Birmingham W. T. Pritchard, Esq., F.R.G.S., 

F.A.S.L,, Spring Hill. 

Warwick The Rev. P. B. Brodie, M.A., F.L.S., 

F.G.S.,The Vicarage, Rowington. 

YoBKSHiBE Bradford R. Lee, Esq., F. A.S.L., Wilmot House, 

Leeds Road. 

EuU Kelbume King, Esq., M.D., F.A.aL., 

27 George Street, Hull. 

Lahabkshibb OUugow J. W. Jackson, F.A.S.L., 39 St. 

George's RonemI, Glasgow. 

Fifbshibb St. Andrew's Prof. W. Macdonald, F.L.S., F.G.S., 

F.A.S.L., Prof. Civ. & Nat. Hist., 
St. Andrew's. 

Hebbideb Islay Hector Maclean, Esq., Ballygrant^ 


Ulstbb Belfast Brice Smyth, Esq., M.D., 13 College 


CoEVAVQHT Qalway W. King, Esq., Professor of Geology, 

Queen's College. 


ArBiCA (West Coast) Du Chaillu, M.Paul Belloni, F.A.S.L. 

(care of 129 Mount Street, W.) 

Algbbia Thomas Callaway, M.R.C.S. (Exam.) 

1844, F.R.C.S. (Exam.) 1847, 
Mem. Fac. Med. Algeria (Exam.) 
1862, Mem. Med.-Chir. Soc. Lond. 
Maison Limozin, Place Besson, 
Algiers. Care of Montage 
Gos8ett,Esq.,4 Coleman St., City. 


Abobhtibh llBPCBLio.Bu«no» Ayret ...Facimdo Carulla, Esq., P.A.8.L, 

AuBTSIA Vienna M. Franciscus Miklosich. 

BwigaTy Dr. Juliua Schvaroz, F.G.S., F.A.S.L, 

Member of the Hungarian Ac&d. 

Scieacea, Stuhlweiaaenburg, 

BlLOTUX BrvMdt M. Oct&vo Delepierie. 

Jolm Jones, Ssq. 

BoBHBO Surdieak Edtnrd Price Houghton, Esq., M.D., 


Bbitibb CohVUniA Captain Edward Stamp. 

Uabasa Jfonfrwaf Qeorge E. Fenwick, Esq., M.D. 

Zabrador The Rot. C. Linder. 

Toronto Professor Hincks. 

Chika William Lockhart, Esq., M.E.C.S. 

A. 0. Cross, Esq., M.B.C.S. 

EcoADOB J. Spotswood Wilson, P,R.O.S, 

EaiFT Alexandria J. Stafford Allen, Esq. 

Cairo Dr. Theodor Bilbarx. 

Peaioh PariM Prof. M. OiraldSs, Prof, de M6d. i 

I'Hapital des EufauB Trouv^es. 

JfTiet Dr. Edwin Leo. 

niui DAaiUTADT...G'i«Mm Dr. Phcebus. 

Jata Batttvia Dr. Wienecte. 

Coeoaltiandt J. Q. C, Ross, Esq. 

Natai The Rev. H. Callaway, M.A. 

Nrw Zbalaud Captain A. H. RusBell, F.A.S.L. 

Nioaeaoca Commander Bedford Pim, R.N. 

OuDH O. Jasper Nicholla, Esq. (H.M, In- 

dian Civil Service). Treken- 
ning House, St, Columb, Comw. 

Pbttbbia Bonn Dr. 6cba«fhausen. 

QuEEEiaLAHD Qeofgo T. Hine, Esq. 

Goorge W. Brown, Eiq. 

Saxoht Leiptig Dr. Alfred von Kremer, 

SpAiif Oibralcar Captain Brome. 

United Stateb Nev> York Captain W. Parker Snow. 

SanFraKciKO ...R. Beverlej Colo, Esq., M.A., M.D., 
Pb.D,, Professor of Obstetrics and 
the Diseases of Women in tho 
Univcrsitj of the Pacific 

SwEDBH Stoctholm Dr. Retziua. 

Gotland .Dr. Qustaf Lindstrora. 

Tancoctbh's Island Edward B. Bogge, Esq., R.N. 

3 tios DOS ma isi 



1650) 723-9201 

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