William Bascom, Director
Museum of Anthropology
University of California
EDO-SPEAKING PEOPLES OF
PAET II: LINGUISTICS.
NORTHCOTE W. THOMAS, M.A., F.R.A.I., ETC.
HARRISON AND SONS.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PREFACE... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... vii
SYSTEM OF TRANSLITERATION ix
SECTION I : EDO TEXTS 1
I. Azuambili (the sponger) 3
II. lya 5
III. Emigaheme (the three tasks) 8
H!A. second version ... ... ... ... 15
IV. Igifiemido (the archer) 19
V. Boebose 21
VI. The three boys 23
VII. The tortoise 25
VIII. Osa and the lizard v 29
IX. Omeneli ... 30
X. Man with elephantiasis ... ... ... ... ... 34
XL Palm nuts 37
XII. Ido 37
XIII. The monkey 38
XIV. The poor man 40
XV. The smokers ... 43
XVI. Burial custom ... ... ... ... ... ... 43
XVII. The plantain eater 44
XVIII. Osa and the farmer 45
XIX. The poor woman and her son 47
XX. OsaandEwale 50
XXI. The four men 53
XXII. Igifiemido and Emigherameme... ... ... ... 55
XXIII. The dog and the leopard 55
XXIV. Ezomo , ... 60
XXV. Ogiso and the poor woman 62
XXVI. Dog and tortoise 64
XXVII. The seven men , ... 68
SECTION II : TEXTS IN OTHER LANGUAGES OF THE EDO FAMILY 71
A. ISHAN, IRUA 73
1-7. Narratives 73-76
8. New yam festival 76
9, 10. Narratives 77
B. XUKURT7KU 78
(a) IJEBA 78
1. Narrative 78
(b) SABONGIDA (ORA) 78
1. Phrases 78
2. Astronomy 79
3. The dungbeetle 79
4. Tortoise and snail 80
5. Burial customs ... ... ... ... ... 81
(c) AGBEDB 83
1. The francolin ... 83
2. Inabosere 84
3. King and tortoise ... ... ... ... ... 85
4. The bird 86
5. Tortoise and Omemamoni ... ... ... 86
6. The impotent man 89
7. Giant and king of sky 90
8. The stupid man 91
^ 9. The tortoise and the eggs 93
10. Hunting 94
11. Snail and tortoise 95
fi? 12. Man and wife 97
(rf) UZAITUI 99
1. Hunting 99
(e) IBIE, N. Nigeria 100
1. Fanning 100
2. The Imiegba palaver 101
(/) KOMINIO 103
1. Farming 103
(ff) Soso 103
1. Farming ... ... ... ... ... ... 103
(/t) SEMOLIKA 104
1. Farming 104
(0 IBILO : 10 4
1. Farming ... ... ... ... ... tmm 104
0') ISUA ... 105
1. Farming . 105
(0 OKPE, S. Nigeria 106
1. Burial customs, marriage, birth 106
2. Tooth filing 107
3. Hairdressing 108
(j) OTUA 109
1,2. Farming 109
3. War 110
4. Conversation 110
5. New Year Ill
6. Eobbery Ill
7. Marriage 112
(a) EMOSOGA 114
1. Narrative 114
2. Osagale 114
3. Child and millipede 120
4. Boebose (see also p. 21) 124
(6) IYEDE 126
1. Farming 126
(c) Ovu 127
1,2. Farming 127
SECTION III. EDO GRAMMAR 129
Appendix A. Wano Grammar 143
Appendix B. Examples 147
SECTION IV. COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY OF SELECTED WORDS
IN THE EDO LANGUAGES... ... ... ... 151
SECTION V. EDO-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 187
THE texts and vocabularies here published were collected
during my tour between January 29th, 1909, and March 28th,
1910. A certain number of vocabularies were collected
during the first three months, which were spent in Benin
City (Edo) ; but the whole of the words and texts now
printed were taken down between Jime 15th and the end of
my tour. My interpreters were as follows:
Edo Erumese ... Feb. 10 to May 25.
Kukuruku and Ishan Corporal Nimahan May 25 to Sept. 22.
Agbede and Kuku- Osidora Aug. 6 to Oct. 1.
Edo Ogbebo Oct. 10 to Dec. 10.
Sobo ... ... James Smart ... Dec. 13 to Jan. 13.
Kukuruku George and Feb. 2 to March 10.
During my second Kukuruku tour Isuma of Agbede
acted as assistant interpreter, and Ogbebo was employed
several times for short periods over and above that
The Edo vocabulary was taken down from Corporal Nimahan
and revised with Ogbebo. The Agbede and Uzaitui vocabu-
laries were taken down with the aid of Edo, no English
being used at all in most cases. In all other cases the
English word was given and the native word asked for.
Corporal Nimahan acted as interpeter for Ijeba, Aroko, Okpe
(mainly by means of Yoruba), Otua, Sabongida, Agbede (with
Osidora), Irua, Ubiaja, and to some extent in the Ida
District. He also related Edo stories I and II. The
remainder of the Edo stories were related by Ogbebo and my
orderly Idehin, with the exception of Nos. XIV, XVIII, and
XX, which were told by Asemota of Igwiximi.
At Sabongida, Agbede and Irua the schoolboys supplied
the texts and narratives, and to a large extent acted as their
own translators. The first four Sobo texts were taken down
from the lips of my head boy. The remainder of the texts
were obtained from chiefs and others in the various villages.
The Kukuruku and Ishan texts and the comparative
dictionary have been revised with the aid of Father Strub of
Agenigbodi, to whom I wish to express my heartiest thanks.
My tours in the Sobo country and in Northern Nigeria
were of the nature of flying surveys, made for the correction
of sociological data ; I had no opportunity of revising my
material from those districts. It will be noticed that both
here and elsewhere the native informants have often added
" it " (le or lo) to a transitive verb ; I have advisedly left the
word in the form in which I recorded it.
The pronunciation of different individuals, and in some
places of the two sexes, or of adults and younger people
(with unfiled teeth), differs, sometimes to a marked extent.
It will, therefore, be noticed that there is some want of
uniformity in the spelling.
Further research will probably show that the tones
have been omitted in many cases where the Edo dictionary
here printed does not distinguish between two meanings of a
A certain number of texts have been recorded with the
phonograph, and the numbers of the records are shown at
the head of such texts ; duplicates of the records are
available for study in the Royal Anthropological Institute,
together with nearly three hundred records of music.
; a in Jather.
a intermediate between
a in father and cat.
a in take.
e in there.
e in let.
ee in see.
i in it.
o in stone.
o in ought.
Q = o in not.
u = u in rule.
u = u in lull.
u = u in German gilte.
u = - in German glilck.
= p in German
ai = in line.
an = in how.
01 = in boy.
b in bed.
ch in church.
lent to Scottish ch in
d in dark.
= hard g in gold.
- h in have.
- j in jewel.
= k in key.
= 1 in long.
- cerebral 1.
= m in man.
= n in not.
= cerebral n.
= ng in ringer.
- p in pay.
Dynamic accent (stress)
Sign of nasalization
r = r in red.
r* = trilled r.
rh = r slightly trilled and
s = s in sea.
s = sh in she.
t = t in ten.
t = cerebral t.
v = v in vivid.
w = w in win.
y = y in yellow.
z = z in razor.
z = z in azure.
y = soft g in N. German tag.
f, v, = bilabial f and v, Span-
ish pronunciation of b.
b, p = b and p sounded nearly
like w, with closed
(over the letter).
Azuamb;li, Azual^gel^ge iyqkpabina ;
Azuambili, Azualegelege, born of the same mother
Qgiseoxuum jnakearowa ; ;nagaiho
when hunger time came they lived in.the same house ; if they heard
Qkgui ;nanadumina, ;nagaxia. Qgisedgkpa
a place where they beat fuf u, they went (there). One day
;nagarhiopia ; ;nanawinarigbafi, \nanagaxiaxiaxia ;
they took cutlass, they say they go hunting they went on, on, on,
jnamaniiQmirQkpa ; ;nagQdedowovwof e ;
they saw nothing ; as they came they saw a rat hole ;
Azuamb;li QW ]inanobiluaiyi ; Azual^gel^ge
Azuambili said : here he would stay ; Azualegelege
QW(jmanelQgelegaiyi Qlinanagatqnovu ;
said here he would do so too so they began to dig hole ;
;nagiz(jtoi Qtifwina; Azual^gel^ge qwineriowa;
they went ou digging, they tired ; Azualegelege said he would go
Azuambili Qmaleyi ; qnagatgnoi ; Qgiz^tgnoi
Azuambili : " here I stay " ; so he went on digging ; as he dug
qnqsagwale ; Qnoiob^rhamoi ;
he reached room ; he took hand touch ; when he felt it hot,
qnawgbaba Qlqkpawema ;
he said just now he got up here ; he dug a little more,
he saw his tail ; he caught at the tail ; it came loose in his
; qnarhi$rhurhuniQle ;
it ran away ; he took its tail ; he took sand from his track,
qnaz^kubqle ; Qnagbalaiyoko ; qnagariowa ;
he took sand from fore feet ; he tied it in a leaf ; he went home ;
Qgisowa Qnamwawuwanakpe, grhurhumofQni ;
when he got home, he took pot, washed it, tail of the rat
b^xainQze, onameyowawa ; ynalamoi ; Qnamwgli;
and sand he had picked, he put them in pot ; he fried it ; he took it ;
Qnarioi ; Qnarota. Azual^gelggexjre ; Qnaw'
he ate it ; he sat down. When Azualegelege came ; he said,
ofelgle ; ukwQgbe ? QnawQmagum^gbe ;
rat to-day ; did you kill it ? he said, it did not let me kill it ;
onawukpax;re ; inamioi iwinimwe,
he said, you had gone small ; I saw it I said ; let me catch it,
^rhurhum^le QnaiuwobQ ; QnazexuwQle
his tail loose for my hand ; he took sand from fee
bik\jmbQle, inagbaleyoko ; igisowa ; jgiranQle,
from hands ; I put it in parcel ; I came home ; I fried and ate it,
he said where is pot you take fry it ; he said look it ;
AzualQgelQgelamu ; gnasam^kpoge ;
Azualegelege went take it ; he took water to wash it and shake it ;
he drank it.
lya, Qk^ginQm^do noqkpa
lya, when she got husband, who the only one was in the country ;
; ;nananaw& : nQkwenina ; qwe
all country said let her agree for them ; she said : I don't
they said (if) she did not marry them, they go kill her ; she said
" M " QkQgibie Qing qkpa ngdqli nqrewa,
" M " When she bore child one for her husband who was in
;nanaw dokwgnina ; iikwe woborplahq ;
they said : go agree for them I don't agree ; we all beg you ;
iikwe ; ;nanawg : umakwe, magagbwa ;
I don't agree ; they said : if you don't agree, we kill you ;
QkQgari^ki ; gk^dogki ;nanamwe i gbe
she went to market ; she reached market ; they got ready
yaxQle,gode; Qgige,gina; ;nanaw: kwimete ; ;
go wait on road she saw them ; they said agree to-day ; no ;
umawukwe ? gdixali. ql^gino magagbwa ; walahp ;
you don't agree 1 So I say. It's to-day we kill you ; I beg you ;
yalexwigd^me ; ;nanaw agadgge wakwgnima ;
go and look for my husband ; they said we go see if you agree for us ;
(take palaver to him)
maigegbwe ; qnadigwe, lahp ; igakwe ;
we don't kill you ; she knelt down, I beg you ; I agree ;
giasowa ; 9 ; aisowa mahpluebaba ;
let us go home; no? don't go home we wish to have connection now;
magaholuew^niya. Onawikwi. Ugakwe.
we wish to copulate so. She said : I don't agree. You will agree.
Inanarhiopia, ;nakQfialuhumu ; qk^giwu. Qdqlegnawe :
They took cutlass, they cut her head off ; she died. Her husband
6 EDO TEXTS.
jmagimie lya ; bog;rie wowana ? lahu^le ;
I don't see lya ; Where did she go in this house ? I go look for her ;
qkQgahuQle ; Qgadigki ; odo ;
he went and looked ; he went to market ; her husband ;
umamiowQki lya, bog' iye, Q!QXQ.
Did you not see her in market ; lya, which side, trader.
Eyenawg amamamioi ; iyowqli ;
Market people said we didn't see her ; they were sorry ;
ihoi; gnagaxia; ok^gahu^le; ozehu^le,
I hear; he went; he looked; he kept on looking,
omamioi ; Qsogiame, ;mag;miawoxaine ;
he did not see her ; Oh, my enemy, I don't see my wife ;
wiagalue ? " M " gleo ihggimieuhumiya ; ;mag;mie
what T go do ? " M " look ; at last I see lya's head ; I don't see
ikwgle ; bohuQle qlihona ; umamioi ?
her body ; where to look for it ? I find it now, you don't see it ?
mah!mioi ; ihqgjmioi ; jrhiele Qkggirhiegadeowa ;
We see it ; I have looked till I'm tired ; I take it. He took it home ;
biagalfihumu lya ? igal^le ; ig a l$le
What shall I do with head of lya ? I bury it ; when I go bury it,
Qkp^ti ainyo igaia, l^le ; walaho wadogum JdolQle ;
box of gin I take bury it ; I beg you follow me bury her ;
mahoi ; magagw^lql^ (ua) lya; bwaigal^leyi ?
we hear ; we go follow you bury lya ; What you go take bury her ?
qwe, QXQXO, ^kita, ^gwi, Qmila nqxwa. Vigre naiagbum^l^le;
goat, fowl, dog, tortoise, cow big. Bring come follow me
mahoi ; axw^magal^le ? Qkggbe ; wadogume(i)rioi
we hear ; to-morrow we bury her ? he killed ; come follow me eat.
mahoi; ;nanavie ; ak^gitota; awagadainyp;
we hear ; they wept ; they sat down ; they drank palm wine ;
anagairievei; anagairigw^ ; anagaliawa; ^mihianaiail^le
they ate kola ; they ate goat ; they ate dog ; all that they took
to bury her
EDO TEXTS. 7
anaga^rioi. "Asimwe"; "I" ihoi ; inagjline
they ate. " Save you " ; " Ay " I hear ; when they ate
gko givo ; ;nag;lovie ; Qnaw ; biagjluenahe ;
belly full ; they lay down ; he said ; What to do now ;
inan;gbawoxamina ; opiagarhie ; ;gagiaginafthumu ;
they who killed this my wife ; I take cutlass ; I cut their heads off;
qnagirhiopia ; Qnaiagagiaginawfthumu ; Qk^gifo,
So he took cutlass he went cut their heads ; when he finished,
Qgigey Osalobwa ; Walu ? unagbgrna
he saw Osa ; What are you doing ? you kill person
nQseniaii ; jnakalumQle ; b^zgnuwemaxamame ?
like that ; they first did it to me ; why did you not tell me ?
$nawe : gegilu^de ; gk^rhiebe ; Qkfjxigle ;
he said : he would not do it again ; he took leaf ; he rubbed it ;
okginieyinunu ; miyoleho ; QnarhieumwQiiota ;
he squeezed it for mouth ; and ears ; he took small stick (whip);
Qnafinale ; onawinarhiQre ; agavie,
he flogged them ; he said : let them wake ; when people sleep,
ariq ; ;nanaekbaigbe ; gnahumewoxwo ; bQsigzo
let them wake ; they got up ; he woke woman ; what brought
wanagboxwona ; ;nanaw : ^nanimiai ;
before you kill this woman ; they said : they begged her ;
Qmakw^nia ; Qlinanagb ; gnanonoxwo :
she did not agree ; so they killed her ; he asked woman :
^makwina ; onarhiexwaise ; Qnafiyo ; gnaw ;
I don't agree for them ; he took ewaise ; he swore on it ; he said :
Qwohoho inqgagi ;kok\irhioxwQkpa; ;nafie ;
this whole town they can't mix take one woman ; they swore ;
onawewoxwo : \v;r;gbe, gariglimi, ose
he said to woman : go back, go to Elimi, person
who goes to Elimi does not come (back).
8 EDO TEXTS.
Emigaheme, novih^nbuda, gw^
Emigaheme, who was slave of Ehenbuda, said day that things
gahemenihQmalu ;gawu. Edgni
tire me which our company do I go die. This day
qvJkpQvene yaxame Ehenbuda, gmiagrnQxame.
he took four kola to go tell Ehenbuda, he was tired of the world.
Ede.nemigaheme niniasabalu igihomalue,
The day that I tire of a thing which I cannot do and my company
Ehenbuda uvievenena ; uviobame,
Ehenbuda take these four kola; take together with me,
naialtiQmi ; igagmQxaino. Ehgnbuda
take do a thing (i.e., kill me) the world hates me. Ehenbuda
naxame.zQmo ; uwQgewQxamame ! bgkahe ?
told Ezomo ; Look what he tells me ! What 1
Qwgmihene nihomalu ; gvikpeveneme
He says he is tired for what his company does ; he takes four kola
for me ;
nivigme, edgnQmigaihinoi nihomalu.
let him give them to me, the day he tires for what our company does
EzQinonatigmigaheme : Qnawugasgti ? Emigaheme.
Ezomo said to Emigaheme ; he said Can you 1 Emigaheme.
Onawejhe : onawgluseti deugas^ti qnawqle : iziga
He said Yes ; he said ; you can't if you can, he said, murderer
qr^gbola ; yamwe,re ; wasabamwQre Qgigbaika ;
is in the bush ; bring him ; if you can bring him, he will tie beads ;
QnawQlehoi ; Qnaxia ; Qgisowa Qnawiye ;
he said he heard ; he went ; He went home he said to mother
ge.kQnagiemqle. Gaxia; uxia, tude.
look place they send me. Go. go, come back ;
Qnaw^he. Elegare, ^gbewenwe. Ixwegboy^de
he said " yes." To-day I come, I kill goat for you. [If] Cutlass cuts
QzunQli. Ukpogun, ovavame, omukwa,
spoils edge. Ukpogun, if it gets water, it throws it off
EDO TEXTS. 9
qhi^kwa. QnamwQwe, qnagbS, gnadesagie,
it throws it away. She took goat, she killed it, she took its blood,
gk^mwiuku ; Qnamune ; Qnagaxia ;
she put it in calabash ; she gave it to him ; he went ;
QkQdod;node wogjsode, gsagie
he came and reached road ; "When he reached road, blood
QkoiQwopia Qsamaiyigbe ; Qnagaxia ; Qgim;ziga
he took rub cutlass, he threw for body ; he went ; he met murderer ;
Qnawe/lo ; Qnawigano ? Emigaheme ! Qnawe,do
he said " Hail" ; he said " who is that " ? Emigaheme ! he said
doko, Qwghe. Qnawg tuQiue Qnawetjtua.
"'do, friend," he said "yes." He said "salute me," he said I salute
Onarhielgsago ; lare. Qnagaxia, Qgiseva,
He took him to bush house ; come He went, he got there,
Qnawe : tota, Qkgtota. Qnawurigmi ?
he said : sit down, he sat down. He said " You don't eat 1 "
Qnawelggale ; Qnaw : naiaxwe ; Qnawghe ;
He said he would eat ; he said let us wash, he said yes ;
Qnagisqze, gagakaxwe ? Emigaheme ! QWQXWC ;
he reached river, who washes first ? Emigaheme ! he said : wash ;
mie, vaxwe greli n;gixwese ; gnawghe ;
take soap it's long since I washed ; he said all right ;
okg;xwe, gnamw^vaxwe gnamw^n^zigana ;
when he washed, he took soap ; he took it gave to murderer ;
qyevaxwelalo QgidQgode ; Qnad^fi^ze ;
he rubbed soap in his eyes he did not see ; he fell into river ;
Qnamwebotg ; Qnagbai, gnarhiegade ;
he put him down ; he tied him ; he took him away ;
Qgi s Q Qnaw udinya umagjle ?
when he reached bush house, he said you don't eat yams, don't you eat?
Umag^rinya, axivie, ax^ka,
If you don't eat yams, pot of beads, pot of square beads,
pot of cowries ; you come take all ; he packed them ;
10 EDO TEXTS.
Jnanagari^do ; agjsiQdo ; gnawQmada :
they went to Edo ; when they reached Edo he said to Omada :
;renQ; qbanagjre ; gnaw' Okpiaxu ;
I have come ; when the king came ; he said You are a man ;
QnawigaluQse. ^zqmo naw g^belu^l^se ; qnawfe
he said I go dash you. Ezomo said don't dash him ; he said
Qne Qrqvia ; yamwqre. Qnaw : " M " Qnagaxia ;
crocodile in Ovia ; bring it ; He said " M " he went ;
Qnadinewa ; Qg^lomo ; QgQmatQfi ; obanavione ;
he reached home ; spear of brass, spear of iron, king gave him ;
qnawoz;gwe : dogwame ; Qzigwenawg ohamume ;
he told ferryman : put me over ; ferryman said I fear ;
^giohame ; nonelidomu. Qzigwenawghe,
don't fear ; crocodile I come catch. Ferryman said " all right."
qnarhieyoko ; lare ; Qnagade ; lako ; glako ;
he took canoe ; come ; he went ; go in canoe ; he went in canoe ;
Qgwa ; QgizQgwa ;
he put him across ; as he was crossing,
he saw crocodile ;
ogQnade, QnasuQga ;
when it came, he threw his spear he
took brass spear ;
qnarhiQgQmatQn ; qnaisue.
he took iron spear, he threw.
It sank in river ;
qnawQzjgwe : ilabw^le ;
he said to ferryman : I go to it ;
he went after it ;
qnagaxia Qljmi QgisurQXQxq
he went to Elimi ; he reached fowl gate,
fowl said don't pass ;
Qnaiyqkam, qnagbjrava ;
he took corn, he passed there; he
reached goat gate,
; Qnav;kunina ;
goat said don't pass ; he took the peelings, he passed ;
qnagia Qg^de^mila ; qna\VQgb;ra ;
he reached cow gate, he gave plantains to cow ; it said : pass ;
qnasuruke ; QnawQgQgbJra ; Qnamweniana ;
he reached lame man's gate ; he said don't pass ; he took the f ufu ;
EDO TEXTS. 11
he said pass ;
I fetch crocodile
do you know it
he reached mother of Edenbuda.
Iriglimi. Qnaw "M"
go to Elimi. She said "M"
nisai ; QWQ!G ;
that I shot, said he to her ;
; he said he knew it ;
She said :
What go do?
if you see it
she said spear,
Qnawagbtjlume or hue ; ainevaviQgare
.she said they rub it with camwood and chalk ; if they two bring the
rhiowumqni ; QluwiyanQle ; Qnawenonenusai
'take the camwood one ; so you go know it ; she said the crocodile
that you spear
qnawaiume(i)wQle gkQwonasue ; Qnawg ;
she said with chalk they rub it in the place you shot it ; she said ;
agalgminwe, gQle utegarie. Onawghe.
if they cook for you, don't eat till you go. He said "yes."
Qvi^gwiyeva Osalobwa Qga\vd;gue,
She gave him two tortoises ; if Osa says kneel,
when you reach Osa's palace, it is forbidden to kneel.
Onagaxia Elimi ; QgisQgwasa, Esukgg;mio,
He went to Elimi ; when he reached Osa's palace, when Esu saw him,
Esunawewarie. Otalamaisu ; Ilamie Osalobwalo,
Esu said which way do you go. He said to Esu ; I go to see Osa's face,
yatamalosalobwa; yatamalolokun yati^r^gume.
go tell Osa ; go tell Olokun ; go tell them come for me.
Onagaxia; QkgtiglQre ; qnawglinare.
, He went ; he told them come ; he said they are coming.
QnarhiQgwe, Qnarhyotp ; QgirEhramoisa ;
He took tortoise, he put it on ground ; when Ehramoisa came ;
Qnaw : d;gwe ; Qnad^we niaigwe. Oisa :
-he said : kneel ; he knelt on the tortoise. Oisa :
12 EDO TEXTS.
wadolu ? Qnawisuone ;
What do you come do ? He said : I shot crocodile ; so I heard it
Qnawehe"; gade; <?g<?ba,
He said " all right " ; come ; the king's own it is his
Ona\ve,he. Qnaw : waisue ?
He said : Yes. He said : how did you shoot it ? Spear of brass,
oggmatqn. UgSmio, wangle? Igangle.
spear of irou. If you see it, do you know it ? I know it..
Agariqga. Uganqle ? Owghe".
If they brought spear. Do you know it ? He said yes.
Jnaviqgare ; vi^wQwo. Qk^vioggwo
They brought spears ; take your own. He took his own.
Osalobwa wevio. Onaiakione.re ;
Osa said : take it. They brought crocodiles : he said ;.
muwewo ; grema; oiyorhue;
take yonr own ; it's not here ; it's marked with chalk ;.
oiyume uw^gbe, QniqlQgome. Qnamosalobwale.
with camwood on its body, that's mine. He showed it to Osa.
Osalobwa wggariowa ; wadowane wgdalu ;
Osa said go home ; you meet the crocodile on the road ;.
mwaxiagiqba w^do. AlemanQ ;
take it go to king of Edo. They have cooked fufu ;:
owin^le ; gmufwa ; ulu^seu,
he said he would not eat ; he threw it away ; thank you,.
Og;dinogiyehQnbuda ; Qnawurenowime ;:
he returned. When he met mother of Ehenbuda ; she said, you have
come, my son ;
qnawgb^ ; urigdola ? " E " ; Use,
he said yes; are you going to Edo? Yes; I am poor,
Qsogiame, Qnaw; igako unwe rhi^giowime.
oh my enemy, : she said ; I give you parcel to take to my son..
"E" ; rb.ie.re. Qnagbaloka ; gnarhiene.
Yes ; bring it. She tied the parcel ; she gave it to him..
EDO TEXTS. 13
Khiggehgnbuda; tamowime : usQgbeuie;
'Take it give to Ehenbuda ; say to my son : I am poor ;
^g;memirQkpa. Qnagaxia qnadosgze ; qnatiujzigwe ;
I have nothing. He went he reached river ; he said to ferryman;
dogwame ; $kgg;gwa ; Qzigwenawgle :
j)ut me over ; when he put him over ; ferryman said :
onewp. Qruhumuk^ze ; doggie ;
where's the crocodile. It is on the top of the bank ; look at it ;
qnadomone ; Qnagwaxia ; Qnadogwaiyotp ;
he took crocodile ; he crossed ; he reached land ; " I went to Elimi ;
ireneygwo"; Qboxia. "E" Qnamwari^do.
J have come to this country " ; " Welcome." " E " he took it go to
Onadodin^do ; iyewglelowime,
He reached Edo [Benin City] ; mother said : welcome, my son,
Qkwoigagbwe. Qnaw : xamQba, ;re ;
war does not kill you. He said : tell the king, I come ;
qnaxarnqba ; Qbanagade ; qnawgdoko ;
ithey told king ; king came ; he said, " Hail, friend " ;
qnawegaluQse. EzQmQnawe gebeluwglgse.
the said, " I go dash you." Ezomo said : don't dash him.
QnawQZQmo : giahaime, ; Qnawe tiluqlse Quiah^se.
IHe said to Ezomo : be silent ; he said : I dash him but not yet
Amigo Qruhumokqdo ; yamwere. Egixggbiraode,
Bull is on Okedo ; fetch it. If he does not let (you) pass
unwere ; ihoi, ;xia. Qnasowa iye awegigme,
bring it ; I hear, I go. He reached house ; mother they send me,
*" aha," gaxia ; tuyo, tude. Ihoi. Yggbovu
*' aha," go ; you go, you come back. I hear. Go get bag of ovu
iku mugaxia ; rhiume. Qnagaxia ; Qgisewa,
and yam peelings ; take it go ; take salt. He went, he got there,
amigoigiagtyrawode, qmiuku, qmiovu ; gale]
when bull met him on road, he took yam peelings, he took ovu ; eat.
14 EDO TEXTS.
Qnagale. Quagasie ; gmw^bevulu ;
it ate it. He pulled it ; he held the rope ; he brought it to Edo_
Qgis^do, qnawqmada ; laho, tueyime ;
When 'he reached Edo ; he said to Omada ; I beg, salute him
for me ;
irnw^re ; xamqba ; domi^malo. " E " gbanare : " Do '"
T bring it ; tell king ; come see my face. " E " king came ; " do."
umwqre ? " Eo." Okwiauxi, qnaw ; jgaluQse.
Do you bring it ? Yes. You are a man, he said ; I go dash you
Ezorno said " Don't dash him. Not enough." Why not
Osege ehS nQsime ;
Tasks three which he does for me ; Not enough to dash for ?
As they were speaking alone two men ran from Uzebu come
EzQmo lare ; tjrhe ogiglowa ; EzQmo lare. Qnagaxia -
Ezomo come ; fire burns your house ; Ezomo, come. He went ;
Qgide erhggiowa. Qnaw iwinaga eluona
when he came, fire burnt his house. He said : what can I do with
aihi ? Ulegawu ; Qnadefi^rhe ; EzQmonagiQ.
all this ? he said he would die ; he fell in fire ; Ezomo burnt.
InawevanikaivQre Qkbonfjle anawagienaxarnqba :
Those two men who first came the time to-day ; they send them tell
EzQniogyuwa. Bagagjlue ? " M " B^lne
Ezomo is burnt. What can I do ? " M " What did he do
nonagiwa ? Ezgmo qdowawagio ; Qgim^merQkpa j
before he burnt ? Ezomo met his house burning ; I have nothing ;
etinegawawu ; Qnadqnqrhe ; onagiwa ; Emigaheme, lare ;
so he died ; he fell in fire ; he burnt ; Emigaheme come ;
wogi Ezqmo ; Qmila, QWG, QXQXQ,
from to-day on you are Ezomo ; cattle, goats, fowls cloth,
inya, Uz^bu, ak^ni, igaviq ; yaluwEzQmagmQ.
yams, Uzebu, ivory, I give ; to sacrifice to Ezomagma.
EDO TEXTS. 15
UluQseu. UzQbnwaihia ukpqme iyeme, iya
Thank you. All Uzebu thank for me ; my mother, go
thank for me
e.te.mewaihia ukpqmoeme. Qnagaxia,
all relatives thank for me. He went,
he went to palace ;
you do well for me. King gave him beads,
qnaiukpqne, Qkeygmilane, qnaiQinihiane ;
cloth, cows, things of all sorts ; he said you " eat "
IIlA. [Second Version.]
Emigaheme nihoraalu ;
Emigaheme [things tire me which our company does] ;
okevi^vene, ; Qviqnqba ; vigvename
he took four kola ; he gave it to the king ; hold this kola for me
Qde.niabe.miku ; age.viobameyalue.liini.
day I go look for dash ; to take with me sacrifice to Elimi.
onadokpa ; qbanawele, ; qnawe/qmo ; hoe,mi ;
He buys cock ; the king said ; he said Ezomo ; fine things ;
nowjgbe nqluwe. Ezqmo qnawgle.he qnawqle
who is strong does it. Ezomo said all right ; he said
yamw;zigare be,gbo ; mwjzigare ; qkggaxia \
go bring murderer in forest ; bring murderer ; he went ;
qseva ; Qrhievaxwe ; doxwe ; kaxwe ; Qk^xwe ;
he got there ; he took soap ; come wash ; wash first; he washed;
dovexwowe, i&iga; gnarhievaxwe ; okeyagaxwe ;
come wash yourself , murderer ; he took soap ; he went to wash
qnam\v;ri ; qkqgbalobo ; qnarhiegarEdogiqba ;
he took rope ; he tied his hands ; he took him to Edo to the king ;
qbanagade ; qnaw : urene,hi ? Jrene, ;
king came ; he said : You have come ? I have come ;
imu ; imwg uwQgbo. ! okwiaxu.
I caught him ; I caught him inside bush. O ! you are a man.
Qbanawe iyaluQle.se ; Ezqmo : qmase ; qnaweje
King said I go dash him ; Ezomo : not enough ; he said
IQ EDO TEXTS.
yamu one gume; Qnagaxia; qkexwoka,
go bring crocodile to me ; he went ; he picked corn,
qke,mu, iku(inya) inya; qkerhiema, wumwome ;
he took it, yam shavings, yams; he took fufu, he took soup ;
Qke.mumagaxia ; o.nase.ze, Qnadomie
he took fufu and went ; he reached river, he came and saw
Qzigwe ; dogwame ; QkQgade, qnarhie iyoko,
ferryman ; put me over ; he came, he took him in canoe,
QkQgagwe ; Qwe,zigwe ; qke,gone,
he crossed river ; he said to ferryman ; he saw crocodile,
qke.rh.iqge.lQ.mo, QgematQn ; Qnaiaswone ;
he took spear of brass, spear of iron ; he shot crocodile ;
aiQveva oiyaswone ; Qkejegariglimi ;
lie took all two, he shot crocodile ; he followed it, went to elimi;
qna, Emigaheme, Qke.le.le dosuruQXQxq; QXQXQ Qnaw,
he, Emigaheme, followed it, went to fowl gate ; fowl said,
geya; qkeiya qka; Qkeiya HQXQXQ; Qnaw,
*' don't go " ; he took corn ; he took it for fowl ; he said
gbjra, gaxia; QdosogQwe; Qkggwiku;
pass, go ; he came reached goat ; he took yam peelings ;
iyangwe"; Q.nawe/we'rhiene, gaxia. Qkggaxia;
took for goat ; he said, " goat take go." he went ;
qk^dosowuke ; qnarhiema ; rliiene ; gaxia ; tuxia ?
he came to lame man ; he took yams ; take ; go ; you go 1
tude ; QkgdomieiyenQine ; do, iye ; do, owime ;
you come back 1 he came saw old woman ; hail, mother ; hail, son ;
la lare, owime ; warie ; ^gi^limi ; miggwi ;
walk come, son ; where do you go ; I go Elimi ; take tortoise ;
agawe,d;gwe ; g^digwe ; rhi^gwi rhieyoto; ;
if they say " kneel," don't kneel ; take tortoise put it on ground ;
d^gweniale ; walalu ; iswone ;
kneel with it ; what are you going to do ; I shot crocodile :
(i.e., on it.)
; xayamu ; gare ; Qnaxa; Qgegesu;
it went to Elimi ; I go take it ; go ; he went ; he saw Esu ;
EDO TEXTS. 17
Esu qnaw ; warie ? idomwone ;
he said ; where do you go 1 I come take crocodile ;
gigd^gbe ; udomu ; bggwQsalobua ;
let day break ; you come take ; in the house of Osalobua ;
^deg;gbe ogiuwu, Olokun, Obfame, Ake Qvia,
when day broke, kings of dead, Olokun, Obiame, Ake, Ovia,
Igbagon, Ebphia, Ehiakgtota begwasa.
Igbagon, all Eb$, all sat down in Osa's house.
Osalobwa kgdore ; wagilu ? madohQmgkpa ;
Osalobua came ; what do you do 1 we come hear one word;
glunanagade ; Qnawg ; owime, bqgixi ? iswone
so we come now ; he said ; my son, what is it ? I shot crocodile
glagade ; qlinagabwgle.de ; idomwe ; mawqnitamuwa ;
he came ; so I now go for him come ; I go take ; I say tell you ;
waihianayiko. Mahoi ; agamwere ;
all you in the meeting. We hear ; if they bring it;
ugalone ; igalone ; alakiaza ;
you know crocodile I know crocodile ; they go open store room;
onewuli ; Shiavenadia, muwQwo ;
crocodiles two hundred ; all came, take your own;
Qnawagqme n;sai grgma ; inavignenihinQre ;
he said mine which I shot is not here ; they brought seven
iyagqgQme ; izurhueyefqkpa ;
I go look my own ; I put white chalk on one side
iyumewefqkpa ; e;ko. Mawagione ;
I put camwood on one side; " All right." We go send crocodile
Osalobwq w ; gadeyuke ; walu^seo ; qnagade
Osalobua said ; go to lame man ; 1 thank you all ; he went
qkqdosowiy engine ; iyenqme gnawg : lele owime
he came to old woman ; old woman said: welcome my son
miokona rhiggi Ehgnbuda ; rhionane ;
take this parcel take it to Ehenbuda ; give it (him)
Q ) narhiegarie i do ; qgaladie, gnamwone ;
he took it and went to Edo ; he went, he took crocodile
18 EDO TEXTS.
Qnamwone newShia ; wamugiqba ;
he took crocodile and gave (it) to all town ; take to king ;
Qnamftgie ; qke,8e,do ; Qnawg : yaxamqba
they took it go ; they reached Edo ; he said : go tell king
irene, ; Urene, ?
I have come ; You have come ? king came ; he : welcome, friend ;
okwiaxu ; jgalue.se ; EZQIITOW^ :
you are a man ; I go dash you ; Ezomo said : don't dash him ;
go look one thing ; which you do for king.
AmigQroke,do ; yam were ; e,gixwe,doyenyai.
A bull is on Okedo ; go bring it ; he doesn't let Edo women go to
Qnaw : ixia ; qkesowa, qke.tameiiye ; iyenawg
he said : I go ; he went home ; he told his mother ; mother said
" M " gaxia ; yamwere ; qk^gaxia ; qk^rhieovu.
" M " ; go ; bring it ; he went ; he took ovu.
Onarhiumeypdume ; qnamugaxia ;
He took salt to beat it ; he took it and went ; he saw bull ;
Cjnamune ; amigonagarioi ; onarhiukbqli ;
he gave [ovu] to him ; the bull ate it ; he took a long piece ;
Qnasie ; gnagade dosQgwai ; Qiiaw :
he drew it ; it went reach palace ; he said :
watiqbagume ; jmwe ; jmwerine, ; qbanadore
call king for me ; I caught it ; I have brought it ; king came
okwiauxi ; ;galuQse ; Ole/Qmo naladia ;
he said you are a man. I go dash you ; Ezomo came ;
arhievanabwe i le i dekuze i bude ; qnawe erhe
not enough ; two men came running from Uzebu ; they said fire
lawa, lare ; onagaxia ; qgidinowa
in your house, come he went ; when he reached house
QwSihiagig ; Qnaw : qsogiame, biagaluonahe ;
all was burnt ; he said ; Oh, my enemy ; what I go do with this ;
!seti ; aiatamgba ; ingi Qde,figrhe ; Qgiq ;
I can't ; go tell king ; he he fell into fire ; he burned ;
EDO TEXTS. 19
jbi^kale, inakewirie ggbe yatamqba : EzQinogio.
boys they went back to tell the king ; Ezomo is burnt.
Qbanawg : b ; aikbokbo uhurn^re Qina
King said chat's it ; don't trouble a person's head, not good
Emigaheme ; uwgligiamEzqino ; qnakpqme ; oma ;
Emigaheme ; you I take as Ezomo ; be thanked ; persons ;
igo, QW^, Qinila, QXQXQ, mi, ehia, ivie, ada,
cowries, goats, cattle, fowls, things, all sorts, beads, ada
qb ; Qnaviqne ; Qkglegaxia ; wagagal^zQinagmo ;
eben ; he took and gave ; from to-day go you go " eat " Ezomagma ;
nQrjriri EZQIHO, emila, gw, QXOXQ, agegavioyalue ;
whoever is Ezomo, cows, goats, fowls, people take sacrifice ;
Qmavjore, Qg a to wgzcjmo ; nenawe ;
if they don't bring he can't last for Ezomo ; he said ;
that is Ezomo, who lives till to-day.
^hrainabioi ; alegamueleni(inagahelene) 3 ;
Igifiemido, 1 his father begot him ; when they were going to choose
li (igalugbQm;ne) ;
he said don't take name give me ; I choose name myself ;
QnawQgi wagetilue (bati^ninuwe) ? Onaw : inolqgjfi^mido.
they said : what is your name ] he said : my name is Igifiemido.
Qnakbaigbe ; qnagariogiso. Ogisonaw^watue ;
He stood up ; he went to Ogiso. Ogiso said : what is your name ?
QnawQiiqli Ig^fiQimdo. Ogiso nawgle : uwufiemido ;
he said his name was Igifiemido. Ogiso said to him, you say you
don't miss ;
1 I.e., I don't miss anything.
2 The words in brackets were substituted by another interpreter
with whom I revised the text.
20 EDO TEXTS.
he sad to him " yes." Ogiso said to him : in seven days
dofimQgi; Qm;niogafi, ugasai,
come and shoot for me to see ; the thing you shoot at, if you shoot it,
(jnaw ; nigagwewaimiyeva ; gnawftmasai,
he saitl ; I will follow you divide things in two ; he said if you don't hit,
I kill your father's family, I kill your mother's family.
QnawQlehoi. Qnanagariowa ; qk^tamirhai ;
He said : he heard. He went home ; he told his father ;
qk^tamiye ; qlininaganafiamo. ;nanaw^le ;
he told his mother ; so they were afraid. They said :
bagagiluqnahe ? ;nawle :
What we go do for this ? They said : you are a bad son ;
;nanamukpogo gkpainyugiarae ; ^nanarieggbo ;
hey took cowries one bag and one ; they went to doctor ;
Qbok^dobonina ; qnaw^le, owasowa.
doctor divined for them ; he said, when you get home,
nukaifeme, ^kpainygli ; qkpanoniqli,
peel arrows two hundred and one ; one that remains over two
oyebaxwekwoli ; enuyebaxwekwena
take parrot's feather ; the one you put parrot's feather in
qlufikigke. Qnanagariowa, jnagisowa,
that you go shoot last. They went home, when they got home,
qnadokunhabg, gk^dokaif^me QkpainyQli.
he came make bow, he made arrows two hundred and one.
Qledehino uadQgba Qnamuhabqle, qnawgrhai
Seven days correct, he took his bow, he said to his father,
qriogiso. Erhai wiye ;nafiaf?amo ;
he was going to Ogiso. Father and mother were afraid ;
Qnasogiso, Ogiso qkegpaihiameyqxa. Ogisonawgle :
He reached Ogiso, Ogiso tied a bird on tree. Ogiso said :
gahiamenqruxumuxani ; ugasatj
look at bird that is on top of that ocha ; if you hit
EDO TEXTS. 21
igweyagmeyeva ; ftmasai
I follow you divide things in two; if you don't hit
kill you whom your father bore, I kill you whom your mother bore.
Oiiaw^lehoi. Qnamuhabp ; Qnagafi ; Qnafifemuli ;
He said : he heard. He took his bow; he shot ; he shot two hundred
qkpadonyQli Qnarhiqle ; Qnakqle, qnafie ;
one over two hundred he took it ; he aimed, he shot ;
QkeyavahiamQw. Inawifgrne jnagadeotp jnawaso ;
he hit bird's breast. He and arrow fell down ; they shouted ;
inawilikpiiiiiiiii. Erhai wiye ahowowa.
they answer : e e e e. His father and mother hear at home.
Oliyenad^fiohai ; r hai rjwinewu ; okpia
So mother fell into pond ; his father said he would die ; a man
Qtm.miwjgbQle. ^rhaikqinudia ; oyanamwe ;
does not see what kills him. His father stood ; so they took him ;
rhai Qkeiage oviQlewuhumu. Inanadomesowa ;
his father went and saw his son on head. They bring him reach
qnawiyemgwg ; ;nawiyed$fiohai ;
he said : where is my mother ; they say mother is fallen in pond ;
Qnaw ;niaziyino ; ql' Ogiso kegwewaiyeva ;
he said, they must go take mother out ; so Ogiso shared his property ;
qnai m og wesg ma.
he made him a new chief.
Boebose said she did not marry husband except Ogene
Quaiyatua ; gnaku ; qk^dolema
he went saluted her ; he played ; she began to cook fufu
she cooked fufu for Ogene's boys she gave four kola. Boebose's
22 EDO TEXTS.
gave yams, gave to roast called her to turn yams
Qnawlde mawQge.ne ; magaku ;
she said, " I don't come we, Ogeue, we play ;
wagigakn, fldi^mi ? Onaxwe.mume
if you play, you don't want chop ? She said, " I am ashamed
nunawqmedoriqrfnya Qnarhinwawa ojkerhiihig
you call me to turn the yams ; she took a pot she took loofa
qnagarieze qnalaw^ze Qnagaxwe
she went to river she went into river she washed
Qgjz^xwe iye ;mag;mio
where she stayed washing her mother [said] 1 don't see
owime, ; Qnabw^le onawejaho Qnawe.gjdiowa
my daughter ; she went she said I beg; Bobose said I don't
come home ;
laho Me Iye QWQrie.gbe ;
I beg ; I don't come. Her mother said she was going back ;
Qgadiowa ; tamgQne ; owimewin<jde ;
she went home ; she told Ogene ; my daughter says I don't come ;
laho yagarhiqlQguine. Qg$ n Q Qgis^ze
I beg you ; go, bring her to me. Ogene when he was at the river
Qnaw "Boebose lahQ larewowa. Boebosegw^
he said : Boebose I beg you, come home. Boebose said :
Og^ne narewuwQze Qg^ lie kilaize
Ogene, come into the river ; Ogene went into the river ;
RoQbose Qkw^s Qg^nobg ; QkwesielawQze.
Boebose caught Ogene by the arm ; she pulled him into the river.
Buebose k^dekoto ; Qg^nQkw^denyale ;
Boebose fell to the bottom ; Ogene fell on the top of her ;
QgidenyawalQkpa Boebose qkwexiehe, ;
As soon as he fell with her Boebose became a fish ;
QgQne ok^xie Qzuzwejie ; be.kwie.ke.
Ogene became a fish fin ; in the middle of her back.
EDO TEXTS. 23
Ibigkeha ; nQdionQr ; ImarieinanemaxaniQde;
Three boys the head of them ; I eat fufu and have not got tired ;
nukpogieva, ImaluhengxainQde ; nukpogibl,
the second, I have not copulated and got tired before ; the third,
I have not wrestled and tired before ; they send a man
naxamogiso; maladotoi ; jnakemwggbg ;
to tell Ogiso ; we go salute him ; they then sit down still (silent)
he gave them kola, they went out [with Ogiso] ; when they get there
inatamogiso tinadotoii Ogisokey^vgnQnina;
they tell Ogiso they salute him Ogiso gave them four kola ;
oiianena wowagwalu ? gkpanaladia
he asked them what can you do ? one came out Imavenexamede ;
nogievaladia ; ImariemaxaniQde nogihalSdia
the second came ; Imariemaxemede the third came
Imaluh^xamgde ; Ogiso naw lehoi ; Qkwevibi^k uli,
Imaluhexamede ; Ogiso says he hears; he took boys two hundred,
qkwevi^yotg ; Qkwevibi^kixwo uli ;
he made them sit down ; he took girls two hundred ;
Qkwevieyoto ; Qnalusugbema, uli
he made them sit down ; he cooked fufu mortars, two hundred ;
Qualeyoto : Ogiso kqxa : Edomadogoiv aviogoi ;nanawg :
he put it down ; Ogiso said : each man take his own ; they said :
;nad; inanagadiole ; okutakpa ojegidjgbii;
they come; they went into the town : stone one, [big, big], very big;
Qrole ImaluhenQxamQde wemyekianyale
it was in the town ; Imaluhenexamede he took his penis knock
it [the stone]
okutakeva ; ImariemalgxarnQde, gkweviokutale
stone in two ; Imariemalexamede, took stone, eat
ImavenQxamgde okemakpanya eranqxwa ; qngrole ;
Imavenexamede took ankle knock tree big; it was in the town
24 EDO TEXTS.
eranqxwakQd^ ; ImariemanQxamQde gkwerhierale.
big tree fell ; Imariemanexamede took, picked tree up, ate it.
Imaluhenexamede took the girls, took one of them
Qkerhiqgbotp, qnahuQle; qkwewu Qkeweriqkpa;
put her on ground, he had her ; she died ; he took one again ;
qkewehugle, gkwewu ; qkwehuli ;
he took her and had her, she died ; he took two hundred ;
ghiakewulo ; Ogisonatu; gnaw^bi^kada ;naxi ;
all died ; Ogiso shouted ; he said, boys bad these are;
JmariemanQxamQde qkwQkoboiyema Qkwediqfo kqkmakuwawa
Iraariemanexaraede took fufu ; he ate finish, plate and pot
qkwediQfo ; Iniaven^xainQde qkwevibi^kani Qnarhiegkpawg;
he ate it all ; Imavenexamede took boys those, he took one of
QgwQve ; qkemwQgboty gkwewu ;
he took and wrestled ; he put him down then he died ;
qkw^maihia; ShiakQwulo; iyenqme Qkerg ; gnaw^
he took all ; they all died ; an old woman went then ; she said
Imaluhenexamede come, have me ; old woman lay down ;
ImaluhenQxamQde qnadgnyale ; gnahugle ;
Imaluhenexamede fell on the top of her ; he had her ;
Qgizehu^le ekiak^sgluxgn Qnaiegahu^le
when he kept on copulating his penis reached navel he had her ;
Qnaiyegahugle Qkiak^ladiawunu ;
penis reached throat he had her ; penis came in mouth ;
Osalobwa kgladia qnangna : bxi ? qnaw :
Osalobua came he asked them : what is it 1 he said :
Imaluhenexamede is having connection with old woman ;
Osalobwaqnasie tjkiaihiuhere ; OsalobwQnarhiopia ;
Osalobua pulled penis from vulva out ; Osalobua took cutlass ;
Qnaiya fijkia; qkwegialeyotp
he went cut penis ; he cut it there on ground
Qnagiauhe xjre xjre ; Qnati;kwia ; Qnawgdorijkia ;
he cut the vulva small small ; he called men ; he said : come take
nqkarhie, Qniqrogaga qngbie ;
first took it, he got continual erection he got no children ;
ikwianarijkia ; QkwekoviQxire ; amgk^rho ;
men took penis ; then remained a little ; rain falls then ;
qgbekiaiyole ; nqgiyarhie niql^kianQwu ;
it beats penis in the town ; who goes take he gets penis which dies ;
Qnatiixwo adoriuhe ; nokarhie
[Osa] called women
Come and take vulva
first took it
she got atresia ; she bore no children ;
there remained a little ;
who takes it, she gets a rotten vulva.
rain fell then
women took the vulva,
it beat it in the town ;
Three boys; their father died ; they went buried him ; their father
Qmoxu. Inagil^line ;nakegwalo\vuvweke;
had no property. When they finished burial ? they saw hole in the
^nanamigeha ; ;nakqdogale ;
they saw three cowries ; they went and shared them ; when day broke,
nQdiqnqrhp okwqriqgoi ; QgQrigki ; gnaiyade
eldest of them took his own ; went to market ; he went to buy
QiuiQki ; okweriadeyowa ; iniavenukpogieva,
agidi ; he bought and brought home ; they together, the second,
26 EDO TEXTS.
iiiakQrioi ; ;naua mweb^li ; jnanamunenQXQre ; yamufwa ;
they ate it ; they take leaf ; they give to small (one) ; go, throw it
when small boy got back of house, he opened leaf, he saw small inside ;
olarhijle ; jnanadqg^le ; jnanatigl^ ; qkwegade ;
he took, ate it ; they watched him ; they called him ; he went ;
inanamwQgbotg ; jnanagbe ; okwegavie ;
they put him on ground ; they beat him ; he began to cry ;
inakesolai ; fjkweyalota ; Qnarhiggoigigo
they left him ; he went and sat down ; he took his own money ;
onarhiegariQki ; Qgisgki ; Qnaiademiowo ;
he took it and went to market ; when he got to market ; he bought meat ;
onarhiegadeowa; qnadogiale QkwetiQtiqle ; wadorhi^miowo;
he took it home ; he cut it he called his come and take
brothers ; meat ;
jnanagade ; jnanatota jnanarhigmiowo ; qgwik^re,
they came ; they sat down took meat ; tortoise came,
Qgwinatota ; Qgwinagale, ag;riQfo ; Qgwinagariowa ;
tortoise sat down ; tortoise ate, agidi was done ; tortoise went home;
gnaiatamogiso, qnawgbi^kaneha, gwinagbohua;
he went tell Ogiso, he said : " Three boys, he said, they killed
Qwinagbqle. Ogisonawg guiata ? Ogisowadzgma
they killed and ate it." Ogiso said " Is it true ? " Ogiso sent a person
yatinare ; ^nakgre ; Ogisonangna wagbohua ?
to go and call them ; they came ; Ogiso asked them " Did you kill
a sheep ? "
owulemagbe ; nukpogieva
the eldest of them said, he did not kill it ; the second
Qwulemagbe ; ngxgre qnawelqgbe ;
said, he did not kill it ; the small one said he killed it ;
he said tortoise ate it ; Ogiso said catch tortoise ; catch tortoise ;
EDO TEXTS. 27
tortoi&e said ; he was running to bush, he went ; he went to another
qnawatiko ; Qnawado ; qwukosal^xi
he said " Call meeting " ; he saluted them ; he said he was Osa's
Osalobwa w^do ; QwgnigdQlole Qwonaii ;
Osalobua says he salutes [you] ; he said let them look this country ;
Qnaw inaiyuhi, Qgwagainye
he said, let them make law, that if a man passes faeces,
ainyggbe ; Qwunwegariqma, aigxwe ;
he does not strain ; he said when mosquitoes bite man, don't drive it
Qwagariema awaitughie ;
he said, when man chops fufu it is forbidden to draw in breath for
qnawe : wagalujdiqn Qgwa ? gwonawehe ;
he said ; when they sacrifice to Idion does it talk ? country said " no" ;
Qnawglaxwe ; waialema, nileyalu;diQfi ;
he said "Day after t-moirow go cook fufu, let him cook sacrifice to
^wonawinahoi ; QnawQwo wQzukonino ;
country said they heard ; he said to country send messenger for him ;
leiyane ; legainy^gbe wagb^l^noa ; lemainy;gbe ;
if he goes to stool ; if he strains kill him if he did not strain ;
know he is Osa's messenger ; if he chops fufu,
if he draws his breath for pepper, you must kill him
l^matwehie wale ukuosalgxi ;
if he does not draw breath for pepper know he is Osa's messenger ;
;nake i zQfiot l^le ; qgiseva ;
they sent bush rat for him when he reached there ;
he said he was going to defsecate ; he squatted down ;
28 EDO TEXTS.
; gwako Qkpanorewona ?
he said to bush rat ; he said "ako (fruit) one is in (.his country?"
IQWO qfiotgnaw ; grho. Qkuexa ; Qwakoni
It's in the country rat said ; it was. He spoke ; he said that ako
he said, when it gets seed ; he said it is brown ;
proper (secondary meaning, straining at stool ; onomatopoeic)
gkweyonine ; qnagade ; Qgisole ;
he was able to pass fseces ; he went ; when he reached the town,
mosquitoes bit him ; he said to bush rat he said " one cow
nqi-Qwona ; qf uafauia ; qxwoxwima; Qnalawa ;
lives in this country ; it is white here ; black here"; he went home ;
Qnatigfiotp ; qnawglaho Qnawetoto
he call bush rat; he said "I beg" he said "dig ground,"
garealujdign ; QwinegasewanQ, QwiiiQgiti;diQfi;
go to Aluidion ; he said when he reached there, he said, when they
QWQkw^nie ; qwin^wole, n^wole,
he said " answer " ; he said let the country know, let the town know,
ukosalqxi ? qfiotp nawqhe, Qfiot^natoto
Osa's messenger he is ? rat said all right, rat dug
ariQgued;on; Qnatotawa; Qkwer;g^ga; Qrhi^ne,
go to Oguedion ; he sat down ; he took brass bells ; he took and
Qvvonadomema ; qnariQgwQdign ; emadolue ;
this town went took fufu ; went to Oguedion ; to sacrifice fufu ;
Qgwinati;diqn ; qfioto kgxwenie ; buwuvu ;
the tortoise called idion ; rat answered ; out of hole ;
Qgwinamwema ; |diqnmie ;
country was glad ; the tortoise took fufu ; idion take ;
Qgwinamw^miowo ; ^dignmie ; Qnavi^kwuvu
the tortoise took meat ; idion, take ; he put it inside hole
EDO TEXTS. 29
qfiotonario ; gnairiQlowo ; (jgwinakba ; qnagadie
rat took it ; he took the meat ; tortoise got up ; he went
Qgisowa Qnadogariemani; gngareminowo ;
he reached home ; he went and ate the fufu ; he ate the meat ;
gnadinole ; gnawQwonQlukoisa
he went to town ; he said to town he was not Oisa's messenger
ohoggleta; qlale fiwoha; amag;mioi.
he lied ; he ran inside bush ; they did not see him.
Osaqbiqmea ; Qm^xweha ; Osarhualu ;
Osa begot three children ; he married three wives ; Osa shut his eyes
Ugbogiulimi ohamQgbe ;
he got big scrotum ; one day Ugbogiulimi was hungry
Qnaxwosjkpalo ; osjkpalonale Ogalobwa niudia
he ran after a lizard ; lizard ran Oealobua was standing
wole ; QsjkpalonalQgbgng ; Qnaw^lahg ;
in the town ; the lizard stayed with him ; he said " I beg " ;
Qwggyughbogiuliinjgbin^le ; nihranwalo ;
he said if Ugbogiulimi does not kill and eat him ; let me open eyes
[of Osa] ;
Osanaw^he OsanameyiwukpQii ; Osanamudia
Osalobua said all right Osalobua put it in his cloth ; Osalobua stood
Ugbogiulimikewere ; qnawosa lahp ; iqsikpalo
Ugbogiulimi came ; he said to Osa " I beg " ; let him take
nirih;le n;lsi$leve ; Osanaw^h^ ;
lizard to eat ( r () ; let him dry scrotum ; Osa said all right ;
Osana . riowo ; qnativiglQ ; Qnatiamqle ;
Osa went away ; he called his sons ; he called his wives ;
wag^ngkpa ; Qsikpalo Igre ; nugbogiulimi gggbino ;
look at one word ; lizard ran came ; let Ugbogiulimi not kill him ;
nighniinalo ngnarhiiwukmqn ; Ugbogiulimi kqvvere ;
let him open eyes so I put him for cloth ; Ugbogiulimi came then ;
he said to me "I beg :
let him dry scrotum
let him take
lizard to eat ;
talk to it ;
to his sons,
that's better ;
He laughed ;
he said to wives :
sons said ; you don't open eyr s?
amqle ; figbeve ? Qlgmase.
his wives : you don't kill scrotum ? that's better.
qnawe : dfjmadogoi Qlqsimiqgoi Qiuosjmalo, ixwosimyekia ;
he said : each one save his own sons save eyes, wives save penis ;
qnawqma gnazQsikpalobp gsikpalo gkqdorhalo ;
he said " good " he dropped lizard lizard came and opened his eyes ;
gkw^dosieve gnaievalene ;
then he went ;
came and dried scrotum he gave to those two chop ;
Qkwearie ; Qwaiyemi ngsikpalo ;
went his way ; he gave something to lizard ;
there it reaches.
wQxoxwona ; Qnaxamehrai :
Omeneli was a girl ; she said to her father :
owunQlQmodo ; qk^dosiwu ;
she said she did not marry husband ; she came and got marks ;
Qg^kpS atqlen^kpea ; ukbakere
when it was finished they said three years ; king's messengers came
;nanamwewe ; QteqmqnQli Qnaladia ;
they caught goat ; Omeneli's relative [brother] came ;
waggmu qxamukqbawQdio ; ukgbanawegainyale ;
"don't catch it" he said to messengers so ; messengers saiH "Whose
gnawe QgqmQnQli ; ukgbanaweti^lere ;
he said it is Omeneli's ; king's messengers said : call her to come ;
awoxawignagarie qkwitiglere ; Omgngli gnatwina :
the boy went he called her to come ; Omeneli saluted them ;
they looked at her
don't catch goat ;
they went to Edo
which they saw;
he called her to come
they opened mouths ;
they said they heard ;
they told king they said "a girl,
they left the goat ;
gmgse.gbe ; gba ; yarhie ;
very fine"; king; go bring her;.
gbanawehe ; gbanamw^gbe
you take her and marry her ; king said all right ; king got ready
gnamwakpata ; gnamugggbe ; gnagtxia ; ggiseva
he took mirror ; he went ; when he got there
Omgngli gketuoi ; Omgngli gnarhigle
Omeneli then saluted him ; Omeneli took him
gnakaoko ; mune ;
she filled pipe ; take it ;
he took akpata
he saluted her ;
inside house ;
Qnaiyeve ; 1113
she took kola ; four
gnavigne ; gnavie^gne ; gnavioyiba ;
she gave to him ; she gave him kola ; he put it on seat ;
;nana.aku ; gnakba ; ne, Omgu^li, gnaialema ;
they played ; she got up ; she, Omeneli, went to cook yams ;
gnamure ; gnadatioi gba ;
she brought them ; she called to king ;
they came, took yams ; he said he would not eat ;
gnamwema ; gnaimuhi ;
she took the yams ; she put them away ;
Qnawingle ; awoxani gnagavie ;
he played sansa ;
the girl then looked at him ;
the girl cried ;
they played ;
the king got up
32 EDO TEXTS.
gnawuneriowa ; gnawawoxani ;
he said he was going home ; he said to girl ;
come, lead him ;
Ome.iiQli gnawghe ; gnagasue ;
Omeneli said all right ; she went ahead ;
when she led him ;
gsQze ; gnawuneriowa ;
he reached river ; she said she was going home ;
there he took
gbaimmuge.gbe ; gnaw^mie ; gnaggle ; gnawgle
king took mirror ; he said : take ; she looked at it ; he said to her
umwadSgowa ? OmgnQli gnawgle
you don't see house ? Omeneli said to him she saw it ;
gnagasue ; ggizgsue ; gnawn-
she led the way ; when she led him [kept ahead], she said to him
iriowa ; gbananamugggbe ; gnamune ;
I go home ; king took mirror ; he gave (it) to her ; Omeneli
gke.ge.li ; gnawgle ; umadggowa ?
looked at it ; he said to her ; you don't see the house ?
OmQneJi gnaw^le glohoge gnaiyegasue ;
Omeneli said to him, he did not lie she began to lead him on ;
ggiz^sue Qnawiniriowa gnamugggbe ;
when she kept ahead she said to him : I go home he took mirror ;
qnawtjmie, gnaggle, gnawgle ; umwadQgowa ?
he said, take, she looked, he said to her ; you don't see the house ?
OuiQngli qnaw^lohogi ; gnagasue, gdosues^do ;
Omeneli said he did not lie ; she led him, she went led him reach
[to] Edo ;
; OuignQli gnagavie gnarhigle
he took her home ; Omeneli cried he took her
gnamgle ; ngkagwe ; gniogarhievale grhiine ;
he (gave her) to his wife ; first ; she took chop she gave to her ;
she said I don't eat ; she cried she got dry skin she said to her,
glowale, maiaxamgba; OmgnQli gmarhiema,
mistress, we go tell the king ; Omeneli does not take fufu,
EDO TEXTS. 33
Qgavie, Qbanaw lehoi qtiglere; qkwere ;
she cries, king said he heard he told to come ; she came ;
Qgiseva, qbakgg^le; qdoi; b^mata;
when he was there, king looked at her ; she's dry ; true, true ;
rnqbanaxamale gadie ; Qnagadie qgisowa ;
king said to her go ; she went when she got home ;
ehraiwiye jnagQgQ '> ak^dolema ;
her father and mother they were glad ; they came and cooked f ufu ;
they brought it and gave to her ; she ate it ; at daybreak
Qhraideugbo iye qrigze; Igkpa
her father went to farm her mother went to river ; she alone
qrowa ; Qnatota ; Qgiy a g e j
was at home ; she sat down ; when she went to look ;
yagawoxqkpa ; qd ; qgisineva qnatuoi
went to look one boy ; he came ; when he got there he saluted
awoxani ; oviugvvena ; qnasuawoxani obg
the girl ; he was a poor boy ; she took boy's hand
qnakaokone ; qnaiyeve inQ ; qviqne ;
she filled pipe and gave it ; she took kola four ; she gave to him
;nana . aku ; Qnawuwe legalome ;
they copulated ; she said " You I am going to marry
axamawoxani awoxan;nawehe ; ;nana . aku ; iye
she told the boy the boy said all right ; they copulated ; mother
qkezQre; ghrai Qkugbore ; qnatamiye ;
came from river ; father came from farm ; she told mother ;
tamehrai ; awoxana, QlinggalQme ; iiiawehe ;
she told father ; boy, she said I marry him ; they said all right ;
(jdegimu, Quawawoxani ; ^nalakbo ; ;nalovie ;
day dark, she said to boy ; they go to bed ; they slept ;
;nana . aku ; gdeg^gbe ; ;naiyaxwe ;
they copulated ; at daybreak ; they went to wash ;
noxvvoni qkwedia ; gkwie use lawa ;
the girl menstruated ; she came home for five days
34 EDO TEXTS.
Qgilawa Qnaw iku; Qnagahame;
when he was in the house she said I played ; she became pregnant ;
Qgehame Qkqdobie, okwia ;
when she became pregnant she bore a child, male ;
QkwQxi mawoxamia ; Qnilolamenolome
she became the boy's wife ; this is the wife that he married
for this world.
OkwiQkpa, oviftgwenQ, Qkwedeve ;
Man one, poor man, had Eve (big scrotum) ;
he saw no one to kill it for him he went to beg doctor
; QwenQmugamgre ;
let him [to] kill his Eve ; he said bring five shillings cowries ;
pwineme, ; Qbonawegadie ; qnagavi.3, qnagarie,
he said he had not got it ; doctor said " go " ; he cried, he went,
when he got home
he feathered them ;
he saw a rat ;
Qnakuhabg Qnakaifgrne uli;
he took bow, he took arrows two hundred ;
he went to bush ; when he got to bush ;
Qnasai ; Qnamu Qnagadiowa
he shot it ; he took it he went home
Qdotoi ; Qkeadioi ; evewQfiane ;
when he got home ; he roasted it he ate it ; Eve said cut for him ;
Qnaweve ; Iqgafiariwe ugakpa bekilo ?
he said to Eve if he cut for you you come down from his penis f
evenawghe ; qnaweve n^fianwe ; adev;gbe
Eve said no ; he said to Eve : I don't cut for you ; at daybreak
qnagarioha ; Qgisoha; QgbQtan ;
he went to bush ; when he got to bush ; he killed squirrel ;
Qnaweve, miuhabp muyagbe Qnawejhg Qnaw
he Baid to Eve, take bow take, kill he said "no" he said
EDO TEXTS. 35
ukeineno milagariggoi evenaw lolue;
"you ask him" when he ate his own Eve said he didn't mind him;
QkQniQtiu; qnagariowa Qgisowa Qtoi,
he took squirrel ; he went home when he got home he roasted it,
QkQgarioi; evenawqfiane; qnawQrp;
he ate it ; Eve said : cut for me ; he said there's no more ;
leveyagbeboha ; uwolai ; l^gigbe 5
he said to Eve, go, kill in bush ; " you don't go " ; when he killed ;
eba uwunefianwe adevjgbe qnamuhabp ;
" now " you said, " cut for you," at daybreak he took bow ;
gvemie, yagbo tari evenaw^he evenamuhabp
Eve, take go, kill it, come back ; Eve said all right Eve took bow
eveture b^kiale; evena . arioha; evegisoha,
Eve came down from his penis ; Eve went to bush ; when Eve got to bush,
yaguzo evesai uzol^le ; Qrie ;
he went and saw uzo Eve shot uzo ran ; he went ;
evenariuboiyunu; Qnatu ; qna.adiowa;
Eve put hand to mouth ; he shouted ; he went home ;
Qgisowa Qtamokwiani ; qnagatiheve Q^Qgigbe
when he got home he told man ; man cursed Eve at daybreak
Qnaktuhabqmo onawevexiamu ^dgrip ;
man took bow he said to Eve he was going same day ;
evelaikiane : iamu naialugbafi ; Qua . axia
Eve went to penis : go take let us go hunting ; he went
;nagiseva; oiyagb^tan ; akuqsai Qnaiamu;
when they got there ; he killed squirrel ; he shot it he went take it ;
mufigkbo ; qgizQxia, oiyagaxiame qnasai
he put it for bag ; as he went, he went look bird he shot
Qkweyainu Qmufigkbo qna . axia oiyagQtan
he went take it put it in bag, he went saw squirrel
Qtanhierha Qnafie qsai ginehra
squirrel climbed tree ; he let fly he shot when he was the tree
Qtanagbina qnaweve ukpalqgbe bekino,
squirrel struggled ; he said to Eve you too big for his penis,
36 EDO TEXTS.
Qgyinoi iyaxiuxumu ; ture niehie,li ;
you don'? let him climb up ; go down let him climb ; Eve said no
QnawQlahp Qtafiyekagbe, kevahiame kewQna
he said : I beg squirrel that I first killed, and bird and this
legavionwe evenature Qnaweve hi^le
he goes give you ; Eve came down he said to Eve climb it
oyamure ; evenawinenQlai ; Qnaweve lahp
go bring it ; Eve said he would not go ; he said to Eve I beg,
ugarene ; le.se.kbo, QniagamwQfi nQma Qgidggglue.
if you go he gave bag, he goes put you that man does not see you.
evewghe* evenaihigle oxumwerhani ; Qgiseva,
Eve said all right Eve climbed up the tree ; when he got there,
QmQtan Qmuf wa ; okwiani Qnarhiuhabg
he took squirrel he threw it down ; the man took bow
Qnaiasai evenagaitu ; Qnavesai ifgrnulini
he shot Eve saluted ; he shot Eve the two hundred arrows
onaiasai ; QnamQtaii ; Qnagadiowa Qgisowa
he took, shot ; he took squirrel ; he went home when he got home
Qnadotoi, Qna . arioi ; Qgidiene, ; Qnawineya ituQbo
he roasted it, he ate it ; when he finished it ; he said he was going
to salute doctor.
QgisowQbo Qnaw^do ; gekino ;
when he reached the doctor's house he saluted him; look his penis ;
umievewp ? Qbowghg ; Qbonawgle
you see Eve anywhere ? doctor said no ; doctor said to him
gagbe? Qwinoi ; Qtobole;
who killed it ? he said he did ; himself ;
QgQgQne, ; Qnagadiowa
he was glad for him ; he went home
doctor said to him ;
when he got home
Qnarhiopia ; Qnari^ken^le ; Qgiseva ;
he took cutlass he went to that place ; when he got there ;
QtQlumu Qweve osiamekwa ; Qnaw^bm
he looked up he said Eve is dropping water down ; he said "hm "
EDO TEXTS. 37
evemasetiagwa evekekaka; Qkwexiakilame
he said " so " Eve can't talk Eve is dry ; it is ant's nest
iyeva; Qniogilokilame lamiewihra ke,dogade.
that was there ; this is ant's nest in same tree from that day.
story falls down dead.
Qtan odiqd;novie ; QmwQrlmrhumu ;
Squirrel ate palm nut which was ripe ; he put his tail ;
nya<mQmave ; novg QXQtan nqmave
he got oue that was not ripe ; the ripe one squirrel got the unripe
QJ Qtan ;kpdiQkpa nig[ue] ulQmQro ; Qtan
one squirrel got ; one palm nut [lived] in Ulomoro ; squirrel
QdiolifQkpa ; UXQIO QdiQlifQkpa ; nQk^li ; iyenQme
ate part one ; uchoro ate one part ; what remained old woman
QkwqrhiQli ; Qdole ; Qvukoli Qvuwawa
took it ; she cooked it ; fill two hundred calabashes fill pots
uli ; exQrgli Qnazieni Qnikgwu ;
two hundred ; the refuse held the elephant ; elephant died ;
ukpabo qk^xioi ; oiyadQvie, Oiyamiyoha.
the lamp oil she sold; took buy slave, she went took pledge.
My story falls down dead.
OxwQkpa tie,! Ido ; nr ai tie,l Omoza
A woman was called Ido ; her father was Omoza
she said she did not marry a husband ; the children of animals
38 EDO TEXTS.
uzoya Qwinqngme, Qrhue, esi, ede,
2o went, she said she did not marry ; eruhe, bush pig, hartebeest,
eni ; Qwin^nQme inana . aninye ;
elephant ; she said she did not marry they begged her ;
Tkwi ; udi Qnawgme, igaiyo, mQmorhigle ;
I don't agree ; palm tree said, I, I will go, I take her ;
ohogota ; qnamwegbe ; Qk^dorhukniQii ; Qkqzeto ;
"you He"; he got ready ; he took cloth ; he did his hair ;
qna . axia ; qgiseva qnawido ; wedorhie ;
he went ; when he got there he said to Ido ; you, I come take ;
waiyamglu ? ;galQmo ; rnqm^lgmuwe ?
What you take me do ? "I marry you " ; " You marry me ? "
" If you don't marry me ; don't eat palm oil ; don't sweep house."
Qnaw Jgalqmo ; ;mtiwafigmQn ; nigaiyowQkpolo ;
She said ; I will marry ; I can't forbid oil ; let me take broom,
gnarhiegarie ; Qkgdosowa ; Qnatota ; Qnaw
she took it and went ; she went home ; she sat down ; he said
Qnagarhiehi ; magqrhie ; Qnavaiko ;
he would keep her ; let them not take her ; he cut his belly
Qnalalp ; umalemedewu.
she went inside ; my story falls down dead.
Eml' Ogiso emnaw, Qtionewu ;
Monkey to Ogiso monkey said, his brother was dead ;
QnawOgiso, lahf), ihiyalQlQ; rhiekebeme ;
he said to Ogiso, I beg you, I go bury him ; give me rump ;
nJrhiogQlp yotg ; bwamebo (Esago) ;
let me put my tail down ; " go to servant, to my wife " ;
EDO TEXTS. 39
: bwoviugwg ; Ogisowoviugwe :
ervant said : go to poor man ; Ogiso said to poor man :
oviugwe, laho ; tiekebeme
oor man, I beg you ; [monkey says] ; give me rump
nirhiogQlQnwe ; iyalgteme ; oviugwinawinehoi ;
let me give you my tail ; I go burying brother ; poor man said I
Qnarhi;ne ; Qna . axia ; Qk^riogQl^ne noviugwe.
he gave it to him ; he went ; he gave his tail to poor man.
Qgiseva; ;nana . alele. Esago Qnawoviugwe;
When he got there ; they buried him. Esago said to poor man ;
bQg;lue ? gnawogqlp, Q^QgOJ >
What are you doing ? he said " tail, it hurt him ; "
Qnawaxamgm^gade ; emQnagade ; Qkgsowa
he said " Tell monkey to come ; " monkey came ; when he got to the
qnawQwpxi ? Ehiekebemegume ;
he said " What is it ? [poor man] Bring my rump to me ;
tag;gigmQ ; Qnawghe, dQinanogJgip ?
they laugh at me ; " he said " all right, who laughs at you ? "
Esago; ihoi; onarhiek^be ; qnarhiyotg ;
" I hear " ; he took rump; he put down;
he took tail from him ; he [monkey] said turn into yams ;
qkjxinya, qke/Iotoi ; Qnawoviugwe ;
it turned into yams, he roasted them ; he said to poor man ;
Qxaguhumova. Esagonagade ; oviugwe, bog;lue ?
he said " you get fever." Esago came ; poor man, what are you
uhuniQvile ; rhinyaname ; nirhijle ;
" He gets a fever " " give me the yam " ; "I take it and eat it " ;
rhi;le Qnarhi;le ; QnawgmQgQlp,
" take it and eat " he took it and ate ; [monkey] he said " tail,
Egesago ; qnarhiekebe Qnaviqnoviugwe ;
Esago gets " ; he took rump he gave it to poor man ;
40 EDO TEXTS.
qnavieyeku ; gnaw^sago :
he put it for hips ; he [monkey] said to Esago : What are you doing?
qnetqluhe ; qnawagolqnp ; Qnavvgh^ ;
he scratches his rump ; he said his tail ; he said all right ;
qkewoviugwe QlornggglQ; xiamu; jnabogiso;
then he said to poor man he has got tail ; go on ; they went to
Qgiseva ; Ogisonaw& bukmqfi ; Qk^dobukmQn ;
when they got there ; Ogiso said loose cloth ; he loosed his cloth ;
Qgigoviugwe ; qkbwerpluhe
when he saw poor man ; he had no tail on his rump
qnawesago ; kwewpmQgQlo ; EsagobukmQfi ;
he said to Esago : " you said he had a tail " ; " Esago, loose cloth " ;
QkebukmQft Qoig e gQlQ% Ogisonawgmwesago,
he loosed cloth when he saw his tail, Ogiso said " Take Esago,
put him on the ground " ; they cut him (his head off)
Qnawoviugwe woigalesago ;
he said to poor man "Go eat Esago [take Esago's place"]
Qnaw^he ; qnaw^atota qnaviemiesago ;
he said " no " ; - he said " go, sit down " he took Esago's property ;
Qnaviqnoviugwe ; umalemedewu.
he gave it to poor man ; story falls down dead.
Oviugwe ; ghraibioi ;
A poor man ; his father begot him ; his father got things ;
iyemQiui Qgiriwa ; gkeyamigmame ;
his mother got things he grew up ; he copulated another man's wife ;
ngnyame, gwuhamwino ; Qgin^nole, ehraigiwu
who got the wife, said he feared ; he did not ask, his father died
iyewu ; gkwQl^le ; ol^hrai ;
and his mother ; he buried them ; he buried his father ;
EDO TEXTS. 41
5 ; gnadonoole ; Qfeyqgihrai ;
who owned wife ; he came and asked him ; property of his father;
efeggiye ; qkweyaxale ;
property of his mother ; he took it and settled palaver ;
QgimiQwale ;!Q ; QmiukmQfi yahiggbe ;
he did not see food to eat ; he did not see cloth to cover body ;
QnagaviQ ; onarhiopia qna . arioha. Ogisoha
he cried ; he took cutlass went to bush. When he got to bush
Qfiri, QdlQ, gduxumu ; Qnahiqle
he cut rope, he tied it, up above ; he climbed it
gwinelawu ; Qrhieyurhu ; Qgotp.
he said he wanted to die ; put it round neck ; he looked at ground,
qiyagosalobwa ; Osalobwanaw& : ture ; wolu ;
he looked at Osa ; Osalobua said : come down ; what are you
IgmQini kti, Qgarnqmi. Osalobwa qnagierha,
" He had nothing " " stop, he gets things." Osalobua cut wood,
ihino, x;re, x;re, gnaviqne qnawglQ ;
seven, small, small, he gave to him he said to him ;
QminudQge ; qgalofe Q,fjgy e > *" Qgalqtan
thing you look ; it will be rat when he shoots, it will be squirrel
QfJgy 6 Qnaweh^ ; Qnagadie ; qxi^xire ;
when he shoots he said "all right" ; he went ; he went a little
yagofe ; Q%y e Qmavale ; Qna . axia
and saw a rat; when he shot he didn't hit; he went on
yagotin ; Qrhiqkpawo ; Q^igy 6 5 qmavale ;
and saw squirrel ; he took one ; when he shot ; he missed ;
qna . axia ; Qxigxire ; oiyagofioto ;
he went on ; he went small small ; and saw bush rat ;
qf;gye, Qmavale ; qkwikerhene wobgli ;
when he shot, he missed ; there remained four sticks in his hand ;
Qnagaxia ; Qxigxire ; oiyagerqkpa ;
he went on ; he went small small ; and looked at one tree ;
42 EDO TEXTS.
Qxwe qwakotg ;
a parrot was climbing from the ground ; it stopped on tlie tree ;
yasumwQlfj ; qnarhierha ; 9^72* Qmavale ;
it reached the top ; lie took sticks ; he threw, he missed ;
QnarhiQkpa qfiyp qmavale ; Qnarhiqkpa qfiyo ;
he took one he shot he missed ; he took one he shot ;
Qmavale ; qkwgkQkpa Qnarhiqkpa ; QnafiQ cjdegbehra ;
he missed ; there remained one he took one ; he shot he hit tree;
erhadegbotp ; Qxwehia ; Qwulo ; qnamQxwe ;
tree fell down ; parrot and all ; he died ; he took parrot ;
Qnawoliga ; QmQxwefwa ; qxwehia,
he picked feathers ; he threw parrot away ; all the parrot,
qwololiga QviQxw^fua ; Qnafiebe
he picked all feathers ; he threw parrot away ; he cut leaf
qngwg; qnagbaloi; igani gnamu
he opened one ; he tied them ; the feathers he took the
qna . arie QnaQgQgg ; Qgisowa Qnagadiqgake ;
he went he was glad ; when he got home he went to Ake house ;
qnawake dodg ejbaxwe ; Akewghe
he said to Ake come buy red feathers ; Ake said all right
Qrhiise ; Qvignake ; qnavieweva ; akeyahale ;
he took five ; he gave to Ake ; he took two goats ; Ake took to pay ;
qnakba qnariQxwaihe ; qnawgdodeba ;
he got up he went to Ochuaihe ; he said come buy red feathers ;
Oxwaihew^he qnavise, qviqnoxwaihe ; Oxwaihe
Ochuaie said " yes " he took five, he gave to Ochuaie ; Ochuaie
qnavigbe ; ise qnaiyahale ; Qnakba ;
gave pieces of cloth ; five he took to pay ; he stood up ;
qnarigqvia ; qnaggvia dodebaxwe ;
he went to Ovia's ; he said to Ovia come buy parrot's feathers ;
Ov!anawejie; Qvlananqle inung ? qnawgbu ;
Ovia said " yes " ; Ovia asked him " how much ? " he said " much " ;
Ov!anawQkai; QnakaJ ; gkegale ululiwieva;
Ovia said "count it" ; he counted ; when he counted it four hundred
and two ;
EDO TEXTS. 43
Ov?anaw ; wahowo ?
Ovia said ; " What do you want for it 1 " he said he wanted person,
he wanted cow ; he wanted beads ; he wanted fowls ;
Ovfanawghe ; Ov?Qviomaise ; Qvigmilise ;
Ovia said, all right ; Ovia took five persons ; took cows, five ;
qnrarivie, ise; QXQXQ, ise; Ovfanavione qnavio
beads, five ; fowls, five ; Ovia gave them he gave them
qna . adie. Qgisowa, qdobowa ;
he went. When he got home, he went and built house ;
gnaxiqdafe ; OvTanaviQbaxwe ; Qnamunyahumu
he became a rich man ; Ovia took red feathers ; put them on his head
qniogjle OvTaiamwQgbe ; riagmqn ; umaleraedewu.
that is what Ovia took to dress ; in this world : story falls down
Qsiokwowagmgn ; Qsiokwokwoqlimi; QsiQgoi;
Smoker in this world ; smoker in elimi ; each smoked his own ;
qmofiegbo ; Qkwexiogo ; Qsiokwonagmqn ;
he put it in bush ; it was a clearing (farm) ; he smoked in this world ;
QsiQgoi ; qmokwQgbo ; Qxeogo.
each his own ; he put it in bush ; it was a farm.
Qmawu b^gb^ma aisame axwqle,
When a man dies in our family we fetch water to wash him
^vaxwe ihio uwawa QgQgmg aiaxwgli ;
soap loofah pot new to take wash him ;
agijlukmQii ; ag;rhiukmQfi nofwaiio ; ewogmq
we_tie him with cl-oth ; we can take white cloth ; a new mat ;
44 EDO TEXTS.
aviowajukbo ; aidomolimiyo ; Q-gifit.
we put it for bed ; we put it on the body ; we dig ground'
agimweyo ; agiriema ; aiyaneji ; agafiosisi.
we put it in ; we cook fufu ; we give to chop, we fire guns.
agifioisi aigjkugalimi ailema
When we fire guns we dance round the body we cook fufu>
aiyaluwejowe ; ota wowie, Qdehino ;
we take sacrifice to feet ; in evening and morning seven days ;
Qgagba, aiyafioisi, buhumuge. aigaku ikeva
(seven days) gone, we fire gun, at road boundary. We dance from
gade dosunurhu ; aikeva iviurlme ariowa
come reach gate ; from there draw chalk into the house
amgrhoioto, asegoyp, aialema aiyalue
we put chalk down, we put cowries, we cook fufu we sacrifice
aigatiej^hrama. Agaluwelowe, arhigwqkpa yotp.
we call it our father. When we sacrifice to feet, we put one knee on
EguQkpa yotp magwa ; agarhieyoto,
To kneel on one knee we forbid ; when we put it down,
maigjdie.mi; magadioi evale,, ^kQgafiQmale ; aiyawafo,
we don't eat ; if we chop food, belly bites us ; we take afo,
we take it in mouth, that's all.
Ahiame Qrhuinoyi, ahiame gdotu ; Erhumoyi
Bird plantain eater, bird went and saluted him ; Erhumoyi
naxamale kaxwe gaxia ; mairi^mi
said to him from to-morrow go ; we don't eat anything
edehino; nokawu agmQfimioi; ahiame wgh ;
seven days who first dies world sees him ; bird said all right ;;
at dawn Erhumoyi sat down ;
oisugbo Qnariehie, ;
when he got to farm he ate pepper
Qkweriehie, ; e ( de ) gbe i de i gbe i
he ate pepper ; every day
Qmawu. Erhumoyi ohampgbe, ;
he did not die. Erhumoyi was hungry ;
wuhe ; ahiame Qnakba Qna.axia Qgiseva
in his rump ; bird got up went when he got there
Erhumoyiwu Qnagele ; Qkgke ; Qnagye ;
Erhumoyi was dead he looked at him ; he was rotten ; he laughed ;
Qmarij[mi ahiame Qnariugbo
got no chop bird went to farm
he went home at dawn
qdehino QkwQriehie, ;
seven days he ate pepper ;
he died, he rotted
he said to Erhumoyi
he was not a man
he went home ;
when he got home,
Erhumoyi was dead ;
he said he ate no chop,
he called meeting ;
town came ;
they asked him ;
griqnawu ; ;nananqle :
so he died ; they asked :
he told them
Who killed him ?"
nQ wo ?
Where is he ? "
he said " rotten "
if he dies to-day,
they abused him ;
from that day on
Oisa, ugbo, ^WQ; Osawe, ; ugbona, at^gbugbona,
Osa, farm, farmer; Osa said; the farm, till I finish this farm,
don't make palaver ;
farmer said he heard :
who gets a child,
he said to Osa
don't bring his son
don't bring small
46 EDO TEXTS.
agQginya ; e,gwa ; Osa Qgwane e.dgke.n ;
dou't look at yams ; plant (yams) ; Osa planted yams on rest day ;
qwg Qnariugbo ; Qnaiawinyawoto ;
farmer went to farm ; he went took yams from ground - r
qnalg; qnakedQlowQle, QW Qnawosalobwa :
he cooked them ; he planted them back farmer said to Osalobua :
aiginya ; Qgawone, agageje, ;
let them not look yams ; when they are strong, we can look at it ^
qtie.le.ne nakiahino ; iny Osalobwa gmazp ;
he said in seven moons ; Osa's yams did not grow \.
qnag^le : inyoke,ke ; Osalobwa nawowe^ inyingk^ke ;
he looked them : yam, rotten ; Osa said to farmer the yams rotten ;
owg QWQma uxale : wqmoboggre ugbo ;
farmer all right you said : don't bring small child to farm -
uxale : qmobggare, agb^nutu ; Qli e,nagwa
you said : if small child came, we kill it for utu ; so he said
n^ginya, inyatQWg ; utuagagbe,na ;
who looks yams, till yams strong ; we kill him for utu ;
gwgnafiximi ; mobaiyoto ; Osalobwa
the fanner [went to] cut iximi ; he put it for ground ; Osa
lare, l^ho ninegboejktu ; Osalobwa nawghg ;
come, he wants to kill him for utu ; Osalobua said " no " ;
Xianm ; aiyatain^wo ; qlinana . ariowa : ^nagisowa
go on ; go tell the country ; so they went home ; when they got
Jnatiko, Qwokgre, Osalobwa gnatamgwo
they called meeting, country came, Osalubua said tell country
inyalemazg; glinqlag^le owe gkQgwa; Osalobwa
his yams did not grow ; so he looked it farmer spoke ; Osalobua
Qxamino qmobpgariugbo n^gbgnutu ;
said to him if they bring small child for farm let him kill it for utu ;
QninQnaxamoisa ; agaginya n^gbenutu ;
so he said : tell Osa ; if we look yams let us be killed for utu ;
le,gide ; Osaginya ; oiyenafiximi Qnarhiebk ;
he came ; Osa looked yams ; so he cut iximi he put it upright j
EDO TEXTS. 47
Qnawosagae ; mQggnutu ; Qwonaxa :
he said to Osa, come ; let (me) kill (him) for utu ; country said :
Osa umaluQse ; Qwe : lahp, kgti ;
Osa you did wrong ; he said : I beg, stop ; from to-day on,,
walema, aiyalutu ; Qmobogaiyugbo,
if you cook fufu, sacrifice to utu ; if you take child to farm,
agaginya ; Qkgdogade ; nqniQinobg, ogarhieyugbo ;.
look yams ; from that day on ; who gets children, can take them to.
whose yams don't grow can look them.
Oviugwe QnawQrhai ; gwoisa ;
A poor woman said to her father ; said to Oisa ^
QleriagmQ ; agmQfiiQrienalQgafe ?
she was going to the world ; world which she was going to, she
would reach ?
Osa Qwinehoi ; QwinggidQviQ ; Osa Qnaw :
Osa said all right ; she said she would buy a slave ; Osa said :
Qninuewo ? Qnawigogboya ; Osalobwa Qnaw . axia ~ r
your name what ? She said : " Igogboya " Osalobua said " go " ;
aragmQ Qnaxa : QVIQ,
so she went to the world she said ; slaves, which she would buy,.
;gwe, Qkpainypli Iggaviqleyi;
in villages, two hundred and one she would put ; she came to the
akgbioi ; Qkwenwa
some one bore her ; she grew she began to trade in market ;
Qnado[a]dgvie ; QkweabigwQkpainygli ;
she came buy slaves ; she put them in two hundred and one villages ;
when she put them in two hundred and one villages ; when she had no
qnakbaigbe Qnayaboig ;
she got up she went to divine ;
he said the only thing [is] you go
to doctor ;
let doctor take you
the doctor took her ;
she had no children
to go to Osalobua ; so she went to doctor ;
to go to Osalobua ;
she said to Osalobua :
when she got home
Osalobua said to her
let her sacrifice to Ehi
go home ;
kill cow for Ehi\
he said : one son remains,
he said, it is Omobe ;
he said, things won't please his eye ; she said just give him to me
Osalobwanaw^gaxia ; qgisuwagmqnuwqlimi ;
Osalobua said : go ; when she got half way between earth and
palm nut Osa gave her
when she got home, she washed ;
she ate it ;
she menstruated ;
rhen she washed
come take body ;
then she became pregnant ;
she saw [it was] Omobe ; that child grew up
qk^dose nqlqmame ;
he was old enough to marry wife
norhioxwone ; iyena
to give him woman ; his mother said
Iqkqdosiyelai ; qkeariole ;
he left his mother ; he went out ;
she said to her
she bore child ;
he got marks
he said to mother
" You are not grown yet" ;
he went salute his mistress ;
they ran follow him home ;
his mother said she did not give woman
to him :
mother went inside
she took seven women
he said to mother not enough ;
she gave to him ;
mother gave him ten women ;
she gave to him ;
he said " all right "
he said to mother not
when he wanted to take
he said he did not see woman that he liked
iyenawe tobgle lairhie ;
mother said he must go take for himself ;
he said he thought
his mother, he would take and marry.
Osalobwa qnawinekwi ; Qnawqinoihwiye ;
Osalobua said he did not agree ; he said child does not copulate
Qnawosalobwa ; iye legawarhie ; Osalobwa-
he said to Osalobua ; mother he would take ; Osalobua
said " Call dead people come "
nianiokagmgnre ; qlekQnadogba Qnawinobohiole ;
which they bring from world " ; so they met he said to them settle
the matter ;
:hild does not copulate mother ;
he said : " they come look work
htaven said they heard
Qnaw Osalobua ;
he said to Osalobua :
said, mother which he
they say mother
he said, mother which he took
glimi nawovieje Qxiowuxp ;
dead people said her son was he goat ;
QxiodQgbe ; qnawgwQwoxg ol^gamwiye ;
is she goat ; he said he goat can copulate mother ; from that day
QlqgQnoxiqwuxp o i liye i ge i naxiode i gbe ; qlo box2 gina mwiye
he was he goat, his mother was she goat ; so he goat copulates
50 EDO TEXTS.
qlOsalobwaginaxaiineyp ; ^gompgadolQgbe wiye ;
so Osalobua cursed for it ; children don't copulate mother ;
so he goat copulates mother.
Ewale, Osalobwa, qnaw, adeagmQfi;
Ewale, Osalobua, he said, go to the world ; he said go and
Qnawin^riQba ; qwinoyudo ;
he said he would not be king ; he said he made Udo ;
qwiiigyagbp ; qnawinggilai Qnawinehoi ;
he said he made Agbo ; he said he would not go [Osa] said "I hear" ;
qkqdorhivie ; Qnadorhigngrhieine ; Qnawgnomuyurhu ;
he took beads ; he gave them to him to hold ; he said put them on
your neck ;
Qkqdosaiyurhu ; QnawinQgakiewa
he put them on his neck ; he said when he brought Ewa (Otu for Osa)
owowiowiQ ;nakiewa gnawinehoi
he said bring it every morning they bring Ewa he said he heard
OsalobvvanazQma ; qkgdorhiq,ba ; ag^tignakia ;
Osalobua sent a man ; he took a nail ; when he counted three months ;
Qnarhiaba Qnarhiqso ; qnawQtQgaviq
he took the staple he put it in ground ; he said "he will sleep"
when he slept ; he said (to another) go bring beads for me
when they got there they cut the beads from his neck
akedorhiQgyosa ; gdek^dQgbe ; Osalobvvanaw^yatiQlere,
they brought them to Osa ; day broke Osalobua said : go call
Qiiawgrhiviere qriyobprhainurliu qmag^mivie
he said bring beads he took hand touch his neck he did not find bead
EDO TEXTS. 51
Qnawaxamosalobwa nQmamivie ; QuawQriegjng
he said tell Osalobua he did not see beads ; he (messenger) said
bring it to him
he said if he did not see them to bring, he said come, die for it
Qnawalimiaine ; Qnawqlaho ; Osalobwanawin^kwi
he said beg him for him ; he said " I beg "; Osalobua said he did not
Qnaw, avelimieQmairae ; qnawguekwe
he said, he can beg thing of a person ; he said he did not agree
he said the only thing to do was that he must come and die
he said if a thing is not hard, he said he would not send him to this
he said "you didn't say you would go" he said he would go
Osalobwanawinegikwi Qnawainiminimiame ninagariagmQn
Osslobua said he did not he said beg for me let me go to the
Osalobwanawinehpi Qnawe.dogaxia QnawuasagmQn
Osalobua said he heard he said " go " he said " if you reach
he said " go make them better " he said " he heard "
qnawgagggboxwohame Qnaw gQgbowg
he said " don't kill pregnant woman " he said " don't kill farmer "
Qnawinehoi; qnaw^le, qnagade, Qk^dodmagmQfl ;
he said "he heard" ; he said, he was coming then he went to world ;
ugbQnagidinagniQn^, qke/lo mwqwere, gk^dogbg
when he got to the world, he brought farmer he killed him
Osalobwanagagwi ; qkedomwoxwohamere, qkqdogbe, ;
Osalobua made palaver he brought pregnant woman he killed her;
Osalobwanawawa ; Qkedogbohgbp. Osalobwanawawa ;
Osalobua said he forbad ; he killed priest. Osalobua said he forbad ;
52 EDO TEXTS.
QkgdqgbQdiQn, Osalobwanawawa ; qnawinehoi ;
he killed headman, Osalobua said he forbad ; he said " he heard " ;
gkgdogiesu QnawQyatiglire ; gkenalughrai ;
he sent Esu he said go call him come ; place to sacrifice to his
evaaisunadotigle ; qk^dowu ; qnadodinoi^limi ;
there Esu met and called him ; he died ; he came reached heaven ;
OsalobwanawQl^maxamale ; gggbowele, gQgboh$bo,
Osalobua said: did he not tell him ; don't kill farmer, don't kill priest,
g^gbgbo ; gegawa ; qnawOsalobwanemagye ;
don't kill doctor ; it is forbidden ; he said to Osalobua, he did not
Osalobwanawghe Qnawgyaxiogeye ; Qnaiaxiale ;
Osalobua said " all right " he said, go be crooked ; he went be it ;
ugbgnggjxiQlQng ; Osalobwakgdotih^yo ugbQnog;tilieyone
when he was it ; Osalobua swore for it when he had cursed it
he said from to-day on (Ewale) should go lame
so that they did not kill pregnant woman so that they did not kill
agagbgdi^fi, agagb^lewe agboxwamew^ko
if they kill headman, they kill goat if they kill pregnant woman
and her belly (child)
izuemure adqloto ;
let them bring two hundred things to sacrifice to Aluoto ;
Qnawagegbgbo ; qlosalobwanaxameyo ;
he said don'fc kill doctor ; so Osalobua cursed for it ;
he said there are two hundred things to sacrifice to Aluoto
from to-day on ; so they don't do it again so [it is] forbidden.
EDO TEXTS. 53
Qgbugbo, Qdo^ki ; nprnane ; npmowa ; ;nanagareva ;
Farmer, trader; husband; householder; they live there;
ohamqkqgagbina ; nqmowa qwuhamqgbuwe ;
hunger troubled them ; householder said hunger flogs you ;
nqgbugbo qwuhamQfi ; nqdugki qwuhamQgbugbe ;
farmer said hunger plenty ; trader said hunger too much ;
nqmoxwo qwuhainqgbugbe ; inanawgha :
husband said hunger is too much ; they said " ha " :
Bagalue ? Nqmogbo qwinemenya owinQmamoxwo
What can we do 1 Farmer say here yams says he has no woman
nqgalema ; nqmameonawQfinyare qnafinyare ;
who goes cook f ufu ; husband says " bring yams " he brings yams ;
qgjfinyare ; qnawoxwona dolema
when he brings yams ; he says to woman cook fufu
qnawehe ; qkqme.xe ; qwinqmameof^gmqn ;
she says '' yes " she puts pot on fire ; she says she has no palm oil ;
qwinqmameume ; qwinqmamehie ;
she says she has no salt ; she says she has no pepper ;
qnawg nqdu^ki : uwurhiqre ; qnawgb.6 ; nqdugki
she says to trader " you pay don't bring ? " he said " yes " trader
qk^fioge ; qnalema ; axeke/loga ; axqgi,gane
brings to her ; she cooks fufu; pot was done ; when pot was done
qnaw nqmoxwo ; dodumema ; qnawinedumu ;
she said to husband ; corne beat fufu ; he said he would not beat
qw ; dodumema ; noyainia qnawg
"farmer"; come beat fufu; "who gets yams" he said
mogadumema Jdumu ; nqmowa dodumema ;
" I go beat fufu " " I don't beat " ; householder, come beat fufu ;
Jdumu ; moiniowame ; nunalema ;
I don't beat ; I get my house ; where you cook fufu ;
ugyiiawawo ; Odnqki dodumema
" if you get house (what then) " ? Trader come beat fufu ;
54 EDO TEXTS.
Jdumu; bqze ? Mqmoinyahie ; moinyume;
I don't beat ; " Why ? " I get pepper ; I get salt ;
moinyofigmgn ; naialema ; Qnaw^he ;
I get palm oil ; to take cook fufu ; she said " all right "
dqmanagagetalQma ? Akgtalamaiwo ;
which man do we tell 'I They talk to the country ;
Qwonaw^geabu 5 dQmanagibwele ;
country said it could not settle it ; who now go settle it ;
tokmosalobua ; Osalobwanature ; bQxi ? Nggbugbo
except Osa ; Osa came down ; what is it 1 ' Farmer
qwinonainya glinQwidumema ; nqmame
said he had yams so he said he did not beat fufu ; husband
owinoinyame nqlenema Qlingwidumenia ;
said he had wife who cooked fufu ; so he said he did not beat fufu ;
nqdugki nonyaimi nalema ; QlinQwidumema ;
trader got things to cook fufu ; so I say he did not beat
noiniowa moiniowame ; ^nanalema ;
householder I get my house ; where they cook fufu ;
QlinQwMumu ; Osalobwanawgh^ ; gnaw ngmowa ;
so he said I did not beat Osa said : " all right " ; he said to house-
akpawama lawowa, Qgara ? Qnawu . ama ;
if they didn't go inside your house, can it be warm 1 He said you are
nqmame ; timogbo ; umiengrhiny; a ;
to husband ; you have no farm ; you don't see who brought yams ;
nqwoxal! ; uwflduiuu ? ugama ;
which your wife cooks ; you say you don't beat ? you are no good ;
nqgbugbo wenomenya ? etutinyale ; wumiQiigli ?
Farmer you who get yams 1 you roast yams eat ; you see who cooks ;
wumi^nolema ; uwftdumu ? ugama ;
you see who cooks fufu ; you say you don't beat ? you are no good ;
nqdu^ki Qkyndo umami^male ;
trader to market you go [trade] you don't see fufu to eat ;
EDO TEXTS. 55
umienolemanya ; uwuduimi ;
you see who cooks fufu now ; you say you don't beat fufu ;
ugama de,de,de ; Qnaw Orhieha ;
you are no good for ever and ever he said " three men " ;
they don't go take one woman for ever and ever. Story falls down
Igifiemido (I do not miss anything), Emigherameme (thing does
not touch me),
jnaieva ; !Eniigherame i nie i Q ) nmdia unugwQba; Ig;figmidQmudia
these two ; Emigherameme stood up in palace gate ; Igifiemido stood
Qnukgdo; Qkwekewafiohabo; iferoe, QwalQmigherame.me;;
on hill of Edo ; he shot bow from there ; arrow hit Emigherameme ;
QkanqrQlQbo ; Qkwegwotio; Ig;fiQmidokwegade ;
bead was on his hand ; it broke it ; Igifiemido came (back) ; when he
Qgiseva; Qwokwial^xi, owinoigjfie.mido ;
got there ; he said he was a man, he said he did not miss anything ;
Emigherameiije, qwokwia ; Qwemirhamino.
Emigherameme said he he was a man; hesaidthingdidnottouchhim.
QmanQreva ; owuwaiva ; okwiauaxi.
A man was there ; he said : you two are men.
OviawanQkbisp ; ;nahino, iyenakgbina ;
Pups [dog belly big] ; these seven, their mother bore them ;
atalakpak^bie ; Qk^biQinihino. Atalakpak^tiawa,
leopard bore ; she bore seven cubs. Leopard called dog,
QnawinagaiQin^, qkpqkpa, njdagalunie.
she said they take sons, one one, to go cook unie (soup).
56 EDO TEXTS.
Awanaw^lehone ; qnaw ; Atalakpawokabie ;
Dog said I hear ; she said ; Leopard you bore first ;
uvvegbokpawowe. AtalakpakeinumQkpa Qgbe ;
kill one of your own. Leopard took one killed it ;
Qimialunie ; atalakpazoboljgiawa ;
she went cook soup ; leopard took a fore leg of it to the dog ;
awakelaloi ; Qrhialuerhe ; qdeg^gbe,
dog licked it ; she put it in smoke of fire ; at dawn,
awanarhiobatalakpa, Qnaiofigmowgle, qkile ;
dog took fore leg of leopard, rubbed it with palm oil, cooked it ;
QnarhiQgiatalakpa. Edenok^le, ^dQgigbe ;
took it go to leopard. Next day at daybreak ;
atalakpagb^gbovi^le ; qvesubr>legiawa ;
leopard killed another son ; took it and gave it to dog ;
awawQrhiehi ; dQg;gbe, qyalunie, grhiesogyatalakpa ;
dog put it away ; at dawn, she made soup, gave some to leopard ;
leopard killed her sons finish ; gave legs to dog ;
nqzQgieni qgphiehi; edeqgbe QgQr;giatalakpa.
what she gave to dog she kept ; at dawn she gave it to leopard.
Oviatalakpagifo ; Qgisedokpa, atalakpa
Sons of leopard were all finished ; it reached one day, leopard
qnaw^laiyatuawa. QgisungrliQle ; Qnahogawa
said she was going to visit dog. When she reached gate ; she heard dog
woviqle ; inagwa; Qnaweawa magbivi^le.
and her sons ; they were talking ; she said dog does not kill her sons.
Qnawe gdenqgariehi, igadogbgn^vi^le.
She said day when she goes away, I will come kill her sons eat.
Qk^dogbawakia, awakehgto ; QgihgtoriQ,
It reached three months, dog washed her hair ; when she had washed
qnavrine: l^lagariugbo ; QiiawiviQlena,
she said: she was going to farm; said all her pups;
Qlagafieowa; atalakpagagbingle ;
if she leave them in the house, leopard would kill them ;
EDO TEXTS. 57
Qnavina, Qnaviaxame; gkggwele ;
she took them, put them in water pot ; she covered it ;
Qgjkpaigbene, atalakpanagade ; Qk^gwanowaihia
when she got up, leopard came ; she looked all about
qmamina; Qnawjli lasam^nwo ;
did not see them ; she said She was going to take water drink ;
when she put hand for pot take water the pups
Qkgfianubnle. Onawe : Qmaniaima ;
cut her hand. She said : This person is no good ;
awarieheng, Qkwevi^graale, Qkqviogagaxame ;
dog has eaten fish, she takes their bones', she puts them round
water pot ;
iwagasamema, Jgmak^SQmobo ; nqnagwani ;
I say, if you take water here, bones prick your hand ; as she spoke ;
Qnahogawade, QnalggiyQkowa ; ilegarie.
she heard dog coming, she went into back house ; she ran went home.
AwakQlawa, gviawanqkbizo Qkglgnadia, qnawiye :
Dog reached house, pup came out to her said : mother
atalakparigma ; Qgwalotogqloxumn, Qmalewuwaxame,
leopard came here looked down, looked up, did not know water pot,
qluvi(jmaihi Qgilamwanie ; j^nafiamobQle ;
there you keep us she wanted to drink water ; they pinched her hand ;
qnawe : Qmodauxi ; ovif>yo;gnieheyaxe.
she said : bad sons you are ; sons put fish bones for pots.
Iyew : Giahaime ; QniQdauxi. Edegivj[gbe,
Mother said : Shut up, son bad you are. At dawn,
awanaw;riQki. Wogaviqdqlehi ?
the dog went to market. Which side I keep them safe ?
Qnaw ; wogavinaihi ? Qloviawanqkbizo qnawg :
she said ; where keep them ? so pup said :
iyemolunina ; iyeuawuwaiyalu ? iyemune ;
Mother give them thread ; mother, said what to do ? Mother gave it ;
qnabakukgkegiadQsegodo ; qnadqluyo ;
he put pegs for middle of mud ; he tied thread for it ;
58 EDO TEXTS.
he went tie it on top of roof; he took brothers six ;
lie put them on top of roof. They sat down on top of roof ;
onawiyegarigki. Atalakpanare, qgwalowa ;
he said, mother go to market Leopard came, looked round house ;
oviawanqkbizo qnaweginama ; Qnaw :
pups said look at them there ; she said :
d^kelunahiQle ? Qnawg : gqlunQrauQsegodo ;
which place you climb ? she said : look at thread which is middle
of mud ;
qlilaihiQle ; atalakpanagarhiulu ;
there I climbed ; leopard took thread ; she climbed ;
when she climbed half Avay, pup cut cotton ;
atalakpakgdodQ ; Qk^muhurnQbaiyotg ; Qkgwu;
leopard fell ; she knocked head on ground ; she died ;
oviawanQkbizo qketure ; Qnadorawatalakpa ; gnadovai ;
pup came down ; he took leopard ; he cut it up j
qnamwimike ; iyek^k^kire ; Qnaw :
he put chop on fire ; mother came from market ; he said :
iyegbatalakpa. Qnawubwaiagbe ; Qnaw ;
mother, I kill leopard. She said : What you take kill ? he said ;
qhiaduxumude ; Jnafiulu ; qk^dodg ; Qnawu.
she climbed up come ; they cut thread ; she came fall ; she died.
lyek^gqgq ; inakgdoriatalakpafo ; gnawiye ;
Mother was glad ; so they ate leopard finish ; they said to mother;
ileselogwqmadia ; gnarhi^mi ; Qid
I like to stop for person ; he took things ; when he came
Qg^rhamosagbodo. ^rhamosagbodo 2b.eukgbqxqxQ.
he saw Ehramosagbodo. Osa was taking fowl calabash.
Qnaw: dovava; qnawe, mure, i,mukpaluwe ;
HP said : hail, father ; he said, bring, I take help you ;
QmwihQne ; qkalil^xia ; ;nakgdosugbo ;
he gave him the load ; he followed him go ; they reached farm ;
EDO TEXTS. 59
qnawukqgbqxqxq ; jnanaganwina, qk^t^rbamosa;
he opened fowl calabash ; they worked, he called Osa ;
qnaw& ; ukobozo ; qsikqkenewawina ?
he said ; small bush fowl ; are they near place where I work 1
^rhamoisa onawghe; qnawinoiilegaiya, ukw;fieli.
Osa said yes ; he said he was going to make trap.
rhamoisanaw : qmowime. Qnakbaigbe; qnariqfioha;
Osa said : good, my son. He got up ; he went into bush ;
qgiseva ; qgbqnqxqxqeva ; qvieyodq ;
when he got there ; he killed two fowls ; he put them there ;
qkqgade ; qgisqkqhramosaiyi ; qnawqlebaba, ukobozo,
he went ; when reached where Osa was ; he said ; father, fowl
bugbe bugboa ; qwinekwifi^. Inanagariwina ;
plenty on this farm ; he said he made trap for them. They worked ;
qgisota qnawinqlakjfi ; Qgiseva ;
at evening he said he would go look trap ; when he got there ;
qnaviqxqxoni ; qkqwqloi ; qnavione ; qkggade.
he took the fowls ; he cleaned them ; he took them ; he went.
qg;seva ; qk^viomiehramosa, qnawinggbukobozoeva.
When he got there ; he took show Osa, he said he killed two fowl.
luakeviqxqxqevani,. ^nak^lqle ; qd^munakqlovie.
They took those two fowl, they ate them ; day dark they lay down.
Eyqlu ; qk^gbine qxqxq ^hramoisafo. Qgisqg ]b.ramoisaw
So he did ; he killed fowls of Osa finish. When it was time Osa
ilagariowa, qnatoviawanqkbizo ; qnawqle;
I am going home, he said to pup ; he said :
iaviqxqxqre; qnagariowa; qnawqle: bwamqxqxoiyi ?
go bring fowls ; he went home ; he said : which side you put fowl ?
^lolulekqnadQSugade ? In^naukobozona.
Is it not those you eat from the time you come ? They are the
Ehramoisa . qnarhihmnwh^rie, qnaxuhe ; qg;xwe
Osa took whip, he drove him ; when he drove
60 EDO TEXTS.
he reached place for making palm wine.
He came meet calabash of palm wine for ground ; he jumped went
JjjhramoisQnawQkpemainyp ihi ukqre ;
Osa said" palm wine man take palm wine out of calabash ;
numotolune. QlQkpenamwainyq' ; Qnamukare ;
you give me dregs." The man took palm wine ; he brought calabash ;
Qk^kotple ; qkqmuwghramoisa. ^hramoisa
there remained dregs ; he gave it to Osa. Osa
QkQinuko, gwinelamuda ; qgimw^riunu.
took calabash, said he wanted to drink it ; when he took it put to
Qviawanqkbizo asafiolalo ; gnalovialo.
Pup jumped go into his eye ; that is the pupil.
EZQUIO agmqn ; qkwegaxqn ; qgikQx;li ;
Ezomo world ; he was at war ; he was continually at war ;
qnawine gaxoiiso ;
he said he was going to make war on sky ; he got boys ;
Qnatiiia ; Qnawinigierhare ; inanaw^he ;
he called them ; he said go cut sticks and bring them ; they said all
inana . axia ; inanagierha ; inanaviqlere ;
they went ; they cut sticks ; they took them and brought them ;
inagisowa ; Qnawina ; "gbai Qgbalaka ;
when they got home ; he said to them ; tie ladder ;
koto yasiso ; qlagbai ; Jnagise
from earth to go to heaven ; so they tied it ; when they were
, Qgbalaka qbun ; Jnahiakqvqgbalaka
midway, ladder broke ; they all with the ladder
EDO TEXTS. 61
inadggboto ; inawulo ; EzQmagmQ grhioboiyunu
fell to ground ; they died ; Ezomagmo put hand to mouth
qnatibigka ; Q \vehe uli ; qwina ;
called boys ; other two hundred ; he said to them ;
ugbai egbalaka ; yasiso ; inanaweh^ ;
tie ladder ; to go reach heaven ; they said all right ;
jnak^gbai ; jnagigbai, Qgilasie iso ;
they tied it ; when they tied it, when it was near sky ;
Qgbalaka obu ; qd^gboto ; jnawulo ; EzQmagmQ
ladder broke ; it fell to ground ; they died ; Ezomagmo
nawina ; Qwehe uli walare; bwggbalaka;
said to them : other two hundred come ; go tie ladder ;
yasiso ; uwa ; geyerhagbai ; waiyudi ;
to go to heaven ; all of you ; don't take stick tie ; take palm tree ;
gbai ; ;nawhe ; ;nakggbai ; kotqkpa
tie it ; they said all right ; they tied it ; from ground go
yasiso ; qgisiso jnaketure ;
reach heaven ; When it reached sky they came down ;
EzQmagniQ owubigkale ; la\va ; aviukof^gmofire ;
Ezomagmo said to the boys ; go home ; go bring calabashes oil ;
;nawhe ; ^nanalawa ; ;nakeviofigmQn
they said " yes " ; they went home ; they brought calabashes of oil
uli aviehia ; EzqmagmQ gwuna ;
two hundred they took all ; Ezomagmo said to them ;
amofigmgh gkbgkpa yQgbalaka ; inawehe ;
take oil one by one on ladder ; they said all right ;
inanamwe iyggbalaka ; kotokpa yasiso ;
they took it on ladder ; from ground go reach sky ;
ofigrnqn Qk^so ; Qmanqhi^gbalaka ; qkweture ;
oil went reach sky ; person who climbed ladder ; came down :
Qgisotp EzQmagmQ QnamwgkpQti Qxai,
when he reached ground Ezomagmo took box of powder,
Qnamwioto Qnaw : Jbigkale, wakpawowa ;
put it on ground said: boys, come out of house;
62 EDO TEXTS.
^biQkale qkpawowa. Qnamwere ;
boys came out. They took it ; they take powder;
Qxaibale ; mufigmqfi ; ofigmgbale ; qbaxiayasiso ;
powder lighted ; (they) took oil ; oil lighted ; flame went
reach sky ;
qsiso, isogwQvoi ; ivi^limi ;nanade ; adeyotp ;
it reached sky sky broke ; sons of Blind came ; came down
;nagisoto , ;narhiux^re ; iriarheyotp ;
when they reached ground ; they take uxure ; put it for ground ;
EzQinagmQ, ugamqrno, uteyawu ; nQkpare ;
Ezomagmo, you get no son, till you go die ; another came ;
EzQmagmo ugamQmp utewu ; EzQmagmQ
Ezomagmo you don't get sou till you die ; Ezomagmo
qwinehoi ; EzQmagmQ gmabie oriri ; Qkwewu.
he said heard Ezomagmo had no child at all ; he died.
There it falls.
Oviugwesasa ; amogiso
Poor woman was not well for, skin ; wife of Ogiso Esago
wQmada ; ;nana.gareva ;naweh4 ;
and Omada ; they live there they say " all right
QniQmirQkrja ; ;goviugwe Qmotoi ; Ogisonawqle
they have nothing ; poor woman had her laud ; Ogiso said to her
filgma ; ;nanaminotoi ; ;nanaw :
you are not a person ; they took her land from her ; they said ;
" m." Qgizgkpg, Qiiawogiso ;
" m " [all right]. When it went on, she said to Ogiso :
kwanaxavQdioh^ ? Qnawinenjmegatwp,
why do you say so 1 she said to him let me go salute you,
Qnawgh^ ; OgisonQkpa ; qrioduwowa. Asqn
he said " yes" ; Ogiso got up ; went inside house. At night
he got woman, he took her eye
he put it for kola dish ;
qnawomarqkpa ag^tamixwo ;
he said no one must tell woman ;
he cut her ear ;
he covered it
he called all omada ;
every day for seven days
the small omada
He said to poor sick woman ;
wagwata uviqle ;
if you speak you take it ;
the property ; she said all right :
women of king ;
he said to them
jnana . axia
they come and say thing which is in kola dish ; omada said all right ;
Sviqmadani qsioviugwesasa ; qkgkwakpata.
friend of poor sick woman;
my mother's eye is in kola dish
umagwata qwili ;
if you don't speak it's lost ;
in seven days they dressed
they went to Ogiso's house ;
thing is in kola dish who ever knows it,
nggiwaleva ; n^giviqne ehianawehd.
I share it ; and give it to him all said yes.
Esagolata, qkairigtai ; ixwonirgriebehi ;
Esago spoke, head woman spoke ; all women of king's house together ;
inamalqle ; anawoviugwesasa
they don't know it ; they say to sick poor woman
dotawe ; qmadanamwegbe; nulole ;
the omada said : get ready ; you know it ;
inanawQta ; qnawevinawgta ;
they said " speak " ; she said " What do they
say she must say " ;
ninqrie.ve ; onawalona ;
they said thing in kola box ; she said " the eye " ;
oviqmadawokegqgq ewShiananagqgqwe ;
small omada was glad all the country was glad for her ;
this is his country
come tell your own ;
poor woman said yes
64 EDO TEXTS.
anawogiso ; oxwona olemingrorigve ;
they said to Ogiso ; this woman knows what is in kola dish ;
dovigfene ; onawaniinenQ ezedgrhigmine ;
go give her wealth ; he said she is his wife he would give her
anawumarhiemine otowuxumu Qgakugbe,
they said if you don't give her things ground and sky go mix,
umarhiQmine ? qnawehd ; kerha, kqwe, kqxQXQ,
you don't give her things ? he said all right ; wood, goat, fowl,
kQtnila, kqma ; Qnavwaleva ; jnanagbagale ;
cow, persons ; he divided into two ; they shared it ;
oviugwesasa Qnaiakmqmqrnada glogisgginawu ;
poor sick woman goes thank small omada so when Ogiso died ;
oxwona oviugwesasa QnalawQmada qlQgilQdQriaginqme.
the poor sick woman went to omada that is the husband she
Story falls down dead.
Erialue, amati Qrialue
Once upon a time, if we don't say once upon a time
QmqnQdo Qgiaxa. Ogiso Qnadogiuko ;
in language of Edo we can't tell a story. Ogiso sent a messenger :
qnagie Qg w i woviakota. Edena . axia
he sent tortoise and dog. The ' day they started
Qgwinawoviakota : agadiova. Ql^gwi
tortoise said to dog : let [them, i.e.] us take titles. So tortoise
qnatie owaibia ; Qloviakota onatie Ologotogo.
called himself " We all " ; Dog called himself " Quick
QyV. agidumeraamure ;
The provider when they beat, brought fufu ;
EDO TEXTS. 65
nnawawoxa gamwemagie ; awoxana,
tortoise said to boy for whom do you bring fufu ; the boy said,
"for you all" he brings fufu. So tortoise who was willed
" We all"
qnarhiemale. Erialue bggbehiabggbehia Qriqna
took yams and ate. It happened every day so
ohamQgboviakota ; gnasedqkpa oviakotagihokoikoi ;
hunger devoured dog ; one day dog heard beating fufu ;
Qnagarieva ; owedodinuhumutiku ;
he went there ; he said he would go up refuse heap ;
Qnawawoxani mukumqzo. Awoxauinawe owaihia
he said to boy give me peelings. Boy said : to you all
Qlgmwemagie ; qloviakotanawe : Qgwilqle owaThia ;
he brought fufu ; so dog said : Tortoise is we all ;
QiiawQloi, oviakota Ologotogo ; awoxani
he said he, dog, is Quick runner ; boy
gnagaxamerhaiwiye. Qlinawg ologotogo : gade ;
went tell his father and mother. So they said to dog : come ;
;nagamwemagie. Qmakpeva anagglemwemamure.
they took fufu gave him. Not long after as they said thev brought
Qnawawoxani : agamamwemagie ? Ologotogo.
He said to boy : For whom do you bring fufu 1 For Quick runner.
Qnaw ta ; onamagwaxawerhaiwiy^gigle.
He said " ta" ; he does not know how to give message of father and
Awoxan Qnaw : igwaxa. Qlolologotogo
Boy said I know how to give message. So Quick runner
qnarhiema. Owaihia ologotogo : ugwariema ?
took his fufu. We all said to Quick runner : " You don't go eat
;tiarhiema ; Qfiqmagbava ; ernafQkma ;
they bring fufu " ; he cut fufu in two ; fufu finished on plate ;
Qiewonatiua inadqkpehQnina. Inakedomw^mila
So the place said they go give presents to them. They brought cow
66 KDO TEXTS.
amunowaihia ; ak^domw^si nologotogo.
and gave it to We all ; they brought horse for Quick runner.
Ugbeni agjdosode qmilas^tiaxia. Ologotogo
When they go reach road cow could not go. Quick runner
wqsinaxia. Qlowaihia : Ologotogo, Ologotogo,
and horse went on. So We all called Quick runner, Quick runner,
Ologotogo diaxeme ; agbirabiyuwe.
Quick runner, wait for me ; may they kill your father and mother.
Ologotogonamudia ; Owaihia Qkgdiseva ; ejnilaisgtiaxia ;
Quick runner stopped ; We all got there ; cow can't go,
wediaxerae. Oyanagaxia. Omagikwi Ologotogo
you wait for me So they went on. Soon Quick runner
WQsi Qsowaihialai odygke ; gkewqtie :
and horse left We all behind on road ; he called :
Ologotogo, diaxeme ; agb;rabiyuwe.
Quick runner, wait for me ; may they kill your father and mother
QgidosekpQrio owaihianodogbemila ;
When he reached top of hill " We all killed cow ;
Qiiafiukpalame nologotogo ; Ologotogo
he gave tip of tongue to Quick runner ; Quick runner
rhiukpalameinila otgtalame; inakedagaxia.
put tip of cow's tongue under his tongue ; they went on.
Qlowaihia Ologotogo : ogasQze,
So We all said to Quick runner : When we reach the river,
agaxwe ; agabalame iy^gbunu. Ugbeni
we wash ; we go throw water back in mouth. When they
Owaihia nologotogo. agaxwe ;
reached river We all said to Quick runner ; we wash ;
they threw water back in mouth.
Inake.doxwe.fo ; inakedgkbaigbe ; inake ( doloke ) ze ( fo ;
They finished washing ; they came out ; they reached top of
EDO TEXTS. 67
Owaihia Ologotogo diaxeme, agbirabiyuwe.
We all said to Quick runner wait for me, may they kill youi father
Ologotogonamudia. Owaihiagjseva QnawgnOlogotogo ;
Quick runner stopped. When We all got there he said to Quick
ukpalamgmilame. Ologotogo mamiukpalamQmila ;
the tip of cow's tongue. Quick runner did not find tip of cow's tongue ;
Qnawg QmamiukpalaraQmila. Olologotogonagbgsin ;
he said he did not find tip of cow's tongue. So Quick runner killed
QnarhwikpalamQsine nowaihia. Owaihia qnaw^ :
he took tip of horse's tongue for We all. We all said :
Qgomeyenia ; Qlologotogo nakw^sihiane ;
mine is different ; so Quick runner took and gave all the horse ;
Qlologotogo gnagariodalu ; qnagatqgbqreyotp ;
So Quick runner went on in front ; he went and buried himself
in ground ;
owaihaigjseva, qnaw^ : Smiakenot^namalu ;
when We all got there, he said : I never saw place where ground
has eyes ;
qkikwQsi oku^mila ; QkQvionotpnamalu ;
he sacrificed horse and cow ; he gave them to ground that has eyes ;
qnaw^ : igewoyQgeme ; Q, viukpQne ;
he said ; I see where it is looking at me still ; he gave loin cloth ;
oy^gQine ; ^mw^kiafivi ; Q viqne ;
it is looking at me still ; he took penis and testicles ; he gave them ;
oyggQme; Qnatul^mu Qgogiso. Qgisowa
it is looking at me still ; he ran tell Ogiso. When he reached
qnawogiso " ta " ; aivQnogiegawQno ;
he said to Ogiso "ta" ; no one to king says bad thing ;
imiokenotgnomalu. QlOgisqnagie gkparurhu,
I see place where ground has eyes. So Ogiso sent ants,
Qlaxwe onwo, kgrninogixohia ; ugbeni
[of different kinds], with all bad things ; when
could not find
they reached place where ground has eyes, We all
Qk^notgnqmalo ; qlekparurhu inasai ;
place where ground has eyes ; so ants bit him ;
giimes;kQ(lo ; qnalaw^kbiku,
let me go on ; he went under dry leaves, when they looked for it ;
jnaniag;iuio ; qlasaka inagahwqlQxia.
they did not see it ; so ants began to look for him.
Inaihino, ^rhinabina, iyenabina ;
Seven men, their father bore them, their mother bore them ;
their father troubled them ;
they came grow ;
okwo ; jnana.axia
to war ; they went ;
they took the ogye
he sent them
when they got there
they cut them ;
they went home ;
they put it down :
said " don't wash
hunter wa* hiding
hunter shot them.
they caught his servants ; they caught his wife's
they put them in a box ;
they covered it ;
small one carried it ;
when they reached river
they said they would wash,
they said they would wash
on the bank of the river.
thev didn't know
He shot the eldest
They fall into river ;
he shot the second ;
EDO TEXTS. 69
Qsgiiukpogiha ; qkwesinaihino fofe.le ;nanainu,
he shot the third ; he shot all seven they took (the box),
;nanariowa ; jnag;xiaxe.re ; nqdiode, QWU ;
they went home ; they went a little way ; eldest fell, he died ;
nukpogieva Qde QWU ; nukpogiha ; Jnehakewu ;
second fell ; died ; and the third ; all six died ;
ne.xe.renariowa. Qgisowa ;
there remained the small one; small one went home. When he got
Qdovairhai qtotaibale ;
he came and met his father he sat on the seat on verandah ;
Qnad^gue owunarienewo ; Erhanaw^ :
he knelt he said they are come back ; father said :
EtuQwo ? Qwimawu ; Qwunaxqle ;
Where your brothers ? he said they are dead ; he said they fought ;
;nagbog;e ;nagbodibo, ^nagbaniQbp ;
they killed the king they killed king's servants, they killed king's
QWQguhumina ; qrhiQbomaxumu ;
he said look their heads ; he took his hand round his head ;
he fell he died.
- Erhainamavie, iyenagavie, Osalobwa ke.ladie.
His father cried, his mother cried, Osa came.
Qnaw^hrai : Bqxi ? ke.nowie.gade.
He said to father : what is it ? from morning come.
Qnawivie.le.wulo ; Osalobwa Q.nariumwe.rie
He said his sons were dead ; Osa took whip
Qnarie.node Qkwegafienale, inake.rhiqre,
he went on road he whipped them, they woke up,
ngdigngkawu Qnawunegide ;
eldest who died first he said he would not come ;
owune,rieme.linime Osalobwa nawghe".
he said he was chopping fufu in Elimi Osa said "all right.',
70 EDO TEXTS.
qk^vienise gadiowa ; oisowa ; Qnarhi^xwai
He brought the five home ; he reached home ; he took medicine
qnatigbg ; qwowiyeva inaigagiyokwo.
he swore by it ; he said both brothers they should not go war.
Story falls down dead.
TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
Ogie qkpa riwgdo ; nonia ikekp na rebe big ng bona
King one was at Edo ; he had all the country and these towns
Esa, Urumu, Agbede, Ewu, OkpQrna, Ukpoji,
Ishan, Uromi, Agbede, Ewu, Okpoma, Ukpoji,
Usobo, Agbp. Arnaho, Igweben, bi Iha ; oigbomi
Sobo, Agbor, Amaho, Igweben, and Iha ; and many
imalgbatio emili. Egerniulepamairi okaimQ gkpa
whose names I don't know. At time of new yams chief one
mwemele Qkparegiore, QbQ, nqborun; gkg
brought one cow and gave it to him goats plenty, fowls
nQburun, gkenqko nqborun, ohua nQborun bi izagwa
plenty, eggs plenty, sheep plenty and dog
he gives to king te sacrifice for New Year.
TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
there was no chance
everywhere and in all towns,
gialayeki, sukma eyaki munu sisi
to go to market, unless men had guns
more, neha rehima mere, sukimo, ekw ha eeki ; adehaba
to guard their wives as they go to market ; without that
lurip e,bo lo kimunere ekimunere xie.
people catch them and sell them.
Eboro Qkpa natio rimule,
Village one was called Imule,
ngrgnuuku ; kqne egeni kirg
to fight Uku ; when men got
eboro ne mamabu eda munekele,
many and captured the rest.
was joined to Idumebo
sQbuku, qda gbe
to Uku, they killed
Man who had power
nulagbQn okiha ;
from people ;
uwe.de, rebe kina ramudokqnre,.
all roads were shut owing to the war.
ogie ; okigbobirio,
king ; he seized
bobagbgn nekgre ;
from small people ;
Edqkpa okQflre da vai
One day war came
b^bo rqkpa ;
to one country ;
to their houses ;
When they cry
he told his
edabagbqfi nema murqbu ; edamunele
they killed many people ; they took many
i ;bioele biena rnunp kakiwuwa.
of some they took the families to their houses.
monugie kirehQfl ; oda ne nibi ogle van.
the king hears ; he was vexed with their families.
ibo kare negbelega; qdatama lekagie,
servants to flog them ; he told them to laugh,
Agbqn Qdel kadggokpia ^dagare
In olden time when a man wanted to
marry a woman,
he paid nine hundred and eighty cowries
to father her
gwQmQne, qkorhg kaiyqkqkpa,
as dowry, he paid one fowl, he
took to her father
gwemQnQ, okiripnoxwo kahiawa.
to settle the affair then he took woman home.
dakare karamqne ^SQkigkpadakadaharekaramoii;
No one can use umbrella only he alone uses umbrella ;
if any one
he flogs him.
Agbgnedede Qdqkpa abamenokwa Qri bukukwo bodewora
In olden time one day grandfather was on bed at Ewora
TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
gle otu qkpa dado, sale, qle gborpdale le kaku Uromi
so one man came to shoot him, so his people ran to Uromi
bi rumibazi bi rijebebe ; ama ;kbe eria kere e,ki riebo le.
and Umbazi and other places ; but a few stayed in his town.
came with war
to our town,
male dale kaki Idegun;.
they defeated us;
we ran to Idegun ;
so the men
kadiabe. bolo maleke ;
who were in our country before went to farm our ;
nele kakiubonqsabarne ;
them to my father's farm ;
that was there and all the farm
be.be nqsa ome.
goats of my mother's.
edaria emili nergrhi
and spoilt everything
Edagbe. Qbe,, eva,
They killed goats, two,
8. ALAHUA; NEW YAM FESTIVAL.
Agbo.iie.dele Qgene rhebo erekegbo
In old times when they are in the country they killed a
ienora biukburhi ; Qgeni ekido,
person to sacrifice to tree and rope ; then they come
kagbixire eki yora kahimieli ; eha ki
and dance and say to tree save us ; after that
ruonifoire.be kidogbgkp bie.be biobe.be;
they finish they go to the town kill fowls goats and kids ;
ISHAN TEXTS. 77
eka nueinafo, eki mwonema si ke oia; sade
when they finish cooking, they bring fufu to the tree, ; when
ekirg gkq bi^befo, eki neugwe rp bukuhomgra;
they finish fowls and goats, they take bones hang on top of tree ;
eki rere bolegbe ekigbo hagbihgre.
they take white clay to rub body and dance again.
AgbgnQdele gbomale egbefulere ; oiobebeda
In old times my country had free time ; no one can make
re mqli g;le ; rhamude koko kgle hglo eneasa
war with them ; because they are warriors who can
bgkQlele hune ebo rele.
light well to save their town.
aimiobo wesan ; edqkpa
In old times no white man in Ishan ; one day
ebolonosemale ehialaxqle egberiaihilQ ;
people of my country went to war and killed seven men ;
ele,gbe, eniere, be,we ; egeni Gelegbare egenore
ran away, people, to bush ; when Gelegbare lived at
ribujawore, odahore hirugboha bamole ;
Ujawore, he says he goes to Ugboha for his wife ;
amorifi tama ohonre riwuwe.de ofonizQwe morin
some of his wives said war was on road he did not fear war
ohia ohian la horen, ireamoren benire.
but went to fight with them, and took wife from them.
TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
Nimahan, we get ready,
white man seint a man to Okun ; so we go,
we don't meet white man there
when we reach there
when we reach there ;
wgmai daikedi ;
so we come back home ;
orekigiu humori, mairaxia
when we arrive home he sent messenger again, we start to go again
we don't meet him again there
makiavaiwa ; akiggiuhumqri ; aragbok;xa
we come back home ; he sent, come again ; now we start to go again
the clerk judged the case.
when we reach there
?\\en we reach there ;
ORA COUNTRY (4 Texts).
Oriwa ; Qdewa,
He is at home ; he is out,
yoaxanwoa ; okigngdereme
I shall be going home ; good bye
he comes ;
salute him ;
I am going to farm;
,-awinievai ; ihorebai lelomQle;
I am going to bring food ; I return from farm ; I bring food for them;
that they may not be hungry.
of ours is
one of those
spoke of before
OvQn bi uki
Sun and moon
ari ru agbQfi
they are worlds
zg Qn;bi agbgn Qgomali.
just as world this our.
4. AXWEGOGO (Dungbeetle).
Ohiekoivglo Qbo no axwggogo ;
Doctor divines for dungbeetle ;
Qbo bQnali ; rh^lowie
he again foretells ; he makes enter into
rhglobwa rQli ;
he makes enter into rest
he experiences trials, nothing like it ; he says
trials; dungbet tie comes
" Binolikiulu "
What shall he do"
he says that I may thrive ;
diviner in tree tells him
diviner who puts head down
he goes to
go to diviner
says go to diviner
diviner in tree ;
who puts head down ;
QrhiQli lalexQleveJo ogonQli. OdalalQli
he says lick secretion his. He licks
he took divining apparatus and threw for him ;
dirt from the eyes ;
he told him,
if you know,
you get property ;
go and build house
TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
in pot put yam pudding ;
he did so.
esosukpode e,ki. Edokinaxise,, qrhg,
in middle of road is market. When market is due, he says,
' he," qreM. Edekikise,,
Yes," he says. When market came,
Qkira eheni iwoxileM ihino vade ;
After a time after that virgins seven came ;
olaru ena, iiali rhigli ;
you made these." they said ;
raxiaveki ; rainkidaveki vade ;
they went to market ; then they from market came;
ihino; odanisqn v^kilua;
seven ; he pumped filth into their vulvas ;
grhengli " wavai, wavai, wavai " ;
he said to them "come, come, come";
then he took his head to sweep excrement,
" cast away '
he took to wife
then they scattered ;
I shall sweep it ;
what they make is not
" WO, WO, WO, WO."
" alas, alas, alas, alas.' :
a laughing matter,
they shout at him
Ei bi ibisuu qrhiemi ; ohame Qfi vagmgn
Tortoise and snail took loads ; famine rages in earth
bi gliiui ; ibisun rhexiogo, gi line okpanye ;
and heaven ; snail wandered in bush, saw farm one ;
oregainye xema qfieniiodo ; orehenikekere, ;
he met yam wrestling ;
he began to find bit by bit
beni ; eirhigli
then he found small ones ;
baiele, ; ohamiogbei
food to eat ; Tortoise is hungry
in this time ; Tortoise says " Where do you get food to eat,' :
OKA TEXTS. 81
te jtamali ; ei kimie xason rere ;
but he does not tell ; Tortoise then saw that night comes ;
Qsemwe xigliuwekpa ; Qd^kifuan ibisugmu
he puts ashes in his bag ; when day breaks snail takes
Qkpagrjli ; qgboxia ; eikimiekoxia ; qreiiQniriwe
his bag ; he goes on ; Tortoise then saw him go ; he track of ashes
rh^xali; qkiasu woxumiira, ei^rikiqli
follows ; when he crawls where bridge is, Tortoise calls him
" Ibisuo, ibisuo, ibisuo," ghagb^gbe ;
" Snail, snail, snail," he keeps silent altogether ;
Qkinonoxumura P.!Q ; qrhei : unwgkpana,
when he crosses bridge finished ; (Tortoise) says : "This one month
nirorirhiasu, urh. nolixaki, miemie ?
which he takes to crawl, you say, he if answers ? "
NilQlidelowQdg ; a;k;daxia ; ralik;sewo,
Then he dropped into river ; then they go on ; when they get there,
eore twamu emanqgbali, emarifiali gb ;
Tortoise then quickly took yam big ; yam he knocked him
ehen! ; e;kida fia ibisu ;bariawo.
there ; Tortoise then spoils snail's food.
Qla axano atQni ;
When a person dies they bury him ; for seven days
;uav;ul;mise ; ad^noulu axwelaliabo ;
they perform customs ; on the day he dies they wash the dead body;
arukmQfi wall ; abukmQfl hiebqgbe,
they take cloth and rub htm ; they sew the cloth (that covers him),
they kill a ram for him. They tie cowries round his arm,
agb^xoxghi^wobQ, asuqleuiavai ;
they kill a fowl for his hand, they, take fufu and sacrifice to his foot ;
82 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
amuQ dqlede, amwehewuhumu,
they carry him outside, they put him on their heads,
agboluxu, amoxiaw^kQgo ;
they begin to dance [behind], they take him and go to the bush ;
akgsQkQgo atQni. Ixiloya
when they reach there they bury him. Otu Ichiloia
QtuQvamQle ; as^w^ \ amQnewot^ ;
two men carry him ; when they reach the place ; they put the body
eg^niwp ahi^lowQle ; arnofiQwq ;
after that they [company] dig the grave ; they put him in the grave ;
ahiQkQtoinya afiqlgwewg avaiwa,
they put earth over it they leave him there they come back home,
afiusisi ; axwanahumawq, anodexwiaw^de ;
they fire a gun ; they shave their heads, they wash at the water
ohale qxwjli ; oviqle Qxwjli ; Qkenigle Qxwili ;
his wife cries ; his children cry ; his sisters cry ;
his brothers cry.
When a chief dies they take him to Odolele (quarter)
ehQkpadatonoli olo qkpa hgni; qnoiHg;li
they bury chiefs in one grave there ; those who are not chiefs
adatoiwihene. Obaxawu alobQ
they cannot bury there. When the king dies they (all town)
mu wQlele, od^d^nioko anama, axwiagogo,
hold a meeting they sing for him, they ring a bell,
in the town,
af^losisi, afiggo, oviqle qmpgada,
they fire guns, they throw cowries, the sons carry swords,
qgowolele, owol^rao ; agb^bolonale,
and lament in the town, they cry " oh my father" ; they dance for him
agbQxituanali, agwijagbedignali ; $de hake f una
they dance exitwa, they dance ejagbedi ; when day breaks
ORA TEXTS. 83
ademgla, aniolemi dglere, ahiam^lanQle
they buy a cow, they bring the body, they kill the cow for him
in the town
when they kill that cow ; they take the corpse they dance for it,
in the town singing
bolololo, amwex;e aloclo tgni ehada toligyili;
" bolololo," he they carry it and bury it with the chiefs;
goes to his pi ace,
when they finish the burial, they come home.
Asab^kme nglodotgniwewo, afiglowewo
[Otu] Asabekme carry him to the place, they leave him in the
avadewa, ^kisewoale ; g,vwe,de
they come home, when they reach homej they begin the
ikpe.dehino ; axwalimali gwiewie
seven days ; they shave their heads in the morning
maxwajnali. Ahjemego ;d;nari
they shave their heads for him. They bring his property,
;viQljkQli, ason akire ealeogolali Qvai
his sons share it, when night comes all his family come
^xwoogple, akQiieniviqle. Oxwo
all his wives, they share them out to his sons. If a wife
nyonya.moviqle Qbulelolali ;
won't marry his son she goes to her father's house ;
boibo kgre vai Qnokil^lodewa
since white men came anyone who goes to the house
AGBEDE (12 texts).
Af obatia gwineka ; Awazehailele ; e,tip
King's boys went cut corn ; francolin picked corn and ate ; they say
TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
leyage awa enimena; awagegboviare
they will wait for fowl on this farm ; when fowl came again they
nil^gbq ; eranawele awar'avare ; QtiQ :
will kill it ; they hide fowl comes out ; it says :
bukbukbggbe azana, magbegbe azana. MiQgie,
drums are beating, beating drums are beating. They laugh,
irhggie, awarazoka ;
they laugh, fowl eats corn
iyazobgro keonawara ;
will go wait for fowl ;
otia miza ; awatjfowera ;
he stood ; fowl flew out ;
he fell from the horse :
Sick person said :
atio : yaneto,
they said go sit down,
qbatio : lolo
next day king said : himself
so he rode his horse. he went,
ne : bukbukbegbe azana,
it says : they are beating drums
King laughs, he laughs,
fowl ate corn all :
wait for fowl ;
he will kill it ;
you sick person ;
he would kill it ;
hs is carried to farm ;
he roasted in this
farm hut corn.
awaratigere ; oragQmimi ;
Francolin came ; he sang again ;
qrarhagbukbogbp ; Qrugo.
he took wood and knocked it ; so it died.
when it came near him,
Qggne biri amQ ; Qnamq aratio Inaboseli,
Man aud wife ; the wife was called Inabosere
she had connection
this, my wife,
to stop her from
sogbo yagwe kiakia.
when she had connection quickly.
she was going to her own country ;
what am I going to do
with her ?
having connection quickly.
on her body to know
She told her husband
when she reached her country
her husband said all right ;
ora gwe kiakia ;
she had connection ;
Qjage Qlubokia ; Qnokominaamo tg
he said " welcome " ; the medicine her husband put
in her body
no one can salute her.
Quokoini na amo te yo wegbe
the medicine which her husband put in her body
In the market where she went
we don't buy,
we only have connection
einabosere, na bosere,
we don't eat,
does bad things ;
kwo orge inabosere.
she does bad.
Okame dugbedugbe yadugbgba biul^gi ;
My story runs thus about king and tortoise ;
gmend ne,gi iheno ;
gave his cows to tortoise to mind ; Tortoise ate all ;
BwqkpaiiQkere pkirhobQkpaloalq ; qbatiokeyi ;
one that was left he alone ate it ; the king said " no " ;
TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
qtigdo neyave ;
he called Edo to come ;
to take dung away.
he took its bowels
Tortoise fell down
he-goat said tortoise
killed them ;
tortoise said " no ]
wowala nileyalema ;
to his house to go eat f ufu ;
qrarukpugwalema; otiemikqkukalu ;
he put bone in the f uf u ; he called he-goat and said " shut eyes " ;
Qradufiomiukunu ; ukbugwa raugbaluwutuli.
he put it in mouth of the goat ; the bone stuck in his throat.
went to farm
a small bird
in its nest ,
he caught it,
tirqkaro yimi ;
flew to the farm ;
give me my son,
he is a son
nabiware " (bis).
just as you
Okame dugbe dugbe irhaiyeli irhaiyeli oranute
Story my go on go on they live they live they have
fiewora ? bububu ; ame male, onivie ;
famine in their country ? too much ; no food to chop, at all ;
egitip, kiloyare gdiri; QgesebirQyara
tortoise said, he would go for palm nuts when he reached bush
soQdiri ; orareli o kuru udi ;
he found palm nuts ; when he climbed up the palm ;
prarhe riini ugbeo onokuriudi ; ugbediri
he knocked palm nuts he climbed the palm ; when one fell
if it is in the world
When he came down
girl out of water ;
he said that palm nut wherever you go fall
aka rimi re, ki yia tie,,
or in heaven he will get it.
ora su bpyp weda qratip
he put his hand in the water he took
ptio, sebatie ; ptiqk
he said what is your name ; she said
is how they call me. He said make food,
make fuf u, make the soup
if she will follow him
said Tortoise ;
he asked her
to go home ; she said yes ; when he reached
sowa, ptiqba ; igwo nuaiyg se batig
home, he told the king ; I say to you to say to her how they call her
Qbatio sejbatio qtig komemamomi ; gtig
king said how do they call her she said
Omemamomi ; he said
he called Edo to come
what is her name ;
they said let us see,
to his house ;
ora momi ;
make soup ;
gupni niwa wp
say to her that you ask
her name is Omemamomi ;
make for them
they chop, chop chop,
they send food home for them.
sick people who can't come,
It was forbidden to cut her hair
they must not cut hair from face ;
when he takes her
he told his wife
not to cut her hair from face.
88 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
Qgemie egi ya lobina oranigralu
When she saw tortoise went bush she cut her hair
Qrara; QgQgQbovare ; Qrheionedagbu Qragbo
she went ; when he came ; he went to bush again he began to
rhelono kuludi ; Qramokborio kpe udi fio
climb the palm tree again ; he took a single nut and threw
gk^rgda. Qtio Qnukpgdi rira ebebuyiaki
it in the water. He said that nut whatever place it fell
ro yia tig WQ ; Qrarhql^rhe Qrasobow^da ;
he would get it ; he came down he put his hand in the water ;
oradwag^ne wrjre ; Qtio sebe atie, agene ; Qtio
he picked a man out ; he said what is your name, man ; he said
kiro rwatie, rofi nianiaboroboro. Qrarhodobqgbere, Qtio
my name is flog-flog. He took him to the king, he said
gwagQne nuwa ino ro gbo se batio, Qba tio sebatiQ agene ;
look at man you ask what is his name. king said your name man ;
Qtio kiro atirofiniania bogba ; obatir>riragwe ;
he said he was called " flog-flog " king said show ;
orarho bona tiunoko rho bonatioko ;
he took in this hand big tree in this hand big tree ;
Qra gbQgba ; obaratie Qdo re. QtiQ
he beat with them ; king called Edo to come. He said
wa gwe agene ; ni waya nQrho gbo sebeatio . etio
look at the man ; you will ask him what his name is they say
sebeatie,, ebea tig ? Qtio kero Qfinyanyabo
what is your name, what is your name ? he said " flog-flog " ;
etio lifirawe, oratobo-
they say he must beat and let them see he took big oak
natiunoko ; rhob2na tip oko ; Qragbgdo,
in this hand ; in this hand he took big oak ; he flogged,
gbgdo ; ;kpekomi eka ge towe
flogged people of Edo ; sick people if they make their leg
ki usakbota e,tie isokwa owaiye ^rara.
twist round stick they say stool is pressing they are going home.
AGBEDE TEXTS. 89
AggnQkpa QvadewagmQfi, Qmatiekue oteme ;
Man one came to world, had no penis he was a fine man ;
imQzitgnablore ; eg^rggbare rara,
girls used to come round him ; when they came they went away,
Qranara ; ukbokbq,rakere, ogQgboiakiira,
they ran away ; one girl that remained, when she was just going,
erazozo. ereinimie : Enyeni Noiadakava ;
he led her away home. So they sang : Enieni Noyadakava ;
Enido do, enime, do, enime, do (etc.); urhgka hQma;
Eni, hail, hail, my Eni, hail my Eni, hail ; you are a fine man ;
kariawekelo ; ko kilarawe.
the time is coming ; if you come back we see you again.
Eoborowane ; Qtio : imevamSmie
So a doctor came out ; he said : what do you see that makes
inewaragono ; Qtio gwQmQziniirhe,
you weep all this time ; he said a girl that came to him,
nQbululQde, kokiroiowa kiromolekwe ;
tha,t ran to him, said she was going home because of his body ;
kirorerago ; Qtio mokirokweyere
that's why they were crying ; he said did I not tell you to remember
miugbeniwiyereragmQ, nutiokeye ;
to take a body when you came to world, and you refused ;
orawurumabene ; Qtio : ukasowa utewukweya
so he cut a leaf for him ; he said when you go home take a piece to
uniewovwi ; Qggsowa, Qralula Qbaiorolula
cook this rest, drink ; when he got home, he did what he was told to do
QnomQzirazaim ; Qgevia, enek^gbonavare
so this girl conceived ; when she bore a child, the other girls
atio ; QnumiQniQzina Qmiroiowalu
came again ; they said this small girl what she told you to do
BO you will do every day.
90 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
Qkamina dugbe dogbe yadugbebwoila bilojokoli;
My story rw* lut &*** * d kin g <* *J '
erheviokogiggbe; ati^gbwoila wxojokoli
they make war on each other ; people told giant that king of the
kQmQnobiniIqr$xQli : qtiqlQSQ ; qlablgbo
sky got poison to fight ; he aid he hears ; he went to doctor
Qti^gilabilojokoli kilanlevlooviokangi^be ;
he said that he and Mng of the sky wanted (are ready; to make war
on each other ;
kilauyenQkbokomgnilo ; Qnauborhianekomjri *
he wanted him to make medicine for him ; doctor brought medicine
otiawuyekmQgwe: Qrqgwi, Qrjgwi,
he told Awuyeke to grind medicine ; he beat, he beat,
he said he wanted to know if this medicine is a proper medicine ;
oranwawuyeke Qragwqgwo ; Qrhiakakwa.
he took Awnyeke to cot him in pieces ; he took threw him away.
Qgegbodagwe kawuyeke zaugiqk^vade ;
He saw A way eke came behind him ;
Qciawnyeke nawokali, dabunokbeluwe,
he said Awayeke you small boy, where did you get that medicine,
Qti^kenngwena sanQkwQme ; Qf^^we,
he said the one you are beating if it touches me ; he beat again,
oknwawuyeke glatoneya, Qlagwerabilixomi :
he took Awnyeke again he burnt him, he beat him up with
kflgbogo: Qg^rbodawe Qkawokgvade Qtig
and mixed Mm ; he saw him came back he said
awuyeke nawnkali dabgn^kbelue ?
Awuyeke you small boy, where did you get that medicine?
QtiQ knogwna, Ban^kwQlQ.
He aid the one you are beating, if it touches him.
otio atonkbezqkpa Ieomin51le.
He aid you can't take one finger to see whether soup is sweet
QlarhiosunisQ nugbabogbalimi, QlafiawiiygkeyaySkoli,
He took war medicine that kills living dead, he threw Awuyeke
up in the sky,
he dug a hole he buried him ;
mogegbuvare ; Qr^gwi ;
come back again and let me see you ; he beat, he beat ;
he saw him coming.
he cut him in two,
he said :
[he said : Awuyeke (as above)]
him to follow him,
do not fear ;
He told doctor, you do
but he wanted
he said agreed ; doctor told him
glane irgkia ir^kia, elagare exwozo bialotq ;
they see women sweeping ;
ilagade iggne ^kb^no,
when they come to door of king of sky they see men hide,
ggbwoila oragiaisie; kwqla, grhebgle qlagwQ Qladojokoli
giant spat at them ; they died, all of them he reached king
Qkbere ; olanniaubwa, nilQrhegbq,
he stretched hand, he wished to hit him,
they walk, walk, walk,
where he is
olamie kqvagie, olasggbeyqke ;
he shouted like thunder, he drew himself back ; doctor said
zelorh^gbq; Qgenaubwa Qrggbovagie, glarh^gbo,
let rue hit him ; he stretched hand he shouted again, he hit him,
in his hips.
about a man
92 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
lojp wimite ; okgyo narhelwe ;moliyame
he is the eldest of father's sons ; his next brother a wife had
iygtif) dawQnokwozola noworhomiQna qrheale ;
his mother said go to that woman and ask her for her daughter ;
Qtio ; aj. m rgbule kiyome akQnomiQna
he said ; my mother told me to go to you this your daughter
nurliQnime ; Qtioke ; ag^rhqne
you must give me ; she said " yes " ; when they gave her
orQgbQnQkpozo ze bagwe ; iyQtio kagggbo ;
he flogged the women in the room ; his mother said don't flog her ;
yanonime Qrakware Qrarhid^geafauba oteygli
go and cut farm he got up and took a new cutlass and went
Qravariokato Qrafio Qralogua Qrafio
he came to a field he cut it down he went into bush he cut it down
iyotio akaiyeme ageyere ;
his mother said if some one went to farm and never came back ;
ogqminkovade Qtio akwe kiliyamilo
they saw him come he said to-morrow his wife must go
eyas^ko iyqtiqki. Qgw^gekula erhaiale
and take dirt away his mother said " yes." At dawn they went
Q) ^sineku ggemiakovare ; Qi^gwa
they took away dirt they saw him coming ; they began to dig
Qgemiakameyolo ; Qtigla neza
when he saw that water (rain) is coming ; he told them this hair
newakigna amekamqgbewaili ; etiok^ kak^leyowa
that you twist if rain falls on it ; they say if they are going home
they carry cocoanut leaf to cover heads they will cover their heads
eyowa. Qtiolakeye loiQmemQla
and go home. He said " no I will carry it for you"
etio " aruzomimoloia ? "
they said "no can some carry some one's head for him?"
Qtiolake ; eti^lekargre erhanaiyowa
he said " yes " ; they said " we can't give it you " they ran home ;
he didn't know ;
he caught them
he saw them going ;
he took his cutlass
he ran after them
he cut their heads off
oranekworQkpa bqnaialoko ;
he put them in his bag like a man who went to war ;
Qg^doare iyqtio " ee " ; afakwa
when he got home his mother said '' Ah " ; it's a great pity
she said where are your wives he said they are vexed
eowesuggobola. Mezamola Qtio
they are on the road there. I carry their heads for them he said ;
no one ever carries some one's head for him,
he said ;
iQ kametug Qtiodjgilo ; Qladw^kpare,
he saw rain ready to fall she said "let me see " ; he fetched his bag,
he took out the heads and put them on the ground
Qtiotamairhe erhgtioke kilozo.
he said to his father ; his father said " all right that he hears."
and the tortoise's wife ;
and a tortoise
Tortoise said :
he saw some eggs
(on river bank)
etaiyele ozamQtaf! ;
they live in time of famine ;
I am going to wash in rny father's river ;
afiam; ; gtane ; oragwogwolale
of a bird ; he took them ; he cracked and ate
94 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
gde.neke, ortagiyQle, Qlagbogikpekeafiamire; gragin^zaz^li.
next day he went and saw the eggs again ; he cracked them again
and ate them,
e,de,neke orageyqli olaboggre, plane
next day he went asrain he saw the eggs, lie took them
QlatiukpQkpQkpawo iya. Olagboyali ; qlagetieya ;
he put one aside. He went again ; he kept one again ;
uzolabulQre Qtio e,gi ugQgba Qtio
bush antelope came he said " Tortoise you are too big " he said
kukpqderhalo lolakwe ; . Qlariokpqke ; aflame
in his father's river he is washing ; he gave one of the bird's
Qlarhieneuzo uzotio segboyo ? Qtio uwe,
to uz > uzo said " Are there any more ? " he said " Yes^
ekafw^do uze Qtio vare nuwagwela ;
the whole conn try can't take all" he said "come on and look at them" ;
Qge dobQlanire Qtio QgeQkokatiego
when he brought his hand he said when he wanted to take one
afiameladuQ Qlatio oboegw;re,, Qlagu.
bird took him (uzo) he carried it up his hand broke he died.
Bekoyaogolo nQyaljzwoiiyo ; okamie kame
A person likes to go to hunt deer ; if he sees rain
gtwe QduQsisi, oyokatosoma ; Qxage
falling he takes a gun, he goes to Okatosoma ; when he reaches
sobola Qkunore unmiowa umiowanile
there he puts down his bag in small hut that they build there
gioowu. Qfieta Qtemawo oxagilu
in the bush. He makes a fire he puts game in it when it is cooked
Qduloiya ole oiyami ;
he scrapes it he eats it and drinks water ;
otiosisi ; olowogwa ; okeleyo ;
he lakes his gun again ; he goes inside the bush ; he looks for deer ;
AGBEDE TEXTS. 95
QxagemiQla ; QkQkQbolula ; gxazorafi ;
if he sees them ; he covers his body to reach them ; if they don't see
dgxqgbewo ; owialowa ; ovadeowa
and he kills them ; he cuts off their tails ; he goes home
Agesowa, Qtamaugie, kilogbeyo ;
glad. When he reaches home, he tells the king, he has killed it ;
Qiiugiezeeyane mir^kalo yawgr^ ;
he king charges people for him to go with him to skin it ;
QkagQSoibQnyoia, VQ QngtQkaloyawere
when they reach the place, they skin it the people that go to
skin it ;
ot^laminila ; iggsowa ; Qnqgbelo
he gives them meat ; they reach home ; the man who killed it
Qduobo bill owglo bill agwe Qdugiogie ;
takes front leg and hind leg and neck and gives to the king ;
glaminekQre, Qk^nikeyo bjliyamo ;
the rest of the meat, he gives some to his brother and his wife - r
Qnekeregrhede; Qnqgbglami okglQli.
the rest he sells ; the man who kills the game does eat it.
UTI Bi EGI (SNAIL AND TORTOISE).
EraiyelQ ozam^tQfie ora, Qgitiorag
Where they live hunger caught them, Tortoise said to son
agu e tag^lo wanisuti ;
to go to bring fire for him from house of snail ;
QmiggQgQsowan;sute ogegare, ute bill-
when he reached house of snail he met them, snail and
mio gelema ; utera kolema nomiegi ;
his small son eating yam ; snail gave a piece of yam to son of
96 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
ora gwqta Qreyowa ; ggqgemio
he took fire and went home ; when Tortoise saw him
miolgnema obo, otiosolo omorhemana ?
he took yam from hand, said " Who gave you yam ?"
qtio kutiele,; etanilp yonomio
he said that snail gave it to him ; fire which he told his son
yagwagilo ; Qramiglele funulaiya ;
to go and bring for him ; he took it from him and let it go out ;
Qmanuterhene ; giramiolilele ;
the piece of yam that snail gave to him ; Tortoise took it from him ;
QiQgoboyagwa gvveta isote ;
he went for himself brought other tire from snail's house ;
Qggsobolani ute tio alema ;
when he reached the house, snail told him to eat yam ;
eralQmagbe.e.e. l^gitio j gnazaminQfina
they eat the yam all up. Tortoise said ; in this hungry time
ebo morakwe mimawule ? udetio :
where did you get f ufu now to eat ? snail said :
ak;xilolorade ; e gitio : loialit^kali
he bought it from market ; Tortoise said : he would go with him
iyonaki akwe. Oweggkula uteda odafioo ;
to market next day. When day broke snail left him behind ;
egitqtqkalo Qraggri ; gtio
Tortoise followed him caught him up on road ; he said
emaligidq ; Qkaduonoiyafi Qnema
we fight with yams ; if the yams fell a person the yams take the
etionoiara ; ihr^ginemado lab;lu ute
person and go ; they wrestle with yams and snail
eva dulafi ; Qnema nedufi ; eraneoikba ;
fells the yam ; the yam that they fell ; they put inside bag ;
Qrevade cnva, eg;sowa ; gdatenemazele.
they go home, Tortoise goes home ; they cook yams and eat.
AGBEDE TEXTS. 97
AGENE BILAMO (MAN AND WIFE).
Ireiyeli, j^raiaiygmo ; arecolosira ;
They lived in a place, they had a child ; j his name was Asira ;
eteragu ; iyqragu ; Qnqmgmolggbare ;
his father was dead ; his mother was dead ; the son was not grown
up yet ;
ggiraxare ; Qtio eta ?
Tortoise went to see him ; he said, father,
qtioiye ; qtioegu. egioiataiiiQba
he said, mother ; he said they are dead. Tortoise went and told
on^tiqze ; Qggraiyowa ; Asira
he said sacrifice it ; Tortoise went home ; Asira .
qratamqba notiegize ; qbatio
came and told king who said to tortoise sacrifice ; king said to
egi yarhiasira fio gbarazizobp.
Tortoise to go take Asira throw him in place of sacrifice.
Egiraburo Asira Qratietue bili umi;
Tortoise went to Asira h3 took chalk and salt ;
qratiosgmakpade bili sesemikbo ; qrakbono ;
he took a piece of calabash and a dirty rag ; he took them all ;
gruebilome yogk^lukpade ; qratiqsira ;
chalk and salt put inside calabash ; he took Asira ;
qraduzo uzomi Qratio yebara zizobg
he gave to him to carry on head he took him to place of sacrifice
qtioxagbo variowa ; kilorh^loze ;
he said, don't come home again ; they sacrificed him ;
qragetpobola, eb;l;rhialo Qrh^gonu ; ow^gekula
he sat down there, till dark he cried ; when day broke
gtio, loialo ovo ; Qmeuiiqlo
he said, he could go into bush ; if anything saw him
ogeli gbeloli ; orekia qrhiamie mi^mQzi; qtip,
it would kill him ; he walked he saw a small girl ; he said,
TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
where are you going ? she said, anyone who saw her
qrhielpwoto; Qtig, vare ; kilorhiql^otg ;
can take her ; he said, come ; I take you from the ground ;
eragba itueva ; ergkia ; qrakbo miokbozo;
they were two now ; they walked ; he saw a woman ;
Qtio ebumoliQ ? Qtio kqnQmielo
he said where are you going ? she said any one who saw her
qrhiplowoto ; Qtio, vare ; kilo rhile otg ;
could take her ; he said, come ; I take you from the ground ;
e,ragbaituea ; erekia, Qiiame agQne,
they were three now ; they walked, there came a man,
Qtio, Qbeomqlie ? Qtio, nomiQlo orhielowoto ;
he said, where are you going ? he said, anyone can take me ;
gtio, vare ; kilqrhielewoto eragbaitueji.
he said, come ; I take you they were four now.
Eraloekejokato ragbeli ; era bjseo ;
They went far in the fields far, far ; they made a small house ;
era giumio aoka noyawaitare afoba ; grheali ;
they sent the boy to go to bring fire from king's town ; he went ;
orhaiawairhagila ; grafii ; Qrak^limare
he went and brought fire for them ; they made it ; they ate
e^Qli ; eya enabulo Asira afelo
every day ; people ran to Asira his people
egezezQgbe, bu Qraialu;ke ;
were numerous, very he made a proper house ;
qralwekelafe ; nQnigenQnisp ;
they made a head of the family ; men got their house places ;
nQnj[kpozoniso ; e,nasudagbala ; elelg
women got their places ; they made a big road ; every day
they swept it, they spread cloth on it.
UZAITUI TEXTS. 99
3ua, aremiseame ; ivoimesua.
" We are going hunting, cook yams for me " ; "I am ready to go."
When we start, we reach where we are going to hunt ;
ageregbase ; imarergmao imakwerhai
we make a small house ; we put down our bags, we light a lire
imareremai ; imagerevoima ;
we put out food ; go take our things [we say to ourselves] ;
ikiawanamekiawana ; imakereake ; ikeremielami,
let us go this way or that ; we go and wait ; I see an animal,
ijmutsitsineno, jk^rekqino, igerefine, ignedotoiaire
I point my gun, I take aim at it, I fire, I run to the place
i;dauaiotoi ; iinwo ; ijbgno ;
I find it on the ground ; I catch hold of it ; I skin it ;
iketewegio onimakweaiswa Qkeremieinieine,
T shout to call the man who is hunting with me ; he answers me,
(lit., him and we together are hunting.)
ig^reoinaare ; qkerenabade abokereadere ;
I tell him to come ; he comes when he comes ;
Qromaitsemimie itiewabimuza iryniQ^kelarae
he asks what is the matter ; I say where I stand I saw an animal
anabade ; igerepfinai igerenodaiire igerenwo
run fast ; so I fired I search to meet it there 1 caught it ;
;kgrebeno; obigerebeno;ne ;
I cut it with my cutlass ; When I finished cutting it ;
ikerecefioana ; abuwaduaigwa ; ikerewegiewa
I brought it here where you find it now ; so I called you
ukereametsgmimie ; ^kereevainiQgwie
you asked me what was the matter ; so I said come and I'll tell you ;
100 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
ugerenavai itiegwoi wotoi ; Qke.reamQtsabjmali
so you ran up I said : look at it on the ground ; " what can we do with
otoiikia ? iketi^i, imaigevai ; okereomeyeke ;
it now " ? so I say, we can cut it up ; he says " all right " ;
Qke/lgfiesai kwo otoi
he cuts the leaf of palm tree and lays it on the ground ;
iodwo nelami fio ; imakerevai imakerevaikpo
so we put the animal on it ; we skin it when we have skinned it
iivoi enaitsoi ; iQre.nai imakere kwi n^kgli,
I take his share ; I give to him we tie up tre meat,
iomaidu inakQtQyafe ; emagQrgdQdare
we carry it home ; when we reach the water side
iminakweakpo iqmaideniswa ; iqmake gyatiiri ;
we wash we carry the load again ; we put loads down
Qgeriomekisuai eke kwalo ; makeretiede.
he said he changes the load he says heavy for him ; so we rest again,
imakeredu; imakere adafere ; i;qke eduaielu ;
we carry it again ; we carry it home ; when we take it inside
the house ;
owaiseme ikgte gwoi nornoieme ikete
my house I tell my master ; I tell him
Qgue lame nigbe ; qkeretuitsoivo ; qkereduitsemeame
to look at animal I killed ; he takes his share ; he gives me my share
I take it home.
IBIE. NORTHERN NIGERIA.
Wabale ; akawokey^vo ; waiqsibinonapfe ;
Come on ; get ready to go ; you know must look out for the house ;
eyalesimimo ; inabelafe ; eyakenyajili nena,
we go to farm to-day ; they are at home ; we come back now,
nena miketpbg ;
now ; I bring them
I bring it, I give it you;
go, cut the grass ;
don't be lazy ;
T give something to you quickly ;
ijaia kasito ;
if you get there, don't
sit down ;
If you get hungry
won't you cut the grass ?
I have what you eat I can't go anywhere, you can't cut palm nuts,
you can't fetch anunu ;
last year at this time
you can't dye cloth ;
you are too lazy ;
I alone dig heaps,
you sit down in the house,
market people are better ;
will he eat him,
on market road ;
you cannot obey.
when trader walks,
Ion we dodiseine
it is far, road of farm
I alone cut grass ; it tired me ;
olQs^me ; obokagbe,le
it tired me ; when day breaks
utamekpawe w^ko ;
you take water wash feet you say :
odokia osomine ; akwili,
market is better ; vulture,
the vulture follows him
when you are inside house
OgbododQ eyQlana ;
Last evening we were here ;
four people to bring
Imiakebu sent messengers,
elietsueme jibo ;
yams for the white man ;
102 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
they brought the yams they gave them to the white man,
Qnofoforjkpago evanawe eoliQkqji,
the white man gave money two to them as they go home,
Qkiaramode ImiQgba Qmukumogowa.
as they reach the road of Imiegba they take messenger to house.
Imiak^bu k;to jusoini ; eliakagukasa
Imiakebu sent again ; let them go and tell
qngfofo enalemeji kgnivu najusome bulo
the white man to whom they gave yams that the boys that he sends
ki Im;egba ejoodg ariwunow^ ; lokjto lume
on the way Imiegba catch them ; it is he who called me
omejogbf) kanvvekaso qnQmuemiqgba ; qbggwe
let me get man who say to him who gets Imiegba : come here
Qnqmuemi^gba Qkirobqlo ; QiiQpofo qkirogukaso
he who has Imiegba came to him ; the white man says to him
Qiiqinuemiggba kenignaje denrftlg
who has Imiegba that the boys they send to me to give
ogbogodg ketianeje kimi^gba ejodianwunowe ;
yams y ester eve as they go home Imiegba on the road catches them ;
lem^kie Qkalu^be ; mianono kenwimonQniogbp ;
so I say go call you, come ; I don't want you to catch this man ;
kijg unwunowQ ;
I know them ; I don't say you go catch them to hide ;
enenwunowenQ, dabiki nonowQ, nam;lo
those who catch them, if you find tell me, I want to know them
mikaie yasqwQ, kimiro jusomi anmikaso maikeli n^mwewe ;
if I know them, I send messenger to Resident who has you ;
mikajusomi anmikaso Maikele nqmwewe
if I send messenger to say that word Resident who has
qsomi kgtawabe onininQ. k^talanmo.
you will come to you for that palaver. It is finished.
UPILA AND SOSO TEXTS.
We go to farm ;
we go make heaps for farm ;
you must look out for house ;
atgliako ; eligz ;
we plant yams ; yams grow ;
aiagbebwiso ; atowekenweata ; oiakoakpasio,
we go clean farm ; we go tie (yams) to sticks ; we plant corn,
akesiesio, akolQne aiagbabebwe ; eli^siabia ;
we plant beans, beans we clean with hoe ; yams get big enough to
we go dig yams ;
women cook yams for food.
when we finish taking them out,
Obilaxokpaiwoye ; adzotomgrnani Qbqkpo mitopwobako ;
Yams are chief food ; guinea corn is next ; corn I plant maize ;
mitoenakq ; miteseseakg ; otogogoakq ;
I plant beans ; I plant cotton ; I plant beans ; I plant ogogo (beans) ;
mitalotaodQse ; eanwebqtala ; miat^tagbote ;
I plant cassava ;
I take all the grass;
I plant yams.
I get new ground
I make heaps ;
I burn trees ;
I pull up grass ;
104 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
MegiokiameimwQbi ; qkigbode mQgiokiabizma ;
I go find new ground ; at dawn I go to farm ;
m^giokiabusiame ; mekisia ekiduame ; Qmidqgboka ;
I go clear the farm ; I clean as far as I find farm ; we beg people ;
qmeyanalo^be ; ome esaniraabQ ; mekolesinQrhQbo ;
we go sweep grass ; we set fire to it ; I plant beans ;
mekqlibakparQbo ; mekqlitQtaluma ; ohwak;fi
1 pknt maize ; I plant " agusi" ; in hannattan
QingkQSQbo ; Qmiligelgtio ; ukpok^gbe,
time we plant yams ; we put sticks to yams ; year finished,
qmolesiQtsg ; qmiejuwafe ; QrhamQgbweralename.
we dig yams ; we bring yams home ; my wife beats fufu for me.
Kam^kamukpa mewukpasS, omemarhobo ;
If I want to build house, I put mud, we build house ;
omekiasa ; omiegbukunubo ; mekiainibulasa
we break wood ; we put roof on the house ; I go cut wood for house
omiakpware ; om^bo ; omehuze omelesiebo.
we tie the roof ; we cover it ; we rub we move into the house.
Masi^be ; mahwo ; mahg ; magwa ;
We cut grass ; we burn ; we make heaps ; we dig ;
magwQvie ; inamalalaf e ; mahare ; qfiogbema ;
we take yams ; we take home ; we eat ; who can kill us ;
obicohigbema gfosomal^gbe ; osamozeminame ;
witch can't kill us it is right for our bodies ; good for me ;
TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
we don't see bad ;
good for my house
mami|kole ; ozeminame ;
we don't see war ; good for me ;
world where I am born I stay long ;
yaramekupasomobogba ; kolio kqmo ;
town strong for my hand, strong ; old men and children ;
yaramekupagba ; afokukoniamo.
town strong, strong ; my house full of children.
Oinyorio lunamana ; odz^wa ; idzo.
This man is going to make tornado ; he falls ; he falls.
I cut down the trees :
IminwekQfa ; misausiwo ;
I get new ground ; I cut the grass ;
mihwesanogbe ; mihgrikehi mikoikokos;bo mikoinumu ;
I burn dry wood ; I make heaps I plant koko yams I plant yams
akoikumesjbo osetawodiglia ; emabosQwagwa ;
I plant okro food we plant is ready ; we dig up yams
mixwarokweme lokehiename ; adumema.
women come and take yams they cook for me ; she beats fufu.
106 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
OKPE. SOUTHERN NIGERIA. (3 texts.)
Aviulimi ojaisoni ; orumenani ainwezire ;
The sons bring cloth ; sons-in-law bring goats ;
they go dance for him ;
atujinoni ; arekunoni ;
they dig the grave for him ; they tie him ;
they go to the grave ;
when they finish that they cover him up.
Nanabiqmqxami, adegzeni, adabewiri
When one bears a daughter, one takes five cowries, one takes a pot
of palm oil
omonotokparuo ; awemetawqni ;
and one piece of firewood ; one takes to her- father ;
QxqnQxaiwoni ; qrgruaiogwa ; Qregbevqini ;
she is his wife ; he follows father-in-law to farm ; he cuts grass for
Cjremolafwi ; izi ; arewikqrafi
he gets yams for his father in-law ; corn ; he takes to his father-in-
ixona arewefi ; gkehazia,
beans he takes to his father-in-law ; when she is grown up
Qritawamamqna ; arebulokowisusini ;
he goes to her father, asks for her ; in nine days we bring her ;
itaworekwiqni Qremamwitani ;
her father brings kola he takes her, gives her to husband ;
qditwisiligbewqre ; gregwQgbaweni ;
the husband pays ten shillings ; he calls all the family ;
areke,mini. Qkehqmi, ekuwQrqrQ ;
they take the things. When he makes it, they call his company ;
iremgnqnani ; Qreswigonini ;
they come and dance for him ; he brings money for them ;
QrerumozewQ ; qrewerameruo ; adekwiri ;
he cooks fufu for them ; he puts meat in it ; they beat drums ;
axemqnoarefo ; areje ; arqwini ;
they dance till they go away ; they go away ; they go take it ;
OKPE TEXTS. 107
l^korylotu ; aredare. Ukwamonofo,
they go to the head of Otu ; they eat there. When they dance finish,
kgrokQiovaje, ideloa, irerenjse ;
he goes to his wife, they go into the house, they cohabit ;
amine grqtekezi, amine Qtek^r^ra,
some it reaches five months, some, it reaches six months,
amine Qnotukpe, QremQ. Ozukiomomenema,
some it reaches one year, they become pregnant. When she menstruates
when another month comes and she does not menstruate,
she knows she has conceived husband goes divine for her ;
QreukumuwuQ Orebia, grnQk^migne ;
he makes medicine for her she goes bear, the child does not die ;
oitani gr^bpnani. Orame^kQleomi ;
her husband divines for it. When a woman is ready to bear ;
Qruma, qgweixamedede ; Qrebia ;
she lies down, she calls woman old ; she goes bear ;
arebul^nokQ ; arekpi^nia ; arew^beva ;
they cut the navel ; they go wash ; they take two calabashes ;
areweriQmQze, ugbesino ; naziowabia,
they give to small children, to knock ; when it is born inside,
Qrezio^k^dekpigni ; adewugbengnqinQri, adekwerqni,
they take it outside to wash ; they take calabashes, they beat them,
aremqhoizoa. Aretgrame Qdakwiqni ;
they take the child into the house. They boil water to wash her
are.kpowowQni qreloa, . Qrevena ; iwu
when they wash finish she comes inside, she lies down; the afterbirth
aresiesieke ; ademQseawo ; Qnqbiare
they take it to back house ; put it inside and cover it ; she who has
esarisoekoa. Akezoa qrerako ; akebiQmQ,
goes to wash at the place. Seven days she washes when she bears child,
akezeni aref \\ anokuje aremovezegware ;
in five days they take white to mark they take it out of the
108 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
Qgeginikesini aleotowQni alumwQredobeva ;
when it is nine months old they take it in the street to near houses ;
they give cowries they shave it.
Oiakehaza ; orediQzeni ;
A man grows up ; he gets 500 cowries ; he goes to a blacksmith ;
urugtaia, gretq, agbgde qretq rhukoxo ;
he gets there, he sits down, the blacksmith sits at the back ;
QredimakgneniQii ; gredotaununu ;
he takes his head against his chest ; he puts wood in his mouth ;
Qrekare ekgriwonani ; qrediezenani.
he files his teeth for him ; then he pays 500 cowries to him.
A girl who has borne no child when she conceives, they go loose the
arefaraogegawQni, arQSQnQgulu ; ukwQbialo
ogiaga which she has before, they tie ogulu ; when she has borne
arebanaxwQni. Aiyq eto QmQinurhe ;
she ties axweni on her head. Aiyo is the hair of a small girl ;
agaiyorhQirima ; abani
they tie them in strings on the head ; they plait them ; when she has
grown past small girl, they make them in rolls for her on the head :
nqme, arefar^ni ares^nQgulu
when she conceives, they loose ini they make ogulu
they put it in at the top ;
she makes eni, she becomes a woman.
when she has borne,
she looses ogulu
OTUA (7 texts).
Six months from u
seven months from now
begin to clean farm ;
they eat it.
they fire the farms ;
they clean them, they plant corn there
ten months from now corn begins to ripen,
When the year comes
they go plant corn ; they plant yams there ;
they take them away
they leave only yams ;
they plant cassava.
eight months from now
they plant yarns there ;
they begin to pick it,
they go plant corn ;
they plant beans,
they go clean again ;
when they have planted
when they have taken
they plant cotton,
When new year begins
those who work farm
go and begin farm ;
TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
he who is a blacksmith
takes his gun and
tak es his doctor's drum
When I reach here,
the king said I come
goes make his work ;
goes hunting ;
he goes travel.
when I work,
he took my hand,
the hunter who goes
he who is a doctor
they call me ;
he gave me to him,
he said I was to explain words for him so we do now.
Aiyenizizi aitihgng Qngzenasi onoimumwa
Long ago in time of war he who rode horse took this (spear)
qkQgasoze Qdpsugnani ; ale^gbodoinQ
when he saw anyone he took it and struck them ; they held the spear
struck so ; when he wanted to strike, he straightened his arm.
Tan^de akpomqna ?
Who is that who sits near me ?
M^rne n^ ?
Do you mean me ?
Batie ? Aje. Bwalu ? Milikiarawaho.
What is your name ? Aje. What do you do ? I come to salute you.
Odani ? Mi^gbw^ng, okQgbi. ElowQ ?
Are you well ? Yes, I am quite well. How are your people ?
EzQmi. Il^gbina wonairi.
They are all right. 1 don't know how the country is now.
OTUA TEXTS. Ill
Ozimik;na ; globQinivare lirhio ;
I do not know ; new I come here I come here ;
ohama sqsovai ; MQIIO ; Osalobwa nq.
my wife does not come ; I am sorry ; Osalobwa means it.
Ohadane ? MiegbwQnq itoto. Oriake,
Your wife ; how is she 1 Yes, she is all right. Oriake,
ohanoseva ; ihoe ogohama. Qriakezemio ;
the second wife ; I hear she is pregnant. Oriake is all right ;
yes, she has certainly conceived.
Ukpe maiinana ; ejkparene gewo ere lumime ;
We make ukpe ; chiefs who have the place go and cook fuf u ;
argnanQge ; glggQiQino Qyi Qrokqde/le,
they take meat ; they cook soup in the afternoon,
mainavarerQkbana ; marhanakea mamarikpota.
we bring it to the street here ; we men and women eat the soup.
Qdede madaleafe. EukbebemexQ ;
When it is finished we go home. Next year we do the same ;
Qgbe marozemi ; Osomuna ;
body our good ; it keeps us that we don't die (?) j
margfiato ; Qkj^adobolo ;
we don't want to be sick (?) ; it won't let trouble come ;
it does not let witch come to the town.
Long ago when people went along road, when they had thinga
112 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
arliQgbeno ; awQmao ; QkakQSQmo.so
they killed them ; they took their things ; if they had nothing
they killed them for nothing.
Axaledokposo, iyeg^ne adana
When a man buys a girl, 80 cowries he gives to mother ;
aibokwies^gbe ; Qwemalizi, awanainomo ;
they say : take her, go ( ?) ; he takes five yams, gives them to mother ;
oigbeduinwalu, adan^kposo ; qxaxewoza,
he goes buy cloth, gives to the girl ; when she is grown,
qxadalogwa ese odaleogwa, qlezimeri ;
he gives her to her husband he goes to the farm, he works ;
gliogwayaga ; qxaxgramogwa ahaferamenu ;
now he makes farm ; when he reaches the farm they take food from
arnqnodalogwa ; ar^gbgrelele.
they take food go to farm ; they go home when it is done.
Ayadanqkposo, itaia odarawohagile ;
When he marries the girl, she and her husband are in one house ;
qligbefiava ; orafeizinia ;
he goes fire a gun ; she stays seven days in the house ;
asileizinia ; gigbelegege, gigegQnexraia ;
they play seven days ; she goes cook, from then she cooks for her
oxalitaia ; qzQkpanqvie ;
when she abuses her husband ; she pays him a cock that cries ;
Qzohqgbefo ; azQgbgnene.
palaver goes finish ; they begin to play again.
Oxoxagbi, QxrQgbQresili ; gdaievi,
When day comes, the company comes to play ; he takes kola,
Qwanaia ; gmwanuriiQ, exanwanyulgle,
he gives to them; he puts gin, when they finish the gin
OTUA TEXTS. 113
ezigbelele. Okposokabiamo, ixraggbusi ;
they go away. When the woman gets a child, the father kills a pig f,
ixra obQsi gmglenibia ; ixramq qhigbiSbQsi ;.
her father is glad my daughter has borne a child ; its father is glad ;
he goes play.
TEXTS OF OTHEK LANGUAGES.
EMOSOGA (4 texts).
OlgsasoiioyomS ; gdehiqfa rio ;
The first one was no good ; so you put another one ;
oyime.da damo qlana ane.me.totawa
J try another one that I must talk loud
wamlasainyo ; kQmqdataowawa lomlasal-
to make other people hear ; so I talk loud that they may all
WQFO ; rakbojubewinyo .... odQnime ;
hear ; that all this world may hear ... my mother is alive ;
od^lowodome ; Qmsoga ; QS^me QmamQroxwo ;
my native place ; is Emosoga ; my father is a big man ;
oimiideliluokeoibo ; gmameluo kQmieva ; miluo
I go work for the white man ; I get good work to do ; work
Qmamilwo, mle mlomamQigo ; omggbe, rh^nfjde,
good work, [so] I get good money ; I have good health
tumwemi; mituwu, mite.miainie, ; 9g n Q iyuwe
to go home ; I do not die, I am not sick at all ; so may Ogene bless
work to go home.
pas Osagale ;
Record 198 a, b, c.
had a child ; his son's name
Esienye onilQmo odevie ; odelQmQroi
So mother's son
osagale owaiye, owomQ,
Osagale got wife, got a son,
vleni ; ode
went away ; so
do okulukpe ;
he made armlet ;
went to his wife
he went another country ;
to her son's wife
and made a spear ;
to house so
he came, his mother
with his son,
he is coming ;
wait, my son,
she took them back to bed,
she took them to
ke eya, keyara niQroii ane, mgdawe
to the woman, to her son's wife if I breathe
aneyememe reje. Qdaveta medawe bogr*i,
then I sleep. So she said I breathe roaring,
aneyemeyemerg ; gdawe ylifete ylifete,
then I don't sleep ; she breathed small small,
she saw the wife and son
who were sleeping with
onil^sagale ; odesorokiko,
mother of Osagale ; so she (Osagale's wife) called other people,
(i.e., son and other wives)
the other one said ;
wait a bit,
so they waited a bit
she woke them all,
she never sleeps yet
all were quiet so she breathed like leopard so wife of Osagale,
vqniQlosagale, ajyobi aibbQvle aiedagie aso,
son, Osagale, both got up softly ran away at night,
ad^gigkbeki ; Qkidevie, onflosagale
they ran to market ; in morning, mother of Osagale
looked for his son, Osagale's ;
oionilosagale yobQviq mure ;
so mother of Osagale took some stick ;
looked for his wife and son,
Qbeb^me Q vlovo ;
she saw no one at all ;
116 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
qdawof^kberie kwodalo ; odemungvio Qsunele gkberie.
she knocked irou front ; so she sang she sang iron,
mawodg, mawodg ; okperie mSwode mawodg ;
show me the road, the road ; iron showed the road the road ;
QdafQkb^rie teki ; Qdameeyasagale,
she knocked iron to market ; so she saw wife of Osagale,
mlemQlosagale, eialemQme, tine, wagieba,
son of Osagale, wife of my son, hear, stop running,
e, eyalosagale ; aitonqnio, aigdagie ;
yes, wife of Osagale ; they begin to run again, they run away ;
eni Qdakiyayelo ; onigsagale oviobomure
head pad they forget ; mother of Osagale took a stick
Qdawofini odemunqrie, ukoki, mawode,,
she knocked (head pad forward) she sang, head pad, show road,
mawode ; oiyi ey|losagale adeteseuno ;
show road ; so wife of Osagale reached trunk of tree ;
unokgre, unodefirQkrQkr^ ; eyalosagale
tree, become small, tree come down and be small ; wife of Osagale
vQmQroii aidalwenuno ; ejunogro, nSdggro ;
with her son sang to the tree ; tree grow big, grow big ;
oniosagale odeletie ; eyalemome tine wagieba,
mother of Osagale reached there ; her son's wife stopped there now,
e, oniloii (jdakwalubiako, oluxwivie,
yes, his mother she pulled out tooth, front tooth,
anoxerewe ; odef^rewe owosiloo,
she made it into axe ; it turned axe for cutting tree,
odemunQiie , unSkomwagba wagba ; QXWQXWQ
she sang ; tree, sing song song ; field mouse
od^t^tiye anihehe, nenode, kQnoplwilwoluwolwe ;
reached there ho, big mother, that's the hard work we
used to do ;
qnana diluo Igmali, ^malilue;
that work old woman, did not do ;
wewire ; mimiQwexie ; oiqdaweweke,
cut with axe ; T cut tree for you ; so she gave him axe
SOBO TEXTS. 117
XWQXWQ munea onokosSde, side, onSkodiside ;
field mouse sang tree, join up, join up, tree join up together ;
oiyQinale oniQsagale odakwamibiako ;
so] old woman heard mother of Osagale pulled out tooth ;
QclevioxwoxwQ ; urQinemixielo
threw it to field mouse ; [she said] tree will soon fall
QdaiiQreside ; glpdabere odemie oniosagalewe.
but he made it join ; so bush rat took axe from mother of Osagale.
e, nene onakg okpilwolowolwe
Yes, my mother this thing this is big work I used to do
bikoniQ mimigwexi oniosagale ode 1 mune.vio,
I help )ou to cut tree mother of Osagale he sang,
nokomwagwa wagwa. ^Iqdaweta ; niQinimiewexe
sang a song a song. So bush rat said ; I help you to cut tree
dawokglo ; elqde mungvio nokoside side
she gave axe to bush rat ; rat sang join up together.
odakmarako qdowohielo ; glodagie ;
She pulled out tooth threw it to bush rat ; bush rat ran away ;
oniosagale odebiviabo wiwerexi wureda qdanw e
mother of Osagale began to cut for herself tree bent just ;
bobone qdabe bobcjna ; aiyosagale ode munevio
bent to one side and another ; wife of Osagale began to sing
atuvieli vele vele omoko lokbuve,
sang sang a song parrot that goes to Uve,
oromlesagale, oyeli, obiQmggbQmQli
who sees Osagale, salute him, his mother wants to kill your son
atuvele ; apiapialokpuve, oromle Osagale
she sang ; hornbill that goes to Uve went, that sees Osagale
oieli, obiqmQgbQmoli atuvele vele vele ; omokoda
salute him, mother wants, etc . sang sang sang; so parrot
Qdata kosagale ane diwoloejbone ; oniwe
said to Osagale said what are you doing here ; your mother
oxuia evimqwgle. Osagale dale^xi odeviukbeuo
is killing wife and son. Osagale took spear threw it up
118 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
odagovioviopexi : odadiofome, nodaigi bgse
said to spear : if it be war, stop [my mother] before [till]
mioteti ; odgginedaiyi ; osagadetgti ;
I get there ; so it stopped [her] ; so he got there ;
onilada kwalo biako odewovTosagale ; Osagala-
his mother took out tooth she threw it at Osagale ; Osagale
komake ako ; odawa akakgvle. Sagadata
dodged tooth ; he dodged it on one side. So Osagale said
kggene anoiidelu obo limiqma koneloii
to Ogene if I do bad thing for my mother
oyole loiyi woniloii be iyolana, an : cjge.nQxwoi
war near my mother day now, I say ; god will kill
[let my mother kill me to-day]
anjkeviQxwe, anoggnexwoii, ang, Qbedia
who can kill her son, Ogene will kill her, I say, if not
keviQxw;le anogenexwoniloii ; odevuxiloii gbenu ;
he said Ogene will kill her ; he threw his spear up ;
qdagovio ; kexiro anox;re [e]wase, loture
he spoke to spear ; spear turned into medicine, burnt
oniloii ; odevio exi xre xreniloii gniyexi ;
his mother ; he threw spear at at his mother he threw spear ;
Qdava woniloii; Qirilodewu; gbelotq;
he hit his mother ; his mother died ; she fell down ;
Qgenedata; mewali nana ukudi
Ogene said ; When I pass there before glass of rum fell [from
mebewali, onieve beva wabo le;
I pass again [on way back], half kola fell from my hand now ;
kidi luevo akbqla Qgne dese gb5ruane ;
what are they doing in world Ogeue called cockfowl ;
animorhileiio vakbqla ogbgrane nasala; medara,
to see what they do in world cockfowl can't go ; if I go,
awowegora oigogene Qdanorq ufiur^ge
they take and sacrifice me so Ogene threw down rope
SOBO TEXTS. 119
toto ; qdawulolonene
to the ground ; so he found rope to go up and down
anisidililue.bo. Osagalidggu noiikpisiwodo.
which he used to do Osagale began to speak " I go another country."
deduwexi dokqlukbe be.simiore onime
he took his spear, he took matchet, " before I come, my mother
ogyemome geyaine luevewa kokie kwa eliya
drove my son and my wife into bush ; she wanted to kill them ;
aiyedeyl enure ; QmQko data kowe
but they climbed the tree " ; parrot said, to him ;
koiiraidetetiye ; medata midelo bemioma akolSnime,
when he reached there ; I say if I do bad thing for my mother,.
oxwewe, mib!belo, obemiomaa,
she will kill me, if I don't do bad, if I do what is not bad,
let spear kill my mother. So it killed her ; Ogene said j
narowoniloii ; Qniloidarorno, Qg^n^data ketinejale
wake his mother ; so his mother woke, Ogene said " Go away ;
ibixuon^luxwo ; QmQxwoviekayele
who has child must not kill it ; I had a child and fed it every day "
QgQne, dejuriviyo exirqmo obixirewase
Ogene made law there son's spear shall not turn medicine
lodexwoni vakbona oye exidiode obixire
and not kill mother, in this world so spear could not turn
ewase. QgQ n Q kewore inikwalali mikwQrili
medicine. Ogene breathed into me ? I go, I come back,
(i.e., made that law.)
anamo iya e.demetise mitigo
I salute [you] my companions put beans I put cowries ;
ubiakwasijo kwokbQlukbo Qme, sfejQle
Asijo's teeth [are] big big teeth, my own [are] very small and
Qsiql^lQ junora . do. " m."
my small teeth can't pass another way. I salute you. " Yes."
120 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
^sigye, 3hg. aiilo akwgjobalo; oyegigle
Well, [Answer] Ehe. We were in this world ; he did not want
oviogbele uwii. Oiye aiyovo odeviqino ;
poor man to die. So some woman bore a child ;
Qmqroyidwa ; qdadw^mera ; oniloiyi, onilgmona
it began to grow ; it grew small ; its mother, the child's mother
an;mikgkboweli ; mome ; Qingroini
said I am ready to go to farm ; my son ; her son " yei
ngng. Odawongto kgrnQroii onedevie,
said. She roasted yams for her son the yams ready
onilomona odawh^rigne wokomoroii ;
the child's mother cleaned the yams gave to her son ;
Snilomo odatake m^n^me iara
the child's mother said to him I am ready to go
kwoweli ; gmQigni e ; oioniloii qdayala
to the farm ; her son said " yes " ; so his mother went
kwoweli ; onilQmo odetoweli ; maye
to farm ; his mother reached her farm ; she did not know
Qmqroii vignenelobobuko. IgyedQ odemudia ;
that her son [he] cried and ran after. On the road he stood ;
erhimi odetetiyi asalgmgnaiva Qrhinri
millipede reached there where the child was millipede
datakQmQna : anQiuQnablQl^k^ve; Qm^naneijo,
said to child : to cut him half a yam ; I can't,
an^miseblokowe Qmqnenana ;
I can't cut it for you at all a small yam like tliat ;
my mother roasted it for me ; why can't you cut it ;
I can't cut it for you so millipede climbed up his leg,
delgtuwirowo ; e.rhiruidatakoniona : aniblgl^kevQ ;
.climbed to malleolus ; millipede said to child : cut me half a yam ;
SOBO TEXTS. 121
I can't cut you half a yam so child, that, began to sing :
babo, gierite, neno, gigrite, |rhimi
my father, run to me, my mother, run, millipede
lalclale ; tegwalejimoko ; gierite ; ototole,
is climbing ; to the parrot's comb ; run ; he does not go down,
otenule, gierite ; erhimidebimoa elalo ;
he does not go up, run ; millipede begins to climb up ;
odalalelale ; det^rugbo ; anqmona
he climbed and climbed ; he reached the knee ; to child
he called : cut me half a yam ; small yam like that
^nQiiewotqk^we wanimiblokowe ?
my mother roasted it for me why should I cut it for you ?
m^seblokowe ; qrhiinidebimovio elalo, qdalalituxoxi ;
I can't cut it ; millipede began to climb up, he reached the
irhidebe.takomona, Qrhimi, niblqnek^we ;
he said to child, millipede, cut me half a yam ;
Qinonan;mikeblQkowe gmgnenana ;
child said 1 can't cut for you small yam like that ;
i l nenewotqke i we, wanimiblokowg ;
my mother roasted it for me, why should I cut it for you ;
owovvi none wo vie ; m^keblek^wS ;
I feel as if I must cry to-day ; I can't cut it for you ;
QmQnademuniq babo gieritg neno
child began to sing father come mother
millipede is climbing to the parrot's comb, run ;
oto tqle gierite, otenulq gigrite ;
he does not go down run, he does not go up run ;
Qrhimidebirnuvip elalo, lalelale ; deletoxoli ;
millipede begins to climb up, up, up ; he reached the neck ;
Qrhimi dabeta komona blgnqk^ve; omonanejo ;
millipede said to boy cut me half a yam ; child said " no " ;
122 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
animikgblQkowg ; owuwewowu noiiQ
I can't cot it for you ; you are going to die to-day
WQjamle qngmgna liaa, nonge ; qmonadg mune_o
you can't see my yam eat, to-day ; boy began to sing
babo gigrite neno gigrite ; e.rhimilalelali
father run mother run ; millipede is climbing
tegwali Jmoko ; gigvite, ototole, gigrite
to the house of the parrot ; run, he does not go up, run,
otenule gierite. e.rbimidebe muvie elalo ;
he does not descend rim. Millipede began to climb up ;
da lalelali deletunu. ^rhimidabQ takomona
he went up and up to the mouth. Millipede said to boy
aniblqlekQwe ; qmqnaneyo, onQmikiakqwe,
cut me half a yam ; boy said " no," I can't cut you half a yam,
QmQnnana, ;ne i newotoke ( ve ; odaialajewevo
small yam like that, my mother roasted it for me ; she went and left
kpoweli ; neninie blon^me kpoweli ; mebcbeva
to go to farm ; I said to myself to farm ; I met no one
migi^de; medam^rhimi, koiodikpokpuwu
on the road ; I saw a millipede, millipede was troubling me
fik;lQnQmQ; grhimid^brfinuvio elalo : odetglglqluwe ;
with a yam palaver ; millipede began to climb : he reached the nose ;
omonademunio babo gierite neno gierite
boy began to sing father run, mother run,
grhirnilalelale tegualimoko, ototole,
millipede is climbing to the parrot's house, he does not go up,
gigrite ; otenulQ, gierite ; Qrhimirjdalwevoluwe
run ; he does not go down, run ; millipede climbed up
uwelomona ozikponolwole, oionilomQii adagig
into child's nose he climbed and went inside it, so his mother ran up
nowelire, Qselomonodenokpare ;
from farm, child's father ran from bush palm oil place ;
onilomona owigbQviomure Qwcjkarhigrhimi,
child's mother took small stick to draw millipede down,
SOBO TEXTS. 123
aianmavavio bvio Qrhime ekarie
child's father stopped ; both set to work to take out millipede
lomlasano unwelQmqIaiye, ; ublol^rhimi
to make it come out of child's nose ; half a millipede
odQxivioto ublok;ko odadagievlunwg ;
fell to ground half millipede half stayed inside the nose ;
aliilululu obisenqfa ; ubloyeod^gbo
they tried in vain he can't come out again ; so half rotted
vio evo Iftriwe ; ode.xjreuhuluriwe ;
there in the nose ; he blew his water from nose ;
6xwo lohmo owuri ; grhimi vomona, koiye
man sick of catarrh ; millipede and child, it breathed it out
wqlQriakbo ; eye iyabemle oxwo lonuurhi
into the world : if not we should not see man sick of cold
davo vakbqla; QrhimivQmana koiwqlqlrhie, ;
who is in the world ; millipede and child so he breathed it out ;
mekpqlali mekpqr^lj ; anamo. " lya." Ubiakwasijo
I go, I come back ; I stop. " Ah." A woman's tooth
kwokbulokbo ; Qm^sie.!^, QsiQl^kiunola ;
[is] big tooth ; my own are small, and can't leave my mouth - T
QgQnedaveta Qnj,si dielzglakbgla ? Qg^nedes^gburoni,
Ogene said what do they do in world 1 Ogene called cock fowl,
leno obqlelwe obQrQnQnemesala ;
go and see what they do cock fowl said I can't ;
an&wolwggora ; Q8Q ne odese^kbulo
they'll take me to sacrifice ; Ogene called a he-goat
anumorikpakbo ; delenebuloluewo ; e,kb!5ne
to go and see the world ; see what they are doing ; he-goat said
mes|laha aowegiye ; qiagene qnglq fwirgge,
" I can't go they'll sacrifice me " ; so Ogene let down rope and
toto ; odaw\ilQlonene odangnisidialwe ;
to earth ; came down with rope to see what they did ;
onilQingnadegu mewon^tg fiQinQnQob^ ;
the child's mother said " I roast yam for my son and put it in his hand ;
124 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
meVlariyara, yovo, kpoweli; maiye
I go. I leave him, go to farm : I don't know
qwokpanqbako bjgiede erhimidayalowe
he followed after me on road millipede asked him for yam
qnoiyesak^ oyqrhimi qdalwo unwelo ;
41 1 can't give yams " so millipede began to climb and go into his
ISniQme, kar^karie, obibino ;
my son scratched and scratched, it did not come out ;
ublodebluje ; QgQnedata ; ketin^lale grhimi osenio ;
half was left"; Ogene said; " from to-day on " millipede can't
lodaiyaromome Qganejurivio koiyi grhinii
he asks yam from my son Ogene made a law if millipede
oyo QIHQ QIIQ eyalo vigiedQ ; kitenelale e.rhimi
asks child for yams on road ; " from to-day on " millipede
oserionu lowQtota korakb Qge,ne odejes^riS
can't open mouth to speak to a person Ogene put a law.
yejam^levlewa : Qtotake qlakbginyo. Olelio.
for bush animals : he can't speak to a person. It is finished.
BIN: STORY TOLD IN SOBO, cf. p. 21.
Oiygna od^loyi Bobose ; ode^QseJoi Qvie ;
Her name Bobose ; father's name is slave ; Ogene
od^lQsialoii. QgQne kwobolg aiye loii anoliyQli ;
her husband's name. Ogene went to his wife to salute her ;
anuluqse ; anomqlax^xa gnwotawqta ;
" I thank you ; I want to play with you " you tell the truth ;
aya mavadax^xa ; axixaxaxaxa ; ode blgle
they two played ; played, played, played ; she cut yams
wokoniloii ; qlqvo osali loiixixa ; ole, odaki^lo
for her mother ; then husband her played ; yams, she forgot
SOBO TEXTS. 125
oniloii data kom^ing wololo nox^rQle ; omaroii
his mother told me look out for on fire yams ; my son
gdata koniloii noxirQne mewoxixana alubiwe ;
told mother his roast yams for me I used to play eyes turned ;
onilqdata an;mikexele qlgna, owelegtokofia
she said to him I can't roast yams yams these, if you like make them
oniloii otitiye owelqtokofia ;
his mother reached there if you like to make yams burn ;
onilqkowo oiyoggnedenye. Bobose gdata qle,
his mother made palaver and Ogene heard. Bobose said yams,
qngmi mebgbg woto, ngg^nenyu ;
my yarus carefully roast don't let Ogene hear ;
w^lonime w^dauxwo kqggnenyo ;
you are my mother ; you have made palaver for Ogene here
qdaleqgia leaxwure ; odj.kburie, gdata kexai,
he takes soup and spoilt it ; she went to water side, said to sand(?)>
an^rhienu ; oiyi qdarienu ; gdeyrugbenu ;
come up ; so she came up ; went up the hill ;
qdawiriokexwo QdilitugQvo oniloideblo ;
she kept on washing herself at midday so her mother went to him ;
wurie an;mlewe ; niQl^kbumweme
at water side to beg something of her ; to go home
angmgkia, nj[m;kkpumweme, mevgneto, leyo
" I can't come, I can't go home, I roast yams, I get them
QgQnenyo wodkbwli ; kQgqnenyo. Oniloii
for Ogene here " she shouted ; Ogene heard. Her mother
odeblo ; otu romoroii anuwgbeko wargmQinQk^re
she went ; company my she begged my child to come out
nQriumweme ; oiye otulgrnQroii aidebrokwurie,
and come home ; so her child's company they went to the water,
aidatake nqmorekpumweme anoiikukpumweme
they said she must come home " I can't go home
anoikekpumweml Onilgdisigele lowodoygbe ;
I can't go home." She called igele that live for that country ;
TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
she begged them to beg her child for her ; if she come inside house
qkgxexexoxo ; anoiyebgrigfa ; oniloidata keggQne,
to wash ; she says she can't come in again ; she said to Ogene,
ane gbagbo bela latake sore, w;kjl!die qsewe.
make Ogene go say her child, because he was his friend.
Oiygg^nedeblo vurie ; Qggnedatake aneyare; gdabetaktS
So Ogene went to water ; Ogene said come out ; she said
an^kgnowe Qggnedavitake nis;k^nove ;
near me Ogene said come near me ;
she held Ogene, she put hand on Ogene
aianmava ; odexireo ururhuleli
they two ; they turned fish with fish tails
to Ogene [come]
oiogQnQde sikene ;
so Ogene went near ;
all two fell in water
vwanie koiQliwuwurhurhu vwame.
in the water they got fishes' tails in the water.
We cut farm,
we clear sticks away,
we cut bush trees cut, we fire bush
we plant yams, we clear weeds
enaijuakibie akawol^kwa waniekboubenu akawabele,
we put in sticks we run the yams up the sticks we train them up,
yams cut hands, i.e., are full grown, yams cut hands before we begin
izinikevwaipedu ; olele.
in nine months we dig yams and put in stack; that's finished.
SOBO TEXTS. 127
agboi atorhe eyananakewe,
"We cut farm, cassava we cut trees, we set fire women clear small
eyanawenekako keme,daka akQiiekekbqbe,,
women finish clearing and plant cassava we clear grass when
we finish plantiug,
melamiwule eyanakevwo ; enwuye gbe,
in seven months women begin digging ; they grind it they cook,
we eat, it is finished.
iEkbe.nwa adanwanu kagbo adagbano,
We clean farm, when we finish we cut trees when we have cut,
katQrhe kesixw;ri kevolo e/levolonukeeime
we set fire we brush it we plant yams when we have planted farm
we put small sticks
Qinglamerha kavqro e^daigie kavagbalo
in three months we brush weeds when yams grow we tie them
kawabene ; niQlaiiwule, yQn^blabqle amewQi^be.
we take tendrils ; in seven months it cuts hands we clear grass
Melamisile kariole e^nejamixwe, kevwgne ; kawQkbe.ru,
In nine months we eat in ten months we finish ; we take to stack.
we stack them. Finish.
Kakemgdaka kavqrebeo Qdaw^lqbiQnu
We plant cassava we brush farm when we finish brushing
emelamirhili kevwem^daka gdevwure, kaxwyre
in nine months we dig up cassava when we bring it, we wash it
iyanaka ixwiye, kemio; qke/lerhie kec^l;; kQrJr;,
women grind it, dry it ; at daybreak they cook it ; we eat,
we eat. End.
128 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES.
Ekbenwa, amenwa, amebelagbop
We cut farm, we brush fann, we cut big trees
ameliviQ Qraneo, imikpgxwQle, iinelexwolo
we set fire to farm, we clear away small wood, we plant yams
belebelive, imelexwolo omejere meraworo,
cut in two, we plant yams they grow up we clear the ground,
ekecimo ometabo, awugino, okawugino,
we put the sticks yams grow, they climb up when they climb,
emelairini egba, kelevwoi, evwoicumwomi
nine months complete, it is time to dig them, we bring yams home
kjtii, edecerelea, aw^kp^du.
they are there, they eat them, they tie them up.
WITH APPENDIX ON WANO
GRAMMAR OF THE EDO LANGUAGE.
THE family of languages whose distribution is here described,
appears to be distinct from those of the surrounding peoples,
which are, on the south, the Ijo ; on the west, the Yoruba ;
on the north-west and north, tribes of the Yoruba stock ; on
the north-east, the Igbira, on the east, but on the other
bank of the Niger, are the Igara, at Ida ; then come, on the
west bank of the Niger, various branches of the Ibos, who
extend down into the Ijo territory.
Certain words appear to be common to the Edo and other
families of languages, but in some cases their prevalence in
both families can be readily explained, and in any case, their
number is far too few to afford the presumption of any
relation between the languages, whose syntax appears to be
entirely different. There is a certain resemblance between
the Edo family and the Ewe of Togoland and the Gold Coast,
both in verbal forms and in vocabulary.
Among the words common to Edo and Yoruba, are such
terms as oke (hill), okuta (stone), and the like, and the
reason for their appearance in both families of languages, is
firstly, that the line of kings which formerly ruled the Edo,
came from the Ife country, and that secondly, hills and
stones being virtually unknown in the Edo country, terms
for them would naturally be adopted from the language of
There are certain resemblances between the Edo and Ibo
languages, which are more difficult to explain. Parts of the
132 EDO GRAMMAR.
body for example, like the mouth (unu), are known by
identical names, and here it is difficult to suggest an
explanation. Finally, there are a certain number of words,
like ekwiye (spoon), which are obviously adopted from a
Komance Language of Europe, and we need have no difficulty
on deciding on Portuguese as their source, for it is well known
that the Portuguese were in Edo at the beginning of the
The consonantal system, as the accompanying table shows,
is comparatively simple for the Edo language proper ; pro-
nunciation varies from tribe to tribe, as the comparative
vocabularies show, but the differences cannot be adequately
indicated ; in the Ishan country, for example, it is more
guttural than in the Edo country ; and it was impossible to
map them out systematically in the short time at my disposal
The chief points to be noted are as follows* :
(a) In Edo and some of the other languages (t) is some-
times pronounced with the tip of the tongue on
the roof of the mouth, as in ta, an interjection ; d
pronounced in the same way is hardly dis-
tinguishable from r, as.in erhumudiadia, butterfly ;
in a certain number of words p and b are
pronounced in a way that makes them almost
indistinguishable from w and m ; they are possibly
inspired, as is the case in the Wano language
(Agenegbode), but are more probably pronounced
with " mouth breath."
(b) F and v are always pronounced with lower lip and
upper teeth, w with both lips. X and y are the
soft sounds heard in Scottish loch and North-
German Tag ; y is retained in its ordinary
* Unless otherwise stated the language referred to is Edo (Biui).
1 * \ \ 1. 1 '
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
i i I 'JJ' 5 I a
i i i - "5- . i' i
1 > 1 >^ N 1 > 1
X~ >" on 4-T
i i ;? i ii
t>0 bC< Ti T5 i ^2
^ ^ ,i_r. 43" 1 j,
i : 1 i 1 :
42 42 -Y
S -S 5 ^
'& -s -1 s ^
<J O Pn P P h3
134 EDO GRAMMAR.
signification as a matter of convenience ; scien-
tifically the sound which it represents is a variant
of those shown by y and y.
(c) R is formed in the same way as in English without
trill ; a variant of it is r, almost identical with d ;
rh is slightly trilled and sounded almost as if h
(d) L and n are almost indistinguishable, as in elimi.
The vowel system is less easy ; it is as follows :
A is as in father, a as in rnadame (Fr.) ; g, Q, e, Q, are open
and of diminishing length, e is closed, as in name ; 9., o, q, are
open and of diminishing length ; o is closed : u is between
o and u.
Ai, ei (rare), oi, au, are always diphthongs. Very rarely
the u sound is heard.
A, e,, i, Q and u are nasalised.
The only nouns of which it is possible to see the derivation
at first sight are those derived from verbs, which take the
form of the third person singular, as qdukmQn, maker of
cloth, qbo, doctor (literally, he makes cloth, he divines).
Compound nouns are common; amgnwe, milk (water of
the breast), e,rhiye, mother's father.
EDO GRAMMAR. 135
Some nouns beginning with o, or q, form a plural by
changing the initial vowel into i; ox wo, woman, ixwo;
oxaimi, chief, ix aim i. A certain number form the plural
in e, Qbo, doctor, e,bo. II se, (week) seems to be a singular
formed by analogy from is, five, there being according to
native reckoning five days in the week, as they include the
first day of the following week in giving the number.
In other languages of the group other vowel changes are
found as a sign of the plural ; but if these existed in Edo
they have now disappeared ; a certain number of nouns,
however, like ako, teeth, have in Edo the same form as in
the plural of Kukuruku, where the word is eko, tooth, ako,
teeth ; this suggests that the Edo form was originally a
It is noteworthy that the use of the plural form in Edo is
The adjective is seldom found in its simplest form ; it is
usually compounded with a personal pronoun or verb or both,
as Qkai, it is dry. The adjective follows the noun it qualifies ;
QmQ da, bad boy (da = bad). Adjectives have two degrees
of comparison, as Qkpalo, big; Qkpalqse, bigger (literally,
The accompanying table shows the numerals up to twenty
in six different languages. Though the forms differ con-
siderably, the numerals may be arranged in two groups,
according to the way in which the numbers from fifteen to
twenty are formed. This is as follows :
g +2 : : : *^ :::::: : : ^
1 P ! ' : * if " * I ' ^JNJ^'s^^
W *" t ~ I rt n-W L 01 ^ "^ ^.
Or 0) <S .2 -2 .J3 C .rt .rt J .^.ji^.rt J .X lJ .^?' cd c3 c8 e3 O
o as * '5b
1-13^ || 1 1||| Ijl-sfc
10 + 5
10 + 5
10 + 5
10 + 6
1 + 10 + 5
and so on.
A different grouping is given by the formation of the
numbers between twenty and one hundred ; all form them
vicesiinally, but Edo and Ishan subtract from the number
next above to form the odd tens, while the remainder add ;
thus fifty is in Edo ikigbesia (60-10), but ujuvegbixwe
40 + 10) in Sobo.
The numerals from one to five, ten and twenty appear to
be independent ; six in Otua seems to be a derivative of five,
as also does seven ; eight may be equivalent to four plus four,
(or, it may be, three plus five), and nine to five plus four.
The personal pronouns are as follows :
1. i, ti, niQ, m^niQ, rnqmo, mo ... ... mQ.
2. We, u, nuna ... ... ... ... we,, e,.
3. Q, Qna, oi, loi, le, IQ, e,, Q.
1. pi. Ma ma.
2. Wa wa.
3. j[na, inano, ana, a ... ... ... iua.
The pronoun precedes the verb as subject save in inverted
sentences and follows it as object; but in the case of
separable verbs it follows the main verb; imwefwa, I
throw it away (from imufwa). A kind of reflexive
138 EDO GRAMMAR.
pronoun is formed with obo, (hand); memetobqme,
myself ; it does not appear to be used as a proper reflexive,
but only as an emphatic form, ^gbgrne (my body) must
be used where a reflexive sense proper is found.
A personal pronoun is used even when there is a noun
or relative pronoun as the subject of the verb, Ogisonaw,
Ogiso said; Qmangdg, the man who bought him. Where
there are two subjects of different persons the pronoun
follows the superior one, MawggQne, Ogene and I; a
usage to be noted is inavenukpogieva, he and the second
For the possessive pronouns and adjectives forms of the
personal pronouns are used :
1. MQ Qgomena.
2. We, Qgowewo.
3. 3, IQ, oi Qgoi, qgewo.
1. pi. Ma ... ... Qgoma.
2. Wa ... ... qgowa.
3. Ina Qgina.
The pronoun is, like many adjectives, used without a verb,
or, more properly contains the verb in itself; ebena
Qgomena, this book is mine.
The relative pronoun is ne (see examples 2, 3, 4), the
interrogative is ga, for persons, gad e, who is coming; wa,
bwa, ba, bia, bo, for things (see examples 5 and 9).
The interrogative adjective is de for both persons and
things (see examples 7, 10).
The verb undergoes no change for person or number.
The tenses are formed as follows :
Future by ga; igalue, I shall do it ; perfect by nQ or
f o ; ilugne, or ilue,fo, I have done it; future perfect
EDO GRAMMAR. 139
by a combination of these ; igahiQne,, I shall have
done it; past tense by ke ; ikglue, I did it, I made
For the singular of the imperative the simple form of the
verb is used ; IUQ, do it, make it ; the plural has the same
form as the same person of the present tense, walue,,
The first and third persons are formed with ni, gu, or
se . . . lai; nihasa, let me pay ; gumeseva, let me reach
there; sqmqlai, nigaxia, let me go. The optative form of
the verb appears to be identical with the present, and is used
with the indefinite personal pronoun, agbjrabiyue, may
your father and mother be killed (may one kill . . .).
A certain number of verbs appear to be negatived in the
simple form and require ga to give them a positive tense,
inqme, I do not marry; iganqme, I marry ; iyo, I do not
go; igaiyo, I go.
Occasionally the sentence is inverted and the verb follows
the complement, okwiaxu, you are a man.
There is no passive. Impersonal verbs are replaced by
verbs with noun subjects; ainqrhQ (waterfalls); it rains,
cf. QxwQine (shame has me), I am ashamed.
Verbs are simple or compound ; to form the latter two
or more verbs are combined ; i so lai, I leave (lai = go),
irhiegade, I bring (I take, go, go); the object follows the
transitive verb ; mgrukpare, bring the lamp.
In sentences of affirmation a negative may be expressed in
three ways ; by ma, by throwing the accent back by inserting
i, or gi, or by vowel change ; ilue, I do it ; imalue, I do not
do it; ide, I come ; ide, I do not come ; ixia, I go; lixia,
I do not go ; ilai, I go ; igilai, I do not go ; grow a, he is at
home; ejowa, he is not at homej qnabie, she bore;
Qnqbie, she did not bear (a child).
With the imperative the negative is expressed by ge, or
(with a) by inserting i or re; mudia, stop ; ge,mudia, do not
stop; agbe, let him beat; aigbe, let him not beat; aixwe,
let him beat ; argxwe, let him not beat.
140 EDO GRAMMAR.
It frequently happens that a negative cannot be expressed
directly ; thus, to say " no one came," a periphrasis is
employed; komai kg ma no, re ^ro, anyone who came was
not there ; the negative must in such cases be expressed by
The prepositions are :
WQ, be, , u, in, among ; wuvu, in the hole ; ukirha, among
fi, into; fioha, into the bush,
uhume, up, upon ; uhumoke, up the hill.
oto, under ; ototqrha, under the tree,
inbera, over ; inberawa, over the house,
iy^ke, beyond ; iygkikpoba, beyond Ikpoba.
ke, out of, from ; kg do, from Edo.
ade.se, between ; ad^seneva, between two.
ba, kewi, nia, with ; bame, with me.
ne, for; nime, for me; nuwe, inwe, unwe, for thee;
ne, for him ; nima, for us ; nuwa, for you ; nina,
sokma, except; sokmqgene, except Ogene.
Among the adverbs are :
, . . together
, . . here.
. . there.
he ... -
he ... ,
, . . no.
* These are enclitic and must follow the subject of the verb.
EDO GRAMMAR. 141
Interrogative adverbs are :
inu ... ... ... ... ... how much.
dQde, de,kbo when.
de,kbonuki,bokp Q sej how long,
bqze ... ... ... ... ... why.
de,wo, de,ke ... ... ... ... where.
The conjunctions are :
vi, nia ... ... ... and.
Q, lai or.
e,lu .... glu neither .... nor.
sokma ... ... ... unless.
*gi ... ... ... ... when.
ute, ate ... ... ... till.
The use of conjunctions is, however, rare ; coordinate
sentences are employed in preference. Qrene, m eke, re, he
came before I did (lit., he has come, I then came); umudia,
imudiake, if you stay, I stay too. There is no special
form for dependent sentences; qnahogwawagboviele, she
heard the dog beat her son. Oratio obliqua is introduced by
Q,naw6 (he said), or by a pronoun, the verb being under-
Accent and tone.
The dynamic accent falls normally on the penultimate,
but in words ending in ia, ie, oa, ua, etc., it usually falls
on the antepenultimate. Where the last syllable is con-
tracted, it may fall on it; Qgb, he killed him. The
incidence of the accent in a sentence varies ; it may remain
142 EDO GRAMMAR.
as in the simple word, mqrukpare, bring the lamp
(Qrukpa) ; or it may fall on the penultimate, ok wiaxi, you
area man (Skwia); e,rhame, my father (grha; with this
compare fyeme, my mother).
A knowledge of the use of the musical accent or tone is
essential for the comprehension of the Edo languages. Two
tones, the high and the low, are readily distinguishable, and
combinations of these, known as rising and falling tones, are
The part played by musical accent and stress in dis-
tinguishing words which would otherwise be homonyms may
be illustrated by the word ise, which has at least five
is ... ... rattle.
ise ... ... mancala, a game.
;s I am, I get, I reach.
The musical accent also serves to mark a question ; owu>
he is dead ; owii, is he dead ?
The coming together of two vowels is frequently prevented
by the insertion of euphonic letters or by the elision of one ;
ibiekanelia, or ibiekeha, three boys. Sometimes the vowels
coalesce to a diphthong, as in Q wuwaiva, he said : you two ;
in this case there is also a euphonic change of vowel ; qwe,
he said, wa, you, eva, two is the full form and as often
happens after w the e is changed into u. Consonants are
changed for euphony ; ikwenie, I answer ; ikexwenie, I
For comparison with this I give a brief outline of the
grammar of the Wano language (Agenigbodi) derived from
The consonantal system is as follows :
k, kh, g
k > S
e> j j s
Dentals . . .
ts s, z
w, wh, hw
The vowels are as follows :
144 WANO GRAMMAR.
Plurals are formed as follows :
a ... e, i ... atata, star, itata ; agwa, dog f
Q ... e, a ... ggwe, goat, egwe ; Q!O, eye, alo.
i ... i . . . ... ime, farm.
o ... i, e, a ... okpotso, woman, ikpotso, obo,
white man, ibo, qbo, doctor,
qbo, oya, man, aiya, obQ,
u ... i (rarely e) udzo, duiker, idzo.
onoiya, this man, enaiya, these men.
onoiyae, that man, enaiyae, those men.
where there is an adjective, its initial vowel changes to
correspond to that of the noun, e.g.,
egwekpa, one goat, agwakpa, one dog ; akagbomi, new pot,
ekegbomi, new pots ; ogbomi, something new, emaneg-
bomi, new things ; atatagbomi, new star, itategbomi,
new stars ; but imegbomi, new farm.
There are three degrees of comparison : osimi (he is) good ;
osimine (good past) better ; osiminela (good past all) best.
Possessive Adjective and Pronoun.
me, ... ...
Q, oi, i . . . ... itsoi.
ma ... ... itsema.
wa ...... itsewa.
la, ola ...... itsela.
WANO GRAMMAR. 145
ni, who ; oiyanugbe (oiya ni, ugbe), the
man who killed him.
3rd person sing. : no, who, nio, whom,
pi. ne, nie.
Interrogative Adjective, Pronoun, and Adverbs.
oa, who, erne, what, oyernegona, what man is that ?
emokia, what is it ? emulu, what do you do ? emedza, why ?
emudzaluo, why do you do it ?
ebokia, how is he ? ebulu, how do you do it ?
ere, where, eruyi, where do you live ? ekwereuyi, house
where you live.
1. \, me, ineme, mi ... ... ... me, meme.
2. u, ugwe, ugwegwe e,, e, Q.
3. o, , a (dep. on vowel of noun) ... o, oi, i.
4 ma ma.
5. wa wa.
6. e, la ... ... ... ... ... la, ola.
There is no reflexive ; egbeme (my body) is used to express
Present : iluo.
Future : iraluo.
Future perfect : iraluone.
Perfect : iluone and iluopwe.
Imperative : lu, gwelu, walu.
146 WANO GRAMMAR.
tsimeluo, let me do it.
ikenogu, I want that he dies.
ikenSgu, I want that he does not die.
Infinitive : ugbemi, to strike.
Occasionally inversion takes place,
oiya ugia, man you are.
Compound subjects are treated as follows :
Ogene lagime luo : Ogene with me does it.
rnaluo : Ogene with me, we do it.
ogime lu : he and I do it.
magogenemaluo : I and Ogene, we do it.
oili lagoitsevara = he and the second one go.
The negative is expressed in various ways :
ikia, I go ... ... Ikia, ivakia, iyakia.
iluo, I do it ... ... iluo, ikaluo.
luo, do it ... ... kaluo.
EDO GRAMMAR. 1 4
(1) He killed three men :
qgbarheha, E. ; qgbetuea, Ij. ; qgbanwaia, Ar. ;
Qgbahumesa, Ok. ; eesaogbui, Ot. ; qgbigened,
-A-gb- ; qgbemoialea, Uz. ; Qxwiwhera, Aj. ;
qkwirnasa, ly. ; qxwixwera, Ag.
(2) The man whom he killed :
qmanSgbe, E. ; uwahanogbe, Ij. ; qgbwamogbe, Ar. ;
olehalenuagbweli, Sa. ; igenogbe, Agb. ; eleyanogbile,
Irua ; menoinelogbe.. Uz. ; Qinonokpebo, ly. ;
(3) The man who killed him :
Qmanogb, E. ; gnogbelo, Ij., Ar. ; oiogboni, Ok. ;
onoiyanogbili, Irua ; Qnogboi, Uz. ; onoxwelewo, Aj. ;
Qmonakpeleo, ly. ; qmonoxweleo, Ag.
(4) To sit is better than to stand :
notota Qmosenomudia, E. ; unetolomenumiza, Irua.
(5) Why do you do this ? I do it because I wish.
BqzenunalwQna ? Ilurio irimigikwe, E. ; emezenelaluro ?
Ilulo, rarekogolemi, Agb. ; bwisenunelwina ?
Iluorumuyiyame, Ij. ; emuyimurono ? Binimioro,
Ok. ; mosesuriyo ? Timio erinifia, Ot. ; bezexolema ?
lluo oigolime, Es ; fikieme woieluationa ? Fiki-
(6) What do you do every day ? I work in the fields.
Bwalu edagbe ? Igawinawato, E. ; bwalu edede ?
labia wokato, Ij. ; emuliogbire ? Igbedabia, Ar. ;
emwiriaxorifo ? mizitotogbehe, Ok. ; moli-
mokoregbe ? Izimimiyeyi, Ot. ; bwalusedefwani ?
(7) Which goat do you want ?
De,wenoh6 ? E. ; ijiremwQkqre ? Ok. ; ewenawufia ?
Ot. ; Qwenobiukile ? Agb. ; giewenaholo ? Es. ;
ewenaniukile ? Uz. ; dedievewogwqlo ? Aj.
148 EDO GRAMMAR.
(8) Who is coining ?
Grade, E. ; anqde, Ar. ; oiyono, Sa. ; olovade, Agb. ;
ko^jvade, Es. ; obade, Uz. ; denovade, Em. ;
amonokianamo, Aj. ; amunabeea, Ag.
(9) What is your name ?
Batirue ? E. ; emanzuze, Ar. ; evaiyere, Ok. ; mazue,
Ot. ; ode,we,, Sa. ; Qbatie, Agb. ; abawggye, Uz. ;
bahakie, Em. ; odewerp, Aj. ; odeloro, Ag.
(10) When are you going ?
De/lenoxia, E. ; eduakpare, e/lonode, Ij. ; ewalonqxware,
Ar. ; karukovala, Ok. ; eruirhiege, Ot. ; egegeubu-
war^ra, Agb.; egeurekia, Esv. ; egenuraixia, Irua;
eregeanewazakpa, Uz. ; okerawowokbo, Aj. ; oke,re-
wotikbo, ly. ; okevowokbo, Ag.
COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY OF THE
LANGUAGES OF THE ?DO-
150 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY.
Agb. Agbede (town).
Agv. Agbede (villages).
Aj. Ajeyubi (S.).
Edo. All languages except Sobo dialects.
Em. Emosoga (S.).
Ew. Ewu (S.).
Ib. Ibie (N. Nigeria).
Iy. lyede (S.).
Ko. Kominio (N. Nigeria).
Sap. Sapele (S.).
So. Soso (N. Nigeria).
The Sobo places are distinguished by S in brackets.
Note. As a rule the first person singular of the verb is
given. In transitive verbs the object pronoun (le) is often
ABDOMEN : eku, E. ; ewe,, Ar. ; udo, Ok., Ot. ; ejke,, Sa., Agb.,
Avg., Es. ; agu, Uz. ; udiqlimi, lb., Ko. ; ere, (?) So. ; eia,
Is. ; vu, Sobo.
ADULT : on wale, E. ; isasa, Ij. ; Qiiiogbqma, Ar. ; QmQxrume,
Ok. [i.e., boy becomes man] ; esasagele, Ot. ; ohagQne,
Agb. ; igbama, Es. ; izawe, Uz. ; Qnogqdo, Ib. ; qdzewo,
Ko. ; qmolqdp, So. ; obesinabesina, Is. ; oxwogrogro, Em. ;
oglegle, Aj., Ew.; awotete, ly.
ANIMAL : alame, E. ; ejami, Ij., Ok., Sa., Agb., Uz., Sap., Ew. ;
Qua, Ar., Ot.
ANKLE: orhuawe, E. ; akukuswe, Ar. ; ugwavulovq, Ok.;
axariwe, Sa. ; itulawe, Agb. ; oxunwe, Agv. ; uvirowe,,
Em. ; ahorowQ, Aj.
ANT, BLACK : oxia, E. ; ?mumu, Ij. ; Ot., Sa., Agb., Uz. ;
imwamwa, Ar. ; izizimi, Ok. ; 5mumu, Agv. ; umumu,
Es. ; anwinwa, lb. ; imumwa, Ko. ; ikia, So. ; eba, Is. ;
imu, Aj. ; ianwo, Em.
ANT, WHITE: qxa, E. ; e,xa, Ij. ; ikpala, Ar. ; orhumu, Ok.;
idodolo, Agb. ; olgle, Agv. ; aton, Es. ; idodo, Uz. ;
glaname, Aj. ; qrova, Sap. ; CWQWQ, Em.
152 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY.
ANVIL : Qvie, E. ; ugiaoto, Agb. ; qkezjli, Agv.
ARM : obq, K, Ij., Sa., Agb., Agv., Es. (pi. abo,), Is., Aj., Ew. ;
orhgrnbg, Ar. ; erha, Ok. ; gobq, Ot. ; otuabq, Ib. ;
okpakobg, Ko. ; ote,kpe, So.
ARROW : ifQme, E. ; ofqme, itakbo (tipped), Agb. ; uf^me, Agv. ;
ofemi, itakbo, Uz. ; odada, Sap.
ARROW POINT : uto, E. ; udqlQ, Agb., Agv. ; izugba, Uz.
ARROW FEATHERS : akwe, E. ; ulolo, Agb. ; ulolo, Agv. ;
ASHES : gmwe, E. ; enwe, Agb., Uz. ; QUIQ, Agv., Es. ; oria,
ASK (QUESTION), v. : in^lQta, E. ; inolqgbo, Agb. ; itamaeda-
tio^re, Agv. ; m^Qingli, Es. ; inqlqgbo (I ask him), Uz. ;
ASK FOR, v. : inolQmi, E. ; ianonu, Ij. ; memilahilawoni, Ok. ;
meminQgwe, Ot. ; inolQgbelimi, Agb. ; inologbemili, Agv. ;
inpoia (I ask a man), Es. ; inqgbo, Uz.
ATTACH, v. : igbaimwe, E. ; idiohiwo, Ij. ; niigelo, Ot. ; idigli,
Sa. : ijuliowo, Agb. ; idioliowo, Agv. ; igbale, Es. ;
idiQiiiina, Uz. ; mikiulo, Em.
BABY : Qm^bo, E. ; gm^nggbo, Ar., Ot. ; Qmor^xene, Ok. ;
Qmowe (new child), Agb. ; gggrnqinowe, Uz. ; qinofe, Ib.,
Ko., Ibl. ; QniQfofa, Em. ; Qmoboba, Sobo.
BACK : iyqke, E., Agb. ; ehimi, Ij., Sa. ; uxoxo, Ar. ; ukoko,
Ok. ; iki, Agv. ; ike, Es. ; itsike, Uz. ; ubuko, Em., Sap. ;
BACK HOUSE : iyekowa, E., Agb. ; e,kigoloa, Agv. ; ukokowa, Es.
BAG : ekpo, E., Sap. ; Ekba, Es., Uz.
BANDAGE, v. : igbai, E. ; igbalo, Agb. ; igbale, Agv., Es.
BAR (for door) : okbe, Agb., okene, Agv. ; akava, Uz. ; onurh-
BASKET (MAN'S) : agma, E. ; akwika, Agb., Uz. ; ukpoli, Agv. ;
akwa, Es. ; osa, Sap.
BASKET (WOMAN'S) : oxwai, E. ; okba, Agb. ; upali, Agv.; oxwali,
Es. ; okba, Uz. ; osa, Sap.
COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 153
BATH, r. : ixwgwowa, E. ; ikwQwowa, Agb. ; ikowa, Agv. ;
ixqlegbea, Es. ; ikwea, Uz.
BE, v. I AM A HUNTER : ohuQxi, E. ; ohuailu, Ij. ; agiqd^kila,
Agb., Uz. ; ohueki, Agv. ; omilohaixi, Es.
I AM A FARMER : QWQxi, E. ; Qwekila, Agb. ; oeleki,
Agv. ; onomugbwQxi, Es. ; ogwimekila, Uz.
I AM A BLACKSMITH : ogwixi, E., Agv. ; agbedelu, Ij. ;
ororamikila, Agb.; onologwixo (?) Es. ; ugbidi-
Qkila, Uz. ; memoguduonwame, Aj. ; mewogii, Ew. ;
AFRAID, AM, v. : ohamomi ohaigume, E. ; inof we (I pass
through fear), Agb., Agv. ; ofemume, Es. ; ofomume
(fear catches me), Uz.
ANGRY, AM, v. : ohumume, E. ; owuwume, Agb. ;
ASHAMED, AM, v. : Qxuemume, E. ; ^kgrnume, Agb. ; e,ko-
lilume, Agv. ; exoilome, Es. ; imamomumi, Uz.
BIG MAN, AM : ixienowale, E. ; idewokolukpizia, Agb.;
ihulilopihali,Agv.; ikidomai, Es. ; ikilemidokpiza,Uz.
COLD, AM, v. : Qligbime, E. ; oyigbemi, Agb. ; oninig-
beme, Agv. ; uligbemi, Es. ; oliliqgbemi, Uz.
CONTENT, AM, v. : Qkovqme, E: ; ixw^le, Ij. ; miko, Ok.
ikwe, Agb. ; ikolo, Agv. ; ikoli, Es. ; ikwe, Uz.
CONTENT, AM NOT, v. : Qkomavgme, E. ; isQxwe, Ij.
miziko, Ok.;; imakwe, Agb. ; imas^xgn, Agv., Es.
imakwe ; evuiyevame, Em.
DISGUSTED, AM, v. : ihonimioi (I do not wish to see it)
ikelenimio, Agb. ; iholonimiQli, Agv.
GLAD, AM, v. : igggoi, E. ; igiQgie, Agb. ; igQgo, Agv.
ig^Qg?. Es - ; igiegie, Uz.
HUNGRY, AM, v. : oliam^gbime, E., Agv. ; ozam^gbime,
Agb. ; osamugbQme, Uz.
PLEASED, AM, v. : igQg^, E. ; igiegie (I laugh), Agb.,
Uz. ; igQg, Es. ; megqdp, Aj.
THIRSTY, AM, v. : owam^gbime, E. ; ozamQgbeme, Agb.,
Agv. ; ohamome.gbeine, Es. ; osamogbeme, Uz.
VEXED, AM, v. : imohu (I have anger), E. ; imqlovou,
154 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY.
Agb. ; imiohu, Agv. ; iv (?=I shout), Es. ; imoofu
(I have anger), Uz. ; ivuwie.be, Aj.
BEAR CHILD, v. : ivie (qmo), Agb., Agv.
BECKON, v. : iyobQtigle, E. ; itobqtio, Agb. ; itobQtio, Agv. ;
irobqtioiya, Es. ; irobqwegioiya, Uz. (I take hand call
BED : ukbo, E. ; utukbo, Agb. ; ekologu, Agv. ; ukwo, Es. ;
Qkbaise, Uz. ; ukbe, Sap., Ew.
BEG FOR WIFE, v. : ilimiainoye.mqme, E. ; idolaninorharemimi,
Agb. ; inglggbami, Agb. ; ixcainolenohramelimi, Agv. ;
BEGIN, v. : isoboio [also I catch him], E. ; izu'obano, Ar. ;
milena, Ok. ; igbare, Agb. ; isobowo, Es. ; igbae/le, Uz. ;.
mikeluolo, Aj. ; rniceluo, Or. ; metibluwe, ly. ; miceluwo,
BELIEVE, v. : iyaiyi, E. ; igbaikejo^ Agb. ; igbakiqli, Agv. - r
irhQQWQ, Es. ; itewQWQ, Uz. (I give ear).
BELL : agogo, e,lo, E., Agb., Agv., Es. ; (dog) akaba, E., Agb.,
Agv., Es., Uz., Sap.
BELLOWS : ekw, E. ; ikie,, Agb. ; ekiQ, Agv. ; ikie, Uz.
BIKD : ahiame, E. ; aflame, Ij. Sa., Agb. ; afia, Ar. ; afgri, Ok. - f
gafue, Ot. ; afieme, Agv. ; omovQra, Aj., Sap. ; om^ra, Em.
BITE, v. : iffaile, E. ; ihianako, Sa. ; ikiono, Agb. ; ikiono (take
with mouth), Agv. ; ikulole, Es. ; ikiokioi ? Uz. ;
meromilo, Aj. ; meronie, ly. ; inedoglo, Ag. ; medomoro^
BLACKSMITH : Ogun, E., Sobo ; agbe/ie, Ora, Uz.
BLEED, v. : ituesagie, E. ; itanakwa, Agb. (blood runs away) ;
arkain^kwa, Agv. ; (?) ikwale, Es. ; itaivare (blood comes),
BLOOD : Qsagie, E. ; e,re, Ij., Sa. ; cjiya, Ar. ; ade,, Ok. ; ita r
Agb. ; atani, Agv. ; arhali, Es. ; obala, Em., Sap. ; esage,
Aj., Ew., ly.
BODY : e,gb, E., Es., Ij., Ar., Ok., So. ; gbe, Agb., Agv. ; ijQgbe,
Ib. ; idiQgbe, Ko. ; igbQligbe, Is. ; qma, Em., Aj., Ew. ;
Qklqma, ly. ; omaiyobi, Sap.
BOILS, IT, v. : Qti, am^ti, E., Agb. ; qti, Agv., Uz. ; amgxwa, Es.
COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 155
BONE : ugbqdoko, E. ; akpoka, Ij. ; ugwa, AT., Agb. ; uwa,
Ok. ; agogodu, Sa. ; ogwg, Agv. ; ugwe, Es. ; owa, Em. ;
osoaso, Aj., Ew., Sap., ly. ; ugbeku, Sap.
BORE, v. : ihai, E. ; iyalo, Agb. ; ihaloi, Agv. ; ihalgle, Es. ;
Bow : ohabq, E. ; uzi, Agb., Agv., Uz. ; murabo, Sap.
Bow STRING: eka ( = tietie), E. ; uka, Agb.; uka, Agv.;
BOY : awoxa, E., Sa. ; oviamoxu, Ij. ; QmQma, Ar. ; Qrnqze,
Ok. ; qmqfanike, Ot. ; woxa, Agb. ; owoxa, Es. ; igiwiai,
, Uz. ; ukukwQmo, Ib. ; QHIQ, Ko. ; qmqkeke, So. ;
Is. ; Qmotqte, Sobo ; omaha, ly.
BRACELET: Qlqmo (brass), E., awQl^ki, Agb.; ukelu, Agv.;
Qgiaga (iron), udokoli, Uz.
BRASS : Qlqmg, E., Agv. ; Qlomi, Agb.
BREAK A BONE, v. : ibwefQ, E. ; ixiogwa, Agb. ; (?) irhobowalo,,
BREAK, v. : ibwQ, E. ; inuno, Ar. ; ikaloya, Agb. ; im^lonia,
Agv. ; iwulqla, Es. ; ikulqla, Uz. ; memirhilo, Aj. ;
BREAST, WOMAN'S : nwe, E. ; e^le, Sa. ; enye, Agb., Agv.,
Uz. ; inye, Es. ; ive, Is. ; ivie, Aj., Ew., ly. ; evie, Sap. ;
BREATH : gw, E., Sa. ; ati, Ar. ; arhina, Ok. ; orema,
Ot. ; oyqze, Agb. ; o^hie, Agv. ; awo, Es. ; aiye, Ib. ;
Ko. ; iye, So. ; ifuiza, Is. ; Em. ; erhi, Aj. ; e;ri, Ew. ;
Qmg, ly. ; ubiuxu, Ag.
BRIPGE : gzenawale, E. ; gkwa, Agb. ; qba, Agv. ; akwa, Es. ;
BRING, v. : imw^re, E. ; imwqvai, Ij. ; imuvare, Ar. ; mimuare,
Ok. ; mimore, Ot. ; memiteb, Ib. ; mipase, Ko. ; mimwe,
Aj. ; melore, ly. ; mewore, Ovu.
BUILD, v. : ibowa, E., Agv. ; igiowa, Agb. ; iruwa, Es.
BUSH : Qgbo, oha, E. ; ogwa, Agb., Uz. ; igwigwi, Agv.
BUSH BUCK : rhue, E., Ij., Ar., Ot. ; rua, Ok. ; etue, Agb.,
Uz. ; orhua, Sobo.
156 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY.
BUSH Cow : eha, E. ; ehq, Ij. ; Ok. ; QWQ, Ar. ; QWQ, Ot. ; eyq,
Agb., Agv. ; aige, Uz. ; ege, Ib. ; efa, Is. ; ode,, Em. ; oglu,
Aj. ; orele, Ew.
BUY, v.\ id, E., Ar., Agb., Agv., Uz. ; misoni, Ok.; me/lQ,
Aj, Em., ly.
CALABASH (WATER) : uko, E, Es. ; ukomi, Agb. ; ubelQ, Agv. ;
emeomi, Uz. ; CALABASH (PLATE) : okina, E. ; ukpade,
Agb, Uz. ; ugba, Agv, Es. ; oiokpa, Sap.
CALL, v. : itiglQ ihgma, E. ; iakie, Ij. ; megwoni (him), Ok. ;
mizazue, Ot. ; itioiya, Agb. ; iduloikwa, Agv. ; itiqli,
Es. ; iwQgioi, Uz. ; inisele, Aj.
CANOE : ok, E. : 6kQ, Agb., Agv, Es, Uz, Sap.
CAP : rhu, E, Sap. ; atu, Agb, Agv. ; aru, Es.
CARRY (HEAD), v. : imweniuhumu, E. ; irhehemimo, Ij. ; mimor-
huarima, Ok. ; idfiawulorni, Agb. ; idftawuliqmo, Agv. ;
irhusome.suai, Uz. ; munulokpahiomi, Aj. ; CARRY
(BACK) : imwQwowo, E. ; imiduxoxamoni, Ok. ; mir-
horimoa, Ot. ; idftgwiygke, Agb. ; idftowiki, Agv. ;
imuolewowowodekeke, Es. ; irhitsikesuai, Uz. ; CARRY
(Hip) : imugxaife, E. ; idusefi, Agb., Agv. ; mirnulohebie-
CARRY (HAND) ,v. : imwe mobp, E. ; irhubomoi, Ij. ; imunq-
menubo, Ar. ; mimomwa, Ok. ; imulqmoobo, Agb. ;
imwolemQjbo, Agv.; imwQle.he,, itobqmedwo, Es. ; itobq-
m^dwo, Uz.; miobomu, Aj.
CATCH UP, v. (? I GO ON) : igalare, Agb. ; ikoire, Agv. ; ixiakore,
Es. ; ikiaware (or, I meet him), Uz.
CATTLE, Cow : grnila, E, Ij. ; Qna, ^la, Ar, Ok, Ot. ; Qm^na,
Agb. ; e.rne.la, Agv. ; na, Uz, Ib, Ko. ; la, So. ; e,sue, Is. ;
rhue, Sap. ; amina, Em.
CHAMELEON : ^loxi, E. ; alolokwi, Agb. ; aloxi, Agv. ; ewiwe,
Es. ; ololhi, Aj.
CHANGE, MONEY, v. : imi^ligo, E. ; imiglikpigo, Agb. ; imigligo,
Agv. : ihialigo, Es. ; ifiaiokwai, Uz.
CHARCOAL : ibf, E. : iveAg, Agb. ; igiomeli, Agv. ; igiomeli, Es. :
ikpikianiQgi, Uz. ; ibiQ, Sap.
COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 157
CHEEK : e,gba, E., Ib., Ko., Em., Ew. ; Sap., Iy., Ag. ; irhu, Ij. ;
e,kua, Ar. ; Qkpa, Ok., Agb., Agv.; exwa, Ot. ; iti, Es. ; isa,
Uz. ; iduagba, So. ; agya, Is.
CHEST : e,w, E. ; ida, Ij. Sa. ; uda, Ar. ; emo, Ok. ; iga, Ot. ;
akanudu, Agb., udu, Agv., Es., Uz. ;iSobo, aiye, Ib., Ko. ;
irenwe, So. ; omu, Is. ; e,kodi, Aj.
CHIEF : gxaime, pi. ixaimi, E. ; gligili, Ij. ; qligie, Ar. ; ovie,
Ok. ; okpusa, Ot. ; okainio, Agb., Agv., Uz. ; omoike, Ib.,
Ko. ; ita, So. ; awotu, Ew. ; qtota, Sap. ; oletu, Iy. ; onetu,
CHIN : agba, Edo ; agboto, Sobo.
CHISEL : ana, E. ; avig, Agb., Uz. ; ahia, Agv.
CIRCUMCISE, excise clitoris, v. : irhue, E. ; iru^lqmo, Agb. ;
ituelgmo, Agv. ; irhuglQino, Es. ; itueloiya (a man).
CLAY (for house) : eke, E. ; owete, Agb. ; ow^re, Agv. ; e,kme,
(for pots) : obwQ, E. ; ogwe,, Agb. ; ibi, Agv. ; agaga,.
CLEAN, v. : ihwale, E. ; ikia, Agb.; ikia, Agv.; igbolqlia, Es. ;
ikbeminao ?, Uz.
CLIMB HILL, v. : ihioke, E. ; izelege, Agb.; ihaloke, Agv. ; iyadam-
okefere, Es. ; iseokwigge, Uz.
(tree) ; v. : ihiuhum^ra, E. ; izelukuluta, Agb. ; ihalo
kumurha, Agv. ; iadamorbafgge, Es. ; iseosomura,
CLITORIS : avie, E. ; ikpili, Ar. ; ukpaba, Sa. ; uga, Ok. ; usoma-
gba, Ot. ; ab^ge,, Agb. ; ukpe, Agv. ; ukpqba, Es. ; ubioxolo,
Em. ; okqreko, Ew.
CLOTH : ukmgn, E. ; ukbo, Agb..; anma, Sap.
CLOUD (DARK) : amqbi, E. ; am^suebili, Agb. ; ameaholu, Agv. ^
COHABIT WITH, v. : itume, ihuele, E. ; igqlqgwe, Agb. ;
inoinogwe, Agv. ; iviokposogwe, Uz.
COLLECT, v. : isi^koko, E. ; isiakokore, Agb. ; ikokQiire, Agv. ;
ivwehawekoko, Es. ; (ground nuts), inQnqlaikokQre, Uz
COMB : oiiya, E. ; a^iayeto, Agb. ; oyayeto, Agv. ; uzazetu, Es. ;
158 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY.
COME : id'e, Ed. ; fde, Ij. ; fde,, AT. ; me"de, Ok. ; inide, Ot. ; ivare,
Agb., Agv. ; ivai, Es., Uz. ; amizezi, Is. ; mekia, Em. ; meea,
Aj., Sap. ; meheca, Ug. ; meta, Ew. ; mecaiyo, ly. ; meaika,
Ag. ; mekia, Ovu.
COMPLIMENT, v. : iwQmado (I say to man, I salute him), E. ;
iyoxituo (I say to him, I salute him), Agb. ; iwexiatuqli,
Agv. ; iyoxiatuqli, Es.
COMPOUND : e,ke,lafe, Agb. ; Qkejafe, Agv. ; okbuna, Es. (fence
of house) ; afe, Uz.
COOK, BOIL, v. : ile,, E. ; inie, Agb., Agv., Es., Uz.
COOKING POT : uwawa, E ; ugwe, Agb. ; owawa, Agv. ; uwawa
(soup), axe (tufu), Es. ; ake [nargze], Uz. ; Qwqle, Sap.
COOL (make), v. : igagi^furi, E. ; izofo, Agb. ; igoifo, Agv. ;
ifwqlQli, Es. : izoif wa, Uz.
COUNT, v. : ikai, E. ; ika, Agb. ; ikale, Agv., Es. ; ikalari, Uz.
COURT : adesukpafe, E. ; akotafoa, Agb. ; Qgodo, Agv. ;
COWRIES : igo, ikpigo, E.
CRAMP : er;ra, E. ; wqlomakpakpa, Agb. ; iriro, itito, Agv.
CROCODILE : agbaka, qne, E. ; onye, Agb. ; Qgile, Es. ; oniada,
Es. ; agbakla, Aj.
CROSS (river), v. : ifiezgra, E. ; ife,dara (I enter river), Agb. ;
ifwQdQra, Agv. ; igbqrada, Es. ; idada, Uz.
CUT, v. : ifiai, E., Uz. ; ivaloi, Ij. ; ivialo, Agb. ; ibiali, Agv.,
Es. ; menyalie, ly. ; menyamelg, Ag.
CUT UP, v. : ivale, E., Es. ; iwanQlo, Agb. ; isolgli, Agv. ;
DANCE, v. : igbe, iku, ikulu, E. ; igbeliini, Agb. ; igbexeli, Es. ;
igbokai, Uz. ; (I play song) migbegbe, Aj. ; migbigbe
Ug., Ag., Ov. ; mikbehao, Em. ; megbeha, ly.
(man's) : isakpaide, E. ; agbgnugie, Agb., Agv. okaimoi,
Uz. ; exa, Sap.
(woman's) : igbelemokposo, Agb. ; igbeminikoxuo, Agv. ;
okaikposo, Uz. ; exa, Sap.
DAY : de, E., Es., Sobo ; e,le, Agb., Agv., Uz. ; ogo (whole
COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 159
TO-DAY : gle,, E. ; ge,le, Agl> ; gleno,, Agv. ; eleje. Es. ;
eje,, Uz. ; none, Sobo.
TO-MORROW : axwe, E. ; akwe, Agb. ; ako, Agv. ; axo
Es. ; akwe, Uz. ; ode, Sobo.
3RD DAY : ilaxwe, E. ; akwefwa (to-morrow finish), Agb.,
Uz. ; e,tiako, Agv., Es. ; edejelo, Sap ; erehep, Aj. ;
Qdqglo, Ug. ; Qdezgro, En. ; edeyoro, Ag.
4TH DAY : un?QlQ, E. ; akwearesuzi, Agb. ; ^sgd^ne, Agv. ;
gdengle,, Es. ; udgne, Ug.
OTH DAY : usigle,, E. ; urelgle,, Agb. ; uheleje,, Agv.
6TH DAY : e.dehae.le,, E. ; kpgleeraeje, Agb. ; Qdahaeje,,
VTH DAY : gdehmoQle,, E.
STH DAY : nQvede,lwane, E.
YESTERDAY : node, E. ; node, Agb. ; node, Agv. ; node,
Es. ; eneuode, Uz. ; gke/lQle,, Sap. ; odepwho, Aj. ;
gdeokpoli, Ug. ; qderowali, Ag.
3RD DAY : ngggdia, E. ; qnukp^node, Agb. ; inolua,
Agv. ; Qsgdea, Es. ; e.ne.kpode, Uz. ; edeho^vie, Aj. ;
4TH DAY : n^g^dene, E. ; inqkpinekbude, Agb. ; ^sedene,
5TH DAY: n^vuse, E.; eleosikpilizi, Agb. ; Qleosuh^le, Agv.
GTH DAY : nevedeta, E.
TTH DAY: nevedehino, E.
DELIVER A MESSAGE, v. : igwaxa, ininie, E. ; itame (I tell),
Agb. ; itamale, Agv. ; itaniale, igiqli, Es. ; igioiuso 1 (I
say to him, you understand), Uz.
DESCEND, v. : iture, E. ; irhure, Ij. ; mebepenarike, Ok ;
ize,lede, Agb. ; itu^re, Agv. ; idawohraru^re, Es. ; ikfamde,
DESTROY, SPOIL, v. : irhialua, E. ; itialQiya, Agb. ; itialQria,
Agv. ; idumqlia, Es. ; itiala, Uz.
DETACH, v. : irhalehi, E. ; irhielowgri, Agb. ; irhiolewqri,
Agv. ; italgle, Es. ; iwadiowo, Uz.
DEVASTATE, v. : igenowa, E. ; itonaleia (burn), Agb. ; itonqlia,
Agv. ; itu^lqla, Es. ; itonewola, Uz. (I burn it down).
160 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY.
DIG, V.: itQnoii, E. ; iatoi, Ij. ; igwa, Agb. ; igwanqli, Agv. ;
igwale, Es. ; igwa, Uz.
DIG UP, v. : ivw, E. ; igbololo, Agb. ; igbolqli, Agv. ; itinia
(yams), Es. ; igwaiio, Uz.
DIE, v. : iwu, E. ; igu, Agb. ; igulu, Agv. ; iyulu, Es. ; igu, Uz.
DIGGING STICK : ogba, E. ; osiii, Agb. ; Ekwia, Agv. ; ogba,
Es. ; otsui, Uz.
DOOR : QXII, E. ; ukazi, Agb. ; ku, Agv. ; (jxu, Es. ; gku, Uz.
DOORWAY : onurhu, E. ; unugi, Agb. ; olukwQde, Agv. ; ode,
Es. ; unugioa, Uz. ; e,kie, Sap. ; aliniQke, Ew.
DREAM, v. : iinina, E. ; iwona, Agb. ; iwohie, Agv. ; iwohie,
Es. ; iwona, Uz. ; memerhemere, Aj.
DRESSING PIN : ukoti, E. ; uke, Agb. ; ubg, Agv.
DRINK, v. : inwo, idai (wine), E. ; mQrimwo, Ok. ; minwo,
Ot. ; iyame, idanio, Agb. ; inyame, Agv. ; idainyo,
imwameo, Es. ; iwo, Uz. ; medame, Aj. ; medemu, Ov. ;
medudi, Iy., Ag.
DRIVE AWAY, v. : ixwefwa, E. ; ixola, Agb. ; ikwqli, Agv. ;
DRUM, CHIEF'S : izSduma, E. ; emaxwqlenugie, Agb. ; ebax-
wejenugie, Agv. ; abejbe, Uz. ; Qge/lQ, Sap.
MAN'S : Qmogo, E. ; akwema (big), Es.
DOCTOR'S : ige.de, E. ; ike^bo, Agb. ; ikede, Uz.
WOMAN'S : em^rakpaide, E. ; Qk^ga, Agv. ; ube, Uz.
STICK : ok^ke, E. ; osqkpurokaga, Agb. ; ukpaukidi, Agv.
DRY MYSELF, v. : ixiqgbe, E. ; ikpol^gbia, Agb. : izbol^gbia,
Agv. ; iakaibe, Es. ; ikaigbe, Uz.
EAR : eh^, E., Agv., Es., Sa. ; eo, Ar. ; erh^, Ok. ; gozqgi, Ot. ;
ezo, Agb. ; ewo, Uz. ; esp, Ib., Ko., Ibl., Is., Iy. ; erho,,
Em., Ag. ; orho, Aj., Ew., Sap.
EARRING : ikb^mewo, Uz.
EAST : Ohimi, unwowie, E. ; Qbeleragyiri, Agb. ; Qgovoida-
gere, Agv. ; qligbia, Uz. ; olivi, Aj.
EAT, v. : iri;mi, il^, E. ; ialimi, Ij. ; meriri, Ok. ; milezi, Ot. ;
iile, Agb. ; ileme, Agv. ; ilSbale, Es. ; ile, Uz. ; meliQino
Ag., Aj., Em., Ov. ; meliare, Iy.
COMPARATIVE DICTION AKY. 161
DON'T, v. : iil, E. ; iale, Ij. ; igoxili, Ar. ; megQmeroni^
Ok. ; mierilunivo, Ot. ; ule, Agb. ; ilexileme, Agv. ;
FORBID (food), v. : iwa, E. ; igwa, Agb. ; meya, Em.
EAVES : iname, E. ; akeda, Agb., Agv., Uz. ; Qgbede, Es.
EIGHT : glqle, E., Sa., Ib., Sobo ; ;le,le, Agv., Es. ; inyene, Ar.,
Ok. ; enye, Ot., Ib. ; inye.nie, So. ; hue, Is. ; e,le, Agb,,,
EIGHTEEN : ivarawugye, E. ; ikevasue, Ij., Sa. ; kevaresue,
Ar. ; karevuye, Ok. ; azevasowigye, Ot. ; igbele, Agb.,.
Uz. ; igbenene, Agv. ; evaigbenebe, Es. ; igbele, Uz. ;.
ixwewenele, Aj. ; ixwigbelele, Em., Ew. ; ixwoligbera,.
ELBOW : igwabg, E., Es., Agb., Agv. ; ugwabo,, Ij. ; ugwobq,,
Sa. ; akpagobq, Ar. ; ukoxwaxwa, Ok. ; ukpegabQ, Ib. ;
ukpabq, Ko. ; ukpanobQ, So. ; usulobg, Is. ; erhuobo;,
Em. ; egorobQ, Aj.
ELEVEN : owqro, E. ; jgbglo, Ij. ; igbgkpa, Ar., Ot. ; ogbgrawo,
Ok. ; ugbolo, Sa. ; ugboluo, Agb. ; ugbolu, Agv. ; igboloa,
Es. ; igbgloa, Uz. ; igbaloguo, Ib. ; igbaguo, Ko. ' r
igbanowo, So. ; oguto, Ibl. ; bebqlgda, Is. ; IXWQVO, Em. ;;
UWQVO, Aj. ; ukwQvo, Ug. ; UXWQVO, Sap., Ag. ; IWQVO,.
ENEMY: ogia, E., Sa. ; odimi, Ij. ; obe, Ar., Ok., Ot. ; obie,
Agb. ; obe, Agv., Uz. ; ovQgle, Em. ; ovQgile, Aj. ; uk^rne, .
Sap. ; oliofle, Iy. ; ovlovlo, Ag.
EXHALE, v. : ibqwerioto, E. ; iy^zeoto, Agb. ; iyehiegoto, Agv.
EXTINGUISH, v. : isi^koto, E. ; isiqkQloto, Agb. ; isoikioto,
Agv. ; imwQladenare, Es. ; ipunoiya, Uz.
EYE, FACE : alo, E., Agb., Agv., Es., Uz. ; e,lo (e,ro), Sobo.
Eye, also: ikpalo, Agb., Agv., Ugbelu, Uz., lolo, Es. ;
ukpQlu, Ib. ; ukpamelu, Ko. ; id^du, So. ; am, Is. ; ovaro,.
Aj. ; owaro, Ew.
EYEBROW: ikalo, E. ; Qgogom^lo, Ar. ; oxomil$lo, Ot. ; igogejo;
Sa. ; ikokalo, Agb. ; !kalo, Agv. ; itif^lu, Es. ; ikpivialo^
Uz. ; Qgbglo, Em., Sap. ; qkmaro, Aj.
EYELASHES : ifwalo, E. ; etuxuxume.le, Ar. ; ituilo 1 , Ok. ;
162 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY.
utukwimilo, Ot. ; iruQlo, Sa. ; ivovalo, Agb. ; ifualo, Agv. ;
ihuglo, Es. ; ifufwalo, Uz. : etuejo, Em., Sap. ; ifofaro,
FALL, v. : id, E. ; ide, Agb. ; ide,re, Es. ; ide., Uz.
FAMILY : e,gb, E. ; eale, Sa. ; ftzizi, Agb. ; unwele, Agv. ;
egbe, Es. ; usisi, Uz. ; inyogo, Ib., Ko. ; iminyo, Ibl. ;
obinowe, Is. ; olwa, Em. ; e"kulu, Aj., Ew.
FARM : ugbo, E. ; ime, Agb., Uz.
OLD : ogo, E.
FELL A TREE, v. : ile,ragboto, igbehra, E. ; igbohra, Agb. ;
ihiQradio, Es. ; ifioraigbe, Uz.
FELL, v. : itu^gboto, E. ; igborhadio (tree), Agb. ; igbolQgio,
Agv. ; iruzeaihi[ora], Es. ; ifioigbe, Uz.
FETCH, r. : iyamwe, E. ; itielore, Agb. ; ihoanoiya, Es. ; inwoidi,
Uz. ; memitobe, Ib., Ko. ; mizegbegwaizi, Is. ; ekaimwore,
FIFTEEN : ikesugie, E. ; igbehene, Ij. ; igbihi, Ar. ; Qgbise,
Ok. ; igbize, Ot. ; igbihe^e, Sa. ; igbese, Uz. ; ixwioli,
Em. ; ixioli, Ew.
FIFTY : ikegbesia, E. ; evaigbe, Ij., Ar., Ko. ; iesa, Ok. ;
iegevarigbe, Ot. ; igboivaekpeigbe, Sa. ; uwovikpanigbe,
Agb. ; uwovabigbe, Agv. ; ekigbesia, Es. ; igboivaik-
pegoigbe, Uz. ; evegbe, Ib., Ibl. ; isievantigbe, So. ;
Qgbelevabeligbe, Is.; ugioli, Em.; uzuvegbixwe, Sap.,
Ew. ; ujuvegbiwe, Aj.
FIGHT, v. : igbina, igw^gbina, E. : imakgle, Agb. : imakQle,
Agv. ; ikgli, Es. ; ikoi, Uz.
FILE : olima, E. ; onima, Agb, Agv. ; eli, Uz.
FILE TEETH, v. ; isakg, E., Agb., Uz.
FIND (SEE), v. : imioi, igwaloi, E. ; mimosa, Ot, ; imieloo, Agb. ;
imioni, Agv. ; imiqli, Es. ; ikeloi (I look for it), Uz. ;
memeleje, Aj. ; megwolQ, Em.
FINGER : ikpihab^, E., Ij. ; ikanabg, Ar., Ok. ; ikagobg, Ot. ;
ukpobQ, Sa. ; buzobQ, Ag. ; ikpwabg, Ib. ; inesabg, Ko. ;
oza, Is. ; uriabq, Em.
COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 163
FINISH, r. : ilugfo, E., Ij. ; miygfo, Ok. ; miyone, Ot. ; ilulone,
Agb. ; iluQlifo, Agv. ; iluolgfo, Es. ; isQsene, Uz. ;
mihiomile, Ov. ; meluiio, ly. ; milulune, Ag.
FIRE ; e.hi-0, E. ; eta, Agb. ; erane, Agv., Es. ; etai, Uz. ;
FIRST : oka, nokalo, E. ; gziqzi, Agb., Uz. ; qliqliQli, Agv. ;
okaro, esigvo, Ug.
FISH ; ehe, E. ; ilehie, Ar. ; afgremi, Ok. ; ilezie, Ot. ; eheje,
Sa., Agv. ; eze, Agb. ; Qse, Uz. ; e,li, Em., Aj., Ew. ; elie,,
FISH SPEAR ; akaihQ, E. ; ukpgle.ku, Agb. ; 5zui, Agv. ; opolo,
Es. ; Qga, Sap.
FISHER : Qgbeke,, E. ; Qgbeze, Agb. ; Qgbehele, Es. ; QkQgo, Aj.
FIVE : is, E., Es. ; ihe,ne, Ij. ; ihi, Ar. ; isili, ezi, Ok. ; ize, Ot.,
Agb. ; ihqle,, Sa. ; jse, Uz. ; ise, Ib., Is. ; isie, Ko. ; ize,
So., Ib. ; inyoli, Em., ly. ; iyuli, Sap., Aj., Ag. ; iyoli, Ew.
FLAME: Qba, E. ; awalawaleta, Agb.; olgmerone, Agv.;
eranovala, Es. ; olgmeta (tongue of fire), Uz. ; Qgaga, Sap.
FLESH : ^M, E., Agb., Agv., Es. ; QmakpokpQ, Aj., ly. ; umq,
FLOG, v. : igb, ifielimi, E. ; itelimigbo, Agb. ; iremigbQli,
FLOOR : otowa, E. ; otQlowa, Agb. ; otQloa, Agv., Es. ; elu (?),
Uz. ; utumwemi, Sap. ; ohonwoli, Ey.
FLUTE : ^lele, E. ; ulele, Agb. ; alele, Agv. ; ufe, Uz.
CALABASH : okbe, Qzike,, E. ; utuko, Agb. ; akala, Agv. ;
FLY : udia, E., Ot., Agv. ; uze, Ar. ; uda, Ok. ; uzia, Agb. ;
uja, Es. ; ija, uja, Uz.
FLY, v. ; iti, E. ; iti, Agb. ; iti, Agv. ; itiui, Es. ; ida, Uz. ;
FOLLOW, v. : ilele,, E. ; it^xalo, Agb. ; itgkalqli, Agv. ; ir^xale,
Es. ; it^kalo, Uz.
FOOT, LEG : OWQ, Edo ; Qkowe, Ib., Ko. ; ijig^ke, So. ; Qbg, Is. ;
FORBID, v. : iw, E. ; igwa, Agb. ; igwa, Agv. ; iwa, Es. ;
164 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY.
FORGE ; qgwogu, E. ; ugolozami, Agb. ; ugolohami, Agv. ;
FORGET, r. : inyamfe, E. ; iyelia (I think away), Agb., Es.,
Uz. ; irnal^, Agv. ; mekaihoo, Aj. ; makaruo, Ov.
FORGIVE, v. : iyane^xweji, E. ; igbekwane, Agb. ; igbe.kwanale,
Agv. ; iranamaia, Es. ; igbekwanai, Uz.
FOREHEAD : uhalu, ejhai, E. ; erhai, Ar. ; ikbo, Ok., Ot. ;
unugbo, Agb., Uz. ; ugbo, Agv. ; Qgogo, Es. : oxwa, Em. ;
arhale, Aj., ly. ; ekuri, Sap., Ag. ; ekbele, Ew.
FORTY : iyeva, E. ; ibweva, Ij. ; igboleva, Ar., Agb., Agv. ;
leva, Ok. ; iegeva, Ot. ; igboiva, Sap. ; egbeva, Es., Ib. ;
eboiva, Ko. ; isieva, So. ; agbalava, Ibl. ; egbeleva, Is. ;
uzuve, Em., Sap., Ew. ; uyuve, Aj., ly.
FOUR : jn$, E., Agv., Es. ; ene, Ij., Ar., Ok., Ot, Ib.,' Ko., So.,
Ib., Is. ; e,ne, Aj., Ug., ly., Ag. ; eji, Agb. ; gdi, Uz. ; ele,
FOURTEEN : iwene, E. ; igbene, Ij., Ar., Ot., Sap., Es. ; Qgbene,
Ok. ; igbeleji, Agb. ; igbelene, Agv. ; igbe,di, Uz. ; ixwene,
Em. ; ixwcle, Sap. ; iwene, ly.
FOWL : QXQXQ,, E., Ot. ; ogbigbi, Ar. ; qkqkq, Ok., Agb., Uz. ;
oqko, Agv. ; Qko, Awoiki ; qxo, Aj.
FRIEND : ose, E., Aj., Sap. ; omwe, Ij., Ar. ; omoemi, Sa.
FUNNEL (OF BELLOWS) : obwe, E. ; ibiami, Agv.
GATHER (FRUIT), v. : ikqloi, E. ; ikgno, Agb. ; ikQlqli, Agv. ;
ifgdi (coconuts), Es. ; ikokoviobure, Uz.
GET UP : ikpaigbe, E. ; ikpare, Agb. ; ikpano, Agv. ; ikpailo,
Es. ; ikiowikpalo (I wake rise), Uz. ; mivle, Aj. ; me vie,
GIRDLE (BLACK) : akbolu, E. ; onqkbQ, Agb. ; QlQkbq, Agv. - T
ekpolu, Es. ; anQkbq, Uz.
GIRL : awoxoxu, E. ; ivieleki, Ij. ; an;ki, Ar. ; gmgrnQzi, Ok. L
Qm^kposo, Ot. ; awoxaleke, Sap. ; qmqzi, Agb., Uz. ;.
Qmohi, Agv. ; Qmami, Es. ; ukukwqzi, Ib. ; Qmoisi, Ko.,
So. ; qmobisi, Is. ; QmQte, Sobo.
GIVE A DASH TO, v. : iyemine, E. ; it^bimine, Agb. ; iremiyQli,,
Agv. ; irheminQli, Es.
COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 165
GIVE IN MARRIAGE, v. ; iyQmQne, E. ; itgrnqne, Agb. ;
erhomQnQle, Agv. ; irhamenale, Es.
Go, v. : ixia, E. ; ida, Agb. ; ikia, Agv. ; miaje, Ib. ; miaji, Ko. ;
mikije, So. ; ameyode, Is. ; meyara, Em. ; inehiale, Aj. ;
inehialo, Sap. ; mehialao, Ug. ; AWAY, ikpare, E. ; mikbo,
Ug. ; meniakbo, Ew. ; mikbo, Iy., Ag., Ovu.
Go ON, v. : ixiodalu, E., Es. ; ixiara, Agb. ; ikia, Agv. ; ikpako,
Go TO SLEEP, v. : ilaiyanoari, E. ; iraniagwe, Agb. ; ilananagwa,
Agv. ; ianowehawe, Es. ; iagwe, Uz. ; mihiere, Aj.
GOAT : e,we, E., Ij., Ar., Sa., Agv., Ew. ; izili, Ok. ; QWI, Ot. ;
qgwe, Agb. ; Qgwi, Uz. ; e,ve, Em., Sap., Aj.
GRAVEL : ;kpihe, E. ; jkpido, Agb.
GROUND : oto, Edo, Sobo.
GROWS, IT, v. : okaminahu (corn), E. ; QWU, Agb. ; qhu, Agv. ;
orhagi^ri, Es. ; otolgmi, Uz.
GROW, v : ihwale, E. ; imewo, Agb. ; ihulu, Agv. ; itale, Es. ;
GUN : Qsisi, E., Agb., Agv., Es. ; unu, Sap.
HAIR : etoQtu, E., Ar., Ok. ; eto, itsu, Ib., Ko., So. ; exu, Is. ;
HAIR (IN THRUMS) : ifieto, E., Agv. ; ixie eto, Agb.
PLAITS : qmeto, E. ; ibeto, Agb. ; ubeto.
HAIR PIN : azuwa, E. ; ugme,, Agv., Es.
HAMMER : uniomg, E., Agv. ; umomi, Agb.
HAND (see also ARM) : ikanabQ, Ok. ; ekobQ, Ib., Ko. ; iminabQ,
BACK OF HAND : iyekobq, E., Agb. ; ehiemobq, Ij. ;
oxoxobQ. Ar., ukoxira, Ok. ; ehinobg, Sa. ; ikobQ,
Es. ; ubukobQ, Aj.
LEFT : QgobQ, Edo ; irhorara, Ok. ; obqxuere, Em.,
EIGHT : oberha, E. ; obgdi^n, Ij., Ar., Ot., Sa. ; erhoine,
Ok. ; obeta, Agb. ; obira, Agv., Es. ; obqre, Em., Aj.
HARMATTAN : Qxwaxwa, E. Es. ; Qpakpa, Agv. ; okiekevo, Uz.
166 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY.
HAT : ukata, E., Uz. ; irngrova, Agb. ; umQlqva, Agv.
HATE, v. : ey^me, E. ; iho, E. ; eeggme, Ij., Ar. ; ikele, ogqlene,
Agb. ; iyaholo, oiyagQl^me (man does not please me),
Agv.; ieme, Es.
HEAD : fihuinu, E. ; ohurnu, Ij. ; uwo, Ar. ; ima, Ok. ; uso,
Ot., ly. ; uhumu, Agv. ; uh^mo, Es. ; uro, Agb. ; usui,
Uz. ; oyo, Em. ; uhiu, Aj. ; usio, Ew. ; uyo, Sap. ;
HEART : ekokodu, E., Es. ; udinikpuwu, Ij. ; ukomemo, Ok. ;
iyu, Ot. ; agogodu, Sa. ; ukbo, Agb., ukbu, Agv. ; okba,
Ib. ; ukbako, (?) Ko. ; ofa, So. ; alawe, Em. ; ubiudu, Aj.,
Ew. ; ekodi, ly.
HEARTH : alu^wu, E. ; glulu, Es.
HELP (WITH LOAD), v. : ikpale. E. ; ikpalo, Agb. ; ikpalqli,
Agv. ; imunoiya, Es. ; iyeloiya, Uz.
(WITH MONEY), v. : iyqlobo ; E. ; idalobo, Agb. ; ida-
lobo, Agv. ; ikpalobo, Uz.
HIDE, v. : irhielele, E. ; ineheli, Ij. ; inaele, Ar. ; miuege, Ok. ;
milawaga, Ot. ; itieveje, Agb. ; itiehgli, Agv. ; irgko (I
take hide), Es. ; itoivgle, Uz. ; misilovlo, Aj. ; misigno,
HILL : oke, E., Agv., Es. ; ege, Agb., Uz.
HINGE (OR DOOR POST) : ovi^xu, E. ; eku, Agb., Uz. ; oku-
mQxu, Es. ; eb^rhie, Sap.
HIT, SHOOT, v. : isai, E. ; isaloi, Ot. ; isalq, Agb. ; isal, Agv.,
Es. ; itsai, Uz. ; mesalo, Aj., Ag. ; mesalie, ly. ; mesaro,
HOE : Qgwe,, E. ; e,gw, Agb. ; ^gw, Agv., Es., Uz. ; ewolu,
HONEY : onw2, E. ; eyo, Agb. ; Q!O, Agv.
HOOK : ukade, E. ; ode,, Agb.
HOP, v. : okbegi, Agb. ; okpasugie mugie, Agv. ; ibi, kpakpoyi,
Ir. ; isokbigi, Uz. ; igogo, Aj.
HORN : igo, E. ; ukba, Agb. ; ixwa, Agv. ; Qgbai, Uz. ; okli,
HOUSE : ow^, E. ; oa, Agb., Agv., Uz. ; owa, Es. ; uiiwemi,
Sap. ; unwQmi, Ew.
COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 167
How LONG : bqkpgs^, E. ; gbpirele, Agb. ; borigteye,, Es. ;
HUNDRED : iise, E. ; egbolihe, Ij. ; igbolihi, Ar. ; iesi, Ok. ;
iigise, Ot. ; igbolihe, Sa. ; uwozi, Agb. ; igboheli, Agv. ;
ise, Es. ; igboisi, Uz. ; uli, Em.
Two HUNDRED : uli, E. ; Qgboigbe, Ij. ; igboegbe, Ar.,
Sa. ; iegbe Ok., Ot. ; uliive, Em.
HURTS ME, IT ; I SUFFER PAIN, v. : Qdamegbe, E. ; Qtomqgbe,
Agb., Agv.; (it aches me in the body); Qtooiya (it
aches a man), Es. ; eminetorui (things ache), II z.
INHALE, v. : ih^we,, E. ; iyQzig, Agb. ; iShiQ, Agv.
IRON : QmatQfl, E. ; akuli, Agb. ; utelu, Aj.
JOINT : axwe, E. ; akpaka, Agb. ; uro, Aj. ; Qglo, Ew. ; eru, ly .
JUMP : iwoi isale, E. ; itiaokuli, ije, iwo, Agb. ; isale, Agv. ;
isale, Es. ; idie, idaiyaokuli, Uz. ; mivleho, Aj.
KEY (AND LOCK) : isahe, E. ; usiQvle, Sap.
KILL , v : igbe, igbelua, E., Agb., Agv., Es., Uz. ; mixwili, Aj.,
Ag., Ov. ; mikbilie, ly. , mexwQle, Em.
Kiss, v. : ihihiejunu, E. ; imimiQluno, Agb. ; iniimiqluno, Agv.
KITCHEN : ukoni, E. ; inigu, Agb., Agv. ; Qgejiaima, Es. ;
igbid;gu, Uz. ; ukoli, Ew.
KNEE : uwawe, E. ; ugweloe, Ij. ; uwelia, Ar. ; okbo, Ok. ;
igwagia, Agb. ; igwelowe, Agv. ; ukomegwe, Ib., Ko. ;
ikaiukbo, So. ; ilebuba, Is. ; ugwele, Em. ; uworowo, Aj.
KNIFE : elq, E., Agb., Agv. ; ogali, Es. ; uwQre, Uz ; avia, Sap.
LANGUAGE, VOICE : urhu, E. ; urholo, Agb., Agv. ; agbaiwolo,
Es. ; aizoma, Uz. ; ejaje, Ag. AGBEDE : urhuagbe/le, E. j
urholigbe.de, Agb., Agv. ; emodgbe/Ie, Uz. EDO : urhuedo,
E. ; urhol^do, Agb. ; urho^do, Agv. ; emo^do, Uz. ',
oledo[aka], Sap. ; Qvev^leehuaka, Aj. ; (Edo = aka),
Ag. HAUSA : urhuigabale, E. ; urhoipe, Agb. ; urhoikpe,
Agv. ; ernoizama, Uz. ISHAN : urhuisa, E. ; urholesa,
Agb. ; urhuesa, Es. ORA: urhuora, E. ; urholora, Agb. ;
168 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY.
urhoora, Agv. ; agmo, Aj. EKRI : urhusekri, E. ;
urholisekili, Agb. ; urhosekili, Agv. ; ihrobo, Sap. ;
ihrobo, Aj. ; cokili, Ag. SOBO : urhuobo, E. ; urhozobo,
Agb, Agv. ; uhrobo, Aj. YORUBA : urhuaz^nQmo, E. ;
urholeyagi, Agb. ; urhoyagi, Agv. ; emoiyagie, Uz. ; ko,
LEAD : OZQ, E., Agv. ; okuli, Agb.
LEAF : ebe, E., Sobo ; iraabe, Agb. ; imaibe, Agv., Es., Uz.
LEARN, v. : iluqli, E. ; iwena, Agb. ; imwgnali, Agv. ; ilue,
Es. ; iwna, Uz.
LEAVE (A PLACE), v. : ikpahiigbede, ikbaihiedo, E. ; ixware-
wainyo, Ar. ; ixwaiigbewo, Ot. ; ikparegbe.de, Agb. ;
ikpakowigbgde, Agv. ; isiwubiajare, Es. ; ikpatozaitui,
LEAVE BEHIND, v. : Jsiejaiodieke, E. ; izolobowieke, Agb. ;
ifiolioiwiki, Agv. ; izaubowoto (on ground), Ir. ; iyoiikike
(I tell him go back), Uz. ; micikobuko, Aj.
LEGLET : isama (ivory), Uz.
LEOPARD : atalakpa, E. ; e,kpe, Ij., Ar., Ok., Ot., Agb., Agv.,
Uz., Ib., So. ; ejkwe, Is. ; gkpe, Agenegbode ; ejql^kbo,
Em., Sap. ; ujglami, Ew.
LIE, v. : ilovie, E. ; igwg, Agb. ; inogog, Agv. ; ivahogwe, Ir. ;
igue (? idegue), Uz. ; menyanofia, Aj. ; meniaoifia, Ug. ;
memorofiao, Em. ; menqvle, Ty. ; ingtofia, Ag. ; metofia,
Ov. ; meeamere, Sap.
LIE DOWN, v. : iloviesoto, E. ; igwenoto, Agb. ; inogo, Agv. ;
ivahogwe soto, Ir.
LIE (TELL A LIE), v. : itogQ, E. ; imilev, Agb. ; imgl^fia,
Agv. ; ivahogQli, Es. ; ifieta, Uz.
LIGHT, v. : irhue, E. ; itetu, Agb., Agv. ; irhQle.ru, Es. ;
iruvigru (I take lamp light) ; Uz.
LIGHTNING : oxumuwiainye, E. ; aiyokuli, Agb. ; ainya, Agv. ;
oiyalu, Es. ; ainifwa, Uz. ; aruore, Aj. ; ogeleniamaro,
Ewu ; obibie, Sap. ; ogla, ly. ; oniamaro, Ag.
LIP : axwarunu, axwaramunu, E. ; oxwarunu, Ar. ; okQrunu,
Ok.; oxarunu, Ij., Sa. ; utukpunu, ukbotumunu, Agb.;
ekpunu, Agv.; efunu, Es. ; ^tokpunu, Uz.; esunu, So.;
COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 169
isiunu, Is. ; ebobunu, Em. ; ebeunu, Aj. ; ebebulu, Ew. ;
ebeloboto, Sap. ; ewaunu, ly. ; ebaunu, Ag.
LISTEN, v. : idaiho (give ear), E. ; ikp^zo, Agb. ; ikaihp,
Agv., Es ; irhewootg (I take ear on ground), Uz.
LISTEN TO HIM, v. : idaizolo, Agb. ; idaihqli, Agv. ; ikaihfjli,
LIVE, v. : iro, E. ; iyele, Agb. ; ihi^lQme, Agv. ; iribp, ivaseyu,
Es. ; iyele (I pass life) Uz. ; iwohelo, Aj. ; merie, ly.
LIVE IN . . . v. : irigbede (Agbede), E. ; iyelewigbede,
Agb. ; iwelewigbede, Agv. ; iriwubiaja (Ubiaja), Es. ;
Uzaituiwele (Uzaitui), Uz. ; miholeleyubi, Aj. ; m^hewu,
Ew, ; merobiyedeobone, ly.
LIVER : udu, E., Es. ; idu, Agb. ; udo, Agv. ; idu, Ib., Ko. ;
osu, So. ; eleko, Is. ; ivu, Aj., Ew.
LOCK, v. : ixwigle, E. ; ifioi, Ij. ; ixuxuno, Ar. ; misioku, Ok. ;
misononia, Ot. ; ifilg, Agb. ; ifiqli, Agv. ; ifisahawo, Es. ;
ifioi, Uz. ; mekailp, Aj. ; mikaielo, Em.
LOOK FOR, v. : ihu^le, E. ; izomeno, Ar. ; nimioda, Ot. ; ikelo,
Agb. ; ihulqli, Agv. ; ilahoqli, Es ; ikelim^mio, idadakelo,
(I want that I see it) Uz. ; miheleniwQvo, Aj.
LOOK, v. : ige, E. ; igwe, Agb. ; igwegQge (I look), Agv. ; igw,
Uz. ; milingwe, Aj. ; minhilo, Em. ; minilo, ly.
LOOK AT : igglg, E. ; ixeo, Ar. ; midiloxruQ, igwo, Agb. ;
iaggle, Agv. ; igele, Es.
LOSE, v. : imwgfwa (throw away), E. ; iwaloiya, Agb ; oiyulu,
Agv. ; oyulumi, Es. ; iwalawo, Uz.
LOVE, v. : oiQm^ (he is dear to me), E. ; oiyag^m^gbe, Ij. ;
uwegam^gbe (you), Ar. ; um^mi, Agb. ; ugolime, Agv.
LUNGS : udonehogogo, E. ; udonovogo, Agb. ; uduenihoi,
Agv. ; eiiwe (? = breast), Aj.
MAGGOT : Qxoi, E. ; Qkoi, Uz.
MAKE, v. : ilue, E. ; izezelo, ilulo, Agb. ; iluqli, Agv., Es. ;
ilue, izQS^ (repair), Uz. ; miluo, Aj., Ew. ; merulie, ly.
MAKE PEACE, v. (separate combatants) : imWQgbina, E. ;
imulaikba, Agb.; imue.liQkwe.li, Agv.; imwewoxare,
170 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY.
MAKE BASKETS, v. : idSxwai, E., Es. ; id5xwa, Agb. ; idukpali,
Agv. ; idokwa, Uz.
MAKE POTS, v. : imaxe, E., Es., Agb. ; imaki, Agv., Uz.
MAN (MALE) : okpia, arhie, E. ; qrnoi, Ij., Ar., Sa., Uz. ; osing,
pi. ahume, Ok. ; omoze, Ot. ; age,ne,^/. ig^ne, Agb., Agv. ;
okwia, Es. ; osalee, Em. ; ohiare, Aj. ; osyare, Ew. ; osyale,
(HUMAN BEING) : gma, E. ; gloha, Ij. ; Qgbglo, Ar. ; oyunq,
Ok. ; qso, Ot. ; olohalo, Sa. ; oiya, pi. eya, Agb. ; aya,
Agv. ; oria, Es. ; oiya, Uz. ; oxwo, Sobo ; owo,
MARRY (WOMAN), v. : ilomgdo, E. ; iisamime, Agb. ; irikamime,
Agv. ; ibqdo, Es. ; ohialgme, Aj.
(MAN) : ilqmoxwo, E. ; itiami, Agb. ; etiame, Agv. ;
igawoxwo, Es. ; melihaizewe, Aj.
MAT (SLEEPING) : ewa, E. ; iwia, Agb. ; ewa, Agv. : ewa, Es. ;
Qgbai, Uz. ; ilue, Sap.
MEASURE, v. : imale, E. ; imalo, Agb. ; imalgle, Agv. ; imalejo,
Es. ; imai, Uz.
MEET, v. : ivale, E. ; igalori, Agb. ; ikolede, Agv. ; iklere, Es. ;
idawai, Uz. ; mera, Aj.
MEND, v. : idqnaii, E. ; izezelo, Agb. ; ihgholi, Agv. ; ikesuaxali,
Es. ; ikzoigbe, (I put in body), Uz. ; merorhu^lo,
MIDNIGHT : ogiasgn, E.
MIRROR : uvug^gbe [place of mirror], E. ; ukpawie, Agb. ;
Miss, v. : ifi^do, E. ; midono, Sa., Ot. ; ifilqdo, Agb. ; ifi^do,
Agv. ; ifiolido, Es. ; ifioido, Uz. ; mesalokio, Aj. ; mesalieto,
Iy. ; mesaleco, Ag.
MONKEY : em, E. ; emili, Ij. ; emile, Agb. ; glamokwi, Uz. ;
Qiiweli, Em., Sap., Ew. ; ewe, Agenegbode.
MONTH : uki, E., Agb., Agv., Es.
MOON : uki, Edo ; e.rne.lame, Sobo.
MORTAR : odo, E. ; ok<J, Agb., Agv., Es., Uz. ; odo, Sap.
MOULD ; oviaxe, E.
MOUTH : unu, Edo, Sobo.
COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 171
MUD : exwqr^, E. ; ekgro, Agb. ; ekgro, Agv. ; Qfiere, Es. ; okqto,
Uz. ; ibexgre, Sap.
NAIL : ehie,, E., Ij., Sa., Agv., Es. ; evie,, Agv. ; Qlexie,, Ar. ;
e,fwe, Ok. ; etsie, Ib. ; epfiali, Ko. ; inyelesia, So. ; $ve, Is. ;
ufofobQ, Em. ; isabq, Aj.
NAME : eni, E., Agb., Agv., Es. ; elini, Ij., Sa. ; eva, Ar., Ok.,
Ot. ; eleli, Uz. ; ode,, Sobo.
NAVEL : iixgn, E., Ij.. Sa. ; ukQ, Ok. ; ukqn, Ar., Agb., Agv.,
Es., Uz. ; ukohi, Aj.
NECK : enyai, E. ; QQ, Ij. ; ugolo, Ar. ; ehani, Ok. ; iakwoso, Ot. ;
ea, Sa. ; eya, Agb. ; ia, Es. ; ugueya, Uz. ; utu, Ib., Ko.,
So. ; usu, Is. ; uhq, Em. ; oho, Aj., Ew., ly. ; oxo,
NET : Qga, E. ; !zaga, izaganaregbeze, (net you take kill iish),
Agb. ; izaga, Agv. ; Qga, Es. ; e,rili, Sap.
NIGHT : ason, E., Sobo ; elenwa, Agb. ; asu, Agv.
NINE : ihini, E. ; isile, Ij. ; isini, Ok., Ar., Es. ; isi, Ot. ; isili,
Sa., Agb. ; isini, Agv. ; iei, Uz. ; itili, Ib. ; itiili, Ko. ;
esene, So. ; isie, Ib. ; iiss?e, Is. ; irili, Sobo ; izili, ly.,
NINETEEN : okpadewugye, E. ; ikeokpasue, Ij., Sa. ; kokparesue,
Ar. ; karokpuye, Ok. ; azokpasowigye, Ot. ; igbesili, Agb. ;
igbesini, Agv. ; ineigbehebe, Es. ; igbeci, Uz. ; ixwigbirili,
Em., Ew. ; ixwebirili, Aj. ; ixwionigbele, Sap. ; ixwioligbene,
NOD HEAD, v. : iluiguhumu, E. ; iye,gozorni, Agb. ; i
Agv. ; ilu^gohgrngne, Es. ; iyegosomi, Uz.
NORTH : ategu, Ageneg.
NOSE : ihue, E., Ij., Ar., Sa., Es., Em. ; irhue, Ok., Izue, Ot.,
Agb. ; isue, Uz. ; \jiiwe, Sobo.
OBEY (put hand), v. : iyoboiip, E. ; irerhoionigmi, Agb. ;
irehoabuyemi, Agv. ; irhgwg, Es.
OIL MYSELF, v. : iyudqwo, E. ; irudQinodaigbia, Agb. ; irudggbolo,
Agv. ; iarewigbolo, Es.
172 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY.
OLD MAN : qmai, E. ; QingnQcliQii, Ij. ; qdign, Ar. ; QSQJQ, Ok. ;
Qkpare, Ot. ; Qmohgdign, Sa. ; okb;zea, Agb. ; okbiha,
Agv. ; qdomai, Es. ; okpisa, pi. ikpisa, Uz. ; qcqdio,, Ib.,
Ko. ; qkpai, So. ; qfwqlu, Is. ; Qmale, Em. ; owolo,
ONCE : ohukpa, E. ; isokpa, Agb. ; osukpa, Agv. ; egekpa,
ONE : owo, Qkpa, E. ; oo, Ij. ; Qkpa, Ar., Ot. ; ao, Qkpa, Ok.,
Sa. ; Qkpa, Agb., Agv., Es., Uz. ; Qgwo, Ib. ; oQgwo,
Ko. ; owo, So. ; egwa, Ib ; auu, Is. ; QVO, Sobo.
OPEN, v. : iwQ, E. ; iwenoa, Ar. ; mitauizi, Ok. ; mivwenoaga,
Ot. ; ivngioli, Sa. ; itngie, Agb. ; itugiili, Agv. ; itugiqla,
itugie.kpe.ti (box), Es ; ivugela, Uz. ; mirhiekie, Aj. ;
rnirhiile, Ov. ; miziile, ly. ; mirile, Ag. ; minovigli, Em.
ORDER, v. : imagie ; E. ; igelp, Agb. ; igiQli (I send him), Agv. ;
igieli, Es. ; igie (I send), Uz.
PACK, MAKE LOADS, v. : ikwihe, E. ; imaizua (I measure the
load), Agb. ; imalihe,, Agv. ; imalgle, Es. ; imai (I measure),
PADDLE : obgle,, E. ; uwewe, Agb., Agv. ; umaza, Es. ;
ebenar^gweda, Uz. ; uvi, Sap.
PAINT (BL.) : asu, E. ; asumi, Agb. ; QkQlQ, Agv. ; oduaso, Es. ;
PAINT BRUSH : ugbana, Agb. ; ugbe, Agv.
PALM (of hand): atatabo,, E., Es. ; etabq, Ij., Sa. ; atalobq, Ar.,
Agb. ; uduerha, Ok. ; atalegobq, Ot. ; elemakobg, Ib. ;
ekobQ, Ko. ; irewosa, So. ; ofwobq, Is. : eherobQ, Em.
PALM WINE : ixwqxwe, odoxumu, Qgo, E. ; anyutq, ainyuxuli,
anyiko, Agb. ; izu, ujuxumu, QgQlQ, Agv.
PASS, v. ; igbe,rale, E. ; inalaude, Agb. ; inalode, Agv. ;
igbgralia, Es. ; inoyode, Uz.
PASSAGE ; Qleja, E. ; azauwolowa, Agb. ; orila, Agv., Es. ;
PAY (for), v. : ihasa, E. ; ivalosa, Agb. ; ihalosa, Agv. ; ihasa,
Em. ; ifaile, Uz.
COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 173
PEG : uke,ke, E. ; ikpe,geta, Agb. ; ukpalogu, Agv. ; ikbanogu,
PENIS : ekia, E. ; ekwe, Ij., Ar., Ok., Sa., Agb., Agv. ; gekwe,
0:. ; epa, Es. ; oso, Em. ; ohio, Ew., ly. ; oico, Sap.
PERMIT (I agree), v, : ikwe, E. ; izolobo, iyamane, Agb. ; ig,
Agv. ; igiqli (sand him), Es. ; ilamanai, Uz. [(1) I pray
for him ; (2) I vow it for him ; (3) I allow it.]
PESTLE : oviodo, E. ; omiokQ, Agb. ; nlokq, Agv. ; umokQ, Es. ;
omiokg, Uz. ; qmodo, Sap.
PICK UP, v. : irhigli, irholi, E. ; inawgla, Agb. ; itielqli, Agv. ;
irholewoto, Es. ; izuewoto, Uz.
PIERCE, PRICK, v. : ibie,le, E. ; ixai, isoloi, Ij. ; isolono, Ar. ;
midemisnoni, Ok. ; misorhe, Ot. ; iluraile, Agb. ; ilomoli,
Agv. ; ilumqli, Es. ; ivwanoi, Uz.
PIERCE (spear), v. : isuoi, E. ; isoloi, Ij. ; isulo, ilumilg, Agb. ;
isuqli, Agv., Es. ; ilumo, Uz.
PILLAGE, v. ; irhale, wowa, E. ; ihilgle, Agb. ; ihioile, Agv. ;
PILLOW : ukohumu, E. ; akpeozomi, Agb. ; ukpQhgino, Agv. ;
ukohqmQ, Es. ; itikpeizo, Uz. ; okiyomi, Sap.
PIPE : ikoko, E. ; obodu, Agb., Agv., Es., Uz. ; ukoko, Sap.
PLANT, v. : ikoi, E. ; ikq, Agb., Agv., Es. ; ire,ko (I go plant),
PLAY (game), v. : ik wixai, E. ( ? marbles) ; ikb^lewie, Agb. ;
ux^le^mi, Agv. ; ixilg, Es. ; ikbelewie, Uz.
POND, TANK, WATER HOLE : QgQdq, E. ; omi, Agb., Agv., Es. ;
POT REST : ikewu, E. ; udigu, Agb. ; ;niu, Agv. ; akewu, Es. ;
POTTER : gmaxe, E., Ij., Agb., Es. ; inemake, Ar. ; qromake,
Ok. ; iniowe, Ot. ; qmake, Uz.
PRAY, v. : ikpempgena, Agb. ; ikpaminogena, Uz.
PRECEDE, v. : ikodalo, E. ; ikpogialo, Agb. ; ikodalo, Agv. ;
ixiawodalo, Es. ; iyaloalo (I go ahead), Uz.
PREPUCE : ukpekia, E. ; ukpekwe, Ij., Sa. ; orueli, Ar. ; urere,
Ok. ; osomegikwe, Ot. ; ukbonekwe, Agb. ; ukbonexwe,
Agv. ; ukpenepa, Es.; ublo, Em.; ubisi, Ew.; uveluve, ly.
174 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY.
PRIEST : ohenbq, ghokbg, E. ; qh-Qne,, Ij. ; ozi, Ar. ; oze, Agb. ;
ShQli, Agv. ; qnoboitsa, Uz. ; urele, Ew.
PULL, v. : isi'e, E. ; isilo, Agb. ; isiqli, Agv. ; igwa, Es. ; itsioi,
PULSE, HEART BEAT : aflame, E. ; udofi, Agb. ; akofi, Agv. ;
ukpudaihia, Es. ; aiyemobo,, Ib. ; okosi, Ko. ; ofo, So. ;
isa, Is. ; oteye, Em. ; ohorobQ, Aj. ; eruobq (wrist), okodi
(heart), Ew. ; eruobg, ly.
PUSH, v. : istiali, E. ; iswalo, Agb. ; isualgli, Agv., Es. ;
idzualabo (?), Uz.
PUSH AWAY, UPSET, v. : irualefwa, E. ; ikbonolakwa, Agb. ;
ikbonolakwa, Agv. ; irdqfia, Es. : idumemiuakwa (I throw
things away), Uz.
PUT ACROSS (river), v. : imornQgb^raize, iguame, E. ; imulgg-
bergda, Agb.; idolQgbqrade, Agv. ; irholqwoko, Es. (I take
canoe) ; iroiadada (I take man cross), Uz.
PUT ON (cloth), v. : irhukmQfi, E. ; ikukpowQgbe, Agb. ;
imoukukpQii (?), Es. ; mianmawowo, Aj.
PUT UP, v. ; irhierho, E. ; itieQokuli, Agb. ; itiookumu, Agv. ;
imualawoumu, Es. ; iruaokulo, Uz.
QUARREL, v. : igwi, E. ; iagwe, Ij. ; igworholo, Agb. ; inoirholo,
Agv. ; inova, Es. ; iwuo, Uz.
EAIN: ame, amerhq, E. ; osio, Sobo.
RAINBOW : ikpiame, E. ; anukwekwe, Uz. ; arokiyenie, Aj. ;
RATTLE : ukase, ise, E. ; ekba, Agb. ; aze, Uz. ; ekie.kie.ge,
RATTLE (cane) QlQgiQn, E. ; isagogo, Agv.
READ, v. : iz, Agb., Agv., Es. ; idze, Uz. ; ine, (divine),
REAP, v. : ifie (qka), E. ; ib^, Agb., Agv. ; ibiqka (corn), Es. ;
ikgkore (corn), Uz.
RECKON, r. : iluigo, E. ; ilolikpigo, Agb. ; iloligo, Agb.
REDUCE A JOINT, v. : ikweli, E. ; ikpenig, Agb. ; i
Agv. ; izixQre, Es.
COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 175
REMEMBER, v. : iyele, E. ; iyelere, Agb. ; iyeqre, Es. ; iyere
(I think to me (?)), Agv., Uz. ; mekaiholo, Aj. ; mekarole,
RESPECT, v. : imuyiyuQgbe, E. ; imwegbgne, Agb. ; imweg-
b^nale, Agv. ; imwQgbe.noiya, Es. (I take my body for a
RIB : ifamagbe, E. ; akpokakpefue, Sa. ; ugwiyeke, Agb. ;
ukpumeke, Agv. ; ife, Es. ; ugwuzike, Uz. ; ugbegwefe,
Ib. ; ugbakunie, Ko. ; iguefe, So. ; ibiefe, Ew. ; ibiedada,
Sap. ; ibiekaka, ly. ; ibienede, Ag.
RIDE : ihigzi, E. ; irele, Agb. ; ihgle, Agv. ; ihelakasi (I
mount horse), Es. ; iseli, Uz. ; miesije, meluejigele,
RING : oloka, E. ; ukbejomi, Agb. ; ukpe^omi, Agv.
RIVER : e,ze, E. ; e,da, Agb. ; e,de, Agv., Es. ; urhie, Sap.,
ROAD : ode, E. ; ugye, Agb. ; (fork of) ada, E., Uz. ; aderha,
ROAST, v. : ito, E. ; it^lamito (I take meat roast), Agb. ;
irhglamito, Agv. ; itqli, Es.
ROOF : Qrurumowa, E. ; utotolowa, Agb. ; okumuwa, Es. ;
ukululoloa (what protects house), usomemwe, Uz. ; Qky,
Sap. ; QbQ, Ew.
ROOM : uguga, E. ; ugwale, Agb. ; Qkgloa, Agv. ; Qgua (men's)
Qmoa (women's), Uz. ; obevu, Sap.
RULE, v. : iniQlela, Agb. ; imgnyaili, Agv.
RUN,-?;. : irhule, E. ; irhiule, Ij. ; iyerune, Ar. ; mizeravala, Ok. ;
mila, Ot. ; memealexia (? I go well), Sa. ; ina, Agb. ;
ianole, Agv. ; itule, Irua ; miana, Ib. ; miana, Ko. ;
migwe, So. ; amiasila, Is. ; mejiele, Em. ; mejubole, Ag.,
Ug. ; mejoneo, Ew. ; medione, ly.
RUN AWAY, v. : il^le, E. ; inara, Agb. ; inekia, Agv. ; ilegbe,
Ir. ; inakpalio, Uz. ; mejohele, Aj.
SACRIFICE, v. ilu^limi, E. ; igbiminelimi, ialuobo, igbelimin!-
xumi, Agb. ; igbeminikule, Agv. ; igbemireluQbo, Es. ;
176 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY.
SALUTE A MAN, v. ; ituQina, E. ; ituoia, Agb., Agv., Es. ;
SAND : Qxai, E. ; ikb^ke, Agb. ; ekade, Agv. ; owuri, Sap.
SANDAL (wood) : ikarakbg Agb. ; ikatakbg, Agv. ; akbakaci,.
SCATTER (throw away), v. : ivigkwa, E. ; ifikaka, Agb. \.
ikwqlikwa, Agv. ; izagalokwa, Es.
SCORPION : akpakugumaga, E. ; akbi, Agb. ; akme, Agv. ;
SCRAPER : ahia, E. ; avia, Agb., Agv. ; akbema, Uz.
SECOND : nokenokalo, nogieva, E. ; onizeva, Agb. ; nozeva,.
Es. ; egeva, uzeva, Uz. ; orive, Aj. ; esiava, esive, Uz. \
SEE, v. : id^gele, E. ; idagoi, Ij. ; imie, Agb. ; imiqli, Agv., Es. ;.
imio, Uz. ; m^melQle, Aj., Em.
SEIZE, v. : imwg, E. ; isumo, Ar. ; mimuoni, Ok. ; imulo, Agb. ;
iniwQli, Agv. ; imwgli, Es. ; imwo, Uz.
SELL, v. : ikieno, Ar. ; meduoni, Ok. ; ixie, E., Agb. ; irhgdg
(I take sell), Agv. ; ikie,, Uz. ; mesie, Aj., Ew. ; misie, ly.
SEND BACK, v. : igiumuw^rigbe, E. ; igelaiugigke, Agb. ;.
igeley^ke, Agv. ; igiesode.ke.ke (I send one road back),
Es. ; izoiaesike, Uz.
SEND MESSAGE, v. : igiuhumu, E. ; igiurumi. Agb. ; iguh^mo,
Agv. ; igiowoxahqmo, Es. ; igioiogo, Uz.
SEND ON, v. : igeyariodalo, E. ; iyolarhieugialo (I say them,
take road ahead), Agb. ; iyereyudalo (I say them go
ahead), Agv. ; igiesokalo, Es. ; izoiaialualo (I let him go
SET FIRE TO (HOUSE) v. : iygrhe [yowa], E. ; iyera [owa], Agb. ;
iyeraiwa, Agv. ; iwerhaiawQri, Es. ; itetaemiria, Uz.
SEVEN : ihino, E., Agv., Es., Ij., Sa. ; ihinia, Ar. ; isiowa,.
Ok. ; izinia, Ot. ; izilo, Agb. ; iselua, Uz. ; isila, Ib. ; isilua,
Ko. ; ifuina, So. ; izonua, Ib. ; isiene, Is. ; iwuli, Em., Sap.,
Aj., Ug., Ew., ly., Ag.
SEVENTEEN : ehadawugye, E. ; ikehasue, Ij., Sa. ; kaiairasue,
Ar. ; karesuye, Ok. ; azesasowigye, Ot. ; igbezilo, Agb. ;
igbehino, Agv. ; eraigbehebe, Es. ; igbeselua, Uz. ;.
COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 177
ixwigbigwere, Em. ; ixwegbegwule, Aj., Ew. ; ixwiolig-
bive, Sap., ly.
SEW, v. : idoloi, is, Agb. ; isg, Agv. ; iasuimi, Agv. ; itsoi,
SHAKE HEAD, v. : ifiiguhumu, E. ; iyegozomia, Agb. ;
ideguhumu / Agv. ; iluegohqinwa, Es. ; iyegozomia, Uz.
SHOOTING, GO OUT, v. : ibafi, E. ; iyakel^lamifi, Agb.; irarh-
ueramifi, Agv. ; iderugiafiemi, Es. ; iyafi^lami, Uz.
SHOULDER : izqbo,, E. ; ifwabq, Ok. ; ikpabo,, Ot. ; igidiabo,,
Agb. ; ogijabo,, Agv. ; igiabq, Es. ; ugwidiabq, Sa. ; ike, Ib. ;
adike, Ko. ; igamabo,, So. ; elehani, Is. ; are, Aj. ;
SHOUT, v. : izka, E. ; ivano, ikuilukoko, Agb. ; ikp^lukoko (I
take high voice), Agv. ; isolo, Es. ; iva, Uz. ; misele, Aj. ;
SHOW, v. : imumale, E. ; irheuoxano, Ar. ; inidoxaroni. Ok. ;
mirhokare, Ot. ; ite,m, Agb. ; irhemali, Agv. ; itemioi,
Uz. ; meligle, Em.
SHUT (BOX), v. : igwe,, E. ; ibioigbe, Ij. ; mevaroni, Ok. ; miwero,
Ot. ; ivwe, Agb. ; iwole, Agv. ; ixwe.kpe.ti, Es. ; ivwe, Uz. ;
meliugbe, Aj. ; mekailp, Ov ; mekalie, ly. ; mililagbe
SHUT (DOOR), v. : iliQgbe, E. ; iguxumede, Ar. ; misioku, Ok. ;
mikwoso, Ot. ; izelogba, Agb. ; izolekina, Agv. ; ibie,-
kugbe, Es. ; ikunogie, Uz.
SILENT, AM, v. : imunuyigbe, E. ; ivunov^gbe, Agb. ;
irhunupggbe, Agv. ; (STOP SPEAKING) : ihunwa, E. ;
igie,gia, Agb. ; ihweia, Agv. ; ihweia, Es. ; igiegia, Uz.
SING, v. : isiuha, E. ; imiemie (sing chorus), Agb. ; imie,mie,
Agv. ; isiglolo, Es. ; imiraiokai (answer to song), Uz. ;
mesuole, Aj., Em.
SIT : itota, E. ; iget, Agb. ; igiaotg, Agv. ; idiuta, Ir. ; idetp
Uz. ; ieelia, Aj. ; micelia, Ug. ; mecedia, Em. ; me.ke.ria,
ly. ; mekedia, Ag. ; mikgdia, Ov. ; mikedia, Sap.
SIT DOWN (on gr.) : itotasotg, E. ; inetpotp, Agb. ; idiawot^,
Agv. ; idiutasoto, Ir.
Six: gha, E., Ij., Sa., Agv., Es.; isesa, Ar., Ok., Ot.; eza,
178 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY.
Agb. ; esa, Uz., Em., Sap. ; e,sa, Aj., Ew., Iy., Ag. ;
Qsesa, Ib. ; Eseesa, Ko. ; ezesa, So. ; isasa, Ib. ; Qsesai,
SIXTEEN : enelawugye, E. ; ikenesue, Ij. ; kainerasue, Ar. ;
karenuye, Ok. ; azenezowige, Ot. ; ikenesue, Sa. ; igbeleza,
Agb. ; igbeleha, Agv. ; okpaiigbehele, Es. ; ixwQgbesa,
Em. ; igbelesa, Uz. ; ixwgbesa, Ew. ; ixwioligbgvo, Sap. ;
SKIN : ikpakpa, E. ; ohiigbe, Es. ; inyamegbe, Sa. ; ekwesiegbe,
Ib. ; ekwegbe, Ko. ; isi, So. ; ifafa, Is. ; ohoroma, Sobo.
SKIN (MADE) : ohia, E. ; ovia, Agb. ; ohia, Agv. ; ohie", Sap.
SKY : iso, oxumu, E. ; oxuli, Agb. ; oxumu, Es. ; okwi, Uz. ;
ebieme, Aj. ; okesasali, Ew. ; oke, Iy., Ag., Ovu.
SLAVE : vie, E., Ar. ; Qlogo, Ij. ; owumu, Ok. ; ogumu, Ot. ;
QvTe, Sa. ; oguma, Agb., Agv., Uz., Ib., Ko. ; ;gmp, Es. ;
SLEEP, v. : ivie\ E. ; imehe, Ij. ; ivee, Ar. ; mewezela, Ok. ;
miwize, Ot. ; imeheli, Sa. ; igwe, Agb. ; ive, Es. ; memere,
Em. ; meverele, Sap. ; mekiere, Iy. ; misyelere, Ag. ;
SLEEPING-ROOM (man's) : Qgwa, E. ; ebagwe, Agb. ; egiagwe,
Agv. ; ekowa, Qgwa, Es. ; Qgwa (men's), e,moa (women's),
Uz. ; obevu, Sap.
SMOKE : igogo, E. ; ukbeleyo, Agb. ; Qho,, Agv. ; igego, Es. ; Qno,,
Uz. ; oiiwiri, Sap.
SOAP : (jvaxwe, E. ; osa, Agb. ; ebaxo, Agv. ; qbakg, Es. ; otza,
Uz. ; ogia, Sap.
SONG : ihua, E. ; ilolo, Agb. ; iyolo, Agv. ; okai, Uz.
SOUP : umwQme, unye, E. ; oomi, Agb. ; oomq, Agv.
SOUTH : atatu, Ageneg.
SPEAK, v. : igwale, E. ; iateta, Ij. ; itS, Agb. ; fta, Agv. ;
izurolo, Es. ; igwemoi, Uz. ; metota, Aj. ; metotao, Em. ;
SPEAR : asolo, E. ; umasi, Agb. ; qkwQ, Agv. ; oga, Es. ; ogbqdo,
Uz. ; ubili, Sap.
SPEND, v. : iriaigwa, izagigwa, E. ; ifwekpigwa, Agb.; ifwekpigo,
Agv. ; ifiganeia (I give money to them), Es.
COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 179
SPIDER : akpakpa, E., Agb., Agv., Uz., Ok. ; axwixwa, Ij. ;
axwaxwa, AT. ; ale, Es. ; ekpikpa, Sa. : avele, Em. ; ohere,
SPIN COTTON, v. : isiolulu, E., Agb. ; isiogu, Agv. ; irholulu, Es. ;
SPINE : ukokodiy^ke, E. ; ugogihimi, Ij. ; ugogomuxoxo, Ar. ;
okouxoxo, Ok. ; otozi, Ot. ; ugogelimi, Sa. ; ogogliyeke,
Agb. ; uguiki, Agv. ; ugogiki, Es. ; ugorQgbe, Uz. ;
osoasugbuko, Aj., Ew. ; ogogubuko, Em.
SPLIT, v. : ispli, E., Agv. ; ivaloi, Ij. ; mifwirori, Ok.; isQgielo,
Agb. ; isolqli, ivalqli, Es. ; itzoloi, Uz.
SPOON (native) : Qkokohie,, E. ; isokgli, Agb., Agv. ; ooi, Es. ;
oqla, Uz. ; oyilala, Sap.
SPREAD, v. : iwalewa (mat), Es. ; iwaihioto, Ij. ; mitama,
SQUIRREL : qtafi, olele, UXQFQ, ukpobie, E. ; qta, qkqto,, qriQbe,
Agb. ; qkQtq, osebe, Agv. ; ota, Es. ; okoto, Uz. ; aja, ewue,
STAND, v. : imudia,E., Es. ; imiza, Agb. ; imugia, Agv. ; imuza,
Uz. ; mexpga, Aj. ; mefoga, memudia, Ug. ; medikie, ly. ;
memudia, Ag., Ov., Sap.
STAND UP : ikparemudia, E. ; ikparemiza, Agb. ; ikpanomugia,
Agv. ; ikpanomudia, Ir. ; ikpatemiza, Uz. ; mivle, Aj. ;
STAR : Qrhomi, QgQzu, E. ; ize, Agb. ; ikpahi, Agv. ; Qkbaihia,
Es. ; atata, Uz. ; usio, Aj. ; esio, Ewu.
STEAL, act, v. : iduQrhie, E. ; iidobi, Agb. ; idologi, Avg. ;
irhale, Es. ; itue, Uz.
STICK : qroxwa, E. ; usakpurha, Agb.
STOMACH : (jrhe, qkpokuru, E. ; uduewe, Ar. ; awiewie, Agb. ;
Qkpere, Es. ; ukomele, Ib. ; ele, Ko. ; ivu, So.
STONE : okuta, E. ; udo, Agb., Ewu.
STOOL : uxwire, E. ; ukeri, Agb. ; akp^te, Agv. ; agbala, Es. ;
STOP, rest, v. : idoboii, (I hold hand); E. ; ik^ti, E. ; ivumia,
ifiatia, Agb. ; imaiyela, ikwaho, Agv. ; ihea, Es. ; Ifuma,
Uz. ; mefo, menwe, Aj.
180 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY.
STOP, v. : stand, imudia, E. ; imuze, Ij., Ar. ; midie, Ok. ; midige,
Ot. ; imiza, Agb. ; imujia, Agv. : imudia, Es. ; imuza, Uz. ;
miamuga, Ib. ; miga, Ko. ; migija, So. ; amizie, Is. ; imuzele,
Em. ; mexoga, Aj. ; memudia, metbga, Ug., Ew. ; memudia,
Sap., Ag., Ovu ; medikie, ly.
STRIKE, SLAP, v. : ifi^limi, E. ; ifilawosa, Ar. ; itQgbo, Agb. ;
irhemigboli, Agv. ; inialqle (? I make a quick movement
with hand), Es. ; irernenagbo (I take strike), Uz.
SUCKLE, v. : inwe, E. ; itenyenenye, Agb. ; itainyenainye, Agv. ;
SUN : ovin, E. ; qle, Qle, Agb. ; OQle,, Agv. ; Qle,, Uz. ; uvo,
SUNLIGHT : avafi, E. ; udala, Agb. ; udami, Agv., Es. ; atuadala,
SUNRISE : ovinyare, E. ; e^Qgiere, Agb. ; ogogb^li, Agv. ;
SUNSET : onwota, E.; e^defia, Agb. ; ibilolo, Agv. ; ubeled^fio,
SWEAT, v. : afofgrni, E. ; itogia (I am warm), Agb.; itogia,
Agv. ; ewowagbQmi, Es. ; aiwiqniQgwa (?), Uz.
SWIM, WASH, v. : ixwe [weze], E. ; igwe[da], Agb. ; iagwede,
Agv. ; igwamekaumi, Ir. ; igweda, Uz. ; amererp, Aj. ;
merheranie, Ug., Ov. ; mehiame, ly. ; merere, Ag.
SWORD : agada, E. ; atakobe, Agb., Agv., Es., Uz.
TAIL : Qrhurhumu, E. ; uwa, Agb. ; urhumu, Aj.
TAKE AWAY, v. imwgkpa, E. ; irhilgra, Agb. ; idokpano. Agv.
imwglofia, Ir. ; ituekpako, Uz. ; misiononatmit;ne, Aj.
TAKE DOWN, v. : irhieyoto, E. ; irhiewaioto, Agb. ; itigwoto,
Agv. ; imwqlQSOtg, Es. ; iruawoto, Uz.
TAKE MEDICINE, v. : iriuxumu, E. ; itiukumi, Agb. ; itiukumu,
Agv. ; iniuxumu, Es. ; iriyukumi, Uz.
TAKE OFF, v. : imw^kpa, E. ; niQwuaxeme, Ok.; itielow^ri,
Agb. ; itioeware, Agv. ; ireukukponre, Es. ; misiqrhulumu,
COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 181
TELL THE TRUTH, v. : ematitai, E. ; igiemoiita, Agb. ; itgmwara,
Es. ; igwemoitso, Uz.
TELL TO CALL, v. : itamatie^ere, E. ; itamenptiore, Agb. ;
itamae.datioe.re, Agv. ; igienamanatiQlo, Es.
TEN : igbe, Edo ; ixwe, Sobo ; ikwe, ly.
TESTICLES : iviekue, E., Ok., Ot. ; ekpivievara, Ij. ; inudo,
Ar. ; ukpevarha, Sa. ; iyata, Agb. ; ikpene, Agv. ;
ikpekepa, Agv. ; ivlite, Em., Sap.
THANK YOU, v. : ulue,si, E. ; qmena, Agb. ; axwemini (?), Agv.;
akwe.me.li, Es. ; iruele, Uz. ; (I salute, I thank).
THANK (for it), v. : ikpomoi, E. ; obilu, Agb. ; obilue, Agv.
THIGH : ekwawe, E. ; isakole, Ij. ; ukqsQ, Ar. ; eogqri, Ok. ;
e,kQlowe, Agb. ; e,kola, Agv. ; e,kola, Es. ; ecici, Ib. 5
ukiowe, Ko. ; irevo, So. ; abobo, Is. ; ekpogowo, Em.
Aj. ; ekbowo, Ew.
THINK, v.: ilue,le, E. ; ite,ke,ku, Agb.; irikeyqle, Agv. ; ilgli,
Es. ; iwaimoi, Uz. ; milolo, Aj.
THIRD : nogiha, nowelugiha, E. ; onizea, Agb. ; egea, Uz.
orerba, Aj. ; esiarlia, Ug. ; osierha, Ov.
THIRTEEN : iwera (iwela), E. ; igbeha, Ij., Ar., Sa. ; Qgbesa,
Ok. ; igbelea, Agb., Agv., Uz. ; ixwera, Em., Sap. ; iwera,
iy-, A g .
THIRTY : Qgma, E., Ij. ; Qgba, Ar., Ok., Ot., Sa., Is., Em., Ew.,
Sap., Iy. ; uwekpainigbe, Agb., Uz. ; uwebigbe, Agv. ;
ogmigu, Es. ; uyaligbe, Ib., Ko. ; owolqtigbe, So. ;
THREAD : olu, E. ; olulu, Agb. ; ogu, Agv. ; owu, Es.
THREE: eha, E., Ij., Ar., Sa. ; esa, Ok., Ot., So., Ib., Is.;
ese, Ib., Ko. ; ea, Agb., Agv., Es., Uz. ; erha, Em. ; ra,
Sap., Aj., Ug., Ew., Iy. (or esa), Ag.
THROW, v. : irhiQlgfi, E. ; ifiegioi, Ij. ; ifinoii, Ar. ; mifuro-
dora, Ok. ; itielpfia, Agb. ; itiefia, Agv. ; irhelofia, Es. ;
ifoi, Uz. ; mirhuilo, Aj.
THROW AWAY, v. ; imufwa, E. ; ifilgfia, Agb. ; ifigtia, Ij. ;
ifinofia, Ar. ; rnifiodoaroi, Ok. ; mefiobili, Ot., Agv. ;
ibirqlia, Es. ; ifioifia, Uz. ; mikulofia, Aj.
THROAT : urbu, E., Agv., Es. ; ufe, Ar., Ok. ; uvi, Ot. ; utu,
182 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY.
Agb., Uz. ; urhp, Ew. ; ufo, Sap. ; ubiwo, Ug. ; uxwo,
THUNDER : avanoxumu, E. ; osisioxumu, Ij. ; okulitaze, Agb. ;
okumuwaihia, Agv. ; avanvan, Es. ; ovano, Uz. ; ufe,
Aj. ; afofo, Ew. ; agblana, Sap. ; oglibo, Ag.
TIME : Qkbo, E. ; QggQ, Agb.
TONGS : anwa, E. ; akboluka, Agb. ; akwa, Agv. ; akboka,
TONGUE : alame, E. ; olg, Ij., Agb., Agv., Uz., Ib., Ko., Aj. ;
oele, Ar. ; ore,, Ok. ; ire,, Ot. ; ola, Es. ; ide,de, So. ; ode,
Is. ; e,le,, Ew., Sap., Ag. ; e,^, ly.
TOOTH : ako(n), Edo, Sobo, Ekoe, Ib., Ko. ; molar tooth :
igebe, E. ; ilili, Agb., Uz. ; iliaha, Agv. ; iziziako, Es. ;
TORTOISE : e,gwi, E. ; e,gi, Agb., Uz. ; ogbe", Es. ; ugbewi, Aj.
TOWN, PLACE, COUNTRY : QWO, Edo.
TRAP (big) : ifi, E., Agv., Es. ; ufi, Agb., Uz. ; (small) :
TREE : erha, E. ; orha, Ij., Ar. ; ota, Ok., Ot., Agb., Es., Uz. ;
ora, Agv. ; urhe, Ein. ; uwaro, Sap.
TRUNK : gzirha, E. ; okenggburha, Agb. ; ekie,gburha, Uz.
TURN BACK, v. : iwe,re,gbe, E. ; ifie,gbede,le,gbe, Agb. ;
ifie,gbede,ne,gbe, Agv. ; ikievaw6deke,ke, Es. ; idonoretsike,
TWELVE : iweva, E. ; igbeva, Ij., Ar., Ot., Sa., Es.,Uz. ; qgbeva,
Ok ; ugbeleva, Agb. ; ugbleva, Agv. ; igbaleva, Ib. ;
igbaiva, Ko. ; igbaneva, So. ; ggbava, Ibl. ; bebeleva, Is. ;
ixwere, Sobo ; iwive, ly., Ag.
TWENTY : Ugye, E. ; uwe, Ij. ; we, Ar., Ok., Sa., Agb., Agv.,
Es., Uz. (and Ogbo) ; owige, Ot. ; uye, Ib., Ko., So. ;
qbqlo, Ibl. ; qgbgrp, Is. ; uje, Em. ; uge, Aj. ; uze, Sap.,
iy, A g .
TWENTY-ONE: Qkpainyogye, E. ; uwebiqkpa, Ij., Sa., Es. ;
uwaiqkpa, Ar. ; uwenqkpa, Ok. ; owigearqkpa, Ot. ;
uwekpQkpa, Agb., Agv.; uwekpamukpa, Uz. (from a
form ogbo) ; ujegbo, vo, Em. ; ugegbqvo, Aj. ; uzegbovo,
Ew., Sap., ly., Ag.
COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 183
TWICE : igbava, E. ; iseva, Agb., Agv. ; egeva, Uz.
Two : eva, Edo ; ive, Sobo.
UNDERSTAND: in^le, ihoi (I hear), E. ; il|, Agb.; in^le,
Agv. ; inele, Es. ; ile (I know), iso (I hear), Uz. ;
miniekewolao, Aj. ; miniobowotale, Ov. ; miniubawota,
ly. ; miniubowotale, Ag.
UNLOCK, v. : ikie,le, E. ; ikielp, Agb. ; ikieloi, Agv. ; iyalugiola
Es. ; iawewo, Uz.
VEIN : inia, E. ; inie, Ar., Es., Sa. ; ilia, Agb., Ib. ; enia,
Agv. ; ulie, Em. ; ilie, Aj., Ew. ; ulia, Ko. ; igbali,
VILLAGE : igwe, E.
VULVA : oheuhe, E. ; ukoko, Ij. ; ikata, Ok. ; ieko, Ot. ; aba, Sa.,
Ar. ; igbqkozo, Agb. ; udgli, Agv. ; edi, Es. ; oxolo, Em.,
Sap. ; ukbuvio, Ew.
WAIST ORNAMENT : em^ku, E ; il^ge, Agb.
WAIT, v. ; ixg, E. ; imiza, ik, Agb. ; ikg, Agv. ; idiaxelqli, Es. ;
imuzak^o, Uz. ; ghgrelio, ly.
WAIT FOR, v. ; ixqli, E. ; ikep, Agb. ; ikegli, Agv. ; idiaxeloiya,
Es. ; imuzak^oiai, ikeg, Uz. ; mehqrowe, Aj.
WAKE UP, v. : irhiole (irhioi), E. ; ikiowogwi (break sleep) ikig
act, Agb. ; itipgwe (itioi), Agv. ; iwerhiore (irhipowe),
Es. ; iki^ogwe, Uz. ; mivle, Aj. ; mekbama, ly. ; mivl^ni,
Ag. ; mivleni, Ov.
WALK, v. : ixia, E. ; ikia, Agb. ; ikia, Agv. ; ihielomo ? Ir. ;
ikia, Uz. ; miliemo, Aj. ; miluiluo, Ug. ; mikbuluo, Era. ;
mevliolo, ly. ; mililuo, Ag. ; miluluo, Ov. ; mQluloo, Sap.
WALL : Qgbqke, E. ; igbgkS, Agb. ; Qgbokia, Agv. ; igbegboa,
Es. ; igbQfodi, Uz. ; igbg, Sap. ; igbehg, Ew.
WANT, v. : iho, E. ; iaho, Ij. ; iyo, Ar. ; mekoro, Ok. ; mesoinifia,
Ot. ; ikili, Agb. ; mianono (=1 ask it), Ib. ; mikero, So. ;
metorai, Is. ; megwono, Aj.
184 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY.
WARM, MAKE, v. ; iviQwioi, E. ; iypyglo, itelorhagia, Agb. ;
iwqwip, Agv. ; imwple.vie.vie, Es. ; idoiitogia, Uz.
WASH, BATH, v. : ixwQli, E. ; ixweya (take a bath), Agb. ;
ikowa, Agv. ; ikpa, Es. ; ikweya, Uz.
WASTE MONEY, v. : izigo, E. ; igw^mqli, Agv. ; irhigoluQmi,
Es. ; ifwee.kpigola, Uz.
WATER : ame, Edo, Sobo.
WEANED, HE is, v.: qfiiriwe, E. ; qfunoenie, Agb.; Qtiunu-
WEAVE, v. : idukmQfi, E., Es. ; idukbq, Agb., Uz. ; mirh-
WEAVER : Qdukmgn, E., Ij., Agb., Es. ; qnqpuwhare, Ok.
WEEK : e^Qki, use, E. ; uze (five), Agb. ; uhele, Agv. ; adaki,
Es. ; uze, Uz.
WELL : uhai, E. ; omi, Uz. ; orale, Sap.
WEEP, v. : ivfe, E., Agv., Es. ; iaxwuli, Ij. ; igo, Agb., Uz. ;
me vie, Aj., ly. ; mevielio, Em.
WIND : ehoho, E. ; avovo, Agb. ; aiihi, Agv. ; aho, Es. ; afofo
WEST : olokun, unwota, E. ; ebeledefio. Agb. ; egionenedadolo,
Agv. ; elogode, Uz. ; pqre, Aj.
WHEN ; dgkbo, E. ; ge,g, Agb. ; gQgile, Agv. ; Qgela, Es.
eregenobe, Uz. ; devo, Ew.
WHERE : de,ke, E. ; e,be, Agb. ; gie,ra, Es. ; oboi, Uz. ; itiro,
WHISPER, v. : idogwa (say in secret), E. ; idolotam|, Agb. ;
idotamale, Agv. ; idpfe^ta, Es. ; idogwp, Uz. ; metol^me-
WHISTLE : elele, ufele, E. ; ulele, Agb. ; alele, Agv. ; uke,
Uz. ; oviolo, Sap.; (mouth) efiewp, E. ; uvievie, Agb.;
wehiemi, Agv. ; uduke, Uz.
WHITE MAN : Qbo, E., Ij. ; oibo, Ar., Ok., Ot., Agv., Es., Aj.
Sa., ly. ; Qvomi, Uz.
WHY : bqze, Es. : Qmeze, Agb., Uz. ; Qbezgle, Agv. ; osQmi-
WIDOW : e,gbQ, Qrhgn, E. ; QtQii, Agb. ; azuku, Ew. ; aiyuku,
Sap. ; ose, Ag., Ov.
COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 185
WING : ifwe, E. ; abiwe, Ij. ; abiwo, Ar. ; ifwawoni, Ok. ;
gifwa, Ot. ; ivwa, Agb., Uz. ; ukpokpo, Agv. ; ibekpe,
WOMAN : oxwo, E. ; oxwobo, Ij., Sa. ; okposo pi. ikposo, Ar.,
Ot., Uz. ; QniQxami, Ok. ; Qkwozo, Agb. ; Qkwo, Agv. ;
oxwo, Es. ; aiye, Em., Sa., ly. ; aje, Aj. ; aze, eya, Ew.
WONDER (am surprised), v. : irhiene, Qkpamudi, E. ; onyamalua,
Agb., Agv.; Qde.gbemalugbe (he beats our face too
much), Es. ; imialua, Uz.
WORD : Qine,, E. ; gmp, Agb., Agv., Es. ; Qmoi, Uz.
WORK, v. : iwina, E. ; ikbokbo, Agb. ; ikwaho, Agv. ; iwinqlo,
Es. ; igbakainia, Uz. ; mililuo, Aj.
WOUND, v. : ikwalosi, Agb. ; igiokwei, Agv. ; ikwalqli, Es. ;
ikwalotsi, Uz. ; miblo lahp, Aj. ; menyalie, ly. ; men-
yamelp, Ag. ; mesakio, Em.
WORLD : agbgn, agmQn, Edo, Sobo.
WRIST : axwobQ, E. ; okwambg, Ij. ; akakusobg, Ar. ; uke-
kerha, Ok.; ahe,gegobQ, Ot. ; axabQ, Sa. ; akpakamobQ,
Agb. ; oxumbQ, Agv. ; okw^gbe, Es.
WRITE, CARVE, v. : igmod, E. ; ike,ke, Agb. ; ik^kali, Agv. ;
YAM STICK (for climbing) ; ikbQsi, E. ; isakbe,, Agb. ;
Agv. ; agwe, Uz.
YEAR : ukpo, E. ; ukbe, Agb., Agv., Es.
186 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY.
CASSAVA : bobozi, E. ; ikeripia, Agb. ; medaka, Ewu.
Coco PALM : - ivi, E. ; iviobo, Agb. ; uvigbo, Agv. ; ukokodia,
CORN : qka.
COTTON TREE : qxa, E. ; qka, Agb.
FUNGUS : otu, E. ; itu, Agb.
KOKO YAM: iyoko.
KOLA : ewe.
PEPPER : ehie, E. ; isie, Agb. ; asie, Agv. ; irhibo, Ewu.
SUGAR CANE : uxw;re, E. ; itekbe, Agb. ; iri^xwe, Agv. ; akele,
WHITE YAM : emowe, E. ; emalgtwa, Agb., Agv.
A, indefinite personal pronoun. Agbirabiyue, may some
one kill your father and mother. Awedo, greeting!
Amegwi, catch the tortoise.
Aba, anklets of beans.
Aba, iron staple for making medicine.
Abekwe, small knife for killing cattle.
Abenwali, herring bone pattern.
A be, re, stomach marks.
Aberha, branch of tree.
A bib a, eaves.
Abode, an Ebo; keep watch on the road.
Abqkpaii, they are both the same,
o, loom sword.
, loin cloth (man's); triangular.
Ax a, weaver bird.
Axara, fork (of legs).
Axoxwa, bush fowl.
Axowa, house slave (cannot be sold).
Axwaxwa, crow ; promise.
Axwagaxwaga, dassia, dendro hylax.
Ax we, a climbing plant ; joint ; wash I
190 EDO DICTIONARY.
Axwobp, joint (upper limb).
Axwqramohe, labia majora.
Ada, Ihogbwe who attended burials as representative of Ihama.
Ada, fork of road ; sword.
A dan e ha, where three roads meet.
Adanine, four cross roads.
Ade,se, middle ; adesowa, middle of house.
AdQSQnevirha, between two trees.
Ade.sukpafon, uncovered open space in middle of room.
Af?ama, nervous, afraid.
AfofQmi, I sweat.
4-ga, stool, chair.
Agba, four-legged seat.
Agbaguda, woman's cheek mark.
Agboxumu, day for pregnant woman.
Agbwa, basket in which food is put when Olokum is
4-gma, man's basket.
Agme, bamboo, or cord to make patterns on pots ; decorative
EDO DICTIONARY. 191
Agobp, left hand.
Agogo, bell; Hyades.
AgukisQmogye, evening star ; star that tries to take king-
ship from the moon.
Ahiamplo, bird on Osune.maton.
Ahiamosa, wagtail ; bird of Osa.
AhuqnawQna, no moon,
aigyeke, corner of the house,
aihe, gonorrhea or gleet,
aile, I don't know,
ainyo, rubber ; latex; palm wine,
ainyoka, corn wine,
aisse, a form of salutation.
aiuboiilalua, early morning ( = take hand rub eyes).
aivona, no one.
aiyaluomanukbo, sacrifice to the year,
aiyawomame, sacrifice to rain.
aiy, still ; yet.
aiyomanovin, sacrifice to sun.
Akaba, dog bell.
Akaihe, fish spear.
Akbasiko, musical sticks.
Akbolu, black girdle.
Ake, burning ashes of wood.
Akia, three months.
Akiase, five months.
Akiane, four months.
192 EDO DICTIONARY.
Ako, a fruit.
Ako, a figurine used in Ihama's family for Oton
Akpakpa, butterfly, spider.
Akpakpwava, street where dead were exposed.
Akpalakpala, kind of fish.
Akpalode, medicine girdle.
Akpanowiwi, a fool.
Akpata, musical instrument (of any sort).
Akwg, feathers (for arrow).
Akwe, akwQmp, uterus.
Alaito, shrub used in medicine.
Alame, tongue; animal; meat.
AlaniQze, river animal.
Alame zi, kind of bird.
Alamo ha, bush animal.
Ale,, run !
Alqbu, a white yam.
Alimoi, orange or lime.
Aloi, cripple unable to walk.
Aloi, kind of fish.
Alonqsozi, eyes open; not blind.
Alow a, master or mistress.
Alu, face ; eye ; shrine of an Ebo.
AluQfai, idion of hunter.
Alungfwa, cornea (white eye).
EDO DICTIONARY. 193
Aluomai, scar (?X
Am a, wound ; bronze plaque.
Amaihe i kbolohe i kbole i go, early morning (never sweep in
Ame, water ; amemake, there is no water left ; ameke,
water remains ; there is some water left.
Ame,bi, dark cloud.
Am qb , mistress; lover.
AmQbosa, wife of Osa ; woman with atresia vaginae.
Amegbalo, cap (rain does not beat face).
Amen we, milk (of a woman).
Amenqrho, rain (water which falls).
Am^rha, stepmother (wife of father).
Amerhiehie, drizzle (rain eats pepper).
Ame,ti, water boils.
Amenaf ofele, the water is all finished.
Ame we we, drizzle.
AmQba, king's mother's "wife."
Amogewaise, chief of theEwaise.
Amogye, prince's wife.
Ane, passing faeces.
Apqle, chessboard pattern.
Arexwe, don't drive (it) away.
Arhie, man. Arhieva, two men. Arhigkpa, one man.
Asa, shield, whip of elephant's tail.
Asa, wand of iluerie.
Asai, take water.
Asaka, stink ant, road ant.
Asamotq, driver ant.
194 .EDO DICTIONARY.
Asgkme, a white yam.
Asoko, a white yam.
Asolo, throwing spear ; small cuts made to cure a boil.
Asu, black paint (for body).
AtatabQ, palm of the hand.
A tat a we, sole of the foot ; footprint.
A tele, (?) one said.
Atetugwe, basket for hair.
A to, grass land.
Aw a, dog.
Aw a, prohibition ; ban ; prohibited food.
Awaigbe, family prohibition, totem.
Awailimi, prohibition imposed by priest.
AwalQkpa, as soon as.
Awavanoxumu, stone axe (lit. thunder dog).
AWQ, plantain eater, African pheasant.
Awehame, instep (?).
Awe,kia, impotent man.
AwQse, thank you.
A wo wo, hot.
Avalaka, a pattern (No. 10 in N. and Q.}, (lit. hammer).
A van, flying squirrel.
A vie,, pus.
A vie,, clitoris.
Avi^li, idle, asleep.
Avihue, vein near anus.
Aza, store room.
EDO DICTIONARY. 195
Azua, man who asks (? sponges).
Azuwa, hair pin.
Ba, now ; with.
Ba, suffix meaning upright; onarhieba, he stood it up.
B|, call for dog.
Baba, just now.
Bame, with me.
Be, we, as.
Be, who, what, where ; batjruwe, what is your name ? Bpxi,
what is it? Bgd^s^h^, how far? Bogbe, who killed
(him)? Baiailu, what is it for? Bgzenunalwona,
why do you do this? Bqzonglunye, why do you do
thus ? Bwalu, what do you do ? Bwayeyi, where do
you live ?
Be, in, of ; begbema, in our family.
Bugbehia, all the time.
De.de.neje.xi, what is to-day ?
DedenQxia, when is he going?
Dedenoxia, when are you going ?
Dgkbonuki, how long ?
Dewenoho, which goat do you want ?
Dewonuyi, where do you live ?
Dewonurie, where are you going ?
196 EDO DICTIONARY.
Diobgbirha, go to the right.
Diobag^bo, go to the left.
Do, a salutation.
Dqmanoxi, whose man are you ?
Dos^nia, till now.
Do si, come and ask.
Dosowaine, come, reach my house.
E, negative prefix; Qxiame, it hurts me; Qxiame, it does
not hurt me.
Ijlbaxwe, parrots' feathers.
Ebale, sides of forecourt,
^balu^hini, Ebaluerha, raised platform at side of father's
!Ebaluiye, raised platform in mother's room.
Ebate, round bundle of fern in ome.
Eb^f, ceremonial sword.
Ebe, leaf ; book.
Ebeli, agidi leaf.
Ebe wan a, palm leaf pattern.
]bi, prevention (?).
ISbisugu, leaf used to make black pigment.
Ebq, minor "power," demi-god.
Ebo, white man ; doctors.
E borne, bag of salt.
IjJbowa, woman's latrine.
EXQXQ, trap (small),
iExwai, EbQ for taking oath.
EDO DICTIONAKY. 197
, I am ashamed; exwemue, thou art ashamed;
exwemwe, he is ashamed.
^d a, hail.
E dag be, every day.
lilde,, white hairs.
Ede, crown (?) of head.
]jMe, manatee (?).
Edexiota, evening, twilight.
Ede.gbede.gbe, every day.
Edegigbe, at dawn.
Edegimu, at nightfall.
Edehaele, in five days.
Edehinoele, in six days.
Ede,ki, week ; market day.
!Edele,nimirie, Ehp, the day when the dead go away,
^deluyiyi, early morning.
iEderiwamotp, early morning,
3de,nokele, next day.
^ die bo, pineapple,
^di, civet cat (?).
Edi, uncooked palm oil.
Edoyi, do you live in Edo ?
Edoikede, I come from Edo.
i, each man.
Efa, priest of Ehinoha.
ijlfe, rib, front.
Ef 4, property.
1 fie wo, whistle (sound made by mouth),
198 EDO DICTIONARY.
Ega = oiega, there.
EgabiQna, son's son's son's son's son.
Egaiwo, council of notables.
Egba, bangle ; iron coiled round arm.
Ijlgbaxia, widow "friend," mistress.
Eg be, family.
Egbe, bright; ^degigbe, at dawn.
Eg be, ready.
Egb, the same; Qgbomana, the same person.
"ggbe = back (of place).
Egb, body (human).
Egbe (?); silent.
Egbeke, wall of a house.
Egbema, house of wattles and mud.
EgbemawQmi, we are fresh, not tired.
Egbuwuga, part of house between door and corner.
Egiasegbeji, hereditary post.
Egir^, it's finished all gone, not there.
Eg mo, fence.
Eg ^, dinner, feast.
Egoderie, long court of the Oderie.
Egwa, I make heaps (for yams).
Egwai, king's house.
Eg we, bat.
Eg we,, hoe.
EgwobQ, bead armlets.
Eg wo we, bead anklets.
Egun, bath room.
Egute, a kind of dance.
EDO DICTIONARY. 199
Eh a, six ; bush cow.
Eh a, three.
haj:rawugie, seventeen (lit. three is not in twenty).
ighe', yes, all right.
Eh^xwi, green pigeon (Vinago calvus),
Ehenanowa, market stall for silent trade.
Eh^nqkai, dried fish.
Ehie, nail ; claw.
]|Lhihi, soldier ant.
Ehinaxwoi, back of head.
Eh in e hi, good genius (ehi which is ehi).
Eh 6, he breathes.
Ehogai, spirit of childless person.
Eye,, son's son.
Eyeye, person with many children.
Eye, me, I hate ; don't love.
E;ko, reply to salutation ; " I hear."
Eka, four-cornered beads.
Eka, Agbor language.
^Ikbekia, pubes (male).
3kbelqxwe, glossy starling,
o, uncircumcised boy.
200 EDO DICTIONARY.
Ekbiku, dry leaves.
Ekbo, bag; 10 ropes of yams (uga).
Ekbo, Ekbo (boy's society).
Ekbofi, sufferer from yaws.
Ekbohe, pubes (female).
Ekboki, round box.
Eke, mud, clay for making houses; wall
Ekeliye, place where I live.
Ekete, king's throne.
Ekianokwame, penis from which no semen issues.
Eko, abdomen above navel (see Eku).
Ekoxome, I am vexed.
Ekogbwe, wall round king's house.
EkohihiQme,, I have diarrhoea.
, I am content; Qkomavome, I ain not content.
Ekpahpeyi, loaf of fufu.
^kpo, bag (see ekbo).
EDO DICTIONARY. 201
Eku, hip, waist (see eko).
Ekwabg, upper arm.
Ekwe,, cross belt (of heads).
Ekwiye, spoon (from Portuguese?).
^kwoxwo, woman's waist.
Elagbode, last child (of man or woman).
El ^le,, eight.
ElimJa, I beg.
Elimidu, king's ancestors.
Elo, knife, bell.
1^1 , it is not finished.
El Qmo, brass; bracelet.
Elohogeta, I don't lie.
Elu, sand heap on threshold.
Elu lima, knife.
ISluwQ e,lume,, neither you nor me.
Em a, brain (?).
Em a, fufu.
Ematitai, I tell the truth.
Em 4, word.
Emedo, man's drum.
202 EDO DICTIONARY.
Em^ku, waist ornament.
Eme,sakpaide, woman's drum.
Emila, cow; cattle.
Emilogiso, caterpillar (?)
^milQ via, bullroarer.
Emiri, animal that is tied with rope.
Emivame, I wound (?I am wounded, thing hits me).
Emogo, man's drum.
Em owe, white yam ; morning fufu.
Emu, dark (day).
Em we,, ashes.
En we, breast (woman's) ; milk.
Eniele, his name.
Enyai, Enyai, market on Jeduma road.
Enixuxu, house pigeon.
En ye, snake.
En ye,, marrow.
Erere, crown of the head.
EDO DICTIONAEY. 203
Erha, wood ; tree.
frhai, his, her father,
ErhamenagmQ n, lover (woman speaking) ; (lit. father in this
Erhamodede, my father's father.
Erhanowu, dead wood.
Erhe, abdomen. .
^rhiye, mother's father.
Erhggmo, live wood.
Erhprno, hermaphrodite (?).
Erhue, bush buck.
Erhuruoyi, crow pheasant.
Erhumunie, strange] 1 .
Erialue, once upon a time (lit. so they did).
Er!aria, sandfiy (?).
Erowabiriowa, you were not at home, when I came.
Eru, yam stack (foundation).
Eruhau, king's cloth skirt.
E sale bo, plant from which seeds are taken to make a rattle.
Esi, pig; Qsyi, horse.
Esioha, bush pig.
Esoii, poor, poverty.
Esu su, owl,
204 EDO DICTIONARY.
Etekia, pubic hair (male).
Etason, hair standing straight up.
Etif ome, I tire.
Et, fire for cooking food.
Eton;mo, straight hair.
Etonokjri, frizzly hair.
Etu, ha.ir; beard; moustache.
Etuhe, pubic hair (female).
Evase, finis ! that's the end.
Eve, elephantiasis of scrotum.
EVQ, what; evilu, what I do; evomalu, what a man does-.
Evi, cooked palm oil.
E viq, anvil.
Ewa, sleeping mat.
Ewadiselo, chest mark.
Ewai, a tree.
E w am e, she-goat.
Ew, chest; breasts.
Ewi, kind of fish.
Ewifi, small pox.
Ewi vie, bead coat.
E wo, place; town; district.
EDO DICTIONAKY. 205
Ewowu, bush crocodile.
Ewii, he is not dying,
^wugbgfe, side mark.
Ezikg, calabash flute.
Ezirha, trunk of tree.
E z o, case (law) ; palaver.
Fgle fgle, thin.
Fi, inside; fioha, inside the bush.
Fiaxwe, game of marbles (?)
FialametQ, roast meat.
Fiirha, into the tree.
Fwa, suffix meaning away; mufwa, throw (it) away.
Gaxia, go; go on.
Gafekoxia, walk slowly.
Galue, go on.
Garhao, salutation fora chief.
Gade, who is coming?
Gainyale, whose is it?
Gba, correct ; iko dogba, the assembly was complete.
Ge, neg. prefix; gege, don't look; ggyo, don't go; gere,
don't come ; giahaime, silence ! (don't let me hear word.)
Gi, if; wagixia, if you go.
206 EDO DICTIONARY.
Gu, for ; gume, for me.
Gume, let me.
Gwedia, wait (with him, her).
Iba, I put, I loose.
Iba, mud seat.
Ibafi, I go hunting.
Iba^iku, I miss (something).
Ibairie, seat under eaves in oderie.
Ibgkbe,, middle, bekwiye,ke, in the middle of the back.
Ibj bi, dark (of day).
Ibie, I bear (a child).
Ibiedo, son of a slave (may be sold).
Ibiegbe, I shut (a door).
Ibieka, boy; ibiekeha, ibiekaneha, three boys. Ibie,kada
enaxi, these are bad boys.
Ibiluha, I lose myself.
Ibiroga, an Ibiwe, Iwegwa or Iwebo, who attended the
I biro, I guess.
Ibp, I divine.
Ibobehg, scale (fish).
Ibohie, I settle a case.
Ibowa, I build a house.
Ibigle, I prick,f pierce.
Ibu, I break.
I bue, I put.
Ibuluku, small cloth reaching to the : knees.
Ibwe*, I cut.
Ibwe, I go.
Ibwe, I 'break.
EDO DICTIONARY. 207
Ibwefe, I break a bone.
Ixa, I say.
Ixaime, I curse, abuse.
Ixaimi, I help (in a caso).
Ixale, I say it.
Ixalo, man's forehead marks.
Ixamale, I tell ; lyaxamale, I [go] tell.
Ixariesoyema, I am waiting for some one here.
Ixe,, I wait.
Ixi, I am.
Ixia, I go.
Txialele, I go with him, her.
Ixie, I wash ; rub.
Ixie, I sell.
Ixiegbe, I dry myself.
Ixiele, I twist.
Ixieng, wale, I am a big man.
Iximi, Ichimi tree.
Ixo, forehead marks, man's.
Ixgde, I lie in ambush.
IxQle, I wait for.
Ixo.ii, I fight.
Ixu, farmer's knife.
Ixwe, I wash ; I swim.
Ixwd, I drive.
Ixwexwe, palm wine (from tree cut down).
Ixwefwa, I drive away.
Ixweime, I answer.
Ixwerie, king's women's house.
Ixwewowa, I bath ; wash at home.
Ixwi^le, I lock.
Ixwoi, I pick.
Ida, hour glass drum with strings.
Idai, I drink (wine) ; Idajnyg, I drink palm wine.
208 EDO DICTIONARY.
IdaihQ, I listen ; give ear.
Idamihp, I understand.
I dam 2, 1 taste.
Idatie, I shout for ; call.
Ide, I tie ; I made, I don't tie.
Id $, I fall; I made,, I don't fall.
Id, I buy; Imad, I don't buy.
Id 6", I come ; ide, I am not coming.
IdegQle, I see.
Idgnwe, I come for you; I buy for you.
Idi, grave (for corpse).
Idia, I stay.
Idia, I menstruate.
Idyogbo, idion of the farm.
Idigie, I squat.
Idinai, I reach.
I do, riddle.
I do, flying ant.
Idoboii, I rest ; I hold my hand.
Idoxwai, I make baskets.
Idogwa, I whisper.
Idoi, I get a dry skin.
Idoii, I buy (it).
Idoleyi, I make better ; I mend.
Idolegbelue, I do it again.
Idolo, I sew ; I rub.
Idol 9, I sacrifice (to Otp).
I doled, I look after.
Idu, brown dove.
Iduakpakpa, spider's web.
I due, bo. ringdove.
Idu mo, 1 make.
Idzo, I send.
Ie,rio, I turn (yams on the fire).
Ife. I am safe.
EDO DICTIONARY. 209
Ife", I reach.
Ifi, trap (big).
Ifiai, I cut.
Ifiaile, I bite.
Ifiamoi, I knock.
Ifie, I flog.
Ifie,do, I mistake.
Ifi^limi, I flog, I strike.
I fie to, hair in thrums.
Ifigzera, I cross a river.
Ifi ha, I foretell, I throw if a.
Ifiiguhumu, I shake my head.
Ifiyo, I swear.
If igka, I reap (cut) corn.
Ifiqkoko, I hop.
If we, wing.
jga, I divide; Igale, I divide it.
Igagy^furi, I cool.
Igadip, I bite.
Igayi, I send (my daughter to her husband).
Igaiyo, I am going.
Igale, I am going to eat.
Iganqme, I marry; inome, I don't marry.
Igariemi, I want food; iriemi, I don't want food.
Igawg, I shall say.
Igba, authority to speak to king's wives.
Igba, I bandage, tie.
Igbaimwe, I attach.
Igba ha, thrice.
Igbane, four times.
Igbe", I kill, I beat, I dance.
210 EDO DICTIONARY
Igbehe, fish spine.
IgbehiQli, I take and rub it.
Igbelua, I kill.
Igb^ra, I pass.
Igberha, I tie wood.
Igbiminelimi, I sacrifice.
Igbina, I fight.
Jgbo, top (toy).
jgbo, igbukmQfi, cover cloth (man's).
Igbo, I cut.
Igbu, piece of cloth.
Ig$, igie, I laugh.
Igfi, I look.
Ige, I send.
Ig^de, doctor's drum.
Ig^ga, bell worn by pregnant woman.
Igegosun, branches of Osun.
Igehe, molar tooth.
Igele, grown men; second of the three divisions of men..
Igele, young ones.
Igewale, chop money.
Igenowa, I devastate.
Igeyareodalu, I send on (a person).
Igia, I cut.
Igidg, I am dry.
Igie, I send. Igigiowe, heel. Igilasg, I am near-
Ig;miko, bell worn by pregnant woman.
buele, I sent a man to him.
Igivi^ko, cord worn round the neck t in pregnancy.
Ig;zQlue, I keep on doing.
Igma, small bone, fish bone.
Igmp, parts round the knee.
Igmo, I mark.
EDO DICTIONARY. 211
Igmoi, I clean, I carve, I write.
I go, horn, cowries, money.
Igp, I give food.
Igogo, I am pleased.
Igogon, white feathers.
Igue, I permit.
Igwa, T plant.
I g wax a, I don't know how to say.
Igw$laxa, I know how to give a message.
Igwaloi, I find.
Igwame, I ferry across.
Igwe, I shut.
Igwe", I help.
Igw, I follow.
Jgw, I sing.
Igwe, month for sacrifice.
Igwe, I sacrifice (to my head).
IgwQdQ, I buy from you.
Igwegbina, I fight.
Igwe ho, I help find.
Igwe we, long leaf vised in making pots.
Igwi, I make palaver, quarrel.
Igwornqri, king's servants.
Igwovoi, I break.
Igye, corner; igyowa, corner of the house; igy erne, posterior
border of armpit.
Igye, I laugh.
IgyokQ, king's trader with Europeans.
Igyolowa, water yam.
Igyuhumu, I send a message.
Igyumuyerigbe, I send back.
I ha, divination.
I ha, pit for criminal.
212 EDO DICTIONARY.
Ihage,, dried meat in mats.
Ihai, I bore.
Ihame, I become pregnant.
Ihasa, I pay; ihale, I pay for it.
I he, road " juju."
I he* I refuse.
I he, I carry.
Ihegilue, I have done it, (gone on) till I am tired.
Iheyo, I put,
Ihle, a bean.
Ihelini, I give name.
Ih^m^ku, kidney (?).
I he we, I inhale.
Ihewerioto, I exhale.
I hi, forbidden thing.
I hi, from.
I hie, I climb.
Ihie, I cover.
I hie hie, son's son's son.
Ihiehie, black bean.
Ihie,zi, I ride.
Ihio, I come.
Ihioke, I climb a hill.
Ihiuhumirha, I climb a tree.
I ho, I find.
I ho, I hear.
I ho, I want.
I ho, company ; people of same age.
I hoi, I hear it ; I understand.
Ihonimioi, I don't want to die* ;
Ihrame, I touch.
EDO DICTIONARY. 213
I hue, nose.
Ihume, I wake.
Ihumu, millipede, centipede.
Ihuriwa, I am silent.
Ihwale, I clean.
Ih we, I take you, I copulate.
Ikunogole, father's room.
file, I don't eat.
lio, I am not going.
lise, one hundred.
Ik a, tie-tie, bush rope.
Ik I, I fill.
Ika, I feel.
Ikai, I count.
Ikalo, lower part of forehead.
Ikba, I come out, rise, go.
Ikbaihiagbede, I leave Agbede ; Ikbaihiedo, I leave
Ikba, I vomit.
Ikbaigbe, I get up.
Ik be, I stay (in a house).
Ik be*, I wash.
Ik be, si, stick for training yams.
Ikboge, I shake water (in a vessel).
Ikbokbo, I trouble.
Ikboleki, I sweep the market.
Ikbotp, I sweep the ground.
Ikbuko, calabash seed.
Ik, I remain.
Ike, be, buttocks.
Ikfjde, day reckoner.
Ike, d ode, I come from Edo.
Ikgdore, I come from Edo ; I come out from there.
IkesQgma, twenty-five (not used in counting).
Ikenawie, sleeping place (on march).
214 EDO DICTIONARY.
IkQni, elephant hairs for stringing beads.
Ikewu, pot rest.
Ikgvare, I come from there.
Ikie, I open, unlock.
Ikiere, I bring (otu).
Ikimualuhumu, master's room (room of shrine of head).
Ik;re, I lean my head on his hands.
Ikmalefu, I cause abortion.
Iko, brass armlet.
Jko, I plant.
Ik6, head band.
Ikodalo, I precede.
Ikodgre, I come out from there.
Ikoko, pipe (tobacco).
Ikole, I aim.
Ikole, I wait.
Ikolo, I gather fruit.
Ikoye, I hop.
Ikpogi, or isegegwe, a bean.
Ikpakpalo. a bean.
Ikpakpwegbe, skin (human).
Ikpalakala, a beetle.
Ikpale, I help (with a load).
Ikparemudia, I stand up.
Ikpawa, I come out from there.
Ikp0, red yam.
Ikpe", I stay.
Ikpevene, four unbroken kola.
Ikpiame, rainbow (lit. water snake).
EDO DICTIONARY. 215
Ikpixie, a bean.
Ikpihabo logyeloka or nowaloka, first finger.
IkpihabQ logye, thumb.
Ikpihabc) nokadige, second finger.
Ikpihabqnexere, little finger.
IkpihabQ nodiake ngxeje,, third finger.
Ikpo, lizard (red headed).
IkpQlu, cotton seed.
Ikpo mm, I thank.
Ik ft, room in house.
Iku, peelings (of yams, etc.).
Iku, I dance, I play; I copulate.
Iku, Ekbo (secret society for boys) ; small dirt.
Ikugbe, I mix.
Ikulu, I dance.
Ikunaluiye, mother's room.
Ikunu, I take.
Ik wale, I kneel.
Ik we, I permit, agree ; I can.
Ik we, I can't, I don't agree.
Ik we, I make.
Ik we, body, corpse.
IkwfjkwQ, palm wine; wrinkles.
IkwQle, ominous bird.
Ikwele, I set a bone, reduce a joint.
Ikwenie, I answer.
IkwQti, halt, rest.
Ikwixai, I play a game.
Ikwifi, I make a trap.
Ikwihi, I pack, make up loads.
Ikwobqyo, I begin.
I la, I pass, I enter,
I la, I want.
I lax we, day after to-morrow.
216 EDO DICTIONAKY.
Hal, I go.
Ilai, I pass him.
Ilaiyanovie, I go to sleep.
Ilakbo, I go to bed.
Ilaloi, I lick.
I lame, black ant (with nest in tree).
Ilamebo, house ant.
Ilawa, I go home.
Ilawele, I stay alive.
I la wo wa, I go inside the house.
lie I bury.
11, I know,
lie,, I run.
II , I eat.
He, I cook.
Il, I salute.
Il^gwa, I do ... in spite of all.
Ilele,, I follow.
He, mi, I cook something.
Ilexe, 1 trade.
Ilexui, I look.
Ileye, I stay.
llo, I think.
116, 1 go.
Hole, I go round the town,
Ilolo, I remember.
I loluye, I copulate.
IlomgdQ, ilomoxwo, I marry (husband or wife).
Ilgrio, I think so.
Ho vie, I lie down (to sleep),
[loviesotg, I lie down.
|lue, I make.
Ilu^fo, I finish.
EDO DICTIONARY, 217
Iluele, I think.
IluQlimi, I sacrifice (to my ancestors).
Iluese, I dash you.
Iluhe, I copulate.
Iluigo, I count money
Iluiguhumu, I nod my -head (backwards).
Ilukoisa, I am not Oisa's messenger.
Ilumiesi, kind (adj.).
Iluo)li, I learn it.
Imagie, I order.
I male, I measure ; I don't know.
Imanole, I don't know.'it.
Imaiyaiyi, I disbelieve.
Imamai, I arrange.
Imasabo, I cannot.
Imavale, I do not meet, 1 ! miss.
I me, I have (it).
Imi, I guess.
ImiQ, I take.
ImiQze, I have money.
Imigo, I save money.
Imihenaxia, in order to go.
I HI in a, I dream.
Imioi, I find it ; I see it.
Imoha, tribute to king.
Imohu, I am vexed.
Imolosa, I owe money.
Imomqgberaize, I ferry across.
Imudia, I stand ; I stay; I stop.
I m ue, I carry (in one hand).
Imufwa, I throw away.
I in u hi, I put away.
Imiike, I cook.
Imumale, I show.
Imumwege, I show.
Imune, I (take and) give.
218 EDO DICTIONARY.
Imwale, I deny.
Imw, I seize.
Imwexaife, I carry on my hip.
Imwefwa, I throw away; I lose.
Imwegbele, imwegbe, I am ready, I prepare.
Imwegbene,, I am ready.
Imwekpa, I take away.
Imweniuhumu, I carry on my head.
Im we, mo bo, I carry in my hands.
Imwewowo,, I carry on my back.
Imwqre, I bring.
Imwegbina, I make peace between people.
Imwgkpa, I put off a cloth.
Imw5, I drink.
In a, they, their, them.
In a, I get ready.
Inafiai, I am ready to cut.
Inaga, I begin.
Inali, I pass.
Inaneva, both, they two.
Inasie, I pull.
Inaw|, they say.
Inawe_, I say.
Inaweva, both ; they two.
Inawole, they two.
Ingle, I understand ; I know it.
Ingna, I ask.
t n, I don't know.
i ne,, I know.
I ne, I am constipated.
In , I pass faeces.
Inwa, I grow up. Inwale, I grow.
EDO DICTIONAKY. 219
In wo, I drink.
In iii, hymen.
Inia, I open.
Iniele, I make profits.
Inimiai, I beg.
f nii, fashion, custom.
In in ye, I deliver a message.
Iniunuyigbe, I am silent.
I no, fur.
I no, I ask.
Inolota, I ask a question.
Inol^mi, I ask for a thing.
In ox wo me, how many wives have you ?
Inokare, I came first.
Inoi, I ask it.
Inole, I know it.
Inukinuki, how long?
In we, I catch ; I suckle.
InwQnixi, how much is that ?
Inya, I get it.
Inyu, I knock.
InyakQ mohu, yam used as " pillow."
Inyamie, I forgot.
Inya to, roast yam.
In ye bo, potato.
Inyigbe, I strain (in passing faeces).
InyQgmq, raw yams.
I re, do, I go to Edo.
Irene wekere, I came before you.
Irene wo, I come back.
I r hale, I am a thief.
220 EDO DICTIONARY.
Irhalehi, I detach.
Ir hale wow a, I pillage a house.
Irhiale, I spoil.
Irhialua, I destroy; I spoil.
Irhiare, I come.
Irhie, I take ; I carry (in two hands).
Irhiegboto, I put on the ground.
Irhieyotp, I take down.-
Irhie.le.le, I hide.
Irhie, li, I pick it up.
Irhielgfi, I throw.
Irhielele, I hide.
Irhiene, I give ; irhiniyane, I give yams.
Irhiene, I am surprised.
Irhierho, I put up.
Irhigle, irhioi, I wake up (trans.).
Irho ; cheek marks.
Irhgli, I pick it up.
I r hue, I circumcise a boy ; I cut a girl ; I put on clotb
Irhue, I light.
Irhiie, I bend ; set a trap.
Irhue, I shut.
IrhukmQii, I put on a cloth.
Irhijle, I run.
Irhurgkua, I throw out water.
Iri, bush rope.
Iriaigwa, I spend.
Irie, I eat; irinya, I eat yams.
Irinelimiri, part of Osun ; rope in which Elimi is tied..
I rig, I take (several things).
Iriukbo, I go to bed.
Iriono, it's so.
Iriuxumu, I take medicine.
Iro, cheek marks.
Irp, I live.
EDO DICTIONARY. 221
Irigbe.de, I live in Agbede ; ire, do, I live in Edo.
Irua, I knock.
Irualef wa, I push away ; I upset. -
Is a, faeces.
Is a, I jump.
Isada, I give to drink.
Isahe, key and lock.
Isai, I shoot ; hit.
Isaiyo, I put (liquid).
Isai we, ground nut.
Is a ko, I file teeth.
I sale, I jump.
Isapame,logodi, son's son's son's son.
Isaga, I am well.
Isavan, long stone axe.
Ise, flat musical stick.
ISQ, mancala, a game.
Ise, rattle (calabash).
Is$, I am ; I get; I reach.
Isegegwe, see Ikpogi.
Iselai, I permit, allow.
Isemie, I save.
Isenyogie, twenty-five (in counting).
Ise, rip, I bless ; take off curse.
Iseti, I can't.
Iseti, I can.
Isi, I ask.
Isie, I pull.
Isie, I put down.
Isie, I dry.
Isiekotp, I extinguish.
Isie,kwe, I lend.
Isielaiodyeke, I leave behind.
Isie, mi, things collected one by one.
222 EDO DICTIONARY.
Isimi, I quarrel.
Isimi, I save.
Isiolulu, I spin cotton.
Isiwa, I sing; dosiw'ame, come and sing for me.
I so, I sing.
Is 2, 1 reach.
I so, I break.
I so, sky.
Isoboio, I begin; I catch him.
Isohumu, I butt.
Isola^i, I leave.
I soli, I split.
I some,, I pierce (with wood).
Isonqro, ? cloud; sky in the I wet season.
Isu, I work bronze.
Isuali, I push.
I sue, I lead.
I sue, I begin.
I sue, I sing.
Isu% I prick, I pierce (with a spear).
f susu, evil thing, ? spirit.
It a, I look.
It$, I guess; riddle.
It a, feather ordeal.
I tab a, tobacco.
Itai, I speak, I say it.
Itegamwe, I try to catch.
Itepe, a kind of snake.
Iterhagboto, I fell a tree.
Iti, I fly.
I tie, I call.
Itiele, I read.
Itihe,, I curse, I abuse.
Itiko, I call a meeting.
Itoge, I lie.
EDO DICTIONARY. 223
Iti, I roast; qnorigtp, she gives to roast ; QnoriQtQJ, she
takes and roasts.
Itoi, I am alive.
Itglp, I scratch.
Itqnp, I dig.
Itonoii, I dig it.
Itota, I sit.
Itotasot^, I sit down.
Itotp, I dig the ground.
Itu, I dress my hair.
Itue, I salute.
Ituggboto, I fell.
Ituesagie, I bleed.
Itwi, smoother for inside of pot.
Itul^mu, I run.
I turn e, I have connection with.
Itu Qma, I salute a man.
Iture, I descend.
Iturewoke, I go down the hill.
Iva, I hit.
Ivai, I please.
Ivaila, I turn off the road.
I vale, I catch up ; I break.
I vale, I cut up.
I vale, food.
Iv, I wrestle.
Ive, I can.
Jvi, iviebo, cocopalm ; palm kernel.
Iviawaneha, belt of Orion.
I via we, part of foot above heel.
Jvie", I sleep.
I vie", beads.
I vie, I draw.
Jvi ekbo, snake.
224 EDO DICTIONARY.
Iviqwioi, I warm.
Ivip, I keep.
Iviqkwa, I scatter; throw away (things).
Ivioi, I put it.
Ivioludo, short marks on cheek.
Ivirha, I cut wood.
Ivw, I dig up.
Iwf, I don't eat ; I forbid.
Iwale, I meet.
Iwaimi, I divide.
Iwele, fish poison.
Iwgle, I answer (a shout).
IWQ, I open.
I we, I order.
I we, I plant.
Iw, I say.
I we, I stay.
Iwe,do, I summon ; Iwedorierinia, I call to turn
Iwele, I roll.
Iwe.rQgbe, I turn back.
Iwetie, I shout.
Iwie, I take.
Iwili, baboon. .?
Iwili, I am lost.
Iwina, I work.
Iwofiagbe, woman's mark above navel.
Iwoi, I take sticks from the ground.
Iwoi, I jump.
Iwoloi, I pluck
EDO DICTIONARY. 225
IwQmado, I compliment, say "do " to a man.
Iwu, loins, abdomen (of man).
Iwu, chest marks.
Iwu, I die.
lya, I take ; maiya, we take.
lya, I go.
Iyad, I go to buy.
lyaiyi, I believe.
lyai qnio, I adopt a child.
I yak a, I touch.
fyalema, I (go) cook fufu.
ly ale ma, go and cook fufu.
lyaluegbe, the servant of Ovia.
lyamale, I forgive.
lyamwere, I fetch.
lyanq, I go to stool.
lyane, I give.
lyanexweli, I forgive.
lyatua, I salute.
lye, he lives, he is.
lya, I make ; I go to it.
lye 1 , I remember.
I ye, do, I live in Edo.
lyQdo, in Edo.
lyeha, one hundred and twenty.
ly^ke, back, beyond.
ly^kikpoba, beyond the Ikpoba.
lye.kobo,, back of the hand.
lyekogbe, young men's quarter of house.
lygkowa, back of the house.
ly^kowe, top of the foot.
lyele, I remember (it).
lyemodede, mother's mother.
lyenagniQn, mother for this world; i.e., female " friend,"
226 EDO DICTIONARY.
lyenobiye, mother's mother.
lyqre, I set fire to.
Iyer ha, father's mother.
lyigbenaise, one hundred and ten.
lyiye, mother's mother.
lyqba, king's mother.
lyobQtie.le, I beckon, call with the hand.
lyoxo, koko yam.
lyode, assistance in childbirth.
lyomone, I give in marriage.
lyglgbQ, I help, assist.
lyoha, pawn, pledge.
lygboiyp, I obey, put hand.
lyowa, mother of the house, mother of the owner of^a
Iyow, I take a broom.
lyowQkpamudia, I stand on one leg.
lyudgwo, I oil myself,
lyuhi, I make a law.
Izaba, hair dressing in fifth month of pregnancy.
Izaduma, chief's drum.
Izagigwa, 1 spend, waste money.
Izake, kind of fish.
Ize, I take.
Ize,, native rice.
Ize, I speak (a language).
Izeyp, I care for, mind.
IzgdizQdi, abscess, fistula.
Izie, I hold.
Izigala, I fly (of butterfly).
Izigo, I upend, waste money.
Izp, I grow (trees).
EDO DICTIONAEY. . 227
Iz$bo, I let fall.
Izof, I share (pair).
Izoi, I send; inakegioma, inakezoma, they send a man,
Izgka, I shout.
Iz^ligo, I fine.
Izuno, I spoil the edge.
Ke, particle meaning then, or indicating past time;
egwikere, the tortoise came.
Ke, particle meaning with; itotake, I sit down with;
diake, stay with me, him, etc.
Kewime, with me; kedo, from Edo.
Kevagalai, from that time on.
K;no kino kino, chevron pattern.
K oik 94, sound of beating fufu.
Koiyo, the ordinary salutation (lit. luck (?)).
Kqmaikonia, no one.
no one came,
Laho, lit. go, hear; I beg you.
Lamogu, the royal salutation.
La re, come !
Le, Q, him, his, it, its; ilegbe", I killed it; igb, I killed (it).
Le, if ; lematu e hie, if he does not draw breath for pepper.
Lege lege, loud.
Loliie, he doesn't mind.
228 EDO DICTIONARY.
Ma, qma, good; ewo nama, the town is good = ewoiania;
Ma, we, us, our.
Ma, not ; qmabie, she bore no children.
Mala = maiia, we go; maladotoi (for madotoi), we go
and salute him.
Mav eva, we two.
M, I, me, my.
Moxwome, who is sick ?
Nakunere, calabash on forked stick.
Nalo olesozi, exophthalmos.
Ne,, suffix indicating completion; inagileline,, when they
finish burial ; iluene,, I have made it.
NQ, not; Qn^bie, she bore no children.
Ne, particle meaning give ; irhiene, I take and give.
Ne, prefix meaning let; newole, let the town know;
nihasa, let him, us, etc., pay.
Ne, for him.
Ne, who (rel. pronoun); QmanQgbe, the man whom he
killed ; qmanQgbe, the man who killed him.
, last time.
, two days ago.
, three days ago.
u, stomach ache
Ngvede'ha, five days ago.
Ngvedehino, six days ago.
Ngvedelwane, seven days ago.
Nevuse, four days ago.
EDO DICTIONARY. 229
Ni, prefix meaning let; nunalue, let us do it.
Nia, now, with.
Nima, for us.
Nina, for them.
Nime, for me.
Noa loa, suffix indie, death ; igboma, I kill a man ; Igboma-
noa, I kill a man dead.
Nod^kisori, name for a stone axe.
Nogbese, one who gives big dashes.
Nogbigbelua, a suicide.
Nod a dig be, substitute for pawn or condemned man.
Noiyeme, it is good for me.
NqlQini, intelligent man.
Nomgti, a strong, industrious man.
Ngrhuele, recently circumcised boy (?).
Nqrj^digaxi, any one.
NQT^, of them (lit., who was); nqdignqro,, the eldest of
NQ wQse, broad.
230 EDO DICTIONARY.
Nozzle nozelele, in order.
Nozoxialo, brave man (strong for eye).
Nukpona, this year.
Nun a, you.
Numie, do you see ?
Nuwa, for you.
Ob a, a pattern (No. 27 in Notes and Queries).
Qba, red ; light ; flame ; he hides.
Qbakota, it is towards evening, it becomes evening.
Qbalo, sharp, hot.
Qbalgmi, it hurts me.
Obamili, 200 figure (ornament).
Qba we, man who walks on his toes.
Qbboruokao, early morning, first cock crows.
, half moon.
, new road; paddle.
Qbele, he stays.
QberQmo, right hand.
Qbi aruana, six fingered child.
Qbiedo, house slave.
Qbita, diviner who tries ita ordeal.
Obp, hand; arm; ariobiygma, go to the left; ariob^r-
homa, go to the right.
Qbo, doctor ; pi. ejbo, doctors.
Qbobo, flour, maahed yam ; mahogany (?).
Obodo, pirouet in dancing.
Qbqkpa, one way (place), one hand.
Qbii, plenty, much.
Qbugbi, plenty, too much.
Ob we, funnel (for bellows).
Ob we, potter's clay.
EDO DICTIONARY. 231
Ox a, story.
Qxa, white ant.
Qxa, cotton tree.
Qxadioi, worm eaten, ant eaten.
Qxaimi, pi. ixaimi, chief.
Qxame, I tire; Qxale,, he, she tires; emaxame, I am
tired of fufu.
Qxe, a small fish.
Oxia, road ant.
Qxiame, it hurts me.
Oxigmekia, boy with healed circumcision wound.
Qxo (its) bad.
Qxggbo, farm hut.
Qxoi, parasitic worm,
, not nice.
Ox wai, basket.
Oxwalema, woman's basket.
Ox we, a fruit,
Ox we, knot.
Oxwixwi, dark, black.
Ox wo, pi. ixwo, woman.
Qxwome, I am sick.
Oxwonodafenonyawa, head wife, second husband of
Oxwuhami, pregnant woman.
Q da feme, my husband.
232 EDO DICTIONARY.
Odaiha^i, beads in line round forehead.
Odalowa, in front of the house.
Odalu, forwards ; road in front ; in front.
Odame, I am sorry for.
Odene,re, a short way.
Ode,rie, woman's quarter of house.
Qdesuhumu, crown of head.
Ode, wo, path.
Odgngma, right road.
O dene, ma, wrong road.
Qdi, he is brave.
Qdiegbf, head of the family.
Odjeke, back ; backwards ; at the back.
Odiekowa, behind the house.
Q die, wonaigwa, he is dead (of big man).
Odigba, bead collar.
OdigQge,, door leading to oderie.
dim a, we are sorry for.
Odo, mortar (for pound ing).
Odoxumu, palm wine (from oil palm).
Q dodo, red cloth.
, back, again.
Oduduowa, doors leading to women's quarters in big chiefs
EDO DICTIONARY. 233
O dumb a, fabulous animal ; bullroarer.
Oduowa, spare room.
Ofianpapapa, disagreeable (of taste).
Qfe", well ; rich man ; it has run away (of a dog).
Ofi, (is) plenty.
Qfioto, bush rat ; grass cutter.
Qfiinwe, he is weaned.
Qf8, it's finished.
Qfwegbe, better for me.
Qga, throwing spear.
Qgai, is it a present ?
Qgai, it is done.
Ogano, whose is it ?
Qgawu, he is dying.
Ogawiila, will he die ?
Ogba, digging stick.
Qgba, line, row.
Qgbaigbe, trap (it ties body).
Qgbaliha, he tied it wrong.
Ogbe, next year.
Qgbg, he broke the egg.
QgbQdg, war knife.
Ogbole, forecourt of house.
Ogele, pi. igle, children, young ones.
234 EDO DICTIONARY.
Ogia,^/. jg'ia, enemy.
Ogida, a kind of drum.
Ogye,^?/. Qgie, prince.
Ogie, he laughs.
Ogie,va, mate (one wife of another).
Ogyeviotp, platform; table (lit. long cannot sleep on
Ogiukbo, mud platform for king's throne.
Ogyuzo, uzatp, blackfronted duiker.
Qgmo, young, new.
Ogm or hue, it is marked with chalk.
Qgp, bamboo; palm wine (from bamboo).
Ogo, farm in its second year, or deserted farm.
QgQdg, water hole, pond.
QgogmQ, (it is) new.
OgQma, plenty of men.
Ogome, my own; iyaviQgome, I take my own_
Ogukbo, farm in second year.
Ogumu, prisoner of war.
Ogufi, blacksmith ; planet Jupiter.
gun a me, hippopotamus.
Oyewe, herd of small goats.
Oguzuma, =Yoruba edu.
Qgwa, woman's room in oderie ; man's sleeping room.
Ogwago, mahogany (?).
Ogweme, I get.
Qgwenayawa, small room in oduowa.
Ogwixi, I am a blacksmith.
Oh a, bush.
OhabQ, bow (archer's).
Ohae,ku, small of back.
OhamQgbeme, I am hungry.
Qhe,, red ant.
hen bo, priest.
Ohia, part of a door.
Ohia, dressed skin.
Ohimi, the Niger ; East.
Oh 6, fine.
Qhoa, a suicide (by hanging).
Ohogeta, I lie ; tell falsehoods ; eloh6geta, I don't lie.
6 hog a, empty.
OhuQxi, I am a hunter.
Ohurnqkuta, top of the rock.
Ohumuda, a bad character.
236 EDO DICTIONARY.
Ohumume, I am angry.
oi^me, I love.
9Ji, store house.
Oiyorhuewo, it is marked with chalk.
oiyara, poor man.
my , comrade (in same Otu).
Qka, corn, maize.
Oka, nokalo, first.
Qkai, (its) dry.
Qkakwo, pi. ekakwo ; captain, officer.
Qkama, short ; small.
Okaminahu, corn grows.
Okba, rope for dripping water from palm trees into a pot.
Okbe, flute (calabash).
Ok be, maker of palm wine.
Okbglue, it is hard for him.
Qk bo, tail.
Oke, mountain, hill ; Okgdo, the hill above the Ikpoba.
Ok^ke, drum stick.
Okilame, ants' nest.
Qk^ri, a pattern (concentric circles).
Ok ma, calabash plate.
Okma, sokma, tokma, without ; except.
Oko, leaf for wrapping; ivory horn.
Ok 6, " old fellow "; oleleoko, welcome, my friend.
Okobizo, bush fowl.
EDO DICTIONAKY. 237
Okoki, pad for silencing door.
Ok pa, one (in composition); arhiqkpa, one man.
Qkpamudi, I wonder.
Okpalo, big; o k pa Iqse, bigger.
Okpeme, big words ; plenty of words.
Okpe.se, love gift.
Okpigo, plenty of money.
Okwevaxwe, soap balls.
Okwia, pi. ;kwia, man ; male.
Okukweha, a style of hair dressing.
OkumQ, without salt.
Ok wo, war.
OkusuebQ, chiefs steward.
Olgdohia, all Benin City.
Olegwi, dark side of a cloud.
Ql^le, a bean.
Olele, ground squirrel
Q lei erne, he tickles me.
Qligbime, I am cold.
Oligi, it cannot.
Qlimi, pi. elimi, corpse.
Q16, pus ; cheap.
Olo, bead hat.
238 EDO DICTIONAKY.
Olodo, socket for lock.
Olo gi,pl. ;lg<y> youths ; third division of adult males.
Qlggion, rattle (cane).
Ologiso, bright side of a cloud.
01 ok a, ring.
QlQkgmeho, Adam's apple.
Olokun, sea ; the god Olokun ; west.
Olo lame, water pipe.
OluQde, day reckoner.
Qlueme, my mate (one wife of another).
Olugbulubu, stone in bladder (of animal).
Olulikpe.de, day reckoner.
Qma, (its) good.
Qma,jpZ. ema, man, person.
Qmada, a bad man ; ada bearer.
Qniai, old man.
Qmoiho, women's ebq (lit., I want a son).
Qmaisi, a good man.
^)mase, not enough.
Qmanodeni, that man who is coming.
QmanQma, a good man.
Qmawu, he is not dead.
Ome, fringe of palm leaf before shrine.
Q nag me, madman.
Qmeto, hair in plaits.
EDO DICTIONARY. 2M9
"Quag to, hairy.
Qmi^mie, sweet (like sugar).
'Qmo, king; son.
Qmoberha, father's step child.
QniQbo, baby (lit. arm-child); step child.
Qmomoi, he borrows.
QniQnoxerai, child that favours the father.
QniQse, fine, handsome.
Q m Q s e x Q 1 a, handsome.
Qmqsegbe, fine body.
Omot^me, it burns me.
Omu, mahogany (?).
Qmwada, ada bearer.
On a, decorative marks.
Qna, pi. ena, this.
Qnwale, adult male.
On wale, light (colour).
Onwa me, adultery.
Qni, pi. eni, that.
Qnia, bright (of fire).
240 EDO DICTIONARY.
Qno, heaven, future world.
On wot a, sunset.
Onurhieyekowa, door leading to back of the house.
Onurhogbole, door leading from ogbole to house.
Onurhole, door from second forecourt to house.
Onurhole, gate of the town.
Onurhu, doorway, gate.
Onurodgrie, door leading to oderie.
Onuse, a white yam.
Onyeme, I am glad.
Qnyqmokpa, in one place, direction.
QpQkqre, palm oil chop.
Qranikbili, a fool.
Ore, entrance to house (from street).
Qre, he is here.
Qr^do, he is in Edo.
QrSdola, is he in Edo ?
Orhierhie, sweet like banana.
Orhg, wet season.
Qrhomi, guinea fowl; star.
Qrhu, yam heap.
Qrhu a we, obstacle, stone, etc., in the way.
Oriala, gall; bitter.
Orialale, gall bladder.
Qrie, (its) flat.
EDO DICTIONAKY. 241
Origin a, crocus.
Origve, kola dish.
Orua, relative by marriage.
Qsa, gorilla (?).
Osama, bronze worker.
Ose", enough. Osenagaxia, it is time to go.
Ose, friend; mistress.
Osqba, loin cloth (woman's).
Qsiele, it's black.
Osielegbe, suitor for a widow.
Osilpka, corn stack.
Osiotu, comet (?).
Osirhurhu, mould (parasitic).
Qso, (its) dark.
Oso, he should.
Qsgle, I am sorry for.
Osue, tooth pick.
Osumai, red stone said to be vomited by the rainbow ; used
Qsunu, it has come true ; it has happened.
s 14 r u w e, porcupine.
Osusu, round patch of hair.
Qtai, tall, long.
Otawa, jealous (?).
Oteriuruhe, he is dead (of king).
Qti, it boils ; it flies.
Qtihberowa, it flew over the house,
242 EDO DICTIONARY.
Qto, sharp like pepper.
Otp, earth ; ground ; bottom of river ; under.
QtQfi, burial shrine.
Qtn, burning hot.
under the tree,
Ototpli, bottom ; dregs.
Otu we, pi. etuwe, your brother, relative.
Ovaima, it pleases us.
Ovewaima, it will please us.
Ovia be, knife.
Oviaxe, mould ; small pot.
Ovialu, pupil of the eye.
Oviaxowe, calf (of leg).
Q vie, he sleeps.
vie, slave ; ripe..
vie, he cries, weeps.
Ovi^d^xere, a short time.
Oviqgboxere, a short way.
Ovigmila, calf (animal).
Oviewu, side mark.
Ovindelu, sun behind cloud.
EDO DICTIONARY. 243
Oviogoiamot^, middle of foot.
Ovioma, free man; small man (not chief).
Oviugwe, poor man.
OviukmQn, loin cloth (man's).
Ovjvie, grass snake.
Owa, castrated animal (goat or ox).
Q\va,isQ,pl. iwaise, learned men.
Owa la, straight.
Owalame, track, spoor of an animal.
Owamegbime, I am thirsty.
Owangdo, people of Edo.
Owe, your own.
O w (j, farmer.
Qw, he says.
OvvQxi, I am a farmer.
Owegbi, hard, strong.
Owehe, menstruation room.
Owke, mud house.
Owemwami, house of palm leaves.
OweriotQ, peeled rods on shrine of Ebo.
Q WQWO, thine.
Qwia, bottom of a hole.
Qwiaixa, it's sour.
Owialame, fraenum of the tongue.
Owiamwemwe, an unusual smell.
244 EDO DICTIONAKY.
Owie, morning; owiena, this morning.
OwiewiemQkpa, morning twilight.
Owiewiliwili, morning mist.
Owigo, safe (for money).
Owili, old man ; elder.
Owiolue, stepson (woman speaking).
Owirha, brother by same father.
Owirhowiye, brother by same father and mother.
Owiwowo, log hut.
Owiwu, left armpit.
Owiye, brother by same mother.
Owo, one (in counting).
Owoxia, ant's nest.
Owohe, a kind of wood.
w oi i p e r e p e r e, flat- footed person .
Owula, is he dead ?
Owuresa, mahogany (?).
Oyegidigbii, very big.
Qyelerp, man appointed to cook or provide food for strangers.
Qz^do, interpreter (for Bini).
Qzigo, milk teeth.
Ozila, wind (in the farm).
Oziohami, a fasting man.
Qziwirhu, small, soft voice.
z i, crab ; mantis.
EDO DICTIONARY. 245
Ke, neg. particle ; aixue, drive it ; arexue, do not drive it.
Khiai, bad, spoilt.
Rhili, still, yet.
KhiokatQ, roast corn.
Sa, give, of liquids ; same me, give me water ; samenerha,
give water to your father; soviamexereme, give me
a little water.
Sekeniye, come to my place.
Sgle, on, on, on.
Sluwe, more than you (past you).
Sik, near; sikmi, near me ; sikoli, near him, it.
Sikeygki, go further back.
S iky Q mo, go further away.
Sikgdo, go further away.
Sokwo, unless; sokwoiya, unless you go.
T|, shut up.
Ta, guess !
Twabqvai, twafia, walk fast.
U, you; especially used before g; ugbS, you killed him;
ugama, you are good; ugare, will, shall, you come?
lima, you are no good ; uwoxa, you speak.
Ubidgn, bush cat, hyena (?).
Ubo, rubber vine.
Ubozg, fish poison.
Uxqrp, squirrel (large).
246 EDO DICTIONARY.
Uxwire, sugar cane.
II x wire, chair.
Uxure, carved pole representing ancestors or Ebo.
UxurQXQ, uncarved uxure.
Ude,, nut oil.
Udi, oil palm.
Udini, big fly.
Udonehogogo, lungs (?).
Uga, a rope of yams (22 or 23).
Ugbe, syphilitic eruption round the waist.
UgbogiQlimi, the black hat of Ovia's mother ; a fabulous
Uge, broad road leading into a village or quarter.
Ugh a v a, stone axe.
Ugia, five shillings.
Ugiwonaise, one hundred and twenty.
Ugo, bush yam.
Ugoga, woman's bedroom in oderie.
Ugolo, satirical verses.
Uguga, room in a house.
Uguga bo, elbow.
Ugyama, present to king from his children.
Ugye, worship of king's lather.
EDO DICTIONARY. 247
Ugyqki, next market.
U humble, top (lit. its head).
Ub.ume.ze, up stream.
Uhumoke, up hill.
Ukase, rattle (calabash).
Uke, small drum.
Uke,, foundation for hair; lame.
Ukggbe, tortoise shell ornament.
Uke,gbo, calabash with open mouth, fowl calabash.
Uki, moon ; month.
Ukidelu, moon behind clouds.
Ukih^mota, ukiota, ukiqgmp, ovi agb^de, new moon.
Uki huyi, moon comes out.
Uki maihi, no moon.
Ukingbeluane, half moon.
UkiQgmo, new (lit. raw) moon.
Ukivewe, full moon.
Uki, before ; ukigaxia, before you go.
248 EDO DICTIONARY.
Ukgba, king's messenger.
Ukoki, pad (for load).
UkQkpwQ, calabash for medicine.
Ukoti, pin for dressing hair.
Ukpa, tip ; ukpalame, tip of the tongue.
Ukpafogbole, second forecourt.
Ukpe, mouth, beak.
UkpQWQ, left nipple.
Ukpo Me, squirrel.
Ukpogieva, second in age.
Ukpoguzo, foreign body in the eye.
Ukpoguzo, lozenge pattern (?).
Ukwe.be,, ebe holder.
Ukwomobie, kind of small kingfisher.
Ulakpa, red earth.
Ulelha, hair dressing in eighth month of pregnancy.
Ule,ko, medicine worn by pregnant woman.
Uli, two hundred.
Ulo, in a straight line (?).
Ulgka, balls of corn mixed with oil.
Ulpma, rope barring road during Ovia ceremonies.
Uma, conference of parties to palaver.
UmalaiQkpe, all the people of a country.
Umalemedewu, finis ! (story falls down dead).
Urnqdia, straight (road).
EDO DICTIONARY. 249
Umqrni, the same person.
Umozo, broad sword.
Umweriotp, small stick, peeled wands.
Uriwe, for thee.
Unigle, in three days
Unuya, gate of city.
Un ye, soup.
Unygge, rat (? striped).
Unyumu, dry season.
Urhowa, street in market.
Urhu, neck; voice, language.
Urhue.do, Bini language; igabale, Hausa; isa, Ishan ;
obo, Sobo; ora, Ora ; sekri, Jekri.
U r o b o, gate.
Us (5, I am poor.
Usekinqde, next market.
Usie, marks on house.
Usi^le, in four days.
Usiigbe, mortar (for fufu).
Usuine, line of workers; suite.
Us use, every week.
U t o, arrow point.
Utu, fern ; long stick ; agricultural eby.
Uvalame, upper chest.
Uvinyeke, depression in middle of back.
250 EDO DICTIONARY.
Uvun, burial shrine.
UvugQgbe, place of the mirror.
Uv wih we, nostril.
Uwawa, cooking pot.
Uwele, inside it.
Uyi, tank or pool in centre of room.
Uzama, king's council.
Uzo, Maxwell's duiker.
Ve, and ; together ; ekita ve egwi, dog and tortoise ; vedialu,
may we stay and do (it).
W r a, why ? what ? where ?
Waiyi, where do you live ? Wame,, what did you get ?
Wamie,, what did you see ? Wariei, where are you
Wa, you ; your ; Wale, know (ye) ; War hie, take all !
Wab^doko, bone, skeleton.
We, thou, thee, thy ; Wle, dost thou know ?
We-elume, you not me.
Welaime, you or I.
Wqle, welcome !
EDO DICTIONARY. 25]
"VV 11 wow a, in the liouse.
Wuvu, in a hole.
Xire xire, very small.
HAUKISON AND SONS, PRINTERS IN ORDINAET TO HIS MAJESTY,
ST. MARTIN'S LANE.
A 000006719 9