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Full text of "Anthropological report on the Edo-speaking peoples of Nigeria"

o 



William Bascom, Director 
Museum of Anthropology 
University of California 



of M.- 






ANTHROPOLOGICAL REPORT 



ON THE 



EDO-SPEAKING PEOPLES OF 
NIGERIA. 

PAET II: LINGUISTICS. 



BY 



NORTHCOTE W. THOMAS, M.A., F.R.A.I., ETC. 

GOVERNMENT ANTHROPOLOGIST. 



LONDON : 
HARRISON AND SONS. 

1910. 



Sfask 
Annex 



5128425 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

PREFACE... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... vii 

SYSTEM OF TRANSLITERATION ix 

SECTION I : EDO TEXTS 1 

I. Azuambili (the sponger) 3 

II. lya 5 

III. Emigaheme (the three tasks) 8 

H!A. second version ... ... ... ... 15 

IV. Igifiemido (the archer) 19 

V. Boebose 21 

VI. The three boys 23 

VII. The tortoise 25 

VIII. Osa and the lizard v 29 

IX. Omeneli ... 30 

X. Man with elephantiasis ... ... ... ... ... 34 

XL Palm nuts 37 

XII. Ido 37 

XIII. The monkey 38 

XIV. The poor man 40 

XV. The smokers ... 43 

XVI. Burial custom ... ... ... ... ... ... 43 

XVII. The plantain eater 44 

XVIII. Osa and the farmer 45 

XIX. The poor woman and her son 47 

XX. OsaandEwale 50 

XXI. The four men 53 

XXII. Igifiemido and Emigherameme... ... ... ... 55 

XXIII. The dog and the leopard 55 

XXIV. Ezomo , ... 60 

XXV. Ogiso and the poor woman 62 

XXVI. Dog and tortoise 64 

XXVII. The seven men , ... 68 



PAGE 

SECTION II : TEXTS IN OTHER LANGUAGES OF THE EDO FAMILY 71 

A. ISHAN, IRUA 73 

1-7. Narratives 73-76 

8. New yam festival 76 

9, 10. Narratives 77 

B. XUKURT7KU 78 

(a) IJEBA 78 

1. Narrative 78 

(b) SABONGIDA (ORA) 78 

1. Phrases 78 

2. Astronomy 79 

3. The dungbeetle 79 

4. Tortoise and snail 80 

5. Burial customs ... ... ... ... ... 81 

(c) AGBEDB 83 

1. The francolin ... 83 

2. Inabosere 84 

3. King and tortoise ... ... ... ... ... 85 

4. The bird 86 

5. Tortoise and Omemamoni ... ... ... 86 

6. The impotent man 89 

7. Giant and king of sky 90 

8. The stupid man 91 

^ 9. The tortoise and the eggs 93 

10. Hunting 94 

11. Snail and tortoise 95 

fi? 12. Man and wife 97 

(rf) UZAITUI 99 

1. Hunting 99 

(e) IBIE, N. Nigeria 100 

1. Fanning 100 

2. The Imiegba palaver 101 

(/) KOMINIO 103 

1. Farming 103 

(ff) Soso 103 

1. Farming ... ... ... ... ... ... 103 

(/t) SEMOLIKA 104 

1. Farming 104 

(0 IBILO : 10 4 

1. Farming ... ... ... ... ... tmm 104 

0') ISUA ... 105 

1. Farming . 105 



PAGE 

(0 OKPE, S. Nigeria 106 

1. Burial customs, marriage, birth 106 

2. Tooth filing 107 

3. Hairdressing 108 

(j) OTUA 109 

1,2. Farming 109 

3. War 110 

4. Conversation 110 

5. New Year Ill 

6. Eobbery Ill 

7. Marriage 112 

SOBO 114 

(a) EMOSOGA 114 

1. Narrative 114 

2. Osagale 114 

3. Child and millipede 120 

4. Boebose (see also p. 21) 124 

(6) IYEDE 126 

1. Farming 126 

(c) Ovu 127 

1,2. Farming 127 

SECTION III. EDO GRAMMAR 129 

Appendix A. Wano Grammar 143 

Appendix B. Examples 147 

SECTION IV. COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY OF SELECTED WORDS 

IN THE EDO LANGUAGES... ... ... ... 151 

SECTION V. EDO-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 187 



A 2 



PREFACE. 

THE texts and vocabularies here published were collected 
during my tour between January 29th, 1909, and March 28th, 
1910. A certain number of vocabularies were collected 
during the first three months, which were spent in Benin 
City (Edo) ; but the whole of the words and texts now 
printed were taken down between Jime 15th and the end of 
my tour. My interpreters were as follows: 

Edo Erumese ... Feb. 10 to May 25. 

Kukuruku and Ishan Corporal Nimahan May 25 to Sept. 22. 

Agbede and Kuku- Osidora Aug. 6 to Oct. 1. 

ruku. 

Edo Ogbebo Oct. 10 to Dec. 10. 

Sobo ... ... James Smart ... Dec. 13 to Jan. 13. 

Kukuruku George and Feb. 2 to March 10. 

Oganna. 

During my second Kukuruku tour Isuma of Agbede 
acted as assistant interpreter, and Ogbebo was employed 
several times for short periods over and above that 
mentioned. 

The Edo vocabulary was taken down from Corporal Nimahan 
and revised with Ogbebo. The Agbede and Uzaitui vocabu- 
laries were taken down with the aid of Edo, no English 
being used at all in most cases. In all other cases the 
English word was given and the native word asked for. 
Corporal Nimahan acted as interpeter for Ijeba, Aroko, Okpe 
(mainly by means of Yoruba), Otua, Sabongida, Agbede (with 
Osidora), Irua, Ubiaja, and to some extent in the Ida 
District. He also related Edo stories I and II. The 
remainder of the Edo stories were related by Ogbebo and my 



orderly Idehin, with the exception of Nos. XIV, XVIII, and 
XX, which were told by Asemota of Igwiximi. 

At Sabongida, Agbede and Irua the schoolboys supplied 
the texts and narratives, and to a large extent acted as their 
own translators. The first four Sobo texts were taken down 
from the lips of my head boy. The remainder of the texts 
were obtained from chiefs and others in the various villages. 

The Kukuruku and Ishan texts and the comparative 
dictionary have been revised with the aid of Father Strub of 
Agenigbodi, to whom I wish to express my heartiest thanks. 

My tours in the Sobo country and in Northern Nigeria 
were of the nature of flying surveys, made for the correction 
of sociological data ; I had no opportunity of revising my 
material from those districts. It will be noticed that both 
here and elsewhere the native informants have often added 
" it " (le or lo) to a transitive verb ; I have advisedly left the 
word in the form in which I recorded it. 

The pronunciation of different individuals, and in some 
places of the two sexes, or of adults and younger people 
(with unfiled teeth), differs, sometimes to a marked extent. 
It will, therefore, be noticed that there is some want of 
uniformity in the spelling. 

Further research will probably show that the tones 
have been omitted in many cases where the Edo dictionary 
here printed does not distinguish between two meanings of a 
word. 

A certain number of texts have been recorded with the 
phonograph, and the numbers of the records are shown at 
the head of such texts ; duplicates of the records are 
available for study in the Royal Anthropological Institute, 
together with nearly three hundred records of music. 



TRANSLITERATION. 
A. VOWELS. 



d = 
d = 

f = 

g = 

h = 

j 

k 

1 

1 

m 

n 

n 

n 

p 



; a in Jather. 

a intermediate between 

a in father and cat. 
a in take. 
e in there. 

e in let. 

ee in see. 

i in it. 
o in stone. 

o in ought. 



Q = o in not. 

u = u in rule. 

u = u in lull. 

u = u in German gilte. 

u = - in German glilck. 

= p in German 
ai = in line. 

an = in how. 
ei 

01 = in boy. 



b in bed. 
ch in church. 
approximately equiva- 
lent to Scottish ch in 
loch. 

d in dark. 
cerebral d. 
f infield. 
= hard g in gold. 

- h in have. 

- j in jewel. 
= k in key. 
= 1 in long. 

- cerebral 1. 
= m in man. 
= n in not. 

= cerebral n. 
= ng in ringer. 

- p in pay. 

Dynamic accent (stress) 

High tone 

Low tone 

Sign of nasalization 



B. CONSONANTS. 

r = r in red. 

r* = trilled r. 

rh = r slightly trilled and 
aspirated. 

s = s in sea. 

s = sh in she. 

t = t in ten. 

t = cerebral t. 

v = v in vivid. 

w = w in win. 

y = y in yellow. 

z = z in razor. 

z = z in azure. 

y = soft g in N. German tag. 

f, v, = bilabial f and v, Span- 
ish pronunciation of b. 

b, p = b and p sounded nearly 
like w, with closed 
glottis. 



(over the letter). 



SECTION I. 

EDO TEXTS. 



II. 



SECTION I. 

EDO TEXTS. 



Record 216. 

Azuamb;li, Azual^gel^ge iyqkpabina ; 

Azuambili, Azualegelege, born of the same mother 

Qgiseoxuum jnakearowa ; ;nagaiho 

when hunger time came they lived in.the same house ; if they heard 

Qkgui ;nanadumina, ;nagaxia. Qgisedgkpa 

a place where they beat fuf u, they went (there). One day 

;nagarhiopia ; ;nanawinarigbafi, \nanagaxiaxiaxia ; 

they took cutlass, they say they go hunting they went on, on, on, 

jnamaniiQmirQkpa ; ;nagQdedowovwof e ; 

they saw nothing ; as they came they saw a rat hole ; 

Azuamb;li QW ]inanobiluaiyi ; Azual^gel^ge 

Azuambili said : here he would stay ; Azualegelege 

QW(jmanelQgelegaiyi Qlinanagatqnovu ; 

said here he would do so too so they began to dig hole ; 

;nagiz(jtoi Qtifwina; Azual^gel^ge qwineriowa; 

they went ou digging, they tired ; Azualegelege said he would go 

home ; 

Azuambili Qmaleyi ; qnagatgnoi ; Qgiz^tgnoi 

Azuambili : " here I stay " ; so he went on digging ; as he dug 

B 2 



EDO TEXTS. 



qnqsagwale ; Qnoiob^rhamoi ; 

he reached room ; he took hand touch ; when he felt it hot, 



qnawgbaba Qlqkpawema ; 

he said just now he got up here ; he dug a little more, 

Qnamw^l^rhurhumu; qkeyuyolobg; 



he saw his tail ; he caught at the tail ; it came loose in his 

hand 



; qnarhi$rhurhuniQle ; 
it ran away ; he took its tail ; he took sand from his track, 

qnaz^kubqle ; Qnagbalaiyoko ; qnagariowa ; 

he took sand from fore feet ; he tied it in a leaf ; he went home ; 

Qgisowa Qnamwawuwanakpe, grhurhumofQni ; 

when he got home, he took pot, washed it, tail of the rat 

b^xainQze, onameyowawa ; ynalamoi ; Qnamwgli; 

and sand he had picked, he put them in pot ; he fried it ; he took it ; 

Qnarioi ; Qnarota. Azual^gelggexjre ; Qnaw' 

he ate it ; he sat down. When Azualegelege came ; he said, 

ofelgle ; ukwQgbe ? QnawQmagum^gbe ; 

rat to-day ; did you kill it ? he said, it did not let me kill it ; 

onawukpax;re ; inamioi iwinimwe, 

he said, you had gone small ; I saw it I said ; let me catch it, 

^rhurhum^le QnaiuwobQ ; QnazexuwQle 

his tail loose for my hand ; he took sand from fee 

bik\jmbQle, inagbaleyoko ; igisowa ; jgiranQle, 

from hands ; I put it in parcel ; I came home ; I fried and ate it, 



qnawawawanuyagamowo ; 
he said where is pot you take fry it ; he said look it ; 

AzualQgelQgelamu ; gnasam^kpoge ; 

Azualegelege went take it ; he took water to wash it and shake it ; 

qnamumo. 
he drank it. 



EDO TEXTS. 
II. 

Records 217-219. 



lya, Qk^ginQm^do noqkpa 

lya, when she got husband, who the only one was in the country ; 



; ;nananaw& : nQkwenina ; qwe 

all country said let her agree for them ; she said : I don't 

marry; 



they said (if) she did not marry them, they go kill her ; she said 
" M " QkQgibie Qing qkpa ngdqli nqrewa, 



" M " When she bore child one for her husband who was in 

the house, 

;nanaw dokwgnina ; iikwe woborplahq ; 

they said : go agree for them I don't agree ; we all beg you ; 

iikwe ; ;nanawg : umakwe, magagbwa ; 

I don't agree ; they said : if you don't agree, we kill you ; 

QkQgari^ki ; gk^dogki ;nanamwe i gbe 

she went to market ; she reached market ; they got ready 

yaxQle,gode; Qgige,gina; ;nanaw: kwimete ; ; 
go wait on road she saw them ; they said agree to-day ; no ; 

umawukwe ? gdixali. ql^gino magagbwa ; walahp ; 
you don't agree 1 So I say. It's to-day we kill you ; I beg you ; 

yalexwigd^me ; ;nanaw agadgge wakwgnima ; 

go and look for my husband ; they said we go see if you agree for us ; 
(take palaver to him) 

maigegbwe ; qnadigwe, lahp ; igakwe ; 

we don't kill you ; she knelt down, I beg you ; I agree ; 

giasowa ; 9 ; aisowa mahpluebaba ; 

let us go home; no? don't go home we wish to have connection now; 

magaholuew^niya. Onawikwi. Ugakwe. 

we wish to copulate so. She said : I don't agree. You will agree. 

Inanarhiopia, ;nakQfialuhumu ; qk^giwu. Qdqlegnawe : 
They took cutlass, they cut her head off ; she died. Her husband 

said: 



6 EDO TEXTS. 

jmagimie lya ; bog;rie wowana ? lahu^le ; 

I don't see lya ; Where did she go in this house ? I go look for her ; 

qkQgahuQle ; Qgadigki ; odo ; 

he went and looked ; he went to market ; her husband ; 
umamiowQki lya, bog' iye, Q!QXQ. 

Did you not see her in market ; lya, which side, trader. 

Eyenawg amamamioi ; iyowqli ; 

Market people said we didn't see her ; they were sorry ; 
(Traders) 

ihoi; gnagaxia; ok^gahu^le; ozehu^le, 

I hear; he went; he looked; he kept on looking, 

omamioi ; Qsogiame, ;mag;miawoxaine ; 

he did not see her ; Oh, my enemy, I don't see my wife ; 

wiagalue ? " M " gleo ihggimieuhumiya ; ;mag;mie 
what T go do ? " M " look ; at last I see lya's head ; I don't see 

ikwgle ; bohuQle qlihona ; umamioi ? 

her body ; where to look for it ? I find it now, you don't see it ? 

mah!mioi ; ihqgjmioi ; jrhiele Qkggirhiegadeowa ; 

We see it ; I have looked till I'm tired ; I take it. He took it home ; 

biagalfihumu lya ? igal^le ; ig a l$le 

What shall I do with head of lya ? I bury it ; when I go bury it, 

Qkp^ti ainyo igaia, l^le ; walaho wadogum JdolQle ; 

box of gin I take bury it ; I beg you follow me bury her ; 

mahoi ; magagw^lql^ (ua) lya; bwaigal^leyi ? 

we hear ; we go follow you bury lya ; What you go take bury her ? 

qwe, QXQXO, ^kita, ^gwi, Qmila nqxwa. Vigre naiagbum^l^le; 
goat, fowl, dog, tortoise, cow big. Bring come follow me 

bury; 

mahoi ; axw^magal^le ? Qkggbe ; wadogume(i)rioi 

we hear ; to-morrow we bury her ? he killed ; come follow me eat. 

mahoi; ;nanavie ; ak^gitota; awagadainyp; 

we hear ; they wept ; they sat down ; they drank palm wine ; 

anagairievei; anagairigw^ ; anagaliawa; ^mihianaiail^le 
they ate kola ; they ate goat ; they ate dog ; all that they took 

to bury her 



EDO TEXTS. 7 

anaga^rioi. "Asimwe"; "I" ihoi ; inagjline 

they ate. " Save you " ; " Ay " I hear ; when they ate 

gko givo ; ;nag;lovie ; Qnaw ; biagjluenahe ; 

belly full ; they lay down ; he said ; What to do now ; 

inan;gbawoxamina ; opiagarhie ; ;gagiaginafthumu ; 

they who killed this my wife ; I take cutlass ; I cut their heads off; 

qnagirhiopia ; Qnaiagagiaginawfthumu ; Qk^gifo, 

So he took cutlass he went cut their heads ; when he finished, 

Qgigey Osalobwa ; Walu ? unagbgrna 

he saw Osa ; What are you doing ? you kill person 

nQseniaii ; jnakalumQle ; b^zgnuwemaxamame ? 

like that ; they first did it to me ; why did you not tell me ? 

$nawe : gegilu^de ; gk^rhiebe ; Qkfjxigle ; 

he said : he would not do it again ; he took leaf ; he rubbed it ; 

okginieyinunu ; miyoleho ; QnarhieumwQiiota ; 

he squeezed it for mouth ; and ears ; he took small stick (whip); 

Qnafinale ; onawinarhiQre ; agavie, 

he flogged them ; he said : let them wake ; when people sleep, 

ariq ; ;nanaekbaigbe ; gnahumewoxwo ; bQsigzo 
let them wake ; they got up ; he woke woman ; what brought 

palaver 

wanagboxwona ; ;nanaw : ^nanimiai ; 

before you kill this woman ; they said : they begged her ; 

Qmakw^nia ; Qlinanagb ; gnanonoxwo : 

she did not agree ; so they killed her ; he asked woman : 

^makwina ; onarhiexwaise ; Qnafiyo ; gnaw ; 

I don't agree for them ; he took ewaise ; he swore on it ; he said : 

Qwohoho inqgagi ;kok\irhioxwQkpa; ;nafie ; 

this whole town they can't mix take one woman ; they swore ; 

onawewoxwo : \v;r;gbe, gariglimi, ose 

he said to woman : go back, go to Elimi, person 



who goes to Elimi does not come (back). 



8 EDO TEXTS. 

III. 

Emigaheme, novih^nbuda, gw^ 

Emigaheme, who was slave of Ehenbuda, said day that things 

gahemenihQmalu ;gawu. Edgni 

tire me which our company do I go die. This day 

qvJkpQvene yaxame Ehenbuda, gmiagrnQxame. 

he took four kola to go tell Ehenbuda, he was tired of the world. 

Ede.nemigaheme niniasabalu igihomalue, 

The day that I tire of a thing which I cannot do and my company 

do it, 

Ehenbuda uvievenena ; uviobame, 

Ehenbuda take these four kola; take together with me, 
naialtiQmi ; igagmQxaino. Ehgnbuda 

take do a thing (i.e., kill me) the world hates me. Ehenbuda 

naxame.zQmo ; uwQgewQxamame ! bgkahe ? 

told Ezomo ; Look what he tells me ! What 1 

Qwgmihene nihomalu ; gvikpeveneme 

He says he is tired for what his company does ; he takes four kola 

for me ; 

nivigme, edgnQmigaihinoi nihomalu. 

let him give them to me, the day he tires for what our company does 

EzQinonatigmigaheme : Qnawugasgti ? Emigaheme. 
Ezomo said to Emigaheme ; he said Can you 1 Emigaheme. 

Onawejhe : onawgluseti deugas^ti qnawqle : iziga 
He said Yes ; he said ; you can't if you can, he said, murderer 

qr^gbola ; yamwe,re ; wasabamwQre Qgigbaika ; 

is in the bush ; bring him ; if you can bring him, he will tie beads ; 

QnawQlehoi ; Qnaxia ; Qgisowa Qnawiye ; 

he said he heard ; he went ; He went home he said to mother 

ge.kQnagiemqle. Gaxia; uxia, tude. 

look place they send me. Go. go, come back ; 

Qnaw^he. Elegare, ^gbewenwe. Ixwegboy^de 

he said " yes." To-day I come, I kill goat for you. [If] Cutlass cuts 

plantain tree 

QzunQli. Ukpogun, ovavame, omukwa, 

spoils edge. Ukpogun, if it gets water, it throws it off 



EDO TEXTS. 9 

qhi^kwa. QnamwQwe, qnagbS, gnadesagie, 

it throws it away. She took goat, she killed it, she took its blood, 

gk^mwiuku ; Qnamune ; Qnagaxia ; 

she put it in calabash ; she gave it to him ; he went ; 

QkQdod;node wogjsode, gsagie 

he came and reached road ; "When he reached road, blood 

QkoiQwopia Qsamaiyigbe ; Qnagaxia ; Qgim;ziga 

he took rub cutlass, he threw for body ; he went ; he met murderer ; 

Qnawe/lo ; Qnawigano ? Emigaheme ! Qnawe,do 

he said " Hail" ; he said " who is that " ? Emigaheme ! he said 

doko, Qwghe. Qnawg tuQiue Qnawetjtua. 

"'do, friend," he said "yes." He said "salute me," he said I salute 
(murderer) you. 

Onarhielgsago ; lare. Qnagaxia, Qgiseva, 

He took him to bush house ; come He went, he got there, 

Qnawe : tota, Qkgtota. Qnawurigmi ? 

he said : sit down, he sat down. He said " You don't eat 1 " 

Qnawelggale ; Qnaw : naiaxwe ; Qnawghe ; 

He said he would eat ; he said let us wash, he said yes ; 

Qnagisqze, gagakaxwe ? Emigaheme ! QWQXWC ; 
he reached river, who washes first ? Emigaheme ! he said : wash ; 

mie, vaxwe greli n;gixwese ; gnawghe ; 

take soap it's long since I washed ; he said all right ; 

okg;xwe, gnamw^vaxwe gnamw^n^zigana ; 

when he washed, he took soap ; he took it gave to murderer ; 

qyevaxwelalo QgidQgode ; Qnad^fi^ze ; 

he rubbed soap in his eyes he did not see ; he fell into river ; 

Qnamwebotg ; Qnagbai, gnarhiegade ; 

he put him down ; he tied him ; he took him away ; 

Qgi s Q Qnaw udinya umagjle ? 

when he reached bush house, he said you don't eat yams, don't you eat? 

Umag^rinya, axivie, ax^ka, 

If you don't eat yams, pot of beads, pot of square beads, 



axgo ; 
pot of cowries ; you come take all ; he packed them ; 



10 EDO TEXTS. 



Jnanagari^do ; agjsiQdo ; gnawQmada : 

they went to Edo ; when they reached Edo he said to Omada : 

;renQ; qbanagjre ; gnaw' Okpiaxu ; 

I have come ; when the king came ; he said You are a man ; 

QnawigaluQse. ^zqmo naw g^belu^l^se ; qnawfe 
he said I go dash you. Ezomo said don't dash him ; he said 

Qne Qrqvia ; yamwqre. Qnaw : " M " Qnagaxia ; 
crocodile in Ovia ; bring it ; He said " M " he went ; 

Qnadinewa ; Qg^lomo ; QgQmatQfi ; obanavione ; 

he reached home ; spear of brass, spear of iron, king gave him ; 

qnawoz;gwe : dogwame ; Qzigwenawg ohamume ; 

he told ferryman : put me over ; ferryman said I fear ; 

^giohame ; nonelidomu. Qzigwenawghe, 

don't fear ; crocodile I come catch. Ferryman said " all right." 

qnarhieyoko ; lare ; Qnagade ; lako ; glako ; 

he took canoe ; come ; he went ; go in canoe ; he went in canoe ; 



Qgwa ; QgizQgwa ; 
he put him across ; as he was crossing, 


he saw crocodile ; 


ogQnade, QnasuQga ; 
when it came, he threw his spear he 


took brass spear ; 


qnarhiQgQmatQn ; qnaisue. 
he took iron spear, he threw. 


Qnewadqze ; 
It sank in river ; 


qnawQzjgwe : ilabw^le ; 
he said to ferryman : I go to it ; 


Qnabw^l^gaxia ; 
he went after it ; 


qnagaxia Qljmi QgisurQXQxq 
he went to Elimi ; he reached fowl gate, 


QxqxQweg^gb^ra ; 
fowl said don't pass ; 


Qnaiyqkam, qnagbjrava ; 
he took corn, he passed there; he 


qkeisur^we, 
reached goat gate, 



; Qnav;kunina ; 

goat said don't pass ; he took the peelings, he passed ; 



qnagia Qg^de^mila ; qna\VQgb;ra ; 

he reached cow gate, he gave plantains to cow ; it said : pass ; 



qnasuruke ; QnawQgQgbJra ; Qnamweniana ; 

he reached lame man's gate ; he said don't pass ; he took the f ufu ; 



EDO TEXTS. 11 



<QnanawQgb;ra; 
he said pass ; 

Warie, ? 
Whither? I 

lyamwone 
I fetch crocodile 

uganQle ; 
do you know it 


onasogiy' Eh^nbuda. 
he reached mother of Edenbuda. 

Iriglimi. Qnaw "M" 
go to Elimi. She said "M" 

nisai ; QWQ!G ; 
that I shot, said he to her ; 

qnawuetinQle ; 
; he said he knew it ; 


Qnawgle : 
She said : 

Walalu ? 
What go do? 

ugamisi, 
if you see it 

Qnawqga, 
she said spear, 



Qnawagbtjlume or hue ; ainevaviQgare 

.she said they rub it with camwood and chalk ; if they two bring the 



rhiowumqni ; QluwiyanQle ; Qnawenonenusai 

'take the camwood one ; so you go know it ; she said the crocodile 

that you spear 

qnawaiume(i)wQle gkQwonasue ; Qnawg ; 

she said with chalk they rub it in the place you shot it ; she said ; 

agalgminwe, gQle utegarie. Onawghe. 

if they cook for you, don't eat till you go. He said "yes." 

Qvi^gwiyeva Osalobwa Qga\vd;gue, 

She gave him two tortoises ; if Osa says kneel, 

wagis^gwasa, awadjgue. 

when you reach Osa's palace, it is forbidden to kneel. 

Onagaxia Elimi ; QgisQgwasa, Esukgg;mio, 

He went to Elimi ; when he reached Osa's palace, when Esu saw him, 

Esunawewarie. Otalamaisu ; Ilamie Osalobwalo, 

Esu said which way do you go. He said to Esu ; I go to see Osa's face, 

yatamalosalobwa; yatamalolokun yati^r^gume. 

go tell Osa ; go tell Olokun ; go tell them come for me. 

Onagaxia; QkgtiglQre ; qnawglinare. 

, He went ; he told them come ; he said they are coming. 

QnarhiQgwe, Qnarhyotp ; QgirEhramoisa ; 

He took tortoise, he put it on ground ; when Ehramoisa came ; 



Qnaw : d;gwe ; Qnad^we niaigwe. Oisa : 

-he said : kneel ; he knelt on the tortoise. Oisa : 



12 EDO TEXTS. 

wadolu ? Qnawisuone ; 

What do you come do ? He said : I shot crocodile ; so I heard it 

reached here 



Qnawehe"; gade; <?g<?ba, 

He said " all right " ; come ; the king's own it is his 



Ona\ve,he. Qnaw : waisue ? 

He said : Yes. He said : how did you shoot it ? Spear of brass, 

oggmatqn. UgSmio, wangle? Igangle. 

spear of irou. If you see it, do you know it ? I know it.. 

Agariqga. Uganqle ? Owghe". 

If they brought spear. Do you know it ? He said yes. 

Jnaviqgare ; vi^wQwo. Qk^vioggwo 

They brought spears ; take your own. He took his own. 



Osalobwa wevio. Onaiakione.re ; 

Osa said : take it. They brought crocodiles : he said ;. 

muwewo ; grema; oiyorhue; 

take yonr own ; it's not here ; it's marked with chalk ;. 

oiyume uw^gbe, QniqlQgome. Qnamosalobwale. 

with camwood on its body, that's mine. He showed it to Osa. 

Osalobwa wggariowa ; wadowane wgdalu ; 

Osa said go home ; you meet the crocodile on the road ;. 

mwaxiagiqba w^do. AlemanQ ; 

take it go to king of Edo. They have cooked fufu ;: 

owin^le ; gmufwa ; ulu^seu, 

he said he would not eat ; he threw it away ; thank you,. 



Og;dinogiyehQnbuda ; Qnawurenowime ;: 
he returned. When he met mother of Ehenbuda ; she said, you have 

come, my son ; 

qnawgb^ ; urigdola ? " E " ; Use, 

he said yes; are you going to Edo? Yes; I am poor, 

Qsogiame, Qnaw; igako unwe rhi^giowime. 

oh my enemy, : she said ; I give you parcel to take to my son.. 

"E" ; rb.ie.re. Qnagbaloka ; gnarhiene. 

Yes ; bring it. She tied the parcel ; she gave it to him.. 



EDO TEXTS. 13 

Khiggehgnbuda; tamowime : usQgbeuie; 

'Take it give to Ehenbuda ; say to my son : I am poor ; 

^g;memirQkpa. Qnagaxia qnadosgze ; qnatiujzigwe ; 

I have nothing. He went he reached river ; he said to ferryman; 

dogwame ; $kgg;gwa ; Qzigwenawgle : 

j)ut me over ; when he put him over ; ferryman said : 

onewp. Qruhumuk^ze ; doggie ; 

where's the crocodile. It is on the top of the bank ; look at it ; 



qnadomone ; Qnagwaxia ; Qnadogwaiyotp ; 
he took crocodile ; he crossed ; he reached land ; " I went to Elimi ; 

ireneygwo"; Qboxia. "E" Qnamwari^do. 

J have come to this country " ; " Welcome." " E " he took it go to 

Edo. 

Onadodin^do ; iyewglelowime, 

He reached Edo [Benin City] ; mother said : welcome, my son, 

Qkwoigagbwe. Qnaw : xamQba, ;re ; 

war does not kill you. He said : tell the king, I come ; 

qnaxarnqba ; Qbanagade ; qnawgdoko ; 

ithey told king ; king came ; he said, " Hail, friend " ; 

qnawegaluQse. EzQmQnawe gebeluwglgse. 

the said, " I go dash you." Ezomo said : don't dash him. 

QnawQZQmo : giahaime, ; Qnawe tiluqlse Quiah^se. 
IHe said to Ezomo : be silent ; he said : I dash him but not yet 

Amigo Qruhumokqdo ; yamwere. Egixggbiraode, 

Bull is on Okedo ; fetch it. If he does not let (you) pass 

(the road) 

unwere ; ihoi, ;xia. Qnasowa iye awegigme, 

bring it ; I hear, I go. He reached house ; mother they send me, 

*" aha," gaxia ; tuyo, tude. Ihoi. Yggbovu 

*' aha," go ; you go, you come back. I hear. Go get bag of ovu 

iku mugaxia ; rhiume. Qnagaxia ; Qgisewa, 

and yam peelings ; take it go ; take salt. He went, he got there, 

amigoigiagtyrawode, qmiuku, qmiovu ; gale] 

when bull met him on road, he took yam peelings, he took ovu ; eat. 



14 EDO TEXTS. 

Qnagale. Quagasie ; gmw^bevulu ; 
it ate it. He pulled it ; he held the rope ; he brought it to Edo_ 

Qgis^do, qnawqmada ; laho, tueyime ; 

When 'he reached Edo ; he said to Omada ; I beg, salute him 

for me ; 

irnw^re ; xamqba ; domi^malo. " E " gbanare : " Do '" 
T bring it ; tell king ; come see my face. " E " king came ; " do." 

umwqre ? " Eo." Okwiauxi, qnaw ; jgaluQse. 
Do you bring it ? Yes. You are a man, he said ; I go dash you 



Qmase. 
Ezorno said " Don't dash him. Not enough." Why not 



Osege ehS nQsime ; 

Tasks three which he does for me ; Not enough to dash for ? 

AtQgawalokpa arhieval^kuz^bude 

As they were speaking alone two men ran from Uzebu come 

EzQmo lare ; tjrhe ogiglowa ; EzQmo lare. Qnagaxia - 
Ezomo come ; fire burns your house ; Ezomo, come. He went ; 

Qgide erhggiowa. Qnaw iwinaga eluona 

when he came, fire burnt his house. He said : what can I do with 

aihi ? Ulegawu ; Qnadefi^rhe ; EzQmonagiQ. 

all this ? he said he would die ; he fell in fire ; Ezomo burnt. 

InawevanikaivQre Qkbonfjle anawagienaxarnqba : 

Those two men who first came the time to-day ; they send them tell 

king: 

EzQniogyuwa. Bagagjlue ? " M " B^lne 

Ezomo is burnt. What can I do ? " M " What did he do 

nonagiwa ? Ezgmo qdowawagio ; Qgim^merQkpa j 

before he burnt ? Ezomo met his house burning ; I have nothing ; 

etinegawawu ; Qnadqnqrhe ; onagiwa ; Emigaheme, lare ; 
so he died ; he fell in fire ; he burnt ; Emigaheme come ; 



wogi Ezqmo ; Qmila, QWG, QXQXQ, 
from to-day on you are Ezomo ; cattle, goats, fowls cloth, 

inya, Uz^bu, ak^ni, igaviq ; yaluwEzQmagmQ. 

yams, Uzebu, ivory, I give ; to sacrifice to Ezomagma. 



EDO TEXTS. 15 



UluQseu. UzQbnwaihia ukpqme iyeme, iya 
Thank you. All Uzebu thank for me ; my mother, go 


ukpQme ; 
thank for me 


e.te.mewaihia ukpqmoeme. Qnagaxia, 
all relatives thank for me. He went, 


qnadosQgwai ; 
he went to palace ; 


QluQsewegbeme. Obanaoijviene, 
you do well for me. King gave him beads, 



qnaiukpqne, Qkeygmilane, qnaiQinihiane ; 

cloth, cows, things of all sorts ; he said you " eat " 

Ezomo. 



IIlA. [Second Version.] 

Emigaheme nihoraalu ; 

Emigaheme [things tire me which our company does] ; 

okevi^vene, ; Qviqnqba ; vigvename 

he took four kola ; he gave it to the king ; hold this kola for me 

Qde.niabe.miku ; age.viobameyalue.liini. 

day I go look for dash ; to take with me sacrifice to Elimi. 

onadokpa ; qbanawele, ; qnawe/qmo ; hoe,mi ; 

He buys cock ; the king said ; he said Ezomo ; fine things ; 

nowjgbe nqluwe. Ezqmo qnawgle.he qnawqle 
who is strong does it. Ezomo said all right ; he said 

yamw;zigare be,gbo ; mwjzigare ; qkggaxia \ 

go bring murderer in forest ; bring murderer ; he went ; 

qseva ; Qrhievaxwe ; doxwe ; kaxwe ; Qk^xwe ; 
he got there ; he took soap ; come wash ; wash first; he washed; 

dovexwowe, i&iga; gnarhievaxwe ; okeyagaxwe ; 
come wash yourself , murderer ; he took soap ; he went to wash 

qnam\v;ri ; qkqgbalobo ; qnarhiegarEdogiqba ; 

he took rope ; he tied his hands ; he took him to Edo to the king ; 

qbanagade ; qnaw : urene,hi ? Jrene, ; 

king came ; he said : You have come ? I have come ; 

imu ; imwg uwQgbo. ! okwiaxu. 

I caught him ; I caught him inside bush. O ! you are a man. 

Qbanawe iyaluQle.se ; Ezqmo : qmase ; qnaweje 
King said I go dash him ; Ezomo : not enough ; he said 



IQ EDO TEXTS. 

yamu one gume; Qnagaxia; qkexwoka, 

go bring crocodile to me ; he went ; he picked corn, 

qke,mu, iku(inya) inya; qkerhiema, wumwome ; 
he took it, yam shavings, yams; he took fufu, he took soup ; 

Qke.mumagaxia ; o.nase.ze, Qnadomie 

he took fufu and went ; he reached river, he came and saw 

Qzigwe ; dogwame ; QkQgade, qnarhie iyoko, 

ferryman ; put me over ; he came, he took him in canoe, 

QkQgagwe ; Qwe,zigwe ; qke,gone, 

he crossed river ; he said to ferryman ; he saw crocodile, 

qke.rh.iqge.lQ.mo, QgematQn ; Qnaiaswone ; 

he took spear of brass, spear of iron ; he shot crocodile ; 

aiQveva oiyaswone ; Qkejegariglimi ; 

lie took all two, he shot crocodile ; he followed it, went to elimi; 

qna, Emigaheme, Qke.le.le dosuruQXQxq; QXQXQ Qnaw, 
he, Emigaheme, followed it, went to fowl gate ; fowl said, 

geya; qkeiya qka; Qkeiya HQXQXQ; Qnaw, 
*' don't go " ; he took corn ; he took it for fowl ; he said 

gbjra, gaxia; QdosogQwe; Qkggwiku; 

pass, go ; he came reached goat ; he took yam peelings ; 

iyangwe"; Q.nawe/we'rhiene, gaxia. Qkggaxia; 

took for goat ; he said, " goat take go." he went ; 

qk^dosowuke ; qnarhiema ; rliiene ; gaxia ; tuxia ? 
he came to lame man ; he took yams ; take ; go ; you go 1 

tude ; QkgdomieiyenQine ; do, iye ; do, owime ; 
you come back 1 he came saw old woman ; hail, mother ; hail, son ; 

la lare, owime ; warie ; ^gi^limi ; miggwi ; 

walk come, son ; where do you go ; I go Elimi ; take tortoise ; 

agawe,d;gwe ; g^digwe ; rhi^gwi rhieyoto; ; 

if they say " kneel," don't kneel ; take tortoise put it on ground ; 

d^gweniale ; walalu ; iswone ; 

kneel with it ; what are you going to do ; I shot crocodile : 
(i.e., on it.) 



; xayamu ; gare ; Qnaxa; Qgegesu; 

it went to Elimi ; I go take it ; go ; he went ; he saw Esu ; 



EDO TEXTS. 17 

Esu qnaw ; warie ? idomwone ; 

he said ; where do you go 1 I come take crocodile ; 

gigd^gbe ; udomu ; bggwQsalobua ; 

let day break ; you come take ; in the house of Osalobua ; 

^deg;gbe ogiuwu, Olokun, Obfame, Ake Qvia, 

when day broke, kings of dead, Olokun, Obiame, Ake, Ovia, 

Igbagon, Ebphia, Ehiakgtota begwasa. 

Igbagon, all Eb$, all sat down in Osa's house. 

Osalobwa kgdore ; wagilu ? madohQmgkpa ; 

Osalobua came ; what do you do 1 we come hear one word; 

glunanagade ; Qnawg ; owime, bqgixi ? iswone 

so we come now ; he said ; my son, what is it ? I shot crocodile 

glagade ; qlinagabwgle.de ; idomwe ; mawqnitamuwa ; 
he came ; so I now go for him come ; I go take ; I say tell you ; 

waihianayiko. Mahoi ; agamwere ; 

all you in the meeting. We hear ; if they bring it; 

ugalone ; igalone ; alakiaza ; 

you know crocodile I know crocodile ; they go open store room; 

onewuli ; Shiavenadia, muwQwo ; 

crocodiles two hundred ; all came, take your own; 

Qnawagqme n;sai grgma ; inavignenihinQre ; 

he said mine which I shot is not here ; they brought seven 

crocodiles ; 

iyagqgQme ; izurhueyefqkpa ; 

I go look my own ; I put white chalk on one side 

iyumewefqkpa ; e;ko. Mawagione ; 

I put camwood on one side; " All right." We go send crocodile 

Osalobwq w ; gadeyuke ; walu^seo ; qnagade 

Osalobua said ; go to lame man ; 1 thank you all ; he went 

qkqdosowiy engine ; iyenqme gnawg : lele owime 
he came to old woman ; old woman said: welcome my son 

miokona rhiggi Ehgnbuda ; rhionane ; 

take this parcel take it to Ehenbuda ; give it (him) 

Q ) narhiegarie i do ; qgaladie, gnamwone ; 

he took it and went to Edo ; he went, he took crocodile 

II. C 



18 EDO TEXTS. 

Qnamwone newShia ; wamugiqba ; 

he took crocodile and gave (it) to all town ; take to king ; 

Qnamftgie ; qke,8e,do ; Qnawg : yaxamqba 

they took it go ; they reached Edo ; he said : go tell king 



irene, ; Urene, ? 

I have come ; You have come ? king came ; he : welcome, friend ; 



okwiaxu ; jgalue.se ; EZQIITOW^ : 

you are a man ; I go dash you ; Ezomo said : don't dash him ; 

doge.miqkpa nowelugiqba. 

go look one thing ; which you do for king. 

AmigQroke,do ; yam were ; e,gixwe,doyenyai. 

A bull is on Okedo ; go bring it ; he doesn't let Edo women go to 

Enyai ; 

Qnaw : ixia ; qkesowa, qke.tameiiye ; iyenawg 

he said : I go ; he went home ; he told his mother ; mother said 

" M " gaxia ; yamwere ; qk^gaxia ; qk^rhieovu. 
" M " ; go ; bring it ; he went ; he took ovu. 



Onarhiumeypdume ; qnamugaxia ; 

He took salt to beat it ; he took it and went ; he saw bull ; 

Cjnamune ; amigonagarioi ; onarhiukbqli ; 

he gave [ovu] to him ; the bull ate it ; he took a long piece ; 

Qnasie ; gnagade dosQgwai ; Qiiaw : 

he drew it ; it went reach palace ; he said : 

watiqbagume ; jmwe ; jmwerine, ; qbanadore 

call king for me ; I caught it ; I have brought it ; king came 



okwiauxi ; ;galuQse ; Ole/Qmo naladia ; 

he said you are a man. I go dash you ; Ezomo came ; 



arhievanabwe i le i dekuze i bude ; qnawe erhe 
not enough ; two men came running from Uzebu ; they said fire 

lawa, lare ; onagaxia ; qgidinowa 

in your house, come he went ; when he reached house 

QwSihiagig ; Qnaw : qsogiame, biagaluonahe ; 

all was burnt ; he said ; Oh, my enemy ; what I go do with this ; 

!seti ; aiatamgba ; ingi Qde,figrhe ; Qgiq ; 

I can't ; go tell king ; he he fell into fire ; he burned ; 



EDO TEXTS. 19 

jbi^kale, inakewirie ggbe yatamqba : EzQinogio. 

boys they went back to tell the king ; Ezomo is burnt. 

Qbanawg : b ; aikbokbo uhurn^re Qina 

King said chat's it ; don't trouble a person's head, not good 

Emigaheme ; uwgligiamEzqino ; qnakpqme ; oma ; 
Emigaheme ; you I take as Ezomo ; be thanked ; persons ; 

igo, QW^, Qinila, QXQXQ, mi, ehia, ivie, ada, 
cowries, goats, cattle, fowls, things, all sorts, beads, ada 

qb ; Qnaviqne ; Qkglegaxia ; wagagal^zQinagmo ; 
eben ; he took and gave ; from to-day go you go " eat " Ezomagma ; 

nQrjriri EZQIHO, emila, gw, QXOXQ, agegavioyalue ; 
whoever is Ezomo, cows, goats, fowls, people take sacrifice ; 

Qmavjore, Qg a to wgzcjmo ; nenawe ; 

if they don't bring he can't last for Ezomo ; he said ; 



norqna osQe. 
that is Ezomo, who lives till to-day. 



IV. 

^hrainabioi ; alegamueleni(inagahelene) 3 ; 
Igifiemido, 1 his father begot him ; when they were going to choose 

name ; 



li (igalugbQm;ne) ; 
he said don't take name give me ; I choose name myself ; 

QnawQgi wagetilue (bati^ninuwe) ? Onaw : inolqgjfi^mido. 
they said : what is your name ] he said : my name is Igifiemido. 

Qnakbaigbe ; qnagariogiso. Ogisonaw^watue ; 

He stood up ; he went to Ogiso. Ogiso said : what is your name ? 

QnawQiiqli Ig^fiQimdo. Ogiso nawgle : uwufiemido ; 

he said his name was Igifiemido. Ogiso said to him, you say you 

don't miss ; 

1 I.e., I don't miss anything. 

2 The words in brackets were substituted by another interpreter 
with whom I revised the text. 

C 2 



20 EDO TEXTS. 



Ogisonawqle : 
he sad to him " yes." Ogiso said to him : in seven days 

dofimQgi; Qm;niogafi, ugasai, 

come and shoot for me to see ; the thing you shoot at, if you shoot it, 
(jnaw ; nigagwewaimiyeva ; gnawftmasai, 

he saitl ; I will follow you divide things in two ; he said if you don't hit, 

jgbewanqbira, igbewanqbiye. 

I kill your father's family, I kill your mother's family. 

QnawQlehoi. Qnanagariowa ; qk^tamirhai ; 

He said : he heard. He went home ; he told his father ; 

qk^tamiye ; qlininaganafiamo. ;nanaw^le ; 

he told his mother ; so they were afraid. They said : 



bagagiluqnahe ? ;nawle : 

What we go do for this ? They said : you are a bad son ; 

;nanamukpogo gkpainyugiarae ; ^nanarieggbo ; 

hey took cowries one bag and one ; they went to doctor ; 

Qbok^dobonina ; qnaw^le, owasowa. 

doctor divined for them ; he said, when you get home, 

nukaifeme, ^kpainygli ; qkpanoniqli, 

peel arrows two hundred and one ; one that remains over two 

hundred ; 

oyebaxwekwoli ; enuyebaxwekwena 

take parrot's feather ; the one you put parrot's feather in 

qlufikigke. Qnanagariowa, jnagisowa, 

that you go shoot last. They went home, when they got home, 

qnadokunhabg, gk^dokaif^me QkpainyQli. 

he came make bow, he made arrows two hundred and one. 

Qledehino uadQgba Qnamuhabqle, qnawgrhai 

Seven days correct, he took his bow, he said to his father, 

qriogiso. Erhai wiye ;nafiaf?amo ; 

he was going to Ogiso. Father and mother were afraid ; 

Qnasogiso, Ogiso qkegpaihiameyqxa. Ogisonawgle : 

He reached Ogiso, Ogiso tied a bird on tree. Ogiso said : 

gahiamenqruxumuxani ; ugasatj 

look at bird that is on top of that ocha ; if you hit 



EDO TEXTS. 21 

igweyagmeyeva ; ftmasai 

I follow you divide things in two; if you don't hit 

^gbewanqbira, ^gbewangbiye. 

kill you whom your father bore, I kill you whom your mother bore. 

Oiiaw^lehoi. Qnamuhabp ; Qnagafi ; Qnafifemuli ; 
He said : he heard. He took his bow; he shot ; he shot two hundred 

arrows ; 

qkpadonyQli Qnarhiqle ; Qnakqle, qnafie ; 

one over two hundred he took it ; he aimed, he shot ; 

QkeyavahiamQw. Inawifgrne jnagadeotp jnawaso ; 
he hit bird's breast. He and arrow fell down ; they shouted ; 

inawilikpiiiiiiiii. Erhai wiye ahowowa. 

they answer : e e e e. His father and mother hear at home. 

Oliyenad^fiohai ; r hai rjwinewu ; okpia 

So mother fell into pond ; his father said he would die ; a man 

Qtm.miwjgbQle. ^rhaikqinudia ; oyanamwe ; 

does not see what kills him. His father stood ; so they took him ; 

rhai Qkeiage oviQlewuhumu. Inanadomesowa ; 

his father went and saw his son on head. They bring him reach 

house ; 

qnawiyemgwg ; ;nawiyed$fiohai ; 

he said : where is my mother ; they say mother is fallen in pond ; 

Qnaw ;niaziyino ; ql' Ogiso kegwewaiyeva ; 

he said, they must go take mother out ; so Ogiso shared his property ; 

qnai m og wesg ma. 
he made him a new chief. 



V. 



Boebose said she did not marry husband except Ogene 

Quaiyatua ; gnaku ; qk^dolema 

he went saluted her ; he played ; she began to cook fufu 

Bo^b5siye 



she cooked fufu for Ogene's boys she gave four kola. Boebose's 

mother 



22 EDO TEXTS. 



(jrnyane, 
gave yams, gave to roast called her to turn yams 

Qnawlde mawQge.ne ; magaku ; 

she said, " I don't come we, Ogeue, we play ; 

wagigakn, fldi^mi ? Onaxwe.mume 

if you play, you don't want chop ? She said, " I am ashamed 

nunawqmedoriqrfnya Qnarhinwawa ojkerhiihig 

you call me to turn the yams ; she took a pot she took loofa 

qnagarieze qnalaw^ze Qnagaxwe 

she went to river she went into river she washed 

Qgjz^xwe iye ;mag;mio 

where she stayed washing her mother [said] 1 don't see 

owime, ; Qnabw^le onawejaho Qnawe.gjdiowa 

my daughter ; she went she said I beg; Bobose said I don't 

come home ; 

laho Me Iye QWQrie.gbe ; 

I beg ; I don't come. Her mother said she was going back ; 

Qgadiowa ; tamgQne ; owimewin<jde ; 

she went home ; she told Ogene ; my daughter says I don't come ; 

laho yagarhiqlQguine. Qg$ n Q Qgis^ze 

I beg you ; go, bring her to me. Ogene when he was at the river 

Qnaw "Boebose lahQ larewowa. Boebosegw^ 

he said : Boebose I beg you, come home. Boebose said : 

Og^ne narewuwQze Qg^ lie kilaize 

Ogene, come into the river ; Ogene went into the river ; 

RoQbose Qkw^s Qg^nobg ; QkwesielawQze. 

Boebose caught Ogene by the arm ; she pulled him into the river. 

[caught] 

Buebose k^dekoto ; Qg^nQkw^denyale ; 

Boebose fell to the bottom ; Ogene fell on the top of her ; 

QgidenyawalQkpa Boebose qkwexiehe, ; 

As soon as he fell with her Boebose became a fish ; 

QgQne ok^xie Qzuzwejie ; be.kwie.ke. 

Ogene became a fish fin ; in the middle of her back. 



EDO TEXTS. 23 



VI. 

Ibigkeha ; nQdionQr ; ImarieinanemaxaniQde; 

Three boys the head of them ; I eat fufu and have not got tired ; 

nukpogieva, ImaluhengxainQde ; nukpogibl, 

the second, I have not copulated and got tired before ; the third, 



I have not wrestled and tired before ; they send a man 

naxamogiso; maladotoi ; jnakemwggbg ; 

to tell Ogiso ; we go salute him ; they then sit down still (silent) 

gkwey^v^winagaxia ;nagjseva 

he gave them kola, they went out [with Ogiso] ; when they get there 

inatamogiso tinadotoii Ogisokey^vgnQnina; 

they tell Ogiso they salute him Ogiso gave them four kola ; 



oiianena wowagwalu ? gkpanaladia 
he asked them what can you do ? one came out Imavenexamede ; 

nogievaladia ; ImariemaxaniQde nogihalSdia 

the second came ; Imariemaxemede the third came 

Imaluh^xamgde ; Ogiso naw lehoi ; Qkwevibi^k uli, 

Imaluhexamede ; Ogiso says he hears; he took boys two hundred, 

qkwevi^yotg ; Qkwevibi^kixwo uli ; 

he made them sit down ; he took girls two hundred ; 

Qkwevieyoto ; Qnalusugbema, uli 

he made them sit down ; he cooked fufu mortars, two hundred ; 

Qualeyoto : Ogiso kqxa : Edomadogoiv aviogoi ;nanawg : 
he put it down ; Ogiso said : each man take his own ; they said : 

;nad; inanagadiole ; okutakpa ojegidjgbii; 

they come; they went into the town : stone one, [big, big], very big; 

Qrole ImaluhenQxamQde wemyekianyale 

it was in the town ; Imaluhenexamede he took his penis knock 

it [the stone] 

okutakeva ; ImariemalgxarnQde, gkweviokutale 

stone in two ; Imariemalexamede, took stone, eat 

ImavenQxamgde okemakpanya eranqxwa ; qngrole ; 
Imavenexamede took ankle knock tree big; it was in the town 



24 EDO TEXTS. 

eranqxwakQd^ ; ImariemanQxamQde gkwerhierale. 

big tree fell ; Imariemanexamede took, picked tree up, ate it. 



qkwevibiQkixwo, 
Imaluhenexamede took the girls, took one of them 

Qkerhiqgbotp, qnahuQle; qkwewu Qkeweriqkpa; 
put her on ground, he had her ; she died ; he took one again ; 

qkewehugle, gkwewu ; qkwehuli ; 

he took her and had her, she died ; he took two hundred ; 

ghiakewulo ; Ogisonatu; gnaw^bi^kada ;naxi ; 

all died ; Ogiso shouted ; he said, boys bad these are; 
JmariemanQxamQde qkwQkoboiyema Qkwediqfo kqkmakuwawa 

Iraariemanexaraede took fufu ; he ate finish, plate and pot 

together 

qkwediQfo ; Iniaven^xainQde qkwevibi^kani Qnarhiegkpawg; 
he ate it all ; Imavenexamede took boys those, he took one of 

them ; 

QgwQve ; qkemwQgboty gkwewu ; 

he took and wrestled ; he put him down then he died ; 

qkw^maihia; ShiakQwulo; iyenqme Qkerg ; gnaw^ 

he took all ; they all died ; an old woman went then ; she said 



doluhe ; 
Imaluhenexamede come, have me ; old woman lay down ; 

ImaluhenQxamQde qnadgnyale ; gnahugle ; 

Imaluhenexamede fell on the top of her ; he had her ; 

Qgizehu^le ekiak^sgluxgn Qnaiegahu^le 

when he kept on copulating his penis reached navel he had her ; 



Qnaiyegahugle Qkiak^ladiawunu ; 

penis reached throat he had her ; penis came in mouth ; 

Osalobwa kgladia qnangna : bxi ? qnaw : 

Osalobua came he asked them : what is it 1 he said : 

IinaluhenQxam^de ilghuiyenqme; 
Imaluhenexamede is having connection with old woman ; 

Osalobwaqnasie tjkiaihiuhere ; OsalobwQnarhiopia ; 

Osalobua pulled penis from vulva out ; Osalobua took cutlass ; 



EDO TEXTS. 



25 



x;re 
small 



x;re ; 

small ; 



Qnaiya fijkia; qkwegialeyotp 

he went cut penis ; he cut it there on ground 

Qnagiauhe xjre xjre ; Qnati;kwia ; Qnawgdorijkia ; 
he cut the vulva small small ; he called men ; he said : come take 

penis ; 

nqkarhie, Qniqrogaga qngbie ; 

first took it, he got continual erection he got no children ; 

ikwianarijkia ; QkwekoviQxire ; amgk^rho ; 

men took penis ; then remained a little ; rain falls then ; 

qgbekiaiyole ; nqgiyarhie niql^kianQwu ; 

it beats penis in the town ; who goes take he gets penis which dies ; 

Qnatiixwo adoriuhe ; nokarhie 

[Osa] called women 



Come and take vulva 



first took it 



Qniqlabosa 
she got atresia ; she bore no children ; 

Qkekovigxjre ; 
there remained a little ; 

nQgiyarhie, niQgilagbite. 

who takes it, she gets a rotten vulva. 



ain^k^rho ; 
rain fell then 



ixwonagariuhe, 
women took the vulva, 

qgboheyole ; 
it beat it in the town ; 



VII. 



Ibi^keha, ^rinawu; 
Three boys; their father died ; they went buried him ; their father 

Qmoxu. Inagil^line ;nakegwalo\vuvweke; 

had no property. When they finished burial ? they saw hole in the 

wall; 



^nanamigeha ; ;nakqdogale ; 

they saw three cowries ; they went and shared them ; when day broke, 

nQdiqnqrhp okwqriqgoi ; QgQrigki ; gnaiyade 

eldest of them took his own ; went to market ; he went to buy 

QiuiQki ; okweriadeyowa ; iniavenukpogieva, 

agidi ; he bought and brought home ; they together, the second, 



26 EDO TEXTS. 

iiiakQrioi ; ;naua mweb^li ; jnanamunenQXQre ; yamufwa ; 
they ate it ; they take leaf ; they give to small (one) ; go, throw it 



a, qkweraibe, 

when small boy got back of house, he opened leaf, he saw small inside ; 

olarhijle ; jnanadqg^le ; jnanatigl^ ; qkwegade ; 

he took, ate it ; they watched him ; they called him ; he went ; 

inanamwQgbotg ; jnanagbe ; okwegavie ; 

they put him on ground ; they beat him ; he began to cry ; 

inakesolai ; fjkweyalota ; Qnarhiggoigigo 

they left him ; he went and sat down ; he took his own money ; 

onarhiegariQki ; Qgisgki ; Qnaiademiowo ; 

he took it and went to market ; when he got to market ; he bought meat ; 

onarhiegadeowa; qnadogiale QkwetiQtiqle ; wadorhi^miowo; 
he took it home ; he cut it he called his come and take 

brothers ; meat ; 

jnanagade ; jnanatota jnanarhigmiowo ; qgwik^re, 

they came ; they sat down took meat ; tortoise came, 

Qgwinatota ; Qgwinagale, ag;riQfo ; Qgwinagariowa ; 
tortoise sat down ; tortoise ate, agidi was done ; tortoise went home; 

gnaiatamogiso, qnawgbi^kaneha, gwinagbohua; 

he went tell Ogiso, he said : " Three boys, he said, they killed 

sheep ; 

Qwinagbqle. Ogisonawg guiata ? Ogisowadzgma 

they killed and ate it." Ogiso said " Is it true ? " Ogiso sent a person 

yatinare ; ^nakgre ; Ogisonangna wagbohua ? 

to go and call them ; they came ; Ogiso asked them " Did you kill 

a sheep ? " 



owulemagbe ; nukpogieva 

the eldest of them said, he did not kill it ; the second 

Qwulemagbe ; ngxgre qnawelqgbe ; 

said, he did not kill it ; the small one said he killed it ; 



OgisQnaw amiggwi; 
he said tortoise ate it ; Ogiso said catch tortoise ; catch tortoise ; 
(let them) 



EDO TEXTS. 27 



qnalgfioha, Qnagaxia; 

tortoi&e said ; he was running to bush, he went ; he went to another 

country 

qnawatiko ; Qnawado ; qwukosal^xi 

he said " Call meeting " ; he saluted them ; he said he was Osa's 

messenger ; 

Osalobwa w^do ; QwgnigdQlole Qwonaii ; 

Osalobua says he salutes [you] ; he said let them look this country ; 

Qnaw inaiyuhi, Qgwagainye 

he said, let them make law, that if a man passes faeces, 

ainyggbe ; Qwunwegariqma, aigxwe ; 

he does not strain ; he said when mosquitoes bite man, don't drive it 

away ; 

Qwagariema awaitughie ; 

he said, when man chops fufu it is forbidden to draw in breath for 

pepper ; 

qnawe : wagalujdiqn Qgwa ? gwonawehe ; 

he said ; when they sacrifice to Idion does it talk ? country said " no" ; 

Qnawglaxwe ; waialema, nileyalu;diQfi ; 

he said "Day after t-moirow go cook fufu, let him cook sacrifice to 

Idion ; 

^wonawinahoi ; QnawQwo wQzukonino ; 

country said they heard ; he said to country send messenger for him ; 

leiyane ; legainy^gbe wagb^l^noa ; lemainy;gbe ; 

if he goes to stool ; if he strains kill him if he did not strain ; 

walewuk^salexi l^gariema 

know he is Osa's messenger ; if he chops fufu, 

negatwehie wagtylenwa 

if he draws his breath for pepper, you must kill him 

l^matwehie wale ukuosalgxi ; 

if he does not draw breath for pepper know he is Osa's messenger ; 

;nake i zQfiot l^le ; qgiseva ; 

they sent bush rat for him when he reached there ; 



gnad;gie ; 
he said he was going to defsecate ; he squatted down ; 



28 EDO TEXTS. 



; gwako Qkpanorewona ? 

he said to bush rat ; he said "ako (fruit) one is in (.his country?" 

IQWO qfiotgnaw ; grho. Qkuexa ; Qwakoni 

It's in the country rat said ; it was. He spoke ; he said that ako 



qwogwo ; 
he said, when it gets seed ; he said it is brown ; 

jrhieee 

proper (secondary meaning, straining at stool ; onomatopoeic) 

gkweyonine ; qnagade ; Qgisole ; 

he was able to pass fseces ; he went ; when he reached the town, 



mosquitoes bit him ; he said to bush rat he said " one cow 

nqi-Qwona ; qf uafauia ; qxwoxwima; Qnalawa ; 

lives in this country ; it is white here ; black here"; he went home ; 

Qnatigfiotp ; qnawglaho Qnawetoto 

he call bush rat; he said "I beg" he said "dig ground," 

garealujdign ; QwinegasewanQ, QwiiiQgiti;diQfi; 

go to Aluidion ; he said when he reached there, he said, when they 

call idion 

QWQkw^nie ; qwin^wole, n^wole, 

he said " answer " ; he said let the country know, let the town know, 

ukosalqxi ? qfiotp nawqhe, Qfiot^natoto 

Osa's messenger he is ? rat said all right, rat dug 

ariQgued;on; Qnatotawa; Qkwer;g^ga; Qrhi^ne, 

go to Oguedion ; he sat down ; he took brass bells ; he took and 

gave ; 

Qvvonadomema ; qnariQgwQdign ; emadolue ; 

this town went took fufu ; went to Oguedion ; to sacrifice fufu ; 

Qgwinati;diqn ; qfioto kgxwenie ; buwuvu ; 

the tortoise called idion ; rat answered ; out of hole ; 



Qgwinamwema ; |diqnmie ; 

country was glad ; the tortoise took fufu ; idion take ; 



Qgwinamw^miowo ; ^dignmie ; Qnavi^kwuvu 

the tortoise took meat ; idion, take ; he put it inside hole 



EDO TEXTS. 29 

qfiotonario ; gnairiQlowo ; (jgwinakba ; qnagadie 

rat took it ; he took the meat ; tortoise got up ; he went 
Qgisowa Qnadogariemani; gngareminowo ; 

he reached home ; he went and ate the fufu ; he ate the meat ; 

gnadinole ; gnawQwonQlukoisa 

he went to town ; he said to town he was not Oisa's messenger 

ohoggleta; qlale fiwoha; amag;mioi. 

he lied ; he ran inside bush ; they did not see him. 



VIII. 

Osaqbiqmea ; Qm^xweha ; Osarhualu ; 

Osa begot three children ; he married three wives ; Osa shut his eyes 

[became blind] 



Ugbogiulimi ohamQgbe ; 
he got big scrotum ; one day Ugbogiulimi was hungry 

Qnaxwosjkpalo ; osjkpalonale Ogalobwa niudia 

he ran after a lizard ; lizard ran Oealobua was standing 

wole ; QsjkpalonalQgbgng ; Qnaw^lahg ; 

in the town ; the lizard stayed with him ; he said " I beg " ; 

Qwggyughbogiuliinjgbin^le ; nihranwalo ; 

he said if Ugbogiulimi does not kill and eat him ; let me open eyes 

[of Osa] ; 

Osanaw^he OsanameyiwukpQii ; Osanamudia 

Osalobua said all right Osalobua put it in his cloth ; Osalobua stood 

Ugbogiulimikewere ; qnawosa lahp ; iqsikpalo 
Ugbogiulimi came ; he said to Osa " I beg " ; let him take 

nirih;le n;lsi$leve ; Osanaw^h^ ; 

lizard to eat ( r () ; let him dry scrotum ; Osa said all right ; 

Osana . riowo ; qnativiglQ ; Qnatiamqle ; 

Osa went away ; he called his sons ; he called his wives ; 

wag^ngkpa ; Qsikpalo Igre ; nugbogiulimi gggbino ; 
look at one word ; lizard ran came ; let Ugbogiulimi not kill him ; 



30 



EDO TEXTS. 



nighniinalo ngnarhiiwukmqn ; Ugbogiulimi kqvvere ; 
let him open eyes so I put him for cloth ; Ugbogiulimi came then ; 

nirhie 



onaweme lahp 
he said to me "I beg : 

niqsiiiQve ; 
let him dry scrotum 



let him take 



Qsikpalowile ; 
lizard to eat ; 



wagwayg 
talk to it ; 



to his sons, 



wagwaio ; 
talk ; 



that's better ; 

qnagie ; 
He laughed ; 



he said to wives : 

urhalo ? 
sons said ; you don't open eyr s? 

amqle ; figbeve ? Qlgmase. 

his wives : you don't kill scrotum ? that's better. 

qnawe : dfjmadogoi Qlqsimiqgoi Qiuosjmalo, ixwosimyekia ; 
he said : each one save his own sons save eyes, wives save penis ; 

qnawqma gnazQsikpalobp gsikpalo gkqdorhalo ; 

he said " good " he dropped lizard lizard came and opened his eyes ; 

gkw^dosieve gnaievalene ; 



Ugbogiulimi 
Ugbogiulimi 

Ugbogiulimi 
Ugbogiulimi 

gkearie ; 
then he went ; 



came and dried scrotum he gave to those two chop ; 

Qkwearie ; Qwaiyemi ngsikpalo ; 

went his way ; he gave something to lizard ; 

Qvase. 

there it reaches. 
(i.e. finis) 



IX. 



wQxoxwona ; Qnaxamehrai : 

Omeneli was a girl ; she said to her father : 

owunQlQmodo ; qk^dosiwu ; 

she said she did not marry husband ; she came and got marks ; 

Qg^kpS atqlen^kpea ; ukbakere 

when it was finished they said three years ; king's messengers came 

;nanamwewe ; QteqmqnQli Qnaladia ; 

they caught goat ; Omeneli's relative [brother] came ; 



KDO TEXTS. 



waggmu qxamukqbawQdio ; ukgbanawegainyale ; 

"don't catch it" he said to messengers so ; messengers saiH "Whose 

is it?" 

gnawe QgqmQnQli ; ukgbanaweti^lere ; 

he said it is Omeneli's ; king's messengers said : call her to come ; 
awoxawignagarie qkwitiglere ; Omgngli gnatwina : 
the boy went he called her to come ; Omeneli saluted them ; 



inadggqli 
they looked at her 



don't catch goat ; 

Jnanarigdo ; 
they went to Edo 

ninamie ; 
which they saw; 



he called her to come 

jnanarhunu ; 
they opened mouths ; 

;nanawnahoi ; 
they said they heard ; 

;nanaxamgba jnanawoxoxwo, 
they told king they said "a girl, 



naw 

Omeneli said 

;nanasewelai ; 
they left the goat ; 



one, 



gmgse.gbe ; gba ; yarhie ; 

very fine"; king; go bring her;. 

gbanawehe ; gbanamw^gbe 
you take her and marry her ; king said all right ; king got ready 

gnamwakpata ; gnamugggbe ; gnagtxia ; ggiseva 

he took mirror ; he went ; when he got there 

Omgngli gketuoi ; Omgngli gnarhigle 

Omeneli then saluted him ; Omeneli took him 

gnakaoko ; mune ; 
she filled pipe ; take it ; 



he took akpata 

gnatuoi 
he saluted her ; 

lawa ; 
inside house ; 



Qnaiyeve ; 1113 
she took kola ; four 



gnavigne ; gnavie^gne ; gnavioyiba ; 

she gave to him ; she gave him kola ; he put it on seat ; 

;nana.aku ; gnakba ; ne, Omgu^li, gnaialema ; 

they played ; she got up ; she, Omeneli, went to cook yams ; 



gnamure ; gnadatioi gba ; 

she brought them ; she called to king ; 

;nadorhiema ; 
they came, took yams ; he said he would not eat ; 

gnamwema ; gnaimuhi ; 

she took the yams ; she put them away ; 



lare ; 
come ; 



Qnawingle ; awoxani gnagavie ; 



Qnagakpata ; 
he played sansa ; 



awoxanikeag^le ; 
the girl then looked at him ; 



the girl cried ; 

Jnanagaku ; 
they played ; 

gbanakpa 
the king got up 



32 EDO TEXTS. 



gnawuneriowa ; gnawawoxani ; 
he said he was going home ; he said to girl ; 


doswino ; 
come, lead him ; 


Ome.iiQli gnawghe ; gnagasue ; 
Omeneli said all right ; she went ahead ; 


ggizgsue ; 
when she led him ; 


gsQze ; gnawuneriowa ; 
he reached river ; she said she was going home ; 


evanamugggbe ; 
there he took 




mirror ; 



gbaimmuge.gbe ; gnaw^mie ; gnaggle ; gnawgle 

king took mirror ; he said : take ; she looked at it ; he said to her 



umwadSgowa ? OmgnQli gnawgle 

you don't see house ? Omeneli said to him she saw it ; 

gnagasue ; ggizgsue ; gnawn- 

she led the way ; when she led him [kept ahead], she said to him 



iriowa ; gbananamugggbe ; gnamune ; 

I go home ; king took mirror ; he gave (it) to her ; Omeneli 

gke.ge.li ; gnawgle ; umadggowa ? 

looked at it ; he said to her ; you don't see the house ? 

OmQneJi gnaw^le glohoge gnaiyegasue ; 

Omeneli said to him, he did not lie she began to lead him on ; 

ggiz^sue Qnawiniriowa gnamugggbe ; 

when she kept ahead she said to him : I go home he took mirror ; 

qnawtjmie, gnaggle, gnawgle ; umwadQgowa ? 

he said, take, she looked, he said to her ; you don't see the house ? 

OuiQngli qnaw^lohogi ; gnagasue, gdosues^do ; 

Omeneli said he did not lie ; she led him, she went led him reach 

[to] Edo ; 



; OuignQli gnagavie gnarhigle 

he took her home ; Omeneli cried he took her 

gnamgle ; ngkagwe ; gniogarhievale grhiine ; 

he (gave her) to his wife ; first ; she took chop she gave to her ; 



gnagavie gnagadp 

she said I don't eat ; she cried she got dry skin she said to her, 

glowale, maiaxamgba; OmgnQli gmarhiema, 

mistress, we go tell the king ; Omeneli does not take fufu, 



EDO TEXTS. 33 

Qgavie, Qbanaw lehoi qtiglere; qkwere ; 

she cries, king said he heard he told to come ; she came ; 

Qgiseva, qbakgg^le; qdoi; b^mata; 

when he was there, king looked at her ; she's dry ; true, true ; 

rnqbanaxamale gadie ; Qnagadie qgisowa ; 

king said to her go ; she went when she got home ; 

ehraiwiye jnagQgQ '> ak^dolema ; 

her father and mother they were glad ; they came and cooked f ufu ; 



nanamune ; 
they brought it and gave to her ; she ate it ; at daybreak 

Qhraideugbo iye qrigze; Igkpa 

her father went to farm her mother went to river ; she alone 

qrowa ; Qnatota ; Qgiy a g e j 

was at home ; she sat down ; when she went to look ; 

yagawoxqkpa ; qd ; qgisineva qnatuoi 

went to look one boy ; he came ; when he got there he saluted 

awoxani ; oviugvvena ; qnasuawoxani obg 

the girl ; he was a poor boy ; she took boy's hand 

qnakaokone ; qnaiyeve inQ ; qviqne ; 

she filled pipe and gave it ; she took kola four ; she gave to him 

;nana . aku ; Qnawuwe legalome ; 

they copulated ; she said " You I am going to marry 

axamawoxani awoxan;nawehe ; ;nana . aku ; iye 
she told the boy the boy said all right ; they copulated ; mother 

qkezQre; ghrai Qkugbore ; qnatamiye ; 

came from river ; father came from farm ; she told mother ; 

tamehrai ; awoxana, QlinggalQme ; iiiawehe ; 

she told father ; boy, she said I marry him ; they said all right ; 

(jdegimu, Quawawoxani ; ^nalakbo ; ;nalovie ; 

day dark, she said to boy ; they go to bed ; they slept ; 

;nana . aku ; gdeg^gbe ; ;naiyaxwe ; 

they copulated ; at daybreak ; they went to wash ; 

noxvvoni qkwedia ; gkwie use lawa ; 

the girl menstruated ; she came home for five days 

II. D 



34 EDO TEXTS. 

Qgilawa Qnaw iku; Qnagahame; 

when he was in the house she said I played ; she became pregnant ; 
Qgehame Qkqdobie, okwia ; 

when she became pregnant she bore a child, male ; 

QkwQxi mawoxamia ; Qnilolamenolome 

she became the boy's wife ; this is the wife that he married 

wagmQfia. 
for this world. 



X. 

OkwiQkpa, oviftgwenQ, Qkwedeve ; 

Man one, poor man, had Eve (big scrotum) ; 

omanrienQgbgle QnaiyalimiQbo 

he saw no one to kill it for him he went to beg doctor 



; QwenQmugamgre ; 

let him [to] kill his Eve ; he said bring five shillings cowries ; 

pwineme, ; Qbonawegadie ; qnagavi.3, qnagarie, 

he said he had not got it ; doctor said " go " ; he cried, he went, 



Qgisowa 
when he got home 

Qnakwoli ; 
he feathered them ; 

Qgofe/, 

he saw a rat ; 
Qgisowa ; 


Qnakuhabg Qnakaifgrne uli; 
he took bow, he took arrows two hundred ; 

Qna.arioha Qgisoha 
he went to bush ; when he got to bush ; 

Qnasai ; Qnamu Qnagadiowa 
he shot it ; he took it he went home 

Qdotoi ; Qkeadioi ; evewQfiane ; 



when he got home ; he roasted it he ate it ; Eve said cut for him ; 

Qnaweve ; Iqgafiariwe ugakpa bekilo ? 

he said to Eve if he cut for you you come down from his penis f 

evenawghe ; qnaweve n^fianwe ; adev;gbe 

Eve said no ; he said to Eve : I don't cut for you ; at daybreak 

qnagarioha ; Qgisoha; QgbQtan ; 

he went to bush ; when he got to bush ; he killed squirrel ; 

Qnaweve, miuhabp muyagbe Qnawejhg Qnaw 
he Baid to Eve, take bow take, kill he said "no" he said 



EDO TEXTS. 35 

ukeineno milagariggoi evenaw lolue; 

"you ask him" when he ate his own Eve said he didn't mind him; 

QkQniQtiu; qnagariowa Qgisowa Qtoi, 

he took squirrel ; he went home when he got home he roasted it, 

QkQgarioi; evenawqfiane; qnawQrp; 

he ate it ; Eve said : cut for me ; he said there's no more ; 

leveyagbeboha ; uwolai ; l^gigbe 5 

he said to Eve, go, kill in bush ; " you don't go " ; when he killed ; 

eba uwunefianwe adevjgbe qnamuhabp ; 

" now " you said, " cut for you," at daybreak he took bow ; 

gvemie, yagbo tari evenaw^he evenamuhabp 

Eve, take go, kill it, come back ; Eve said all right Eve took bow 

eveture b^kiale; evena . arioha; evegisoha, 

Eve came down from his penis ; Eve went to bush ; when Eve got to bush, 

yaguzo evesai uzol^le ; Qrie ; 

he went and saw uzo Eve shot uzo ran ; he went ; 

evenariuboiyunu; Qnatu ; qna.adiowa; 

Eve put hand to mouth ; he shouted ; he went home ; 

Qgisowa Qtamokwiani ; qnagatiheve Q^Qgigbe 
when he got home he told man ; man cursed Eve at daybreak 

Qnaktuhabqmo onawevexiamu ^dgrip ; 

man took bow he said to Eve he was going same day ; 

evelaikiane : iamu naialugbafi ; Qua . axia 

Eve went to penis : go take let us go hunting ; he went 

;nagiseva; oiyagb^tan ; akuqsai Qnaiamu; 

when they got there ; he killed squirrel ; he shot it he went take it ; 

mufigkbo ; qgizQxia, oiyagaxiame qnasai 

he put it for bag ; as he went, he went look bird he shot 

Qkweyainu Qmufigkbo qna . axia oiyagQtan 

he went take it put it in bag, he went saw squirrel 

Qtanhierha Qnafie qsai ginehra 

squirrel climbed tree ; he let fly he shot when he was the tree 

Qtanagbina qnaweve ukpalqgbe bekino, 

squirrel struggled ; he said to Eve you too big for his penis, 

D 2 



36 EDO TEXTS. 

Qgyinoi iyaxiuxumu ; ture niehie,li ; 

you don'? let him climb up ; go down let him climb ; Eve said no 

QnawQlahp Qtafiyekagbe, kevahiame kewQna 

he said : I beg squirrel that I first killed, and bird and this 

legavionwe evenature Qnaweve hi^le 

he goes give you ; Eve came down he said to Eve climb it 

oyamure ; evenawinenQlai ; Qnaweve lahp 

go bring it ; Eve said he would not go ; he said to Eve I beg, 

ugarene ; le.se.kbo, QniagamwQfi nQma Qgidggglue. 
if you go he gave bag, he goes put you that man does not see you. 
give ; 

evewghe* evenaihigle oxumwerhani ; Qgiseva, 
Eve said all right Eve climbed up the tree ; when he got there, 

QmQtan Qmuf wa ; okwiani Qnarhiuhabg 

he took squirrel he threw it down ; the man took bow 

Qnaiasai evenagaitu ; Qnavesai ifgrnulini 

he shot Eve saluted ; he shot Eve the two hundred arrows 

onaiasai ; QnamQtaii ; Qnagadiowa Qgisowa 

he took, shot ; he took squirrel ; he went home when he got home 

Qnadotoi, Qna . arioi ; Qgidiene, ; Qnawineya ituQbo 

he roasted it, he ate it ; when he finished it ; he said he was going 

to salute doctor. 

QgisowQbo Qnaw^do ; gekino ; 

when he reached the doctor's house he saluted him; look his penis ; 

umievewp ? Qbowghg ; Qbonawgle 

you see Eve anywhere ? doctor said no ; doctor said to him 



gagbe? Qwinoi ; Qtobole; 
who killed it ? he said he did ; himself ; 

QgQgQne, ; Qnagadiowa 
he was glad for him ; he went home 


QbonawQle ; 
doctor said to him ; 

Qgisowa 
when he got home 



Qnarhiopia ; Qnari^ken^le ; Qgiseva ; 

he took cutlass he went to that place ; when he got there ; 

QtQlumu Qweve osiamekwa ; Qnaw^bm 

he looked up he said Eve is dropping water down ; he said "hm " 



EDO TEXTS. 37 

evemasetiagwa evekekaka; Qkwexiakilame 

he said " so " Eve can't talk Eve is dry ; it is ant's nest 

iyeva; Qniogilokilame lamiewihra ke,dogade. 

that was there ; this is ant's nest in same tree from that day. 

umalemedewu. 
story falls down dead. 



XL 

Qtan odiqd;novie ; QmwQrlmrhumu ; 

Squirrel ate palm nut which was ripe ; he put his tail ; 



nya<mQmave ; novg QXQtan nqmave 

he got oue that was not ripe ; the ripe one squirrel got the unripe 



QJ Qtan ;kpdiQkpa nig[ue] ulQmQro ; Qtan 

one squirrel got ; one palm nut [lived] in Ulomoro ; squirrel 

QdiolifQkpa ; UXQIO QdiQlifQkpa ; nQk^li ; iyenQme 

ate part one ; uchoro ate one part ; what remained old woman 

QkwqrhiQli ; Qdole ; Qvukoli Qvuwawa 

took it ; she cooked it ; fill two hundred calabashes fill pots 

uli ; exQrgli Qnazieni Qnikgwu ; 

two hundred ; the refuse held the elephant ; elephant died ; 

ukpabo qk^xioi ; oiyadQvie, Oiyamiyoha. 

the lamp oil she sold; took buy slave, she went took pledge. 



My story falls down dead. 



XII. 

OxwQkpa tie,! Ido ; nr ai tie,l Omoza 

A woman was called Ido ; her father was Omoza 



^vialamoha 
she said she did not marry a husband ; the children of animals 



38 EDO TEXTS. 

uzoya Qwinqngme, Qrhue, esi, ede, 

2o went, she said she did not marry ; eruhe, bush pig, hartebeest, 

eni ; Qwin^nQme inana . aninye ; 

elephant ; she said she did not marry they begged her ; 

Tkwi ; udi Qnawgme, igaiyo, mQmorhigle ; 

I don't agree ; palm tree said, I, I will go, I take her ; 

ohogota ; qnamwegbe ; Qk^dorhukniQii ; Qkqzeto ; 
"you He"; he got ready ; he took cloth ; he did his hair ; 

qna . axia ; qgiseva qnawido ; wedorhie ; 

he went ; when he got there he said to Ido ; you, I come take ; 

waiyamglu ? ;galQmo ; rnqm^lgmuwe ? 

What you take me do ? "I marry you " ; " You marry me ? " 



" If you don't marry me ; don't eat palm oil ; don't sweep house." 

Qnaw Jgalqmo ; ;mtiwafigmQn ; nigaiyowQkpolo ; 
She said ; I will marry ; I can't forbid oil ; let me take broom, 

sweep ; 

gnarhiegarie ; Qkgdosowa ; Qnatota ; Qnaw 

she took it and went ; she went home ; she sat down ; he said 

Qnagarhiehi ; magqrhie ; Qnavaiko ; 

he would keep her ; let them not take her ; he cut his belly 

Qnalalp ; umalemedewu. 

she went inside ; my story falls down dead. 



XIII. 

Eml' Ogiso emnaw, Qtionewu ; 

Monkey to Ogiso monkey said, his brother was dead ; 

QnawOgiso, lahf), ihiyalQlQ; rhiekebeme ; 

he said to Ogiso, I beg you, I go bury him ; give me rump ; 

nJrhiogQlp yotg ; bwamebo (Esago) ; 

let me put my tail down ; " go to servant, to my wife " ; 

[i.e., Esago] 



EDO TEXTS. 39 

: bwoviugwg ; Ogisowoviugwe : 

ervant said : go to poor man ; Ogiso said to poor man : 

oviugwe, laho ; tiekebeme 

oor man, I beg you ; [monkey says] ; give me rump 

nirhiogQlQnwe ; iyalgteme ; oviugwinawinehoi ; 

let me give you my tail ; I go burying brother ; poor man said I 

hear; 

Qnarhi;ne ; Qna . axia ; Qk^riogQl^ne noviugwe. 

he gave it to him ; he went ; he gave his tail to poor man. 

Qgiseva; ;nana . alele. Esago Qnawoviugwe; 

When he got there ; they buried him. Esago said to poor man ; 

bQg;lue ? gnawogqlp, Q^QgOJ > 

What are you doing ? he said " tail, it hurt him ; " 

Qnawaxamgm^gade ; emQnagade ; Qkgsowa 

he said " Tell monkey to come ; " monkey came ; when he got to the 

house, 

qnawQwpxi ? Ehiekebemegume ; 

he said " What is it ? [poor man] Bring my rump to me ; 

tag;gigmQ ; Qnawghe, dQinanogJgip ? 

they laugh at me ; " he said " all right, who laughs at you ? " 

Esago; ihoi; onarhiek^be ; qnarhiyotg ; 

" I hear " ; he took rump; he put down; 



QnawenQxmya ; 

he took tail from him ; he [monkey] said turn into yams ; 

[to tail] 

qkjxinya, qke/Iotoi ; Qnawoviugwe ; 

it turned into yams, he roasted them ; he said to poor man ; 

Qxaguhumova. Esagonagade ; oviugwe, bog;lue ? 
he said " you get fever." Esago came ; poor man, what are you 

doing f 

uhuniQvile ; rhinyaname ; nirhijle ; 

" He gets a fever " " give me the yam " ; "I take it and eat it " ; 

rhi;le Qnarhi;le ; QnawgmQgQlp, 

" take it and eat " he took it and ate ; [monkey] he said " tail, 

Egesago ; qnarhiekebe Qnaviqnoviugwe ; 

Esago gets " ; he took rump he gave it to poor man ; 



40 EDO TEXTS. 

qnavieyeku ; gnaw^sago : 

he put it for hips ; he [monkey] said to Esago : What are you doing? 

qnetqluhe ; qnawagolqnp ; Qnavvgh^ ; 

he scratches his rump ; he said his tail ; he said all right ; 

qkewoviugwe QlornggglQ; xiamu; jnabogiso; 

then he said to poor man he has got tail ; go on ; they went to 

Ogiso ; 

Qgiseva ; Ogisonaw& bukmqfi ; Qk^dobukmQn ; 

when they got there ; Ogiso said loose cloth ; he loosed his cloth ; 

Qgigoviugwe ; qkbwerpluhe 

when he saw poor man ; he had no tail on his rump 

qnawesago ; kwewpmQgQlo ; EsagobukmQfi ; 

he said to Esago : " you said he had a tail " ; " Esago, loose cloth " ; 

QkebukmQft Qoig e gQlQ% Ogisonawgmwesago, 

he loosed cloth when he saw his tail, Ogiso said " Take Esago, 



put him on the ground " ; they cut him (his head off) 

Qnawoviugwe woigalesago ; 

he said to poor man "Go eat Esago [take Esago's place"] 

Qnaw^he ; qnaw^atota qnaviemiesago ; 

he said " no " ; - he said " go, sit down " he took Esago's property ; 

Qnaviqnoviugwe ; umalemedewu. 

he gave it to poor man ; story falls down dead. 



XIV. 

Oviugwe ; ghraibioi ; 

A poor man ; his father begot him ; his father got things ; 

iyemQiui Qgiriwa ; gkeyamigmame ; 

his mother got things he grew up ; he copulated another man's wife ; 

ngnyame, gwuhamwino ; Qgin^nole, ehraigiwu 
who got the wife, said he feared ; he did not ask, his father died 



iyewu ; gkwQl^le ; ol^hrai ; 

and his mother ; he buried them ; he buried his father ; 



EDO TEXTS. 41 

5 ; gnadonoole ; Qfeyqgihrai ; 

who owned wife ; he came and asked him ; property of his father; 

efeggiye ; qkweyaxale ; 

property of his mother ; he took it and settled palaver ; 

QgimiQwale ;!Q ; QmiukmQfi yahiggbe ; 

he did not see food to eat ; he did not see cloth to cover body ; 

QnagaviQ ; onarhiopia qna . arioha. Ogisoha 

he cried ; he took cutlass went to bush. When he got to bush 



Qfiri, QdlQ, gduxumu ; Qnahiqle 

he cut rope, he tied it, up above ; he climbed it 

gwinelawu ; Qrhieyurhu ; Qgotp. 

he said he wanted to die ; put it round neck ; he looked at ground, 

qiyagosalobwa ; Osalobwanaw& : ture ; wolu ; 

he looked at Osa ; Osalobua said : come down ; what are you 

doing?" 

IgmQini kti, Qgarnqmi. Osalobwa qnagierha, 

" He had nothing " " stop, he gets things." Osalobua cut wood, 

ihino, x;re, x;re, gnaviqne qnawglQ ; 

seven, small, small, he gave to him he said to him ; 

QminudQge ; qgalofe Q,fjgy e > *" Qgalqtan 

thing you look ; it will be rat when he shoots, it will be squirrel 

QfJgy 6 Qnaweh^ ; Qnagadie ; qxi^xire ; 

when he shoots he said "all right" ; he went ; he went a little 

way 

yagofe ; Q%y e Qmavale ; Qna . axia 

and saw a rat; when he shot he didn't hit; he went on 

yagotin ; Qrhiqkpawo ; Q^igy 6 5 qmavale ; 

and saw squirrel ; he took one ; when he shot ; he missed ; 

qna . axia ; Qxigxire ; oiyagofioto ; 

he went on ; he went small small ; and saw bush rat ; 

qf;gye, Qmavale ; qkwikerhene wobgli ; 

when he shot, he missed ; there remained four sticks in his hand ; 

Qnagaxia ; Qxigxire ; oiyagerqkpa ; 

he went on ; he went small small ; and looked at one tree ; 



42 EDO TEXTS. 

Qxwe qwakotg ; 

a parrot was climbing from the ground ; it stopped on tlie tree ; 

yasumwQlfj ; qnarhierha ; 9^72* Qmavale ; 

it reached the top ; lie took sticks ; he threw, he missed ; 

QnarhiQkpa qfiyp qmavale ; Qnarhiqkpa qfiyo ; 
he took one he shot he missed ; he took one he shot ; 

Qmavale ; qkwgkQkpa Qnarhiqkpa ; QnafiQ cjdegbehra ; 
he missed ; there remained one he took one ; he shot he hit tree; 

erhadegbotp ; Qxwehia ; Qwulo ; qnamQxwe ; 

tree fell down ; parrot and all ; he died ; he took parrot ; 

Qnawoliga ; QmQxwefwa ; qxwehia, 

he picked feathers ; he threw parrot away ; all the parrot, 

qwololiga QviQxw^fua ; Qnafiebe 

he picked all feathers ; he threw parrot away ; he cut leaf 

qngwg; qnagbaloi; igani gnamu 

he opened one ; he tied them ; the feathers he took the 

qna . arie QnaQgQgg ; Qgisowa Qnagadiqgake ; 

he went he was glad ; when he got home he went to Ake house ; 

qnawake dodg ejbaxwe ; Akewghe 

he said to Ake come buy red feathers ; Ake said all right 

Qrhiise ; Qvignake ; qnavieweva ; akeyahale ; 
he took five ; he gave to Ake ; he took two goats ; Ake took to pay ; 

qnakba qnariQxwaihe ; qnawgdodeba ; 

he got up he went to Ochuaihe ; he said come buy red feathers ; 

Oxwaihew^he qnavise, qviqnoxwaihe ; Oxwaihe 
Ochuaie said " yes " he took five, he gave to Ochuaie ; Ochuaie 

qnavigbe ; ise qnaiyahale ; Qnakba ; 

gave pieces of cloth ; five he took to pay ; he stood up ; 

qnarigqvia ; qnaggvia dodebaxwe ; 

he went to Ovia's ; he said to Ovia come buy parrot's feathers ; 

Ov!anawejie; Qvlananqle inung ? qnawgbu ; 

Ovia said " yes " ; Ovia asked him " how much ? " he said " much " ; 

Ov!anawQkai; QnakaJ ; gkegale ululiwieva; 

Ovia said "count it" ; he counted ; when he counted it four hundred 

and two ; 



EDO TEXTS. 43 



Ov?anaw ; wahowo ? 

Ovia said ; " What do you want for it 1 " he said he wanted person, 



he wanted cow ; he wanted beads ; he wanted fowls ; 

Ovfanawghe ; Ov?Qviomaise ; Qvigmilise ; 

Ovia said, all right ; Ovia took five persons ; took cows, five ; 

qnrarivie, ise; QXQXQ, ise; Ovfanavione qnavio 

beads, five ; fowls, five ; Ovia gave them he gave them 

qna . adie. Qgisowa, qdobowa ; 

he went. When he got home, he went and built house ; 

gnaxiqdafe ; OvTanaviQbaxwe ; Qnamunyahumu 

he became a rich man ; Ovia took red feathers ; put them on his head 

qniogjle OvTaiamwQgbe ; riagmqn ; umaleraedewu. 

that is what Ovia took to dress ; in this world : story falls down 

dead. 



XV. 

Qsiokwowagmgn ; Qsiokwokwoqlimi; QsiQgoi; 

Smoker in this world ; smoker in elimi ; each smoked his own ; 

qmofiegbo ; Qkwexiogo ; Qsiokwonagmqn ; 

he put it in bush ; it was a clearing (farm) ; he smoked in this world ; 

QsiQgoi ; qmokwQgbo ; Qxeogo. 

each his own ; he put it in bush ; it was a farm. 



XVI. 

Qmawu b^gb^ma aisame axwqle, 

When a man dies in our family we fetch water to wash him 

^vaxwe ihio uwawa QgQgmg aiaxwgli ; 

soap loofah pot new to take wash him ; 

agijlukmQii ; ag;rhiukmQfi nofwaiio ; ewogmq 
we_tie him with cl-oth ; we can take white cloth ; a new mat ; 



44 EDO TEXTS. 

aviowajukbo ; aidomolimiyo ; Q-gifit. 

we put it for bed ; we put it on the body ; we dig ground' 

agimweyo ; agiriema ; aiyaneji ; agafiosisi. 

we put it in ; we cook fufu ; we give to chop, we fire guns. 

agifioisi aigjkugalimi ailema 

When we fire guns we dance round the body we cook fufu> 

aiyaluwejowe ; ota wowie, Qdehino ; 

we take sacrifice to feet ; in evening and morning seven days ; 

Qgagba, aiyafioisi, buhumuge. aigaku ikeva 

(seven days) gone, we fire gun, at road boundary. We dance from 

there 

gade dosunurhu ; aikeva iviurlme ariowa 

come reach gate ; from there draw chalk into the house 

amgrhoioto, asegoyp, aialema aiyalue 

we put chalk down, we put cowries, we cook fufu we sacrifice 

aigatiej^hrama. Agaluwelowe, arhigwqkpa yotp. 

we call it our father. When we sacrifice to feet, we put one knee on 

ground. 

EguQkpa yotp magwa ; agarhieyoto, 

To kneel on one knee we forbid ; when we put it down, 

maigjdie.mi; magadioi evale,, ^kQgafiQmale ; aiyawafo, 
we don't eat ; if we chop food, belly bites us ; we take afo, 

aiyakunu, Qg^- 

we take it in mouth, that's all. 



XVII. 

Ahiame Qrhuinoyi, ahiame gdotu ; Erhumoyi 

Bird plantain eater, bird went and saluted him ; Erhumoyi 

naxamale kaxwe gaxia ; mairi^mi 

said to him from to-morrow go ; we don't eat anything 

edehino; nokawu agmQfimioi; ahiame wgh ; 

seven days who first dies world sees him ; bird said all right ;; 



EDO TEXTS. 



45 



ErhumoyiQtota ; 
at dawn Erhumoyi sat down ; 

oisugbo Qnariehie, ; 
when he got to farm he ate pepper 

Qkweriehie, ; e ( de ) gbe i de i gbe i 
he ate pepper ; every day 

Qmawu. Erhumoyi ohampgbe, ; 
he did not die. Erhumoyi was hungry ; 

wuhe ; ahiame Qnakba Qna.axia Qgiseva 

in his rump ; bird got up went when he got there 

Erhumoyiwu Qnagele ; Qkgke ; Qnagye ; 

Erhumoyi was dead he looked at him ; he was rotten ; he laughed ; 



Qmarij[mi ahiame Qnariugbo 
got no chop bird went to farm 

Qnadiowa Qdqg^gbe 

he went home at dawn 

qdehino QkwQriehie, ; 

seven days he ate pepper ; 

Qkewu, Qk^ke 
he died, he rotted 



qnaw^rhumoyi 
he said to Erhumoyi 



glokwia 
he was not a man 



Qnariowa ; 
he went home ; 



Qgsowa, 
when he got home, 

grhumoyiwu ; 
Erhumoyi was dead ; 

QWQinarigvole, 
he said he ate no chop, 



Qnatiko ; 
he called meeting ; 



ewokere ; 
town came ; 



they asked him ; 

griqnawu ; ;nananqle : 
so he died ; they asked : 



Qnatamina 
he told them 



Who killed him ?" 

nQ wo ? 

Where is he ? " 



Qwokqke ; 
he said " rotten " 

tf$ 

if he dies to-day, 



Jnanatiheng ; 
they abused him ; 



kqdogade 
from that day on 



Qi-humoyi 
Erhumoyi 



axwe 
to morrow 



is rotten. 



XVIII. 

Oisa, ugbo, ^WQ; Osawe, ; ugbona, at^gbugbona, 
Osa, farm, farmer; Osa said; the farm, till I finish this farm, 

agqgwi ; 
don't make palaver ; 



farmer said he heard : 



who gets a child, 

Qnaw Osalobwa 
he said to Osa 



don't bring his son 

wagarhoimobgre 
don't bring small 
children : 



46 EDO TEXTS. 

agQginya ; e,gwa ; Osa Qgwane e.dgke.n ; 

dou't look at yams ; plant (yams) ; Osa planted yams on rest day ; 

qwg Qnariugbo ; Qnaiawinyawoto ; 

farmer went to farm ; he went took yams from ground - r 

qnalg; qnakedQlowQle, QW Qnawosalobwa : 

he cooked them ; he planted them back farmer said to Osalobua : 

aiginya ; Qgawone, agageje, ; 

let them not look yams ; when they are strong, we can look at it ^ 

qtie.le.ne nakiahino ; iny Osalobwa gmazp ; 

he said in seven moons ; Osa's yams did not grow \. 

qnag^le : inyoke,ke ; Osalobwa nawowe^ inyingk^ke ; 
he looked them : yam, rotten ; Osa said to farmer the yams rotten ; 

owg QWQma uxale : wqmoboggre ugbo ; 

farmer all right you said : don't bring small child to farm - 

uxale : qmobggare, agb^nutu ; Qli e,nagwa 

you said : if small child came, we kill it for utu ; so he said 

n^ginya, inyatQWg ; utuagagbe,na ; 

who looks yams, till yams strong ; we kill him for utu ; 

gwgnafiximi ; mobaiyoto ; Osalobwa 

the fanner [went to] cut iximi ; he put it for ground ; Osa 

lare, l^ho ninegboejktu ; Osalobwa nawghg ; 

come, he wants to kill him for utu ; Osalobua said " no " ; 

Xianm ; aiyatain^wo ; qlinana . ariowa : ^nagisowa 
go on ; go tell the country ; so they went home ; when they got 

home, 

Jnatiko, Qwokgre, Osalobwa gnatamgwo 

they called meeting, country came, Osalubua said tell country 

inyalemazg; glinqlag^le owe gkQgwa; Osalobwa 

his yams did not grow ; so he looked it farmer spoke ; Osalobua 

Qxamino qmobpgariugbo n^gbgnutu ; 

said to him if they bring small child for farm let him kill it for utu ; 

QninQnaxamoisa ; agaginya n^gbenutu ; 

so he said : tell Osa ; if we look yams let us be killed for utu ; 

le,gide ; Osaginya ; oiyenafiximi Qnarhiebk ; 

he came ; Osa looked yams ; so he cut iximi he put it upright j 



EDO TEXTS. 47 



Qnawosagae ; mQggnutu ; Qwonaxa : 

he said to Osa, come ; let (me) kill (him) for utu ; country said : 



Osa umaluQse ; Qwe : lahp, kgti ; 

Osa you did wrong ; he said : I beg, stop ; from to-day on,, 

walema, aiyalutu ; Qmobogaiyugbo, 

if you cook fufu, sacrifice to utu ; if you take child to farm, 

agaginya ; Qkgdogade ; nqniQinobg, ogarhieyugbo ;. 

look yams ; from that day on ; who gets children, can take them to. 

farm ; 

ninyalemazp Qgaggle. 

whose yams don't grow can look them. 



XIX. 

Oviugwe QnawQrhai ; gwoisa ; 

A poor woman said to her father ; said to Oisa ^ 

QleriagmQ ; agmQfiiQrienalQgafe ? 

she was going to the world ; world which she was going to, she 

would reach ? 

Osa Qwinehoi ; QwinggidQviQ ; Osa Qnaw : 

Osa said all right ; she said she would buy a slave ; Osa said : 

Qninuewo ? Qnawigogboya ; Osalobwa Qnaw . axia ~ r 

your name what ? She said : " Igogboya " Osalobua said " go " ; 



aragmQ Qnaxa : QVIQ, 

so she went to the world she said ; slaves, which she would buy,. 



;gwe, Qkpainypli Iggaviqleyi; 

in villages, two hundred and one she would put ; she came to the 

world ; 



akgbioi ; Qkwenwa 

some one bore her ; she grew she began to trade in market ; 

Qnado[a]dgvie ; QkweabigwQkpainygli ; 

she came buy slaves ; she put them in two hundred and one villages ; 



48 



EDO TEXTS. 



qmagjbie, 

when she put them in two hundred and one villages ; when she had no 

children ; 



qnakbaigbe Qnayaboig ; 
she got up she went to divine ; 



qnawqsokwoiyaqbo ; 

he said the only thing [is] you go 

to doctor ; 



nqbo rhigle 
let doctor take you 

Qbonarhitjle ; 
the doctor took her ; 

nemabie 
she had no children 



ariOsalobwa ; 
to go to Osalobua ; so she went to doctor ; 

gariewosalobua ; 
to go to Osalobua ; 

Osalobwanawqle 



qnawosalobwa : 
she said to Osalobua : 



when she got home 



Osalobua said to her 

noialuehiQle 
let her sacrifice to Ehi 



gariowa ; 
go home ; 

agb^milalehi ; 
kill cow for Ehi\ 



he said : one son remains, 



he said, it is Omobe ; 



Qmqbe, 
Omobe, 



he said, things won't please his eye ; she said just give him to me 

Osalobwanaw^gaxia ; qgisuwagmqnuwqlimi ; 

Osalobua said : go ; when she got half way between earth and 



^dinOsalobwarhiene ; 
palm nut Osa gave her 

Qgisowadoxwe ; 
when she got home, she washed ; 



heaven ; 

qkerhijle ; 
she ate it ; 



she menstruated ; 



Qgixwena ; 
rhen she washed 



domiggbe ; 
come take body ; 



qk^iowahama ; 
then she became pregnant ; 



she saw [it was] Omobe ; that child grew up 

qk^dose nqlqmame ; 
he was old enough to marry wife 

norhioxwone ; iyena 

to give him woman ; his mother said 

Iqkqdosiyelai ; qkeariole ; 
he left his mother ; he went out ; 



she said to her 
husband : 

qkgdobie ; 
she bore child ; 

qkqdosiwu 
he got marks 

qnawiye 
he said to mother 



wQmaise ; 
" You are not grown yet" ; 

QkweyatuiyqnagmQn ; 
he went salute his mistress ; 



EDO TEXTS. 



49 



;nakdoleljleaiiowa ; 
they ran follow him home ; 



iyenunQinairhioxwone ; 

his mother said she did not give woman 

to him : 



iyekedolawa ; 
mother went inside 



qkQdovikwehino ; 
she took seven women 



QnawiyQinase ; 
he said to mother not enough ; 



she gave to him ; 

iyeke.doviixwigbe ; 
mother gave him ten women ; 



she gave to him ; 



qnawinelioi 
he said " all right " 



Qnawiyomase ; 

he said to mother not 

enough ; 

ugb^nogelarhie 
when he wanted to take 



ncjyole ; 
he said he did not see woman that he liked 



iyenawe tobgle lairhie ; 
mother said he must go take for himself ; 

gnawin^lo 
he said he thought 

giyene e.gQline.garhielome. 

his mother, he would take and marry. 

Osalobwa qnawinekwi ; Qnawqinoihwiye ; 

Osalobua said he did not agree ; he said child does not copulate 

mother ; 

Qnawosalobwa ; iye legawarhie ; Osalobwa- 

he said to Osalobua ; mother he would take ; Osalobua 

lQwatiQlim;rbiare ; 
said " Call dead people come " 

nianiokagmgnre ; qlekQnadogba Qnawinobohiole ; 

which they bring from world " ; so they met he said to them settle 

the matter ; 

(jmoihwiyc ; 
:hild does not copulate mother ; 



gnawina doguriwuip 
he said : " they come look work 



qlimi nawinahoi; 
htaven said they heard 

Qnaw Osalobua ; 
he said to Osalobua : 



QiiawiyenQgarhie ; 
said, mother which he 



;nanawiye 
they say mother 



he said, mother which he took 

glimi nawovieje Qxiowuxp ; 

dead people said her son was he goat ; 

QxiodQgbe ; qnawgwQwoxg ol^gamwiye ; 

is she goat ; he said he goat can copulate mother ; from that day 

QlqgQnoxiqwuxp o i liye i ge i naxiode i gbe ; qlo box2 gina mwiye 
he was he goat, his mother was she goat ; so he goat copulates 

mother ; 
II. E 



50 EDO TEXTS. 

qlOsalobwaginaxaiineyp ; ^gompgadolQgbe wiye ; 

so Osalobua cursed for it ; children don't copulate mother ; 

ql^woxQgina ol^ginaxwiye. 
so he goat copulates mother. 



XX. 

Ewale, Osalobwa, qnaw, adeagmQfi; 
Ewale, Osalobua, he said, go to the world ; he said go and 

be king 

Qnawin^riQba ; qwinoyudo ; 

he said he would not be king ; he said he made Udo ; 

qwiiigyagbp ; qnawinggilai Qnawinehoi ; 

he said he made Agbo ; he said he would not go [Osa] said "I hear" ; 

qkqdorhivie ; Qnadorhigngrhieine ; Qnawgnomuyurhu ; 
he took beads ; he gave them to him to hold ; he said put them on 

your neck ; 

Qkqdosaiyurhu ; QnawinQgakiewa 

he put them on his neck ; he said when he brought Ewa (Otu for Osa) 



owowiowiQ ;nakiewa gnawinehoi 

he said bring it every morning they bring Ewa he said he heard 

OsalobvvanazQma ; qkgdorhiq,ba ; ag^tignakia ; 

Osalobua sent a man ; he took a nail ; when he counted three months ; 

Qnarhiaba Qnarhiqso ; qnawQtQgaviq 

he took the staple he put it in ground ; he said "he will sleep" 



when he slept ; he said (to another) go bring beads for me 

;nakedoseva ;nakedofialiviewurhu 

when they got there they cut the beads from his neck 

akedorhiQgyosa ; gdek^dQgbe ; Osalobvvanaw^yatiQlere, 
they brought them to Osa ; day broke Osalobua said : go call 

him come, 

Qiiawgrhiviere qriyobprhainurliu qmag^mivie 

he said bring beads he took hand touch his neck he did not find bead 



EDO TEXTS. 51 

Qnawaxamosalobwa nQmamivie ; QuawQriegjng 

he said tell Osalobua he did not see beads ; he (messenger) said 

bring it to him 

f>nawdqmamierhi;ri, qnawqdowuyo 

he said if he did not see them to bring, he said come, die for it 

Qnawalimiaine ; Qnawqlaho ; Osalobwanawin^kwi 

he said beg him for him ; he said " I beg "; Osalobua said he did not 



Qnaw, avelimieQmairae ; qnawguekwe 

he said, he can beg thing of a person ; he said he did not agree 

qnawQSokwadowu 
he said the only thing to do was that he must come and die 



qnawgnemaguagrnqna 
he said if a thing is not hard, he said he would not send him to this 

world 

gnawumawulai QnawQtininagagiyu 

he said "you didn't say you would go" he said he would go 

(Osa) (Ewale) 

Osalobwanawinegikwi Qnawainiminimiame ninagariagmQn 
Osslobua said he did not he said beg for me let me go to the 

agree world 

Osalobwanawinehpi Qnawe.dogaxia QnawuasagmQn 

Osalobua said he heard he said " go " he said " if you reach 

world " 

qnawejadoleyi Qnawinehoi 

he said " go make them better " he said " he heard " 

qnawgagggboxwohame Qnaw gQgbowg 

he said " don't kill pregnant woman " he said " don't kill farmer " 

Qnawinehoi; qnaw^le, qnagade, Qk^dodmagmQfl ; 
he said "he heard" ; he said, he was coming then he went to world ; 

ugbQnagidinagniQn^, qke/lo mwqwere, gk^dogbg 

when he got to the world, he brought farmer he killed him 

Osalobwanagagwi ; qkedomwoxwohamere, qkqdogbe, ; 
Osalobua made palaver he brought pregnant woman he killed her; 

Osalobwanawawa ; Qkedogbohgbp. Osalobwanawawa ; 
Osalobua said he forbad ; he killed priest. Osalobua said he forbad ; 

E 2 



52 EDO TEXTS. 

QkgdqgbQdiQn, Osalobwanawawa ; qnawinehoi ; 

he killed headman, Osalobua said he forbad ; he said " he heard " ; 

gkgdogiesu QnawQyatiglire ; gkenalughrai ; 

he sent Esu he said go call him come ; place to sacrifice to his 

father ; 

evaaisunadotigle ; qk^dowu ; qnadodinoi^limi ; 

there Esu met and called him ; he died ; he came reached heaven ; 

OsalobwanawQl^maxamale ; gggbowele, gQgboh$bo, 
Osalobua said: did he not tell him ; don't kill farmer, don't kill priest, 

g^gbgbo ; gegawa ; qnawOsalobwanemagye ; 

don't kill doctor ; it is forbidden ; he said to Osalobua, he did not 

remember ; 

Osalobwanawghe Qnawgyaxiogeye ; Qnaiaxiale ; 

Osalobua said " all right " he said, go be crooked ; he went be it ; 

ugbgnggjxiQlQng ; Osalobwakgdotih^yo ugbQnog;tilieyone 
when he was it ; Osalobua swore for it when he had cursed it 

qnawQk^lQgalai Qgoieniokglogiluke 

he said from to-day on (Ewale) should go lame 

glagj^lagboxwaini ^lag^lagbgdign 

so that they did not kill pregnant woman so that they did not kill 

headman 

agagbgdi^fi, agagb^lewe agboxwamew^ko 

if they kill headman, they kill goat if they kill pregnant woman 

and her belly (child) 

izuemure adqloto ; 
let them bring two hundred things to sacrifice to Aluoto ; 

Qnawagegbgbo ; qlosalobwanaxameyo ; 

he said don'fc kill doctor ; so Osalobua cursed for it ; 

Qnawusiqmulino agiyagadglotp 

he said there are two hundred things to sacrifice to Aluoto 



glaginawa. 
from to-day on ; so they don't do it again so [it is] forbidden. 



EDO TEXTS. 53 



XXI. 

Qgbugbo, Qdo^ki ; nprnane ; npmowa ; ;nanagareva ; 
Farmer, trader; husband; householder; they live there; 

ohamqkqgagbina ; nqmowa qwuhamqgbuwe ; 

hunger troubled them ; householder said hunger flogs you ; 

nqgbugbo qwuhamQfi ; nqdugki qwuhamQgbugbe ; 
farmer said hunger plenty ; trader said hunger too much ; 

nqmoxwo qwuhainqgbugbe ; inanawgha : 

husband said hunger is too much ; they said " ha " : 

Bagalue ? Nqmogbo qwinemenya owinQmamoxwo 
What can we do 1 Farmer say here yams says he has no woman 

nqgalema ; nqmameonawQfinyare qnafinyare ; 

who goes cook f ufu ; husband says " bring yams " he brings yams ; 

qgjfinyare ; qnawoxwona dolema 

when he brings yams ; he says to woman cook fufu 

qnawehe ; qkqme.xe ; qwinqmameof^gmqn ; 

she says '' yes " she puts pot on fire ; she says she has no palm oil ; 

qwinqmameume ; qwinqmamehie ; 

she says she has no salt ; she says she has no pepper ; 

qnawg nqdu^ki : uwurhiqre ; qnawgb.6 ; nqdugki 

she says to trader " you pay don't bring ? " he said " yes " trader 

qk^fioge ; qnalema ; axeke/loga ; axqgi,gane 

brings to her ; she cooks fufu; pot was done ; when pot was done 

qnaw nqmoxwo ; dodumema ; qnawinedumu ; 

she said to husband ; corne beat fufu ; he said he would not beat 

qw ; dodumema ; noyainia qnawg 

"farmer"; come beat fufu; "who gets yams" he said 

mogadumema Jdumu ; nqmowa dodumema ; 

" I go beat fufu " " I don't beat " ; householder, come beat fufu ; 

Jdumu ; moiniowame ; nunalema ; 

I don't beat ; I get my house ; where you cook fufu ; 

ugyiiawawo ; Odnqki dodumema 

" if you get house (what then) " ? Trader come beat fufu ; 



54 EDO TEXTS. 

Jdumu; bqze ? Mqmoinyahie ; moinyume; 

I don't beat ; " Why ? " I get pepper ; I get salt ; 

moinyofigmgn ; naialema ; Qnaw^he ; 

I get palm oil ; to take cook fufu ; she said " all right " 

dqmanagagetalQma ? Akgtalamaiwo ; 

which man do we tell 'I They talk to the country ; 

Qwonaw^geabu 5 dQmanagibwele ; 

country said it could not settle it ; who now go settle it ; 

tokmosalobua ; Osalobwanature ; bQxi ? Nggbugbo 

except Osa ; Osa came down ; what is it 1 ' Farmer 

qwinonainya glinQwidumema ; nqmame 

said he had yams so he said he did not beat fufu ; husband 

owinoinyame nqlenema Qlingwidumenia ; 

said he had wife who cooked fufu ; so he said he did not beat fufu ; 

nqdugki nonyaimi nalema ; QlinQwidumema ; 

trader got things to cook fufu ; so I say he did not beat 

fufu ; 

noiniowa moiniowame ; ^nanalema ; 

householder I get my house ; where they cook fufu ; 

QlinQwMumu ; Osalobwanawgh^ ; gnaw ngmowa ; 

so he said I did not beat Osa said : " all right " ; he said to house- 
holder ; 

akpawama lawowa, Qgara ? Qnawu . ama ; 

if they didn't go inside your house, can it be warm 1 He said you are 

no good; 

nqmame ; timogbo ; umiengrhiny; a ; 

to husband ; you have no farm ; you don't see who brought yams ; 

nqwoxal! ; uwflduiuu ? ugama ; 

which your wife cooks ; you say you don't beat ? you are no good ; 

nqgbugbo wenomenya ? etutinyale ; wumiQiigli ? 

Farmer you who get yams 1 you roast yams eat ; you see who cooks ; 

wumi^nolema ; uwftdumu ? ugama ; 

you see who cooks fufu ; you say you don't beat ? you are no good ; 

nqdu^ki Qkyndo umami^male ; 

trader to market you go [trade] you don't see fufu to eat ; 



EDO TEXTS. 55 

umienolemanya ; uwuduimi ; 

you see who cooks fufu now ; you say you don't beat fufu ; 

ugama de,de,de ; Qnaw Orhieha ; 

you are no good for ever and ever he said " three men " ; 

jnagadolorhioxuQkpade.de.de. UmalQmQdewu. 

they don't go take one woman for ever and ever. Story falls down 

dead. 



XXII. 



Igifiemido (I do not miss anything), Emigherameme (thing does 

not touch me), 

jnaieva ; !Eniigherame i nie i Q ) nmdia unugwQba; Ig;figmidQmudia 
these two ; Emigherameme stood up in palace gate ; Igifiemido stood 

Qnukgdo; Qkwekewafiohabo; iferoe, QwalQmigherame.me;; 
on hill of Edo ; he shot bow from there ; arrow hit Emigherameme ; 

QkanqrQlQbo ; Qkwegwotio; Ig;fiQmidokwegade ; 
bead was on his hand ; it broke it ; Igifiemido came (back) ; when he 

Qgiseva; Qwokwial^xi, owinoigjfie.mido ; 

got there ; he said he was a man, he said he did not miss anything ; 

Emigherameiije, qwokwia ; Qwemirhamino. 

Emigherameme said he he was a man; hesaidthingdidnottouchhim. 

QmanQreva ; owuwaiva ; okwiauaxi. 

A man was there ; he said : you two are men. 



XXIII. 

OviawanQkbisp ; ;nahino, iyenakgbina ; 

Pups [dog belly big] ; these seven, their mother bore them ; 

atalakpak^bie ; Qk^biQinihino. Atalakpak^tiawa, 

leopard bore ; she bore seven cubs. Leopard called dog, 

QnawinagaiQin^, qkpqkpa, njdagalunie. 

she said they take sons, one one, to go cook unie (soup). 



56 EDO TEXTS. 

Awanaw^lehone ; qnaw ; Atalakpawokabie ; 

Dog said I hear ; she said ; Leopard you bore first ; 

uvvegbokpawowe. AtalakpakeinumQkpa Qgbe ; 

kill one of your own. Leopard took one killed it ; 

Qimialunie ; atalakpazoboljgiawa ; 

she went cook soup ; leopard took a fore leg of it to the dog ; 

awakelaloi ; Qrhialuerhe ; qdeg^gbe, 

dog licked it ; she put it in smoke of fire ; at dawn, 

awanarhiobatalakpa, Qnaiofigmowgle, qkile ; 

dog took fore leg of leopard, rubbed it with palm oil, cooked it ; 

QnarhiQgiatalakpa. Edenok^le, ^dQgigbe ; 

took it go to leopard. Next day at daybreak ; 

atalakpagb^gbovi^le ; qvesubr>legiawa ; 

leopard killed another son ; took it and gave it to dog ; 

awawQrhiehi ; dQg;gbe, qyalunie, grhiesogyatalakpa ; 
dog put it away ; at dawn, she made soup, gave some to leopard ; 



atalakpa 
leopard killed her sons finish ; gave legs to dog ; 

nqzQgieni qgphiehi; edeqgbe QgQr;giatalakpa. 
what she gave to dog she kept ; at dawn she gave it to leopard. 

Oviatalakpagifo ; Qgisedokpa, atalakpa 

Sons of leopard were all finished ; it reached one day, leopard 

qnaw^laiyatuawa. QgisungrliQle ; Qnahogawa 

said she was going to visit dog. When she reached gate ; she heard dog 

woviqle ; inagwa; Qnaweawa magbivi^le. 

and her sons ; they were talking ; she said dog does not kill her sons. 

Qnawe gdenqgariehi, igadogbgn^vi^le. 

She said day when she goes away, I will come kill her sons eat. 

Qk^dogbawakia, awakehgto ; QgihgtoriQ, 

It reached three months, dog washed her hair ; when she had washed 

qnavrine: l^lagariugbo ; QiiawiviQlena, 

she said: she was going to farm; said all her pups; 

Qlagafieowa; atalakpagagbingle ; 

if she leave them in the house, leopard would kill them ; 



EDO TEXTS. 57 

Qnavina, Qnaviaxame; gkggwele ; 

she took them, put them in water pot ; she covered it ; 

Qgjkpaigbene, atalakpanagade ; Qk^gwanowaihia 

when she got up, leopard came ; she looked all about 

qmamina; Qnawjli lasam^nwo ; 

did not see them ; she said She was going to take water drink ; 

ogifiuboiaxegolasame oviawanqkbizo 

when she put hand for pot take water the pups 

Qkgfianubnle. Onawe : Qmaniaima ; 

cut her hand. She said : This person is no good ; 

awarieheng, Qkwevi^graale, Qkqviogagaxame ; 

dog has eaten fish, she takes their bones', she puts them round 

water pot ; 

iwagasamema, Jgmak^SQmobo ; nqnagwani ; 

I say, if you take water here, bones prick your hand ; as she spoke ; 

Qnahogawade, QnalggiyQkowa ; ilegarie. 

she heard dog coming, she went into back house ; she ran went home. 

AwakQlawa, gviawanqkbizo Qkglgnadia, qnawiye : 
Dog reached house, pup came out to her said : mother 

atalakparigma ; Qgwalotogqloxumn, Qmalewuwaxame, 
leopard came here looked down, looked up, did not know water pot, 

qluvi(jmaihi Qgilamwanie ; j^nafiamobQle ; 

there you keep us she wanted to drink water ; they pinched her hand ; 

qnawe : Qmodauxi ; ovif>yo;gnieheyaxe. 

she said : bad sons you are ; sons put fish bones for pots. 

Iyew : Giahaime ; QniQdauxi. Edegivj[gbe, 

Mother said : Shut up, son bad you are. At dawn, 

awanaw;riQki. Wogaviqdqlehi ? 

the dog went to market. Which side I keep them safe ? 

Qnaw ; wogavinaihi ? Qloviawanqkbizo qnawg : 

she said ; where keep them ? so pup said : 

iyemolunina ; iyeuawuwaiyalu ? iyemune ; 

Mother give them thread ; mother, said what to do ? Mother gave it ; 

qnabakukgkegiadQsegodo ; qnadqluyo ; 

he put pegs for middle of mud ; he tied thread for it ; 



58 EDO TEXTS. 

QkeyadQlerhurhumowa ; 
he went tie it on top of roof; he took brothers six ; 

qnaviohierhurhumowa. Jnanaiatotaerhurhumowa; 

lie put them on top of roof. They sat down on top of roof ; 

onawiyegarigki. Atalakpanare, qgwalowa ; 

he said, mother go to market Leopard came, looked round house ; 

oviawanqkbizo qnaweginama ; Qnaw : 

pups said look at them there ; she said : 

d^kelunahiQle ? Qnawg : gqlunQrauQsegodo ; 

which place you climb ? she said : look at thread which is middle 

of mud ; 



qlilaihiQle ; atalakpanagarhiulu ; 

there I climbed ; leopard took thread ; she climbed ; 



ogihi^lesad^seneva, oviawanQkbizo 

when she climbed half Avay, pup cut cotton ; 

atalakpakgdodQ ; Qk^muhurnQbaiyotg ; Qkgwu; 

leopard fell ; she knocked head on ground ; she died ; 

oviawanQkbizo qketure ; Qnadorawatalakpa ; gnadovai ; 
pup came down ; he took leopard ; he cut it up j 

qnamwimike ; iyek^k^kire ; Qnaw : 

he put chop on fire ; mother came from market ; he said : 

iyegbatalakpa. Qnawubwaiagbe ; Qnaw ; 

mother, I kill leopard. She said : What you take kill ? he said ; 

qhiaduxumude ; Jnafiulu ; qk^dodg ; Qnawu. 

she climbed up come ; they cut thread ; she came fall ; she died. 

lyek^gqgq ; inakgdoriatalakpafo ; gnawiye ; 

Mother was glad ; so they ate leopard finish ; they said to mother; 

ileselogwqmadia ; gnarhi^mi ; Qid 

I like to stop for person ; he took things ; when he came 

Qg^rhamosagbodo. ^rhamosagbodo 2b.eukgbqxqxQ. 
he saw Ehramosagbodo. Osa was taking fowl calabash. 

Qnaw: dovava; qnawe, mure, i,mukpaluwe ; 

HP said : hail, father ; he said, bring, I take help you ; 

QmwihQne ; qkalil^xia ; ;nakgdosugbo ; 

he gave him the load ; he followed him go ; they reached farm ; 



EDO TEXTS. 59 

qnawukqgbqxqxq ; jnanaganwina, qk^t^rbamosa; 

he opened fowl calabash ; they worked, he called Osa ; 

qnaw& ; ukobozo ; qsikqkenewawina ? 

he said ; small bush fowl ; are they near place where I work 1 

^rhamoisa onawghe; qnawinoiilegaiya, ukw;fieli. 

Osa said yes ; he said he was going to make trap. 

rhamoisanaw : qmowime. Qnakbaigbe; qnariqfioha; 
Osa said : good, my son. He got up ; he went into bush ; 

qgiseva ; qgbqnqxqxqeva ; qvieyodq ; 

when he got there ; he killed two fowls ; he put them there ; 

qkqgade ; qgisqkqhramosaiyi ; qnawqlebaba, ukobozo, 

he went ; when reached where Osa was ; he said ; father, fowl 

bugbe bugboa ; qwinekwifi^. Inanagariwina ; 

plenty on this farm ; he said he made trap for them. They worked ; 

qgisota qnawinqlakjfi ; Qgiseva ; 

at evening he said he would go look trap ; when he got there ; 

qnaviqxqxoni ; qkqwqloi ; qnavione ; qkggade. 

he took the fowls ; he cleaned them ; he took them ; he went. 

qg;seva ; qk^viomiehramosa, qnawinggbukobozoeva. 
When he got there ; he took show Osa, he said he killed two fowl. 

luakeviqxqxqevani,. ^nak^lqle ; qd^munakqlovie. 

They took those two fowl, they ate them ; day dark they lay down. 

Eyqlu ; qk^gbine qxqxq ^hramoisafo. Qgisqg ]b.ramoisaw 
So he did ; he killed fowls of Osa finish. When it was time Osa 

said : 

ilagariowa, qnatoviawanqkbizo ; qnawqle; 

I am going home, he said to pup ; he said : 

iaviqxqxqre; qnagariowa; qnawqle: bwamqxqxoiyi ? 
go bring fowls ; he went home ; he said : which side you put fowl ? 

^lolulekqnadQSugade ? In^naukobozona. 

Is it not those you eat from the time you come ? They are the 

ukobozo. 

Ehramoisa . qnarhihmnwh^rie, qnaxuhe ; qg;xwe 

Osa took whip, he drove him ; when he drove 

him 



60 EDO TEXTS. 

Qk^dosekenowabodi. 
he reached place for making palm wine. 
Qnadogakajnypwotp ; 

He came meet calabash of palm wine for ground ; he jumped went 

inside. 

JjjhramoisQnawQkpemainyp ihi ukqre ; 
Osa said" palm wine man take palm wine out of calabash ; 

numotolune. QlQkpenamwainyq' ; Qnamukare ; 

you give me dregs." The man took palm wine ; he brought calabash ; 

Qk^kotple ; qkqmuwghramoisa. ^hramoisa 

there remained dregs ; he gave it to Osa. Osa 

QkQinuko, gwinelamuda ; qgimw^riunu. 

took calabash, said he wanted to drink it ; when he took it put to 

mouth. 

Qviawanqkbizo asafiolalo ; gnalovialo. 

Pup jumped go into his eye ; that is the pupil. 



XXIV. 

EZQUIO agmqn ; qkwegaxqn ; qgikQx;li ; 

Ezomo world ; he was at war ; he was continually at war ; 



qnawine gaxoiiso ; 
he said he was going to make war on sky ; he got boys ; 

Qnatiiia ; Qnawinigierhare ; inanaw^he ; 

he called them ; he said go cut sticks and bring them ; they said all 

right ; 

inana . axia ; inanagierha ; inanaviqlere ; 

they went ; they cut sticks ; they took them and brought them ; 

inagisowa ; Qnawina ; "gbai Qgbalaka ; 

when they got home ; he said to them ; tie ladder ; 

koto yasiso ; qlagbai ; Jnagise 

from earth to go to heaven ; so they tied it ; when they were 



, Qgbalaka qbun ; Jnahiakqvqgbalaka 

midway, ladder broke ; they all with the ladder 



EDO TEXTS. 61 

inadggboto ; inawulo ; EzQmagmQ grhioboiyunu 

fell to ground ; they died ; Ezomagmo put hand to mouth 

qnatibigka ; Q \vehe uli ; qwina ; 

called boys ; other two hundred ; he said to them ; 

ugbai egbalaka ; yasiso ; inanaweh^ ; 

tie ladder ; to go reach heaven ; they said all right ; 

jnak^gbai ; jnagigbai, Qgilasie iso ; 

they tied it ; when they tied it, when it was near sky ; 

Qgbalaka obu ; qd^gboto ; jnawulo ; EzQmagmQ 

ladder broke ; it fell to ground ; they died ; Ezomagmo 

nawina ; Qwehe uli walare; bwggbalaka; 

said to them : other two hundred come ; go tie ladder ; 

yasiso ; uwa ; geyerhagbai ; waiyudi ; 

to go to heaven ; all of you ; don't take stick tie ; take palm tree ; 

gbai ; ;nawhe ; ;nakggbai ; kotqkpa 

tie it ; they said all right ; they tied it ; from ground go 

yasiso ; qgisiso jnaketure ; 

reach heaven ; When it reached sky they came down ; 

EzQmagniQ owubigkale ; la\va ; aviukof^gmofire ; 
Ezomagmo said to the boys ; go home ; go bring calabashes oil ; 

;nawhe ; ^nanalawa ; ;nakeviofigmQn 

they said " yes " ; they went home ; they brought calabashes of oil 

uli aviehia ; EzqmagmQ gwuna ; 

two hundred they took all ; Ezomagmo said to them ; 

amofigmgh gkbgkpa yQgbalaka ; inawehe ; 

take oil one by one on ladder ; they said all right ; 

inanamwe iyggbalaka ; kotokpa yasiso ; 

they took it on ladder ; from ground go reach sky ; 



ofigrnqn Qk^so ; Qmanqhi^gbalaka ; qkweture ; 

oil went reach sky ; person who climbed ladder ; came down : 

Qgisotp EzQmagmQ QnamwgkpQti Qxai, 

when he reached ground Ezomagmo took box of powder, 

Qnamwioto Qnaw : Jbigkale, wakpawowa ; 

put it on ground said: boys, come out of house; 



62 EDO TEXTS. 

^biQkale qkpawowa. Qnamwere ; 

boys came out. They took it ; they take powder; 

Qxaibale ; mufigmqfi ; ofigmgbale ; qbaxiayasiso ; 

powder lighted ; (they) took oil ; oil lighted ; flame went 

reach sky ; 

qsiso, isogwQvoi ; ivi^limi ;nanade ; adeyotp ; 

it reached sky sky broke ; sons of Blind came ; came down 

;nagisoto , ;narhiux^re ; iriarheyotp ; 

when they reached ground ; they take uxure ; put it for ground ; 

EzQinagmQ, ugamqrno, uteyawu ; nQkpare ; 

Ezomagmo, you get no son, till you go die ; another came ; 

EzQmagmo ugamQmp utewu ; EzQmagmQ 

Ezomagmo you don't get sou till you die ; Ezomagmo 

qwinehoi ; EzQmagmQ gmabie oriri ; Qkwewu. 
he said heard Ezomagmo had no child at all ; he died. 

Evanade,. 
There it falls. 



XXV. 

Oviugwesasa ; amogiso 

Poor woman was not well for, skin ; wife of Ogiso Esago 

wQmada ; ;nana.gareva ;naweh4 ; 

and Omada ; they live there they say " all right 

QniQmirQkrja ; ;goviugwe Qmotoi ; Ogisonawqle 
they have nothing ; poor woman had her laud ; Ogiso said to her 

filgma ; ;nanaminotoi ; ;nanaw : 

you are not a person ; they took her land from her ; they said ; 

" m." Qgizgkpg, Qiiawogiso ; 

" m " [all right]. When it went on, she said to Ogiso : 

kwanaxavQdioh^ ? Qnawinenjmegatwp, 

why do you say so 1 she said to him let me go salute you, 

Qnawgh^ ; OgisonQkpa ; qrioduwowa. Asqn 

he said " yes" ; Ogiso got up ; went inside house. At night 



EDO TEXTS. 



63 



qkgmoxwo, qnaviolalo 

he got woman, he took her eye 

qnavioyorhiQve ; 
he put it for kola dish ; 

qnawomarqkpa ag^tamixwo ; 
he said no one must tell woman ; 



QnakebiQnalehp ; 
he cut her ear ; 



he covered it 



Qnatiqmadahia ; 
he called all omada ; 

edgngdehingle 
every day for seven days 



the small omada 



made music. 



Qiiawov 

He said to poor sick woman ; 

wagwata uviqle ; 

if you speak you take it ; 



the property ; she said all right : 



ixwqrie ; 
women of king ; 

qnawina ; 
he said to them 



jnana . axia 
they went 



they come and say thing which is in kola dish ; omada said all right ; 

Sviqmadani qsioviugwesasa ; qkgkwakpata. 

friend of poor sick woman; 

niyeme 
my mother's eye is in kola dish 

umagwata qwili ; 

if you don't speak it's lost ; 

Qdehinogjgba ;nanainwegbe 
in seven days they dressed 

jnanalawogiso ; 
they went to Ogiso's house ; 

nqririnqle, 
thing is in kola dish who ever knows it, 

nggiwaleva ; n^giviqne ehianawehd. 
I share it ; and give it to him all said yes. 

Esagolata, qkairigtai ; ixwonirgriebehi ; 

Esago spoke, head woman spoke ; all women of king's house together ; 

inamalqle ; anawoviugwesasa 

they don't know it ; they say to sick poor woman 

dotawe ; qmadanamwegbe; nulole ; 

the omada said : get ready ; you know it ; 

inanawQta ; qnawevinawgta ; 

they said " speak " ; she said " What do they 
say she must say " ; 

ninqrie.ve ; onawalona ; 

they said thing in kola box ; she said " the eye " ; 

oviqmadawokegqgq ewShiananagqgqwe ; 

small omada was glad all the country was glad for her ; 



this is his country 



come tell your own ; 

oviugwenaw^li^ ; 
poor woman said yes 



64 EDO TEXTS. 

anawogiso ; oxwona olemingrorigve ; 

they said to Ogiso ; this woman knows what is in kola dish ; 

dovigfene ; onawaniinenQ ezedgrhigmine ; 

go give her wealth ; he said she is his wife he would give her 

nothing ; 

anawumarhiemine otowuxumu Qgakugbe, 

they said if you don't give her things ground and sky go mix, 

umarhiQmine ? qnawehd ; kerha, kqwe, kqxQXQ, 

you don't give her things ? he said all right ; wood, goat, fowl, 

kQtnila, kqma ; Qnavwaleva ; jnanagbagale ; 

cow, persons ; he divided into two ; they shared it ; 

oviugwesasa Qnaiakmqmqrnada glogisgginawu ; 

poor sick woman goes thank small omada so when Ogiso died ; 

oxwona oviugwesasa QnalawQmada qlQgilQdQriaginqme. 

the poor sick woman went to omada that is the husband she 

married. 

Umalemqdewu. 
Story falls down dead. 



XXVI. 

Erialue, amati Qrialue 

Once upon a time, if we don't say once upon a time 

QmqnQdo Qgiaxa. Ogiso Qnadogiuko ; 

in language of Edo we can't tell a story. Ogiso sent a messenger : 

qnagie Qg w i woviakota. Edena . axia 

he sent tortoise and dog. The ' day they started 

Qgwinawoviakota : agadiova. Ql^gwi 

tortoise said to dog : let [them, i.e.] us take titles. So tortoise 

qnatie owaibia ; Qloviakota onatie Ologotogo. 

called himself " We all " ; Dog called himself " Quick 

runner." 

QyV. agidumeraamure ; 

The provider when they beat, brought fufu ; 



EDO TEXTS. 65 

nnawawoxa gamwemagie ; awoxana, 

tortoise said to boy for whom do you bring fufu ; the boy said, 

nemwemagie. QlQgwinonatiowaihia 



"for you all" he brings fufu. So tortoise who was willed 

" We all" 

qnarhiemale. Erialue bggbehiabggbehia Qriqna 

took yams and ate. It happened every day so 

ohamQgboviakota ; gnasedqkpa oviakotagihokoikoi ; 
hunger devoured dog ; one day dog heard beating fufu ; 

Qnagarieva ; owedodinuhumutiku ; 

he went there ; he said he would go up refuse heap ; 

Qnawawoxani mukumqzo. Awoxauinawe owaihia 
he said to boy give me peelings. Boy said : to you all 

Qlgmwemagie ; qloviakotanawe : Qgwilqle owaThia ; 

he brought fufu ; so dog said : Tortoise is we all ; 

QiiawQloi, oviakota Ologotogo ; awoxani 

he said he, dog, is Quick runner ; boy 

gnagaxamerhaiwiye. Qlinawg ologotogo : gade ; 

went tell his father and mother. So they said to dog : come ; 

;nagamwemagie. Qmakpeva anagglemwemamure. 

they took fufu gave him. Not long after as they said thev brought 

fufu. 

Qnawawoxani : agamamwemagie ? Ologotogo. 

He said to boy : For whom do you bring fufu 1 For Quick runner. 

Qnaw ta ; onamagwaxawerhaiwiy^gigle. 

He said " ta" ; he does not know how to give message of father and 

mother. 

Awoxan Qnaw : igwaxa. Qlolologotogo 

Boy said I know how to give message. So Quick runner 

qnarhiema. Owaihia ologotogo : ugwariema ? 

took his fufu. We all said to Quick runner : " You don't go eat 

yams ? 

;tiarhiema ; Qfiqmagbava ; ernafQkma ; 

they bring fufu " ; he cut fufu in two ; fufu finished on plate ; 

Qiewonatiua inadqkpehQnina. Inakedomw^mila 

So the place said they go give presents to them. They brought cow 
II. F 



66 KDO TEXTS. 

amunowaihia ; ak^domw^si nologotogo. 

and gave it to We all ; they brought horse for Quick runner. 

Ugbeni agjdosode qmilas^tiaxia. Ologotogo 

When they go reach road cow could not go. Quick runner 

wqsinaxia. Qlowaihia : Ologotogo, Ologotogo, 

and horse went on. So We all called Quick runner, Quick runner, 

Ologotogo diaxeme ; agbirabiyuwe. 

Quick runner, wait for me ; may they kill your father and mother. 

Ologotogonamudia ; Owaihia Qkgdiseva ; ejnilaisgtiaxia ; 
Quick runner stopped ; We all got there ; cow can't go, 

wediaxerae. Oyanagaxia. Omagikwi Ologotogo 

you wait for me So they went on. Soon Quick runner 

WQsi Qsowaihialai odygke ; gkewqtie : 

and horse left We all behind on road ; he called : 

Ologotogo, diaxeme ; agb;rabiyuwe. 

Quick runner, wait for me ; may they kill your father and mother 

QgidosekpQrio owaihianodogbemila ; 

When he reached top of hill " We all killed cow ; 

Qiiafiukpalame nologotogo ; Ologotogo 

he gave tip of tongue to Quick runner ; Quick runner 

rhiukpalameinila otgtalame; inakedagaxia. 

put tip of cow's tongue under his tongue ; they went on. 

Qlowaihia Ologotogo : ogasQze, 

So We all said to Quick runner : When we reach the river, 

agaxwe ; agabalame iy^gbunu. Ugbeni 

we wash ; we go throw water back in mouth. When they 



Owaihia nologotogo. agaxwe ; 

reached river We all said to Quick runner ; we wash ; 

inabalamiyQgbunu. 
they threw water back in mouth. 

Inake.doxwe.fo ; inakedgkbaigbe ; inake ( doloke ) ze ( fo ; 

They finished washing ; they came out ; they reached top of 

hill ; 



EDO TEXTS. 67 

Owaihia Ologotogo diaxeme, agbirabiyuwe. 

We all said to Quick runner wait for me, may they kill youi father 

and mother. 

Ologotogonamudia. Owaihiagjseva QnawgnOlogotogo ; 

Quick runner stopped. When We all got there he said to Quick 

runner ; 

ukpalamgmilame. Ologotogo mamiukpalamQmila ; 

the tip of cow's tongue. Quick runner did not find tip of cow's tongue ; 

Qnawg QmamiukpalaraQmila. Olologotogonagbgsin ; 

he said he did not find tip of cow's tongue. So Quick runner killed 

horse ; 

QnarhwikpalamQsine nowaihia. Owaihia qnaw^ : 

he took tip of horse's tongue for We all. We all said : 

Qgomeyenia ; Qlologotogo nakw^sihiane ; 

mine is different ; so Quick runner took and gave all the horse ; 

Qlologotogo gnagariodalu ; qnagatqgbqreyotp ; 

So Quick runner went on in front ; he went and buried himself 

in ground ; 

owaihaigjseva, qnaw^ : Smiakenot^namalu ; 

when We all got there, he said : I never saw place where ground 

has eyes ; 

qkikwQsi oku^mila ; QkQvionotpnamalu ; 

he sacrificed horse and cow ; he gave them to ground that has eyes ; 

qnaw^ : igewoyQgeme ; Q, viukpQne ; 

he said ; I see where it is looking at me still ; he gave loin cloth ; 

oy^gQine ; ^mw^kiafivi ; Q viqne ; 

it is looking at me still ; he took penis and testicles ; he gave them ; 

oyggQme; Qnatul^mu Qgogiso. Qgisowa 

it is looking at me still ; he ran tell Ogiso. When he reached 

the house 

qnawogiso " ta " ; aivQnogiegawQno ; 

he said to Ogiso "ta" ; no one to king says bad thing ; 

imiokenotgnomalu. QlOgisqnagie gkparurhu, 

I see place where ground has eyes. So Ogiso sent ants, 

Qlaxwe onwo, kgrninogixohia ; ugbeni 

[of different kinds], with all bad things ; when 

F 2 



EDO TEXTS. 



gmag^mie 

could not find 



he said 



ak^dosek^notgnomalu, Owaihia 

they reached place where ground has eyes, We all 

Qk^notgnqmalo ; qlekparurhu inasai ; 

place where ground has eyes ; so ants bit him ; 

giimes;kQ(lo ; qnalaw^kbiku, 

let me go on ; he went under dry leaves, when they looked for it ; 

jnaniag;iuio ; qlasaka inagahwqlQxia. 

they did not see it ; so ants began to look for him. 



XXVII. 



Inaihino, ^rhinabina, iyenabina ; 

Seven men, their father bore them, their mother bore them ; 

erhinanabokbina ; 
their father troubled them ; 



;nadomwa ; 

they came grow ; 

(grew up) 

okwo ; jnana.axia 
to war ; they went ; 

inakemwglogye ; 
they took the ogye 



he sent them 



;nagiseva ; 
when they got there 



they fought, 



jnakegyagina ; 
they cut them ; 

jnana.adiowa; 
they went home ; 



they put it down : 

qnawinagQXQre 
said " don't wash 



hunter wa* hiding 

ow&nafina. 
hunter shot them. 



they caught his servants ; they caught his wife's 
servants ; 



;navigkboki ; 
they put them in a box ; 



Jnak^gweli ; 
they covered it ; 



small one carried it ; 



Jnagis^ze 
when they reached river 



yiawmagaxwe, 
they said they would wash, 



small one 



;nawqtinaxwe 
they said they would wash 

bokgze. 
on the bank of the river. 



;namale 
thev didn't know 



He shot the eldest 



They fall into river ; 

Qs^nukpogieva ; 
he shot the second ; 



EDO TEXTS. 69 

Qsgiiukpogiha ; qkwesinaihino fofe.le ;nanainu, 

he shot the third ; he shot all seven they took (the box), 

;nanariowa ; jnag;xiaxe.re ; nqdiode, QWU ; 

they went home ; they went a little way ; eldest fell, he died ; 

nukpogieva Qde QWU ; nukpogiha ; Jnehakewu ; 

second fell ; died ; and the third ; all six died ; 



ne.xe.renariowa. Qgisowa ; 

there remained the small one; small one went home. When he got 

home, 

Qdovairhai qtotaibale ; 

he came and met his father he sat on the seat on verandah ; 

Qnad^gue owunarienewo ; Erhanaw^ : 

he knelt he said they are come back ; father said : 

EtuQwo ? Qwimawu ; Qwunaxqle ; 

Where your brothers ? he said they are dead ; he said they fought ; 

;nagbog;e ;nagbodibo, ^nagbaniQbp ; 

they killed the king they killed king's servants, they killed king's 

wives' servants, 

QWQguhumina ; qrhiQbomaxumu ; 

he said look their heads ; he took his hand round his head ; 

gde QWU. 
he fell he died. 

- Erhainamavie, iyenagavie, Osalobwa ke.ladie. 

His father cried, his mother cried, Osa came. 

Qnaw^hrai : Bqxi ? ke.nowie.gade. 

He said to father : what is it ? from morning come. 

Qnawivie.le.wulo ; Osalobwa Q.nariumwe.rie 

He said his sons were dead ; Osa took whip 

Qnarie.node Qkwegafienale, inake.rhiqre, 

he went on road he whipped them, they woke up, 

ngdigngkawu Qnawunegide ; 

eldest who died first he said he would not come ; 

owune,rieme.linime Osalobwa nawghe". 

he said he was chopping fufu in Elimi Osa said "all right.', 



70 EDO TEXTS. 

qk^vienise gadiowa ; oisowa ; Qnarhi^xwai 

He brought the five home ; he reached home ; he took medicine 

qnatigbg ; qwowiyeva inaigagiyokwo. 

he swore by it ; he said both brothers they should not go war. 

Evamalemgnadewu. 
Story falls down dead. 



SECTION II 



TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 



PART II. 

TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 



ISHAN. 

IKUA. 
1. 

Record 2I2a. 

Ogie qkpa riwgdo ; nonia ikekp na rebe big ng bona 
King one was at Edo ; he had all the country and these towns 

Esa, Urumu, Agbede, Ewu, OkpQrna, Ukpoji, 
Ishan, Uromi, Agbede, Ewu, Okpoma, Ukpoji, 

Usobo, Agbp. Arnaho, Igweben, bi Iha ; oigbomi 
Sobo, Agbor, Amaho, Igweben, and Iha ; and many 

imalgbatio emili. Egerniulepamairi okaimQ gkpa 

whose names I don't know. At time of new yams chief one 

mwemele Qkparegiore, QbQ, nqborun; gkg 

brought one cow and gave it to him goats plenty, fowls 

nQburun, gkenqko nqborun, ohua nQborun bi izagwa 
plenty, eggs plenty, sheep plenty and dog 

namunogiere luemiukpe. 

he gives to king te sacrifice for New Year. 



74 



TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 



2. 

Record 212&. 



Okqnle 
War 



ribi 



eyemie 
there was no chance 



everywhere and in all towns, 

gialayeki, sukma eyaki munu sisi 
to go to market, unless men had guns 

more, neha rehima mere, sukimo, ekw ha eeki ; adehaba 
to guard their wives as they go to market ; without that 

lurip e,bo lo kimunere ekimunere xie. 
people catch them and sell them. 



3. 
Record 2l2c. 

Eboro Qkpa natio rimule, 
Village one was called Imule, 

ngrgnuuku ; kqne egeni kirg 
to fight Uku ; when men got 

eboro ne mamabu eda munekele, 
many and captured the rest. 



edibaidumebo 
was joined to Idumebo 

sQbuku, qda gbe 
to Uku, they killed 



Man who had power 

nulagbQn okiha ; 
from people ; 

kamunagbgn 
big people, 



4. 
Record 213. 



rha 
made 



ulogie ; 
king ; 

egbgre 



made himself 



from 



emmi 
something 

uwe.de, rebe kina ramudokqnre,. 
all roads were shut owing to the war. 



gkalu 
he seized 



Qlilime 
things 

ogie ; okigbobirio, 
king ; he seized 

bobagbgn nekgre ; 
from small people ; 

Edqkpa okQflre da vai 
One day war came 



ISHAN TEXTS. 



b^bo rqkpa ; 
to one country ; 

kakiwuwa ; 
to their houses ; 

Ek?vie ge 
When they cry 

Qdata ma 
he told his 

nehagbihgren. 
to dance. 



edabagbqfi nema murqbu ; edamunele 
they killed many people ; they took many 

i ;bioele biena rnunp kakiwuwa. 
of some they took the families to their houses. 

monugie kirehQfl ; oda ne nibi ogle van. 
the king hears ; he was vexed with their families. 

ibo kare negbelega; qdatama lekagie, 

servants to flog them ; he told them to laugh, 



5. 




Record 2136. 




Agbqn Qdel kadggokpia ^dagare 
In olden time when a man wanted to 


okwo, 
marry a woman, 


okgrhep gkihilo 
he paid nine hundred and eighty cowries 


nabale 

to father her 


gwQmQne, qkorhg kaiyqkqkpa, 
as dowry, he paid one fowl, he 


Qrhgnabale 
took to her father 


gwemQnQ, okiripnoxwo kahiawa. 
to settle the affair then he took woman home. 





dakare karamqne ^SQkigkpadakadaharekaramoii; 
No one can use umbrella only he alone uses umbrella ; 



dekoiya 
if any one 



batama 
does it 



isaiki, 
without permission, 



Qkigbqle. 

he flogs him. 



6. 



Record 

Agbgnedede Qdqkpa abamenokwa Qri bukukwo bodewora 
In olden time one day grandfather was on bed at Ewora 



76 



TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 



gle otu qkpa dado, sale, qle gborpdale le kaku Uromi 

so one man came to shoot him, so his people ran to Uromi 

bi rumibazi bi rijebebe ; ama ;kbe eria kere e,ki riebo le. 
and Umbazi and other places ; but a few stayed in his town. 





7. 






Record 2145. 




Egerii Ibie 


rhe,d2 kqle 


bolo male, 


When Ibie 


came with war 


to our town, 


ekumalekwa ; 


male dale kaki Idegun;. 


qle Q.nQria 


they defeated us; 


we ran to Idegun ; 


so the men 


no.re. kalo 


kadiabe. bolo maleke ; 


oda 



who were in our country before went to farm our ; 



took 



nele kakiubonqsabarne ; 
them to my father's farm ; 

bp nugborhebea 
that was there and all the farm 

be.be nqsa ome. 
goats of my mother's. 



edaria emili nergrhi 
and spoilt everything 

Edagbe. Qbe,, eva, 

They killed goats, two, 



8. ALAHUA; NEW YAM FESTIVAL. 
Record 214c. 

Agbo.iie.dele Qgene rhebo erekegbo 

In old times when they are in the country they killed a 

ienora biukburhi ; Qgeni ekido, 

person to sacrifice to tree and rope ; then they come 

kagbixire eki yora kahimieli ; eha ki 

and dance and say to tree save us ; after that 

ruonifoire.be kidogbgkp bie.be biobe.be; 

they finish they go to the town kill fowls goats and kids ; 



ISHAN TEXTS. 77 

eka nueinafo, eki mwonema si ke oia; sade 

when they finish cooking, they bring fufu to the tree, ; when 

ekirg gkq bi^befo, eki neugwe rp bukuhomgra; 
they finish fowls and goats, they take bones hang on top of tree ; 

eki rere bolegbe ekigbo hagbihgre. 

they take white clay to rub body and dance again. 



9. 

Record 215. 

AgbgnQdele gbomale egbefulere ; oiobebeda 

In old times my country had free time ; no one can make 

re mqli g;le ; rhamude koko kgle hglo eneasa 

war with them ; because they are warriors who can 

bgkQlele hune ebo rele. 
light well to save their town. 



10. 

Record 2155. 

aimiobo wesan ; edqkpa 

In old times no white man in Ishan ; one day 

ebolonosemale ehialaxqle egberiaihilQ ; 

people of my country went to war and killed seven men ; 

ele,gbe, eniere, be,we ; egeni Gelegbare egenore 
ran away, people, to bush ; when Gelegbare lived at 

ribujawore, odahore hirugboha bamole ; 

Ujawore, he says he goes to Ugboha for his wife ; 

amorifi tama ohonre riwuwe.de ofonizQwe morin 
some of his wives said war was on road he did not fear war 

ohia ohian la horen, ireamoren benire. 
but went to fight with them, and took wife from them. 



78 



TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 



KUKURUKU. 

IJEBA. 
Record 188. 

lyimahan, maidiemi, 
Nimahan, we get ready, 

omaidaxia, 
white man seint a man to Okun ; so we go, 

aikigaibonia weheni 

we don't meet white man there 

maikesoaria 



maikisewp 
when we reach there 

maikisewp ; 
when we reach there ; 

wgmai daikedi ; 
so we come back home ; 



orekigiu humori, mairaxia 

when we arrive home he sent messenger again, we start to go again 

ekigenia wehene 

we don't meet him again there 

makiavaiwa ; akiggiuhumqri ; aragbok;xa 

we come back home ; he sent, come again ; now we start to go again 

akowe ^kigazowe^n^de. 
the clerk judged the case. 



maikisewo 
when we reach there 



akisewQ ; 
?\\en we reach there ; 



ORA COUNTRY (4 Texts). 
(Sabongida.) 

2. 
Record 177. 



Oriwa ; Qdewa, 

He is at home ; he is out, 

yoaxanwoa ; okigngdereme 

I shall be going home ; good bye 



<ro; 

he comes ; 



salute him ; 

Ilodewime ; 
I am going to farm; 

,-awinievai ; ihorebai lelomQle; 

I am going to bring food ; I return from farm ; I bring food for them; 

lohaminakjgbelale. 
that they may not be hungry. 



ORA TEXTS. 



79 



AgbQfi 
This world 



agbQfi 
worlds 



wehi 
other 



womalina 
of ours is 

nQ 
which 



va ahiehie; 
and stars; 



3. 

Becord 178. 

QruQkpa 
one of those 

Oisalebulwa 
Osa 



wgke 
which we 

mail, 
made. 



spoke of before 

OvQn bi uki 
Sun and moon 



ari ru agbQfi 
they are worlds 



zg Qn;bi agbgn Qgomali. 
just as world this our. 



4. AXWEGOGO (Dungbeetle). 
Record 181. 



Ohiekoivglo Qbo no axwggogo ; 
Doctor divines for dungbeetle ; 

Qbo bQnali ; rh^lowie 

he again foretells ; he makes enter into 



rhglobwa rQli ; 
he makes enter into rest 



he experiences trials, nothing like it ; he says 



axwegogQvai 
trials; dungbet tie comes 

" Binolikiulu " 
What shall he do" 



rhionidafi ; 
he says that I may thrive ; 

Qbowuhuran rhiQli 
diviner in tree tells him 



diviner who puts head down 



Qdabu 
he goes to 

bwofion 
go to diviner 

rhiQlibo 
says go to diviner 



Qbowuhuran ; 
diviner in tree ; 

QniQkbotQ ; 
who puts head down ; 

Qhiekoivglo ; 
takes lachrymal 
secretion; 



wh( 



QrhiQli lalexQleveJo ogonQli. OdalalQli 
he says lick secretion his. He licks 

odamugbenQlidi ; 
he took divining apparatus and threw for him ; 



dirt from the eyes ; 

QrhiQli, 
he told him, 



Oxage, 
if you know, 



xwefe ; 
you get property ; 



do dQzoa 
go and build house 



we 
where 



8U 



TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 



ax^sikqlq ; 
in pot put yam pudding ; 

qdalu iyp. 
he did so. 



axwegogo, 
dungbeetle, 



esosukpode e,ki. Edokinaxise,, qrhg, 

in middle of road is market. When market is due, he says, 

' he," qreM. Edekikise,, 

Yes," he says. When market came, 

Qkira eheni iwoxileM ihino vade ; 

After a time after that virgins seven came ; 

olaru ena, iiali rhigli ; 

you made these." they said ; 

raxiaveki ; rainkidaveki vade ; 

they went to market ; then they from market came; 

ihino; odanisqn v^kilua; 

seven ; he pumped filth into their vulvas ; 

grhengli " wavai, wavai, wavai " ; 
he said to them "come, come, come"; 

Qkidaxuhomo bolisg, 

then he took his head to sweep excrement, 



ranirhe- 
they said 

mwQfwa ; 
" cast away ' 

odarhierale 
he took to wife 

ralikidave,kua ; 
then they scattered ; 

yekbolqli ; 
I shall sweep it ; 

qnailu 
what they make is not 

" WO, WO, WO, WO." 

" alas, alas, alas, alas.' : 



e_togie,, 
a laughing matter, 



they shout at him 



3. 
Record 184. 

Ei bi ibisuu qrhiemi ; ohame Qfi vagmgn 

Tortoise and snail took loads ; famine rages in earth 

bi gliiui ; ibisun rhexiogo, gi line okpanye ; 

and heaven ; snail wandered in bush, saw farm one ; 

oregainye xema qfieniiodo ; orehenikekere, ; 



he met yam wrestling ; 

odadegbemie 
he began to find bit by bit 

beni ; eirhigli 



then he found small ones ; 

baiele, ; ohamiogbei 

food to eat ; Tortoise is hungry 

suwedamii balele,, 



in this time ; Tortoise says " Where do you get food to eat,' : 



OKA TEXTS. 81 

te jtamali ; ei kimie xason rere ; 

but he does not tell ; Tortoise then saw that night comes ; 

Qsemwe xigliuwekpa ; Qd^kifuan ibisugmu 

he puts ashes in his bag ; when day breaks snail takes 

Qkpagrjli ; qgboxia ; eikimiekoxia ; qreiiQniriwe 

his bag ; he goes on ; Tortoise then saw him go ; he track of ashes 

rh^xali; qkiasu woxumiira, ei^rikiqli 

follows ; when he crawls where bridge is, Tortoise calls him 

" Ibisuo, ibisuo, ibisuo," ghagb^gbe ; 

" Snail, snail, snail," he keeps silent altogether ; 

Qkinonoxumura P.!Q ; qrhei : unwgkpana, 

when he crosses bridge finished ; (Tortoise) says : "This one month 

nirorirhiasu, urh. nolixaki, miemie ? 

which he takes to crawl, you say, he if answers ? " 

NilQlidelowQdg ; a;k;daxia ; ralik;sewo, 

Then he dropped into river ; then they go on ; when they get there, 

eore twamu emanqgbali, emarifiali gb ; 

Tortoise then quickly took yam big ; yam he knocked him 

down ; 

ehen! ; e;kida fia ibisu ;bariawo. 

there ; Tortoise then spoils snail's food. 



Qla axano atQni ; 

When a person dies they bury him ; for seven days 

;uav;ul;mise ; ad^noulu axwelaliabo ; 

they perform customs ; on the day he dies they wash the dead body; 

arukmQfi wall ; abukmQfl hiebqgbe, 

they take cloth and rub htm ; they sew the cloth (that covers him), 

agbagbobg. Asenewohi^wobQ, 

they kill a ram for him. They tie cowries round his arm, 

agb^xoxghi^wobQ, asuqleuiavai ; 

they kill a fowl for his hand, they, take fufu and sacrifice to his foot ; 
II. G 



82 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 

amuQ dqlede, amwehewuhumu, 

they carry him outside, they put him on their heads, 



agboluxu, amoxiaw^kQgo ; 

they begin to dance [behind], they take him and go to the bush ; 

akgsQkQgo atQni. Ixiloya 

when they reach there they bury him. Otu Ichiloia 

QtuQvamQle ; as^w^ \ amQnewot^ ; 

two men carry him ; when they reach the place ; they put the body 

down ; 

eg^niwp ahi^lowQle ; arnofiQwq ; 

after that they [company] dig the grave ; they put him in the grave ; 

ahiQkQtoinya afiqlgwewg avaiwa, 

they put earth over it they leave him there they come back home, 

afiusisi ; axwanahumawq, anodexwiaw^de ; 

they fire a gun ; they shave their heads, they wash at the water 

side ; 

ohale qxwjli ; oviqle Qxwjli ; Qkenigle Qxwili ; 

his wife cries ; his children cry ; his sisters cry ; 

ergkpawqle axw;li. 
his brothers cry. 

Oligirixawo amoinodolele 

When a chief dies they take him to Odolele (quarter) 

ehQkpadatonoli olo qkpa hgni; qnoiHg;li 

they bury chiefs in one grave there ; those who are not chiefs 

adatoiwihene. Obaxawu alobQ 

they cannot bury there. When the king dies they (all town) 

mu wQlele, od^d^nioko anama, axwiagogo, 

hold a meeting they sing for him, they ring a bell, 

in the town, 



af^losisi, afiggo, oviqle qmpgada, 

they fire guns, they throw cowries, the sons carry swords, 

qgowolele, owol^rao ; agb^bolonale, 

and lament in the town, they cry " oh my father" ; they dance for him 

agbQxituanali, agwijagbedignali ; $de hake f una 

they dance exitwa, they dance ejagbedi ; when day breaks 



ORA TEXTS. 83 

ademgla, aniolemi dglere, ahiam^lanQle 

they buy a cow, they bring the body, they kill the cow for him 
in the town 



amonihe agboluxu, 

when they kill that cow ; they take the corpse they dance for it, 
in the town singing 

bolololo, amwex;e aloclo tgni ehada toligyili; 

" bolololo," he they carry it and bury it with the chiefs; 

goes to his pi ace, 

akitQiiigle, avadewa. 

when they finish the burial, they come home. 

Asab^kme nglodotgniwewo, afiglowewo 

[Otu] Asabekme carry him to the place, they leave him in the 

place 

avadewa, ^kisewoale ; g,vwe,de 

they come home, when they reach homej they begin the 

ikpe.dehino ; axwalimali gwiewie 

seven days ; they shave their heads in the morning 

maxwajnali. Ahjemego ;d;nari 

they shave their heads for him. They bring his property, 

;viQljkQli, ason akire ealeogolali Qvai 

his sons share it, when night comes all his family come 

^xwoogple, akQiieniviqle. Oxwo 

all his wives, they share them out to his sons. If a wife 

nyonya.moviqle Qbulelolali ; 

won't marry his son she goes to her father's house ; 

boibo kgre vai Qnokil^lodewa 

since white men came anyone who goes to the house 

ohalikpQnih;le. 
pays 5. 



AGBEDE (12 texts). 

1. 
Record 189. 

Af obatia gwineka ; Awazehailele ; e,tip 

King's boys went cut corn ; francolin picked corn and ate ; they say 

G 2 



84 



TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 



leyage awa enimena; awagegboviare 

they will wait for fowl on this farm ; when fowl came again they 

nil^gbq ; eranawele awar'avare ; QtiQ : 

will kill it ; they hide fowl comes out ; it says : 

bukbukbggbe azana, magbegbe azana. MiQgie, 

drums are beating, beating drums are beating. They laugh, 



irhggie, awarazoka ; 
they laugh, fowl eats corn 

iyazobgro keonawara ; 
will go wait for fowl ; 

otia miza ; awatjfowera ; 
he stood ; fowl flew out ; 

magbegbe. 
are beating. 

oradewakasire ; 
he fell from the horse : 

Ukbpkonritoro: 
Sick person said : 

atio : yaneto, 

they said go sit down, 



azana 
drums 



qbatio : lolo 

next day king said : himself 

Qrazelakasi. ivare, 

so he rode his horse. he went, 

ne : bukbukbegbe azana, 
it says : they are beating drums 

Obaragie, Qragie, 

King laughs, he laughs, 

awarazekagbo ; 
fowl ate corn all : 



wazero 
let him 



yakeonawara, 
wait for fowl ; 



orara. 
it went. 

nirogbo ; 
he will kill it ; 



konukbokomina ; 
you sick person ; 



Qtio 
he said 



qkirQiagbo ; 
he would kill it ; 



araduoiari ; 
hs is carried to farm ; 



Qr^sakaomi. 
he roasted in this 
farm hut corn. 



awaratigere ; oragQmimi ; 

Francolin came ; he sang again ; 

qrarhagbukbogbp ; Qrugo. 

he took wood and knocked it ; so it died. 



when it came near him, 



2. 
Eecord 192. 

Qggne biri amQ ; Qnamq aratio Inaboseli, 

Man aud wife ; the wife was called Inabosere 



AGBEDE TEXTS. 



85 



oraguekiakia 
she had connection 



the man 



onaiuirQna, 
this, my wife, 

Onagqne 
The man 



hoxagela 
to stop her from 

raxokoine 
put medicine 

sogbo yagwe kiakia. 
when she had connection quickly. 

kiroyogisgra; 
she was going to her own country ; 



qbiralo ? 

what am I going to do 
with her ? 



yagwe kiakia. 

having connection quickly. 

yowegbe noroyoare 

on her body to know 

Ora tamamo 

She told her husband 



qgisugisera 
when she reached her country 

ovadeoa 
came home 



onamgtioke ; 
her husband said all right ; 

ora gwe kiakia ; 
she had connection ; 

Qjage Qlubokia ; Qnokominaamo tg 

he said " welcome " ; the medicine her husband put 



when she 



yo wegbi 
in her body 



Qtaro 
said 



nakaroygrobokia. 
no one can salute her. 



Lcjrgra 
So 



Quokoini na amo te yo wegbe 

the medicine which her husband put in her body 

Ekini mai^tode 
In the market where she went 



mamade, 
we don't buy, 



magweli 
we only have connection 

einabosere, na bosere, 
Inabosere, Inabosere, 



niQmeroro 
sang 

mamali, 
we don't eat, 

kwoza ; 
does bad things ; 

kwo orge inabosere. 
she does bad. 



inabosere nabosere 
Inabosere 



Qbararhi- 
this king 



3. 

Okame dugbedugbe yadugbgba biul^gi ; 
My story runs thus about king and tortoise ; 

gmend ne,gi iheno ; 
gave his cows to tortoise to mind ; Tortoise ate all ; 

BwqkpaiiQkere pkirhobQkpaloalq ; qbatiokeyi ; 

one that was left he alone ate it ; the king said " no " ; 



86 



TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 



qtigdo neyave ; 
he called Edo to come ; 



yanare. 
to take dung away. 



ad;kwakQlo 

he took its bowels 



numyuko 
to he-goat 



Tortoise fell down 



he-goat said tortoise 
killed them ; 



tortoise said " no ] 



Qriovare 
they come 



wowala nileyalema ; 

to his house to go eat f ufu ; 

qrarukpugwalema; otiemikqkukalu ; 

he put bone in the f uf u ; he called he-goat and said " shut eyes " ; 

Qradufiomiukunu ; ukbugwa raugbaluwutuli. 

he put it in mouth of the goat ; the bone stuck in his throat. 



^zikam^re 
Ezikamere 


iQgyime 
went to farm 


pra 
and saw 


iniukpafiami 
a small bird 


!ko; 
in its nest , 


oranwo, 
he caught it, 


iyiora 
its mother 


tirqkaro yimi ; 
flew to the farm ; 


" ^zikam^re, 
" Ezikamere, 


tiqniQnime, 
give me my son, 


qinqnabi 
he is a son 


nabiware " (bis). 
just as you 
are." 



5. 

Okame dugbe dugbe irhaiyeli irhaiyeli oranute 
Story my go on go on they live they live they have 

fiewora ? bububu ; ame male, onivie ; 

famine in their country ? too much ; no food to chop, at all ; 

egitip, kiloyare gdiri; QgesebirQyara 

tortoise said, he would go for palm nuts when he reached bush 

soQdiri ; orareli o kuru udi ; 

he found palm nuts ; when he climbed up the palm ; 

prarhe riini ugbeo onokuriudi ; ugbediri 

he knocked palm nuts he climbed the palm ; when one fell 



AGBEDE TEXTS. 



87 



radefio 
in the 



gkgigda ; 

water ; 



aka gbore 
if it is in the world 

Qrarhereri 
When he came down 

mozewori ; 
girl out of water ; 

Qmemamomi 
Omemaniomi 



onukpediriruebebriya 
he said that palm nut wherever you go fall 

aka rimi re, ki yia tie,, 

or in heaven he will get it. 

ora su bpyp weda qratip 

he put his hand in the water he took 

ptio, sebatie ; ptiqk 

he said what is your name ; she said 

kiratierp. Otiolimalagwi, 

is how they call me. He said make food, 



uramema, uramoini 

make fuf u, make the soup 

rirhekaro 
if she will follow him 



negi ; 
said Tortoise ; 

qtioke ; 



he asked her 



yowa ; 
to go home ; she said yes ; when he reached 

sowa, ptiqba ; igwo nuaiyg se batig 

home, he told the king ; I say to you to say to her how they call her 

Qbatio sejbatio qtig komemamomi ; gtig 

king said how do they call her she said 



Omemamomi ; he said 



Qmemamomi, 
Omemamomi, 



nilo 
for him 



oratie,dore 
he called Edo to come 

sebatig ; 
what is her name ; 

Qtip maniragwe, 
they said let us see, 



Qramema 
make food 

ti^wa ; 
to his house ; 



for him. 



he said 

qramema, 
make fufu, 



ora momi ; 
make soup ; 

gupni niwa wp 
say to her that you ask 

kiok^memamoni ; 
her name is Omemamomi ; 



qramamra 
make for them 



Qiurema, rema, 

they chop, chop chop, 

ararhQgirawo. 
they send food home for them. 



Qramomi 
make soup 

;kpekonienemavare, 
sick people who can't come, 

Anorhosebeagwane 
It was forbidden to cut her hair 



Qtio; 
she said 



kanerwalo ; 
they must not cut hair from face ; 



egeget^soa 
when he takes her 
home ; 



gratamatu 
he told his wife 



bo kigre 
to remember 



nokaniovaru. 
not to cut her hair from face. 



88 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 

Qgemie egi ya lobina oranigralu 

When she saw tortoise went bush she cut her hair 

Qrara; QgQgQbovare ; Qrheionedagbu Qragbo 

she went ; when he came ; he went to bush again he began to 

rhelono kuludi ; Qramokborio kpe udi fio 

climb the palm tree again ; he took a single nut and threw 

gk^rgda. Qtio Qnukpgdi rira ebebuyiaki 

it in the water. He said that nut whatever place it fell 

ro yia tig WQ ; Qrarhql^rhe Qrasobow^da ; 

he would get it ; he came down he put his hand in the water ; 

oradwag^ne wrjre ; Qtio sebe atie, agene ; Qtio 

he picked a man out ; he said what is your name, man ; he said 

kiro rwatie, rofi nianiaboroboro. Qrarhodobqgbere, Qtio 

my name is flog-flog. He took him to the king, he said 

gwagQne nuwa ino ro gbo se batio, Qba tio sebatiQ agene ; 
look at man you ask what is his name. king said your name man ; 

Qtio kiro atirofiniania bogba ; obatir>riragwe ; 

he said he was called " flog-flog " king said show ; 

orarho bona tiunoko rho bonatioko ; 

he took in this hand big tree in this hand big tree ; 

Qra gbQgba ; obaratie Qdo re. QtiQ 

he beat with them ; king called Edo to come. He said 

wa gwe agene ; ni waya nQrho gbo sebeatio . etio 
look at the man ; you will ask him what his name is they say 

sebeatie,, ebea tig ? Qtio kero Qfinyanyabo 

what is your name, what is your name ? he said " flog-flog " ; 

etio lifirawe, oratobo- 

they say he must beat and let them see he took big oak 

natiunoko ; rhob2na tip oko ; Qragbgdo, 

in this hand ; in this hand he took big oak ; he flogged, 

gbgdo ; ;kpekomi eka ge towe 

flogged people of Edo ; sick people if they make their leg 

ki usakbota e,tie isokwa owaiye ^rara. 

twist round stick they say stool is pressing they are going home. 



AGBEDE TEXTS. 89 

6. 

AggnQkpa QvadewagmQfi, Qmatiekue oteme ; 

Man one came to world, had no penis he was a fine man ; 

imQzitgnablore ; eg^rggbare rara, 

girls used to come round him ; when they came they went away, 

Qranara ; ukbokbq,rakere, ogQgboiakiira, 

they ran away ; one girl that remained, when she was just going, 

erazozo. ereinimie : Enyeni Noiadakava ; 

he led her away home. So they sang : Enieni Noyadakava ; 

Enido do, enime, do, enime, do (etc.); urhgka hQma; 
Eni, hail, hail, my Eni, hail my Eni, hail ; you are a fine man ; 

kariawekelo ; ko kilarawe. 

the time is coming ; if you come back we see you again. 

Eoborowane ; Qtio : imevamSmie 

So a doctor came out ; he said : what do you see that makes 

inewaragono ; Qtio gwQmQziniirhe, 

you weep all this time ; he said a girl that came to him, 

nQbululQde, kokiroiowa kiromolekwe ; 

tha,t ran to him, said she was going home because of his body ; 

kirorerago ; Qtio mokirokweyere 

that's why they were crying ; he said did I not tell you to remember 

miugbeniwiyereragmQ, nutiokeye ; 

to take a body when you came to world, and you refused ; 

orawurumabene ; Qtio : ukasowa utewukweya 

so he cut a leaf for him ; he said when you go home take a piece to 

wash 

uniewovwi ; Qggsowa, Qralula Qbaiorolula 

cook this rest, drink ; when he got home, he did what he was told to do 



QnomQzirazaim ; Qgevia, enek^gbonavare 

so this girl conceived ; when she bore a child, the other girls 

atio ; QnumiQniQzina Qmiroiowalu 

came again ; they said this small girl what she told you to do 

yowagiru^le. 
BO you will do every day. 



90 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 



Qkamina dugbe dogbe yadugbebwoila bilojokoli; 

My story rw* lut &*** * d kin g <* *J ' 

erheviokogiggbe; ati^gbwoila wxojokoli 

they make war on each other ; people told giant that king of the 

kQmQnobiniIqr$xQli : qtiqlQSQ ; qlablgbo 

sky got poison to fight ; he aid he hears ; he went to doctor 

Qti^gilabilojokoli kilanlevlooviokangi^be ; 

he said that he and Mng of the sky wanted (are ready; to make war 

on each other ; 

kilauyenQkbokomgnilo ; Qnauborhianekomjri * 

he wanted him to make medicine for him ; doctor brought medicine 

otiawuyekmQgwe: Qrqgwi, Qrjgwi, 

he told Awuyeke to grind medicine ; he beat, he beat, 



he said he wanted to know if this medicine is a proper medicine ; 

oranwawuyeke Qragwqgwo ; Qrhiakakwa. 

he took Awnyeke to cot him in pieces ; he took threw him away. 

Qgegbodagwe kawuyeke zaugiqk^vade ; 

He saw A way eke came behind him ; 

Qciawnyeke nawokali, dabunokbeluwe, 

he said Awayeke you small boy, where did you get that medicine, 

Qti^kenngwena sanQkwQme ; Qf^^we, 

he said the one you are beating if it touches me ; he beat again, 

oknwawuyeke glatoneya, Qlagwerabilixomi : 

he took Awnyeke again he burnt him, he beat him up with 

medicine ; 

kflgbogo: Qg^rbodawe Qkawokgvade Qtig 

and mixed Mm ; he saw him came back he said 

awuyeke nawnkali dabgn^kbelue ? 
Awuyeke you small boy, where did you get that medicine? 

QtiQ knogwna, Ban^kwQlQ. 

He aid the one you are beating, if it touches him. 

otio atonkbezqkpa Ieomin51le. 
He aid you can't take one finger to see whether soup is sweet 



AGBEDE TEXTS. 



91 



QlarhiosunisQ nugbabogbalimi, QlafiawiiygkeyaySkoli, 
He took war medicine that kills living dead, he threw Awuyeke 

up in the sky, 



glagwanutwa glabekegugq 

he dug a hole he buried him ; 

mogegbuvare ; Qr^gwi ; 

come back again and let me see you ; he beat, he beat ; 

Qgegbodawe kgvade. 
he saw him coming. 



qlaivialiseva, 
he cut him in two, 



he said : 



[he said : Awuyeke (as above)] 

QgqlelQnorekalo, 
him to follow him, 

kakpanufwe ; 
do not fear ; 



wuz^ze 
He told doctor, you do 



ama 
but he wanted 



awu; 
he said agreed ; doctor told him 

glane irgkia ir^kia, elagare exwozo bialotq ; 
they see women sweeping ; 

ilagade iggne ^kb^no, 
when they come to door of king of sky they see men hide, 

ggbwoila oragiaisie; kwqla, grhebgle qlagwQ Qladojokoli 
giant spat at them ; they died, all of them he reached king 

Qkbere ; olanniaubwa, nilQrhegbq, 

he stretched hand, he wished to hit him, 



they walk, walk, walk, 
onodgle nisojokoli 



where he is 



olamie kqvagie, olasggbeyqke ; 

he shouted like thunder, he drew himself back ; doctor said 

zelorh^gbq; Qgenaubwa Qrggbovagie, glarh^gbo, 

let rue hit him ; he stretched hand he shouted again, he hit him, 



qnobolalalala 
doctor rotted 



in his hips. 



8. 
fiecord 200. 



Okame 
My story 



dugbe, 
goes on, 



dugbe, 
goes on, 



yadugbe o 
about a man 



kwa nobelorha 
stupid 



92 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 

lojp wimite ; okgyo narhelwe ;moliyame 

he is the eldest of father's sons ; his next brother a wife had 

iygtif) dawQnokwozola noworhomiQna qrheale ; 
his mother said go to that woman and ask her for her daughter ; 

Qtio ; aj. m rgbule kiyome akQnomiQna 

he said ; my mother told me to go to you this your daughter 

nurliQnime ; Qtioke ; ag^rhqne 

you must give me ; she said " yes " ; when they gave her 

orQgbQnQkpozo ze bagwe ; iyQtio kagggbo ; 

he flogged the women in the room ; his mother said don't flog her ; 

yanonime Qrakware Qrarhid^geafauba oteygli 

go and cut farm he got up and took a new cutlass and went 

Qravariokato Qrafio Qralogua Qrafio 

he came to a field he cut it down he went into bush he cut it down 

iyotio akaiyeme ageyere ; 

his mother said if some one went to farm and never came back ; 

ogqminkovade Qtio akwe kiliyamilo 

they saw him come he said to-morrow his wife must go 

eyas^ko iyqtiqki. Qgw^gekula erhaiale 

and take dirt away his mother said " yes." At dawn they went 

Q) ^sineku ggemiakovare ; Qi^gwa 

they took away dirt they saw him coming ; they began to dig 

Qgemiakameyolo ; Qtigla neza 

when he saw that water (rain) is coming ; he told them this hair 

newakigna amekamqgbewaili ; etiok^ kak^leyowa 

that you twist if rain falls on it ; they say if they are going home 

leduQSQmobglo leregbausome 

they carry cocoanut leaf to cover heads they will cover their heads 

eyowa. Qtiolakeye loiQmemQla 

and go home. He said " no I will carry it for you" 

etio " aruzomimoloia ? " 

they said "no can some carry some one's head for him?" 

Qtiolake ; eti^lekargre erhanaiyowa 

he said " yes " ; they said " we can't give it you " they ran home ; 



AGBEDK TEXTS. 



93 



lomarhgle 
he didn't know ; 

obiagalare, 
he caught them 


ow^dawekera ; 
he saw them going ; 

olakbiagbabuda 
he took his cutlass 


oranaxwula 
he ran after them 

qrabgrioraizQiii 
he cut their heads off 



oranekworQkpa bqnaialoko ; 

he put them in his bag like a man who went to war ; 

Qg^doare iyqtio " ee " ; afakwa 

when he got home his mother said '' Ah " ; it's a great pity 

Qtiodigiyame QtioemQlovo 

she said where are your wives he said they are vexed 

eowesuggobola. Mezamola Qtio 

they are on the road there. I carry their heads for them he said ; 



akpa rhieramoloiyo, 
no one ever carries some one's head for him, 



Qtio ; 
he said ; 

iQ kametug Qtiodjgilo ; Qladw^kpare, 

he saw rain ready to fall she said "let me see " ; he fetched his bag, 

Qladuzomi lakwowoto 

he took out the heads and put them on the ground 

Qtiotamairhe erhgtioke kilozo. 

he said to his father ; his father said " all right that he hears." 



Record 201. 



Okame 
My story 

biliatabatieli--; 
and the tortoise's wife ; 



dugbe dugbe 
runs then 



iya dugbedu 
about Edo 



fylegi 
and a tortoise 



Tortoise said : 



he saw some eggs 
(on river bank) 



etaiyele ozamQtaf! ; 

they live in time of famine ; 

loiyakweukbekp^derhaloia ; 
I am going to wash in rny father's river ; 

afiam; ; gtane ; oragwogwolale 

of a bird ; he took them ; he cracked and ate 

them ; 



94 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 

gde.neke, ortagiyQle, Qlagbogikpekeafiamire; gragin^zaz^li. 
next day he went and saw the eggs again ; he cracked them again 

and ate them, 

e,de,neke orageyqli olaboggre, plane 

next day he went asrain he saw the eggs, lie took them 

QlatiukpQkpQkpawo iya. Olagboyali ; qlagetieya ; 

he put one aside. He went again ; he kept one again ; 

uzolabulQre Qtio e,gi ugQgba Qtio 

bush antelope came he said " Tortoise you are too big " he said 

kukpqderhalo lolakwe ; . Qlariokpqke ; aflame 

in his father's river he is washing ; he gave one of the bird's 

eggs 

Qlarhieneuzo uzotio segboyo ? Qtio uwe, 

to uz > uzo said " Are there any more ? " he said " Yes^ 

ekafw^do uze Qtio vare nuwagwela ; 

the whole conn try can't take all" he said "come on and look at them" ; 

Qge dobQlanire Qtio QgeQkokatiego 

when he brought his hand he said when he wanted to take one 

afiameladuQ Qlatio oboegw;re,, Qlagu. 

bird took him (uzo) he carried it up his hand broke he died. 



10. 

Bekoyaogolo nQyaljzwoiiyo ; okamie kame 

A person likes to go to hunt deer ; if he sees rain 

gtwe QduQsisi, oyokatosoma ; Qxage 

falling he takes a gun, he goes to Okatosoma ; when he reaches 

sobola Qkunore unmiowa umiowanile 

there he puts down his bag in small hut that they build there 

gioowu. Qfieta Qtemawo oxagilu 

in the bush. He makes a fire he puts game in it when it is cooked 

Qduloiya ole oiyami ; 

he scrapes it he eats it and drinks water ; 

otiosisi ; olowogwa ; okeleyo ; 

he lakes his gun again ; he goes inside the bush ; he looks for deer ; 



AGBEDE TEXTS. 95 



QxagemiQla ; QkQkQbolula ; gxazorafi ; 

if he sees them ; he covers his body to reach them ; if they don't see 

him ; 

dgxqgbewo ; owialowa ; ovadeowa 

and he kills them ; he cuts off their tails ; he goes home 



Agesowa, Qtamaugie, kilogbeyo ; 

glad. When he reaches home, he tells the king, he has killed it ; 

Qiiugiezeeyane mir^kalo yawgr^ ; 

he king charges people for him to go with him to skin it ; 

QkagQSoibQnyoia, VQ QngtQkaloyawere 

when they reach the place, they skin it the people that go to 

skin it ; 

ot^laminila ; iggsowa ; Qnqgbelo 

he gives them meat ; they reach home ; the man who killed it 

Qduobo bill owglo bill agwe Qdugiogie ; 

takes front leg and hind leg and neck and gives to the king ; 

glaminekQre, Qk^nikeyo bjliyamo ; 

the rest of the meat, he gives some to his brother and his wife - r 

Qnekeregrhede; Qnqgbglami okglQli. 

the rest he sells ; the man who kills the game does eat it. 



11. 

UTI Bi EGI (SNAIL AND TORTOISE). 

EraiyelQ ozam^tQfie ora, Qgitiorag 

Where they live hunger caught them, Tortoise said to son 

agu e tag^lo wanisuti ; 

to go to bring fire for him from house of snail ; 

QmiggQgQsowan;sute ogegare, ute bill- 

when he reached house of snail he met them, snail and 

mio gelema ; utera kolema nomiegi ; 

his small son eating yam ; snail gave a piece of yam to son of 

Tortoise ; 



96 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 

ora gwqta Qreyowa ; ggqgemio 

he took fire and went home ; when Tortoise saw him 

miolgnema obo, otiosolo omorhemana ? 

he took yam from hand, said " Who gave you yam ?" 

qtio kutiele,; etanilp yonomio 

he said that snail gave it to him ; fire which he told his son 

yagwagilo ; Qramiglele funulaiya ; 

to go and bring for him ; he took it from him and let it go out ; 

Qmanuterhene ; giramiolilele ; 

the piece of yam that snail gave to him ; Tortoise took it from him ; 

QiQgoboyagwa gvveta isote ; 

he went for himself brought other tire from snail's house ; 

Qggsobolani ute tio alema ; 
when he reached the house, snail told him to eat yam ; 

eralQmagbe.e.e. l^gitio j gnazaminQfina 

they eat the yam all up. Tortoise said ; in this hungry time 

ebo morakwe mimawule ? udetio : 

where did you get f ufu now to eat ? snail said : 

ak;xilolorade ; e gitio : loialit^kali 

he bought it from market ; Tortoise said : he would go with him 

iyonaki akwe. Oweggkula uteda odafioo ; 

to market next day. When day broke snail left him behind ; 

egitqtqkalo Qraggri ; gtio 

Tortoise followed him caught him up on road ; he said 

emaligidq ; Qkaduonoiyafi Qnema 

we fight with yams ; if the yams fell a person the yams take the 

etionoiara ; ihr^ginemado lab;lu ute 

person and go ; they wrestle with yams and snail 

eva dulafi ; Qnema nedufi ; eraneoikba ; 

fells the yam ; the yam that they fell ; they put inside bag ; 

Qrevade cnva, eg;sowa ; gdatenemazele. 

they go home, Tortoise goes home ; they cook yams and eat. 



AGBEDE TEXTS. 97 

12. 

AGENE BILAMO (MAN AND WIFE). 

Ireiyeli, j^raiaiygmo ; arecolosira ; 

They lived in a place, they had a child ; j his name was Asira ; 

eteragu ; iyqragu ; Qnqmgmolggbare ; 

his father was dead ; his mother was dead ; the son was not grown 

up yet ; 

ggiraxare ; Qtio eta ? 

Tortoise went to see him ; he said, father, 

qtioiye ; qtioegu. egioiataiiiQba 

he said, mother ; he said they are dead. Tortoise went and told 

the king 

on^tiqze ; Qggraiyowa ; Asira 

he said sacrifice it ; Tortoise went home ; Asira . 

qratamqba notiegize ; qbatio 

came and told king who said to tortoise sacrifice ; king said to 

egi yarhiasira fio gbarazizobp. 

Tortoise to go take Asira throw him in place of sacrifice. 

Egiraburo Asira Qratietue bili umi; 

Tortoise went to Asira h3 took chalk and salt ; 

qratiosgmakpade bili sesemikbo ; qrakbono ; 

he took a piece of calabash and a dirty rag ; he took them all ; 

gruebilome yogk^lukpade ; qratiqsira ; 

chalk and salt put inside calabash ; he took Asira ; 

qraduzo uzomi Qratio yebara zizobg 

he gave to him to carry on head he took him to place of sacrifice 

qtioxagbo variowa ; kilorh^loze ; 

he said, don't come home again ; they sacrificed him ; 

qragetpobola, eb;l;rhialo Qrh^gonu ; ow^gekula 

he sat down there, till dark he cried ; when day broke 

gtio, loialo ovo ; Qmeuiiqlo 

he said, he could go into bush ; if anything saw him 

ogeli gbeloli ; orekia qrhiamie mi^mQzi; qtip, 

it would kill him ; he walked he saw a small girl ; he said, 
II. H 



TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 

qtip, nqmielg 

where are you going ? she said, anyone who saw her 

qrhielpwoto; Qtig, vare ; kilorhiql^otg ; 

can take her ; he said, come ; I take you from the ground ; 

eragba itueva ; ergkia ; qrakbo miokbozo; 

they were two now ; they walked ; he saw a woman ; 

Qtio ebumoliQ ? Qtio kqnQmielo 

he said where are you going ? she said any one who saw her 

qrhiplowoto ; Qtio, vare ; kilo rhile otg ; 

could take her ; he said, come ; I take you from the ground ; 

e,ragbaituea ; erekia, Qiiame agQne, 

they were three now ; they walked, there came a man, 

Qtio, Qbeomqlie ? Qtio, nomiQlo orhielowoto ; 

he said, where are you going ? he said, anyone can take me ; 

gtio, vare ; kilqrhielewoto eragbaitueji. 

he said, come ; I take you they were four now. 

Eraloekejokato ragbeli ; era bjseo ; 

They went far in the fields far, far ; they made a small house ; 

era giumio aoka noyawaitare afoba ; grheali ; 

they sent the boy to go to bring fire from king's town ; he went ; 

orhaiawairhagila ; grafii ; Qrak^limare 

he went and brought fire for them ; they made it ; they ate 

e^Qli ; eya enabulo Asira afelo 

every day ; people ran to Asira his people 

egezezQgbe, bu Qraialu;ke ; 

were numerous, very he made a proper house ; 

qralwekelafe ; nQnigenQnisp ; 

they made a head of the family ; men got their house places ; 

nQnj[kpozoniso ; e,nasudagbala ; elelg 

women got their places ; they made a big road ; every day 

abialoia, aretikpobawo. 

they swept it, they spread cloth on it. 



UZAITUI TEXTS. 99 

UZAITUI. 
1. 

Record 223. 

3ua, aremiseame ; ivoimesua. 

" We are going hunting, cook yams for me " ; "I am ready to go." 

imaggkbako, aggreadoboi^re 

When we start, we reach where we are going to hunt ; 

ageregbase ; imarergmao imakwerhai 

we make a small house ; we put down our bags, we light a lire 

imareremai ; imagerevoima ; 

we put out food ; go take our things [we say to ourselves] ; 

ikiawanamekiawana ; imakereake ; ikeremielami, 

let us go this way or that ; we go and wait ; I see an animal, 

ijmutsitsineno, jk^rekqino, igerefine, ignedotoiaire 
I point my gun, I take aim at it, I fire, I run to the place 

i;dauaiotoi ; iinwo ; ijbgno ; 

I find it on the ground ; I catch hold of it ; I skin it ; 

iketewegio onimakweaiswa Qkeremieinieine, 

T shout to call the man who is hunting with me ; he answers me, 
(lit., him and we together are hunting.) 

ig^reoinaare ; qkerenabade abokereadere ; 

I tell him to come ; he comes when he comes ; 

Qromaitsemimie itiewabimuza iryniQ^kelarae 

he asks what is the matter ; I say where I stand I saw an animal 

anabade ; igerepfinai igerenodaiire igerenwo 

run fast ; so I fired I search to meet it there 1 caught it ; 

;kgrebeno; obigerebeno;ne ; 

I cut it with my cutlass ; When I finished cutting it ; 

ikerecefioana ; abuwaduaigwa ; ikerewegiewa 

I brought it here where you find it now ; so I called you 

ukereametsgmimie ; ^kereevainiQgwie 

you asked me what was the matter ; so I said come and I'll tell you ; 

H 2 



100 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 

ugerenavai itiegwoi wotoi ; Qke.reamQtsabjmali 

so you ran up I said : look at it on the ground ; " what can we do with 

otoiikia ? iketi^i, imaigevai ; okereomeyeke ; 

it now " ? so I say, we can cut it up ; he says " all right " ; 

Qke/lgfiesai kwo otoi 

he cuts the leaf of palm tree and lays it on the ground ; 

iodwo nelami fio ; imakerevai imakerevaikpo 

so we put the animal on it ; we skin it when we have skinned it 

iivoi enaitsoi ; iQre.nai imakere kwi n^kgli, 

I take his share ; I give to him we tie up tre meat, 

iomaidu inakQtQyafe ; emagQrgdQdare 

we carry it home ; when we reach the water side 

iminakweakpo iqmaideniswa ; iqmake gyatiiri ; 

we wash we carry the load again ; we put loads down 

again ; 

Qgeriomekisuai eke kwalo ; makeretiede. 

he said he changes the load he says heavy for him ; so we rest again, 

imakeredu; imakere adafere ; i;qke eduaielu ; 

we carry it again ; we carry it home ; when we take it inside 

the house ; 

owaiseme ikgte gwoi nornoieme ikete 

my house I tell my master ; I tell him 

Qgue lame nigbe ; qkeretuitsoivo ; qkereduitsemeame 

to look at animal I killed ; he takes his share ; he gives me my share 

ikereduyelu. 
I take it home. 



IBIE. NORTHERN NIGERIA. 

1. 
Record 301-2. 

Wabale ; akawokey^vo ; waiqsibinonapfe ; 

Come on ; get ready to go ; you know must look out for the house ; 

eyalesimimo ; inabelafe ; eyakenyajili nena, 

we go to farm to-day ; they are at home ; we come back now, 



IBIE TEXTS. 



101 



nena miketpbg ; 

now ; I bring them 

rnitatse.ke.sina ; 
I bring it, I give it you; 



go, cut the grass ; 



emailiQkQme ; 
don't be lazy ; 

mienenule 



nyamyao 
T give something to you quickly ; 

ijaia kasito ; 

if you get there, don't 

sit down ; 

ukiamok^gbe 
If you get hungry 

w^kogodimiale, 



uwalusome? 
won't you cut the grass ? 

miadobiaikia, 



I have what you eat I can't go anywhere, you can't cut palm nuts, 

wekoguanunu; 
you can't fetch anunu ; 

oinanokbe 
last year at this time 



wekogwatsu; 
you can't dye cloth ; 



umaligkeme ; 
you are too lazy ; 



manioguo migwagwagwa 
I alone dig heaps, 

uluapfesitq, 
you sit down in the house, 

qdoki osomine 
market people are better ; 

alagwilq 
will he eat him, 

odoci ; 
on market road ; 

aduQswemi. 
you cannot obey. 



okeliokaca 
when trader walks, 

Ion we dodiseine 
it is far, road of farm 



I alone cut grass ; it tired me ; 

olQs^me ; obokagbe,le 

it tired me ; when day breaks 

utamekpawe w^ko ; 

you take water wash feet you say : 

odokia osomine ; akwili, 

market is better ; vulture, 

akwiode takala 
the vulture follows him 



ukalelemowa 
when you are inside house 



2. 

Record 305. 



OgbododQ eyQlana ; 
Last evening we were here ; 

ikumane 
four people to bring 



Imiake,bu ejeniusome, 
Imiakebu sent messengers, 

elietsueme jibo ; 
yams for the white man ; 



102 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 



they brought the yams they gave them to the white man, 

Qnofoforjkpago evanawe eoliQkqji, 

the white man gave money two to them as they go home, 

Qkiaramode ImiQgba Qmukumogowa. 

as they reach the road of Imiegba they take messenger to house. 

Imiak^bu k;to jusoini ; eliakagukasa 

Imiakebu sent again ; let them go and tell 

qngfofo enalemeji kgnivu najusome bulo 

the white man to whom they gave yams that the boys that he sends 

to him 

ki Im;egba ejoodg ariwunow^ ; lokjto lume 

on the way Imiegba catch them ; it is he who called me 

omejogbf) kanvvekaso qnQmuemiqgba ; qbggwe 

let me get man who say to him who gets Imiegba : come here 

Qnqmuemi^gba Qkirobqlo ; QiiQpofo qkirogukaso 

he who has Imiegba came to him ; the white man says to him 

Qiiqinuemiggba kenignaje denrftlg 

who has Imiegba that the boys they send to me to give 

ogbogodg ketianeje kimi^gba ejodianwunowe ; 

yams y ester eve as they go home Imiegba on the road catches them ; 

lem^kie Qkalu^be ; mianono kenwimonQniogbp ; 

so I say go call you, come ; I don't want you to catch this man ; 



kijg unwunowQ ; 

I know them ; I don't say you go catch them to hide ; 



enenwunowenQ, dabiki nonowQ, nam;lo 

those who catch them, if you find tell me, I want to know them 

mikaie yasqwQ, kimiro jusomi anmikaso maikeli n^mwewe ; 
if I know them, I send messenger to Resident who has you ; 

mikajusomi anmikaso Maikele nqmwewe 

if I send messenger to say that word Resident who has 

qsomi kgtawabe onininQ. k^talanmo. 

you will come to you for that palaver. It is finished. 



UPILA AND SOSO TEXTS. 



103 



KOMINIO. 



1. 

Record 306. 



Ainyalaisemi ; 
We go to farm ; 

enyeyagwebe ; 
we go make heaps for farm ; 



kefenafesiame ; 
you must look out for house ; 

atgliako ; eligz ; 

we plant yams ; yams grow ; 



aiagbebwiso ; atowekenweata ; oiakoakpasio, 

we go clean farm ; we go tie (yams) to sticks ; we plant corn, 

akesiesio, akolQne aiagbabebwe ; eli^siabia ; 

we plant beans, beans we clean with hoe ; yams get big enough to 



akelatoijelie ; 
we go dig yams ; 

nerhoiainyqle. 
women cook yams for food. 



atzoanengkpotso, 
when we finish taking them out, 



Soso. 

1. 

Record 3146. 

Obilaxokpaiwoye ; adzotomgrnani Qbqkpo mitopwobako ; 
Yams are chief food ; guinea corn is next ; corn I plant maize ; 

mitoenakq ; miteseseakg ; otogogoakq ; 



I plant beans ; I plant cotton ; I plant beans ; I plant ogogo (beans) ; 
mitalotaodQse ; eanwebqtala ; miat^tagbote ; 



I plant cassava ; 

miaiyanqni ; 
I take all the grass; 

miakifwa. 
I plant yams. 



I get new ground 

iniawebe ; 
I make heaps ; 



I burn trees ; 

miagwesoni ; 
I pull up grass ; 



104 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 

SEMOLIKA. 

1. 

Record 318. 

MegiokiameimwQbi ; qkigbode mQgiokiabizma ; 

I go find new ground ; at dawn I go to farm ; 

m^giokiabusiame ; mekisia ekiduame ; Qmidqgboka ; 

I go clear the farm ; I clean as far as I find farm ; we beg people ; 

qmeyanalo^be ; ome esaniraabQ ; mekolesinQrhQbo ; 

we go sweep grass ; we set fire to it ; I plant beans ; 

mekqlibakparQbo ; mekqlitQtaluma ; ohwak;fi 

1 pknt maize ; I plant " agusi" ; in hannattan 

QingkQSQbo ; Qmiligelgtio ; ukpok^gbe, 

time we plant yams ; we put sticks to yams ; year finished, 

qmolesiQtsg ; qmiejuwafe ; QrhamQgbweralename. 

we dig yams ; we bring yams home ; my wife beats fufu for me. 

Kam^kamukpa mewukpasS, omemarhobo ; 

If I want to build house, I put mud, we build house ; 

omekiasa ; omiegbukunubo ; mekiainibulasa 

we break wood ; we put roof on the house ; I go cut wood for house 

omiakpware ; om^bo ; omehuze omelesiebo. 

we tie the roof ; we cover it ; we rub we move into the house. 



IBILO. 

1. 
Record 321. 

Masi^be ; mahwo ; mahg ; magwa ; 

We cut grass ; we burn ; we make heaps ; we dig ; 

magwQvie ; inamalalaf e ; mahare ; qfiogbema ; 

we take yams ; we take home ; we eat ; who can kill us ; 

obicohigbema gfosomal^gbe ; osamozeminame ; 

witch can't kill us it is right for our bodies ; good for me ; 



TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 



105 



mamizo ; 
we don't see bad ; 

ozeminasainafe 
good for my house 



mami|kole ; ozeminame ; 

we don't see war ; good for me ; 

ogbomkibiame ; 
world where I am born I stay long ; 



yaramekupasomobogba ; kolio kqmo ; 

town strong for my hand, strong ; old men and children ; 

yaramekupagba ; afokukoniamo. 

town strong, strong ; my house full of children. 

Oinyorio lunamana ; odz^wa ; idzo. 

This man is going to make tornado ; he falls ; he falls. 



misanai ; 
I cut down the trees : 



ISUA. 

1. 
Record 323. 

IminwekQfa ; misausiwo ; 

I get new ground ; I cut the grass ; 

mihwesanogbe ; mihgrikehi mikoikokos;bo mikoinumu ; 
I burn dry wood ; I make heaps I plant koko yams I plant yams 

akoikumesjbo osetawodiglia ; emabosQwagwa ; 

I plant okro food we plant is ready ; we dig up yams 

mixwarokweme lokehiename ; adumema. 

women come and take yams they cook for me ; she beats fufu. 



106 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 

OKPE. SOUTHERN NIGERIA. (3 texts.) 
1. 



Aviulimi ojaisoni ; orumenani ainwezire ; 
The sons bring cloth ; sons-in-law bring goats ; 


areziminani ; 
they go dance for him ; 


atujinoni ; arekunoni ; 
they dig the grave for him ; they tie him ; 


aremuqzi ; 
they go to the grave ; 


omiongre, emawoni. 
when they finish that they cover him up. 



Nanabiqmqxami, adegzeni, adabewiri 

When one bears a daughter, one takes five cowries, one takes a pot 

of palm oil 

omonotokparuo ; awemetawqni ; 

and one piece of firewood ; one takes to her- father ; 

QxqnQxaiwoni ; qrgruaiogwa ; Qregbevqini ; 

she is his wife ; he follows father-in-law to farm ; he cuts grass for 

him ; 

Cjremolafwi ; izi ; arewikqrafi 

he gets yams for his father in-law ; corn ; he takes to his father-in- 
law ; 

ixona arewefi ; gkehazia, 

beans he takes to his father-in-law ; when she is grown up 

Qritawamamqna ; arebulokowisusini ; 

he goes to her father, asks for her ; in nine days we bring her ; 

itaworekwiqni Qremamwitani ; 

her father brings kola he takes her, gives her to husband ; 

qditwisiligbewqre ; gregwQgbaweni ; 

the husband pays ten shillings ; he calls all the family ; 

areke,mini. Qkehqmi, ekuwQrqrQ ; 

they take the things. When he makes it, they call his company ; 

iremgnqnani ; Qreswigonini ; 

they come and dance for him ; he brings money for them ; 

QrerumozewQ ; qrewerameruo ; adekwiri ; 

he cooks fufu for them ; he puts meat in it ; they beat drums ; 

axemqnoarefo ; areje ; arqwini ; 

they dance till they go away ; they go away ; they go take it ; 



OKPE TEXTS. 107 

l^korylotu ; aredare. Ukwamonofo, 

they go to the head of Otu ; they eat there. When they dance finish, 

kgrokQiovaje, ideloa, irerenjse ; 

he goes to his wife, they go into the house, they cohabit ; 

amine grqtekezi, amine Qtek^r^ra, 

some it reaches five months, some, it reaches six months, 

amine Qnotukpe, QremQ. Ozukiomomenema, 



some it reaches one year, they become pregnant. When she menstruates 

this month, 

lukfa ikoviaemenema, 
when another month comes and she does not menstruate, 



she knows she has conceived husband goes divine for her ; 

QreukumuwuQ Orebia, grnQk^migne ; 

he makes medicine for her she goes bear, the child does not die ; 

oitani gr^bpnani. Orame^kQleomi ; 

her husband divines for it. When a woman is ready to bear ; 

Qruma, qgweixamedede ; Qrebia ; 

she lies down, she calls woman old ; she goes bear ; 

arebul^nokQ ; arekpi^nia ; arew^beva ; 

they cut the navel ; they go wash ; they take two calabashes ; 

areweriQmQze, ugbesino ; naziowabia, 

they give to small children, to knock ; when it is born inside, 

Qrezio^k^dekpigni ; adewugbengnqinQri, adekwerqni, 
they take it outside to wash ; they take calabashes, they beat them, 

aremqhoizoa. Aretgrame Qdakwiqni ; 

they take the child into the house. They boil water to wash her 

are.kpowowQni qreloa, . Qrevena ; iwu 

when they wash finish she comes inside, she lies down; the afterbirth 

aresiesieke ; ademQseawo ; Qnqbiare 

they take it to back house ; put it inside and cover it ; she who has 

borne 

esarisoekoa. Akezoa qrerako ; akebiQmQ, 

goes to wash at the place. Seven days she washes when she bears child, 

akezeni aref \\ anokuje aremovezegware ; 

in five days they take white to mark they take it out of the 

house ; 



108 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 

Qgeginikesini aleotowQni alumwQredobeva ; 

when it is nine months old they take it in the street to near houses ; 

areiminego areclanani. 

they give cowries they shave it. 



Oiakehaza ; orediQzeni ; 

A man grows up ; he gets 500 cowries ; he goes to a blacksmith ; 

when 

urugtaia, gretq, agbgde qretq rhukoxo ; 

he gets there, he sits down, the blacksmith sits at the back ; 

QredimakgneniQii ; gredotaununu ; 

he takes his head against his chest ; he puts wood in his mouth ; 

Qrekare ekgriwonani ; qrediezenani. 

he files his teeth for him ; then he pays 500 cowries to him. 



3. 

OrarnekQiibianqme 
A girl who has borne no child when she conceives, they go loose the 

arefaraogegawQni, arQSQnQgulu ; ukwQbialo 

ogiaga which she has before, they tie ogulu ; when she has borne 

arebanaxwQni. Aiyq eto QmQinurhe ; 

she ties axweni on her head. Aiyo is the hair of a small girl ; 

agaiyorhQirima ; abani 

they tie them in strings on the head ; they plait them ; when she has 

QgexworQmQmuzi, aredeinizomima 

grown past small girl, they make them in rolls for her on the head : 

nqme, arefar^ni ares^nQgulu 

when she conceives, they loose ini they make ogulu 



OTUA TEXTS. 



109 



aretozudowa ; 
they put it in at the top ; 

arebeni, 
she makes eni, she becomes a woman. 



Qkebiafo, 
when she has borne, 



arefarogulu 
she looses ogulu 



OTUA (7 texts). 
1. 



Ikiarezanano 
Six months from u 

ikiazinyanano 
seven months from now 



masogobozemi ; 
begin to clean farm ; 



they eat it. 



atolugbo ; 
they fire the farms ; 

akgkaruQ 
they clean them, they plant corn there 

jkiagb^nano QkaQx^lino, 

ten months from now corn begins to ripen, 

Ukpogagbq 
When the year comes 

akerekowilaruQ ; 
they go plant corn ; they plant yams there ; 



anavaore 
they take them away 

anegbopo^male ; 
they leave only yams ; 

agbgribobqdi. 
they plant cassava. 



eight months from now 

akowilaniQ ; 
they plant yarns there ; 

ahiegbqgbeo, 
they begin to pick it, 



they go plant corn ; 

ahegbekoilQruQ, 
they plant beans, 



they go clean again ; 

arawalema 

when they have planted 

yams 

arebegkavaore, 

when they have taken 

the corn, 

akolulu, 
they plant cotton, 



When new year begins 



Qnalogwa 
those who work farm 



Qdalogwawo ; 
go and begin farm ; 



110 



TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 



gnaiawgre 
he who is a blacksmith 

gdosisi 
takes his gun and 

Qdaig^d^WQ 
tak es his doctor's drum 

Miwarevare, 
When I reach here, 

ariQbememgxade 
the king said I come 


qdalagrjziawo ; 
goes make his work ; 

Qdalogbo; 
goes hunting ; 

QdalogwalgbowQ. 
he goes travel. 

miigozia, 
when I work, 

Qredamegobo, 
he took my hand, 


gruanokugbo ; 
the hunter who goes 
hunting ; 

Qbonaiyqbo 
he who is a doctor 

aredadume ; 
they call me ; 

Qredamenauo, 
he gave me to him, 



qriamelinyono^ino enyahanaguno. 

he said I was to explain words for him so we do now. 



3. 

Aiyenizizi aitihgng Qngzenasi onoimumwa 

Long ago in time of war he who rode horse took this (spear) 

qkQgasoze Qdpsugnani ; ale^gbodoinQ 

when he saw anyone he took it and struck them ; they held the spear 



atQSug ; 
struck so ; when he wanted to strike, he straightened his arm. 



Tan^de akpomqna ? 
Who is that who sits near me ? 



4. 
Record 160. 

M^rne n^ ? 
Do you mean me ? 

Batie ? Aje. Bwalu ? Milikiarawaho. 

What is your name ? Aje. What do you do ? I come to salute you. 

Odani ? Mi^gbw^ng, okQgbi. ElowQ ? 

Are you well ? Yes, I am quite well. How are your people ? 

EzQmi. Il^gbina wonairi. 

They are all right. 1 don't know how the country is now. 



OTUA TEXTS. Ill 

Ozimik;na ; globQinivare lirhio ; 

I do not know ; new I come here I come here ; 

ohama sqsovai ; MQIIO ; Osalobwa nq. 

my wife does not come ; I am sorry ; Osalobwa means it. 

Ohadane ? MiegbwQnq itoto. Oriake, 

Your wife ; how is she 1 Yes, she is all right. Oriake, 

ohanoseva ; ihoe ogohama. Qriakezemio ; 

the second wife ; I hear she is pregnant. Oriake is all right ; 



, megrgzame. 
yes, she has certainly conceived. 



5. 
Record 161. 

Ukpe maiinana ; ejkparene gewo ere lumime ; 

We make ukpe ; chiefs who have the place go and cook fuf u ; 

argnanQge ; glggQiQino Qyi Qrokqde/le, 

they take meat ; they cook soup in the afternoon, 

mainavarerQkbana ; marhanakea mamarikpota. 

we bring it to the street here ; we men and women eat the soup. 

Qdede madaleafe. EukbebemexQ ; 

When it is finished we go home. Next year we do the same ; 

Qgbe marozemi ; Osomuna ; 

body our good ; it keeps us that we don't die (?) j 

margfiato ; Qkj^adobolo ; 

we don't want to be sick (?) ; it won't let trouble come ; 

QkiroborhanQbi. 
it does not let witch come to the town. 



6. 

Record 162. 

Qsogakiawole, gkasuema 

Long ago when people went along road, when they had thinga 



112 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 

arliQgbeno ; awQmao ; QkakQSQmo.so 

they killed them ; they took their things ; if they had nothing 

agbgfiaga angkpako. 
they killed them for nothing. 



7. 

Axaledokposo, iyeg^ne adana 

When a man buys a girl, 80 cowries he gives to mother ; 

aibokwies^gbe ; Qwemalizi, awanainomo ; 

they say : take her, go ( ?) ; he takes five yams, gives them to mother ; 

oigbeduinwalu, adan^kposo ; qxaxewoza, 

he goes buy cloth, gives to the girl ; when she is grown, 

qxadalogwa ese odaleogwa, qlezimeri ; 

he gives her to her husband he goes to the farm, he works ; 

gliogwayaga ; qxaxgramogwa ahaferamenu ; 

now he makes farm ; when he reaches the farm they take food from 

home ; 

arnqnodalogwa ; ar^gbgrelele. 

they take food go to farm ; they go home when it is done. 

Ayadanqkposo, itaia odarawohagile ; 

When he marries the girl, she and her husband are in one house ; 

qligbefiava ; orafeizinia ; 

he goes fire a gun ; she stays seven days in the house ; 

asileizinia ; gigbelegege, gigegQnexraia ; 

they play seven days ; she goes cook, from then she cooks for her 

husband ; 

oxalitaia ; qzQkpanqvie ; 

when she abuses her husband ; she pays him a cock that cries ; 

Qzohqgbefo ; azQgbgnene. 

palaver goes finish ; they begin to play again. 

Oxoxagbi, QxrQgbQresili ; gdaievi, 

When day comes, the company comes to play ; he takes kola, 

Qwanaia ; gmwanuriiQ, exanwanyulgle, 

he gives to them; he puts gin, when they finish the gin 



OTUA TEXTS. 113 

ezigbelele. Okposokabiamo, ixraggbusi ; 

they go away. When the woman gets a child, the father kills a pig f, 

ixra obQsi gmglenibia ; ixramq qhigbiSbQsi ;. 

her father is glad my daughter has borne a child ; its father is glad ; 

qhigbenwogile. 
he goes play. 



II. 



114 



TEXTS OF OTHEK LANGUAGES. 



SOBO. 

EMOSOGA (4 texts). 

1. 
Record 187. 

OlgsasoiioyomS ; gdehiqfa rio ; 

The first one was no good ; so you put another one ; 

oyime.da damo qlana ane.me.totawa 

J try another one that I must talk loud 

wamlasainyo ; kQmqdataowawa lomlasal- 

to make other people hear ; so I talk loud that they may all 

WQFO ; rakbojubewinyo .... odQnime ; 

hear ; that all this world may hear ... my mother is alive ; 

od^lowodome ; Qmsoga ; QS^me QmamQroxwo ; 

my native place ; is Emosoga ; my father is a big man ; 

oimiideliluokeoibo ; gmameluo kQmieva ; miluo 

I go work for the white man ; I get good work to do ; work 

Qmamilwo, mle mlomamQigo ; omggbe, rh^nfjde, 

good work, [so] I get good money ; I have good health 

tumwemi; mituwu, mite.miainie, ; 9g n Q iyuwe 

to go home ; I do not die, I am not sick at all ; so may Ogene bless 

lilwo mitumweme. 
work to go home. 



le ; 
pas Osagale ; 



Record 198 a, b, c. 



had a child ; his son's name 



Esienye onilQmo odevie ; odelQmQroi 

So mother's son 

osagale owaiye, owomQ, 

Osagale got wife, got a son, 



osagale 
Osagale 



SOBO TEXTS. 



115 



vleni ; ode 
went away ; so 

do okulukpe ; 
he made armlet ; 

obleiya ; 
went to his wife 
odaba 



b?siowodo ; 
he went another country ; 



lmogole 
his mother 



be,se 
before 



vere 
go to 

qdata 
she said 

ylifqte 
small, small 
bogr~i, 
roaring, 



loiyi 
his own 

kiyaromgroiyi 
to her son's wife 

ukbi ; 
bed; 



dSleduwexi 
and made a spear ; 



owem oyo 
to house so 



Sniloiyi 
he came, his mother 

venigloii, 
with his son, 

anaiemQ ; 
he is coming ; 



qdaliaii 



vemQra, 
wait, my son, 

iyobevo, 



she took them back to bed, 



qbewQlukbe, 

she took them to 

bed, 

ke eya, keyara niQroii ane, mgdawe 

to the woman, to her son's wife if I breathe 

aneyememe reje. Qdaveta medawe bogr*i, 

then I sleep. So she said I breathe roaring, 

aneyemeyemerg ; gdawe ylifete ylifete, 

then I don't sleep ; she breathed small small, 



her, 



she saw the wife and son 



who were sleeping with 

onil^sagale ; odesorokiko, 

mother of Osagale ; so she (Osagale's wife) called other people, 

(i.e., son and other wives) 

Qlukikqdabeta ; 
the other one said ; 



she sleeps, 

agexereemera 
wait a bit, 

Qdawegr~i 



so they waited a bit 
oiye ey|losagale, 



ariuwevle, 
she woke them all, 

anSyimir^le ; 
she never sleeps yet 

aiyebidafo de 
all were quiet so she breathed like leopard so wife of Osagale, 

vqniQlosagale, ajyobi aibbQvle aiedagie aso, 

son, Osagale, both got up softly ran away at night, 

ad^gigkbeki ; Qkidevie, onflosagale 

they ran to market ; in morning, mother of Osagale 

gwonemQ, losagale 

looked for his son, Osagale's ; 

oionilosagale yobQviq mure ; 

so mother of Osagale took some stick ; 
I 2 



e, 
looked for his wife and son, 

Qbeb^me Q vlovo ; 
she saw no one at all ; 



116 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 

qdawof^kberie kwodalo ; odemungvio Qsunele gkberie. 
she knocked irou front ; so she sang she sang iron, 

mawodg, mawodg ; okperie mSwode mawodg ; 

show me the road, the road ; iron showed the road the road ; 

QdafQkb^rie teki ; Qdameeyasagale, 

she knocked iron to market ; so she saw wife of Osagale, 

mlemQlosagale, eialemQme, tine, wagieba, 

son of Osagale, wife of my son, hear, stop running, 

e, eyalosagale ; aitonqnio, aigdagie ; 

yes, wife of Osagale ; they begin to run again, they run away ; 

eni Qdakiyayelo ; onigsagale oviobomure 

head pad they forget ; mother of Osagale took a stick 

Qdawofini odemunqrie, ukoki, mawode,, 

she knocked (head pad forward) she sang, head pad, show road, 

mawode ; oiyi ey|losagale adeteseuno ; 

show road ; so wife of Osagale reached trunk of tree ; 

unokgre, unodefirQkrQkr^ ; eyalosagale 

tree, become small, tree come down and be small ; wife of Osagale 

vQmQroii aidalwenuno ; ejunogro, nSdggro ; 

with her son sang to the tree ; tree grow big, grow big ; 

oniosagale odeletie ; eyalemome tine wagieba, 
mother of Osagale reached there ; her son's wife stopped there now, 

e, oniloii (jdakwalubiako, oluxwivie, 

yes, his mother she pulled out tooth, front tooth, 

anoxerewe ; odef^rewe owosiloo, 

she made it into axe ; it turned axe for cutting tree, 

odemunQiie , unSkomwagba wagba ; QXWQXWQ 

she sang ; tree, sing song song ; field mouse 

od^t^tiye anihehe, nenode, kQnoplwilwoluwolwe ; 

reached there ho, big mother, that's the hard work we 

used to do ; 

qnana diluo Igmali, ^malilue; 

that work old woman, did not do ; 

wewire ; mimiQwexie ; oiqdaweweke, 

cut with axe ; T cut tree for you ; so she gave him axe 



SOBO TEXTS. 117 

XWQXWQ munea onokosSde, side, onSkodiside ; 

field mouse sang tree, join up, join up, tree join up together ; 

oiyQinale oniQsagale odakwamibiako ; 

so] old woman heard mother of Osagale pulled out tooth ; 

QclevioxwoxwQ ; urQinemixielo 

threw it to field mouse ; [she said] tree will soon fall 

QdaiiQreside ; glpdabere odemie oniosagalewe. 
but he made it join ; so bush rat took axe from mother of Osagale. 

e, nene onakg okpilwolowolwe 

Yes, my mother this thing this is big work I used to do 

bikoniQ mimigwexi oniosagale ode 1 mune.vio, 

I help )ou to cut tree mother of Osagale he sang, 

nokomwagwa wagwa. ^Iqdaweta ; niQinimiewexe 

sang a song a song. So bush rat said ; I help you to cut tree 

dawokglo ; elqde mungvio nokoside side 

she gave axe to bush rat ; rat sang join up together. 

odakmarako qdowohielo ; glodagie ; 

She pulled out tooth threw it to bush rat ; bush rat ran away ; 

oniosagale odebiviabo wiwerexi wureda qdanw e 
mother of Osagale began to cut for herself tree bent just ; 

bobone qdabe bobcjna ; aiyosagale ode munevio 

bent to one side and another ; wife of Osagale began to sing 

atuvieli vele vele omoko lokbuve, 

sang sang a song parrot that goes to Uve, 

oromlesagale, oyeli, obiQmggbQmQli 

who sees Osagale, salute him, his mother wants to kill your son 

and wife 

atuvele ; apiapialokpuve, oromle Osagale 

she sang ; hornbill that goes to Uve went, that sees Osagale 

oieli, obiqmQgbQmoli atuvele vele vele ; omokoda 
salute him, mother wants, etc . sang sang sang; so parrot 

Qdata kosagale ane diwoloejbone ; oniwe 

said to Osagale said what are you doing here ; your mother 

oxuia evimqwgle. Osagale dale^xi odeviukbeuo 
is killing wife and son. Osagale took spear threw it up 



118 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 

odagovioviopexi : odadiofome, nodaigi bgse 

said to spear : if it be war, stop [my mother] before [till] 

mioteti ; odgginedaiyi ; osagadetgti ; 

I get there ; so it stopped [her] ; so he got there ; 

onilada kwalo biako odewovTosagale ; Osagala- 

his mother took out tooth she threw it at Osagale ; Osagale 

komake ako ; odawa akakgvle. Sagadata 

dodged tooth ; he dodged it on one side. So Osagale said 

kggene anoiidelu obo limiqma koneloii 

to Ogene if I do bad thing for my mother 

oyole loiyi woniloii be iyolana, an : cjge.nQxwoi 
war near my mother day now, I say ; god will kill 

[let my mother kill me to-day] 

anjkeviQxwe, anoggnexwoii, ang, Qbedia 

who can kill her son, Ogene will kill her, I say, if not 

keviQxw;le anogenexwoniloii ; odevuxiloii gbenu ; 

he said Ogene will kill her ; he threw his spear up ; 

qdagovio ; kexiro anox;re [e]wase, loture 
he spoke to spear ; spear turned into medicine, burnt 

oniloii ; odevio exi xre xreniloii gniyexi ; 

his mother ; he threw spear at at his mother he threw spear ; 

Qdava woniloii; Qirilodewu; gbelotq; 

he hit his mother ; his mother died ; she fell down ; 

Qgenedata; mewali nana ukudi 

Ogene said ; When I pass there before glass of rum fell [from 

my hand] 

mebewali, onieve beva wabo le; 

I pass again [on way back], half kola fell from my hand now ; 

kidi luevo akbqla Qgne dese gb5ruane ; 

what are they doing in world Ogeue called cockfowl ; 

animorhileiio vakbqla ogbgrane nasala; medara, 

to see what they do in world cockfowl can't go ; if I go, 

awowegora oigogene Qdanorq ufiur^ge 

they take and sacrifice me so Ogene threw down rope 



SOBO TEXTS. 119 

toto ; qdawulolonene 

to the ground ; so he found rope to go up and down 

anisidililue.bo. Osagalidggu noiikpisiwodo. 

which he used to do Osagale began to speak " I go another country." 

deduwexi dokqlukbe be.simiore onime 

he took his spear, he took matchet, " before I come, my mother 

ogyemome geyaine luevewa kokie kwa eliya 
drove my son and my wife into bush ; she wanted to kill them ; 

aiyedeyl enure ; QmQko data kowe 

but they climbed the tree " ; parrot said, to him ; 

koiiraidetetiye ; medata midelo bemioma akolSnime, 
when he reached there ; I say if I do bad thing for my mother,. 

oxwewe, mib!belo, obemiomaa, 

she will kill me, if I don't do bad, if I do what is not bad, 



exmQxwonme. 
let spear kill my mother. So it killed her ; Ogene said j 

narowoniloii ; Qniloidarorno, Qg^n^data ketinejale 
wake his mother ; so his mother woke, Ogene said " Go away ; 

ibixuon^luxwo ; QmQxwoviekayele 

who has child must not kill it ; I had a child and fed it every day " 

[Ogene said] 

QgQne, dejuriviyo exirqmo obixirewase 

Ogene made law there son's spear shall not turn medicine 

lodexwoni vakbona oye exidiode obixire 

and not kill mother, in this world so spear could not turn 

ewase. QgQ n Q kewore inikwalali mikwQrili 

medicine. Ogene breathed into me ? I go, I come back, 

(i.e., made that law.) 

anamo iya e.demetise mitigo 

I salute [you] my companions put beans I put cowries ; 

ubiakwasijo kwokbQlukbo Qme, sfejQle 

Asijo's teeth [are] big big teeth, my own [are] very small and 

Qsiql^lQ junora . do. " m." 

my small teeth can't pass another way. I salute you. " Yes." 

[all say.] 



120 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 



3. 

^sigye, 3hg. aiilo akwgjobalo; oyegigle 

Well, [Answer] Ehe. We were in this world ; he did not want 

oviogbele uwii. Oiye aiyovo odeviqino ; 

poor man to die. So some woman bore a child ; 

Qmqroyidwa ; qdadw^mera ; oniloiyi, onilgmona 

it began to grow ; it grew small ; its mother, the child's mother 



an;mikgkboweli ; mome ; Qingroini 

said I am ready to go to farm ; my son ; her son " yei 



ngng. Odawongto kgrnQroii onedevie, 

said. She roasted yams for her son the yams ready 

onilomona odawh^rigne wokomoroii ; 

the child's mother cleaned the yams gave to her son ; 

Snilomo odatake m^n^me iara 

the child's mother said to him I am ready to go 

kwoweli ; gmQigni e ; oioniloii qdayala 

to the farm ; her son said " yes " ; so his mother went 

kwoweli ; onilQmo odetoweli ; maye 

to farm ; his mother reached her farm ; she did not know 

Qmqroii vignenelobobuko. IgyedQ odemudia ; 

that her son [he] cried and ran after. On the road he stood ; 

erhimi odetetiyi asalgmgnaiva Qrhinri 

millipede reached there where the child was millipede 

datakQmQna : anQiuQnablQl^k^ve; Qm^naneijo, 

said to child : to cut him half a yam ; I can't, 

an^miseblokowe Qmqnenana ; 

I can't cut it for you at all a small yam like tliat ; 



wan;m!blokowe ; 
my mother roasted it for me ; why can't you cut it ; 



miseblgkowe oiye 

I can't cut it for you so millipede climbed up his leg, 

delgtuwirowo ; e.rhiruidatakoniona : aniblgl^kevQ ; 

.climbed to malleolus ; millipede said to child : cut me half a yam ; 



SOBO TEXTS. 121 



an;misebl<.)kowe 
I can't cut you half a yam so child, that, began to sing : 

babo, gierite, neno, gigrite, |rhimi 

my father, run to me, my mother, run, millipede 

lalclale ; tegwalejimoko ; gierite ; ototole, 

is climbing ; to the parrot's comb ; run ; he does not go down, 

otenule, gierite ; erhimidebimoa elalo ; 

he does not go up, run ; millipede begins to climb up ; 

odalalelale ; det^rugbo ; anqmona 

he climbed and climbed ; he reached the knee ; to child 



he called : cut me half a yam ; small yam like that 

^nQiiewotqk^we wanimiblokowe ? 

my mother roasted it for me why should I cut it for you ? 

m^seblokowe ; qrhiinidebimovio elalo, qdalalituxoxi ; 
I can't cut it ; millipede began to climb up, he reached the 

navel ; 

irhidebe.takomona, Qrhimi, niblqnek^we ; 

he said to child, millipede, cut me half a yam ; 

Qinonan;mikeblQkowe gmgnenana ; 

child said 1 can't cut for you small yam like that ; 

i l nenewotqke i we, wanimiblokowg ; 

my mother roasted it for me, why should I cut it for you ; 

owovvi none wo vie ; m^keblek^wS ; 

I feel as if I must cry to-day ; I can't cut it for you ; 

QmQnademuniq babo gieritg neno 

child began to sing father come mother 

Qrhimilaielale tegwalelimoko, 

millipede is climbing to the parrot's comb, run ; 

oto tqle gierite, otenulq gigrite ; 

he does not go down run, he does not go up run ; 

Qrhimidebirnuvip elalo, lalelale ; deletoxoli ; 
millipede begins to climb up, up, up ; he reached the neck ; 

Qrhimi dabeta komona blgnqk^ve; omonanejo ; 

millipede said to boy cut me half a yam ; child said " no " ; 



122 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 

animikgblQkowg ; owuwewowu noiiQ 

I can't cot it for you ; you are going to die to-day 



WQjamle qngmgna liaa, nonge ; qmonadg mune_o 
you can't see my yam eat, to-day ; boy began to sing 

babo gigrite neno gigrite ; e.rhimilalelali 

father run mother run ; millipede is climbing 

tegwali Jmoko ; gigvite, ototole, gigrite 

to the house of the parrot ; run, he does not go up, run, 

otenule gierite. e.rbimidebe muvie elalo ; 

he does not descend rim. Millipede began to climb up ; 

da lalelali deletunu. ^rhimidabQ takomona 

he went up and up to the mouth. Millipede said to boy 

aniblqlekQwe ; qmqnaneyo, onQmikiakqwe, 

cut me half a yam ; boy said " no," I can't cut you half a yam, 

QmQnnana, ;ne i newotoke ( ve ; odaialajewevo 

small yam like that, my mother roasted it for me ; she went and left 

me 

kpoweli ; neninie blon^me kpoweli ; mebcbeva 
to go to farm ; I said to myself to farm ; I met no one 

migi^de; medam^rhimi, koiodikpokpuwu 

on the road ; I saw a millipede, millipede was troubling me 

fik;lQnQmQ; grhimid^brfinuvio elalo : odetglglqluwe ; 
with a yam palaver ; millipede began to climb : he reached the nose ; 

omonademunio babo gierite neno gierite 

boy began to sing father run, mother run, 

grhirnilalelale tegualimoko, ototole, 

millipede is climbing to the parrot's house, he does not go up, 

gigrite ; otenulQ, gierite ; Qrhimirjdalwevoluwe 

run ; he does not go down, run ; millipede climbed up 

uwelomona ozikponolwole, oionilomQii adagig 

into child's nose he climbed and went inside it, so his mother ran up 

nowelire, Qselomonodenokpare ; 

from farm, child's father ran from bush palm oil place ; 

onilomona owigbQviomure Qwcjkarhigrhimi, 

child's mother took small stick to draw millipede down, 



SOBO TEXTS. 123 

aianmavavio bvio Qrhime ekarie 

child's father stopped ; both set to work to take out millipede 

lomlasano unwelQmqIaiye, ; ublol^rhimi 

to make it come out of child's nose ; half a millipede 

odQxivioto ublok;ko odadagievlunwg ; 

fell to ground half millipede half stayed inside the nose ; 

aliilululu obisenqfa ; ubloyeod^gbo 

they tried in vain he can't come out again ; so half rotted 

vio evo Iftriwe ; ode.xjreuhuluriwe ; 

there in the nose ; he blew his water from nose ; 

6xwo lohmo owuri ; grhimi vomona, koiye 

man sick of catarrh ; millipede and child, it breathed it out 

wqlQriakbo ; eye iyabemle oxwo lonuurhi 

into the world : if not we should not see man sick of cold 

davo vakbqla; QrhimivQmana koiwqlqlrhie, ; 

who is in the world ; millipede and child so he breathed it out ; 

mekpqlali mekpqr^lj ; anamo. " lya." Ubiakwasijo 
I go, I come back ; I stop. " Ah." A woman's tooth 

kwokbulokbo ; Qm^sie.!^, QsiQl^kiunola ; 

[is] big tooth ; my own are small, and can't leave my mouth - T 

QgQnedaveta Qnj,si dielzglakbgla ? Qg^nedes^gburoni, 
Ogene said what do they do in world 1 Ogene called cock fowl, 

leno obqlelwe obQrQnQnemesala ; 

go and see what they do cock fowl said I can't ; 

an&wolwggora ; Q8Q ne odese^kbulo 

they'll take me to sacrifice ; Ogene called a he-goat 

anumorikpakbo ; delenebuloluewo ; e,kb!5ne 

to go and see the world ; see what they are doing ; he-goat said 

mes|laha aowegiye ; qiagene qnglq fwirgge, 

" I can't go they'll sacrifice me " ; so Ogene let down rope and 

came down 

toto ; odaw\ilQlonene odangnisidialwe ; 

to earth ; came down with rope to see what they did ; 

onilQingnadegu mewon^tg fiQinQnQob^ ; 

the child's mother said " I roast yam for my son and put it in his hand ; 



124 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 

meVlariyara, yovo, kpoweli; maiye 

I go. I leave him, go to farm : I don't know 

qwokpanqbako bjgiede erhimidayalowe 

he followed after me on road millipede asked him for yam 

qnoiyesak^ oyqrhimi qdalwo unwelo ; 

41 1 can't give yams " so millipede began to climb and go into his 

nose ; 

ISniQme, kar^karie, obibino ; 

my son scratched and scratched, it did not come out ; 

ublodebluje ; QgQnedata ; ketin^lale grhimi osenio ; 
half was left"; Ogene said; " from to-day on " millipede can't 

hear ; 

lodaiyaromome Qganejurivio koiyi grhinii 

he asks yam from my son Ogene made a law if millipede 

oyo QIHQ QIIQ eyalo vigiedQ ; kitenelale e.rhimi 

asks child for yams on road ; " from to-day on " millipede 

oserionu lowQtota korakb Qge,ne odejes^riS 

can't open mouth to speak to a person Ogene put a law. 

yejam^levlewa : Qtotake qlakbginyo. Olelio. 

for bush animals : he can't speak to a person. It is finished. 



BIN: STORY TOLD IN SOBO, cf. p. 21. 

Oiygna od^loyi Bobose ; ode^QseJoi Qvie ; 

Her name Bobose ; father's name is slave ; Ogene 

od^lQsialoii. QgQne kwobolg aiye loii anoliyQli ; 

her husband's name. Ogene went to his wife to salute her ; 

anuluqse ; anomqlax^xa gnwotawqta ; 

" I thank you ; I want to play with you " you tell the truth ; 

aya mavadax^xa ; axixaxaxaxa ; ode blgle 

they two played ; played, played, played ; she cut yams 

wokoniloii ; qlqvo osali loiixixa ; ole, odaki^lo 
for her mother ; then husband her played ; yams, she forgot 



SOBO TEXTS. 125 

oniloii data kom^ing wololo nox^rQle ; omaroii 

his mother told me look out for on fire yams ; my son 

gdata koniloii noxirQne mewoxixana alubiwe ; 

told mother his roast yams for me I used to play eyes turned ; 

onilqdata an;mikexele qlgna, owelegtokofia 

she said to him I can't roast yams yams these, if you like make them 

burn 

oniloii otitiye owelqtokofia ; 

his mother reached there if you like to make yams burn ; 

onilqkowo oiyoggnedenye. Bobose gdata qle, 

his mother made palaver and Ogene heard. Bobose said yams, 

qngmi mebgbg woto, ngg^nenyu ; 

my yarus carefully roast don't let Ogene hear ; 

w^lonime w^dauxwo kqggnenyo ; 

you are my mother ; you have made palaver for Ogene here 

qdaleqgia leaxwure ; odj.kburie, gdata kexai, 

he takes soup and spoilt it ; she went to water side, said to sand(?)> 

an^rhienu ; oiyi qdarienu ; gdeyrugbenu ; 

come up ; so she came up ; went up the hill ; 

qdawiriokexwo QdilitugQvo oniloideblo ; 

she kept on washing herself at midday so her mother went to him ; 

wurie an;mlewe ; niQl^kbumweme 

at water side to beg something of her ; to go home 

angmgkia, nj[m;kkpumweme, mevgneto, leyo 

" I can't come, I can't go home, I roast yams, I get them 

QgQnenyo wodkbwli ; kQgqnenyo. Oniloii 

for Ogene here " she shouted ; Ogene heard. Her mother 

odeblo ; otu romoroii anuwgbeko wargmQinQk^re 
she went ; company my she begged my child to come out 

nQriumweme ; oiye otulgrnQroii aidebrokwurie, 

and come home ; so her child's company they went to the water, 

aidatake nqmorekpumweme anoiikukpumweme 

they said she must come home " I can't go home 

anoikekpumweml Onilgdisigele lowodoygbe ; 

I can't go home." She called igele that live for that country ; 



126 



TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 



sglioxrolovava 
she begged them to beg her child for her ; if she come inside house 

qkgxexexoxo ; anoiyebgrigfa ; oniloidata keggQne, 

to wash ; she says she can't come in again ; she said to Ogene, 

ane gbagbo bela latake sore, w;kjl!die qsewe. 

make Ogene go say her child, because he was his friend. 

Oiygg^nedeblo vurie ; Qggnedatake aneyare; gdabetaktS 
So Ogene went to water ; Ogene said come out ; she said 

an^kgnowe Qggnedavitake nis;k^nove ; 
near me Ogene said come near me ; 

odeflog^ne, toiQtqgQne 

she held Ogene, she put hand on Ogene 

aianmava ; odexireo ururhuleli 

they two ; they turned fish with fish tails 



to Ogene [come] 

oiogQnQde sikene ; 
so Ogene went near ; 

aiedgxgteyame 
all two fell in water 



vwanie koiQliwuwurhurhu vwame. 
in the water they got fishes' tails in the water. 



IYEDE. 



Akbema, 
We cut farm, 

akewerafa, 
we clear sticks away, 



Record 282. 

af^gbogbo agbobokamaihia 

we cut bush trees cut, we fire bush 

akbodu, aulebe 

we plant yams, we clear weeds 



enaijuakibie akawol^kwa waniekboubenu akawabele, 
we put in sticks we run the yams up the sticks we train them up, 

elekiblabo, iblabonokariile 

yams cut hands, i.e., are full grown, yams cut hands before we begin 

to eat 

izinikevwaipedu ; olele. 

in nine months we dig yams and put in stack; that's finished. 



SOBO TEXTS. 127 

agboi atorhe eyananakewe, 

"We cut farm, cassava we cut trees, we set fire women clear small 

wood, 

eyanawenekako keme,daka akQiiekekbqbe,, 

women finish clearing and plant cassava we clear grass when 

we finish plantiug, 

melamiwule eyanakevwo ; enwuye gbe, 

in seven months women begin digging ; they grind it they cook, 

kario, olele. 

we eat, it is finished. 



Ovu. 

1. 

iEkbe.nwa adanwanu kagbo adagbano, 

We clean farm, when we finish we cut trees when we have cut, 

katQrhe kesixw;ri kevolo e/levolonukeeime 

we set fire we brush it we plant yams when we have planted farm 

we put small sticks 

Qinglamerha kavqro e^daigie kavagbalo 

in three months we brush weeds when yams grow we tie them 

kawabene ; niQlaiiwule, yQn^blabqle amewQi^be. 

we take tendrils ; in seven months it cuts hands we clear grass 

again. 

Melamisile kariole e^nejamixwe, kevwgne ; kawQkbe.ru, 
In nine months we eat in ten months we finish ; we take to stack. 

kafaro. Olele. 

we stack them. Finish. 

Kakemgdaka kavqrebeo Qdaw^lqbiQnu 

We plant cassava we brush farm when we finish brushing 

emelamirhili kevwem^daka gdevwure, kaxwyre 

in nine months we dig up cassava when we bring it, we wash it 

iyanaka ixwiye, kemio; qke/lerhie kec^l;; kQrJr;, 
women grind it, dry it ; at daybreak they cook it ; we eat, 

kario. Olele. 
we eat. End. 



128 TEXTS OF OTHER LANGUAGES. 



Record 278. 

Ekbenwa, amenwa, amebelagbop 

We cut farm, we brush fann, we cut big trees 

ameliviQ Qraneo, imikpgxwQle, iinelexwolo 

we set fire to farm, we clear away small wood, we plant yams 

belebelive, imelexwolo omejere meraworo, 

cut in two, we plant yams they grow up we clear the ground, 

ekecimo ometabo, awugino, okawugino, 

we put the sticks yams grow, they climb up when they climb, 

emelairini egba, kelevwoi, evwoicumwomi 

nine months complete, it is time to dig them, we bring yams home 

kjtii, edecerelea, aw^kp^du. 

they are there, they eat them, they tie them up. 



SECTION III. 

EDO GRAMMAR 

WITH APPENDIX ON WANO 



GRAMMAR OF THE EDO LANGUAGE. 



THE family of languages whose distribution is here described, 
appears to be distinct from those of the surrounding peoples, 
which are, on the south, the Ijo ; on the west, the Yoruba ; 
on the north-west and north, tribes of the Yoruba stock ; on 
the north-east, the Igbira, on the east, but on the other 
bank of the Niger, are the Igara, at Ida ; then come, on the 
west bank of the Niger, various branches of the Ibos, who 
extend down into the Ijo territory. 

Certain words appear to be common to the Edo and other 
families of languages, but in some cases their prevalence in 
both families can be readily explained, and in any case, their 
number is far too few to afford the presumption of any 
relation between the languages, whose syntax appears to be 
entirely different. There is a certain resemblance between 
the Edo family and the Ewe of Togoland and the Gold Coast, 
both in verbal forms and in vocabulary. 

Among the words common to Edo and Yoruba, are such 
terms as oke (hill), okuta (stone), and the like, and the 
reason for their appearance in both families of languages, is 
firstly, that the line of kings which formerly ruled the Edo, 
came from the Ife country, and that secondly, hills and 
stones being virtually unknown in the Edo country, terms 
for them would naturally be adopted from the language of 
the immigrants. 

There are certain resemblances between the Edo and Ibo 
languages, which are more difficult to explain. Parts of the 

K 2 



132 EDO GRAMMAR. 

body for example, like the mouth (unu), are known by 
identical names, and here it is difficult to suggest an 
explanation. Finally, there are a certain number of words, 
like ekwiye (spoon), which are obviously adopted from a 
Komance Language of Europe, and we need have no difficulty 
on deciding on Portuguese as their source, for it is well known 
that the Portuguese were in Edo at the beginning of the 
sixteenth century. 

Orthography. 

The consonantal system, as the accompanying table shows, 
is comparatively simple for the Edo language proper ; pro- 
nunciation varies from tribe to tribe, as the comparative 
vocabularies show, but the differences cannot be adequately 
indicated ; in the Ishan country, for example, it is more 
guttural than in the Edo country ; and it was impossible to 
map them out systematically in the short time at my disposal 

The chief points to be noted are as follows* : 

(a) In Edo and some of the other languages (t) is some- 

times pronounced with the tip of the tongue on 
the roof of the mouth, as in ta, an interjection ; d 
pronounced in the same way is hardly dis- 
tinguishable from r, as.in erhumudiadia, butterfly ; 
in a certain number of words p and b are 
pronounced in a way that makes them almost 
indistinguishable from w and m ; they are possibly 
inspired, as is the case in the Wano language 
(Agenegbode), but are more probably pronounced 
with " mouth breath." 

(b) F and v are always pronounced with lower lip and 

upper teeth, w with both lips. X and y are the 
soft sounds heard in Scottish loch and North- 
German Tag ; y is retained in its ordinary 

* Unless otherwise stated the language referred to is Edo (Biui). 



EDO GRAMMAK. 



133 



SpAVOA-JpH 00) 


1 * \ \ 1. 1 ' 


sa^iidsnj (/) 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


SITOBJI (9) 


i i I 'JJ' 5 I a 


sitiTmog (p) 


i i i - "5- . i' i 


S8AI1130IIJ (o) 


1 > 1 >^ N 1 > 1 

X~ >" on 4-T 


sa^oiigy (q) 


i i ;? i ii 


gaAisojdxg; () 


t>0 bC< Ti T5 i ^2 
^ ^ ,i_r. 43" 1 j, 




i : 1 i 1 : 

43 ^ 
42 42 -Y 
S -S 5 ^ 

'& -s -1 s ^ 

<J O Pn P P h3 



134 EDO GRAMMAR. 

signification as a matter of convenience ; scien- 
tifically the sound which it represents is a variant 
of those shown by y and y. 

(c) R is formed in the same way as in English without 

trill ; a variant of it is r, almost identical with d ; 
rh is slightly trilled and sounded almost as if h 
precedes. 

(d) L and n are almost indistinguishable, as in elimi. 

The vowel system is less easy ; it is as follows : 



o 
o Q 

2 



A is as in father, a as in rnadame (Fr.) ; g, Q, e, Q, are open 
and of diminishing length, e is closed, as in name ; 9., o, q, are 
open and of diminishing length ; o is closed : u is between 
o and u. 

Ai, ei (rare), oi, au, are always diphthongs. Very rarely 
the u sound is heard. 

A, e,, i, Q and u are nasalised. 

Nouns. 

The only nouns of which it is possible to see the derivation 
at first sight are those derived from verbs, which take the 
form of the third person singular, as qdukmQn, maker of 
cloth, qbo, doctor (literally, he makes cloth, he divines). 

Compound nouns are common; amgnwe, milk (water of 
the breast), e,rhiye, mother's father. 



EDO GRAMMAR. 135 

Some nouns beginning with o, or q, form a plural by 
changing the initial vowel into i; ox wo, woman, ixwo; 
oxaimi, chief, ix aim i. A certain number form the plural 
in e, Qbo, doctor, e,bo. II se, (week) seems to be a singular 
formed by analogy from is, five, there being according to 
native reckoning five days in the week, as they include the 
first day of the following week in giving the number. 

In other languages of the group other vowel changes are 
found as a sign of the plural ; but if these existed in Edo 
they have now disappeared ; a certain number of nouns, 
however, like ako, teeth, have in Edo the same form as in 
the plural of Kukuruku, where the word is eko, tooth, ako, 
teeth ; this suggests that the Edo form was originally a 
plural. 

It is noteworthy that the use of the plural form in Edo is 
optional. 



Adjectives. 

The adjective is seldom found in its simplest form ; it is 
usually compounded with a personal pronoun or verb or both, 
as Qkai, it is dry. The adjective follows the noun it qualifies ; 
QmQ da, bad boy (da = bad). Adjectives have two degrees 
of comparison, as Qkpalo, big; Qkpalqse, bigger (literally, 
big past}. 



Numerals. 

The accompanying table shows the numerals up to twenty 
in six different languages. Though the forms differ con- 
siderably, the numerals may be arranged in two groups, 
according to the way in which the numbers from fifteen to 
twenty are formed. This is as follows : 



136 



EDO GRAMMAR. 



aS 

jS 

P Q3 

05 rO 



g 

g +2 : : : *^ :::::: : : ^ 

1 P ! ' : * if " * I ' ^JNJ^'s^^ 

> 
3 

I - 

W *" t ~ I rt n-W L 01 ^ "^ ^. 

g.g s.^s.S^.^ 

8 ^n.r 

Or 0) <S .2 -2 .J3 C .rt .rt J .^.ji^.rt J .X lJ .^?' cd c3 c8 e3 O 
J 

::;;;:::. : 

o as * '5b 

1-13^ || 1 1||| Ijl-sfc 




EDO GRAMMAR. 



137 





Edo. 


Aroko and 
Otua. 


Uzaitui and 
Sobo. 


Ishan. 


15 


20-5 


10 + 5 


10 + 5 


10 + 5 


16 


20-4 


20-4 


10 + 6 


1 + 10 + 5 



and so on. 

A different grouping is given by the formation of the 
numbers between twenty and one hundred ; all form them 
vicesiinally, but Edo and Ishan subtract from the number 
next above to form the odd tens, while the remainder add ; 
thus fifty is in Edo ikigbesia (60-10), but ujuvegbixwe 
40 + 10) in Sobo. 

The numerals from one to five, ten and twenty appear to 
be independent ; six in Otua seems to be a derivative of five, 
as also does seven ; eight may be equivalent to four plus four, 
(or, it may be, three plus five), and nine to five plus four. 



Pronouns. 

The personal pronouns are as follows : 

Subject. Object. 

1. i, ti, niQ, m^niQ, rnqmo, mo ... ... mQ. 

2. We, u, nuna ... ... ... ... we,, e,. 

3. Q, Qna, oi, loi, le, IQ, e,, Q. 

1. pi. Ma ma. 

2. Wa wa. 

3. j[na, inano, ana, a ... ... ... iua. 

The pronoun precedes the verb as subject save in inverted 
sentences and follows it as object; but in the case of 
separable verbs it follows the main verb; imwefwa, I 
throw it away (from imufwa). A kind of reflexive 



138 EDO GRAMMAR. 

pronoun is formed with obo, (hand); memetobqme, 
myself ; it does not appear to be used as a proper reflexive, 
but only as an emphatic form, ^gbgrne (my body) must 
be used where a reflexive sense proper is found. 

A personal pronoun is used even when there is a noun 
or relative pronoun as the subject of the verb, Ogisonaw, 
Ogiso said; Qmangdg, the man who bought him. Where 
there are two subjects of different persons the pronoun 
follows the superior one, MawggQne, Ogene and I; a 
usage to be noted is inavenukpogieva, he and the second 
one. 

For the possessive pronouns and adjectives forms of the 
personal pronouns are used : 

1. MQ Qgomena. 

2. We, Qgowewo. 

3. 3, IQ, oi Qgoi, qgewo. 

1. pi. Ma ... ... Qgoma. 

2. Wa ... ... qgowa. 

3. Ina Qgina. 

The pronoun is, like many adjectives, used without a verb, 
or, more properly contains the verb in itself; ebena 
Qgomena, this book is mine. 

The relative pronoun is ne (see examples 2, 3, 4), the 
interrogative is ga, for persons, gad e, who is coming; wa, 
bwa, ba, bia, bo, for things (see examples 5 and 9). 

The interrogative adjective is de for both persons and 
things (see examples 7, 10). 



Verb. 

The verb undergoes no change for person or number. 
The tenses are formed as follows : 

Future by ga; igalue, I shall do it ; perfect by nQ or 
f o ; ilugne, or ilue,fo, I have done it; future perfect 



EDO GRAMMAR. 139 

by a combination of these ; igahiQne,, I shall have 
done it; past tense by ke ; ikglue, I did it, I made 
it. 

For the singular of the imperative the simple form of the 
verb is used ; IUQ, do it, make it ; the plural has the same 
form as the same person of the present tense, walue,, 
do it. 

The first and third persons are formed with ni, gu, or 
se . . . lai; nihasa, let me pay ; gumeseva, let me reach 
there; sqmqlai, nigaxia, let me go. The optative form of 
the verb appears to be identical with the present, and is used 
with the indefinite personal pronoun, agbjrabiyue, may 
your father and mother be killed (may one kill . . .). 

A certain number of verbs appear to be negatived in the 
simple form and require ga to give them a positive tense, 
inqme, I do not marry; iganqme, I marry ; iyo, I do not 
go; igaiyo, I go. 

Occasionally the sentence is inverted and the verb follows 
the complement, okwiaxu, you are a man. 

There is no passive. Impersonal verbs are replaced by 
verbs with noun subjects; ainqrhQ (waterfalls); it rains, 
cf. QxwQine (shame has me), I am ashamed. 

Verbs are simple or compound ; to form the latter two 
or more verbs are combined ; i so lai, I leave (lai = go), 
irhiegade, I bring (I take, go, go); the object follows the 
transitive verb ; mgrukpare, bring the lamp. 

In sentences of affirmation a negative may be expressed in 
three ways ; by ma, by throwing the accent back by inserting 
i, or gi, or by vowel change ; ilue, I do it ; imalue, I do not 
do it; ide, I come ; ide, I do not come ; ixia, I go; lixia, 
I do not go ; ilai, I go ; igilai, I do not go ; grow a, he is at 
home; ejowa, he is not at homej qnabie, she bore; 
Qnqbie, she did not bear (a child). 

With the imperative the negative is expressed by ge, or 
(with a) by inserting i or re; mudia, stop ; ge,mudia, do not 
stop; agbe, let him beat; aigbe, let him not beat; aixwe, 
let him beat ; argxwe, let him not beat. 



140 EDO GRAMMAR. 

It frequently happens that a negative cannot be expressed 
directly ; thus, to say " no one came," a periphrasis is 
employed; komai kg ma no, re ^ro, anyone who came was 
not there ; the negative must in such cases be expressed by 
the verb. 

Prepositions. 
The prepositions are : 

WQ, be, , u, in, among ; wuvu, in the hole ; ukirha, among 

the trees. 

fi, into; fioha, into the bush, 
uhume, up, upon ; uhumoke, up the hill. 
oto, under ; ototqrha, under the tree, 
inbera, over ; inberawa, over the house, 
iy^ke, beyond ; iygkikpoba, beyond Ikpoba. 
ke, out of, from ; kg do, from Edo. 
ade.se, between ; ad^seneva, between two. 
ba, kewi, nia, with ; bame, with me. 
ne, for; nime, for me; nuwe, inwe, unwe, for thee; 

ne, for him ; nima, for us ; nuwa, for you ; nina, 

for them, 
sokma, except; sokmqgene, except Ogene. 

Adverbs. 
Among the adverbs are : 

*ke then. 



kwQgbe 


, . . together 


(literally, mixing). 


Qma 


, . . here. 




eva 


. . there. 




he ... - 


... yes. 




he ... , 


, . . no. 





* These are enclitic and must follow the subject of the verb. 



EDO GRAMMAR. 141 

Interrogative adverbs are : 

inu ... ... ... ... ... how much. 

dQde, de,kbo when. 

de,kbonuki,bokp Q sej how long, 

inukinuki J 

bqze ... ... ... ... ... why. 

de,wo, de,ke ... ... ... ... where. 

Conjunctions. 
The conjunctions are : 

vi, nia ... ... ... and. 

Q, lai or. 

e,lu .... glu neither .... nor. 

sokma ... ... ... unless. 

*gi ... ... ... ... when. 

ute, ate ... ... ... till. 

noke before. 

de if. 

ni since. 

The use of conjunctions is, however, rare ; coordinate 
sentences are employed in preference. Qrene, m eke, re, he 
came before I did (lit., he has come, I then came); umudia, 
imudiake, if you stay, I stay too. There is no special 
form for dependent sentences; qnahogwawagboviele, she 
heard the dog beat her son. Oratio obliqua is introduced by 
Q,naw6 (he said), or by a pronoun, the verb being under- 
stood. 

Accent and tone. 

The dynamic accent falls normally on the penultimate, 
but in words ending in ia, ie, oa, ua, etc., it usually falls 
on the antepenultimate. Where the last syllable is con- 
tracted, it may fall on it; Qgb, he killed him. The 
incidence of the accent in a sentence varies ; it may remain 



142 EDO GRAMMAR. 

as in the simple word, mqrukpare, bring the lamp 
(Qrukpa) ; or it may fall on the penultimate, ok wiaxi, you 
area man (Skwia); e,rhame, my father (grha; with this 
compare fyeme, my mother). 

A knowledge of the use of the musical accent or tone is 
essential for the comprehension of the Edo languages. Two 
tones, the high and the low, are readily distinguishable, and 
combinations of these, known as rising and falling tones, are 
also found. 

The part played by musical accent and stress in dis- 
tinguishing words which would otherwise be homonyms may 
be illustrated by the word ise, which has at least five 
meanings. 

is ... ... rattle. 

ise ... ... mancala, a game. 

is five. 

Is amen. 

;s I am, I get, I reach. 

The musical accent also serves to mark a question ; owu> 
he is dead ; owii, is he dead ? 

The coming together of two vowels is frequently prevented 
by the insertion of euphonic letters or by the elision of one ; 
ibiekanelia, or ibiekeha, three boys. Sometimes the vowels 
coalesce to a diphthong, as in Q wuwaiva, he said : you two ; 
in this case there is also a euphonic change of vowel ; qwe, 
he said, wa, you, eva, two is the full form and as often 
happens after w the e is changed into u. Consonants are 
changed for euphony ; ikwenie, I answer ; ikexwenie, I 
answered. 



APPENDIX A. 
WANO GRAMMAR. 



For comparison with this I give a brief outline of the 
grammar of the Wano language (Agenigbodi) derived from 
Father Strub. 

The consonantal system is as follows : 



Gutturals ... 


k, kh, g 


y>i 


_ 


_ 


k',g' 


k > S 


Palatals ... 





e> j j s 












Dentals . . . 


t,d 


ts s, z 


r',1' 


n 










t 


! 


r, 1 











Labio-dentals 


_H 


f,v 














Labials 


P,b 


w, wh, hw 





in 


P',b' 


P ,b 




P 






m 


' 





The vowels are as follows : 



144 WANO GRAMMAR. 

Nouns. 
Plurals are formed as follows : 

Singular. Plural. 

a ... e, i ... atata, star, itata ; agwa, dog f 

egwa. 

Q ... e, a ... ggwe, goat, egwe ; Q!O, eye, alo. 
i ... i . . . ... ime, farm. 

o ... i, e, a ... okpotso, woman, ikpotso, obo, 

white man, ibo, qbo, doctor, 

qbo, oya, man, aiya, obQ, 

hand, abo,. 
u ... i (rarely e) udzo, duiker, idzo. 

onoiya, this man, enaiya, these men. 

onoiyae, that man, enaiyae, those men. 

where there is an adjective, its initial vowel changes to 

correspond to that of the noun, e.g., 
egwekpa, one goat, agwakpa, one dog ; akagbomi, new pot, 

ekegbomi, new pots ; ogbomi, something new, emaneg- 

bomi, new things ; atatagbomi, new star, itategbomi, 

new stars ; but imegbomi, new farm. 

Adjective. 

There are three degrees of comparison : osimi (he is) good ; 
osimine (good past) better ; osiminela (good past all) best. 



Possessive Adjective and Pronoun. 
me, ... ... 



Q, oi, i . . . ... itsoi. 

ma ... ... itsema. 

wa ...... itsewa. 

la, ola ...... itsela. 



WANO GRAMMAR. 145 

Relative. 

ni, who ; oiyanugbe (oiya ni, ugbe), the 

man who killed him. 
3rd person sing. : no, who, nio, whom, 
pi. ne, nie. 



Interrogative Adjective, Pronoun, and Adverbs. 

oa, who, erne, what, oyernegona, what man is that ? 

emokia, what is it ? emulu, what do you do ? emedza, why ? 

emudzaluo, why do you do it ? 
ebokia, how is he ? ebulu, how do you do it ? 
ere, where, eruyi, where do you live ? ekwereuyi, house 

where you live. 

Personal Pronouns, 

SUBJECT. OBJECT. 

1. \, me, ineme, mi ... ... ... me, meme. 

2. u, ugwe, ugwegwe e,, e, Q. 

3. o, , a (dep. on vowel of noun) ... o, oi, i. 
4 ma ma. 

5. wa wa. 

6. e, la ... ... ... ... ... la, ola. 

Impersonal, a. 

There is no reflexive ; egbeme (my body) is used to express 
the meaning. 

Tenses. 

Present : iluo. 
Future : iraluo. 
Future perfect : iraluone. 
Perfect : iluone and iluopwe. 
Imperative : lu, gwelu, walu. 
II. L 



146 WANO GRAMMAR. 



Moods. 

tsimeluo, let me do it. 
ikenogu, I want that he dies. 
ikenSgu, I want that he does not die. 
Infinitive : ugbemi, to strike. 



Varia. 

Occasionally inversion takes place, 
oiya ugia, man you are. 

Compound subjects are treated as follows : 

Ogene lagime luo : Ogene with me does it. 

rnaluo : Ogene with me, we do it. 
ogime lu : he and I do it. 
magogenemaluo : I and Ogene, we do it. 
oili lagoitsevara = he and the second one go. 

The negative is expressed in various ways : 

ikia, I go ... ... Ikia, ivakia, iyakia. 

iluo, I do it ... ... iluo, ikaluo. 

luo, do it ... ... kaluo. 



EDO GRAMMAR. 1 4 

APPENDIX B. 

EXAMPLES. 

(1) He killed three men : 

qgbarheha, E. ; qgbetuea, Ij. ; qgbanwaia, Ar. ; 
Qgbahumesa, Ok. ; eesaogbui, Ot. ; qgbigened, 
-A-gb- ; qgbemoialea, Uz. ; Qxwiwhera, Aj. ; 
qkwirnasa, ly. ; qxwixwera, Ag. 

(2) The man whom he killed : 

qmanSgbe, E. ; uwahanogbe, Ij. ; qgbwamogbe, Ar. ; 
olehalenuagbweli, Sa. ; igenogbe, Agb. ; eleyanogbile, 
Irua ; menoinelogbe.. Uz. ; Qinonokpebo, ly. ; 
omonoxweliwo, Ag. 

(3) The man who killed him : 

Qmanogb, E. ; gnogbelo, Ij., Ar. ; oiogboni, Ok. ; 
onoiyanogbili, Irua ; Qnogboi, Uz. ; onoxwelewo, Aj. ; 
Qmonakpeleo, ly. ; qmonoxweleo, Ag. 

(4) To sit is better than to stand : 

notota Qmosenomudia, E. ; unetolomenumiza, Irua. 

(5) Why do you do this ? I do it because I wish. 
BqzenunalwQna ? Ilurio irimigikwe, E. ; emezenelaluro ? 

Ilulo, rarekogolemi, Agb. ; bwisenunelwina ? 
Iluorumuyiyame, Ij. ; emuyimurono ? Binimioro, 
Ok. ; mosesuriyo ? Timio erinifia, Ot. ; bezexolema ? 
lluo oigolime, Es ; fikieme woieluationa ? Fiki- 
diwowoluona, ly. 

(6) What do you do every day ? I work in the fields. 
Bwalu edagbe ? Igawinawato, E. ; bwalu edede ? 

labia wokato, Ij. ; emuliogbire ? Igbedabia, Ar. ; 
emwiriaxorifo ? mizitotogbehe, Ok. ; moli- 
mokoregbe ? Izimimiyeyi, Ot. ; bwalusedefwani ? 
labiawokato, Sa. 

(7) Which goat do you want ? 

De,wenoh6 ? E. ; ijiremwQkqre ? Ok. ; ewenawufia ? 
Ot. ; Qwenobiukile ? Agb. ; giewenaholo ? Es. ; 
ewenaniukile ? Uz. ; dedievewogwqlo ? Aj. 

L 2 



148 EDO GRAMMAR. 

(8) Who is coining ? 

Grade, E. ; anqde, Ar. ; oiyono, Sa. ; olovade, Agb. ; 
ko^jvade, Es. ; obade, Uz. ; denovade, Em. ; 
amonokianamo, Aj. ; amunabeea, Ag. 

(9) What is your name ? 

Batirue ? E. ; emanzuze, Ar. ; evaiyere, Ok. ; mazue, 
Ot. ; ode,we,, Sa. ; Qbatie, Agb. ; abawggye, Uz. ; 
bahakie, Em. ; odewerp, Aj. ; odeloro, Ag. 

(10) When are you going ? 

De/lenoxia, E. ; eduakpare, e/lonode, Ij. ; ewalonqxware, 
Ar. ; karukovala, Ok. ; eruirhiege, Ot. ; egegeubu- 
war^ra, Agb.; egeurekia, Esv. ; egenuraixia, Irua; 
eregeanewazakpa, Uz. ; okerawowokbo, Aj. ; oke,re- 
wotikbo, ly. ; okevowokbo, Ag. 



SECTION IV. 

COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY OF THE 

LANGUAGES OF THE ?DO- 

SPEAKING PEOPLES. 



150 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 



ABBKEVIATIONS. 

Ag.-Agbasa (S.). 
Agb. Agbede (town). 
Ageneg. Agenegbode. 
Agv. Agbede (villages). 
Aj. Ajeyubi (S.). 
Ar. Aroko. 

Edo. All languages except Sobo dialects. 
Em. Emosoga (S.). 
Es. Ishan. 
Ew. Ewu (S.). 
Ib. Ibie (N. Nigeria). 
IbL Ibilo 
Is. Isua 

Iy. lyede (S.). 
Ko. Kominio (N. Nigeria). 
Ok. Okpe. 
Ot. Otua. 
Sa. Sabongida. 
Sap. Sapele (S.). 
So. Soso (N. Nigeria). 
Ug.-Ugeli (S.). 
Uz. Uzaitui. 
The Sobo places are distinguished by S in brackets. 



SECTION IV. 

COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 



Note. As a rule the first person singular of the verb is 
given. In transitive verbs the object pronoun (le) is often 
added. 



ABDOMEN : eku, E. ; ewe,, Ar. ; udo, Ok., Ot. ; ejke,, Sa., Agb., 

Avg., Es. ; agu, Uz. ; udiqlimi, lb., Ko. ; ere, (?) So. ; eia, 

Is. ; vu, Sobo. 
ADULT : on wale, E. ; isasa, Ij. ; Qiiiogbqma, Ar. ; QmQxrume, 

Ok. [i.e., boy becomes man] ; esasagele, Ot. ; ohagQne, 

Agb. ; igbama, Es. ; izawe, Uz. ; Qnogqdo, Ib. ; qdzewo, 

Ko. ; qmolqdp, So. ; obesinabesina, Is. ; oxwogrogro, Em. ; 

oglegle, Aj., Ew.; awotete, ly. 
ANIMAL : alame, E. ; ejami, Ij., Ok., Sa., Agb., Uz., Sap., Ew. ; 

Qua, Ar., Ot. 
ANKLE: orhuawe, E. ; akukuswe, Ar. ; ugwavulovq, Ok.; 

axariwe, Sa. ; itulawe, Agb. ; oxunwe, Agv. ; uvirowe,, 

Em. ; ahorowQ, Aj. 
ANT, BLACK : oxia, E. ; ?mumu, Ij. ; Ot., Sa., Agb., Uz. ; 

imwamwa, Ar. ; izizimi, Ok. ; 5mumu, Agv. ; umumu, 

Es. ; anwinwa, lb. ; imumwa, Ko. ; ikia, So. ; eba, Is. ; 

imu, Aj. ; ianwo, Em. 
ANT, WHITE: qxa, E. ; e,xa, Ij. ; ikpala, Ar. ; orhumu, Ok.; 

idodolo, Agb. ; olgle, Agv. ; aton, Es. ; idodo, Uz. ; 

glaname, Aj. ; qrova, Sap. ; CWQWQ, Em. 



152 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 

ANVIL : Qvie, E. ; ugiaoto, Agb. ; qkezjli, Agv. 

ARM : obq, K, Ij., Sa., Agb., Agv., Es. (pi. abo,), Is., Aj., Ew. ; 

orhgrnbg, Ar. ; erha, Ok. ; gobq, Ot. ; otuabq, Ib. ; 

okpakobg, Ko. ; ote,kpe, So. 
ARROW : ifQme, E. ; ofqme, itakbo (tipped), Agb. ; uf^me, Agv. ; 

ofemi, itakbo, Uz. ; odada, Sap. 

ARROW POINT : uto, E. ; udqlQ, Agb., Agv. ; izugba, Uz. 
ARROW FEATHERS : akwe, E. ; ulolo, Agb. ; ulolo, Agv. ; 

ulolo, Uz. 
ASHES : gmwe, E. ; enwe, Agb., Uz. ; QUIQ, Agv., Es. ; oria, 

Sap. 
ASK (QUESTION), v. : in^lQta, E. ; inolqgbo, Agb. ; itamaeda- 

tio^re, Agv. ; m^Qingli, Es. ; inqlqgbo (I ask him), Uz. ; 

rnQnglgta, Aj. 
ASK FOR, v. : inolQmi, E. ; ianonu, Ij. ; memilahilawoni, Ok. ; 

meminQgwe, Ot. ; inolQgbelimi, Agb. ; inologbemili, Agv. ; 

inpoia (I ask a man), Es. ; inqgbo, Uz. 
ATTACH, v. : igbaimwe, E. ; idiohiwo, Ij. ; niigelo, Ot. ; idigli, 

Sa. : ijuliowo, Agb. ; idioliowo, Agv. ; igbale, Es. ; 

idiQiiiina, Uz. ; mikiulo, Em. 



BABY : Qm^bo, E. ; gm^nggbo, Ar., Ot. ; Qmor^xene, Ok. ; 

Qmowe (new child), Agb. ; gggrnqinowe, Uz. ; qinofe, Ib., 

Ko., Ibl. ; QniQfofa, Em. ; Qmoboba, Sobo. 
BACK : iyqke, E., Agb. ; ehimi, Ij., Sa. ; uxoxo, Ar. ; ukoko, 

Ok. ; iki, Agv. ; ike, Es. ; itsike, Uz. ; ubuko, Em., Sap. ; 

ugbuko, Sobo. 

BACK HOUSE : iyekowa, E., Agb. ; e,kigoloa, Agv. ; ukokowa, Es. 
BAG : ekpo, E., Sap. ; Ekba, Es., Uz. 
BANDAGE, v. : igbai, E. ; igbalo, Agb. ; igbale, Agv., Es. 
BAR (for door) : okbe, Agb., okene, Agv. ; akava, Uz. ; onurh- 

orho, Sap. 
BASKET (MAN'S) : agma, E. ; akwika, Agb., Uz. ; ukpoli, Agv. ; 

akwa, Es. ; osa, Sap. 
BASKET (WOMAN'S) : oxwai, E. ; okba, Agb. ; upali, Agv.; oxwali, 

Es. ; okba, Uz. ; osa, Sap. 



COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 153 

BATH, r. : ixwgwowa, E. ; ikwQwowa, Agb. ; ikowa, Agv. ; 

ixqlegbea, Es. ; ikwea, Uz. 

BE, v. I AM A HUNTER : ohuQxi, E. ; ohuailu, Ij. ; agiqd^kila, 
Agb., Uz. ; ohueki, Agv. ; omilohaixi, Es. 

I AM A FARMER : QWQxi, E. ; Qwekila, Agb. ; oeleki, 

Agv. ; onomugbwQxi, Es. ; ogwimekila, Uz. 
I AM A BLACKSMITH : ogwixi, E., Agv. ; agbedelu, Ij. ; 

ororamikila, Agb.; onologwixo (?) Es. ; ugbidi- 

Qkila, Uz. ; memoguduonwame, Aj. ; mewogii, Ew. ; 

meogu, ly. 
AFRAID, AM, v. : ohamomi ohaigume, E. ; inof we (I pass 

through fear), Agb., Agv. ; ofemume, Es. ; ofomume 

(fear catches me), Uz. 
ANGRY, AM, v. : ohumume, E. ; owuwume, Agb. ; 

ohuhume, Agv. 
ASHAMED, AM, v. : Qxuemume, E. ; ^kgrnume, Agb. ; e,ko- 

lilume, Agv. ; exoilome, Es. ; imamomumi, Uz. 
BIG MAN, AM : ixienowale, E. ; idewokolukpizia, Agb.; 

ihulilopihali,Agv.; ikidomai, Es. ; ikilemidokpiza,Uz. 
COLD, AM, v. : Qligbime, E. ; oyigbemi, Agb. ; oninig- 

beme, Agv. ; uligbemi, Es. ; oliliqgbemi, Uz. 
CONTENT, AM, v. : Qkovqme, E: ; ixw^le, Ij. ; miko, Ok. 

ikwe, Agb. ; ikolo, Agv. ; ikoli, Es. ; ikwe, Uz. 

Qvovgme, Em. 
CONTENT, AM NOT, v. : Qkomavgme, E. ; isQxwe, Ij. 

miziko, Ok.;; imakwe, Agb. ; imas^xgn, Agv., Es. 

imakwe ; evuiyevame, Em. 
DISGUSTED, AM, v. : ihonimioi (I do not wish to see it) 

ikelenimio, Agb. ; iholonimiQli, Agv. 
GLAD, AM, v. : igggoi, E. ; igiQgie, Agb. ; igQgo, Agv. 

ig^Qg?. Es - ; igiegie, Uz. 
HUNGRY, AM, v. : oliam^gbime, E., Agv. ; ozam^gbime, 

Agb. ; osamugbQme, Uz. 
PLEASED, AM, v. : igQg^, E. ; igiegie (I laugh), Agb., 

Uz. ; igQg, Es. ; megqdp, Aj. 
THIRSTY, AM, v. : owam^gbime, E. ; ozamQgbeme, Agb., 

Agv. ; ohamome.gbeine, Es. ; osamogbeme, Uz. 
VEXED, AM, v. : imohu (I have anger), E. ; imqlovou, 



154 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 

Agb. ; imiohu, Agv. ; iv (?=I shout), Es. ; imoofu 
(I have anger), Uz. ; ivuwie.be, Aj. 
BEAR CHILD, v. : ivie (qmo), Agb., Agv. 
BECKON, v. : iyobQtigle, E. ; itobqtio, Agb. ; itobQtio, Agv. ; 

irobqtioiya, Es. ; irobqwegioiya, Uz. (I take hand call 

man). 
BED : ukbo, E. ; utukbo, Agb. ; ekologu, Agv. ; ukwo, Es. ; 

Qkbaise, Uz. ; ukbe, Sap., Ew. 
BEG FOR WIFE, v. : ilimiainoye.mqme, E. ; idolaninorharemimi, 

Agb. ; inglggbami, Agb. ; ixcainolenohramelimi, Agv. ; 

inqgbwami, Uz. 
BEGIN, v. : isoboio [also I catch him], E. ; izu'obano, Ar. ; 

milena, Ok. ; igbare, Agb. ; isobowo, Es. ; igbae/le, Uz. ;. 

mikeluolo, Aj. ; rniceluo, Or. ; metibluwe, ly. ; miceluwo, 

Ag. 
BELIEVE, v. : iyaiyi, E. ; igbaikejo^ Agb. ; igbakiqli, Agv. - r 

irhQQWQ, Es. ; itewQWQ, Uz. (I give ear). 
BELL : agogo, e,lo, E., Agb., Agv., Es. ; (dog) akaba, E., Agb., 

Agv., Es., Uz., Sap. 

BELLOWS : ekw, E. ; ikie,, Agb. ; ekiQ, Agv. ; ikie, Uz. 
BIKD : ahiame, E. ; aflame, Ij. Sa., Agb. ; afia, Ar. ; afgri, Ok. - f 

gafue, Ot. ; afieme, Agv. ; omovQra, Aj., Sap. ; om^ra, Em. 
BITE, v. : iffaile, E. ; ihianako, Sa. ; ikiono, Agb. ; ikiono (take 

with mouth), Agv. ; ikulole, Es. ; ikiokioi ? Uz. ; 

meromilo, Aj. ; meronie, ly. ; inedoglo, Ag. ; medomoro^ 

Em. 

BLACKSMITH : Ogun, E., Sobo ; agbe/ie, Ora, Uz. 
BLEED, v. : ituesagie, E. ; itanakwa, Agb. (blood runs away) ; 

arkain^kwa, Agv. ; (?) ikwale, Es. ; itaivare (blood comes), 

Uz. 
BLOOD : Qsagie, E. ; e,re, Ij., Sa. ; cjiya, Ar. ; ade,, Ok. ; ita r 

Agb. ; atani, Agv. ; arhali, Es. ; obala, Em., Sap. ; esage, 

Aj., Ew., ly. 
BODY : e,gb, E., Es., Ij., Ar., Ok., So. ; gbe, Agb., Agv. ; ijQgbe, 

Ib. ; idiQgbe, Ko. ; igbQligbe, Is. ; qma, Em., Aj., Ew. ; 

Qklqma, ly. ; omaiyobi, Sap. 
BOILS, IT, v. : Qti, am^ti, E., Agb. ; qti, Agv., Uz. ; amgxwa, Es. 



COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 155 

BONE : ugbqdoko, E. ; akpoka, Ij. ; ugwa, AT., Agb. ; uwa, 

Ok. ; agogodu, Sa. ; ogwg, Agv. ; ugwe, Es. ; owa, Em. ; 

osoaso, Aj., Ew., Sap., ly. ; ugbeku, Sap. 
BORE, v. : ihai, E. ; iyalo, Agb. ; ihaloi, Agv. ; ihalgle, Es. ; 

ivwali, Uz. 

Bow : ohabq, E. ; uzi, Agb., Agv., Uz. ; murabo, Sap. 
Bow STRING: eka ( = tietie), E. ; uka, Agb.; uka, Agv.; 

oami, Uz. 
BOY : awoxa, E., Sa. ; oviamoxu, Ij. ; QmQma, Ar. ; Qrnqze, 

Ok. ; qmqfanike, Ot. ; woxa, Agb. ; owoxa, Es. ; igiwiai, 
, Uz. ; ukukwQmo, Ib. ; QHIQ, Ko. ; qmqkeke, So. ; 

Is. ; Qmotqte, Sobo ; omaha, ly. 
BRACELET: Qlqmo (brass), E., awQl^ki, Agb.; ukelu, Agv.; 

Qgiaga (iron), udokoli, Uz. 
BRASS : Qlqmg, E., Agv. ; Qlomi, Agb. 
BREAK A BONE, v. : ibwefQ, E. ; ixiogwa, Agb. ; (?) irhobowalo,, 

Uz. 
BREAK, v. : ibwQ, E. ; inuno, Ar. ; ikaloya, Agb. ; im^lonia, 

Agv. ; iwulqla, Es. ; ikulqla, Uz. ; memirhilo, Aj. ; 

memirilie, ly. 
BREAST, WOMAN'S : nwe, E. ; e^le, Sa. ; enye, Agb., Agv., 

Uz. ; inye, Es. ; ive, Is. ; ivie, Aj., Ew., ly. ; evie, Sap. ; 

Em. 
BREATH : gw, E., Sa. ; ati, Ar. ; arhina, Ok. ; orema, 

Ot. ; oyqze, Agb. ; o^hie, Agv. ; awo, Es. ; aiye, Ib. ; 

Ko. ; iye, So. ; ifuiza, Is. ; Em. ; erhi, Aj. ; e;ri, Ew. ; 

Qmg, ly. ; ubiuxu, Ag. 
BRIPGE : gzenawale, E. ; gkwa, Agb. ; qba, Agv. ; akwa, Es. ; 

<jkpa, Uz. 
BRING, v. : imw^re, E. ; imwqvai, Ij. ; imuvare, Ar. ; mimuare, 

Ok. ; mimore, Ot. ; memiteb, Ib. ; mipase, Ko. ; mimwe, 

Aj. ; melore, ly. ; mewore, Ovu. 
BUILD, v. : ibowa, E., Agv. ; igiowa, Agb. ; iruwa, Es. 
BUSH : Qgbo, oha, E. ; ogwa, Agb., Uz. ; igwigwi, Agv. 
BUSH BUCK : rhue, E., Ij., Ar., Ot. ; rua, Ok. ; etue, Agb., 

Uz. ; orhua, Sobo. 



156 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 

BUSH Cow : eha, E. ; ehq, Ij. ; Ok. ; QWQ, Ar. ; QWQ, Ot. ; eyq, 
Agb., Agv. ; aige, Uz. ; ege, Ib. ; efa, Is. ; ode,, Em. ; oglu, 
Aj. ; orele, Ew. 

BUY, v.\ id, E., Ar., Agb., Agv., Uz. ; misoni, Ok.; me/lQ, 
Aj, Em., ly. 

CALABASH (WATER) : uko, E, Es. ; ukomi, Agb. ; ubelQ, Agv. ; 

emeomi, Uz. ; CALABASH (PLATE) : okina, E. ; ukpade, 

Agb, Uz. ; ugba, Agv, Es. ; oiokpa, Sap. 
CALL, v. : itiglQ ihgma, E. ; iakie, Ij. ; megwoni (him), Ok. ; 

mizazue, Ot. ; itioiya, Agb. ; iduloikwa, Agv. ; itiqli, 

Es. ; iwQgioi, Uz. ; inisele, Aj. 
CANOE : ok, E. : 6kQ, Agb., Agv, Es, Uz, Sap. 
CAP : rhu, E, Sap. ; atu, Agb, Agv. ; aru, Es. 
CARRY (HEAD), v. : imweniuhumu, E. ; irhehemimo, Ij. ; mimor- 

huarima, Ok. ; idfiawulorni, Agb. ; idftawuliqmo, Agv. ; 

irhusome.suai, Uz. ; munulokpahiomi, Aj. ; CARRY 

(BACK) : imwQwowo, E. ; imiduxoxamoni, Ok. ; mir- 

horimoa, Ot. ; idftgwiygke, Agb. ; idftowiki, Agv. ; 

imuolewowowodekeke, Es. ; irhitsikesuai, Uz. ; CARRY 

(Hip) : imugxaife, E. ; idusefi, Agb., Agv. ; mirnulohebie- 

dada, Aj. 
CARRY (HAND) ,v. : imwe mobp, E. ; irhubomoi, Ij. ; imunq- 

menubo, Ar. ; mimomwa, Ok. ; imulqmoobo, Agb. ; 

imwolemQjbo, Agv.; imwQle.he,, itobqmedwo, Es. ; itobq- 

m^dwo, Uz.; miobomu, Aj. 
CATCH UP, v. (? I GO ON) : igalare, Agb. ; ikoire, Agv. ; ixiakore, 

Es. ; ikiaware (or, I meet him), Uz. 
CATTLE, Cow : grnila, E, Ij. ; Qna, ^la, Ar, Ok, Ot. ; Qm^na, 

Agb. ; e.rne.la, Agv. ; na, Uz, Ib, Ko. ; la, So. ; e,sue, Is. ; 

rhue, Sap. ; amina, Em. 
CHAMELEON : ^loxi, E. ; alolokwi, Agb. ; aloxi, Agv. ; ewiwe, 

Es. ; ololhi, Aj. 
CHANGE, MONEY, v. : imi^ligo, E. ; imiglikpigo, Agb. ; imigligo, 

Agv. : ihialigo, Es. ; ifiaiokwai, Uz. 
CHARCOAL : ibf, E. : iveAg, Agb. ; igiomeli, Agv. ; igiomeli, Es. : 

ikpikianiQgi, Uz. ; ibiQ, Sap. 



COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 157 

CHEEK : e,gba, E., Ib., Ko., Em., Ew. ; Sap., Iy., Ag. ; irhu, Ij. ; 

e,kua, Ar. ; Qkpa, Ok., Agb., Agv.; exwa, Ot. ; iti, Es. ; isa, 

Uz. ; iduagba, So. ; agya, Is. 
CHEST : e,w, E. ; ida, Ij. Sa. ; uda, Ar. ; emo, Ok. ; iga, Ot. ; 

akanudu, Agb., udu, Agv., Es., Uz. ;iSobo, aiye, Ib., Ko. ; 

irenwe, So. ; omu, Is. ; e,kodi, Aj. 
CHIEF : gxaime, pi. ixaimi, E. ; gligili, Ij. ; qligie, Ar. ; ovie, 

Ok. ; okpusa, Ot. ; okainio, Agb., Agv., Uz. ; omoike, Ib., 

Ko. ; ita, So. ; awotu, Ew. ; qtota, Sap. ; oletu, Iy. ; onetu, 

Agb. 

CHIN : agba, Edo ; agboto, Sobo. 
CHISEL : ana, E. ; avig, Agb., Uz. ; ahia, Agv. 
CIRCUMCISE, excise clitoris, v. : irhue, E. ; iru^lqmo, Agb. ; 

ituelgmo, Agv. ; irhuglQino, Es. ; itueloiya (a man). 
CLAY (for house) : eke, E. ; owete, Agb. ; ow^re, Agv. ; e,kme, 

Ewu. 

(for pots) : obwQ, E. ; ogwe,, Agb. ; ibi, Agv. ; agaga,. 

Ewu. 
CLEAN, v. : ihwale, E. ; ikia, Agb.; ikia, Agv.; igbolqlia, Es. ; 

ikbeminao ?, Uz. 
CLIMB HILL, v. : ihioke, E. ; izelege, Agb.; ihaloke, Agv. ; iyadam- 

okefere, Es. ; iseokwigge, Uz. 

(tree) ; v. : ihiuhum^ra, E. ; izelukuluta, Agb. ; ihalo 
kumurha, Agv. ; iadamorbafgge, Es. ; iseosomura, 
Uz. 
CLITORIS : avie, E. ; ikpili, Ar. ; ukpaba, Sa. ; uga, Ok. ; usoma- 

gba, Ot. ; ab^ge,, Agb. ; ukpe, Agv. ; ukpqba, Es. ; ubioxolo, 

Em. ; okqreko, Ew. 

CLOTH : ukmgn, E. ; ukbo, Agb..; anma, Sap. 
CLOUD (DARK) : amqbi, E. ; am^suebili, Agb. ; ameaholu, Agv. ^ 

amoiziebilu, Uz. 
COHABIT WITH, v. : itume, ihuele, E. ; igqlqgwe, Agb. ; 

inoinogwe, Agv. ; iviokposogwe, Uz. 
COLLECT, v. : isi^koko, E. ; isiakokore, Agb. ; ikokQiire, Agv. ; 

ivwehawekoko, Es. ; (ground nuts), inQnqlaikokQre, Uz 
COMB : oiiya, E. ; a^iayeto, Agb. ; oyayeto, Agv. ; uzazetu, Es. ; 

azaitu, Uz. 



158 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 

COME : id'e, Ed. ; fde, Ij. ; fde,, AT. ; me"de, Ok. ; inide, Ot. ; ivare, 

Agb., Agv. ; ivai, Es., Uz. ; amizezi, Is. ; mekia, Em. ; meea, 

Aj., Sap. ; meheca, Ug. ; meta, Ew. ; mecaiyo, ly. ; meaika, 

Ag. ; mekia, Ovu. 
COMPLIMENT, v. : iwQmado (I say to man, I salute him), E. ; 

iyoxituo (I say to him, I salute him), Agb. ; iwexiatuqli, 

Agv. ; iyoxiatuqli, Es. 
COMPOUND : e,ke,lafe, Agb. ; Qkejafe, Agv. ; okbuna, Es. (fence 

of house) ; afe, Uz. 

COOK, BOIL, v. : ile,, E. ; inie, Agb., Agv., Es., Uz. 
COOKING POT : uwawa, E ; ugwe, Agb. ; owawa, Agv. ; uwawa 

(soup), axe (tufu), Es. ; ake [nargze], Uz. ; Qwqle, Sap. 
COOL (make), v. : igagi^furi, E. ; izofo, Agb. ; igoifo, Agv. ; 

ifwqlQli, Es. : izoif wa, Uz. 

COUNT, v. : ikai, E. ; ika, Agb. ; ikale, Agv., Es. ; ikalari, Uz. 
COURT : adesukpafe, E. ; akotafoa, Agb. ; Qgodo, Agv. ; 

atokpafe, Uz. 
COWRIES : igo, ikpigo, E. 

CRAMP : er;ra, E. ; wqlomakpakpa, Agb. ; iriro, itito, Agv. 
CROCODILE : agbaka, qne, E. ; onye, Agb. ; Qgile, Es. ; oniada, 

Es. ; agbakla, Aj. 
CROSS (river), v. : ifiezgra, E. ; ife,dara (I enter river), Agb. ; 

ifwQdQra, Agv. ; igbqrada, Es. ; idada, Uz. 
CUT, v. : ifiai, E., Uz. ; ivaloi, Ij. ; ivialo, Agb. ; ibiali, Agv., 

Es. ; menyalie, ly. ; menyamelg, Ag. 
CUT UP, v. : ivale, E., Es. ; iwanQlo, Agb. ; isolgli, Agv. ; 

izoieva, Uz. 

DANCE, v. : igbe, iku, ikulu, E. ; igbeliini, Agb. ; igbexeli, Es. ; 
igbokai, Uz. ; (I play song) migbegbe, Aj. ; migbigbe 
Ug., Ag., Ov. ; mikbehao, Em. ; megbeha, ly. 

(man's) : isakpaide, E. ; agbgnugie, Agb., Agv. okaimoi, 

Uz. ; exa, Sap. 
(woman's) : igbelemokposo, Agb. ; igbeminikoxuo, Agv. ; 

okaikposo, Uz. ; exa, Sap. 

DAY : de, E., Es., Sobo ; e,le, Agb., Agv., Uz. ; ogo (whole 
day), Uz. 



COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 159 

TO-DAY : gle,, E. ; ge,le, Agl> ; gleno,, Agv. ; eleje. Es. ; 

eje,, Uz. ; none, Sobo. 
TO-MORROW : axwe, E. ; akwe, Agb. ; ako, Agv. ; axo 

Es. ; akwe, Uz. ; ode, Sobo. 

3RD DAY : ilaxwe, E. ; akwefwa (to-morrow finish), Agb., 
Uz. ; e,tiako, Agv., Es. ; edejelo, Sap ; erehep, Aj. ; 
Qdqglo, Ug. ; Qdezgro, En. ; edeyoro, Ag. 
4TH DAY : un?QlQ, E. ; akwearesuzi, Agb. ; ^sgd^ne, Agv. ; 

gdengle,, Es. ; udgne, Ug. 

OTH DAY : usigle,, E. ; urelgle,, Agb. ; uheleje,, Agv. 
6TH DAY : e.dehae.le,, E. ; kpgleeraeje, Agb. ; Qdahaeje,, 

Agv. 

VTH DAY : gdehmoQle,, E. 
STH DAY : nQvede,lwane, E. 

YESTERDAY : node, E. ; node, Agb. ; node, Agv. ; node, 
Es. ; eneuode, Uz. ; gke/lQle,, Sap. ; odepwho, Aj. ; 
gdeokpoli, Ug. ; qderowali, Ag. 

3RD DAY : ngggdia, E. ; qnukp^node, Agb. ; inolua, 
Agv. ; Qsgdea, Es. ; e.ne.kpode, Uz. ; edeho^vie, Aj. ; 
odeglokpoli. 
4TH DAY : n^g^dene, E. ; inqkpinekbude, Agb. ; ^sedene, 

Agv.; Es. 

5TH DAY: n^vuse, E.; eleosikpilizi, Agb. ; Qleosuh^le, Agv. 
GTH DAY : nevedeta, E. 
TTH DAY: nevedehino, E. 

DELIVER A MESSAGE, v. : igwaxa, ininie, E. ; itame (I tell), 
Agb. ; itamale, Agv. ; itaniale, igiqli, Es. ; igioiuso 1 (I 
say to him, you understand), Uz. 

DESCEND, v. : iture, E. ; irhure, Ij. ; mebepenarike, Ok ; 
ize,lede, Agb. ; itu^re, Agv. ; idawohraru^re, Es. ; ikfamde, 
Uz. 
DESTROY, SPOIL, v. : irhialua, E. ; itialQiya, Agb. ; itialQria, 

Agv. ; idumqlia, Es. ; itiala, Uz. 
DETACH, v. : irhalehi, E. ; irhielowgri, Agb. ; irhiolewqri, 

Agv. ; italgle, Es. ; iwadiowo, Uz. 

DEVASTATE, v. : igenowa, E. ; itonaleia (burn), Agb. ; itonqlia, 
Agv. ; itu^lqla, Es. ; itonewola, Uz. (I burn it down). 



160 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 

DIG, V.: itQnoii, E. ; iatoi, Ij. ; igwa, Agb. ; igwanqli, Agv. ; 

igwale, Es. ; igwa, Uz. 
DIG UP, v. : ivw, E. ; igbololo, Agb. ; igbolqli, Agv. ; itinia 

(yams), Es. ; igwaiio, Uz. 

DIE, v. : iwu, E. ; igu, Agb. ; igulu, Agv. ; iyulu, Es. ; igu, Uz. 
DIGGING STICK : ogba, E. ; osiii, Agb. ; Ekwia, Agv. ; ogba, 

Es. ; otsui, Uz. 

DOOR : QXII, E. ; ukazi, Agb. ; ku, Agv. ; (jxu, Es. ; gku, Uz. 
DOORWAY : onurhu, E. ; unugi, Agb. ; olukwQde, Agv. ; ode, 

Es. ; unugioa, Uz. ; e,kie, Sap. ; aliniQke, Ew. 
DREAM, v. : iinina, E. ; iwona, Agb. ; iwohie, Agv. ; iwohie, 

Es. ; iwona, Uz. ; memerhemere, Aj. 
DRESSING PIN : ukoti, E. ; uke, Agb. ; ubg, Agv. 
DRINK, v. : inwo, idai (wine), E. ; mQrimwo, Ok. ; minwo, 

Ot. ; iyame, idanio, Agb. ; inyame, Agv. ; idainyo, 

imwameo, Es. ; iwo, Uz. ; medame, Aj. ; medemu, Ov. ; 

medudi, Iy., Ag. 
DRIVE AWAY, v. : ixwefwa, E. ; ixola, Agb. ; ikwqli, Agv. ; 

ikulaiekbako, Uz. 
DRUM, CHIEF'S : izSduma, E. ; emaxwqlenugie, Agb. ; ebax- 

wejenugie, Agv. ; abejbe, Uz. ; Qge/lQ, Sap. 
MAN'S : Qmogo, E. ; akwema (big), Es. 
DOCTOR'S : ige.de, E. ; ike^bo, Agb. ; ikede, Uz. 
WOMAN'S : em^rakpaide, E. ; Qk^ga, Agv. ; ube, Uz. 
STICK : ok^ke, E. ; osqkpurokaga, Agb. ; ukpaukidi, Agv. 
DRY MYSELF, v. : ixiqgbe, E. ; ikpol^gbia, Agb. : izbol^gbia, 

Agv. ; iakaibe, Es. ; ikaigbe, Uz. 

EAR : eh^, E., Agv., Es., Sa. ; eo, Ar. ; erh^, Ok. ; gozqgi, Ot. ; 

ezo, Agb. ; ewo, Uz. ; esp, Ib., Ko., Ibl., Is., Iy. ; erho,, 

Em., Ag. ; orho, Aj., Ew., Sap. 
EARRING : ikb^mewo, Uz. 
EAST : Ohimi, unwowie, E. ; Qbeleragyiri, Agb. ; Qgovoida- 

gere, Agv. ; qligbia, Uz. ; olivi, Aj. 
EAT, v. : iri;mi, il^, E. ; ialimi, Ij. ; meriri, Ok. ; milezi, Ot. ; 

iile, Agb. ; ileme, Agv. ; ilSbale, Es. ; ile, Uz. ; meliQino 

Ag., Aj., Em., Ov. ; meliare, Iy. 



COMPARATIVE DICTION AKY. 161 

DON'T, v. : iil, E. ; iale, Ij. ; igoxili, Ar. ; megQmeroni^ 
Ok. ; mierilunivo, Ot. ; ule, Agb. ; ilexileme, Agv. ; 
inegemonao, Aj. 

FORBID (food), v. : iwa, E. ; igwa, Agb. ; meya, Em. 
EAVES : iname, E. ; akeda, Agb., Agv., Uz. ; Qgbede, Es. 
EIGHT : glqle, E., Sa., Ib., Sobo ; ;le,le, Agv., Es. ; inyene, Ar., 

Ok. ; enye, Ot., Ib. ; inye.nie, So. ; hue, Is. ; e,le, Agb,,, 

Uz., Sobo. 
EIGHTEEN : ivarawugye, E. ; ikevasue, Ij., Sa. ; kevaresue, 

Ar. ; karevuye, Ok. ; azevasowigye, Ot. ; igbele, Agb.,. 

Uz. ; igbenene, Agv. ; evaigbenebe, Es. ; igbele, Uz. ;. 

ixwewenele, Aj. ; ixwigbelele, Em., Ew. ; ixwoligbera,. 

Sap., ly. 
ELBOW : igwabg, E., Es., Agb., Agv. ; ugwabo,, Ij. ; ugwobq,, 

Sa. ; akpagobq, Ar. ; ukoxwaxwa, Ok. ; ukpegabQ, Ib. ; 

ukpabq, Ko. ; ukpanobQ, So. ; usulobg, Is. ; erhuobo;, 

Em. ; egorobQ, Aj. 
ELEVEN : owqro, E. ; jgbglo, Ij. ; igbgkpa, Ar., Ot. ; ogbgrawo, 

Ok. ; ugbolo, Sa. ; ugboluo, Agb. ; ugbolu, Agv. ; igboloa, 

Es. ; igbgloa, Uz. ; igbaloguo, Ib. ; igbaguo, Ko. ' r 

igbanowo, So. ; oguto, Ibl. ; bebqlgda, Is. ; IXWQVO, Em. ;; 

UWQVO, Aj. ; ukwQvo, Ug. ; UXWQVO, Sap., Ag. ; IWQVO,. 

iy- 

ENEMY: ogia, E., Sa. ; odimi, Ij. ; obe, Ar., Ok., Ot. ; obie, 

Agb. ; obe, Agv., Uz. ; ovQgle, Em. ; ovQgile, Aj. ; uk^rne, . 

Sap. ; oliofle, Iy. ; ovlovlo, Ag. 

EXHALE, v. : ibqwerioto, E. ; iy^zeoto, Agb. ; iyehiegoto, Agv. 
EXTINGUISH, v. : isi^koto, E. ; isiqkQloto, Agb. ; isoikioto, 

Agv. ; imwQladenare, Es. ; ipunoiya, Uz. 
EYE, FACE : alo, E., Agb., Agv., Es., Uz. ; e,lo (e,ro), Sobo. 

Eye, also: ikpalo, Agb., Agv., Ugbelu, Uz., lolo, Es. ; 

ukpQlu, Ib. ; ukpamelu, Ko. ; id^du, So. ; am, Is. ; ovaro,. 

Aj. ; owaro, Ew. 
EYEBROW: ikalo, E. ; Qgogom^lo, Ar. ; oxomil$lo, Ot. ; igogejo; 

Sa. ; ikokalo, Agb. ; !kalo, Agv. ; itif^lu, Es. ; ikpivialo^ 

Uz. ; Qgbglo, Em., Sap. ; qkmaro, Aj. 
EYELASHES : ifwalo, E. ; etuxuxume.le, Ar. ; ituilo 1 , Ok. ; 

II. M 



162 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 

utukwimilo, Ot. ; iruQlo, Sa. ; ivovalo, Agb. ; ifualo, Agv. ; 
ihuglo, Es. ; ifufwalo, Uz. : etuejo, Em., Sap. ; ifofaro, 



FALL, v. : id, E. ; ide, Agb. ; ide,re, Es. ; ide., Uz. 

FAMILY : e,gb, E. ; eale, Sa. ; ftzizi, Agb. ; unwele, Agv. ; 

egbe, Es. ; usisi, Uz. ; inyogo, Ib., Ko. ; iminyo, Ibl. ; 

obinowe, Is. ; olwa, Em. ; e"kulu, Aj., Ew. 
FARM : ugbo, E. ; ime, Agb., Uz. 

OLD : ogo, E. 
FELL A TREE, v. : ile,ragboto, igbehra, E. ; igbohra, Agb. ; 

ihiQradio, Es. ; ifioraigbe, Uz. 
FELL, v. : itu^gboto, E. ; igborhadio (tree), Agb. ; igbolQgio, 

Agv. ; iruzeaihi[ora], Es. ; ifioigbe, Uz. 
FETCH, r. : iyamwe, E. ; itielore, Agb. ; ihoanoiya, Es. ; inwoidi, 

Uz. ; memitobe, Ib., Ko. ; mizegbegwaizi, Is. ; ekaimwore, 

Aj. 
FIFTEEN : ikesugie, E. ; igbehene, Ij. ; igbihi, Ar. ; Qgbise, 

Ok. ; igbize, Ot. ; igbihe^e, Sa. ; igbese, Uz. ; ixwioli, 

Em. ; ixioli, Ew. 
FIFTY : ikegbesia, E. ; evaigbe, Ij., Ar., Ko. ; iesa, Ok. ; 

iegevarigbe, Ot. ; igboivaekpeigbe, Sa. ; uwovikpanigbe, 

Agb. ; uwovabigbe, Agv. ; ekigbesia, Es. ; igboivaik- 

pegoigbe, Uz. ; evegbe, Ib., Ibl. ; isievantigbe, So. ; 

Qgbelevabeligbe, Is.; ugioli, Em.; uzuvegbixwe, Sap., 

Ew. ; ujuvegbiwe, Aj. 
FIGHT, v. : igbina, igw^gbina, E. : imakgle, Agb. : imakQle, 

Agv. ; ikgli, Es. ; ikoi, Uz. 
FILE : olima, E. ; onima, Agb, Agv. ; eli, Uz. 
FILE TEETH, v. ; isakg, E., Agb., Uz. 
FIND (SEE), v. : imioi, igwaloi, E. ; mimosa, Ot, ; imieloo, Agb. ; 

imioni, Agv. ; imiqli, Es. ; ikeloi (I look for it), Uz. ; 

memeleje, Aj. ; megwolQ, Em. 
FINGER : ikpihab^, E., Ij. ; ikanabg, Ar., Ok. ; ikagobg, Ot. ; 

ukpobQ, Sa. ; buzobQ, Ag. ; ikpwabg, Ib. ; inesabg, Ko. ; 

oza, Is. ; uriabq, Em. 



COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 163 

FINISH, r. : ilugfo, E., Ij. ; miygfo, Ok. ; miyone, Ot. ; ilulone, 

Agb. ; iluQlifo, Agv. ; iluolgfo, Es. ; isQsene, Uz. ; 

mihiomile, Ov. ; meluiio, ly. ; milulune, Ag. 
FIRE ; e.hi-0, E. ; eta, Agb. ; erane, Agv., Es. ; etai, Uz. ; 

erhale, Sap. 
FIRST : oka, nokalo, E. ; gziqzi, Agb., Uz. ; qliqliQli, Agv. ; 

okaro, esigvo, Ug. 
FISH ; ehe, E. ; ilehie, Ar. ; afgremi, Ok. ; ilezie, Ot. ; eheje, 

Sa., Agv. ; eze, Agb. ; Qse, Uz. ; e,li, Em., Aj., Ew. ; elie,, 

Sap. 
FISH SPEAR ; akaihQ, E. ; ukpgle.ku, Agb. ; 5zui, Agv. ; opolo, 

Es. ; Qga, Sap. 

FISHER : Qgbeke,, E. ; Qgbeze, Agb. ; Qgbehele, Es. ; QkQgo, Aj. 
FIVE : is, E., Es. ; ihe,ne, Ij. ; ihi, Ar. ; isili, ezi, Ok. ; ize, Ot., 

Agb. ; ihqle,, Sa. ; jse, Uz. ; ise, Ib., Is. ; isie, Ko. ; ize, 

So., Ib. ; inyoli, Em., ly. ; iyuli, Sap., Aj., Ag. ; iyoli, Ew. 
FLAME: Qba, E. ; awalawaleta, Agb.; olgmerone, Agv.; 

eranovala, Es. ; olgmeta (tongue of fire), Uz. ; Qgaga, Sap. 
FLESH : ^M, E., Agb., Agv., Es. ; QmakpokpQ, Aj., ly. ; umq, 

Ew., Sap. 
FLOG, v. : igb, ifielimi, E. ; itelimigbo, Agb. ; iremigbQli, 

Agv. 
FLOOR : otowa, E. ; otQlowa, Agb. ; otQloa, Agv., Es. ; elu (?), 

Uz. ; utumwemi, Sap. ; ohonwoli, Ey. 
FLUTE : ^lele, E. ; ulele, Agb. ; alele, Agv. ; ufe, Uz. 

CALABASH : okbe, Qzike,, E. ; utuko, Agb. ; akala, Agv. ; 

okpai, Uz. 
FLY : udia, E., Ot., Agv. ; uze, Ar. ; uda, Ok. ; uzia, Agb. ; 

uja, Es. ; ija, uja, Uz. 
FLY, v. ; iti, E. ; iti, Agb. ; iti, Agv. ; itiui, Es. ; ida, Uz. ; 

meda, Aj. 
FOLLOW, v. : ilele,, E. ; it^xalo, Agb. ; itgkalqli, Agv. ; ir^xale, 

Es. ; it^kalo, Uz. 
FOOT, LEG : OWQ, Edo ; Qkowe, Ib., Ko. ; ijig^ke, So. ; Qbg, Is. ; 

OWQ, Sobo. 
FORBID, v. : iw, E. ; igwa, Agb. ; igwa, Agv. ; iwa, Es. ; 

igwa, Uz. 

M 2 



164 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 

FORGE ; qgwogu, E. ; ugolozami, Agb. ; ugolohami, Agv. ; 

ugolozami, Uz. 
FORGET, r. : inyamfe, E. ; iyelia (I think away), Agb., Es., 

Uz. ; irnal^, Agv. ; mekaihoo, Aj. ; makaruo, Ov. 
FORGIVE, v. : iyane^xweji, E. ; igbekwane, Agb. ; igbe.kwanale, 

Agv. ; iranamaia, Es. ; igbekwanai, Uz. 
FOREHEAD : uhalu, ejhai, E. ; erhai, Ar. ; ikbo, Ok., Ot. ; 

unugbo, Agb., Uz. ; ugbo, Agv. ; Qgogo, Es. : oxwa, Em. ; 

arhale, Aj., ly. ; ekuri, Sap., Ag. ; ekbele, Ew. 
FORTY : iyeva, E. ; ibweva, Ij. ; igboleva, Ar., Agb., Agv. ; 

leva, Ok. ; iegeva, Ot. ; igboiva, Sap. ; egbeva, Es., Ib. ; 

eboiva, Ko. ; isieva, So. ; agbalava, Ibl. ; egbeleva, Is. ; 

uzuve, Em., Sap., Ew. ; uyuve, Aj., ly. 
FOUR : jn$, E., Agv., Es. ; ene, Ij., Ar., Ok., Ot, Ib.,' Ko., So., 

Ib., Is. ; e,ne, Aj., Ug., ly., Ag. ; eji, Agb. ; gdi, Uz. ; ele, 

Sap., Ew. 
FOURTEEN : iwene, E. ; igbene, Ij., Ar., Ot., Sap., Es. ; Qgbene, 

Ok. ; igbeleji, Agb. ; igbelene, Agv. ; igbe,di, Uz. ; ixwene, 

Em. ; ixwcle, Sap. ; iwene, ly. 
FOWL : QXQXQ,, E., Ot. ; ogbigbi, Ar. ; qkqkq, Ok., Agb., Uz. ; 

oqko, Agv. ; Qko, Awoiki ; qxo, Aj. 
FRIEND : ose, E., Aj., Sap. ; omwe, Ij., Ar. ; omoemi, Sa. 
FUNNEL (OF BELLOWS) : obwe, E. ; ibiami, Agv. 

GATHER (FRUIT), v. : ikqloi, E. ; ikgno, Agb. ; ikQlqli, Agv. ; 

ifgdi (coconuts), Es. ; ikokoviobure, Uz. 
GET UP : ikpaigbe, E. ; ikpare, Agb. ; ikpano, Agv. ; ikpailo, 

Es. ; ikiowikpalo (I wake rise), Uz. ; mivle, Aj. ; me vie, 

Sap. 
GIRDLE (BLACK) : akbolu, E. ; onqkbQ, Agb. ; QlQkbq, Agv. - T 

ekpolu, Es. ; anQkbq, Uz. 
GIRL : awoxoxu, E. ; ivieleki, Ij. ; an;ki, Ar. ; gmgrnQzi, Ok. L 

Qm^kposo, Ot. ; awoxaleke, Sap. ; qmqzi, Agb., Uz. ;. 

Qmohi, Agv. ; Qmami, Es. ; ukukwqzi, Ib. ; Qmoisi, Ko., 

So. ; qmobisi, Is. ; QmQte, Sobo. 
GIVE A DASH TO, v. : iyemine, E. ; it^bimine, Agb. ; iremiyQli,, 

Agv. ; irheminQli, Es. 



COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 165 



GIVE IN MARRIAGE, v. ; iyQmQne, E. ; itgrnqne, Agb. ; 

erhomQnQle, Agv. ; irhamenale, Es. 
Go, v. : ixia, E. ; ida, Agb. ; ikia, Agv. ; miaje, Ib. ; miaji, Ko. ; 

mikije, So. ; ameyode, Is. ; meyara, Em. ; inehiale, Aj. ; 

inehialo, Sap. ; mehialao, Ug. ; AWAY, ikpare, E. ; mikbo, 

Ug. ; meniakbo, Ew. ; mikbo, Iy., Ag., Ovu. 
Go ON, v. : ixiodalu, E., Es. ; ixiara, Agb. ; ikia, Agv. ; ikpako, 

Uz. 
Go TO SLEEP, v. : ilaiyanoari, E. ; iraniagwe, Agb. ; ilananagwa, 

Agv. ; ianowehawe, Es. ; iagwe, Uz. ; mihiere, Aj. 
GOAT : e,we, E., Ij., Ar., Sa., Agv., Ew. ; izili, Ok. ; QWI, Ot. ; 

qgwe, Agb. ; Qgwi, Uz. ; e,ve, Em., Sap., Aj. 
GRAVEL : ;kpihe, E. ; jkpido, Agb. 
GROUND : oto, Edo, Sobo. 
GROWS, IT, v. : okaminahu (corn), E. ; QWU, Agb. ; qhu, Agv. ; 

orhagi^ri, Es. ; otolgmi, Uz. 
GROW, v : ihwale, E. ; imewo, Agb. ; ihulu, Agv. ; itale, Es. ; 

ilgmi, Uz. 
GUN : Qsisi, E., Agb., Agv., Es. ; unu, Sap. 



HAIR : etoQtu, E., Ar., Ok. ; eto, itsu, Ib., Ko., So. ; exu, Is. ; 

eto, Sobo. 
HAIR (IN THRUMS) : ifieto, E., Agv. ; ixie eto, Agb. 

PLAITS : qmeto, E. ; ibeto, Agb. ; ubeto. 
HAIR PIN : azuwa, E. ; ugme,, Agv., Es. 
HAMMER : uniomg, E., Agv. ; umomi, Agb. 
HAND (see also ARM) : ikanabQ, Ok. ; ekobQ, Ib., Ko. ; iminabQ, 
So. 

BACK OF HAND : iyekobq, E., Agb. ; ehiemobq, Ij. ; 
oxoxobQ. Ar., ukoxira, Ok. ; ehinobg, Sa. ; ikobQ, 
Es. ; ubukobQ, Aj. 
LEFT : QgobQ, Edo ; irhorara, Ok. ; obqxuere, Em., 

Aj. 

EIGHT : oberha, E. ; obgdi^n, Ij., Ar., Ot., Sa. ; erhoine, 

Ok. ; obeta, Agb. ; obira, Agv., Es. ; obqre, Em., Aj. 

HARMATTAN : Qxwaxwa, E. Es. ; Qpakpa, Agv. ; okiekevo, Uz. 



166 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 

HAT : ukata, E., Uz. ; irngrova, Agb. ; umQlqva, Agv. 

HATE, v. : ey^me, E. ; iho, E. ; eeggme, Ij., Ar. ; ikele, ogqlene, 

Agb. ; iyaholo, oiyagQl^me (man does not please me), 

Agv.; ieme, Es. 
HEAD : fihuinu, E. ; ohurnu, Ij. ; uwo, Ar. ; ima, Ok. ; uso, 

Ot., ly. ; uhumu, Agv. ; uh^mo, Es. ; uro, Agb. ; usui, 

Uz. ; oyo, Em. ; uhiu, Aj. ; usio, Ew. ; uyo, Sap. ; 

uzo, ly. 
HEART : ekokodu, E., Es. ; udinikpuwu, Ij. ; ukomemo, Ok. ; 

iyu, Ot. ; agogodu, Sa. ; ukbo, Agb., ukbu, Agv. ; okba, 

Ib. ; ukbako, (?) Ko. ; ofa, So. ; alawe, Em. ; ubiudu, Aj., 

Ew. ; ekodi, ly. 

HEARTH : alu^wu, E. ; glulu, Es. 
HELP (WITH LOAD), v. : ikpale. E. ; ikpalo, Agb. ; ikpalqli, 

Agv. ; imunoiya, Es. ; iyeloiya, Uz. 

(WITH MONEY), v. : iyqlobo ; E. ; idalobo, Agb. ; ida- 
lobo, Agv. ; ikpalobo, Uz. 
HIDE, v. : irhielele, E. ; ineheli, Ij. ; inaele, Ar. ; miuege, Ok. ; 

milawaga, Ot. ; itieveje, Agb. ; itiehgli, Agv. ; irgko (I 

take hide), Es. ; itoivgle, Uz. ; misilovlo, Aj. ; misigno, 

Em. 

HILL : oke, E., Agv., Es. ; ege, Agb., Uz. 
HINGE (OR DOOR POST) : ovi^xu, E. ; eku, Agb., Uz. ; oku- 

mQxu, Es. ; eb^rhie, Sap. 
HIT, SHOOT, v. : isai, E. ; isaloi, Ot. ; isalq, Agb. ; isal, Agv., 

Es. ; itsai, Uz. ; mesalo, Aj., Ag. ; mesalie, ly. ; mesaro, 

Em. 
HOE : Qgwe,, E. ; e,gw, Agb. ; ^gw, Agv., Es., Uz. ; ewolu, 

Sap. 

HONEY : onw2, E. ; eyo, Agb. ; Q!O, Agv. 
HOOK : ukade, E. ; ode,, Agb. 
HOP, v. : okbegi, Agb. ; okpasugie mugie, Agv. ; ibi, kpakpoyi, 

Ir. ; isokbigi, Uz. ; igogo, Aj. 
HORN : igo, E. ; ukba, Agb. ; ixwa, Agv. ; Qgbai, Uz. ; okli, 

Aj. 
HOUSE : ow^, E. ; oa, Agb., Agv., Uz. ; owa, Es. ; uiiwemi, 

Sap. ; unwQmi, Ew. 



COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 167 

How LONG : bqkpgs^, E. ; gbpirele, Agb. ; borigteye,, Es. ; 

aboirele, Uz. 
HUNDRED : iise, E. ; egbolihe, Ij. ; igbolihi, Ar. ; iesi, Ok. ; 

iigise, Ot. ; igbolihe, Sa. ; uwozi, Agb. ; igboheli, Agv. ; 

ise, Es. ; igboisi, Uz. ; uli, Em. 

Two HUNDRED : uli, E. ; Qgboigbe, Ij. ; igboegbe, Ar., 

Sa. ; iegbe Ok., Ot. ; uliive, Em. 
HURTS ME, IT ; I SUFFER PAIN, v. : Qdamegbe, E. ; Qtomqgbe, 

Agb., Agv.; (it aches me in the body); Qtooiya (it 

aches a man), Es. ; eminetorui (things ache), II z. 

INHALE, v. : ih^we,, E. ; iyQzig, Agb. ; iShiQ, Agv. 
IRON : QmatQfl, E. ; akuli, Agb. ; utelu, Aj. 

JOINT : axwe, E. ; akpaka, Agb. ; uro, Aj. ; Qglo, Ew. ; eru, ly . 
JUMP : iwoi isale, E. ; itiaokuli, ije, iwo, Agb. ; isale, Agv. ; 
isale, Es. ; idie, idaiyaokuli, Uz. ; mivleho, Aj. 

KEY (AND LOCK) : isahe, E. ; usiQvle, Sap. 

KILL , v : igbe, igbelua, E., Agb., Agv., Es., Uz. ; mixwili, Aj., 

Ag., Ov. ; mikbilie, ly. , mexwQle, Em. 

Kiss, v. : ihihiejunu, E. ; imimiQluno, Agb. ; iniimiqluno, Agv. 
KITCHEN : ukoni, E. ; inigu, Agb., Agv. ; Qgejiaima, Es. ; 

igbid;gu, Uz. ; ukoli, Ew. 
KNEE : uwawe, E. ; ugweloe, Ij. ; uwelia, Ar. ; okbo, Ok. ; 

igwagia, Agb. ; igwelowe, Agv. ; ukomegwe, Ib., Ko. ; 

ikaiukbo, So. ; ilebuba, Is. ; ugwele, Em. ; uworowo, Aj. 
KNIFE : elq, E., Agb., Agv. ; ogali, Es. ; uwQre, Uz ; avia, Sap. 

LANGUAGE, VOICE : urhu, E. ; urholo, Agb., Agv. ; agbaiwolo, 
Es. ; aizoma, Uz. ; ejaje, Ag. AGBEDE : urhuagbe/le, E. j 
urholigbe.de, Agb., Agv. ; emodgbe/Ie, Uz. EDO : urhuedo, 
E. ; urhol^do, Agb. ; urho^do, Agv. ; emo^do, Uz. ', 
oledo[aka], Sap. ; Qvev^leehuaka, Aj. ; (Edo = aka), 
Ag. HAUSA : urhuigabale, E. ; urhoipe, Agb. ; urhoikpe, 
Agv. ; ernoizama, Uz. ISHAN : urhuisa, E. ; urholesa, 
Agb. ; urhuesa, Es. ORA: urhuora, E. ; urholora, Agb. ; 



168 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 

urhoora, Agv. ; agmo, Aj. EKRI : urhusekri, E. ; 

urholisekili, Agb. ; urhosekili, Agv. ; ihrobo, Sap. ; 

ihrobo, Aj. ; cokili, Ag. SOBO : urhuobo, E. ; urhozobo, 

Agb, Agv. ; uhrobo, Aj. YORUBA : urhuaz^nQmo, E. ; 

urholeyagi, Agb. ; urhoyagi, Agv. ; emoiyagie, Uz. ; ko, 

Ag. 

LEAD : OZQ, E., Agv. ; okuli, Agb. 

LEAF : ebe, E., Sobo ; iraabe, Agb. ; imaibe, Agv., Es., Uz. 
LEARN, v. : iluqli, E. ; iwena, Agb. ; imwgnali, Agv. ; ilue, 

Es. ; iwna, Uz. 
LEAVE (A PLACE), v. : ikpahiigbede, ikbaihiedo, E. ; ixware- 

wainyo, Ar. ; ixwaiigbewo, Ot. ; ikparegbe.de, Agb. ; 

ikpakowigbgde, Agv. ; isiwubiajare, Es. ; ikpatozaitui, 

Uz. 
LEAVE BEHIND, v. : Jsiejaiodieke, E. ; izolobowieke, Agb. ; 

ifiolioiwiki, Agv. ; izaubowoto (on ground), Ir. ; iyoiikike 

(I tell him go back), Uz. ; micikobuko, Aj. 
LEGLET : isama (ivory), Uz. 
LEOPARD : atalakpa, E. ; e,kpe, Ij., Ar., Ok., Ot., Agb., Agv., 

Uz., Ib., So. ; ejkwe, Is. ; gkpe, Agenegbode ; ejql^kbo, 

Em., Sap. ; ujglami, Ew. 
LIE, v. : ilovie, E. ; igwg, Agb. ; inogog, Agv. ; ivahogwe, Ir. ; 

igue (? idegue), Uz. ; menyanofia, Aj. ; meniaoifia, Ug. ; 

memorofiao, Em. ; menqvle, Ty. ; ingtofia, Ag. ; metofia, 

Ov. ; meeamere, Sap. 
LIE DOWN, v. : iloviesoto, E. ; igwenoto, Agb. ; inogo, Agv. ; 

ivahogwe soto, Ir. 
LIE (TELL A LIE), v. : itogQ, E. ; imilev, Agb. ; imgl^fia, 

Agv. ; ivahogQli, Es. ; ifieta, Uz. 
LIGHT, v. : irhue, E. ; itetu, Agb., Agv. ; irhQle.ru, Es. ; 

iruvigru (I take lamp light) ; Uz. 
LIGHTNING : oxumuwiainye, E. ; aiyokuli, Agb. ; ainya, Agv. ; 

oiyalu, Es. ; ainifwa, Uz. ; aruore, Aj. ; ogeleniamaro, 

Ewu ; obibie, Sap. ; ogla, ly. ; oniamaro, Ag. 
LIP : axwarunu, axwaramunu, E. ; oxwarunu, Ar. ; okQrunu, 

Ok.; oxarunu, Ij., Sa. ; utukpunu, ukbotumunu, Agb.; 

ekpunu, Agv.; efunu, Es. ; ^tokpunu, Uz.; esunu, So.; 



COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 169 

isiunu, Is. ; ebobunu, Em. ; ebeunu, Aj. ; ebebulu, Ew. ; 

ebeloboto, Sap. ; ewaunu, ly. ; ebaunu, Ag. 
LISTEN, v. : idaiho (give ear), E. ; ikp^zo, Agb. ; ikaihp, 

Agv., Es ; irhewootg (I take ear on ground), Uz. 
LISTEN TO HIM, v. : idaizolo, Agb. ; idaihqli, Agv. ; ikaihfjli, 

Es. 
LIVE, v. : iro, E. ; iyele, Agb. ; ihi^lQme, Agv. ; iribp, ivaseyu, 

Es. ; iyele (I pass life) Uz. ; iwohelo, Aj. ; merie, ly. 
LIVE IN . . . v. : irigbede (Agbede), E. ; iyelewigbede, 

Agb. ; iwelewigbede, Agv. ; iriwubiaja (Ubiaja), Es. ; 

Uzaituiwele (Uzaitui), Uz. ; miholeleyubi, Aj. ; m^hewu, 

Ew, ; merobiyedeobone, ly. 
LIVER : udu, E., Es. ; idu, Agb. ; udo, Agv. ; idu, Ib., Ko. ; 

osu, So. ; eleko, Is. ; ivu, Aj., Ew. 
LOCK, v. : ixwigle, E. ; ifioi, Ij. ; ixuxuno, Ar. ; misioku, Ok. ; 

misononia, Ot. ; ifilg, Agb. ; ifiqli, Agv. ; ifisahawo, Es. ; 

ifioi, Uz. ; mekailp, Aj. ; mikaielo, Em. 
LOOK FOR, v. : ihu^le, E. ; izomeno, Ar. ; nimioda, Ot. ; ikelo, 

Agb. ; ihulqli, Agv. ; ilahoqli, Es ; ikelim^mio, idadakelo, 

(I want that I see it) Uz. ; miheleniwQvo, Aj. 
LOOK, v. : ige, E. ; igwe, Agb. ; igwegQge (I look), Agv. ; igw, 

Uz. ; milingwe, Aj. ; minhilo, Em. ; minilo, ly. 
LOOK AT : igglg, E. ; ixeo, Ar. ; midiloxruQ, igwo, Agb. ; 

iaggle, Agv. ; igele, Es. 
LOSE, v. : imwgfwa (throw away), E. ; iwaloiya, Agb ; oiyulu, 

Agv. ; oyulumi, Es. ; iwalawo, Uz. 
LOVE, v. : oiQm^ (he is dear to me), E. ; oiyag^m^gbe, Ij. ; 

uwegam^gbe (you), Ar. ; um^mi, Agb. ; ugolime, Agv. 
LUNGS : udonehogogo, E. ; udonovogo, Agb. ; uduenihoi, 

Agv. ; eiiwe (? = breast), Aj. 

MAGGOT : Qxoi, E. ; Qkoi, Uz. 

MAKE, v. : ilue, E. ; izezelo, ilulo, Agb. ; iluqli, Agv., Es. ; 

ilue, izQS^ (repair), Uz. ; miluo, Aj., Ew. ; merulie, ly. 
MAKE PEACE, v. (separate combatants) : imWQgbina, E. ; 

imulaikba, Agb.; imue.liQkwe.li, Agv.; imwewoxare, 

Es. 



170 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 

MAKE BASKETS, v. : idSxwai, E., Es. ; id5xwa, Agb. ; idukpali, 

Agv. ; idokwa, Uz. 

MAKE POTS, v. : imaxe, E., Es., Agb. ; imaki, Agv., Uz. 
MAN (MALE) : okpia, arhie, E. ; qrnoi, Ij., Ar., Sa., Uz. ; osing, 

pi. ahume, Ok. ; omoze, Ot. ; age,ne,^/. ig^ne, Agb., Agv. ; 

okwia, Es. ; osalee, Em. ; ohiare, Aj. ; osyare, Ew. ; osyale, 

iy. 

(HUMAN BEING) : gma, E. ; gloha, Ij. ; Qgbglo, Ar. ; oyunq, 
Ok. ; qso, Ot. ; olohalo, Sa. ; oiya, pi. eya, Agb. ; aya, 
Agv. ; oria, Es. ; oiya, Uz. ; oxwo, Sobo ; owo, 

iy- 

MARRY (WOMAN), v. : ilomgdo, E. ; iisamime, Agb. ; irikamime, 

Agv. ; ibqdo, Es. ; ohialgme, Aj. 

(MAN) : ilqmoxwo, E. ; itiami, Agb. ; etiame, Agv. ; 

igawoxwo, Es. ; melihaizewe, Aj. 
MAT (SLEEPING) : ewa, E. ; iwia, Agb. ; ewa, Agv. : ewa, Es. ; 

Qgbai, Uz. ; ilue, Sap. 
MEASURE, v. : imale, E. ; imalo, Agb. ; imalgle, Agv. ; imalejo, 

Es. ; imai, Uz. 
MEET, v. : ivale, E. ; igalori, Agb. ; ikolede, Agv. ; iklere, Es. ; 

idawai, Uz. ; mera, Aj. 
MEND, v. : idqnaii, E. ; izezelo, Agb. ; ihgholi, Agv. ; ikesuaxali, 

Es. ; ikzoigbe, (I put in body), Uz. ; merorhu^lo, 

Aj. 

MIDNIGHT : ogiasgn, E. 
MIRROR : uvug^gbe [place of mirror], E. ; ukpawie, Agb. ; 

ubuge,gbe, Agv. 
Miss, v. : ifi^do, E. ; midono, Sa., Ot. ; ifilqdo, Agb. ; ifi^do, 

Agv. ; ifiolido, Es. ; ifioido, Uz. ; mesalokio, Aj. ; mesalieto, 

Iy. ; mesaleco, Ag. 
MONKEY : em, E. ; emili, Ij. ; emile, Agb. ; glamokwi, Uz. ; 

Qiiweli, Em., Sap., Ew. ; ewe, Agenegbode. 
MONTH : uki, E., Agb., Agv., Es. 
MOON : uki, Edo ; e.rne.lame, Sobo. 
MORTAR : odo, E. ; ok<J, Agb., Agv., Es., Uz. ; odo, Sap. 
MOULD ; oviaxe, E. 
MOUTH : unu, Edo, Sobo. 



COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 171 

MUD : exwqr^, E. ; ekgro, Agb. ; ekgro, Agv. ; Qfiere, Es. ; okqto, 
Uz. ; ibexgre, Sap. 



NAIL : ehie,, E., Ij., Sa., Agv., Es. ; evie,, Agv. ; Qlexie,, Ar. ; 

e,fwe, Ok. ; etsie, Ib. ; epfiali, Ko. ; inyelesia, So. ; $ve, Is. ; 

ufofobQ, Em. ; isabq, Aj. 
NAME : eni, E., Agb., Agv., Es. ; elini, Ij., Sa. ; eva, Ar., Ok., 

Ot. ; eleli, Uz. ; ode,, Sobo. 
NAVEL : iixgn, E., Ij.. Sa. ; ukQ, Ok. ; ukqn, Ar., Agb., Agv., 

Es., Uz. ; ukohi, Aj. 
NECK : enyai, E. ; QQ, Ij. ; ugolo, Ar. ; ehani, Ok. ; iakwoso, Ot. ; 

ea, Sa. ; eya, Agb. ; ia, Es. ; ugueya, Uz. ; utu, Ib., Ko., 

So. ; usu, Is. ; uhq, Em. ; oho, Aj., Ew., ly. ; oxo, 

Sap. 
NET : Qga, E. ; !zaga, izaganaregbeze, (net you take kill iish), 

Agb. ; izaga, Agv. ; Qga, Es. ; e,rili, Sap. 
NIGHT : ason, E., Sobo ; elenwa, Agb. ; asu, Agv. 
NINE : ihini, E. ; isile, Ij. ; isini, Ok., Ar., Es. ; isi, Ot. ; isili, 

Sa., Agb. ; isini, Agv. ; iei, Uz. ; itili, Ib. ; itiili, Ko. ; 

esene, So. ; isie, Ib. ; iiss?e, Is. ; irili, Sobo ; izili, ly., 

Agb. 
NINETEEN : okpadewugye, E. ; ikeokpasue, Ij., Sa. ; kokparesue, 

Ar. ; karokpuye, Ok. ; azokpasowigye, Ot. ; igbesili, Agb. ; 

igbesini, Agv. ; ineigbehebe, Es. ; igbeci, Uz. ; ixwigbirili, 

Em., Ew. ; ixwebirili, Aj. ; ixwionigbele, Sap. ; ixwioligbene, 



NOD HEAD, v. : iluiguhumu, E. ; iye,gozorni, Agb. ; i 

Agv. ; ilu^gohgrngne, Es. ; iyegosomi, Uz. 
NORTH : ategu, Ageneg. 
NOSE : ihue, E., Ij., Ar., Sa., Es., Em. ; irhue, Ok., Izue, Ot., 

Agb. ; isue, Uz. ; \jiiwe, Sobo. 



OBEY (put hand), v. : iyoboiip, E. ; irerhoionigmi, Agb. ; 

irehoabuyemi, Agv. ; irhgwg, Es. 
OIL MYSELF, v. : iyudqwo, E. ; irudQinodaigbia, Agb. ; irudggbolo, 

Agv. ; iarewigbolo, Es. 



172 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 

OLD MAN : qmai, E. ; QingnQcliQii, Ij. ; qdign, Ar. ; QSQJQ, Ok. ; 
Qkpare, Ot. ; Qmohgdign, Sa. ; okb;zea, Agb. ; okbiha, 
Agv. ; qdomai, Es. ; okpisa, pi. ikpisa, Uz. ; qcqdio,, Ib., 
Ko. ; qkpai, So. ; qfwqlu, Is. ; Qmale, Em. ; owolo, 
Sap. 

ONCE : ohukpa, E. ; isokpa, Agb. ; osukpa, Agv. ; egekpa, 
Uz. 

ONE : owo, Qkpa, E. ; oo, Ij. ; Qkpa, Ar., Ot. ; ao, Qkpa, Ok., 
Sa. ; Qkpa, Agb., Agv., Es., Uz. ; Qgwo, Ib. ; oQgwo, 
Ko. ; owo, So. ; egwa, Ib ; auu, Is. ; QVO, Sobo. 

OPEN, v. : iwQ, E. ; iwenoa, Ar. ; mitauizi, Ok. ; mivwenoaga, 
Ot. ; ivngioli, Sa. ; itngie, Agb. ; itugiili, Agv. ; itugiqla, 
itugie.kpe.ti (box), Es ; ivugela, Uz. ; mirhiekie, Aj. ; 
rnirhiile, Ov. ; miziile, ly. ; mirile, Ag. ; minovigli, Em. 

ORDER, v. : imagie ; E. ; igelp, Agb. ; igiQli (I send him), Agv. ; 
igieli, Es. ; igie (I send), Uz. 

PACK, MAKE LOADS, v. : ikwihe, E. ; imaizua (I measure the 

load), Agb. ; imalihe,, Agv. ; imalgle, Es. ; imai (I measure), 

Uz. 
PADDLE : obgle,, E. ; uwewe, Agb., Agv. ; umaza, Es. ; 

ebenar^gweda, Uz. ; uvi, Sap. 
PAINT (BL.) : asu, E. ; asumi, Agb. ; QkQlQ, Agv. ; oduaso, Es. ; 

abii, Uz. 

PAINT BRUSH : ugbana, Agb. ; ugbe, Agv. 
PALM (of hand): atatabo,, E., Es. ; etabq, Ij., Sa. ; atalobq, Ar., 

Agb. ; uduerha, Ok. ; atalegobq, Ot. ; elemakobg, Ib. ; 

ekobQ, Ko. ; irewosa, So. ; ofwobq, Is. : eherobQ, Em. 

Aj. 
PALM WINE : ixwqxwe, odoxumu, Qgo, E. ; anyutq, ainyuxuli, 

anyiko, Agb. ; izu, ujuxumu, QgQlQ, Agv. 
PASS, v. ; igbe,rale, E. ; inalaude, Agb. ; inalode, Agv. ; 

igbgralia, Es. ; inoyode, Uz. 
PASSAGE ; Qleja, E. ; azauwolowa, Agb. ; orila, Agv., Es. ; 

azawalowa, Uz. 
PAY (for), v. : ihasa, E. ; ivalosa, Agb. ; ihalosa, Agv. ; ihasa, 

Em. ; ifaile, Uz. 



COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 173 

PEG : uke,ke, E. ; ikpe,geta, Agb. ; ukpalogu, Agv. ; ikbanogu, 

Uz. 
PENIS : ekia, E. ; ekwe, Ij., Ar., Ok., Sa., Agb., Agv. ; gekwe, 

0:. ; epa, Es. ; oso, Em. ; ohio, Ew., ly. ; oico, Sap. 
PERMIT (I agree), v, : ikwe, E. ; izolobo, iyamane, Agb. ; ig, 

Agv. ; igiqli (sand him), Es. ; ilamanai, Uz. [(1) I pray 

for him ; (2) I vow it for him ; (3) I allow it.] 
PESTLE : oviodo, E. ; omiokQ, Agb. ; nlokq, Agv. ; umokQ, Es. ; 

omiokg, Uz. ; qmodo, Sap. 
PICK UP, v. : irhigli, irholi, E. ; inawgla, Agb. ; itielqli, Agv. ; 

irholewoto, Es. ; izuewoto, Uz. 
PIERCE, PRICK, v. : ibie,le, E. ; ixai, isoloi, Ij. ; isolono, Ar. ; 

midemisnoni, Ok. ; misorhe, Ot. ; iluraile, Agb. ; ilomoli, 

Agv. ; ilumqli, Es. ; ivwanoi, Uz. 
PIERCE (spear), v. : isuoi, E. ; isoloi, Ij. ; isulo, ilumilg, Agb. ; 

isuqli, Agv., Es. ; ilumo, Uz. 
PILLAGE, v. ; irhale, wowa, E. ; ihilgle, Agb. ; ihioile, Agv. ; 

imaituewole, Uz. 
PILLOW : ukohumu, E. ; akpeozomi, Agb. ; ukpQhgino, Agv. ; 

ukohqmQ, Es. ; itikpeizo, Uz. ; okiyomi, Sap. 
PIPE : ikoko, E. ; obodu, Agb., Agv., Es., Uz. ; ukoko, Sap. 
PLANT, v. : ikoi, E. ; ikq, Agb., Agv., Es. ; ire,ko (I go plant), 

Uz. 
PLAY (game), v. : ik wixai, E. ( ? marbles) ; ikb^lewie, Agb. ; 

ux^le^mi, Agv. ; ixilg, Es. ; ikbelewie, Uz. 
POND, TANK, WATER HOLE : QgQdq, E. ; omi, Agb., Agv., Es. ; 

uteke, Uz. 
POT REST : ikewu, E. ; udigu, Agb. ; ;niu, Agv. ; akewu, Es. ; 

udigu, Uz. 
POTTER : gmaxe, E., Ij., Agb., Es. ; inemake, Ar. ; qromake, 

Ok. ; iniowe, Ot. ; qmake, Uz. 
PRAY, v. : ikpempgena, Agb. ; ikpaminogena, Uz. 
PRECEDE, v. : ikodalo, E. ; ikpogialo, Agb. ; ikodalo, Agv. ; 

ixiawodalo, Es. ; iyaloalo (I go ahead), Uz. 
PREPUCE : ukpekia, E. ; ukpekwe, Ij., Sa. ; orueli, Ar. ; urere, 

Ok. ; osomegikwe, Ot. ; ukbonekwe, Agb. ; ukbonexwe, 

Agv. ; ukpenepa, Es.; ublo, Em.; ubisi, Ew.; uveluve, ly. 



174 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 

PRIEST : ohenbq, ghokbg, E. ; qh-Qne,, Ij. ; ozi, Ar. ; oze, Agb. ; 

ShQli, Agv. ; qnoboitsa, Uz. ; urele, Ew. 
PULL, v. : isi'e, E. ; isilo, Agb. ; isiqli, Agv. ; igwa, Es. ; itsioi, 

Uz. 
PULSE, HEART BEAT : aflame, E. ; udofi, Agb. ; akofi, Agv. ; 

ukpudaihia, Es. ; aiyemobo,, Ib. ; okosi, Ko. ; ofo, So. ; 

isa, Is. ; oteye, Em. ; ohorobQ, Aj. ; eruobq (wrist), okodi 

(heart), Ew. ; eruobg, ly. 
PUSH, v. : istiali, E. ; iswalo, Agb. ; isualgli, Agv., Es. ; 

idzualabo (?), Uz. 
PUSH AWAY, UPSET, v. : irualefwa, E. ; ikbonolakwa, Agb. ; 

ikbonolakwa, Agv. ; irdqfia, Es. : idumemiuakwa (I throw 

things away), Uz. 
PUT ACROSS (river), v. : imornQgb^raize, iguame, E. ; imulgg- 

bergda, Agb.; idolQgbqrade, Agv. ; irholqwoko, Es. (I take 

canoe) ; iroiadada (I take man cross), Uz. 
PUT ON (cloth), v. : irhukmQfi, E. ; ikukpowQgbe, Agb. ; 

imoukukpQii (?), Es. ; mianmawowo, Aj. 
PUT UP, v. ; irhierho, E. ; itieQokuli, Agb. ; itiookumu, Agv. ; 

imualawoumu, Es. ; iruaokulo, Uz. 

QUARREL, v. : igwi, E. ; iagwe, Ij. ; igworholo, Agb. ; inoirholo, 
Agv. ; inova, Es. ; iwuo, Uz. 

EAIN: ame, amerhq, E. ; osio, Sobo. 

RAINBOW : ikpiame, E. ; anukwekwe, Uz. ; arokiyenie, Aj. ; 

alie, ly. 
RATTLE : ukase, ise, E. ; ekba, Agb. ; aze, Uz. ; ekie.kie.ge, 

Sap. 

RATTLE (cane) QlQgiQn, E. ; isagogo, Agv. 
READ, v. : iz, Agb., Agv., Es. ; idze, Uz. ; ine, (divine), 

Agenegbode. 
REAP, v. : ifie (qka), E. ; ib^, Agb., Agv. ; ibiqka (corn), Es. ; 

ikgkore (corn), Uz. 

RECKON, r. : iluigo, E. ; ilolikpigo, Agb. ; iloligo, Agb. 
REDUCE A JOINT, v. : ikweli, E. ; ikpenig, Agb. ; i 

Agv. ; izixQre, Es. 



COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 175 

REMEMBER, v. : iyele, E. ; iyelere, Agb. ; iyeqre, Es. ; iyere 

(I think to me (?)), Agv., Uz. ; mekaiholo, Aj. ; mekarole, 

Ov. 
RESPECT, v. : imuyiyuQgbe, E. ; imwegbgne, Agb. ; imweg- 

b^nale, Agv. ; imwQgbe.noiya, Es. (I take my body for a 

man). 
RIB : ifamagbe, E. ; akpokakpefue, Sa. ; ugwiyeke, Agb. ; 

ukpumeke, Agv. ; ife, Es. ; ugwuzike, Uz. ; ugbegwefe, 

Ib. ; ugbakunie, Ko. ; iguefe, So. ; ibiefe, Ew. ; ibiedada, 

Sap. ; ibiekaka, ly. ; ibienede, Ag. 
RIDE : ihigzi, E. ; irele, Agb. ; ihgle, Agv. ; ihelakasi (I 

mount horse), Es. ; iseli, Uz. ; miesije, meluejigele, 

Aj. 

RING : oloka, E. ; ukbejomi, Agb. ; ukpe^omi, Agv. 
RIVER : e,ze, E. ; e,da, Agb. ; e,de, Agv., Es. ; urhie, Sap., 

Ewu. 
ROAD : ode, E. ; ugye, Agb. ; (fork of) ada, E., Uz. ; aderha, 

Sap. 
ROAST, v. : ito, E. ; it^lamito (I take meat roast), Agb. ; 

irhglamito, Agv. ; itqli, Es. 
ROOF : Qrurumowa, E. ; utotolowa, Agb. ; okumuwa, Es. ; 

ukululoloa (what protects house), usomemwe, Uz. ; Qky, 

Sap. ; QbQ, Ew. 
ROOM : uguga, E. ; ugwale, Agb. ; Qkgloa, Agv. ; Qgua (men's) 

Qmoa (women's), Uz. ; obevu, Sap. 
RULE, v. : iniQlela, Agb. ; imgnyaili, Agv. 
RUN,-?;. : irhule, E. ; irhiule, Ij. ; iyerune, Ar. ; mizeravala, Ok. ; 

mila, Ot. ; memealexia (? I go well), Sa. ; ina, Agb. ; 

ianole, Agv. ; itule, Irua ; miana, Ib. ; miana, Ko. ; 

migwe, So. ; amiasila, Is. ; mejiele, Em. ; mejubole, Ag., 

Ug. ; mejoneo, Ew. ; medione, ly. 
RUN AWAY, v. : il^le, E. ; inara, Agb. ; inekia, Agv. ; ilegbe, 

Ir. ; inakpalio, Uz. ; mejohele, Aj. 

SACRIFICE, v. ilu^limi, E. ; igbiminelimi, ialuobo, igbelimin!- 
xumi, Agb. ; igbeminikule, Agv. ; igbemireluQbo, Es. ; 
, Uz. 



176 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 

SALUTE A MAN, v. ; ituQina, E. ; ituoia, Agb., Agv., Es. ; 

ituele, Uz. 

SAND : Qxai, E. ; ikb^ke, Agb. ; ekade, Agv. ; owuri, Sap. 
SANDAL (wood) : ikarakbg Agb. ; ikatakbg, Agv. ; akbakaci,. 

Uz. 
SCATTER (throw away), v. : ivigkwa, E. ; ifikaka, Agb. \. 

ikwqlikwa, Agv. ; izagalokwa, Es. 
SCORPION : akpakugumaga, E. ; akbi, Agb. ; akme, Agv. ; 

akpakpasiinaga, Es. 

SCRAPER : ahia, E. ; avia, Agb., Agv. ; akbema, Uz. 
SECOND : nokenokalo, nogieva, E. ; onizeva, Agb. ; nozeva,. 

Es. ; egeva, uzeva, Uz. ; orive, Aj. ; esiava, esive, Uz. \ 

osiava, Ew. 
SEE, v. : id^gele, E. ; idagoi, Ij. ; imie, Agb. ; imiqli, Agv., Es. ;. 

imio, Uz. ; m^melQle, Aj., Em. 
SEIZE, v. : imwg, E. ; isumo, Ar. ; mimuoni, Ok. ; imulo, Agb. ; 

iniwQli, Agv. ; imwgli, Es. ; imwo, Uz. 
SELL, v. : ikieno, Ar. ; meduoni, Ok. ; ixie, E., Agb. ; irhgdg 

(I take sell), Agv. ; ikie,, Uz. ; mesie, Aj., Ew. ; misie, ly. 
SEND BACK, v. : igiumuw^rigbe, E. ; igelaiugigke, Agb. ;. 

igeley^ke, Agv. ; igiesode.ke.ke (I send one road back), 

Es. ; izoiaesike, Uz. 
SEND MESSAGE, v. : igiuhumu, E. ; igiurumi. Agb. ; iguh^mo, 

Agv. ; igiowoxahqmo, Es. ; igioiogo, Uz. 
SEND ON, v. : igeyariodalo, E. ; iyolarhieugialo (I say them, 

take road ahead), Agb. ; iyereyudalo (I say them go 

ahead), Agv. ; igiesokalo, Es. ; izoiaialualo (I let him go 

ahead), Uz. 
SET FIRE TO (HOUSE) v. : iygrhe [yowa], E. ; iyera [owa], Agb. ; 

iyeraiwa, Agv. ; iwerhaiawQri, Es. ; itetaemiria, Uz. 
SEVEN : ihino, E., Agv., Es., Ij., Sa. ; ihinia, Ar. ; isiowa,. 

Ok. ; izinia, Ot. ; izilo, Agb. ; iselua, Uz. ; isila, Ib. ; isilua, 

Ko. ; ifuina, So. ; izonua, Ib. ; isiene, Is. ; iwuli, Em., Sap., 

Aj., Ug., Ew., ly., Ag. 
SEVENTEEN : ehadawugye, E. ; ikehasue, Ij., Sa. ; kaiairasue, 

Ar. ; karesuye, Ok. ; azesasowigye, Ot. ; igbezilo, Agb. ; 

igbehino, Agv. ; eraigbehebe, Es. ; igbeselua, Uz. ;. 



COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 177 

ixwigbigwere, Em. ; ixwegbegwule, Aj., Ew. ; ixwiolig- 

bive, Sap., ly. 
SEW, v. : idoloi, is, Agb. ; isg, Agv. ; iasuimi, Agv. ; itsoi, 

ibukbu, Uz. 
SHAKE HEAD, v. : ifiiguhumu, E. ; iyegozomia, Agb. ; 

ideguhumu / Agv. ; iluegohqinwa, Es. ; iyegozomia, Uz. 
SHOOTING, GO OUT, v. : ibafi, E. ; iyakel^lamifi, Agb.; irarh- 

ueramifi, Agv. ; iderugiafiemi, Es. ; iyafi^lami, Uz. 
SHOULDER : izqbo,, E. ; ifwabq, Ok. ; ikpabo,, Ot. ; igidiabo,, 

Agb. ; ogijabo,, Agv. ; igiabq, Es. ; ugwidiabq, Sa. ; ike, Ib. ; 

adike, Ko. ; igamabo,, So. ; elehani, Is. ; are, Aj. ; 

akparobq, Ew. 
SHOUT, v. : izka, E. ; ivano, ikuilukoko, Agb. ; ikp^lukoko (I 

take high voice), Agv. ; isolo, Es. ; iva, Uz. ; misele, Aj. ; 

meselie, ly. 
SHOW, v. : imumale, E. ; irheuoxano, Ar. ; inidoxaroni. Ok. ; 

mirhokare, Ot. ; ite,m, Agb. ; irhemali, Agv. ; itemioi, 

Uz. ; meligle, Em. 
SHUT (BOX), v. : igwe,, E. ; ibioigbe, Ij. ; mevaroni, Ok. ; miwero, 

Ot. ; ivwe, Agb. ; iwole, Agv. ; ixwe.kpe.ti, Es. ; ivwe, Uz. ; 

meliugbe, Aj. ; mekailp, Ov ; mekalie, ly. ; mililagbe 

Ag. 
SHUT (DOOR), v. : iliQgbe, E. ; iguxumede, Ar. ; misioku, Ok. ; 

mikwoso, Ot. ; izelogba, Agb. ; izolekina, Agv. ; ibie,- 

kugbe, Es. ; ikunogie, Uz. 
SILENT, AM, v. : imunuyigbe, E. ; ivunov^gbe, Agb. ; 

irhunupggbe, Agv. ; (STOP SPEAKING) : ihunwa, E. ; 

igie,gia, Agb. ; ihweia, Agv. ; ihweia, Es. ; igiegia, Uz. 
SING, v. : isiuha, E. ; imiemie (sing chorus), Agb. ; imie,mie, 

Agv. ; isiglolo, Es. ; imiraiokai (answer to song), Uz. ; 

mesuole, Aj., Em. 
SIT : itota, E. ; iget, Agb. ; igiaotg, Agv. ; idiuta, Ir. ; idetp 

Uz. ; ieelia, Aj. ; micelia, Ug. ; mecedia, Em. ; me.ke.ria, 

ly. ; mekedia, Ag. ; mikgdia, Ov. ; mikedia, Sap. 
SIT DOWN (on gr.) : itotasotg, E. ; inetpotp, Agb. ; idiawot^, 

Agv. ; idiutasoto, Ir. 
Six: gha, E., Ij., Sa., Agv., Es.; isesa, Ar., Ok., Ot.; eza, 

II. N 



178 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 

Agb. ; esa, Uz., Em., Sap. ; e,sa, Aj., Ew., Iy., Ag. ; 
Qsesa, Ib. ; Eseesa, Ko. ; ezesa, So. ; isasa, Ib. ; Qsesai, 
Is. 

SIXTEEN : enelawugye, E. ; ikenesue, Ij. ; kainerasue, Ar. ; 

karenuye, Ok. ; azenezowige, Ot. ; ikenesue, Sa. ; igbeleza, 

Agb. ; igbeleha, Agv. ; okpaiigbehele, Es. ; ixwQgbesa, 

Em. ; igbelesa, Uz. ; ixwgbesa, Ew. ; ixwioligbgvo, Sap. ; 

ixwigbesa, Agb. 
SKIN : ikpakpa, E. ; ohiigbe, Es. ; inyamegbe, Sa. ; ekwesiegbe, 

Ib. ; ekwegbe, Ko. ; isi, So. ; ifafa, Is. ; ohoroma, Sobo. 
SKIN (MADE) : ohia, E. ; ovia, Agb. ; ohia, Agv. ; ohie", Sap. 
SKY : iso, oxumu, E. ; oxuli, Agb. ; oxumu, Es. ; okwi, Uz. ; 

ebieme, Aj. ; okesasali, Ew. ; oke, Iy., Ag., Ovu. 
SLAVE : vie, E., Ar. ; Qlogo, Ij. ; owumu, Ok. ; ogumu, Ot. ; 

QvTe, Sa. ; oguma, Agb., Agv., Uz., Ib., Ko. ; ;gmp, Es. ; 

Qvie,, Sobo. 
SLEEP, v. : ivie\ E. ; imehe, Ij. ; ivee, Ar. ; mewezela, Ok. ; 

miwize, Ot. ; imeheli, Sa. ; igwe, Agb. ; ive, Es. ; memere, 

Em. ; meverele, Sap. ; mekiere, Iy. ; misyelere, Ag. ; 

misiewere, Ovu. 
SLEEPING-ROOM (man's) : Qgwa, E. ; ebagwe, Agb. ; egiagwe, 

Agv. ; ekowa, Qgwa, Es. ; Qgwa (men's), e,moa (women's), 

Uz. ; obevu, Sap. 
SMOKE : igogo, E. ; ukbeleyo, Agb. ; Qho,, Agv. ; igego, Es. ; Qno,, 

Uz. ; oiiwiri, Sap. 
SOAP : (jvaxwe, E. ; osa, Agb. ; ebaxo, Agv. ; qbakg, Es. ; otza, 

Uz. ; ogia, Sap. 

SONG : ihua, E. ; ilolo, Agb. ; iyolo, Agv. ; okai, Uz. 
SOUP : umwQme, unye, E. ; oomi, Agb. ; oomq, Agv. 
SOUTH : atatu, Ageneg. 
SPEAK, v. : igwale, E. ; iateta, Ij. ; itS, Agb. ; fta, Agv. ; 

izurolo, Es. ; igwemoi, Uz. ; metota, Aj. ; metotao, Em. ; 

meteme, Iy. 
SPEAR : asolo, E. ; umasi, Agb. ; qkwQ, Agv. ; oga, Es. ; ogbqdo, 

Uz. ; ubili, Sap. 
SPEND, v. : iriaigwa, izagigwa, E. ; ifwekpigwa, Agb.; ifwekpigo, 

Agv. ; ifiganeia (I give money to them), Es. 



COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 179 

SPIDER : akpakpa, E., Agb., Agv., Uz., Ok. ; axwixwa, Ij. ; 

axwaxwa, AT. ; ale, Es. ; ekpikpa, Sa. : avele, Em. ; ohere, 

Aj. 
SPIN COTTON, v. : isiolulu, E., Agb. ; isiogu, Agv. ; irholulu, Es. ; 

itsolu, Uz. 
SPINE : ukokodiy^ke, E. ; ugogihimi, Ij. ; ugogomuxoxo, Ar. ; 

okouxoxo, Ok. ; otozi, Ot. ; ugogelimi, Sa. ; ogogliyeke, 

Agb. ; uguiki, Agv. ; ugogiki, Es. ; ugorQgbe, Uz. ; 

osoasugbuko, Aj., Ew. ; ogogubuko, Em. 
SPLIT, v. : ispli, E., Agv. ; ivaloi, Ij. ; mifwirori, Ok.; isQgielo, 

Agb. ; isolqli, ivalqli, Es. ; itzoloi, Uz. 
SPOON (native) : Qkokohie,, E. ; isokgli, Agb., Agv. ; ooi, Es. ; 

oqla, Uz. ; oyilala, Sap. 
SPREAD, v. : iwalewa (mat), Es. ; iwaihioto, Ij. ; mitama, 

Ok. 
SQUIRREL : qtafi, olele, UXQFQ, ukpobie, E. ; qta, qkqto,, qriQbe, 

Agb. ; qkQtq, osebe, Agv. ; ota, Es. ; okoto, Uz. ; aja, ewue, 

Aj. 
STAND, v. : imudia,E., Es. ; imiza, Agb. ; imugia, Agv. ; imuza, 

Uz. ; mexpga, Aj. ; mefoga, memudia, Ug. ; medikie, ly. ; 

memudia, Ag., Ov., Sap. 
STAND UP : ikparemudia, E. ; ikparemiza, Agb. ; ikpanomugia, 

Agv. ; ikpanomudia, Ir. ; ikpatemiza, Uz. ; mivle, Aj. ; 

mivlehoga, Ew. 
STAR : Qrhomi, QgQzu, E. ; ize, Agb. ; ikpahi, Agv. ; Qkbaihia, 

Es. ; atata, Uz. ; usio, Aj. ; esio, Ewu. 
STEAL, act, v. : iduQrhie, E. ; iidobi, Agb. ; idologi, Avg. ; 

irhale, Es. ; itue, Uz. 
STICK : qroxwa, E. ; usakpurha, Agb. 
STOMACH : (jrhe, qkpokuru, E. ; uduewe, Ar. ; awiewie, Agb. ; 

Qkpere, Es. ; ukomele, Ib. ; ele, Ko. ; ivu, So. 
STONE : okuta, E. ; udo, Agb., Ewu. 
STOOL : uxwire, E. ; ukeri, Agb. ; akp^te, Agv. ; agbala, Es. ; 

utekwi, Uz. 
STOP, rest, v. : idoboii, (I hold hand); E. ; ik^ti, E. ; ivumia, 

ifiatia, Agb. ; imaiyela, ikwaho, Agv. ; ihea, Es. ; Ifuma, 

Uz. ; mefo, menwe, Aj. 



180 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 

STOP, v. : stand, imudia, E. ; imuze, Ij., Ar. ; midie, Ok. ; midige, 

Ot. ; imiza, Agb. ; imujia, Agv. : imudia, Es. ; imuza, Uz. ; 

miamuga, Ib. ; miga, Ko. ; migija, So. ; amizie, Is. ; imuzele, 

Em. ; mexoga, Aj. ; memudia, metbga, Ug., Ew. ; memudia, 

Sap., Ag., Ovu ; medikie, ly. 
STRIKE, SLAP, v. : ifi^limi, E. ; ifilawosa, Ar. ; itQgbo, Agb. ; 

irhemigboli, Agv. ; inialqle (? I make a quick movement 

with hand), Es. ; irernenagbo (I take strike), Uz. 
SUCKLE, v. : inwe, E. ; itenyenenye, Agb. ; itainyenainye, Agv. ; 

irhimelainye, Es. 
SUN : ovin, E. ; qle, Qle, Agb. ; OQle,, Agv. ; Qle,, Uz. ; uvo, 

Sobo. 
SUNLIGHT : avafi, E. ; udala, Agb. ; udami, Agv., Es. ; atuadala, 

Uz. 
SUNRISE : ovinyare, E. ; e^Qgiere, Agb. ; ogogb^li, Agv. ; 

ubglgzatsede, Uz. 
SUNSET : onwota, E.; e^defia, Agb. ; ibilolo, Agv. ; ubeled^fio, 

Uz. 
SWEAT, v. : afofgrni, E. ; itogia (I am warm), Agb.; itogia, 

Agv. ; ewowagbQmi, Es. ; aiwiqniQgwa (?), Uz. 
SWIM, WASH, v. : ixwe [weze], E. ; igwe[da], Agb. ; iagwede, 

Agv. ; igwamekaumi, Ir. ; igweda, Uz. ; amererp, Aj. ; 

merheranie, Ug., Ov. ; mehiame, ly. ; merere, Ag. 
SWORD : agada, E. ; atakobe, Agb., Agv., Es., Uz. 



TAIL : Qrhurhumu, E. ; uwa, Agb. ; urhumu, Aj. 

TAKE AWAY, v. imwgkpa, E. ; irhilgra, Agb. ; idokpano. Agv. 

imwglofia, Ir. ; ituekpako, Uz. ; misiononatmit;ne, Aj. 
TAKE DOWN, v. : irhieyoto, E. ; irhiewaioto, Agb. ; itigwoto, 

Agv. ; imwqlQSOtg, Es. ; iruawoto, Uz. 
TAKE MEDICINE, v. : iriuxumu, E. ; itiukumi, Agb. ; itiukumu, 

Agv. ; iniuxumu, Es. ; iriyukumi, Uz. 
TAKE OFF, v. : imw^kpa, E. ; niQwuaxeme, Ok.; itielow^ri, 

Agb. ; itioeware, Agv. ; ireukukponre, Es. ; misiqrhulumu, 



COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 181 

TELL THE TRUTH, v. : ematitai, E. ; igiemoiita, Agb. ; itgmwara, 

Es. ; igwemoitso, Uz. 
TELL TO CALL, v. : itamatie^ere, E. ; itamenptiore, Agb. ; 

itamae.datioe.re, Agv. ; igienamanatiQlo, Es. 
TEN : igbe, Edo ; ixwe, Sobo ; ikwe, ly. 
TESTICLES : iviekue, E., Ok., Ot. ; ekpivievara, Ij. ; inudo, 

Ar. ; ukpevarha, Sa. ; iyata, Agb. ; ikpene, Agv. ; 

ikpekepa, Agv. ; ivlite, Em., Sap. 
THANK YOU, v. : ulue,si, E. ; qmena, Agb. ; axwemini (?), Agv.; 

akwe.me.li, Es. ; iruele, Uz. ; (I salute, I thank). 
THANK (for it), v. : ikpomoi, E. ; obilu, Agb. ; obilue, Agv. 
THIGH : ekwawe, E. ; isakole, Ij. ; ukqsQ, Ar. ; eogqri, Ok. ; 

e,kQlowe, Agb. ; e,kola, Agv. ; e,kola, Es. ; ecici, Ib. 5 

ukiowe, Ko. ; irevo, So. ; abobo, Is. ; ekpogowo, Em. 

Aj. ; ekbowo, Ew. 
THINK, v.: ilue,le, E. ; ite,ke,ku, Agb.; irikeyqle, Agv. ; ilgli, 

Es. ; iwaimoi, Uz. ; milolo, Aj. 
THIRD : nogiha, nowelugiha, E. ; onizea, Agb. ; egea, Uz. 

orerba, Aj. ; esiarlia, Ug. ; osierha, Ov. 
THIRTEEN : iwera (iwela), E. ; igbeha, Ij., Ar., Sa. ; Qgbesa, 

Ok. ; igbelea, Agb., Agv., Uz. ; ixwera, Em., Sap. ; iwera, 

iy-, A g . 

THIRTY : Qgma, E., Ij. ; Qgba, Ar., Ok., Ot., Sa., Is., Em., Ew., 

Sap., Iy. ; uwekpainigbe, Agb., Uz. ; uwebigbe, Agv. ; 

ogmigu, Es. ; uyaligbe, Ib., Ko. ; owolqtigbe, So. ; 

oboletigbe, Ibl. 

THREAD : olu, E. ; olulu, Agb. ; ogu, Agv. ; owu, Es. 
THREE: eha, E., Ij., Ar., Sa. ; esa, Ok., Ot., So., Ib., Is.; 

ese, Ib., Ko. ; ea, Agb., Agv., Es., Uz. ; erha, Em. ; ra, 

Sap., Aj., Ug., Ew., Iy. (or esa), Ag. 
THROW, v. : irhiQlgfi, E. ; ifiegioi, Ij. ; ifinoii, Ar. ; mifuro- 

dora, Ok. ; itielpfia, Agb. ; itiefia, Agv. ; irhelofia, Es. ; 

ifoi, Uz. ; mirhuilo, Aj. 
THROW AWAY, v. ; imufwa, E. ; ifilgfia, Agb. ; ifigtia, Ij. ; 

ifinofia, Ar. ; rnifiodoaroi, Ok. ; mefiobili, Ot., Agv. ; 

ibirqlia, Es. ; ifioifia, Uz. ; mikulofia, Aj. 
THROAT : urbu, E., Agv., Es. ; ufe, Ar., Ok. ; uvi, Ot. ; utu, 



182 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 

Agb., Uz. ; urhp, Ew. ; ufo, Sap. ; ubiwo, Ug. ; uxwo, 

Ag. 
THUNDER : avanoxumu, E. ; osisioxumu, Ij. ; okulitaze, Agb. ; 

okumuwaihia, Agv. ; avanvan, Es. ; ovano, Uz. ; ufe, 

Aj. ; afofo, Ew. ; agblana, Sap. ; oglibo, Ag. 
TIME : Qkbo, E. ; QggQ, Agb. 
TONGS : anwa, E. ; akboluka, Agb. ; akwa, Agv. ; akboka, 

Uz. 
TONGUE : alame, E. ; olg, Ij., Agb., Agv., Uz., Ib., Ko., Aj. ; 

oele, Ar. ; ore,, Ok. ; ire,, Ot. ; ola, Es. ; ide,de, So. ; ode, 

Is. ; e,le,, Ew., Sap., Ag. ; e,^, ly. 
TOOTH : ako(n), Edo, Sobo, Ekoe, Ib., Ko. ; molar tooth : 

igebe, E. ; ilili, Agb., Uz. ; iliaha, Agv. ; iziziako, Es. ; 

ihihie, Aj. 

TORTOISE : e,gwi, E. ; e,gi, Agb., Uz. ; ogbe", Es. ; ugbewi, Aj. 
TOWN, PLACE, COUNTRY : QWO, Edo. 
TRAP (big) : ifi, E., Agv., Es. ; ufi, Agb., Uz. ; (small) : 

exQxg, E. 
TREE : erha, E. ; orha, Ij., Ar. ; ota, Ok., Ot., Agb., Es., Uz. ; 

ora, Agv. ; urhe, Ein. ; uwaro, Sap. 
TRUNK : gzirha, E. ; okenggburha, Agb. ; ekie,gburha, Uz. 
TURN BACK, v. : iwe,re,gbe, E. ; ifie,gbede,le,gbe, Agb. ; 

ifie,gbede,ne,gbe, Agv. ; ikievaw6deke,ke, Es. ; idonoretsike, 

Uz. 
TWELVE : iweva, E. ; igbeva, Ij., Ar., Ot., Sa., Es.,Uz. ; qgbeva, 

Ok ; ugbeleva, Agb. ; ugbleva, Agv. ; igbaleva, Ib. ; 

igbaiva, Ko. ; igbaneva, So. ; ggbava, Ibl. ; bebeleva, Is. ; 

ixwere, Sobo ; iwive, ly., Ag. 
TWENTY : Ugye, E. ; uwe, Ij. ; we, Ar., Ok., Sa., Agb., Agv., 

Es., Uz. (and Ogbo) ; owige, Ot. ; uye, Ib., Ko., So. ; 

qbqlo, Ibl. ; qgbgrp, Is. ; uje, Em. ; uge, Aj. ; uze, Sap., 

iy, A g . 

TWENTY-ONE: Qkpainyogye, E. ; uwebiqkpa, Ij., Sa., Es. ; 
uwaiqkpa, Ar. ; uwenqkpa, Ok. ; owigearqkpa, Ot. ; 
uwekpQkpa, Agb., Agv.; uwekpamukpa, Uz. (from a 
form ogbo) ; ujegbo, vo, Em. ; ugegbqvo, Aj. ; uzegbovo, 
Ew., Sap., ly., Ag. 



COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 183 

TWICE : igbava, E. ; iseva, Agb., Agv. ; egeva, Uz. 
Two : eva, Edo ; ive, Sobo. 

UNDERSTAND: in^le, ihoi (I hear), E. ; il|, Agb.; in^le, 

Agv. ; inele, Es. ; ile (I know), iso (I hear), Uz. ; 

miniekewolao, Aj. ; miniobowotale, Ov. ; miniubawota, 

ly. ; miniubowotale, Ag. 
UNLOCK, v. : ikie,le, E. ; ikielp, Agb. ; ikieloi, Agv. ; iyalugiola 

Es. ; iawewo, Uz. 



VEIN : inia, E. ; inie, Ar., Es., Sa. ; ilia, Agb., Ib. ; enia, 

Agv. ; ulie, Em. ; ilie, Aj., Ew. ; ulia, Ko. ; igbali, 

Ok. 

VILLAGE : igwe, E. 
VULVA : oheuhe, E. ; ukoko, Ij. ; ikata, Ok. ; ieko, Ot. ; aba, Sa., 

Ar. ; igbqkozo, Agb. ; udgli, Agv. ; edi, Es. ; oxolo, Em., 

Sap. ; ukbuvio, Ew. 

WAIST ORNAMENT : em^ku, E ; il^ge, Agb. 

WAIT, v. ; ixg, E. ; imiza, ik, Agb. ; ikg, Agv. ; idiaxelqli, Es. ; 

imuzak^o, Uz. ; ghgrelio, ly. 
WAIT FOR, v. ; ixqli, E. ; ikep, Agb. ; ikegli, Agv. ; idiaxeloiya, 

Es. ; imuzak^oiai, ikeg, Uz. ; mehqrowe, Aj. 
WAKE UP, v. : irhiole (irhioi), E. ; ikiowogwi (break sleep) ikig 

act, Agb. ; itipgwe (itioi), Agv. ; iwerhiore (irhipowe), 

Es. ; iki^ogwe, Uz. ; mivle, Aj. ; mekbama, ly. ; mivl^ni, 

Ag. ; mivleni, Ov. 
WALK, v. : ixia, E. ; ikia, Agb. ; ikia, Agv. ; ihielomo ? Ir. ; 

ikia, Uz. ; miliemo, Aj. ; miluiluo, Ug. ; mikbuluo, Era. ; 

mevliolo, ly. ; mililuo, Ag. ; miluluo, Ov. ; mQluloo, Sap. 
WALL : Qgbqke, E. ; igbgkS, Agb. ; Qgbokia, Agv. ; igbegboa, 

Es. ; igbQfodi, Uz. ; igbg, Sap. ; igbehg, Ew. 
WANT, v. : iho, E. ; iaho, Ij. ; iyo, Ar. ; mekoro, Ok. ; mesoinifia, 

Ot. ; ikili, Agb. ; mianono (=1 ask it), Ib. ; mikero, So. ; 

metorai, Is. ; megwono, Aj. 



184 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 

WARM, MAKE, v. ; iviQwioi, E. ; iypyglo, itelorhagia, Agb. ; 

iwqwip, Agv. ; imwple.vie.vie, Es. ; idoiitogia, Uz. 
WASH, BATH, v. : ixwQli, E. ; ixweya (take a bath), Agb. ; 

ikowa, Agv. ; ikpa, Es. ; ikweya, Uz. 
WASTE MONEY, v. : izigo, E. ; igw^mqli, Agv. ; irhigoluQmi, 

Es. ; ifwee.kpigola, Uz. 
WATER : ame, Edo, Sobo. 
WEANED, HE is, v.: qfiiriwe, E. ; qfunoenie, Agb.; Qtiunu- 

wenya, Agv. 
WEAVE, v. : idukmQfi, E., Es. ; idukbq, Agb., Uz. ; mirh- 

uanma, Aj. 

WEAVER : Qdukmgn, E., Ij., Agb., Es. ; qnqpuwhare, Ok. 
WEEK : e^Qki, use, E. ; uze (five), Agb. ; uhele, Agv. ; adaki, 

Es. ; uze, Uz. 

WELL : uhai, E. ; omi, Uz. ; orale, Sap. 
WEEP, v. : ivfe, E., Agv., Es. ; iaxwuli, Ij. ; igo, Agb., Uz. ; 

me vie, Aj., ly. ; mevielio, Em. 
WIND : ehoho, E. ; avovo, Agb. ; aiihi, Agv. ; aho, Es. ; afofo 

Uz. 
WEST : olokun, unwota, E. ; ebeledefio. Agb. ; egionenedadolo, 

Agv. ; elogode, Uz. ; pqre, Aj. 
WHEN ; dgkbo, E. ; ge,g, Agb. ; gQgile, Agv. ; Qgela, Es. 

eregenobe, Uz. ; devo, Ew. 
WHERE : de,ke, E. ; e,be, Agb. ; gie,ra, Es. ; oboi, Uz. ; itiro, 

Ew. 
WHISPER, v. : idogwa (say in secret), E. ; idolotam|, Agb. ; 

idotamale, Agv. ; idpfe^ta, Es. ; idogwp, Uz. ; metol^me- 

mQrha, ly. 
WHISTLE : elele, ufele, E. ; ulele, Agb. ; alele, Agv. ; uke, 

Uz. ; oviolo, Sap.; (mouth) efiewp, E. ; uvievie, Agb.; 

wehiemi, Agv. ; uduke, Uz. 
WHITE MAN : Qbo, E., Ij. ; oibo, Ar., Ok., Ot., Agv., Es., Aj. 

Sa., ly. ; Qvomi, Uz. 
WHY : bqze, Es. : Qmeze, Agb., Uz. ; Qbezgle, Agv. ; osQmi- 

bela, Es. 
WIDOW : e,gbQ, Qrhgn, E. ; QtQii, Agb. ; azuku, Ew. ; aiyuku, 

Sap. ; ose, Ag., Ov. 



COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 185 

WING : ifwe, E. ; abiwe, Ij. ; abiwo, Ar. ; ifwawoni, Ok. ; 

gifwa, Ot. ; ivwa, Agb., Uz. ; ukpokpo, Agv. ; ibekpe, 

Em., Aj. 
WOMAN : oxwo, E. ; oxwobo, Ij., Sa. ; okposo pi. ikposo, Ar., 

Ot., Uz. ; QniQxami, Ok. ; Qkwozo, Agb. ; Qkwo, Agv. ; 

oxwo, Es. ; aiye, Em., Sa., ly. ; aje, Aj. ; aze, eya, Ew. 
WONDER (am surprised), v. : irhiene, Qkpamudi, E. ; onyamalua, 

Agb., Agv.; Qde.gbemalugbe (he beats our face too 

much), Es. ; imialua, Uz. 

WORD : Qine,, E. ; gmp, Agb., Agv., Es. ; Qmoi, Uz. 
WORK, v. : iwina, E. ; ikbokbo, Agb. ; ikwaho, Agv. ; iwinqlo, 

Es. ; igbakainia, Uz. ; mililuo, Aj. 
WOUND, v. : ikwalosi, Agb. ; igiokwei, Agv. ; ikwalqli, Es. ; 

ikwalotsi, Uz. ; miblo lahp, Aj. ; menyalie, ly. ; men- 

yamelp, Ag. ; mesakio, Em. 
WORLD : agbgn, agmQn, Edo, Sobo. 
WRIST : axwobQ, E. ; okwambg, Ij. ; akakusobg, Ar. ; uke- 

kerha, Ok.; ahe,gegobQ, Ot. ; axabQ, Sa. ; akpakamobQ, 

Agb. ; oxumbQ, Agv. ; okw^gbe, Es. 
WRITE, CARVE, v. : igmod, E. ; ike,ke, Agb. ; ik^kali, Agv. ; 

igme, Es. 



YAM STICK (for climbing) ; ikbQsi, E. ; isakbe,, Agb. ; 

Agv. ; agwe, Uz. 
YEAR : ukpo, E. ; ukbe, Agb., Agv., Es. 



186 COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY. 

YAM: inya. 

CASSAVA : bobozi, E. ; ikeripia, Agb. ; medaka, Ewu. 

Coco PALM : - ivi, E. ; iviobo, Agb. ; uvigbo, Agv. ; ukokodia, 

Ewu. 

CORN : qka. 

COTTON TREE : qxa, E. ; qka, Agb. 
FUNGUS : otu, E. ; itu, Agb. 
KOKO YAM: iyoko. 
KOLA : ewe. 
OILPALM: udi. 

PEPPER : ehie, E. ; isie, Agb. ; asie, Agv. ; irhibo, Ewu. 
PLANTAIN: Qgede. 
SUGAR CANE : uxw;re, E. ; itekbe, Agb. ; iri^xwe, Agv. ; akele, 

Ewu. 
WHITE YAM : emowe, E. ; emalgtwa, Agb., Agv. 



SECTION V. 



EDO DICTIONARY. 



SECTION V. 



EDO DICTIONARY. 



A, indefinite personal pronoun. Agbirabiyue, may some 
one kill your father and mother. Awedo, greeting! 
Amegwi, catch the tortoise. 

Aba, anklets of beans. 

Aba, iron staple for making medicine. 

Abekwe, small knife for killing cattle. 

Abenwali, herring bone pattern. 

A be, re, stomach marks. 

Aberha, branch of tree. 

A bib a, eaves. 

Abode, an Ebo; keep watch on the road. 

Abqkpaii, they are both the same, 
o, loom sword. 
, loin cloth (man's); triangular. 

Ax a, weaver bird. 

Axara, fork (of legs). 

Axoxwa, bush fowl. 

Axowa, house slave (cannot be sold). 

Axwaxwa, crow ; promise. 

Axwagaxwaga, dassia, dendro hylax. 

Axwaramunu, lip. 

Ax we, a climbing plant ; joint ; wash I 

AXWQ, to-morrow. 



190 EDO DICTIONARY. 

Axwobp, joint (upper limb). 

Axwqramohe, labia majora. 

Ada, Ihogbwe who attended burials as representative of Ihama. 

Ada, fork of road ; sword. 

A dan e ha, where three roads meet. 

Adanine, four cross roads. 

Ade,se, middle ; adesowa, middle of house. 

AdQsgneva, middle. 

AdQSQnevirha, between two trees. 

Ade.sukpafon, uncovered open space in middle of room. 

Adiye,, fowl. 

Afg, albino. 

JLfia, chisel. 

Af?ama, nervous, afraid. 

4-f.iame, pulse. 

Afiuhe, syphilis. 

AfofQmi, I sweat. 

4-ga, stool, chair. 

Aga. woman. 

Agada, sword. 

Agba, four-legged seat. 

4-gba, chin. 

Agba, together. 

Agbaguda, woman's cheek mark. 

Agbaka, crocodile. 

Agbakma, bald. 

^gbe,na, battle. 

Agbo, ram. 

AgboxQXQ, hornet. 

Agboxu, ant. 

Agboxumu, day for pregnant woman. 

Agbodovin, shade. 

Agbwa, basket in which food is put when Olokum is 

worshipped. 
4-gma, man's basket. 
Agme, bamboo, or cord to make patterns on pots ; decorative 

marks. 



EDO DICTIONARY. 191 

, world. 
Ago, strong. 
Agobp, left hand. 
Agogo, shadow. 
Agogo, bell; Hyades. 

AgukisQmogye, evening star ; star that tries to take king- 
ship from the moon. 
Ah, strainer. 
Ahiame, bird. 

Ahiamplo, bird on Osune.maton. 
Ahiamosa, wagtail ; bird of Osa. 
Ahove, armpit. 
AhuqnawQna, no moon, 
aigyeke, corner of the house, 
aihe, gonorrhea or gleet, 
aihip, urine, 
aile, I don't know, 
ainyeho, deaf. 

ainyo, rubber ; latex; palm wine, 
ainyoka, corn wine, 
aisse, a form of salutation. 

aiuboiilalua, early morning ( = take hand rub eyes). 
aivona, no one. 

aiyaluomanukbo, sacrifice to the year, 
aiyawomame, sacrifice to rain. 
aiy, still ; yet. 

aiyomanovin, sacrifice to sun. 
Akaba, dog bell. 
Akaihe, fish spear. 
Akasa, agidi. 
Akbasiko, musical sticks. 
Akbolu, black girdle. 
Ake, burning ashes of wood. 
Akia, three months. 
Akiase, five months. 
Akiane, four months. 
, there. 



192 EDO DICTIONARY. 

Ako, a fruit. 

Ako, a figurine used in Ihama's family for Oton 

AltQft, tooth. 

Akoneto, toothache. 

Akota, dog. 

Akpa, if. 

Akpakpa, butterfly, spider. 

Akpakpwava, street where dead were exposed. 

Akpakugumaga, scorpion. 

Akpalakpala, kind of fish. 

Akpalode, medicine girdle. 

Akpanowiwi, a fool. 

Akpata, musical instrument (of any sort). 

Akpionpion, hornbill. 

Akwg, feathers (for arrow). 

Akwe, akwQmp, uterus. 

Alaito, shrub used in medicine. 

Alame, tongue; animal; meat. 

AlaniQze, river animal. 

Alame zi, kind of bird. 

Alamo ha, bush animal. 

Ale,, run ! 

Ale, cooked. 

Alqbu, a white yam. 

Alele, rope. 

Alemolegwa, orange. 

Alimoi, orange or lime. 

Alo, blue. 

Aloi, cripple unable to walk. 

Aloi, kind of fish. 

Alonqsozi, eyes open; not blind. 

Alow a, master or mistress. 

Alu, face ; eye ; shrine of an Ebo. 

AluQbq, shrine. 

AluQfai, idion of hunter. 

Aluewu, hearth. 

Alungfwa, cornea (white eye). 



EDO DICTIONARY. 193 

Aluomai, scar (?X 

Am a, wound ; bronze plaque. 

Amaihe i kbolohe i kbole i go, early morning (never sweep in 

morning yet). 
Amavaliwowa, virgin. 
Ame, water ; amemake, there is no water left ; ameke, 

water remains ; there is some water left. 
AmQ, wife. 
Ame,bi, dark cloud. 
Am qb , mistress; lover. 

AmQbosa, wife of Osa ; woman with atresia vaginae. 
Amegbalo, cap (rain does not beat face). 
Amen we, milk (of a woman). 
Amenqrho, rain (water which falls). 
Am^rha, stepmother (wife of father). 
Amerhiehie, drizzle (rain eats pepper). 
Ame,ti, water boils. 

Amenaf ofele, the water is all finished. 
Ame we we, drizzle. 
Am^vi, tears. 

AmQba, king's mother's "wife." 
Amogewaise, chief of theEwaise. 
Amogye, prince's wife. 
Ane, passing faeces. 
Anwa, tongs. 
AnimiQlo, salamander. 
Apqle, chessboard pattern. 
Ara, tinsel. 

Arexwe, don't drive (it) away. 

Arhie, man. Arhieva, two men. Arhigkpa, one man. 
Arhualo, blind. 
ArhuQ, circumcision. 
Asa, shield, whip of elephant's tail. 
Asa, wand of iluerie. 
Asai, take water. 
Asaka, stink ant, road ant. 
Asamotq, driver ant. 

II. 



194 .EDO DICTIONARY. 

ASQ, saliva. 

Asgkme, a white yam. 

Asoko, a white yam. 

Asolo, throwing spear ; small cuts made to cure a boil. 

AsQ.fi, night. 

Asu, black paint (for body). 

Atalakpa, leopard. 

AtatabQ, palm of the hand. 

A tat a we, sole of the foot ; footprint. 

Atehe, caterpillar. 

A tele, (?) one said. 

Atetugwe, basket for hair. 

A to, grass land. 

Atqrhi, gonorrhea. 

Aw a, dog. 

Aw a, prohibition ; ban ; prohibited food. 

Awaigbe, family prohibition, totem. 

Awailimi, prohibition imposed by priest. 

AwalQkpa, as soon as. 

Awase, medicine. 

Awavanoxumu, stone axe (lit. thunder dog). 

AWQ, plantain eater, African pheasant. 

Awehame, instep (?). 

Awe,kia, impotent man. 

AwQse, thank you. 

A wo wo, hot. 

Awoxa, boy. 

Awoxoxu, girl. 

Avalaka, a pattern (No. 10 in N. and Q.}, (lit. hammer). 

A van, flying squirrel. 

Avanoxumu, thunder. 

A vie,, pus. 

A vie,, clitoris. 

Avi^li, idle, asleep. 

Avihue, vein near anus. 

Aza, store room. 

Aze, witch. 



EDO DICTIONARY. 195 

Azua, man who asks (? sponges). 
Azuwa, hair pin. 
Azuzu, fan. 

Ba, now ; with. 

Ba, suffix meaning upright; onarhieba, he stood it up. 

B|, call for dog. 

Baba, father. 

Baba, just now. 

Bame, with me. 

Be, we, as. 

Be, who, what, where ; batjruwe, what is your name ? Bpxi, 
what is it? Bgd^s^h^, how far? Bogbe, who killed 
(him)? Baiailu, what is it for? Bgzenunalwona, 
why do you do this? Bqzonglunye, why do you do 
thus ? Bwalu, what do you do ? Bwayeyi, where do 
you live ? 

Be, in, of ; begbema, in our family. 

Bemata, true. 

Bizo, big. 

Botg, down. 

Bugbehia, all the time. 

De, ever. 

DQ, what. 

De.de.neje.xi, what is to-day ? 

DedenQxia, when is he going? 

Dedenoxia, when are you going ? 

Dgkbo, when. 

Dgkbonuki, how long ? 

De,ke, where. 

DqnQxi, which. 

Dewenoho, which goat do you want ? 

Dewonuyi, where do you live ? 

Dewonurie, where are you going ? 

Dia, wait. 

2 



196 EDO DICTIONARY. 

Diobgbirha, go to the right. 

Diobag^bo, go to the left. 

Do, a salutation. 

Dqmanoxi, whose man are you ? 

Dos^nia, till now. 

Do si, come and ask. 

Dosowaine, come, reach my house. 

E, negative prefix; Qxiame, it hurts me; Qxiame, it does 

not hurt me. 

Ijlbaxwe, parrots' feathers. 
Ebale, sides of forecourt, 
^balu^hini, Ebaluerha, raised platform at side of father's 

room. 

!Ebaluiye, raised platform in mother's room. 
Ebate, round bundle of fern in ome. 
Eb^f, ceremonial sword. 
Ebe, leaf ; book. 
Ebeli, agidi leaf. 
Ebe wan a, palm leaf pattern. 
]bi, prevention (?). 
J^bigbie,, darkness. 

ISbisugu, leaf used to make black pigment. 
Ebo, bag. 

Ebq, minor "power," demi-god. 
Ebo, white man ; doctors. 
Ebgbgzi, cassava. 
Ebogun, red. 
E borne, bag of salt. 
IjJbowa, woman's latrine. 
3xai, sand. 
EXQXQ, trap (small), 
ijlxe.re, small. 
]xu, door. 

iExwai, EbQ for taking oath. 
Ijlxwe,, tomato. 
Ixwi, black. 



EDO DICTIONAKY. 197 

, I am ashamed; exwemue, thou art ashamed; 
exwemwe, he is ashamed. 
]xwia, bull. 
iExukxu, sweatfly. 
^d a, hail. 

E dag be, every day. 
lilde,, white hairs. 
Ede, crown (?) of head. 
Ede, day. 
]jMe, manatee (?). 
Ede, duiker. 

Edexiota, evening, twilight. 
Ede.gbede.gbe, every day. 
Edegigbe, at dawn. 
Edegimu, at nightfall. 
Edehaele, in five days. 
Edehinoele, in six days. 
Ede,ki, week ; market day. 

!Edele,nimirie, Ehp, the day when the dead go away, 
^deluyiyi, early morning. 
iEderiwamotp, early morning, 
^d^ni, then. 
3de,nokele, next day. 
^ die bo, pineapple, 
^di, civet cat (?). 
Edi, uncooked palm oil. 
l^dggbota, afternoon. 
Edoyi, do you live in Edo ? 
Edoikede, I come from Edo. 
various, different. 

i, each man. 
Efa, priest of Ehinoha. 
ijlfe, rib, front. 
Ef 4, property. 

1 fie wo, whistle (sound made by mouth), 
ijifu, flesh. 
lfu, buckshot. 



198 EDO DICTIONARY. 

Ega = oiega, there. 

EgabiQna, son's son's son's son's son. 

Egaiwo, council of notables. 

Egba, bangle ; iron coiled round arm. 

Ijlgbaxia, widow "friend," mistress. 

]gbanaka, ladder. 

Eg be, family. 

Egbe, bright; ^degigbe, at dawn. 

Eg be, ready. 

Egb, the same; Qgbomana, the same person. 

"ggbe = back (of place). 

Egb, body (human). 

E_gbe, widow. 

Egbe (?); silent. 

Egbegw^lu, miscarriage. 

Egbeke, wall of a house. 

Egbema, house of wattles and mud. 

EgbemawQmi, we are fresh, not tired. 

Egbo, forest. 

Egbu, roller. 

Egbuwuga, part of house between door and corner. 

Egiasegbeji, hereditary post. 

Egiawoxo, rigid. 

Egir^, it's finished all gone, not there. 

Eg mo, fence. 

Eg ^, dinner, feast. 

Egoderie, long court of the Oderie. 

^godi, hawk. 

Egwa, I make heaps (for yams). 

Egwai, king's house. 

Eg we, bat. 

Eg we,, hoe. 

Egwi, tortoise. 

EgwobQ, bead armlets. 

Eg wo we, bead anklets. 

Egun, bath room. 

Egute, a kind of dance. 



EDO DICTIONARY. 199 

Eh a, six ; bush cow. 
Eh a, three. 

Ehadawugye, seventeen, 
^hai, forehead. 

haj:rawugie, seventeen (lit. three is not in twenty). 
Ehakp, gums. 
Ehasa, day. 
Ehg, fish. 
Ehe, away, 
ighe', yes, all right. 

Eh^xwi, green pigeon (Vinago calvus), 
Ehenanowa, market stall for silent trade. 
Eh^nqkai, dried fish. 
Ehi, soul, 
fihia, all 
Ehie, nail ; claw. 
]^hie, pepper. 
]|Lhihi, soldier ant. 
Ehinaxwoi, back of head. 
Eh in e hi, good genius (ehi which is ehi). 
Eh 6, he breathes. 
Ehogai, spirit of childless person. 
Ehoho, wind. 
Eho;ziza, whirlwind. 
Ehgli, end. 
Eye,, son's son. 

Eyeye, person with many children. 
Eye, me, I hate ; don't love. 
E;ko, reply to salutation ; " I hear." 
Eka, four-cornered beads. 
Eka, Agbor language. 
3j)kahiame, egg. 
Ekbaihioli, bladder. 
Ekbeho, loud. 
^Ikbekia, pubes (male). 
3kbelqxwe, glossy starling, 
o, uncircumcised boy. 



200 EDO DICTIONARY. 

Ekbiku, dry leaves. 

l^kbp, time. 

Ekbo, bag; 10 ropes of yams (uga). 

Ekbo, Ekbo (boy's society). 

Ekbp, few. 

Ekbofi, sufferer from yaws. 

Ekbohe, pubes (female). 

Ekboki, round box. 

Eke, mud, clay for making houses; wall 

Eke, place. 

Ekeliye, place where I live. 

Ekete, king's throne. 

Eki, market. 

Ekia, penis. 

Ekianokwame, penis from which no semen issues. 

Ekigbesia, fifty. 

Ekigbesiene, seventy. 

Ekigbesise, ninety. 

fikita, dog. 

Eko, abdomen above navel (see Eku). 

Eko, soon. 

Ekoxome, I am vexed. 

Ekogbwe, wall round king's house. 

EkohihiQme,, I have diarrhoea. 

Ekohiyoi, dysentery. 

Ekokodu, heart. 

Ekokohie, spoon. 

, I am content; Qkomavome, I ain not content. 
, courtyard. 
Ekpahpeyi, loaf of fufu. 
Ekp^ku, small, 
^kpo, bag (see ekbo). 
Ekp5kuru, stomach. 
Ekpona, while. 
Ekpuru, windpipe, 
ijlkre, toad. 
Ekii, semen. 



EDO DICTIONARY. 201 



Eku, hip, waist (see eko). 

Ekwabg, upper arm. 

Ekwawe, thigh. 

Ekwe,, cross belt (of heads). 

Ekw, bellows. 

Ekwexami, door. 

Ekwiye, spoon (from Portuguese?). 

^kwoxwo, woman's waist. 

Ekwoli, feathers. 

Elagbode, last child (of man or woman). 

Ele, to-day. 

Elele, flute. 

El ^le,, eight. 

Elimi, heaven. 

ElimJa, I beg. 

Elimidu, king's ancestors. 

Elo, knife, bell. 

1^1 , it is not finished. 

Eloxi, chameleon. 

$logisi, cruel. 

^llQmebo, bronze. 

El Qmo, brass; bracelet. 

Elohogeta, I don't lie. 

ElQze, lawful. 

Elu, sand heap on threshold. 

Elu, nor. 

Elu lima, knife. 

ISluwQ e,lume,, neither you nor me. 

Em a, brain (?). 

Em a, fufu. 

Emata, true. 

Ematitai, I tell the truth. 

Ematofi, iron. 

Einawa, stepfather. 

Em, monkey. 

Em 4, word. 

Emedo, man's drum. 



202 EDO DICTIONARY. 

Em^ku, waist ornament. 
Eme,sakpaide, woman's drum. 
Emi, something. 

tmiuga, dowry, 
miame, easy. 
Emiarneda, disease. 
Emila, cow; cattle. 
Emilogiso, caterpillar (?) 
^milQ via, bullroarer. 
EmilQkpa, nothing. 
Emiowo, meat. 

Emiri, animal that is tied with rope. 
Emivame, I wound (?I am wounded, thing hits me). 
Emq, son. 

Emogo, man's drum. 
Em owe, white yam ; morning fufu. 
Emu, dark (day). 
Em we,, ashes. 
Emunamune, firefly. 
Ene, four. 

Enelawugie, sixteen. 
En we, breast (woman's) ; milk. 
Eni, elephant. 
Eni, name. 
Enia, now. 

Eniame, hippopotamus. 
Eniele, his name. 
Enyai, neck. 

Enyai, Enyai, market on Jeduma road. 
Enixuxu, house pigeon. 
Enye,, albino. 
En ye, snake. 
En ye,, marrow. 
EnyenQxiunu, snakebite. 
Epapunwa, wax. 
Era, hartebeest. 
Erere, crown of the head. 



EDO DICTIONAEY. 203 

Erha, wood ; tree. 
Erha, father. 

frhai, his, her father, 
rhame, ant. 
ErhamenagmQ n, lover (woman speaking) ; (lit. father in this 

world). 

Erhamodede, my father's father. 
Erhanowu, dead wood. 
Iprhg, fire. 

Erhe, abdomen. . 

^rhiye, mother's father. 
Erhirha, cramp. 
Erhggmo, live wood. 
Erhprno, hermaphrodite (?). 
Erhu, hat. 
Erhue, bush buck. 
Erhuivie, neckbeads. 
Erhuruoyi, crow pheasant. 
Erhumudiadia, butterfly. 
Erhumunie, strange] 1 . 
Erhurhumu, tail. 

Erialue, once upon a time (lit. so they did). 
Er!aria, sandfiy (?). 
Erie, house. 
Ergxe, yellow. 

Erowabiriowa, you were not at home, when I came. 
Eru, yam stack (foundation). 
Eruhau, king's cloth skirt. 
Erurunowa, roof. 
Esagye, blood. 

E sale bo, plant from which seeds are taken to make a rattle. 
Ese, property. 
Esi, pig; Qsyi, horse. 
Esioha, bush pig. 
Eso, some. 
Esoii, poor, poverty. 
Esu su, owl, 



204 EDO DICTIONARY. 

Etekia, pubic hair (male). 

Etason, hair standing straight up. 

Eti, strong. 

Etif ome, I tire. 

Etiq, brother. 

^to, breath. 

Et, fire for cooking food. 

Eton;mo, straight hair. 

Etonokjri, frizzly hair. 

Etu, ha.ir; beard; moustache. 

Etualu, eyebrows. 

Etuhe, pubic hair (female). 

Eva, these. 

Evaxwe, soap. 

Evase, finis ! that's the end. 

Eve, elephantiasis of scrotum. 

Eve", tears. 

EVQ, what; evilu, what I do; evomalu, what a man does-. 

Evi, cooked palm oil. 

E viq, anvil. 

Evisoka, dog. 

Evwato, badger. 

Evwe, badger. 

Evwon, scarcity. 

Ewa, sleeping mat. 

Ewadiselo, chest mark. 

Ewai, a tree. 

Ewai, family. 

Ewale, food. 

E w am e, she-goat. 

EWQ, kola. 

Ew, chest; breasts. 

Ew^, goat. 

Ewi, kind of fish. 

Ewifi, small pox. 

Ewi vie, bead coat. 

E wo, place; town; district. 



EDO DICTIONAKY. 205 

twentieth, 
swamp. 
Ewowu, bush crocodile. 
Ewu, funnel. 
Ewii, he is not dying, 
^wugbgfe, side mark. 
JJze, river. 
Ezenawale, bridge. 
Ezikg, calabash flute. 
Ezirha, trunk of tree. 
E z o, case (law) ; palaver. 

Fe,ko, careful. 

Fgle fgle, thin. 

Fi, and. 

Fi, inside; fioha, inside the bush. 

Fiaxwe, game of marbles (?) 

FialametQ, roast meat. 

Fiirha, into the tree. 

Fumuda, but. 

Fwa, suffix meaning away; mufwa, throw (it) away. 

Gaxia, go; go on. 
Gafekoxia, walk slowly. 
Galue, go on. 

Garhao, salutation fora chief. 
Gade, who is coming? 
Gainyale, whose is it? 
Gano, who. 

Gba, correct ; iko dogba, the assembly was complete. 
Gbe, very. 

Ge, neg. prefix; gege, don't look; ggyo, don't go; gere, 
don't come ; giahaime, silence ! (don't let me hear word.) 
Gi, if; wagixia, if you go. 
Giv, full. 
Giaheme, speak. 



206 EDO DICTIONARY. 

Gu, for ; gume, for me. 

Gume, let me. 

Gwedia, wait (with him, her). 

H, no. 

1,1. 

Iba, I put, I loose. 

Iba, mud seat. 

Ibafi, I go hunting. 

Iba^iku, I miss (something). 

Ibairie, seat under eaves in oderie. 

Ibgkbe,, middle, bekwiye,ke, in the middle of the back. 

Ibi, charcoal. 

Ibiaxe, soot. 

Ibj bi, dark (of day). 

Ibie, I bear (a child). 

IbiQ, intestines. 

Ibiedo, son of a slave (may be sold). 

Ibiegbe, I shut (a door). 

Ibieka, boy; ibiekeha, ibiekaneha, three boys. Ibie,kada 

enaxi, these are bad boys. 
Ibiluha, I lose myself. 
Ibiroga, an Ibiwe, Iwegwa or Iwebo, who attended the 

palace daily. 
I biro, I guess. 
Ibp, I divine. 
Ibobehg, scale (fish). 
Ibohie, I settle a case. 
Ibowa, I build a house. 
Ibigle, I prick,f pierce. 
Ibu, I break. 
I bue, I put. 

Ibuluku, small cloth reaching to the : knees. 
Ibwe*, I cut. 
Ibwe, I go. 
Ibwe, I 'break. 



EDO DICTIONARY. 207 

Ibwefe, I break a bone. 

Ixa, I say. 

Ixaime, I curse, abuse. 

Ixaimi, I help (in a caso). 

Ixale, I say it. 

Ixalo, man's forehead marks. 

Ixamale, I tell ; lyaxamale, I [go] tell. 

Ixariesoyema, I am waiting for some one here. 

Ixe,, I wait. 

Ixi, I am. 

Ixia, I go. 

Txialele, I go with him, her. 

Ixie, I wash ; rub. 

Ixie, I sell. 

Ixiegbe, I dry myself. 

Ixiele, I twist. 

Ixieng, wale, I am a big man. 

Iximi, Ichimi tree. 

Ixiomi, half. 

Ixo, forehead marks, man's. 

Ixgde, I lie in ambush. 
IxQle, I wait for. 

Ixo.ii, I fight. 

Ixu, farmer's knife. 

Ixwe, I wash ; I swim. 

Ixwd, I drive. 

Ixwexwe, palm wine (from tree cut down). 

Ixwefwa, I drive away. 

Ixweime, I answer. 

Ixwerie, king's women's house. 

Ixwewowa, I bath ; wash at home. 

Ixwi^le, I lock. 

Ixwoi, I pick. 

IxwQrc), mud. 

Ida, bad. 

Ida, hour glass drum with strings. 

Idai, I drink (wine) ; Idajnyg, I drink palm wine. 



208 EDO DICTIONARY. 

IdaihQ, I listen ; give ear. 

Idamihp, I understand. 

I dam 2, 1 taste. 

Idatie, I shout for ; call. 

Ide, I tie ; I made, I don't tie. 

Id $, I fall; I made,, I don't fall. 

Id, I buy; Imad, I don't buy. 

Id 6", I come ; ide, I am not coming. 

IdegQle, I see. 

Idgnwe, I come for you; I buy for you. 

Idi, grave (for corpse). 

Idia, I stay. 

Idia, I menstruate. 

Idyogbo, idion of the farm. 

Idigie, I squat. 

Idinai, I reach. 

I do, riddle. 

I do, flying ant. 

Idoboii, I rest ; I hold my hand. 

Idoxwai, I make baskets. 

Idogwa, I whisper. 

Idoi, I get a dry skin. 

Idoii, I buy (it). 

Idoleyi, I make better ; I mend. 

Idolegbelue, I do it again. 

Idolo, I sew ; I rub. 

Idol 9, I sacrifice (to Otp). 

I doled, I look after. 

Idu, brown dove. 

Iduakpakpa, spider's web. 

I due, bo. ringdove. 

Idumo, quarter. 

Idu mo, 1 make. 

Idzo, I send. 

Ie,rio, I turn (yams on the fire). 

Ifamagbe, ribs. 

Ife. I am safe. 



EDO DICTIONARY. 209 

Ife", I reach. 

Ifgme, arrow. 

Ifi, trap (big). 

Ifiai, I cut. 

Ifiaile, I bite. 

Ifiamoi, I knock. 

Ifie, I flog. 

Ifie,do, I mistake. 

Ifi^limi, I flog, I strike. 

I fie to, hair in thrums. 

Ifigzera, I cross a river. 

Ifi ha, I foretell, I throw if a. 

Ifiiguhumu, I shake my head. 

Ifiyo, I swear. 

If igka, I reap (cut) corn. 

Ifiqkoko, I hop. 

Ifwalu, eyelashes. 

If we, wing. 

Ifwihe, fin. 

Iga, prison. 

Iga, feather. 

jga, I divide; Igale, I divide it. 

Igagy^furi, I cool. 

Igadip, I bite. 

Igayi, I send (my daughter to her husband). 

Igaiyo, I am going. 

Igale, I am going to eat. 

Iganqme, I marry; inome, I don't marry. 

Igariemi, I want food; iriemi, I don't want food. 

Igawg, I shall say. 

Igba, authority to speak to king's wives. 

Igba, I bandage, tie. 

Igbaimwe, I attach. 

Igba ha, thrice. 

Igbane, four times. 

Igbava, twice. 

Igbe", I kill, I beat, I dance. 

n. P 



210 EDO DICTIONARY 

Igbe, ten. 

Igbehe, fish spine. 

IgbehiQli, I take and rub it. 

Igb^lozelo, sickness. 

Igbelua, I kill. 

Igb^ra, I pass. 

Igberha, I tie wood. 

Igbiminelimi, I sacrifice. 

Igbina, I fight. 

Jgbo, top (toy). 

jgbo, igbukmQfi, cover cloth (man's). 

Igbo, I cut. 

Igbu, piece of cloth. 

Ig$, igie, I laugh. 

Igfi, I look. 

Ige, I send. 

Ig^de, doctor's drum. 

Iggda, mahogany. 

Ig^ga, bell worn by pregnant woman. 

Igegosun, branches of Osun. 

Ige,fe, property. 

Igehe, molar tooth. 

Igele, grown men; second of the three divisions of men.. 

Igele, young ones. 

Igewale, chop money. 

Igenowa, I devastate. 

Igeyareodalu, I send on (a person). 

Igia, I cut. 

Igidg, I am dry. 

Igie, I send. Igigiowe, heel. Igilasg, I am near- 

Ig;miko, bell worn by pregnant woman. 

buele, I sent a man to him. 
Igivi^ko, cord worn round the neck t in pregnancy. 
Ig;zQlue, I keep on doing. 
Igma, small bone, fish bone. 
Igmp, parts round the knee. 
Igmo, I mark. 



EDO DICTIONARY. 211 

Igmoi, I clean, I carve, I write. 

I go, horn, cowries, money. 

Igp, I give food. 

Igogo, smoke. 

Igogo, I am pleased. 

Igogon, white feathers. 

Igue, I permit. 

Igwa, T plant. 

Igwabo, elbow. 

I g wax a, I don't know how to say. 

Igw$laxa, I know how to give a message. 

Igwaloi, I find. 

Igwame, I ferry across. 

Igwe, I shut. 

Igwe", I help. 

Igw, I follow. 

Igwe, village. 

Jgw, I sing. 

Igwe, month for sacrifice. 

Igwe, I sacrifice (to my head). 

IgwQdQ, I buy from you. 

Igwegbina, I fight. 

Igwe ho, I help find. 

Igwe we, long leaf vised in making pots. 

Igwi, I make palaver, quarrel. 

Igwornqri, king's servants. 

Igwovoi, I break. 

Igye, corner; igyowa, corner of the house; igy erne, posterior 

border of armpit. 
Igye, I laugh. 
Igye", ankle. 

IgyokQ, king's trader with Europeans. 
Igyolowa, water yam. 
Igyuhumu, I send a message. 
Igyumuyerigbe, I send back. 
I ha, divination. 
I ha, pit for criminal. 

p 2 



212 EDO DICTIONARY. 

Ihage,, dried meat in mats. 

Ihai, I bore. 

Ihame, I become pregnant. 

Ihasa, I pay; ihale, I pay for it. 

Ihe_, load. 

I he, road " juju." 

I he* I refuse. 

I he, I carry. 

Ihegilue, I have done it, (gone on) till I am tired. 

Iheyo, I put, 

Ihle, a bean. 

Ihelini, I give name. 

Ih^m^ku, kidney (?). 

I he we, I inhale. 

Ihewerioto, I exhale. 

I hi, forbidden thing. 

I hi, from. 

I hie, I climb. 

Ihie, I cover. 

I hie hie, son's son's son. 

Ihiehie, black bean. 

Ihie,zi, I ride. 

Ihini, nine. 

Ihino, seven. 

Ihio, I come. 

Ihig, loofah. 

Ihioke, I climb a hill. 

Ihiulu, worm. 

Ihiuhumirha, I climb a tree. 

I ho, I find. 

I ho, I hear. 

I ho, I want. 

I ho, company ; people of same age. 

I hoi, I hear it ; I understand. 

Ihonimioi, I don't want to die* ; 

Ihrame, I touch. 

Ihwa, song. 



EDO DICTIONARY. 213 

I hue, nose. 

Ihume, I wake. 

Ihumu, millipede, centipede. 

Ihuriwa, I am silent. 

Ihwale, I clean. 

Ih we, I take you, I copulate. 

Ikunogole, father's room. 

file, I don't eat. 

lio, I am not going. 

lise, one hundred. 

Ik a, tie-tie, bush rope. 

Ik I, I fill. 

Ika, I feel. 

Ikai, I count. 

Ikalo, lower part of forehead. 

Ikba, I come out, rise, go. 

Ikbaihiagbede, I leave Agbede ; Ikbaihiedo, I leave 

Benin city. 
Ikba, I vomit. 
Ikbaigbe, I get up. 
Ikbame, hail. 
Ik be, I stay (in a house). 
Ik be*, I wash. 

Ik be, si, stick for training yams. 
Ikboge, I shake water (in a vessel). 
Ikbokbo, I trouble. 
Ikboleki, I sweep the market. 
Ikbotp, I sweep the ground. 
Ikbuko, calabash seed. 
Ik, I remain. 
Ike, be, buttocks. 
Ikfjde, day reckoner. 
Ike, d ode, I come from Edo. 

Ikgdore, I come from Edo ; I come out from there. 
IkesQgma, twenty-five (not used in counting). 
Ikesugye, fifteen. 
Ikenawie, sleeping place (on march). 



214 EDO DICTIONARY. 

IkQni, elephant hairs for stringing beads. 

Ikewu, pot rest. 

Ikgvare, I come from there. 

Ikie, I open, unlock. 

Ikiere, I bring (otu). 

Ikimualuhumu, master's room (room of shrine of head). 

Ik;re, I lean my head on his hands. 

Ikmalefu, I cause abortion. 

Iko, brass armlet. 

Jko, I plant. 

Iko, meeting. 

Ik6, head band. 

IkQbo, copper. 

Ikodalo, I precede. 

Ikodgre, I come out from there. 

Ikoko, pipe (tobacco). 

Ikole, I aim. 

Ikole, I wait. 

Ikolo, I gather fruit. 

Ikoye, I hop. 

Ikpogi, or isegegwe, a bean. 

Ikpako, obstacle. 

Ikpakpa, skin. 

Ikpakpalo. a bean. 

Ikpakpwegbe, skin (human). 

Ikpalakala, a beetle. 

Ikpale, I help (with a load). 

Ikparemudia, I stand up. 

Ikparuru, wasp. 

Ikpawa, I come out from there. 

Ikpawe, floor. 

Ikp, seed. 

Ikp0, red yam. 

Ikpe", I stay. 

Ikpevene, four unbroken kola. 

Ikpe, boa. 

Ikpiame, rainbow (lit. water snake). 



EDO DICTIONARY. 215 

Ikpixie, a bean. 

Ikpihabp, finger. 

Ikpihabo logyeloka or nowaloka, first finger. 

IkpihabQ logye, thumb. 

Ikpihabc) nokadige, second finger. 

Ikpihabqnexere, little finger. 

IkpihabQ nodiake ngxeje,, third finger. 

Ikpihe, gravel. 

Ikpo, lizard (red headed). 

IkpQlu, cotton seed. 

Ikpo mm, I thank. 

Ikpowa, gecko. 

Ik ft, room in house. 

Iku, peelings (of yams, etc.). 

Iku, I dance, I play; I copulate. 

Iku, Ekbo (secret society for boys) ; small dirt. 

Ikugbe, I mix. 

Ikulu, I dance. 

Ikunaluiye, mother's room. 

Ikunu, I take. 

Ik wale, I kneel. 

Ik we, I permit, agree ; I can. 

Ik we, I can't, I don't agree. 

Ik we, I make. 

Ik we, body, corpse. 

IkwfjkwQ, palm wine; wrinkles. 

IkwQle, ominous bird. 

Ikwele, I set a bone, reduce a joint. 

Ikwenie, I answer. 

IkwQti, halt, rest. 

Ikwixai, I play a game. 

Ikwifi, I make a trap. 

Ikwihi, I pack, make up loads. 

Ikwobqyo, I begin. 

I la, I pass, I enter, 

I la, I want. 

I lax we, day after to-morrow. 



216 EDO DICTIONAKY. 

Hal, I go. 

Ilai, I pass him. 

Ilaiyanovie, I go to sleep. 

Ilakbo, I go to bed. 

Ilaloi, I lick. 

I lame, black ant (with nest in tree). 

Ilamebo, house ant. 

Ilawa, I go home. 

Ilawele, I stay alive. 

I la wo wa, I go inside the house. 
lie I bury. 

11, I know, 
lie,, I run. 

II , I eat. 
He, I cook. 
Il, I salute. 
Il$gi, run. 

Il^gwa, I do ... in spite of all. 

Ilele, armpit. 

Ilele,, I follow. 

He, mi, I cook something. 

Ilexe, 1 trade. 

Ilexui, I look. 

Ileye, I stay. 

Tlo,Ilie. 

llo, I think. 

116, 1 go. 

Hole, I go round the town, 

Ilolo, I remember. 

I loluye, I copulate. 

IlomgdQ, ilomoxwo, I marry (husband or wife). 

Ilgrio, I think so. 

Ho vie, I lie down (to sleep), 

[loviesotg, I lie down. 

|lue, I make. 

Hue, dirty. 

Ilu^fo, I finish. 



EDO DICTIONARY, 217 



Iluele, I think. 

IluQlimi, I sacrifice (to my ancestors). 

Iluese, I dash you. 

Iluhe, I copulate. 

Iluigo, I count money 

Iluiguhumu, I nod my -head (backwards). 

Ilukoisa, I am not Oisa's messenger. 

Ilumiesi, kind (adj.). 

llumu, grass. 

Iluo)li, I learn it. 

Imagie, I order. 

I male, I measure ; I don't know. 

Imanole, I don't know.'it. 

Imaiyaiyi, I disbelieve. 

Imamai, I arrange. 

Imasabo, I cannot. 

Imavale, I do not meet, 1 ! miss. 

I me, I have (it). 

Imi, I guess. 

ImiQ, I take. 

ImiQze, I have money. 

Imigo, I save money. 

Imihenaxia, in order to go. 

I HI in a, I dream. 

Imioi, I find it ; I see it. 

Imoha, tribute to king. 

Imohu, I am vexed. 

Imolosa, I owe money. 

Imomqgberaize, I ferry across. 

Imudia, I stand ; I stay; I stop. 

I m ue, I carry (in one hand). 

Imufwa, I throw away. 

I in u hi, I put away. 

Imiike, I cook. 

Imumale, I show. 

Imumwege, I show. 

Imune, I (take and) give. 



218 EDO DICTIONARY. 

Imwale, I deny. 

Imw, I seize. 

Imwexaife, I carry on my hip. 

Imwefwa, I throw away; I lose. 

Imwegbele, imwegbe, I am ready, I prepare. 

Imwegbene,, I am ready. 

Imwekpa, I take away. 

Imweniuhumu, I carry on my head. 

Im we, mo bo, I carry in my hands. 

Imwewowo,, I carry on my back. 

Imwqre, I bring. 

ImwQvelo, idle. 

Imwegbina, I make peace between people. 

Imwgkpa, I put off a cloth. 

Imw5, I drink. 

In a, they, their, them. 

In a, I get ready. 

Inafiai, I am ready to cut. 

Inaga, I begin. 

Inali, I pass. 

Iname, eaves. 

Inatobina, themselves. 

Inaneva, both, they two. 

Inasie, I pull. 

Inaw|, they say. 

Inawe_, I say. 

Inaweva, both ; they two. 

Inawole, they two. 

Inbera, over. 

Ingle, I understand ; I know it. 

Ingna, I ask. 

t n, I don't know. 

i ne,, I know. 

I ne, I am constipated. 

In , I pass faeces. 

In, four. 

Inwa, I grow up. Inwale, I grow. 



EDO DICTIONAKY. 219 



In wo, I drink. 

Inia.'vein. 

In iii, hymen. 

Inia, I open. 

Iniele, I make profits. 

Inimiai, I beg. 

f nii, fashion, custom. 

Inirha, root. 

In in ye, I deliver a message. 

Iniunuyigbe, I am silent. 

I no, fur. 

I no, I ask. 

Inolota, I ask a question. 

Inol^mi, I ask for a thing. 

In ox wo me, how many wives have you ? 

Inofiha, prophet. 

Inokare, I came first. 

Inoi, I ask it. 

Inoinyale, master. 

Inole, I know it. 

Inukinuki, how long? 

In we, I catch ; I suckle. 

InwQnixi, how much is that ? 

Inya, I get it. 

Inya, yam. 

Inya, with. 

Inyu, I knock. 

InyakQ mohu, yam used as " pillow." 

Inyamie, I forgot. 

Inya to, roast yam. 

In ye bo, potato. 

Inyigbe, I strain (in passing faeces). 

InyQgmq, raw yams. 

I re, do, I go to Edo. 

Irene wekere, I came before you. 

Irene wo, I come back. 

I r hale, I am a thief. 



220 EDO DICTIONARY. 

Irhalehi, I detach. 

Ir hale wow a, I pillage a house. 

Irhiale, I spoil. 

Irhialua, I destroy; I spoil. 

Irhiare, I come. 

Irhie, I take ; I carry (in two hands). 

Irhie, proper. 

Irhiegboto, I put on the ground. 

Irhieyotp, I take down.- 

Irhie.le.le, I hide. 

Irhie, li, I pick it up. 

Irhielgfi, I throw. 

Irhielele, I hide. 

Irhiene, I give ; irhiniyane, I give yams. 

Irhiene, I am surprised. 

Irhierho, I put up. 

Irhigle, irhioi, I wake up (trans.). 

Irho ; cheek marks. 

Irhgli, I pick it up. 

I r hue, I circumcise a boy ; I cut a girl ; I put on clotb 

Irhue, I light. 

Irhiie, I bend ; set a trap. 

Irhue, I shut. 

IrhukmQii, I put on a cloth. 

Irhijle, I run. 

Irhurgkua, I throw out water. 

Irhurhuele, voice. 

Iri, bush rope. 

Iriaigwa, I spend. 

Irie, I eat; irinya, I eat yams. 

Irinelimiri, part of Osun ; rope in which Elimi is tied.. 

I rig, I take (several things). 

Iriukbo, I go to bed. 

Iriono, it's so. 

Iriuxumu, I take medicine. 

Iro, cheek marks. 

Irp, I live. 



EDO DICTIONARY. 221 

Irigbe.de, I live in Agbede ; ire, do, I live in Edo. 

Irua, I knock. 

Irualef wa, I push away ; I upset. - 

Is a, faeces. 

Is a, I jump. 

Isada, I give to drink. 

Isahe, key and lock. 

Isai, I shoot ; hit. 

Isaiyo, I put (liquid). 

Isai we, ground nut. 

Is a ko, I file teeth. 

I sale, I jump. 

Isapame,logodi, son's son's son's son. 

Isaga, I am well. 

Isavan, long stone axe. 

Ise, flat musical stick. 

ISQ, mancala, a game. 

Ise, rattle (calabash). 

Is, five. 

Is, amen. 

Is$, I am ; I get; I reach. 

Isegegwe, see Ikpogi. 

Iselai, I permit, allow. 

Isemie, I save. 

Isenyogie, twenty-five (in counting). 

Ise, rip, I bless ; take off curse. 

Iseti, I can't. 

Iseti, I can. 

Isi, I ask. 

Isie, I pull. 

Isie, I put down. 

Isie, I dry. 

Isiekotp, I extinguish. 

Isie,kwe, I lend. 

Isielaiodyeke, I leave behind. 

Isie, mi, things collected one by one. 

Isili, silver. 



222 EDO DICTIONARY. 

Isimi, I quarrel. 

Isimi, I save. 

Isiolulu, I spin cotton. 

Isiwa, I sing; dosiw'ame, come and sing for me. 

I so, I sing. 

Is 2, 1 reach. 

I so, I break. 

I so, sky. 

Isoboio, I begin; I catch him. 

Isohumu, I butt. 

Isola^i, I leave. 

I soli, I split. 

I some,, I pierce (with wood). 

Isonqro, ? cloud; sky in the I wet season. 

Isu, I work bronze. 

Isuali, I push. 

Iswasefe, sides. 

I sue, I lead. 

I sue, I begin. 

I sue, I sing. 

Isu% I prick, I pierce (with a spear). 

f susu, evil thing, ? spirit. 

Isalo, syphilis. 

It a, I look. 

It$, I guess; riddle. 

It a, feather ordeal. 

I tab a, tobacco. 

Itai, I speak, I say it. 

Itegamwe, I try to catch. 

Itepe, a kind of snake. 

Iterhagboto, I fell a tree. 

Iti, I fly. 

I tie, I call. 

Itiele, I read. 

Itihe,, I curse, I abuse. 

Itiko, I call a meeting. 

Itoge, I lie. 



EDO DICTIONARY. 223 

Iti, I roast; qnorigtp, she gives to roast ; QnoriQtQJ, she 

takes and roasts. 
Itoi, I am alive. 
Itglp, I scratch. 
Itqnp, I dig. 
Itonoii, I dig it. 
Itota, I sit. 
Itotaia, buttocks. 
Itotasot^, I sit down. 
Itotp, I dig the ground. 
Itu, I dress my hair. 
Itue, I salute. 
Ituggboto, I fell. 
Ituesagie, I bleed. 
Itwi, smoother for inside of pot. 
Itul^mu, I run. 
I turn e, I have connection with. 
Itu Qma, I salute a man. 
Iture, I descend. 
Iturewoke, I go down the hill. 
Iva, I hit. 
Ivai, I please. 
Ivaila, I turn off the road. 
I vale, I catch up ; I break. 
I vale, I cut up. 
I vale, food. 
Ivarawugie, eighteen. 
Iv, I wrestle. 
Ive, I can. 

Jvi, iviebo, cocopalm ; palm kernel. 
Ivi, scrotum. 

Iviawaneha, belt of Orion. 
I via we, part of foot above heel. 
Jvie", I sleep. 
I vie", beads. 
I vie, I draw. 
Jvi ekbo, snake. 



224 EDO DICTIONARY. 

Jviekwe, testicle. 

Ivierha, shrub. 

Iviqwioi, I warm. 

Ivip, I keep. 

Iviqkwa, I scatter; throw away (things). 

Ivioi, I put it. 

Ivioludo, short marks on cheek. 

Iviove, butterfly. 

Ivirha, I cut wood. 

Ivirunu, toothache. 

Ivw, I dig up. 

Iwf, I don't eat ; I forbid. 

Iwale, I meet. 

Iwaimi, I divide. 

Iwele, fish poison. 

Iwgle, I answer (a shout). 

IWQ, I open. 

I we, I order. 

I we, I plant. 

Iw, I say. 

I we, I stay. 

Iwe,do, I summon ; Iwedorierinia, I call to turn 

yams. 

Iwela, thirteen. 
Iwele, I roll. 
Iwene, fourteen. 
Iwe.rQgbe, I turn back. 
Iwetie, I shout. 
Iweva, twins. 
Iwie, I take. 

Iwili, baboon. .? 

Iwili, I am lost. 
Iwina, I work. 

Iwofiagbe, woman's mark above navel. 
Iwoi, I take sticks from the ground. 
Iwoi, I jump. 
Iwoloi, I pluck 



EDO DICTIONARY. 225 

IwQmado, I compliment, say "do " to a man. 

Iwu, loins, abdomen (of man). 

Iwu, chest marks. 

Iwu, I die. 

lya, ditch. 

lya, I take ; maiya, we take. 

lya, I go. 

Iyad, I go to buy. 

lyaiyi, I believe. 

lyai qnio, I adopt a child. 

I yak a, I touch. 

fyalema, I (go) cook fufu. 

ly ale ma, go and cook fufu. 

lyaluegbe, the servant of Ovia. 

lyamale, I forgive. 

lyamwere, I fetch. 

lyanq, I go to stool. 

lyane, I give. 

lyanexweli, I forgive. 

lyatua, I salute. 

lye, he lives, he is. 

lye, mother. 

lya, I make ; I go to it. 

lye 1 , I remember. 

I ye, do, I live in Edo. 

lyQdo, in Edo. 

lyeha, sixty. 

lyeha, one hundred and twenty. 

ly^ke, back, beyond. 

ly^kikpoba, beyond the Ikpoba. 

lye.kobo,, back of the hand. 

lyekogbe, young men's quarter of house. 

lygkowa, back of the house. 

ly^kowe, top of the foot. 

lyele, I remember (it). 

lyemodede, mother's mother. 

lyenagniQn, mother for this world; i.e., female " friend," 

mistress. 
II. Q 



226 EDO DICTIONARY. 

lyenobiye, mother's mother. 

lyqre, I set fire to. 

Iyer ha, father's mother. 

lyene, eighty. 

lyigbenaise, one hundred and ten. 

lyeva, forty. 

lyiye, mother's mother. 

lyqba, king's mother. 

lyobQtie.le, I beckon, call with the hand. 

lyoxo, koko yam. 

lyode, assistance in childbirth. 

lyomone, I give in marriage. 

lyglgbQ, I help, assist. 

lyoha, pawn, pledge. 

lygboiyp, I obey, put hand. 

lyowa, mother of the house, mother of the owner of^a 

house. 

Iyow, I take a broom. 
lyowQkpamudia, I stand on one leg. 
lyudgwo, I oil myself, 
lyuhi, I make a law. 

Izaba, hair dressing in fifth month of pregnancy. 
Izaduma, chief's drum. 
Izagigwa, 1 spend, waste money. 
Izake, kind of fish. 
Izakp^ide, dance. 
Ize, I take. 
Ize,, native rice. 
Ize, I speak (a language). 
Izeyp, I care for, mind. 
IzgdizQdi, abscess, fistula. 
Izie, I hold. 
Iziga, murderer. 
Izigala, I fly (of butterfly). 
Izigo, I upend, waste money. 
Izp, I grow (trees). 
IzobQ, shoulder. 



EDO DICTIONAEY. . 227 

Iz$bo, I let fall. 

Izof, I share (pair). 

Izoi, I send; inakegioma, inakezoma, they send a man, 

person. 

Izgka, I shout. 
Iz^ligo, I fine. 
Izuno, I spoil the edge. 

Kalaka, glass. 

Ke, particle meaning then, or indicating past time; 

egwikere, the tortoise came. 
Ke, particle meaning with; itotake, I sit down with; 

diake, stay with me, him, etc. 
Ke,ti, stop. 

Kewime, with me; kedo, from Edo. 
Kevagalai, from that time on. 
K;no kino kino, chevron pattern. 
K oik 94, sound of beating fufu. 
Koiyo, the ordinary salutation (lit. luck (?)). 
Kqmaikonia, no one. 

no one came, 
duck. 
Kwegbi, together. 

La, or. 

Lagalogo, bell. 

Laho, lit. go, hear; I beg you. 

Lamogu, the royal salutation. 

La re, come ! 

Le, Q, him, his, it, its; ilegbe", I killed it; igb, I killed (it). 

Le, if ; lematu e hie, if he does not draw breath for pepper. 

Lege lege, loud. 

Lcjkpa, alone. 

Loliie, he doesn't mind. 

Mm, no. 

Q 2 



228 EDO DICTIONARY. 

Ma, qma, good; ewo nama, the town is good = ewoiania; 

qmase, better. 
Ma, we, us, our. 

Ma, not ; qmabie, she bore no children. 
Mala = maiia, we go; maladotoi (for madotoi), we go 

and salute him. 
MatobQma, ourselves. 
Mav eva, we two. 
MgtobQme, myself. 
M, I, me, my. 
Memo, I. 
Moxwome, who is sick ? 



Na, before. 

Na, now. 

Nakunere, calabash on forked stick. 

Nalo olesozi, exophthalmos. 

Ne,, suffix indicating completion; inagileline,, when they 

finish burial ; iluene,, I have made it. 
NQ, not; Qn^bie, she bore no children. 
Ne, particle meaning give ; irhiene, I take and give. 
Ne, prefix meaning let; newole, let the town know; 

nihasa, let him, us, etc., pay. 
Ne, for him. 
Ne, who (rel. pronoun); QmanQgbe, the man whom he 

killed ; qmanQgbe, the man who killed him. 
Nxere, small. 

, last time. 
, two days ago. 
, three days ago. 
u, stomach ache 
Netobqli, himself. 
Ngvede'ha, five days ago. 
Ngvedehino, six days ago. 
Ngvedelwane, seven days ago. 
Nevuse, four days ago. 



EDO DICTIONARY. 229 

Ni, prefix meaning let; nunalue, let us do it. 

Nia, now, with. 

Nima, for us. 

Nina, for them. 

Nime, for me. 

Noa loa, suffix indie, death ; igboma, I kill a man ; Igboma- 

noa, I kill a man dead. 
Ngbalegelege, brown. 
Nobgri, landholder. 
Nqxgneri, anyone. 
Node, yesterday. 

Nod^kisori, name for a stone axe. 
Nogbese, one who gives big dashes. 
Nogbete, sore. 
Nogbigbelua, a suicide. 
NogiQne, fourth. 
Nogise, fifth. 
Nogihino, seventh. 
Nogiyelele, eighth. 
Nogyeha, sixth. 
Nogihini, ninth. 
Nohamu, coward. 

Nod a dig be, substitute for pawn or condemned man. 
Noiyeme, it is good for me. 
Noyinwele, narrow. 
NqlQini, intelligent man. 
Nomgti, a strong, industrious man. 
Ngrhuele, recently circumcised boy (?). 
Noriaisi, innocent. 
Nqrj^digaxi, any one. 
Noriri, whoever. 
NQT^, of them (lit., who was); nqdignqro,, the eldest of 

them. 

Nosivieva, triplets. 
NqbiewezQ, defendant. 
NqtiezQ, plaintiff. 
NQ wQse, broad. 



230 EDO DICTIONARY. 

Nozzle nozelele, in order. 
Nozoxialo, brave man (strong for eye). 
Nukpona, this year. 
Nun a, you. 
Numie, do you see ? 
Nuwa, for you. 



Q, or. 

Ob a, a pattern (No. 27 in Notes and Queries). 

Qba, red ; light ; flame ; he hides. 

Qbi, king. 

Qbakota, it is towards evening, it becomes evening. 

Qbalo, sharp, hot. 

Qbalgmi, it hurts me. 

Obamili, 200 figure (ornament). 

Qba we, man who walks on his toes. 

Qbboruokao, early morning, first cock crows. 

, half moon. 

, new road; paddle. 
Qbele, he stays. 
QberQmo, right hand. 
Obi, poison. 

Qbi aruana, six fingered child. 
ObiQxu, hinge. 
Qbiedo, house slave. 
Qbita, diviner who tries ita ordeal. 
Obp, hand; arm; ariobiygma, go to the left; ariob^r- 

homa, go to the right. 
Qbo, doctor ; pi. ejbo, doctors. 
Qbobo, flour, maahed yam ; mahogany (?). 
Obodo, pirouet in dancing. 
Qbqkpa, one way (place), one hand. 
Qbii, plenty, much. 
Qbugbi, plenty, too much. 
Ob we, funnel (for bellows). 
Ob we, potter's clay. 



EDO DICTIONARY. 231 

Ox a, story. 

Qxa, white ant. 

Qxa, cotton tree. 

Qxadioi, worm eaten, ant eaten. 

Qxaimi, pi. ixaimi, chief. 

Qxame, I tire; Qxale,, he, she tires; emaxame, I am 

tired of fufu. 
Qxe, a small fish. 
Oxi, circle. 
Oxia, road ant. 
Qxia, march. 
Qxiame, it hurts me. 
Qxiqli, end. 

Oxigmekia, boy with healed circumcision wound. 
Oxiuxi, circular. 
Qxo (its) bad. 
QXQXO, fowl. 
QxQxovibie, Pleiades. 
Qxggbo, farm hut. 
Qxoi, parasitic worm, 
war. 

, not nice. 
Oxumu, sky. 
Oxumwiainye, lightning. 
Oxwaxwa, harmattan. 
Ox wai, basket. 
Oxwalema, woman's basket. 
Ox we, a fruit, 
Qxwe, parrot. 
Ox we, knot. 
Oxwixwi, dark, black. 
Ox wo, pi. ixwo, woman. 
Qxwome, I am sick. 
Oxwonodafenonyawa, head wife, second husband of 

house. 

Oxwuhami, pregnant woman. 
Q da feme, my husband. 



232 EDO DICTIONARY. 

Qdafiye, stepfather. 

Qdafon, husband. 

Odaiha^i, beads in line round forehead. 

Odalowa, in front of the house. 

Odalowe, shin. 

Odalu, forwards ; road in front ; in front. 

Odame, I am sorry for. 

Odene,re, a short way. 

Ode,rie, woman's quarter of house. 

Qdesuhumu, crown of head. 

Ode, wo, path. 

Odgngma, right road. 

O dene, ma, wrong road. 

Odi, gate. 

Qdi, he is brave. 

Odi, dumb. 

Odiai, straight. 

Odibo, servant. 

Qdiegbf, head of the family. 

Odjeke, back ; backwards ; at the back. 

Odiekowa, behind the house. 

Q die, wonaigwa, he is dead (of big man). 

Odigba, bead collar. 

OdigQge,, door leading to oderie. 

dim a, we are sorry for. 

QdiQfi, eldest. 

Qdo, husband. 

Odo, mortar (for pound ing). 

Odoxumu, palm wine (from oil palm). 

Q dodo, red cloth. 



, back, again. 
Oduduowa, doors leading to women's quarters in big chiefs 

house. 

Oduelene,ko, liver. 
Oduelenohoga, lungs. 
QdukmQ, weaver. 



EDO DICTIONARY. 233 

O dumb a, fabulous animal ; bullroarer. 

Oduowa, spare room. 

Ofianpapapa, disagreeable (of taste). 

Qfe", well ; rich man ; it has run away (of a dog). 

Oftf, rat. 

Qfi, yaws. 

Ofi, (is) plenty. 

Qfioto, bush rat ; grass cutter. 

Qfiinwe, he is weaned. 

Qfo, sweat. 

Qf8, it's finished. 

Qforio, suffocation. 

Ofwa, white. 

Qfwegbe, better for me. 

Qga, net. 

Qga, headman. 

Qga, throwing spear. 

Qgai, is it a present ? 

Qgai, it is done. 

Qyale, dear. 

Ogano, whose is it ? 

Qgawu, he is dying. 

Ogawiila, will he die ? 

Ogba, digging stick. 

Qgba, line, row. 

Qgbaigbe, trap (it ties body). 

Qgbaliha, he tied it wrong. 

Ogbe, next year. 

Qgbg, he broke the egg. 

QgbehQ, fisherman. 

QgbQdg, war knife. 

Ogbodu, plover. 

Qgbqfp, wet. 

Ogbole, forecourt of house. 

Qggde, plantain. 

Qg^d^bo, banana. 

Ogele, pi. igle, children, young ones. 



234 EDO DICTIONARY. 

6geye, crooked. 

Qge,zu, star. 

Ogia,^/. jg'ia, enemy. 

Ogyame, leopard. 

OgiasQn, midnight. 

OgiasQfipa, midnight. 

Ogiava, noon. 

Ogida, a kind of drum. 

Ogye,^?/. Qgie, prince. 

Ogie, he laughs. 

Ogie,va, mate (one wife of another). 

Ogyeviotp, platform; table (lit. long cannot sleep on 

floor). 

Ogigbe, tenth. 
Ogina, theirs. 
Ogma, thirty. 

Ogiukbo, mud platform for king's throne. 
Ogyuzo, uzatp, blackfronted duiker. 
Ogmebe, pencil. 
Qgmo, young, new. 
Ogm or hue, it is marked with chalk. 
Qgp, bamboo; palm wine (from bamboo). 
Ogo, farm in its second year, or deserted farm. 
Ogo, ram. 

QgQdg, water hole, pond. 
QgogmQ, (it is) new. 
Qgoi, his. 
Qgoi, crooked. 
Qgoyi, swastika. 
Ogqlp, tail. 
6golo, grasshopper. 
QgQma, ours. 
OgQma, plenty of men. 

Ogome, my own; iyaviQgome, I take my own_ 
Qgomena, mine. 
Qgewo, his. 
Qgowa, yours. 



EDO DICTIONARY. 

QgowQwo, thine. 

Ogukbo, farm in second year. 

Ogumu, prisoner of war. 

Ogufi, blacksmith ; planet Jupiter. 

gun a me, hippopotamus. 

Oyewe, herd of small goats. 

Oguzuma, =Yoruba edu. 

Qgwa, woman's room in oderie ; man's sleeping room. 

Ogwago, mahogany (?). 

Ogweme, I get. 

Qgwenayawa, small room in oduowa. 

Ogwi, mango. 

Ogwixi, I am a blacksmith. 

Ogwogun, forge. 

Oh a, bush. 

OhabQ, bow (archer's). 

Ohae,ku, small of back. 

Qhaiso, swallow. 

OhamQgbeme, I am hungry. 

Qhe,, red ant. 

hen bo, priest. 

Ohia, part of a door. 

Ohia, dressed skin. 

Ohia, scraper. 

Ohimi, the Niger ; East. 

Oh 6, fine. 

Qhoa, a suicide (by hanging). 

Ohogeta, I lie ; tell falsehoods ; eloh6geta, I don't lie. 

6 hog a, empty. 

Ohogo, false. 

QhQkbg, priest. 

Ohua, sheep. 

Qhwale, clean. 

OhuQxi, I am a hunter. 

Ohukpa, once. 

Ohurnqkuta, top of the rock. 

Ohumuda, a bad character. 



236 EDO DICTIONARY. 

Ohumume, I am angry. 

oi^ga, there. 

oiekwekwe, small. 

oi^me, I love. 

9Ji, store house. 

oiiya, comb. 

Oiyorhuewo, it is marked with chalk. 

oiyara, poor man. 

my , comrade (in same Otu). 

oiyolo, which. 

Qka, corn, maize. 

Oka, nokalo, first. 

Qkahiame, nest. 

Qkai, (its) dry. 

Okako, warrior. 

Qkakwo, pi. ekakwo ; captain, officer. 

Qkama, short ; small. 

Okaminahu, corn grows. 

Okba, rope for dripping water from palm trees into a pot. 

Okbe, flute (calabash). 

Ok be, maker of palm wine. 

Okbglue, it is hard for him. 

Qk bo, tail. 

Oke, mountain, hill ; Okgdo, the hill above the Ikpoba. 

Ok^ke, rotten. 

Ok^ke, drum stick. 

Okele, uterus. 

Okibaba, green. 

Okieki, last. 

Okilame, ants' nest. 

Qk^ri, a pattern (concentric circles). 

Ok ma, calabash plate. 

Okma, sokma, tokma, without ; except. 

Ok, canoe. 

Oko, leaf for wrapping; ivory horn. 

Ok 6, " old fellow "; oleleoko, welcome, my friend. 

Okobizo, bush fowl. 



EDO DICTIONAKY. 237 

Okoki, pad for silencing door. 
Okoro, prince. 

Ok pa, one (in composition); arhiqkpa, one man. 
Qkpadewugie, nineteen. 
Qkpainyogye, twenty-one. 
Qkpamudi, I wonder. 
Okpalo, big; o k pa Iqse, bigger. 
Okpatele, bubo. 
Qkpele, old. 

Okpeme, big words ; plenty of words. 
Okpe.se, love gift. 
Okpigo, plenty of money. 
Okwevaxwe, soap balls. 
Okwia, pi. ;kwia, man ; male. 
Okukweha, a style of hair dressing. 
OkumQ, without salt. 
Ok wo, war. 
Qkwole, fainting. 
OkusuebQ, chiefs steward. 
Okuta, stone. 
Ole, street. 
Ole, verandah. 
Olgdohia, all Benin City. 
Olegwi, dark side of a cloud. 
Qle,la, passage. 
Ql^le, a bean. 
Olele, ground squirrel 
Q lei erne, he tickles me. 
Olema, son. 
Qligbime, I am cold. 
Oligi, it cannot. 
OlikQmeho, windpipe. 
Ol;ma, file. 

Qlimi, pi. elimi, corpse. 
Q16, pus ; cheap. 
Olo, bead hat. 
, soft. 



238 EDO DICTIONAKY. 

Qluxwalaxwala, rough. 

Olodionogwa, eunuch. 

Olodo, socket for lock. 

Olo gi,pl. ;lg<y> youths ; third division of adult males. 

Ologbo, cat. 

Qlggion, rattle (cane). 

Ologiso, bright side of a cloud. 

01 ok a, ring. 

QlQkgmeho, Adam's apple. 

Olokun, sea ; the god Olokun ; west. 

Olo lame, water pipe. 

OluQde, day reckoner. 

Qlueme, my mate (one wife of another). 

Olugbulubu, stone in bladder (of animal). 

Olulikpe.de, day reckoner. 

Olulu, cotton. 

Qlumosa, creditor. 

Qluze.gezgge, flexible. 

Qma, (its) good. 

Qma,jpZ. ema, man, person. 

Qmaxe, potter. 

Qmada, a bad man ; ada bearer. 

Qniai, old man. 

Qmoiho, women's ebq (lit., I want a son). 

Qmaikoma, everyone. 

Qrnairp, nobody. 

Qmaisi, a good man. 

OmalemirQkpa, ignorant. 

Omamai, thick. 

Qmarhuale, unhappy. 

^)mase, not enough. 

Qmanodeni, that man who is coming. 

QmanQma, a good man. 

Qmawu, he is not dead. 

Ome, fringe of palm leaf before shrine. 

Q nag me, madman. 

Qmeto, hair in plaits. 



EDO DICTIONARY. 2M9 



"Quag to, hairy. 
'Qmiamezi, iguana. 
Qmi^mie, sweet (like sugar). 
QmiQgp, rough. 
Omirha, fruit. 
Qmiwu, son. 
'Qmo, king; son. 
Qmoberha, father's step child. 
QniQbo, baby (lit. arm-child); step child. 
Qmpgai, warm. 
Qmog, whose. 
QniQmo, iron. 
Qmomoi, he borrows. 

QniQnoxerai, child that favours the father. 
QniQse, fine, handsome. 
Q m Q s e x Q 1 a, handsome. 
Qmqsegbe, fine body. 
QmQtQfi, rusty. 
Omot^me, it burns me. 
Omu, mahogany (?). 
Qmu, sour. 
Qmwada, ada bearer. 
Qmubqbu, moist. 
Omwe, sun. 
Omwihi, carrier. 
On a, decorative marks. 
Qna, pi. ena, this. 
One, crocodile. 
Onwa, bee. 
Qnwale, adult male. 
On wale, light (colour). 
Onwa me, adultery. 
Onw^, honey. 
Qni, pi. eni, that. 
Qnia, bright (of fire). 
Oniga, prisoner 
Onj^sa, anus. 



240 EDO DICTIONARY. 

Qno, heaven, future world. 

Qngliwo, harsh. 

On wot a, sunset. 

Onurhieyekowa, door leading to back of the house. 

Onurhogbole, door leading from ogbole to house. 

Onurhole, door from second forecourt to house. 

Onurhole, gate of the town. 

Onurhu, doorway, gate. 

Onurodgrie, door leading to oderie. 

Onuse, a white yam. 

Qnuta, slow. 

Onyeme, I am glad. 

Qnyqmokpa, in one place, direction. 

QnyoniQkpa, square. 

QpQkqre, palm oil chop. 

Qpia, machet. 

Qranikbili, a fool. 

Ore, entrance to house (from street). 

Qre, far. 

Qre, he is here. 

Qr^do, he is in Edo. 

QrSdola, is he in Edo ? 

Orhierhie, sweet like banana. 

Qrho, mud. 

Orhg, wet season. 

Qrhomi, guinea fowl; star. 

Qrhqn, widow. 

Qrhu, yam heap. 

Qrhuale, happy. 

Qrhu a we, obstacle, stone, etc., in the way. 

Orhuawe, ankle. 

Qrhue, chalk. 

Qrhuinotp, snake. 

Oriala, gall; bitter. 

Orialale, gall bladder. 

Oriasolome, lance. 

Qrie, (its) flat. 



EDO DICTIONAKY. 241 

Origin a, crocus. 

Origve, kola dish. 

Qriosa, debtor. 

Oroxwa, stick. 

Orua, relative by marriage. 

Qsa, gorilla (?). 

Osama, bronze worker. 

Ose", enough. Osenagaxia, it is time to go. 

Ose,, witness. 

Ose, friend; mistress. 

Osqba, loin cloth (woman's). 

Osqle, beetle. 

Qsiele, it's black. 

Osielegbe, suitor for a widow. 

Osfkpalo, lizard. 

Osilpka, corn stack. 

Osiotu, comet (?). 

Osirhurhu, mould (parasitic). 

Osisi, gun. 

Qso, (its) dark. 

Oso, he should. 

Qsgle, I am sorry for. 

Qsu, slow. 

Osue, tooth pick. 

Osukoko, comet. 

Osumai, red stone said to be vomited by the rainbow ; used 

for Exwai. 

Qsunu, it has come true ; it has happened. 
s 14 r u w e, porcupine. 
Osusu, round patch of hair. 
Ota, evening. 
Qtai, tall, long. 
Otawa, jealous (?). 
Oteriuruhe, he is dead (of king). 
Qti, it boils ; it flies. 
Qtihi, sneeze. 

Qtihberowa, it flew over the house, 
n. K 



242 EDO DICTIONARY. 



Qto, sharp like pepper. 

Otp, earth ; ground ; bottom of river ; under. 

Otoli, difficult. 

Otglime, dregs. 

QtQfi, burial shrine. 

Qtn, burning hot. 

Qtan, squirrel. 

under the tree, 
down stream. 
Ototpli, bottom ; dregs. 
Otowa, floor. 
Otu, fungus. 
Otu, company. 

Otu we, pi. etuwe, your brother, relative. 
Ovai, sick. 

Ovaima, it pleases us. 
QvQgbe, broad. 
Ovewaima, it will please us. 
Ovia, small. 
Ovia, Ovia. 
Ovia be, knife. 
Oviaxe, mould ; small pot. 
Oviakota, dog. 
Ovialu, pupil of the eye. 
Oviaxowe, calf (of leg). 
Ovie, small. 
Q vie, he sleeps. 

vie, slave ; ripe.. 

vie, he cries, weeps. 
Ovi^d^xere, a short time. 
Oviqgboxere, a short way. 
Ovigmila, calf (animal). 
Oviewu, side mark. 
Ovin, sunlight. 
Ovindelu, sun behind cloud. 
Ovinyare, sunrise. 
Oviodo, pestle. 



EDO DICTIONARY. 243 



Oviogoiamot^, middle of foot. 

Oviokokugugawe, patella. 

Ovioma, free man; small man (not chief). 

Oviugwe, poor man. 

OviukmQn, loin cloth (man's). 

Ovjvie, grass snake. 

Ovua, full. 

Ovwon, plenty. 

Qwa, yours. 

Owa, house. 

Owa, castrated animal (goat or ox). 

Owa, booth. 

Q\va,isQ,pl. iwaise, learned men. 

Owa la, straight. 

Owalame, track, spoor of an animal. 

Owamegbime, I am thirsty. 

Owangdo, people of Edo. 

Owe, your own. 

O w (j, farmer. 

Qw, he says. 

Owe, broom. 

Owe, sleep. 

OWQ, leg. 

Owe_, shape. 

Ow^bo, temple. 

OvvQxi, I am a farmer. 

Owegbi, hard, strong. 

Owehe, menstruation room. 

Owke, mud house. 

Owemwami, house of palm leaves. 

OweriotQ, peeled rods on shrine of Ebo. 

Q WQWO, thine. 

Qwia, putrid. 

Qwia, bottom of a hole. 

Qwiaixa, it's sour. 

Owialame, fraenum of the tongue. 

Owiamwemwe, an unusual smell. 



244 EDO DICTIONAKY. 

Owie, morning; owiena, this morning. 

OwiewiemQkpa, morning twilight. 

Owiewiliwili, morning mist. 

Owigo, safe (for money). 

Owili, old man ; elder. 

Owiolue, stepson (woman speaking). 

Owirha, brother by same father. 

Owirhowiye, brother by same father and mother. 

Owiwowo, log hut. 

Owiwu, left armpit. 

Owiye, brother by same mother. 

Owo, one (in counting). 

Owoxia, ant's nest. 

Owoxo, flexible. 

Owohe, a kind of wood. 

w oi i p e r e p e r e, flat- footed person . 

Owgrp, eleven. 

Owu, death. 

Owuxo, hegoat. 

Owula, is he dead ? 

Owuresa, mahogany (?). 

Qyaiyumomi, square. 

Oyegidigbii, very big. 

Qyelerp, man appointed to cook or provide food for strangers. 

Oyi, theft. 

Oyo, bamboo. 

Qyuo, loose. 

OZQ, lead. 

Qze, hard. 

Qz^do, interpreter (for Bini). 

Qzigo, milk teeth. 

Ozila, wind (in the farm). 

Oziohami, a fasting man. 

Qziwirhu, small, soft voice. 

z i, crab ; mantis. 



EDO DICTIONARY. 245 

Ke, neg. particle ; aixue, drive it ; arexue, do not drive it. 
Khiai, bad, spoilt. 
Rhili, still, yet. 
KhiokatQ, roast corn. 

Sa, shoo. 

Sa, give, of liquids ; same me, give me water ; samenerha, 

give water to your father; soviamexereme, give me 

a little water. 

Sekeniye, come to my place. 
Sgle, on, on, on. 

Sluwe, more than you (past you). 
Sik, near; sikmi, near me ; sikoli, near him, it. 
Sikeygki, go further back. 
S iky Q mo, go further away. 
Sikgdo, go further away. 
Sokma, except. 
Sokwo, unless; sokwoiya, unless you go. 

Ta,they. 

T|, shut up. 

Ta, guess ! 

Ti, I. 

Twabqvai, twafia, walk fast. 

U, you; especially used before g; ugbS, you killed him; 

ugama, you are good; ugare, will, shall, you come? 

lima, you are no good ; uwoxa, you speak. 
Ubele, sand. 

Ubidgn, bush cat, hyena (?). 
Ubo, rubber vine. 
Ubozg, fish poison. 
Uxiuxi, round. 
Uxgfi, navel. 
Uxqrp, squirrel (large). 
Uxu, property. 



246 EDO DICTIONARY. 

X 

Uxwire, sugar cane. 

II x wire, chair. 

Uxijmufi, famine. 

Uxure, carved pole representing ancestors or Ebo. 

UxurQXQ, uncarved uxure. 

Ude,, nut oil. 

Udi, oil palm. 

Udia, fly. 

Udini, big fly. 

Udonehogogo, lungs (?). 

Udu, liver. 

Ufe,ko, careless. 

Ufile, whistle. 

Uga, a rope of yams (22 or 23). 

Ugana, axe. 

Ugbadi, sword. 

Ugbe, syphilitic eruption round the waist. 

Ugbena, when. 

Ugbo, farm. 

Ugbqdoko, bone. 

UgbogiQlimi, the black hat of Ovia's mother ; a fabulous 

beast. 

Uge, broad road leading into a village or quarter. 
Ugh a v a, stone axe. 
Ugia, five shillings. 

Ugiwonaise, one hundred and twenty. 
Ugme,so, seldom. 
Ugo, bush yam. 

Ugoga, woman's bedroom in oderie. 
Ugolo, satirical verses. 
Ugu, vulture. 
Uguga, room in a house. 
Uguga, different. 
Uguga bo, elbow. 

Ugyama, present to king from his children. 
Ugye, worship of king's lather. 
Ugye, twenty. 



EDO DICTIONARY. 247 

Ugyqki, next market. 

Uhai, well. 

Uhalu, forehead. 

Uhe, vulva. 

Uhglgkugbe, junction. 

Uhi, law. 

Uholu, pawpaw. 

U humble, top (lit. its head). 

Ub.ume.ze, up stream. 

Uhumilau, mask. 

Uhumoke, up hill. 

Uhumol^mi, skull. 

Uhumova, fever. 

Uhumu, head. 

Ukade, hook. 

Ukase, rattle (calabash). 

Ukata, hat. 

Ukbo, road. 

Ukbo, bed. 

Uke, small drum. 

Uke,, foundation for hair; lame. 

Uke, frizzly. 

Ukggbe, tortoise shell ornament. 

Uke,gbo, calabash with open mouth, fowl calabash. 

Ukqke, peg. 

Uki, moon ; month. 

Ukidelu, moon behind clouds. 

Ukih^mota, ukiota, ukiqgmp, ovi agb^de, new moon. 

Uki huyi, moon comes out. 

Uki maihi, no moon. 

Ukingbeluane, half moon. 

UkiQgmo, new (lit. raw) moon. 

Ukinoba, moonlight. 

Ukivewe, full moon. 

Uki, before ; ukigaxia, before you go. 

Uko, calabash. 

Ukp, messenger. 



248 EDO DICTIONARY. 

Ukgba, king's messenger. 

UkShumu, pillow. 

Ukoki, pad (for load). 

Ukqkodie.ke, spine. 

Ukokowe, malleolus. 

UkQkpwQ, calabash for medicine. 

Ukoni, kitchen. 

Ukoti, pin for dressing hair. 

Ukpa, tip ; ukpalame, tip of the tongue. 

Ukpafogbole, second forecourt. 

Ukpaihiame, beak. 

Ukpe, mouth, beak. 

Ukpehp, lobe. 

UkpQWQ, left nipple. 

Ukpo, year. 

Ukpo Me, squirrel. 

Ukpogieva, second in age. 

Ukpoguzo, foreign body in the eye. 

Ukpoguzo, lozenge pattern (?). 

Ukwe.be,, ebe holder. 

Ukwomobie, kind of small kingfisher. 

Ulakpa, red earth. 

Ulelha, hair dressing in eighth month of pregnancy. 

Ule,ko, medicine worn by pregnant woman. 

Ul^niQ, basin. 

Uli, two hundred. 

Ulo, in a straight line (?). 

Ulgka, balls of corn mixed with oil. 

Ulpma, rope barring road during Ovia ceremonies. 

Uma, conference of parties to palaver. 

UmalaiQkpe, all the people of a country. 

Umalemedewu, finis ! (story falls down dead). 

Ume,, salt. 

i, salty. 
, illegitimate. 
Urnqdia, straight (road). 
UmQniQnQmegbehia, cube. 



EDO DICTIONARY. 249 

Umqrni, the same person. 

Umqmo, hammer. 

Umozo, broad sword. 

Umu, heavy. 

Umwadiye, serval. 

Umweriotp, small stick, peeled wands. 

Umwqme, soup. 

Uriwe, for thee. 

Unwe, cow. 

Unigle, in three days 

Unu, month. 

Unwe, mosquito. 

Unwewokgke, idle. 

Unuya, gate of city. 

Un ye, soup. 

Unygge, rat (? striped). 

Unyumu, dry season. 

Urhowa, street in market. 

Urhu, neck; voice, language. 

Urhue.do, Bini language; igabale, Hausa; isa, Ishan ; 

obo, Sobo; ora, Ora ; sekri, Jekri. 
Urhuabo, wrist. 
U r o b o, gate. 
Use, week. 
Us (5, I am poor. 
Usekinqde, next market. 
Usie, marks on house. 
Usi^le, in four days. 
Usiigbe, mortar (for fufu). 
Usuine, line of workers; suite. 
Us use, every week. 
Uteya, till. 
U t o, arrow point. 

Utu, fern ; long stick ; agricultural eby. 
Uvalame, upper chest. 
Uvinyeke, depression in middle of back. 
Uvii, hole. 
II. s 



250 EDO DICTIONARY. 

Uvun, burial shrine. 

UvugQgbe, place of the mirror. 

Uvweho, earhole. 

Uv wih we, nostril. 

Uwawa, cooking pot. 

Uwawe, knee. 

Uwele, inside it. 

Uwerhie, whip. 

Uyi, tank or pool in centre of room. 

Uzama, king's council. 

UzQbi, guilty. 

Uzo, Maxwell's duiker. 



Ve, and ; together ; ekita ve egwi, dog and tortoise ; vedialu, 

may we stay and do (it). 
Vedio, so. 



Wa, brown. 

W r a, why ? what ? where ? 

Waiyi, where do you live ? Wame,, what did you get ? 

Wamie,, what did you see ? Wariei, where are you 

going ? 

Wa, you ; your ; Wale, know (ye) ; War hie, take all ! 
Wab^doko, bone, skeleton. 
Watobuwa, yourselves. 
We, thou, thee, thy ; Wle, dost thou know ? 
We, in. 

We-elume, you not me. 
Welaime, you or I. 
Wqle, welcome ! 
Wenia, so. 
WQtqbowe, thyself. 
Wiaga, what. 
Wo, where. 



EDO DICTIONARY. 25] 



"VV 11 wow a, in the liouse. 
Wuvu, in a hole. 
W(>, what. 

Xire xire, very small. 

Zabo, quick. 

leave it! 



HAUKISON AND SONS, PRINTERS IN ORDINAET TO HIS MAJESTY, 

ST. MARTIN'S LANE. 



A 000006719 9