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The Works of Blumenbach edited in this volume are the first 
and third or last edition of his famous Treatise On the Na- 
tural Variety of Mankind ; which were published in 1775 and 
1795 respectively: the Contributions to Natural History, in two 
parts; and a slight notice of three skulls which appeared in 
the Gottingische gelehrte Anzeigen of Nov. 1833, only remark- 
able for being the last printed utterance of the author. Two 
Memoirs of Blumenbach have been prefixed, which contain 
together almost everything of interest concerning the circum- 
stances of his life. I have also added an account of his once 
famous anthropological collection, written by his successor, now 
himself lately deceased, Professor Rudolph Wagner, one of 
the original Honorary Fellows of the Anthropological Society, 

Blumenbach has related in the little autobiographical frag- 
ment, which has been incorporated by Marx in his memoir, 
the causes which led to his selection of an anthropological 
subject as the thesis for his doctoral dissertation. It was 
delivered in 1775, and reprinted word for word in 1776. A 
second edition, enlarged by as much as would make about 


fifteen printed pages uniform with this translation, was issued 
in 1781 ; and finally a third in 1795, which in arrangement 
and matter was almost a new work. I hesitated some time 
as to which of the two first editions it would be most satis- 
factory to give to the public; for, on the one hand, the first 
is obviously most interesting for the history of the science, 
and the additional matter contained in the second has scarce 
any intrinsic value in the present day; but, on the other hand, 
in the first mankind is divided into four races only, and the 
now famous division of the Caucasian, Asiatic, American, 
Ethiopian, and Malay races, occurs for the first time in the 
edition of 1781. 

To give them both in their entirety would have perhaps 
been less troublesome to myself, but certainly tedious to the 
reader, for not only are the Plates the same, but much the 
greater part of the second edition is a mere repetition. At 
last I determined to use the first as my text, and appended in 
a note the important pentagenist arrangement. Accordingly 
the translation has been made from the reprint of 1776, which 
differs in the title-page alone, and that I have taken from the 
copy in the British Museum. The preface To the Reader has 
been omitted as of no value. But this is not the case with 
the Letter to Sir Joseph Banks, which forms the preface to 
the third edition of 1795, and contains a system of natural 
history, with appendices giving an account of Blumenbach's 
Collection as it then was. 

The Contributions to Natural History consists of two parts ; 
the first of which went through two editions. The first in 
1790, and the second, from which the translation is made, in 
1806. The second part appeared in 1811. That part in the ori- 
ginal is composed of two sections ; the first upon Peter, the Wild 
Boy, and wild boys in general: and the second on Egyptian 


mummies. This latter essay, as may be supposed, is considerably 
behind the knowledge of the present day, and though in it, 
as well as in that written by Blumenbach in English and 
printed in the Philosophical Transactions of 1794, he had 
observed the varieties in the national character of the 
Egyptian mummies and artistic representations, yet the whole 
essay has been pronounced lately by a competent writer to 
be "in some sort not worthy of that great authority 1 ." The 
fact that the incisors of the mummies resembled in shape the 
molar teeth was thought by Blumenbach to be a discovery 
of much greater importance than modern writers are willing 
to allow. I have therefore come to the conclusion that it is 
not worth while to edit this part of the Contributions, especi- 
ally as it is quite distinct by itself, and has no immediate bear- 
ing on general anthropology. 

The treatise On the Natural Variety of Mankind cannot be 
considered obsolete even at the present day. All subsequent 
writers, including Lawrence, Prichard, Waitz, &c, have ac- 
knowledged their obligations and proved them, especially Law- 
rence, by borrowing largely from it. "Blumenbach may still 
be considered a chief authority," says Waitz 2 . And his classi- 
fication of mankind, though avowedly neither final nor rigidly 
scientific, has survived a very considerable number of preten- 
tious improvements, and still holds its ground in the latest 
elementary text-books of ethnology 8 . "The illustrious natu- 
ralist, in whom, after Buffon, we ought to acknowledge the 
father of anthropology, has made two important advances in 

1 Perier (J. A. N.), Sur Veihnogenie Egyptienne. Mem. de la Soc. de V Anthro- 
pologic de Pans, Tom. I. p. 443. 

2 p. 29. Eng. Trl. by J. F. Collingwood. 8vo. Lond. 1863. 

3 See Page D. Introductory Text Booh of Physical Geography, p. 178, Edinb. 
and Lond. 1863, nmo. 


that science, in his views on the classification of races. Although 
he continued to place at the head of all the characteristics that 
derived from colour, Blumenbach is the first who founded his 
classification in great part on those presented by the general 
conformation of the head, so different in different races, as to 
the proportion of the skull to the face, and of the encephalon 
to the organs of sense and the jaws. This progress led also 
to a second. It is because Blumenbach attributed a great 
importance to that order of characteristics ; it is because he was 
the first who devoted himself to determine exactly, by the 
assistance of a great number of observations, the essential 
elements which distinguished the types of man that he was 
also the first who made a very clear distinction of several 
races in which it is impossible to fail of recognizing so many 
natural groups. Thus it has happened that these races, after 
having been once introduced into science by Blumenbach, 
have been retained there; and we may assert that they will 
always be retained, with some rectifications in their charac- 
teristics and in their several boundaries. But are the five 
races of Blumenbach the only ones possible to distinguish in 
mankind ? And if all the five must be considered as natural 
groups, is it proper to place them in the same rank, and allow 
them all the same zoological value ? Blumenbach himself did 
not think this. 

" In the first place his five races are not the only ones whose 
existence he is disposed to admit; but what is very different, 
the five principal ones. Varietates quince principes, says Blu- 
menbach in his treatise On the Varieties of Mankind. He uses 
the same expression in his Representations. The unequal im- 
portance of these races in a zoological point of view, is also, at 
least by implication, admitted by Blumenbach. Of the five 
races there are three which he considers above all as the princi- 


pal races; and therefore he deals with those first. These are 
the Caucasian, which is not only for Blumenbach the most 
beautiful, and that to which the pre-eminence belongs, but the 
primitive race; then, the Mongolian and Ethiopian, in which 
the author sees the extreme degenerations of the human species. 
As to the other races, they are only for Blumenbach, transitional : 
that is, the American is the passage from the Caucasian to 
the Mongolian; and the Malay, from the Caucasian to the 
Ethiopian. These two races are put off till the last, instead of 
being treated of intermediately, as they ought to be, if they 
were not considered as divisions of an inferior rank. 

" It is apparent that Blumenbach was more or less aware of 
three truths whose importance no one can dispute in anthropo- 
logical taxinomy, that is to say, The plurality of races of man ; 
the importance of the characteristics deduced from the confor- 
mation of the head; and the necessity of not placing in the 
same rank all the divisions of mankind, which bear the common 
title of races, in spite of the unequal importance of their anato- 
mical, physiological, and let us also add, psychological charac- 
teristics 1 ." 

This criticism taken from one of the latest essays of a most 
distinguished modern naturalist and anthropologist will relieve 
me from the arduous task of passing this work of Blumenbach 
in review. The Contributions as is pointed out by M. Flourens 
is altogether a production of a lighter kind. It contains many 
curious observations, and though its geological theories are long 
since obsolete, the chapters on anthropological collections and 
on the Negro may still be read with considerable interest. 
Lawrence has largely borrowed from the last in his lectures on 

1 Is. Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire, Classification Anthropologiqite. Mini, de la Soc. 
d'Anihrop. de Park, Tom. I. p. 129, sq. 


the Natural History of Man. The history of Peter the Wild Boy 
has, so far as I know, never been translated into English in its 
entirety, but all that has been said of him and the other wild 
men there mentioned has been borrowed from Blumenbach. 

I had at one time intended to edit the Decades Craniorum, a 
book now become somewhat scarce. Inquiries were made by the 
President and Publishing Committee of the Anthropological 
Society as to the probable expense which would be incurred in 
reproducing the 65 plates of which that work is composed. The 
results showed that such an undertaking would be beyond the 
present means of the Society ; and an opinion was also expressed 
by some who are worthy of all attention in such a matter that 
more typical, characteristic, and hitherto undelineated skulls 
scattered about in the different English Museums should have a 
preference, in case such an outlay as the publication of so many 
crania with their descriptions should at any time be seriously 
contemplated. Whilst I do not for a moment doubt the wisdom 
of the decision, or deny the expediency of preferring hitherto 
inedited materials, I still think that if the present possessors 
of the Blumenbachian Collection could be induced to join not 
only in furnishing entirely fresh drawings of the skulls contained 
in it, but also in publishing the very minute and accurate 
descriptions, certificates, and documents relating to each particu- 
lar one, which form by no means the least instructive portion of 
the inedited remains of Blumenbach, the result would not only 
be a great stimulus to those international exertions without 
which the science of Anthropology cannot hope to make the 
progress so much to be desired for it, but would also confer the 
greatest credit on the Societies which might be principally con- 
cerned in carrying out such an undertaking. With respect to 
the last utterance of Blumenbach, which has been extracted 
from the Gbttingen Magazine, I am indebted to Professor 


Marx for the following information. " The Spicilegium was not 
printed. It had been the intention of Blumenbach to work out 
in greater detail the short lecture which was read at the session 
of the 3rd August, 1833, but he did not fulfil it. Therefore the 
short notice in the 177th number of the Gottingische Gelehrte 
Anzeigen, for 1833, is the only communication on that point 
that we have of his." 

The Memoir of Prof. Marx has been previously translated 
in the Edinbur-gh New Philosophical Magazine, but many in- 
teresting details about the life and habits of Blumenbach were 
omitted. It was made great use of by M. Flourens, as he acknow- 
ledges ; but since his own memoir contains many original details 
and remarks from an independent point of view, I have thought 
it would be equally acceptable. 

A singular mistake has however been made by M. Flourens, 
both in this memoir, and in his larger book 1 on Buffon, which I 
cannot help pointing out. The reader will probably observe 
that he gives as the title of Blumenbach's book The Unity of 
the Human Genus, which is obviously wrong. This would be of 
no importance ; but in the work above referred to we have this 
reflexion: "Nothing promotes clearness of ideas so much as 
precision in the use of words. Blumenbach wrote a book to 
prove the unity of the human species 2 , and entitled it On the 
Unity of the Human Genus; now, a genus is made up of species, 
a species only of varieties. Buffon writing on the same subject, 
and putting before himself the same object, said excellently, 
Varieties in the Human Specie^ 

Blumenbach never once gave as a title, The Unity, &c. ; and 

1 Hist, des travaux et des idees de Buffon, p. 169, second ed. Paris, 1850, 

2 De Vunite du genre hv.main et de se$ varietes, Trad. Franc. Paris, 1804. 


notwithstanding the elaborate ingenuity of M. Flourens as to the 
word genus, I have preferred to translate the Latin words 
humcmum genus, by the ambiguous, and as I believe correct 
expression, mankind. 

I have thought the reader would prefer for many reasons to 
find each of the several treatises in this volume with an exact 
copy of its original title-page prefixed. Those which had no title- 
page have still one made up of that of the periodical, and the 
heading prefixed to each in its original form of publication. 

M. Flourens had appended to his Memoir a list of some of 
Blumenbach's works. A much more perfect one, with notices of 
many of their translations, and of the different portraits and en- 
gravings taken of Blumenbach at various periods of his life, is 
to be found in Callisen (A. C. P. von), Medicinisches Schriftsteller- 
Lexicon, B. n. pp. 34<6 — 356. 1830. Copenhagen, 12mo. As 
will be observed it occupies ten pages, and therefore is far too 
long for insertion here, yet is still neither quite complete nor 
quite correct. 

The treatise of John Hunter, delivered in June 1775, has 
been added. It will be interesting to compare it with the 
contemporaneous effort of Blumenbach. But to enter into 
the question why the study of anthropology never became 
popular in Edinburgh, whilst it continued to be cultivated 
in Gottingen, would carry us beyond the limits of a Preface. 

King's College, Cambridge. 
Jan. i, 1865. 


Editor's Preface .... 

Memoir of J. F. Blumenbach bt Prof. Marx 
„ „ „ M. Flourens 

On the Natural Variety of Mankind, ed. 1775 

„ „ „ THIRD ED. 1795 

Contributions to Natural History, Part I. 
„ „ „ „ Part II. 

Remarks on an Hippocratio Maorocephalus 

Index of Subjects 
Index of Authors 




x 45 

An Account of the Blumenbachian Museum by Prof. Rudolph 

Wagner ....... 345 

Inaugural Disputation on the Varieties of Man, by John 

Hunter, June, 1775 - - - - - 357 



For Jesus Sirach, p. 35, read Jesus the son of Sirach. 
... Mongoz Lemur, p. 90, read Lemur Mongoz. 







K. F. H. MARX. 





K. F. H. MARX. 

Though a very vivid and ineffaceable recollection of the man, 
who has lately departed from our circle, can never cease to 
dwell in us, still I may be permitted to sketch with a few 
strokes a picture of his occupations and his personality, and in 
that way to strew a flower upon the grave of him who in life 
was honoured by all of us, but was especially dear to myself. 

It was his happy lot to fulfil the office of instructor far 
beyond the limits of the ordinary age of man, and to direct 
the affairs of our society for a longer time than any one of 
those here present can remember. For more than half a cen- 
tury the most important events of this University are bound up 
with his memory and his name ; and the development of one of 
the greatest and most important branches of science is essen- 
tially involved with his undertakings, his accomplishments, and 
the efforts he made to advance it. 

He stood at last like a solitary column from out the ranks 
of those who had shared his struggles and his enterprises, and 
had trodden in the same path, or as an old-world pyramid, a 
stimulating example to us juniors, how nature will sometimes 
stamp her crowning seal on high mental powers, by adding to 
them the firmness and long continuance of the outer form. 

John Frederick Blumenbach was born at Gotha on the 11th 
May 1752. His father was a zealous admirer of geography and 
natural history, and lost no time in arousing a love for them 
in his son. It will be convenient to insert here a note in his 



own handwriting, which I owe to the kindness of the departed, 
upon the earliest incidents which happened to him while still 
under the paternal roof, and his earliest promotion on his first 
entrance into the great world; for it will tell a clearer tale than 
if I were to turn it into an historical form. 

"My father was born at Leipsig, and died at Gotha in 1787, 
proctor and professor of the gymnasium 1 . He owed his scientific 
culture to two men especially, Menz and Christ, two Leipsig 
professors of philosophy, and so, indirectly through him, they 
contributed a great deal to my own. Amongst other things, he 
owed to the first his love for the history of literature and for 
the natural sciences, to the second his antiquarian and artistic 
tastes. And so in this way I also acquired a taste and a love 
for these branches of knowledge, which I never found to stand 
in the way of my medical studies; to which in very early days 
I had addicted myself from natural inclination, and sometimes 
they were even in that way of great service. 

« J began my academical career at Jena, and there I derived 
nourishment for literature and book-lore from Baldinger, whilst 
my relation, J. E. I. Walch, the professor of rhetoric, performed 
the same office for me as to natural history and the so-called 
archaeology. I went from there to Gottingen to fill up some 
remaining gaps in my medical studies; and my old rector at 
Gotha, the church-councillor Geisler, gave me a letter for Heyne. 
As I was. giving it to him, I showed him at the same time an 
antique signet-ring, which I had bought when at school from 
a goldsmith. Such a taste in a medical student attracted his 
attention, and this little gem was the first step to the intimate 
acquaintance which I subsequently^enjoyed in so many ways 
with that illustrious man. 

" There resided then at Gottingen professor Chr. W. Buttner, 

1 Besides the more considerable communication in the text Blumenbach has left 
only a few scattered notices of his life. So far as these have come to my know- 
ledge, I have made good use of them. He had an idea of composing his own 
biography, and two passages, written by him in his pocket-book, seem to point to 
this intention. "Many have written their own lives from feelings of sincerity 
rather than of conceit." — "Without favour or ambition, but induced by the reward 
of a good conscience." 

MARX. 5 

an extraordinary man, of singularly extensive learning. He 
had at one time been famous for the great number of lan- 
guages he was skilled in, but had for many years given up 
delivering lectures, and was then quite unknown to the stu- 
dents. Just, however, about the time I came, the eldest son of 
his friend and great admirer, our orientalist, Michaelis, had 
then begun to study medicine ; and his father had enjoined him 
to do his best and get Buttner to deliver a lecture upon natural 
history, which in old days he could do very well, and for which 
he had a celebrated collection. Immediately on my arrival I 
also was invited to the course, and as the hour was one I had 
at my disposal, I put my name down, and so came to know the 
whimsical but remarkable Buttner. The so-called lecture 
became a mere conversation, where for weeks together not a 
word was said of natural history. Still he had appointed as a 
text-book the twelfth edition of the System of Nature; though 
in the whole six months we did not get beyond the mammalia, 
because of the hundred-and-one foreign matters he used to 

" He began with man, who had been passed over unnoticed 
in his readings by Walch of Jena, and illustrated the subject 
with a quantity of books of voyages and travels, and pictures 
of foreign nations, out of his extensive library. It was thus I 
was led to write as the dissertation for my doctorate, On the 
natural variety of mankind; and the further prosecution of this 
interesting subject laid the foundation of my anthropological 
collection, which has in process of time become everywhere 
quite famous for its completeness in its way. 

" In that very first winter, through Heyne's arrangement, 
the University undertook the purchase of Biittner's collection 
of coins and natural history. But in consequence of the unex- 
ampled disorder, in which the natural objects had been let lie 
utterly undistinguished from each other by this most unhandy 
of men, he was first of all in want of an assistant to arrange 
and get them ready for delivery. So Heyne said to him, 
'Don't you give lectures on natural history? and haven't you 
got any one among your pupils whom you can employ for that?" 


' That I have/ said Blittner, and named me. ' Ah, I know him 
too;' so the office of assistant was offered to me, and I gladly 
undertook it without any fee, and found it most instructive. 

"Sometime after, when everything had been handed over, 
and the collection had found a temporary home in the former 
medical lecture-room, the honourable minister and curator of 
the University, von Lenthe, came to visit our institute, so these 
things too had to be shown him, and as the worthy Biittner 
did not seem quite fit to do it, I was hastily summoned, and 
acquitted myself so well, that the minister directly he got 
out took Heyne aside, and said, ' We must not let this young 
man go.' I took my degree in the autumn of '75, on the anni- 
versary day of the University, and directly afterwards in the 
ensuing winter I commenced, as private tutor, my first readings 
on natural history, and during the same term, in February '76, 
was nominated extraordinary, and afterwards in November '78, 
ordinary professor of medicine." 

Such was Blumenbach's very promising beginning. How he 
progressed onwards in his scientific and municipal career, how 
he became in 1784 member of this society, in 1788 aulic coun- 
cillor, in 1812 perpetual secretary of the physical and mathe- 
matical class of this society, in 1815 member of the library 
committee, in 1816 knight of the Order of the Guelph, and in 
the same year chief medical councillor, and in 1822 commander of 
the Order, all that is so well known and so fresh in everybody's 
recollection, that I need make no further mention of any of those 

Much more appropriate will it be to describe here the 
direction he followed himself and also imparted to the sciences, 
his activity as teacher, his relations to the exterior world, and, 
in a few characteristic outlines, the principal features of his 
personal appearance and character.' 

First of all it may fairly be asserted of Blumenbach, that he 
it was especially, who in Germany drew the natural sciences 
out of the narrow circle of books and museums, into the wide 
cheerful stream of life. He made the results of his own per- 
severing researches intelligible and agreeable to every educated 

MARX. 7 

person who was anxious for instruction, and understood very- 
well how to interest the upper classes of society in them, and 
even to excite them. Taking a comprehensive view over the 
whole domain of the exertions of natural science, he knew how 
to select whatever could arouse or sharpen observation, to give 
a clear prospect of what was in the distance, and to clothe the 
practical necessities in a pleasing dress. This feeling and tact 
for the common interest, this inclination for popular exposition 
and easy comprehension was meantime no obstacle to his solid 
progress. He laboured away on the most diverse departments 
of his science with single and earnest application, and arrived at 
results, which threw light on the darkest corners. 

Equipped with classical knowledge, perpetually sharpening 
and enriching his intellect with continuous reading, and kept in 
lively intercourse with the first men of his day, he knew how 
not only to look at the subjects of his attention from new points 
of view, but also how to invest them with a worthy form of 
expression and representation. 

Besides, he looked upon every result either of his own 
researches, or those of other people, as seed-corn for better 
and greater disclosures. He busied himself unceasingly by 
writing, conversation, and instruction in disseminating them, 
and endeavouring to fix them in a productive soil. Thus it 
came to pass, that he soon came to be regarded as the supporter 
and representative of natural science, and collected crowds of 
young men about him, and by words as well as deeds continued 
to exercise an increasing influence upon the entire circle of 
study for many decades of years. 

Blumenbach soon became known to the Society of Sciences 
as an industrious student of physic, and in the meeting of 
the 15th January, 1774, he communicated 1 the remarkable dis- 
covery he had made (which had been already done by Braun in 
1759 at St. Petersburg) of how to freeze quicksilver. 

1 Gotting. gel. Anzeigen. 1774, st. 13, s. 105—7. Blumenbach himself set little 
store by this experiment ; for he suspected that his friends might be too hasty in 
considering the fact to be proved. 


In 1784< he became member of this Society, and immediately 
afterwards read his first paper On the eyes of the Leuccethiopians 
and the movement of the iris 1 . 

It was a happy chance, that his first literary work was con- 
cerned with the races of men, and thus physical Anthropology 
became the centre of the crystallization of his activity. 

Few dissertations have passed through so many editions, or 
procured their author such a wide recognition, as that On the 
natural variety of mankind 2 . It operated as an introduction to 
the subsequent intermittent publication of the Decades 3 , on the 
forms of the skull of different people and nations, as well as 
the foundation of a private collection 4 . This was unique in its 
way ; and princes and the learned alike contributed to its forma- 
tion by giving everything which could characterize the corporeal 
formation and the shape of the skull in man. Blumenbach 
used to call it his " Golgotha," and though they do not often go 
to a place of skulls, still the curious and the inquisitive of both 
sexes came there to wonder and reflect. 

Perhaps it is worth while remarking that the theme of this 
earliest work of his youth was likewise that of his last scientific 
writing, for after the 3rd August, 1833, on the exhibition 
of an Hippocratic Macrocephalus before the Society, when he 
communicated his remarks 5 thereon, he came no more before 
the public except to read a memoir upon Stromeyer, and to 
say a few never-to-be-forgotten words at the festival meeting of 
the centenarian foundation feast. 

One of Blumenbach's great endeavours was to illustrate the 
difference between man* and beast ; and he insisted particularly 

1 De oculis Leucwthiopum et iridis niotu. Comment. Soc. E. Gott. Vol. vn. p. 
29 — 62. 

2 De generis humani nativa varietate. ist ed. 1775. 

3 The first decade of his collection of skulls of different nations with illustrations 
appeared in 1 790 in Vol. x. of the Comment. Soc. &c. The last under the title, 
Nova Pentas collectionis sum craniorum diversarum gentium tanquam complementum 
priorum decadum exhibita in consessu societatis 8 Jul. 1826. Comment, recentior. 
Vol. vi. p. 141 — 8. Comp. Gott. gel. Anz. 1826. st. 121, s. 1201 — 6. 

4 Comp. his paper On anthropological collections in the second edition of his 
Bcitrdge zur NaturgescJiichte 1806. Th. 1. s. 55 — 66. 

5 Gott. gel. Anz. 1833, st. 177, s. 1761. [Edited in this volume. Ec] 

MARX. 9 

upon the importance of the upright walk of man, and the 
vertical line. He asserted the claims of human nature, as such, 
to all the privileges and rights of humanity, for, without deny- 
ing altogether the influence of climate, soil, and heredity, he 
regarded them in their progressive development, as the imme- 
diate consequences of civilization and cultivation. Man was to 
him "the most perfect of all domesticated animals." What he 
might become by himself in his natural condition, without the 
assistance of society, and what would be the condition of his 
innate conceptions, he showed in his unsurpassable description 
of the wild or savage Peter von Hameln 1 . How the osseous 
structure of the skull will approximate nearer and nearer to 
the form of the beast, when unfortunate exterior circumstances 
and inferior relations have stood in the way of the development 
of the higher faculties, might be seen in his collection from the 
cretin's skull, which, not without meaning, lay side by side 
by that of the orang-utan; whilst, at a little distance off, the 
surpassingly beautiful shape of that of a female Georgian 
attracted every one's attention. 

At the time when the negroes and the savages were still 
considered as half animals, and no one had yet conceived the 
idea of the emancipation of the slaves, Blumenbach raised his 
voice, and showed that their psychical qualities were not inferior 
to those of the European, that even amongst the latter them- 
selves the greatest possible differences existed, and that oppor- 
tunity alone was wanting for the development of their higher 
faculties 2 . 

Blumenbach had no objection to a joke, especially when it 
injured no one, or when the subject in hand could be elucidated 
thereby, and with this view he wrote a paper on Human and 
Porcine Races 3 . ' 

1 Beitr. zur Naturg. Th. II. s. i — 44. 

2 Gotting. Magazin, 1781, st. 6, s. 409 — 425, On the capacities and manners of 
the Savages. 

3 Lichtenberg and Voigt, Magazin fiir das neueste aus der Physilc, B. VI. 
Gotha, 1789, st. 1. s. 1. 


Man always was and continued to be his chief subject, not 
from a transcendental point of view, which he gave up to the 
philosophers and theologians, but man as he stands in the visible 
world. Not only did he contribute essentially to his better 
comprehension and treatment, but it was not very easy for any 
one to surpass him in practical knowledge of men. 

Natural history, not the description of nature, was the aim 
he placed before him. With Bacon he considered that as the 
first subject of philosophy. He understood how to indicate the 
peculiarity of the subject with a few characteristic strokes; and 
showed also how the inner 1 properties, relations, and attributes 
of the individual were connected with each other, and their 
connexion and position to the whole. With this view he busied 
himself actively on organic and also on animal nature. Nor 
was he a stranger to the study of geology and mineralogy, as 
is clear from De Luc's letters 2 to Blumenbach, besides what he 
himself communicated about Hutton's theory of the earth, and 
his paper on the impressions in the bituminous marl-slates at 
Biegelsdorf 3 . 

The name of Blumenbach must certainly be recorded 
amongst those who have signally contributed through the 
research and discovery of the traces of the old world to the 
history of the condition of our earth and of its earliest inhabi- 
tants. He, too, it was who, long before any others, prepared 
a collection of fossils for the illustration and systematic know- 
ledge of the remains of the preadamite times 4 . 

1 He worked long at a History of Natural History, but he never gave any of it 
to the public. That he had reflected on the possibility of a Philosophy of Natural 
History may be seen, amongst other proofs, by a letter to Moll in his Communica- 
tions, Abth. r. 1829, s. 60. 

2 Magaz. fur das neu. aus der Physik, B. vili. st. 4. 1793. Comp. Gott. gel. 
Anz. 1799, st. 135, s. 1348. 

3 In Kohler's bergmannisch. Joum. Freyberg, 1791, Jahrg. iv. B. I. s. 151 — 6. 
Blumenbach proved that though they were the marks of a mammal, they were 
not those of a child, and therefore no anthropoliths. 

4 The fossil genus Oxyporus, which is found in amber, and was represented by 
Gravehoorst in Monographia Coleopterorum Micropterorum, Gotting. 1806, 8vo. p. 
235, exists also in Biumenbach's collection. Speaking of the last, that author 
says, "I wish Blumenbach would give us a description of the numerous insects 
preserved in amber, which he possesses, and compare them with the allied insects 
of the present day. His well-known genius for natural history, so long and so 

MARX. 11 

In 1790 he wrote Contributions to the Natural History of the 
Primitive World 1 . He devoted two papers before the society 
to the remains with which he was acquainted of that oldest 
epoch, principally from the neighbouring country 2 . He also 
expressed an opinion upon the connection of the knowledge of 
petrifactions with that of geology, thinking by that means a 
more accurate knowledge of the relative age of the different 
strata of the earth's crust might be obtained 3 , and he was the 
first who set this branch of study going. On the occasion of a 
Swiss journey he drew particular attention to those fossils, 
whose living representatives are still to be found in the same 
country, to those whose representatives exist, but in very dis- 
tant regions of the earth, and to those of which no true repre- 
sentative has yet been found in the existing creation 4 . Later 
on he elucidated the so-called fossil human bones in Guada- 
loupe 5 . 

His views on opinions of that kind, as also on more compre- 
hensive considerations, such as On the gradation in nature 6 , or, 
On the so-called proofs of design 7 , generally like to abide within 
the limits of experience, and the conclusions which may fairly 

justly famous, might furnish us "with some well-weighed and sound hypothesis on 
the origin and formation of amber." 

1 Mayaz. ib., B. VI. st. 4, s. 1 — 17. 

2 Specimen archaeologies telluris terrarumque imprimis Hannover unarum, i8or. 
In clen Comment. Vol. XV. p. 132 — 156. Spec, alteram 1813. Vol. ill. recent. 

P- 3—24- 

3 On the succession in time of the different Earth-catastrophes. Beitr. zur 
Naturg. 2nd ed. 1806, Th. 1. s. 113 — 123. One of the most competent judges on 
this subject, namely, Link, in his work The Primeval World and Antiquity eluci- 
dated by Natural Science, which he dedicates to his teacher, says in the preface, that 
the representation of the primeval world, as quite different from that of the pre- 
sent, is due to the science of Blumenbach and Cuvier. To the same effect Von 
Hoff, who is well entitled to a voice in this matter, expresses himself (Tlioughts on 
BlumenbacKs Services to Geology. Gotha, 1862, s. 3.) : "Amongst naturalists 
Blumenbach is the first who assigned to a knowledge of petrifactions its true 
position in the foundation of Geology. He considered them as the most necessary 
helps to that study. He asserted with determination, that from a knowledge of 
petrifactions, and especially from an acquaintance with the different position of 
fossils, the most important results for the cosmogenical part of mineralogy might be 

4 Lichtenberg and Voigt's Mag. &c. 1788, B. v. s. 13—24. 

5 Gott.gel. Anz. 1815, st. 177, s. 1753. 

6 Beitr. zur Naturg. 2nd ed. 1806, Th. 1. s. 106 — 112. 
i Ib. s. 123. 


be deduced therefrom. Brilliant hypotheses, subtle and imagi- 
nary combinations, phantastic analogies, were not to his taste. 

If it can be said of any scientific work of modern times, 
that its utility has been incalculable, such a sentence must be 
pronounced on Blumenbach's Handbook of Natural History 1 . 
Few cultivated circles or countries are ignorant of it. It con- 
tains in a small space a marvellous quantity of well-arranged 
material, and every fresh edition 2 announced the progress of its 
author. Still in spite of the effort after a certain grade of 
perfection the skill is unmistakeable, with which only the actual 
is set forth ; and with which by a word, or a remark, attention 
is directed to what is truly interesting, agreeable, and useful, 
and an incentive given to further study. 

Not only did Blumenbach well know how to set out the 
whole domain of this study in a simple, easily comprehensible 
and transparent way, so as to utilize it for instruction; but he 
also, by bringing to its assistance allied occupations, obtained 
new points of view, and enlarged its boundaries. 

His Contributions to Natural History 3 , and his ten numbers 
of Representations of Subjects of Natural History 4 , have by 
interesting translations, prudent selection, and accuracy in hand- 
ling the subjects, done profitable service in the extension and 
foundation of this science. He took special pains to throw 
light on doubtful questions, and to clear up overshadowing and 
difficult undertakings in natural history from old monuments of 
art 5 , and the traditions of the poets 6 . He looked on the migra- 

1 It appeared first in 1779. 

2 The publishers alone issued 12, the last in 1830, not including the re issues 
and the translations into almost all civilized languages. 

3 The first part appeared in 1790, the second in 181 r. They contained the fol- 
lowing essays: Part I. On variability in creation. A glance at the primeval 
world. On anthropological collections. On the division of mankind into five 
principal races. On the gradation in nature. On the so-called proofs of design. 
Part 11. On the homo sapiens ferus. On the Egyptian mummies. 

4 1796 — 1810. 

5 Specimen hist. not. antique? artis operibus illustr. eaq. vicissim illustr., 1S03. 
Comment. Vol. xvi. p. 169 — 198. 

6 Sp. hist. not. ex auctor. class, prceserlim poetis illustr. eosq. vie. illustr., 
1815. Comm. recent. Vol. in. p. 62—78. Comp. Qott. gel. Am., 1815, st. 205, 
s. 2033 — 2040. 

MARX. 13 

tions of animals and their appearance at different times, and 
their wide dispersion in enormous numbers as a great, but not 
necessarily insoluble riddle ; and he contributed his mite also to 
the future solution of this weighty question 1 . 

Blumenbach was blamed somewhat here and there for fol- 
lowing with little divergence the artificial classification of 
Linnseus. But this conservatism was not the consequence either 
of convenience, or want of knowledge, but from the conviction 
that the time for a natural system was not yet come. That he 
felt the want of such a system is plain, because as early as 
1775 he sketched out 2 an attempt at a natural arrangement of 
the mammalia, according to which attention is paid not to 
single, or a few, but to every outward mark of distinction, and 
the whole organization of the animals. 

His communications, On the Loves of Animals 3 , and On the 
Natural History of Serpents 4 , display not only the critical, but 
the judicious observer. Manifold interest attaches to his re- 
marks on the kangaroo 5 , which he kept for a long time alive in 
his house, on the pipa 6 , and on the tape-worm 7 . 

Blumenbach was thoroughly penetrated with the truth, that 
we are only then in a proper position to understand the appear- 
ances of the present, when we attempt to clear up as far as 
possible their condition in the beginning, and from early times 
down to the present. He considered archaeology and history 
not only as the foundations of true knowledge, but also as the 
sources of the purest pleasures. He was not afraid of being 
reproached with encroaching upon foreign ground 8 , for he knew 
his own moderation: nor did he shrink from the trouble of 
seeking and collecting, for he had too often had experience 

1 De anini. colon, sive sponte migr., sive casu aut studio ab horn, aliors. transl., 
Comm. recent. , Vol. V. p. ioi — 116. Comp. Gott. gel. Anz., 1820, st. 57, s. 

2 Gott. gel. Anz. st. 147, s. 1257 — 1259. 

3 Gott. Magaz. 1781, s. 93 — 107. 

4 Magaz. fiir das n. aus der phys.. B. v. st. 1, 17SS, s. 1 — 13. 

5 lb. 1792, B. vii. st. 4, s. 19 — 24. 

6 Gott. gel. Anz. 1784, st. 156, s. 1553—1555. 

7 lb. 1774, st. 154, s. 1313— 1386. 

8 He approved of Seneca; "I often pass into the enemy's camp, not as a 
deserter, but as a spy. " 


that though the roots of a solid undertaking may be bitter, the 
fruit may be sweet. Besides he knew well how, by keeping 
at a distance from useless distractions, and by internal collec- 
tiveness and regulated arrangement of work, to bring together 
in one much that lay widely separated. 

Some years after he had written his paper On the Teeth of 
the Old Egyptians, and on Mummies 1 , he had an opportunity 
during his stay in London on the 18th February, 1791, of 
opening six mummies, and derived considerable reputation from 
his communication 2 to Banks on the results he obtained there- 
from. He took his part also in the opinion 3 pronounced by the 
Society of Sciences of that day on Sickler's new method of 
unfolding the Herculaneum manuscripts, which he had invented. 

He showed that our granite answers to the syenite of Pliny*. 
He possessed a collection of ancient kinds of stone to illustrate 
the history of the art of antiquity, on which account his opinion 
was often consulted on the determination of doubtful antiques, 
for example, those given out as such made of soap-stone 5 . 

He had himself, principally with a view to natural history 
and the varieties of man, a collection of beautiful engravings 
and pictures, and set great store besides on the woodcuts in old 
works which give representations of animals 6 , for in that way 
the proper position of observing the art of that time is easily 
arrived at. And so also he endeavoured to become better 
acquainted with "the first anatomical wood-cuts," and drew 
attention to them, when otherwise they would have remained 
quite unnoticed 7 . 

After a careful comparison of the objects of ancient art, with 

1 Gbtt. Mag. 1780, Jahrg. 1. s. 109 — 139. 

2 Philos. Trans. 1794. [The original MS. of this paper is in the library of the 
Anthrop. Soc. of London. Ed.] His letter to Sir Joseph Banks was printed in 
the third edition of the De Generis Hum. v. n. 1795. The subject is thoroughly 
treated of by him in the Beitr. zur Naturg. Th. II. s. 45 — 144. 

3 Gbtt. gel. Anz. 1814, st. 200, s. 1993. 

4 lb. 1819, s. 1208. Blumenbach gave his views before in the second part of 
the edition of Natural History in 1780, on the proper distinction of the kinds 
of stones employed by the ancients. 

5 Gbtt. gel. Anz. 181 1, s. 2050. 

6 Gbtt. Magaz. 1781, st. 4, s. 136 — 156. 

7 Baldinger, Neues Mag. fur Aerzte, 1781, B. ill. s. 135 — 140. 

MARX. 1 5 

which he was acquainted, his opinion 1 was that we ought to be 
chary in our praise of the anatomical knowledge of the artists 
of antiquity, but that their accuracy in the representation of 
characteristic expression had not been sufficiently appreciated. 

In the history of literature Blumenbach emulated his origi- 
nal and pattern, Albert Von Haller, whose acquaintance he had 
made when studying at Gottingen, by sending to him at Berne 
a book 2 , on the suggestion of Heyne, which Haller had men- 
tioned in one of his works as unknown to him, and which he 
had picked up at an auction 3 . Later in the day he often fur- 
nished him with many additions and supplements to the already 
published volumes of the Practical Medical Library*. 

Among the bibliographical labours of that great writer Blu- 
menbach esteemed most highly the Bibliotheca Anatomica. In 
his own pocket copy he wrote down especially all the volumes 
and editions of it which were at that time to be found in the 
royal library, and to the first volume he added a supplement. 

He wrote a preface 5 to Haller's Journal of Medical Litera- 
ture, in which his services as critic received their due. 

However little value the body of physicians generally attach 
to literary performances, still there is no doubt that most of 
them are acquainted with Blumenbach's Lntroduction to the 
Literary History of Medicine*. With a prudent selection, pre- 
cision, and brevity the whole field of medicine, quite up to the 
end of the preceding century, is there described in a compre- 
hensive survey 7 . 

1 De veterum artificum anatomical peritice laude limitanda, celebranda vero 
eorum in charactere gentilitio exprimendo accuratione. The treatise itself was never 
printed, but on its contents comp. Gott. gel. Anz. 1823, st. 125, s. 1241. 

2 Observationum, anatomicarum collegii privati Amstelodamensis Pars altera. 
Amst. 1673. i2uio. 

3 Haller's answer is dated 28th March, 1775. 

4 Baldinger's N. Magaz. fur Aerzte, 1780, B. 11. s. 33. 

5 Besides this perhaps scarcely any one was so well acquainted with all the 
writings of that most famous of Gottingen teachers as Blumenbach. He learnt 
much from the collection of letters to and from Haller, for there he found, among 
many other remarkable observations for the history of medicine, the mode of 
curing deafness by piercing the tympanum. Gott. gel. Anz. 1806, st. 147, s. 1459. 

fi Theil 1. Bern. 1790. 

7 Introductio in historiam medicinte Uterariam, 1786. 


On the occasion of the fifty-year Jubilee of our Univer- 
sity he brought together all the literary performances of the 
medical professors of Gottingen in a catalogue 1 , which had 
equally the effect of serving as a memorial to them, and as 
a cause of emulation to their successors. 

He frequently celebrated the memorials of distinguished 
men, especially in his Medical Library 2 , that almost insur- 
passable journal, and then as secretary of our Society, in 
which capacity he worthily fulfilled this painful duty over his 
departed colleagues, in the memorial orations over Richter 
(1812), Crell (1816), Osiander (1822), Bouterwek (1828), Mayer 
(1831), Mende (1832), and Stromeyer (1835). 

His Honourable mention of Regimental-Surgeon Johann Ernst 
Wreden s is so far of importance for the history of the career of 
medicine, as that long-forgotten surgeon was the first on the 
continent, and that in Hanover, to introduce inoculation for 
the small-pox. 

The lover of literature should not pass unnoticed his Notice 
of the Meibomian Collection of Medical MSS. preserved in the 
Gottingen Library*. 

"What has already been done goes some way to place Blumen- 
bach's merits and excellence in a right light. But the most 
important of all have not been mentioned yet, and from their 
exposition it will be clear how many things were united in one 
man, of which each by itself would have gone far to confer 
reputation upon the possessor. 

The branches of learning in which the name of Blumenbach 
shines forth without ceasing are physiology and comparative 
anatomy. What he performed both by word of mouth and by 
his writings in these departments, will all the less easily be 

1 Synopsis systematica scriptorum, quibus inde ab inaugurations Academics 
Georgue A ugustw usque ad solemnia istius inaugurationis semiso3cularia disciplinam 
suam augere et ornare studuerunt jwofessores medici Gbttingenses, 1788. 

2 B. 1— in. 1783— 1795. 

3 Annalen der Braunschw. Liineb. Churlande. 1789, Jahrg. III. st. 2, s. 389 — 396. 

4 In his Medicin. Biblioth. B. I, s. 368 — 377. 

MAEX. 1 7 

forgotten by his fatherland, because foreign countries first took 
a liking to these studies through him, and expressed their grati- 
tude not only to him, but above all to German erudition. 

The obscure learning of generation, nutrition, and repro- 
duction received light and critical elucidation from him. If 
after the lapse of sixty years since he first strenuously employed 
his mind to sift the existing materials and make particular 
investigations, more comprehensive results than he expected 
have been obtained, still it is but just to observe, that his ideas 
have certainly been expanded and here and there connected, 
but have not in any way been controverted. 

On the 9th of May, 1778, his observations upon green 
hydrse, then in the act of reproduction, first led him to the 
comprehension, and afterwards to the further investigation of 
the incredible activity of the powers of nature in the circle of 
organized life. In 1780 appeared his essay On the Formative 
Force and its Influence on Generation and Reproduction 1 ; and 
the next year the monograph, On the Formative Force and on 
the Operations of Generation 2 . At the same time he expressed 
himself On an uncommonly simple method of Propagation 3 , — 
namely, on that of the conferva in wells, whose mode of propa- 
gation he had discovered on the 18th of February, 1781. 

He sent in on the 25th of May a short reply to the question 
proposed by the Academy of St. Petersburg, On the Force of 
Nutrition*, which he wrote on the preceding day, and obtained 
half the prize. He wrote some remarks on Troja's experi- 
ments on the production of new bone 5 . On the occasion of 

1 Gbtt. Mag. 1780, s. 247 — 266. 

2 1 78 1. Then in the Comment. T. vin. p. 41 — 68 : De nisu formative- et genera- 
tionis negotio. 1785. In all living creatures there is a peculiar, inherent, live-long 
active energy, which first of all causes them to put on their definite appearance, 
then to preserve it, and if it should be disturbed, as far as possible to restore it. 
The theory of development from spermatic animalcule, or by means of panspermy, 
he showed is without foundation. [A translation of this treatise by Dr Crichton 
was published in 1792, London, i2mo. Ed.] 

3 Gott. Mag. i'jSi, st. 1, s. 80—89. 

4 De nutritione ultra vasa. The prize was awarded Dec. 4, 1788. The essays 
sent in were 24. Nova Acta Sc. Petropol. T. vi. 1790: Histoire. Comp. Zicei 
abhandl. tiber die Nutritionskraft, K. F. Wolf, St. Petersb. 1789. (The second is 
by C. F. Born.) 

6 Richter's Chir. BiUiotheh, B. vi. st. 1, 1782, s. 107. 


The Generation of the Eye of a Water-Lizard, he communicated 
in a sitting of this Society 1 the fact that he had amputated 
four-fifths of the apple of the eye, and a new eye had been 

With clear insight and unusual experience he distinguished 
the anomalous 2 and morbid aberrations of the formative force, 
and showed 3 how The Artificial or Accidental Mutilations in 
Animals degenerate in Process of Time into Hereditary Marks. 
His studies upon the formative force were taken up by great 
thinkers, and were made use of, though with alterations of 
expression and manner of representation, as foundations for 
further developments, by Kant 4 in his Critique of the Under- 
standing, Fichte in the System of Morality, Schelling in the 
Soul of the World, and Goethe in the Morphology. From this 
he derived particular satisfaction, as it was a proof of their 
solidity and productiveness. 

His Elements of Physiology 5 is remarkable not less for the 
elegance of its language, than, like all his books, for a well- 
selected display of reading, and the profusion of his own 

He busied himself much 6 with the investigation, whether 
a peculiar vital energy ought to be attributed to the blood, 
or not. And also with the origin of the black colour of the 
negroes 7 . He confirmed the principal discovery of Galvani, 

1 Gott. gel. Anz. 1785, st. 47, s. 465. 

2 Be anomalis et vitiosis quibusclam nisus formativi aberrationibus, 181 2. Com- 
ment, recent. "Vol. 11. p. 3 — 20. 

3 Magazinfur das N. cms cler Physilc. 1789, B. vi. st. 1, s. 13. 

4 With reference to Kant's manner of expression, he remarked (Gott. gel. Anz. 
1800, st. 62, s. 612), "that the ornithorynchus affords a speaking example of the 
formative force, as showing the connection of those two principles, the mechanical 
and the teleological, in the exhibition of an end being also a product of nature." 

5 Institutions Physiological, 1787. Amongst the many editions and transla- 
tions of this work, Blumenbach set the most value upon the edition of Elliotson's 
translation, published by Bentley, London, 1814 ; because this was the first book 
which was ever printed entirely by a machine. Comp. Gott. gel. Anz. 1818, st. 
172, s. 1713. 

6 Be vi vitali sanguinis, 1787. Comment. Vol. ix. p. r — 13. And again on 
the appearance of the posthumous work of John Hunter On the Blood, on the 
occasion of the degree of seven candidates in 1795, the argument he gave was Be 
vi vitali sanguini deneganda, vita autem propria solidis quibusclam corp. hum. 
partibus adserenda curce iteratce. 

7 Be gen. hum. var. nat. p. 122. ed. 3. 

MARX. 19 

reposing on his own observations 1 . With respect to the eyes of 
the Leucsethiopians 2 and the movement of the iris, he took 
great pains to ascertain their probable reasons by collecting 
and criticizing the experiences of others, and by personal 
observation. On the 23rd Aug. 1782, he examined two Albinos 
at Chamoimi. 

In 1784 he discovered 3 , during the dissection of the eye of 
a seal, the remarkable property by means of which these 
animals are enabled to shorten or lengthen the axis of the eye- 
ball at pleasure, so that they can see clearly just as well under 
the water as in the air, two mediums of very different density. 
He was the first 4 who accurately distinguished the nature and 
destination of the frontal sinuses, as also their condition in 
disease. He showed the intersection of the optic nerves to be 
a settled fact 5 . He would not adopt the belief in a muscular 
coat of the gall-bladder 6 . With regard to the protrusion of the 
eyes in the case of persons beheaded, he drew attention to the 
fact that the phenomenon was not, as in the case of those who 
have been hanged, caused entirely by congestion 7 . On the 
opportunity of a communication On a ram which gives milk 8 , 
he expressed himself on the presence of milk in the breasts of 
men, and attempted an explanation. 

His History and Description of the Bones of the Human 
Body 9 , in which this naturally dry subject is treated in the 
most interesting way and from fresh points of view, will always 
retain an enduring value. 

His Handbook of Comparative Anatomy 10 was the first of 
its kind, not only in Germany but throughout the learned 

1 Gott. gel. Anz. 1793, st. 32, s. 320. 

2 De oculis Leucozthiopum et iridis motu. 1784. Comm. Vol. vil. pp. 29 — 62. 
Comp. Gott. gel. Anz. 1784, st. 175. Med. Bibliothek. B. 11. s. 537 — 47. 

3 Comment. Vol. vn. 1784, p. 46. Handbuch der vergl. Anat. Aufl. 3, s. 401. 

4 Prolus. anat. de sinibus frontal. 1779. His thesis on becoming ordinary Pro- 
fessor. Comp. Gott. gel. Anz. 1779, s. 913 — 916. 

5 Gott. gel. Anz. 1793, st. 34, s. 334. 

6 lb. 1806, st. 135, s. 1352. 

7 Abhandl. der phys. med. societ. zu Erlangen. 1810, Th. I. s. 471. 

8 Hannover Mag. 1787, st. 48, s. 753 — 762. 

9 First :n 1786, then in 1806. 

10 First in 1805. 



world. Before his time there was no book on the totality of 
this branch of learning ; he was the first to find a place for it in 
the circle of subjects of instruction. One of his earliest com- 
munications was upon Alcyonelloe in the Gottingen ponds 1 . 
Then he furnished a running comparison between the warm 
and cold-blooded animals 2 , and afterwards between the warm- 
blooded viviparous and oviparous animals 3 . Nor can we pass 
over in silence his remarks upon the structure of the Orni- 
thorynchus 4 , on the bill 5 of the duck and toucan, and on the 
sack in the reindeer's neck 6 . 

Inasmuch as Blumenbach regarded physiology as the true 
foundation of the science of medicine, it is not difficult to per- 
ceive from what point of view his contributions to practical 
medicine are to be criticized : besides, he let slip no opportunity 
of proving his sympathy in that particular direction. Thus he 
gave his opinions on the frequency of ruptures in the Alps 7 ; on 
nostalgia 8 , on melancholy 9 and suicide in Switzerland; on the 
expulsion of a scolopendra electrica 10 from the nose; and on 
a case of water in the head of seventeen years' standing 11 . He 
also contributed to the extension of the science of medicine 
by experiments 12 with gases on live animals, and by the commu- 
nication 13 of a new sort of dragon's blood from Botany Bay on 

1 Gott. Mag. 1780, s. 117 — 127. 

2 Specim. physiol. comp. inter animantia calidi etfrigidi sanguinis, 1786. Comm. 
Vol. vin. pp. 69 — 100. 

3 Spec. phys. comp. int. anim. cal. sang, vivip. et ovip. 1788. Comm. Vol. IX. 
pp. 108 — 129. Comp. Gott. gel. Anz. 1789, st. 8, s. 73 — 77. In this treatise he 
also gave his views upon the appearance of yellow corpuscles in the unimpregnated 
ovum ; on the formation of the double heart ; on the period when the ribs are pro- 
duced in the embryo. 

4 Be Ornithorynchi paradoxi fabrica observ. qu&dam anat. Mem. de la soc. 
med. $ Emulation, T. iv. Paris, 1779, pp. 320—323. Gott. gel. Anz. 1800, s. 

5 Spec. phys. comp. int. anim. ccd. sang, vivip. et ovip. 1789. 

6 Gott. gel. Anz. 1783, st. 7, s. 68. 

7 In his Medic. Bibliothek. B. I. s. 725. 

8 lb. s. 732. Comp. Schlozer's Correspondence, Th. III. 1778, s. 231. 

9 Med. Bib. B. 11. s. 163—173. 

10 Feuer-assel. Comp. J. L. Welge, Diss, de moi'bis sinuum frontalium. 
Gotting. 1786, 4to. § iv. p. 10. 

11 "iiber den sogennant Wagler'schen." Med. Bibl. B. 111. s. 616 — 639. 

12 Med. Bib. B. 1. s. 173. 

13 Contributions to the Materia Medica from the University Museum of Gottingen. 
lb. B. I. s. 166 — 171. 

MARX. 21 

the east coast of New Holland, and by a description of the 
true Winter's bark. 

Blumenbach's reputation as a learned man was so great, 
that every hint of his was considered and followed up, as that 
On the best methods of putting together collectanea and extracts*; 
and his works, especially his handbooks, stood in such esteem, 
that authors and booksellers 2 alike considered a preface from 
him as the best recommendation for their works. In this way 
he introduced Cheselden's Anatomy*, Neergard's 4 Comparative 
Anatomy and Physiology of the Digestive Organs, and Gilbert 
Blane's 5 Elements of Medical Logic. 

I must take notice here of one branch of learning, in which 
Blumenbach had scarce his like, I mean his familiarity with 
voyages and travels. All the books of the sort in the library 
of this place he had read through over and over again, and 
made extracts of, and prepared a triple analysis, namely, one 
arranged geographically, a chronological and an alphabetical 
one. To this occupation, as he frequently took occasion to 
mention, he owed no small part of his knowledge; and for his 
researches in natural history and ethnography it was a most 
solid foundation. 

He himself had made but few long journeys 6 in proportion, 
only through a part of Switzerland 7 and Holland to England, 
or rather to London 8 , which afterwards he used to say was to 
the sixth part of the world; and a diplomatical one to Paris, 
in order, during the time of the kingdom of Westphalia, to 

1 lb. B. in. s. 547, 

2 He wrote a preface to Gmelin's Geschlchte der thierisch. u. mineral, gifte. Er- 
furt, 1805. 

3 German by A. F. Wolf. Gotting. 1789. 

4 Berlin, 1806. In the preface Blumenbach speaks of the influence of Com- 
parative Anatomy on the philosophic study of natural history in general, and on 
the physiology of the human body and the medical knowledge of beasts in 

5 Gottingen, 1819. 

6 When he wanted to take a journey for recreation, he liked going to the 
widowed Princess Christiane von Waldeck at Arolsen, who had proved herself very 
useful to him ; or to Pyrmont, or to Gotha, Rehburg, Weimar, and Dresden. 

7 In 1783. 

8 In 1791 — 92. 



propitiate the good will of Napoleon for the University, on 
which occasion De Lacepede was his advocate and guide. He 
kept a journal on his travels, in which he made short notes 
of all that was worth noticing. Up to this time very few of 
these very multifarious remarks have been made public 1 . 

He published a translation of the medical observations in 
the second part of Ives' Travels 2 ; he wrote a Preface to the first 
part of the Collection of Rare Travels 3 , and a Preface and 
Eemarks to Volkmann's translation of Bruce's Travels*. 

It is not perhaps too much to assert, what I may be allowed 
to say here, that the desire which was aroused in many most 
distinguished men to undertake great expeditions for the sake 
of natural history, and the results, which have accrued in con- 
sequence to the knowledge of the earth and of mankind, were 
particularly prompted through the medium of Blumenbach. 
Hornemann 5 , Alex, von Humboldt, Langsdorf, Seetzen, Ront- 
gen, Sibthorp, Prince Max von Neuwied, were and are his 
grateful pupils. 

Amongst the unknown, or, at all events, the insufficiently 
appreciated services of Blumenbach to literature belong his 
beyond measure numerous reviews, which he continued to write 
for a long series of years, not only in the Bibliotheh, which 
he edited himself, but also particularly in the Gottingische 
gelehrte Anzeige, on all the books in his various provinces. His 
first criticism was upon Xenocrates, On the Aliment in Aquatic 
Animals, in 1773, in Walch's Philological Library 6 . 

1 Remarks on some travels in Waldeck collected in Schlozer's Brief-wechsel, 
Tli. in. 1778, st. 16, s. 229 — 237. Then: Some Remarks upon Natural History on 
the occasion of a Swiss journey. In Magaz. fur das neueste aus der Physilc, B. rv. 
st. 3, 1787, s. 1; B. v. st. 1, 1778, s. 13. 

2 The remaining part of this Voyage to India was translated by Dohm. Leipz. 


3 Memmingen, 1789. 

4 Leipz' g, 1 790, in five volumes. 

5 On July 2, 1794 Hornemann first of all expressed a wish to his teacher 
to travel into the interior of Africa. Zach's Geogr. Ephem. B. I. Weimar, 1798, 
s. 116 — 120, s. 368 — 371, and in B. III. s. 193. Blumenbaeh gave a public notice 
of this active young man and of the fortunate completion of his plan. 

fi B. n. st. 6, s. 533. Blumenbach corrected and added to the edition of Xeno- 
crates irepi ttjs airo tup evvSpwv Tpocprjs by Franz. 

MARX. 23 

He himself had in the beginning to experience how unfairly 
and carelessly reviews are often scribbled off 1 . He always 
adhered to the rule of separating the man from the thing, and 
tried to make his judgment as objective as possible, and not 
to pervert the scientific judgment-seat with which he was 
entrusted to gratifying his personal likes or dislikes. His 
reviews may be known by their convincing brevity, their clear 
exposition of the essential points, the witticisms scattered here 
and there, and the instructive observations and remarks of 
the writer. 

One of his manuscript observations is worthy of notice, 
which I found in a pocket-book that he once allowed me to 
examine, because it explains to some extent how the facility 
and power of finishing off work of this kind became in a 
certain sense habitual to him. It is as follows: 'In church, 
which we continually attended, I was always obliged whilst at 
school to write down an abstract of the sermon. This has been 
since of the greatest utility to me in my reading, extracting, 
reviewing, and in many matters of business, &c, for it has 
enabled me to detect the essential point with rapidity, to 
exhibit it, and briefly to express it again.' 

Although Blumenbach beyond all others was involved in few 
literary feuds 2 , and it did not easily happen that any of his 
reviews occasioned him any complaint 3 or enmity, still he could 
not help frequently calling things by their right names, and 
displaying false celebrities in their nakedness *. 

And now we must turn our attention from Blumenbach the 
author, to the Gottingen professor, to whose lecture-rooms youth 

1 When his Handbook of Natural History had been not only awkwardly but 
inconsiderately criticized, he wrote his On a literary incident worth notice, which 
unfortunately is no rarity in Gbtt. Mag. 1780, s. 467 — 484. 

2 On one with his old colleague Meiners, comp. Beitr. zur Naturg. Aufl. r. 
1790, Th. 1. s. 62. 

3 His criticism 6n Kampf s new method of curing the most obstinate disorders 
of the abdomen {Med. Bibl. B. rr. st. 1), was however taken ill by him, but after- 
wards was the subject of open thanks to Blumenbach, in the second edition of that 
book, Leipz. 1786, s. 366. 

4 As in the review of Sander's Travels. Gbtt. gel. Anz. 1784, st. 27. 


and age alike pressed, in order to receive words of lasting 
instruction from the wit and humour which overflowed from 
his mouth. 

The undivided approval, which was paid to his discourses, 
underwent no diminution in his extreme old age, and he gave 
up teaching, not because either the wish or the power failed 
him, or because he suffered any diminution of audience or sym- 
pathy, but solely in accordance with the entreaties of his friends. 
He knew well how in a very singular and inimitable way to 
unite the valuable with the amusing, the relation of dry facts 
and scientific deductions with wit and humour, and to season 
them with keen well-pointed anecdotes. Every one enjoyed the 
lecture. Grave or gay, every one went away stimulated and 
the better for it. 

As listeners came to him from all parts of the world and 
went home full of his praises, his name was carried into coun- 
tries where previously German literati had been little thought 
of. With a letter of recommendation from Blumenbach, a man 
might have travelled in all the zones of the earth. 

He had the art of never giving too much, of confining him- 
- self to the principal points, and of deeply impressing what was 
essential by well-varied repetitions. He assisted the compre- 
hension by appealing to the senses in every way; by outlines 
which he drew with chalk on a board, by the exhibition of 
copies and preparations, by happy quotations of well-known 
sayings. He laid stress on the fact, that from him might be 
learnt the art of observing; but that it is necessary, accordino- 
to circumstances, to listen, smell, and taste. 

He made it plain, that he held no propositions such as could 
be written out prettily on law-paper; his subject was the entire 
man, his whole inner activity in representation, comparison, and 

The means he employed to obtain this result were indeed 
manifold, but it is very difficult to give a satisfactory account of 
them; they are too much bound up with his peculiar personal 
appearance. One must have heard him speak himself, with the 
expressive play of countenance, the remarkable tone of voice, 

MARX. 25 

which now fell upon the ear in sharp abrupt sentences, now 
carried your senses along with him in overwhelming cadences, 
and with the imposing effect with which he knew how, to some 
extent, to throw life into the natural objects before him and 
bring them into unexpected relations. 

I could give many examples 1 of his numerous clever and 

1 For the sake of example I will give an inkling of them. He wished people 
would accustom themselves to get a clear and definite notion of subjects, and to 
reproduce the whole from a part, for, said he, " I caDnot bring everything into the 
lecture, as the elephant or rhinoceros." 

He tried also to prevent people from deriving false ideas from their impressions 
and observations : viz. " If you wish to form an idea of the lowest depth to which 
men have descended in the interior of the earth, pile up your library at home, your 
Corpus Juris, your ecclesiastical history, and medical books, until you have put 
12,000 leaves, that is, 24,000 pages one upon the other. And how far do you 
think we have got into the heart of the earth ? just so far as the first and second 
leaf in thickness. And yet people are not ashamed to speak of the kernel of the 
earth. When the poet speaks of the bowels of the earth, we ought to translate 
'the epidermis of the earth.'" 

He knew his audience so well, that if he wanted to get anything, he felt no 
necessity for making long manoeuvres, still less for finding fault. He appealed to 
the sense of what was right and proper, not with pathetic demonstrations, but 
cursorily, as by an electric shock. If, for instance, he saw that his subjects were 
handled rudely as they went round, he called out with an intelligible gesture ; 
" They are best laid on your coat-lappet or on cotton ; but I know one word is 
better than an hundred-weight of cotton." 

Sometimes he was fond of speaking in aphorisms, leaving the connecting links 
to be made out by his attentive hearers, though he always stirred up and set in 
motion the most apathetic by his overflowing humour. Once, for instance, when 
lecturing on natural history, he told the story how they shaved a bear, and gave 
him out as a new sort of man. "A beast in Gottingen, in whom Buffon would 
have discovered a good deal that was human : — it showed one particular trait of 
modesty, because it would not allow its stockings to be taken off. Behind the 
stove in the Golden Angel was the creature in question to be found, clad in a Hus- 
sar's coat with an over-cloak. The breast was visible — of a most inviting colour. 

The mouth was silent ; large claws with long ruffles — a Hussar with ruffles. That 

was something to think of. — Now I'm the man who gives the lectures here on 
natural history, the lecture-room is gone mad; — you show me this evenino- the 
beast as God created it, or rather as you have shaved it, or I shall stand for 
nothing, for it is no laughing matter to play with the Professor in his lecture-room. 
The man's hair stood up with fright, like spikes : later in the day Blumenbach was 
present at its evening toilette. The waistcoat had been nailed to it." 

Sometimes he did not disdain to say a word of fun to the students : viz. 
"Many exegetists think that the whale cast out the prophet Jonah, because where 
a horse can find a place, a prophet might do so too. Blumenbach however stands 
rather by the opinion of Hermann von der Hardt in Helmstadt, who has written 
a very nasty commentary on that man of God ; that he lodged in Nineveh at the 

Whale ; that his cash ran out ; the landlord would give him no more credit he 

was turned out of the club; or — the Whale cast him out." 

Or; "John Hunter used to inquire whether it was not possible for men to be 
thrown into the chrysalis state : — that would be good for the conscription, forced 
loans, or when the student is summoned; 'No, no, says the chambermaid, our 
master is become a chrysalis.' " 


humorous illustrations, but I should be afraid, that deprived of 
the spirit of his pantomimic representation, and unsupported 
by his cheerful but still highly imposing delivery, they might 
easily appear in a false light. 

It might sometimes have seemed that Blumenbach attached 
too much value to the singular and the curious, but when any 
one came to look into the matter more closely, he soon became 
convinced, that though what was extraordinary attracted him 
above all things, still, it was principally because it had remained 
unnoticed by others, or because it served him as a means, 
through which he could direct the attention to what was truly 
worth knowing. His business was with knowledge and expla- 
nation ; yet he knew too well that the majority of men must 
have miracles to make them believe. 

In literature he sometimes mentioned long-forgotten and 
obsolete works, and noticed with particular emphasis such as 
were not to be found in the royal library ; but all that was only 
to excite the love of learning, and keep it at full stretch. Per- 
haps no teacher understood so well as he how to instil by the 
way a lasting interest in literature, and to accompany the ac- 
quaintance with the best and most select with opportune 

The extraordinary reputation which remained to the famous 
teacher in full strength for more than half a century may 
partly be attributed to the influence of authority, which was 
then of more weight than it is now ; partly perhaps to the 
more comprehensive view that though the University was in 
other ways crowded with teachers, he had no rival in his par- 
ticular province ; partly that he in all his outward circumstances 
and through his continuous good health was in a position to 
concentrate on his immediate objects all the materials which 
stood in his power ; still we cannot help always admiring the 
greatness of his personality, and the wonderful insight and con- 
sistency with which he knew how to keep all this together. 
For a long period of time he continued to be the chief centre 
of instruction at Gottingen. 

Not only did fathers send their sons, but grandfathers their 

MARX. 27 

grandchildren, in order that these might hear Blumenbach as 
they had done themselves, and so participate in that particular 
kind of learning, which had remained so singularly indelible in 
their recollection. Many first heard of Gottingen through its 
connection with Blumenbach, and lighted by his star, journeyed 
to the place of his operations. 

In the summer of 1776 he arranged for the public vivisec- 
tions and physiological experiments on living animals in the 
great theatre. Also in 1777 he gave there public readings on 
the natural history of mankind. In the same year he gave 
lectures on the dissection of the domestic animals of the coun- 
try. Though he began very early to treat upon comparative 
osteology, it was not till after 1785 that he gave lessons on 
comparative anatomy in general. For a long time he delivered 
lectures on pathology, after Gaub, on the history of authorities 
on medicine and physiology, and at last in the winter term of 
1836-37 on natural history, which he read 118 times. 

The three English princes, who had arrived here on the 6th 
July 1785, attended the course on natural history in the winter 
of 1786 1 . Nor did the present king of Bavaria, then crown- 
prince, disdain to take his seat on the allotted benches, and in 
August, 1803, Blumenbach was his companion in theHarz as far 
as Magdeburg. This same royal patron of the sciences never 
forgot his student's time, or his teacher individually, as he 
proved not only by sending him valuable presents, especially 
the skull of an ancieot Greek and his order of merit, but par- 
ticularly by this, that he despatched in 1829 the present Crown- 
prince to be the alumnus of the Georgia Augusta and of Blu- 
menbach. When our king, on the occasion of the hundred- 
year jubilee feast of the University, honoured us with his 
illustrious presence, he did not omit to visit his old preceptor 
in the house which he had so often entered as a student. 

Blumenbach was a born professor ; in this occupation he 
sought and found his satisfaction and his pride. What he 

1 With which agrees the passage of Heyne (Opusc. Vol. xv. p. 243), "the 
royal princes of Great Britain attended the lectures of some of the Professors, and 
were seen on the benches of the audience." 


prompted and accomplished in that capacity is seen from the 
history of the literati of later years ; innumerable are those 
who prize him as their teacher, benefactor, and friend. Who 
can enumerate the dedications in great and small books which 
were offered to him from far and near, partly out of gratitude, 
partly as expressions of praise and recognition ? Out of all the 
great number of dissertations which have appeared here, the 
best have been accomplished with and through him. Read 
the words of affection and love in the elder Sommerring's 
inaugural dissertation on Blumenbach 1 , which has since become 
so famous, and you will want nothing more. 

When his pupil Rudolphi, in conjunction with Stieglitz and 
Lodemann, who had equally been instructed by him in science, 
canvassed the German physicians, in order to celebrate the doc- 
tor's jubilee of their great teacher in a worthy manner, all to 
whom he had been a leader either by speech or writing rose 
like one man, and perpetuated the recollection of the event with 
a medal 2 , and by the foundation of a travelling scholarship 3 . 

The naturalists of his day endeavoured to recognize the ser- 
vices of the Nestor of their science by naming after him plants, 
animals, and stones. It was for him a particular pleasure, that 
on the morning of the day of his doctor's jubilee (Sept. 18, 
1825), his colleague Schrader showed him a drawing of the 
new kind of plant, Blumenbachia insignis*. 

1 De basi Encephali. Gott. 1778, 4_to. And Baldinger's title to it: Epitome neu- 
rologice pliysiologicopathologicw, and in the Curriculum vitce Sommerring, p. 15: 
" Exc. Blumenbach was not only my most desirable instructor in general zoology, 
mineralogy, physiology, pathology, the particular history of man, and in relating 
the traditions of medicine, but also a distinguished patron, who deigned to treat me 
as a friend. Such was his kindness that he not only often took me as his companion 
in his zoological and mineralogical excursions, but also in his vivisections and ex- 
periments, which he carried on at his own expense in order to illustrate publickly 
the physiological part of natural history, he permitted me most kindly to give him 
my personal and manual assistance." 

a The dedication runs: Viro illustri Germaniae decori diem semisecularem 
Physiophili Germanici lsete gratulantur. On the medal are drawn an European, 
Ethiopian, and Mongolian skull with the legend: Naturae interpreti, ossa loqui 
jubenti Physiophili Germanici. d. 19 Sept. 1825. [Wood-cuts from this medal 
have been given on the title-page. Ed.] 

3 The value of the travelling scholarship was 600 gold thalers. Comp. Gott. 
gel. Am. 1829, st. 73, s. 721. 

4 Comp. Comment. Soc. JR. Sc. Gott. Voh VI. 1828, p. 91 — 138. — A Blumeri- 

MARX. 29 

Although the confidence of the world in the learning of the 
aged veteran rested on firm foundations, still notwithstanding 
that he never left off continually improving it, for he was 
always putting fresh life into what he knew, and endeavouring 
to add new matter to his acquisitions. In his pocket-book we 
find the following remark made in later days. " Although I 
have been many years now delivering lectures, still up to this 
time I have never once been into the lecture-room without 
having prepared myself afresh, and specially for every particu- 
lar hour, because I know from experience how much injury 
many teachers have done to themselves, by considering as 
unnecessary these perpetual preparations for lectures, which 
they have read already twenty times and more." 

Blumenbach never, above all, allowed himself to repose" 
upon his happy natural advantages, but was always endeavour- 
ing without ceasing to procure for them the greatest possible 
development. Only I may remark here, that his manner of 
speaking and writing never grew old, but on the contrary 
remained interesting and in many respects masterly, and was 
such as to fix the attention of hearer and reader in a remark- 
able way. 

It is worth while to bring into notice the following extract 
from his note-book, which is intimately connected with the 
solidity and repose of his delivery. "Amongst the rules on 
which my father most strongly insisted in our education, was 
one especially, that when we had once commenced a sentence 
with a certain form of construction we must go on with it, and try 
to carry it out completely, and we were never allowed to begin 
over again, and join another construction on to the first. This was 
afterwards of great assistance to me towards an easy delivery." 

Blumenbach not only developed himself into a most superior 
teacher by natural talent, reflection and experience, but he also 
possessed both by practice and by natural advantages the gift, 
in ordinary conversation, of bringing out the main points in his 

hacliia multifida is drawn and described in Curtis' Botanical Magazine, Vol. 64, 
1837. PI. 3599- 


answers and stories, partly by short terse sentences, partly by 
unexpected hints. He was always lucky enough to hit the nail 
on the head, to bring the subject into a fresh position, and to 
attack it in new and interesting ways. He would sometimes 
describe reason as "the desire of perfecting oneself, or the 
determination to accommodate oneself to circumstances," and 
his manner both of address and of doing business was a standing 
commentary on this definition. 

Generally he preferred listening to speaking; frequently he 
would only let fall isolated sentences, leaving people to guess 
at the connection; he avoided direct contradiction, and was 
pleased when his meaning was understood, without his having 
been obliged to express himself in so many words. In this way 
he spared the personal feelings of others, gladly recognized 
assistance from without, and was tender to human weaknesses, 
especially the vanity of authorship 1 . 

Grammar had sometimes to give way in his cursory dis- 
course for his immediate objects. In other respects his talk, 
just like above all his style and delivery, was the result of con- 
scious deliberation. In his note-book I find written down the 
following remark : " In the delivery of my lectures, as in my 
writings, I have always endeavoured to follow Quintilian's 
pattern! This is it. C I 2 tried to throw in some brilliancy, not 
for the sake of displaying my genius, but that in this way I 
might more readily attract youth to the acquaintance of those 
things which are considered necessary for study. For it seemed 
probable that if the lecture had anything pleasant in it they 

1 He was of opinion that this in respect of opinions upon it, might fairly stand 
upon the same footing as personal beauty. Hence he used to remark on the 
latter: "If a toad could speak and were asked which was the loveliest creature 
upon God's earth, it would say simpering, that modesty forbad it to give a real 
opinion on that point." 

In his pronunciation he followed ordinary usage, quoting Horace, ' quern penes 
aibitrium est, et jus, et norma loquendi.' He used Adelung as a decisive authority, 
and that dictionary always lay by the side of his table. Purists were a nuisance 
to him. To call granite Jcornstein, he said, made him shudder. 

He always tried to correct the improper use of definite words, especially with a 
view to the language of natural history : viz. ' My canary bird sings beautifully.' 
' To hear a canary bird sing I would go ten miles ; but perhaps it pipes." 1 ' Yes, pipes, 
sings.' 'Ah, ah, now we understand each other.' 

2 Instit. orator. 1. III. c. i. Ludg. Bat. i7?o, p. ill. 

MARX. 3 L 

would be more glad to learn; whereas a dry and barren mode 
of teaching would probably turn their minds away, and grate 
rudely against ears tender by nature.' " 

After what has been said already about Blumenbach's rela- 
tions to the outer world, it seems almost superfluous to go on 
mentioning in detail how numerous and honourable his con- 
nections with that world became. 

It might be sufficient to mention, that 78 learned societies 
elected him as a member. There was scarcely any scientific 
body of reputation in the wide extent of cultivated nations 
which did not send him its diploma by way of testifying their 

One of the necessary consequences of this was a very exten- 
sive correspondence, and though much of the correspondence 
between him and distinguished persons has already been 
printed 1 , there must still remain, on the other hand, a great 
deal, which will one day be made public. Blumenbach himself 
laid the greatest stress upon his correspondence with Haller, 
Camper and Bonnet, and considered these as amongst the 
fortunate incidents of his life 2 . 

He was made Secretary to the Physical and Mathematical 
branches of our Society in 1812, and in 1814 General Secretary. 
In this capacity, it was his duty to keep up the connection 
between it and allied institutions, as well as with the individuals 
who belonged to it, both at home and abroad; to prepare the 
memorials of deceased members, and to compose the intro- 
ductions to the printed volumes of our Society. We are all 
witnesses of the zeal and devotion with which he fulfilled these 

1 Viz. with Zach, to whom particularly he gave information about distant tra- 
vellers. Allgem. Geogr. Ephem. B. n. s. 66, 158. B. in. s. 101. With Carl Eren- 
bert von Moll in his Mittheil. aus mein. brief wechsel, 1829, Abthl. 1. s. 56 — 63, 
on general subjects of natural history. With Johann Heiiuich Merk in his Briefen, 
published by K. Wagner, Darmstadt, 1835, Nos. 197, 218, 250, principally on 
primeval bones. 

2 Medic. Bibl. B. in. s. 734. These entries are to be found in his journal: "1775, 
Nov. 1, My first acquaintance with De Luc; 1777, Nov. 21, with G-. Forster, 
1778, in summer, with Camper. In the same year my correspondence with Baron 
Asch began, 1781 with R. Forster in Halle ; in Bern, 1782, my acquaintance and 
subsequent correspondence with Bonnet ; in 1786 my correspondence with Banks." 


honourable duties. He had laid down himself the 84th year 1 
as the natural termination of human life, and so it might be 
regarded as one of his many peculiarities, that it was not till 
his 88th year that he expressed a wish, in a higher quarter, 
to be relieved of that office. 

There are still some of his official relations to be noticed, 
which brought him into manifold connection with others, and 
into business transactions with colleagues and magistrates, 
namely, his position towards the Faculty, the Library, and the 
public Natural History Collections. In all these different 
circles it may be said, that he conducted himself to universal 
satisfaction, and gave proofs in every detail of his knowledge, 
his experience, his forbearance and good feeling. 

As member of the Faculty of Honours 2 , he distinguished 
himself throughout by conscientiousness in delivering the judg- 
ments demanded of him, by giving out his individual state- 
ments of the prizes, by mild and moderate examinations. He 
did neither too little nor too much. During his decanate in 
1818 he created 76 doctors, the greatest number since the 
foundation of the University. He fulfilled that office with all 
its obligations up to 1835. On the 20th Feb. 1826, his Pro- 
fessor's jubilee was celebrated. Blumenbach himself considered 
it a remarkable occurrence, that he in his 60th year 3 should be 
already not only the senior of the medical faculty, but also that 
of the whole Senate. He showed that the case had now really 
occurred which Michaelis 4 had declared was scarcely possible. 

As member of the Library Committee he was always ready 
to give his advice and influence for the improvement of an 
institution he held so dear. He arranged 5 , as its Director, the 

1 Medic. Bibl. B. III. s. 181. "The goal which many old people arrive at, 
but few pass by." 

2 In 1783 he was assessor; in 1791 he shared the post with Gmelin, and in 
1803, after his death, held it alone. 

3 When Richter, July 23, 1812, had died, 71 years old. 

4 In his Raisonnement uber die protest. Universit. Th. n. s. 343 : " The senior 
of a whole University can hardly be a man of sixty years, but generally somewhat 
younger or older than 80." 

3 Gott. gel. Anz. 1778, st. izi, s. 986. 

MARX. 33 

University Museum, and continued to overlook it to extreme 
old age, when he could no more attend to it personally. To 
his name also it was owing that many presents were sent to it 
from far and near 1 . 

Blumenbach never undertook the office of Proctor of the 
University, although he knew as well as anybody else how to 
deal properly with the students, and to remain in the best 
understanding possible with older persons and with his supe- 
riors. Very early in the day he had asked it as a favour of the 
Curator, that he might never be chosen for that office. His 
familiarity with the older conditions of discipline, and the then 
unavoidable disturbances which agitated the University, and his 
fear 2 of being withdrawn from pure scientific activity by this 
official business determined him to come to this conclusion. 

But this refusal did not prevent him from doing all the 
services in his power, both to the University and the town, 
by deputations of ail kinds. On the 10th June, 1802, he went 
with Martens to Hanover, and on the 5th Nov. 1805, to 
Cassel, in the same company, to visit Mortier. On the part of 
the higher authorities such a value was set upon these two 
organs of the University, that it was made its duty never to put 
them aside on any important occasion 3 . 

1 Cotnp. Some Notices of the University Museum in Annalcn der Braunschw. 
Lilneb. Churlande. Jahrg. I. j 787, st. 3, s. 84 — 99. Jahrg. 11. 1788, st. 1, s. 25 — 35. 
In his sketches of subjects of natural history, he always mentions where the 
examples quoted were to be found in our Museum. 

2 In his journal I find written with a lead pencil: "From the year when 
Ruhnken was made Rector Magnificus, says his biographer "Wyttenbach (Ludg. 
B. 1799, 8vo. p. 141), he became lost to literary pursuits." 

3 In a P.M. of the University and School department at Hanover to the 
University d. 12 Jan. 1805: "In respect of the business which under the present 
circumstances are to be seen to by the Privy Councillor von Martens, which do 
not ordinarily belong to the duties of Proctor, it will continue to be the case, and 
so long as the condition of things renders it necessary, that all and every communi- 
cation with the French generals, whatever name they may have, shall be conducted 
by Privy Councillor Martens, or, if he is unable, by Privy Councillor Blumenbach, 
since both are known to the French generals through the University deputations 
they have already been employed upon. In consequence, the rules hitherto at- 
tended to must be resumed, according to which, in all cases where it is necessary 
to send a deputation of honour, the Proctor of the day does not go himself, but 
must send a deputation, and that must consist, when there is no necessity for its 
being more numerous, of Privy Councillors von Martens and Blumenbach, and if a 
more numerous one be sent, then these two must always be members of it." 


On the 28th Aug. 1806, Blumenbach and Martens set out 
for Paris : on the 28th Sept. they had an audience of the Em- 
peror. On the 30th Oct. 1812, Blumenbach went, as deputy of 
the University, with Sartorius to Heiligenstadt, to the head- 
quarters of Bernadotte, the subsequent King of Sweden. 

In consequence of these important services, combined with 
his other academical exertions, the town-magistrates resolved to 
give him a most unusual proof of their recognition of them : 
namely, on the 1st March, 1824, the magistracy of the town 
decreed him a twenty years' exemption from the municipal 
taxes imposed upon his house. 

With respect to the outer appearance and personal effect 
of the departed, they are undoubtedly still fresh in our me- 
mory. Still perhaps some outlines may be of use to preserve 
them fresh, especially since in his last years he lived very much 
retired in his apartments, and so many had very little oppor- 
tunity of coming in contact with him. 

No one who had once seen or conversed with Blumenbach 
could easily forget him; and he knew how to make himself 
valuable to every one who lived with him. Even in extreme 
old age, when the weight of years had bent even his resisting 
back, there he stood and sat, as if cast in bronze, in every look 
a man. Any one who heard the stout voice with which he 
answered, " Come in," to a knock at his door ; or saw the 
wonderful play of muscles in his expressive face, and remarked 
in any interview his undisturbed equanimity and collectedness, 
and the freshness and cheerfulness of his spirit, soon knew with 
whom he had to do. 

No one left his presence without receiving either an in- 
structive narrative, a cheerful story of old times, or some 
weighty hint. He understood a joke, and knew how to return 
one. If any one let slip in conversation an expression, or a 
suggestion, which was wanting in due consideration or respect, 
or if any one appeared as if he wanted to impose upon the old 
man, he must have been wonderfully put down, when he 
snatched at his cap, and bared his snow-white head, with the 

MARX. 35 

words, "Old Blumenbach is obliged to you." I cannot leave 
untold how Astley Cooper, in 1839, said in a letter of recom- 
mendation, that King George IV. had declared that he had 
never seen so imposing a man as Blumenbach. 

His health suffered on an average little disturbance. Blu- 
menbach refused to be ill ; he had no time for it. In his youth 
he was delicate, and was liable to violent bleedings at the nose, 
and even to spitting blood; but by taking the greatest care, 
and by regularity in his mode of life, he arrived in the course 
of years to a very sound state of health. He declared that the 
occupying himself with natural history had done him this good 
among others, that he could sleep like a marmot, and had 
acquired the digestion of an ostrich. Every now and then he 
suffered from dry coughs, inflammation of the eyes, or lumbago, 
which he called the thorn in the flesh. If he found it impos- 
sible to subdue or conceal the complaint, he went to a phy- 
sician, and followed his prescriptions most punctually. Glad 
indeed was he when he found himself relieved of the incon- 
venience, and thankfully did he exclaim with Jesus Sirach, 
"A short madness is the best." 

Extreme old age can scarcely avoid bringing with it some 
unpleasant consequences, but altogether the still intellectual 
old man enjoyed sound bodily health. After he had got over 
the cold days in the middle of the past January pretty well, he 
was seized at the commencement of the mild but stormy 
weather with his cough, which however left him again. Only 
the old annoyance, of not being able conveniently to void his 
phlegm, drew from him the remark, that in the pathology which 
he possessed, this chapter had not been satisfactorily accom- 

On Saturday the 18th Jan. I was summoned between eight 
and nine o'clock in the morning from the lecture to visit him. 
He had chosen to get out of bed, but had been unable to walk or 
to stand. On the first seizure they had placed him in his arm- 
chair, close to the stove, and covered him with pillows. When 
I came I saw what I had never before remarked in him, and 
what immediately filled me with uneasiness ; his body trembled 



all over, and was cold to the touch ; his expression was altered ; 
his pulse was irregular in the highest degree; nothing could 
enable him to throw off his dejection. 

Still by good luck this threatening storm passed away. 
The remedies which were applied might congratulate them- 
selves on a happy result. When I saw him again two hours 
afterwards, he gave me his hand, he had recovered his usual 
expression, and the natural motions seemed to have suffered no 
essential interference. 

However tranquillizing this might appear, still there was the 
apprehension that so lamentable and powerful an accident, 
which had proceeded from the central organ of the nervous sys- 
tem, in an organism which had hitherto gone on working with 
such regularity, might only too easily occur again, and at last 
bring to a standstill the machine which was kept going by habit 
alone. When I saw him again at 5 o'clock in the evening, he 
stretched out his arms towards me, and spoke aloud; still I 
thought that he felt as if he must not consider the circumstances 
as so trivial. About 8 o'clock I found him in a sound sleep, 
which continued throughout the night. 

Sunday and Monday passed off well enough, and he spent 
them, with the exception of his siesta, in his arm-chair. When 
I entered his room, he gave me so loud a " good day," that, ac- 
cording to his own expression, the angels in heaven might have 
heard him. When I asked him how he was, I received for 
answer, " Quite in the old way." He had books brought to 
him again, read them, had himself read to at intervals, and was 
particularly cheerful. But I could only share this happy tone 
of mind by constraint, for his pulse became more and more 
irregular, and fainter, and when he spoke I missed the old tone 
of voice. 

On Tuesday one might still have been deceived as to his 
condition on the first glance, because when I asked to feel his 
pulse, he thrust out his arm with energy, in his usual way : and 
he showed by all his other motions that the power of the will 
over the body was yet entire. This was the first time that he 
spent the whole day in bed. Still in the evening I conversed 

MARX. 37 

with him upon subjects of natural history, and recounted to him 
some bygone passages of his life, at which the expression of his 
face, his cheerful humour, and many a subtle remark showed 
the clearness of his mind. 

Wednesday morning, the 22nd, about 8 o'clock, contrary to 
his previous custom, he did not extend his hand to me ; still he 
quickly recognized me, and was as friendly as usual. On my 
repeated inquiry whether he felt anywhere any pain, any 
oppression, or any anxiety, he answered straight and decided 
with " No, nowhere at all." The only thing which annoyed him 
was, that he could not expel the phlegm from the windpipe. 
He began to doze, and spoke at intervals a few words to him- 
self ; but when a question was put to him he always gave an 
answer. As I was going away he said, "Adieu, dear friend." 
These were the last words which I heard him speak plainly and 
connectedly. The tone of his voice remained good till midday. 
Dozing and feebleness increased; but his consciousness re- 
mained undisturbed till evening, and when I asked him several 
times if I should give him something stimulating, he opened 
his eyes readily, and fixed them hard. At half-past 8 I could 
feel no pulse, and the inspirations were numbered. I laid my 
hand upon him and said, "Adieu;" but the dear well-known 
voice, which had so often heartily responded to the greeting, 
was silent for ever. Five minutes afterwards he was in another 

There still remain some isolated strokes to be given, which 
may help to the better comprehension of this generous and 
unusual character, who retained his innate harmony even in 
the very hour of departure. 

Blumenbach never shed tears 1 . After a heavy domestic 
misfortune I found him collected, reading some travels of natu- 

1 "Look for the lachrymal gland after my death," he said sometimes, "you will 
find none," or "I must have nerves like cords, or noneat all." The dissection never 
took place. It would have been most interesting in many respects for the more 
accurate knowledge of the particular parts of the brain, and their connection with 
each other, the comparison of the skull, the windpipe and the lungs, with the well- 
known symptoms which were seen during the life of the old man, who was 
remarkable even in a physical point of view. Still, with respect even to the 


ral history, and calling my attention to the pictures in them. 
He suffered through his whole organization, yet he made no 
complaint, and shed no tear, but tried to occupy himself as far 
as he possibly could. 

He never used spectacles, and in his 88th year read with ease 
the smallest letters and type. His handwriting changed remark- 
ably according to the different epochs of his existence. In his 
youth and active manhood he wrote beautifully. Then he was 
afflicted with a difficulty of using his writing finger, and after 
he had tried hard to conquer it without success, he accustomed 
himself to write with the left hand, guiding the pen with the 
right. For this purpose he used a swan's quill, and the thickest 
lead-pencil. In his 87th year however he again attempted to 
write with the right hand, and the strokes by their firmness 
and clearness recalled the best performances of his earlier years. 
If you ever got him to talk on the chapter of writing, he took 
care never to forget to recommend the art of writing handily in 
your pocket, which had been of great service to him on diplo- 
matic missions, through the agency of a short thick lead-pencil 
and strong parchment paper. 

Blumenbach was a man of the watch, which always lay 
beside him. No one could be more punctual than he was. If 
any one expected anything from him to no purpose, he might be 
quite certain that it had not been forgotten, but that he had 
let it go, because he considered that the proper thing to do. 

Immediately after he had got up in the morning he was 
frizzled and powdered, according to the old-fashioned style, and 
then put on his boots and kept them on till he went to bed. It 
took a great deal of trouble to get him at last to use slippers 
and a footstool. Even his physician scarcely ever saw him in 
his night-shirt. As he spent the whole day entirely in full 
dress, so also he scarcely in other ways indulged himself in the 
slightest relaxation. He had a sofa for visitors in his study, 

peculiarities mentioned, it must be considered that the forms hinted at were easy 
to be seen, and as normal as might be ; but long-continued design, iron will, and 
custom, which had almost become law, had made their influence distinctly tell 
upon them. 

MARX. 39 

but he never made any use of it himself. Only on one single 
occasion, when he was ill and obliged to lay up, did I find him 
upon it. He pronounced against arm-chairs for a long time, 
and said there ought to be pricks in the back of them ; and 
it was only by degrees that this position was made agreeable 
to him. 

It was one of his principles never to sleep in the day-time ; 
only in his very last years did he allow himself a siesta. It was 
his opinion that a man ought always to be wakeful, active, and 
cheerful, and on that account he was slow to understand how 
he sometimes in his 88th year went off into a doze in the day- 
time, in the absence of any outward excitements. 

He kept himself free from every confining habit ; after 
allowing himself to smoke for some time, he gave it up again, 
and did the same by snuff-taking too, which had occupied the 
place of the other. After his 86th year I saw his snuff-box no 

Moderation at table was his habit ; he always took exactly 
the same quantity. He used to tell of himself that he had 
never been drunk 1 . 

With respect to this unusual self-reliance which Blumen- 
bach arrived at so early, and which he retained to the end, it 
will be interesting to hear his own account, to what influence 
he principally ascribed this important result. It stands written 
in his journal. " My parents, among other wise and serviceable 
principles of education, as I consider, never allowed us children 
to know that they had any possessions. All we knew was this, 
that everything which they had was entirely their own unen- 
cumbered property. That fortunate ignorance was for me a 
mainspring to more earnest exertion to help myself on alone, 
and it is that principally which has made of me an useful man. 
■How many unhappy examples there are, on the other hand, of 
young people, who have neglected to cultivate their natural 
capacities solely for the reason, that their parents have too 

1 He used to say with Johnson, "Abstinence is an easy virtue, temperance a 
very difficult one." 


early let them become acquainted with the lucrative inherit- 
ance which was awaiting them." 

Blumenbach was economical, but he understood also how 
to give. He knew how to appreciate the value of money, with- 
out at the same time setting any higher consideration upon it. 
There was once a passage in his note-book which some time 
later was written down : " However singular it may appear to 
many, still it is literally true, that up to the date at which I am 
now writing, I have never once solicited any emolument, 
salary, or addition, or anything else of the kind concerning 
myself, but have received everything throughout from the 
Hanoverian government, from my first appointment up to the 
last addition allotted to me in the summer of 1813, entirely 
from free gifts, that is, without any exertion of my own; and so 
also under the kingdom of Westphalia." 

As Blumenbach himself was beyond all things discreet, 
both in public and in private affairs, so also he expected the 
same from those he associated with. He had no objection to a 
piece of news, especially when it was of a piquant nature, but 
beyond that, he troubled himself little about the concerns 
of other people. He used to say, " De occultis non judicat 

If any one complained to him of his position, and solicited 
his intercession, he would encourage him with the saying, 
" Lipsia vult expectari." If it appeared to him that the peti- 
tioner stepped beyond the proper bounds, he would exclaim, 
" I shall remember you," and with these words the negotiation 
would be closed. 

Blumenbach was always himself, never distracted, never pre- 
occupied. Had he been woke up in the middle of the night 
and questioned upon the most important subjects, he would 
certainly have given the same distinct answer as at midday. 
He acted according to definite inner determination. He acted 
or declined to do so according to certain rules of the under- 
standing, which became at last a sort of machinery of his 

He was never wanting in attention to others, and he had 

MARX. 41 

the faculty of attaching to himself in a subtle way men of all 
classes, but especially superior men. It was his plan to bring 
up and, as it were, accidentally to allude to whatever must 
necessarily have an agreeable effect, and to stir beforehand all 
the strings in harmony; and in this way he won for himself 
many well-wishers, and knew how to keep them when they 
were won. Politeness he considered as a duty, and he knew 
very well how to use it, both to attract people and to keep 
them at a distance. 

Not only did he closely adhere to what was demanded by 
custom, and all the observances of society and official relations, 
but his attention to these things put many younger men to 
the blush. 

Blumenbach was always anxious to learn, and was never 
idle for a moment. He used to say, he only knew ennui by 
reputation. As he was reckoned the great curiosity of Gottin- 
gen, and scarcely any traveller omitted to visit him, he was 
kept continually on the stretch through the quantity of fresh 
information. To this also contributed his unceasing reading — 
in the evenings he preferred to be read to — and his unexampled 
memory, which he was always trying to strengthen by taking 
memoranda. He often used to laugh at the perverted manners 
of certain men who wanted to be taken for clever, and com- 
plained about their bad memory, when that was the very thing 
they could exercise a certain power over. One hears people 
say, "I have a most wretched memory," but never "What a 
miserable judgment I have." 

It will serve to show how attentive he still was in extreme 
old age, that one Wednesday morning when the Literary 
Notices had been published, and in one of the Reviews, without 
naming him, I had hinted at something which concerned him, 
he greeted me with the words, "To-day old Blumenbach has 
been out-jockeyed." 

He was not in the habit of speaking his opinion or his ideas 
straight out, but he left them to be seen through a hint, or only 
by a jest; any one who knew his way of speaking wanted no 
further explanation. 


He was not one of those who received everything imme- 
diately as true and certain 1 ; but he guarded himself and also 
warned others against carrying their scepticism too far. He 
said it would be a subject for a very acute head to decide, 
whether too much credulity or hyper-scepticism had done the 
most harm to science, and he inclined to the latter opinion. 
He considered it as above all necessary, on every assertion to 
keep in view the individual from whom it proceeded 2 . 

He always found fault when any one lost himself in common 
figures of speech, instead of seeing the way clearly to the 
foundation of appearances from the immediately connected 
facts. Thus he used to express himself: "The lament, that 
mankind is always growing weaker, is a miserable Jeremiad. 
Lay upon one of our horses the horse-trappings of the middle 
ages — it will be crushed under them as a pancake. Yet these 
drink no tea or coffee, and do not suffer from the evil, which 
has been given us by America. Habit does it all." 

In his thought as in his action all was considerate, con- 
nected and moderate. 

In what has been done already, an attempt has been made 

3 In his preface to the Samml. MerTciviird. reisegesch. Erst. Th. , Memrningen, 
1789, he gives some words of warning against too confident a belief in the accounts 
of travellers. 

3 This lay at the bottom of a playfully told story. "In Moravia on a sun- 
bright day there was a thunder-clap, and stones like pigeons' eggs fell from the sky. 
The testimony of those who heard it is remarkable, as a specimen of what often 
occurs in courts of law. 'Did you hear the noise? what did you think it was 
like?' 'Like platoon-firing.' 'What are you?' 'Musketeer.' ' Did you hear it ? ' 
'Yes. 1 'And what did you think of it?' 'It was like an old carriage rolling along 
the street.' 'What are you?' 'Postilion.' 'And you?' 'Yes.' 'What did you 
think it was like?' 'Janissary music' 'Have you ever heard Janissary music? ' 
'Never in my life, but I think it must sound something like that.' " 

He used to take opportunities of showing how people sometimes propagate an 
error from a self-pleasing delusion, vi-5. : — "The Hungarians boast that on their 
Tokay grapes you will often find grains of pure gold. All is not gold, which 
glitters. Looked at more closely it is no real gold, but glittering yellow caterpil- 
lars' eggs." 

His criticism was intelligible, and yet was more subtle and instructive than the 
most elaborate exposition. Thus, "The Sloth can never be brought to move both 
feet at the same time. When it goes it moves first one foot, stops and sighs Ah! 
It could not have been in the universal menagerie of Mount Ararat, because it 
lives in Brazil only ; if it had had to come from Ararat to Brazil, it would not 
have been there yet." 

MARX. 43 

to throw off a silhouette of Blumenbach's exertions and per- 
sonal appearance ; in conclusion, I may be allowed to give some 
account of his nearest external connections. 

His father, Henrich Blumenbach, was first of all private tutor 
in Leipzig, and in 1737 became tutor to the chancellor of Oppel 
in Gotha, and in the same year was made professor in the 
school there. He had a very choice library, and many en- 
gravings and maps. For Leipzig, the place of his birth, he had 
such a preference, that when his son went, against his wishes, 
to Gottingen, he alluded in a school prospectus to the new 
University as the quasi modo genita; but however at last he 
changed, and later in the day ceased to refuse it the well- 
merited honour of being the Optimo rnodo genita. 

His mother, Charlotte Elenore Hedwig, was the daughter 
of Euddeus, the Vice-Chancellor of Gotha, grand-daughter of the 
Jena theologian; she died in 1793, sixty-eight years old. The 
departed left behind him, in his journal, this remark upon her. 
" A woman full of great and at the same time domestic virtues, 
and perfectly faultless." He had a brother who died in the 
prime of life, in an employment at Gotha, and his sister was the 
wife of Professor Voigt, who afterwards came to Jena. 

In 17-59 Blumenbach went to the school of Michaelis. In 
1768 he delivered an address on two occasions : on the Duke's 
birth-day, and the marriage of the then Crown-prince. 

Amongst the interesting men in Gotha, to whom he often 
went, and who were glad to see him, was the Vice-President 
Kliippel, who took a great share in the Gotha Literary Journal, 
which began to appear in 1774. 

On the 12th October, 1769, Blumenbach, then seventeen 
years old, went from school to Jena,- where Baldinger was then 
Proctor, principally to attend the lectures of the then famous 
Kaltschmidt ; but on the very day when his lectures commenced, 
he dropped down dead, from a stroke of apoplexy, at the wed- 
ding dance of one of his friends. In his place at Easter, 1770, 
Neubauer came to Jena, to whom Blumenbach took prodigi- 
ously, and to whom he was very grateful. 


After he had studied there for three years, he felt the 
necessity of getting instruction from other teachers, and soon 
made his choice, in consequence of the renown Gottingen then 
enjoyed. On the loth October, 1772, he arrived here; on the 
18th September, 1775, a Sunday, he took his degree 1 ; and on 
the 31st October he began to read his first lecture. 

For his learned career he considered it the greatest of good 
luck that he came to Gottingen. He shared, as he often 
remarked, with regard to a learned life the saying of Schlozer 2 : 
" To live out of Gottingen is not to live at all." 

Nor did he conceal from himself that the fact of his career 
coinciding with the necessities of that day, and his personal 
position to influential men, had had an important influence on 
the recognition of his labours 3 . 

By his marriage (on the 19th Oct. 1778) he became the 
brother-in-law of Heyne, and as his father-in-law George 
Brandes, and afterwards his brother-in-law Ernst Brandes, 
managed the affairs of the University, we can see partly at 
least how Blumenbach came to have so much influence in it. 

1 His sponsor was his old Jena tutor Baldinger, who in the meantime had been 
summoned here, and who on that occasion had written his thesis De malignitate in 
morbis ex mente Hifpocralis, 1775, on which depended Blumenbach's career in life. 
According to him Blumenbach had attended the following lectures. In Jena : 
logic with Hennings ; pure mathematics and physics with Succow ; botany, physi- 
ology, pathology, and the history of medicine with Baldinger; anatomy, surgery, 
and midwifery with Neubauer; practical medicine and pathology with Nicolai; 
natural history and archaeology with Walch; German antiquities with Miiller ; 
English language with Tanner. In Gottingen: on the power of medicine, on the 
nature and cure of diseases with Vogel; pharmaceutical chemistry and the prepar- 
ation of medicines, the art of prescribing and clinical lectures with Baldinger; 
botany and materia medica with Murray; anatomy and midwifery with Wrisberg; 
pathology and ocular diseases with Bichter ; mineralogy with Kastner ; history of 
the mammalia with Erxleben; natural history with Buttner; on the odes of Horace 
with Heyne ; the English language with Dietz ; the Swedish with Schlozer. 

On the occasion of that anniversary, Heyne said (Opusc. Vol. II. p. 215): 
" Blumenbach, from whose genius and learning we expect something very great." 

2 In his life written by Blumenbach himself. Gotting. 1802, s. 197. 

3 He had early made a mark against the two following passages: "It makes a 
great difference on what times a man's peculiar virtues fall" (Plin. Nat. Hist. VII. 
29). "Nor can any one have so splendid a genius that he can come to light 
without material, opportunity, or even a patron and some one to recommend him" 
(Plin. Ep. VI. 23). 

MARX. 45 

What he was to this institution of learning in general, 
and our society in particular, that the world knows well, and 
history will not forget. In our tablets of memory his name 
will always endure, and his recollection will always renew in 
us the picture of a great and- beautiful activity. 

He who like him has satisfied the best of his time, he has 
lived for all time. 




Some years since died at Gottingen a member of our Academy, 
whose great works have rendered him famous, and whose par- 
ticular works, applied to the new study of man himself, have 
rendered dear to humanity. It is to M. Blumenbach that our 
age owes Anthropology. The history of mankind had been 
disfigured by errors of every kind, physical, social and moral. 
A sage appeared. He contended against the physical errors; 
and, by so doing, destroyed in the surest manner the founda- 
tion of all the others. 

John Frederick Blumenbach was born at Gotha, in 1752. 
From his very birth nature seemed to devote him to education. 
His father was professor at Gotha ; his mother belonged to a 
family at Jena, which was attached to the universities. 

It was in one of those German interiors, where the love 
of retirement, the necessity of study, the habits of an honourable 
independence reign with such a charm, that the little Blumen- 
bach first saw the light. A brother, a sister, a father studious 
and grave, a mother tender and enlightened, formed at first 
all his world. It was soon observed that this child, surrounded 
by such soft affections, was occupied by quite a dreamy 
curiosity. It played but little, and began to observe very early. 
It endeavoured, and sometimes with great ingenuity, to com- 
prehend or to explain to itself the structure of a plant or an 

Everything is taken seriously in Germany, even the earliest 
education of the infant. The father of M. Blumenbach, who 

1 Mtmoires de VInstitut de France, Tom. xxi. p. i. Paris. 1847. 



intended him for education, never permitted him, even from the 
most tender age, to break short a sentence badly commenced 
in order to put something else in its place. The sentence 
badly commenced had to be finished. The child had to get 
itself out of the little difficulty it had got into. In this way it 
learnt naturally, without effort, or rather by scarcely appreciable 
efforts, to think clearly and express itself with precision. 

His mother, a woman of elevated spirit and noble heart, 
inspired him with ideas of glory. The soul of the mother is the 
destiny of her son. These first impressions have never ceased to 
influence the whole life of M. Blumenbach. Of his numerous 
writings there is only one which is foreign to the sciences, and 
that is the panegyric of his mother. He ends it by saying, 
" She had all, and knew how to cherish all the family virtues." 

To return to the child. At ten years old he already took 
up the subject of comparative osteology, and this was the way. 
There was then but one solitary skeleton in the town of Gotha. 
This skeleton belonged to a doctor, who was the friend of the 
family of our little scholar, who often told afterwards the story 
of the many visits he used to make, during which he took 
no notice of the' doctor, but a great deal of the skeleton. His 
visits became, by little and little, more assiduous and more 
frequent. He came, on purpose, when his old friend was out ; 
and, under pretence of waiting for him, spent whole hours in 
looking at the skeleton. After having well fixed in his memory 
the form of the different bones and their relations, he conceived 
the bold idea of composing a copy. For this purpose he made 
frequent journeys in the night to the cemeteries. But, as he 
was determined to owe nothing except to chance, he soon found 
out that he would have to content himself with the bones of 
our domestic animals. In consequence, he directed his private 
researches in such a way as to provide himself with all sorts of 
that kind of bones. Then he carried them all to his bed-room, 
concealed them as well as he could, and shut himself too up 
there, in order to give himself up at his leisure, and with an 
enthusiasm beyond his age, to the studies he had marked out 
for himself. 


Unfortunately, at last a servant discovered the child's 
secret treasure ; she saw that ingenious commencement of a 
human skeleton, and cried out sacrilege and scandal. Young 
Blumenbach, all in tears, ran to his mother; and she, under the 
advice of the good doctor, prudently decided that the precious 
collection should be removed into one of the lofts. Such was the 
modest beginning of the famous collection whose reputation 
has become universal. 

At seventeen, young Blumenbach quitted his family for the 
University of Jena. There he found Sommerring: the same 
age, the same tastes, the same passion for study, which already 
concealed another, that for fame. They soon became friends ; 
and for these two friends everything was in common, library 
and laboratory. Blumenbach lent his books; Sommerring lent 
his anatomical preparations. In their confidential intimacies 
they often allowed themselves to give way to their illusions, 
predicting for one another the first rank in the sciences they 
cultivated. Nor were they deceived; the one became the first 
naturalist, the other the first anatomist of Germany. 

After spending three years at Jena, Blumenbach went to 
the university of Gottingen, then famous for the residence of 
a great man, the great "Haller, one of the grandest geniuses 
science has ever had; a first-rate author, poet, profound ana- 
tomist, a botanist equal to Linnaeus in his way, a physiologist 
without parallel, and of an erudition almost unlimited. Haller 
indeed had left the place ; but his reputation was everywhere. 
At the sight of reputation the cry of genius is always the same ; 
and Blumenbach said with Correggio, " I too am a painter." 

There lived then, at Gottingen, an old professor, forgotten 
by the students and very oblivious himself of delivering lec- 
tures, but in other respects very learned, and, besides, the 
possessor of an immense collection, remarkable for its books 
of geography, philology, voyages, and pictures of distant nations. 
Young Blumenbach, who was already dreaming of a history 
of man, was delighted at finding materials of this kind, so labori- 
ously and diligently brought together. He foresaw with a 
singular clearness all the advantages that might be got from it. 



He listened to and admired the old professor; and let him go 
on talking for a whole twelvemonth; then, rich with these 
treasures of erudition, of history, and continuous studies of the 
physiognomy of peoples, he wrote his doctor's dissertation on 
The Unity of Mankind. 

This was quite a new way of opening the science which he 
was destined to found and to render attractive. He com- 
menced from that time his anthropological collection. He did 
more ; he got the University to buy the collections of his old 
master, he became their conservator, he arranged them; and 
very soon brought them into notice by the great instruction 
in natural history he added to them. His teaching in this way 
marks quite an epoch in the studies of Germany. 

The peculiar genius of that nation is well known; the 
genius of thought governed by imagination; devoted at once 
to truth and to systems; brilliant, and rejoicing in elevated 
combinations, bold, surprising, and, if I may use the expression, 
given up to the adventures of thought. M. Blumenbach was no 
exception to this genius; but he developed, with a wonderful 
good nature, all the wisest points of it. 

The fifty years during which he was professor, and, if I may 
say so, a kind of sovereign, was, for natural history in Germany, 
the time of the most positive and the soundest study. The 
day of systems did not re-appear till he was gone; and when 
they did, although recalled to life by a man of astonishing 
vigour of mind 1 , they never could regain the empire they had 
lost. They had to deal with an entirely new power. The 
experimental method had been established. The great revolu- 
tion which has made the modern human intellect what it is 
had been effected. 

M. Blumenbach has published four works which give us 
pretty well the whole of his great course of instruction : the 
first, on The Human Species' 1 ; the second, on Natural History; 

1 M. Oken. I speak here of systems, and especially of the philosophy of 
nature, only in reference to the study of the Animal Kingdom. 

2 I include, under this head, his dissertation, De Generis humani varietate 
7iativa, &c, and his Decades craniorum, &c. 


the third, on Physiology ; and the fourth, on Comparative 
A natomy. 

To form a proper opinion of these works, it is necessary 
to consider the time when they appeared. About the middle 
of the eighteenth century, Buffon, Linnaeus and Haller had 
founded modern natural history. Towards the end of the 
century, at the very moment when science lost these three 
great men, M. Blumenbach wrote his first work 1 . 

The glory of M. Blumenbach is that he preceded Cuvier. 
There was indeed between these two famous men more than 
one relation; both introduced Comparative Anatomy into their 
own country, both created a new science; the one, Anthropo- 
logy; the other, the science of Fossil Anatomy: both con- 
ceived the science of Animal Organization in its entirety; but 
G. Cuvier, impelled by a greater bias towards abstract combi- 
nations, did more to display a method; whilst Blumenbach, 
guided by a most delicate sensibility, did more to elucidate 

Everything belonging to method was neglected by Blumen- 
bach; he confined himself to following Linnaeus; he adopted 
from him almost all his divisions with whatever advantages they 
had, and also with all their defects, their narrowness of study, 
and their caprice. 

In Germany, where they will not easily admit that M. Blu- 
menbach was deficient in anything, this kind of forgetfulness 
with which that great intellect treated method is explained 
and excused by his deference for Linnasus, the master, in that 
way, of a whole century. In France, where greater liberty of 
speech is allowed, without going beyond the bounds of respect, 
we say, plainly enough, that Blumenbach had not the genius 
of method; a genius so rare, that Aristotle alone, of antiquity, 
possessed it; and only three or four men in modern times have 

1 His dissertation, De Generis humani varietate nativa, is of 1775; his Manuel 
cVHistoire Naturelle is of 1779; ^ s Manuel de Physiologic, of 1787; his works 
on the Animaux a sang chaud et a sang froid, on the A nimaux a sang chaud 
irivipares et ovipares, are of 1786 and 1789; his first Decas craniorum, of 1790; his 
Anatomie comparee, of 1805. 


had it in so high a degree, Linnseus, the two Jussieu and 
G. Cuvier. 

All the writings of M. Blumenbach indicate the character 
and, if I may say so, the stamp of the physiologist. In his 
Comparative Anatomy he arranges his facts according to the 
organs, which is pre-eminently the physiological order. In the 
Physiology, properly so called, he first of all considers the 
forces of life, which is the point of view at once the most 
elevated and the most essentially peculiar to that science. 
His works on the cold-blooded and hot-blooded animals, and on 
the hot-blooded viviparous and oviparous animals are a true 
Comparative Physiology, and that too at an epoch when the 
very name of that science was unknown 1 . He has submitted 
the great question of the formation of beings to the most pro- 
found researches 2 , and always as a physiologist. Facts were his 
study; and from facts he tried to mount up to the force which 
produced them. Nothing is more famous than the formative 
force of M. Blumenbach 3 . 

Three principal ideas about the formation of beings have 
been successively in vogue ; the idea of spontaneous generation, 
which was the idea, or rather the error, of all antiquity; the 
idea of the pre-existence of germs, conceived by Leibnitz, and 
popularized by Bonnet; and the idea of the formative force of 
M. Blumenbach. No doubt the new idea does not clear up the 
difficulty any more than the two others; but at least it does 
not add to it. It does not contradict the facts, like the idea of 
spontaneous generation ; nor does it exact of the mind all that 
mob of suppositions and concessions which is demanded by 
the idea of the pre-existence of germs*. 

The formative force of M. Blumenbach is only a mode of 
expressing a fact, like irritability or sensibility; and whatever 

1 I consider him to be the first who employed in his works the terms "cold- 
blooded" and "hot-blooded animals." 

2 And through them he made the beautiful discovery of the umbilical membrane 
of the mammals. 

3 His Nisus formativus. 

4 The Molecules organiqucs of Buffon are only the pre-existing germs in another 
form. See my Hist, des travaux et des idees de Buffon, pp. 64, 72. 


may be said of it, is not more obscure. Every original force is 
obscure for the very reason that it is original. "The first 
veil," says Fontenelle, " which covered the Isis of the Egyptians 
has been lifted a long time ; a second, if you please, has been so 
in our time; a third never will be, if it is really the last 1 ." 

Great studies absorb those who pursue them. Blumenbach 
travelled little. His labours were only interrupted by some 
journeys in the interior of his country; and what was remark- 
able, these very journeys were of just as much use to natural 
history as his works. The old Germany, with its old chateaux, 
seemed to pay no homage to science ; still the lords of these 
ancient and noble mansions had long since made it a business, 
and almost a point of honour, to form with care what were 
called Cabinets of Curiosities. Their successors, attracted by 
the warlike tastes of the great Frederick, had forgotten these 
collections. Blumenbach came and reclaimed these treasures 
in the name of science, and everything was granted to him. 
Natural history began everywhere to have its museums, and so 
had civil history; and all this was due to what Blumeabach 
used to call, laughingly, his Voyages of Discovery. 

Of all these collections, the most peculiar to Blumenbach, 
the most important, the most precious at least for its object, 
was his collection of human skulls; an admirable monument of 
sagacity, labour and patience, and the best established and 
surest foundation of the new science, which interests us all 
to-day, of Anthropology. Anthropology sprung from a great 
thought of Buffon. Up to his time man had never been 
studied, except as an individual; Buffon was the first who, 
in man, studied the species 2 . 

After Buffon came Camper. Buffon had only considered 
the colour, the physiognomy, the exterior traits, the superficial 
characteristics of peoples; Camper, more of an anatomist, con- 
sidered the more real characteristics. With Camper began the 
study of skulls. Camper had a quick apprehension, and was as 

1 Panegyric of Ruysch. 

2 See Hist, des travaux et des idees de Buffon, p. 164. 


ready at seizing a happy view as prompt to abandon it. He 
compared the skull of the European with that of the negro ; 
the skull of the negro with that of the orang-utan.; he struck 
out the idea of his facial angle, and very soon greatly exagge- 
rated its importance. 

Blumenbach has pointed out what a very unsatisfactory 
and incomplete characteristic the facial angle is ; he has shown 
that we must compare all the skull and all the face ; he has 
laid down rules for that learned and perfect comparison, and 
was the first to deduce that division which is almost everywhere 
now adopted, of the human species into five races; the 
European, or white race; the Asiatic, or yellow; the African, or 
black; the American, or red; and the Malay. 

I confess at once, and without difficulty, that this division 
of races is not perfect. The division of races is the real diffi- 
cult) 7 of the day, the obscure problem of Anthropology, and will 
be so for a long time. The Malay race is not a simple or a 
single race 1 . Precise characteristics have been sought, but not 
yet found, by which to describe the American race. There are 
three principal races, of which all the others are only varieties, 
or sub-races; I mean the three races of Europe, Asia and 
Africa. But the idea, the grand idea, which reigns and rules 
and predominates throughout in the admirable studies of Blu- 
menbach is the idea of the unity of the human species, or, as 
it has also been expressed, of the human genus. Blumenbach 
was the first who wrote a book under the express title of the 
Unity of the Human Genus 1 . 

The Unity of Mankind is the great result of the science of 
Blumenbach, and the great result of all natural history. Anti- 
quity never had any but the most confused ideas on the 
physical constitution of man. Pliny talks seriously of peoples 
with only one leg, of others whose eyes were on their shoulders, 

1 But a mixture of two others, the Caucasian and the Mongol. 

2 Blumenbach says Human Genus. We now say, what is much preferable, 
the Human Species. The use of these two words is no longer arbitrary. The 
characteristic of genus is limited fecundity ; the characteristic of species is unlimit- 
ed fecundity. See Hist. des. t. et des i. de Buff on, p. 177. 


or who had no head, &c. In the sixteenth century, Eondelet, 
an excellent naturalist, gravely describes sea-men, who live 
in the water, and have scales and an oozy beard. In the 
eighteenth century Maupertuis describes the Patagonians, as 
giants whose ideas ought to correspond to their stature ; but as 
a compensation, for the credit of the century, Yoltaire laughed 
at Maupertuis. Finally, what speaks volumes, Linnaeus, the 
great Linnaeus, puts into the same family man and the orang- 
utan. The homo nocturnus, the homo troglodytes, the homo 
sylvestris of Linnaeus is, in fact, the orang-utan. 

To raise the science out of this chaos, Blumenbach laid 
down first of all three rules. The first is, to draw a distinction 
everywhere between what belongs to the brute and what 
belongs to man. A profound interval, without connexion, 
without passage, separates the human species from all others. 
No other species comes near the human species; no genus even, 
or family. The human species stands alone. Guided by his 
facial angle, Camper approximated the orang-utan to the negro. 
He saw the shape of the skull 1 , which gives an apparent 
resemblance; he failed to see the capacity of the skull, which 
makes the real difference. In form nearly, the skull of the" 
negro is as the skull of the European ; the capacity of the two 
skulls is the same. And what is much more essential, their 
brain is absolutely the same. And, besides, what has the brain 
to do with the matter? The human mind is one. The soul is 
one. In spite of its misfortunes, the African race has had 
heroes of all kinds. Blumenbach, who has collected everything 
in its favour, reckons among it the most humane and the bravest 
men; authors, learned men and poets. He had a library 
entirely composed of books written by negroes. Our age will 
doubtless witness the end of an odious traffic. Philanthropy, 
science, politics, that is true politics, all join in attacking it; 
humanity will not be without its crusades. The second rule of 
Blumenbach is, not to admit any fact except when supported 

1 Or, more precisely, the form and prominence of the upper jaw. See Hist, 
t. et des i. de Buffon, p. 183. 


by trustworthy documents; and in this way, everything which 
is puerile and exaggerated, everything which is legend, will be 
excluded from science. The third rule is the very basis of 
science. Once nothing but extremes were compared ; Blumen- 
bach laid down the rule not to pass from one extreme to the 
other, except by all the intermediate terms and all the shades 
possible. The extreme cases seem to separate the human 
species into decided races ; the graduated shades, the continuous 
intermediate terms make all men to form but one mankind. 

There never was a scholar, author or philosopher, who 
seemed more adapted to endow us with the admirable science 
of Anthropology. Blumenbach joined to vast knowledge a 
power of criticism still rarer than the most unbounded eru- 
dition, and much more precious; he had that art which dis- 
criminates and judges ; he had a clear sweep of view, a sure 
tact, and a good sense not easily deceived. He knew every- 
thing, and had read everything; histories, chronicles, relations, 
travels, &c. ; and he took pleasure in saying, that it was from 
travels that he had received the most instruction." The study of 
man is founded on three sciences, besides anthropology properly 
so called: geography, philology and history. Geography gives 
us the relations of races to climates; history teaches us to 
follow the migrations of peoples and their intermixtures; and 
when once they have been mixed, it is philology which teaches 
us how to separate them again. But whatever be the progress 
which these three sciences have made in our days, none has yet 
arrived at the original and certain unity of man ; each foresees 
it and prophesies it; all tend in that direction; thanks to 
Blumenbach, that unity, which these sciences still are in search 
of, has been demonstrated by natural history. And here let me 
speak out, without being afraid of exaggeration. Voltaire says 
of Montesquieu, that he restored its lost rights to the human 
race. The human race had forgotten its original unity, and 
Blumenbach restored it. 

I have examined the principal works of Blumenbach; I 
mean those works which have made him famous; but there is 
another I cannot omit, a work very different from those, at 


least, in the form; a work full of ideas, and one of the most 
intellectual, the most discriminating, or, to speak like Descartes, 
the most sensible that have ever been written on the sciences. 
That work is composed of two little volumes. The title is very 
simple, that is, Contributions to Natural History 1 . The true 
title should be, The Philosophy of Natural History. There 
Blumenbach passes in review all the philosophical questions 
of his science; the question of the original unity of man, the 
question of the scale of beings, that of innate ideas, that of the 
so-called man of nature, and the others. The author's object 
is to point out, in each instance, wjiere the truth ends and 
system commences. And to get to that point, there is no 
apparatus of learning, no long ratiocination, no phrases ; a word, 
a witty sally, an anecdote are enough. As to the original unity 
of man, he says it was an honest German doctor, who not 
being able to reconcile the different colour of men with the fact 
of their single origin, imagined, in order to settle the ques- 
tion, that God had created two Adams, one white and the 
other black. As to the scale of beings, it was the opinion of 
an English naturalist, who proposed to establish two, in order 
to place in the second everything that could find no place 
in the first. As to innate ideas and the man of nature, the 
following are the facts. Towards the middle of the year 1724, 
there was found, in the north of Germany, near a village called 
Hameln, a young boy quite naked, who could not speak, but 
eagerly devoured all the fruits he could get hold of. At that 
time the dispute about innate ideas was at its highest. Imme- 
diately the imagination of the philosophers was excited. The 
man that had been found was no doubt the wild man, the man 
of nature; and the man of nature would finally resolve the 
problem of innate ideas. The Count de Zinzendorf, who was 
afterwards the founder of the Moravian brothers, hastened to 
ask him of the Elector of Hanover. The Elector of Hanover 
sent him to England. In England the curiosity was as great 
as in Germany. Peter de Hameln, as the young savage was 

1 [Edited in this volume. Ed.] 


called, became famous. Dr Arbuthnot wrote his life. After 
him Lord Monboddo wrote it again; and, with his usual en- 
thusiasm, proclaimed the young savage as the most important 
discovery of the age. At last, M. Blumenbach wished in his 
turn to see what it all was ; he undertook the examination of 
the facts as a philosopher, but as a calm and judicious one; and 
he found that the wild man, the so-called man of nature, the 
most important discovery of the age, was only a poor child, born 
dumb, and driven from the paternal roof by a step-mother. 

It will be seen what sort of book it is I am speaking about. 
The tone is that of learned and delicate raillery. The author 
rallies, but so as to make you think. It is the ironical philo- 
sophy of Socrates, or at least what Socrates is said to have had, 
and what Voltaire really possessed. He who has read that- 
book has the whole key to Blumenbach's character. He will 
understand the charm of his conversations, the success of his 
lessons, and his vast renown, so dear to all those who ap- 
proached him. Above all, he will have the secret of his soul, 
born essentially for that general virtue defined by Montesquieu, 
the love of all. Even in this book, where however raillery pre- 
dominates, as soon as Blumenbach touches on the great question 
of the unity of men, he jokes no more; his language immedi- 
ately alters, and takes naturally the tone of the truest sensibility. 
He never speaks of men, or of any men, but with affection.""" 
According indeed to his doctrine, all men are born, or might 
have been born, from the same man. He calls the negroes 
our black brothers. It is an admirable thing that science seems 
to add to Christian charity, or, at all events, to extend it, and 
invent what may be called human charity. The word Hu- 
manity has its whole effect in Blumenbach alone. 

I have already said that Blumenbach, always wrapped up in 
his great works, had seldom quitted Germany. Still he made 
two journeys, one to England and one to France. In these two 
journeys he observed everything, but all as a naturalist. This 
man, who had passed so many years in meditating on the most 
important questions, on the highest problems of natural history, 
had at last only one idea, one object, one all-powerful pre- 


occupation; a pre-occupation so strong as to be sometimes 
quite ludicrous, as we may judge from the two instances he 
used to relate himself. 

Being entertained in London by all the English professors, 
they one evening took him to the theatre. The actor Kemble 
played the part of the Moor of Venice. Some days after, 
Kemble met Blumenbach at a party, and said, "M. Blumen- 
bach, how did you think I succeeded in representing the cha- 
racter of a negro ?" " Well enough, as far as the moral character 
goes," said our naturalist, and then added, " but all the illusion 
was destroyed for me the moment you opened your hand; for 
you had on black gloves, and the negroes have the inside of the 
hand of a flesh-colour." Every one laughed except Blumen- 
bach; he had spoken quite in earnest. 

After the peace of Tilsit, the town of Gottingen was included 
in the kingdom of Westphalia, and the University thought 
it necessary to solicit the protection of the great Emperor. 
Blumenbach was chosen as a deputy. " I found," said he, " all 
the French men of letters as eager to support me as if the 
question had been the preservation of a French institution; 
I owed to that generous zeal the success of my mission." 
Admitted, at last, to take leave in solemn audience, he attended 
in an antechamber with many of the foreign ambassadors. 
Napoleon appeared ; all turned their attention to him except 
Blumenbach ; for how could he ? "I had," said he, " before me 
the ambassadors of Persia and Marocco, of two nations whom 
I had never yet seen." 

To his passion for natural history Blumenbach joined a 
passion for all the great studies. Erudition, philosophy, letters 
had a share of his attention, but did not exhaust it. He was a 
good man of business. He had, in a high degree, that delicate 
and calm judgment which business demands. More than once, 
when charged with important missions, he brought them to an 
end with singular good fortune. In fact, the town of Gottingen 
decreed, in consideration of his services, that his property 
should be exempted from taxes. Gottingen indeed ought to 
have been grateful to him in every way. During sixty years 


the celebrity of the man of learning and the professor was the 
cause of its prosperity. His name alone brought there a crowd 
of pupils ; a population brilliant, moving, always being changed, 
always young and always learned. Nothing could equal the 
veneration all that population had for him. Almost all those 
of his pupils who became famous dedicated their works to him ; 
and these dedications were not the mere homage of admiration. 
A touching and higher sentiment is found hi: them, and what 
indeed is better still, an affection almost filial. What more can 
I say? M. de Humboldt was a pupil of his 1 , and the highest 
intellects of Germany, the Fichtes, the Kants, the Schellings 
have interpreted his ideas 2 . 

In private life Blumenbach was a thorough German, good- 
natured, frank, open and mild in manner. In him an honest 
character shone throughout. Essentially a man of good sense, 
after more than forty years spent in education, he wrote these 
words: "I never enter the amphitheatre without having par- 
ticularly prepared each lesson, for I know that many professors 
have lost reputation by thinking that they know well enough 
a course they have delivered twenty times." He worked up to 
the end of his life. " I only know satiety by reputation," said 
he. It is said also that he preferred listening to speaking. He 
was prudent in everything. As La Fontaine says, 

"The wise know how to manage time and words." 

He had a maxim which displays his character : " One must 
know how to attract and retain by indulgence." 

All happiness was his; a great reputation, a quiet life, 
a family tenderly beloved, illustrious pupils, a son worthy of 
his name. His long and beautiful old age was surrounded 
with the most touching homages. Every anniversary, which 
still preserved him to science, was celebrated as a festival. 
Seventy-eight learned societies elected him an associate. Me- 
dals were struck in his honour. Prizes were instituted in his 

1 In 1786 he had the honour to see the British Princes attend his lectures; and 
in 1803, the King of Bavaria; and in 1829, his son, the now Prince Royal. 

2 Particularly his idea of a formative force. 


name; useful foundations still exist which perpetuate his me- 
mory by benefactions 1 . This universal enthusiasm made no 
difference in him; he remained always good, simple, even 
familiar; everything in him was natural; no pretension, no 
affectation; nothing by which he tried to distinguish himself 
from others. "When one has a great deal of merit," says Fon- 
tenelle, " it is the crown of all to be like the rest of the world." 

Blumenbach died on the 22nd Jan. 1840, being nearly a 
century old; a man of a high intellect, an almost universal 
scholar, philosopher and sage; a naturalist, who had the glory, 
or rather the good fortune, of making natural history the means 
of proclaiming the noblest and, without doubt, the highest 
truth that natural history ever had proclaimed, The Physical 
Unity, and through the physical unity the moral unity, of the 
human race. 

1 In 1830, the friends of Blumenbach, when they met to celebrate the fiftieth 
anniversary of his doctorate, conceived the idea of perpetuating the recollection of 
the day so memorable for science, by making up a purse of 5,000 dollars, about 
£800, of which the interest should be adjudged every three years by way of prize, 
to a young doctor, to be both physician and naturalist, who must have taken his 
degree in a German university, and be, says the deed, young, poor, but fit. Blu- 
menbach himself gave out the prize twice, in 1833 and in 1836; after his death, 
it is to be adjudged alternately by the faculties of medicine at Gbttingen and 







H. L. Q. S. 








Introduction; generation; climate; mode of life and aliment; hybrid 
generation; fertile hybrids; sterile hybrids; copulation of animals of 
different species, barren; on Jumars; no human hybrids; difference 
between man and other animals; mental endowments; instincts of 
man very few and very simple; reason the property of man alone; 
speech the same; properties of the human body; ei*ect position; two 
hands; the human body naked and defenceless; laughter and tears; 
hymen; menstruation; other differences falsely supposed; internal 
structure of the human body; the brain of the papio mandril; inter- 
maxillary bone ; membrana nictitans; the suspensory ligament of the 
neck; orang-utan and other anthropomorphous apes; is there one or 
more species of mankind 1 one species alone ; the varieties very arbi- 
trary; division of mankind into four varieties; [note from edition of 
1781, containing the division into Jive] ; observations on national 
differences; variety of the human stature; causes of this variety, 
climate, food, &c; colour of man; causes of its variety; effect of 
climate; examples from other organic bodies; effect of mode of life; 
various colour of the reticulum in apes; black men become white; 
white men black ; mulattoes, &c. ; spotted skin ; different shape of 
skulls; examples of the first variety; the second, third, and fourth; 
conclusion; physiognomy; examples of the first, second, third, and 
fourth variety; difference in hair, teeth, feet, breasts; singularities 
of pronunciation ; artificial varieties ; circumcision; castration; beard- 
less Americans ; other mutilations ; monstrous ears ; other deformities ; 
paintings; conclusion; digression on albinism; white rabbits; white 
mice; diseased whiteness in other animals; human albinism ; symp- 
toms of the disease; unhealthy whiteness ; affection of the eyes; re- 
maining conditions of body ; mental condition ; disease known to the 
ancients; recent examples from the world at large; stories of the 
ancients about men with tails; fictitious ventrale of the Hottentot 


Plate I. Fig. 1. Base of the skull of a Papio mandril. 

A. Posterior lobes of the brain. B. Anterior lobes of the 
brain. C. Fossa Sylvii. D. Cerebellum. E. Commence- 
ment of the spinal marrow. F. Region where in man the pyrami- 
dal and olivary bodies are inserted. G. Place where in the human 
brain the pons Varolii is divided by a fissure from the medulla 
oblongata. H. Pons Varolii. 

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. Pairs of the nerves of the brain. The 
mammillary eminences, infundibulum, &c. cannot be seen in conse- 
quence of the size of the junction of the optic nerves. 

Plate II. Fig. 1 . Vertebral of the neck of the same Papio. The 
bodies of the vertebrae descend by a kind of scaly processes in front 
downwards, and stand upon each other like tiles. 

Fig. 2. Fifth and sixth vertebrae of the neck of an adult man. 
In these the bodies are parallel, smooth, and disciform. 

Fig. 3. Skin from the forehead of the Papio mandril. The 
varieties and diminution of the blackness in the reticulum are here 

Fig. 4. The clitoris of an Arabian girl, circumcised. 

Fig. 5. A callitrix, or some other tailed ape copied from Breyden- 
bactis Travels. This has been made more and more human by succes- 
sive copyings till at last it has come out [in Martini's BufFon] a tailed 



As I am going to write about the natural variety of mankind, I 
think it worth while to begin from the beginning, that is, with 
the process of generation itself. I do not intend to put forth 
a system, or frame hypotheses, or enter into the intricacies of a 
labyrinth, out of which I should scarce find an exit ; or, lastly, 
stir up cud already chewed a thousand times. Nor am I one to 
write the Iliad after Homer, that is to say, the universal history 
of generation after the immortal labours of the great Haller; but 
to spend only a few words upon a matter, which may be con- 
sidered as demonstrated from the repeated observations and 
profound judgment of the most learned men, and which will 
throw some light on my subject. 

The part which each sex takes in the generation of the 
foetus, and which of the two has the greatest influence has occu- 
pied the principal philosophers and physicians for many thou- 
sand years. It was reserved at last for the profound sagacity of 
Haller, to be the first who was bold enough to break open the 
bars of nature's doors, and to unfold, from observing the incu- 
bation of eggs, so often investigated before by eminent men, 
that great mystery, which it was thought could be explained 
by nature alone; and in the fewest possible words I must here 
give his account of the matter 1 . A close dissection of impreg- 

1 I use almost the exact words of the illustrious discoverer. Opusc. min. n, p. 
418. Physiol. T. viii. See also Bonnet, Corps Organises, T. p. 107. 


nated eggs shows that the intestine of the chick is so of a piece 
with the envelopes of the yolk that the first envelope forms the 
skin of the foetus ; the second envelope forms the exterior lining 
of the intestine jointly with the mesentery and the peritonaeum 
of the foetus ; the third is the covering of the interior intestine, 
and is produced from the same membrane as the ventricle, the 
oesophagus, the throat and the mouth, from what is in fact the 
skin and the epidermis of the foetus: that the yolk takes up 
the arteries from the mesenteries of the chicken itself. It follows 
from this, that the whole egg is part of the mother, in whom 
the ovarium lies with all its eggs quite perfect, before any con- 
tact with the male has taken place. Then, that the foetus is 
part of- the egg, or at all events is joined to the egg by an in- 
separable bond, for the yolk (and that alone) constitutes the 
egg, together with its envelope, whilst it is in the mother, but 
that yoke is so united with the foetus by its duct, that it forms 
but one continuous body. Hence it is proved, by direct demon- 
stration, that the embryo is contained in the maternal egg, and 
that the female supplies the true stamina of the future foetus. 
That primeval germ would lie buried as it were in eternal slum- 
ber, were it not aroused by the access and stimulus of the fertil- 
izing seed of the male, and particularly by the subtle odour of 
his parts, which are particularly adapted for causing irritation; 
and then it breaks forth from the Graafian follicle in which it 
was shut up, runs through the canal, and in this way comes into 
the womb ; there again it is finally unfolded and developed, and 
changed in some of its parts by the influence of the male, comes 
out like its parents. It leaves a manifest trace of its former 
habitation in the ovarium, in the shape of an opaque body, 
which takes its place \ The offspring at last brought to light, 
and in the process of time become adult, can produce like with 
the other sex of its species, whose posterity ought to go on for 
ever like their first parents. What then are the causes of the 

1 As to this little body, which was also illustrated by the laboiirs of the great 
Haller, see Hist, de FA cad. des Sc. de Paris, 1753, No. vn., and Physiol. T. vin. 
p. 30. It is well delineated from dissected bodies by W. Hunter, Anatomia Ukri 
Humani Gravidi. Birm. 1774, Tab. 15, 29, 31. 


contrary event? What is it which changes the course of gene- 
ration, and now produces a worse and now a better progeny, at 
all events widely different from its original progenitors? This 
it will be our business to answer in the course of this disserta- 
tion. But in order not to break the thread of the discussion, it 
will be better to make a few preliminary observations. 

First of all I will say a few words about the influence of 
climate, whose effects seem so great that distinguished men 
have thought that on this alone depended the different shapes, 
colour, manners and institutions of men 1 . There are, however, 
two ways, in which men may gather experience of a change of 
climate, both of which are to our purpose. They may emigrate 
and so change the climate, and also it may happen that the 
climate of their native country may sensibly become more mild 
or more severe, and so the inhabitants may degenerate. Several 
examples of each kind will be given in the proper place. It 
will be sufficient to say here that there is no diversity of habit, 
which may not be produced by varieties of climate; which is 
extremely apparent, even from the history of brute animals. 
If European horses are transported towards the east, as to 
Siberia, China, &c, in process of time they, as it were, dwindle, 
and become much smaller in body, so that at last you would 
scarcely recognize them as being of the same species. Cattle, 
on the contrary, whether they are sent to the Yakutan penin- 
sula, or Kamtshatka, or Archangel, turn out taller and more 
robust, and the same thing has been experienced with English 
sheep in Sweden. 

The squirrels on the river Obi are larger by one third than 
those which are found at Obdorsk 2 , &c, to say nothing of the 
difference in colour, which observation shows to vary with still 
greater facility. But that the climate of the same country may 

1 Polyb. T. i. p. 462, ed. Ernesti: "for through this cause and no other we 
differ most from each other in our ethnical and universal distinctions, in customs, 
in shape, and colour, and in most of our institutions." Comp. besides, Cardan in 
Hipp. De aer. aq. et loc. p. 218, who goes at length into the effects of climate on 
human bodies. 

2 Steller, von sonderb, Meerthieren, p. 41 sqq. 


undergo a change, no one can doubt, who -will only compare 
this very Germany of to-day with ancient Germany, or our own 
contemporaries with our ancestors 1 . There was a time when the 
elk, now only an inhabitant of the extreme north, was common 
on the banks of the Rhine, and when that very river was so 
often frozen that the Gauls themselves used to offer sacrifices 
to prevent its affording a passage to our ancestors, their neigh- 
bours; when the most prodigious forest covered almost the 
whole country, and when there were no vintages, and other 
very good reasons of the same kind, which will account for our 
being unable to find the huge bodies of our ancestors, powerful 
only for attack, their fimi limbs, threatening countenances, and 
fierce eyes, in the Germans of our age. 

Besides the climate there are other causes, which have indeed 
an influence in altering bodies; many of these you might say 
depended, however, upon the climate themselves, but there are 
others which it is very clear have nothing to do with it. 
Amongst these influences above all we must set down the 
mode of life and of bringing up. The examples of domestic 
animals are trite, which manifestly have diverged into astonish- 
ing varieties, and almost put off their original nature. I have 
mentioned the effect climate has upon horses, and we shall 
now see how they are affected by mode of life. It is quite 
astonishing how wild horses 2 differ from our geldings by their 
small stature, their large heads, their murrey colour, their 
shaggy coats, and by a ferocity of disposition, which is almost 
untameable, so that they seem to approach almost nearer to the 
ass than to our domestic horses. Indeed, the famous Gmelin 
had scarcely any hesitation in believing that the tame horse, 
the wild horse, and the ass, were all of the same species, and 
that the latter had by circumstances alone degenerated from 
the tame horse; but this is going too far, because the ass has 

1 Conring. De Germanic, corp. habitus cr.iiqui ac novi causis, learnedly according 
to his wont. 

2 Rzacynski, h. n. Pol. p. 217. Pallas, Rdsen, I. p. 211. S. C. Gmelin, Beis. 
I. p. 44 sq. fig. 


certain interior organs which are wanting in the horse 1 , and the 
reverse also is true. However, among horses certainly wild, 
and also among our own, we may perceive a great difference in 
strength between those which feed upon natural pastures 2 , and 
those which are kept in stables. For example, it is known that 
a colt, if it is born in a feeding-ground of the former kind, 
within half-an-hour after its birth will run after its dam 
seeking food, but if it is born in a stable, it will frequently 
lie for twenty-four hours and more on the ground, before it 
dares to stand on its feet. 

As yet I have touched on two causes which change the 
form of animals, climate and mode of life. It remains to speak 
of the third, namely, the conjunction of different species, and 
the hybrid animals thence produced. It is a difficult subject, 
although after the labours of recent authors 3 I may treat it 

There are three cases in the discussion about hybridity 
which ought to be clearly distinguished. First, the mere 
copulation of different animals ; secondly, the birth of offspring 
from such copulation; and, thirdly, the fertility of such off- 
spring and their capacity for propagation. 

The latter case, although rare, (and that by the providence 
of the Supreme Being, lest new species should be multiplied 
indefinitely,) I would admit of in beings closely allied. At all 
events there are many testimonies to the fertility of mules 4 . 
There is no reason for doubting that hybrids have sprung from 
the union of the fox and the dog, and those too capable of 
generation, as the Spartan dogs or alopekides of the ancients. 

1 On the organs of the voice, Herissant, Mem. de VAcad. des Sciences de Paris, 
1753, Tab. Qsq. 

2 As the Lippenses. Conip. J. G. Prizelius, Vom Senner gestute, 1771, 8vo. 

3 Buffon frequently but especially on the degeneration of animals, xiv. p. 248, 
and Suppl. T. in. p. 1. H. S. Reimar, Natilrl. Religion, p. 411. Gleiclien, 
Saamenthieren, p. 24; and above all Haller, Physiol, vin. pp. 8, 100. 

4 Aristot. De gen. an. 11. 8, says they can only be conceived at a certain 
time. Varro, De re rust. 11. 1, 27. Columella, VI. 37, 3. Plin. Vin. 44, and 
Harduinus. Barthii A dversar. 42. Bochart, JTieroz. 1. 2, 20. Recently Rozier, 
Obs. sur la phi/s. 1722. Comp. Gleichen, I. c. p. 25. Such things are often men- 
tioned among the prodigies related by Livy and Obsequens. 


There is still at Gottingen the daughter of a fox (from which 
many children have been born) which was impregnated by a 
domestic dog; and in it you may still recognize the smooth 
forehead and other marks of the ancestral form. The experi- 
ments of Sprenger 1 prove the prolificacy of hybrid birds. 

The number of infertile hybrids is so copious as to be tire- 
some to count. Of all these, mules, so far as we know, are the 
most ancient. For although we may doubt their being ante- 
diluvian 2 , nor dare ascribe their discovery to Anah 3 , yet their 
extreme antiquity appears even from profane authors 4 , and 
almost the first monuments of art 5 . To these rarer hybrids may 
be added the one Linnseus saw from the copulation of the 
Capra reversa with the Capra depressa 6 . But I do not quite 
trust Hesychius, when he says that the jackal comes from 
the union of the hycena and the common wolf 7 . With respect to 
the union of dogs and apes 8 , and the hybrids so born, I still 
remain in doubt. The animals seem too different ; still I have 
known two instances, where bitches are said to have been im- 
pregnated by male apes, to which I should think it wrong to 
refuse credit. One took place in the territory of Schwartzburg ; 
and a picture of this hybrid, carefully drawn, is in the possession 
of Buttner, who very kindly lent it to me. It represents a dog, 
of smaller size than the domestic dog, and of a dirty yellow 
colour ; its eyes, ears, and hairy collar differed from the common 
dog, but it is said were very like those parts in the father. The 
other instance is related by an eye-witness, worthy of all belief, 
to have occurred about three years ago at Frankfort-on-the- 
Maine; that a bitch brought forth offspring by the Simia Diana 
of Linnaeus, in ferocity, disposition, and in its gibbous habit 

1 Opusc. Physico-math. Hannov. 1753, p. 27. 

2 Pererius, on Genesis, T. 11. p. 185, discusses at length the question if the 
mule entered Noah's ark or not ? 

3 Genes, c. 36, v. 24. Boehart, I. c. at length. 

4 Horn. II. B. 852, who derives them from Enes. 

5 On the coffer of Cvpselis. Heyne, uber den hasten des Cyps. p. 58, circ. 
B. c. 660. 

6 In the Clifford menagerie. Syst. Nat. ed. xn. p. 96. 

7 Boehart, Hieroz. I. p. 832. 

8 Osbeck, Ostindislc Resa. p. 99. 


and long tail, exactly like its father. I leave this business to 
be investigated by those who, perhaps, may have an opportunity 
of more accurately observing it; for the difficulties are well 
known which occur in experiments of this kind. It is very 
hard to prevent the animals upon whom the experiment is to 
be made from consorting with others, and at the same time not 
to destroy the desire of copulation: moreover, if offspring have 
anything peculiar by accident, it is instantly attributed to a 
diversity of parentage. And what makes me suspicious about 
these things is this especially, that I have seen many apes of 
both sexes and different species constantly living for many 
years in the midst of dogs, also of different sexes, and yet never 
saw anything of the kind. On the other hand, instances of 
false reports are very common, as that of a cat, born together 
with two puppies, the report of which reached this neighbour- 
hood a few years ago ; but when it was properly examined, the 
little creature which they called a cat, was easily recognized by 
the more sagacious as a puppy slightly deformed, and the whole 
prodigy became a joke. Nor can I otherwise interpret 
Clauder's account 1 of a cat being impregnated by a squirrel, of 
whose litter one is said to have been like the father, and the 
rest like the mother ; and other stories of the same kind. 

From all this we must carefully separate the plainly fruitless 
unions of animals of different species. I will allow that male 
brutes when burning with desire, and unable to obtain females 
of their own species, may sometimes be so excited by others, 
whom they come in contact with, as perchance to copulate with 
them; but I think that with very few, and those only very 
nearly allied, is this actually successful, and in most cases the 
attempt is ineffectual. There are, however, good reasons for 
refusing to believe that from any incongruous attempt of this 
kind, offspring can be born or even conceived. Here let us 
consider the unequal proportions of the genital organs in many 2 ; 
which parts are providently and carefully adapted for copulation 

Epli. N. C. dec. 2. ann. ix. p. 371. 
Haller, Physiol, viii. p. 9, 


in either sex of the same species; but in distant genera 
render the whole thing impossible, or at all events very difficult, 
and certainly unfit for the purposes of conception. Besides, I 
do not see according to what laws the offspring of this kind, 
coming from diverse parents, is to be formed in the womb, 
since in each species of animals there are certain and very 
definite periods for the gestation and pregnancy of the mother, 
the formation and progressive development of the foetus. It 
will, however, be worth while to relate some instances of con- 
nexions of this kind which have been formed contrary to nature. 

Of all these the most paradoxical seems to be the union of 
a rabbit with a hen, so celebrated by Reaumur 1 ; but on 
which doubt has been thrown by his own pupil Buffon 2 , Haller 3 , 
and others; indeed, Buffon could not even succeed in raising a 
progeny from the hare and the rabbit, animals so nearly allied, 
although he suspected copulation took place. That illustrious 
philosopher seems, therefore, correct in supposing that if the 
rabbit of Reaumur ever did tread the hen, it must have been 
done from extreme lasciviousness, and had there been no hen 
the animal would have made use of something else for the same 
purpose. Meanwhile there are other evidences to this remark- 
able fact. Thus my revered tutor Biittner, himself, often saw 
rabbits treading hens, and they afterwards laid empty eggs 
(liyponemia or zephyr ea as the ancients called them). 

I have often seen a rabbit running about alone amongst 
broods of fowls, and playing with and imitating them, but I 
never could observe that it attempted anything more, or really 
had connexion with them. I have been told the same story 
about a house dog of Matthew Gesner, who they say also used 
to tread hens. I am not much surprised at this, since it is well 
known that dogs, when in heat, make use of inanimate things 
sometimes in order to effect their purpose. It is said that the 
Gallus calecuticus has been known to tread the duck, and in the 

1 Art de faire eclorre les poulets, T. n. p. 340. 

2 Hist. Nat. vi. p. 303. 

3 I. c. and in Bonnet, Corps Organ. 11. p. 214. 


same way that the drake treads the hen, and that chickens of 
wonderful forms are the result 1 . They have often been observed 
to copulate. There is still in the town a drake which treads 
the hens, but they are barren. But I will pass over many in- 
stances of this sort of monstrous and fruitless copulation, since 
I wish to say a little about the jumars, those famous hybrids 
from two clearly different species, the bovine and the equine. 

I do not know whence Buffon 2 took it, that Columella 
had mentioned jumars, and that he had been quoted by Con- 
rad Gesner. I cannot find either the mention in the one, 
or the quotation in the other. On the contrary, I think Gesner 
was the first to mention jumars 3 . For I cannot take notice 
here of the filly born from a cow at Sinuessa in Livy 4 , since he 
speaks of it as a most unheard-of prodigy. But Tigurinus 
Polyhistor says "that he once heard that a particular kind of 
mule was to be found in Gaul, near Grenoble, which was sprang 
from an ass and a bull, and called in the vulgar tongue Jumar. 
And in the Swiss Alps near Coire, in the Splugen country, he- 
had heard on credible testimony, that a horse had been born 
from a bull and a mare 5 ." Jerome Cardan, a contemporary of 
Gesner, has also mentioned jumars, and says they have superior 
teeth 6 , and are very strong and bold 7 . After him Joh. Baptist 
Porta reports that he himself had seen at Ferrara an animal of 
this kind, in shape like a mule, with a calf's head, two protu- 
berances in the place of horns, black in colour, and with the 
eyes of a bull 8 . Things of this kind are repeated down to the 
time of John Leger, who discourses at great length 9 about 
them, and also gives a print of them 10 . He says "that jumars 

1 Physic. Belustig. p. 392. Spallanzani in MemcAe supra i muli. p. 18. 

2 T. xiv. p. 248. 

3 Hist, quadrup. vivip. pp. 19, 106, and 799. 

4 Dec. in. 1. 3. 

5 Comp. Jac. Rueff, Dc conceptu. p. 48 a, in the history of monsters. 

6 Contradic. Medic. I. 11. tr. vi. Contract. 18, p. 444. 

7 lb. p. 448. 

8 Mag. Nat. 1. i.e. 9. He adds that they were common in some parts of 
France, although he did not see one when he passed through. 

9 P. Zachias, Quaest. med. legal. T. 1. p. 533, from a mare and bull. 

10 Hist, generate des Eglises evangeliques de vallees de Piernont ou Vaudoises, 
Leyde, 1669, p. 7, and in Almanack de Gotha, 1^67, p. 63. 


are born from the union either of a bull and a mare, or a bull 
and an ass: the former are taller, and called Baf; the latter 
smaller, and Bif; that the former have the upper jaw evidently 
much shorter than the lower, like swine; that the upper teeth 
are placed further back than the lower, to the distance of a 
thumb, or two fingers. In the latter, the Bif, the lower jaw is 
shorter than the upper, as is the case in hares, and the upper 
teeth project beyond the lower. So that neither kind can graze 
in the fields, unless the grass is so long, that they can crop it 
with the tongue. These hybrids are exactly like an ox in the 
head and tail, and the places for horns are marked by small 
protuberances. As to the rest, they are exactly like an ass or 
horse. Their strength is wonderful, especially compared with 
their small body; they are smaller than common mules; they 
eat little and are swift; that he himself went in one day 18 
miles among the mountains with a jumar of this kind, and that 
much more comfortably than he could have done with a horse." 

After this account more recent 1 authorities have received 
others in good faith, and report that jumars are to be found 
elsewhere besides in Piedmont; according to Shaw 2 at Tunis 
and Algiers, according to Merolla 3 at Cape Verde, and by others 
in Languedoc 4 . 

Naturalists gradually became more sceptical of the fact and 
were disposed to dissect this kind of hybrid. Reaumur 5 met 
with a disappointment and so did Albinus, who had ordered 
one from Africa, which perished on the way. Bourgelat, the 
veterinary surgeon, was afterwards fortunate enough to be able 
to dissect a jumar in the theatre of Lyons 6 , but the results 

1 Venette, p. 324, from a horse and cow. It was reported that the offspring of 
an ass and a cow had cloven hoofs. Bourguet, Lettres philosophiques, IV. p. 160, and 
from a bull and an ass Manuel Lexique, Paris, 1755. Encyclop. Paris. T. IX. p. 
57. B. S. Albinus in Prcelec. physiol. Msptis. Still more recently the author of 
the book Cours d'hist. nat. ou tableau de la nature, T. 1. Paris, 1770, nmo. See 
Gleichen, loc. cit. p. 29. 

2 . Travels, p. 239, ed. Oxf., 1738, there called Kumrah. 

3 Voyage to Congo in Churchill's Collec. T. 1. p. 655. 

4 Diction. Languedocien Francois, par M. I Abbe de S... a Nimes, 1756, 8vo. 
p. 256. 

5 Mem. sopra i muli, p. 6. 

6 Avant-coureur, 1767, No. 50 sq. 


of his labours are not satisfactory, because he seems to have 
trusted too much to report. " The ventricle was in shape like 
that of the horse, but much larger. The jumar had altogether 
much more of the mare than of the bull, both as to its external 
form, and its interior constitution, especially as regards the 
ventricle, whose singular structure in the bovine genus, on 
account of their rumination, is well known. And thus the 
observation of those physicians stands confirmed, who assert 
that the mother has a larger share in the formation of the 
foetus than the father." The consequence therefore of this 
investigation was that the learned knew less what to think 
than ever 1 . Afterwards Buffon had two jumars dissected; one 
from the Pyrenees, the other from Dauphine. In neither of 
them was any trace of a bull to be found 2 . 

All this however was not enough for inquirers into natural 
history. And at last,' at the request of some men of great note, 
Bonnet, namely, and Spallanzani, Cardinal delle Lanze had two 
jumars 3 dissected by a skilful hand, and ordered anatomical 
plates of them to be engraved. It is very clear from these 
efforts that the pretended jumar is nothing more than a 
mere hinny 4 (bardeau). The larynx, glottis, ventricle, biliary 
ducts, are all specifically equine and not bovine. 

Thus was finally proved what was suspected from the first 
by the great Haller 5 . I myself have lately seen at Cassel quite 
closely two hinnies, which report asserted to be jumars. They 
were of the size of a large ass, and very like one in shape, 

1 Dictionn. des animaux, T. II. p. 555. Bomare, Diet. Nat. T. VI. p. 174. 

2 I. c. 

3 Bonnet on Spallanz. ep. Mem. sopra i muli, p. n. Encyclop. par De Felice, 
T. sxv. p. 242. 

4 From the stallion and she-ass. Varro, Be re rust. 11. 8, 1. Columella, vi. 
37, 5. Plin. vili. c. xliv. 5. Hesych. "Hinny, of which the father is a horse, 
and the mother an ass." Smaller than the mule, very patient of labour, tail like 
an ass, &c. Linnaeus evidently transposed the terms of hinny and mule in Amcen. 
Acad. vi. p. 12, gen. wmbig. 

5 I. c. p. 9. "This seems to me too much, nor is there any proportion between 
the pizzle of the bull and the vagina of the mare." The same difficulty which I 
suggested above occurs here, if we compare the novimestral pregnancy of the cow 
with the undecimestral of the mare. 


black in colour, with horses' teeth in each jaw 1 ; no vestige of 
rumination, &c. 

But to return from this digression. What has already 
been said serves partly to show the difficulty of dealing 
with the accounts of hybrids of species very different from 
each other, and partly as some sort of proof of development; 
and will afterwards be of use to us when in varieties alone 
it will help to show that the greater part of the form in 
animals is derived from the mother, and very little from the 

Let me say only a very few words about those human 
hybrids which credulous antiquity so frequently declared to be 
born or generated from brutes 2 , but to which not only physical 
arguments but also moral ones of the greatest importance 
forbid us to attach the slightest faith; so that it seems ex- 
tremely likely that the Supreme Being foresaw these disgusting 
kind of unions and took care to render them futile. 

Those points which ought to be carefully attended to in any 
discussion upon hybrids, and which I took notice of above 3 , must 
not be neglected here. 

That men have very wickedly had connexion with beasts 
seems to be proved by several passages both in ancient 4 and 
modern writers 5 . That however such a monstrous connexion 

1 Comp. also BemerJc. eines reisend. durch Deutschland, Frankr. Engl. u. Holl. 
i Th. p. 6o sq. 

2 Jac. RuefF, Parasus, Aldrovandus, Schenk, Licetus, and other compilers of 
prodigies. On the Swedish girl ravished by a bear, and the hero she gave birth to, 
see Sax. Gramm. and Olaus Magnus. (The rage of bears against pregnant women 
and the singular remedy for it perhaps occasioned this fable.) A similar story 
occurs in Vine, le Blanc, Voyages, p. 1 19 sq. The instances in the writings of the 
ancients have been studiously collected by Fortun. Fidelis, De relat. Medic, p. 493 
sq. Storch, KinderJcrankh. I. p. 16, relates some more recent ones. 

3 P - 73- 

4 Plutarch in several places in the Symjiosia and the Parallels. "Virgil, Eelog. 
III. 8. That Semiramis carried her passion for a horse to that point is asserted by 
Juba, in Pliny, vxn. c. 42. 

5 On the 3000 Italian auxiliaries to the Due de Nemours, in 1562, who were 
sent into Dauphine", and who ravished the she-goats, see Bayle, Diet., Art. Batliyl- 
Ins, T. 1. p. 469. Th. Warton on Theocr. Idyll. (Oxford, 1770, 4to.), 1. 88. p. 19. 
"I have heard from a learned friend, that when he was travelling in Sicily, and 
was accurately investigating the ancient monuments and the manners of the people, 
that one of the usual points of confession which the priests were in the habit of 


has any where ever been fruitful there is no well-established 
instance to prove. Indeed those things which are related of 
the intercourse of Indian women with the larger apes and of 
their anthropomorphous offspring 1 seem dubious and fabulous 
even to James Bontius 2 , who is in other respects sufficiently cre- 
dulous. And even if it be granted that the lascivious male apes 
attack women, any idea of progeny resulting cannot be enter- 
tained for a moment, since those very travellers relate that 
the women perish miserably in the brutal embraces of their 
ravishers 3 . 

I now leave this disgusting theme, and all the more 
willingly, because I must draw near our goal; but still a few 
words must be said upon the actual ways in which man differs 
from other animals, before we investigate the varieties of men 
amongst themselves. The theme is indeed a most fruitful and 
admirable one, but the narrow limits of this book do not 
permit me to linger long over it, and it is necessary in this 
place to dismiss it in a few words; although the slender matter 
which I have got together on this interesting subject, I will 
gladly promise to give elsewhere to the public. 

I think I shall here perform my duty best, if I first say 
a little about the endowments of the mind, and then about 
the bodily structure. Not indeed that these two points have 
apparently the slightest relation to each other. For it would 
clearly be impossible to draw any inference from comparing 
the organic structure of animals with the human body, as to 
their respective mental faculties: which will easily appear to 
any one who compares an elephant or a horse with an ape 
(which Reines* calls the copy of a man, or even a man as 

examining the Sicilian herdsmen who spent a solitary life upon the mountains 
about, was whether they had anything to do with their sows." 

It is said that the organs of the Manatis are so like those of women that the 
Arabs copulate with them. Comp. Michaelis, Frag, an die nach Arab, reisenden, 
p. 115. 

1 See Zucchelli, Relat. dl Congo, p. 148. 

2 Hist. Nat. et Med. Ind. v. c. 32. "Let boys believe who have not yet to 

3 Comp. Wieland's elegant dissertation on this point against Rousseau, Beytr. 
zur geh. gesch. des M. V. u. H. II. p. 50. 

4 Var. lect. p. 69. 



regards the structure of the face, the fyopav and the motions of 
the limbs). 

As to the. discussions, which in this age particularly, have 
stirred up so many barren disputes about the mind, the reason, 
and the speech, &c. of brutes, they do not seem to me to be 
really so difficult or confused, if a man have only a moderate 
familiarity with the habits of animals, some knowledge of the 
physiology of the human body, and be sufficiently free from 

Man then alone is destitute of what are called instincts, that 
is, certain congenital faculties for protecting himself from, exter- 
nal injury, and for seeking nutritious food, &c. All his instincts 
are artificial (Jcunst-triebe), and of the others there are only the 
smallest traces to be seen. Mankind therefore would be very 
wretched were it not preserved by the use of reason, of which 
other animals are plainly destitute. I am sure they are only 
endowed with innate or common and truly material sense (which 
is not wanting either to man), especially after comparing every- 
thing which I have read 1 upon the rational mind of animals with 
their mode of life and actions, and what perhaps is the most 
important speculation, and demands most attention, with the 
phenomena of death, which are very much like both in animals 
and men 2 . Instinct always remains the same, and is not advanc- 
ed by cultivation, nor is it smaller or weaker in the young 
animal than in the adult. Reason, on the contrary, may be 
compared to a developing germ, which in the process of time, 
and by the accession of a social life and other external circum- 
stances, is as it were developed, formed, and cultivated. The 
bullock feels its strength so much as to threaten, though its 
weapons of offence do not yet exist ; 

Before his horns adorn the calf, they're there, 

All weaponless he butts, and furious beats the air 3 ; 

1 Very recently in Deutscli. Merleur. t 775, September, October. 

2 Cardan, De subtil. 1. xi. p. 551, T. in. Oper. "Man is no more an animal, 
than an animal is a plant. For if an animal, although it is nourished and 
lives, does not deserve the name of a plant, nor is entirely a plant, because it has a 
life which feels over and above the plant, since man has a rnind over and above the 
animal, he ceases to be an animal," &c. 

3 Lucret. v. 1033. Comp. Reimar, Trieb. der th. p. 202. 


whence unless from some interior sensation ? To man, on the 
contrary, nothing of the kind happens. He is born naked and 
weaponless, furnished with no instinct, entirely dependent on 
society and education. This excites the flame of reason by de- 
grees, which at last shows itself capable of happily supplying, by 
itself, all the defects in which animals seem to have the advan- 
tage over men. Man brought up amongst the beasts, destitute 
of intercourse with man, comes out a beast. The contrary how- 
ever never occurs to beasts which live with man. Neither the i 
beavers, nor the seals, who live in company, nor the domestic 
animals who enjoy our familiar society, come out endowed with 

From what has been said, the direct difference between the 
voice and speech of animals is plain 1 , since we consider that man 
alone ought to be held to possess speech 2 , or the voice of reason, 
and beasts only the language of the affections. In process of 
time, the mind becomes developed, and finds out how to express 
its ideas with the tongue. Young children give names to those 
they love, which is the case with no animal, although they can 
distinguish their master and those familiar to them well enough. 
Those stories are utterly undeserving of attention which the old 
travellers related about the language of certain distant nations, 
who they said were endowed with nothing but an inarticulate 
and, as it were, brutish voice. It is indeed beyond all doubt 
that the fiercest nations, the Californians, the inhabitants of the 
Cape of Good Hope, &c. have a peculiar sort of speech, and 
plenty of definite words, and that animals on the contrary, 
whether they be like man in structure, as the famous orang- 
utan is 3 , or approach man in intelligence, to use the words of 
Pliny about the elephant, are destitute of speech, and can only 


1 Count de Gebelin says elegantly in Plan general du monde primitif, p. io, 
"Language is twofold: that of the sentiments and of the ideas. _ The first is 
common both to man and the animals, though much more perfect in the former. 
The second is absolutely peculiar to man, for it can only be adapted to him, inas- 
much as it answers to the operations to which he alone of all the beings who inhabit 
the earth can elevate himself." 

2 Hence some of the Rabbins not inaptly call man the speaking animal. 

3 Th. Bowrey, Malayo Dictionary, London, 1701, 4to. Ott. Fr. v. d. Grbben, 
Guineische reiseleschr. p. 3 1 . 





emit a few and those equivocal sounds. That speech is the work 
of reason alone, appears from this, that other animals, although 
they have nearly the same organs of voice as man, are entirely 
destitute of it 1 . 

If now any one casts an eye on the human body, it would cer- 
tainly be more easy to distinguish man from every other animal 
at the very first glance, than to lay down any fixed criterion 2 by 
which he differs from the rest. It would seem as if the Supreme 
Power had avoided giving any distinct and persistent characters 
to the human body, just in exactly the same proportion as this 
its highest master-piece far excels all other animals in its noblest 
part, which is reason. 

But it will be worth while to reckon up, one by one, a few of 
those things which seem peculiar to our bodies. First of all I 
would speak of the erect position of man, which I cannot leave 
untouched because of the recent paradoxes of P. Moscati 3 ; 
although it is very tedious to serve up, and as it were to chew 
over again a matter which has been most thoroughly investi- 
gated, and is clearer than the noon-day sun. It is true, I can 
believe that this elegant author, who is in other ways worthy of 
all praise, composed this book as an attempt and not quite 
seriously, partly because he has made use of arguments which 
you would scarcely expect to find from a man not only acquaint- 
ed with human and comparative anatomy, but from one who 
constantly appeals to both ; and partly because he leaves quite 
unnoticed points of indisputably great importance as to the 
bipedal structure of man, which have already been most dili- 
gently handled by the great Galen 4 , and the immortal Barth. 
Eustachius 5 . I could easily allow our author 6 that there is little 

1 I have myself found the uvula in apes, and the other parts of the larynx 
exactly like those in man. See on the Pygmy, Tyson, p. 51. 

2 Linnaeus could discover no point by which man could be distinguished from 
the ape. Prcef. ad Faun. Suecic. 

3 Belle corporee differenze essenziali, chepassano fra la struttura de 1 bruti, c la 
umana. Milano, 1770. 

4 Especially in his precious boohs De usu partium, 1. in. c. 1. p. 125 sqq., c. 16. 
p. 193; 1. xni. c. 11. p. 765, ed. Lugd. 1550, i6mo. 

5 Throughout the Ostium examen, pp. 175—182, ed. Venet. 1564, 4to. 

6 P- 34- 


weight in those common arguments for the erect position of 
man, deduced from the position of the great occipital foramen \ 
the proportion of the feet to the hands, the mammas, the chest 2 , 
and the shape of the shoulder-blade ; although there remain the 
greater difficulties of the parts which so wonderfully prove that 
the walk should be bipedal. I say nothing of the apex of the 
heart and its direction in the embryos of man and the brutes ; 
this indeed our author 3 mentions, but yet explains in such a way 
that he seems to give a handle to the opposite opinion. I say 
nothing of that powerful argument deduced from the movement 
of the head and its connexion with the first cervical vertebrae, 
and I omit it the more readily, because of that elaborate work 
of Eustachius on the point 4 , which I should have to transcribe 
almost in its integrity. The pelvis alone, and the construction 
of the feet would easily bring over to my view those in other 
respects acquainted with anatomy, if they would compare even 
cursorily the composition of the bones of the quadrupeds with 
those of man. Let any one look at the broad flanks of the 
human skeleton, ending below in a narrow hip, the short pelvis 
largely dilated above but narrowed below so as to open an 
escape for the foetus, yet carefully provide for the prolapsus of 
the womb, and then compare these things with the oblong right- 
angled and almost cylindrical pelvis of quadrupeds with their 
wide hip, and their outwardly curved ischiatic prominences; 
lastly, let him observe the construction of the glutei muscles, 
and the connexion of the muscles of the leg in man and the 
brutes, and then let him say if he thinks it probable that they 
can have the same mode of locomotion. Let any one make the 
experiment on some fresh animal skeleton, or at least let him 
look at Goiter's picture 5 of the erect skeleton of a fox, going along 
in the most ridiculous manner on its hind-feet, and then let him 
imagine a human skeleton resting upon its arms and feet, and 

1 Daubenton, Sur les differences de la situation du grand trou occipital dans 
I'homme et dans les animaux. Mem. de VAcad. des Sc. de Paris, 1764, p. 568. 

2 See Eustach. I, c. p. 175. 

3 P. 26. 

4 I. c. p. 234 sq. 

5 Scelet. animal. Norib. 1575, fol. mag. Tab. II. 

86 HANDS. 

he will not but see that a bipedal brute and a quadrupedal man 
would equally pass for prodigies. Inseparable also from the 
general consideration of the pelvis is that other proof derived 
from the acetabulum, and the head and neck of the thigh-bone. 
And that this neck is oblong in man, and goes downwards with 
a sensible obliquity, but is short in brutes, even in apes, and 
nearly horizontal; and the head more obliquely articulated with 
the hip; so the whole structure of the bones of the feet, the thick 
calcaneum of man, the juncture of the ancle with the sole of the 
foot, which in man too is oblong and broader, and many other 
things of the kind which point in this direction, disagreeably 
trite and too well known to students of anatomy, but difficult to 
be understood by those unacquainted with medicine. For which 
reason I think it would be foolish to say much about them, 
especially as I have indicated the sources to which those should 
go who want still more proofs of so easy a matter. 

Another property of man comes directly from the foregoing, 
namely, his two hands, which I consider belong to mankind 
alone; whereas apes, on the contrary, must either have four or 
none at all, of which the great toe being separated from the other 
fingers of the feet serves the same purposes which the thumbs 
do in the hands. This is so certain, that on that account alone 
the foetus said by Robinet 1 to be that of a pongo, must certainly 
be considered a human embryo, even if no notice be taken of the 
other proportions of the bodily parts, and the whole structure 
which is entirely human. Halm 3 besides Galen 3 has written 
expressly on the admirable formation of the human hand. 

All these things therefore being duly weighed, I am induced to 
consider even that famous animal the orang-utan as a quadruped. 
I know indeed that several authors of voyages have said a good 
deal about him, and given him out as a biped. The reasons 
which induce me to come to a different conclusion, besides the 
tendency of many travellers to exaggerate a little what is extra- 

1 Essais de la nature qui ap])rcnd a f aire Vhomme, Tab. ix. p. 155. 

B J. F. Hahn, De manu hominem a brutis dislinguente, Lips. 1719, 8vo. 

3 I. c. 


ordinary, are the following; in the first place, some who have 
described these animals have said only that it frequently 1 goes 
on its hinder feet, which at least excites a suspicion, that they 
do go on all fours like other animals : moreover, many are de- 
picted in the plates as leaning upon a club, after the fashion of 
dancing bears 2 . The palm of their hands is as deeply furrowed, 
and marked with folds and slits as the soles of their feet 3 . 
The depressed and receding heel-bones prevent their walking 
firmly. If you examine them more closely, the elongated pelvis, 
and especially the muscle called elevator claviculce 4 , make it highly 
probable that a quadrupedal gait is natural to this animal. The 
instance of the long-armed ape is favourable to the same opinion 5 . 
Man therefore is the only biped, unless any one likes to put for- 
ward the manati, birds, (especially penguins,) or the lizard 
Siren. The example of those unfortunate creatures who, 
according to accounts, have been here and there brought up 
amongst wild beasts, goes no way to show that the erect posi- 
tion is not natural to man. Hard necessity, perhaps too imita- 
tion, taught these wretches to go on their hands and feet at the 
same time that they were obliged to creep through woods and 
fruit-bearing copses, and even into the dens and receptacles of 
wild beasts; nor is it quite certain that it was the case with all. 
The Hessian boy 6 found amongst the wolves sometimes only 
walked as a quadruped; the girl of Zell 7 , and the girl of 
Champagne 8 , and the boy of Hameln 9 went upright. And the 
argument deduced from the first crawlings of infants is much 
weaker still, since it must be very well known to any one who 
has observed them, that they scarcely ever crawl as quadru- 
peds, but rather squat upon their buttocks, rest upon their 

1 Leguat, T. II. p. 95 — souvent — Tulp. 1. in. c. 56 — multoties. 

2 Tyson, Edwards, Buffon. The orang-utan which I saw myself alive at Jena 
in 1 7 70 could not go on its hinder feet without the assistance of a stick, nor walk 
about easily at all. 

3 Le Cat, Traite du mouvement musculaire, Tab. 1. 

4 Tyson, Anat. ofapygmy, figs. 3, 12, p. 87. Opusc. London, 1751. 

5 Homo lar. Linn. 

6 Dilich. Hessische Chronicle. P. 11. p. 187. 

7 Bresl. Samml. January 1718, August and October 1722. 

8 Hist. oVune fille sauvage, &c. Paris, 1761, i2mo. 

9 Bresl. Samml. December, 1725. 


hands 1 , and as it were row with their feet. Pliny 2 therefore was 
not quite correct when he said that the first promise of strength 
and the first gift of life was to make a man like a quadruped. 

As to those who make out the erect position to be the 
fomenter of disorders, they must forget both veterinary practice 
and the diseases 3 which we find afflict both wretched men and 
fierce quadrupeds. 

Besides his erect position and his two hands there are some 
other things to be considered which also seem peculiar to man. 
Of all animals he alone seems to be placed on the earth alto- 
gether naked and defenceless, since he has neither powerful 
teeth, nor horns, nor talons, nor a shaggy hide, nor any other 
protection. It is no use objecting that there are other animals 
equally unprovided; something will always be found which 
keeps them protected to some extent 4 . He is usually without 
hair, whereas the quadrupeds which expose their body to the 
heavens and the seasons are provided either with a shaggy hide, 
or a thick skin, or shells, or scales, or spikes. Few parts of a 
man's body can be called hairy 5 , and his back is nearly bare, 
which is certainly another argument for the erect position of 
man. His teeth all on a level, round, smooth, and perfectly 
regular, are in one word so constructed, that it is clear from the 
first glance, they were given to man principally to chew his food 
with, partly also for speech, and in no wise as weapons of 
attack 6 . Even the teeth of apes differ greatly in form from 
those of men. Their canines are longer, sharper, and more dis- 

1 Thus the boy of Hameln. Bresl. Samml. I. c. 

2 vii. I. T. I. p. 369, ed. Hard. 

3 See the hypochondriac tumors of the juvenis hibemus in Tulp. IV. 10. 

4 The polypus has scarcely any enemies, and when it is accidentally wounded 
fresh animals of its own species are the result of the excrescence. 

5 The instances of hairy men are no objection, and I am inclined to consider 
them as prodigies. The hairy family of the Canary Islands, in Aldrovandus, 
Monstr. hist. p. 16 sqq., even if we can trust a generally credulous author, are no 
more to be wondered at than the six-fingered families. Comp. Zahn, Specul. 
physico-math. hist. T. III. p. 70. I recollect myself that the back of that man- 
eating shepherd, who was executed in 1772, at Berck, near Jena, when he had 
been fastened to the wheel for some weeks and exposed to the weather, and his 
clothes fell off, appeared completely covered with shaggy hair. 

6 Man is an animal mild and soft, whose strength and power consist more in 
wisdom than in force of body. Eustach. De dentibus, p. m. 85. 


tant from their neighbours : the molars deeply incisive, bristling 
as it were with enormous tusks. Besides the teeth, man is 
marked out as a gentle and unarmed being, by the small bone 
which is covered by the lips, by which also he is distinguished 
from the apes and the other beasts like him. 

It has been disputed whether brutes have the same affec- 
tions 1 of the mind as man. This is a very difficult question, if 
we examine the ways in which men express joy and sorrow, and 
especially laughter and tears. That animals can cry is certain, 
since they have organs 2 exactly like those in man for weeping; 
but we must go deeper and enquire whether they do so in con- 
sequence of feeling sorrow. It is said to be so with some 
animals, as the orang-utan 3 , the sloth 4 , seals 5 , the horse 6 , the 
stag 7 , the turtle 8 , the tortoise 9 , &c. The narrative of Steller, 
amongst others, deserves certainly great credit ; so that it is 
probable that weeping from sadness is common to animals and 
man. About laughter as the effect of joy there seems more 
doubt. Some animals have peculiar ways of expressing 10 tran- 
quillity or joy, but I do not think that a change in the muscles 
of the face 11 , or the utterance of cacchination, has been observed 
in any other animal but man. The croaking of apes, or the 
cries of the sloth, have no more to do with this than the barking 
of dogs, or the songs of birds, as the indications of joy. 

Women have something peculiar, which seems to be denied 
to all other animals, even if they remain untouched ; I mean the 
hymen, which has been granted to woman-kind perhaps much 
more for moral reasons 12 , than because it has any physical uses. 

1 On this point, see Moscati, I. c. p. 38. 

2 Bertin, Sur le sac nasal ou lacrymal de plusieurs especes d'animaux. Mem. de 
Par. 1766, p. 281. 

3 Bontius, 1. v. c. 32. Le Cat, I. c. p. 35. But this good man seems to allow 
too much to the ape, in his endeavour to make out that there is an almost imper- 
ceptible transition from man to the rest of the animals. 

4 Artedi in descr. Mus. Sebce, 1. p. 53. 

5 Steller, v. sonderb. meerth. p. 140. 

6 Schneider, de Catarrho, p. 371. 

7 Some look on these tears as dirt, osseous concretion, &c. 

8 Quiqueran, Laud, provinc. p. 36. 

9 Ligon, Barbad. p. 36. 

10 The wagging of the dog's tail, the peculiar purring of cats, &c. 

11 James Parson, Human Physiognomy explained, p. 73. 

12 Read the great Haller, Physiol. 1. xxvin. p. 97. 


I am inclined to allow the menstrual flux to the females of 
human kind alone 1 . There are some who say that some other 
animals of that sex have also their menstrual excretions 2 , and 
Buffon 3 has particularly asserted this of many apes. The whole 
point depends upon the notion of a periodic flux, which, if pro- 
perly considered, will scarcely be allowed to apes. I have care- 
fully observed many female apes of more than one species, and 
that for many years, in the menagerie of Biittner, yet I cannot 
undertake to say that they have menstrual excretions. Mean- 
while it is certain that they are afflicted with hoemorrhages of 
the womb, which however do not occur at any fixed period, but 
sometimes after one week, and sometimes after three or more, 
return in the same ape, which otherwise is enjoying good health; 
in some however it never appears at all. 

These two things then, the hymen and periodical menstru- 
ation, I consider as peculiar to mankind 4 . As to the clitoris and 
the nymphse 5 , there is no doubt that other animals also have 
them too; and in some the clitoris appears very large and 
almost enormous. The hymen, the guardian of chastity, is 
adapted to man who is alone endowed with reason ; but the 
clitoris, the obscene organ of brute pleasure, is given to beasts 
also. A few examples are enough : in the papio mandril (Simia 
maimonides Linn.) which I dissected last winter, I observed the 
clitoris of half-an-ounce in weight, swelling, wrapped in a loose 
prepuce, and so prominent that it might easily have made an 
incautious observer think the animal was an hermaphrodite, and 
all the more because a little fold, which was visible in the apex 
of the member and impervious, increased the general resem- 
blance to the virile gland. The nymphce seemed worn down, or 
had coalesced with the callous and gaping lips of the pudendum. 
And I have observed those as well as the clitoris distinctly in a 
Mongoz Lemur, which I myself saw alive last summer at Gottin- 

1 Thus Plinius, vn. 15. p. m. T. I. p. 382. Solinus ex Democrito, 1. p. m. 6. 

2 See in Haller, I. c. p. 137. 

3 T. xiv. XV. frequently. 

4 As to some of the old wives' stories about some nations of America, who are 
said not to menstruate, at this time of day they want no refutation. 

5 It is doubted by Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. XII. p. 33. 


gen. The Didactylus ignavus of the Koyal Museum has a very- 
round clitoris between the swelling lips of the pudendum. But 
the great Haller has collected many instances \ These therefore 
are some of the points which are peculiar to mankind and which 
can be easily distinguished without any very delicate anatomy. 
I leave out others, as the immobility of the ears 2 , or the hairs of 
either eye-brow 3 , which were formerly attributed to man alone. 

A very extensive and at the same time a very pleasant field 
would be open to us, if we could now investigate the internal 
structure of the human body, in so far as it differs plainly from 
the structure of other animals. But the limits of this our book 
do not allow us to wander so far. It is therefore the business 
of those who want information on these points to go to the 
authors of comparative anatomy, and, above all, to those who 
have dissected carefully the animals which are most like man; 
amongst whom it will be sufficient to mention Eustachius 4 , 
Coiter 5 , Biolani s , and Tyson 7 . Let them study those who think 
that perhaps the orang-utan and some other apes are not so 
much unlike man, but that they may be considered as of the 
same species, or, at all events, as animals very closely allied to 
man. It is now my present intention to select a few points 
from many, and reckon them up briefly. 

As the brain, the most noble entrail of the animal body, for 
numberless reasons which everybody knows, demands particular 
attention beyond all other parts, men of the greatest reputation 
have laboured 8 on its comparative anatomy and have stirred up 
others 9 , when there was an opportunity, to similar labours. 

1 I. c. p. 80. Besides these is the perforated clitoris leading in the urinal 
bladder of the Coocang Lemur (tardigrad Linn. But it seems best with Parkinson 
to give it the name of its country) in Daubenton, T. XIII. p. -217, Tab. XXXI. fig. 4. 
Can it be likely that this was an abnormal accident ? 

2 Aristot. Be part. anim. 11. ii. 

3 Penault. Hist, des anim. P. in. p. 112. ed. Paris, 1732. He saw it in the 
elephant, the ostrich, the vulture. I have seen things very like the human ones in 
many apes. 

4 Frequently. s Principal, corp. Ii. part. tab. Norib. 1575. fol. maj. 
G Jo. Biol. Jo. fil. Osteologia simice, Par. 1614. 8vo. 7 Op. cit. 

8 Sam. Collin's Comparative Anatomy. Haller, Physiol. T. iv. and Op. Minor. 
T. ill. 
"• 9 Haller, Physiol. T. v. p. 529. 


Recollecting this, as I have been fortunate enough to dissect 
apes, last winter, of more than one kind, I have, above all, 
investigated their brains, and I exhibit as a specimen the base 
of one 1 . It is the brain of that very mandril I was just speak- 
ing of. Cut off at the great occipital foramen, and taken out 
of the skull, it weighed three ounces and one drachm, whilst 
the rest of the body of the ape weighed eight common pounds 
and a half. The principal points in which its base differs from 
the human organ are these. The two anterior lobes of the 
brain are almost entirely unified. The cerebellum is large in 
proportion to the brain, more than is the case with the pygmy. 
The pons varolii is separated from the medulla oblongata by no 
apparent fissure, but is joined on, and down continuously with 
it. Not a vestige of the pyramidal or olivary bodies, as is also 
the case in the pygmy. The medulla oblongata much thicker 
than in the man or the pygmy. The second pair of nerves 
which were united in one great mass and then again divided 
at the very entrance of the orbits, was cut off before the sepa- 
ration. No rete mirabile. I omit other things of less import- 
ance, which any one who is skilled in anatomy will easily 
recognize ; and I can assure such an one that the figure is 
most accurately drawn 2 . 

I have subjoined to the brain the skull of the same papio, 
in which, besides the deeper orbits, the thickness of the zygomata, 
the widely divergent teeth, the immense canines, and other 
things of smaller importance, that peculiar bone in which the 
incisors are set deserves particular attention. This man is with- 
out, although all the apes and most of the other mammals 3 
have it. I doubted whether it was to be found in the orang-utan; 
since in the figures of Tyson 4 and Daubenton 5 the skulls were 
not drawn in such a way that the sutures could be well distin- 

1 PL i. %. i. 

2 Compare with my figure the brain of Tyson's pygmy, fig. 13, and that most 
elegant chart by Haller of the base of the human brain, Fasc. vil. Tab. I. To make 
the comparison easier, I have preserved the same lettering, by which in Haller's 
chart the parts of the brain are marked. 

3 The Myrmecophaga didactyla, whose skull I have, does not possess it. 

4 I. c. fig. 5. 

5 Mem. de Par. 1764, Tab. XVI. fig. 2. 


guished 1 : nor did the English author speak precisely about 
it 2 : but Fr. Gabr. Sulzer has settled the point, for he kindly 
writes me word that Camper, a great authority, has dissected 
animals of this kind, and found this bone in them. Another 
difference flows from this singular structure, namely, in the 
bone of the nose, which is double in the human head, and 
nearly of a rhomboidal figure, whereas it is seen to be single in 
the apes, and also triangular, which however, like the other 
things which may be observed in this figure, are very patent, 
and will easily be seen by those who know anything of osteology, 
and therefore do not want any further explanation. 

Amongst other differences between the human body and 
that of the beasts there are some which are better known, 
and may be briefly touched upon. As, for example, the mem- 
brana nictitans, periojjhthalmium, or third eyelid, which Haller 3 
says is in man a very slight imitation of the organ in animals, 
although in animals also according to their class and order, 
their mode of life, and their size, it differs much in position and 
constitution 4 . 

Besides this, the bulbous or suspensory muscle of the eye is 
common to nearly all 5 quadrupeds, and so is the suspensory liga- 
ment of the neck, which is said to be wanting in man and the 
apes alone 6 . This white and tendonous part which is known to 

1 The figure of the skeleton of the long-handed ape in Buffon, T. xiv. Tab. vr, 
has the same fault ; and even Coiter, who is famous in other things, has omitted to 
mark this bone in the skeleton of the tailed ape, the figure of which is added to in 
the book and place already quoted. Still it is most distinctly visible in the skulls 
of five different kinds of apes which I have before me. 

2 P. 65. "In a monkey I observed that peculiar suture Piolan mentions, but 
did not find it in the Pygmie, only in the palate of the Pygmie I observed a 
suture, not from the dens caninus, as was in the monkey, but from the second of 
the dentes incisores." 

3 Physiol. T. v. p. 328, where there are a good many interesting things about 
this membrane. There is a good deal about it also in Peter Tarrarrani, Cose anato- 
miche in Atti de ftsico-critici di Siena, T. in. p. 115. De Pauw. Eecherch. philos. 
sur les Americ. T. n. p. 70 n. 

4 In some I certainly found a few traces, as in the Lemur Mongoz. It is small 
too in the apes. 

5 It is wanting in Tyson's orang-utan, p. 85. Andr. Vesalius had falsely and 
obstinately assigned it to man. Comp. Haller, I. c. p. 421. Douglass Schreiberi, 
p. 40. 

6 Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. xir. T. 1. p. 48. 


everybody, and is called by my countrymen, haarwachs; by the 
English 1 , pack wax, taxwax, fixfax and whiteleather ; by the 
Belgians 2 , vast, &c. is inserted for the purpose of sustaining the 
head and neck of quadrupeds 3 . But although man shares the 
absence of this with the apes, yet it by no means follows that 
apes are meant to walk upright, since in them the subtle 
structure of the vertebras of the neck, and in man the peculiar 
bipedal walk, supply the defect of this ligament. The whole 
point about the bodies of these vertebras is best explained 
by a comparison of these bones themselves, as they appear 
in the skeleton of the man and the ape, and for this reason 
I have had engraved the whole construction of the vertebras of 
the neck in the same papio 4 (PI. II. fig. 1), the base of whose 
brain and whose skull we have just seen, because in that it 
may be seen as clearly as possible why he scarcely ever goes 
on two feet. I have subjoined the fifth and sixth vertebras 
of the human neck (PI. n. fig. 2). In these the bodies are 
nearly parallel, and almost disciform, whereas in the ape they 
descend by a sort of scaly process in front, and one is placed 
upon and dove-tailed into the other. So it can easily be made 
plain by experiment that the vertebras in these animals sup- 
port each other, and serve to sustain the head, which could not 
be done with man if placed in a quadrupedal position, on ac- 
count of the smooth surfaces of the body of the vertebras, for so 
it would be excessively difficult to sustain the mass of the very 
heavy human head, which would more and more collapse and 
subside by its own weight. 

I have selected a few out of many points in which man differs 
most clearly from the other animals. I have said that there are 
many which go to demonstrate his natural position to be an erect 
one, and to separate him fairly from the apes, especially from the 
orang-utan. I have been induced to do this because of the 

1 Allen Mullen, Anatomical Account of the Eleph. p. 14. Ray, Wisdom of God, 
pp. 261, 338, and Synops. quadrupedum, p. 136. Derham, Physico-theol. p. 3-24. 

2 Vesal. De corp. hum. fabr. p. 361. 

3 La Fosse, Cours d'Hippiatrique, Tab. xi a. 

4 It would have been tedious to transcribe from Eustachius and Goiter all the 
other points in which the vertebrae of the apes diverge from those of man. 


opinions lately expressed by some famous men 1 , who however 
are ill-instructed in natural history and anatomy, but who are 
not ashamed to say that this ape is very nearly allied, and indeed 
of the same species with themselves. 

I do not think this opinion deserves any lengthened refuta- 
tion for those who are adepts in the matter; but it will clearly 
not be foreign to our purpose if I say a few words about the 
orang-utan himself. After the labours of Buffon and others it is 
not worth while to spend any time on his habits and mode of 
life 2 . But it would be worth while if the species were a little 
more accurately defined. For although this remarkable animal 
has very seldom been seen in Europe, and few authentic repre- 
sentations of it exist, still such as they are they differ so much 
from each other that they can in no way be considered as belong- 
ing to one and the same species. I shall pass by the delineations 
which are manifestly fictitious, or carelessly drawn, such as those 
of Bontius, Neuhof, Jiirgen Andersen, Jo. Jac. Saar, and Franc. 
Leguat; and examine more closely the authentic ones alone. 
These are those of Tulp, Tyson, Edwards, Scotin 3 , Le Cat, and 
Buffon, which when they are compared together manifestly 
differ very much both in form and size. Recent authors have 
deduced from this a variety of species, and have called one the 
larger, and the other the smaller orang-utan. I do not however 
place much trust in this distinction. Some of the specimens 
which have been brought to Europe were very young, and there 
were indications which, considering that they all died prema- 
turely 4 , forbid us to come to any conclusion as to their size. Still 

1 Cours cVhist. not. T. i. That good citizen of Geneva Sur Vinegalite parmi les 
homines, p. 157 n. The Origin and Progress of Language, Vol. I. pp. 175, 289. Hist, 
of Jamaica, Vol. 11. p. 363, Lond. 1774, 4to. 

2 I shall only remark on the name orang-utan, that it is incorrectly translated 
"wild man," homo sylvestris. Man in Malay is Manusia, but the word oran is 
applied not only to man, but also to the elephant, whom the Indians think is 
sensible. Blittner, to whom I am indebted for this observation, translates it 
intelligent being. 

3 Scotin's animal, Chimpansi, brought by H. Howe, master of the ship Speaker, 
from Angola to London, in Aug. 1738, was figured separately by Sloane, and 
repeated in Nova acta erud. Lips. Sept. 1739, Tab. v. p. 564. Linn. Anthrop. Am. 
ac. Vol. VI. Hauber, Bibl. magica, s. 35. Le Cat, above. The others are well 

4 The one Buffon saw was two years old. Tyson's had not yet cut all its teeth. 


the habit of their whole body and the conformation of its parts 
seem to me much more justly to constitute them into species. 
I may be allowed therefore to admit at least two species, and 
in order that names may not be unnecessarily multiplied, I shall 
give them some which occur in Linnaeus, one which has been 
improperly appended to man by that illustrious author, the other 
to the first species of apes. Let there be then, — 

1. Simia troglodytes or Chimpansi; represented by Tulp 
and Scotin, macrocephalous, sinewy, hairy on the back of its 
body alone ; the front, except the shoulders, being bare. 

2. Satyrus or Orang-utan of Tyson, Edwards, Le Cat, and 
BufFon ; rather slender, with small head, clothed with thick hair, 
the hairs of the arm and fore-arm being in opposite directions. 
Such was the male which I mentioned having seen alive at Jena. 
It came very near to the figure of Tyson, and at the first glance 
was most unmistakeably different from the Simia sylvanus, &c. 
I made a drawing at that time of this rare animal, but I regret 
that I neglected to measure its parts more accurately. 

These are the observations made partly by myself, and partly 
by my first preceptor in natural history, I. E. Im. Walch. The 
stature was that of a boy about ten years old, colour brown, 
face sufficiently human, the fingers of the hands and feet rather 
long, the thumb yidely separated, the calves more fleshy than 
in other apes, the scrotum pendulous almost square, rather 
white, the penis small like Tyson's figure. It was so much in 
the habit of leaning on a stick, that though it could stand and 
walk on two feet, most persons would attribute that way of 
walking to the effect of education. The same might be said of 
his way of drinking and eating, in which actions he used spoon 
and cup. He showed a great desire for the other sex. 

Linnaeus doubted whether the animals which we have 
divided into two species, but which in his opinion were only 
varieties, differed in anything more than in sex. It is quite true 
that those represented by Tulp and Scotin were females, and the 
others males ; but still the silence of travellers and eye-witnesses 
like Bontius and Th. Bowrey, on any different form in the sexes, 
convinces me that besides the difference of sex there must also 


be a variety of species. I cannot dismiss these animals without 
mentioning two points, of which one is concerned with a singu- 
lar character of them which has been generally neglected, and 
the other regards their native country. I owe the knowledge of 
the former character to my great friend Sulzer, who repeated to 
me the words of Camper, who, I just mentioned, dissected these 
Satyvi himself, "that in the front hands of these animals the 
nails of the thumbs were wanting." There are indeed nails in the 
plates of Tyson, Edwards, and Le Cat; but that singular and 
paradoxical character might very easily have been unnoticed ; nor 
did I pay any attention myself to the nails of the Jena satyr. 
Was this a third species? that I cannot decide. The other 
point that remains to be mentioned is as to the native country 
of both species (chimpansi and orang-utan). By almost all zoo- 
logical writers the torrid zone of the ancient world is given out 
as their native country. Bancroft 1 however relates a report of the 
inhabitants, that the orang-utan may also be found in the thick 
woods of Guiana. This account deserves further attention, but 
there is this against it, that the author adds that the animal has 
not yet been seen by Europeans resident there. 

There is another animal nearly allied to the Troglodyte and 
the Satyr, which is the Simia longimana {Homo Lar, Linn., Gib- 
bon, Buff), an animal exactly like man, if you look at its face: 
but differing from almost all other animals if you consider the 
enormous length of its anterior feet. They are indeed represented 
as somewhat shorter in the figure of the Bengalese ape, which 
is inserted in the Philosophical Transactions 2 , and taken for the 
S. longimana, which however is clearly drawn by the hand of 
no artist, as is shown by the unequal length of either fore arm, 
and by other particulars. 

Enough then has been said about the Troglodyte and Satyr. 
And now we must come more closely to the principal argument 
of our dissertation, which is concerned with this question; Are 

1 Nat. Hist, of Guiana, p. 1 30. 

2 Vol. lix. P. 1. for 1769, p. 71, Tab. ill., of either sex. The female is 
repeated in Gent. Mag. 1770, September, p. 402. Comp. Pennant, Synops. of 
Quadr. p. 100. 


men, and have the men of all times and of every race been of one 
and the same, or clearly of more than one species'} A question 
much discussed in these days, but so far as I know, seldom 
expressly treated of. 

Ill-feeling, negligence, and the love of novelty have induced 
persons to take up the latter opinion. The idea of the plurality 
of human species has found particular favour 1 with those who 
made it their business to throw doubt on the accuracy of Scrip- 
ture. For on the first discovery of the Ethiopians, or the beard- 
less inhabitants of America, it was much easier to pronounce 
them different species 2 than to inquire into the structure of the 
human body, to consult the numerous anatomical authors and 
travellers, and carefully to weigh their good faith or carelessness, 
to compare parallel examples from the universal circuit of natural 
history, and then at last to come to an opinion, and investigate 
the causes of the variety. For such is the subtlety of the 
human intellect, and such the rush for novelty, that many would 
rather accept a new, though insufficiently considered opinion, 
than subscribe to ancient truths which have been commonly 
accepted for thousands of years. 

I have endeavoured to keep free of all these mistakes; I 
have written this book quite unprejudiced, and I have desired 
nothing so much as that the arguments which I have brought 
forward for the unity of the human species, and for its mere 
varieties, may seem as satisfactory to my learned and candid 
readers as they do to myself. 

For although there seems to be so great a difference between 
widely separate nations, that you might easily take the inhabi- 
tants of the Cape of Good Hope, the Greenlanders, and the Cir- 
cassians for so many different species of man, yet when the 
matter is thoroughly considered, you see that all do so run into 
one another, and that one variety of mankind does so sensibly 

1 Simon Tyssot de Patot, Voyages et aventures de Jaques Masse, T. i. p. 36. 
Bazin (Voltaire), Philosophie de I'histoire, p. 45. Idem in Quest, sur VEncyclop. 
T. iv. p. 112, T. vii. p. 98, 179, is completely refuted by Haller. Brief en uber 
einige Einwiirfe noch lebend. Freigeister wider die Offenh. I. Th. pp. 102, 184, 196. 

2 Of this opinion were Griffith Hughes, Nat. Hist, of Barbadoes, p. 14. Henry 
Home, Sketches of the History of Man, Vol. I. p. 12. 


pass into the other, that you cannot mark out the limits between 

Very arbitrary indeed both in number and definition have 
been the varieties of mankind accepted by eminent men. Lin- 
naeus 1 allotted four classes of inhabitants to the four quarters of 
the globe respectively. Oliver Goldsmith 2 reckons six. I have 
followed Linnaeus in the number, but have denned my varieties 
by other boundaries. The first and most important to us (which 
is also the primitive one) is that of Europe, Asia this side of the 
Ganges, and all the country situated to the north of the Amoor, 
together with that part of North America, which is nearest both 
in position 3 and character of the inhabitants. Though the men of 
these countries seem to differ very much amongst each other in 
form and colour, still when they are looked at as a whole they 
seem to agree in many things with ourselves. The second in- 
cludes that part of Asia beyond the Ganges, and below the river 
Amoor, which looks towards the south, together with the islands, 
and the greater part of those countries which are now called 
Australian. Men of dark colour, snub noses, with winking eye- 
lids drawn outwards at the corners, scanty, and stiff hair. Africa 
makes up the third. There remains finally, for the fourth, the 
rest of America, except so much of the North as was included 
in the first variety 4 . 

It will easily appear from the progress of this dissertation in 

1 Syst. Nat. p. 29. s Hist, of the Earth, Vol. 11. p. an. 

3 Comp. besides the English terraqueous globes, which by the liberality of our 
queen the university library possesses, and the Swedish ones of Akerman, a copy 
of which is due to the kindness of J. Andr. Murray, the maps of D'Anville, 
Stahlin, and Engel, and the more recent labours of de Vaugondy, Sur les pays de 
VAsie et de VAmerique situes au Nord de la mer du Sud. Par. 1774, 4-to. 

4 [ 33- Mankind divided into five varieties. Formerly in the first edition of 
this work I divided all mankind into four varieties ; but after I had more accu- 
rately investigated the different nations of Eastern Asia and America, and, so to 
speak, looked at them more closely, I was compelled to give up that division, and 
to place in its stead the following five varieties, as more consonant to nature. 

The first of these and the largest, which is also the primeval one, embraces the 
whole of Europe, including the Lapps, whom I cannot in any way separate from 
the rest of the Europeans, when their appearance and their language bear such 
testimony to their Finnish origin; and that western part of Asia which lies 
towards us, this side of the Obi, the Caspian sea, mount Taurus and the Ganges ; 
also northern Africa, and lastly, in America, the Greenlanders and the Esquimaux, 
for I see in these people a wonderful difference from the other inhabitants of 
America; and, unless I am altogether deceived, I think they must be derived from 



which of the four varieties most discrepancies are still to be 
found, and on the contrary, that many in other varieties have 
some points in common, or in some anomalous way differ from 
the rest of their neighbours. Still it will be found serviceable 
to the memory to have constituted certain classes into which the 
men of our planet may be divided ; and this I hope I have not 
altogether failed in doing, since for the reason I have given 
before I have tried this and that, but found them less satisfac- 
tory. Now I mean to go over one by one the points in which 
man seems to differ from man by the natural conformation of his 
body and in appearance, and I will investigate as far as I can 
the causes which tend to produce that variety. 

First of all I shall speak of the whole bodily constitution, 
stature, and colour, and then I shall go on to the particular 
structure and proportion of individual parts. It will then be ne- 
cessary carefully to distinguish those points which are due to art 
alone, and finally, though with reluctance, I shall touch upon 

the Finns. All these nations regarded as a whole are white in colour, and, if 
compared with the rest, beautiful in form. 

The second variety comprises that of the rest of Asia, which lies beyond the 
Ganges, and the part lying beyond the Caspian Sea and the river Obi towards 
Nova Zembla. The inhabitants of this country are distinguished by being of 
brownish colour, more or less verging to the olive, straight face, narrow eye-lids, 
and scanty hair. This whole variety may be sub-divided into two races, northern 
and southern ; of which one may embrace China, the Corea, the kingdoms of 
Tonkin, Pegu, Siam, and Ava, using rather monosyllabic languages, and distin- 
guished for depravity and perfidiousness of spirit and of manners; and the other 
the nations of northern Asia, the Ostiaks, and the other Siberians, the Tunguses, 
the Mantchoos, the Tartars, the Calmucks, and the Japanese. 

The third variety comprises what remains of Africa, besides that northern part 
which I have already mentioned. Black men, muscular, with prominent upper 
jaws, swelling lips, turned up nose, very black curly hair. 

The fourth comprises the rest of America, whose inhabitants are distinguished 
by their copper colour, their thin habit of body, and scanty hair. 

Finally, the new southern world makes up the fifth, with which, unless I am 
mistaken, the Sunda, the Molucca, and the Philippine Islands should be reckoned ; 
the men throughout being of a very deep brown colour, with broad nose, and thick 
hair. Those who inhabit the Pacific Archipelago are divided again by John Reinh. 
Forster 1 into two tribes. One made up of the Otaheitans, the New Zealanders, 
gnd the inhabitants of the Friendly Isles, the Society, Easter Island, and the 
Marquesas, &c, men of elegant appearance and mild disposition; whereas the 
others who inhabit New Caledonia, Tanna, and the New Hebrides, &c, are 
blacker, more curly, and in disposition more distrustful and ferocious. Edit. 
1781, pp. 51, 52. — This is the first sketch of the still famous division of mankind 
by Blumenbach : the well-known terms Caucasian, &c. will be found in the third 
ed. below. — Ed.] 

1 Observations, p. 228. 


nosology and practical medicine, both which chapters recent 
authors have tried to obtrude into natural history, but which 
I shall endeavour to vindicate for and restore to pathology. 

The first three things I mean to discuss, the whole bodily 
constitution, the stature, and the colour, are owing almost en- 
tirely to climate alone. I must be brief on the first of these 
points, since I have had no opportunity of exercising my personal 
observation on the matter, and but few and scanty traces are to 
be gathered from authors. That in hot countries bodies become 
drier and heavier; in cold and wet ones softer, more full of 
juice and spongy, is easily noticed. It has long since been 
noticed by W. Cavendish, Marquis of Newcastle, that the bones 
of the wild horse have very small cavities, and those of the 
Frisian horses much larger ones 1 , &c. This was confirmed by 
the elegant experiments of Kersting, a physician of Cassel, and 
a most skilled in the treatment of animals. He observed 2 , 
amongst other things, that the bones of an Arab horse, of six 
years old, when subjected to the same degree of heat, were dis- 
solved with much more difficulty in the machine of Papinus than 
those of a Frisian of the same age. It is very likely that similar 
differences would be observed in the bones of men born in 
different countries, although observations are wanting, and con- 
clusions drawn from a few facts are unsatisfactory. Here and 
there indeed we find bones of Ethiopians 3 which are thick, com- 
pact, and hard; but I should be unwilling to attribute these 
properties to every skeleton coming from hot countries, since 
other instances occur of skulls of Ethiopians, about which the 
same remark has not been made 4 . The differences moroever are 
very great between the skulls of Europeans of the same country 
and the same age, which seem to depend, amongst other things, 

1 Gen. Syst. of Horsemanship. [The passage alluded to stands thus in the edi- 
tion of 1743, Vol. I. p. 21. "I have experienced this difference between the bone 
of the leg of a Barbary horse, and one from Flanders, that the cavity of the bone 
in the one shall hardly admit of a straw whilst you may thrust your finger into 
that of the other." — Ed.] 

2 Horses' bones are much more easily dissolved than those of mules, and asses' 
with still greater difficulty. 

3 B. S. Albini, Supellex Rav. n. xxix. P. Paaw, Prim. Anat. p. 29. 

4 In the Leg. Rav. n. xiii. and n. xxi, it is said that the bones of the Malabar 
women are very thin. See also J. Beni. de Fischer, Be modo quo ossa se vicin. 
accomm. part., L.B. 1743, Tab. in. 


principally upon the mode of life \ Perhaps the same is the 
case as to the sutures, which Arrian 2 says the heads of the 
Ethiopians are without, and Herodotus 3 says the same of the 
Persian skulls after the battle of Platsea. The observation 
about the whole habit of the body, that the northern 4 nations 
are more sinewy and square, and the southern 5 more elegant, 
seems more reliable. 

I go on to the human stature. It is an old opinion, that in 
very ancient times men were much larger and taller, and that 
they degenerate and diminish in size even now, that children 
are now born smaller than their parents, and all the things of 
this kind which the old poets 6 and philosophers 7 have said to 
discredit their own times. 

But although this may be going too far, still we must allow 
something to climate, so far as that itself is altered by the lapse 
of time. The soil itself becomes milder, so that it may at last 
make its men less gigantic and less fierce. We have already 
spoken of an example of this change in our own Germany. 
But the idea that these differences of bodies in ancient and 
modern times have been enormous, is refuted by the mummies 
of Egypt, the fossil human skeletons 8 , the sarcophagi, and a 
thousand other proofs. 

Nor do a few skulls conspicuous for their age and size 9 , scat- 

1 J. B. Com. a Covolo, Be met. duor. oss. ped. in quad, aliquot, Bonon. 1765, p. 7. 

2 &ppa<pees Keipakai. Arato. 

3 Csel. Bhodig. Lect. Ant. a 8. p. 501. ed. Froben. 

4 For the Lapps and Finns, Leem, Lules, Hogstrom, Calmuchs, Pallas, 
Greenlanders, Crantz, &c. 

5 For New Zealand, New Holland, &c. see S. Parkinson. The inhabitants 
of the island of Mallicolo, lately visited by Forster, are remarkable for their slender 
arms and feet, as I have been kindly told by G. C. Lichtenberg since his return 
from England. 

6 Homer says repeatedly that Tydides, Hector, Ajax, Telamon, &c. (whose 
gigantic knee-cap Pausanias describes as being shown long afterwards) were much 
more strong and large than the men of his day, oiol vvv j3poTol ei<ri Ajid he has 
been imitated in this by Virgil, who represents Turnus as equally large, not to be 
compared with ' Such human forms as earth produces now.' 

7 Plin. vii. c. 16. Solin. v. Comp. more upon this point J. S. Elsholtz, 
Anthropom. p. 31, ed. 1663. 

8 There is in the Museum of our University a fossil skull tolerably complete, of 
the greatest antiquity, the bones of the head very thick, but neither in magnitude 
nor form differing from a common skull. 

9 Fabricius Hildan. Filrtreffl. nutz und nothw. d. anat. Bern. 1624, p. 209. Head 
of March. Dietzmann killed at Leipzig, 1307. Glafey, Saechss. Kemhist. Head 


tered about here and there, prove anything more than those solid 
ones destitute of sutures, about which I was lately speaking. 
Some, it is clear, are diseased 1 . But as to the bones which cre- 
dulous antiquity showed as those of giants, they have long 
since been restored to elephants and whales 2 . The investigation 
of the causes which in our days make the men of one country 
tall and another short is more subtle. The principal one seems 
to be the degree of cold or heat. The latter obstructs the 
increase of organic bodies, whilst the former adds to them 
and promotes their growth. It would be tedious even to touch 
upon a thing so well known and so much confirmed in both king- 
doms, were it not that in our time men have come forward, and 
with the greatest confidence have presumed to think otherwise 3 . 
Experience teaches that both plants and animals are smaller in 
northern countries than in southern; why should not the same 
law hold good as to mankind? Linnaeus long ago remarked in 
his Flora Lapponica*, that alpine plants commonly reached 
twice as great an altitude out of the Alps. And the same thing 
may be observed frequently in those" plants, some specimens of 
which are kept in a conservatory, while others stand out in a 
garden, of which the former come out much larger and taller 
than the others. 

I have before me the most splendid specimens in a collection 
of plants from Labrador and Greenland, chosen by Brasen 5 , 
which I owe to the liberality of my great friend, J. Sam. Lieber- 
kiihn, in which the common ones are almost all smaller than 
those which are obtained in Germany; and in some, as the 

of Henry of Austria in the famous bury ing-p lace of Koenigsfeld. Faesi, Erdb. der 
eidgen. I. 

1 Fossil head of Rheims. Dargenville, Oryct. T. 1 7, f. 3, two osseous heads Leg. 
rav. in Albin. p. 4. 

2 J. Wallis, Antiq. of Northumberland. Dom. Gagliardi, An. Oss. p. 103. 
Even Felix Plater, who was the best lecturer of his day in all Europe, suffered him- 
self to be led into error by the bones dug up at Lucerne in 1577, an£ l after careful 
comparison gave them out as those of a human giant, 06s. Med. 1. in. Wagner, 
Hist. Nat. Helv. p. 149: but they have lately been proved to be elephant's bones. 
Erhl. der Gemald auf die Kapellbr. zu Lucem. This is also the case with the ribs 
of the Hun in the church of Gottingen. 

3 As Henr. Home, loc. cit. p. 12. It is in vain to asctibe to the climate the loio 
stature of the Esquimaux, &c. 

4 Prolegom. xvi. 8. Comp. Arwid Ehrenmalm, Asehle, p. 386. 

5 The same observation has been made by Haller, Hist. Stirp. Helv. II. p. 317. 


Rhodiola rosea, which are common to both those regions of 
America, although their native soil is so near, yet the same 
difference is observed that the specimens from Labrador are 
somewhat larger than those from Greenland. 

The same is the case with animals. The Greenland foxes 
are smaller than those of the temperate zone 1 . The Swedish 
and Scotch horses are low and small, and in the coldest part 
of North Wales so little as scarcely to exceed dogs in size 2 . It is 
however useless to bring a long string of examples about a thing 
so evident, when the difference of a few degrees in so many 
countries exhibits clearly the same difference. Thus, Henry 
Ellis 8 observed in Hudson's Strait, on its southern coasts, trees 
and men of fair size; at 6i° shrubs only, and that the men 
became smaller by little and little, and at last at 6y° that not a 
vestige of either was to be seen. And likewise Murray, within 
the limits of a few degrees, and in Gotha alone, declared he 
could observe so well, that whilst he was travelling, although he 
took no notice of the mile-stones, yet he could easily distinguish 
the different provinces by the difference of the inhabitants and 
of the animals. In Scania 4 the men are tall of stature and bony, 
the horses and cattle large, &c. : in Smaland they become sensi- 
bly smaller, and the cattle are active but little, which at last 
in Ostrogothia strikes the eye more and more. 

The same thing may be observed in the opposite part of the 
world, almost under the same degrees, towards the antarctic cir- 
cle. One example will suffice, taken from the most southern 
part of America, and compared with those European nations we 
have just been speaking of. The bodies of the notorious Pata- 
gonians answer to the lofty stature of the Scandinavians. A 
credulous antiquity indeed invented fabulous stories of their 
enormous size 5 . But in the progress of time, after Patagonia 

1 Cranz, Hist. v. Gr. p. 97. 2 Th. Birch, Hist, of ike Royal Soc. in. p. ifi. 

3 Toy. to Hudson's Bay, p. 256. 4 Comp. Linn. Fauna Suecica, p. 1. 

5 Comp. de Brosses, I. p. 193 ; 11. beg. &c. De Pauw, I. c. 1. p. 281, and Hist. 
gen. de VAs. Afr. et Ameri. par M. L. A. R. Vol. xm. Par. 1755, p. 50. Thos. 
Falkner, Descr. of Patagonia, p. 126, "The Patagonians, or Puelches, are a large- 
bodied people ; but I never heard of that gigantic race, which others have men- 
tioned, though I have seen persons of all the different tribes of southern Indians." 

COLOUR. 105 

had often been visited by Europeans, the inhabitants, like that 
famous dog of Gellert, became sensibly smaller, until at last in 
our own days they retained indeed a sufficiently large stature, 
but were happily deprived of their gigantic form. If you go 
down from them towards the south, you will find much smaller 
men in the cold land of Terra del Fuego 1 , who must be compared 
to the Smalands and the Ostrogoths, and by that example you 
will again see how nature is always like itself even in the most 
widely separated regions. 

But besides the climate, there are other causes which exercise 
influence upon stature. Already, at first, I alluded to the mode 
of life 2 , and it would be easy to bring here copious examples 
taken from the vegetable and animal kingdoms, in which the 
difference of nutrition may be detected by the greater or smaller 
stature. But these things are too well known already, and so 
many experiments of the kind have been made on Swiss cows, 
Frisian horses, &c, that I may easily pass over any proofs of this 
point. I omit also the causes of smaller importance which 
change the stature of organic bodies, which have been already 
most diligently handled by Haller 3 , and I hasten to the last of 
those things which must be considered in the variety of mankind, 
that is, colour. 

There seems to be so great a difference between the Ethiop- 
ian, the white, and the red American, that it is not wonderful, 
if men even of great reputation have considered them as forming 
different species of mankind. But although the discussion of 
this subject seems particularly to belong to our business, still so 
many important things have been said about the seat and the 
causes of this diversity of colour, by eminent men, that a good- 
sized volume would scarcely contain them ; so that it is necessary 
for me to be brief in this matter, and only to mention those 
things which the industry of learned men has placed beyond 
all doubt The skin of man and of most animals consists of 

1 Sydney Parkinson, p. 7, PL 1. 11. "None of them seemed above five feet 
ten inches high." 

2 p. 73. 3 Physiol. 1. xxx. s. 1, § 16. 


three parts; the external epidermis, or cuticle; the reticulum 
mucosum, called from its discoverer the Malphigian ; and lastly, 
the inner, or corium. The middle of these, which very much 
resembles the external, so that by many it is considered as 
another scale of it, is evidently more spongy, thick, and black 
in the Ethiopians ; and in them, as in the rest of men, is the 
primary seat of the diversity of colour. For in all the corium is 
white, excepting where, here and there, it is slightly coloured by 
the adhering reticulum; but the epidermis seems to shade off into 
the same colour as the reticulum, yet still so, that being diaphan- 
ous 1 like a plate of horn, it appears even in black men, if pro- 
perly separated, to be scarcely grey; and therefore can have 
little if any influence on the diversity of the colour of men. 

The seat of colour is pretty clear, but for a very long time 
back there have been many and great disputes about the causes 
of it, especially in the Ethiopians. Some think it to be a sign of 
the curse of Cain 2 or Cham 3 , and their posterity; others 4 have 
brought forward other hypotheses, amongst which the bile played 
the most prominent part, and this was particularly advocated by 
Peter Barrere 5 , following D. Santorini 6 . Although this view 
has been opposed by many 7 , I do not think it ought altogether 
to be neglected. The instances of persons affected with jaundice, 
or chlorosis, of the fish mullet 8 , and moreover the black bile 9 of 
the Ethiopians, are all the less open to doubt, since more recent 
authors 10 have observed the blood to be black, and the brain and 
the spinal marrow to be of an ashy colour; and the phlegm of 

1 If the epidermis were less thin and not so transparent, perhaps it would seem 
just as dark as the reticulum; Jo. Fanton, Diss. VII. Anat. pr. renov. Taurini, 
1 741, 8vo. p. 27. 

2 A recent supporter of this opinion is the learned Sam. Engel in Ess. sur cette 
question quand el comm. VAmer. a. t. elle ete peuplee, T. IV. p. 96. 

3 Mem. de Trevoux, T. lxxiv. p. 1155. 

4 B. S. Albinus has collected many in Be sede et causa color, ceth. et cet. horn. 
L. B. 1737, with the beautifully coloured plates of that capital artist, J. Ladmiral. 

5 Diss, sur la cause phys. de la couleur des negres. Paris, 1741, i2mo. Comp. 
Diet. Encycl. by De Felice, T. xxx. p. 199. 

6 Obs. Anat. p. 1. 7 Le Cat, De la coul. de lapeau hum. p. 72. 
8 Santorini, I. c. 9 Barrere, I. c. 

10 Meckel, Mem. de Deri. 1753, 1757. The lice of the negroes are black, Long. 
II. p. 35^. 

COLOUE. 107 

the northern nations and other things of this kind seem to add 
weight to this opinion. But amongst all other causes of their 
blackness, climate, and the influence of the soil, and the tempe- 
rature, together with the mode of life, have the greatest influ- 
ence. This is the old opinion of Aristotle, Alexander, Strabo, 
and others 1 , and one which we will try and confirm by instances 
and arguments brought forward separately. 

In the first place, then, there is an almost insensible and in- 
definable transition from the pure white skin of the German 
lady through the yellow, the red, and the dark nations, to the 
Ethiopian of the very deepest black, and we may observe this, 
as we said just now in the case of stature, in the space of a few 
degrees of latitude. Spain offers some trite examples ; it is well 
known that the Biscayan women are a shining white, the inha- 
bitants of Granada on the contrary dark, to such an extent that 
in this region the pictures of the Blessed Virgin and other saints 
are painted of the same colour 2 . Those who live upon the 
northern bank of the river Senegal are of ashy colour and 
small body; but those beyond are black, of tall stature and 
robust, as if in that part of the world one district was green, and 
the other burnt up 3 . And the same thing was observed by some 
learned Frenchmen on the Cordilleras, that those who live im- 
mediately under the mountains towards the west, and exposed 
to the Pacific Ocean, seem almost as white as Europeans, 
whereas on the contrary, the inhabitants of the opposite side, 
who are exposed to constant burning winds, are like the rest of 
the Americans, copper-coloured 4 . 

It is an old observation of Vitruvius 5 and Pliny 6 that the 
northern nations are white, and this is clearly enough shown by 
many instances of other animals and plants. For partly the 

1 Csel. Bhodig. Lect. Ant. IX. 15, p. 439, ed. Aid. Comp. Macrob. in Somn. 
Scip. p. 128, ed. H. Steph. 0,181,0$ ex aidoj et coif/. 

2 Comp. a scale of colour in Mem. cle Trev. I. c. p. n 90. 

3 Hier. Cardanus, De subtilit. L. XI. T. in. Oper. p. 555. 

4 Bouguer, Voyage a Perou. Mem. de VAcad. des Sc. de Paris, 1744, p. 274. 

5 In the north are to be found nations of white colour, p. 104, ed. De Laert, 

6 On the opposite and icy side of the world are nations of white skin, T. 1. 
p. in, ed. Hard. 

108 COLOUE. 

flowers 1 of plants, like the animals of the northern regions, are 
white, though they produce other colours in more southern lati- 
tudes ; and partly in the more temperate zones animals only be- 
come white in winter, and in spring put on again their own natural 
colour. Of the former we have instances in the wolves 2 , dogs 3 , 
hares 4 , cattle 3 , crows 6 , the chaffinch 7 , &c, of the latter in the er- 
mines 8 , the squirrels 9 , hares 10 , the ptarmigan 11 , the Corsican dog 12 . 
All of us are born nearly red, and at last in progress of time the 
skin of the Ethiopian infants turns to black 13 , and ours to white, 
whereas in the American the primitive red colour remains, except- 
ing so far as that by change of climate and the effects of their mode 
of life those colours sensibly change, and as it were degenerate. 
It is scarce worth while to notice the well-known difference 
which occurs in the inhabitants of one and the same country, 
whose skin varies wonderfully in colour, according to the kind of 
life that they lead. The face of the working man or the artizan, 
exposed to the force of the sun and the weather, differs as much 
from the cheeks of a delicate female, as the man himself does 
from the dark American, and he again from the Ethiopian. 
Anatomists not unfrequently fall in with the corpses of the lowest 
sort of men, whose reticulum comes much nearer to the black- 
ness of the Ethiopians than to the brilliancy of the higher class 
of European. Such an European, blacker than an Ethiop, was 
dissected by Chr. Gottl. Ludwig 14 ; a very dark reticulum has 
been observed by Giinz 15 , and very frequently by many others 16 ; 

1 Comp. Murray, Proclr. Stirp. Goett. p. 18, who instances the Campanula de- 
currens, the common primrose, &c. 

2 Cranz, Groenl. p. 97. 3 lb. p. 100. 4 lb. p. 95. 

5 Ehrenmalm, I. c. p. 342, " The further you go towards the north, the more 
frequently do animals of that kind occur." 

6 Jo. Nich. Pechlin, Be habilu et colore JEthiopum. Kilon. 1677, 8vo. p. 141. 

7 Frisch, Gesch. der Vogel. Fasc. 1. 

8 Wagner, Hist. nat. Helv. p. 180. Linn. Faun. Suec. p. 7. I myself have seen 
specimens in our own neighbourhood. 

9 Linn. I. c. p. 13. I have known too some caught near Jena. 

10 lb. p. 10. Jetze, Monogr. Liib. 1749, 8vo. 

11 Cranz, I. c. p. 10 1. 12 Linn. Syst. Nat. Append. 

13 Albinus, I. c. p. 12. Comp. Camper, Dem. A nat. Path. 1. p. 1. 

14 Ep. ad Holler. Script. Vol. 1. p. 393. 15 On Hippoc. Be humor, p. 140. 
16 Franc, de Eiet, Be tact. org. in coll. Haller, T. iv. p. 10. See Haller, 

Physiol. T. v. p. 18. 


and I recollect that I myself dissected at Jena a man's corpse of 
this kind, whose whole skin was brown, and in some parts, as in 
the scrotum, almost black ; for it is well known that some parts 
of the human body become more black than others, as, for ex- 
ample, the genitals of either sex, the tips of the breasts, and 
other parts which easily verge towards a dark colour. Haller ob- 
served in the groin of a woman the reticulum so black 1 that it did 
not seem to differ much from that of an Ethiopian; one as dark 
in the groin of a man was in the possession of B. S. Albinus ; and 
it is so common an occurrence in a woman's breast, that I cannot 
be enough astonished that eminent men have been found to 
reckon the dark teats of the Samoyeds as prodigies 2 , and there- 
fore to consider that nation as a particular species of man 3 . 

Such a diversity of the reticulum is seen in other animals 
also, and especially in the face of the Papio mandril, a part of 
which I have therefore had engraved, (PL n. fig. 3.) There is 
a region of the upper part of the eyelids, of the root of the nose, 
and of the eye-brows, in which you may observe almost every 
variety of reticulum; the nose is plainly black, and also the part 
where the eye-brows are inserted ; but that part which is lower 
and more on the outside is sensibly brown, and at length 
towards the outer corners of the eyes becomes pale. Not indeed 
that I have found this blackness of the nose equally intense in 
all the specimens of this ape which I have seen, since in apes, as 
in man and in other animals, the greatest variety of colour 
occurs in the reticulum. In two specimens of the Simla cyno- 
molgus the tint of the face was not very different from that of an 
Ethiopian or a dark European; and this difference is so well 
known and so common throughout the animal kingdom, espe- 
cially in the domestic quadrupeds, but above all in the vegetable 4 

1 l. c. Abr. Kaav. Boerh. Perspir. Hipp. p. 1 1 ; so dark in the pudenda, that 
you would not believe the skin to be that of an European. 

2 Mem. sur les Samojedes et les Lappons, 1762, 8vo. p. 44. 

3 Lord Kames, I. c. 

4 Two hundred years ago it was only the yellow tulip which was known 
in Europe ; but what a variety of different coloured ones horticulturists are 
now acquainted with ! See Haller, on the subject of the varieties of man. Bibl. 
raisonnee, 1744. 

110 COLOUR. 

kingdom, that I can scarcely take notice of it, but prefer to re- 
turn at once to man. 

We see white men in a lower class rendered brown by a hard 
life; and it is equally certain that men of southern regions 
become whiter when they are less exposed to the effects of 
the weather and the sun. We have the most copious accounts 
by travellers of the inhabitants of Guzerat 1 , of the Malabar 
coast 2 , of the Caffres 3 , of the Canadians 4 , and the Otaheitans 5 . 
But besides their mode of life, old age and the change of country 
have an influence in making the Ethiopians more white. For 
when the Ethiopians begin to approach their seventieth year, 
the reticulum sensibly loses its dark colour, so that at last the 
bulbs come out yellow 6 , and the hair and beard are grey like 
other nations ; and if the young Ethiopian infants are brought 
into colder climates, it is certain that they lose a sensible quan- 
tity of their blackness 7 , and their colour begins to verge more 
and more towards brown. 

On the other hand, it is apparent that when white men re- 
side a considerable time in the torrid zones they become brown, 
and sensibly verge towards black with much greater facility. 

1 J. Schreyer, Oslind. reis. p. 121. 

2 Tranquebar Miss. Ber. 22. Contin. p. 896. The more they dwell towards 
the north, and the more agreeable the race is, the more their black colour changes 
into brown, red, and yellow. The people of Barar are for the most part very 
black, and for the whole day long they work and are burnt up in sweat and dust 
by the rays of the sun. The better class of people do not go so much into the sun, 
and consequently they are not so black, &c. Comp. 30. Contin. p. 660. 

3 Muller. Linn. Syst. Nat. I. p. 95. 

4 Sir Francis Eoberval in Hakluyt, Vol. in. p. 242. "The savages of Canada 
are very white, but they are all naked, and if they were apparelled as the French 
are they would be white and as fayre. But they paint themselves for feare of heat 
and sunne burning." "Those who are painted and who wear clothes, become so 
delicate in colour that they would be more readily taken for Spaniards than for 
Indians." La Houtan, I. ep. 16. 

5 Hawkes worth, II. p. 187. 

6 Willi. J. Muller, Fetu, p. 279. Mich. Hemmersam, Westind. Reisen, p. 38. 

7 The Colchians in the time of Herodotus were still black and had curly hair, 
p. 125, ed. Gronov. Leo Afric. P. I. s. 3. L. M. A. a most competent judge, says 
in his Instit. Physiolog. Patav. 1773, 8vo. p. 194 : 'A cobbler of this nation is still 
living at Venice, whose blackness after a long lapse of years (for he came a boy to 
this country) has so sensibly diminished that he looks as if suffering slightly from 
jaundice." And I myself have seen a mulatto woman born from an Ethiopian 
father and a white mother near Grotha, who in her very earliest infancy was suffici- 
ently dark;- but in progress of time has so degenerated from her native colour, that 
she now only retains a sort of cherry or yellow tint of skin. 


The Spaniards who dwell under the equator in the new world 
have so much degenerated towards the native colour of the soil, 
that it has seemed very probable to eminent men 1 , that had they 
not taken care to preserve their paternal constitution by inter- 
marrying with Europeans, but had chosen to follow the same 
kind of life as the American nations, in a short time they would 
have fallen into almost the same coloration, which we see in the 
natives of South America. An Englishman who had spent only 
three years with the Virginians, became exactly like them in 
colour, and Smith 2 , his countryman, could only recognize him by 
his language. A colony of Portuguese, who were carried to 
Africa 3 in the fifteenth century, can scarcely now be distinguished 
from the aborigines. . The French, whether they emigrate to 
Africa or America, are invariably tinged with the brown colour 
of those countries 4 . I do not adduce here the numerous exam- 
ples of Europeans who have become unnaturally black in their 
own country 5 , or have brought forth black children 6 , nor of 
Ethiopians who have been, at all events in some parts of their 
bodies, suddenly turned white 7 , since all these cases seem to in- 
clude something diseased or morbid. 

As by the climate so also by the mode of life the colours of 
the body are seen to be changed. And this appears most clearly 
in the unions of people of different tints, in which cases the 
most distinct and contrary colours so degenerate, that white men 
may sensibly pass and be changed into black, and the contrary. 
The hybrid offspring (if we may use that word) are distin- 
guished by particular names; in using which, however, the 
authors of travels vary so much, that it seemed to me worth 
while to collect as many of these synonyms as I could, to reduce 
them into grades of descending affinity, and exhibit them in 
a synoptic form. 

1 Mitchell, Philos. Transact, n. 474. 2 Hist. Virgin, p. 116. 

3 Rech. sur les Americ. 1. p. 186. 4 Mem. de Trevoux, I.e. p. 1169. 

5 Many instances are collected by Le Cat, Coul. de lapeau, p. 130. 

6 Cash Bhodig. 1. c. p. 776. Froben, Le Cat, p. 109. A black princess was born 
to the queen of Louis XIV. M6m. de Trevoux, I. c. p. 1168. Abr. Kaav. Boerh. 
impet. fac. p. 354. 

7 Le Cat, p. 100. Frank, Philos. Tr. Vol. LI. Part I. p. 176. 


1. The offspring of a black man and a white woman, or 
the reverse, is called Mulatto 1 , Mollaka 2 , Melatta; by the 
Italians, Bertin, Creole and Criole 3 ; by the inhabitans of Ma- 
labar, Mestico*. The offspring of an American man and an 
European woman, Mameluck 5 , and Metif 6 . 

2. The offspring of an European male with a Mulatto 
female is called Terceron 7 , Castigo 8 . The son of an European 
female from a Metif is called a Quarter oon 9 . The offspring of 
two Mulattoes is called Casque 10 ; and of blacks and Mulattoes, 
Griffs 11 . 

3. A Terceron female and an European produce quaterons 12 , 
postigos 13 . But the American quarteroon (who is of the same 
degree as the black Terceron) produces from an European 
octavoons u . 

4. The offspring of a quateroon male and a white female, 
a quinteroon 15 ; the child of an European woman with an Ame- 
rican octavoon is called by the Spaniards Puchuela 16 . 

It is plain therefore that the traces of blackness are pro- 
pagated to great-grandchildren ; but they do not keep completely 

1 Hist, of Jamaica, II. p. 260. Aublet, Plantes de la Guiane Francoise, T. II. 
p. 122, App. 

2 Hemmersam, I. C. p. 36. 

3 Thomas Hyde on Abr. Perizol. Cosmograph. p. 99, ed. Oxon. 1691, 4to. 

4 Christ. Langhan's Ostind. Reise. p. 216. Tranquebar Miss. Ber. Cont. 33, p. 
919. Mestizo Lusitan. that is, of mixed race. 

5 Hist, de VAc. des Sc. de Paris, 1724, p. 18. 

6 Labat, Voy. aax Isles de VAmer. 11. p. 132. Recherch. sur les Amer. I. p. 199. 
Newly-born metifs are distinguished by the colour of the genitals from true blacks, 
for it is well known that those parts are black even in the Ethiopian foetus. Phil. 
Terrain, Sur V oeconomie animale, Part I. p. 180. This author calls the offspring 
of the black male and the Indian female Kahougle, and the offspring of these and 
the whites Mulattos, p. 179^ 

7 Hist, of Jamaica, I. c. 

8 Langhan's Tranqu. Ber. 1. c. Castigo, de boa casta, of a good stock. 

9 De Pauw, I. c. 10 Comment. Paris. I. c. 

11 lb. p. 17. It is plain that the offspring of a Mestico and a Malabar woman 
are black. Relat. Tranqueb. I. c. Those from a Mulatto are called Sambo in Hist, 
of Jamaica, I. c. p. 26 t, and the offspring of these and blacks become blacks again. 

12 Hist, of Jam. 1. c. p. 260. 

13 Langhan's Rel. Tranq. I. c. Postico means adopted: thus cabello postico, false 

14 De Pauw, I. c. p. 200. 

15 Hist, of Jam. I. c. The children of Postigos and whites are clearly white. 
Tranqu. Ber. I. c. According to the author of the Hist, of Jamaica the children 
of a quinteroon and a white man become white. 

16 De Pauw, I. c. 


the degrees we have just noticed, for twins sometimes are born of 
different colours; such as Fermin 1 says came from an Ethiopian 
woman, of which the male was a mulatto, but the female, like 
the mother, an intense black. And from all these cases, this 
is clearly proved, which I have been endeavouring by what has 
been said to demonstrate, that colour, whatever be its cause, be 
it bile, or the influence of the sun, the air, or the climate, is, 
at all events, an adventitious and easily changeable thing, and 
can never constitute a diversity of species. 

A great deal of weight has attached to this opinion in con- 
sequence of the well-known examples of those men, whose 
reticulum has been conspicuously variegated And spotted with 
different colours. Lamothe 2 has described very carefully a boy 
of this kind from the Antilles. Labat 3 saw the wife of a 
Grifole like this, a native of Cayenne, and in other respects 
handsome. Chr. D. Schreber 4 has collected many examples; and 
I myself had lately an opportunity of seeing an instance of this 
sort of variegated skin. One of my friends, a physician, has a 
reticulum of almost a purple colour, and distinctly marked with 
very white spots, of different sizes, but equal in other respects, 
and similar to the most shining skin. And on the back of his 
right hand there were five white spots of the same kind, of which 
each was almost equal to a thumb's breadth in diameter, inter- 
spersed with numerous smaller ones. This phenomenon very 
seldom occurs in men; but is very common in animals, espe- 
cially in the reticulum of quadrupeds. The throats of rams, for 
example, are frequently so variegated, that you may observe in 
them the greatest similarity, both to the black skin of the 
Ethiop and the white skin of the European. I have examined 
many flocks of sheep in their pastures with this object, and 
I think I have observed, that the greater or smaller number of 
black spots in the jaws answer to the greater or smaller quan- 
tity of black wool on the animals themselves. 

1 1. c. p. 178. 2 Hamb. Mag. xix. p. 400. 

3 Toy. en Esp. et en Ital. I. p. 1 76. ' 

4 Saeugthiere, p. 15. I shall speak below about the spotting of the skin, from 
disease, which must be clearly distinguished from the instances in the text. 


114 SKULLS. 

I will say no more of colour ; and now, having disposed of all 
the* general varieties of the whole human body, I will go on to 
the diversity of the separate parts and members; and will make 
a beginning' with the head and its conformation. In the same 
way that it is always the case that there is the greatest possible 
difference between the skeleton of the embryo and the adult, 
so above all, the bones of the skull differ to such an extent 
in both, that you would scarcely recognize them as parts of the 
same body. For the bones which, in the adult, constitute a 
very solid case, and the hardest possible receptacle of what 
is at once the softest and noblest entrail, in the embryo appear 
only as thin but broad scales, " which," to use the w T ords of 
Goiter 1 , "are just fastened together by soft, broad, loose and 
flaccid bonds, sutures and commissures." Now the skull of the 
infant is wet and soft clay, and fit to be moulded into many 
forms before it is perfectly solidified, so that if you consider the 
innumerable and simultaneous external and adventitious causes 
in operation, you will no longer be able to wonder that the 
forms of skulls in adults should be different. But since for 
a considerable period of time singular shapes of the head have 
belonged to particular nations,' and peculiar skulls have been 
shaped out, in some of them certainly by artificial means, it 
will be our business to look at these things a little more care- 
fully, and to consider how far they constitute different varieties 
of the human race. For, although I only intend to reckon 
up in a passing way those differences of the human body which 
are due to art alone, still I intend to treat now a little more at 
length upon that part of the argument which has to do with 
skulls, since things very nearly allied may be conveniently 
embraced and handled at the same time. Claudius Galen 2 , be- 
sides the common and symmetrical skull 3 , had already described 
other skulls, which in some of their parts manifestly differed 

1 De feet. hum. et inf. oss. p. 59. 

2 De usu part. 1. ix. p. m. 544 and De oss. v. 1. Ph. Ingrassiee in h. 1. Comm. 
Panormi, 1603, fol. p. 68, fig. 1—4. 

3 See the dimensions and definitions of these in Alb. Diirer, von menschl. pro- 
port. Pol. P. and Q. ed. 1528. Elsholz. I. c. p. 5.5, Petr. Lauremberg, Pasicompse, 
p. 62, ed. 1634. 

SKULLS. 115 

from the common structure; and Andrew Vesalius 1 and Barth. 
Eustachius 2 endeavoured to draw figures of them. But the forms 
of these skulls seem to be so arbitrary and so monstrous, that 
they are of little or no use to us at present, and seem rather 
to belong to some morbid constitutions of the bones than to 
any natural varieties of heads. Let us follow nature herself, 
and we shall reckon up the various shapes of the head in the 
various nations, according to the four varieties of mankind 
which we constituted. 

To begin with Germany itself, Vesalius 3 says that its inhabit- 
ants are generally remarkable for having the occiput compressed 
and the head wide ; and gives as a reason that infants in their 
cradles generally sleep on their backs, and besides being wrapped 
in swaddling-clothes, generally have their hands tied to their 
sides. This author also saw in the cemeteries of Styria and 
Carinthia wonderfully different skulls, which from their extraor- 
dinary shape seemed to be sports of nature 4 . Lauremberg 5 says 
the female inhabitants of Hamburg of his day were long- 
headed, because they by ligaments and a foolish practice were 
accustomed to elongate the head from the birth. The Belgians 
are said to have their skulls more oblong 6 than other nations, 
because the mothers permit their infants to sleep wrapped up in 
swaddling-clothes very much on the side and the temples 7 ; but 
however the description of a Batavian skull by De Fischer does 
not answer to this 8 , who praises in it the bones of the skull for 
being but little depressed around the sides, and making there 
almost an equal arch. Albinus 9 declares that the skulls of the 

1 De corp. hum. fair. p. 21, ed. 1555. 

2 Tab. XLVI. f. 10, 15, 17, a little less monstrous than the figures of Vesalius 
and Ingrassias. The worst of all are in Matth. Meriani, Viv. ic. part. corp. hum. 
inC. Bauhin, Th. Anat. L. 111. T. 1. Comp. Bertini, Osteolog. at the end of Part 11. 

3 I. c. p. 23, and in Put. Apol. exam. (Gabr. Cuneus), p. 838, Operum. Insfeldt 
says the shape of the German skull is half-way between the oblong of the Belgians 
and the round skull of the Turks. De lus. nat. L. B. 1772, p. 20. 

4 Observ. Fallop. exam. p. 76S, ed. B. S. Albini. 

5 I. c. p. 63. 6 Insfeldt, I. c. 7 Vesalius, I. c. 

8 J. B. de Fischer, De moclo quo ossa se vicinis accommodant portions. L. B. 1 743, 
4to. Tab. in. A reversed copy is given by J. Casp. Lavater, Physiognom. Fragm. 
Vol. 11. p. 159, Tab. B. fig. 1. 

9 lnd. leg. Par. p. 2. 


English, the Spanish, and French, are without any peculiarity of 
structure at all; and he is in most respects a very accurate 
observer of varieties of that kind. Christopher Pfiug informed 
Vesalius that the skulls of the inhabitants of the Styrian Alps 
were of a singular shape. The same Yesalius is of opinion that 
the heads of the Genoese, and still more of the Greeks and the 
Turks, are nearly of the shape of a sphere, and that it is done 
through the care of the midwives when they bring their assist- 
ance, and sometimes through the great solicitude of the mothers 1 . 
There is a passage in Hippocrates 2 about the skulls of the 
Scythians, which is most worthy of notice. He says that after 
they had applied artificial means for a very long period in 
shaping their heads, at last a kind of natural degeneration had 
taken place, so that in his day there was no more necessity for 
manual pressure to arrive at the end in view, but that the skulls 
grew up to be elongated of their own accord. And this kind of 
thing should be examined in other varieties of mankind, espe- 
cially as to form and colour, and their various causes, climate, 
&c., which in the progress of time become hereditary and con- 
stant, although they may have owed their first origin to adven- 
titious causes. The nations towards our north have generally 
flatter faces 3 . Eber. Rosen is, so far as I know, the only writer 
who says that the Lapps of Lulah can, for the most part by the 
face being broad above 4 , attenuated below, with the cheeks 
falling in, and terminated in a long chin, be distinguished from 
the other Scandinavians 5 . J. B. de Fischer 6 has published a 
drawing of a Calmuck's skull, and it is ugly, and nearly ap- 

1 Z. c. But I do not see how Winkelmann (Gesch. der Kunst des Alterth. T. I. 
p. 24) can use this passage of Vesalius to prove the influence of a more favourable 
climate and sky, when the Brussels anatomist attributes it to art alone. Moreover 
those skulls of the Turks which ai-e preserved in the Royal Museum are much less 
oval, and of much less elegant shape than the common heads of our countrymen : 
and therefore a man so learned in his art ought to have said less about their 

2 De aer. aqu. et loc. 35. 

3 Goldsmith, I. c. p. 214. 

4 The jaws of the skull of a Malabar woman are also narrow. Leg. Rav. p. 3. 

5 De Medic. Lappon. Lulens. Lond. Goth. 1 751. Engraved in Hall. Coll. disp. 
pract. iv. 

6 I. c. p. 24, Tab. I. Insfeldt, I. c. also calls the head of the Calmuck square. 

SKULLS. 117 

proaches a square in shape, and in many ways testifies to barba- 
rism. But this single example shows how unfair it is to draw 
conclusions as to the conformation of a whole race from one or 
two specimens. For Pallas 1 describes the Calmucks as men of a 
symmetrical, beautiful, and even round appearance, so that he 
says their girls would find admirers in cultivated Europe. Nor 
do the said skulls answer to the two very accurate representa- 
tions of that Calmuck, a boy of eleven years old, who lately 
came from Russia with the court of Darmstadt, drawings of 
whom I received from Carlsruhe. They represent a young man 
of handsome shape, lofty forehead and eye-brows; and whose 
face agrees in this respect with the description of Pallas, and 
diverges from the skull in question, that the mouth makes nearly 
an equilateral triangle with the eyes furthest from it, which brings 
out the head round instead of square. Passing from the most 
north-easterly part of Asia by the Anadirski Archipelago into 
North America, we come to the tribes whose name is derived 
from the singular form of their heads 2 . Either I am very much 
mistaken, or it is a skull of this sort which has been described 
by Winslow 3 , and engraved by him. With its very protracted 
occiput, its somewhat fiat forehead, the shape of the orbits, and 
other aberrations of that sort from the common structure, it seems 
to present some similarity to the skull of a dog. We know at 
present too little of the history of that country and its inhabit- 
ants to be able to add the cause of that singular conformation: 
but whatever it be, it seems that it must rather be in the mode 
of life, since the same peculiarity is observed sometimes in the 
skulls of Europeans. I myself have in my possession a skull, 
very ancient, dug out last summer from the city cemetery, which 
is as like that American in the points I have mentioned 4 , and in 
every thing else, as one egg is to another. 

1 Reis. I. pp. 307, 311. 

2 Tetes-plates, or plats cotes de chiens. De Vaugondy, 1. c. p. 27, lat. 65 , long. 
1 75 . Engel, Tab. Am. Boreal. 

3 Mem. de VAc. des Sc. de Paris, 1)22, p. 323, Tab. 16. It is said to have 
been found in Hond-Eyland, lat. 78 , long. 310 . 

4 It measures six Paris inches and more from the apex of the nasal bone to the 
extreme bulging part of the occipital bone ; but only four in diameter from the 


Finally, as to the inhabitants of Greenland, and of Labrador, 
the former we are told by Cranz 1 , and the latter by Henry Ellis 2 , 
are longheaded and have flat faces. But I am afraid that the 
accounts of these most trustworthy men have been badly under- 
stood by many, who have thence come to the conclusion that 
these nations are badly formed and almost monstrous in shape 3 . 
Cranz himself says that a great many Greenlanders are to be 
found with faces so oblong that it is difficult to distinguish them 
from Europeans 4 ; but as to the Esquimaux, I am led to a contrary 
opinion by some very accurate drawings of three inhabitants of 
Labrador, which have lately come into my possession, and are 
painted in colours with great care by that excellent artist J. 
Swertner, from copies sent by the Hernnhut Brothers, who have 
an establishment there. One is a male; and the two females, 
according to the custom of their nation, are clad with immense 
greaves, nearly reaching to their hips, and one of them carries a 
child in her right sandal 5 ; all however are of a reasonably sym- 
metrical and well-proportioned form. The face of the male is 
rather flat, and the nose but little prominent, though by no 
means turned up, the body square, and the head large, so as to 
be equal to the sixth part of his whole height; but the women 
are taller, and are seven of their own heads in length 6 ; and if 
you except their colour 7 , which verges towards brown, are in 
other respects of good appearance. 

Let us turn to Asia, and look at our second variety, which 
dwells beyond the Ganges, and on the Islands, &c. The first 

condyloid apophyses of the foramen magnum to the top of the head : the foramen 
magnum is placed rather towards the front, and so the occiput is longer, and the 
bones of the head descend in a more acute angle towards the base of the skull than 
in Winslow's example ; and so in that it resembles the skull of Cowper's skeleton. 
Myot. reform, fig. xviii. 

1 Hist, of Greenl. p. 179. 

a Voy. to Hudson's Bay, p. 132. 

3 Henr. Home, I. c. Bufi'on, T. ill. p. 485. 

4 This is confirmed by the pictures of the Greenlanders made after the life by 
Adam Olearius, Gottorf Kunstk. Tab. nr. F. 1 — 3. 

5 Cranz, Fortsetz. p. 310. Ellis, p. 136. 

c They are placed by Alb. Diirer in his tables between Al and Br. 
7 Which is caused by their mode of life. Cranz, Fortsetz. 1. c. Comp. with 
Hist. p. 178. 


thing we see are the Aracant on the Ganges, who flatten the 
foreheads of the newly-born with sheets of lead. 

After these, going up to the Amur (Sahalien ula), the 
northern termination of this variety, come the Chinese, who, 
unless I am wrong, are less content than any other of the inha- 
bitants of this world, with the natural conformation of their 
body, and therefore use so many artificial means to distort it, 
and squeeze it, that they differ from almost all other men in 
most parts of their bodies. Their heads are usually oval, their 
faces flat, their eyes narrow, drawn up towards the external 
corners, their noses small, and all their other peculiarities of 
this kind are well known from the numerous pictures of them, 
and from their china and pottery figures. Those Chinese 
whom Btittner saw at London were exactly of this kind, and so 
also was the great botanist Whang-at-tong (the yellow man of 
the East), whose acquaintance was made there by Lichtenberg. 
But these artificial ways of moulding the head seem to have 
more to do with the soft parts of the face than the bony struc- 
ture, for Daubenton 1 reckons up many skulls of the Chinese and 
Tartars, and declares that they differ in no way from the ordi- 
nary skulls of Europeans. The other nations of this variety 
looked at as a whole answer to those characters which I laid 
down above as belonging to them. 

The New Hollanders make such a transition to the third 
variety, that we perceive a sensible progress in going from the 
New Zealanders through the Otaheitans to the fourth. The 
inhabitants of the Island Mallicolo 2 , whom I was just speaking 
of, differ from their neighbours by the strange form of head, in 
which late travellers assure us they approach nearest to the 
figure of apes 3 . I do not see anything remarkable in the skulls 

1 Descr. du Cab. da roi, Vol. xrv. n. m.ccg.xxxix. 

2 It is situated with Tanna and New Caledonia in 15 S. L., and is nearly as 
many degrees from the east coast of New Holland. 

3 I hope it will be agreeable to my readers if I append a short description of 
these men, taken from the account of the younger Forster, and communicated to 
me by Lichtenberg. '•' Contrary to all expectation, we found the inhabitants dif- 
fering in everything from all the other people we had hitherto seen in the Southern 
Ocean. They were of small stature, rarely exceeding 5 ft. 4 in. Their limbs were 
slender, and ill-shaped; their colour blackish-brown, which was made more intense 


of the remaining inhabitants of the Pacific Ocean ; and so we will 
go on to the third variety of mankind, that is, the African 
nations, about whom we may be brief, since what there is to be 
said about their skulls is of small importance. Those skulls of 
mummies which I have seen are of round and spherical, but still 
of elegant and symmetrical form. 

The head of an Ethiop from the southern part of Africa has 
been carefully described by J. Beni de Fischer, as I quoted 
above 1 . Broader in the upper region, suddenly narrowed, sharp- 
ened from the front towards the middle of the frontal bone and 
over the eyes, and widely stretched out below these, and very 
globular behind, he says that in its whole periphery it comes to 
be nearly of a triangular shape. And yet this description is 
scarcely satisfactory when I compare it with the Ethiopians that 
I have seen myself and carefully examined, or with that skull of 
Peter Pauw 2 ; for this latter, if you except the large occiput and 
the narrow orbits, has very little resemblance to the description 
and very accurate engraving of Fischer. 

There remains the fourth variety of the human race belong- 
ing to America 3 , except that part we have just been speaking of. 
The same thing may be said of the inhabitants of this quarter, 
which I have just observed about the Chinese, that they take 
great pains, and employ artificial means, to distort the natural 
form of their bodies into some other. This is especially the case 
with the head; and the most numerous evidences of the wonder- 
ful ways in which they compress it are to be found in the stories 
of travellers ; but still we are deficient in any accurate examina- 

in the face, and the greater part of the body, by a black pigment. Their head was 
singularly formed, for it receded more from the root of the nose than other men's, 
and presented such a resemblance to that of the ape, that with one accord we all 
expressed our astonishment at it. Their noses and lips did not seem more mis- 
shapen than those of other nations of the Southern Ocean. The hair of their head 
was black, curly, and woolly; their beard thick and long, and less like wool. 
They gird the abdomen with a rope so tightly, that it seems nearly divided into 
two parts. So far as we saw they had no other covering, except in one place : but 
this had so little the effect of concealing what other nations try to hide, that it 
made it only still more conspicuous." 

1 I. c. Tab. nr. pp. 24, 16. Is it the same in Legal. Rav, n. sin. Insfeldt I. c. 
The head of the Ethiopians approaches the triangular shape. 

2 Primit. Anat. p. 29. 3 Recherch. pkilos. sur les Amer. I. p. 146. 


tions of skulls of this kind, nor is it sufficiently clear in what 
parts of the head the greatest change takes place. J. Cardan 1 
said that the heads of the inhabitants of the old Portus Provin- 
cise were square, and deficient in the occiput. Hunauld 2 has 
exhibited the skull of a Carib, but it has been either so care- 
lessly engraved, or is so misshapen, that I should prefer to con- 
sider it as a monstrosity, than to believe such to be the osseous 
conformation of a whole nation. The enormous bones of the 
nose, the little holes which give an exit to the nerves and 
arteries of the same size as the external auditory canal, the 
angular and large-lobed zygoma, the upper jaw deeply incised 
for the matrices of the teeth, and other things of this sort, excite 
a suspicion that this drawing was done in a hurry 3 . Finally, as 
to North America, Charlevoix describes the heads of one of the 
Canadian nations as globular, and the other as flat 4 . 

So much then about the shape of skulls. From what has 
been said I trust that it is more than sufficiently clear, that 
almost all the diversity of the form of the head in different 
nations is to be attributed to the mode of life and to art: 
although I should very willingly admit the position of Hippocra- 
tes, that with the progress of time art may degenerate into a 
second nature, since it has a very considerable influence in all 
the other variations of mankind. 

The physiognomy and the peculiar lineaments of the whole 
countenance in different nations opens up a very vast and agree- 
able field. In many they are sufficiently settled, and are such 
faithful exponents of the climate and the mode of life, that even 
after many generations spent in a foreign climate they can still 
be recognized. But, besides other reasons, the want of suffi- 
ciently faithful and accurately delineated pictures forbids me to 
wander in that direction. I took a great deal of pains to com- 
pare pictures drawn from the life of more remote and, at pre- 
sent, little known nations ; but I have been able to obtain very 

1 De rer. variet. 1. viii. c. xliii. p. 162. T. ill. Oper. Cap. Maragnon, Brasil. 

2 Mem. de VAc. des Sc. de Paris, 1740. p. 373. Tab. 16. fig. 1. 

3 Hist, de la nouvelle France, in. pp. 187, 324. Algonquins. Tetes de Boule. 

4 lb. p. 323. Flat heads : each a work of art. 


few; and there are not many authors of travels whose pictures, 
so far as regards the likenesses of nations, can be trusted. If 
you except the vast work of the brothers De Bry, the first 
editions of the travels of Cornelius Le Brun, the Tartary of Nic. 
Witsen, the diary of Sydney Parkinson, and the voyages of Cook 
himself, and except some genuine representations scattered about 
here and there in various books, especially in the work of 
S. E. Lavater on physiognomy, there are many nations of whom 
you can find no trustworthy pictures. 

Meanwhile, it will be enough to bring forward a few ex- 
amples, of which the Jewish race presents the most notorious 
and least deceptive, which can easily be recognized everywhere 
by their eyes alone, which breathe of the East. The Vallones, 
though they have lived among the Swedes for many years, still 
preserve the lineaments of the face, which are peculiar to them, 
and by which they can be distinguished at the first glance from 
the aborigines 1 . The clear and open countenance of the Swiss, 
the cheerful one of the young Savoyards, the manly and serious 
Turks 2 , the simple and guileless look of the nations of the 
extreme north 3 , can easily be distinguished, even by those least 
skilled in physiognomy. 

The matter is a little more difficult in some nations of the 
south, especially in the west of Europe, who, it has been ob- 
served by some eminent men, from some reason or other, are 
cheerful and sanguine in youth, but, as manhood advances, be- 
come more morose, and inclined to be of a melancholy tem- 
perament 4 . In our other varieties the lineaments of the face 
are very much more persistent. To say nothing of the Chinese, 
who I have mentioned make their heads so much out of shape 
that it would be hazardous to say how much in them is to 

1 Clas Alstrbmer Om den fin-ulliga far-aveln. Stock. 1770. 8vo. p. 76. 

2 Russel, Aleppo. Niebuhr, Reis. &c. 

3 Saraojed. Le Brun, Voy. Amst. 1718. f. n. 7, 8, and p. 9. The Tartars of 
Siberia, ib. p. 104. The Ostiaks, p. 112. The Greenlanders in Olear. I.e. The 
Esquimaux in our pictures approach very much to the Samojed. Le Brun, n. 7 
and 8. 

4 Boerhaave, Prod, inpropr. inst. s. 879. "The Italians, Portuguese, and Spanish 
are vivacious and playful up to the eighteenth year : after the thirtieth year they 
all become sad, morose, melancholy, and subject to haemorrhages." 


be referred to nature and how much to art, the inhabitants of 
the Pacific Ocean retain evident examples of persistent physio- 
gnomy. Every one, for instance, will recognize the fierce and 
savage countenance of the New-Hollanders and New-Zealanders 
by looking at the magnificent plates of Parkinson 1 , whereas the 
Otaheitans, on the contrary, looked at as a whole, seem to be 
of a milder disposition, as also the many pictures 2 of them by 
the same well-known author testify 3 . 

Although almost all the nations of Africa are sufficiently dis- 
tinguished by persistent and peculiar lineaments of face, still the 
ancient Egyptians, and the inhabitants of the south of Africa, 
differ very much by their singular physiognomy from the rest, 
both of the Africans and of mankind. All the monuments of the 
old art of the ancient Egyptians, from the statue of Memnon down 
to the pottery seals which are found with the mummies, show 
likenesses very similar, and all closely resembling each other. 
The face is somewhat long, but by no means emaciated, the nose 
prominent, broad towards the nostrils, and ending in a sharpish 
lobe, and finally the mouth small, girdled with swelling lips, all of 
which are most positive and unmistakeable signs of the Egyp- 
tian head. The appearance of the Ethiopians is so well known 
that it would be superfluous to say much on that point. Their 
depressed nose, which has been attributed by some to art 4 , most 
recent authors, and those eye-witnesses, have shown to be due 
to nature 5 , and the two Ethiopian foetuses preserved in the 
Royal Museum are exactly like the figures of Ruysch 6 and 
Seba 7 , and answer to this description. For although the nose 
in almost all human embryos is depressed, still the Ethiopians 

1 PI. XVII. XXIII. xxviii. &c. 2 PI. VIII. 

3 When their faces are seen in profile, they are very distinct from the smooth 
and equable countenance of the Chinese, through their distinctly prominent nose, 
lips, and chin, &c. This was often observed in the men of both nations by Lich- 
tenberg, who knew the Chinese I was speaking of and the Otaheitan O-mai (which 
is commonly, but wrongly made a trisyllable O-mai-a) at London, and has often 
wondered at the diversity of their faces. 

4 Hemmersam, p. 37. 5 Miiller, Fetu, p. 31. 

6 Thes. Anat. in. t. 1. The forehead is more narrow than in any other foetus, 
as is shewn by one of the specimens in the Royal Museum. 

7 Thes. T. 1. Tab. cxi. f. 2. 

124 HAIK. 

of whom we are speaking have their noses, or interstices (to 
use the expression of Isidore) so expanded, that even setting 
aside the swelling lips, any one could tell the nation from them 

A few variations of the human body remain besides those 
which I think should be attributed to art alone, and which 
have to do with the peculiar formation of members and parts. 
The hair varies very much amongst most men, both in colour 
and form, but in some nations is of a constant character. And 
as it is said to be universal that white colours obtain more in 
the north, and brown in the south, so black hair and black eyes 
seem to be usual in the torrid zones, and light hair with blue 
eyes in the colder regions 1 . But, beyond all, the hair of the 
Ethiopians is conspicuous for its intense black and its singular 
woolliness, which however is no more congenital with them than 
the colour of their skin, but both have been contracted, as 
we have seen, by the progress of time and the heat of the sun 2 . 
For the Ethiopian foetus, I mentioned, is covered with light 
brown straight hairs, which scarcely differ from the down of the 
European embryo; so that it is probable that the tint of the 
skin and the hair are changed sensibly at the same time. I 
have already observed that the Ethiopians get paler in old age, 
and that their hair also grows white; and it is a well-known 
thing, that in other men, in proportion as their skin is brown, 
so are the genitals covered with curly hair. We are also told 
in his last work, by D. Antonius de Ulloa 3 , that the Ethiopians 
of Darien have hair, though black, still straight. Others too 
have declared, and I myself have often observed, that the struc- 
ture of the Ethiopian hair is the same as that of other men, 
and the bulb of it as white. 

Many authors tell us that the feet of the Ethiopians are 
badly formed, in more than one way. The author of the 

1 Avicenna, Canon. L. I. Fen. I. v. Haller, Elem. Physiol. T. v. p. 36. 

2 Csel. Rhodigin. 1. c. p. 440, ed. Aid. For dried-up hair is turned black and 

3 Nolicias Americanas. Madrid, 1722. 4to. Enlretenim. xvil. p. 305. 


Moretum (said to be Virgil) reckons up their many defects as 
follows 1 : 

With legs so thin, and feet so widely splayed, 
The wrinkled heels perpetual slits betrayed. 

And Hier. Mercurialis agrees with him, for he says that these 
slits in the feet are endemic to the Ethiopians 2 . Another 
passage worthy of notice is to be found in Petronius 3 , which, as 
Heyne 4 tells us, refers to the Ethiopian slaves, like those we 
call negroes. Csel. Rhodiginus 5 says that the Egyptians and 
Ethiopians have splay feet, &c, which, however, do not seem 
to be by any means common to entire nations; for Albert 
Durer 6 , after speaking of these deformities in the feet of the 
Ethiopians, adds that he has seen many well and symmetri- 
cally formed; nor was I able to observe anything of this kind 
in the Ethiopians I have seen myself. 

That the breasts of the Ethiopian 7 and other 8 southern 
women are pendulous and contracted, from their mode of life 
and habits of lactation, wants scarcely any testimony adduced. 
To those mutations of the human body which are occasioned 
by the mode of life, we may also add those wdiich owe their 
origin to the difference of languages, and which are sometimes 
to be found in the very organs of speech. To attribute this 
difference, with J. Senebier 9 , to the influence of heat or cold, 
is forbidden by a slight comparison of neighbouring languages. 
Who could possibly attribute to the climate the fact that the 
Ephraimites said Sibolet instead of Schibolet; that the Chinese 
cannot pronounce the letters R and D; or the Spaniards the final 
M, or the inhabitants of the Marquesas and the Greenlanders 
of Kamtschadale Tsch and ks. But the prodigious labours of 

1 V. 35. 2 Be decorat. p. 103. 

3 c. 102. "Can we fill our lips with an ugly swelling? can we crisp our hair 
with an iron ? and mark our forehead with scars ? and distend our shanks into a 
curve? and draw our heels down to the earth? and change our beard into a foreign 
fashion? " 

4 Ad Moreti, I. c. 5 I. c. ed. Aid. 

6 I.e. Fol. T. 111. 7 Fermin, (Econ. Anim. p. 117. 

8 Hottentots. Kolben, Vorgeb. de g. H. p. 474. The inhabitants of Horn 
Island in Le Make, and Schouten in Dalrymple's Collect. T. II. p. 5S. 

9 L 'Art d 'observer. Genev. 1775, 8vo. T. 11. p. 227. 


Biittner on this point forbid me to be more prolix on the matter, 
for he has collected with incredible labour all that relates to 
the subject, and will very soon give it to the press. 

I pass on to those things which, besides the shape of the 
head, are apt to be changed by the aid of art in the other parts 
of the body amongst various nations. And first of all I mean to 
speak of mutilations, where members and parts of the body are 
cut or torn out, &c. The Scriptures, and the stories of Hero- 
dotus 1 about the Colchians, the Egyptians and the Ethiopians, 
and the wide extent of the practice 2 , all prove that circumcision 
is exceedingly ancient. Nor is it confined entirely to the 
stronger sex, for amongst many oriental people it is applied to 
the weaker sex, and that part of their pudenda which answers 3 
to the prepuce of the virile member is cut off; of which cere- 
mony copious testimony both from ancient and modern writers 
has been collected by Mart. Schurigius 4 and Theod. Tronchin 5 . 
It will be enough for us at present to give our readers a draw- 
ing (PI. II. fig. 4) of the genitals of a circumcised girl of 
eighteen years old, which I owe to the kindness of Niebuhr, 
who has also allowed me to give it to the public. When that 
famous company went to travel in Asia, one of the questions 
proposed to them was about this circumcision of both sexes 6 ; 
and this illustrious man 7 , who was the sole survivor of the ex- 
pedition, settled this, as well as almost all the others; so much 
so as to bring back this drawing I am speaking of, which the 
Great artist, G. W. Baurenfeind, had taken from the life. In it 
you can see the body itself of the clitoris, bare and deprived of 
its prepuce, hanging from the upper commissure of the labia, 

1 pp. 102. 125. ed. Gron. 

2 The negroes of Angola. Hughes, Barbad. p. 14. The Otaheitans. Eeinh. 
Forster, I. c. p. 269. 

3 So also P. Bellon, Obs. 1. ill. c. 28; although he adds obscurely, that the part 
which is in Greek called hymenea is in Latin alae. Thevenot says they do not 
spare even these alee or wings. Toy. 1. II. c. 74. However the Greek words for 
these parts are often confounded: see their genuine explanations in H. Stephani 
Diction. Med. pp. 536, and 599, and Joach. Caraerarius, Comment, utriusq. linguce, 

V- 359- 

4 Muliebr. pp. 116, 142. Parthenol. p. 379. 

5 Diss, de Cliloride, p. m. 75. 

Michaelis, Freigm. p. 155. 7 Besclir. v. Arab. p. 77. 


under the pubis, which is abraded, and below it lie the orifices 
of the urethra, and the vagina: if perchance some may think 
these things are not particularly well done, they must excuse 
the haste of the draughtsman 1 . 

Eunuchs have not so much to do with the matter in hand, as 
monorchides, one of whose testicles is extracted during infancy. 
First, this custom prevails amongst the Hottentots, who gene- 
rally in the eighth, and sometimes, if we can trust Kolben 2 , in 
the eighteenth year, are made monorchides. They suppose it 
makes them run quicker; but travellers remark that at the 
same time it affects their fertility 3 . The Swiss peasants not 
unfrequently undergo the like loss of a testicle, that being the 
way in which the neighbours used to cure ruptures 4 . 

To mutilations I refer the custom of eradicating the hair in 
different parts of the body practised by some nations. Thus 
the Burats keep only the hair below the chin, and pluck out 
the rest 5 : the Turks destroy 6 by various unguents the hair in 
every part of the body except on the head and the beard : the 
Otaheitans eradicate 7 the hairs under the armpit; and almost 
all the people of America extirpate the beard, which gave rise 
to the old idea 8 , that the Americans were naturally beardless. 
But this story scarcely needs refutation. Lionel Wafer 9 ex- 
pressly says about the inhabitants of Darien, that they would 
have beards if they did not pluck them out : and there is still 
a little beard in our picture of the male Esquimaux, though 
the rest of his face is smooth 10 . I say nothing of the artificial 
sharpening of the teeth " amongst others, and other mutilations 

1 Eeschr. v. Arab. p. 80. Baurenfeind designed it after nature, but with an 
unsteady hand. 

2 p. 147. 3 J. Schreyer, p. 34. 

4 See Haller, adv. Buff. Operum min. T. nr. p. 183. 

5 Le Brun, Voy. p. 120. Memoire sur les Samojedes, p. 39. 

6 Leonh. Rauwolf, Raiss. p. 31. Buff. T. III. p. 438. 

7 Hawkesworth, T. II. p. 188. 

8 Repeated lately in Recherch. sur les Americains, T. I. p. 37. Quest, sur VEn- 
cycl. T. vii. p. 98. 

9 Isthm. of Africa, p. 106. 

10 The bearded race of the Esquimaux. Charlevoix, III. p. 179. A bearded 
inhabitant of Tierra del Fuego. Parkinson, Vol. I. Thus from all parts of America. 

11 Ethiopians. Hemmersam, p. 37. 


of equally little importance. First of all, I refer to deformities 
those enormous and pendulous ears, which from a very long 
time have been so much in favour among many nations, so as 
to give a foundation to the old story about the Scythian popu- 
lations in Pontus, that they have such large ears that they can 
cover their whole bodies with them 1 . We have certain in- 
formation about the inhabitants of Malabar, of C. Comorin 2 , 
Benares, the Moluccas 3 , and Mallicolo 4 , that they use various 
artifices to make their ears as large as possible, and truly mon- 
strous. The picture of a man of the south in Corn. Le Brun 
represents them as disfigured in a wonderful way 5 . We are 
told by some English travellers in southern countries how the 
New Zealanders studiously prolong the prepuce of the penis 6 . 
The immense nails of the Chinese 7 are well known. The 
custom of making women thin by a particular diet is very 
ancient, and has prevailed amongst the most refined nations 8 , 
so politeness and respect forbid us to class it, with Linnaeus 9 
amongst deformities. Though the use of pigments and dif- 
ferent kinds of paint does not change the shapes of the mem- 
bers themselves, yet it is so constant in some nations, that 
it would clearly be wrong to leave it untouched. Some merely 
smear their skin with pigments, whilst others first of all prick 
it with a needle, and then rub the colours in, which in this 
way adhere most tenaciously. Both customs have prevailed 
amongst the most remote and different nations. The Kana- 
gystse 10 , the Californians", the Turks 12 , the inhabitants of the 
island of Santa Croce 13 , and Mallicolo, of New Holland 14 , and 

1 Plin. iv. 13, vn. 2. Pompon. Mela, 1. in. cle Hisp. et Sept. insulis. 

2 Schreyer, p. 117. 

3 Maximil. Transylv. in Zahn, Spec. T. III. p. 69. 

4 They perforate them with reeds. 5 n. 197. 

6 Hawkesworth, Vol. in. p. 50. 7 01. Toree, p. 69. 

8 Chserea in Terence, Eunuch. II. 3. 21. 

9 Syst. Nat. xn. 1. p. 29. 

10 In the Kad-jak islands of the Olutorian archipelago. Staehlir-, I. c p. 32. 

11 Begert, p. 109. 

12 Rauwolf, Russel, Niebuhr, in either work. 

13 Intensely black. Alvaro Mendana de Neyra in Dalrymple, Vol. I. p. 78. 

14 Parkinson, PI. XXVII. The abdomen and the legs distinguished by white 

WILD MEN. 129 

Cape Verde 1 , paint themselves 2 . We know that the Tungus 3 , 
the Tschuktschi 4 , the Arabians 5 , the Esquimaux 6 , the New-Zea- 
landers 7 , the Otaheitans 8 , and many nations over all America 9 
draw designs in the skin with a needle, or what we call tattoo 

And this is pretty well all that I have to tell about the 
variations of the human body, and its members, whether oc- 
casioned by climate, or mode of life, or diverse unions, or finally, 
by artificial means. Any one will easily see that our discussion 
has been about the varieties of whole nations, and that we have 
nothing to do with those peculiarities which happen acciden- 
tally to one or two individuals; and therefore I am quite justi- 
fied in making no mention here of those unfortunate children, 
who have been now and then found amongst wild beasts ; and 
all the more because everything which is known of those in- 
stances has been diligently collected and dealt with in a regular 
way by the industry of some famous men 10 . Their more im- 
portant, and more noble part, that is reason, remains unculti- 
vated; but hard necessity has so perverted their human nature, 
that I should be inclined to refer these anthropomorphous 
creatures, who are so like beasts, to the homines monstrosi of 

1 In Hue. Groben, p. 19. 

2 On the ancient Picts, see Martini on Buff. Allg. Nat. Gesch. VI. p. 258. 

3 La Russie ouverte, Petersb. 1774, fol. Fasc. 1. Tab. V. Coloured plates. Le 
Brun, p. 118. J. G. Gmelin, Reis. 1. p. 77, 11. p. 647. 

4 Krascheninikof, Kamtschaika, Part 11. p. 152, 

5 Niebuhr, Reis. 1. Tab. lix. An Arabian woman of Tehama. 

6 The women in ray plate are depicted with a double row of punctures on the 
frontal arch, and a single one under the lower lip. 

7 Parkinson, PI. XVI. sxi. xxin. 8 lb. PI. vn. 

9 At length, John de Laet. adv. Hug. Grot, de Orig. Gewb. Americ. Amst. 1643, 
8vo. p. 204. Canadians in Mus. Kirch, ed. Battame. Rom. 1773, fol. Part 1. 
Tab. I. 11. col. plates. In Tierra del Fuego, Parkins. PL I. Instances of ancient 
tribes are collected by Ph. Cluver, German, antiques, p. 129. 

10 For ancient instances see ^lian. v. h. 1. xn. c. 42. Alex, ab Alex. Genial, 
dier. L IL c. 31. Herodot. 1. 1. has doubts about Cyrus. Liyy, 1. 1. c. 4, about 
Romulus and Remus. Pliny defends the story, viii. 15, xv. 18, and Plutarch 
Romul. c. 11. On the child of Gargoris by his daughter see Justin. L xliv. c. 4. 

Among recent authors see for a well-written collection of histories, Henr. Conr. 
Kcenig, Sched. de horn, inter feras educat. statu not. solitario, Hanover, 1730, 4to. 
Ph. Henr. Boeder, de Statu Animar. Hom.fer. Argent. 1756, 4k). Linn. Anthropom. 
T. VI. Amcenit. ac. p. 65, and Sys. Nat. 1. c. p. 28, at length Martini, I. c. p. 263. 



The diseases to which the human body is subject would 
appear to be much less to our purpose than even the wild state 
of these children ; and yet I am unwillingly compelled to in- 
trude here upon pathology, because of the recent mistakes of 
some famous men, who have not hesitated to consider the af- 
flicted persons about whom I am going to speak, not only as a 
peculiar species of the human race, but even as the same with 
the apes. There is a disorder affecting both the skin and the 
eyes at the same time 1 , which sometimes occurs amongst men 
of the most different nations, and amongst some kinds of quad- 
rupeds, and birds. As we saw above that the whiteness of 
organized bodies was due to cold, so now we have to consider 
another kind of diseased whiteness which does not depend upon 
cold. It seems to be found in plants 2 also, but is more fre- 
quently observed, and appears with stronger and more remark- 
able symptoms in animals, whose skin and hair, or whose 
feathers and quills, become of an unnaturally chalky, or milky 
hair, and their eyes grey, or reddish. In some few genera this 
singular condition seems to become a second nature, so that 
they produce offspring like themselves, and the same colour is 
preserved to all generations; in most however instances of this 
sort seem scattered and anomalous ; they spring from parents of 
the usual colour, and very often have offspring like them again, 
or at all events the case is confined within the limits of a few 

Of the first sort the best known examples are white rabbits, 
which are called, not inaptly, by Nic. le Cat 3 , the leuccethiops of 
their kind. Their fur is always a constant snowy white, whilst 
their eyes are rosy or red, but in other rabbits grey or black. 
They are deficient in that black pigment which lines internally 

1 I am surprised to see that some eminent men so far differ from me as to deny 
this leuccethiopia to be a disease, and go so far as to confound it with that natural 
whiteness which comes to animals in the winter ; which I should scarcely have ex- 
pected from men skilled in physiology, and who must be aware of the great impor- 
tance of the black pigment which is drawn over the internal parts of the eye, and 
is entirely deficient in this disorder. 

2 Hyacinths, roses, &c. change anomalously their native colour into white. 

3 Coul. de la peau, p. 55. 


the eyes of all the mammalia, the birds, the amphibious animals, 
many of the fishes, and even insects, and whose seat is to be 
found in the cellular web which lines the choroidal membrane, and 
the uvea, &c. That this blackness is of the greatest consequence 
towards sound and good vision is proved, besides other ways, by 
the weak eye-sight of those animals in whom, as in the white 
rabbit, that pigment is entirely wanting, or even in some consider- 
able proportion 1 . For even those animals in whom the tapetum 
is blue or green are less able to bear a clear and noonday light, 
in proportion as they have that part larger or more conspicuous; 
as may be observed in the cat and other animals whose habits 
are nocturnal. But yet in them the external side of the 
choroid, and whatever internal part there is besides the tape- 
tum, is covered with the usual blackness, of which however not 
a vestige appears in the rabbits we are speaking of. Hence an 
immense quantity of vessels, if they are turgid with blood, seem 
to be transparent with a sort of rosy or auburn colour through 
the pupil and in the iris; but this beautiful rosy hue perishes 
if the bulb of the eye is taken away from the orbit and the 
blood flows out ; and it remains, if you first of all replenish the 
same vessels with dull-red suet. The pupil is, as in all the 
animals of which we shall speak, very large, even after death ; 
the iris, if cut off from the vessels, white, and barely fibrous; 
which, if it is the case with the iris of other animals, clearly 
shows that the absence of circular fibres is connected with this 
deficiency of extraneous pigment: its vessels are beautifully 
curved; so also the folds of the ciliary processes, if the injection 
has been properly performed, &c. As this defect of the eyes 
is so common to this kind of rabbits, that their females, when 
embraced by black or grey males, produce offspring with white 
and red eyes, it is not to be wondered at if they become easily 
accustomed to the light, and able to endure the glare of day. 

The nature of white mice is otherwise compounded, for 
although they preserve for many generations the snowy colour 
of their fur, and the red colour of their eyes, so far, like rabbits, 

1 Tke choroid grows pale in old men. 



they still remain to an extreme degree avoiders of the light 1 . 
There is here at Gottingen a bakehouse, in which white mice 
are not unfrequently caught, many of which I have seen alive ; 
and, if a light was brought to the hole, they would instantly hide 
themselves in the cotton which was put for them, but in the 
twilight, or when the season was cloudy, they used to run freely 

Besides rabbits and mice there are other animals in which 
this variety of hair and feathers and eyes is sometimes, though 
rarely, to be seen. Amongst horses 2 such sometimes occur; 
which however must not be confounded with the breed peculiar 
to Denmark; for although these have white hair, yet their 
hoofs and eyes are black, and, according to the observations 
of Kersting, they have also the rete Malpighianum brown. 

I myself have seen white dogs with red eyes ; a hamster of 
the same sort I owe to the liberality of Sulz; and such a 
squirrel was kept living by J. J. Wagner 3 . 

Amongst birds, white varieties are known to occur in 
Canary-birds, parrots and cocks, and very seldom, but occa- 
sionally, in crows. 

Finally, as to men who suffer from this defect, the accounts 
of them have been by some recent authors so deformed, and so 
mixed up with fables, that we may easily pardon those who 
have allowed themselves to be deceived, and have not hesitated 
to make out of them a particular species of mankind. It will 
therefore be our business to separate the stories from the truth, 
to show that the disease, so far from forming a species, does not 
even form a peculiar variety of mankind ; to narrate its 
symptoms in detail; and to show that it was known to the 
ancients, and has spread over almost all the world. 

The other immense merits of Linnseus, and my own respect 
for so great a man, forbid me to say much about his great 
mistake, repeated in so many editions 4 of his magnificent work, 
and which other learned men declare was put forth in all good 

1 Physical, belustig. 14 st. p. 439. 

2 Edm. Chapman, de Leucceth. in fine. 

3 Hist. Nat. Helvet. p. 185. 4 S. N. xn. p. 33. 


faith, especially after the severe censures of Buffon 1 and Pauw*. 
It will be sufficient to sum it up in a few words : that the 
attributes of apes are there mixed up with those of men — for 
a body less than ours by half, eyes deep in their orbit, joined 
to the membrana nictitans, and a lateral vision at the same time 
on both sides 3 , the fingers of the hand touching the knees when 
in an erect position, the wrinkled skin of the pubis*, and finally, 
the whispering tongue and those arrogant conceits, the hope 
of future dominion, Sc. have nothing to do with the highest 
work of the Supreme Being, but must be relegated to the 
region of fable. 

There is a disease of the human body, for the most part 
congenital, exactly like that which I have shown to attack 
certain animals ; it is, however, different in this, that it plays 
with the symptoms, and now attacks man lightly, and now 
severely; in some countries it is rare, in others more frequent 
and endemic; here it is propagated in families, there it seizes 
people capriciously and individually. It affects the skin and 
the eyes at the same time, and therefore seems referable either 
to tetter or to luscitio 5 : that it is related to both, will be plain 
from an enumeration of the symptoms. As to the skin, or 
rather the cuticle, which is the principal seat of disease, in 
this disease it is affected in more than one way; it is indeed 
always of a diseased whiteness, and the hair 6 or groin are co- 
loured in the same way; but the nature of the epiderm itself 
undergoes all sorts of mutations, though it is not always entirely 

1 T. xiv. 2 Rech. sur les Am. T. n. p. 69. 

3 Dalin. Am. Acad. T. vi. p. 74. 4 lb. p. 73. 

5 Luscitio: a complaint of the eyes, when the sight is better in the evening than 
at mid-day. Festus. In the same sense Hippocrates uses the vvKTaXwirlas. 
Prorrh. II. Galen, Isag. Plin. 1. xxvm. c. 11, and Theod. Priscian, 1. 1. c. ro. 
Varro, on the contrary, calls those luscitiosi who cannot see in the evening : and 
.ZEtius, Paveus, Actuarius, and Orirasius call those vvKraXwirts who see during 
the day, but not so well when the sun sets, and at night not at all. See more 
about this confusion of terms in H. Stephan. Diet. Med. p. 418. Ann. Foes, CEcon. 
ffippocr. p. 263. Tr. Taurmann on Plaut. Mil. in. 52, and Jo. Harduin on Plin. 
I. c. p. 471. E. Aug. Vogel follows Hippocr. de cogn. et cur. c. h. aff. p. 475, 
where the nuctalopia of the ancients is said to be blindness by day (Hemeralopia 
of the moderns), and the hemeralopia of the ancients {nuctalopia of the moderns) 
is said to be the periodical blindness which comes on at twilight. 

6 See Actuar. 1. n., w. 8iayv. iraOuv, c. 23. 


affected, but, in rare cases, the places are scattered over the 
surface of the body. Those, however, who are ill in this way 
must be carefully separated from those men who have the rete 
parti-coloured, and of whom I have spoken above 1 . In the 
disease of which I am now speaking, it has been observed in 
the East Indies, by Rudolph 2 , that the spots are rough and can 
be distinguished by the touch from the rest of the skin. 
Strahlenberg 3 and John Bell 4 report that parti-coloured persons 
of this kind are found amongst the Tartars; and the accounts 
of Hall 5 describe the Malabars as marked by large spots of 
the same kind, of a yellowish white, and make the disorder 
something like leprosy. Closely allied to this sort of disease is 
that in which the skin of the body becomes white, with spots of 
another colour, as yellow 6 , scattered over it 7 , or where the colour 
is a mixture of red and white 3 , or where the face at least 
retains its natural redness 9 . 

In most cases however, the whole skin, though not in the 
same way, becomes white. For in many, little or nothing at 
all in the epidermis is changed, except the colour, so that in 
other respects there is no symptom of any disease at all. Such 
are many of the inhabitants of the isthmus of Darien, most 
carefully described by Lionel Wafer 10 , who are said to be covered 
with a copious, though thin and snowy down. Like this also 
was a beautiful woman from the neighbouring island of Ternata, 
whom Le Brun 11 says was a concubine of the king of Bantam; 
and also a boy of five years old, shown to the Academy of Paris 12 . 
The English poet 13 speaks of another, lately shown in London, 

1 p. 5. 2 Schreber, Saeugth. p. 15. 

3 In Siberia, Nordostl. Bur. u. Asia, p. 121. 

4 Zulims. See Bell's Travels from Petersb. to diverse parts of Asia, Glasg. 1763, 
4to. T. I. p. 89. He attributes it to scurvy. 

5 Tranqueb. Miss. Ber. Contin. XXI. p. 741. So also horses may be seen 
spotted black and white. 

6 Like freckles. 7 Tranqueb. Ber. Contin. cvi. p. 1232. 

8 lb. Contin. XLVI. p. 1239. 

9 Oliv. Goldsmith, Hist, of the Earth, T. 11. p. 241. Whether the Otaheitan in 
Parkinson, p. 27, was of this kind I dare not decide. 

10 p. 107. " p. 353- 

12 Hist, de VAc des Sci. 1744, n. V. p. 12. "Voltaire, Melang. T. in. p. 326. 
Maupertuis, Venus physique, p. 147. 

13 Goldsmith, I. c. 


with a skin like that of an European. In many, however, the 
epidermis too is scabby. I read the same about a Tamul 
schoolmaster, whose skin as it were came off in scales, and be- 
came almost of a red colour 1 . The disease is called the white 
leprosy, in Malabar Wonkuschtam or Wenkuschtam 2 . Allied to 
this also is the crusted leprosy of some inhabitants of Paraguay, 
recalling the scales of fish, painless, and in no ways affecting 
the general health 3 . The white Ethiopians too are made 
lepers by Ludolph 4 , and so are the inhabitants of Guinea by 
Isaac Voss 5 . I myself have been acquainted for many years 
with a Saxon youth, whose whole skin, not excepting even his 
face and the palms of the hands, was rough with white, and 
as it were calcareous scales, which appeared red through the 
numerous interstices, and as it were fissures, of the crust. 
Sometimes these scales peeled off, and then the limbs looked 
redder ; but new ones instantly grew up. The groin was white ; 
the hair and the eye-brows, if I recollect right, of a mouse 
colour. For those hairs do not, like that on the groin, keep 
the same colour in this disease, but vary in the most capricious 
way. Most have white 6 , soft hair, exactly like goats' wool 7 . 
Nor in these is the colour constant, but as they grow older 
is often changed into rosy 8 . Voss 9 attributes red and yellow 
hair to his Leucoethiopians : the hair was yellow in the Malabar 
family 10 , golden in the Manilla girl of G. Jos. Camelli 11 . 

So much about one phase of our disorder, which occurs 
with tetter : the other phase, as I have said, affects the eyes, 
and belongs to luscitio, yet it is wonderful how the symptoms 
of it differ. In many the eyelids become turgid, winking 12 ; the 

1 Gottl. Anast. Freylinghausen, nenere Missions Geschichte, 8 st. p. 1071. 

2 Tranqueb. M. B. Cont. cvi. p. 1233 not. 

3 Lettres edifiantes, Rec. sxv. p. 122. 4 Hist. JEtliio%}ica, I. c. 14 § 32. 

5 De Nili et alior. fiuv. origine, p. 68. 

6 See de Groben, I. c. Wafer, p. 108. Tranqueb. Miss. Ber. Contin. xlii. 
C. VI. &c. 

7 lb. Goldsmith, I. c. " The hair was white and woolly, and very unlike any 
thing I had seen before." 

8 Tranqueb. M. B. Cont. CVI. p. 1283 not. 9 I. c. 

10 Miss. Ber. Cont. en. p. 637. 

11 Philos. Trails, n. 307, p. 2268. 12 Le Brun, I. c. 

136 EYES. 

eyes of the inhabitants of Darien open in a crescent shape 1 ; 
all blink during the day, which is also sometimes the case with 
people in good health, and even with the foetus, according to 
the observation of Wrisperg 2 , when the light is too strong. It 
was also observed in that youth whose epidermis I lately de- 
scribed, that this inconvenience was with him at its height during 
winter, when he could not endure the brightness of the snow, 
so that he stood in fear even of ice. In some the iris is in 
perpetual motion, and the pupils so unquiet that they can 
never distinguish minute objects, as letters 3 . The colours of 
the iris and choroid are various, but all rather pale, so that 
less light is absorbed, and the retina all the more affected. 

In some the eyes are rosy, as in the animals we mentioned. 
I have myself known such, two sons and the daughter of a 
French peasant 4 . Maupertuis and Voltaire differ in their de- 
scription of the eyes of 1744 Leuccethiopians who were seen at 
Paris ; for one calls them rosy, the other sky-coloured. They 
may however be reconciled if we follow Fontenelle 5 , who says 
that the iris, &c. appears red in a certain position of the eyes only. 
The man that Goldsmith saw had red eyes. Sky-coloured eyes 
are not however uncommon in this disease. For as this colour 
always denotes weak vision, according to Avicenna and Averroes, 
as quoted by Hermann Conring 6 , so especially it often occurs 
in our nuctalopes. The young man I knew had sky-coloured 
eyes. And those Malabars who suffer from white leprosy com- 
bined with luscitio, have eyes of a similar colour 7 ; and so also 
those who are said to exist in the kingdom of Loango 8 . Dap- 
per says they have grey eyes. I am not quite sure whether 
this is the disease under which the family of Jerome Cardan 

1 Wafer, p. 108. "Their eyelids bend and open in an oblong figure, pointing 
downward at the corners, and forming an arch or figure of a crescent with the 
points downwards. From hence, and from their seeing so clear as they do in a 
moon-shiny night, we used to call them moon-eyed." 

2 De vitafet. hum. dijudic. in Nor. Comm. Soc. R. Sc. Gotting. T. in. p. 179. 

3 Miss. JBer. Cont. xlvi. p. 1240. 

4 In the parish of Champniers, one-and-a-half leagues from Civray, 1763, were 
still alive. 

5 I. c. Hist. Ac. Par. 6 De hab. Germ. 

7 Tranq. Miss. Her. Cont. en. p. 637, and cvi. p. 1283. 

8 Voss. 1. c. p. 68. 


laboured. For he says, in his own life 1 , "my father was red, 
and had white eyes, and saw by night ; " and again, " my eldest 
son had eyes exactly like him;" and again, about the same 
child 2 , "like my father, with small, white eyes, which were 
never at rest;" and elsewhere about himself 3 : "In my early 
youth, immediately I awoke, though in extreme darkness, I 
saw everything exactly as if it had been bright day-light : but 
in a short time I lost this power. Even now I can see a little, 
but not so as to discern anything." 

Let so much suffice about external condition of the skin 
and eyes in those suffering under this disorder. There is still 
a little to be said about the rest of the constitution of then- 
body. In the first place, it does not follow that they all are 
either foul or dirty. We are told that many of them belong to 
the court of the king of Loango 4 . Certainly another was the 
mistress of the king of Bantam 5 , and such a woman of Malabar 6 
married an European soldier. She is described as of square body 
and round cheeks. And they seem at all events strong enough 
to do their business by night. In fact, it is said that they make 
hostile incursions into the neighbouring countries by night 7 , and 
that the Portuguese have carried off others from Guinea to 
Brazil, to make them work in the gold mines : this certainly 
would be a kind of life in which nactalopia would be of some use. 

Others seem to be of weak and feeble constitution. So 
Wafer speaks of the inhabitants of Darien 8 . The French of the 
parish of Champniers can scarcely stand being in the open air. 
The Malabars certainly cannot endure long journeys 9 , and are 
speedily fatigued 10 with the wind and the heat". The brightness 
of the sun makes their eyes water 12 , but they see pretty well in 
cloudy weather 13 . 

I p. m. 7. 2 p. 70. 

3 Be rer. variet. 1. VIII. c. XLIII. p. 161, T. III. Operum. 

4 Vossius, I. c. s Le Brun, I. c. 

6 Miss. Ber. Cont. cvi. p. \i 82. 

7 De Grbben, 1. c. Georg. Agricola, de Anim. subterr. They are driven away 
by burning funeral piles, because they cannot bear the lights. 

8 "A weak people in comparison of the other." 

9 Freylinghausen, I. c. 10 Miss. Ber. Cont. xxvi. p. 151. 

II lb. and Freylingh. I. c. 12 Wafer. 13 Freylinghausen. 


Examples prove that the mind and the intellectual faculties 
are in no respect affected by this disorder, but may remain 
perfectly sound. The young man I have so often spoken of, 
was well instructed in more than one of what they call the 
polite sciences. I have mentioned the schoolmaster of Malabar, 
who was clever at writing poetry. And if you like, you may 
consider Cardan a great luminary of art. 

These then are the phenomena and symptoms of the dis- 
ease. It still remains to be proved that it attacks nations at 
all times and in all places, and that it partly belongs to the 
endemic, and partly to the sporadic diseases. In both ways it 
was long since known to the ancients. A sporadic instance of 
it gave a handle to the Roman story which, under the title of 
Ethiopics, has been handed down to us by Heliodorus. King 
Hydaspes, it appears, hesitates to acknowledge his daughter 
Charicles as his own, when she suddenly laid claim to him, be- 
cause he and his wife were Ethiopians, whilst her skin was 
white. But Sisimithres, the advocate of Charicles, who had 
brought her up from infancy, explains the whole matter to the 
father : " she too was white," says he, " whom I brought up ; 
besides, the lapse of time agrees with the present age of the 
girl, since she is seventeen years old, which is just the time 
the child was exposed. Moreover, the appearance of the eyes 
bears me out ; and I recognize that the whole aspect of the 
countenance, and the beautiful figure which I now see, agrees 
with that which I then saw 1 ." Perhaps also the story of the 
female child Aristotle 2 speaks of may be thus explained, 
which was born of the adulterous connexion of a Sicilian woman 
with an iEthiop, and did not have the colour of her father, 
but in process of time gave birth to a son, who was entirely 
black, like his grandfather. The ancients knew this disorder 
also as endemic, so that they gave names to whole nations and 
regions in consequence. It seems probable that Albania, on 
the confines of the Caucasian mountains and Armenia 3 , had 

1 L. x. p. 477, ed. Bourdelot, Paris, 1619, 8vo. 

2 Hist. Anim. 1. vn. c. 6. 3 Plin. 1. VI. c. 13, p. 311. Hard. 


its name from this, about which Isigonus of Nice 1 speaks thus: 
" Some are born there with grey eyes, white from early child- 
hood, who see better by night than by day 2 . Another nation 
of this kind acquired the name of Leuccethiopes, hence trans- 
ferred to all who suffer from this disease. They are mentioned 
by Pomponius Mela 3 , Pliny 4 , Ptolemy 5 , and Agathemerus 6 , but 
are not noticed by Strabo, Julius Honorius 7 , Ister iEthicus 8 , 
the anonymous writer of Ravenna, &c. They do not however 
agree as to the country which the Leucoethiopes are said to 
inhabit. Mela and Pliny place them with the Libyco-Egyptians, 
near the Libyan sea. Joh. Reinhold, in the plates to his edition 
of Mela, about long. 50° N. lat. 15 . 9 But Ptolemy says the 
Leuccethiopes live under Mount Ryssa, which, according to 
D'Anville, is the name for Cape Verde. However that may be, 
it is enough for our purpose, that this disease was not unknown 
to the ancients. 

"We have seen that there are modern instances in the most 
different and widely separated jDarts of the earth; and it will 
be worth our while to add a few more, and in a few words 
to reckon them up in the order of our four varieties. I have 
carefully described a youth of our own Germany. Edm. Chap- 
man relates that instances have been known in Spain and 
France. Nic. Le Cat saw some children born at Ratisbon. 
I have already noticed the case of those in the parish of Champ- 
niers, and what Cardan says of his Italian family. G. Agricola 
and Olaus Magnus found men of this kind in Scandinavia. 
The accounts from Tranquebar tell us of many Malabars. They 
are contemptuously called there kakerlacken™, from their resem- 
blance to the eastern moth, which is a parti-coloured and noc- 
turnal insect. And this disorder occurs in Labrador, if indeed 

1 Plin. 1. viii. c. 2, p. 371. 

s Comp. Salmas. ad Solin. c. 15, and Gellius, Noct. Att. 1. IX. c. 4. 

3 L. 1. c. 4, p. 12, ed. L. B. 1743. On which see John de Watt. Thus they call 
some Ethiopians, who in comparison with others may be said to be whitish, neither 
altogether white, nor altogether black, p. 155, ed. Bas. 1543. 

4 L. v. c. 8, p. 252. Hard. 

5 L. IV. c. 6, p. 77, ed. Mich. Serveti, Lugd. 1541. 

6 Georg. 1. 1. c. 5. 7 Excerpt, cosmogr. 8 As is thought. 

9 Harduin on Plin. In the desert of Sahara. 

10 Calkalaken, Miss. Ber. cont. cm. p. 1283. Kalkalatten, cord. oil. p. 637. 


the Champagne girl, Le Blanc, belonged to the Esquimaux, as 
is most likely 1 . 

Leucoethiopians (if we may apply the old term to them 
also) of the second variety of mankind have been known in 
the islands of Java 2 , Borneo 3 , Manila 4 , and others near 
Ternata, and in New Guinea 5 and Otaheite 6 . Of the third 
variety, are found instances to the south beyond the foun- 
tains of the Nile 7 , and towards the river Senegal 8 , whose 
mouth lies under the Eyssadian promontory, and still further 
south in Guinea 9 , and its kingdom of Loango, and, finally, in the 
interior of Kaffraria 10 and the island of Madagascar 11 . The fourth 
variety can produce its Blafards on the isthmus of Darien, in 
the kingdom of Mexico 12 , in Tucuman, and Paraguay. 

But our digression from the subject of natural history and 
the varieties of mankind to pathology and diseases has been 
already too long. Those must bear the blame who have'' con- 
founded men suffering under disease with the beasts, which the 
dignity of mankind demanded should be separated, and each 
referred to their own place. 

It would be an immense and irrelevant labour, if I were 
to give an account of all the disorders which, according to the 
authors of medical observations, journals, &c, have occurred 
in the human body, in every quarter, contrary to nature. The 
transition from hence to monsters would be easy, and so on to 
general nosology; and thus the divine study of natural history 
would run up into a confused and formless mass. Let us leave 
therefore unnoticed, for physiologists and pathologists, the black 
and horny epidermis of the Italian boy 13 , or the Englishman 14 , 
and others, and similar peculiar aberrations from the natural 
condition. Nor have we anything to do with the dire disorder 

1 Hist, d'une jeune fille sauvage, &c. Par. 1761, nmo. Her countrymen 
were nuctalopes, and did business by night, &c, and she had luscitio, p. 36, &c. 

2 Leguat. T. 11. p. 136. 3 Voss. 4 Camelli, I. c. 
5 Voss. 6 Hawkesworth, Vol. 11. p. 188. Parkinson, p. 27. 

7 Voss. 8 Chapman. 9 Groben, Dondos. Portug. Albinos. 

10 Sim. v. d. Stel in Tachart, Siam, p. no. 

11 De Cossigny in Hist, de I Ac. des Sci. 1. c. 12 lb. 

13 Stalf. v. d. Wiel, Obs. cent. 11. p. 376, Tab. 11. stab. 12, fig. 1, 2, 3. 

14 The porcupine man. G. Edwards, Gleanings of Natural History, Vol. I. p. 212. 

SATYKS. 141 

of cretinism, which is by no means peculiar to the inhabitants 
of the Vallais, but has been noticed elsewhere 1 , though dis- 
torted here and there by wonderful stories 2 . 

It seems almost too much even to name in this place the 
centaurs, sirens, cynocephali, satyrs, pigmies 3 , giants, herma- 
phrodites, and other idle creatures of that kind. Still, I con- 
sider it necessary to spend a little time upon the men with 
tails, since they have fallen in with some modern patrons. 
There is an old story about the islands of the Satyrs in Pliny 4 , 
Ptolemy 5 , and Pausanias 6 , and often repeated afterwards by 
Marco Polo, Munster and others, that men exist there with 
shaggy tails, like the pictures of the satyrs, who are of incre- 
dible swiftness, &c. "When the passages in these writers have 
been compared, it seems most likely that these islands of the 
Satyrs answer to our Borneo, Celebes 7 , &c, and that the tailed 
apes have been taken for men. But a new story about men 
with tails to be found here and there has made much more 
to do. For partly, it is said, that men having tails are found 
about the city of Turkestan 8 , in the island of Formosa 9 , Borneo 10 , 
Nicobar 11 , &c; partly the very pictures of tailed men of this kind 
have been exhibited 12 . But upon a full consideration of the 
matter, there is much which leads to the belief that the whole 
story is founded upon the fictions I have spoken of. For, as to 
the accounts about them, many of them manifestly depend upon 
the narrations of others ; and they who say they have themselves 
seen tailed men of this kind bear no very good reputation. 

1 Haller, de vento Rupensi, Nor. Comm. Goett. T. I. p. 43. 

2 See in Guindant, Variat. de la nat. dans I'espece hum. Paris, 1771, 8vo. in 
Encycl. de Par. altered in ed. De Felice, T. xn. p. 312. 

3 Comp. the book of Tyson on these stories. Apes were generally palmed upon 
travellers, and this I suspect to have been the case with the Madagascar pigmies of 
Commerson, in De la Lande. See Rozder, 06s. Sept. 1775. 

4 1. VI. vil. c. 1. p.m. 374. 5 1. vi. c. 11. 6 In Attica. 

7 See after Tyson, Jo. Caverhill, On the knowledge of the ancients in the East 
Indies. Phil. Trans. Vol. lvii. p. 172. 

8 Pet. Rytschkov. Orenburg. Topogr. T. 11. p. 34. 

9 J. Ott. Helbig. Eph. N. C. Dec. L. ann. IX. p. 456. Hesse, Ost. ind. diar. 
p. 1 1 6. 

10 Will. Harvey, de Gen. p. 194, ed. oper. Lond. 1766. 

11 Nils Matthsson Kbping, Resa, ed. 4to. Wasteras, 1759, 8vo, p. 131. 

12 Martini on Buff. aUg. nat. Gesch. T. vi. p. 44. Tab. II. der geschwanzte Mensch. 













Non Jdc Centauros, non Gorgonas, Harpyci3que 
Iavenies; homiuem pagina nostra sapit, 

Maktial, Lib. X. Epigr. 4. 



Letter to Sir Josepli Banks. 

Index of the anthropological collection of the author, which he 
used in illustrating this new edition, viz. 

I. Skulls of different races. 

II. Very characteristic foetuses of the middle and the two 
extreme varieties. 

III. Hair and hairs of different races. 

IV. Anatomical preparations. 

V. Collection of pictures. 
Explanation of the plates. 



Difficulty of the question ; order of discussion ; external conform- 
ation ; erect position ; proved natural to man ; broad and flat pelvis ; 
relation of the soft parts to the human pelvis; the hymen, nymphse, 
and clitoris ; man a bimanous animal ; apes and kindred animals 
quadrumanous ; properties of the human teeth ; other peculiarities of 
man; internal peculiarities; internal parts which man has not; 
intermaxillary bone; difference of internal parts; functional pecu- 
liarities of man; mental peculiarities, laughter and tears; diseases 
peculiar to man; recapitulation of differences falsely ascribed to man. 



Object of this undertaking; what is species; application to the 
question of human species, or varieties; how the primitive species 
degenerates into varieties; phenomena of degeneration in animals; 



colour, hair; stature; proportion; form of the skull; causes of de- 
generation; formative force; climate; aliment; mode of life; 
hybridity; diseased hereditary dispositions; mutilations; are they 
propagated? cautions to be observed in investigating degeneration. 



Order of discussion; seat of colour; varieties of racial colour; 
causes of this variety; further illustration of causes; Creoles; mulat- 
toes; dark skin with white spots; singular mutations of colour; 
other properties of racial skin; agreement of hair and skin; varieties 
of racial hair; agreement of the iris with the hair; colours of the 
eye; racial face; varieties of racial face; causes thereof; racial form 
of skulls; facial line of Camper; remarks; norma verticalis ; racial 
varieties of skulls ; causes of the same ; racial varieties of teeth, and 
causes; other racial varieties; ears; breasts; genitals; legs; feet and 
hands; varieties of stature; Patagonians; Quimos; causes of racial 
stature; fabulous varieties of mankind; story of tailed nations jj 
diseased variety; epilogue. 



Varieties of mankind run into one another; five principal varie- 
ties; characteristics and limits; Caucasian; Mongolian; Ethiopian; 
American; Malay; divisions of other authors; remarks on the Cau- 
casian, &c; conclusion. 



There are many reasons, illustrious Sir, why I ought to 
offer and dedicate to you this book, whatever it may be worth. 

For besides my wish to express some time or other my 
sense of gratitude for the innumerable favours you have con- 
ferred upon me, from the time I came to have a nearer ac- 
quaintance with you; this very edition of my book, which now 
comes out with fresh care bestowed upon it, owes in great part 
to your liberality the splendid additions and the very remark- 
able ornaments in which it excels the former ones. For many 
years past you have spared neither pains nor expense to 
Enrich my collection of the skulls of different nations with those 
specimens I was so anxious above all to obtain, I mean of 
Americans, and the inhabitants of the islands of the Southern 
Ocean. And besides, when I visited London about three years 
ago, with the same generous liberality with which you extended 
the use of your nursery to our Gaertner, and other riches of your 
museum to others, you gave me in my turn the unrestricted 
use of all the collections of treasures relating to the study of 
Anthropology, in which your library abounds ; I mean the pic- 
tures, and the drawings, &c. taken by the best artists from the 
life itself. So I have been able to get copies of them and to 
describe whatever I liked, and at last, assisted by so many new 
and important additions, to proceed to the recasting of my 
book, and am bold enough to say, now it has been amplified in 


150 LINN-EUP. 

so many ways, without incurring any suspicion of boasting, that 
it has been polished and perfected as far as its nature permits. 

Accept then graciously this little work, which is so much in 
fact your own; and I hope that in this way it will not be dis- 
pleasing to you because it treats of a part of natural history, 
which though second to no other in importance, still has most 
surprisingly been above all others the longest neglected and 

It is one of the merits of the immortal Linnaeus, that more 
than sixty years ago, in the first edition of his Systema Naturae, 
he was the first, as far as I know, of writers on natural history, 
who attempted to arrange mankind in certain varieties according 
to their external characters; and that with sufficient accuracy, 
considering that then only four parts of the terraqueous globe 
and its inhabitants were known. 

But after your three-years' voyage round the world, illustri- 
ous Sir, when a more accurate knowledge of the nations who 
are dispersed far and wide over the islands of the Southern 
Ocean had been obtained by the cultivators of natural history 
and anthropology, it becam e very clear that the Linnse an di- 
vision of mankind could no longer be adhered to; for which 
reason I, in this little work, ceased like others to follow that 
illustrious man, and had no hesitation in arranging the varieties 
of man according to the truth of nature, the knowledge of 
which we owe principally to your industry and most careful 

Indeed though the general method of Linnaeus, of arranging 
the mammalia according to their mode of dentition, was very 
convenient at the time he founded it, yet now after so many 
and such important species of this class have been discovered, 
I think that it will be useful and profitable to the students of 
zoology, to give it up as very imperfect and liable to vast 
exceptions, and to substitute for that artificial system one more 
natural, deduced from the universal characteristics of the mam- 

I am indeed very much opposed to the opinions of those, 
who, especially of late, have amused their ingenuity so much 


with what they call the continuity or gradation of nature ; and 
have sought for a proof of the wisdom of the Creator, and the 
perfection of the creation in the idea, as they say, that nature 
takes no leaps, and that the natural productions of the three 
kingdoms of nature, as far as regards their external conforma- 
tion, follow one upon another like the steps in a scale, or like 
points and joinings in a chain. But those who examine the 
matter without prejudice, and seriously, see clearly that even 
in the animal kingdom there are whole classes on the one hand, 
as that of birds, or genera, as that of cuttle-fish, which can only 
be joined on to the neighbouring divisions in those kinds of 
plans of the gradation of natural productions but indifferently 
and by a kind of violence. And on the other hand, that there 
are genera of animals, as silkworms, in which there is so great 
a difference in the appearance of either sex, that if you wanted 
to refer them to a scale of that kind, it would be necessary to 
separate the males as far as possible from their females, and to 
place the different sexes of the same species in the most diffe- 
rent places possible. 

And in this kind of systems, so far from their being filled 
up, there are large gaps where the natural kingdoms are very 
plainly separated one from another. There are other things 
of this kind; and so although after due consideration of these 
things, I cannot altogether recognize so much weight and im- 
portance in this doctrine of the gradation of nature, as is com- 
monly ascribed to it by the physico-theologians, still I will 
allow this to belong to both these metaphorical and allegorical 
amusements, that they do not throw any obstacle in facilitating 
the method of the study of natural history. 

For they make as it were the basis of every natural system, 
the way in which things rank according to their universal con- 
dition, and the greatest number of external qualities in which 
they coincide with each other, whereas the artificial systems, on 
the contrary, recognize single characters only as the foundation 
of their arrangement. 

And when I found it was beyond all doubt that a natural 
system of that kind was preferable to an artificial one, because 


it is of such use in sharpening the judgment and assisting the 
memory, I applied myself all the more to bring the class of 
mammalia into the scope of a natural system of that kind, 
especially as that artificial one of Linnseus, deduced from com- 
parison of the teeth, in consequence of the accession of so many 
recently detected species in these times, came every day to be 
encumbered with more troublesome anomalies and exceptions. 
So that, for example, just to say a few words on this point, 
we now are acquainted with two species of rhinoceros, in 
their habit as like as possible to each other, but so different 
in their dentition, that if we were now obliged to follow the 
Linnsean system, we should have to refer one species to the 
Belluce, and the other to the Olires. And in like manner it 
would be necessary to remove the Ethiopian boar, which is 
destitute of the primary teeth, from the other Belluce and place 
it among the Bruta of Linnaeus. I say nothing of that African 
Myrmecophaga dentata which, according to the idea of Linnseus, 
would have to be separated from the genus edentata, or of some 
of the Lemures (the indri and laniger) which, on account 
of the anomalies of their dentition, would have to be sepa- 
rated from the Linnsean genus of Lemures. No one will deny 
that this confusion threw the greatest possible obstacles in 
the way of the study of zoology, and I have tried to remedy it 
by constructing the following ten natural orders of mammalia, 
a statement of which I may here subjoin, because I shall fre- 
quently make mention of them in the present work. 

I. Bimanus. in. Bradypoda. 

1. Homo. 6. Bradypus. 

II. Quadrumana. 7. Myrmecophaga. 

2. Simia. 8. Manis. 

3. Papio. 9. Tatu\ 

4. Cercopithecus. iv. Chiroptera. 

5. Lemur. 10. Vespertilio. 

1 I am very far indeed from that itch for innovation which afflicts so many of 
the moderns, who take a wonderful delight in giving new names to the natural 
productions which have already received names very well known to all; for this 
kind of playing at onomatopeia has been a great misfortune to the study of natural 



V. Glires. 

11. Sciurus. 

12. Olis. 

13. Mus. 

14. Marmota. 

15. Cavia. 

16. Lepus. 

17. Jaculus. 

18. Castor. 

19. Hystrix. 
VI. Ferae. 

20. Erinaceus. 

21. Sorex. 

22. Ta^a. 

23. Didelphis. 

24. Viverra. 

25. Mustela. 

26. Lutra. 

27. PAoca. 

28. J/eZes. 

29. C/mts. 

30. Canis. 

31. J». 

VII. Solidungula. 

32. Equus. 
viii. Pecora. 

33. Camelus. 

34. Capra. 

35. Antilope. 

36. 5o5. 

37. Gw-a/o. 

38. Cervus. 

39. Moschus. 
IX. Belluae. 

40. #ws. 

41. Tapir. 

42. Elephas. 

43. Rhinoceros. 

44. Hippopotamus. 

45. Trichecus. 
X. Cetacea. 

46. Monodon. 

47. Balama. 

48. Physeter. 

49. Delphinus. 

history. So I have very seldom deserted the terminology of Linnaeus in the 
systematic names of the mammalia, and then most unwillingly, and only when the 
name adopted by that learned man evidently involved an erroneous and false 
notion. So, for example, I have restored to the armadilloes the native generic 
name of Tatu, for the Linnaean Dasypus had nothing to justify it. We all know 
this name is Greek, and denotes an animal remarkable for its hairy feet, and so 
was given by the ancients to the hare and the rabbit, because in them above all 
others the palms and soles are most hairy, whereas it is scarcely necessary to men- 
tion how very different in habit the armour-bearing animals in the new world are 
from the rabbit. And so in the genus of bats, I think the name of vampyre should 
be restored to that species of South America which Linnteus called spectrum, and 
gave on the contrary the title of vampyre to that bat of the East Indies and of the 
islands of the Southern Ocean, which is commonly called the flying dog. But now 
it is known that the word vampyre means blood-sucker, and therefore is particularly 
applicable to that American bat, which is on this account very obnoxious to other 
animals and especially to man : but does not apply at all to the other one I men- 
tioned, namely, the canine, which is entirely frugivorous, and never, as far as I 
know, sucks the blood of other animals. 


These with everything else, where in the work of which 
this is the preface, I have on many points departed in opinion 
from others, I submit to your judgment, illustrious Sir, with 
equal respect and confidence, to you under whose most dignified 
and worthy presidency the Royal Society of Science rejoices to 
be, whose golden motto from its infancy has been, 'Nullius in 

Farewell, illustrious Sir, and be gracious to your most 
devoted servant. 

Dated from the University of the Georgia Augusta, April 
11, 1795. 





There are three special reasons why I have thought it worth 
while to insert here this index. 

First, that my learned and candid readers may know the quan- 
tity and the quality of the assistance taken from nature itself, with 
which I have succeeded at last in publishing this book. 

Secondly, that a testimony of my gratitude may remain for the 
noble munificence which my patrons and friends have thus far shown 
in enriching my materials for the extension of anthropological 

Lastly, that what I am still in want of may be known, which 
those same friends may further enrich me with, if they have a good 
opportunity and are still so disposed. 


Of this collection, which in number and variety is, so far as I 
know, unique in its kind, since the similar collections of Camper and 
John Hunter cannot in these respects be compared to it, I have pub- 
lished a selection, which I have described most fully in three decades, 
and illustrated with the most accurate engravings, and there I have 
given an account of the time and the way in which each skull came 
into my possession. And I always keep together with these trea- 
sures a collection of autograph letters, by which documentary evi- 
dence the genuine history of each is preserved. Those which seem to 
be in any way doubtful or ambiguous, I put in a separate place. 

A. Five very choice examples of the principal varieties of man- 

(a) The middle, or Caucasian variety. 

1. A Georgian woman, PI. in. Fig. 2, PI. IV. Fig. 3 (Dec 
cranior. illustr. in. Tab. xxi.), a gift of de Asch. 


Then the two extreme, or (b) Mongolian and (c) Ethiopic varie- 

2. A Reindeer Tungus, PL in. Fig. 1, PL iv. Fig. 2 (Dec. 
ii. Tab. xvi.), a gift of de Asch. 

3. A female African of Guinea, PL in. Fig. 3, PL I v. 
Fig. 5 (Dec. n. Tab. xix.), a gift of Steph. Jo. Van Geuns, 
Professor at Utrecht. 

Lastly, the two intermediate varieties, 
(d) The American, (e) The Malay. 

4. A Carib chief from the Isle of St Vincent, PL iv. 
Fig. 2 (Dec. i. Tab. x.), a gift of Sir Joseph Banks, 

5. An Otaheitan, PL iv. Fig. 4 (Dec. in. Tab. xxvi.), from 
the same. 

B. Five other specimens selected in the same way. 

(a) The Caucasian variety. 

6. Natolian of Tocat, gift of de Asch. 

(b) Mongolian. 

7. Chinese or Dalirian Tungus (Dec. ill. Tab. xxni.), from 
the same. 

(c) Ethiopian. 

8. Ethiop. (Dec. i. PI. 8), from Michael., aulic-counsellor 
of Hesse-Cassel, and Professor of Marburg. 

(d) American. 

9. Indian of North America (Dec. I. Tab. ix.), from the same. 

(e) Malay. 

10. New Hollander (Dec. in. Tab. xxvil), from Banks. 
For the demonstration of the 7wrma verticalis, s. 61. 

Caucasian variety. 

11. Tartar of Kazan (Dec. n. Tab. xn.), gift of de Asch. 


12. Y"acutan (Dec. n. Tab. xv.), de Asch. 


13. Ethiopian. Sommerring, aulic-counsellor, and Prof. 


Three other specimens by which, although they are partly deformed 
on purpose and partly by disease, the norma verticalis still ia 
well elucidated. 

14. Caucasian. Turk, de Asch. 

15. Mongolian. Calmuck (Dec. II. Tab. xiv.), de Asch. 

16. Ethiopian. Ethiop. (Dec. ii. Tab. xvn.), de Asch. 

Three skulls of infants, clearly demonstrating the norma verticalis. 

17. Caucasian. Jewish girl (Dec. in. Tab. xxvin.). 

18. Mongolian. Burat girl (Dec. in. Tab. xxix.), de Asch. 

19. Ethiopian. New-born Ethiop. (Dec. III. Tab. xxx.), 
Billmann, Cassel surgeon. 

Specimens remarkable for the manifest transitions by which they 
connect the different varieties of mankind. These hold a mid- 
dle place between the Caucasian and Mongolian. 

20. Skull of a Cossack of the Don (Dec. I. Tab. iv.), de Asch. 

21. Kirgis-Cossack (Dec. II. Tab. xin.), de Asch. 

22. Another of the same, de Asch. 

These between the Caucasian and Ethiopian. 

23. Egyptian mummy (Dec. I. Tab. i.). 

24. Genuine Zingari (Dec. n. Tab. n.), Pataki, physician of 

These between the Mongolian and American. 

25. 26. Esquimaux (Dec. in. Tabb. xxiv. xxv.), Jo. Loretz. 

Skulls deformed by particular arts in infancy. 

27. Macrocephalic, probably Tartar (Dec. I. Tab. in.), 
de Asch. 

28. Carib female (Dec. in. Tab. xx.), Banks. 

Remaining cranial collection. 

29. German. 

30. Female German. 

31. Young Jew. 

32. Old Jew. 

33. Dutch. Wolff, Utrecht physician. 

34. Frenchman. Sommerring. 

35. Italian, de Asch. 


36. Italian, Venetian. Michaelis, camp-physician of Han- 

37. Lombard. lb. 

38. Ancient Roman prsetorian soldier. Card. Steph. Borgia. 

39. Lithuanian of Sarmatia. de Asch. 

40. Calvaria of ancient Cimbrian. Bozenhard, imperial 
consul general in Denmark. 

41. 42. Finn, de Asch. 

43. Female Finn. 

44. Russian Zingari. 

45. Russian youth 1 . 

46. Russian old man. 

47. 48, 49, 50, 51. Russians of Muscovy. 

52. Female of Muscovy. 

53. Russian of Swenigorod. 

54. Old Russian youth. 

55. Russian of Wenewski. 

56. Romanoff. 

57. Ribno. 

58. Ribnisci. 

59. Kostroman. 

60. Female of Krasno. de Asch. 

61. Russian of Nyschenovogorod. 

62. Kursk. 

63. Orlov. 

64. Tartar of Orenburg. 

65. Tartar (probably of Kazan). 
GG, 67, 68. Tatars. 

69. Tschuwasch. 

70. Lesghi. 

71. Georgian. 

72. 73, 74. Female Turk. 

75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80. Calmucks of Orenburg (76, Dec. i. 
Tab. v.). 

81. Creole Ethiopian from New York. Michaelis, Marburg. 

82. Ethiopian of Congo (Dec. n. Tab. xviii.), de Asch. 

1 The very remarkable series of Ruthenian skulls from No. 45 to No. 63 
shews great diversity, but always more or less approaches the Mongolian, and is 
doubtless the product of mixed marriages. 



Foetuses remarkably characteristic of the middle and the two 
extreme Varieties. 

Caucasian variety, German twins of either sex, remarkable for 
their extreme beauty, four months old. 

Mongolian. Calmuck of Orenburg, female, third month. From 
D. Kosegarten. 

Ethiopian, Male Ethiopian, fifth month. Meyer, chief physician, 


Hair and Hairs of different Nations. 

Although at first sight these things may seem too minute, still 
it cannot be denied that a collection of this kind, when very varied, 
is of considerable use for accurate anthropological studies. I have 
here specimens of all the five principal varieties of mankind; some 
of them are sufficiently remarkable, about which I shall speak 
below ; as the piebald hair of the negress, variegated with white 
spots, whom I saw at London, &c. 


Anatomical Preparations. 

The greater part of these belong to the natural history of the 
Ethiopians. I have made copious mention of them in various parts 
of the book. 


Collection of Pictures of different Nations, carefully 
taken from the life by the first artists. 

It is clear that a collection of this kind, especially whenever it 
is invariably compared with such a collection of skulls as I have 
been giving an account of, is one of the first, principal, and authen- 
tic sources of anthropological studies; and so for the last twenty 
years I have taken an immense deal of trouble to collect a quantity 
of such drawings, taken from life, and what is very important, by 
good artists. There is indeed a large quantity of similar drawings 
in the books of travels and voyages; but when they are critically 


examined, very few are found which you can trust 1 . When we leave 
the representations of Corn, de Bruin in his Persian and Indian tra- 
vels, and the second voyage of the immortal Cook, illustrated by his 
own descriptions, and plates drawn by Hodges, we shall soon find 
that in almost all the others the plates, however splendid they may 
be, when we examine them closely, and compare them with genuine 
representations, or with nature, are scarcely of any use for the natu- 
ral history of mankind. It is necessary, therefore, for this object 
to bring together all the extant representations of foreign races, and 
the engravings, as well those edited separately as those scattered up 
and down in books, and also the very drawings made by the artist's 
own hand. I have collected a considerable quantity of them, amongst 
which are particularly conspicuous the figures of Wenc. Hollar, a 
great artist in this line, which are drawn in aqua fortis, and also 
the splendid plates of some modern English engravers ; to mention 
them singly would transgress the limits of an index. I will only 
give a list of some of the most remarkable of those which are done 
by the hand. 

Caucasian variety. 

1. Turkish woman; drawn with red chalk from the life at Ber- 
lin, by Dan. Chodowiecki, who gave it me with his autograph. 

2. Hindostan woman; drawn by an Indian painter with won- 
derful refinement and accuracy: given to me at London by Sam. 

Mongolian variety. 

3. Cossim Ali Khan, formerly nawab of Bengal, who after- 
wards became a Mohammedan faquir at Delhi. Drawn in colours 
by a Mohammedan painter, a Moor. It was given to me with the 
following one by Braun, now deceased, formerly British resident at 
Berne, and once a colonel in India. 

4. The wife of the last Mogul Emperor, Shah Allum, who 
died 1790; also drawn by an artistic hand 2 . 

5. Portrait of Feodor Irvanowitsch, a Calmuck, by himself; 
drawn in black chalk by his own hand, with incomparable skill and 

1 Comp. a passage to this effect in Volney, Humes, ou meditation sur les r&volv.' 
tions des empires, p. 349. 

2 I have ascribed these to the Mongolian variety, having regard to the origin 
of the present rulers of India, although from obvious causes they come very near 
the Hindostanee in appearance. 


taste, and a most exact likeness. Done at Rome, where he studied 
painting with the greatest success. This handsome present was sent 
me from Rome by Tatter, of the private British embassy. 

6. Two Chinese sailors. Painted at Vienna. A gift from Nic. 
Jos. de Jacquin, councillor of the imperial mint. 

7. Ettuiack, an Esquimaux magician; brought to London in 
1773 from the coast of Labrador. This, as well as the following 
picture, according to the autograph of Nathan. Dance in Banks' 
museum, was most carefully painted by the famous London painter, 
G. Hunnemann. 

8. Esquimaux woman, by name Caubvic (which in the language 
of those barbarians means a blind bear) ; she was brought with 
Ettuiack to London by Cartwright. 


9. Hottentot female of Amaqui. This, with the following one, 
comes from the collection of Banks. 

10. Boschman, with wife and child. 

11. Hottentot female. This portrait and the four succeeding 
ones were drawn from the life at the Oape of Good Hope, and sent to 
the Emperor Joseph II. at Vienna. Most cai-eful copies given me 
by de Jacquin. 

12. Karmup, Hottentot female of Namaqui. 

13. Kosjo, Hottentot female of Gonaga, on the borders of 

14. Koba, Caffir chief. 

15. Puseka, his daughter. 


1 6. An inhabitant of Tierra del FuegOj from Magellan's straits. 

17. Female of the same tribe. 


18. Two New Zealanders. 

19. New Zealand chief. 

20. Two youths of the same nation. 

All these, as well as the Fuegians, are taken from the collection 
made by Sir Joseph Banks in his voyage. 


1 62 PLATES. 


Plate III. 
A synoptic arrangement to illustrate the norma verticalis. 
Fig. 1 answers to fig. 1 of PL IV. 

Fig. 2 fig. 3 

Fig. 3 fig. 5 

Plate IV. 

Fire very select skulls of my collection, to demonstrate the diver- 
sity of the five principal human races. 

Fig. 1. A Tungus, one of those commonly called the Reindeer 
Tungus. His name was Tschewin Amureew, of the family of Gilge- 
girsk. He lived about 350 versts from the city Bargus; and cut his 
own thi'oat in 1791. Schilling, the head army-surgeon, was sent thence 
by Werchnelldinski, to make a legal inquiry as to the cause of his 
death; he brought back the skull with his own hand, and gave it to 
Baron de Asch. 

Fig. 2. The head of a Carib chief, who died at St. Vincent eight 
years ago, and whose bones, at the request of Banks, were dug up 
there by Anderson, the head of the royal garden in that island. 

Fig. 3. A young Georgian female, made captive in the last 
Turkish war by the Russians, and brought to Muscovy. There she 
died suddenly, and an examination was made of the cause of death 
by Hiltebrandt, the most learned anatomical professor in Russia. 
He carefully preserved the skull for the extreme elegance of its 
shape, and sent it to St Petersburg to de Asch. 

Fig. 4. The skull of a Tahitian female, brought at the request 
of Banks by the brave and energetic Captain Bligh, on his return 
from his famous voyage, during which he transported with the greatest 
success stocks of the bread-fruit tree from the Society Islands to the 
East Indies. 

Fig. 5. An Ethiopian female of Guinea; the concubine of a 
Dutchman, who died at Amsterdam in her 28th year. She was dis- 
sected by Steph. Jo. Van Geuns, the learned professor at Utrecht. 



1. Difficulty of the subject. He who means to write about 
the variety of mankind, and to describe the points in which the 
races of men differ from each other in bodily constitution, must 
first of all investigate those differences which separate man him- 
self from the rest of the animals. The same thing occurs here 
which we often see happen in the study of natural history, and 
especially of zoology, that it is much easier to distinguish any 
species from its congeners at the first glance by a sort of divina- 
tion of the senses, than to give an account of, or express in 
words those distinctive characters themselves. Thus we find it 
very easy to distinguish the rat from the domestic mouse, or 
the rabbit from the hare, but difficult to lay down the charac- 
teristic marks on which that diversity, which we all feel, de- 
pends. This difficulty of our present subject has been candidly 
and publicly confessed by the great authorities of the science ; _ — 
so much so that the immortal Linnaeus, a man quite created 
for investigating the characteristics of the works of nature, and 
arranging them in systematic order, says, in the preface of his 
Fauna Suecica, " that it is a matter for the most arduous in- 
vestigation to enunciate in what the peculiar and specific dif- 
ference of man consists ;" nay more, he confesses " that up to 
the present he has been unable to discover any character, by 
which man can be distinguished from the ape;" and in his 
Systema Naturae, he gives it as his opinion, " that it is won- 
derful how little the most foolish ape differs from the wisest 



man, so that we have still to seek for that measurer of nature, 
who is to define their boundaries ;" finally, he did not attribute 
to man any generic or specific character, but, on the contrary, 
ranked the long-handed ape as his congener. 

2. Order of treatment. Meanwhile I may be allowed to 
enumerate the points, in which, if I have any powers of obser- 
vation, man differs from other animals, and I mean to treat the 
subject thus: 

First, I shall enumerate those things which affect the ex- 
ternal conformation of the human body. 

Secondly, those which affect the internal conformation. 
Thirdly, the functions of the animal economy. 
Fourthly, the endowments of the mind. 
Fifthly, I mean to add a few words about the disorders 
peculiar to man. 

And sixthly, I shall reckon up those points, in which 
man is commonly, but wrongly, thought to differ from the 

3. External conformation. Under this head I place some 
characters, which, although they are closely connected with the 
structure of the skeleton, yet are shown by the external habit 
of body, which depends upon it ; and then the subsequent cha- 
racters, especially if they are looked at collectively, seem to 
suffice for a definition of mankind : 

(A) The erect position; 

(B) The broad, flat pelvis; 

(C) The two hands; 

(D) The regular and close set rows of teeth. 

To these heads all the other peculiarities which the human 
body exhibits, may be easily referred; and now let us examine 
them one by one. 

4. The erect position. Here it is necessary for us to prove 
two points : first, whether the erect position is natural to man ; 
secondly, whether it is peculiar to man (of which below, s. 10). 

WILD MEN. 16o 

The former is evident d, priori, as they say, from the very 
structure of the human body; and a posteriori from the unani- 
mous concurrence of all the nations of all time that we are 
acquainted with. It is no more necessary to spend any time on 
this, than on the argument to the contrary, which some are in 
the habit of bringing from the instances of infants who have 
been brought up among wild beasts, and found to go on all- 
fours. Those who look carefully at the matter will easily see 
that no condition can be conceived more different to that which 
nature has designed for man, than that of those wretched chil- 
dren alluded to; for we might just as well take some monstrous 
birth as the normal idea of human conformation, as take ad- 
vantage of those wild children to demonstrate the natural 
method of man's gait and life. Indeed, if we look a little more 
closely into these stories of wild children, it is more likely to 
turn out in the instances which are the most authentic, and 
placed beyond all doubt, as that of our famous Peter of Hameln ' 
(Peter the wild boy, Juvenis Hannoveranus Linn.), ofTKe^girl of 
Champagne 2 , the Pyrensean wild man 3 , and of others, that these 
wretches used to walk upright ; but in the stories of the others 
who are commonly said to go on all-fours, as the Juvenis ovinus 
Hibernus Linn., there are many things which make the story 
very doubtful, and of but indifferent credit 4 ; so that the Homo 
sapiens ferus of Linnaeus (Syst. Nat. ed. 12, Tom. I. p. 28) 
seems no more entitled to the epithet of four-footed than that 
of shagsfv. 

1 Comp. particularly Voigt, Magazinfur Physih und Naturgesch. T. iv. Part in. 
p. 91, and also Monboddo, Antient Metaphysics, Vol. ur. Lond. 1784, pp. 57, 367. 
How much importance the Scotch philosopher attaches to Peter of Hameln is 
proved amongst other passages by the following: "this phenomenon is more extra- 
ordinary, I think, than the new planet, or than if we were to discover 30,000 more 
fixed stars, besides those lately discovered." 

3 (De la Condamine) Histoire cVunejeumfille sauvage. Paris, 1761, nmo. 

3 Comp. Leroy, Sur V exploitation de la nature dans les Pyrenees. Lond. 1776, 
4to. p. 8. 

4 [Blumenbach's note here consists of extracts from the account of this Juvenis 
Hibernus by Tulp : but as that author is rare, I give instead the whole account at 
length. "The most acute sense of hearing would have been deceived by that 
genuine bleating which was heard by many others as well as myself to proceed 
from that Irish youth, who was brought up from infancy among sheep, and whom 
therefore it will be here worth while to describe exactly as he was. There was 


5. Man's structure proves that he was made upright by 
nature. It is irksome and tedious to go a long way about to 
demonstrate a thing so manifest and evident of itself ; but that 
pair of learned men, P. Moscati the Italian, and A. Schrage 1 
the Belgian, who have patronized the opposite paradox, prevent 
my leaving it quite alone. Still it will be enough to touch on 
a few points out of many. 

The length of his legs, in proportion to his trunk and his 
arms, show, at the first glance, that man was intended to be 
upright by nature. For, although I cannot agree with Dau- 
benton, who thinks 2 that no animal besides man has such 
large hind feet, which are equal in length to the breadth of 
his trunk and head; for this is negatived by the examples of 
several mammals, as the Simia lar and the Jerboa Capensis ; 
still it is plain to every one, that man is so made that he can 
in no wise go on all-fours; for even infants crawl by resting 
on their knees, although at that tender age the legs are smaller 
in the proportion we spoke of than in adults. 

It is not however the length only, but the remarkable 

brought to Amsterdam, and exposed to the eyes of all, a youth of sixteen years, 
who, being lost perhaps by his parents and brought up from his cradle amongst 
the wild sheep in Ireland, had acquired a sort of ovine nature. He was rapid in 
body, nimble of foot, of fierce countenance, firm flesh, scorched skin, rigid limbs, 
with retreating and depressed forehead, but convex and knotty occiput, rude, rash, 
ignorant of fear, and destitute of all softness. In other respects sound, and in 
good health. Being without human voice he bleated like a sheep, and being 
averse to the food and drink that we are accustomed to, he chewed grass only and 
hay, and that with the same choice as the most particular sheep. Turning in the 
same way every mouthful round, and taking account of each blade separately, he 
made his selection, and tasted now only this, and now only that, as they seemed 
more grateful, and more agreeable to his sense of smell and taste. 

"He had lived on rough mountains and in desert places, himself equally fierce 
and untamed, delighting in caves and pathless and inaccessible dens. He was ac- 
customed to spend all his time in the open air, and to put up equally with winter 
and summer. He kept as far as he could away from the lures of huntsmen, but 
at last fell into their nets, although he fled over uneven rocks, and precipitous 
cliffs, and threw himself most boldly into thorny brakes and sharp jungles, in 
which being at last entangled he fell into the power of the huntsman. His appear- 
ance was more that of a wild beast than a man ; and though kept in restraint, and 
compelled to live among men, most unwillingly, and only after a long time did he 
put off his wild character. 

" His throat was large and broad, his tongue as it were fastened to his palate." 
Tulp. 06s. Med. 1. IV. c. io, 5th ed. p. 296. Ludg. Bat. 1716, t2iqo. Ed.] 

1 See Verhandeling over cle Longteering in the journal called GeneesNatuur-en- 
Huishoud-kwndige Jaarboelen, T. ill. Part I. p. 32. 

3 Memoires de VAcad. des Sciences de Paris, 1764, p. 569. 


strength of the legs compared with the more delicate arms, 
which clearly shows that the former are intended by nature for 
the sole purpose of supporting the body. This is particularly 
made manifest by a fact derived from osteogeny, namely, that 
in the new-born infant the tarsal bones, and especially the 
heel-bone, ossify much quicker, and become perfect much 
sooner than the carpal. This is a natural provision, because 
the little hands have no necessity for exercising any force in 
the first years of life, whereas the feet have to be ready to sup- 
port the body, and provide for the erect gait towards the end 
of the first year. I say nothing of the powerful muscles of the 
calf of the leg, especially of the gastrocnemii interni, though 
these are made so strong and so prominent by nature to keep 
man upright, that, on that account, Aristotle, with the old 
anthropologists, thought that true calves should be ascribed to 
man alone. 

The whole construction of the chest shows that man cannot 
in any. way walk like the quadrupeds. For in the long-legged 
beasts the chest adheres to the sides as if squeezed forwards in 
a keel-like shape, and they have no collar-bone, so that the feet 
can more easily converge towards one another from each side, 
and in that way sustain the weight of the body more easily and 
more firmly. Besides, quadrupeds are provided either with 
a longer breast-bone, or with a larger number of ribs, descending 
nearer to the cristse ilei, in order to sustain the viscera in the 
horizontal line of the trunk. But all these things are different 
in man, the biped. His chest is more flattened throughout, 
his shoulders are widely divaricated by the insertions of the 
shoulder-blades, his sternum is short, his abdomen more desti- 
tute of bony supports than is the case with those animals we 
were speaking of; and there are things of the same kind which 
cannot escape any one who compares with the human skeleton 
even a few of the quadrupeds, especially the long-legged ones. 
All these considerations show how ill adapted the human 
frame is to a quadrupedal walk, and that it cannot be any- 
thing else to him but unsteady, trembling, and very irksome 
and fatiguing. 

168 PELVIS. 

6. The broad and flat human pelvis. What has been said 
gains particularly additional weight from the consideration of 
the human pelvis, whose clearly peculiar conformation again 
affords a diagnostic character by which man is made wonder- 
fully to differ from the anthropomorphous apes, and most 
manifestly and most decidedly from all and singular the other 

Although it may seem an affected paradox, yet the assertion, 
that a genuine pelvis is only to be found in the human skeleton 
might be defended. I mean that peculiar conjunction of the 
os innominatum with the sacrum and coccyx, which gives the 
appearance of a pelvis, or basin j for it is surprising how far the 
elongated ribs of the rest of the mammals differ from this 
basin-shaped formation. The termination of the ribs in the 
Simia satyrus and the elephant seem to come a little nearer 
the shape of the human pelvis than in other mammals whose 
skeletons I have examined. Still, in front the length is greater 
than the breadth, and behind they exhibit a very greatly 
elongated synchondrosis of the groin ; and in both that resem- 
blance to a basin which we spoke of is very much wanting, 
which is so conspicuous- in man alone, in the expansion of the 
bones of the ilium over . the linea innominata, and in the 
delicacy of the synchrondrosis, and also in the curvature of the 
os sacrum from the promontory and in the direction of the 
vertebrae of the coccyx towards the front. 

7. The relation of the adjoining soft parts to the form of 
the human pelvis. The hinder face of the pelvis gives the 
foundation to the glutsei muscles, of which the outermost or 
larger exceed in thickness all other muscles of the body, and 
being concealed by a remarkable stratum of fat from the 
buttocks. Their fleshy, useful, and semicircular amplitude, in 
which the podex is hidden, form, not only in the opinion of the 
classical authors of natural history, such as Aristotle 1 and Buffon 2 , 

1 De partib. animalium, IV. io. 

2 Hist. Nat. T. II. p. 544. "Buttocks belong to the human species alone." 

VAGINA. 169 

but also of the best physiologists, as Galen 1 and Haller 2 , the 
principal character in which man especially differs from the 
apes, who are manifestly destitute of fundament. 

Moreover, in consequence of that curvature of the os sacrum 
and the coccyx we mentioned, depends particularly the never- 
to-be-forgotten direction of the interior genital members of the 
female, and of the vagina also, the axis of which declines much 
more in front than in other female mammals from what is 
commonly called the axis of the pelvis. This makes, it is true, 
parturition more difficult, but, on the other hand, admirably 
guards against many other inconveniences, to which, especially 
during pregnancy, the woman, from her erect position, would 
be exposed. 

It is in consequence of this same direction of the vagina, 
that in mankind the weaker sex is not, like the females of 
brutes, retromingent. And also because in animals (as far as 
we know at present) the opening of the urethra does not 
terminate as in woman, between the exact lips of the puden- 
dum, but opens backwards into the vagina itself, as I have 
observed in these same anthropomorphous animals, the Papio 
maimon and the Simia cynomolgus, which I have anatomically 

And, according to this same direction of the female vagina, 
that question must be settled which has been often discussed 
from the time of Lucretius, what position is most convenient 
to man for copulation? 

" How best to prolongate the soft delight?" 

For although man may perform this ceremony in more ways 
than one, and this variety of worship has been considered by 
the low Latinists as one of the things in which he differs 

1 De usu partium, xv. 8. Spigel, De humani corporis fabrica, p. 9, has cleverly 
elaborated the physico-theological theory of this prerogative. "Man alone of all 
animals can sit conveniently, since he has large and fleshy buttocks, which serve 
for a seat and cushion, when his stomach is full, in order that he may sit without 
annoyance, and easily apply his mind to reflection on divine subjects." 

2 De corp. hum. functionibus, T. I. p. 57. "Nor are the apes distinguished 
from men by any mark easier than by this." 

170 HYMEN. 

from brutes, still physical causes sometimes interfere to in- 
duce him to copulate 1 

"Like beasts or quadrupeds are used to do." 

Still the proportion of the virile member to the vagina seems 
better adapted for the usual mode of venery 3 . 

8. Remarks on the hymen, nymphce, and clitoris. In order 
to finish at one and the same time all those delicate matters 
which belong to the female part of mankind, I must here throw 
in something about the hymen, which little membrane, so far as I 
know, has hitherto been found in no other animal. Though I 
have examined the females of apes and papios with that view, I 
have never been able to find any vestige of it, or any remains 
changed into the carunculce myrtiformes; nor was I more 
successful with the female elephant which was led about Ger- 
many many years ago, whose genitals I particularly examined, 
because I had been told that Trendelnburg, a famous physician 
of that day at Lubeck, had observed some kind of hymen in 
that beast. This little appendage to the female body is all 
the more remarkable, because I cannot imagine that any physi- 
cal utility attaches to it. At the same time I am not much 
satisfied with the conjectures the physiologists offer as to the 
purpose of the hymen ; and least of all with what Haller rather 
weakly suggests, " since it is found in mankind alone, it must 
be admitted that this sign of virginity was given for moral 

1 Comp. Carpi (Berengarius), Commentaria super anatomia Mundini, p. 13. 
"Man of all animals copulates by embraces and caresses in different positions, and 
is detestable for this, because he is more wicked and voluptuous and diabolical 
than rational." 

2 Kasrnpf. Enchiridium Mediaim, p. 181. 

3 When I was at London two years ago, I looked over the vast treasury of 
engravings preserved in the library of the King of Great Britain ; and was particu- 
larly struck with and most carefully studied that famous volume of drawings re- 
lating both to human and comparative anatomy, etched by the great painter Leon- 
ardo da Vinci. Amongst them I observed particularly that remarkable and, in its 
way, unique representation of the copulation of a man with a woman, in which the 
trunk of each is so exposed to view, that the relation I hinted at, of the genital 
member when in a state of tension to the direction of the vagina, is made quite 
plain. I am indebted for a most accurate copy of this very clever print to the 
kindness of that most amiable man and excellent artist, John Chamberlaine, librarian 
of that Royal collection. 


Linnaeus seems to have been in doubt whether the females 
of other kinds besides women are endowed with the nymphas 
and the clitoris. But I have proved myself that neither of 
those parts is peculiar to mankind. I have, following many 
other most competent witnesses, clearly observed the clitoris 
in many sorts of mammals of different orders, and frequently 
have found it very large as in the Papio maimon and the 
Lemur tardigradus; but most prodigious of all, about the 
size of a fish, in a specimen of the Balwna hoops about 
fifty-two feet in length, which I carefully examined when it 
was thrown on the shore in Dec. 1791, near Sandfurt in 
Holland. As to the nymphse, I have found them exactly 
like human ones in a Lemur Mongoz, which I kept alive 
myself for many years. 

9. Man a bimanous animal. From what has been so far 
said about the erect stature of man follows that highest pre- 
rogative of his external conformation, namely, the freest use of 
two most perfect hands. By this conformation he so much ex- 
cels the rest of the animals, as to have given rise to that old 
saying of Anaxagoras, which has been cooked up again in our 
time by Helvetius, "that he thought man was the wisest ani- 
mal, because he was furnished with hands." This is rather too 
paradoxical : the assertion of Aristotle seems nearer the real 
truth, "that man alone has hands, which are real hands." 
For in the anthropomorphous apes themselves, the principal 
feature of the hands, I mean the thumb, is short in pro- 
portion, and almost nailless, and to use the expression of 
the famous Eustachius, quite ridiculous: so that it is true 
that no other hand, except the human hand, deserves the 
appellation of the organ of organs, with which the same 
Stagyrite glorifies it. 

10. Apes and the allied animals are quadrumanous. Apes 
and the other animals, which are commonly called anthropo- 
morphous, of the genera of Papiones, Cercopitheci and Lemures, 
ought not in reality to be called either bipeds or quadrupeds, 
but Quadrumana. For their hind feet are furnished with a 
second genuine thumb, not with the great toe, which is given 


to the biped, man, alone 1 ; indeed their feet deserve the name 
of hands more than their anterior extremities, since it is plain 
that they are adapted for purposes of prehension ; and one kind 
of cercopithecus (G paniscus) is endowed with a thumb, which 
is wanting in the anterior hands ; but it has never been ob- 
served of any quadrumanous animal, that it is destitute of the 
thumb of the hind-hands. 

Hence too it will be easy to settle the dispute which has 
been raised about the Simia satyrus and other anthropomor- 
phous apes, namely, whether it is natural for them in their 
own woods to go as bipeds, or as quadrupeds. Neither one 
nor the other. For since the hands are not meant for walking 
upon, but for prehension, it is at once plain, that nature has 
designed these animals to spend their lives principally in trees. 
These they climb, on these they seek for their food, and so 
they want one pair of hands to support them, and the other 
pair to pluck fruits with, and other things of the kind ; and 
for the same end nature has provided many of the cercopitheci, 
who are furnished with but imperfect hands, with a prehensile 
tail, in order that they may have a more secure hold upon 

It is scarcely necessary to point out that it is the result of 
art and discipline if any apes are ever seen to walk erect, and is 
plain from any drawings of the Simia satyrus 2 , which have been 
taken carefully from the life, how inconvenient and unnatural 
that affected position of theirs is, in which they are made to 
lean with their fore-hands on a stick, their hind-hands meanwhile 
being collected in an unmeaning way into a fist 3 . Nor have 
I ever come across any example of an ape, or any other mam- 
mal except man, who can, like him, preserve an equilibrium 

1 That extraordinary lover of paradoxes, Robinet (T. v. De la nature, Tab. 9), 
exhibits the drawing of an embryo, which he gives out for that of the Simia satyr- 
us: although it is plain at the first glance from the feet alone, which are furnished 
with a great toe, not a thumb, that it is a human foetus. 

2 See for example the monograph of Vosmaer. 

3 Linnaeus therefore was mistaken when he said, "that there were apes which 
walked with body erect on two feet like man, and who reminded one of the human 
species by the use they made of their feet and hands." 


when standing erect on one leg at a time. Hence it is clear 

that the erect posture, as we find it to be naturally convenient 

to man, so also is it peculiar to him. Thus 

" Mankind alone can lift the head on high 
And stand with trunk erect." 

11. Properties of the human teeth. The teeth of man are 
more regular than those of any other mammals. The lower 
incisors are more erect, which I reckon amongst the distinctive 
characters of the human body. The laniarii are neither too 
prominent, nor set too far back, but joined in the same line 
with their neighbours. The molars have singularly round ob- 
tuse crowns, by which they most clearly differ from the molar 
teeth of the Simla satyrus and the S. longimana, and all the 
other species of this genus whose skulls I have examined. 
Finally, the mandibles of man are distinguished by three cha- 
racters : by their excessive shortness; the prominence of the 
chin, which corresponds with the erect incisors; but, above all, 
by the singular shape, direction, and junction of the condyles 
with the temporal bones, which certainly differ from the jaws 
of all other animals I am acquainted with, and which clearly 
prove that man is destined by nature for all kinds of food, or is 
an animal truly omnivorous, 

12. Other things which seem peculiar to the exterior of man, 
as his hairless body, &c. I shall say nothing about some points 
of less importance which are frequently classed among the dis- 
tinctive characters of man, such as the lobe of the ear, the 
swelling of the lips, especially the under one, and other things 
of that kind. But I must dispose in a few words of the glassy 
smoothness of the human body, and inquire how far it can be 
included among the diagnostic signs by which man differs from 
other mammals, who are in some way like him. Linnaeus in- 
deed asserts, " that there are some regions where there are apes 
less hairy than man;" but I candidly confess that I have 
hitherto made fruitless inquiries as to whereabouts these apes 
may be. On the contrary, it is proved by the unanimous con- 
sent of all travellers who are worthy of credit, and by the spe- 
cimens of those animals which have' been seen frequently in 


Europe, that those anthropomorphous apes which are usually 
included under the common Malay name of Orang-utan, and 
which are indigenous to Angola as well as to Borneo, and also 
the S. longimana, are naturally much more shaggy than man: 
insomuch that those which are not even adult, and have deli- 
cate health, still are more hairy than man. Though this po- 
sition is beyond all doubt, yet it is the fact that men have been 
observed everywhere, and especially in some of the islands of 
the Pacific ocean, remarkable for their shaggy bodies; but accu- 
rate descriptions of them are still wanting. 

The first mention of them occurs in the nautical expeditions 
of the famous Spangberg 1 , who, on his return to Kamschatka 
from the coast of Japan, relates that he found a nation of this 
kind on the most southern of the Kurile islands 2 (lat. 43° 50'). 
Anomalous individuals of the same kind were observed, but 
only here and there, among the inhabitants of the islands of 
Tanna, Mallicollo, and New Caledonia, by J. R Forster 3 . There 
is a report of a similar race in Sumatra 4 , which is said to in- 
habit the interior of the island, and is called Orang-gugu. As, 
however, man is in general conspicuous for his smooth and even 
skin, so, on the other hand, some particular parts of the human 
body seem to be more hairy than in brute animals, as the groin 
and the arm -pit, which characteristic has accordingly been 
ranked among those peculiar to man. 

13. Remarkable properties of the human body as to its in- 
ternal fabric. Having mentioned what was necessary about the 
absolute properties of the external human body, we are now 
brought to another point of the discussion, that is, his internal 
fabric; about which however our narrow limits compel us to 
follow Neoptolemus, and philosophize in a very few words. It 
will be necessary to divide this discussion into two heads; first, 

1 Miiller's Sammlung Russischer geschichte, T. in. p. 174. 

2 Beyond doubt Nadigsda island, about whose inhabitants, though only by 
hearsay, the companion of the great Cook, James King, received the same story. 
Voyage to the Northern Hemisphere, T. in. p. 377. 

3 See his Bemerkungen auf seiner reise um die Welt. p. 218. 

4 Marsden, the classical author on that island, tells us what he heard about 
them. Hist, of Sumatra, p. 35 n. 


by investigating those things which man alone, or only a few- 
other animals with him, has not got ; secondly, those things 
which are peculiar to him. 

14. Internal parts which man is without. Those parts 
which are found in mammals, and especially in the domestic 
ones, were once, when the opportunities of dissecting human 
corpses were rare or were entirely neglected with the taste 
for dissection, generally almost all attributed to man. Thus, 
for example, the panniculus carnosus or subcutaneous muscle, 
which was wrongly ascribed to him by Galen and his followers, 
and even by the restorer of human anatomy himself, I mean 
Vesalius, who was an acute critic of the mistakes of Galen, was 
properly denied to him by Nicolas of Steno, and ascribed to 
brute animals alone. 

The rete mirabile arteriosum, which was also reckoned by 
Galen amongst the parts of the human body, was demonstrated 
to be wanting in man by Vesalius, following Berengarius of Carpi. 

The musculus oculi suspensorius s. bulbosus s. septimus, with 
which the four-footed mammals are furnished, was first shown 
to be wanting in man according to the plan of nature by 
Fallopius. It has lately been found out that the human foetus 
has no allantoid membrane, which is common to almost every 
other mammal. 

I say nothing of other parts which though found in but few 
genera of brute animals, nevertheless have been sometimes 
falsely attributed to man, as the so-called pancreas aselli, ductus 
hepaticystici, corpus Highmorianum, &c. or those which are be- 
stowed on some orders of mammals alone, but are so manifestly 
denied to man, that no one would readily attribute them to him ; 
among which I mean the membrana nictitans (which for the 
sake of the order of discussion I thought it better to mention 
here, although it rather belongs to the external parts) and the 
ligamentum suspensorium colli, and all other things of that kind. 
Man shares the foramen incisivum behind the upper primary 
teeth with the quadrupeds, but it is smaller in proportion and 
simple, whereas in most of the other mammals it is double, and 
in many of vast size. 


15. The intermaxillary hone. An account of this remark- 
able bone is given separately for more reasons than one. The 
bones of the upper jaw which in man are contiguous to each 
other, and keep all and each of the upper teeth fixed in their 
place, in brutes are separated from one another by a singular 
third bone shaped like a wedge inserted between them. This 
bone is called by Haller the os incisivum, because the upper 
incisors (where there are any) are fitted in it. As however it is 
also found in those mammals who are destitute of such teeth, 
as cattle, the elephant, the two-horned African rhinoceros, or 
those which belong to the Edentata, as the anteaters and the 
Balsenge, I think it had better be called the os intermaxillare 1 . 
In some this bone is one and indivisible; but in many bipartite, 
and in all distinguished by its own sutures from the neighbour- 
ing bones of the skull ; one, the facial, generally extending in 
both directions along the nose to the extreme sockets of the 
incisors, the other, the palatine, running in a curved direction 
from those sockets to the foramina palatina. 

When, therefore, Camper brings forward the want of this 
bone as one of the principal characters by which man differs 
from other mammals, a double question arises ; First, Is man 
really without it ? secondly, Are all the rest of the mammals 
provided with it ? It was about two centuries and a half ago 
when this question first gave scope to a most bitter dispute 
between anatomists. Galen indeed has reckoned the sutures 
of what we have called the intermaxillary bone among the 
others of the skull, but Vesalius made use of this argument 
besides many others, to show that Galen had composed his 
osteological hand-book, which had so long been accepted as law, 
not from the skeleton of a man, but from that of an ape. It 
was thought after the vain attempts of Jac. Sylvius to vindi- 
cate 2 his Galen by the most wretched excuses, that this whole 

1 It is called by the famous zootomists Vitet and Vicq. d'Azyr os maxillare 
inferius; and by Blair, in his osteography of the elephant, os palati. 

' 2 He so twists about in endeavouring to save his divine Galen, that at last he 
drops down to this excuse, that although men of the present day have no inter- 
maxillary bone, yet at the time of Galen they might have had one ; and so this is 


question was completely put an end to, when beyond all 
expectation even in our own time, Vicq d'Azyr has attempted 
to demonstrate an analogy between the human and animal 
constitution as far as the os intermaxillare goes, as if it were 
quite a new thing 1 . The only vestige of similitude on which 
that analogy rests, namely, the semilunar fissure, which may 
be seen in the maxillary bones of the human foetus, and of 
infants, in a transverse direction behind the sockets of the 
incisors, and which sometimes remains even in adults, has long 
been very well known 2 . It was, however, well pointed out more 
than two hundred years ago according to natural truth by the 
sagacious Fallopius 3 , that the fissure in question was ill desig- 
nated by the term suture. It is not necessary to mention that 
the facial side of the maxillary bones in the human skull is 
marked by no fissure, or even suture, of this kind, though it 
is conspicuously so in apes 4 . 

As to the other question, whether man is the only mammal 
who is destitute of the intermaxillary bone, I must equally 
confess, that I have in vain sought for it in many skulls of the 
Quadrumana. The sutures which would indicate this bone are 
wanting in the skeleton of the dead female Cercopiihecus which 
is preserved in the museum of the University, whose skull 
in other ways shows the remaining sutures well enough. Nor 
did I find them either in another skeleton of the same species, 
belonging to Billmann, the clever surgeon of Cassel, which how- 
ever was old at the time of death and has many of the sutures 
obliterated, so that from this single specimen it would have 
been impossible to come to any conclusion. 

do reason for attacking the prince of anatomists — "but there are some natural 
obstructions, which have taken possession of our bodies from intemperance in diet 
and venery, and from immoderate vice." 

1 Memoires de VAcad. des Sciences de Paris, 1780. 

2 See the figures of Vesalius and Coiter. 

3 "I do not agree," says he, "with those who give out publicly that they have 
found out a suture under the palate attached in a transverse direction to either 
canine, which is plain in boys, but so obliterated in adults, that no vestige of it 
remains. For I consider this to be rather an indentation than a suture, since it 
does not separate one bone from another, nor show on the outside." 

4 Eustachius, Tab. Anat. 46, fig. 2. 



But I am acquainted with a third specimen of the same 
Cercopithecus, for the knowledge of which I am indebted to my 
friend Schacht, the worthy Professor of Harderovich, and in this 
too that bone is absent. So that it seems scarcely worth while 
to inquire about the presence or absence of this bone in any 
other specimens of this animal. In the ugly skeleton of that 
truly vast anthropomorphous ape from the island of Borneo, 
which I have examined carefully over and over again in the 
collection of Natural History belonging to the Prince of Orange 
at the Hague, I did not see the smallest vestige of those 
sutures; but that this ape was full grown is proved not only by 
the general condition of the skeleton, but also by the coalition 
of most of the sutures of the skull 1 . 

Such, however, is not the case with the skull of a younger 
anthro]3omorphous animal of the same kind, the remains of 
whose skeleton I dissected at London in the British Museum. 
An old label yet attached to it informs us that it belongs to the 
ape they call orang-utan, and was brought from the island of 
Sumatra, by the captain of the ship ' Aprice.' In this skull not 
a shadow of the sutures of the intermaxillary bone was to 
be found, although the remains of all the others are without 
exception still apparent. Neither did Tyson find them in his 
Angolese Satyr, nor does the figure in Daubenton of the skull 
of a similar animal, from the same locality, exhibit them. How- 
ever then this may be, it is certain, what may also be held a 
character of man, that in the skulls of the apes I have been 
speaking of, the jaws are very prominent and projected forward 
as in the other mammals. 

16. Differences between some internal parts of man and 
those of other animals. It must be seen at once that we can 
only speak here of a few of these differences, and those the most 
remarkable. To begin with the head, besides some things of 
less moment, man has, as it seems, the smallest crystalline lens 

1 I wonder Camper should be of the opposite opinion, for he says that this is 
the skeleton of an anthropomorphous ape not yet adult. Naturgeschichte des Orang- 
utang, p. 146. 

ARENULJi. 179 

(the cetacea excepted) in proportion, and it is less convex in the 
adult than in other animals; the large occipital foramen is placed 
more forward than in quadrupeds \ and there are other things of 
the same kind. The mass of the brain is the largest of all, 
not indeed (according to the opinion which has prevailed from 
the time of Aristotle) in proportion to the whole body, but, 
according to the able observation of Sommerring, when account 
is taken of the slenderness of the nerves which issue from it 2 . 
For if the whole nervous system was divided from a physiolo- 
gical point of view into two parts, one, the nervous part properly 
so called, which embraces the nerves themselves and that por- 
tion both of the brain and the spinal marrow which lies close to 
their commencement; and the other, or sensorial part, which 
lies nearer the knot where the functions begin to coincide with 
the faculties of the mind, we should find that man has much 
the largest share of that nobler sensorial part. 

That too is equally remarkable, the knowledge of which we 
also owe to the sagacity and acuteness of Sommerring, that the 
arenulce of the pineal gland so often already observed by others, 
are so constantly and perpetually found in human brains, from 
the fourteenth year of age upwards, that they also deserve to 
be reckoned amongst the peculiarities of man 3 . Once only, in 
the pineal gland of a stag, did he find similar arenulse. And if 
they are ever really absent in the encephalon of an adult man, 
it certainly must be considered a very rare anomaly. One in- 
stance of this absence I owe to the famous physiologist of 
Padua, L, M. A. Caldani, who writes me word, that out of four 
human brains which he examined in 1786 with that object, 
there was only one, and that of an old man, in which no vestige 
of a pineal arenula was to be found. 

The position of the heart is peculiar to man, and is said to 
be in the chest, because that entrail does not rest as in quadru- 

1 Daubenton, Memoires de I' 'Acad, des Sc. de Paris, 1764. 

2 See his Diss, de basi Encephali. Gotting. 1778. lb. Tiber die Korperliche Ver- 
schiedenheit des Negers vom Europaer, and Ebel (J. G-.), Observations neurolog. ex 
anatome comparata, Frankf. ad Viad. 1788. 

3 Sommerring, De capillis vel prope vel intra glandulam pinealerti sitis. Mogunt. 
1785. A figure is given in Diss, de decussatione nervorum opticorum, ib. 1786. 



peds upon the sternum, but in accordance with the erect posi- 
tion, on the diaphragm. Its base too is not as in them at right 
angles to the head, but to the vertebrae of the chest, like the 
tip of the left breast, and hence in them the heart lies right and 
left, whereas in man it rather has a front and back. Scarcely 
any other mammals beside man have the pericardium adhering 
to the diaphragm. The alimentary canal is just as perfect as 
it ought to be in an omnivorous animal. You might say man. 
resembled the carnivores in the structure of the ventricle, and 
the shortness of the blind intestine; on the other hand, he is 
different from the herbivores in the length of the thin intestine, 
and its great diversity from the thick one; in the bulbous 
colon; in the absence of the sebaceous glands which secrete 
smell behind the anus. The muliebria too are different in 
man besides what has been already mentioned, in the singular 
parenchyma of the womb; and the early foetus is remarkable 
for the texture of the placentum, the length of the umbilical 
funnel and the singular umbilical vein. So far as I know, the 
hitherto enigmatical vesicula umbilicalis is peculiar to the young 
human embryo; and I have mentioned elsewhere 1 , that it is 
common and natural to every human foetus about the fourth 
month after conception, where I also have said something about 
the analogy it bears to the yolk-like bag of the chicken during 

17. Peculiarities of man, in respect of the functions of 
animal economy. Here especial mention must be made of the 
peculiar tenderness and delicate softness of the human tela 
mucosa, or cellulosa, as it is commonly called. It is well known 
that there is a most remarkable difference in the different 
genera and species of animals as regards the substance of this 
tissue; that of eels being very tenacious, that of the herring 
being very tender: and so it was long since observed by our 
Zinn, a most eagle-eyed anatomist, that man, other things being 
equal, had beyond all other mammals the most delicate and 
subtle cellular substance. 

1 Comment. Soc. Reg. Sclent. Gbttmg. T. ix. p. 116. 


I am either very much mistaken, or the softness of that 
envelope is to be counted amongst the chief prerogatives by 
which man excels the rest of the animals. For as this mem- 
brane is on the one side diffused over all parts of the body 
from the corium to its inmost marrow, and is interwoven like a 
chain with all and every part of the whole machine, and on the 
other is the seat of that most universal of all vital forces, con- 
tractility, next to which the dynamic power called after Stahl 
seems to come, I am thoroughly persuaded that to the flexible 
softness of this mucous membrane in man is owing his power 
of accustoming himself more than every other mammal to every 
climate, and being able to live in every region under the sun. 
As then nature has made man omnivorous in the matter of 
food as we have seen, so in respect of habitation it has intended 
him to dwell in every country and climate (iravrohaTrov) : and so 
his body has been composed of a most delicate mucous compo- 
sition, that he may adapt and accommodate himself more 
easily to the multifarious effects of different climates. 

To this aptitude for accommodation admirably answers that 
other physiological property of man, namely, his slow growth, 
long infancy and late puberty. In no other mammal does the 
skull unite or the teeth appear so late; no other animal is 
so long learning to stand upon its feet, or in arriving at its full 
stature, or so late in coming to the exercise of the sexual 
functions. In another point of view no other animal, consider- 
ing the moderate size of his body, has allotted him by nature 
so protracted a term of life 1 . This incidental mention of his 
stature recalls to my mind that other singular property which, 
as far as I know, has been observed in no other animal, and 
which depends upon his erect position, namely, that his height 

1 It is scarcely possible to define the natural duration of human life, though 
we may consider it to be the more common and, as it were, ordinary goal of pro- 
tracted old age. It is worthy of remark, what I have learnt from a careful com- 
parison of many tables, that a considerable number in proportion of European old 
men attain the age of 84, whilst few survive it. Account therefore being taken of 
human longevity, and comparing it with the duration of the lives of other mam- 
mals, it is at once seen what a prerogative is bestowed upon man under that name, 
or at all events that his long infancy is compensated for with interest. 


in the morning exceeds by somewhat more than a finger's 
breadth his height in the evening 1 . 

There are also some particulars to be mentioned about the 
sexual functions. Man has everywhere no particular time of 
year, as the brutes, in which he desires to copulate 2 . To men 
alone is conceded the prerogative of nocturnal pollutions, which 
I am inclined to consider as natural excretions of the healthy 
man, to the intent that he may be thereby freed from the 
annoyance and stimulus of superfluous semen when it is suitable 
to him on account of his temperament or constitution. The 
menstrual flux, on the other hand, is not less peculiar to women, 
and is more universal and common to all, so that I think Pliny 
was right in calling woman the only menstruating animal. I 
am indeed aware that a flux of the same kind has been fre- 
quently attributed by authors to other female animals, especially 
those of the quadrumanous order ; thus, for example, the Simia 
Diana is said to menstruate from the tip of its tail, &c. But 
for twenty years I have had opportunities of seeing female apes 
and papios, &c. in menageries, or in travelling caravans, and 
have made inquiries about this subject. I often found that one 
or other of them sometimes suffered from uterine haemorrhages, 
but that they occurred at no regular period. Such was the 
assertion of the more honest keepers, who looked on it as a kind 
of diseased affection contrary to nature, and most of them can- 
didly confessed, that they generally gave it out for a menstruous 
flux, in order to excite the astonishment of the mob. As to the 
fabulous stories of credulous antiquity about whole nations 
whose women are destitute of the menstruous flux, I shall 
briefly speak of them in another place. 

18. Faculties of the mind which are peculiar to man. All 
with one voice declare that here is the highest and best pre- 

1 This was first observed in 1724 by an English clergyman, Wasse. Pliilos. 
Trans. T. xxxiii. 

2 Unless you like to believe Augustine Nipho, who in his singular book on 
love (which he dedicated to Joan of Aragon, famous for her extreme beauty), 
discusses the reasons which cause "women to be more lustful and amorous in 
summer, but men on the other hand in winter." 

REASON. 183 

rogative of man, the use of reason. But when any one inquires 
more particularly what these words mean, we must needs 
wonder how many different reasons about the meaning of reason 
are entertained by the most reasonable philosophers. Some 
think it is altogether a quite unique and peculiar faculty of 
man, others but the elevated and very superior grade of a 
faculty, of which only slight vestiges are to be found in the soul 
of brutes. Some look upon it as the union of all and singular 
the highest faculties of man; others a particular direction of 
the faculties of the human mind, &c. 

'It is not ours to settle such disputes.' 

I trust to resolve the question more briefly and safely, h pos- 
teriori as they say, by considering it as that-derogative of man 
which makes him lord and master of the rest of the aninialsi. 
That he has this kind of dominion is obvious. It is also equally 
plain that the cause of this dominion does not reside in his 
bodily strength. It must therefore be referred exclusively to 
the gifts of the mind and their superiority. And these gifts 
in which man so far surpasses the rest of the animals, of what- 
ever disposition and nature they may be, we will call reason. 
Nature, as we have seen, has made man so as to be omnivorous 
and an inhabitant of the whole world. But this unlimited 
liberty of diet and locality, according to the almost infinite 
variety of climate, soil and other circumstances, brings with it 
also multifarious wants which cannot be met or remedied in 
one way alone. His Creator has therefore fortified him with 
the power of reason and invention, in order that he may accom- 
modate himself to those conditions. Hence, even from the 
most ancient times, by the wisest nations, this chief power of 
man, that is, the genius of invention, has been celebrated with 
divine honours. Thoth, for example, by the Egyptians, Hermes 
by the Greeks. Thus, to compress a good deal in a few words, 

1 "Whoever thou art who unjustly depreciate the lot of mau, think what gifts 
our parent has bestowed upon us, what much more powerful animals we put under 
our yoke, what much fleeter animals we capture, and how there is nothing mortal 
which is not put under our stroke." — Seneca. 


man has made tools for himself, and so Franklin has acutely 
denned him as a tool-making animal; thus he has prepared for 
himself arms and weapons; thus he has found out ways of 
eliciting fire; and thus, in order that one man may use the 
advantages and assistance of another, he has invented language, 
which again must be considered as one of the things peculiar to 
man 1 , since it is not like the sounds of animals, conventional, 
but, as the arbitrary variety of languages proves, has been 
invented and turned to use by him 2 . 

19. Something about laughter and tears. Besides that other 
manifestation of the mind I have just spoken of, I mean lan- 
guage, two others must be mentioned, about which there has 
hitherto been less doubt, whether, like speech, they are the 
property of man alone, since they have not been invented by, 
but are as it were congenital to him, and do not so much be- 
long to the use of reason, as to the passions of the mind; I 
mean, laughter, the companion of cheerfulness, and tears, 

'The better part of all our senses.' 

It is well known that many animals secrete tears, besides 
man. But it is a question whether they weep from sorrow. 
Competent witnesses assert it of some; as Steller 3 of the Phoca 
ursina, and Pallas 4 of camels. It seems however more doubtful 
whether brute animals display pleasure by laughter, although 
many instances are given in authors. Le Cat, for example, 
asserts that he had seen the Satyrus Angolensis both weeping 
and laughing 5 . 

1 The subtleties of the old and more recent schoolmen on the language of brutes 
are infinite. As a specimen it will be enough to cite Albertus called Magnus, who 
allows language to one anthropomorphous ape, I mean the pygmreus, besides man, 
yet not without a memorable restriction. "The pygmy speaks although it is an 
animal destitute of reason, hut cannot discourse, nor make use of abstract terms, 
but its words are rather directed to the concrete things about which it speaks." 

2 Hobbes long since perceived that man had himself invented language (about 
which the, in other respects, most accurate Sussmilch still doubts in our days); 
"the most noble and profitable invention of all other was that of speech, whereby 
men declare their thoughts one to another for mutual utility and conversation ; 
without which there had been amongst men neither commonwealth, nor society, no 
more than amongst lions, bears and wolves." — Leviathan, p. 12, ed. 1 65 1. 

3 Nov. Comment. Acad. Scienti. Petropolit. T. 11. p. 353. 

4 Nachrichten uber die Mongolischen Vdlkerschaften, T. 1. p. 177. 
6 Traite de V Existence du fiuide des nerfs, p. 35. 


20. The most note-worthy diseases peculiar to man. Al- 
though these pathological affections seem at first sight to have 
very little to do with the natural history of man, still I may 
be allowed to spend a few words in borrowing a summary of 
the principal diseases, which are also peculiar to man, especially 
as these phenomena, which are against nature and peculiar to 
him, depend on the temperament and constitution of his body, 
and his animal economy; and may with the same justice be 
noticed here, as the diseases of some animals peculiar to them 
are recounted in their natural history, as the Lues bovilla, the 
Coryza maligna of horses, or the voluntary madness which seems 
so frequent in dogs, &c. It will be understood that we shall 
only speak here of the most remarkable disorders, and that 
even those few, chosen out of many others, are not yet placed 
beyond all doubt, since the nosology of brutes, if we once leave 
aside our few domestic animals, is almost entirely uncultivated 
on account of its grave and partly insuperable difficulties. Still 
we may enumerate the following diseases as being with great 
probability some of those peculiar to mankind : — 

Yery nearly all the eruptive fevers; or at all events par- 
ticularly among them, 

Variola 1 , Miliaria, 

Morbilli, Petechia?, 

Scarlatina, Pestis. 

Amongst the haemorrhages ; 
Epistaxis (?), 
Hsemorrh oides, 

Amongst the nervous affections; 

1 Some years ago I was informed by letter by the famous doctor Jansen of 
Amsterdam, that an ape there had contracted a local ulcer from some eruptive 
contagion, but no fever of that kind. 


Disorders of the mind, properly so called, as Melancholia, 
Nostalgia, &c. and perhaps Satyriasis and Nymphomania. 

Of the cachectic disorders; 
Rhachitis (?), 
Scrofula (?), 
Lues Venerea, 
Lepra and Elephantiasis. 

Of the local disorders ; 


Cancer (?), 


Hernia congenita (?). 

The various sorts of Prolajjsus, as that of the vesica urinaria 
inversa, of which we owe a very accurate notice to the sagacity 
of the famous Bonn 1 . 

Herpes (?), 

Tinea capitis. 

I am doubtful whether I ought to include here the intes- 
tinal worms of man and two species of the genus pedicula, ob- 
served in no other mammal, as far as I know, but him. I say 
nothing of those disorders which, though not peculiar to man, 
are far more frequent in him than in other animals ; such as 
tooth-ache, miscarriage, abortions, difficult parturition, &c. 

21. Short list of those things, in ivhich it is commonly, 
though wrongly thought, that man differs from the brutes. Most 
of these points have been referred to above as opportunities 
occurred. Those which are left shall be briefly recounted. 
Such, for example, is the proximity of the eyes, whereas, in 

1 I think the reason why this remarkable defect in conformation has been so 
observed in human infants, but not, as far as I know, in the foetus of any other 
mammal, is to be sought for in the narrower proportionate synchondrosis of the 
pubis in man, that singular and, as it were, bipartite fissure, which also has been 
so accurately investigated by Bonn. See Roose, Diss, de nativo vesicce urinaria 
inversce prolapsu. Gotting. 1793, 4to, with engravings. 


the apes, the eyes are much closer together than in man. The 
lashes in either eye-lid, which have been furnished not only to 
man, but to many other quadrumanous animals, and even to 
the elephant. The Simia rostrata has a more prominent nose 
than man 1 . The ears are not immoveable in all men, nor are 
they moveable in all the rest of the mammals. For example, 
the Myrmecophagce must be excepted. The organ of touch is 
common to most of the quadrumana with man; and so is the 
uvula. I am ashamed to mention some things which are too 
worthless, as eructation, which has been reckoned one of the 
prerogatives of man 2 ; and that man cannot, like brutes, be 
fattened 3 , and other stuff of the same kind. 

1 Buffon, Hist, des quadrupedes. Suppl. T. vn. Tab. it. 11. 

2 ^Emilianus, De ruminantibus, p. 50. "As man alone walks upright, so he 
alone, out of so many animals, can eruct ; for as the breath is light it seeks a 
higher region, and, by a sort of natural impetus, is carried to the top." 

3 Lorry in Hist, de la Societe de Medicine, a. 1779. 



22. Subject proposed. Hitherto we have investigated those 
things in which man differs from the rest of the animals. Now 
we come nearer to the primary object of the whole treatise, for 
we are to inquire of what kind and how great is the natural 
diversity which separates the races and the multifarious nations 
of men; and to consider whether the origin of this diversity 
can be traced to degeneration, or whether it is not so great as 
to compel us rather to conclude that there is more than one 
original species of man. Before this can be done, there are 
two questions which must be considered: First, what is species 
in zoology? Secondly, how in general a primordial species may 
degenerate into varieties? and now of each separately. 

23. What is species? We say that animals belong to one 
and the same species, if they agree so well in form and consti- 
tution, that those things in which they do differ may have 
arisen from degeneration. We say that those, on the other 
hand, are of different species, whose essential difference is such 
as cannot be explained by the known sources of degeneration, 
if I may be allowed to use such a word. So far well in the 
abstract, as they say. Now we come to the real difficulty, 
which is to set forth the characters by which, in the natural 
tvorld, we may distinguish mere varieties from genuine species. 

The immortal Kay, in the last century, long before Buffon, 
thought those animals should be referred to the same species, 


which copulate together, and have a fertile progeny. But, as 
in the domestic animals which man has subdued, this character 
seemed ambiguous and uncertain, on account of the enslaved 
life they lead; in the beginning of this century, the sagacious 
Frisch restricted it to wild animals alone, and declared that 
those were of the same species, who copulate in a natural state 1 . 

But it must be confessed that, even with this limitation, we 
make but little progress. For, in the first place, what very 
little chance is there of bringing so many wild animals, espe- 
cially the exotic ones, about which it is of the greatest possible 
interest for us to know whether they are to be considered as 
mere varieties, or as different species, to that test of copulation? 
especially if their native countries are widely apart; as is the 
case with the Satyrus Angolensis (Chimpanzee) and that of the 
island of Borneo (Orang-utan). 

Then it is universally the case that the obscurity and doubt 
is much smaller, and of much less importance, in the case of 
wild animals on the point in question, than of those very ani- 
mals which are excluded by this argument, that is, the domestic. 
Here, in truth, is the great difficulty. Hence the wonderful 
differences of opinion about, for example, the common dog, 
whose races you see are by some referred to many primitive 
species; by others are considered as mere degenerated varieties 
from that stock which is called the domestic dog (Chien de 
berger) ; again, there are others who think that all these varie- 
ties are derived from the jackal; and, finally, others contend 
that the latter, together with all the domestic dogs and their 
varieties, are descended from the wolf, and so forth. 

As then the principle sought to be deduced from copulation 
is not sufficient to define the idea of species and its difference 

1 "When beasts by nature copulate with each other, it is an unfailing sign that 
they are of the same species." Btrthout van Berchem fil. has lately adopted the 
same test of species, "if animals mix when in a natural state." But he makes no 
mention of Frisch, or even of Ray, nay, he says, "M. de Buffon, who was the 
first to abandon the little-to-be-depended-upon distinctions of the nomenclators, 
was also the first to make it understood that copulation was the best criterion for 
ascertaining species." See Mem. de ta Societe dcs Sciences Physiques de Lausanne, 
T. ii. p. 49. 


from variety, so neither are the other things which are adduced 
with this object, for example, the constancy of any character. 
Thus the snowy colour and the red pupils of the white variety 
of rabbit are as constant as any specific character could pos- 
sibly be. So that I almost despair of being able to deduce any 
notion of species in the study of zoology, except from analogy 
and resemblance. I see, for example, that the molar teeth of 
the African elephant differ most wonderfully in their conforma- 
tion from those of the Asiatic. I do not know whether these 
elephants, which come from such different parts of the world, 
have ever copulated together; nor do I know any more how 
constant this conformation of the teeth may be in each. But 
since, so far in all the specimens which I have seen, I have ob- 
served the same difference; and since I have never known any 
example of molar teeth so changed by mere degeneration, I 
conjecture from analogy that those elephants are not to be 
considered as mere varieties, but must be held to be different 

The ferret, on the contrary, does not seem to me a separate 
species, but must be considered as a mere variety of the pole- 
cat, not so much because I have known them copulate together, 
as because the former has red pupils, and from all analogy I 
consider that those mammals in whom the internal eye is desti- 
tute of the dark pigment, must be held to be mere varieties 
which have degenerated from their original stocks. 

24. Application of what has been said to the question 
whether we should divide mankind into varieties or species. 
It is easily manifest whither what we have hitherto said has 
been tending. We have no other way, but that of analogy, by 
which we are likely to arrive at a solution of the problem above 
proposed. But as we enter upon this path, we ought always to 
have before our eyes the two golden rules which the great 
Newton has laid down for philosophizing. First, That the same 
causes should be assigned to account for natural effects of the 
same hind. We must therefore assign the same causes for the 
bodily diversity of the races of mankind to which we assign 
a similar diversity of body in the other domestic animals which 


are widely scattered over the world. Secondly, That we ought 
not to admit more causes of natural things than what are 
sufficient to explain the phenomena. If therefore it shall appear 
that the causes of degeneration are sufficient to explain the 
phenomena of the corporeal diversity of mankind, we ought not 
to admit anything else deduced from the idea of the plurality 
of human species. 

25. How does the primitive species degenerate into varieties'! 
As we are now about to treat of the modes of degeneration, I 
hope best to consult perspicuity in dealing with the subject if 
I arrange it again under two heads; of which the first will 
briefly relate the principal phenomena of the degeneration of 
brute animals; and the second will inquire into the causes of 
this degeneration. This being done, it will be easier in the 
following section to compare the phenomena of variety in man- 
kind as well with those phenomena of degeneration in brute 
animals as with the causes of them. 

26. Principal phenomena of the degeneration of brute ani- 
mals. A few instances, and those taken from the warm-blooded 
animals alone, and also as far as possible from the mammals 
which are most like man in their corporeal economy, will be 
enough to show that there is no native variety in mankind 
which may not be observed to arise amongst other animals 
as a mere variety and by degeneration. But it is better to go 
over these things in separate chapters. 

27. Colour. Thus in the way of colour, the pigs in Nor- 
mandy are all white; in Savoy, black; in Bavaria 1 , chesnut. 
The Pecus bubulum in Hungary generally varies from white to 
grey ; in Franconia they are red, &c. In Corsica the dogs and 
horses are beautifully spotted. In Normandy, the peacocks are 
black; ours, on the other hand, are generally white. On the 
Guinea coast, the birds, especially of the hen tribe 2 , and the 
dogs, are black like the aborigines; and, what is particularly 
remarkable, the Guinea dog (which Linnseus calls G. jEgyptius, 

1 Comp. Voigt, Magazin. T. vi. P. i. p. io. 

2 See Dan. Beeckman's Voyage to and from Borneo, Lond. 17x8, 8vo. p. 14. 

192 HAIR. 

I do not know why) is, like the men of that climate, distin- 
guished for the velvety softness of his smooth skin, and the 
great and nearly specific cutaneous perspiration 1 . 

28. Texture of the hair. As to the texture of hair, what 
a difference is there not, I ask, in the wool alone of the sheep 
of different climates, from the tender Tibetan up to the thick 
and almost stiff Ethiopian? Or in the bristles of the sow, 
which are so soft in those of Normandy, that they are not 
fit for scouring-brushes ? And what a difference there is, in this 
respect, between the boar and the domestic sow, especially as to 
the short wool which grows between the bristles 1 . How remark- 
able too is the effect of every region of the globe upon the hair 
of more than one kind of the domestic mammals, as the effect 
of the climate of Galatia on the bearded cattle of Angora, and 
on the rabbits and cats, who are so conspicuous for their woolly 
softness and the extraordinary length and generally snowy 
whiteness of their coats. 

29. Stature. As to stature the difference between the 
Patagonian and the Laplander is much smaller than what is 
observed everywhere in other domestic animals of different 
parts of the world. Thus pigs, when transported to Cuba from 
Europe, grow to double their natural size 2 . So also do cows 
when transported to Paraguay 3 . 

30. Figure and proportion of parts. As to the proportion of 
parts, what a great difference there is between the horses of 
Arabia or Syria and of northern Germany ; between the thick- 
footed cows of the Cape of Good Hope and the thin-footed ones 
of England! The hinder legs of the sows of Normandy are 
much higher than the front legs, &c. The cows in some parts 
of England and Ireland have no horns at all 4 ; in Sicily, on the 
other hand, they have very large ones; but I must not say 
anything of the vast horns of the Abyssinian oxen, which Sir 
Joseph Banks showed me, for they, if we are to trust Bruce, 

1 Pechlin, De Habitu et Colore jEthiopum, Kilon. 1677, 8vo. p. 56. 

2 "Voigt, Magazin. I. c. 

3 F. Saver. Clavigero, Storia Antica del Messico, T. iv. p. 142. 

4 Comp. also Hippocrates, De aeribus, aquis, et locis, s. 44. 


ought rather to be referred to some morbific disposition. We 
may however mention here the Ovis polycerata; and as to the 
variety of hoofs, there are whole races of sows with solid and 
?vith three-cloven hoofs 1 . As to some other parts, we have 
sheep with broad tails; the fringes of the crested canary (what 
>ur people call Jcapp. vdgel) and other things of this kind. 

31. Above all, the shape of the skull. The shape has been 
)bserved to differ everywhere in the varieties of mankind; but 
til this difference is not a whit greater, if indeed it can be 
:ompared to that which may be observed amongst the different 
■aces of other domestic animals. The skull of the Ethiopian 
loes not differ more from that of the European than that of the 
lomestic sow from the osseous head of the boar; or than the 
lead of the Neapolitan horse, which is called from its shape 
am-heaclecl, from that of the Hungarian horse, which the 
earned know well is conspicuous for its singular lowness and 
he size of its inferior jaw. In the urus, the progenitor of our 
lomestic race of bulls, according to the observations of Camper, 
r ery large fovese lacrymales are visible; which, on the contrary, 
,re entirely obsolete in our country cattle. I say nothing of 
hat manifestly monstrous degeneration of skull in the variety 
»f hen they call the Paduan 2 . 

32. Causes of degeneration. Animal life supposes two facul- 
ies, depending upon the vital forces as primary conditions and 
trinciples of all and singular its functions; the one, namely, of so 
eceiving the force of the stimuli which act upon the body that 
he parts are affected by it ; the other of so reacting from this 
ffection that the living motions of the body are in this way set 
a action and perfected. So there is no motion in the animal 
lachine without a preliminary stimulus and a consequent re- 
ction. These are the hinges on which all the physiology of 
he animal economy turns. And these are the fountains from 
fhich, just as the business itself of generation, so also the causes 

1 "Voigt, Magazin, I. c. 

2 Pallas, spicileg. zoologic. fasc. IV. p. 11, and Sandifort, MusSum Anatom. Acad, 
igd. Batav. T. i. p. 306. 



of degeneration flow ; but in order to make this clear to those 
even who know but little of physiology, it will be as well to 
premise with a few words from that science. 

33. Formative force. I have in another place professedly, 
and in a separate book devoted to this subject, endeavoured to 
show that the vulgar system of evolution, as it is called 
(according to which it is taught that no animal or plant is 
generated, but that all individual organic bodies were at the 
very earliest dawn of creation already formed in the shape of 
undeveloped germs and are now being only successively evolved), 
answers neither to the phenomena themselves of nature, nor to 
sound philosophic reasoning. But on the contrary, by properly 
joining together the two principles which explain the nature 
of organic bodies, that is the physico-mechanical with the 
teleological, we are conducted both by the phenomena of gene- 
ration, and by sound reasoning, to lay down this proposition : 
That the genital liquid is only the shapeless material of organic 
bodies, composed of the innate matter of the inorganic king- 
dom, but differing in the force it shows, according to the phe- 
nomena; by which its first business is under certain circum- 
stances of maturation, mixture, place, &c. to put on the form 
destined and determined by them; and afterwards through the 
perpetual function of nutrition to preserve it, and if by chance 
it should be mutilated, as far as lies in its power to restore 
it by reproduction. 

Let me be allowed to distinguish this energy, so as to pre- 
vent its being confused with the other kinds of vital force, 
or with the vague and undefined words of the ancients, the 
plastic force, &c. by the name of the formative force (ivisus 
formativus) ; by which name I wish to designate not so much 
the cause as some kind of perpetual and invariably consistent 
effect, deduced a posteriori, as they say, from the very constancy 
and universality of phenomena. Just in the same way as we 
use the name of attraction or gravity to denote certain forces, 
the causes of which however still remain hid, as they say, in 
Cimmerian darkness. 

As then other vital forces, when they are excited by their 


appointed and proper stimuli, become active and ready for re- 
action, so also the formative force is excited by the stimuli 
which belong to it, that is, by the kindling of heat in the egg 
during the process of incubation. But as other vital forces, as 
contractility, irritability, &c. put themselves out only by the 
mode of motion, this, on the other hand, of which we are talk- 
ing; manifests itself by increase, and by giving a determinate 
form to matter; by which it happens that every plant and 
every animal propagates its species in its offspring (either im- 
mediately, or gradually by the successive access and change of 
other stimuli, through metamorphosis). 

Now the ^ way in which the formative force may sometimes 
turn aside from its determined direction and plan is principally 
in three forms. First, by the production of monsters ; then by 
hybrid generation through the mixture of the genital liquid of 
different species; finally,- by degeneration into varieties, pro- 
perly so called. The production of monsters, by which, whether 
through some disturbance and as it were mistake of the forma- 
tive force, or even through accidental or adventitious circum- 
stances, as by external pressure, &c. a structure manifestly 
faulty and. unnaturally deformed is intruded upon organic 
bodies, has nothing to do with our present purpose. Nor is 
this the place to consider hybrids sprung from the commingling 
of the generation of different species, since by a most wise law 
of nature (by which the infinite confusion of specific forms is 
guarded against) hybrids of this kind, especially in the animal 
kingdom, scarcely ever occur except through the interference of 
man: and then they are almost invariably sterile, so as to be 
unable to propagate any further their new ambiguous shape 
sprung from anomalous venery. 

Still, meanwhile, this subject we are now discussing may 
be illustrated by the history of hybrids sprung from different 
species; partly on account of their analogy with those hybrids 
which spring from different varieties, of which we shall speak 
by and by; partly, because, like everything else, they go as 
proofs to refute that theory about the evolution of pre-formed 
germs, and to display clearly the power and efficacy of the for- 



mative force; a consideration, which will escape no one who 
rightly appreciates those well-known and very remarkable ex- 
periments, in which, in the very rare instances of prolific hy- 
brids, when their fecundation has been frequently repeated for 
many generations by the aid of the male seed of the same spe- 
cies, that new appearance of hybrid posterity has so sensibly 
deflected from the maternal form as more and more to pass 
into the paternal form of the other species, and so, finally, the 
former seems to become quite transmuted into the latter, by a 
sort of arbitrary metamorphosis 1 . 

But the mixture of specifically different generation, al- 
though it cannot overturn, or as it were suffocate, all the 
excitability of the formative force, still can impart to it a 
singular and anomalous direction. And so it happens that the 
continuous action, carried on for several series of generations 
of some peculiar stimuli in organic bodies, again has great in- 
fluence in sensibly diverting the formative force from its accus- 
tomed path, which deflection is the most bountiful source of 
degeneration, and the mother of varieties properly so called. 
So now let us go to work and examine one by one the chief of 
these stimuli. 

34. Climate. That the power of climate must be almost 
infinite, as on all organic bodies, so especially on warm-blooded 
animals, will quickly appear to any one who considers first, by 
how intimate and how constant a bond these animals are 
bound while alive to the action of the atmospheric air in which 
they dwell. Besides, how wonderfully this air (which was once 
held to be a simple element of itself) is made up of what they 
call multifarious elements, such as gasiform constituents, the 
accessories of light, heat, electricity, &c. Then of what differ- 
ent proportions of these matters does it not consist, and in 
consequence of this variety how different must be the atmo- 
spheric action on those we call animals! Especially when we 

1 Kolreuter. Third account of the news of some experiments relating to the 
sex of plants, &c, p. 51, s. 24, with the title, "An entirely complete change of 
one kind of plant into another." 


throw in the consideration of so many other things, by whose 
accession climates differ so much, as the position of countries 
in respect of the zones of the globe, the elevation of the soil, 
mountains, the vicinity of the sea or lakes and rivers, the cus- 
tomary winds, and innumerable other things of this kind. 

This air, then, which those we call animals suck in by 
breathing from the time of birth, modified so greatly by the 
variety of climates, is decomposed in their lungs as it were in a 
living laboratory. Part of what they inhale is distributed with 
the arterial blood over the whole body; but as a balance to 
another portion of this point, elements are liberated, which are 
partly deposited on the peripheral integuments of the body, and 
partly are carried back by the flow of venous blood to the re- 
spiratory organs; hence arise the various modifications of the 
blood itself, and the remarkable influxes of these humours, es- 
pecially of fat, bile, &c. into the secretions. Hence finally the 
action of all these things as so many stimuli on a living solid, 
and hence the resulting reaction as well of this thus affected 
solid, as what especially belongs to our discussion, the direction 
and determination of the formative force. This great and per- 
petual influence of climate on the animal economy and the 
habit and conformation of the body, although there has been no 
time when it has not attracted the attention of good observers, 
has in our own time above all been illustrated and confirmed by 
the great advance that has been made in chemistry, and by a 
deeper study of physiology. Still it is always a difficult and 
arduous thing, in the discussion of these varieties, to settle 
what is to be attributed exclusively to climate, what rather 
to other causes of degeneration, and finally to the joint action 
of both. Meanwhile I will bring forward one or two instances 
of degeneration which seem most clearly to be derived from the 
effects of climate. For example, the white colour of many 
animals in northern regions, which have other colours in the 
temperate zones. Instances are, those of wolves, hares, cattle, 
falcons, crows, blackbirds, thrushes, chaffinches, &c. That this 
whiteness must be attributed to cold, we learn from the analogy 
of animals of the same kind who, under the same climate 

198 DIET. 

during winter, change their summer colour into white or 
grey; as weasels and ermines, hares, squirrels, reindeer, the 
ptarmigan, snow-bunting, and others 1 . So also I am more 
inclined to attribute to climate that snowy fleece so con- 
spicuous for its silky softness of some of the animals of Angora 
than to the kind of diet, because that is shared by those who 
feed on all sorts of different things, by the carnivorous, as the 
cat for example, equally with the herbivorous ruminants, as 
goats, &c. 

Such too seems to be the explanation of the coally blackness 
which under some districts of the torrid zone, as on the coasts 
of Guinea, animals of different orders, mammalia as well as 
birds, are seen to put on with the colour of the Ethiopians 
(s. 27). And it is above all worthy of remark that this Ethiopic 
blackness, just like that Syrian whiteness, although the animals 
may be transported into regions of a very different climate, is 
still preserved permanently for many series of generations. Nor 
is the power and influence of climate on the stature of organic 
bodies at all inferior ; since cold obstructs their increase, which, 
on the contrary is manifestly augmented and promoted by heat. 
Thus the horses of Scotland, or cold North Wales, are small ; in 
Scandinavia the horses and the cattle, like the indigenous races, 
are of tall and stalwart stature ; in Smaland they are sensibly 
smaller, and in the north of East Gothland are in proportion 
smallest of all. 

35. Diet. It seems extremely probable, what has been 
demonstrated principally by the sagacity of G. Fordyce, that 
the primary elements, as they are called, of every kind of 
alimentary substance, whether it be taken from the animal or 
the vegetable kingdom, are the same. Hence the same sort of 
chyle, and universally the same kind of blood, is elaborated by 
all the multifarious warm-blooded animals, carnivorous as well 
as herbivorous, out of the most different kinds of nourishment, 
if only it has been properly submitted to the organs of diges- 

1 Comp. besides others, Linnaeus, in Flora Lapponica, p. 55, 352, ed. Smith. 


tion. Still, however much this may appear to be true, it cannot 
be denied that the innumerable adventitious qualities of different 
matters of food, have had great power in changing the natures 
and properties of animals; to' prove which a few instances will 
be enough. 

Singing birds show that there is some specific power in some 
kinds of food to change the colour of animals; especially some 
sorts of larks and finches, which it has been proved, if they 
are fed upon hemp seed alone, sensibly grow black. The 
African sheep when transported to England is a proof how 
wonderfully, when the diet is changed, the texture of the hairs 
will change also; for its wool which is common by nature, and 
stiff like the hair of a camel, after it has been fed one year upon 
English pastures becomes of a most magnificent delicacy 1 . The 
influence food has towards changing the stature and the pro- 
portions, is plain from, the comparison of domestic animals. 
Horses which in marshy countries (called in the vernacular 
Maschldnder) live upon rich food, as the Frisian especially, grow 
large ; whereas, on the contrary, in rocky and stony countries, 
such as those of (Eland, or on dry heathy soils, they remain 
stunted. Thus it is surprising how fat and bellied horses be- 
come on a fat soil, though their legs become shorter in propor- 
tion. But when they are fed upon drier grass, as, for example, 
the Cape grass, they secrete less fat, but are remarkable for 
their strong and fleshy legs ; to say nothing of the multifarious 
diversities of the taste and weight of flesh, which again depend 
upon the variety of diet. 

36. Mode of life. When I speak of the kind of life as 
a cause of degeneration, I include under that head all those 
points besides climate and diet which so far have to do with the 
natural economy of animals, that when_they_act Jong and con- 
tinuously upon the saine condition of body they are at length 
strong enough to change it to some extent. The principal of 
these are cultivation and the fora^fj3ustom, whose power and 

1 Comp. Jam. Bates On the Literal Doctrine of Original Sin, Load. 1766, 8vo. 
p. 224. 


influence are again so manifestly conspicuous in our domestic 

Consider, for instance, the vast difference which separates 
the conformation and the proportions of the parts of the 
generous horse trained in the school, and the wild horse, which 
they call a wild beast. The latter, when it fights with others 
bites rather than kicks; the former, on the other hand, when 
bridled. and armed with iron feet, prefers to attack his enemy 
with them, and almost unlearns to bite. Many kinds of mam- 
mals when subdued by man show by the hanging of their 
tails and the lapping of their ears a spirit tamed and subdued 
by slavery. In many the very corporeal functions of secretion, 
generation, &c. are changed in a wonderful way. In the do- 
mestic pig, for example, the adipose membrane appears in a 
vast mass, which is quite wanting in the boar, whose tender and 
as it were woolly hairs, on the contrary, inserted between the 
bristles, sensibly disappear in that domestic variety. These 
domestic animals are much more liable to monstrous births than 
their wild aborigines; and also to troops of new diseases, and 
especially to new kinds of worms of which no vestige is to be 
found in their wild and original variety; the truth of which 
assertion, though paradoxical, is not to be -invalidated, as may 
be proved by the instance of the Hydas iniercutis, called, in the 
vernacular, Finnen, Ital. Lazaroli 1 . I place under this head 
also stunted stature from premature and unseasonable venery, 
and everything of that kind. 

37. Hybrid generation. So much for the triple sources of 
degeneration which only by long and daily action, continued 
through many series of generations, are sufficiently strong, 
slowly, and by little and little, to change the primeval character 
of animals and produce varieties. But the case is different, and 
a new character is imparted to the immediate offspring, when 
different varieties of this kind, sprung at length from those 

1 Malpighii Opera Posthuma, p. 84, ed. Lond. 1697, fol. — -so J. A. E. Goeze, 
Discovery; that the hydatids in swine's Jlesh are no rjlander disease, but true bladder- 
worms. 8vo. Hal. 1784. 


causes, come to copulate together, for thus they give rise to 
a hybrid offspring, like neither parent altogether, but partici- 
pating in the form of each, and being as it were a mean be- 
tween the two. Hybrid is the name commonly given to the 
offspring of parents of manifestly different species, as mules 
sprung from the horse and ass, or birds from the union of the 
crested canary with the linnet. But this is not the place for 
us to speak of these, for there is no account to be taken of them 
in varieties of the human race. Not indeed that horrid stories 
are wanting of the union of men with brutes, when either men 
have had to do with the females of beasts (whether carried 
away by unbridled lust 1 , or from some mad idea of continence 2 , 
or because they expected some medicinal aid from this sort of 
crime 3 ), or when we are told that women have been made use 
of by male brutes (whether that has happened through any 
violent rape 4 , or because women have solicited them in the 
madness of lust 5 , or have prostituted themselves from religious 
superstition 6 ), still we have never known any instance related 
on good authority of any such connexion being fruitful, or that 

1 Comp. Th. Warton on Theocriti Idyll. I. 88, p. 19. "I have been told by a 
certain learned friend, that when he was travelling in Sicily and investigating 
closely not only the ancient monuments but also the manners of the people, that 
even their own priests used to ask the shepherds, who spend a solitary life in the 
Sicilian mountains, as a matter of course among the articles of confession, whether 
they had had anything to do with the she-goats. J ' 

2 See Mart, a Baumgarten Equ. Grerm. Travels in Egypt, Arabia, &c. p. 73. 
"As we went out of Alkan, in Egypt, we came to a village called Belbes, where 
we joined a caravan going to Damascus. There we saw a Saracenic saint, sitting 
<n the heaps of sand, as naked as he came out of his mother's womb. We heard 
this saint whom we saw in that place publicly praised above all things ; that he 
was a holy man, divine and perfect beyond all measure, because he never had any 
connexion with women or boys, but only with asses and mules." 

3 With this object Pallas says that when the Persians suffer from hip-gout they 
copulate with the onagra. Neue Nordische beytrdge, P. II. p. 38. 

4 Baboons; Comp. Ph. Phillips's Travels in Guinea in Churchill's Collection of 
Voyages, T. VI. p. 211. " Here are a vast number of overgrown large baboons, 
some as big as a large mastiff dog, which go in droves of 50 and 100 together, and 
are very dangerous to be met with, especially by women, who, I have been credi- 
bly assured, they have often seized upon, ravished, and in that kind abused one 
after anothef, till they have killed them." 

5 Thus Steller says that the women of Kamtschatka formerly copulated with 
dogs. jBeschreibung Von Kamtschatka, p. 289. 

6 As the women of Mendes with the sacred goat; on which singular custom see 
a copious dissertation by D'Hancarville, Eecherchcs sur Vorigine des A rts de la Grece, 
T. 1. p. 320. 


any hybrid has ever been produced from the horrid union of 
beast and man. But we have only to do with those hybrids 
which spring from the intercourse of different varieties of one 
and the same species, as when, for example, the green canary 
bird is paired with the white variety, &c, which connexion has a 
wonderful effect in changing the colour and conformation of the 
new progeny which results therefrom; so that this is often 
applied with the greatest advantage in the impregnation of 
domestic animals for the purpose of improving and ennobling 
the offspring, especially in the case of horses and sheep. 

38. Hereditary peculiarities of animals from diseased tem- 
perament. An hereditary disposition to disease would seem at 
first sight rather to belong to the pathology than to the natural 
history of animals. But when the matter is more carefully 
looked into, it is plain that in more ways than one it has some- 
thing to do with those causes of degeneration we are concerned 
with. For, in the first place, some external qualities of animals, 
although according to common ideas they are never referred 
to a truly diseased constitution, still seem to come very nearly 
to that, since they are for the most part found in conjunction 
with an unnaturally weak affection. I include among these, for 
example, that peculiar whiteness of some animals, which the 
wise Yerulam long ago called the colour of defect. We learn 
by the example of the Hungarian oxen, whose woolly skin only 
comes after castration, that we may frequently recognize as 
a cause the vicious constitution and defect of the corporeal 
economy. On the other hand, it is proved by the instances of 
the Angora cats and dogs, that morbid symptoms follow extra- 
ordinary whiteness of that kind, for it is a common observation 
that those animals are almost always hard of hearing. 

It is also the case that some genuine diseases when the 
animal nature has been as it were used to them for a long 
series of generations seem to get sensibly milder and milder 
and less inconvenient, so that at last they can scarcely be con- 
sidered more than a diseased affection. An example is afforded 
by that vicious species of whiteness which, when united to a 
deficiency of the black pigment which lines the internal eye of 


hot-blooded animals, is known by the name of leucsethiopia. 
This when it seizes sporadically one or other of a family (for 
it is always a congenital affection) exhibits plainly the symp- 
toms of cachexia, which everywhere comes very near to a 
leprous constitution. But in other cases when it has been esta- 
blished by a sort of hereditary right for many generations, it 
becomes a second nature, so that in the white variety of rab- 
bits not a vestige remains of the original morbific affection, 
the existence of which however is determined by the analogy 
of other animals which have anomalously white pupils and red 
eyes. The ferret has been considered by some zoologists as a 
peculiar species of the genus Mustela, whereas, unless I am 
altogether deceived, it is as I have said above (s. 23) a mere 
variety of the pole-cat, and that of diseased origin through 

39. Problem proposed. Can mutilations and other artifices 
give a commencement to native varieties of animals ? It is dis- 
puted whether deformities or mutilations, effected upon animals 
either by accident or advisedly, especially in those cases where 
they have been repeated for many series of generations, can at 
length in progress of time terminate in a sort of second nature, 
so that what before was done by art now degenerates into a 
congenital conformation. Some 1 have asserted this, whilst 
others 2 on the contrary have denied it. Those who are for the 
affirmative point to the examples of the young of different 
kinds of animals, dogs and cats for example, which are born 
without tails or ears after those parts have been cut off from 
their parents, as is proved by credible witnesses. And of boys 
among circumcised nations who are frequently born naturally 
apellce 3 ; and of scars which parents bear from wounds, whose 
marks afterwards are congenital in the infants. Buffon, indeed, 
went so far as to derive from the same source the peculiar 
characters of some animals, as the callosities on the breast and 

1 Hippocrates and Aristotle. And very recently Kliigel, in Tom. I. of the Ency- 
clopedia, p. 541, ed. 2nd. 

2 See Kant, in Berliner Monatsschrift, 1785, T. vi. p. 400. 

3 Voigt, Magazin, T. vr. P. 1. p. 22, and P. iv. p. 40. 


legs of camels, or the bald scurfy forehead of the rook (Corvus 
frugilegus). Those who do not allow these last instances will 
not unwisely reject this opinion of Buffon, as what is called a 
petitio principii; but the other instances we spoke of they 
will think should rather be attributed to chance. 

I have not at present adopted as my own either the affirma- 
tive or the negative of these opinions ; I would willingly give 
my suffrage with those on the negative side, if they could ex- 
plain why peculiarities of the same sort of conformation, 
which are first made intentionally or accidentally, cannot in 
any way be handed down to descendants, when we see that 
other marks of race which have come into existence from 
other causes which up to the present time are unknown, especi- 
ally in the face, as noses, lips, and eye-brows are universally 
propagated in families for few or many generations with less or 
greater constancy, just in the same way as organic 1 disorders, 
as deficiencies of speech and pronunciation, and such like ; 
unless perhaps they prefer saying that all these occur also by 

40. Some considerations to be observed in the examination 
of the causes of degeneration. Many of the causes of degene- 
ration we have already spoken of are so very clear, and so placed 
beyond all possibility of doubt, that most phenomena of dege- 
neration above enumerated may by an easy process be undoubt- 
edly referred to them, as effects to their causes. But on the 
other hand even in that very way there is frequently such a 
concurrence or such a conflicting opposition of many of them; 
such a diverse and multifarious proneness of organic bodies to 
degeneration, or reaction from it ; and besides, these causes 
have such effects upon these bodies according as they act im- 
mediately (so to speak) or otherwise ; and finally, such is the 
difference of these effects by which they are preserved unim- 
paired by a sort of tenacious constancy through long series of 
generations, or by some power of change withdraw themselves 

1 A remarkable instance is related by Hacquet in the Magazin of Voigt jut=t 
cited* T. vi. P. iv. p. 34. 


again in a short space of time, that in consequence of this diver- 
sified and various relation there is need of the greatest caution 
in the examination of varieties. 

Let me then, if only for the benefit of the student, at the 
end of this discourse, before we pass to the varieties of men 
themselves, lay down some maxims of caution at least, as corol- 
laries to be carefully borne in mind in the discussion we are 
entering upon : 

1. The more causes of degeneration which act in conjunc- 
tion, and the longer they act upon the same species of animals, 
the more palpably that species may fall off from its primeval 
conformation. Now no animal can be compared to man in this 
respect, for he is omnivorous, and dwells in every climate, and 
is far more domesticated and far more advanced from his first 
beginnings than any other animal ; and so on him the united 
force of climate, diet, and mode of life must have acted for a 
very long time. 

2. On the other hand an otherwise sufficiently powerful 
cause of degeneration may be changed and debilitated by the 
accession of other conditions, especially if they are as it were 
opposed to it. Hence everywhere in various regions of the 
terraqueous globe, even those which lie in the same geographi- 
cal latitude, still a very different temperature of the air and 
an equally different and generally a contrary effect on the con- 
dition of animals may be observed, according as they differ in 
the circumstances of a higher or lower position, proximity to 
the sea, or marshes, or mountains, or woods, or of a cloudy or 
serene sky, or some peculiar character of soil, or other circum- 
stances of that kind. 

3. Sometimes a remarkable phenomenon of degeneration 
ought to be referred not so much to the immediate, as to the 
mediate, more remote, and at the first glance concealed influ- 
ence of some cause. Hence the darker colour of peoples is 
not to be derived solely from the direct action of the sun upon 
the skin, but also from its more remote, as its powerful influ- 
ence upon the functions of the liver. 

4. Mutations which spring from the mediate influence of 


causes of this sort seem to strike root all the deeper, and so to 
be all the more tenaciously propagated to following generations. 
Hence, if I mistake not, we are to look for the reason why the 
brown colour of skin contracted in the torrid zone will last 
longer in another climate than the white colour of northern 
animals if they are transported towards the south. 

5. Finally, the mediate influences of those sort of causes 
may lie hid and be at such a distance, that it may be impossible 
even to conjecture what they are, and hence we shall have to 
refer the enigmatical phenomena of degeneration to them, as to 
their fountains. Thus, without doubt, we must refer to mediate 
causes of this kind, which still escape our observation, the 
racial and constant forms of skulls, the racial colour of eyes, 



41. Order of proceeding. Now let us come to the matter in 
hand, and let us apply what we have hitherto been demonstrat- 
ing about the ways in and the causes by which animals in 
general degenerate, to the native variety of mankind, so as to 
enumerate one by one the modes of degenerating, and allot to 
each the particular cause to which it is to be referred. We 
must begin with the colour of the skin, which although it 
sometimes deceives, still is a much more constant character, and 
more generally transmitted than the others 1 , and which most 
clearly appears in hybrid progeny sprung from . the union of 
varieties of different colour composed of the tint of either pa- 
rent. Besides, it has a great connection with the colour of the 
hair and the iris, and a great relation to the temperament of 
men: and, moreover, it especially strikes everywhere the eyes 
even of the most ignorant. 

42. Seat of the colour of the skin. The mucous, commonly 
called the cellular membrane, about whose most important 
function in the economy of the human body we have spoken 
above, affords as it were a foundation to the whole machine. It 
is interwoven with almost all parts alike, even to the marrow of 
the bones, and is collected on the outermost surface of the body 

Kant, in Berliner Monatsschrift, 1785, T. vi. p. 391, and in Teutschen Merkur, 
i, P. 1. p. 48. 

208 SKIN. 

into a thick white universal integument, called the corium. By 
this the rest of the body is surrounded and included; and 
above all it is penetrated by a most enormous apparatus of 
cutaneous nerves, lymphatic veins, and finally with a most close 
and subtle net of sanguiferous vessels. 

The nerves communicate sensation to the corium, so as to 
make it the organ of touch, and as it were the sentinel of the 
whole body. The lymphatic veins make this same corium the 
instrument of absorption and inhalation. But the sanguiferous 
vessels have most to do with the subject under discussion, as 
being the constituent parts of the common integuments of the 
body, and equally with the lungs and the alimentary canal make 
up the great purifier and chemical laboratory of the human 
machine ; whose surfaces, as will soon be seen, have a good deal 
to do with giving its colour to the skin. The corium is lined 
with a very tender mucus, which from the erroneous description 
of its discoverer, is called the reticulum Malpighii: this affords 
a sort of glutinous bond, by which the most external stratum of 
the integuments, the epidermis, or cuticle, stretching over and 
protecting the surface of the body, and which in the born man 
is exposed immediately to the atmospheric air, adheres to the 
corium. The reticulum, just like the epidermis, is a most 
simple structure, entirely destitute of nerves and vessels, differ- 
ing both of them as much as possible from the nature of the 
corium. They agree themselves in more than one way, so that 
it seems most probable that these similar parts are allied, or 
that the exterior cuticle draws its origin in some way from its 
substratum, the reticulum. Besides, each of these allied strata 
of integuments so make up the seat of colour, that in clear-com- 
plexioned men, where they are stained with no pigment, they 
permit the natural roseate whiteness of the corium to be seen 
through : and in brown or coloured men, although the principal 
cutaneous pigment may adhere to the Malpighian reticulum, 
although the epidermis may be paler, still it will manifestly 
partake of its tint. The darker the reticulum the thicker it is, 
and the more it approaches the appearance of a membrane 
peculiar to itself; the more transparent it is on the contrary 

COLOUR. 209 

the more tender it becomes, and only appears to have the con- 
stitution of a diffused mucus. 

43. Racial varieties of colour. Although the colour of the 
human skin seems to play in numberless ways between the 
snowy whiteness of the European girl and the deepest black of 
the Ethiopian woman of Senegambia 1 ; and though not one of 
these phases is common either to all men of the same nation, 
or so peculiar to any nation, but what it sometimes occurs in 
others, though greatly different in other respects ; still, in gene- 
ral, all the varieties of national colour seem to be most referable 
to the five following classes. 

1. The white colour holds the first place, such as is that of 
most European peoples. The redness of the cheeks in this 
variety is almost peculiar to it : at all events it is but seldom to 
be seen in the rest. 

2. The second is the yellow, olive-tinge, a sort of colour 
half-way between grains of wheat and cooked oranges, or the 
dry and exsiccated rind of lemons : very usual in the Mongolian 

3. The copper colour (Fr. bronze) or dark orange, or a sort 
of iron, not unlike the bruised bark of cinnamon or tanner's 
bark: peculiar almost to the Americans. 

4. Tawny (Fr. basane), midway between the colour of fresh 
mahogany and di'ied pinks or chesnuts : common to the Malay 
race and the men of the Southern Archipelago. 

5. Lastly, the tawny-black, up to almost a pitchy blackness 
(jet-black), principally seen in some Ethiopian nations. Though 
this tawny blackness is by no means peculiar to the Ethiopians, 
but is to be found added to the principal colour of the skin in 
others of the most different and the most widely-separated 

1 The indefinite and arbitrary sense in which most authors use the names of 
colours has caused vast difficulty in all the study of natural history: and will cer- 
tainly be particularly troublesome in this anthropological disquisition. That I may 
not be accused of the same fault, I must give notice that I am far from considering 
such words for example as the English yellow and olive tinge, &c. which I have sub- 
joined to each of the five principal colours which I have distinguished, as genuine 
synonyms. All I wanted to do was to show that these words had been used by 
different authors, and those classical ones, in denoting the national colour of one 
and the same race. 


210 CAUSES. 

varieties of mankind: as in the Brazilians, the Californians 1 , 
the Indians, and the islanders of the Southern Ocean, where, 
for instance, the New Caledonians in this respect make an 
insensible transition from the tawny colour of the Otaheitans, 
through the chesnut-coloured inhabitants of the island of 
Tongatabu, to the tawny-black of the New Hollanders. 

44. Causes of this variety. The seat of the colour of the 
skin has now been placed beyond all doubt. The division of 
the varieties of colour, and their distribution, seem sufficiently 
plain and perspicuous. But to dig out the causes of this variety 
is the task and the trouble. Authors have laboured most in 
endeavouiing to explain the colour of the Ethiopians, which 
above all other national colours from the most remote period 
has struck the eyes of Europeans, and excited their minds to 
inquire. Nor is it surprising that with that object all sorts of 
hypotheses should be elaborated, which, however, I pass by 
unnoticed, as being sufficiently known' 2 , and already explained 
all together by others 3 , and shall go into the details of that 
opinion alone, which, unless I am much mistaken, seems to 
come nearest the truth. I think, myself, the proximate cause 

1 On the Brazilians comp. G. Forster on Wilson's Nachrichten von den Pelew 
Tnseln, p. 36. On the Californians, Begert, Nachrichten von Californien, p. 89. 

3 Buffon attributes most to climate. Hist. Naturelle, T. III. p. 526. Zimmer- 
mann, Geograph. Geschichte cles Menschen, T. I. p. 77. Abb. Nauton in Journal 
de Physique, T. xviii. Sept. 1781. P. Barrere to bile. Diss, sur la cause physique 
de la Couleur des Negres, Perpig. 1741, nmo. To the blood besides others especially 
Th. Towns in Philus. Trans. T. X. p. 398, who also has doubts about the power of 
the sun to dye the skin of the Ethiopians. To part of the globules of the blood 
adhering to the skin the author of the medical question of Paris, an opinion sup- 
ported on more than one occasion, as by Des Moles in 1742, and by Mounier in 
1775. Kant in Enge!, Philos. filr die Welt, P. 11. p. 151, to the abundance of 
iron in the blood of the Ethiopians, precipitated by the transpiration of phosphoric 
acid on the rete mucosum. I say nothing of a sort of mixture of nervous 
juice and some secret liquid in the nervous and arterial paps of the integuments by 
which Le Cat, who was a great physiologist as far as dreaming went, imagined 
that he had explained the blackness of the Ethiopians, in his Traite de la Couleur 
de la Peau Humaine, Amst. 1765, 8vo , or the elongated fibres in the aborigines of 
Nubia, the dissolution of the red blood, the evaporation of the serum, and the 
fixed saline particles of the blood, remaining oily and fat in the skin, by all of 
which Attumonelli, Elementi di Fisioloyia Medica, Neap. 1787, T. 1. p. 140, tries 
to explain the same thing. 

3 Thus the opinions of the ancients have been collected by B. S. Albinus, Be 
sede et causa Coloris JSthiopwn, Ludg. Batav. 1737, 4to. Those of the moderns 
by Haller, Element. Physiolog. T. v. p. 20. A heap of authors are cited by Kriiniz, 
Hamhurgisch Magazin, T. XIX. p. 379. 

COLOUR. 211 

of the adust or tawny colour of the external integuments of the 
skin, is to be looked for in the abundance of the carbon in the 
human body, which, when it is excreted with the hydrogen 
through the corium, and precipitated by the contact of the 
atmospheric oxygen, becomes imbedded in the Malpighian 
mucus. Hence it is well known that the national colour of 
their skin is not_congenital even to the Ethiopians themselves, 
but is acquired by the access of the external air after birth 
and after the intercourse with the mother, by which the foetus 
was nourished, has been taken away. 

Besides this, the action of the sanguineous vessels of the 
corium seems necessary as well for secreting as for storing up 
the carbon. For if this is disturbed or comes to a stop, an 
unnatural and diseased colour is everywhere brought upon the 
skin in dark men just as much as in Ethiopians. But on 
the other hand, although in a white skin that action of the 
corium may be stimulated, ephelides and spots of tawny colour 
occur, and sometimes it is found that it puts on an Ethiopic 

Generally carbon seems to be in greater quantity in the 
atrabilious ; for the connexion of the manufactory of the bile with 
the common integuments, and those which belong to them, as the 
hair, is plain : indeed both organs, that is, the liver and the 
skin, must be considered as by far the principal and mutually 
co-operating purifiers of the mass of the blood. 

Then there is the vast influence of climate upon the action 
of the liver, which in tropical countries is wonderfully excited 
and increased by the solar heat. Hence the various kinds of 
bilious and endemic disorders in the tropics. Hence also the 
temperament of most inhabitants of tropical countries is cho- 
leric and prone to anger. Hence also, what was first observed 
by physicians 1 , the bilious constitution and habit of Europeans 
who dwell in India, and especially in the children which are 
born there. But there is no other climate, in the vehemence 
and duration of the heat, or in the peculiar chemical constitu- 

1 De Haen, Prcelectioncs in Boerhavii Institut. Patholoyieas, T. n. p. 155. 


212 COLOUK. 

ents that make up the atmosphere there, such as particular 
winds, and rains, which can be compared to that burning and 
scorching climate which is to be found on the wet and marshy 
regions both of eastern and western Africa under the torrid zone. 
Now the aboriginal Ethiopians have been for a long time and 
for many series of generations exposed to the action of that 
climate, since they must without doubt be ranked amongst the 
most ancient nations of the world 1 . So we must not be sur- 
prised if they propagate unadulterated, even under another 
climate to succeeding generations, the same disposition which 
has spread such deep and perennial roots in their ancestors 
from the most distant antiquity. But, on the other hand, from 
this tenacity and constancy of the constitution of the Ethio- 
pians, this comes out all the clearer, that such a power can 
only be contracted after a long series of generations, and so it 
must be considered as a miracle, and against all natural law, if 
it be true, what we find frequently related that the present 
descendants of some Portuguese colonists who emigrated to 
Guinea in the 15th century, have in so short an interval of 
time, only through the influence of the climate 2 , been able to 
contract the Ethiopian habit of body. 

45. Final exposition of the causes of the colour of the skin. 
What I have summarily and succinctly already laid down about 
the causes of the colour of the skin is strongly corroborated, 
on more accurate inquiry, by all sorts of arguments answering 
most accurately to each other, and taken from actual observa- 
tion of human nature. 

"We have discovered from the antiphlogistic chemistry of 
the French 3 that carbon belongs to the radical elements of the 

1 Those who like may consult three very learned works : Jac. Bryant, New 
System of Ancient Mythology, Vol. I. ; Ja. Bruce, Journey to the Discovery of the 
Sources of the Nile, Vol. I., and Sir W. Jones, Diss, in Asiatic Researches, Vols. n. 
and III. 

2 We all know that black men have been found at the Gambia descended from 
the original Portuguese. But it seems most probable that their blackness has been 
derived principally from the union of men with the indigenous Ethiopian women, 
for this reason, that European women when taken directly from their own country 
to Guinea can very seldom preserve life there ; for the effect of the climate is such 
as to produce very copious menstruation, which almost always in a short space of 
time ends in fatal hsemorrhages of the uterus. 

3 See Girtauner, Anfangsgriinde der Antiphlogistischen Chimie, p. 202. 

COLOUR. 213 

animal body, and is also the cause of dark colour, whether it be 
yellow, tawny, or blackish. In order that the animal economy 
may not be disturbed and endangered by a redundancy of this 
substance various emunctories have been provided, in which 
the liver and the skin occupy by no means the lowest place. 
Pathology, here as elsewhere so often the instructor of phy- 
siology, shows together with the phenomena just mentioned, 
the co-operation of the functions of the bile with the common 
integuments. For although I do not wish to insist too much 
on the analogy of jaundice with national tints of the skin, still 
there are various peculiar phenomena which deserve attention, 
common to those suffering under the regius morbus, and the 
nations of colour (so to speak) to which I refer, the fact of the 
albuminous part of the eye being tinged with yellow, a thing 
common to tawny nations and specially to the Indians 1 , the 
Americans 2 , and the Ethiopians 3 . Besides it not unfrequently 
happens with jaundiced persons, according to the varieties of the 
disease, that the skin, even after the disorder has been re- 
moved, remains always tinged with a different shade, very like 
the skin of coloured nations 4 . Nor are examples wanting of a 
genuine sooty blackness being sometimes deposited in atra- 
bilious disorders by a sort of true metamorphosis of the skin 5 . 
And from the affinity of the bile with fat 6 it is clear that this 
sort of cherry tint has been observed in tawny peoples 7 . Hence, 
unless I am mistaken, we must look for the reason why nations 

1 I myself have often observed this in those on this side the Ganges. On those 
beyond the Gauges see De la Loubere in Descript. du Royaume de Siam, T. i. 
p. 81. On the Nicobars, Nic. Fontana in Asiatic Researches, Vol. in. p. 151. 

2 On the Caribbees see Rochefort, Histoire Naturelle des Antilles, p. 383. 

3 Sommerring, l/ber die Korperliche verschiedenheit des Negers vom Ruropder, p. 1 1 . 

4 See Strack, Observations de Febribus Inter mittentibus, 1. in. c. 2, de ictero ex 
Febre Intermittente. "I have seen," says he, p. 194, "from such a jaundice that 
an olive -coloured skin, just like that of Asiatics, has remained in the children. 
Another person has become almost as black as an Indian from fever. The whole 
body of another has preserved a black complexion, as if he had been born from an 
Indian father and an European mother ; but like such he had the soles of his feet 
and the palms of his hands white," &c. 

5 Lorry, De Melancholia, T. 1. p. 273. 

6 Fourcroy, Philosophic Chimique, p. III. 

7 Observed in the Ethiopians by J. Fr. Meckel, Histoire de V Academic des 
Sciences de Berlin, 1753, p. 92, and by Sommerring, I. c. p. 43. 

214 COLO UK. 

who feed copiously on animal oil not only smell of it, but also 
contract a dark colour of skin 1 ; while the more elegant Ota- 
heitans on the contrary, who try to be of a pale colour, live 
every year for some months on the bread-fruit alone, to the use 
of which they attribute great virtue in whitening the skin 2 ; 
although part of that effect must be attributed to the fact that 
during the same period they remain at home, covered with 
clothes, and never go out. How great an influence abstinence 
from the free and open air has in giving whiteness to the skin, 
our own experience teaches us every year, when in spring very 
elegant and delicate women show a most brilliant whiteness of 
skin, contracted by the indoor life of winter. Whilst those who 
are less careful in this way, after they have exposed themselves 
freely to the summer sun and air, lose that vernal beauty 
before the arrival of the next autumn, and become sensibly 
browner 3 . 

If then under one and the same climate the mere difference 
of the annual seasons has such influence in changing the colour 
of the skin 4 , is there anything surprising in the fact that climates, 
in the sense defined above (s. 34), according to their diversity 

1 Cranz, Historie von Grbnland, T. I. p. 1 78, attributes the tawny skin of the 
Greenlanders to their particularly oily diet. Sloane declares, Voyage to Jamaica, 
Vol. 1. Introd. p. 18, and Vol. 11. p. 331, that the skin of Europeans in the East 
Indies becomes yellow from copious meals of dishes prepared from the calipash 
of turtles. 

2 See the account of the surgeon Anderson in Cook's Voyage to the Northern 
Hemisphere, Vol. 11. p. 147. 

3 From the cloud of witnesses who have observed the same well-known effect 
of the mode of life in other parts of the world, I will quote only one, Poiret, about 
the Moors in Voyage en Barbarie, p. 31. "The Moors are by no means naturally 
black, spite of the proverb, though many writers think so; they are born white 
and remain white all their lives, when their business does not expose them to the 
heat of the sun. In the towns the women are of such a brilliant whiteness that 
they eclipse most Europeans; but the Mauritanian mountaineers, burnt unceasingly 
by the sun and always half-naked, become, even from infancy, of a brown colour, 
which comes very near to that of soot." 

4 A few examples out of many will suffice. We know the Biscayan women 
are of a brilliant white, those of Granada on the contrary brownish, so that in this 
southern province the pictures of the Virgin Mary are painted of the same national 
colour as is observed by 01. Toree, Reise nach Surate, p. 9. We are told expressly 
about the Malabars, that their black colour approaches nearer to tawny and yellow 
the further they dwell towards the north, in Tranquebarischen Missions- Berichten, 
Contin. XXII. p. 896. The Ethiopians on the north shore of the Senegal are tawny, 
on the south, black. See with others Barbot in Churchill's Collection of Voyages, 
T. v. p. 34. 

CEEOLES. 2 1 5 

should have the greatest and most permanent influence over 
national colour : everywhere within the limits of a few degrees 
of geographical latitude, and still more when a multifarious 
concourse of the causes 1 above-mentioned has occurred even 
under the same latitude, a manifest difference in the colour of 
the inhabitants may be observed -2 . 

46. Creoles. The same power of affecting colour, about 
which we are speaking, is shown very clearly in Creoles, under 
which name (so frequently improperly confounded even by good 
authors 3 with the word Mulattos) in a narrower sense 4 w T e un- 
derstand those men born indeed either in the East or the West 5 
Indies, but of European parents. In these the face and colour are 
so constant and impossible to be mistaken, breathing as it were 
of the south, and particularly besides the hair and the almost 
burning eyes, that the most brilliant in other respects and most 
beautiful women may easily be distinguished by those peculiar 
characters from others, even their relatives, if these are born in 
Europe 6 . Nor does this appear only in Europeans, but also in 

1 Marsden, History of Sumatra, p. 43, notices the effect of sea-air upon tlie 
skin, and so Wallis in Hawkesworth's Collection of Voyages, Vol. I. p. 260. Harts- 
ink, that of woods, Beschryving van Guinea, T. I. p. 9. Bouguer of mountains, 
Figure de la Terre, Intr. p. 101, de Pinto of the altitude of the country, in Robert- 
son's Hist, of America, "Vol. 11. p. 403. 

2 On this point Zimruermann has some deep and learned remarks when discus- 
sing the problem why we do not find Ethiopians in America also in equatorial 
regions. Geograph. geschichte des Mensclien, T. 1. p. 86. 

3 As Thomas Hyde in the notes to Abr. Peritsol, Itinera mundi, in XJgolini, 
Thesaurus Anliquitatum Sacrarum, T. VII. p. 141. 

4 This word originated with the Ethiopian slaves transported in the sixteenth 
century to the mints in America, who first of all called their own children who 
were born there, Criollos and Criollas: this name was afterwards borrowed from the 
Spaniards, and imposed upon their children born in the new world. See Garcilasso, 
Del Origen de los Incas, p. m. 255. Now this word has been extended in the East 
Indies to the domestic animals which are not indigenous in America, but have 
been transplanted there by Europeans. Oldendorp, Geschichte der Mission auf den 
Caraib. Jnseln, T. 1. p. 232. 

5 On these Creoles of the Antilles, see the curious and elaborate works of Gir- 
tanner, iibcr die Franzosische Revolution, T. I. p. 60 — 72, 2nd ed. 

6 Hawkesworth's Collection of Voyages, T. ill. p. m. 374. "If two natives of 
England marry in their own country and afterwards remove to our settlements in 
the West Indies, the children that are conceived and born there will have the com- 
plexion and cast of countenance that distinguish the Creole ; if they return, the 
children conceived and born afterw r ards will have no such characteristics," &c. 


Asiatics who are born in the East Indies from Persian or Mon- 
golian parents who have emigrated there \ 

47. Mulattos, &c. Remarkable too is the constancy with 
which offspring born from parents of different colours present a 
middle tint made up as it were from that of either parent. For 
although we read everywhere of single specimens of hybrid in- 
fants born from the union (s. 37) of different varieties of this sort, 
who have been of the colour of one or other parent alone 2 ; still, 
generally speaking, the course of this mixture is so consistently 
hereditary, that we may suspect the accuracy of James Bruce 
about the Ethiopians of some countries in the kingdom of 
Tigre, who keep their black colour unadulterated, although 
some of the parents were of one colour and some of another; 
or about the Arabians, who beget white children with the female 
Ethiopians like the father alone 3 . But as the hybrids of 
this sort of origin from parents of various colours are distin- 
guished by particular names, it will be worth while to exhibit 
them here arranged in synoptical order. 

A. Tine first generation. The offspring of Europeans and 
Ethiopians are called Mulattos*. Of Europeans and Indians, 
Mestizos 5 . Of Europeans and Americans also Mestizos 8 or 
Mestinde 7 , or Metifs 8 , or Mamlucks 9 . Of Ethiopians and 
Americans Zambos 10 ; by those called also Mulattos 11 , Lobos 12 , 
Curibocas and Kabicglos 13 . All these present an appearance and 
colour compounded of either parent, and that more or less 

1 See Hodges's Travels in India, p. 3. 

2 Comp. Jac. Parsons in Philos. Trans, "Vol. LV. p. 47. 

3 Journey to the Sources of the Nile, Vol. in. p. 106, and Vol. iv. p. 470. See 
the remarks of Tychsen at T. v. p. 357. 

4 See a law-suit which turned upon the habit and characters of mulattos in 
Klein, Annalen der Gesetzgebung in den Preussischen Staaten, T. VII. p. 116. 

5 See the figure of the Cingalese Mestizo in de Bruin, Reizen over Moskovie, 
p. m. 358, and of the Ternatese though less remarkable in Valentyn, Oud en Nieuw 
Oost-Indien, T. 1. P. 2, p. 18. 

6 Garcilasso, " Por dezir que somos mezelados de ambas Nasciones." 

7 Twiss' Travels through Portugal and Spam, p. 332, from pictures seen by 
him at Malaga. 

8 Labat, Voyage aux isles de V Amerique, T. 11. p. 132. 

9 De Hauterive, Hist, de I'Acad. des Sc. de Paris, 1724, p. 18. 

10 Gily, Storia Americana, T. IV. p. 320. u Garcilasso, I. c. 

12 Twiss, I. c. 13 Marcgrav, Tractatus Brasilia?, p. 12. 


brownish or muddy, with scarcely any redness visible in the 
cheeks. The hair of Mulattos is generally curly, that of the 
rest straight, of almost all black ; the iris of the eye is brown. 

B. The second generation. Mulattos forming unions with 
each other produce Gasquas 1 ; Europeans and Mulattos Ter- 
cerons 2 , which others call Quarterons 3 , others Moriscos 4 and 
Mestizos 5 . The countenance and hair of all is that of Europeans, 
the skin very lightly stained with a brownish tint, and the 
cheeks ruddy. The lips of the female mouth and pudenda 
violet coloured; the scrotum of the male blackish. The Ethi- 
opians with the Mulattos produce Griffs 6 , called by others 
Zambo Mulattos' 1 , and by others Cabros 8 . The Europeans with 
the Indian Mestizos, Castissi 9 . Those born of Europeans and 
American Mestizos are called Qtiarterons 10 or Quatralvi 11 , and by 
the Spaniards also Castissi 12 . Those born of the Americans 
themselves and their Mestizos are called Tresalvi 13 . Those of 
the Americans and the Mulattos are also called Mestizos 14 . 
Those of Europeans and Zambos or Lobos of the first generation 
are called indifferently Mulattos 15 . Those of the Americans and 
these same Zambos or Lobos Zambaigi 16 . The progeny of the 
Zambos or Lobos themselves are called contemptuously by the 
Spaniards Gholos 17 . 

C. The third generation. Some call those who are born of 
Europeans and Tercerons Quaterons 18 , others Ochavons 19 , or 
Octavons, and the Spaniards Alvinos 20 . In these it is asserted 

I De Hauterive, I. c. 2 Long, History of Jamaica, T. n. p. 260. 
3 Aublet, Histoire des Plantes de la Guiane, T. 11. App. p. 122. 4 Twiss. 

3 Moreton's Manners and Customs in the West India Islands, p. 123. 
6 De Hauterive, I. c. 7 Hist, of Jamaica, I. c. 

8 Bomare, Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle, ed. 4, T. ix. Art. Negre. 

9 Tranqueoarische Missions- Bericlite, Contin. xxxiii. p. 919. 

10 Gumilk, Orinoco Jllustrado, T. 1. p. 83. 

II Garcilasso, I. c, "to show that they are one-fourth Indian, and three-fourths 
Spanish. 1 ' 12 Twiss. 

13 Garcilasso, "to show that they are three parts Indian and one part Spanish." 

14 Hist, of Jamaica. 

15 Ferrain, Sur VGEcon. Animale, T. 1. p. 179. 16 Twiss. 

17 Garcilasso, "Cholo is a word of the islands of Barlovento, meaning the same 
as Dog; and the Spaniards use it by way of contempt or reproach." 

18 History of Jamaica. The offspring of Quaterons of this kind from Tercerons 
of the second generation are called Tente-enel-cyre. 

19 Gumilla, I. c. p. 86. 20 Twiss. 


by the most acute observers that no trace of their Ethiopian 
origin can be found 1 . Those of Mulattos and Tercerons Salta- 
tras 2 . Of Europeans and Castissi, Postissi 3 . Of Europeans and 
American Quarterons of the second generation Octavons*. Of 
Quarterons and American Mestizos of the first generation, 
Coyotas 5 . Of Griffs and Zambo Mulattos with Zambos of the 
first generation Giveros 6 . Of Zambaigis and Mulattos Cam- 
bujos 7 . There are those who extend even into the fourth gene- 
ration this kind of pedigree, and say that those born from 
Europeans from Quarterons of the third generation are called 
Quinterons 8 , in Spanish Puchuelas 9 , but this name is also 
applied to those who are born of Europeans and American 
Octavons 10 . But that the slightest permanent vestige of their 
mixed origin 11 is to be found in productions like these, after what 
we have been told by most credible eye-witnesses about the 
men of the third generation, that as to colour and constitution 
they are exactly like the aboriginal Europeans, is a thing that 
seems almost incredible. 

48. Brown skin variegated with white spots. "What I said 
above (s. 44) about the action of the sanguiferous vessels of 
the corium in excreting the carbon, which is afterwards pre- 
cipitated by the addition of oxygen, is singularly confirmed by 
the instances of dark-coloured men, especially Ethiopians, 
w r hose skin, and that too not always from their first tender 
infancy 12 , is distinguished by spots of a snowy whiteness (Fr. ne- 
g 'res-pies; Eng. piebald negroes). 

I saw an Ethiopian of this kind at London, by name John 
Richardson, a servant of T. Clarke, who exhibited there (in 
Exeter Change), live exotic animals as shows and also for sale. 

1 Aublet. 2 Hist, of Jamaica. 3 Tranquelarische Missions- Berichte, I. c. 

4 Gumilla, I. c. p. 1 3. 5 Twiss. 6 History of Jamaica. 

7 Twiss. 8 Hist, of Jamaica. 

9 Gumilla, p. 86. "> Id. p. 83. 

11 Thus those born from the Coyotes of the third generation and the Americans 
are called Hamizos; from the Cambujos and Mulattos, Albarassados ; finally, 
Twiss, whom I have so often quoted before, calls those born from the last and 
Mulattos, Barzinos. 

12 W. Byrd, in Philos. Trans Vol. xix. p. 781, mentions the instance of an 
Ethiopian boy in whom the spots did not appear till his fourth year, and in process 
of time began to increase in size. 


The young man was perfectly black except in the umbilical and 
epigastric region of the abdomen, and in the middle part of 
either leg, that is the knees, with the adjoining regions of the 
thigh and the tibia, which were remarkable for a most brilliant 
and snowy whiteness, and were themselves again distinguished 
by black scattered spots, like those of a panther. His hair was 
also parti-coloured. For the middle part of his sinciput de- 
scending in an acute angle from the vertex towards the fore- 
head was white, not however like the regions of the skin we have 
been speaking of, but a little snowy with a tinge of yellow. 
The rest of the hair was, as is, usually the case with Ethiopians, 
curly; and this curliness still continues unaltered up to this 
time, in a specimen of each kind of hair which I obtained from 
the man himself more than two years ago. I had also a picture 
taken of the man, which on comparison with three others 
equally of Ethiopians, which I have by me, a boy and two girls, 
shows that in all, the regions of the abdomen and legs were 
more or less white, but that the hands and feet, that is, those 
parts which with the groin are the first to grow black in new- 
born Ethiopians, were perfectly tawny, and that in all the 
disposition of the white regions was thoroughly symmetrical. 
The gums, to go on to that also, in the man I saw, the tongue 
and all the jaws, were of an equable and beautiful red. 

Both the parents of the man I am speaking of, as of all the 
other spotted Ethiopians 1 of whom I have found descriptions, were 
perfectly black, so that the conjecture of Buffon seems badly 
founded when he attributes such offspring to the union of Ethio- 
pians and Leucsethiopian women, when suffering under a dis- 
eased affection of the skin and the eyes, about which I shall 
take an opportunity of speaking more particularly below. 

Care must always be taken that the spots we are speaking 
about, and which can only be distinguished by a snowy white- 

1 See a print of a girl of this kind in Buffon, Suppl. T. IV. Tab. 2, p. 565. 
This, unless I am mistaken, is the same which has been described at length by 
Gumilla, Orinoco Illustrado, T. 1. p. 109. Other instances of this kind of Ethio- 
pians are found in La Mothe, Bibliotheque Impartiale, Apr. 1752. See D. Morgan 
in Transactions of the Philosophical Society at Philadelphia, Vol, II. p. 392. 

220 SKIN. 

ness from the rest of the skin, the epidermis being in other 
respects unaffected, be not improperly confounded with those 
by which the whole integument is covered, which are to be 
recognized not so much by a different colour as by a degrada- 
tion of the texture of the corium itself, which becomes rough, 
and as it were scaly or scurvy. Writers have observed this 
kind of cutaneous disorder particularly amongst the Malabars 1 , 
and the Tschulymik Tartars' 2 . But these snowy, equable and 
smooth spots which only occur in a disordered action of the 
smallest vessels of the corium, are by no means confined to 
the Ethiopians, but sometimes occur amongst our own peo- 
ple. I have myself had the opportunity of observing two in- 
stances of this kind in German men, one a young man, the 
other more than sixty years old. The skin of each was brown- 
ish, studded here and there with very white spots of different 
sizes. In neither were these congenital, but had appeared sud- 
denly and spontaneously in one during infancy, in the other in 

49. Similar remarkable mutations of the colour of the skin. 
As these instances I have just been mentioning seem to demon- 
strate the power of the smaller vessels of the corium in modi- 
fying the colour of the skin ; so there are other phenomena 
which often occur, and point in this direction, by which, unless 
I am much mistaken, those conjectures I made above (s. 44, 45) 
about the abundance of carbon, and the impressions of the Mal- 
pighian mucus being as it were the proximate cause of that 
colour, are well illustrated. 

Above all others I shall consider in this place the singular 
change of colour so often observed in European women 3 , in some 

1 Tranquebarische Missions- Berichte, Cont. xxi. p. 741, compare the disorder to 

2 See Strahlenberg, Nord-ostlich Europa und Asien, p. 166, who suspects them 
to be the same Tartar horde which went under the name of Piegaja or Pestraja orda. 
J. G-. Gmelin attributes it to disease, Reise durch Sibirien, pref. T. II. and J. Bell 
to some scorbutic affection, Travels from St Petersburg to diverse parts of Asia, Vol. 
I. p. 218. 

3 " In many women the under part of the body (the abdomen) and the rings 
about the breasts (that is the teats) when they are ill, become quite black." 
Camper, Klein Schrift, T. 1. P. I. p. 47. "In our own time a Bimilar metamor- 


of whom, and those in other respects particularly white, at the 
time of pregnancy a larger or smaller number of the parts of 
the body are darkened with a coaly blackness, which however 
gradually disappears again after child-birth, when the original 
clearness is restored to the body. The solution of this puz- 
zling problem is to be found in the application of modern che- 
mistry to the physiology of pregnancy. When the woman is not 
pregnant the moderate portion of carbon of her own body is 
easily excreted by superfluous cutaneous perspiration ; but in a 
pregnant woman, besides her own share, another quantity 
accrues from the foetus, which immersed in ammonial liquid 
does not as yet breathe. Thus the blood of the mother be- 
comes too much laden with the carbon arising from two human 
bodies joined as it were in one, so that all of it cannot as 
usual be excreted with the perspiration of the mother : so part 
of it is precipitated in the Malpighian mucus, and there re- 
mains, tinging the skin, until the child being delivered, the 
original equilibrium between the carbon of her own body and 
the perspiring vessels of the skin is restored; and the epider- 
mis, which with the mucus lying under it is constantly de- 
stroyed by degrees and again renewed at last, recovers its 
natural whiteness. 

In different circumstances the same reason seems to hold 
good in so many instances of Europeans, in whom the differ- 
ent parts of the body are unnaturally affected by a smoky 
blackness ; since here also it may be referred to a congestion of 
carbon. Thus, for instance, a similar blackness is observable in 
women who never menstruate 1 . So also in other atrabilious 

ptosis has been renewed annually in the person of a lady of distinction, of a good 
complexion, and a very white skin. As soon as she was pregnant, she began to 
get brown, and towards the end of her time she became a true negress. After her 
deliveries the black colour disappeared little by little, her original whiteness re- 
turned, and her progeny had no trace of blackness." Bomare, I.e. Art. Negre. Le 
Cat, I. c. in many places ; for ex. p. 141. "A peasant of the environs of Paris, a 
nurse by profession, had the belly regularly quite black at every pregnancy, and 
that colour disappeared after delivery." " Another always had the left leg black 
on those occasions," &c. So also Lorry, De Melancholia, T. I. p. 298, &c. 
1 Comp. Jas. Yonge in Philosoph. Trans. Vol, xxvi. p. 425. 

222 SKIN. 

men 1 , especially of the lowest sort, and those who suffer from 
cachexia caused by want and dirt. This is often the case too in 
scurvy 2 , &c. On the other hand we know by experience that 
the blackness of the Ethiopians is not so constant but what it 
sometimes is rendered paler, or even changed quite into a white 
colour. It has been recorded that Ethiopians, when they have 
changed their climate in early infancy' and from that time 
forward have inhabited a temperate zone, have gone on getting 
paler by degrees 3 . The same thing happens also somewhat 
quicker to the same negroes when they suffer under severe 
disorders 4 . Many instances also are to be found where, apart 
from any particular state of health, the natural blackness of 
the Ethiopian skin has sensibly and spontaneously been changed 
into a whiteness, such as that of Europeans 5 . 

50. Some other national properties of skin. Besides colour, 
other singular qualities are often attributed to the skin of 
some nations, about which I must say a few words at all 
events. Amongst these there is that smoothness and softness 
of skin which has been compared to silk, and has been noticed 

1 I have in my anatomical collection a specimen of the integuments of the 
abdomen of a beggar who died here some years ago, which does not yield at all in 
blackness to the skin of the Ethiop. Others too have shown many instances of 
that kind in Europeans. See for ex. Haller, Element. Physiol. T. V. p. iS. 
Ludwig, Epistolce ad Hallerum scriptce, T. I. p. 393. De Pdet, De organo 
tactus, p. 13. Albinus, De seele et caussa colons j-Ethiopum, p. 9. Klinkosch, De 
cuticula, p. 46. Sommerring, Vber die lorperl. vcrschiedenheit des Negers vom 
Em-opder, p. 48. Comp. Loschge in Naturforscher, P. XSIU. p. 2 14. ib. P. XVI. 
p. 170, for the description of some brown (Diutkelbraun) spots of different size, 
some of the diameter of a span, observed in a man then sixty years old, in whom 
they appeared when young during a quartan fever. 

2 Comp. besides others, Jo. Narborough's Voyage to the Straits of Magellan, 
p. m. 64. "Their legs and thighs are turned as black, as a hat," &c. So also 
Phillip's Voyage to Botany Bay, p. 229. 

3 " There is a cobbler of this nation still living at Venice, whose blackness, 
after a great many years, (for he came to this country a boy) has so sensibly 
diminished, that he seems like one suffering from a slight jaundice." Caldan, 
Jnstitut. Physiol, p. 15 f, ed. 1786. Comp. also Pechlin, De habit u et colore 
JEthiopum, p. 128, and Oldendorp, T. I. p. 406. 

4 " I have seen them of so light a colour that it was difficult to distinguish 
them from a white man of a bad complexion." Labat, Relation d'Afrigue occiden- 
talc, T. ir. p. 260. And Klinkosch, /. c. p. 48. 

3 Comp. Jas. Bate in Philosoph. Trans. Vol. LI. P. I. p. 175. 

HA1E. 2-23 

by writers in many nations, as the Caribs 1 , the Ethiopian 2 , the 
Otaheitans 3 and even the Turks 4 . It is clear that in all these 
it depends either upon a more tender epidermis, or a thicker 
stratum of the Malpighian mucus. The cause of the coldness 
to the touch which has been observed in the skin of various 
nations of Africa 5 and the East Indies 6 seems different, and 
must be referred rather to the chemical affinities of the body 
and the atmospheric elements. Here also is to be considered 
that insensible perspiration of Sanctorius, which is accompa- 
nied in some nations with a peculiar smell, as in the Caribs 7 , 
Ethiopians 8 , and others ; in the same way that in some varieties 
of domestic animals, as among dogs, the Egyptian, among horses, 
those of a reddish- white are well known to have a specific and 
peculiar perspiration 9 . 

51. Consensus of the hair and shin. As the hair, especially 
that of the head, is generated and nourished by the common 
integuments, so it has invariably a great and multifarious 
agreement with them. Hence, those variegated Ethiopians we 
spoke of have also hair of different colour. Men whose white 
skin is marked with ephelitic spots have red hair 10 . Besides, 

1 " Their flesh is very dark and soft ; when you touch their skin, it feels like 
satin." Biet, Voyage de la France Equinoxiale, p. 352. 

2 Pechiin, I. c. p. 54, and Sommerring, I. c. p. 45. 

3 "Their skin is most delicately smooth and soft." Hawkes. Coll. T. II. p. m. 

+ " The wife of every labourer or rustic in Asia (Turkey) has a skin so soft that 
you seem to touch a fine velvet." Belon, Obs. p. m. 198. 

5 Bruce's Voyage to the Sources of the Nile, T. 11. p. 552, T. iv. p. 471 and 

6 On the Indians see Kant in Engel, Philosophic fur die Welt, P. II. p. 154. 
On the inhabitants of Sumatra, Marsden, p. 41. 

7 "They all have a strong and disagreeable smell. I know nothing which can 
give an idea of it. When anything smells like it, they say in the Antilles, 'a smell 
of Carib,' which shows the difficulty of expressing it." Thibault de Charwalon, 
Voyage a la Martinique, p. 44. 

8 Comp. Schotte On the synochus atrabiliosa, p. 104. Hist, of Jamaica, 11. pp. 

35*> 425. 

9 So Pausanias in his Phocica tells us that the Ozolians, an indigenous people, 
of Locris, smelt disgustingly on account_of something in the air. Comp. Lavater, 
Physiognom. Fragmente, T. iv. p. 268. And J. F. Ackerman, De discrimine 
sexuum proeter genitalia, p. 10. 

10 Among ourselves the thing is very common. It has been observed also among 
the most distant nations; as in the island Otaha of the Pacific ocean. See J. R.- 
Forster, Bemerhungen auf seiner reise um die welt, p. 205. Many inhabitants of 

224 HATR. 

there is a remarkable correspondence of the hair with the 
whole constitution and temperament of the body. .This, too, 
we learn from pathological phenomena, such for example as 
that those who have yellow hair (blondins), in consequence of 
the tenderer and more impressible cellular texture, break out 
more easily in rashes and similar eruptions ; whilst those who 
have black hair are almost always of a costive and atrabilious 
temperament, so much so that it has long since been observed 
that far the greater number of men in mad hospitals and jails 
have black hair. 

52. Principal national varieties of hair. In general, the 
national diversity of hair seems capable of being reduced to 
four principal varieties : 

1. The first of a brownish or nutty colour (cendre), shading 
off on the one side into yellow, on the other into black : soft, 
long, and undulating. Common in the nations of temperate 
Europe ; formerly particularly famous among the inhabitants 
of ancient Germany \ 

2. The second, black, stiff, straight, and scanty ; such as is 
common to the Mongolian and American nations. 

3. The third, black, soft, in locks, thick and exuberant ; 
such as the inhabitants of most of the islands of the Pacific 
Ocean exhibit. 

4. The fourth, black and curly, which is generally compared 
to the wool of sheep ; common to the Ethiopians. 

Thus, a general division of this kind may be made, which 
is not without its use. That it is no more a purely natural 
division than other divisions of the national varieties of human 
races, is not necessary to dwell upon here. This I will show, 
though it is quite unnecessary, by one or two arguments, 
namely, that curliness is not peculiar to the Ethiopians, nor 
blackness to the three varieties I put in the last place. Some 

Timur are of a copper colour with red hair ; see Van Hogendorp in Verhandelingen 
van het Bataviaasch Genootschap, T. I. p. m. 319. Marcgrav saw an African 
woman with an undoubted red skin and red hair, Tractatus Brasilia, p. 12. 
1 Conring, De habitus corporum Germanicorum antiqui ac novi causis, p. 85. 

EYES. 225 

races of Ethiopians are found with long hair 1 ; other copper- 
coloured nations again have curly hair 2 , like that of the Ethio- 
pians. There are others, the New Hollanders, whose hair, as I 
see from the specimens I have in hand, holds so perfectly the 
middle place between the curliness of the Ethiopians and the 
locks of the inhabitants of the islands in the Pacific Ocean, that 
a wonderful difference of opinion is to be found in the ac- 
counts of expeditions from the first Dutch ones of the last 
century to the very latest of the English, as to which variety of 
hair it should be considered to belong. As to the various 
colour of hairs, occurring amongst those nations also, who gene- 
rally have black hair, it is sufficient to cite good witnesses, who 
say that red hair is frequently found in the three other varieties 
I reckoned besides the first. 

53. The iris of the eye conforms to the colour of the hair. 
We have seen that the hair coincides with the common integu- 
ments of the body. Aristotle 3 had, however, long ago taught 
that the colour of the eyes followed that of the skin. Those 
whose colour was white had grey eyes ; black, black eyes. 
Thus very often amongst ourselves new-born infants have grey 
eyes and light hair, which afterwards in those who become dark 
(brunet), is slowly and as it were simultaneously darkened also. 
In old men as the hair grows white the pigment of the internal 
eye loses much of its usual dark colour. In the Leuccethiopians, 
about whom I shall speak more particularly below, as the hair 
passes from a yellowish tinge to white, so the pigment of the 
eye is clearly nothing, and hence a pale rosy kind of iris. 

It is remarkable that in no case at all is there any variation 
in the eyes of animals, except in those who vary in the colour 
of their skin and hair, as we know to be the case not only in 
men and horses, which was the opinion of the ancients, but also 

1 Comp. Bruce on the Gallas, Journey, &c. Vol. II. p. 214. As to the inhabit- 
ants of the kingdom of Bornou, Proceedings of the Association, p. m. ■201. 

2 The inhabitants of the Duke of York's Island not far from the New Ireland 
of the Southern Ocean. See J. Hunter's Historical Journal of the Transactions at 
Port Jackson, &c. p. 233 : " they are of a light copper colour, the hair is woolly." 

3 Problemat. s. 10. p. 416, ed. Casaub. 



in other principally domestic animals. Very often also the iris 
is variegated with more than one colour in those animals whose 
skin is variegated. This was first observed in parti-coloured 
dogs 1 . I have noticed something like it in sheep and horses, 
but in no animal so plainly as in rabbits. Grey rabbits who 
have kept their natural wild colour have the iris quite black, 
whereas the parti-coloured ones, whose skin is spotted with 
black and white, have the iris manifestly spotted in the same 
way. Those which are quite white, and like Leucsethiopians, 
have, as is well known, the iris of a pale red. 

54. Principal colours of eyes. Aristotle, whom I just quoted, 
divided well the primary colours of the iris of the human eye 
into three; first, blue; second, dark orange, called goats' eyes 
(yeux de chevres 2 ) ; third, dark brown. All these three as they 
occur everywhere in individuals of one and the same nation, so 
also are they to be noticed as more constant and as it were 
racial in different families of the same continent within the 
limits of a few degrees of geographical latitude. Hence Linngeus 3 
attributes those among the Swedish population to the Gothic 
race, who have white hair, with the iris of the eye of a dark- 
blue colour ; to the Finnic, those with yellow hair and dark iris ; 
to the Lapp, finally, those with black hair and blackish iris. Blue 
eyes equally with yellow hair were formerly considered as natu- 
ral characteristics of the ancient Germans. But they are found 
everywhere amongst the most widely separated nations*. The 
very black irides of the Ethiopians are such that, especially in liv- 
ing subjects, they cannot be distinguished, excepting when very 
close, from the pupil itself 5 . 

55. National face. I now turn naturally enough from the 

1 Comp. Molinelli in Commentar. instituti Bonon. T. III. p. -28 1. 

2 There is a middle colour between grey and orange of a strange greenish tint, 
and as it were grass green, which is to be seen in men who have fiery hair, and skin 
much spotted with freckles. Comp. that singular book Portius, Sim. De coloribus 
oculorum, Florentii, 1550, 4to. 

3 Fauna Suecica, p. 1. 

4 I have collected the instances in my notes to J. Bruce, Eeise zv, den quellen des 
Nils. T. v. p. 239. 

5 Thus must be understood the words of J. G. Walter, De venis oculi, p. 23, 
'• The Ethiopian has no iris," &c. 


eyes to the rest of the face, the diversities of which are all over 
the world so great and so remarkable in individuals that it is 
little short of a miracle to find even two who cannot be distin- 
guished from each other, and are, as they say, cast in the same 
mould. Besides it is certain that this difference of faces may be 
observed not only in Europeans but also among barbarous na- 
tions 1 . Yet, however true all this may be, it is not the less 
undoubtedly a fact that every different variety of mankind (and 
everywhere, even in the inhabitants of single provinces 2 ) all over 
the world has a racial face peculiar to each of them by which it 
may be easily distinguished from the remaining varieties. 

56. Racial varieties of the face. I have made an attempt, 
after assiduously comparing a quantity of prints of foreigners 
made for me from the life by skilled artists, and after seeing 
myself a great number of men in the markets which are prin- 
cipally frequented by foreigners, to reduce these racial varieties 
of the face into certain classes. And unless I am much mis- 
taken, although open to particular exceptions, still they will 
come close to natural truth if they are reduced in the following 
way to five, as models and principal forms of the other diversi- 
ties of small moment : 

1st. Face oval, straight, the parts moderately marked. 
The forehead smooth. Nose narrow, slightly hooked, or at all 
events somewhat high. The jugal bones in no way prominent. 
Mouth small, lips (especially the lower) gently pronounced. 
Chin full, round. In general that kind of face, which, accord- 

1 Thus on the aborigines of the Friendly Islands that most sagacious observer, 
W. Anderson: "their features are very various, in so much that it is scarcely 
possible to fix on any general likeness by which to characterize them, unless it be 
a fulness at the point of the nose, which is very common. But, on the other hand, 
we met with hundreds of truly European faces, and many genuine Roman noses 
amongst them." Cook's last voyage, Vol. I. p. 380. Other instances of this kind 
observed amongst Ethiopians and Americans will be spoken of below. On the 
other hand the similarity of individual Europeans with the Ethiopians or Mon- 
golians is so common as to have passed into a proverb. 

2 On this point Libavius, an author by no means to be despised, says two 
hundred years ago: "The aspect of the Thuringians is one thing; that of the 
Saxons another ; and that of the Suevi another, and nearly every village has its 
own, so that if you chose to study the subject, you could nearly tell a man's country 
by his appearance." 



ing to our opinion of symmetry, we think becoming and beauti- 
ful. This same kind of face constitutes, as it were, a -.medium 
which may fall off by degeneration into two exactly opposite 
extremes, of which the one displays a wide and the other an 
elongated face. Each of these two includes again two different 
varieties, which can best be distinguished from each other when 
seen in profile. For then one of these varieties shows the nose 
and the remaining parts somewhat indistinct, and, as it were, 
running into one another. In the other they appear deeper, so 
to say, cut out, and, as it were, projecting angularly. Thus we 
come to form the four remaining varieties besides that first 
mean type. 

A. One pair with the face developed in width: — 

2nd. Face wide, at the same time flat and depressed; the 
parts, therefore, indistinct and running into one another. In- 
terspace between the eyes, or glabella, smooth, very wide. 
Nose flattened. Cheeks usually rounded, projecting outwards. 
Opening of the eyelids narrow, linear (yeux brides). Chin, 
somewhat prominent. This is the countenance common to the 
Mongolian nations (the Tartar face from the common figure of 
speech which we shall touch on below, confounding the Tartars 
with the Mongolians). 

3rd. Face also wide and cheeks prominent, though not fiat 
or depressed, but the parts when seen in profile more worked 
and, as it were, deeply cut out. Forehead low. Eyes deeply 
set. Nose somewhat turned up, but prominent. This is the 
face of most Americans. 

B. Pair of varieties of the face elongated below : — 

4th. Narrow face, prominent below. Forehead short, wrinkled. 
Eyes very prominent (d fieur-de-tete). Nose thick and half 
confused with the extended cheeks (le nez epate). Lips (espe- 
cially the upper) full and swelling. Jaws stretched out. Chin 
falling back. This is the Guinea face. 

5th. Face less narrow, somewhat prominent below, when 
seen in profile the parts more projecting and distinct from each 
other. Nose full, somewhat broad, as it were diffuse, end thick 

causes. 229 

(bottled). Mouth large. This is the face of the Malay, especi- 
ally of the inhabitants of the islands of the Southern Ocean. 

57. Causes of the racial face. First of all, notice must be 
taken that I am not going to speak here of the countenance, 
taken in a physiognomical sense, {look, expression,) as an index 
of the temperament, which is however itself sometimes racial, 
and peculiar to some nations, and may be derived from a 
common source. In that way it is probable that to their diet 
you may attribute the placid countenance of the abstemious 
Brahmins and Banyans of India, and the atrocious aspect, on the 
other hand, of the man-eating Botocudos 1 of Brazil; or you may 
instance religion by the examples of the pious and devoted 
countenance by which especially the softer sex is distinguished 
in some countries of southern Europe (in the vernacular Ma- 
donna faces) ; or cultivation and luxury, in which the soft and 
effeminate Otaheitans so much excel the manly and powerful 
New Zealanders. 

But our business is with the causes of the racial face, that 
is, of the countenance itself and the proportion and direction of 
its parts, all of which we see to be peculiar and characteristic to 
the different varieties of mankind. The mere discussion, how- 
ever, of these causes is overwhelmed with such difficulties that 
we can only follow probable conjectures. I. am persuaded, 
myself, that climate is the principal cause of the racial face, on 
three grounds especially; 1st, we see the racial face so univer- 
sal in some populations under a particular climate, and always 
exactly the same in men of different classes and modes of life, 
that it can scarcely be referred to any other cause. There are 
the Chinese, for example, amongst whom a sort of flattened face 
is just as characteristic as a symmetrical and particular beauty 
is common amongst us Europeans to the English and inhabit- 
ants of Majorca 2 . 

2nd. Unless I am mistaken there are instances of peoples 
who after they have changed their localities and have migrated 

1 I owe my account of this most ferocious and anthropophagous race to two 
Portuguese Brazilians, de Camara and d'Andrada. 

2 MSmoires du Cardinal de Retz, T. III. p. 343. 


elsewhere, in process of time have changed also their original 
form of countenance for a new one, peculiar to the new climate. 
Thus the Yakutes have been referred to a Tartar origin by most 
authors on northern antiquities. Careful eye-witnesses assert 
that now their face is Mongolian, and I myself see it plainly in 
the skull of a Yakute, with which the munificence of Baron von 
Asch_ has enriched my anthropological collection 1 . Something 
of the same kind will be observed below about the Americans of 
either coldest zone (s. 88). I have already shown that the Creoles 
sprung from English parents and ancestors in the Antilles, have 
finally exchanged to some extent the native British countenance 
for one more like the aborigines of America, and have acquired 
their deep-set eyes and their more prominent cheeks 2 . 

Egypt, however, and India this side the Ganges afford us 
the clearest examples of all. For as this peninsula has been 
frequently subdued by the most different nations, because the 
first conquerors becoming effeminated by living in such a soft 
climate were at last conquered by other and stronger northern 
nations who came after them, so also their appearance seems as 
it were to have accommodated itself to the new climate. In 
fact, we only know the racial aspect of the old possessors of 
India and their manifest characteristics from the most ancient 
works of Indian art, I mean those stupendous statues, which 
are carved out in a wonderful way in the subterranean temples 
of the islands of Salsette and Elephanta, wonderful copies of 
which I saw at London, both in the British Museum, as amongst 
the antiquarian treasures of the polished C. Townley 3 . The 
more modern conquerors of India, that is, the Mongolians, have 
lost much of their original features under a new climate, and 
approached nearer the Indian type, of which I have had ocular 
experience from the Indian pictures shown me by John Walsh, 
a most learned man on Indian antiquity. 

As to the racial face of the ancient Egyptians, I am much 
surprised that some famous archaeologists, and those most learned 

1 Decas craniorum altera, p. n. 

2 History of Jamaica, Vol. II. p. 261. 

3 Archceologia, Vol. vn. Tab. 25, 26, 27. 


in Egyptian art, have been able to attribute one and the same 
common countenance to all alike 1 ; when a careful contempla- 
tion and comparison of these monuments has easily taught me 
to distinguish three sorts of face amongst them. The first like 
the Ethiopian ; the second the Indian ; and the third, into which 
both of the others have by the progress of time and the effect of 
the specific and peculiar climate of Egypt degenerated, spongy 
and flaccid in appearance, with short chin, and somewhat pro- 
minent eyes 2 . 

3rd. We see nations which are reputed to be but colonies of 
one and the same stock have contracted in different climates 
different racial faces. Thus the Hungarians are considered to 
be of the same primitive stock as the Lapps 3 . The latter living 
in the furthest North have acquired the face so peculiar to the 
most northern nations, whereas the former living in the tempe- 
rate zone, in the neighbourhood of Greece and Turkey, have 
gained a more elegant form of face. 

Every one knows that much in all these cases must be attri- 
buted to the marriages between different nations, and I myself 
intend soon to say something about their influence in changing 
the racial face. Still it seems most probable that the influence 
of climate alone is very great on this point, especially when we 
add what was noticed above about the causes and ways in which 
brute animals degenerate. 

To find out the reason why one climate turns out this and 
another that kind of racial face seems extremely difficult; yet 
most sagacious men have made the attempt when endeavouring 
to explain the face of different nations ; as Kant_upon the Mon- 
golian 4 and Volney upon the Ethiopian 5 . That accessory 

1 Winkehnann, Description des pierres gravies de Stosch. p. 10, and elsewhere. 
D'Hancarville, Recherches sur Vorigine des arts de la Grece, Tom. I. p. 300. 

2 I have said more about this triple character of the ancient art of Egyptian 
monuments in Philosoph. Trans. 1794, P. II. p. 191. 

3 Comp. 01. Rudbeck, Jun., Analogia lingua, Finnonicce cum Ungarica, at the 
end of Specim. usus linguce Gothicce, Upsal. 1717, 4to, p. 77 ; and amongst other 
recent writers, J. Hager, Neue Beweise der verwandtschsaft der Hungarn mit den 
Lapplandern, Wien, 1794, 8vo. 

4 In Engel, Philosoph. fur die Welt, T. II. p. 146. 

5 Voyage en Syrie et en Egypte, T. 1. p. 74. "In fact T see that the face of the 

232 CAUSES. 

causes sometimes endemical to peculiar climates, such as con- 
stant clouds of gnats, may do something towards contracting the 
natural face of the inhabitants, may be gathered from the 
observation of Dampier about the inhabitants of the south of 
New Holland 1 . 

I am not sure whether the opinion of our Leibnitz about the 
similitude of nations to the indigenous animals of the country 
is to be interpreted as referring to the influence of climate on 
the conformation of man and brute animals alike ; as it seems 
that the Lapps recall the face of the bear, the Negroes of the 
ape, of which also the people of the extreme East likewise 
partake 2 . 

Besides the climate we find it stated that the kind of life 
sometimes contributes to the racial form of face, as in the 
instance of the Ethiopians, whose thick nose and swelling lips 
are always attributed to the way in which, whilst in their 
infancy, they are generally carried on the backs of their mothers, 
who give them suck whilst they pound millet, or during their 
hard and heavy tasks 3 . 

Negroes indicates exactly that state of contraction which seizes our own counte- 
nance, when it is struck by the light and a strong reflection of heat. Then the eye- 
brow frowns; the cheek bones become elevated, the eyelid closes, the mouth is 
pinched up. Cannot this contraction which is perpetually taking place in the bare 
and warm country of the Negroes, become the peculiar characteristic of their 
faces ? " 

1 "Their eyelids are always half -closed to prevent the gnats getting into their 
eyes. Hence it happens, that being incommoded by these insects from their 
infancy, they never open their eyes like other people." T. II. p. 169. 

2 Feller, Otium Hanoveranum, p. 150. I will add here, on account of the 
resemblance of the argument, a passage from Marsden, History of Sumatra, p. 173 : 
" Some writer has remarked that a resemblance is usually found between the dis- 
position and qualities of the beasts proper to any country, and those of the in- 
digenous inhabitants of the human species, where an intercourse with foreigners 
has not destroyed the genuineness of their character. The Malay may be compared 
to the buffalo and the tiger. In his domestic state he is indolent, stubborn, and 
voluptuous as the former, and in his adventurous life, he is insidious, blood-thirsty 
and rapacious as the latter. Thus the Arab is said to resemble his camel, and the 
placid Gentoo his cow." 

3 Comp. besides many others, Barbot in Churchill's Collection of Voyages, Vol. v. 
p. 36. "The wives of the better sort of men being put to no such hard labour as 
the meaner, it has been observed that their children have not generally such flat 
noses as the others ; whence it may be inferred that the noses of these poor infants 
are flattened by being so long carried about on their mothers' backs, because they 
must be continually beating on them when the motion of their arms or bodies is 


In various barbarous nations also, such as the Ethiopians 1 , 
the Brazilians 2 , Caribs 3 , the Sumatrans 4 , and the inhabitants of 
the Society Islands in the Southern Ocean 5 , it is placed beyond 
all doubt by the testimony of eye-witnesses most worthy of 
credit that considerable force is used to depress and, as it were, 
subdue into shape the noses of the new-born infants ; although 
perhaps it is going too far in what they say about the bones of 
the nose being broken or dislocated in this way 6 . 

It is however scarcely necessary to recollect that the natural 
conformation of the nose can only be exaggerated by this 
violent and long continued compression of the nose when soft, 
but can in no wise be made thus originally, since it is well 
known that the racial face may be recognized even in abor- 

Finally, these kinds of racial face just like the colour of the 
skin, become mingled, and as it were run together in the off- 
spring from the unions, of different varieties of mankind, so that 
the children present a countenance which is a mean between 
either parent. Hence the mixed appearance of the Mulattos ; 
hence the progeny of the Cossacks 7 and the Kirghis 8 becomes 
sensibly deformed by marriages with the Calmucks, whereas 
the offspring of the Nogay Tartars is rendered more beautiful 
through unions with the Georgians 9 . 

The ancient Germans 10 gave formerly instances of the un- 
adulterated countenance of nations unaffected by any union with 
any other nation, and to-day the genuine Zingari, inhabitants 

anything violent ; especially when they are beating or pounding their millet every 
morning, which is the constant task of the women of inferior rank." 

1 Besides a forest of other evidence see Report of the Lords of the Committee of 
Council for the Consideration of the Slave Trade, 1789, fol. P. 1. fol. 0. ib. 

2 Lery, Voyage en la terre du Bresil, p. m. 98, 265. 

3 De la Borde, Relation des Caraibes, in the smaller collection of M. Thevenot, 
Paris, 1674, 4to, p. 29. 

4 Marsden, History of Sumatra, p. 38. 

5 J. P. Forster, BemerJcungen auf seiner reise um die Welt, pp. 482, 516. 

6 Comp. Kolbe, Beschreibung des vorgebiirges der guten Hoffnung, p. 567. 

7 Decas craniorum prima, p. 18. 

8 Decas craniorum altera, p. 8. 

9 Peyssonel, Sur le commerce de la Mer Noire, T. I. p. 177. 

10 Tacitus, De moribus Germanorum, c. 4. 

234 . SKULLS. 

of Transylvania 1 do the same ; and above all the nation of the 
Jews, who, under every climate, remain the same as far as the 
fundamental configuration of face goes 2 , remarkable for a racial 
character almost universal, which can be distinguished at the 
first glance even by those little skilled in physiognomy, although 
it is difficult to limit and express by words 3 . 

58. Racial form of skulls. That there is an intimate rela- 
tion between the external face and its osseous substratum is so 
manifest 4 , that even a blind man, if he has any idea of the vast 
difference by which the Mongolian face differs from the Ethio- 
pian, can undoubtedly, by the mere touch, at once distinguish 
the skull of the Calmuck from that of the Negro. Nor would 
you persuade even the most ignorant person to bend over the 
head of one or other of them as he might over those after whose 
models the divine works of ancient Greece were sculptured. 
This, I say, is clear and evident so far as the general habit goes. 

But it might have been expected that a more careful anato- 
mical investigation of genuine skulls 5 of different nations would 
throw a good deal of light upon the study of the variety of man- 
kind; because when stripped of the soft and changeable parts 
they exhibit the firm and stable foundation of the head, and can 
be conveniently handled and examined, and considered under 

different aspects and compared together. It is clear from a 

comparison of this kind that the forms of skulls take all sorts of 

1 Decas crardorum altera, p. 3. 

2 Hence it is generally considered as the highest proof of the art of the Dutch 
engraver, Bernh. Picart, that in his well-known work, Ceremonies et coutHmes 
religieuses, he has represented an immense number of Jews, as far as the lineaments 
of the face go, each differing from one another, yet all bearing the racial character, 
and most clearly distinguished from the men intermingled with them of other 

3 The great artist Benj. West, President of the Royal Academy of Arts, with 
whom I conversed about the racial face of the Jews, thought that it above all 
others had something particularly goat-like about it, which he was of opinion lay 
not so much in the hooked nose as in the transit and conflux of the septum which 
separates the nostrils from the middle of the upper lip. 

4 Comp. Sir Thos. Brown's Discourse of the Sepulchral Urns found in Norfolk, 
p. m. 13. This sagacious author was the first, as far as I know, who attended to the 
racial form of the Ethiopian skull: "it is hard to be deceived in the distinction of 
Negro skulls." 

5 The rules and criteria which I use for this object in forming an opinion upon 
skulls are laid clown in my Decas prima collectionis craniorum, p. 5. 

CAMPE1J. 285 

license in individuals, just as the colour of skins and other 
varieties of the same kind, one running as it were into the other 
by all sorts of shades, gradually and insensibly : but that still, in 
general, there is in them a constancy of characteristics which 
cannot be denied, and is indeed remarkable, which has a great 
deal to do with the racial habit, and which answers most accu- 
rately to the nations and their peculiar physiognomy. That 
constancy has induced some eminent anatomists from the time 
of Andr. Spigel 1 to set up a certain rule of dimensions to which 
as to a scale the varieties of skulls might be referred and 
ranked; amongst which, above all others, the facial line of the 
ingenious Camper deserves special mention 2 . 

59. Facial line of Camper. He imagined, on placing a 
skull in profile, two right lines intersecting each other. The 
first was to be a horizontal line drawn through the external 
auditory meatus and the bottom of the nostrils. The second 
was to touch that part of the frontal bone above the nose, and 
then to be produced to the extreme alveolar limbus of the upper 
jaw. By the angle which the intersection of these two lines 
would make, this distinguished man thought that he could 
determine the difference of skulls as well in brute animals as in 
the different nations of mankind. 

60. Remarks upon it. But, if I am correct, this rule con- 
tains more than one error. First: what indeed is plain from 
those varieties of the racial face I was speaking of (s. 56), this 
universal facial line at the best can only be adapted to those 
varieties of mankind which differ from each other in the direc- 
tion of the jaws, but by no means to those who, in exactly the 
contrary way, are more remarkable for their lateral differences. 

Secondly : it very often happens that the skulls of the most 
different nations, who are separated as they say by the whole 
heaven from one another, have still one and the same direction 
of the facial line : and on the other hand many skulls of one and 
the same race, agreeing entirely with a common disposition, have 

1 De corporis humani fabrica, p. m. 1 7. 

2 See Kleinere schriften, T. I. P. 1. p. 15, and Naturgeschichte des Orang-utan, 
pp. 181, 212 ; and his separate book, Uber den naliirlichen unterschieddtr gcsicfdsziigc, 


a facial line as different as possible. We can form but a poor 
opinion of skulls when seen in profile alone, unless at the same 
time account be taken of their breadth. Thus as I now write I 
have before me a pair of skulls, viz. : an Ethiopian of Congo ', 
and a Lithuanian of Sarmatia 2 . Both have almost exactly the 
same facial line ; yet their construction is as different as possible 
if you compare the narrow and, as it were, keeled head of the 
Ethiopian with the square head of the Sarmatian. On the 
other hand, I have two Ethiopian skulls in my possession, differ- 
ing in the most astonishing manner from each other as to their 
facial line 3 , yet in both, if looked at in front, the narrow and, 
as it were, squeezed-up skulls, the compressed forehead, &c. 
sufficiently testify to their Ethiopian origin. 

Thirdly, and finally, Camper himself, in the plates appended 
to his work, has made such an arbitrary and uncertain use of 
his two normal lines, has so often varied the points of contact 
according to which he has drawn them, and upon which all 
their value and trustworthiness depends, as to make a tacit con- 
fession that he himself is uncertain, and hesitates in the applica- 
tion of them. 

61. Vertical scale for defining the racial characters of skulls. 
The more my daily experience and, as it were, my familiarity 
with my collection of skulls of different nations increases, so 
much the more impossible do I find it to reduce these racial 
varieties — when such differences occur in the proportion and 
direction of the parts of the truly many-formed skull, all hav- 
ing more or less to do with the racial character — to the mea- 
surements and angles of any single scale. That view of the 
skull however seems to be preferable for the diagnosis which is 
our business that presents together at one glance the most and 
the principal parts best adapted for a comparison of racial 
characters. With this object I have found after many experi- 
ments that position answer best in which skulls are seen from 
above and from behind, placed in a row on the same plane, with 

1 Decas wan. altera, Tab. 18. J Decas tertia, Tab. 22. 

3 Decas prima, Tabb. 7, 8. 

SKULLS. 237 

the malar bones directed towards the same horizontal line 
jointly with the inferior maxillaries. Then all that most con- 
duces to the racial character of skulls, whether it be the direc- 
tion of the jaws, or the cheekbones, the breadth or narrowness 
of the skull, the advancing or receding outline of the forehead, 
&c. strikes the eye so distinctly at one glance, that it is not out 
of the way to call that view the vertical scale {norma verticalis). 
The meaning and use of this will easily be seen by an exami- 
nation of Plate in., which represents, by way of specimen, three 
skulls disposed in the order mentioned. The middle one (fig. 2) 
is a very symmetrical and beautiful one of a Georgian female ; 
on either side are two skulls differing from it in the most 
opposite way. The one (fig. 3) elongated in front, and as it 
were keeled, is that of an Ethiopian female of Guinea ; the 
other (fig. 4) dilated outwardly toward the sides, and as it were 
flattened, is that of a Reindeer Tungus. 

- In the first, the margin of the orbits, the beautifully nar- 
rowed malar bones, and the mandibles themselves under the 
bones, are concealed by the periphery of the moderately ex- 
panded forehead ; in the second, the maxillary bones are com- 
pressed laterally, and project ; and in the third, the malar bones, 
placed in nearly the same horizontal plane with the little bones 
of the nose and the glabella, project enormously, and rise on 
each side. 

62. Racial varieties of skulls. All the diversities in the 
skulls of different nations, just like those of the racial face we 
enumerated above, seem capable of reduction also to five prin- 
cipal varieties ; of which specimens selected out of many are 
exhibited in Plate iv. 

1. That in the middle is beautifully symmetrical, some- 
what globular ; the forehead moderately expanded, the malar 
bones somewhat narrow, nowhere projecting, sloping down 
behind from the malar process of the frontal bone ; the alveolar 
ridge somewhat round ; the primary teeth of each jaw perpen- 
dicular. As a specimen (Plate iv. fig. 3) I have given a most 
beautiful skull of a Georgian female. This beautiful form of 
skull comes between two extremes : of which one has 

238 SKULLS. 

2. The head almost square, the malar bones projecting out- 
wards ; the glabella and the little bones of the flattened nose 
lying in almost the same horizontal plane with the malar 
bones : scarcely any supraciliary ridge ; narrow nostrils ; the 
fossa malaris only gently curved ; the alveolar ridge obtusely 
arched in front ; the chin slightly prominent. This form of 
skull is peculiar to the Mongolian nations. PL IV. fig. 1, gives 
one of this kind, of a Reindeer Tungus. 

The other extreme 

3. Has the head narrow ; laterally compressed ; the fore- 
head knotty and uneven ; the malar bones projecting forwards ; 
nostrils ample; the fossa malaris deeply winding behind the 
infraorbital foramen; the jaws projecting; the alveolar margin 
narrow, elongated, and very elliptical ; the primary upper teeth 
slanting ; the lower jaw large and strong ; the head generally 
thick and heavy, common to the Negro, such as (Plate IV. fig. 5) 
of an Ethiopian female of Guinea. Finally, the two following 
varieties are intermediate between the first and those two ex- 
tremes, for example : 

4. That with broader cheeks but more arched and rounded 
than in the Mongolian variety, not as in this stretched out on 
each side and angular ; the orbits generally deep ; the form of 
the forehead and vertex frequently artificially distorted ; the 
skull usually light. This is the American variety. PI. IV. fig. 2 
is the head of a Carib chief from the island of St Vincent. 

5. The calvaria moderately narrowed ; forehead slightly 
swelling ; cheek bones by no means prominent ; upper jawbone 
somewhat prominent ; the parietal bones extending laterally. 
Common to the Malay race throughout the Southern Ocean. 
A specimen in PI. IV. fig. 4, the skull of an Otaheitan. This 
racial form of the skull is so universally constant that it may 
be observed even in the skulls of young infants. Thus I pos- 
sess the skull of a Burat infant 1 with very manifest Mongolian 
characters ; and another of a newly-born Negro 2 as manifestly 

1 Decas tertia, Tab. 29. 2 lb. 30. 

causes. 239 

63. Causes of the racial variety of skulls. The bones of 
all parts of the human body alike are very solid, and particu- 
larly firm, so that they may adhere together as foundations and 
props to the other solid parts ; still it is clear from pathological 
phenomena and physiological experiments that they are not less 
liable to perpetual mutations than the soft parts of the body. The 
elements of the bones, although imperceptibly so, are in a conti- 
nual sort of flux and reflux ; and fresh secretions from the red 
stream of the blood are deposited in their place, and at last 
solidify and repair the loss. By this continual permutation of 
the osseous material, which is perpetually going on from the first 
formation of the bones, it results that these accommodate them- 
selves to the neighbouring parts, and are to some extent formed 
and modelled by their action. 

This is most particularly evident from the configuration of 
the skull in advanced age. For then the internal basis of the 
skull gives, as it were, a sort of cast of the lobes and convolu- 
tions of the brain to which it was fitted. The exterior osseous 
face gives unmistakeable marks as well of the action of the 
muscles as of the whole countenance, whose general appearance 
and character may very easily be divined from the skull when 
stripped of flesh. So, if it is true, and it seems very true indeed, 
that the influence of climate on the racial face is great, it is 
ab once clear that the same cause must have a great though an 
indirect share in forming the racial character of the skuU, 
especially as regards the bones of the face itself. 

Besides this principal cause, it seems to me very probable 
that others also are accessory, as the violent and long-continued 
pressure, in having an effect upon these facial bones. My col- 
lection rejoices, owing to the liberality of the illustrious Banks, 
in the very rare skull of a New Hollander 1 from the neighbour- 
hood of Botany Bay, conspicuous beyond all others for the 
singular smoothness of the upper jaw, where the upper teeth 
and the canines are inserted. But it is now known that those 
barbarians have a paradoxical custom of perforating the septum 

1 Decas tertia, Tab. 27. 


of the nose with a piece of wood inserted crosswise, and of so 
stopping up their nostrils with a sort of peg that they cannot 
breathe except through the open mouth. It seems credible, there- 
fore, that this smoothness may have been gradually effected by 
the perpetual pressure of this transverse insertion. It is, however, 
much more often the case that the smooth bones of the calvaria 
suffer through constant pressure a peculiar and everywhere the 
same sort of change towards the racial conformation, whether 
it be induced by the common method which obtains in some 
nations of treating infants in the cradle, or by some more violent 
manual application, long and carefully continued. Hence 
Vesalius said, that in his day the Germans were generally re- 
markable for having the occiput compressed and the head broad, 
because the children were always placed on their backs in the 
cradle. But he attributed more oblong heads to the Belgians, 
because their mothers wrapped up the male infants in swaddling- 
clothes, and made them sleep as much as possible on their 
sides and temples. 

Hence also the wild Americans from South Carolina as far 
as New Mexico are remarkable for having depressed calvaria, 
which the infants contract from their low position in the cradle, 
in which their head and the weight of their whole body 
reposes immovably in a small bag filled with sand 1 . As to 
other artifices, such as the pressure of the hands, and the reduc- 
tion of the head of newly-born infants by bands or other in- 
struments into some racial form, they, it is well known, have 
been in use equally amongst the most ancient races as those of 
to-day, amongst ourselves as in the most remote nations 2 . 

1 See Adair's History of the North American Indians, p. 9 : " they fix the tender 
infant on a kind of cradle, where his feet are tilted, above a foot higher than a 
horizontal position; — his head bends back into a hole, made on purpose to receive 
it, where he bears the chief part of his weight on the crown of the head, upon a 
small bag of sand, without being in the least able to move himself. By this pres- 
sure, and their thus flattening the crown of the head, they consequently make 
their heads thick and their faces broad." 

2 "The way in which the Author of our being has shaped'our heads does not 
suit us; we must have them modelled from without by mid wives and from within 
by philosophers. — The Caribs are more fortunate by half than ourselves." J. J. 
Rousseau, Emile, T. I. p. m. 19. 


Indeed we find it stated that solemn rites of this kind take 
place even now, or at all events did recently among the inha- 
bitants of some provinces of Germany 1 , as well as amongst the 
Belgians 2 , the Gauls 3 , some of the Italians*, the islanders of the 
Grecian archipelago 5 , the Turks 6 , the ancient Sigynnes 7 , and the 
Macrocephali on the Euxine sea 8 , the Sumatrans 9 of to-day, 
and the Nicobars 10 , but especially amongst different people of 
America, such as the inhabitants of Nootka Sound 11 , the Shac- 
tas 12 , an indigenous race of Georgia, the Waxsaws of Carolina 13 , 
the Caribs 14 , the Peruvians 15 , and the free Ethiopians of the 
Antilles 16 . Strange to say there have been lately some authors 
who have dared to throw doubts upon the whole of this arti- 
ficial habit of moulding the heads of infants 17 . Yet it is a 
thing proved by the unanimous testimony of many eye-wit- 
nesses; from which a name has been given to several nations 

1 On the Varisci of to-day, see J. C. G. Ackermann in Baldinger, Neuen 
Magazin fur Aerzte, T. II. p. 506. On the Hambuighians of his day, see Laurem- 
berg, Pasicompse, p. 63. 

2 Spigel, De Hwmani Corporis Fabrica, p. 17. 

3 On the Parisians, see Andry, Orthopedie, T. II. p. 3. 

4 On the Genoese, see Vesalius, De Cory. Hum. Fabrica, p. m. 23. Spigel, I.e. 

5 My dear old pupil, Philites, M. D. of Epirus, an eye-witness, told me per- 
sonally about the Chians. 

6 Baron de Asch informed me in a letter dated the 20th July, 1 788, that the 
midwives of Constantinople generally inquire of the mother, after the birth, what 
form she would like to have given to the head of the newly-born infant ? and that 
the Asiatics prefer that, which is produced by a bandage passed over the forehead 
and tied tight round the occiput, because they think that in that way the red 
coverings they use for the head are made to sit better. Comp. Decas Craniorum 
■prima, PI. 2. 

7 Strabo, 1. xi. p. 358, ed. Casaub. 

8 Hippocrates, De aeribus, aquis, et locis, ed. Charter. T. VI. p. 206. 

9 Marsden, Hist, of Sumatra, p. 38. 

50 Nic. Fontana in Asiatic Researches, Vol. ill. p. 151. 

11 Meares' Voyages, p. 249. 

12 Adair, I. c. pp. 8, 284. Comp. Decas Craniorum prima, PL 9, 

13 Lawson's History of Carolina, p. 33. 

14 Oviedo, Historia General de las Indias, Sevilla, 1535, fol. p. 256. Raymond 
Breton, Dictionnaire Caraibe-Frangois, Auxerre, 1665, 8vo, pp. 58, 92, 145, 289. 
Comp. Decas Craniorum prima, PI. 10, and the plates appended to this work, PI. 
iv. fig. 2. Decas secunda, PI. 20. 

15 Torquemada, Monarchia Yndiana, Sevill. 16 15, fol. T. III. p. 623. De 
Ulloa, Relacion del viage para medir algunos grados de meridiano, Madr. 1 748, fol. 
T. 11. p. 533. 

16 Thibault de Chanvalon, Voyage a, la, Martinique, p. 39. 

17 See Haller, Camper, Sabatier, &c. 



both of North 1 and South 2 America. Two hundred years ago 
Ave know it was forbidden to the barbarians of the new world 
by the councils of the Spanish clergy 3 . We have the particular 
points of each method most accurately described, and the 
machines and bands 4 by which they impress upon the flexible 
infant calvaria a form they like through a daily continuous 
and uniform pressure kept up for many years. And finally, the 
heads of these very barbarians, which have been brought to 
Europe and long since represented in prints 3 , exactly and in 
every point answer to all these things. Although however the 
fact itself is beyond all doubt, still there is some question about 
what we read has often been asserted from the times of Hip- 
pocrates, that peculiar forms of the skull of this sort, though 
formed first on purpose and by artifice, when they have been kept 
up and repeated for a long series of generations, become at last 
in process of time to be a sort of hereditary prerogative and 
congenital, and finally a second nature. There is to be found 
in that golden little treatise of Hippocrates On Air, Water, and 
Soil, a celebrated passage about the Macrocephali, a nation 
living near the Euxine sea, about whom he speaks first and 
almost chiefly, because no other nation at all was known to 
have heads like theirs. He says, that in the beginning custom 
was the reason of their having such long heads, but that 

1 " The name of Omaguas in the Peruvian language, like that of Cambevas, 
which is given them by the Portuguese of Para, in the Brazilian, means Flat-head ; 
in fact, these people have the strange custom of pressing the heads of their children 
as soon as they are born, between two planks, and of causing them to take the 
strange shape which is the result, to make them more like the full moon, as they 
say." Dela Condamine in Mem. de VAcad. des Sciences de Paris, 1745. p. 427. 

2 Bullet-heads and Fiat-heads. Comp. Charlevoix, llistoire de la Nuuvelle 
France, T. III. pp. 187, 323. 

3 Jos. Saenz de Aguirre, Collectio max. concil. omnium Hispanice et novi orbis, 
ed. 2, Rom. 1755, fol. T. vr. p. 204, where in the history of the synod of the 
third diocese of Lima, July 17, 1585, is the decree that the Indians are not to 
shape the heads of their children in moulds. " Being desirous entirely to extirpate 
the abuse and superstition under which the Indians everywhere impress certain 
shapes on the beads of their children, which they themselves call Caito, Oma 
Opalta, we order and enjoin," &C. various punishments for the delinquents, as 
that a woman who has done so "shall attend the instruction for ten successive 
days, morning and evening, for the first ofR-nce ; for the second, twenty," &c. 

4 Comp. the careful pictures of the bands of this sort made use of bj^ the Caribs 
in Journal de Physique, Aug. T791, p. 132. 

5 In Mem. de VAcad. des Sc. de Paris, 1740, PI. 16, f.g. 1. 


afterwards nature had acted in concert with custom. It was 
thought the most honourable thing among the Macrocephali 
to have the head as long as possible. This was the beginning 
of the custom ; when an infant of theirs was just born, its 
head being like wax, or wet and soft clay, they pinched it 
as soon as possible with their hands, and modulated it so as to 
compel it to increase in length, and besides, confined it with 
bands, and tied it round with proper contrivances, so as to 
prevent the head becoming round and make it increase in 
length. This custom had at length effected the production of 
heads of this kind, and in process of time they had been pro- 
duced naturally, so that it was no longer necessary to use this 
custom for that purpose. The old man of Cos endeavours to ex- 
plain the cause of this singular phenomenon by his celebrated 
hypothesis of generation, which is not very different from that 
of Buffon : his idea was that the genital liquid proceeded and was 
as it were elaborated from all the members of the body; and so 
the forms of the parts, of which moulds, so to speak, were thus 
taken, conduced to the formation of the foetus. Hence it hap- 
pened that bald men produced bald children; grey men, grey; 
and macrocephali, long-headed. Something of the same kind 
has been lately reported of other nations, the Peruvians 1 and 
Genoese 2 for example. I leave this matter however in the 
abstract just as it is, and shall only refer to what I said above 
(s. 39) on the occasion of other similar phenomena, 

64. Some racial varieties of dentition, and their causes. 
Some varieties of teeth generally closely accompany the forms 
of skulls, as has been observed in some nations. Thus, as long 
ago as 1779, I observed a singular anomaly of the primary 
teeth both in the fragment of a mummified Egyptian, as in the 
entire skull of a mummy 3 ; for the coronas are not shaped for 
incision, or furnished with a delicate edge, but are thick and like 
truncated cones, and the coronas of the canines cannot be dis- 

1 On the inhabitants of the province of Porto Vecchio see Cardanus, Be Rerum 
Varietate, T. in. p. 162, ed. Sponii. 

2 J. C. Scaliger, Comment, in Theophr.. de Causis Plantarum, p. 287. 

3 Decas Craniorum prima, PI. r. 



tinguished from their neighbours excepting by position. This 
same singular conformation has been noticed also in other 
mummies ; as in a mummy at Cambridge 1 , and Cassel 2 ; some- 
thing of the same kind also at Stuttgard 3 : and I myself, when 
I was in London two years ago, found exactly the same sort of 
incisors in a young mummy, which its possessor, J. Symmons, 
very kindly allowed me to unrol 4 . Although it is scarcely neces- 
sary to observe that during such a series of ages as the custom 
of preserving corpses prevailed in Egypt, and under the vicis- 
situdes of the lords of its soil and its inhabitants, a very great 
diversity must necessarily be found between mummies and 
their skulls, and that no sane person could ever expect to find 
in all mummies the same extraordinary form of teeth I was 
speaking of. The variety is however remarkable and perhaps 
may sometimes be of utility as a distinctive character, by which 
the mummies of one age or race may be distinguished from 
those of another. It would be difficult to discover the causes of 
this peculiar conformation : but it seems very likely that it is in 
great part to be attributed to the kind of diet, which we are 
expressly told by Diodorus Siculus, was of a rustic sort amongst 
the ancient Egyptians, and consisted of cabbages and roots. 
Hence the teeth became much worn ; and when teeth are 
worn or flattened purposely it has been observed that they 
increase in thickness, in the case both of men 6 and brutes 6 . 
Considerable weight is added to this conjecture from the obser- 
vation of Winslow 7 , who noticed a similar remarkable thickness 
of the incisors, and the like similarity to the molars, in the skull 
of a Greenland er taken from the Island of Dogs 8 , and attributed 

1 Middleton, Monumenta Antiquitatis, Opera, T. IV. p. 170. "All the teeth 
are still found firmly adhering to the upper jaw; what however is singular, ami 
may be considered almost a prodigy, is that the anterior incisors are not acute, and 
adapted for cutting, but are broad and flat, just like the molars. " 

2 Comp. the account by Brickmann, the head physician of Brunswick, of that 
mummy. Brunswick, 1782, 4 to. 

3 Storr, Proclr. methodi Mammalium, Tubing. 1780, 4to, p. 24. 

4 Philosoph. Trans. 1794, Part 11. p. 184. 

5 Birch's History of the Royal Society, T. iv. p. 3. 

6 On the ivory tusks of elephants, see Tranquebarische Missions-Berichic, 
Contin. cvi. 

7 Mem. de VAcad. des Sc. de Paris, 1722, p. 323. 

8 Hond-Eyland. " Tuis island, lying in Disko Strait on the coast of south 


it to the fact that those barbarians live on raw flesh 1 . This 
observation is also supported by the thick and wonderfully 
worn teeth in two Esquimaux skulls which have lately come to 
me from the colony of Nam in Labrador 2 . It is well known 
that the Esquimaux and the Greenlanders belong to one and 
the same stock, and their racial name is commonly derived from 
their habit of eating raw flesh. What several authors have 
related about the teeth of the Calmucks 3 , that they are very 
long and separated by large interstices, I find at last has been 
taken originally, and then not quite accurately, from the ac- 
count of Yvo, a priest of Narbonne, originally written in 1243, 
and afterwards garbled by many, nor does it agree with the 
modern Mongolian skulls which I now have in my collection. 
Finally, other racial peculiarities of the teeth are due exclu- 
sively to artifice, as in some groups of negroes who by filing their 
teeth sharpen them like saws 4 ; or, as in some Malay nations, who 
remove a great part of the enamel of the teeth , or cut furrows 

Greenland, is so well known, and so clearly laid down in all good geographical 
maps of that country from the time of Zorgdrager, that I must confess I cannot 
understand what Camper meant when he went so far as to accuse Winslow of 
ignorance, and to correct him according to Hlibner's geography, in which forsooth 
the Island of Dogs is relegated to the Pacific Ocean under the tropic of Capricorn. 
Did he not know that this southern island was described by its discoverer Schouten 
in 1616, in his well-known journey, as being altogether uninhabited, and, so far as 
I know, from that time forth never visited again by any European? Whereas 
that northern land from which Winslow received his skull is frequented by number- 
less Europeans engaged in the wha^-fishery." 

1 "The incisors are short," says Winslow, "large behind and flat, instead of 
being cutting, and are more like molars than incisors. M. Riecke (the finder of 
the skull) tells me that the inhabitants of that island eat flesh quite raw. They 
make many extraordinary movements with the jaw, and many grimaces in chewing 
and -swallowing. It was chiefly the sight of this which induced M. Riecke to look 
for the corpses of these islanders to see if their jaws and their teeth li d any peculiar 

2 Comp. Buffon, Erxleben, &c. 

3 Van Lisckoten, Schipvaert naer Oost, Part I. p. m. 60. Von der Groben, 
Guineische Reisebeschreibung, pp. 51, 94. Barbot in Churchill's Collections of Voyages, 
Vol. v. pp. 139, 143, 385. Schotte in Philosoph. Trans. Vol. lxxiii. Parti, p. 92. 
Report of the Lords of the Committee of Council for the consideration of the Slave 
Trade, fots. L and M. 

4 1 am surprised that some famous authors, as Romer and Niebuhr, have taken 
this artificial deformation of the teeth for a natural disposition. See Romer, 
Uf ferreting om Kysten Guinea, p. 21. Niebuhr, Diss, in Deutsche Museum, 1787, 
Part I. p. 425. 

5 On the Philippines of Maginda, see Forrest, Voyage to New Guinea, p. 237. 
On the Sumatrans, Marsden, p. 46. 

246 . EARS. 

in it 1 , &c. I have seen something of the same kind myself in 
some Chinese from Java, who had carefully and regularly 
destroyed with a whetstone the same substance from the ex- 
tremity of the primary teeth. 

65. Some other racial varieties in respect to particular parts 
of the body. Thus far we have investigated the chief varieties 
of different nations, which are observable either in their colour 
(as that of their skin, hair, or eyes) or in their countenance and 
form of the skull. Some few things still remain to be observed 
respecting other parts of the body, which although certainly of 
less importance can by no means be passed over unnoticed, and 
so I may say a little of each of them in a few words. And 
although it would be impossible to explain with equal clearness 
the causes and reasons of them all, still there is nothing so sin- 
gular or so enigmatical but what may be rendered more easy of 
comprehension by comparing with analogous phenomena such 
observations as we have compiled in the section above on the 
brute animals. 

66. Ears. It is known to antiquarians that many of the idols 
of ancient Egypt, both of bronze and pottery, or those cut out 
of different kinds of stones or sycamore wood, and finally those 
painted on the sarcophagi, are remarkable for having the ears 
too high up. A recent author 2 has summarily been pleased to 
attribute this to the fault of the artists, unskilled in the art of 
drawing. But I cannot quite give my adhesion to this view, 
because of the elaborate art and taste with which I see many of 
them are executed, and also because I have observed it particu- 
larly in those which have an Indian cast of countenance 3 ; and a 
similar collocation is to be found in genuine pictures of Indians, 
which have been executed with the greatest care. Altogether 
however this diversity is no greater than what we see every- 
where in varieties of domestic animals, especially in horses and 
pigs, in the position and collocation of the ears, especially inas- 
much as, if we take into consideration in these same Egyptians 

1 On the Javanese, Hawkesworth, Vol. III. p. 349. 

2 JRecherches Philosophiques sur les Egyptiens, T. 1. p. 211. 

3 Philosoph. Trans. 1794, Part II. p. 191, Plate 16, fig. 2. 

BREASTS. 2 17 

and Indians the inclination of the aperture of the eyelids, from 
the root of the nose towards the ears, we shall find that the 
elevation of the ears depends upon the way in which the head 
is carried, the occiput being elevated, and the chin depressed. 
We find also, not only from passages in the ancient authors, but 
also from ancient representations, that the ears of the aboriginal 
Batavians were remarkable for their form and position 1 . So 
also the ears of the Biscayans were remarkable for their size 2 . 

It_is well known _thai__in _barbarous nations the ears often 
stand out a good deal from the head, and are moveable; and in 
many races, especially of the East Indies and the Pacific Ocean, 
the lobe of the ear is enlarged and prodigiously elongated by 
various artifices. This absurd custom has no doubt given rise 
to the exaggerated stories of ancient writers about the enormous 
ears of certain races. 

67. Breasts. There is a cloud of witnesses to prove that the 
breasts of the females in some nations, especially of Africa 3 and 
some Islands of the Pacific Ocean 4 , are very long and pendulous. 
Meanwhile I must observe first, that their proportions have 
been exaggerated beyond the truth; and also that this conform- 
ation is not common to all the women of the same race. Even 
in the Islands of the Southern Ocean 5 many women, and also 
many Ethiopians 6 every day in the European markets, are to be 

1 Smetius has some drawings of them in A ntiquitates Ncomagenses, p. 70, and 
Cannegieter, De Britteriburgo, Matribus Briitis, &c. p. 144. 

2 See Countess d'Aunoy, Relation du Voyage aVEspagne, T. I. p. m. 23. Dieze 
in his notes to Puente, Reise durch Spanien, T. ir. p. 271, vindicates the authority 
of this deserving work. 

3 Coinp. about the Ethiopians, Fermin, Sur V Economic Animale, T. 1. p. 117. 
About the Hottentots, Kolbe, p. 474. 

4 See the inhabitants of Horn Island in Schouten in Dalrymple's Collection, 
Vol. 11. p. 58. 

See the assertion of Towrson in Hakluyt's Collection, T. 11. p. 26, about the 
negroes of the Isle of St Vincent. " Divers of the women have such exceeding 
long breasts, that some of them will lay the same upon the ground and lie downe 
by them." And of Bruce, about the breasts of the Shangalla, which in some of 
them hang down almost to the knees. Reise nach den Quellen des Nils, T. II. p. 
546. Nor have I any greater faith in the story of Mentzel about the tobacco- 
pouches made out of the breasts of Hottentot women, and sold in great quantity at 
the Cape of Good Hope. Besc/ireibung des Vorgebirge der gutcn Hoffnwng, T. II. 
P- 564. 

" J. R. Forster, Eemerhungen, &c. p. 242. 


seen, who are remarkable for the extreme beauty of their 
breasts. Besides, this excessive size is by no means peculiar to 
barbarous nations alone, but has been observed frequently in 
Europeans, as amongst the Irish 1 , and up to this day amongst 
the Morlachians 2 . It seems the principal reason is to be looked 
for in the way the mother gives suck to the infant attached to 
its back, and partly because lactation is kept up long, sometimes 
for years. And we read too that the breasts are often artifi- 
cially elongated amongst nations, who reckon that feature a 
beauty 3 . 

Other nations are conspicuous for the size and turgescence of 
the breasts, like the Egyptians. Juvenal long ago said, 

"Or breasts at Meroe big as good-sized babes," 

as if speaking of a thing common and well known to all. And not 
only the women, but also the men in Egypt, are said to be very 
large-breasted 4 . Amongst European nations the Portuguese 
women have very large breasts 5 , whilst those of the Spanish on 
the contrary are thin and small; and in the last century especi- 
ally they took pains to compress them and obstruct their 
growth 6 . That by taking pains the circumference of the breasts 
can be increased is indubitable. How far, moreover, precocious 
venery may operate in that direction is shown by the remark- 
able instances amongst the immature and girlish prostitutes who 
flock to London, especially from the neighbouring suburbs, and 
offering themselves for hire, wander about the streets by night 
in great numbers.. 

1 Lithgow's Rare Adventures and Painefull Peregrinations, p. m. 433. "I saw 
in Ireland's North parts women travayling the way, or toyling at borne, carry 
their infants about their neckes, and laying the dugges over their shoulders, would 
give sucke to the babes behinde their backes, without taking them in their armes; 
such kind of breasts, me thinketh, were very fit, to be made money bags for East 
or West Indian me. chants, being more than halfe a yard long, and as well wrought 
as any tanner, in the like charge, could ever mollitie such leather." 

2 Fortis, Viaggio in Dalmazia, T. 1. p. St. 

3 On the inhabitants of the coast of Western Africa, between the white pro- 
montory and the river Senegal, see Cadamosto in Ramusio, T. I. p. m. 100. Comp. 
Lamiral, L 'Afrique et le peuph Afrieain, Paris, 1789, 8vo, p. 45. "In Senegal 
the young girls study to make their breasts depend, in order that they may be 
thought women, and treated with more respect." 

4 Alpinus, Historia Naturalis jEgypti, T. 1. p. 14. 

5 I have this from Abildgaard, just returned from a journey in Portugal. 
* Countess d'Aunoy, I. c. T. n. p. 128. 


68. Genitals. Linnseus says in the prolegomena of his Sys- 
tema Naturce, "that a too minute inspection of the genitals is 
abominable and disagreeable." It is evident however by the 
terminology of his conchylia that in process of time he came to 
think otherwise, and above all we find it so from the Venus 
Dione, depicted by him in a sufficiently licentious meta- 
phorical style. The shade therefore of this illustrious man 
will no doubt pardon me if I enumerate here shortly what 
seem to me worthy of mention about some racial varieties of 
the genitals. 

It is generally said that the penis in the Negro is very large. 
And this assertion is so far borne out by the remarkable geni- 
tory apparatus of an ^Ethiopian which I have in my anatomical 
collection. Whether this prerogative be constant and peculiar 
to the nation I do not know 1 . It is said that women when 
eager for venery prefer the embraces of Negroes to those of 
other men 2 . On the other hand, that Ethiopian 3 and Mulatto 4 
women are particularly sought out by Europeans. The cause of 
this preference may be various, but I do not know what it is. 
Perhaps they resemble the Mongolian 5 women and those of 
some American tribes 6 , about whom we are told that the muli- 
ebria remain small, not only after marriage but even after child- 
bearing. Steller 7 attributes the contrary character to the 
pudenda of the Kamtschadales. He also says that many of them 
are remarkable for long and protruding nymphse; which some 
say in Hottentot women come to be appendages like fingers 8 . 
But this sinus pudoris, as Linnseus called it, seems rather to 

1 The same was said of the northern Scotch, who do not wear trowsers, by- 
Faust, Wie de Geschlechtstrieb der Menschen in Ordung zu bringen, p. 52. I have 
shown however on the weightiest testimony that this assertion is incorrect, in 
Medicinische Bibliothec. T. III. p. 413. 

2 Saar, Ostindische Kriegsdien&te, p. m. 45. 

3 Chanvalon, Voyage a la Martinique, p. 6r. Sparrmann, Reise nach dem Vor- 
gebirge der guten Hoffnung, p. 72. 

4 De Werken van W. V. Focquenbrach, T. II. p. 421. 

6 Georgi, Beschreibung aller Nationen des Russischen Reichs, Part II. p. 220. 

6 Vespucci, Lettera a Lorenzo de' Medici, p. no, ed. Bandini. Riolani fil. An- 
ihropographia, p. m. 306. 

7 Beschreibung von Kamtschailca, p. 299. 

8 Comp. W. ten Rhyne, De Promonforio bonce Spei, Scafus. 1686, Svo, p. 33. 

250 LEGS. 

consist in the elongation of the labia themselves 1 , which is said 
to be due to artifice 2 ; and has given a handle for that story 
about the skinny ventrale, which credulous authors have thought 
hung down from the abdomen 3 and concealed the pudenda of 
these women 4 . 

69. Legs. Some difference in the proportion and appear- 
ance of the legs is known to exist in certain nations. Thus the 
Indians are remarkable for the length of their legs 5 , the Mongo- 
lians on the other hand for their shortness 6 . The Irish women 
are said to have very large thighs 7 . The legs of the New Zea- 
landers are so thick as to appear cedematous 8 . Others tell us that 
these antipodes of ours have those same legs crooked and de- 
formed, and that such evils are contracted from the position in 
which they usually sit 9 . Bandy legs however are very common 
amongst the Calmucks, and are ascribed as well to the kind of 
cradles their children have, as to the fact that they are accus- 
tomed to be on horseback from tender youth 10 . The feet of the 
Tierra del Fuegians 11 , who are called by De Bougainville 13 Pes- 
cheras, are described as being remarkably deformed. 

That, t he, populations. jof Africa, however , are those in which 
deformities -of. -the .legs and feet are racial, has been noticedjby 
the ancients, especially in the case of the Egyptians 13 , the Ethi- 

1 Hawkeswortli's Collection, T. III. p. m. 388. I owe to the liberality of Sir 
Jos. Bankes several drawings of this Sinus pudoris taken from nature at the Cape of 
Good Hope. In one of them the labia are so elongated that they measure six 
inches and a half Rhine-land measure. 

2 Le Vaillant, Voyage dans VInterieur de I'Afrique, pp. 3, 371. 

3 See a print in P. Leguat, Voyage et A rentiers, T. 11. Plate 13. 

4 Voltaire makes use of this fabulous ventrale, with other arguments of the same 
weight, to prove that the Hottentots cannot be referred to the same species of man 
as Europeans. Lettres d'Amabed, Oper. T. XLV. p. m. 224. 

5 De la Boullaye-le-Gouz, Voyages et Observations, p. 153. Kant in Engel, 
Philosoph ficr die Welt, T. 11. p. 155. 

8 Yvo Narbonensis in Matthew Paris, Historia Major, ed. Wats. p. 530. 

7 Twiss' Tour in Ireland, p. 39. 

8 Monneron in de la Borde, Histoire de la Mer du Sud, T. 11. p. 97. 

9 G. Forster's Voyage round the World, Vol. 11. p. 480. 

10 Pallas, Ueber die Mongolischen Volkcrschaften, T. I. p. 98. 

11 J. R. Forster, Bemerkungen, p. 525. "The feet bear no proportion to the 
upper limbs: the shanks are thin, the legs crooked, the knees bent outwards, the 
toes turned inwards. 

12 Voyage autour du Monde, p. 147. " We called them Pecherais, because that 
was the first word they pronounced on meeting us, and which they repeated with- 
out stopping." 

13 Aristotle, Problemata, 5. 14, p. 431, ed. Casaub. 

FEET. 251 

opians 1 , and the negro slaves 2 . In the legs of black slaves of 
our day three defects are to be seen, attributed to three differ- 
ent causes; bandy legs 3 (fr. jambes cambrees) ; disagreeable thick- 
ness 4 ; and the chinks and fissures in which they are said fre- 
quently to open 3 . The crookedness appears to be due principally 
from the posture in which the infants whilst sucking are 
obliged to hold tight by the knees to the mother's back 6 . Some 
deformities of this kind may also be traced to morbific causes 7 . 
The thickness of the feet (unless this too is to be referred to 
pathological causes) is most probably brought about by severe 
and continuous labour. Finally, there is scarcely any reason to 
doubt but what the fissures into which the thick epidermis of 
the Ethiopians is liable to break out, especially in the sole of the 
foot, are due to their sandy soil 8 . 

70. Feet and hands. Lastly, good observers have remarked 
that the hands and feet of some nations are of singularly small 
proportions. This is said of the Indians 9 , the Chinese 10 , the 
Kamtschadales 11 , the Esquimaux 13 , the Peruvians 13 , New Hol- 
landers 14 and Hottentots 15 . That artifice has a arood deal to do 

1 Virgil, Moretum, 35. Comp. Heyne's Notes, T. iv. Op. Virgil. 

2 Petronii Satyricon, c. 102. 

3 Somruerring, Ueber die Korperliche Verschiedenheit des Negers, &c. p. 40. 
Chanvalon, Voyage a la Martinique, p. 58. " That form of the legs is sufficiently 
common also among the Americans, but sometimes less observable than amongst 
the negroes." 

4 Alb. Diirer, Von Menschlicher Proportion, fol. T. 111. ed. 1528. 
Ramsay, On the Treatment and Conversion of African Slaves, p. 217. 

5 1 received in Jan. 1789 the fresh right leg, perfectly sound in other respects, 
of an Ethiopian who had just died at Cassel, part of which I still have in my 
anatomical collection : the epidermis of the sole of the foot is wonderfully thick, 
wrinkled, and gaping in many divided flakes. 

6 Chanvalon, I.e. 

7 Fr. Allamand in Nova Acta Academioz Naturce Curiosorum, T. iv. p. 89. 

8 See Hier. Mercurialis, De decoratione, p. m. 103. 

9 "It has been observed of the arms of the Hindoos frequently brought to 
England, that the gripe of the sabre is too small for most European hands." 
Hodges, Travels in India, p. 3. 

10 Dampier, Suite de Voyage autour du, Monde, p. 100. De la Barbinais, Voyage 
autour du Monde, T. 11. p. 62. Osbeck's Ostindisk Jiesa, p. 171. 

11 Steller, I. c. 

12 H. Ellis, Cranz, &c. and lately the famous astronomer Wales, in Philosoph. 
Trans. Vol. lx. p. 109, and Curtis, lb. Vol. lxiv. p. 383. 

13 De Ulloa, Nachrichten, &c. T. 11. p. 92. 

14 Watkin Tench's Account of the Settlement at Port Jackson, p. 179. 

15 Sparrmann, I. c. p. 172. 


with this we know from the ostrich feet of the Chinese women. 
But it seems very likely that the mode of life 1 and poor sort 
of diet 2 may also be to blame. 

71. Racial varieties in respect of stature. Having now 
despatched what seems most worthy of remark about the rela- 
tive proportion and conformation of particular parts, it seems 
proper to investigate briefly the varieties of the entire stature. 
This chapter of anthropological discussion has been handed 
down to us deformed almost entirely by fables, hyperbolical 
over-layers, and misinterpretation. These have, however, in 
our day been in a great part so refuted and explained, and re- 
duced to their genuine sources, that it is scarcely necessary to 
mention them further, much less discuss them over again with 
fresh attention. 

Thus it has been shown that under the Ethiopian pigmies 
of the ancients nothing else was intended but a symbolical 
signification of the degrees in the Nilometer. Thus the enor- 
mous bones dug up everywhere in our own country, which pre- 
judiced opinion formerly attributed to giants, have been restored 
to the beasts by a more careful osteological study 3 . On the 
contrary, all the relics which have survived to our day, and the 
ancient furniture from which we may estimate the stature of 
ancient races, as mummies, bones, and especially the human 

1 "An (American) Indian man is small in the hand and wrist, for the same 
reason for which a sailor is large and strong in the arms and shoulders, and a 
porter in the legs and thighs." Jefferson in Morse's American Uwiv rsal Geogra- 
phy, Vol. l. p. 87. 

2 See Tench, from the observations of the Governor of the Cape : " Colonel 
Gordon told me that it indicated poverty and inadequacy of living. He instanced 
to me the Hottentots and Caffres; the former fare poorly, and have small hands 
and feet; the Caffres, their neighbours, live plenteously, and have very large ones." 

3 It is strange that in late times Buffon could have attributed many fossil bones 
of this kind, dug up at different times and places, to giants, in the 5th Vol. of the 
supplement of his classical work: such as those which in 1577 were dug up near 
Lucerne and preserved up to the pres nt day in the court-house of that city, where 
I have seen them myself, and recognised them at the first glance to belong to an 
elephant. That most deserving physician, and even learned anatomist, Felix Plater, 
at the time when those geognostic monuments were dug up, measured them and 
examined them mcst carefully, and declared with the utmost confidence that they 
belonged to a human giant i 7 feet in length, and had made a wonderful colossal 
picture of a human skeleton of that magnitude, which is still to be seen in the 
Jesuit's College at Lucerne ; a memorable example of the power of prejudice against 
the very evidence of the senses, when once it has struck root in the mind. 


teeth found in urns and sepulchres 1 , armour, &c, tend to the 
conviction that those nations by no means surpassed men of the 
present day in stature. Amongst these also there is an indis- 
putable racial diversity. Amongst European races the Scandi- 
navians and some of the Swiss, as the Suitens, are tall : the 
Lapps short. In the new world the Abipones are large in size, 
the Esquimaux shorter : but neither more than moderately so. 
Altogether there is no variety in respect of stature so great 
amongst nations of the present day, but what may be easily 
explained by the common modes of degeneration, and the 
analogous phenomena which may be observed in other mam- 
mals. There are, however, two varieties of this kind which 
must be treated separately, of which it is said that even in 
these present times one differs greatly in excess, and the other 
by defect, from the common stature of mankind. 

72. Patagonians. There is at the extremity of the conti- 
nent of South America, towards the north-east, a nation, which 
from the time of Magellan's voyage has been known to 
Europeans, who invented for them the composite name of 
Patagonians, because they thought them related to their neigh- 
bours the Choni, and that their feet, which they used to wrap 
in the skins of the guanaco, were like the shaggy feet of brutes, 
called in Spanish patas. Their proper and indigenous name, 
however, is Tehueletse. These people, then commonly called 
Patagonians, Antom Pigafetta, the companion of Magellan in 
his voyage, was the first in his account to pretend were giants 
double the size of Europeans 2 . From that time on for two 
centuries and a half the stories about the expeditions under- 
taken by the Europeans in that part of the new world are so 
repugnant to each other, and so contradictory and so wonder- 
fully inconsistent as far as their notices of the Patagonians, 
that, once for all, they may serve as a warning to us to be 

1 I owe to the liberality of Bozenhard, imperial consul-general in Denmark, 
the calvaria and other bones of a man of advanced age found not long ago in a very- 
ancient Cimbrian tomb, in proportions and size yielding nothing to the common 
stature of our countrymen. 

2 See his Yiaggio atorno il mondo, in Ramusio, T. I. ed. 4, p. 353. • 


cautious and diffident .in trusting the accounts of travellers. I 
give in a note a decade of authors 1 , for the benefit of those who 
are interested in examining and comparing these different 
accounts, and the opinions of anthropologists about them. It 
will be sufficient for us at present to put forth those results 
which seem most like the truth, after weighing and duly criticis- 
ing everj'-thing. 

It is then a race of men by no means of gigantic height, but 
conspicuous for tall bodies and a very muscular and knotty 
habit 2 . To define their exact stature amidst such a quantity of 
ambiguous stories would be impossible. From the evidence of 
the best witnesses, however, it seems scarcely to exceed six feet 
and a half of English measure; and this is the less to be 
thought prodigious, since it has long been known that other 
indigenous races of America (especially in the South) are very 
tall. It is very probably the case with thenf what Tacitus tells 
us about the ancient Germans, that they never mix with any 
other nation in marriage, and preserve their race peculiar, 
unadulterated, and always like itself. They are Nomads, like 
the people of Tierra del Fuego, and the other wandering nations 
of South America; and thence it is not surprising if they have not 
always appeared to be men of the same lofty stature to the 
Europeans who have approached the same coasts indeed of that 
country, but at different times. 

It is not difficult, on the other hand, to understand how the 
story of the Patagonian giants arose. First, that old tradition 
about the giants of the old world preoccupied all minds, and so 
those travellers in the new world who were on the look out for 

1 Buffon, Histoire Naturelle, T. in. and Svppl. T. v. De Brosses, Histoire des 
Navigations aux terres Australes, T. I. De Pauw, Recherches sur les Americains, 
T. I. Ortega, Viage del Comand. Byron al rededor del mimdo, traduc. del 
Jngles. Robertson's History of America, Vol. I. Ziramermami, Geographische 
Geschichte des Menschen, T. I. J. R. Foster, Bemerhungen. Comp. Carli Rubbi, 
Lettere Americane, T. i. Pennant, Of the Patagonians. Relacion del ultimo viage 
al Estrecho de Magallanes en 1785, y 86. 

2 Such they are unanimously described by the most credible eye-witnesses. 
Such too were those who towards the end of the sixteenth century were brought 
to Spain ; the sole and only Patagonians, as far as I know, whom Europe has ever 
seen. Van Linschoten, a great and truly classical traveller, saw these very ones at 
Seville, and says of them : "they were of good stature and -with large muscles," &c. 

quimos. 255 

prodigies, reverted to that when they found men who were in 
reality tall and muscular, and tombs of wonderful length 1 , and 
every where in them bones of a large size 2 . The Spaniards too 
might also have had the design of deterring the other nations 
of Europe from navigating the Straits of Magellan by stories of 
this kind 3 . And in others blind fear, and the desire of boasting, 
such as even in the present century has induced the author of a 
Dutch account of the voyage of Hoggewein, to give out the 
inhabitants of Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean as giants of 
twelve feet high*. 

73. Quimos. There was an old story which even in the last 
century was exposed by the classical writer Stephen Flacourt as 
a fictitious invention, that there existed in the inner mountains 
of the Island of Madagascar a nation, pigmy in stature, but of a 
very warlike spirit, and which afflicted the other inhabitants by 
its sudden invasions. They were called Quimos or Kimos. 

This story has lately found defenders in our time, in the 
pilot Modave, and the famous botanist Commerson. But if you 
take away all that is mere hearsay in their accounts, and their 
discrepancies, which are not few, all that remains will be that the 
pilot bought a certain small servant maid, who was sold to him 

1 Comp. Ed. Brown's Travels, p. m. 50. "Mr Wood, who has made very accu- 
rate maps of the Straits of Magellan, &c. told me, that he had seen divers graves 
in the southern parts of America near four yards long, which surprised him the 
more, because he had never seen any American that was two yards high, and 
therefore he opened one of these long sepulchres from one end to the other, and 
found in it a man and'a woman, so placed, that the woman's head lay at the man's 
feet, and so might reasonably require a tomb of near that length." 

2 Of horses in fact, whose skeletons they place near the tombs of their relations. 
See Falkner, Beschreibung von Patagonien, p. m. 149. A most ancient custom 
everywhere, and which has prevailed amongst the most different nations, of en- 
tombing the horses of warriors together with them, gave afterwards a handle to the 
idea that the horses' bones were those of giants. Thus horses' bones are found in 
the oldest sepulchres of Siberia: see J. Gmelin, Reisen, T. III. p. 313. Even in 
the sarcophagi of Christian knights, buried in churches, during what are called the 
middle ages, besides their own arms and bones, those of horses also are found. See 
Dorville, Sicula, p. 148. 

3 See John Winter in Halduyt's Collection, Vol. III. p. 751. Sir J. Nar- 
borough's Voyage to the Straits of Magellan, p. m. 90. 

4 See Anon, Tweejaarige Reyz random de wereld. Dordr. 1728, 4to. Much 
more trustworthy and accurate, on- the other hand, is Behrens (by profession a 
confectioner), who was in the same voyage, in Reise durch die Sud-Lander unci 
urn die Welt, Francof. 1737, 8vo, where, p. 87, he calls the inhabitants of Easter 
Island, then first discovered, only " well-built, with strong limbs." 

256 causes. 

for a Quimo, pale in colour, with pendulous breasts, and remark- 
able for the length of her arms, which reached nearly to the 
knees. Baron de Clugny, moreover, who spent nearly one 
whole month in the same ship with this identical pigmy, clearly 
showed that she was only a dwarf of bad conformation and 
diseased constitution, macrocephalous, stupid, and an utterer of 
confused sounds; from all which circumstances I am persuaded 
that her malady should be referred to Cretinism, since these 
symptoms occur in Cretins ; and the length of the arms has been 
noticed in many of them, and particularly in those of Salzburg, 
in express words, by observers. On the other hand Sonnerat 
has ingeniously explained the whole tradition as if it was to be 
understood about the Zaphe-Racquimusi, that is, the six chiefs 
of the race who inhabit Manatana, a province of that Island, 
which chiefs are descended from an ancestor who was very 
small; a fact expressed by that barbarous word 1 . 

74. Causes of Racial Stature. We must allow then that 
there is no entire nation of giants or pigmies. But the rac ial 
variety of stature which we touched upon above (s. 71) seems_fco 
be_confined within smaller limits in proportion than those which 
have been everywhere observed in the case of other domestic 
animals (s. 29) ; and this will easily be understood by a consi- 
deration of what has been said about the causes of degeneration. 
That climate has something to do with it, besides many other 
proofs, is seen from a comparison of the Laplanders with the 
Hungarians, who are two colonies from one race, but have 
reached a very different stature under a different climate. 
Physiology also clearly shows the great influence of diet in 
augmenting or diminishing the stature. Hence the tall bodies 
of the nobles of Otaheite is ascribed to the more generous diet 
they indulge in 2 . 

1 Pallas seeme to have deduced the origin of the Quimos from some hybrid 
generation. See his Observations sur la formation des montagnes, p. 14, where 
on the origin of the Ethiopians he says: — ''We need not have recourse in this 
case to any improper connection of the human species, which seems to have been 
the case in the production of the long-armed mountaineers or Quimos of Mada- 

2 See J. R. Forster, Bemerhingen, p. m. 236. 


On the other hand we are told that the stature of some bar- 
barous nations has diminished sensibly for a series of generations 
after they have accustomed themselves to the abtise of aqua- 
vitas and ardent spirits 1 . 

Here also mention ought to be made of the period of puberty, 
which differs in different nations, and has a good deal to do with 
the racial stature, since those who remain longest before arriving 
at puberty, by this constancy (as Csesar long since observed of 
the ancient Germans) increase their stature: whereas the best 
authors have with one voice observed that under every sort of 
climate and place premature venery is injurious to procerity of 
body 2 . Nations preserve their peculiar stature when they 
mingle least with the immigrants and strangers of other races: 
as on the other hand racial stature is altered after a series of 
generations when they have been mingled in union with other 
nations of a different size 3 . Lastly, we learn from indisputable 
instances of families remarkable for height or shortness that the 
influence of the ancestral constitution is great as to the stature 
of the offspring. 

75. Fabulous varieties of mankind. Infinite in number 
are the stories we have received from the time of Herodotus 
downwards, from all sorts of sources, principally from Aristeus, 
Ctesias, and Megasthenes, and which the Cosmographists have 
told us about nations of monstrous appearance, such as the 
Arimaspi, with only one eye; the Cynamolgi, with dogs' heads; 
the Monosceles, with only one leg; the wild men of the Imaus, 
with their feet fronting the back part of the legs, &c. 4 It is not 
my business to spend any time upon these things here ; though 
the investigation of these matters brings both pleasure and 
profit ; for that is equally true of anthropology which prevails in 

1 On the barbarians of Hudson's Bay see H. Ellis, Reise nach Hudson's Meer- 
husen, p. 201. TJmfreville, Ueber den gegenwartigen zustand der Hudsonsbay, 
p. 21. 

2 Comp. besides others on the Kamtschadales, Behra in Cook's Voyage to the 
Northern Hemispherr, Vol. in. p. 372. On the Otaheitans, Cook in Hawkesworth's 
Collection, Vol. II. p. m. 187. On the Sumatrans, Marsden, p. 41. 

3 Maupertuis, Venus Physique, p.m. 131. 

4 Comp. J. A. Fabricius, Diss, de hominiMis orbis nostri incolis, &c. Hamb. 
172 1, 4to. 



every other department of natural history, that scarcely any 
story, however absurd and foolish, has ever been told in it, 
which does not contain some foundation of truth, but perverted 
by hyperbolical exaggeration or misinterpretation 1 . I mean to 
touch here upon only one instance out of this crowd of prodigies, 
that is, the often repeated story of nations with tails, as being 
one which we have been told of again and again by all sorts of 
authors of all sorts of times 2 . 

76. Reports of nations with tails. First Pliny, then Pausa- 
nias, make mention of the tailed men of India: then in the 
middle ages their existence was asserted by the Nubian Geogra- 
pher, the Venetian Marco Polo, and others; lastly, in more 
recent times many writers of travels have brought back similar 
reports about the various tailed islanders of the Indian Archipe- 
lago 3 ; others about people of the same kind in some province of 
Russia 4 ; and others other stories 5 . 

Proper consideration however will easily show that very little 
weight is to be attached to these assertions. Many authors 
have derived their information entirely from hearsay. Then 
again it cannot be denied that many of their witnesses who 
boast of having seen the thing themselves are undoubtedly of 
very dubious repute 6 . Moreover the stories themselves on this 
point differ very suspiciously from each other 7 . On the other 

1 Thus Heyne has traced the fabulous stories about the hermaphrodites of 
Florida to their genuine sources in Comment. Soc. Reg. Sclent. Gottingens. T. I. 

P- 39- 

* The most recent patron and asserter of men with tails is Monboddo, in both 
his works, The Origin and Progress of Language, Vol. i. p. 324, and Ancient 
Metaphysics, Vol. in. p. 250. 

3 Besides the authors cited by and by, see Harvey, De Gcneratione Animalium, 
p. m. 10, about the inhabitants of Borneo. 

4 Rytschkow, Orenburgische Topographie, T. II. p. 34. Falk, Beytrdge zur 
Kcnntniss des Russischen Reichs, T. in. p. 525. 

5 On the island of Tierra del Fuego see the geographical tables in Alons. 
d'Ovaglie, Relasione del Regno di Hie, Rom. 1646, fol. 

6 On the Nicobars see, full of the most foolish stories, Bes~krifning om en Resa 
genom Asia, Africa, <kc. af. N. Matthss. Koping (Skeps-Lieut.), p.m. 131: which 
however Linnaeus calls a most trustworthy account in his letters to Monboddo, Of 
the Origin of Language, I. c. Dav. Tappe, 15-Jahrige ostindische Reisebeschreibung, 
p. 49, on the Sumatrans. 

7 Comp. about the tailed Formosans a triad of witnesses who call themselves 
eye-witnesses : J. Strauss, J. 0. Helbig, and El. Hesse. The first s.iys, Reisen, 
p. m. 32, " A Formosan from the south side of the Island with a tail a good foot 


hand the boldest and most careful explorers of those countries 
are either silent about that monstrous prodigy; or relying on 
the authority of the inhabitants plainly declare it a lying fiction 1 . 
And finally, some expressly tell us what it is that has given rise 
to this erroneous report ; viz. : either a pendulous addition to the 
clothes of the back 2 ; or some tailed anthropomorphous apes 3 . 
So that not one single instance of a tailed race can be proved by 
the consent of any number of trustworthy eye-witnesses, nay, 
not even of a single family remarkable for such, a monstrous 
anomaly; whilst instances of monstrosities in families, in which, 
for example, six fingers have been hereditary for generations, are 
very well known. As to individuals, who are here and there to 
be seen amongst Europeans, remarkable for a monstrous excres- 
cence of the os coccygis, it is at once understood that we do not 
mean to say anything of them here, any more than of number- 
less other monstrous productions. 

77. Racial variety from morbific affection. I have spoken 
above on the subject of the morbific disorders which so change 
the appearance and even the colour of animals, that when that is 
propagated by hereditary causes for a long series of generations it 
shades sensibly away into a sort of second nature, and in some 
species of animals gives rise to peculiar and constant varieties. 
We have cited the well-known examples of the white variety of 
the domestic mouse and the rabbit, whose snowy fur and rosy 
pupils are most certainly due to a morbific affection, in fact to 
leuccethiopia. The same kind of affection is frequently seen in 
mankind. Still only sporadically, certainly nowhere is it so 
frequent and so constant as in the brute animals just spoken 
of; for in them it degenerates into a particular and copious 
variety. Still, even human leucoathiopia must be spoken of, 

long, and all covered with rough hair." The second in Ephem. Naturce Curiosor. 
Dec. r. ann. IX. p. 456, "bare tails like those of pigs." The third, Ostindisck, 
Reisebeschreibung, p. m. ■216: "Among our other slaves at the mine we had also 
a female slave who like a brute beast was disfigured behind with a short stump 
or goat's tail." 

1 Thus about the Philippines, Le Gentil, Voy. dans les mers de VInde. T. 11. p. 52. 

2 Nic. Fontana On the Nicobar Isles, in Asiatic Researches, Vol. III. p. 151. 

3 [I have omitted here a long note which repeats what was said before (p. 142) 
about the figure represented in PI. 2. Ed.] 



though briefly. Briefly, I say, both because in man it can 
scarcely be said to constitute a particular variety, and also 
because it would be tedious to repeat those things which I have 
in another place said about this remarkable disorder 1 . 

78. Human leucosthiojna. The affection must be considered 
cachectic, which is plain from two pathological and constant 
symptoms. One of these consists in a singular colour of the 
skin, a sickly white partly shading into an unnatural redness, 
very often presenting the appearance of a slight leprosy 2 ; and 
also in an anomalous whiteness of the hair and groin, not silver 
white as in old men, nor nicely yellowish, verging to cinericial, 
as may be seen in many of our own countrymen, who are there- 
fore called yellow (fr. blondins), but rather straw-coloured, or 
cream-coloured. The other affects the organs of sight, and 
deprives them of their dark pigment which in sound eyes lines 
some of the internal membranes, and is destined for the absorp- 
tion of the excess of light, a thing of the utmost importance for 
good and clear vision. Hence the iris of the eye of a leucoethiop 
is of a pale rose, and half transparent: the pupil is bright and 
of a more intense red, like a sardonyx or carbuncle of a pale 

These two symptoms occur united with a singular con- 
stancy, so that, as far as I know, that peculiar redness of the 
eye is never seen alone, or without that false whiteness of the 
hair on the head and elsewhere. It is not, however, to be 
wondered at if the redness of the pupils has not always been 
noticed by observers, since the other symptoms we have spoken 
of strike the eye more, and the leuccethiopians not being able to 
endure the light have a habit of constantly winking the eye- 

The disease is always congenital; never, so far as I know, 
being contracted after birth. Always incurable; for there is 
no single known instance of the black pigment being ever 
added to the eyes after birth. It is very often hereditary; for 

1 Commentut. Soc. Reg. Scientiar. Gottingens. T. vil. p. 29, and Medichiische 
Bibliothek, T. n. p. 537. 

2 Comp. Hawkesworth's Collection, Vol. 11. p. m. 188. 


it is false what has been said by some that leuccethiopians are 
sterile or incapable of generating or conceiving. Generally, all 
the accounts we have of this remarkable disorder are wonder- 
fully deformed with errors of all sorts. Thus some have doubted 
whether leucoethiopia ought to be considered as a true morbific 
affection; others have foolishly confounded it with cretinism, 
others with the history of the Simla satyrus; others have 
rashly asserted that this affection is only to be seen within the 
tropics. For although it was no doubt first observed amongst 
the Ethiopians, for the reason that in a black nation this white- 
ness of the skin and hair would necessarily strike most every 
one's eye, and hence the name of leuccethiopians (fr. negres hlancs) 
was given to those suffering under that malady (who are called 
in the East Indies contemptuously by the Batavians Kackerl- 
acken, after a light-shunning insect, by the Spaniards Albinos, 
the French Blafards, &c.) ; it is so far from being the case that 
it occurs only amongst the negroes, or even only in the torrid 
zone, that on the contrary nothing is more certain than that 
there is no variety of mankind, no part of the world which is 
unfit for the manifestation of that disease. 

Sixteen examples of leuccethiopians have already come under 
my notice born in different provinces of Germany 1 . Then in 
the rest of Europe some among the Danes 2 , the English 3 , the 
Irish 4 , the French 5 , the Swiss 6 , the Italians 7 , the islanders of the 
Archipelago 8 , the Hungarians 9 . Then out of Europe amongst 

1 An account of many is given in Medicinisclie Bibliothek, T. nr. p. 161. 

2 lb. p. 170. 

3 Benj. Duddell's Supplement to his Treatise on the Diseases of the Homy-coat, 
Lond. 1 736, 8vo, p. 19 ; and Jo. Hunter, On certain Parts of the Animal Economy, 
p. 206. 

4 C. Perceval in Transactions of the Irish Academy, Vol. iv. p. 97. 

5 Le Cat, De la Couleur de la peau Humaine, p. 103. 

6 Medicinisclie Bibliothek, T. 1. p. 54.5. 

7 About the Savoyards whom I have described myself, see Saussure, Voyages 
dans les Alpes, T. IV. p. m. 303. Bourguet makes mention of a Venetian in Lettres 
Philosophiques sur la formation des sels, p. 163. Buzzi dissected a Milanese, see 
his Dissertazione sopra una Varieta Particolare d'Ubmini Bianchi Eliofobi, Mediol. 
1 784, 4to. Jo. Hawkins informed me that he saw a similar girl at Home. 

8 From the account of the same John Hawkins, my friend whom I have just 
quoted, who saw two twin-brothers, leuccethiopians, about twelve years old in his 
first journey to the Archipelago and the seas in the island of Cyprus, natives of 

9 Mich. Klein, Natur. seltenheiten von Ungarn. Presb. 1778, 8vo, p. 15. 


the Arabians 1 , the Malabars 2 , Madagascar^ 3 , Caffres 4 , Negroes 5 
(as well those born in Africa itself as amongst the Ethiopian 
Creoles of the new world). Then amongst the Americans of the 
Isthmus of Darien 6 , and Brazil 7 . Finally, amongst the bar- 
barous islanders of the Indian and Pacific Oceans; as in Su- 
matra 8 , Bali 9 , Amboyna 10 , Manilla 11 , New Guinea 12 , the 
Friendly 13 and Society Islands 14 . 

Moreover, this affection of which we are speaking is by no 
means peculiar to mankind, but has been observed in many 
other warm-blooded animals of both classes. Of the mammals, 
besides the common instances of the rabbits, the mice, the 
weasels and horses (in which four kinds of animals this affection 
in process of time seems to have become a sort of second nature), 
instances of apes 15 have been reported to me, squirrels 16 , rats 17 , 
hamsters 18 , guinea-pigs 1Sf , moles 20 , opossums 21 , martins 22 , wea- 
sels 23 , and goats a4 . Amongst birds, crows 25 , thrushes 26 , canary- 
birds, partridges 27 , hens and peacocks. It is remarkable that 

1 Ledyard in Proceedings of the African Association, p. 45. 

2 Tranquebarische Missions-berichte, Contin. xlvi. p. 1239. 

3 Cossigny in Histoire de VAcad. des Sc. de Paris, a. 1744, p. 13. 
* De la Nux, lb. a. 1760, p. 17. 

Out of the crowd of eye-witnesses it will be enough to quote three : Oliv. 
Goldsmith, History of the Earth, Vol. II. p. 240. Buffon, Supplement a F Histoire 
Naturelle, T. iv. p. 559, and Arthand in Journal de Physique, Oct. 1789. 

6 Wafer's Description of the Isthmus of America, ed. 2, p. 107. 

7 De Pinto in Robertson, History of America, Vol. 11. p. 405. 

8 Van Speren in Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap, T. I. p. 314. 

9 Id. I. c. with a plate. 

10 Valentyn, Beschryving van Amboina, T. II. p. 146. 

11 Camelli in Philosophical Transactions, Vol. xxv. p. 2268. 

12 Argensola, Conquista de las islas Malucas, p. 71. 

13 Cook's Voyages to the Northern Hemisphere, Vol. 1. p. 381. 

14 Hawkesworth's Collection, Vol. 11. p. 99 and 188. 

13 Sir R. Clayton in Memoirs of the Soc. of Manchester, Vol. in. p. 270. 

16 Wagner, Histor. Natur. Helvetian, p. 185. Gunner on Leein, De Lappo- 
nibus Finmarchice, p. 207. 

17 Gesner, De quadrupedibus, p. 829. 

18 The author (Sulzer) of the Classical Monograph on the hamster gave me one 
of this kind. 

19 Boddaert, NatuurLundige Beschouiving der Dieren, T. I. p. 210. 

20 lb. 21 lbt 

22 Kramer, Elench. Animalium Austr. p. 312. 23 Boddaert,. I. c. 

24 Themel in Obererzgebilrgisches Journal, Freyberg, 1748, 8vo, P. I. p. 47. 
2d From the account of my friend Sulzer. 

26 Jo. Hunter, On certain Parts of the Animal Economy, p. 204. 

27 Buffon, Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux, T. n. p. 146. 


not a single example, so far as I know, of this affection has 
been observed in any cold-blooded animal. 

79. Epilogue to this section. Let so much suffice about the 
causes and ways in which mankind degenerates into varieties 
in respect of colour, structure, proportion, and stature. In this 
enumeration I have left untouched no point that I know of 
which can in any way help to unravel the famous question about 
the unity or plurality of the species of man. We shall see in 
the following section, after this general discussion, how that 
species is in reality composed according to nature. 



80. Innumerable varieties of mankind run into one another 
by insensible degrees. We have now completed a universal sur- 
vey of the genuine varieties of mankind. And as, on the one 
hand, we have not found a single one which does not (as is 
shown in the last section but one) even among other warm- 
blooded animals, especially the domestic ones, very plainly, and 
in a very remarkable way, take place as it were under our eyes, 
and deduce its origin from manifest causes of degeneration ; 
so, on the other hand (as is shown in the last section), no 
variety exists, whether of colour, countenance, or stature, &c, so 
singular as not to be connected with others of the same kind 
by such an imperceptible transition, that it is very clear they 
are all related, or only differ from each other in degree. 

81. Five principal varieties of mankind may be reckoned. 
As, however, even among these arbitrary kinds of divisions, one 
is said to be better and preferable to another ; after a long and 
attentive consideration, all mankind, as far as it is at present 
known to us, seems to me as if it may best, according to natural 
truth, be divided into the five following varieties ; which may 
be designated and distinguished from each other by the names 
Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, and Malay. I have 
allotted the first place to the Caucasian, for the reasons given 
below, which make me esteem it the primeval one. This diverges 
in both directions into two, most remote and very different from 
each other ; on the one side, namely, into the Ethiopian, and on 
the other into the Mongolian. The remaining two occupy the 
intermediate positions between that primeval one and these 


two extreme varieties ; that is, the American between the Cau- 
casian and Mongolian ; the Malay between the same Caucasian / 
and Ethiopian. 

82. Characters and limits of these varieties. In the follow- 
ing notes and descriptions these five varieties must be generally 
defined. To this enumeration, however, I must prefix a double 
warning ; first, that on account of the multifarious diversity 
of the characters, according to their degrees, one or two alone 
are not sufficient, but we must take several joined together ; 
and then that this union of characters is not so constant but 
what it is liable to innumerable exceptions in all and singular 
of these varieties. Still this enumeration is so conceived as to 
give a sufficiently plain and perspicuous notion of them in 

Caucasian variety. Colour white, cheeks rosy (s. 43); hair 
brown or chestnut-coloured (s. 52) ; head subglobular (s. 62) ; face 
oval, straight, its parts moderately defined, forehead smooth, 
nose narrow, slightly hooked, mouth small (s. 56). The primary 
teeth placed perpendicularly to each jaw (s. 62) ; the lips (espe- 
cially the lower one) moderately open, the chin full and 
rounded (s. 56). In general, that kind of appearance which, 
according to our opinion of symmetry, we consider most handsome 
and becoming. To this first variety belong the inhabitants of 
Europe (except the Lapps and the remaining descendants of 
the Finns) and those of Eastern Asia, as far as the river Obi, 
the Caspian Sea and the Ganges; and lastly, those of Northern 

Mongolian variety. Colour yellow (s. 43) ; hair black, stiff, 
straight and scanty (s. 52); head almost square (s. 62); face 
broad, at the same time flat and depressed, the parts therefore 
less distinct, as it were running into one another; glabella flat, 
very broad; nose small, apish; cheeks usually globular, promi- 
nent outwardly ; the opening of the eyelids narrow, linear ; chin 
slightly prominent (s. 56). This variety comprehends the re- 
maining inhabitants of Asia (except the Malays on the extre- 
mity of the trans-Gangetic peninsula) and the Finnish popula- 
tions of the cold part of Europe, the Lapps, &c. and the race of 


Esquimaux, so widely diffused over North America, from Beh- 
ring's straits to the inhabited extremity of Greenland. 

Ethiopian variety. Colour black (s. 43) ; hair black and 
curly (s. 52) ; head narrow, compressed at the sides (s. 62) ; 
forehead knotty, uneven; malar bones protruding outwards; 
eyes very prominent; nose thick, mixed up as it were with the 
wide jaws (s. 56); alveolar edge narrow, elongated in front; the 
upper primaries obliquely prominent (s. 62); the lips (espe- 
cially the upper) very puffy; chin retreating (s. 56). Many are 
bandy-legged (s. 69). To this variety belong all the Africans, 
except those of the north. 

American variety. Copper-coloured (s. 43) ; hair black, stiff, 
straight and scanty (s. 52); forehead short; eyes set very deep; 
nose somewhat apish, but prominent ; the face invariably broad, 
with cheeks prominent, but not flat or depressed; its parts, if 
seen in profile, very distinct, and as it were deeply chiselled 
(s. 56) ; the shape of the forehead and head in many artificially 
distorted. This variety comprehends the inhabitants of Ame- 
rica except the Esquimaux. 

Malay variety. Tawny-coloured (s. 43) ; hair black, soft, 
curly, thick and plentiful (s. 52); head moderately narrowed; 
forehead slightly swelling (s. 62); nose full, rather wide, as it 
were diffuse, end thick; mouth large (s. 56), upper jaw some- 
what prominent with the parts of the face when seen in profile, 
sufficiently prominent and distinct from each other (s. 56). 
This last variety ^ includes the islanders of the Pacific Ocean, 
together with the inhabitants of the Marianne, the Philippine, 
the Molucca and the Sunda Islands, and of the Malayan pen- 

83. Divisions of the varieties of mankind by other authors. 
It seems but fair to give briefly the opinions of other authors 
also, who have divided mankind into varieties, so that the 
reader may compare them more easily together, and weigh 
them, and choose which of them he likes best. The first per- 
son, as far as I know, who made an attempt of this kind was a 
certain anonymous writer who towards the end of the last 
century divided mankind into four races; that is, first, one 


of all Europe, Lapland alone excepted, and Southern Asia, 
Northern Africa, and the whole of America; secondly, that 
of the rest of Africa ; thirdly, that of the rest of Asia with the 
islands towards the east; fourthly, the Lapps 1 . Leibnitz di- 
vided the men of our continent into four classes. Two extremes, 
the Laplanders and the Ethiopians ; and as many intermediates, 
one eastern (Mongolian), one western (as the European) 2 . 

Linnseus, following common geography, divided men into 
(1) the red American, (2) the white European, (3) the dark 
Asiatic, and (4) the black Negro 3 . Buffon distinguished six varie- 
ties of man : (1) Lapp or polar, (2) Tartar (by which name ac- 
cording to ordinary language he meant the Mongolian), (3) south 
Asian, (4) European, (5) Ethiopian, (6) American 4 . 

Amongst those who reckoned three primitive nations of 
mankind answering to the number of the sons of Noah, Governor 
Pownall is first entitled to praise, who, as far as I know, was also 
the first to pay attention to the racial form of skull as connected 
with this subject. He divided these stocks into white, red and 
black. In the middle one he comprised both the Mongolians 
and Americans, as agreeing, besides other characters, in the con- 
figuration of their skulls and the appearance of their hair 5 . 
Abbe de la Croix divides man into white and black. The 
former again into white, properly so called, brown (bruns), 
yellow (jaundtres), and olive-coloured 6 . 

Kant derives four varieties from dark-brown Autochthones : 
the white one of northern Europe, the copper-coloured Ame- 
rican, the black one of Senegambia, the olive-coloured Indian 7 . 
John Hunter reckons seven varieties: (1) of black men, that is, 

1 Journal des Scavans, a. 1684, P- 133- Comp. Bob. de Vaugondy, fil. Nouvcl 
Atlas portatif, Paris, 1778, 4to, PI. 4. 

2 In Feller in Otium Hanover anum, p. 159. 

3 After the year 1735, in all the editions of his immortal work. Gmelin has 
added to the last edition, brought out by himself, my division, T. I. p. 23. 

4 These six varieties have been beautifully described, and in fact painted as it 
were by the glowing brush of Haller, in his classical work, Ideen zur philosophie 
der geschichte der menschheit, T. n. p. m. 4 — 68. 

5 Comp. A New Collection of Voyages, &c. Lond. 1767, 8vo, Vol. 11. p. 273. 

6 See Geographie moderne, T. I. p. 62, ed. 5, and Vaugondy, I. c. PI. 3. 

7 Both in Engel, Philosoph. fur die Welt. T. II. and in Berliner monatsschrift, 
1785, T. vi. 

268 HUNTER. 

Ethiopians, Papuans, &c; (2) the blackish inhabitants of Mauri- 
tania and the Cape of Good Hope; (3) the copper-coloured of 
eastern India; (4) the red Americans; (5) the tawny, as Tartars, 
Arabs, Persians, Chinese, &c; (6) brownish, as the southern 
Europeans, Spaniards, &c, Turks, Abyssinians, Samoiedes and 
Lapps ; (7) white, as the remaining Europeans, the Georgians, 
Mingrelians and Kabardinski 1 . 

Zimmermann is amongst those who place the aborigines of 
mankind in the elevated Scythico-Asiatic plain, near the sources 
of the Indus, Ganges and Obi rivers; and thence deduces the 
varieties of Europe (1), northern Asia, and the great part of 
North America (2), Arabia, Iudia, and the Indian Archipe- 
lago (3), Asia to the north-east, China, Corea, &c. (4). He is 
of opinion that the Ethiopians deduce their origin from either 
the first or the third of these varieties 2 . 

Meiners refers all nations to two stocks: (1) handsome, 
(2) ugly ; the first white, the latter dark. He includes in the 
handsome stock the Celts, Sarmatians, and oriental nations. 
The ugly stock embraces all the rest of mankind 3 . Kliigel 
distinguishes four stocks : (1) the primitive, autochthones of that 
elevated Asiatic plain we were speaking of, from which he 
derives the inhabitants of all the rest of Asia, the whole of 
Europe, the extreme north of America, and northern Africa; 
(2) the Negroes ; (3) the Americans, except those of the extreme 
north ; (4) the Islanders of the southern ocean 4 . Metzger makes 
two principal varieties as extremes: (1) the white man native 
of Europe, of the northern parts of Asia, America and Africa ; 
(2) the black, or Ethiopian, of the rest of Africa. The transition 
between the two is made by the rest of the Asiatics, the in- 
habitants of South America, and the Islanders of the southern 
ocean 5 . 

84. Notes on the five varieties of Mankind. But we must 

1 Disput. de hominum varietatibus, Edinb. 1775, p. 9. 

2 In that very copious work Geographische geschichte des Menschen, &c. T. 1. 

3 See his Grundriss der Geschichte der menschheit, ed. 1. Lemgov. 1793, 8vo. 

4 See his Encyclopiidie, T. 1. p. 523, ed. 2. 

5 See his Physiologic in Apihorismen, p. 5. 


return to our pentad of the varieties of mankind. I have indi- 
cated separately all and each of the characters which I attribute 
to them in the sections above. Now, I will string together, at 
the end of my little work, as a finish, some scattered notes which 
belong to each of them in general. 

85. Caucasian variety. I have taken the name of this variety 
from Mount Caucasus, both because its neighbourhood, and es- 
pecially its southern slope, produces the most beautiful race of 
men, I mean the Georgian 1 ; and because all physiological rea- 
sons converge to this, that in that region, if anywhere, it seems 
we ought with the greatest probability to place the autochthones 
of mankind. For in the first place, that stock displays, as we 
have seen (s. 62), the most beautiful form of the skull, from which, 
as from a mean and primeval type, the others diverge by most 
easy gradations on both sides to the two ultimate extremes (that 
is, on the one side the Mongolian, on the other the Ethiopian). 
Besides, it is white in colour, which we may fairly assume to 
have been the primitive colour of mankind, since, as we have 
shown above (s. 45), it is very easy for -that to degenerate into 
brown, but very much more difficult for dark to become white, 
when the secretion and precipitation of this carbonaceous pig- 
ment (s. 44) has once deeply struck root. 

86. Mongolian variety. This is the same as what was for- 
merly called, though in a vague and ambiguous way, the Tartar 
variety 2 ; which denomination has given rise to wonderful mis- 
takes in the study of the varieties of mankind which we are now 
busy about. So that Buffon and his followers, seduced by that 
title, have erroneously transferred to the genuine Tartars, who 

1 From a cloud of eye witnesses it is enough to quote one classical one, 
Jo. Chardin, T. I. p. m. 171. "The blood of Georgia is the best of the East, and 
perhaps in the world. I have not observed a single ugly face in that country, in 
either sex ; but I have seen angelical ones. 1ST ature has there lavished upon the 
women beauties which are not to be seen elsewhere. I consider it to be impossible 
to look at them without loving them. It would be impossible to paint more charm- 
ing visages, or better figures, than those of the Georgians." 

2 On the origin of this erroneous confusion, by which the name of Tartars 
began to be transferred to the Mongolian nations, compare J. Eberh. Fischer, 
C'onjecturce de gente et nomine Tatarorum in his Quastiones Petropolitwnce, p. 46, and 
his Sibirische Geschickte, T. 1. p. 28, 142. 


beyond a doubt belong to our first variety, the racial characters 
of the Mongols, borrowed from ancient authors 1 , who described 
them under the name of Tartars. 

But the Tartars shade away through the Kirghis and the 
neighbouring races into the Mongols, in the same way as these 
may be said to pass through the Tibetans 2 to the Indians, 
through the Esquimaux to the Americans, and also in a sort of 
way through the Philippine Islanders 3 to the men of the Malay 

87. Ethiopian variety. This variety, principally because it 
is so different in colour from our own, has induced many to con- 
sider it, with the witty, but badly instructed in physiology, Vol- 
taire, as a peculiar species of mankind. But it is not necessary 
for me to spend any time here upon refuting this opinion, when 
it has so clearly been shown above that there is no single 
character so peculiar and so universal among the Ethiopians, 
but what it may be observed on the one hand everywhere in other 
varieties of men 4 ; and on the other that many Negroes are seen 

1 The original source, from which the description of the Mongols which has 
been so often repeated, and which has been copied as if that of Tartars by so 
many authors on natural history, I have found in the letter of a certain Yvo, a 
churchman of Narbonne, dated at Vienna in 1243, and sent to Griraldus, arch- 
bishop of Bordeaux, and inserted by his contemporary Matthew Paris, the 
English monk of St Albans, in what is called his Historic/, Major, p. 530, ed. Lond. 
1686, fol. This letter of Yvo is about the terrible devastations of that inhuman 
nation called the Tartars, and he speaks of them in the following words : "The 
Tartars have hard and strong breasts, thin and pale faces, stiff and upright cheek- 
bones, short and twisted noses, chins prominent and sharp, the upper jaw low 
and deep, the teeth long and few, the eyebrows reaching from the hair of the head 
to the nose, the eyes black and unsettled, the countenance one-sided and fierce, 
the extremities bony and nervous, the legs also big, but the calf-bones short, tie 
stature however the same as our own ; for what is wanting in the legs, is made up 
for in the upper part of the body." 

2 Thus, at least, I consider myself entitled to conclude from the pictures of the 
Tibetans, painted from nature by the great artist Kettle, and shown me by Warren 

3 The Indian from the Philippine Islands, whom I saw alive in London at 
Alex. Dalrymple's, was in appearance exactly this sort of middle man. 

4 There is only one thing I should like to add to what has been more copiously 
discussed about this point in the section above, that the sort of powder-like soot 
which can be distinguished in the skin of black n en, can by no means, as some 
authors think, be peculiar to the Malpighian mucus of the Ethiopians, because I 
have perfectly observed the same thing, although more scattered and less equally 
distributed, in so many of those Indian sailors who are called Lascars. In one 
Indian woman, a native of Bombay, who is a servant in my household, I can see 


to be without each. And besides there is no character which 
does not shade away by insensible gradation from this variety of 
mankind to its neighbours, which is clear to every one who has 
carefully considered the difference between a few stocks of this 
variety, such as the Foulahs, the Wolufs, and Mandingos, and 
how by these shades of difference they pass away into the 
Moors and Arabs. 

The assertion that is jnade about the Ethiopians, that they 
come nearer the apes than other men, I willingly allow so far as 
this, that it is in the same way that the solid-hoofed (s. 30) 
variety of the domestic sow may be said to come nearer to the 
horse than other sows. But how little weight is for the most 
part to be attached to this sort of comparison is clear from this, 
that there is scarcely any other out of the principal varieties of 
mankind, of which one nation or other, and that too by careful 
observers, has not been compared, as far as the face goes, with 
the apes ; as we find . said in express words of the Lapps 1 , the 
Esquimaux 2 , the Caaiguas of South America 3 , and the inhabit- 
ants of the Island Mallicollo 4 . 

88. American variety. It is astonishing and humiliating 
what quantities of fables were formerly spread about the racial 
characters of this variety. Some have denied beards to the men 5 , 
others menstruation to the women 6 . Some have attributed 

as time goes on, the same blackness in the face and arms gradually vanish, though 
in other respects the precipitated carbon remains unaltered, of a chesnut colour, 
effused under the epidermis. 

1 Thus Regnard concludes his description of the Lapps in these words : " Such 
is the description of that little man they call the Laplander, and I may say that 
there is no animal, after the ape, which so nearly approaches the man." (Euvres, 
T. I. p. 71. 

2 When the Esquimaux Attuioch, whose picture taken from the life I owe to 
Sir Joseph Banks, saw an ape in London for the first time, he asked his companion 
Cartwright in astonishment, ''Is that an Esquimaux?" and he adds in his 
account, "I must confess, that both the colour and contour of the countenance 
had considerable resemblauce to the people of their nation." 

3 "As like apes as men," says Nic. del Techo of them, Relatione cle Caaigua- 
rum gente, p. m. 34. 

4 Of these, J. R. Forster says in his Bcmerkungen, p. 217, "The inhabitants 
of the island Mallicollo appear to have a nearer relationship to the apes than any 
I have ever seen." 

5 See De Pauw in Rechcrches philosophiques sur les Americains, T. 1. p. 37. 
c See Schurigius, Parthenologia, p. 200. 


one and the same colour 1 to each and all the Americans ; 
others a perfectly similar countenance to all of them 2 . It has 
been so clearly demonstrated now by the unanimous consent of 
accurate and truthful observers, that the Americans are not 
naturally beardless, that I am almost ashamed of the unneces- 
sary trouble I formerly took to get together a heap of testi- 
mony 3 , by which it is proved that not only throughout the 
whole of America, from the Esquimaux downwards to the inha- 
bitants of Tierra del Fuego, are there groups of inhabitants who 
cherish a beard ; but also it is quite undeniable as to the other 
beardless ones that they eradicate and pluck out their own by 
artifice and on purpose, in the same way as has been customary 
among so many other nations, the Mongolians 4 for example, and 
the Malays 5 . We all know that the beard of the Americans is 
thin and scanty, as is also the case with so many Mongolian 
nations. They ought therefore no more to be called beardless, 
than men with scanty hair to be called bald. Those therefore 
who thought the Americans were naturally beardless fell into 
the same error as that which induced the ancients to suppose 
and persuade others, that the birds of paradise, from whose 
corpses the feet are often cut off, were naturally destitute of 

The fabulous report that the American women have no men- 
struation, seems to have had its origin in this, that the Euro- 
peans when they discovered the new world, although they saw 
numbers of the female inhabitants almost entirely naked, never 
seem to have observed in them the stains of that excretion. 
For this it seems likely that there were two reasons; first, that 

1 See Home in Sketches of the History of Man, Vol. I. p. 13. 

2 Comp. Robertson's History of America, Vol. 11. p. m. 404. 

3 I cited a few out of many others some years ago in Gottingisch. Magazin, 2d 
year, P. vi. p. 419. 

4 See besides many others J. G. Gmelin, Reise clurch Sibirien, T. II. p. 125. 
" It is very difficult to find amongst the Tungus, or any of these people, a beard. 
For as soon as one appears, they pull the hair out, and at last bring it to this that 
there is nothing more spring up." 

5 Comp. on the Sumatrans, Marsden ; on the Magindans, Forrest ; on the 
Pelew Islanders, Wilson ; on the Papuans, Carteret ; on the inhabitants of the 
Navigator's group, Bougainville, &c. 

6 Lery, Voyage faict en le terrc clu Bresil, p. in. 270. 

colour 273 

amongst those nations of America, the women during menstru- 
ation are, by a fortunate prejudice, considered as poisonous, and 
are prohibited from social intercourse, and for so long enjoy a 
beneficial repose in the more secluded huts far from the view 
of men 1 ; secondly, because, as Las been noticed 2 , they are so 
commendably clean in their bodies, and the commissure of their 
legs so conduces to modesty, that no vestiges of the catamenia 
ever strike the eye. 

As to the colour of the skin of this variety, on the one hand 
it has been observed above, that it is by no means so constant as 
not in many cases to shade away into black (s. 43) ; and on the 
other, that it is easily seen, from the nature of the American cli- 
mate 3 , and the laws of degeneration when applied to the ex- 
tremely probable origin of the Americans from northern Asia 4 , 
why they are not liable to such great diversities of colour, as the 
other descendants of Asiatic autochthones, who peopled the 
ancient world. The same reason holds good as to the appear- 
ance of the Americans. Careful eye-witnesses long ago laughed 
at the foolish, or possibly facetious hyperbole of some, who 
asserted that the inhabitants of the new world were so exactly 
alike, that when a man had seen one, he could say that he had 
seen all 5 , &c. It is, on the contrary, proved by the finished 
drawings of Americans by the best artists, and by the testimony 
of the most trustworthy eye-witnesses, that in this variety of 
mankind, as in ether?, countenances of all sorts occur 6 : although 

1 Comp. Sagard, Voyage du pays des Rurons, p. 78. 

2 Van Berkel's Reisen nach JR. de Berbice und Surinam, p. 46. 

3 Zimmermann, Geograph'sche ( o eschiclde des menschen, T. I. p. 87. 

4 Kant, in Teuttschen Mercur, a. 1788, T. i. p. 119. 

5 See Molina, Sulla storia nafurale del Chili, p. 336. " I laugh in my sleeve 
when I read in certain modern writers, supposed to be diligent observers, that all 
the Americans have the same appearance, and that wh<_n a man has seen one, he 
may say that he has seen them all. Such authors allow themselves to be too 
easily deceived by certain vague appearances of similarity which have to do for the 
most pait with colour, and which vanish as soon as ever the individuals of one 
nation are confronted with -those of another. A Chilian does not differ less in 
aspect from a Peruvian, than an Italian from a German. I have seen myself 
Paraguayanos, Cujanos, and Magellanos, all of whom have their peculiar lineaments 
which are easily distinguished from those of the others." 

6 Thus, to bring a few examples from South America alone, Nic. del Techo 
describes the Caaiguas with apish nostrils : Mart. Dubrizhoffer says that the neigh- 



in general that sort of racial conformation may be considered as 
properly belonging to them which we attributed to them above 
(s. 56). It was justly observed by the first Europeans 1 who 
visited the new continent, that the Americans came very near to 
the Mongolians, which adds fresh weight to the very probable 
opinion that the Americans came from northern Asia, and 
derived their origin from the Mongolian nation. It is probable 
that migrations of that kind took place at different times, after 
considerable intervals, according as various physical, geological, 
or political catastrophes gave occasion to them; and hence, if 
any place is allowed for conjecture in these investigations, the 
reason may probably be derived, why the Esquimaux have still 
much more of the Mongolian appearance 2 about them than the 
rest of the Americans: partly, because the catastrophe which 
drove them from northern Asia must be much more recent, and 
so they are a much later arrival 3 ; and partly because the climate 
of the new country, which they now inhabit, is much more homo- 
geneous with that of their original country. In fact, unless I am 
much mistaken, we must attribute to the same influence I men- 
tioned above (s. 57), which the climate has in preserving or 
restoring the racial appearance, the fact that the inhabitants of 
the cold southern extremity of South America, as the barbarous 
inhabitants of the Straits of Magellan, seem to come nearer, 
and as it were fall back, to the original Mongolian countenance 4 . 

bouring AVipones, on the contrary, are often remarkable for aquiline noses: Ulloa 
attributes a narrow and hooked nose to the Peruvians ; Molina, one somewhat 
broad to the Chilians ; G. Forster, one very depressed to the islanders of Tierra del 

1 Lettere di Amer. Vespucci, p. 9, ed. Bandini. "They are not very hand- 
some, because their faces are wide, 'which makes them like Tartars." 

2 Tiiis I see most clearly both in two Esquimaux skulls from Nain, a colony of 
Labrador, which adorn my collection, and in the pictures of these barbarians 
taken from the life by good artists, which I owe to the liberality of Sir J. Banks. 

3 The paradox of Kobertson, who derived the Esquimaux from the Normans, 
in his History of America, Vol. II. p. 40, scarcely deserves a refutation at this 

4 Thus that classical Argonaut and capital eye-witness and observer, Linschot, 
compares the inhabitants of the strait of Magellan whom he saw, in physiognomy, 
appearance, colour, hair and beard, to the Samoiedes, with whom he was very well 
acquainted through his famous journey to the strait of Nassovitch, in his notes 
to Acosta, p. 46 b. 

MALAY. 275 

89. The Malay variety. As the Americans in respect of 
racial appearance hold as it were a j)lace between the medial 
variety of mankind, which we called the Caucasian, and one of 
the two extremes, that is the Mongolian ; so the Malay variety 
makes the transition from that medial variety to the other ex- 
treme, namely, the Ethiopian. I wish to call it the Malay, 
because the majority of the men of this variety, especially those 
who inhabit the Indian islands close to the Malacca peninsula, 
as well as the Sandwich, the Society, and the Friendly Islanders, 
and also the Malambi of Madagascar down to the inhabitants of 
Easter Island, use the Malay idiom 1 . 

Meanwhile even these differ so much between themselves 
through various degrees of beauty and other corporeal attributes, 
that there are some who divide the Otaheitans themselves into 
two distinct races 2 ; the first paler in colour, of lofty stature, 
with face which can scarcely be distinguished from that of the 
European ; the second, on the other hand, of moderate stature, 
colour, and face little different from that of Mulattos, curly 
hair, &c. 3 , This last race then comes very near those men who 
inhabit the islands more to the south in the Pacific Ocean, of 
whom the inhabitants of the New Hebrides in particular come 
sensibly near the Papuans and New Hollanders, who finally on 
their part graduate away so insensibly towards the Ethiopian 
variety, that, if it was thought convenient, they might not 
unfairly be classed with them, in that distribution of the varie- 
ties we were talking about. 

90. Conclusion. Thus too there is with this that insensible 
transition by which as we saw the other varieties also run toge- 
ther, and which, compared with what was discussed in the earlier 

1 Sir J. Banks first of all showed this in Hawkesworth's Collection, Vol. III. 
P- 373> then after him Bryant in Cook's Voyage to the Northern Hemisphere, Vol. 
III. App. No. 2, p. 528, and Marsden in Archceologia, Vol. VI. p. 154. 

2 See Bougainville in Voyage autour du Monde, p. 213. 

3 Thus long ago the immortal De Quiros, who first discovered the Society 
Islands, accurately distinguished these varieties among the inhabitants of the 
islands in the Pacific Ocean, when he called some white, and compared some to 
the Mulattos, and some to the Ethiopians. See Dalrymple, Collection of Voy- 
ages to the South Pacific Ocean, Vol. 1. p. 164. 



sections of the book, about the causes and ways of degeneration, 
and the analogous phenomena of degeneration in the other 
domestic animals, brings us to that conclusion, which seems to 
flow spontaneously from physiological principles applied by the 
aid of critical zoology to the natural history of mankind; which 
is, That no doubt can any longer remain but that we are with 
great probability right in referring all and singular as many 
varieties of man as are at present known to one and the same 










1. On Mutability in the Creation. 

II. A Glance into the Primitive World. 

III. A Preaclamite Primitive World has already lived out its 


IV. Remodelling of the Primitive World. 

V. Changes in the present Creation. 

VI. Degeneration of Organized Bodies. 

VII. Especially in the Domestic Animals. 

VIII. Degeneration of the most perfect of all domestic animals — 

IX. A very peculiar physiological singularity of the Human Body. 

X. Something tranquillizing on a common family concern. 

XI. On Anthropological Collections. 

XII. Division of Mankind intone principal Races. 

XIII. On the Negro in particular. 

XIV. On the Kakerlacken. 


1 On the Gradation in Nature. 

2. On the Succession of different Earth-catastrophes. 

3. On the so-called Objects of Design. 





On Mutability in the Creation. 

" YES, that's the way of the world/' says Voltaire ; " we can't get 
any more purple, for the Murex has long since been extermi- 
nated. The poor little shell must have been eaten up by some 
other larger animals." "God forbid," answer the physico-theolo- 
gians; "it is impossible that Providence can allow of the extinc- 
tion of a species 1 ." Thus says the noble village pastor of Savoy 
in Emilie, " There is no creature in the universe that may not 
equally be looked upon as the common centre of all the rest." 
And, says another in addition, " There is no one, so to say, which 
is not that for all the rest of the creation, which the head of 
Phidias was for the shield of his artificial Minerva, which could 
not be removed without the whole of the great work falling to 

" Rather than that," says Linnseus, " let nature create new 
sorts. Thus not far from Upsala, on the island Sodra-Gaesskiaeret, 

1 See Pennant's History of Quadrupeds, "Vol. I. p. 161. " Providence main- 
tains and continues every created species; and we have as much assurance, that no 
race of animals will any more cease while the earth remaineth, than seed-time and 
harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, day or night," 


a new plant has appeared, the Peloria, that is undoubtedly a 
sort of new creation." " Ah," they answer, " nature is an old 
hen, which will certainly lay nothing more fresh at this time of 
day." "Certainly not," decides Haller; "and such errors should 
be denounced, because they will be eagerly snapped up by the 
atheists, who will be only too glad to demonstrate the instability 
of nature as well by the appearance of new species, as by the 
pretended extermination of old kinds. And this must not 
be; for if order in the physical world comes to an end, so also 
will order in the moral world, and at last it is all over with all 

If I may presume to put in a word here myself, my opinion 
is that on all sides too much has been made of the matter. The 
murex exists up to the present day just as much as in the time 
of the old Phoenicians and Greeks ; — the peloria is a monstrous 
freak of nature, and no new particular independent species. 
Nature is made common, but is not exactly an old hen, — and the 
creation is something more solid than that statue of Minerva, 
— and it will not go to pieces even if one species of creatures 
dies out, or another is newly created, — and it is more than merely 
probable, that both cases have happened before now, — and all 
this without the slightest danger to order, either in the physical 
or in the moral world, or for religion in general. For my own 
part it is exactly in these things that I find the guidance of 
a higher hand most unmistakeable ; so that in spite of this 
recognized instability of nature, the creation continues going on 
its quiet way ; and on that very account it is my opinion that it 
is well worth the trouble, after such an immense deal has been 
written upon the pretended unchangeableness of the creation, 
just once to recollect on the other hand the proofs of the great 
alterations in it. To do this I shall be obliged to go some way 

fossils. 283 


A Peep into the Primitive World. 

Every paving- stone in Gottingen is a proof that species, or 
rather whole genera, of creatures must have disappeared. Our 
limestone swarms likewise with numerous kinds of lapidified 
marine creatures, among which, as far as I know, there is only- 
one single species that so much resembles any one of the pre- 
sent kinds, that it may be considered as the original of it ; 
and this is that j>articular kind of the Terebratulse in the Medi- 
terranean and Atlantic waters, which from their appearance 
have received the name of the cock and hen 1 . For one of 
the two delicate bellied shells rises behind over the other at the 
junction, and so when it is seen in profile it has some resem- 
blance to a cock which is treading a hen. 

Amongst the quite countless host of other lapidified marine 
creatures, who have found their grave in our soils, there are no 
doubt many (as amongst the Mytilites, Chamites, Pectinites, 
&c.) to which most naturalists attribute as many distinct origi- 
nals, but I have very often compared, in these instances, the 
petrifaction 2 with the pretended original, and it is not my fault 
if I have come to the conclusion that both are unmistakeably 
specifically distinct from each other 3 . 

In a very great number of the remaining lapidifi cations of 
this country the forms differ so very surprisingly from all 
creatures now known, that I hope no one will in future really 

1 Anomia Vilrea. Chemnitz's Conclujlicn-cabinet, B. viii. Tab. Lssvur. fig. 

2 [Three words are employed somewhat loosely by Blumenbach : versteinerung, 
petrefact, fossil: I have translated them, la/pidificaiion, petrifaction, and fossil 
respectively. — Ed.] 

3 Nearly the only, but therefore all the more important, use of the knowledge 
of lapidifications, is the solution which the history of the changes of the earth's 
surface derives from it; but unfortunately to arrive at this requires the most ex- 
treme accuracy of observation, especially when we come to the comparison of pe- 
trifactions with their pretended originals. Want of accuracy in this has already 
produced the most extraordinary cosmogonical errors. 


try to reckon them amongst these last 1 . I will mention two 
genera only out of all, the Belemnites 2 and the Ammonites, 
of both of which I have before me all sorts of different species 
from most of the countries of Europe, and even from Asia, and 
which will also most likely be found in the other parts of the 
world, the islands of the fifth part excepted 3 . At present they 
reckon about 200 different sj>ecies of the Ammonite genus; 
and I do not think this is an exaggeration 4 , although I have 
never considered it worth while to count them up advisedly. 
No true representative of any one of these 200 species has 
yet been found in the existing creation. It is plain also from 
observing well-preserved Ammonites, that notwithstanding some 
are of quite colossal size, they must have been very slender- 
shelled, light, and unattached conchylia, and could not have 
lived, as was at first suggested as an evasion, sunk in the depths 
of our seas. And as we now, by the great voyages through 
which the king 5 has caused the larger portion of the fifth part 
of the world to be discovered, and the boundaries of our earth 
to be ascertained, are coming to be better acquainted with the 

1 Superintendent Schrbter considers it as one of the chief uses -which we derive 
from the study of petrifications, that they help us to fill up the gaps in the grada- 
tion of nature. " Without them," says he, in the 3rd Vol. of his Einleitung in die 
Geschickle der Steine, &c, s. 94, " we should find the most wonderful gaps in this 
gradation and chain of nature, which are fortunately filled up for us hy means of the 
science of lapidifications." If we found this remark in any other writer, we should 
consider it as something witty upon the asserted gradation of nature with regard 
to the generation of her creatures ; for all this can only mean that what the Creator 
has not given us in natura, at least He has had cast in effigy for the assistance of 
the physico-theilogians and their allegorical images of chains and links in His 
creation. On this I will say a little more in the additions, at the end of this part. 

2 Belemnites are even still some of the commonest of lapidifications. The 
Chevalier D' Hancarviile, Eecherches sur Vorigine des Arts de la Gre.ce, B. 1. s. 2, — an 
unparalleled book — gives as a reason why we do not find them in still larger numbers 
- — that so many of them were shot away, if we can trust his assertion, in the child- 
hood of mankind. For, says he, " before they used copper or iron to arm the 
points of their darts with, they used to employ these Belemnites. The Arundel 
marbles place the epoch of the discovery of iron in the year 87 after the arrival of 
Cadmus in Greece. Before that epoch the spears of the Greeks were necessarily 
armed with these Belemnites, the name of which has been handed down to our 
time, and shows the use." 

3 J. R. Forster, Bemerkungen auf seiner reise um die Welt, s. 19. 

4 In the Breslauer Sammlungen of 1725, it is stated that the zealous and saga- 
cious collector of petrifactions, Rosinus of Munden, had already collected over 300 
sorts of Ammonites. 

6 George III. 


ocean than the firm land of our planet, we must consequently 
give up the hope that the representatives of these widely scat- 
tered animals, like thousands of other fossils, are still living, 
sunk in our oceans. 


An old Preadamite Creation has already lived out its existence. 

Putting all these things together, in my opinion it becomes 
more than merely probable that not only one or more species, but 
a whole organized preadamite creation has disappeared from the 
face of our planet. Out of all existing theories of the earth 
with which I am acquainted, there is no single one by which the 
instantly apparent peculiarities of the petrifactions in our cal- 
careous strata can be brought into any order. But they will be 
at once easily explained, as soon as it is understood, as I have 
said, that our earth has already suffered a complete revolution, 
and experienced one last da,y. It is plain that other so-called 
cosmogonical phenomena, as, for instance, the quantity of fossil 
bones of the elephant, rhinoceros, and other animals of the 
present earth, which have been dug up in this country, and 
more of the same kind, must unfortunately be accurately sepa- 
rated and divided from that complete revolution. This it is, if 
I mistake not, which has till now always been the rock on which 
even the most sagacious theories of the earth have foundered, 
so soon as they have endeavoured to refer all these phenomena, 
which are so different from one another, to one single common 
revolution, and to explain all by one and the same catastrophe 1 . 
A naturalist, who is as sagacious as amiable, has recently 
attempted to connect the origin of those fossil bones found in 

1 In opposition to this view, I have in the Specimen Archceologice Telluris, &c. 
Gbtt. 1803, 4to, endeavoured to explain the old history of our planet, and especially 
the nature, and also in general the sequences of the totally different catastrophes it 
has gone through, by which the numerous fossil remains of former organic creations 
have come into their present positions, principally by a critical comparison of these 
fossils with the organized bodies of the present creation. Of these also a word be- 
low, in the additions, at the end of this part. 

286 - FOSSILS. 

this country belonging to foreign land-animals and the actual 
lapidificatioris of the marine creatures in our calcareous strata 
in this way with each other, by supposing that the present 
position of those land-animals is not their original home, but 
that after their death they fell into rivers, and so by degrees 
were huddled together by the currents on the existing floor of 
the sea. But those localities, at all events where I myself have 
examined the position of the large exotic bones, are very diffi- 
cult to reconcile with that hypothesis. Thus, for instance, I have 
myself examined at Burgtonna, in Gotha, the bed of both the 
elephants which were dug up there in 1695 and 1799, and found 
that it was so completely made up of strong layers of marl, 
which were so full of small, delicate, and for the most part 
uninjured land and river shells and the like, that I consider it 
is quite impossible this bed could ever have been the floor of 
the sea; but that most likely the elephants, rhinoceroses, and 
tortoises, of all of which I have got together 1 instructive speci- 
mens for my collection from the Tonna marl-strata, must have 
been naturalized at one time in that country, no one knows how 
long after the supposed general revolution. This general revo- 
lution, from which may be dated the countless extinct organized 
creatures in the calcareous strata, is again quite different from 
the subsequent later oue, which must have occurred when the 
earth was remodelled 2 . 

1 Corap. Hofr. Voigt, Ueber Einige Physicalisclie merJavurdi'gkeiten der gegend 
von Burgtonna im Herzogthum Gotha in his Magazin fur Phydk und Naturge- 
schichte, B. in. st. 4. 

2 There was a time when the origin of all petrifactions, and the general revolu- 
tion of the earth itself, was deduced from the Noachian deluge. But, as one of 
the most sagacious and also certainly one of the most orthodox theologians, R. 
Walsh, has assured me, we are far from doing the slightest violence to the authority 
of Holy Scripture, when we deny the universality of the flood of Noah ; and in 
like manner, I cannot for my own part form any satisfactory idea, after what I 
gather from the history of animals themselves, about the universality of that 
deluge. Thus, for instance, the pilgrimage which the sloth (an animal which takes 
a whole hour in crawling six feet) must in that case have performed from Ararat to 
South America, is always a little incomprehensible. We are obliged, with St 
Augustine, to call in the assistance of the angels, \x\iojussu Dei she permissu, as he 
expresses himself, first of all collected all the animal kingdom in the ark, and then 
distributed them again ad locum inde, in the distant islands and quarters of the 



Remodelling of the Primitive World. 

After therefore that organic creation in the Preadamite 
primitive epoch of our planet had fulfilled its purpose, it was 
destroyed by a general catastrophe of its surface or shell, which 
probably lay in ruins some time, until it was put together again, 
enlivened with a fresh vegetation, and vivified with a new 
animal creation. In order that it might provide such a harvest, 
the Creator took care to allow in general powers of nature to 
bring forth the new organic kingdoms, similar to those which 
had fulfilled that object in the primitive world. Only the for- 
mative force having to deal with materials, which must of course 
have been much changed by such a general revolution, was com- 
pelled to take a direction differing more or less from the old one 
in the production of new species 1 . 

So that we naturally find very few creatures in the present 
creation which are exactly like the lapidifications of the primi- 
tive world, as, for instance, the shell-fish of the Atlantic and the 
Terebratula mentioned above of our calcareous rocks of the pre- 
sent day. On the other hand, there are quantities of such petri- 
factions which appear like the present organic bodies, and 
therefore, as I have said already, on a mere hasty comparison 
are often taken to be identical with them, but which upon 
closer inspection present most unmistakeable differences in their 
formation, and may serve as an example how the formative 
force in these two creations has acted in a similar, but not 
exactly in the same way. As to the possible objection, that this 
difference might also have been occasioned solely by degenera- 
tion acting for a long series of thousands of years, it can be very 

1 So that the formative power of nature in these remodellings partly reproduces 
again creatures of a similar type to those of the old world, which however in by far 
the greatest number of instances have put on forms more applicable to others in 
the new order of things, so that in the new creatures the laws of the formative 
force have been somewhat modified, as Lucretius expresses himself: 

' quod potuit, nequeat ; possit, quod non tulit ar.te.' 


easily refuted by those examples in which the difference between 
fossil and recent shells, which are sufficiently like each other 
in' general, is still of that quality that it unfortunately cannot 
be considered either as a consequence of degeneration, or as an 
accidental monstrosity, but can hardly be considered as anything 
else than an altered direction of the formative forcer To give 
one example out of many. In the North Sea there is a shell, 
whose pretty house is generally known under the name of 
Murex despectus; and at Harwich on the coast of Essex there is 
found a fossil shell, which in its general habit has so strong a 
resemblance to that Murex, that at the first glance one might be 
mistaken for the other. But, in the recent species, as usually 
happens, the twistings are to the right; whereas, on the contrary, 
in the fossil species the twists are exactly the other way, to the 
left 1 ; and it is just as contrary to experience to find the fossil 
Murex marked to the right as the recent Murex to the left. 
Such a thing is not a consequence of degeneration, but a 
remodelling through an altered direction of the formative force. 


Mutations in the Existing Citation. 

According to all probability therefore a whole creation of 
organized bodies has already become extinct, and has been suc- 
ceeded by a new one. So much variation is however to be 
observed, or, as Haller called it, but falsely, instability of nature, 
even in this new one, that a person might easily, a priori as they 
say, embrace the idea in this too of the extinction of whole spe- 
cies, and the fresh appearance of others, even if both these 
observations were not made more than merely probable by 
actual data. 

1 See a pair of instances of this singular fossil, Murex contrarius, from my col- 
lection, in the second part of the Abhildungen Nuturhidorischer Gegensiande. G-ott. 
1 797, Tab. xx. 


Thus there was still to be found in the time of our fathers, 
on the Isle of France and on some of the small neighbouring 
islands, but in no other place in the world, so far as is known, a 
species of large, plump, lazy land-birds, whose flesh is repulsive, 
the Dodos 1 ', whose locality was circumscribed, because they 
could fly no better than the Cassowary. But according to the 
account of M. Morel, who instituted a search with that view 
at the very place itself, this bird has ceased now to exist. It 
has been exterminated out and out. This is no more incompre- 
hensible or improbable than that the last wolf in Scotland, as is 
known to have been the case, should have been shot in 1680, 
although a hundred years before great wolf-hunts used to be 
held. Just in the same way, but somewhat earlier in England, 
and thirty years later in Ireland, these beasts of prey were 
destroyed also. Thus plainly neither the fauna nor the flora 
(as these lists of indigenous beasts and plants are called) of a 
country remain always the same. Creatures enough die away 
in a locality, and fresh ones again become naturalized and spread 
themselves. It may be by design, as the carp which has now 
been artificially naturalized in many northern countries; or 
accidentally, as the rats of the old world have managed to 
engraft themselves on the new. So there is nothing contradic- 
tory in the idea that also once in the universal flora or fauna of 
the creation (but especially in the latter), as we have said, a 
species may have become extinct; and on the other hand a 
fresh one may likewise be sometimes very easily created sub- 

The pimple-worm 2 in pigs, which Malpighi was the first to 
discover, is quite as real and perfect an animal in its kind as man 
and the elephant in theirs. But, as is well known, this animal is 
only found in tame swine, and never in any way in the wild pig, 
from which however the former is descended. It would seem 
therefore that this worm was no more created at the same time 

3 Dldus ineptus. See Abbildungen Naturhistorischer Gegenstdnde Part iv. 
GStt. 1799, Tab. xxxv. 

2 Hydatis finna. See Abbildungen Naturhistorischer Gegenstdnde a. a. 0. Tab. 



as the original stock of the hog than, according to probability, 
the allied species of the bladder worms, which have been lately 
discovered, just like those hydatids, in the flesh and among the 
entrails in human bodies, which must, needs have been created 
after the original parents of mankind. How indeed this subse- 
quent creation took place, that I can no more say than how in 
early times the first spermatic animalcule came into being ; that 
however they were subsequently created seems to me undeniable, 
and I lay that to the account of the great mutability in nature, 
and this great mutability itself to the active and wise determi- 
nation of the Creator. 

How very limited would be even the sphere of man's opera- 
tions without this capacity for variation in nature through the 
labour he may himself bestow upon it. Is it not precisely 
through this attribute that he becomes really the lord and 
master of the rest of the creation ? To see how much may be 
done in this way let a man only consider the astonishing altera- 
tions which since the discovery of the New World have recipro- 
cally been caused and been experienced by it and the Old. 


The degeneration of organized bodies. 

The degeneration of animals and plants from their original 
stocks into varieties also belongs to the astonishing experiences 
of variability in creation. In the middle of the 16th century 
the only tulip known in Europe was the common yellow one. 
Two hundred years later no kind of flower had a more pas- 
sionate admirer than these, of which the then Margrave of 
Baden- Durlach collected no less than three thousand specimens 
of different varieties 1 . It is not much longer since the first 
wild green canary bird was brought from its home to Europe, 
yet these creatures have long since branched out into every sort 
of variety, not only of colour but also of appearance itself. 

1 Bi'Motk. Eaisonnee, T. sssiv. p. •284. 


The origin of this degeneration has been sought principally 
in the influence of climate, aliment, and mode of life; and cer- 
tainly many effects of these three things in degeneration appear 
unmistakeable. Thus, taken altogether, growth is retarded by 
cold, and the particular climate of this or that part of the world 
will have certain manifest operations on the organized bodies 
which are indigenous to it. As in Syria, many kinds of 
mammals have astonishingly long and silken hair. Of course 
very often some of the principal effects which are ascribed to 
degeneration either run into and destroy one another, or one may 
equally counteract the other and take away its effect ; so that 
no decided opinion can be arrived at on many of the phenomena 
of degeneration. Enough that the phenomena themselves must 
be held as unmistakeable consequences of the variability of 


In domestic animals especially. 

The effects of degeneration must naturally have operated in 
the most profound and various way on those domestic animals 
which man has for so many generations kept in subjection to 
himself, to such an extent that they propagate in that con- 
dition, and with whom it is not, as in the case of elephants, 
necessary to catch every individual in the wilderness ; and 
which also can inhabit foreign climates, and are not, like the 
reindeer, confined within a narrow fatherland. 

The common domestic hog is the best example of all, and I 
select it the more readily because the pedigree of this animal 
is far less dubious than that of many others. The dog dege- 
nerates in many ways, even under our very eyes, but it is not 
completely made out, and would be very difficult completely to 
make out, whether all dogs are only varieties of one and the 
same species or not. Many great naturalists have avowedly 
considered the shepherd's dog as the common original stock 
of all the others. Others have put the wolf, the jackal, and the 


292 HOGS. 

dog together. Others, again, think it not improbable that we 
ought to assume more than one original stock amongst dogs 
themselves. In my opinion there is a great deal to be said for 
the last idea. Not only have we a great difference of appear- 
ance in dogs in and of themselves; but they must be very much 
changed during the long thousands of years since man brought 
up this animal more than any other in closer intimacy with 
himself, and partly transplanted it along with him into foreign 
climates, so that perhaps the original wild 1 dog can no more 
be found. And this seems to me a ground for assuming that 
there is more than one original race of dogs, because many, 
as the badger-dog, have a build so marked, and so appropriate 
for particular purposes, that I should find it very difficult to 
persuade myself that this astonishing figure was an accidental 
consequence of degeneration, and must not rather be considered 
as an original purposed construction to meet a deliberate object 
of design 2 . 

In the hog, again, the power of mere degeneration is much 
more clearly visible. So far as I know, no naturalist has carried 
his scepticism so far as to doubt that our domestic hog is 
descended from the wild boar, and besides this is one of the 
beasts which was utterly unknown in America before the 
arrival of the Spaniards, and was first transplanted there from 
Europe. Meanwhile, notwithstanding the short space of time 
which is incontrovertibly pi'oved by documents, some of these 
swine which have been transplanted into that part of the world 
have degenerated in the most astonishing way into the most 
extraordinary varieties. Those which were brought from Spain 
in 1509 to the West India island Cubagua, which was then 

1 The difference between being wild originally and becoming wild must be most 
carefully observed during investigations of this kind. Thus in both worlds we have 
immense numbers of horses which have become wild ; but no one is acquainted 
with the original wild horse. Thus even in the beginning of the past century wild 
goats and also wild corn were to be found on the little island of Juan Fernandez 
(the solitary abode for four years of poor Selkirk, whose true history De Foe has 
worked up in his Robinson Crusoe) ; but neither of these belonged originally to the 
country any more than the wild monkeys which have propagated themselves even 
up to the present time on the rock of G-ibraltar. 

3 See the additions at the end of this Part. 


famous everywhere for its pearl fisheries, degenerated into an 
extraordinary race, with toes which were half a span long 1 . 
Those in Cuba became more than twice as large again as their 
European progenitors 2 . 

This was not the way in which in the old world the tame 
hog degenerated from the wild hog; but rather in its covering, 
especially with respect to the woolly hair between the bristles ; 
in the strikingly different form of the skull; in the whole 
growth, &c. How endless again is the difference in the varie- 
ties of the domestic hog itself; that of Piedmont being almost 
without exception black ; that of Bavaria reddish brown ; that 
of Normandy white, &c. How different is the breed of the 
English hog, with its curved back and pendent belly, from that 
of the north of France, which is easily distinguished from the 
former by its elevated croup and its down-hanging head, and 
both again from the German hog. Hogs with undivided hoofs 
are to be found gregarious both in Hungary and Sweden, and 
were known long ago to Aristotle, to say nothing of other more 
remarkable varieties. 


Degeneration of Man, the most perfect of all domestic Animals. 

But what is the reason that the hog degenerates so particu- 
larly ? why so much more than any other domestic animal ? 
The solution of this problem flows directly from what has been 
said above. For the very reason that it is just this animal which 
is more exposed than any other to the causes of degeneration. 
No other of our commonly called domestic animals has experi- 
enced such a manifold influence of climate as the hog; for no 
other has been so widely scattered as this over the five parts of 
the world. None has been subjected so much to the operation 

1 Herrera, Hechos de los Castellanos en las Islas de Tierra Firme del Mar Occam, 
Vol. I. p. 239, Madrid, 1601. 

2 Clavigero, Storia Antica del Messico, T. IV. p. 145. 


of variety of aliment; for no animal is so omnivorous as the 
hog, &c. There is only one domestic animal besides (domestic 
in the true sense, if not in the ordinary acceptation of this 
word 1 ) that also surpasses all others in these respects, and that 
is man. The difference between him and other domestic ani- 
mals is only this, that they are not so completely born to 
domestication as he is, having been created by nature immedi- 
ately a domestic animal. The exact original wild condition of 
most of the domestic animals is known. But no one knows 
the exact original wild condition of man 2 . There is none, for 
nature has limited him in no wise, but has created him for every 
mode of life, for every climate, and every sort of aliment, and 
has set before him the whole world as his own and given him 
both organic kingdoms for his aliment.. But the consequence 
of this is that there is no second animal besides him in the 
creation upon whose solidum vivum so endless a quantity of 
various stimuli 3 , and therefore so endless a quantity of concur- 
ring causes of degeneration, must needs operate. 


A very peculiar physiological singularity of the human body. 

In order to receive those stimuli the solidum vivum has been 
prepared by the forces of life which reside within it, whose 
diverse although still concurring kinds I have in another place 
endeavoured to set out and distinguish more precisely*. Amongst 

1 Even however in the common acceptation of the word man has heen before 
now considered a domestic animal. De Luc says that a very profound psychologist 
of his acquaintance could find so little connection between the limited power of 
man's comprehension and the circumference and depth of his actual knowledge, 
that there must have been in the primitive world a class of higher existences on 
earth, to whom man acted as a sort of domestic animal and have so received great 
benefit from the then lord of the creation. 

2 More particularly on this in Part II. 

3 I make use of both these words of art which are universally accepted in the 
physiology of organized bodies and have an universally understood meaning with- 
out turning them into German, since they, as well as the words organized bodies 

hemselves, would certainly lose in clearness by translation. 

4 Jnstitut. Physiolog. s. IV. 


these, by far the most common, and which predominates in both 
kingdoms of organized creatures, is contractility, which is very 
nearly the same thing that Stahl, one of the most profound 
physiologists, spoke of under the not sufficiently distinct name 
of tone, or, after the Leiden school, actuosity. 

The locality of this commonest of vital forces is the mucous 
membrane, (commonly, but improperly called the cellular tissue,) 
which constitutes the foundation of almost the whole of an 
organized body. Thus in a human body, except the enamel of 
the teeth and some of the outermost coverings of the skin, all 
the remaining parts consist principally of the mucous mem- 
brane, saturated, so to say, and incorporated with other sub- 
stances. Besides, the mucous membrane is the first organic 
substance which nature forms out of inorganic saps. Thus the 
plastic lymph which is squeezed out by inflammations of the 
lungs is first turned into loose mucous membrane, and this 
again into the so-called pseudo-membranes with true blood- 
vessels, &c. The greater or smaller compactness of the mucous 
membrane however itself differs exceedingly in the different 
periods of life, and also according to the specific diversity of the 
species of organized bodies. In the eel, for instance, it is infinitely 
finer than in the trout. It has been observed, and that long 
ago, by sagacious zootomists, for instance, our own Zinn, that 
man, in comparison with other creatures, which are most nearly 
allied to him in respect of bodily economy, namely the rest of 
the mammals, has, ceteris paribus, the finest and most com- 
pact mucous membrane. Let it be well understood ceteris 
paribus, for we must not compare an old gipsy with an unborn 

This exceptional compactness of the mucous membrane and 
the consequent superior quality of the commonest vital force is, 
as it seems to me, one of the most distinctive and greatest pri- 
vileges of man. It is exactly this privilege by which he is 
enabled to arrive at his greatest object, the habitation of the 
whole earth, just in the same way as the various kinds of corn, 
through their delicate and compact cellular texture, are better 
enabled to thrive in the most different climates than the stronger 


cedars and oaks. In proportion as this exceptionally compact 
membrane is in man, as I have said, the first and most impor- 
tant factory of the formative force, it will be easily understood 
from all these things taken together, how in consequence man 
is exposed in the formation of his body and its parts to all sorts 
of degeneration into varieties. It is not improbable moreover 
that this is the reason why the hog exactly like man can live in 
the most different climates, and also exactly like him degene- 
rates in manifold ways. At all events there are many remarkable 
singularities in both creatures with respect to their mucous 
membrane, as appears most strikingly in the peculiar skin 
(corkcm), whieh at bottom is nothing else than the mucous mem- 
brane of the outer surface of the body indurated and penetrated 
with nerves and vessels. Perhaps here too may be found the 
reason of the similarity which has so often been asserted since 
the time of Galen between the taste of man's and hog's flesh. 
As to the reason why, on the other hand, both creatures differ 
so much from one another in a thousand other ways besides 
their bodily structure, no one will ask, who knows anything from 
physiology of the strikingly peculiar privileges by which man, 
especially with respect to the other noble kind of vital powers, 
the reaction of the sensorium, &c, is elevated above all the rest 
of the animal creation. 

Something tranquillizing on a common family concern. 

There have been persons who have most earnestly protested 
against their own noble selves being placed in a natural system 
in one common species with Negroes and Hottentots. And 
again, there have been other people who have had no compunc- 
tion in declaring themselves and the orang-utan to be creatures 
of one and the same species. Thus the renowned philosopher 
and downright caprice-monger Lord Monboddo says in blunt 
words, "the orang-utans are proved to be of our species by 
marks of humanity that I think are incontestable." 

AXIOMS. 297 

On the other hand, another, but not quite so straightforward 
a caprice-monger, the world-renowned fire-philosopher Theo- 
phrastus Paracelsus Bombastus, cannot comprehend how all men 
can belong to one and the same original stock, and contrived on 
paper for the solution of this difficulty his two Adams. 

Perhaps, however, it will contribute something to the tran- 
quillization of many upon this common family affair, if I name 
three philosophers of quite a different kind, who however much 
they may have differed otherwise in many of their ideas, still 
were completely of accord with each other on this point ; possi- 
bly because it is a question which belongs to natural history, 
and all three were the greatest naturalists whom the world has 
lately lost — Haller, Linnasus, and Buffon — all these three consi- 
dered man different by a whole world from the orang-utan, and 
on the other hand all true men, Europeans, Negroes, &c, as 
mere varieties of one and the same original species. It ' will 
however be very likely of much more service to most of my 
readers, if instead of these three names I give the three principal 
rules which I have always followed, as I have reason to think, 
with the greatest advantage in my investigations on this subject, 
and through which I have fortunately escaped many an other- 
wise sufficiently common, but false conclusion. 

I. In these investigations we must have principally before 
our eyes the physiology of organized bodies. We must not 
remain attentive merely to man, and act as if he was the only 
organized body in nature; and must expect to find some differ- 
ences in his species which are strange and puzzling, without for- 
getting that all these differences are not a whit more surprising 
or unusual than those by which so many other species of organ- 
ized bodies, equally degenerate under our eyes. 

II. Neither must we take merely one pair of the races of 
man which stand strikingly in opposition to each other, and put 
these one against the other, omitting all the intermediate races, 
which make up the connection between them. We must never 
forget that there is not a single one of the bodily differences in 
any one variety of man, which does not run into some of the 
others by such endless shades of all sorts, that the naturalist or 


physiologist has yet to be born, who can with any grounds of 
certainty attempt to lay down any fixed bounds between these 
shades, and consequently between their two extremes. 

III. Inasmuch as no firm steps can be taken in the deter- 
mination of the varieties in mankind, any more than in the rest 
of natural history, without actual knowledge, I have laid down 
for myself as the third principal rule for a considerable number 
of years, since I busied myself with these investigations, to make 
use of everything, so as to provide myself always more and more 
supports in this behalf out of nature itself. For all the accounts 
on that point which one adopts, even with the most critical 
judgment possible, from others, are in reality, for the truth- 
seeking investigator of nature, nothing more and nothing fur- 
ther than a kind of symbolical writing, which he can only so far 
subscribe to with a good conscience, as they actually coincide 
with the open book of nature. And in order to pass an opinion 
upon that, he must make himself as well read and through that 
gather as much experience as possible in this book; and this is 
what I have always endeavoured to do to the best of my ability 
in my studies on the natural history of mankind. The result of 
this earnest labour has surpassed all my original expectations, 
so that I now find myself in possession of a collection for the 
natural history of mankind, which was the first regular and 
instructive, and complete one, and so far as I know remains still 
the only one of its kind. 


On Anthropological Collections. 

It seems above everything else hard to understand how it is 
that considering the zeal with which natural history has been 
cultivated at all times amongst all scientifically civilized nations, 
the naturalist was so very late in finding out that man also is a 
natural product, and consequently ought at least as much as 
any other to be handled from the point of natural history 
according to the difference of race, bodily and national peculiar- 


ities, &c. Already in the last century the great collectors of 
writings on natural history, — Gesner, Aldrovandus, Jonston, and 
Ray, — in their numerous, and also voluminous, and always clas- 
sical works, embraced the history of all the three natural king- 
doms ; everything in fact, with the single and solitary exception 
of the natural history of man himself. And, if I am not mis- 
taken, it was no naturalist by profession, but a mathematician 
in Upsala, Harald Waller, who was the first that finally in the 
beginning of the last century attempted to fill up this void 
which had for such a wonderful length of time remained open in 
a writing 1 , which was a large one for those days, and which 
forms quite an epoch in the history of natural history. 

It is not, however, less astonishing that still for many decades 
of years after this, the natural history collectors, though in 
other matters their boundless acquisitiveness not only degene- 
rated into luxury, but very often into folly, still, in order to fill 
their cabinets, preferred making incursions all over the creation, 
rather than into that department which could assist the natural 
history of mankind and his varieties 2 . It is of course easily seen 
that the construction of such a regular and instructive appara- 
tus for this department is implicated with incomparably greater 
difficulties than in most other departments of natural collections. 
That, however, these are not insuperable when the collector 
shows zeal and perseverance, and can obtain the active co-ope- 
ration of men who have opportunities of helping him in his 
object, is shown by the most remarkable portion of my anthro- 
pological collection, I mean the skulls of foreign nations. 

1 De Varia Hominum. Forma Externa, 1705, 4to. After him came in 1721 the 
never-to-be-forgotten polyhistor of Hamburg, J. A. Fabricius, with his Diss. 
critica de hominibus orbis nostri incolis, specie et ortu avito inter se non differentibus. 

2 What perverted and extraordinary notions, even till lately, distinguished 
naturalists had of what ought to be comprised in such a natural-historical or 
anthropological collection, maybe seen from the following passage in-Bomare's 
Diction. T. vi. p. 633, 1791, where he is saying what a cabinet of natural history 
ought to possess. "The cupboard which contains the history of man, consists of 
an entire myology, a separate head preserved, a brain, the parts of generation of 
either sex, a neurology, an osteology, embryos of every age with their after-birtb, 
monstrous productions, and an Egyptian mummy. There should also be some 
nice pieces of anatomy represented in wax and wood, and some stony concretions 
taken from the human body." 


There are two questions which have often been put to me 
on the sight of these skulls, namely, what utility can be made of 
this collection? and then how can any one be certain of the 
genuineness of the foreign skulls ? These questions are so 
natural and so reasonable, that the answers to them may pro- 
perly find a place here. 

1. This collection has amongst other things been useful to 
me in determining the principal corporeal characteristics of 
humanity, which it is my opinion I have found to consist in the 
prominent chin and the consequently resulting upright position 
of the under front teeth. In the animals there is scarcely a par- 
ticular chin which can be considered as comparable to that of 
man: and in those men who, as is often said, seem to have 
something apish in their countenance, this generally resides in 
a deeply- retreating chin. The upper front teeth have indeed in 
many nations of different races a more or less oblique direction, 
whereas, on the other hand, the under ones in all that are known 
to me stand up vertically. 

2. Also for the determination of the really most beautiful 
form of skull, which in my beautiful typical head of a young 
Georgian female always of itself attracts every eye, however 
little observant. 

3. As a leading argument for the identity of mankind in 
general, since here also the boundless passages between the two 
extremes in the physical scale of nations, from the Calmuck to 
the Negro, join unobservedly into each other. 

4. Then also as an evidence of the natural division of the 
whole species into the five principal races of which I shall speak 
in the next section. 

5. Of the mixture of these races with each other, which is 
as clearly expressed in the skulls of the Cossacks, Kirghis, &c, 
as anywhere in the Mulattos. 

6. For the refutation of many erroneous conclusions as to 
the pretended similarity of structure, and consequently of rela- 
tionship between distant nations, as between the old Egyptians 
and the Chinese, or between these and the Hottentots, &c. 

7. On the other hand, for a nearer conclusion on the pro- 


bable parentage of puzzling populations, as of the old Guanches 
of the Fortunate Islands from the Libyan stock of the old 

8. For this is learnt from "a comparison of the mummy 
skulls with the Egyptian works of art, that they distinguish 
three sorts of national characters, which differ very decidedly 
from one another, of which one is most like the Abyssinians, 
another the Hindoos, and the third the Berbers, or ancient 

9. This collection also helps to explain many physiologi- 
cal and national peculiarities, as the extremely wide passages in 
the nostrils of the keen-scented Negroes and North American 

10. And also, as an example of what has been lately dis- 
puted in some quarters, of the constantly enduring shapeless- 
ness which many savage tribes, as, for instance, the Caribs and 
the Choctaws artificially infix upon the heads of their chil- 
dren by continual pressing and binding. Of the various other 
interesting ideas which the inspection of this collection of skulls 
calls up, I can only think of the truly melancholy one — that it 
contains so many relics of former respectable tribes, who have 
been from time to time, and now are, almost entirely destroyed 
by their conquerors, just as the Caribs of the West India 
Islands, the Guanches of the Canary Islands, &c. who have suf- 
fered the same fate as some useful varieties of domestic 
animals, such as the great Irish hound, and the St Bernard's 
dog, which seem now to be exterminated from the creation. 

As to the other of the two questions mentioned above, it will 
be most easily answered by this fact, that every skull is num- 
bered, and has its own particular description in a special col- 
lection of the incidents belonging thereto, which contains all the 
certificates of them, and the original letters, notices, and a 
comparison with copies, like portraits 1 , of which I myself have 

1 Of the value of such really portrait-like and characteristic representations 
(with which unfortunately their rarity stands in exact proportion) for comparison 
with the skulls, I can give one example out of many. Twelve years ago I re- 


collected a rare apparatus, and also with the characteristic de- 
scriptions of the most exact writers of natural history, and of 
travellers: in short everything that makes up complete war- 
ranties, as they have been used in the Decades which have 
been composed from this collection. Besides this, care has 
been taken in the mode of arrangement, that where it was 
possible to obtain more than one skull of any savage nations, 
these, at all events, should stand side by side together, in order 
to show at the first glance the persistent resemblance with which 
the heads of each one of those peoples who have mingled only 
with each other, so far as concerns their national character, 
seem to be all cast in one mould. They are in this way so 
easy and so securely distinguished and recognized, that it is 
to be hoped no one at the sight of this collection will be in the 
condition of the Cynic Menippus 1 after his suicide, who, on 
his arrival in the nether world, said of the skulls which were 
collected, that forsooth they all looked exactly alike, and who 
was too obtuse to pick Out even that of the beautiful Helena 
from the others. 


Division of Mankind into Five 'principal Races. 

To return again to the three rules laid down above, which 
have given rise to this digression. After many a year's indus- 
trious observance of them I have arrived at no new strikinsr 

ceived from Labrador the skull of an Esquimaux, and afterwards through the 
kindness of Sir Jos. Banks a masterly likeness of Mycock, a deceased Esqui- 
maux woman, who was known in 1795, through the missionary reports of the 
evangelical brotherhood. She had been in London in 1796, when Sir Jos. had this 
speaking likeness of the size of life painted by the famous portrait painter John 
Russell. The resemblance between the remarkable character of this picture with 
that skull strikes every observant eye that compares them together. In order to 
prove it to the unobservant, I have had the circumference of that skull, and also 
that of the picture drawn by means of a glass plate, and then traced from that on 
two leaves, and when these two are held exactly upon one another against the 
light, the two drawings in all their parts cover each other like a pair of equally 
large and equiangular triangles. 

1 In Lucian's Dialogues of the Dead. 


discovery, but what must be just as satisfactory a conclusion to 
me, the conviction of an old truth in natural history, on which 
doubt has been recently cast in some quarters. I have en- 
deavoured particularly to depend upon sensible experience, and 
where I could not avail myself of this, on the accounts of active 
and trustworthy witnesses, and after all that I have thus learnt 
about the bodily differences in mankind, and all the com- 
parisons thus made with the bodily differences in other species 
of organized beings, especially in the case of the domestic animals, 
I have found no single difference in the former which may not 
also be observed in many of the latter, and that too as an un- 
mistakeable consequence of degeneration. Consequently I do 
not see the slightest shadow of reason why I, looking at the 
matter from a physiological and scientific point of view, should 
have any doubt whatever that all nations, under all known 
climates, belong to one and exactly the same common species. 

Still, in the same way as we classify races and degenerations 
of horses and poultry, of pinks and tulips, so also, in addition, 
must we class the varieties of mankind which exist within their 
common original stock. Only this, that as all the differences in 
mankind, however surprising they may be at the first glance, 
seem, upon a nearer inspection, to run into one another by 
unnoticed passages and intermediate shades; no other very 
definite boundaries can be drawn between these varieties, 
especially if, as is but fair, respect is had not only to one or the 
other, but also to the peculiarities of a natural system, de- 
pendent upon all bodily indications alike. Meanwhile, so far 
as I have made myself acquainted with the nations of the 
earth, according to my opinion, they may be most naturally 
divided into these five principal races: 

1. The Caucasian 1 race. The Europeans, with the excep- 
tion of the Lapps, and the rest of the true Finns, and the 
western Asiatics this side the Obi, the Caspian Sea, and the 
Ganges along with the people of North Africa. In one word, 

1 [These well-known terms do not occur in the first edition (1790) of this 
treatise : but were first used in the third ed. of Be generis hum. &c. in 1 795- Ed.] 


the inhabitants nearly of the world known to the ancient 
Greeks and Romans. They are more or less white in colour, 
with red cheeks, and, according to the European conception of 
beauty in the countenance and shape of the skull, the most 
handsome of men. 

2. The Mongolian. The remaining Asiatics, except the 
Malays, with the Lapps in Europe, and the Esquimaux in the 
north of America, from Behring's Straits to Labrador and Green- 
land. They are for the most part of a wheaten yellow, with 
scanty, straight, black hair, and have flat faces with laterally 
projecting cheek-bones, and narrowly slit eyelids. 

3. The Ethiopian. The rest of the Africans, more or less 
black, generally with curly hair, jaw-bones projecting forwards, 
puffy lips, and snub noses. 

4. The American. The rest of the Americans; generally 
tan-coloured, or like molten copper, with long straight hair, 
and broad, but not withal flat face, but with strongly distinc- 
tive marks. 

5. The Malay. The South-sea islanders, or the inhabit- 
ants of the fifth part of the world, back again to the East 
Indies, including the Malays, properly so called. They are 
generally of brownish colour (from clear mahogany to the very 
deepest chestnut), with thick black ringleted hair, broad nose, 
and large mouth. 

Each of these five principal races contains besides one or 
more nations which are distinguished by their more or less 
striking structure from the rest of those of the same division. 
Thus the Hindoos might be separated as particular sub-varieties 
from the Caucasian; the Chinese and Japanese from the Mon- 
golian; the Hottentots from the Ethiopian; so also the North 
American Indians from those in the southern half of the new 
world; and the black Papuans in New Holland, &c. from the 
brown Otaheitans and other islanders of the Pacific Ocean. 



Of the Negro in particular. 

" God's image he too," as Fuller says, " although made out 
of ebony." This has been doubted sometimes, and, on the 
contrary, it has been asserted that the negroes are specifically 
different in their bodily structure from other men, and must 
also be placed considerably in the rear, from the condition of 
their obtuse mental capacities. Personal observation, com- 
bined with the accounts of trustworthy and unprejudiced wit- 
nesses, has, however, long since convinced me of the want of 
foundation in both these assertions. But I need not repeat 
everything which I have elsewhere publicly expressed in oppo- 
sition to those views ; though there are one or two points I 
cannot leave quite untouched 1 . I am acquainted with no single 
distinctive bodily character which is at once peculiar to the 
negro, and which cannot be found to exist in many other and 
distant nations; none which is in like way common to the 
negro, and in which they do not again come into contact with 
other nations through imperceptible passages, just as every 
other variety of man runs into the neighbouring populations. 

The colour of the skin they share more or less with the inha- 
bitants of Madagascar, New Guinea, and New Holland. And 
there are imperceptible shades, up from the blackest negroes in 
North Guinea to the Moors : amongst whom many, especially the 
women, according to the assurance of Shaw, have the very whit- 
est skin that it is possible to imagine. The curly woolly 
hair is well known not to be common to all the negroes, for 
Barbot says, even of those in Nigritia itself, that some have 
curly and some have straight hair; and Ulloa says just the 
same of the negroes in Spanish America. Secondly, this so- 

1 A quantity of the most instructive remarks on this point, taken from nature 
itself, is to be found in the praiseworthy Dr Th. Winterbottom's Classical Account 
of the Native Africans in the Neighbourhood of Sierra Leone, where the author 
of this classical work spent four years as physician to the colony. 



called woolly hair is very far from being peculiar to the negroes, 
for it is found in many people of the fifth race, as in the 
Ygolotes in the Philippines, in the inhabitants of Charlotte 
Island and Yan Diemen's Land, and also in many of the third 
variety, who, however, are not reckoned as negroes. Many 
Abyssinians have it, as the famous Abba Gregorius, whose 
handsome likeness, which Heiss engraved in 1691, after Yon 
Sand, I have before me 1 . Sparrmann also says of the Hotten- 
tots, that their hair is more like wool than that of the negroes 
themselves; and this I find confirmed by the pictures* of Hot- 
tentots and Kaffirs, which many years ago were forwarded with 
some transplanted plants from the Cape to Joseph II., and of 
which I have obtained exact copies, through the kindness of 
Counsellor von Jacquin. As to the physiognomy of the negro, 
the difference no doubt is astonishing if you put an ugly negro 
(and there are ugly negroes as well as ugly Europeans) 
exactly opposite the Greek ideal. But this is precisely to 
offend against one of the rules given above. If, on the con- 
trary, one investigates the transitional forms in this case also, 
the striking contrast between the two very different extremes 
vanishes away; and, of course, there must be extremes here 
as well as in the case of other creatures which degenerate into 
all sorts of races and varieties. 

I can, on the contrary, declare that amongst the negroes and 
negresses whoni I have been able to observe attentively, and 
I have seen no small number of them, as in the portrait-like 
drawings and profiles of others, and in the seven skulls of adult 
negroes which are in my collection, and in the others which 
have come under my notice, or of which I have drawings and 
engravings before me, it is with difficulty that two can be found 
who are completely like each other in form ; but all are more 
or less different from one another, and through all sorts of 
gradations run imperceptibly into the appearance of men of 
other kinds up to the most pleasing conformation. Of this sort 

1 " He had curly hair like other Ethiopians," says his friend Ludolph in the 
description which he gives of him. 


was a female Creole, with whom I conversed in Yverdun, at the 
house of the Chevalier Treytorrens, who had brought her from 
St Domingo, and both whose parents were of Congo. Such 
a countenance — even in the nose and the somewhat thick lips — 
was so far from being surprising, that if one could have set aside 
the disagreeable skin, the same features with a white skin must 
have universally pleased, just as Le Maire says in his travels 
through Senegal and Gambia, that there are negresses, who, 
abstraction being made of the colour, are as well formed as our 
European ladies. So also Adanson, that accurate naturalist, 
asserts the same of the Senegambia negresses ; " they have 
beautiful eyes, small mouth and lips, and well-proportioned fea- 
tures : some, too, are found of perfect beauty 1 ; they are full of 
vivacity, and have especially an easy, free and agreeable pre- 
sence." Now this was exactly the case with the negress of 
Yverdun, and with several other negresses and negroes, whose 
closer acquaintance I have since that had the opportunity of 
making, and who have equally convinced me of the truth of 
what so many unsuspected witnesses have assured me about 
the good disposition and faculties of these our black brethren ; 
namely, that in those respects as well as in natural tenderness of 
heart 2 , they can scarcely be considered inferior to any other race 
of mankind taken altogether 3 . I say quite deliberately, taken 
altogether, and natural tenderness of heart, which has- never 
been benumbed or extirpated on board the transport vessels or 
on the West India sugar plantations by the brutality of their 
white executioners. For these last must be nearly as much 
without head as without heart, if after such treatment they still 

1 " Of a perfect beauty." 

2 "The mildness of the Negro character," says Lucas, the famous African 
traveller, in the Proceedings of the African Association. 

3 Listen to one guarantee for all, our own incomparable Niebuhr: "The 
principal characteristic of the negro is, especially when he is reasonably treated, 
honesty towards his masters and benefactors. Mohammedan merchants in Cairo, 
Jeddah, Surat, and other cities, are glad to buy boys of this kind; they have them 
taught writing and arithmetic, carry on their extensive business almost entirely 
through negro slaves, and send them to establish business places in foreign 
countries. I asked one of these merchants, How he could trust a slave with whole 
cargoes of goods? and was told in reply, 'My negro is true to me ; but if I were 
to conduct my business entirely by white men, I should have to take care that 
they did not run off with my property.' " 



expect to find true attachment and love from these poor mis- 
managed slaves. That excellent observer of nature, Aublet, in 
his true and masterly description of the natural goodness of 
the negro's character, rests upon the confessions of the Europeans 
who have been in captivity amongst the Algerines, and have 
openly admitted that in that position they felt just as ill dis- 
posed and just as hostile to their then masters, as a negro in 
like case could possibly feel towards his master in the colonies. 
On the other hand, I have daily for a long time had an honest 
negress before my eyes, of whom I often said in my mind, what 
Wieland's Democritus says of his good, soft-hearted, curly-locked 
black, and what has also been so frequently asserted by other 
unprejudiced observers of uncorrupted blacks, and amongst 
others very recently with true and warm gratitude by the stout 
Mungo Park, that it is not worth while to scrape together here 
the proofs of these facts 1 . 

At the same time it will not be a,t all superfluous to point 
out here some not so well known though remarkable examples 
of the perfectibility of the mental faculties and the talents of 
the negro, which of course will not come unexpectedly upon 
any one who has perused the accounts of the most credible 
travellers about the natural disposition of the negro. Thus the 
classical Barbot, in his great work on Guinea, expresses himself 
as follows : " The blacks have for the most part head and under- 
standing enough : they comprehend easily and correctly, and 
their memory is of a tenacity almost incomprehensible ; for even 
when they can neither read nor write, they still remain in their 
place amidst the greatest bustle of business and traffic, and 
seldom go wrong." — " Since they have been so often deceived by 
Europeans, they now stand carefully on their guard in traffic 
and exchange with them, carefully examine all our wares, piece 

1 Many speaking examples of the real gratitude, and above all of the humane 
character, and also of the excellent capacities of our black brethren, are to be found 
in the following three works, whose meritorious authors were long in the West 
Indies, and are amongst the most capable and unprejudiced observers of the Negro ; 
Oldendorp's Geschichte der Mission der evangelischen Brilder auf. S. Thomas, &c. 
1777; Ramsay's Essay on the Treatment and Conversion of African Slaves, 1784 ; 
Nisbett's Capacity of Negroes for Religious and Moral Improvement, 1789. 


by piece, whether they are of the samples bargained for in 
quality and quantity; whether the cloths and stuffs are lasting, 
whether they were dyed in Haarlem or Leyden, &c."..." in short, 
they try everything with as much prudence and cunning as any 
European man of business whatever can do." Their aptitude 
for learning all sorts of fine handy-work is well known. It is 
estimated that nine-tenths of the ordinary craftsmen in the 
West Indies are negroes 1 . 

With respect to their talents for music, there is no necessity 
for me to call attention to the instances in which negroes have 
earned so much by them in America, that they have been able 
to purchase their freedom for large sums, since there is no want 
of examples in Europe itself of blacks, who have shown them- 
selves true virtuosos. The negro Freidig was well known in 
Vienna as a masterly concertist on the viol and the violin, and 
also as a capital draughtsman, who had educated himself at the 
academy there under Schmutzer. As examples of the capacity 
of the negro for mathematical and physical sciences, I need only 
mention the Russian colonel of artillery, Hannibal, and the 
negro Lislet, of the Isle of France, who on account of his su- 
perior meteorological observations and trigonometrical measure- 
ments, was appointed their correspondent by the Paris Academy 
of Sciences. 

Dr Rush of Philadeiphia is at work upon a history of the 
negro, Fuller, in Maryland, who has lately become so famous 
through his extraordinary capacity for calculation. In order to 
test him on this point, he was asked in company how many 
seconds a man would have lived who was seventy years and so 
many months, &c. old. In a minute and a half Fuller gave 
the number. Others then calculated it, but the result was not 
the same. " Have you not forgotten," said the negro, " to bring 
into account the days of the leap-years?" These were then 

1 On the exceptional still for art, "of the soft and benevolent" negroes in 
Houssa or Soudan in the interior of Africa, see our Hornemarm's Tagebuch seiner 
reise von Cairo bis Murzuk. This book gives us much important information upon 
the condition of the soil and population of this remarkable part of the earth, which 
no European before him had visited. 


aided, and the two calculations coincided exactly. I possess 
some annuals of a Philadelphian calendar, which a negro there, 
Benj. Bannaker, had calculated, who had acquired his astro- 
nomical knowledge without oral instruction, entirely through 
private study of Ferguson's works and our Tob. Mayer's tables 1 , 
&c. Boerhaave, de Haen, and Dr Bush 2 have given the most 
decided proofs of the uncommon insight which negroes have into 
practical medicine. Negroes have also been known to make 
very excellent surgeons. And the beautiful negress of Yverdun, 
whom I mentioned, is known far and wide in French Switzer- 
land as an excellent midwife, of sound skill, and of a delicate 
and well-experienced hand. I omit the Wesleyan Methodist 
preacher, Madox, and also the two negroes who lately - died 
in London, Ignatius Sancho and Gustavus Vasa, of whom the 
former, a great favourite both of Garrick and Sterne, was known 
to me by correspondence 3 ; and the latter, whom I knew per- 
sonally, has made himself a name by his interesting autobio- 
graphy 4 ; and also many other negroes and negresses who have 
distinguished themselves by their talents for poetry. I possess 
English, Dutch, and Latin poems by several of these latter, 
amongst which however above all, those of Phillis Wheatley 
of Boston, who is justly famous for them, deserve mention 
here 5 . 

1 J. M'Henry, of Baltimore, has printed biographical accounts of this man, 
and, as he expresses himself, regards "this negro as a new proof that mental 
faculties bear no relation to the colour of the skin." 

2 This philosophic physician writes of an excellent negro who to my knowledge 
is still living, to Dr Derham in New Orleans: "I have conversed with him upon 
most of the acute and epidemic diseases of the country where he lives, and was 
pleased to find him perfectly acquainted with the modern simple mode of practice 
in those diseases. I expected to have suggested some new medicines to him, but 
he suggested many more to me. He is very modest and engaging in his manners, 
and does business to the amount of 3000 dollars a year." 

3 Letters of the late Ignatius Sancho, an African, third ed. London, 1784, 8vo, 
with the beautifully engraved likeness by Bartolozzi, after Gainsborough's picture. 

4 The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olandah Equians, or Gustavus Vasa, 
written by himself ', third ed. London, 1791, 8vo; in German, Gottingen, 1792, 8vo. 

5 Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, by Phillis Wheatley, Negro 
Servant to Mr John Wheatley of Boston, 1773, 8vo. A collection which scarcely 
any one who has any taste for poetry could read without pleasure. Some particu- 
larly beautiful selections from them are to be found in the famous prize essay of the 
worthy Clarkson, On the Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species. 


There are still two negroes who have got some reputation 
as authors, and whose works I possess, whom I may mention. 
Our Hollmann, when he was still professor at Wittenberg, 
created in 1731 the negro, Ant.Wilh. Amo, Doctor of Philosophy. 
He had shown great merit both in writing and teaching ; and I 
have two treatises by him, of which one especially shows a most 
unexpected and well-digested course of reading in the best 
physiological works of that day 1 . In an account of Amo's life, 
which on that occasion was printed in the name of the University 
Senate, great praise is allotted to his exceptional uprightness, 
his capacity, his industry, and his learning. It says of his 
philosophical lectures : " he studied the opinions both of the 
ancieDts and moderns; he selected the best, and explained his 
selections" clearly and at full length." It was in his fortieth 
year that the negro Jac. Elisa Joh. Capitein studied theology 
at Leyden ; he had been kidnapped when a boy of eight years 
old, and was bought by a slave-dealer at St Andrew's river, and 
got to Holland in this way at third-hand. I have several ser- 
mons 2 and poems by him, which I will leave to their own 
merits ; but more interesting and more famous is his Dissertatio 
jjolitico-theologica de servitute libertati Christianas non contraria, 
which he read publicly on the 10th March, 1742, in Leyden, 
and of which I have a translation in Dutch 3 , of which again 
four editions were struck off, one immediately after the other. 
Upon this he was ordained preacher at Amsterdam in the church 
d'Elmina, whither he soon afterwards departed. Professor Brug- 
mans of Leyden, who procured for me the writings of this 

1 The title of the first is, Diss, inaug. PMlosoplcica de humance mentis dva- 
6ela seu sensionis ac facultatis sentiendi in mente humana absentia, et earum in cor- 
pore nostro organico ac vivo prcesentia, auctore Ant. Guil. Amo, Guinea-Afro. The 
other is entitled, Disp. philosophica continens ideam distinctam eorum qua; competunt 
vel menti vel corpori nostro vivo vel organico. 

2 Uitgewrogte Predikatien ins Gravenhage en t' 'Ouderkerk aan den Amstel gedaan 
door Jac. Elisa Jo. Capitein, Africaansche Moor, beroepen predicant op D Elmina 
aan net Kasteel St George, Amst. 1742, 4to. 

3 StaatJcundig-Godgeleerd Onderzoekschrift over de Slaverny, als niet strydig tegen 
de Chrystelyke Vryheid, Leiden, 1742, 4 to, with the beautifully engraved likeness 
of the author by F. von Bleyswyck. Another portrait of him, after P. van Dyck, 
has been given by me in the first part of the Abbildungen Naturhistorischer Gegen- 
stdnde, Tab. 5. 


ordained negro, sends me word also that according to the cir- 
cumstances there are two stories about his fate there; either 
namely that he was murdered, or that he went back to his own 
savage countrymen, and exchanged their superstitions and mode 
of life for what he had learnt in Europe. In this last case, his 
history forms a pendent to that of the Hottentot who was 
brought up in Europe and civilized, whose similar and thorough 
patriotism has been immortalized by Rousseau 1 . Nor is this 
irresistible attraction to the ancestral penates at all events a bit 
more strange than the fact, that, as is known, Europeans enough, 
who have been made prisoners of war by the North American 
Indians, or even by the Caribs of the West Indies, when these 
still constituted a respectable and warlike nation, and have 
lived a long time with them and become used to them, have 
found such a great delight in this wild state of nature as to lose 
all desire of changing it, and coming back to their own country- 
men ; nor are there wanting instances, especially among the 
French Canadians, who of their own free-will have gone over 
to the savages there, and taken up the same kind of life as 
they 2 . 

Finally, I am of opinion that after all these numerous in- 
stances I have brought together of negroes of capacity, it would 
not be difficult to mention entire well-known provinces of Eu- 
rope, from out of which you would not easily expect to obtain 
off-hand such good authors, poets, philosophers, and correspond- 
ents of the Paris Academy; and on the other hand, there is no 
so-called savage nation known under the sun which has so much 
distinguished itself by such examples of perfectibility and origi- 
nal capacity for scientific culture, and thereby attached itself 
so closely to the most civilized nations of the earth, as the Negro. 

1 See the vignette to his Discours sur Vinegalite parmi les hommes. 

' Lieut. Paterson speaks of a German at the Cape, who had completely come 
over in this way to the Hottentots, and had then already lived twenty years in the 
midst of them, and was entirely naturalized and considered as one of them. 



The Kakerlacken. 

These poor sufferers have come off in the history of man 
not a bit better than the honest negroes. There have been 
sceptics who were as unwilling to recognize the Kakerlacken for 
men of the same species with ourselves as the Moors. The lat- 
ter were too black for them, and the former too white. In 
reality the examination of the Kakerlacken has nothing what- 
ever to attach it to the domain of natural history, for it belongs 
to pathology. Meanwhile, as it has once been dragged into the 
former, and so has given handle to many wonderful mistakes, I 
think I may go so far as to say a few words about them ; and 
they join on all the more easily to the former section, because 
their history was originally confounded with that of the negroes. 

For at the very first of all a sort of men was remarked 
amongst these last, who were distinguished by an unusual 
whiteness or even redness of skin, and by hair of a yellowish 
white and pale red eyes ; and of course these singularities would 
strike people more in negroes than in white men; and for that 
reason the Kakerlacken were first of all known by the name of 
Leuccethiopians. But just about the end of the last century 
they were found amongst the Americans also, and very shortly 
afterwards, besides these, amongst the East Indian populations. 
Still later Cook saw some on Otaheite and the Friendly Islands ; 
and now at last it is clear- that they are also to be found in 
Europe itself, and that too in greater numbers than we can alto- 
gether desire. Since I laid before the Royal Society of Sciences 
my observations on those two well-known Savoyards, whom I had 
the opportunity of examining in 1783, on an excursion which I 
made in company with the younger De Luc, from Geneva to 
Faucigny, and who afterwards went for some years to London, 
where they were described by the directors of the circus, I have 
received accounts of a round dozen of other Kakerlacken who 
have been found up and down in Germany alone, and have from 
most of them specimens of their own quite peculiar hair. It 


seems to have been the case with the Kakerlacken as with many 
other wonders of nature, that they have been for a long time 
overlooked in many countries, because they were considered too 
great rarities to be expected. In one word, the Kakerlacken 
occur in all the five races of mankind. 

Besides, this singularity is not peculiar to mankind alone, 
but shows itself also just as much in other warm-blooded 
animals, as in mammals and in birds. Amongst the former, we 
have notoriously the white rabbits and the white mice, and 
amongst the latter the white canary birds. On the other hand, 
in spite of all the researches I have made in that direction, I 
have not been able to find any single example of Kakerlacken 
among the animals with red cold blood, either amongst the am- 
phibia or fish. That above all I consider the Kakerlacken as 
diseased, and consequently white canaries, &c. the same, will be 
strange to no one who is acquainted with their constitution. 
Their chief symptom consists in the singular colour of their 
eyes, the iris of which is a pale pink colour, and the pupils of the 
colour of a dark carnation, or very much like blackberry juice, 
whereas in a sound eye these last, whatever the colour of the 
iris may be, whether blue or brown, must always be entirely 
black. The reason of that redness lies in a total want of that 
part which is indispensable to clear sight, namely, the dark brown 
mucus which is spread over a great part of the inner apple of 
the eye, in order to absorb the superfluous rays of light. Conse- 
quently, the Kakerlacken through this deficiency are generally 
more or less shy of light. But this deficiency of the black pig- 
ment seems always to be only a symptom of an universal 
cachexia, which in human Kakerlacken finds its particular ex- 
pression through the peculiar aspect of the skin and the yellow- 
ish-white colour of the hair ; at least so far as I know, no one has 
ever observed that disease of the eyes without this quality of 
skin and hair. 

The disorder is invariably congenital, and frequently heredi- 
tary in families. It seems to be incurable ; at least I know of 
no case in which the symptoms related have ever been got rid of 
by any single Kakerlack. On the causes of this remarkable 


disease I do not know how at this moment to say anything satis- 
factory; for as to the remark that an otherwise quick-seeing 
traveller, Foucher d'Obsonville, has made, that Leuccethiopians 
are begotten when the parents are taking mercury or cinna- 
bar at the time, it is impossible to imagine it correct in many of 
the cases of the nations mentioned, and in many of the animals 
among whom Kakerlacken are found, even if the whole idea 
were not to the last extent extremely improbable. So also the 
old assertion, that no Leuccethiopian of either sex was capable 
of procreation, is completely untrue. De Brue has already 
found an instance in which a Leucoethiopian became pregnant 
by a negro, and a perfect young negro was born, and the well- 
known negro Yasa, in his above-mentioned interesting work, 
has given a remarkable account of a Leucoethiopian female, who 
was lately married in England to an European, and has borne 
him three genuine Mulattos with light hair. 

APPENDIX I. To p. 284 n. 

On the gradation in nature. 

Two scientific societies, the one at Rouen and the other at 
Haarlem, have lately given out as the subject for a prize, Whe- 
ther the asserted gradation in nature has any real foundation or 
not? I am acquainted with only one essay in answer to this 
question which was sent in to the last-mentioned learned society, 
whose renowned author, our worthy Professor De Luc, has 
handled the whole subject only from a metaphysical a priori 
point of view, and even in this way comes to the conclusion that 
there is neither continuity nor imperceptible gradation in the 
creation, and that the harmony of the creation is rather sup- 
ported by marked differences, having sharply defined boundaries 
between them. On the other hand, I long ago 1 pointed out 
considerations against the reality of the structural conceptions 
of the gradation of creatures according to their mere exterior 

1 Handbiiclt, dcr Naiurgcscli. p. 6, 7th eel. 


form, and against the very well-meant, but at the bottom very 
presumptuous tendency towards this idea, which is found in 
many physico-theologians; and these are entirely empirical, 
taken from natural history itself, and from the visible constraint 
which, in all the various essays on such gradations, is done to 
nature. Who does not feel how constrained he is when Bradley 
carries up his scale from the simplest fossils through the vegeta- 
ble and animal kingdom up to man, but has to put off what he 
cannot readily make fit into this scale into a second, by which he 
descends on the other side again from that elevation? or, when in 
order to stand fast by particular passages and connecting links, 
Vallisneri brings forward the analogy of grasshoppers with birds, 
Oehme the analogy of birds with house-flies and other Dipterce, 
and when Bonnet chooses the shield-lice as creatures of the 
transition from other insects to the tape-worm, &c. We should 
find it much easier to excuse the older describers of nature, 
when, deceived by the great resemblance of the exterior, they lo- 
cated the armadilloes of the genus Manis with the lizards, or the 
sertularia, and above all the corals, with the cryptogamic plants; 
since with certainly quite as much reason, in consequence of an 
extremely superficial view of an outward structure very nearly 
resembling them, many even phanogeramic species of plants out 
of the genera Saxifraga, Andromedce, Aretice, &c. in spite of all 
their remaining heterogeneity, have had a place found for them 
on the ladder close to the large-leaved moss. 

When that extraordinary wonder-animal of the fifth part of 
the world, the Ornithorhynchus paradoxus, was discovered, many 
partisans of gradation looked upon it as a fresh support of that 
theory, whereas, it seems to me much rather to be a new evi- 
dence against its reality. It seems to me so very isolated a 
creature of its sort, that it can be no more brought into the 
natural arrangement of the animal kingdom without visible con- 
straint, than the tortoises, cuttle-fish, &c, or than many genera 
of plants, as the Vitis, Gissus, &c. in that of the vegetable king- 
dom. Besides this, in the scale of Bonnet, and simple ones of 
that kind, the transition department from the birds to the quad- 
rupeds has been long since filled up by the bat ; and yet it would 


be difficult to imagine two forms of mammals, which differ more 
surprisingly from each other, and which must therefore in any 
gradation stand further apart from each other, than those of the 
bat and the ornithorhynchus. 

It must be understood that all that has been said here, as well 
as what was suggested above (p. 283), by the expressions quoted 
from an otherwise meritorious writer on the use of petrifactions, 
is only to be regarded as a warning against the misuse of the 
common conception of gradation, according to the outward form 
of creatures under the favourite images of ladders and links: 
since, on the other hand, the very greatest use may be made of 
this very metaphorical image not only towards the exercise of 
observation, but also with the greatest advantage towards the 
regular use of a natural system in the description of nature, and 
also for the most advantageous arrangement of natural collec- 
tions. Only instead of the partisans of this gradation acknow- 
ledging its value in dividing the productions of nature into 
kingdoms, classes, &c, and as a means of methodizing study and 
an assistance to the memory, but allowing that it has no real 
existence in nature itself; exactly the opposite seems to have come 
of those structural conceptions, whose unmistakeable value for 
the science of method cannot be denied, but which are so very 
far from having any real ground in nature itself, that it has often 
happened to well-meaning physico-theologians that " they have 
attributed it to the Creator in the plan of His creation, and 
have made its completeness and connexion to be sought for in 
the fact that nature, as the expression goes, makes no leap, 
because creatures with respect to their outward habit can be 
arranged so closely in gradation one with another." 

APPENDIX II. To p. 285. 
On the Succession of the different Earth-catastrophes. 

If petrifactions can be made of regular use for the archae- 
ology and the physical geography of the earth, as the surest 


documents in the archives of nature for the fruitful history of 
the catastrophes which have been connected with our planet 
since its creation, the study of them, and its tendency, demands 
as well a thorough critical comparison of them with the organized 
bodies of the present creation, as also an accurate investigation 
of their different localities, and their geognostical relations. 
The first important and instructive result which is immediately 
derived from this two-fold consideration is, that the lapidifica- 
tions are of extremely unequal antiquity; many, as the still fresh 
Salmo arcticus of the west coast of Greenland, which is, so to 
speak, merely mummified in the thin clayish-marl beds, is only 
of yesterday or the day before, in comparison with the thoroughly 
strange and puzzling impressions of unknown plants which are 
found in the grau-wacke strata of the Harz on the borders of 
the Gangberg in the depths of the earth, and which belong to 
the very oldest evidences of an organized creation on our planet. 
A wider examination of these differently made fossils, and of 
their equally various sort of condition, brings us to a closer 
conclusion as to the oldest history of the body of this earth, and 
upon the sort and consequences of the numerous catastrophes 
it has gone through, and through which its crust has acquired 
its present appearance, which has been built out of such great 
convulsions. It is therefore my opinion, that the petrifactions 
may be arranged off-hand, according to their different antiquity, 
most easily in three principal divisions. First, those whose 
complete similarity with still existing representatives, as well 
as the positions they are found in, prove that they must be com- 
paratively the most recent; secondly, those far older, which 
have not indeed similar but still more or less allied analogues to 
them in the present creation, although in climates very distant 
from those which contain such fossil remains; finally, in the 
third place, the very oldest of all, consisting for the most part of 
creatures completely unknown, the records of a perfectly strange 
creation which has been completely destroyed. These three 
divisions may to a certain extent be compared to the three 
epochs in the oldest profane writings of an historical, heroic, and 
mythical period. 


The first of these divisions comprises, therefore, the rela- 
tively most modern lapidifications, those namely which seem to 
have been occasioned by partial local revolutions since the last 
general catastrophe which our planet suffered; and conse- 
quently, nothing but those whose representatives are still in 
existence, and which are closely allied to the fossil remains in 
the same country. Amongst them I reckon the uncommonly 
clear casts and remains from all six classes of the animal king- 
dom, and the numerous kinds of plants which are to be found 
in, and have made famous, the stinking slate-quarries at Oen- 
ingen on the Bodensee. When I travelled in that country I 
made a collection of them, and I have seen still more in other 
collections; but amongst all, which I have myself been able 
to examine accurately, I have unfortunately found nothing ex- 
otic, nothing which might not be referred either unmistakeably, 
or at all events with the greatest probability, to the fauna and 
flora of that present country and its waters. 

To the second of these principal divisions belong fossils of 
quite another sort and far higher origin ; namely, the now innu- 
merable elephants, rhinoceroses, and other now tropical crea- 
tures found in this country, which most probably must have 
been once naturalized here, as is particularly demonstrated by 
the enormously large dens of huge species of bears in the 
famous summits of the Harz, the Fichtelberg, in the Thuringian 
forest and on the Carpathians. Everything goes to show that 
those bears came alive into those caves, and found their graves 
there. But there are also found in these caves with them 
bones and teeth of beasts of prey, like the lions and hysenas 
of the present earth, of which I have specimens, from most of 
the dens mentioned, in my collection. Consequently, according 
to all probability that species of bears was also a tropical one, 
just as bears still live in many of the tropical zones of the 
old world; and as those bears and lions are found in positions 
where it would be difficult for them to have been floated in by 
any current after death, so this seems very unlikely to have 
happened either to the elephants or rhinoceroses. Especially 
when it is considered that quite little flocks of many of these 


have been found together, as the five individual hippopotami 
on the hither Harz, whose fossil remains have been determined 
and described with a master's hand by our meritorious Holl- 
mann; and that of others, as of the two elephants from Tonna, 
mentioned above, the complete skeletons have been dug out, &c. 
And finally, all this derives a new importance from another 
geological phenomenon, which according to my conviction be- 
longs to a similar division, and must be joined in close connec- 
tion with it; I mean the remains of tropical animals in certain 
limestones. Thus in the calcareous strata of Pappenheim there 
have been found amongst so many other tropical creatures a kind 
of Molluscan 1 water-flea, and the still articulated arm bones of a 
species of bat, very much like the flying-dog, and all these so well 
preserved, even up to the most delicate Indian star-fishes, so 
clear and in such perfection, that no notion can remain of any 
transport of them through a general flood from the southern 
hemisphere here. On the contrary, it is quite clear that those 
elephants, rhinoceroses, and hysena-like animals must once have 
been just as these water-fleas, star-fishes, &c, domesticated in 
our latitudes, until through some cause which we cannot now 
determine with any certainty, a total alteration of the climate 
took place, which occasioned the destruction of the then living 
generation of those tropical creatures, as of many other genera 
and species of organized bodies which existed along with them, 
of which in the present creation no exactly similar, to say 
nothing of specifically like, representatives are to be found : as 
the unknown of Ohio among great land-animals, and amongst 
the marine-animals in the Pappenheim slate-quarries, so many 
altogether strange species of crabs, the singular hard-armed 
medusa head, and many others. 

This revolution, which seems to have been merely climatic, 
must be distinguished from those earlier and much more forci- 
ble ones, from which we must date the petrifactions of the third 

1 [The Pterodactylus, a reptile; and since the time of Blumenbaeh, the Archceo- 
jteryx macrurvs, a longtaiied bird. Ed.] 


division, the oldest of all. In those the firm crust of the earth 
itself suffered such powerful shocks, that the floors of the pre- 
vious seas of the primeval world began to cover high* mountains 
with their still uninjured shells; and on the other hand, the pre- 
vious vegetation of the land was buried deep under the present 
surface of the sea. It is at once observed that these destructive 
catastrophes themselves were again of more than one sort, and 
were very far from happening all at the same time ; although it 
is scarcely possible at present to determine with any certainty 
the chronological arrangement of the successive periods in which 
they happened, to say nothing of the causes of them. 

APPENDIX III. To p. 292. 

On the so-called Objects of Design. 

Few scientific theories have been supported and opposed 
with such incredible prejudices on the one side and on the other, 
as those about the objects of design of the Creator. With many 
indeed, who contested this point, it was merely a question of 
words, whether one ought to speak of design or utility. Others 
considered the whole question of final causes as entirely useless ; 
and Bacon's bon-mot is well known, who compared it to a 
prudent virgin, who weds heaven, and consequently produces 
nothing for the world. The great thinker would however have 
come to a different conclusion if he had been reminded out of 
the literature of physiology and natural history, what complete- 
ness in these important sciences and what useful results to man- 
kind the search into the final purposes of nature has produced. 
But certainly the teleologists have laid themselves wonderfully 
open by anxiously catching at those things, and have also used 
great force to them, because they have thought themselves 
obliged to demonstrate clearly the aim and object of every dis- 
position of nature, especially in the organic creation. Thus the 
otherwise praiseworthy anatomist Spigel declares that the reason 
why in man that part on which he sits has been so visibly more 



developed than in any other animal is, that people may have a 
more convenient position in which to apply themselves to higher 
thoughts 1 . ^So the physico-theologians thought they had found 
a perforated disk in a bee-like insect on the front feet of the 
males, and were not behindhand in demonstrating the use and 
object of this structure. Wise nature had done this, they said, 
in order that the pollen of the flower might percolate through 
the creature, and in that way the fructification of plants be 
provided for; and from that hour it was immediately called the 
sieve-bee {Spheoc cribrarta). It is very creditable to a clergy- 
man, Goze of Quedlinburg, who has in every way won great 
renown in natural history, that he has refuted this mistake out 
of nature herself, and has shown that the disks on the feet of 
these insects are not penetrated; and consequently this wise 
object which was with good intentions attributed to the 
Creator will not stand. 

Others, sometimes, on the contrary, have doubted the reality 
of any arrangement in nature for the very reason that they can- 
not find in it any design of the Creator. When I pointed out to 
my never-to-be-forgotten friend Camper, that, in nature, contrary 
to every common opinion, the tadpoles of the pipa of Surinam were 
regularly tailed, he was disposed at first to consider 2 the instance 
I showed him as an unnatural monstrosity, because he could not 
understand of what use this fin-tail could be to these little crea- 
tures who sit nestled on the back of their mothers. Others, 
again, have swept the whole road quite clean, and completely 
denied all design in the creation. Not many years ago a distin- 
guished member of the then Academy of Sciences of Paris 

1 "Man alone of all animals sits comfortably, because he has larger fleshy 
buttocks, and these were given him as a support and a cushion, so that when his 
stomach was full, he could sit without inconvenience, and apply his mind more 
readily to reflection upon divine matters." — "There was however a respectable 
English clergyman of another opinion, who amongst other suggestions as to the 
delicate and particular propriety of conduct which should be observed in church, 
used to urge very zealously that the psalms should be sung standing, because it 
was impossible they could come right from the heart in a sitting posture:" see 
Remarks on the Public Service of the Church, with some Directions for our Behaviour 
there, highly proper to be understood by People of all Ranks and Ages, Lond. 1768, 

2 Comment. Soc. Reg. Scicnt. Gotting., T. ix. p. 119. 


declared that it was as ridiculous to suppose that the eye was 
made to see with- 1 , as to assert that stones were appointed for the 
purpose of breaking a man's head. This however, please God, 
will scarcely be satisfactory to any one who has ever had the 
opportunity of comparing the interior structure of any animal 
which is remarkable for striking singularities in its mode of life 
and functions, and can in this way persuade himself from nature 
itself most incontrovertibly of this pre-established harmony, as it 
may easily be called, between the purposed structure of crea- 
tures and their mode of life. It would be difficult for anyone 
who is well acquainted with the natural history of the mole or 
the seal, and will consider with some little reflection the skele- 
ton and muscular system of the former, and the peculiarities of 
the circulation and the organs of sense of the latter, to allow 
himself seriously to utter such an expression as the one men- 
tioned above. The hundredfold proofs which may be deduced 
from comparative anatomy deprive the weak superficialities of 
some ancient sophists, who supposed that the animal structure 
was not ordained for its functions, but that the occupations of 
animals were only the mere consequence of their organization, 
of the last shadow of speciousness. Thus the production of so 
many mere temporary organs which only exist in the animal 
economy for transitory and extremely limited purposes, and 
which all the same are as good as those which are most durable 
in all the rest of the structure of those animals in which they 
are found, are wonderfully adapted to their mode of life. Thus, 
to produce only one instance of the kind, in the hedgehog, which 
rolls itself up in defence with such great muscular power, even 
the unborn foetuses are completely furnished with one of these 
powerful springs, most accurately arranged, but which is after- 
wards in its way an after-birth 2 quite anomalously deformed, 
thick, and solid, under which the tender immature creature rests 

1 Thus said Lucretius long ago : 

"Lumina ne facias oculorum clara creata 
Prospicere ut possimus," &c. 

2 I have given representations of thi3 highly remarkable part in my Handhuch 
der vcrgleichenden Anatomie, Tab. 8. 

21 2 


as under a shield, in order to be as completely as possible pro- 
tected, on any powerful constriction of the pregnant mother, 
against the dangerous consequences of that strong grasp from 
which its abdomen and entrails might thereby suffer. 











On the Homo Sapiens Ferus Linn . : and particularly of Wild 
Peter of Hameln. 

How Wild Peter was found and brought prisoner to Hameln ; 
what happened to "Wild Peter in Hameln ; Peter arrives in England, 
and now becomes famous; Peter's origin; Peter's life and conduct 
in England; mistaken accounts by the biographers of Peter ; genuine 
sources for Peter's history ; Peter compared with other so-called wild 
children ; neither Peter, nor any other Homo sapiens ferus of Linnseus, 
can serve as a specimen of the original man of nature : no originally 
wild condition of nature is to be attributed to Man, who is born 
a domestic animal. 


On Egyptian Mummies. 
[Inedited, see Pref] 





How Wild Peter was found and brought prisoner to Hameln. 

On Friday, July 27th, 1724, at the time of hay-harvest, Jurgen 
Meyer, a townsman of Hameln, met, by a stile in his field, 
not far from Helpensen, with a naked, brownish, black-haired 
creature, who was running up and down, and was about the size 
of a boy of twelve years old. It uttered no human sound, but 
was happily enticed, by its astonished discoverer showing it two 
apples in his hand, into the town, and entrapped within the 
Bridge-gate. There it was at first received by a mob of street 
boys, but was very soon afterwards placed for safe custody in 
the Hospital of the Holy Ghost, by order of the Burgomaster 


What happened to Wild Peter in Hameln. 

Peter — that was the name given him on his first ap- 
pearance in Hameln by the street-boys, and he retained it up 
to quite old age — Peter showed himself rather brutish in the 
first weeks of his captivity; seeking to get out at doors and 


windows, resting now and then upon his knees and elbows, and 
rolling himself from side to side on his straw bed until he fell 
asleep. He did not like bread at first, but he eagerly peeled 
green sticks, and chewed the peel for the juice, as he also did 
vegetables, grass, and bean-shells. By degrees he grew tamer 
and cleaner, so he was allowed to go about the town and pay 
visits. When anything was offered him to eat, he first smelt 
it, and then either put it in his mouth, or laid it aside with a 
shake of the head. In the same way he would smell people's 
hands, and then strike his breast if pleased, or if otherwise 
shake his head. When he particularly liked anything, as 
green beans, peas, turnips, mulberries, fruit, and particularly 
onions and hazel-nuts, he indicated his satisfaction by striking 
repeatedly on his chest. Just when he was found by Jiirgen 
Meyer he had caught some birds, and eagerly dismembered 

When his first shoes were put on him he was unable to 
walk in them, but appeared glad when he could go about again 
bare-footed. He was just as little pleased with any covering 
on his head, and extremely enjoyed throwing his hat or cap into 
the water and seeing it swim. He first of all became used 
to go with clothes on, after they had tried him with a linen 
kilt. In other respects he appeared of quite a sanguine tem- 
perament, and liked hearing music; and his hearing and smell 
were particularly acute. Whenever he wanted to get any- 
thing he kissed his hands, or even the ground. 

After some time Peter was put out to board with a cloth - 
maker. He adhered to this man with true attachment, and 
was accompanied by him when he went from thence, in 
Oct. 1725, to Zell, into the hospital there, situated by the House 
of Correction ; but about Advent in the same year King 
George I. sent for him to Hanover. 



Peter arrives in England, and now becomes famous. 

In Feb. 1726, Peter, under the safeguard of a royal servant, 
by name Rautenberg, was brought from Hanover to London ; 
and with his arrival there began his since so widely-spread 
celebrity. This was the very time when the controversy about 
the existence of innate ideas was being carried on with the 
greatest vivacity and warmth on both sides. Peter seemed the 
much-wished-for subject for determining the question. A genial 
fellow, Count Zinzendorf, who afterwards became so famous 
as the restorer and Ordinary of the Evangelical Brotherhood, as 
early as the beginning of 1726, made an application in London, 
to the Countess of Schaumburg-Lippe, for her interest, that 
Peter might be entrusted, to his charge, in order that he might 
watch the developement of his innate ideas; but he received 
for answer that the king had made a present of him to the 
then Princess of Wales, afterwards Queen Caroline, well known 
as one of the most enlightened princesses of any age; and that 
she had confided him in trust to Dr Arbuthnot, the intimate 
friend of Pope and Swift, and the famous collaborator of Gul- 
liver's Travels, still for the purpose of investigating the innate 
ideas of Wild Peter. 

Swift himself has immortalized him, in his humorous pro- 
duction, It cannot rain, but it pours 1 . Linnseus gave him a 
niche in the Systema Naturae, under the title of Juvenis Han- 
noveranus: and Buffon, de Pauw, and J. J. Rousseau, have 
extolled him as a specimen of the true natural man. Still 
more recently he has found an enthusiastic biographer in the 
famous Monboddo, who declares his appearance to be more 
remarkable than the discovery of Uranus, or than if astrono- 
mers, to the catalogue of stars already known, had added thirty 
thousand new ones 2 . 

1 [Or, London strewed with Rarities, Ed.] 

2 "I consider his history as a brief chronicle or abstract of the history of the 
progress of human nature, from the mere animal to the first stage of civilized life." 
Ancient Metaphysics, Vol. m. p. 57, 



Peter s Origin. 

It is a pity, after all the importance which the great people 
attached to Wild Peter, that two little circumstances in the 
history of his discovery should be left out of sight, or neglected ; 
which I will here repeat, as far as possible, from the earliest 
original documents, which I have before me. First, when Peter 
was, as I said, met with by the townsman of Hameln, the small 
fragment of a torn shirt was still fastened with string about 
his neck. Secondly, the singularly superior whiteness of his 
thighs compared to his legs, at his first entry into the town, 
occasioned and confirmed the remark of a townswoman, that 
the child must have worn breeches, but no stockings. Thirdly, 
upon closer examination, the tongue was found unusually thick, 
and little capable of motion, so that an army surgeon at Ha- 
meln thought of attempting an operation to set it free, but 
did not perform it. Fourthly, some boatmen related, that as 
they were descending in their boat from Poll, in the summer, 
they had seen at different times a poor naked child on the 
banks of the Weser, and had given him a piece of bread. 
Fifthly, it was soon ascertained, that Kriiger, a widower of 
Luchtringen, between Holzminden and Hoxter, in Paderborn, 
had had a dumb child which had run away into the woods, in 
1723, and had been found again in the following year, quite in 
a different place; but meanwhile his father had married a 
second time, and so he was shortly afterwards thrust out again 
by his new step-mother. 


Peter's Life and Conduct in London. 

Dr Arbuthnot soon found out that no instructive discoveries 
in psychology or anthropology were to be expected from this 
imbecile boy; and so, after two months, at the request of the 


philosophic physician, a sufficient pension was settled upon him, 
and he was placed first with a chamber- woman of the Queen, 
and then with a farmer in Hertfordshire, where at last he 
ended his vegetatory existence as a kind of very old child, 
in Feb. 1785. 

Peter was of middle size, but when grown up of fresh 
robust appearance, and strong muscular developement ; his 
physiognomy was by no means so stupid; he had a respectable 
beard, and soon accustomed himself to a mixed diet of flesh, 
&c, but retained all his life his early love for onions. As 
he grew older he became more moderate in his eating, since in 
the first year of his captivity he took enough for two men. 
He relished a glass of brandy, he liked the fire, but he showed 
all his life the most perfect indifference for money, and what 
proves, above all, the more than brutish and invincible stupidity 
of Peter, just as complete an indifference for the other sex. 

Whenever bad weather came on, he was always ill-tempered 
and sad. He was never able to speak properly. Peter, hi 
scho, and qui ca (by the two last words meaning to express 
the names of his two benefactors, King George and Queen Caro- 
line), were the plainest of the few articulate sounds he was 
ever known to produce. He seemed to have a taste for music, 
and would hum over with satisfaction tunes of all kinds which 
he had often heard : and when an instrument was played, he 
would hop about with great delight until he was quite tired. 
No one, however, ever saw him laugh — that cheerful prero- 
gative of mankind. In other respects he conducted himself as 
a good-natured, harmless, and obedient creature, so that he 
could be employed in all sorts of little domestic offices in the 
kitchen, or in the field. But they could not leave him alone to 
his own devices in these matters ; for once when he was left 
alone by a cart of dung, which he had just been helping to 
load, he immediately on the same spot began diligently to un- 
load it again. 

He probably lost himself several times in the neighbour- 
hood during the first ten years of his residence in England ; 
but at all events one day, in 1746, he unwittingly strayed a 


long way, and at last got as far as Norfolk, where he was 
brought before a justice of the peace as the suspicious Unknown 
— this was at the time when there was a look-out for the 
supposed emissaries of the Pretender. As he did not speak, he 
was committed for the moment to the great prison-house in 
Norwich for safe custody. A great fire broke out there on 
that very night, so that the prison was opened as soon 
as possible, and the detained were let out. When after 
the first fright the prisoners were counted up, the most im- 
portant of them all was missing, the dumb Unknown. A 
warder rushed through the flames of the wide prison, and found 
Peter sitting quietly at the back in his corner ; he was enjoy- 
ing the illumination and the agreeable warmth, and it was not 
without difficulty that he could be dragged forth : and soon 
afterwards, from the advertisements for lost things, he was re- 
cognized as the innocent Peter, and forwarded to his farmer 
again. Briefly, as an end to the tale, this pretended ideal of 
pure human nature, to which later sophists have elevated the 
wild Peter, was altogether nothing more than a dumb imbecile 


Mistaken accounts by the biographers of Peter. 

Meanwhile the history of this idiot is always remarkable, as 
a striking example of the uncertainty of human testimony and 
historical credibility. For it is surprising how divergent and 
partly contradictory are even the first contemporary accounts of 
the circumstances of his appearance in Hameln. No two 
stories agree in the year, season, or place where and when he 
was found by the townsman of Hameln, and brought into the city. 
The later printed stories are utterly wrong ; how he was found 
by King George I. when hunting at Herrenhausen, or, accord- 
ing to others, on the Harz ; how it was necessary to cut down 
the tree, on the top of which he had taken refuge, in order to 
get at him ; how his body was covered with hair, and that he 
ran upon all-fours ; how he jumped about trees like a squirrel; 


how he was very clever in getting the baits out of wolves' 
traps ; how he was carried over to England in an iron cage ; 
how he learnt to speak in nine months at the Queen's court ; 
how he was baptized by Dr Arbuthnot, and soon after died, &c. 


Genuine sources for Peters history. 

I have critically examined everything that there is in print 1 
about Wild Peter, and collected besides other accounts of the 
history of his discovery. The chief of these is a particular 
manuscript account by Severin, the Burgomaster of Hameln 
already mentioned, which he despatched in Feb. 1726 to the 
minister at Hanover, and for which I am indebted to the 
kindness of the most worthy master of the head school in 
Hameln, Avenarius. There are, besides, numerous national 
chronicles, and the unprinted collections of the chamberlain 
Redeker in the town-house of Hanover. With respect to his 
later mode of life in England, besides what I found out there 
myself, many of my friends there, such as the ambassadors of 
Hanover, Dr Dornford and M. Craufurd, have communicated to 
me accurate accounts, which they themselves got together in 
Hertfordshire itself, and which I have made use of. 

As to the likenesses of Peter which are in existence, I possess 
two masterly engravings, which, I am assured, bear a close 
resemblance to him. The one is a great sheet, in a dark style, 

1 Lcipziger Zeitungen von gel. Sachen, 1725, No. 104, 1726, Nos. 17, 6r, 88. 

Breslauer Sammlungen, Vol. xxxiv. Dec. 1725, p. 659, Vol. xxxvi. Ap. 1726, 
p. 506. 

Zuverlassige nachricht von dem bei Hameln gefundenen wildern knaben. Wobei 
dessen seltsame figur in Kupfer gestochen befindlich, 1726, 4to. 

Spangenberg's Leben des Gr. Zinzendorff, n. B. p. 380. 

Swift's Works, Vol. ill. P. I, p. 132, ed. 1755, 4to. 

Ein brief des Hamelschen Burgemeisters Palm, v. 1741, in C. F. Fein's Entlare- 
ter Fabel vom Ausgange der Hamelschen Kinder, Hanov. 1749, 4to, p. 36. 

Gentleman's Mag. Vol. xxr. 1751, p. 522, Vol. lv. 17S5, P. 1. pp. 113, 236, 
P. ir. p. 851. 

Monboddo, Ancient Metaphysics, Vol. ill. Lond. 1784, 4to, pp. 57, 367. 

[Comp. Peter the Wild Boy. An enquiry how the Wild Youth lately taken 
in the woods near Hanover, &c. &c. nmo. Lond. — A copy in the Brit. Mns. Ed.] 


by Val. Green, from the picture by P. Falconet; it represents 
him as sitting, a full-length figure, in about his fiftieth year, 
and was painted at London in 1767, when he was presented to 
the king. The other is by Bartolozzi, after the three-quarter 
figure painted by J. Alefounder three years before Peter's death, 
quite a well-looking old man, whom any one who knew no 
better, might suppose to be more cunning than he looked. 


Peter compared with other so-called wild children. 

I It seems, perhaps, well worth the pains once for all to exa- 
mine and settle critically the accounts of poor Peter, who has 
been considered of so much importance by so many of our 
greatest naturalists, sophists, &c. ; principally, because this is the 
first story which can be set forth according to the real facts : 
for all the other instances of so-called wild children, almost 
without exception, are mixed up with so many beyond mea- 
sure extraordinary and astonishing untruths or contradictions, 
that their credibility has become in consequence highly pro- 
blematical altogether. 

Taking those instances only, which Linnseus has set out in 
his rubric on the Homo sapiens Ferus, and with which he has 
introduced his Sy sterna Naturae; his Juvenis ovinus Hibernus, who 
when sixteen years old was carried about as a show in Holland, 
where he was described by the elder Tulp 1 , even entirely accord- 
ing to that account was an imbecile, dumb, and also outwardly 
deformed creature, but which could hardly have grown up from 
the cradle among wild sheep in Ireland, because they exist no 
more there than anywhere else. That he eat grass and hay 
at Amsterdam in the presence of astonished beholders, is, I 
think, just as credible, as that the pretended South-sea Islander 
from Tanna, who some years ago was carried round at harvests 

1 Obs. Med. lib. iv. c. x. p. 296, fifth ed. L.B. 1716. 

WILD MEN. 337 

time and fairs, used to munch stones. Besides the extraordi- 
nary description, which that otherwise so worthy Burgomaster 
of Amsterdam gives us of this boy, and also the fact, that so far 
as I know, no contemporary or even more recent author upon 
the natural history of Ireland, alludes to him even by a single 
word, makes me extremely suspicious on the matter ; and at all 
events, I do not think it worth the attention which has been 
bestowed upon it by our own Schlozer and Herder. 

As to the Juvenis bovinus Bambergensis of Linnaeus, so far 
as I know, we have no other testimony, except wdiat we are told 
by the worthy Ph. Camerarius, who says 1 , that this Bamberg 
savage, who at that time had entered into the condition of holy 
matrimony, informed him that he had been brought up on the 
neighbouring hills by the cows. 

More precise, but still more suspicious, is the account of the 
eight years old Juvenis lupinus Uessensis of 13M (not 1554, as 
Linnaeus 2 and all his copyists give out), who celebrated the good 
reception which he had met with from the wolves when they 
had carried him off about five years before. They had made him 
a soft nest of leaves, laid all round him, and kept him warm, 
brought him a share of their spoil 3 , &a 

Much also must, at all events, be subtracted from the 
Juvenis ursinus Lithuanus ; as, for instance, what we are 
assured by the authority, the imaginative Connor, in his Medi- 
cina Mystica sen de Miracidis*, that it is nothing uncommon 
in Poland for a bear giving suck, if it happens to find a child, 
to take it to its lair, and bring it up from its own breast. 
Many instances indeed are given by the elder Joh. Dan. Geyer, 
in his monograph On the Lithuanian Bear-men; one Polack 
bear-man in particular of about eight or nine years old, whom 

1 Oper. horar. subsecivar. Cent. i. p. 343, ed. 1602. 

2 [In the tenth ed. Linnaeus wrote, 1 344 : the 5 in the twelfth ed. is probably 
therefore a misprint. Blumenbach seems to me always inclined to bear hard upon 
Linnaeus. Ed.] . 

3 Additiones ad Lambert. Schafnaburg. Appositce ab ErpJiesfordensi monacho 
anon, in Pistorii scripi. rer. a Germ, gestar. Frf. 1613. fol. p. 264. 

4 p. 133, ed. 1699. Comp. the History of Poland, Lond. 1698, 8vo. Vol. I. 
p. 342: where a little Polack is represented in a respectable copperplate, as he 
sucked the old bear-mother between two young bears. 


338 WILD MEN. 

King John III. met with, and had baptized ; and who was 
made fife-player to the militia, notwithstanding that he pre- 
ferred going on four feet instead of two 1 . 

It is said of the Puella Transisilana 2 that she was about 
eighteen years old, when, in the winter of 1717, she was caught 
in a net on a search-hunt organized for that purpose by one 
thousand Krauenburg peasants. She was quite naked except 
for a scanty straw apron, her skin had become hard and black, 
but in a little time after her capture it fell off, and upon that 
a beautiful fresh skin came to light, &c. (I have kept quite 
close to the account of the witnesses.) 

In other respects this wild girl was very friendly, and of 
good cheerful temper, an.d was stolen from her parents when 
a little child in May, 1700, 

The Puella Campanica, as she was called by Linnseus, or 
Mad Ue * le Blanc, according to her French biographers 3 , who 
considered her as an Esquimaux girl sent to France, was first 
of all observed in the water, where two girls about the size 
of children of ten years old, and armed with clubs, swam about 
and ducked in and out like water-hens. They soon quarrelled 
about a chaplet of roses, which they found ; one of them was 
struck on the head by the other, but she immediately bound 
up the wound with a plaster made out of a frog's skin tied 
with a strip of bark. Since then, however, she was seen no 
more, but Mad 116, le Blanc, the victress, covered only with rags 
and skins, and with a gourd-bottle instead of a bonnet on her 
head, was entrapped into a neighbouring &c. 

Johannes Leodicensis was, according to the account of the 
credulous Digby 4 a peasant youth of Liege, who ran away for 

1 [ " A man of credit assured me, that there was found in Denmark, a young- 
man of about fourteen or fifteen years old,, who lived in the woods with the bears, 
and who could not be distinguished from them but by his shape. They took him, 
and learned him to speak; he said then, he could remember nothing - but only since 
the time they took him from amongst the bears." Life of Vanini, Anon. 17 14. Ed.] 

2 Bresl. Samml. sxn. s. 437. 

3 Hist. cVune jeune fille so/wage, Par. 1755, 8vo. 

4 In Tivo Treatises, in the one of which the nature of Bodies in the other the 
nature of Mans sou'.e is looked into. Paris, 1644, fol. p. 247. 

WILD MEN. 339 

fear when the soldiers plundered his village into the forest of 
Ardennes, and lodged there for many years, and lived upon 
roots, wild pears, and acorns. 

There still remain, what are called by Linnaeus, Pueri 
Pyrenaici of 1719, on whose traces however I have not yet 
been able to come again 1 . Meanwhile, what I have here set 
down about the others will, I hope, tend to give the proper 
value to those wonderful and various stories about these pre- 
tended men of nature in a philosophic natural history of 


Neither Peter nor any other Homo sapiens ferus of Linnanis can 
serve as a Specimen of the original Man of Nature. 

If we make a fair deduction from the really too tasteless 
fictions in those stories, and let the rest pass muster ever so 
indulgently, still it will be at once seen, that these were alto- 
gether unnatural deformed creatures, and yet, what also goes 
very much to show how abnormal they were, no two of them 
were at all like each other, according to any critical com- 
parison of the accounts we have of them. Taken altogether, 
they were very unmanlike, but each in his own way, according 
to the standard of his own individual wants, imperfections, and 
unnatural properties. Only in this were they like each other, 
that contrary to the instinct of nature, they lived alone, sepa- 
rated from the society of men, wandering about here and 
there; a condition, whose opposition to what is natural has 
been already compared by Voltaire to that of a lost solitary 
bee 2 . 

1 [But see Antient Metaphysics, Vol. IV. pp. 37, 38, and the Spanish work, 
Semanario Ervdito, of 1788, there referred to. Ed.] 

2 " If one meets with a wandering bee, ought one to conclude that the bee is in 
a state of pure nature, and that those who work in company in the hive have 
degenerated?" Comp. also Filangieri, Scienza della leyislazione, T. I. p. 64, 
second ed. 




Above all no originally Wild Condition of Nature is to be 
attributed to Man, who is bom a domestic animal. 

Man is a domestic animal 1 . But in order that other 
animals might be made domestic about him, individuals of 
their species were first of all torn from their wild condition, 
and made to live under cover, and become tame ; whereas he 
on the contrary was born and appointed by nature the most 
completely domesticated animal. Other domestic animals were 
first brought to that state of perfection through him. He is 
the only one who brought himself to perfection. 

But whilst so many other domestic animals, as cats, 
goats, &c. when they by accident return to the wilderness, 
very soon degenerate into the natural condition of the wild 
species ; so on the other hand, as I have said, all those so- 
called wild children in their other behaviour, and nature, &c, 
strikingly differed one from another, for the very reason that 
they had no originally wild species to degenerate into, for 
such a race of mankind, which is the most perfect of all 
sorts of domestic animals that have been created, no where 
exists, nor is there any position, any mode of life, or even 
climate which would be suitable for it. 

1 Comp. Part I. s. VIII. 



177 STUCK. 
DEN 4 NOVEMBEE, 1833, 







The lecture delivered by the Chief Physician-Royal, Blumen- 
bach, in the sitting of the Royal Society, of the 3rd August, 
consisted of a Spicilegium observationum de generis humani va- 
rietate nativa, a subject, that since his inaugural dissertation 
which appeared under this title nearly sixty years ago, the author 
has always taken pleasure in working at. It was only some- 
thing on the national characteristics of the three chief races 
among the five, into which he had thought it most according 
to nature to divide mankind. Therefore, first of the Caucasian 
stem, or middle race ; and of its two extremes, which are 
secondly, the Ethiopian, and thirdly, the Mongolian. 

Of the first race we have but one skull, but that of the very 
greatest interest. An old Hippocratic macrocephalus from the 
Black Sea, exactly answering to the description given by the 
father of medicine in his golden treatise On air, water, and soil. 
Blumenbach owed this present for his rich collection of national 
skulls to the kindness of the excellent and much travelled 
physician of Augsburg, Dr Stephan, who, at the very time when 
the Russian Government had the ancient funeral mounds of the 
kings of the Bosphorus opened, which exist on the water-shed 
of the steppe hills in the vicinity of Kertch (the Panticapseum 
of the ancients) happened to be there, and obtained the skull in 

1 Gotting. gelchrte Anzcig. 177 st. B. 11. s. 1761. 


question. This exactly resembles in shape the others which 
were found there with it. On account of the great age of the 
burial place it was very rotten and fragile. This was also the 
case with the other skulls, which were laid by him previously 
before the Royal Society, of old Greeks, Germans, Cimbrians, 
Tschudis, &c. which have been described in their Transactions. 
The striking characteristic of the Tauric Macrocephalus, of 
which we are now speaking, displays itself in a high, but not 
much vaulted forehead : the parietal bones on the other hand 
being exceedingly high, quite macrocephalic. The sagittal 
suture, as well as the other two principal sutures of the occiput 
were quite obliterated. 

Secondly, of the Ethiopian race, which indeed at the first 
glance contrasts so forcibly with the others that one can easily 
understand the exclamation of the naturalist Pliny: "Who 
would have believed in an Ethiopian before he had seen him?" 
Almost exactly at the same time as that ancient long-headed 
skull Blumenbach received from his old friend and pupil, Kauf- 
mann, the court physician of Hanover, something of just as 
great importance to him for his collection, although of quite 
another kind. It was the fresh clean head of a negro boy from 
Congo, who had died unfortunately in his fifteenth year, and 
who might be considered as the most perfect ideal of this race 
of man. This gave the author of the lecture an opportunity 
of passing a critical review upon many of the to a great extent 
groundless assertions on the bodily peculiarities of the negro, 
which he refuted by the exhibition of preparations. Amongst 
these were some embryos, and this gave him an opportunity 
of saying something also on the third principal race, 

The Mongolian : not, indeed, upon the character of their skulls, 
of which Blumenbach, through the kindness of the never-to-be- 
forgotten Baron von Asch, possesses a most instructive series; 
but only to contrast with those unborn negroes the foetus of a 
female Calmuck three months old, already possessed of the ex- 
pressive national physiognomy, displaying, namely, that striking 
oblique direction of the bifurcation of the eyelids towards the 
root of the nose. Bl. 





OCTOBER 6. NO. 14. 1856. 








When after the death of the respected Blumenbach (Jan. 22, 
1840) the undersigned received his summons to this University, 
and entered upon his present post in the autumn of 1840, the 
collection of the venerable naturalist had previously by the care of 
the Curatorium been purchased from the heirs, and the greater 
part of it had already been incorporated in the Academical 
Institute. T he most valuable _pa rt of it was undeniab ly—the 
cojlection of skulls, which Blumenbach, supported by pupils 
of his scattered over all parts of the world, and other numerous 
donors, had been collecting zealously for his whole life, and 
which it is well known had served him as the principal founda- 
tion for his investigations on the natural history of mankind. 
Together with the Craniological Collection there was ranked a 
more extensive body of materials for completing the knowledge 
of the different accompanying conditions of form and structure 
in respect of Ethnology, and for illustrating the Lectures on the 
General Natural History of Mankind. 

Already, in 1795, Blumenbach had given a sketch of this, as 
well of the Craniological Collection, which he incorporated with 
the third edition of his famous treatise De generis humani varie- 
tate nativa, under the title Index suppellectilis anthropological 

348 MUSEUM. 

auctoris, qua in adornanda nova hacce editione maxime usus est. 
He divided the apparatus into five parts. The first division 
comprised the eighty-two race-skulls then existing in his Col- 
lection, separately detailed, and of which he had already 
represented thirty in the three first Decades of his Decades 
craniorum. Blumenbach here remarked that his craniological 
collection was unique of its kind, and that the richest museums 
of that sort then in Europe, namely, the anatomical collections 
of John Hunter and Peter Camper could not be compared with 
it. The other divisions of the so-called anthropological collection 
consisted of anatomical preparations, specimens of the skin and 
hair of different nations, and some embryos; then, very good 
drawings, especially some by the hand, paintings, also engrav- 
ings, and besides excellent portraits of distinguished individuals 
of different nations of our planet, executed in water-colours, oil, 
and crayons. 

All this material was handed over by the heirs to the Uni- 
versity, and likewise most of the original manuscripts of Blu- 
menbach's works on general natural history, and upon the races 
of man : they were first of all deposited in the rooms of the 
academical museum allotted to me, until the erection of the 
physiological institute in which the whole collection was ar- 
ranged in the year 1842; where it remains in its entirety under 
the name of the Blumenbachian Anthropological Museum, 
in lasting remembrance of that highly deserving man. At 
present it fills two rooms. In the first room are the skulls, ar- 
ranged in cabinets on the walls ; outside which in like manner 
stand a collection of plaster casts; and in the middle are some 
mummies: whilst the other room contains the remaining objects, 
especially the portraits. From what Blumenbach himself left 
we have 245 whole skulls and fragments, and an Egyptian and 
Guanche mummy. 

So far as my means and the great difficulty of making acqui- 
sitions in an inland country, have permitted, I have endeavoured to 
make the Collection still more complete. But up to the present 
time I have been only moderately successful. By purchase we 
have obtained some interesting mummies and skulls from Peru, 

MUSEUM. 349 

which Dr von Tschudi had collected; and I have lately received 
as a legacy from Professor de Fremery in Utrecht some skulls 
and the skeleton of a negro. H. M. King Louis of Bavaria, 
liberal as he had already shown himself in donations to Blu- 
mcnbach, sent us some years ago seven in part very well pre- 
served skulls from an old cemetery at Nordendorf on the Lech 
(probably of the second and third century), which were found 
on the occasion of making the railroad. His Highness the Graf 
von Gortz Schlitz, who as a pupil of our high school had always 
kept up a friendly recollection of it, sent us five old Peruvian 
skulls, which he had dug up himself on the spot, and in the 
place, on his voyage round the world. Professor Carl Schmidt 
of Dorpat, likewise a pupil of the Georgia Augusta, presented us 
with two Lett skulls ; Professor Bidder, of Dorpat, added to them 
an Esthonian skull. To my brother, Dr Moritz Wagner, we 
owe two skulls from the Crimea and a Greek skull. In this 
way, and by some recently prepared skulls, some of them mur- 
derers for example, the number of skulls and fragments of skulls 
has reached 310. 

The want of skeletons has always been very great ; the few 
left behind by Blumenbach were very defective and useless. 
Now the Collection possesses several Europeans of different ages, 
and a well-prepared negro skeleton. 

Besides the Egyptian and Guanche mummies we have three 
Peruvian mummies. Some mummified heads, for example one 
of a New Zealander, some negro heads in spirits of wine, &c. 

As for the Craniological Collection, it can no longer pass 
for the richest existing. That of Morton, which is now in 
Philadelphia, is already much richer. Still it has much that 
is interesting, as will be seen from the following summary, 
in which, for the most part, I follow the old arrangement of 



A. Peoples of the Old World. 

I. Caucasian Races (Indo- Atlantic peoples). 

2 Indian. 

1 Icelander. 

1 Persian. 

1 Norwegian. 

3 Georgian. 

8 Hollander. 

1 Lesghi. 

1 Wend. 

1 Armenian. 

1 Bohemian. 

4 Gipsy. 

3 Hungarian. 

5 Greek. 

1 Pole. 

6 Turk 

4 Lithuanian. 

7 Italian. 

1 Esthonian. 

1 Old Etruscan. 

2 Slavonian. 

5 Old Roman. 

2 Galician. 

6 French. 

22 Russian. 

1 Lotharingian. 

5 Cossack. 

1 Burgundian. 

3 Finns. 

1 Spaniard. 

4 Lapps. 

3 English. 

2 Old Tschudi. 

1 Irish. 

1 Bulgarian. 

5 Scot. 

4 Jew. 

1 Hebridean. 

4 Egyptian mummy skulls. 

1 Dane. 

The remainder German. 

II. Mongolian Races (Asiatic nations). 

10 Tartar. 

7 Calmuck. 
2 Baschkir. 
1 Samoiede. - 
1 Kamtschatdale. 
1 Tschuvasch. 

1 Korak. 

2 Tungus. 
1 Yakute. 

1 Burat. 

2 Burman. 
9 Chinese. 

MUSEUM. 351 

III. Woolly-haired African Nations (Ethiopian race). 

16 Negro skulls. 1 Hottentot. 

1 Mulatto. 1 Bushman. 

1 Kafir. 

B. Peoples of the New Woeld. 

IV. Americans. 

3 Esquimaux. 1 Mexican. 

4 Greenlanders. 3 Schitgaganen. 
1 Kornager from Kadjak. 2 Algonquin. 

1 Illinois. 1 Iroquois. 

4 From Missouri. 1 Modern Peruvian. 

2 From Columbia River (ar- 8 Chincha- Peruvian (some 

tificially flattened). artif. deformed). 

2 Carib (one artificially flat- 1 Ature. 

tened)., 1 Botocudo. 

1 Huanca (Peru, artif. de- 6 Brazilian. 

formed). 1 From Guiana. 

V. Malays and South-Sea Islanders. 

6 Javanese. 1 From Otaheite. 

3 From Bali. 2 Nukuhiva. 

2 From Celebes. 2 From New Holland. 

1 Mestizo from Celebes. 1 Papuan. 

2 From Madeira. 

The remaining skulls have reference to congenital depar- 
tures from the ordinary form, or pathological alterations, as 
microcephaly, hydrocephalus, &c. 

In the original collection the plastic representation of the 
outward forms of races was limited to one bust of a negro and 
one of a Botocudo, both moreover of indifferent workmanship. 

352 MUSEUM. 

Much credit is due to Professor von Launitz of Frankfort for 
his exertions in promoting this abo^e all important, but very 
much neglected means of forwarding the knowledge of the 
natural history of mankind by the aid of plaster-casts. He 
has executed a new though even now unfortunately small 
series of race-busts with great fidelity to nature and artistic 
handling, from individuals who came in his way at Frankfort. 

I have obtained some beautiful casts for our collection of 
busts executed by Herr von Launitz. They are as follows : 

Benjamin Gattegna, Constantinopolitan Jew. 

Grossman, Jew. 

Muhamed, Bedouin. 

Hassan, Nubian. 

Abdallah, Negro. 

Zeno Orego, bearded negro from Guadaloupe. 

Native North-American. 


Cast from the head of a Chinese. 

A Gipsy Girl. 

Model of the face of an Hungarian, by Fr. Kusthardt, 
done by a young sculptor of Gottingen. 

A Phrenological Collection, based upon genuine busts after 
the life, is now for the first time in process of being made. 
The above-named young artist, Fr. Kusthardt, has already 
got some materials together for it. There is no department 
so much in want of critically selected materials as this, which 
has been so seldom treated scientifically. 

Another kind of collection, which is now equally for the 
first time projected, would be that of the form of the fore- 
heads in different individuals. A number of foreheads with 
the form preserved as much as possible is ready collected, 
and it seems that a careful comparison of the foreheads of 
different individuals might really lead to very interesting 
results, on which perhaps I may say more at another oppor- 
tunity. Unfortunately no one in Europe appears as yet to 
have thought of making a collection of race-foreheads of any 

MUSEUM, 353 

size, though this must be an important business for the 

I have also endeavoured to promote the collection of repre- 
sentations of different nations and tried to complete it, and 
consequently have had the necessity of instruction or education 
especially before my eyes. 

With the interest, which very lately the natural history 
of Ethnography has excited, in consequence of the noto- 
rious disputes about the origin of mankind, I became par- 
ticularly alive to the necessity of anthropological collections 
of that sort. Much lies scattered in private collections in 
Holland and England, and a fresh youthful vigour which would 
give itself up with zeal and a spirit of investigation to this 
task, and study the museums in Europe and North America 
with this object, might bring interesting results to light. I 
had in earlier years proposed to myself the task at some time 
or other of editing an anatomy of the races and nations of 
man, and looked upon my natural history of mankind, pub- 
lished twenty-six years ago, as a juvenile prelude. But the 
difficulties, first of getting together sufficient materials and 
then of inspecting with that object all the public and private 
collections in Europe were so great, that I have long since been 
obliged to give up this plan, especially since my health has 
for some years past begun to fail me. The preservation and 
enlarging of the Blumenbachian Museum, and the utilization 
of the same partly for the purposes of instruction and partly 
for foreign inquirers, I have considered incumbent on me as 
a positive duty. In general, however, the furtherance of anato- 
mical, physiological and zoological investigation in the last 
ten years has been turned so much in other directions, that the 
Collection has been used less than I could have wished both by 
native and foreign students, and in fact has only been honoured 
with an ordinary inspection. I have, however, pleasure in men- 
tioning these gentlemen : Henle, Huschke, Van der Hoeven, 
Retzius, Tourtual, Yon Tschudi, and Andr. Wagner, who, some- 
times in my company, and sometimes alone, have gone through 


354 MUSEUM. 

our Collection, and in part have made public use of it for their 
own inquiries. 

The notice given of it now is perhaps sufficient to attract 
anew the attention of foreign inquirers to our little museum. 
It seems scarcely necessary to remark that our material is much 
too scanty for any extended questions upon the individuality 
and affinity of the nations of our planet. We must have not 
single, but hundreds of skulls of one and the same nation, to 
settle certain questions. Bhimenbach, with the eye of genius, 
though from very slender materials, early drew the ground 
lines, and accurately recognized the typical differences. We 
have only got beyond Blumenbach's investigations and results 
in some particulars, and on the whole not much and not essen- 
tially. The longer we busy ourselves about the subject, the 
more again and again we shall have to come back to the 
ground-plan and the divisions of Blumenbach. Still here I 
must mention above all as to the present time the works of 
the famous Retzius 1 in Stockholm, who has himself got toge- 
ther a great apparatus, and must be considered at present 
as by far the greatest proficient in scientific ethnology. 

With . respect to our Collection I may remark, that its 
greatest wealth and value consists in the skulls of Asiatic 
(Mongolian) nations, which — perhaps with the exception of 
that of St Petersburgh — are still probably very uncommon 
in all collections. Nearly all these skulls came from a grateful 
pupil of Blumenbach, whom he often mentions, the imperial 
physician, Dr von Asch, in St Petersburgh. Notwithstanding 
my narrow means and small opportunity for acquisition, I have 
especially laboured to enlarge the series of particular nations. 
From this point of view the Negro, the Peruvian, and the 
Chinese skulls present a particular interest. With a special 
view to that object, viz. the bringing together large numbers 
of skulls of one and the same people, I am anxious for assistance 

1 [The anthropological works of Eetzius (now deceased), have been collected, 
and are in process of translation for the Society by A. Higgins, Esq. Ed.] 

MUSEUM. 355 

from foreign inquirers as well as from naturalists, and grateful 
should I be in this respect for such support as has lately been 
given me by Herr Professor Schroder van der Kolk, of Utrecht. 
Especially, however, should I be thankful for the acquisition 
of information about well-formed foreheads of known individuals 
amongst the nations of Europe, or the foreign races of man. 



Sept. 1 6, 1856. 















" The spacious West, 
And all the teeming regions of the South, 
Hold not a quarry, to the curious flight 
Of knowledge, half so tempting or so fair 
As man to man." 








It is not necessary for me when going to write about the 
varieties of man, and the causes of them, to try and prove the 
importance of the subject. Much has been written by many 
about animated beings, nature, and the gods ; and there are 
and have been those, who have attempted to gauge the strength 
and faculties of the human mind. But nothing has yet been 
written clearly by any writer upon the matters which regard the 

1 Many persons, amongst others, J. A. Meigs of Philadelphia, have been under 
the idea (see Nott and Gliddon, Indigenous Races of Man, p. 216), deceived by the 
similarity of name, that this treatise is the production of the celebrated surgeon 
John Hunter. A consideration of the date 1775, would have been quite enough to 
prove the contrary, nor does the Hunter appear at any time to have taken the 
degree of M.D. Not much is known about the author. He was a physician to 
the army, and wrote some papers on the health of the service, which are to be 
found in the medical journals. The principal interest attaching to this treatise 
arises from the fact that it appeared in the very same year, and a month or two 
before the more famous work of Blumenbach on the same subject. It is very 
inferior in its mode of treating the subject to the effort of the German naturalist ; 
nor does the author seem to have prosecuted his researches further in this direction. 
Still anthropology has progressed so very little, that some parts of it are quite on a 
level with the science of the present day, and it may still be read with interest. 
The original has become very rare, though four copies are to be found in the British 
Museum; but it has been thought that a translation would be acceptable to many 
who might not care to wade through .the Latin of a modern physician. 


external appearance of man, his countenance, his colour, the 
dimensions of his body, and other similar topics. Yet it cannot 
be denied for a moment that many diversities and anomalies 
do exist among men. Do not those who spring from the same 
race, and are born of the same parents, differ from each other 
in temperament, health, strength, stature, colour, form, and 
above all, in disposition and power of mind? And a greater 
difference is found between those who live in different climates, 
and inhabit widely- separated regions of the earth, very diverse 
from each other. Others differ also by being of a white or 
black colour, of a handsome or ugly body, by softness of dis- 
position or the reverse, and by polished or rude manners. Such 
important discrepancies, so well known to all, supply a mass of 
materials quite sufficient for philosophers, and those who inves.- 
tigate nature, to employ themselves upon. Many 1 who have 
considered these questions, and endeavoured to ascertain their 
causes, have thought them too great to be ascribed to natural 
causes, but that they should be referred to the will of the 
Governor of all things, the supreme Law of nature, as if He had 
in the beginning marked out men by so many diverse distinc- 
tions. Now if we take up this mode of philosophizing, and 
attribute everything for which we can give no reason to the 
Divine interference, we shut the door and stop up all the sources 
from which all those things spring which adorn life, promote 
the arts, and finally increase the force and the faculties of the 
human mind. And therefore it is worth while first of all to 
inquire what amount of proof there may be for the opinion of 
those who impute all diversities to the Deity, and therefore 
imagine man to consist of different species. 

Those who believe in the diversity of species contend that 
the diversities are such that they cannot be explained in any 
other way, whether by climate or other external causes. What, 
they ask, is the cause of the copper colour and the beardless 
chin of the Americans? or of the black teats of the Samoide 

1 Sketches of the History of Man, Vol. I. Sk. L 


women ? of the black colour and thick lips of the Africans ? of 
the swelling pudenda of the female inhabitants of the Cape of 
Good Hope? What man has ever explained these and similar 
things? So they affirm these things cannot be explained, but 
must be attributed to God 1 . 

How much this superstition, which refers everything that 
seems to us inexplicable, to the Divine hand and the will of 
God, stands in the way of science, has been said above. 

Besides these diversities which it is true we cannot explain, 
there occur others equally inexplicable, where the notion of 
a diversity of species cannot be entertained. Who has ever 
explained the high cheek-bones of the Scotch? No one ; but is 
that a reason for considering them a different species? Nor 
has any explanation ever yet been given for the blue eyes of 
the Goths 2 . And are they then of a different species? By this 
mode of reasoning, it would follow that there are different 
species in the same family. 

In order to prove diversity of species, writers have had 
recourse even to the mental faculties 3 . This one is brave ; that 
man timid. How then can they be of the same species ? This 
man receives strangers with pleasure ; that one keeps them 
off as much as ever he can. Are they therefore of the same 

If this were so, and discrepancies of this kind were accepted 
for signs and certain proofs of diversities of species, would not 
different species be produced in almost every single family? 
Could it not be said of the same man at different times that he 
in like "way was of a different species from himself? 

Those who defend this opinion of the diversity of species, 
not content with these arguments, seek out others from the 
Final Cause. For inasmuch as the regions inhabited by man 
are excessively different in climate, soil, heat, and innumerable 
other points, therefore they believe that different species of 

1 Sketches of the History of Man, Vol. i. p. 12. 
2 Linn. Fauna Suecica, p. 1. 3 Sk. of the Hist, of Man, Vol. 1. p. 15. 


men were necessarily accommodated to different regions 1 , 
But who can say that it is not more agreeable to perfect wis- 
dom to have given to different animals that kind of nature, 
by which they could easily accommodate themselves to what- 
ever might happen, than to have created a fresh species adapted 
to each change of external circumstances? 

This question has with justice been most fiercely agitated, 
for it is by no means one of mere curiosity. For if it be 
allowed that men are of different species, then they must be 
so considered in medical, natural, civil, and theological dis- 
quisitions, and lastly, in all works which treat of man ; and 
whatever might be said of one species, might possibly be most 
erroneously predicated of another. 

For if it were so, it would be incredible that the Wisdom 
which framed the universe should have created different species, 
distinguished only by colour, or thick lips, or a depressed nose, 
and not of a different nature, and intended for some particular 
end. So, whatever learned men have written about one species, 
which has been applied to another, falls to the ground ; and 
the sources of reasoning, from which it has often been thought 
that truth is derived, that is the comparisons made between 
various nations, are altogether sealed up. But what are we 
to think of those, who, although they consider men to vary 
in species, nevertheless persist in discoursing of man, as if he 
were always in all regions and in every place the same ? 

There*is another error which must be noticed here. Whilst 
authors dispute in this way with each other about species, they 
do not explain what sense they attach to that word. The defi- 
nition given by Ray, and adopted by Buffo n, they reject as 
refuted, but they give no other in its place. And yet, without 
in any way denning species, they go on to pronounce the 
species of men to be different. But this is surely quite un- 
justifiable, unless the meaning of the word species is first of all 

As this is the case, in order that others may not make the 

i Sketches of the History of Man, Vol. I. p. 10. 


same objection to us, pray accept our definition of the word 
species, and our idea of the way in which these notions are con- 
ceived in the mind. 

As all our ideas of everything arise from nature, and its 
contemplation, so from the same source, and not from the 
dogmas of the schools, or the disquisitions of logic, is the mean- 
ing of the word species to be deduced. Whoever looks round 
the earth, will find it full of animals, everywhere offering them- 
selves to his eyes, and will find amongst some of them an 
almost perfect resemblance, and a very strong affinity, but 
amongst more, the greatest possible difference. He who ex- 
amines this diversity or congruity, will quickly come to distri- 
bute animals into various classes, according to their various 
likenesses or unlikenesses. And since nature, as they say, 
makes no leaps, it frequently happens, that animals are at the 
same time so like and so unlike each other, that it is sometimes 
doubtful to which class any particular one should be referred. 

What is to be the rule, or criterion for deciding this ? If 
any two animals, whose likeness to each other is not quite per- 
fect enough to compel one to assign them to the same species, 
produce an offspring which is either at once like, or afterwards 
becomes like either parent ; then however they may differ from 
each other in many points, yet they must be considered to be 
of the same species. And with these preliminary observations, 
this is the way in which I think species should be defined. 

A class of animals, of which the members procreate with 
each other, and the offspring of which also procreate other 
animals, which are either like their class, or afterwards be- 
come so. 

This definition of species may be conveniently illustrated by 
taking an instance from man, about whom our business now is. 
Take, of all who bear the name of man, a man and a woman 
most widely different from each other; let the one be a most beau- 
tiful Circassian woman and the other an African born in Guinea, 
as black and ugly as possible. Take, moreover, as you certainly 
may, the males and females sprung from this pair, and join 
the children of the latter in marriage with their maternal race, 


and the children of the former with the paternal, and then, 
if after several generations the offspring of the female becomes 
in all things to resemble the mother, and the offspring of the 
male the father, we may come to the definite conclusion that 
the parents were of the same species. That this is a fact, is 
proved every day by the unions of the black and the white. 
And if any one denies the truth of this definition, what order, 
what certainty does he leave in the animal kingdom ? One 
species may change into another. The ox may become a horse, 
the ape a man. And if reason and common sense did not 
revolt from such absurd and monstrous positions, some would 
eagerly declare that such things might take place. Let a man 
look round the world, and contemplate nature. What does he 
find ? Does the varied appearance of things supply any proofs 
by which such a notion can be confirmed ? Have not the 
classes of animals always remained distinct up to this time ? 
and why should they not remain so for ever? A lawless and 
blind wish has often desired the existence of such mutations, 
and even of new genera, if it were possible. And many have tried 
very hard to bring about something of the kind, but no one has 
yet succeeded in making a new species, or turning one into 
another. From all which we may conclude that each and 
every species of animals has been circumscribed within fixed 
boundaries from the beginning by Divine Wisdom ; and no 
desire, like those which are contrary to the laws of nature, is 
strong enough to cause nature's divisions, that is, her animals 
to be commingled, or disordered. And in truth, about most 
animals there is no doubt, because they are distinguished at 
the first glance, by external appearance, and manifest tokens ; 
and the sole contention is about man, and a few other species, 
principally of the domestic animals. As to these there are two 
reasons, why writers have had doubts about them. First, be- 
cause every variety and aberration from the general order takes 
place before our eyes, and is most easily observed. The 
second and more powerful reason is, because animals, placed 
under our care, entirely contrary to their instincts, and sub- 
jected to duties and modes of life which do not at all suit 

dogs. 365 

them, for this reason especially, and all the more, the more 
care we take of them, become altered 1 . 

The varieties of dogs seem almost infinite ; for they pass 
their lives with men, suffer like them, and share their sports 
and their hearths. If any one should say that the varieties 
of dogs indicate a diversity of species, would it not be the 
same thing as to affirm that the dog can carry different species 
at the same time in its womb ? For it is common enough 
for a bitch to bring forth in the same litter varieties of 
whelps, which varieties such persons would call species. And to 
those who think what they call the different and permanent 
orders of dogs are of great weight in proving them to be of 
different species, we may answer that no such orders are per- 
manent and constant without the careful interference of man. 
Who does not know how difficult it is to produce the Cants 
Gallicus (Grains Linn.) or the Cams Odorus (Sagaoc Linn 1 ) ? 

For these reasons, my opinion is that men must be held to 
be of the same species. And as in the vegetable kingdom, the 
same species sometimes comprehends many varieties, which all 
depend upon the climate, the soil, and cultivation, so to use the 
language of botanists, the diversities of men are to be con- 
sidered as varieties of the same species, and, in the same way, 
to be deduced from natural causes. 

No one can be ignorant how much influence events have in 
affecting and changing men. On these depend almost all dis- 
orders, and the numerous changes in the human body. To ex- 
plain properly their effects and the varieties of the human spe- 
cies, and to show clearly how they take place, not only is an 
intimate knowledge of human nature required, as far as regards 
its motions and mutations, and its increase and decrease, but 
also a deep knowledge is necessary of all things which can affect 
man, so far as regards their qualities, and mode of action. For 
to give an explanation of how two bodies act upon each other, 
the nature of each must be understood. Who possesses this 
science? Who has explained the nature of the human body? 

1 Buffon, Vol. XII. p. 192; Paris, 1770, iamo. 


366 coloue. 

Who has investigated the powers of nature? No one. Many 
things are obscure, which can only be brought to light by great 
labour, and the united powers of many men in a long space of 
time. Thus it will easily be understood how difficult is the task 
I have imposed upon myself. I approach it, however, not from 
any love of writing, but from a sort of necessity. And so far 
from being sorry, I shall be glad, if, as I may hope, these my 
endeavours will call away able men, especially at this time, 
when natural history is so flourishing, from shells and butter- 
flies, to studies worthy of man. 

In order that I may conduct my work on some plan, I have 
thought it best to divide it into four parts ; in the first of which 
I shall treat of the colour of men ; in the second, of stature and 
form ; in the third, of the excess or defect of parts, or other dif- 
ferences; and in the fourth, of the mental faculties. These 
chapters will comprise almost everything which all the curious 
investigators of this planet have seen and told. 

Chapter I. 

Of Colour. 

The varieties of colour are wonderful. Thus in men we meet 
with white, black, brown, copper-colour; lastly, all shades be- 
tween white and black, some having one, and others another. 
And in order to show this more clearly, I have subjoined a table 
of the colours of man, as they differ according to race, which I 
put forward, not as an absolutely correct history of colours, but 
only as an example and specimen of varieties. 

Table of Colours. 

Black. Africans under the direct rays of the Sun. 

Inhabitants of New Guinea, and of New 







Light brown. 

The Moors of Northern Africa. 
The Hottentots, dwelling towards the south 
of the Continent. 

The East-Indians 1 . 

Americans 2 . 




Africans dwelling on the Mediterranean Sea. 

Chinese 3 . 

Southern Europeans. 




Turks and others. 

Samoeides and Laplanders. 

Almost all the remaining Europeans, as 





Poles and others. 

Kabardinski 4 . 


Mingrelians 5 . 

What is the cause of such different colours? To this the 
answer is difficult. Yet many philosophers have attempted to 
discover it. Those who borrow their philosophy from Scripture, 


1 These although they vary in colour, as being a little darker or lighter, all more 
or less approach a copper colour. 

2 This colour scarcely differs from copper. Those who inhabit the Northern part 
of America are so much whiter, that they nearly lose the red colour altogether. 

3 The Chinese are of all colours between brown and white; in the south, brown; 
towards the north, white. 

4 Buffon, Tom. v. p. 20. 

5 Perhaps we ought to put here the inhabitants of some of the islands in the 
great Pacific Ocean, 


and explain by it all the works of nature, consider Cain as the 
father of the blacks, and deduce all the middle grades of colour 
from the various mixtures of white and black with each other 1 . 
And yet about this point some stand out very stoutly for Ham 2 , 
while even Ishmael 3 has his supporters. Some take refuge in 
other causes, as the heat of the sun, thick vapours 4 , and the 
vicinity of scorching sands. It is not my intention either to 
support or refute these opinions, but rather to deduce my con- 
clusion from matters of fact. 

The seat of colour is without controversy in the skin, though 
it is not diffused throughout that organ, but only occupies 6 
that part which is called the cuticle, which is made up of the 
epidermis and the reticulum ; and of these two, resides princi- 
pally in the latter. In the blacks the cuticle is thicker and 
harder than in the whites to this extent, that in the latter the 
reticulum is a sort of thin mucus, and in the latter a thick 
membrane 6 . The transparent epidermis of the whites has the 
appearance of a very thin slice of horn : their reticulum is not 
very different from coagulated mucus, and the epidermis seems 
to consist of the same, hardened. And some teach 7 that this is 
its real form and material. But although anatomists are by no 
means agreed on this point, and it is not for me to settle the 
matter, I am obliged, from the nature of my subject, to say a 
few words about it. 

In the whites, the parts under the skin, or rather the cuti- 
cle, which change colour, cause the colour of the body to be 
changed, on account of the transparency of the cuticle. In 
jaundice the skin becomes yellow, because the blood is tinged 
with bile ; and the rush of more blood than usual into the ves- 
sels of the face causes blushing. And a kind of typhus, nearly 
peculiar to the West Indies, is called the yellow fever, because 
from the congestion of yellow serum in the vessels of the skin 

1 Essai sur la Populat. de VAme'rique, Tom. rv. liv. 7. c. 19. 

2 Id. cap. 13. 3 Spectacle de la Nature. 
4 La Bibliotheque impartiale, Tom. v. Mars et Avril, p. 227. 

6 Albinus, de Colore JEthiopum, p. 6. 6 Haller, Physiolog. T. v. p. 7. 

7 lb. p. 19. 


this becomes yellow. Moreover, if pigments are applied inside 
the epidermis, they stamp on it so permanent a colour, that it 
remains to the end of life. If gunpowder is burnt into the 
skin, who does not know how long it remains there? And in 
some such fashion many barbarous nations 1 , like our ancestors 2 , 
used to paint and mark their skin with various figures, for the 
sake of ornament. 

Hence we may draw these conclusions. First, the cuticle 
must have no vessels, or at all events extremely few. For, if 
it were furnished with only a few more vessels, it would admit 
bile mixed with blood to its innermost parts and furthest re- 
cesses, and then what would stand in the way of yellowness 
remaining in it a long time, like any other colour caused by 
pigments? Moreover, the fact of the condition of the pig- 
ment when coloured being fixed, shows that it consists of parts 
which are very permanent, and therefore are furnished with 
very few, if any, vessels. Writers do not attribute bones to 
those parts of the body which abound in vessels; yet these 
parts, when stained with any colour, do not cease to change all 
their particles, until they have recovered their original tint. 
Hence we may conclude for certain that the cuticle is furnished 
with very few, if any, vessels, and that its component parts 
scarcely ever change. 

So much being premised about colour, and the structure of 
its seat, we must investigate the causes of it, and, first of all, of 
blackness. And perhaps it will be worth while to begin by in- 
quiring into the causes of the change of colour in the regions of 
the epidermis and the reticulum; and this all the more, because 
nature, in its simplicity, generally uses the same means to effect 
the same ends. 

Air, dirt, and the heat of the sun, the transparency of the 
cuticle being destroyed, give it a brown colour, and at the same 
time make it harder. 

He who wishes to have his hands shining and white will 
not find it enough to protect them from the sun and the heat, 

1 Hawkesworth's Voyages, Vol. n. p. 191. 2 Caesar, Comment. Lib. V. cap. z. 


370 CAUSES. 

but must also keep them from the air, as is well known to 
women, who use gloves at all times. Besides, the colour of 
the face is never so fair as in other parts of the body which 
are always covered, although it be never exposed to the sun. 

Those who have to work hard at manual labour, never have 
white hands. Gunpowder, as has been said, when introduced 
below the epidermis, makes the colour black. Dirt and pig- 
ments can do the same thing, though in a minor degree. And 
this seems to be confirmed by the use of washes, with which 
the blacks besmear themselves, so as to make themselves 

The heat of the sun is the most powerful cause. : Its force 
is shown if you expose to it the whitest possible face, for it will 
lose all its whiteness in one day, and come out brown or red. 
It is particularly efficacious in the summer on red-haired per- 
sons with light skin ; and can affect the whole skin with brown 
spots, but especially the hands and face, because they are most 
exposed to it, which Linnaeus 1 makes a disorder, and calls 
Uphelides. Nor is there any doubt, that if the heat were kept 
up long enough, the whole skin would become of the same 
brown colour. 

If then these causes, the air, namely, and the heat of the 
sun, can cause such changes in these regions where, by means of 
houses and clothes, we are so much protected from them, at all 
events we need not be surprised that greater blackness is 
thereby effected in much hotter regions where men are exposed 
naked to a burning sun at almost all times. 

But besides the heat of the sun, and the effects of the air, 
where any one is exposed to it, other causes bring on greater 
blackness like that of the Africans. 

The parts of the cuticle are very rarely changed, as was said 
before, and all the more rarely the thicker it is. And, there- 
fore, when the same particles are exposed for a long time to 
great heat, the effect is great, that is, much blackness is neces- 
sarily sub-introduced. And, moreover, it is certain that pig- 

1 Amcenit. Academ. Vol. vi. p. 483. 


merits can do much to increase this, by which, as has been 
said, their bodies are rendered blacker, or, as they think, more 

The cuticle of the blacks is said to be thicker and less 
transparent than that of the whites, and therefore, when the 
causes of blackness are induced, will also be blacker ; if indeed 
that want of transparency has the effect of putting more par- 
ticles in the way of the influences which produce blackness. 
For all, who are skilled in optics, know well, that transparent 
and coloured plates make colour more vivid and more intense, 
the more of them there are which are put one above the other : 
because the rays of light transmitted by the one are reflected 
by the other, and the brightness of colour is always in propor- 
tion to the number of reflected rays. But when the colour of 
the plates is that of blackness, which consists of the absence of 
light, the rays which are not suffocated by one are effaced by 
the other, and so, the light being neither transmitted nor 
reflected, black colour is produced. If, indeed, it be asked how 
it is that the cuticle of the blacks is less transparent than that 
of the whites, although I cannot perfectly explain it, I will 
and illustrate it in a few words. 

The action of the sun and the air is a sort of stimulus to 
our bodies, and therefore acts according to those laws which 
regulate stimulants. The effect of this stimulant, burning and 
irritating the skin, is to render it harder and thicker, as is the 
case with the hands of labourers, and with the use of all parts 
of the body which are affected by stimulants. In the same 
way the air and the rays of the sun, by their stimulating action, 
render the skin less transparent. The efficient cause, w T hy the 
skin becomes thicker, is clear, and the way in which it is made 
thick, whether by the sun or by other irritating subjects, is 
pretty much the same. The irritation of the parts brings with 
it a larger influx of humours, and increases the action of the 
vessels, which are used in their increment or reparation. And 
as the continuous action of the sun, and other influences which 
stimulate the skin, display a great resemblance of action, so 
the progress of the acting power is the same in either case. 


372 PROOFS. 

Stimulants and irritants, when first applied to a yet tender skin, 
cause the appearance of many pimples; but after a certain 
lapse of time, it becomes harder, thicker, and at last callous, 
and can never afterwards be inflated into pimples by the same 
causes. And in like manner, although the rays of a southern 
sun burn our bodies, and cause many pimples to rise on the 
skin, still bodies accustomed to those regions, or those who 
have always been in the way of it, are not affected in the same 

The fact therefore of the skin being made thicker by the 
intemperance of the climate and the heat of the sun, and 
blacker by the direct rays of the sun and by pigments, proves 
our whole theory of colour. 

We must next inquire how far the explanation we have 
given is supported by facts, and how far it goes towards ex- 
plaining facts. 

Since all blacks are born white 1 , and remain so for some 
little time, it is clear from this that the sun and the air are 
necessary agents in turning the skin to a black colour. And 
this is proved besides by the fact, that when blisterings and 
burnings are applied to the bodies of the blacks, they change 
such parts so into white, that the black colour is not brought 
back to the body for some days 2 . Those parts of the body too 
which are most protected, and defended from the sun and the 
air, do not lose their original white colour, as is observed in 
those blacks who have the gland covered with the prepuce 3 . 
All the nations which dwell within the torrid zone have their 
colour more and more verging towards black. This almost 
universal fact doubtless tends to support the opinion given 
above. But that such is not the fact is objected by some, 
because there are no small number of white people in the 
torrid zone 4 . And although I cannot deny this, still it is quite 
plain that the inhabitants of the torrid zone are blacker than 

1 Hist. Generate des Voyages, par M. l'Abbe Prevost, Tom. iv. p. 590. 
lb. Tom. nr. p. 1 163. 

3 Hist, de V Academic des Sciences, An. 1702, p. 32. 

4 Essai sur la Popidation de VAmerique, Tom. iv. liv. 7, c. 14. 


any others, and that almost all are of a dark colour approaching 
to black. 

However, since the cause of blackness, as we give it, is by no 
means simple, and does not entirely depend upon a nearer 
or greater distance from the Equator, and since when one or 
other of the efficient causes is absent, the whole effect ceases, 
it will not be foreign to our purpose, if we inquire whether the 
fact of the whiter populations of the torrid zone goes to refute 
or confirm what we have advanced. 

To render our labours lighter, some general observations 
may be premised. 

The heat is not always found less or greater in exact 
proportion to the distance of the respective regions from the 

Islands are not so hot as continents, on account of the 
vapours which rise from the sea, and of the winds which are 
constantly blowing from it, both of which tend to refrigerate 
the soil. 

Mountainous countries, or countries in the neighbourhood of 
mountains, greatly temper the heat. The reason of this will be 
given immediately. 

Besides, the wind, sometimes by increasing, sometimes by 
diminishing them, variously affects heat and cold : coming from 
hot countries burnt up by the sun it brings heat ; blowing from 
snowy and cold mountains, cold. 

Finally, in places where the heat is the same, the same 
colour is not always the result ; for the different mode of life 
has a great influence in changing it. 

I will illustrate these observations by a few examples. As 
to the first point : many islands enjoy a very temperate climate, 
and particularly those which are situate furthest from conti- 
nents 1 . How far their inhabitants preserve their whiteness 
may be learnt from the instance of those who inhabit the 
islands of the Southern, or great Pacific ocean 2 . Almost all the 
East Indies, as they verge towards the south, split up into 

1 Hawkesworth's Voyages, Vol. it. p. 246. 2 lb. Vol. ir. p. 187. 

374 HEAT. 

islands or peninsulas ; which partly explains why the colour 
found there is copper or brown, and not black. 

As to the other observation : the Abyssinians, although 
placed under the Equator, still are white. In that country 
the mercury never stands above twenty finger-breadths high in 
the barometer ; whence it appears that Abyssinia is perhaps 
the highest part of the world inhabited by man, at least two 
miles above the level of the sea. No one, who has ever been 
up a mountain, is unaware how much such an altitude will 
lessen the heat. Thus some mountains of America, though 
placed exactly under the Equator, are covered the whole year 
with deep snow and ice. Even the highest point of Etna is 
covered with perpetual snow 1 . That altitude therefore mo- 
derates heat is a fact, and is proved by these examples, nor 
is the explanation difficult. And although I cannot go into the 
matter at full length, yet I will say a few words about it. 

Heat is caused by the rays of the sun, when they fall either 
directly or by refraction upon anything. But it is not found 
to be the same in every substance, on which the rays happen 
to fall : as when they fall on a transparent body, they do not 
cause the same heat as when they fall on an opaque one. 
This is most clearly shown by the fact, that when the focus 
of a concave metal mirror, opposed to the sun's rays, is thrown 
upon water, it does not boil, or show any sense of heat ; 
although if copper, or any other metal, is opposed to the mirror, 
it liquefies, or evaporates, in a moment. And since in the 
passage of light through a transparent body, a smaller quantity 
of heat is thrown out, in proportion to the thinness or trans- 
parency of the body, but the air is more rarefied as it is higher 
above the earth ; so it on that account transmits light more 
easily, and almost without any obstacle. For light seems to 
cause the more heat in proportion to the obstacles to its pro- 
gress. But enough has been said on this point. 

How much influence the wind has in altering heat, may be 
seen from the instance of America, where, when the north wind 

1 Brydon's Letters, Vol. I. Lett. to. 


blows, the cold becomes so great that in one night the rivers 
become frozen and unnavigable. The same thing is shown in 
Africa, where the winds, sweeping over and rolling about burn- 
ing sands for many miles, stir up an almost intolerable heat. 

I will now point out the effects of the mode of life. Those 
who are always clothed, and generally live in-doors, are seldom 
exposed to the causes which produce a change of colour, and so 
retain their whiteness. This happens to Europeans who in- 
habit hot countries, who retain their original mode of life, and 
continue to wear their clothes; whereas the aborigines 1 are 
always naked, and exposed to the force of the sun and the 
winds. But if any of them never do expose themselves to the 
air and the sun, as often happens to the women 2 , they come off 
better in the way of colour than the rest. 

As to the objection, that white men are to be found in 
hot regions, where the observations above collected glo not 
explain their whiteness in any way, and that it is a fact, 
that in Abyssinia, and in the islands of Java and Madagascar 3 , 
white ajid black men are found together, that must be 
explained otherwise. For it must be observed that these black 
and white men are of different origin, and differ not only in 
colour but in mode of living, and in many other external 
circumstances. For it is certain, and has been discovered, that 
those differences have not crept in among those who have 
always inhabited those countries from the beginning, but have 
come from elsewhere out of countries whose temperature was 
more favourable to whiteness or blackness, with the original 
inhabitants of such regions. And let no one suppose this can 
be contradicted. For so far their similarity is of importance, 
because you can easily in consequence of it trace the origin 
of individuals to some neighbouring nation ; and thus you may 
gather that the black inhabitants of Abyssinia came thither 
from other neighbouring parts of Africa. And in the same way 

1 Hist. Gen. des Voyages, par M. l'Abb£ Prevost, Tom. iv. p. 411. 

2 Buffon, Hist. Naturelle, Tom. V. pp. 40, 49, 70, 82, 90, &c. 

3 lb. pp. 42, 160. 


people as black as the Africans and as white as the Europeans 
inhabit the islands of the great Pacific ocean 1 : of whom the 
former have without doubt emigrated from the countries called 
New Guinea ; and the latter, as is likely, from those tracts 
of Asia which trend more towards the north. 

It may still be objected to my view, that two nations, 
differing at the outset, when they come to inhabit the same 
regions, although they are exposed to the same external causes, 
still remain different. But on this point two things are to be 
considered, namely, that different nations by no means live 
in the same, but, on the contrary, in very different ways. And 
it is by no means necessary to have causes so strong, or influ- 
ences so energetic, to preserve an effect when it is once done, 
as to produce the same originally. In this way, although in 
the islands of the Pacific ocean above mentioned, the heat 
of the sun cannot change the colour from white to black ; yet 
when that is once done, it can keep it so. 

Brown colour, diverging from white, is by no means con- 
fined to the torrid zone ; for the men of northern Europe 
and Asia, where cold and frost and snow reign in perpetual 
junction, are of a brown colour 2 . They lead a most wretched 
life ; their food consists of fish and wild beasts. For bread, they 
dig up roots out of the earth. In winter they hide in hovels, 
except when compelled to go out by hunger. They construct 
their hovels under the earth, which is necessary, on account of 
the intolerable cold. This mode of life is no doubt very unfavour- 
able towards causing or preserving whiteness. And whilst they 
are catching fish, or hunting wild beasts, they must needs be 
a great deal exposed to the intemperance of the air. And this 
inclemency of the air and constant fish-diet have the greatest 
possible influence in making the skin harder and thicker ; and 
living in dwellings always filled with smoke is certainly no 
remedy. This is an example of how far the severity of a 
climate may of itself go to change the colour. 

1 Hawkes. Voyages, Vol. I. p. 568, Vol. II. p. 178. 

2 Hist. Gen. cles Toy. par M. l'Abb£ Prevost, Vol. xix. p. 65. 


So much then I have to say about colour, in general terms, 
it is true, because the limits of this little treatise did not 
permit me to speak more fully or copiously : still, I hope there 
is enough to tend somewhat towards the explanation of colour 
in all instances. 

Chap. II. 

Of Stature and Form. 

The differences of human stature are far from being small. 
The inhabitants of some part of South America grow to a height 
of seven feet 1 ; whilst the inhabitants of the frigid zone scarcely 
attain the height of four or five feet 2 . The islands called 
Huaheine and Marianne produce men of six or even seven feet 
high 3 ; on the other hand, the inhabitants of the promontory 
of South America, called Cape Horn, are of small stature 4 . 
But why should I say more, when one sees almost always 
one and the same country producing men of all kinds of 
heights'? What is the reason of this? 

The way in which aliment is taken up into our bodies 
has scarcely yet been thoroughly investigated, nor are the laws 
found out by which they grow. But although such is the case, 
still, until some greater light is thrown on the matter, I may be 
allowed to say what I think is true, or at least probable. 

Growth seems to be due to the action of the heart, by whose 
renewed pulsations our fibres are rendered longer, and are am- 
plified, and directed to all parts. This is illustrated by the un- 
folding of the whole human body, and especially of the womb. 
But the action of the heart is not a cause of itself; nor do men 
and plants share the same nature. The latter have no power 
of locomotion, and merely increase and grow to a certain height ; 

1 Hawkesworth's Toy. Vol. I. p. 31. 

2 Hist. Gen. des Voy. par l'Abb^ Prevost, Tom. xix. p. 65. 

3 Hawkesworth, Vol. 11. p. 254. Buffon, Tom. v. p. 52. 

4 Hawkes. Vol. 1. p. 391. 

378 CAUSES. 

but it is different with man, who can scarcely come to perfec- 
tion without movement and action. The action and movement 
of the body must therefore be conjoined with the reiterated 
pulsations of the heart, which increase, by a sort of distention, 
all our parts, both in length and size. How extremely impor- 
tant this cause is will be clear to every one, who has observed 
the singular increase of every part when much exercised, the 
very unnatural size which comes, as in many tumours, from 
distracting causes, and that well-known increase of the ears, 
which is caused by earrings of great weight 1 ; increase, therefore, 
will be in proportion to the actions of the heart and the mo- 
tions of the body. But though these may be perpetually con- 
tinued, the body does not go on for ever increasing, because 
the great rigidity which is the effect of the action of the mus- 
cular fibres puts an end sometimes not only to increase, but to 
life itself. That this rigidity depends upon the amount of 
action is proved by this, that if any one, when young, uses 
immoderate exercise, he scarcely ever attains the full size of a 
man; and those who are obliged always to labour, and to lead 
a hard life, do not arrive at old age, or even the confines of it, 
but perish before their time; and though early in years, still 
with the appearance and constitution of old men. In this way 
the causes of growth come at last to neutralize themselves. 

This, then, being the immediate cause of man's growth, that 
is to say, the action of the heart and the movement of the 
body, and the rigidity of the parts the cause of the stoppage of 
that effect, we must now find out what are the remote external 
causes which affect the proximate one, and explain the varieties 
of human stature. 

Of these the principal are climate, food, exercise, and labour. 

Climate acts either by heat or cold. 

Heat, which is almost the origin of many animals, is neces- 
sary to all growing bodies; and in ourselves, if it is not the 
cause of motion and sense, at all events these faculties to some 
extent, and our other actions, cannot be deprived of it for a 

1 Buffon, Tom. VI. p. 34. Dampier, Vol. 1. p. 32. Hawkeswortb, Vol. 1. p. 311. 


moment without injury. By stimulating the heart, it greatly 
increases the sharpness of all our senses, and the mobility of the 
human body. Hence the inhabitants of warm regions very 
soon reach their full size, and those who are unrestrained in 
every way arrive at maturity much later than those who live in 
warm regions. In the eighth, ninth, or tenth year, women be- 
come menstruous, in the twelfth the men are fit for venery 1 ; 
whereas in cold regions, the menses do not appear before the 
fourteenth, sixteenth, and sometimes the twentieth year: nor 
are they fit for marriage before the eighteenth or sometimes the 
twentieth year. Heat too does not seem able to increase the 
human body, or diminish it much ; for both in hot and in tem- 
perate countries, small and large men are equally produced. 
And if it has anything to do with growth, it would seem as if it 
would be more likely to diminish it, because that violent action 
of the heart, and great movement of the body, on one side 
make the increase rapid, and on the other, at. the same time, 
accelerate the rigidity, or rather the firmness of the fibres. And 
in fact, the inhabitants of hot countries generally yield in sta- 
ture to those of the temperate zone. 

Cold, the exact opposite of heat, or to speak more accurate- 
ly, the absence of heat 2 , the force in which it consists abating, 
by diminishing all motions and all irritability, and blunting 
every stimulus, tends to lessen the size of the body. In all 
very cold regions, torpor is induced; the action of the body, 
especially in infants, is small: and therefore little adapted to 
extend or increase it. So that almost all the increase of the 
body is carried on by the action of the heart. For which reason, 
since the effect of action and exercise is to make the body beau- 
tiful and elegant, it is not to be wondered at, if the men in very 
cold countries are neither tall nor elegant. And this is con- 
firmed by the observations of writers about the inhabitants of 
Greenland, and other parts of Northern Europe and Asia 3 . 
Cold, as it confines all other things in nature, so it does our 

1 Buffon, Tom. v. p. 60. 2 Prcelect., Dr. Black, Prof. Chem. 

3 Buffon, Tom. v. p. 3. 


bodies, but not in the same way, that is, not by taking away 
the heat. For its principal action is on the fibres which serve 
for sense and motion, which are in consequence compelled to 
contract themselves more ; for the heat of the human body is 
almost exactly the same in all countries, however different the 
climate may be : that constriction, therefore, will stand in the 
way of every force which tends to increase the parts of our 
bodies in length or breadth. The contrary relaxation, which 
comes from heat, and about which I meant to speak, when I 
was speaking about heat as a cause of rapid growth, produces 
also this effect, by acting on the fibres of motion. 

Exercise and labour must both be treated of under the title 
of corporeal motion; for they both consist in the action of the 
body, and only differ in this, that volition can command the 
former, but the latter demands the use of reason. 

Bodily motion may be violent, moderate, or slight. 
Violent action, by the stiffness which follows too frequent 
exertion, and the exhaustion of the vital force, retards and im- 
pedes the growth. Slight motion, or rest, does not impart suf- 
ficient strength to the organs to enable them to fulfil their 
functions ; nor can it endow the body with that firmness, or the 
limbs with that solidity, which action alone can produce. But 
it is worthy of remark, that those results of motion and rest 
take place most in tender years before use and custom have 
formed the body, which is then still unchanged by the powers 
of nature. For labour is a good thing for adult bodies, or rarely 
does them harm, and in them rest may create or increase plethora. 
The condition of artisans as far as their stature is concerned, 
confirms, unless I am mistaken, what I have just said. They 
being obliged to exercise their respective occupations from in- 
fancy, pass their lives in work-shops. Bowed down to the 
ground, and crushed with toil, they turn out deformed, almost 
dwarfs, hunchbacked, and never arrive at the full stature or 
size of a man; so that those lines of Martial may well be ap- 
plied to them: 

Judged by his head, the man a Hector is, 
But an Astyanax judged by his phiz ; — 

DIET. 381 

and in fact they generally have large heads. Those who inhabit 
countries very much to the north or to the south 1 , are like 
them, and partly from the same cause, because, in tender years, 
both have too much repose. 

Between these extremes a mean, or moderate exercise, 
which is the principal means of increasing the body, should 
without doubt be chosen. But what is moderate, is difficult to 
define : its latitude, to use the words of those who lay down 
rules of health, may be so great. 

I now pass on to that cause which has the greatest influence 
in augmenting or diminishing the stature and magnitude of 
man, I mean diet. Food, although the first necessary for 
human life, still varies much in the quantity which is con- 
venient for sound health, being one amount for one, another 
for another. When it is scanty, it is clear small stature will be 
the result ; for the body cannot grow and be enlarged, if part 
of the material necessary for supporting it be taken away. 
On the other hand, the first effect of frequent and ample diet 
is to increase the body. Every herdsman knows of how much 
importance food is towards improving cattle and other beasts. 
Oxen brought forth on the barren mountains and plains of 
Scotland, and afterwards brought up in the more fertile fields 
of England, grow to double the size. 

But there are diversities not only in the quantity, but the 
quality of food. Thus flesh and vegetables are by no means of 
the same importance in nourishing the human body. Some- 
times when spices are added to some aliments, as flesh, wine, 
fish, there is more stimulus in them. This makes the increase 
more rapid, but, in such a way, that the body much sooner 
decays, worn out as it were by continual stimulus. Food pre- 
pared partly from flesh, partly from farinaceous matters, as it 
can be digested more easily than any other, so does it accelerate 
the growth more than any other. 

So much for the causes of growth treated separately ; now 
it would seem that I ought to speak about them in conjunction, 

1 Buffou, Tom. v. p. 3. Hawkesworth, Voyages, Vol. I. pp. 391-2. 


and that all the more, because in almost every case they act in 
conjunction. But since the limits of my paper forbid me to 
speak of that subject, and to apply the conclusions to the 
various nations of men, therefore I omit them, and go on to the 
next point. 

I must now speak of the varieties of form. They are in fact 
as numerous as men. For who has not a face, form, and aspect 
of countenance peculiar to himself, and which can be distin- 
guished from all others ? And besides these which every one 
has of his own, signs and marks peculiar to each race and 
nation are not wanting ; thus a depressed nose, thick lips, 
small or large eyes, and other marks common to thousands of 
individuals, distinguish one race from another. What are the 
causes of this ? That these diversities have nothing to do with 
diversity of species is clear from this, that this same depres- 
sion of the nose, or thickness of the lips is frequently to be seen 
amongst ourselves. Many 1 attribute the depressed nose of the 
Negroes not to nature, but to art ; and, allow it to be the work 
of art, difficulties, not easy to be overcome, still remain. At 
least, as far as I am concerned, I confess that I cannot under- 
stand how the forms of men and the lineaments of the face 
come to be so diverse from each other as they are. But when 
such effects have once been produced, I shall have an occasion 
of showing, when I come to treat of generation, how they may 
be retained. 

Chap. III. 
On the defect or excess of parts of the Human Body. 

If any one is ready to trust the reports of writers, he would 
find ample material on this subject to deal with. Thus we read 

1 Buffon, Tom. v. p. 132. Hist. Gen. des Voy. par M.l'AbbsS Prevost, 
P- 157- 


of the Arimaspi, who are remarkable for having but one eye, 
and that in the forehead; of the Androgyni, who are male and 
female joined in one ; of men with dogs' heads, and men who 
have no neck and carry their heads on their shoulders 1 . The 
stature of the Patagonians, which a few years ago, as we used to 
hear, was scarcely set so low as twelve feet, has now been 
reduced to seven. But everybody will easily see that all these 
things are beyond all belief. 

And even those who tell more probable stories differ in 
their testimony so from one another, one denying that which 
another says he has seen, ever was or could be seen, that it 
becomes quite uncertain which we ought to believe most, and 
which not at all. And since I found it at first so very difficult 
to decide which were true or the contrary, I selected some 
of the more reliable and better examined varieties to deal with 
for my present purpose. I am not therefore going to inquire 
whether there are any men furnished with legs much thicker 
than others, or with one leg much thicker than the other 2 , or 
tails as some still believe 8 ; because these stories are not con- 
firmed by any facts or observations worthy of credit, by which 
we might find a way to explain, or propose some theory about 

So the defects or excesses about which our business is, are 
of this kind ; namely, the beardless chin, hanging breasts, or 
prominent pudenda. 

The beard among ourselves, though sometimes more scanty 
and sometimes thicker, is scarcely ever wanting altogether. So, 
as to those nations, to whom almost all the writers had de- 
clared that no beard was given by nature, in most cases more 
recent testimonies show that the beard had not been denied by 
nature, but was plucked out by the people themselves 4 . This 

1 C. Plin. Nat. Hist. Lib. VII. cap. 2. 

2 Buffon, Vol. v. p. 64. 

3 Origin and Progress of Language, Vol. IV. p. 259, 2nd ed. Edin. 1 774. 

4 Dampier, Vol. 1. p. 407. Hist. G'en. des Voy. par M. l'Abbe Prevost, Tom. 
xviii. p. 503. Hawkesworth's Voyages, Vol. I. p. 608. Buffon, Tom. v. p. 204. 
Charlevoix, ill. p. 179. 

384 HAIE. 

therefore is no more a defect, than the long beard of other 
nations is an excess, and each is only a matter of custom. 

Nor have I any doubt as to the mammae, but what their 
length and pendulosity 1 among some nations is due to the 
peculiar way in which the women offer milk to their infants. 
For if a part becomes bigger than all others by distension or 
distraction, as has been observed above, is it wonderful that the 
mammae, which we are now talking about, when flung over the 
shoulders, and very eagerly drawn away by infants desirous of 
milk should become longer ? 

There has been much angry discussion about the pudenda of 
the women of the extreme south of Africa ; some declare that 
they are furnished with a ligament stretched under the natu- 
ralia, whilst others contend that they have nothing beyond the 
ordinary nature of women. These miracles, or rather mon- 
strosities, if they exist at all, seem by the most recent testi- 
monies to be reduced to this, that in that country the nymphse 
are a little more turgid and prominent, a defect the less to be 
astonished at in that country, because it is certain that it some- 
times occurs in this 2 . 

Differences of the hair. Hair differs, especially in colour: 
between which too and the skin there seems to be some con- 
nexion. In all countries black hair always accompanies a dark 
colour of skin, or one which divez^ges from white. And, on the 
other hand, red or white hair is joined with white skin. And 
the colour of both, that is of the skin and the hair, seems to 
depend upon the same causes, that is, the exposure to air and 
heat. A proof of which is that the more or less hair is exposed 
to these causes, the more or less black its colour is. Thus the 
hair which is not exposed is always less dark than what is. 

As to the texture of hair, there seems to be a great differ- 
ence, for that of some is soft and curly like wool, and that of 
others harsh and dense. What the cause of this may be, since 
physiologists are as yet by no means agreed as to the nature 

1 Buffon, Tom. V. pp. 4, 55. s Hawk. Voy. Vol. III. p. 792. 


of hair, I dare not give any decided opinion, and must be con- 
tent with one or two conjectures. 

Since the hairs are situated on the surface of the body, 
therefore whatever affects the body, affects them; besides per- 
haps other influences, so especially does the conflux thither of 
humours; and in this way, in proportion as the conflux is 
greater or smaller, so is their increase greater or less. Hence, 
as is known to all hair-cutters, the hairs grow more in summer 
than in winter. And this may be observed more frequently in 
the case of the beard. Therefore the hair grows more luxu- 
riously in hot countries than in cold, and on that account will 
be thicker and stronger; which, in fact, happens in almost all 
countries, as in the West and East Indies. 

Still, exceptions to this are not wanting. Thus in Africa, 
the hottest of all countries, and where therefore the hair ought 
to be thickest, on the contrary, it is scanty, and something like 
wool. This, although I cannot explain, still I may illustrate 
by a comparison. In many cutaneous disorders, little ulcers 
throw out a great deal of matter, which shows that there is a 
rush of humours to some of the vessels of the skin. And these 
sorts of disorders are often cured by remedies which cause per- 
spiration. How is this? When a quantity of humour is ex- 
creted in the shape of sweat through healthy vessels, thus the 
excess is averted from the diseased vessels. And thus the little 
ulcers, which before were moist, become dried up, and crusts 
are formed, which afterwards fall off, and then show the sound 
skin underneath. In this way, a rush towards the skin being 
made in the first instance, the hairs increase in growth; and 
when this becomes greater and greater, and the humours are 
more easily eliminated through the vessels of perspiration from 
the body, the quantity which serves to make the hair increase 
is diminished, and the attenuated hairs come out like wool. 
What seems to confirm this opinion is, that in the negroes, 
whose hair is like wool, the bulbs or roots of the hair are at- 
tenuated and small 1 , as if through deficiency of nourishment: 

1 Haller, El. Pkysiolog. Torn, v. p. 33. 



and it is only in the case of those who inhabit the hottest re- 
gions, or who are born elsewhere from the natives of such, that 
the hair becomes almost a kind of wool. 

Chap. 17. 
On Generation. 

Thus the causes are explained which change the colour, in- 
duce a large or small stature, and affect the hair and other 
parts. It may be objected that they are in no respect efficient 
causes, and that men are to be distinguished by the marks and 
varieties just mentioned, as soon as they are born, or at all 
events that such appear, long before they can be attributed to 
external causes. And this also, no doubt, is true. And how 
then is it to be explained? For either our explanations are 
idle and futile, or many properties which have been acquired by 
the parent are transferred to the offspring. Are they then so 
transferred? It would certainly seem so. Thus the father be- 
gets a son like himself in every way in form of body, expression 
of countenance, colour of hair, and sound of voice. The tem- 
perament too descends from the father to the son. So also 
peculiar marks long continue to distinguish the same family of 
men. But this is particularly shown by the history of disor- 
ders ; of which there are instances known to all in the cases of 
gout, scrofula, and madness. Again, diarrhoea and unnatural 
dilatations of the arch of the aorta long infest the same 
family. These diseased conditions must be looked on in the 
same light as other mutations of the corporeal condition. And 
to speak of both from the same point of view, surely that 
change which is the origin of the production of black skin may- 
just as easily be communicated by the parent to its offspring, 
and is no more difficult to explain, than that by which gout is 
handed down in the same way. Nor is it at all more difficult 


to understand, why the skin begins to grow black a certain 
time after birth, than why some years afterwards the offspring 
of scrofulous parents is infested with ulcers. 

Still all the same it is a fact which we cannot explain ; and 
yet there is no manner of doubt that peculiarities acquired by 
men do descend to their posterity. 

Thus the fact being once established, it will be no longer 
obscure why men undergo, from the causes induced, such great 
changes of colour, stature, and the other matters we have men- 
tioned. The black colour of the parent may become blacker in 
the son, if he is exposed to the same external influences, and 
so in the course of ages may approach more and more to actual 
blackness ; and in that way at last great effects may flow from 
causes so small as to escape our notice, if each generation con- 
tributes something to increase them. 

Why one form of appearance and countenance becomes per- 
manent in one nation, and one in another, is explained by this, 
that parents always produce offspring like themselves. 

It would however be difficult to say, how many centuries it 
takes to change the skin from white to black, or in any other 
way. But if we may conjecture at all from the sudden effect of 
the sun and the air in changing the skin, a long time is not 
necessary. But that Europeans who inhabit hot regions do not 
acquire even after a very long time a brown or black colour, 
and that negroes after being a long time in Europe do not grow 
white, may be for this reason ; that the former never try those 
modes and ways of life, and other external circumstances, which 
we have said are so powerful in effecting change ; and if they 
do suffer from necessity or adverse fortune, then they do change 
colour ' ; and that the latter wretched mortals never are able to 
enjoy that easy kind of life, by which whiteness is so greatly 
brought about. 

Moreover, the way in which the remote causes of whiteness 
and blackness act is somewhat different; and dark colour is 
much more easily impressed, and much longer retained, than 

1 ILtwks. Vol. in. p. 751. 


clear colour. Thus the fierceness of one day of sun will inflict 
a greater amount of brownness than can be effaced by fit pre- 
cautions taken for a long time to get rid of its effects. And this 
observation, in the way that those who after having acquired 
peculiar marks in any region retain them, when removed to 
another, may be applied so as to make it easy to understand 
how blackness may still remain in permanence even when its 
causes are taken away. 

Thus then the question, how those marks which distinguish 
individuals may be transferred by parents to their children, 
is answered. And now recurs the other, how those marks 
differ from the ones which are not so transferred, and what 
is the reason why some marks peculiar to the parent are 
transferred, and others are not. I must confess this is one 
I cannot answer. For the Creator has hidden the business 
of generation in the deepest recesses of nature, and has kept 
all its processes sunk and overwhelmed in the deepest dark- 
ness, never perhaps to be brought to light. And therefore 
to explain things depending upon such a cause would be a 
vain and idle undertaking. 

But, although this may be so, still I cannot help making 
mention of some things relating to generation, which, though 
wonderful, are nevertheless true. 

White men are sometimes born amongst the negroes 1 , and 
I have no doubt that other whites are propagated from them. 

We only know of one instance of a black being born 
amongst the whites 2 ; and according to the account of James 
Lind, a clever man, a physician, and an investigator of facts, 
who says he saw it with his own eyes, this man begot a son 
like himself. 

I indeed am unwilling to appear to compel all nature to 
my opinion; but these observations, as they show that diver- 
sity of species is not necessary for causing blackness of colour, 

1 Hist. Gen. de Voy. par M. l'Abbe Prevost, Tom. IV. p. 590. Hawks. Vol. 11. 
p. 188. Maupertuis, Tom. II. p. 116. 

2 Phil. Trans. No. 424. 


and that this property, Hke others, may be acquired through 
external circumstances, and so descend from father to son, 
so also do they in some way confirm the doctrine about colour 
I have laid down. 

The skin of those white men amongst the negroes is, as 
it were, scurfy 1 ; that is, the cuticle peels off in scales, and does 
not remain long enough to become quite black. The skin 
of the black man among the whites, as also that of his son, 
was thick and hard 2 , which fact shows that thickness has a 
great deal to do with causing colour, and is in favour of my 

Chap. V. 

On the Varieties of Mind. 

The mental varieties seem equal to and sometimes greater 
than the bodily varieties of man. And on this point I meant 
to say little, as it seems to be part of our subject. 

This chapter seems as if it ought properly to be divided 
into two parts : in one of which reason and prudence, and in 
the other manners, should be dealt with. And, in order that 
my notion may be more easily understood, I will illustrate 
both by an example before I begin to deal with either. If 
one man is sharp, and of an acute and docile genius, and 
another heavy, stupid, and averse to all discipline, that must 
be referred to the difference of reason and prudence. But if 
one is sanguine, vivacious, alert and happy, and his opposite 
is sad, sorrowful and wretched, we call that an affair of man- 

In the former division, the question instantly occurs to 
the mind, What is the cause of difference ? Is it to be referred 
to God? and is it credible that a Deity who is just and equi- 

1 Hawk. Vol. n. p. 1 88. 2 Phil. Trans. No. 424. 


table to all should have formed men so different in mind, as 
to create one foolish, another wise ; one brave, another cow- 
ardly? Certainly not, in my opinion; and it is more true and 
more equitable to attribute to natural causes the differences 
of mind which we see. 

To investigate the matter briefly : men's minds do not 
seem to me to differ so much by the fortune of birth as by 
the use and exercise of reason, and the faculties of the mind 
come out smaller or greater by use, almost in the same way 
as those of the body. And as there are several reasons for 
this exercise, I will consider them under three heads ; position, 
education, and affections of the mind. 

As to the first ; If one be in a place where insuperable 
impediments, or none at all, are placed in the way of action, 
in the first case he gives himself up to despair, in the other 
to idleness, and equally in either case does nothing. And, in 
fact, the Samoeides and the negroes seem placed in similar 
circumstances. If, on the contrary, all the necessaries of life 
are uncertain to any one on account of the climate, the soil, 
or some other reason, what does he do? Instantly he struggles 
to make them more secure by art and industry. He looks out 
for cattle. Hence plenty, and with that offspring increase. 
Fields have to be cultivated to provide food, and now abund- 
ance ensues. And as you will say the desires of the human 
mind are not satisfied with this, he adds comfort to necessaries; 
then seeks elegance, and lastly luxury. With an increasing 
cultivation of life, arts always, and often sciences, increase. 
Observe the man, first wild, and then carried to the highest 
pitch of cultivation and polish, how much the same man differs 
from himself? Look back upon the steps by which he has 
progressed. In no two successive steps can a greater exercise 
of reason and prudence be observed than in the Samoeide 
constructing his hut below the earth against the cold, or in 
the negro fabricating an umbrella to protect himself from 
the heat. 

Besides, sometimes a great difference is seen between men 
placed under the same circumstances. What an interval be- 


tween Isaac Newton and Bacon, and almost all their contem- 
poraries ! And yet they never considered that they were pos- 
sessed of any particular faculty, which others had not, by which 
they could comprehend science. They observed nature more 
accurately, and reasoned better on their observations than 
others. That was not a natural power, but acquired only by 
use and custom. What however contributed to form that fortu- 
nate habit, no one but themselves could easily say, nor is it 
necessary to do so ; . and the matter is so subtle a one, that it 
might easily escape themselves ; since we see every day that 
many small things create a habit, without those being con- 
scious who are affected by it. In fact, many who have happily 
promoted the sciences by their labour, confess that they were 
led by mere accident to give their minds up to it. Since then 
the force of circumstances is so powerful to excite and amplify 
the reason, so also the affections of the mind, and especially the 
desires, are of great influence towards the same end. 

What has not been done for science and knowledge, espe- 
cially in the government and administration of public affairs, 
through benevolence, or emulation, or envy, ambition, and glory? 

No one doubts the important part that education and dis- 
cipline play in forming and stimulating the mind. But that 
discipline is by far the best, which not only delivers precepts, 
but also exercises the faculties of the mind, and compels it as it 
were to anticipate commands 1 . So also the teachers of youth 
stimulate the mind to learn by emulation, curiosity, blandish- 
ments, and very often by fear. Which influence is the more 
powerful, let others decide. 

Has conformation any thing to do with the increase or dimi- 
nution of the mental faculties ? If the operations of the mind 
do not altogether depend upon the nervous system, especially 
the brain, as those think who deny that the mind is any- 
thing without matter, still there is no doubt they are most 
intimately connected with it, and vary with its variations. 
This is proved by the variations of the mind of the same man, 

1 Eousseau, Emil. Liv. III. 

392 BRAIN. 

according as he is in health, or sickness; sanguine, or depressed. 
When the skull is broken, or the brain suffers compression, he 
who previously gave utterance to the most shrewd observa- 
tions, now seems almost destitute of reason and sense. And 
who ever doubted, from these instances, that when the condi- 
tion of the brain is changed, the mind changes also ? 

It is a question also whether any peculiar condition of this 
brain, affecting the mind, can be handed down from parent to 
son? It has been said above that temperament at all events 
is so communicated. But different temperaments are so con- 
nected with different tones and conditions of mind, that, in 
common parlance, they are referred to mind alone. Therefore, 
if certain conditions of the brain, from which some operations 
of the mind proceed, are transmitted by the accident of birth, 
what is to prevent the peculiar condition of that part of the 
brain, which is appropriated to reason, being transmitted in a 
similar way ? And this will appear much more probable to one 
who considers that a diseased condition, like that of madness, 
is propagated from father to son in the same family for gene- 

What has been said goes then to show that something must 
be attributed to congenital conformation and stamina, but 
more to exertion, so far as calls are made for it by position, 
mental affections, and education, in the matter of reason and 

Travellers have exaggerated the mental varieties far beyond 
the truth, who have denied good qualities to the inhabitants of 
other countries, because their mode of life, manners, and cus- 
toms have been excessively different from their own. For they 
have never considered, that when the Tartar tames his horse, 
and the Indian erects his wig-wam, he exhibits the same inge- 
nuity which an European general does in manoeuvring his 
army, or Inigo Jones in building a palace. 

There is nothing in which men differ so much as in their 
customs. They are of innumerable origins. Climate 1 , soil 2 , 

1 Esprit des Lois, Liv. 14, 15, 16, 17. 2 lb. Liv. 18. 

customs. 393 

diet 1 , occupations, laws, religion, individual men, government, 
the institution of monarchy, or a republic 2 , with a thousand 
other things, create and alter their customs in a marvellous 

As for climate, let me quote the words of a distinguished 
man. " Under the extremes of heat or of cold, the active range 
of the human soul appears to be limited, and men are of 
inferior importance, either as friends or as enemies. In the 
one extreme, they are dull and slow, moderate in their desires, 
regular and pacific in their manner of life ; in the other, they 
are feverish in their passions, weak in their judgments, and 
addicted by temperament to animal pleasure 3 ." 

Many instances of the effects which come from the causes 
mentioned are palpable, but my time does not allow me to 
mention all. And therefore I shall be content with one or 
two examples, which clearly show how much influence one man 
may have. The laws and customs of Lycurgus, the former 
being taken into exile along with him, which were not insti- 
tuted for pleasure, but for the sake of public and private 
utility, and to produce an austere virtue, lasted for the space 
of seven hundred years. So also Peter, justly called the Great, 
Emperor of the Russians, who bestowed politeness and culti- 
vation on a nation barbarous, rude, and unheard of, or neg- 
lected, and, in the teeth of their most deep-seated prejudices, 
adorned them with customs, amended their laws, and handed 
down to posterity an empire which is an object of fear to 
one nation long very powerful, and of suspicion to other 
peoples and nations, is another splendid instance of the same 

However various the causes may be, which create and alter 
the customs of men, there is but one which can make them 
lasting, stable and, as it were, eternal. This is imitation, the 
most powerful principle in man. By this we acquire customs, 
manners, and almost everything. Sometimes indeed its power 

1 Hist, des Indes, Tom. I. p. 66. 2 lb. Liv. 4, 5, 7. 

3 Ferguson's Essay on the History of Civil Society, P. III. s. 1. 


is such that against our will we are compelled to imitate others. 
From this source depends the resemblance of customs in the 
family, the city, or in the whole nation. This was well known 
to the poet, who had seen through the whole range of the 
human mind. " Falstaff. It is a wonderful thing to see the 
semblable coherence of his men's spirits and his : they, by 
observing of him, do bear themselves like foolish j ustices : he, 
by conversing with them, is turned into a justice-like serving 
man. Their spirits are so married in conjunction, with the 
participation of society, that they flock together in consent, 
like so many wild geese. It is certain, that either wise bearing 
or ignorant carriage is caught, as men take diseases, one of 
another." Shakespeare, K. Henry IV. 

They are truly few, who judge for themselves what customs 
are right or wrong, and they are still fewer who, whilst they 
think for themselves, and differ from the mob, go on to ac- 
commodate and alter their customs according to their own 


Africans, 123, 361, 363 

Albiuos, 132 

Algonquins, 121 

Alopecides, 73 

Americans, 98, 120, 156, 161, 240, 

266, 271, 307, 361 
Ammonites, 284 
Amour, skulls on the, 119 
Anthropological Collections, 298, 347 
Ape and man, distinction, 163 
Arctic animals, 104 
Arenulse, 179 
Arimaspi, 257 
Ass, 78, 101 
Astyanax, 380 

Baf, 78 

Banks, Sir Joseph, 147 

Bardeau, 79 

Batavians, 115 

Belemnites, 284 

Belgians, 115 

Bertin, 112 

Bif, 78 

Bimana, 171 

Biography of Blumenbacb, 1 

Biscayan women, 107 

Blackened Europeans, 108 

Blacks, 371 

Borneo, 141 

Brain, 392 

Brain of ape, 92 

Breasts, 125, 247 

Bulbs of the hair, 3S5 

Bull, 77 

Buttocks in man, 169 

Caffres, 110 
Cain, 368 
California, 83 
Callitrichus, 142 

Calmncks, 116 

Canadians, 110, 121 

Canis, varieties of, 365 

Cape of Good Hope, 83, 98, 361 

Capra reversa and depressa, 74 

Carib, 121 ' 

Carinthia, 115 

Carolina, 240 

Casque, 112 

Cat, 75 

Cattle, acclimatization of, 71 

Caucasian, 155 

Caucasians, 100, 255, 279, 303 

Cercopithecus, 177 

Chain of nature, 151 

Champagne, 87 

Chest, 167 

Chimpansi, 96, 97 

Chin, 383 

Chinese, 367 

Circassians, 98, 363 

Circumcision of female, 126 

Classification of man, 99 

Climate, influence of, 73, 196 

Clitoris, 90, 126, 170 

Coccyx, 142 

Colchian, 110 

Cold, 378 

Colour, 209 

Colour in man, 106, 367 

Colt, modifications in the, 73 

Copulation, 75, 169, 182 

Cordilleras, 107 

Corium, 106 

Cow, 77 

Creation, mutability in, 280 

Creole, 112,215 

Criole, 112 

Customs, 392 

Cutaneous disorders, 385 

Cuticle, 368, 369, 371 



Cynamolgi, 257 

Darien, inhabitants of, 136 

Dauphine, 8.0 

Degeneration of brute animals, 191, 

Dentition, 243 
Design, 321, 324 
Diana monkey, 74 
Didactylus ignavus, 91 
Diet, 198 

Diseases in man, 130, 185 
Dodos, 289 
Dog, 73, 74 

Domestic animals, 72, 291 
Duck, 76 

Ears, 128, 246 

Elevator claviculse, 87 

Elk, 73 

Embryo, development of, 70 

Ephelis, 373 

Erect position of man, 84, 164 

Esquimaux, 99 

Ethiopians, 98, 101, 120, 161, 267, 

270, 304 
Europeans, 101 
Exercise, 391 
Eye of rabbit, 131 
Eyes of man, 225 

Fabulous varieties of man, 257 

Face, varieties of, 227 

Facial line, 235 

Feet, 125, 253 

Filly, birth of a, 77 

Final causes, 361 

Fish diet, 376 

Foetus, 69, 159 

Formative force, 194 

Fox, the, 73 

Gallus calecuticus, 76 

Generation, 386, 388 

Generis humani varietate nativa, 65 

Genital liquid, 243 

Genital organs, 75, 109, 247 

Genoese, 116 

Giants, 104 

Goats, 80 

Gottingen, 348 

Graafian follicle, 70 

Granada, 107 

Greenlander, 98 

Greenlanders, 99, 118 

Griffs, 112 
Gunpowder, 370 
Guzerat, 110 

Hair on man, 124, 127, 159, 173, 192, 

224, 384 
Hairy men, 88 
Ham, 368 
Hameln, 87 

Hands of man, 86, 159, 251 
Heart of man, 179, 377 
Heat of sun, 370, 374 
Hector, 380 
Hemeralopia, 133 
Hen, 76 

Hereditary peculiarities, 203, 387 
Hessian boy, 87 
Hinny, 79 

Hippocratic macrocephalus, 343 
Hog, 292 

Homines monstrosi, 129 
Homo sapiens ferus, 166, 336 
Horn, Cape, 377 
Horses, 71, 72, 80, 101, 132, 199 
Hungarians, 231 
Huaheine, 377 
Hybridity, 73, 80, 112 
Hybrids, 195, 201 
Hymen, 89, 170 
Hyaena, 74 
Hyponemia, 76 

Imaus, 257 
Imitation, 394 
Instincts of man, 82 
Intelligent negroes, 309 
Intermaxilliary bone, 176 
Ishmael, 368 

Jackal, 74 
Jaundice, 368 
Jumars, 76 
Juvenis bovinus, 337 

lupinus, 337 

ovinus, 336 

ursinus, 337 

Kakerlacken, 139, 313 

Labrador, 118 
Lapps, 99, 116, 231 
Languages, difference in, 125 
Laughter, 89, 184 
Legs, 250, 383 
Leprosy, 135 



Leucoethiopians, 135, 139, 260, 314 
Life of Blumenbach, 1 
Linnaeus, his classification, 150 
Luscitio, 133 

Macrocephali, 241, 243 

Malabar, 110, 136, 137 

Malay, 156, 161, 266, 275, 304 

Malphigian rete, 106 

Mameluck, 112 

Man, degeneration of, 293 

Man and ape, distinction, 163 

Manates, 81 

Mandril, 92, 109 

Manual labour, 370 

Mare, 77 

Marianne, 377 

Melatta, 112 

Membrana nictitans, 93 

Menstrual flux, 90, 192 

Mental affections of brutes, 89, 389 

Mestico, 112 

Metif, 112 

Mice, 132 

Mollaka, 112 

Mongolian variety, 265, 269 

Mongolians, 156, 304 

Monorchides, 127 

Monosceles, 257 

Morbific affection, 259 

Mulattos, 112, 216 

Mules, 101 

Murex, 281, 288 

Musculus oculi suspensorius, 175 

Museum, 155 

Nails, 128 

Naked condition of man, 88 

Natural causes, 390 

Natural sciences in Germany, 6 

Natural varieties, 224 

Nature, chain of, 151 

Negroes, 9, 305 

New Hollanders, 119, 239 

Nocturnal pollutions, 182 

Norma verticalis, 237 

NuKraXcoTre?, 133 

Nymphse, 90, 170 

Obi river, squirrels on, 71 

Octavoon, 112 

Omaguas, 242 

Orang utan, 83, 91, 94, 96, 97 

Orders, natural, 152 
Otaheitans, 119 

Pacific Ocean, inhabitants of, 123, 

Packwax, 94 
Panniculus carnosus, 175 
Papio, 92, 94 
Patagonians, 253 
Pathological variation, 140 
Peloria, 282 

Pelvis in quadrupeds, 85 
■ in man, 168 

in negro, 249 

Pentagenist classification of man, 

99, 302 
Periophthalmium, 93 
Persians, 101 
Peter von Iiameln, 9 
Pictures, 159 
Pigments, 128 
Pimple worm, 289 
Pimples, 372 
Pineal gland, 179 
Plates, explanation of, 68, 162 
Plurality of species, 98 
Pollutions, nocturnal, 182 
Position for copulation, 169 
Posticos, 112 

Pre- Adamite creation, 285 
Premaxillary bone, 92 
Primitive world, 283 
Puberty, 181 
Puella Campanica, 338 

Transisilana, 338 

Pueri Pyrenaici, 339 
Puppy, a deformed, 75 

Quaclrumana, 171 
Quarteroon, 112 
Quimos, 255 

Rabbit, 76 

Rabbits, white, 130 

Racial varieties of the face, 227 

Rams, throats of, 113 

Reason, 182 

Rete mirabile arteriosum, 175 

Reticulum, 113 

Retromingency, 169 

Sacrum, 142 
Salmo arcticus, 318 
Samoeides, 361 
Satyr, 97, 141 



Scriptures, accuracy of the, 89 
Scythians, 119 
Semiramis, 80 
Senegal, 107 

Senegambia negresses, 307 
Sexes, part taken by in the genera- 
tion of the foetus, 69 
Sicilian woman, 138 
Simia cynomolgus, 109 

■ diana, 74 

longimana, 97 

■ Satyrus, 96 

■ troglodytes, 96 

Singing birds, 199 

Sinuessa, 77 

Siren, lizard, 87 

Skin, 208, 364 

Skin diseases of man, 134 

Skulls, 101, 114, 234 

Spartan dogs, 73 

Species, 188, 360 

Speech, 83 

Spotted skin, 113 

Squirrels, 71, 75 

Stature, 102, 252, 256 

Styria, 115 

Sun and air, 371 

Supreme Being, providence of the, 73 

Swedish girl and bear, 80 

Tailed men, 142, 258 
Tails, 383 
Tarsal bones, 167 
Tattooing, 129 

Tears, 184 

Teeth of man, 88, 173, 243 
Tehueletse, 253 
Tela mucosa, 180 
Temperature, 103 
Terceron, 112 
Terebratula, 283 
Tetes de Boule, 121 
Throats of rams, 113 
Tierra del Fuego, 105 
Transmission, 386 
Troglodyte, 97 
Typhus fever, 368 

Union of man and brutes, 201 
Unnatural crimes, 201 

Vagina, its direction, 169 

Variegated skin, 218 

Varieties and species, 190, 2C4, H59 

Vertical scale, 237 

Ventrale, 143 

Virginians, 110 

Vitruvius, 107 

White, 371 

Wild children, 165 

Womb, 377 

Yellow fever, 368 

Zell, 87 
Zephyrea, 76 


Abildgaard, 248 

Ackermann, 223, 241 

Actuarius, 133 

Adair, 240, 241 

Adanson, 307 

Adelung, 30 

^Elian, 129 

vErnilianus, 187 

JStius, 133 

Agatliernerus, 139 

Agricola, 137, 139 

Aguirre, 242 

Albinns, 78, 101, 106, 115, 143, 210, 

222, 368 
Aldrovandus, 80, 143, 299 
Alefounder, 336 
Alexander, 107 
Allamand, 251 
Alpinus, 248 
Alstromer, 122 
Anaxagoras, 171 
Anderson, 227 
Anderson, Jiirgen, 95 
Andry, 241 
Arbuthnot, 60, 335 
Argensola, 262 
Aristotle, 53, 73, 91, 106, 139, 178, 

179, 203, 250 
Arrian, 102 
Artedi, 19 
Arthand, 262 
Asch, de, 156,157, 158,230, 241, 349, 

Attuioch, 271 
Attumonelli, 210 
Averroes, 136 
Avicenna, 124, 136 
Aublet, 112,217, £07 
Augustine, S. 286 
Aunoy, 248 

Bacon, 321 

Baldinger, 4, 14, 15, 28, 43, 44 

Bancroft, 97 

Bankes, 250, 275 

Banks, 14, 31, 145, 149, 156, 161, 192, 

271, 274, 275, 302 
Barbinais, 251 
Barbot, 214, 232, 245, 305 
Barrere, 106, 210 
Barth, 73 - 
Bartolozzi, 310, 336 
Bate, 222 
Bates, 199 
Baulrin, 115,142 
Baumgartner, 2J1 
Baurenfiend, 126, 127 
Bayle, 80 
Bazin, 98 
Beeckman, 191 
Begert, 12S, 210 
Behm, 257 
Behrens, 255 
Bell, 134 
Bellon, 126 
Belon, 223 
Berchem, 188 
Berengarius, 175 
Berkel, 273 
Bernadotti, 34 
Bertin, 88, 115, 175 
Bidder, 349 
Biet, 223 

Billmann, 157, 177 
Birch, 104, 244 
Blair, 176 

Blanc, Vincent le, £0 
Blanchard, 142 
Blane, 21 
Bleyswyck, 311 
Bligh, 162 



Blumenbach, 359 

Bochart, 73 

Boddaert, 262 

Boeder, 129 

Boerhaave, 108, 122, 308 

Bomare, 217, 221, 299 

Bonnet, 31, 54, 69, 78, 316 

Bontius, 81, 89 

Borde, 233 

Borgia, 158 

Born, 17 

Bougainville, 250, 272, 285 

Bouguer, 107, 215 

Boullay-le-Gouz, 250 

Bourguet, 78, 261 

Bouterwek, 16 

Bowrey, 83 

Bozenhard, 253 

Brandes, 46 

Brasen, 103 

Braun, 160 

Breton, 241 

Breydenbach, 148 

Brosses, Des, 104, 254 

Brown, 234 

Bruce, 212, 223, 225, 226 

Brue, 315 

Bruin, 192 

Bruin, De, 160, 216 

Brun, Le, 122, 127, 128, 129, 135 

Bry, De, 122 

Bryant, 212, 275 

Brydon, 374 

Buckman, 244 

Buddseus, 43 

Buffon, 53, 53, 76, 78, 87,90, 133, 
187, 189, 210, 218, 245, 252, 
254, 262, 277, 331, 362, 365, 
367, 375, 378, 381, 382, 383, 

Euttner,4, 44, 73, 76, 119. 

Buzzi, 261 

Byrd, 218 

Cadamosto, 248 

Caesar, 369 

Caldani, 179, 222 

Camelli, 135, 140, 262 

Camerarius, 126 

Camper, 31, 55, 57, 97, 108, 176,220, 

235, 241, 245, 322, 348 
Cannegieter, 247 
Capetein, 311 
Cardan, 71, 77, 81, 107, 121, 136, 

138, 139, 243 

Carpi, 170 

Carteret, 272 

Cartwright, 161 

Cavendish, 101 

Caverhill, 141 

Chamberlaine, 170 

Chanvalon, 249, 251 

Chapman, 139 

Chardin, 269 

Charlevoix, 121, 127, 242, 383 

Chemnitz, 283 

Cheselden, 21 

Chodowiecki, 160 

Christ, 4 

Churchill, 78, 245 

Clarkson, 310 

Clauder, 75 

Clavigero, 192, 293 

Clayton, 262 

Clugny, 256 

Cluver, 129 

Goiter, 91, 114, 177 

Collin, 91 

Columella, 73, 77 

Commerson, 255 

Condamine, 165, 242 

Connor, 337 

Coming, 224 

Cook, 122, 160, 214, 257, 262, 313 

Correggio, 51 

Cossigny, 140, 262 

Covolo, 102 

Cranz, 102, 104, 108, 118, 214, 

Craufurd, 335 
Crell, 16 
Croix, dela, 267 
Cuneus, 115 
Curtis, 28 
Cuvier, 11, 53 

Dalrymple, 125, 247, 260, 275 
Dampier, 232, 251, 378, 383 
D'Anville, 99 
Dapper, 136 
D'Argenville, 103 
Daubenton, 85, 91, 178 
Defoe, 292 
Deluc, 293 
Derham, 98 
Descartes, 59 
D'Hancarville, 284 
Dietz, 44 
Dietzmann, 102 
Dieze, 247 



Digby, 338 

Dilich, 87 

Diodorus Siculus, 24-1 

Dobrizhoffer, 273 

Doeveren, 143 

Dornford, 335 

Dorville, 255 

Duddell, 261 

Dttrer, 114,118, 125,251 

Dyck, Von, 311 

Bbel, 179 

Edwards, 87, 97, 140 

Bhrenmalm, 103, 108 

Elliotson, 18 

Ellis, 104, 118, 251,257 

Elsholtz, 102, 114,142 

Engel, 99, 106, 117, 210, 230, 267 

Ernesti, 71 

Erxleben, 44, 245 

Eustachius, 85, 91, 115, 177 

Fabricius, 257, 299 

Falconet, 336 

Falk, 258 

Falkner, 104, 255 

Fallopia, 142,143, 175 

Fanton, 106 

Fein, 335 

Feller, 232, 267 

Ferguson, 393 

Fermin, 113, 125, 217, 247 

Festus, 133 

Fichte, 18, 62 

Fidel: s, 80 

Filangieri, 339 

Fischer, 101, 115, 116, 120, 269 

Flourens, 47 

Focquenbrach, 249 

Foes, 133 

Fontaine, 62 

Fontana, 213, 241, 258 

Fontenelle, 55, 62, 136 

Fordyce, 198 

Forrest, 245, 272 

Forster,G., 3 1,100,119, 174, 210,223, 

233, 247, 248, 250, 254, 256, 271, 

273, 284 
Forster, R, 31 
Foucher d'Obsonville, 315 
Fourcroy, 213. 
Franklin, 184 
Fremery, 349 
Freylinghausen, 137 
Frisch, 108, 189 

Fuller, 305 

Gaertner,, 149 

Gagliardi, 103 

Gainsborough, 310 

Galen, 86, 114, 133, 174, 176 

Garcilasso, 215, 216, 217 

Gebelia, 83 

Gentil, 257 

George I., 330, 334 

Georgi, 249 

Gesner, 76, 77, 143, 262, 299 

Geuns, 156, 162 

Geyer, 337 

Giesler, 4 

Gily, 216 

Girtanner, 212 

Glafey, 102 

Gleichen, 73 

Gmelin,21, 71, 129, 220, 255, 272 

Goethe, 18 

Goldsmith, 99, 116, 134, 135, 136, 

Gorz Schlitz, 349 
Gordon, 252 
Goze, 322 
Gregorius, 306 

Grbben, 83, 129, 135, 137, 245 
Grotius, 129 
Guindant, 141 
Gumilla, 218, 219, 220 
Gunz, 108 
Gunner, 262 

Hacquet, 204 

Haen, 210, 310 

Hager, 231 

Hahn, 86 

Hakluyt, 247 

Hall, 134 

Haller, 15, 31, 51, 53, 69, 73, 75, 76, 
78, 89, 91, 98, 103, 105, 108, 109, 
124, 127, 141, 170, 176, 210, 222, 
241, 267, 282, 297, 368, 385 

Hancarville, 201, 231 

Hard, 107 

Hardt, 25 

Harduin, 133, 139 

Hartsink, 215 

Harvey, 141, 258 

Hauber, 95 

Hauterive, 216, 217 

Hawkes, 223 

Hawkesworth, 127, 128, 140, 143, 215, 
246, 250, 259, 262, 275, 369, 373,. 
377, 381, 383, 384, 388 




Hawkins, 259 

Heiss, 306 

Helbig, 141, 258 

Heliodorus, 138 

Helvetius, 171 

Hemmersam, 112, 123, 127 

Henle, 353 

Herder, 337 

Herissant, 73 

Herodotus, 102, 126, 129 

Herrera, 293 

Hesse, 258 

Hesychius, 79 

Heyne, 4, 27, 44, 73, 125, 251, 258 

Hildan, 102 

Hildebrant, 162 

Higgins, 354 

Hippocrates, 108, 116, 133, 192, 203, 

241, 242 
Hobbes, 184 
Hodges, 160, 216 
Hoeven, 353 
Hogendorp, 224 
Hogg, 11 
Hogstrom, 102 
Hollar, 160 
Hollmann, 310, 320 
Home, 98, 103, 118,272 
Honorius, 139 
Horace, 30 
Hornemann, 22 
Howe, 95 
Hughes, 98, 126 
Humboldt, 22 
Hunauld, 121 
Hunnemann, 161 
Hunter, 25, 259, 261, 262, 348 
Hunter, Jo., 357 
Hunter, Jo. (Gov.), 225 
Hunter, W., 70 
Hutton, 10 
Huschke, 533 
Hyde, 112, 215- 

Ingrassias, 114, 115 
Insfeldt, 116 
Isidore, 124 
Ister iEthicus, 139 
Ives, 22 

Jacquin, 161 
Jansen, 185 
Jefferson, 252" 
Jetze, 1 

Johnson, 39 
Jones, 212 
Jonston, 299 
Jussieu, 54 

Ksempfer, 170 

Kaimes, 109 

Kaltschmidt, 43 

Kampf, 23 

Kant, 18, 62, 203, 207, 210, 223, 231, 

250, 267, 273 
Kastner, 44 
Kemble, 60 
Kersting, 101, 132 
Kettle, 270 
King, 174 
Klein, 216, 261 
Klinkosch, 222 
Kluger, 268 
Kluppel, 43 
Koenig, 129, 142 
K ohler, 10 

Kolben, 125, 127, 223, 247 
Kolreuter, 196 
Konig, 142 
Kopiug, 141, 258 
Kramer, 262 
Krascheninikof, 129 
Kruger, 332 
Kruniz, 210 
Kusthardt, 352 

Labat, 112, 113, 216, 222 

Lacepede, 22 

L' Admiral, 106 

Laert, 107 

Laet, 129 

La Fosse, 94 

Lamothe, 113 

Langhan, 112 

Langsdorff, 22 

Launitz, 352 

Lauremberg, 114,115 

Lavater, 115, 122, 223 

Lawson, 241 

Le Brun, 134 

Le Cat, 89, 95, 97, 106, 130, 139, 210, 

Ledyard, 262 
Leem, 102 
Leger, 77 

Leguat, 87, 140, 250 
Leibnitz, 54 
Lenthe, Von, 6 
Leonardo da Vinci, 170 



Leroy, 165 

Lery, 232, 272 

Libavius, 227 

Licetus, 80 

Lichtenberg and Voigt, 9, 119' 

Lieberkiihn, 103 

Ligon, 89 

Lind, 3S8 

Link, 11 

Linnaeus, 13, 51, 54, 57, 73, 84, 90, 
93, 95, 98, 128, 129, 142, 150, 152, 
163, 165, 172, 173, 191, 198, 226, 
249, 258, 267, 281, 297, 331, 337, 
338, 361, 370 

Linschot, 274 

Linschoten, 254 

Lischoten, Van, 245 

Lithgow, 248 

Livy, 73, 129 

Lodemann, 28 

Long, 106, 217 

Lorry, 187, 213, 221 

Loubert, 213 

Louis of Bavaria, 349 

Luc, de, 10, 31, 313 

Ludwig, 108, 222 

Lucas, 307 

Lucian, 302 

Lucretius, 81, 287, 323 

Ludolph, 135, 306 

Lysons, 160 

Macrobius, 107 

Magellan, 253 

Maire, Le, 307 

Malpighi, 200, 289 

Marcgrav, 216, 224 

Marsden, 174, 215, 223, 232, 241, 

245, 257, 272 
Martens, 33 
Martial, 146 
Martini, 129, 141, 142- 
Marx, 3 

Maupertuis, 134, 136, 257, 388 
Maximilian, 128 
Mayer, 16 
Meares, 241 
McHenry, 310 
Meckel, 213 
Meger, 159 
Meiners, 268 
Meigs, 359 
Mela, 139 
Meude, 16 
Menippus, 302 

Mentzel, 247 

Menz, 4 

Mercurialis, 125, 251 

Meriani, 115, 142, 143 

Merk, 31 

Merolla, 78 

Metzger, 268 

Meyer, Jurgen, 329 

Michaelis, 32, 43, 80, 156, 15& 

Middleton, 244 

Modave, 255 

Moles, 210 

Molina, 273, 274 

Molinelli, 226 

Moll, 10, 31 

Monboddo, 60, 165,. 258, 295, 331, 

Monneron, 250 
Montesquieu, 57, 60 
Moreton, 217 
Morel, 289 
Morgan, 219 
Morse, 252 
Morton, 349 
Moscati, 88, 166 
Mothe, 219 
Mullen, 94 
Muller, 44, 123, 174 
Murray, 99, 104, 108 
Mycock, 302 

Napoleon, 21, 60 

Narborough, 222, 252 

Naudin, 210 

Neergard, 21 

Neoptolenius, 174 

Neubauer, 43, 44 

Neuwild, 22 

Nicolai, 44 

Niebuhr, 122, 126, 128, 129; 245, 307 

Nipho, 182 

Nisbett, 308 

Nott and Gliddon, 359 

Nux, de la, 262 

Gbsequens, 73 
Oehme, 316 
Oken, 52 

Olaus Magnus, 80, 136 
Oldendorp, 215, 222, 308 
Olearius, 118 
Oribasius, 133 
Ortega, 254 
Osbeck, 17, 25 
Osiander, 16 



Ovaglie, 258 
Oviedo, 241 

Pallas, 72, 102, 117, 184, 193, 201, 

250, 252 
Papinus, 101 
Parseus, 80 
Paris, 271 
Park 308 
Parkinson, 91, 102, 105, 122, 123, 

127, 128, 129, 134 
Parson, J., 89, 216 
Pataki, 157 
Paterson, 312 
Patot, 181 
Pausanias, 223, 258 

Pauw, 104, 112, 120, 133, 254, 271, 

Paveus, 133 

Pechlin, 108, 192, 222, 223 
Penault, 91 
Pennant, 97, 254, 281 
Perceval, 261 
Pererius, 74 
Peter the Groat, 393 
Petronius, 125, 251 
Peyssonel, 232 
Pflug, 116 
Plater, 103, 252 
Philites, 241 
Phillips, 201 
Picart, 234 
Pinto, 215, 262 
Pistorius, 337 
Pliny, 14, 56, 73, 78, 83, 88, 90, 107, 

128, 129, 133, 138, 139, 141, 258, 

Plutarch, 80 

Poiret, 214 

Pomponius Mela, 128, 139 

Porta, 77 

Portius, 226 

Pownall, 267 

Prevost, 372, 376, 388 

Priscian, 133 

Prizelius, 73 

Ptolemy, 139, 141 

Puente," 247 

Quintilian, 30 
Quiqueran, 89 
Quiros, 275 

Ramsay, 251, 308 

Rauwolf, 127, 128 

Ray, 94, 189, 299, 362 

Reaumur, 76 

Redeker, 335 

Regnard, 271 

Reimar, 73, 82 

Reinhold, 139 

Retzius, 353, 354 

Rhodiginus, 102, 107, 124, 125 

Rhyne, 249 

Richter, 16, 17, 44 

Riecke, 245 

Riet, 108, 222 

Riolan, 91, 249 

Robertson, 254, 272, 274 

Robinet, 86, 172 

Rochefort, 213 

Roggewein, 255 

Romer, 245 

Rondelet, 56 

Rontgen, 22 

Rosen, 116 

Rosinus, 284 

Rousseau, 81, 240, 312, 331, 391 

Rozier, 73 

Rubbi, 254 

Rudbeck, 231 

Rudolphi, 28, 134 

Rueff, 77, 80 

Ruhnken, 33 

Rush, 308, 310 

Russel, 122, 128, 302 

Ruysch, 123 

Rytschkow, 141, 258 

Rzacynski, 72 

Saar, 249 
Sabatier, 241 
Sagard, 273 
Sanders, 23 
Sandifort, 193 
Santorinus, 106 
Sartorius, 34 
Saussure, 261 
Saxo Grammaticus, 80 
Scaliger, 243 
Schelling, 18, 62 
Schenk, 80 
Schilling, 162 
Schlozer, 22, 44, 337 
Schmidt, 349 
Schneider, 89 
Schotte, 223, 245 
Schouten, 247 



Schrage, 166 

Schreber, 113, 134 

Schreiber, 93 

Schreyer, 127, 128 

Schroder van der Kolk, 355 

Schroter, 284 

Schurigius, 126, 271 

Scotin, 96 

Seba, 123 

Seetzen, 22 

Seneca, 13 

Severin, 335 

Shaw, 78, 305 

Sibthorp, 22 

Sickler, 14 

Sloane, 214 

Smetius, 247 

Socrates, 60 

Solinus, 90 

Somrnerring, 28, 51, 156, 157, 179, 

213, 222, 223, 251 
Spallanzani, 79 
Spanberg, 174 
Spangenberg, 335 
Sparrmann, 249, 251, 306 
Speren, 262 

Spigel, 169, 235, 241, 321 
Sprenger, 73 
Stahlin, 99 
Stel, 140 

Steller, 89, 184, 201, 231 
Steno, Nicolas of, 175 
Stephan, 133, 343 
Stieglitz, 28 
Storch, 80 
Storr, 244 

Strabo, 107, 139, 241 
Strack, 213 
Strahlenberg, 134, 220 
Strauss, 258 
Strom eyer, 16 
Sulz, 132 

Sulzer, 93, 97, 262 
Swift, 331, 335 
Syrnnions, 244 

Taberranni, 143 
Tacitus, 233 
Tanner, 44 
Tappe, 258 
Tatter, 161 
Taumiann, 133 
Techo, 271, 273 
Tench, 251, 253 

Themel, 262 
Thevenot, 127 
Thibault, 223 

Thibault de Chanvalon, 241 
Tigurinus Polyhistor, 77 
Toree, 214 
Torqnemada, 241 
Tourtual, 353 
Townley, 230 
Towns, 210 
Trendebiburg, 176 
Trithemius, 142 
Troja, 17 
Tronchin, 126 
Tschudi, 349, 353 
Tulp, 96, 165, 336 
Twiss, 216, 217, 250 
Tychsen, 216 

Tyson, 84, 87, 91, 92, 93, 95, 97, 141, 

Ulloa, 124, 251, 273, 305 
Urnfreville, 257 

Yaillant, 250 

Valentyn, 216, 262 

Vallisneri, 316 

Varro, 73, 78 

Vasa, 315 

Vaugondy, 99, 117, 267 

Venette, 78 

Verulam, 202 

Vesalius, 93, 115, 116, 142, 175, 176, 

177, 240, 241 
Vesling, 143 
Vespucci, 249 
Vicq d'Azyr, 176 
Virgil, 125, 251 
Vitet, 176 
Vitruvius, 107 
Vogel, 133 

Voigt, 9, 43, 165, 191, 203, 286 
Volknmn, 22 
Volney, 231 
Voltaire, 56, 57,60, 134, 136, 250, 270, 

281, 339 
Vosmaer, 172 
Vossius, 135, 137, 140 

Wafer, 127, 134, 135, 136, 137, 262 
Wagner, K., 31> 103, 108, 132, 262, 

347, 349 
Walch, 4, 22, 44, 96 
Waldeck, 21 
Waller, 299 




Wallis, 103, 215 
Walsh, 230, 286 
Walter, 226 
Warton, 201 
Wasse, 182 
Wasteras, 141 
West, 234 

Whang-at-tong, 119 
Wheatley, 310 
Wieland, 81, 308 
Wilson, 210, 272 
Winckelniann, 116, 231 
Winslow, 117, 244, 245 
Winter, 255 
Winterbottom, 305 
Witsen, 122 
Wolff, 157 

Wreden, 16 
Wrisberg, 136 
Wyttenbach, 33 

Xenocrates, 22 

Yonge, 221 

Yvo, 245, 250, 270 

Zach, 31 

Zachias, 77 

Zahn, 88 

Zain, 180 

Zimmermann, 210, 215, 254, 268, 

Zingendorf, 59, 331 
Zucchelli, 81 





Fig. 2. 

Plate H. 


Tig. 4 

Fig. 5. 


Tion cotxjk-A-t 7? e 

n o\t 




t^e^n^rz-aes stie<rrQ 




,H%"0jj0l00ud S>8t%zty of Stottiurir. 

(Corrected to January 17th, 1865.) 



JAMES HUNT, Esq., Ph.D., F.S.A., F.E.S.L., Honorary Foreign Sec- 
retary of the Boyal Society of Literature of Great Britain, Foreign 
Associate of the Anthropological Society of Paris, Honorary Fellow of 
the Ethnological Society of London, Corresponding Member of the 
Upper Hesse Society for Natural and Medical Science, etc. 

CAPTAIN BICHAED F. BUETON, F.E.G.S., H.M. Consul at Santos, etc. 

Associate of the Anthropological Society of Paris. 

Hottoratg .Secretaries* 
GEOEGE E. EOBEETS, ESQ., F.G.S., Foreign Associate of the Anthro- 
pological Society of Paris. 
WILLIAM BOLLAEET, ESQ., Corr. Mem. Univ. Chile, and Ethno. 
Socs. London and New York. 

i^oitorarg .foreign Sccretarg. 

ALFEED HIGGINS, ESQ., Foreign Associate of the Anthropological 

Society of Paris. 



Foreign Associate of the Anthropological Society of Paris. 

W. WIN WOOD EEADE, ESQ., F.E.G.S., Corr. Mem. Geographical Society 

of Paris. 


President of the Numismatic Society of London. 

Curator, HSLibvariart, anfl Assistant Serrctarg* 

CHAELES CAETEE BLAKE, ESQ., F.G.S., Foreign Associate of the 

Anthropological Society of Paris. 






The names ivith * before them are those of Fellows who have com- 
pounded for their Annual Subscription. 

^[ These Fellows have contributed Papers to the Society. 
| These Fellows are Members of Council. 
| These Fellows are also Local Secretaries. 

a Beckett, Arthur W., Esq. 17 King Street, S. James's, S.W. 

Adams, Henry John, Esq. 14 Thornhill Square, N. 

Adlam, William, Esq. Manor Souse, Chew Magna, Somerset. 

Aley, Frederick W., Esq. 8 Thurloe Place, South Kensington, W. 

Arden, R. E., Esq., F.G.S., F.R.G.S.. Sunbury Park, Middlesex, S.E. 

Armitage, W., Esq. Toionfield House, Altrincham. 

Armitstead, T. B., Esq. 

Arundell, Rodolph, Esq. 34 Upper Montagu Street, Montagu Square. 

Ash, Charles Frederick, Esq., 20 and 21 Upper Thames Street, E.C. 

Ashbury, John, Esq. 9 Sussex Place, Hyde Park Gardens, W. 

Atkinson, Henry George, Esq., F.G.S. 18 Upper Gloucester Placed .W. 

Austin, Richard, Esq. Pernambuco. 

Aitken, Thomas, Esq., M.D., Member of the Anthropological Society 

of Paris. District Lunatic Asylum, Inverness. 
Airston, William Baird, Esq., M.D. S. Andrew's, Fife. 
Avery, John Gould, Esq. 40 Belsize Park, N.W. 

*Babington, C. Cardale, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. , Sec. 
Cambridge Phil. Soc, Prof. Botany, Cambridge. S. John's 
College, Cambridge. 

Babington, William, Esq. Hulk "Princess Royal," Bonny River, 
West Coast of Africa. 

Baker, Benson, Esq., M.R.C.S.E. 6 Cross Street, Islington. 

Baker, J. P., Esq., M.R.C.S. 6 York Place, Portman Square, W. 

Barr, W. R., Esq. Park Mills, Stockport. 

Barr, Joseph Henry, Esq., M.R.C.S. Ardwick Green, Manchester. 

Bartlett, Edw., Esq. 8 King William Street, E.C. 

Barton, Alfred, Esq., F.R.G.S. 31 Craven Street, Strand; and 
Oriental Club, W. 

Beal, The Rev. S., Chaplain Royal Marine Artillery. Fort Cumber- 
land, Portsmouth. 

a 2 


Beale, John S., Esq. 4 Partem Road, W. 

f Beavan, Hugh J. C, Esq., F.R.G.S. 13 Blandford Square, Regents 
Park, N.W; and Grafton Club, W. 

Beardsley, Amos, Esq., F.L.S., F.G.S. The Grange, near Ulver stone, 

Beddoe, John, Esq., M.D., F.E.S., Foreign Associate of the Anthro- 
pological Society of Paris. Clifton. 

*f \ Bendyshe, Thos., Esq., M.A. Vice-President. 88 Cambridge 
Street, Pimlico, S.W. 

Benson, W. F. G., Esq. South Road, Waterloo, near Liverpool. 

Bertram, George, Esq. Sciennes Street, Edinburgh. 

Best, the Hon. Capt. Convict Prison, Princetoion, Dartmoor, Devon. 

Bingham, H. C, Esq. Wartnaby Hall, near Melton Moivbray. 

\ Blake, Charles Carter, Esq., F.G.S., Foreign Associate of 
the Anthropological Society of Paris, Member of the Comite 
d'Archeologie Americaine de France. Curator, Librarian, and 
Assistant Secretary. 4 S. Martin's Place, W.C.; and 6 Kings- 
wood Place, South Lambeth, S. 

Blakely, T. A., Capt. 84 Montpellier Square, S.W. 

Bledsoe, A. T., Esq., LL.D. 33 Argyll Road, Kensington, W. 

Blonnt, J. Hillier, Esq., M.D. Bagshol, Surrey. 

f ^[Bollaert, AVm., Esq., Corr. Mem. Ethno. Socs., London, New York 
and Univ. Chile. Honorary Secretary. 21a Hanover Square, W. 

Bond, Walter M., Esq. The Argory, Moy, Lreland. 

Bonney, Rev. T. George, M.A., F.G.S. S. John's College, Cambridge. 

Boase, Henry S.,Esq., M.D., F. II. S., F.G.S. Claverhouse, near Dundee. 

\ Bosworth, The Rev. Joseph, D.D., Trin. Coll., Cambridge, and of 
Christ Church, Oxford, Prof. Anglo-Saxon, Dr.Phil. of Leyden, 
F.R.S., F.S.A., F.R.S.L., Corresponding Member of the Royal 
Institute of the Netherlands, etc., etc. 20 Beaumont Square, Oxford ; 
and Water Stratford, Buckingham. 

Boulton, George, Esq. 1 Gordon Square, W.C. 

f ^[ Bouverie-Pusey, S. E. B., Esq., F.E.S. 7 Green Street, W. 

Boreham, W. W., Esq., F.R.A.S. Haverhill, Suffolk, 

Boys, Jacob, Esq. Grand Parade, Brighton. 

Brabrook, E. W,, Esq., F.S.A. 3 Parliament Street, S.W. 

Braddon, Henry, Esq. 5 Dane's Inn, W.C. 

Brady, Antonio, Esq., F.G.S. Maryland Point, Stratford, Essex. 

Braggiotti, George M., Esq. New York. (Care of Messrs. Corpi 
and Co., 10 Austin Friars.) 

Brainsford, C, Esq., M.D. Haverhill, Suffolk. 

Brinton, John, Esq. The Shrubbery, Kidderminster. 

Brebner, James, Esq., Advocate. 20 Albyn Place, Aberdeen. 

Brickwood, J. S., Esq. Claremont House, Tunbridge Wells. 

Brodhurst, Bernard Edward, Esq., F.R.C.S. 20 Grosvenor St., W. 

Brooke, His Highness, Rajah Sir James, K.C.B. Burraton, Horra- 
bridge, Devon. 

Brookes, Henry, Esq. 26 Great Winchester Street, E.C. 

Brown, Edward, Esq. Oak Hill, Snrbiton Hill, S. 
Brown, E. O., Esq. Chemical Department, Royal Arsenal, Woolwich. 
Brown, James Roberts, Esq., F. R.S.N. A. Copenhagen. Scaleby 
Lodge, Camden Road, Holloway, N. 

Bunkell, Henry Christopher, Esq. 1 Penn Road, Caledonian Road, 

Holloivay, N. 
Burke, John S., Esq. 4 Queen Square, Westminster, S.W. 
f f Burton, Captain Richard Fenwick, F.R.G.S., H.M. Consul, 

Santos, Brazil. Vice-President. 34 Upper Montagu Street, 

Montagu Square, W. ; and Santos, Brazil. 
Burton, Samuel, Esq. Churchill House, Daventry. 
Butler, Henry, Esq. Admiralty, Somerset House, W.C. 
*Buxton, Charles, Esq., M.P. 7 Grosvenor Crescent, S.W. 
Byerley, J., Esq. Seacombe, Cheshire. 
Byham, George, Esq. War Office, Pall Mall, S.W. ; and Ealing, 

*Cabbell, Benj. Bond, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 52 Portland Place, W. 

Cameron, Captain, H.M. Consul. Massouah, Abyssinia. 

Campbell, Henry, Esq. 6 Claremont Gardens, Glasgow. 

* Campbell, J. Bangkok, Siam. (Care of Messrs. Smith and Elder, 
Pall Mall.) 

Campbell, Montgomery, Esq. 39a Wigmore Street, Cavendish Square,W . 

Cannon, Thomas, Esq. 13 Paternoster Roto, E.C. 

Caplin, Dr. J. F. 9 York Place, Portman Square, W. 

Capper, Charles, Esq. 9 Mincing Lane, E.C. 

Cartwright, Samuel, Professor. 32 Old Burlington Street, W. 

Carulla, Facundo, Esq., Honorary Member Manchester Scientific 
Student's Association. (Care of) Messrs. J. Daglish and Co., Har- 
rington Street, Liverpool ; and 91 Paseo de Julio, Buenos Ayres. 

Cassell, John, Esq. La Belle Sauvage Yard, Ludgate Hill, E.C. 

f Chambers, Charles Harcourr, Esq., M.A. 2 Chesham Place, S.W. 

Chambers, William, Esq. Aberystwith. 

Charlton, Henry, Esq. Birmingham. 

Chamberlin, William, Esq. 4 Hervey Terrace, Brighton. 

Chance, F., Esq., M.D. 48 Eversfield Place, S. Leonard's on Sea. 

t H Charnock, Richard Stephen, Esq., Ph.D., F.S.A., F.R.G.S., 
F.R.S.S.A., Foreign Associate of the Anthropological Society 
of Paris, Foundation Member of the Royal Society of Northern 
Antiquaries, Corresponding Member of the New England Historic- 
Genealogical Society. Treasurer. 4 S. Martin's Place, W.C. ; 
8 Gray's Inn Square, W.C; and 30 The Grove, Hammersmith. 

Chignell, Hendrick Agnis, Esq. 47 York Road, Brighton. 

Clare, Rev. Henry, M.A., F.R.S.L. Crossens, North Meots, Ormskirk. 

Clarendon, The Right Honourable The Earl of, K.G., G.C.B., F.R.S. 
Grosvenor Crescent, W. 

Clement, William James, Esq., F.E.S. The Council House, Shrewsbury. 

Clerk, Lieutenant- Colonel H., R.A. Royal Arsenal, Woolivich. 

Cock, John, Esq., jun., F.R.H.S., M.S. A. South Molton. 

Cockings, W. Spencer, Esq., F.E.S. 

Coles, Henry, Esq. Science and Art Department, Kensington, W. 

Collier, J. Payne, Esq., F.S.A. Maidenhead. 

\ Collingwood, J. Frederick, Esq., F.R.S.L., F.G.S., Foreign Associate 

of the Anthropological Society of Paris. Vice-President. 4 S. 

Martin's Place, W.C.; and 54 Gloucester Street, Belgrave Road, S.W. 
f Collingwood, S. Edwin, Esq., F.Z.S. 26 Buckingham Place, Brighton. 
Cooke, W. Fothergill, Esq. Electric Telegraph Office, London 
Cooper, Sir Daniel, Bart. 20 Prince's Terrace, Vv 7 . 
.Cory, W., Esq. 4 Gordon Place, W.C. 
Cossham, Handel, Esq., F.G.S. Shorhvood Lodge, Bristol. 
Courtauld, Samuel, Esq. Gosfield Hall, Essex. 
Cowell, J. Jermyn, Esq. 41 Gloucester Terrace, Hyde Park, W. 
Cox, J. W. Conrad, Esq., B.A. 32 Westhourne Place, Eaton Square; 

and 4 Grove Hill, Woodford, N.E. 
Cox, W. T., Esq. The Hall, Spornton, Derby. 

* Cozens, J. F. W., Esq. Larkbere Lodge, Clapham Park, S. 
Crassweller, Henry Valentine, Esq. 133 Leighton Road, Kentish 

Town, N.W. 
Critchett, George, Esq. 75 Harley Street, Cavendish Square, W. 
Crolly, The Rev. J. M., Ph.D. Trimdon. 
Crowley, Henry, Esq. Corporation Street, Manchester. 
Croxford, George Rayner, Esq. Forest Gate, Essex, E. 

* Cuthbert, J. R. ; Esq. Chapel Street, Liverpool. 

Daniell, Hurst, Esq. 4 Highbury Park West, Highbury Hill, N. 

Davey, J. G., Esq., M.D. Northwoods, near Bristol. 

Davies, F. Drummond, Esq. Hare Court, Temple. 

^J Davis, J. Barnard, Esq., M.D., F.S.A., Foreign Associate of the 

Anthropological Society of Paris. Shelton, Staffordsldre. 
Dawson, George, Esq., M.A., F.G.S. 40 Belgrave Road, Birmingham. 
De Home, John, Esq. 137 Offord Road, Barnsbury Park, London, N. 
Dibley, G., Esq. 72 Maiden Road, N.W. 
Dickinson, Henry, Esq., Colonial Surgeon. Ceylon. 

* Dingle, Rev. John, M.A. Lanchester, near Durham. 
Dobson, Thomas J., Esq. Kingston upon Hull. 

Donaldson, Prof. John, Advocate. Marchfield House, near Edinburgh. 

Dowie, James, Esq. Strand 

Drake, Francis, Esq., F.G.S. Leicester. 

Driver, H., Esq. Windsor. 

Drummond, John, Esq. The Boyle Court, Gloucester. 

}DuChaillu,M.PaulBelloni,F.R.G.S., (care of) 129 Mount Street, W. 

Duncan, Peter Martin, M.B., F.G.S., Secretary of the Geological 

Society of London. 8 Belmont, Lee, S.E. 
Du Val, C. A., Esq. Carlton Grove, Greenhays, Manchester , 
Duggan, J. R., Esq. 42 Waiting Street, E.C. 

*Eassie, William, Esq., F.L.S., F.G.S. 11 Park Road, Regent's 

Park, N.W. 
Eeles, Charles William, Esq., R.N. H.M.S Victoria. 
Evans, E. Bickerton, Esq. Whitboume Hall, Doddenham, near 

Evans, John, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. , F.S.A., Secretary to the Numis- 
matic Society of London. Nash Mills, Hemel Hempstead, 
Ewart, William, Esq. United University Club, S.W. 
Eyre, Sir Edward John. Governor of Jamaica. King's House, Jamaica. 
J^Fairbank, Frederick Royston, Esq., M.D., F.E.S. S. Man/ s 

Terrace, Hulme, Manchester. 
Farmer, Edmund, Esq. 80 Cheapside, E.C. 
^jFarrar, Rev. Frederic W., M.A., F.E.S. Harrow, N.W. 
Fearon, Frederick, Esq. 13 Pall Mall, S.W. ; and Maidenhead. 
Ferguson, William, Esq., F.L.S., F.G.S. (Of Kinnendy, Ellon, 

Aberdeen.) 2 S. Aidan's Terrace, Birkenhead. 
Firby, Edwin Foxton, Esq. Gravelthorpe, near Ripon, Yorkshire. 
Firebrace, Frederick, Esq., Lieutenant Royal Engineers. Shomcliffe. 
Fleming, Captain, 3rd Hussars. Cavalry Barracks, Manchester. 
Flight, Walter, Esq. Queenivood College, near Stockbridge, Hants. 
Forrester, Joseph James, Esq. 6 S. Helen's Place, E.C. 
Foster, Balthazar W., Esq., M.D., Professor of Anatomy at Queen's 

College, Birmingham. 55 Calthorpe Street, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 
Foster, M., Esq., M.D. Huntingdon. 

Fraser, Adolphus Alexander, Esq. War Office, Pall Mall. 
Freeman, Henry Stanhope, Esq., Governor of Lagos. 27 Bury Street, 

S. James's. 
Freme, Major. Army and Navy Glnh, St. James's Square, S.W. 
Freuler, H. Albert, Esq., M.D. North Street, S. Andrew's. 
Fuller, Stephen D., Esq. 1 Eaton Place, S.W. 
Furnell, M. C, Esq., M.D. Cochin, Madras Presidency. 

Garrett, William H., Esq. 98 Guildford Street, W.C. 
Gardner, Charles Henry, Esq. 5 Clarendon Villas, Loughboro Park, S. 
Georgei, Professor. 18 Wimpole Street, Cavendish Square, W. 
f^Gibb, George Duncan, Esq., M.D., LL.D., M.A., F.G.S. 

19a Portman Street, Portman Square, W. 
Gibson, G. S., Esq. Saffron Walden. 
Glaucopides, Spyridon, Esq. 7 Maitland Park Crescent, Haverstock 

Hill, N. 

Glennie, J. Stuart, Esq. 6 Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, E.C. 

Goadby, Edwin, Esq. Loughborough, Leicestershire. 

Gooch, Thomas, Esq. 63 London Wall, City. 

%\ Gore, Richard Thos., Esq., F.R.C.S., F.E.S. 6 Queen's Square, Bath. 

Gay, David, Esq. 74 Cheapside, E.C. 

Green, Sidney Faithhorn, Esq. Montagu House, Eltham, Kent. 

Gregor, Rev. Walter, M.A. Pitsligo Manse, Rosehearty, Aberdeenshire. 

Gregory, J. R., Esq. 25 Golden Square, W. 

Grifhts, James Oliff, Esq. 3 Middle Temple Lane, E.C 
\ Guppy, H. F. J., Esq. Port of Spain, Trinidad. 

Hall, Hugh F., Esq. 17 Dale Street, Liverpool. 

Hammond, C. D., Esq., M.D. 1 1 Charlotte Street, Bedford Sq., W.C 

Hancock, H. J. B., Esq. Duke's Hill, Bagshol. 

Hardman, William, Esq. Norbiton Hall, Kingston-on-Thames, S.W. 

Harcourt, Clarence, Esq. 2 King's Arms Yard, E.C; and Cliff 
Villa, Ladywell, Lewisham. 

Harland, Charles J., Esq. Madeira Place, Torquay. 

Harlin, Thomas, Esq. Brook Street, Kingston on Thames. 

Harris, George, Esq., F.S.A., Registrar of the Court of Bankruptcy, 
Manchester. Cornbrook Park, Hulme, Manchester. 

Haughton, Richard, Esq. Ramsgate. 

Hawkins, A. G., Esq. 88 Bishopsgate Street Without, E.C. 

Hay, Major W. E. 16 Queen Street, Mayfair, S.W. 

Healey, Edward C, Esq. Joldivynds, near Dorking, Surrey. 

Heath, the Rev. Dunbar I., F.R.S.L. Esher, Surrey. 

Hepworth, John Mason, Esq., J. P. Ackioorth, Yorkshire. 

Hewlett, Alfred, Esq. The Grange, Coppull, near Wigan. 

Higgin, James, Esq. Hopivood Avenue, Manchester. 

f Higgins, Alfred, Esq., Foreign Associate of the Anthropological 
Society of Paris. Honorary Foreign Secretary. 4 S.Martin's 
Place, W.C; and 26 Manchester Street, W. 

Hillier, J., Esq. Sandwich. 

Hobbs, W. G. E., Esq. The Grammar School, Wareside, Ware, Herts. 

Hobler, F. H., Esq. Chemical Department, Royal Arsenal, Woohvich. 

Hodge, Thomas, Esq. South Street, S. Andrew's. 

Hodgson, B. H., Esq. The Rangers, Dursley. 

Holland, Colonel James. 24 Princes Square, Hyde Park. 

Horton, W. I. S., Esq., F.R.A.S., F.E.S. Talbot Villa, Rugeley. 

Hotze, Henry, Esq., C.S.A. 17 Savile Row, W. 

Hudson, Professor F., F.C.S. 68 Corporation Street, Manchester. 

Hudson, Henry, Esq., M.D. Glenville, Fermoy, Co. Cork. 

Hunt, Augustus H., Esq. Birtley House, Chester-le- Street. 

Hunt, G. S. Lennox, Esq., F.E.S. , H.B.M. Consul. Rio de Janeiro. 

f^fHunt, James, Esq., Ph.D., F.S.A., F.R.S.L., Honorary Foreign 
Secretary of the Royal Society of Literature of Great Britain, 
Foreign Associate of the Anthropological Society of Paris, Corr. 
Mem. of Upper Hesse Society for Natural and Medical Science, 
Honorary Fellow of the Ethnological; Society of London. Pre- 
sident. 4 S. Martin's Place, W.C; 35 Jermyn Street, S.W.; and 
Ore House, near Hastings. 

Hunt, John, Esq. 42 North Parade, Grantham. 
Hutchinson, Jonathan, Esq., F.R.CS. 4 Finsbury Circus, E.C. 
Hutchinson, T. J., Esq., F.R.G.S., F.R.S.L., F.E.S., Membre Titu- 
laire de llnstitut d'Afrique a. Paris, Corresponding Member of the 
Literary and Philosophic Society of Liverpool. H.B.M. Consul at 
Rosario, Argentine Confederation. 


Ioannides, A., Esq., M.D. 8 Chepstoio Place, Bayswater, W. 
Izard, Frederick R., Esq. 141 High Holborn. 

Jackson, Henry, Esq., F.E.S. S. James 1 Roto, Sheffield. 
Jackson, H. W., Esq., M.R.C.S. Surrey County Asylum, Tooting. 
Jackson, J. Hughlings, Esq., M.D., M.R.C.P., Professor of Physiology 

at the London Hospital Medical College. 5 Queen Square, Russell 

Square, W.C. 
JJackson, J. W., Esq. 39 S. George's Road, Glasgoio. 
Jacob, Major- General Le Grand, C.B. Bonchurch, Isle of Wight. 
Jardine, Sir William, Bart., F.R.S., F.L.S. Jar dine Hall, Lockerby. 
Jarratt, The Rev. John, M.A. North Cave, Brough, Yorkshire. 
Jeffery, William S., Esq. 5 Regent Street, Pall Mall, S.W. 
Jellicoe, Charles, Esq. 23 Chester Terrace, Regent's Park, N.W. 
-Mennings, William, Esq., F.R.G.S. 13 Victoria Street, S.W. 
Jenyns, The Rev. Leonard, M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. Darlington Place, 

Bathwick, Bath. 
Jessopp, The Rev. J., M.A., Head Master King Edward the Sixth's 

School. The School House, Norwich. 
Johnson, Henry, Esq. 39 Crutched Friars. 
Johnson, Henry James, Esq. 8 Suffolk Place, S.W. 
Johnson, Richard, Esq. Langton Oaks, Falloiofield. 
Jones, J. Pryce, Esq. Grove Park School, Wrexham. 
Jones, C. Treasure, Esq., H.M. Consul, Shanghae. British Consulate, 

Jones, W. T., Esq. 1 Montague Place, Kentish Toion, N.W. 

Kelly, William, Esq. 28 Rue Neuve Ghaussee, Boidogne-sur-Mer. 
Kemm, the Rev. William Henry, B.A. Swanswick, near Bath. 
Kendall, T. M., Esq. St. Margaret" 1 ' s Place, King's Lynn, Norfolk. 
Killick, Joshua Edward, Esq. 187 Strand, W.C. 
|King, Kelburne, Esq., M.D., Lecturer on Anatomy, Hull ; Presi- 

sident of the Hull Literary and Philosophical Society. 27 George 

Street, Hull. 
Kinlay, W. R. H., Esq., F.R.S.E. 2 Neiu Smithills, Paisley. 

La Barte, Rev. W. W., M.A. St. John's College, Newbury (Berks). 
*^[Laing, Samuel, Esq., F.G.S. 6 Kensington Gardens Terrace, 

Hyde Park, W. 
Lampray, Thomas, Esq. Warrior Lodge, The Grore, Hammersmith. 
Lancaster, John, Esq., F.G.S. Hindley Hall, near Wigan. 
Land, T. A. Augustus, Esq. Bryanston Street, Bryanston Square. 
Langley, J. N., Esq. Moivbray Park, Wolverhampton. 
Lawrence, Edward, Esq. Brachmount, Aigburth, Liverpool. 
Lawrence, Frederick, Esq. Essex Court, Temple, E.C. 
W Lee, Rd., Esq. Wilmot House, Leeds Road, Bradford, Yorkshire. 



Lees, Samuel, Esq. Portland Place, Ashton-under- Lyne. 

Leitner, G. W., Esq., M.A., Ph.D., F.R.A.S., F.E.S., F.P.S., Pro- 
fessor of Arabic and Mohammedan Law, and Dean of the Oriental 
Section, King's College, London; Hon. Member and Master of the 
Free German Hochstift ; Examiner in Oriental Languages at the 
College of Preceptors. Government College, Lahore, India. 

Levy, W. Hanks, Esq., Director of the Association for Promoting the 
General Welfare of the Blind; 127 Euston Road, W.C. 

Lister, John, Esq., F.G.S. 28 Porchester Terrace, Baysioater ; and 
Shebdon Sail, near Halifax, Yorkshire. 

Lockyer, J. Norman, Esq., F.R.A.S., M.R.I. War Office, Pall 
Mall, S.W. ; and 24 Victoria Road, Finchley Road, N.W. 

Longman, William, Esq., F.G.S., F.R.S.L., F.R.G.S. 36 Hyde Park 
Square, W. 

Lonsdale, Henry, Esq., M.D. Carlisle. 

Lord, Edward, Esq. Canal Street Works, Todmorden. 

Lucas, Thomas, Esq. Belvedere Road, Lambeth, S.; and 10 Hyde 
Park Gardens, W. 

Lucy, W. C, Esq., F.G.S. Claremont House, Gloucester. 

Lukis, Rev. W. C. Wath Rectory, Ripon. 

Luxmoore, Coryndon H., Esq., F.S. A. 18 S. John's Wood Park, N.W. 

Lybbe, Philip Powys Lybbe, Esq., M.P. 88 S. James's Street. 

M 'Arthur, Alexander Mc, Esq. Raleigh Hall, Brixton Rise. 
Macclelland, James, Esq. 73 Kensington Gardens Square, Baysioater. 
JM'Donald, William, Esq., M.D., F.L.S., F.G.S., Professor of Civil 

and Nat. Hist, in the University of St. Andrew's. St. Andrew's. 
McCallum, Arthur E„ Esq,, 39th Madras Native Infantry. (Care of) 

Messrs. Stnith, Elder, and Co., Pall Mall, S.W. 
McDonnell, John, Esq., F.C.S.L. Clare Villa, Rathmines, Dublin. 
McHenry, George, Esq. (Care of) 17 Savile Row, W. 
Mackenzie, Kenneth Robert Henderson, Esq., F.S. A. Orford House, 

Chisivick Mall, W. 
Mackinder, Draper, Esq., M.D. Gainsborough. 
Mackintosh, Charles E., Esq. New Cross, S.E. 
Macleay, George, Esq., F.L.S. Hyde Park Gardens. 
McLeod, Walter, Esq. Military Hospital, Chelsea, S.W. 
Marsden, Robert C, Esq. 14 Hanover Terrace, Regent's Park, N.W. 
Marshall, George W., Esq., L.L.B. 118 Jermyn Street, S.W. ; and 

Neiv University Club, S. James's Street, S.W. 
Marshall, Robert, Esq. Haverstock Villa, Haverstock Hill, N. 
Martin, Sir J. Ranald, F.R.S. 24 Upper Brook Street, W.; and 

Key dell, near Homdean, Hants. 
Martin, John, Esq., F.L.S., F.G.S. Cambridge House, Portsmouth. 
Martindale, N., Esq. The Lodge, Clapham Common, S. 
Mathieson, James, Esq. 1a Telegraph Street, Bank, E.C.; and 22 

Belitha Villas, Barnsbury Park, N. 


Matthews, Henry, Esq. 30 Gower Street, W.C. 

Mayall, J. E., Esq. The Grove, Pinner. 

Mayson, John S., Esq. Oak Hill, near Fallowfield, Manchester. 

Medd, William H., Esq. The Mansion House, Stockport. 

Messenger, Samuel, Esq. Birmingham. 

Michie, Alexander, Esq., F.R.G.S. 26 Austin Friars, E.C. ; and 

Shanghae, China. (Care of) Messrs. Smith, Elder, and Go. 
Mill, John, Esq. 1 Foundling Terrace, W.C. ; and Gresham House 

City, E.C. 
Milligan, Joseph, Esq., M.D., F.G.S., F.L.S. 15 Northumberland 

Street, Strand, W.C; and Royal Society of Tasmania, Hobart Town. 
Milner, W. R., Esq. Wakefield. 

f* Milton, The Right Honourable the Lord Viscount, F.R.G.S. 
4 Grosvenor Square, W.C. 

Mirrlees, J. B., Esq. Sauchiehall, Glasgoiv. 

Mitchell, Wm. Hen., Esq. Junior Carlton Club; and Hamp stead, N.W. 

Mitchell, William Stephen, Esq. Gonville and Caius College, 

Cambridge ; New Universitg Club, S. James's Street; and S. 

George's Lodge, Bath. 

Mivart, St. George J., Esq., F.L.S. , M.R.I. (Care of) Royal Institu- 
tion, Albemarle Street, and North Bank, N.W. 

Modeliar, C. Poorooshottum, Esq. 33 Western Villas, Blomfield 
Road, Padding ton, W. 

Monk, Frederick William, Esq. Faversham. 

Montgomerie, F. B., Esq. 2 Cleveland Roto, S. James's, S.W. ; and 
Conservative Club, St. James's Street, S.W. 

Moon, the Rev. M. A. Cleator, Whitehaven. 

Moore, J. Daniel, Esq., M.D., F.L.S. County Lunatic Asylum, 

Moore, John, Esq. 104 Bishopsgate Street, E.C. 
Moore, George, Esq., M.D. Hartlepool. 
Morgan, Fortescue J., Esq. High Street, Stamford. 
JMorris, David, Esq., F.S.A. Market Place, Manchester. 
Morris, J. P., Esq. Ulverstone. 

Morison, J. Cotter, Esq., F.R.S.L. 7 For chester Square, Baysivater,W . 
Morshead, Edward John, Esq. War Office, Pall Mall, S.W. 
Mortimer, John, Esq. Pippingham Park, Uckfield, S. 
Mould, The Rev. Joseph, M.A. 16 Bernard Street, Russell Sq., W.C. 
Mosheimer, Joseph, Esq. 10 Alexander Square, Brompton, S.W.; 

and 11 Newton Street, Manchester. 
Muller, Prof. August. Konigsberg, Prussia. 

Murphy, Edward W., Esq. 41 Cumberland Street, Bryanstone Sq., W. 
Musgrave, John George, Esq. Andover. 

Naoroji, Dadabhai, Esq. 32 Great S. Helen's, E.C. 

Nash, D. W., Esq. 21 Bentinck Street, Manchester Square. 

'I Nesbitt, George, Esq. 4 St. Nicholas Buildings, Newcastle-on- Tyne. 


Newmarch, William, Esq., F.L.S. 17 Palace Gardens Terrace, 

Notting Hill, W. 
Newnham, The Rev. P. H., M.A. 9 Belvedere Terrace, Tunbridge Wells. 
Newton, Henry, Esq. 13 Hood Street, Neiccastle- on-Tyne. 
Nicholson, Sir Charles, Bart., D.C.L., LL.D., F.G.S. 19 Portland 

Place, W.C. 
Nicholson, John Peede Segrave Carington, Esq. Castle Home, 

Whittlesea, Cambridgeshire. 
Noel, The Hon. Roden. Warlies, Wallliam Abbey. 
Noldwritt, J. S., Esq. 5 Water Lane, Tower Street, E.C. 
North, Samuel W., Esq. York. 
f North, George, Esq. 4 Dane's Inn, W.C. 

O'Connor, Colonel L. Smyth, Inspecting Field Officer. Belfast; 

Union Club, Trafalgar Square ; and United Service Club, Pall Mall, 

Ogston, G. H., Esq. Mincing Lane, E.C. 
O'Sullivan, The Honourable J. L. (of New York), late U.S. Minister 

to Portugal. 7 Park Street, Grosvenor Square. 
Osborne, Major J. W. Willoughby, C.B., F.G.S. SeJwre Residency, 

India. (Care of) Messrs. Grindlay and Co., 55 Parliament Street. 
Owen, Robert Briscoe, Esq., M.D., F.L.S. Haulfre, Beaumaris. 
Owen, H. Burnard, Esq., F.R.S.L., F.R.G.S. 72 Gower Street, 

Bedford Square, W.C. 
Owen, Captain Samuel R. John, P.H. Ass. King's College, London. 

113a Strand. 

Packman, J. D. V., Esq., F.L.S. Braughing, Ware, Herts. 

X Palmer, S., Esq., M.D., F.S.A. London Road, Neivbury. 

Parker, J. W., Esq. Warren Corner House, near Farnham. 

Parnell, John, Esq. Upper Clapton, S. 

Parry, Dashwood G., Esq. Hope, near Wrexham. 

Peacock, Edward, Esq , F.S.A. Bottesford Manor, Lincolnshire. 

\ Peacock, Thomas Bevill, Esq., M.D. 20 Finsbury Circus, E.C. 

Peiser, John, Esq. Barnsfield House, Oxford Street, Manchester. 

jPengelly, William, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. Lamoma, Torquay. 

Perrin, John Beswick, Esq. Ivy House, Abram, near Wigan. 

Perry, Gerald, Esq., H.M. Consul. French Guiana. 

Petherick, Horace W., Esq. 2 Denmark Villas, Wadron End Road, 

Croydon, S. 
Piesse, G. W. Septimus, Esq., Ph.D., F.C.S. Chiswick, W. 
f^Pike, Luke Owen, Esq., M.A. 25 Carlton Villas, Maida Vale, W. 
Pinkerton, W., Esq., F.S.A. Hounsloiv, W. 
Plummer, Charles. 21 Old Square, Lincoln' 's Inn, W.C. 
Prigg, Henry, Esq., jun. Bury St. Edmunds. 
\ \ Pritchard, William T., Esq. Spring Hill, Birmingham. 

Radcliffe, John, Esq. Oldham. 

Rae, James, Esq. 32 Phillimore Gardens, Kensington, W. 


Ramsay, A., jun., Esq. 45 Norland Square, Notting Hill, W. 

Rankin, G, C, Esq. Conservative Club, S.W. 

Ratcliff, Charles, Esq., F.L.S., F.S.A., F.G.S., F.E.S. The 

Wyddringtons, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 
f^Reade, William Winwood, Esq., F.R.G.S., Corr. Mem. Geo- 
graphical Society of Paris. Conservative Club, S.W. 
\ ^[ Reddie, James, Esq. The Admiralty, Somerset House, W.C. ; and 

Bridge House, Hammersmith, W. 
Renshaw, Charles J., Esq., M.D. Ashton- on- Mersey, Manchester. 
Ricardo, M., Esq. Brighton. 

Richards, Franklin, Esq. 12 Addison Crescent, Kensington, W. 
Richards, Colonel. Wyndham Clnb, St. James's. 
Richardson, Charles, Esq. Almondsbury, Bristol. 
Riddell, H. B., Esq. The Palace, Maidstone. 
| ^f Roberts, George E., Esq., F.G.S., Foreign Associate of the 

Anthropological Society of Paris. Honorary Secretary. 

Geological Society, Somerset House, W.C; 7 Caversham Road, 

N.W.; and 5 Bull Ring, Kidderminster. 
Robertson, Alexander, Esq. Chantrey Parle, Sheffield. 
Robertson, D. B., Esq., H.M. Consul, Canton. Canton. (Care of 

Messrs. Smith, Elder, and Co., Pall Mall.) 
Rock, James, Esq., jun. St. Leonard'' s-on-Sea. 
Rogers, Alfred S., Esq., L.D.S. St. John's Street, Manchester. 
f Rolph, George Frederick, Esq., M.A.C.R. War Office, Pall Mall, 

S.W. ; and 10 Leinster Square, Bayswater. 
Roussillon, The Duke of. 17 Weymouth Street, Portland Place, W. 
Routh, E. J., Esq., F.G.S. 8. Peter's College, Cambridge. 
f Ruffieres, Charles Robert des, Esq., F.G.S. , F.E.S. Wilmot Lodge, 

Rochester Roto, Camden Town, N.W. 
Ruskin, V., Esq. Northtoich, Cheshire. 
Russell, Captain A.H. Haioke's Bay, Napier, New Zealand. 

Sanders, Alfred, Esq. 22 Beaufort Villas, Brixton, S. 

Saint David's, The Right Rev. Connop Thirlwall, the Lord Bishop 

of, President of the Royal Society of Literature! Abergwyli Palace, 

near Carmarthen ; and 1 Regent Street, W. 
St. John, Spencer, Esq., F.R.G.S. H.M. Consul. Hayti. 
Salmon, William, Esq., F.G.S. Ulver stone. 
Salting, William, Esq. 13 King's Bench Walk, Temple, E.G. 
Sanderson, Alfred W., Esq. 16 Archibald Street, Boio, E. 
\ «[f Schvarcz, Julius, Esq., Ph.D., F.G.S., Corr. Mem. E.S., Member 

of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Stuhhveissenberg, Hungary. 
Schwabe, E. S., Esq. Rhodes Terrace, Manchester. 
Scott, The Rev. Robert S., M.A. 7 Beaufort Terrace, Cecil Street, 


Scott, Wentworth L., Esq., F.C.S. 12 Cornwall Villas, Bayswater. 
fSeemann, Berthold, Esq., Ph.D., F.L.S., F.R.G.S., Adjunct Prte- 

sidii of the Imperial L. C. Academia Naturae Curiosorum. 

Vice-President. 22 Canonbury Square, Islington, N. 


Selwyn, the Reverend William, D.D., Canon of Ely, Lady Margaret's 

Reader in Theology, Cambridge. 
Seymour, George, Esq. 94 Cambridge Street, Pimlico. 
Sharp, Peter, Esq. Oakfield, Ealing, W. 

Sharp, Samuel, Esq., F.S.A., F.G.S. D ailing ton Hall, Northampton. 
Sharpe, W. J., Esq. Beulah Spa Villa, Norwood, S. 
Shaw, Alexander Mackintosh, Esq. Clifford Terrace, Leicester Street, 

Sheridan, H. B., Esq., M.P. S. Peter's, Margate. 
^f Shortt, John, Esq., M.D., Zillah Surgeon. Chingleput, Madras. 
Shute, Thomas R. G., Esq. The Rookery, Watford. 
Skene, J. H., Esq., Her Majesty's Consul. Aleppo. 
Skues, Dr. Mackenzie, Surgeon H.M. 109th Regiment. Aden. 
Silva-Ferro, Don Ramon de, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., Consul for the 

Republic of Chile. 21a Hanover Square, W. 
St. Clair, George, Esq., F.G.S. , F.E.S. Banbury. 
Smith, Abell, Esq. 1 Great George Street, Westminster, S.W. 
Smith, Sir Andrew, M.D. 51 Thurloe Square, W. 
Smith, John, Esq., F.E.S. 1 Great George Street, Westminster, 

Smith, Protheroe, Esq., M.D. 25 Park Street, W. 
Smith, Thomas, Esq., M.D. Portland House, Cheltenham. 
Smith, T. J., Esq., F.G.S., F.C.S. Hessle, near Hull. 
Smith, W., Esq. 6 Stockport Road, Manchester. 

Smith, Wm. Nugent, Esq. Apsley Lodge, Wellington Road, Brighton. 
Smyth, John, Esq., jun. Milltown, Banbridge. 
Snell, George Blagrove, Esq. 24 Lower Calthorpe Street, Gray's 

Lnn Road, W.C. 
Solly, Samuel, Esq., F.R.C.S. 6 Savile Roiv, W. 
Southesk, The Right Honourable the Earl of, F.R.S. Kinnaird 

Castle, Brechin, N.B. 
Spark, H. K., Esq. Colliery Office, Darlingtoti. 
Spencer, W. H., Esq. High Wycombe, Bucks. 
Spencer, Peter, Esq. Pendleton Alum Works, Newton Heath, 

Spooner, The Rev. Edward, D.D., LL.D., Ph.D., M.R.H.S.L., etc. 

The Parsonage, Brechin, N.B. 

Spry, Francis R., Esq., Ph.L. Ashford, Hornsey, N. 

;[Stanbridge, W. E., Esq. Wombat, Victoria, Australia. 

* Stanley, The Right Honourable the Lord, M.P., F.R.S. 23 S. 
James's Square, S.W. 

Stanley, The Hon. John, Lieut. -Col. Guards' Club, Pall Mall. 

Stenning, Charles, Esq. 4 Westbourne Park Place, Bayswater, W. 

Stevenson, John, Esq. 4 Brougham Street, Edinburgh. 

Stirrup, Mark, Esq. 3 Withington Terrace, Moss-side, Manchester. 

Stone, Alderman D. H. 33 Poultry, E.C. 

Strachan, John, Esq. 1 Avondale Place, Glasgoiv. 


Sturman, Edward, Esq. Camden House, Sydenham Parle. 
Sydenham, D., Esq. 104 Edgivare Road, W. 

Tate, A. Norman, Esq. Ramsey, Isle of Man. 

Taylor, W., Esq. High Garrett, Booking, Essex. 

Taylor, W. E., Esq. Millfield House, Enfield, near Accrington. 

Tenison, E. T. Ryan, Esq., M.D. 9 Keith Terrace, Shepherd's Bush, W. 

Thin, Robert, Esq. 13 Hill Place, Edinburgh. 

^Thompson, F., Esq. South Parade, Wakefield. 

Thompson, Joseph, Esq. Beech Grove, Bowdon, near Manchester . 

Thurnam, John, Esq., M.D., F.S.A., F.E.S. Devizes. 

Tinsley, E., Esq. Catherine Street, Strand. 

Travers, S. Smith, Esq. Swithin's Lane, E.C. 

f Travers, William, Esq., F.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. Charing Cross 

Hospital, W.C. 
Trevelyan, Arthur, Esq., J. P. Teinholm, Tranent, N.B. 
Triibner, Nicolas, Esq. 60 Paternoster Row, E.C. 
Tuckett, Charles, Esq., jun. British Museum, W.C. 
Tylor, Edward Burnet, Esq., F.R.G.S. Linden, Wellington, Somerset. 

j-Vaux, William Sandys Wright, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., F. & Hon. Sec. 

R.S.L., Pres. Numismatic Society of London. British Museum, 

Vernon, George Venables, Esq., F.R.A.S., M.B.M.S., Mem. Met. Soc. 

Scot., Mem. de la Societe Meteorologique de la France. Old Traf- 

fiord, Manchester. 

^[Wake, Charles Staniland, Esq. 16 Oxford Road, Kilburn, N.W. 

Walker, Robert, Esq. 42 Carnarvon Street, Glasgow. 

Walker, Robert Bruce Napoleon, Esq. 10 Miborne Grove West, 

Walsh, Sir John Benn, Bart., M.P. 28 Berkeley Square, W. ; and 

Carlton Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 
Walton, J. W., Esq. 21b Savile Roio, W. 
Warwick, Richard Archer, Esq., M.D., M.R.C.P. 5 Hill Rise, 

Richmond, S.W. 
Washbourn, Buchanan, Esq., M.D., M.R.C.P., F.S.S. East Gate 

House, Gloucester. 
Waterfleld, O. F., Esq. Temple Grove, East Sheen, S.W. 
Watson, Samuel, Esq., F.E.S. 12 Bouverie Street, E.C. 
Watts, J. King, Esq., F.R.G.S. St. Ives, Hunts. 
Westropp, Hodder M., Esq. Rookhurst, Monktown, Cork. 
Whitehead, J. B., Esq. Oakley House, Rawtenstall, near Manchester. 
Whitehead, Peter O., Esq. Holly House, Rawtenstall. 
Whitehead, Thomas K., Esq. Holly Mount, Raiotenstall. 
Wickes, Henry William, Esq. Pixfield, Bromley, Kent. 
Wickes, Thomas Haines, Esq. Pixfield, Bromley, Kent. 


Williams, Eric, Esq. Newton Mouse, Kensington, W. 

Williams, Thomas, Esq., M.D., F.R.S. Sioansea. 

Wilson, William Newton, Esq. 144 High Holborn, E.C. 

Windus, Commander, A. T., H.M. late Indian Navy. 14 St. James's 

Witt, George, Esq., F.R.S. 22 Prince's Terrace, Hyde Parle, S.W. 
Wittich, Prof. von. Konigsberg, Prussia. 
Wollaston, George, Esq. 1 Barnepark Terrace, Teignmouth. 
Woodd, Charles H. L., Esq., F.G.S. Roslyn, Hampstead, N.W. 
Wood, F. Henry, Esq. Hollin Hall, near Ripon, Yorkshire. 
Wood, the Rev. William S., D.D. The School, Oakham, Rutland. 
Wright, William Cort, Esq. Whalley Range, Manchester. 

Yonge, Robert, Esq., F.L.S., Hon. Mem. York Phil. Soc. Grey- 
stones, Sheffield. 


Agassiz, M. Louis, Professor of Zoology at Yale College, Cambridge, 

Mass., U.S., For. Mem. G.S. Cambridge, Massachusets, U.S. 
Boudin, M., Medecin en Chef de FHopital Militaire St. Martin. 

210 Rue de Rivoli, Paris. 
^] Broca, M. Paul, Secretaire-general a la Societe d' Anthropologic de 

Paris. 1 Rue des Saintsperes, Paris. 
Baer, Von, M. Carl Ernst, Foreign Associate of the Anthropological 

Society of Paris. St. Petersburg. 
Boucher de Crevecceur de Perthes, M., Honorary Fellow of the 

Anthropological Society of Paris, Foreign Correspondent of the 

Geological Society of London. Abbeville. 
^JCarus, Professor C. G., Comes Palatinus, President of the Imperial 

L. C. Academia Naturse Curiosorum. Dresden. 
Crawfurd, John, Esq., F.R.S., Vice-President of the Ethnological 

Society of London, F.R.G.S., etc. Athenaeum Club. 
Dareste, M. Camille, Secretaire de la Societe d' Anthropologic de 

Paris. Rue de V Abb aye, Paris. 
Darwin, Charles, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. , F.L.S., F.G.S. Down, 

Bromley, Kent. 
Eckhard, M., Professor of Physiology at the University of Giessen. 

Gratiolet, M. Pierre, D. M. P., President de la Societe d'Anthropologie 

de Paris. 15 Rue Guy Labrosse, Paris. 
Kingsley, The Rev. Charles, M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S., Rector of 

Eversley, Professor of Modern History in the University of Cam- 
bridge. Eversley, near Winchfield, Hants. 
Lartet, M. Edouard, For. Member G.S. 15 Rue Lacepede, Paris. 
Lawrence, Wm., Esq., F.R.S., F.R.C.S. 18, Whitehall Place, S.W. 
Lucae, Dr. J. C. S. Frankfort. 


Lyell, Sir Charles, Bart., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., V.P.G.S., Eq. Ord. 
Boruss. "pour le merite," Hon.M. R.S.Ed., F.S.L., President 
of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. 
53 Harley Street, W. 

Meigs, Dr. J. Aitken, Foreign Associate of the Anthropological 
Society of Paris. Philadelphia. 

Milne-Edwards, Dr. Henry, Member of the Institute, For. Mem. 
R.S., For. Mem. G.S., Professor of Natural History, Jardin des 
Plantes. Paris. 

Nott, Dr. J. C, Foreign Associate of the Anthropological Society of 
Paris. Mobile ( Alabama, C. S.A.J 

Owen, Richard, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.C.S.E., F.R.S., F.G.S., 
F.L.S., Hon. M.R.S.Ed., Hon. F.R. College of Surgeons of Ireland, 
Eq. Ord. Boruss. "pour le merite," Foreign Associate of the 
Anthropological Society of Paris, Chev. Leg. Hon. Institut 
(Imp. Acad. Sci.) Paris, Director of the Natural History Depart- 
ment, British Museum. British Museum ; and Sheen Lodge, 
Richmond Park, S.W. 

Pruner-Bey, M., Vice-President de la Societe d' Anthropologic. 
28, Place St. Victor, Paris. 

Quatrefages, M. Alphonse de, Professor of Anthropology in the 
Museum of Natural History, Paris. Rue Geoffroy St. Hilaire, Paris. 

Renan, M., Membre Honoraire de la Societe d' Anthropologic 55 
Rue Madame, Paris. 

Van der Hoeven, Professor. Leyden. 

Vogt, Professor Carl, Professor of Natural History. Geneva. 

Wright, Thomas, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., Hon. F.R.S.L., Corr. Mem. of 
the Imperial Academy of Paris, Honorary Secretary of the Ethno- 
logical Society of London. 14 Sydney Street, Bromptoti, S.W. 


Briicke, Dr. Vienna. 

Buchner, Dr. Ludwig. Darmstadt. 

^[Burgholzhausen, Count A. F. Marschall von, For. Corr. G.S., Cham- 

bellain de l'Empereur. Wollzeil, Vienna. 
Burmeister, Hermann. Buenos Ayres. 
Buschmann, Professor. Berlin. 
Castelnau, M. de. Paris. 
Dally, Dr. E. Paris. 

Desnoyers, M. Jules, For. Corr. G.S. Paris. 
Dorn, General Bernard. St. Petersburg. 
D'Omalius d'Halloy, Professor, For. Mem. G.S. Brussels. 
Duhousset, M. le Commandant. (French Army in the) Atlas. 
Gervais, M. Dr., For. Corr. G.S. Montpellier. 
Giglioli, Professor. Pavia. 
Gosse, M. A. L. (pere). Geneva. 
Gosse, M. H. J. Geneva. 


His. Prof. Basle. 

Hochstetter, Professor von. Vienna. 

Hyrtl, Professor, Vienna. 

Kaup, Professor, Dr., For. Corr. G.S. Darmstadt. 

Leuckart, M. Giessen. 

Martin -Magr on, M. 26 Rue Madame, Paris. 

Moleschott, Prof. Turin. 

Morlot, M., For. Corr. G.S. Berne. 

Nicolucci, Prof. Naples. 

Pictet, Prof. F. G., For. Corr. G.S. Geneva. 

Pouchet, George M. Rouen. 

Raimondy, Professor. Lima. 

Reichert, M. 

Rickard, Major Francis Ignacio, F.G.S., F.C.S. Argentine Republic. 

21a Hanover Square. 
Riitimeyer, Professor. Basle. 
Scherzer, Dr. Carl von. Vienna. 
Schlagintweit, Hermann de. Paris. 
Steinhauer, Herr Carl. Copenhagen. 
Steenstrup, Professor, Dr., For. Corr. G.S. Copenhagen. 
Thomsen, Le Chevalier. Copenhagen. 
Uhde, C. W. F. Herr. Berlin. 

Vibraye, Marquis de, For. Corr. G.S. Abbeville and Paris. 
Welcker, Dr. H., Professor. Halle. 
"Wilson, Professor Daniel. Toronto. 
"Worsaae, Professor. Copenhagen. 


Bedfordshire Higham Ferrars... Rev. W. Monk, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.A.S. 

Berkshire Newbury J. Palmer, Esq., M.D., P.A.S.L. 

Cheshire Bebbington Craig Gibson, Esq., M.D. 

Devonshire Torquay W. Pengelly, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S., 

F.A.S.L., Lamorna, nr. Torquay. 

Dorsetshire Bradford Abbas, Professor Buckman, F.L.S., F.C.S. 

near Sherborne. 

Poole Frederick Travers, Esq. 

Wareham Charles Groves, Esq. 

Durham Stockton-on-Tees. . .Dr. Farquharson. 

Gloucestershire ...Pendock, near Rev. W. S. Symonds, F.G.S. 

Hampshire Isle of Wight Hyde Pullen, Esq. 

Kent Chatham Rev. H. F. Rivers, M.A., Luton, 

near Chatham. 

Lancashire Liverpool W. G. Helsby, Esq., Crosby Green 

New Derby. 


Lancashire Manchester Dr. F. Royston Fairbank, F.A.S.L., 

St. Mary's Terrace, Hulme. 
David Morris, Esq., F.S.A., Market 

Northumberland... Alnwick George Tate, Esq., F.G.S., Secretary 

to the Berwickshire Naturalists' 
Field Club, Corresponding Mem- 
ber of the Soc. of Antiq. Scotl. 

Newcastle George Nesbitt, Esq., F.A.S.L., 4 St. 

Nicholas Buildings. 

Oxfordshire Oxford The Rev. Joseph Bosworth, D.D., 

F.R.S., F.S.A., 20 Beaumont Sq. 

Banbury George St.Clair, Esq., F.G.S.,F.A.S.L., 


Somersetshire Bath R. T. Gore, Esq , F.A.S.L., F.R.C.S., 

6 Queen's Square, Bath. 

Staffordshire Wolverhampton ...Charles Alfred Rolph, Esq., Waterloo 


Sussex Blastings Thomas Tate, Esq., F.R.A.S., Essex 

Cottage, Fairlight. 

Brighton S. E. Collingwood, Esq., F.A.S.L.j 

47 York Road. 

Warwickshire Birmingham W. T. Pritchard, Esq., F.R.G.S., 

F.A.S.L., Spring Hill. 

Warwick The Rev. P. B. Brodie, M.A., F.L.S., 

F.G.S.,The Yicarage, Rowington. 

Yorkshire Bradford R. Lee, Esq., F. A.S.L., Wilmot House, 

Leeds Road. 

Bull Kelburne King, Esq., M.D., F.A.S.L., 

27 George Street, Hull. 

Lanarkshire Glasgow J. W. Jackson, F.A.S.L., 39 St. 

George's Road, Glasgow. 
Fifeshire St. Andrew's Prof. W. Macdonald, F.L.S., F.G.S., 

F.A.S.L., Prof. Civ. & Nat. Hist,, 

St. Andrew's. 
Hebrides Islay Hector Maclean, Esq., Ballygrant, 


Ulster Belfast Brice Smyth, Esq., M.D., 13 College 


Connaught Galway .....W. King, Esq., Professor of Geology, 

» Queen's College. 


Africa (West Coast) Du Chaillu, M. Paul Belloni, F.A.S.L. 

(care of 129 Mount Street, W.) 

Algeria Thomas Callaway, M.R.C.S. (Exam.) 

1S44, F.R.C.S. (Exam.) 1847, 
Mem. Fac. Med. Algeria (Exam.) 
1862, Mem. Med.-Chir. Soc. Lond. 
Maison Limozin, Place Besson, 
Algiers. Care of Montague 
Gossett,Esq.,4 Coleman St., City. 


Argentine Republic. Buenos Ayres ...Facundo Carulla, Esq., F.A.S.L. 

Austria Vienna M. Franciscus Miklosich. 

Hungary Dr. Julius Schvarcz, F.G.S., F.A.S.L,. 

Member of the Hungarian Acad. 
Sciences. Stuhlweissenburg. 

Prague < Dr. Anton Fritsch, Director of the 

National Museum of Bohemia. 

Belgium Brussels M. Octave Delepierre. 

John Jones, Esq. 

Borneo Sarawak Edward Price Houghton, Esq., M.D., 


British Columbia Captain Edward Stamp. 

Canada Montreal George E. Fenwick, Esq., M.D. 

Labrador. The Rev. C. Linder. 

Toronto Professor Hincks. 

China William Lockhart, Esq., M.R.C.S. 

A. G. Cross, Esq., M.R.C.S. 

Ecuador J. Spotswood Wilson, F.R.G.S. 

Egypt Alexandria J. Stafford Allen, Esq. 

Cairo Dr. Theodor Bilharz. 

France Paris Prof. M. Giraldes, Prof, de Med. a 

l'Hopital des Enfans Trouvees. 

Nice Dr. Edwin Lee. 

Hesse Darmstadt... Giessen Dr. Phoebus. 

Java Batavia .., Dr. Wienecke. 

Cocoa Islands J. G. C. Ross, Esq. 

Natal The Rev. H. Callaway, M.A. 

New Zealand Captain A. H. Russell, F.A.S.L. 

Nicaragua Commander Bedford Pirn, R.N. 

Oude G. Jasper Nicholls, Esq. (H.M. In- 

dian Civil Service). Treken- 
ning House, St. Oolumb, Cornw. 

Prussia Bonn Dr. Schaafhausen. 

Queensland George T. Hine, Esq. 

George W. Brown, Esq. 

Saxony Leipsig Dr. Alfred von Kremer. 

Spain Gibraltar- Captain Brome. 

United States New York Captain W. Parker Snow. 

San Francisco ...R. Beverley Cole, Esq., M.A., M.D., 
Ph.D., Professor^ Obstetrics and 
the Diseases of Women in the 
University of the Pacific. 

Sweden Stockholm Dr. Retzius. 

Gotland Dr. Gustaf Lindstrom. 

Vancouver's Island Edward B. Bogge, Esq., R.N. 

&ntf)ttipoIofltcal J^octetp of ^onUon, 


a^j jHIS SOCIETY is formed with the object of promoting 
the study of Anthropology in a strictly scientific manner. 
It proposes to study Man in all his leading aspects, 
physical, mental, and historical ; to investigate the laws 
of his origin and progress ; to ascertain his place in 
nature and his relations to the inferior forms of life ; and 
to attain these objects by patient investigation, careful induction, and 
the encouragement of all researches tending to establish a cle facto 
science of man. No Society existing in this country has proposed to 
itself these aims, and the establishment of this Society, therefore, is an 
effort to meet an obvious want of the times. 

This it is proposed to do : 

First. By holding Meetings for the reading of papers and the 
discussion of various anthropological questions. 

Second. By the publication of reports of papers and abstracts of 
discussions in the form of a Quarterly Journal ; and also by the 
publication of the principal memoirs read before the Society, in 
the form of Transactions. 

Third. By the appointment of Officers, or Local Secretaries, in dif- 
ferent parts of the world, to collect systematic information. It will 
be the object of the Society to indicate the class of facts required, 
and thus tend to give a systematic development to Anthropology. 

Fourth. By the establishment of a carefully collected and reliable 
Museum, and a good reference Library. 

Fifth. By the publication of a series of works on Anthropology which 
will tend to promote the objects of the Society. These works will 
generally be translations ; but original works Avill also be admis- 

Translations of the following works are now ready. The following 
work was issued for 1863. 

Dr. Theodor Waitz. Anthropology of Primitive Peoples. First Part. Edited 
from the German by J. Frederick Collingwood, Esq., F.R.S.L., F.G.S., 
V.P. A.S.L., with corrections and additions by the Author. Price 16s. 

The following works were issued in 1864. 

Broca, Dr. Paul. On the Phenomena of Hybridity in the Genus Homo. Edited 

from the French by C. Carter Blake, Esq., F.G.S., F. and Assistant Secretary 

A.S.L. Price 5s. 
Pouchet, Georges. On the Plurality of the Human Pace. Edited, from the 

French (Second Edition), by H. J. C. Beavan, Esq., F.R.G.S., F.A.S.L. 

Price 7s. 6d. 
Carl Vogt. Lectures on Man : his place in Creation and in the History of the 

Earth. Edited by Dr. James Hunt, F.S.A., F.R.S.L., Pres. A.S.L. Price 16s. 


The following is issued in the first part of the year 1865. 

Blumenbach, J. F., The Life, and Anthropological Treatises, of; with the 
Inaugural Dissertation of Dr. John Hunter. By T. Bendyshe, Esq., M.A., 
V.P. A.S.L. Price 16s. 

The publication of the following works is contemplated : — 

Gastaldi, Cavaliere Bartolorneo. New Notes on Objects of High Antiquity found 

in the Turbaries and Marl Beds of Italia. Translated from the Italian by 

Charles Harcourt Chambers, M.A., F.A.S.L. 
Betzius, Professor. The Anthropological Works of. Edited by A. Higgins, 

Esq., Hon. For. Sec. A.S.L. 
Gratiolet. Memoire sur les Plis Cerebraux de l'Homme et des Primates. 

4to, Paris, 1855. Edited by Dr. Daniel H. Tuke. 
A. de Quatrefages. Unite de l'Espece Humaine. Edited by G. F. Bolph, 

Esq., F.A.S.L. 8vo. Paris, 1861. 
The Anthropological Papers contained in the Comptes Bendus des Seances de 

l'Academie des Sciences. Edited by George E. Roberts, Esq., F.G.S., F.A.S.L. 
Dr. Theodor Waitz, Professor of Philosophy in the University of Marburg. 

Anthropologic der Naturvolker. 1861. Second part. Edited by J. Frederick 

Cohingwood, Esq., F.G.S., F.R.S.L., V.P. A.S.L. 
Von Baer, Karl Ernst, The Anthropological Works of. 

Gosse. Memoire sur les Deformations Artificielles du Crane. 8vo. Paris, 1855. 
Bory de St. Vincent. Essai zoologique sur le genre humain. 2 vols. Paris, 

3rd ed., 1836. Edited by S. E. Bouverie-Pusey, Esq., F.A.S.L., F.E.S. 
Crull. Dissertatio anthropologico-medica de Cranio, ejusque ad faciem ratione. 

8vo. Groningen, 1810. 
Lucas, Prosper, Dr. Traite sur l'heredite. 2 vols. 
An Encyclopaedia of Anthropological Science. Edited by T. Bendyshe, Esq., 

M.A., V.P. A.S.L., and other Contributors. 
Gobineau. De l'Inegalite des Races Humaines. 

Sixth. By the appointment, from time to time, of various Committees 
authorised to report to the Society on particular topics which may 
be referred to them ; the results of such investigations being in 
all cases communicated to the Society. 


James Hunt, Esq., Ph.D., F.S.A., F.R.S.L., Foreign Associate of the Anthropological 

Society of Paris, etc. 

Captain Richard F. Burton, H.M. Consul at Santos, etc. 
J. Frederick CoUingwood, Esq., F.R.S.L., F.G.S., Foreign Associate of the 

Anthropological Society of Paris. 
Dr. Berthold Seemann, F.L.S. 
T. Bendyshe, Esq., M.A. 

Honorary Secretaries. 
George E. Roberts, Esq., F.G.S., Foreign Associate of the Anthropological Society 

of Paris. 
W. Bollaert, Esq., Corr. Mem. Univ. Chile, and Ethnological Socs. London & New York. 

Honorary Foreign Secretary. 
Alfred Higgins, Esq., Foreign Associate of the Anthropological Society of Paris. 

Richaid Stephen Charnock, Esq., Ph.D., F.S.A., F.R.G.S., Foreign Associate of the 
Anthropological Society of Paris. 


Hugh J. C. Beavan, Esq., F.R.G.S. 
S. E. Bouverie-Pusey, Esq., F.E.S. 
Charles Harcourt Chambers, Esq., M.A. 
S. Edwin Collingwood, Esq., F.Z.S. 
George D. Gibb, Esq., M.A., M.D., LL.D., F.G.S., &c. 
Viscount Milton, F.R.G.S. 
George North, Esq. 
Luke Owen Pike, Esq., M.A. 

W. Winwood Beade, Esq., P.R.G.S., Corr. Mem. Geographical Society of Paris. 
James Reddie, Esq. 
George Frederick Rblph, Esq. 
C. Robert des Ruffieres, Esq., F.G.S., F.E.S. 
William Travers, Esq., F.R.C.S. 

W. S. W. Vaux, Esq. M.A., F.S.A., F. and Hon. Sec. R.S.L., President of the 
Numismatic Society of London. 

Curator, Librarian, and Assistant Secretary. 
C. Carter Blake, Esq., F.G.S., Foreign Associate of the Anthropol. Society of Paris, etc. 

The Terms of Membership for the first five hundred Fellows (who 
will be called Foundation Fellows) are Two Guineas per annum, 
which will entitle every Fellow to admission to the Meetings, one copy 
of the Quarterly Journal, the Memoirs of the Society, and a Volume 
(or Volumes) of the Translations printed by the Society. Life Mem- 
bers, Twenty Guineas. 

Further particulars will be forwarded on application to the Honorary 

The following papers have been laid before the Society in the Session 

C. Carter Blake, Esq., F.G.S. Report on the Anthropological Papers read at the 
Bath Meeting of the British Association. 

Captain Burton, V.P.A.S.L. Notes on Certain Facts connected with the Dahomans. 

W. T. Pritchard, Esq., F.R.G.S., F.A.S.L., On Viti and its Inhabitants. 

W. Bollaert, Esq., On the Astronomy of the Red Man of the New World. 

Dr. Barnard Davis, F.S.A. The Neanderthal Skull; its peculiar formation considered 

Samuel Laing, Esq., F.G.S., On the Prehistoric Remains of Caithness. 

George E. Roberts, Esq., F.G.S. , Hon. Sec. A.S.L., On the Discovery of large 
Kistvaens in the Muckle Heog, in the island of Unst, Shetland, containing Urns of 
Chloritic Schist; with notes upon the Human Remains by C. Carter Blake, Esq., 

George E. Roberts, Esq., F.G.S., Hon. Sec. A.S.L., On Prehistoric Hut Circles. 

Dr. Henry Bird, On Remains from the British Tumuli at Cheltenham. 

E. Sellon, Esq. On the Linga Puja, or Phallic Worship of India. 

W. T. Pritchard, Esq., F.R.G.S., F.A.S.L., Notes on Certain Anthropological Matters 
connected with the South Sea Islanders. 

Edward Lund, Esq., F.R.C.S.E. (communicated by Dr. F. Royston Fairbank, 
F.A.S.L.), On the Discovery of Syphilis in a Monkey (Macacus Svnicus). 

G. D. Gibb, Esq., M.D., LL.D., F.G.S., On the Essential Points of Difference between 
the Larynx of the Negro and that of the White Man. 

T. B. Peacock, Esq., M.D., F.R.C.P., On the Weight of the Brain, and Capacity of the 

Cranial Cavity of a Negro. 
T. B. Peacock, Esq., M.D., F.R.C.P. On a Skull exhumed in Bedfordshire. 
T. Bendyshe, Esq., M.A., V.P.A.S.L., On the Materials for Anthropological Study. 

The following papers, amongst others, will also be read during 
the present Session. 

John Anderson-, Esq. (communicated by Geo. E. Roberts, Esq., F.G.S., Hon. Sec. 
A.S.L.) On Further Remains from Keiss, near Wick; with a Note on the Human 
Skull, by C. Carter Blake, Esq., F.G.S. 

Colonel Beauchamp Walker, On the Discovery of a Kjokkenmodding at Newhaven; 
with Notes on the Animal Remains, by C. Carter Blake, Esq., P.G.S. 

J. Hutchinson, Esq., On some Human Remains from Cowley. 

W. T. Pritchard, Esq., F.R.G.S., F.A.S.L., On the Physical and Psychological Charac- 
ters of the Viti Islanders. 

K. R. H. Mackenzie, Esq., P.S.A. Notes on Fetish Worship in Egypt. 

Dr. John Shortt. An Account of some rude Tribes, the supposed Aborigines of 
Southern India. 

Dr. John Shortt. On the Leaf -wearing Tribes of India. 

G. Krefft, Esq. On Australian Skulls. 

W. Bollaert, Esq., Hon. Sec. A.S.L., On the Maya Alphabet. 

Berth old Seemann, Esq., Ph.D., V.P.A.S.L., On the Indians of San Bias, Panama. 

John Beddoe, Esq"., M.D., F.A.S.L., On the Evidence of Phenomena in the West of 
England to the Permanence of Ethnological Types. 

J. R. Morris, Esq., F.A.S.L., On the Hereditary Transmission of an Abnormity. 

T. Bendyshe, Esq., M.A., V.P.A.S.L., On the History of Anthropology. 

Geo. E. Roberts, Esq., F.G.S., Hon. See. A.S.L., On the Discovery of Bones of Bear, 
Megaceros, and other Animals, cut and sawn by flint implements, in a Gravel 
Deposit at Richmond, Yorkshire. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., LL.D., D.C.L., P.G.S., On some Remains from the 
Site of the Ancient Memphis. 

D. W. Nash, Esq., On Chambered Tumuli. 

K. R. H. Mackenzie, Esq., F.S.A., On Monogeny and Polygeny. 

Dr. Harley, On the Poisoned Arrows of Aboriginal Man. 

C. Robertson, Esq., On Astro-Mythology. 

Dr. James Hunt, F.S.A., F.R.S.L., Pres. A.S.L., On the Principles of Anthropological 

A. Higgins, Esq., Hon. For. Sec. A.S.L., On the Orthographic Delineation of the Skull. 

W. Bollaert, Esq., Hon. Sec. A.S.L., Introduction to the Anthropology of America. 

C. Carter Blake, Esq., F.G.S., F.A.S.L., On the Cranioscopy of South American 

C. Carter Blake, Esq., F.G.S., F.A.S.L., On the Skeleton of a South American Aborigen 
from Mendoza. 

C Carter Blake, Esq., F.G.S., F.A.S.L., On the Form of the Lower Jaw in the Races 
of Mankind. 

E. Burnet Tylor, Esq., F.R.G.S., F.A.S.L., On some British Kjdkkenmoddings. 
Viscount Milton, F.R.G.S., On Californian Kjokkenmoddings. 

Dr. Murie, On the Stature of Tribes inhabiting the Nile Yalley. 

J. F. Collingwood, Esq., F.R.S.L., F.G.S., Hon. Sec. A.S.L., On Race-Antagonism. 

R. S. Charnock, Esq., Ph.D., F.S.A., F.A.S.L., On the People of Andorra. 

Now Ready, in 1 vol., 8vo., pp. 400, price 16s., cloth, 

"aitz's Introduction to Anthropology. 

Edited, from the First Volume of Anthropologie der Naturvolker, by 
J. FREDERICK COLLINGWOOD, F.R S.L., F.G.S., F.A.S.L., loreign Associate 
of the Anthropological Society of Paris, Vice-President of the Anthropological 
Society of London. 

Extract of a Letter from the Author to the Editor. 
"I have received your translation of the first volume of my 'Anthropologic der 
Naturvolker,' and hasten to return you my heartfelt thanks for the great care and 
assiduity which you have bestowed on the task. I am fully cognisant of the 
great difficulties you have to contend with, especially as my style, as alluded to 
in your preface, possesses many peculiarities, so that even German men of 
science consider the reading of my books rather hard work. All these difficulties 
you have surmounted with the greatest skill, so as to render my work, as it 
appears to me, into very pleasing, readable English." 


"A more felicitous selection could not, 
we conceive, by any possibility have been 
made than the very one which has re- 
sulted in the publication of the book 
lying hefore us. For within the com- 
pass of the first volume of Dr. Waitz's 
Anthropologie der Naturvolker is com- 
pacted together the most comprehen- 
sive and exhaustive survey of the new 
science yet contributed, we believe, in 
any tongue to European literature. To 
the English public generally, however, 
it is a book almost unknown, saving and 
excepting alone by reputation. Al- 
though merely a translation from the 
German, therefore, the work is virtually, 
if not an original work, a perfectly new 
work to the mass of readers in this 
country. So far as this same rapidly 
executed work of translation can be 
compared and collated with the original, 
it appears to be a version singularly 
faithful and accurate. . . . The book, as it 
now appears, is a work of especial value, 
and also one of very peculiar interest. 
It thoroughly fulfils its design of afford- 
ing the reader of it, within a single 
volume, the very hest epitome any- 
where to be found of what is the actual 
'present state' of anthropological sci- 
ence in Christendom. Dr. Waitz takes 
a far wider range within his ken than 
Prichard and Nott and Gliddon com- 
hined."— The Sun, Dec. 14, 1803. 

" The volume in every page exhibits 
great research ; it ahounds with inter- 
esting speculation, all tending the right 
way, and the information it presents is 
happily conveyed in a popular manner." 
— Morning Advertiser, Nov. 18, 1863. 

" So comprehensive is the view taken 
by the author of all that pertains to 
man,thatamereenumeration even of the 
leading topics of the work is beyond 
our space, and we must content our- 
selves with recommending its perusal to 
such of our readers as are interested in 
the subject, with the assurance that it 
will well repay the trouble." — Weekly 
Dispatch, Nov. 29, 1863. 

"This handsomely printed volume 
discusses at great length and with 
much ability the question as to the races 
of man. ... At the hands of Dr. Waitz it 
has met with calm consideration, and in 
its English dress will prove both inter- 
esting and instructive. It displays 
great research, and contains a large ex- 
tent of highly interesting matter." — 
Liverpool Albion, Nov. 9, 1863. 

" From such a bill of fare, our readers 
will be able to judge that the work is 
one of value and interest. ... It is of 
the nature of a review, arriving at a 
comprehensive and proportional esti- 
mate, rather than at minute accuracy 
of detail, such as may he sought else- 
where in each department." — Medical 
Times, Dec. 26, 1863. 

" Crammed as full of hard facts as 
wellnigh 400 pages of large 8vo. can 
contain ; all these facts attested by foot- 
note authorities marshalled knee-deep 
at the bottom of every page; with a list 
of contents so copious as to eclipse 
everything of the kind in any recent 
scientific volume, and yet followed hy 
an index more minute and ample ; this 
work is a magazine of the infant science 
of Man; a model of German industry, 


erudition, and philosophical devotion ; 
and a credit to the Society which has 
sent forth, in a shape so serviceable, 
what might otherwise have proved a 
tantalising mass of learned collectanea. 
. . . We have perused this translated 
volume with alternate wonder and 
amazement at its strange assemblage 
of facts, its curious classifications, its 
marvellous revelations of human pecu- 
liarities ; and we do not hesitate to say 
that more food for speculation, a more 
cosmopolitan and comprehensive glance 
over all the developments of savage and 
civilised man has been collected here, 
than could have been dreamed of by those 
who may not have given it a perusal." — 
Dorset County C/irojzi'de, Nov. 18, 1863. 

" Dr. Waitz would appear to have 
collected together all the authorities 
and contradictory statements of former 
writers. . . . The present work will be 
hailed with pleasure by all who are in- 
terested in the study of anthropology, 
and will, it is hoped, induce a more 
universal acquaintance with the sci- 
ence." — Observer, Nov. 8, 1863. 

" The Anthropological Society of 
London have done well in publishing 
a translation of Dr. Waitz's Anthropo- 
logic der Naturvolker, of which this 
volume is the first instalment. Dr. 
Waitz's work is by far the most com- 
plete that exists on the subject of 
which it treats. It is the fullest col- 
lection of facts, interwoven with, and 
made to bear upon, all the theories 
(and their name is legion) which have 
been advanced in explanation of the 
endless diversities and resemblances 
that exist among mankind. Dr. Waitz 
himself is wedded to no particular 
theory, and in this volume, at least, 
advances none, but he points out with 
great clearness the effects that may be 
fairly attributed to the various in- 
fluences, external and internal, physical 
and psychical, which affect the human 
form and national character." — The 
Press, Dec. 5, 1863. 

" This volume will help to put the 
science of anthropology in a proper 
light before the scientific men of this 
country. Whatever faults we may have 
to find with this work, we feel sure that 
its publication marks an epoch in the 
study of anthropology in this country. 
The anthropologist can now say to the 
inquirer, Read and study Waitz, and 
London : Longman, Geeen 

you will learn all that science has yet to 
reveal." — AnthropologicalReview^o. 1 ^. 

" The Anthropological Society de- 
serve great praise for the energy and 
activity they display in prosecuting 
their object. . . . We find in this volume 
a fair statement and discussion of the 
questions bearing on the unity of man 
as a species, and his natural condition 
He gives a very clear account of the 
different views held on these questions, 
and a full collection of the facts, or 
supposed facts, by which they are sup- 
ported. The chief fault of the book is, 
indeed, this very fulness and fairness in 
collecting all that can be said on both 
sides of a question. . . . We must regard 
the work as a valuable addition to the 
books on this subject already in our 
language, and as likely, by the thought 
and inquiry it must suggest, to promote 
the great end of the Society — a truer and 
higher knowledge of man, his origin, 
nature, and destiny." — The Scotsman, 
Dec. 7, 1863. 

" We need hardly say, that it is quite 
out of our power to give any detailed 
account of this volume. It is itself a 
volume of details. Its nature, charac- 
ter, and value, may be gleaned from 
the criticism bestowed upon it by the 
Anthropological Society, and by the 
fact of its being their first offering to 
their members. There can be no doubt 
that it is the best epitome of matters 
anthropological now contained in our 
language; and will be of great service 
to the student as a book of reference." 
— British Medical Journal, December 

" The difficulties which a reader 
experiences who studies Waitz's original 
German version — difficulties attendant 
on the involution of his style, and the 
frequent mistiness of his forms of 
expression — vanish in the English 
edition, which also differs from its 
German prototype, inasmuch as the 
embarrassing references which Waitz 
intercalated in his text are prudently 
cast down by Mr. Collingwood to the 
foot of the page. . . . The student will 
but have to read it through, in order to 
feel himself endowed with an enormous 
power of acquired facts, which, if he 
duly assimilates, will enable him to 
wield a tremendous weapon in contro- 
versy against the unskilled anthropo- 
logist." — Reader, November 7, 1863. 
and Co., Paternoster How. 

Now ready, in 1 vol. 8vo, pp. 134, price 5s., cloth. 

n the Phenomena of Hybridity in the Genus 

HOMO. By Dr. PAUL BROCA, Secretaire General a la Societe 
d'Anthropologie de Pai-is. Edited, with the permission of the Author, by 


" Although the author of the essay 
can scarcely be supposed to have satis- 
fied himself — much less to have satis- 
fied his scientific readers — that he has 
arrived at any certain and well-ground- 
ed conclusion, he deserves the credit of 
having written with some research and 
acumen. It is evident that the writer 
of the book has a strong bias to the 
polygenist theory of the origin of man- 
kind, but although we do not agree with 
him in his principal deductions and 
statements, we willingly allow his work 
to be an able monograph on a highly- 
interesting and curious subject, and one 
that will well repay perusal." — Medical 
Times, March 1864. 

" While we find fault with the con- 
clusions at which M. Broca arrives, we 
cannot deny that he has given to the 
student of Anthropology a very valuable 
collection of information on an almost 
unexplored subject. We have only to 
guard ourselves from being led away by 
the specious fallacies of his reasoning, 
and we shall find before us a wide field 
of thought and a subject of enquiry al- 
most inexhaustible. We need only add 
that the English edition has been pre- 
pared with great care, and reflects ex- 
treme credit upon its indefatigable 
editor."— Tablet, June 4, 1864. 

" This is a work on a very abstruse 
and much-debated question, and the 
author has brought to bear upon its 
elucidation a vast amount of scientific 
research, being the results of observa- 
tions in almost every part of the world." 
—Observer, April 10, 1864. 

" It is wonderful what solid and valu- 
able information has been here com- 
pacted together within less than one 

hundred pages octavo. Another work 
of very considerable value has thus 
been added to the list of publications 
now commenced, with a prospect, let us 
hope, of fast multiplying into a sub- 
stantial library, under the auspices and, 
more than that, under the careful su- 
pervision and at the direct instance of 
the Society of our London Anthropolo- 
gists." — Sun, April 7th, 1864. 

" As a statement of the argument on 
both sides of a subject very difficult of 
investigation, Dr. Broca's treatise is 
most acceptable, although we are by no 
means satisfied that he has entertained 
all the causes which may be concerned 
in influencing the fertility of races, inter 
se, in his estimate." — London Review, 
June 4, 1864. 

" The whole subject is too obscure to 
warrant us in advocating either the one 
view or the other ; but we can recom- 
mend those who wish to make them- 
selves acquainted with the present state 
of our information on the question to 
study the able treatise before us." — 
Scotsman, June 25, 1864. 

" It may be stated that the present 
volume is the only one which completely 
investigates the subject of human hy- 
bridity The volume is an addition 

to scientific lore ; we have no doubt that 
the members of our various learned 
societies will appreciate its worth, and 
experience the same pleasure in reading 
the translation which Mr. Blake states 
he received when he first perused the 
original. It is dedicated as a testimony 
of respect and friendship to Richard 
Owen, F.R.S." — Morning Advertiser, 
May 2, 1864. 

London : Longman, Geeen, and Co., Paternoster Row. 

Now ready, in 1 vol. 8vo, pp. 172, price 7s. 6d. cloth, 

he Plurality of the Human Race : by 

GEOEGES POUCHET, M.D., Licentiate of Nat. Science, Corr. Mem. 
Anthrop. Soc. of London. Translated and Edited from the Second Edition, by 
HUGH J. C. BEAVAN, Esq., F.R.G.S., F.A.S.L., of the Middle Temple, 


" This book, which has already had 
considerable success in France, has 
been translated for the publishing com- 
mittee of the Anthropological Society 
of London, and the task confided, to 
Mr. Beavan has been accomplished with 
care and intelligence. It is probably 
the first work of the kind which has 
ever been given to the English literary 
world in a convenient and popular form, 
and, though it contains many peculiar 
thoughts and principles widely differing 
from the opinions of the general public, 
it will certainly be read with great in- 
terest. There is much clearness and 
even brilliancy in M. Pouchet's style, 
though the expressions are often very 
peculiar, but all will admit that it is a 
well-considered book, and full of im- 
portant matter." — Observer,Oot. 1, 1864. 

" The work of M. Pouchet is very 
brief, and yet it is full of interest, and, 
in the course of some couple of hundred 
pages, discusses all the more prominent 
and exciting topics in the. physical his- 
tory of man, bringing to bear upon them 
much curious information, and throw- 
ing over all the cbarm of a most plea- 
sant and vigorous style." — London Re- 
view, Oct. 22, 1864. 

" This slender volume, which professes 
to teach a great many wonderful things, 
is one of the publications of the An- 
thropological Society. It is the work of 
a French savant, Dr. Pouchet, who, like 
all Frenchmen, is brilliant, antithe- 
tical, confident, and superficial. We 
have neither space nor time to enter 
here into the controversy which this 
book provokes, but merely to notice the 
manner in which it has been translated 
and edited by Mr. Beavan. Without 
having the original by us for the pur- 
poses of comparison, we can see that 
the translation is cleverly done, and 
that the epigrammatic terseness of the 
French literary style is admirably pre- 
served in the translation. The editing 
consists of a sufficient supply of explan- 
atory foot-notes, a proof that the work 
has been done in a careful scholarly 
manner, and not with that haste and 
slovenliness which disfigure too many 


To those who take an interest in anthro- 
pological investigations Mr. Beavan's 
Pouchet will be a 'handy -book' of 
considerable value." — United Service, 
Gazette, Nov. 19, 1861. 

" Ranging himself in the ranks of be- 
lievers in original diversity of race, M. 
Pouchet here reviews the evidence for 
and against this theory, and states in 
his Recapitulation that ' Since we have 
found that man is comparable in all 
points to animals, we ought to seek for 
him and for them a common origin, 
and the difficulty of admitting an initial 
miracle has led us to the idea of evolu- 
tion.' . . . The work is published for the 
Anthropological Society, and to students 
of that science it will be welcome and 
useful." — Weekly Dispatch, Oct. 23, 

" The work, from its largeness of il- 
lustration, cannot but interest those 
who may nevertheless protest against 
the writer's conclusions as vigorously 
as his editor feels obliged to do." — 
Globe, Oct. 31, 1864. 

" This work is published by 'The An- 
thropological Society,' and is one of 
those remarkable treatises which give 
rise to so much discussion in the pre- 
sent times, inasmuch as it treats of the 
subject of the development of the hu- 
man family from more than one source 
with considerable cleverness, although 
not with arguments sufficiently forcible 
or unanswerable to convince those, who 
are resolved to adhere to the simplicity 
of the Mosaic definition. That there 
are many infidel notions expressed in 
M. Georges Pouchet's original text, the 
translator does not hesitate to assert. 
Indeed, he is frequently at the pains to 
demolish their fallacy, and expose many 
other faults of the author, discrimi- 
nating with considerable tact between 
what is deserving of consideration and 
what is manifestly insidious and falla- 
cious. The treatise is not a book for 
the multitude, but rather for the learned 
and scientific, and may be pronounced 
to be clever and dexterous rather than 
sound and convincing." — Bell's Messen- 
ger, Oct. 8, 1804. 

of our translations from the French. 

London : Longman, Gkeen, and Co., Paternoster Row. 

Now ready, id 1 vol., 8vo, pp. 510, price 16s., clotb. 

ectures on Man ; his Place in Creation, and 

Professor of Natural History in the University of Geneva, Foreign Associate 
of the Anthropological Society of Paris. Edited by JAMES HUNT, Ph.D., 
F.S.A., F.R.S.L., F.A.S.L., Foreign Associate of the Anthropological Society 
of Paris, Honorary Foreign Secretary of the Royal Society of Literature of 
Great Britain, and President of the Anthropological Society of London. 


In the Press, and will be ready in a few days. 





I. On the Negro's Place in Nature. By James Hunt, Ph.D., F.S.A., 
F.R.S.L., F.A.S.L., President of the Anthropological Society of London. 

II. On the Weight of the Brain in the Negro. By Thomas B. Peacock, 
M.D., F.R.C.P., F.A.S.L. 

III. Observations on the Past and Present Populations of the New World. 
By W. Bollaert, Esq., F.A.S.L. 

IV. On the Two Principal Forms of Ancient British and Gaulish Skulls. 
By J. Thurnah, Esq., M.D., F.A.S.L. (With Lithographic Plates and 

V. Introduction to the Palaeography of America. By W. Bollaert, Esq., 

VI. Viti and Its Inhabitants. By W. T. Pritchard, Esq., F.R.G.S., F.A.S.L. 

VII. On the Astronomy of the Red Man of the New World. By W. Bollaert, 
Esq., F.A.S.L. 

VIII. The. Neanderthal Skull: its peculiar formation considered anatomically. 
By J. Barnard Davis, M.D., F.S.A., F.A.S.L. 

IX. On the Discovery of a large Kistvaen in the Muckle Heog, in the Island of 
Unst, Shetland, containing Urns of Chloritic Schist. By George E. 
Roberts, Esq., F.G.S., Hon. Sec. A.S.L. With Notes upon the Human 
Remains. By C. Carter Blake, Esq., F.A.S.L., F.G.S. With two Plates. 

X. Notes on some facts connected with the Dahomans. By Capt. Richard 
F. Burton, V.P.A.S.L. 

XI. On Certain Anthropological Matters connected with the South Sea 
Islanders. By W. T. Pritchard, Esq., F.R.G.S., F.A.S.L. 

XII. On the Linga Puja, or Phallic Worship of India. By E. Sellon, Esq. 

XIII. The History of Anthropology. By T. Bendyshe, Esq., M.A., V.P.A.S.L. 

XIV. On the Differences observable between the Larynx of the Negro and the 
White Man. By George Duncan Gibb, M.A., M.D., LL.D., F.G.S. 

London : Trubner and Co., 60, Paternoster Row. 



Published this day, price 16s., 

T> lumenbach (J. F.), Lives and Anthropological 

-*-' TREATISES of, including the De Generis Humani Varietate Nativa, 
and the Dissertatio Inauguralis of Dr. Jolm Hunter. Translated and Edited by 
T. Bendyshe, V.P.A.S.L., Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. 

London : Longman and Co., Paternoster Row. 
Price 6d., 

Introductory Address on the Study of Anthro- 

-"- POLOGY, delivered before the Anthropological Society of London, February 
24th, 1863. By James Hunt, Ph.D., F.S.A., F.R.S.L., Foreign Associate of the 
Anthropological Society of Paris, President of the Anthropological Society of 

London : Teubner and Co., 60, Paternoster Row. 
Price 6d., 

Annual Address to the Anthropological Society 
OF LONDON, Jan. 5th, 1864. By JAMES HUNT, Ph.D., F.S.A., 
F.R.S.L., Foreign Associate of the Anthropological Society of Paris, President of 
Lhe Anthropological Society of London. 

London : Teubner and Co., 60, Paternoster Row. 

Price is., pp. 60, 

On the Negro's Place in Nature. Read before 
the Anthropological Society of London, November 17th, 1863. By James 
Hunt, Ph.D., F.S.A., F.R.S.L., Foreign Associate of the Anthropological Society 
of Paris, President of the Anthropological Society of London. 

London : Teubner and Co., 60, Paternoster Row. 

To be published in a few days, price 6d., 

Annual Address to the Anthropological Society 
OF LONDON, January 3rd, 1865. By JAMES .HUNT, Ph.D., F.S.A., 
F.R.S.L., Foreign Associate of the Anthropological Society of Paris, President 
of the Anthropological Society of London. 

London: Teubner and Co., 60, Paternoster Row. 


Journal of the Anthropological Society of London. 



On the Study of Anthropology. By Dr. James 

Hunt, F.S.A., President A.S.L. 
"Wild Men and Beast Children. By E. Burnet 

Tylor, F.A.S.L. 
On the Tribes of Loreto in Northern Peru. 

By Professor Baimondy. Translated from 

the Spanish by William BoUaert, F. A.S.L. 
A Day with the Fans. By Captain R. F. 

Burton, H.M. Consul at Fernando Po, 

On the Difference between Man and the Lower 

Animals. ByTheodorBischoff. Translated 

from the German. 
Summary of the Evidence of the Antiquity 

of Man. By Dr. James Hunt. 
Huxley on Man's Place in Nature. 
Jackson on Ethnology and Phrenology. 
Lyell on the Geological Evidence of the An- 
tiquity of Man. 
Wilson's Pre -historic Man. 
Pauly's Ethnographical Account of the Peoples 

of Russia. 
Commixture of the Races of Man. By John 

Crawford, Esq., F.R.S. 
Burton's Prairie Traveller. 
Owen on the Limbs of the Gorilla. 
Man and Beast. By Anthropos (C. Carter 

Blake). _ 
Dunn's Medical Psychology. 
Human Remains from Moulin-Quignon. By A. 

Tylor, Esq., T?.Gc.S.(With an IUMstraUcm.) 
Notes of a Case of Microcephaly. By R. T. 

Gore, Esq,, F.A.S.L. 
Notes on Sir C. Lyell' s Antiquity of Man. 

By John Crawford, Esq., F.R.S. 
Falconer on the reputed FossilMan of Abbeville 
Miscellanea Anthropologica. 
Journal of the Anthropological Society of 

On the Science of Laneroage. By R. S. 

Charnock, Esq., F.S.A., F.A.S.L. 
Fergusson on the Influence of Race on Art. 
On the Creation of Man and Substance of the 

Mind. By Prof. Rudolph Wagner. 
Pictet on the Aryan Race. 
Ethnological Inquiries and Observations. By 

the late Robert Knox, M.D. 
On the Application of the Anatomical Method 

to the Discrimination of Species. By 

the same. 
On the Deformations of the Homan Cranium, 

supposed to be produced by Mechanical 

Means. By the same. 
History of the Proceedings of the Anthropo- 
logical Society of Paris. By M. Paul 

Broca, Secretary- General. 
On the supposed increasing Prevalence of Dark 

Hair in England. By John Beddoe, M.D., 

The Abbeville Fossil Jaw. By M. A. de 

Quatrefages. Translated by G. F. Rolph, 

Miscellanea Anthropologica. 

On Cerebral Physiology. 

Seemann on the Inhabitants of the Fiji Islands. 
By A. A. Fraser, Esq., F.A.S.L. 

The relation of Man to the Inferior Forms of 
Animal Life. By Charles S. Wake, 
Esq., F.A.S.L. 

Proceedings of Anthropological Society of Paris 

Anthropology at the British Association: — 
Dr. Hunt on Anthropological Classifica- 
tion ; Mr. Carter Blake on South Ameri- 
can Cranioscopy ; Dr. Hunt on the Negro ; 
Mr. W. Turner on Cranial Deformities : 
Mr. Duckworth on the Human Cranium 
from A miens ; Professor King on the 
Neanderthal Skull ; Dr. Embleton on the 
Anatomy of a Young Chimpanzee ; Mr. 
Carter Blake on Syndactyly ; Mr. Roberts 
and Professor Busk on a Kist ; Mr. 
Crawford on the Commixture of Man ; 
Dr. Camps on Troops in India; Dr. 
Murray on Instinctive Actions; Mr. 
Samuelson on Life in the Atmosphere ; 
Mr. Glaisher on the Influence of High 
Altitudes on Man ; Mr. Hall on the Social 
Life of the Celts ; Mr. Petrie on the 
Antiquities of the Orkneys ; Lord Lovaine 
on Lacustrian Homan Habitations ; Pro- 
fessor Beete Jokes on certain Markings 
on the Horns of Megaceros Hibernicos ; 
Mr. Crawford on Sir C. Lyell's Antiqoity 
of Man ; Professor Phillips on the An- 
tiquity of Man ; Mr. Godwin-Aosten on 
the Alluvial Accumulation in the Valleys 
of the Somme and Ouse ; Mr. Wallace 
on Man in the Malay Archipelago ; Mutu 
Coomara Swamy on the Ethnology of 
Ceylon; Mr. Crawfurd on the Origin of 
the Gypsies ; Mr. Crawfurd on the Celtic 
Languages ; Mr. Charnock on Celtic Lan- 
guages ; Personal Recriminations in Sec- 
tion D ; Concluding Remarks. 

Waitz's Introduction to Anthropology. 

Kingsley's Water Babies. 

Lunacy and Phrenology, by C. Carter Blake, 
Esq., F.G.S., F.A.S.L. 

The Rival Races ; or, the Sons of Joel. 

Ramsay on Geology and Anthropology. 

Baruch Spinoza. 

Anthropology in the Nursery. 

Miscellanea Anthropologica. 

Journal of the Anthropological Society : 
Tylor on Human Remains from Moulin- 
Quignon ; Schvarcz on Permanence of 
Type; Wake on Man and the Lower 
Animals ; Bollaert on Populations of the 
New World; Marshall on Microcephaly; 
Busk on Homan Remains from Chatham ; 
Bendyshe on Anglo-Saxon Remains from 
Barrington ; Charnock on Science of Lan- 
guage; Winwood Reade on Bush Tribes 
of Equatorial Africa ; General Meeting of 
the Society; Carter Blake on Antiquity 
of the Human Race. 




Journal of tlie Anthropological Society of London, 



On the Human Hair as a Race-Character. 
By Dr. Pruner Bey. 

Pott on the Myths of the Origin of Man and 

Italian Anthropology. 

Ou the Scytho-Cimmerian Languages. 

Notes on Scalping. By Richard F. Burton. 

Renan on the Shemitic Nations. 

Abnormal Distortion of the Wrist. By Charles 
H. Chambers. 

Human Remains from Lough Gur, County 

Danish Kitchen-middens. By Charles H. 

Miscellanea Anthropologica. 

Inquiry into Consanguineous Marriages and 
Pure Races. By Dr. E. Dally. _ 

Peyrerius, and Theological Criticism. By 


Anthropology in its Connection with Che- 

Savage Africa. 

Ethnology and Phrenology as an Aid to the 
Biographer. By J. W. Jackson. 

Proceedings of the Anthropological Society 
of Paris. 


Miscellanea Anthropologica. 

On the Distinction between Man and Ani- 
mals. By Philalethes. 

On the Phenomena of Hybridity. 

Thoughts and Facts contributing to the 
History of Man. 

On the Importance of Methodical Classifica- 
tion in American Researches. By A. 
De Bellecombe. Translated by W. H. 
Garrett, Esq., F.A.S.L. 


Doyle's Chronicle of England. 

Anthropological Documents of the State of 
New York. By George E. Roberts, Esq., 
F.G.S.,Hon. Sec. A.S.L. 

Doherty's Organic Philosophy. 

Proceedings of the Anthropological Society 
of Paris. 

The Fossil Man of Abbeville again. 

Miscellanea Anthropologica. 

Notes on Waitz's Anthropology. By Captain 
R.F. Burton, V.P.A.S.L. 

Bain on the Senses and the Intellect. 

The Gipsies in Egypt. By Alfred vonKremer. 

On the Ideas of Species and Race applied to 
Man and Human Society. By M. Cournot. 

Slavery. By James Reddie, Esq., F.A.S.L. 

Anthropology at the British Association. 
a.d. 1864. 

Burton's Mission to Dahome. By W. Win- 
wood Reade, F.A.S.L., F.R.G.S. 

Miscellanea Anthropologica. 

Journal of the Anthropological Society: 
Carter Blake on the Anthropological 
Papers read at Newcastle ; G. E. Roberts 
and Professor Busk on the Opening of a 
Kist of the Stone Age ; Captain Eustace 
W. Jacob on Indian Tribes of Vancouver's 
Island; Dr. James Hunt on the Negro's 
Place in Nature ; C. R. Markham on 
Quartz Cutting Instruments from Chan- 
duy ; G. E. Roberts on Mammalian Bones 
from Audley End ; A. Bryson on Arrow 
Heads from the Bin of Cullen ; Dr. F. R. 
Fairbank on Flint Arrow Heads from 
Canada ; Count Oscar Reichenbach on 
the Vitality of the Negro Race ; General 
Meeting of the Society ; President's An- 
nual Address ; R. Lee on the Extinction 
of Races ; T. Bendyshe on the Extinction 
of Races; Dr. C. G. Cams on the Con- 
struction of the Upper Jaw of a Green- 
lander; C. Carter Blake's Report on the 
same subject; Jas. Reddie on Anthro- 
pological Desiderata; Rev. J. M. Joass 
on some Pre-historic Dwellings in Ross- 
shire, with an Introduction by George E. 
Roberts ; C. Carter Blake on the alleged 
Peculiar Characters, and assumed Anti- 
quity of the Human Cranium from the 
Neanderthal ; Alfred R. Wallace on the 
Origin of Human Races, etc. ; Schlagint- 
weit on some Ethnographical Casts, 
etc. ; Dr. Shortt on the Domber : Pike 
on the Place of the Science of Mind and 
Language in the Science of Man; Guppy 
on the Capabilities of the Negro for 
Civilisation ; Farrar on the Universality 
of Belief in God, and in a Future State ; 
Farrar on Hybridity ; Burton and Carter 
Blake on Skulls from Annabom in the 
West African Seas ; Thurnam on the 
Two Principal forms of Crania in the 
Early Britons ; Bollaert on the Palaeo- 
graphy of the New World ; Bendyshe 
on the Precautions which ought to have 
been taken to ensure the health of British 
Troops had any been sent to Copen- 
hagen ; Roberts and Bolton on the Kirk- 
head Cave, near Ulverstone ; Blake and 
Roberts on Human Remains from Peter- 
borough ; Bollaert on the Alleged Intro- 
duction of Syphilis from the New World ; 
Gibb on Extreme Hypertrophy of the 
Skull ; Roberts and Carter Blake on a 
Jaw from Buildwas Abbey, Salop ; Carter 
Blake on Human Remains from Kent's 
Hole, Torquay ; Carter Blake on Human 
Remains from a Bone Cave in Brazil ; 
Broca on Skulls from the Basque Pro- 
vinces, and from a Cave of the Bronze 
Period ; Pusey on the Negro in Relation 
to Civilised Society. 


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