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Publications 
of 

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL 
HISTORY 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SERIES 
Volume 30 




CHICAGO, U.S.A. 
1940-1949 



THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF IRAQ 

PART I, NUMBER 1 

THE UPPER EUPHRATES 



BY 

HENRY FIELD 

CURATOR OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 




ANTHROPOLOGICAL SERIES 

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

VOLUME 30, PART I, NUMBER 1 

MAY 31, 1940 



PUBLICATION 469 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

List of Illustrations 5 

Preface 7 

I. Introduction 13 

II. The Land and the People 17 

III. The Physical Anthropology of the Dulaim and the Anaiza ... 32 

Anthropometric Methods and Technique 32 

List of Anthropometric Abbreviations 33 

The Dulaim 33 

The Anaiza 54 

Ram-faced Types among the Dulaim and the Anaiza 73 

IV. Additional Anthropometric Data from Iraq 75 

Arabs of the Kish Area 76 

Iraq Army Soldiers 83 

Ba'ij Beduins 86 

Summary by Sir Arthur Keith 89 

V. The Tribes and Sub-Tribes of the Upper Euphrates 91 

Appendices 103 

A. The Population of Iraq by Major C. J. Edmonds 103 

B. Land Tenure in Iraq by Sir Ernest Dowson 106 

C. Notes on General Health of the Kish Arabs 110 

D. Anthropometric Data from Royal Hospital, Baghdad, by Dr. B. 

H. Rassam 122 

E. Individuals Measured in Royal Hospital, Baghdad, by Winifred 
Smeaton 131 

F. Mammals from Iraq by Colin C. Sanborn 156 

G. Notes on Insects from Iraq 163 

H. Plants Collected by the Expedition by Paul C. Standley . . . .165 

Glossary 198 

Bibliography 199 

Indexes 204 

Tribes Referred to in Chapter V 204 

Dulaimis Illustrated in Plates 207 

Anaiza Tribesmen Illustrated in Plates 207 

Tribal Names Appearing on Map of Iraq (A) 208 

Tribal Names Appearing on Map of Iran (B) 212 

General 214 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PLATES 

1. General view of Haditha. 

2, 3. Classic Mediterranean type. 

4. Fine and Coarse Mediterranean types. 

5. Iraqo-Mediterranean types. 

6. 7. Dolichocephals. 

8. Brachycephals. 

9, 10. Facial types. 

11, 12. Mixed-eyed individuals. 
13-17. Variations in nasal profile. 
18, 19. Variations in hair form. 
20-35. Dulaimis measured at Haditha. 
36. Hairless Dulaimi. 
37-47. Anaiza tribesmen. 
48. Water-wheel at Haditha. 

TEXT FIGURES 

PAGE 

1. Geographical position of Iraq 14 

2. Communications with Iraq 19 

3. The Upper Euphrates region 21 

4. Environs of Lake Habbaniya 29 

5-10. Tribes and sub-tribes of the Anaiza Beduins .... 56-61 

MAP 

General Map of Iraq Frontispiece 

SUPPLEMENTS 

Map A. Distribution of tribes in Iraq 

Map B. Distribution of tribes in western Iran 



PREFACE 

In December, 1925, Dr. L. H. Dudley Buxton, Reader in Physi- 
cal Anthropology at Oxford, accompanied me to Iraq, where the 
Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition was excavating 
the ancient city of Kish, which lies eight miles due east of Babylon. 
Our trip was financed by my great-uncle, Mr. Barbour Lathrop, 
a firm believer in the benefits of practical experience. During our 
brief visit to the Expedition we were enrolled by Professor Stephen 
Langdon as volunteer physical anthropologists. 

At that time excavations were in progress in the Babylonian 
levels of mound "W" and on the southern flank of the great temple 
complex dedicated to Harsagkalemma. Dr. Buxton instructed 
me in the technique of excavating human skeletal remains. Several 
questions arose in relation to the physical appearance of these 
ancient dwellers in Mesopotamia. Were they similar to, or dif- 
ferent from, the modern Arabs of the Kish area? Had the basic 
population of Mesopotamia, now Iraq, remained unchanged dur- 
ing the past six thousand years of recorded history? In addition, 
how were the modern inhabitants of Iraq related to their neighbors 
and, in general, to the peoples of Asia, Africa, and Europe? 

Since no anthropometric data from this area were in existence 
Dr. Buxton and I decided to measure a small series of our Kish 
workmen. Shortly afterward, we obtained permission from the 
Officer Commanding the Iraq Army Camp at Hilla to measure some 
of the soldiers. Thus, Dr. Buxton examined Iraq Army soldiers, 
while I acted as recorder. These anthropometric data, published 
by Buxton and Rice (see pp. 81-82), revealed the numerical inade- 
quacy of our samples. 

On January 10, 1926, I accompanied Professor Langdon to 
Jemdet Nasr, which lies in the desert about eighteen miles north- 
east of Kish. Early in the afternoon we unearthed four complete 
painted vessels, and several pictographic tablets in linear script 
(Field, 1926). No human remains were found. 

During the season 1927-28 I was attached to the Kish Expedi- 
tion as physical anthropologist. In March, during excavations at 
Jemdet Nasr we found several human skeletons (Field, 1932c). At 
the close of the season I examined 398 Arabs of the Kish area, 231 
Iraq Soldiers at Hilla Camp, and 38 Ba'ij Beduins (see pp. 76-89; 
also Field, 1935a and 1939b). 



8 Preface 

The results obtained seemed to warrant a continuation of the 
anthropometric survey of Iraq. Dr. Berthold Laufer, my former 
chief, approved this project and on April 1, 1934, the Field Museum 
Anthropological Expedition to the Near East, under my leadership, 
began work in Baghdad. The Expedition was financed by Mr. 
Marshall Field. The first four and one-half months of the anthropo- 
metric survey were spent in Iraq, where, in addition to our anthro- 
pological work, we collected botanical, geological, and zoological 
specimens. Similar researches were conducted in Iran (Field, 1939b) 
and among the North Ossetes and Yezidis of the Caucasus, U.S.S.R. 

Mr. Richard A. Martin, now Curator of Near Eastern Archae- 
ology at Field Museum, was in charge of collecting zoological speci- 
mens (see China; Uvarov; and Schmidt, 1939) and also accompanied 
me throughout the Expedition in the capacity of photographer. 
The excellence of the photographs illustrating this publication is 
entirely due to his technical skill and patience in dealing with these 
Arabs and Beduins. 

Mr. S. Y. Showket, of Basra, acted as interpreter. His knowledge 
of English, Arabic, Kurdish, Persian, and Chaldean, combined with 
his finesse in dealing with recalcitrant subjects, made him an 
invaluable member of the Expedition. 

Dr. Walter P. Kennedy, of the Royal College of Medicine in 
Baghdad, examined the Dulaim and Anaiza blood samples (Field, 
1935a, p. 460). 

Yusuf Lazar, an Assyrian, was in charge of collecting herbarium 
specimens and insects (see Uvarov; China). 

Technical questions regarding anthropometric measurements 
and observations were discussed at Harvard with Dr. E. A. Hooton, 
and in England with Sir Arthur Keith and Dr. L. H. Dudley Buxton. 1 

Prior to our leaving the United States, Mr. Wallace Murray, 
Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs in the Department 
of State, had very kindly notified Mr. Paul S. Knabenshue, United 
States Minister in Baghdad, of our scientific mission. At Mr. Knaben- 
shue's intervention I was granted private audiences with His Majesty 
the late King Ghazi; the Prime Minister; the Minister of the 
Interior; the Minister of Education; the Director-General of Health; 
and the Chief of Police. 

1 Dr. Buxton's premature death from influenza in 1939 came to me as a great 
shock and personal loss. His students, scattered throughout the world, will always 
remember his inspiring leadership and stimulus. 



Preface 9 

As a result of these interviews a special permit was issued ena- 
bling members of the Expedition to conduct anthropometric studies 
throughout Iraq, to collect zoological, botanical, and geological 
specimens, to take photographs, and to compile tribal maps (see 
Maps A and B). 

During our work in Iraq the Expedition received unusual co- 
operation from Iraqi officials, as well as from many private individ- 
uals. Among the many persons who rendered valuable assistance 
were: AH Jaudat Beg, Sir Kinahan Cornwallis, Mr. C. R. Grice, 
Major W. C. F. Wilson, Sir John Burnett, the late Wing-Commander 
A. R. M. Richards, Dr. Walter P. Kennedy, Dr. T. H. McLeod, 
and the Mutasarrifs of the Mosul, Kirkuk, Erbil, and Amara Liwas. 

A letter from the Air Minister in London, Lord Londonderry, 
to the Air Officer Commanding in Iraq served as an introduction to 
the members of the British Royal Air Force. 

Another valuable letter of introduction was from Mr. John Skliros, 
Managing Director of the Iraq Petroleum Oil Company in London, 
to Mr. G. W. Dunkley, General Manager in the Near East, who 
facilitated our work. During our three weeks in the desert we were 
guests of the Company. 

Appreciation must also be expressed to the late Dr. F. R. S. 
Shaw, Chief Medical Officer of the Company, and to the late Dr. 
H. C. Reid, who made possible our work on the Dulaimis at Haditha 
and to Dr. M. Don Clawson, Chief Dental Surgeon, who rendered 
assistance in numerous ways. 

Through the courtesy of the late Professor James H. Breasted, 
Director of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 
the Expedition was kindly lent a station-wagon by Dr. Henri Frank- 
fort, Director in Iraq of the Oriental Institute Expeditions. This 
automobile was driven by Mr. H. Mihran. Mr. Gabriel Malak 
also gave generous assistance. 

Dr. B. H. Rassam of the Royal College of Medicine in Baghdad 
kindly gave me his anthropometric data on 497 individuals measured 
by him in the Royal Hospital, Baghdad (see Appendix D). 

In conclusion, I must record my deep gratitude to His Majesty 
the late Ghazi ibn Faisal and to his Ministers, who made possible 
my studies on the physical characters of the modern peoples of Iraq. 

At the end of July Mr. Martin, Dr. Kennedy, Yusuf Lazar, 
and I left Baghdad for Tehran. In Iran we continued our research 
(Field, 1939). On September 13, we entered the Union of Soviet 



10 Preface 

Socialist Republics at Baku. The anthropometric data obtained 
in the Caucasus will appear in a forthcoming Museum publication. 

Following our return to Chicago in December, 1934, prepara- 
tions were begun for the publication of the results obtained by the 
Expedition. 

During the writing of this report I have had the benefit of dis- 
cussing the general arrangement of the material with Dr. Paul S. 
Martin, Chief Curator of Anthropology at Field Museum. 

Since 2,500 individuals had been studied in Iraq, Iran, and the 
Caucasus, it was decided to accept the invitation of Dr. Hooton 
and to have the statistics tabulated on the card system for sorting 
by the Hollerith machines at the Anthropometric Laboratory in 
the Peabody Museum at Harvard. During 1935 and part of 1936 
the data were prepared for the machines and the introductory 
sections written. From September, 1936, to June, 1937, I worked 
on this material at the Peabody Museum. Mr. Donald Scott, 
Director, facilitated my work in every possible manner. 

Throughout this period I had the benefit of numerous conferences 
with Dr. Hooton, who supervised the preparation of this report 
and from time to time offered many valuable suggestions, particu- 
larly in regard to the methods to be employed in the presentation 
of these data. 

I am also grateful for opportunities to discuss numerous problems 
with Dr. Carleton S. Coon and with Dr. Carl C. Seltzer, who calcu- 
lated the statistical tables. 

I wish to thank Miss Elizabeth Reniff, my former research 
assistant, who worked on this report both at Field Museum and 
at Harvard. 

The greater part of the typing was done by Miss Ethel Brady, 
who arranged the statistical tables, and by Mr. Theodore Scully, 
who completed the remainder of the manuscript. 

Miss Dorothy Pedersen rendered valuable assistance throughout 
the preparation and proofreading of this publication. 

I wish to express gratitude to Miss Eunice Zimmerman, who 
assisted with the final checking of the report. 

I also gratefully acknowledge the aid of Miss Lillian A. Ross, 
Staff Editor of the Division of Printing, in seeing the manuscript 
through the press. 

My wife has generously assisted in proofreading the greater part 
of the manuscript. 



Preface 11 

During the Cambridge meeting of the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science, in August, 1938, I had the benefit of 
discussing the preliminary results with Sir Arthur Keith, to whom, 
because of his encouragement and advice during the past seventeen 
years, I owe a lasting debt of gratitude. 

In Berlin during the same month I had the pleasure of visiting 
Baron Max Freiherr von Oppenheim, whose first volume on the 
Beduins has appeared recently (see Bibliography). His chapter 
on the Anaiza should be read as an introduction to my section on 
these desert tribesmen. 

I wish, also, to record my gratitude to the librarians of the follow- 
ing institutions who facilitated the reference work in every possible 
manner: Field Museum of Natural History; Oriental Institute, 
University of Chicago; Peabody Museum, Widener Library, and 
Institute of Geographical Exploration, Harvard; New York Public 
Library; Library of Congress; Bodleian Library, Oxford; University 
Library, Cambridge; London Library; Royal Geographical Society; 
Royal Asiatic Society; Royal Central Asian Society; Mus£e de 
Trocadero, Paris; Instituto di Antropologia della Reale Universita, 
Rome; Palais Azem, Damascus; and Iraq Museum, Baghdad. 

Three maps (Frontispiece; Figs. 2, 3) were drawn specially for 
this publication by Mr. Peter Gerhard, a volunteer assistant. Fig- 
ure 1 was drawn by Dr. Erwin Raisz, of Harvard University, and 
Figure 4 by Mr. David Tuch. 

The large map (A) showing the distribution of tribes in Iraq has 
been distributed with the map (B) of Iran since there is an overlap 
between these two sheets. 

Map A, compiled from all available sources, was drawn at Field 
Museum by Mr. Richard A. Martin. 

Wherever possible I have checked the tribal information but in 
a task of this complexity and magnitude a certain degree of varia- 
tion must occur, since even the best qualified informants vary in their 
oral tradition (cf. von Oppenheim). 

Furthermore, during the past decade many tribal changes have 
taken place within the confines of Iraq. To the best of my knowl- 
edge, however, there have been no large tribal movements in Iraq 
comparable to those ordered by Riza Shah Pahlavi in Iran. This 
does not include the movements of the Assyrians to the Khabur. 
In Iraq the general trend has been to restrict the wanderings of the 
nomads in an attempt to make them become settled groups. In 
this manner conflicts over pasturage or wells can be avoided. 



12 Preface 

Alphabetical lists of tribal names appearing on these two maps 
have been prepared by Miss Dorothy Pedersen and by Mr. Peter 
Gerhard respectively. 

The list of the tribes and sub-tribes of the Anaiza (Figs. 5-10) 
was rewritten by Dr. A. Frayha at the Oriental Institute of the 
University of Chicago. The transliteration, prepared by Dr. Frayha, 
was redrawn by Mr. Richard A. Martin. 

The place names conform to the spelling adopted by the Perma- 
nent Committee on Geographical Names of the Royal Geographical 
Society of London. As the question of orthography is by no means 
settled and many names are not yet included in the published lists 
of the Society, standard practice as adopted by the most recent 
British map-makers has been used. 

All diacritical marks, with but few exceptions, have been omitted 
throughout the text, but are included in the Glossary (p. 198). 

In conclusion, I must express my gratitude to Mr. Abdul-Majid 
Abbass, and to Mr. Jassim Khalaf, Iraq Government students at 
the University of Chicago, who checked and made additions to the 
native names listed in the text and in the Glossary. 

Henry Field 



THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF IRAQ 

PART I, NUMBER 1 
THE UPPER EUPHRATES 



I. INTRODUCTION 

In order to present the results of the anthropometric survey of 
Iraq it has been decided to arrange the data according to the follow- 
ing plan in the Parts and Numbers of Volume 30 of the Anthro- 
pological Series of Field Museum. 

THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF IRAQ 
Part I 

No. 1. Upper Euphrates Mal «» Females 

(a) Dulaim 137 

(6) Anaiza 23 

(c) Individuals in Royal Hospital, Baghdad . . . 439 143 

(d) Arabs of Kish Area 459 

(e) Iraq Soldiers, Hilla 222 

(f) Ba'ij Beduins, near Kish 35 

No. 2. Lower Euphrates-Tigris Region 

(a) Marsh Arabs 271 3 

(b) Subba (Mandeans) 92 33 

(c) Individuals in An Nasiriya 126 26 

Part II 

No. 1. Northern Jazira 

(a) Shammar 299 129 

(6) Sulubba (Sleyb) 39 10 

(c) Turkomans 64 31 

(d) Yezidis 235 77 

No. 2. Kurdistan 

(a) Kurds 609 33 

(b) Assyrians 106 137 

(c) Jews Ill 52 

(d) Armenians 4 2 

(e) Gypsies 6 4 

(/) Chaldeans 1 

Total 3278 680 

No. 3. Comparative Data 
Conclusions 

Miss Winifred Smeaton, now Mrs. Homer Thomas, measured 
588 females and some of the males. Miss Smeaton was attached 
to the Expedition from April 1 to July 20, 1934. (See also Appendix E.) 

Both parts will be arranged on the same general plan, each 
section containing chapters on the land and the people, the physical 
anthropology of the various groups, and a list of the tribes and sub- 
tribes within the area prescribed. 

13 



14 



Anthropology of Iraq 



This report (Part I, No. 1), based on the anthropometric data 
obtained in May, 1934, is concerned with the physical characters 
of the peoples of the Upper Euphrates region of Iraq and Syria. 

There is no need to compile a chronological survey of references 
to this area during the past two thousand years, 1 since the reader 
has ready access to classical sources, to the writings of early travelers, 





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Fig. 1. Geographical position of Iraq. 

and to those of Buckingham, Sir Wilfred and Lady Anne Blunt, 
Mark Sykes, Doughty, Musil, Lawrence, Grant, 2 von Oppenheim, 
and many others. 

1 For references to the Middle Euphrates during the Assyrian period and 
down to Ibn Battuta and other Arabic authors see Musil, 1927b, pp. 197 et seq. 

* Dr. Christina Grant (1937) has compiled almost complete references to the 
caravans, early travel, and recent exploration of the Syrian Desert. 



Introduction 15 

Chapter II deals briefly with the general location of Iraq, and 
in particular with the boundaries, physical geography, climate, 
flora, and fauna. There is also an outline of the recent history of 
the Upper Euphrates area. 

Chapter III contains the anthropometric data on the Dulaimis 
and on the Anaiza tribesmen. The revised tables of the Kish Arabs, 
Iraq Soldiers, and Ba'ij Beduins, who were measured in 1928, 
are placed in Chapter IV. 

I was fortunate to be granted access to full and unpublished 
lists of the tribes and sub-tribes in Iraq. The compilers of these 
data in Chapter V preferred to remain anonymous. 

Appendix A contains the figures of registered and unregistered 
populations, to the end of November, 1935. The number of the 
total population (3,560,456) is based on these data, which were 
sent from Baghdad by Major C. J. Edmonds. 

Appendix B gives the classification of land surface and the 
population with the mean density per square kilometer of the culti- 
vated region. These figures were compiled in 1930 by Sir Ernest 
Dowson. 

Appendix C, a description of the health conditions among the 
Arabs of the Kish area, is based on data compiled during 1927-28 
when I was attached as physical anthropologist to the Field Museum- 
Oxford University Joint Expedition to Kish. 

Appendix D contains the anthropometric data on 497 individuals 
obtained during 1932 by Dr. B. H. Rassam in the Royal Hospital, 
Baghdad. 

In Appendix E Miss Smeaton presents the anthropometric data 
obtained on 32 males and 52 females during 1935 in the Royal 
Hospital, Baghdad. 

Appendix F consists of a list of mammals collected in Iraq either 
during the 1934 Expedition or as a result of our subsequent appeals 
for additional specimens for the Museum study collections. The 
identifications have been made by Mr. Colin C. Sanborn, Curator 
of Mammals. 

A report (Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., vol. 24, pp. 49-92) 
on the reptiles and amphibians was published during 1939 by Mr. 
Karl P. Schmidt, Curator of Amphibians and Reptiles. 

The large collections of insects obtained during 1934, and sub- 
sequently from Yusuf Lazar, are being determined at the British 
Museum through the cordial co-operation of Captain N. W. Riley 



16 Anthropology of Iraq 

(see Appendix G). Two papers have been published by Field Mu- 
seum: "Hemiptera from Iraq, Iran, and Arabia," by W. E. China; 
and "Orthoptera from Iraq and Iran," by B. P. Uvarov. 

In Appendix H, Mr. Paul C. Standley, Curator of the Her- 
barium, has classified the flora collected during the 1934 Expedition 
and herbarium specimens obtained subsequently from Yusuf Lazar. 
This list is of particular importance, since in many cases the localities 
indicate new ranges for genera and species. 

In 1937 Field Museum published a report by David Hooper 
and Henry Field, entitled "Useful Plants and Drugs of Iran and 
Iraq." 

Additional reports on botanical, geological, and zoological speci- 
mens are now in preparation. 

The reader is referred to a recent publication by Pere H. Charles 
entitled "Tribus Moutonnieres du Moyen-Euphrate." (Institut 
Francais de Damas.) This important work deals with the tribes 
adjoining those referred to in the present report, and for this reason 
it should be used as a complementary account. 

In the same series published in 1934 by the Institut Francais de 
Damas appeared Mr. Albert de Boucheman's monograph entitled 
"Materiel de la vie Mdouine receuilli dans le desert de Syrie (tribu 
des Arabes Sba'a)." This volume contains an excellent account 
of the material life of the Sbaa Beduins. 

Indexes of the numbers of individuals and plate numbers of the 
Dulaimis and the Anaiza (p. 207) have been prepared. 

The comparative data and the conclusions based on the anthro- 
pometric survey of Iraq will be discussed in Part II. 

A detailed knowledge of the physical characters of the modern 
peoples of Iraq and their relationship both to their neighbors and 
to the ancient dwellers in Mesopotamia not only will throw light 
on numerous historical problems but also will be of assistance in 
determining the true racial heritage of the Mediterranean Race. 

Furthermore, the European races trace part of their physical 
and cultural origins to an area extending from the Punjab to the 
Nile Valley. 

Southwestern Asia may well have been one of the nurseries of 
Homo sapiens (Field, 1932b, 1939b). 



II. THE LAND 1 AND THE PEOPLE 

The Upper Euphrates region may be described as the stretch 
of the Euphrates River between Raqqa and Al Falluja with an 
arbitrary boundary in the desert on both the right and left banks 
of the river (Fig. 3). 

In general this area, which covers approximately 22,000 square 
miles, consists of a steppe-like plateau with rocky outcrops, similar 
to South African kopjes, some of which rise to a height of 200 or 300 
feet above the level of the surrounding country. 

Through the center of this inhospitable area flows the Euphrates 
River, following a general southeasterly course (cf. Ionides, pp. 37- 
111). Along its banks and those of its tributaries are to be found 
stretches and patches of cultivated land. 

In the course of centuries the river has carved out a trough-like 
depression through the desert. According to the resistance offered 
by the geological formation of the land, this valley varies in width 
from more than ten miles to a narrow precipitous gorge scarcely a 
mile across. 

In the wider sections of the valley, the river meanders, fre- 
quently changing its course and forming numerous islands and 
rapids in the river bed, as well as ledges of rich, alluvial soil near 
the banks where the land is cultivated. 

At Abu Kemal the valley begins to narrow, and the course of 
the river is due east until it reaches Ana; from here it again flows 
southeast. The gorge gradually opens out in the neighborhood of 
Ramadi, where the river flows through a fertile, irrigated, alluvial 
plain, until the limit of the area is reached at Al Falluja. 

As far south as the Tell Aswad reach, the river bed is rocky, 
with numerous ledges and rapids, but beyond this point the bed 
of the river and both banks consist of alluvial soil. 

The country on the left bank of the river is known to the local 
inhabitants as the Island (Al Jazira), 2 so-called because it lies be- 
tween the Tigris and the Euphrates, and the country on the right 
bank is known as Al Shamiya, as it is situated on the Damascus 
(Sham) side of the river. 

1 For general description see Lyde (pp. 268 et seq.); Carruthers (1918); Blan- 
chard (1925, 1929, especially the bibliography, p. 231); Stamp (1929); and Boesch 
(1939). 

2 Throughout the remainder of this report Al Jazira and Al Shamiya are 
referred to as the Jazira and the Shamiya. 

17 



18 Anthropology of Iraq 

The Euphrates has only two tributaries of any importance, the 
Belikh and the Khabur, both of which join the parent stream on 
the left bank, the former in the neighborhood of Deir-ez-Zor and the 
latter about eight miles upstream from Meyyadin. 

Numerous wadis from the desert uplands join the river on both 
banks. They are dry during the greater part of the year, but after 
a heavy rain, which may occur miles away in the desert, they are 
liable to sudden and unexpected floods which render them impass- 
able for an indefinite length of time, from one or two hours up to 
as much as five days. 

The chief canals, few in number, leading from this section of 
the Euphrates, are the Aziziya, Saqlawiya, Abu Ghuraib, and Ridh- 
waniya, details of which are as follows: 

(1) The Aziziya Canal leaves the right bank of the Euphrates 
half a mile upstream from Ramadi, and flows in a general 
south-southeasterly direction into Habbaniya Lake, five miles 
southeast of Ramadi. Both banks of the canal are extensively 
cultivated. 

(2) The Saqlawiya, one of the largest and most important canals 
on the Euphrates, is of modern construction. Its intake is six and a 
half miles upstream from Al Falluja, on the left bank of the river. The 
canal flows in a general easterly direction, terminating in the Aqar- 
quf, ten miles northwest of Baghdad. The canal head is controlled 
by sluice gates and has a concrete blockhouse on either bank, where 
it is crossed by a stone bridge on the main Baghdad-Al Falluja 
road. This canal, which attracted many sections of the Dulaim 
tribe from the banks of the Euphrates, waters one of the most 
fertile tracts of country in the whole area. 

(3) The Abu Ghuraib Canal leaves the left bank of the Eu- 
phrates four miles downstream from Al Falluja and proceeds in a 
general easterly direction until due south of Khan Nuqta, when 
it flows northward. Both banks of the canal are cultivated by 
Zoba tribesmen. 

(4) The Ridhwaniya Canal has its head on the left bank of the 
Euphrates nine miles downstream from Al Falluja and follows the 
general direction of the river until it reaches Imam Hamza, where 
it tails off into a series of distributaries. The Zoba are the chief 
cultivators on both banks of the canal. 

The sudden inundations of the Euphrates are an important 
factor in the life of the people. There are two flood seasons. Dur- 




a 

B 
S 

£ 
o 
O 






19 



20 Anthropology of Iraq 

ing the first season, occurring between November and February, 
the rises in the river are caused by the sporadic, but often violent, 
winter rains. These inundations are usually of short duration. 
The longer flood season begins about the middle of March and 
continues to the end of June. The river is usually at its highest 
during May, and there is a considerable daily recession during the 
month of June. 

During July, August, and September there is a steady decrease 
of water in the river, the lowest level usually being reached about 
the middle of October. The river gauge then remains stationary 
until November, when rains may cause freshets involving a rise 
of five or six feet in forty-eight hours, in many cases leaving the 
channels and crossings changed. 

In July and August the channels change continually. This is 
the most difficult period for river navigation, while September, 
October, and November are the best months. 1 

In this region on the Euphrates, the thermometer readings 
may range from below freezing to above 120° F. in the shade. The 
hottest months are usually August and September, while the greatest 
degree of cold is experienced in December and January. The tem- 
perature varies considerably throughout the area, that at Deir-ez- 
Zor being 10° less than that at Ramadi during the summer months. 

Between Raqqa and Al Falluja the climatic conditions are those 
of a subtropical, inland area semi-arid in character, although an 
appreciable amount of rain falls in the winter months. The area 
lies in the shadow of the high plateau to the north and west, and 
thus the summer temperature is not as extreme as it is in lower 
Iraq. There is, however, considerable difference in temperature 
at Raqqa and Al Falluja. 

The relative humidity of the atmosphere is extremely low, and 
even in the wet season rain is not very abundant. Sometimes the 
first rain may fall in October, but usually the heavy downpours 
come in November. The rainy season continues until April or 
early May, after which no further rain occurs until the following 
October. 

Snow is rare in this region, but on February 11-13, 1920, a light 
fall was recorded at Ana. On January 11, 1926, I was in a heavy 
hailstorm west of Ramadi. 

1 See Willcocks and Ionides for detailed information on the general hydraulic 
survey of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. 



The Land and the People 



21 



The general direction of winds throughout the summer is from 
the northwest, because atmospheric pressure in the eastern Mediter- 
ranean is considerably higher than that in the Persian Gulf during 
this season. This northwest wind descends from the plateau upon 
the Jazira like a dry, scorching blast from a furnace, frequently 
bearing with it a cloud of dust (cf. Coles). 

Southern hot winds, from the Persian Gulf, usually alternate 
with the northwest winds throughout the summer. The influence 
of these hot winds is particularly noticeable in August and Sep- 



j Raqqa 


\ 1 ( 








Deir ex Z«r*\ \L ! ^TJ> 




\P0 

ATikrrT 

V5^ 


s 


N s / 




< 

S 

\ 


S' ^ Kubaisao >JJj* 

f RamadlT 

^ % Al Hahhdnly i 


Al Fallujo. / 


hr RabhalTya* 
8 P rmles BU*U«4L« 





Fig. 3. The Upper Euphrates region. Scale 1:4,000,000. 



tember, when they help to ripen the date crop. They are felt as 
far north as Abu Kemal, the northern limit of the cultivation of 
Phoenix dactylifera (see Dowson). The prevailing wind passes over 
the plateau of Anatolia and descends on the plains as a dry current 
of air, rapidly becoming warmer as it descends from the level of the 
mountains. During the winter months the direction of the wind 
varies considerably, and breezes often spring up from the south. 

Calms rarely occur and the wind generally attains its maximum 
velocity during the day. In the evening, the wind diminishes to a 
gentle breeze which gradually gathers speed after dawn on the 
following morning. 



22 Anthropology of Iraq 

During the summer months, sand storms of considerable inten- 
sity frequently occur, and the burning sand, driven along with 
a cloud of dust, provides a most unpleasant experience (cf. Coles). 
For hours visibility may be limited to a few hundred feet. 

The agricultural crops of this area on the Upper Euphrates, 
cultivated under the most primitive conditions, comprise chiefly 
wheat (huntah) and barley (shair), a certain amount of maize 
(ithra), and a limited quantity of red and white rice (timmiri), sesame 
(8111181111), mash (mash), beans (buqul), and cotton (qutn). There 
are some brinjals (badinjan), cucumbers (khiar), melons (battikh), 
onions (bassal), and radishes (fijil). Date palms (cf. Dowson) are 
cultivated extensively at Abu Kemal and along the Euphrates, 
and, to a lesser extent, apple (shajarat tiff ah), pear (shajarat armut), 
mulberry (shajarat tukki), and pomegranate (shajarat rumman) 
trees. 

For agricultural purposes the rainfall is insufficient and irriga- 
tion becomes an absolute necessity between May and October. 
The Belikh and Khabur, tributaries of the Euphrates, never become 
quite dry, making possible the growing of crops sufficient to main- 
tain a settled population on the banks of these streams. 

The three principal methods of irrigation in use on the Upper 
Euphrates are: by water lift (charid); by water wheel (naura); 1 
and by canal. 

A charid is a water lift constructed on the river bank, usually 
where it descends steeply to the river. The lift is worked by a pony 
or mule. The water, raised to the bank in a large skin, is carried 
away in a small, narrow channel from which smaller distributaries 
take the water to the cultivated fields. Where the charid is the 
only form of irrigation, water can be carried only from one to one 
and a half miles inland from the river. 

In the construction of a water wheel 2 (naura) a series of masonry 
weirs is built out into the river for a distance of about ten yards, 
with a masonry trough extending along the top. At the end of 
this projection into the river is a water wheel (PI. 48). The force 
of the current in the stream turns the wheel, on which is fas- 
tened a series of small buckets to lift the water. On the turnover 
of the wheel the water is emptied into an extension from the trough 
(PI. 48, upper) and thence conveyed through ordinary channels to 

1 Cf. Laufer (1934) for origin and history of the noria or Persian wheel. 
J Cf. H. Charles, pp. 140-146. 



The Land and the People 23 

the land to be irrigated. Working day and night, each wheel irri- 
gates about five acres. The cost of maintenance of one wheel is 
said to be approximately $200 annually. A masonry dam, built 
out into the river in prolongation of the weirs, raises the water level 
enough to ensure at low water a sufficient current to turn the 
water wheels. A series of these weirs and dams built out from 
both banks toward the center of the river tends to raise the water 
level and to produce a swift current in the center of the river be- 
tween the heads of the dams, rendering the passage of boats both 
difficult and dangerous. In many places the weirs and dams be- 
come ruined and submerged, further increasing the dangers of navi- 
gation. Norias are not used downstream from Hit. 

In spite of their usefulness in cultivation, there are remarkably 
few canals of any size on the Upper Euphrates (see p. 18). A 
tribesman will cut a small channel leading from the river to irrigate 
his crops where this is practicable, but unless the Government dis- 
plays some interest and activity in the construction of a large canal 
he will show little initiative in this direction. 

The rain produces a desert crop capable of supporting more than 
a hundred thousand grazing sheep and several thousand camels. 
During the late autumn, winter, and early spring, after heavy rains, 
this desert is covered with grass, various desert wild flowers, spinifex, 
and numerous shrubs which provide excellent grazing for camels. 

During this period water can be obtained from depressions in 
the ground or from the beds of wadis where it collects after rains. 
At this season, Beduins, principally from the Anaiza and Shammar 
tribes, wander in well-defined areas grazing their extensive flocks of 
camels and sheep. 

About the end of April or the beginning of May the desert be- 
comes parched, brown, and dry. During the rainless summer months 
the grazing is thus quickly exhausted and Beduin herdsmen must be 
continually on the move, compelled to pasture their flocks near 
the river. 

The fauna of Iraq has not yet been studied extensively but 
numerous papers have been published in the Journal of the Bombay 
Natural History Society and by specialists of the British Museum 
(Natural History). 

The mammals living in this region include gazelle, hyena, jackal, 
wild boar, fox, badger, and cheetah. There are many species of 



24 Anthropology of Iraq 

birds living beside the Euphrates and the Wadi Thahthar. The 
reptiles and amphibians probably do not differ from those in other 
parts of Iraq (cf. Schmidt, 1939). 

The insects have not been studied in detail within this area 
but the reader desirous of additional information on the Hemip- 
tera and Orthoptera should consult the articles by China and 
Uvarov (see Bibliography). 

The mineral resources of the Upper Euphrates are concentrated 
around the bitumen wells at Hit. Apart from this the area possesses 
no mineral wealth, with the exception of a negligible quantity of 
oil 1 from Nafatha, ten miles north of Ramadi. The oil (mazut) is 
used as a remedy for diseases of sheep and camels. 

The seven bitumen wells at Hit are said to have been worked 
for at least 5,000 years, and the supply seems to be almost unlimited. 
The output in 1920 averaged between 150 and 300 tons per month, 
most of which was exported up- or downstream in barges (shakhalir) . 

Bitumen is used locally for boat-building, the making of bricks 
(tabuq), caulking of baskets, and as fuel for kilns (quwar). 

Lime is manufactured at Hit by burning bitumen with limestone 
from the neighboring quarries, the average output being 300 tons 
per month, all of which is exported downstream. One of the best 
quarries lies at Jaladiya, five miles northwest of Hit. 

The only controlled salt pans exist at Hit. Three hundred tons of 
salt were exported during 1920. 

The sole manufacturing enterprise of any importance on the 
Upper Euphrates is also located at Hit, where gufas (Ar. quffaf) 
are constructed. These round boats are made by interlacing tama- 
risk and mulberry tree branches with basketwork of reeds and 
straw, and the whole is eventually caulked with a mixture of bitumen 
and sand. The boats usually draw about twenty- two inches when 
laden and about six inches when empty. When despatched down- 
stream for sale they are loaded with lime and bitumen, and sold 
with their cargoes. 

A report on economic and commercial conditions in Iraq, by 
J. P. Summerscale, appeared in 1938. 

A brief historical survey shows that this area has seen the rise 
and fall of some of the most famous empires of the past. As long 

1 This statement was written prior to the activities of the Iraq Petroleum 
Company, formerly the Turkish Petroleum Company. During 1928 I was at- 
tached as a separate archaeological unit to Major A. L. Holt's T. P. C. Survey 
party operating between Rutba and the Harrat-ar-Rajil. Therefore, all informa- 
tion regarding oil development has been treated as strictly confidential. 



The Land and the People 25 

ago as 1450 B.C. the Eastern Marches of the Egyptian Empire 
extended as far as Hit. At a later period the country came in turn 
under the domination of the Assyrian, Persian, Macedonian, and 
Roman empires. It was engulfed finally by the tide of the Moham- 
medan conquest, which swept up from Mecca and Medina in the 
seventh century as a result of the preaching of Mohammed. Later 
again, when, under the Omayyad caliphs, the governing center of 
the Mohammedan world shifted from Mecca and Medina to Damas- 
cus, the country again changed masters, and when the Abbassid 
caliphs in their turn rose to power and Baghdad became their capital, 
the area in question formed part of their dominions. At length, after 
other vicissitudes and changes of fortune, the country, in 1534, 
came under the rule of the Ottoman Turks, who had been ruling 
over it for nearly 400 years at the time of the outbreak of the World 
War in 1914. 

During the Turkish regime, the country along the Middle 
Euphrates, although nominally under the control of the Turks, 
actually became independent of any central authority until com- 
paratively recent years. 

The Beduins ranged the country at will, taking toll of the agri- 
culturist and of the caravan. As a result of their depredations, 
which the central government was not in a position to check, any 
security or prosperity was rendered impossible, and cultivation of 
the land existed merely on sufferance. 

It was not until the conclusion of the Crimean War (1856), 
when the Porte found itself with a large army and plenty of money 
at its disposal, that any serious effort was made to exercise control 
in the country. Omar Pasha, then governor of Aleppo, at the head 
of a considerable body of troops, marched down the Euphrates 
and took possession of Deir-ez-Zor, which was then held by Fallahin, 
who had enjoyed semi-independence under Anaiza protection. It 
was about this time that the caravan route down the Euphrates 
from Aleppo to Baghdad was opened to traffic, and traveling by 
this route, although a somewhat speculative venture, became com- 
paratively safe. 

This policy of enforcing the Turkish authority was carried on 
by Midhat Pasha, who built forts to protect navigation on the 
Euphrates and the caravan route to Aleppo. 

Despite periods of insecurity the Turkish power gradually grew, 
and the acreage of cultivated land has considerably increased in 
recent years in the Euphrates Valley. The riverain cultivators 



26 Anthropology of Iraq 

usually found it advisable to pay a form of tribute to the larger 
Beduin tribes in return for protection, or at least for freedom from 
molestation. 

On the outbreak of the World War in 1914 the Euphrates was 
gradually developed as a line of communication by the Turks, who 
transported both troops and stores by river from Jerablus to Al 
Falluja and even to Samawa and An Nasiriya. 

As the Turkish domination was replaced by British occupation, 
Civil Administration was undertaken, and Political Officers were 
established at Ramadi, Ana, Abu Kemal, and Deir-ez-Zor. The 
Ramadi division consisted of the old Turkish Qadhas of Al Falluja, 
Ramadi, Hit, Ana, and Abu Kemal, which were administered by 
Assistant Political Officers. Ana, Hit, and Al Falluja were later 
placed under the charge of Arab Civil Officials. 

The advent of the new Arab government of Iraq has produced 
a general stabilizing influence on the political situation in the Upper 
Euphrates region. 

The great majority of the inhabitants are Arabs of the Sunni sect. 

Christians, Jews, and Shiah Mohammedans are so few in number 
that they need scarcely be considered as a factor of importance. 
Owing to the former migratory habits of large sections of the popu- 
lation accurate census figures were difficult to obtain. The following 
is an approximate estimate of the population derived from various 
sources in 1920: 

Arabs (Sunnis) 331,000 

Arabs (Shiahs) 200 

Jews 3,600 

Christians 1,200 

Total 336,000 

The Upper Euphrates is the home of four types of Arab, each 
of which is more or less distinct from the others, possessing its own 
characteristics. 

(1) The Beduins, or purely nomadic wanderers in the desert, 
are represented in this area by the large and powerful Anaiza con- 
federation (cf. pp. 54-74, 91-93). 

(2) The semi-nomads pasture their flocks in the desert, while 
at the same time they own and cultivate land in the vicinity of the 
river. The Dulaim (pp. 33-54, 96-101) are a good illustration of this 
type, approximately 50 per cent of the tribe being semi-nomadic 
and the remainder settled cultivators. 



The Land and the People 27 

(3) The settled cultivators reside permanently either on the river 
bank or in an irrigated area, and engage in purely agricultural pur- 
suits. No tribe on the Upper Euphrates is composed entirely of 
settled cultivators, and the percentage in each tribe varies. In the 
Baqqarah, settled cultivators amount to about 75 per cent of the 
inhabitants. 

(4) The town-dweller, engaged in commercial or industrial pur- 
suits, lives on the proceeds of land or houses which he owns, or he 
may be a government official or a member of the professional classes. 

The most important tribal groups living in the Upper Euphrates 
region are the Anaiza, including the Ruwalla and Amarat sections, 
and the Dulaim. The Anaiza and the Dulaim are discussed in 
Chapter III, pages 33-74. 

The Amarat, who numbered some 4,500 tents, ranged the eastern 
portion of the Hamad from west of An Najaf to Deir-ez-Zor. In 
early spring the Amarat occupied Al Gara depression near Bir 
Mulussa, eighty miles southwest of Abu Kemal. In summer they 
migrated to the Euphrates between Ramadi and Deir-ez-Zor, while 
autumn usually found them encamped on the edge of the desert 
west of Karbala in the vicinity of Shithatha and Ar Rahhaliya. 

In the years following November 11, 1918, the Amarat became 
friendly with the Dulaim but remained bitter enemies not only of 
the Shammar Jarba of the Jazira but also of the Southern Shammar 
of Arabia. They were on bad terms with the Ruwalla, but Fahad 
Beg and Nuri ibn Shalan came to a friendly agreement in the 
spring of 1921. The relations of the Amarat with the Sbaa and 
the Fadan were not cordial. 

The chief importance of the Ruwalla was the fact that they 
commanded the Hit-Damascus road, one of the main trade routes 
between Syria and Iraq. With their powerful confederates, the 
Wulud Ali, the Muhallaf, and the Hasanah, who were usually in the 
closest relations with them, they numbered about 7,000 tents. 

The Ruwalla and their allies wandered over the desert from 
Hama and Horns in the north, where the Hasanah had their summer 
pasturages. Later they began to settle down as cultivators of the 
land as far as Qasr-el-Azraq, south of Jebel ed Druze, and down 
the Wadi Sirhan to Jauf . Their range extended to the east as far 
as the source of the Wadi Hauran on the Jebel Enaze. 1 In summer 
they withdrew into the Wadi Sirhan. 

1 In the spring of 1928, Mr. W. E. Browne, surveyor for the Iraq Petroleum 
Company, followed the Wadi Hauran from the wells at Al Mat, north of Rutba, 



28 Anthropology of Iraq 

The Paramount Sheikh of the Ruwalla is Nuri ibn Shalan, 1 
one of the most powerful of Beduin chiefs. After his capture of 
Jauf from the Shammar of Ibn Rashid in 1912 he was the most 
successful rival of the Southern Shammar. Ibn Rashid, however, 
succeeded in recapturing Jauf during 1920. 

The following information, based on 1920 statistics, is available 2 
for this region, passing from northwest to southeast: 

Raqqa. — A town in Syria with a population of approximately 
2,000 Mohammedans, mainly Arabs and Circassians. 

Deir-ez-Zor. — The total population, estimated at 15,000, con- 
sisted chiefly of Mohammedan town Arabs. There was a small 
Christian colony of Syrian Catholics and a few Jews. 

Abu Kemal. — The French frontier post, with approximately 750 
inhabitants, the majority of whom were Sunnis. 

Ana. — Of the 15,000 inhabitants, the majority were Sunnis, 
with about twenty Jews engaged in trade. 

Kubaisa. — The population, numbering about 3,000 Sunnis, was 
divided into six small tribes or houses. 

Hit. — This ancient town stands on the right bank of the Euphra- 
tes, 119 miles downstream from Ana. Hit, on the river bank, 
dominates a mound which is precipitous to the plain but slopes more 
gradually toward the river. A tall, leaning minaret near the river 
bank provides a conspicuous landmark which can be seen for many 
miles. The town, surrounded by a loop-holed wall, gives the im- 
pression of being built for defense. There are large gardens of date 
palms and fruit trees on both banks of the river upstream from 
the town. 

Hit, which is depressing and malodorous, owes these attributes 
to the bitumen wells and furnaces, the smoke from which causes a 
hazy atmosphere to hang over the town. The surrounding ground 
is also redolent of bitumen (qir) and sulphur (kibrit). Despite the 
unpleasantness, however, it is said to be decidedly healthful, and 

past the Tellul Abaillie, across the Rutba-Amman track to Jebel Enaze. On the 
southern slopes of this low range of hills we found typologically Paleolithic flint 
implements on both sides of the small watercourse, which marks the source of the 
great Wadi Hauran. 

1 When I visited him in Damascus in April, 1928, although he was partly 
crippled with gout, his commanding presence was felt by all to whom he gave 
an audience. 

2 Sir William Andrew (p. 73) published the following population figures in 
1882: Deir-ez-Zor, 7,000; Ana, 2,000; and Hit, 3,000. For later and more detailed 
information see Musil, 1927b. 



30 Anthropology op Iraq 

local sages state with conviction that on one occasion the presence 
of the bitumen wells saved the town from an epidemic of cholera. 

There are seven bitumen wells in the neighborhood, five on 
the right bank of the river, one mile west of the town, and two on the 
left bank. These wells are believed to have been worked for at least 
5,000 years. Herodotus mentioned the bitumen wells of the town, 
then known as Is (cf. Musil, 1927b, pp. 230-231, 350-353). Some 
authorities have identified this town with the Ihi of the Babylonian 
inscriptions, the Ahava of Ezra, and with the 1st, from which a 
tribute of bitumen was brought to Thutmose III, according to an 
inscription at Karnak. 

The population, estimated at about 6,000, was comprised of 
Mohammedans, with the exception of fifty-five Jews. 

Ramadi. — A modern town, with about 5,000 inhabitants, lying 
on the right bank of the Euphrates, twenty-seven miles upstream 
from Al Falluja and thirty-three miles downstream from Hit. Ra- 
madi stands on slightly elevated ground about 500 yards inland 
from the river, surrounded by date palms, which grow only on the 
right bank. About one and one-half miles downstream from the 
town there are extensive date gardens. On both banks of the river 
large tracts of land are under cultivation, irrigated by means of 
water lifts, also on the right bank by the Aziziya Canal. About 
half a mile upstream from Ramadi this canal leaves the right bank 
of the river and flows in a south-southeasterly direction into Hab- 
baniya Lake, about five miles southeast of the town (cf. Fig. 4). 

This lake, near which the British Royal Air Force Headquarters 
are now located, is a large tract of brackish water covering about 
one hundred square miles. 

Al Falluja. — This is a small town on the left bank of the Eu- 
phrates River about forty miles west of Baghdad. The majority of 
the houses are little more than mud huts. With the exception 
of the very small date garden on the northwest side of the town, 
there is little land under cultivation. The town possesses a mosque, 
three khans, a serai, and one large house. The population was 
estimated at 1,200, the majority of whom were Mohammedans. 

Ar Rahhaliya. — The population was recorded as 2,000, all Mo- 
hammedans. There was a large Negroid element. The inhabitants 
were divided into three families or houses, for details of which see 
tribal lists (p. 91). 



The Land and the People 31 

Little accurate information is available regarding the health 
conditions among the civil population, where the rule of survival 
of the fittest holds sway. 

As throughout Iraq, eye diseases are extremely common, 
infection being carried chiefly by flies and dust, and aggravated by 
the insanitary conditions under which the people live. 

Prior to 1925, epidemics of cholera, typhus, and smallpox ap- 
peared at intervals and cases of bubonic plague sometimes occurred. 

Since the advent of trans-desert travel by automobile and air- 
plane the danger from the spread of epidemics has increased a 
thousandfold. Medical inspectors were installed at Ramadi but 
pirate Arab convoys escaped this examination until the Iraq govern- 
ment, realizing the danger, policed all entrances into their territory. 
The greatest menace came from Pilgrims making the Haj to Mecca 
(cf. Clemow). Present arrangements are more than adequate to 
safeguard general health interests. 

Under the brilliant direction of the Minister of Education and of 
Dr. M. Jamali, graduate of Columbia University, educational facili- 
ties are increasing throughout the country, but the Beduins are little 
influenced by these changes. 



III. THE PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE 
DULAIM AND THE ANAIZA 

Anthropometric Methods and Technique 

In the previous chapters the land and the peoples of the Upper 
Euphrates region have been described and a brief summary of his- 
torical events has been given. 

It seems undesirable to repeat at length the description of the 
Iraq government permits obtained or the correct procedure in- 
volved. My previous work in Iraq, beginning in 1925, facilitated 
the issuance of all necessary permits and letters of introduction 
to the Mutasarrifs of every Liwa. 

In general the anthropometric methods and technique follow 
the procedure adopted by the International Committee at Monaco 
in 1906. A detailed description of the technique has appeared 
(pp. 278-288) in my "Contributions to the Anthropology of Iran." 

In order to present the statistical data so that they can be com- 
pared to my previous figures, obtained in Iraq and Iran, it will be 
necessary to group the individuals according to the two classifica- 
tory systems devised and adopted by Dr. E. A. Hooton in the Labo- 
ratory of Anthropology at Harvard and by Sir Arthur Keith. 

While the general trends remain the same the greater number 
of divisions (Keith system) show more clearly any small differ- 
ences. For the sake of direct comparison, wherever possible, I have 
grouped the two tables. 

Since I am planning to treat each section as but a part of one 
complete volume there is no necessity to compile comparative 
tables until the last section. For this reason I am publishing only 
the vital statistics, morphological characters, statistical analyses, 
and raw data of the Dulaim and the Anaiza. 

On the other hand, since this is the first section of "The Anthro- 
pology of Iraq," I have felt it desirable to quote the recalculated 
tables for my groups of Arabs of the Kish area, Iraq Soldiers, and 
Ba'ij Beduins. The recalculation was necessary in order that the 
figures could be sorted and calculated on the Hollerith machines 
in the Laboratory of Anthropology at Harvard. Further slight 
differences occurred since some men were eliminated on account 
of youth or old age, the limits being 18-70 inclusive. 

32 



Physical Anthropology: Dulaim and Anaiza 



33 



When this plan has been followed, all measurements, indices, 
and groupings will be directly comparable. 

For the sake of comparison the series of 100 Arabs measured 
at Kish by Dr. L. H. Dudley Buxton during the first week of Jan- 
uary, 1926, has been added. These tables were recalculated at 
Harvard from the raw data. 



List of Anthropometric Abbreviations 



B=head breadth 
B'= minimum frontal diameter 
B'/B=fron to-parietal index 
B'/J=zygo-frontal index 
B/L= cephalic index 
Big. B. = bigonial breadth 
Biz. B. = bizygomatic breadth 
C.I.= cephalic index 
E.B.=ear breadth 
EB/EL=ear index 
E.I.=ear index 
E.L.=ear length 
F.P.I. = f ronto-parietal index 
G.B. = greatest breadth 
G.H.= total facial height 
G'H=upper facial height 
GH/J=facial index 
G'H/J=upper facial index 



Go-Go=bigonial breadth 
Go-Go/J=zygo-gonial index 
G.O.L.=glabello-occipital length 
J=bizygomatic breadth 
L=glabello-occipital length 
L.L.= lower limb length 
M.F.D.= minimum frontal diameter 
N.B.= nasal breadth 
N.H.= nasal height 
NB/NH=nasal index 
N.I. = nasal index 
R.S.H.= relative sitting height 
S.H.= sitting height 
T.F.H.= total facial height 
T.F.I.=total facial index 
U.F.H.=upper facial height 
U.F.I. = upper facial index 
Zyg.fr.I.=zygo-frontal index 
Zyg.go.I.=zygo-gonial index 



The Dulaim 1 

The Dulaim, the largest semi-nomadic tribe in this area, state 
that they came to Iraq under the leadership of one Thamir, from 
the Dulaimiyat Springs in central Arabia. They are Sunnis of the 
Shafiite sect. Numbering approximately 26,000 men, they pos- 
sessed cultivated lands on both banks of the Euphrates from Imam 
Hamza to Al Qaim. 

About 50 per cent of the tribe were settled agriculturists, the 
remainder being nomads who raised sheep and camels, moving both 
into the eastern Shamiya and into the Jazira for their winter graz- 
ing. The nomadic sections usually left their summer habitat on 
the Euphrates about September and returned in April. No definite 
area or routes could be laid down for the migration of the nomad 
element as their movements were governed by the quantity of graz- 
ing available in the various areas. 

1 This introductory section is based on data obtained prior to 1921. During 
1934, wherever possible, I checked this information. See also "A Handbook of 
Arabia" (vol. 1, pp. 53-54, London, 1920); Ashkenazi (1938); Ayrout (1938); 
Charles (1939); and von Oppenheim (vol. 1, pp. 186-189, 1939). 



34 



Anthropology of Iraq 



The Dulaim shared the pastures of the Amarat, with whom 
they were on friendly terms, in the eastern Shamiya. In the Jazira 
the nomad portion of the tribe sometimes moved as far north as 
Tikrit on the right bank of the Tigris. 

The agricultural portions of the Dulaim cultivate a strip of 
land on both banks of the Euphrates, and along the Aziziya, Abu 
Ghuraib, Saqlawiya, and subsidiary canals. 

The crops produced by the Dulaim are chiefly wheat, barley, 
rice, mash, maize, and millet (dukhn). Dates and other fruit such 
as apples, figs (tin), and pomegranates are grown in gardens sur- 
rounding the towns. The Dulaim export grain both up and down 
the Euphrates to the large market towns on the river, and also to 
Kubaisa and Ar Rahhaliya for sale to the desert tribes and for trans- 
desert market towns. 

Toward the end of 1918 the Dulaim were closely allied with 
the Amarat section of the Anaiza, and at enmity with the Shammar 
Jarba and the settled Shiah tribes of the Lower Euphrates. 

When the insurrection of 1920 finally had been subdued, and 
Sheikh Dhari ibn Dhahir of the Zoba tribe had fled, many sections 
of that tribe agreed to acknowledge Ali Sulaiman of the Dulaim 
as their Paramount Chief and became part of the Dulaim. 

A list of Zoba sections, which either affiliated themselves with 
the Dulaim or set up as independent tribes, follows: 



Dulaim 




Independent 


Luhaib 
Shuwartan 
Bani Zaid 
Qara-Ghul 
Khurushiyin 


Saadan 
Shiti 
Subaihat 
Sumailat 


Chitadah Shaar 
Faddaghah Dulaim 
Haiwat Qartan 
Hitawiyin 



The main part of the Qara-Ghul tribe, which was located on the 
left bank of the Euphrates about six miles downstream from Imam 
Hamza, had been independent since about 1840. The Qara-Ghul 
of the Zoba was a small colony from this tribe. 



DULAIM TRIBESMEN MEASURED AT HADITHA 

At Haditha on May 21 and 22, 1934, I examined 137 Dulaim 
tribesmen. The arrangements were made by the late Dr. H. C. 
Reid, Medical Officer of the Iraq Petroleum Company, whose guests 
we were. 

Age. — The average age for 136 Dulaimis was 32.40 (range 20-64). 
Sixty-six per cent of the individuals were under thirty-five years 



Physical Anthropology: Dulaim and Anaiza 35 

of age. On the basis of age grouping the sample obtained should 
be a representative series of these tribesmen. No. 1076 was omitted. 







Age Distribution 






Age 


No. 


Per cent 


Age 


No. 


Per ceni 


18-19 







45-49 


12 


8.82 


20-24 


28 


20.59 


50-54 


3 


2.21 


25-29 


40 


29.41 


55-59 







30-34 


22 


16.18 


60-64 


4 


2.94 


35-39 


19 


13.97 


65-69 







40-44 


8 


5.88 


70-x 

Total 



136 






100.00 



MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF DULAIMIS 

Skin. — The color was darker than that of the average Arab of 
the Kish area. Individually it ranged from that of a typical southern 
European to dark brown. The constant exposure to the weather, 
combined with the general neglect of washing except for ritual 
ablutions in which sand often replaced water, tended to give 
the older individuals a weather-beaten appearance. In general, 
the Dulaimis possessed a skin color little different from that of the 
Arabs from the "Fertile Crescent" to Morocco. 

Nos. 1062 and 1124 (PI. 36) had some Negro blood. No. 1109 
had very dark hands and the color of his body was considerably 
darker than that of the average individual. 

Hair. — The hair color varied from dark brown to black, which 
I now think should have been classified as very dark brown. No 
trace of blondism was present. In form the hair had low waves, 
seven individuals (5.30 per cent) possessing deep wavy hair. The 
three men recorded as having curly-frizzly hair indicate the presence 
of Negro blood, a feature which appears in the photographic anal- 
yses. Ninety-five men (72.52 per cent) had hair of medium tex- 
ture. An almost equal proportion of the remainder occurred at 
both extremes of the scale. The coarser element might also be 
associated with a Negroid element. Sixty-six hair samples were 
obtained. 

Hair on the head was abundant. No. 1124, who was com- 
pletely bald, had no hair on his entire body. He stated that he had 
always been hairless, as were his three brothers, but that his parents 
possessed the normal amount of hair (PI. 36). 

On the other hand abnormal hairiness of the body was not re- 
corded, and the general impression retained was that the amount 
of body hair was average for any group of Arabs in Iraq. 



36 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Hair 



Color No. 

Black 93 

Very dark brown 2 

Dark brown 19 

Brown 

Reddish brown 

Light brown 

Red 

Black and gray 14 

Dark brown and gray ... 

Light brown and gray. . 

Gray 3 

White 

Total 131 



Eyes. — The majority of the eyes were dark brown but one-third 
of the individuals had mixed eyes, indicating submerged blondism. 
Two men had blue eyes. The majority of irises were homogeneous, 
although rather more than one-third were zoned. The few rayed 
irises could only have been recorded on the light eyes. The sclera 
were clear, with the exception of twelve men (8.82 per cent), four 
of whom were recorded as bloodshot. 



Pere 
70 


ent 
99 
.53 
.50 


Form 

Straight 

Very low waves 

Low waves 

Deep waves 

Curly-frizzly 


No. 





122 

7 

3 


Per cent 


1 






14 


92 

5 
2 


42 
*0 






77 






Woolly 

Total 

Texture 

Coarse 

Coarse-medium 

Medium 

Medium-fine 



132 

No. 

19 



95 

3 












10 


69 


99 

Per< 
14 


99 






VIII 


2 


.29 


SO 




72 

2 

10 








.52 




.00 


?*) 


100 


Fine 

Total 


14 
....131 


69 




100 


.00 



Eyes 



Color 


No. 


Per cent 


Black 







Dark brown 


78 


56.93 


Blue-brown 


14 


10.22 


Bitte-brown 


6 


4.38 


Green-brown 


31 


22.63 


Green-brown 


2 


1.46 


Gray-brown 


4 


2.92 


Blue 


2 


1.46 


Gray 

Light brown 








Blue-gray 

Blue-green 





137 




Total 


100.00 



Iris No. 

Homogeneous 78 

Rayed 6 

Zoned 52 



Per cent 

57.35 

4.41 

38.24 



Total 


136 


100.00 


Sclera 


No. 


Per cent 


Clear 


124 


91.18 


Yellow 


. 




Speckled 

Bloodshot 


8 
. 4 


5.88 
2.94 


Speckled and bloodshot . 
Speckled and yellow . . . 
Yellow and bloodshot . . 


. 
. 
. 





Total 136 100.00 

The eyes, or more properly the eye slits, were horizontal as in 
Europeans. 

No. 1046 had bright blue eyes. He stated that in the village 
of Khraair more than half the population have blue eyes. He 
explained his own case by saying that when his mother was pregnant 
she saw a man with blue eyes which influenced the eye color of her 
unborn child. Many Dulaimis agreed that there were numerous 
persons with blue eyes among this tribe. The blue element was 



Physical Anthropology: Dulaim and Anaiza 



37 



present in Nos. 1016, 1047, 1090, 1108, 1112, 1119, and 1120. Nos. 
1021, 1036, and 1037 had light green-brown eyes. No. 1065 was 
almost blind in the right eye. No. 1074 had poor vision in his left 
eye. No. 1076 had poor vision in both eyes. He had applied kubeli 
mixed with sugar in both eyes. This gave them a red color. No. 
1105 was slightly cross-eyed, the right eye being out of alignment. 
Nose. — The majority (70.80 per cent) of the noses were straight 
in profile, with only 13.87 per cent convex. Half of the Dulaimis 
had medium nasal wings, with 30.37 per cent in the narrowest cate- 
gories. The remainder (16.29 per cent) of the alae were medium- 
flaring or flaring, once again indicating the presence of a Negroid 
element. Two men had thicker than average nasal tips and one 
man was recorded in the double plus classification. 



Nose 



Profile 

Straight 

Convex 

Concavo-convex 


No. 

10 

97 

3 

19 

8 

....137 


Per cent 
7.30 

70.80 
2.19 

13.87 
5.84 


Total 


100.00 



Wings 



Compressed 32 

Compressed-medium .... 9 

Medium 72 

Medium-flaring 17 

Flaring 5 

Flaring plus 

Total 135 



No. Per cent 

23.70 

6.67 

53.33 

12.59 

3.70 



99.99 



Mouth. — The lips varied from thin (No. 1081) to thick (No. 
1080). Some individuals (Nos. 1027, 1058, 1087, and 1092) showed 
marked lower lip eversion. Nos. 1022 and 1030 had thin upper lips. 

Teeth. — The occlusion was normal slight over for the entire 
group, with the exception of four men (2.96 per cent) each of whom 
had a marked-over bite. 

Since half of the group was under thirty years of age the good 
condition of the teeth is not unusual. The average age of the group 
was 32.40 (range 20-64). There were relatively few teeth lost and 
85.18 per cent of the Dulaimis possessed either good or excellent 
teeth. 

Teeth 



Bite 

Under 

Edge-to-edge 
Slight over . . . 
Marked over. 


No. Per cent 


131 97.04 
4 2.96 


Loss 

None 

1-4 

5-8 

9-16 

17- 


No. 


11 

1 



Total 


135 100.00 



Per cent 



Total 



91.67 
8^33 



12 100.00 



Condition 

Very bad 

Bad 

Fair 

Good . . . 
Excellent 

Total . 



No. Percent 



2 

7 

7 

66 

26 



1.86 

6.48 

6.48 

61.11 

24.07 



108 100.00 



The following men had very good teeth: Nos. 1012, 1013, 1029- 
1031, 1033-1035, 1037, 1040, 1043, 1045, 1061, 1064, 1066, 



38 Anthropology of Iraq 

1067, 1078, 1079, 1086, 1089, 1097, 1098, 1113, 1122, 1123, and 1142. 
Nos. 1018, 1055, 1058, 1063, 1110, and 1121 had fair teeth, while 
Nos. 1053, 1060, 1075, 1083, and 1101 were poor. The teeth were 
very bad in Nos. 1059, 1065, and 1119. No. 1054 had marked-over 
occlusion. No. 1085 had teeth markedly sloping inward. No. 1114 
had lower front teeth showing much wear. No. 1095 had gold 
fillings in his front teeth and No. 1119 had three teeth covered with 
gold. No. 1062 had a broken right upper incisor as a result of a 
gun accident. 

Musculature. — In general this was either good or excellent, 
although there were a few obvious cases of malnutrition. The 
outdoor activities of these tribesmen who, to some extent, are pas- 
toral nomads as well as agriculturists, tend to produce a healthy and 
virile group. 



Musculature 

Poor 


No. 




Per cent 


Fair 







Average 

Good 




121 


92.37 


Excellent 


10 

131 


7.63 


Total 


100.00 



Nos. 1056, 1097, 1108, and 1110 had well-developed muscles, but 
Nos. 1017, 1048, and 1125 were in poor physical condition. 

Health. — The majority (91.91 per cent) were in good health. 
Nine Dulaimis (6.62 per cent) were recorded as being in fair health. 

Health No. Per cent 

Poor 

Fair 9 6.62 

Average 

Good 125 91.91 

Excellent 2 1.47 



Total 136 100.00 

Disease. — Twenty-three men had smallpox scars. In 1924, 
No. 1044 had smallpox, causing a cataract in the left eye, but ten 
years later he was not totally blind. No. 1021 also had chicken pox 
scars. No. 1042 had a skin disease on the head. No. 1047 had 
a scar on the right cheek, the result of a dog bite. No. 1067 had a 
large lump over the left temple, which he said was a birthmark. 
No. 1124, the hairless man, has been described on page 35. 

Blood Groupings. — Twenty blood samples were sent to Dr. 
Walter P. Kennedy in Baghdad. These are included in his report 
(1935, pp. 475-480). 



Physical Anthropology: Dulaim and Anaiza 39 

Branding Scars. — Among 137 individuals forty-six Dulaimis 
(66.42 per cent) bore kawi or chawi scars. 

Tattooing. — Fifty-eight (51.33 per cent) out of 113 individuals 
bore simple tattooed designs. These will be examined in detail in a 
forthcoming publication dealing with body-marking in Southwestern 
Asia (cf. Field, 1935a, pp. 455-456, and Charles, pp. 109-111). 

Henna.— Nos. 1026, 1037, and 1123 had applied henna (Ar. 
henna), Lawsonia sp., to the palms of the hands "to harden them." 
No. 1032 had "decorated" his nails with henna. 

Kohl. — No. 1021 had applied kohl (kuhl), finely powdered 
antimony, below his eyes "to cool them from the desert heat and 
the burning dust." Nos. 1047, 1081, and 1132 had used kohl below 
their eyes "because of pain due to the brightness of the sun." 

SUMMARY 

The average Dulaimi had low wavy hair, medium in texture, 
and extremely dark brown merging into black in color. The eyes 
were various shades of brown but two individuals had definitely 
blue eyes. The sclera were clear and the iris mainly homogeneous. 
The nose was straight in profile with medium or compressed wings, 
although there was a group with medium-flaring wings. The 
occlusion was normal. The musculature and health were good. 

STATISTICAL ANALYSES OF DULAIMIS 

There now remains the task of grouping the total series of Du- 
laimis 1 according to the Harvard and Keith classificatory systems 
for stature, sitting height (trunk length), minimum frontal diameter, 
head breadth, cephalic index, nasal height, nasal breadth, and nasal 
index. 

Stature. — The Dulaimis were medium to tall according to both 
systems. There is remarkably little difference in the groupings. 
The average stature for 136 individuals was 167.67 (range 152-181), 
which is slightly higher than the average for Southwestern Asia. 

Stature 

Harvard system No. Per cent Keith system No. Per cent 

Short (x-160.5) 11 8.09 Short (x-159.9) 8 5.88 

Medium (160.6-169.4). 78 57.35 Medium (160.0-169.9). 80 58.82 

Tall (169. 5-x) 47 34.56 Tall (170.0-179.9) 47 34.56 

Very tall (180. 0-x) 1 0.74 

Total 136 100.00 

1 No. 1029 was omitted. 



Total 136 100.00 



40 Anthropology of Iraq 

Sitting Height (Trunk Length). — The Keith system shows that 
the majority (58.82 per cent) have medium to long trunk lengths. 
The six men (4.41 per cent) with very long (90.0+) trunk lengths 
and the one with a very short (x-74.9) trunk indicate the maximum 
of variation. The relative sitting height index of 50.08 (range 44-59) 
together with the stature groupings reveals that the trunk length 
and leg length are approximately equal but an increase in trunk 
length is followed by an advance in stature. 

Sitting Height (Trunk Length) 

Group No. Per cent 

Very short (x-74.9) 1 0.74 

Short (75.0-79.9) 14 10.29 

Medium (80.0-84.9) 80 58.82 

Long (85.0-89.9) 35 25.73 

Very long (90.0-x) 6 4.41 

Total 136 99.99 

Minimum Frontal Diameter. — The forehead was narrow or very 
narrow in 73.53 per cent of the cases. The majority (64.71 per cent) 
fall into the narrow category, the next greatest number (25 per cent) 
being wide. Two distinct elements appear to be present. 

Minimum Frontal Diameter 

Group No. Per cent 

Very narrow (x-99) 12 8.82 

Narrow (100-109) 88 64.71 

Wide (110-119) 34 25.00 

Very wide (120-x) 2 1 .47 

Total 136 100.00 

Head Breadth. — The mean for this measurement was 141.34 
(range 132-155) with 191.04 for the head length. The Keith system 
reveals no Dulaimi in the very narrow category and only six Dulai- 
mis in the very wide division. The majority (57.35 per cent) pos- 
sessed wide heads but 38.24 per cent were narrow. Two distinct 
elements appear to be present here. These may well be the straight- 
nosed and convex-nosed dolichocephals. 

Head Breadth 

Group No. Per cent 

Very narrow (120-129) 

Narrow (130-139) 52 38.24 

Wide (140-149) 78 57.35 

Very wide (150-x) 6 4.41 

Total 136 100.00 

Cephalic Index. — According to the Harvard system the majority 
(79.41 per cent) were dolichocephalic, with only one brachycephal 
in the entire series of 136 Dulaimis. 



Physical Anthropology: Dulaim and Anaiza 



41 



The Keith classificatory system reveals a rather different group- 
ing. The majority (56.62 per cent) were dolichocephalic but there 
were six brachycephals and no ultrabrachycephals. The most 
interesting new group was formed by the thirteen (9.56 per cent) 
ultradolichocephals (x-70.0). 

The mean cephalic index was 74.04 (range 65-84.9). Therefore 
the Dulaimis were dolicho-mesocephals with a strong tendency 
toward ultradolichocephaly. 



Cephalic Index 



Harvard system 



No. 



Dolichocephalic 108 

(x-76.5) 

Mesocephalic 27 

(76.6-82.5) 

Brachycephalic 1 

(82.6-x) 

Total 136 



Per cent 
79.41 

19.85 

0.74 

100.00 



Keith system 



No. 
13 



Ultradolichocephalic . 

(x-70.0) 
Dolichocephalic 77 

(70.1-75.0) 
Mesocephalic 40 

(75.1-79.9) 
Brachycephalic 6 

(80.0-84.9) 
Ultrabrachycephalic .... 

(85.0-x) 

Total 136 



Per cent 

9.56 
56.62 
29.41 



4.41 



100.00 



Facial Measurements. — The upper facial height was medium 
long (48.53 per cent) or medium short (31.62 per cent). Twenty- 
five Dulaimis (18.38 per cent) had long (76-x) upper faces. 

The total length of the face was either medium long (55.15 per 
cent) or medium short (34.56 per cent). It is remarkable that only 
eleven men (8.09 per cent) fell into the long face (130-x) category. 

The majority (56.62 per cent) of the Dulaimis were leptopro- 
sopic with 8.82 per cent in the euryprosopic classification. 

Thus the faces were long, primarily the result of long upper faces. 



Upper facial height 



Facial Measurements 
No. Per cent Total facial height 



Short 2 1.47 

(x-63) 

Medium short 43 31 .62 

(64-69) 

Medium long 66 48.53 

(70-75) 

Long 25 18.38 

(76-x) 

Total 136 100.00 



No. Per cent 

Short 3 2.21 

(x-109) 

Medium short 47 34.56 

(110-119) 

Medium long 75 55. 15 

(120-129) 

Long 11 8.09 

(130-x) 

Total 136 100.01 



Total Facial Index 

Group No. Per cent 

Euryprosopic (x-84.5) 12 8. 82 

Mesoprosopic (84.6-89.4) 47 34.56 

Leptoprosopic (89.5-x) 77 56 . 62 



Total 136 



100.00 



42 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Nasal Measurement and Indices. — The nose is one of the most 
significant racial criteria in Southwestern Asia. This fact was 
demonstrated clearly in my studies of the modern peoples of Iran 
(Field, 1939). 

The Dulaimis possessed medium or short noses, there being 
seven men (5.15 per cent) in the long nose (60-x) category. 

The nose was medium narrow (51.47 per cent) or medium wide 
(38.24 per cent). Ten men had very narrow noses and four possessed 
wide noses, indicating Negro blood. 

The majority (64.71 per cent) of the Dulaimis were leptorrhine. 
Forty-five men (33.09 per cent) were mesorrhine but only three fell 
into the platyrrhine category. This latter again suggests the presence 
of Negro blood. 



Nasal Measurements 



Nasal height 



No. 



Per cent 



Short 30 22.06 

(x-49) 

Medium 99 72.79 

(50-59) 

Long 7 5.15 

(60-x) 

Total 136 100.00 



Nasal width 



No. 



Very narrow 10 

(x-29) 
Medium narrow 70 

(30-35) 
Medium wide 52 

(36-41) 
Wide 4 

(42-x) 
Total 136 



Per cent 

7.35 
51.47 
38.24 

2.94 



100.00 



Nasal Index 

Group No. Per cent 

Leptorrhine (x-67.4) 88 64.71 

Mesorrhine (67.5-83.4) 45 33.09 

Platyrrhine (83. 5-x) 3 2.21 

Total 136 100.01 

In order to furnish additional statistical data for comparison 
with those in my Iran Report the following tables have been 
calculated : 



Sitting Height (Trunk Length) 
900-x 899-850 849-800 799-750 749-x Totals 

Standing height No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. 9 



1800-x 

1799-1700 
1699-1600 
x-1599... 


1 0.74 

2 1.47 

3 2.21 
1 0.74 



25 18.38 
11 8.09 






17 12.50 
58 42.65 

4 2.94 


.... 
3 2.21 
9 6.62 
2 1.47 


... 
... 
... 
... 


1 

47 

81 

7 


0.74 
34.56 
59.57 

5.14 



136 100.01 



Physical Anthropology: Dulaim and Anaiza 



43 



Minimum Frontal Diameter 





x- 


99 


100-109 


110-119 


120-x 


Totals 


Head breadth ] 


Ho. 


% 


No. % 


No. % 


No. % 


No. % 


120-129 













.... 





130-139 







16 11. 


76 34 25.00 


2 1.47 


52 38.23 


140-149 







7 5. 


15 68 50.00 


3 2.21 


78 57.36 


150-x 










4 2.94 


2 1.47 


6 4.41 




136 100.00 








Bizygomatic Breadth 










x-124 


125-134 135-x 


Totals 


Total face length 




No. ' 


% No. 


% No. 


% 


No. % 


x-114 







7 


5.15 6 


4.41 


13 9.56 


115-124 




4 2 


.94 37 


27.21 43 


31.62 


84 61.77 


125-x 







15 


11.03 24 


17.65 


39 28.68 
136 100.01 








Upper Facial Length 








x- 


63 


64-69 


70-75 76-81 82-x 


Totals 


Total face length 


No. 


% No. % 


No. % No. 


% No. % 


No. % 


x-109 


1 


0.74 


2 1.47 





.... .... 


3 2.21 


110-119 


1 


0.74 


30 22.06 


14 10.29 2 


1.47 . ... 


47 34.56 


120-129 







11 8.09 


51 37.50 12 ! 


8.82 1 0.74 


75 55.15 


130-x 










1 0.74 8 ; 


5.88 2 1.47 


11 8.09 




136 100.01 








Nasal ^ 








X 


-29 


30-35 


36-41 


42-x 


Totals 


Nasal length 


No. 


% 


No. % No. % 


No. % 


No. % 


x-49 


2 


1.47 


13 9. 


56 14 10.29 


1 0.74 


30 22.06 


50-59 


8 


5.88 


54 39. 


71 35 25.74 


2 1.47 


99 72.80 


60-x 


.... 5 3.68 2 1.47 .... 
Measurements and Indices of Dulaimis 


7 5.15 




136 100.01 


Measurements 




No. 


Range 


Mean 


S.D. 


c.v. 


Age 




136 


20-64 


32. 40 ±0.56 


9.60±0.39 


29.63±1.21 


Stature 




136 


152-181 


167.67 ±0.30 


5.25±0.21 


3.13±0.13 


Sitting height .... 




136 


75-92 


84. 07 ±0.20 


3. 42 ±0.14 


4.07±0.17 


Head length 




136 


167-208 


191. 04 ±0.39 


6.69±0.27 


3.50±0.14 


Head breadth 




136 


132-155 


141.34±0.28 


4.83±0.20 


3.42±0.14 


Minimum frontal 














diameter 




136 


101-128 


113. 02 ±0.22 


3.88±0.16 


3.43±0.14 


Bizygomatic diameter . 1 36 


120-149 


134. 95 ±0.30 


5.25±0.21 


3.89±0.16 


Bigonial diameter 




. 136 


94-125 


106. 66 ±0.30 


5.16±0.21 


4.84±0.20 


Total facial height 




. 136 


105-139 


121.50±0.34 


5.90±0.24 


4.86±0.20 


Upper facial height . . 


. 136 


55-89 


71. 55 ±0.27 


4.65±0.19 


6.50±0.27 


Nasal height 




136 


44-67 


52.86±0.25 


4. 24 ±0.17 


8.02±0.33 


Nasal breadth . . . 




136 


25-48 


34.70±0.22 


3. 87 ±0.16 


U.15±0.46 


Ear length 




136 


44-71 


57.94±0.27 


4.68±0.19 


8. 08 ±0.33 


Ear breadth 




136 


26-43 


34. 41 ±0.17 


2.94±0.12 


8. 54 ±0.35 


Indices 














Relative sitting height 136 


44-59 


50.08±0.12 


2.08±0.09 


4.15±0.17 


Cephalic 




136 


65-85 


74.04±0.20 


3.51±0.14 


4.74±0.19 


Fronto-parietal . . 




136 


72-89 


80. 20 ±0.17 


2. 88 ±0.12 


3.59±0.15 


Zygo-f rontal 




136 


76-91 


84.18±0.16 


2.80±0.11 


3.33±0.14 


Zygo-gonial 




136 


66-92 


79.39±0.20 


3.45±0.14 


4.35±0.18 


Total facial 




136 


75-109 


90.35±0.30 


5. 20 ±0.21 


5.76±0.24 


Upper facial 




136 


43-66 


53. 15 ±0.20 


3.54±0.14 


6.66±0.27 


Nasal 




136 


44-99 


65.66±0.51 


8.80±0.36 


13.40±0.55 


Ear 




136 


45-76 


60.02±0.34 


5. 92 ±0.24 


9.86±0.40 



44 Anthropology of Iraq 

photographic analyses 

When the Dulaimis had been sorted according to racial and physi- 
cal types the following results were obtained: 

Classic Mediterranean: No. 1013 (Plates 2, 3) 

Fine Mediterranean: No. 1052 (Plate 4) 

Coarse Mediterranean: No. 1080 (Plate 4) 

Iraqo-Mediterranean: Nos. 1039, 1037 (Plate 5) 

Dolichocephals: Nos. 1011, 1053, 1054, 1044 (Plates 6, 7) 

Brachycephals: Nos. 1048, 1010 (Plate 8) 

Short-faced: No. 1049 (Plate 9) 

Long-faced: No. 1018 (Plate 9) 

Short and narrow-faced: No. 1050 (Plate 10) 

Short and broad-faced: No. 1065 (Plate 10) 

Mixed-eyed: Nos. 1021, 1023 (Plate 11) 

Blue-eyed: No. 1046 (Plate 12) 

Green-brown-eyed: No. 1059 (Plate 12) 

Straight-nosed: No. 1034 (Plate 13) 

Very slightly convex-nosed: No. 1019 (Plate 13) 

Slightly convex-nosed: Nos. 1093, 1045 (Plate 14) 

Convex-nosed: Nos. 1041, 1017, 1055 (Plates 15-17) 

Very low wavy hair: No. 1084 (Plate 18) 

Low wavy hair: No. 1092 (Plate 18) 

Deep wavy hair: No. 1066 (Plate 19) 

Very deep wavy hair: No. 1028 (Plate 19) 

Hairless Dulaimi (Negroid): No. 1124 (Plate 36) 

Examination of the photographs reveals that while the Du- 
laimis are considerably mixed in racial characters they still belong 
to the Mediterranean Race. They show less variation than the 
Arabs of the Kish area or the Iraq Soldiers but more variation than 
either the Ba'ij or the Anaiza Beduins. 

The Dulaimis appear to belong to the straight-nosed, lepto- 
prosopic and dolichocephalic division of the Mediterranean Race 
which may be termed the Iraqo-Mediterranean group in contra- 
distinction to the convex-nosed, leptoprosopic, and dolichocephalic 
Iranian Plateau Race (cf. Field, 1939). 

These speculations will be examined in detail in the final part 
of this volume when all my anthropometric data can be utilized 
for discussion. 

SUMMARY 

The average Dulaimi is medium in stature, and medium to long 
in trunk length, and possesses a narrow forehead, a wide to narrow 
head breadth, a dolicho-mesocephalic index, a long upper face, a 
medium total facial height and a leptoprosopic index, a nose medium 
in length, medium narrow or medium wide and a leptorrhine to 
mesorrhine index. 

The Dulaimis are believed to be of mixed blood and the general 
impression obtained during the study of them suggests that they 



Physical Anthropology: Dulaim and Anaiza 45 

belong neither to the pure Beduin type of the North Arabian and 
Syrian Deserts, nor to the sedentary Arab groups of central and 
southern Iraq. The average Dulaimi is thus, from physical aspect, 
not pure in type, but this group is particularly interesting because it 
appears to combine the physical features of the Beduin and the Arab. 



46 Anthropology of Iraq 



Measurements of Dulaimis 

No. Age SUture SH L B B' J go-go GH G'H NH NB 



1007 


30 


1692 


820 


194 


136 


113 


134 


111 


124 


72 


53 


34 


1008 


32 


1710 


830 


188 


141 


110 


138 


108 


128 


71 


56 


33 


1009 


25 


1745 


776 


194 


141 


113 


133 


105 


122 


67 


48 


29 


1010 


25 


1644 


805 


178 


145 


114 


138 


104 


128 


73 


53 


30 


1011 


20 


1598 


843 


196 


135 


111 


128 


98 


115 


67 


48 


34 


1012 


20 


1668 


835 


194 


148 


118 


141 


111 


120 


68 


44 


38 


1013 


30 


1710 


775 


188 


148 


116 


136 


110 


128 


75 


57 


32 


1014 


35 


1653 


840 


184 


146 


108 


131 


104 


126 


72 


53 


34 


1015 


25 


1710 


835 


194 


136 


107 


124 


105 


118 


70 


49 


33 


1016 


45 


1673 


885 


196 


148 


115 


140 


108 


138 


86 


58 


39 


1017 


50 


1540 


760 


193 


138 


116 


135 


107 


121 


72 


51 


35 


1018 


30 


1720 


843 


192 


138 


113 


130 


105 


131 


78 


62 


32 


1019 


27 


1647 


842 


189 


140 


112 


133 


108 


118 


68 


52 


38 


1020 


35 


1760 


925 


194 


138 


109 


132 


105 


128 


70 


52 


33 


1021 


25 


1765 


853 


194 


139 


113 


137 


105 


126 


73 


58 


35 


1022 


35 


1597 


847 


190 


139 


no 


132 


111 


116 


74 


55 


34 


1023 


30 


1604 


823 


190 


142 


108 


129 


101 


119 


76 


58 


37 


1024 


32 


1640 


847 


193 


139 


116 


132 


108 


123 


71 


50 


34 


1025 


20 


1640 


795 


188 


134 


106 


126 


101 


108 


58 


44 


34 


1026 


30 


1654 


836 


189 


144 


111 


135 


108 


127 


72 


51 


35 


1027 


22 


1701 


834 


196 


140 


115 


136 


115 


138 


79 


60 


37 


1028 


40 


1701 


837 


194 


135 


116 


134 


105 


114 


70 


47 


39 


1029 


28 
























1030 


25 


1640 


817 


197 


142 


108 


122 


108 


123 


73 


54 


30 


1031 


23 


1636 


837 


205 


151 


115 


140 


115 


121 


68 


49 


37 


1032 


20 


1593 


845 


187 


137 


106 


128 


104 


119 


74 


52 


40 


1033 


25 


1655 


853 


193 


144 


113 


134 


108 


118 


67 


49 


38 


1034 


22 


1681 


844 


188 


144 


115 


138 


112 


126 


76 


58 


33 


1035 


25 


1725 


888 


193 


147 


117 


142 


108 


123 


70 


48 


35 


1036 


25 


1682 


874 


185 


144 


113 


138 


109 


122 


73 


53 


38 


1037 


27 


1630 


834 


197 


142 


113 


125 


99 


116 


68 


55 


41 


1038 


35 


1676 


835 


184 


147 


112 


132 


110 


115 


68 


52 


40 


1039 


27 


1627 


805 


195 


137 


106 


124 


114 


124 


72 


55 


37 


1040 


20 


1728 


844 


187 


151 


113 


132 


108 


114 


68 


48 


31 


1041 


35 


1650 


780 


184 


132 


108 


143 


97 


116 


72 


55 


30 


1042 


45 


1687 


816 


190 


136 


112 


138 


105 


130 


78 


61 


31 


1043 


20 


1780 


909 


196 


144 


117 


140 


107 


123 


70 


50 


37 


1044 


45 


1672 


828 


197 


135 


113 


134 


110 


125 


76 


58 


42 


1045 


20 


1600 


793 


197 


142 


118 


134 


108 


119 


74 


56 


40 


1046 


35 


1676 


878 


196 


139 


113 


134 


107 


126 


75 


54 


36 


1047 


20 


1730 


853 


183 


147 


115 


135 


107 


115 


61 


46 


37 


1048 


30 


1720 


831 


167 


141 


107 


136 


107 


128 


74 


58 


28 


1049 


30 


1677 


892 


195 


143 


118 


134 


105 


114 


65 


47 


34 


1050 


45 


1662 


846 


191 


134 


108 


127 


95 


117 


69 


50 


37 


1051 


60 


1700 


870 


195 


147 


115 


137 


107 


127 


82 


54 


40 


1052 


20 


1605 


845 


181 


147 


112 


128 


105 


118 


66 


51 


34 



Physical Anthropology: Dulaim and Anaiza 47 



Indices of Dulaimis 



No. 


EL 


EB 


RSH 


B/L 


B'/B 


GH/J 


G'H/J 


NB/NH 


EB/EL 


go-go/J 


B'/J 


1007 


51 


34 


48.5 


70.1 


83.1 


92.5 


53.7 


64.2 


66.7 


82.8 


84.3 


1008 


58 


32 


48.5 


75.0 


78.0 


92.8 


51.4 


58.9 


55.2 


78.3 


79.7 


1009 


56 


36 


44.5 


72.7 


80.1 


91.7 


50.4 


60.4 


64.3 


79.0 


85.0 


1010 


55 


36 


48.9 


81.5 


78.7 


92.8 


52.9 


56.6 


65.5 


75.4 


82.6 


1011 


55 


30 


52.8 


68.9 


82.2 


89.8 


52.3 


70.8 


54.6 


76.6 


86.7 


1012 


58 


39 


50.0 


76.3 


80.0 


85.1 


48.2 


86.4 


67.2 


78.7 


83.7 


1013 


58 


28 


45.3 


78.7 


78.4 


94.1 


55.1 


56.1 


48.3 


80.9 


85.3 


1014 


60 


33 


50.8 


79.4 


74.0 


96.2 


55.0 


64.2 


55.0 


79.4 


82.4 


1015 


64 


34 


48.8 


70.1 


78.7 


95.2 


56.5 


55.9 


53.1 


84.7 


86.3 


1016 


67 


36 


52.9 


75.5 


77.7 


98.6 


61.4 


67.2 


53.7 


77.1 


82.1 


1017 


64 


30 


49.4 


71.5 


84.1 


89.6 


53.3 


68.6 


46.9 


79.3 


85.9 


1018 


56 


33 


49.0 


71.9 


81.9 


100.8 


60.0 


51.6 


58.9 


80.8 


86.9 


1019 


58 


33 


51.1 


74.1 


80.0 


88.7 


51.1 


73.1 


56.9 


81.2 


84.2 


1020 


67 


32 


52.6 


71.1 


79.0 


97.0 


53.0 


63.5 


47.8 


80.0 


82.6 


1021 


60 


32 


48.3 


71.7 


81.3 


92.0 


53.3 


60.3 


53.3 


76.6 


82.5 


1022 


62 


32 


53.0 


73.2 


79.1 


87.9 


56.1 


61.8 


51.6 


84.1 


83.3 


1023 


52 


31 


51.3 


74.7 


76.1 


92.3 


58.9 


63.8 


59.6 


78.3 


83.7 


1024 


52 


33 


51.6 


72.0 


83.5 


93.2 


53.8 


68.0 


63.5 


81.8 


87.9 


1025 


57 


34 


48.5 


71.3 


79.1 


85.7 


46.0 


77.3 


59.7 


80.2 


84.1 


1026 


58 


34 


50.5 


76.2 


77.1 


94.1 


53.3 


68.6 


58.6 


80.0 


82.2 


1027 


59 


41 


49.0 


71.4 


82.1 


101.5 


58.1 


61.7 


69.5 


84.6 


84.6 


1028 


63 


40 


49.4 


69.6 


85.9 


85.1 


52.2 


83.0 


63.5 


78.4 


86.6 


1029 
























1030 


60 


32 


49.8 


72.1 


76.1 


100.8 


59.8 


55.6 


53.3 


88.5 


88.5 


1031 


56 


35 


51.2 


73.7 


76.2 


86.4 


48.6 


75.5 


62.5 


82.1 


82.1 


1032 


58 


34 


53.0 


73.3 


77.4 


93.0 


57.8 


76.9 


58.6 


81.3 


82.8 


1033 


64 


36 


51.5 


74.6 


78.5 


88.1 


50.0 


77.6 


56.3 


80.6 


84.3 


1034 


57 


35 


50.2 


76.6 


79.9 


91.3 


55.1 


56.9 


61.4 


81.2 


83.3 


1035 


64 


35 


51.5 


76.2 


79.6 


86.6 


49.3 


72.9 


54.7 


76.1 


82.4 


1036 


59 


35 


52.0 


77.8 


78.5 


88.4 


52.9 


71.7 


59.3 


79.0 


81.9 


1037 


61 


28 


51.2 


72.1 


79.6 


92.8 


54.4 


74.6 


45.9 


79.2 


90.4 


1038 


63 


34 


49.8 


79.9 


76.2 


87.1 


51.5 


76.9 


54.0 


83.3 


84.9 


1039 


48 


33 


49.5 


70.3 


77.4 


100.0 


58.1 


67.3 


68.8 


• 91.9 


85.5 


1040 


58 


36 


48.8 


80.8 


74.8 


86.4 


51.5 


64.6 


62.1 


81.8 


85.6 


1041 


66 


38 


47.3 


71.7 


81.8 


81.1 


50.3 


54.6 


57.6 


67.8 


75.5 


1042 


61 


40 


48.4 


71.6 


82.4 


94.2 


56.5 


50.8 


65.6 


76.1 


81.2 


1043 


52 


34 


51.1 


73.5 


81.3 


87.9 


50.0 


74.0 


65.4 


76.4 


83.6 


1044 


58 


38 


49.5 


68.5 


83.7 


93.3 


56.7 


72.4 


65.5 


82.1 


84.3 


1045 


60 


31 


49.6 


72.1 


83.1 


88.8 


55.2 


71.4 


51.7 


80.6 


88.1 


1046 


58 


35 


52.4 


70.9 


81.3 


94.0 


56.0 


66.7 


60.3 


79.9 


84.3 


1047 


60 


37 


49.3 


80.3 


78.2 


85.2 


45.2 


80.4 


61.7 


79.3 


85.2 


1048 


60 


33 


48.3 


84.4 


75.9 


94.1 


54.4 


48.3 


55.0 


78.7 


78.7 


1049 


53 


34 


53.2 


73.3 


82.5 


85.1 


48.5 


72.3 


64.2 


78.4 


88.1 


1050 


60 


32 


50.9 


70.2 


80.6 


92.1 


54.3 


74.0 


53.3 


74.8 


85.0 


1051 


57 


31 


51.2 


75.4 


78.2 


92.7 


59.9 


74.1 


54.4 


78.1 


83.9 


1052 


57 


36 


52.6 


81.2 


76.2 


92.2 


51.6 


66.7 


63.2 


82.0 


87.5 



48 Anthropology of Iraq 



Measurements of Dulaimis — continued 

No. Age Stature SH L B B' J go-go GH G'H NH NB 

1053 30 1720 863 200 137 116 136 108 123 70 51 38 

1054 40 1732 787 197 137 120 137 115 125 70 53 36 



1055 


42 


1725 


857 


190 


145 


116 


142 


110 


132 


75 


58 


37 


1056 


30 


1804 


917 


207 


148 


121 


145 


125 


123 


72 


55 


36 


1057 


35 


1574 


925 


190 


143 


112 


141 


109 


123 


71 


53 


35 


1058 


40 


1710 


832 


195 


144 


116 


138 


110 


127 


78 


59 


34 


1059 


60 


1710 


840 


194 


145 


110 


137 


103 


133 


78 


63 


40 


1060 


60 


1665 


770 


194 


147 


110 


135 


98 


123 


71 


54 


29 


1061 


26 


1703 


804 


180 


144 


114 


134 


113 


122 


68 


52 


40 


1062 


28 


1668 


837 


193 


141 


113 


131 


103 


124 


73 


53 


31 


1063 


30 


1672 


757 


191 


148 


116 


132 


102 


123 


71 


51 


30 


1064 


50 


1670 


832 


190 


142 


111 


133 


117 


125 


75 


51 


36 


1065 


40 


1738 


880 


185 


145 


115 


140 


108 


109 


66 


54 


41 


1066 


23 


1593 


820 


182 


145 


121 


138 


104 


116 


70 


50 


28 


1067 


21 


1693 


910 


194 


155 


114 


139 


108 


122 


77 


58 


35 


1068 


45 


1720 


895 


206 


139 


114 


136 


104 


132 


79 


55 


39 


1069 


25 


1615 


805 


187 


138 


110 


128 


107 


116 


66 


47 


36 


1070 


25 


1725 


832 


195 


136 


115 


132 


103 


116 


69 


56 


34 


1071 


26 


1666 


856 


190 


147 


115 


137 


110 


132 


80 


62 


33 


1072 


24 


1648 


850 


183 


136 


110 


131 


116 


119 


66 


46 


33 


1073 


35 


1766 


878 


181 


138 


109 


130 


103 


138 


86 


67 


30 


1074 


20 


1675 


844 


192 


142 


113 


136 


107 


121 


73 


59 


33 


1075 


45 


1736 


878 


194 


140 


110 


136 


108 


119 


70 


48 


41 


1076 




1673 


820 


176 


138 


111 


136 


104 


118 


65 


48 


29 


1077 


45 


1643 


842 


200 


138 


112 


134 


104 


120 


70 


51 


35 


1078 


45 


1703 


872 


193 


133 


108 


130 


101 


117 


64 


47 


36 


1079 


25 


1760 


876 


197 


142 


118 


138 


107 


119 


69 


50 


35 


1080 


35 


1670 


815 


185 


146 


116 


138 


107 


107 


67 


44 


39 


1081 


20 


1635 


845 


192 


138 


116 


133 


107 


116 


71 


51 


36 


1082 


25 


1640 


843 


190 


141 


107 


129 


106 


110 


66 


57 


37 


1083 


60 


1716 


825 


194 


142 


115 


139 


113 


126 


78 


57 


46 


1084 


25 


1705 


803 


184 


145 


110 


140 


110 


123 


69 


50 


30 


1085 


20 


1624 


838 


193 


147 


118 


135 


102 


114 


68 


51 


30 


1086 


21 


1670 


828 


198 


139 


115 


126 


100 


123 


72 


52 


31 


1087 


25 


1685 


825 


188 


142 


110 


130 


102 


121 


68 


49 


35 


1088 


25 


1625 


817 


177 


133 


109 


130 


100 


114 


67 


55 


32 


1089 


25 


1773 


800 


195 


143 


118 


140 


105 


120 


68 


47 


39 


1090 


20 


1783 


876 


196 


138 


120 


140 


110 


118 


70 


54 


32 


1091 


25 


1730 


860 


200 


141 


115 


132 


107 


126 


67 


48 


38 


1092 


25 


1607 


858 


190 


137 


107 


125 


97 


117 


68 


54 


28 


1093 


25 


1632 


830 


178 


138 


107 


134 


104 


122 


72 


53 


27 


1094 


25 


1628 


847 


187 


138 


110 


128 


103 


119 


68 


53 


32 


1095 


30 


1635 


840 


192 


144 


114 


134 


102 


126 


73 


58 


31 


1096 


30 


1685 


858 


202 


138 


115 


133 


111 


126 


79 


58 


36 


1097 


29 


1642 


825 


188 


150 


120 


140 


103 


121 


71 


51 


33 



1098 35 1680 838 197 145 116 135 109 123 78 58 34 



Physical Anthropology: Dulaim and Anaiza 49 



Indices of Dulaimis— continued 



No. 


EL 


KB 


RSH 


B/L 


B'/B 


GH/J 


G'H/J 


NB/NH 


EB/EL 


go-go/J 


B'/J 


1053 


53 


34 


50.2 


68.5 


84.7 


90.4 


51.5 


74.5 


64.2 


79.4 


85.3 


1054 


67 


35 


45.4 


69.5 


87.6 


91.2 


51.1 


67.9 


52.2 


82.9 


87.6 


1055 


54 


36 


49.7 


76.3 


80.0 


93.0 


52.8 


63.8 


66.7 


77.5 


81.7 


1056 


63 


33 


50.8 


71.5 


81.8 


84.8 


49.6 


65.5 


52.4 


86.2 


83.5 


1057 


56 


34 




75.3 


78.3 


87.2 


50.4 


66.0 


60.7 


77.3 


79.4 


1058 


60 


37 


48.7 


73.9 


80.6 


92.0 


56.5 


57.6 


61.7 


79.7 


84.1 


1059 


61 


35 


49.1 


74.7 


75.9 


97.1 


56.9 


63.5 


57.4 


75.2 


80.3 


1060 


60 


34 


46.2 


75.8 


74.8 


91.1 


52.6 


53.7 


73.3 


72.6 


81.5 


1061 


60 


32 


47.2 


80.0 


79.2 


91.0 


50.8 


76.9 


53.3 


84.3 


85.1 


1062 


50 


30 


50.2 


73.1 


80.1 


94.7 


55.7 


58.5 


60.0 


78.6 


86.3 


1063 


57 


37 


45.3 


77.5 


78.4 


93.2 


53.8 


58.8 


64.9 


77.3 


87.9 


1064 


52 


35 


49.8 


74.7 


78.2 


94.0 


56.4 


70.6 


67.3 


88.6 


84.1 


1065 


58 


36 


50.6 


78.4 


79.3 


77.9 


47.1 


75.9 


62.1 


77.1 


82.1 


1066 


60 


33 


51.5 


79.7 


83.5 


84.1 


50.7 


56.0 


55.0 


75.4 


87.7 


1067 


55 


31 


53.8 


79.9 


73.6 


87.8 


55.4 


60.3 


56.4 


77.7 


82.0 


1068 


63 


38 


52.0 


67.5 


82.0 


97.1 


58.1 


70.9 


60.3 


77.5 


83.8 


1069 


51 


36 


49.8 


73.8 


79.7 


90.6 


51.6 


76.6 


70.6 


83.6 


85.9 


1070 


54 


36 


48.2 


69.7 


84.6 


87.9 


52.3 


60.7 


66.7 


78.0 


87.1 


1071 


58 


37 


51.4 


77.4 


78.2 


96.4 


58.4 


53.2 


63.8 


80.3 


83.9 


1072 


57 


35 


51.6 


74.3 


80.9 


90.8 


50.4 


71.7 


61.4 


88.6 


84.0 


1073 


52 


33 


49.7 


76.2 


79.0 


106.2 


66.2 


44.8 


63.5 


79.2 


83.9 


1074 


61 


40 


50.4 


74.0 


79.6 


89.0 


53.7 


55.9 


65.6 


78.7 


83.1 


1075 


70 


39 


50.6 


72.2 


78.6 


87.5 


51.5 


85.4 


55.7 


79.4 


80.9 


1076 


62 


39 


49.0 


78.4 


80.4 


86.8 


47.8 


60.4 


62.9 


76.5 


81.6 


1077 


55 


36 


51.2 


69.0 


81.2 


89.6 


52.2 


68.6 


65.5 


77.6 


83.6 


1078 


55 


33 


51.2 


68.9 


81.2 


90.0 


49.2 


76.6 


60.0 


77.7 


83.1 


1079 


50 


35 


49.8 


72.1 


83.1 


86.2 


50.0 


70.0 


70.0 


77.5 


85.5 


1080 


53 


35 


48.8 


78.9 


79.5 


77.5 


48.6 


72.2 


66.0 


77.5 


84.1 


1081 


51 


32 


51.7 


71.9 


84.1 


87.2 


53.4 


70.6 


62.8 


80.5 


87.2 


1082 


54 


34 


51.4 


74.2 


75.9 


85.3 


51.2 


64.9 


63.0 


82.2 


83.0 


1083 


59 


34 


48.1 


73.2 


81.0 


90.7 


56.1 


80.7 


57.6 


81.3 


82.7 


1084 


53 


27 


47.1 


78.8 


75.9 


87.9 


49.3 


60.0 


50.9 


78.6 


78.6 


1085 


62 


31 


51.6 


76.6 


80.3 


84.4 


50.4 


58.8 


50.0 


75.6 


87.4 


1086 


62 


34 


49.6 


70.2 


82.7 


97.6 


57.1 


59.6 


54.8 


79.4 


91.3 


1087 


54 


33 


49.0 


75.5 


77.5 


93.1 


52.3 


71.4 


61.1 


78.5 


84.6 


1088 


62 


35 


50.3 


75.1 


82.0 


87.7 


51.5 


58.2 


56.5 


76.9 


83.9 


1089 


53 


30 


45.1 


73.3 


82.5 


85.7 


48.6 


83.0 


56.6 


75.0 


84.3 


1090 


58 


32 


49.1 


70.4 


87.0 


84.3 


50.0 


59.3 


55.2 


78.6 


85.7 


1091 


62 


38 


49.7 


70.5 


81.6 


95.5 


50.8 


65.5 


61.3 


81.1 


87.1 


1092 


50 


34 


53.4 


72.1 


78.1 


93.6 


54.4 


51.9 


68.0 


77.6 


85.6 


1093 


59 


32 


50.9 


77.5 


77.5 


91.0 


53.7 


50.9 


54.2 


77.6 


79.9 


1094 


56 


30 


52.0 


73.8 


79.7 


93.0 


53.1 


60.4 


53.6 


80.5 


85.9 


1095 


57 


37 


51.4 


75.0 


79.2 


94.0 


54.5 


53.5 


64.9 


76.1 


85.1 


1096 


59 


36 


50.9 


68.3 


83.3 


94.7 


59.4 


62.1 


61.0 


83.5 


86.5 


1097 


56 


33 


50.2 


79.8 


80.0 


86.4 


50.7 


64.7 


58.9 


73.6 


85.7 


1098 


57 


37 


49.9 


73.6 


80.0 


91.1 


57.8 


58.6 


64.9 


81.5 


85.9 



50 Anthropology of Iraq 



Measurements of Dulaimis — concluded 



No. 


Age 


Stature 


SH 


L 


B 


B' 


J 


go-go 


GH 


G'H 


NH 


NB 


1099 


35 


1728 


888 


192 


137 


113 


133 


106 


124 


73 


50 


32 


1100 


40 


1780 


872 


191 


138 


114 


137 


116 


125 


74 


58 


28 


1101 


30 


1775 


882 


198 


132 


111 


131 


103 


127 


73 


55 


32 


1102 


30 


1722 


882 


193 


144 


114 


141 


111 


111 


65 


47 


35 


1103 


35 


1691 


904 


196 


140 


114 


135 


105 


124 


70 


49 


33 


1104 


25 


1671 


830 


192 


145 


112 


134 


104 


115 


69 


51 


31 


1105 


45 


1685 


840 


178 


141 


116 


136 


104 


122 


69 


50 


30 


1106 


35 


1631 


820 


193 


140 


115 


136 


112 


121 


73 


48 


35 


1107 


30 


1682 


840 


196 


140 


115 


141 


107 


116 


67 


51 


38 


1108 


25 


1670 


820 


195 


140 


116 


143 


113 


116 


67 


48 


35 


1109 


20 


1680 


840 


195 


144 


109 


131 


102 


128 


76 


55 


36 


1110 


35 


1643 


832 


190 


145 


114 


138 


110 


114 


65 


47 


37 


1111 


20 


1662 


812 


187 


135 


109 


128 


98 


118 


67 


50 


26 


1112 


45 


1623 


838 


189 


136 


115 


136 


98 


123 


68 


49 


36 


1113 


25 


1566 


812 


186 


141 


111 


137 


107 


116 


64 


49 


30 


1114 


40 


1620 


820 


190 


141 


111 


136 


107 


123 


71 


53 


35 


1115 


45 


1680 


814 


180 


140 


111 


134 


116 


134 


80 


59 


33 


1116 


35 


1655 


817 


201 


148 


116 


142 


112 


121 


78 


56 


33 


1117 


25 


1760 


860 


203 


151 


123 


147 


115 


124 


78 


59 


34 


1118 


30 


1622 


830 


194 


143 


111 


131 


107 


123 


72 


54 


36 


1119 


50 


1713 


880 


193 


136 


112 


143 


116 


125 


74 


50 


37 


1120 


25 


1673 


872 


184 


133 


111 


131 


102 


118 


70 


56 


30 


1121 


25 


1784 


858 


184 


140 


108 


132 


96 


125 


71 


53 


34 


1122 


25 


1688 


838 


188 


143 


113 


137 


108 


122 


72 


53 


28 


1123 


28 


1750 


836 


201 


149 


127 


146 


120 


121 


74 


56 


36 


1124 


22 


1642 


796 


192 


132 


109 


130 


98 


127 


72 


48 


46 


1125 


40 


1655 


842 


181 


139 


115 


136 


105 


123 


72 


57 


33 


1126 


35 


1685 


776 


198 


140 


113 


141 


111 


126 


75 


61 


34 


1127 


24 


1703 


820 


192 


137 


112 


132 


111 


121 


72 


51 


34 


1128 


25 


1620 


815 


200 


145 


118 


140 


111 


122 


74 


48 


37 


1129 


30 


1650 


800 


192 


142 


113 


137 


96 


116 


75 


58 


35 


1130 


30 


1685 


900 


194 


146 


112 


140 


110 


110 


69 


56 


37 


1131 


45 


1648 


814 


198 


148 


114 


147 


111 


126 


77 


57 


38 


1132 


35 


1736 


885 


195 


140 


112 


136 


108 


118 


68 


52 


37 


1133 


20 


1673 


827 


186 


137 


118 


136 


105 


126 


67 


52 


33 


1134 


25 


1615 


822 


184 


133 


102 


128 


104 


112 


68 


53 


35 


1135 


20 


1536 


780 


185 


132 


108 


123 


94 


117 


71 


50 


31 


1136 


23 


1706 


893 


187 


138 


116 


137 


107 


122 


76 


51 


40 


1137 


24 


1650 


798 


187 


142 


118 


131 


104 


123 


72 


51 


37 


1138 


30 


1622 


844 


193 


138 


110 


138 


109 


133 


78 


59 


32 


1139 


35 


1722 


848 


201 


140 


113 


132 


104 


118 


70 


53 


32 


1140 


30 


1703 


882 


188 


132 


111 


138 


108 


124 


71 


54 


35 


1141 


25 


1660 


844 


179 


142 


112 


132 


103 


121 


71 


54 


37 


1142 


35 


1722 


898 


193 


150 


118 


139 


105 


120 


71 


52 


32 



1143 25 1623 790 184 145 113 135 110 118 76 56 32 



Physical Anthropology: Dulaim and Anaiza 51 



Indices of Dulaimis — concluded 



No. 


EL 


EB 


RSH 


B/L 


B'/B 


GH/J 


G'H/J 


NB/NH 


EB/EL 


go-go/J 


B'/J 


1099 


60 


34 


51.3 


71.4 


82.5 


93.2 


54.9 


64.0 


56.7 


79.7 


85.0 


1100 


52 


36 


49.0 


72.3 


82.6 


91.2 


54.0 


48.3 


69.2 


84.7 


83.2 


1101 


57 


34 


49.7 


66.7 


84.1 


97.0 


55.7 


58.2 


59.7 


78.6 


84.7 


1102 


58 


35 


51.2 


74.6 


79.2 


78.7 


46.1 


74.5 


60.3 


78.7 


80.9 


1103 


56 


35 


53.5 


71.4 


81.4 


91.9 


51.9 


67.4 


62.5 


77.8 


84.4 


1104 


59 


33 


49.7 


75.5 


77.2 


85.8 


51.5 


60.8 


55.9 


77.6 


83.6 


1105 


59 


38 


49.8 


79.2 


82.3 


89.7 


50.7 


60.0 


64.4 


, 76.5 


85.3 


1106 


54 


33 


50.3 


72.5 


82.1 


89.0 


53.7 


72.9 


61.1 


82.4 


84.6 


1107 


56 


34 


49.9 


71.4 


82.1 


82.3 


47.5 


74.5 


60.7 


75.9 


81.6 


1108 


55 


31 


49.1 


71.8 


82.9 


81.1 


46.9 


60.3 


56.4 


79.0 


81.1 


1109 


55 


36 


50.0 


73.9 


75.7 


97.7 


58.0 


65.5 


65.5 


77.9 


83.2 


1110 


55 


34 


50.6 


76.3 


78.6 


82.6 


47.1 


78.7 


61.8 


79.7 


82.6 


1111 


52 


28 


48.9 


72.2 


80.7 


92.2 


52.3 


52.0 


53.9 


76.6 


85.2 


1112 


70 


33 


51.6 


72.0 


84.6 


90.4 


50.0 


73.5 


47.1 


72.1 


84.6 


1113 


46 


35 


51.9 


75.8 


78.7 


84.7 


46.7 


61.2 


76.1 


78.1 


81.0 


1114 


51 


32 


50.6 


74.2 


78.7 


90.4 


52.2 


66.0 


62.8 


78.7 


81.6 


1115 


60 


37 


48.5 


77.8 


79.3 


100.0 


59.7 


55.9 


61.7 


86.6 


82.8 


1116 


59 


36 


49.4 


73.6 


78.4 


85.2 


54.9 


58.9 


61.0 


78.9 


81.7 


1117 


67 


37 


48.9 


74.4 


81.5 


84.4 


53.0 


57.6 


55.2 


78.2 


83.7 


1118 


51 


31 


51.2 


73.7 


77.6 


93.9 


55.0 


66.7 


60.8 


81.7 


84:7 


1119 


69 


37 


51.4 


70.5 


82.4 


87.4 


51.7 


74.0 


53.6 


81.1 


78.3 


1120 


64 


38 


52.1 


72.3 


83.5 


90.1 


53.4 


53.6 


59.4 


77.9 


84.7 


1121 


56 


32 


48.1 


76.1 


77.1 


94.7 


53.8 


64.2 


57.1 


72.7 


81.8 


1122 


53 


33 


49.6 


76.1 


79.0 


89.1 


52.6 


52.8 


62.3 


78.8 


82.5 


1123 


57 


34 


47.8 


74.1 


85.2 


82.9 


50.7 


64.3 


59.7 


82.2 


87.0 


1124 


61 


35 


48.5 


68.8 


82.6 


97.7 


55.4 


95.8 


57.4 


75.4 


83.9 


1125 


64 


38 


50.9 


76.8 


82.7 


90.4 


52.9 


57.9 


59.4 


77.2 


84.6 


1126 


62 


31 


46.1 


70.7 


80.1 


89.4 


53.2 


55.7 


50.0 


78.7 


80.1 


1127 


56 


36 


48.2 


71.4 


81.8 


91.7 


54.6 


66.7 


64.3 


84.1 


84.9 


1128 


56 


33 


50.3 


72.5 


81.4 


87.1 


52.9 


77.1 


58.9 


79.3 


84.3 


1129 


54 


35 


48.5 


74.0 


79.6 


84.7 


54.7 


60.3 


64.8 


70.1 


82.5 


1130 


60 


32 


53.4 


75.3 


76.7 


78.6 


49.3 


66.1 


53.3 


78.6 


80.0 


1131 


64 


39 


49.4 


74.8 


77.0 


85.7 


52.4 


66.7 


60.9 


75.5 


77.6 


1132 


56 


34 


51.0 


71.8 


80.0 


86.8 


50.0 


71.2 


60.7 


79.4 


82.4 


1133 


62 


40 


49.4 


73.7 


86.1 


92.7 


49.3 


63.5 


64.5 


77.2 


86.8 


1134 


56 


31 


50.9 


72.3 


76.7 


87.5 


53.1 


66.0 


55.4 


81.3 


79.7 


1135 


55 


36 


50.8 


71.4 


81.8 


95.1 


57.7 


62.0 


65.5 


76.4 


87.8 


1136 


57 


35 


52.3 


73.8 


84.1 


89.1 


55.5 


78.4 


61.4 


78.1 


84.6 


1137 


63 


35 


48.4 


75.9 


83.1 


93.9 


55.0 


72.6 


55.6 


79.4 


90.1 


1138 


50 


34 


52.0 


71.5 


79.7 


96.4 


56.5 


54.2 


68.0 


79.0 


79.7 


1139 


56 


32 


49.2 


69.7 


80.7 


89.4 


53.0 


60.4 


57.1 


78.8 


85.6 


1140 


60 


38 


51.8 


70.2 


84.1 


89.9 


51.4 


64.8 


63.3 


78.3 


80.4 


1141 


60 


38 


50.8 


79.3 


78.9 


91.7 


53.8 


68.5 


63.3 


78.0 


84.9 


1142 


56 


40 


52.2 


77.7 


78.7 


86.3 


51.1 


61.5 


71.4 


75.5 


84.9 


1143 


54 


38 


48.7 


78.8 


77.9 


87.4 


56.3 


57.1 


70.4 


81.5 


83.7 



52 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Morphological Characters of Dulaimis 



No. Form 


Texture 


Color 


Color 


Sclera 


Iris 


Profile 


Wings 


1007 1 


W 


medium 


blk, gray 


dkbr 


clear 


horn 


wavy 


medium 


1008 1 


w 


fine 


black 


bl-br 


clear 


zon 


c-c 


cp-m 


1009 1 


w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


comp 


1010 1 


w 


fine 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


comp 


1011 1 


w 


coarse 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


cone 


medium 


1012* 








dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


m-fl 


1013 1 


w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


zon 


str 


medium 


1014 1 


w 


fine 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


c-c 


medium 


1015 1 


w 


coarse 


v dk br 


gray-br 


clear 


zon 


str 


cp-m 


1016 < 


;-f 


medium 


blk, gray 


b\-br\ 


clear 


zon 


str 


medium 


1017 1 


w 


m-fine 


blk, gray 


gr-br 


speck 


ray 


conv 


medium 


1018 1 


w 


medium 


dkbr 


bl-br 


clear 


hom 


wavy 


cp-m 


1019 ] 


w 


medium 


dkbr 


gr-br 


clear 


zon 


conv 


m-flar 


1020 1 


w 


medium 


black 


gr-br 


clear 


hom 


str 


medium 


1021 1 


w 


medium 


black 


gr-br 


blood 


zon 


str 


medium 


1022 ] 


w 


coarse 


blk, gray 


gr-br 


clear 


hom 


conv 


medium 


1023 1 


w 


medium 


black 


gr-br 


clear 


ray 


str 


medium 


1024 


i w 


coarse 


black 


gr-br 


clear 


zon 


str 


medium 


1025 1 


w 


medium 


dkbr 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


cone 


medium 


1026 


w 


coarse 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


zon 


str 


comp 


1027 ] 


w 


medium 


black 


gr-br 


clear 


zon 


str 


medium 


1028 


i w 


coarse 


black 


gr-br 


clear 


zon 


conv 


m-fl 


1029 1 


w 


coarse 


black 


gr-br 


clear 


zon 


wavy 


m-fl 


1030 ] 


w 


medium 


black 


bl-br 


clear 


hom 


str 


comp 


1031 


w 


coarse 


black 


gr-br 


clear 


zon 


str 


medium 


1032 


w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


m-fl 


1033 


w 


medium 


black 


bl-br 


clear 


zon 


str 


medium 


1034 


i w 


fine 


black 


W-br 


clear 


zon 


str 


cp-m 


1035 


w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


cone 


m-fl 


1036 


w 


coarse 


black 


gr-br 


clear 


zon 


conv 


comp 


1037 


w 


fine 


black 


gr-br 


clear 


zon 


conv 


flar 


1038 


w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


medium 


1039 


w 


medium 


dkbr 


gr-br 


clear 


zon 


str 


medium 


1040 


w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


wavy 


comp 


1041 


. w 


medium 


blk, gray 


bl-br 


clear 


zon 


conv 


comp 


1042 


w 


medium 


black 


gr-br 


clear 


zon 


conv 


comp 


1043 


w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


medium 


1044 


w 


medium 


blk, gray 


gr-br 


speck 


zon 


wavy 


medium 


1045 


w 


fine 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


conv 


medium 


1046 


w 


medium 


black 


blue 






str 


medium 


1047 


w 


medium 


black 


M-br 


clear 


zon 


conv 


m-fl 


1048 


w 


medium 


black 


gray-br 


clear 


zon 


wavy 


comp 


1049 


w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


medium 


1050 


1 w 


medium 


blk, gray 


gr-br 


clear 


zon 


str 


medium 


1051 


I w 


medium 


blk, gray 


gray-br 


clear 


zon 


str 


medium 


1052 


1 w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


conv 


medium 


1053 


[ w 


medium 


black 


gr-br 


clear 


zon 


conv 


medium 


1054 


I w 


medium 


blk, gray 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


wavy 


medium 


1055 


1 w 


medium 


blk, gray 


gr-br 


clear 


zon 


str 


comp 


1056 


1 w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


medium 


1057 


1 w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


conv 


comp 


1058 


[ w 


medium 


black 


gr-br 


clear 


zon 


str 


medium 


1059 


[ w 


medium 


gray 


gr-br 


clear 


zon 


str 


medium 


1060 


[ w 


coarse 


blk, gray 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


cp-m 


1061 


I w 


medium 


black 


gray-br 


clear 


zon 


str 


m-fl 


1062 


1 w 


medium 


black 


gr-br 


clear 


zon 


str 


m-fl 


♦Shav 

tAlm. 


ed 

>sl blue 

















Physical Anthropology: Dulaim and Anaiza 



53 





Morphological Characters 


of Dulaimis — continued 






HAIR 






EYES 




NOSE 










A 








•Jo. Form 


Texture 


Color 


Color 


Sclera 


Iris 


Profile 


Wings 


363 dw 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


horn 


str 


cp-m 


364 dw 


medium 


dkbr 


gr-br 


clear 


zon 


wavy 


medium 


365 lw 


medium 


• black 


gr-br 


blood 


zon 


conv 


m-fl 


366 d w 


medium 


dkbr 


gr-br 


clear 


zon 


str 


medium 


367 lw 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


horn 


str 


comp 


368 lw 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


horn 


str 


medium 


369 lw 


medium 


dkbr 


dkbr 


speck 


ray 


c-c 


m-fl 


370 lw 


medium 


dkbr 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


medium 


371 lw 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


horn 


str 


medium 


372 lw 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


zon 


str 


comp 


373 lw 


medium 


dkbr 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


comp 


374 1 w 


coarse 


black 


bl-br 


blood 


ray 


str 


medium 


375 lw 


fine 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


comp 


376 lw 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


medium 


377 lw 


medium 


dkbr 


gr-br 


clear 


ray 


str 


medium 


378 lw 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


c-c 


medium 


379 lw 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


medium 


380 1 w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


m-fl 


381 1 w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


medium 


382 lw 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


medium 


383 lw 


coarse 


blk, gray 


dkbr 


speck 


hom 


conv 


medium 


384 1 w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


comp 


385 d w 


medium 


black 


gr-br 


clear 


zon 


str 


medium 


386 1 w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


conv 


comp 


387 c-f 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


wavy 


medium 


388 1 w 


medium 


dkbr 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


comp 


389 c-f 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


medium 


390 1 w 


coarse 


black 


M-br* 


speck 


zon 


str 


medium 


391 lw 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


m-fl 


392 lw 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


wavy 


comp 


393 lw 


medium 


dkbr 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


conv 


comp 


394 1 w 


coarse 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


medium 


395 1 w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


m-fl 


396 lw 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


c-c 


m-fl 


397 1 w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


blood 


hom 


str 


medium 


398 1 w 


fine 


dkbr 


bl-br 


clear 


hom 


str 


comp 


399 1 w 


fine 


dkbr 


gr-br 


clear 


zon 


str 


medium 


100 lw 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


zon 


str 


comp 


101 1 w 


fine 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


comp 


102 lw 


medium 


v dk br 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


cp-m 


103 1 w 


m-fine 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


medium 


104 1 w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


medium 


105 1 w 


medium 


blk, gray 


gr-br 


speck 


zon 


str 


comp 


106 ... 






gr-br 


speck 


zon 


str 


medium 


107 lw 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


medium 


108 lw 


medium 


dkbr 


blue 


clear 


zon 


str 


medium 


109 ... 




black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


medium 


110 1 w 


fine 


black 


bl-br 


clear 


zon 


str 


medium 


111 lw 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


medium 


112 1 w 


medium 


dkbr 


bl-br 


clear 


zon 


str 


medium 


113 lw 


medium 


black 


bl-br 


clear 


zon 


str 


medium 


114 lw 


fine 


dkbr 


bl-br 


clear 


zon 


str 


medium 


115 lw 


medium 


blk, gray 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


comp 


116 lw 


medium 


black 


bl-br 


clear 


hom 


str 


medium 


117 lw 


medium 


black 


gr-br 


speck 


zon 


str 


medium 


118 lw 


medium 


black 


gr-br 
bl-br* 


clear 


zon 


str 


medium 


119 1 w 


coarse 


gray 


clear 


ray 


str 


medium 


* Almost blue 

















54 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Morphological Characters of Dulaimis — concluded 



No. 


f 
Form 


Texture 


Color 


Color 


Sclera 


Iris 


Profile 


Wings 


1120 






black 


bl-br 


clear 


zon 


conv 


comp 


1121 


1 W 


coarse 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


horn 


str 


medium 


1122 


1 W 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


horn 


str 


medium 


1123 


1 w 


fine 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


medium 


1124* 








bl-br 


clear 


horn 


str 


flar 


1125 


1 w 


medium 


dkbr 


bl-br 


clear 


zon 


conv 




1126 


1 w 


medium 




dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


comp 


1127 


1 w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


m-fl 


1128 


1 w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


flar 


1129 


1 w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


zon 


str 


cp-m 


1130 


1 w 


m-fine 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


medium 


1131 


1 w 


medium 


gray 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


m-fl 


1132 


1 w 


coarse 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


comp 


1133 


1 w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


zon 


str 


comp 


1134 


1 w 


fine 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


flar 


1135 


1 w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


medium 


1136 


1 w 


medium 


dkbr 


gr-br 


clear 


zon 


c-c 


flar 


1137 


1 w 


fine 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


medium 


1138 


1 w 


coarse 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


comp 


1139 


1 w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


comp 


1140 


1 w 


coarse 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


cp-m 


1141 


1 w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


str 


comp 


1142 


1 w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


c-c 


medium 


1143 


1 w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


hom 


c-c 




* Hairless 
























The Anaiza 1 









The Anaiza tribesman states that he is a descendant of Wail, 
who belonged to a younger branch of the Asad group, and further 
claims that Anaz, son of Wail, was the founder of the tribe. 

The original home of the Anaiza is believed to have been just 
north of Medina on the watershed between the Red Sea and the 
basin of the Wadi al Rumma (cf. Doughty, vol. 2, p. 392). In the 
latter half of the eighteenth century the Anaiza started to move 
northward. The Fadan and the Hasanah pushed the Shammar 
before them across the Euphrates and established themselves on 
the northern steppes. The Amarat, Wulud AH, and Sbaa appear 
to have been the next to move, and later came the Ruwalla. 

The great group of the Anaiza, numerically probably the largest 
group in the nomad Arab tribes, occupied the triangle of the North 
Arabian or Syrian Desert, often called the Hamad, which has its base 

1 This introductory section is based on data compiled prior to 1921. As leader 
of the Field Museum North Arabian Desert Expedition, 1927, 1928, and 1934, I 
checked this information whenever possible. During 1928 in Damascus I had 
the privilege of discussing these matters with Nuri ibn Shalan, Sheikh of the 
Ruwalla and Paramount Sheikh of the Anaiza. For selected references to the 
Anaiza see Carruthers (1918), "A Handbook of Arabia" (1920), Doughty (1926), 
Musil (1927a, 1927b, 1928), de Boucheman (1934), Lawrence (1926), Raswan 
(1930, 1935, 1936), Grant (1937), Guarmani (1938), and von Oppenheim (1939). 



Physical Anthropology: Dulaim and Anaiza 55 

on Lat. 30° N., with Jauf about at its center, and its apex at Alep. 
On the left bank of the Euphrates the pastures north of Deir-ez-Zor 
and along the Khabur River were also visited by the Anaiza. A 
smaller group of kindred tribes lived near Taima between the Hejaz 
Railway and the southwest borders of the Nefud. The tribe was 
not united under one head, but divided into several large sections 
which maintained a generally friendly attitude, which did not ex- 
clude, however, raids and feuds between the sections. 

The most famous stocks of horses and the greatest number of 
camels were found among the northern Anaiza. Their camel herds, 
estimated at 600,000 head, supplied the markets of Egypt, Syria, 
and Iraq. Beduins of the purest blood and tradition, the Anaiza 
remained entirely beyond the control of the Turkish Government. 
Except for a few palm gardens on the Euphrates and a village near 
Damascus, their sheikhs never acquired settled land nor did they 
attempt to cultivate the Hamad or stony desert. Their geographical 
position gave them command of the main trade route between 
Syria and Iraq, and at the same time compelled them to keep on 
good terms with those who controlled their commercial markets; 
namely, the larger towns on both edges of the Syrian Desert. 

The Anaiza are hereditary foes of the Shammar, and northern 
Arabia during the last 150 years has been dominated by the feuds 
of these two tribal confederations. 

During the past fifteen years conditions have changed entirely 
as a result of trans-desert automobile and air routes, followed by 
the construction of the Iraq Petroleum Company's bifurcated pipe- 
lines. Large-scale raids of Beduin tribes upon each other are now 
virtually impossible. Armored cars, airplane bombs, and, to 
quote the Beduins, "the-gun-that-never-stops," are serious deter- 
rents not only to raiding of any kind but also to any digression from 
British, French, or Iraqi prescribed areas of migration. 

During construction of the pipe-lines many thousands of 
Beduin tribesmen were employed in numerous capacities. Per- 
sonal observation and the reports of labor officers show that the 
tribesmen were capable, conscientious, and often skilful work- 
men. They obeyed orders cheerfully and followed instructions 
unhesitatingly. In May, 1934, I was most astonished to find Anaiza 
tribesmen, with shaven heads, washed and disinfected bodies, 
engaged in pipe-line construction near H-3 station, where we were 
the guests of the Iraq Petroleum Company. 



WJ*-f( 












iii»iii 





ujui^-jA-t^ 



^_.L>lf 












'■V-****" 





J!****. 



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fc!£*?-gk 



^J'- U U> 



.<*£ 



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(p-friil ^^i 



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53 



Fig. 5. Tribes and sub-tribes of the Anaiza Beduins. 



56 



DANA wA'lL 





'ANAIZA 


— 






MA"AZ 



DANA MUSLIM 
Ibn Sho'lon * 



AL JALAS 



BANi WAHB 



Ibn Hodhdhal 



PANA*UBAYO 



DAHAMI^HAH 
Joza'ahJallod 
Muhammad ol-Turk! 



Ibn Zubayydn 



Joiza'IbnMijiad 



sulaylAt 



SALATiN 



JALA'TD 



MAHAWIR 
Ibn Sabr 



MASA'iD 
Ibn Kunfudh 



ALSHUHUM 
Al- SJiahmi 



'AJMAT 
AI-<oimoh 



JAL'UO 
Ibn Jal'ud 



lawAyihah 





HUMMAL 

Ibn Julaydan 

HAMATIRAH 
Ai - Gharu 


suwaylimAt 


Al Otabah 


Ibn Bakr 


Al-Doydob 




MUHAYSIN 

Ibn Bakr 
'ATKAN 
Ibn FojrT 



HYYAfcH 

Ibn Zuhayyan 



AL KHIZAM 
Ibn Najab 



MUHAYNAT 
Aba al-Rus 



FUWAYZAH 
Ibn Muthib 



JAWASIM 

Ibn Jasim 



SABABIH 
Ibn Juraybi* 



dA'BAN 
Al-Ju'ayb 



RAK'AN 
Ibn Fayid 



Z AWAY ID AH 
Ibn Sultan 
LAM'AN 
Al-Lumay 1 

SHALKHAN 
Ibn Hoyfoh 

balAlTz 

Ibn Ghorib 

AL-QHURAYR 

AI-BallOi 



al-jumayshAt 

■Urayd 



AL-MU'JIL 
Ibn Wad 1 



JU'AYTjHIN 

Ibn Hadhdjial 



GHUSHUM 
Ibn Jarwan 



HASAN t 
Ibn Mutayroh 



DHIBAH 
AI-DhuwayD 



MADAMIG_H 
Mudaymigh 



AL SUHAYM 
Al-Tum 



KHATARI5HAH 

Al-Basr 



AL BUSAYSAT 
Al-Mugharnij 



DAHMAN 
Ibn Zol'an 



MASA'lB 

Ibn Namran 
Al-Zuwayn 




hamAyirah 

At-Muroy|ib 
Ibn Homid 



Fig. 6. Tribes and sub-tribes of the Anaiza Beduins. 



57 






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l*J-»-«a. 



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li^'-Ol^ 



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v/jW-^v^jT 



cws».'-uwu 



vi/j*. 


^-tjT 


a^^' 


-4oj7 


J%?-tf 


-j»- 




•_V 


^•u 


-!*rv.'- 


■**— - 


*»•* 


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^ 


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'-*r! 


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/U^j 


V-'uf 1 - 


upVstf 



u— '« -£|V«. 



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t~±4*& 



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rjfjuj'-v-A 



'«'V!r- 



^A-^/t -(JC>^ 



>»-*t 





-»*#• 




*urft 








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£*-0>-~A, 



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■#J>-iJrf 



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jjii-ij/ 



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j-o-'-^!^)! 



*_w„i ^_u: 



rf^'-ult^JI 



tf^'-vVI 



jrfirl _<* 



«Jo>' 



mjA**<^_ <jji_—* 



■/'^•-ilUj 



j««"--ilA_ 



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CfCv.'-SMp 



cir— f^* - -J^J; 



u^ui'-j^. 



•Aljl,/'- J, 



i^>l>' -liiii 



JLW-fV-i 



JX^'-oujto- 



•W-sijuK 






— ,-JLrf jT 



**-W 



tf*. 



Cr^" - V".^ 



ii.OJi 



r*-« >r* 



i.U*»' 


-*.-, 


//!/'• 


Vl__ 




cJ^/ 


-~w 


aj„c 


_JU_. 




,H^ 


-f> 




-i*J* 




u-^-x/'- 


;j-ip- 


i>jUi< 


-oV^ 








- *j«^j 




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-r^v 


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V*.- 


"-■»--> 


4y-J' 


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Jj»y 


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OUJ* 


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iyb,/'- 


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Fig. 7. Tribes and sub-tribes of the Anaiza Beduins. 



58 





'ABO-ALLAH 






MUSJ4AHIR 














SAWALIMAH 

Ibn JondOl 


AL MU^HJARAH 






FARAHIDAH 
Ibn Jondal 


KjiAD'AN 






HARS_HAH 


Al-Khada' 






NAJ? 








ALHADAK 
Ibn MuJ.il 


MULHAK 

Ibn Mukjiaylil 


RAMMAH 






Aba al-Ho»hu 




RAWDAN 
AI-Ka'kS* 








KHULAYFAT 
Ibn Rukoyyfln 


MAZAWIOAH 

Al-Miz.od^ 


SAV/AHILAH 




ALMIHLAF* 


AbO Suroyr 






RAHMAH 

Ibn Hunayyan 






sJlim 

Ibn Wffil 


HULAYBi 

AMumah 


MUSjVUYT 
Ibn Barmdn 




JURQHl 

Ibn Muhoyjin 






SUNAYYAN 

Ibn Dohmoh 




SABBAH 




ashaji'ah 

Ibn Ml/jil *~~ 


JARFAH 
Al-Kuwayjih 






AL WOKAYT 
Ibn Nol)7t 






MAHYUB 
Ibn Ku%|*on 










'A ROAN 
Al-'uroyd 








VkTTYAH 

AI-Mu<oynr 


BASIT 




HAMDAN 
AI-BoMt 




WUHAYB 
Ibn Mufolfih 


Ibn Mughamit 




RU^HAYDAN 
Abu NoM 


»zOl 




za'abilah 

Al-Hoydol 










MUDAYGHIM 
Abi ol-Wakal 


AI-<oiIi 




AL JALAS 


DAWARIJAH 
Ibn Duwoyrij 






ZURFAH 

Ibn umor 


BAOI 








K1HATAM 
Ibn Mufarrij 


Al-Fujoyr 






SHARATlN 

Ibn Butayhah 












JARDAN 






KAWAJIBAH 
Al-Kuwoyjib 


AL KHUMSI 
Al-Shorifi 








RASHID 
Ibn Solbuh 


HATLAN 




KA'A 
Al-K 


JI'AH 




Ibn Barghash 




otia* *" 






JAWATILAH 
AI-'Ayr 


AL MUDAHRISHAH 




FARJAt 






AM 






MULAYHAN 




hada 1 * 












NUSAYR 

Ibn Nufayr 








Ibn MulayhSn 












ARRUWALAH 






VkLMAH 

Ibn Jurayboh 












Al-Nurl 








NAWtSIRAH 

Al-Majonmo 


AL ZAYD 

Ibn Zayd 




MURIQ^ 

Ibn Nufoyr 




K AT A' AH 
AI-KalT 


MU'ABHAL 








SHAH-AN , 






JAM 






MIJWAL 








Ibn ShaSon 


al-sawXlihah 

Ibn Mahl 








DANA MUSLIM 


OAGHMAN 4 

Ibn Dogma 


MASHHUR 


Ibn Sho'lfln 




AL-HAKASHAH 
Ibn Hakothoh 


Ibn Ma%hhur 






MASHJIDAH 
Ibn MuroykJlO 








MAS'AD 
Ibn Farhln 


MUHALHAL 




AL-DARlN 
AI-JunoyfT 


Ibn Muholhal 




JABBARAH 

Burayghith 






SANAO 

Ibn Sanod 


SUBAYH 








AL-BARABIRAH 

Al- Junayfi 








AL- 




Ibn Suboyh 






tulDh 

Ibn Khaiil 








MURAYKj)IAN 

Ibn Ghorib 






MAHNAH 

Ibn Mohl 


Ibn Bunayyal) 




HAMiMIOAH 

Ibn Duwoyhit 






OAMJAN 
Al-<6yid, 






JUWAYDAH 

Al-Judi 


Ibn Rawg'an 








Ibn Farhdn * 




AL MUSIRIN 
Ibn Sabtah 






RIYAB 

Ibn Namsh 












'AWAD 

Ibn Sumayr 


MUBARAK 

Al-Fujoyr 






WULO 'AU •• 






RUBAYLAT 
AI-KJiuwoh 






MASALIKH 
Boni'oyth 






OAMJAN 
Al-OoyrI 


jam's n 

Ibn Jobol 




K1HALIO 

Ibn Mot'od 




KHARSHAH 




Ibn Sumayr *- 


'UTAYFAT 
AbO Al-rut 


HAJUR 
Ibn 'antor 


Bam'ayth 




JURAYDAH 
AI-MutS 












JAQHALIMAH 
Ibn Ouwayhl 


KHAMA'lLAH 

Ibn N8bi) 


Ibn Ru»_hd 




'UTAYFAT 
Ibn Tulay<6n 








HUWAYMIL 
Al-Mfisir 




BANI WAHB 


MUJAYBIL 
Ibn Duwayj 


yazTd 

Al-Thuboyti 








JABBARAH 
BuraygjhTth 








SAKARAH 

Ibn'umoyroh 








OHIBAH 
Ibn Judayd 






TAWALI'AH 
Ibn Zohwah 




HAJJAJ 




FAQlL 

ibn'awad 




















KUQAYYAH 






AH. 


Aloydoh 




MUQHSIB 


Al-WokySn 




AL MANABIH 








HASAN 
Ibn Mulh 


kH 




SHAMSI 






im 






Al-Raf*h' 



Fig. 8. Tribes and sub-tribes of the Anaiza Beduins. 



59 



J^J"*/' - t»v/» 



<'• r*"^ 



<***«. w 1 -*^ 



^•K'-iU- 






UJro:i-.i.Uu 



JOutj/.'-uJj*! — - * a ^-u>'-i>?Uj 



'-r v 



^Un/'-oVijji 






^>-«'-<lJ 



^ 



J^.6J^ 



jjLj'u.l-Jij- 



JIM y.'- . 



iU^J'-^iLlU 



!£«*-.*,>< 



-M/-.;ii 



jIj^-^.1* 



li.WlJI.iUL. 



^•vW 



■^I'-VjUuJI 






,te 






. lj^ut'-^V 



Jt-^-V- ./, 



ii- 



Jijv'-W-I 



. vjAu;' -ijuB 



ilC+f-Cj 



^uitfT-ej^ — . u &itt -tjrit 



g>«*->JLi 



joj-xr&r 



&-y 



i\^s-^> 



£r<i* 



«W|>'- Jjll 



jU-i>>- jjU. 



iro\»<jy° 



irft/'- 


jA_r>» 


<«-*</.' 


-i'-^ 


Jil^ir 


-o'JlJ 



Out^t_ylLC 



-—tf-iict-jj 



^A^t/' 


- «Ax 


oLy-j' 


-U. 


0>U' 


-aUc 



Ol^v/'-^iX*- 



«J*tf- i.A-j7 



•j*Jt/'-"»/^ 



«'"V?yi . y^J. u >_jljfc 



JfAn'-uUtuJI 



cur-U«P» 



J?^l. 



Fig. 9. Tribes and sub-tribes of the Anaiza Beduins. 



60 



BUTAYNAT 
Ibn Mursnid 



ttA$AM 

Ibn Murshid 



MAWAHlB 
Ibn Ghuthm 



MASARiBAH 
Al-Motrab 



R I SAL IN 
Ibn'idoh 



ASBA'AH 

Ibn Murshid 



VkBPAH _ 
Ibn Hudoyb 



[ pAN< 'UBAYO 



AL-WULP 
Ibn Muhayd 





MUHAYO 

Ibn Muhoyd 






QANA MUNAY*«-J 


Ibn HuboyKSn 






RUS 

Al-Kuru 








'AJAJlRAH 
Ibn Huruymis 






SARA 
Ibn Jod 





"iBADAT 

Ibn Kurduth 



DAW AM 

Al-Fokokl 



bayayi<am 

Ibn Muwoyni' 



RIMAH 

Ibn Woyii 



Hjrfam 

Al-Suhoyhii 
Ibn Fd'ur 



MAWAYIJAH 
Ibn Hudayb *~ 



WATJHRAH 
Ibn Pu'aybil 



MUSAKKAH 
Ibn Hadlon 
Ibn JalSddn 
Ibn Kufayfoh 



AL FAP8HAN 
Ibn Muhoyd 



KHARSAH 

Ibn Kuidyshish 



'ABDAH 

Ju<oybil 



KHALAF 
Al-Kolfah 



NUJAYJ 
Ibn Sharya' 



DANA JABAL 

Ibn Do'O 



DANA MAJID 
Ibn Ki/ayijiitji 



PAN A KHAYL 4 
Ibn Ku'oythish 



GMUBAYN 
Ibn Ghuboyn 



OURAYLAT 
Ibn Ohubayn 



HAMPAN 
Ibn Ghubayn 



BAYDAN 
Ibn GhBfil 



WULP SULAYMAN 

Ibn Ku'oyi_hi jh * 



JADA'AH 

Ibn f orndn 



GHAYYAN 
IbwHuhrl 



MATANAH 
Ibn 'ornan 



'ULAYYAN 
Al-Mokhkhdd 



ikWWAP 

Ibn Ghubayn 



AL JALWAH 
Ibn Jalwah 



ABU HAMRAH 
Ibn Musfir 



ZAHRAH 

Ibn Zohroh 



'UMAYRAH 
Ibn Murih.d 



SUHAYM 
Ibn Shutoy. 



RAHMAH 
Ibn So<ayyid 



KHMAMSAN 

Ibn'idoh 



'AJLAN 
Ibn'idoh 



JASIM 
Al No.dk 



SHAFI' 

Ibn Baghdad 



HUWAYSHAN 
Ibn Mutlit 




NASFAH 
Ibn Jazza' 



BALA'IN 
AI-Kho|htl 



KUWAYRAN 



»JLAN 

Al Shunoytin 



KHAPALAT 

Akhdah 



JUFFAL 
Ibn Muhayldn 



ri^ASJ^TAH 

Ibn Salman 



HiRlTJHAH 

Al-Sam'an 



MALHUO 
Ibn Humayzdn 



MAJATHIRAH 
Al-Ruhayf 



'AMMARAH 
At-Sjwoymir 



KHAMSJ1AH 

Aba Zohroh 



SALMAT 
Al-ShakSwi 



JA'AFIRAH 
AI-<o»6j? 



AL GHADAWIRAH 
Al-Murfo'id 



Fig. 10. Tribes and sub-tribes of the Anaiza Beduins. 



61 



62 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Arrangements were made to examine a series of the Anaiza 
tribesmen, who were brought into the station dispensary. After 
nineteen men had been measured, observed, and photographed, 
work had to be stopped as a result of a misunderstanding. 1 This 
was most unfortunate as I could have measured at least one hundred 
Anaiza tribesmen, who were friendly and willing to submit, since 
they understood the significance of the comparison between them- 
selves and the Shammar. 

On May 9, 1934, I measured nineteen Anaiza tribesmen. The 
other four individuals examined at different localities brings the 
total up to twenty-three — a most inadequate series. 

Birthplaces. — Nos. 1590 and 1591 were examined at Haditha 
and No. 1593 at de Kuani near Beirut. These tribesmen were born 
at Razaza near Karbala with the exception of the following: No. 
1571 near An Najaf, No. 1592 near Jebel Sinjar, No. 1589 near 
the Syrian-Iraq border, and Nos. 1572 and 1593 near Damascus. 
No birthplace was recorded for Nos. 1590 and 1591. 

Vital Statistics. — Each tribesman was requested to give the 
number of his living brothers, sisters, sons, and daughters. 



Vital Statistics* of Anaiza Tribesmen 



No. 


Age 


Married 


Sons 


Daughters Brothers 


Sisters 


1571 


28 


Unmarried 






1,2 


2,3 


1572 


27 


Unmarried 






2,1 


2 


1573 


28 


Unmarried 






2 





1574 


32 


Unmarried 






1 





1575 


28 


Unmarried 






3 


1 


1576 


35 


Unmarried 


i' ' 




0, 2 


1 


1577 


38 


Unmarried 






1,1 


0,2 


1578 


45 


Married 


2" 




1,1 1,2 


2,1 


1579 


36 


Married 


1 




0,2 


1 


1580 


30 


Married(2) 







5 


3 


1581 


30 


Married \ 


1,1 




1 





1582 


35 


Unmarried 






1 


1 


1583 


30 


Unmarried 






1 


2 


1584 


25 


Unmarried 






1,2 


2,2 


1585 


35 


Unmarried 






2,2 


0,3 


1586 


30 


Unmarried 






2 





1587 


30 


Unmarried 






5 


1,3 


1588 


24 


Unmarried 






1 


1 


1589 


25 


Unmarried 






2,3 


4 


1590 


45 
50 
35 








'.'.'. 2, V 




1591 






1592 


Unmarried 


i'.'l' 


1593 


40 


Married 


0" 










♦The italicized numbers refer to the deceased relatives. 

1 1 sincerely hope never to encounter again a man as abysmally ignorant, 
superciliously arrogant, and deliberately obstructive as the individual who stopped 
this important piece of research through inciting the tribesmen to object to 
examination by fabricating such falsehoods and lies as that we were using power- 
ful magic and casting spells over them. 



Physical Anthropology: Dulaim and Anaiza 



63 









Demography 








Brothers 


No. 


Per cent 


Sisters 


No. 


Per 


cent 


None 




6 
5 
5 

4 






None 

1 

2 

3-4 

5-6 


4 
5 

4 

6 

1 


20 
25 
20 
30 

5 


00 


1 

2 

3-4 

5-6 


30 
25 
25 
20 


00 
00 
00 
00 


00 
00 
00 
00 


7 or more .... 



20 






7 or more 

Total 



20 
















Total 


100 


00 


100 


00 


Sons 


No. 


Per cent 


Daughters 


No. 


Per cent 


None 

1 


2 
2 
1 
1 



6 


33 
33 
16 
16 


33 
33 
67 
67 


None : 

1 

2 

3-4 

5-6 

7 or more 

Total 


5 

1 




6 


83 


33 


2 

3-4 


16 


67 


5-6 






7 or more .... 




















Total 


100 


00 


100 


00 



The size of the families, as indicated by these unreliable figures, 
tends to be large, especially when there is every reason to suppose 
a high rate of infant mortality. Few tribesmen admitted having 
children, probably because of the innate fear of evil spells. 

Age. — The average age for the group was 34.15, with a range of 
20 to 54. Eighteen men (78.27 per cent) were between the ages 
of 25 and 39. 



Age Distribution 



Age No. 

18-19 

20-24 1 

25-29 6 

30-34 6 

35-39 6 

40-44 1 



Per cent 


Age 


No. 


Per cent 




45-49 


2 


8.70 


4.35 


50-54 


1 


4.35 


26.09 


55-59 







26.09 


60-64 







26.09 


65-69 







4.35 


70-x 

Total 



23 






100.02 



MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF ANAIZA BEDUINS 

Skin. — As a result of exposure to wind and to other vagaries of 
climate, the skin was slightly darker than that of the average Arab 
of Iraq. The secondary shadings of different parts of the body 
were in no way peculiar, but the exposed parts were slightly darker 
than those habitually clothed. On the head, which is always covered, 
the skin was considerably lighter in color in many cases but never 
as white as in Europeans. No. 1572 (Plate 38), who had a dark 
skin, appeared to possess some Negro blood. 



64 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Hair.— The hair was black or very dark brown. In form the 
hair had low waves and in texture was either coarse or medium. 
Nine men had shaven heads. 



Color No. 

Black 19 

Very dark brown 1 

Dark brown 

Brown 

Reddish brown 

Light brown 

Red . 

Black and gray 

Dark brown and gray ... 

Light brown and gray ... 

Gray 2 

White 



Hair 



Per cent 

86.36 

4.55 



9.09 



Total 22 100.00 



Form No. 

Straight 

Very low waves 

Low waves 11 

Deep waves 1 

Curly-frizzly 

Woolly 



Texture No. 

Coarse 9 

Coarse-medium 

Medium 4 

Medium-fine \ 

Fine 



Per cent 



91.67 
8.33 



Total 12 100.00 



Per cent 
69.23 



30.77 



Total 13 100.00 



Abnormal hairiness of the body was not observed and the gen- 
eral impression retained was that the Anaiza had about the same 
amount of body hair as the Arabs of central Iraq. 

Eyes. — In general the eyes were brown in color, varying from 
gray-brown to dark brown. The presence of individuals with mixed 
eyes indicates a submerged blondism. The sclera were clear, with 
the exception of three men with bloodshot eyes. The iris was homo- 
geneous or zoned with three individuals in the rayed classification. 



Color No. 

Black 

Dark brown 7 

Blue-brown 7 

.BJite-brown 

Green-brown 5 

Green-brown 

Gray-brown 3 

Blue 

Gray 

Light brown 

Blue-gray 

Blue-green 



Total 22 100.01 



Eyes 

Per cent Iris No. 

Homogeneous 9 

31.82 Rayed 3 

31.82 Zoned 9 



22.73 



13.64 



Total 21 

Sclera No. 

Clear 19 

Yellow 

Speckled 

Bloodshot 3 

Speckled and bloodshot . . 

Speckled and yellow .... 

Yellow and bloodshot ... 



Per cent 
42.86 
14.29 
42.86 

100.01 

Per cent 
86.36 



13.64 



Total 22 100.00 



The eyes, or more properly the eye slits, were horizontal as in 
Europeans. In general, the eyes were clear and the vision was keen, 
features characteristic of the nomads of this region. 



Physical Anthropology: Dulaim and Anaiza 



65 



Nose. — The nasal profile was convex or straight in about equal 
proportions. The alae were medium to compressed with but four 
Anaiza tribesmen slightly above the average. One man had a 
wider nasal tip than the average and one individual appeared in 
the double plus category, indicating the presence of Negro blood. 



Nose 



Profile 


No. 


Per cent 


Wavy 

Straight 

Convex 

Concavo-convex 




8 
9 
5 

...22 


36.36 
40.91 
22.73 


Total 


100.00 



Wings 



Compressed 3 

Compressed-medium .... 2 

Medium 14 

Medium-flaring 4 

Flaring 

Flaring plus 



No. Per cent 

13.04 

8.70 

60.87 

17.39 



Total 23 100.00 

Mouth. — The majority of the lips were thicker than those of 
the average European, and there was considerable lower lip eversion 
in a number of individuals, especially Nos. 1573, 1575, and 1583. 
The relatively thin lips of No. 1589 appeared to be exceptional. 

Teeth. — The occlusion was recorded as marked-over bite but 
this seems hardly probable and I think this should have been slight- 
over bite, a far more normal occlusion. 



Teeth 



Bite No. Per cent 

Under 

Edge-to-edge 

Slight over 

Marked over 22 100.00 

Total 22 100.00 



Condition 

Very bad 


No. 



Per cent 


Bad 


1 


6.25 


Fair 


o 


12.50 


Good 

Excellent 


9 

4 

16 


56.25 
25.00 


Total 


100.00 



The dental condition was either good or excellent with but 
three exceptions. Nos. 1574, 1577, 1585, 1586, 1589, and 1592 were 
excellent; Nos. 1575, 1576, 1579, 1582, 1583, 1587, 1588, and 1590 
were good; and Nos. 1573 and 1578 were fair. No. 1580 had irregular 
front teeth. 

Musculature and Health. — The Anaiza Beduins had well- 
developed musculature and those examined were in good health. 

Musculature No. 

Poor 

Fair 1 

Average 

Good 19 

Excellent 2 

Total 22 



Per cent 


Health 


No. 


Per cent 


4.55 

86.36 
9.09 


Poor 

Fair 

Average 

Good 

Excellent 

Total 




1 



20 

1 

22 


4.55 

90.91 
4.55 


100.00 


100.01 



66 Anthropology of Iraq 

Disease. — Nos. 1574 and 1585 had smallpox scars. No. 1584 
had ringworm on his face. No. 1583 had scars on his head as a 
result of a fall from a camel. No. 1591 was blind in the left eye 
and his vision was poor in the right eye. 

Tattooing.— Nos. 1585, 1589, 1592, and 1593 had simple tattooed 
designs and twelve were recorded as bearing none (cf. Charles, pp. 
109-111). 

Branding. — Each individual, with the exception of Nos. 1576, 
1579, 1582, 1585, 1589, 1591, and 1593, bore circular branded marks 
on his arms or wrists. Each brand is referred to as a chawi or kawi. 
No. 1572 said that branding was used "to prevent smallpox." No. 
1580 had a large chawi scar on the inside of his left wrist "to cure a 
racking cough." No. 1581 had five large, circular marks on his 
right wrist "to make it strong for stone throwing." 

Kohl. — No. 1580 had applied kohl beneath his eyes "to strengthen 
them." 

Unrecorded. — No morphological observations were recorded on 
No. 1593. 

Summary. — The average Anaiza tribesman had low wavy hair, 
coarse or medium in texture, and extremely dark brown merging 
into black in color. The eyes were various shades of brown, but 
fifteen men (68.19 per cent) had mixed eyes. The sclera were clear, 
but the iris was either homogeneous or rayed. The nose was convex 
or straight in almost equal proportions, with medium wings. The 
lips were thicker than those of the average European. The teeth, 
musculature, and health were good. 

STATISTICAL ANALYSES OF ANAIZA BEDUINS 

There now remains the task of grouping the twenty-three Anaiza 
tribesmen according to the Harvard and Keith classificatory systems 
for stature, sitting height (trunk length), minimum frontal diameter, 
head breadth, cephalic index, nasal height, nasal breadth, and nasal 
index. 

Stature. — The Anaiza were medium to short according to both 
systems. The results of the two groupings happen to be identical. 
The average stature for twenty-two men was 162.96 (range 146.0- 
178.0), which is well below the average for Southwestern Asia 
(about 166.0). No. 1593 was omitted. 



Physical Anthropology: Dulaim and Anaiza 67 

Stature 

Harvard system No. Per cent Keith system No. Per cent 

Short (x-160.5) 6 27.27 Short (x-159.9) 6 27.27 

Medium (160.6-169.4). . 12 54.55 ' Medium (160.0-169.9). .. 12 54.55 

Tall (169. 5-x) 4 18.18 Tall (170.0-179.9) 4 18.18 

— Very tall (180. 0-x) 

Total 22 100.00 



Total 22 100.00 

Sitting Height (Trunk Length). — The Keith system shows that 
the majority (81.81 per cent) had trunk lengths greater than 84.9. 
They were almost equally divided between the long (85.0-89.9) and 
the very long (90.0-x) categories. No. 1593 was omitted. 

Sitting Height (Trunk Length) 

Group No. Per cent 

Very short (x-74.9) 2 9.09 

Short (75.0-79.9) 

Medium (80.0-84.9) 2 9.09 

Long (85.0-89.9) 10 45.45 

Very long (90.0-x) 8 36.36 



Total 22 99.99 

In the preceding table, which follows the Keith system, we see 
that whereas the stature was medium to short the trunk length 
was either long or very long. This reveals an unbalanced proportion 
between the length of the trunk and that of the legs. The Anaiza 
had very short legs combined with long trunks. The average relative 
sitting height was 53.68. 

Minimum Frontal Diameter. — The head was wide (110-119) or 
narrow (100-109), there being no individuals in the categories above 
and below these ranges. The mean was 110.30 (range 101-120). 

Minimum Frontal Diameter 

Group No. Per cent 

Very narrow (x-99) 

Narrow (100-109) 9 40.90 

Wide (110-119) 13 59.09 

Very wide (120-x) 



Total 22 99.99 

Head Breadth. — The head varied from narrow to wide with a 
mean of 137.50 (range 123-149). There were more Anaiza tribes- 
men in the narrow-headed categories than at the other end of 

the scale. 

Head Breadth 

Group No. Per cent 

Very narrow (120-129) 1 4.34 

Narrow (130-139) 12 52. 18 

Wide (140-149) 9 39.13 

Very wide (150-x) 1 4.34 

Total 23 99.99 



68 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Cephalic Index. — According to the Harvard system the majority 
(82.60 per cent) were dolichocephalic, with only one brachycephal 
in the series. 

The Keith classificatory system reveals that the Anaiza were 
dolichocephalic with a strong tendency toward ultradolichocephaly. 

The mean head length was 191.22, which, combined with the 
relatively narrow breadth (137.50) gave a cephalic index of 72.72, a 
figure which I believe to be close to that of the Proto-Mediter- 
ranean mean. 



Keith system No. 

Ultradolichocephalic 6 

(x-70.0) 

Dolichocephalic 13 

(70.1-75.0) 

Mesocephalic 3 

(75.1-79.9) 

Brachycephalic 1 

(80.0-84.9) 

Ultrabrachycephalic 

(85.0-x) — 

Total 23 



Cephalic Index 

Per cent Harvard system 

26 . 09 Dolichocephalic . 

(x-76.5) 
56.52 Mesocephalic. . 

(76.6-82.5) 
13.04 Brachycephalic. 

(82.6-x) 
Total 



4.35 



100.00 



No. 


Per cent 


19 


82.60 


3 


13.04 


1 


4.35 


23 


99.99 



The Anaiza tribesmen were long-headed with a trend toward 
accentuation of this head proportion. 

Facial Measurements. — The upper part of the face tended to 
be long (70+) but 43.47 per cent were below this arbitrary figure. 
The largest groupings were either medium short or medium long. 
The mean was 70.25 (range 60-84). 

The total facial length was either medium short or medium long. 
No. 1586 had a very long face (132.0). The mean was 120.50 (range 
110-132). 

A grouping of the total facial indices places 77.27 per cent in 
the leptoprosopic category with only one tribesman recorded as 
euryprosopic. 

Facial Measurements 

Total facial height 



Upper facial height No. Per cent 

Short 1 4.34 

(x-63) 

Medium short 9 39. 13 

(64-69) 

Medium long 8 34 . 78 

(70-75) 

Long 5 21.74 

(76-x) — 

Total 23 99.99 



No. 

Short 

(x-109) 
Medium short 11 

(110-119) 
Medium long 11 

(120-129) 
Long 1 

(130-x) 

Total 23 



Per cent 



47.83 

47.83 

4.35 

100.01 



Physical Anthropology: Dulaim and Anaiza 



69 



Total Facial Index 

Group No. Per cent 

Euryprosopic (x-84 .5) 1 4.55 

Mesoprosopic (84.6-89.4) 4 18.18 

Leptoprosopic (89.5-x) 17 77.27 

Total 22 100.00 

In general the face was long, actually and relatively, the result of 
an elongated upper facial height combined with a medium wide face. 

Nasal Measurements and Indices. — The Anaiza tribesmen pos- 
sessed noses medium in height, medium narrow or medium wide 
in breadth, and a leptorrhine or mesorrhine index. The mean height 
was 53.66 (range 44-63), the breadth 34.61 (range 24-45), and the 
nasal index 66.18 (range 44-95). One man was Negroid. 



Nasal height No. 

Short 4 

(x-49) 

Medium 17 

(50-59) 

Long 2 

(60-x) — 

Total 23 



Nasal Measurements 
Per cent Nasal breadth No. 

17.39 Very narrow 2 

(x-29) 

73.91 Medium narrow 12 

(30-35) 

8 . 70 Medium wide 8 

(36-41) 

100.00 Wide 1 

(42-x) 
Total 23 



Per cent 
8.70 

52.18 

34.78 

4.34 

100.00 



Nasal Index 

Group No. Per cent 

Leptorrhine (x-67.4) 14 60.87 

Mesorrhine (67.5-83.4) 8 34.78 

Platyrrhine (83.5-x) 1 4.34 

Total 23 99.99 

To furnish additional statistical data for comparison with those 
in my Report on Iran the following tables have been calculated: 



Sitting Height (Trunk Length) 
900-x 899-850 849-800 799-750 749-x 



Totals 



Standing height 

1800-x 

1799-1700 
1699-1600 
x-1599... 


No. 


4 
4 


ted. 
ted. 


% No. % No. % No. % 

0.... 0... 

18.18 . ... ... 

18.18 7 31.82 . .. . . .. 

3 13.64 2 9.09 . .. 

Minimum Frontal Diameter 
x-99 100-109 110-119 

No. % No. % No. % 

.... 1 4.55 

4 18.18 7 31.82 

.... 4 18.18 5 22.73 
.... 1 4.55 


12 
No. 







No. 

. 

. 

1 4 
1 4 

0-x 

% 


% 

!55 
.55 


No. % 



4 18.18 

12 54.55 

6 27.28 


No. 1593 omiti 

Head breadth 
120-129 


22 100.01 

Totals 
No. % 
1 4.55 


130-139.. 




11 50.00 


140-149 . . 




9 40.91 


150-x 




1 4.55 








No. 1587 omiti 


22 100.01 



70 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Bizygomatic Breadth 



x-124 
Total facial length No. % 

x-114 

115-124 1 4.55 

125-x .... 

No. 1587 omitted. 



125-134 



No. 

4 



% 
18.18 
36.36 
18.18 



135-x 
No. % 


2 9.09 

3 13.64 



Upper Facial Length 



x-63 64-69 

Total facial length No. % No. % 

x-109 .... 

110-119 1 4.35 9 39.13 

120-129 .... 

130-x .... 



70-75 76-81 

No. % No. % 

... . 

1 4.35 .... 
9 39.13 2 8.70 
1 4.35 



82- 
No. 


. 
. 
. 



% 



Measurements and Indices of Anaiza Beduins 

Measurements No. Range Mean S.D. 

Age 23 20-54 34.15±1.03 7.35±0.73 

Stature 22 146-178 162.96±0.95 6.60±0.67 

Sitting height 22 72-98 87.85±0.83 5.76±0.59 

Head length 23 176-202 191.22±0.93 6.63±0.66 

Headbreadth 22 123-149 137.50±0.69 4.77±0.49 

Minimum frontal 

diameter 22 101-120 110.30±0.59 4.08±0.41 

Bizygomatic diameter. 22 120-139 130.20±0.63 4.40±0.42 

Bigonial diameter 22 90-117 100.38±0.74 5.28±0.53 

Total facial height.... 23 110-134 120. 50 ±0.82 5. 80 ±0.58 

Upper facial height. .. 23 60-84 70. 25 ±0.70 5. 00 ±0.50 

Nasalheight 23 44-63 53.66±0.65 4.64±0.46 

Nasal breadth 23 25-45 34.61±0.56 3.99±0.40 

Earlength 23 48-67 56.82±0.64 4.52±0.45 

Earbreadth 23 29-40 33.78±0.40 2.82±0.28 

Indices 

Relative sitting height 22 44-57 53.68±0.43 3. 00 ±0.31 

Cephalic 23 65-85 71.91±0.57 4.05±0.40 

Fronto-parietal 22 72-86 79.81±0.44 3.03±0.31 

Zygo-frontal 22 80-91 84.42±0.36 2.48±0.25 

Zygo-gonial 22 69-83 77.08±0.42 2.94±0.30 

Total facial 22 80-104 92.70±0.63 4.35±0.44 

Upper facial 22 46-60 53.96±0.47 3.30±0.34 

Nasal 23 44-95 66.18±1.41 10.00±0.99 

Ear 23 47-76 59.54±0.67 4.76±0.47 



Totals 
No. % 

4 18.18 
11 50.00 

7 31.82 



22 100.00 
Totals 

No. % 


11 

11 

1 



47.83 

47.83 

4.35 



Nasal Width 

x-29 30-35 36-41 42-x 

Nasal length No. % No. % No. % No. % 

x-49 .... 2 8.70 2 8.70 .... 

50-59 1 4.35 10 43.47 5 21.73 1 4.35 

60-x 1 4.35 1 4.35 



23 100.01 



Totals 

No. % 

4 17.40 

17 73.90 

2 8.70 



23 100.00 



C.V. 
21. 52 ±2. 14 
4.05±0.41 
6.56±0.67 
3.47±0.35 
3.47±0.35 

3.70±0.38 
3.38±0.34 
5.26±0.52 
4.81±0.48 
7.12±0.71 
8.65±0.86 
11.53±1.15 
7.95±0.79 
8.35±0.83 

5.59±0.57 
5.60±0.56 
3.80±0.39 
2.94±0.30 
3.81±0.39 
4.69±0.48 
6.12±0.62 
15.11±1.50 
7.99±0.79 



PHOTOGRAPHIC ANALYSES OF ANAIZA BEDUINS 

The photographs of the Anaiza tribesmen have been arranged 
in order of ascending age from 24 to 45. 



Physical Anthropology: Dulaim and Anaiza 71 

In general, the Anaiza were far more homogeneous in the physi- 
cal characters of the head and face than the Dulaim. The basic 
element of which No. 1571 (Plates 40 and 41) is an excellent example, 
probably approaches the Proto-Mediterranean type. 

Since we are dealing with but twenty-three tribesmen this series 
can not be described as adequate in any sense. We must therefore 
proceed with extra caution in attempting to analyze and segregate 
the racial elements within this small group. 

Among the Anaiza the following variations occur: 

Basic Mediterranean: No. 1571 (Plates 40, 41) 

Iraqo-Mediterranean: No. 1589 (Plate 37) 

Very long-headed (G.O.L. 201): No. 1573 (Plate 39) 

Ultradolichocephal (C.I. 67.0): No. 1571 (Plates 40, 41) 

Brachycephal (C.I. 83.3): No. 1592 (Plate 46) 

Short-faced: No. 1582 (Plate 46) 

Long-faced: No. 1586 (Plate 42) 

Green-brown-eyed: No. 1585 (Plate 45) 

Gray-brown-eyed: No. 1589 (Plate 37) 

Blue-brown-eyed: No. 1587 (Plate 42) 

Straight-nosed: No. 1575 (Plate 39) 

Very slightly convex-nosed: No. 1589 (Plate 37) 

Slightly convex-nosed: No. 1578 (Plate 47) 

Convex-nosed: No. 1579 (Plate 47) 

Markedly convex-nosed: Nos. 1573, 1576 (Plates 39, 45) 

Negroid: No. 1572 (Plate 38) 

Examination of the photographs reveals that the Anaiza tribes- 
men belong to a relatively homogeneous Mediterranean type. They 
show considerably less variation in racial characters than the 
Dulaimis. 

SUMMARY 

The average Anaiza tribesman is medium to short in stature, 
long to very long in trunk length, and possesses a wide or narrow 
forehead, a wide or narrow head, dolichocephalic or ultradolicho- 
cephalic index, medium short or medium long upper and total facial 
heights with a leptoprosopic index, a nose medium in length, medium 
narrow or medium wide, and a leptorrhine or mesorrhine index. 

The Anaiza tribesmen appear to belong to the straight-nosed, 
leptoprosopic, leptorrhine, and dolichocephalic division of the 
Mediterranean Race. Furthermore, they are racially distinct since 
nomadic life in the desert restricts intermarriage. The infiltration 
of Negro blood through the age-old custom of a Negro bodyguard 
for the Sheikh is the solitary factor which has permeated every large 
Beduin encampment. In my forthcoming report on the Shammar 
Beduins of northwestern Iraq, the racial significance of this Negroid 
element will be discussed in the part entitled "The Northern Jazira." 



72 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Measurements of Anaiza Beduins 



No. Age Stature SH 



B 



w 



go-go GH G'H NH NB 



1571 


28 


1635 


908 


197 


132 


108 


124 


94 


117 


67 


50 


33 


1572 


27 


1666 


905 


198 


138 


114 


131 


104 


113 


60 


45 


38 


1573 


28 


1620 


926 


201 


140 


110 


134 


106 


128 


74 


58 


34 


1574 


32 


1756 


932 


196 


137 


107 


128 


96 


123 


75 


54 


35 


1575 


28 


1543 


850 


197 


140 


107 


125 


103 


118 


67 


48 


36 


1576 


35 


1711 


979 


194 


138 


115 


138 


104 


126 


70 


56 


43 


1577 


38 


1623 


867 


198 


141 


108 


128 


98 


111 


64 


45 


34 


1578 


45 


1640 


873 


191 


134 


105 


126 


101 


126 


74 


56 


34 


1579 


36 


1615 


878 


194 


136 


110 


130 


97 


122 


72 


56 


32 


1580 


30 


1709 


922 


192 


137 


113 


128 


99 


123 


71 


54 


41 


1581 


30 


1570 


842 


193 


140 


113 


128 


104 


118 


68 


50 


31 


1582 


35 


1580 


880 


189 


137 


108 


129 


94 


112 


68 


51 


35 


1583 


30 


1658 


895 


198 


147 


117 


138 


103 


124 


78 


57 


36 


1584 


25 


1483 


823 


180 


141 


108 


125 


95 


115 


64 


50 


36 


1585 


35 


1677 


891 


177 


140 


110 


128 


101 


124 


77 


62 


27 


1586 


30 


1628 


857 


193 


142 


114 


134 


105 


132 


80 


56 


34 


1587 


30 


1610 


860 


188 


135 






98 


117 


72 


50 


32 


1588 


24 


1570 


857 


182 


141 


108 


127 


92 


119 


68 


52 


30 


1589 


25 


1720 


970 


196 


138 


112 


137 


114 


128 


72 


52 


36 


1590 


45 


1593 


715 


180 


125 


102 


125 


95 


114 


67 


56 


28 


1591 


50 


1602 


747 


184 


135 


113 


138 


97 


115 


68 


48 


32 


1592 


35 


1643 


908 


186 


155 


114 


137 


107 


125 


74 


57 


39 


1593 


40 






191 


130 


110 


132 


100 


128 


74 


60 


40 



Morphological Characters of Anaiza Beduins 

HAIR EYES 

No. Form Texture Color Color Sclera Iris Profile 

1571 1 w coarse black gr-br blood ray c-c 

1572* black gr-br clear zon c-c 

1573* black dk br clear zon conv 

1574 1 w coarse black bl-br clear zon conv 

1575* black dk br clear horn str 

1576 . . . coarse v dk br bl-br blood .... conv 

1577* black gr-br clear zon c-c 

1578 1 w coarse gray bl-br clear zon conv 

1579* black bl-br clear zon conv 

1580 1 w coarse black bl-br clear horn str 

1581 1 w coarse black bl-br clear hom str 

1582* black dk br clear hom conv 

1583 1 w medium black dk br clear ray conv 

1584* black gray-br clear ray str 

1585 1 w coarse black gr-br clear zon conv 

1586* ... black gray-br clear hom c-c 

1587 1 w medium black bl-br clear hom c-c 

1588* black dk br clear hom str 

1589 d w coarse black gray-br clear hom conv 

1590 1 w medium black dk br clear hom str 

1591 1 w medium gray dk br blood zon str 

1592 1 w coarse black gr-br clear zon str 

1593 



Wings 

medium 

m-fl 

comp 

medium 

m-fl 

medium 

medium 

comp 

cp-m 

medium 

medium 

medium 

medium 

medium 

medium 

medium 

m-fl 

comp 

medium 

cp-m 

m-fl 

medium 



* Shaved. 



Physical Anthropology: Dulaim and Anaiza 73 

Indices of Anaiza Beduins 



No. 


EL 


EB 


RSH 


B/L 


B'/B 


GH/J 


G'H/J 


NB/NH 


EB/EL 


Ko-go/J 


B'/J 


1571 


58 


35 


55.6 


67.0 


81.8 


94.4 


54.0 


66.0 


60.3 


75.8 


87.1 


1572 


58 


37 


54.3 


69.7 


82.6 


86.3 


45.8 


84.4 


63.8 


79.4 


87.0 


1573 


58 


30 


57.2 


69.7 


78.6 


95.5 


55.2 


58.6 


51.7 


79.1 


82.1 


1574 


63 


34 


53.1 


69.9 


78.1 


96.1 


58.6 


64.8 


54.0 


75.0 


83.6 


1575 


50 


30 


55.1 


71.1 


76.4 


94.4 


53.6 


75.0 


60.0 


82.4 


85.6 


1576 


57 


35 


57.2 


71.1 


83.3 


91.3 


50.7 


76.8 


61.4 


75.4 


83.3 


1577 


56 


32 


53.4 


71.2 


76.6 


86.7 


50.0 


75.6 


57.1 


76.6 


84.4 


1578 


53 


34 


53.2 


70.2 


78.4 


100.0 


58.7 


60.7 


64.2 


80.2 


83.3 


1579 


64 


37 


54.4 


70.1 


80.9 


93.9 


55.4 


57.1 


57.8 


74.6 


84.6 


1580 


64 


38 


54.5 


71.4 


82.5 


96.1 


55.5 


75.9 


59.4 


77.3 


88.3 


1581 


53 


32 


53.6 


72.5 


80.7 


92.2 


53.1 


62.0 


60.4 


81.3 


88.3 


1582 


52 


30 


55.7 


72.5 


78.8 


86.8 


52.7 


68.6 


57.7 


72.9 


83.7 


1583 


53 


35 


54.0 


74.2 


79.6 


89.9 


56.5 


63.2 


66.0 


74.6 


84.8 


1584 


55 


34 


55.5 


78.3 


76.6 


92.0 


51.2 


72.0 


61.8 


76.0 


86.4 


1585 


60 


34 


53.2 


79.1 


78.6 


96.9 


60.2 


43.6 


56.7 


78.9 


85.9 


1586 


56 


31 


52.6 


73.6 


80.3 


98.5 


59.7 


60.7 


55.4 


78.4 


85.1 


1587 


51 


31 


53.4 


71.8 








64.0 


60.8 






1588 


56 


35 


54.6 


77.5 


76.6 


93^7 


53.5 


57.7 


62.5 


72.4 


85!6 


1589 


58 


35 


56.4 


70.4 


81.2 


93.4 


52.6 


69.2 


60.3 


83.2 


81.8 


1590 


60 


33 


44.9 


69.4 


81.6 


91.2 


53.6 


50.0 


55.0 


76.0 


81.6 


1591 


51 


39 


46.6 


73.4 


83.7 


83.3 


49.3 


66.7 


76.5 


70.3 


81.9 


1592 


55 


30 


55.2 


83.3 


73.6 


91.2 


54.0 


68.4 


54.6 


78.1 


83.2 


1593 


63 


36 




68.1 


84.6 


97.0 


56.1 


66.6 


57.1 


75.8 


83.3 



Ram-faced Types Among the Dulaim and the Anaiza 

According to Keith (pp. 52-53), "among eastern peoples dis- 
tributed in the southwestern part of Asia from the Pamir to Asia 
Minor, there occurs a type of face which seizes upon the attention 
of the student of human races. People with this type of countenance 
are sometimes described as 'ram-faced' ; the upper face carrying the 
nose is long, while the mandibular part of the face is short." 

This criterion is important so we must tabulate my Iraq groups. 
Facial Measurements and Indices 

Group U.F.H. T.F.H. U.F.I. Blz.B. T.F.I. 

Dulaim 71.55 121.50 53.15 134.95 90.35 

Anaiza 70.25 120.50 53.96 130.20 92.70 

Ba'ij Beduins 73.63 117.2 57.37 128.5 91.4 

Kish Arabs 72.97 119.8 56.62 129.5 92.73 

Iraq Soldiers 73.88 120.92 55.23 133.85 90.5 

When the Dulaim and the Anaiza are grouped according to the 
Keith system, the following tables result. 

Dulaim 

Upper facial height 

Total facial height x-63 64-69 70-75 76-x 

x-109 12 

110-119 1 30 14 2 

120-129 11 51 13 

130-x 1 10 



74 Anthropology of Iraq 

Anaiza 

Upper facial height 
Total facial height x-63 64-69 70-75 76-x 

x-109 

110-119 19 10 

120-129 9 2 

130-x 1 

Direct comparisons can be made (Field, 1935, pp. 51 et seq.) 
between various groups of Arabs of the Kish area, Iraq Army Sol- 
diers and the Ba'ij Beduins on the one hand and the Dulaim and 
the Anaiza tribesmen on the other. The relative frequency of 
occurrence of this "ram-faced" type can thus be determined. 



IV. ADDITIONAL ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA FROM IRAQ 

The examination of the metric and morphological data on the 
Dulaim and the Anaiza has been completed in the preceding chapter. 

Since this report on the Upper Euphrates area forms the first 
part of the volume entitled "The Anthropology of Iraq," it will 
not be out of place to add the recalculated statistics on my Iraq 
figures and observations. 

It is necessary to explain that when my anthropometric data 
were placed on punch cards for the Hollerith sorting machines cer- 
tain omissions and rearrangements had to be made in order that 
the results might conform to the methods standardized by Dr. 
Hooton in the Laboratory of Anthropology at Harvard. For ex- 
ample, only individuals between the ages of eighteen and seventy 
were included. In addition, the grouping, according to cephalic, 
facial, and nasal indices, and stature conforms to the Harvard classi- 
ficatory system. 

In the following pages I have added these new means for the 
measurements and indices together with the regrouped morpho- 
logical characters. In this manner the anthropometric data on 
Dulaim, Anaiza, Kish Arabs, Iraq Soldiers and Ba'ij Beduins are 
directly comparable. 

There is no need to analyze the material on the last three groups, 
since they form the basis for my monograph, "Arabs of Central Iraq, 
Their History, Ethnology, and Physical Characters." Furthermore, 
these data have been discussed by Sir Arthur Keith and W. M. 
Krogman (1932, pp. 301-333), Keith (1935, pp. 11-76), Coon (pp. 
411-413), and Field (1939a). 



75 



76 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Measurements and Indices of Kish Arabs, Iraq Soldiers, and Ba'ij Beduins 

Kish Arabs Iraq Soldiers Ba'ij Beduins 

Measurements No. Mean No. Mean No. Mean 

Age 359 33.75 221 23.75 35 36.45 

Stature 340 168.30 222 172.56 35 168.18 

Sitting height 342 82.51 222 85.09 35 83.38 

Leglength 340* 85.79 222 87.47 35 84.80 

Head length 358 188.76 222 186.24 35 191.31 

Headbreadth .'.359 141.91 221 143.71 35 139.93 

Minimum frontal diameter . . 358 111.50 221 114.10 35 110.86 

Bizygomatic breadth 357 129.90 222 133.95 35 128.15 

Bigonial breadth 357 103 . 10 221 107 . 10 35 101 . 34 

Total facial height 355 119.95 221 121.10 35 116.70 

Upper facial height 355 73.00 221 74.15 35 73.30 

Nasal height 358 58.50 221 57.02 35 59.90 

Nasal breadth 359 35.42 222 34.76 35 34.82 

Ear length 359 62.26 221 59.82 35 62.42 

Earbreadth 359 35.31 222 36.06 35 36.51 

Indices 

Relative sitting height 340 49.08 222 49.30 35 49.76 

Cephalic 358 75.33 221 76.62 35 73.29 

Fronto-parietal 358 78.67 221 79.33 35 79.60 

Zygo-frontal 355 85.98 221 84.94 35 86.30 

Zygo-gonial 355 79.27 . 220 79.69 35 79.51 

Total facial 354 92.65 220 90.45 35 91.30 

Upper facial 354 56.51 222 55.43 35 57.29 

Nasal 358 61.14 221 61.62 35 58.06 

Ear 359 57.06 221 60.94 35 59.06 

* Derived from means. 



Measurements and Indices of Kish Arabs 
(Observed at Jemdet Nasr and Kish, March-June, 1 928) 

Measurements No. Range Mean S.D. C.V. 

Age 359 18-70 33.75±0.46 12.95±0.33 38.37±0.97 

Stature 340 149-193 168.30±0.22 6.15±0.16 3.65±0.09 

Sitting height 342 66-95 82. 51 ±0.17 4.53±0.12 5.49±0.14 

Head length 358 167-208 188. 76±0. 25 7.14±0.18 3.78±0.10 

Headbreadth 359 120-158 141. 91±0. 21 5.79±0.15 4.08±0.10 

Minimum frontal 

diameter 358 93-124 111. 50 ±0.19 5.32±0.13 4.77±0.12 

Bizygomatic diameter... 357 105-149 129. 90 ±0.27 7.45±0.19 5.74±0.14 

Bigonial diameter 357 72-130 103. 10 ±0.27 7.68±0.19 7.45±0.19 

Total facial height 355 100-144 119. 95±0. 26 7.25±0.18 6.04±0.15 

Upper facial height 355 60-94 73.00±0.20 5.55±0.14 7.60±0.19 

Nasal height 358 44-79 58.50±0.17 4.88±0.12 8.34±0.21 

Nasalbreadth 359 25-54 35.42±0.12 3.42±0.09 9.66±0.24 

Earlength 359 44-79 62.26±0.18 4.92±0.12 7.90±0.20 

Earbreadth 359 26-46 35.31±0.13 3.60±0.09 10.20±0.26 

Indices 

Relative sitting height ... 340 42-55 49.08±0.08 2.12±0.05 4.32±0.11 

Cephalic 358 62-88 75.33±0.14 3.93±0.10 5.22±0.13 

Fronto-parietal 358 66-95 78.67±0.15 4.29±0.11 5.45±0.14 

Zygo-frontal 355 76-99 85.98±0.16 4.60±0.12 5.35±0.14 

Zygo-gonial 355 63-98 79.27±0.18 4.92±0.12 6.21±0.16 

Totalfacial 354 70-124 92.65±0.27 7.45±0.19 8.04±0.20 

Upper facial 354 46-75 56.51±0.18 4.89±0.12 8.65±0.22 

Nasal 358 36-91 61.14±0.26 7.24±0.18 11.84±0.30 

Ear 359 41-80 57.06±0.21 6.00±0.15 10.52±0.26 



Additional Anthropometric Data 



77 



HARVARD CLASSIFICATIONS OF KISH ARABS 
Stature 



Number . 
Per cent. 



Short 

(x-160.5) 

39 

11.47 



Medium 

(160.6-169.4) 

148 

43.53 



Tall 

(169. 5-x) 

153 

45.00 



Total 

340 
100.00 



Number . 
Per cent . 



Cephalic Index 



Dolichocephalic 
(x-76.5) 

224 
62.57 



Mesocephalic 

(76.6-82.5) 

125 

34.92 



Brachycephalic Total 
(82.6-*) 

9 358 

2.51 100.00 



Number . 
Per cent . 



Facial Index 



Euryprosopic 

(x-84.5) 

43 

12.15 



Mesoprosopic 

(84.6-89.4) 

77 

21.75 



Leptoprosopic 

(89. 5-x) 

234 

66.10 



Total 

354 
100.00 



Number . 
Per cent. 



Nasal Index 



Leptorrhine 

(x-76.4) 

292 

81.56 



Mesorrhine 

(76.5-83.4) 

64 

17.88 



Platyrrhine 

(83. 5-x) 

2 

0.56 



Total 

358 
100.00 



Vital Statistics of Kish Arabs 



Brothers 



No. 

None 79 

1 103 

2 79 

3-4 74 

5-6 19 

7 or more 3 

Total 357 



Sona 



No. 



Per cent 



None 55 

1 56 

2 42 

3-4 41 

5-6 8 

7 or more 1 



Total 203 100.00 



Sisters 



No. 



22.13 None. 

28.85 

22.13 

20.73 

5.32 

0.84 



98 

1 113 

2 77 

3-4 53 

5-6 12 

7 or more 5 



Per cent 

27,37 
31.56 
21.51 
14.80 
3.35 
1.40 



100.00 


Total 


358 


99.99 


Per cent 


Daughters 


No. 


Per cent 


27.09 


None 


65 


32.02 


27.59 


1 


46 


22.66 


20.69 


2 


47 


23.15 


20.20 


3-4 


33 


16.26 


3.94 


5-6 


6 


2.96 


0.49 


7 or more 


6 


2.96 











Total 203 100.01 



Morphological Characters of Kish Arabs 
Skin Color 

No. Per cent 

Very light 

Light 

Dark 1 20.00 

Very dark 4 80 . 00 

Total 5 100.00 



78 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Color No. 

Black 40 

Very dark brown 10 

Dark brown 197 

Brown 

Reddish brown 8 

Light brown 2 

Red 

Black and gray 5 

Dark brown and gray ... 23 

Light brown and gray ... 1 

Gray 12 

White 1 

Total 299 

Form No. 

Straight 12 

Very low waves 5 

Low waves 208 

Deep waves 12 

Curly-frizzly 14 

Woolly 1 

Total 252 

Head hair (quantity) No. 

-- 9 

- 27 

Average 1 

+ 103 

+ + 96 

+ + + 7 

Total 243 

Beard (quantity) No. 

-- 8 

- 80 

Average 

+ 94 

+ + 52 

+ + + 4 

Total 238 



Brow-ridges No. 

Continuous 1 

Median 66 

Total 67 

Malara (projection) No. 

Average 

+ 20 

+ + 19 

+ + + 1 

Total 40 



Hair 

Per cent Mustache No. Per cent 

13.38 Black 

3 . 34 Very dark brown 

65.89 Dark brown 1 8.33 

Brown 

2.68 Reddish brown 2 16.67 

0.67 Light brown 2 16.67 

Red 

1 .67 Black and gray 1 8.33 

7.69 Dark brown and gray 5 41.67 

. 33 Light brown and gray ... 

4.01 Gray 

0.33 White 1 8.33 

99.99 Total 12 100.00 

Per cent Texture No. Per cent 

4. 76 Coarse 35 12 . 03 

1 . 98 Coarse-medium 1 . 34 

82.54 Medium 178 61.17 

4.76 Medium-fine 9 3.09 

5.56 Fine 68 23.37 

0.40 

Total 291 100.00 

100.00 

Per cent Face hair No. Per cent 

3.70 Mustache 40 57.97 

11.11 Beard 5 7.25 

0.41 Mustache and beard 24 34.78 

42.39 

39.51 Total 69 100.00 

2.88 



100.00 

Per cent 
3.36 


Body hair 


No. 

6 


Per cent 
3.26 


33.61 

39.50 

21.85 

1.68 


Average 

+ 

+ + 

+ + -1- 


44 

1 

104 

26 
3 


23.91 

0.54 

56.52 

14.13 

1.63 




Total 

Features 

Glabella 


184 

No. 






100.00 

Facial I 

Per cent 

1.49 


99.99 

Per cent 


98.51 












Average 

+ 

+ + 




7 






100.00 


100.00 




+ + + 









Total 

Prognathism 

Alveolar 

Facial 


7 

No. 

5 
2 




Per cent 

50.00 

47.50 

2.50 


100.00 

Per cent 
71.43 
28.57 



100.00 



Additional Anthropometric Data 



79 





Lip eversion 




No. 




Per cent 
21.43 

46.43 
32.14 


No. 

1 

13 



22 

17 


53 

No. 

93 
10 

234 

337 

No. 

218 

2 

25 

83 

. 10 

. 1 

. 

339 

No. 

64 

2 

66 













6 






Average 

+ 

+ + .. 








13 

9 






+ + ■+ 
Total 













No. 

6 



25 

2 

33 

extern 


Eyei 

Per cent 

18.18 

75.76 
6.06 


28 

mows 

Thickness 




Concurrency 


100 


.00 


Per cent 

1.89 


Average 

+ 

+ + 




Average 

+ 

+ + 

+ + + 

Total 

No. 

3 


Per cent 
10.00 

86.67 
3.33 


24.53 
41 51 




Lateral 


32.08 


Total 


100.00 

don 




100.01 




Average 

+ 

+ +•• 








26 

1 






Total 


No. 

2 

258 
22 

1 
40 


10 





1 





334 

No. 

4 

16 

20 

inclin: 


El 

Per cent 

0.60 
77.25 

6.59 

0.30 
11.98 

2.99 
0.30 


30 

rns 

Iris 

Homogeneous 

Rayed 

Zoned 

Total 

Sclera 

Clear 

Yellow 

Speckled .... 
Bloodshot 
Speckled and I 
Speckled and 
Yellow and bl 

Total 

)SE 

Septum 

Straight 

Convex 

Total 

No. 

3 

8 

11 




Color 

Black 

Dark brown . . 
Blue-brown 


100.00 

)loodshot . 
yellow . . . 
oodshot . . 

Per cent 
27.27 
72.73 


Per cent 

27.60 

2.97 

69.44 


Green-brown 
Green-brown . . 




100.01 


Gray-brown , . 

Blue 

Gray 

Light brown . . 




Per cent 

64.31 

0.59 

7.37 


Blue-gray 

Blue-green . . 


■ 


24.48 
2.95 
0.29 


Total 


100.01 

N( 

Per cent 
20.00 
80.00 


Bridge 

Height + 


99.99 

Per cent 
96.97 


Breadth + 


Septum 

Up.... 
Down . . 

Total 


3.03 


Total 


100.00 

ation 


100.00 




100. 


00 





80 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Profile No. Per cent 

Wavy 

Concave 39 11.27 

Straight 198 57.23 

Convex 66 19.08 

Concavo-convex 43 12.43 

Total 346 100.01 

Tip elevation No. Per cent 

Elevated 23 18.70 

Horizontal 19 15.45 

Depressed 81 65.85 

Total 123 100.00 



Tip thickness 



Condition No. 

Very bad 2 

Bad 2 

Fair 

Good 10 

Excellent 3 

Total 17 

Wear No. 

None 39 



Slight... 
Average . 

+ 

+ +... 

+ + + 



12 
19 
35 

28 
17 



Average . 

+ 

+ +•• • 



No. 

21 

1 

45 
32 



Total 99 

Wings No. 

Compressed 34 

Compressed-medium.... 11 

Medium 159 

Medium-flaring 30 

Flaring 28 

Flaring plus 6 



Teeth 



Bite No. Per cent 

Under 3 0.96 

Edge-to-edge 8 2 . 56 

Slight over 208 66.67 

Marked over 93 29.81 

Total 312 100.00 



Loss No. 

None 228 



1-4.. 
5-8.. 
9-16. 
17-.. 
All. . 



85 
7 
8 
2 




Per cent 
11.76 
11.76 



Total 330 

Eruption No. 

Complete 335 

Incomplete 8 



58.82 
17.65 

99.99 
Per cent 
26.00 
8.00 
12.67 
23.33 
18.67 
11.33 



Per cent 

21.21 

1.01 

45.45 

32.32 

99.99 

Per cent 
12.69 

4.10 
59.33 
11.19 
10.45 

2.24 



Total 268 100.00 



Per cent 

69.09 

25.76 

2.12 

2.42 

0.61 



100.00 

Per cent 

97.67 

2.33 



Total 150 100.00 



Total 343 100.00 



Caries No. Per cent 

None 76 51.01 

- 6 4.03 

+ 27 18.12 

+ + 23 15.44 

+ + + 17 11.41 

Total 149 100.01 



Body Development 



Musculature No. 

Poor 19 

Fair 40 

Average 6 

Good 189 

Excellent 95 

Total 349 



Per cent 

5.44 

11.46 

1.72 

54.15 

27.22 

99.99 



Chest No. Per cent 

3 0.89 

- 15 4.46 

Average 43 12.80 

+ 231 68.75 

+ + 44 13.10 

Total 336 100.00 



Scapulae (vertebral borders) No. 

Concave 

Straight 55 

Convex 7 



Per cent 



88.71 
11.29 



Total 62 100.00 



Additional Anthropometric Data 



81 



Ears 



Helix 




No. 


Per cent 


Lobe 






No. 


Per cent 






3 

1 

38 

11 

1 


5.56 

1.85 

70.37 

20.37 

1.85 


Attached 

Free 

Total 






49 
60 

109 

No. 


44.95 


Average 

+ 

+ + 

+ + +.... 




55.05 


100.00 


Total 




54 


100.00 








1 

5 



36 

16 

2 

. . 60 


1.67 











8.33 




Average 

+ 

+ + 

+ + + 

Total 






60.00 

26.67 

3.33 




100.00 








Health 














No. 


Per cent 


Disease 






No. 


Per cent 


Poor 

Fair 

Average 

Good 

Excellent .... 




14 

12 

1 

208 

113 

348 


4.02 

3.45 

0.29 

59.77 

32.47 


Smallpox. 

Fever 

Headache 
Stomach pain 

Scalp 

Cataract 

Trachoma 
Baghdad Boil 
Chicken pox 

Total 






19 
48 
4 
3 
1 
9 

2 


,. 86 


22.09 

55.81 

4.65 

3.49 

1.16 

10.47 

2.33 


Total 


100.00 












100.00 




Eyes 








Tattooing 




Blindness 




No. 


Per cent 


Quantity 






No. 


Per cent 


Right eye . . . 
Left eye .... 
Both eyes . 




4 
3 
3 

10 


40.00 
30.00 
30.00 


Some 

Extensive 

Total 






151 

197 



348 


43.39 
56.61 


Total 


100.00 


100.00 








Henna 


















No. 


Per cent 








Hair 

Body 

Hands 

Feet 

Total 




8 



1 



9 


88. 


.89 








11 


11 














100 


00 





In December, 1925, and during the first part of the following 
month Dr. L. H. Dudley Buxton and I were attached as volunteer 
assistants to the Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition 
at Kish. 

While Dr. Buxton measured 100 Arab workmen employed at 
the excavations I acted as recorder. He also examined sixty-four 
Iraq Army Soldiers at Hilla camp (cf. Buxton and Rice, 1931; and 
Field, 1935a, p. 101). 



82 Anthropology of Iraq 

With the permission of Dr. Buxton the figures for Kish workmen 
were recalculated at Harvard and the following tables resulted. 

Measurements and Indices of Kish Workmen 
{After Buxton) 

Measurements No. Range Mean S.D. C.V. 

Stature 95 152-193 168. 39±0. 47 6.78±0.33 4.03±0.20 

Head length 100 173-205 190. 14 ±0.43 6.39±0.30 3.36±0.16 

Headbreadth 100 126-155 142. 75 ±0.35 5.16±0.25 3.61±0.17 

Minimum frontal 

diameter 100 97-116 107. 86±0. 26 3.88±0.19 3.60±0.17 

Bizygomatic diameter... 100 120-144 135. 10 ±0.34 5. 00 ±0.24 3. 70 ±0.18 

Bigonial diameter 100 90-117 105. 06 ±0.37 5.44±0.26 5.18±0.25 

Total facial height 100 90-134 114. 30 ±0.50 7. 45 ±0.36 6. 52 ±0.31 

Upper facial height 100 55-84 67. 30 ±0.32 4. 80 ±0.23 7. 13 ±0.34 

Nasal height 100 36-63 47.58±0.32 4.72±0.23 9.86±0.47 

Nasalbreadth 100 25-45 33.74±0.22 3.21±0.15 9.51±0.45 

Indices 

Cephalic 100 65-85 75.30±0.22 3.30±0.16 4.38±0.21 

Fronto-parietal 100 69-86 75.70±0.21 3.09±0.15 4.08±0.19 

Zveo-frontal 100 72-91 79.74±0.21 3.16±0.15 3.96±0.19 

Zveo-gonial 100 66-92 77.56±0.26 3.81±0.18 4.91±0.23 

Total facial 100 70-109 84.40±0.34 5.05±0.24 5.98±0.29 

Upper facial 100 43-60 49.55±0.22 3.30±0.16 6.66±0.32 

N^al 100 48-95 71.74±0.62 9.16±0.44 12.77±0.61 

Morphological Characters of Kish Workmen 

{After Buxton) 

Hair 

C l or No. Per cent Form No. Per cent 

Black 86 92.47 Straight 1 5.26 

Very dark brown 1 1 . 08 Very low waves 16 84 . 21 

Dark brown Low waves 2 10 . 53 

Brown 1 1 . 08 Deep waves 

Reddish brown Curly-frizzly 

Light brown 1 1-08 Woolly 

Red — 

Black and gray Total 19 100.00 

Dark brown and gray ... 

Light brown and gray ... 

Gray ... 

White 4 4.30 

Total 93 100.01 

Eyes 

Color No. Per cent 

Black 

Dark brown 77 80.21 

Blue-brown 

Blue-brown 

Green-brown 16 16.67 

Green-brown 

Gray-brown 

Blue 

Gray 

Light brown 3 3.13 

Blue-gray 

Blue-green 

Total 96 100.01 



Additional Anthropometric Data 



83 



MEASUREMENTS, INDICES, AND OBSERVATIONS OF IRAQ SOLDIERS 

With the generous permission of the Officer Commanding Hilla 
Army Camp, 222 soldiers were measured, from June 14 to 17, 1928. 
Mr. S. Y. Showket obtained the front and profile photographs of 
each individual. 

Measurements and Indices of Iraq Soldiers 
(Observed at Hilla Camp, June H-17, 1928) 

Measurements No. Range Mean S.D. C.V. 

Age 221 18-49 23.75±0.19 4.20±0.13 17.68±0.57 

Stature 222 158-190 172. 56 ±0.24 5.25±0.17 3.04±0.10 

Sitting height 222 72-98 85.09±0.19 4.26±0.14 5.01±0.16 

Headlength 222 167-208 186. 24 ±0.32 7.08±0.23 3.80±0.12 

Head breadth 221 126-161 143.71±0.25 5.46±0.18 3.80±0.12 

Minimum frontal 

diameter 221 101-128 114. 10±0. 23 4.96±0.16 4.35±0.14 

Bizygomatic diameter... 222 105-149 133. 95 ±0.25 5. 55 ±0.18 4. 14 ±0.13 

Bigonial diameter 221 90-133 107. 10 ±0.28 6.28±0.20 5.86±0.19 

Total facial height 221 100-144 121 . 10 ±0 . 31 6 . 80 ±0 . 22 5 . 62 ±0 . 18 

Upper facial height 221 60-89 74.15±0.22 4.80±0.15 6.47±0.21 

Nasalheight 221 44-75 57.02±0.23 4.96±0.16 8.70±0.28 

Nasal breadth 222 28-57 34.76±0.16 3.60±0.12 10.36±0.33 

Earlength 221 48-75 59.82±0.19 4.20±0.13 7.02±0.23 

Ear breadth 222 29-46 36.06±0.15 3.39±0.11 9.40±0.30 

Indices 

Relative sitting height ... 222 44-55 49.30±0.10 2.28±0.07 4.62±0.15 

Cephalic 221 65-91 76.62±0.18 3.99±0.13 5.21±0.17 

Fronto-parietal 221 69-92 79.33±0.18 3.90±0.13 4.92±0.16 

Zygo-frontal 221 76-99 84.94±0.16 3.44±0.11 4.05±0.13 

Zygo-gonial 220 66-95 79.69±0.20 4.35±0.14 5.46±0.18 

Totalfacial 220 75-109 90.45±0.26 5.70±0.18 6.30±0.20 

Upperfacial 222 46-72 55.43±0.18 4.08±0.13 7.36±0.24 

Nasal 221 44-83 61.62±0.32 7.00±0.22 11.36±0.36 

Ear 221 45-80 60.94±0.27 5.92±0.19 9.71±0.31 



HARVARD CLASSIFICATIONS OF IRAQ SOLDIERS 

Stature 



Number 

Per cent 


Short Medium 
(x-160.5) (160.6-169.4) 

2 66 

0.90 29.73 


Tall 

(169. 5-x) 

154 

69.37 

Brachy cephalic 

(82.6-x) 

14 

6.33 

Leptoprosopic 

(89. 5-x) 

116 

52.73 


Total 

222 
100.00 


Number 

Per cent 


Cephalic Index 

Dolichocephalic Mesocephalic 
(x-76.5) (76.6-82.5) 

110 97 

49.77 43.89 


Total 

221 
99.99 


Number 

Per cent 


Facial Index 

Euryprosopic Mesoprosopic 
(x-84.5) (84.6-89.4) 

25 79 

11.36 35.91 


Total 

220 
100.00 



84 



Anthropology of Iraq 







Nasal Index 








Number 

Per cent 


Lept 
(x- 

8 


;orrhine 
-67.4) 
183 
2.81 

Statistics 


Mesorrhine 

(67.5-83.4) 

38 

17.19 

of Iraq Soldiers 


Platyrrhine 

(83.5-x) 



Total 

221 
100.00 




Vital 




Brothers 


No. 


Per cent 


Sisters 




No. 


Per cent 


1 

2 

3-4 

5-6 

7 or more 


16 

44 

79 

61 

12 

10 

222 


7.21 

19.82 

35.59 

27.48 

5.41 

4.50 


None 

1 

2 

3-4 

5-6 

7 or more 




40 
74 
56 
43 
6 
3 

222 


18.02 
33.33 
25.23 
19.37 
2.70 
1.35 




Total 






Total 


100.01 


100.00 


Sons 


No. 


Per cent 


Daughters 




No. 


Per cent 


None 

1 

2 

3-4 

5-6 


29 

21 

8 

1 




49.15 

35.59 

13.56 

1.69 


None 

1 

2 

3-4 

5-6 




44 

12 

3 






74.58 

20.34 

5.08 


7 or more 







7 or more 





59 






59 


Total 






Total 


99.99 


100.00 



Morphological Characters of Iraq Soldiers 



Color No. 

Black 4 

Very dark brown 1 

Dark brown 68 

Brown 

Reddish brown 

Light brown 

Red 

Black and gray 

Dark brown and gray ... 1 

Light brown and gray ... 

Gray 

White 



Hair 



Per cent 

5.41 

1.35 

91.89 



1.35 



Total 74 100.00 



Form No. Per cent 

Straight 

Very low waves 

Low waves 5 83 . 33 

Deep waves 

Curly-frizzly 1 16.67 

Woolly 

Total 6 100.00 

Texture No. Per cent 

Coarse 

Coarse-medium 

Medium 4 80.00 

Medium-fine 

Fine 1 20.00 

Total 5 100.00 



Profile No. 

Wavy 

Concave 14 

Straight 83 

Convex 46 

Concavo-convex 4 

Total 147 



Nose 

Per cent Wings No. Per cent 

Compressed 7 4 . 96 

9.52 Compressed-medium. .. . 20 14.18 

56.46 Medium 67 47.52 

31 . 29 Medium-flaring 29 20 . 57 

2.72 Flaring 16 11.35 

Flaring plus 2 1 . 42 

99.99 

Total 141 100.00 



Additional Anthropometric Data 



85 



Color No. Per cent 

Black 2 1.34 

Dark brown 126 84.56 

Blue-brown 7 4 . 70 

Blue-brown 1 . 67 

Green-brown 12 8.05 

Green-brown 

Gray-brown 1 .67 

Blue 

Gray 

Light brown 

Blue-gray 

Blue-green 

Total 149 99.99 



Eyes 

Iris No. 

Homogeneous 129 

Rayed 

Zoned 19 

Total 148 

Sclera No. 

Clear 146 

Yellow 

Speckled 

Bloodshot 3 

Speckled and bloodshot . . 

Speckled and yellow .... 

Yellow and bloodshot ... 



Per cent 

87.16 



12.84 
100.00 

Per cent 
97.99 



2.01 



Total 149 100.00 



Teeth 



Bite 


No. 


Per cent 


Under 


1 


0.73 


Edge-to-edge 

Slight over 

Marked over 


2 

123 

11 

137 


1.46 

89.78 
8.03 


Total 


100.00 


Loss 


No. 


Per cent 


None 


112 


80.58 


1-4 


27 


19.42 


5-8 







9-16 







17+ 







All 


..... 






139 




Total 


100.00 






Body Dj 


Musculature 


No. 


Per cent 


Poor 







Fair 







Average 

Good 


6 
132 


4.23 
92.96 


Excellent 


4 
142 


2.82 


Total 


100.01 




No. 


H 
Per cent 


Poor 







Fair 







Average 

Good 



140 


100.00 


Excellent 



140 




Total 


100.00 



Eruption No. Per cent 

Complete 131 93.57 

Incomplete 9 6 .43 

Total 140 100.00 



Caries 

None . . 



+ 

+ +.. . 

+ + +, 



Jo. 


Per cent 


1 


14 


29 









5 


71 


.43 


1 


14 


29 
















Total 7 100.01 



Health 

Disease 



No. 



Smallpox 21 

Fever 

Headache 

Stomach pain 

Scalp 2 

Cataract 

Trachoma 

Baghdad Boil 

Chicken pox 



Per cent 



Chest No. 



- 

Average 6 

+ 132 

+ + 4 



Total 142 100.01 





4. 


,23 


92 


96 


2 


,82 



Per cent 
91.30 



8.70 



Total 23 100.00 



86 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Tattooing 

Quantity No. 

None 103 

Some 119 

Extensive 

Total 222 



Per cent 
46.40 
53.60 



100.00 



Measurements and Indices of Ba'ij Beduins 
{Observed between Kish and Jemdet Nasr, July 10, 1928) 

Measurements No. Range Mean S.D. C.V. 

Age 35 18-69 36.45±1.31 11.45±0.92 31.41±0.25 

Stature 35 155-178 168. 18 ±0.60 5.22±0.42 3.10±0.25 

Sitting height 35 75-92 83.38±0.39 3.45±0.28 4.14±0.33 

Headlength 35 179-202 191. 31 ±0.61 5.37±0.43 2.81±0.23 

Headbreadth 35 123-152 139. 93 ±0.74 6.51±0.52 4.65±0.37 

Minimum frontal 

diameter 35 101-124 110.86±0.59 5.20±0.42 4.69±0.38 

Bizygomatic diameter 35 115-144 128. 15±0. 72 6.35±0.51 4.96±0.40 

Bigonial diameter 35 90-113 101. 34 ±0.66 5.76±0.46 5.68±0.46 

Total facial height 35 100-129 116. 70 ±0.61 5. 35 ±0.43 4. 58 ±0.37 

Upper facial height 35 65-84 73.30±0.48 4.20±0.34 5.73±0.46 

Nasalheight 35 52-71 59.90±0.49 4.28±0.35 7.15±0.58 

Nasalbreadth 35 28-48 34.82±0.40 3.51±0.28 10.08±0.81 

Earlength 35 56-71 62.42±0.40 3.48±0.28 5.58±0.45 

Earbreadth 35 29-43 36.51±0.35 3.09±0.25 8.46±0.68 

Indices 

Relative sitting height. ... 35 44-55 49.76±0.26 2.24±0.18 4.50±0.36 

Cephalic 35 65-85 73.29±0.45 3.96±0.32 5.40±0.44 

Fronto-parietal 35 72-89 79.60±0.45 3.99±0.32 5.01±0.40 

Zygo-frontal 35 76-99 86.30±0.55 4.84±0.39 5.61±0.45 

Zygo-gonial 35 69-95 79.51±0.61 5.37±0.43 6.75±0.54 

Facial 35 80-104 91.30±0.55 4.80±0.39 5.26±0.42 

Upper facial 35 49-66 57.29±0.47 4.14±0.33 7.23±0.58 

Nasal 35 44-75 58.06±0.70 6.12±0.49 10.54±0.85 

Ear 35 49-68 59.06±0.45 3.96±0.32 6.71±0.54 





HARVARD CLASSIFICATIONS OF BA IJ BEDUINS 






Stature 








Short Medium 


Tall 


Total 


Number . . . 


(x-160.5) (160.6-169.4) 
3 18 


(169.5-x) 
14 


35 


Per cent . . . 


8.57 51.43 


40.00 


100.00 




Cephalic Index 




Number . . . 


Dolichocephalic Mesocephalic 
(x-76.5) (76.6-82.5) 
29 5 


Brachycephalic 

(82.6-x) 

1 


Total 
35 


Per cent . . . 


82.86 14.29 


2.86 


100.01 




Facial Index 




Number . . . 


Euryprosopic Mesoprosopic 
(x-84.5) (84.6-89.4) 
3 9 


Leptoprosopic 

(89.5-x) 

23 


Total 
35 


Per cent . . . 


8.57 25.71 


65.71 


99.99 




Nasal Index 




Number. . . 


Leptorrhine Mesorrhine 
(x-67.4) (67.5-83.4) 
32 3 


Platyrrhine 

(83.5-x) 




Total 
35 


Per cent . . . 


91.43 8.57 




100.00 



Additional Anthropometric Data 



87 



Vital Statistics of Ba'ij Beduins 



Brothers 



None 23 

1 

2 

3-4 

5-6 

7 or more 



No. Per cent 
65.71 



4 


11.43 


4 


11.43 


4 


11.43 








Sons 

None. 

1 

2 

3-4... 
5-6... 



Total 35 100.00 



No. 


Per cent 


13 


56.52 


3 


13.04 


3 


13.04 


3 


13.04 








7 or more 1 4 . 35 

Total 23 99.99 



Sistors 



No. 



None 25 



1... 
2... 
3-4. 
5-6. 



6 

1 

2 

1 

7 or more 



Daughters No. 

None 9 

1 6 

2 5 

3-4 1 

5-6 2 

7 or more 



Per cent 

71.43 

17.14 

2.86 

5.71 

2.86 



Total 35 100.00 



Per cent 

39.13 

26.09 

21.74 

4.35 

8.70 



Total 23 100.01 



Morphological Characters of Ba'ij Beduins 



Color No. 

Black 13 

Very dark brown 

Dark brown 7 

Brown 

Reddish brown 4 

Light brown 

Red 

Black and gray 4 

Dark brown and gray ... 1 

Light brown and gray ... 

Gray 1 

White 



Total . 



30 



Head hair (quantity) No. 



- 1 

Average 

+ 4 

+ + 17 

+ + + 

Total 22 

Body hair 



Hair 



Per cent 
43.33 



23.33 

li.ii 



13.33 
3.33 

3.33 



99.98 

Per cent 

4^55 



18.18 

77.27 



100.00 



Form No. 

Straight 

Very low waves 2 

Low waves 13 

Deep waves 6 

Curly-frizzly 4 

Woolly 



No. 

- 

- 2 

Average 

+ 14 

+ + 2 

+ + + 



Average 

+ 8 

+ + 12 

+ + + 1 

Total 25 

Per cent 

iiiii 



77.78 
11.11 



Per cent 



8.00 
52.00 
24.00 
16.00 



Total 25 100.00 

Texture No. Per cent 

Coarse 9 33 . 33 

Coarse-medium 

Medium 14 51.85 

Medium-fine 

Fine 4 14.81 

Total 27 99.99 

Beard (quantity) 



No. 


Per cent 


2 


8.00 


2 


8.00 



32.00 

48.00 

4.00 

100.00 



Total 18 100.00 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Color No. 

Black 

Dark brown 9 

Blue-brown 20 

Blue-brown 

Green-brown 

Green-brown 6 

Gray-brown 

Blue 

Gray 

Light brown 

Blue-gray 

Blue-green 

Total 35 



Profile No. 

Wavy 

Concave 5 

Straight 26 

Convex 1 

Concavo-convex 3 

Total 35 

Tip thickness No. 

- 1 

Average 1 

+ 1 

+ + 4 

Total 7 

Bite No. 

Under 

Edge-to-edge 

Slight over 23 

Marked over 6 

Total c 29 



Eruption No. 

Complete 34 

Incomplete 

Total 34 

Caries No. 

None 

+ 

+ + 3 

+ + + 

Total 3 



Eyes 

Per cent Iris No. 

Homogeneous 7 

25.71 Rayed 

57.14 Zoned 26 



17.14 



99.99 



Sclera No. 

Clear 23 

Yellow 

Speckled 1 

Bloodshot 10 

Speckled and bloodshot . . 

Speckled and yellow 

Yellow and bloodshot ... 



Nose 



Per cent Wings No. 

Compressed 7 

Compressed-medium ... 1 

Medium 17 

Medium-flaring 2 

Flaring 2 

Flaring plus 2 

Total 31 



14.29 

74.29 

2.86 

8.57 

100.01 



Per cent 
14.29 
14.29 
14.29 
57.14 

100.01 



Tip elevation No. 

Raised 1 

Horizontal 

Depressed 1 



Teeth 



Per cent 



Loss No. 

None 26 



79.31 
20.69 

100.00 



Per cent 
100.00 



1-4.. 
5-8.. 
9-16. 
17-.. 
All. . 



100.00 



Per cent 



Total 32 

Wear No. 

None 

Slight 1 

Average 

+ 1 

+ + 2 

+ + + 



100.00 



100.00 



Per cent 
21.21 



78.79 



Total 33 100.00 



Per cent 

67.65 



2.94 
29.41 



Total 34 100.00 



Per cent 
22.58 
3.23 
54.84 
6.45 
6.45 
6.45 

100.00 

Per cent 
50.00 



50.00 



Total 2 100.00 



Per cent 

81.25 
15.63 



3.13 

100.01 

Per cent 
25^00 



25.00 
50.00 



Total 4 100.00 



Additional Anthropometric Data 



89 



Musculature 

Poor 

Fair 


No. 

1 

1 


Per cent 
2.86 
2.86 


Good 

Excellent 




27 

6 

35 

Health 

No. 

1 




77.14 
17.14 


Total 

Poor 

Fair 


100.00 

Per cent 

2.86 


Average 

Good 

Excellent 




30 

4 


85.71 
11.43 



Body Development 

Chest 



No. 

- 

- 

Average 

+ 31 

+ + 3 



Tattooing 

Quantity No. 

None 17 

Some 13 

Extensive 



Per cent 



91.18 

8.82 



Total 34 100.00 



Per cent 
56.67 
43.33 



Total 30 100.00 



Total 35 100.00 



RACIAL POSITION OF THE ARABS 

Sir Arthur Keith (pp. 75-76) writes: "How does the Arab stand 
with regard to other races of mankind? On entering into this in- 
quiry we must note the relationship of Arabia to adjacent racial 
frontiers. The Red Sea separates the great Arabian peninsula from 
the Hamitic peoples of Africa, many of which, to be sure, have 
received Arab infusion. Arabia is separated from the mainland 
of Asia by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. This inlet of 
the Indian Ocean is also a racial frontier separating the Arab from 
a people not remotely akin to him, people of the Indo-Afghan type. 
Also, in the north the base of the peninsula abuts on another racial 
frontier, the southern frontier of the main or purer Caucasian stock. 
Then away in the east are the peoples of India, who have many other 
resemblances to the Arab besides a dark brown skin and dark brown 
or black hair. If we presume that the modern stocks of mankind 
have been evolved in or near the regions which they now occupy 
then we ought to find that the Arab has an evolutionary relationship 
to all surrounding peoples. That is what we have found in the 
course of our analysis. The Arab shares traits with Hamitic peoples 
of Africa, with the Dravidian and Indo-Aryan peoples of India, 
and with the peoples which extend from the gates of India to the 
Levant. The Arab's facial features are often so Caucasoid in ap- 
pearance that we may mistake him for a south European but his 
pigmentation is usually deeper than that seen in south Europeans. 
Undoubtedly in his composition we recognize many Negroid traits, 
and traits which link him with Dravidian and with Hamite. 

"Now, how are we to account for Arabia's being occupied by 
people who are mainly Caucasian in their physical make-up and 



90 Anthropology of Iraq 

yet possess so many features in common with dark-skinned neigh- 
boring races? In seeking to explain these facts there are other cir- 
cumstances and relationships which have to be considered. Even 
today a belt of pigmented human races crosses the Old World. At 
one extreme we have the Negro of Africa, at the other extreme the 
Negro of the Pacific. India lies midway in this pigmented belt, 
one which we suspect extended continuously in Pleistocene times 
from one extremity of the Old World to the other. On this theory 
the original inhabitants of Arabia were deeply pigmented and akin 
to the Hamites of Africa on the one hand and to the Dravidians of 
India on the other. To the north of the black belt there were two 
other evolutionary centers: the Mongolian, north of the Himalayas, 
and the Caucasian, north of the upland mountainous plateau which 
extends westward from the Himalayas across Iran to Asia Minor. 
That there was an early break-through from the Mongolian center 
at the eastern end of the Himalayas is manifest; the Mongol stock 
at different times broke into the black belt and spread out in the 
Pacific. There was a Caucasian southward migration at the western 
end of the Himalayas. In Pleistocene times the great Arabian 
peninsula was a land to tempt adventurous hunters. The peoples 
of Arabia might thus represent a mixture of darker-skinned Dravid- 
ians into which invaders from the southern or Semitic fringe of the 
Caucasian center had infused their blood. Such a theory explains 
many of the facts relating to the racial composition and affinities 
of the inhabitants of Arabia. Or did the evolutionary center of 
the Caucasian type actually extend into Arabia? .... 

"Our interest in the ancient inhabitants of Arabia, particularly 
of the northern plain, has been stimulated by the expectation that 
we shall yet be able to prove that our modern way of living — our 
modern civilization — was initiated by a people or peoples living on 
or near the frontier of northern Arabia. Were the pioneers of civili- 
zation really Arabs (Semites)? Or were they of the less deeply pig- 
mented Caucasian stock farther to the north? We have little 
evidence to sway us either way, but the only real difference I can 
perceive between the ancient Mesopotamians of Kish (fourth mil- 
lennium B.C.) and the modern Arabs of central Iraq relates to size of 
skull and brain. The average cranial capacity of the ancient Meso- 
potamian or Arab exceeded that of the average modern inhabitant 
of central Iraq. I expect that it will yet be proved that the Arab 
of today is the descendant of the men who built the ancient cities 
and early civilization along the Euphrates and Tigris rivers." 



V. THE TRIBES AND SUB-TRIBES OF THE 
UPPER EUPHRATES 

The following statistical data were obtained from reliable sources 
which prefer to remain anonymous. During the past fifteen years 
since these data were compiled numerous individual changes have 
occurred. Many sheikhs have been succeeded by their sons or 
nephews. The range, as listed under habitat, has tended to decrease 
wherever pastoral nomadism has been discouraged. Recent infor- 
mation indicates that the number of families, tents, or houses has 
remained relatively constant. In general, the information belongs 
to the period from 1920 to 1925. In any specific instance, however, 
conditions in 1940 may or may not be as outlined, since no con- 
temporary data are available. 



Confederation, 
tribe, or section 



Chiefs 



Families, 

tents, or 

houses 



ANAIZA 1 (Tribe) 17,700 . 



Section 
Amarat . . 



Fahad Beg ibn Hadhdhal 4,500. 



Habitat 

. Triangle based on Lat. 30°, 
with its center at Jauf, 
its apex near Alep. Also 
visited left bank of 
Euphrates north of Deir- 
ez-Zor and the Khabur. 

. Eastern portion of Hamad, 
from Karbala to Deir- 
ez-Zor. In autumn near 
Wadi Ubaiyidh between 
Karbala and Shithatha; 
more recently sixteen 
miles north of Ar Rah- 
haliya, and near Hindiya 
Canal. 



Subsections 

Al Jabal Fahad Beg ibn Hadhdhal 

Al Hiblan Fahad Beg ibn Hadhdhal 

Al Salqah Murdi al Rafdi 

Al Mutaraf ah . . Jarjir al Hunaidis .... 

Al Nasrah Chasib al Sahali 

Al Hussani .... Mashan ibn Shamran 

Al Bajaidah . . . Shami ibn Shami .... 

A Mudhaiyan . Tahir ibn Dakhil .... 

Al Sanid Daiyan ibn Sahlan . . . 

Al Shimlan .... Ghadhi al Rubadi .... 
Al Suqur Dairbi ibn Mu jaf 

Al Dahaman . . . Huwaichim ibn Dhulaur 

Al Musaib .... Hasham al Zuwain . . 

Al Dilamah Mutlaq ibn Marzuq . 

Al Jalal Taban ibn Khudhari 



2,000 

400 

1,000 



600 



1 Sunni; nomadic; chiefly camel-breeders, but also horse- and sheep-breeders. 

91 



92 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Confederation, 

tribe, or section Chiefs 

Al Dahamshar Jazza ibn Mijlad 

Al Zabanah Jazza ibn Mijlad 

Al Muhallaf Dhari ibn Dhubaiyan 

Al Suwailmat .... Ayid ibn Bakr 

Al Khamishat . . . Shallash al Aridh .... 
Al Mukhaiyat . . . Nasir abu al Rus .... 

Al Jalaid Banaidi ibn Jalaud . . . 

Al Salatin Ibn Kanfadn 

Al Watbah Nijris Daidas 



Families, 
tents, or 
houses 

500 



Habitat 



Section 
Fadan . . 



Mujhim ibn Muhaid . 



Hachim ibn Muhaid . 



3,500 



1,800 



1,700 



Sub-sections 
Dhanna Majid Mazud ibn Quaishish . 

Al Hazalat Aswad ibn Harij 

Al Jifal 

Al Khashtah .... Salman 

Al Malhud 

Al Mukatharah . . Majul al Rahit 

Al Hardha Faris al Saman 

Al Amarah Sulaiman al Amir 

Al Wulud Mujhim ibn Muhaid . . 

Al Muhaid Mujhim ibn Muhaid 

Al Ajrah Ijrais ibn Fadhal 

Al Rus Jadu ibn Kira 

Al Sari Jurais ibn Jaad 

Al Shumailat .... Wadi ibn Hubaiyan 

Section 

Muhallaf Ibn Majil, Ibn Majid, 

Ibn Jandal 1,500. 

Sub-sections 

Abdullah 

Ashja .... 

Budur .... 

Suwalma .... 

Section 
Ruwalla 



.Near Euphrates west of 
Deir-ez-Zor and on the 
Khabur. 

.Occasionally came down- 
stream with the Amarat, 
otherwise in the desert 
from Deir-ez-Zor to 
Alep. 



.With Wulud Ali section 



.Nuri ibn Shalan 4,000. 

(Paramount) 



Sub-sections 

Kaka 

Muridh Nuri ibn Shalan . 

Nusair Nuri ibn Shalan . 

Kawakibah 

Duran 

Furjah 

Dughman 

Manayi 

Mashittah 



. Hama to Qasr-el-Azraq and 
down Wadi Sirhan to 
Jauf . Eastern limit was 
high ground where Wadi 
Hauran rises (Jebel 
Enaze). 



800 
1,000 
400 
300 
500 
450 
400 
150 



Tribes and Sub-Tribes of Upper Euphrates 



93 



Confederation, 
tribe, or section 


Chiefs 


Families, 

tents, or 

houses 


Section 
Al Sbaa 1 


. . . Ghadwan ibn Murshid . 


2,400.. 



Sub-sections 

Al Butainat Ghadwan ibn Murshid . 

Al Ubidah Barjas ibn Hufaib 

Section 
Wulud Ali Rashid ibn Sumair. . . . 



Habitat 

Between Horns and Hama 
on west, Rasafa on east, 
to near Alep on north. 
Winter. — With Amarat 
and Fadan to Kulban el 
Mat and Wadi Hauran 
near Rutba. 



1,200 
1,200 



Sub-sections 

Ataif at 

Fuqarah 

Hajjaj 

Hammamid. . 

Hasanah 

Mashadiqah . . 
Musalikh .... 

Saqra 

Tuluh 



l,800..Mathk plain watered by 
Barrada. Winter. — 
East and southeast of 
Damascus. 



AQAIDAT(Akeydat). 
(Confederation) 



AL DIMIM 5 Saiyah al Jirrah 



1,200. 



170. 



Sections 
Al Dimim Saiyah al Jirrah 75 . 



Al Idhar Ali al Barjas . 



10. 



Al Ajarjah 



Harrash al Muhammad 
and Muhammad al Ab- 
dullah 85. 



AL BU HARD AN . . .Sulaiman al Abdu 

Rahman 60 



. Both banks of the Euphra- 
tes from Tibni to Abu 
Kemal. 

.About eight miles down- 
stream from Khan Kala- 
sil (Salihiya), right bank 
of Euphrates in area 
known as Qariyat al 
Musallakha. 

.Qariyat al Musallakha 
(see Al Dimim). 

.About six miles down- 
stream from Khan Kala- 
sil, left bank of Eu- 
phrates in area known 
as Al Bahara. 



. Immediately downstream 
from Khan Kalasil, 
right bank of Euphrates 
in area known as Kha- 
raitah. 



1 Famous camel-breeders. I have spent several pleasant days in the tents of 
Rakkan ibn Murshid near Tellul Basatin, west of Rutba and north of Jebel Enaze 
on the way to Jebel Tinf. 

1 Sunni; semi-nomadic; agricultural and pastoral. 



94 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Confederation, 
tribe, or section 


Chiefs 


Families, 
tents, or 
houses 


Sections 






Al Subaikhan 1 


Sulaiman al Abdu 
Rahman 


50.. 



Al bu Hardan 2 Manawakh al Khalil . 



AL HASSUN Muhammad al Dindil . . 

Sections 
Al Ali Muhammad al Dindil . . 



Al Muhammad Asi al Hawwal . 



Habitat 



In Jazira north of Tell 
Hajin. 
10. .Near Tell Hajin about ten 
miles below Khan Kala- 
sil on left bank of 
Euphrates in area 
known as Hajin. 



255 



Al Hamudi Hatrush al Shallah . 



AL MAJAWADAH. .Salih al Ashban . 



ALMARASIMAH... J 



ALBUMIRI. 



Abud al Hussain al 
Shuraidah 



Huwaijah al Abud , 



125. .Two to eight miles below 
Abu Kemal on right 
bank, in tract known as 
Suwaiya. 

100. .About four miles above 
Abu Kemal on left 
bank, in tract known as 
Al Susa. 
30. .About fourteen miles 
above Abu Kemal on 
right bank, in tract 
known as Hasarrat. 
35. .About seven miles down- 
stream from Khan Kala- 
sil on right bank of 
Euphrates, in tract 
known as Qariyat al 
Gattah. 

15.. Opposite Abu Kemal on 
left bank, in tract known 
as Shijlah. 

15.. About four miles down- 
stream from Abu Kemal 
on left bank, in tract 
known as Al Susa. 

65 



Sections 
Al Qadrau Niza al Hussain . 



Al Isa Taraf al Diq . 

Al Taumah Fadi al Saiyal 



AL MUSHAHIDAH. / Budaiwi al Hamid. 
Bar j as al Abid 



25. 



30 
10. 



15 
15 



Left bank of Euphrates 
from about eight to 
eighteen miles below 
Khan Kalasil in tract 
known as Shaafah. 



On right bank of Euphrates 
about twelve miles below 
Khan Kalasil in tract 
known as Shiyal. 

Near Abu Kemal on left 
bank in tract known as 
Sukariya. 



1 Pastoral nomads. 
1 All charid owners. 



Tribes and Sub-Tribes of Upper Euphrates 



95 



Families, 

tents, or 

houses 



Habitat 



Confederation, Chiefs 

tribe, or section 

AL BU QAAN Amash al Abid 30 . . Right bank of Euphrates, 

near Tell Ramadi, about 
twelve miles below Khan 
Kalasil in tract known 
as Ramadi. 

AL BU SARAI Hamud al Shallash and 

Faiyadh al Nasir 160. .Right bank of Euphrates, 

Tibni to Deir-ez-Zor. 

ALSHAITAT 115 

Sections 

Al Jadu Nadham al Salih 35 . . Immediately downstream 

from Khan Kalasil on 
left bank of Euphrates, 
in tract known as 
Gharanij. 

40. .Immediately upstream 
from Khan Kalasil on 
left bank of Euphrates, 
in tract known as 
Chischiya. 

40 . . About four miles upstream 
from Khan Kalasil on 
left bank of Euphrates, 
in tract known as Al bu 
Hammam. 



Al bu Aliyat Zalan al Jasim . 



Al Khanfar Raju al Hutaitah . 



AL THULTH Turki al Nijris 250. 

Sections 

Al bu Hassan Hamid al Hussain al 

Nijris 

Al Quran Munadir 

Al bu Rahamah Qawan al Jabarah 

Al Shuait Bargash al Muhammad 

BAQQARAH 1 (of the 

Euphrates) 1,200 . 



.Both banks of Euphrates 
between Meyyadin and 
Khan Kalasil. 



Sections 

Al Abaidat Ajil al Mahmud 

Al Ali Sulaiman al Hassan .... 

Al Ashahin Mahmud al Qahit 

Al bu Badran Salih abu Jarad and 

Dhahim al Mulla Abid 

Al bu Ghanim Salih ibn Hassan 

Al bu Hamdan Wawi ibn Amtair 

Al Khanjar Satam al Muhammad . . . 



.Left bank of Euphrates 
from Raqqa to Buseira 
(at mouth of Khabur); 
also on both banks of 
Khabur near junction 
with Euphrates. Win- 
ter. — From September to 
April pastoral element 
of tribe moved into 
Jazira. 



1 Agricultural and pastoral ; sheep-breeders. 



96 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Families, 
Confederation, Chiefs tents, or 

tribe, or section houses 

Al bu Mish Ataiyit al Hassan .... 

Al bu Musa Dhiyab ibn Bishrah 

Al bu Maish Hassan Hamad al Awad 

Al Nabbizah Chibbin al Muhammad 

DULAIM 1 Ali ibn Sulaiman ibn 

Bakr (Paramount) . . .19,015 
tents . . 



Habitat 



Section 
Al bu Alwan 2 . 



Muhanna al Muhammad 
al Salih and Jasim al 

Muhammad 510 

tents . 



Sub-sections 

Al bu Araf Muhanna al Muhammad 

al Salih 

Al bu Ghadir Faraj al Zauhar 

Al bu Ghurrah Jasim al Muhammad . . . 

Section 
Al bu Dhiyab 3 Mushhin ibn Hardan . . . 



Sub-sections 
Al bu Hamad al 

Dhiyab Fadam ibn Muhammad 

Al bu Aithah .... Fadam ibn Muhammad 

Al bu Ali al Jasim . Mutlaq al Hamzah 

Al bu Hazim .... Rushaiyid al Ahmad . . . 
Al Mulahimah . . . Jasim al Muhammad . . . 
Al Qartan Abu al Hussain 



Both banks of Euphrates 
from Al Qaim to five 
miles downstream from 
Al Falluja on left bank, 
and to Imam Hamza on 
right bank. Also on 
Saqlawiya and Aziziya 
canals. Winter. — From 
September to April pas- 
toral sections migrated 
to Jazira and Shamiya. 



Right bank of Euphrates 
from six miles upstream 
from Ramadi to four 
miles downstream. Also 
on right bank four miles 
upstream from Al Fal- 
luja. Winter. — Approxi- 
mately half the section 
moved to Jazira or 
Shamiya for winter 
grazing. 



1,700 
tents . 



1,400 



Right bank four miles up- 
stream from Al Falluja. 



.Left bank of Euphrates 
from five miles upstream 
to six miles downstream 
from Ramadi. 



winter. 



1 Sunni; semi-nomadic; agricultural and pastoral. 

2 Cultivators and sheep-breeders; also own donkeys and act as carriers. 

3 Cultivators, with a few sheep-breeders, who migrate into Jazira during 



Tribes and Sub-Tribes of Upper Euphrates 



97 



Confederation, Chiefs 

tribe, or section 

Al bu Saqr Chachan ibn Sahu . . 

Al bu Saudah ... Shaham al Hardan . . 
Al bu Tamah . . . Sulaim al Hamad . . . 

Al bu Ubaid Naman al Khalaf . . . 

Al bu Muhammad al 

Dhiyab Shaukah ibn Mutlaq 

Al bu Hantush ... 

Al bu Jadan .... 

Al bu Khalifah . . 



Families, 
tents, or 

houses 



300 



Habitat 



Section 
Al bu Fahad 1 



.Abdul Muhsin al Farhan. 1,700 
tents . 



Sub-sections 

Al bu Arab Qudaiyan al Humaid . 

Al bu Faiyadah Unaizi al Mukhlif 

Al bu Musa Ali al Nasar 

Al bu Raihan Faris al Muhammad . . 

Al bu Salih al Ali . . . . Mutlaq al Darach 

Al bu Taha Suaiyid al Ali 

Al bu Ujur Ali al Saad 



.Right bank of Euphrates 
from Ramadi to fifteen 
miles downstream. One 
small section on left 
bank downstream from 
Ramadi. 



Section 
Al bu Isa 



. Harat al Jasim . 



.2,500 
tents . 



Sub-sections 

Al bu Hatim Aqab al Shuwaidikh .... 

Al bu Hawa Ali al Suwait 

Al bu Huraiwat Farhan al Dhahir 

Al bu Khamis Dalai al Ali and Fahad al 

Shahadhah 

Al bu Muhammad al 

Jasim Abdas al Ibad 

Al bu Muhanna Muhammad al Dhahir . . . 

Al bu Quraiti Matar al Murais 

Al bu Salih Abd al Khalaf 



Right bank of Euphrates 
from Al Falluja to six- 
teen miles downstream. 
Also cultivated portion 
of land on Saqlawiya 
Canal, granted by 
Jumailah section. 



Section 
Jumailah . 



Abbas al Jassan 2 . 



1,275 
tents . 



.Both banks of Euphrates 
from Al Falluja to four 
miles downstream; six 
miles north of Al Falluja 
on Saqlawiya Canal. 



1 Cultivators and sheep-breeders. 

2 One of the first to settle on the Saqlawiya Canal. 



98 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Confederation, 
tribe, or section 



Chiefs 



Families, 

tents, or 

houses 



Habitat 



Sub-sections 

Al bu Ausaj Muhaimid al Hajwal 

Al Dukhaiyil Ali al Khanfar 

Al bu Haddad Sumair al Fadhil .... 

Al bu Jasim Mashkur al Khalaf . . 

Al bu Muqallad Hajji Jasim 

Al bu Ramlah Ali al Abbas 



Section 
Al bu Khalifah Khurbit al Jasim . 



600 
tents . 



Sub-sections 

Al bu Ghazail None 

Al bu Jabar None 

Al bu Juhaish Khurbit al Jasim . 

Al bu Madlij Audah al Latif . . . 



Right bank of Euphrates, 
ten miles downstream 
from Ramadi to two 
miles upstream from 
Dhibban. Also on left 
bank eighteen miles east 
of Ramadi. 



Section 
Al bu Muhamdah . 



.HabibalShallal. 



1,500 
tents . 



Left bank of Euphrates 
from Al Falluja ten miles 
upstream. Right bank 
from Sinn al Dhibban to 
four miles downstream. 



Sub-sections 

Al bu Aql Dhaif al Salih 

Al bu Akash Mukhlif al Saiyah . . 

Al bu Ashshihah Mahdi al Salih .... 

Al bu Azzam Dhiyab al Ahmad . . 

Al Baqqarah Abid al Humaiyish . 

Al bu Dhiyab Mulla Hussain al Mu- 
hammad and Abdullah 
al Haif 

Al Falahat Faiyadh al Jasim 

Al bu Khamis Sulaiman al Muhammad 

Al Musalihah Daham al Uwaiyid 

Al bu Quraif a Hammadi al Faiyadh . . . 

Al Rad Ali al Ahmad 

Al bu Shahab Ali al Ibrahim 



Section 
Al bu Nimr > . 



. Shaukah ibn Mutlaq 



800 
tents . 



.Left bank of Euphrates, 
fifteen miles upstream 
to seven miles down- 
stream from Hit. No- 
madic sections move to 
country between Ana 
and Wadi Thahthar for 
winter grazing. 



1 Chiefly sheep-breeders but also agriculturists. 



Tribes and Sub-Tribes of Upper Euphrates 



99 



Confederation, 
tribe, or section 



Chiefs 



Sub-sections 

Al bu Farraj Jadi al Salih 

Al bu Hamad al 

Hussain Fahad al Hilal 

Al bu Huntush Rashid al Salih .... 

Al bu Hassan Nijris ibn Qaud . . . 

Al bu Hilal Rudaini ibn Hilal . . 

Al bu Jadan Turki ibn Faris .... 

Al bu Mani Hardan al Shindi . . 

Al bu Mujbil Farhan al Jadi 

Al bu Samalah Abid al Fallah 

Al bu Saqr Shimran al Dhahir . 

Al bu Shaban Farhan al Jadi 

Al bu Sumaidi Audah al Farhan . . 

Al bu Tuwaisat Baddar 



Families, 
tents, or 
houses 



Habitat 



Section 
Al bu Rudaini 1 Ali ibn Sulaiman ibn Bakr 3,430 . 



Subsections 
Al bu Assaf . . 



. Ali ibn Sulaiman ibn Bakr, 
Farhan al Qata, and 
Huwair al Thamir 600 . 



Al bu Halabsah Abdullah al Muhammad . 420 . 



Al bu Hazim 2 Shergh ibn Shallaib 

Al bu Hussain al Ali 2 . Hamid al Abid .... 
Al bu Kulaib Radhi al Sulaiman . 



. 100. 

100. 

420 
tents . 



Al bu Mahal Aftan al Sharqi 1,270 

tents . 



Al bu Abd Aftan al Sharqi . . 

Al bu Taiyib .... Hussain al Izbah . 
Al bu Tuaimah . . Lutaiyif al Fadhil . 



Right bank of Euphrates 
from Ramadi to Al 
Qaim; nomadic sections 
move to Jazira for win- 
ter grazing. 



.Right bank of Euphrates 
twelve miles upstream 
from Ramadi; small part 
of this section on left 
bank. Nomadic. 

. Detached section settled 
on Saqlawiya Canal 
between Al Falluja and 
Khan Nuqta on north 
bank. 

. Beside Aziziya Canal. 

. Beside Aziziya Canal. 

.With Hussain al Ali on 
Aziziya Canal and at 
Abu Jir. 

Right bank of Euphrates 
five miles upstream to 
ten miles downstream 
from Al Qaim. 



1 Cultivators and sheep-breeders. 

2 Sunni; settled and semi-nomadic; cultivators and sheep-breeders. Sheep in 
desert south to west of Habbaniya Lake. Market town Ramadi. Followed Ali 
ibn Sulaiman. 



100 Anthropology of Iraq 

Families, 
Confederation, Chiefs tents, or Habitat 

tribe, or section houses 

Al bu Miri 1 Kurdush al Lahaimus . . 140 . . Beside Aziziya Canal. 

Al bu Matrad 

(Al bu Jabir) Sharqi al Shallash 240 

tents. .Beside Aziziya Canal 
opposite Marai. 

Al bu Fahad 1 Ibrahim 140. .Beside Aziziya Canal 

opposite Marai. 
Section 

Al bu Jaghaifah 2 . . .Haif al AH 3,500 

tents . . Left bank of Euphrates 
between Al Qaim and 
Ana, and in Jazira. 
Sub-sections 

Al bu Ajaj Battah al Salamah 

AlbuAli Ubaid al Hishah 

Al bu Duhail Ali al Ayash 

Al bu Khalaf Quran al Sattam 



ZOBA sections 3 which 
now follow the 
DULAIM 2,000 

Luhaib Juwad al Assaf On north bank of Saq- 

lawiya Canal, adjoining 
Halabsah section of 
Dulaim, seven and one- 
half miles west of Aqar- 
quf. 

Shuwartan Ibrahim al Saba On north bank of Saq- 

lawiya Canal, west of 
Tell Ibrahim. 

Bani Zaid Quaiyid al Faiyadh South bank of Saqlawiya 

Canal opposite Shu- 
wartan. 

Khurushiyin Shunaitir al Jasim Between Madhiya and 

Saqlawiya Canals. Also 
on north bank of Saq- 
lawiya Canal between 
Shuwartan and Tell 
Ibrahim. 

Qara-Ghul 4 Jarrah al Khalaf On south bank of Saq- 
lawiya Canal northwest 
of Khan Nuqta. 

Al Saadan Ursan al Ali On north bank of Madhiya 

Canal at junction with 
Saqlawiya Canal. 

1 Settled and semi-nomadic; cultivators and sheep-breeders. Sheep in the 
desert south to west of Habbaniya Lake. Market town Ramadi. Followed Ali 
ibn Sulaiman. 

2 Nomadic; sheep breeders, with little cultivation. They grazed their flocks 
in Jazira, sometimes moving as far east as the Tigris. Not Dulaimis, but followed 
Ali ibn Sulaiman. When speaking of the Dulaim collectively they were included. 

3 Sunni; sedentary; cultivators chiefly on the Saqlawiya Canal. Possessed a 
small number of flocks. 

4 A detached colony from the Qara-Ghul located on left bank of Euphrates 
six miles downstream from Imam Hamza. Not of Zoba origin, the main Qara- 
Ghul have always been an independent tribe. 



Tribes and Sub-Tribes of Upper Euphrates 



101 



Confederation, 
tribe, or section 



Chiefs 



Families, 

tents, or 

houses 



Habitat 



SHITI 

SUBAIHAT . 



. Ali al Muslih On south bank of Madhiya 

Canal at junction with 
Saqlawiya Canal. 

. Mulla Munawir al Mulla 

Faiyadh On south bank of Saq- 
lawiya Canal eight miles 
east of Al Falluja. 



Sumailat Abbas al Hussain . 



Between Madhiya and 
Qurmah canals, six miles 
north of Khan Nuqta. 



BANI KUBAIS 1 Farraj ibn Abdullah 400 . . Kubaisa town. 

Sections 

Bait Dariah Farraj ibn Abdullah 

Al bu Haidah Muhammad ibn Farraj 

Bait Hajji ISA Karim ibn Hajji Najm . 

Al bu Hamad Muhammad Ahmad 

Bait Mathluthah . . . Kasar ibn Ali 

Shaddid and Farraj 

Allah Andah and Lishlash 



AR RAHHALIYAi 

(Townsmen) Chaad 



175. .Ar Rahhaliya town. 



Sections 

Baiqat 2 Muhammad al Ataimi . . 

Al Harub 3 Fahad al Abbas 

Al bu Salman 4 Abdul Muhsin asSayyid. 



Zoba Sections Which Have Become Independent Tribes 



CHITADAH Dhirb al Sulaiman 



420 
tents . 



.Between Ridhwaniya 
Canal and left bank of 
Euphrates eight to six- 
teen miles from canal 
head. 



Sections 

Al Azzah Jasim al Muhaimid .... 

Al Barghuth Dhirb al Sulaiman 

Al Humaid Addai al Chali 

Al Khammas Nawwar al Shahwan . . . 

Al Qumzan Sharmukh al Thunaiyan 

Al Radhi Dhaba al Ammar 

Al Sumail Mahbul al Unair 

Al Zubar Najm al Mughamis .... 

1 Sunni; sedentary; agriculturists and merchants, 
except for extensive date groves. 

2 Origin Kubaisa. 

3 Origin Hedjaz. 

4 Origin Mosul. 



Very little cultivation, 



102 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Confederation, 
tribe, or section 

FADDAGHAH 



Chiefs 



Families, 

tents, or 

houses 



Habitat 



. Ursah ibn Dhaidan 300 . . Left bank of Euphrates at 

head of Yusufiya Canal. 



Sections 

Al Dughaiyim Ali ibn Abdul Muhsin . . 

Al bu Mufarraj .... Muhammad ibn Umar . 

Al Nabit No chief 

Al Nassar Mutlaq ibn Fajri 



HAIWAT No chief; Dhari ibn Dha- 

hir was formerly chief . . 



Sections 

Al Annas Ali al Rajjah 

Fallujiyin Muhammad al Shabib . . 

Faiyadah Muhammad al Madhhur 

Al Guraibawiyin Nair al Habib 

Al Hulaiyil Zaidan al Khudaiyir 

Al bu Khalil Dalaf al Khalil 



170 
tents . 



,On Abu Ghuraib Canal 
from Khan Nuqta to 
ten miles southwest. 



HITAWIYIN Ali al Muslit . 



200 
tents . . Left bank of Euphrates 
from four to seven miles 
downstream from Al Fal- 
luja, south of Abu Ghu- 
raib Canal. 



SHAAR Sultan ibn Hussain . 



f Abdullah ibn Mulla ) 
DULAIM QARTAN 1 J Jjjjjj 1 

( Hassan ibn Salim 



270 
tents . 



420 

tents . 



.On western edge of Aqar- 
quf, six miles north- 
northeast of Khan 
Nuqta. 



.Left bank of Euphrates; 
Imam Hamza, to one 
mile north of Mufraz 
Post. Also a small sec- 
tion on new Yusufiya 
Canal. 



1 Sunni; settled cultivators; Dulaim by origin, but eventually became a Zoba 
section. 



APPENDIX A: THE POPULATION OF IRAQ 

In order to present the recent population figures these data were 
obtained from Major C. J. Edmonds, in Baghdad, to whom I am 
most grateful for generous assistance. 

Prior to recording the registered and unregistered population 
up to the end of November, 1935, it seems desirable to quote 
excerpts from a review on Sir Ernest Dowson's paper (see Appendix 
B) by Sir A. T. Wilson, who writes: 

"The total population of Iraq in 1930 is given as 2,824,000, a 
figure which corresponds very closely with the very rough census 
of 1919, which estimated the population excluding Sulaimaniya at 
2,695,000. Sulaimaniya is credited in 1930 with 94,000, so that on 
this basis the total figure in 1930 is almost exactly the same as 
for 1919. 

"The total area within the frontiers of Iraq today is 453,500 
square kilos; that of Iraq in 1920, before great acres of the western 
state were added to the borders of the infant state, was about 300,000 
square kilos. Sir E. Dowson estimates the region of cultivable land 
within the Rainfall Zone at 41,000 square kilos and that within the 
Irrigation Zone at 51,000 square kilos, representing 9 per cent and 
11 per cent of the total surface of the country respectively. Only 
one-fifth to one-tenth of these zones is actually cultivated in any 
given year. The mean density of the highly mobile rural population 
per square kilo in the cultivated region works out at 19 in the 
Rainfall and 35 in the Irrigation Zone, a very low proportion in 
each case." 

The tables supplied by Major Edmonds will be found on pages 
104 and 105: 



103 



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APPENDIX B: LAND TENURE IN IRAQ 

BY 

Ernest Dowson 1 

About four-fifths of Iraq consists of unproductive or slightly 
productive desert, steppe, marsh, and hill masses. The productive 
core is divided broadly into two regions within which cultivation 
is practised regularly. The northern region is fed by rainfall supple- 
mented by perennial streams rising in the mountains and, to a 
limited extent, by lift from the rivers. The southern region largely 
depends upon irrigation, supplied by canals drawn from the river 
system, following winter rainfall. The former may be appropriately 
called the "Rainfall Zone," and the latter the "Irrigation Zone." 
Actually the southward extension of the northern rainfall varies 
annually, while the date gardens of the Basra Liwa constitute a 
distinct (and of course economically a very important) study. But 
this does not affect the correctness of the broad picture presented. 

Reference to Table I will show that the region of cultivated and 
cultivable land within the Rainfall Zone covers approximately 41,000 
square kilometers, and that within the Irrigation Zone about 51,000 



Table I. 



Liica 

Mosul 

Erbil 

Sulaimaniya . 

Kirkuk 

Diyala 

Baghdad 

Dulaim 

Karbala 

Hilla 

Kut 

Ad Diwaniya . 
Muntafiq .... 

Amara 

Basra 



Totals . 



-Approximate Classification of Land Surface (1930) 
{Expressed in sq. km.) 

Cultivated Region 



Total 

Area All Hill 

Land Mass 

45,800 9,350 

16,600 7,620 

9,500 6,400 

20,800 

16,200 

22,100 

124,500 

21,200 

8,100 

16,400 

83,000 

38,700 

19,700 

10,900 

453,500 23,370 



Rainfall Zone 
(?) 2% hill Plains 
mass 



Irrigation Zone 

Canal-fed Machine-fed 

territory* territoryt 



190 

150 
130 



14,580 
7,010 
2,420 

12,020 
710 



2,760 

1,710 

920 

660 

4,570 

4,680 

3,770 

4,440 

5,670 

610 f 



90 

2,270 

630 

'330 

3,860 

2,180 

270 

1,010 

60 



470 36,740 29,790 10,700 



* Territories so classified are at present very incompletely irrigated. 
t Tidally watered date gardens. 

1 These notes are quoted from pages 11 et seq. of "An Inquiry into Land Tenure 
and Related Questions. Proposals for the Initiation of Reform" by Ernest 
Dowson, K.B.E., formerly Surveyor-General of Egypt, and later successively 
Under-Secretary of State for Finance, and Financial Adviser to the Egyptian 
government. This report was printed for the 'Iraq government. 

106 



Land tenure in Iraq 107 

Table I. — Approximate Classification of Land Surface (1930) — continued 

{Expressed in sq. km.) 

Additional Total Territory 

Potentially Cultivated Containing „ .,. l 

Cultivable and Culti- Tapu Hold- Size of Holdings in Muhanu * 

Liura Territory vable Region ings 1-100 101-500 501-1000 1001+ 

Mosul 270 15,040 7,870 

Erbil 7,160 2,420 7,418 728 500 

Sulaimaniya 2 ,550 2 ,280 

Kirkuk 3,240 15,260 6,280 

Diyala 260 3,820 3,410 4,092 ... 546 

Baghdad 890 4,870 1,500 162 220 120 360 

Dulaim 20 1,570 920 2,344 109 121 3 

Karbala 20 680 620 

Hilla 1,630 6,530 2,380 452 364 98 

Kut 2,170 10,710 2,580 

AdDiwaniya. 5,520 11,470 2,270 8,378 ... 155 

Muntafiq 370 5,080 6,260 

Amara 6,680 110 10 5 

Basra 110 780 1,190 



82 
69 

50 



Totals 14,500 92,200 40,090 

* Where information was available. Such information must not be presumed to be exhaustive. 
A mitkara equals 2,500 square meters or thereabouts. 

square kilometers. These figures represent 9 per cent and 11 per cent 
respectively of the total land surface of the country. The cultivation 
is preponderantly of an extensive character. Only a fraction of these 
zones, possibly from a fifth to a tenth, appears to be actually culti- 
vated in any given year. So that land is available for a very great 
development of agriculture, when other factors are favorable. 

The information given in the table regarding the size of holdings 
is derived from fiscal returns. Although the classification of these 
holdings by area cannot be expected to be accurate, the figures 
possibly give some indication of the frequency of larger and smaller 
holdings in the districts actually concerned. The latter must not be 
taken to coincide with the cultivated areas of the Liwas themselves. 

Agricultural Population 

In any general study of the land tenure of a country it is desira- 
ble to know the numbers and distribution of the agricultural popu- 
lation. Thus it would greatly assist in planning development in 
'Iraq if trustworthy information were available as to the rural popu- 
lation, their main occupations (e.g. cultivation, with type of crops, 
stock-keeping, fishing, reed-cutting, the numbers of the sedentary, 
semi-nomadic and truly nomadic population, etc.). The figures 
need not be closely accurate, but they should necessarily be suffi- 
ciently reliable relative approximations to allow dependable deduc- 
tions to be drawn from them. But although continuous and pains- 



108 



Anthropology of Iraq 



taking efforts were made to satisfy this need by the Liwa authorities, 
it has to be admitted that no basis exists for arriving at figures that 
can be utilised with any confidence. Table II contains the best 
estimates that the Liwa authorities were able to furnish; and the 
Census Department was not in a position to give me any better 
material. I include the Table, because it at least represents the 
best local opinion of the position under the various heads cited. It 
should perhaps be noted more particularly that it was found impossi- 
ble to separate in any systematic way those engaged in urban, from 



, — Approximate Population (1930) 
(Expressed in thousands) 

Three 

Prin- Nomadic 

cipal Tribal 

Towns Sections 





Table II 




Total 




Estimated 


Liwa 


Population 


Mosul 


320 


Erbil 


106 


Sulaimaniya. . 


94 


Kirkuk 


160 


Diyala 


240 


Baghdad 


388 


Dulaim 


147 


Karbala 


90 


Hilla 


103 


Kut 


170 


Ad Diwaniya . 


238 


Muntafiq .... 


340 


Amara 


238 


Basra 


190 



Rural Population 
Settled Tribal Total 



79 



219 



Totals . 



2,824 



46 
344 



45 
3 

15 

19 
1 
2 

59 
2 



58 
20 

io 

234 



176 
47 
51 
63 
79 
93 
39 
83 
30 
60 
79 
25 
36 
34 



20 

56 

28 

78 

160 

74 

49 

5 

73 

110 

101 

295 

202 

100 



196 
103 
79 
141 
239 
167 



103 
170 
180 
320 
238 
134 



895 1,351 2,246 



Mean 
Density* 

22 
15 
37 

13 

67 

98 

95 
136 

21 

20 

40 

72 

36 
284 

36f 



* Mean density per sq. km. cultivated region. 

t Mean density total 78,000 sq. km. cultivated region. 



those engaged in rural pursuits. Finally, only the populations of 
Baghdad, Basra, and Mosul were excluded from the latter. This 
explains the misleading density figure for the Karbala Liwa. It 
should also be noted that the figures given for the agricultural 
population include all those engaged in rural occupations, other than 
genuine nomads. 

So far as the figures can be accepted the mean density of the 
rural population per square kilometer of the cultivated region works 
out at about nineteen in the four Liwas of the Rainfall Zone, and at 
about thirty-five in the five most typical Liwas of the Irrigation 
Zone. These figures are very low, especially for the potentially 
fertile irrigable lands of the latter; but there is no reason to think 
that they err on this side. However, it will be appreciated that 
dependable statistics of the agricultural population are needed to 



Land Tenure in Iraq 109 

enable development of the country to be pursued to the greatest 
advantage and with the greatest economy. 

The extreme mobility of the majority of the population, especially 
throughout the Irrigation Zone, is an important factor in the con- 
sideration of development schemes of all sorts, having regard to the 
general sparsity of the population and the limited resources of the 
country. If work can be concentrated on such schemes in a few of 
the most suitable areas, and facilities can be given to the population 
to colonize them as opportunity and occasion justify, much more 
rapid and satisfactory results will be obtained for the same effort 
and expenditure in a given time than if attempts have to be made 
to carry out development in a scattered and incomplete manner 
throughout the whole country at once. 



APPENDIX C: GENERAL HEALTH OF THE KISH ARABS 1 

In order to obtain data on the health of the Arabs of the Kish 
area, each individual who was studied anthropometrically was 
questioned, particularly as to whether he was susceptible or immune 
to attacks of fever. In many instances the individual was afraid 
to admit to sickness since this might reflect against his being taken 
as a workman on the excavations. An Arab, too, is inordinately 
proud of his strength and endurance and ashamed of sickness and 
its resultant weakness. 

The will of Allah accounts for sickness or health, sorrow or 
happiness, poverty or wealth. Consequently, the Arab believes 
there is little use in working for or against the divine will when to 
follow the latter course must only be to court disaster and final 
disappointment. 

Thus, the Arab suffers from a particularly virulent form of 
malaria because he makes little or no effort to eliminate the many 
pools of stagnant water that lie, especially in the winter, within a 
few miles of the villages. 

Paroxysms of chill and violent shivering followed by a rapidly 
rising temperature and pulse count are symptomatic of the fever. 
The body is soon bathed in a copious sweat and the patient begins 
to feel more comfortable. Headache and nausea are frequently 
felt. Eyes become tired, often bloodshot, and the patient feels 
depressed. 

Few Arabs die of malaria, but the general lassitude and debility 
caused by the disease lower their resistance against fevers of a 
more malignant nature, which often prove fatal. 

The only remedy used against malaria is quinine (local Arabic 
kanaqina), which can be purchased in the suq at Hilla. Since the 
Arabs, however, do not believe in European prophylactic measures, 
they use this only as a cure. 

During the winter season of 1927-28 Mr. Eric Schroeder 2 dis- 
pensed medicine every evening before sunset. Doses of quinine 
were much in demand and it was observed that the patients pre- 

1 These notes were based on data obtained while the writer was attached as 
physical anthropologist to the Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition 
to Kish during 1927-28 and were written during the latter part of 1928. (See 
also Field, 1935a.) 

2 Now Curator of Near Eastern Art, Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. 

110 



Health of Kish Arabs 111 

ferred prescriptions in the form of pills to liquid medicines. From 
fifteen to twenty grains of quinine lowered the temperature within 
a short time and reduced the attacks of shivering, although in some 
cases smaller doses at regular intervals over a period of twenty-four 
hours were required. 1 

The attack of fever generally lasted from three to five days, and 
because of the high temperature and nausea, left a general weak- 
ness, particularly in the lower limbs. 

The fever statistics obtained among the Arabs are appended 
herewith, although the figures should not be taken as representative 
of the entire group living in the Kish area today. 

Fever No. 

No attacks 11 

Attacks for three to five days 10 

Occasional attacks 15 

Frequent attacks 5 

Yearly attacks 6 

Attack for one month (1927) 1 

Attack for four months (1925) 1 

Attack for one year (1926) 1 

Attack for two years continuously 1 

The majority of the eleven individuals who reported that they 
were not subject to attacks of fever admitted that they had had 
occasional attacks during their childhood and youth. It may be 
that such individuals develop a localized partial immunity to the 
malarial parasite. One man, not listed among these eleven, claimed 
that he was fevered frequently before marriage but not afterwards. 

When I was at Jemdet Nasr in March, 1928, I had an attack of 
giddiness accompanied by partial blindness, racking pains, and 
shivering fits. Twenty grains of quinine and a complete rest ended 
this attack within twenty-four hours. I was confident that my 
illness had been due primarily to bad water and resolved to investi- 
gate the matter. 

Jemdet Nasr, eighteen miles northeast of Kish, lies about mid- 
way between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The irrigation canals 
do not come within ten miles of Jemdet Nasr, but following the 
spring rains a large neighboring catchment basin (kessereh) partially 
fills with water. Because of this supply of water it was possible for 
Mr. Louis Charles Watelin 2 to conduct the excavations at Jemdet 

1 As a prophylaxis against malaria, travelers in Iraq should take five grains 
of quinine every third day before sunrise or after sunset, but never during the 
heat of the day. 

2 Director of the Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition to Kish, 
Iraq, from 1929 to 1933. Mr. Watelin died in July, 1934. 



112 Anthropology of Iraq 

Nasr. During the heat of the day many of the workmen drank 
nearly two gallons apiece of this water, winch was brough t in tanks 

by automobile truck from the kes&ereh to the camp and to the exca- 
vations. In the early morning our own water jars were filled and 
upon inquiry I found that the Arab truck driver and native assistants 
had filled the tanks from the same part of the hessmh in which the 

Beduin women were washing their feet and their dothes. In spite 
of the fact that all drinking water was boiled, this undoubtedly 
accounted for my sickness. Arrangements were made for «ilEfc»™»qg 

water from a different part of the tessereh; conse; 
no more illness. 

Smallpox. — It is interesting to note that the first accurate and 
reliable account of smallpox was given by Rhazes, an Arabfe^ 
physician, who lived in the ninth century. 

Among the individuals recorded there were nineteen persons 
who had suffered from smallpox (Jidti). Ten persons admitted 
being affected during childhood; the remainder suffered the disease 
during adult life. One man recalled having had an attack of small- 
pox at the age of ten. The scars or pockmarks were always visible 
on the face and could readily be distinguished from any other local 
disease. One individual (No, 197) had pockmarks on Lhe inside of 
his right forearm. 

Apart from the virulence of the disease and its attendant mgh 
rate of mortality, the principal effect of confluent smallpox on the 
face is inflammation or ulceration of the eyes, often resulting in partial 
or total blindness. Vaccination was unknown in the Kish area. 
Fortunately, however, the malady affected only a small proportion 
of the population. 

Eyes. — Because there was no qualified medical service available 
within these little camps, it was not surprising that contagious 
diseases, such as trachoma and granular conjunctivitis, were passed 
from person to person. 

Although many suffered from various diseases of the eyes, the 
eyesight was relatively good. The prevalence of blowing sand and 
the almost entire absence of washing, combined with the natural 
glare of the sun sharply reflected from the '..;::.:-: --.:,. 

plain, tended to cause inflammation of the eyes and occasional cases 
of follicular eonjunctivitas. 

During the summer, as in Egypt, one could see small children 

with sore and inflamed eyes surrounded by numerous 
they did not trouble to drive from their faces. Its 



Health of Kish Arabs 113 

much of the eye trouble was thus derived from some slight infection 
during childhood which was left unattended and never disinfected. 

The available statistics from my observations include the follow- 
ing data: 

Eyes No. 

Both eyes blind 3* 

Right eye blind 5 

Left eye blind 2 

Cataracts in either eye 8 

Right eye bad 2 

Left eye bad 2 

Both eyes bad 3 

Slightly cross-eyed 2 

* One man aged 70. 

Headaches were the common complaint among men, women, 
and children. When unaccompanied by fever these were caused 
primarily by the intense glare of the sun, which undoubtedly affects 
the eyesight. 

I had no opportunity to study the women, but their frequent 
complaints of headache and pains in the eyes were an indication 
that the various diseases of the eyes were also prevalent among them. 

Ears. — Only one individual, Hamoiser el-Abid (No. 50) was 
observed to have an infected left ear which might have developed 
into a mastoid infection. 

Teeth. — According to Frazer (vol. 9, p. 181), among the heathen 
Arabs, when a boy's tooth fell out, he used to take it between his 
finger and thumb and throw it towards the sun, saying, "Give me 
a better for it." After that his teeth were sure to grow straight and 
close and strong. "The sun," says Tharafah, "gave the lad from 
his own nursery-ground a tooth like a hailstone, white and polished." 
Thus the reason for throwing old teeth towards the sun would seem 
to have been a notion that the sun sends hail, from which it naturally 
follows that it can send a man a tooth as smooth and white and 
hard as a hailstone. 

Two individuals (Nos. 10 and 40) had remarkably good teeth 
which were not only strong but also clean and in perfect condition. 
Very bad teeth were noted in five Arabs, including Hashim Hradhun 
(No. 65), who was only nineteen years of age. He stated that his 
father had extremely poor teeth and much dental decay. Hassan 
el-Murjan (No. 130) also had an extreme case of dental decay which 
had caused absorption of the gums. This was to be expected, how- 
ever, since he was about seventy years of age. 



114 Anthropology of Iraq 

One individual (No. 135) had poor teeth, which had grown at 
every conceivable angle in both jaws. A few persons had large and 
prominent front incisor teeth, but this condition was rare. The 
only broken tooth recorded was that of No. 209, whose upper right 
first incisor was broken off in the middle and gave the owner con- 
siderable dull throbbing pain. Since Hassan el-Abud (No. 1) smoked 
many native cigarettes daily, his teeth were badly stained with a 
brown film. 

Teeth 

Wear No. Loss No. 

Normal 168 None 165 

Slight 63 One 46 

Plus 33 Two 35 

Double plus 19 Three 7 

Triple plus 2 Four 6 

Five 5 

Six 3 

Caries No. Ten 1 

None 189 Ten or more 9 

Slight 44 Sixteen 1 

Double plus 29 Thirty-one 1 

Triple plus 21 Thirty-two 1 

Lower jaw 76 

Upper jaw 41 

Bite No. 

Edge-to-edge 16 

Slight over 238 

Marked over 100 

Under 4 

Since there were many objections to opening the mouth and 
holding it thus for a time sufficient to obtain accurate numerical 
results, the number of teeth indicated as lost must be taken as far 
from correct. The other figures, however, are useful in determining 
the general dental condition of the people. 

Skin Infections and Scarring. — The "Baghdad boil" 1 begins like 
a pimple and quickly increases in size until it forms a hard red lump 
in the skin. The discharge continues for several months and the 
boil generally leaves a large, ugly scar. Three individuals were 
observed with these scars, two on the left cheeks and the other on 
the left upper lip near the nasal orifice. 

No. 284 had a scar behind the right ear which was not, however, 
the result of inflammation of the mastoid process. Of the three 
other individuals who had facial scars, No. 43 had a mole scar on 
the left side of the nose, No. 60 a scar on glabella, and No. 170 had 
a small circular scar just above and on the right side of glabella. 

1 Cf. Schlimmer (pp. 81-91), and Field, 1939a, p. 693. 



Health of Kish Arabs 115 

Deformation. — The heads of the Arab children are in no way- 
bound or tied down so as to produce artificial cranial deformation, 
even from an involuntary cause. 

Sayyid Abid el-Hassan (No. 398) had a serious cut on the upper 
lip which made a slight deformation. 

One individual's left ear was slightly punctured near the lobe, 
and the right ear of Alway-an-Nuar (No. 125), was peculiarly flexed 
in the apical region. 

Two subjects (Nos. 230 and 286) had deformed right hands, and 
in the former case, that of a middle-aged man, the lower arm was 
also affected causing the flesh on the upper arm surrounding the 
right humerus to become pinched and withered. 

Respiratory Diseases. — Throat diseases were rarely observed, but 
Hadawi il-Mehenna (No. 443) was always hoarse and often com- 
plained of a sore throat. 

There was a remarkable, although by no means total, absence 
of influenza and any inflammatory affection of the nasal mucous 
membranes among these people. This, again, was probably due to 
a local immunity caused by an adaptation to the environmental 
changes of climate throughout a succession of generations living 
under more or less similar conditions. 

Tuberculosis. — According to a Health Officer stationed in Bagh- 
dad, tuberculosis was a prevalent disease. When I visited Kish 
in June, 1928, Juad, brother of Sheikh Atiyeh, and one of the armed 
sentries in camp, begged me on his knees to save his life with Euro- 
pean medicine, but he was beyond the power of medical aid. Such 
also was the case of one of the servants, Majid, aged twenty-two, 
who had a continuous racking cough. 

In several of the village encampments, men with hollow chests 
and deeply sunken eyes would beg for medicine to cure their coughs 
and pains. I suspected that many of these were tubercular. 

Ventral Disorders. — Owing to the restricted diet of dates {tamr) 
and unleavened cakes {chwpattis), and the quantity of tea (chai) and 
coffee (kahwa) imbibed, ventral disorders were common. One indi- 
vidual (No. 16) admitted that the drinking of coffee caused nausea, 
and that the blowing of the east wind 1 brought a similar complaint. 
Another man said that he had had fever and vomiting attacks dur- 
ing the cholera outbreak in 1927. 

1 Cf. Field, 1939a, p. 566. 



116 Anthropology of Iraq 

During the burning heat of the summer, diarrhea was prevalent 
among infants and accounted for the high infant death rate in the 
village encampments. 

Jaundice was never observed among the Arabs, but one indi- 
vidual (No. 26) said that several years ago his skin "turned yellow 
in color" and that he was incapacitated for several weeks. Another 
individual stated that his left wrist was branded as a cure for this 
disease. 

While stones in the bladder were said to be common affections, 
I never heard of a single case of appendicitis. The operation for 
the removal of the appendix was totally unknown. 

Venereal Diseases. — In a discussion of the probable relationship 
between syphilis, bejel and yaws, Hudson (1939, pp. 1840-45) states 
that "my statistics, covering thousands of cases, show at least 
60 per cent of those who reach adult life have passed through 
this stage [bejel, an eruption in the mouth or on the body, lasting 
about one year] in childhood and are therefore syphilitic." 

According to Harrison (p. 318) there appears to be a localized 
immunity 1 to the disease, as tertiary syphilis, including locomotor 
ataxia and paresis, is extremely uncommon, despite the prevalence 
of primary and secondary manifestations of the disease. 

We found only one apparent case of syphilis in Iraq. It was at 
the end of our trip to the Tigris River (see Field, 1935a, map, p. 84), 
during the latter part of June, 1928. Soon after dawn one morning 
I set out in a seven-passenger touring car with Mr. Showket as 
photographer and interpreter, a mechanic, and five men equipped 
with shovels, ropes, wire-netting, and food and water for several days. 

In order to cross the irrigation canals we followed the Jemdet 
Nasr track and at the north end of Tell Barguthiat we turned in a 
northeasterly direction and continued toward the Tigris River. 

There was no track or route of any kind but after driving for 
several hours over the hard, rough, alluvial plain we saw the black 
tents of Sheikh Hajji Hunta's encampment, which stood near the 
right bank of the Tigris. The Sheikh, a venerable old man, who 
passed many hours in prayer, received us warmly and bade us 
remain as his guests until the following morning. 

1 Among the Al bu Muhammad Arabs living in the Hor al Hawiza to the 
east of Amara, we found many individuals with either bejel or syphilis, although 
no cases of the advanced stages of the disease were observed. Two Government 
doctors were engaged in treating about two hundred cases daily. The most 
successful treatment was with intravenous injections of bismuth. 



Health of Kish Arabs 117 

After preliminary arrangements I began to measure and photo- 
graph the men sitting around the Sheikh's tent and to reward them 
with Arab cigarettes. The large feast at noon, combined with a 
shade temperature of 118° F., delayed my anthropometric work for 
three hours. 

In the evening they brought me the sick and suffering of all 
ages, and I prescribed for each out of my medicine chests. There 
were many complaints of aches in the head, eyes, and stomach, and 
I observed several cases showing the symptoms of rheumatoid arth- 
ritis. In these individuals, all past middle age, the knee joints were 
affected and the small joints of the fingers were stiff and altered in 
shape. Finally, one man, who gave his approximate age as sixty- 
five, came into the tent and begged on his knees for medical atten- 
tion. He unwrapped his headcloth and bent his head down toward 
me. Near the bregma there was a large gummy tumor, unprotected 
from the filthy head-dress to which it adhered. The iris was greatly 
inflamed and the patient complained of partial blindness. He 
appeared to have an advanced case of syphilis. The risk of spread- 
ing the infection among the members of the tribe was considerable, 
if not certain. Yet the Sheikh refused to permit a doctor to visit 
his camp. Instead, he turned to me and said that he would send 
the diseased old man to water the camels at a desert well, and that 
he would not be allowed to return. 

Such treatment is not dictated generally, for the Arabs know 
the value of mercury, if only for secondary lesions; primary and 
tertiary stages of syphilis are not recognized as the same disease 
(cf. Harrison, p. 310). Mercury is inhaled through tobacco smoke. 
Although it produces horrible salivation, it seems to clear up sec- 
ondary lesions quite effectively. If this medicated tobacco is shaken 
in water it will yield a considerable amount of finely divided mercury. 

Other Types of Native Treatment. — According to Harrison (p. 309) 
the Arabs use branding (cf. kawi or chawi) to treat all kinds of 
complaints. The principle is counter-irritation, and the practice is 
often beneficial. In pleurisy the application of a hot iron acts as a 
powerful and, from a medical viewpoint, valuable counter-irritant. 

For purposes of hemostasis the Arabs have learned to make 
incisions with a red-hot knife. Since amputation of the hand was 
the customary punishment for theft, it was the most common 
major surgical operation. The stump was dipped in boiling oil to 
check the hemorrhage, as was the general practice in the Middle 
Ages in Europe. 



118 Anthropology of Iraq 

Blood-letting was practiced by a few individuals. No. 647 had 
scars on his right cheek where his mother had tried to relieve head 
pains by gashing his cheek with a razor. No. 32 had a round scar 
on the left side of the chin and lined scars on the right temple, from 
which blood had been taken to eradicate and cure frequent headaches. 

The study of anatomy was unknown 1 among the Arabs, and 
human dissection was regarded with horror. But the treatment of 
fractures was important because they were often the result of gun- 
shot, which affected the soft tissues surrounding the wounds. No 
effort was made to reduce a fracture but an excellent substitute for 
splints was applied in the following manner (cf. Harrison, p. 311). 
The patient was laid on the sand, and small stakes were driven into 
the ground along the sides of the fractured bone, which was held in 
place by means of cords. A tent was erected over the injured per- 
son to protect him from the intense rays of the sun. The patient 
remained in this position for several months until the natural pro- 
cesses of healing had knitted the broken bone. Since the fractures 
were not reduced the positions of the joined bone fragments were 
often remarkable, but after a period of complete immobility the 
great majority of fractures were united. 

Remedies. — There were many quack remedies for sale in every 
small market and wandering dealers passed through each town, 
village, and near-by encampment armed with miraculous powders, 
draughts, and charms against all forms of sickness. These medicines 
often contained simple and innocent constituents purchased in the 
bazaar or market a few hours earlier. The women also believed in 
the curative properties of various herbs which were prepared and 
administered by them to the various members of their households 
(cf. Hooper and Field). 

Attitude toward Medical Treatment. — Throughout this entire 
region a doctor was unknown. As a matter of fact, if a strange 
doctor were to visit a small encampment he would be prohibited 
from seeing the sick people because of their extreme superstition. 
The Arabs preferred to remain in their huts, suffering in silence. 
The only exception we found was when Mr. Schroeder and I were 
asked to visit the village of Sheikh Hajji Miniehil in an attempt to 
save the life of the newly born son of one of the workmen. We rode on 
horses to the village. Equipped with our medicine chest we entered 

1 This statement refers to Arabs of central Iraq. On the other hand the 
excellent medical work of the graduates of the Royal College of Medicine in 
Baghdad and other medical centers in Iraq has now (in 1939) begun to change 
the picture. 



Health of Kish Arabs 119 

a tiny mud hut with a low entrance. It was filled with smoke 
from an oil lamp, and there were about twenty people crowding 
around the mother and baby, who were on the floor. We ordered 
everyone out of the hut and attempted to take the baby's tempera- 
ture under the arm. After some time we managed to quiet the 
mother and examine the baby, who was feverish and evidently in 
considerable pain. We prescribed a quarter of a cascara sagrada 
tablet morning and evening, and left, saying that Allah is omniscient 
and omnipotent. In this way we removed from ourselves all respon- 
sibility for the baby's death, which seemed almost certain. However, 
the baby lived, and as a result our medical fame went abroad far 
and wide. 

Constitution. — There were few obese Arabs, although some cor- 
pulent persons were always to be seen in the Hilla bazaar. The 
usual thinness was due primarily to the struggle for existence and 
to the lack of fattening foods during childhood and adolescence. 
Mitteb (No. 13) was a small, frail-looking young man who wore a 
string around his wrist so that he could measure if he were growing 
thinner or fatter. He was subject to frequent attacks of fever and 
headaches and the resultant debility. Abid-en-Nasser (No. 192) 
was disproportionately large, and his general overgrowth, particu- 
larly in his hands and feet, suggested an unbalanced metabolism, 
possibly due to the abnormal functioning of his endocrine glands. 
Since there was considerable enlargement and overdevelopment of 
the hands and feet as well as a pronounced extension of the supra- 
orbital crest, this case suggested acromegaly. 

I do not believe that the Arabs were in general as sensitive to 
pain as Europeans. This may have been due to their inherent 
belief in the power, might, and wisdom of Allah, and their innate 
stoicism. One unique characteristic was displayed by their cruelty 
to wild life but disproportionate fondness for their own domesticated 
animals. 

The men and women had tremendous physical endurance, which 
was largely due to the hard struggles for existence from early child- 
hood, which the weaker do not survive. They were remarkably 
good walkers and runners but they had little strength in their arms 
and legs for lifting or pushing weights. 

The women, who were tireless workers, aged rapidly, so that they 
appeared worn out and wrinkled soon after they reached twenty 
years of age. 



120 Anthropology of Iraq 

The men were naturally lazy, and, judging from general opinion, 
appeared to be more subject to attacks of fever than the women. 

The workmen at the excavations were under continuous super- 
vision, which was most necessary. They were incapable of working 
at high speed for more than a few minutes, but when allowed to 
work at their own speed they could continue to excavate daily for 
eight and a half hours (cf. Field, 1929b). 

Development of Public Welfare. — Local health authorities are 
making every effort to guard against the spread of virulent diseases 
brought about through pilgrimages and inadequate medical care. 

Formerly, cholera often spread from India to Europe, carried 
by individuals among the vast throngs of pilgrims who visited the 
sacred shrines of Iraq, Syria, and Mecca. A Mohammedan who 
died on the road to or from a pilgrimage became a martyr to his 
faith. Thus, individuals were inspired to continue the pilgrimage 
in the face of sickness, even to death. Usually the pilgrims were 
poor Mohammedans, who carried no luggage except money in a 
small bag or leathern wallet. The conditions under which they 
were forced to travel were by no means conducive to cleanliness, 
and since they were united in the common desire to worship in 
Mecca, they would befriend each other on any pretext. Thus, the 
danger of the introduction into Europe of diseases such as cholera, 
plague, and smallpox was an ever-present one, since among the many 
thousands of pilgrims who visited these shrines each year, there 
were many individuals who carried the diseases, and who came in 
contact with travelers en route to European ports (cf. Clemow). 

The danger of the spread of disease increased when pilgrims from 
India and Persia (Iran) began to travel by the thousands every 
year through Baghdad and Damascus to Haifa and by sea to Jidda, 
the port of Mecca on the Red Sea. The sea route, which had been 
in vogue for centuries, became almost entirely superseded by the 
trans-desert automobile services. 

At present the Iraq Medical Health Officers at Baghdad and 
Ramadi inspect all passengers and detain any suspected cases of 
contagious diseases. From March to October, in the year 1892, 
Asiatic cholera spread from India all through Europe to the United 
States, leaving in its wake a trail of victims. During the summer 
of 1928 there was an outbreak of plague in India and Persia, and it 
was necessary for every traveler to be inoculated against the Bacillus 
pestis before entering or leaving Iraq. Each passport carried an 
Iraq Health Service quarantine pass, giving the name of the person 



Health of Kish Arabs 121 

and stating that he or she "proceeding out of Iraq is found on exami- 
nation to be free from infectious disease. Quarantine measures 
taken: Inoculated against plague." The date was appended to 
each form. 

During the past decade the Director General of Health and the 
faculty and graduates of the Royal College of Medicine in Baghdad 
have entirely reorganized medical care and prevention of disease 
throughout Iraq; the hospitals in Baghdad, Mosul, Basra, Kirkuk, 
and Amara have made rapid strides in the dissemination of medical 
practice throughout the country. Furthermore, the staff doctors 
of the Iraq Petroleum Company, not only near the trans-desert 
pipe-line stations but also at Kirkuk, have taught tens of thousands 
of their native workmen to appreciate the benefits of medical care 
and the elements of preventive medicine. 

The wisdom of the general health policy of the government of 
Iraq will be reflected in the better health of their future settled and 
nomadic citizens. 



APPENDIX D: ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA FROM 
ROYAL HOSPITAL, BAGHDAD 

BY 

Dr. B. H. Rassam 1 

Introduction 

The raw data were recorded on 497 individuals during the period 
beginning February 3 and ending June 30, 1932. 

The following information and measurements were recorded on 
each individual: name, age, sex, nationality, religion, tribe, town, 
head length, and head breadth. 

All individuals nineteen years of age and under have been grouped 
as children. 

In preparing these data for publication, the figures have been 
reclassified so that twenty groups result. The cephalic indices and 
the statistical summaries were calculated at Harvard by Dr. Carl 
C. Seltzer and Miss Elizabeth Reniff. 



Individuals Measured by Dr. B. H. Rassam (497) 

No. Localities 

148 Arabs from Baghdad (pp. 123-124). 

39 Arabs from Ad Diwaniya (1), Al Mahmudiya (2), Amara (3), 

Basra (5), Diala (1), Ezza (1), Hilla (2), Karbala (1), Kar- 
rada (1), Khanaqin (1), Kut (1), Mendali (3), Mosul (10), 
Ramadi (1), Rawa (1), Samarra (2), Shafii (1), Shahraban 
(1), and Tikrit (1) (pp. 124-125). 

47 Arab females from Baghdad (p. 125). 

18 Arab females from Kut al Hai (1), Hilla (3), Mosul (10), 

Samarra (1), Shergat (2), and Tikrit (1) (pp. 125-126). 

4 Arab children from Baghdad (p. 126). 

8 Arabs of Sheikh Saad (1), Beni Saad (5), and Dulaim 

tribes (2) (p. 126). 

33 Arab children of Al Mahmudiya (1), Beni Saad (30), Chefil 

(1), and An Najaf tribes (1) (p. 126). 

7 Beduins from Mosul Liwa (p. 127). 

49 Kurds from Erbil (4), Kirkuk (26), Khanaqin (2), Mosul (5), 

and Sulaimaniya (12) (p. 127). 

4 Kurd females from Kirkuk (3) and Erbil (1) (p. 127). 

20 Christians from Baghdad (p. 128). 

39 Christians from Mosul (36) and Tell Kaif (3) (p. 128). 

5 Christian females from Mosul (p. 129). 

6 Christian females from Baghdad (p. 129). 

19 Jews from Baghdad (17), Erbil (1), and Kirkuk (1) (p. 129). 

7 Jewesses from Baghdad (p. 129). 

1 Graduate of the Royal College of Medicine, Baghdad, and member of the 
Medical Staff of the Royal Hospital, Baghdad. My deep gratitude to Dr. Rassam 
for placing the original records at my disposal must be recorded (H.F.). 

122 



Anthropometric Data: Royal Hospital 



123 



No. Localities 

33 Kurds from Tehran (13), Irani Tabriz (13), Waly (1), Pestako 

(3), Hussain Kuli Khan (1), AH Sharwan (1), and Ker- 
manshah (1) (p. 130). 

3 Irani Kurd females from Tabriz (p. 130). 

4 Irani Christians from Urmia (3) and Tabriz (1) (p. 130). 

4 Turks from Van (2) and Istanbul (1), and one Christian 

female from an unidentified locality (p. 130). 



148 Arabs (Baghdad) 



No. Age G.O.L. G.B. C.I. 

3790 20 185 140 75.7 

3791 20 183 143 78.4 

3792 20 185 155 86.1 

3793 20 175 145 82.9 

3794 20 183 148 80.9 

3795 21 183 148 80.9 

3796 22 185 140 75.7 

3797 22 180 145 80.6 

3798 22 175 150 85.7 

3799 22 180 145 80.6 

3800 23 180 145 80.6 

3801 24 185 160 86.5 

3802 24 183 160 87.4 

3803 24 175 145 82.9 

3804 25 180 135 75.0 

3805 25 170 130 76.5 

3806 25 185 135 73.0 

3807 25 178 150 84.3 

3808 25 180 150 83.3 

3809 25 180 150 83.3 

3810 26 190 148 77.9 

3811 26 180 145 80.6 

3812 26 175 145 82.9 

3813 26 180 150 83.3 

3814 26 175 140 80.0 

3815 27 183 158 86.3 

3816 27 180 145 80.6 

3817 27 180 140 77.8 

3818 27 180 145 80.6 

3819 28 180 145 80.6 

3820 28 183 153 83.6 

3821 28 180 143 79.4 

3822 28 180 140 77.8 

3823 28 180 143 79.4 

3824 28 180 148 82.2 

3825 29 183 145 79.2 

3826 30 183 140 76.5 

3827 30 175 140 80.0 

3828 30 183 145 79.2 

3829 30 185 160 86.5 

3830 30 180 150 83.3 

3831 30 190 150 78.9 

3832 30 185 143 77.3 

3833 30 185 150 81.1 

3834 30 178 145 81.5 

3835 30 170 143 84.1 

3836 30 185 140 75.7 

3837 32 185 145 78.4 

3838 32 173 145 83.8 

3839 32 180 143 79.4 

3840 32 185 148 80.0 



No. Age G.O.L. G.B. C.I. 

3841 32 185 150 81.1 

3842 32 178 145 81.5 

3843 32 175 140 80.0 

3844 32 180 140 77.8 

3845 33 170 140 82.4 

3846 35 183 145 79.2 

3847 35 180 135 75.0 

3848 35 185 150 81.1 

3849 35 183 150 82.0 

3850 35 180 143 79.4 

3851 35 185 150 81.1 

3852 35 190 150 78.9 

3853 35 180 145 80.6 

3854 35 188 143 76.1 

3855 35 180 145 80.6 

3856 35 188 145 77.1 

3857 35 180 140 77.8 

3858 35 168 145 86.3 

3859 35 180 140 77.8 

3860 35 175 140 80.0 

3861 35 175 140 80.0 

3862 35 185 140 75.7 

3863 35 190 145 76.3 

3864 35 180 150 83.3 

3865 35 178 140 78.7 

3866 35 180 148 82.2 

3867 35 178 140 78.7 

3868 35 190 145 76.3 

3869 35 168 140 83.3 

3870 35 180 143 79.4 

3871 36 190 140 73.7 

3872 36 175 145 82.9 

3873 36 175 140 80.0 

3874 36 175 145 82.9 

3875 36 170 140 82.4 

3876 38 190 150 78.9 

3877 38 175 140 80.0 

3878 38 175 143 81.7 

3879 38 180 145 80.6 

3880 39 180 143 79.4 

3881 40 173 135 78.0 

3882 40 185 143 77.3 

3883 40 180 150 83.3 

3884 40 190 145 76.3 

3885 40 170 145 85.3 

3886 40 183 140 76.5 

3887 40 190 150 78.9 

3888 40 178 143 80.3 

3889 40 178 140 78.7 

3890 40 185 145 78.4 

3891 40 180 140 77.8 



124 



Anthropology of Iraq 



148 Arabs (Baghdad) — continued 



No. 


Age 


G.O.L. 


G.B. 


C.I. 


No. 


Age 


G.O.L. 


G.B. 


C.I. 


3892 


40 


183 


140 


76.5 


3915 


45 


178 


140 


78.7 


3893 


40 


180 


145 


80.6 


3916 


45 


178 


140 


78.7 


3894 


40 


180 


145 


80.6 


3917 


45 


185 


140 


75.7 


3895 


40 


180 


143 


79.4 


3918 


46 


180 


143 


79.4 


3896 


40 


180 


143 


79.4 


3919 


46 


170 


140 


82.4 


3897 


42 


183 


150 


82.0 


3920 


48 


185 


145 


78.4 


3898 


42 


188 


150 


79.8 


3921 


50 


190 


130 


68.4 


3899 


42 


180 


140 


77.8 


3922 


50 


185 


140 


75.7 


3900 


42 


185 


145 


78.4 


3923 


50 


180 


140 


77.8 


3901 


42 


173 


140 


80.9 


3924 


50 


175 


140 


80.0 


3902 


42 


178 


148 


83.1 


3925 


50 


180 


145 


80.6 


3903 


42 


180 


150 


83.3 


3926 


50 


190 


145 


76.3 


3904 


45 


180 


145 


80.6 


3927 


50 


175 


140 


80.0 


3905 


45 


180 


145 


80.6 


3928 


50 


180 


143 


79.4 


3906 


45 


188 


150 


79.8 


3929 


55 


180 


150 


83.3 


3907 


45 


178 


145 


81.5 


3930 


55 


180 


148 


82.2 


3908 


45 


178 


148 


83.1 


3931 


56 


178 


143 


80.3 


3909 


45 


180 


140 


77.8 


3932 


58 


180 


148 


82.2 


3910 


45 


183 


145 


79.2 


3933 


60 


183 


145 


79.2 


3911 


45 


180 


145 


80.6 


3934 


60 


175 


140 


80.0 


3912 


45 


190 


148 


77.9 


3935 


63 


170 


140 


82.4 


3913 


45 


180 


143 


79.4 


3936 


65 


180 


140 


77.8 


3914 


45 


178 


150 


84.3 


3937 


70 


175 


140 


80.0 



Measurements and Indices of 148 Arabs (Baghdad) 

Measurements No. Range Mean S.D. C.V. 

Age 148 20-74 37.65±0.57 10.20±0.40 27.09±1.06 

Head length 148 167-196 180.42±0.28 5.13±0.20 2.84±0.11 

Head breadth 148 129-161 143. 83 ±0.29 5. 31 ±0.21 3. 69 ±0.14 

Indices 

Cephalic 148 68-88 79.71±0.18 3.24±0.13 4.06±0.16 



Thirty-nine Arabs (Nineteen Towns) 



No. 


Town 


Age 


G.O.L. 


G.B. 


C.I. 


No. 


Town 


Age G.O.L. 


G.B. 


C.I. 


3992 


Ad Diwan- 










4010 


Kut 


40 


190 


150 


78.9 




iya 


32 


193 


140 


72.5 


4011 


Mendali 


25 


180 


148 


82.2 


3993 


Al Mahmu- 










4012 


Mendali 


28 


180 


145 


80.6 




diya 


30 


183 


133 


72.7 


4013 


Mendali 


45 


180 


143 


79.4 


3994 


Al Mahmu- 










4014 


Mosul 


34 


180 


140 


77.8 




diya 


27 


190 


140 


73.7 


4015 


Mosul 


35 


183 


145 


79.2 


3995 


Amara 


26 


175 


150 


85.7 


4016 


Mosul 


40 


180 


148 


82.2 


3996 


Amara 


29 


185 


140 


75.7 


4017 


Mosul 


38 


175 


140 


80.0 


3997 


Amara 


30 


180 


140 


77.8 


4018 


Mosul 


42 


190 


145 


76.3 


3998 


Basra 


20 


168 


140 


83.3 


4019 


Mosul 


45 


180 


140 


77.8 


3999 


Basra 


22 


180 


148 


82.2 


4020 


Mosul 


45 


183 


145 


79.2 


4000 


Basra 


28 


170 


143 


84.1 


4021 


Mosul 


50 


185 


140 


75.7 


4001 


Basra 


35 


188 


160 


85.1 


4022 


Mosul 


52 


178 


150 


84.3 


4002 


Basra 


48 


183 


150 


82.0 


4023 


Mosul 


54 


190 


148 


77.9 


4003 


Diala 


45 


190 


135 


71.1 


4024 


Ramadi 


30 


183 


140 


76.5 


4004 


Ezza 


35 


170 


130 


76.5 


4025 


Rawa 


24 


185 


160 


86.5 


4005 


Hilla 


30 


178 


138 


77.5 


4026 


Samarra 


30 


195 


135 


69.2 


4006 


Hilla 


45 


180 


150 


83.3 


4027 


Samarra 


35 


188 


135 


71.8 


4007 


Karbala 


32 


185 


145 


78.4 


4028 


Shafii 


30 


188 


140 


74.5 


4008 


Karrada 


30 


188 


135 


71.8 


4029 


Shahraban 


22 


190 


150 


78.9 


4009 


Khanaqin 


25 


180 


145 


80.6 


4030 


Tikrit 


25* 


178 


138 


77.5 


* 


Age uncertain. 























Anthropometric Data: Royal Hospital 125 
Measurements and Indices of Thirty-nine Arabs (Iraq) 

Measurements No. Range Mean S.D. C.V. 

Age 39 20-59 35.20±0.98 9.05±0.69 25.71±1.96 

Head length 39 167-196 182.61±0.66 6.09±0.47 2.79±0.21 

Head breadth 39 129-161 143.23±0.73 6.72±0.51 4.69±0.36 

Indices 

Cephalic 39 68-88 78.24±0.47 4.32±0.33 5.52±0.42 



Forty-seven Arab Females (Baghdad) 



No. 


Age 


G.O.L. 


G.B. 


C.I. 


No. 


Age 


G.O.L. 


G.B. 


CI. 


3938 


22 


170 


140 


82.4 


3962 


38 


165 


145 


87.9 


3939 


22 


175 


140 


80.0 


3963 


38 


175 


145 


82.9 


3940 


25 


175 


140 


80.0 


3964 


38 


180 


155 


86.1 


3941 


25 


170 


145 


85.3 


3965 


40 


175 


143 


81.7 


3942 


25 


180 


135 


75.0 


3966 


40 


180 


138 


76.7 


3943 


26 


175 


150 


85.7 


3967 


40 


190 


148 


77.9 


3944 


27 


168 


143 


85.1 


3968 


40 


170 


140 


82.4 


3945 


28 


180 


145 


80.6 


3969 


40 


170 


140 


82.4 


3946 


29 


180 


145 


80.6 


3970 


40 


175 


140 


80.0 


3947 


30 


175 


140 


80.0 


3971 


40 


168 


140 


83.3 


3948 


30 


180 


150 


83.3 


3972 


40 


173 


140 


80.9 


3949 


30 


170 


148 


87.1 


3973 


40 


170 


140 


82.4 


3950 


30 


175 


143 


81.7 


3974 


42 


175 


145 


82.9 


3951 


30 


170 


140 


82.4 


3975 


42 


170 


140 


82.4 


3952 


31 


180 


140 


77.8 


3976 


45 


170 


148 


87.1 


3953 


33 


185 


145 


78.4 


3977 


45 


175 


145 


82.9 


3954 


35 


165 


140 


84.8 


3978 


45 


165 


140 


84.8 


3955 


35 


170 


143 


84.1 


3979 


46 


173 


140 


80.9 


3956 


35 


170 


145 


85.3 


3980 


46 


165 


140 


84.8 


3957 


35 


180 


145 


80.6 


3981 


50 


170 


140 


82.4 


3958 


35 


168 


140 


83.3 


3982 


20 


180 


150 


83.3 


3959 


35 


178 


140 


78.7 


3983 


20 


165 


145 


87.9 


3960 


35 


180 


150 


83.3 


3984 


20 


180 


140 


77.7 


3961 


36 


170 


140 


82.4 













Measurements and Indices of Forty-seven Arab Females (Baghdad) 

Measurements No. Range Mean S.D. C.V. 

Age 47 20-54 35.70±0.77 7.85±0.55 21. W ±1.68 

Head length 47 164-190 174.00±0.54 5.49±0.38 3.16±0.22 

Head breadth 47 135-155 142.57±0.43 4.35±0.30 3.05±0.21 

Indices 

Cephalic 47 74-88 82.20±0.28 2.82±0.20 3.43±0.24 







Eighteen Arab Females (Six Towns) 










No. 


Town 


Age 


G.O.L. 


G.B. CI. 


No. 


Town 


Age G.O.L. 


G.B. 


CI. 


4031 


Kut al Hai 


30 


180 


148 82.2 


4040 


Mosul 


42 


178 


140 


78.7 


4032 


Hilla 


25 


175 


140 80.0 


4041 


Mosul 


42 


170 


143 


84.1 


4033 


Hilla 


30 


180 


140 77.8 


4042 


Mosul 


45 


170 


145 


85.3 


4034 


Hilla 


30 


170 


140 82.4 


4043 


Mosul 


48 


180 


145 


80.6 


4035 


Mosul 


30 


175 


145 82.9 


4044 


Mosul 


55 


170 


140 


82.4 


4036 


Mosul 


32 


178 


143 80.3 


4045 


Samarra 


40 


185 


148 


80.0 


4037 


Mosul 


35 


170 


145 85.3 


4046 


Shergat 


35 


175 


140 


80.0 


4038 


Mosul 


36 


170 


140 82.4 


4047 


Shergat 


50 


170 


143 


84.1 


4039 


Mosul 


40 


173 


140 80.9 


4048 


Tikrit 


45 


170 


140 


82.4 



126 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Measurements and Indices of Eighteen Arab Females (Six Towns) 

Measurements No. Range Mean S.D. C.V. 

Age 18 25-59 39.80±1.25 7.85±0.88 19.72±2.22 

Head length 18 170-187 174.66±0.69 4.32±0.49 2.47±0.28 

Head breadth 18 138-149 141.82±0.52 3.24±0.36 2.28±0.26 

Indices 

Cephalic 18 77-85 81.51±0.29 1.80±0.20 2.21±0.25 



Four Arab Children (Baghdad) 



No. 


Age 


G.O.L. 


G.B. 


C.I. 


3985 


14 


190 


145 


76.3 


3986 


14 


180 


140 


77.8 


3987 


15 


170 


140 


82.3 


3988 


16 


183 


148 


80.8 



Averages.. 14.8 180.8 143.3 



79.3 



Eight Tribal Arabs (Iraq) 



No. 



Tribe 



Age 



G.O.L. 



G.B. 



C.I. 



4082 


Sheikh Saad 


36 


200 


148 


74.0 


4083 


Beni Saad 


30 


170 


140 


82.4 


4084 


Beni Saad 


30 


190 


140 


73.7 


4085 


Beni Saad 


40 


195 


140 


71.8 


4086 


Beni Saad 


46 


185 


140 


75.7 


4087 


Beni Saad 


50 


185 


145 


78.4 


4088 


Dulaim 


34 


193 


145 


75.1 


4089 


Dulaim 


60 


183 


145 


79.2 



Averages.. 40.8 187.6 142.9 76.3 



Thirty-three Arab Children of Various Tribes (Iraq) 



No. 


Town 


Age i 


G.O.L. G.B. C.I. 


No. 


Town 


Age ( 


S.O.L. G.B. C.I. 


4049 


Al Mahmu- 








4065 


Beni Saad 


12-14 


175 140 80.0 




diya 


12 


175 


135 77.1 


4066 


Beni Saad 


12-14 


180 145 80.6 


4050 


Beni Saad 


6 


170 


125 73.5 


4067 


Beni Saad 


12-14 


170 130 76.5 


4051 


Beni Saad 


6 


175 


135 77.1 


4068 


Beni Saad 


12-14 


180 135 75.0 


4052 


Beni Saad 


6 


180 


120 66.7 


4069 


Beni Saad 


12-14 


180 148 82.2 


4053 


Beni Saad 


7 


180 


140 77.8 


4070 


Beni Saad 


12-14 


178 130 73.0 


4054 


Beni Saad 


8 


180 


140 77.8 


4071 


Beni Saad 


12-14 


170 130 76.5 


4055 


Beni Saad 


8 


180 


128 71.1 


4072 


Beni Saad 


12-14 


185 140 75.7 


4056 


Beni Saad 


10 


175 


145 82.9 


4073 


Beni Saad 


12-14 


175 125 71.4 


4057 


Beni Saad 


10 


175 


148 84.6 


4074 


Beni Saad 


12-14 


170 130 76.5 


4058 


Beni Saad 


12-14 


188 


145 77.1 


4075 


Beni Saad 


14 


190 140 73.7 


4059 


Beni Saad 


12-14 


175 


135 77.1 


4076 


Chefil 


15 


190 140 73.7 


4060 


Beni Saad 


12-14 


188 


138 73.4 


4077 


Beni Saad 


15 


180 138 76.7 


4061 


Beni Saad 


12-14 


175 


130 74.3 


4078 


Beni Saad 


16 


188 148 78.7 


4062 


Beni Saad 


12-14 


185 


140 75.7 


4079 


Beni Saad 


18 


190 140 73.7 


4063 


Beni Saad 


12-14 


170 


140 82.4 


4080 


Beni Saad 


19 


190 140 73.7 


4064 


Beni Saad 


12-14 


165 


130 78.8 


4081 


An Najaf 


18 


183 140 76.5 



Averages of the above figures would be valueless since the ages 
range from six to nineteen. Under the town heading, tribal names, 
such as Beni Saad, have been included. Presumably these Arab 
children belong to semi-nomadic groups, which can not be classed 
either as Beduins or town-dwellers. 



Anthropometric Data: Royal Hospital 



127 



No. 



Seven Beduins (Mosul Liwa) 



Liwa 



Age 



G.O.L. 



G.B. 



Averages.. 34.6 182.3 141.9 



C.I. 



4090 


Mosul 


30 


188 


145 


77.1 


4091 


Mosul 


32 


183 


140 


76.5 


4092 


Mosul 


35 


185 


145 


78.4 


4093 


Mosul 


35 


185 


140 


75.7 


4094 


Mosul 


35 


180 


140 


77.8 


4095 


Mosul 


35 


180 


143 


79.4 


4096 


Mosul 


40 


175 


140 


80.0 



77.8 



Forty-nine Kurds (Five Towns) 



No. 

4193 
4194 
4195 
4196 
4197 
4198 
4199 
4200 
4201 
4202 
4203 
4204 
4205 
4206 
4207 
4208 
4209 
4210 
4211 
4212 
4213 
4214 
4215 
4216 
4217 



Town 

Erbil 

Erbil 

Erbil 

Erbil 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 



Age G.O.L. G.B. 

32 190 140 

35 170 150 

45 180 150 

50 183 148 

20 180 138 

25 188 153 

26 180 158 
28 175 140 
28 188 145 
30 170 140 
30 188 143 
30 180 150 
32 178 145 
32 185 145 
32 175 145 
35 185 145 

35 180 145 

36 185 153 
40 185 148 
40 180 150 
40 185 148 
40 163 143 
40 180 150 
40 185 145 
40 178 143 



C.I. 
73.7 
88.2 
83.3 
80.9 
76.7 
81.3 
87.8 
80.0 
77.1 
82.4 
76.1 
83. 
81 
78. 
82. 
78. 
80.5 
82.7 
80.0 
83.3 
80.0 
87.7 
83.3 
78.4 
80.4 



No. 

4218 
4219 
4220 
4221 
4222 
4223 
4224 
4225 
4226 
4227 
4228 
4229 
4230 
4231 
4232 
4233 
4234 
4235 
4236 
4237 
4238 
4239 
4240 
4241* 



Town 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 

Kirkuk 

Khanaqin 

Mosul 

Mosul 

Mosul 

Mosul 

Mosul 

Sulaimaniya 

Sulaimaniya 

Sulaimaniya 

Sulaimaniya 

Sulaimaniya 

Sulaimaniya 

Sulaimaniya 

Sulaimaniya 

Sulaimaniya 

Sulaimaniya 

Sulaimaniya 

Sulaimaniya 

Khanaqin 



Age G.O.L. G.B. 

42 170 150 

45 175 140 

55 180 140 

55 170 153 

60 180 140 

32 183 150 

35 178 150 

35 178 140 

36 173 143 
40 173 145 
42 175 143 
25 185 150 
25 178 148 
30 183 150 
40 188 153 
40 180 150 

45 180 155 

46 175 155 
50 180 153 
50 180 155 
60 173 145 
60 180 140 
65 170 145 
17 173 135 



C.I. 

88.2 
80.0 
77.8 
90.0 
77.8 
82.0 
84.3 
78.7 
82.7 
83.8 
81.7 
81.1 
83.1 
82.0 
81.4 
83.3 
86.1 
88.6 
85.0 
86.1 
83.8 
77.8 
85.3 
78.0 



* No. 4241 (age 17) was omitted from the averages. 



Measurements and Indices of Forty-eight Kurds (Iraq) 

Measurements No. Range Mean S.D. C.V. 

Age 48 20-69 40.55±1.03 10.60±0.73 25.42±1.75 

Head length 48 164-190 179.43±0.57 5.82±0.40 3.24±0.22 

Headbreadth 48 138-158 146.95±0.53 5.43±0.37 3.70±0.25 

Indices 

Cephalic 48 74-91 82.05±0.34 3.48±0.24 4.24±0.29 



Four Female Kurds (Kirkuk and Erbil) 



No. 


Town 


Age 


G.O.L. 


G.B. 


C.I. 


4242 


Kirkuk 


25 


185 


143 


77.3 


4243 


Kirkuk 


28 


188 


145 


77.1 


4244 


Erbil 


40 


175 


150 


85.7 


4245 


Kirkuk 


40 


183 


140 


76.5 



Averages.. 33.2 182.8 144.5 



79.2 



128 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Twenty Christians (Baghdad) 



No. 


Age 


G.O.L. 


G.B. 


C.I. 


No. 


Age 


G.O.L. 


G.B. 


C.I. 


4123 


20 


190 


148 


77.9 


4133 


30 


173 


140 


80.9 


4124 


20 


190 


150 


78.9 


4134 


35 


188 


150 


79.8 


4125 


20 


180 


150 


83.3 


4135 


35 


185 


140 


75.7 


4126 


24 


180 


145 


80.6 


4136 


36 


175 


140 


80.0 


4127 


26 


178 


145 


81.5 


4137 


36 


180 


150 


83.3 


4128 


27 


185 


130 


70.3 


4138 


40 


183 


150 


82.0 


4129 


28 


178 


148 


83.1 


4139 


42 


188 


148 


78.7 


4130 


30 


190 


150 


78.9 


4140 


45 


180 


140 


77.8 


4131 


30 


190 


150 


78.9 


4141 


45 


175 


140 


80.0 


4132 


30 


180 


145 


80.6 


4142 


55 


180 


140 


77.8 



Measurements and Indices of Twenty Christians (Baghdad) 

Measurements No. Range Mean S.D. C.V. 

Age 20 20-64 34.00±1.42 9.40±1.00 27.65±2.95 

Head length 20 173-190 182.25±0.82 5.43±0.58 2.98±0.32 

Head breadth 20 129-155 145.00±0.90 6.00±0.64 4.14±0.44 

Indices 

Cephalic 20 68-88 79.50±0.51 3.36±0.36 4.23±0.45 



Thirty-nine Christians (Mosul and Tell Kaif) 



No. 


Town 


Age 


G.O.L. 


G.B. 


C.I. 


No. 


Town 


Age 


G.O.L. 


G.B. 


C.I. 


4149 


Mosul 


20 


190 


150 


78.9 


4169 


Mosul 


40 


173 


155 


89.5 


4150 


Mosul 


22 


180 


150 


83.3 


4170 


Mosul 


40 


180 


150 


83.3 


4151 


Mosul 


25 


185 


148 


80.0 


4171 


Mosul 


40 


175 


140 


80.0 


4152 


Mosul 


25 


180 


150 


83.3 


4172 


Mosul 


40 


175 


145 


82.9 


4153 


Mosul 


25 


180 


143 


79.4 


4173 


Mosul 


40 


180 


140 


77.8 


4154 


Mosul 


26 


185 


150 


81.1 


4174 


Mosul 


40 


178 


148 


83.1 


4155 


Mosul 


28 


173 


140 


80.9 


4175 


Mosul 


45 


180 


143 


79.2 


4156 


Mosul 


29 


178 


143 


80.3 


4176 


Mosul 


45 


180 


145 


80.6 


4157 


Mosul 


30 


178 


143 


80.3 


4177 


Mosul 


45 


175 


140 


80.0 


4158 


Mosul 


30 


185 


153 


82.7 


4178 


Mosul 


45 


175 


150 


85.7 


4159 


Mosul 


32 


180 


150 


83.3 


4179 


Mosul 


46 


180 


153 


85.0 


4160 


Mosul 


32 


188 


150 


80.0 


4180 


Mosul 


50 


180 


150 


83.3 


4161 


Mosul 


33 


175 


140 


80.0 


4181 


Mosul 


60 


180 


145 


80.6 


4162 


Mosul 


35 


180 


145 


80.6 


4182 


Mosul 


65 


185 


148 


80.0 


4163 


Mosul 


35 


180 


145 


80.6 


4183 


Tell Kaif 


35 


180 


150 


83.3 


4164 


Mosul 


35 


180 


143 


79.4 


4184 


Tell Kaif 


60 


183 


140 


76.5 


4165 


Mosul 


35 


190 


150 


78.9 


4185 


Tell Kaif 


65 


180 


150 


83.3 


4166 


Mosul 


36 


180 


145 


80.6 


4186* 


Mosul 


12 


165 


138 


83.6 


4167 


Mosul 


36 


185 


145 


78.4 


4187* 


Mosul 


18 


170 


140 


82.4 


4168 


Mosul 


38 


180 


143 


79.4 















* Nos. 4186 and 4187 have been omitted from the averages — ages 12 and 18. 



Measurements and Indices of Thirty-seven Christians (Iraq) 

Measurements No. Range Mean S.D. C.V. 

Age 37 20-69 39.45±1.28 11.50±0.90 29.15±2.29 

Head length 37 173-190 180.24±0.49 4.38db0.34 2.43±0.19 

Headbreadth 37 138-155 146.47±0.55 4.92±0.39 3.36±0.26 

Indices 

Cephalic 37 74-91 81.48±0.32 2.91±0.23 3.57±0.28 



Anthropometric Data: Royal Hospital 
Five Christian Females (Mosul) 



129 



No. 


Age 


G.O.L. 


G.B. 


C.I. 


4188 


35 


175 


143 


81.7 


4189 


35 


175 


140 


80.0 


4190 


40 


173 


150 


86.7 


4191 


42 


170 


150 


88.2 


4192 


18 


168 


148 


88.1 



Averages.. 34 172.2 146.2 



84.9 



Six Christian Females (Baghdad) 







No. 


Age 


G.O.L 


G.B. C.I. 














4143 


30 


175 


140 80.0 














4144 


35 


170 


143 84.1 














4145 


40 


170 


143 84.1 














4146 


40 


180 


140 77.8 














4147 


45 


175 


140 80.0 












4148 
Averages. . 


46 
39.3 


180 
175 


145 80.6 












141.8 81.1 






Nineteen Jews (Baghdad, Erbil, and Kirkuk) 








No. 


Town 


Age G.O.L. 


G.B. 


C.I. 


No. 


Town Age 


G.O.L. 


G.B. 


C.I 




4097 


Baghdad 


23 170 


140 


82.3 


4107 


Baghdad 40 


180 


145 


80. 


f> 


4098 


Baghdad 


25 180 


143 


79.4 


4108 


Baghdad 45 


180 


150 


83, 


,3 


4099 


Baghdad 


26 183 


148 


80.9 


4109 


Baghdad 45 


170 


143 


84, 


,1 


4100 


Baghdad 


30 180 


140 


77.8 


4110 


Baghdad 50 


175 


140 


80, 


,0 


4101 


Baghdad 


32 178 


145 


81.5 


4111 


Baghdad 55 


180 


145 


80, 


,6 


4102 


Baghdad 


32 185 


145 


78.4 


4112 


Erbil 26 


180 


140 


77, 


,8 


4103 


Baghdad 


35 183 


143 


78.1 


4113 


Kirkuk 32 


180 


140 


77. 


.8 


4104 


Baghdad 


35 170 


140 


82.4 


4114* 


Baghdad 12 


183 


135 


73 


.8 


4105 


Baghdad 


38 170 


140 


82.4 


4115* 


Baghdad 18 


178 


143 


80, 


.3 


4106 


Baghdad 


40 175 


140 


80.0 















* Noe. 4114 and 4115 have been omitted from the averages— ages 12 and 18. 



Measurements and Indices of Seventeen Jews (Iraq) 

Measurements No. Range Mean S.D. C.V. 

Age 17 20-59 37.00±1.54 9.40±1.09 25.41±2.94 

Head length 17 170-187 177.72±0.76 4.65±0.54 2.62±0.30 

Headbreadth 17 138-152 142.18±0.59 2.63±0.42 2.55±0.29 

Indices 

Cephalic 17 77-85 80.28±0.32 1.92±0.22 2.39±0.28 



No. 



Seven Jewesses (Baghdad) 



Age 



G.O.L. 



G.B. 



C.I. 



4116 


20 


190 


148 


77.9 


4117 


25 


170 


140 


82.4 


4118 


25 


180 


135 


75.0 


4119 


35 


170 


140 


82.4 


4120 


40 


170 


145 


85.3 


4121 


40 


165 


140 


84.8 


4122 


48 


165 


143 


86.7 



Averages.. 33.2 172.9 141.6 82.1 



130 Anthropology of Iraq 

Thirty-three Kurds (Iran) 

No. Town Age G.O.L. G.B. C.I. No. Town Age G.O.L. G.B. C.L. 

4265 Tabriz 38 180 150 83.3 

4266 Tabriz 38 180 148 82.2 

4267 Tabriz 40 180 143 79.4 

4268 Tabriz 40 178 140 78.7 

4269 Tabriz 45 185 148 80.0 

4270 Tabriz 48 183 150 82.0 

4271 Tabriz 50 180 143 79.4 

4272 Waly 25 183 140 76.5 

4273 Pestako 25 180 150 83.3 

4274 Pestako 30 180 135 75.0 

4275 Pestako 30 183 140 76.5 

4276 Hussain 
KuliKhan 32 190 150 78.9 

4277 AliSharwan 35 188 138 73.4 

4278 Kerman- 
shah 42 183 140 76.5 

4279* Tehran 16 180 143 79.4 

* No. 4279 (age 16) was omitted from the averages. 

Measurements and Indices of Thirty-two Kurds (Iran) 

Measurements No. Range Mean S.D. C.V. 

Age 32 25-54 37.95±.89 7.45±.63 19.63±1.66 

Head length 32 164-193 180.18±.74 6.24±.53 3.46±0.29 

Headbreadth 32 135-170 146.23±.78 6.57±.55 4.49±0.38 

Indices 

Cephalic 32 71-94 80.52±.47 3.96±.33 2.92±0.41 

Three Kurd Females (Iran) 



4247 


Tehran 


25 


168 


140 


83.3 


4248 


Tehran 


26 


168 


140 


83.3 


4249 


Tehran 


28 


190 


150 


78.9 


4250 


Tehran 


32 


165 


140 


84.8 


4251 


Tehran 


35 


178 


148 


83.1 


4252 


Tehran 


36 


175 


148 


84.6 


4253 


Tehran 


36 


178 


145 


81.5 


4254 


Tehran 


42 


178 


150 


84.3 


4255 


Tehran 


45 


190 


150 


78.9 


4256 


Tehran 


45 


183 


150 


82.0 


4257 


Tehran 


50 


180 


148 


82.2 


4258 


Tehran 


50 


180 


148 


82.2 


4259 


Tabriz 


30 


178 


148 


83.1 


4260 


Tabriz 


35 


170 


140 


82.4 


4261 


Tabriz 


35 


183 


168 


91.8 


4262 


Tabriz 


35 


183 


150 


82.0 


4263 


Tabriz 


35 


180 


148 


82.2 


4264 


Tabriz 


38 


190 


150 


78.9 



No. 


Town 


Age 


G.O.L. 


G.B. 


C.L 


4280 


Tabriz 


40 


178 


145 


81.5 


4281 


Tabriz 


40 


170 


145 


85.3 


4282 


Tabriz 


45 


180 


145 


80.6 



Averages.. 41.7 176 145 82.5 

Four Christians (Iran) 

No. Town Age G.O.L. G.B. C.L 



4283 


Tabriz 


34 


183 


140 


76.5 


4284 


Urmia 


26 


180 


150 


83.3 


4285 


Urmia 


30 


178 


155 


87.1 


4286 


Urmia 


19 


180 


153 


85.0 



Averages.. 27.3 180.2 149.5 82.9 
Four Turks (Turkey) 



No. 


Town 


Age 


G.O.L. 


G.B. 


C.L 


4287 


Van 


28 


180 


148 


82.2 


4288 


Van 


45 


180 


153 


85.0 


4289 


Istanbul 


35 


185 


160 


86.5 


4246* 


? 


36 


170 


140 


82.4 



Averages.. 36 181.7 153.7 84.6 

* No. 4246, a Christian woman, was omitted from the averages. 



APPENDIX E: INDIVIDUALS MEASURED IN 
ROYAL HOSPITAL, BAGHDAD 

BY 

Winifred Smeaton 1 

Introduction 

During the period from November, 1934, to February, 1935, 
thirty-two males and forty-one females were measured in the Royal 
Hospital, Baghdad, where Dr. Shaib Shawkat facilitated the work 
in every possible manner. Eleven girls in the Central School for 
Girls in Baghdad also were measured during the winter of 1932-33. 

In order to present these anthropometric data so that they will 
be comparable to other statistics from Iraq the results are presented 
according to the Harvard and Keith systems. 

It must, however, be borne in mind that random sampling in a 
centrally located hospital does not yield valid anthropological deduc- 
tions, particularly where the sample is small in number. For this 
reason the number of individuals, not the percentages, has been used 
in the following text. 

On the other hand, every additional individual measured and 
observed throws some degree of light on the racial composition of 
the peoples of Iraq. 

Thirty-three Males Examined in Royal Hospital, Baghdad 

Introduction. — Among these individuals twenty-three men were 
placed in an Arab group; the remainder were left as separate entities. 

Twenty-three Arabs from Various Towns 

No. Tribe Locality No. Tribe Locality 

4398 An Nasiriya 4476 Chaab Near Baghdad 

4464 Mosul 4477 Daaya Near Aziziya 

4465 Diyala 4478 Ugrair Hammam Ali 

4466 Baghdad 4479 Shatra 

4467 Baghdad 4480 Al bu Sultan Near Mahmudiya 

4469 Baghdad 4481 Baalwan Born in Ramadi 

4470 Baghdad 4482 Umairi Near Baquba 

4471 Near Aziziya 4483 Baasaf near Al 

4472 Albu Sultan Hamza Falluja 

4473 Ana 4484 Nefafsha Near Aziziya 

4474 Diltawa 4485 Al bu Sultan Near Latifiya 

4475 Ambergujah Near Baquba 4486 Jenabi Near Yusufiya 

1 A member of the Field Museum Anthropological Expedition to the Near 
East from April to July, 1934. 

131 



132 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Demography. — There was an identical number of sons and 
daughters. The size of the families appears to have been small, 
although No. 4466 reported one son living and many dead and one 
daughter living and many dead. 



Sons No. 

None 2 

1 3 

2 2 

3-4 4 

5-6 1 

7 or more 

Total 12 



Demography 

Per cent 

16.67 
25.00 
16.67 
33.33 
8.33 



100.00 



Daughters No. Per cent 

None 2 16.67 

1 3 25.00 

2 1 8.33 

3-4 4 33.33 

5-6 2 16.67 

7 or more 

Total 12 100.00 



Age. — The mean was 38.30 with a range of 18-64. Our group 
shows a very wide distribution, with thirteen men under 40 and ten 
over this age. 

Age Distribution 



Age No. 

18-19 2 

20-24 3 

25-29 5 

30-34 

35-39 3 

40-44 



Per cent 

8.70 
13.04 
21.74 


Age 

45-49 

50-54 

55-59 

60-64 

65-69 

70-x 

Total 


No. 

4 

...... 2 

1 

3 



23 


Per < 

17 

8 

4 

13 


•ent 

.39 
.70 
.35 
04 


13 


.04 




















100 


.00 



Morphological Characters of Twenty-three Arabs 

Skin. — Nos. 4472 and 4477 possessed dark and Nos. 4481 and 
4485 very dark skins. With the exception of the latter these were 
listed as having Negro blood. 

Hair. — The color was either dark brown or black, sometimes 
tinged with gray. 

Hair 



Color 

Black 

Very dark brown 


No. 


4 




6 
. 2 
. 
1 


13 


Per cent 
30.77 

46.15 
15.38 

7.69 


Texture 

Coarse 

Coarse-medium 


No. 

6 




Per cent 
46.15 


Dark brown 


Medium-fine 


5 



38.46 


Brown 




Reddish brown 


Fine 

Total 


2 
13 


15.38 


Red 

Black and gray 

Dark brown and gray . 
Light brown and gray . 

Gray 

White 


99.99 


Total 


99.99 





Anthropometric Data: Royal Hospital 133 

Three men (Nos. 4464, 4467, and 4473) had low wavy hair, and 
six had coarse, five medium, and two fine, hair. 

Seven men (Nos. 4398, 4466, 4471, 4472, 4474, 4475, and 4486) 
wore mustaches, Nos. 4466 and 4472 being black and No. 4398 
brown. Seven individuals (Nos. 4466, 4474, 4477, 4479, 4481, 4482, 
and 4483) had shaven heads. 

Eyes. — While nineteen individuals had dark brown eyes, one 
individual had black, one green-brown, and two gray-brown eyes. 
The sclera were bloodshot (14), yellow (3), clear (3), or yellow and 
bloodshot (2). The iris was homogeneous in Nos. 4467 and 4472, 
rayed in No. 4471, and zoned in Nos. 4464 and 4473. Seven men 
(Nos. 4456, 4458, 4464, 4474, 4481, 4482, and 4484) had blue-ringed 
irises, possibly arcus senilis. No. 4467 had a dark rim around his 
iris, and Nos. 4477 and 4480 had Negroid eyes. 



Color No. 

Black 1 

Dark brown 19 

Blue-brown 

Blue-brown 

Green-brown 1 

Green-brown 

Gray-brown 2 

Blue 

Gray 

Light brown 

Blue-gray 

Blue-green 

Total 23 100.01 

Nose. — The profile was convex (11), straight (6), concave (4), or 
concavo-convex (2). The alae were medium (10), flaring (9), or 
compressed (4). In thickness the nasal tip was thin (No. 4467), 
slightly more than average (Nos. 4466, 4471, and 4473), and double 
plus (Nos. 4465 and 4472). Nos. 4479 and 4482 had high nasal 
bridges. Fourteen individuals had depressed and four elevated 
nasal tips. The septum was either straight (13) or convex (10); 
the inclination was upwards in eighteen cases and downwards in 
only four individuals. 

The following observations on the nose were recorded: No. 4470, 
marked nasion depression and high, aquiline angle; No. 4472, very 
flat and broad; No. 4476, small; No. 4477, short and broad nose and 
eyes were chief indications of Negroid blood; No. 4478, broad; No. 
4479, very aquiline; No. 4480, Negroid; and No. 4483, small. 





Eyes 






Per cent 


Sclera 


No. 


Per cent 


4.35 


Clear 


. 3 


13.64 


82.61 


Yellow 


. 3 


13.64 




Speckled 


. 






Bloodshot 


. 14 


63.64 


4.35 


Speckled and bloodshot . . 


. 






Speckled and yellow 


. 




8.70 


Yellow and bloodshot 
Total 


2 
22 


9.09 




100.01 



134 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Nose 



Profile 



No. 



Per cent 



Wavy 

Concave 4 

Straight 6 

Convex 11 

Concavo-convex 2 

Total 23 



Tip elevation No. 

Elevated 4 

Horizontal 

Depressed 14 



Total 18 100.00 



17 


.39 


26 


.09 


47. 


83 


8. 


.70 


100 


.01 


Per cent 


22 


.22 


77 


.78 



Wings 



No. Per cent 
17.39 



Compressed 4 

Compressed-medium 

Medium 10 43.48 

Medium-flaring 

Flaring 9 39.13 

Flaring plus 

Total 23 100.00 

Septum No. Per cent 

Straight 13 56.52 

Convex 10 43.48 

Total 23 100.00 



Septum inclination No. Per cent 

Up 18 81.82 

Down 4 18.18 

Total 22 100.00 



Teeth. — The occlusion was recorded as marked-over (8), slight- 
over (7), edge-to-edge (6), and under bite (1). The small number 
of teeth lost indicates a relatively healthy oral condition. Nos. 4464, 

4477, 4483, and 4486 had good and No. 4476 excellent teeth. Wear 
was slightly more than average in six cases (Nos. 4372, 4379, 4380, 
4384, 4385, and 4398) and double plus in Nos. 4465, 4471, 4481, and 
4482. Eruption was recorded as incomplete in Nos. 4469, 4470, 

4478, and 4483, and complete in Nos. 4467, 4471, and 4472. 

The following observations were recorded on the teeth: stained, 
Nos. 4470, 4473, 4474, 4477, 4480-4482, and 4484; tartar deposit, 
Nos. 4398, 4469, 4478, and 4479; broken, Nos. 4471 (2), and No. 
4470, lower first molars; good and strong, Nos. 4479 and 4483; fairly 
clean, No. 4485; crooked but strong and white, No. 4486; three 
gold-capped, No. 4398; and all premolars and molars lost, No. 4475. 



Teeth 



Bite No. 

Under 1 

Edge-to-edge 6 

Slight over 7 

Marked over 8 

Total 22 



Per cent 


Loss 


No. 


4.55 
27.27 
31.82 
36.36 


None 

1-4 

5-8 

9-16 

17- 

All 


6 

6 

1 

3 

2 




100.00 




Total 


18 



Per cent 
33.33 
33.33 
5.56 
16.67 
11.11 



100.00 



Prognathism. — Alveolar prognathism was observed in Nos. 4469, 
4473, and 4479. 



Anthropometric Data: Royal Hospital 135 

Lips. — Eversion was recorded as slightly more than average in 
Nos. 4472, 4480 (everted lower lip), and 4481 and double plus in No. 
4479. Nos. 4472, 4477, 4480, and 4481 appeared to have some 
Negroid blood. 

Physical Appearance. — Nos. 4398 and 4467 were pale. No. 4479 
was very thin. No. 4486 had bad posture. 

Pathological Cases. — No. 4476 bore smallpox scars. No. 4398 
had scalp disease, probably favus. Nos. 4466 and 4483 were blind 
in the left eye, and both possessed a filmed right eye. No. 4474 
had both eyes filmed but could see dimly. 

No. 4483 had a sprained elbow and swollen forearm which was 
bent around, the result of a fall six weeks before he came to the 
hospital. 

Cauterization (Chawi) 

No. 

4465: Both forearms. 

4471: Right arm, both legs. 

4472 : Left wrist and both forearms. 

4473: Both legs, right arm "for pain after fever." 

4474: Above right knee. 

4475: Right leg. 

4476: Both forearms. 

4478: Both forearms. 

4481: Belly (10) for "tubercular lesion which didn't heal." 

4483: Elbow, "to relieve sprained elbow." 

4484: Both arms. 

4485: Both arms. 

4486: Above ankle. 

Tattooing. — Sixteen men bore simple tattooed designs, but no 
individual was extensively tattooed. 

Tattooing 

No. Per cent 

None 4 20.00 

Some 16 80.00 

Extensive 

Total 20 100.00 



Measurements and Indices of Twenty-three Arabs 

Stature.— The mean was 167.58, range 155.0-175.0. The three- 
fold Harvard classificatory system places eleven men as medium 
(160.6-169.4), eight as tall (169.5-x), and only two as short (x-160.5). 
According to the fourfold Keith system thirteen men were medium 
(160.0-169.9), six tall (170.0-179.9), and two short (x-159.9). No 
individual was in the very tall (180.0-x) group. 



136 Anthropology of Iraq 

Stature* 

Harvard system No. Per cent Keith system No. Per cent 

Short (x-160.5) 2 9.52 Short (x-159.9) 2 9.52 

Medium (160.6-169.4)... 11 52.38 Medium (160.0-169.9). 13 61.90 

Tall (169.5-x) 8 38. 10 Tall (170.0-179.9) 6 28.57 

— Very tall (180.0-x) 

Total 21 100.00 

♦ Nos. 4464 and 4486 omitted. 



Total 21 99.99 





28. 


,57 


66 


67 


4 


.76 



Sitting Height.— The mean was 86.14, range 81.0-92.0. The 
trunk length was long (85.0-89.9) or medium (80.0-84.9). One 
man had a very long (90.0-x) trunk. No individuals were in the 
short (75.0-79.9) or very short (x-74.9) categories. 



Sitting Height (Trunk Length) 

Group Range No. Per cent 

Very short x-74.9 

Short 75.0-79.9 

Medium 80.0-84.9 6 

Long 85.0-89.9 14 

Very long 90.0-x 1 

Total 21 100.00 



Head Measurements and Indices. — Fifteen Arabs had wide 
(140-149) heads, six had very wide (150-x) heads, and two had 
narrow (130-139) heads. No man had a very narrow (x-129) head. 
Seventeen men had narrow (100-109) foreheads. Although there 
were no individuals in the very wide (120-x) category, there were 
three individuals in both the wide (110-119) or very narrow (x-99) 
classifications. 

The Harvard threefold system places fourteen men as dolicho- 
cephals (x-76.5) and nine as mesocephals (76.6-82.5). There were 
no brachycephals (82.6-x). According to the Keith system sixteen 
men were mesocephals (75.1-79.9) and seven were dolichocephals 
(70.1-75.0). No individual was in the ultradolichocephalic (x-70.0), 
brachycephalic (80.0-84.9), or ultrabrachycephalic (85.0-x) divisions. 

Head Breadth 

Group Range No. Per cent 

Very narrow x-129 

Narrow 130-139 2 8.70 

Wide 140-149 15 65.22 

Very wide 150-x 6 26.09 



Total 23 100.01 



Anthropometric Data: Royal Hospital 
Minimum Frontal Diameter 

Group Range No. Per cent 

Very narrow x-99 3 13.04 

Narrow 100-109 17 73.91 

Wide 110-119 3 13.04 

Very wide 120-x 

Total 23 99.99 



137 



Harvard system 

Dolichocephalic . 

(x-76.5) 
Mesocephalic . . . 

(76.6-82.5) 
Brachycephalic . 

(82.6-x) 
Total 



Cephalic Index 

No. Per cent Keith system No. Per cent 

14 60.87 Ultradolichocephalic 

(x-70.0) 

9 39.13 Dolichocephalic 7 30.43 

(70.1-75.0) 

Mesocephalic 16 69.57 

— (75.1-79.9) 

23 100.00 Brachycephalic 

(80.0-84.9) 

Ultrabrachycephalic .... 

(85.0-x) — 

Total 23 100.00 



Head Form. — No. 4473 had a flat area near bregma. No. 4480 
had a flattened area above the occipital region. 

Facial Measurements and Indices. — The upper facial height was 
either medium long (70-75) or long (76-x). Three men had medium 
short (64-69) upper faces. No Arab was in the short (x-63) group. 
The mean was 75.90, range 65-89. 

The total facial height was either medium long (120-129) or 
medium short (110-119). Two men had long (130-x) faces and one 
a short (x-109) face. The mean was 120.40, range 105-134. No. 
4474 was omitted. 

The facial index was either mesoprosopic (84.6-89.4) or lepto- 
prosopic (89.5-x). Two Arabs were euryprosopic (x-84.5). 

The mean upper facial index was 55.88, range 49-63. The mean 
facial index was 89.50, range 80-99. 

No. 4477 had small features. Nos. 4480 and 4481 had well- 
developed supraorbital crests. 



Upper facial height 



Facial Measurements 
No. Per cent Total facial height 



Short 

(x-63) 

Medium short 3 13.04 

(64-69) 

Medium long 10 43.48 

(70-75) 

Long 10 43.48 

(76-x) — 

Total 23 100.00 



No. Per cent 



Short 1 

(x-109) 

Medium short 9 

(110-119) 

Medium long 10 

(120-129) 

Long 2 

(130-x) — 

Total 22 



4.55 
40.91 
45.45 

9.09 
100.00 



138 Anthropology of Iraq 

Total Facial Index * 

Group No. Per cent 

Euryprosopic (x-84 .5) 2 9.09 

Mesoprosopic (84 . 6-89 .4) 10 45 . 45 

Leptoprosopic (89.5-x) 10 45.45 



Total 22 99.99 

♦No. 4474 omitted. 

Nasal Measurements and Indices. — Twenty men had medium 
(50-59) and three short (x-49) nasal heights. No individual was in 
the long (60-x) class. The mean was 53.14, range 40-59. Eleven 
Arabs had medium wide (36-41), nine medium narrow (30-35), and 
two wide (42-x) noses. No man had a very narrow (x-29) nose. 
The mean was 36.77, range 31-42. No. 4476 was omitted. 

Eleven men were mesorrhine (67.5-83.4), ten were leptorrhine 
(x-67.4), and one platyrrhine (83.5-x). The mean was 68.94, range 
56-87. 

Nasal Measurements 



asal height 


No. 


Per cent Nasal width * 






No. 


Per cent 


Short 


3 


13.04 


Very narrow 




. 




(x-49) 
Medium .... 


20 


86.96 


(x-29) 
Medium narrow 




9 


40.91 


(50-59) 
Long 







(30-35) 
Medium wide . . . 




. 11 


50.00 


(60-x) 
Total... 


23 




(36-41) 
Wide 






. 2 




100.00 


9.09 








(42-x) 
Total . . 






. 22 






100.00 






Nasal Index * 












Group 




No. 


Per cent 








Leptorrhine (x-67.4) 
Mesorrhine (67.5-83.4) 
Platyrrhine (83.5-x) 

Total 


10 

11 

1 

22 


45. 

50. 

4. 


,45 
00 
55 








100. 


00 






* No. 4476 omitted. 













Individuals Omitted from Statistical Analyses 

Since the remainder of the males measured in the Royal Hospital, 
Baghdad, belonged to various racial stocks and different religious 
groups, no statistical analyses could be made, although the meas- 
urements and indices for the ten Arabs have been calculated 
merely for comparative purposes. 

Provenance. — No. 4456, Chaldean from Tell Kaif; No. 4457, 
Afghan from Herat (12 years before); No. 4458, Armenian from 
Istanbul; No. 4459, Armenian from Van; No. 4460, Turkoman from 
Tuz Khurmatli near Kirkuk; No. 4461, Turkoman from Kirkuk; 



Anthropometric Data: Royal Hospital 



139 



Measurements and Indices of Baghdad Royal Hospital Males 

Measurements No. Range Mean S.D. C.V. 

Age 23 18-64 38.30±2.09 14.85±1.48 38. 77 ±3. 86 

Stature 21 155-175 167.58±0.76 5.19±0.54 3.10±0.32 

Sitting height 21 81-92 86.14±0.38 2.55±0.27 2.96±0.31 

Head length 23 176-211 193.56±0.95 6.72±0.67 3.47 ±0.35 

Head breadth 23 138-155 146.29±0.59 4.23±0.42 2.89±0.29 

Minimum frontal 

diameter 23 97-116 104.58±0.62 4.40±0.44 4.21±0.42 

Bizygomatic diameter. 23 125-149 136.15±0.77 5.45±0.54 4.00±0.40 

Bigonial diameter 22 90-117 101.70±0.86 6.00±0.61 5.90±0.60 

Total facial height.... 22 105-134 120.40±0.93 6.50±0.66 5.40±0.55 

Upper facial height ... 23 65-89 75 . 90 ±0 . 82 5 . 85 ±0 . 58 7 . 71 ±0 . 77 

Nasal height 23 40-59 53.14±0.60 4.24±0.42 7.98±0.79 

Nasalbreadth 22 31-42 36.77±0.42 2.94±0.30 8.00±0.81 

Earlength 23 56-79 65.50±0.79 5.64±0.56 8.61±0.86 

Ear breadth 23 26-40 34.44±0.43 3.03±0.30 8.80±0.88 

Indices 

Relative sitting height 21 48-53 51. 46 ±0.14 0.98 ±0.10 1.90 ±0.20 

Cephalic 23 68-82 75.39±0.40 2.82±0.28 3.74±0.37 

Fronto-parietal 23 66-77 71.44±0.43 3.03±0.30 4.24±0.42 

Zygo-frontal 23 72-83 76.98±0.42 2.96±0.29 3.85±0.38 

Zygo-gonial 22 69-83 75.04±0.47 3.30±0.34 4.40±0.45 

Totalfacial 22 80-99 89.50±0.60 4.20±0.43 4.69±0.48 

Upper facial 23 49-63 55.88±0.46 3.24±0.32 5.80±0.58 

Nasal 22 56-87 68.94±0.84 5.84±0.59 8.47±0.86 

Ear 23 41-64 52.58±0.76 5.40±0.54 10.27±1.02 



No. 4462, Assyrian from Shemsaddin tribe, now resident at Erbil; 
No. 4463, Turk from Istanbul; No. 4468, Arab from Baghdad; No. 
4487, Arab from between Baghdad and Diltawa. 

No. 4456, obviously a non-Arab type, had a high, vaulted fore- 
head (straight up), a flat area rather high on the head and "terrible" 
teeth with deposits. He had chawi scars on his right knee and his 
right arm. 

No. 4457, a Mongoloid type, had a high, sloping vault, narrow 
head, face and features with a medium epicanthic fold, large eye 
pupils, and most of the lower teeth replaced by bridgework made 
in Khurasan. He had a chawi on his right thigh. 

No. 4458 had a very straight nose, "not at all the Armenian type 
of nose." His teeth were stained. 

No. 4459 had a flat occiput, small nose, and teeth stained but 
strong-looking. 

No. 4460 had a bad deposit on the teeth and scurf on the scalp. 

No. 4461 had a high, sloping vault and a prominent strong chin. 
His left hand was paralyzed, the fingers bent and immovable, due 
to injuries received while working for the Iraq Petroleum Company. 



140 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Measurements and Indices of Baghdad Royal Hospital Males 

Measurements No. Mean S.D. C.V. 

Stature 31 167.71±.62 5.09±.44 3.04±.26 

Sitting height 31 85.89±.39 3.21±.27 3.74±.31 

Headlength 32 191.94±.90 7.60±.64 3.96±.33 

Headbreadth 31 147.55±.58 4.78±.41 3.24±.28 

Minimum frontal diameter .32 104 . 59 ± . 45 3 . 77 ± . 32 3 . 60 ± . 31 

Bizygomatic breadth 32 137.22±.63 5.30±.45 3.86±.33 

Bigonial breadth 30 102.00±.70 5.72±.50 5.61±.49 

Total facial height 30 121.97±.80 6.52dz.57 5.35±.47 

Upper facial height 31 76.23±.62 5.09±.44 6.68±.58 

Nasalheight 32 53.38±.52 4.34±.37 8.13±.69 

Nasalbreadth 32 36.47±.32 2.68±.23 7.35±.63 

Earlength 32 66.50±.67 5.62±.47 8.45±.71 

Earbreadth 32 35.09±.39 3.26±.27 9.29±.77 

Indices 

Relative sitting height 31 51.16±.19 1.60±.14 3.13±.27 

Cephalic 31 77.00±.51 4.20±.36 5.45±.47 

Fronto-parietal 31 70.87±.38 3.11±.27 4.39=fc.38 

Zygo-frontal 32 76.28±.32 2.67±.23 3.50±.30 

Zygo-gonial 30 74.57±.39 3.15±.27 4.22±.36 

Totalfacial 30 89.15db.49 3.98±.35 4.46±.39 

Upperfacial 31 55.58db.38 3.13±.27 5.63±.49 

Nasal 32 68.83±.66 5.54±.47 8.05±.68 

Ear 31 53.15±.64 5.29±.45 9.95±.85 



No. 4462 had a flat, broad occiput, large nose, some deposit 
on his teeth, and some smallpox scars; although his eyes appeared 
normal he had been blinded by a 24-foot fall from a housetop. 

No. 4463 had a flat occiput, a nose broad throughout its entire 
length, some deposit on his teeth, and "vision all right," although 
he was blind in the left eye and the right appeared filmed. 

No. 4468 had lost all his teeth ten years ago and had cancer of 
the tongue. He had chawi scars on his left foot "to relieve pain," 
and below his left knee. 

No. 4487 had a high, sloping vault. His teeth were stained; 
the lower incisors and canines were present. He had "cancer" on 
the right arm in three places. 



Anthropometric Data: Royal Hospital 



141 



Measurements of Baghdad Royal Hospital Males 



No. 


Age 


Stature 


SH 


L 


B 


B' 


J 


go-go 


GH 


G'H 


NH 


NB 


4398 


29 


1567 


836 


189 


149 


107 


140 


110 


119 


74 


52 


34 


4456* 


55 


1690 


850 


187 


153 


101 


143 


109 


(136)f 


(81)t 


57 


38 


4457* 


30 


1777 


892 


202 


140 


105 


137 


100 


113 


72 


45 


35 


4458* 


48 


1670 


936 


185 


152 


107 


138 


107 


128 


81 


58 


35 


4459* 


35 


1613 


815 


175 


158 


107 


146 




126 


78 


53 


35 


4460* 


33 


1606 


829 


196 


153 


106 


142 


ioo 


127 


78 


51 


33 


4461* 


25 


1684 


893 


180 


148 


108 


140 


106 


124 


72 


52 


34 


4462* 


30 


1653 


862 


186 


154 


107 


146 


110 


124 


79 


59 


34 


4463* 


16 


1579 


808 


183 


151 


102 


132 


93 


113 


70 


50 


37 


4464 


47 






191 


150 


105 


141 


100 


128 


82 


59 


37 


4465 


53 


11699 


882 


195 


151 


113 


143 


104 


123 


79 


59 


42 


4466 


58 


1620 


859 


191 


145 


101 


133 


106 


(114)t 


(73)J 


53 


38 


4467 


35 


1690 


887 


193 


146 


104 


135 


102 


127 


80 


58 


40 


4468* 


78 


1647 


799 


197 


•••§ 


107 


140 


102 


(124) § 


(77) § 


57 


39 


4469 


18 


1727 


890 


181 


139 


103 


129 


99 


119 


74 


53 


34 


4470 


21 


1588 


830 


197 


148 


98 


137 


105 


126 


73 


53 


35 


4471 


60 


1737 


872 


191 


150 


99 


137 


96 


117 


73 


52 


34 


4472 


38 


1731 


871 


204 


144 


98 


131 


106 


124 


73 


52 


35 


4473 


45 


1677 


881 


191 


140 


101 


127 


91 


123 


80 


57 


33 


4474 


60 


1734 


874 


209 


147 


112 


141 


97 




88 


58 


38 


4475 


60 


1695 


868 


192 


150 


109 


146 


114 


i24 


81 


57 


42 


4476 


28 


1655 


853 


192 


153 


101 


133 


103 


117 


73 


50 


(35)11 


4477 


25 


1693 


826 


192 


146 


102 


135 


94 


114 


69 


47 


37 


4478 


23 


1721 


917 


198 


145 


110 


137 




130 


80 


54 


38 


4479 


25 


1678 


854 


200 


147 


109 


140 


iio 


129 


76 


55 


39 



* Omitted throughout averages. 

t Questionable — "Teeth poor." 

t Questionable. 

§ "Seems swollen on both sides above ears;" aged; all teeth gone ten years ago. 



Indices of Baghdad Royal Hospital Males 



No. 


EL 


EB 


RSH 


B/L 


B'/B 


GH/J 


G'H/J 


NB/NH 


EB/EL 


go-go/J 


B'/J 


4398 


66 


33 


53.4 


78.8 


71.8 


85.0 


52.9 


65.4 


50.0 


78.6 


76.4 


4456 


68 


36 


50.3 


81.8 


66.0 


95.1 


56.6 


66.7 


52.9 


76.2 


70.6 


4457 


63 


35 


50.2 


69.3 


75.0 


82.5 


52.6 


77.8 


55.6 


73.0 


76.6 


4458 


65 


37 


56.0 


82.2 


70.4 


92.8 


58.7 


60.3 


56.9 


77.5 


77.5 


4459 


66 


36 


50.5 


90.3 


67.7 


86.3 


53.4 


66.0 


54.5 




73.3 


4460 


65 


30 


51.6 


78.1 


69.3 


89.4 


54.9 


64.7 


46.2 


76!4 


74.6 


4461 


70 


34 


53.0 


82.2 


73.0 


88.6 


51.4 


65.4 


48.6 


75.7 


77.1 


4462 


68 


42 


52.1 


82.8 


69.5 


84.9 


54.1 


57.6 


61.8 


75.3 


73.3 


4463 


61 


35 


51.2 


82.5 


67.5 


85.6 


53.0 


74.0 


57.4 


70.5 


77.3 


4464 


66 


37 




78.5 


70.0 


90.8 


58.2 


62.7 


56.1 


70.9 


74.5 


4465 


71 


34 


5i!6 


77.4 


74.8 


86.0 


55.2 


71.2 


47.9 


72.7 


79.0 


4466 


71 


36 


53.0 


75.9 


69.7 


85.7 


54.9 


71.7 


50.7 


79.7 


75.9 


4467 


71 


33 


52.5 


75.6 


71.2 


94.1 


59.3 


69.0 


46.5 


75.6 


77.0 


4468 


79 


35 


48.5 






88.6 


55.0 


68.4 


44.3 


72.9 


76.4 


4469 


58 


36 


51.5 


7<L8 


ii.i 


92.2 


57.4 


64.2 


62.1 


76.7 


79.8 


4470 


66 


38 


52.3 


75.1 


66.2 


92.0 


53.3 


66.0 


57.6 


76.6 


71.5 


4471 


66 


28 


50.2 


78.5 


66.0 


85.4 


53.3 


65.4 


42.4 


70.1 


72.3 


4472 


57 


35 


50.3 


70.6 


68.1 


94.7 


55.7 


67.3 


61.4 


80.9 


74.8 


4473 


63 


36 


52.5 


73.3 


72.1 


96.9 


63.0 


57.9 


57.1 


71.7 


79.5 


4474 


76 


38 


50.4 


70.3 


76.2 




62.4 


65.5 


50.0 


68.8 


79.4 


4475 


72 


34 


51.2 


78.1 


72.7 


84^9 


55.5 


73.7 


47.2 


78.1 


74.7 


4476 


59 If 


291f 51.5 


79.7 


66.0 


88.0 


54.8 


....11 


49.2 


77.4 


75.9 


4477 


62 


34 


48.8 


76.0 


69.9 


84.4 


51.1 


78.7 


54.8 


69.6 


75.6 


4478 


66 


37 


53.3 


73.2 


75.9 


94.9 


58.4 


70.4 


56.1 




80.3 


4479 


67 


38 


50.9 


73.5 


74.1 


92.1 


54.3 


70.9 


56.7 


78l6 


77.9 



U Small nose, smallpox scars affect nasal measurement; right ear was measured. 



142 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Measurements of Baghdad Royal Hospital Males 



No. 


Age 


Stature SH L 


B 


B' J 


go-go 


GH 


G'H 


NH 


NB 


4480 


18 


1691 853 194 


140 


106 130 


98 


112 


69 


45 


38 


4481 


45 


1736 885 198 


145 


105 140 


105 


132 


88 


59 


41 


4482 


48 


1626 868 191 


146 


102 136 


101 


121 


72 


51 


33 


4483 


20 


1616 832 176 


138 


100 127 


95 


108 


66 


42 


32 


4484 


50 


1637 838 188 


148 


104 138 


99 


116 


75 


52 


33 


4485 


28 


1636 825 193 


145 


107 133 


96 


121 


75 


52 


37 


4486 


35 


(1677)t 814 199 


151 


103 134 


100 


119 


76 


54 


38 


4487* 


70 


1779 870 196 


151 


105 144 


112 






54 


38 


* Omitted in statistical series. 


t Measurement uncertain because of bad posture. 










Indices of Baghdad Royal Hospital Males 








No. 


EL 


eb rsh b/l 


B'/B 


GH/J G'H/J 


NB/NH 


EB/EL 


go-go/J 


B'/J 


4480 


63 


33 50.4 72.2 


75.7 


86.2 53.1 


84.4 


52.4 


75 


4 


81.5 


4481 


76 


36 51.0 73.2 


72.4 


94.3 62.9 


69.5 


47.4 


75 





75.0 


4482 


65 


34 53.4 76.4 


69.9 


89.0 52.9 


64.7 


52.3 


74 


3 


75.0 


4483 


57 


32 51.5 78.4 


72.5 


85.0 52.0 


76.2 


56.1 


74 


8 


78.7 


4484 


69 


31 51.2 78.7 


70.3 


84.1 54.3 


63.5 


44.9 


71 


7 


75.4 


4485 


60 


32 50.4 75.1 


73.8 


91.0 56.4 


71.2 


53.3 


72 


2 


80.5 


4486 


65 


38 (48.5)f75.9 


68.2 


88.8 56.7 


70.4 


58.5 


74 


6 


76.9 


4487 


77 


44 48.9 77.0 


69.5 




70.4 


57.1 


77 


8 


72.9 



Morphological Characters of Baghdad Royal Hospital Males 



No. Form Texture 


Color 


4398 . 






4456 . 


medium 


dkbr 


4457* . 




dkbr 


4458 . 


coarse 


blk, gray 


4459 1 


w med-fine 


black 


4460 . 


medium 


blk, gray 


4461* . . 


coarse 


black 


4462f . 




black 


4463* . 






4464 1 ' 


w fine 


dkbr 


4465 . 




br, gray 


4466* . 






4467 1 


w coarse 


dkbr 


4468 1 


w coarse 


gray 
dkbr 


4469* . 


fine 


4470 . 


medium 


black 


4471 . 




br, gray 


4472 . 






4473J 1 


w medium 


blk, gray 


4474* . 




gray 


4475 . 




blk, gray 


4476J . 


coarse 


black 


4477* . 


medium 


blk, gray 


4478J . 


coarse 


black 


4479* . 




black 


4480 If . 




black 


4481* . 


coarse 


blk, gray 


4482* . 




blk, gray 


4483* . 


coarse 


blk 


4484 . 


medium 


blk, gray 


4485 . 


medium 


black 


4486 . 


coarse 


dkbr 


4487 If . 


medium 


gray 


*Sha 


red. t Baldness plus. + Hair 











Color 


Sclera 


iris Profile 


Wings 


black 


clear 


conv 


medium 


dkbr 


blood ray conv 


medium 


dkbr 




str 


flar 


dkbr 


blood 


str 


medium 


dkbr 


yellow 


str 


comp 


gr-br 


blood 


conv 


comp 


dkbr 


blood 


conv 


medium 


dkbr 


blood 


str 


comp 


dkbr 


clear 


str 


flar 


dkbr 


blood zon conv 


medium 


gray-br 


blood 


conv 


flar 


dkbr 


blood 


conv 


medium 


dkbr 


blood hom conv 


medium 


dkbr 


blood 


cone 


flar 


dkbr 


clear 


cone 


medium 


dkbr 


yellow 


conv 


medium 


gray-br 


blood ray conv 


comp 


dkbr 


blood hom cone 


flar 


gr-br 
dkbr 


blood zon c-c 


comp 


blood 


str 


medium 


dkbr 


blood 


str 


flar 


dkbr 


blood 


cone 


medium 


dkbr 


yellow 


c-c 


flar 


dkbr 


yellow 


str 


flar 


dkbr 


blood 


conv 


medium 


dk br yell, blood 


cone 


flar 


dk br yell, blood 


conv 


flar 


dkbr 


blood 


conv 


comp 


dkbr 




str 


medium 


dkbr 


blood 


conv 


comp 


dkbr 


blood 


str 


flar 


dkbr 


clear 


str 


flar 


gray-br 


blood 


conv 


flar 


very short 


1 Hair sh 


>rt. 





Anthropometric Data: Royal Hospital 



143 



Fifty-two Females Measured in Royal Hospital, Baghdad 

Introduction. — Within this series there are twenty women, who 
can be grouped together. The remainder must be left as separate 
entities. 

Notes. — Since these individuals may at some future time be 
included in larger series from the same areas it is desirable to record 
the tribal information. 

Among the Arab series of twenty women Nos. 4506-4508, 4510 
(mother from Basra), 4511, and 4512 were from Baghdad; No. 4513, 
from An Najaf; No. 4514, from Mahmudiya; No. 4515, from Baquba; 
No. 4516, from Hiyaliya tribe near Baghdad; No. 4517, from Al bu 
Muhammad tribe east of Amara; No. 4518, from Ajili tribe near 
Karrada; No. 4519, from Tai tribe near Baquba; No. 4520, from 
Karrada; No. 4522, from Muadhdham; No. 4523, non-tribal from 
Samarra; No. 4524, from Al-Umara (?tribe) near Mahmudiya; 
No. 4526, from Rabia tribe near Kut; and No. 4527, from Hufaiya 
tribe near Hilla. 

Twenty Arab Women from Various Towns in Iraq 

Demography. — In this group of Arab women there was a slight 
female preponderance — fifteen daughters to eleven sons. 



Sons No. 

None 5 

1 1 

2 3 

3-4 7 

5-6 

7 or more 

Total 16 



Demography 








Per cent 


Daughters 


No. 


Per cent 


31.25 

6.25 

18.75 

43.75 


None 

1 

2 

3-4 

5-6 


1 

5 

4 

6 

.... 


6.25 
31.25 
25.00 
37.50 




7 or more .... 
Total 



. ... 16 




100.00 


100.00 



Age. — Three-quarters of the group were between 20-34 years 
of age. The mean was 30.50, range 20-59. 



Age No. 

18-19 

20-24 7 

25-29 4 

30-34 4 

35-39 2 

40-44 1 



Age Distribution 






Per cent 


Age 


No. 


Per cent 






45-49 

50-54 


1 
.... 


5.00 


35 


.00 




20 


,00 


55-59 


.... 1 


5.00 


20 


.00 


60-64 


.... 




10 


.00 


65-69 


.... 




5 


.00 


70-x 

Total 



.... 20 






100.00 



144 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Morphological Characters of Twenty Arab Women 
Skin. — The color was dark in Nos. 4517 and 4524. 
Hair. — The color shaded from dark brown to black, with about 
an equal number in each division. The majority (17) had low wavy 
hair; the other two individuals, deep waves. In about half of the 
group the texture was medium, with an almost equal number in 
the coarse and fine categories. No. 4524 had a shaven head. 



Hair 



Color No. 

Black 9 

Very dark brown 

Dark brown 8 

Brown 

Reddish brown 

Light brown 

Red 

Black and gray 1 

Dark brown and gray ... 1 

Light brown and gray ... 

Gray 1 

White 

Total 20 



Per cent 
45.00 



40.00 



Form No. 

Straight 

Very low waves 

Low waves 17 

Deep waves 2 

Curly-frizzly 

Woolly 



Per cent 



89.47 
10.53 



5.00 Total 19 100.00 

5.00 

Texture No. Per cent 

5io6 Coarse 4 21.05 

Coarse-medium 

Medium 10 52.63 

100.00 Medium-fine 

Fine 5 26.32 



Total 19 100.00 

Eyes. — The color was dark brown (10) or black (6). No. 4508, 
omitted from the following table on color, had eyes of green-gray 
flecked with brown. No. 4510 had light brown eyes. About three- 
quarters of the group possessed clear sclera, the remainder being 
bloodshot. No. 4514 had a homogeneous iris. No. 4526 had small 
eyes, which she kept only partly open. No. 4507 was recorded with 
a blue ringed iris, probably arcus senilis. Nos. 4510 and 4511 had 
filmed eyes, and No. 4523 bluish filmed eyes. 



Color 



No. 



Black 6 

Dark brown 10 

Blue-brown 

Blue-brown 

Green-brown 1 

Green-brown 

Gray-brown 

Blue 

Gray 

Light brown 1 

Blue-gray 

Blue-green 



Eyes 



Per cent 

33.33 
55.56 



5.56 



5.56 



Sclera 



No. 



Clear 15 

Yellow 

Speckled 

Bloodshot 4 

Speckled and bloodshot. 

Speckled and yellow .... 

Yellow and bloodshot ... 



Total 



Per cent 

78.95 



21.05 



19 100.00 



Total 18 100.01 



Anthropometric Data: Royal Hospital 



145 



Nose. — The profile was either convex (8) concave (7) or straight 
(5). The alae were medium (11), the remainder tending to be more 
flaring (5) than compressed (3). No. 4523 had a high nasal bridge 
and Nos. 4507 and 4513 broad nasal bridges. The septum was either 
straight (6) or convex (6). Three-quarters of the group possessed 
a nasal septum with an upward inclination. The nasal tip was 
either depressed (12) or elevated (5). Nos. 4514, 4515, and 4526 
had slightly thicker than average nasal tips, but in No. 4507 the 
fleshy part of the nose was thin. 

Nos. 4513 and 4518 possessed small noses, No. 4514 a broad, No. 
4515 a short and broad, and No. 4507 a narrow nose except in 
the bridge. 



Nose 



Profile 



No. Per cent 



Wings 



No. 



35 


00 


25 


.00 


40. 


00 





Wavy 

Concave 7 

Straight 5 

Convex 8 

Concavo-convex 



Total 20 100.00 

Septum No. Per cent 

Straight 6 50.00 

Convex 6 50.00 

Total 12 100.00 



Septum inclination No. Per cent 

Up 14 73.68 

Down 5 26.32 

Total 19 100.00 



Compressed 1 

Compressed-medium .... 2 

Medium 11 

Medium-flaring 1 

Flaring 4 

Flaring plus 

Total 19 



Tip thickness 



Average . 
+ 



No. 


1 


3 




Total . 



Tip elevation No. 

Elevated 5 

Horizontal 

Depressed 12 



Per cent 

5.26 

10.53 

57.89 

5.26 

21.05 



99.99 

Per cent 



25.00 



75.00 



100.00 

Per cent 
29.41 



70.59 



Total 17 100.00 



Description of Nasal Septum 



No. 


Septum 


Inclination 


Elevation 


4506 


convex 


up 


depressed 


4507 


convex 


up 


depressed 


4508 


straight 


down 


depressed 


4510 


straight 


up 


depressed 


4511 


straight 


up 


depressed 


4512 


straight 


up 


elevated 


4513 


convex 


up 


depressed 


4514 


convex 


up 


depressed 


4515 


convex 


up 


elevated 


4516 


straight 


down 


depressed 



No. 

4517 

4518 

4519 

4520 

4522 

4523 

4524 straight 

4526 convex 

4527 

4528 



Septum Inclination Elevation 



up 

down 

up 

up 

down 

up 

up 

down 

up 



depressed 

elevated 

elevated 

depressed 

elevated 

depressed 
depressed 



Teeth. — The majority (14) possessed a marked-over bite and 
two women had an edge-to-edge bite. Only three women had normal 



146 Anthropology of Iraq 

slight-over occlusion. As the group is relatively young the number 
of teeth lost is high, indicating poor dental condition among these 
town-dwellers. Wear was slight on the teeth of No. 4522, slightly 
more than average on Nos. 4518 and 4526 and double plus on 
No. 4512. Nos. 4506, 4518, and 4520 possessed complete eruption, 
No. 4516 incomplete. 

Teeth 

Bite No. Per cent Loss No. Per cent 

Under None 2 15.38 

Edge-to-edge 2 10.53 1-4 5 38.46 

Slight over 3 15.79 5-8 1 7.69 

Marked over 14 73.68 9-16 4 30.77 

— 17- 

Total 19 100.00 All 1 7.69 

Total 13 99.99 

Notes on Dentition 

No. Description 

4506 Teeth unusually white but a slight deposit. 

4507 Bad deposits on teeth. 

4508 Teeth stained. Six or seven lost ("one for each pregnancy"). 

4509 Teeth rather yellow. 

4511 Upper incisors pulled out. 

4512 Teeth stained. 

4513 Yellow deposit on teeth. Two teeth broken. 

4514 Teeth stained. 

4515 Teeth stained; three broken off. 

4516 White, strong teeth. 
4520 Some deposit on teeth. 
4524 Not much deposit on teeth. 
4527 Excellent teeth. 

Prognathism.— Nos. 4508, 4512, 4520, 4522, and 4524 had alveolar 
prognathism. 

Malars. — Nos. 4507 and 4512 had slightly more than average 
lateral projection of the malars. 

Tattooing. — The majority of the women recorded were tattooed, 
seven extensively. 

Tattooing No. Per cent 

None 5 25.00 

Some 6 30.00 

Extensive 7 45.00 

Total 18 100.00 

Special Observations 

No. Description 

4506 Bad scars on the right side of the nose as a result of a "Baghdad boil"; 
bad goiter. 

4507 Handsome. 

4509 Large dark scars of "Baghdad boil" between eyes and on forehead. 
4511 Thin, pleasant face; hair cut for mourning. 



Anthropometric Data: Royal Hospital 147 

No. Description 

4513 Growth like small tumor in large navel; abdomen distended; at hospital 
for a genito-urinary operation. 

4514 Broad face; nose broad throughout. > 

4516 Smallpox scars; tattooed on both wrists, on back of right wrist specifi- 
cally to relieve pain. Breath foul. 

4517 Pretty; gonorrheal complications in eyes of month-old baby. 

4518 Suffering from bilharziasis. Had chawi scars on right ankle, leg, back, 
belly, and under breast "to relieve pain." 

4519 Looks like a mummy, extremely thin; stomach greatly distended by 
water. 

4522 Smallpox scars. 

4523 Bad posture; does not look like an Arab woman. 

4524 Tattooed, specifically on the belly to "relieve pain." 

4527 Hair clean; very pretty. 

4528 Part Negro. 

Measurements and Indices of Twenty Arab Women 

In grouping the women, special divisions of stature and sitting 
height have been assigned by Dr. Hooton, since these are the two 
measurements in which there is a marked sexual difference. 1 

Stature. — The majority (15) were medium (149.0-159.0); there 
were no very short (x-139.0) and no very tall (170.0-x) individuals. 
The mean was 154.50, range 143.0-169.0. 

Stature 

Harvard system Range No. Per cent 

Very short x-139.0 

Short 140.0-148.0 3 15.00 

Medium 149.0-159.0 15 75.00 

Tall 160.0-169.0 2 10.00 

Very tall 170.0-x 

Total 20 100.00 

Sitting Height. — The majority (12) were medium (74.0-78.9) 
in trunk length but seven women possessed long (79.0-83.9) trunks. 
No individual was very short (x-68.9) or very long (84.0-x) in trunk 
length. This increase in sitting height does not appear in the stature 
so that these seven women must tend to have shorter legs. The 
mean was 79.00, range 72.0-86.0. 

Sitting Height (Trunk Length) 

Group Range No. Per cent 

Very short x-68.9 

Short 69.0-73.9 1 5.00 

Medium 74.0-78.9 12 60.00 

Long 79.0-83.9 7 35.00 

Very long 84.0-x 

Total 20 100.00 

1 If the females are grouped according to the male classifications the result is 
as follows: nineteen short (x-160.5), one medium (160.6-169.4), and no tall 
(169. 5-x) individuals. 



148 Anthropology of Iraq 

Head Measurements. — The head breadth (mean 141.0, range 
129.0-152.0) was wide (140.0-149.0) or narrow (130.0-139.0). No 
women had very narrow (x-129.0) heads, but two were in the very- 
wide (150.0-x) category. The minimum frontal diameter (mean 
99.50, range 89.0-112.0) was either very narrow (x-99.0) or narrow 
(100.0-109.0). The cephalic index (mean 77.85, range 71.0-88.0) 
according to the Harvard classificatory system was either dolicho- 
cephalic (9) or mesocephalic (8), but there were three women in 
the brachycephalic (82.6-x) group. The Keith fivefold divisions show 
a different arrangement: nine mesocephals (75.1-79.9), five dolicho- 
cephals (70.1-75.0), five brachycephals (80.0-84.9), and one ultra- 
brachycephal (85.0-x). 



Group 

Very narrow 

Narrow 

Wide , 

Very wide .... 




Head Breadth 

Range 

x-129.0 

130.0-139.0 

140.0-149.0 

150.0-x 


No. 



8 

10 

2 

20 

No. 

10 
10 





20 
tialic . 


Per cent 

40.00 
50.00 
10.00 
















Total 


100.00 

Per cent 
50.00 
50.00 




Group 

Very narrow 

Narrow 

Wide 

Very wide 


Minimum Frontal Diameter 

Range 

x- 99.0 

100.0-109.0 

110.0-119.0 

120. 0-x 




Total 


100.00 

No. 

... 
5 
9 

.. . 5 




Harvard system 

Dolichocephalic 

(x-76.5) 
Mesocephalic 

(76.6-82.5) 
Brachycephalic 

(82.6-x) 
Total 


No. 

9 

8 

3 

20 


Cephal 

Per cent 
45.00 

40.00 

15.00 


tc Index 

Keith system 

Ultradolichocepl 

(x-70.0) 
Dolichocephalic 

(70.1-75.0) 
Mesocephalic 

(75.1-79.9) 
Brachycephalic 

(80.0-84.9) 
Ultrabrachycepl 

(85.0-x) 
Total 


Per cent 

25.00 
45.00 


100. 


.00 


25.00 




lalic . 


. .. 1 
...20 


5.00 




100.00 



Facial Measurements and Indices. — The upper facial height (mean 
69.00, range 60.0-84.0) was medium short (11) or medium long (7), 
but there was one woman in the short (x-63.0) and one in the long 
(76.0-x) categories. The total facial height (mean 111.00, range 
100.0-124.0) was medium short (12) or short (7). Despite the 
number of individuals with medium long upper faces only one 



Anthropometric Data: Royal Hospital 



149 



woman was in the medium long (120.0-129.0) group for total facial 
height. The total facial index (mean 87.25, range 80.0-94.0) was 
either mesoprosopic (12), leptoprosopic (5), or euryprosopic (3). 



Facial Measurements 



Upper facial height 
Short 

(x-63.0) 
Medium short 

(64.0-69.0) 
Medium long 

(70.0-75.0) 
Long 

(76.0-x) 
Total 

Group 

Euryprosopic 
Mesoprosopic 
Leptoprosopic 


No. 
1 

11 

7 

1 

20 


Per cent 
5.00 

55.00 

35.00 

5.00 


Total facial height 
Short 

(x-109.0) 
Medium short 

(110.0-119.0) 
Medium long . . . 


No. 
7 

12 

.. . 1 


Per cent 
35.00 

60.00 

5.00 


(120.0-129.0) 

Long 

(130-x) 
Total 

:al Index 

Range No. 

x-84.5 3 
84.6-89.4 12 
89.5-x 5 

20 



20 

Per cent 
15.00 
60.00 
25.00 




100.00 

Total Faci 


100.00 


Total 


100.00 





Nasal Measurements and Indices. — In fourteen individuals the nose 
was short (x-49.0) and in six it was medium (50.0-59.0). Eighteen 
individuals had medium narrow and two very narrow nasal widths. 
Eleven individuals were leptorrhine (x-67.4) and nine mesorrhine 
(67.5-83.4). There were no long (60-x), no medium wide or wide 
(36-x), and no platyrrhine (83.5-x) noses in the group. 



Nasal height No. 

Short 14 

(x-19) 

Medium 6 

(50-59) 

Long 

(60-x) — 

Total 20 



Nasal Measurements 

Per cent Nasal width No. 

70 . 00 Very narrow 2 

(x-29) 

30 . 00 Medium narrow 18 

(30-35) 

Medium wide 

(36-41) 

100.00 Wide 

(42-x) 
Total 20 



Per cent 
10.00 

90.00 



100.00 



Nasal Index 

Group Range No. 

Leptorrhine x-67 .4 11 

Mesorrhine 67.5-83.4 9 

Platyrrhine 83.5-x 

Total 20 



Per cent 

55.00 
45.00 



100.00 



150 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Measurements and Indices of Females in Baghdad Royal Hospital 

Measurements No. Range Mean S.D. C.V. 

Age 20 20-59 30.50±1.41 9.35±1.00 30.66±3.27 

Stature 20 143-169 154.50±0.76 5.07±0.54 3.28±0.35 

Sitting height 20 72-86 79.00±0.53 3.54±0.38 4.48±0.48 

Head length 20 170-193 180.75±0.80 5.28±0.56 2.92±0.31 

Headbreadth 20 129-152 141.10±0.78 5.19±0.55 3.68±0.39 

Minimum frontal 

diameter 20 89-112 99.50±0.66 4.36±0.46 4.38±0.47 

Bizygomatic diameter. 20 120-139 127.50db0.67 4. 45 ±0.47 3. 49 ±0.37 

Bigonial diameter 20 86-105 94 . 70 ±0 . 52 3 . 48 ±0 . 37 3 . 67 ±0 . 39 

Total facial height 20 100-124 111.00±0.74 4.90±0.52 4.41±0.47 

Upper facial height .... 20 60-84 69 . 00 ±0 . 65 4 . 30 ±0 . 46 6 . 23 ±0 . 66 

Nasalheight 20 40-59 47.50±0.49 3.24±0.35 6.82±0.73 

Nasal breadth 20 28-36 32.60±0.27 1.80±0.19 5.52±0.59 

Earlength 19 52-71 60.22±0.60 3.88±0.42 6.44±0.70 

Ear breadth 20 29-40 32.70±0.38 2.49±0.27 7.61±0.81 

Indices 

Relative sitting height. 20 48-55 51. 20 ±0.24 1.58 ±0.17 3. 09 ±0.34 

Cephalic 20 71-88 77.85±0.62 4.08±0.44 5.24±0.56 

Fronto-parietal 20 66-80 71.05±0.46 3.03±0.32 4.26±0.45 

Zygo-frontal 20 72-83 78.10±0.44 2.92±0.31 3.74±0.40 

Zygo-gonial 20 69-80 74.35±0.48 3.21±0.34 4.32±0.46 

Total facial 20 80-94 87.25±0.51 3.35±0.36 3.84±0.41 

Upper facial 20 49-63 54.35±0.44 2.91±0.31 5.35±0.57 

Nasal 20 56-79 67.70±0.82 5.44±0.58 8.04±0.86 

Ear 19 45-68 54.06±0.75 4.84±0.53 8.95±0.98 



Individuals Omitted from Statistical Serees 

The following information refers to women who can not be 
grouped into a series. 

Nos. 4488-4490 were Turkomans from Kirkuk; Nos. 4491 and 
4492 were Jewesses from Baghdad; No. 4493 was a Jewess from 
Diarbekr; Nos. 4494-4496 were Kurds from Erbil, Sulaimaniya, 
and Dohuk, respectively; Nos. 4497 and 4498 were Chaldeans from 
Tell Kaif and Al Qosh, respectively; Nos. 4499-4501 were Assyrians 
from Darbank (Iran), Tiyari tribe, and Peshabur tribe near Zakho, 
respectively; No. 4502 was an Irani from Tehran; Nos. 4503 and 4504 
were Armenians from Alep and Istanbul, respectively; No. 4505 
was a Syrian from Tripoli; No. 4509 was an Arab, aged 16, from 
Baghdad; No. 4521 was a Dulaimi from near the Diyala; No. 4525 
was an Arab, aged 15 (Sayyida), from Karbala; and No. 4528 was an 
Arab with Negro blood, from Baghdad. 

No. Description 

4488 Medium epicanthic eye fold; small nose, nasal bridge low; teeth evenly 
spaced. 

4489 Section of hair cut on top of head "to relieve pain in neck"; smallpox 
scars; some deposit on teeth. 

4490 Operation on eyes, which are filmed; vision poor; central incisors and 
other teeth missing. 

4492 Thin. 

4493 Flat occiput; small nose. 

4494 Alveolar prognathism; two lower molars missing. 



Anthropometric Data: Royal Hospital 



151 



No. Description 

4495 Flat occipital area toward left side; scar above left brow, where she 
was hit by a knife hurled by her husband; soot (sukham) was applied to 
heal the wound; much deposit on teeth; compound fracture of wrist, 
after operation still hurt, was tattooed on left wrist and on back of 
hand, but "it still hurt." 

4496 Teeth stained, two lower incisors covered with gold; hair dyed with 
some preparation giving the same effect as henna. 

4497 Breathed with difficulty; looked older than probable age. 

4498 Maximum point of head low, flatter above; few teeth left, chiefly in 
front; three miscarriages. 

4500 Upper molars gold-plated. 

4501 In hospital for sake of child. 

4502 Yellowish skin; teeth stained. 

4503 Small nose; bad deposits on teeth, several broken off. 

4504 Teeth slightly yellow; short nose. 

4505 Several teeth broken and missing; chawi on left forearm. 

4509 Small round scar on back of left hand where a piece of flesh was cut 
out to cure internal pain; large dark scars of Baghdad boil between 
eyes and on forehead; teeth slightly yellow. 

4525 Negro admixture; small nose; hair matted, full of lice; one eye lost. 

Observations Recorded on Nasal Septum 



No. 


Septum 


Inclination 


Elevation 


No. 


Septum 


Inclination 


Elevation 


4488 


straight 


up 


elevated 


4498 


convex 


down 


depressed 


4489 


straight 


up 




4499 


convex 


down 




4490 


convex 


down 


elevated 


4500 


convex 


up 


depressed 


4491 




down 


depressed 


4501 


convex 


up 


depressed 


4492 


straight 




depressed 


4502 




up 


elevated 


4493 


convex 


down 


depressed 


4503 


straight 


up 


depressed 


4494 




down 


depressed 


4504 


straight 


down 


depressed 


4495 


straight 


up 


depressed 


4505 


convex 


up 


elevated 


4496 


convex 


up 


elevated 


4509 


straight 


up 


depressed 


4497 


convex 


up 


depressed 


4521 
4525 


straight 


up 
up 


depressed 



Prognathism. — Nos. 4494, 4503, and 4525 had slight alveolar 
prognathism. 

Eyes. — No. 4488 had blue-ringed and No. 4501 gray-ringed eyes. 

Eleven Girls Examined in Royal Hospital, Baghdad 

Provenance. — No. 4530, Arab and Turkish from Baghdad; No. 
4531, Arab from Baghdad; No. 4532, Arab from Mosul; No. 4533, 
Arab from Baghdad, father from Kurdistan; No. 4534, father Turk 
and Kurd, mother from Iran and the Caucasus; No. 4535, Arab 
from Baghdad; No. 4536, Arab from Baghdad, father from Kirkuk; 
Nos. 4537 and 4538, Arabs from Baghdad; No. 4539, Arab from 
Baghdad, ancestors on both sides from Mosul; and No. 4540, 
Chaldean from Al Qosh. 

No. 4539 belonged to a Christian family, all of whom had light 
blue or green eyes. According to this informant her Moslem friends 
possessed darker, curlier hair than those of the Christian group. 

With the exception of Nos. 4530 and 4540, these girls were 
measured and examined in the Central School for Girls, Baghdad. 



152 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Morphological Observations on Eleven Girls 

Skin. — Nos. 4534 and 4538 had darker than average skin color. 

Hair. — No. 4535 had applied peroxide, so the hair was reddish, 
with lighter parts on the surface. No. 4538 had a line of hair from 
eyebrows to hairline. Her arms were unusually hirsute. 

Physiognomy. — No. 4538 had a low brow. 

Nose. — No. 4532 had very round nostrils. No. 4534 had a broad 
nose. The nasion depression was almost absent in No. 4535. It 
was difficult to locate the subnasion point of No. 4536 as the nasal 
tip overhung. 

Teeth. — No. 4533 possessed good teeth. 

Lips. — No. 4537 had slightly higher than average integumental 
thickness. 

Negroid. — No. 4534 appeared to have slight Negroid admixture. 

Pathology. — No. 4531 had a boil scar on the right side of her 
nose, which invalidated measurement of the nasal breadth. No. 
4533 had scars from Baghdad boils. No. 4535 had smallpox scars, 
which invalidated the measurement of the nasal breadth. 



When the forty-one adult females are grouped into one series 
the following table results: 

Measurements and Indices of Females in the Baghdad Royal Hospital 

Measurements No. Mean S.D. C.V. 

Stature 41 152.39±.70 6.65±.50 4.36±.33 

Sitting height 41 78.29±.42 4.02±.30 5.13±.38 

Head length 41 178.51±.67 6.38±.48 3.57±.27 

Headbreadth 41 142.59±.60 5.73±.43 4.02db.30 

Minimum frontal diameter 41 101.20±.46 4.40±.33 4.35±.33 

Bizygomatic breadth 41 128.56±.51 4.84±.36 3.76±.28 

Bigonial breadth 41 95.34±.48 4.55±.34 4.71±.36 

Total facial height 41 109.80±.47 4.48±.33 4.08±.30 

Upper facial height 41 68.29±.43 4.04±.30 5.92±.44 

Nasalheight 41 47.63±.36 3.44±.26 7.22±.55 

Nasalbreadth 41 32.51dz.28 2.64db.20 8.12±.62 

Earlength 41 60.54±.43 4.05±.30 6.69±.50 

Earbreadth 41 32.68±.27 2.59±.19 7.93±.58 

Indices 

Relative sitting height 41 51.37±.15 1.41±.ll 2.74±.21 

Cephalic 41 80.00±.47 4.44±.33 5.55±.41 

Fronto-parietal 41 71.04±.33 3.18±.24 4.48±.34 

Zygo-frontal 41 78.76±.28 2.67±.20 3.39±.25 

Zygo-gonial 41 74.23±.35 3.37±.25 4.54±.34 

Totalfacial 41 85.49±.37 3.55±.26 4.15±.30 

Upperfacial 41 53.16±.34 3.19±.24 6.00±.45 

Nasal 40 68.04±.64 6.03±.45 8.86±.66 

Ear 41 54.21±.56 5.28±.39 9.74±.72 



Anthropometric Data: Royal Hospital 153 

Measurements of Females in the Baghdad Royal Hospital 



No. 


Age 


Stature 


SH 


L 


B 


B' 


J 


go-go 


GH 


G'H 


NH 


NB 


4488* 


18 


1485 


772 


177 


146 


103 


130 


92 


107 


66 


42 


32 


4489* 


23 


1650 


862 


183 


143 


102 


132 


96 


114 


65 


48 


33 


4490* 


50 


1506 


784 


182 


143 


114 


134 


109 


116 


71 


49 


44 


4491* 


18 


1466 


732 


175 


143 


100 


122 


92 


112 


67 


50 


30 


4492* 


32 


1580 


804 


189 


147 


99 


132 


105 


109 


69 


49 


29 


4493* 


21 


1415 


694 


172 


140 


98 


126 


93 


103 


62 


46 


30 


4494* 


25 


1553 


799 


179 


151 


106 


135 


98 


109 


65 


45 


31 


4495* 


30 


1577 


824 


165 


147 


103 


133 


99 


116 


71 


55 


30 


4496* 


18 


1411 


751 


172 


154 


104 


132 


96 


110 


65 


46 


36 


4497* 


28 


1447 


759 


163 


135 


98 


123 


88 


104 


67 


49 


30 


4498* 


58 


1583 


770 


180 


157 


104 


136 


101 


(108)f 


(69) t 


50 


35 


4499* 


38 


1610 


837 


186 


150 


109 


138 


93 


112 


73 


55 


35 


4500* 


25 


1538 


833 


171 


141 


102 


130 


96 


104 


60 


43 


33 


4501* 


20 


1560 


825 


174 


139 


104 


130 


97 


111 


69 


47 


37 


4502* 


17 


1385 


732 


174 


146 


106 


129 


89 


103 


65 


42 


32 


4503* 


50 


1471 


736 


168 


152 


104 


136 


104 


111 


71 


49 


31 


4504* 


30 


1470 


766 


175 


143 


104 


134 


93 


111 


70 


45 


32 


4505* 


35 


1450 


774 


180 


142 


95 


123 


93 


108 


70 


50 


32 


4506 


22 


1547 


761 


180 


139 


98 


130 


97 


111 


67 


46 


(31) § 


4507 


35 


1542 


838 


187 


137 


101 


122 


96 


111 


69 


48 


32 


4508 


30 


1526 


785 


172 


141 


97 


129 


94 


113 


69 


50 


32 


4509* 


16 


1553 


771 


181 


141 


105 


124 


90 


110 


69 


49 


32 


4510 


55 


1550 


774 


187 


145 


96 


124 


91 


(112) t 


(73) t 


51 


32 


4511 


25 


1491 


804 


174 


144 


103 


126 


90 


(112) If 


(66) If 


47 


34 


4512 


25 


1604 


821 


182 


141 


103 


127 


90 


111 


72 


50 


35 



Indices of Females in the Baghdad Royal Hospital 

No. EL EB RSH B/L B'/B GH/J G'H/J NB/NH EB/EL go-go/J B'/J 



4488* 


62 


32 


52.0 


82.5 


70.5 


82.3 


50.8 


76.2 


51.6 


70.8 


79.2 


4489* 


63 


33 


52.2 


78.1 


71.3 


86.4 


49.2 


68.8 


52.4 


72.7 


77.3 


4490* 


68 


35 


52.1 


78.6 


79.7 


86.6 


53.0 


89.8 


51.5 


81.3 


85.1 


4491* 


56 


28 


49.9 


81.7 


69.9 


91.8 


54.9 


60.0 


50.0 


75.4 


82.0 


4492* 


65 


35 


50.9 


77.8 


67.3 


82.6 


52.3 


59.2 


53.8 


79.5 


75.0 


4493* 


58 


29 


49.0 


81.4 


70.0 


81.7 


49.2 


65.2 


50.0 


73.8 


77.8 


4494* 


60 


33 


51.4 


84.4 


70.2 


80.7 


48.1 


68.9 


55.0 


72.6 


78.5 


4495* 


65 


36 


52.3 


89.1 


70.1 


87.2 


53.4 


54.5 


55.4 


74.4 


77.4 


4496* 


54 


35 


53.2 


89.5 


67.5 


83.3 


49.2 


78.3 


64.8 


72.7 


78.8 


4497* 


55 


32 


52.5 


82.8 


72.6 


84.6 


54.5 


61.2 


58.2 


71.5 


79.7 


4498* 


62 


36 


48.6 


87.2 


66.2 


79.4 


50.7 


70.0 


58.1 


74.3 


76.5 


4499* 


64 


33 


52.0 


80.6 


72.7 


81.2 


52.9 


63.6 


51.6 


67.4 


79.0 


4500* 


(60) t 


25 


54.2 


82.5 


72.3 


80.0 


46.2 


76.7 


41.7 


73.8 


78.5 


4501* 


(60 


31 


52.9 


79.9 


74.8 


85.4 


53.1 


78.7 


51.7 


74.6 


80.0 


4502* 


62)$ 


33 


52.9 


83.9 


72.6 


79.8 


50.4 


76.2 


53.2 


69.0 


82.2 


4503* 


66 


33 


50.0 


90.5 


68.4 


81.6 


52.2 


63.3 


50.0 


76.5 


76.5 


4504* 


62 


33 


52.1 


81.7 


72.7 


82.8 


52.2 


71.0 


53.2 


69.4 


77.6 


4505* 


63 


31 


53.4 


78.9 


66.9 


87.8 


56.9 


64.0 


49.2 


75.6 


77.2 


4506 


62 


36 


49.2 


77.2 


70.5 


85.4 


51.5 


67.4 


58.1 


74.6 


75.4 


4507 


58 


34 


54.3 


73.3 


73.7 


91.0 


56.6 


66.7 


58.6 


78.7 


82.8 


4508 


63 


34 


51.4 


82.0 


68.8 


87.6 


53.5 


64.0 


54.0 


72.9 


75.2 


4509* 


56 


30 


49.6 


77.9 


74.5 


88.7 


55.6 


65.3 


53.6 


72.6 


84.7 


4510 


66 


36 


49.9 


77.5 


66.2 


90.3 


58.9 


62.7 


54.5 


73.4 


77.4 


4511 


56 


38 


53.9 


82.8 


71.5 


88.9 


52.4 


72.3 


67.9 


71.4 


81.7 


4512 


57 


34 


51.2 


77.5 


73.0 


87.4 


56.7 


70.0 


59.6 


70.9 


81.1 



* Omitted from averages. t Edentulous. J Stretched. 

§ Questionable. f Questionable; upper incisors pulled out. 



154 Anthropology of Iraq 



Measurements of Females in the Baghdad Royal Hospital 



No. 


Age 


Stature 


SH 


L 


B 


B' 


J 


go-go 


GH 


G'H 


NH 


NB 


4513 


23 


1455 


740 


179 


150 


105 


129 


97 


117 


73 


49 


31 


4514 


33 


1582 


837 


185 


141 


103 


135 


101 


109 


73 


51 


34 


4515 


26 


1554 


786 


186 


142 


99 


127 


92 


110 


65 


45 


33 


4516 


20 


1547 


808 


180 


131 


100 


125 


95 


103 


62 


46 


33 


4517 


22 


1532 


748 


180 


140 


99 


126 


94 


110 


69 


50 


33 


4518 


30 


1522 


770 


183 


137 


96 


122 


89 


109 


67 


44 


32 


4519 


43 


1573 


805 


183 


138 


100 


124 


96 


105 


70 


47 


29 


4520 


23 


1427 


757 


172 


147 


99 


127 


101 


108 


67 


43 


34 


4521* 


23 


1560 


781 


185 


135 


100 


122 


98 


104 


67 


44 


31 


4522 


33 


1561 


785 


184 


150 


104 


134 


92 


119 


73 


47 


34 


4523 


48 


1554 


785 


178 


135 


98 


130 


102 


120 


81 


57 


33 


4524 


38 


1590 


831 


180 


145 


95 


129 


90 


116 


73 


47 


29 


4525* 


15 


1389 


696 


171 


134 


95 


120 


93 


102 


59 


41 


30 


4526 


29 


1460 


730 


174 


136 


91 


120 


96 


104 


64 


45 


31 


4527 


20 


1541 


782 


191 


140 


109 


135 


96 


113 


69 


49 


31 


4528 


22 


1666 


865 


180 


138 


98 


129 


95 


105 


68 


47 


35 



Indices of Females in the Baghdad Royal Hospital 



No. 


el 


EB 


RSH 


B/L 


B'/B 


GH/J 


G'H/J 


NB/NH 


EB/EL 


go-go/J 


B'/J 


4513 


58 


33 


50.9 


83.8 


70.0 


90.7 


56.6 


63.6 


56.9 


75.2 


81.4 


4514 


62 


31 


52.9 


76.2 


73.0 


80.7 


54.1 


66.7 


50.0 


74.8 


76.3 


4515 


53 


29 


50.6 


76.3 


69.7 


86.6 


51.2 


73.3 


54.7 


72.4 


78.0 


4516 


58 


31 


52.2 


72.8 


76.3 


82.4 


49.6 


71.7 


53.4 


76.0 


80.0 


4517 


59 


33 


48.8 


77.8 


70.7 


87.3 


54.8 


66.0 


55.9 


74.6 


78.6 


4518 


62 


30 


50.6 


74.9 


70.1 


89.3 


54.9 


72.7 


48.4 


73.0 


78.7 


4519 


61 


33 


51.2 


75.4 


72.5 


84.7 


56.5 


61.7 


54.1 


77.4 


80.6 


4520 


59 


30 


53.0 


85.5 


67.3 


85.0 


52.8 


79.1 


50.8 


80.0 


78.0 


4521* 


51 


36 


50.1 


73.0 


74.1 


85.2 


54.9 


70.5 


70.6 


80.3 


82.0 


4522 


58 


30 


50.3 


81.5 


69.3 


88.8 


54.5 


72.3 


51.7 


68.7 


77.6 


4523 


67 


32 


50.5 


75.8 


72.6 


92.3 


62.3 


57.9 


47.8 


78.5 


75.4 


4524 


66 


36 


52.3 


80.6 


65.5 


89.9 


56.6 


61.7 


54.5 


69.8 


73.6 


4525* 


58 


35 


50.1 


78.4 


70.9 


85.0 


49.2 


73.2 


60.3 


77.5 


79.2 


4526 


(61)t 


32 


50.0 


78.2 


66.9 


86.7 


53.3 


68.9 


52.5 


80.0 


75.8 


4527 


58 


31 


50.7 


73.3 


77.9 


83.7 


51.1 


63.3 


53.4 


71.1 


80.7 


4528 


68 


33 


51.9 


76.7 


71.0 


81.4 


52.7 


74.5 


48.5 


73.6 


76.0 



♦Omitted from the averages. t Stretched. 



Anthropometric Data: Royal Hospital 



155 



Morphological Characters of Females in the Baghdad Royal Hospital 



No. 


Form 


Texture 


Color 


Color 


Sclera 


Iris Profile 


Wings 


4488 


V 1 W 


medium 


dkbr 


dkbr 


clear 


. . . . str 


medium 


4489 


1 W 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


. . . . conv 


medium 


4490 




fine 


white 


dkbr 


blood 


conv 


flar-|- 


4491 


1 w 


medium 


dkbr 


black 


clear 


conv 


comp 


4492 


V 1 w 


coarse 


dkbr 


dkbr 


clear 


conv 


medium 


4493 


1 w 


medium 


dkbr 


dkbr 


clear 


c-c 


medium 


4494 


V 1 w 


medium 


v dk br 


black 


yellow- 
blood 


. . . . str 


medium 


4495 


1 w 


medium 


dkbr 


dkbr 


clear 


conv 


cp-m 


4496 


1 w 


medium 


dkbr 


bl-gray 


blood hom cone 


flar 


4497 


1 w 


medium 


dkbr 


dkbr 


clear 


conv 


comp 


4498 


1 w 


medium 


blk, gray 


dkbr 


blood 


conv 


flar 


4499 


V 1 w 


fine 


dkbr 


gray-gr 


blood 


c-c 




4500 


1 w 


fine 


dkbr 


green-br clear zon conv 


medium 


4501 


V 1 w 


fine 


dkbr 


dkbr 


clear 


c-c 


flar 


4502 


1 w 


medium 


br, gray 


black 


clear 


cone 


medium 


4503* 


1 w 


fine 


gray 
dkbr 


gray-br 


blood zon c-c 


medium 


4504 


1 w 


fine 


green-br clear zon c-c 


medium 


4505 


1 w 


coarse 


v dk br 


green-br clear zon conv 


medium 


4506 


1 w 


fine 


dkbr 


dkbr 


blood 


str 


medium 


4507 


1 w 


medium 


blk, gray 


black 


clear 


conv 


comp 


4508 


1 w 


medium 


black 


gr-gray 


clear 


conv 


medium 










(flecked) 






4509 


1 w 


coarse 


dkbr 


dkbr 


clear 


cone 


medium 


4510 


1 w 


fine 


gray 


ltbr 


blood 


conv 


m-fl 


4511* 


1 w 


medium 


dkbr 


black 


blood 


conv 


medium 


4512 


1 w 


coarse 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


cone 


medium 


4513 


d w 


medium 


black 


black 


clear 


str 




4514 


1 w 


fine 


dkbr 


gr-br 


clear ] 


10m cone 


medium 


4515 


1 w 


medium 


dkbr 


black 


clear 


conv 


flar 


4516 


1 w 


coarse 


black 


black 


clear 


str 


medium 


4517 


1 w 


coarse 


black 


black 


clear 


str 


flar 


4518 


1 w 


fine 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


cone 


medium 


4519 


lwf 


fine 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


conv 


cp-m 


4520 


1 w 


medium 


dkbr 


dkbr 


clear 


cone 


flar 


4521J 






dkbr 


dkbr 


clear 


str 


medium 


4522 


1 w 


coarse 


dkbr 


dkbr 


clear 


cone 


medium 


4523 


1 w 


medium 


br, gray 






conv 


medium 


4524J 






dkbr 


dkbr 


clear 


str 


cp-m 


4525 






dkbr 






cone 


m-fl 


4526 


1 w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


blood 


cone 


medium 


4527 


1 w 


medium 


black 


dkbr 


clear 


conv 


medium 


4528 


d w 


medium 


dkbr 


dkbr 


clear 


cone 


flar 


* Very thin 


t Cut off. 


t Shaved. 











APPENDIX F: MAMMALS FROM IRAQ 

BY 

Colin C. Sanborn 1 

In 1934 Dr. Henry Field, leader of the Field Museum Anthro- 
pological Expedition to the Near East, and Mr. Richard A. Martin 
collected zoological specimens in Iraq and Iran. 

As a result of their efforts and the subsequent gifts which have 
come to the Museum from the Near East this list of mammals has 
been prepared. 

Since the zoological material available from this part of the 
world is limited, there is considerable uncertainty of identification. 

The names of collectors have been given in parentheses. Dr. 
Walter P. Kennedy was a staff member of the Royal College of 
Medicine in Baghdad. Mr. Austin Eastwood, head of the Cotton 
Growers Association, maintained a private zoo in Baghdad. Mrs. 
E. S. Drower, author of several books on Iraqi folklore, has lived 
in Baghdad for the past fifteen years. Mr. J. H. Dekker, who was 
in charge of the Iraq Petroleum Company's pipe-line station T-3, 
died in 1936. Philippus Dinka, an Assyrian, was superintendent of 
the British Consulate at Diana-Rowandiz in 1934. He is now 
with the British Oil Development Company near Mosul. 

Last, but not least by far, comes Yusuf Lazar, another Assyrian, 
who was an invaluable zoological collector during 1934. Since that 
time he has continued to send specimens to the Museum. Dr. Field 
has supplied the funds necessary for this important work. 

The spelling of place names conforms, wherever possible, to the 
style adopted by the Permanent Committee on Geographical Names 
of the Royal Geographical Society in London. In addition to the 
names of places which can be located with ease, such as Baghdad, 
Basra, Hilla, An Nasiriya, Karbala, Balad Sinjar, Khanaqin, and 
Sulaimaniya, the following groupings can be made: 

Northern Area. — Diana-Baradost, Baadri, Rowandiz, and Guli 
Ali Bagh. 

Southern Area. — Qala Salih, Amara, Chahala, and Halfaya. 

We hope that zoological specimens from Southwestern Asia will 
continue to enrich the study collections in the Museum. 

1 Curator of Mammals at Field Museum. 

156 



Mammals from Iraq 157 

Hemiechinus auritus Gmelin. 

Near Baghdad, female with five young, alcoholic (Kennedy); 
skull only (Dinkha). 

Liponycteris kachhensis magnus Wettstein. 

Taphozous magnus Wettstein, Ann. Konigl. Naturhist. Hofmuseums, Wien, 

27, p. 466, 1913— Basra. 
Taphozous kachhensis babylonicus Thomas, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 

24, p. 58, 1915— Euphrates. 
Taphozous kachhensis magnus Cheesman, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 27, 

p. 328, 1920. 
Liponycteris kachhensis magnus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 9, p. 267, 

1922. 

Baghdad and Tall Tauwa near Baghdad, 4 males, 3 females, 
April 1-16, 1934 (Field). 

This form has been recorded from Lake Tiberias southeastward 
to the head of the Persian Gulf. 

Measurements. — Forearm 79-83.3; second finger, metacarpal 
67-71.8; third finger, metacarpal 71.9-76.6, first phalanx 27.5-31.7, 
second phalanx 30.8-33.9; fourth finger, metacarpal 58.8-63.3, first 
phalanx 14.3-18.5, second phalanx 8.3-9.3; fifth finger, metacarpal 
48.6-51.4, first phalanx 14.7-17.4, second phalanx 7.8-9.6; tibia 
31.4-35; ear from meatus 21-24; tragus, height 5.5-6, width 5-6. 
Skull: male, greatest length 32.2; condylo-basal length from front 
of canine 27.2; palatal length 8.2; interorbital width 9.4; inter- 
temporal width 5.5; zygomatic width 18.3; mastoid width 16; 
width of braincase 12; length of upper toothrow 12.7; width across 
cingula of canines 7.2; width across m 2 11.7; lower toothrow 14.1; 
mandible 23.3. The males are slightly larger than the females. 

Asellia tridens murraiana Anderson. 

Baghdad, 13 females, May-August, 1935; 1 male, June 19, 1936 
(Lazar). 

The forearms on these specimens are so long (51-55.4) that 
they are referred to this subspecies. 

Myotis myotis omari Thomas. 

Myotis myotis omari Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., pt. 2, p. 521, 1905. 

Diana-Baradost, northeast Iraq, male, female, June 29, 1934. 

The only recorded specimens of this form are the type and topo- 
type from Derbent, fifty miles west of Isfahan, Iran, and a female 



158 Anthropology of Iraq 

from Telespid, southwestern Iran. The Iraq specimens agree fairly 
well with the original description. 

Measurements (male and female, and skull of male). — Forearm 
59.1-60.4; second finger, metacarpal 56-56.6; third finger, meta- 
carpal 55.5-57, first phalanx 19.3-19.6, second phalanx 16-18; 
fourth finger, metacarpal 54.8-55.9, first phalanx 13.4-14.7, second 
phalanx 13.6-13.6; fifth finger, metacarpal 53.3-54.1, first phalanx 
13-13.8, second phalanx 13.5-11; tibia 26.4-27; calcar 16.3-17.1; 
ear from meatus 24-25; height of tragus 11-11. Skull: greatest 
length 22.5; condylo-basal length 20.9; palatal length 9.3; interorbital 
width 5.1; zygomatic width 13.9; mastoid width 10.1; width of 
braincase 9.7; upper toothrow 9.1; width across cingula of canines 
5.8; width across m 2 9; lower toothrow 9.7; mandible 17. 

Pipistrellus kuhli Kuhl. 

Baghdad, 33, from April 1, 1934 (Field and Martin) to June 10, 
1938 (Lazar); Amara marshes, 1, April 22, 1934 (Field); Sheikh 
Falih as Saihud's camp, 23, April 27, 1934 (Field); Halfaya, 49, 
April 28, 29, 1934 (Field); Balad Sinjar, 6, June 4, 1934 (Field); 
Baadri, 2, June 14, 1934 (Field); Tall Tauwa, near Baghdad, 6, 
April 1-16, 1934 (Field); An Nasiriya, 6, March 12-24, 1935 (Lazar); 
Karbala, 4, October 10, 1937 (Lazar) ; Rustam Farm, near Baghdad, 
20, January 9, 1939 (Lazar). 

This appears to be the commonest bat in Iraq. 

Eptesicus hingstoni Thomas. 

Eptesicw hingstoni Thomas, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 26, p. 745, 1919 
— Iraq (Baghdad). 

Baghdad, 1 male, 4 females, April 1-16, 1934, 1 male, January- 
April, 1935 (Lazar), 1 male, 2 females, May-August, 1935 (Lazar), 
1 juv. male, 1 juv. female, June 19, 1936 (Lazar); An Nasiriya, 
March 12-24, 1935 (Lazar); Karbala, 1 male, October 10, 1937 
(Lazar). 

Measurements. — Forearm 43.7-47.8; second finger, metacarpal 
40.2-45; third finger, metacarpal 41.1-46, first phalanx 12.3-14.5, 
second phalanx 11.1-12.5; fourth finger, metacarpal 40-45, first 
phalanx 10.7-11.9, second phalanx 8.9-10.1; fifth finger, metacarpal 
38.8-43.1, first phalanx 8.8-9.6, second phalanx 6.4-8.2; tibia 18.5- 
20.2; calcar 17-19. Skull (female): greatest length 18; condylo- 
basal length 16.9; palatal length 7.6; interorbital width 3.7; zygo- 
matic width 11.4; mastoid width 8.8; width of braincase 7.8; upper 



Mammals from Iraq 159 

toothrow 6.4; width across cingula of canines 5.4; width across m 2 
6.6; lower toothrow 6.9. 

Eptesicus walli Thomas. 

Eptesicus walli Thomas, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 26, p. 746, 1919 — 
Iraq (Basra). 

An Nasiriya, 2 males, 7 females, March 12-24, 1935 (Lazar). 

This is the second published record of this bat. It appears to be 
much scarcer than E. hingstoni as Lazar has collected it but once in 
five years. 

Measurements. — Forearm 36.3-40.9; third finger, metacarpal 
36-37.9, first phalanx 10.4-11.9, second phalanx 10.6-11.7; fourth 
finger, metacarpal 34.7-37.9, first phalanx 8.6-10.5, second phalanx 
8.1-9.8; fifth finger, metacarpal 33.4-36.4, first phalanx 6.5-8.5, 
second phalanx 6.4-7.6. Tibia 14.6-15.8; ear 12.3-13. Skull of 
largest female: total length 14.4; condylo-basal length 13.3; palatal 
length 6.8; interorbital width 3.8; rostral width 5.5; zygomatic 
width 9.5; mastoid width 7.4; width of braincase 6.6; upper toothrow 
5.2; width across canines 4.5; across molars 6.3. 

Canis aureus Linnaeus. 

Iraq, 1 trade skin, no locality (Field); Diyala, 1 skull (Lazar). 

Canis lupus pallipes Sykes. 

Seri Hassan Beg Mountains, Rowandiz District, 1 skeleton 
(Dinkha); Diyala, 1 skeleton (Lazar); Sulaimaniya, 1 skull only 
(Lazar); Khanaqin, 1 skeleton (Lazar). 

Pocock (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1935) referred the Iraq wolves 
to this subspecies. 

Vulpes vulpes splendens Thomas. 

Rowandiz, 1 trade skin, no skull. This very large skin in worn 
pelage is referred to this form. 

Vulpes persica Blanford. 

One skin without skull or locality in Iraq (Lazar). 

Herpestes persicus Gray. 

Baghdad, 1 skull only (Lazar). 

Felis chaus Giildenstadt. 

Hilla Desert, 1937, 1 skin only (Lazar). 



160 Anthropology of Iraq 

Two skulls without skins from Baghdad (Lazar) appear to be 
house cats. 

Martes foiana Erxleben. 

Rowandiz, 1 trade skin without skull (Field). 

Lutra lutra Linnaeus. 

Qala Salih, near Amara, 1 trade skin without skull (Drower). 

Meles meles subsp. 

Guli Ali Bagh, 1 male, skin and skeleton, 1937 (Dinkha). 

This is the first time this genus has been recorded from Iraq. It 
probably belongs to either the subspecies minor Satunin or caucasi- 
cus Ognev, but comparative material is not available. 

Measurements. — Skull: total length 136.3; condylo-basal length 
128; palatal length from in front of incisors 71.8; zygomatic width 
about 85; mastoid width 63.8; width of braincase 51.9; interorbital 
width 29.7; intertemporal width 24.3; upper toothrow 43.3; maxillary 
width 46.6. 

Mellivora wilsoni Cheesman. 

Mellivora wilsoni Cheesman, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 27, p. 335, 1920 
— Ram Hormuz, southwestern Iran. 

Station T-l, on northern oil pipe-line, western Iraq (Dekker). 

This specimen agrees closely with the original description. 

Cheesman recorded a specimen from Baksal, Tyb River, which 
is the only other published record for Iraq. 

Measurements. — Greatest length 121.1; condylo-basal length 60.8; 
interorbital width 33.2; intertemporal width 36; zygomatic width 
71.4; mastoid width 67.4; width of braincase 62.5; upper toothrow 
33.8; maxillary width 42. 

Hyaena hyaena Linnaeus. 

Baghdad, skeleton, July 6, 1936 (Eastwood) ; Baradost, skin and 
skeleton, 1937 (Dinkha). 

These might be the subspecies zarudnye but Pocock (Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., p. 820, 1934) considered this form a probable synonym 
of hyaena. 

Measurements. — Total length 229-241; condylo-basal length 
214.1-218.7; zygomatic width 152.6; postorbital width 35.9-36.6; 



Mammals from Iraq 161 

interorbital width 47.8-46.2; maxillary width 86.4-87.5; width at 
base of canines 51.8-52.5; length of p 4 29.6-30.5. 

Sus scrofa attila Thomas. 

Chahala, near Amara, male and female, skins with skeletons, 4 
young in alcohol, April 23, 1934 (Field). Place: Rhamalla, ten miles 
from Khanaqin, 4 skulls only, February 28, 1935 (Lazar) ; Khanaqin, 
2 skulls only, November 15, 1935 (Lazar) ; Baradost, skin and skele- 
ton, 1937 (Dinkha). 

Measurements (2 from Chahala; taken on dried skin). — Total 
length 1450-1430; tail 170 (about)-240. Skull: greatest length 
450-370; condylo-basal length 383-343; zygomatic width 166.5-153; 
interorbital width 95.7-74.7; length of nasals 254-200; width of 
nasals 36.5-29.4; occipital depth 144-122; length of mandible 330- 
305; maxillary toothrow c-m 3 167-151; p^m 3 133.4-121.4; lower 
toothrow including canine 173.2-164, excluding canine 143.2-139; 
third upper molar 42.8 x 26.6-37.6 x 23.2; third lower molar 41.6 x 
20.6-41.5 x 17.3; width of internal face of lower canine 23.5-25. 

Ursus arctos Linnaeus. 

Baghdad, skin and skeleton, 1935 (Eastwood); Baradost, skin 
and skeleton, 1937 (Dinkha). 

Jaculus loftusi Blanford. 

Dipus loftusi Blanford, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (4), 16, p. 312, 1875 — 
Mohammerah (now Khorram Shahr), southwestern Iran. 

Near Rutba, Station H-3, female, May 10, 1934. 

Measurements. — Total length 270; tail 160; hind foot 58.5. Skull 
greatest length 33.6; condylo-basal length 29.5; palatal length 8.2 
interorbital width 11.5; zygomatic width 23.4; mastoid width 23.8 
width of braincase 18.5; upper molar series 4.9; lower molar series 
5.2; mandible 11.7; anterior palatine foramina 4; orbital width 23.4. 

Nesokia buxtoni Thomas. 

Baghdad, skull only, November 10, 1935 (Dinkha). 

Lepus connori Robinson. 

Hinaidi Bridge, ten miles southeast of Baghdad, skull only, 
December 18, 1935 (Lazar); Baghdad, 1 skeleton, 2 skulls only, 
November 2, 1935 (Dinkha). 

Referred to this species on the basis of Cheesman's list. 



162 Anthropology of Iraq 

Gazella sp. 

Iraq, 1 skeleton, 2 skins only; Diyala, 2 skulls only, November 20, 
1935 (Lazar); Hinaidi Bridge, 2 skulls only, November 26, 1935 
(Lazar); Baghdad, skeleton, December 2, 1936 (Lazar); skeleton, 
September 2, 1936 (Eastwood); 3 skulls only, September 7, 1936 
(Eastwood); Karbala, skull only, December 12, 1935 (Eastwood). 

There are not enough skins in this collection to determine which 
species is represented. 

Capra aegagrus blythi Lydekker. 

Baradost, Rowandiz District, 2 skeletons, February, 1935 
(Dinkha) ; Barzan near Aqra, horns. 



APPENDIX G: NOTES ON INSECTS FROM IRAQ 

During the Field Museum Anthropological Expedition to the Near 
East in 1934, we collected a number of insects in Iraq and in Iran. 

Since our return to Chicago, Yusuf Lazar, my Assyrian zoologi- 
cal and botanical collector, has sent additions to our collections 
from the Baghdad area. 

Through the kindness of Captain N. W. Riley, Keeper of the 
Department of Entomology at the British Museum (Natural History) 
all specimens have been sent to London to be determined. 

As a direct result two papers have appeared: "Hemiptera from 
Iraq, Iran, and Arabia" by W. E. China, and "Orthoptera from Iraq 
and Iran" by B. P. Uvarov (Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 
vol. 20, Nos. 32 and 33, pp. 439^51). 

In a letter from the British Legation, Tehran, dated August 9, 
1939, Mr. E. P. Wiltshire writes: "With regard to the material 
collected by Yusuf [Lazar] in Baghdad for you, I was able to get a 
glimpse of it recently in London and can confirm that he got a male 
Sumeria dipotamica Tarns in Baghdad; also one or two Nychiodes 
divergaria Stgr., which confirms my guess made in my article on 
the Baghdad Orchard." 

Wiltshire has published the following notes (pp. 17, 20) excerpted 
from the "Entomologist's Record" (Feb. 15, 1939). 

"1. Nychiodes(1) divergaria. Small larvae of this genus were 
found in XI. 37 in numbers at night on apricot trees. Unfortunately 
I was obliged to take them with me to Tabriz in December, where 
the winter was longer and severer than Baghdad's. None hibernated 
successfully, so I cannot be sure of the species' identity, but expect 
that it will prove to be divergaria 1 which I have found not uncom- 
monly in Kurdistan." 

"2. Until the life-history of this recently described Notodontid 
is known, one cannot say to which of the above divisions of the 
Mesopotamian fauna it pertains, though, to judge from its facies 
and the situations in which I have taken it, it may well prove to be 
a reed-feeder. It seems to be most frequent in the delta of the 
Euphrates and Tigris, but it also occurs up to some height in the 
Zagros range. In 1938 I captured a female at Basra (25. V.) and a 
male at Khorram Shahr (Mohammerah) (2.X), both to light near 

1 Confirmed from Field Museum specimens collected in Baghdad by Yusuf 
Lazar. 

163 



164 Anthropology of Iraq 

the river. I also believe 1 it occurs at Baghdad. Since no description 
of the female was published by Mr. Tarns, I append one hereto: 

"Sumeria dipotamica, Tarns (Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 1938). Female 
Neallotype; Basra, 25.V.1938, in coll. m. 
Antenna: Much more lightly bipectinated than male. 
Expanse: 54 mm., i.e., considerably larger than male. 
In other respects, similar to the male. 

"N.B. — The autumnal brood male taken by me at Khorramshahr 
was only 40 mm. in expanse." 



The remainder of the collections, particularly the Lepidoptera, 
awaits determination. 

1 Confirmed from Field Museum specimens collected in Baghdad by Yusuf 
Lazar. 



APPENDIX H: PLANTS COLLECTED BY 
THE EXPEDITION 

BY 

Paul C. Standley 1 

During 1934, while leader of the Field Museum Anthropological 
Expedition to the Near East, Dr. Henry Field supervised the col- 
lecting of about 10,000 herbarium specimens from Iraq, Iran, Trans- 
Jordan, Palestine, and Syria. He also collected a number of useful 
plants and drugs. 2 

The majority of the specimens in the following list were deter- 
mined at Field Museum, but since the Herbarium does not contain 
large collections from Southwestern Asia, it was necessary to send 
series to European experts for determination. Part of the collection 
was therefore sent to Kew Herbarium where the late Mr. A. R. 
Horwood identified some of the specimens. A recent letter from Sir 
Arthur Hill states that as a result of Mr. Horwood's death, followed 
shortly by Air Raid Precautions, no further work can now be done 
on this collection. 

Prior to 1934 Mr. Evan Guest, who was attached to the Ministry 
of Agriculture in Baghdad, made a large collection of herbarium 
specimens in Iraq. During his trips to northern Iraq and Kurdistan, 
Yusuf Lazar, an Assyrian, accompanied him as a botanical collector. 
The Guest Collection also awaits identification at Kew. 

In 1934, Dr. Field engaged the services of Yusuf Lazar as a 
botanical and zoological collector. The greater part of the speci- 
mens listed are the fruit of his remarkable energy and painstaking 
devotion in this service in both Iraq and Iran. Since 1935, working 
as a private collector financed by Dr. Field, he has forwarded to 
the Museum additional herbarium specimens, mainly from the 
Baghdad area. In the following list those specimens marked "F & L" 
were collected during the 1934 Expedition, those with "L" by Yusuf 
Lazar, 1935-39. 

Other undetermined specimens were sent to Dr. Gunnar Samuels- 
son of the Natural History Museum in Stockholm, and to Professor 
J. Bornmuller, Weimar. These two specialists have submitted 
determinations that are included in the following list. Although 
several hundred numbers still await identification, a provisional 
list is herewith appended. 

1 Curator of the Herbarium, Field Museum. 

2 See Hooper and Field. 

165 



166 Anthropology of Iraq 

Dr. Rustam Hydar, Director of the Rustam Agricultural Experi- 
mental Farm near Baghdad, generously presented to Field Museum 
a number of varieties of Gossypium, Hordeum, and Triticum which 
are not listed here, since they were enumerated by Hooper and Field 
(pp. 122-124, 126-127, 181-183). 

The reader is referred to "Useful Plants and Drugs of Iran and 
Iraq" by David Hooper and Henry Field (Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Bot. Ser., vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 71-241, 1937), and particularly to the 
list of bibliographical references (pp. 75-78). In addition, the 
publications of Boissier (1867-84), Schlimmer (1874), Dymock 
(1885, 1891), Aitchison (1890), Post (1896), Burkill (1909), Born- 
muller (1917), Laufer (1919), Gilliat-Smith and Turrill (1930), 
Guest (1933), Samuelsson (1933 et seq.), and Vavilov (1934 et seq.) 
should be used as standard references. 

The spelling of place names conforms wherever possible to the 
system adopted by the Permanent Committee on Geographical 
Names of the Royal Geographical Society in London. 

Alphabetical List of Plants Collected in Iraq 

Number Genus and Species Locality 

L 374 Acanthophyllum microcephalum 

Boiss Near Baghdad 

F & L 892 Acanthus longistylis Freyn Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
F & L 879, 937 . . . Acer monspessulanum L Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
F & L 463 Achillea aleppica DC Muwasul Tiatan Mukzuk Nu- 

war 
F & L 635, 651 . . .Achillea aleppica DC Jebel Khatchra near Balad Sin- 
jar 
F & L 375 Achillea conferta DC Telegraph pole M90 between 

Baiji and Mosul 
F & L 539 Achillea conferta DC Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sinjar and Tall Afar 
F & L 474 Achillea conferta DC Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
L 186 Achillea falcata L Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 519 Achillea micrantha M. Bieb Between Tall Afar and Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 573 Achillea micrantha M. Bieb Tell Es Shur between Tall Afar 

and Balad Sinjar 
L 145 Achillea micrantha M. Bieb Near Baghdad 

F & L 763 Achillea micrantha M. Bieb Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

F & L 307, 472 . . . Achillea micrantha M. Bieb Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
F & L 470 Achillea micrantha M. Bieb Muwasul Tiatan Mukzuk Nu- 

war 
F & L 535 Achillea oligocephala DC Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sinjar and Tall Afar 
F & L 479 Achillea oligocephala DC Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 



Plants from Iraq 167 

Number Genus and Species Locality 

F & L 461 Achillea oligocephala DC Muwasul Tiatan Mukzuk Nu- 

war 
L 275 Achillea Santolina L Near Baghdad 

F & L 574 Achillea Santolina L Tell Es Shur between Tall Afar 

and Balad Sinjar 
F & L 947 Adiantum Capillus-Veneris L. . Rowandiz Gorge 

L 38 Adonis aestivalis L Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

L 95 Adonis aestivalis L Near Baghdad 

F & L 803 Aegilops Aucheri Boiss Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 450 Aegilops crassa Boiss Muwasul Tiatan Mukzuk Nu- 

war 
F & L 686 Aegilops crassa Boiss 30 km. due west of Balad Sinjar 

F & L 552 Aegilops crassa Boiss Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sinjar and Tall Afar 

F & L 423 Aegilops squarrosa L Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

F & L 458 Aeluropus litoralis (Gouin) Pari. Muwasul Tiatan Mukzuk Nu- 

war 

L 168, 310, 353 . .Aeluropus litoralis (Gouin) Pari. Near Baghdad 

L 311, 355 Aeluropus repens (Desf.) Pari.. .Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

L 184 Agropyron squarrosum (Roth) 

Link Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F&L911 Ajuga Chia Schreb. var. tri- 

dactylites Ging Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
L 338 Alhagi maurorum Medic Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 783 Alkanna Kotschyana DC Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 540 Alkanna tinctoria (L.) Tausch. . . Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sinjar and Tall Afar 
F & L 370 Allium ampeloprasum L Haditha (wheatfield) 

F & L 304 Allium paniculatum L Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

F & L 449 Allium paniculatum L Muwasul Tiatan Mukzuk Nu- 

war 

F & L 577 Allium paniculatum L Tell Es Shur between Tall Afar 

and Balad Sinjar 

F & L 727 Althaea hirsuta L Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

F & L 841 Althaea Hohenackeri Boiss. & 

Huet Jebel Pikasar near Aqra 

F & L 634 Althaea lavateriflora DC Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 941 Althaea lavateriflora DC Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
L 214 Althaea Ludwigii L Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 120 Althaea Ludwigii L Rutba 

F & L 593 Althaea rosea Cav Tell Es Shur between Tall Afar 

and Balad Sinjar 

F & L 668 Alyssum alpestre L. var. obo- 

vatum Boiss Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 

F & L 605 Alyssum campestre L Karya Sheikh Khanis near 

Balad Sinjar 

L 251, 329, 472 . . . Amaranthus graecizans L Near Baghdad 

L 429 Amaranthus cf. paniculatus L. . Rustam Farm near Baghdad 



168 Anthropology of Iraq 

Number Genus and Species Locality 

L 143 Amaranthus retroflexus L Near Baghdad 

L 473 Amaranthus viridis L Near Baghdad 

L 138, 296, 413 . . Ammi majus L Near Baghdad 

L 429 Ammi majus L. var. longiseta 

Reichb Near Baghdad 

F & L 936 Amygdalus elaeagrifolia Spach . Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
L 358 Amygdalus spartioides Spach. . .Near Baghdad 

L 4 Anagallis arvensis L Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F&L813 Anagyris foetida L Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 711 Anagyris foetida L Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

F & L 775 Anagyris foetida L Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

L 151 Anchusa strigosa Labill Near Baghdad 

F & L 399 Anchusa strigosa Labill Qala Sharqat 

F & L 544 Anchusa strigosa Labill Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sinjar and Tall Afar 

F & L 452 Anchusa strigosa Labill Muwasul Tiatan Mukzuk Nu- 

war 

L 306, 357 Andrachne telephioides L Near Baghdad 

F & L 114 Andrachne telephioides L Montafah 

F & L 382 Andrachne telephioides L Telegraph pole M90 between 

Baiji and Mosul 

F & L 632, 661 . .Andrachne telephioides L Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 

F & L 401 Andrachne telephioides L Qala Sharqat 

L 274 Andropogon annulatus Forsk. . . . Near Baghdad 

F & L 433 Androsace maxima L Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
F & L 952 Anthemis altissima L Sulaimaniya 

L 197 Anthemis altissima L Near Baghdad 

L 129, 239 Anthemis Cotula L Near Baghdad 

F & L 389 Anthemis Cotula L Telegraph pole M90 between 

Baiji and Mosul 

L 37 Anthemis hebronica Boiss. & 

Kotschy Near Baghdad 

L 36 Anthemis cf. melampodina Del. .Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 817 Apocynum venetum L Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

L 66, 439 Aristida plumosa L Near Baghdad 

F & L 786 Aristolochia maurorum L Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 75 Aristolochia maurorum L Mesaida near Amara 

F & L 385 Arnebia decumbens (Vent.) 

Kuntze Telegraph pole M90 between 

Baiji and Mosul 
F & L 127 Arnebia decumbens (Vent.) 

Kuntze Rutba 

L 64 Arnebia linearifolia DC Near Baghdad 

F & L 547 Artedia squamata L Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sinjar and Tall Afar 
L 438 Artemisia annua L Rustam Farm near Baghdad 



Plants from Iraq 169 

Number Genus and Species Locality 

F & L 794 Asparagus stipularis Forsk Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 613 Asperugo procumbens L Karya Bat Khan near Balad 

Sin jar 
L 134, 522 Asperugo procumbens L Near Baghdad 

L 350 Asperula arvensis L Near Baghdad 

L 56 Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

L 155 Astragalus alexandrinus Boiss. . .Near Baghdad 

F & L 630 Astragalus chaborasicus Boiss. 

& Hausskn Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sin jar 
L 49, 53 Astragalus cruciatus Link Near Baghdad 

F & L 141 Astragalus Forskahlei Boiss Rutba 

F & L 606 Astragalus maximus Willd Tell Es Shur between Tall Afar 

and Balad Sinjar 
F & L 91 Atractylis flava Desf Montafah 

F & L 88 Atriplex leucoclada Boiss. subsp. 

turcomanica (Moq.) Aellen. . .Montafah 
L 315, 351 Atriplex leucoclada Boiss. subsp. 

turcomanica (Moq.) Aellen. . .Near Baghdad 
F & L 59 Atriplex tatarica L Mesaida near Amara 

F&L7 Arena fatua L Gatt Al Dwat near Amara 

L 199, 279, F & L 
488 Avena fatua L Near Baghdad 

F & L 443 Avena fatua L Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
F & L 43 Bacopa Monniera (L.) Wettst. . . Chahala near Amara 

F & L 51 Bacopa Monniera (L.) Wettst. . .Near Amara 

L 383 Barbarea vulgaris R. Br Near Baghdad 

F & L 13 Beta vulgaris L. subsp. lomato- 

gonoides Aellen Gatt Al Dwat near Amara 

L 564 Beta vulgaris L. subsp. maritima 

(L.) Thell. var. glabra Aellen . . Near Baghdad 
L 159 Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris 

(L.) Thell Near Baghdad 

F & L 440 Bromus macrostachys Desf Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

F & L 897 Bromus macrostachys Desf Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
L 187 Bromus mollis L Near Baghdad 

F & L 136 Bromus tectorum L Rutba 

L 179, 256 Bromus tectorum var. grandiflo- 

rus Hook Near Baghdad 

F & L 773 Bupleurum aleppicum Boiss. . . . Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 767 Bupleurum brevicaule Schlecht. . Baban near Al Qosh 

F & L 744 Bupleurum falcatum L Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

F & L 733 Bupleurum kurdicum Boiss Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

F & L 400 Calendula persica C. A. Mey Qala Sharqat 

L 14 Calligonum polygonoides L Near Baghdad 

L 237 Callipeltis Cucullaria L Near Baghdad 



170 Anthropology of Iraq 

Number Genus and Species Locality 

F & L 485 Callipeltis Cucullaria L Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sin jar 
L 101, 477 Capparis spinosa L Near Baghdad 

F & L 653 Capparis spinosa L Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sin jar 
F & L 722 Carthamus Oxyacantha M. Bieb. Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

F & L 437 Carum elegans Fenzl Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
L 86, 434 Carum elegans Fenzl Near Baghdad 

L 166, 465 Caucalis leptophylla L Near Baghdad 

L 193 Caucalis leptophylla L Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 420 Caucalis leptophylla L Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
F & L 126 Caylusea canescens (L.) St. Hil. . Rutba 

F & L 837 Celsia heterophylla Desf Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 961, 963 . . .Celsia heterophylla Desf Sulaimaniya 

L 120 Celsia heterophylla Desf Near Baghdad 

F & L 376 Celsia lanceolata Vent. var. sin- 

garica Murb. f Telegraph pole M90 between 

Baiji and Mosul 
L 227 Celtis australis L Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 946 Celtis Tournefortii Lam Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
F&L717 Celtis Tournefortii Lam Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

L 406 Centaurea araneosa Boiss Near Baghdad 

F & L 500 Centaurea Behen L Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

F & L 915 Centaurea depressa M. Bieb Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 

F & L 810 Centaurea iberica Trev Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 60 Centaurea iberica Trev Near Amara 

F & L 560 Centaurea myriocephala Sch. 

Bip Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sinjar and Tall Afar 

F & L 612 Centaurea pallescens Del. var. 

hyalolepis Boiss Karya Bat Khan near Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 387 Centaurea phyllocephala Boiss. . .Telegraph pole M90 between 

Baiji and Mosul 
F & L 421 Centaurea phyllocephala Boiss. . .Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
F & L 522 Centaurea phyllocephala Boiss. . . Between Tall Afar and Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 623 Centaurea regia Boiss Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 723 Centaurea solstitialis L Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

F & L 809 Centaurea virgata Lam Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 637 Centaurea virgata Lam Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 445 Cephalaria syriaca (L.) Schrad. Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
F & L 524 Cephalaria syriaca (L.) Schrad.. Between Tall Afar and Balad 

Sinjar 



Plants from Iraq 171 

Number Genus and Species Locality 

F & L 835 Cephalaria syriaca (L.) Schrad. Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 938 Ceterach officinarum Willd Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
L 463 Ceterach officinarum Willd Near Baghdad 

F & L 766 Chamaemelum microcephalum 

Boiss Baban near Al Qosh 

F & L 913 Chamaemelum microcephalum 

Boiss Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
L 434, 451 Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) A. 

Juss Near Baghdad 

F & L 687 Chrozophora verbascifolia 

(Willd.) A. Juss 30 km. due west of Balad Sinjar 

F & L 825 Chrozophora verbascifolia 

(Willd.) A. Juss Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

L 333 Chrozophora verbascifolia 

(Willd.) A. Juss Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 848 Chrysanthemum Parthenium (L.) 

Pers Rowandiz Gorge 

F & L 644, 659. . Chrysophthalmum montanum 

(DC.) Boiss Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 762 Cicer arietinum L Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

F & L 397 Cichorium divaricatum Schousb. . Telegraph pole M90 between 

Baiji and Mosul 
L 419 Cichorium divaricatum Schousb. Near Baghdad 

F & L 519 Cichorium Intybus L. Schrad Between Tall Afar and Balad 

Sinjar 
F&L364 Citrullus Colocynthis (L.) 

Schrad Wadi Al Qaim 

L 245 Citrullus Colocynthis (L.) 

Schrad Near Baghdad 

F & L 96 Cleome Kotschyana Boiss Montafah 

F & L 875 Colladonia crenata Boiss Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
L 359 Colladonia crenata Boiss Near Baghdad 

F&L71 Convolvulus arvensis L Mesaida near Amara 

L 316 Convolvulus Cantabrica L Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

L 476 Convolvulus Cantabrica L Near Baghdad 

F & L 745 Convolvulus Cantabrica L Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

F & L 117 Convolvulus pilosellifolius Desr. . Montafah 

F & L 601 Convolvulus reticulatus Choisy . . Karya Sheikh Khanis near 

Balad Sinjar 
L 426 Corchorus olitorius L Near Baghdad 

L 437 Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt Near Baghdad 

L 105 Coronilla varia L Near Baghdad 

F&L712 Cousinia arbelensis Winkl. & 

Bornm Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

F & L 798 Cousinia cf . Kotschyi Boiss Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 553 Cousinia stenocephala Boiss Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sinjar and Tall Afar 

F & L 611 Cousinia stenocephala Boiss Karya Bat Khan near Balad 

Sinjar 



172 Anthropology of Iraq 

Number Genus and Species Locality 

F&L710 Crataegus Azarolus L Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

F & L 945 Crataegus Azarolus L Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
F & L 859 Crataegus Azarolus L Rowandiz Gorge 

F & L 976 Crataegus Azarolus L Sulaimaniya 

F & L 437 Crepis aspera L Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

F & L 645 Crepis assyriaca Bornm Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 

F & L 870 Crepis pulchra L Gindian near Diana Rowandiz 

F & L 639 Crepis pulchra L Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 912, 933. . Crucianella glauca A. Rich Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 

F & L 772 Crucianella kurdistanica Mali- 

nowski Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 663 Crupina Crupinastrum Vis Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 828 Crupina Crupinastrum Vis Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

L 326 Crypsis aculeata (L.) Ait Near Baghdad 

L 242 Cucumis prophetarum L Near Baghdad 

F & L 924 Cuscuta approximata Bab. var. 

urceolata (Kunze) Yuncker. . Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
F & L 473, 503 . . . Cuscuta babylonica Auch Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
F & L 536, 566 . . . Cuscuta babylonica Auch Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sinjar and Tall Afar 
F & L 570 Cuscuta babylonica Auch Tell Es Shur between Tall Afar 

and Balad Sinjar 
F & L 721 Cuscuta babylonica Auch Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

L 301 Cuscuta Lehmanniana Bunge . . . Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

L 33 Cuscuta pedicellata Ledeb Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

L 226 Cydonia oblonga Mill Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

L43 Cymbopogon Schoenanthus (L.) 

Spreng Near Baghdad 

L 302, 427 Cynanchum acutum L Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 50 Cynodon Dactylon (L.) Pers Near Amara 

L 280, 322, 444. .Cynodon Dactylon (L.) Pers Near Baghdad 

L 319 Cyperus fuscus L Near Baghdad 

L 423 Cyperus fuscus L Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 512 Cyperus longus L Between Tall Afar and Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 308 Cyperus longus L Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
F & L 49 Cyperus rotundus L Chahala near Amara 

L 250, 325 Cyperus rotundus L Near Baghdad 

F & L 899 Dactylis glomerata L Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
L 231, 400, 559. .Dalbergia Sissoo Roxb Near Baghdad 

L 265 Daphne acuminata Boiss Near Baghdad 



Plants from Iraq 173 

Number Genus and Species Locality 

F & L 928 Daphne acuminata Boiss Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
L 90, 298 Datura Metel L Near Baghdad 

F & L 489 Daucus aureus Desf Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
F & L 734 Daucus guttatus Sibth. & Sm. . . Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

F & L 770 Delphinium cappadocicum Boiss. Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 741 Delphinium cappadocicum Boiss. Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

F & L 830 Delphinium oliganthum Boiss. . . Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 691 Delphinium oliganthum Boiss. . .30 km. due west of Balad Sinjar 

F & L 586 Delphinium oliganthum Boiss. . . Tell Es Shur between Tall Afar 

and Balad Sinjar 

F & L 538 Delphinium oliganthum Boiss. . . Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sinjar and Tall Afar 

F & L 730 Delphinium peregrinum L Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

F & L 850 Delphinium peregrinum L Rowandiz Gorge 

L 371 Delphinium rigidum DC Near Baghdad 

F & L 52 Delphinium rigidum DC Near Amara 

L115 Dianthus anatolicus Boiss Near Baghdad 

F & L 422 Dianthus anatolicus Boiss Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

F & L 926 Dianthus anatolicus Boiss Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 

L 490 Dianthus Cyri Fisch. & Mey Near Baghdad 

L 116, 123 Dianthus fimbriatus M. Bieb. . . Near Baghdad 

F&L111 Dianthus pallens Sibth. & Sm. 

var. oxylepis Boiss Montafah 

F & L 465 Dianthus polycladus Boiss Muwasul Tiatan Mukzuk Nu- 

war 
F & L 555 Dianthus polycladus Boiss Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sinjar and Tall Afar 
L 320 Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. Near Baghdad 

L 309 Diplotaxis erucoides (L.) DC Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 380 Diplotaxis Harr a (Forsk.) Boiss. Telegraph pole M90 between 

Baiji and Mosul 
F & L 90 Diplotaxis Harr a (Forsk.) Boiss. Montafah 

F & L 430 Echinaria capitata (L.) Desf. . . . Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
L 424 Echinochloa colona (L.) Link . . .Near Baghdad 

L290, 428, 508. Echinochloa Crusgalli (L.) 

Beauv Near Baghdad 

F & L 978 Echinops Blancheanus Boiss. . . . Sulaimaniya 

L 407 Echinops sphaerocephalus L Near Baghdad 

F & L 642 Echinops sphaerocephalus L Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 750 Echium italicum L Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

L 314 Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

L 401 Elaeagnus angustifolia L. var. 

orientalis (L.) Kuntze Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 581 Elymus caput-medusae L Tell Es Shur between Tall Afar 

and Balad Sinjar 



174 Anthropology of Iraq 

Number Genus and Species Locality 

F & L 427 Elymus crinitus Schreb Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

F & L 621 Elymus crinitus Schreb Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 

F & L 428 Elymus Delileanus Schult Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

F & L 97 Ephedra campylopoda C. A. 

Mey Montafah 

F & L 958 Epilobium hirsutum L Sulaimaniya 

L 387 Epilobium hirsutum L Near Baghdad 

L 141, 247, 278, 

470.. Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) 

Link Near Baghdad 

L 288 Eragrostis tenella (L.) Roem. 

& Schult Near Baghdad 

F & L 872 Eremostachys laciniata (L.) 

Bunge Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
F & L 801 Erianthus Hostii Griseb Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

L418 Erigeron canadensis L Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 128 Erodium Ciconium (L.) Willd. . . Rutba 

F & L 85 Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Her. . Montafah 

L 132, 206 Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'H6r. .Near Baghdad 

F & L 394 Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'H6r. . Telegraph pole M90 between 

Baiji and Mosul 
F & L 406 Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'He>. . Qala Sharqat 

F & L 511 Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'He>. . Between Tall Afar and Balad 

Sinjar 
L 48 Erodium glaucophyllum Ait Near Baghdad 

F & L 125 Erodium glaucophyllum Ait. . . . Rutba 

F & L 393 Erodium glaucophyllum Ait Telegraph pole M90 between 

Baiji and Mosul 
F & L 742 Erodium gruinum (L.) Ait Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

F & L 395 Erodium laciniatum (Cav.) 

Willd Telegraph pole M90 between 

Baiji and Mosul 

F & L 558 Erodium laciniatum (Cav.) 

Willd Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sinjar and Tall Afar 
L 19, 188 Eruca sativa Mill Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 94 Erucaria aleppica Gaertn Montafah 

L 20 Erucaria microcarpa Boiss Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

L 405 Eryngium creticum Lam Near Baghdad 

F & L 20 Erythraea latifolia Sm Gatt Al Dwat near Amara 

F & L 822 Erythraea latifolia Sm Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

L 308, 327, 354 . . .Euphorbia Chamaesyce L Near Baghdad 

F & L 431 Euphorbia Chamaesyce L Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

F& L 118, 139... Euphorbia Chesneyi (Kl. & 

Garcke) Boiss Rutba 

F & L 666 Euphorbia craspedia Boiss Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 



Plants from Iraq 175 

Number Genus and Species Locality 

F & L 896 Euphorbia craspedia Boiss Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
L 372 Euphorbia denticulata Lam Near Baghdad 

L 61 Euphorbia falcata L Near Baghdad 

F & L 563 Euphorbia falcata L Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sin jar and Tall Afar 

F & L 585 Euphorbia falcata L Tell Es Shur between Tall Afar 

and Balad Sin jar 

F & L 853 Euphorbia falcata L. var. rubra 

Boiss Rowandiz Gorge 

F & L 966 Euphorbia Gaillardoti Boiss. & 

Blocki Sulaimaniya 

L 7, 152 Euphorbia Helioscopia L Near Baghdad 

F & L 743 Euphorbia Helioscopia L Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

F & L 486 Euphorbia lanata Sieb Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
F & L 747 Euphorbia macroclada Boiss. . . . Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

LI Euphorbia Peplus L Near Baghdad 

F & L 787 Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss. & 

Huet Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 934 Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss. & 

Huet Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
L 307 Euphorbia turcomanica Boiss. . . . Near Baghdad 

F & L 371 Euphorbia cf. oxyodonta Boiss. 

& Hausskn Haditha (wheatfield) 

L15 Fagonia Bruguieri DC Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 84, 99 . . . . Fagonia Oliverii DC Montafah 

F & L 886 Fibigia clypeata (L.) Boiss Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 

F & L 627 Ficus Carica L. var. rupestris 

Hausskn Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 

F & L 864 Ficus Carica L. var. rupestris 

Hausskn Gindian near Rowandiz 

F & L 781 Ficus palmata Forsk Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

L 114, 236 Filago spathulatus Presl Near Baghdad 

F&L419 Filago spathulatus Presl Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
F & L 738 Filago spathulatus Presl Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

L 318, 422 Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.) 

Vahl Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 47 Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.) 

Vahl Chahala near Amara 

L 440 Frankenia Aucheri Jaub. & 

Spach Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 44 Frankenia pulverulenta L Chahala near Amara 

F & L 858, 862 . . . Fraxinus oxyphylla M. Bieb. . . . Rowandiz Gorge 

F & L 792 Fumana arabica (L.) Spach . . . .Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

L 180 Fumaria parviflora Lam Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

L 32 Gagea reticulata (Pall.) R. & S. . . Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 917 Galium adhaerens Boiss. & Bal. . Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 



176 Anthropology of Iraq 

Number Genus and Species Locality 

L 349 Galium coronatum Sibth. & Sm. . Near Baghdad 

F & L 636 Galium coronatum Sibth. & Sm. 

var. stenophyllum Boiss Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sin jar 
L 370 Galium mite Boiss. & Hohen. . . . Near Baghdad 

F & L 887 Galium mite Boiss. & Hohen. . . . Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
F & L 726 Galium nigricans Boiss Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

F & L 754 Galium tricorne With Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

F & L 799 Galium verum L Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 418 Garhadiolus Hedypnois (Fisch. 

& Mey.) Jaub. & Spach Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

F & L 849 Gastrocotyle hispida (Forsk.) 

Bunge Rowandiz Gorge 

F & L 925 Gentiana Olivieri Griseb Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
F & L 68 Geranium dissectum L Mesaida near Amara 

F & L 973 Geranium dissectum L Sulaimaniya 

F & L 425 Geranium rotundifolium L Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
L 344 Gladiolus atroviolaceus Boiss. . . . Near Baghdad 

F & L 576 Gladiolus atroviolaceus Boiss. . . . Tell Es Shur between Tall Afar 

and Balad Sinjar 

L 154 Glaucium corniculatum (L.) 

Curt Near Baghdad 

F & L 466 Glaucium corniculatum (L.) 

Curt Muwasul Tiatan Mukzuk Nu- 

war 

F & L 481 Glaucium corniculatum (L.) 

Curt Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

F & L 138 Glaucium grandiflorum Boiss. & 

Huet Rutba 

L 304, 411 Glinus lotoides L Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 752 Glycyrrhiza glabra L Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

F & L 962 Glycyrrhiza glabra L Sulaimaniya 

F & L 833 Gnaphalium luteo-album L Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 969 Gypsophila platyphyUa Boiss. . . . Sulaimaniya 

F & L 689 Gypsophila porrigens (L.) Boiss. .30 km. due west of Balad Sinjar 

L 44 Gypsophila Rokejeka Del Near Baghdad 

F & L 793 Gypsophila ruscifolia Boiss Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 546 Haplophyllum Buxbaumii (Foir.) 

Boiss Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sinjar and Tall Afar 

F & L 618 Haplophyllum Buxbaumii (Poir.) 

Boiss Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 

F & L 413 Haplophyllum propinquum 

Spach Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
F & L 121, 129. .Haplophyllum propinquum 

Spach Rutba 



Plants from Iraq 177 

Number Genua and Species Locality 

F & L 101, 115. .Haplophyllum tuberculatum 

Forsk Montafah 

L 409 Haplophyllum tuberculatum 

Forsk Near Baghdad 

F & L 796 Hedysarum pannosum Boiss. . . . Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

L 299 Heleochloa alopecuroid.es 

(Schrad.) Host Near Baghdad 

F & L 960 Heleochloa schoenoides (L.) 

Host Sulaimaniya 

L16 Helianthemum salicifolium (L.) 

Mill Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 561 Helianthemum salicifolium (L.) 

Mill Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sin jar and Tall Afar 

L 135 Helianthemum salicifolium (L.) 

Mill Near Baghdad 

F & L 453 Helichrysum graveolens Boiss Muwasul Tiatan Mukzuk Nu- 

war 

F & L 554 Helichrysum graveolens Boiss Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sin jar and Tall Afar 

F&L614 Helichrysum graveolens Boiss. . . . Karya Bat Khan near Balad 

Sin jar 

F & L 660 Helichrysum graveolens Boiss — Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 776 Helichrysum graveolens Boiss Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 595 Helicophyllum crassipes (Boiss.) 

Schott Tell Es Shur between Tall Afar 

and Balad Sinjar 
L 408 Heliotropium Eichwaldi Steud. . .Near Baghdad 

L 305, 415 Heliotropium supinum L Near Baghdad 

F & L 402 Heliotropium supinum L Qala Sharqat 

F & L 868 Heliotropium supinum L Gindian near Diana Rowandiz 

L 75 Heliotropium undulatum Vahl . . Near Baghdad 

F&L113 Heliotropium undulatum Vahl. Montafah 

L 190 Herniaria cinerea DC Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

L 39 Herniaria hemistemon Gay Near Baghdad 

F & L 103 Herniaria incana Lam Montafah 

F&L119 Herniaria incana Lam Rutba 

F & L 426 Heteranthelium piliferum (Russ.) 

Hochst Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
L 243 Hibiscus Trionum L Near Baghdad 

F & L 948 Hibiscus Trionum L Sulaimaniya 

L 51 Hippocrepis cornigera Boiss Near Baghdad 

F & L 667 Hippomarathrum scabrum 

(Fenzl) Boiss Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 439 Hordeum bulbosum L Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
F & L 900 Hordeum bulbosum L Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
F & L 58 Hordeum maritimum With Mesaida near Amara 

L 131 Hordeum murinum L Near Baghdad 



178 Anthropology of Iraq 

Number Genus and Species Locality 

F & L 377 Hordeum murinum L Telegraph pole M90 between 

Baiji and Mosul 
F & L 641 Hordeum spontaneum Koch . . . . Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 365 Hyoscyamus albus L Mile 170 west of H-3 Pipe-line 

Station 
F & L 647 Hyoscyamus albus L Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 309, 484 . . Hyoscyamus pusillus L Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
F & L 434 Hypecoum procumbens L Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
L 133 Hypericum crispum L Near Baghdad 

F & L 412 Hypericum crispum L Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

F & L 456 Hypericum crispum L Muwasul Tiatan Mukzuk Nu- 

war 

F & L 685 Hypericum crispum L 30 km. due west of Balad Sinjar 

F & L 548 Hypericum helianthemoides 

(Spach) Boiss Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sinjar and Tall Afar 

F & L 455 Hypericum helianthemoides 

(Spach) Boiss Muwasul Tiatan Mukzuk Nu- 

war 
L 121 Hypericum scabrum L Near Baghdad 

F & L 884 Hypericum scabrum L Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
L 98 Iberis odorata L Near Baghdad 

F & L 478 Inula divaricata (Cass.) Boiss. . .Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
F & L 821 Inula squarrosa L Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 836 Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Lam. . . .Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

L 235 Isatis aleppica Scop Near Baghdad 

F & L 716 Juglans regia L Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

L 456 Juncus acutus L Near Baghdad 

F & L 807 Juncus effusus L Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

L 269 Juncus effusus L Near Baghdad 

F & L 521 Juncus pyramidatus Laharpe. . . Between Tall Afar and Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 46 Jussiaea repens L Chahala near Amara 

F & L 57 Koeleria phleoides (Vill.) Pers. . . Mesaida near Amara 

L 50, 192 Koelpinia linearis Pall Near Baghdad 

F&L416 Koelpinia linearis Pall Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

F & L 619 Lactuca cretica Desf Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 

L 102 Lactuca saligna L Near Baghdad 

F & L 805 Lactuca saliva L Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 827 Lactuca tuberosa Jacq Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 768 Lallemantia iberica (M. Bieb.) 

Fisch. & Mey Baban near Al Qosh 



Plants from Iraq 179 

Number Genus and Species Locality 

F & L 905 Lallemantia peltaia (L.) Fisch. 

& Mey Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
L 127 Lamium amplexicaule L Near Baghdad 

L 382 Lamium maculatum L Near Baghdad 

L 62 Lappula spinocarpa (Forsk.) 

Aschers Near Baghdad 

F & L 124 Lappula spinocarpa (Forsk.) 

Aschers Rutba 

F & L 780 Lathyrus annuus L Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

L 541 Lathyrus Aphaca L Near Baghdad 

L 178, 203 Lathyrus Cicera L Near Baghdad 

L 516 Lepidium Draba L Near Baghdad 

F & L 34 Lepidium Draba L Chahala near Amara 

F & L 66 Lepidium Draba L Mesaida near Amara 

F & L 834 Lepidium latifolium L Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 471 Lepidium perfoliatum L Muwasul Tiatan Mukzuk Nu- 

war 
L 3 Lepidium sativum L Near Baghdad 

F&L11 Lepidium sativum L Gatt Al Dwat near Amara 

F & L 36, 38. . . .Limnanthemum nymphoides 

(L.) Link Chahala near Amara 

F & L 30 Limnanthemum nymphoides 

(L.) Link Gatt Al Dwat near Amara 

L241, 389, 412. . Linaria Elatine (L.) Mill Near Baghdad 

F & L 824 Linum angustifolium Huds. . . . Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

L 148, 346 Linum flavum L Near Baghdad 

L 219, 220 Linum grandiflorum Desf Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 143 Linum mucronatum Bertol Between H-4 and H-5 Pipe-line 

Stations 
L 336 Lippia nodifiora (L.) Michx. . . . Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 18 Lippia nodifiora (L.) Michx. . . . Gatt Al Dwat near Amara 

L 207 Lippia nodifiora (L.) Michx. . . .Near Baghdad 

F&L6 Lolium temulentum L Gatt Al Dwat near Amara 

L 85, 139, 281 . . .Lolium temulentum L Near Baghdad 

F & L 922 Lotus Gebetia Vent Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
F & L 92 Lotus lanuginosus Vent Montafah 

F & L 306 Lotus tenuifolius Reichb Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
L 425 Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

L 27 Lycium barbarum L Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 27 Lycium barbarum L Chahala near Amara 

F & L 746 Lythrum Hyssopifolia L Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

L 128, 386 Lythrum Salicaria L. var. tomen- 

tosum DC Near Baghdad 

L 2, 176 Malcolmia africana (L.) R. Br. . .Near Baghdad 

L 24 Malcolmia Bungei Boiss Near Baghdad 



180 Anthropology of Iraq 

Number Genus and Species Locality 

L 108 Malcolmia crenulata (DC.) 

Boiss Near Baghdad 

L 25, 52, 84, 189. Malcolmia torulosa (Desf.) 

Boiss Near Baghdad 

L 8 Malva parviflora L Near Baghdad 

F & L 64 Malva parviflora L Mesaida near Amara 

F & L 110 Malva parviflora L Montafah 

L 521 Malva rotundifolia L Near Baghdad 

F & L 464 Marrubium radiatum Del Muwasul Tiatan Mukzuk Nu- 

war 
F & L 388 Mathiola oxyceras DC Telegraph pole M90 between 

Baiji and Mosul 
L 21 Mathiola oxyceras DC Near Baghdad 

L 144, 196 Matricaria aurea (L.) Boiss Near Baghdad 

F & L 523 Medicago denticulata Willd Between Tall Afar and Balad 

Sin jar 
F & L 567 Medicago denticulata Willd Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sinjar and Tall Afar 
F & L 971 Medicago Gerardi Waldst. & Kit.Sulaimaniya 

F & L 756 Medicago orbicularis All Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

L 268, 332 Medicago sativa L Near Baghdad 

F & L 927 Melandrium eriocalycinum 

Boiss ' Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
F & L 898 Melica Cupani Guss Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 

F & L 840 Micromeria Juliana (L.) Benth. 

var. myrtifolia Boiss Jebel Pikasar near Aqra 

F & L 483 Micropus erectus L Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
L 72, 185 Micropus supinus L Near Baghdad 

F & L 384 Moltkia coerulea (Willd.) Lehm. Telegraph pole M90 between 

Baiji and Mosul 

F & L 411 Moltkia coerulea (Willd.) Lehm. Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

F & L 603 Moltkia coerulea (Willd.) Lehm. . Karya Sheikh Khanis near Balad 

Sinjar 

L 70, 74 Moltkia collosa (Vahl) Wettst. . . Near Baghdad 

L 147 Moluccella laevis L Near Baghdad 

F & L 502 Moluccella laevis L Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
L 228 Morus alba L Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 906 Muscari comosum (L.) Mill Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
L 87 Myrtus communis L Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 559 Nigella arvensis L Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sinjar and Tall Afar 
L 174 Nigella sativa L Near Baghdad 

L 156 Obione flabellum (Bunge) Ulbr. . Near Baghdad 

F & L 707 Olea europaea L Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

F & L 527 Oliveria orientalis DC Ain Tellawi near Tall Afar 

F & L 795 Onobrychis caput-galli (L.) 

Lam Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 



Plants from Iraq 181 

Number Genus and Species Locality 

F & L 790 Onobrychis galegifolia Boiss Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 98 Onobrychis lanata Boiss Montafah 

F & L 964 Ononis antiquorum L Sulaimaniya 

F & L 748 Ononis mitissima L Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

F & L 749 Ononis sicula Guss Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

F & L 429 Ononis sicula Guss Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

F & L 133 Onopordon heteracanthum C. A. 

Mey Rutba 

F & L 643 Onopordon illyricum L Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 977 Onopordon illyricum L Sulaimaniya 

F & L 444 Onosma aleppicum Boiss Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar . 
F & L 597 Onosma aleppicum Boiss Karya Sheikh Khanis near 

Balad Sinjar 
F & L 662 Onosma flavum (Lehm.) Vatke. .Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 600 Onosma sericeum Willd Karya Sheikh Khanis near 

Balad Sinjar 
F & L 719 Onosma sericeum Willd Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

L110 Ornithogalum narbonense L Near Baghdad 

F & L 812 Paliurus aculeatus Lam Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 705 Paliurus aculeatus Lam Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

F & L 940 Paliurus aculeatus Lam Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
F & L 728 Pallenis spinosa (L.) Cass Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

L 297 Panicum miliaceum L Near Baghdad 

F & L 396 Papaver Rhoeas L Telegraph pole M90 between 

Baiji and Mosul 

F & L 890 Paracaryum cristatum (Lam.) 

Boiss Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 

F & L 367 Parietaria alsinefolia Del Wadi Al Hajal near Haditha 

F & L 565 Parietaria alsinefolia Del Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sinjar and Tall Afar 

F & L 564 Parietaria debilis Forst Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sinjar and Tall Afar 

L 254, 345 Parietaria judaica L Near Baghdad 

F & L 703 Parietaria judaica L Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

L 76 Paronychia argentea Lam Near Baghdad 

F & L 102 Paronychia argentea Lam Montafah 

L 270 Paronychia argentea Lam Near Baghdad 

F & L 602 Paronychia capitata (L.) Lam. . .Karya Sheikh Khanis near 

Balad Sinjar 
L 287 Paspalum distichum L Near Baghdad 

F & L 368 Peganum Harmala L Wadi Al Hajal near Haditha 

F & L 26 Peganum Harmala L Chahala near Amara 

L 63, 259 Peganum Harmala L Near Baghdad 

F & L 130 Peganum Harmala L Rutba 



182 Anthropology of Iraq 

Number Genus and Species Locality 

F & L 137 Phagnalon rupestre (L.) DC. . . . Rutba 

L 233 Phalaris brachystachys Link Near Baghdad 

F & L 441 Phalaris brachystachys Link .... Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
L 554 Phalaris minor Retz Near Baghdad 

L 282, 284 Phalaris paradoxa L Near Baghdad 

F & L 442 Phalaris paradoxa L Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
L 375 Phlomis Bruguieri Desf Near Baghdad 

F & L 506, 508 . . . Phlomis Bruguieri Desf Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

F & L 610 Phlomis Bruguieri Desf Karya Bat Khan near Balad 

Sinjar 

F & L 697 Phlomis linearis Boiss. & Bal. . . 30 km. due west of Balad Sinjar 

L 376 Phlomis orientalis Mill Near Baghdad 

F & L 507 Phlomis orientalis Mill Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
F & L 846 Phlomis orientalis Mill Rowandiz Gorge 

L 339 Phragmites communis (L.) Trin. .Near Baghdad 

F & L 700 Physocaulos nodosus (L.) 

Tausch Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

F & L 724 Pimpinella Kotschyana Boiss. . . Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

F & L 839 Pimpinella Kotschyana Boiss. . . Jebel Pikasar near Aqra 

F & L 379 Pimpinella peregrina L Telegraph pole M90 between 

Baiji and Mosul 
F & L 753 Pinus halepensis Mill Baban near Al Qosh 

F & L 714 Pistacia mutica Fisch. & Mey. . . Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

F & L 652, 654 . . Pistacia Terebinthus L Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 708 Pistacia Terebinthus L Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

F & L 942, 944 . . Pistacia Terebinthus L Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
L 221 Pisum sativum L Near Baghdad 

L 67, 216 Plantago Coronopus L Near Baghdad 

L 485 Plantago lanceolata L Near Baghdad 

F & L 54 Plantago lanceolata L Mesaida near Amara 

L 205, 217, 317, 
430 Plantago lanceolata L Near Baghdad 

F & L 820 Plantago lanceolata L Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

L 35 Plantago Loeflingii L Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 29 Plantago Loeflingii L Chahala near Amara 

L 34 Plantago ovata Forsk Near Baghdad 

F & L 383 Plantago ovata Forsk Telegraph pole M90 between 

Baiji and Mosul 

F & L 424, 487. . Plantago Psyllium L Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

F & L 860 Platanus orientalis L Rowandiz Gorge 

L 126 Poa bulbosa L Near Baghdad 

L 69 Poa persica Trin Near Baghdad 



Plants from Iraq 183 

Number Genus and Species Locality 

F & L 901 Poa persica Trin Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 

F & L 303 Poa tatarica Fisch Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

L 112, 391 Polygonum aviculare L Near Baghdad 

L 303, 328 Polygonum BeUardi All Near Baghdad 

F & L 72 Polygonum Bellardi All Mesaida near Amara 

F & L 755 Polygonum cognatum Meisn Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

F & L 954 Polygonum nodosum Pers Sulaimaniya 

L 289 Polygonum Persicaria L Near Baghdad 

F&L2 Polygonum serrulatum Lag Gatt Al Dwat near Amara 

F & L 305 Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) 

Desf Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
L 283 Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) 

Desf Near Baghdad 

F & L 48 Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) 

Desf Chahala near Amara 

F & L 979 Populus deltoides Marsh Sulaimaniya 

L 223 Populus euphratica Oliv Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 77 Populus euphratica Oliv Mesaida near Amara 

F&L4 Polamogeton lucens L Gatt Al Dwat near Amara 

F&L819 Potenlilla fallacina Blocki Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

L 107, 238 Poterium verrucosum Ehrenb Near Baghdad 

F & L 970 Poterium verrucosum Ehrenb. . . .Sulaimaniya 

F & L 604 Poterium verrucosum Ehrenb Karya Sheikh Khanis near 

Balad Sinjar 

F & L 633 Poterium verrucosum Ehrenb Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 

F & L 541 Poterium verrucosum Ehrenb Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sinjar and Tall Afar 

F & L 725 Poterium villosum Sibth. & Sm. . Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

L 384 Prangos ferulacea Lindl Near Baghdad 

L 230 Prosopis juliflora DC Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 80 Prosopis Stephaniana (Willd.) 

Kunth Near Amara 

F & L 63 Prosopis Stephaniana (Willd.) 

Kunth Mesaida near Amara 

L 170 Prunus Amygdalus Stokes Near Baghdad 

F & L 865 Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. var. 

divaricata (Ledeb.) Bailey . . . Gindian near Rowandiz 
F & L 974 Prunus instititia L Sulaimaniya 

L 153 Prunus microcarpa C. A. Mey. . Near Baghdad 

F & L 709 Prunus microcarpa C. A. Mey. . Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

F & L 769 Prunus microcarpa C. A. Mey. . .Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 878 Prunus microcarpa C. A. Mey. . .Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 

F & L 153 Pterocephalus involucratus 

Spreng Between H-4 and H-5 Pipe-line 

Stations 



184 Anthropology of Iraq 

Number Genus and Species Locality 

F & L 657 Pterocephalus Putkianus Boiss. 

& Kotschy Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sin jar 
F & L 843 Pterocephalus strictus Boiss. & 

Hohen Jebel Pikasar near Aqra 

L 26, 136, 294, 

417 Pulicaria crispa (Forsk.) Sch. 

Bip Near Baghdad 

F & L 89 Pulicaria crispa (Forsk.) Sch. 

Bip Montafah 

F & L 41 Pulicaria dysenterica (L.) 

Gaertn Chahala near Amara 

F & L 863 Pyrus syriaca Boiss Gindian near Rowandiz 

F & L 616 Quercus Aegilops L Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sin jar 
F & L 713 Quercus Aegilops L Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

F & L 778 Quercus Aegilops L Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 880 Quercus Aegilops L Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 

F & L 881, 935. . .Quercus dschorochensis K. Koch. Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 

F & L 943 Quercus persica Jaub. & Spach. Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 

L 58 Ranunculus aquatilis L Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

L 97 Ranunculus arvensis L Near Baghdad 

F & L 869 Ranunculus cassius Boiss Gindian near Diana Rowandiz 

F & L 736 Ranunculus cassius Boiss Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

L 182 Ranunculus lomatocarpus Fisch. 

& Mey Near Baghdad 

F & L 831 Ranunculus lomatocarpus Fisch. 

& Mey Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

L 264 Ranunculus myriophyllus DC.. Near Baghdad 

F&L1 Ranunculus pantothrix Brot. . . . Gatt Al Dwat near Amara 

F & L 40 Ranunculus pantothrix Brot. . . . Chahala near Amara 

F & L 61 Raphanus sativus L Near Amara 

F & L 640 Reseda alba L Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sin jar 
L 40 Reseda lutea L Near Baghdad 

F & L 438 Reseda muricata Presl Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

F & L 655 Rhamnus punctata Boiss Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 

F & L 802 Rhaphis gryllus (L.) Desv Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 631 Rhus Coriaria L Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 706, 718 . . Rhus Coriaria L Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

F & L 446 Roripa Nasturtium-aquaticum 

(L.) Schinz & Thell Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
L 276 Rubus discolor Weihe & Nees. . Near Baghdad 

F & L 751 Rubus discolor Weihe & Nees. . .Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

F & L 814 Rubus discolor Weihe & Nees. . Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 



Plants from Iraq 185 

Number Genus and Species Locality 

F & L 56 Rumex dentatus L. var. pleiodon 

Boiss Mesaida near Amara 

L 292 Rumex dentatus L. var. pleiodon 

Boiss Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

L 210 Rumex obtusifolius L Near Baghdad 

F & L 14 Rumex obtusifolius L Gatt Al Dwat near Amara 

L 519 Rumex pulcher L Near Baghdad 

F & L 520 Rumex pulcher L Between Tall Afar and Balad 

Sin jar 
F & L 729 Rumex pulcher L Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

L 125, 446 Rumex roseus L Near Baghdad 

F & L 895 Rumex tuberosus L Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
Lll Salix acmophylla Boiss Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

L 59, 99 Salix acmophylla Boiss Near Baghdad 

L 557 Salix amygdalina L Near Baghdad 

F & L 975 Salix Safsaf Forsk Sulaimaniya 

F & L 861 Salix Safsaf Forsk Rowandiz Gorge 

F & L 33 Salix Safsaf Forsk Chahala near Amara 

F & L 782 Salvia acetabulosa L. var. sim- 

plicifolia Boiss Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 665 Salvia acetabulosa L. var. sim- 

plicifolia Boiss Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sin jar 
F & L 100 Salvia controversa Ten Montafah 

F & L 788 Salvia cf. kurdica Boiss. & 

Hohen Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 664 Salvia palaestina Benth Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sin jar 
F & L 607 Salvia palaestina Benth Karya Bat Khan near Balad 

Sin jar 
F & L 468 Salvia palaestina Benth Muwasul Tiatan Mukzuk Nu- 

war 
F & L 542 Salvia palaestina Benth Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sin jar and Tall Afar 
F & L 582, 594 . . .Salvia syriaca L Tell Es Shur between Tall Afar 

and Balad Sin jar 
L 146 Salvia Szovitsiana Bunge Near Baghdad 

F & L 39 Salvinia natans (L.) All Chahala near Amara 

L 201, 277, 343 . . Saponaria Vaccaria L Near Baghdad 

F & L 765 Saponaria Vaccaria L Baban near Al Qosh 

F & L 392 Scabiosa Olivieri Coult Telegraph pole M90 between 

Baiji and Mosul 

F & L 432 Scabiosa Olivieri Coult Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

L 104, 167 Scabiosa palaestina L Near Baghdad 

F & L 459 Scabiosa palaestina L Muwasul Tiatan Mukzuk Nu- 

war 
F & L 537 Scabiosa palaestina L Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sinjar and Tall Afar 
L 362 Scandix iberica M. Bieb Near Baghdad 

L 258 Scandix Pecten-Veneris L Near Baghdad 



186 Anthropology of Iraq 

Number Genus and Species Locality 

F & L 800 Schoenus nigricans L Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 480 Scirpus Holoschoenns L Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sin jar 
L 161 Scirpu8 littoralis Schrad Near Baghdad 

F&L5 Scirpus littoralis Schrad Gatt Al Dwat near Amara 

L 31 Scirpus maritimus L Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 955 Scirpus maritimus L Sulaimaniya 

F & L 968 Scolymus maculatus L Sulaimaniya 

L 94, 183 Scorpiurus sulcata L Near Baghdad 

F & L 972 Scorpiurus sulcata L Sulaimaniya 

F & L 608 Scorzonera papposa DC Karya Bat Khan near Balad 

Sin jar 
L 447 Scorzonera papposa DC Near Baghdad 

F & L 578 Scorzonera papposa DC Tell Es Shur between Tall Afar 

and Balad Sin jar 

F & L 599 Scrophularia xanthoglossa 

Boiss Karya Sheikh Khanis near 

Balad Sin jar 

F & L 720 Scrophularia xanthoglossa 

Boiss Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

F & L 669 Scutellaria cretacea Boiss. & 

Hausskn Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sin jar 

F&L914 Scutellaria peregrina L. var. 

Sibthorpii Boiss. & Reut Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
F & L 105 Senecio coronopifolius Desf Montafah 

F & L 123 Senecio coronopifolius Desf Rutba 

F & L 390 Senecio coronopifolius Desf Telegraph pole M90 between 

Baiji and Mosul 

F & L 408 Senecio coronopifolius Desf Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sin jar 

L 459 Senecio coronopifolius Desf Near Baghdad 

F & L 832 Senecio coronopifolius Desf Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 447 Serratula cerinthefolia Sibth. & 

Sm Muwasul Tiatan Mukzuk Nu- 

war 

F & L 658 Serratula cerinthefolia Sibth. & 

Sm Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sin jar 
L 396 Sesbania aegyptiaca Pers Near Baghdad 

L 271, 321, 474 . . Setaria lutescens (Weig.) Hubb. . Near Baghdad 

F & L 903 Sideritis libanotica Lab. var. 

incana Boiss Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
F & L 373 Silene Behen L Haditha (wheatfield) 

F & L 904 Silene chloraefolia Sm Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
L 96, 460 Silene conoidea L Near Baghdad 

F & L 950 Silene conoidea L Sulaimaniya 

F & L 699 Silene dichotoma Ehrh Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 



Plants from Iraq 187 

Number Genus and Species Locality 

F & L 590 Silene longipetala Vent Tell Es Shur between Tall Afar 

and Balad Sinjar 
L 5 Silene rubella L Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F & L 407 Silene setacea Viv Qala Sharqat 

F & L 777 Silene stenobotrys Boiss. & 

Hausskn Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

L109 Sisymbrium damascenum Boiss. 

& Gaill Near Baghdad 

F & L 414 Sisymbrium septulatum DC Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
F & L 24 Solanum nigrum L Chahala near Amara 

F & L 956 Solanum villosum Mill Sulaimaniya 

L 402 Solanum villosum Mill Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

L 100, 293 Sonchus asper (L.) Vill Near Baghdad 

L 295, 323 Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. . . Near Baghdad 

F & L 808 Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. . . Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

L 45 Spergularia rubra (L.) Presl .... Near Baghdad 

F & L 104 Spergularia rubra (L.) Presl .... Montafah 

L10 Spergularia salina Presl Near Baghdad 

F & L 62 Spergularia salina Presl Near Amara 

F & L 69 Spergularia salina Presl Mesaida near Amara 

F & L 957 Stachys pubescens Ten Sulaimaniya 

L 200, 218 Statice spicata Willd Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F&L310 Statice spicata Willd Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

F & L 475 Sterigmostemum sulphur eum 

(Russ.) Bornm Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

L 60 Stipa tortilis Desf Near Baghdad 

F & L 702 Symphytum cf . kurdicum Boiss. 

& Hausskn Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

F & L 79 Tamarix florida Bunge Near Amara 

L 478 Tamarix laxa Willd Near Baghdad 

L 399 Tamarix leptostachya Bunge. . . . Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

L 42 Tamarix macrocarpa Bunge .... Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

L 404 Tamarix macrocarpa Bunge .... Near Baghdad 

F & L 17 Tamarix pentandra Pall Gatt Al Dwat near Amara 

F&L816 Tamus communis L Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

L 249 Tecoma radicans (L.) DC Near Baghdad 

F & L 847 Teucrium parviflorum Schreb. . . Rowandiz Gorge 

F & L 457 Teucrium Polium L Muwasul Tiatan Mukzuk Nu- 

war 
L 267 Teucrium Polium L Near Baghdad 

F & L 398 Teucrium Polium L Qala Sharqat 

F & L 482 Teucrium Polium L Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

F & L 572 Teucrium Polium L Tell Es Shur between Tall Afar 

and Balad Sinjar 



188 Anthropology of Iraq 

Number Genus and Species Locality 

F & L 893, 929 . . . Teucrium Polium L Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 

F & L 505 Teucrium pruinosum Boiss Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 

L 163 Texiera glaslifolia (DC.) Jaub. & 

Spach Near Baghdad 

F & L 791 Thymbra spicata L Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 132 Thymus Kotschyanus Boiss. & 

Hohen Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 132 Thymus Kotschyanus Boiss. & 

Hohen Rutba 

F & L 629 Thymus syriacus Boiss Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 
L 181 Tragopogon majus Jacq Near Baghdad 

L 442 Tribulus macropterus Boiss Near Baghdad 

F & L 920 Trifolium formosum Urv Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
L 324 Trifolium formosum Urv Near Baghdad 

L 432 Trifolium galilaeum Boiss Near Baghdad 

F & L 650 Trifolium pilulare Boiss Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 732 Trifolium purpureum Loisel. . . . Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

F & L 759 Trifolium purpureum Loisel. . . . Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

F & L 949 Trifolium resupinatum L Sulaimaniya 

L 255 Trifolium stellatum L Near Baghdad 

L 77, 164 Trigonella caelesyriaca Boiss. . . . Near Baghdad 

F & L 45 Trigonella Foenumgraecum L. . . Chahala near Amara 

L 140 Trigonella stellata Forsk Near Baghdad 

L 204 Trigonella uncata Boiss. & Noe . . Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

F&L19 Trigonella uncata Boiss. & Noe . . Gatt Al Dwat near Amara 

F & L 28 Trilicum aestivum L Chahala near Amara 

L 29 Trilicum aestivum L Near Baghdad 

F & L 87 Trilicum aestivum L Montaf ah 

F & L 460 Triticum aestivum L Muwasul Tiatan Mukzuk Nu- 

war 
F & L 575, 580. . .Triticum aestivum L Tell Es Shur between Tall Afar 

and Balad Sinjar 
F & L 550 Turgenia latifolia (L.) Hoffm. . . Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sinjar and Tall Afar 
F & L 649 Umbilicus intermedium Boiss. . . . Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 760 Umbilicus intermedius Boiss. . . . Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

L 122 Urtica dioica L Near Baghdad 

F & L 625 Verbascum Andrusi Post Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 

F & L 789 Verbascum laetum Boiss. & 

Hausskn Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 477 Verbascum tripolitanum Boiss. . .Jebel Golat between Ain Tellawi 

and Balad Sinjar 
F & L 515 Verbascum tripolitanum Boiss.. .Between Tall Afar and Balad 

Sinjar 
L 106, 377 Verbena officinalis L Near Baghdad 

F & L 516 Verbena officinalis L Between Tall Afar and Balad 

Sinjar 



Plants from Iraq 189 

Number Genus and Species Locality 

F & L 806 Verbena officinalis L Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 

F & L 967 Verbena officinalis L Sulaimaniya 

F & L 921 Veronica aleppica Boiss Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
L 165 Veronica Anagallis L Near Baghdad 

F & L 372 Veronica Anagallis L Haditha (wheatfield) 

F & L 513 Veronica Anagallis L Between Tall Afar and Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 693 Veronica Anagallis L 30 km. due west of Balad Sinjar 

F & L 10 Veronica Anagallis L Gatt Al Dwat near Amara 

L 257, 464 Veronica hederaefolia L Near Baghdad 

F & L 374 Veronica hederaefolia L Haditha (wheatfield) 

F & L 583, 589. . .Vicia angustifolia Roth Tell Es Shur between Tall Afar 

and Balad Sinjar 
L 511 Vicia angustifolia Roth Near Baghdad 

F & L 764 Vicia angustifolia Roth Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

L 229 Vicia Faba L Near Baghdad 

F&L3 Vicia peregrina L Gatt Al Dwat near Amara 

L 6 Vicia peregrina L Near Baghdad 

F & L 923 Vicia tenuifolia Roth Jebel Baradost near Diana 

Rowandiz 
F & L 761 Vitis vinifera L Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

F & L 857 Vitis vinifera L Rowandiz Gorge 

F & L 842 Wendlandia Kotschyi Boiss. & 

Hohen Jebel Pikasar near Aqra 

L 334 Xanthium Strumarium L Near Baghdad 

F & L 739 Ziziphora capitata L Jerwona near Ain Sifni 

F & L 757 Ziziphora capitata L Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 

L215 Ziziphora taurica M. Bieb Near Baghdad 

F & L 551 Ziziphora tenuior L Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sinjar and Tall Afar 
L 240 Ziziphora tenuior L Rustam Farm near Baghdad 

L 546 Zizyphus Spina-Christi Willd. 

var. inermis Boiss Near Baghdad 

F & L 454 Zoegea Leptaurea L Muwasul Tiatan Mukzuk Nu- 

war 
F & L 549 Zoegea Leptaurea L Mir Khasim between Balad 

Sinjar and Tall Afar 
F & L 609 Zoegea Leptaurea L Karya Bat Khan near Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 638 Zoegea Leptaurea L Jebel Khatchra near Balad 

Sinjar 
F & L 695 Zoegea Leptaurea L 30 km. due west of Balad Sinjar 

F & L 391 Zollikoferia mucronata (Forsk.) 

Boiss Telegraph pole M90 between 

Baiji and Mosul 
L 342 Zozimia absinthifolia (Vent.) 

DC Near Baghdad 

F & L 95 Zozimia absinthifolia (Vent.) 

DC Montafah 

L 103 Zygophyllum Fabago L Near Baghdad 



190 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Geographical List of Plants 

In the preceding table the plants have been arranged in alpha- 
betical sequence. Since it is important to determine the range and 
distribution of genera and species the collection has been rearranged 
according to the following localities. 

Area Localities 

Northwest Balad Sinjar and Tall Afar 

North Zakho, Al Qosh, Sheikh Adi, Jerwona, Baiji, Haditha, 

and Qala Sharqat 

Northeast Aqra, Rowandiz, and Sulaimaniya 

Central Baghdad 

Southeast Amara and Hor al Hawiza 

West Rutba 



Jebel Khatchra near Balad Sinjar 



Achillea aleppica DC. 

Althaea lavateriflora DC. 

Alyssum alpestre L. var. obovatum Boiss. 

Andrachne telephioides L. 

Astragalus chaborasicus (Boiss. & 

Hausskn.) 
Capparis spinosa L. 
Centaurea regia Boiss. 
Centaurea virgata Lam. 
Chrysophthalmum montanum (DC.) 

Boiss. 
Crepis assyriaca Bornm. 
Crepis pulchra L. 
Crupina Crupinastrum Vis. 
Echinops sphaerocephalus L. 
Elymus crinitus Schreb. 
Euphorbia craspedia Boiss. 
Ficus Carica L. var. rupestris Hausskn. 
Galium coronatum Sibth. & Sm. var. 

stenophyllum Boiss. 
Haplophyllum Buxbaumii (Poir.) Boiss. 
Helichrysum graveolens Boiss. 
Hippomarathrum scabrum (Fenzl) Boiss. 



Hordeum spontaneum Koch 
Hyoscyamus albus L. 
Lactuca cretica Desf. 
Onopordon illyricum L. 
Onosma flavum (Lehm.) Vatke 
Pistacia Terebinthus L. 
Poterium verrucosum Ehrenb. 
Pterocephalus Putkianus Boiss. & 

Kotschy 
Quercus Aegilops L. 
Reseda alba L. 
Rhamnus punctata Boiss. 
Rhus Coriaria L. 
Salvia acetabulosa L. var. simplicifolia 

Boiss. 
Salvia palaestina Benth. 
Scutellaria cretacea Boiss. & Hausskn. 
Serratula cerinthefolia Sibth. & Sm. 
Thymus syriacus Boiss. 
Trifolium pilulare Boiss. 
Umbilicus intermedius Boiss. 
Verbascum Andrusi Post 
Zoegea Leptaurea L. 



Jebel Golat near Balad Sinjar 



Achillea conferta DC. 
Achillea micrantha M. Bieb. 
Achillea oligocephala DC. 
Aegilops squarrosa L. 
Allium paniculatum L. 
Androsace maxima L. 
Avena fatua L. 
Bromus macrostachys Desf. 
Callipeltis Cucullaria L. 
Carum elegans Fenzl 
Caucalis leptophylla L. 
Centaurea Behen L. 
Centaurea phyllocephala Boiss. 
Cephalaria syriaca (L.) Schrad. 
Crepis aspera L. 



Cuscuta babylonica Auch. 

Cyperus longus L. 

Daucus aureus Desf. 

Dianthus anatolicus Boiss. 

Echinaria capitata (L.) Desf. 

Elymus crinitus Schreb. 

Elymus Delileanus Schult. 

Euphorbia Chamaesyce L. 

Euphorbia lanata Sieb. 

Filago spathulatus Presl 

Garhadiolus Hedypnois (Fisch. & Mey.) 

Jaub. & Spach 
Geranium rotundifolium L. 
Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt. 
Haplophyllum propinquum Spach 



Plants from Iraq 



191 



Jebel Golat near Balad Sinjar — continued 



Heteranthelium piliferum (Russ.) 

Hochst. 
Hordeum bulbosum L. 
Hyoscyamus pusillus L. 
Hypecoum procumbens L. 
Hypericum crispum L. 
Inula divaricata (Cass.) Boiss. 
Koelpinia linearis Pall. 
Lotus tenuifolius Reichb. 
Micropus ereclus L. 
Moltkia coerulea (Willd.) Lehm. 
Moluccella laeris L. 
Ononis sicula Guss. 
Onosma aleppicum Boiss. 
Phalaris brachystachys Link. 
Phalaris paradoxa L. 
Phlomis Bruguieri Desf. 



Phlomis orientalis Mill. 

Plantago Psyllium L. 

Poa tatarica Fisch. 

Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf. 

Reseda muricata Presl 

Roripa Nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) 

Schinz & Thell. 
Scabiosa Olivieri Coult. 
Scirpus Holoschoenus L. 
Senecio coronopifolius Desf. 
Sisymbrium septulatum DC. 
Statice spicata Willd. 
Sterigmostemum sulphureum (Russ.) 

Bornm. 
Teucrium Polium L. 
Teucrium pruinosum Boiss. 
Verbascum tripolitanum Boiss. 



Between Tall Afar and Balad Sinjar 



Achillea conferta DC. 

Achillea micrantha M. Bieb. 

Achillea oligocephala DC. 

Aegilops crassa Boiss. 

Alkanna tinctoria (L.) Tausch 

Alyssum campestre L. 

Anchusa strigosa Labill. 

Artedia squamata L. 

Asperugo procumbens L. 

Centaurea myriocephala Sch. Bip. 

Centaurea pallescens Del. var. hyalo- 

lepis Boiss. 
Centaurea phyllocephala Boiss. 
Cephalaria syriaca (L.) Schrad. 
Chrozophora verbascifolia (Willd.) A. 

Juss. 
Cichorium Intybus L. 
Convolvulus reticulatus Choisy 
Cousinia stenocephalia Boiss. 
Cuscuta babylonica Auch. 
Cyperus longus L. 
Delphinium oliganthum Boiss. 
Dianthus polycladus Boiss. 
Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Her. 
Erodium laciniatum (Cav.) Willd. 
Euphorbia falcata L. 
Gypsophila porrigens (L.) Boiss. 
Haplophyllum Buxbaumii (Poir.) Boiss. 



Helianthemum salicifolium (L.) Mill. 
Helichrysum graveolens Boiss. 
Hypericum crispum L. 
Hypericum helianthemoides (Spach) 

Boiss. 
Juncus pyramidatus Laharpe 
Medicago denticulata Willd. 
Moltkia coerulea (Willd.) Lehm. 
Nigella arvensis L. 
Oliveria orientalis DC. 
Onosma aleppicum Boiss. 
Onosma sericeum Willd. 
Parietaria alsinefolia Del. 
Parietaria debilis Forst. 
Paronychia capitata (L.) Lam. 
Phlomis Bruguieri Desf. 
Phlomis linearis Boiss. & Bal. 
Poterium verrucosum Ehrenb. 
Rumex pulcher L. 
Salvia palaestina Benth. 
Scorzonera papposa DC. 
Scrophularia xanthoglossa Boiss. 
Turgenia latifolia (L.) Hoffm. 
Verbascum tripolitanum Boiss. 
Verbena officinalis L. 
Veronica Anagallis L. 
Zizyphora tenuior L. 
Zoegea Leptaurea L. 



Tell Es Shur between Tall Afar and Balad Sinjar 



Achillea micrantha M. Bieb. 
Achillea Santolina L. 
Allium paniculatum L. 
Althaea rosea Cav. 
Astragalus maximus Willd. 
Cuscuta babylonica Auch. 
Delphinium oliganthum Boiss. 
Elymus caput-medusae L. 



Gladiolus atroviolaceus Boiss. 
Helicophyllum crassipes (Boiss.) Schott 
Salvia syriaca L. 
Scorzonera papposa DC. 
Silene longipetala Vent. 
Teucrium Polium L. 
Triticum aestivum L. 
Vicia angustifolia Roth 



192 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Jebel Baykhair near Zakho 



Aegilops Aucheri Boiss. 

Alkanna Kotschyana DC. 

Anagyris foetida L. 

Apocynum venetum L. 

Aristolochia maurorum L. 

Asparagus stipularis Forsk. 

Bupleurum ahppicum Boiss. 

Celsia heterophylla Desf. 

Centaurea iberica Trev. 

Centaurea virgata Lam. 

Cephalaria syriaca (L.) Schrad. 

Chrozophora verbascifolia (Willd.) A. 

Juss. 
Cousinia cf. Kotschyi Boiss. 
Crucianella kurdistanica Malinowski 
Crupina Crupinastrum Vis. 
Delphinium cappadocicum Boiss. 
Delphinium oliganthum Boiss. 
Erianthus Hostii Griseb. 
Erythraea latifolia Sm. 
Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss. & Huet. 
Ficus palmata Forsk. 
Fumana arabica (L.) Spach 
Galium verum L. 
Gnaphalium luteo-album L. 
Gypsophila ruscifolia Boiss. 
Hedysarum pannosum Boiss. 
Helichrysum graveolens Boiss. 



Inula squarrosa L. 

Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Lam. 

Juncus effusus L. 

Lactuca sativa L. 

Lathyrus annuus L. 

Lepidium latifolium L. 

Linum angustifolium Huds. 

Onobrychis caput-galli (L.) Lam. 

Onobrychis galegifolia Boiss. 

Paliurus aculeatus Lam. 

Plantago lanceolata L. 

Potentilla fallacina Blocki 

Prunus microcarpa C. A. Mey. 

Quercus Aegilops L. 

Ranunculus lomatocarpus Fisch. & Mey. 

Rhaphis Gryllus (L.) Desv. 

Rubus discolor Weihe & Nees 

Salvia acetabulosa L. var. simplicifolia 

Boiss. 
Salvia cf. kurdica Boiss. & Hohen. 
Schoenus nigricans L. 
Senecio coronopifolius Desf. 
Silene stenobotrys Boiss. & Hausskn. 
Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. 
Tamus communis L. 
Thymbra spicata L. 
Verbascum laetum Boiss. & Hausskn. 
Verbena officinalis L. 



Baban near Al Qosh 



Bupleurum brevicaule Schlecht. 
Chamaemelum microcephalum Boiss. 
Lallemantia iberica (M. Bieb.) Fisch. 
& Mey. 



Pinus halepensis Mill. 
Saponaria Vaccaria L. 



Sheikh Adi near Ain Sifni 



Achillea micrantha M. Bieb. 

Anagyris foetida L. 

Celtis Tournefortii Lam. 

Cicer arietinum L. 

Cousinia arbelensis Winkl. & Bornm. 

Crataegus Azarolus L. 

Cuscuta babylonica Auch. 

Galium tricorne With. 

Juglans regia L. 

Medicago orbicularis All. 

Olea europaea L. 

Onosma sericeum Willd. 

Paliurus aculeatus Lam. 

Parietaria judaica L. 

Physocaulos nodosus (L.) Tausch 



Pistacia mutica Fisch. & Mey. 

Pistacia Terebinthus L. 

Polygonum cognatum Meisn. 

Prunus microcarpa C. A. Mey. 

Quercus Aegilops L. 

Rhus Coriaria L. 

Scrophularia xanthoglossa Boiss. 

Silene dichotoma Ehrh. 

Symphytum cf. kurdicum Boiss. & 

Hausskn. 
Trifolium purpureum Loisel. 
Umbilicus intermedium Boiss. 
Vicia angustifolia Roth 
Vitis vinifera L. 
Ziziphora capitata L. 



Jerwona near Ain Sifni 



Althaea hirsuta L. 
Bupleurum falcatum L. 
Bupleurum kurdicum Boiss. 



Carthamus Oxyacantha M. Bieb. 
Centaurea solstitialis L. 
Convolvulus Cantabrica L. 



Plants from Iraq 



193 



Jerwona near Ain Sifni — continued 



Daucus guttatus Sibth. & Sm. 
Delphinium cappadocicum Boiss. 
Delphinium peregrinum L. 
Echium italicum L. 
Erodium gruinum (L.) Ait. 
Euphorbia Helioscopia L. 
Euphorbia macroclada Boiss. 
Filago spathulatus Presl 
Galium nigricans Boiss. 
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. 
Lythrum hyssopifolia L. 



Ononis mitissima L. 
Ononis sicula Guss. 
Pallenis spinosa (L.) Cass. 
Pimpinella Kotschyana Boiss. 
Poterium villosum Sibth. & Sm. 
Ranunculus cassius Boiss. 
Rubus discolor Weihe & Nees 
Rumex pulcher L. 
Trifolium purpureum Loisel. 
Ziziphora capitata L. 



Between Baiji and Mosul 



Achillea conferta DC. 

Andrachne telephioides L. 

Anthemis Cotula L. 

ArneWa decumbens (Vent.) Kuntze 

Celsia lanceolata Vent. var. singarica 

Murb. 
Centaurea phyllocephala Boiss. 
Cichorium divaricatum Schousb. 
Diplotaxis Harra (Forsk.) Boiss. 
Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'He>. 
Erodium glaucophyllum Ait. 



Erodium laciniatum (Cav.) Willd. 

Hordeum murinum L. 

Mathiola oxyceras DC. 

Moltkia coerulea (Willd.) Lehm. 

Papaver Rhoeas L. 

Pimpinella peregrina L. 

Plantago ovata Forsk. 

Scabiosa Olivieri Coult. 

Senecio coronopifolius Desf. 

Zollikoferia mucronata (Forsk.) Boiss. 



Allium ampeloprasum L. 
Euphorbia cf. oxyodonta Boiss. 

Hausskn. 
Parietaria alsinefolia Del. 



Haditha 

Peganum Harmala L. 
& Silene Behen L. 

Veronica Anagallis L. 
Veronica hederaefolia L. 



Qala Sharqat 



Anchusa slrigosa Labill. 
Andrachne telephioides L. 
Calendula persica C. A. Mey. 
Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'He>. 



Heliotropium supinum L. 
Silene setacea Viv. 
Teucrium Polium L. 



Jebel Pikasar near Aqra 



Althaea Hohenackeri Boiss. 
Micromeria Juliana (L.) 
myrtifolia Boiss. 



& Huet. Pimpinella Kotschyana Boiss. 

Benth. var. Pterocephalus strictus Boiss. & Hohen. 
Wendlandia Kotschyi Boiss. & Hohen. 



Rowandiz Area 



Adiantum Capillus-V eneris L. 
Chrysanthemum Parthenium (L.) Pers. 
Crataegus Azarolus L. 
Crepis pulchra L. 
Delphinium peregrinum L. 
Euphorbia falcata L. var. rubra Boiss. 
Ficus Carica L. var. rupestris Hausskn. 
Fraxinus oxyphylla M. Bieb. 
Gastrocotyle hispida (Forsk.) Bunge 
Heliotropium supinum L. 



Phlomis orientalis Mill. 

Platanus orientalis L. 

Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. var. divaricata 

(Ledeb.) Bailey 
Pyrus syriaca Boiss. 
Ranunculus cassius Boiss. 
Salix Safsaf Forsk. 
Teucrium parviflorum Schreb. 
Vitis vinifera L. 



194 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Jebel Baradost near Rowandiz 



Acanthus longistylis Freyn. 

Acer monspessulanum L. 

Ajuga Chia Schreb. var. tridactylites 

Ging. 
Althaea lavateriflora DC. 
Amygdalus elaeagrifolia Spach 
Bromus macrostachys Desf. 
Celtis Tournefortii Lam. 
Centaurea depressa M. Bieb. 
Ceterach officinarum Willd. 
Chamaemelum microcephalum Boiss. 
Colladonia crenata Boiss. 
Crataegus Azarolus L. 
Crucianella glauca A. Rich. 
Cuscuta approximata Bab. var. urceo- 

lata (Kunze) Yuncker 
Dactylis glomerata L. 
Daphne acuminata Boiss. 
Dianthus anatolicus Boiss. 
Eremostachys laciniata (L.) Bunge 
Euphorbia craspedia Boiss. 
Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss. & Huet. 
Fibigia clypeata (L.) Boiss. 
Galium adhaerens Boiss. & Bal. 
Galium mite Boiss. & Hohen. 
Gentiana Olivieri Griseb. 



Hordeum bulbosum L. 

Hypericum scabrum L. 

Lallemantia peltata (L.) Fisch. & Mey. 

Lotus Gebelia Vent. 

Melandrium eriocalycinum Boiss. 

Melica Cupani Guss. 

Muscari comosum (L.) Mill. 

Paliurus aculeatus Lam. 

Paracaryum cristatum (Lam.) Boiss. 

Pistacia Terebinthus L. 

Poa persica Trin. 

Prunus microcarpa C. A. Mey. 

Quercus Aegilops L. 

Quercus dischorochensis K. Koch 

Quercus persica Jaub. & Spach 

Rumex tuberosus L. 

Scutellaria peregrina L. var. Sibthorpii 

Boiss. & Reut. 
Sideritis libanotica Lab. var. incana 

Boiss. 
Silene chloraefolia Sm. 
Teucrium Polium L. 
Trifolium formosum Urv. 
Veronica aleppica Boiss. 
Vicia tenuifolia Roth 



SULAIMANIYA 



Anthemis altissima L. 

Celsia heterophylla Desf. 

Crataegus Azarolus L. 

Echinops Blancheanus Boiss. 

Epilobium hirsutum L. 

Euphorbia Gaillardoti Boiss. & Blocki 

Geranium dissectum L. 

Glycyrrhiza glabra L. 

Gypsophila platyphylla Boiss. 

Heleochloa schoenoides (L.) Host 

Hibiscus Trionum L. 

Medicago Gerardi Waldst. & Kit. 

Ononis antiquorum L. 

Onopordon illyricum L. 



Polygonum nodosum Pers. 
Populus deltoides Marsh. 
Poterium verrucosum Ehrenb. 
Prunus instititia L. 
Salix Safsaf Forsk. 
Scirpus maritimus L. 
Scolymus maculatus L. 
Scorpiurus sulcata L. 
Silene conoidea L. 
Solanum villosum Mill. 
Stachys pubescens Ten. 
Trifolium resupinatum L. 
Verbena officinalis L. 



Baghdad 



Acanthophyllum microcephalum Boiss. 
Achillea falcata L. 
Achillea micrantha M. Bieb. 
Achillea Santolina L. 
Adonis aestivalis L. 
Aeluropus litoralis (Gouin) Pari. 
Aeluropus repens (Desf.) Pari. 
Agropyron squarrosum (Roth) Link. 
Alhagi maurorum Medic. 
Althaea Ludwigii L. 
Amaranthus graecizans L. 
Amaranthus cf. paniculatus L. 
Amaranthus retroflexus L. 



Amaranthus viridis L. 

Ammi majus L. 

Ammi majus L. var. longiseta Reichb. 

Amygdalus spartioides Spach 

Anagallis arvensis L. 

Anchusa strigosa Labill. 

Andrachne telephioides L. 

Andropogon annulatus Forsk. 

Anthemis altissima L. 

Anthemis Cotula L. 

Anthemis hebronica Boiss. & Kotschy 

Anthemis cf. melampodina Del. 

Aris/ida plumosa L. 



Plants from Iraq 



195 



Baghdad — continued 



Arnebia linearifolia DC. 

Artemisia annua L. 

Asperuao procumbens L. 

Asperula arvensis L. 

Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav. 

Astragalus alexandrinus Boiss. 

Astragalus cruciatus Link. 

Atriplex leucoclada Boiss. subsp. turco- 

manica (Moq.) Aellen 
Avena fatua L. 
Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. 
Beta vulgaris L. subsp. maritima (L.) 

Thell. var. glabra Aellen 
Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris (L.) 

Thell. 
Bromus mollis L. 

Bromus tectorum var. grandiflorus Hook. 
Calligonum polygonoides L. 
Callipeltis Cucullaria L. 
Capparis spinosa L. 
Carum elegans Fenzl 
Caucalis leptophylla L. 
Celsia heterophylla Desf. 
CeUis australis L. 
Centaurea araneosa Boiss. 
Ceterach offlcinarum Willd. 
Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) A. Juss. 
Chrozophora verbascifolia (Willd.) A. 

Juss. 
Cichorium divaricatum Schousb. 
Citrullus Colocynthis (L.) Schrad. 
Colladonia crenata Boiss. 
Convolvulus Cantabrica L. 
Corchorus olitorius L. 
Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. 
Coronilla varia L. 
Crypsis aculeata (L.) Ait. 
Cucumis prophetarum L. 
Cuscuta Lehmanniana Bunge 
Cuscuta pedicellata Ledeb. 
Cydonia oblonga Mill. 
Cymbopogon Schoenanthus (L.) Spreng. 
Cynanchum acutum L. 
Cynodon Dactylon (L.) Pers. 
Cyperus fuscus L. 
Cyperus rotundus L. 
Dalbergia Sissoo Roxb. 
Daphne acuminata Boiss. 
Datura Metel L. 
Delphinium rigidum DC. 
Dianthus anatolicus Boiss. 
Dianthus Cyri Fisch. & Mey. 
Dianthus fimbriatus M. Bieb. 
Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. 
Diplotaxis erucoides (L.) DC. 
Echinochloa colona (L.) Link 
Echinochloa Crusgalli (L.) Beauv. 
Echinops sphaerocephalus L. 
Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. 
Elaeagnus angustifolia L. var. orien/ah's 

(L.) Kuntze 



Epilobium hirsutum L. 

Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Link 

Eragrostis tenella (L.) Roem. & Schult. 

Erigeron canadensis L. 

Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Her. 

Erodium glaucophyllum Ait. 

Eruca sativa Mill. 

Erucaria microcarpa Boiss. 

Eryngium creticum Lam. 

Euphorbia Chamaesyce L. 

Euphorbia denticulata Lam. 

Euphorbia falcata L. 

Euphorbia Helioscopia L. 

Euphorbia Peplus L. 

Euphorbia turcomanica Boiss. 

Fagonia Bruguieri DC. 

Filago spathulatus Presl 

Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.) Vahl 

Frankenia Aucheri Jaub. & Spach 

Fumaria parviflora Lam. 

Gagea reticulata (Pall.) R. & S. 

Galium coronatum Sibth. & Sm. 

Galium mite Boiss. & Hohen. 

Gladiolus atroviolaceus Boiss. 

Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt. 

Glinus lotoides L. 

Gypsophila Rokejeka Del. 

Haplophyllum tuberculatum Forsk. 

Heleochloa alopecuroides (Schrad.) Host 

Helianthemum salicifolium (L.) Mill. 

Heliotropium Eichwaldi Steud. 

Heliotropium supinum L. 

Heliotropium undulatum Vahl 

Herniaria cinerea DC. 

Herniaria hemistemon Gay 

Hibiscus Trionum L. 

Hippocrepis cornigera Boiss. 

Hordeum murinum L. 

Hypericum crispum L. 

Hypericum scabrum L. 

Iberis odorata L. 

isait's aleppica Scop. 

Juncus acutus L. 

Juncus effusus L. 

Koelpinia linearis Pall. 

Lactuca saligna L. 

Lamium amplexicaule L. 

Lamium maculatum L. 

Lappula spinocarpa (Forsk.) Aschers. 

Lathyrus Aphaca L. 

Lathyrus Cicera L. 

Lepidium Draba L. 

Lepidium sativum L. 

Linaria Elatine (L.) Mill. 

Linum flavum L. 

Linum grandiflorum Desf. 

Lippia nodiflora (L.) Michx. 

Lolium temulentum L. 

Lu/fa cylindrica (L.) Roem. 

Lycium barbarum L. 



196 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Baghdad — continued 



Lythrum Salicaria L. var. tomentosum 

DC. 
Malcolmia africana (L.) R. Br. 
Malcolmia Bungei Boiss. 
Malcolmia crenulata (DC.) Boiss. 
Malcolmia torulosa (Desf.) Boiss. 
Malva parviflora L. 
Malta rotundifolia L. 
Mathiola oxyceras DC. 
Matricaria aurea (L.) Boiss. 
Medicago sativa L. 
Micropus supinus L. 
Moltkia collosa (Vahl) Wettst. 
Moluccella laevis L. 
Morus alba L. 
Myrtus communis L. 
Nigella sativa L. 
Obione flabellum (Bunge) Ulbr. 
Ornithogalum narbonnense L. 
Panicum miliaceum L. 
Parietaria judaica L. 
Paronychia argentea Lam. 
Paspalum distichum L. 
Peganum Harmala L. 
Phalaris brachystachys Link 
Phalaris minor Retz. 
Phalaris paradoxa L. 
Phlomis Bruguieri Desf. 
Phlomis orientalis Mill. 
Phragmites communis (L.) Trin. 
Pisum sativum L. 
Plantago Coronopus L. 
Plantago lanceolata L. 
Plantago Loeflingii L. 
Plantago ovata Forsk. 
Poa bulbosa L. 
Poa persica Trin. 
Polygonum aviculare L. 
Polygonum Bellardi All. 
Polygonum Persicaria L. 
Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf. 
Populus euphratica Oliv. 
Poterium verrucosum Ehrenb. 
Prangos ferulacea Lindl. 
Prosopis juliflora DC. 
Prunus Amygdalus Stokes 
Prunus microcarpa C. A. Mey. 
Pulicaria crispa (Forsk.) Sen. Bip. 
Ranunculus aquatilis L. 
ftonuncuZws arcensis L. 
Panunctilus lomafocorpus Fisch. & Mey. 
ftanuncttlus myriophyllus DC. 
Reseda lutea L. 
Rubus discolor Weihe & Nees 
Rumex dentatus L. var. pleiodon Boiss. 
ftumex obtusifolius L. 



Rumex pulcher L. 

Rumex roseus L. 

Saftx acmophylla Boiss. 

Sa/i'x amygdalina L. 

Salvia Szovitsiana Bunge 

Saponaria Vaccaria L. 

Scabiosa palaestina L. 

Scandix iberica M. Bieb. 

Scandix Pecten-Veneris L. 

Scirpus littoralis Schrad. 

Scirpus maritimus L. 

Scorpiurus sulcata L. 

Scorzonera papposa DC. 

Senecio coronopifolius Desf. 

Sesbania aegyptiaca Pers. 

Setaria lutescens (Weig.) Hubb. 

Silene conoidea L. 

Silene rubella L. 

Sisymbrium damascenum Boiss. & Gaill. 

Soianum villosum Mill. 

Sonchus asper (L.) Vill. 

Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. 

Spergularia rubra (L.) Presl 

Spergularia salina Presl 

Statice spicata Willd. 

Sftpa tortilis Desf. 

Tamarix laxa Willd. 

Tamarix leptostachya Bunge 

Tamarix macrocarpa Bunge 

Tecoma radicans (L.) DC. 

Tettcnum Polium L. 

Texiera glastifolia (DC.) Jaub. & Spach 

Tragopogon majtis Jacq. ■ 

Tribulus macropterus Boiss. 

Trifolium formosum Urv. 

Trifolium galilaeum Boiss. 

Trifolium stellatum L. 

Trigonella caelesyriaca Boiss. 

Trigonella stellata Forsk. 

Trigonella uncata Boiss. & Noe 

Triticum aestivum L. 

Urtica dioica L. 

Verbena officinalis L. 

Veronica Ana^aHis L. 

Veronica hederaefolia L. 

Vtcia anguslifolia Roth 

Vtcia Po&a L. 

Vtcia peregrina L. 

XanMzum Strumarium L. 

Ziziphora taurica M. Bieb. 

Ziziphora tenuior L. 

Zizyphus Spina-Christi Willd. var. 

inermis Boiss. 
Zozimia absinthifolia (Vent.) DC. 
Zygophyllum Fabago L. 



Amara 



Aristoloohia maurorum L. 
Atriplex tatarica L. 



Arena /afua L. 

Bacopa Monniera (L.) Wettst. 



Plants from Iraq 



197 



Amara — continued 



Beta vulgaris L. subsp. lomatogonoides 

Aellen 
Centaurea iberica Trev. 
Convolvulus arvensis L. 
Cynodon Dactylon (L.) Pers. 
Cyperus rotundus L. 
Delphinium rigidum DC. 
Erythraea latifolia Sm. 
Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.) Vahl 
Frankenia pulverulenta L. 
Geranium dissectum L. 
Hordeum maritimum With. 
Jussiaea repens L. 
Koeleria phleoides (Vill.) Pers. 
Lepidium Draba L. 
Lepidium sativum L. 
Limnanthemum nymphoides (L.) Link 
Lippia nodiflora (L.) Michx. 
Lolium temulentum L. 
Lycium barbarum L. 
Malva parviflora L. 
Peganum Harmala L. 
Plantago lanceolata L. 
Plantago Loefiingii L. 



Polygonum Bellardi All. 

Polygonum serrulatum Lag. 

Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf. 

Populus ephtratica Oliv. 

Potamogeton lucens L. 

Prosopis Stephaniana (Willd.) Kunth 

Pulicaria dysenterica (L.) Gaertn. 

Ranunculus pantothrix Brot. 

Raphanus sativus L. 

Rumex dentatus L. var. pleiodon Boiss. 

Rumex obtusifolius L. 

Sah'x Safsaf Forsk. 

Salvinia natans (L.) All. 

Scirpus littoralis Schrad. 

Solanum nigrum L. 

Spergularia salina Presl 

Tamarix florida Bunge 

Tamarix pentandra Pall. 

Trigonella Foenumgraecum L. 

Trigonella uncata Boiss. & Noe 

Triticum aestivum L. 

Veronica AnaoaHis L. 

Vicia peregrina L. 



Rutba 



Althaea Ludwigii L. 
Arne&t'a decumbens (Vent.) Kuntze 
AsfragaZws Forskahlei Boiss. 
Bromus tectorum L. 
Caylusea canescens (L.) St. Hil. 
Erodium Ciconium (L.) Willd. 
Erodium glaucophyllum Ait. 
Euphorbia Chesneyi (Kl. & Garcke) 
Boiss. 



Glaucium grandiflorum Boiss. & Huet. 

Haplophyllum propinquum Spach 

Herniaria incana Lam. 

happula spinocarpa (Forsk.) Aschers. 

Onopordon heteracanthum C. A. Mey. 

Peganum Harmala L. 

Phagnalon rupestre (L.) DC. 

Senecio coronopijolius Desf. 

Thymus Kotschyanus Boiss. & Hohen. 



GLOSSARY 



The colloquial words as used in Iraq have been listed with the classical forms 
in parentheses. In Iraq the letter k is usually pronounced ch and the letter q as g. 
In the glossary the diacritical marks have been checked by Mr. Abdul-Majid 
Abbass and Mr. Jassim Khalaf, Iraq Government students at the University of 
Chicago. 



Badinjun (Bddinjdn), 22. Brinjals. 

Bagulla (Baqal, pi. Buqul), 22. Beans. 

Baslah (pi. Bassal), 22. Onion. 

Battikha (pi. Battikh), 22. Melon. 

Charid (Kurud)',22. Water lift. 

Chawi (Kawi), 39, 66, 135, 139. Brand- 
ing scar. 

Chdi (Shdi), 115. Tea. 

Chupattis (Hindi), 115. Unleavened 
cakes. 

Dukhn, 34. Millet. 

Fallahin, 25. Cultivators. 

Fijla (pi. Fijil), 22. Radish. 

Gahwah (Qahwah), see Kahwa. 

Haj, 31. Pilgrimage. 

Henna (Hinnd), 39. Henna. 

Huntah (Hintah), 22. Wheat. 

Ithr'a (Thira), 22. Maize. 

Jidri, 112. Smallpox. 

Kahwa, 115. Coffee. 

Kanaqina (local Arabic), 110. Quinine. 

Kawi, see Chawi. 

Kessereh (Kasrah), 111, 112. Catch- 
ment basin. 

Khiara (pi. Khiar), 22. Cucumber. 

Kibrit, 28. Sulphur. 



Eye lotion. 
Kohl. 

Administrative district. 
Mash. 

Oil used on animals. 

Governor of a district 



Noria or 



Kubeli, 37. 
Kuhl, 39. 
Liwa, 32. 
Mash, 22. 
Mazut, 24. 
Mutasarrif, 32. 

(liwa). 
Na'ura (pi. Newa'ir), 22, 23. 

Persian water wheel. 
Qadha, 26. Political division 
Qir, 28. Bitumen. 
Quffah, 24. Gufa. 
Qura (pi. Quwctr), 24 
Q«<n, 22. Cotton. 
Sha'ir, 22. Barley. 
Shajarat armut, 22. 
Shajarat rumman, 22. 
Shajarat tiffah, 22. 
Shajarat tukki, 22. 
Shakhtur (pi. Shakhatir), 24. Barge 
Simsim, 22. Sesame. 
Sukham, 151. Soot. 
S«<7, 110. Market; bazaar. 
Tamr, 115. Dates. 
Tabuqa (pi. Tabiiq), 24. Brick. 
Timmin, 22. Rice. 
Tina (pi. Tin), 34. Fig. 



Kiln. 



Pear tree. 

Pomegranate tree. 
Apple tree. 
Mulberry tree. 



198 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The following bibliographical references have been used in the preparation 
of this Report. No attempt has been made to compile all the references to this 
area but rather those selected writings which bear strictly on the land and the 
people of the Upper Euphrates region. The reader is referred to the selected 
bibliography and notes on sources in Grant (1937). 

Assistance rendered by libraries both at home and abroad has been acknowl- 
edged in the Preface. 

Abbreviations 

AA American Anthropologist 
AJA American Journal of Archaeology 
AJPA American Journal of Physical Anthropology 
AJSL American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literature 
BRSGI Bollettino della Reale Societa Geografica Italiana 
FMNH Field Museum of Natural History 
GJ Geographical Journal. See also JRGS 
GR Geographical Review 
JBNHS Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 
JRAI Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and 

Ireland 
JRAS Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 
JRCAS Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society 
JRGS Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 
NH Natural History 

OES Oriental Explorations and Studies, American Geographical Society. 
New York 
RSTMH Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 
London 



Aitchison, J. E. T. 

1890. Notes on the products of western Afghanistan and N. E. Persia. Edin- 
burgh. 

Andrew, Sir William 

1882. Euphrates Valley route to India, in connection with the Central Asian 
and Egyptian questions. London. 

ASHKENAZI, TOVIA 

1938. Tribus semi-nomades de la Palestine du nord. Paris. 
Ayrout, Henry Habib 

1938. Moeurs et coutumes des fellahs. Paris. 
Blanchard, Raoul 

1925. La route du desert de Syrie. Annates de Gebgraphie, vol. 34, pp. 235-243. 
Paris. 

1929. La Mesopotamie. Geographie Universelle, vol. 8, pp. 215-232. Paris. 
Blunt, Lady Anne 

1879. Bedouin tribes of the Euphrates. 2 vols. London. 
Boesch, Hans H. 

1939. El-Iraq. Economic Geography, vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 325-361. 
Boissier, Edmond 

1867-84. Flora orientalis. Geneva. 

199 



200 Anthropology of Iraq 

BORNMULLER, J. 

1917. Zur Flora des nordlichen Syriens. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin, vol. 7, 
No. 63, pp. 1-44. Berlin-Dahlem. 

Boucheman, Albert de 

1934. Materiel de la vie bedouine. Documents d'Etudes Orientales, vol. 3. 
Institut Francais de Damas, Damascus. 

Burkill, I. H. 

1909. A working list of the flowering plants of Baluchistan. Calcutta. 
Buxton, L. H. Dudley and Rice, David Talbot 

1931. Report on the human remains found at Kish. JRAI, vol. 61, pp. 57-119. 

Carruthers, Douglas 

1918. The great desert caravan route, Aleppo to Basra. GJ, vol. 52, pp. 
157-184. 

1938. Introduction and notes in Northern Najd. A journey from Jerusalem 
to Anaiza in Qasim. London. 

Charles, H. 

1939. Tribus moutonnieres du Moyen-Euphrate. Documents d'Etudes 
Orientales, vol. 8. Institut Francais de Damas, Beirut. 

China, W. E. 

1938. Hemiptera from Iraq, Iran and Arabia. FMNH, Zool. Ser., vol. 20, 
No. 32, pp. 427^37. 

Clawson, M. Don 

1936. The Shammar Bedouin dental survey. The Dental Magazine and Oral 
Topics, vol. 53, Nos. 2, 3, February, March. London. 

Clemow, F. G. 

1916. The Shiah pilgrimage and the sanitary defences of Mesopotamia and the 
Turco-Persian frontier. The Lancet, August 12, 19, and September 2. 
London. 

Coles, F. E. 

1938. Dust storms in Iraq. Professional Notes No. 84, vol. 6, No. 4. Meteoro- 
logical Office, Air Ministry. London. 

Coon, Carleton Stevens 

1939. The races of Europe. New York. 

Doughty, Charles M. 

1926. Travels in Arabia Deserta. London. 

Dowson, V. H. W. 

1921-23. Dates and date cultivation of the Iraq. Pts. 1-3. Printed for the 
Agricultural Directorate of Iraq. Cambridge, England. 

1939. Provisional list of the date palms of the Iraq. Tropical Agriculture, vol. 
16, No. 7, pp. 164-168. Trinidad. 

Dymock, William 

1885. The vegetable materia medica of western India. Ed. 2. Bombay. 

, Warden, Charles James Hislop, and Hooper, David 

1889-93. Pharmacographia indica. 3 vols. Bombay. 

Epstein, Elihu 

1940. Al Jezireh. JRCAS, vol. 27, Pt. 1, pp. 68-82. 

Field, Henry 

1926. New discoveries at Kish: A great temple; 5000-years old pottery. 
Illustrated London News, vol. 79, No. 2054, p. 395, September 4. 



Bibliography 201 

1929a. Early man in North Arabia. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., NH, vol. 29, 

pp. 33-44. 
1929b. The Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition to Kish, 

Mesopotamia, 1923-29. FMNH, Anthr. Leaflet No. 28. 
1931a. Among the Beduins of North Arabia. Open Court, vol. 45, pp. 577-595. 

Chicago. 
1931b. The Field Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition to Kish. Art 

and Archaeology, No. 5, pp. 243-252, and No. 6, pp. 323-334. Washington. 
1932a. The ancient and modern inhabitants of Arabia. Open Court, vol. 46, 

pp. 847-871. Chicago. 
1932b. The cradle of Homo sapiens. AJA, vol. 36, pp. 426-430. 
1932c. Human remains from Jemdet Nasr, Mesopotamia. JRAS, Pt. 4, pp. 

967-970. 
1932d. Ancient wheat and barley from Kish, Mesopotamia. AA, new ser., 

vol. 34, pp. 303-309. 

1933. The antiquity of man in Southwestern Asia. AA, new ser., vol. 35, 
pp. 51-62. 

1934. Sulle caratteristiche geografiche dell' Arabia settentrionale. BRSGI, vol. 
11, pp. 3-13. 

1935a. Arabs of central Iraq, their history, ethnology and physical characters. 

Introduction by Sir Arthur Keith. FMNH, Anthr. Mem., vol. 4. 
1935b. The Field Museum Anthropological Expedition to the Near East, 1934. 

Science, vol. 81, No. 2093, p. 146. 
1935c. Ibid. The Oriental Institute Archaeological Report on the Near East. 

AJSL, vol. 51, pp. 207-209. 

1936. The Arabs of Iraq. AJPA, vol. 21, pp. 49-56. 

1937a. Oryx and ibex as cult animals in Arabia. Man, vol. 37, No. 69. 

London. 
1937b. Jews of Sandur, Iraq. Asia, vol. 37, pp. 708-710. 
1937c. See Hooper, David. 
1939a. The physical characters of the modern inhabitants of Iran. The 

Asiatic Review, vol. 35, No. 123, pp. 572-576. London. 
1939b. Contributions to the anthropology of Iran. FMNH, Anthr. Ser., 

vol. 29. 

Frazer, Sir James George 

1924. The golden bough. London. 

Gilliat-Smith, B., and Turrill, W. B. 

1930. On the flora of the Nearer East. Kew Bull., Nos. 7-10. London. 

Government of Iraq Publications 

1929. Maps of Iraq with notes for visitors. Baghdad. 

Grant, Christiana Phelps 

1937. The Syrian Desert. London. 

Guarmani, Carlo 

1938. Northern Najd. A journey from Jerusalem to Anaiza in Qasim. Trans, 
by Lady Capel-Cure. London. 

Guest, Evan 

1933. Notes on plants and plant products with their colloquial names in Iraq. 
Bull. No. 27, Department of Agriculture, Iraq. Baghdad. 

Handbook of Arabia 

1920. General. Vol. 1. London. 
Harrison, Paul W. 

1924. The Arab at home. New York. 



202 Anthropology of Iraq 

Hooper, David, and Field, Henry 

1937. Useful plants and drugs of Iran and Iraq. FMNH, Bot. Ser., vol. 9, 
No. 3, pp. 71-241. 

Hudson, Ellis Herndon 

1928. Trypanosomiasis among the Bedouin Arabs of the Syrian Desert. U. S. 
Naval Med. Bull., vol. 26, No. 4. Washington, D.C. 

1938. The significance of bejel. Reprinted from Publication No. 6 of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, pp. 35-39. 

1939. Can syphilis exist apart from sex? N.Y. State Jour, of Med., vol. 39, 
No. 19, pp. 1840-45. 

Ionides, M. G. 

1937. The regime of the rivers Euphrates and Tigris. New York. 
Jamali, M. F. 

1934. The new Iraq. Problems of Bedouin education. New York. 
Keith, Sir Arthur 

1935. Introduction in Arabs of central Iraq, their history, ethnology and 
physical characters. FMNH, Anthr. Mem., vol. 4, pp. 11-76. 

, and Krogman, W. M. 

1932. The racial characteristics of the southern Arabs (pp. 301-333) in 
"Arabia Felix" by Bertram Thomas. New York. 

Kennedy, Walter P. 

1935. The polynuclear count in an Iraq population. RSTMH, vol. 28, No. 5, 

pp. 475-480. 
1937a. Some additions to the fauna of Iraq. JBNHS, vol. 39, pp. 745-749. 

Bombay. 
1937b. The macropolycyte in health and disease in Iraq. Journal of Pathology 

and Bacteriology, vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 701-704. Edinburgh. 
1937c. The leucocyte picture in Iraq. RSTMH, vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 309-332. 
and Mackay, Ian 

1935. Further studies on the polynuclear count in Iraq. RSTMH, vol. 29, 
No. 3, pp. 291-298. 

1936. The normal leucocyte picture in a hot climate. Journal of Physiology, 
vol. 87, No. 4, pp. 336-344. London. 

See also Mackay, Ian 

Krogman, W. M., see Keith, Sir Arthur 
Laufer, Berthold 

1919. Sino-Iranica. FMNH, Anthr. Ser., vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 185-630. 

1934. The Noria or Persian wheel. Oriental studies in honour of Dasturji 
Saheb Cursetji Erachji Pavry, pp. 238-250. Oxford. 

Lawrence, T. E. 

1926. Seven pillars of wisdom. London. 
Lyde, Lionel W. 

1933. The continent of Asia. London. 
Mackay, Ian, and Kennedy, Walter P. 

1936. Some cases of non-gonococcal urethritis in the Near East. Journal of 

the Royal Army Medical Corps, pp. 194-197. London. 
See also Kennedy, Walter P. 

Musil, Alois 
1927a. Arabia Deserta. OES.No. 2. American Geographical Society. New York. 
1927b. The Middle Euphrates. OES, No. 3. American Geographical Society. 
New York. 



Bibliography 203 

1928. The manners and customs of the Rwala Bedouins. OES.No. 6. American 
Geographical Society. New York. 

Oppenheim, Max Freiherr von 

1939. Die Beduinen, vol. 1. Leipzig. 
Post, G. E. 

1896. Flora of Syria, Palestine, and Sinai. Beirut. 
Raswan, Carl R. 

1930. Tribal areas and migration lines of the North Arabian Bedouins. GR, 
vol. 20, pp. 494-502. 

1935. Black tents of Arabia. Boston. 

1936. Moeurs et coutumes des Beclouins. Paris. 
Rice, D. Talbot, see Buxton, L. H. Dudley 
Samuelsson, Gunnar 

1933a. Lycochloa, eine neue Gramineen-Gattung aus Syrien. Ark. Bot., vol. 

25A, No. 8, pp. 1-6. Stockholm. 
1933b. Rumex pictus Forsk. und einige verwandte Arten. Ber. Schwei. Bot. 

Gesell., vol. 42, Pt. 2, pp. 770-779. Bern. 
1935. Notes on two collections of plants from Syria, Palestine, Transjordan 

and Iraq. Sartryck ur Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, vol. 29, Pt. 3. Uppsala. 

1938. Cives novae florae syricacae. Repert. Spec. Nov. Beihefte, vol. 100, pp. 
38-49. Berlin-Dahlem. 

SCHLIMMER, J. L. 

1874. Terminologie medico-pharmaceutique et anthropologique francaise- 
persane. Teheran. 

Schmidt, Karl P. 

1930. Reptiles of Marshall Field North Arabian Desert Expedition, 1927-28. 
FMNH, Zool. Ser., vol. 17, pp. 223-230. 

1939. Reptiles and amphibians from Southwestern Asia. FMNH, Zool. Ser., 
vol. 24, pp. 49-92. 

Stamp, L. Dudley 

1929. Asia. London. 

SUMMERSCALE, J. P. 

1938. Report on economic and commercial conditions in Iraq. Department of 
Overseas Trade, No. 699. London. 

Sydow, H. 

1935. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der parasitischen Pilze des Mittelmeergebiets. 
Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, vol. 29, Pt. 1, pp. 65-78. 

Sykes, Mark 

1907. Journeys in North Mesopotamia. GJ, vol. 30, pp. 237-254, 284-398. 
Thiebaut, J. 

1936. Flore Libano-Syrienne. Mem. Inst. d'Egypte, vol. 11. Cairo. 
Trotter, Mildred 

1936. The hair of the Arabs of central Iraq. AJPA, vol. 21, pp. 423-428. 
Uvarov, B. P. 

1938. Orthoptera from Iraq and Iran. FMNH, Zool. Ser., vol. 20, pp. 439-451. 
Vavilov, N. I. 

1934. Agricultural Afghanistan [In Russian]. Leningrad. 
Willcocks, Sir William 

1911. The irrigation of Mesopotamia. London. 



TRIBES REFERRED TO IN CHAPTER V 

In the following table each tribe is listed in alphabetical order. The prefixes 
Al, Al bu, and Bani follow the tribal names. 



Minor tribe, Main tribe 

section, or or 

sub-section confederation 

Abaidat, Al Baqqarah 

Abd, Al bu Dulaim 

Abdullah Anaiza 

Aithah, Al bu Dulaim 

Ajaj, Al bu Dulaim 

Ajarjah, Al Aqaidat 

Ajrah, Al Anaiza 

Akash, Al bu Dulaim 

Ali, Al Aqaidat 

Ali, Al Baqqarah 

Ali, Al bu Dulaim 

Ali al Jasim, Al bu Dulaim 

Aliyat, Al bu Aqaidat 

Alwan, Al bu Dulaim 

Amarah, Al Anaiza 

Amarat Anaiza 

Annas, Al Haiwat 

Aql, Al bu Dulaim 

Arab, Al bu Dulaim 

Araf , Al bu Dulaim 

Ashahin, Al Baqqarah 

Ashja Anaiza 

Ashshihah, Al bu Dulaim 

Assaf , Al bu Dulaim 

Ataif at Anaiza 

Ausaj, Al bu Dulaim 

Azzah, Al Chitadah 

Azzam, Al bu Dulaim 

Badran, Al bu Baqqarah 

Baiqat Ar Rahhaliya 

Bajaidah, Al Anaiza 

Baqqarah, Al Dulaim 

Barghuth, Al Chitadah 

Budur Anaiza 

Butainat, Al Anaiza 

Chitadah Zoba 

Dahaman, Al Anaiza 

Dahamshar, Al Anaiza 

Dariah, Bait Kubais, Bani 

Dhanna Majid Anaiza 

Dhiyab, Al bu Dulaim 

Dimim, Al Aqaidat 

Dilamah, Al Anaiza 

Dughaiyim, Al Faddaghah 

Duhail, Al bu Dulaim 

Dukhaiyil, Al Dulaim 

Dulaim Qartan Zoba 

Duran Anaiza 

Fadan Anaiza 

Fahad, Al bu Dulaim 

204 



Minor tribe, Main tribe 

section, or or 

sub-section confederation 

Faiyadah, Al bu Dulaim 

Faiyadah Haiwat 

Falahat, Al bu Dulaim 

Fallujiyin Haiwat 

Farraj, Al bu Dulaim 

Farraj Allah Kubais, Bani 

Fuqarah Anaiza 

Furjah Anaiza 

Ghadir, Al bu Dulaim 

Ghanim, Al bu Baqqarah 

Ghazail, Al bu Dulaim 

Ghurrah, Al bu Dulaim 

Guraibawiyin, Al Haiwat 

Haddad, Al bu Dulaim 

Haidah, Al bu Kubais, Bani 

Haiwat Zoba 

Haj jaj Anaiza 

Hajji Isa, Bait Kubais, Bani 

Halabsah, Al bu Dulaim 

Hamad, Al bu Kubais, Bani 

Hamad al Dhiyab, Al bu . Dulaim 
Hamad al Hussain, Al bu . Dulaim 

Hamdan, Al bu Baqqarah 

Hammamid Anaiza 

Hamudi, Al Aqaidat 

Hantush, Al bu Dulaim 

Hardan, Al bu Aqaidat 

Hardha, Al Anaiza 

Harub, Al Ar Rahhaliya 

Hasanah Anaiza 

Hassan, Al bu Dulaim 

Hassan, Al bu Aqaidat 

Hassun, Al Aqaidat 

Hawa, Al bu Dulaim 

Hatim, Al bu Dulaim 

Hazalat, Al Anaiza 

Hazim, Al bu Dulaim 

Hiblan, Al Anaiza 

Hilal, Al bu Dulaim 

Hitawiyin Zoba 

Hulaiyil, Al Haiwat 

Humaid, Al Chitadah 

Huntush, Al bu Dulaim 

Huraiwat, Al bu Dulaim 

Hussain al Ali, Al bu . . . . Dulaim 
Hussani, Al Anaiza 

Idhar, Al Aqaidat 

Isa, Al Aqaidat 

Isa, Al bu Dulaim 



Index of Tribes: Chapter V 



205 



Minor tribe, Main tribe 

section, or or 

sub-section confederation 

Jabal, Al Anaiza 

Jabar, Al bu Dulaim 

Jadan, Al bu Dulaim 

Jadu, Al Aqaidat 

Jaghaifah, Al bu Dulaim 

Jalaid, Al Anaiza 

Jalal, Al Anaiza 

Jasim, Al bu Dulaim 

Jifal, Al Anaiza 

Juhaish, Al bu Dulaim 

Jumailah Dulaim 

Kaka Anaiza 

Kawakibah Anaiza 

Khalaf , Al bu Dulaim 

Khalifah, Al bu Dulaim 

Khalil, Albu Haiwat 

Khamis, Al bu Dulaim 

Khamishat, Al Anaiza 

Khammas, Al Chitadah 

Khanfar, Al Aqaidat 

Khanjar, Al Baqqarah 

Khashtah, Al Anaiza 

Khurushiyin Dulaim 

Kulaib, Al bu Dulaim 

Luhaib Dulaim 

Madlij, Al bu Dulaim 

Majawadah, Al Aqaidat 

Mahal, Al bu Dulaim 

Maish, Al bu Baqqarah 

Malahimah, Al Dulaim 

Malhud, Al Anaiza 

Manayi Anaiza 

Mani, Al bu Dulaim 

Marasimah, Al Aqaidat 

Mashadiqah Anaiza 

Mashittah Anaiza 

Mathluthah, Bait Kubais, Bani 

Matrad, Al bu Dulaim 

Miri, Al bu Aqaidat 

Miri, Al bu Dulaim 

Mish, Al bu Baqqarah 

Mudhaiyan, Al Anaiza 

Mufarraj, Al bu Faddaghah 

Muhaid, Al Anaiza 

Muhallaf , Al Anaiza 

Muhamdah, Al bu Dulaim 

Muhammad, Al Aqaidat 

Muhammad al Dhiyab, Al 

bu Dulaim 

Muhammad al Jasim, Al 

bu Dulaim 

Muhanna, Al bu Dulaim 

Mujbil, Al bu Dulaim 

Mukatharah, Al Anaiza 

Mukhaiyat, Al Anaiza 

Mulahimah, Al Dulaim 

Muqallad, Al bu Dulaim 



Minor tribe. Main tribe 

section, or or 

sub-section confederation 

Muridh Anaiza 

Musa, Al bu Baqqarah 

Musa, Al bu Dulaim 

Musaib, Al Anaiza 

Musalikh Anaiza 

Musalihah Dulaim 

Mushahidah, Al Aqaidat 

Mutarafah, Al Anaiza 

Nabbizah, Al Baqqarah 

Nabit, Al Faddaghah 

Nasrah, Al Anaiza 

Nassar, Al. Faddaghah 

Nimr, Al bu Dulaim 

Nusair Anaiza 

Qaan, Al bu Aqaidat 

Qadrau, Al Aqaidat 

Qara-Ghul Dulaim 

Qartan, Al Dulaim 

Qumzan, Al Chitadah 

Quraifa, Al bu Dulaim 

Quraiti, Al bu Dulaim 

Quran, Al Aqaidat 

Rad, Al Dulaim 

Radhi, Al Chitadah 

Rahamah, Al bu Aqaidat 

Raihan, Al bu Dulaim 

Ramlah, Al bu Dulaim 

Rudaini, Al bu Dulaim 

Rus, Al Anaiza 

Ruwalla Anaiza 

Saadan, Al Dulaim 

Sbaa, Al Anaiza 

Salatin, Al Anaiza 

Salih, Al bu Dulaim 

Salih al Ali, Al bu Dulaim 

Salman, Al bu Ar Rahhaliya 

Salqah, Al Anaiza 

Samalah, Al bu Dulaim 

Sanid, Al Anaiza 

Saqr, Al bu Dulaim 

Saqra Anaiza 

Sarai, Al bu Aqaidat 

Sari, Al Anaiza 

Saudah, Al bu Dulaim 

Shaar Zoba 

Shaban, Al bu Dulaim 

Shaddid Kubais, Bani 

Shahab, Al bu Dulaim 

Shaitat, Al Aqaidat 

Shimlan, Al Anaiza 

Shiti Dulaim 

Shuait, Al Aqaidat 

Shumailat, Al Anaiza 

Shuwartan Dulaim 

Subaihat Dulaim 

Subaikhan, Al Aqaidat 



206 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Minor tribe, Main tribe 

section, or or 

sub-section confederation 

Sumaidi, Al bu Dulaim 

Sumail, Al Chitadah 

Sumailat Dulaim 

Suqur, Al Anaiza 

Suwailmat, Al Anaiza 

Suwalma Anaiza 

Taha, Al bu Dulaim 

Taiyib, Al bu Dulaim 

Tamah, Al bu Dulaim 

Taumah, Al Aqaidat 

Thulth, Al Aqaidat 



Minor tribe, Main tribe 

section, or or 

sub-section confederation 

Tuluh Anaiza 

Tuwaisat, Al bu Dulaim 

Ubaid, Al bu Dulaim 

Ubidah, Al Anaiza 

Ujur, Al bu Dulaim 

Watbah, Al Anaiza 

Wulud AH Anaiza 

Zabanah, Al Anaiza 

Zaid, Bani Dulaim 

Zubar, Al Chitadah 



DULAIMIS ILLUSTRATED IN PLATES 



1007: 
1009: 
1010: 
1011: 
1012: 
1013: 
1016: 
1017: 
1018: 
1019: 
1020: 
1021: 
1022: 
1023: 
1024: 
1025: 
1026: 
1027: 
1028: 
1030: 
1033: 
1034: 
1035: 
1036: 
1037: 
1039: 
1040: 
1041: 
1042: 
1044: 
1045: 
1046: 



Plate 29 
Plate 25 
Plate 8 
Plate 6 
Plate 20 
Plates 2, 3 
Plate 33 
Plate 15 
Plate 9 
Plate 13 
Plate 32 
Plate 11 
Plate 31 
Plate 11 
Plate 30 
Plate 22 
Plate 30 
Plate 24 
Plate 19 
Plate 27 
Plate 26 
Plate 13 
Plate 26 
Plate 27 
Plate 5 
Plate 5 
Plate 21 
Plate 15 
Plate 33 
Plate 7 
Plate 14 
Plate 12 



1047: 
1048: 
1049: 
1050: 
1051: 
1052: 
1053: 
1054: 
1055: 
1057: 
1058: 
1059: 
1060: 
1061: 
1063: 
1064: 
1065: 
1066: 
1067: 
1080: 
1081: 
1082: 
1083: 
1084: 
1085: 
1086: 
1087: 
1088: 
1092: 
1093: 
1124: 



Plate 22 
Plate 8 
Plate 9 
Plate 10 
Plate 34 
Plate 4 
Plate 6 
Plate 7 
Plates 16, 17 
Plate 31 
Plate 32 
Plate 12 
Plate 35 
Plate 28 
Plate 29 
Plate 34 
Plate 10 
Plate 19 
Plate 24 
Plate 4 
Plate 23 
Plate 28 
Plate 35 
Plate 18 
Plate 21 
Plate 23 
Plate 20 
Plate 25 
Plate 18 
Plate 14 
Plate 36 



ANAIZA TRIBESMEN ILLUSTRATED IN PLATES 



1571: Plates 40, 41 
1572: Plate 38 
1573: Plate 39 
1575: Plate 39 
1576: Plate 45 
1577: Plate 43 
1578: Plate 47 
1579: Plate 47 
1580: Plate 44 
1581: Plate 44 



1582: Plate 46 
1583: Plate 43 
1584: Plate 38 
Plate 45 
Plate 42 
Plate 42 
Plate 37 
1589: Plate 37 
1592: Plate 46 



1585: 
1586: 
1587: 
1588: 



207 



TRIBAL NAMES APPEARING ON MAP OF IRAQ (A) 



Abbas: o, 20 

Abuda: o, 21 

'Afaj : n, 20 

Afshar: j, 21-22 

Ahl Al Kut: p, 21 

Ahmadawand: 1, 21-22 

'Ajib: o, 20 

Ako: j, 19 

Al Ajarja: 1, 15 

Alattab: o, 21 

Al bu Abbas: 1, 18 

Al bu 'Ajil: 1, 18-19 

Al bu 'Amir: m, 19; n, 19 

Al bu Atalla: o, 20-21 

Al bu Badran: j-k, 17 

Al bu Darraj: o, 21 

Al bu Dhiyab: m, 18 

Al bu Fahad: m, 18 

AlbuFaraj:m, 20-21 

Al bu Ghuwainim: o, 20-21 

Al bu Hamad: j, 18 

Al bu Hamdan: k, 19 

Al bu Hassan: o, 20 

Al bu Husain: j, 18 

Al Buisa: m, 18 

Al bu Jaiyash: o, 20 

Al bu Mahal: 1, 16-17 

Al bu Muhammad: o, 22 

Al bu Nail: n-o, 19 

Al bu Nashi: o, 20 

Al bu Nimir: 1-m, 17-18 

Al bu Nisan: 1, 18-19 

Al bu Rudaini: 1-m, 16-17; m, 17 

Al bu Sa'ad: o, 21 

Al bu Sali: o, 21 

Al bu Sarai: k, 15 

Al bu Sultan: n, 19 

Al Hasan: p, 21 

Al Hatim: o, 20-21 

Al Humaid: n-o, 21 

Al Ibrahim: p-o, 21 

Al Idhar: 1, 15-16 

Aliqan: i, 16 

Al Ismail: p, 21 

Al Jabar: o, 20-21 

Al Jumai'an: p, 21 

Al Maiya: p, 22 

Al Majawada: 1, 15 

Al Manashra: o, 20 

Al Munaisin: p, 22 

Al Muslib: o, 21 

Al Sa'ad: p-o, 22 

Al Saba': n, 15 

Al Sali: o, 20 

Al Shatat: 1, 15 

Al Sudan: o, 22 

Al Suwa'id: o, 22 

Al Tulph: 1, 15 

1 Buzzun, Isa, Muraiyan listed 



'Amarat: n, 16; n, 18 
Ambuqiya: m, 19 
Aqaidat, j, 17; k-1, 15 
Aqail, o, 21 
Aq'ra: o-n, 19 
Artushi: i-j, 17-18 
Asachrat: p, 21 
Ashair al Saba: j, 18 
Auramani: k, 21 
'Awasid: n, 19 
Ayyash: o, 19 
Azairij: o, 21 
Aznaur: j-i, 16 
'Azza: 1, 19 
Azzubaid: n, 19 

Babajani:k, 21; 1, 20-21 
Bahahitha: n-o, 20 
Baiyat: 1, 19 
Bajlan: 1, 20 
Balik: j, 19 
Balikian: j, 19 
Bani Ard: o, 19-20 
Bani Hasan: n, 18—19 
Bani Huchaim: o, 19-20 
Bani Khaiqan: p, 21 
Bani Kubais: m, 17 
Bani Lam: n, 21; n, 21-22 
Bani Rabia: n, 20-21 
Bani Rabi'a: m, 20 
Bani Rikab: n-o, 20-21 
Bani Said: o, 21 
-18 Bani Salama: o, 19 

Bani Sali: o, 22 

Bani Tamim: m, 19; m, 20; m-1, 19 
Bani Turuf: n, 19; o, 22 
Bani Uqba: m, 20 
Bani Wais: m, 20 
Bani Zaid: o, 20; o, 21 
Bani Zuraj: o, 20 
Baqqara: j, 15; k, 15 
Baradost: j, 19 
Barkat: o, 20 
Barush: j, 18-19 
Barwari Bala: i, 18 
Barwari Jir: i-j, 18 
Barwariya: i, 17 
Barzan: i, 19 
Baz: i, 18 
Begzadeh: i, 19 
Belavar: 1, 21-22 
Besheri: i, 16 
Bilbas: j, 19-20 
Budair: o, 20 
Budur: o, 20 
Buhtui: 1, 21-22 
Buzzun: 1 o, 21 

as one tribe on the map. 
208 



Index of Tribal Names: Iraq 



209 



Chabsha: o, 19 
Chahardauli: k, 22 
Chal: i, 18 
Chaldaean: j, 18 
Challabiyin: n, 20 
Chechen: j, 15 
Chichan: m, 19-20 
Chingini: k, 20 
Chitada: m, 18-19 
Chunan: i, 15 

Daaja Sa'adan: n, 20 
Dachcha: o, 20-21 
Dainiya: m, 20 
Dakhori: i, 15-16 
Dakshuri: i, 16 
Dalabha: n, 20 
Dargala: j, 19 
Dashi: i, 15 
Daudi: k-1, 19 
Dawar: n, 20 
Derevri: i, 16 
Dershau: i, 16-17 
Dhafir: p-q, 19-20-21 
Dhawalim: o, 20 
Dilfiya: m, 20 
Dilo:k, 20; 1, 20 
Dinavar: 1, 22 
Dizai: k, 18-19 
Dola Bila: j, 19 
Dola Goran: j, 19 
Dola Mairi: j, 19 
Dola Majal: j, 19 
Dolka: j, 19 
Doski: i, 19 
Dulaim: 1-m, 16-18 
Duski: i, 17-18 

Eiru: i, 17 

Fad'an: n, 15 
Faddagha: m, 19 
Fartus: o, 20 
Fatla: n, 19; o, 19 

Galbaghi: k, 21 
Garsan: i, 16-17; i, 17 
Gaurak: j, 20 
Gavadan: i-j, 17 
Geravi: i, 18 
Geshki: 1, 21-22 
Gezh: 1, 19-20; 1, 20 
Ghazalat: o, 19 
Ghazzi: o, 20-21 
Ghurair: m, 19 
Girdi: i, 19; j, 18-19; j, 19 
Goyan: i, 17-18 
Guli: i, 17-18 
Guran:l, 20-21; 1,21 

Hachcham: o-n, 21 
Hairuni: i, 16-17 
Haiwat: m, 18-19 



Hajjan: j, 17 
Hamad: m, 20; n, 19-20 
Hamawand: k, 19-20 
Hamza: n, 20 
Haruti: j, 19 
Hassanan: j, 17 
Haverki: i, 16 
Hawazin: q, 22 
Herkhi, 19-20; j, 18 
Humaidat: o, 19 
Husainat: p, 21 
Hwatim: n, 19 

Ibrahim: o, 19 

Isa: o, 21 

Ismail Uzairi: k, 20 

Jabbari: k, 19-20 

Jaf: j, 21; k, 20; 1, 20 

Jaghaifa: 1, 16-17 

Jalalawand: 1, 21; m, 22 

Jaliha: n, 19; o, 20 

Jannabiyin: m-n, 18-19 

Jelian: i, 17 

Jilu: i, 18-19 

Jomani: i, 16 

Jubur: j, 17; k, 18; 1-m, 19-20; m, 19; 

n, 19 
Jubur (Khabur): k-j, 15-16 
Juhaish: j, 17; n, 19-20 
Jumaila: m, 18-19 
Jumur: 1, 22 
Juwaibir: o, 20 
Juwarin: p, 21 

Kafrushi Shinki: k, 20 
Kakai: k, 19 
Kakawand: 1, 22 
Kalawand: 1, 22 
Kalawi: j, 19 
Kalendalan: i, 15 
Kalhur:l, 20-21 ; m, 20 
Kamangar: 1, 21-22 
Karkhiya Bawiya: m, 19 
Khafaja: n, 19; o, 19; o, 21 
Khala Jan: i, 15 
Khamisya: p, 21 
Khazail: n-o, 19; o, 20 
Khazraj: m, 18-19 
Khizil: 1, 22 

Khudabandalu: k, 22; 1, 22 
Khurkhura: k, 21 
Kichan: i, 17 
Kolmetchma: i, 16 
Kopa: j, 19 
Kuliai: 1, 22 
Kushnao: j, 19 

Lak: k, 19 
Lakk: k, 22 
Lughawiyin: o-n, 21 



210 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Ma'dan: m, 20 
Mahalami: i, 16 
Mahmedan: i, 18 
Majawir: o, 19-20 
Malawaha: j, 17 
Mamkhoran: i, 18 
Mamush: j, 20 
Manda: j, 20 
Mandumi: k, 22 
Mangur Zudi Manda: j, 20 
Mansur: o, 19 
Mantik: k, 19 
Marra Pizdher: j, 20 
Masud: n, 19 
Mazi: i, 15 
Merivani: k, 21 
Metini: i, 15 
Milli: i, 15; j, 15 
Miran Begi: j, 18 
Mirsinan: i, 15-16 
Mizurhi, 18-19; j, 18 
Mu'alla: m, 20 
Mu'amara: n, 19 
Muamara: j, 17 
Muhamda: m, 18 
Muhsin: o, 20 
Mujamma: m, 18; m, 19 
Mujarra: p, 21 
Mukhadhara: o, 20 
Mukri: j, 20-21 
Muraiyan: o, 21-22 
Mushahida: m, 19 
Mutair: q, 21-22 
Mutaiwid: j, 16 
Muzaira: o-p, 22 

Naida: m, 20 

Najdat Dafafa: m, 19 

Naodasht: j, 19 

Nashwa or Khulut: p, 22 

Nassun: o, 21 

Nerva: i, 18 

Non-tribal Kurd: j, 19 

Non-tribal Kurd and Arab: j, 18-19 

Nuchiyan: i, .19 

Ojagh: j, 20 
Omarmi: 1, 20 
Oramar: i, 18-19 
Osmanawand: 1, 21; m, 22 

Pairawand: 1, 22 
Palani: 1, 20 
Penjinara: i, 16 
Pinianish: i, 18 
Pirahasani: j, 19 
Piran: j, 19 
Pizdher: j, 20 

Qarahalus: m, 20 
Qarakhul: o, 21 
Qara Papaq: j, 20 



Qarqariya: j, 17 
Qubadi: 1, 21 
Qulu: j, 18-19 
Qurait: n, 19 

Raikan: i, 18 
Reshkotanli: i, 16 
Rowandok: j, 19 
Rudaini: m, 20 
Rumm: j, 19 
Rustambegi: 1, 21 

Sada: m, 20; o, 20 

Sadiq: o, 19 

Sa'id: n, 20 

Sakhwar: 1, 19-20 

Sarchef : j, 21 

Sargalu Sheikhs: k, 20 

Shabbana: n, 19-20 

Shaikhan: k, 20 

Shammar Jarba: k-1, 17-1 

Shammar Toqa: m-n, 19-20 

Shaqarqi: j-i, 21-22 

Sharabiyin: j, 15 

Sharaf Biyani: 1-k, 20 

Shasavan: j-i, 21-22 

Shebek Christian: j, 18 

Sheikh Bizaini: j, 18; k, 19 

Sheikh Ismail: k, 22 

Sheikhs of Quala' Sedka: k, 19-20 

Shekak: i, 19 

Sherikan: i, 15 

Shernakh: i, 17 

Shibil: o, 19 

Shillana: j-k, 19-20 

Shirwan: j, 19 

Shovan: i, 17 

Shu'aiba: o, 20 

Shuan: k, 19 

Shuraifat: p, 21 

Sihoi: i, 17 

Silivani: i, 17 

Sindi: i, 17 

Sinjabi: 1,20; 1,21 

Sinn: j, 19 

Sirokhli: i, 16-17 

Slopi: i, 17 

Sor: i, 15 

Sturki: i, 16 

Sufran: o, 20 

Sukuk: m, 19 

Sulduz: i, 20 

Surchi: j, 18-19 

Surgichi: i, 15-16 

Sursur: 1-k, 21-22 

Tai: j, 16 
Taiyan: i, 17 
Talabani: k, 19; 1, 20 
Tall 'Afaris: j, 17 
Tanzi: i, 16-17 
Tiari: i, 18 



Index of Tribal Names: Iraq 211 

Tilehkuh: j, 21 Yasar: n, 18-19 

Tkhuma: i, 18 Yassar: n, 19 

Toba: o, 20 Yezidi: j, 16; j, 17-18 

Toqiya: o, 21 

Tufail: n, 19 Zaiyad: o, 19; o, 20; o-n, 20 

Turcoman Arab: j, 18 Zangana: 1, 20; 1-k, 20 

Zarari: j, 18-19 
'Ubaid: 1, 19 Zedik: i-j, 18-19 

'Umairlyat: m, 20 Zend: 1, 20 

Zibari: j, 18-19 
Waladbegi:!, 20-21; 1,21 Zudi: j, 20 



TRIBAL NAMES APPEARING ON MAP OF IRAN (B) 



Abad: p, 24 
Abdul Khan: o, 23 
Abdul Rezai: p, 27-28 
Abulvardi: p, 27 
Afshar: j, 23 
Agha Jari: p, 24; p, 25 
Airizaumari: o, 24 
Aiyasham: o, 23 
Alamdar: n, 24 
Alaswand: o, 24 
Al bu Hamdan: n, 23 
Al Duhaim: o, 23 
Ali Muradi: p, 27-28 
Al Kathir: n, 23; o, 23 
Al Khamls: o, 24 
Al Ruwalyan: o, 23 
Alwanleh: o, 24 
Amarlu: j, 24 
Amla (Lur):n, 23 
Anafijah: o, 23 
Andakah: n, 24 
Arab: n, 23 
Aushar: p, 24 

Baghdad!: k, 24; k, 25 

Baharwand: n, 23 

Bairanawand: m, 23 

Bait Saad: o, 23 

Bakhtlari: m, 24; n, 23; n, 24-25; o, 25 

Baklsh: p, 26 

Bala Girleh: m, 23; n, 23 

Bandari: p, 24 

Bani Abdullahi: q, 28 

Bani Khalid: o, 24 

Bani Tamim: o, 23 

Bani Turuf: o, 23 

Barangird: o, 24 

Baseri: p, 27-28: q, 27; q, 28 

Bavi: p, 26 

Bawasat: n, 24 

Bawieh (Bavleh): p-o, 23; o, 24 

Boir Ahmadi: p, 26; o, 26 

Boiramides: n, 24 

Bulawaso: o, 24 

Burujird: n, 23 

Chaab i Dubais: n, 23 
Chab: p, 22-23 
Chaman-i-Urga: n, 24 
Charasi: p, 24 
Chavari: 1, 22-23 
Cherum: p, 24-25 
Chigini: m, 23; j, 24 

Dailam: o, 23 
Dalwand: m, 23 
Darashur: q, 26 
Darazi: p-q, 27 



Dinaruni: n, 24 
Dindarlu: q, 27-28 
Dirakwand: n, 23 

'Emadi: p, 28 

Farsi: p, 28 

Gandali: o, 24 
Garrai: p, 27 
Gashtil: p, 24 
Gazistun: n, 24 
Ghiasvand: j, 24 
Ghuri: p, 27 

Guklan Turkomans: i, 30 
Gundalis: n, 24 
Gundalzu: o, 23-24 
Gurgha: o, 24 
Gurgi: p, 24 

Haft Lang: n, 23 
Haidari: p, 24 
Hajjilu: k, 23 
Hamaid: o, 23-24 
Hannai: q, 28 
Hardan: o, 23 
Hawashim: o, 23 

Inanlu: k, 24; k, 25; k, 26 

Jaafarbai ak Atehbai: i, 29 
Jabbareh Arab: p, 27 
Ja'fari: p, 24 
Jalllavand: j, 24 
Janeki Sardsir: o, 25 
Jani Khan Arab: p, 28 
Jumur: k, 23 

Kaid Rahmat: m, 23 

Kakavand: j, 24 

Karohi: o, 24 

Khalkhal: i, 23 

Khamseh: p, 27; p, 27-28; q, 27; q, 28; 

q, 29 
Khazraj : o, 23 
Khidr-i-Surkh: o, 24 
Khudabandalu: k, 23; 1, 23 
Khusrui: q, 28 
Khwajahvand: j, 25-26 
Kurdbaiglu: i, 22-23 
Kurd-u-Turk: j, 28 
Kuruni: p, 27 

Labu Haji: q, 27 

Labu Muhammadi: p, 28 

Laki: p, 25 

Lakk (Lek):k, 22-23 

Lashani: q, 28 

Lur: n, 23 



212 



Index of Tribal Names: Iran 



213 



Ma'afI: j, 25 
Makawandi: o, 24 
Mamassani: p, 26; q, 26; q, 27 
Mir: n, 23 
Mishwand: m, 23 
Mizdaj: n, 25 

Muhaisin: p-o, 23; p, 22-23 
Mujazi: n, 24 
Mumianwand: m, 23 
Murad ali Wand: n, 23 
Muris: n, 24 
Mutur: p, 24 

Naqd'Ali: p, 28 
Nargasin: n, 24 
Naslr: o, 24 
Nidharat: p, 24 
Nuyi Silai: o, 25-26 

Papi: n, 23 

Pir Islami: p, 28 

Qajar: j, 29 
Qalawand: n, 23 
Qanawati: p, 24 
Qaraguzlu: k-1, 23 

Qashqai: o, 26; p, 26; p-o, 27; q, 25; q, 
26; q, 27 

Rashvand: j, 25 
Rustam: p, 26 



Sagwand: m, 23; n, 23 
Saiyidali: o, 23 
Saiyidan: o, 24 
Sakhtsar: j, 25 
Salamat: o, 23-24 
Sha'abuni: p, 24 
Shahsavan: k, 26 
Shaikh Mamu: p, 24-25 
Shaiwand: n, 24 
Shatranlu: i, 23 
Sheni: o, 24 
Sherafah: o, 22-23 
Shir Ali: p, 24 
Shiri: p, 28 
Shishbuluki: p, 27 
Shuraifat: p, 24 
Silsileh: m, 23 
Suluklu: p, 27 
Surkha: n, 23 

Tafarakha: o, 24 
Talish: i, 23-24 
Turkashawand: 1, 23 
Tushmals: n, 24 

Yamut Turkomans: i, 29; i, 30 

Zangina: o, 24 
Zeloi: n, 24 
Zirgan: o, 23 



INDEX 



Abbass, Abdul-Majid, 12, 198 

Abu Ghuraib Canal, description of, 18 

Abu Kemal, 17; northern limit of culti- 
vation of date palm at, 21; popula- 
tion of, 28; Sunnis in, 28 

Agricultural products, 22-23 

Akeydat, see Aqaidat 

Al Abaidat, 95 

Al Ajarjah, 93 

Al Ali, 94 

Al Annas, 102 

Al Azzah, 101 

Al Barghuth, 101 

Al bu Aliyat, 95 

Al bu Alwan, 96 

Al bu Badran, 95 

Al bu Dhiyab, 96 

Al bu Fahad, 97 

Al bu Ghanim, 95 

Al bu Haidah, 101 

Al bu Hamad, 101 

Al bu Hamdan, 95 

Al bu Hardan, 93 

Al bu Hardan (Section), 94 

Al bu Hassan, 95 

Al bu Isa, 97 

Al bu Khalifah, 98 

Al bu Khalil, 102 

Al bu Maish, 96 

Al bu Miri, 94 

Al bu Mish, 96 

Al bu Mufarraj, 102 

Al bu Muhamdah, 98 

Al bu Muhammad, venereal disease 
among, 116 

Al bu Musa, 96 

Al bu Qaan, 95 

Al bu Rahamah, 95 

Al bu Rudaini, 99 

Al bu Salman, 101 

Al bu Sarai, 95 

Al Dimim, 93 

Al Dughaiyim, 102 

Al Guraibawiyin, 102 

Al Hamudi, 94 

Al Harub, 101 

Al Hassun, 94 

Al Hulaiyil, 102 

Al Humaid, 101 

Ali Jaudat, 9 

Al Isa, 94 

Al Jadu, 95 

Al Khammas, 101 

Al Khanfar, 95 

Al Khan jar, 95 

Al Majawadah, 94 

Al Marasimah, 94 

Al Muhammad, 94 

Al Mushahidah, 94 



Al Nabbizah, 96 
Al Nabit, 102 
Al Nassar, 102 
Al Qadrau, 94 
Al Qumzan, 101 
Al Quran, 95 
Al Radhi, 101 
Al Saadan, 34, 100 
Al Sbaa, 93 
Al Shaitat, 95 
Al Shuait, 95 
Al Subaikhan, 94 
Al Sumail, 101 
Al Taumah, 94 
Al Thulth, 95 
Al Zubar, 101 

Amara, classification of land surface of, 

106-107; flora of, 196; population 

of, in 1930, 108, in 1935, registered, 

105, unregistered, 104 

Amarat, habitat of, 27; relations with 

other tribes, 27, 34; tribal list of, 91 

Amphibians, 24 

Ana, 17; Jews in, 28; population of, 28, 

in 1882, 28; Sunnis in, 28 
Anaiza tribesmen (nineteen males meas- 
ured), 11, 12, 13, 26, 27, 54-74 
age of, 63, 70; groupings, 63 
bigonial breadth of, 70 
bizygomatic breadth of, 70; group- 
ings, 70 
blondism among, 64 
body hair of, 64; compared to Arabs 

of central Iraq, 64 
camels of, 55; exports of, 55 
cauterization among, 66 
cephalic index of, 68, 70; groupings, 
68; compared to Proto-Mediter- 
ranean mean, 68 
demography of, 63 
disease among, 66. See also Pathology 
ears of, measurements and indices of, 

70 
eyes of, 64; groupings, 64 
eye slits of, 64 

facial measurements and indices of, 
68-69, 70; groupings, 68-69, 70, 
74 
facial types of, 73 ; ram-faced among, 

73-74 
fronto-parietal index of, 70 
hair of, 64; groupings, 64 
head breadth of, 67, 70; groupings, 67 
head length of, 70 
health of, 65 
horses of, breeds of, 55 
kohl used by, 66 
lips of, 65 



214 



Index 



215 



minimum frontal diameter of, 67, 70; 

groupings, 67, 69 
morphological characters of, group- 
ings, 63-66 
musculature of, 65 
nasal breadth and height of, 69, 70; 

groupings, 69, 70 
nasal index of, 69, 70; groupings, 69 
nasal profile, 65; groupings, 65 
nasal tip and wings of, 65; groupings, 

65 
Negroid element among, in nose of, 

65, 69; in skin color of, 63 
nomadism among, 54-55 
origin of, 54 

photographic analyses of, 70-71 
provenance of, 62 
racial position of, 71 
raw data: measurements, indices, and 
morphological characters of, 72- 
73 
sitting height of, 67, 70; groupings, 

67, 69 
skin color of, 63; compared to the 
Arab, 63; to the European, 63 
statistical analyses of, groupings, 66- 

70 
stature of, 66, 70; groupings, 67 
stock, see camels, horses 
tattooing among, 66 
teeth of, 65; groupings, 65 
trade of, geographical facilities for, 55 
tribal feuds of, 55 
tribal list of, 91-93 
tribes and sub-tribes of, 56-61 
vital statistics of, 62 
zygo-frontal index of, 70 
zygo-gonial index of, 70 
Anthropometric data, abbreviations, 
list of, used for, 33; selection of, 
32-33, 75, 122, 131 
Apple trees, 22 
Aqaidat, tribal list of, 93-95 
Arabs, attitude toward disease, 110, 
toward pain, 119, toward medical 
treatment, 117, 118-119; four types 
of, 26-27; in Raqqa, 28; racial 
position of, 89-90; use of herbs by, 
22 
Anthropometric data: age, cephalic 
indices and head measurements 
on, from Baghdad, children, 126, 
female, 125, male, 123-124, from 
nineteen towns, 124-125, from 
six towns, female, 125-126, from 
three tribes, 126, from various 
tribes of Iraq, children, 126. 
See also Baghdad, individuals 
measured in Royal Hospital of 
Armenians, 13 
Artificial cranial deformation, absence 

of, 115 
Asellia murraiana, 157 



Assyrians, 11, 13 

Aziziya Canal, description of, 18 

Baban, flora of, 192 
Badgers, 23, 160 

Baghdad, Central School for Girls of, 
151; classification of land surface 
of, 106-107; flora of, 194; health 
inspection at, 120; Iraq Museum 
in, 11; population of, in 1930, 108, 
in 1935, registered, 105, unregis- 
tered, 104; Royal College of Medi- 
cine in, 8, 9, 15, 118, 121 
Anthropometric data: individuals 
measured in Royal Hospital of, 
13, 131 
Arabs, twenty-three male, 131 
age of, 132, 139 
bigonial breadth of, 139 
bizygomatic breadth of, 139 
blondism among, 133 
brow-ridges of, 137 
cauterization among, 135 
cephalic index of, 137, 139; group- 
ings, 137 
demography of, 132 
diseases of, 135. See also Pathology 
ears of, measurements and indices 

of, 139 
eyes of, 133; groupings, 133 
facial measurements and indices of, 
137, 139; groupings, 137-138 
fronto-parietal index of, 139 
hair of, 132-133; groupings, 132 
head breadth of, 136, 139; group- 
ings, 136 
head form of, 136 
head length of, 139 
lips of, 135 
minimum frontal diameter of, 136, 

139; groupings, 137 
morphological characters of, 132- 

135 
nasal breadth and height of, 138, 

139; groupings, 138 
nasal index of, 138, 139; groupings, 

138 
nasal profile of, 133; groupings, 134 
nasal septum of, 133; groupings, 

134 
nasal tip and wings of, 133; group- 
ings, 134 
Negroid element among, in eyes of, 
133, in lips of, 135, in nose of, 
133, 138, in skin color of, 132 
physical appearance of, 135 
prognathism, alveolar, among, 134 
provenance of, 131 
raw data: measurements, indices 
and morphological characters 
of, 141-142 
sitting height of, 136, 139; group- 
ings, 136 



216 



Anthropology of Iraq 



skin color of, 132 

smallpox among, 135 

statistical analyses of, 135-142 

stature of, 135-136, 139; group- 
ings, 136 

tattooing among, 135 

teeth of, 134; groupings, 134 

zygo-frontal index of, 139 

zygo-gonial index of, 139 
males omitted from the statistical 
analyses, 138-140 

bigonial breadth of, 140 

bizygomatic breadth of, 140 

cauterization among, 139-140 

cephalic index of, 140 

diseases of, 139-140. See also 
Pathology 

ears of, measurements and indices 
of, 140 

eyes of, 139-140 

facial form of, 139 

facial measurements and indices 
of, 140 

fronto-parietal index of, 140 

head breadth and length of, 140 

head form of, 139-140 

minimum frontal diameter of, 140 

Mongoloid type among, 139 

nasal breadth and height of, 140 

nasal form of, 139-140 

nasal index of, 140 

provenance of, 138-139 

raw data: measurements, indices 
and morphological characters 
of, 141-142 

sitting height of, 140 

stature of, 140 

teeth of, 139-140 

zygo-frontal index of, 140 

zygo-gonial index of, 140 
Arabs, twenty female, 143 

age of, 143, 150; groupings, 143 

bigonial breadth of, 150 

bilharziasis among, 147 

bizygomatic breadth of, 150 

blondism among, 144 

cauterization among, 147 

cephalic index of, 148, 150; group- 
ings, 148 

demography of, 143 

diseases among, 146-147. See also 
Pathology 

ears of, measurements and indices 
of, 150 

eyes of, 144; groupings, 144 

facial measurements and indices of, 
148-149, 150; groupings, 149 

fronto-parietal index of, 150 

gonorrhea among, 147 

hair of, 144; groupings, 144 

head breadth of, 148, 150; group- 
ings, 148 

head length of, 150 



malars of, 146 

minimum frontal diameter of, 148, 

150; groupings, 148 
morphological characters of twenty 

Arab women, 144-147 
nasal breadth and height of, 149, 

150; groupings, 149 
nasal index of, 149, 150; groupings, 

149 
nasal profile of, 145; groupings, 145 
nasal septum of, 145; groupings, 

145 
nasal tip and wings of, 145; group- 
ings, 145 
Negroid blood among, 147 
physical appearance of, 146-147 
prognathism, alveolar, among, 146 
provenance of, 143 
raw data: measurements, indices 

and morphological characters 

of, 153-155 
sitting height of, 147, 150; group- 
ings, 147 
skin color of, 144 
smallpox among, 147 
statistical analyses of, groupings, 

147-150 
stature of, 147, 150; groupings, 147 
tattooing of, 146, 147 
teeth of, 145-146; groupings, 146; 

notes on, 146 
zygo-frontal index of, 150 
zygo-gonial index of, 150 
females omitted from the statistical 
analyses, 150-151 
blondism among, 151 
cauterization among, 151 
diseases of, 150-151 
eyes of, 150-151 
head form of, 150-151 
nasal septum, inclination of, 151 
Negroid blood among, 150, 151 
nose of, 150, 151 
physical appearance and type of, 

150-151 
prognathism, alveolar, among, 150, 

151 
provenance of, 150 
raw data: measurements, indices 

and morphological characters 

of, 153-155 
tattooing among, 151 
teeth of, 150-151 
females, including statistical and 
omitted series, 152 
bigonial breadth of, 152 
bizygomatic breadth of, 152 
cephalic index of, 152 
ears of, measurements and indices 

of, 152 
facial measurements and indices of, 

152 
fronto-parietal index of, 152 



Index 



217 



head breadth and length of, 152 
minimum frontal diameter of, 152 
nasal breadth and height of, 152 
nasal index of, 152 
raw data: measurements, indices 
and morphological characters 
of, 153-155 
sitting height of, 152 
stature of, 152 
zygo-frontal index of, 152 
zygo-gonial index of, 152 
girls of, eleven, 151-152 
blondism among, 151 
body hair of, 152 

diseases of, 152. See also Pathology 
eyes of, 151 
hair of, 152 
lips of, 152 

Negroid blood among, 152 
nose of, 152 
physiognomy of, 152 
provenance of, 151 
raw data: measurements, indices 
and morphological characters 
of, 153-155 
skin color of, 152 
teeth of, 152 
Ba'ij Beduins (35 individuals), 13, 86 
age of, 86; compared to Iraq Soldiers, 

76; to Kish Arabs, 76 
beards among, 87 

bigonial breadth of, 86; compared to 
Iraq Soldiers, 76; to Kish Arabs, 
76 
bizygomatic breadth of, 86; compared 
to Iraq Soldiers, 76 ; to Kish Arabs, 
76 
body hair of, 87 

cephalic index of, 86; compared to 
Iraq Soldiers, 76; to Kish Arabs, 
76; groupings, 86 
chest development of, 89 
ears of, measurements and indices of, 
86; compared to Iraq Soldiers, 
76; to Kish Arabs, 76 
eyes of, groupings, 88 
facial index of, groupings, 86 
facial measurements and indices of, 
86; compared to Iraq Soldiers, 
76; to Kish Arabs, 76 
fronto-parietal index of, 86; compared 
to Iraq Soldiers, 76; to Kish 
Arabs, 76 
hair of, groupings, 87 
head breadth and length of, 86; com- 
pared to Iraq Soldiers, 76; to 
Kish Arabs, 76 
head hair, 87 
health of, 89 

leg length of, 86; compared to Iraq 

Soldiers, 76; to Kish Arabs, 76 

minimum frontal diameter of, 86; 

compared to Iraq Soldiers, 76; 



to Kish Arabs, 76 
morphological characters of, group- 
ings, 87-89 
musculature of, 89 
nasal breadth and height of, 86; com- 
pared to Iraq Soldiers, 76; to 
Kish Arabs, 76 
nasal index of, 86; compared to Iraq 
Soldiers, 76; to Kish Arabs, 76; 
groupings, 86 
nasal profile of, groupings, 88 
nasal tip and wings of, groupings, 88 
sitting height of, 86; compared to 
Iraq Soldiers, 76; to Kish Arabs, 
76 
statistical analyses of, groupings, 86 
stature of, 86; compared to Iraq 
Soldiers, 76; to Kish Arabs, 76; 
groupings, 86 
tattooing among, 89 
teeth of, groupings, 88 
vital statistics of, 87 
zygo-frontal index of, 86; compared 
to Iraq Soldiers, 76; to Kish 
Arabs, 76 
zygo-gonial index of, 86; compared 
to Iraq Soldiers, 76; to Kish 
Arabs, 76 
Baiji, flora from north of, 193 
Baiqat, 101 
Bait Dariah, 101 
Bait Hajji Isa, 101 
Bait Mathluthah, 101 
Bani Kubais, 101 
Bani Zaid, 34; tribal list of, 100 
Baqqarah, 95-96 
Barley, 22 

Basra, classification of land surface of, 
106-107; population of, in 1930, 
108, in 1935, registered, 105, un- 
registered, 104 
Beans, 22 

Beduins, 23, 26, 31, 55; age, cephalic 
indices and head measurements of, 
from Mosul Liwa, 127, see also 
Ba'ij Beduins; use of herbs by, 22, 
25 
Belikh River, 18 
Birds, 23-24 
Bitumen, 28; cholera epidemic averted 

by, 30; uses of, 24 
Bitumen wells, mention by Herodotus 

of, 30 
Boars, 23, 161 
Bornmiiller, Joseph, 165 
Boundaries, 17 
Brady, Ethel, 10 
Breasted, James H., 9 
Brinjals, 22 
British Museum, 15 
British Oil Development Company, 156 
British Royal Air Force Headquarters, 30 
Browne, W. E., 27 



218 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Burnett, John, 9 

Buxton, L. H. Dudley, 7, 8, 81, 82 

Camels, 23; oil used as remedy for, 24; 
use of, for irrigation, 22, 23 

Canis aureus, 159 

Canis pallipes, 159 

Capra blythi, 162 

Chaldeans, 13 

Cheetahs, 23 

Chitadah, 34; tribal list of, 101 

Christians, 26; age, cephalic indices and 
head measurements of, from Bagh- 
dad, males, 128, females, 129, from 
Mosul, males, 128, females, 129, 
from Tabriz, 130, from Tell Kaif, 
128, from Urmia, 130, see also 
Turks; in Deir-ez-Zor, 28 

Circassians in Raqqa, 28 

Clawson, M. Don, 9 

Clemow, F. G., 120 

Climate, 20-22 

Coon, Carleton S., 10 

Cornwallis, Kinahan, 9 

Cotton, 22 

Cranial deformation, see Artificial cra- 
nial deformation 

Cucumbers, 22 

Date palm, 22, 28, 30; limit of cultiva- 
tion of, 21 

Deir-ez-Zor, Arabs in, 28; Jews in, 28; 
population of, in 1882, 28; Syrian 
Catholics in, 28 

Dekker, J. H., 156 

Dinka, Philippus, 156 

Diwaniya, Ad, classification of land 
surface of, 106-107; population of, 
in 1930, 108, in 1935, registered, 
105, unregistered, 104 

Diyala, classification of land surface of, 
106-107; population of, in 1930, 
108, in 1935, registered, 105, unreg- 
istGrcd 1 04 

Dowson, Ernest, 15, 103, 106 

Dowson, V. H. W., 22 

Drower, E. S., 156 

Dulaim, classification of land surface 
of, 106-107; population of, in 1930, 
108, in 1935, registered, 105, un- 
registered, 104 
Anthropometric data (137 males 
measured): 13, 26, 27, 33-54 
age of, 34-35, 43; groupings, 35 
baldness among, 35 
bigonial breadth of, 43 
bizygomatic breadth of, 43; group- 
ings, 43 
blindness among, 37 
blondism among, 36, 37 
blood samples of, 38 
body hair of, 35 
cauterization among, 39 



cephalic index of, 40-41, 43; group- 
ings, 41 

disease among, 38. See also Pathol- 
ogy 

ears of, measurements and indices 
of, 43 

eyes of, 36-37; groupings, 36 

eye slits of, 36 

facial measurements and indices of, 
41, 43; groupings, 41, 43 

facial types of, 73; ram-faced 
among, 73 

fronto-parietal index of, 43 

hair of, 35; groupings, 36 

head breadth of, 40, 43; groupings, 
40 

head length of, 43 

health of, 38 

henna used by, 39 

kohl used by, 39 

lips of, 37 

minimum frontal diameter of, 40, 
43; groupings, 40, 43 

morphological characters of, group- 
ings, 35-39 

musculature of, 38 

nasal breadth and height of, 42, 43; 
groupings, 42, 43 

nasal index of, 42, 43; groupings, 
42 

nasal profile of, 37; groupings, 37 

nasal tip and wings of, 37 

Negroid element among, in hair of, 
35; in nose of, 37, 42; in skin 
color of, 35 

nomadism among, 33-34; in eastern 
Shamiya, 33, 34; in Jazira, 33, 
34 

origin of, 33 

photographic analyses of, 44 

racial position of, 44-45; compared 
to Beduin, 45; to settled Arab, 
45 

raw data: measurements, indices 
and morphological characters 
of, 46-54 

religious affiliations of, 33 

sitting height of, 40, 43; groupings, 
40, 42 

skin color of, 35; compared to the 
Kish Arab, 35; to the southern 
European, 35; to the Arab in 
the area from the "Fertile 
Crescent" to Morocco, 35 

statistical analysis of, groupings, 
39-54 

stature of, 39, 43; groupings, 39 

tattooing among, 39 

teeth of, 37-38; groupings, 37 

tribal list of, 96-100 

tribal relations of, 34 

zygo-frontal index of, 43 

zygo-gonial index of, 43 



Index 



219 



Dulaim Qartan, 34; tribal list of, 102 
Dunkley, G. W., 9 

Eastwood, Austin, 156 

Edmonds, C. J., 15, 103 

Education, increasing facilities for, 31 

Epidemics, danger of, 31 

Eptesicus hingstoni, 158 

Eptesicus walli, 159 

Erbil, classification of land surface of, 
106-107; population of, in 1930, 
108, in 1935, registered, 105, un- 
registered, 104 

Euphrates River, canals adjoining, 18, 
changing channels of, 20; course of, 
17; flood seasons of, 18, 20; tribu- 
taries of, 18, 22 

Fadan, 27, 54; tribal list of, 92 

Faddaghah, 34; tribal list of, 102 

Fahad Beg, 27 

Faiyadah, tribal list of, 102 

Fallahin, 25 

Falluja, Al, 17, buildings of, 30; land 
of, under cultivation, 30; location 
of, 30; population of, 30 

Fallujiyin, 102 

Farraj Allah, see Shaddid 

Fauna, 23-24, 156-162 

Felis chaus, 159 

Field, Marshall, 8 

Field Museum Anthropological Expedi- 
tion to the Near East, 8, 9, 156, 163, 
165 

Field Museum-Oxford University Joint 
Expedition to Kish, Iraq, 7, 15, 81, 
110, 111 

Flint implements, 28 

Foxes, 23, 159 

Frankfort, Henri, 9 

Frayha, Anis, 12 

Frazer, James, 113 

Fruit trees, 22, 28 

Gazella, 23, 162 
Gerhard, Peter, 11, 12 
Ghazi ibn Faisal, 8, 9 
Gossypium, 166 
Grazing, 23 
Grice, C. R., 9 
Guest, Evan, 165 
Gufas, manufacture of, 24 
Gypsies, 13 

Habbaniya Lake, 11, 30; environs of, 29 

Haditha, flora of, 193 

Hail, 20 

Haiwat, 34; tribal list of, 102 

Hamad, 54-55 

Harrison, Paul W., 116, 117 

Harvard University, Institute of Geo- 
graphical Exploration of, 11; Labo- 
ratory of Anthropology of , 75; Pea- 



body Museum of, see Peabody Mu- 
seum; Widener Library of, 11 

Hasanah, 27, 54 

Health, 31 

Hemiechinus auritus, 157 

Hemiptera, 24 

Herodotus, 30 

Herpestes persicus, 159 

Hilla, classification of land surface of, 
106-107; population of, in 1930, 
108, in 1935, registered, 105, un- 
registered, 104 

Hill, Arthur, 165 

History, 24-26 

Hitawiyin, 34; tribal list of, 102 

Hit, bitumen wells at, 24, 28, 30; 
historical references to, 30; date 
palms at, 28; fruit trees at, 28; 
gufas manufactured at, 24; Jews 
in, 30; lime manufactured at, 24; 
location of, 28; population of, 30, 
in 1882, 28; salt pans at, 24; 
sulphur at, 28; uses of bitumen at, 
24 

Holt, A. L., 24 

Hooper, David, 118 

Hooton, E. A., 8, 10, 32, 75 

Hordeum, 166 

Horwood, A. R., 165 

Hudson, E. H., 116 

Humidity, relative, 20 

Hyaena hyaena, 23, 160 

Hydar, Rustam, 166 

Hyena, 23 

Ibn Rashid, 28 
Idhar, Al, 93 
Insects, 24, 163-164 
Iraq, area of, 103, in 1920, 103; census, 
agricultural, need for, in, 107-108; 
communications with, 19; cultiva- 
ble land of, 103, in Irrigation Zone, 
103, 106, in Rainfall Zone, 103, 
106-107; density of population of, 
103; development of Public Wel- 
fare of, 120-121; economic and 
commercial conditions in, 24; geo- 
graphical position of, 14; hospitals 
in, 121; nomadism restricted in, 11; 
population of, in 1919, 103 
Iraq Petroleum Company, 9, 24, 27, 34, 
55, 121, 139, 156; health conditions 
improved by, 121 
Iraq Soldiers (222 individuals measured 
at Hilla Army Camp), 13, 83 
age of, 83; compared to Ba'ij Beduins, 

76; to Kish Arabs, 76 
bigonial breadth of, 83; compared to 
Ba'ij Beduins, 76; to Kish Arabs, 
76 
bizygomatic breadth of, 83; com- 
pared to Ba'ij Beduins, 76; to 
Kish Arabs, 76 



220 



Anthropology of Iraq 



cephalic index of, 83; compared to 

Ba'ij Beduins, 76; to Kish Arabs, 

76; groupings, 83 
chest development of, 85 
diseases among, 85. See also Pathol- 
ogy 
ear measurements and indices of, 83; 

compared to Ba'ij Beduins, 76; 

to Kish Arabs, 76 
eyes of, groupings, 85 
facial index of, 83; compared to 

Ba'ij Beduins, 76; to Kish Arabs, 

76; groupings, 83 
facial measurements and indices of, 

83; compared to Ba'ij Beduins, 

76; to Kish Arabs, 76 
fron to-parietal index of, 83 ; compared 

to Ba'ij Beduins, 76; to Kish 

Arabs, 76 
hair of, groupings, 84 
head breadth of, 83; compared to 

Ba'ij Beduins, 76; to Kish Arabs, 

76 
head length of, 83; compared to 

Ba'ij Beduins, 76; to Kish Arabs, 

76 
health of, 85 
leg length of, 83; compared to Ba'ij 

Beduins, 76; to Kish Arabs, 76 
minimum frontal diameter of, 83; 

compared to Ba'ij Beduins, 76; 

to Kish Arabs, 76 
musculature of, 85 
nasal alae of, groupings, 84 
nasal breadth and height of, 83; com- 
pared to Ba'ij Beduins, 76; to 

Kish Arabs, 76 
nasal index of, 83; compared to Ba'ij 

Beduins, 76; to Kish Arabs, 76; 

groupings, 84 
nasal profile of, groupings, 84 
sitting height of, 83; compared to 

Ba'ij Beduins, 76; to Kish Arabs, 

76 
stature of, 83; compared to Ba'ij 

Beduins, 76; to Kish Arabs, 76; 

groupings, 83 
tattooing among, 86 
teeth of, groupings, 85 
vital statistics of, 84 
zygo-frontal index of, 83; compared 

to Ba'ij Beduins, 76; to Kish 

Arabs, 76 
zygo-gonial index of, 83 ; compared to 

Ba'ij Beduins, 76; to Kish Arabs, 

76 
Irrigation, methods of, 22-23 

Jackal, 23 

Jaculus Loftusi, 161 

Jaladiya, limestone quarry at, 24 

Jamali, M. F., 31 

Jazira, Al, 17 



Jebel Baradost, flora of, 194 

Jebel Baykhair, flora of, 192 

Jebel Enaze, Paleolithic implements 
found on, 28; source of Wadi 
Hauran on, 28 

Jebel Golat, flora of, 190 

Jebel Khatchra, flora of, 190 

Jebel Pikasar, flora of, 193 

Jemdet Nasr, 7, 111, 116; excavations 
at, 7; location of, 111; painted 
pottery at, 7; water supply at, 111— 
112 

Jerwona, flora of, 192 

Jews, 13, 26; age, cephalic indices and 
head measurements of, from Bagh- 
dad, female, 129, male, 129, from 
Erbil, 129, from Kirkuk, 129; at 
Ana, 28; at Deir-ez-Zor, 28; at 
Hit, 30 

Jumailah, 97 

Karbala, classification of land surface 
of, 106-107; population of, in 1930, 
108, in 1935, registered, 105, un- 
registered, 104 
Keith, Arthur, 8, 11, 32, 89-90 
Kennedy, Walter P., 8, 9, 156 
Kew Herbarium, 165 
Khabur River, 11, 18 
Khalaf, Jassim, 12, 198 
Khurushiyin, 34; tribal list of, 100 
Kirkuk, classification of land surface of, 
106-107; population of, in 1930, 
108, in 1935, registered, 105, un- 
registered, 104 
Kirkuk, Iraq Petroleum Company Hos- 
pital at, 121; population of, 108 
Kish, 7; first crossing by automobile 

to Tigris from, 116 
Kish Arabs (359 individuals measured), 
13, 76 
age of, 76; compared to Ba'ij Beduins, 

76; to Iraq Soldiers, 76 
animals, domesticated, affection for, 

119; wild, cruelty to, 119 
attitude toward medical treatment of, 

118-119 
beards among, 78 

bigonial breadth of, 76; compared to 
Ba'ij Beduins, 76; to Iraq 
Soldiers, 76 
bizygomatic breadth of, 76; compared 
to Ba'ij Beduins, 76; to Iraq 
Soldiers, 76 
blindness among, 81 
body hair among, 78 
brow-ridges of, 78 

cephalic index of, 76; compared to 
Ba'ij Beduins, 76; to Iraq 
Soldiers, 76; groupings, 77 
chest development of, 80 
constitution of, 119, 120 
Darwin's point among, 81 



Index 



221 



dental condition of, 113-114 

diet of, 115 

diseases among, 81. Seealso Pathology 

ears of, helix of, 81; lobe of, 81; 
measurements and indices of, 
76; compared to Ba'ij Beduins, 
76, to Iraq Soldiers, 76 

eyebrows of, 79 

eyes of, groupings, 79 

facial hair of, 78 

facial measurements and indices of, 
76; compared to Ba'ij Beduins, 
76; to Iraq Soldiers, 76; group- 
ings, 77 

fatalism of, 110 

fron to-parietal index of, 76; compared 
to Ba'ij Beduins, 76; to Iraq 
Soldiers, 76 

glabella of, 78 

hair of, groupings, 78 

head breadth and length of, 76; 
compared to Ba'ij Beduins, 76; 
to Iraq Soldiers, 76 

health of, 81, 110-121 

henna, use of, 81 

insensitivity to pain of, 119 

leg length of, 76; compared to Ba'ij 
Beduins, 76; to Iraq Soldiers, 76 

lips of, 79 

malars of, 78 

minimum frontal diameter of, 76; 
compared to Ba'ij Beduins, 76; 
to Iraq Soldiers, 76 

morphological characters of, 77-80 

musculature of, 80 

nasal breadth and height of, 76 ; com- 
pared to Ba'ij Beduins, 76; to 
Iraq Soldiers, 76 

nasal bridge of, 79 

nasal index of, 76; compared to 
Ba'ij Beduins, 76; to Iraq 
Soldiers, 76; groupings, 77 

nasal profile of, 80 

nasal septum of, 79 

nasal tip and wings of, 80 

prognathism, alveolar, among, 78; 
facial, 78 

remedies used by, 118 

scapulae of, 80 

sitting height of, 76; compared to 
Ba'ij Beduins, 76; to Iraq Soldiers, 
76 

skin color of, 77 

stature of, 76; compared to Ba'ij 
Beduins, 76; to Iraq Soldiers, 76; 
groupings, 77 

tattooing among, 81 

teeth of, groupings, 80 

ventral disorders of, cause of, 115 

vital statistics of, 77 

zygo-frontal index of, 76; compared 
to Ba'ij Beduins, 76; to Iraq 
Soldiers, 76 



zygo-gonial index of, 76; compared 
to Ba'ij Beduins, 76; to Iraq 
Soldiers, 76 
Kish Workmen (100 individuals meas- 
ured), 13, 81-82 

bigonial breadth of, 82 

bizygomatic breadth of, 82 

cephalic index of, 82 

eyes of, groupings, 82 

facial measurements and indices of, 82 

fronto-parietal index of, 82 

hair of, groupings, 82 

head breadth and length of, 82 

minimum frontal diameter of, 82 

nasal breadth and height of, 82 

nasal index of, 82 

stature of, 82 

zygo-frontal index of, 82 

zygo-gonial index of, 82 
Knabenshue, Paul S., 8 
Kubaisa, population of, 28; Sunnis in, 28 
Kurds, 13; age, cephalic indices and 
head measurements of, from AH 
Sharwan, 130, from Erbil, female, 
127, male, 127, from Hussain Kuli 
Khan, 130, from Kermanshah, 130, 
from Khanaqin, 127, from Kirkuk, 
female, 127, male, 127, from Mosul, 
127, from Pestako, 130, from 
Sulaimaniya, 127, from Tabriz, 
female, 130, male, 130, from 
Tehran, 130, from Waly, 130 
Kut, classification of land surface of, 
106-107; population of, in 1930, 
108, in 1935, registered, 105, un- 
registered, 104 

Langdon, Stephen, 7 

Lathrop, Barbour, 7 

Laufer, Berthold, 8 

Lazar, Yusuf, 8, 9, 15, 16, 156, 163, 164, 

165 
Lepidoptera, 164 
Lepus connori, 161 
Lime, 24 

Limestone quarries, 24 
Liponycteris magnus, 157 
Londonderry, Lord, 9 
Luhaib, 34; tribal list of, 100 
Lutra Intra, 160 

Maize, 22 

Majawadah, Al, 94 

Malak, Gabriel, 9 

Malaria, prophylaxis against, 111 

Manufacturing, 24 

Marsh Arabs, 13 

Martes foiana, 160 

Martin, Paul S., 10 

Martin, Richard A., 8, 9, 11, 12, 156 

Mash, 22 

McLeod, T. H., 9 

Mediterranean Race, 16 



222 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Meles meles, 160 

Melons, 22 

Mellivora wilsoni, 160 

Midhat Pasha, 25 

Mihran, H., 9 

Mineral resources, 24 

Mosul, classification of land surface of, 
106-107; population of, in 1930, 
108, in 1935, registered, 105, unregis- 
tered, 104 

Muhallaf, 27; tribal list of, 92 

Mulberry trees, 22 

Muntafiq, classification of land surface 
of, 106-107; population of, in 1930, 
108, in 1935, registered, 105, un- 
registered, 104 

Murray, Wallace, 8 

My otis omari, 157 

Nafatha, oil from, 24 

Nasiriya, An, 13 

Natural History Museum, Stockholm, 

herbarium specimens in, 165 
Negroids, 30 
Nesokia buxtoni, 161 
New York Public Library, 11 
Nimr, Al bu, 98 
Noria, 22-23 

Nuri ibn Shalan, 27, 28, 54 
NychiodesC!) divergaria, 163 

Oil, 24 

Omar Pasha, 25 

Onions, 22 

Oppenheim, Max Freiherr von, 11 

Oriental Institute, see University of 

Chicago 
Orthoptera, 24 

Pahlavi, Riza Shah, see Riza Shah 

Pahlavi 
Paleolithic flint implements, 28 
Pathology, attitudes toward, see Arabs, 
attitude toward disease, etc., treat- 
ment of disease 
abdomen, distention of, 147 
acromegaly, 119 
amputation, 117 
arthritis, rheumatoid, 117 
ataxia, locomotor, 116 
"Baghdad boil," 81, 85, 114, 146, 151, 

152 
bejel, 116 
bilharziasis, 147 
blood-letting, 118 
chicken pox, 37, 38, 81, 85 
cholera, 30, 31, 115, 120-121 
constitution, 38, 119-120 
deformation, of the arm, 115; of the 
ear, 113; of the hands, 115; of 
the lips, 115 
dental condition, 37, 38, 113-114; 
groupings, 37, 65, 80 



broken teeth, 38, 114, 134, 146 

caries, groupings of, 80, 85, 88, 113 

deposit, 134, 139, 140, 146, 150, 151 

fillings, 38 

loss, 37, 134, 150, 151; groupings, 
37, 80, 85, 88, 134, 146; 
attitude toward, 113 

stain, 114, 134, 139, 146; groupings, 
114 

wear, 80, 88 
diarrhea, 116 
endocrine glands, 119 
eyes, 31, 112-113 

arcus senilis, 133, 144 

blindness, 66, 135, 140, 150; group- 
ings, 81 

cataract, 38, 81, 85 

conjunctivitis, follicular, 112; gran- 
ular, 112 

crossed, 37 

defective vision, 37, 66, 150 

filmed, 135, 144, 150 

trachoma, 81, 112 
favus, 135 
fractures, 118, 151 
gallstones, 116 
goiter, 146 
hairless, 38 
headache, 81, 85, 113 
hemorrhage, 117 
hemostasis, 117 
influenza, 115 
jaundice, 116 

malaria, 81, 85, 110-112, 135 
metabolism, unbalanced, 119 
miscarriage, 151 
nasal affections, 115 
obesity, 119 
paralysis, hand, 139 
paresis, 116 

plague, 120; bubonic, 31 
pleurisy, 117 
ringworm, 66 
respiratory, 66, 115. See influenza, 

pleurisy, tuberculosis 
scalp infections, 81, 85; scurf, 139. 

See favus 
scars, 38, 66, 114, 151, 152 
skin, 38, 114. See "Baghdad boil" 
smallpox, 31, 38, 66, 81, 85, 112, 120, 

135, 140, 147, 150, 152 
sprain, 135 

syphilis, 116-117; tertiary, 116 
tuberculosis, 115 
typhus, 31 
vaccination, 112 
venereal diseases, 116-117, 147. See 

also bejel, syphilis, yaws 
ventral disorders, 81, 85, 115-116 
yaws, 116 
Peabody Museum (Harvard), 10, 11 
Pear trees, 22 
Pedersen, Dorothy, 10, 12 



Index 



223 



Physical features, 17-18 

Pilgrimage, spread of disease resulting 

from, 31, 120-121 
Pipistrellus kuhli, 158 
Pomegranate trees, 22 
Population, 26 
Public health service, 31, 120-121 

Qala Sharqat, flora of, 193 
Qara-Ghul, 34; tribal list of, 100 
Qara-Ghul (Section of the Zoba), 34 

Radishes, 22 

Rahhaliya, Ar, 101; Negroid element 
in, 30; population of, 30 

Rainfall, 20, 22, 23 

Ramadi, 17; date palms at, 30; health 
inspection at, 120; location of, 30; 
medical inspection at, 31; popula- 
tion of, 30 

Ram-faced types among the Dulaim 
and the Anaiza, 73-74 

Rassam, B. H., 9, 15 

Raqqa, Arabs in, 28; Circassians in, 28; 
population of, 28 

Reid, H. C, 9 

Religious groups, 26 

Reniff, Elizabeth, 10 

Reptiles, 24 

Rhazes, first account of smallpox by, 
112 

Rice, 22 

Rice, David Talbot, 7 

Rickards, A. R. M., 9 

Ridhwaniya Canal, description of, 18 

Riley, N. W., 15, 163 

Riza Shah Pahlavi, 11 

Ross, Lillian A., 10 

Rowandiz Area, flora of, 193 

Royal Geographical Society (London), 
Permanent Committee on Geo- 
graphical Names of, 12 

Rustam Agricultural Experimental 
Farm, Hinaidi, 166 

Rutba, flora of, 197 

Ruwalla, 27, 28, 54; habitat of, 27; 
importance of, 27; tribal list of, 92 

Salt, 24 

Samuelsson, Gunnar, 165 

Sanborn, Colin C, 15 

Sand storms, 22 

Saqlawiya Canal, description of, 18 

Sbaa (Beduins), 16, 27, 54 

Schlimmer, J. L., 114 

Schmidt, Karl P., 15 

Schroeder, Eric, 110, 118 

Scott, Donald, 10 

Scully, Theodore, 10 

Seltzer, Carl C, 10 

Sesame, 22 

Shaar, 34; tribal list of, 102 

Shaddid, 101 



Shamiya, Al, 17 

Shammar, 13, 27, 34, 54, 55 

Shammar, Southern, 27, 28 

Shaw, F. R. S., 9 

Shawkat, Shaib, 131 

Sheep, 23; oil used as remedy for, 24 

Sheikh Adi, flora of, 192 

Sheikh Atiyeh, 115 

Sheikh Hajji Hunta, camp of, 116 

Shiahs, 26 

Shiti, 34; tribal list of, 101 

Showket, S. Y., 8, 83, 116 

Shrubs, 23 

Shuwartan, 34; tribal list of, 100 

Skliros, John, 9 

Smeaton, Winifred, see Thomas, Wini- 
fred Smeaton 

Snow, 20 

Spinifex, 23 

Standley, Paul C, 16 

Subaihat, 34; tribal list of, 101 

Subba (Mandeans), 13 

Sulaimaniya, classification of land sur- 
face of, 106-107; flora of, 194; 
population of, in 1930, 103, 108, 
in 1935, registered, 105, unregis- 
tered, 104 

Sulphur, 28 

Sulubba (Sleyb), 13 

Sumailat, 34; tribal list of, 101 

Sumeria dipotamica, 163, 164 

Summerscale, J. P., 24 

Sunnis, 26; at Ana, 28; at Kubaisa, 28 

Sus attila, 161 

Sykes, Mark, 14 

Syrian Catholics in Deir-ez-Zor, 28 

Tall Afar, flora from west of, 191 

Tell Barguthiat, 116 

Tell Es Shur, flora of, 190 

Temperature, 20 

Thomas, Winifred Smeaton (Mrs. 

Homer), 13, 15 
Tobacco, 117 
Treatment of disease, fracture, 118; 

cautery, 116, 117; scarring, 118; 

venereal disease, 117 
Tribal groups, 27 
Triticum, 116 
Tuch, David, 11 
Turkish Petroleum Company, see Iraq 

Petroleum Company 
Turkomans, 13 
Turks, age, cephalic indices and head 

measurements of, from Istanbul, 

130, Christian from Turkey, 130, 

from Van, 130 

University of Chicago, Oriental In- 
stitute of, 9, 12 

Upper Euphrates, historical references 
to, 14 

Ursus arctos, 161 



224 



Anthropology of Iraq 



Vulpes persica, 159 
Vulpes splendens, 159 

Wadi Hauran, flint implements found 
at source of, 28; Jebel Enaze, 
source of, 28 

Watelin, Louis Charles, 111 

Water lift, 22 

Water wheel, see Noria 

Wheat, 22 

Wilson, A. T., 103 



Wilson, W. C. F., 9 

Wiltshire, E. P., 163-164 

Wind, 21 

Wulud AH, 27, 54; tribal list of, 93 

Yezidis, 13 

Zimmerman, Eunice, 10 
Zoba, 18; sections of, following the 
Dulaim, 34; tribal list of, 100-101 






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Anthropology, Vol. 30, Plate 33 




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WATER-WHEEL AT HADITHA