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SINCE the commencenient of the Ffench Revolution, the passing 
erentSj highly important as they have been in their ioimediatei and more 
90y a$ they probably will be, in their remote consequences, have defeated 
both the hopes and the expectations of the wisest statesmen and most ex- 
perienced generals, and have, indeed, baffled all the efforts of human sa- 
gacity and foresight. Arguments from the past to the future, the surest 
guidn to right and* just conclusions in fornner times, have proved futile 
and deceptive ; and even the most legitimate deductions of the most subtio 
and acute, as well as of the most sober, rcasoners, have been nearly as 
fidlacious as the dreams oi a visionary J The task of the historian is thu> 
reduced to the sim^>fe narration of political and military occurrences, and 
to the attempt to trace their causes. A melancholy, alas I it is. For 
where is he to look for symptoms of that wisdom in council, or of that 
rigour in a^ion, the union of which has raised kingdoms and states to 
the utmost pitch of prosperity, and grandeur, and renown ? The only 
qaaner in which either of these means of successful exertion is to be found, 
is that in which it is exclusively employed for the most wicked purposes 
of subversion, devastation, treachery, and de^trudlion. 

Scarcely four months have elapsed since a military nation appeared in 

arms against the ferocious - Usurper, who, after having reduc^ twenty 

millions of Frenchmen to a state of the most abject slavery, has avowed 

bis determination to place the rest of (he Continent on the same footing. 

The King of Prussia had, ever since his accession to the throne, displayed 

the most pusillanimous spirit ; and had pursued a course of policy the 

most tortuous, and the most seifiNh. With an imt)ecili ty that was 

proof against daily experience, and that shut its eyes against convidlion 

wtkich flashed upon them from every quarter, he vainly imagined that, by 

corauving at the constant encroachments of the French upon all the neigh- 

bouring States, he would not only ensure his own safety, but gain some 

territorial acquisitions, which would increase both his revenue and his 

power. Mistaken man ! By what infatuation could he be led to expe^ 

that he alone wduld be secure from the rage of that revolutionary Mon. 

ster, whose pestiifcrous breath had poisoned and laid waste all the sur. 

rounding countries ? But ^uos Dtus 'vvlt perdere prius dementat. The his. 

tory of the last sixteen years must have convinced every other man in 

Europe, not only of the absolute inutility of concession to an}ert, but of 

its dirdft tendency to accelerate, the devastating vengeance of the san. 

guinary Corsican. There haVe been other Princes, indeed, who have 

aded as if they had not been so convinced ; but their conduft may reason. 

ably be referred to a difierent cause : and the Prussian Monarch may be 

truly said to hare exhibited a solitary instance of blindness, as wilful ix\ 

itself, as fatal in its consequences. So long as the overwhelming torrent 

Ihuited its destni^vc rage to the desolation of other States, he contem- 

pUted the sjpreading miscluef without a sigh. It approached nearer and 

nearer ; — still did he make no tfSoxt to oppose it : — he was passive, nay, 

wbrse than passive ; because his inadlivity increased the devouring adi vity 

^r. VOL, XXV. a « ' ' of 

IV Historical Sketch vftht Stati efEnrtpe 

of the enenif. ^ac when he found it, at last, advincing, rapidly ad. 
Yanci^i toward that territory which had been ai«igned him as ihe rrwai^ 
qf his wretched policy, the groTcIling.s|nrit of interest did that which no 
aense of honour^ no principle of justice, no motive eren of self.presenra. 
lion, had proved adequate to e#e6^ ; — it opened hb eyes to the truths 
which had been often sounded in his ears ; — it made him sensible of his 
ow» situation ; — it exposed to him the dangers which threatened him on 
cveiT side ; — and it roused his torpid and inanimate soul to exertions be. 
coming the nation 'which he governed, and, in a great degree, adrquate 
to the alarming exigency of the case. All £urope now re-echoed the deep 
note of preparation,* which was heard from one extieinity of the Prussian 
dominions to the other. A military nation in arms — a y^ople apparently 
united, and breathing the most fervent devotion to their King — troops in 
the highest state of discipline, and commanded by veterans who, to the 
praAical knowledge which they had derived from the mennorable cam^ 
paigns of the great Frederic, joined the theoretical wisdom so abun. 
dantly to be reaped from a steady and close contemplation of the newi tac. 
tics, and revolutionary <^perations, of modern France ; — these were cir. 
cumstances well calculated to insjiivr the most sanguine hopes, and t^ 
justify the most flattering expe^ations. At this crisis it was naturally 
to be inferred, that Prussia would carefully compare her means of resist, 
ance with* the means of attack about to be opposed to her. She must 
have known that it was her first, so would it be her last, struggle wicIl 
the general Usurper ; consequently, that she was not to fight for any 
portion of her territory, but for her political existence ; and that she 
must either secure victory, or submit to annihilation. With this know, 
ledge, then, was it too much to expeA that she would call forth all the 
resources of the state, all the energies of the peogle — that she would em- 
ploy, in short, her whole physical strength in the content ? 

The army which she marched against the enemy was certainly most 
formidable, as well from discipline as from numbers. It was also most 
ably commanded, and had taken the field in time — an advantage cf no 
small importance, if duly improved. But instead of improving it, she 
wholly threw it away. Instead of attacking the detached parts of the 
French army before they had formed into one compad mass, as she had 
^quent opportunities of doing — ^she halted, as it were, to give them 
time to form ; nay, she went even farther ; and certain as the fail is, jws. 
terity will scarcely credit it, she publicly proclaimed the day on which 
she would begin her military o^x'racions, aiid before which, no ntcasure 
of hostility would be attempted by her. There is something so extra- 
ordinary, so much out of the usual course of things, in this proceeding, 
that the mind in attempting to discover the cause of it, is lost and be- 
wildered in the fruitless search. It must be supposed, that the King of 
Prussia thought his army invincible, and that he was marching to certain 
conquest; — and that, therefore, this notice to the enemy was a proof of 
forbearance and of magnanimity that would extort the admiration of the 
preseiitage, and teiu\ to immortalize his name, while it exposed him to 
no rrsk whatever. On this supposition alone, no^ very favourable, i( 
must be admitted, to his judgment, can he be cleared from the imputa. 
tion of insanity. Thus, between imbecility and madness, must his Ma. 
jcsty be content to chuse. For certainly, to apprise the ene^ny of his de. 


Historical Sketch of the State ffJEurtpt. v 

4lp»f to give them time to reconnoitre the strength and distribution of 
his forces, and to unite and consolidate their own, was an ad so nnprece. 
dented in the annals of human warfare, so utterly irreconcileabk vith 
any known or oonceivable principles t>f human a^on, that it is impossible 
to Te£rr it to any other causes. There was, indeed, in all probability, 
aDO(her motive for such forbearance, which may be considered at a cbn. 
stitoent part of the efficient cause of his conduA on this occasion. He 
might think, that by assuming a more formidable attitude than thac 
which he assumed the year before, he might frighten his enemy into mone 
instant concessions, and might gain tot himself more considerable ac. 
qoisitsons of territory than he had then. He was not aware of the im. 
BKnse difference of his siruiition in 1809 and in 1806. At the former pe« 
riod, previous to the battle of Ausrerlitz, he held, as it werf, the fate 
Df Europe in his hands. Cn him it depended whether the sanguinary Rof« 
&m, who had usurped the throne of the Bourbons and the power of Char- 
kiBagne, should extend the limits of his sway by new triumphs, or should 
perish in disgrace^ B'jonaparte knew that the gaYlant Archduke CharJea 
was on his rear, rapidly advancing from Italy with a {>owerful army, de« 
voted to their chief, and undismayed by defeat. In his front was the 
Qiaied force of Austria and Rds&ia. Thus situated, and trembling fior hit 
existence, the wily Usarp^r cunningly nppealcd to the low-minded an*, 
bition and avarice of his Prussian Majesty ; and while he bribed him to 
inadivity, he doomed him to dibhonour. Hanover was the bribe which 
will stamp the Prussian name with indelible infamy to the remotest poste^ 
rity. But far difierent was the relative situation of Prussia and France 
in the autumn of 1 806 ; then France had no enemy to encounter on the 
coQtioent of Europe but Prussia herself. All the difficulties of the pre. 
ceding year had vanished, nnd her undivided force, if allowed time to 
coUcft it, could be turned- against her only enemy. This it was the hur.m 
ness of Prussia to prevent ; — this Prussia had the po*er to prevent ; but 
by the gross misconduft before noticed, she did not prevent it. She suL 
feted France to assemble her armies ; sh^ allowed her to chose her points 
of attack ; she left her to fix the day of battle. When that fatal day ar. 
lived, the very spirit of a»iarchy appears to have pervaded the Prussian 
raaks ; — there was no lixeJ plan of defence, or of a j tack ; there was no 
concert or co-operation befveen the different divisions of the army ; but 
all seems to have been left to chance, and all was, according, lost. Nor 
had Frederic William even the mel.mcholy consolation of Francis the 
First, to be enabled to say. Tout est perdu^ hors Vhonneur. It was now 
that the absence of all foresight, prudence, and discretion, from the Pros, 
tian councils became more manifest than ever, in the o^x^rations which pre« 
ceded the defeat at Auerstadt ; so manifest, indeed, were they, as almost 
to justify suspicions of treachery in the leading members of the cabinef« 
The possibility of a defeat seems never to have entered into the calcula«» 
rions of these arbiters of the fate of nations ; since no precautions whatever 
bad been adopted, no means devised, for colledling the scattered remains 
of the army, for securing their retreat, or for enabling them to make a 
Anher stand against the enemy. In a wordy the battle of Auerstadt 
was sofiered to decide the fate of the Prussian Monarchy. Some sub. 
sequent skirmishes tgok place, in which the Prussians proved what, if 
ably commanded and ji^diciously led, they were capable of doing ; bat 


^^i ISsterical SkiUi rftie Suat 'efEwnpi. 

HoKf tfAy tcneA to increase the effbsion of blood, witboat loipeAiiig tfie 
progfets )t»f the toe. Fortress after fortress was redeoed ; and nothinj^ 
likf an $nny appeared to oppose the advancing eneny, who marched to 
the capital withoac resistance. Weak, wavering, and tiinid^ the Prussian 
Monarch now hastened to dispatch, his trusty Ambassador, Lucchesini, 
to the ferocious Conqueror with proposals for peace, which wete rejefled 
with scorn ; and Frederic WilUam was compelled, in spite of himself^ 
to prolong a contest which he should never have begun> without a previous 
-determination not to sheath the sword until the object for which he had 
drawn it had been obtained. 

l\ is not the least unaccountable part of his Prussian Majesty's condu^^ 
t^t, with a certainty of assistance and co-operation from the gallant Em* 
peror of Russia, he should have rushed forward to meet the enemy alone, 
ansteadof ading on the defensive until the arrival of hin Allies. It has 
been asserted, indeed, and with a great shew of truth, that the minister 
to whom the dispatches for the Imperial Alexander had been entrasfed, 
«nd which were intended lo accelerate the m:irchbf his troops, purposely 
kept them back so long, as to make their arrival impossible in time to 
prevent the French from taking possession of the Prussian capital. If 
this, however, were the fad, it does not exempt the King from merited 
censure-^for his temerity and imprudence in the lirst instance, and for his 
weakness and meannes,s j»f(erwards. He ought, as<;urediy, either to have 
secured the assistance of Russia before he opened the campaign', or to 
have taken such measures as would afford him the fairest prospect. of sue* 
cess, tmsupported by allies, and render a defeat at least reparable. But 
ile omitted every precaution which wisdom and prudence suggested; and 
the want of principle which had marked his whole condudl previous to* 
this disastrous war, has,, through his own subsequent imbecility, been 
jpunished as it deserved, exhibiting, as has bevn truly remarked, at once 
M memorable example tp other princes, and a signal instance of retributive 

It will be proper hereto remind the reader, that, in this instance, as in 
almost every other, it was not so m«*ch to their owfi strength, ability, and 
couraee, that the French were rndebted for success, as to the weakness, 
and infatuation of their enemies. It is to be hoped, however, that 
his own fate will impress on the mind of the Prussia*^ Monarch that lesson 
which he ha< failed to imbibe from the fate of others ; and that henceforth 
he will not only be ready to acknowledge, that no throne can be safe dur- ' 
ing the existence of the present revolutionary government of France, but 
prepared to a6l in strid conformity with such an acknowledgment, should 
th<;' fortune of war leave it in his power to aft at all. Indeed the late con- 
^oil of Frederic William apj)ears to justify this liope ; for, since the 
app^ach of the Russians, he has assumed a more dignified and becoming 
tone; he has rejedcKl the indolent proposition of Buonaparte for a truce ; 
and has declared that he will conclude no peace but in conjundlion with 
his august Ally. This is the language of It King ; and if he have learned 
wisdom and firmness in the school of adversity, he will have reason to 
reckon the day of his defeat at Auerstadt as the most propitious day of his 

After the peace of Prcsburg, the joint fruits of Austrian weakness 
and of Fnission treachery, the Russian JEmpororj.true to the principles 


Histmctd Shici of the State tf Eurtffe: Tii 

X^Ucli had nnifeniilx goTerned hi$ condof^ avowed his disposition to 
krii^ forward the whole force of his vast empiiei in defenoe of the le- 
majm of European independence, and in resiiiin|^ the farther encroach* 
ments of the conunoo enemy^ whenever a disposition should be manifested 
hf other powers to concur in the execution of so noble a plan. Wanting 
iM> defence for his own dominions, he looked not for any accession of terri* 
tory ; not seeking for conquest, he was not dismayed by defeat ; not inti* 
midated by disaster, he sought not to decline the confli^ ; nor did he fC* 
linqaish the field until the power to which he hs^ a^ted ma ally, had 
sheathed the sword, and submitted to an humiliating and degrading peace» 
He was therefore fully prepared tQ redeem his pledge, by obeying the call 
of Prussia ; and had that call been made in time, Berlin had been sa&» 
fioonaparte bad been checked in his victorious career, and the French had 
been expelled from Germany. This is not the dedo^ion of a sophibt ; it ia 
tiot the reasoning of a aeealot ; but a self-evident fa^. For can it^ba 
denied! by the most confident political sceptic, that the presence of eighty 
thousand Russians at the battle of Auerstadt, would have decided the 
£ateof the day in favour of the Allies ; or chat the total defeat of the French 
would have rendered their expulsion from Germany a matter of facility X 
Still it will be left for subsequent events to decide, whether the abtenoe of 
the Russians at the opening of the campaign, be really a cause for lamen« 
•ation or not. They are now figl^ting nearer to their own country^ 
whence reinforcements can speedily be Sent, and consequently, in case of 
defeat, their loss may be more easily repaired, and their retreat mora 
cffi^flually secured. ^ 

But the most important advantage derived from the transfer of tfa^ 
scene of adion from the banks of the Rhine to those of the Vittuloy is tha 
immense distance to which it throws the Usurper from, the seat of hisga^ 
Tcrnment and the source of his power. 'Tis true, that he has left no 
aifiive ^reflvy behind him ^ but 'tis equally tru^, that he has nothing but 
doubtful friends, discontented Allies, and murmuring vassals, between 
himself and France. If, in presumptuous reliance on his past fortunes, or . 
on (he terror of his name, he dare to leave the intermediate Statetj and 
his own territory, unawed by the presence of his troops, in order to draw 
an immense force into Poland, he will indeed ''have s^t his life upon a 
casr," and he " must stand the hazard of the die." But even then Rus- 
sia, with the assistance which Prussia, in her fallen state, can supply, will 
be able to co^ with him. Indeed the military force of Russia is, at leaat^ 
equal ro that of France ; and no danger can accrue to btr from drawing the 
■garrisons from her different fortresses, and from leaving her territory 
without troops ; whereas Buonaparte, by such conduft, would be exposea 
to the most imminent danger. Besides, if he were ro sustain a signal de- 
feat in Poland, it would be a matter of extreme difficulty to repair hit 
losses, or even to secure his retreat, in an enemy's country. 

It is in this quarter then, and from these circumstances, that a ray of 
comfort is perceptible amidst the general gloom. Whether it portend 
good or evil, it is not for man to decide. Bat it is the pfovince of man 
to infer from existing circumstances probable fids ; and certainly thepre« 
«cni state of things, the relative situation of the Belligerent Powers, the 
coosideration of their diftrent views, means, and resources-*all combuie 
to sandion the hope, thar the career of successfol villany is abont to ba 
• A-iY. vot. xxT, b checked. 

iriil Historical Sketch o/iheStati of Eurofi. 

checked^ and that tbe instrnment of retriborive justice infilOed on ot&t?<«^ 
will himself experience its dreadful effefts in his lum. 

The Russians come not into the field an inexperienced band, ttmngctt 
to modern tables, or unused to mod rn warfare ; they have fought ifirith 
the French in Italy, in Switzerland, and in Germany ; they have cte- 
ftated them with inferior numbrs; they were never defeated. by fliefll 
with equal numbers. The brave followers of Suwarrow m:idc the Mo/ZiarriM 
snay of Italy fly before them ; and the recolledion of their gailainc 
achievements will, we trust, animate their countrymen, inepire them ^iritl^ 
a noble spirit of emulation, and lead them to exaA severe vengeance, in 
the morasses of Poland, for the defeat which they sustained in the plains 
of Momvia. They arc comminded by veteran leaders, wbocoinb"ne 
mrith the dbcretion of age all the vigour and firmness of youth ; by gene. 
rals whoaie conversant with the new mode of fighting initoduced by the 
French, who areperfedly acquainted with the country, and who have a 
tM knowledge of the strength and resources of the enemy.. To the^e ad. 
vantages th^ add another of, at leasts equal importance : both officerj 
and troops are •proof against that perfidy, fraud, and corruption, w hiclt 
have beoi aach potent instruments in the hands of their parents, the 
French. Treachery is as mach unknown in the Russiaa ranks as cowar- 
dice. Honour binds the olEcer, and duty secures the soldier. From an 
enemy sc^ ceaspiBed, every thing of which coaragjc^ united with prudence 
^nd perseverance, is capable, nuiy expefled. None of that 
inbuman courtesjy pone of that harbawus liheraliijf none of that cruel Jor~ 
iearmice, which so strongly marks the other opponents of the murdcroua 
hordes of modern Gaul, and which constitutes tlie tinsel filppery of war> 
will be displayed by this bold and hardy race, who, with minds uncon- 
taminatedby the vicious refinements of the South* still think rebellion a 
crime, and regicide a sin ; who still dare to punish murder^ by whomso- 
ever committed^ and to retaliate even upon Frenchmen* 

Buonaparte, disappointed in his expectations of dictating soch a peace 
at Berlin as weuld effectually render the King of Prussia hi:» vassal^ and 
secure the sucoession to one of his own spurious breed, begins at length 
ro be sensible of the danger to which he is exposed. Having advanced 
into the heart of Poland, he no doubt hoped, by a display of his rcvolia. 
tion:iry skill, and with the aid of his trusty agent Kosciusko^ to taiie a 
rebellion thronghout the country, and to establish a new kingdom Sot ihc 
yotmgest of his low .bom family. But various catt.^es, ' which common 
lagacity might have foreseen, have combined to frustrate his bcncvoleat 
efrorts.' In the firsj place, the Poles, unfbrtui^ately for the Arch-Usurper^ 
have been governed, since the partition of their country, with infinitely 
more mildness, justice, and huuwnity, than they h^d i^vcr experienced 
imder their^ former bastard monarchy, and> assuredly> more than the 
FreiKh .thwnseiVes, or any of th?ir tributary states^ experience under the 
JfevigTtmnt reign of the merciful ^^'apolcone ; of cour^,. ticy anre not quite so 
willing to exercise the h^- right f iKsurrearnt^ as ths» general guardian 
of the rights- aOd liberties of Europe had been led to believe. H^:Olidlyf ^ 
the Russians have, very properiy, declared, that any of the Poles^' sui- 
jefts of -Alexander, who shall rake up arms, or join theFftnch, shall 
aisuvedly meet the punishment of death ; heace fear fenders those obcdieifi 
ii'bom Inclination will not secure. And lastly^ Buonaparte is a&aid of 


_ « imtr^ inMureftiooj which woold extend to AottTMii foUmi, 
cbe Emperor of Amtria sboiild take umbrage at hu condttA, aod id* 
vmat ki» Mgmf on hii lear. 

All cliese nacoral impcdioKncs to the completion of hit fraud deaifHy' 
At towcru^ gcofos of Napdeooe did not ttoon to consider ; buojed up 
I7 Tanity, inHated with socccm* inflexible in his purpose, and resolfed 
iBthe actainoient of his end, at whatever cost, he rushes inpctuously fiSr« 
%ani, and a^s as it he thought that vidory was not £gurati?e]y, but 
Iketallyy Chi»ined 10 his car. Hence it is that he is, at ithis momcnty 
|hced iu a situation of such extreme peril, that notking but the nose 
cxtiaonltiiacy inl'acuation, the most stupid insensibility, on the part of the 
icviiag Powers of Europe, can possibly save him from destrudion. JEie 
pKsuiDcs on that infatuation, on that insensibility* His presumption, at 
■Bst be confessed, is not u<)justified by past events i but it is to be hap^ 
that the same grounds for it will not always subsist, and that be. will 
woo be plunged into that abyss, to which his boandltrss oppression^ and 
Us enoroions crimes, should long since have consigned him. 
. If the fiscrbk miiMi of the Austrian £niperor would enable him to appre< 
(Bate tlie adiranuge of his present situation, and to discharge that duty 
which he ovea to himself, to his subjeds, and to posterity, he might be« 
cone the political saviour of £urope. We cannot think so mcaniy of him, 
as to ad0Ut the supposition that hts present inadi vity is the effect of a just 
irnminwat ibr the perfidiont conduct of Pruuia, under similar circum. 
jtanoes, in i8o$. We rather ascribe it to a timid policy, a too acute sense 
of past disasters, aod a mistaken prudence. His experience of the uniform 
condoA of Buonaparte, and the recent fate of Pruisia, bhould convince 
hia not only of the inutility of such forbearance, but of its dangerous 
and even fatal tendency. So long as the Usurper shall dread his inteife. 
fence with the present war, so long will he flatter him with expe^tions, 
and allare him by promises. But the momrnt the necessity for such aflcAed 
aildoess shall cease to exist ; the moinent he shall have either subdued or 
paci&ed his present enemies ; he will issue his imperious mandate to Au. 
stria, and the first refusal of implicit obedience will be ih J signal of attack. 
We have a better opinion of the gallant people who arc !»ubjod to the 
Hoose of Austria, particularly of the brave Hungarians, than to believe 
that they will fall an easy picy to any assailant, however fierce or how. 
ever potent. But certainly Austria, left, with coiuraded territory, and 
diminished resources, alone to oppose the whole f>ower of France and her 
Dumerons Vassals, ivill have considerable difficulty in bupporting the con- 
test, and will be exposed to extreme danger. 

It is on this system of separate warfare, if it may be so called, that 
Buonaparte depends for the-establlsluDent of an universal monarchy, lie 
has labour^ ever since he seized the reins of governnl^t in France, and 
alasl but too" successfully laboured, to enforce the atl^^nt maxim, iivule 
ft iw^ertt ; — to break all fubsisting alliances betwecii<the different Powers ; 
to detach each from ,the other, so as to insulate rbcm all ; and to excite 
endless jeajoiuy and mistrust between them. It was to ihe success of such 
efforts that he was indebted for hia safety first at the battle qf Austerlitz, 
and afitcrwaxds, at that of Auersi^dt ; in the former case be succeeded in 
prerentini^ the. interposition of Prussia ; in the laiter,. tbajt of Ausi ria ; aod 
af the Piitip^ ^ Europe ^ili continue to be dupes to so pahiy as arti* 

b a ,ficc; 

X BhivrUii Shtck tf tie Sme rf Bkrope. 

fice; if, UM\ to dieir <yirii interest and tO' tteir own salety^ tbey w^itl 
•ofler i^bM^l pfeju^oea and petty anuBoaitteg to detef tbem ftom ia - b^ 
operation for the general good »— they must riRi$H» and he KitlMll 
TaivifrH. Unwilhng to onite, and unable to oppoae hiaa singly, tbcjT 
will, ineyitably— unless the hand of Providence interfere to prevent ir*^ 
iail one by one ; annihilated by his rage, or idtrattd by his mercy. ^ .i 

\X is, then, perfeftly clear, not only that a principle of self.preservjicicai 
thoold lead the Austrian Emperor to take a decided part in the presenft wair ;'J 
but that this is the precise moment when he can do so with dk^ ; since: 
by a^ing in concert with the Russians, a plan of operations migfar bil^ 
Canned, which could not (ail \>f success, and which would enable the Allie^ 
M^rescne Europe from the degrading shackles which have been so lon^ iBi« 
^ioiiftA upon her* The French army is now considerably weakened by Hbtt 
loipt operation of want and disease; pressed vigorously in front by the 
RiMsians, with an Austrian force, under the command of that judiciooo 
and at»le General, the Archduke Charles, hanging on its flanks or on ic* 
rear, it most be first dispersed, and afterwards destroyed. Previous M 
the battle of Austerlitz, the King of Prussia was solemnly warned by % ' 
Writer ia this Work^ that if he sobered that opportunity for rescuing the 
salvation of l^urope to escape, he would never recover it ; he was farther 
told, that he vainly flattered himself to escape the fangs of the tJaurper 
by forbearance or concession! that such conduft ought answer fbr a time, \ 
but that it would only ensure htm the notaUe privilege of beii^ one oJF j 
the last vi^Uma of his rage. The event has too fatally verified the pre* ', 
di^ion. To the Emfieror of Austria we now uie the same admonitory ^; 
languaffe ^ if he treaty it with contempt ; if, uninstm^d by experience, 
lie pertiat innegleding its dilates, he, like his Prussian neighbour, will 
fall unpitied and despised. But, it is to be hoped that he will not be 
fu9ty of such fiital negfe^ ; and that the only sentiment which he will 
auflper to ptevail in his mind, will be the desire of proving himself worthy 
of the elevated station in which it has pleased the Supreme Disposer of 
Thfooes and of Kingdoms, to place him ; by showing himself superior to 
all feelings of resentment and jealousy, when called c^xm to assert the 
rights of his imuited sovereignty, and to defend the claims of subjugated 
atates, strtigg^ng for fieedom against the general oppressors of the human 

France, meanwhile, exhibits the strange speAacle of a ihilitary stare, 
kept in aabjeftion solely by the bayonet and the sword, deserted by her 
Conqaefor, and drained of her troops, to carry on a war in a remote quar- , 
ter of the Continent. With a Chief universally d^ested (for we have 
good authority for asserting, that, from one end of France to the other, 
.Monaparte is execrated by ever}* class and description of hi^^ple), and 
aurroiuided by powers eager to assert their emancipation from his iron yoke, 
the French are awed \i>y a servile senate, the abje^ sUves of their Tynnf, 
wtA by a legion of police spies, who invade domestic privacy, render the 
Oipitai of t& emptie a close prison, and the whole eountiy one- vast inqul. \ 
aittoiu But by whom, and by what, are the neighbouring nationi awed 
into a base aoquiescei^ee in all the mad ravings of the Usurper'^a intstiste 
\ambttion ; and induced to remain passive, when their a^ve effiMts might 
-reatofo them to their oris tine indepemieoce I The answer to tfab oaestion 
M*ouM leed us jnto» field of inquiry, much too vast to be oonaprisca within 
itio limits of an HiumittilShasb. > > 


£BMnfalSJket€i rftht Stau §f Europe. * jd 

JofichperleA tecorifyy howercti does this Coniom Adventoier^ w1n> 
tw sojBDch reafiOQ to troobJe for liis exiftence» feel| o^ afleA to fed» 
liaNif, that from fail pakce at Berlin he thandcrs oy t hid aoathemai against 
dvlio djire to dispute iiit oairersal tupremacy. Against this ooonu/ in 
pmciiUr, which aeenu incessantly to haunt his imagination, to be she 
sriifedgfhis daily mediutioas, and the tO|itc of his aightly dreams* is 
dikfaiy of his vindiAive and relentless mind dire^ed. Firsts invading 
^tterdtoiy of neutral states^ in violation of the law of nations^ and d[ 
Pittf right hot that of^twer, he seizes all the produdlioAS of English 
mA^Jue^, or of the fii^lish soil^with the spirit, and with the rapacity, 
rfthe leader of a desperate banditti, and prohibits their future importation 
Sider the severest penalties* Never, since the first civilization oi the bar- 
ksionhordes which 'erst monopdi^ the most fertile parts of fioropej was 
fkiTiant's maxim, 

*< Sic volo, sic jttbeo, srat pro ratione voluntaSy'* 
isfidycxemi^ified. Next, in a paroxysm of impotent rage, he declares 
il the ports, belof^iog to the Brituh Monarchy in a staie ^ bhck^i Ar, 
^ daio not ^nd a single ship to sea, whose vessels are dosely impri-^ 
Wd in his harbomrsj and who oannot dispatch a cock.boat bejrond toeir 
■whs withoQt the penidssion of a British, commander I this, indeed, is 
lAmmUk Uaeiau. Rash and insensate Tyrant ! thou art stimulated b^ 
tksccooiplishiiicot of ads xreatly beyond thy hopes i to attempt achieve- 
MBitt aoie grcatlly beyond thy power I Even as to his efforts totally to 
adude sll Iriush product from the ports of the Continent, he will find 
aove difficulty than he expeAs in rendering them effeAual* Indeed for 
^ ai for lus sBCoess in most other instances, he must be indebted more 
i^die weiduiess of hb enemies than to his own strength. Nor is he a^aie 
Alt even his soeoess, by reducing those enemies to the necessity of open. 
H odier ^nnels for their commerce, will be less detrimental to them 
tkiQ to his own miserable sobiedts. But neither the interest nor the hap- 
JMiof fticfida or of foes can nave the smallest influence over the mind of 
'Kaaekamaraiiderf who has the profligate impudence to proclaim to the 
v^ldhis intentiop to restore the barbarism of the early aves. Let this 
nCuf who o^gbt to be considered as a general outlaw, for whose head 
Ittvjod ouelit to be offered by all nations who have a common interest in 
^destradboD of an avowed enemy of the human race, "peak for himseiC 
is lus message to bis Senate from Berlin, of the aistof November, he 
*7ti '' We have placed the Britibh Islanis in a state of blockade, and or. 
'^ flSeasures to be taken against them which excite a struggle in oar 
'W." A blessed struggle between fiar and rtigif the only siruggle of 
*lMh that he^t is capable whence i&sued the bloody mandates whicn con. 
J|prdivt thousand Turks at Jaffa to massacre, in cold blood ; and manv 
Wreds of Frencbaoen, who had bravely fought bh battles, to an untimely 
^wk by poiiooy ni his cowardly retreat from Acre — deeds' which should 
^ engraven in chara^ers of adamanti as afibrding an useful lesson to the 
iKsencage, and a salutary warning to future times* — <' It has cost as 
*faar rfa ^S^ty ♦ to render the interest of private ifsdirtduais dependent 

^ Not having the Mbnitenr to refer to, we cannot ascertain the accuracy 
, tf die tiapslation ; but we incline io believe that the passage is* not accu* 
\ b 3 rat«Iy 

itli Hisi^rical Stitch ofjhe SiaU^i^ Emrdpe. 

on the 4tspate8 of Kings,- ^/v^, after so many ytar$ rf ehftUT^tio.*/, fQ rtiuw 
U tbote principUi mfhkh charaSerize the barbarh^of the first 4ges of natiout*** 
In this same message the Usurper declares his firm resolution to con 
• elude no peace with this count r^, and not to (Evacuate the Prtissiah tcrri 
fones^ until we shall consent to restore the Colonial Poisessions which wi 
ha ve\ conquered from him and from his Vassals. Here again he dispia}^ 
the impotence of his rage: the« Colonies he tan never wr«f from us p no 
will any Minister dare to restore them, without either the restoration o 
Lewis tl)e XVIIIth to the Throne of his An«estor$| or the return of cb 
French wtthin their ancient limits. 1 hrough the greater part of this met 
•agCi his oftual cant of lying hypocrisy is manifest ; — but the sfavish Se 
nate, in their answer, exceed their master, both in hyj^^ocrisy and in in 
piety* These impious minions of a wretch stained with more crimes thai 
ever yet debased the nature of an individual, who in the face of the work 
renounced the blessed Redeemer of mankind — addressed himjn the langua^ 
of adoration, aild even of horrible blasphemy ! compre him to that i<« 
deoroer! There is not^ it may boldly be averred, in any other nation upoi 
earth, a body of men who would set their hands to so profane a compost 
tioD. But the language of France seems to be the native language of ser 
▼ility'i as Frenchmen appear to delight in blasphemy. Ir nuiy» theo 
afibid some mortification to the excrssiVe vanity of the Corsican to ieum 
that the addresses to his worthy predecessor, Robe spier re ^ the hero of hi 
d^y, were equally adulatory, and equally blasphemous, with those whid 
have been direded to him. The same rone and the same spirit inspires 
the Republican Frenchmen of 1792 and <he Imperial Frenchmen of 1B06 
By the former, Robespierre was declared to be ** dusti atmabU par son cm* 
raSere qu* admirable par ses talens ;** — " un hf,mme emiisemwuHt tesrsshlt 
hrnmain et bhnfaisant ,*' One while he was termed ** mon apStre ;*' at smo 
ther, '* /? mtssie que Vetemel nous a pr^.mii pour reformer tostte chase, *'^ 
The vile Senators of Napoleone cannot go fnrther; thiey ate deprived cto 
erf the poor merit of origip'Slity ; and are nduced to tho degradeci state 
aervile copyists ; while th^ Usurper himself must be compelled to ac 
knowledge, that all his exertions, ard great indeed have they been, fi 
establish his pre.cmfnence in crimr, have been inadequate to ensure foi 
his vanity a pre*f minence of adulation ! Any analysis of the Message am 
of the Answer, which we quoted, and which will oyike a conspicuoof figure ti 
the annals of revolutionary France, would occupy more space than, consisr 
ently, can be allotted to it in a Citrsory Funsi, The task too, is rendcm 
in some tnensure unnecessHry, by the uiuin*mity of opinion which, happily 
prevails at present in Great Britain, respe^ing the principlea and the con 
duA of the government of Buonaparte. 
' Unless the force of Russia, united with the scanty remnant of the Pnw 
sian army, succeed in completing that destru^ioii which disease has begvn 
in the French ranks ; or, at least, carry on a mott afiive and sncoessft 
warfare during the winter, the advantages which the Usurper'will havi 

rately given. Probably, instead of the pains of a viffoty^ we should reai 
the trostble of a wiQorj — // peine J'um miSoire. Indeed, the whole of tb 
passage, aait stands in all the London papersj is scarcely intelligible. 


HktorkalSiitchtf tht State of Europe. xiil 

juncdy even if lie shal] be ultimately compelled to eracoate the cottntries 
lAaeh he oo^ir occuotes, in Polami and in Pniisiai will he highly import, 
wt. By fixing his quarters in a foreign country, he pays and subsists his 
troops at the expence of the enemy ; while he replenishes his exhaosted 
ticasurcs hy nnbomided piander. It is this system of making their enemies 
Mcay the whole cost of the war, which has been pursued by the French 
Genmls from the dawn of the Revolution to the pre^icnt moment. And 
so long as they shall be able to carry it on^ it will be the interest, as it 
IS the policy of their Co vemmentf to wage war with all the Powers of the 
Ctecinent. That this is a most serious evil, will cx»t be disputed ; — the 
ftm^r CO remove it certainly exists ; but the will to exercise that power 
is atore than doubtful. 

Such is the general as})ect which the Continent presents at the opening 
«f the new ye»r; for the conduct of the subordinate States^ of Holland 
«Q the one side^ and Sweden on the other, the former exhibiting a low^ 
«nri]ey and degraded race, sabjed to the will of a lawless upstart, the 
latter exhibit kig the noble sped^ade of a bold and loyal people, seconaing 
the gallant exertions of their high-spirited and legitimate Sovereign, is 
cocupaiatiTely but of little consequence. But there exists, or rather there 
did exist another power, which in better dnys, was wont to set an exam. 
fie to thcContincnal states, and to be, in some sort, the arbiter of cations | 
— ^a power which, even in later years, had dispbycd her generosity, ma. 
aififsted her prowess, and rendered her name re^peAcd. — Then she was 
governed by «tat(smen of comprehensive minds, and vigorous intellefts| 
who had tlie wisdom to conceive, and the t>pirit to execute '' deeds of 
noble daring and of high emprize«*' Alas! how are the mighty fallen? In 
vain we cast our eyes around us to descry this power ; — she mocks our 
sight ; she eludes our grasp jsbut, in her stead uprises modem Britain. In 
truth. It is impossible to recognize^ irv the public coodo^ of the British 
^vemment, during the last nine months, that power, which, tinder the 
luminous guidance of a Chatham or a Pitt, midc^H^r thunders resound In 
every quarter of the globe, an*! estal")lishcd her ascend .ncy in every Court 
in £urope; On the accession of the pre ent M.nistcrs lo the government of " 
the country, it was pmmised by the former Conduftor of the political 
department of this work, to judge th^m hy thoir m^-asures abne; giving 
them comoiendatioi), where their anentton to the welfare of the State 
«emed lo d:?sorve it, ^nd frec'y conjuring them when inattentive to its 
interests. Such is the principle by whivh every friend to truth and justice 
must l>e guided ; and is the prrnciple by we pledge O'lrselves to be 
guided, in all our nnimad versions on ihe public characters of public men. 
And here, let u^ cnti-r our solemn protest against that monstrous do^rine, 
which men eminint in :hc noble profes-jion of the law have not blushed 
to a^'OW — -that, ** auj tiding ^ spoken, ivriUeM^ or pri/iteJ^ uucotnfQr table to 
the feelings of anj min or ixjomany** is a lib /. If this, indeed, were law, 
what would become of our boasted Hhertj of the press ? It would be a 
mere name, a shadow ; fuox et prettterea uikily a vain and empty sound ; 
an insulting mockery ; — thai '* keeps the word of promise to the ear, and 
breaks it to the sense." Nay, it would be worse than an imaginary bene. 
fit ; it would be a real evil ; — for it would hold out temptations to freedom 
of discussion ; and inflidt punishment for yielding to them ; it would ope. 
rate as a snare to the unwary ; — as a lure to the ingenuous ; — it would 

b 4 . off-T . 

7lW ffistmcelSketA^fihStatec/^opf;; 

offer ^roteAioD, but ensnre persecution ;— in shorty harlot hki, it would 
** smile but to betray." 

Thank heavens, however ! and, with the fervour of a true British spirit, 
we pronounce the words^ the roer^di^lum of a jud^e is not law in Englarnl.' 
If tne iiherfy of tbt ftess mean any thing, if it convey any solid and sub-. 
fttantial benefit — and who will dare to say it does not ? — it must signify the 
right of freely discussing the public copdu^ pf public men.. In this sense 
lias it ever been taken by the best political and constitutional writers* 
But if tried by the test of the new do^rine, no such right can possibly 
exist; at least, it cannot be exarcised; — for what ingenuity is sufficiency 
in explaining the incapacity of a minister, in producing proofs, in illustrate 
ing the arguments by fad^s, and in assigning those reasons which are neoes* 
»ary to carry conviftion to the mind of the reader, so to frame the style 
and langu^gOj as to render the whole innocuous to the feelings of the party ? 
It is, indeed, the height of absurdtty to suppose, that the attempt to 
prove a map unfit for the situation which he holds, will not be *' uncom* 
lortable" to his ** feelings,* * And yet is it not the right, is it not tlio 
dutyct an Englishman, if he know of the existence of such incapacity or 
unfitness ; if Tie know that his country is injured by tlie con4u:l of such a 
man; to en ler upon i^uch proof, and to convince his sovereign, and the 
public, of a fa^ which it is of importance to the general good to as<^ 
certain ?«— Either, then, the advocates for this dodrine must deny the 
existence of any such ri^ht of^ free discussion, or they must abandon the 
pOfitioQ as untenable. If they prefer the former, and if they be supported 
in that preference by the legal authority of the country, all arguments 
jreipeding the liberty of the press are at an end ; — for wbo/would be so 
senseless at to dispute about anon.entity ? — But we shall jpersist in denxing; 
-that the doArine in question is law, until the fiat of parliament shall 
liaye ^iven it the feroe of a law ; and we trust that we shall not live to see 
that cuy. ThisdoArine, however, as applicable to attacks either on pri. 
▼at^ persons, or on the/r/v^^// chara^ers of public men, is not only de. 
ftnsible, but strlAly legal. The mischief arises from the want of a 
proper distinction lietween such attacks and discussions of the nature be* 
lore descrilicd. There is a marked and broad distin^ion between them ; 
' and while the former cannot be too severely restrained, the latter, when 
confined within the bounds of decency,, cannot be too fully toleratdl. 

Reverting to the principle of judgine of the merit of Ministers by their 
DKasares, jt becomes necessary, for the formation of such judgment, to 
inquire what these measures have been. The prominent meatiures of the 
present Administration, are the Reform of the Army, the American Inter^ 
coune Bill, and the American Treaty. The first partakes a good deal of the 
nature of a modem reform, which is more favourable to demolition than^ 
to improvement* Its projeilor began, where a wise man would have 
ended, by abolishing the existing sources of military strength ; and, on 
their ruin, he endeavoured to raise his own fanciful superstru^ure, the 
worthy offsprin|^ of a metaphysical brain, but ill calculated for any purpose 
of praAical utility. If in the ordinary a£Fairs of life, a man had pro. 
eeeded in a manner so extraordinary, the sanity of his intcUeds would, 
assuredly, have been called in question. Who t]ut wished to build a new 
bottse, would pall down his old one, before he had secar^ another fitf kis 
reception ? Or who that wanted to turn a roadj, would destroy the exist- 


iii$i$iHadSimh^a€iuUitfEtir$pi. sn^ 

iiig so*i, bdbie he kadmde aaotber for tiie tise of pMi«|en t Ait a« 

•cpenciic geaiw it not to be rtttnioed hj an adhereooe tocoHiOMn ftoraai, 

W valgar uHige. It it not a fixed sMr that eiTet a M«ong and steady ligbc ; 

bttt a comet whose me^olar blaie burnt bat to frighten and toidetti^. 

O^ fhe full Mk&» of thit alarming innovatioiii no adequate ofinioh can 

he fenned^ .until the appearance ot authentic documentt^ — the onlf finflt 

wbiai ue known ace the^ ; that the bill for raiaiog the populatioo of tha 

fc^omry in a naas, which wat tobttituted for the General Defence BtU^ hu 

oc¥er been put in execution in a tingle instance ; and, we threwdljr Mtpofl^ 

it never wil] be. Indeed, the Secretary for the War Departaeo^ kaa 

iatelj acknowledge that it wat never intended to carry u into gemfml 

cfi^; an alarming acknowl^gment, tince it proves that a gcoecajlav 

bas passed for a partial purpose ; and that Ministers reserve to th ea i sel fc i 

the right of subje^ing to its operation, only tuch partof the country as they 

shall think proper. At the duty which it imposes is a. serious and k 

bttrtfaensooie duty, a ^wer is thus vested in them of imposing the bortben 

oa their advcrsariet, if they should choose so to do^ and of exemptsng 

their friends from its weight. Jt is not meant to be insinuated that thia 

jnoiiG|X>ly of wealth, rank, and talents, would be rendered subservieAe 

to any purpose so mean, so base, and so unconstitutionaL Bui the 

liest nieana of preventing the abuse of power, by bold snd enterprising 

mei^ is, either nor to entrust them with it, or so precisely to define iia 

limits, as to render misconception and misapplication alike inq>oaBthie. 

The next known fadt, is, that by the alteration in the period of enUss;. 

aaent, and the measures which accompanied it, a vast additional eapeaot 

as imposed on the nation, without any one advantage, in return. All those 

fine fUlosophical inducements which, the public were toM, in the florid 

iiaraifoes of metaphysical eloquence, were' to operate so powerfully oi> tha 

;miiids of men, have, as all sober minded people expcAed and foretold^ 

iailed to produoe the smallest efieA. lU then, it should ultimately prove 

that a durable expenoe of an annual million has been incurred by this wili 

specalation, what a wei|;ht of responsibility will the imprudent specnlatsst 

have attached to himseli, and what a serious call will his country have oa 


On the American Intercourse Bill, so much haa already 1)een said, by 
the former writers in this work, as w^U as by the intelligent author of that 
able trad, '' War sn Disguise," that, ata of a ceriam circ/e, there cannot 
remain two opinions in the country. It is fraught with the most^uinous 
consequences to the shipping and commercial interest, which can only be 
avenc^i, by sufiering the A^ to remain a dead letter on the statute book. 
The arguments used in support of that bill, were some of the most extra, 
ordinary that were ever employed by British Senators. Ihe amount of 
our exports to America was dwelt upon with all the pomp of oratory i 
and the strongest language was used to impress the country with aconvic^ 
tion of the vast importance of the Aovcrican trade. In short, whoever 
reads the speech of Lord Auckland, and that of Mf . Randolph, would 
kiatuYally be led to conclude, that the former had been delivere4 in the 
American Congress, and the ktter in the British Senate. Most true it is„ 
that the trade with America is higbfy mhoMtagtmu Co this country ; but it 
is equally true, that it is ahsolately mcmofy to the pditical existence of ' 
America^ The maoofaftories of the United States are utterly incapable 


wn Hhuncal Slrtek ^ tki Suiu of Bufpi. 

of npplylnf tKp tnksbitants with the most neoetsary artklei i whik the 
gieaccrfart of ibttu revenue is derived from x\k/t duOtt imposied on Brititfc 
imports. To as, then, war with America woald be prodo^^ive of very. 
littk mcoovcnieQce ; while to America it would be rainoos. Yet what 
kaa tke policy of the two countries been under these relative circumstances f 
The American government reje^ied the propositions of Mr. Randolphi per. 
aisted in boiding high' aod insulting language^ and adualiy passed a iavr 
topaohibittbe importation of Britidi go^ ; a law which was in itself # 
dadamiion of war. The British Government, on the contrary, adopted 
the seiciments of Lord Auckland, assumed a tone of humiliation and de* 
jraoodmicy, took oo step to resent the unprovoked hostilitr of the United 
Mitcty wd appointed Lord Auckland himself, ami another Nobleman, who 
had aaeonded his motion, ^nd echoed his opinions, to conclude a Treaty 
with the American Commissioners!!! — What was the condud which the 
hooovr of the Crown and the dignity of the Nation required ? Certainly, 
to enter into no negoriacion whatever with Americfi, until she had repealed 
|ier Doiuimporurioo ad, and made ample reparation for the iiisuit ; and 
to have rendered such repeal within a ^ivcn time, the sine fma mw of con. 
tinned peace between the two countries. These are nqt times, in which 
national honour should be considered aa an objefti of little inqx>rtanoe« 
It is a ieather in the British diadem, of use as well as of ornament ; and 
ought not to be touched lightly or irreverently. Experience has soflL 
deotlf tKkight t|s the dangers of concession ; and though Ministers may flat. 
ter cbemselvts that their conduA in this instance will be imputed to a con. 
aeiooMiess of existing strength, they will assuiedly find by our.enemtes it 
will be construed into a proof of weakness. What can be expedled from a 
tiimt^ eooelnded under such auspices *? Have we not a right to infer that the 
aptrit of GoneetsicNi will mark every provision \ But to argue on a treaty, 
on which^ from pruckntial motives no doubt, Ministers have observed a 
profbnnd silence, and with which the British public will probably be first 
oiade acquainted through the medium of 4he American prints, would be 
tbework of anticipation, and not the task of history. We shall, how. 
ever, declare our lixed opinion, that if we have conceded to the Ameri. 
cans the privilege of transporting the colonial produce of France and Spain 
to the lespe^ve mother#coun tries, on the sole condition of first landing 
them in America, and there subjtrding them to a duty (the payment $ 
which will never be exsded, nor shall we have the power to enforce it) 
we ha?e given a fatal blow to our shipping, commercial, colonial, and 

* Lord Aikjcland is an able political writer ; it would, no doubt, 
afford great satisfattion to the public, to see him state his reasons, for the 
total change which seems to have taken place in his opinions, respe^ing 
our inttfcourse with America, since the discussion which took place in the 
House of Commons, subsequent to the acknowledgment of American Tnde. 
pendence, in which he took a decided part. That circumstances have 
changed since that period, must be generally admitted, but to common 
observers it would appear, that such alteration imperiously demands a 
more rigid adherence to the doArine which his Lordship then laid down« 
It would not he unworthy of either his Lordship's courtesy or his talents^ 
to reconcile this apparent cootradifljon* 


Histmcal Skitih rf the Slau cf Europe* mi 

■•aafafhiring interests; It was a privilege to which the American wcr^ 

■oc encirledy |>y the law <tf nacions, by the principles of juacicc» or bjr 

csubltshcd custom. And the concession wiii ermble our euetaie& lo carry 

00 tibe war against us with additionai advantage^ since it will «Xttui|it 

them imn the risk and expence of maintaining a military or oomnserciid 

navy, for tiie supply ot' thtix colonies, while it will secure the Sife retoia 

:of.dmr prodoce at a considerable redaction of price, and will CDaUe 

'thoDJioc ocdy to raise a revenue thereon, hot to supply the Cootspent 

iwftk tbd^ Yery articles which most otherwise have been iumisbed by the 

•Bruish marker. The evils flowing from such a faeasiire are of #ucli aug^ 

nitode, and are so multifarious, that the detail of them would &U a 

volnme. it is to be hoped, however, from a recent declaration of the 

Secrctarj i'or the Foreign Department, that we have at least fcaervdd to 

outlives the right of retaliation upon France ; though, if we have, it 

is impossible to guess at the motive which has deteried Ministers from 

the full exercise of it. When Buonaparte, by the ridiculous assumptioo of 

a power which existed but in his own frantic imagination, like the mock 

monarch of the theatre, fnlminated his s^natliema against the CommeMeof , 

Britaiih iasoed his mandate of prohibition to all the nations of .the earth 

to enter British pons with their ships; jt immediately occurred to ths 

snsnd of every man who thought on the subject, that our Ministers wduld 

letort upon him, by declaring every port of France, her vassal^ and 

^ ailics, so a state of blockade. 

By a measure so vigorous, and so perfectly just, we should speedily either 

itdooe the tyrant co the necessity of formally abrogatinghis own restrictiona 

*^n our continental trade, or compel him, by a circuitous course, and at a great 

additional expence, to obtain from the British markets, the produce of Aae» 

rica^ and of the East, not only for the >uppiyol* other states, bat lor the usd 

of his own subjects. But by the impotent Order of Council lately issued, no 

good cfect whatever can accrue, France may still continue to supply herself 

and her neighbours, through the mcdiom of Amenca, with every article 

of which tney stand in need; in this respect, they^ will su&r no pri<» 

nation from the war, but will purchase these articles at a much lower 

Jta'ioe than they could if brought home direct in their own ships — while 

the warehouses of our merchanrs are overstocked with colonial prodnoe, 

Ibr which no sale can be found. Had we boldly asserted our right, dis^ 

played the spirit of our ancestors, cntorccSd a rigid observance ot our na* 

▼iggtion laws, snd prevented America trom carrying on, in tim^of war, 

any trade which she was forbidden to pursue in time of peace, all the 

ivils which now flow in u|)on us on every side would have been averted, 

and, setting at defiance the impotent rage ol' our malignant pnemy, we 

might have nearly monopolized the commerce of the wor«d. By iojik.^ 

dicioas concessions on the one hand, and by a wavering policy, and % 

wretched system of half-measures on the other, a great part of Europe 

has already been lost. And, if, with our eyes open to the oonsequcaces 

of such contfuct, we pursue a similar system, we shall richly deserve a 

similar fate. V/hilst the trade with our Coloo'es is opened to America; 

Ministers atirare. of tl^ impolicy, and of the dangerous tendency of their 

own measures, have iisued iustrudions to the contractors in. the West 

Indies to procure the necessary supplies for our islands from Nova Scotia ; 

npt aware that, from the mere difiv^renqe in the rate ot insurance, the 


wSi Historical Sketch rf thi 6taU rf^Em$pM. 

Americant can send their supplies at a cheaper nte by twmijf per e^m^m 
Of Gourac it ia needless to observci that littk t»r nothihg wlU be ahippiedl 
from Nova Scotia. Vet had we prohibited the inteicoiirse of Avamcm 
with oor Colonies^ and given to the settlers in Nova Scotia tfattt comiaoci 
encoufagemenc, and that common protection, to which all Briciah- siib~ 
jects are entitled, they woald, in a short tiioey have beea able* to fanuait 
all (be necessary supplies for our islands. As it is^ seeing^no prospect of^ 
a fcward for their industry, they have adopted the resiolutl<m cf emtw 
gratii^ito the United States of America. From the town of Liverpool 
{in N^a Scotia), alone, seventy families, with all their moveable pro-, 
per.ty, ^with fifteen sail of vessels, have sailed to increase the mimber qf 
American citizens. These are most alarming facta.; and onleu thejr 
become tha subject of parliamentary investigation, and Ministers are ia» 
duced to adopt a totally ,difl^nt system of commercial (as well as of 
military) policy, they will, very soon, feel such effects from their mea« 
auies, as will rouse them from their torpor, in spite of themselves* Pro. 
vidence, in its bounty, has amply supplied us with the meanb of. defend* 
ing ourselves, and of annoying our enemies, and if we neglect to employ 
^them, we may reasonably expect that the punishment oC ingratitude will 
await us. 

In their negotiations for peace with the French, Ministers are deserv* 
41^ of praise for the tone which they assumed, which was such as the 
honour of the ct-owri and the interest of the country demanded j end 
they had oertainlv a right to infer feom the language of the enemy, that 
the principle of the uti possidetis was admitted. When Talleyrand tx^w 
cif ly said, we demand nothing of you — the Emperor does not wishf for 
any tbii^ which is in the possession of England — ^and when, in the appli. 
cation oT this principle to a practical point, be added, in respect ot Si. 
cily— 'it is not in our possession, therefore no (question, can arise upon i(-^ 
no doubt could remain that it was the original mtentipn of Buonapar|e to 
conclude a peace upon that basis, if he re Jly mtanC .to conclude one at all, -• 
Bat while we render iustice to Ministers on this lubject, we caniK>t bu€ 
express our surprise that a point so essential, as the basis of a Treaty «£ 
P^ce, should be left %o iir/>r/ifc#— that an express a^d unequivocal admia* 
aion of it in writing should not have been demanded, as an indi&pensable 
preliminary to the opening of a negotiation. The bA we believe to bc» 
that Mr. Fox was so anxious to bring about a peace with France, tha^ 
ht eagerly seized the first opportunity that was ofiered him for the piuu 
pose ; and if he had not found an opportunity, he .would, probably, have 
made one : hence the vague and indefinite principles of negotiation ad« 
rancedin his letters to Talleyrand ; and hence his . forbearance to de« 
mand those definite admissions which would have left no xoool for cavilj 
or for doubt. The conduct of the French on the occasion was marked by 
all the characteristic fraud, hypocrisy, and perfidy of their government; 
and niust have efectually convinced the world, that peace with this 
country forms no part of Buonaparte's hopes, wishes, or intentions. The 
language of Lord Lauderdale, during the negotiation was uniforinly dig, 
Bified and finn> and exhibited a flatterin? contrast with the evasive con. 
duct of the French Commissioners. • The questioi^ howeVejTf at issuci 
,was so simple, and admitted of such a speedy decision, that the delay 
which took place was utterly inexcusable on the par; of our government. 


Xisurmi Skui ff iki SuUi of Eanpi. xU 

MttMtim to thtm fer their toul tnactiTitf , while Baona. 
cniplojred in actite prepsntiomforhoitillty. That warlike niea. 
M0m of « ttost ngorovi nature tfaooid ever accompttijr pacific propoairions, 
ii a Biiaiiai of policy ao coofesaedljr wise, m not to admit of dl^te ; 

y^t was the whale campaign avifered to paas away withoat a iingle at. 
anapt to aanoy oar caemies. And the Tyrant of the Continent hat rince 
haeo allowed to drain hia country of troopty and to march tlieaa to the 
wtry extreaiity qf Germany, Mrithoot an Hon on our part to create tho 
aBBallcst difcnion, or to give him the smallest uncasinesa ; indeed, he 
acta aa if he thoo^ht there was no such councry at Great Britain in ex* 
iaaeiicel— ^ndaiewe doomed to this faial inactivity, by aMiniatry as* 
aanung to itaelf all th^ vigour and intellect, all the wealth and talents of 
thaooantry ? and cenainiy containing men who have Ibrnierly displayed 
a oonaidfiable portion of all these qualities. To whatever cauae it may 
be mipuied, it is a most ruinous policy, which we shall aU live to feel 
and to me* 

in the premature diuolntion of Parliament, Ministers certainly mani* 
leated their fears, though evidently without any just grounds ; for never 
was a Parliament so completely pliant, so perfectly servile, as the last. 
And on that account, they pertbrmed a meritoriojs act in signing its 
death-warrant. It supported Mr* Addingcon, to whom it was indebted 
lor its birth ; it then rebelled against its parent, and fostered Mr. Pitt ; 
and, on the death of that statesman, it transferred Its protection to the 
poKtical enemies both of Mr. Pitt and of Mr. Addington. To its pa. 
traotic labours the nation was indebted for the persecution, of Lord Mel. 
TiUe, in which a novel illustration of the principles of parliamentary 
justice was exhibited, in the condemnation ox a person accused, without 
hearing him in his own defence, and in the infliction of punishment before 
trial ; for the blessings of the American Intercourse Bill, in which a new 
principle of commercial policy was brought forth, by aid of which we 
aobbed our friends to reward our enemies ; and for - the vast advantages 
of the new military code, which increased our expences^ while it dimi. 
nisbed oar force. Such were the achievements of that respectable body 
who&e laneral oration it has fallen to us to pronounce. Wj ttust, its sue* 
oessors will profit by its errors, and not imitate its faults. 

That purity may spring from corruption, is a fad of which too many 
proo6 exist in the natural world, to allow an/ one to doubt. But cer- 
tainly if one half of the circumstances recorded irt the public prints', re« 
spectingthe late eledion, be correctly suted, at no period of our history, 
an any similar ckrcasion, was there such an open, dangerous, and unconsti. 
tatiooal interfererKe displayed. We should ieel it our duty to enter jnto 
aoo^deuil on thesobject, were we not deterred from the ^specification of 
Cictsy by the knowledge, that, in most instances, they are about to form 
the subject of parliamentary inquiry. The apathy, however, which has 
prevailed, in regard to these flagrant breaches of law ; these gross vioia>. 
tioos of a constitutional principle; these barefaced attempts to break 
down those fences and tliose barriers which xht wisdom of our ancestors had 
eredted fer the preservation of our legislative purity; is a lamentable 
proof of the dreadful decline of public spirit, and the rapid decay df 
genuine patriotism. And by whom has this been done? By the V\higs, 
lonooth 1 hy those very a^a who hava aastrtad an almost cadottve r »^' 

MX ISstorkal &kHth ^ tht iiat$ of £ut$pf* 

to the appellaljon otFHrioit; who hare almoit assoned^rhe ^x!r/«ip«#OMf «d 
dianship of the Coostitution ; who- hare been the loodett adv«caae»JEB^ 
Parliamentary Reform ; and the most violent declakaerB against MiBiHe-^ 
rial Corruption I Weil might that departed Philosopberi wh^ charaMi 
the world hy his eloquence, and enlightened it by his wisdom, appcair 
from such Mw whigs to the wfaigs of ancient days 1 How wottld he have' 
deplored the nklancholy degeneracy .of his former aasociates i*-HDf thofCi 
asfociatcs wh<>».for the greater part of the last twenty years, have bwn^ 

Sloyed yi condemning the conduct of their present colkaguea in office .> 
io leprobating the very measures which they have since adopted T . 
It would be a matter of curious inquiry, to investigate the oiotivcft 
which have induced these Whigs/ since they have come into power, to 
forego the pleasures of their annual festival on the fourth of N&wmhr^ 
Have they already alter^ their opinions on the virtues of RevolutioDaffj 
Epochs f Or does their condud arise from a censciouuiess that some of 
their mesisures, and some of their projects, are repugn^t to the princi«i 
pies of that Revolution, which professed to be founded on the exclusion of 
Fvferj and the destruction of Arbiirar/ PooAfer ? Has the adoption of one 
^of their standing toasts on this memorable day, by an ^nti. Jacobin^ 
'* May the Princes of the House of firunswick never forget the princf*- 
plet which i^acfd their Ancestors on the Throne!" so dtsgusted. them 
with the sentiment, that they are unwilling to repeat it ? It has ofteft 
fallen to the lot of Tories to expose' the ignorance, and to chastise the 
presumption, of /fO&r/x ; but it was left to the present extrik>rdinary tinaaa 
toaiibrd an opportunity to T-ori^s for reproving fVhigs for the deielictioa 
of IVbiggish principles. For the suppression of this commemoration 
in Ireland, a rational cause may be assigned ; it did not .square with the 
conciliating policy of the new Yiccrc^y to gratify the Protestants, while 
he was resolved to Batter the Papists, and while, in pursuit of this notable 
plan, he issued his prohibitioiis to tlie Protectants, to defend th6 established 
religion of their country, by any exposure of the radical errors of Popery^ 
and of the mischievous use which was made of them in the country which 
he was sent to govern. Such is the consistency of modern Whigs J 

A« to Ir.^iand, unless more wisdom and more vigour be displayed in- the 
govemmcntvof it, it will shortly be exposed to all the horrors of K^ 
beUion. For six months a spirit of insurr^'ctiou, which has- broken 
forth into ^cts of open violence, has jnanifestcd itself in various parts. 
Aad while that country has been represented, in virtue of a regular 
sy^emfor keeping us in total ignorance of its real situation, as in a state 
of perfect tranquillity, it has been a pfey td intestine disorders of the 
most serious aitd alarming nature. That evils, and great evils, subsist 
in Ireland, is most certain ; but the causes of them are generally mistakea, 
and it is therefore no niaiter for wonder that wrong remedies should be 
applied. Many of these evils would not have existed at present, or at 
least would have existed in a much smaller degree, had a osan, wiio« after 
labouring for years to overthrow the Constitution, has received the open 
support of the pr:sent Govenioknt, never been born. He is. a man held 
in execration by every loyal Protestant in Ireland, and therefon no doubt 
patronised by a Ministry which profesi^s a friendship for the Pamaii. 
The necessity we are persuaded will speedily be felt and acknowle^iedv 
for adopting the most vigoiots m^aiureai ibr subduing the lebeUiousdis* 


. Sister ml Sieidk |f tki Sfm if S^tfi* t» 

pMtiiii which iipbaiipily prn^ttb ia ik|it.iU-4it0d coaotijr > ja wUch 
ikt boQAty of Providence is io^ootly coontenctcd by the auKOndlict of 
Btn. Had die Rdioniuoa but extended its bkning* to IieU^, u had 
ioBg siaoe been 'the Mt of iadmtrj, hAp|Mne«» *iad peace« 

we ^nnot finish this s^etch^ without advercii^ to a tnuuactioni^ 

which, 'though for some time it was the geneial topic of convecsatiqm 

teeflBs to have been cDnsi|pned to oblivios^ as if it were a nese matier of« 

cariotity, and not a subject of the firs^ importance to the people of the- 

United Kingdom. We mean the inquiry which, some months ago, wa». 

ioftdtuted into the Condud of Oer Rsjai Higbmf4$ tbi Princea tf iVuUu 

Wc are fuUjr aware of the diUca^ of entering upon such a subject. Euc 

it is one invoWing so many points of constituti<^nal importance^ |ha€ 

wc should il) discharge our duty, if we did not avail ourselves of every 

oppoftimity for calling the public attention to it. If it were deemed: 

indispensably necessary to make a perfect mystery of the transactiop, no^. 

one circumstance relating to it should ever have been s^fiered to meei 

the public eye. But, i& it to be endured, that, while enough is published 

to case suspicions upon the conduct ol one, who ought to be placed abov^ 

j|U suspicion, and whom we, in our conscience, believe to be at pure aa 

any one of the daughters of Eve, every thing which leads to her complete 

jostificatioo is wijiholdenl Is this Justice \ 1% it Equity ? Is it fair* or 

even honest ? Wbokl not any humble individual have a right to complain- 

of sochcoiMluct ? What cause of compLiint then must ji&rhAve, every, ono 

of whose actions is of great public importance ?. who is more peculiarly 

retpooaible to the nation for tbote farts qf her Conduct to. which this in« 

qotiy was directed ? Feeling, as we do, the highest respect, and the 

ntaccit synipathy, for this Uiustrions personage, who, since her <rri?al < 

» this country, where she ought, to have fouud every thing that c6^ 

aftrd her comlfort and haj^iness, has experienced treatment that nsuat haiFO 

pierced her gentle bosom with the most poignant anguish ; — ^feeiiog, wo 

say, as we do; for this much injured, insult^icl, and persecuted Lady^ wo 

most condemn the unfeeling Indifierence which our countrymen^ at least 

a majority of them, have shewn to her cause. But it is not, from foeliw 

lor an individual, however amiable, however deserving, however illua. 

oioos, that we aie anxious t^ promote a full discussion of this subject ; 

bttt from a sense of duty to our Sovereign^ to our Country, and to our 

pofferity^ Canf any man acquainted with history, be ignorant of the 

, dai^. attending the suppression of circumstances of this nature ? of in- 
volving such a transaction in mysteryi Does it require any extraordinary 
degier of sagacity to devise a case, for which such conduct ipight supply a 
very plantive and specious foundation, and which might expose the country 
to all the horrors of a civil war ? If such an incident were barely possible, 
it would be a sufficient reason for rendering all the circumstances o^ this 
strange inquiry public : — when then we know that it is more than pos. 
aible, when we cooplo that possibility with the flying rumours which 
have been[ circulated for some time past, and which have very much the ^ 
npDcnrance ' of having been propagated for the. purpose of s&unding the 
|HU>lic feeling and opinion, about the introduction of the Salic Law, the 
proposal to give validity, by an AAof Parliament, to marriages at pre. 
icnt illegitimate, &c. &c. ; there appears to us an absolute necessity for 
Mngbg the wbok bosioess before the public. 


ja6l JUhimaii Uadtftki tM# ^ Europe. 

Ler if Mt £efergotftti> that the Royial PeniDnage who has been the ob* 
jeft of th{» inqdry u- a ht^ fmUic chamkr } that the poblic ha?e an in-*' 
itieit -in. evtry thing which relates to hef; and^re, contequentlf^ a 
fight to be made acquainted with the grounds on 4Bi toy one has pie* 
somed t6* im^ach her reditnde, or to cast a svsprcmf upon her conduA* 
The. piMication of such grounds^ then, we assert, and without fear o^ 
ooottioidtion, is a duty on the part of those persons, whoerer they bcj 
ute hive the power and the nieans of publishing them. It Is, indeed, al» 
aft of jukice, l>oth to the PaiNctss herself, and to the Britith Natiam, to 
wUcbshe has given a FOTuai Sovirbio94 Some reasons, or rather 
pretexts, have bm privately assigned, for the mysterious siloice observed 
ttn this oecasion ; Mit they were so preposterously frivolons and absurd; 
that no man could believe them to be ariwify urged, fie that as it may, 
,|here can exist no reasons for silence, which are not overpowered by the tt^ 
sisiless motives which may be aaigned for the publication of these im. 
WMTtant documents. We trusty then, that the voice of the country will 
be raised to call for them ; or that some honest, upright, and truly inde. . 
fendent senator, will render the inquiry a subjea tor the cogniauince of 
' Oar. Skiicb has already exceeded the limiti assigned' to it ; though the 
aabjeft expands so mudi as we pursue it, as to supply ample materials for 
the completion of ^fkhhei fiamt. We reluftantly, therefore,* lay down 
the pencil ; though the task of exhibiting distorted figures and deformed 
shapes to the view, cannot be very pleasing ; — can, indeed, only be sob# 
Bitted to from a conviction of its public utUity. 

P. & It will easily be perceived, that the foregoing Sketch was written 
, ttfeft the recaption of the important intelligence from the scene of aAion 
In Mand. That intelligence, however, rather strengthens than weakens 
the force of our general observations, and^rather confirms than destroys 
the legitimacy of our dedudions. But on this subjed we can only, at pre. 
sent, eongratnlate our countrymen ; our remaiks on it, as well as on other 
topics which call for attention, must be reserved for a future time. 

* We have touched but sliehtly on this subjed ; but unless some steps 
be taken, and that speedily, for satisfying the public mind upon it {which 
cannot be done without doing the most complete justice to the calumniated 
Princess}, we shall soon advert to it again, and treat it much more fally« 
and in a tone of much gieater decision. 




RevieW^ and Magazine^ 

^d. ^'C*. ^Ci 

For SEPTEMBER, 1806. 

^— ^ ■ ■■■■ ) < • 11 - I I III I I 

- \ ' " 

La plos glofifcQse, riiais le plus penible de toutes nos fondions c*ett le 

Mtnlstefe de la Censure Publique. Nous soniines nes dans uti'siede, oa 

la genercuse libeite de nos Peres est traitee dlndiscretioD, oa le sde (lb 

bien publique passe pour TeiTet d'un chagrin aveugle^ Sc d*un ardeur 

tecneraire, 8c ou les homnies etant devends egalement incapably de 

supporter & les maux, & leurs remedes, hi Censure est inutile^ et soaveat 

la persQDD^ da Censeur odieuse. 

9*AOUBSSSAl7 Stra LA cBNsvaa ^UBLIOUa. 

■ I ' fci I ■ *■ ' ' ii .fi I ■ I . ■ ,11 ' IT — n . 


Tie Worts <ff Edmund Spenser ^ with the principal Illustrations of va- 
riotu Commentators, To which are added^ Notes^ some jicctmnt of 
the Lifi of t^penser^ and a Glassarial and other Indexes. By the 
Rev. Henry John Todd, M. A. F.A.S. &c. &c. 8vo. 
8 vols. Rivio^rons, &c. 

IT IS so much the fashion of the present day to load the pages of 
our early poets wich the various opinion of different critics and 
coinmentatorsy that the original meaning of the author is often buried 
under the strange, and sometimes absurd conjedures of tasteless, or 
fanciful annotators ; this has been peculiarly the case with our great 
dramatic poet, though, we understand, there is a hand now employed 
in trying to relieve him from some part of the enormous burthen.— 
When a ii»an of genius and learning, such as Mr. Todd undoubtedly 
is, undertakes a work like this now before us, we not only expefl^ 
(what we arc certain to find)^ real merit in his own original observation, 
but also a $ele£lion ofily of such remarks of former commentators, as fall 
under the same description, and a total discarding of all those that 
owe their existence to pedantry, to ostentatious display of black-letter 
reading, or xo an afTefiation of peculiar (penetration which tries to dis- 
<over mystery 'when none is meant, and to draw personal or political 
allusions from plain narrative and description. How far Mr. Todd 
has fulfilled tl)c last part of his duty, will appear in ibe course of our 
obscrrations as we examine the work. 
no. xcix« VOL. XXV. . B The 


The Prolegomena prefixed to thk work» and which occnpythe 
larger pare ofthe first and secoAd nolumesi consist of the following 
tracts^ besides a Dedfcation to the King, and a short Preface. — Some 
Account of the Life of Spenser, List of Editions. Alterations of 
Spepser.. Pieces of Criticism relative to Spenser. Imitations of Spen- 
ser. Commend:itory Verses on Spenser. — These are all in the first 
volume ; and by an arr.^ngement,' to us unaccountable, the remainder 
of the first volume contains the Shepherd's Calendar, and the Pro- 
legomena are resumed in the second volume, which they fill, except 
six cantos of the first book of the Fairy Queen. The trails in this 
volume arc — Hughe§*s Essay o& Allegorical Poetry, with Nptes. His 
'Kemarkton the Fairy Queeo, With Notes. Speace's Dissertation on 
the Defedls of Spenser's Allegory, with Notes. Warion^s Remarks 
on the Plan and Condudl of the Fairy Queen, with Notes. His Re- 
marks on Spenscr*8 fmiiation from old Romances, with Notes. His 
Remarks on Spcnser'^s Allegorical Chorafter, with Notes. The 
Editor's aitdi^ional Remarks. His Remarks on Spenser's Stanza, 
Versification and Lanicuage, with Notes. The Editor's additioasl 
Remarks. \ Upton's Remarks on the A£iion and History of the 
Fairy Queen, with Notes. Hurd's Remarks on the Plan and Con- 
duft ofthe Fairy Queen, witli Notes. A Letter of the Author. Verses 
acklressed to the. Author with Notes. Verses addressed by \i^ Author 
to,several Noblemen, &c. with Notes. 

Besides this mass of prefatory matter, the bottom of the pages of 
the poems are filled with notes, from the pens of Upton, Churchy 
Wartoo, &c. accompanied by many remarks of the present editor. 
Though it is our principal objedl to review this work as far as it rc^ 
lates to Mr. Todd, yet as his part of ic is so much interwoven with 
the observations of the other critics, and as much of the merit of his 
labour, as we have already observed, must be derived from his selec- 
tion, or rejedion of the labours of his predepessors, it is impossible 
for us not to pay some attention to those remarks, whicli have long 
been in the possession of tlie public. 

Mr. Todd tells us in his Preface, that ♦* in the present edition tlie 
antiquated spelling of the poet is altogether retained. It is sufficient" 
(if I may apply to this circumstance the just observation of Dr. John- 
son respecting Shakespcar), •' that the words arc Spenser's. U phra^ 
'seology is to be changed as words grow uncouth by disuse, or coarse 
by vulgarity, the history of every language will be lost ; we shall no 
longer have the w^rds of any author, and as these alterations will be 
often unskilfully made, we shall have intime very little of his meaning.'*" 
We must^ay, that Mr. Todd has brought a passage from Dr. John- 
son, that has no reference whatever to the thing it is introduced to 
support. Dr. Johnson is speaking of words, Mr. Todd of the mode 
of spelling those words. We will quote the first part of Dr. John- 
son's, note. It is on the word huggermugger^ in Hamlet, A61 iv, 
Scene v. " All the modern editions that 1 have cons\ilted, give it— 
' In frivaie to inter him.' 


toii^s L^£ ^ Spenser. 3 

That the words now replaced are better, we do not tindettake to prove ; 
it is sofficient they are Shakespear's," &€. &c. Now, though we en- 
tirely agree with Dr. Johnson as to the retention of the phraseology 
of art ancient writer, we as entirely disagree with Mr. Todd as to the 
retention of his orthography^ or rather (if we may coin a word from 
auiaiogy) his hctcrography. We know till within little nciore than a 
centary oar mode of spelling, even in printing, was not settled. In 
the Dedication to the first edition of the Tatler, published in 1710^ 
we find BUsiB ; bnt shoukS this be followed in modem editions } or, 
ihall we find some new editor who will carry hi^ love for fac«similc 
printing so fhr, as to publish an edition of dhakespear, with all the 
anomalous spelling he could colleA from the folios and quartos } We 
have now before us a fac-simile of an ancient MS. of Virgil, where 
ibe name of the poet is spelled Vergil, and the plural of the third de« 
clension made to terminate in />, instead of es^ 2% ia finis y pr^sen^ 
tis drvos ; and this has be^ followed in an edition of Virgil, printed 
at Antwerp, 1614, for which the editor makes the following apobgy^— 
Si ifUit ad orthographiam speffantia^ out alias inusitantius notata occW'* 
rerint ne vos continuo offendant^ sipiidem^ ta ex certissimis veneramUe ami-' 
fdtates fontibus hausta constat. On this principle, the edition ot some 
ancient writers, without stops, or even the division of words, might 
be defended. Si quls tamen glandespost aristas maiity to such a critic , 
and we fear there are many such, we recommend such adherence to 
the mode of spelling, when the art of Engti&h orthography was in its 
infancy, and which does not in the feast afledl either (he phraseology, 
or the sense of the author, which it is the duty of every editor to pre- 
serve inviolable. 

Spenser has been generally supposed to have been Poet Laureate to 
Queen Elizabeth. Of this Mr. Todd takes notice in his Life of 
Spenser. *' It has been long a received opinion that he was nominated 
Poet Laureate. His coteroporaries certainly considered him wonhy 
of the title, and frenuently speak of him in terms appropriate to that 
distinflion^ Thus Webbe, in his Discourse of English Poefrie^ pub- 
lished in 1586, contends, that Spenser « may well wear the garlande^ 
and step before the best of the English poets ;' " and, what is very 
remarkable, in the third. edition of the Shepheard^s Calender^ which 
was al50 published in 1586, the elder reading of the following verse, 
in the twelfth Eclogac— " The rwr^// song of careful Coliner,'* (where 
Colinet means Spenser) is changed into •* the /awr^// song,"' &c.— 
The writer of the Sonnet addressed to Florio, in his Second Frutes^ 
published in 1592, seems to point at Spenser by a similar expression. 

*' So when that ail our English witts lay dead. 
Except the Inunll that Is ever greene, 
Thou with thy frutcs oar birrcnes o're.spread^ &c." 

And Nash» in his Supplication of Pierce Penniless, published in 
the same year, declares that he had intended tp ** decyphc: the ex* 
oeise of gluttonie at lar^e, but that a new Laureat saved him the la-* 

B« ' . bor." 


bar." But the hSi is as Mr. Nlabne has. accurijtely rotated *^/}t:^ 
" Undowbiedly Elizabeth- had no Poet Laurcaic, till in JFcbruary^ 
1590-i «»he conferred on Spenser a, i^ensibu of fifty pounds a year, the 

f^rant of wliich was discovered, some years ago-'m the Rolls Chjapcl^ 
rom which time, to hi& deaih in 1598-9, hxi ^ay properly be .consi- 
dered as filling thrs office, chouj^'h like most of hb predecessors, and 
hh WP immediate succcji^ors, he is noi.cxpvcssly styled Laureate in his 

,1 The first part of this quotation we think proyps nothing ; for we 
ktioWjai^ relied is an epithet apphed (o poets in, general, and muck 
ofterter to others than to hjm whom the King honours wuh tlic tiilc" 
of . JPoet Laurear, with the addition ot a salary and al>utt of sack. — 
IVlhaps it may not Ikr quite irrelevant to the subjeft to observe, that the 
term Laui^atOj in lialian (a language much in fashion in the age of 
Elizabeth), was cquivalcwt with Graduate. VVe have now before us 
$a Italian translation Of Gil BI.IS, where the French, word Licentie is 
rendered Laurcato. Neither do we think it at all material whether 
Spenser was, or was not styled Laureate in his patent, as at present 
there is neither patent or appointment, but the Laureat is only swora 
to fidelity to the King by the Lord Chamberlain. 

]\Ir. l\Kld is at great pains to prove that Spenser did not die in that 
$taie of indigence which many writers havQ supposed, an<^ we think 
he has been successful. To some readers, perhaps, this may not seem 
a very inrercsiing intjuiry. There are persons who think those who 
do not make the acqiiibilion of property thccliiefubje<5l of their lives, 
should not expcft to enjoy the common comforts of life ; and that 
genius and poverty always do, and always oug1u, to accompany eacfl 
otl^er.^ But there are those who will be rejoiced to fiiul, that persons 
who by their writings have soothed il>eir cares, amused their fancy, 
and meliorated the morals of mankind, did not end their tbys in mi- 
sery and mendicity. One of the chief proofs of Spenser's dying in 
extreme poverty, is from a coi;iversation Dpummoi)^!, of Hawihornden, 
records, as passing between liimself and Ben Jonson.— " Jonson " 
-(he say^) "told me thai Spenser's goods were robbed by the Irish in 
Desmond's t rebellion ; his house and a lii:lecJ)lid ot his burnt, and he 
and his wife nearly escaped ; that he afterwards died in King's street 
(Duhl'in) by al)soliJie want of bread ; and that he refused 25 piece?, 
sent hiiii by the Earl of Essex, and gave this answer to the person'who 
brought them — ' that he was suie he. had no time to hpcnd them/ ** 
In answer to this Mr. Totld proves clearly that Spenser died in King- 
street, Westminster, and that Dublin is an interpolation of Mr. VVar- 
ton ; and as to the rejeilion of ,the proffered assistance of the Earl of 
Essex, as Spenser had a wife, and at least two children who survived 

* Life of Drydcn, page 84. 

+ We should read Tyrone's instead of Desmond's rebellion. — Todi* 


Todi's Life nf Spniser. 5 

hlni, Mr. Todd very jostly asks, if he had l>cen dying in extreme 
poverty, " would the tender- minded Spenser, witl) 9 wife and chil- 
dren pariicipaiinplus temporary distress, iliink ojiiy of himself qv\ the 
mebnchoU occuj^ion, and decline ihe offer of asbisunte at least so sea- 
sonablc r^ MtfOT j?" 

In the Iniitarions of Spenser, Mr Todd lias onu'tted the Parsonage 
Improved, written by the present Laureat, and puMislicd in an edi- * 
lion of his Poems, in the year 1787. 

On this passage of Hughes's Remarks on the Fairy Queen. 'The trial 
of Mary,. Qoeen of Scots,' ic shadowed in Bo.>k v. Canto ix. but the 
poet has avoided the catastrophe of her death, and has anfully touched 
on the Queen's refuftance and tenderness in that affair, bv which he 
has turned the compliment on her justice into another on her mercy.* 
Mr. Todd has this note — " There is mors of flarteiy than truth, how-^ 
ever, in this compliment,^* Surely a great deal too much has been done 
-with regard to the fatal event, loVhitfn the charaCler of Alary, and 
Uacken that of Elizabeth. To use rhe words of a lace spirited, loyal," 
and patriotic writer, " is it quite necessary that so great a rout should 
be made * about SiV Archy's great-^Vand mother/ especially by souti^ 
em Britons, when herjustihcation must include a stain on the me- - 
mory of one, whom Englishmen ought to vahie and id cherish as the 
protedress of their honour, the foundress of their commerce, and the 
sopporter of their established religion .^" To confine ourselves to this 
last consideration, if Queen Elizabeth was really serious in her zeal 
for the Protestant religion, if she felt as a royal patriot for the welfare 
of her people, if she looked back with the feelings of humanity on 
the tortures which she had seen inflidted, on patient, but resolute 
piety, she could not have been jqsiificd in not sacrificing any life to 
aven such hoi rors from tiie nation, which in all human probability 
would have been the consequence of the accession of another Popish 
Qaeen Mary. 

The observations of Warton, Upton and Hurdy on the Plan and 
Conduct of the Fairy Queen are so diffuse, ^nd drawn out to such a 
length, that from that very circumstance they are almost uuinielli- 
eible ; for though there may be safety in a multitude of counsellors, 
in a multitude of words there is seldom preci.^ion. We will state 
shortly to our readers our.own opinion on this subject. Some sort of 
unity of fable seems to have been aimed at in alt works of fiftion.. 
Tfic ancients sele«3ed one principal and leading story, and blended 
short episodes with it, for the sake of variety. The more fervid and 
desultory genius of the Eastern fal)iilisis, made their episodical parts 
the most prominent feature of the works, and only used the leading 
fable as a mean (if I may be allowed the expression), of stringing 
them together, and giving some appearance, at least, of unity to the 
whole. This is exadlly the case with the Arabian Nights; the lead- 
ing fable is founded on the blootly vow of the Saltan, the generous 
resolution of the Vizier's daughter, and her final triumph ; into 
tkii the other stories axe woven, but the introductory tale is continu- 

B3 ally 


ally brought; to our recollect ion by 'He short conversaiion that precedes 
the narration of each separate nighr. Every talc, is besides branched 
into a number of others, to which that story serves as a conaoiou bodd 
of union, as the leading one docs to the wliole. This t>ian is pre- 
served in the first half of Mr. Galland's translacion (from which all 
ours are copied) and which is not more than a quarter of the whole. 
In the other half he has only selected sucii separate stories as struclc 
him, without dividing the nights, or marking any connexion betweeo 
them, except the catastrophe of the leading fable. By this contriv- 
ance an appearance, indeed, of general unity is preserved, bur wirh« 
out that undivided attention and interest, wnich it is the objedl of 
unity to excite, as the mind is disagreeably perplexed by the broken 
chain of the narrative, expedation is suspended till all interest In the. 
fable is lost, and instead of perspicuity, confusion was produced.^ 
This mode, howeven, ^yas adopted by the poets of Iialy, and copied 
from them by the;cariier poets of this country. This is so obvious in 
Ariobto, that to enable the reader at all to follow the thread pf hit 
scattered tales, some of tb^ editions have had recourse to thea^istance 
of marginal references. Of the plan which we are told by Spenser 
himself; in his Letter to Sir W. Raleigh, he had contrived for the. 
Fairy Queen, we discover little, if afiy trace,* in what we have of 
that poem, which is exnftly half of it ; neither without this informa- 
tion could any notion have been formed of it ; and, notwithstanding 
the opinion of Mr. War ton, that ** according to this plan the reader, 
"would have been agreeably surprized in the last bookt when he canie^ 
to discover that the series of adventures which he had just seen co.m«i 
pleted, were undertaken at the command of the Fairy Qj^een, andj 
that the Knights had severally set forward to the executiox) qf ltfciii,j 
from her annual birth-day festival :" in our opinion this surprise, 
would rather eivc the pleasure we feel from the solution of a difficult 
riddle, than that derived from seeing an unexpeded and interesting 
catastrophe, arising from a number of various and apparently oppos- 
ing incidents. - • 

Of the alle^'Orical character, of which so much has been said by 
others, we shall only say, tiiat to us it is a ^rcat drawj^^ck trom the 
interest of rhe jK^em. Though wc are ready " to go as far as who 
goes farrhesr," in our praise of Spensei a* a pOct in every respefl, ana 
to agree unequivocaily wiih the opinio;) of that judicious critic^ and, 
let us add what is more, that excellent and amiable man, th^late Dr» 
Joseph Warton, that ** the charaitl eristics of this sweet and allegori- 
cal p ct, ure not only strong and circumstantial imagery, hut tender 
and pathetic tceiing,* a melodious flow ot versification, and a certain 
pleasing melancholy in iiis sentiments, the constant companion of an 
elegant taste, that casts a delicacy and grace all over his compo* 

M^e look back with pleasure on our boyish daysj when wc read 
the works of this charming Poet without any more idta of allegory^ 
than wc had in Homer or Virgil, (where by ;he way some very sa- 

Tedd^x ti/i^f Sfmser. ' f 

gic io oaf erittts luive discovered it% dMd we s^v wilii regreT, tbat Vfheh 
k became obvious to y&y our idcerest in the i'oems Vfzs greatly ditnt- 
nished ; and we were io the words of the beautiful simile of Ambrose 

*' Like some deluded peasant Merlin le^ids^ 

Through fragriint bowers and through c^lxcious meads ; 

While here enchanted castles to him rise^ 

And airy fabrics there at trad his eyes ; 

His wandering feet the magic paths pursue. 

But while he thinks the fair illusion true. 

The trackless scenes dissolve- in fluid air. 

And woods and wilds and thorny ways appear ; 

A tedious road the weary wretch returns. 

And as he goes the transient vision jnourns**' 

Having said thus much with regard to the Prolegomena, we shall 
now proceed with our remarks on the notes as they occur in the pro- 
gress of our Teading, confining ourselves chiefly to the Fafry Queen, 
by far the most popular, and we think, deservedly so, ofiheXvorks of 

On a passage m the first canto of the first book ^^ Triumphant 
Marty* for Mqrs^ Mr. Upton observes, " So the Italians Matte ^he 
eod of war." Wc 4o not. remember to have seen it noticed, that in the 
Italian, the Latin ablative case is almQst always adopted, as domino 
fordominus, oratore for orator; this f^ worthy of observation, as it 
accounts for the ditFerence of accent we give to words derived from 
the Latin, which generally come to us through the medium, first of 
Italian and then of French, oratore, oraieur> orator, as in words ang- 
licized from the French, vve throw, the accciu fiQiu the last syllable to 
the antepenult. , ' . 

Fairy Queen, Book I. Canto I. Stanza 7. 

'* Whose loftie trees yclad with sommcr's pride, 

Did spred so broad that heavens light did hicje, • / 

Not perceable with power of any starr." 

On this Upton justly remarks, that the last line is almost literally 
from Statius. 

NuUl pcnetrabilis astro 

Lucas iners.' 

But Mr. T. Warton (whose brilliant farrcy, though one of hfs 
principal Merits as a poet, often misleads him, like an ignis fatuusy as a 
critic) iliscovers this to allude to the malighant influence^ of a star c^i 
trees, and to prove this he quotes fiom Milton : 

*' Under the shady roof 
' Of branching elm sfar.jirjo/," 

Which if it be not, as we chink it is, an iinitation of the same lines 

B4' of 


of Statiusy proves just- the contrary to Mr. Warton's idea, i.4. that 
tbie elms, instead of being liable to the influence of jAalignam stars 
themselves, had the po^er of averting it from, others. / 

Book I, Canto II. 

*' So mecke and debonaire, ^rackuiy kind." Fr. the accostomed epithe< 
of gallant knights, — Todd. 

It may be remarked, however, that this epithet was given to 
JLfOuis I. ; one the weakest of the French Monarchs. ^ 

Book !• Canto III. 

^' Kept both watch and ward." 

Sc^ the note on the Shepherd^ s Calendar^ Sept. 5. v. 234, Todd. 
If we turn to this place, we shall find this word explained, it is crue^ 
9nd so we shall in Burn's Justice, and in Jacob's Law Dr£lionary« 
These are the notes that disgrace all the modern commentatois on tb^ 

old English writers. ^ 

V 1 . . . • » ■ 

Book I.. Canto IV. 

" That too exceeding shone 

Exceeding shoiwc like Phosbufl fayrcst child> 

That did presume his father'^ fyrie waync, &C." • 

Having here said that she (Duessa) shone as Titan's ray, he com- 
pares her in the following stan^^a /o Phaeton, which i» a striking 
anti-climax. T, War ton. This is, a proof of what we have before ob- 
served, of Mr. Warton's abilities as a critic. Having first compared 
the beauties of the disseftnbled maiden queen to the splendour of the 
sun, the poet adds, that though they in brightness rescnnbled the Sun» 
yet they rather resembled those of the sun when tlie chariot was gUi4* 
' ed by xhaeton, and the rays, from being genial, became destrudlive. 
This the poet says in express words. Is this an anti-climax? 

Book I. Canto IV. 

'* So proud she shyncd." 

This was the ancient preterperfc^l tense of j^iw ; A writer criticis* 
ing Milton's sonnets, says, that in the 23d sonnet' 

** Love sweetness goodness in her person shined/* 

is an harmonious, line not exa£Hy correft ; for shimd should be shone. 
Various Thoughts^ by W. Burdon, M, A. &c. 1 take this opportunity 
of defending Milton by the authority of Spenser. See also a pleasing 
ballad in Greene's Arcadia, 1589. Todd. The. authority of rhc 
first of our poets, who prided himself on correflncss, may also be pro- 
il^ced in defence of this word ; we find ill the Essay on* Man : 

" If parts allure thee, think how Bacon sbhtd^ 
The wisest^ brightest^ meanest of maiikind." 


Toddlr Life^ of Spnu^. 9 

Book I. Canto IV. '** NiwfaHglenesse.^'^^Vtt. TM has a note on * 
this wonly for which he produces many examples. Surely the authorlcjr 
of MiltoD would have been sufficient, if nor, he might have produced 
an iiufhority from a .very popular play ol a more modern poet ; in 
Rqwc*s JaAc. Shore, we find * .. 

" The Queen's relations our nt-w-fajtgled fj^My ^^* 

Book I. Canto Xi I. 

•• Thrice happy man the knight* htmtelfe hid hold ; • 
Possessed of his Ladies lart and hand. 
And evex when his eie did her behold, 
His heart did seem to raclt in pleasures raanifoU." 

The being, accurate in copying this anomalous spelling, which must 
have arisen originally from an error in tlie printer or thd traivicribcr^ 
reminds us of the Chinese tailor, who, halving an old unitbrm given 
hiin to m%ke a new one by, was so exaft as.noc to forget a patch uudcT 
the arm. 

Book II. Canto I. . N 

** To let a weary wretch from her dew rest." 

*• To Ut^ hinder^ as in 2 Thess. ii. 7. Only he who leiteih ^wtil 
lett untill he be taken' out of the way." Todd. A poet we think 
would be more properly illustrated by another poet, than by a quota* 
tion from the scriptures. 

Hamkt says : 

" By heaven Til make a ghost of him that Ufts vui." 


" So soon as Bacchus with the Nymph does link/' 

After having given the observations of Upton and Churchy on this 
commofi periphrasis of the Greeks for mixing wat^r with wine, how 
could Mr. Todd admit into his edition, at least without a censure, the 
silly conceit of Boyd, that t!) is alludes to a common cffe£t of intem- 
perance, the dropsy ? 

Book II. Canto II. •• Contrarie." After citing Habington's Castera, 
which no body knows, and Milton's Sampson Agonistes, which every 
body knows, to justify this accentuation, it might have been noticed, 
that now it is the common pronunciation of the vulgar. 

Book 11. Canto V. 

«« Seath !" Damage. 

Mr. Todd confirms this explanation, by a quotation from the 
Adagia Scotica, and refers us to another note on Book i. Canto xii. of 
^ the Fairy Queen, in the same volume, for a further confirmation from 
G. Douglas, The reader, if authority were necessary, would have 
been ra£er pleased with a quotation from Shakespear, than Gawen 
Douglas, and a Scoti proTcrb. 

* •* A braver 


"A braver chcMc^ of dauntless spirits, ^ ' 
Did never float upon the swelling tide^ 
To do offance and ic^th in Christendom* "-*-K. John* 

But we think the reader might have been suffered to seek the expla«* 
nation, if he could possibly have wanted it, in Johhson*s Dictionary. 

' Book II. Canto VII. 

*^ Whose glistering glosse, darkened with filthy dust. 
Well yet appeared to have beene of old." 

' " Here I think darkned is put for was darkned ; and therefore F 
would put a full stop after dust, jfortin. Mr. Warton subscribes to 
Dr. Joriin's romark. I respe^fmy dissent from them. There is no 
cUipftis in this passage, and no period required after du«t. The sense 
here is, whose glistering glosse darkned, (U e. being darkned) with 
filthy dust well appeared notwithstanding to have been, &c. Todd^* We 
assent to every word of Mr. Todd's note except reipififMy. If ai 
critic will pay resped to the greatest names in the literary world, such 
even as Warburton, Jortin, and Johnson, when employea asannotators 
on our old writers, he will pay it to some of the grb^sest absurdities that 
ever disgraced the pen of imbecility itself. Nothing but this wapt of 
firmiless to censure, could have .induced Mn Todd to introduce, or 
'having introduced) not to blattie. Sir Kenelon.Digby's absurd remarks, 
^d Mr. Upton's still more absurd observations fon those remarks, on 
the allegory of the human body^ in the stansas from 21. 10.32 in« 
elusive of l)ook ii. canto ix. of the Fairy Queen. 

Book II. Canto XI. 

«« Qiferrcy.'* 

'* A term in falconry, any fowl that is flown, at and killed. It is 
used f(W game in general. * Sagacious of his quarry^ Milton, Par-. Losr» 
b. X. 281. Church J*^ If Mr. Church chose to give this pompous ex- 
planation of a very common word, Mr. Todd need not have inserted' 
such trash in his edition. 

Book II. Canto XII. 

" That quicfcsaod nigh with water covered; 
But by the checked wave they did descry 
. It plaincj and by tbe sea discolouxed." 

** That is almost dovcfed With water. So ' Spenser*s own editions 
read, but the folios and Huglies place a comma afcerni^, which spoik 
the sense. Church.''^ We wish Mr, Todd had not paid so much re- 
tpeH here to the opinion of the sagacious Mr. Church, and the aocu* 
facy of 6,>enser*s own compositor, in stops and points, and had re- 
rored the sense of the passage by restoring the commti, for the con- 
text plainly shows that the quiclcsand was quite covered- with water, 
and only discoverable by the appearance and colour of the sorfacc* ' 

Book UI, Canto IV, 

•♦ Marinell." 


Mr. Upton supposes- this gentleman to meMi Lord Howard, tho 
Lord High Admiral ot England, m Queen Elizalv.thV ritrte. Wc 
would recooimeod these acute discovercvs to read (he Key to the Lock^ 
with attention. 

Book IV. Caiito VI. 

" Chyod/' 

** Dividid into parts. Tfvis verb in Spenser^ has escaped the no« 
tkc of all the LcKicoeraph<!rs. Dr. Johnson howevcj adduces an in- 
ttaoce of its usage in Dryden. Todi.'^ It is al^ u^ed by Richardson* 
in Pamela. Mens. Colebrand, threatens ** to chine the man who shidl 
attempt to stop his Lady/' 

Book V. Canto VIL 

** The liberty of women did repeal 

Whieh t&ey had long usurped, and then restoring 
To men's «ubjeCtionj did trtie wisdom deal." 

Mr. Todd has here treated bis reader with a discovery of Mr, , 
Upton (and what could not (hat critic discover, who found out that 
Shakespear was a classical scholar ^) ihac Spenser here *' alludes to 
the Sniick Law in France, and tiiat the moral allusion is, that woinen 
should not be trusted with government nauch less be queeris. A 
TBty bad compliment this to his patroness, wlio was not only a Queen» 
but styled also Queen of France. A less ingenious critic would rather 
have thought that thfs alluded to the power, the fair sex are said to 
wish to obtain over their hu^^bands, and which wlien obuiped fenders 
both parties equally ridiculous. 

Book VL Canto IX. 
" hcaid." 

"-*• Aheper qfcattUy Mr. Tcxid has a note to shew the use of the. 
word in this sense in Scotland. It is rather singular he should iit^t liavQ 
noticed pur use of it in the same sense, in compound words, as shpherd^ 
goaihird^ &c. 

We could make a great number of other extra£ls of the s^qoe kindf 
but these are sufficient to shew that Mr. Todd has not been exen^pC 
from the common faults of other coiivmentators, and has <> welled bis notes 
with observations that are of no other use than to increase the bulk of 
the volunaes. We wish miich to see a work of this kind (ani) no one 
is more capable of executing the task than Mr. Todd)^ where there 
Aould be only a seledtion of such notes as are realty useful; and that 
in the text, while the stri£tcst care should be taken in giving the 
w<nrds exadSly as the author wrote them, care should not be extended 
to the retaihing of the slips of his pen or the errors of the press. 
On this occasion, we cite with pleasure a note of Mr. Church, on a 
passage in the Fairy Queeil. ^ook iii. Canto x. " Certainly in a 
poem which every ^^here abounds with the justest and most lively rc« 
presemati9ns ^ nature, we ought rather to suppose that the primer 




made 3i mi$Cake» which might easily have happened, than suspe£t*tFie 
poet to have"beeii betrayed into a ridiculous and unnatural absurdity." 

As the p:)em is allov/cd. not to be Spenser's, we think Britaift^s 
/^i? miglil have been omitted in this edition as, to say tlie least of ir, 
ihc colouring is so high, that no man of decent manners could reatl it 
aloud in a company oT Ladies, th()u<;h the de Icacy of the manners of 
the age of Ebzabeth permitted the first editor of it,* Thomas Walk— 
le^t to dedicate it to (he Right Noble Lady Nfary, daughter io %Hc 
most illusnious PrinCe George Duke of Buckingham. 

At the end qi the last volume two very useful and corre£t indexes 
are inserted, oiie refeijing to the words and phra<es explained in rlie 
notes, the other to the principal mauers in the Lvfe, preliminary illus—.^ 
trations, and notes. 

The J forks of Sallust ; to which are prefixed^ Two Essays on the Ufe^ 

• Literary Charader^ and PFritin^s of the Historian ; with Notes 

Historical^ Biographical and Critical, ^By Henry Steuart, LL. D. 

f Concluded from page 347, Vol. XXIF.J 

WE have already given our ojiinion of the value of good trans-, 
htionsof t})e Greek and Roman classics, as well as the reasons on whtcln^ 
tnat opinion chiefly i^sts. We observed at ihe same time, that Dr. 
Sieuartliad been eminently happy in selefling the works of Sallust for 
translation into the English language ; but we must now observe ., 
likewise, that there are not many Roman authors, to whom it is so 
difficult to render yKy//V^ by a translation^ The style of Sallust is pecu- 
liar to himself; nor is there any thing at all similar to ir in the lan- 
guages of modern Ruiope. Yet it has been staled, and jtistlv stated^ as 
one of the laws of translation, 'that the style of the version should ba 
of the same character with thai of the original ; but how is this to be 
accomplished in translating such an aothor ? It cdn be accomplished 
only *' by ^t^ending more to a coirrspondence of idioms, lipn to a 
mere interj>rcfation of words;'* and by rendering the Latin into such 
English, as an Englishman of Sallust*s tasre and genius would write* 
of this Dr. Steuart shewa himself' sensible^ wiitn he says, that 

" The peculiarities of Sallust 's manner present to the translator 
iiery considerable difficulties. JHis style is that of sententiousness and 
force, in contradistinction to thst of Livy, which is, for the most part, 
eminent for richness and diffusion. Sail us t was ambitious to adopt 
Thucydidcs, and Cato the Censor, as his models ; and like the latter, he 
had the art of dup aiding much in. a frw lAfords ♦. Jie borrowed his dic- 

" • SalUist, in the fragments pf his great history, says of Cato the 
Censor; Cato^ Rcmani generis diterttssumuSf mulia farvis absohit^" 


Srenart'j Stdlust: ■ ^ ij 

rapn^ ista greitt measure, from the writers of an age prior lo the AixgiiaU 
tan, and he added to their vigour, the grace and elegance of a more ma* 
tare period. 'Without doubt, this style was not- tlve best that was pos- 
sQile for hbtory ; but he had the merit of rivalling his master, Tbocy« 
AJes in strength, while in brevity he left htm hit inferior. 

** In translating such an author with any degree of success, it is evi^ 
denr, that, from the di&rence in the ^tru^ure between the modern and the 
classical languages, a skilful ampliitcation must frequently be employed,- 
and sovie vii^ar infused into the transcript* It h not always ea^y to 
cboQse.a ocu3dle path, between a servile copy and a paraph rastical imi- 
tation. To give, in our language, an accurate likeness of the. Sailustian 
flttBoer, would be to violate the most obvious rules of English composi.' 
tioD ; and, for the sake of ease and spirit, to run into diffusion, might 
prodaoe a pleasing book, but it would be^r no resemblance to the wrtt« 
logs* of the historian. ^ . 

"It has, tlierefere, been my aim, in the first nlace, to convey the 
uwse ^ the author ; arid in the next, to attain as mdch compression of stjle'^ 
as af^xared to me consistent with the genius of our language, exemplified 
in a composition of good tasu. With rhe fastidious critic, I would far 
rather incur the imputation of being sometimes paraphrastical^ than be 
• deterred from an attempt to seize something of rhe vigour and beauty ot" 
the Roman writer, As'Mr,. Murphy says, on a similar occasion,. Tltave 
anxiously laboured ' to give a faithful transcript of the original, in such 
£ngltsh, as an Englishman of taste may read without disgust ; and if, in 
the transfusion, I have nT>t sufR^rcd the spirit of the historian taevapo^ 
rate, I shalMook back with pleasure, to the time which has been deidi. 
cated to a great and arduous undertaking/ " 

The man who wrote xh\\s was perfecflly aware of the nature of the 
difficuhie3 which he had to encounicr; nml a few extrai!l:s from his 
translation will enable our reader? to judge for themselves, how far" he 
has surmounted them. As the histories o^ (hit a linens Conspiracy and the 
^ugkrtkine fVar arc more generally read than the smaller tracts of Sal- 
lust, w€ shall take our excrafls from' them ; and as the author has in 
nothini; displayed e;reatcr addres? than in the celebraced parallel be* 
tween Csesar and Cato, our fiisc e^tra£t shall be the version bf it. • 

* *' C23ar and Cato, in nob;lity, and ))irih, years, and eloquence, may 
be said to have been almost equal. Greatness of soul they equally pos, 
sensed, and they equally /cached the summit of glory ; yet it was a glory 
peculiar to each, and cerrain^y acquired by very opposite methods. 

'* Caesar gained the. suffrages of mankind by ads of kindness, and 
foblic RKinificence ; CatO/ by an incortiipiihle integrity, and the purity 
^f his manners. In the former, it was the mild virtues of humanity and 
benevolence, that rendered him the objed of esteem : in the latter, it 

. was a stern severity, that gave elevation to his cbara^^er. Ca:sar, by the 
praftice of generosity, ' by the forgiveness of injurfes, by the allv:viatibn 

. t)f distress, solicited the good will of his fellow citizens : Cato bestowed 
no favours, and' yet commanded their admiration. To the proteftion of 
the one misery looked for refuge : profligacy ditaded punishment from the 

, reDgeance of the other. Thus, with their respedive admirers, a charm, 

' - • • ing 

14 OKiGitfA^ clint^UM* 

kig facility of manners^ and a decided fiznonuBs of ehmAet) ymrOf Si 
cither; * the- opposite tbenie of appkuse. 

'* Ctti^T, from his youth uf, fiad persistrd iii a course of v%]ltncey «s4 
active ill justry. and incessant aptslicarioxis with am eye to figure on cIm 
stage of ptthlic life. H« was unwearied in the service of his frienda j ol 
kis own' concerns ad constantly negligent : and such' was the anboimded 
generosity of the n^an, that to tdttst a boon, worthy of acceptaikre, i^rmM 
a f.eiing foreign -co his h^arc. Aftibhison, above all, was his ruling pa»^ 
sion. He pMTtcd for the conttnand of armies, for the condoA of sowe lievi^ 
and arduous^ wai^j where his extraordinary talents cot^ be dis[dayed C# 

** Orv eh( other hand, the qoalities of Cato were of a less dazzling sore^ 
He cultirated the tivtue of moderation ; he studied correAness of condod^ f 
bttt above all, the lessons of an austere philosophy. In riches he neve# 
thotight of vying with the wealthy ; and he declined all competition f» 
forbSetiee with the fa^lous. Yet Cato was not without the spar o^ an 
honest emuktion. It was his to contend fof the prize bf valour with riie 
kravt ; with the modest for the praise of modesty; and with the gi:tfil€u 
less, for the honours of innocence and integrity. Content wi€h the a^ltud ' 
possession of virtue, he was cafeless about displaying the semblance tO'che 
World. Ry this means it happened, that the less anxiously he conrted 
fcme^ the more conspicuously tame blazoned forth bis character/* 

'I'hat this is a piece of beautiful composition will harjly be denied ^ 
imd the reader has onfy to co<npare it with the original to be coq« 
viaced thai it is a faithful transfusion of the aotbor's sense. The style 
is indeed more diffuse than that of Sallost ; but while it has as much 
compression as the genius of our language would perhaps admit, it 
contains not one tliought or sentiment foreign from the purpose, or 
vhich h not expressed by the abrupt and sententious language of tbd 

^' The speeches in (SaHvst, says Mr. Stenart), have alwayrfaeen claaaaS. 
among the most beautiful remains of ancient eloquence ; and I acknov* 
ledge that I have laboured them with extraordinary attention. If the 
atteqspt have failed, to present them in a dress worthy of the author, I 
cannot shelter myself under the plea of haste or inadvertency : it is froai 
Ho want of diligence, but froA want of- ability to do justice to the ori- 

The ^ader of (his paragraph w^l be. gratified with the opportunitv 
of comparing witli the original. Dr. Sceuan's version of Cataliaey 
address to his followers, when he heard that every thing must be risbad 
CNl the face of a battle. 

" Soldiers — I am well aware that courage never was inspired ty words i 
arjiere in.the mLn.d i$ leit no generous impulse, supinciic:>5 never yet waa 
turned' into effort, nor timidity into valour, by the harain^ues of a leader,*' 
however eloquent. Courage,, my friendi, is the free gift of Nature, or 
il may be the fruit of habit. Bat it is in him alone, whose bosom glQws 
with Its genuine £re, that it is sure to blaze forth in the field of battle^ 
The maoj who is unmovcd^by tbe caU of' gloryj or the approach of danger, 


Steuart*! SaU^, 


ycm than ki Tain atrive, to leason iato anothtr temper : fiair h»s slwe hh 
CVS against the toice of hoooiir, as well ja the figoias of rhetoric. But 
k b lor a dtftrcnt abjc^ that I have now samaioned you together. It 
ii fit tkat I should iiB|dirt to 700 my earnest tDJunddoas, and ]ay open 
the gioiinda of that final resohition> which, fitxn the posture of our aC 
fimsy 1 am forced to adopt. Soldiers, jou hare aO. heard of the fate of 
Lentolos : of the melancholy catastrophe, which a want of vigour in ffaat 
snpXK Associate, has brought down oppn us, no lessvthan on himself. — 
Tlattered with the prosped of reinforcements from the City, and, in the 
end, citiclly deceived in that ^xpedlatioo, you see, that our intended march 
into Gaul has been cut o&: and out present difficulties, *tvhic6 bttve foL 
knted^ are bat too Tisible and 'apparent to you all. The enemy's force 
ccesista of two armies : one of which, from Rome, presses on our rear ; 
the other keeps os in check on the side, of Gaul. To remain any longer 
aonqg th& mountains, were we ever so desirous, ' exceeds our power, from 
the want of ibrage, and a supply of provisions of every species. In a 
word, wlHther soever we cam, a passagemust be opened with our sworda. 
I beseech you, therefore, call fortn all yovr firmness, the utmost efforts o£ 
your energy and valour. When you advance to the conflict, I conjure yoa 
hear in mind that riches, honour, immortal glory, the rights of men, and the 
liberties of your country are suspended on the event I If we conquer, the sure 
6ujts of viflory await us \ plenty instead of want : ' the possession of Italy ; 
the towns andcoloriies every where ready to receive us ; but, if we weakly 
ffantik back^ then consider the - reverse of the pidure. Wot he to him, 
nvSf rebes na on tie vi£tmr ^ his won arm I Friends and fortui^e, indeed^ 
smile on valour ; h^t they disown the man who proves wanting to himsei^ 
and is a cowaid in the field. Besides, soldiers, Vjory difiereht are our moi. 
lives to adion from those dt our adversaries. We take the field for li^. 
herty — we draw our swords for oar country, nay, for life itself. , With 
them, 00 the other hand, there can be little interest in the confli^ ; none 
, to support the pride and poiyer of a few petty tyrants. Rush, thea» 
boldly to the charge ! Strike with the confidence of men, whose valour^ 
aften tried, koows how to conquer ! Had you declined the present con- 
test, wfcat, I pray you, had been your fate ? A life of ignominy — ^an 
' ignoble exile ! As a gracioqs boon, some of you, perhaps, might have 
1^ permission to remain at Rome, despoiled of your fortunes^ in want 
and beggary^ sunk to a dependence on the bounty of your masters. But 
you have soxmed, like men, to crouch in bondage, and have preferred 
to dishonour this noble alternative. If you repent oi the step, it is sa- 
lutary to remind you, that to secure a retreat, the firmest valour is still 
iadispeosabk. Peace must be procured by vidory alone, not by a groi. 
▼elliog cowardice. For what safety could there be in flight, .were yoa 
wildly to turn away those very arms, which, while they protected your. 
selves, roighi overpower your adversaries. Rest assured, when the battle 
cages, that it is the cowatd heart that knows the least security. Valour 
spread^ <>ver th^ head of its possessor, a broad shield of defence. Soldiers, 
when I call to mind yo^r charader, and the lustre of your achievements, 
I own, that they inspire me with a confidence of vidory. From the vi. 
gour of your age, from your daring spirit, and manly resolution, I augur 
every advantage. Besides, steru tieces^ity .increases my hope: for' she 
can render even cowards valiant. As to aur position, in these aanroar 
defiles, superiority of numbers cannot avail the enemy : aqd they shall in 


li dRiGiirXt bHiTicisM. 

▼a'n atteiii|)t to ootflank^ or to surround' yon. My' fneiids, shoidid y<3Q 
yet experience the malignity of fortune, be it jroofs to secure ''a goeat jn&« 
Tenge! If taken prisoners, you know the consequence^- to be slaogheci Ml 
like cattle at the. will of the conquerors. Yet this- you have in 'youc 
power — you can die like men I and leave to your foea, if you gain axciC 
,the day^ a field dyed with their blood, and cause to water it with >tlieilf 

We have selefied tFiis* not because it .is in otir opinion tf»e bcsif o^ 
these speeches which Sallust atcribMtes to the heroes of bis story, bur 
becaus<^ Mr. Sicoart compare^ it with the celebrared speech which. 
Tacitus, in his Life of. Agricola, ascribes ca Gaigacus; s(nd^give9 
the preference lo the compc>sition of Sailust. Whether this preference 
be justly given, we shall not now inquire; but we agree with our 
author, tliat Tacitus must have had in his recolledlion. the speech 
which his master puis into the mouth of Cataline, when he sar dotva 
to compose the speech which he himself attributes to the gallant Britons 
in cirju instances almost eq»jally des|>erate. The speech of Gaigacus 
is too long to be insciteil bene ; bur the reader will probably be pleased 
with the opportunity of comparing the conclusion of it, as translated 
by Murphy, with the conclusion of Cataline's speech, as t^anslated^ 
by our author* 

** All that can inspire the hn.nan heart, every motive that can excite un 
to deeds of valour, is on our side. The Romans have no wives jn the Add. 
toanimatethcir> drooping spirits 7 no parents to reproach their want of 
courage. They are not listfd in the cause of their country : tbeir^coun^ 
^ry, ijf any thev have, lies at a distance. They are a band of mercena* 
,ries, a wreichcd handful of devotevl-men/'who tremble and" look aghast^ 
as they roll their eyes around, and see on every side obje^s unknown be. 
fore. The sky ovi r their head% the sea, the woods, all things conspire 
to fill them with dcubt and terror. Tliey come like vidims, delivered^ 
into oar hands by the Gods, ro fall this day a sacrifice to freedom. 

•* In the ensuing battle be not deceived by false appeantnces : the glit- 
ter of gcid and silver may da;&zle the eye : but to u» it is harmless, ^o 
the Romans no pioJe^ion. In their own ranks we shall find a number of 
generv^u* warrin-.s ready to assistour cau.-e. The Britons know that for 
-our common liberties" we draw the avenging sword. The Gauls will re- 
jnrmber ili*.t ihey once were a free people ; and the Germans, aa the 
XJ&ipiaiis lately did, will desert ihtir colours. The Romans have left 
nothing in their rear to oppose os in the pursuit : their forts are ungarri* 
ftoned ; the retoraos in th?ir colonies droop with age ; in their municipal 
towns, nothing but anarchy^ despotic gov.emment, and disafiefM sub- 
•jei\s. Jn me behold your general : behold an army of free-born men. 
.Your enemy is before yoo, and^, in his train, heavy tHbufes, drudgery 
in the mines, and all the horrors of slavery. Arc thescf calamities to be 
^tneaikd upon us f of, shall this day relieve us by a brave revenge ? There 
i» the field of battle, and let that determine. Let us seek the enemy, 
and, ,9$ we rush upon him, remember the glory delivered down to us by 
oyr ancestors -^ and let each man think that upon his sword depends the 
&tc of all posterity*'' 


Id judgiag of the rcspeiSive meriis of thate two speeches, it is veiy 

fMcokto be im|MiitiaL Galgacas was a |>atrioc fighting for ever]^ 

I Aing ch« is justly deat to man ; and he is made to address his foijowers 

I aithe iangoage of virtue. CataUne was a conspirator of the bbckefit 

Ik; and, though he talks of liberty ^nd his conntry, he orges no 

lach argumcots to his adherents as can operant oniy on virtuous minds. 

Avarice^ ambition and despair, are the topics from which he reasons ; 

vfaiisc the British Chief presents to his countrymen their wives and 

Mencs in the field, animating them to the contest^ the success o^ which 

lKh<^>es from the Justice of their cause. The reader js therefore 

fugodiced in behalf of every thing which he is made to utter ; though] 

we most agree with Mr. Sieuart, that there is morearf displayed in 

iWstra^lure of Cataline's speech* and that the arguments employed 

aie die very best that could be urged by such a leader, in such cir- 

OAi&tances* and to such an audience. 

Both fraoslations are excellent ; but Mr. Steuart's^ though we will 
■ot posicively say that it is the best, appears to us, perhaps, the most 
fimhful piAure of the original. Tacitus does not say that the Roman 
army coDsisted wholly of men, of whom Jt was doubtful whether 
ihey had a country. t4is words are — aut nulla PLERisqyc ^a/r/tf, out 
a&a ttt ; whilst his meaning, towards the conclusion of the address, 
seems not to be accurately given in the version. Hie dux^ hie exeratus ; 
ibi trihtta^ et metella^ et eater a zervimtum p<tna ; quas in internum pre* 
ferre^t ma statim ukisci^ in hoe camp9 ist^ is not rendered with perfcfl ac- 
curacy by — " In me behold your general ; behoid an army oi free-bom - 
men. Your enemy is before you : and, in his train, hehvy tributes, 
drudgery in the mines^ and all the horrors of slavery^, ^re those cola* 
mities to be entailed upon us ? or^ shall this day relieve us iy a brave re^ 
venge ?'* In Mr. Steuart's translation there are one or two superflu- 
ous clauses ; but nothing which accords not exactly witt) the sense of 
his author. '* Woe be to him who relies not on the vigour of his own 
arm," is the translation of nothing to be found in Sallust ; and in the 
sentence — ^* otir present difficulties, which haife/olioweJ^ are but too 
visible aod apparei^t to you all ;" the words which we have printed in 
italics wouid^have been well omitted, rliough they certainly change 
not,' in the smallest degree, the sense of the original author. 

There is hardiv any thing in the Greek and Roman classics, to 
which translators m general have done so little justice, as the descrip- 
tions of battles and sieges. This is to be accounted for by the circum- 
stance, that those who employ themselves in the study ot the classics, 
are seldom acquainted with the language of taflics, or the art of war ; 
and hence such of them, as« like Blackwell *y attempt to t^lotbc the 
military part of the narrative in an appropriate dress, too often make 
thomselves ridiculous. Nf urphy h indeed ^n exception ; and so is 
Mr. Steuart« whose translation of the history of the battle near th« 

* See Johnson's review of this author's Mamrt tftht Gmrt o/A^stuu 
9p.XCIX. VOL. XXV. C , MotbuU 

ft ORiaiJ^At CfHITlcTSM. 

]VS«ihul, beti^een Jugurtba atnl Metellus, exhibits at once the schtMst^ 
SMiHlthe officer. After describing the Cousur^ march through Numi-* 
dia, the ambush Uiil for hi«n by Jogunha, ai)d the nature of the groutici: 
where that Prinee cKpetStolthcKomans to faU into his snaue, ihe.bis^ 
tartan, oiir. authori says — 

' ** Meanwhile Mdrrllqs* wai: 5ccn descending from the heightSi but witfi— 
out any notion' of the hnciitions of tlic enemy, until he began to discovd". 
them upon the hill. A*t flhc he was doubtful what to think of the stran^o 
appearance (which) thcjL exhibited. The Numidians l^y close, and k.ep^ 
themselves 'and*s behind the bushes ; but by Waison of the low^— 
ncss of the screen, Vh(>r^ ere neither fiHly dislpayed, nor entirely liici 
froift the view.' Ncifhcr Jirms nor coj ours were sutfered to appear: bi»t 
the rugged nature of the pa»?, united tp the artifice with which tfrnc 
whole was coi.duikHy- gave ample rocni for suspicion. The general- 
was convinced that an ambush \va^ intended, and baited on thespot% -R^— 
Solving taaltcr the d^iporitionof tbc troops, he instantly foroied the Sane 
to the front, on the right division, that flank being next the enemy. The 
order (which) hc.choHj was that, of three lines, the first covered and spp- 
ported by the two others* The- slingers and archers were ordered m^o 
the intervals betweai the companies of , foot ; and all the cavalry posted 
on the wings., Having entx)u raged, the men by a concise speech, socli a^ 
the nature of his situation, and the shortness of the time would pemiit, 
he commanded the whole to file oUt' from the left, and marched down in 
colvnnn to the p^aln. 

** As the army advanced in this order, all seemed quiet on the hill, 
ihc Nomidin/js never once attempting to quit their station, Metellus, 
however, apprehended, on account of the heat of the season^ and 
the scarcity of springs near the place, that the army i^ould be dis- 
tressed for Want of water; Ruiilius, therefore, his Lieutenant, was »cnt 
forward to the river, with the light cohorts, and .a detachment of the 
cavalry, with orders to r<»connoitre the grovnd, and secure a situation for 
tbrm'ng an encampment. The enemy,* it was probable, would not fail to 
retard the main body on their march, by frequently taking it in flank, or 
by. galling it jn the rear; and convinced of their inability to cope' with 
the discipline of the Legions, chey would attempt to wear them out by 
zncan;S of thirst and fatigue. I'he Consul continued to advance at a gentle 
pace, as the nature of his situation, and that of the ground required, anJ 
^rescrvitig the same disposition (that) he had made, on descending from 
the mountains. *rhe centre was commanded by Marius. The general 
lumself headed the cayalry of the left wing ; which, as the line had broken 
from that flank into column, became, pf course, the leading division on 
ihe march. . ' " • 

■ " Juguf *ba, who lay in close ambush, no sooner saw that the rear of 
the X^onsul had cleared his left, than, dclaijhing from bis main body, two 
flioueand foot, he ordereii them to take possession of that part of the 
heights just <juitted by the Romans, by wh^ch means, if they gave groutklj 
trllif*i?trMt might be cut ^from a situation for rallying to' adviJfttage. 
This p revious movement being mjde, and the signal given for a^OQ, he 
suddenly ru?hcd"3bwn and feu on the enemy. 
. *'\ y^. NupUi^^ jc^iSfidvV) the. fronts 'and:out off the ras filet of t>ur 

' Seenait*! Sm/t^i jp 

mmf % tmne, tepidly wheeling ahoot, skirmisfaefl^ a£ dn^f wttk b#fh 
Ae Banks. The attack was executed with astcHitsbing ipirit and inticft* 
dtt j-y and oor ranks thrown into disorder on ever^r 8i£. Even tbot^ wh(^ 
ttt ^ickng aboMv gaye them the waraest reception^ were harasfed aod £i* 
tigiied hj 90 desultory a mode of encounter ; finding themsdves wounded 
from a diataoce, and withoQt an opponanity tp reMitn the blow» or to 
close with the assailants. According to instroflions, which thej had Ki 
eehred froan Jugortha, the boVse wdl knew how to dude the effbia of the 
RoBian cavahy ; for when a^roop of the hitter attempted to cftargCi far 
from cominomg at close oi^Ti or in a body, they, saddenly broke^. and 
^speiaed in aw instant, in all dire^ions. As thQy ooald not, by that 
SKaiiSy prevent a parsoit, they watched their ^pportunityy and| being 
taperior in pohit of numl>pr% attacked as, in their turn, both in flank and 
aear. If in this flying sort of fight, the indefatigable Nomidian choae 
the hill rather than the plain; his nimble horse was in his own element : 
he easily scraihbled up the 'a««erir, and disappeared among the bashes ; 
while tl^ Roman trooper, onuscd to a surface so ragged and intricate^ waa 
vaiUe to follow him." 

That chi$ is a faithful cramlation^ every scholar will be convinced, by 
comparii^ it with the original ; and, we believe, every well-inform- 
«d:SQMiier will ^mic ;he propriety of the cechoicai terms, which disgUst 
not like Bhckv^tWt Paymasiers and Commodores ! The account of tlie 
battle is rendered with equal elegance, ai^d equal Bdelity \ whilst the 
'whole is slItBtrated by a sketch of the ground, and the differem posi- 
tiawi ot' the two armies, which together with some remarks, by waf 
o#{ miHtarj c^nmintary^ the translator ho|iesf will enable the read^ dis- 
fthSly 'tb apprehend the movements of the troops. Part of this com- 
mentary we shall exrraft as a fair specimen of Dr. Steuart's notes j pre- 
mising, however, that the exrra(5l is necessarily less perspiciipus in 
our Journal than in the work ic$elf, where it refers to the view which 
is given of the ground. 

'* Jagartha, in consonance to his plan of keeping a watchful eye oil tha 
motions of the Roman General, had learned, by his* scouts, that the enemy 
were on their march, along the mountains near the Muthul, and he seized 
that opportunity of attacking them to advantage, Fr^m the nature of 
-such a country, and the information giveii us by the historian hin^elf 
concendng Metellus^s order of march, we know that he usually moved 
forward in a single column, himself at the h^d of ir, with the light co. 
horts ; Martus in the rear, commanding the Roman cavalry ; with the 
Velites, or light infantry, under the charge of the Tribut>es and Prai^e^U, 
-covermg the 'flanks, and, as often as it was needful, scouring the country. 
Thet^nght cohorts seem to have bewi a seleft bodjr, answering in de» 
•cr^titm to our pkquets. They were legionary soldiers, dmwn, like thi; 
^ieqaets,^ from tfce line, wheth«?r singly, or by ^^aniples, we arc not io» 
4bniied ; btit wit^the general at tbeir head, they appear to ^avciifted aa 
t sort ef adyaneed-guard to* the antty, when on ics march. 
' *^ Wiien 'MetcUtts^aa aboyt Wdeseend* from the heights^- aindibeftm 
^^Obst^e'-fh^atribu^ that waspft^ajed fbt hini bv' (He NnorfdUiw <dh 
4m IfHV ht'titiitnA Wl»)t % and/ ialoiiedtatelj changing tha iKsp^iicioft of 

C 2 .the 


•the •troops, fbrmed the line to the front, upon the right dtvisioai t9 tint 
Aucik: was next to the qaarter whetf the ^umidtans were^posted. Sicoat^ 
as he waft, he had no desire to engage the enemy^ : he resolved only on 
taking the beat of his way across the plain to the river, ;ta guard against 
iMi attacki For the single lengthened colomn (Agmen)^ which was neces* 
•ar7 to clear the defiles of the moontains, he now substituted the line of 
battle (Aciti)i drawing up the troops in the usual manner, in three lines 
(trifhcihui suhudiii)^ He posted Marius in the centre : all the cavalry in the 
wings, and the slingersand archers in the intervals between theManij^s, or 
companies of foot of the line-. He then ordered the whole to face, or perhapi 
to wheel, by centuries, or half centuries, to the left, and from that flank to 
maech do^n ftrans'vcrsrs priudpiis)^ in three columns to the plain : himseif 
advancing with those squadrons of the cavalry, which now lorvied tbebead 
of the right ocriumn, and had, just before, been upon the left of the.iiffic. 
Thus, should the Numidiahs, as was expe^Ud, venture down from the 
hill, he would be enabled, by means di a single ' wheel ' to the rigbr^ 
if (he lines were broken into coluipns by divisions, or by ' turning ' to 
that side, if broken by files, in&tantjy to form them again towards tbe- 
enemyt and be ready to charge at a moment's notice. That he did wheel 
into line^ to receive Jugurtha, is snflicientiy evident from the historian's 
narrative ; otherwl)^ the Numidians could not have been, as he described 
them, on the left of the Romans at the comniencemcnt of the aflRHr : nor 
coukl the Consul have presented the same front to the enemy, as heliad 
immediately formecT, on discovering them upon the hill. 

'<< All this every officer will understand : and he will further pefctiTe 
the technical propriety of rendering the equHa sinistra ala^ qui in agm^t 
trivcipesfmai erant^ by * the cavalry of the left wing, which as xh^ lipe 
had broken from that flank into column, became the leading division, on 
the march/ •* ^ 

> ** Satisfa^orv as I trust these illustrations will appear, yet it must be 
acknowledged that Sallust's account of the attack, by the Numidian king, 
is not without its difficulties. He tells us, that Metellus's army was 
drawn up triplicibm subsidtity which naturally should mean ^ faur lines,' 
that is, three lines stationed behind the first ; whereas, our knowledge of 
the ancient tables n\Qst satisfy us, that ik> more than three, io all, could 
be intended by the author. There is no example, as far as I know^ wherein 
the former number was ever adopted, as a system, in any of the engage- 
ments, described by Cxsar, Poiybius, or Livy. The body, consisting 
of six cohorts, drawn up by Cxsar, behind the third line, at Phars,alia« 
and a few other instances of a similar sort, are partial cases, that do 
not aflleA the general principle, since we find them constantly account^ , 
for {as in the instance of Cxsar, who meant toopppse the cavalry of Pom. 
pey), by the particular circumstances in which diflferent commanders hap. 
pened to be placed.* Th<f regular order of battle consisted pf three lines, 
covering one another, seldom of two, and never of four \ and Sail us t, 
.who jiv^, in C9nsiderable detail, the history of Jugurtha's attack^ would, 
with his usual ;ic(uracy, have«xpla|i)ed the circumstance^ had there been so 
.^e^i^tdljyinary a deviation fx^ni the establish method, ^mindiu^ ve-uni^ 
Ibr|irifb6nd> is the .word em^oyed by the iloman writers, to . d|&fiigpa|p 
:Cht^^!Mli«l 4n4 .|hf4.iiAn^ £XC9 \AVf% ;he most unscientific of thq» a^ 


' Stnart'j Suihist. %l 

IB flegtfd lo aittitftrf o^ntians ( witness bis confusol iKCOdnt of the coq« 
uimtioii of the armj, in L. viii. 8.) never deviates ffom the piaMce* 
In the sane mumer oar aothor, iii describing the disposition made by Ca^ 
taliae at Pistoria, consistine - of two lines, says — 0^9 €d9<aru$ m fma$ 
C9miiitmU^ reliqua tigna im snisidia arSius colhcaim*^ 

W^are not taf^icians enough to pronounce authoritatively on our 
author's reasoning ; but since -the army was, by his own confession; 
sometimes formed into four lints, when circumstances required it ; is 
it not more probable that so concise, and, at the s^ime time, so per- 
spicuous a writer as Sallust, omitted the cii'cumstances which induced 
Metellus to adopt such a form, than that he used the common words 
iripiitis suhiiiins in an uncommon 9ense? Dr. Steuart strengthens his 
argument, however, by a luminous account of the constitution, and 
component parts of the Roman Acies ; and concludes, that •* the 
feabtful expression of Sallust may either be an error of the copyists, 
or a technical phrase, \n' fashion onfy at the time, but not adopted by 
odier writers, whose compositions have come down to us." 

From these extiaSs the reader will be enabled to judge for him- 
lelf of Mr. Steuaru's merits as a translator ; and, if be think not very 
difierently from us, he will estimate those merits high. We kno^ 
Bot, indeed, any translator of a prose classic, whom we deem supe* 
fior to our author, and very few, indeed, whom we can consider as 
his equsds. Bv this we do not mean to say, that every sentence, and 
every clause ot a sentence, have been either elegantly, or even faith-^ 
(ullTf translated ; but we do meai^ to say, that as a whole, the yersioa 
is almost without a rival. In the history of the Jugurthine war, which 
icems to have most delighted Dr. Steuart, as it most delights us, our 
attention was so completely arrested by the elegant detail of events, 
iRastrated by the refiedions both of the author and of the translator, 
that we were not at leisure to observe trifling inaccuracies ; a few such, 
however, we did observe in. the conspiracy of Cataiine ; and'' we shali 
point them out to Mr. Steuart's consideration, not as matters of un- 
portaiKe, but as worthy of correction in a second edition. 

In the follow nig sentence (page 8), the clause, which is printed 
in italics, is certainly superfluous ; whilst, in our opinion, it adds no- 
thing to the harmony of the period. ^V^uch being the manners and 
cbani€ker of Cataiine, it can excite tio wonder, if, after the example 
of SyJIa, he deeply fixed his wishes on the supreme power; and sui* 
verting the government.** . The subverting of the government was in- 
cluded in his wish to be possessed of the supreme power. , 

Though Nebuchadnezzar's herald ** cried aloud tp all people, na« 
tions, and languages" to^ivorship the goMcn image which he had set 
up ; and though the English bible is unquestionably one of the bes^ 
translatioDS from one language into another, that is any where to be 
.fomid,' we do not approve of the following use of the word languages, 
in a translation of Sallust. Hi, postquam in una moenia c^nvmere dif* 
fori gimre, dtssimili lingua, alius alio more viventes*, incre(liUle mr- 
rngratu ah fuamfitcUi coalwriHt, is not, m our opinion, well rendered 

C3 hX 

by— v' Vet, tAscn inclosed withirt the walls of the Kiitiecity; hH 
asjoiAliing with -what facility, dissimiiiiude of language^ art(l Slher^iif 
fif Umperani^t and manttfrs^ gradually coalesced imo e^^^j^^y^." 
* *^ In process of time, t'ne ascendancy of weakh became Complete. 
Its excellence was universally acknowledged \ and power and 'honouri 
ioUowed in its train ;** — is not a b^ppj ^ translation of-— ^i/f«^^« divi^ 
t}^ honori esse capcre^ ct eas gUriay imperlum^ potentia sequehantur^ — 
Sallust does, not say, tha^ the excellence <>/ ic;ra//A' was universally ac- 
knowledged ; and, we doubt, wivether the excelleiid of wealth h^ :kn 
Authorized £oglish phrase. 

. Sallust,. in drawing the charadler of Sempronta, says — sed ei corUra 
semper omnia^ ^^^>n decus^ atque pudkit'ia fult\ ^ which Mo S(euar,| 
ftaaslates into — " But Senipronia was fond of vice. Its charms were 
ever dear^ to her heart, than the graces of modesty, or the praise oC 
virtue.'^ This is improper on many accounts : it is not the sense. oC 
the original passage, and it can hardly be conceived to express whbtl 
was true in itself. No human being probably was ever fond of wt^». 
We are all, indeed, too fond of things that are vicious. It is not, 
however, their t^/V/^^iff^ij that charms us^ but something,' which We 
W^gine, would augment either our pleasure or our pro£t, both of 
which we unfortunately prefer to virtue. Could such things be pb- 
tained without vice, it is to be hoped, for the sake of humau naturef 
that vice would have no charms for tl)e most abandomd miscreant^ 
such as Sallust represents Scmpronia to have been« 

In page 51, Dr. Steuart says, that *< Umbienus was a merchant iit 
Gaul ;" but this is not said by Sallust, afid we apprehend that it h 
not true. Umbrenus ws|s a merchant who traded iu Gaul Cin Galiia 
ftegotiatusj y but his residence was in Italy, and probably in Rome : 
just as the residence of the Honourable Company of Merchants who 
trade to the East Indies, is in England. Umbrenus might have been 
called.a Gallic merchant^ as we say, a West India merchant ; but if 
it wopld be improper to call th^ man, whb resides in London or Bris« 
tol, a merchant .;'» Jamaica, it must be equally improper to call Um« 
^renus, v/ ho resided in Rome, a merchatit z» Gaul. \ 

Such are the f&w faults which we have observed in this faithful 
and splendid translation of one of the finest compositions of ^nti- 
^uity ; but the man who can weigh them in his mind . against the 
general excellpnce of the who^ or the many striking b^aMCie.s of par*' 
ticular passages, has little reason to. value. himself on ^he delicacy of 
his taste : he is an obje& of compassion rather than of envy. 

The translation, however, is perhaps the least valuable part of the 
learned labours of Dr., Steuart. In the two Essays, and the. Notes by 
which they, as well as the writings of Sallust, are illustrated, there is 
' a variety of information respe£ting Roman literature, Romto .aitSf 
and the constitution of the Roman republic, such as wiU not readily 
be found in any other individual work. \ 

The principles too displayed by the author, are correA and season* 
able. It has been^sometimes remarked, tl^t .tl|0 early study e£ ibe 

, . Greel; 

Greek and Roanan classic* is apt to bias the youthful mind in behalf 
o: (kroiocratical govenimt;ats : whii&tsome have even contended, that it 
exhibics heathenism in too favourable a light^.wHen compared with Obris- 
lianjiy. Of the ajgundents by which this last olxjed^ion to classical 
learning has liccn supported, we certainly have never felt the force ; 
km if chev have any force, it is successfully opposed by Mr. Sieuan, 
who lets Uip no opportunity of displaying the inquire superiority which 
the moral precepts of the gospel have over the speculations of philo* 
sophy i as well as the excellencies of che British Constiiucion, when 
compared wiih the Republics of Greece niul Rome. Such o()8erva- 
tiofis and reasonings muse have the happiest efFeds on (he mind of the 
yovi^ srudent, especially when they are known to be the observa- 
tions and reasonings — not of a mere scholar, but of a mm of high 
binh, who has mixed<with tlie world, vj\\o has served his Kin; and 
country in arms, and who now divides his time between the pursuit 
of literature, and the improvement of lands which have descended to^ 
him through a long line of anccstois. On th'ise accounts, we cannot 
Help C3cprcssing a wisii that this tranrjlation of the Works of SallosT 
had been published in a less expensive form, that it might have bepn 
purchased by all to whom it would undoubtedly provd useflil. Whea, 
such an ediCion shall be called for, and it certainly will bccaliedfor soon^ 
nt request the learned and ingenious author to consider, whether some 
of the less important notes might not be ontitted ; and whether others^ 
which we should be sorry to see expunged from the cheapest edition, 
might not be 'somewhat contraded or condensed. With this.obscr- 
>ation, we take our leave at present of Mn Steuart, thanking him for 
tiie entertainment and instrudion which he has so liberally afforded 
us« and hoping soon to have the pleasure of meeting with him again, 
iu the cbara(5ler not of a translators but of an original historian. 

Jl Voyage to jCoch'tn-China^ in the Tears lygz^anJ 1793: containing a 
general view of the valuable PfoduLi ions and the Political Importance 
of this flourishing Kingdom ; and also of such European Settlements as 
were visited an the Voyage: with Sketches of the Alanners^ Chara&ety 
and Condition^f their several inhabitants, T$ which is annexed^ an 
Account of a Journey^ made in. the Tears 180J and 1802, t9 the r^« 
sideuce of the Chief if the Booshuana Nation^ being the remotest point 
in the Interior of Southern Africa^ to which Europeans have hitherto 
penetrated. The Tra^scmd Descriptions taken from a Manuscript 
your^l, with a Chart of the Route, By John BaiTow, Esq. F. R. S. 
Author of " Travels in Southern Africa^\ and *• Travels in Chi* 
W." Illustrated and Embellished with several Engravings^ by ^ed^ 
landy Coloured after the original Drawings, by Mr, Alexander amf 
Mr. DMtelL 4to. Pp. 468, 3I. 13s. 6d. Cadell and Davids, 

: THE Imtro^Uqn and amusfement which we bad derived from ' 
Ac permal of Mr. Barrow's former Travels, made us open the volume 

C4 before. 


before us with peculiar eagerness ; and if it have not affbrded m as 
much novel informarion as his former produftions, frofn the circum- 
stance of most of the peaces wliich he visited, on his way to Cochin- 
China, having been amply described before, by different writers, it 
has nevertheless, not failed to amuse us Jn an equal degree. The rea- 
son of this is well explained by Mr, Barrow, in his Preface, where 
he observes, and with great truth, that, " every foreign country, 
though it may Rave been visited by fifty different voyagers, will still 
present something new for the observation ot the fifty-first. Such a 
variety of objedls pass before the view of an attentive traveller, af- 
fording so wide a range for observation and refie£lion,that there isliftle 
danger of the materials being speedily exhausted. It may be observed, 
likevvise, that the same objefls arc' capable of exciting a greater or 
less degree of interest, according to the manner in which they arc 
viewed and represented, and the colouring that is giv^to them.** 
Btit one part of the work is both novel and important; we mean his 
^accounir of the kingdom ^of Cochin-Chiua ; to which, in this article, 
we shall pay particular atteution. 

'' So little is known to Europeans of the kingdom of Cochin.China, 
that every piece of authentic information respe^ing it, may be considered 
^S valuable; The historical sketch of the affairs of this country for the 
last thirty years, the rapid progress made by the extraordinary talents 
and exertions of the present King, in the recovery of the ancient domains 
of that country out of the hands of usurpers; the treaty concluded be- 
tween him and Louis XVI. of France, and the causes which annulled 
that treaty, will be found important in a national and political point of 
view. The substance of this sketch is taken from a manuscript memoir, 
* drawn up by Captain Barissy, a French naval officer, who, having several 
years commanded a frigate in the service of the King of Cochin'.China^ 
and being an able and intelligent man, had the means and the opportunitj 
of collecting accurate information. That the £oglish Bast India Com* 
pany know so little of a country of such extent and importance as Cochin. 
China is, though situated nearly in the diredl track of their China 
fleets, and supplying many valuable atticles for the China market, is not 
a little surprising. It is to be (eared, however, that the growing in- 
fluence of the French, already too powerful in that country, will only 
draw their serious attention towards it when it is too late to take ad. 
vantage of those favourable circumstances which have long presented 
themselves. Were the enemy to renew this tr&ty, and employ adively 
against os, the force that;wa8 intended for the purpose just when the French 
Revolution put an end to all thej>lans of the old government, it is ex- 
ceedingly doubtful whether the East India Company could any longer be 
able to maintain their valuable commerce with China.'* 

Sarely this statement, which is perfeflly corrcft, as will be here* 
after shewn, will prove 'sufficient to rouse the vigilance not only of 
the East India Company, but of the Government itself, in respedlof 
this impormnt objefk. 

The ^rai place wUcli engaged the attention of Mr. Bam>w» as. he 


BafTOW*! Trmvih i9 Caekini^kina. %$ 

proceeded on his vi$yage, was the island of Madeira, of which his df- 
scripcion is more ample and interesting than any which we have read* 
One obje€t in panicular, which he describes, if not very alluring, is, 
ac least, very novel and very curious. 

** Funchal, (the capital of the island) like other towns and cities, of 
Roman Catholic councries, has no scarcity of churches and convenes ; but 
we met with little in any of them that could be considered as deserving 
of particular notice. The beams and the roof of the cathedral are pointed 
out to strangers as being of cedar, a species of tree with which it is said 
the island was at its discovery nearly covered. Another curiosity which 
is shewn in the town, is a chamber in ope of the wings of the Franciscan ( 
convent, the walls and ceiling of which are completely covered with rows 
of hoaiaii skulls and human thigh-bones, so arranged that in the obtuse 
angle made by et ery pair of the latter, crossing each other obliquely, ia 
]4aoed a skolL The only vacant space that appears is in the centre of the . 
side opposite to the door, on which there is an extraordinary painting 
above a kind of altar, but what the subjed is intended to represent, I am 
really at a loss to decide. A figure in the pidbire, intended probably for 
St. Francis, the patron saint, seems to be intent on trying i/i a. balance the 
comparative weight of a sinner and a saint. But the very accurate 
drawing from which the annexed print was taken, and with which I have 
been favoured^ by Mr* Daniell, will perhaps best explain the subjeA. A 
dirty bmp suspended from the ceiling, and just glimmer'ng in the socket, 
served dimly to light up this dismal den" of skiUls^ The old monk who 
attended as was very careful to impress us with the idea that 
\ they were all relics of holy men who had died on s the island; but I sus* 
peA they must occasionally have rdbbed the church- yard of a few lay*. 
j>rethren, and perhaps now and then of a heretic (as strangers are interred 
in their burying ground), in order to accumulate such a prodigious num« 
ber which, ,on a rough computation, I should suppose to amount to at 
least three thousand. The skull of one of the holy brotherhood was 
pointed out a^ having a lock-jaw^ which occasioned his death ; and, from 
the garrulity of our attendant, I -have no doubt we might~ha\'e heasd the 
history of many more Equally important, which, though thrown away 
upon us who had no tasre for craneology, would, in all probability, have 
been highly interesting to Dodor Gall, the famous leflurer on skulls, in. 
Vienna. On taking leave we deposited our mite on the altar, as charity 
to the convent,, which seems to be the principal obje^ in view, ofcol'* 
leAing and exhibiting this memento mori of the monastic and mendicant 
order of St, Francis.". 

^ These Franciscans, it must be confessed, have displayed no incon« 
nderable ingenuity in devising anew means for exciting a charitable 
disposition in their visitors, and no less industry and perseverance, in 
carrying it into efiedt ; whate^r their stupidity may N in other re^ 
speds, in this they cannot be said to have aSed like numsculk! The 
climate of Madeira is proverbially salubrious, yet do the inhabitants of 
die^capi€ai*display the most unequivocal signs of wretchedness and ill 
health, which Mr. Barrow ascribes to the poverty of their food,- and 
to their uncleanliness. He never heard of any remarkabW instances of 



«d onOlK;^% CRIT^CTSUr - 

,loirgevtty there, zxn\ he considers Dr. Price,, in e$ttmat30g the fBor« 

taiity a( Madeira as one in iifcy only of the population* to have been 
as inaccurate a^ he was known to he in many other of his calculations. 
'I'he peasants, however, are represented as a strong, healthy race of 
men ; tlnd the clergy, as will be seen, from the tollowing account, 
exhibit no symptoms either of poverty, or of bad living, 

«* It would seem that the clergy of Madeira arc nor very rigid in cx- 
ai^ng firom other) the duties of religion^ nor in setting an example of • 
pious conduct in their own periions. On the contrary, loose manners, rhe 
intemperate mode of life, and the free conversation of many of the roonks^ 
are a disgrace to the sacred office which they hold ; yet these nipo assume 
to- themselves rhe charader of guardians c^F public morals^ and> under rhia 
cover, sometimes make use of tlip most extraordinary and uuwarran sable 
liberties. We observed, with astonishjicnf, at the Governor's cable^ tbm 
impertinent, indecent, and debauched condud of a drunken (at friar ; and 
were-equally surprized at the little pains that were taken to check his 
career. These men carry about with ihem evident marks of good living ; 
and! if the general appearance of the inhabitants indicates few symptoms of 
plenty or comfort, that of ihe clergy at. least is such as eTen C«sar might 
not have objedcd to, tliey being 

♦ i Men that are fat ; 

Slcek.heuded men, and such as sleep o'nights/ '* 

From Madeira, our voyager proceeded to Tcncriffc* of which h©. 
giiN» a rery particular account. He made a bold attempc to ascend 
the celebrateci peak, but an unfonunate storm arose which threatened 
destruction to him and his fellow travellers, and compelled them to 
trace back their steps with precipitation. — Here, as in Madeira, the 
clergy fare best. 

*< Th,e influence of the clergy in Teneriffe is paramount. It extaods 
to all the concerns of > domestic life, and its authority is backed Api oon« 
firmed by the terrors of the Holy Inquisition* The existence pf this tri. 
Dunal must^ wherever its baneful influence extends, be incompatible 
with a free and unrr^irrved commanication of sentiment, even among cKe 
nearest friends. The life, indeed, which a ^bpiinish conlonist leads, ta 
nearly as sechided as that of a Turk« He seldom associates with, his 
neighbours except at vespers, at matins, or at high mass. The greater 
pact of the day is consumed in idleness at home. He reads little be» 
yond his Bible, his missal, and perhaps the miracle^ of our l^ady of Caiu 
delaria, the protedlress of the island, whose statue is placed in a chapel 
about ten miles to the southward of Santa Cruz, said to be ornamented 
with a profusion of gold, silver, and precious atones. It is built oyer a 
cavern by the sea-shore, in wliich her Ladyiihip had placed herself co 
direft the Spaniards ]nt6 the harbour with a lighted candle in her hand. 
Xo the help of this pions fraud they were indebted for their succe^, in 
ponverting the simple natives to Christianity. 

<' We inquired for books, but could find nothing in the shape of one 
fir sale either in Santa Cruz, Laguaa, or the two Oratava«. We were toUf 
kideedt that not a book w«s suieivd to be landed antil it had been jo^)e£bd 
by the proper officer of the Inquisition. Yet with cytry precaution taken 

BarrowV Travis to- CtiUn-jGiina. 17 

fcydnsa-piue and holy cneoi and under all Um rigoors of ecdesiisttcal 
JBTisdiclion^ the morals of the people were found to be extremely coix«pt, 
and instances of unhallowed connexions between the sexes so ftumerousy 
tJDtf K bccanae ntrceisary to pass a law, obliging every young couple to 
oiar^^^ who could be proved at any time to have been alone together, a. 
hw which, it was shrewdly suspe^\ed, was a contrivance of the father 
eonfessors, with a view to answer their private accommodatioo. It is a 
coounon opinion among the inhabitants, that the ill efe^i arhing froii ' 

proroiacuous love have become habitual to their constitution and neredi. 
tary, so that tew lamikcs either are, or can be free from their influence; 
Ihefe are equaiiy tew who are not troubled with the itch ; the leprosy it 
not uncommon, and scorbutic afitdions almost universal. These curane- 
oas diseases are attributed by thein to irhe copious u^e of fish ; but ihr 
real cause may perhaps be more satisfadlorily accounted for by supposinff 
them, like the first, to be transmitted from father to son, and their 
aftion on the system, kept alive by indolent habits» by want ef exercise, 
and, above all, by a total disregard to cleanliness. Under the idea; 
however, that the frequent and abundant use of fish may contribute to the 
continuance of these disorders, the good Bishop of the. Canaries was in^ 
dnoed to grant a dispensation with the strid observance of I<ent and othet 
iast days, so far at least as to commute tfie usual restri6lk>ns and priva- 
tions, for a certain, number of Paier^intters and Ave Marias, to be repeated 
publicly in the middle of the great square, by all such as were desirous of 
availing themselves of this indulgence. ' I'his worthy prelate, whose 
letenoes are not much less than' io,oooli a year, and who usually resides 
' at Palmas on Grand Canaria, is said to distribute a great part of tbem 
in ads of chanty ; for enabling him to do which, he is frequently under 
the necessity of applying to his domestics for temporary supplies of money 
&i his rents become due/' 

At the BAzils our author found objedls of more importance to en- 
rage his attentiQn, and on which to exercise his judginent. His ac* 
toant <^ the approach to Rio de Janeiro is animated am) highly in« ^ 
tcresting* ' 

" Although 1 shall endeavour to sketch a general outline of the fea« 
tnres of this part of the Brazilian coast, yet I am fully aware that any 
description which I can employ will convey but an inadequate idea of the 
graiideur and beauty of the country, to thos^ who have not had an op* 
portunity of seeing it. The first remarkable objeft that catches the at# 
tention, after passing Cape Frio, is a gap or rent in the verdant nd^^ of 
mountains which skirts the sea coast. This chasm appears, from a 
distance, like a narrow portal between two cheeks of solid stooe, which 
being perfeaiy naked are the more remarkable, /is every other promiaeoC 
part of the ridge of mountains is clothed with luxuriant vegetation. On 
approaching this chasm, which is in fadi the entrance into the grand bar* 
hour of Rio de Janeiro, the cheek on. the left or western side is discoverci 
to be a single solid stone of a conical s^ape, or, in nautical laogui^, a 
sugar-loaf, entirely detached, not quite perpendicular, but leaning a little 
towards »thc entrance. We took an opportunity, during our suy at Rio^ 
of ascertaining its height by pieans of a line' measured on a little saady ^ 
beach which skirts its base on the side next to the harbour, and the angle 
irhich it extended firom the extijemities of this line. From the result of 

^ pur -^ 

t% •hxgivAl cRXTieriM. 

our operations, it appeared that this solid mass of hard sparkling grante 
is 680 feet high above the surface out of which it rises. The eastern or 
^posite check of the chasm is a naked mountain, composed of the saflne 
materia), but with this difference in point of form, that it has an easy and 
legular slope from the water's edge to the summit, which is about the 
•ame height as that of the cone. The whole of this side is occupied by 
forts^ lines, and batteries, for an account of which I must refer the reader 
to the two plates in the following chapter. 

" Jk little island strongly fortified, just within the entrance, contrads 
the passage to the width of about three-fourths of a mile. Having cleared 
ithis channel, one of the most magnificent scenes in narj^rc bursts upon the 
enraptured eye. Let any one imagine to himself an immense sheet of 
water running back into the heart of a beautiful country, to the distance 
of about thirty miles, where it is bounded by a skreen pf lofty mountainSy 
always majestic, whether their rugged and shapeless sununits are tinged 
with azure and purple, or buried in the clouds. Let him imagiae this 
sheet of water gradually to exp^md, from the narrow portal through which 
it coAimonicates with the sea, to the width of twelve or fourteen miles, to 
be every were studded with innumerable little islands scattered over its 
auriacc in every diversity of shape, and exhibiting every variety of tint 
that an exuberant and incessant vegetation is capable of affording, i^t 
bim conceive the shores of thebe islands to be so fringed with fragrant and 
b.'autiful shrubs, not planted by man, but scattered by the easy and liberal 
band of nature, as completely to be concealed in their verdant covering. him figure to himself this beautiful sheet of water, with its nstnerDoa 
^ands to be encompass^ on every side by hills of a moderate heighf » 
jrising in gradual succession above each other, alt profusely clad in lively- 
green, and crowned with groups of the noblest trees, while their shores 
are indented with mimberlcss inlets, shojotine their arms across the most 
delightful vallies, to meet the murmuring rills, and bear their waters into 
die vast and common reservoir of all. In short, let him imae^ine to him. 
atlf a succession of Mount Edgecumbes to be continued along the shores of 
a magnificent lake, not less in circuit than a hundred miles ; and having 
placed these in a climate where spring for ever resides, in all the glow of 
youthful vigour, he will still possess only a very impecfe^ idea of the 
magnificent scenery displayed within the capacious harbour of Rio d^ 
Janeiro; which as an harbour, whether it be considered in the light of 
ailbrding security and convenience for shipping, for its locality of posi, ^ 
tion, or fi^rtility of the adjacent country, may justly be ranked amon^ 
the first of naval stations. 

*' If then the natural beauties of Rio de Janeiro are, in its present 
ftate, so very enchanting^. how much more so must- they have appeared at 
a time when this arm of the sea was a L<ke of transparent water? That 
such it once was, little doubt can be entertained. Its ancient bafricr 
having given way to the pressure of the water within, the more solid 
parts of the fragments, in being forced into the sea, still remain as a bar 
Wore the entrance of the harbour, on which the depth of water does not 
exceed from seven to ten fathoms, whilst close to both the inner and the 
outer .margin, the depth is not less than eiehteen fathoms. Part of the 
foundation, indeed, appears in pointed rocks above the surface of the 
tea, towards the western extremity of the bar. 

rr If 

Barrow'T TraptU tp CtMmChlna. t^ 

** If the FbrtQgQeat of Rto hare don^ hot- Uttle tovardt improvinf 
Dttare, rhey mre entitled vat least to the ne^fttive merit of not haviiig 
mndi disfigured her. The point of ^tuation lor building the town, is well 
^oseo oat of a great immber of good ones^ that presented themsclve*. 
The principal buildings wUch have been ere^ed, though not elegant, are 
fiee at lease frdm extravagant whims, and aire by no means ill suited i6 
their respe^re situations. A fortress, however regular, h Hat from 
beisig an unpleasant obje^ in a landscape ; but when its lines af« carried 
over the inequalities of a broken mount, whose sides are fringed with' 
wood, it frequently unites to grandeur no inconsiderable share of piAo* 
lesque beauty. Almost every eminence in the vicinity of the town of Rir^ 
is crowned with a castle or a fort, a church, or a convent ; and many of 
tile islands on the expansive harbour are enlivened and ornamented h^ 
hoildings of a similar nature.^ Not one of the numerous islets were dis. 
graced^by such ridiculous and uncouth edifices, the whimsies of a sickly 
aste, as distort and disfigure those once lovely spots on the beautiful lake 
of Keswick, and which are now a reproach to the grand and sublime 
scenery with which they are surrounded." 

This place seems to have been fornned for (he capiral of a kingdom. 
It has every advantage which can be desired as well tor security, as for 
comfort and ornament. There, as in every popish country, the 
monks and priests abound ; but God forbid, we should be so uncha* 
ritable, or indeed so unjust, as to suppose chat those Qf Rio de Janeiro 
are a fair specimen of the whole. 

** Hie curiosity of these sacred charad^ers lo discover the nature and 
the acope of the emba^y to China, was sufficiently excited not to require 
ranch formality of intioduAioa on their part* A constant intercourse was 
kepc up between the convents and our hotel. Whenever their curiosity was 
satisfied^ as far as regarded our own concerns, the chief topics. of their 
conversation turned on the obstinate charaderof the native Indians, whoc^ 
they abused most profusely for not embracing Christianity (to which, by 
the way^ they had used little endeavours to convert them) ; on reports of 
large diamonds being found at the mines pf such and such a weight, the 
'roguish tricks of the slaves and, what in ti^em w^s the roost reprcheusibLo^ 
on the disposition to gallantry of the Ladies of Sr. Sebastian. The Lady 
Abbess of a convent, not far from our lodgings, was complaining one day 
to Dr. G. of being subjed to violent head-acfaps, for which he promise4 
co'give her a lipw pills. lu the hurry of embarkation he entrusted the 
box to a jolly fat friar of the order of St. fienedid, requesting he would 
take an early opportunity of delivering it to the Abbess. Ihe curiosity; 
of this son of the church, getting the better of good manners, impelled 
him to open the box ; and, applying it to his nose, lie observed to thc^ 
Dodor, with a significant leer, ^ Aha, Domine, mercurialial ista sunt., 
mercurialhir The Oodor expressing a degree of displeasure^ mixed with 
astonishment^ that he should suppose the Ladv Abbess to hitve any occa« 
non to use i medicine for such a purpose as he meant to insinuate^^ ' t)^ 
Lady Abbess,' he exclaimed with a loud laugh, ' the Lady At>bess aHB 
all- die Ladies of Rio, pronm iu&tomiwa ac daditm veneriy- 4Hkkhe-con. 
doded by observing, in on^quivocal teisis, thai most of them wei'e labour. 

'. • •"• ■ • ■^ -'^ ing 

ing under tke*iil effects tritingfroifa a free and onconatninedindQfgecce^ of 
a licentious and pnoonsoiieDS infercoorse with strangers. On rhe men' he 
paised a still more severe censure. Whether these sarcastical observations 
of the reverend grntleman werC' or were not troc, they vrerc not the lest 
indecorous ^md unbecoming^ in the charader of the .person by whom thev^ 
.were artered. If not an impious it is at icast an umnanly ^roceedin^ first 
to extort, und?r the sacred oath of religion, a confession of the failings 
4nd faults of those whom we, mighty lords of the creation ! are ptcased 
4o call the .weaker sex, and vhen expose them to the ridicule, the oblot^uy^ 
and detra^ion of the world.*' 

I( is not ouly unmanly, but such a scandalous breach of tioisCt 
a.S wc believe, is puni^iiable^ and severely too, by the Romish reli*- 
gioih Mr. BaiTow, witli more gallantry than judgment, we ih^^9 
cniieavours to dcicnci tbc ladies of Rio ugainst their father coDfessor»; 
it inu2»t, however, be adtnittecl, titat he pleads their cause with great 
•l>ility^ ;and vindicates them succossfully from many aspersions whidi 
have been, cither maliciously or ii^considerately, cast upon them. 

Our readcis may remember, that in a late Number we commented 
upon the remark o^ a Spanish writer, in Peru, that '* it appear"^ tp 
be thcr destiny of all uncultivated and savage nations, to be extinguished 
l)y a proximity. to, and communication with, those tliat are civilized ^ 
and enlightened * ;*' Mr. Barrow having advened to this same suT^ 
je£t, a*in his sentimenis perfefllv corroboratine our own, wc shall 
extra<5t the passage which contams them. It is worthy of attention 
coo» on accQuiu of tht author's judicious reflections od'the improper 
Aiude, adopted by many missionaries, of converting, or rather, of at* 
jcaipting to convert, the savages to Christianity. 

** It is a r^rrtich but too well founded, that wherever Europeans hare 
extended their conquests in foreign countries, the number of the natives 
^avc gradually diminished, new and destruftive diseases' have been intro- 
duced, their physical powers have been diminished by the copious use of 
poisonous spirits, theii mind* corrupted bv theft and' lying, their priau- 
five simplicity dcstroj-x^d, their means of subsistence rendered more pre- 
-earityus and difficult, whilst they have rarely made a single step in the 
'pTogrc^ towards civil polity, or the least advancement in arts, mantifac* 
t«ircs, or morality , If the human mind, in every variety of the species^ wit 
j^ot known to be capable erf progressive improvrment, the fault niigfat he 
lupuoscd to KiiX with the rough and stubborn temper of the unpoliahed 
f^atives ; but it demands onfy a slight inquiry into the modes of treatment, 
^hicfa in some Cdonisrs are cruel and dotrageoas, and in others zealous 
«nd intolerant, fully to account for this melancholy truth. As an instano^ 
cff the fbrracr mode of proceeding, I have (uid occasion to^repiesent the 
tondtid of -the Dutch boors tow^s the Hottentots ; 4nd the Pottugoe^^ 
in rtie Braiik.rfford but too sfAing an example t)t thc-^tter. Fbt *!• 
iteogh the Tefioits, in their government of Paraguay, united such a dCm 
«ite ef 'prudencb, skill, and ^rsevcrance, to the most cqnsammaxe Itnov^ 

j|^*ifc<Wt»^«i^l ' I I l>l> II ^ III! I III J Ml ' ll T ll i T ill Mill t iMt m i w I II ll III! 

* Anti- Jacobin lie view, v6l« xkiv* page tzdm 


Barrow*^- TnrtAdEi ta CmAim^iHa^ f% 

Mge oT honan nature^ m^ woald no doubt hare completed iht ei viltza<< 
non of Sooth America ; yet, other missiooaries of different orders, hf 
in intefoperate xeal in the^me cause, destroyed the fair proepeA of fruit 
bj blighting the tree in its blosspra. It wjis an invariable principle ot 
the Jesuits to give way to the prevailing superstitions of the natives^ to 
sojdy ami to encourage their most rooted prejudices^ ^0 as to be able> by 
meeting them on their own ground when proper occasions occar/edf to 
employ the few they might have converted, as aCUve insiruments for brings 
ing about a general turn in favour of the grand objed of their mission. The 
Dominicans, the Franciscans, and the Benedi^ncs aimed, on the contrary, 
}D Overturn at once every sacred superstition in the reiiglouscreed of the 
natives^ and, to force upon them ao imconditional compliance with the novel 
dpArii^es of their- own — doftrincs which in thei,r purest and most simple 
4iess coold not possibly be understood, bcoaustt. they did not apply t^ the 
cea4i^nL <>f savage life ; ipoch less &o when involvfd in mystery,. and dift« 
giused iivceremony. who thinks to convcrc a savage coChris- 
ua|ifty,..l^y preachir^ the do^rine of a future stale of rewards andpuriish. 
meets, and by endeavouring to convince him that all hib time, and atten. 
tion» and faith, must be employed to secure the salvation of his soul in aho- 
jiser world, whilst his body is pining and perishing for want in thi$, be- 
trays a roost woeful igoiorance of the human mind, and i& not likely lobe 
of much «$e in forwarding the cause he is sent to promote. I'o com- 
«eB^ a discourse wi^ a savage on the bli&s of his soul, of which he has 
no conscious existence, whilst hunger, disease, and pain torment his body, 
would be absurd and preposterous. Those have the better cause in hand 
who eodeavour to sexider pleasure and projit compatible with religion, 
"|nd to give the savage a taste of happiness in this v^orld, as the surest 
meass -of awakening in him tht desire of extending it to the next.— 
To direfti his mind to obje^s of which he can comprehend the utility ; ta 
coBvince hia^ by example, that his quantity of happiness is capable of 
beiflg extended ; to give him notions of property, and the coinforts it i& 
capable of procuring ; these are the more effcdual means — 

* To make man mild and sociable to man. 
To cultivate the wild licenrious savage 
/ ' ' With wisdom, discipline, and liberal arts;* 

than by compcUing his assent to dodrines, of which he can neither com- 
prefaend the reasoning, nor feel the benefjjr. This is beginring entirely 
at the wrong en^ J and the obstinate adherence to such a systemi by tlie 
iaore rigid orders of C^thoUcs in the Brazils, obliged them, after the de^ 
nniAion of the Jiiesuits, to aliandon the cause altogether. The consCi 
qvence Of which was, that the greater part of the natives are at this mo« 
mcnt as uncivilitcd as,* and perhaps more so tha'n, when the country was' 
iisiAiscbvered.'^ . 

-l(:|»;bMtJust^e ^ th^ Jesuits to jpy, that their conduft, la 
piif^i^M^<^^ in respe^ of their means of doinversto^, and their snbv 
$^q[«iept treatmept ^f their convens, ba|»i generaUy, been most judi* 
rioim.'^*iC»€P exetpplafir. , N<^. i^eii <ev4r ^twdiipd the human heart 
9Biseft^m\f^ or.gaia^ a HW^ oeoiplo^f JpMiyte^ge of it. And their 
•iil aDd'WiiiM^r ^whiP f r^lpecljF difi9ifl;^iia4.9W«>lic^, oould not fact 


to excite the appbuse and admirarion of the rtBt&ing part of man* 
kind. In ParagUav their condu£t w;is deserving the most unquaiilicd 
praise. The defe^ of population in the Brazils is suppiied, as it is 
m Peru, by an annual importation of African slaves, to the amount 
ef twenty thousand. Mr. Barrow supposes that the destruction of 
slaves is et]ual to the importation ; and yet, he says, that the Portu* 
giiese boast of treating tlicir slaves better'tban they are treaited by any- 
other nation. But, he observes, this boast is common to all nations ^ 
and he here relates an anecdote of a most atrocious hature. , 

** An Officer of the French army, having discovered that dealing ii» 
ilaves was a more lucrative profession than fighting, was transportine m 
cargo, consisting of about three hundred,' from Mosambiqoe to the Isle 
of France. They had Scarcely put to sea when thc'small.po^ broke out 
among them. On three or four the pustules appeared in such a manner 
as to leave no doubt as to the nature of the disease ; and about a dozen 
of the rest were considered to be infefted. As it was pretty evident that 
none of the cargo had gone through the disease, and equally so that xhtj 
could not escape infe^Hon ; and as the chances were, in thisj event, that tike 
mortality would greatly exceed u<uen per cent, the slave merchant re* 
solved to throw the fifteen or sixteen infcded persons immediately over* 
board. This man afterwards wrote an account of his voyage to the East 
Indies, in which he talks a great deal about humanity, but carefbll/ 
avoids the mention of this transadion. At the Cape of Good Hope, 
however, he made no secret of it, but assumed a degree of merit in 
what he had done. He knew well enough that the good people of this 
settlement had proper notions on the value of Blacks. By the French 
part of the inhabitants he was applauded for his great liumanity, in sacri* 
ficing a few for the safety of the whole ; and the Dutch admired the pro- 
dent step he had taken to secure the greater part of so valuable a property. 
£very body applauded the conduct of the Frenchman, but none seemed to 
pity the fate of the poor Blacks." 

Mr. Barrow extends his observations upon slavery, and upon the 
capacity of negroes, through several pages, and he observes,, truly 
enough, that the Blacks of Saint Domingo, had they continued under 
the command ot Toussaint, would hdve risen infinitely superipr *< in 
wisdom and humanity to their late masters, whom they haye certainly 
*not exceeded either in atrocity nor in folly." Certainly not, and'^or 
the best of all reasons, that the thing was impossible. To ascribe to 
, them a superiority over the civilized savages of republican, or Impe- 
rial France, is to pay them no compliment. Buonaparte's rival, the 
Emperor of Hayti, whose title to tiie throne is, in aH resp^s, more; 
valid and respectable than that of the Corsican to the throne which he 
has usurped, has assigned the following reasons for the aAs of cruelty 
'which he has committed. «« If/' says Dessalincs,- ** any *tiiiiooent 
persons have perished, their Mood will fall on his (Buonaparte^s) head ; 
because, had his barbarous brother-in-law, Le Clerc, never islndod^iii'' 
fliis island, all the white inhabitants would ^y^Kave been alite,'6o,ooo 
Mack citizens fei^ermurdctedi and 30,Odo of Kii arioed tkkiii woiM 


fiahiow'i Travels to Coc^H-^Ckina. 33 

not have breathed their last in this climate. It Was his ararice, ambi- 
tion, atrocity and treachery » that arouzed our gready oppressed and 
injared children, and separated us for ever from the mother country." 
Potting humanity out of the auescion, it must be confessed that 0es- 
salines is much better qualified to cope wich fitionapafte thaaTou»- 
saint was. He £ghts him with his own weapons. 

A very full account is given of (he various prody dlions of the 
Brazils ; and irs vast importance, in every point of view, is satisfac- 
torily explained. But it appears that the Portugueze' Government dis- 
play a most unaccountahle ignorance of their own interests, in their 
treatment of their Colonists. If it were their intention to diss^ust tliem, 
and to provoke them to ads of rebellion, they could not take more 
ededual means for carrying it into effetSl. In short, these unhappy 
people are wretched in the miiisc of plenty, and precluded, by the 
mistaken and oppressive policy of their masters, from the enjoypienc 
of those advantages with which Nature has so abundantly supplied 
them. Imleetl* Mr. Barrow is decidedly of opinion that, sooner or 
later, the Brazilians will '« make an attempt at independence ;" and 
he assigns some very plausible reasons for entertaining sudi opiuion. ' 

" Few of the Brazilian Colonists entertain the idea of ever returning 
to Portugal. Their condition in South America isi very different from 
that of our country men in foreign settlements. These exert their utmost 
energy to amass a fortune, in the hope of enjoying it at home ; while 
those see as little prospeA of returning to Europe with the means of a 
comfortable subsistance, as a con v id can expedl to return with a fortune 
from Botany Bay. Even the military officers, whose turn of duty re- 
quires their being sent to the Brazils, seldom if ever return. Being kept 
beyond their time of seryice, they are induced to marry, beget a pro- 
geny, and settle in the country ; thus losing sight, ' in a great degree, of 
the, and naturally become less indisposed to separate 
from it. Some of the leading men spoke very freely on this subjed when 
we were there, and I should conclude that circumstances have not changed 
much in favour of the government since that time. There i^ little doubt 
tha^r a man of skill, of spirit and reputation, might at this moment easily 
spur them on to declare their independence. ' Jitill, howeTer, I am in« 
dined to believe that one of their own countrymen from Europe would be 
more acceptable as a chief, than either a colonist or a foreigner. The 
buik of the people are attached to the name of their country, their reli. 
gion, and their language ; and I am persuaded that if the Court of Por. 
tttgal had sufficient energy and adivity to transplant itself to the Brazils, 
as was once intended when the Spaniards invaded them, a mighty and briL 
liant empire might speedily be created in South Amedca, to counterpoise 
the growing power of the United States in the northern part of that con. 
tinent. The former possesses many advantages over the latter ; in ferti. 
lity of soil; in the value of ita produ^ions, in climate, and in geogra. 
phical position, eminently favourable for communication and commerce 
with every nation of the civilized world." 

Amidst the revolutions which Europe is daily witnessing, it is by 



no means improbable that the government of Portugal will be trs»ns- 
ferred to the fir^zils. Mr. Barrow next considers, what ctk&. such 
a step would have on the Commerce of Great Br^ain and Ireland. 

" A change in the government of th^razils, whether ciFeded by them, 
selves or by a foreign power, necessarily implies a change in the present 
condition of Portugal-, against which, indeed^^ she has little security, 
wheneVer it may suit the caprice or the convenience of that despotic power 
which'has so long been suffered to over-awe the petty states of Europe. 
Such an event, it cannot be denied, would be attended with a temporary 
check to certain branches of the commerce and iiianufaftures of England, 
but not j^rhaps, with that serious injury which mercantile men seem to 
apprehend. There i5^ a- prejudice in favour of the trade with Portugal. 
I'he treaty between this country and England has stood the test of several 
reigns, and is so far entitled to respeft; but, in these days of superior 
knowledge and improvement, I have heard its wisdom and its policy 
strongly called .in question. By the terms of the treaty we are to admit 
the wines of Portugal to an entry in our ports, at twcthirds of the duties 
levied on the importation of other wines, in consideration of Portugal 
admitting our woollen cloths, not' as wc do their wines at a reduced duty, 
but just on the same terms as woollen cloths are admitted by them from 
any other country. It is contended, therefore, that by this treaty wm, 
' have conceded to Portugal a decided advantage, without receiving the 
least consideration in return; and that ^ too in taking o^ her hands an 
article which no nation on earth would consent to take except England, ' 
whilst our manof^dures are saleable in, and acceptable to, all nations. 
Viewing it in this light it w'ould certainly appear that, notwithstanding^ 
the boasted wisdom of our ancestors, the Portugueze had the advantage 
in the framing of this treaty. 

*• The trade, however, though every v/ay against us, is nevertheless 
of great importance to England, on account of its demand of our manu* 
fadtures and produce, of the number of shipping it employs,* and of the 
very considerable sum which it brings in aid of the revenue. 1 he fol- 
lowing sketch is not offered as au accurate statement, but it may be coh« 
sidercd as pretty tiearly the truth. 

" The quantity of ^ wine shipped at Oporto for Great 
Britairrand her colonics, is estimated at6o,coo pipes, which 
at 25/. average price amounts to - - - . j^.i, 500,000 
** Froin Lisbon and other ports, is»ooo at 12/, - 144,00^ 

•« From Madeira, 1 2,000 at 30/. p«r pipe, . . 360,000 

«* Fruit, preserves At. - - - - . . * - 46,000 

" Amount . jf. 2,050,000 

•« Woollens, linens, India and Scotch muslins, iron-^are 
and other articles, the growth and manufacture of Great 
Britain and her colonies, exported to Portugal, ^ ' £• i>55o,o©o 

«* Balance against England - ' £> 500,000 

" And if we suppose that of the 84,000 pipes of wine exported? fr«m 

Portugal and Madeira 60,000 only pay duties and excise in Great Britain, 

^hich is making an ample allowance for the coloniesj the sum raised as 



fiarrow'j Traveh to Cbchin-ChtfUii 35 

revenue at co/. per pipej which is less than it adlually is^ will 'amoant to 
3,ooOj00o/ sterling. 

'' A<lxnitting then that Portugal may eventoallj share the same fate at 

Spain, this source of commerce will necessarily be dried up ; and it ma/ 

be asked, .in what new channels will it then flow i Would the whole Bra. 

^ihf \( even in our possession^ take in manufadures and produce an 

equivalent for what we should lose Xiy the loss of our trade with Portu. 

galj and afford us return cargoes pf equal value^ and which would con. 

. tribute an equal sum to the revenue of the state ^ In their present con. 

.dition, Ihave no hesitation in saying, they certainly would not i but, at 

. the same tipae, I have little doubt that by removing the obstacles that 

•hare impeded cultivation, abolishing monopolies, reducing the impolitia 

,«laties on exports, and opening a communication by good roads between 

^ the principal ports and the interior settlements, they would not only in a 

^&wyeas consume more than Portugal how takes from us, but would ^ 

ia&le to meet the value of supplies sent out to them in the inlportant ar. 

tides of coffee, cocoa, cotton, indigo, sugar, drugs, timber and other com- 

modities, which by proper encouragement might be produced to any ex. 

tent. Nor would the revenue be any great suflferer. The deficit in dtuties 

vrottld be more than made uf> by the wines of Portugal^ which, like those 

of France would still find their way into England| and the more readily 

since no other nation would take them off her hands on any terms. Com. 

merce, like water, will always find its own level. The stream may flow 

. in 4i^^rent channels with different degrees of rapidity, and may be di« 

Tcrced by various obstacles from a dire^ course, but it will ultimately 

. aocceed in working out a passage, and find its way to the great reservoir 

^which is destined to receive it. That nation which commands the oceaoj 

can at all times dire^ the commerce of the world.' ' 

We have frequently endeavoured, both during the last and the present 
war, to dire6l the attention of our Government to the Bradls; and 
, to im^ess them with a conviflion of the extreme iraportance of taking 
the most effedlivc measures for preventing the French from obtaimng a 
footing in that country, and even if necessary, of occupying it ourselves, 
till a general peace, with a view to deter the French from inyading 
Portugal itself: Mr. Barrow seems to be impressed with much the 
same notions respedling this colony as ourselves. 

** .Whatever step the court of Portugal may be compelled to take in tho 

present critical junAure, it will behove EngUnd to keep a watchful eye 

on iu colonies, and especially those of the Brazils. Were the French 

once softied to get possession of Rio de Janeiro, the Intural strength of 

. the country if so commanding, and the advantages it possesses so impor. 

. unt, that it would be no easy matter to drive th^m out oi it by force, 

fit prevail .on them to quit it by treaty. I am iwt sure also that, netc 

. to one of the royal family of Ponrtugal, French interest might not prepoa. 

' derate if) tlye interior of the country, where the descendants of the French 

I jtf'uits are not onmindfal of their origin, and with whom the restoration pf 

,1^ orde^.would be attended with no small degree of influence., • And al- 

, though in the sci-poirt towns, the trading part of the nation might feel i^, 

their interest to throw (heiiiselves under the prote^on of the English flag. 

Da thinking 


thinking by such a change to acquire a free and unrestrained commertv ; 
yet such is the sway which the priesthood possesses over the laity, that 
the difficulties are immense which a protestant government would have to 
encounter. It is probable also that the present imbecile governpoent of 
' Portugal may be compelled to court an alliance with France, though the 
result must inevitably be ruinous to her present declining trade and to her 

Assuredly an union of vigilance, wisdom and vigour, is requisite 
at this critical juncture, in the condu£t of our Government to that 
of Portugal. With such an enemy as we have in the hcait of Eu- 
rope, vindidive and inveterate, bent upon our rpin, whether at war 
or at peace with us, and resolved to tfxert all his arts and his power, to 
cramp, if not to destroy, ourcommcrce with the Continent, it behoves 
us to suffer no opportunity to escape for opening new channels for 
our trade, and for preserving those which are still, open to us. Wc 
trust, therefore, that our Govcnunent will not, for a moment, lose sight 
of Portugal and her colonies* Before we quit the Brazils we must 
notice something Jike a contradict ioii in our Author's Account of the 
provisions in that colony. In p. I2i, he tells us that** provisioiis 

. of every description are plentiful and good ;" whereas he had previouslj 
observed that *V their beef is lean and very indifFerent, and mutton is 
scarcely to Ik had at any rate." P. 89. His observations on the pro- 
bable consequences of a revolution in the Spanish Colonies of South 
America, are judicious, atxi prove thdt he has thought much -and 

' deeply on the suhje<5l ; he is of opinion that such a revolution is not to 
be desired by this country. - 

Wc cannot accompany, this tnstrudlive traveller further on his 
voyage at present; but, leaving him to pursue his course from the 
Brazils^ \ye propose to give hiui the meeting again, at jt>mtcr4am Is-- 
/i;r^ncxt momh. 

Sir fy. Forbes* s Life of Dr. Beanie. 

- (Concludtdfrompnge 366, Fd. XXIV,) 

ON the long agitated question, «whefther a public or a private edu- 
cation be the best for youth, very much has been said and written, by 
• the different advocates for both, though no one, as we believe, has 
ent^ed into a full and unreserve d description of all the advantages and 
disadvmtiages of each of these systems. On such a subjed) Dr. Beattic 
was very well qualified to speak, with a cenain degree of decision, 
wirhout exposing himself to the censure of presumption ; and his scn- 
^timents u})on'it could not fail to he valuable. What he has said, in a 
Lcrter to Mrs. Inglls, is so well said, so much to the purpose, and 
comprizes so much in so sm^dl a compass, that vve should fail in our 
duty to our readers, were we not to e'xtradl it. 

^'^ White 

Sir William ForbcsV Life of Dr. Bcattie. 3^ 

** While I lived in your neighbourhood^ I often wished for an oppor* 
tvnitj of giving you my opinion on a subjc^y in which I know you are 
very deeply interested ; but one incident or other always put it out of my 
power. That subjed is the education of your son, whom, if I mistake 
not, it is now high time to send to some public place of education. \ I 
iare thought much on this subje^ ; I have weighed every argument, that 
I could think of, on either side of the question. ' Much, you know, has. 
been written upon it, and very plausible arguments have been ofiered, 
both for and against a public education. I set not much value upon these ; 
specnlfiting men are continually disputing, and the world is^ seldom the 
wiser. I have some little experience in this way ; I have no hypothesis 
to mislead me; and the opinion or prejudice which I first formed upon 
dcsiibjed, was di redly contrary to that, which experience has now 
tanght me to entertain. 

*^ Could mankind lead their lives in that solitude which is so faroura- 
Ue to many of our most virtuous a6fe<^ions, I should be clearly on the 
sideof a private education. But most of us, whsn we go out into the 
world, find difficulties in our way, which good principles and innocence 
alone will not qualify us to encounter ; we must have some address and 
knowledge of the world different from what is to be learned in books, or 
we shall soon be puzzled, disheartened, or disgusted. The foundation of 
this knowledge is laid in the intercourse of school.boys, or at least of 
young men of the same age. When a boy is always under the diredion 
of a parent ar tutor, he acquires such a habit of looking up to them fbim) for 
advice, that he never learns to think or ad for himself; his memory is ex. 
ocised, indeed^ in retaining their fbisj advice, but his invention is suffered 
to languish, till at last it becomes totally inadive. He knows, perhaps, 
a great deal of history or science ; but he knows not how to condud him- 
self on those ever. changing emergencies, which are too minute and too 
flDnerous to be comprehended in any system of advice. He is astonished 
at the most common appearances, and discouraged with the most trifling 
^because onexpeded) obstacles ; and he is oftcjn at his wits end, where a 
l»y of much less knowledge, but more expeiience, would instantly de- 
vise a thousand expedients. Conscious of his own superiority in some 
things, he wonders to find himself so much inferior in others ; his x'anity 
meets with continual rubs and disappointments, and disappointed vanity is 
very apt to degenerate into suUennejs and pride; he despises, pr a^ds 
to despise, his fellows, because, though superior in address, they are in. 
ferior in knowledge ; and fhcy, in their turn despise that knowledge, 
which cannot teach the owner hdw to behave on the most common occa* 
sioos. Tlios he keeps at a distance from his equals, and they at a distance 
firom him; and mutual contempt is the natural consequence. 

'^ Another inconvenience, attending private education, is the suppress- 
ing of the principle of emulation, without which it rarely happens that a ^ 
boy prosecutes his studies with alacrity or success., I have heard private 
tniors complain, that they wei^ obliged to have recourse to flattery or 
bribery to engage the attention of their pupils-; and I need not obserVe, 
bow improper it is to set the example of such {^radices before children. 
True emulation, especially in youn^ and ingenuous minds, is a noble 
principle; I have known the happiest effeds produced by it; I never 
knew jt to be produdive of any vice. In all public ichools it is, or 

D 3 ought 


ought to he, carefully cherished. Where it is wantingi in vain shall w^ 
preach op to chUareri the dignity and utility of knowledge : the true ap- 
petite for knowledge is wanting ; and when that is the case, whatever is 
crammed into the memory will rather surfeit and enfeeble, than improve 
the miderstanding. 1 do not mentien the pleasure which yoiing people 
take in the company of one another, and what a pity it is to deprive them 
of it. I need rot remark, that friendships of the utmost stability and 
importance have cfren been founded on school. acquaintance ; nor need I 
|tat you in mind, of what vast consequence to health are the exercises and 
ateusements which boys contrive for themselves. I shall only observe 
further, that, when boys pursue their studies at home, they are apt to 
contradl either a habit of idleness, or too close an attachment to reading} 
the former breeds innumerable diseases, both in the body and sou! ;' the 
latter, by filling young and .tender minds with more knowledge than they 
f^n either retain or arrange properly, is apt to make them superficial and 
inattentive, or, what is worse, to strain, and consequently impair, the 
facnlties, by over-strerching them. I have known several instances of 
both. The human mind is more improved by thoroughly understanding 
one science, one part of a science, or even one subjeft, than by a superfi- 
cial knowledge of twenty sciences and a hundred different subjefts : and I 
would rather wish my son to be thorouglily master of ' Euclid's ElemcntSj* 
than to have the whole of ' Chambers's DiAionary' by heart. 

*f The great inconvenience of public education arises from its being 
oangerous (o morals. And indeed every condition and period of himaan 
life is lialjlc to temptation. Nor will I deny, that our innocence, daring 
the first part of life, is much more secure at home, than any where else ; 
yet even at home, when we reach a certain age, it is not pcrfedly secure. 
Let young men be kept at the greatest distance from bad company, it will 
not be easy to keep them from books, to which, in these days, all per- 
sons may have easy access at all times. Let. us, however, suppose the 
^st ; that both bad books and bad company keep away, and that the 
man never leaves his parents' or tutor's side, till his mind' be well furnish- 
ed with good prlncijrles, and himself arrived at the age of refledlion and 
caution : yet temptations must come at last ; and when they come, will 
they have the less strength, because they are ne-v, unexpefted, and sur- 
prising ? I fear not. Tlje more the young man is surprised, the more ^ 
apt will he be to lose his presence of mind, and consequently the less ca- 
pable of self-government. . Besides, if his passions are strong, he will be 
disposed to form comparisons between his past sratc of restraint, and Kis j 
present of liberty, very iTjiuch to the disadvantage Af the former. His 1 
new associates will laugh at him for his reserve and preciseness ; and hii j 
unacquaintancc with their manners, and with the world, as it will'rendeijM 
him the more obnoxious to their ridicule, will also disqualify him ther 
more, both foV supporting it with dignity, and also for defending hiniself I 
against it. Suppose him to be shocked with vice at its first appearance, |j 
and often to call to mind the good precepts he received in his early days j 
yet when he sees others daily adventuring upon it without any apparent 
inconvenience ; when he sees them more ^ay< (to appearance), and better 
received among all their acquaintance than he is ; and when he finds him- 
self hooted at, and in a manner avoided and despised, on accoiint of hit 
singularity ; it is a woiider, indeed, if be persist in his first resplaflons, 


sir WillUm Forbes V jjj/i ofJ^K Beattte. |a 

4^ do not now fit last begin to think, that though his fenner teachers 
were well meaning people, they were by no means qualified to prescribe 
roles for his condu^. * Tht world, (he will say), is changed since their 
time, {and you will not easily persuade young people that it changes for 
the worse) : wc must comply with the fashion, and live like other folks, 
otherwise we must give up sill hopes of making a figure in it.* And when 
he has got thus far, and begins to despise the opinions of his instru^ors, 
and to be dissa6ij>iied with their condudin regard to him, I need not add, 
that rhc worst conbcquences may not unreasonably be apprehende4* A 
joang man, kept by himself at home, is never well known, even by his 
parents ; because he is never placed in those circumstanceswhich alone'are 
able efiedtually to rouse and interest his passions, and consequently to 
laake his charader appear. His parents, therefore, or tutors, never know 
his weak side, nor what particular advices or cautions he stands most in 
need of; -if he had attended a public school, and mingle^, in the amuse. 
ments and pursuits of his equals, his virMJcs and his vices would have 
lK«ft disclosing themselves every day ; and his teachers would have known 
what particular precepts and examples it was most expedient to inculcate 
Bpon him. Compare those who have had a public education, with those 
who have been educated at home ; and it will not be .found, in fad, that 
the latter are, either in virtue or in talents, superior to the former. . I 
speakj Madam, from observation of fad, as well as from at tending ^to the 
suture of the thing." 

la a Letter to the present Bishop . of London, Dr.- Beattie makes 
some judicious observations on Hawkesworth's voyages, then recently 
published, as well as some general reflexions, which are more or less 
applicable to all writers of voyages and travels. 

•' I am very apt to be distrustful of ojr modern traveller?, ^hen J 
iind them, after a three months r£;sidence in a country, of whose language 
they know next to nothing, explaining the moral and religious notions of 
the people, in such a way, as to favour the licentious theories of theage* 
I give them &iU credit for what thev tell us of plants and minerals, and 
winds and tides ; those things are obvious enough, and no knowledge of 
strange language is necessary to make one understand them; but as the 
Borality of anions depends on the motives that give rise to them ; and as 
ic is impossihle to uncbrstsnd the motives and principles of national cus- 
toms, unless you thoroughly understand the language of the people, I 
should susped that not one in ten thousand of our ordinary travellers, is 
qaalified to decide upon the moral sentiments of a new discovered coan- 
try.-. There is not one French author of my acquaintance, that seems to 
hare any tolerable knowledge of the English Governn^ent, or of the cha^ 
ra^r of the English nation ; they ascribe to us sentiments which we never 
entertained ; they draw, from our ordinary behaviour, conclusions dire^y 
contrary to truth ; how then is it to be $upposed, that Mr. Banks and 
Mr. Solander could upderstand the customs, the religion, govemment, 
and morals, of the people of 0(aheite ?" 

It. is really astonishing that so enlightened ^ n^ion, a^ Fraoce, in 
ni2oy respe£l$ certainly was, diould he so completely ignorant of the ' 

P 4 lawst 

4A emoiMAL criticism. 

hws, fnanocTB, customs, and other circumstances, of a countiy, so 
near to her, and of which, on all accounts, it was so important to 
her to obtain a just and accurate knowledge;. ' But this ignorance ex- 
ceeded all bounds ; and was, by no means, confined to the lower, or 
even middle, classes of society. We lemcroher hearing a Frenchman, 
in 1786, who was a member of one of tlie liberal professions, and who 
had been in England, as a prisoner of war, among other Yadts equally 
dutherUic^ wlijch he was statiniT to the company at a Judge's table, 
gtaVely assert that to such an excess was liberty carried in this coun- 
try, and so little authority had the Sovereign, that it was a commonf 
thmg for the mob to stop the Royal Coadi, in its way to the palace, 
and opening the door on one side pass out at the other, familiarly 
sayine to their King,- ^^ good mot row George.^* The man really be- 
lieved what he told, and many other tales equally absuid and equally 
false, has the writer of this article heard from the mouth of well-^ 
educated Frenchmen ! The general source of such ignorance is vamty^ 
which leads a Frenchman to think that no country is worth attention 
but his own. La grande nation is his idol now ; as U'grand monarque 
used to be ; and as, probably, Ic grand emperewt^ all-monster as he is, 
soon will be* 

^oon after the appearance of Dr. Beattie*s Essay ^on TrutTi, Dr. 
Priestley wrote to him, 10 inform him of his intention to publish a 
book, in which many of his* (Dr. •£.'$) positions would be attacked 
and overturned ; and in the hope, no doubt, of leading the Dr. into a 
controversy, in which Piiestlcy delighted, and by which he hoped to 
live. In the following Letter to Mrs. Montague, written in August 
1774, Dr. Beactie adverts to this circumstance ; and declares his opi- 
nion of Priesiley*s tenets. 

, *^ Qr. Priestley's Preface is come out, without any acknowledgement 
pf the information conveyed to him in my letter. But hehas written to 
.xot, 01) the occasion, and says, he will publish my letter in that book 
which he is preparing, in opposition to the ' Essay oa Truth,' as he 
thinks such a letter wiil do me honour. He praises the candour and gene- 
rosity which, he says, ap|?e-ir in my letter, and seems to be satisfied^ 
that I wrotfrmy book with a good intention ; which is the only merit he 
allows me, at least he mentions no other. He blames mc exceedingly for 
my want of moderation, and for s()eaking, as I have done, oftheMom/ 
i/^^^^' of opinions. He owns, that his notions, on some of the points 
ia which be differs from me, are e:icee4ingly unpopular, and likely to 
continue so, and says, that perhaps no two ]iersOns, professing Christian!, 
ty, ever thoueht more differently, than he and 1 do. It is a loss to me, he 
•ttmt ro thixuc, that I have never been acquainted with such persons, as 
himself, and his friends, in England: to this he is inclined to impute the 
improper style I have made use of on somesubje^s; but he hopes a little 
refiedioni and a candid examination of what he is to write against me, 
will bftng me to a better way of thinking and speaking. His motive for 
entering the list with me, is no other, he says, tnan ' a sincere and pretty 
strong, though perhaps a mistaken regard to truth.* This is the sub- 
nee of his letter^. a9 i undersund it. There are indeed some things in 

S!r William ForbcsV Lift e/Dr. Beanie. 41 

ky which I do not dUtindly understand ; and therefore, I believe,*! 
shall not at present make any reply. He does not tell me, what the 
points of difference between us are : but I find from some reports, thftt 
have penetrated even to this remote comer, that he has taken some pins to 
let it be known, that he is writing an answer to my booi?. A volume of 
his ' Institutes of Religiou* lately fell into my hand, which is the first 
of his theological works I have /seen ; and, I mu#t confess, it does not 
give me any high opinion of him. His notions of Christianity are indeed difL 
ibrent from mine; so very different ; that I know not whether I shoidd 
think it necessary or proper to assume the ^itle of a Christian, if I were 
to think and write as he does. When one proceeds so far, as to admit 
, tome parts of the gospel history, and rejed otheis ; as to suppose, that 
some of the fads, recorded by 4he Evangelists of oar Saviour, may reasonably 
he disbelieved, and others doubted; when one, I say, has proceeded thus far, 
we may without breach of charity conclude, that he has within him a 
spirit of paradox and presumption, which may prompt him to proceed 
much further. Dr. Priestley's dodrines'seem to me to.strikeat toe very 
vitals of Christianity. His success in some of the branches of natural 
knowledge seems to have intoxicated him, and led him to fimcy, that he 
was master of every subjed, and had a right to be a didator io all : iot< 
in this book of his, there is often a boldness of assertion, followed by a 
weakness of argument which no man of parts would adventure upon, who 
did not think that his word would be taken for law. I am impatient 
ibr the appearance of his book against me ; as I cannot prepare matters 
for a new edition of the * Essay on Truth,' till I see what he has to say 
against me/' 

In his Preface, however, Dr. Priestley paid some complioients to 
Dr. Beattie ; though, as Sir William Forbes, truly ol)serves: , 

** No two writers were ever more opposite to each other in their modes of 
thinking on the most interesting subjeds. Dr. Priestley was an avowed 
Sociikan ; a staunch believer in the dodrine of necessity ; and, though he 
admitted the great pillar of Christianity, the resurredion of the dead, yet 
he subscribed to the dodrine of materialism*. I^ all this, and in many 
other particulars, the principles of Dr. fieattie were the very reverse. 
The attack pf Dr. Priestley, however, gave him no concern. He appear^, 
indeed, by his correspondence with his friends, to have formed, at first, 
the resolution of replying to it ; and he speaks as if he had already pre. 
pared, his materials, and of being altogether in such a state of JForward. 
ness, as to be fully ready for the task. On farther consideration, how. 
ever, he abandoned the idea, and he no doubt judged wisely. For, while 
Dr. Priestley's • Examination' is now never heard of, the * Essay on 
Truth' remains a classical work, of the highest reputation and authority." 

Again adverting, at a subsequent period, in the, autumn pf 1775, 
to mwkesworth's Voyages, in another Letter to Mrs.'Montague, he 
animadverts upon them and upon other works of that same writeff 

f Pitface to <* Disquisitions relating to matter and spirit," p. xiii. 


Jfi' * ^ ORlCIWAt CItrPTCTSM; 

^hh so maoh good sense and' sound cririctsniy that our readefs, we 
are persuaded, will chank'us for laying the passages before them. Atid» 
mdeec), all the produdions of Di\ Ha wices worth aie so highly, and? 
to generally, esteemed, that every just ohjedion to ^iiy pans of diem» 
ought to be as generally known and circulated. 

** Your reflexions on the little disaster with which our journey con- 
eludedy exactly coincide with mine. I agree with Hawkesworth, that 
the peril and the deliverance are equally providential; ^nd I wonder he 
did not tee that both the one and other may be produ^ve of the very 
best e£f^dls. These luth accidents and trials are necessary to put us in 
mind of th^ superintending goodneikS, to which we arc indebted for every? 
breath we draiv, and of which, in. the hour of tranquillity, many of us 
are too apt to be forgetful. But you, Madam, forget nothing which a 
Christian ought to remember; an4tiiereforel hope and pray that Providence 
may defend you from every alarm. By the way, there are several things, 
besides that preface to which I just now referred, in the writings of 
Hawk«sworrh, thatshtrw-an unaccr/unrable perplexity of mind in regard 
lo some of iho principles of natural religion. I observed in his conversa* 
tion, that he took a pleasure in rom.nating upon riddles, and puzzling 
questions, and calculations ; and he seems to have carried something of 
the same ten^per into his moral and theological researches. His ^ AlmorsQ- 
and Fiainet' is a sirange confused narrative, and leaves upon the mind of 
the.rea^r some di sag reeabfe impressions in regard to the ways of Provi« 
dence ; an^ from the theory of /^Hj, which he has given us somewhere <ia 
the ' Adventurer,' one would susped that he was no enemy to the philo*. 
sophy of Hobbes. However, I am disposed to impute all this rather to 
k vague way of thinking, than to any perversity of heart or understand- 
ing. Only I wish, that in his last work he had been more ambitious te 
tell the plain truth, than to deliver to the world a wonderful story. I 
confess, that from the first I was inclinid to consider his vile portrait of 
the manners cfOtaheitc, as in pUrt fictitious; and I am now assured, 
upon the very bebC authority, that Dr. Solander disavows some of those 
narrations, or at least declares them' to be grossly misrepresented. There 
is, in almost all the late books of travels! have seen, a disposition on 
the part of the author to rccommer.d licentious theories. I would not 
6bje6ito the truth of any hi:\, that is warranted by the testimony of 
fompetent witnesses. But how few of our travellers are competent judges 
pf the fafts they relate! How few of them know any thing Accurately, of 
the language of those nations, whose laws, religion, and moral sentiments, 
\hty pretend* to describe i And how few of them are. free from that inor- 
dinate love of the marvellous, which stimulates equally the vanity of the 
writer, and the curiosity of the reader! Suppose a Japanese crew to 
arrive in England^ take in wood and water, exchange a few commodities ; 
linid, after a stay of three months, to set sail for their own country, and 
there 4et forth a History of the English Government, religion, and man* 
pers ; it is, I think, highly probable, that, for one truth, they would 
oeliver a score of falsehoods. But Ruropeans, it will be said, have more 
fiigacity, and know more of mankind. Be it so r but this advantage is 
not without inconveniences, sufficient perhaps to counterbalance it. when 
a Europeaii arrives in any remote part of the |[lobe, the natives, if they 

_ know 

sir Williain Forbes*/ Lift pf Dr. Beatdi. 4f 

Vmw any tking of His conntry, will be apt to form no falrourablc opinion 
oFhis intentions, with regard to their liberties ; if they knour nothing of 
him, they will yec keep nioof, on account of his strange Lingaage, conu 
plexion, and accoutitnncnts- In cither case he has litrie chance of 'un4».'r- 
standmg their laws, manners^ and principles of adiiony except by a long 
residence in the country, which would not suit the views of one travcJIer 
in fi^-c thoasand. He therefore picks- a few strange plants and animals, 
which he may do with little trouble or danger ; and, at his return to 
Europe, is v/elcomed by the literati, a& a philosophic traveller of most accu« 
rate observation, and anquestioLuble veracity. He describes, perhaps with 
tolerable exa^ness, the soils, plants, and other irrational curiosities of 
the new country, which procures credit to what he has to say of the peo. 
pie ; though his accuracy in describing the material phenomena, is no 
proof of his capacity to explain the moral. One can easily dig to the 
root of a plant, but it is not so easy to penetrate the motive of an adlion ; 
and till the motive of an adion be known, we are no competent judges dt 
its morality, and in many cases the motive of an adion is not to be known 
without a most intimate knowledge of the language and manners of the 
agent. Our traveller then delivers a few fads of the moral kind, which 
perhaps he does not understand, aild from them draws some ii^erences 
tuiuble to the taste of the times, or to a favouritd hypothesis. He tells 
us of a Califomian^ who sold his bed in a morning, and came with tears in 
his eyes to beg it back at night j whetice, he very wisely infers, that 
the poor Calitomians are hardly One degree above the brutes in under. 
standing, for that they have neither foresight nor memory sufficient to 
dired their condud on th& most common occasions of life* In a wordj 
' they are quite a different species of animal from the European ; and it 
is a gross mistake to think, that all mankind are descended from the 
same first patents. But one needs not g<^ so far as to California, in 
qoest of men who sacrifice a future good ro a present gratification. In 
the metropolis of Great Britain one may meet with many reputed Chris. 
tians, who would ad the same part, for the pleasure of carousing half-a. ' 
day in a gin-shop. Again, to illustrate the same\ important truth, that^ 
man i^ a beast, or very little better, we are told of another-nation, on 
the banks of the Oreltana, so wonderfully stupid', that they cannot reckon 
beyond the number of three, but point to the hair of their head, when. 
ever they would signify a greater number; as if four, and four thousand, 
were to them equally inconceivable. But, whence it cooks to pass, that-, 
these people are capable of speech, oj of reckoning at all, even so far as 
to three, is a difficulty, of which our historian attempts not the solution^ 
But till he shall solve it, i must beg leave to tell him, that the one half 
of bis tale contradids the other as effedually, as if he had told us of a 
people, who were so weak a*s to b^ incapable, of bodily exertion, and yet, 
that he had seen one of them lift a stone of a hundred weight •-*-! beg your 
pardonj Madam, for running into this subjed.* The truth is, I was 
lately thinking to write upon it ; but I shall not have leisure these many 

In the summer of 1773» Dr. Seattle had the honour of being in- 
tfoduced to the King and Queen^ with whotn he had a long confe* 
.rcQCC at Kew, and soop after bis Majesty settled on him a pension of 



sool. a transai!l!on 'which reflefled equal honour on the pmty vtho 
conferred, and tlic pany who received, the favour. In the month of 
• July in that Vcar, tlie honorary degree of Doflor of Laws was con- 
ferred on him by the University of Oxford, as a mark of admiration 
of his pfhilosophical and |K)ctical talents, and as a testiniony of esceein 
lor his virtuous applicatign of l)Oth< The former of ^hese events set 
him at his ease in rcspe£i of circumstances, and left l)im at full liberty 
to pursue his studies, as far as his domesric afBi£t ions would allow him. 
The appearance of a posthumous work of Hume*s, called " Dia-' 
logues on Natural Religion,*^ in 17799 gave rise 10 the following just 
animadversions of Dr. Dcaitie. 

** An extraordinary book has just now appeared in tkis country ; but be- 
fofc I sajr any thing of it, I must trouble you with a short narrative. 

'* During the last years of Mr. Hume's lite, his friends gave out that 
ht regretted his having de^lt so much in metaphysics, and that he never 
would write any more. He was at pains to disavow his * Treatise of 
Human Nature,' ih an advertisement which he published about half a year 
Wore his death. All this, with what I then heard of his bad health, 
made my heart lelent towards hira ; as you would no doubt perceive by 
the concluding part of the Preface to my qiiiirto book. But immediately 
iifter his death I heard, that he had left behind him two manuscripts, with 
ftri^tharge that they should be published by his executors ; one, the 
• History of bis Life ;' and the other, * Dialogues on Natural Religion.* 
This last was said to be more sceptical than any of his other writings. — 
Yet he had employed the latter part of his life in preparing it. The copy 
which I have, was sent me two day^ ago by my friend and neighbour Dr. 
Cjunpbell ; than whom no person better understands the tendency «and tl)e 
fbtility x>{ Mr. Hume's philosophy, and who accompanied it with a note in 
the following manner : * You have probably not yet seen this posthumous 
per^rmance of David Hume. As the publisher, v/ith whom I am not ac. ' 
qnaintedy has favoured me with a copy, I have sent it to you for your 
pemsal ; and shall \ye glad to have your opinion of it, after you have 
lead it. For my part, I tl^ink it too dry> and tpo metaphysical, to do 
/touch hurt ; neither do I discover any thing new or curious in it. It serves 
hut as a sort of Commentary to the * Dialogues on Natural Religion and 
Providence,' published in his life time. What most astonishes me is, the 
zeal which this publication shows for dissCT^inating those sceptical prin. 
dples •.' 

** In my answer -to Dr. Campbeirs note, I told him, that I was happy 
to fndj from his account, that the book was not likely to do inuch harm ; 
diat I would acquiesce' in his judgment of it, which I was persuaded was 
josf ; but that at present my circumstances, in regard to health and spi* 
ritSj would not permit me to enter upon the study of it. 

** Are yoo not surprized, "Madam, that any man should conclude his 

* Dr. CampbeH's prediAion, as to the fate of this posthumous work of 
Mr. . Hume's, seems to have been completely verified ; for the " Dia,.. 
logues concerning Natural Religion," arc now never heard of. 

* .lift 

Sir William t'orWi Lift 0/ Dr. Beattie. 45 

life (for Mr. Hume knew he was dying) with preparing sach a work for 
the press ? Yet Mt. Hume must have known, that, in the opinion of i 
great majority of his readers, bi^ reasonings, in regard to God and Pro* 
videcKe, Were most pernkious, as well as most absurd. N-ay, he himself 
leeo^ to think them dangerous. This appe^-sfs from the following fed, 
which 1 had from Dr. Gregory. Mr. Hjme was boasting to- the Dovlor, 
that among his disciples in Edinburgh he had the honour to reckon manjr 
of the fair sex. • Now tell me,* said the Dowlor, * whether if you had 
a wife or a daughter, you would ivisb them to he your disciples ? Think 
well before you answer me ; for I assure you that, whatever your answ^ 
is, I will not conceal it.' Mr. Hume, with a smMe and somehesitatioo, 
made this reply : — ' No ; I believe scepticism may b<! too sturdy a virtue 
for a woman.* Miss Gregory * will certainly ^remrmbor, that she has 
heard her father tell this story. How diffeieiir h Do^or Gregory *i 
' Legacy + ' to Mr. Hume's." 

Who, after this declaration, w!!l dare to say that Hume was in 
honest man I Can any profligacy be greater than that ot a man pro- 
fessing, and endeavouriiTg to propagate, certain do(5trines, which he 
woald nor wish his wife and daughter to entertain or believe ! Either 
Hume believed tliat his dodlrines were true, or he knew tbem to be^ 
£alse. In the first instance it was the height of injustice not to seek to 
impress tlie same belief on the minds of those wliom he most valued ; 
and, in the lasjt case, his condu(Sl in labouring to propagate falsehood 
as truth, v^as most infamous^ Hitherto we have heard nothing of the 

,poliUcal principles of Dr. Beattie ; but it will appear from his obsor^ 
▼attons on the Peace of 1783, that they were as sound as hhphUcs^^ 

. phical principles. 

** I really do not know what to say, or what to think of the 
times. — They seem to exhibit scenes of conifusioin, which are too ex. 
tensive for my poor head either to arrange, or to comprehend. We 
had much need of peace ; but I know not whether we have reason to 
rejoice in the peace we have made. Yet Lord Shelburne »;poke 
plaasibly for it ; bat Lord Loughborough was as p]au>ible on the 
other side. When a controversy turns upon a fa^, in regard to which 
the two contending parties are likely never to agree, a decision is not to 
beexpeAed; and people may continue to wrangle, and to make speeches, 
till death, like the President of the Rpbin-Hood, knock them down \v!(2i 
his hammer, without coming one ipch nearer the truth than they were at 
first. This seems to be the present case. If we were as much exhausted, 
and our enemies as powerful, as one party affirms, we had nothing for it 
bat to surrender at discretion, and any peace was good enough for uf : 

• Daughter of the late Dr. John Gregory ♦ who, at the date of this 
letter was on a visit at Mrs. Montague's, Miss Gregory ib now the wHe 
•of my respe^ied friend, the Rev. Mr. Alison. 

■I- Dr. Gregory's elegant little posthumous work, " A Father's Legacy 
to his Daughters." 

• See vol. i. p. 34* 


'jfi ORIGINAL eR>Tl<^isM« 

but if we were as little exhausted, and our enemies as Httle powerful as 
the other party says, we might have made a struggle or two more before 
we called out for mercy. 

** To the present confusion in our Councils I can foresee no end, till 
tlie rage of .party subside, or till the executive power regain some part of 
that influence, which it has been gradually losing ever since I was capable 
of attending to public affairs. The encroachments that have lately been 
•made on the power of the Crown are so great as to threaten, in my opi- 
nion, the subversion of the Monarchy. Our Govemnient is too demo- 
crfltical ; and,^ what we want> in order to secure its permanence, i&.noC 
more liberty, for we have too much, but the operation of a despptiqil 
principle to take place in cases of great public da'-^ger. If it had not been 
■for this, {he Consular state of Rome would not have existed two hundrod 
years. I hate despotism, and love liberty,, as much as any man ; but 
because medicine has sometimes killed as well as cured, I would not for 
that reason make a vow never to swallow a drug as long as I lived. The 
,despo;ical principle I speak of might be a little violent in its operation^ 
like James's powders and laudanum ; bue if it could allay paroxysms a^d 
fevers in the body w politic (which^ by judicious management, it certainly 
might do), *it would be a valuable addition to the Materia Medica of Go- 

This IS a tmc pidlure of ihc state of the country at that time ; 
and yet such was the violence of party spirit, that the HoQseof Cocn* 

•inons liad voted, r^otlong before, •* that the influence of the. Crown 
had increased, was increasing, and ought to be diminished T! !" — On 
a visit to London in the spring of 1784, Dr. Bcattie hcid an opportu-^ 
niiy of seeing Mrs. Siddons, of whose professional talents he speaks, as 
every one must speak who witnessed them at that period, in terms of ad- 
itiiration ; -and having met that lady in company, he gives the following 
Just account of her private charader, in words few but . expressive— « 
** Mrs. Siddons is a modest, unassuming, sensible woman ; of the 
gentlest and most elegant manners. Her moral charadler is not only 
unblemished, but exemplary.'* 

On the appearance of Mr. Burke*s celebrated Reflexions on the 
French Revolution, a work, which all eloquent as it is, is less admi- 
rable fot the richness of its splendid eloquence, than for the profound-* 
n^s of its prophetical wisdom. Dr. Beattie thus delivered his seiiti- 

' menis on it ro the Duchess of Gordon. 

'• After the patient hearing which your Grace has done me the honour to 
grant to several of my opinions, I presume ypa will not be at a loss to guess 
what I tljink of Mr. Burke's book on the French Revolution. I wished 
the French nation very well ; I wished their government reformed, -aiul 
their religion ; I wished both to be according to the British model : , and 

, I know not what better things I could have wished them. But (with 
the skill and temper of that surgeoui who, in order to alleviate the tootl}^ 

^ache, should knock all his patient's teeth down his throat},, they, instead 
of reforming Popery, seem to have resolved upon the abolition pf Chri^« 
tianity ; instead ol amending their government, they have destroyed it ; 
and, instead of advising their King, to consult his own and his people's 


Sir William Forbes^i Life o/Dn Beattie. 47 

di^ty, by making law the rale of hiscondad, tbcy have used him much 
moxe cruelly than our Charles 1. ..was lued ; they have made him a pr|. 
sooer and a slave^ 

" They will have a democracy, indeed, and no aristocracy \ Thegr 
know not the meaning of the words. A democracy, in which ^i/ men are 
supposed to be perfi^^Uy equali never y^i took place in any nation ; an4 
never can, so long as the disrinfiions ale acknowledged, of rich and poot» 
master and servant, parent and child, old and yonng, strong and. weak, 
adire and indolent^ wise and unwise. They will have a republic ; and 
of this woxd too* they misunderstand the meaning ; they 'confound repub. 
lie with levelling: and a levelling spirit, generally diifuscd^ would soon 
overturn the best xepublican fabric that ever was reared. They must also 
have a monarchy (or at least a monarch) without nobility ; not knowing 
that withoar nobility a free monarchy can no more subsist, than the roof 
, of a house can rise to, and retain its proper elevation, while the walls arc 
but half built ; not knowing, that where there arc only two orders of 
people in a nation, and those the regal and th:*- plebeian, there must be 
perpetual dissention between them, either till the King get the better of 
the people, which will make him (if he pleases) des}>otical, or till the 
people gtt the better of the King, wJiich, where all subordination is abo* 
lished, must introduce anarchy. It must be the intei^est of- the nobility 
to keep the people in good huknour, these Ueing always a most formidable 
bo^y ; and it is equally the interest of the ijobles to support the throne ; 
for if it fall they are crushed in its ruins^ The same House of Commogs 
that murdered Charles I. voted the House of Lords to be. useless : and 
when the rabble of France had imprisoned and enslaved their King, 
they immediately set about annihilating their nobles'. Such things have 
happened : and such things must always happen in like circumstances. — 
These p^nciples I have been pondering in my mind these thirty years ; 
•and the more 1 learn of history, of law, and of human nature, the more 
I become sat^fied of their truth. But there seems to be just now in 
France such a total ignorance of human nature and of good learning, as 
is perfectly astonishing ; there is no consideration, no simp.iTiity, no dig- 
nity; all is froth, phrenzy, and foppery. 

** In Mr. Burke's book are many expressions that mjght, perhaps, 
with equal propriety, have bceu less warm : but against . these it is not 
easy to guard, when a powerful eloquence is animated by an ardent mind. 
There are also, no doubt, some things tha< might have been omitted with- 
out loss : and the arrangem?nt of the subjcd might perhaps, have been 
made more convenient for ordinary readers. But the spirit and principles 
of the work, I, as a lover of my King, ajid of the Consiitufion of my 
Comitry, do highly approve; and within my very narrpw circle of influ- 
ence, I shall not fail to recommend it. It cnme very seasonably; at»a 
time when a considerable party among us are labouring to introduce into this . 
island the anarchy of France ; and when some seem to enterta'n the hope, that 
the carnage of civil war will soon deluge our streets in blood. But no matter 
.say they, provided Kings, and Nobles,, and Bishops, are exterminated; , 
and Mahometans, Pagans, and Atheists, obtain universal toleratiocw 

^*' Fofiw I l i c e B ded lu hav e atte m pie dtowrite sometbing on the subje^ 
o£ Mr. Bucke's book,- and nearly according to his, plan : and had my 
diSnd been i liitle more at ease during the last summer^ I believe. I should 



have done it* Bat when I heard that Mjt. Burke had the matter in haid, 
) knew any attempt ol; mine would be not only useless, but impertinent. 
He has done the subje^ infinitely ^ore justice than it was in iny power 
to do.", ^ 

The fbllowiog remarks of Sir William Forbes, on the insufficiency 
of natural religion, reason, and on tiie danger of placing too great a 
reliance on them, are deserving of serious attention. 

" An eminent Professor of Moral Philosophy, Dr. Ferguson, whose 
' Le^ares,' delivered in the university of Edinburgh, have been published 
&ince he resigned his chair, has the following observation : 

'^ It may be asked, perhaps, why he (the Professor) should rest rid 
his argument, as he has done, to the mere topics of Natural Religion and 
Reason ? This, being the foundation of every superstrudure, whether in 
morality or religion, and therefore, to be separately treated, he considered 
as that part of the work which was allotted to him. Farther institations 
may improve, but cannot supersede, what the Almighty has revealed in 
hb works, and in the suggestions of reason to man. 

*^ When first we from the teeming womb were brought, 
*< With inborn precepts, then, our souls were fraught." 


'' And what t lie Author of our nature has so taught, must be cdnsi. 
dered as the test oi' every subsequent institution that is offered as coming 
from him*." In this concluding sentiment, Qr, Ferguson is no doubt 
•perfcrtly right; and yet I cannot but presume totally to differ from him 
in regard to his maxim of confining himself to arguments drawn from 
natural religion and reason alone. The consequences of su<;h a mode- of 
teaching appear to me extremely hazardous : for if the Profv-ssor shall 
state an argument, amounting to any strong degree of probability, which 
at the best is the utmost he can do, there is danger that the student may- 
rest satisfied with the reasoning, and, leaving revelation entirely out of 
the question^ may not seek to carry his inquiries any farther. If on the 
contrary, he derive no solid convidion from the use of mere reasoning, 
the risk is, that he will sink into decided scepticism and infidelity. 

Dr. Beaai«, on the contrary, while he does ample justice to his argu. 
ments from reason, never loses sight of the Gospel, as the sole anchor of 
a Christian's hoj^e. As a proof of this, take the following among many 
instances that might be produced from the book now before us. TIWk 
^eiitimentK enforced are so transcendent ty beautiful, that they never can 
be out cf p!aceor season, wherever they may be found. 

*« III bis second chapter of Natural Tht^ohgy^ speaking of the divine 
attributfs, he says : * Revelation gives such a display of the divine 
go )dncss, as must fill us with the most ardent gratitude and adoration. 
For in it we find, .that God has put it in our power, notwithstanding 
ojr degeneracy and unworthiness, to ()e happy both in this world ana 
lor ever} a hope which reason alone could never have perdiitted us to 

♦ Prefatory advertisement to ** Principles of Moral and -Political Sci- 
ence/' by Adam Ferguson, L. L,lD» p. vii, 


Sir Wiliiinr P«rWi Lryi if Dr. JSeaUu. #9 

cfttmain on iny groond et^ottiiinty^ And here we may repett what 
was already hinted at, that although the right ute of it^tMoa sappUes oar 
first notions of the divine nature, yet it is from tevelation that wt rc» . 
ceive tbose distinA ideas of His attributes and providence, which are the 
fbnndarion of our dearest hopes. The most enlightened of the Heathen 
had t»o certtiin knowledge of His unity, spirhiiility) eter&itj, wisdom^ 
jcsctce, or ndercy ; and, by ^consequence, coold neVej* C6ntfivea c^mforuble^ 
fiysfcm of natltfsri religion, as Sdcrates, the wisest of them^ acknowledged*/* 

In allusion to theoretical or speculative moralists. Dr. fieattie says, 

" I have ahrays considered morality as a praflical science,- and in tvttY 
' ^thcr part of literature, T do not "i^ee the use of those specuiatioUt that can 
be afj^^icd to no prad^tcal pdrpose. It may be ^d, that they •eKterdte 
the human faculties, and so qualify Inen for being casuisci and diputaats : 
iNit casuistry «ml disputation are not the business for whkli man is atot 
into the wo^d; although I grant, that they may sometimes^ like 
dancing and playing at cards, serve as an amusement to those whQ have 
acquir^a taste for them, and have hothlng else to dot" . 

In this short pnssage there are more sound wisdom and good- 
sense, than 10 all the ponderous essays of the sceptical phiiosophist 

The evening of Dr. Beattie's life was clouded by domestic af- 
tH&um. At the latter end of the year 1790, he lost his eldest soh, 
and early in 1796, it pleased Qoi to talce from him his other son ; 
both of^ them young men, of great proctiise, and, as might natutally 
be expelled from youths who were blest with such ^ parent, both of 
them of the soundest religious and moral principles* Oa the death of 
the last, he received a consolatory letter from his venerable friend, 
the Bishop pf London, which is, in our estimation, the best ktter of 
the kJiid we crcr read. 

'* I can scarce recoiled a time when I have been more surpriaed and 
aSi^kd tha^at the receipt of your last letter. It is indeed a sad and 
iiioflC4iaBal erent; and both Mrs. Poneos and myself most coidiaEy 
sym^thise with you in your loss and in yoor grief* At the same tfaoe, 
tbeieare circumstaocea in the case >vhidi giya no siaaU consolation to 
oof minds. Thefaich, the ficpys (he foftitu4ei displayed by so young a 
man on so awful an occasion, do incite credit to hiam, and must afibrd the 
highest satkfadson to you. And it is with no lesa plc;asure I observe the 
composure and resignation with which you support this great calamity. It 
shows in the strongest light the power of^Cbristian principle over the . 
mind ; and it show> also frpm. what soyurce thb ex<?eijent and ami abk y oyng 
man derived those virtues which adorned bis short life and digniied his 
prelMtiire death., 

** But I will dwrell .no longer on thb oielanchply sobjtA]-. nor 

will 1 at present obtrude' an)r .trifling matters ^on yoor seripaa .o^Qi^^ts. 

. When time, ^s a little M^ieoei the pre^re oC this ^afBij^ian, f 'will 

♦ '* Elements ofMoraf $ciente," Vol. i. p. 406. 
'no. xcix. rot. XXV. E write. 

Jt DiLlCIKAt 6ltlTfOI8|b . 

^ntt to ytln tgain; and, in the mean^irhtliei' tflnplore (ot you all tfce cdili* 

Though the Do£lor bore these affliiSlions with as much Cbnstjan 
^ticacp and resiguaiion as falls to ih^ share of any m^ni^ they never- 
theless preyed imi^erceptibly on his mind^ and impaired his constiturioiu 
In the %^iim of 1799 he a paralytic stroke, which - materiallr 
itSeiM hiancutties ; and inihe aucumn of i8o2 he ha4 ^ «irGond« whicb 
deprived him even of the power of motion. In this calamitous state 
be lingercdliH the 18th. of Auguj^t, 1803, when he died in the sixrjr-' 
eighth year of his age. The charadier of Dr. Beattie« as a philofiopheTy 
H pocisymd a mau, is very ably diawn -by his. friend and biographer ; 
we HHm\i ^iHingly extract iV, but our limits forbid usr From the 
lGti||h 9^ our quotaiions some notion may be formed of the value 
iviuch wc place on the work ourselves, and the leader aho wHl b# 
ejiabled to torm a pretty accurate estimate of its merits. The style is» 
in ilcntriil good, easy, perspicuous and forcible, without any atteoipt 
at meretricious ornament ; but, both Dr. fieattie and his i>iognipher 
occasionally maJce. use of Scotticisms, and fall into grammatical errrgrs* 
Of .these we have marked a few. * In the introdu&ion, p. iii. vr^ 
read ; ** as he, who attempts to write bloj^raphy ;'' which is a pleonasm ^ 
k9l)oqld beeitl\cri ^* who attempts hi.)graphy'* or, ** who attempts 
to write the Jives of men.*' In p. v.ii. we have the following inac- 
curacy in the u^e of the two past tenses, ** any anecdote or opinion 
which Dr. Bcattie himself could have wished to havi uipfrts^ed^ i( 
ought to be '^ could have wished to suppr^/' In vol* ii. p. ^9^ 
Dr. Bcattie says ** 1 am sure / wilt (shall) do well in doing what he 
recommontlcd.** . Tjiis is a Scotticism, and the more remarkable as 
Dr. Boattic devoted some portion of bis time and attention in pre- 
paring for the press a list of such Scotticisms as were most in use, 
with a view to their corrediort. In page 318, of ihe'sanie volume* 
••re find die. 2>9Ai>r sajririg •' I inquired of (^^//r> hiin.^t (1^) John^ 
ion, iw]io owiied he hadiuiown him* &c, in voL iL )pag;e 'y^%% Sir 
*WiBiiim Forbes gfves a verb plural to a aoimnative stnguior***^ an 
subja<fls wlirere (onwhhk) bis^ heart or his. imnginationaiie (is) \xkxt^ 
rested.** These ave f rifting blemishes which do not, in the smatiesC 
degree, affe^Sl the, general merit of the wwk •, tbongh it is c«r doty, 
ascfitic*\ to nofite'ihem. ' "Wc arc happy tb find that a new edrtioii 
of Dr. Bcatrie''s*wbi1cs is *aboiit lo'be published, under the superin* 
tending care of this vefy^Me bioj^rapher. 


The Beauties of England and IVahs : or^ Delineatiom^ ^Tapopretpkkol^ 
" Hli^ieiil, iemd Dmriftive, ef each Cmttf, emMlisheJ wifk En^ 
'^ yMf/ff A «y Jdhn Britton and Edward Wcdhke Braylev. VpL 
•- \lt. ' Wtt*^"IV;S^. t«*. V^raof and Hood, &c 1803: 

— T-WOoe«aM6y Dev^osbwe and Dorsef)Bh»^ocai|iy4he whole 
lif this volume ; and theiicscriptiw given of them sccni tq be torrtSU 

• :' '.^ . Li 

Bricton and BnyfeyV fmfttm tf Bngland and f^ales* ^ ^i 

Itt ihc 4isxn& of West D^vmi '^ iiKide of thraihiDg whttt and ry«f 
for tlie purpose of {^rtsorviiig the straw from injury, prevailst 'whtch* 
we ffhoiiM thtfik^. waujd i:o$|. 9^ much ia labour ai the scraw^ wheil 
thrashed/ is worth. , 

** Ma»jr ^( iht iumm^ are CQ#ei^ with fi)atch, t^^ ptocure trhith, with 
as Jttffe in)ot3r to the ftiraw as p<Mubley the wbdat^id rye iu t\m diatriA^ 
iodg t«dM»: in oiosl «tker partf pf the West of Et^lind, are thmM 
ia the hihwing siagsiar manaer* In the first operatioa the ears are ekhesr 
tkrmkoi iigfady wiih the BbH, or they are beaten across i cask hy handle 
uUihe grain be got pretty W^ oy t of them* The next operation is to 
■aspitMi tbc straw in large doubie handfuls, in a short rope fixed highabo?i» 
^ head, with an iron hook at the loose end of it> which is put twice 
coond the little sheaflet/ jy^t below the ears^ and faiteoed by the hook being; 
fixicd in the tight part of the top?. The left hand being now pUced firmly^ 
«i|ioii tbehook* amipntling.dowDWard so as to. twitch the straw hard,afla 
{xe^ent the ears from slipping through, the butts aie freed from short 
sciavs aod. weedsj by mesins of a small, long.toothtd rake, dr ceoib.— 
This done^ the rope is onfiastened, and the r^^^laiid evenly ifl a heap* A 
^oantity of dean, straight, anbruised straw« or ite^^ being thas obtained, 
it is fonned into small sheaVes, returned to the floori and the eah thrashed 
KgaiD with the flaili or by hand over the cask, 'to iWe it eff^dlually front 
aoy remaioing grain* Lastly^ the ree^f is made up into-bindlesi pcovin« 
csally sheaves, of thirtv.six pounds each^ with all. the ears at one endj 
the batts being repeatedly punched upon the floor, until they are as even 
as if they had been cut off smooth and level with a scyiihe^ while the 
irraws lie as straight, and ate almost as stobt as tiioie of inferior Hrd^ si 
stems of the arundo *•" 

We have a very full atid interesting accoiint of the Cathedral at 
Exeter ; ami, among odany other tilings wortliy of notice in that vc'* 
nerabie strud^urc, is a modem inscription on the tomb of Laura, wif<^ 
of George Ferdinand, Lord Southampton^ whb died in June, ij^tf 

• '« i^arewell, dfafsAiadel but let this liteihlc tellj 

What h^v'oly worthr ia yoath and beauty feUi 
With every virtue blest^ whate'er thy lot. 
To chaiia a coTirt^ or dignify a cot ; 
In each reUtion shone thv varied life> 
Of daughter, sister^ mother, friend, and w]ki 
^lieeaw^tth delight in fortune's goldeli ray, 
Suf 'ni>g remaw'd to grace thy parting 4^ } 
Wfa^' smiling hv^uof spoke the candid ^ojilj 
And patience che^'d the sigh aSe^oh stolen 
mie gifts of hea^ in piety conftsi, 
€abiily resigned, andev'ry j^aint suppreit; 
^Fbe consort's fiiith, t^ patoit^t tender caie^ 
toiliit tim hat look, and breathe Che dying pray'i*; 

• Raral Economy, &c. vdt'rj. page i8t. 

E 2 ' I5ia 

52 0»tCIKAt eiCtTlClftltf. 

The prevKlence of soperstittoitj it metmt is scitl observable iif the 
'W'est of England ; Mid a singular iastaoce of it is related in oar au* 
thpr's acc«iiane of the family df the Oxenhamsy of Newliouse, in the 

parish of Marnhead: > 

** the superstition which originates hi the belief of entinoos appear* 
unctBf" (or; rather^ the belief of oxni^at appearances which origimices in 
M^wtstirionj our autjiors appear lo hare nustaken the efeA fdrfiiecaase^^ 
** preceding death,' is isingularly illustrated in traditional ciiciunstanoet re* 
lating to thi» family* It is said^ and believed hf many, that every de- 
<%ase is prognosticated by the apparition of a nuhiu^reatied hird, which 
is seen to flutter about the bed of the sick person, and stkidenly disappear. 
This circumstance is particularly noticed by Howel» in his Familiar Let. 
' ters : wherein is the following moiuimental inscription, 

'^ ' Here lies John Oxenham, a goodly young man, hn whose chambef^ 
as he was struggling with the pangs of death, a bird, with a white breast, 
was seen fluttering about his bed, and so vanished.' 

** The same circmnstance is related of his sister Mary^ and two or 
. three others of the family." 

A very difibrent ioscrlption from that which we have quoted abovc» 
appears on the tomb of Richard Adlam, the Vicar of the parish, ia 
the cburch of King'a Teignton. He died in 1670. 


<< Dam\d tyrant I can't pi^phaner blood suffice ? 
. . Must priests that offiu- be the sacrifice ? 

Go tell the Genii that in Hades lye, • . ^ 
Thy triumphs o*er this sacred Cal<vary; 
Till some just Nemesis avenge our cause. 
And force this kiU^ptiest to revere good laws */' 

V A more prof am inscriotion never disgraced a Christian tenfple !-^ 
We are only surprized tnat it should have been sufiered to remain 
for the long term of 1^6 years; i^d we • earnestly hope that thi 
Bishop of the diocese will order il-iobc removed without fxirther 

Near to Ford^ a house belonging to the Couhcna^y famllyy *• is a 
charitable institution! c&lled the Widvxc^* House^ bearing this inscrip- 
tion on its front: 

*' 1st stratige a Frophef's wtdowe poore shoolde be ? 
' If strange, then is the Scriptuie strange to thee !*' ' 

<' This was founded by Lady Lucy, wife of Sir Richard Reyndl, Ibr 
the reception of foiiij^leigyaen's widows ; eacb^f whom was to reodve 
an annuity of fiv^ pounds ji^r^,- yet the feoft^s have altered the origin 
nal institution, and oi|lv two widows are. now adagatted, with a salary o£ 
ten pounds eaeh| annuaUjr,^ Ovpr the pew allotted to these matrons iti die 
' cinnch of Wilbofouj;li , is a cortoos account of she tiecessary qoaliiBa^ 
tions (which) thcy^xe-to ixASess, and ibe rales (whieh^ they iare to obu 
serve, to entitle mm to the tesidenc^ and the*ahnuity, * Tbcf shall he 


BrittDo and ^mylcy V BmuiUs cfMMgUuid and fVales. . jg 
tioe gaddersy goisopcrs, utkrs, ttle->bearers« nor given to iqifoachM 
voidsj oor abusers of anye. And noe man may be lodged in anye of / 

said hooses ; nor savft, beare^ ale« or wync>- be found in anye of y said 
hoQseSj &c.' " 

A complete history is given of the Edystone L5glit-housc, in the 
course of which some curious anecdotes are' introduced. The follow- 
ing iiaic of generosity in Lewis the Fource^nd^ deserves co. he re«* 

^* Lewis the Fourteenth being at war with England during the pro. 
ceedng with this building, a French privateer t(x4c'tbe men at work^ 
noQ the Edystone Rock, together with their toolSj and ctrried them HI 
Fmoct i and ihe Captain was in expedatioa of & reward for the acchieve. 
neoc. While the captives lay in prison, the traosadion reached the eara 
of that sBOoarch.; be immediately ordered tbea to be releasad| and tho 
Captors to be put in xbeir places ^ declaring, that tboagh he was at war 
with England, he was not so with mankind. He therefore direded the 
men to be sent back to their work, with presents i observing, t^at the 
*. Edystone Light-house was so situated, as to be of equal service to all 
nations, having occasion to navigate the channel between England and^ 
France.' After this occurrence, the workmen were proteAed by frigateSt 
hf order of Frinee George of Denmark." 

Hov Jifierenc was the condad of a ncble-niinded Prioce, from 
tbacof Ac low-bom, vindiAitc^ and malignaiit Usurper, who now 
siu upon his throne I 

In the historical sketch of Dorsetshire, there is the following icurn 
ous accoant of a man who had the facultv, supposed to be peculiar to 
certain four-footed animals, 06 chewing the ciid. 

*' A v^y extraordipary person, of the name of Roger Gill, Shoemaker, 
and natjve of Wimbomei ai)d one of the singing men belonging to the 
church, died her^ in 17671 aged about 67. This person was remarkable 
for chewing his ^at or cud twice over, like a sheep or ox. * Being ex- 
amined in I'J^ff wheo he was 64 years old, he said, he seldom made any 
breakfast in his, latter days. He generally dined about twelve or one 
o'clock, eat pretty lipartily,.apd <|uickiyi without much chewing or mas- 
tication. He never dranj^L with his dinner, but sometime afterwards^ 
aboat a pint xst such malt liquor as he could procuft. He had an aversion 
to all kinds of spirituous liquors ; nor did he ever taste them in any shape« 
except a little punch, and was never fond of that. He eat but little but. 
ter^ peascj pncakes^ and fresh. water fish he could not touch, except 9 
little bit of broiled eel ; they all returning greasy into his throat. He 
cat all garden.stuflT, except carrots. He usually Began his second chewing 
about a quarter or half an hour, sometimes bter, after dinner, when 
erery mond came up successively sweeter and sweeter to the taste. Some. 
times' a morsel woidd prove offensive arxl crude ; in which case he spit it 
eat. The chewing continued about an hour or more ; and sometimes 
woelfl kave him a little while, in which case he would be sick at sroi 

£ I mack. 

|4 Ot:iotllAt OflLITICUM^ 

|BAdi> tidobM v^Ii ^^ hettft^bufni tos» of^ appetite, foifl breathy Ac. 
jBaoaking tobacco would sometimes stop his chewing, bat was not attend^ 
«d with iny ill conseqiience* Aboot four months before he died^ this 
facultf of chewing entirely forsook him^ and thp poor man remained in 
ipttL% agonies till the time of his death. He was some yeari ago examin- 
pd, as to his case, by Dr. Archer, of Dorchester^ and three other per- 
sons, to whom he produced a morsel of beef and cabbage, whicti^ stuck in 
flis moath while he was calking to them about it *." 

Near Bindon Abbeyj In this county, Mr. Weld has, wfth the 
approbation of Government, assigned a building for the reception of 
some emigr^ynt monks from thi£ <;oi)vent' (not the tnkr f , asoAr aii« 
l^iors have it) of }hz Trappe in Normafidyi To such as^luitA ad 
fiiSt there can be po possible objeSion* They are san^ioned by 
Chrisliao charity, and are attended with no dangtr to the estaMtshea 
feligion of the country. Tlie monks of La Trappe are not likdy to 
inake converts; the severity of their discipline Vs not calctiiateri to est- 
Hlxe imtfarton rafid,- besides* their thoughts, we4ietievc, are not bent 
eh this world. But very different, indeed, is a nunnery iti tlie diocese 
of London ; where the nuns live in a splendid manner ; take boarders 
it aij exorbitant price, and exert every aitlfice to procure an mcrease 
(£ their members. Some English young Ladies have already become 
their dapes, and have taken the veil. Qf tl/is wecompbii)^ as an mSk 
pf treacherous ingratitude For favours l^estowed, and, as an insuh to 
ibe uatiop which has offered diem a. refuge which they coold not ob- 
tain in any country professing rlutir own religion. Such an obose^ 
we repeat, and will continue to repeat until it shall be re^edied# 
should not he tolerated. 

The account of tlie origin of I«a Trappe, to such of our readers as 
are not acquainted with die fai^, may not be uniiueresting. 

** The founder ^rf" this order is said to have been a French Nobleman^ 
who«s name was Bonthiilier de Rance^ a man of pleasure and dissipation^ 
which were suddenly converted into devotion and melancholy by the fol.. 
Idwing cireumstanee. His affair$ had obliged him to absent himself fb^ 
AOme time from a Lady, with whom he had lived in the mos( intimate 
and tender connexions. On his return to Paris, he contrived a pkn, in 
orifer 10 surprize her agreeably ; and to satisfy his impatient (Ksire of 
sftMng her, by g^ng without ceremony, or previous notice, to her aparr. 
flMSnt# She lay stretched out an inanimate corpse, di&figarod beyond c6n- 
fikption by the small.pox ; and the sargeon was about to separate the 
aead frem the body, because the comn had been made too short ! He was 
I ftw moments motionless with horror, and then fetired abruptly from 

t Hutchins's I>orset, Veil, ii. page 580, ad^Edtcion* 

t If we mistake not the monks of La Trappe weie •£ the Cmnlmtkm 

order\ at least thfir rules and discipUac ^re orarty fb^ sMir at those off 

the Ourthttsianik^^Kxs 

CmV SifSigif in InkmU ^ 

-Ae imAA M t <wnrecir, in trhleh he passed the tcoAlnttef of Ui dafs4» 
the giealest mortifctcioii aadlde^oHon */' 

• . » 

The plates wbicli acccunpapy, and reaUj anbelli^ this voUiipo^ 

are extremely well executed. , 

(?i rc^^ Siragg^r in Ireland^ • 
(cuitcludedfraiA'pdge 406, ^«/. XXIV J 

THE ignorance in which die lower cbssea of fhe Irish have btofi 
\tf^ (ceoturies after othfcr liations have emerged from barbtfisai) 
cfaSefly by the artififes of tKek priests, who betmc tiieir igoonmoe to 
be the surest means of obtaining und preserving an abk>me dodiinioii 
over them, is particularly favourable to the growth of superstitious 
credality^ to whidi l^r. Carf assures us the Irish peasantry are ex« 
fremely probe. . • j. 

f' Some of the lower ott^sf s of Ronu^ Catholics* who have be^ eos 
joaned,a« (called by theoi hUck I^fttJ^ %t the «d of it^ to i^yif 
their exhilaimsion at its betng ovei^, carry aboui^ ^he steefM an herriogi 
irhicb they whip with rods> to (be great delight of all the blackguards a^ 
childien of the place* Tbey have also a custom of kindling bonfires upog 
emin^oeei at Itfidtummer £ve, to propitiate the sun to ripen tb^ friiits of 
she eafthr. FonoMiy they used to omt the same sacrtdce on tha first of 
yixfy and also on the last day of OAober, as a thanksgiving for harv^sM^ 
boiDe. If tl|i^ son is leasible ef these honoofSy it mght be supposed that 
H bowt •f wbiskeyj pUosd spoo his altar, would be more acceptable or 
aocooot.of its novelty* 

Why olie of these sdtrifices would be more acceptable than the other 
we ooofiM our inability to conceive;! 

<' The. common people also believe in fairiet. In the last century every 
rreiti £uilily in Ireland had a banshee, or fairy, in th^ sh^ of a littk 
Mghtful old woman, who used to warble a melancholy ditty under the 
windows of great houses, to warn the family that some of them were about 
SO die! these agiecable supematund visitors ha wnot been seen^ ftyr some 
time. They also beUeye that their ancient forts and mounts are sacied ^ 
a^ tittle fairy race, aod therefore w«nld not, for any consideration, touch 
them with, a spade* In several parts of Ire^uid are tif^ttoM^s; thin triasi- ^ 
gnUr Aiati^ with which the peasanty s^ppofie the fairies, when ai^gnr 
with them, destroy their cows. When these aniinaU die unexpeAedly ofa 
natural disease, they say they^arc tlf^iboi. The rustic requires a great 
deal of eocoorag^ement before he cs^ be brought to level an ant-hill, froin 
a belief that it is a fair^ mount." 

JMf. C^ust addsp indeed, tfv^t the lower orders of people in ahnost 

'} ^ fMiiefvasiaBi o^ibe Wesiein.<»onsi^; V^L pagtjf^^ ^ 

E 4 every 

56 oUKttif il4^cjU«)CAli, / 

cfory toQAtry ift inpeiitidpas ; more 4>t kss so we will witiM ; but- 
we believe he will find a material difference^ in the degrees of fuper^ 
stition* between a Protestant and a Roman Catholic country. That 
incest is a crincie holden in detestation amotig the Irish, we can readily 
believe, but we by no means concm-, either w?th our author, or witg 
Dr. Campbell, whom he quotes, in /hinking that there is nothing 
indelicate in the contcmphrtion of **Tiaked figures', male and femalt^ 
as large as life.'* 

Our author adverts to an evil pecttKar to If eland, on which a ereat 
deal has been said and written ; but he mentiops the subjed only in a 
very cursory way ; though its importance is sucli as to call for particniar 
dnn^iry from an inquisitive anfl philosophical travdier, and as^ we 
^onU have thought, would have led Mr. Garr into* a deep investiga-r 
tion, and a full ^mcassion of it. The following passage contains hk 
aenttitients on J^ft/^///-m««. 

5/ In Ireland there is a description of men who are like so many ra* 
venous wolves amongst the peasantry, known by the name of Middle* 
men. Between the a^ual proprietor, and the occupant of the land, there 
artf frequently no les^ Uian four or five progressive tenants, who frequenU/ 
never see the l«id which they hold, and which is assigned' from one ta 
the other, until encumbered and disoirited by such a concatenation «>f 
exaAion, instead of being able to make thrice the annount of his rent, aa 
Jie'oaght to be enabled to do, namely, orie.third for the support of hia 
finally, and the remaining part for contingencies, the fast taker can 
acarcel)^, after infinite trial and privation, pay his immediate Lord, a^kt 
Aed and cloth himKlf and family . 

'' ' A farm was pointed out to me m the Soath.west of Irdand, lor 
vhkh the occupier paid four hundred pound* per annum, a rent ^hich in 
England is very rufeSahlty* (how this epithet can be applied ^o fihr/ w« 
know not), * and would secure, with conynop good hushandqr and«pm. 
4lence, a very comfortable maintenance for the tenant and his iamily^ aa4 
enable him to lay a little by ; but instead of any appearance of comfort^ 
the farmer was half. naked, and his wife and family (were) xn rags. lYov 
little the land must experience the r^-invigoratiji^ benefits of good tus» 
bandry. cap easily be ima|;tned.' " ^' 

The greater the rent wlitch a tenant pays, the greater the necesaity 
for additional exertion and for good husbandry ; because ir is only by 
increas^Bgihe produce of the land, which cannoi?bedone without good 
irosbaodt^, and an impaoved system of cuktvatidn, that he can posstbijr 
hope t6 derive any profit from it. If si man p^ys a high rent and 
'neglefis his farm, ruin n'iust, of necessity, ensue.^-** *nic soil thus 
circumsianc^ rcscnjbles a starved hors^ carryinff treble. Without 
being slaves in fad, their condition is little b^ttbr than vassabge In it$ 
oiost oppressive form,'* — Here we cannot forbear to ask, why peo- 
ple wiH voluntarily place themselves in such a situation ? Am^n is not 
compelled 10 take a farm ; and it is aa much the fault of tettants as ^t 
-is of landlords ff rents are ever unreasonably high. The evil hfre 
complained of ircertaii^ ooe'bf a most seriooa aatnsc ; bift Mr. Catr 

hKiM traced h to its wa^ct. It m%^ be thoii^» liid^4hM ic^ 
ivobkl very soon cure iiself ; for if no m^fi could be found to uk« land* 
Q^oa such terms as the middk^nien impoGe> it follows of coqrse, that 
there-could be no Middle*meiu Aud surely it' woukl be betttr for ^he 
pe^saois to work as labooren oo a feriu, than to expose tlieiBselvcss 
to OHsery and ruin, 'by becoming the occupancy of it* if the wag^.^^ 
of laboMr-crs are inso|»cient for their support they ought to be raised,; 
^ Potatoes aod butter-milk*, the food of an English hog, fyvt^ th^ 
d^ading xepast of the Irl^h peasants ; a little oatmeal is a delicacy ; a- 
Simday bit of pork a great and rare luxury." Wjhy potatoes and h\itr* 
ter-mUk, more degrodingy than bread and cheese, and beer^Of! 
water, or shan tea and bread, whicli are the general food of the EngMsli. 
ypnntry, of both sexeK Mf\ Carr would find no small difficulty in. 
end^ntoff. We^^spe^S^, too, that if an exchange of food for th;^ of 
tbor br^hren in this coiintry were proposed toihe peasants of Iri^laodai 
tfaey would rejedl the offer ; so strong is the preyal?i¥^e of, h^jpih ^t^t 
so true is the okl vulgar adage— f* One. m4D*». meat is aaotber alai|'% 

'' With food as well the Dcajaot is supplied ' 

On Ida's cliff as Arno's shelvy side. 

And thooffh the rocky.crested summits frown. 

These rooLs, by cMstw^ turn to beds of down/' 

In short, nothing is. more absurd than the pra£lice of estimating di0 
fediogs and comforts of others, by the standard of our own. in our 
appraensioQ, the author, iiistead of proving tliat the Irish peasanii 
^ iU^ has only proved that the Irish liogs livt utelL JBesides, hovR 
can he reooncilg his notioos of their food widi the flatteciag pi<Siare 
wUch be has drawn of their persons and minds; of their, personat 
ttreiigtb and beautVi and of their meutal accomplishmenfsT of this 
fiSoaxCy one of the highest-finished pictures which we remember ^ver 
• tp lave contemplated, and drawn in the most ani^nated and giowing. 
coburs, we shall only say, that, if it be a likeness, Mr. Carr had not 
laScient time to draw it from the life. His remarks indeed must be 
founded on the information of others. We can assure hrm that we 
have talked with many people who have passed their whole lives in 
die CQiintrv, and who had every possible opportunity of forming a 
corred jnag^nent, and no disposition nor inducement to misrepresent 
^i£b, who have given us a verv different acpounc from -his. We 
tberdbre are^inclined to believe tnat he has been much misled by those 

A ftw p^ges farther, Mr. Carr mentioning an unfortuiuite traveller 

_^ they 

have milk, and that if they drink imtter^mU, it must be from 'choice and 
fmt from necessity. loj^ the idea of a man 11 viag' u^niuffef^^m^ when 
^4 r^otf shaves bis meal* with him^ is soq^bat ptrange. - 


on Whose iiUbrnfiitkin he reKci; hr^ of iittentional mkrepreleafatioii ^ 
we are sure he is utrerly incapable. When he a(kb> ** DepresaeJ to 
an eqoalhy with Che htsSt of the fietdy he shares his sorry meal wkh 
hit cow, his clog, ami his pig, who frequently feed with him as hit 
equal ass6ciates, <An of the same bowi;^ he evidently misralbes rhe 
thing; for, on his own statemenf, it appears, that t)ie Irisli peasant* 
tnsl^ of being depressed "by others to an equaWry v^ith the heajt of 
fhe field, voluntarily raises the beat^t of the fidd ro nn equaKty with 
himself. In short, '^Tiis ir not ihc language of historical narrative, 
hm the pretty pathc>s of poetry. But when Mr. Carr ascribes the 
rtMtious proceedings of the peasantry^ in the lite civil wars» ttai, 
«OMet)oendy) tlieir massacre of the Protestants, v^hom distindion of 
jge or sex, to " this sense of degradation," and to^ '* a coHviAion ffiat 
rfieir wretchedness has scarcely any thing below it in the scale of h#«* 
■HUi pdn^y/* we are constrained to tell him that he has been egre* 
cioBsly fm|)osed npon, and to refer him (othe history of ihe'rebemon' 
tor^he true motives of 'their 'condtfiSi. Wc must leave otir authf r ro- 
reconcile the.piflure of misery which he has drawn in page-z9l^ 
where he represents the peasantry, as we have seeo> a^ *S depressed 
to an equality with the beast of the field,'* and a& reeling a V sense of 
da;radation, and a cof^vi^ioa that his wretf bedness lias scarcely any 
thing below it in the scale of human pepury;" we say^i :we leave 
him to reconcile this pi<Sluie of the Irish |>easant| with that which lie 
dnmvsbf him in the very next page, where wc foinifl this |>t.iilim 
«* abounding with wit and sensil>iiity-^in gi^iety 9f heeni emd genu'ttte 
immmr i^xritw/zW/— ^presenting an tinion of pUasaniry and tcHdcr^ 
seat I i !^ We could extend our rem.irks ^nich farther ofli this sab* 
jeAy but we have said suflicrent to put our intelhgetit am flo> em ffis 
guv>d*agamst iin|K>&ition and 'misrepresentation, in his futone (burs. ' ^ ^ 

The whole, cf the i ith chapter is devoted to the suhjeft of Uittu 
a nl^eiSb very naruriitty^ ^ggesting itself to the mind of a travcUer om 
his first viah to IfekMid. But Mr. Carr^ ohjed is fo prove, whatf 
nobody wilf he dis|>osed to question, that bolls and blunders ^t iiat 
amfimal to Irelainl. VVe shall cxtradl two or three of his bc^ spe6iu; 

" tope, in his Translation ^Homer, id speakii[ig o( an ^agk and hct 
yoimg, says: 

** • Eight cflHew filled the mossy nest, 

'^ Also in his Essay on Criticisin : 

" * When first ypung Maro in his boi\ndIess jau&4t 
A wdrlt f outUiit immortal V,ococ (fcsign'd,' '•, , 

^ Pryden sUigs :,.,'• 



'^^ThcMbsoti tiso nng^ : 

<' ' He saw her chiinningy but lie saw ttot half 
,Tlie charms her downcast mpdestjr c^maal'd.* '* 

** -VSfgil aho knew how to make a bull, 

** ^ Moriapur ct in media arnia ruamus/ •• 

«« « Let us dic> and rmh in the middle of the fight.' '* 

With an due dererence to the author, the merit of making tbisiwll 
does not, in any degree, rest with the Roman bard; it is entirely coi»* 
fined to his translator; for the legitimate translation of the line is— 

" Let OS rush into the middle of the fight, and die/' 

It not being necessary, as he well kpows» to traodate Latin wgrd by 
word, in the order in which the words siaad; by doiag wUicht in* 
deed, we should naake wretched nonsense of it. 

*' But the/rcsf hkll belongs to Milton, who, in hit Paradise Lofr^ 

** * Adam^ the goMitiest man f^ men tiiice born' 
Hi^Mi; thtfitiral of herdaugbttrs^ Eve."* 

** A WiLCH Bull. — In some part of South Wales, when; IkmncLationi 
were frequent, a board Uras raised upon a post, on which was iflscrtbed« 
^ T6u are hereby desired to take notice, that when this board is six feit 
vndkr water, this road is impassable/ " '* ' 

As to the Chinese hdly contained in an appellation given to the Em« 
pon^rby-hisiubiedS) as a testimony of cbeir gratitbde, *< The father and 
Jbdier of his people,^' it is no bull at all, b«t a figurative npressioi^ 
highly compUtnentary and significant, iinponing tlut he was every thii^ 
to them. 

Oo hi$ visit to Limerick Mr. Carr found great sulked for lamen- 
tatioQ on viewing ^he House of Industry. He tells us, that if the 
traveller will walk over Thomood's Bridge to see this iioose-^ • 

'* He will quit a noble city, gay with novel opulence and faxury, for 
a ieene which will strike his mind with horror* Under the roof of tlii^ 
house I. saw madmen stark naked j gilded only by tfaehr irons, standing tn 
the niRj, in an open court, attended by w^men, their cells upon the gfpond 
ftbor, spantily supplied with straw, damp, and ilUsecored. Inihe waida 
of labour, abandoned prostitutes, in rags and v^ronn, each kMided with a 
long chain and heavy log, working only when the eye of the superintending 
ofioer was upon them, are associated throughout the day with icspedabk 
old female housekeepers, who, having no children to support them^ t<^ 
prevent fj^mishing, seek this wietchedasylum. At night they sleep to. 
gether in the same room ; the sick (unless in very extreme * cases), wa^ 
the healthy, the good and the bad, all crowded together. In the'vene, 
tcil ward, the wretched female sufierers were inipltiring (pr a little morq 

* T^K can be no dtfrees {f extremfp^^^Kur^ 


covering,^ whilst serenl ideots^ squatted in cornefC) btlf-nakcdf 'faflifl- 
famhhedy pale and Jiolloiv.^jed» with a ghastly grin, bent a vacant 
•tare upon the lo^Khsome scouc> &nd consuxrtn^aced its horror. . Fronting^ 
this ward^ across a }'ard, in a brge room, Dearly thirty feet loi^, m, 
^ving maniac, instead of being strapped to his bcdj was iiandcufid t« a 
•tone of 3colb. weight, which, with the most horrible yells, by aconvtil. 
sxTc effort of strength, he dragged from one end of the room to the other, 
constantly e^cpostd to the exasperating view and convenation of those who 
were in the yard. I have been well informed that large sums of motie^ 
Jiate been raised in every county for the ere^on of mad.housef :— how 
llr$ this money been applied ?'• ' 

This is, certainly, a horrible abuse, which ooght to be remedied 
without delay. Hdinanity shudders at the contcmplaiion of such 9 
l^cptaclc, wficrc persons tliM owght to be kept apart arc indiscricni- 
ftately huddled together, where all decency anddt^corum are outragedy 
afi4 where every thing but good order and good management is visn>lc. 
,,Iii tbesa^ cluipter which contains the account of Limerick, we 
Kave some remarks on the Irish language, of which, we take it for 
granted, Mr. Carr speaka, not from |)et90oal knowledge, bai from in- 
forroaiion. He says— <• it is rcinarkable for the varieties of its powers ; 
it is affc^kig^ meek, dignified, encrgeticy and sublime ; and so for- 
cibly expressive, that the translation of one compound epitliet woubi- 
£U tvyo lines of English verse. The numjbei* of synonima with wliich 
it abounds, prevents the ear from being satiated by a repetitioa^Qf 4ms 
same word. It has upwards of forty names to express a ship, and 
nrax^y an equal number for a house.*' 

For our parr, w&do not conceive that a variety of words to ttgnrAf' 
tkeiiamecliingt is any beauty in a language. It renders it mudi more 
dffic^t to letfrn, and creates a great deal of confusion, wbkb^is nor, 
in our* estimation, counterbalanced by any advantages. 

** At Limerick I k^ani one peasant address another, by saying, 
* Connas ta tu,' How are you ? lam told that the same salutation m 
Italian is ♦ Come stai ?' " T-rtie it is so, bur, not knowing the pit>-' 
noncidcion of the Irish, we cannot |>erceive the similiUKte between 
that 9nd the lulian. Amqng the Few words which Mr. Carr give$ 
as a specitBcp of the Irish language, are several which have so near a 
feaefublalice to the French, tiiat we are surprized he should nor have 
noTMed ic For instance*^icaven, ceai: FreiKh, f/V/; the devil,: 
diaffci: French, diabU\ the moon, luan: French, lune\ ^ cottage, 
taban: French, caSane; a nightingale, rosin-ceet: French, rossignof. 
Again, the sun, scl^ which is the same with the Latin ; as is a rose,' 
rosa. . 

There is great inconvenience in travelling in many parts of Ireland^^v 
frotp'the want of a proper chculating medium. Paper-money (if tho^ 
expression may be used) abounds, from the value of sixpence up^ 
wards, the circulation -oiF which is frequently limited to the village 
whence .ii is issued.; that. travellers are somiliflMt s topp ed at a 
turnpike from having no ropney which the toll-keeper will take.— ^ 

CaltV Strang in Irt!an3. hi 

•• IkuikerSy*' our author says, *< arc almost ascommon as potatoes in 
the counties of Lunerick^ Kerry, and Cork. At' iPvillnge not far 
AoHi Limerick, a blacksmith issues sixpehny notes, which circulate 
in tke village^ and no ianher. * 

^* In the band of obe of tAe militia regimenta I saw a banker who had' 
falUL fir Ji'v fmudt ! and^^ trifling as ^his miid is^ no doubt several &uf« 
fexcd by the petty defaulter. In short, were not the inconveniences of 
such a system greatly 0}ipressive, and the temptation to fraud shockin?,^ 
these mus^nito bankers would furnish many a smile to the traveller as he 
wanders through the west and south-west of Ireland ; but, as he values 
comfbrt and progressive motion, let him be careful how he receives in pay- 
— ^* the notes which will be offered to him." 

Xliit is an intolerable evtl to which some remedy ought to be ap« 
^ed. The cstablishmciit of a mint at Dublin would be the mott 
e&Aual means of rtmovingit) but some means ought cecuiniy to be 
adopted, without delay. In the vicinity of Ruthkcaie odr author saw 
many of the descendants of the Palatines, who emigrated to Ireland 
at the beginning of the ^st century. Thev are represented as a loyal^ 
laborions, and respeAable race of meiu ^* in the rebellion tiiey fermeil 
Cheottelves into volunteer corps, and, by. essenria} services, rei|oifcd 
ibe j>rotei^on which the nation had affimed to them ;" (requited tfatt 
natioa for the prote£lion which it had afforded' them). *^ The conotf 
wfak:fa they inhabit has experienced great advantages fk»i tfaetr skilt 
.and industry ; their cottages are buih atrer the; fasliion' of their owfi 
eoontry, and are remarkably neat and clean.'' ^ If we. wanted. alqr 
pffoof, diac the 61th and wreichedness^ which distinguish the cdttages 
qi the native Irish, arc. the tesuk of their own abominable idleness asd 
bad hadMts, this instance would st4>ply it. If they were as industrious 
as the Palatines, as orderly». and as well disposed, they might live iis 
comforuUy ; indeed, Mr. Carr himself observes, *^ the native pea* 
saairy havb been much improved by their society and example i** he 
theidbre admits that, circumstanced as they are, their situation is sus- 
ceptible of improvement by. their own efiorts ; and therefore shews 
the fallacy of the assenipn, that.their misery is awing to the.oppres- 
sion under whkh they laboiu*. - in 

In a poem quoted by our author for its-heautjr, no Joohe, ,is tlie 
/ollowing stanza : 

*' Thv hair by beauty's finders span^. 
Dipt in the gleam of setting sua; 
Sheds on thy neck, in wanton play. 
The mimic draft and fearls of a^,'* ' 

TUs is quite in the JD/Ak^CViunsstylb ; but as it is far loorsubliine 
ibr our comprehension, it would be die height of prcsumptio* in .us 
to attempt to cridcise it. 

Speaiung of a CaduJic school at Killaraey, Mr« Carr informs ill, • 
due aennnts educated cfaete ar^ oniteflisiliy squg^t after ; and be .ad- 

doces this as an icistance ^ to prov^4hac 4he greac ol^ed of die Ifisfi 
Government otighc to be (he illumination of the mindi of the lower 
orderit without akning at froselytism.'* Surely Mr. Carr hasiheiv 
(as, we are sorry ro oli^rvey in too many other places), suffered .hit 
liberarity to subdue bi$ judgment. We do not mean to deny that 
Romanists may make as good servants as Prottstants ; bur why^ be- 
cause educated at Killarncy; they are to be b^ttr^ we cannot conceive. 
Romanists will never, if they can avoid it, take Protestant servants^ 
and it is therefore not a little unreasonable to call on Protestaius to take 
Popish servants, in treftrtnct to those of tlieir own persuasion. When- 
ever our author adverts to religious topics, he appears to be out of his 
depth ; ami certainly he knows very little of the dtity of a Protestant 
Government, if he think, it forms no part of that duty to afixjrd all 
^lossible encourngcm^nt to the faith which it professes* He seems, in- ' 
deedf to think it a crime in those who are pfaced at the hcaid of a^im, 
to attempt to make proselytes to that whicb they xb, aod most, believe 
to be, the true relieion. If such prepcstefous leniimeots iiad obtasned 
at the. beginning of the sixteenth century, die r^rm0//9« cookl never 
.have uken place. He adds, '* rdtgion, let it imhrace whatever faiik 
ut may, aod education, must ioevitably create a iox/i of sodai QreUri 
igt/pn^iw and ignorance must ever engender a spirit wltich is bottiie 
.fo iGp How m;iny yeais jn^eto roll away in storm and bk)odriiedt *1nS- 
fere.tkis plain, hut iioportanc truth, shall be SLimitted or a£lfd upon r? 
iWe are' afraid that if this trmh were to b^submiiied to the test of ex« 
*perieiice, to be tried by recent events, it woukl not appear quite so 
^iii, nor so in^lible, as our audior seems to consider it; Wetvitl 
iinp^ ask him two questions, whkh may .lead Jiim to an nivcstigaciim 
itbai wiii enable him to asoertain the validiv^' of his own maxim. Passing 
.over the inaccuracy of religion embracing m faith^ we willarfc, fin!. 
Whether the reUgim of the Frend), hovfi 1789 to .the present day, 
4as ereaud a Iwt of socitd order? .and, aecondly, Whetlier in the re« 
ligttui of the Church oC Rome there is j|q superstition f In neferaice 
to the last question,, we will just remind bim, that all persons are diaaMed 
fromsitiinr in Parliament who do not, < upon aorA, declare that the 
leading doSriges of the Chinch of Romcj namely, transubstantiatioa^ 
the invocation of the Virgin and of Saims, and^e sner^fice ^ ihr 
roass» are iupin(i4i9ns and lieh/atrous. Now, Mr. Carr rery weQ 
knowS) that this said Roman Catholic religion iSouriahtdi in 4^ highest 
decree, iti France, where \\o other religion was tolerated, and that a 
spirit was engenderted hi that country, most hostile to social order.-— 
He, therefore, if true to his own principle, must infer that it wat 
full of superstition ; yet is it the very rcligiou which be takes every op- 
portunity to praise, and every attempt to discourage which he most 
siroogly.fkprecates. Now that wc are on Ibe aobjofi of relipon^ we 
tbaS noucsp all thp lemaining {lassagtaio tht book which relate to k. 
In paces 406, 407, Mr. Carr gives a vera brief account of the adion 
iM-ong^by Donovan, ibe baker, against Mr. O'Brien^ Vittr«<2eoe- 
aal u> Dr* .Ccfpingi^t titular Bkhop oi fibjuia^ and pioat nf Ae 


fBnAktd Ckn^kflq^ fer.taoRMMnanlcating httOi aTidiiepriftlig fcim 
of Us thrclihood, &1 the panknibrs of which our readers have before 
jeeii!mibrairr Numhers of diis ELerieWk Mr. Carr remarks on che 
imU in ' which Djpiioviw obtained a verdtdl of 50I. damages, that 
^ it clearly exhibics thac the influence of the Catholic priest, armol 
wkh the terrible weapon of excorn>iitiiitc&tijL>n, i« nbt ao omnipotent 
over his flock as it is osqaUy considered to i)e.'* Now» from cht whole 
of this transaAioo, of which We obcaiucd a much more circomsiao^ 
tiai account than our ntithor has gireo, we drew a direcUy opposite jtt*> 
ference. Indeed he has otnictcd a very essential p:irt of it, for, after 
iMs irerdMl, the priest had the assurance and the indecency again to 
attack Donovan in the very temple of peace, and he was literally turned 
}S9 force out of the chapel. — *' A few days after the aflion was tried 
tefbrc Judge Day, Donovan« the plaintiff, went to mass, whert, on 
entering the chap^ 1» Father O'Brien flew into a violent rage, and ex- 
claimeti against him in the most scvexc language of reprobation^ say* 
ii^ ihac he was a Juraic^ and accursed \\v the eyes of God and main, 
J4e said also, that he would 4ivest himseU'« that is, take his vestmenc 
off, whi^lihe did iic^ordingly : and A^% he would noc say mass if 
JDoAovaa remained i»th^clia4)eL At (asr, having worked up hit con« 
gnegatioD to a^ pitch of Ainaikal fury, lie hailooed them at jQkiDOvan« 
«faom they astavked, and forcibly aragged out of the chapel. Fatlier 
Cfiriea was indt^led for, and comrtfled of, fhip grots breach of the 
peape» arthe btt quarter sfcssions for thecoufMV of Cbrk, when it was 
M thessmetime proved, ihat this insolent priest denounced from his 
altar the sister-in-faw ^f Donovan *." 

Hfiw Mr. Can- came to omit this verj essential part of the case^ 
wbkb be pxo^sses 10 state impartially, it would be difEcult to know^ 
if Fe were ^ fully aware that he must speak, as we have before ob- 
served not ftom hi^.persooal knowledge, but from the information of 
od)cif# A few pages farther, he remarks: — 

'^'It It with uncommon satisfaAion that I am enabled to state, from 
ItMifiUe mtthQrHy^** (no doubt the same authority whence he derived the 
^M^IIM Hccount of the dispute between Donovan and O'Brien/, <^ that^ 
witfi ait' exception to the oppressive case of Donovan before staibd (a /•• 
likay imttaucejy the Catholic Clergy in this city (Cork) and .throughout 
tt g p ^Of i pce» ar^ by their {mUic andpriTate virtue and depof tiuent, enii« 
Wtpf&Y enutM Xfi the thatdctand aimiratim of the Government. In the dis. 
•cbuge 4f ffcrirrWgh arocationt> they have laboured to remove the preju^ 
di9af 'fyf;!)!^ V^U and ttneajs^tened Catholic, have placed his religious 
li^imftt^ip the aide of hit social duties, and uaited his faith to tl^ re. 
^e (^ JuSrCiPuntry/' 

' We Kttntilv wish that ^e could subscribe to die truth of this stat^ 

mrf i Mui i I '< M n" niM i " ■ "1 1 ■> HI ■■ ■ ii f^ gi 

^ ^."^^.Aiif^^ vol.«ii. page 507^ 

6^ dittc!*AL cknu:xm. • 

tnettt« but, uhfortunaiely, vm att enabled, frooi aottiftnty ir least -afi^ 
TcspcAaUeas diat from which oar autbbr deritcA his information, to 
give it an unequivocal contradidton. If Mr. Carr will take the m>a-» 
bte to refer to that Number of our Review from which the above «k^ 
tra^ is taken, he will there 'find a letter from a freeh'oUef of this verf 
councTt which contains a number of )»nkular fa£ts, in opposition 
to his'genoral assertions ; and he will plainly perceive that die case of 
Donovan is not «* a solitary instance* ' The cotieiuding sentence of 
fhedrticle, which contains that letter, wie shall qaote. 

'^ We have now shewn the reader tlie terrific et^cds of eyconmiani<;atiaa 
in the Romish Church, ac different periods i ao({ the unbouudid iufiuinc^ 
which it gate the clergy, at all times, h enjojed in the highest degree by the 
Jrish prviti ^/ THIS TlMK. If a Catholic priest adheres stridly to the 
Canonical oath, which he takes at his ordination^ he mast beat eternal 
and deep.rooted hatred to a Protestant state ; for he swears ' to receive 
and profess the sacred canons and general coitnctls, particularly that of 
Trent,* which recognizes and sani^ions all the impious and blas|AiemoQs 
do^nes of the 4th Lateran council. That they do fatthfbify adhere to 
this oath, we have the most unquestionable proofs, by their having a€led 
«9 instigators and incendiaries, in all the lebellsons, which have agitated 
Ireland fdr above two centuries. While the ntain of the Irish RoiBaA 
Catholics yield implicit obedience to their spiritual pastors, who nrofe^ 
such principles, we appeal to the British public, whether it will be saft 
to trust them with political power, or to give them an op||Dfluoityi of 
making \x^% for a Protestant establishment, which they are bound to 
subvert by the fandamentat principles of their religion/' 

This account,* from one who speaks front personal knowMgezninot 
from hearsay, places the flaming panegyric of Mr. Carr in* a very 
prominent, but not a very rcspcdlahlc, point of view. We mu^r here 
lAierve, en tassanf^ that one part of the eulogy but ill accords with t 
2»ubsequent declaration of our author, who, in page 511, speaking of 
the lower Irish' generally, says, ** sentiments of honour have never 
been Instilled, into him ; and a spirit of just and social pride, (Qf),iisH 
provcmcnt, and (of) entcrprizc, have (haa) never opened opc^ fai«i« 
The poor Irishman looks around him, and sees a frr|htful void bo* 
tween him and those who, in well-regulated communities* oogbt td 
be separated from each other by those gentle shades of coboring^thac 
unite the brown russet to the imperial porple«"-*Nowy if the priests 
^1 have inboured to remove the prejudices c^ the poor and irtleilKgliten<- 
wU have placed his religious happiness on the side of Ws toetal «utks: 
and unitctl his ftith to the repose of his country,'*— our author^siubi 
.scqiKMii declaration of their charaSer cannot be just or acdUrite. By 
pla(,ing his tcligious happiness on the side of bia social duties (an ex||fes* 
sion not very correal, fkov very intelh'gible) we must understalK^ him ta» 
mean, that the priests have taught their fe l lo w er» to c a m t de p t he o hic t v - 
ance of their social duties as necessary to. their religious happiness ;^iia 
ferder to teoch theiti tfiis, they must, (ntHe fitst msianee, lave ei^ 
yluined to them the nature aixl extent of their aocial dutieii (tf^od-^ 

Carr'i Sttangir in IrwUmd. 65 

iag^ we suppose^ the duties of subje6ls to their sovereign), and se- 
coodly, must have impressed them with a conviction of tlie necessity 
of discharging these duties in order to obtain eternal happiness. If» 
then, this has been done, with what propriety can it be satd\ that 
sentiments of honour have never been instilled into them j and a spirit 
of just and social pride and of improvement has never opened upon 
them? — * . 

In his general remarks, at the close of the volume, Mr. Carr again 
adverts to the spirit of proselytism which, he says, characterizes the 
Govj:rnment of Ireland, and bestows too or three pages of declamation, 
for we cannot call it reasoning, in order to prove, as far as we can 
discover his objedl, the necessity of establishing Popish schools, and 
of making a provision for the Popish clergy. He thinks that the 
latter should be put on the same footing with the Dissenting ministers* 
who receive an annual allowance from our Government. Where he 
discovered the spirit of pr§s€/ytism which gives, him so much uneasi-i 
oess, and why, if it existed, a Member of the Church of England, 
as we conclude Mr. Carr to be, should be alarmed at. it, we are 
equally at a k)ss to conjeflurc. Certain it' is, that the present Go- 
vernment of Ireland, whose liberality and wisdom he praises without 
measure, has displayed nothing of such a spirit ; and equally certain 
is it that the last viceroy afforded no encouragement to Protestan^. pro- 
selytism. The latter, on the contrary^ disgusted every loyal Protestant 
by his marked partiality to the Romanists ; and it is notorious that, in 
9QC instance, he pcisecuted one of the King's best Protestant subjects, 
}r order to flatter and court the Pafpists I The former, though less 
prone to persecution, is certainly not more disposed to 'make prose- 
lytes ; — Indeed, Mr. Carr himself observes, " an Englishman wlio 
has never visited Ireland would perhaps be surprized to hear that Ca<* 
tholic priests of high rank ;" — Dr. Troy, for instance, whose father 
kept a whisky shop, in one of the meanest parts of Dublin, and who 
has no rank but what he has received from the Pope, now the basest 
of Buonaparte's minions — '* are frequently honoured with invitations 
to the Castle, and are noticed with the gracious attentions which are 
due to their charadler by the representative of majesty.'' This is very 
like the spirit of prosily tism I But what will .possibly surprize an Eng- 
lishman more, will be to hear, that the representative of majesty, of 
a Protestant King, has issued his orders, to all persons within the 
q>here of bis influence, not to write against Popery^ and has made his 
Chaplain^ a Protestant clergyman, the herald of his pleasure, upon 
this occasion ! And this representativ^e, too, is a whig^ who admires 
King William, annually celebrates the Revolution, and fervently 
joins in the convivial wish that *< the Princes of the House of Brnns* 
vriek may ^ver forget the principles that placed their ancestors on 
the throne ! ! I" And what were these principles, hut the principles 
of resistance to Popery, which it was the boast of the whigs to op- 
pose and to crush in every possible way !^ And are we destined 
^lently to contemplate the contradi&ion and inconsistency which 

»o. xcix. V0L« XXV. F strongly 


Strongly mark so many of the public charaflcrs of the present &y { 

Will no one raise the voice of honest indignation against them ; and 

explain to the world the glaring difference between the principte which 

they profess and ilie pradices which they pursue ? — If so, England is 

sank indeed ; all her spirit ; all her enegy is gone ; and her present 

apathy may reduce our posterity, at no very remote perio<l, (less than 

tcH centuries) to the necessity of effecting another reformation^ and 

another revolution/ That ilirre are circumstances in the pr<»ent limes 

to justify serious apprehensions for the safety of the established church; * 

must be obvious to every man of observation and reflection. If the 

members of that church, then, will not combine their efforts to avert 

the impending danger; if they will not employ the instruments which 

a protc6ling Providence has placed in their hands for repelling the 

insidious attacks of Popery, on tlic one hand, and the united assaults 

of fanaticism and profligacy, on the other, they will be guilty of a 

most scandalous ncgledk of duty, and will richly deserve to lose the 

ystst benefitswhich they at present enjoy, in the possession of a pure 

faith and of a Protestant King. We have now done with Mr. Carr's 

thoughts on religion ; on which suhjed we strenuously advise him 

never more to employ his pen. ' • 

Our author's excursion to the celebrated Lake of Killarney, affords 
him an opportunity of introducing an anecdote of Lord Castlereagh, 
highly hotiourable to that nobleman's humanity. 

^^ In the season of 1787, as the present Lord Ca? tlereagh, then Mr« 
Stewart, was enjoying the pleasure of an aquatic excursion with hit 
schoolfellow and friend, Mr. Sturro^k, near Castlc-Stewart, the seat of 
^is Lordship's father, the Earl of Londonderry, unaccompanied by any 
•other person, a violent squall of yind upset the boat, at the distance of 
two miles at least from shore. Lord Ci^stlcreagh, who was an excellent 
swimmer, recolleAing that Mr. Sturrcck could not swim, immediately 00 
iht boat'sinkin? direded his attention to his friend, swam to him^ placed 
' a piece of a brokefi oar under his breast, recommended him, with the vaoit 
encouraging composure and presence of mind, to remain as long as he 
could on this piece of timber, and when fatigued to turn himself on his 
hack, which he showed i\ita how to efFcdl by placing himself in that posi- 
tion* He continued swimming near his friend, Occasionally raisipg his 
hands, in the hope that some one might discover their perilous situation* 
Mr. Sturrock, father to the young iri^nd of Lord Cafitiereagh, and Mr* 
Cleaiaiui, his Locdbbip's tutor, hud been looking at the boat pnpvioot to 
the squall, which they had taken shelter from in a temple in the gardens of 
Mount Stewart. Upon the storm subsiding these gentlemen quitted the 
placcj i^imediatcly missed the boat, and concluded that she was tost. 
Most providentially they found in the harbour a small boat, into which 
they sprang, with feelings which it would be in vaia to describe, and afker 
rowing wiro all their vigour for a mile and a half, they at lost discoTexed, 
as the wave'-i rose and fell, a hat, and not fiir from it 4 haxKl waving; 
they redoubled their exertion^ and came up to Lord Castlereagh, who 
implored them not to mind him, but instantly to go to Jiiis companioir. 
* Never mind me/ juiid his Lordship, ^' for God's aakego to Sturrock^ or 


Carr'j Stranger in Ireland. 6j 

jie will be lost J lekye me, I tKinlc diri support myself thi you return.' 
They accordingly left him, and arcived at the Critical moment when his 
yoong friend had jast risen, after sinking the first time> and seizing him 
by his hair, they drew him quite senseless and exhaustmi into the boat--' 
another minute, and all would have been oyer. They then returned to 
his Lordship and rescued him also. I leave the reader to imagine the 
alternate agony and joy, which must have charadterfzed the whole of this 
awful and impressive scene." 

Mr. Carr, on the authority of Mr. Whitelaw, rates the papuktion 
of Ireland ^tfive millions \ this may be accurate enough, but it proves 
a great increase, which is by no means compatible with that sys« 
tematized oppression which he represents the people of Ireland to labour 
UQ^er, and all its consequent misery. 'He is certainly incorre£t in 
estimating the Romanises at two-thirds of the whole population; 
when, by authentic documents, published by Dr. DuJgenan, to which 
Mr. Carr appears to be a i>erfe<^ stranger, it has been made evident 
chat the proportion of Romanists to Protestants is not more xiaxijivf 
to three. 

At Kilkenny, our author met with a company of gentlemen Dra- 
matists, who levied contributions on 'the public for charitable purposes. 
These efibrts of humanity drew forth the following effusion from his 
koevolent muse. * ^ 

*' Amid the ruins of monastic gfoom^ 
Where Note's translucent waters glide along. 

Genius and Wealth have rais'd the tasteful dorae^ . ' 

Yet not alone for Fashion's brilliant throng. 

«' In Virtue's cause they take a nobler aim : 

*Tis theirs in sweetest harmony to blend 
Wit with compassion, tenderness with faiiie : 

Pleasure the meansy beneficence the end. 

" There, if the tear on beauty's cheek appears, 
(ForiQ'd by the mournful Muse's mimic sigh). 

Fast as It falls, a kindred drop it bears. 
More sadly shed for genuine misery* 

** Nor, if the laughter-loving nymph delight^ 

Does the reviving transport perish there ; 
&il!, ?till with Pity's radiance doubly bright^ 

Its smiles shed sunshine on the cheek of care. 

^* So if Pomona's golden fruit descend, 
*7^- Shook by some breeze into the lake bdow 
Quick wHl the dimple mjhkb it forms extend^ 
Tdt mil ground the joyous circles flvw. 

^ Blest be the itas'titng mind, the social SEeal^ 
'^ That here bids Folly from the stage xrtire i 
And while ic teaches us to think, to fed, / 

^s OS in tear^ our godlike bard adn^xt. 

Fa *• ThBSr 

68 omoINAL CB.incX5M* 

" Thus aide^, sec his rescued ^itls springs 

Again he pours the frenzy ot his sofig ; 
with every feather in his eagUU nxmrg^ 

Once more in maje&ty he soars along. 

*' Oft deck'd with smiles, his spirit shall explore, ' . 
Erin ! thy beauteous vales, and classic ground ' 
* And ev6ry ripple of thy winding Nore, 

To him shall sweetly, as his Avon's, sound." 

Towahls the close of his book Mr. Carr delivers one of the roost 
tinqualiiied, and, trtith compels us to say, one, of the most undeserved 
panegyrics that we ever read. Mr. Grattan is the subjefl of it ; and 
he is Represented by our author, as " a creat man — 6ne of the greatest 
orators and poiiticians of the age." We have no objeflion to have 
Mr. Granan*s speeches and waitings compeared with the Letters of 
Junius, though ^^ft think hiih as incapable of composing such Letters, 
as of writing "God save the King ;" but, when v^t sec him held 
trp as the first of statesmen and politicians, we fed it necessary to re- 
fresh the memory of the public, and of Mr. Carr himself, oruwhose 
eOlogy we shall saV nothing more, bui request that the author will, in a 
Subsequent editioti, accompany it with the following extradl from the 

" Refort frim the Committee of Secrety of the House of Lirds, iu Irehmd^ 
August 30, 1798. 

** Evidence of Jphn Hughes, of Belfast, one of the principal rebels : 
'•* Whilst he was in Dublin, in April, he dined with Neilson (another 
rebel) at the Brazen Head. Next day Neilson called him up at five 
o'clock, and they went to Swectman's, near Judge Chamberlain'Sj to 
breakfast. Swectman was then in prison, but Neilson lived in his hoose. 
Neilson took Sweetman's carriage to Mr. Grattan'.s, and brought him 
along with him. When he, Neilson, told him he had. something jto say 
to Mr. Grattan in private, and desired him to take a walk in thedomaifi. 
Neilson, however, introduced him to Mr. Grattan first ; and Mr. Grat- 
tan ordered a servant to attend him to shew him the grounds. He returnM 
In about half tm hoor ; went into Mr. Grat tin's library : Neilson aml^ 
Grattan were then together. Grattan asked a variety of questions touch- 
ing the state cf the country in the North ; how many families had been 
driven out, and how many houses burnt by the Government or tl^e Orange, 
men ? Grattan said he supposed he was an United Irishman ; he said lie 
was. Grattan asked him how many United Irishmen were in (he pro. 
vince ; he said he reckoned 1 26,000. Grattan asked how many Qranjj£l 
men there? He said about 12,000. Grattan made no particular, answer* 
Neilson and he left Grattan's hoose about twelve in the day ; they walked 
to their carriage, which was at Ennii>kerry ; he asked Neilson what had 
'^ssed between Grattan and him. Neilson evaded the question, but said 
generally, that he had gone down to Grattan to ask him whether he would 
cothe forward) arid that he had sworn him. I'hat Grattan had promised 
to meet him in Dublin before the next Tuesday. He left Dublin that 
evening, and returned to Belfast* 

^' (2* You hare said that you were introduced to Mr. Grattan by 9a« 
• * mud \ 

Carr^j Sirangir in Ireland.- ^ 

moel Neilsonj at his house at Tinpehinch, in April laiK RetoBe^ -foar-: 
self, and say whether you can speak with certamty as to that fad ? 

*• A, I certainly can. About the 28ih of April last 1 went to Mr. 
Grattan's house, at Txnnchinch, with Samuel Ncii ton ; on going into th« 
house we were shewn into the library. Neilson introduced me to Mr/ 
Grattan, and I soon, after walked out. und left them alone for full half an' 
Jiour. I saw a printed constitution of the United Irishmen in the coom. 

'• 2* Can you say that Mr. Grattan knew it to be the constitution of 
United Irishmen ? * ' 

'' A. I can, for he asked me some questions about it* He asked me^ 
ako a variety of questions about the state of the North. When we were? 
going away I heard Mr. Grattan* tell Neilson, that he would. be in town| 
on or before the Tuesday follow iug^ and I understood Neilson that WtC 
Grattan had visited him in prison, find on oor ittorn to town, Neilson 
told me that he had sworn Mr. Grattan ; Neilson and I breakfasted that* 
iBoming at the coui^ry house, of Sweetman, who was then in prison, and 
went from thence to Mr. Grattan's in Sweetman's carriag;e.V » 

One part of Hughes's evidence is contradiSed by another, of thq, 
traitors, Nei/son, who says, that he •* never did swear Mr. Gra*tcan» 
nor had he ever said fhat he swore him ;^' bat he admits that he had had 
two interviews with Mr. Grattan, at Tinnehii^ch, in April, 17989 
and that he ^* either shewed Mr. Grattan the last constitution of the 
Society of United Irishmen^ or explained it to him, and pressed Aim 
to come Jorward.*' 

It ought to be remembered, that Mr. Grattan has never, to our 
knowledge, from tliat time to the present moment, cohtradiAed the 
testimony of eithei' of these men. Yet the charge which that testi- 
mony involved, was nothing less than misprision of treason! f f~^ 
Mr. Carr gives ten quarto pages of extrafls from the speeches of this 
first of politicians 'y and in the next chapter are j/;p poges of extra(3s 
from the speeches of Mr. Curran. 

In his ** general remarks^^ alluding to the celebration of the RevcK 
lution in Dublin, on the 4th of November, our author says : 

^* This annual commemoration,, which I have described, ought, in my 
hamble opinion, to be discontinued ; the tendency of it is to remind two. 
thirds (three.fifthsj of the population of Irelarid, whom it is the pro. 
fessed obje^ of Government to conciliate and attach> that that day was 
^ daj of humiliation to them ; and to make the sabjedl as painfully intel. 
ligibk as possible, the bands of the difierent regiments which assist in 
mititarf gala at this ogensi*ve ceremony, play the following tunes — * The 
Protestant Boys have carried the Day i Croppies lie down ; and the Boyne 

We areratber surprized that Mr. Carr's liberality, and tifc tender* 
neas for the feelings of the Romanists, does not extend a little fanher» 
9nd lead him to propose the abolition of sundry oaths, which the Duke 
of Bedford, and all the Whigs now in office, must have taken, ex<-k 
jtressiYS of abhorrence of the impious and idolatrous tenets of thq 

.f3 Chnrdi 

f^ 0&10TKAL CHITfeiSM. 

^ CiMifth of Rome; ^nd also the erasure from our Liturgyy of a cer- 
fain offensive service, read on ihc JifiA of November. 

We have delivered our sentiments with becoming frccdoni on this 
book; i^vhich ;i' regard for truth compels ^s to say, is infinitely the 
tvorst produflion of Mr. Carr's pen, whether the matter pr tlie manner 
df it be considered. Though we have pointed out many objcdlion- 
able statements, and many untenable positions, we have by no means 
extra£led all the passages which are liable- to censure. Instead of 

Jiving scope to -his own good sense, and offering his own observatioDf^ 
le author has evidently, in a variety of instances, been led away by the 
information of those to whom he had letters of iutrodu£lion» and who 
l)9^e artfully contrived to make him the diannel for the conveyance of 
their principles and opinions to the public. This hat been the cause 
of much disappointment to us, who, having derived great pleasure 
from the former publications of Mr. Carr, promised ourselves, if not 
equal, aC least considerable, satisfa£lion from his << Stranger in Ire* 
land ;'' a title which is, in many respedls, particularly appropriate to 
the book. The style, too, is slovenlv, and the language incorredt.-^ 
Several instances of these defeSs we have marked in transcribing the 
quotations ; and the following, in addition, will suffice to justify the 
charge. " Provided that Monarch would have permitted them /o have 
been (to be) governed,*' &c. page 309. *• The woods of Ireland 
once abound^ with wo|ves, which were hunted by a peculiar breed 
of dogs, now nearly extindt, called after their own nameii^ pa^e 
312. He means to say, called after the names of the wolves» that is, 
wolf-dogs : and not after their own names. '* I much regretted that 
my time would not. admit of my visiting Castle Forbes, to pay my 
rcspecls to Lady Granard, another daughter of the Countess of 
Moira, of {to) whom, as well as of [to) her Lord, report awakened 
the strongest desire of the honour of being personally known to them^^ 
page 436. I'he two last words should be omitted ; but the construc- 
tion of the whole sentence, besides the violations of gramnnar which 
vtt have noticed, is extremely aukward. We had marked several 
other passages, but these are sufficient. 

We Yxmc the next time to meet Mr* Carr on ground more favour^ 
ahfe for the display of those talents, and of those attainments* with 
vhkh Nature and eilucation have so bounteously endued him. 

Rimarks^n the Husbandry and Internal Commerce of. Bengali 8fo. 
Pp. ap6. 5s. 6d^ Calcutta printed ; London reprinted* Blacks 
and Parry. )8o6. 

THE growing importance of our Eastern Cdomes» arising 
from their increased extent of territory, and consequenth of pradQce, ^ 
as well as from the present unsettled state of Euiope, reooen any pub^ 
ItcaMB which throws a light on their internal eoooomy and resources; 


Remarks on tht Hustondry and Cmnmerce of Bengal. fi 

fnnicularly rntcrescing. Ix was with gre&t pleasure, then, that \9% 
opened this book to peruse accounts, not of military triumphs, and 
oJF ci>nqQered countries, hut of the progress of those arts which tend 
to civilize and to nourish man— of the state of agriculture, and of 
commerce, in a country conraining twcnty-iive millions of inhabitants^ 
and looking to the British Throne (or protedion and'bncourngement. 

These •* Remarks*' are divitled into Six Chapters, which tVcat 
of the general Aspedl of Bengal — its Climate, Soil, and Inhabitants 
—Population — ^^ Husbandry —Tenures of Occupants — Property in the 
Soil— Rents and Duties — Tenures of Free Lands liable for Revenue 
—Profits of Husbandry — Internal Cominerce — Grain, Piece Goods, 
Saltpetre, and otiier objcdls of exportation. 

In the Chapter on Population, the author enters iixto calculations, 
the result of which is, that the inhabitants of Bengal amount to aboiHC 
twenty-five millions. At the close of it he makes the following re- 

'' The desultory speculations in which we have now indulged, cannot 
svaij to determine accurately the population of these provinoos ; but they 
lender it not improbable that it has been hitherto undcr.rated. Undoubu' 
cdiy it is adequate tp undertake greater tillage and more numerous and ex- 
tensive manuia^ures than now employ the labour of the Asiatic sobjefts 
of Great firitain ; but wanting a vent for a greater produce^ they have no 
inducement for greater exertion of industry. If more produce wore ob- 
tained, while no markets were open for the disposal of it, dilij^ence would 
be imiewarded. The necessaries of life are cheap, the mode otUving sim- 
ple ; and, though the price of labotir be low, a subsistence may be earned 
without the uninterrupted application of industry. Often idle, the pea- 
sant and manufa^arer may nevertheless subsist. A few individuals might 
acquire wealth by peculiar exertion ; but the nation at large can use no 
more labour than the demand of the market is found to encourage *. If 
industry be rouzed, the present population is sufEcient to bring into tilbge 
(he whole of the waste lands of Bengal and Bihar \ and, in most distri^, 
ifflprovement may be expelled, whenever new channels of trade are opened 
to t^e off more or new produce. Of this we are convinced : awan;^ 
however, that the culture does require considerable labour ; for, in the 
viominpa husbandry, the land yields several crops within the year. But 
needing no manure, except for some articles (and manured for these with* . 
<Nit febour or expence), the same quantity oif land should employ ftwer 
hands in fiengal than in England, since the labours of the hiisbandman 
sn|cr less intermption from the iiK:leniency of seasonrt* The im 


* *^ This was the case in France shortly preceding the Revolution, and 
feihaps tapart accelerated that catastrophe. 

i << It 1ms been estimated, thft there are 40,000,000 of cultivtted aems 
inGiieiiJiritain, probably bchiding meadows. If this compQtttioA be 
aoemte, two-thi^ qf.the area of Great fiiitain ire iirodofiive*. We 
^nmtf-one.tbiid ooly of Bengal and Bihar x» be titled^ bot tUs is ex. 

F4 Clusiro 


'provcments, which are to be expelled from a better and more diligefit 
husbandry, may be appreciated after reviewing the present system of agri- 

The system of husbandry pursued in Bengal is next explained ; and 
it appears to be susceptible of very great improvement, for^ at.presentt 
it is wonderfully dcfedlive j not only in the mo6fe of cultivating the 
land, but even in the instruments employed for the purpose, which 
must, as it secims to us, at once increase labour, and diminish produce. 
We are surprize4 that the East India Company, who are the chartered 
sovereigns of the cpqi^try, have not supplied a remedy to this^evil. — 
The want of money is stated by the author as the cause of it. 

^' In agriculture particularly, which is the basis of die prosperity of 
a country, the want of pecuniary funds is' a bar to all improvement. — 
While, on the contrary^ the employment of nu)ney in agrkultu/e would 
introduce large farms, and from these would flow every improvement that 
is wanted in husbandry ; and such Improvements must naturally extend 
from agriculture into every branch of arts and conunerce. WitKout 
capital and enterprizc, improvement can never be obtained. Precept will 
never inculcate a better husbandry on the humble, unenlightened peasant. 
It could not, without example, universally persuade a wealthier and 
better informed class. Positive institutions would be of as little avail. 
The legislator cannot direA the judgment of his subje^s ; his bnsinesa 
is only to be careful, lest his regulations disturb them in the pursuit of 
their true interests. 

** In Bengal, where the revenue of the state has had the form of land- 
rent, the management of the public finances has a more immediate influence 
on agriculture than any other part of the administration. The system, which 
has beenadoptcd, of withdrawing from diredl interference with the occupants^ 
and leaving them to rent their fields from landlords, will contribute to correft 
the abuses .and evils which had formerly rendered the situation of the cul- 
tivator precarious. But not having yet produced its full effeft, there it 
still occaision to review the system of finances^ under which abuses had 
grown, and had placed the occupant in ^ precarious situation/ as truly 
discouraging to agriculture as any circumstance yet noticed : for, with- 
out an ascertained interest in the land for a sufficient term of years, oo 
person can have an inducement to venture his capital in hosbandry." 

Tiiis last bbservation is particularly just \ and we are sorry Co see 
that a trutli so obvious in itself, aiid so important in the results to be 
deduced from it, should be treated with so muchnegledl, even in 
England : where great landed proprietors, in too many places, refuse to 
grant leases to their tenants \ by which means, they are sure to obtaio 

cksiveof pasturage and lays or fallows. In £ngland> it should i 
there are four acres of arable and meadow land for every inhabitant ; in 
Bengal, little more than one acre of tilled ground for every persoih The 
present popnlationy then^ is fully adequate to the cultivation of jdi land 
ti^t fs now waMe.'* 

Rfmarks on the ffusiandry and Cofkmtrce ofBnt^ah 73 

teai i^nt for their farms, and the laqd cannot be prof»eriy cultivated^; 
because no tenant in his senses wiU expend money in improvemenrv 
vhen he is liable to be turned out before he can reap the advantage of , 
it. This is an evil of a most' serious nature ; originating in a despi* 
cabk desire qf retaining a despotic authoriry, alike injurious to hiih 
who exercises, and to hnn who is the ohjedt of it. 

In the founh chapter, i\\t different S{)ecies of tenure and of occu- 
pancy are explained^ i^ut it appears to be a suhjecSt not very clearly 
understood. The tenant generally pays hi^ rem in khidf the' amount 
varying from one-third, to one-half, of the produce of the l3n4' 
Among the produdlioiis of the soli of Bengal, which are obje£ls qf 
commerce, are sugar, tobacco, silk, cotton, indigo, and opiuix». Of 
the culture of the laitpr, which is slated not to be a very profitable 
crop, we have the following account. 

** Opium, ft is well known, has been monopolised by Government. It 
is provided in the provinces of Bihar and Benares, and sold in Calcutta br 
public sale. For ma^y reasons this monopoly seems less exceptionable^ 
than any other. It is doubtless a rational objed qf policy to discourage 
the internal consumption of a drug, which is so highly pernicious whea 
employed for intoxication. It must not, however, be concealed, thatbjr 
the tSt&, of the monopoly, Bihar has lost the market of the western coon. 
fries, which formerly were thence supplied, but which now raise as much 
as is consumed within their limits, and even furnish some opium to t]$e 
British provinces. Nevertheless, if the first grower receive, from the 
{DaiApo).ist, as equitable payment as* the competition (jf Tree trade couldl 
atford him, the monopoly cannot be deemed a public Injury; it onljr' 
takes, for the benefit of the state^ what otherwise would afford gain to a 
few intermediate traders. 

" When the drug w^s provided by contraA, the price paid to the first 
ppwer was regulated by the contrail made with Governmept. The con,, 
tia^r gave advances to such peasants as were desirous of undertaking the 
culture, and received the raw juice of poppy at the rates fixed by his 
contra^. Oh a medium of these rates, adverting tp the quantity which 
may be estimated on each, the raw opium appears' to have been bought at 
the price of one rupiya for ten sixteenths of a ser, or foi- one pound and 4 
quarter nearly. 

** A learned and vpry ingenious inquirer estimated the produce of one 
acre at sixty pounds of opium ; but we think ^e must have been misled by 
the result of trials on very fertile land in a fortunate season. Such infofi 
nation as we have been able to obtain, has led us to estimate little more 
than four sers or eight pounds of opium from a bi^ha reduced to the stan. 
^ard <^four cubits of tne pole, or forty yards to the rope ; and the culti. 
vator also reaps about seven sers of seed, which may bring eight anas, if 
sold for food, or for the oil that ma^ be expressed from it. 

" This produce, from a plant which requires a good soil well manured, 
is by no means equal to the produd^ion of similar soils whereon other va. 
lus^le plapts^ are raised. At the same time it requires more lahpur and 
atteotion ;. and, in faft, that it is less profitable is apparent from the cir « 
(IHtttanoe ^f {he peasants not ambitimn^ this oulture| except in ^ f^w 

. ^ . ' aituatiojH 


tamations which are iieculiarly favooraUe to it. In other plaodt thefr 
either engage with reluAnnce, or from potives very different from tbac 
of the expeSacion of profit. v 

*' Many cultivators obtain from the safoe land a crop of pot.herbs^ or 
aome other early produce, before the season of sowing the poppy. It 19 
reckoned a bad pra^ice : wheiher it be so or not, the labour of the cul.f 
tore is not diminished by having taken an early crop. The land must ia 
cither method be thoroughly broken and pulverised, for which purpose it 
must be ploughed twelve or fifteen times ; this work is succeeded by that 
of disposing the field for irrigation : several wtcdings, a dressing of nia^ 
nure, and ireqiient watering, employ much labour ; but the most tedious 
occupation is that of gathering the opium, which, for more than a fort- 
night, employs several persons in making incisions in each capsule in the 
erening and scraping off the exuded juice in the morning. If the greater 
labour be cbnsidcred, the produce of a bigha of poppy, reckoned at seven 
rupiyas eight anas, is not more advantageous than the cultivation of com ) 
even computed at sixteen rupiyas, according to the estimate of produce 
above quoted, still it is less profitable than sugar. cane and mulberry. 

•• But, in the culture of opium, there are circumstances which may, 
end which, in some phices, adlu.illy do, render it alluring. In estimat. 
Uig the medium produce, we adverted to the accidents of season, to whick - 
this delicate plant is particularly liable from insedts, wind, hail, or on. 
aeaspnable ram. The produce seldom squares with the true average, but 
commonly runs in extreme : while one cultivator is disappointed, at>o. 
ther reaps immense ga>n ; one season does not pay the labour of the col. 
ture, another, peculiarly fortunate, enriches all the cultivators. This 
circumstance is well suited to allure /nan, ever confident of personal good 

** The preparation of the raw opium is under the immediate snperxn- 
teodence of the agent or of the contra Aor. It consists in evaporating, by 
exposure to the sun, the watery particles, which are replaced by oil of 
i>opj)y-fieedj to prevent the drying of the resin. The opium is then form, 
cd into cakes, and covered with the petals of the poppy ; and^ when suf- 
ficiently dried, it is packed in chests, with fragments of the capsules from 
which poppyueeds have been thrashed out. 

** This preparation, though simple, requires expert workmen able to 
dete^ the many adulterations which are pra^ised on the raw juice. The 
adolleratioo of prepared opium is yet more difficult to discover. It has 
been supposed to be commonly vitiated with an extra A from the leaves 
and stalk of the poppy, and with gum of the mipiosa ; other foreign ad. 
tnixtores have been conjedtured, auch as cow.duiig, gums, and re&ms, of 
yarious sorts, and parched rice. 

^* The facility of adulterating opium, and the consequent necessity of 

precautiooa against such frauds, are circumstances which w^uld justify 

the monopoly, were it even objedlionable on other considerations. In it 

. free commerce, the quality ii;ught probably be more debased to the injury 

' pf the export-trade." 

Oor author contends ths^t a snfficiencv of tobacco might lie raised 
lb Bengal for the fupplv of Europe, durely this is an bk^edl wdl 
worthY the attention or our Qorcn^netit. ^whoi if vp mistake jm^ 

Remarks oh tkt Huskmdry mid OmMurce of JSmgaL 7 j; 

w31 90011 be reduced to do from nec^ty, Hrhat justice and sound po« 
ficjr ahouki lead ihein to do ; that is to give a decided preference to 
> oor own colonies over all foreign sutes, whether .belligerent or neu-* 
nal; and to open, by that meaiis, new markets for the consa<iiptton 
of our maoufadkures. What is said on tiie subjed. of tobacco is too 
important to be omitted here. « 

** Though it require an excellent soil> tobacco night be produced in 
the greatest abundance to supply the consimptioo of £urope. Raited 
cheaply^ it would yield a considerable profit to the eaportcr upon mode^ 
late fxeigfat* Small experiments have been made* Of their success we 
are not accurately informed ; but we hare reason to suppose, that the to. 
bacco of Bengal was not of the quality or had. not the preparation which 
aie desired by the £uropean coo$umer. Yet it canoot ue doobttd» that, 
poder the ioimediate dire^Uon of persons sufficiently acquainted with the 
quality that is pieferred in foreign markets, tobacco might be railed to 
suit them at no greater expence than in the present management : and, if 
it were provided purposely for exporution, it would be invested with a 
less advance on the original cost, than it can have been yet procurod at a 
attiket remote from the place of growth, after passing through^he hands 
of intermediate dealers, who trade on small capitals, and who, thneforci^ 
ued large profits. 

*' Tobacco might be shipped at the rate of three current rupiyas and a 
lialf, or (including every charge for duties and agency in Calcutta) at 
less than four current rupiyas for a man* The best tobacco bears a greater 
bat arbifary value ; the worst, on the contrary, costs much less : we 
lake the usual price of a middle sort, and suppose that it can be shipped 
at that rate, and that it could support a competition with the ordinary 
kinds imported into £agland from North America. 
** Gbe ton, or 37 mans, at four Ct. Rs^ per man, 108 

Ct. Rs* -. . . - - £10 tS o 

** Intisest and insnraAoe, at fifteen per centum • r i a 6 

" freight pajrable in England* at six pounds sterling 600 

£18 i 6 

<' Sold at thirty shillings per cwt, exclusive of 
emtoms and excise . • £t% €^ o 

^ Chaiges of merchfuidise, &c. as reckoned by 
she India CoofMuy on other goods^ at three 
perceotoa • ^ o 14 9 

^ *^ ^ * 

ftrft . r - - • ^ /« 16 9 

^ If fivight must be paid at 15/. per ton, a losa. would be sustained, 
9nle88 the tobacco eqwd the best sorts that are imported from America,^* 

If dio rcduAioo of fireigbt from 15I. to 6L be practicable, and sech 
siiraBiaflea wouU resiik irooa it aa are h^ne atate^t ia resped of so 
any o^cA% it itiNC n apecisa of f«iadc» |iot w tdo^ the aecesaary 


.}& . eMGiirllt- cxiTiciiM. 

means for us redaAion ? Sugar, too, may be cultivated in fteOj^ U> 
a stiU^eater. exteiii ', but if labours ondier tlie same disadvantage, .in 
fespc(£ to tiie expeuce of importation. In res{)e£k of this artick, in*- 
deed, more cnay. l)e said, on the ground of policy, as tlie imponauon of' 
k would interfere Ari(h she staple produce of our West India islands 
Still it is a matter deserving the most serious consideration* 

^' FiDOt Benares to Rengpur, . from the borders of A%^m to those of 
Catac^ there it acarcely a distrid in Bengal or its dqpendent provinces 
wherein the sugar.caiK does not flourish. It thrives most especially in 
the piOTinces of Benares^ Bikar^ Rengpur, Birbhum, Birbwan^ and 
Mednipor ; it is soccesstl^ly cultivated in all>. and there seem to be na 
•therbounds to ehe possible produd^ion of sagar in Bengali than the liotits 
of the demand and consequent vend of it. The growth for home .con* 
ftnaption and for the inland trade is vast, and it only needs cncoarage^t 
sent to equal the demand of Europe also. 

*' It is cheaply produced and frugally manufa^uted. Raw spgar, pic*- 
pared sn a mnde peculiar to India, but analogous to the process of making 
nwscQvado, costs less than hve shillings sterling per cwt. An equal, 
qoantity nf muscovado sugar might be here made at little more than tbia. . 
^ost ;.whercas» in thq .British West Indies it cannot be a^rded for six 
tinies that price. So great a disproportion will cease to appear su^xising^ 
when the relative circumstances of the two countries shall nave bem dcdy 
weighed and impartially considered. Agriculture is here condufled wids 
most frugal simplicity. The necessaries of life are cheaper in India than 
in arty other commercial country, and cheaper in Bengal than in any other 
province of India. The simplest diet and most scanty dothing soi&ce tv 
the peasant^ and the price of labour is consequently low. Every irople. 
ment used in tillage is proportionably cheap, and cattle are neither dear, 
to the purchaser nor expensive to the owner. The preparation of sugar is 
equally simple and devoid of expense. The manufadurc is unincombeicd 
with costly works. His dwelliiig is a straw hut ; his inachinery an^ 
utensils consist of a mill» ccmstrudted oo the simplest plan, and* a £sw* 
earthen pots. In short he requires little capital, and is fulfy rewarded 
with an^inconsiderable advance on the fin t value of the cane. 

<* The same advantages do not exist in the West Indies. It is woithj 
of observation, that the labour of the negro constitutes more than tkieew 
fifths of the cost of &ugar in Jamaica. So. that, if the' West Indian planter 
were even able to substitute straw huts for his expensive biuldinga> of 
simple implements and earthen vessels for. his intricate machinery and 
costly apparatus, still the price of labouc would be an insupetahle bar .to 
a successful competition. Independently of calculation and comparison, 
it is obvious, that the labour of a slave must be much dearer than that of 
a freeman, since the original purchase will always form a heavy chaige». 
from which hired labour is exempt. Moreover, the West Indian slave 
has no incentive for excriiQn ; nor can he be roused t^ it, by the smart of 
recent chastisement or the dread of impending punishment, 

" Slavery, indeed, is not known in Bengal. Throughout some dis. 
trids, the labours of husbandry are executed chiefly by bond.servants. 
In certain provinces, the ploughmen are mostly slaves of the peasants for 
whpm they labour jbutji tr^tc4 b^ their fasten most Uke hereditaij. 

Urmarh 6tl the Hushandry ani C^mnurfi of bengal. |y 

tYantSi or like mancipated hinds, than like 'purchased sUves, thejr bbour 
ch cheerful diligence and unforced zcai. 

" In «oiiie places^ also, the iand^hoiders have a clatm to the servitude 
if thousands among the inhabitants of their estates. This claim» which 
s seldom enforced, and which in many instances is become wholly obso* 
etCj is founded on some traditional rights acqaircd many generations ago^ 
n a state of society difil-rent from the prescstt i and slaves of this des- 
tiption do iti fa^ enjoy every privilege of a freeman except the name; 
jr, at the worsts they must oe considered as villains attuhed to the 
jfcbc, rather than as bondmen labouring for the sole bwMiefit of theic 
ivners. Indeed, throughout India, the relation of master and slave «p« 
Spears to impose the duty of prote^ion and cherishment on the masrer, as 
Aoch as that of fidelity and obedience on the slave, and their mutual coiu 
! Jdn^i is consistent with the sense of such an obligation ; since it is marked 

ith gentleness and indulgence oo the one side, and with zeal and loyalty 
the other. 

** Though we admit the fa^, that slaves may be found in Bengal 
among the labourers in husbandry, yet in most provinces none but frce^ 
ven are occupied in the business of agriculture. The price of their daily 
jlabour, when paid in money^ may be justly estimated at little more thaa 
i«ae ana sica, but less than two. pence sterling. In citfes and large towns 
itit hire of a day-labourer is, indeed, greater; because provisions are there 
^rerj and the separation of the man from his family renders larecr earn. 
angs neeessary to their support : but, even in the neighbourhood of Cal- 
cfetu, men may be hiwd tor field*labour at the rate of two rupiyas and a 
half per mensem, which is equivalent to two. pence half, penny per diem. 
Cbmpaxe this with the price of labour in the West Indies, or compaie 
with it the stilt cheaper hire of labour by a payment in kind, a mode 
h/^bSA is customary, throughout Bengal. The allowance of grain, usually 
made to strong labourers, cannot be valued' at more than one ana, and does 
in reality cost the husbandman much less. The average would scarcely ex- 
ceed a penny half-petmy. In short, viewed in every way, labour is six 
perhaps ten times, dearer in the West Indies than in Bengal." 

If die advocates for the abolition of the Slave Trade should succeed 
in dieir attempts, our Indian colonies will, very soon, be the only 
place to wliich we can look, with any degree of certainty, for an 
adequate supply of this useful article. Cotton is another article which 
iilby be supplied, in great quantities, from Bengal ; and our authot is 
of opinion, that if the cotton-yarn were imported into this country, 
a considerable redudlion of price would be the consequence. Raw 
s3k is also a material objeA of attention to the cultivators of that coun* 
try, the mode of planting the mulberry, the leaves of which form! the 
Sbod of the silk-worm, is thus accurately described. 

<< To plant a new field, the waste-land is opened with the spade in the* 
ivmth of April ; good soil is brought, and enough is thrown on the field 
fo raise it one cubit* The ground is well broken with the plough, Unct 
levelled with an implement, which in form resembles a ladder, but wh* a 
lopplies the place of a Jiarrow« The mulberry i$ planted in Od^obe'r ; the 
•fipi are cut a^an lonj, and are thrown into a hole and covered from the 



son; they are conlinoallf watcrad ontil, at the end of a fortnight, the/ 
begin to vegetate. They are now transplanted into the field, in holes 
distant a span from each other, and nearly one span deep ; four or five- 
cuttings are placed obliquely in each hole, which is then filled up so lis CO 
cover the slips with a finger of earth closely pressed down. So^soon as 
the plants appear in December, or January, the fiel4 is weeded. In April, 
when they sre grown to the heieh^ of a cubit, they are topped, so as to 
leave a stem one hand high ; otherwise it is thought that the leaves woal4 
i)c bitter and hard, and that the worms would refuse them. A hand-hoe- 
ing is now given, and a for'iriighi afterwards the leaves are ready fot use. 
The plant is then cut down a little above the root, and the silk. worms 
are M. with the leaves ; the field is weeded, if necessary, and another 
crop is obtained in June^ and a third in July ; but the leaves only of this 
last crop are gathered, without cutting the stem, because that operation 
at so }ate a seafon would, it is apprehended, injure the plant. The field 
IS again weeded, and a fourth crop is ready in September : afcef gathering 
it« the ground is ploughed four times with two ploughs, and levelled with 
the implement above-mentioiled. In November, a hand-hoeing assists 
vegetation and accelerates the best crop, which is cut in December ; this 
is followed by a hand-hoeing and weeding, and is succeeded by another 
crop in March. The same course recommences ; and the field, if suffix 
ciendy attended and laboured, will continue to be productive during many 

The mode of feeding the worm, and of preparing the silk, with 
the expence of the whole course of management, is afterwards ex- 
plained ; by which it appears that the extended cultivation of this ob- 
jcA of commerce would be produdive of the greatest advantages. " Id 
support of the propriety of allowing the importation of cotton-yarn, tH^ 
anchor uses the following forcible arguments. 

" To a government enlightened as that is, by which British India is 
administered, it cannot be a trifling consideration to provide employmene 
for the poorest classes. . No public provision now exists in these provincea ' 
fo relieve the wants of the poor and helpless. The only employ raent in 
wh*ch widows and female orphans, incapacitated for field.labour by sick. 
ness or by their rank, can earn a subsistence, is by spinning, and it i$ 
the only employment to which the females of a family can apply them- 
pelves to maintain the men, if these be disqualified for labour by infirroirf 
or by any other cause. To all it is a resource; which, even though it 
may not be absolutely necessary for their subsistence, contributes, at 
least, to.reliere the distresses of the poor. Their '^stresses are certainljr 
great ; and among none .greater than among the many decayed familiei 
which once enjo}e4.the, comforts of life« These are numerous in Indian 
and, whether they be entitled to the ^rticular consideration of govern- 
ment or not, they have certainly a claim on its humanity. 

'* In this vtew^ it appears esseniud to encourage -an occupation vAiidIt 
h the sole lesoarce of the helpless poor. That such encouragement would 
fipply cemmefcial advantages to £nglaRid, we think can be also proved. 
For thii pfiiWMe, it aighr be shewn that eotton.yam could be imported 
ifkto SngLttd fram Bengal choftpcHrthan cottomwueL - Lawe qamtioes^of 


linen and wodllen.yiini are admitted, dutf free, ^rom Ireland. If ir be 
ooc considered' as injurioat'to the manafa^uring-interest of Great. Britain 
l» permit the impoTtatioo of iinen'and wooUen-yam, why discoarage that 
«f cotton.yarn from Beo^l by a heavy duty, besides all the other impe. 
dhneiaa which we have so often occ^ioo to notice ?" 

We confess we can see no reason for the prohibition. These re- 
marks we strongly recommend to ail persons who take an interest in 
the prosperity of our Asiatic commerce, as conveying much useful in^ 
i(EMraiatioo, and much wholesome advice. 


Sigws of ibeTtj^s; er, A Diahffu in Ferse. 8vc. Pp.. 46. is. ^d 
Gower and Smart, ^Wolverhampton ; Longman and Co. London. 1 8o6. 

WHEN a satirist takes up his pen in defence of the throne and the 
altar^ to support their friends, and to ridicule or to la^ their enemies^ 
he is entitled to the gratitude of all who think that the altar and the 
tfaiooe are the safeguards of society. The bard, whose prodnd^ion is be* 
fere us, has this objefk in view ; and his efforts to attain it are marked 

ynih spirit, ability, sense and genius. In his Preface he observes : 

» « 

'^ Onx enemies have found by experience, chat the citadel i< not to be 
taken by storm. They have thereiore changed their mode of attack, and 
afc now busily employed in sapping its foundation. Their efforts are di. 
leded against the three great pillars and supports of our Constitution— • 
sdigion, morality, and obedience to the laws ) well knowing that, if these 
^Uf ^^ glorious fabric will soon be humbled in the dust. The civil 
Bower^ armed with its own laws, and quick and decisive in its operations, 
haa nearly driven its assailants from their intrenchments. The more vuU 
serable parts, are religion and morality. These are, unfortunately, con. 
sidesed as mere outworks ; at least they are certainly less strit^Iy guarded. 
The adulterer, the seducer of female youth, the drunkard, the sabbath* 
breaker, and the preacher of heresy and schijim, meet with little or no res. 
traiat ; while the jealous eye of the law traces, to his garret fhe most in. 
significant libeller of the State ; and the strong arm of justice soon brings 
him to condign punishment." 

This is a melancholy, but, we are sorry to say, a true px^uie ; and 
where the law is either silent or passive, it behoves tht press to corre^ 
the evil ; it is a powerful instrument ; it has overturned one Monarchy : 
may itaerve'toupholdanptber j-hy timely censure of those yices in thd 
hij^iest ranks of society, which, by exciting indignation and contempt, 
imtead of respe^ and esteem, shake the very pillars of a State, destroy 
the cement qjl the £ibric» and threaten its entire lubvertioni But it seems 
adive only uxfoi^i aad^fatp, whik on the more essential duties of nli^ 
4«s and imnjss it ia-dkibst passive and inert, or actively mischievous. 

«« Through 

te oktdri^i ciLiTicrsM. 

'< Hirough tKe meditim of the press, and hy the aid of fanatical 
preachers^ our enemies afe still endeavouring to loosen the attachment of 
the people to their religion and its ministers ; and very many of those 
who are often, erroneously^ styled better sort of people^ are, by their 
licentious manners, and criminal conformity^ unthiiJcmgly leagued with 
them in the closest alliance. Not only books of science, histories, novels, 
plays, and poehis, but even a treatise oft farricfy, abound with sneers at 
the* Bible, and with open or concealed ridicule of its holy precepts and 
dodlrines. They endeavouf to discredit both the Mosaical history of the 
£ill of man, and the account of his redemption by our Lord and Savioor 
Jesus Christ. The shield of faith will easily guard the Christian veteran 
against such attacks. But the wounds which young and inexperienced 
ininds receive from them are incalculable^. From them they are supplied with 
Teady made witticisms and objeAioos against Church and State : and they 
who were accustomed to hear and to obey, suddenly become, in their 
own esteem, of more understanding than their teachers. A pointed sarcasm 
against the Gospel, in the midst of a smoothly flowing popular poem, or 
a high<- wrought novel, strikes forcibly upon a mind that is not fixed in 
the faith ; and often turns into a very diffirrent channel that course in 
which the rciigious thoughts had been accustomed to Sow. Indeed it is 
placed there for that express purpose. 

" Among the baleful produAions of the present age, those of the spaa 
tious Pindar hold a distingpished rank. The gross manner in which they 
have ridiculed our beloved Monarch, ought to have blasted for ever theif 
claim to wit. Instead of that, every virtuous and loyal man must refled with 
legret, that thousands, for the trifling gratification of an ungenerous Urngh^ 
have given a wide circulation to the most gross scurrility against a Sove« 
leign, in whose cause, united with their own, a whole nation is inarois." 

The '< Dialogue*' is between the bookseller and the author, the. for. 
mer deprecating all attacks upon books as hurtful to tnide; and the Utter 
pointing out their wicked, or their mischievous tendencies* Peter Pin.. 
dar's works are the first which incur the severe lash of our moral sat Ixiit^ 

" BOOKSELLER. ' ; : 

" But why so captious, siuce his lyric strains J 

Arc hiard but seldom— 1 

" AUTHOR. ' 

" — Still his verse remains : 
Verse * that has pav'd as broad a way to treason. 
As Modern + Justice, or Paine's Age of Reason. 
Tho' weak the shafts of ridicule may be 
'Gainst Reason's regular artiller}'. 
Yet, like the reed the wily Indian spits { 
From brake or bush, it poisons what it hits* 

• f* Verse that should have been burnt by the hands of the 
hangman. f ** By a modern Philosopher. 

I « The custom of blowing poisoned darts through hollow leeda, il 
Somewhere recoided : hot whert^ memory does not ftt prtfetft tuegest. 

How sodQ ios9 yirtae sink in bis titetxS 
Who makes^ or sees it made, a sportive theme i 
'Teach men to laugh at God as well as Kings, 
To scorn his ]a\ii^s, and scoff at sacred tilings ; 
Soon they become, by large and rapid strides, 
A horde of Atheists and of Regicides* i 
E'en smile at Vice, you make its powers expandy 
And spread^ its poison thro' a tainted lihd^ 
Thus did the Nation's favouring smiles infuse 
Gross iispgdence j his Priapean Muse 
(For raise his merit to what pitch you will 
His was pre eminence in writing ill), 
Dar'd in low rhymes this well known troth to scan/ 
'* A Monarch has the failings of a man." 
But right or wrong to some it matters nor,- 
Give food for laughter, and they care not what* 


' - Has he not gain'd a never- dying name } 


Yes ; doom'd to endless infamy and shanSe. . 

Still would' his Muse, in lyric strainsy I ween. 

Have wreath 'd lewd laurels round his brow obsceney 

Had not brave Gifford — ^hear vile wits ahd dread I 

firoke at one blow his goose.quill * and his head. 

Thus, when the sun on some rank spot of earth. 

Gives the gross Phallus Irapudicus birth-; 

A Fungus first, unheeded and. unknown 

It breeds that humour justly styl'd its- own : . 

Sttdden it bursts — the pointed fragments spread^ 

And forth the Phallus rears its viscous head s - 

Stronger and stronger then its fumes exhale, 

'Till foetid vapovcs dance upon the gale^ 

Man turns aside ; but flies, on sense intent^ 

I>ie in the vapour and increase the scenA^ 

'Till some bold hand shall break its ranoorous c^bw^y 

And kindly knock the public mtisaoee down.*' 

Hating dismissed this poetaster, he next attacks our noreUwritcft, and 
6taer disseminators p^ bad principles, 

" I always scohied Jriff lyre, 
. Aa^ a!l that dribblifig, scribbUngy petty fry^ 
That crawls in proiie, or hops in pctetry, 
Voor lote.sick bards^ your noveL writing missesj^ 
Who teaed e'en babes to dream of nuptial kiisesi 

* '^l^whsch pieiieof serviee he ha* the thonkl oFev^ 96ottnian tnl/ 
k^alsobjea.. These lines evidently allude to that << d#tibbii)g.j" whick 
J^jodw Noehred from the fiat iatlfist of fbtt age. Petei ibis aeVejr wfii» 
tenintlMpmt since.'' 


Oh ! they're a pest, they fly-blow in the inind * 
Each virtuous thought, and leave their eggs behind ; 
The next warm talc, with luscious mischief rife. 
Hatches the spawn and calls' it into life. 
Would they, contented with their own dull sphere, ' 
Beyond their line no longer interfere ; 
It might be bearable, and one might laugh 
To see their rolumes, meagre, cut in half, 
Where stilted senfiment full dress'd appears, 
Wiping, with either hand, the tender tears ; 
Puhng along with blear'd and blubberM eye 
TiU the last sad catastrophe draw nigh ; 
Decorous readers then are grave or gay. 
As authors make their heroine away ; 
They laugh or. cry, just as she chance to swing 
Her last, in hempen or in silken string. 
But my blood boils with more thai^ common rage 
To see these paltry scribblers of the age. 
Lard their lean lines of sentiment and rant 
With scraps of modern philosophic cant. 
E'en horse physicians *, quitting sprain and splint. 
Burst from the stable, and rush forth in print ; 
From deep researches into spavins find 
God's word a jest, and all his Prophets wind. 
Each rhymer now a Machiavel must be. 
Each Miss, a critic on our Liturgy. 
What ! must that fabric our forefathers rear'd, 
Admired thro' ages and yet still rever'd, 
Fall to the ground ! because in tinkling song 
Some poet tells us the foundation's wrong ? 
Must we no longer, on the Gospel plan. 
Believe God's mercies shed on fallen man. 
Because some Misses, scribbling for the day, 
. Too proud to learn, and much too proud to pray. 
By modern candour and false feeling led. 
May dare to censure what they never read ?" * 

Though we cannot agree with our author in the unk;ersaL'tyi of his een- 
sure of novels, that is, in the extension of his censure to all novela, we must 
^concur with him in his character of the generality of modem produdions 
of diat description, the stjle and maMuer of which be has v^ aptly deli* 

^ Loud groans the press with such incongruence. 
Outraging Nature, Feeling, Virtue, Sense ; 

* «'Sach book's as the one here particularly alluded to, should not be 

made public without an antidote to the poison they contain.- The reader 

mho may be desirous of* a more intimate acquaintance, is therefoce re^ 

ierred to the Anti^Jacobin Review for April, 1803, page 402/' 

.J Wick 

^ ' . poetry. 

With liinping liftctj each lagging on t l>rotixet^ 

Like hounds ill.coapled tugging at leach other \ 

IfVith prose that flooneea ac one knows not what. 

Like nags between a eantcr and a trot ; 

Stuff 'd full of mysteries and hair-breadth 'tcapesy 

Intrigaes, adulteries, fornications, rapes. 

And scenes so big with giant, wonder traughf, 

You'd sweir the night.mare had inspired each thought : 

Such are the .horrors of each gob^in'd tale, 

They make old Rawhead at himself turn pale * x 

Printers, compositors, and devils too, . 

See, as they prmt, their office lamps bom blue , 

And hear (for conscience will be heard at last), 

Groans of starv'd authors howling in each blast. * 

Priests of his orgies ! solely did you own 

Grim-visag'd Moloch's God of Terror's throne, 

Ip calm contempt your offspring might expire. 

This hand should help to pass them fbn>' the fiie : 

But since your wreaths, obscenely, will entwine 

Not Moloch's only, but Priapus' shrine; 

Bold indignation shall inspire my Muse, 

And give that ardour. Nature may refuse. 

Shame on the times ! that each lewd book should find 

Access so easy to the female mind ; 

Books, which so far all decency exceed, 

That common modesty should blush to^read. 

To stop their progress what can now suffice t ' 

Alas ! not Argus with his hundred tye&» 

Some tnisfj sew ant will to Miss convey 

The high -wrought novel, or indecent play ; 

Or send them out, I've known it to be fa^^ 

Like Sir John Falstaff, in foul linen pack'd* 

Who traffic thus, whate'er their bodies bc^ 

Have minds with little left of chastity. 

In Christian minds such books as those, I trusty 

Raise no emotion but supreme disgust. 

Foes of the human race ! ye fiends who plan 

Schemes to accomplish what your sire began ; 

Debase our men, the ruin is begun : 

Corrupt our women, and the work is dotse. 

For then shall burst each social tie that binds 

The sacred anion of congenial minds ; 

MHiile vague philanthrophy with sobtik art^ 

Supplants his country in each Briton's heart \ 

* <' Quid mimm ? ubi illis carminibut stppens 
Demittit atras belloa centiceps 
Aares, et intorti captllis 
Ssmenidom itcicanlar atiqaes ?" 

Q% Than 

|4 OHlGINAt CKtTtCt$M. 

Then ttic Itvfi orgies of some iicll. born sprite ^ 

Shall stalk, triumphant o'er each Christian rite : 

False 10 our trust, from tliis deyoted shore 

Shall fly Religion, to return ik> more. 

And in One chaos of corruption end 

The Heav'n-born names of Christian^ Patriot, Frieml." 

The danger of corrupting the morals of women, was very ahly displayed 
in a Sermon, preached by Mr. Norris, at Hackney, and reviewed in one 
of our former volumes. The illuminati of Germany reduced the plan to 
practice, and fotind it succeed to the utmost of their wishes. The 
French philosophists made great use of the women in bringing about the 
Revolution ; but they were ready corrupted to their hands. 

Critics next come in for their share of our satirist's censure. It would 
be a ridiculous afie^ation of humility in us, one of the chief obje^s of 
whose work it was to expose the scandalous partiality, "and unprincipled 
condudl of the caitfcs of the day, to disclaim all pretensions to the praise 
' which he bestows on our humble, hut welLxnrended, efforts. We feel that 
we deserve it ; and therefore we shall not hesitate either to extrad the; 
passage which contains it, or to subscribe to the justice of his attacks eo 
Reviews, seme of which we have fortunately succeeded in suppressing^ 
while we have the satisfa^ion of knowing that we have greatly restnintd 
the formerly. unbridled profligacy and licentiousness of othelrs. 

'* Fie ? fie ! remember how with rancorous hate 
They laugh'd at, sneer'd at, slandcr'd Church and State : 
Who wrote for either, for his country's weal. 
Was dooni^'d the vengeance of their wrath to feel : 
E'en poetfi, dolors, lawyers, politicians. 
And, eke, the fiddlesticks of poor musicians, 
TharchaficM but yearly, in tne courtly mode> 
To scrape in concert with a birrh-day ode. 
As they ^^o hold the bruah and col6urs paint 
What interest lehds a devil or a saint ; 
As they who objed\s through claudc glasses view. 
Can turn toxriinson what in faft is blue ; 
E'en to eitlt volume varies in its hues. 
Just as your Critics speftacks may chuse ; 
Chromatic lenses ! that refraft with ease 
And throw on objects just what shade they please. 
The gaping lad fresh from the North, or South, 
Not more.mistakes :he gaping BuU-and-Mouth, 
Than he who fancies in their works to find 
Aught like the transcript of an author's nwnd.. 
Long did they rule with more than Iton rod. 
While timid autliors trembled at their nod : 
... — , E'fP Pindar.tremblpd, .lest their misplac'4- aid 

Should paint him virtuous *, and destroy his trade. 

♦ >' Pindar's wit-receives much of its p(Miit fvomtiiatAr of looseness* 
morals and irreligion which pervades 'kib poetry ; a# w«l^ aa from that co 
tspitdence with which he expresses^iimself." 



Firsts damig. ^gk V ^ Bririi^ Critic i 

To ineaMre pens with vxch a host of fbor :. - ^ ' 

Tho' right its tenets, tho' well meant its zg^ 

Fevi^ ^eed its praises, few im ceoaures £ee% 

Since, now and thtftf au ilLdi celled blow 

Knocks down a friend in aiming at a foe. 

But when, undaunted, high above the rest, 

With Cato's spirit, and a Briton's breastj^ * 

The Anti- Jacobin * displayed his banners, 

How sbon'the Monthly mended in its manners t 

Now fiiil'n its crest, now chang'd its lofty liote. 

Its atmost effort is, — to sneer, — misquote ; - i 

Or, if it "better serve /i&^^WflA/ <•»//, 

Point the blunt arrow of some feebler frietidj 

And elce its broken feathers with an imp ; - 

For bawds^,nast sinning condescend to pimp* : , . 

Thusvhave I seen a .spider> huge, belay 

Her slender cords across some narrow way» 

Where flies^ unnumbered fell beoeath her jaw 

To cram her venom'd, swoln, insatiate aiaw ; 

Rut when some wasp wkh bold undaunted, wing, 

Burst her Aim web, and shew'd that ht C0|iil4' &f iagy 

Slink to 'her Mt; then just crawl out and try 

To splice a cobweb for some unarin'd fly. 

Still Orthodoxy U Ithurtel's spear. 

It makes the Monthly's cloven ^t appear ;^ 

Name but a Bishop, — stiairt its fingers irch 

To give ha I^wn a Presbyterian twitch : 

Each rhyming Deaeon, or prose. writbg priest 

'Scapes not without a rap or two at least. 

Full on thy head, poor Analytical, 

The Anti.Jacobin a blow let fall ; 

Yet safe thy head, for nature, ever kind, 

Crested that over with a sevcn«fold find t. 

Thy gaping friends no anodyne impart |, 

But left thee' dying of a brokM heart }» 

Sick i« the Crittcal ; sore 8ick;-^-^md mast 

With thee be aeon 1^ nde»loQg ip that duat 

* " Besides the Anti.Jacobin and the British Critic^ there are some other 
RcYiews and periodical works decidedly io favour of ous Cofiititution 19 
Charch and State ; and stren»M|a in the support of leligion aodkmorality^; 
soch as the Orthodox Churchaan'a Mafaxi9tt> 4k* ^c." 

f " BrroffoiKi/' 

J <^ In a periodical publicatUHiy of a apmt •cngenial^ !• the Analytical 

Rfiviev» it waa made a matter of wonder *' why such a Review^ supported 

by ^demen of acknowledged learning and abilities, should gradually de^* 

I cKw.*' Tile ab«v« iBfbrmation oiiiit therdlMe b« pMtdiul]^ gndfyhg^ 

* i^ie fcllf fil|i«¥eajill cause for woDdor.'' 

i <' By wUch disease it departed this Uie^ A« D« f79f/* 

8A emotKAL^ cjttTieisM. 

Which, uvton grimi ObKidon o'er eaeh breast 
Shall throw, thrice throw, to lay yoar spiriu to rest." 

I The bookseller, tenmged af this abose of works rf every description, 
commends him, if he is determined to satirize, to make the stage ihe 
Tehide of his satire. Upon which our author exclaims : / 

— " What ! the play-house mend us ? 
•^ From such morality good Lord defend us ? ^ 

Cast but an eye upon your boasted stage — 

(Who write for that will write to please the age. 

Will paint such Women as most men desire. 

Such glowing Heroes as the fair admire) 

Mark the bfoad grin at each unseemly tale. 

Whilst the eye sparkles underneath the veil ; 

Hear the loud buz that speaks the applause of man, 

Mix*d with sly plaudits of the ruffling fan. 

With bursts, of thunder when the Boxes roar. 

And the huge fabric trembles to its floor. 

What is the objeft? is it virtue's cause 

That always raises such immense applause ? 

' Is it chastisement on his impious head 

Who dares to violate the marriage bed ? ^ 

Or yet on his who robs his Father's bank 

To hire sonoe strumpet of superior rank ?-^ 

The rake is grac'd with titty winning art, 

A polish'^i manner, and ' extreme good heart.' 

The husband leads a moping, churlish life,*^ 

Perhaps, with reason, jealous of hir wife. 

The spendthrift, generous, ever apt to dole 

In deeds of alms that very cash he stole. 

The Father storing thousandsevery year. 

Yet <:lose, penurious, and amazing queer. 

By drawing charaders extremely nice. 

With cobweb virtues and substantial vice, 

painting thp husband and bamboozled sire 

With awkward manners ^nd uncouth attire. 

Does not the Drama rather strive to make 

Favourites of both the spendthrift^and the rake ? 

O ! virtuous patterns of your moral stage ! 

O ! 4rare examples for the rising age ! 
^ - Whence they may learn such modern truths as these, 
' Gain easy manners, be what else you please : 

O ! school for morals ! O ! pure ethic college. 

Where modest women gain immodest knowledge ; 

Where bashful virgins learn to grow less nice. 

And bronze their features in the blaze of vice j 

Fresh from the nursery, there the blushing maid 

May see the price * ci prostitution paid > 
^^ — ' -...--. J ■ I ■ . ■ ■ ■■ - .. ■ ■ » 

. < /< Not to oMQtipi^ otbers» there is ^ scene in the farce c^ the Citizen so 
truly disgusting, that it is wonderful d m^wms and rdligwus pt^, abfViM 
bear a necond-iepetitiQS of it.'* 

Pottry. 87 

Ogled by bnlKes and ftt bawds, may sit 
Three hours to hear obscenity • for wit." 
The notes at the end of the book exhibit much good sense and sodnd 
judgment, on rdigioos and moral subje6ls j and refled great credit on the 
author, as a man and a Christian. The anecdote respeding the novel me^s 
adopted for promoting the circulation of a profligate novel, b curipus. 

" ' Like Sir John Falslaff; in foul linen packed.* 
** This was literally the case witfi that quintcb-sence of senatorial wisdom 
' the Monk.' The play«>biU of a strolling company conveys the- following 
important information to the. wives and daughters in the ne^hbourhood. 

* Theatre, ^ on Monday will be presented, the Drama of the Castle 

Spedre, written b^ Mr, Lewis, M. P. author of the celebrated novel of the 
Monk, 6^c.* — ^Cekbratrd truly ! Thus docs one nuisance + puff off another. 
And hence the young ladies in the neighbourhood not only go to see tne 
Castie Spedre^ but call at the circling library for the chlebrai<M nwel ^ 
the Monk. You scarcely enter a house, where there are young womt^n/ 
but you sec the roost despicable trash, under the denomination of a noveV 
lying npon the chimney-piece. Whoever reads the' celebrated nmrel offhe 
Monk, written by an M. P. and at the same linie reflcfts that M. P, fBean5 
a Senator, a Counsellor, a Legislator bf a nation which boasts of possessing,* 
fo its purest form, that blessed religion which 'imperiously forbids alt ap- 
proaches towards evil :T~The M. P. in the present instance, musr forcibly 
remind him of the adage ' Monachum noo iacit cucuUus.' " 

CaGsta ; or, a PlBure of Modern Ufe. A Poem, in three parts. By Luke 
Booker, LL. D. 4ta Pp. 32. 2s. 6d. Button and Son. 

MR. Booker's muse is honourably enlisted In the same service as the 
muse whose moral effusions were noticed in the preceding article. The 
story of Calista is simply this. She becomes the wife of an officer who, 
compelled to go on foreign service, leaves her at .Itome ) when she contraiSls 
a k>ve for dissipation, and becomes a fashionable woman, A passion for 
gaming is soon contra£)ed 5 she loses beyond her means of poyinent, and 
her honour discharges the debt. Ce n'est que k premier pas quf coute. 
The guilty intercourse with her infamous seducer continues; she is soon 
prevailed on to elope with him ; she quits her children and her borne ; and 
eiQbarks, with the villain, for Ireland. Overtaken by a atprm, the vessel 
u dashed on a rock ^ a boat from the neighbopring shore pushes off to its re- 
lief; — ^it reaches the barren spot on which the tei'ri^d passengers had landed 
for safety ;— -Calista marks itsapproach, and, on seeing ^er husband spridg out 
ef it, she shrieks and plunges into the sea. Her distni6ked husband ad* 
dresses her seducer— anlnel ensues ; the former fallfr— and the latter adds 
oorder to the criipe of adultery. Such is the story, the basis of which, 
we lament to say, is not formed of Ji6litious materials. The examplea of 
profligate gamesters first cheating, and afterwards debaocfaing, the wives ' 
nfihdr friends are, un^ppily, but too numerous. A signal instanccof 
such conduct is to be found among the new associates of the present pre* 

# ^ filaipheiDy and profone-fwearing might be added, would the versa 

t ^ £tjDDiliDg Il^ycr^** 

G 4 inter. 


aaier. The tale is told wittt a riiqptjcttf, and an energy vtdl suited ta the 
subjed ; and many religioaa aod moral precepts are aptly introdi]^d. The 
foUowiipg address to an adultresy is particularly af plicable to one of that des- 
cription whom we have had too frequent occasion to censure, but who, either 
^ncouragej to persevere in her guilty course by the facility with wliich sh« 
obtains absolution, or rendered, by babit> callous Co crime, and its atieodaat 
^nfamy, boldly stares decency out of countenance, and docs not blush to 

exult in 9in. To ker we say ; — 

f ' ' ' . . 

'' Hence firom thy country ,-^roni detested hooae. 

Let pointing scorn compel thee &r to fly ) 
But not with gentle peace exped to roam : 

Go, in somexravem lay thee down and die.*' 

y/e io «pt qupip, Kpucfai less apply, the poncluding lines of th^ stan^ 
%reau8e 9r,c do not think them pcrte£^i||pompatible with Chrisliaa charity ^ 
4Pd we advise the reverend author senougly . to re-consider them. ^Ufit 
^ppiiding, in glowing pumbefs, the direfif I consequences of adultery, bflr 
444<Yi^^ himself to his country, in which, he laments, that vUis borribla 
fin, 1^ which, by divine authority no less a punjshmen^, than exclusion 
jrom ihe Kingdorti of Heaven, is annexed, has become ex'tremely prevalent ^ 
and he accuses, ^nd we fear with too much reason, both the pr^s an^ th<} 
9^S^ pf contributing largely to its growth and extension : 

f Such mighty Albion ! such the baneful crime. 
Thy nationj great in arts and arms : 

Draws down high vengeance on thy sea^ and clime 3«-« 
Awakening in the virtuous dire alarms : ' 
This oft thy mated dame's unrivaird charms 

Distains with foulest infamy and shame, — 

iireaks holy. wedlock's bands, and desecrates its name. 

• •* What marvel that is sear*d the public mind ? 

That beauty's cheek no soft sultlision knows 
Resulting from Ihe soul ? since unconiiu'd, 

The tide of vice^a wasting deluge ! flows— 

From prostituted good the evil grows ; 
Wide from the press, Io! atheistic lore 
IrabDed with poison, spreads, where seripture cfaarmM befeie. 

^ Mprt wide that scenic school— tb(^ attrpi5iive stage, 
CQpveys the moral purse,— the mental bane, 

'lyhich blast the pronHse of the coming a^, — 
blanching 9dnUer)'*$ and s^dudiop> stam 
With Wipping guise. l<o4 Charity's &iy twin, 

?^l]a>Y the harlot or seducer vjle, 
'o SJip cponubial faiibj and virtue tp tl^^pile/* 

'. There is hot top mupb reason for (he Bard^s pQmpIaint. That there are 
many *good and upright men, who, contenting themselves with obedience 
to such of the coniimands of God as rplate to themselves, think their doty 
dUtcfaarged } wttboDt refledting that Aej are pqoiyy hoopd to exeirt all the 
neans in their power for rendering others^ within the sphere of thdr intlaMMi 
equally good and pious with themsd?cs. Of dit wypidntibHity attec^ 


4»iD0D»i». A»>^M{)ta, fbw,.44as! are aware; but ta aodi «e ta^oqi- 
^eod the n^Qwyig observation* of Dr. Booker. 

«* It 18 not ia>probable but ro^ny pious persons, (and particularly ihoif 
loeaeascd ol* power and indut'UCf)^ are involved in public calanur 
^ together with the wicked, op account of their supiiieoess, because > 
they are content with their own individual piety,— <u>t u«iug rentraiiu Qt 
coerdoii to inake mcfokind better, This we know wa^ tbe cause of i:^U*# 
severe visicationaj who, as far ai^ concerned himseltV wa:» certainly what 
we denominate a good and pious character, but he >^s judged gi^ilty of 
imqoicy, because tho^e whom he had under his authority made theiasdvep 
file, and he restraiaed them not" 

This is a seciuos lesbua, and a necessary one, for there are very maoj 
ycfaons of this descriptioni who, good*tbemselves« are too indqient to tafcr 
aoj paina to render others so. 

f^Mudts in Prose and Verse, B'y Alexander Moljeson. 12nio. Pp. 222. 
MoUeson. Glasgow, i806. 

SEVERAL of these essays have great nnerit ^ particttlarty the etiray ia 
pitMe on ifUoxUation, and the poecn, entitled ** tlie Sweets of Society." In 
the former Mr. Mulieson deplores, with great ieeling, tbe evils of draii* 
kenness, and expatiates, with great foroe, on tbe 6ital consequences oi tb^ 
cooiaiissioQ of that sin. Knowing, as we unfortunately do, that numbera 
fif litenry meo are much addided to it, we shall exti^ that part of tbe . 
esaay which is particularly addressed to them^ in the hope tiiat it will make 
such an impresaioa on tha minds of those who cast their eyes on theatf 
pages, as to pnpduce a gradual, and, ultimately, a radical reform. ' 

" Men of real learning and genius sometimes acquire a habit of inteod* 
cation ^ by an inteippcrate use of that which they osed at fittt only as 4 
deairable recreation. When laborious research^ and tedious invcstlgatioil 
hare fatigued their minds, and inclined them to repose, a cheerful glass, hi 
the company of agreeable friends, seems to be a most eligible and agreeable 
relaxation. Here, however, the limits of temperance and excess are so 
fidntly delineated, that lhei# minds scaroely peiceivo them 3 and the plea« 
lii^ deiirinm and dissipation of thought, which tbs use of spirituous liquors 
occasions, are so alluring, after the intelledual faculties have been on the 
aCrctcb, that tbe temptation to intemperance becomes very great. Like tbe 
asoth that heedlessly flutters around the taper till it is consumed, they en« 
}Bfy theoMeliws on tbe verge of intemperance, till they «re irresistibly en* 
tangled, and scotched in the flames of habitual intoxication. To theser 
men, little mure is necessary to be said| than to intreat them to exert the 
powers of their mind, and weigh well all the consequences of their yielding 
to this, vice, or exposing tliemselves to its temptations. They may perceive^ 
that by such condud they will efface, as fyt as lies in their power, all ves- 
tiges of that heavenly ii^age^ which was at first imprest on man by. hia 
Creator; that, by these means, they, will lose all interest in the glorious 
fewerds of the gospel, and be snbjeded to its tremendous punishments $ 
Ibr it 19 said in scripture, that irunkards shall not inherit th^e Kingdom of 

Otie literary diara6ter of great learning, talents, and genius has very 

)ilalf £dlen a Vi6kim to thk d^;adip§ vice; aod we khow two others, of 

" ' "' n, wte 9fe 8|n(oglf addiAcd to it. T^ihem, aadi^ 


^ ^ ORIGIKAt CRITlCrSftf. 

30 albert who tre led sway by tbe antat infatuation, ve iBOst ttrMaoasfy 
recommend the preceding ohftervations. How sncfa men can poisibly open 
ilbe scriptures, and a6l as if in open defiance of the precepts which tne3r 
tentain, and the deouociations which the/ hold forth, woaki be utrerij 
inconceivable, if we were not aware of the pcrverseness of the human 
lieart, which leads men to grasp at a momentary gradfication, tboogh cer« 
lain, bj so doing, fo^incnr the severest paniKhment; because that punish* 
.Wnt appears to them remote, while the gratification is present. Lament* 
^!e depravity ! thus to risk the loss of eternal happiness for an iodjnlgence 
at once so trifling and ao degrading ! 

'* As the influence of the great is powerful, the obligation on them h 
ttroftg, to set a good example before mankind ; and to shew a proper ab- 
librTence of err ry deviation from the paths of virtue, especially of a viot 
the cflfeds of which are so pernicious." — • . •; . . 

Let the great, aye, and the very great, attend to this truth, which panr- 
iites may conceal or disguise, but which no human art, ingenuity, or power 
can alter or elude. The author has truly said, that " drunkards skatt noi 
enter the Kingdom of Heaven,*' The passage on which this assertion is 
evidcoily founded, is to be seen in the sitth chapter < of Sdint Pzuxl'a First 
JB|)ist)e to the Corinthians f in which we are expressly told ihat, fornicaion, 
ndklterers, and ^run^ar</j. shall not inl^erit the Kingdom of God. If-then, 
4bere be, among the great, any who are in the habit both of indulging in 
iirunkenness, and of committing eduJiery, lei them trembb^t this dreadful 
Jenundation of the Apostle at their own two*fold grtkuiH of exclusion 
IroiD the Kingdom of God ! If these crimes 80bje6ted the persons commit- 
ting Ihem to solitary coufluement for only six months* how much would 
the dread of incurring it tend to produce its suppression $ yet, SQoh is the 
ilqpisavity of our nature, that the iiear of incurring tlie most terrible of all 
' ponisbmcnts,' an eternity of torment, from the contemplation of which the 
ipipd recoils with horror, will not have the same eflc^V. The drunkurds and 
pduUerers, howevery-may be sure that no earthly splendour, do rank how* 
ever elevated, no honours however brilliant, will secure them frooothe 
punishment which Divine Authority has proclaimed, and which Divine 
Ji^tice has prescribed ; it is not less certain, than it is dreadful; and dis-* 
tant as the tiro^ of meeting it may now appear, a iday, an hour may pro* 
diice it. 

" The Sweets of Society/* i (the poem to which we before allnded), are 
traced through tlie two .periods odnfancy and youth} — the poetry is good j 
and the seuliments are in strid unison with religious and virtiieaa prin* 
ciples. . ' , 


A Brief Examination into the Increase of the Revenue^ Commerce^ and 
Navigation, of Great Britain, during the Administration of the Bight Hoju 
WilUam Pitt\ tuith ALlusions to some of the Principal Events which oc* 
curred in that Period, and a Sketch of' Mr. Pitt's CharaSier. By the 

, Bight Hon. George Kose^ M. P. 8vo. Pi% 120. 5s. Hatcbard. 1906. 

HAVING fully reviewed the flrst part of this Trad, (which was pub* 
Ktbed ia i799) at the time.of Ita appearascey wc shall cooline oaf present 


PoGufs and f$Ud$alxSicimiij. 91 

notice to the addktonal page«« which bring the flrjrbo& doduneaU and cal* 
culatioas down to the close of the last year. In opeoing the coocladiug 
part of this most useful and vaiuab(k publication, the intjeUigent author 

*' Having in this and the former p^iRpbfet traced the progreafii^e increaift 
in our Revenuej IVIanufai^ure^, Commerce, and Navigation, from' 1784 
40 ^799» it intention to carry on the inye^igation in tfie same 
manner to the present time $ but I have been prevented from doing id by 
8Q apprehension that such a further detail would, from its kngth prevent 
attenjtion to it. I have however cpntinued the Tables of the Revenue, &e<# 
through Mr. Addington*s administration, 9^ weU as Mr. Pitt's, to the pro« 
$ent time, as higbly.interesting to all who are anxious for the prosperity pf 
the countiy. It will from these be seen what the situation of the country 
was in these fespe^s at the commencement of this year ^ or in othoc words^ 
"when the present Ministers succeeded to the Government and the reader 
'will be able to compare that with the state in which Mr. Pitt tound it whcra 
he, came into ofgce. It has been' shewn in the pamphlet printed in 17d2» 
that when Mr. Pitt succeeded to the head of the Tfeasury at the end of' 
December 1783, he had it not in his power, owing to the political strug- 

fles which then prevailed, to propose any efficient measures till the new; 
^rKamcnt mctinMay 1784: , 

** That the income of the permanent taxes was at that time insufficient 
to pay the charges upon it ; of course the whole o^ the land and malt taxes 
(about 2,560^0001.) was not applicable to meet the current expenees tif 
the country for army, navy, ordnance, miscellaneous services, 3rc, : 
** That the interest of the debt incurred in the American war, , ., 

then just ended, was - - -^ i £'•4,864,000 

^* And the taxes imposed to provide for it were so unproduc- 
tive, that the increase of revenue was only - - l,755,OOQ 

«* Leaving a deficiency of - - - - jf.3,JQ9,oqo 

^* And in addition to the disconragement necessarily resulting from the new; 
taxes being so unprpdudive, the funds were in a state of the ntmost depres* 
sioD : the three per cents which, on the peace of 1753, rose to 95I. never 
roae higher after the peace of 1783 than 69L and had fallen in the begin* 
ning of 1784 to 56i. at which time the unfunded debt to be provided ibr 
amooDted to 27^000,0001. exclusive of 2,000,0001. o^ loyalista deben* 

" Under all these disadvantages and difficulties, it is proved in the aame. 
^niphlet, that Mr. Pitt, in less than two years and a half from his isnter* 
u^into otfic^y proposed to Parliament the establishment of a sinking fund 
jof one million annually, which, with the aid of a subsequent improvement 
Ml 179^4 amounts now to more than eight millions a year*; not one shii- 
fiog of which was diverted by him from the important obje6b for which .it 
.was established, nnder pressures the most serious the country eVer exper»> 
icooed. It W0UI4 hardly be an exaggeration to say, that to this m«^ure We 
»we our existence at tins time as a nation; 

" XxX us next look to the unerring evidence of the state of our navi- 
g^6oQ and commerce at the periods of his coming into office^ and at his 

9« ftumiteAL ifkincisar: \ 

NAVKJATfON, ':?^4- »««5- 

ToM« Tom, 

'< ShTpping belonging to Great Brit4dn and her 

colonies^ Ireland not included • . i^3oi;000 2|226>< 

^ Number of seamen employed in that shipping. 

In the merchant)^* service , ^ • ^ . loiySyo 152,64^ 

COMMERCE. 1784. f8o^. 

«' Imports from British colonies, 'and from po«. £. £* 

sessions in India - - . • 6,751,000 I5,i7x>coo 

i* Ditto from Ireland - - - 1,820,000 3,010^000 

♦« Ditto from Poieign cornittiet < - . <^>573>ooo 13,221,000 

15,144,000 29,502>o6o 

1784. " Exports bf British manu- 
fa6lures to British possessions - 3j757iOoo 

'* to Foreign coirmries • 7,517,000 

^ 11,274,000 

•*' Ditto, XS04. to British' posses- 
sions - - - - 9,3*2,000 

** Ditto to Foreign countries .14,613,000 23,935,00^ 

^* Dittoof Foreign merchandize . - 3,846,000 12,227^000 

" ' '* [The ^bovc are the Custom. house valua- 
tions, according to rules established more 
than a century ago.] 
*• The i%z\ value of exports of British manufac- 
tures exported in the two periods were- 18,6039000 41,068^000 
*' Value o£ produce irojy>r ted - . 127,000 484,000 

5L The price of the 3 percent, consols in a period of pro. 

found pea<:e, the biginnijag of 1784, were - - 56 J to 55 J 
f In December i8o5> ^'^''' thirteen years from the com«. 
imncfmeqt of the win-, with an interval of less than two £* "^ £. 
years of feverish pe«eQ> 60 to 4i"' 

Thift Attieof the funds M«. Rote partly ^scribes to the incveasod wtaiili 
atnd pco^my of the conntvyj. aad to ihe stri(f^ adhetenc^ to the salutasy 
means adoptca for the redudion, and gradual extindion, of the natioial 
€kbt. Mr'. Fttr, it is well knowi^ aboii«hed a nusher of nnccure and 
patent pla«ei, and ¥ery cAnsiderafaly redveed the expcncet of eoUeduif 
the vanoua branches of the rcveaue. He also pot an end to the praAioi 
g£ piurchasiag poblie atercs by coott^As and ceaunissieas, which Kad been 
pursued by aU theMinisteiB befiM«> him, and which, of ooufsr, ga^e thorn 
an immpme iniQeiict, at ihe publk cxpence. The purchases, aecordbg 
«o Mr. Plct'^ plan, were made by the fespc^ive boafrds, aaid on the bene, 
icial pfineipk of pablic biddings. la short, there i^ao no aebeme or ar. 
rangement, which the most ardent patrieiism eouki sumat, or which the 
most aeutei intelUgent, and eompaehentive mind com devise, fef pro* 
noting the Inteiest of pieeperit^ of hi* eeimtpy« that wae net eonceiTcd 
and carried into e^<^ by this truly great and good i]tan. We shall* qtsote^ 


Mr.Ko6e*s fiketcah q£ hit* charadkr» wiiicti, vecy ht from betraying the 
exaggerated statement of partial friendship, falU^ in mir esciinacion, 
much below the ttath* Arfar as it goes, however, it is strictly accu. 
rare. And, indeed, bo one had a better opportuoity of appreciating tliac 
charader than Mr. Rose, who had the happiness and the honour of enjoying 
Mr. Pitt's friendship and confidence fcir the long space of two-aad-itwefit/ 
years. "^ ^ ^ 

** To those who enjoyed his intimacy I might safely refer for tho 

proof of his possessing those private virtues and endowments, which, 

though they may sometimes be accounted foreign to the public chanidet 

of a statesman, the congenial feelings of ^nglishmen-aiways dispose them 

to regard as the best pledges o£ a Mim^ter's upright adiaif}istracion.r 

Around these in the present case an additional lustre, as wqU as sacred* 

acsa, has been thrown by the circumstances of his death ; by the manner 

In which he met it ; and by the composure, the forcicude, the resigna« 

cion, and Hft religion, which marked his last moments. With a maaner 

somewhat reserved and distant in what might be termed his public deport. 

ment, no man was ever better qualified to gain, or more suceessfd in 

ixing the attac;hment of his friends, than Mr* Pitt. They saw all the 

poweiful energies of his chara^er softened into the most perfeA oompla- 

oency and sweetness of disposition io the circles of private life^ the plea« 

•ores of which no .^ne more cheerfully enjoyed or more agieeably pro. 

moted, when the paramount duties he conceived himielf to %we to the 

^blic admitted of his mixing in them. Tiiat indignsint severity with 

vhidi he met and subdued what he consiilered unfounded oppostiion ; that 

keenness of sarcasm with which he repelled and withered (as it might be 

aaid) the powers of most of his assailants in debate, were exchanged m 

the society of bis intimate friends for a kindness of heart, a*geotleiiest of 

demeanor, and a play fulness of good humour, which no 6ae ever witnessed 

without interest, or participated without delight. His mind which, ia 

ihe grasp and extent of its capacity, seiz^ with a quickness almost mtui^ 

tiYe all the.iBOst imponant r^elations of political power and poltticar obco« 

oea^, was not less oncommooly susceptible of all the light amd elegami 

iinpfessioiis which form the great chatm of conversation to coltivateJ 

** This sensibUity to the enjoyoKnts of private friendship greatly en. 
benoed the sacrifice he made of every personal indulgence and comfort to e 
r^d performance of duty to the public; that duty, for the last yc^r of 
Us li^, was indeed of the most lalK»rious and unpemicting kind. The 
Hie^gth of hif attachmetic to his Sovereigf^ and the ardour of hih zeal £ow 
Ae wel&re of his country, led hin^ to forego not Only every p'easare and 
ammement, but almost every pause and rela^iation of business necessary to 
ibe f reservation of heabb^ till it was too late, in a f^ime like his, alas I 
fcr ue preservation o{ lifeil That life he sacrificed to his country, not 
certainly like another most valuable and iUostridus serrant of the pufaltc, 
(whose death has been deeply and uaiirersaUy lamented) a^tddse those ani. 
flMHeg wcuasiaeces in which the incomfiarable hero often ventuied n m 
ba»Je» and at last resigned it for the most spdendid of all his unexampled 
^i^oriaa^ bat wiib that patriotic self^votedoess which looks for a re^ 
w»rd only io i|s own oonsciousneis of tight, and in ix% own secret senw 

'* The 


- ^ The pnise of virtue^ of hdnow, and of dkintettsted fmntyf wte-^ 
tfier in pablic or private chdrader, need, scarcely be claimed for hn die-' 
mory ; for those, his enemies (if he now ha^ any, which I am unwilling^* 
to believe, alt]K>ligh some are frequently endeavoaring to depreciate hi* - 
merits) will not venture to deny; and his country, in whose cauje they 
were ex^cised to the last, will know how to value and record them* 
That they should be so valued and recorded is important on every prin« 
c^ple of justice to the individual and of benefit to the community. To 
an upfight Minister in Great Bcitain, zealous for the interest and honour 
of his country, there is no reward of j>rofit, emolument, or patronage, 
vhich can be esteemed a compensation for the labours, the privations^- 
ifae anxieties, or the dangers of his situation ; it is in the approbation of 
his Sovereign, and in the suffrage of his countryn^n, added to his owi» 
eonvidlion of having done every thing to deserve^ it, that he must loc^ 
for thai reward which is to console him for all the cares and troublesM>f 

. his station ; the opposition of rivals ; the misrepresentation of enemies ; 
the desertion of peevishness of friends ; and sometimes the mistaken een;- 
, sures of the people. 'Tis the honourable ambition that^ looks beyondf 
the present time that must create, encourage, and support a virtuous and 
enlightened statesman ; — that must confer on his mind the uprightness 
and purity that rise above all vantage ; the courage thaf guards the* 
state from foreign hostility or internal fadion ; the firnmess that must* 
<>ften resist the wishes, 1o ensure the safety, of the people. 

'' This is the legitimate ambition of a statesman ; and that Mr. Pitt 
possessed it his friends are convinced ; but he has lieen sometimes accuse<lf 
(by those who, although their opposition was a^ive and systematic, yet- 
knew how to honour the^man) of a less laudable and less patriotic ambiriob/ 
that wished^ * to reign alone,' to exclude from the participation of offieef 
and o£ power other men, whose counsels might have assisted him to guide 
the country amidst its difficulties and embarrassments, or might have con. 
tributed to its safety in the hour of its danger. It. is, however, perfcdiljr 
well known to some of the highest chara^lers in the kingdom, that Mr,^ 
Pitt, after the resignation of Mr. Addington, in the summer of 1804, 
was most anxiously desirous that Lord Grenville and Mr. Fox should form 
a part of the new Administration, and pressed their admission into olBce 
in that quarter, where only Such earnestness could be efiedual ; conceiv- 
ing the Ibrming a strong Government as important to the public welfare^ 
and as calculated to call forth the united talents, as well as the utmost re- 

f sources of the Empire : in which endeavour he persisted till within a few 
months of his death. I am aware of the delicacy' of such a statement^ 
I but I am bold in the certainty of its truth. My profound respedl for 
those by whom such averment, if false, might be con tradi^ed, would not 
suffer me to make it, were it not called for to do justice to that great 
and virtuous statesman, whose unrivalled -qualities, both in private and 
in public life, will ever be in my recolle^ion — 

" * Dum memor ipse mei, dum spiritus hos regit artu«/ '• 
In a Table annexed to this trad, is an estimate of the comparative expenee 
of maintaining troops, in and 0«/ ^barracks. As so much ciamoorr and mis- 
representation were heard about the establishment of barrabks, at the pei'iod 
of their eredion, it may not be amtss^ to atatc, from this Table, that the 
expence of a regiment of cavalry of 675 men and officers, in caoq» fot 

Politicr out J^M^di Etok9mj. ^{ 

tfo days (the ustxal time) is ifyftool. ; whereas in bafraekr h ^ntooms 
only to 4)it3l. so that there is a saring to the public of 71077K in every 
ffpgicaent of cavalry. The expence of -a regiment of infa&try, of 726 > 
aten, for the same period, in camp; is 3»5;i61. ; and in barradcs only 
loool. producing a saving of 2,516!. The saving, in twelve regimentt 
bf cavalry, which must have been encamped if barracks had not been prow 
vided for them^ is 84,9151. ; and in 128 regiments of infantry 321,9201* 
oiakiiig a total of saving, in 160 days, 406,843!. Tlie total anmtal 
saving, from tlie )>arrack establishment, is stated to l>e 437,409!. 6s. ^ 
The perusal of this traA mast afford the greatest satisjfa^on to every 
who wishes «rell to his country. 

A Later to the Right Ifftt, William Windham^ on the Defence of, the Country^ 
at the prevnt Crisis. By Lieutenant. General Mone/. 8v6. Pf. 76, 
25. 6d. Norwich printed i Egerton, London. 1 8o6« 

GENERAL MONEY is one of those who th^nk that an invasion oif 
this Country may take place, and that it may so far sucked as that the eaemy 
mny secare a. landings and he therefore is of opinion that every precaution 
wfaJdi prudence can suggest should be adopted, with a view to avert the 
evil consequences of such an event. He * first contends, that, should thfr 
enemy land, and throw up'entrenchments on the coast for the defence of 
ilia camp, properly supplied with artillery, it would be foUfr to attack 
him in such a position. And he next insists on the necessity of throwing 
tip Martello towers, at proper distai^ces, on the great roads by which he 
muau approach the metropolis, in order to retard his progress, and- to harl 
rass hiia 00 his march. He then insists on the necessity of forming an 
entrondied camp, for tlie prote^ion of the capital, exterxling from Lam- 
beth, pf Dolwich Hill, Pig Hill,^ Beckenham, and Shooter's Hid, til 
Woolwich. This, he says, would proteft London, in the event of a dei 
fcat of our tvoops by the enemy, after their landing. He offers many other 
•i^geations, all subordinate to his main obj^dl, which he presses with 
great eamescness on the attention of his Majesty's Ministers. The Ge, 
neral affirms, that cavalry would be of no use in the defence of the ooun:< 
try, and recommends that they should be all dismounted. Without ven. 
taring an opinion upon this snbje^, we shaH merely declare our peHjeA 
ooncnnetice with him, in the propi^iety of adopting a dark uniform in pre. 
ference to scarlet ;^ in his declarations respedting the impraifticability of 
eonckidlng a peace at this time ; and in his notions respe^ing the futmrt 
acate of the British and French Navies : the latter we shall extrad^. ' 
'' How long we may retain our decided- superiority on the ocean, God 
«idy knows. The viftory of Trafalgar has certainly tended much to con^ 
firm it, but my decided opinion is, that the sooner we have a peace the 
•ooner will the enemy be our rival in our own element, the sea. With 
all his extent of coast,^ and his influence over other maritime Powers, the 
eieation of a navy will be his first objed : he must be sensible that with^ 
out it he cannot suhjwgate this country, as he vinually has done all the 
Powers on the Coatinent. In the course of a few years^of peac&he^iU be 
d>le to i^oduce three," {9yt six) '* ships to your one, unless your peac^ es- 
tabtishment equal that which you hAye at present. Admitting this, where- 
is the use of peace-} The expence would be nearly the same. Nor can 


yoo teee&k 16 tnf terms, leaving th» fiotUlavat Boulogne, wbere it U '^-^ 
the roi woul(!> tn thtee or four yearly save un the trouble <^ destroying 
the flotilla at BOategne— ** and the pride of the enemy will not submit t0 
<he removing i<> *• it ^Ould convince Europe he is not so formidable as 
Jne wishes to be thought to be. It apf^eacs to me that we have no alter-. 
jiatire. If' we wish to preserve our independence, we 'most be an armed 
lotion, and continue so. We can make no solid peace for the present^ 
we mast await ivents, and carry On a war of depredation; we must re. 
fain no cOnq nests « but such as are of immediate itnportance ; we most, 
if po^sibiej apl^ihilate tl)e military force of the enemy in the West India 
Islands : renioving such of the inhabitants aS choose it, <to some of «ttr 
own Colonies, ahandjning those nvbo remain to the mercy of the negroe$^ 
leaving no men stationary any where." 
• This last operationj we suspedl, would be a dangerous experiAenf. 

A Defence of the Volunteer System^ in Opposition t6 Mr, Windham's Idea of, 
that Force; nvkh Hints f of its Improi;^ment ^ 8vo* fp. 68. 2S« 
Hatchard. f8o6. 

NEXT to a Lector which appeared in Mr. R. Yorke's Weekly Re- 
vle^i this is the ablest defence of the volunteer system which we have 
yet seen. Mr« Windham, notwithstaaidi»g the strength of his ^ttacli- , 
Mnt to his ^^» peculiar notions, add the extreme ingenuity of htt . 
•o{4u(»tfjr in 6uf)port of them^ will find very great difikulty ii\ answering 
aMaiyy df thef arguments^ and in overthrowing nuny of ^ the ppsitionf ad« 
▼ anced in tliis very able tradt« The author, however, is by no meaa» 
Mind to the defeds of the system whidi he defends. He frilly acknov. 
bd^s them ; and points out the means of c^^rin^ them^ Ho censures^ 
Mid with «{^}arent justice, the condu«fl of many of the inspe^ng i^d 
loftcers, who instead of instructing the volunteers in their duty; eontMt 
themselves with receiving honours^ which, very frequently^ they a«e iH$t 
entitled to, and in making a flowery speech to the corps. T^is, as i% 

■ ji^lly observed> is not the way to improve the discif^ne of the v<^iiii* 
tmrw* As to the reform in the army, and the Levy en Mass^j the aatlio# 
coadeiima both, .as the vagaries of a speculative mird^ pregnant with, the 
flMM dangerous consequences. In respe^ of the volunteers, he soya : 
. >f tf mean^ ate taken to appoint a^ke and clever young men to tte 
^volonieer corps as^officers, and the inspe^ing generals will open a wider 
'Mdfor their ambition, a vejry essential difference will very sooif bd dm* 
coven^d. I hope then to see the men taught all' tlie duties of light tf o ^p ip 
MiA to be made to understand the manner of annoying am enemy in small 
pMtiea in an enclosed country, at well as to ad- with steadiness, andcor^ 
Mttlftes^ in e:; tended lines and deep columns^; to see rhs ofiicefs hare o(^or#> 
tfDdirriesof exercising their activity and judgment io all tl\e real poUita of 
IKAI service ; to see a proper attention paid to the e^pment and iiKcnMl 

. OMagemMK of the corps; that they b^ fitady upon all occasions to take 

fht Eeldy pitovided wi^lv every article necessary |o the pe«&>ria4iKle of 

tlleif duty J. and to the preservation of their heakh%" 

The following d^servatioos are very just and striking* 

<< Whatever may be said of the patriotism and loyaljly of the people 

M Eng}^!^^ ^^ jiarticuhifjy of th« vojv at ac M (^d IsH^A k-w&fxtaH A 


Politics €md PotkUal Bc^mmj. ^y 

mofe elOqaeot pen than mine to do them jastice on that-scose], yet it 
miisc be leineinbered, that it is impossible to bring those feelings into 
a^iion with fall effe^, without the peconiary aid of government. Tbe bulk 
of the people of any country cannot afford to dedicate their time solely 
f patriotic pursuits : the immediate necessities of themselves and their • 
families must first be provided for, before the general interests of society 
can become their care. Tbe man who possesses a cottage and a garden, 
will probably have as lively an interest in their defence against forei^ 
depredations, as a man who is in the enjoyment of a palace and a domain ; • 
bat it is only by an union of these men, that their mutual security can be 
obtained ; the latter must administer to the absolute wants of the former, 
while engaged on their joint service. If we talce from the members of 
any labouring class of society their time, we deprive them of their only 
means of living *. It is to these men, however, the country must have 
Tccoarse for its defence in case of invasion. At war with an enemy who 
can coomund the resources of a population more than four times our nun). 
ber, it is preposterous to suppose we can be secure by any other means. 
• — ^Mr. Windham even admits this necessity, enamoured as he is i^^ 
his favourite regular army, and has recourse to the Levy en Masse.— ^ 
It is remarkable, by the way, that this Gentleman should have no medio. 
crity in his ideas; he is always ejther above or below his subjefl ; ht' 
.icoms that happy medium which is bought after by all men of real wis. 
dom. His military plan is formed Qf the two extremities of his means : 
but what man of sober judgment would quit the volunteer system, even 
at its most imperfe^ state, for an armed rabble, without leaders and with. 
out any pretensions to regularity ? But Mr. Windham must ever be dii- • 
playing that versatility of genius, of which his admirers are so vain ; for- 
my part, I consider that versatility his greatest defed." 

This train of argument is pursued, at considerable length, and with 
considerable spirit. He represents Nlr. Windham's plan for arming the 
people as a mere subterfuge, never seriously intended to be carried into 
effeil, but as meant merely to dispirit the country with ** all popular . 
modes of arming." He next considers this scheme in a * constitutional 
point of view, and, pertinently enough, asks : 

** What has become of that national jealousy of a standing army which 
ought to be inherent in every Englishman ? Have we forgot the basis of 
our Constitution ? Have we no recoUeftion of the struggles of our ances- 
tors to secure our civil liberties and independence against the encroach « 
ments of ambition, and the turbulence of innovation ? Where is that spirit , 
iled which didiated our Bill of Rights, and .which with so much care re. 
vised and amended the Militia Laws, and established that force for our 
» : ^ ,— Hb '- 

• The advocates for the Po$st Cwnitotusy or Lenjy en M/isse^ as our best 
OKans of defence, seem not to give this point sufficient c&nsideration. Ic 
is impossible to call out the population of a country, even for a day, 
without paying them ; and this would be attended with no trifling expence'* 
Suppose a false alarm should be given, we might have half the country tapay 
a day or two for nothing. What confusion this would create ! for there 
woald be no*want of claimants on such an occasion. Theivgularity^f vo. 
lonteer battalions and regiments cannot be subjed to inconvenience of this 

90, xvUlX* ^ol* %xy. H internal 

58 oitrbrNAE c^iTitnafc 

internal <!efehcei and as a coanterpoise to theevih at all times to be appre. 
kendcd from a stasding artty ? In providing against one danger^ let trs 
not creaiea greater ; let us avoid the fatal error ctf the Fretrth nation, 
who, out of tht very materials that ^erc t6 establish their ifidfcpendeticc-j 
have suffered 'a chain to be forged to hold them in pex|$etual durance." 

There is certainly much that is plausible, and not alittle that is solid, in 
•this argument ; and, applied to other ti'/nefe lind other circvmstanors, r& would 
'he unanswerable. But, unhappily, we are placed in a peculiar situ^tion^ 
and have only a choice of evils left us ;, threatened by such a Power as 
France, wc nf»ust have a most formidable mrlitary force to oppose toheivor 
liisk the loss of our independence, and even of our political existence as a 
nation. Tn this dilemma we have only to mo{/f/y the evil,, which is tht 
objeA of dor choice, in a way most consistent with the spirit of otff 
Constitution, that, while we render it as eff.dlive as may be,, for the re- 
pulsion of foreign attacks, it may b« as little prejudicial as possible to 
eur domestic liberties. Whether an armrd rabble be an evil of this de« 
scriptlon, may admit of considerable doubt ; and cert<iinl}^ opiiriona will 
differ, very materially, on the subjeA.. An extension t)f bor militia sys- 
tem, instekd of an abridgment of it, appeiirs, at fitst sight, best calcolateft 
to supply a constitutional force ; and certainly the new reform inoor amy 
seems a most dangerous experiment, and the unne chosen for making^ it 
most inauspicious. We wish Englishmen never to lose sight of the piinci. 
pie on which the jealousy of k standing army is founded ; but^ we muit 
observe, that no sober mind can be apprehehensiye of the smallest dangefr 
from such a force at this period, when, heaven knows, the power of the 
Crown is reduced almost to a shadow ! 

The author writes with case, temperance,, and energy ; and his argir^ 
ments are eatitlcd to serious attention* 

, The preunt Jtelatians rf IVar and Polity's hetfwesn France and Great Brifahtm. 
Beifig a Tle^ly t-j the Insinuations of the French to the ' Disad'vantage of 
the Military Sprit of the British Notion^ slating the Resourtes derived 
from its CharaBer^ luiih the Motives for entertaining no Affrehensibns- 
from the Efreny ; and cxcmflfying by Histoty the Hr.'Siile Dtsfositiou of the 
Fhnch ii^ivaras other "Nati^wsy and the Means of resisting it snccestftdlj •. 
By John Andrews, LL.D. 8vo. Pp. ii6. Robinson. 1806. 

DRiu ANDREWS enters into an historical disquisition in drdertcF^ 
prove, by the cx^mjle of Various nations of anii^uity, :that a state ma)^ 
be, at onie, tamrkercial and military. Indeed, if the French 'ph>{5le wete 
ignorant Enough to give credit to the gasconading absurdities ct their 
rulers, the issue of the campaign in Egypt, and the recent meeting be« 
tweeu penera^s Stuart and Re^nler, would afford them lessons of sufficient 
•trefigth and cfBcacy to covincc them of the falsehood of those who sedc 
to render us objefts oi contempt to them. This. pamphlet tse3ctrexn!^)r weU. 
written ; the author, in his discussion, shews himself well acquainted witk 
fiisto^y ; and, in his application of fac)s, as well dedu^ons front 
the various circumstances which he narrates, proves his ability to ^.^to^ 
fit by the knowledge >yhich he has acquired.. 

Mt^^k^s if ibetas MfW : «r» ^ P i U t n t afti F^uh Inhretts of GnM Britanff 

'uM ^ fianfor WfieHwg Mi H 'liftrrti^if, m nveMas a Commercial^ P*^fli% 
anifrovidiwg a Military Force adequate- i9 the Exipmckk of ihe Empirt^ 
'OmdtbiSecmrity^fhetJkitedtiftgdom. 8V0. Pf. tl8. JohOBOll* 1806; 

'^^ Quid dignum tanto feret hie promfssor hiatu ?" 
OF all fhc works that have hitherto follen under oar itispeAiOQ u 
"Reviewer^, we do not recolleft one so exceptionable in ^tvtty respeft^ as 
that now before as. The spirit of philanthropy it afFefts to breathe, il 
iprincipally shewn to our implacable enemy ; while it pretends to he deeply 
interested in the cause of religion, it proposes to deprive its ministers of 
their rights and independence; its zeal for the welfare of the Church of 
England, leads it to advise her to reconcile himself to the Church of 
Hcqaofc; and the boasted militar/ plan, which is innocent enough, isnbthin|^ 
more or less than that adopted by the Legislature in the last Session <» 

Luckily, however^ th? poison contained in the work carries its antidote 
ifvirh it, since tl^ execution is as contemptible as the design is wicked^ 
'sometitnes appearing like the wild ravings of frenzy, and sometifiies like 
tiie w^ak effusion of imbecility. • 

Now to our evidence ; 

The sine qua nou of this writer's plan for peace^ is the cession 6i Egypt 
Yo France, and the foundation of an Empire in Assyria by Great Britain. 
After (his proposal in the introdudUon, and which h repeated several timet 
in the body of the work, we meet with the following note^ which we cod- 
fes IS beyond our pcfwets of comprehension, 

*' ITwe will not adopt such means, and take proper measures to pro- 
core this most desirable peate, we must be content Jirith aL bad peace« But 
it is too important not to observe^ lest the latter should be oer choice, 
that it would be our advantage to cede Malta even diredly to France, 
rather than to retain it ourselves, in order to prove a eontinual provo^:jU 
ttoYi, and ground of war, as otherwise would be unavoidable. Tot iht 
possession of Gibraltar, and the conquest of Minorca, or of Malta itself, 
m cot future wars, would enable us to watch sufficiently the naval pre. 
Jnetations and the commerce of the eastern ^horei of France^ and Spain, 
•nd of Italy, arid the Mediterranean at large." 

As tn instance of this writer^s sound policy and pute patriotism, we cite 
Mie fellowir^g bfoof. After having detailed one of his Utopian plans for 
ameliorrating the moials and enlightening the minds of the people at large, 
hetiroeecds to-say that one of the happy consequences of it would be, that 

** A |;reat majority* of tlie people, instigated bv infloencei arts of 
^erreftuhent almost irresistible^ arid the violence of their passions> Would 
IRfter agdti Se unanimmis in supporting a mistaken policy, which either 
Was happily terminated by the battle of Aosterlitz, or mvtt necessarily 
oVertlirow tie British Empire* ' ' 

Ccmgenial. with this is the ibilowin^ bold assertion ] 

^ iRiat France was not th& aggiessor in the infra^lion of the iieatj of 

Aftikns^ that such infradion -was not justified on our part by the political 

Ibotives w}{i^ induced it^ and that the inferior and subsidiary caises 

isujgiied fcf It are of such insuficiency and invalidity, as to supersede the 

nfecessiQr ot entfmerafting then ) 4md that in ^larticular it couU answer no 

' ^ipose, exc^t to inflame 4he *iainds of our own people, to abuse sritli 

[ 4^ery possiEk device,* uid to the grossest extent, the Fmch EmDeror «i 

I . • Ha a Usoiper, 


H Usurperi ;tn4 the worst of men, this .bein|; a question that belonged 
entirely to the French themselves, and on which they were ai|d are ^oaii^ 
fied in all reapers to determine. 

^* Our present; desperate measures and incessant opposition to the views 
of France oeing continued, will at length oblige her, enabled as she is by 
her great physical strength, to form a superior naval force to that of this 
Country, or at least a navy which may so far outnumber* ours, as to CB- 
able her to land armies cither in Great Britain, or in Ireland, which we 
cannot oppose This, however, is an effort that is unnatural to her, and 
which she will never attempt, if wc will permit her the enjoyment of her 
rights, and the means of prosperity she may justly claim ; and if we d© 
hot seek to, wrong and oppress her by a maritime ascendancy, which wc 
may always retain, provided we exercise it as seldom as possible, and 
always, according to a wise system of policy." 

So much for politics and patriotism, we will how hear the author on 
the subjedl of religion : 

" It will be greatly our own interest to reconcile our Church with that 
of Rome, both on account of our foreign concerns, and the influence which 
the latter still retains in our own empire. It is even impious to oppress 
the general religion of Ireland, which may be considered as it's established 
and national religion : and whatever may militate against her improve, 
inent, industry, and essential interests, we at length see cannot be ac 
cepted before God ; but must be diametrically adverse to his religion, 
which, however^versified, is intended to be the proper instrument of the 
national perfeftion of all kingdoms, and of all people, even should they be 
mistaken most grossly in r^-ligion, and be at the same time ignorant and 
- And again in his address to the clergy : . I 

'* But in order that the Christian nations of Europe may more eflec. 
tually. unite in promoting the progress of melioration throughout the 
World, and influence all other religions and nations in it's favour, yon, 
tay countrymen, should industriously accommodate your roligious differ, 
ences with the Romish church ; nay, if it were solely on account of the 
exemplary conduA in respedl of religion, which the papal court itself has 
pursued in modern times J in moderation, condescendence, aixi politenes8| 
in it's frequent adoption of great and liberal views, and, what at least 
may show a less violent spirit of bigotry, in propagating and supporting 
it's religious estibiishments by policy, rather than by it's do^rti es. 

" May you rhtis see the impiety of retaining your tythes, which ar« 
now become the most fatal obstruftions to industry ; and in relinquishing [ 
them be convinced, that you must infinitely augment the riches- of cuiti* 
yation, and most efledually contribute to enlarge the reyenoe of the 
church!" ' . / . 

♦ '* Her navy is sure in the end to outnumber ours in a very dangerous 
manner, even if we destroy three or foui- fleets more in the present w;ir» 
l«t us also in time consider what advancement the naval energies of hc^r 
aubjef^s, the courage of whom at sea is sufficiently desperate, miy receive 
in the economical habits and improvements of the country ; in new means 
that may be devised to increase them ; in the fertfle conceptions of an in- 
genious and heroic nation ; in the incessant efforts and grand views of the 
emperor ; and the accession of itew states of nhqcTestionable maritime 
prowess,"— Author,. . ' •-*.•♦-..•' 

. • •' . . 1 - . . We •- 

JXif/nhy. , i6l 

W« loATt already cited enough to shew both the foITy and malignity of 
this contemptible performance, but having mentioned tha( hacknied theme 
of political reformers, the abolition of tythes, we yat stop to remark that 
however this is varnished over by the specio'lis pretence of agricultural 
- impTOTement, it is obviously intended to operate solely agninst the pros. 
perity of the Churchof England, as we never hear of any attempt either 
by threats, by persuasion, or by purchase, to prevail on the lay impro. 
priators to gi%e up their tythes/ which at least must be equally detrimen. 
cal to agriculture as those in the hands of the clergy. 

Thoogh the author's n;»me is not put to the hook, yet from the frequent 
praises it lavishes on the works" of a certain Dr. Edwards, and the great 
improbability of two persims agreeing so exactly in*the same degree and 
species of absurdity, we are inclined to attribute ic to the pen of that . 


A Charge dtUmtredto the CUrgy of the Diocese r/ Rochester^ in the Year 1 8o6, 
. and pmhiished at their reqaeu. ^y John Law, D.D. Archdeacon of Ro- 
chester. 4to. Pp. 20- Payne. ido6. 

IN plain and impressive language, well suited to the solemnity of 
the occasion]; and to the charafter of the audience, the learned Archdeacon 
dire^ th^ attention of his reverend brcihren to the two evils which most 
threaten the church in these days, the opposite extremes of. infidelity and 
enthusiasm, which, like all other extremes, have a tendency to approxi- 
^roatibn. For the benefit of Mr. Overton, and his partisans, both in and 
oat of the church, we extra^ the following passage from this very sen. 

*' li" it should be the endeavour of all who ' profess and call themselvek 
" Christians, to hold the faith in unity of spirit,, and in the bond of peace,* 
what is'to'bc thought of the bitrer revilings of those, who iraJuce our la- 
bours, and misrepresent ourd. driuesf Are we notlbngagcd with them in 
the same conmlon ceruse ? And are ^ not alike bound with them to convert 
sinners from the error of th/ir wrfys ? Did we exclude either the righteousriess 
which is of Gtxi by faith, or deny the atonement of our offences by meani 
of the sacrifice of the Son of God, the 'accusations of those who arrogate 
to themselves the title of Evangelical Preachers might l^e xwoi^ excusable. 
But while the articles of our belief fix our hopes of salvation on the very 
principles which we are said to decry, we must be strang^lyWnconsistcnt^ 
if wc renounce the efficacy of the propitiation of the Lamb of G^A. 

" Much as we differ from some of our modern sedarics, and whatever 
cause wc may have to lament, not only their needless separation from us, 
bat their unkind censures, we have only to counterad their zeal in with- 
drawing hearers- from their religions assemblies, by persisting stridly in 
the liile of duty. If we can ' approve ourselves as the ministers of God 
by poren^ss' arid 'knowledge,' we shall take the most eff^dlual means of dis,. 
JMining the hostile cfifbrts both of enthusiasm and infidelity. And howevcf 
bfmosite may be their designs, yet the attacks of the enemies to our hbjy 
feltgion cannot be more successfully promoted, than by representing j^^ 
avowed and legally constituted teachers as perverting the gospel ofChri,^ 

«3 ,: 

I0a« QRIGIKAi: pUlTtCrsM. 

'' In the controversy which ha$ been €o long, agitafcdi and which hds« 
of late, been revived with peculiar earnestness, the opinions maintained 
by the members of our church have been so ably defended, thfit, if sound 
reasoning and cogent ar^ men t can produce cpnvictiony w/e may iissiert that 
w« teach ' the truth, as it is in Jesus.' While the disciples of Calvin 
have daimed the merit of exclusively adhering to the articles of our na., 
tional faith, we have happily not wanted advocates to disprove, their coo^ 
£dent boastings. Repeatedly has it becn^ provtrd, and by no writer aiore 
fully and decidedly than by a recent preacher of (he Biimpton l^ucef in 
the University of Oxford (Dr. Lauxence), that the Calvinistical ixKions 
t <»f irresistible grace, of predestination, and ele^Uon'to eternal life, and of 
auch a depravity of human nature as precludes the working pf any tbip^ 
that is good, are not consonant with the sentiments of those illustrious 
inen who compiled our articles. Their aim was to efied unipn«. aad to 
avoid, as mucti as possible, all doubtful disputations. And when, for 
the aake of conciliation, they ventured into an explanation of ih* oiyate. 
rious purposes of the Almighty,- they subjoined the salutary caution, 
* that we must receive the promises of God, in such wise as they be gene- 
rally set forth to us in the Holy Scripture." (See Article XVII.) To 
this sure ground ^of belief Christians of every denomination are fpady to 
appeal : but in the positive assertion, that the framers of our religious 
code were under the influence of aniy pe'culi<ir principles, recpurse mutt be 
fiad to the times in which they lived, and to the do^rines which thcy 
expressly maintained. For the elucidation of this matter of faA, I pan^ 
not do better than to refer you to the writer whom I have now meotipn^, 
I might do injustice to the cause, if I attempted to abbreviate his reason.? 
ings ; and I should intrude too much on your ptience, if I entered inti^ 
the subje^ so largely as it deserves, or so minutely as to remove doubt* 
It is sufficient for our vindication, that our liturgy uniformly points oot tbe 
freedom of the will ; that it invariably inculcates the doArine of universal 
xedemption ; and that, though it places our ability- to perform an accept- 
able service principally on the intervening assistance of tjie Holy Spirit^ it 
ceases not to urge the exertion of every human endeavour. We^ are far from 
denying such a depravity of human nature as inclines us to evil. We admit 
that < in Adam all died :' but wercjoice, both in :the co-operation of hear 
venly succour to further our efforts; and in the assurance, ti^at ' in Christ 
all shall be made alive.' In every part of sacred history we read of 
men who pleased God by their works. When the question was proposed 
to the immediate descendant of our first parent, * If thou dx^&i ^ell, sbalt 
thou not be accepted ?' what other inference is to be deduced from tbenoey 
than that the change v^rought by the sin of Adam, much aa it might 
mluce his primeval dignity, did not preclude his offspring from the hopf 
of finding acceptance tor good wbrks ? It is absurd to suppose that tliese 
can be unavailing. They are the surest proofs of the soundnesa of pj^. 
faith, and defective as they are, and must be, as well ;is ineffeiAual ^ ciuf. 
> salvation, when rested upon wholly in themselveii withovt any reliano^ 
on the merits and mediation of our blessed Redeemer^ yet aae they the Be.r 
i^ssary accompaniments of religious belief. Admitting, aa^^do^. thaf 
* there is a law in our membera warring against the law^ of our nunda ^? 
jtt wc deny that the Yormer is so poweriuli a«4iU9lutel/ U^.^.X^U^ 99 

Dkmty. .J 103 

imo C^UYMJ to the law pf sin.- If vigilance be not used on our part; 
if wp op|>p^not strenuously the adversary, who seeketh our destruftibn ; 
iui4if we supplicate not devoutly rhe divine grace, sin will then indeed- 
hare dominion over us. But the very assurance^ ^ that if we resist the 
^eyil^ he will flee from us ;' and the iojun^ion * to ^ork out our salva. , 
tion^ mamfestl}^ imply that^much depends on ri^r o\vp oxer pons ; and that 
CO exp^£i the divine assistance, withQut any efforts to co-operate with it, 
is 9 risiopary concert, calculated more to inspire unwarrantable confidenc^> . 
ti^lp to promote either the glory of God, or the gpod pf mankind. In 
wiut manner the Hcly Spirit ii^fl uenccs our anions we presume npt to de. 
tefiiiine. Sufficient is it fof us fo be assured of his concurppg and effeduat . 
^a^fjc; and if we dot earnestly pray for this celestinl guidance, we ne« 
gle^ th^ n)^ns divinely appointed to It^ad us to per fed ion ; and we ^o 
• dpspit^ opto the Spirit of Grace.' Bat to expe^ ^ny sudden and in9tan. . 
taneotis illumination of ouripiuds; or to suppose that thepat^^onof sin i?. 
iostantiy to be obtained, wi<(hout serious and assured repentance, are asser- 
tions not warranted b^ the word of God, aixl niay lead to consequences of 
tfte radsf <Un?erpils nature.''' ' ' 

Wc vi^ OHit 'arch-faha|ic, Mr. Jlowland H»llj j^n4/ifiiai deluded fol- 
lowers, would seriously attend to these plain, but"ii^jtant truths. 
While this able divjpe gives such just cautions rcspefting trie one extreme, 
fee is e9aa11y zealous in'exhbriing his reverend auditbrs most carefully to 
aToid the other ; and not to allow the* pride of human reason to stifle the 
saving truths, and divine mysteries bf tbe gospel. 

** But in repelling the unfriendly accusations of those who are gone out 
from US5 we ^otiTiFt^e cspcciaf care to avoid the justness of their cen- 
sures. If we adopt the too prevalent mode of recommending Christianity 
to the judgment of the wise reasoners of .this world, by suppressing its 
mysterious revelations, or by simplifying its precepts in such a manner as 
to render it a mere code of ordinary morality, we forget of what manner 
of spirit we sf>ouJd be. _In any revelation delivered from heaven, it may 
well be supposed that there will be truths surpassing our understanding. 
In precepts reJating to human conduft, we may reasbnably expeA a clear 
delineation of duty ; and in this rcspe<5t we challenge the infidel' to pro- 
d.wcfi^ from all hi» admired writers, such a rule of fife as was taught by 
Him who was * despised and rejefted of men,' but who evinced himself 
tp be f en4ped with ^11 power from on high/ But where the liature of 
die gtyUiead is ijoiicemed, we in vain attempt to seardi it out ; we are 
tji^r^fqce h9wA to receive that explanation of it whicfi is delivered by 
fiyioe ajithority. It is t]\e province of reason to exf mine intothe a^ual. 
qcsyir/sy^ce of iiny asterted revelation of the will of God; and if this be 
^tabli$h$;i49 ir behoves the £nite wisdom of nian to submit implicitly to 
^.A9&,nu» that arc raiight, how far soever they, may exceed his com-, 
pfehension^ And if they who assume to themselves the denomination of 
XfXifji^ Qtoiltiansj will objeA to such a subinissipn of the understanding, 
Vs^t th^ ^^.^tonateiy iiiquijei whether they are not often as much 
!}»%4 m their jce^rches into jthe mo^ of their owji existence, and into 
a y arie ty of naiyraj .Ciiu5e.s ?iffi effe^fcs,' as they jgre in their presumptuous 
atfiempts^ understand *all mjrsteries'and all knowledge ?' 
' *' "NoUiing H inbre' common in the pVesent days,' than an ondu^ C3calta. 


tion of the powers of the mind. Great as they are/ and efficacioas u. 
tioguishing truth from error, yet aye they limited, and are inoompetetiv 
to think' of the ways of the' Ix>rd, in any other manner than -in that 
wherein He ha$ been pleased to represent them. We are called upon 
both to believe^ and to pra^Elise what he has taught ; and though in this 
wotld we may be led to look more to the latter, v than to the former (for 
the good behaviour of mankind is a matter of important and general con* 
siderationj, yet are we never to lose sight of the great tilings of the di- 
vine law. In * contending earnestly for the faith' which we have re. 
ceivcd, we are persuaded that we shall more effcdually prevent widked, 
ness, and encourage virtue, than by recurring to any other diredlions. 
And if a love of God is to be excited, what is more likely to promote 
thi«, and to stimulate to every return of pious gratitude, than tl]£e decla. 
ratiofi, that * God so loved us, as to send his only begotten Son into 
the world to be the propitiation for our sins ?" 

A Sfrmon preached in the Parish Church of St. Fatdy .Qovent^Gafden^ at the 
Primary Fisitatjoa of the Archdeacon ff Middlesex^ May 20, 1806. By 

James CoweV'm: A. Vicar of Sunbury. 8vo, Pp. 26. Printed by 
•Jichols. i8i58'. ': . 

IN this, disc^rse, the nature of the clerical office, its origin, its 
fundions, and its importance ; with the duties of Christians to tlieir lawful 
pastors, are briefly stated and duly enforced. 


Slrlfiurei on CohhettU unmanly Obsef'vathns relative to the Delicate Inmet^ 
iigaiion; and a Reply to the Antiaer to an' Admonit'>fy Letter y to Hit 
Royal Highncis ; containing an Account of the true Cause tvhy the Cem^ 
mis timers* R«-port hat not yet been published^ and many ikher Addituaud 
piifls. By the Author of" an Admonitory Letter. 8vo. Pr. jx. 
Tipper and Richards. 1806. 

NOT having read Mr. Cobbett's Observations, nor yet the Answer 
to the Admonitory Letter, we cannot enter fully into the merits of the 
(Question at issue between the different parties; we shall, therefo1:e, con, 
iinc our notice chiefly to the Additional Fafts, which our author brings 
tor.vard. . Of his Admonitory Letter we gave an ample account in our Number ; where we delivered our opinion of the merits of the writer, 
which certainly remains unchanged. Leaving, then, his animadTersioni 
on Mr. Cobbett, we come to the following /S?^. • «-' 

. " Papers, purporting to be a Copy of the Report, were delivered to 
Ker Royal. Highness about the time mentioned by the Morning' ^ost of 
the J 6 th of August K As this copy was not attested by the signatures of 

♦ It is reported t]^at a copy thereof was sent tp tjie P 

vven so early as the middle of July ,- why^ if this were the 
delivery of the same to his august ConsoVt sp long postponed 

AftscellMes* 105 

the Noble Commissioners, and as it was delivered most disrespeiilfally by 
the Lxwd C-^nc — liar's servant (whieh, contrary to Mr. Cobbctt's opi- 
iilpo, I assert could not have been proper), Her Royal Hiehness con. 
ceiTcd herself justified in doubting its authenticity \ she therefore wrote a 
letter to her Royal Uncle, wherein she inquired, if the papers she had 
iDDceived were to be considered the whole of the'Report ? arid entreated that 
she might be furnished with an autheutitate J copy ^ at the same time hinting 
that it was her intention to publish it," — (an intention which we earnestly 
lAplore this much. injured Princess, as well for her own sake^ as for the 
satisfaftion of the public, and for the pTomotion of justice, to execute), 
** and requesting his Royal permission so to do." — This letter, to pre- 
vent any mistake, the Lord Chancellor was requested to deliver, which he 
accordingly did ; and iviihin these fe^w dtiys^ and not tilt theny a properly 
attested copy has, in consequence, been delivered ; and it was even since 
then, that some additional papers, reported to have been the original 
grounds of her accusation, were forwarded to her Royal Highness ; the 
whcde are now under the inspeftion of Gentlemen, highly distiriguished 
for the profundity of their legal" knowledge, and will, in 4ue time, be 
given to the public. 

Now, it is pcrfeftly evident from this statement (admitting its accuracy, 
which we have not the smallest reason, to doubt), that no blame whatever 
could possibly attach to the illustrious Princess for not publishing the Re* 
port sooner. But blame, and very great blame, does attach somewhere^ 
for treating the future Queen of this kingdom with such marked disrespeft, 
as to make a servant the bearer of such docunjents. to her. This is an in- 
sult which the violated dignity of the nation ought to resent most strongly. 
In his reply to Aristides, who appears to be a most contemptible an- 
tagonist, the author is very successful. He relates some curious anecdotes 
of a certain Naval Officer (whose name has' been frequently introduced in 
this disgraceful business) not very honourable to his discipline, sobriety, 
or truth. Addressing his imbecile adversary, he says: ' . 

*' you accuse me of slandering the Piince -of, W«les, whereas I have 
only admonished him how 10 avoid becoming the objeft of slander. Yoa 
tell me I have produced no proof in support of my charge of apathy and 
indifference; whereas I have in a note qiost clearly stated my authority, 
aod I rather think the thing is top' evident to require additional proof. 
Yon also assert that I have not pointed out, who are^the persons that 
oogiit to^be supposed the original instigators of the infameus calumny, and 

yet you condemn me for having accused Sir 7-, and Lady ■ of 

fhefadl. In short, your iiiconsistency is only exceeded by your inibcciUty 
^-yonr imbecility ouly by your ignorance ^d effrontery. .., 

** If you will take the trouble to read my Stridures vpo:>Mr.. Cobbett, 
yoo may perceive how grossly you were mi^taken^ in supposing n^e totally 
Ignorant of the nature of theComnaissioners' Report ; in the mean time yoU 
may rest assured that I know sufficient tovyajrant i\)y as^rcing (tp warrant 
me in the assertion), that the amiahU and illustrious ^ersopage, whose coiv> 
duA was the subjed of investigation, has beeq msSicandalouslj traduced, and 
that a certain Uaforiet and his Lady were the chief ins t iga tors x)f the in* 
tjuiry, which has added nothing to the honour or amiability of their cha» 
JTiB^ers^ If ^ou ask what 4uU^oiit^ I ^ve for the latter assertion, sup. 


1^ oRiGiiiAi;oiitricisM« 

^p^ I (Itpuk) fepty tHe Baronet's own, wot^d yw, bold as yod.ace kk 
fujs^hooda venture to confradi^ me T Before you do, I would at.auy 

ra?e advise yQu to atk Sir , if he did pot tcU a Gentleman, wh^. 

Vaited waited ppoti bim very recently upon business not *wi:IIy uncohoe^cd 
. yith tfie Admonito^iy Lettee you have citbnpted x,q answer, * that he 

^ould have disclosed all he knew relative to the P ■ ^-■^s of W •,- 

l^ree years back, had he not been advised to tbe contrary by one of the 
R— r-7-1 Dukes ; and that 'what he lad dhcLicd was in consequence of con. 
v^ationt which h^ Ivd himself h^ with that illustrious Lady, and of 
l^ttprs he hacj obtained wiih her sign4mre, wl^ich he be/ievi d were ^c 

tyu^s*' By what h^Moarable means. Sir go; possession of any ge- 

ituioc letters, written by h^r Royal Highness, it xilay possibly pu%xlc 
e^in jiaur sagacity \o detorniine*" 

'f'be author. concludes with the assurapcc that the Report will now most 
ttftoinly be published* We are happy to hear that this will be the case ; 
^OfD a con virion of the indispensable necessity of such publication » We 
9fe V>fi7> howeverji tp ^di^ that w:e are persufded it never would have been 
published, pqtii^itjistandins SMfh necessity, but for the animadversions 
wnich have appeared upon the subje^. This circumstance shews the iro. 
P9ttfU)^ of ^ fri^e ptpss^ qnd th^ grear use of it, wh/en ably dire^d and 
«vi|e/«9«i^ applied, it wopld hfi most happy for the country, if thi^i power- 
ful instrQiP|?nt y/en as ^eaUnisly employed in tbe service of religion aiul 
mpraljf^ f^s it || fpr the p^qioses iit party and politics. 

A FraSkal Guide fir the Light ^nfantry Officer : comprising ^a^aU^ £jf^ 
tra^s from all the most popular Works on the SuhjeQ ; 'yjjth further 
Original Jnfirmationy and illustrated hj a Set of Plates, fi(g an fudrf 
ne-w and intellfgihle Plan, ivhich simplify eyery ^o^evfenp apd ida^ 
ifoesevre of Light Infanity, Ey Captain T. H, Cooper, Half "Pajf 
56th Regiment Infantry. Large 8 yo. Pf. lo.^. Egerton* i^^f 

THIS most nscful and well-written work is dedicated to Mr. Wind, 
^m, from the motive which appears in the first sentence of ^he Addresf 
to that Minister. 

" Sir — Th^y who recoiled, with admiration and grati^ucje^ .the prp^ 
tjhetic wisdom and masterly clcqnence wljich distinguished your sen^tor;fi 
fiforts after the. Treaty of Amiens, will probably consider it a pres^tQ^p;, 
^on in me tp solicit your notice to the following humble comp;lft)pn.'* 

Certaixily *we znt of the number who so recolledl Mr. Windham's a^oii^ 
laMe e^rts on that memorable occasion ^ and who derived from that xel 
coUeAion a confidence that no such peace,, ^t once so 4^sgr^cciiuil^ ^nd. so 
insecure, as that of Amiens, wotjld jbe a?ain concluded vyjii^e hf ]^ f 
T^oe in the Cabinet, though ^hat confidence, \ye jnu?t gon^ss, h^^ hfi^ 
considerably shaken by recent events; we^ assured^yi do not f^Jfsii&jr 
iSaptain C^^oper, nor, we are persuaded, wiU Mr. ylyc^d^jfi rnn«y4nr 
Ilin, as guilty of t^e sniallest nr/^sumptjon^ in dedicf tipghis hpolc ^9 s^^ 
a patron. For it is ^ book eminently caicu)^^.^, )}y it^ ^i^^lffV fV^ 
deafness of arrangement, as well as by tnc accuracy ai^ ^^^i? 9^^^ 
sn^|)rni^^OD which it conta^Sj| xp pt ^i^ntlv .u^G^ in [ip^ovipfi^ j^ 
• , . . ' • discipline 

4iEctpliiie of a most v^nabk p^t of the British Amy; Iq )iu PnmIjiiw 
tSK aathor thus explain^ the design of.J)i% WQrk : 

«* The principal design of \\^ i;^f^g sheets is to cxl|ibi^ aod cwm^ 
pr-£s, for the benefit ol* |Im8 British VqluQ^eers, the whole syst»m q£ 
}^';^hc Infantry Mano^uvies, as they ajre pra£^ise4 by single coinpAaiesJ*;^ 
It may be said, perhjips, t^jU enough h|t^ already beet) pqblished* B)i4^ as 
\He author is acquainted with no writer on the s)tbjedt, whoie in«tfiiAi(M 
are not capable of imprQVjOTV^nti 9nd a$ be has coUei^ed and arranged all tho. 
opinions which are scattered through preice4in|^ publiqatiqpsy be hoftes 
th^t the British Vplvnteersj and the Light jnUntry ia gfiwr^ will ac«. 
cept the good intention of an attempt to bving al>put what can neiter ht^* 
9P7IC perte^, uBtil authority has q9tabU$he4 a gei)qr4 riU^ £91 %hs ua^ 
QCBuvring of Light Infantry. 

'' The aotho' has in these sheets adopted the moM siaiple plaa« fn^ 
<^ing step by step, froi|i the very tellipg off pf ib^ company, to t\m 
manopmrTQig ainl skirmishing ; 'Jjayirlg doe regard tp the «?jvlarion« pobv 
lislied by authority, and to the ppiniona of the he%\ giiUtary writers^ 
whenever they appeared applicable to bis subjp^* ^^% 9s aiany diiBc^k 
lia may perplex the military student, and the writ|«o instru^ions joayr 

E[)ve tJfuntelUgible to him, wijhput farther assisrapcp^ a set of ftAxaa 
$ beep prepared with grpai p^ins and attentipnj which it if hdped will 
render the whole perfectly easy and clear," 

We hi^ve never ypt seen any plat^g so wrll calculated for the purpose 
«f explanation, as thpse ip chisWk,. lyhi^h ^ so ably executed,- and s« 
cxtrfineiy >impl^ and plain, as to be intelligible by (he cominonpst im^ 
d^tanding. In the << }ntro4M<^iop " ihe author gives an historical 
sketch of th9 origin and use of light tropj^. He tpeajci pf ^* g brigade 
«f light P{f<i^*y% consisting of h^rse artillery, two ffpops of light hnf, 
tfzJ* This may, possibly, be strjiitiy fr€h»ic^l( bat it iavolvea, in tho 
eye of a conuDon reader, a gj^ing con(ra4ii^ipn, r H^ffse may be attached 
to, or serve with, a brigade of yW, but it cannot fonpapartof iu ^ 
cauae then, it could no longer, ivitii any attention tp propriety of Ian*. 
guagp, be termed a brigade of foot, or ip^intry. 

This PraiQicai Guide cannot fail tp' be of greaf service to those foi^ 
whose me it i> principally intended. . ; 

Oiarvatifftt 9u*the Milde*w^ suggeited hy the Queries of Mn Arthur Y<mvgl 
By John EgrciBont, Esq, 8vo. Pf. 16. Hatchard. iSo6# 

THE iode&tigable Secretary to ^ fib^id of A^rtcnltnrepxpiyxifidy' 
it soew>' the following do^en qvieries to the farmers, wt beg pardon, tlM 
mgnufbumn, of the^country* 

'<. X. What sotJb have yieldfd th^ ofiopf .vosljiile^led by the pildcv | 
-.-ra* Have Mriy or fate spwn cjtpps suftfed the nwst ^^r-j. What 6)fi«a^ 
lipiit b»vebeen i»fst exposed to it ? hi^h ^nd mattdatti wg^^ or io\r afi# 
sbrlteved vales l-r^^ Jiave thin lOr 'lichly soirn crops escaped abe Jbest^ 
and thio «r tfasc]i» 6piq other cireumttances/driHing, sed^vorai, 4e. ?.^ 
ff. Has the use of old or new s(^d been ju tended vilh jmy dS^V'-rm 
Ves, the efieA of producing a crop roost certainly. The question, as it 
ppw atandsj is imperfeft and unintclUgtble. </ 6. Have crojw 00 fallows, 



m iaytfSf escaped the best ?" Wc know wfiat Apr, or, more property, 
l^f means very well, and that is the word which the Secretary should 
.have osed. Layer signifies a ditferent thing. If agriadturiui chase to 
employ a language peculiar to themselvexj they ought, at least, to sop. 
.ply their readers with a G/ouary, But, if they mean to assume a right of 
aherinj^ any part of the English language, we shall take leave to deny 
the existence of any such prerogative in their most learned Sody.^ — ** 7. 
Has maiHiring>, wliether by lime, dung, fold>yard, &c. had any eSi&.}" 
This que^ion, like the filth, is defe^ive"; to manure by a fdd-jard^ it 

' a new mode of manuring ; to manure with the produce, or conteots of « 
fbld.yard, we should have clearly understood; but the expression, we 

, should suppose, would have been so plain and intelligible, as to be beneath 
the dignity of a dignified agriculturist. — '* 8. Have you made any ob- 
servations on the * barberry, as locally afidling wheat?— 9. Has there 
been any diflference from the sort of wheat sown, bearded, white, spring, 
&c. ?*-io. Has early cutting been found useful ? and how early in point 
of the milk being coagulated ? — 1 1 . What proportion, in your opinioo, 
does the late crop (in 1804) bear to a common average produce ? — 12. 
If, from your observations, you conceive the cause to be atmospheric, of 
what sort, late frosts, fogs, severe or open winters ?" We think that 
the Secretary might, like the baker with his rolls, have given thirteen to 
the dozen of his questions, by addingr—In what stage of its growth il 
wheat most afieded, o^ most liable to be afieAed, by the mildew I 
' In his answer to these queries, Mr. Egremont, as far as we can colleA 
his opinion from his words, says, that the soil least liable to have its 
crops affe^ed by mildew is a clajej soil| and that mcsi liable, a /eat or 
aiQor; thsit^ari/ sowing is preferable to iafe; that situatioH is of little con- 
sequence ; that thin sown crops are least afifeded ; that the mode of sow. 

. ing makes no difference ; that one seed is not more likely to be afieded by 
the mildew than another ; ihsit fallow crops have been roost injured ; that 
the nature of the manure is indifferent; (ijjdeed this question appean to 

. us perfedly ridiculous^ as well as the next, respe^ing ihpharhenyj ; that 
wiie whjsat is the soonest affe^ed, red later, and bearded the last ; chat 
the crop of 1 804 was about half an average crop ; (here we caimot but point 
out the necessity of specifically declaring what is meant by an average 

' crop, whether two, three, or four quarters per acre) ; and, lastly, that 
the cause of the mildew is, what we should have supposed no one could 
l^ssibly doiibt, purely atmospheric. 

We have j^W these opinions out of a mass of philosophical observations 
upon vegetable irritability, stimuli, &c« the nature and temperature of 
soils ; Darwin's t'hyt'ologia, with high.0own compliments to that emi- 
nent, wiiter of beautiful and sublime non^nse, &c. &c. all conveyed in 
such bombastic language, as, we will venture tO assert, to be utterly 
Unintelligible by any o^ farmer (projperly so called) in the United 
Kingdom. To. agricultural imfronfemeHts^ in the true signification of the 
word, we are decided friends ; but a. midtiplicity of questions, many of 
them needless, and some ridiculous ; laboured essays, and abstruse disqui- 
sitions, are nor, in our opibion, likely to produce them^ nor indeed to 
Krrve. any one purpose of pra^cal utility, . 

Mtscellamcf. te^ ' 

At Hts^rical Accowrt ofCwsham Houtey in Wibihire ; the Seat 4tf Pauf CM 
Mnbnewy Esf. nvith a Catalog of hu celebrated ColieBhn of Fixtures ^ 

■ Dedicated to the'Patnns of the British InstUutrm; and emhracitg a condse 
Historical Bssny on the Fine Arts. Jfith a brief Account of the dfftrent 
ScbodSf * and a Revietv of the fro^r^ssrve state of the Arts in England'^ 
jffsoy Biographical Sketches of the Artists tvhose IVorks constitute this Coliec* 
tkm. By John Brit ton. Embellished with a View of the Hoa«e« 
Small 8 vo. Pp.108. 5s. Barrett, Bath f Longman & Co. London. 

FOR the composition of such an account as this, an artist is certainly 
better qualified than any other person ; and Mr. Britton> with his usual 
ability, has contrived to render u instrudive as well as interesting. The 
dedication, to the patrons of an institution formed for the express purpose 
of affording encouragement to the genius and talents of British artists, is 
peculiarly appropriate. And the Brief Essay on the Fine Arts will prove 
an acceptable addition to the frequenters of Corsham House, or to those 
who wish to acquire a knowledge of its famous colledlion of pidure.c, 
without the trouble of visiting ,the place. 

A Letter to Lord Porchester^ on the Degraded State <fthe English Clergy, 8 vo. 
Pp.24. Bell. 1806. 

THE writer <tf this letter professes to he ?i friend to the clergy, and 
ia that charader he pleads their cause, against what he conceives to be an 
•' apparently systematic plan for their degradation." And, as proofs of 
the existence of such a plan, he adduces some late legislative regulation^ 
for the purpose of increasing the salaries of curates, for excluding the clergy 
from sitting in the House of Comtpons, and for enforcing residence. 
These he represents, in strong and impassioned language, as intoleiable 
grievances, as exertions of tyranny, on the one hand, and as badgn of. 
slavery, on the other. *' New fetters," and ** abjeft criminals," are 
expressions applied to the laws adverted to, and tq the clergy who were 
the objcdls of them. As to the policy of the aA for regulating the pay- 
ment of curates, a difference of o^nnion may fairly be entertained by the 
warmest friends of the church, and of the clergy. But wc must be allowed 
to think, that the intemperate and unwarrantable language of this their 
professed advocate, is calj:alated to disgrace them much more than the re. 
galations which he so severely^ reprobates. For our part, we do not ad. 
aiit the troth of his proposition, that the clergy were entitled by law to sit 
in the Lower House, before Mr. Addington's a^ of exclusion ; and most 
certainly we do not think that the cause of religion would be served by 
riSrrm/ representatives. As to residence, the necessity of enforcing it, 
with very particular exceptions, is to us so self-evident a proposition, that 
it would be a waste of time seriously to discuss it ; and in what our author 
has said upon this^ topic, his arguments are as weak as his language if 
ftrong. The minister who holds a living, has undertaken the sacred 
trust of the care ofthe souls of his parishioners ; a trust to which a nvost 
awful and weigiity responsibility attaches ; and how he can conscien- 
tiously delegate sach a trust to another, we profess our inability to co'n,* 
^▼e« Having observed that the laiiguagc' of this writer > is disgraceful 
to the clergy, it is oecesaai^ to produce ao instance of it. Arguinsif . 


%rb ORtGllfA^ CKlttCISM. 

f^ainst the Curite's Aft> lie remarks ; " They, (the beneficed clergy J saf 
td be denied the humlile privilege, which every other Englishman enjoys* 
^hich the lowest tradesman possesses, of imployhg a pumtyman^ not as 
terms specified by the legislature, but as a compact at the ixct will of each 
party. The clergyman is told," (by this writer, certainly by nobody 
else) *' that be is such a dishonest, immoral, flagitious chara^r, so in* 
capabie of being trusted in the simplest of all bargains," 4L'C. This strain 
of violence and perversion pervadeo nearly the whole of the pmphlet. 
Towards the eod of it he tells us ; M The late a^ for imposing residence 
is said already to have hndan extensive eftedt on the students in both our 
tiniv'ersitifes. A large portion of these, who were previously intended for 
tlie ecclesiastical profession, have shrunk back with disgust at tlv: dis- 

fracefal manacles which have seen forged for its unhappy votaries-'" 
f this bt r.n accurate statement, however seriously Wt may lament a di^ 
toiftution of the number of- clerical students, we cannot consider the 
church as having any reason to deplore the loss of such candidates for 
ioly orders as these. He lavishes the most fulsome adulation which 
M'e ever met with, on the present Chancellor*; praises hitti for his con- 
tempt of ceremony, in other words, for the slovenliness of hiis dress^ 
and piously exhorts the Bishops to follow his example. This pam- 
phlet, like the roimstry which it panegyrises, is big with professions^ 
but little in performance; It displays very little of that humility wrhick 
the gospel so strenuously inculcates, and too much of that aversiort 
from rei^traint, and of that spirit of insubordination, which are repug- 
-luint to the principles of the Christian religion. 

A hi Prinriples and Regvlations of Tranquillity; an lustituti n commtnced m the 
Mctrpclii^ for enconraging and enabling ifidusirious and prudent Indi^vidnais^ 
in tlx vari^iUi Classes of the Community ^ to provide for themielvts^ by the 
payment of imall IVeekly SumSj in such a nxiay as shall inssire to each Cafe~ 
iriSator, or tj his Widjiju and Children^ the benefit of his own Ecmomy ; fir 
ncrruing the Savings of Youth of both sexes ^ and returning tie same eU the 
time of Marriage^ tuith Interest and proportionate Premiums thereupon i f^r 
inabling Parents^ by the payment of Small Sums at the Birth of their CbiL, 
drtUy toproi'iJe Endowments for them at the age of tivtnty^one^eari; amet 
eilsoy for other Useful and Important Purposes ; particularly for concen^ 
tra:v:g and applyi^ig the exertions of the Liberal to the benefit of tbt 
indigufy so as to present the UhiMorthy (from) claimvrgy or the impostmr 
{from J a busing t their b.ncvdet:cz ; and thus eff>^ing thz gradual abolHiam ^ 
the Pojr's Rate, <wh,lst it i/jcrcjses tie Comforts of the Poor. By John tBone^ 
'Author of an ** Outline for Reducing the Poor's Rate, &c. in a 
Xctrcr 10 the Right Hon. Gtorge Rose, M. P." 8vo. Pp. i%^ 
js. .6d. Aspcrne. 1806. 

THIS .propc6(Kl institution, as the cnpiocs tide^uige 'Of tfce XNM 
before as evinces, embraces a number of objcds 'oF coniiieva^ i^^ 

^1 " ■ — -J ■ ■ • • • . ''\ * , .,^ '_ 1^1, ■■■ 

^ I>et it not be supposed, that in thus cerjsuring disgusting flattery, wft 
are blind (o the real merits of Lord Erskine. No ; we readily aiui^^ 
that in all his judicial condu^, as Chancellor, he Ikis diethnrged his 
dttty^ ibly» t|prl^h;ly, and conscientiously. 


SfKseMntky. Ill 

foitmcr. THe poor's rate tv^ ha,Yt loi% consi^eftd as kn ^fl c^ ttsfc 
magphadtf and so rapid in its gro^th^ Its absoluteljr to threaM tbe 
conritry with rain. Amy rMionai phti, thMfore, prbpostftg to effelt its 
st^)(»T9sxcii» is entitled to the serious i»tc^tkM of every kiHabitUnt of thik 
kingdom. How far the plan here suggested is calculated Vo produce s6 
(ksirable ttq effcA, it would be presampcion in us to decide, without 
nmcft,' reirj' mach, more consideration than it is in our power to bicsto^ 
oa it. Thns, after an artenrive pcrtisal of it, we have discovered nothing 
ebje£ticMial)le in it, and moch indeed to recomoiend ir, not only to notice, 
hut to adoption. We heartily wish that all the fuiik of all the benefit 
socieiies in the metropolis and its vicinity, were transferred to this xnstr- 
totion, from a coQvi^tion that they would be more ^ithfully administered, 
ar4 rendered infinitely more produ^ive to the members. It wooid^ we 
are persuaded, very much contribute to the success of this plan, if a tabla 
of contributions arnd advantages were ready for delivery ; specifying, 
amongst other things', what specific sum, or annual contribution, would 
be requisite (beginning with the birth cf the child, and proceeding to 
diiBrrent ages, from six months to six years of age), to secure to it, on 
its attainment to the age of, any other given sum ; what 
jgioss sum, or nnnual contribution, a man should give, at difi'erent ages, 
from twenty -one ^io fifty, to secure fo his widow a given sum, bt 
a Hfe.annaity, at his death; with other calculations, that persons dis*. 
posisd to subscribe might perceive, at 'first sight, what advantages thejr 
bad to exped. It is but Httle to Sby in its favour, that it is much ifa^ 
best, mo&t cotHpfeh^ensive, and Most rational plan that we l^kve seen^ 
^and we heartily wish it all possible stlccess. 

ftafy aird 'Etigtand, ecch in One of their Children^ Vp/26, 2S. Clarke^ 


l^NDER -this adeded and enigmatical fide, we have twenty-six 
pa^es on the similitude of chat-adler of Shakespear and Michael Angelo^ 
Wie have for many years laboured in our critical vocation,. we.-ha%e exa« 
miaed books of all ages, and of all nations ; but, after mature conside- 
ration, we find nothing that can rival this little anonymous publication*. 
We are surprized that it is anonymous, for the man who could write in a 
way so exquisitely absurd, must esteem himself the first of human wri(ers.s 

He thus*eommences his fiight, and at once soars above all mortal k^. 

" Among the various modern ages, whose monuments have been sculp^ 
tared by a centenary graver, !hus poising under our eyes their titles de- 
prived of an epitaph, there is one age which 1 severe for its marked cha- 
rader, and before which I bow my head with a degree of homage."—^ 
.This-meanSy weiinagind, that he lias prediledion for a certain #ge, *but 
tbp Vay inwhtcfa he aonosnces this prefi^renc^ is all his own. 
. ODe!fidi« atiort extridj and we -have ^ne. He thus -inlmdaees M. 
Angdo charaderiziog bimjielf. 

<* SdhUntisyl' ^oa Wacst my ; goddess— ihtrentl^, 'rid^i^s, -c^it^on,. 
mnl^tl, .^-iJDirmtd'my fiamr dements^; ^and thi:)u, isUmense tru4i ! ^h% 
becamest my boundless horizon— all nu>rtal guides I dfSdAbe3; -Id-Mr 
they appesxied' too tame and prosaic. As to book^, I consulted only one, 
but that wasv (be study of my liJEe>. and it iy entitled ^ci€fit ^Ot, Ut 

iia Admomion respedlng Borough Voters. 

Ferieftioti idodeUed in the Monument. Then presenting this study before 
NatuiCi I applicci it to ihe natuie of flesh, followed her. thrpugh nttmber. 
less ramifications, and clothed her in the most daring forms," &c. 'J'herr 
is a great deal more in the same style : but this M« Angelo of the writer's 
creation has already said enough. . 

As to the tnatt^ of the few pages before us, it consists of some xnea^ie. 
scraps, which have been repeatedly hashed and served up to the public ; 
in his cookery, however, this French restaurateur is conspicuously origi- 
nal. He has certainly read Shakespear, and, as a criterion of his taste, 
has dug nothing from that mine of genius, save the language of Ancient 



IT is submitted, with becoming deference, that Voters should 
be legally required to be resident in the respedlive Cities and Boroughs 
they are members of, at least six months preceding an cledlion of a Re. 
presentative in Parliament, in order to be intitled to vote at such dec* 
tion^ by which means not only the Corporations would derive iir- 
niediate benefit from their personal employment, as artizans or artiii. 
cers, but..such salutary requisition would, at all events, most efffiftnaliy 
obviate the enormous cxpence, as also the.essential prejudice to trade and 
manufa^ure, that miist unavoidably result from the conveyance and re- 
conveyance of voiers from distant parts, where settled with their fami. 
lies, to the place of eleftion ; independently of such injurious prad^tce 
affording a specious and plausible opportunity of administering bribery 
and corruption, which experience evinces is generally, if not invariably 
availed of, upon similar occasions^; antidote • 

The " Summary of Politics ** will appear in our next Number. 


\ * 
Valerius PulliccJa's Letter to Mr. Fullarton — Arcesi/as on Private Tri^ 
butes to Public Charadlers — Setffx on the supposed Dimination of the^ 
Number of 'Clerical Students — Ohservatery on the Murder of the Rer.. 
Mr. Parker, are received and shall appear in our next. 

All other Comn^unications from our Correspondents, whether in Verse 
or Prose, will be found in the Appendix to <)ur Twenty.fourtfa Volumej^ 
published dn the First rf Oaohery 

' Primed by B. M'MWtn, > . - 

V!?ivr«S|^ecf, Covau^Cirden. \ 



Review and Magazine, 

^c, ^c. ^c. 
For OCTOBER, 1806. 

Quid in qtmqne re seqaendum cavendumque tit docebimus, Qt ad «a 
judicium dirigatur. 


Kf Effc^s of Civilization of the People in European States. By Charles 
Han, M. D. 8vo. Pp. 324. Oslell, and C. Chapp)e. 1805. 

NO' fermentations exhibit such varied and extraordinary pheno- 
mena as those of the brain. There is no form which they do 
not assume, and they expand in all dire6lions. They sometimes 
creep along the ground, and at other times rise in aspiring clouds to 
d)e skies. The gas of the Jdamites soon evaporated, as the fermen- 
tatioQ did not originate nvltliin the tropics. A feeble, aiyl temporary 
approximation to Adafnism was made by the sans culottes Revoiutionist'a 
(^ France ; but it lasted only till they h^d got hold of a sufficient num* 
ber«of aristocratic inexpressibles ; it then ceased, nudity was then na 
kmgef the order of tlie day. That of iht Alchymists stood its ground 
loqger, as the love of gold, and a <* longing after immortality,'* are 
pitlty general passions. That two fermentations, very different in ^ 
kind, may not be confounded, we stop here just to observe, that the 
inmortality pf the Alchy mists was not to be acquired in the true God« 
wiaian way, by the power of mind over: mhtter, but by enabling 
matter (the bpdy) to keep mind* alive in sealia, by ilic help of their in« 
faUibie ch'xif . Having^ merited the thanks ot Mr. GodA,vin, by thus 
Mceruinini; the originality of hijt inveiiUon, we skall mention only 
ooe more fermentation, namely, Pavacelsus's receipt for a new way 
of propagating the'boman race. This ne^ver became popular: both 
men and women. preferring the old-^shione^ way secundum naturam^ 

IVO. C. VOL. ZXV» 1 t9 


to the new process tecundum arum. We had almost forgot ^fume of 
Dr. Franklin's, approximating to a brain fermentation, whKh goes 
nearly the length of saying that immortality may perhaps be acquired 
^by ei^closing a man for 50 years it) a pipe of Madeira ! 

These fermonvatlons arc th^logic^il, political, or. misceUancoas* 
according as the state of society, and the temper of the times, afie£l 
the brain of the projeflor." At' present, the current tends strongly to 
pronlotb poMdi^ disquisitions, and innumerable swarma'rusli ** from 
Bedlam, and the Mliftt," inflated, buisting wUh the gas orphilanthropy ; 
loud, violent and long, for the ameiioraiion of man. We have seldonv 
met writh one in whom the disease had taken a deeper root, in ivhom 
the paroxysms were more outrageous, than in Charles Hall, M. O.f 
author of the work before us. 

'* ^tuat^ ct vita? disconvcnit ordine toto." 

H»-Mems to be,* at least, a collatera^deaeendant^'tliat King of 
Por^ugaif who impiously, pronounced that he could have made a better 
ivorld than the one we inhabit. 

As all irregular practitioners in the healing art, iwho assure us that 
they can cure all incurable diseases, are solicitous to lay before tlie 
public the f6urdatioii on which they-hwltl their pfe««fninem qtmlitics, 
our healing Dodor announces in his preface, the grounds on which 
he lays his cbim to start tonh the mender of this bungled world. Let 
us hear this Dodlor himself. 

'' That the principal effe^ of civilization is the redu^on of the, 
of the people in civihzed societies to their present condition* 

<< Of this condition, /. el the manner in which the people live, who 
has more •pportunities of acquiring the knowledge than a Physiciao f Ht 
is ;admitted into the dwellings of all ranks of people, and into the imiCT^ 
most parts of theos : he sees them by their fi reside, at their tables, and 
in their beds : he iutt^ them at work, and at their recreations : he 
sees them in health, in sickness, and in the article of death: he 
IS firequently made acquainted with their hopes and their fears, their 
successes and* their disappointments, as these have vften a relation to 
their diseases ; ^nd, possessing their confidence, they also freqjoentljr no. 
bosom themselves to him on matters not copnefled wiih the state of tfaeir 
healths. The physician therefore is put in possession of more fa6b with 
/esfed to the condition of the jpeople than any other person; and it is 
diily from the colled^ion of such tadls that we can arrive at the knowled^ 
df the causes of them ; for the investigation of which his education pocii« 
liarly fits him. 

«« For all these ne asons, it seems, a physician is the most proper pecson 
to treat on the subjdft of the following discourse." 

' Now, were we disposed to grant, w'liich we are not, that all this 
inay be true, that a physician sees more of the world than anr odicr 
man ; yet much will remain ^ be taken into the question, before W9 
can ^raiit that he is, (herefore, the most proper person to write on 
political and moral reform/ A spectator must see with mteil^geoce, or 
be may as well shot bis eyes. Ho muss know \M9 to Mabioet 


ftndf how to anriyn the constktiqie pam of soclctf— he niiist ntit give 
np an exisring good for a something better in hit i Jea of contingencies ; 
be muse not conrider chat as an evil which uicimatel^ eomrti>utes to 
the good of che whole ; he must be able to distinguish between th« 
expedient and incxi^eJient, tlie possible and impossible ; he must team 
DOC to spuni at the toleraile^ and fly all abroad on the ideal wings of 
per/iffioH ; and, above all, he must beware of the sin which dorh mo^t 
easily beset reformers, an overweening conceit of their own abilhies ; ' 
he shouki have some share of diflidence, some doubts as to the iruth'of 
his opinions, where they run counter to those of thinking men in all 
ages; when, as in the present case, as the Do£lor himself cohfeaaef, 
the arrangennents he execrates with all the bile of the new»fashiened' 
philamhro[^, ** flow from the natural propensities of mankind.'* 
How far chese requisites for pulling down, and re-constru£ling the 
fabric oTsociety^ unite in the present writer, will be Seen as we pr6* 

Having, as above, ascenained his healing qualificationSy Dr. Halt 
next goes on to prove that his patient is sick ; and, mercy on us I 
what a group of dangerous symptoms he has conjuiied up» all unitinr^ 
in the diseased and bloated carcaa of civiliased and manufadttrt , 
isig man. As constitminc a portion pf a civilized < and iiianu£ic«' 
tiirir^ soctety» we shotild have been dreadfully alarmed, had we not' 
sospeCled that this might be a medical trick, not uncomtnon amooj^ 
praAitiooers of a certain class, who represent the case of their patient 
as almost desperate, that bis death, should he die, may be attributed t^ 
lacurable diifease, and, should he recover, that the uo&ot may have 
all che credit of his recovery. With this two^ged sword manf a< 
heeh has fought his way saccessfully through the world. Somewhat 
cheered by this refledion, we can look upon his awful list of mortal 
symptoms without trembling. He thus commences his work. 

*' We understand by civilization, that manner of living in societies of 
laen, which is opposite to that of those who are called savages ; such w 
ait xYit natives of North America, 9cc. 

^ It consists in the study and knowledgt' of the sciences^ anj in tho 
produ^on and enjoyment of theconvenienoes, elegaocies, and ioxories dt 

*' It does not seem .to arise from any particular constttatioa of gO¥cni« 
ments^ or to be anribatabk to t|ie administralioa of thmtk, bat taflotP 
froa the cutural propeq^kies of mankind.'* 

This state of man, flowing from his natural propensitxec, V9t afd 
loU produces instead of happiness, only idleness and tyrannyindib 
fiwy and to the nua^ poveny, disease, suftrings of every kind, ^ 
life of misery, and' prematofe death. The employmenci ot the'poof^ 
he tells usi are injurious to health, their minds are uncultivated, theit ' 
tiK>nd and spiritual iiistruAion negledledi they ^re unhapp^y, atid thej 
are starved. As for the rich, diey are the very drones of society, U(ie4 
less, nay, hurtfiil members. Whence d0^ this melancholy add iht 
paded $tsU0 ofaocietjr origttiaief The DoAor ivJUtcl^jrott-*^tspifi4^ 

ii6 omoiNAt CRITrelSM. 

he .says, from wealth, which itself is the. moostroas and -^baleful off- 
spring o/ civilization,. manufa£lures and commerce, the three moruJ 
symptoms of diseased society, the catse and sign of real national po- 
verty, ignorance, debility, and barbamm ! 

We will not venture to appal our readers,^by introducing Uiem into - 
aU the dungeons of the Dbdor's Pandemonium; it is Dante's I»fern» 
upon earth, with this mortifying difference, that the innocent are the 
sufferers, the guilty "comparatively exempt from punishment. Who* 
ever is disposed to take a full view, of this FJiantasmag$rla most read 
tl^ebook, and, if he be strong in faith, will be wretched to his heart's 
content. For our own part, who are inclined to believe that matters 
afft rather tolerable, we shall content ourselves \i^ith examining, iu 
one or two instances, whether this Spagnolette of a political economist 
l^ as faithful as he is tremendous in his delineations. 

Civilization, be tells us, hurts population to such a degree,, that sup- 
posing a country highly civilized to contain ten millions of inhabitalits^ 
500,000 fall a sacrifice every year to causes '* attributable to extreme 
civilization, a loss |reater than the most destruflive wars have ever 
occasioned.'' In this statemenr the Dodlor is at variance with matter 
offaA; for civilized countries have ever been foiHid, ceteris paribus^ 
to be the most populous. Having thus killed his 500,000 a year, lie 
goes oh to tell us how it is brought about, it is occasioned by the 
poor not having plenty of good meat and drink; by their not having 
soft beds, large hoyses, and lofty rooms ; by a want of thing^ ^^ pro- 
per to use from the cellar, the kitchen, the garden,. or apothecary s 
Shop^*^ ice. Besides all this, he assures us that the vearly 500,000 
must die, unless the milk of the mothers be ^* sufficiently animnlized.'* 
For this purpose '* the woman shoukl be well fed with a full propor- 
t^ of animal food ; perhaps, some cjuantity (he does not say what, 
quantity «' a serious Omission in a prescription ; the women will, we ' 
are afraid, consider it as a4 libitum J of good beer : live iu good houses; 
good air ; foe employed in wholesome and pleasant exercises ; and void 
of care !^ There is one part of this dietetic regimen which would 
have surprized us, had not the Doctor accustomed us to his blowing 
hot and. cold as suits his conveniency. H.)w comes .it that articles 
from the /pothecary^s Shop are recommended as preservatives of life 
*foy.j&V9f who has, in the same book, condemned almost- the wliole 
contents of the Pharmacopoeia as useless, if not Inirtful : nay, who 
hardecidedly pronounced *' there is no doubt that the mischief done in 
pKa£lice (meaning medical prafiice) exceeds the benefit VJ But the 
most wonderful ingredient in the prescription is the i/Wz/tf/^^r// In 
what a hopeless state mutt our ten millions be, if they ^re to lose their 
yearly 500,000, unless we can contrive to drive away care fron^ the 
moihets. Among all his receipts. Dr. Hall has not given us one for 
the.c\i[e of this disease, which, ever since the fall, has stuck close to 
thehuman race, and ever will, we ar^ afraid, upless a greater than 
the Po£ior arise. 

On the subje^ of population, and the cotnforts o^ lifCf the writer 

HaXi*i EffifFs of OviCzatjM. ilj 

h disposed to contrast the miurj which he asserts is the portion of thi» 
clvli^Eed cDafitrjTy with the blessings which he says abound in the less 
civiiixed American Scales. In this cortiparison hetloes not advance ii 
siep wifhoQt either assorting what is cvidendy not true, or he cpnceaU 
the trut'iy by keeping out of sight What should have entered into the' 
statements In America, he lells us there are no rich and poor ; that* 
** the condition of all is the same ; (p. 2 ) bur chat here, there is a 
degrading and rpinous distinf^ion, viz. iiico rich and poor, ^ut, had 
he wished fairly to represent the existing conditi6n of the Am^ricaii 
Sutes, he would have said, and truW said, that there, as well as he^Q 
are to be dmnd both rich and poor ; and n>orco?er^ that the food 
and cQinfons of the lower classes there are not to be compared 
wi:h ili^ijie of the mc«in«st indusnious manufa<Surer4n this Iclingdonil« 
—in il^ same .spirit he atmbutesthe rapid population of tht Aai€^ 
rican States, soUiy to Uicir having pleifkty of good Toocl, and every 
essential to make life comfortable and happy ; without taking into (he 
account the thousands, and tens of chousancls which have been poured 
into that cpitntry from Europe for these many years past. Where, v/6 
presume to ask the Dodtor, do the ^'ack-isetclers, and the other lower 
orders in America (for tliere are such) get their good meat and drink; 
their soft beds, large houses, lofty rooins, &c. i ^ How are their'celiarsp 
their kitchens, their gardens, ice. srored? And where doxtheyfind 
that gfeai assistant to population, the apothecary's shop? Good| 
Podor, in all^ these things our Aapp>y American brethren are more 
deficient than this miserable country. As to the remaitiing ingredictit 
in the Doctor's populating prescription, we have not heard that eiihet 
the medical, or mental physicians on the other side of. the AdantiCt 
have yet discovered an eSedlual care-bane ; had diey made, that blessed 
discovery, the rapid population would no longer be matter of wonder. 
As things now are, it will be in vain to look in the Western world 
for the long«lofit country of El Dorado^ where tout va blen ; what 
may happen when the Unired States shall have adopted that code A 
hopfiness^ which the Do<£lor, mounted on his hippogriiF, •'* plucked 
from the pale-faced inoon," and kindly gave to the worfd in iheycar 
o( Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and five, we preteM not to 

The Do6lor having now proved that civilizatioil has made of mad 
the most wretched being that exists, goes on to advertise his infaHtblt 
Femedy. . At first he proceeds with some degree of modesty ; he pro« 
poses " onl] the abolition of the law of primogeniture," and^ ** the 
prohibition by' law " of all ** refined manufa^ures,'' of course of 
every art in which genius and taste are now employed, that the hands 
now unprofitab1y,.naY destrudtively occupied, may be turned to the 

* This he contradiAs at page 254, when he has another objeA in vi^w^ 
via, CO warn the Americans against a rising aristocracy. 

1 3 , ' plough. 

Ilf i^luci9rAi.cMTicr8Arw: 

ploQ|b. &it ibk it mere dull sobriety to wh^t follqwf;- be is ooljr 
pruniDg bis wings for the daring flight v/Wic succeeds.; ^ in$x stss 
ctiolJix in awrai-^i cafut imtr nubila condUy To ensure plenty 
and happiness to man» the Dr. proposes that the present rotten fabric 
of&ociecy should be demolished^ auid rebuilt on the firm basis of ^r— 
fell ififtlitj. J 

^* Mr. Eden has supposed, that there ate seventy. two millions of acres 
bf land in England. If, thcn> the people amount to two millions of fa. 
tmVtts^ there woiuld be an arersge of thirty.six acres for each family. — 
Snds portion of land, 'greater or less, according to the size of the family, 
atoold diost plentifully supply it with every thing that is wanted* Ir 
litoold abo supply labour tor two horses or bullocks to work on the land ; 
tod would be a proper quantity to keep them employed ; and with this 
iquamity lof land, the owner might procure a sufficiency for his own iise» 
f nd wherewithal to barter for implements of husbandry, such as ploughs^ 
karrows^ carts, &c. 

** The distribution of hnd might be conduAed in the manner follow. 
ing I — the sute, that is, the colleded body of the people, might, as i» 
natural J be possessed of all the land in the nation. By it, it might be 
^roelled out as aboye, and to It might revert wholly on the extindaon of 
kny oi the families,' and in part on the decease of any of them. But if 
the ;Aumber of families sh6uld increase, more allotmeifts mieht be made, 
eomposed of parcels taken from the old ones, which would of course lesseu 
in sisee as the number increased. 

** And this would be the whole of the business of first redudng, and 
lffter#aids keeping up, the equal state among men ; for this alone would 
keep^ll other things sufficiently e^ual to prevent any of the present incon. 
^ — 1_. ...^ , ^^ surely this is not impossible or impraAicable." 

On ihe land, thus apportioned, Dr. Hall's Arcadians are to work 
out, pot only their own happiness, but their own salvation ; and he 
has no doubts that they would do both ; for this stiite of life «* would 
giv.e the proper proportion of afiton^ so as to leave the necessary time 
A>r rrir, >vhich, by the interchange, would give reciprocally to each 
Other its due relish; of js^hich me third ingredient (of happiness) 
fkasun^ is chiefly composed;" and, as they would be more virtuous 
than the corrupted sons of civilization^ their fate hereafter would not 
be doubtful. , . 

The Dr. goes on to develope, his plan^— 

"We have seen the quantity of the produce of the poor is eight or 
ten tiroes greater ihan the quantity consumed by thcmsclycs ; consequently^ 
«»ie»eiehth or tenth part of the time he is now confined to labour would 
be inmcient to furnisn him with those things which he at present enjoys ; 
or if he should, as he would, no douht, choose to be better supplied, 
one.fburth, or one- third of the time he is now confined to labour, would 
be sufficient to obtain plenty for himself and his family : and this would 
nerhaps be rendered less, by reuiuin|j such machinery as would be appli. 
eaUe to the coarse maou&dnres^ which would yet be useful in tUa ^ 


H«irj EJfiUs of.Cl^ihoaiion. ^19 

finm^tate— ^s aTtiling oor^rivet, for ^*W afkl miMseAffii tf the 
people, of tliat which hus been hitherto applied to ases tO 4njuiioii» c»' 

** The laboor of a father of a fam^ty; workbg a few hcuti idity 0t^ 

the land, would prodtlce ajl the food necessary for its comfenabk lub^- 

sistence ; and the tndu9try of the other patfs Of the family wooU fftmish 

what was necessary for their clothings Sec, ; the few things which these 

would not yield, might be provided by certain persons that might be i^« 

served from the manufaAurcr^> who' must be^'dr that case, sacrificed to 

diepoMic good, and therefore should be atf few as possible; and those- 

sboold be fequitcd amply for th^ir sob'mitting to such dssadvantagcsy and 

be famitfhed with other gratifications, to coahtexbaiahce them. I know 

but of few things necessary to the most.complete' happiness, wUch ^Af. 

inhabited country in the worid might not in this(i9ami4r Ornish Iba itnetf^. 

These few things >re noedicinesj but these are i» number ve|ry small, tM 

excqefting half a score, or a kw mo/?* Thes^; articles, namel^i the Pero«« 

yian bark, o^iom, quicksilver, briqfistone^ wix^e, &c. being almost ther 

only articles in the Materia Mcdica that are 4^exnqd speciip^t or that^^ 

perhaps, contain any healing vii[tue$ at all ; the power of all the other 

drugs to do good being very doubtfuJ, whilst their powers to do harn| 

aie very great; a society therefore may be, w|thoat any great lossj de« 

prived of them ; and perhaps, considering the Unskilful hands who g^neJ 

rally use them, without any loss at all. Of these which we have irien« 

tinned, three only are of fbrefgn growth, of which a few shipt yearly 

would bring home, to any natJon, the quantity required. 

" If it was thought proper to retain the knowledge . and praAioe of 
certain languages, arts, and sciences, a few^nien^ whose geniosed for 
them were distinguishable, alight be scledled, and likewise sacridced ae 
fbt public good I who shoold also be amply compensated^ and an retun! he 
provided with necessaries from the surplus in- individual hands.: andaa 
maiddmi would in ^^eneral enjoy leisure, which would be employed by 
every person according to his inclinations and talents, there would be fi 
much greater chance of obtaining i^en of great proficiency ii^ every aci* 
ence than there is at present, out of the few that apply themselves .tf 
study of any kind," 

Should it be objedled that, supposing this happy state as favourable 
to the procreativc powers, and to the health of young and old, as it ia 
maintained it would be, the land in process of time would prove in* 
sufficient to support the immense population that mast ensue, the Dr« 
has foreseen the objeftioUf and has a remedy at hand ;^ for he is irxfal* 
lible in the case of plethora; as well as consumption. He has, tlicrc^* 
fore, given us an agricultural plan, by the following of which we are 
assured that Great Britain migjht, aniu would support, we knownot 
how many more millions than it now contains. l*or the plan at laree 
we must refer to the work ; bur one article is so truly charaderistic 
of the dej^radinp; apathy boastc4 of by modern pbilospphi^o, iiba( wt 
cannot withhold it from our readers. 

'' Animal tnanure & composed either of the bodies -of animals after 
^tl^ or of the excrementiu^tts parts that procted ikooi them firing life* 

J 4 ) *^ Ammsls 


** Aiunalt vhicb migbt be conTrrted u> nuamrf, ifcer Aektk, are either 
or brote. 

** The fonner not only make a great put of the living creatares t|urt 
aft to be found tn ciTiUsedcoimtrieft « but a very ^reat part of the other 
are eonsumed by them. By the custom, /therefore, oi burying their 
corpses deep in the earth, iie $Hvfaci rf H is dtfrined rfa n^etygrtat qmam^ 
tit} of the imnuff it nooM otber*wi^e have /" 

Bot» steuld this improved agricultare Qf thp Dr. tym out insaff«* 
ci^t for the subsistence of the tnnmense populatioo which must, as 
he tayt, uke place in his Arcadian state s if, notwithstanding every 
^brt to fertilize die earth, a la Hall^ should every man, woroany 
and child faithfully liiy all their own excrementitious matter on their 
own ground ; if, instead of absurdly, as berctofbre, committing the 
bodies of their fathers, mothers, brofhers, sisters^ children, &c. to the 
Wiprodiiffivi praviy they more wisely threw them on xht prolific dung- 
hill ; if, after all this, the saving of 500*000 every year, which, ac* 
cording to the Dr. now fall martyrs to civilization ; ^and the unspeak* 
able increase which such a h^ippv state of things would prodqce, shootd 
end in a superfoetation of inhabitants, unless Provideoce, in i(s mercj 
did, from time to time favour us with a pestilence, th^ U^ resource 
must' be the Chimse suectdaneum *, which the Dr. seetps to r^^oni- 
tnend in esttreme cases — an infanftdde zQl must be passed, to prevent 
a lingering, hot certain'death. The Pr. seems to be of opinion that 
this super^tation, notwithstanding all his care, must some time or 
ether take place. For this, be, who has a cure for all the other ills 
of society, professes he has^ no remedy : but Pr&vidence, he says, has* 
This is comfortable, for we had rather trust to Providence thati to ths 
Dr. But t{ie remedy is not the palliative of a pestilence, as we bad 
taken upon us to conje<5lure, but. a radical c%xxt^ and that species of ' 
radical cure which, we learn from him, medical men generally achieve* 
The world, he thinks, will end whei> it 1$ <« fully peopled." Hear 

^' This, perhaps, may be tb^ terpa intended by the Creator fpr its coo* 
tinuance, it being, as it seems, inconsistent with his benevolence to ex- 
tend the existence of a babit^ble world, after it ceases to afford the means 
of giving happiness to its inhabitants. It were well if the intentions of 
nuin were equally benevolent. This is not the only instance in whicli 
the designs of Providence are frustrated by man, and particularly by thp 
r«Jm of man.'* " ' 

The sting in the uil of this last extract, together with the general 

* • ** TheXhin»e, who suflfer the exposition of their children, an^ even 

appoint men to destroy them, seem, to z€t more hiunanely than the Euio- 

Dcans^ who cause the lo|ig.langiiishing sofierings of their children.!'— 

.Note, page II. 

\ . • cpippWoJ? 

tomplexion of die work, lead us to poiot out some thipgs in it which 
mark rather the infiammatoiy demagogue, thaa t^e calm philosophical 
political economist. 

A proscription for a low and languid case» and such, the Dr. savs. 
Is the case of his patients, is so much powder of post without a fuU 
proportion of stimulants. Of these the Dr. has not been sparing. Wc ' 
insert a few of these warm ingredients, leaving our readers to judge 
of their operative vinuet, 

''The Being who iDifAt th6<egrtb and all the living creatines on it^sQ 
constituted the eanh that it produces the things necessary for the siibsist- 
enp^of those creatures ; and he so oonstituted those creatures that their 
existence shoald depepd on those things which the earth prodiices. It is 
evident, therefore, that the Creator intended the land for the us^ of the 
creatures he has put on it, Consequent}yi that no creature ought to be cat 
^frpm the posspssipn of some pare ox other of the e^rth, and that in such 
^ntity as to furnish him with the necessaries of life. But this, by die 
system established in most nations of Europe, the persons in possession of 
the exclusive ptoperty of the land| not only have the power of doi^g^ , 
hot in efiect do it, and thus,^ depriving them of a suftciency of the necea* 
saries of life, destroy great numbers every ycar^" 

• *f If the poor mJinufaAm^rs are not allowed to strike their workj they 
^e debarred the right and advantage that all other people have in theif^ 
dealing — of refusing to take what is offered to them jf they think pro. 
^r. This, toj^ther with their having no means of standing out, through 
their want of immediate supplies^ renders them incapable of making a 
|ood bargain with their masters ; and the price of their labour is con. 
stantly diminishingi though the nominal, or money -price, is increasing/^ 

Here we would only gently hint to the author, that there are hiili« 
dreds of clergymen in this kingdom whose incomes are much smartle^ 
tluin what may be gained by a journeyman shoemaker or tailor ; yet 
they are not permitted to strike^ and, by their indelible charader, are > 
at the same time prevented from seeking any more pro^table employ^ 
menc ^oi we forget tiat this can have no weight with the Dr. as 
he ranks them among the drones of society. Let us g& o\y with the 
Dr.*s stimnlants. 

" f f By the labour of the husbandflnan, and of the horse or ox, is raisei 
the whole produce of the land ; the less part of which, /.a the less com 
pr hay« the ox or horse has, the more is reserved for the farmer's or pro- 
|vietor's use. It is the same with regard to th^ husbandman, thuugfanoifc 
in so direQ a manner. The less money the husbandman receives, the less 
pom he and eat, and of course, the more the farmer or proprietor 
takes CO himself* If there is any difibrenoe^ it is in favoi^r of the ox» 
,fi>r the &niier is by his own interest induced ^o keep it well ; but he has 
HP interest in ifae matter, with regard to the poor labourer's health, &c« 
9^If try ]us excessive, labour, in order, to maintain a large family, 
be wears Jiimself outj the fanner sustains no loss as be does by the'death 
of t|ie ox." 

. Speaking 

192 liltTGttfAL CftXTIClSlf. x 

Speaking of England, he says : 

** Eight. tenths of the people consume only one^ighth of the prod«06 
of their labour ; hence one day ineiehti or ope hour in a day, is all the 
time the poor man is allowed to work for hixnselfi his wife and his ^il* 
dien. All the other days^ or all the other hours of the day, he woik* 
fer other people. 

*' Sic vp« non vobis mellificatis, apes : . 
Sic vos non vobis fertis aratra, boyes." 

'* It IS surely an essential part of liberty, to enjoy the full fruits of 
one's own labour. Whether the negro in the West Indies has a less pro^ 
portion than the above, I cannot determine ; but in other respects be 
seems to have the advantage of the free but poor man of Europe.'* 

y But the poor man has not even this small proporiion ot his labour 
or tXnje ; since Sunday,* one day in the week, is taken from him by most^ 
churches in Europe, which must be deduced first. He has therefore only 
a fradion of a fradipn, viz. oiie-eighth of six^sevenths ; that i;&, about, 
one- ninth.** j 

'* We havcj I fear with too much reason, said that, in the present sys- 
tem, about 500,000 souls, in communities'consisting of ten millions, perislv 
annually, who would probably have lived to mature age, if they haiid had 
justice done them, by being suffered to enjoy the fruits of iheir toil. Prq^ ' 
bably (for we are not furnished with such documents as might enable u» 
t^ calculate with certainty) the' number of people in these communities,. 
who have above the average income of ^ijol. or zool. per annum is small, 
not exceeding a few hundred thousands ; so that the numl)er of those that 
contribute at all to the evils complained of, being those whose incomes 
^ exceed the above-mentioned sum of zool. per annum, arc not very nume. 
fOos ; and those that principally occasion the waste, being peofd^ of laigcr 
ionvaits^ aie still much less numerous* The question^ therefore, is, whe. 
ther 5po,ooo souls shall f)erish annually, and tbjit eight.tenths of all the 
others should be pinched, disttessed, and diseased^ in order to furnish 
this small number with the superfluities ?'* 

One more j^ill from the Dr.'s shop will be a sufficient dose. 

" It is to be feared that these wars, of which the poor bear the bar* 
den^ and in which millions of them lose their limbs, their health, apd 
their lives, are often entered into for the fxfras fwrfose of increasing 
thetr subjedion tnd oppression, and making sbcm the instruments of it« 
It is highly probable, for instance, chat wars hare been cdncerted pri* , 
^ately, and andertaken by neighbouring kings, for the sole purpose of 
gaining a pretence for incieasing their forces, and keeping up a larger 
Standing army ; the chief view in augmenting which was to keep their 
pwn people in' closer subjedion, and lay and enforce forther restraints and 
impositions on them. If there should be some peofde who will not allow 
of this highly probable supposition ; yet all must allow that wars are 
often be^n on sUghc pvetences : the real views being as above repre- , 

** And if the troe motives, which induced most of the Powers tp en. 
gage their people in the lait w^r^ were to tc «y(rved| it wooM appear 


Alt Atj iiwe from tbetx lyyrehensiQM t|Mt the people wmM fcoovcf 

some of their natoxil «ik) ja«c righrsy and dbcaan sooie lutfc ooliocaiiMi 
tf their condition. ' It was tiiefi thought that tiie Frenob peopk wfte eo« 
d^aTouring to recover not only th^ c^ualit/ of righu, in the «cn6e It 
was explained; bat that the/ had in vtew to lessen somewhat thf great 
inequality of property also : both these ideas were comprehendu^ as it 
was rhought^ under the term of French principles, lo prevent their 
iiicceeding in which, and the contagion which it was soppoied would bav^ 
fcQowed their success, was the object, perhaps, principally aimed at.— 
This, 1 believe, discovers more of the design of the war, and who wer» 
ck aggressors, than all that Mr. Herbert Marshy in his laboured volumes, 
haiiaid. This was the real '^ase why the Ministers of most of tbe 
Stales found every thing they proposed 60 readily adopted by the aritto. 
cntical party of their lespedive countries, and which enabled thbn to 
carry and force down measures so abhorrent to what had ever befiHC^ 
though often proposed, been acceded to. 

V if thete cgnje&tfc* -ace uue, how axt the poor to be pi^sdl - The 
lefledioti that all^the calamities of the poor originated from, and were 
itally the works of, mes's bMuds; that Iresh calamities have been fmr^ 
ftftlj brought on them ; and that they themselves have been made use of 
at iDstnunents to con&rm their old grievances, add to, and perpetuate 
dRiD; is too sad for a human heart todwell on." 

As civilization, that bane of human happiness, has prodCiced weakh 
aae^aUy distributed, and consequently power, and its abases; i| 
likewise has engendered leamin|;, science, and the arts, things e<{ua]ly 
£iul to tlie g^ood of societ3r. The Dr. shall speak for himself, as we 
wish aot la incur the suspicion of saying *< the thing which is not/* 

*' Learning, in the unequal shares it is distributed among iadividiiali 
ia Europe, is clearly piejudicial ; giving some an unfair advantage over 
otfaen of their fellow.creatures. It is the chief instrument by which th^ 
superiority is gained by the few over the many ; and by which the laue^ 
nt kept in swje^ion. It is like the turning a game cock, with steei 
fpors, among those 4rho have only their natural weapons." 

" The bringing together and reducing the bulky mattefs to their qhin't- 
csiences, as it were, by which mean», the great man can coasume land 
destroy, in a very short time, the works of months and of years. 

" And thb e^fed of enabling the masters of mankind to dp more mis« 
chief Aan they otherwise could do, consiitutes- the great utility of th^ 
fine am, as they are caUed. 

^ Ha tibi sunt artes. Vixo." 

I '< The troth is, the arts have raised a kw^ both in respeA of thei| lm 
leile^Gial attatnoieau and their enjoyments, above the natural state of 
opn :. but, in order to obtain those advantages for those few, they haf« 
si»k the remainder of the people much below it.' ' 

Upon the wbde^ we venture to say that the .Doctor's asses milk will 
nol eflFed a core ; though, with the stimulanu be has mixed, up sn iho 
dose, it might, on favoorable occasions for the openitioa, for a time 
IMhioge society: nhich a smmd political oconomist woatd bmudcmo i« 


It4- ' 6lir<»KAL onittcjtu^^ 

mot the best'thfng that co4ld happen etthef for the rich or poor ; and 
losentfads hove but tx>o well confirmed this theory. 

The writer^ of this article once mef with tlie ci-devant TTiomas 
Paine (for he is now civilly Jeiuiy and his works l^ave followed hinn)^ 
HI the bey>day of his popularity,' and represented to him, as he now 
floes t(y this world-mender» that, supposing a great part of what he 
advanced to be true; there was still one very essential matter omitted, 
which must be taken into the account, and gone about before any good 
codd be dot^. He thus addressed Thomas—*' Before you pretend to 
ve-CQastru£t society, as man is tlie only stuiF you have to work with* 
as you have no choice of materials, you must begin -by effcfliog a ro* 
^c/a/ change in those you haye. Ciciaien Paine^ have you got a re- 
ceipt for maiini men wer again ^*' Tom certainly hid no such rc« 
ceipt,. nor is it, we are pretty confident, in the possession of Dr. Hall. 

- ^ 

Barrow's Voyage to Cochin Cfibio'n 

(Cwduded from page 36.^ 

OUR traveller, in his description of Amsterdam Isiand, observes, 
tfttty except *at Spitsbergen, he never saw such numbers of wholes, 
grampuses, porpoises, sea-lions, and seals, as were playing their ganft*> 
Sok very near to the shore; and he tells us, on the authority of a 
Putcbtnan, that on. its first discovery. '^ the people of Fan Flamingos 
ship found the sea so full of se^ils and sea-liom, that they were obliged 
to kill them to get a passage through, when they steered for the shofe ; 
tbere was also an astonishmg number of fish,'* — ^' not only the sea/' 
Mr, B« adds. ^* but the whole coast, in the motnings and ejeningis, 
fwarnied with" seals and sea-li6ns/* 

On his arrival at 3atavia. he was not a little surpri;i^ tq f^nd that 
die Hew philosophy of the jTreucli School had iilre^y r^acl^eci tliat dis« 
tarn country. . 

** la no port nor harbour, sinee our departure fr6in PortsAiouth, had 
we met with so great a nmnbcr of shipping as were colledled in the bay of 
Batavia. Large Dutch Indiaroen. mostly dismantled for want of men i 
EngUah trading vessels from Bengal^ Madras, and Bombay ; immense 
Chinese junks, whox singular forms seemed to bespeak an antiquity as 
lemoce as that of Noah's ark ; Malay proas, an4 Ja^^nese canoes ; with 
three cf four French ships carrying into the £a»tem wt)rld. in additioh' to 
the natural produdls of their country, the monstroas dodiines of the Right* 
qf Mao, were promiscuoasfy riding at anchor in the road of Batavia. The 
praAical part of these novel dodrines was grievously complained of by 
the oflicersof one of the i**reoch ships. The crew, it seems, had one day- 
taken it into their heads that, by virtue of the sacred and inalienable 
principle of all akA being egual, they had a right to enjoy as ^ood a din. 
•eras their oticers, sio matter who should pay for it; and accoidinefy^ 
having fialhived the dbhes iato the cabitij xhey seated themsd vts at tSoic^ 


Barrov^i fi^gi to t:ccJkiH^CKna. tit j 

iif^tflkif; it ifte inofit obliging nttnner^ the Captiin and 6ther olficto t ' 
j)iruik» of their own dinner with them. These gentlemen, however, find*. 
.iRg their authority and their property at stake, thought it prudent to 
make application to the government of Batavia for a few (Sierman iroopt 
to instniA their crew in the rights of discipline, and in the duties of obe. 
dknce and subordination." 

The bay of BaiavSa is sufiicleiuly capacioys to contain the whpl* 
navy of England^ and could uffbrd a perfefl aecurity in all seasons. 
It ia^ very tecWy prote£ie(i» but the climate is so dreadful, as aloaoai Xft 
exempt thepo^essors of the place from nil danger of attack ; its ravages 
are horribly desiruSive. It seem^ that the French Revolutionists stole 
their Republican Calendar irom the Dutch inhabitants at Batavia. . > 

** The Qsual way of dividing the year, as in most tropical dimaftet, is 
into the rainy and ihc dtj seasons, the first setting in about Noveit^>er 
and continuing through April ; but the Dutch, absurdly enotigh, bodi in 
speaking and writing, give names to the months as having some reference 
to their produdions, or other circvmstances which distinguish them, kt 
Eorcne : thus, they have their Ha^ m^ntby their Wim nmntb^ their Fio^er 
mmtb ; and, anluckily for their nomenclature, a* used in this place, ifeeir 
.WUter mnmth happens when the sun is nearly vertical. Who would haVe 
soflpeAed thac the Sruwutir^^ the Gcrmmai, the Flneai, and almost, die 
whole ef the Freoeh lepaUican calendar* were stolen from theii* Outdh ' 
friends, who have been in the donstant use of it for centuries past f It k 
doubtful if the French will retain' it so long, aid whether, in their thirst 
for novelty, they may. not propose to compliment tkt present aagust ^ 
mily on the throoe by a transier "of their names to the calendar moncfa^ 
or^ which would be more cosvenient for themselves and the rest of £u. 
aope, revert to the old ones which have stood the test of so mnay ages«** 

It is not at aUimprobable- that the vanity of the French wiH he «0l 
hurt at the dete'dlioQ of this theic, as to nartke them resign the frmtaeC 
it. Mr. Barrow gives a pretty full description of the natural prodabi* 
tioQs of the Island of Java, and, of coarse, docs not omit to noiioe 
the deadly Upas^ which ibc poetical pen of 0arwin has labonred M 
immortalize ; but he notices it only to coitefi an error which ge- 
nerally prevails respefling it, and to do (hat, which unfortunately is 
the reverse of the condiidl of some nioderQ travellers, to substlt'u^ 
truth for fiAion. « . . 

'^ After the notoriety which the baneful U/as has obtained frofli the 
fcnnblicatioo, ii^ a popular woxk, of a most extraoidiiiary aocoont of thi$ 
BotaoDQus tree that first ap|)earol several years ago in the Gentletnan's 
Magazine, it*would have been an unpardonable negledl in us not to make 
Tery particular inqairy into the degree of credibility SKhich is attached by 
the inhabitants ef the idaaaA to ItsieKisteiice ; and, if. sndi tree did exist, 
CO endeavour fo learn how far its deleterious qnalities might correspond 
v^th those which had been ascribed to it; Accordingly we 6eMom enter; 
ed a garden or plantttjbn withbit interrogatiiig^ the people emplo/ed 1«i 
diem as to the Ufdti The ftsdr of oar in^idrioi uras iittk favoniable to 
■ . .* - i -. • ■ th^ 

the truA of l^^tnA'i rdatton, which csrjiei with ir, irJiAel, tflWH^ 
Biarki of absurdity^. It requited some iqgenaUy to conotire the ciuaaeoee 
tf a «4ng)e troe, the sole iiKtiridoii of its specteii stMidttig on the niddie 
of a naked pidiiy. of a naloie so baneful thkt not onfy birdSi beasts, and 
every living cfea:ture whkh come witbin the circle of the acxoosphece con* 
taminated by its poisonous effluvia^ instantly perish, bat soddetefiooa as 
to wither op and destroy all other plants, and to devour^i lik^ Satarn, ica 
dwn offi^ing as they pullolate from its roots. Such a monster in nature, 
with *' its thousand tongfoes steeped in fell poison,' is almost too mach for 
the page of roc^ance, or the wildest fid^ion of poetry; Yet the relation 
was not wholly discredited. ' That which is strange/ says Dr. Johnson, 
^ is delightfuli and a pleasing error is not willingly deteded.' The mftgic 
pen of Dr. .Darwin, by celebrating the wonders of this^ wonderful tree 

'In sweet tetraiidrian monogynian straisiSji^ 

made the error still more pleasing, and ooj2secrated,.as it were, the fie. 
tion'of the Upa$* 

** As- fabmous stories have sometimas, however, their origin in truth, 
ao that of i)ae U/as may probably not be wholly groundless, but acfanit oiF 
some explanation. . la troptcal dJimaces, plants pdssessing oorious qasti. 
ties -are very conuBon* Java is considered to aoound with theaa. The 
first of this kind that was discovered might probably have the name of 
Upai con&rmd on it, which name, being afterwards udjvm^rdy app%d 
to aU other plants possessing the sanoe qualities, becaate the^pellatiTe 
fi»r every poi^oiKHis tree* lihat this was the common acceptation of the 
wor4 l^ai, I inferred from its beiAg conneded with the trivial name of 
all such plants as were either known, or supposed, to contain poisonona 
Aiialities^. Thosy for instance, the Dhsc&na Ikieteria (was calle^ the U^ 
Vf^Sf which may be traoelated the fti»mm§ fotatae* The seed of a trer 
beajriog a papilionaceous flower, and apparently a speciea of &/u&«ra, wa& 
called the^ Upas Bidjiiy the poisoNous seed. Thus, also, a triangolar-stem. 
Sied Euphorbia f a species of Solamtmt a 'Doturay and> several other pianta 
of itfli or supposed noxious qualities, had all of them the word Upas 
joined to their proper iiaaMs. In this sense, the Boban or Bmn Upas of 
M^isni would imply neither more nor less than a foisomus irte, and not my 

Kricolar spedca of tret,, much less aa oneonnedUd individoal sm' gfmrrisp 
ring the name of '^4i«-' 

Had Darwin lived to read this passage,' he would, we suspeiSl, have 
-hecn as much vexed at being exposed as the propagator. of vulgar* 
errors, as the philosophists of St. Cloud ^at the deteAion of tlieir theft 
SB re»pr<St of their calendar. Of the fatal efieda of tim terrible cli<- 
mete some notion, may bejormed from the fcdlowiog accotwt;. 

( ^* The prick ofa pin or a needle will sometimes occasion a lock.jaw« 
Th^ t)utch do^rs are also of opinicm, that certadn cases of hydiophohia 
which have occurred, noti^ithstanding^no instance of canine madnrss wsi^ 
fttr known on t^ island, ma}j be attribnted to climate, and the amee og 
the constitution as effeAed* b^ it. T^e bite o^ the ]at|ge Indian rat, pooa* 
ipooiy called the ^^^/coof, ^u\siiipposed jto occasioahydrophobiaand cer. 
tain death; an 6pimoq ^hich^ X understand, ia jilso entertained on cfa^ 
a>ist of Malabar* The hite tt au enraged mail is aal^ tb be as certain oe 


Bartow's Fiftti U CMn^na. nf 

fralBcIff hjdfophobia «i dm of a mtd dog, two cases of wbich hid bap. 
pcoed not long before oar arriral. One o^ tfaea) being stated by Dr. Le 
Dolxy in the 5ch Tolome of the Transadtions of the Batavian Society, a 
work little kxx>Wn in £ur(^| I shall use no apology fbr inserting a traoB« 
lation of it. 

'< « On the 17th Match, 17899 information was laid before the Court ' 
of Jostice that the Writer, Ba^Aazar Vtm Vlki^ in a fit of madness, had 
pliu^ a knife into bis bowels. The Court proceeded to the place with. 
ODt delay, attended by the tQwn surgeon, LTmbart, where they found the 
patient, by diredion of the surgeon attending hini, bound aixl in strong 
Goa?ulsionsy particularly of the eyes. The family being interrogated aa 
to xht origin of his complaint, related that, four or five days previous to 
tkaA, the patient had a quafrel with a friend, which proceeded to a 
faiipus Koffle, when his antagonist, finding himself not a nutch for the 
patient, *in the mooicot of rage bit him in the arm. The wound was 
bound up in the usual way« without the least idea being entertained of the 
dreadful consequences which a bite thus made in the heat of passion was 
capable of producing. Three days after this happened the patient waa 
attacked with fever, but itill no particular regard was bad to the wound. 
The iorgeon who attended him observed that he was in a state of qoku 
(inoed delirium; that he had a great antipthy to every kind of medicino 
aod, in particular, a strong aversion to water. On the fourth d^y^ ife 
Surgeon, on entering the apartment, found him stabbina; himself lepeatodl^ 
* with a knife. With some difficulty they seized and bound him down oa 
a M&. On the town surgeon being sentibr, he offered him a spoonful of 
water which he refused, but, on being told it was /is, he endeavoulod wilk 
jtieat difficulty to swallow it. When a glass of water was presented, to him» 
the most ghastly spasmodic convulsions were observable in his face* and 
over his whole body, accompanied with such a degree of teraor that he' 
exclaimed, IVattr ! Ob Jesut, bwoe mercy wme! His terroi; increased oa' 
wipii)g his blobdy hands with a wet napkin, when, in convulsive agonies^ 
he called out. Oh Goi^ nvater! Perceiving clearly that hydrophobia had 
soperveoed from the bite received in anger, we resolved to trea^hip& ac* 
' cordingly, but he died in the afternoon of the same day.' 
. ^' 'Hiat the bitesif ^ ipan is attended with very malignant syn^ciMniy 
was a do^lrine which prevailed an ancient times. Pliny classes it al«ong 
the very worst of wounds given in this iMMier« Monms hminum itOgr 
atptrrims fimque nttmer^lmr. And it appears to be a wel) auihenticatfd 
£ift, chat many animals, beside dogs, when highly enraged, become mac* 
bid and acquire the pow^r of communicating the infisAion by t£eir bite« 
Or. Le Diux mentions in the same paper several instances of hydit>ph(4^i«* - 
succeeding to the bite of enraged animals, as the case of a boy bit hy a 
duck which he had disturbed in its amours, and of a feeder of cocks who^ 
being popked in the hand by one of these cniroals in separating it fntfia its 
antagoobt, died under every symptom of hydrophbbia and madness. Th*. ' 
bita ff the common domestic cat, rendered furious by provocatioop it 
wdl^lmwa to produce hydrophobia. Ii) what manner this extraoidioary 
state^oC morbidity in the animal body is generated, remains yet an arcaona 
in animal patholosy ; but it is pretty evident that thc^ poison is secreted 
by the lakvaiy glands, and conveyed into the circulation with tlie spitilt 
tftbemoibidamnaL'* ^ 

128 . ^HTGINAL CtlXTI<M8M* 

Wc have had occasion, more than once^* to combat a faroorftt 
prejudice, which ascribes peculiar beneyoletice to the Hindoos, and 
traces the source of that benevolence ro their abstinence from animal 
food ; while others, however, make that abstinence the eftd and not 
amse of their benevolence. Qur author thus speaks of it^ in his ac- 
count of the Javanese. 

** Not only the featuresj the manners^ and the remains of the ciirit 
2nd religioas institutions of the Hindoos are still apparent &mong tl.e' 
Javanese, ■ but they have preserved the fragments of a history, according 
to which they derive their origin from Fubuoo. This history terminates 
with the account of a dreadful deluge, which swept away the great bulk 
of mankind. In the ii^land parts of the island ificy still observe a scru. 
ptilous abstinence from every kind of 'animal food, under the notion of a 
transmigration of souls. However amiable that religion may seem which 
forbids the taking away of animal life, it may fairly be doubted whether 
an aversion to th^ shedding of blood, or a tender feeling for animal suf- 
fering, had any share in the origin of such an institution, A supposition 
to this efied would involve with it a multitude of con traditions and in. 
eonststehcies* The same people who, in their precepts strenuously incut, 
cate and in praAice encourage, by assisting and gazing vit^ the inhuman 
and unnatural sacrifice of a beautiful and innocent woman expiring in the 
flaines of a funeral pile, cannot consistently Be supposed tor feel any honor 
at'Che slaughtering of an ox» The same remark will with equal force 
apply to the Javanese. What pretensions can these people have to deli* 
cate feeling and sensations of horror for animal sufiering, whose great de- 
light is to witness, like the barbarous Romans, a miserable criminal,- 
verhaps for a very slight offence, torn in pieces by tygers and buflfalos f 
Weither is it more likely that, in a country where animal existence is so 
abundantly produced and abundantly destroyed, the forbearance should 
have originated in any peculiar degree of respecl and va]^e for animal life*. 
it is scarcity that in general constitutes value. 

^' The torrid zone indeed is probably not the country in which such a 
system had its origin — where all nature is in a state of visible animation — -' 
wfa^e the naked earth, the woods, the waters, and even the rocks under 
the waters, are teeming with aninval life--whcrc every step that a man 
tafces,evcry time that he opens his mouth, whether to inhale the atmospheric 
air, to qpench His thirst with pure water, or to eat his lifeless vegetables 
(as he is willing to suppose them), he necessarily destroys jnyriads of 
living and sentient beings. With as little propriety can such a system, 
so odisplaced, be referred to any refined notions of mercy and benevolence^ 
but may, perhaps, more properly be con^iderttl as one of those unaccount. 
aWe institutions which are sometimes found to militate against locaj con^ 
»i$tency, and which afford no slight argument in favour of their foreign 
origin.* X)n the same ground of reasoning we mi^ht venture, perhaps, to 
infer that-the consecration of the cow is more likely to haveliad its omin 
on the bleak and barnrn heights of Tartary than On the warm afad -ftitile 
plaif^s of Hindoftan.'/ 

. .Mr. Barrow manifests the soundness of^it principles tmd the cor- 
rectness of his judgment, wherever an opportimicy occurs fordieir 

. display* 

fiarroWV Foyage tiCoehsn-China. 1^9 

f isfrfajf « In the following passage, the ' nonsensicaUjargon, and im^i- 
DOS rUnidry of the poetical philosophist of .Derby, arc very properly 

'* Whether the Hindoos framed the strange dodrine of transmigrfttion 
of the rital principle into different animals, or borrowed it from^ther 
Goaotries where animal life was less abundant, and therefore of mort 
valuei than in India, their absurdities arc, in either case, fally as Jeientf 
sible as chose of some of our modem philosophers who, in a glure of !Hii^ 
phrases^ have assiduously eikieavoured to propagate the unfounded doc^ 
trine of a fortuitous and spontaneous vivrfication of inanimate imatter* \f^ 
in any single instance, it could, be shewn that animal life had been pro^ 
duced under a fortuitous concurrence of favoufable cifcitmstafnoe9^"one 
I would be the less surprised at the adoption of such preposterous notions ia 
I ' faculties being obtained simply by wishing for them' — that ^-frdm or^^ 
ganic particles accumulated, originate aninud Appetencies'— that 

' Hence without parent, by spontaneous birthj 

Rise the first specks of animated earth.' . i .. 

And that this earthy matter of spontaneous animation has been aggret 
gated into all the shapes and sizes of living creatures on the face of the 
globe, merely by volition, by forming » 

. * A potent wish in the produ^ive hour/ 

Such sublime nonsense, though in concradididn to every known fa^> W 
y^t plausible enough to mislead the judgment of many of those to whom it 
u particularly addressed ; though, like the transmigration of souls, it is 
Qsheied into the western world in an age too enlightened to suffer it to 
pass into a religious creed. When the ebjedt of talents, so miserably 
misapplied, appears to be that of degrading man to a level with the lowest 
reptile that crawls on the earth, and of allowing him no other pre-emi. 
nence in the scale of creation than the .accidental conception ot a more 
' potent wish in the productive hour ;' — -when the most disgusting com* 
parisons are drawn, with an obvious design to debase the ' rx>blest work of ' 
God'' down to 

* His brother-emmets and his sister worms;' 

one cmnot avoid feeling the mingled sentiments of pfty^ contempt, an^ 
iadignationj which even the sedodng garb of harmonious verse has not 
d«t pow^r of suppressing* In comparing the writings of Paiey with those 
of I>arwio, how simple,' how notue, how consolatory, are the design and 
cOntnvance of a benevolent firing ikmonst rated in the one ; how wretch* 
cdly obscpie, .how mean, how hopeless, is the doftrine of a fortuitous 
concunence of fortunate circumstances so pompously and perversely dit« 
played in the fascinating verse of the other i" 

A/ter a longer stay than was originally intend^, on this pestilential 
coast, our Voyager proceeded to CJochin-China, a part of the Asiatic 
Cootin^Qt piji present but little known. 

*< In the latest and perhaps the best arranged system .of gtogtaphy 
which has been p£red to the public, a considerable portion of Asia, con* 
tailing full tw^n^y millions of peo^^Ie^ and from three 'to {bar hundred 

3ro. c. vot, XXV. K . , thousand 

rtgp •o&ioiNAU c&irrcisM. 

thouond squai£ zsilcSy extraofdinary as it may appear^ is passed ovet 
wiA,|\jincre ^ph of the pen, * Ihe kingdonis of Laos, CamMiat Siamf^, 
CocihtJC/jM'a, and Tung^juhiy* says Mr. Pinkerton, ' arc countries omnu 
portAnt in themselves, and concerning which the materials arc impcrfcd/ 
^'O-^Mi^^f P^i't of' this sweeping and .unqualified assertion I most freely 
#niiiu0(yMisubscribe> but cannot by any.nni^s assent to the forter ; bcingj 
^}oei|QU|^ to hop^ (b^t i^hc; s/o;iail stock. o£ well- authenticated materials^': 
whjjdk I am a^ut to lay before the pnbUc» will be sufficient to sbe^ that, 
tbMiP^Hntrie^, or aprtior^ of themon^y, held thus so very cbeaf» aae 
l>otjoi]|yi. important within them^lFes, but'lughly so to the present and 

Eu^e concerns of Briti&h India. ' Axid for the better iUttstration of the 
tptriciij sketch*, wbiph wil} be the subjed f^ this chapter, it Aiay not 
l^aipifrs :lo prefix a concise outline of the geogtaphical situation anddivl« 
«iPll!$.<)f jha| part of the Asiatic Conciuent which is usually known by the 

'' The ^extensive e(9p)re. pf China terminates, on the soatfa, at the 
twenty-second degfee of laititude ; but a^topgue of land connedled with it 
continues on its Western side as far as tjo the ninth parallel of northern 
latitude. This prolongation of thirteen degrees in extent has a ridge i^ ] 
Kigh^fh^ntains which, running down the middle from north to soitth, ] 
d^id^ the Birman empire^ on the west, from the kingdoms of Ttrng^mn^ 
Cocbin.Cbinay Tsiompa^ and Cambodia^ on the east. These names, thus 
usually marked on our charts, are, however, utterly unknown to the na» « 
tives, except Tung-quin. TIw other three colleAively arc called ^.JMr, 
and arc distinguished by three grand divisions. The first, contained bc^ 
tween the southernmost point which forms the extremity ojf the gulph iH 
Siam, and which lies in about the ninth degree of latitude, as iar as to^thi 
twi^rfth dcfi'rce, is called D^fuuai ; the second, extciKiing from hence to 
tV fifteenth degree, Chang; and the third^ between thb and the sevciw 
teenth degree,, where the kingdom o^Tung^um commence), is caHcd Hue. 
On the sea coast of all these divisions are safe and commodious bayf and 
hjirbours. The great river of D u^nni (Cantbtidia of the charts) is de* 
^ribed a$ navigable by ships of the Inrsrest size to the distance of forty 
ifiilcs up the country, wlNre the city oT SaUgottg is situated^ having a 
dkpacious and commodious port, and an extensive naval arsenal. An 
' £nglish gentleman, wlio sailed np this river in a large Port uguieae vessel, 
fm his passage from China to India,^ rqvesented it .to me ^ tmr^ tht 
grandest soencs that could be imagined. It has seieral- large bmichesi 
but the width of that up which they sailed seldom exceeded^cwv lailei, 
and in many places was loss than oqe ; hat the ifrater was so deep in ewry 
part, that the rigging of their vessel was soaaetiines efitangtod in the 
branches of the stately &>ie$r irees whicb shaded its banka, ^adhet sides 
fwquetKly graced against the veid^nt shores. 

'* In the division of Change Jj^ latitude 13* 50' N., is .Cki^u^m httf 
and harbour, the latter spacious, and completely sheltered from all 
winds, iJut only tfcce«$iWe by large vcsstls at high \vateTj| *<^ *actt)unt 
€A af bar thar rttn% «cit>69 the ki&rtow entrance" or gullet be'if>^eet) it aijd 
the outer bay. At the head of tbt6 harbour is aituated-tte^^tj^'df-gy^ 

X^««fftf |>T'!Mpi]; feitf «/iH? divisipns^ of*'/f*',>l^iVh '^^ .?5V««« 
Ii3itt!,'1rsitifate4-6n the b-nfc& of u large ffieV naFigab^eby ihiw of con* 

-:...C-:i . ■ vrz.i • ^f'^?*^ 

Barrow*j P^oyageto Cockin-ChinM. TjV 

iUeraUe biiiden ;'but'a bar of sand runs ^Kross the modfth. A litAe td 
dK^Qchward of this river is the hzy of Han^^an^ ot, as it is asdil)f 
rsMitd iti the Aarxs, TrifvM, which, for the" securitjr aiid convenience* 
it affprds^is equalled by few in the Eastern wotfdj ana certainly surpassed 
by none. It it situated in latitude i6® y'N/*^ 

Mr. Barrow then gives an historical sketch of the political sta4« of 
this hnponam country ; he relates a rebcttion (in 1774) vrhkih ter* 
minatedt, like chat of France^ 4n the murder of the king, whose son 
was laved by a French missionanr of the name of' Adran, who hatl 
vitpjed^ what he most ricblv deserved* the confidence and esteeqi 
of his father. Tbe.prince* who had been crowned, and had taken. 
bis fadier^s oatne, Cmtng^SAung^ fled with Adran to SiaiOt >nd after 
lometiotiei was ^revail«i on by the missionary to let his son accpth^ 
pany him to Prance, where Adran said he, would implore the assist* 
anoe of. Loots XVL They arrived at Paris in Ae year ^787 ; aad 
iUran s.propcaitio'n, which had for itsobjeA, the interest of bis owi^ 
GOQQtry (of :>mich a Frenchman, and to his hoiK)ur be it said^ never 
loses sight) as roach as that of the King of Cocbin-Chf na, was W9 
nrndtk appr<ffe4 of by ^he Court, that a treaty was verjr soon aigned* 
IKneof ;the Jeadtng articles of which are now publiabod, by Mr* 
Bsurrowi forche-first time; and 'highly curious and interesiing tiiey 
aie. : 

'j L thfiiie siudb be an oJSfensive and defensive allianoe between tbe Kinga 
\ Affiance p^ QbcblnXhina; |hey 4o beraby agree motoaily to afford 
. WtffncT^ to each o;her against all those who ouy make war upon eit&er 
ciftbe two: coptniding patties* 
*i IL TQ(.acoompUib.this purpose, there shall U put under At orders of 
^tbeJjof of Cochin-china a squadron of twenty French ships of #ar, 
. of^njsii si:^ and force as shaU be deemed sufficient for the demands of 
liissetvk^ .. / 
<f III. Vive complete European regiments, and two regim^ts of mttive 
; eoiookl troopsj^ sMl be ^nibarked. witHout delay for Cochin^hina. 
^ ly. His Mj^estf :ldD^vi XVI. shall engage to furnish, within four 
^/sinqsi^, the.jsum 4)f one million dollars; five hundred thousand of 
whi(;h shall be in specie, the remainder in salt-petie, cannon, mus^uets, 
. aad'.otber aflita^ stores. 

^* y. From tbf moment the French troops shall have ent^^red the.domi. 

2|ioiis,of .ftionj^ng :of Cochin-China, they and tbeir generals, both by 

. aea /and lands »ball feoeive. their oixlers from the King of CocbinXbiha. 

To^this eied^ ibe; commanding. officers shall be furnished with instraO' 

tiQiJi i^ro||i.JiisSi|tb9)ic Majesty to obey in all things, and to all plaou, 

; tb^3)f,ii|. of bis,|^ ally, ♦ . 

, - / «' Qn. the Other hand, .. 

y^ I. Th^ ^^ ^Cochin. CUpa> as soon as-trasi^mlllity shall be re-esU* 
* hUsbed b>. k^ dooMiiions^ shall engage to furnish, for fourteen ships of 
r ihsi Mi9^ ^^Kh ^s^m^ty of stores and prDvisions as wiH enable t^nn so 
^oli|ii^ 9^ «»i4M»t delay, on the.reqysimen of the ambaasAdar from the 
' ' &%:<>f^<^fuw^ andior the better ttkOing ^^pncpos^lhexi^ afaall 
t - * K ? be 


be ffnf out from Europe a cozps of officers txA petty offiqen of cbe 

\^ marine^ to be put upon a peuaanenc estahlishmept in C^hin-Chita* 

■*• II* Hu M]^dsty Louis XVI. shall have resident consuls on every part 

of the coa&t of (^hiiuChinki wherever he may think fit to place cnem. 

*■- "These consuls shall be allowed the privilege of building, or causing to 

be bail ty ships» frigates, and other vessels, without molestation, uxxter 

^ ;mj ptoetence^ from the Cochin-Chmfic government* 

/* I J I;, 'fhe ambassador of his Majesty Iiwiis XVI. -to the Conrt of 

Cochio^China shall be allowed to fell ^ui:h timber, in sfliy of the forests, 

^ . as tiay be fouod convenient and suitable for buildihg ships, fri^tet, 

or other vessels. ^ . 
>' rV. The King of Cochin-China and the Council of State shall cede ia 
I jperpetuity to his Most Christian Majesty, his heirs, and successors, 
the' port aikl territory* of Han-^an (bay of Turon and the peninsula}, 
and the adjacent islands from F'ti/9 on the south to Hat^'wt^oa the 
" tidrth, ; 

'*' V. The King of Cochin-China engages to furnish men and materials 
' necessary for the construflion of forts, bridges, high.roadsy tanks, &c* 
'^ as far as may be judged necessary for the prote^ion and tlefebce cMf the 
4 oessiohi made to his^ faithful ally the King of* France. ' "^ 

/' VL In caser that the ntftivcs shall. at knf time be unwilling to rcfliaiUi 
. indie oedad territory ^ they will be at liberty to leave it, and witt^bfc 
. iteinibarsed thef value of the property th^j may leave upon it^ Tfe 
civil and' criminal jurisprudence shall remain unaltered; all religkns 
opinions shall be free ; the taxes shall be collected by the Fitnch in the 
iisual^n^odeof the country, and the coH^dlors shaU )>e a p po i nted joifidy 
by the ambassador of France and. the King of CochiniChiti^ ; but the 
latter^hall not claim any' piM-t of* those taxes, which wfll belbcq^ pro. 
perly to his Most Christian Majesty for the support of his territories. 
'VII4 In tne event of his Most Christian Majesty being' itsolved to 
wage war in an)^ part of India, it shall be allowed to the O^flinumder 
in Chief of the- French force* to raise a levy of 14,006^ men, 'wbom he 
shall cause to be trained in the same manner as they are in Fr^ce, and 
to- be iHit under French dis€i{>Hhe: 
" .Vni. In the event of any jJower wfeitsoever attacking the French In 
- their Cochin.Chinese territory, ^he-Kin^ of Cothkii^China shall fumisH 
» • 6o,ooainen or more in land forces^ whom he shall clothe,' visual, Arc. 
, to. 

** Beside these articles, the treatv contained some others of infet<^ 
• imptet^ce, but all of them, as might be expei^M, glettly m favour of 
the Fnench. Adran was promoted to the episcopal see under the title of 
.fiiahop of Cochin-China, and honoured with the Itppointaibit of Aiobas. 
aador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to that Court. The cooimand 
of the troops intended to be embarked on .the expedition, ii^ich was put 
under the sole management and direction of the Bishop, was meant to be 
conferted either on M. Custin or M^ de-Prcne. The Bishop was desirous 
thst Conway, the Gorenor of Pondicberry, should have the Command'; 
but Loub XVI., it seemb, had taken a strong aversion to this ofioer, as 
beii^, in his opinion, an immoral, unprincipfed ehara€ter, aad a ttood, 
haughty and sestiess man* ' Mon^. d'Adran,* ob^crred this good Mo« 
QBfdi, ' yo» stt^.yoondf to be led away in fiivout of CWay : believe 

Smow^sn^ta OMihCiim. V53. 

m, he wodd dtcteian ym' nM(A uneasiness, 9vd ffMblf fn»tnte die 
vilws of ik #x|NRl]tion. If I hare si9cle Idm Gorcmor Gcner jii m lodit^ 
it is with tie view •olely'of prerentitig bis innrigQes Jieir; and lib ati 
lonpts to tlirow matters iMo confumo; ior I well know that bh'bitk.^ 
dttr, jfioicrif, and Dillon, cannot yemain one mcnaait at icst. Nemayf 
be a goO(ksolilier> and will do well enoogh wirile stationary at TaR<fi. 
chmy $ iMit I'^iroukl not tni^t hite at the head of an army^ jpfowcm^ 
fkjouT sakei be 'shall hay r the red ribband ftordm nmgfj^ ^ad thef raxflt' 
•TLieaieDant Goneral/ -* ^. . . :: :* 

«' Matters being thus fdf concluded is I'am, the ^Bishop, witb the 
Tooog ftinoe vnder bis charge- and the frnity in his pocket, set sail fbif 
nindklKn}rjr'ia tbfc Medose frig^t^^ as-ilAbassadte TIeaipoteAtxafy frojor 
Louis XVI. ofFfance to thif Kirtgof CochinXhina/' * 

I Adran's ocgle^^ to pajr hia/F^pcd!^ to die OMSlircss of t^ Gonrernof'' 

I oiPoodicherrjr, a mdrrifi^«i*0frMm,*wbo lived with General Cdaway \» 

I astateofadflkery, wis tlio mcain of. .defeating his projed ; for the 

I woman's malice being excited, she •prevailed ou her psramoor to witB- 

^faqUthepromisbdsDppliesof shipe and troops from theSisbop, ^ho 

I wis obliged locepaiF to the pbvte^of Kis destination wttHpm them. He' 

lODCceded, however, in restoring > the King to his throne. This 

Aooarch is stated 10 be one of ** those few who are born with talents 

iD^rokin' thewvorld; who now and then appear, in ail coimtries,; 

with a s|%^our which outshines the rest of rheir fenow<teortals ;**". 

, and ipdced {he character and conduct of Caung-Shbng, as related bj^ 

Mr. BarrDw, oh the best authority, seem fully to testify this observa*. 

tioo. We shall need no apology, to ogr readers, for extracting the* 

following account,' long as it is, of this Extraordinary man* 

** Cmmg^Bbwif is represented to be, in the striAest sense of the worda 
a compkte soldier. He is said to hold the name of General far more dear 
ai^ estimable than that -of Sovereign. He is described as being br&ve 

. without rashness ; and fertile in expedients, when diiBcntties are to be 
Mnaoonted. His conceptions are generally jost ; his coiKhi^l firm ; he is 
neither discouraged b}' difficulties, nor turned aside by obstatles. Qau*' 
^ in deciding, when once resolved, he r? prompt and tigoroMS to exe« 
ctte. In battle he is always . eminently distingoisnable. A| the head of 

,his araiy he is cheerful and good hmnoared ; polite and attentive to al)t 
the oficers under his command, he studiously ^avoids to mark otkt iiny in.' 
Avidod as a faviHirite beyond the rest. His memory Is so correA, that 
k is said to know by name the greater part of his army. He takes nnJ 
cooMDOn pleasure in conversing with his soldiers, and in talking over tfaeif 
adrentiaes and exploits y he makes particular inquiries after their wives* 
and childien ;t if the latter go regularly to school \ how th^ meain to diss. 

\ pose of them when grown up ; arid, in short, enters with a degree of in J 
tciest into a minute detail of their domestic concerns. ' 

'' His cokidua tp foreigners is affable and condescending. T<^ the French 
aticers in his service he pays tlie xiibst marked attention, and treats them 
with the greatest politeness,* familiarity, and^ good humptiir. On all his 
hiimiiig exeftrsionsj and other parties of pleasure, one of these- officers is 
liwaysintiifid ti^aftend^ He.oyenfy declares his great- veneration for 

. Kj the 

J34 . prunwhi' c9>vjfm%Up 

ihc doariM of CbfUtwsity, and t^mtet, tbi^ i«Ii^«ih «l wdctf aQ 

others in liis (Io|iiimos>s. He (^biejvea. a. pQpM sqr«pii(di»% ^fcgird to th» 
^xims of filUI |9ietyi a» laid th» works of QQp£iieiuf|,i and hauu 
6ks hifliself in the presence of his oiorber (wbo is still Jivifi{^> ^ a diild 
be&re its master. With the works^ pf cl)^ lao^t eminent Chinese jLXithocs 
be is 'Well acquainted^ andj through thertranslatboi inao the Cbiaesa 
chara4ei^ oif the B»cjchfedu by the Bishop Adran, he haAa^qniued ooiiw 
ctpsfdei able knowle4ge of Earopci^Q. arts-au;id scienceiy amdn^ ^hich he ji; 
oiofit attached to such as relate to navigation and shipttj^aildtii^. It i» 
atsted,; on wl^^t.apgfars to be good/aMthoiity^. that> in order iO:d>taiD a 
t^oroug]^ knowledge of the prance ,as; well- as theory of Kmopetfli naval 
aiK^te^ie/ he.pi);r<:haaed a Portuguese y^sel, for the: siih {Mipoie ctf 
taking in pieces', plank }^j plank, wit^- his own hapda, {fitting jo anevr 
piece of similar shape and dimensions as the old on^ he removed, till ^very 
bun, tiiQ^ev^rkife^ and ^nk ^d beerK Mplaced by new ones of Ks'6wn . 
OQn$t|iidio>y, land the ship' thus completely renovated. 
t.^ The energjr of his mind is not less vsgoroas than the a^irity of hit 
c^poreal facolties. He is represented, in£iA, as the maan^ingof 
every movem^ ^hat takes .place in hid extensive and flonrishii:^ kingv 
dom. Intendant of ^^ ports and^ arsenais, master shipwright of thv 
dockyard, and chief engineer of all the, works, nothing/is^attcnapted la 
be undertaken without hfs advice and. coos truftion^. I.n.t^e forin^ not 
a nail is driven without first consulting him; nor a gun. mounted 5^ tb^ 
titter but by his orders!' He not only enters into th^ most minute dje« 
tainn drawing up instruAionis, but a^ually sees them executed himself., 

- *^ To finable him the better to attend to the concerns "of his govenu 
tfienti his mode of life is regulated by a fixed plan. At six in the mom^ 
ing he rises from his conck, and goes into the cold bath. At s6ven be 
has his levee of Mandarins : all the letters are read which have been re, 
Cfi.ved in the course of the preceding day, on which his; orders are minoied 
Vy |he respeAive Stccretaries. He then proceeds to the naval arserul, eia^ 
^ine$. the works' that have been performed in his absence, rows in hit 
hix^i round the harbour, inspeAir^ his ships of war. He pays particular 
att^iVtion to the',or4nance department; and in the fp\^pdery^ which is 
erected withfn the arsenal, cannon are cast of all dio^ensions. 

'^ Jkhovt tw'elve or one he takes his l>reakfast in tl|e dockt^ard, whidi 
consists ofa little 'foiled rWand dried fish. At two he retifcs to kU 
apartment and sleeps till five, when he again rises ; gives audietiqe to tha 
Mv^t and mUitary o&cers, the heads of tribunals or^ p<^p d^lt^ 
^ppfits, and , approves, rejcdi^ or amends whatever they n^y have 10^ 
propose. These. affairs of state generally employ .his- attexi|i(9n MH sMr 
'h\!ffxX% ^fter wKich he retires to his private apartments, -^, m^ke sodk 
riotes and meo^orandums as the. occt^rrenoes of the day may h^^nc suggi^edfi 
Kb then takes a lidit %xifi^t, parses an hou^ >vith his fa^i^,:^!^ ti^tweea. 
two ^d three in £^ morning; retires to his bed ; taking, ^^4^ iHilinvmatfy 
at two intervals, about six hours o^ the four^andltwen^e . ^ ,y 

, '* He neither naakes use of Chine$f. xwine, nor s^iy jkind 'of sipsfkntMia 
liquors, ^ con t^ts.him^lf with a.yerx. sm4t portion of aoMnftl fooi# 
A lutle fi^h, xipe^ vegfi^les and fruity with tea and light paatry^^ CO^ I 
stitute the chief {irticles of hi« diet» Like .a trua Chinese desoendiHli.iat 
Be boasts to ttc, froqa t^ imperii^ f^fx^ly, of A/iVm^ he,a)wa}^ %aIa^Mli 

. .;• ^ ^ 'not 

fiarrow'5 nfii^e t9 CicfSnXhlna. *5f^5 

iot permitting either his wife or hnj part of his^iaatityto s^.down to 

dK Mnae taU* witk Wnu On the saikie p^iricij^le of ))yidf , hb' wboU not 

I adfew aooe £i^Hth gcntiemefi to pay theh- respeds to him at his palaof^ 

I hik^'jtaLT i799» bccsoae^ asiic observed, the taiseetleii state of the 

••fMltiy ^bd QOitpcnnitihim to make such preparations %.tvrt^ due tohiiii^ 

adi^: iw4 t^.smngcia Qf ie9pedabilitjr« The meaning of socb'an eascui^ 

cooniig froai a Cmpeie> Q(>i)(A noi be weU mit taken ; but^ on the part df 

thiaMonarcbf thec^4id|.pot appear to be any thing like jealflDay, or a 

irUh, CO depriye t^ stjrangers of the means of gratifying t^ir curiosity : 

: Q|} t1^ contrary, they had fall liberty to visit everj part of the naval, 

I anenal^ and to inape^ the tpwn and its fojcti&cations. He had no objec* 

tion ^o entertain them as a General, but refused to see t^etn in his cluu 

laAer of Sovereign. 

^ (lis stature is represented to be somewhat above the middle size ; 
his ieatares regular and agreeable ; hisi complexion ruddy, very mucl^ sun. 
hvmt bj a constant exposure to t^e weather. He is at this time fi ^06) 
i just db Che verge of fifty years of age. *' 

I '* Of the English he has little -knowledg^'hut^Ty frame ; yet lie is sai^ 

I topfofett, on all occasions, a'great v^n^rariori for their chatafter. W|jc(i 

I Fxenehmeii declare this, they may be beliCftned. He hds given, ho^Ve^, 

fnqpKDX proofs i>f his good iiidinaticB» towasd» the Engliah. lie pub: 

fished an ediA, declaring that all our ships should at all timet be admitted 

into any of his ports and harbours, free of all duties and port charges. 

An sastmoKf occurred wherein his generous conduft shews hSs cbaradW in 

the fiuieaf point of viei«^. An English onei'cbant vessel from Canton ar« 

rrred at Sat^gongy whe*e the master ^and first* ofiicerdierf. Tb'prffvje^jt 

tht imA atKi pillage which might be contniltied, and the losses which 

woald>inevrlftbly -ensue to the dwners, from th^ death of thost who had 

haen-^rftra^ted with the management of their concerns, he dired^ed Capl 

tain daHssy, with a party of soldiers, tb take possession of her, and 

IcarnrlfH^dnder his charge to'Csmton, with orders to deliter her^ safe to 

herWtitff^,' or their agettis, who might be found there or at Maeao, 

• •* .Though no apparent ^ altera tipn took place in his cbnduA with regard 

tO'die'-Prench offieei-s' in his service, yet the French chara6ler 'is said td 

h^Tl^ allured giea^fy >^ his estimation from .the moment he Was W^de ac:. 

^•ainced with the outrageous and inhuman treatment whiclP-tho 3fifortu« 

iiM» &silIy»-o^ the throne experienced from a Hcentious and siv^ge aabble. 

TV IMitigs oi a Aiind like that of C<7»»^-5^»^^ could nor be otnerwise 

Ihui tleli4[>itng]y alive on sueh'^an erccasion. Y Driven by usurpers from his 

MAuiMl%,'ami doomed to Wander* for many j^ears as an outcast ancf an 

Mik^ it W no wonder that, in eompanhie a nation which had expelled the 

45Miaj*:'df iti'iawfoliS^eieign with ^nof he* nation which receivwi 'it' with 

i'iipen]arm;*^ie shi^utd' b^ mbre desirous rd tuhiV^ate the* friendshitf of th^ 

jitttf tllai|io( th^ former. We Rave not, however, 'n>anagedaflfaipVith* 

[ l e gat t l tattrfy-'eKtradrdlHa^t ^cK jiratfter, in such^'i^ ;niann6r as to ^Hl^teote 

rthat kind of friendlf intercourse, which could tscfi fail to be higljy a^-* 

[-vaftittgeiioc tO'Our comidefeial concerns. The^ast India Company^j con- 

-^ineed^l ktfgfh of rtieifcpwptanc^ of standing ^oii^iietidly terms* with the 

lk\»f§ rf Cod)ilA;.China,' senj, it i^ ^rue,;^ 6«j6- oF *^\r servants, from Can- 

um' %ti {tH^etknatami'ision to Sm-t^kg iri-iheytar Jfi6i's which', however, 

VmtMilf 4tftdl^^'* ^ -• '^•-— • •'. '- 1^ ■'>- '/ -•- 

* • -^ K4 The 

f^9 ••^oRiciWAt ^ittltHM: -'^^ 

piwi offhe BriHsh-Llon sBoriid'')rct bc^cxtendcd— tfcaf tftey' sJKtoH gnsp 
eVery potm which mAf add t6 the tecurity of what British iralour andf 
the industrious and .a4venturoQs spirit of the British natioti have acqatred 
afKl annexed to her original dominions. , .* 

•'*' Bdt beside thc.seeirity which, on the ohe hand/the powcsswn^rf' the' 
str«[^g peninsuia of Tttr6n would afibrd to our valuable fleeb employed -ivf 
the China trade, and, on the other, the annoyatfice it could noe fail to give 
Bs if in the hands of anadlire and eottrpHzing enemy, the ititportant ad^' 
▼antnges which "wotdd result to our 'rndian commerce^'by having yv 
this part bf the world a secure harbour, where water and ^Ver jr Tcfiid W 
lefreshmeht may be procured, are not lightly to be zTppreciated. Cbnsl- 
dered in thiai point cw view onlyi if the pianagement of our China ship»' 
was' lew dexterous,' andf the means 6f preserving the health of the crews' 
ks» efficacious than they , really are,* the having such 'a port to resoft 
tb, in the ev^nt of a ship being too late in the se^nonafid cadgh't by the 
adverse monsoon, which sometimes happens^ woiild be an {nvaiu^Ue ac. 
^i&ition. Many other "eonsrderations might be tireed infarotor of tetaf«' 
bli^hing an intercourse with Cochin-China, but 1 snail at {M^^bcni* cMififie 
the few observations I have to make to a brief vi^w of those advantages 
whith the East India Company would derive in their commercial coocems 
i^itk G4itna, by establishing a fadlory on the peninsula of Toron bay/' 

^Our ai^tlior then describes the articles of oomniercic which. Cochin* 
China can supply ^'dqd the produflions of.its forest^ which would 
furnish plenty of timber for ship^building« He next points .our the 
mode by which a c6nnexi6ninight be estaMrshed with that country ; 
shews why the two attempts' m^At by oiir GoveriinlcA^t- ih *indi^' 
faited, and justly censures the enaploymeqi of merc;intilc men on 
such important ' occasions. That the King ijs'fevourably 'dJspdsitf to 
the English, ihcie U no reason to doubt; and, ^ff a sphiodi'd 'embassy 
were sent out inimedlartly from this country, in the hame of its 
Sovicrelgn, there would, in all probability, fee little c}ifRcii|fy in fornoiiig 
siich a connexion and intercourse, as would- Ikr pioduf^'ive of tli^^ 
most solid advantages' to ibis country. For the da^a^ howfeVev,, f>ii»* 
whlch^cwr conclusions are founded, we must refer our readers to tbe^ 
boQ^.j^lf,^ which, .w^ can assure them, <wiU afford thcjq^a ricli fuad 
of.uif^fi^tion auji aaiuscjincnt .4, . t. ,. ... .i . - ., ..^ 

!Xiy^ i«urncy to JLeeiakpp, in Sppihwi Afripp, undertajtefigiu 1861/ 
by. Mrf(,Trin^r,7m)drod3eilrComtnissiocie», appoiatGd. by'iQcbcrii^ 
I>undaft, . then (jovernor of .'the .Cape, 'oecaqpScs seventy^«>«r pa«s;^ 
9nd }& Gud^us, as it conrains '9n account ; of son^ kraUus^ or triSes^ 
of *:a' c(»iintry, whkW had* never yer been visited' by Europeans. 
The paintings ro this voliime are weB.ex^cuted^ aodlSonvey a tbr/cft- 
}de9 of the objcdls whid» Acy rcpresetrt. : - ' « .' ^l''-: i 

- ■ : ' 1 ; ' ' 

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: '. \*i^. •> 


• • if i,..j.. 

U Mil.. 

..•• iyi:^. « )'. 

ii^'j siu? . 

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f ' 'jn t)d V. i 


O-j ci "I • 


The Beauiifs hf^Biihnddnk'fPhliirht^^^ "ff^ojtraphicat^ 

Historical^ jtin^l)escripuv€ of each Ccfunij. Embellhhi^wtth. Ea^ 
pravings. By'Eflvyird WcJlakc Braylcy and. Jqha Brilioo. 8vo, 

Vol. V. pp. )6o. , 1.1, 5s. v^rt)pi;apd Hpoa. . /; .. * , 

THIS volume confrprisfes Durhatn, £isex, 'and Gloucestershire^ 
and contains thirty-six highly finished plaies. Iti the historical accdunt 
of the magnificent Cathedral bf Durham; the following anecilore, 
respedkiog the exclusion of females from all placesof Worship dedi- 
eaied to a particular Saint^ Cuthbert* is introduced. 

" The reaion of femaU '^xclpsion is tjius accounted for. 'Blessed St. 
Cuthbert^ for a long stme^ led a most solitary life in the b(%rdefs of the 
Pi6b, . St which place great concourse of* people jdaily used to vts|t him ; 
ani friMB whomj by the providence and grace of Ood, .never atfy returoed 
witfaoat mat comfort. This caused both yoong and old to r^sorc unto 
Vun^ taking ^great pleasure both to see him, and .to heap him speak., in 
whidi time it happened, that the daughter of the King of the proviocei 
baring illicit commerce with one of her father's ^domestics, its ^efie^a 
vere pcrceiTcd by the Kin^/ and he examined iier concernin^^ the author 
0f her disgrace* She, instigated \>j an evil mind, ipstantly'ran§weredf 
* The ablitarj young man, who dwelleth hard by> is' he who Kath 'otef.* 
ceme mfey and by whose beauty L am tbus»deoeived.' W6«k«up6n the 
Kifig» fucioosly enraged, presently repaired to: the 4iermi*t-'!»^a^ei-wi^h 
his daughter, attended by several knights, where he instaotif -^ae^dsted 
the servant of God in t&& following mafiner : — ' What art thou* hei' who, 
Milder the colour of religion, * profanest the temple and san^uary* of- God I 
An thou he, who, under the cloak and profession of an hermit, exer«' 
^sest thyself in all filtbiness ^ Behold. my daughter, whoiA thou by thy 
wiles hast cortupted : therefore now, at last, confess this thy fault, and 

eiii^y declare here before this company, in what sorf thou ' hast seduced 
r.' , The Kind's daughter marking the fihe ffttxk of her father/ impu. 
' dentiy sfq>ped forward,. and boldly afiirmedv^ that it was he who had done 
the wicked fadl,' At which- the young '.nun^, greatly amasted, and per. 
cciving. that this cakbnny> proceeded from the instigation of the devil| 
(wherewith he<n]gbt into great perpleicicy}, applied his whole hearr 
unto Almighty God/aaying as foUowctn :-^' My Lord, my God, who 
only knowest^ and art the discoverer, of all secrets, make fivl^ifest also 
this work of iniquity, and by some token disprove ihe same, which *j, 
though it capnot be done by human policy, make it known by some divine 
toketu* When the young man, with . great lament,atton, and tears un. 
otterable, had spoken these words, even suddenly, and in the same- place 
where she stood, the earth making a hissing noise, presently opened/ and 
sWAllowed her up rn the presence of all the spe^ators. As soon as the 
King perceived this mirade to happen in the {)rbsence of all his company^ 
he began to be gtttAlf tormented hi his mind, fearing lest, for his furious 
tfaresitey he should ificur the same ^nishment. Whereupo^ he, with hi^ 
^company, humbly otavsng paidon^of Alfldgfhty God, with*a further petiv 
. .. I \ ■ p» ' ■> \' ' \ .ii — . 'iv I ; ■ i — .. ' '* ' 

♦ This it Aoi ff9XCati%i\ and for ov^/irA^'Vduld, in spme degree,' Wn4 
it. — ^Rbv^ 

' • ■ tioiy 

. I40 ORlGINlk^ fORtTICISM. 

tion cp that^ Mod. jrnan_ St^ Cat)^bcrt> tliat by Us piaycis he woald cnre 
of GoJ* I6^4ave''bis Alaughtc/ 4gain ';. which' petition the Holy Father 
graDK^^y ^^n conditiStii fhat Jjprn". thence iiQ wofpftn.shbald come near 
fiim. 'Whence it c^me to * pass'/ ^be King did not snFer any woman ro 
e)ler into any chorcK' dedicate lo that Saint, wm^rh to this' day is duly 
obserred in^all.the churchy J9f th^ Pidi, which were dedicated :to* that 
bdy maa,*-Tr-D/7«wV'/. £xir/^ of tJut^ing of St. Qutbbert iuio S^Iand, 
takeuforihrfthiScottish^^Hislorjt^pl^o," ^ 

This j^fsjiidice, like all pre^ices connefted with religion^ in the 
mklcUeages, was rxtic>nely. strong, and contjnaed to prevail forar great 
fengtit df tiipe. Indeed. its strength seems to have increased witliifs age* 

'Mnthi^^y^ar X353* on I'horsday in Easter week» Edward the Thii^S 
cane to DoibaiPt ;tnd lodged in the Priory* On the Wednesday follow C 
vtg9 Qoceo . Fhi]ipp4 came from Knaresbofoughin one day to mectliina^ 
' and being unacqu^ntcd with thb custom of this church, went throoghthc 
abb^y gAtes to the priory^ and, after sapping with the King, retired t» 
rest. Thi^ aUrmed the Monks, -one of whom went to the King, and in* - 
formed him,- that St. CothEiert had a mortal aversion to tbe prennce of a 
woman. Unwilling to give any offence to the charch, Edward immedi. 
ateiy ordered the Queen to arise, who, in her under garments only {Yutr 
macule, &c^ being buried)) returned by the gate through which she ha^ 
cD^redt Hid went to the castle ; after most devoutly praying that Si^. , 
Cntbberi mpld not avenge .a fault which she had4hroQgh igooranoe oom. 
vitted^rr </vf /'ff Sacrff^ ^L i. /• 760^. 

** In the year 14.17, two women of Newcastle, being determined fo 
approach th^ shrine of !St. Cathbert nearer than was legally permitted, 
disguised themselves in man's apparel, but were mfor^nately discovered 
in the attempt to complete their purpose, and taken into custody. By- 
way of punifhmeni fof their intended pro^uiation, they Were adjudged 
to walki on three festival days» before the procession in St. Nicholas'^ 
Churcht^ Newcastle, and on three other holidays at the Church of AH 
Saint^ .in the same town, habi^ in the dresses in which they committed 
the offence ; proclamation betpg fir^t.made, as. to the cause of this penance. 
The nia.<ttcr and mistress of these carious females weca at the same time 
•rdered to attend the Spiritual Court at Durham, ta answer the charge of 
being counsellors and abettors in this misdemeanour." • 

In the delineation of Essex wc have a pretty accurate descriptioir of 
NeW'Hali'i'xht Nunwry to which we have made son^e attempts to di- 
ledt'thc attention of the venerable Bishop of the Diocese. We shall 
again observe, that ns a place of refuge for unfortunate exiles, charity 
ipost look upon it with an ey? of complacency ;. b^t as a receptaclts. 
for persons. who, abusing the indulgence most liberally shewn t]iem» 
treat our laws with contempt, hv admitting young fcmafes to i4iie Ut^ 
v^7^ a Protestant roust contemplate it with Wy 4J^erent ^ingS(--« 
<j(x1 forl)i(i ! t])at the most ample toleration should not allowed to pre*) 
▼ail ; or that rcqQAirse should hr had to sanguinary laws for the ponjfiipa 
inent of religious corrupjion; l but, 00 the other Jian4 .let not that- 
rfUgious indlfftrente prevail ivljicb can regard ihc r?pid growth of 

/^/J«y witfr^t a|jj)reh^sions; - * :; 

* *' New, 

Braylej md Brktc^*^ Beamlamf Enghkid and fVaUs. Hi 

.'^ ^ New«Ibl]^ «o excetisire lofdbhip in tlk; patiSh^of Mrdlaiiii> wetorU 
^inallf paicd^f the possessioas af Wakhaoi Abbey ; but was cxclitngcd 
to ihc twenty.fouTCb o£ Edvrard the Third| for other OMnort in this 
county, i^ith Sir John de ShardelonKPi Knt. whose brother, Sir' TiiDHMs 
de Shardelowe, again exchanged it, with other eatHtes, for the toanorof 
firadeker, in Nomlk, chea the property of Sir Henry aad Thomas de 
CoggeshdL This family retained it till rhe tenth of Henry the Fifth, 
when it became the joint property of Sir John de Borehafli, and others ; 
^t soon afterwards appears tohave been possessed by Ridiafd Aired, who 
l^ld It of Margaret^ Qufeen of Henry the Sixth, Dtkring the wars be- 
tween the rival houses of York and Lancaster, it fell to the Crown, and 
was granted to Botellery Earl of Ormond, a strenuous partizan of the 
Lancastrians, who was made prisoner at the .battle of Towton, in 1460, 
)nid beheaded. It was afterwards bestowed dn ThoiAas, his younger boro. 
tber, y^y Henry the Seventh, who also granted permission to fortify the 
manor-house with walls and towers. The spacious mansion called New. 
Hall, of which a large portion is now standing, is supposed tohave been 
baiit through this licence. ' It was afterwards adorned and improved b/ 
Henry the Eight!}, who obtained the lordship in exchange from Thomas 
Bdlyn {^ther of Qpe^n Anne Bollyn), Earl of Wiltshire, whode fathl^r 
had married the eldest daughter of Ihomas, Earl oi Ormond. Hen|y 
was so charmed with the situation, that he ereded it into an H^nor^ and 
gave it the name of Beaulieu, a place of frequent residence; 
and here, in 2524., he kept the feast of St. George: ht$ daughter, the , 
Princess Mary, also resided here several years. In 1573, Queen £)iaa« 
beth granted it, with other contiguous manors, to Thomas RatclilT, Ead 
of Suffolk, who had rendered her essential service bpth in Scotland and 
Ireland. This nobleman dying without]issue, was succcededj>y his bro. 
ther, whose son and heir, Robert, Earl of Sussex, sold it, about the 
year 1620, for 3o,\>ool. to Villiers, Duke of BuckingJuim, who wai» 
assassinated by Felton at Portsmouth. His son George having espoused ^ 
the royal cause, was Attainted by the Parliaflient, and his estates ordered 
to be told. ScK>n afterwards, in Aprili ]6;i, Ne^.Htll was purchased 
by Oliver Cromwell, for the sum <3/i five ihi^gt^ thoo^h its annual va« 
iue was then comptttod at 1,3091. 12s. j|d. 

'* Cromwell retained possession but a short period; ftn-' being itiore^ 
plejsed with the situation of Hampton Court^ Ke gar^ a sum'of money^ 
andNew.Hall; in exchange for it. The latter was Aext purchased b|D 
thtse meichants of London for i8,oool, but, after the Restoration, it 
became the property of Monk, Duke of Albettaile", who liv^d here lor 
toflie time in great splendor. Christopher, hi« son' and heir, married 
Elizabeth, graikl.daughter to Wills^m Caveihdjsh, E^rl x>f Newcastle, 
#fao, on her husband^t d<a(h, succeeded ^b this estate : this Lady, in 
1691, w^s again married, to Ri^ph, Duke of Montague ; after wbiph 
New4fall was disserfed, tnd became ruitiOur." Bt^ore the dec^se of her 
GraKe, who died in 1714, the reversion of this ^lordship Was purchased 
kf^ Benjamin Hoa«e» Ee^< Three feats aftcrwftids*, the mansion of New^ 
lUl, with thegMdens and park, was sold \iff this gentleman to John 
Olmiu*, Esq. uterwaril Baton WahhaM, who putted down a ¥ery consi. 
4erable portion of the boilding \ :Some valoable invbli^^ uA oilhor iMte. 
lialsii baying been pi«.viQusly resoored by )dr. Ijd9T<. to a new aod haed» 

'' some 

I4« MttfnvAi; cttTieuii. 

iomQ maniiooy trttki for. himidif, «t tome disuneei on the road to CoU 
cheMer'. .New. Hall has since been purchased bf some opolent Romaa 
CatbolicS) and is occupied \>y English Nuns, who were driren frod^ 
Liege durtng^the French Revolution, and here dired the education of about 
'eighty Catholic young ladiei. Ihis building, in its roost flourishing 
state* was one of the largest in •tbe kingdom, and consisted of two qua- 
drangles, inclosing large courts. In the part now standing is the Great 
Hall, a spacious and gratidapartment^ measuring ninety.six feet in length, 
ftfty wide, and forty high. This has been lately converted into a chapeL 
and laid out in a very judicious manner," 

The painted window now in St. Margcr^t's chapel, Westminster^ 
was taken from the chapel of New-Hall, about the middle of tKc last 
century. We turn from nuns to a ;iicre alluring objefl, the ancient 
reward of connubial affection, at Dumnow. 

'' The ancient and well-known custom of this manor, of delivering a 
Giibimony or Flitch of Bacon^ to any married couple who would take «^ 
prescribed oath, is supposed, by some writers, to have originated in the 
Saxon or Norman times : others attribute its institution to the Fita^ 
/Walters, but with what propriety is uncertain. It appears, however, 
from the different entries in the register, as ' lecundum formam donaiioms^' 
and * iecuudum charter formam/ to have been imposed on the possessors of 
the manor by some benefadlor. The earliest delivery of the bacon on* le. 
cord,.^curred in the twenty- third of Henry the Sixth, when Richard 
Wright, of. Bradhourge, in Norfolk, having been dvjly sworn before the 
Prior and Co'nvent, had a flitch of bacon delivered to him, agreeably to 
the tenure. \, The ceremonial established for these occasions, consisted ir 
the claimant's kneeling on two sharp pointed stones in the chucch.yard, 
and there, after solenm chanting, and other rites, performed by ttte Con- 
%cnt, taking the foAoving oath: 

^ ' You flhall swear by custom of confes«ioB, . 
That yoa oe'CT niadt nuptial transgression ; * 
Nor sin(^ you* were married man and wife, . . . 
By /household brawk' or contenciotts strife, 
Or-^herwise^l^bed or at board. 
Offended each ^her in deed or in .word ; . 
Or sinccrthe pa^is^clerk said AmcQ, ' ' ,.'.'. 

., Wished ty ourselves unmarried again ; \r ^ ...... 

, Ojr in a ^welveaonth aqd a d^, •....* ; 

. Repented iiot in thoi^t an>*>^ay ; . ]-, y. . - •. . - 

^ut continue Ir^ Iq thought iin4,*deuiti : .*L . . r ; . 
As -when- you j^in'd ha«ds iniholy^ 4)ttirt. * 
' . U to the«ee<RuiiUoMMrithoat alLlnur,. .. : : \ 
* ' Of yow: ofir9. accord ypu will fireely awjtfar, * * i • * 

^ * Awh^e GmmmoM cf iiupM yoa shiU locetvr,. *. .. . 

And bear it Mo«ie ^:Jith tove and goodkave^ ^ • -* ^ 

For this. is ofir custom at Donmow frtll knovt^ . /%,.-! 

Tho' the ptaMm \m Qjm$ the bacoo^a ytrar am/ « > • 

H In ilho Chartnlsry Of the Priory, now in the Britiirti Mosetuii^ ff^ree 

petsoM «e recorded fi> luv«ftccHred tke bacon pfrrfims totha soppxMskA 

cf the re^gioos faontei. Since that pertQd>aiM>« iha baooii has W^ tbcke 
cb*1iirered; ia these caset the cerieaionies have been peribrnied at a cour^-. 
baron for the manor, held by tlie steward. The last |)ersons that received 
it, were John Shakeshankii wool^mber^ aod.Antie his wife, of Wethers, 
field, who established their right on th^ aotb of Jun^, ^^]V' ^F^ 
Googh mentions the custom ^s abolished ; but we understand it is.oiiij 
dormant either through .the want of claimants, or froni their negkd, to 
enforce the demand.. Several of the Hallet family, who poss6i>scd the 
maAor, lie buried in the church." 

We have iMrd^ hot we cannot vouch for the rorrcflncss of our 
infbrxnaiion, that the lost persons who obtained this enviably flitch^ 
were Sir George and Lady Beattinont, relatives of the present wortbf 
Baronet of that name. 

In their account of fVhbam^ ourt authors^assure u^ that the chief 
Crade of the place ^* arises from the passage of traveilen and carriers^*' 
($9 for is corred), *^ and, jm the suii^naer season, from the eomtpanr 
9vix> attend to drink the chalybeate iwaters of W itham Spa/* Half a 
- jcemnry ago this might h^ve been the case; but; for the las^ twenty ^ 
ix i^irty yeais, we can. assure them no company of this description 
has been, seen by the inhabitants of Witham« . 
. The .-plates to tl>is Vobme are not inferior to those which <i(^re 
ipven in the- preceding volumes^ ' \ 

iTi T rf'i ? ;■ ' .1 *' ''i "' ri -i ' ■'■ i ■ \ ' „ 

^ffrtft^nsjm tht Parables. By John Farrer. M. A. of Queen's Col- 
lege, Oxford. Sva 2 Vols. Pp. 8i3! .,Riv;ingtoas» 

THESE vohimes form a very valuable addition to our former 
Slock x>f English sermons. To say this, is saying much m theii' 
praise \ for so peculiarly rich and excellent is this departmcnt'of Kng- 
lish Ifterattrre, that it is not every writer who can exped to appear in 
h with credit. The prominent ingredients in the discourses of our 
Divines, are solid instruction and grave good sense; ami, undouBf*-' 
ediy, il is the highest recommendation of any author that he has im- 
pdrtaiif ittformatfon to cotnn^unicate. We now and tlien meet, it h 
true, with writers whpafie£t to censure the general style of our Eng* 
fish sernvoi^s. They are, we are told, too frequently dull and spirit- 
less eompesitions, displaying, indeed, much learning and argtoient, 
%« deScient in pathos, animation and eloquence. Our preachers, it 
is-said^ address themselves too much to [he understanding, and too 
Cttle to thepassion^. They consider their audience as pure intelligeiKe'j, 
alid endeav^ar to move tnem by reason alone. Attempts are,, there* 
ftie, nnuie to introdoce a new mode of preaching among us, vvhich, 
it is slreiiiioii^ contendetl^ would be produffive of the most !sighal 
goolMfeSs. ThuabettDfs of this totxle vvouWliave sermons 'dircflcd 
fat't6tlie besd^ aiid more to the heart. Instead of convincing, bv 
^fiftWDCJit, diey wooldf oirerpower bj T^hettience. Bold' flights of 
» **.. i oratory. 

144 ORlOtNAL CRItttisM. 

orarory, strongly figurative language, higK-toned dedamatipn» and 
vtolenc adion, are the means by which they woa!d surprise their 
^ hearers, atui mould them to their purpose. 

For our own part, we have no hesitation to declare that we hope 
hever tq see this style of preaching become fashionable among tlie 
English Clergy. It is not congenial to the spirit of the nation ; and 
those accordingly > who court eminence by adapting it, succeed, (or 
the most part, only in rendering themselves ridiculous. Shall wespcak 
our opinion on the subject with frankness? We suspj£l that those 
preachers who arc loud in recommending tlii^ innovation, are not 
quite so disinterested as they pretend ; and that it is only from a con«> 
piousness of the want of more solid qualifications, that their praise 
of these gaudy pursuits proceeds. A man of real learning and abilrties^ 
though he does,iiot despise tlie external and mechanical means of making 
an impression on theminds of his hearers^ will scorn to n^ake them, at 
any jiime^ the chief obje£l of his attention. But he who is too idle to 
be learned', and too vain to be piodest, must -endeavour D> supply ~ 
what he wants in substance by tin^l and shew. Such empty harangued 
are, therefore,* always a proof of the ignorance and vanity of him who 
delivers them; nor, in truth, can they ever be attenaed wkh any 
lasting advantage to^heipeoplc; they maty t'rckle the imagination, un- 
doubtedly, but they are not calculated:io corre<^ the condu6l, or c» 
improve the heart. Tiiese ends can be attained only by convincing 
the understanding ; by shewing us tliat our interest and wf -Ju(y are 
inseparably connefleo ; and that we cannot offend the laws of oar 
Maker, without deeply wounding and injuring ourselves. 

Mr. Farrer is one of those judicious preachers who are careful ta 
blend stihple elegance of manner, with matter of tht most important 
kind. He is, in a very eminent degree^ what every Ghriscran Mi- 
nister ought to be — a well instruAed divine. His do(Slrioe is every 
where orthodox and soUnd ; his style perspicuous, and suffi<;iently cle<r 
vated, but without any afiedtatioo of meretricious oroamem* A 
vein of strong good sense pervades tlie volumes, wliich, joined to. the 
evident afiedionate ioncern displayed by the author,.. fer the happiness 
.of his people, it^usc have rendered these discourses. exceedingly im«> 
pressive when they were preached, and cannot fail tb make du^m H* 
vourites with all tlie serious part of the public. The snbj^dt of ihen^ 
unquestionably, is grand ; for the parables delivered by our blessed 
Lord, form, certaiply, one of the most interesting portions of the sar 
cred writings. The authority of the speaker, the dignity of the do^ 
[ trine, the sunplicicy of the style^ the be;tuty of the^ imagery, the di- 
vine dexterity of the application, every circumstance couueAed with 
these delightful apologues, conspire to recommend them as eonst^nt 
subjefVs of Christfati contempUtion. Mil Farrer has createtl ^HIVb 
on an uniform plan, which we sliall s^e lo his owp wor4^: a^d ^or 
readere, we presume, will be ready ^ to aOow tba(,a plan more yHii- 
cious is not easily imaginable. The author ha§ endeavoured, hct^ysy^ 
.^_ through the whole, to distribute.I^is arg^<^[\eut under the foUowiogheMiB: 

*' Vitit, ib inqtire into the occasion on whidi tint parable was spoken, 
tod the dispositions of the people t6 whom it was addressed* . On this be 
has kid a more than ordinary stress^ because he regards it as the most 
ttnqocstionable basis of a corred interpretation. In the coHrse oi this 
inqairy he has son^times found opportunities to illustrate some of the 
shorter parables, which did not seem to need a separate consideration. 

*' Secondly, to state the prable in its 11 tend sense, to explain the 
circomsunces of the narrative which bear an allusion to the manners, 
customs, and opinions of the Jews in oar Sarioor's days, and, where occa. 
sion ofiprs, to enlarge upon it. ^ 

*^ Thirdly, to expose the AgaratiTe or spiritual sense^ and to ex« 
pound it in its immediate reference to our Sarioor's hearers, and to the 
special circumstances under which it was spoken. 

<' And lastly, to give it a general application, as a lesson both ot 
dodrine and of practice to the whole Christian world.'' 

Wc hay^c no conception of a more excellent method ; and oar 
readers will find, on perusing the discourses, that the author has been 
able to execute his plan with great success. He appears to tis, indeed, 
to have formed the most just and corred idea of preaching. ** Through 
all these discourses he has endeavoured to attain these two priqcipal 
objeds of preaching, to explain the Holy Scriptures to the understandings 
md to apply them to the heart and iife^^ rlow infinitely superior is 
this ^o the despicable irippery of him who tells us, that ^ if it cottM 
possibly happen that a long, and grave exhortation, whether religious 
or moral, could be introduced into a play, he has no doubt that Qar« 
rick would have delivered it, and that KemBle would now deliver it^ 
in a much more solemn, impressive manner, than the most celebrated 
clergyman in Great Britain I" We are none of those fanatic^ who 
declaim, with indiscriminate violence, against the stage. Theenter* 

tainraents of the theatre, i^ rightly condudled, we hold to be emi* 
nentiy rational aixl moral. That they are frequently rendered subser^ 
vient to vice, cannot indeed, be deniecl. But we ^o not exclusively, 
oD this account, condemn the players ; the public is, in a great mea- 
sure, to blame. Nor are we narrow-minded enough to regard this 
dass of our fellow-citizens as degraded and despicable. Yet' certainly, 
when we find a studied comparison instituted between them and the 
Mmtsters of Christ, by one who is himself a Clergyman, wecanngt 
help being tempted to wish tliat such a gentleman had chosen another 
profession. It is clear that one may make a very good player, who 
would make a very bad preacher. 

Mr. Farrer's three first discourses are peculiarly excellent) they are 
of a fi;eneral nature, and discuss the ** Properties, professed Design, 
and Application of Parable." In the second of these, ^ the preacher 
makes some excellent refle£lions on the inequality of conditions, e»» 
dowmeius, and advantages in this world ; enforcing the necessity of 
resignation to the will of Grod, from which this inequality proceed)^ 
and comforting bis audience with the recoIleAiony that ** whatever he 

jit.c. vouxxv. L ' determinee 

^46 oniotvAt cilrrieisM. 

^tttennioc^ is eomplttetf wisc^ aadjoK, and good." He Aido suIn 
jMM the fallowing acNiQd and judicicMis observations : 

** It is OQ^ gfeat article of rdigioits faitb, that this world is desigtied 
Ibi; a state of probation or discipline. To constitute snch a sute it waa 
expedient that there should be various degrees and measoies of endoMr« 
Bent, both natural and spiritual ; that some should be in high situatfoni 
^nd others again in Iomt • that some should be pUced in the sun, and ochcis 
in the shade ; that some should have many taleiits, and that others should 
have few. But in order to counterbalance these ineijualities of endow* 
ment, it is ^princip>e'x>f divine justice^ which our Lord vtry frequently 
Mipeats, that <xi;/tfr# mntk has bten rin/fn^ much alf nviU it reftn're^, Chi 
the man, who is gifted with an aioundance of worldly goods, a gieatcr 
4i|ty .lests to improve his a^ndancc to the glory of God and the benefit 
of men. On the man, who is blest with a high diegiee of spiritual iiglit, 
a greater duty tests to improve his knowledge by a faithful and universal 
service* ' ^ 

« The same principle implies^ that where less has been given, less 
also will be required* A righteous God does not claim from thie poor the 
same distributions of charity, which are due from the rich : nor does be 
demand from the ignorant and unenlightened the same measure of services, 
which he expedls from those who abundantly know and understand his 

'< StQI, however, he ex[ic6ts of thosej^ who are endowed in the least 
degree, that tbey make a return in some proportion to what they have re* 
ccived. And while he looks with approbation on them, who labour to 
improve their superior portion of gifts, he will not excuse those, who 
•n the pka of a very scanty endowment in any kind of talents, negleA 
aUogetiier to torn them to some account. 

^ It is farther to be noted, that while the Sovereign of the World has 
distributed his gifts in various measures and proportions, he has abo left 
it, in some degree, to the choice and power of men to increase or to dimi. 
nish aU these gifts, according as they are disposed to use then well or 
in. It is an equitable operation of divine Providence, which expericneo 
plainly shews us in the econoo^y of nature, that the maii, who ^exercises 
Us talents or capacities of any kind, by consequence improves them ) 
that the man^ woo ne^le^s to exercise them, by consequence impaiim 
tbenv In like nu^nncr it is a principle of divine justice in the ecosaoxnjr 
of grace, which is frequently advanced in the discourses of ear Lord, 
that njuhosorver beth^ or well employs his spiritual gifts, to im ibttU hi 
grveity and hf ihalt harje more abundance'; hut ivbosoehtr bath not. Or lives 
as if he hath (had) them not, by wasting or abusing them, fnm hitnsb^ 
be taken enten that iMbkb be bath. 

<• This maxim lie introduces and applies on the present occasion, Thrve^ 
firt tfettk I to them in farahlny hetause seeing thy see not, and hearing iJhq 
Afttr not, neiiber do^ they understand. To the disciples were openly impartefl 
sitt aaysseries of the Gospel diitpcnsation, because they had ftonestly res. 
cetfed aod assid^posiy inpioved those divine comnmricationa which 111 
had akeauly made : to the multitude they were ceoehed tinder the sfcaA 
of psHab)e> becnise they had slsrwn so dis^oaition, either honcsilyi ao s* 
^ve» Of assiduously to improve them." 


FarrerV Sirmau^ 14^ 

* Ir H modi ft> be wisbed that the important admonitioo of the JMen* 
d Foander of oar fiiith — wiin mkcA ims tern pv$n^ muck also %nnU 
krMtired-^'w^ mbxe freqaently impressed on the -minds and hearts 
of C5bristi^ns« It applies to all (he advantages of this life* whether 
of birth» rank,« itatioD, wealth, genius, talenis, or knowledge ; shew* 
in^ what a serious and awful responsibility attaches to the enjoyment 
of them, thereby diminishing, in a great degree, the regret which 
the absence of them is too apt to excite, and proving that, as they do 
not ^ necessity imply merit in those on whom they are conferred, it is 
HOC to the mere postesiion^ but to the use and afpUcation of them, thai 
commendation in this world, and reward in the next, can be expeAed 
|d attach. The conclusion of this discourse exhibits a fine example 
of praAical applfeation. 

** And while we are anxious to know the will of God, it is also zn« 
tumbent on us that we apply all our diligence to do it. For vain is oar 
pfofessioQ of the gospel, and vain are our inquiries into the mysteries of , 
heaven, unless we add to our faith virtue, and improve bur knowledge into> 
fmftice. For as faith incites us to virtue, as knowledge disposes us to 
pndtice, so again the cultivation of virtue tends to ennven and invigo. 
late oor &ith, and the praAice of our duty contributes to enlarge and 
acdify oor knowledge* The grace of God is imparted in abundant mea^ 
sore to those, and mose only, who are assiduous to improve it. For thia 
we should always bear in mind as an immutable principle of divine justice^ 
Wlmtorver batbf n him shall be gkfeny and he shaU hofve more abmndance f 
bm 'wbcteever bath mt^ from bim shall be taken even tpat '^btck be batb,^^ 
To the disciples it was given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of 
Ittaven, not because they were more versed than other men in taci^ 
knowledge, but because they sought to practise all the law of godlinesa 
which ihose mysteries conveyed. And we may trust in the divine grace» 
that if we diligently explore the Scriptures with a desire and purpose, not - 
pnXj to know, but also to do the divine will, we shsU be guided in ex« 
IiImii^ the semis of our acceptance, we shall be guanled from falling into 
any dangerous error* 

*^ U thua during the present state of discipline and trial we diligentlj 
cultivate the cudiments of heavenly knowledge, we shall train -imd pie» • 
paie ourseiyes for the full maturity of our natures in another world, when 
the film of mortal doubt shall be removed from our eyes, when he, that 
is the word of God, shall manifest his glory to us^^ and for ever dwdl 
among us full of grace and truth.*'^ 

In his third discourse on '* The Application of ParaUe," Mn 
Farrer uses an expression, which the Overtonian band of ** True 
ChnrclimeQ,^ may probably stigmatize as heterodox. Speaking of 
the Prophets, he observes, that, as ambassadors from heaven, they 
declared the will of God» ^* announciiig to she people either mercies 
or jodgmcBls, ^according as they had merited his favour y or incurred 
Us dispieaaure.'* But in order to rescue the preacher from any soch 
imputaciQa, and to prove the perfeA orthodoxy of his opinions on tho 
^Qi^jeA of merits .wc shall quote some detadMd passages from different 

L z sermonty 


sci'itioits, in wbich he inctdenuHy ^dvert^fo ic. Tn hh discourse < 
The Priest, the Levite, and rlie Sainaritaiiy he has the following ex- 
phci( declaration* 

*' It is not for iis to take merit to ourselves nn complying with any 
branch of the Christian law. For even when we are most a^ive in doing 
what is ap^inted ns to do, we are no better than unprofitable servants; 
when we are most liberal in the exercises of benevolence, we are doing no 
more than refunding a portion of those good things, which the Provicfcnce 
of God hath lent us as a trust, for which he will hereafter call us to ac^^ 

. In the next sermon, on Tlie Great Supper, from Luke xiv. in ex- 
plaining the adcnonition of our Saviour to the Pharisees, he says— 

*^ We see the spirit of this admonition was, that instead of arrogating 
to themselves a atperior decree of merit in their moral charaAer, and ex- . 
fx^ling on that account a superior favour and regard of God, they should 
4iumble themselves in the sight of heaven, should examine their own 
Warts, confess their infirmities, and be thankful to God for his unmerited 
mercies ^nd benefits." 

Again, in a subsequent discourse :— 

. '^. After these repeated lessons which our Lord has laboured to incul- 
cate^ both by precept and example, in behalf of humility and. charity^ 
the two more distinguishing ornaments of his religion, what believer in 
the gospel can arrogate a iwXtfrom his vwn deserts to the peculiar favour 
of heaven, or can murmur at the mercies extended to a contrite and ie« 
penting sinner ?" ' 

' Several passages of Jthe same tendency occur in the second volume^ 
but one more will su£Bce for our purpdise. 

' ** Hat the Prince of the Spiritual World hath happiness immense and 
tendless to confer upon his faithful followers, not indeed as a reward, for 
the best among us has fro merit of his own^ but as a free gift of grace, 
with which of bis mercy he is pleased to distinguish them that love 
him." . - 

The Parables explained in the different sermons in the first volonfjc, 
arc— 77;^ Sower — The Tares among the Wheat — The Grain, of Mustard 
Seei'-The Pearl of great Price--The Priest^ the Levite — The Great 
Supper — The Two Sons who had received their Portions—^The Steward 
rf Unrighteousness — ^and The Rich Man and the Poor Man. 
* The means of pradical improvement supplied by xht second of 
thfcse-discourses* aie, in Mr. Farrer^s constant way, plainly but forci* 
biy detailed at the cbse of the sermon. We shall extraA a short pas- 
sage from it, in (Jrdcr t^ shew the correftness of the preachers no- 
fiotis, respeding the necessity of the co-operation of man with the 
grace of the Holy Spirit, for the purpose of working out his salva- 
rion ; notions, indeed, at direift variance with the tenets of Calvinism^ 
but perfe£Uy conformable with the gospel of Christ. 

f? A» 

Fxttct's Sirmmu.' ' ^ ^ 149- 

" As the iA8tni6lien it conTqr» it absolute, we maj dtaw from the 
prable this salutary caution, that we be upon oor guard agaimt the se* 
dndions and assaults of the tempter. In the present state of trial, good 
and evil, life and death axe set before o^, and we are free to<:huse. But 
notwithstanding that our choice is free, we are warned of a subtle an4 
powerful adversary, who is alwrays ready to annoy us by every species' of 
teinptation. To counteraA his wiles we are taught for our OM&fort, that 
we have a most powerful and benevolent friend in the Holy Sf^rit, who 
is always ready to impart his grace to those that .devoutly ask and dili. 
gently seek it. 

*< It imports us at all times, but especially when we are beginning bii> 
religious course, to be striftly vigilant against the insidious intrusioni 
of our spiritual foe, to keep the ground of our hearts unincumbered with 
the tares of evil, tp maintain an unremitting giran^ against the various 
temptations of the world, and to have a continual watch ovet ear own 
passions and propensities : for a man'^ worst foes are often those of his 
own household. And as we have no power of obrselves to withstand this v 
evjl spirit, or to make any progress in righteousness, it equally imports 
us that we supplicate with all humility the guardian care of the divine ' 
Spirit, to prote^ us in all dangers, to support us in all trials, to put info 
our hearts good dispositions and desires ; and that w? concur with this 
Holy Visitant ourselves by an assiduous endeavour to cultivate and tm« 
prove every grace and every aid conferred upon us. 

'* To engage us in these exercises of religion, it would be an useful em* 
ployment frequently ro coropre the d^rent consequences of yielding t6 
the temptations of our spiritual foe, and of complying with the motions 
of our spirituaifriend. 

'* If in this our day of trial we negle^ the means of grace, and 'abuse 
the patience and long.sufiering of God, by continuing in our sins, he will 
cease to proted and support us with his Holy Spirit, and will judicially 
leave as to the sedations and assaults of the tempter. In consequence of 
which the power of this evil spirit will prevail in our hearts, the seeds 
of good dispositions will be choaked within us, and our vicious passions 
will obtain the mastery. Thus we shall be as plants, whose fruit wither, 
etb, and which at the time of harves. ire gathered as bundles for the 

•*' On the other hand, if we strive gainst oiir spiritual adversary with 
all the powers which God has given ur , if we avail ourselves of this ap. 
pMoted liour for the'^work of our salvation, and accept those means of 
grace which God affords us for our nutriment in .righteousness, if wb la. 
boor to establish ourselves on the firm root of faith, and to increase more 
nd more in the fruit of good living ; the dews of heavenly grace will 
give OS nurture and promote our increase ; the tares of unlawful aflledions 
will be suppressed in our hearts, and the good seeds of virtuous disposi. 
tions will predominate and abound. So shall we grpw up as the choice 
flants of the Lord : and when the harvest of the world is' ripe, and the 
liaal separation is appointed to be made, we shall be gathered by the reapers 
ef the spiritual field, and stored for ever in the grnnary of heaven. 

*' This parable urges an important truth, a truth which is indeed im. 
■fied in all our Saviour spoke, that according -as we establish our charac* 
Itr lb tbii lift;; weshaii detftcmine our destiny in the life to come. If we 

L 3 ^ submit 

'$P ORtOiKAL CRlTlcisM. 

tobmit to thelaw^ and confenn to tbe dupesl^on of our Spiritual King, 
we are the children of the kingdom, and shall hare an inheritance in eterV 
lUl happiness. But if we negkdi this law, and yield ourselves to the <kK 
liitnion of Satan, we are the children of the wicked^ and shall have our. 
portion in eternal misery." 

The aevemh discourse, from Luke xv. ii, 12, is an exceeding- 
good one, as well as. the last. The second volume contains ten ser- 
mons, on the following Parables: i. TAe Importunate fVldow.—^ 
a. The Pharisee ami Publican. — 3. The Unforgiving Servant^ — 4^ The 
J^oitrers in the Vineyard.-^ ^^ The Servants and the Pmnds^^-h. The 
Vineyard let to Husiandmen, — 7. The Marriage Feast.^^S* Th€ Teu 
Virgins. — 9* The Servants and the Talents.-^^io. The Last Judgnum. • 
Three other Sermons are subjoined. One, on the Go9d Shepherd^ and 
two, on the IGng rf Israel The sectmd^ fourth^ zxA fifth of these dis- 
courses we have distinguished as particularly good ; and ^^ first of 
the two sermons on the King of Israel, from John i#<^9, is a very 
doquent and impressive discourse. In the sermon, on tne Seruemts 
mnid the Pounds^ Mr. Farrer takes an opportunity to enforce the doc- 
trine, that the degrees $f present guilt will regulate the measures of future 
funishmen^t which he supports trom the declarations of our Lord him- 
ielf, as contained in Luke^ii. 47, 48, and Matt. xi. 21, 22. 

** The heathen shall not be excused for a sinful course of life, because 
fie was enabled even from the fitinter light of reason to diKriminate be- 
tween right and wrong, and to derive some intimation of a God that < 
judgeth tne earth. But, he is not obnoxious to that high degree of pa« 
pishment which is incurred by him, who lives under the light of heavenly 
truth, yet perseveres in habitual sin, and equally disobeys the pcecepu and 
disregards the motives of the &ith under which he lives." 

^^ I have dwelt the longer upon this argument of discourse, becauae I 
do not look ojpon it as a merely speculative dodrine calculated only to 
entertain the »ncy, bat as a truth of the greatest pra^ical utility to re« 
form the heart, to draw a man fmm sin, and to improve a man in godlL 
s ness. If the general assur^mce of future happiness to the Righteous and 
of future misery to the Wicked, be the great motive to religious practice, 
that motive must derive a still superior force from this particular assor. 
anccj that. the' degrees of their future happiness or misery will be award* 
fd in some proportion, or with some regard, to the measure of their pic- 
aent service or ^unfaithfulness. 

<< It must put some restraint upon the Wicked in the couAe of their 
transgression. For though they may labour to discard from their miodi 
all thoughts of a Judj^ment to come, yet a sense of what muH hereafter 
be, cannot always be suppressed. Their conscience will intrude upon then 
in their solitude, in th^r adversity, nay even in the croud of their guf 
Associates, and in the midsi of their dissipations, and will alarm t&iY 
guilty minds with a sad couvi^ion, tha't they a^ under the wrath of God 
and subJQiS to the sentence of his justice. Vow if any thing can aagflaenl 
this painful apprehension, it must be this' refle^oOf that the lodger they 
persist in.a sinful course, and the deeper they* pknge in wkkodmU^ itm 
more tbey heighten their account ^'uh Ggd, and ihc hotter nng^and 
they draw down f|pon themselves/* 


FamerV Sermns, .«5f 

That this ]^efledb;i tnay produce a proper eflbd te the sins of dift* 
«ipation and wealth, on the votary of fashion, aad on the *f whore- 
nongers and adaherers '' of the age, who overage afike, by the bar&^ 
^iced (HToAigacy of their Kves, the authority of God, and public de^ 
cency, must be the fervent prayer of every trae Christian. When 
we consider that, in our conduft, in this our state of probation, our 
fiit«re Qobappiness or misery rausc depend, and that, wlien this tran* 
sitory life shall have passed away, our doom, whatever it may be, wiU 
be irr€V9cablj fixed ; that the season^ for reform, and the nme of re- 
pentance, wilF never more return; that ttie wicked know from divine 
authority, ** that what they once endure, shall neither know cerml* 
nation oor abatement : the worm shaU not die, the fire shall mt be quenci^ 
a/;*' when these things are considered, who that is vicious will not 
hasten to return to the paths of virtue, and who tKat is virtuous will 
not with steadiness pursue the ways which his Redeemer has pointed 
out to him ? The Scriptures speak too plainly on the unlimited obedi- 
ence expetSed from man to the commands ot his God, to be the subt 
jtBt either of misconception, or of misrepresentation ; — the rewards of 
that obedience, and the punishment of, disobedience are also as dearlj 
defined^ And we cannot close our review of these volumes better 
than by extra£{ing, from the sermon on/* the Last Judgment^** in which 
the author has discussed this question most ably and comprehensively^ 
a passace, from which those worldlings, who flatter themselves that 
-while mey only transgress one or iwdoi the commandments, and ob- 
serve all the rest, they may escape the dreadful punishment denounced 
against the disbbedient, will perceive that their error is^ as gross in 
itself, as it may be fatal in its consequences. 

'' In order therefore to form to ourselves some opinion of the stare of 
oor sotus, and the state of our preparation for the final Judgment, it be« 
boves OS to examine the conditions, on which the tenor oi oor sentence 
will dmnd. 

f* Now the terms of oor acceptance are Yarionsly proposed in difiient 
paru of Holy Scripture. The condition of inheriting eternal iile is some« 
times stated by the name of Faith, and sometimes by the muneof Righ« 
teoutness. But these^ different statements are ensily to be leoonciled on 
this refle^on, that it is the costomary style of Holy Scripture to pst om 

^ leligioos attainment, especially if ft be of the sQ{ieriar kind, to compre* 
bend and represent the rest; Thus Faith, which in its literal sense im- 
plies a belief in the divine mission of Jesos Christ, is fieqtiently to bo 
understood to embrace all the the dispositions of the Christian heart* and 
all the exercises of the Christian life : as being the root of godliness it 
Gcmiprehend^all the branches 6f a godly conversation. Tfans Righteous* 
jiess, which in its literal sense im^ies all Idnd of equitable dealing be* 
tveen man and man, is extended in the phrase of holy writ to signify the 

. whole range of disposition and pf duty that we owe both to God and 
Man, the principle of adion, and the ad itself. There is so close and 
intimate a connexion between the several branches of the Christian law* 
that a Man who cordiaUy stadies one, is pow^rfollT inclined to cakivate 
she otbKT aliOt A trae prinotple of faith will gaide as to the obwranee 

L4 u} 


and praAice dF all our duty. And if we fail in any point, oar faflars^ 
shews that we are deficient in the principle. • Upon this ground the Apos^ * 
tie declares, that *whosoi;^er shall keef the nubole lanu^ and yet offend in ^uv^r 
%^omt^' be is guihy of all i for by the transgression of one law he dbcUixnt 
the authority of the divine Lawgiver as efl^ually as by the transgressioa 
of all the rest." 

We have already given our opinion of the general merit of these 
sermons, which we have no hesitation in reconiinending as a valuable 
addition to our stock of sound theological discourses. Some verbal 
errors, and incorred expressions occur, which it is our duty as critics to 
notice, but principally with a view to their corredtion, in a futare 
edition of these volumes, as well as to prevent a repetition of diem, ia 
any subsequent compositions of this able and eloquent divine. 

•* Whether they und^stood or no," (not) vol. i. p. 46. " We 
embrace in our belief all the do^rines (which) ^ he has taught, an<l 
comprehend in our pradice all the duties (which) he requires," p. 6i^ 
This omission of the relative which^ occurs at least fifty times in the 
two volumes, and cannot fail to ofii^nd every classical ear, *^ Among 
die nations rounds (around) p. 7 1. ' '• Every diligent minister of the 
gospel — dispensiiig the same word in the sphere of his ic^peflive mi-- 
nistry." p. 93. The word rtsfc^m is here improperly used. If 
he had used the plural number, and said all diligent minister! in tieir 
respetStive ministry, the word would have been properly introduced ; 
as it is in' the fallowing passage, in p. 96 : ^* They mstruft us ta 
improve our nspefiive portions, &c." * In p. 103, 104, " These were 
the seed^^^ instead of the seedj, occurs three times. *' We have nei- 
ther such obstacles on the one side, neither (nor) have we such ex« 
traordinary support on the other." p. 107. ^* We are not to satisfy 
ourselves /» (with) praying." vol. ii. p. 15. ** For conformation or 
investiture iHto (of) the kingly o£Bce." p. 136. In p. 211, referring 
to two parables which he had noticed, he makes a mistake by calling 
that last nientioned iht former^ (1. 9), and that first mentioned the /»/« 
ier (1. 26.) ** We frequently examine and review our past coadody 
and where w« see any fault or dcfe£^, immediately to repent." p. a4S. 
The to should be omitted. — '« Exadks of his servant a greater task 
them he puts him in a capacity to ^oy/' p. 266. To pay a task is not 
an allowable expression ; it should be lo^ferform* *'* His meat an4 
4rink was (were) to do, &c." p. 426. 

The Belgian Traveller \ or^ a Touf^ through Holland^ France^ and 

" Switzerlandf during the Years 1804 and 1805 ; in a Series of Let-- 

tersjrom a Nobleman to a Mimster of State, kdited by tlie Author 

of the Revolutionary Plutarch, a^c. in Four Volnmes, iamb. 

Pp. I2I2. Egerton. i$o6. 

IN his dedication of this work to Mr. Windham, the editor telli 
Aat gpndemani tbac it is not only his own opiniooi but tb^l of Tat- 

The Belgian Travelltr* f53 

kyrand aIso» that bad the lost war been condis£)ed accrirding to his 
notions, the family of Bourbon would now have been seated v^m 
the throne of their ancestors, the Continent would have been tiee, 
and ail Europe at peace. W^ must know more of Mr. Windham's 
plans and intentions at that 'period, than we are yet acquainted with, 
before we can acquiesce in the accuracy of this opinion. That Mr« 
. W. had enlarged notions, respefting the objcdt and condu<St of tlie . 
war, we know very well y ;ind, had his ability been ceromensumte 
with his wislies, ail tli^ happy consequences, here stated, would un- 
questionably have flown from them. But we much fear, 'that th^se 
flodons,/ it fairly analyzed, and submitted to tlic test of their appli^a« 
biliry to existing circumstances, wbuld have- been found more niagta* 
ninnous in theory than pradticable in execution. To that genclein«iv 
however, the palm of wisdom, as well as that of magnanimity, is c)iie« 
fer his just and manly sentiments respedling the degrading treiity of 
Amiens, in which a weak Minister, the variest baby in politics tiiat 
ever amused itself with the coral of the State, surrendered the- hon^r 
and -security of his country, the independence of Europe, and the lires- 
and property of some ot our best friends and firmest allies, (Ihe 
Royalists in La Vendee) to the most inveterate enemy which this ^rA 
other nations ever had to encounter, and to the most merciless Usurper- 
ibac ever bathed himself in the blood of his slaves, or that ever tyrannigicd 
over any portbn of mankind. It remains to be seen» whether this 
paim, so nobly won, has been suffered to wither on the brow' it 
adorned ; or whether those sentiments, which excited our warmest 
approbation five yean ago, still continue unchanged, in circumstanba 
more momentous, more critical, and more dangerous. To ju^ge 
from present appearances, indeed, from the protra6^^d negcniatiori at 
Paris, artfu/ly prolonged by our insiduous enemy .to promote bis o^h 
views^ and to frustrate ours, as well as from the seledion of our 
ambassadors to foreign states, we should conclude, ^ithef that Mr* 
Windham found himself in a minority in the Cabiiiet, or that hfs 
seotiraems had undergone a total and radical change. But we will 
not hazard a coDJe<Slure on a subje& on which the lapse of a short 
period will suffice to throw the blaze of convi6Uon. 

In his *< Introdu&ion" ,the editor informs his readers* |hat the let* 
tcrs contained in these volumes were communicated to him by the auw 
thor, a nobleman of Brabant, who was employed . by' the Minister 
of a Comtnental Sovereigp, to make the tour ot Holland, France, and 
Switzerland, for the purpose of ascertaining the real s(ate of the pub* 
lie mind in those countries. Be this as it xx^j^ they convey mu^h 
interesting, infiorroation on this subjedi, and many curious anecdotps 
coonedM with the French Revolution* In reading them,,we.hafe 
been allemately impressed with sentiments of disgust, an^. with fe^lioct 
of horror, at the profligacy and atrocities which they record. We 
shall not attempt to follow this political traveller through the whole of 
bis tonr^ but merd; sde£i $ii^b passages u appear to us most worttif 

ig4 okioikaY cutTfcrfir. 

of in(Kice» either from the faAs which ct^ey recite, or from die rdfec* 

tioi IS. to' whicli thev give birth. 

j le entered the Batin/ian i^public at Doesburgh, where he fomii 
a i'rsnch garriBOn, French custom-house oflSccrs, and a French Go» 
vef nor ; part of his luggage was deuiiied, because amon'^ it were four 
pair of French silk stockings which he had purcliased at .Hamburgh, 
anjl which he had not yet worn. In vain did lie produce the receipt 
aofl certificate of the manufadlurer,; to prove that they were French; 
tlti: custom-house-officers insisted that they were English, and the 
QoVernor threatened to imprison him as an English §maggkr. la 
▼;iin, too, did he apply for redress to the Mayor* wIk> was a Dotcb- 
ma.n ; he acknowledged tiie injustice, but confessed his want of power 
to punisli or redress it. At length, by his worship's advicei the matter 
w^ s compromised, by the sacrihce of two pair of the stockings, for 
Ih j Governor's own use, and of a Louis d'^or to the custom-house of* 
fioer. Let it not be supposed that this wa&. a is. jtary iosunce of low 
villany, 6f barefaced robbery ) if any credit be due to the writer of 
tliijse letters, it occurred frequeiMly ; and indeed such a set of diicves 
as' the public ^M^'^^rM'i of the French empire, ai^c not to be/ound in 
aiiy other part of the civilized world* Our traveller found die pblite 
at Utrecht more vigilant, jealous, and severe, than in the other 
Diitch cities, though they were certainly sufficiently so in every part 
oi that subjugated coumry, as well as in France. 

'*** Before we entered it {the town) tlie po«f-waggon was stopped bjr 
sorioie French gensdarmes, who asked for our passports, which were deli* 
v^^ed by them to a French police commissary, who had )ii8 office near 
th: gate. After his inspedion was over, two gensdarmes accompanied 
the post. waggon and took the name of the iiira, where (whither) we or. 
dired the luggage to be carried. Arrived there, the first thing the landlord 
ri'esented as with, even before 1 was shewn my room, was a kind of po- 
nce- register, in which I was to write down from my passport, aU the 
mrticulars oonceraing my person, character, figure and business ; I was 
also to mention to whom 1 was known in the place ; how lon|; wouM be 
mj stay ; ^wf^ere I bad sleft tht night before; and where I imended to 
travel from theiyre^ To this humiliating formality, and to this inciting 
)|iqaisitiou, Batavian subjeds wereeqodly subjed with foceigners." 

Such vexatious interruptiotM would alone suffice to check all spirit 
0f commercial enterprise, if any such aubaitted in this ruined and de- 
solated country. ^^We should feel compassion for the Dutch, if ptcj 
vere due Co a peoplq who. have added ingratitude to avarice, and 
cowardice to both ; who first expelled and proscribed that faspily to 
nvfaoae ancestors they were indebted for dieir f^peedom ; and afterwards 
•had not courage to defend themselves from oppression, but tamely 
^wed thtfr necks to the «kost huoltrablp, and at the same tii9e» die 
. most disgraceful yoke d»t ever was imposed on a people. As tbaj 
fowed the seedv Cff Aeir own miier j aind disbootmrft let dwm reap 

TJu Belgian TrmDtUer^ 155 

die fruitt ; they have yielded « plentifarharveity enough to saffofy eren 
a Dotch. appetite. At Amsterdam our Traveller went to churchy and 
his account of what he saw theie is. truly horrible. 

*< I observed such shocking indeceocies as I have never witnessed be.. 
fere in any phce ronsecraced to a (the J S^pieme Being. Not only most 
frf* the BKO had their heads covered with their hats, bdnnetSj ot nighucifs, 
hot some, with great ^legm, smoked their pipes, facing th^ clergyman ' 
preaching in the pulpit* The unconcern with which the audience remark* 
cd soch scand&lous behaviour, proved to me thai it was neither new nor 
wicoaiaM>n« In this idea I was confirmed by my friend, who lamented 
that ^ce (to use his own w6rds) 4he French friends of liberty had uken 
upon thenuelves to regenerate Dutch patriots, the latter had degenerated 
both in morality and religion to a level with the former, and they wens 
to church as to a public- ho w^, displaying the same brutal manners and 
unfeeling minds. He assured me that some of the lower people even car«. 
ried with them to church gin, or brandy, as well as tobacco, and that 
the sermon of the preacher was frequently interrupted by the political dis^ 
cnssioRS,' or vulgar jokes of the audience. Upon my inquiry whether 
blasphemy and sacrilege were not within the reach of the laws of the Ba. 
ixvian Republic, I was answered, "^that in the revolutionary laws was up 
question of a God or d his worship, bMt that the most severe pains were 
pronounced against those who mentioned revolutionary rulers with dis« 
xespeA. The professors of religion and its propagators, had also £llleu 
into the same disrepute with religion itself. Every body is at fiili liberty 
to style them fools and hypocrites, and the Divinity they adore, our ^a« 
▼ioor, an impostor ; but was any one even to say, that the French Coiu 
anls, or Batavian Piredors, were criminal Usurpers, and their supporten 
wicked accomplices, the revolutionary laws would strike^ nay crusbj the 
culprit instantly." 

It is sorely not presumption to say that any system of laws, for the 
goveroinent of Christians, framed by men to whom the great tnitha 
of Cbri^ianity have, by divine goodness, been* made manifest, which 
professes to be utterly independent of, and to have no connexioa 
whatever with religion, must speedily falU like a house built upon the 
sand. Putting principU entirely out of the question, such a system 
betfays the extreme folly of its founders ; who seek to bind men by 
Mhfy yet destroy that which can alone give validity to an oath. That 
where little leUgion is to be found in a country, vice and crime should 
jdioond, is so naturals to excite but little surprize* 

*^ Before the Revolution^ no country was less infested with robbers 
imd housebreakers, than Holland. The numerous examples of industry, 
the many means of honest gain, the general comfort wi messed every 
where^ the natural consequence of labour, made even idleness adive and 
Vioe repentant. But no sooner were our Republican Reformers inasters of 
the Batavian commonwealths than proj)erty became unsafe, by extortion) 
9nd requisitions, and a general stagnation of commerce was experienced* 
Within six months after the departure of the Prince of Orange, between 
lbic« nA four thousand neichant^' clerka were out of place in this cit$ 

s ■ 


alone, togetlier with twenty tlioosand bam or boatnen, porters, ca^ 
ners, ^nd^other persons who gained their livelihood from eaiplojxiientt 

by merchants and tradersk" 

SoclKwere the blessed effe£b of that stupendous noohoment which 
Immai) integrity raised to human happinc:ss in HoHand ! Having paved 
the way for rcixlcring the subjugation of (be Dutch as permauciK as it 
is complete^ by making them as vicious as themselves, the French, it 
8eems» have ha<i Vecourse to another efficacious measure for perpe- 
taating their slavery ; and for entirely annihilating every vestige of a 
national chara<9eri5tic» by die introduction of their own abominable 
•language among them : 

** Holland has not yet nine years formed a part of our Revolutionary 
dominiotis, and nevertheless, the French language is common even amoog 
the people; roost of tbera speak jr, and alT understand it. Even.grooma 
«nd chamber- maidsy peasants and fishermen, addressed me in French. The 
policy of our Government is visible even here. By ordering that no 
persons should be public funAionaries, who could not converse in Frenck 
as well as in Dutch, and by en^loying and advancing in preference those 
^ who were most perfed in it, every one has been, or is, studying Frencl^ 
in pieference even txr their own native tongue. Should the prosperity of 
our arms continue half a century more, I should not be surprized were 
French to supersede or extinguish many other continental languages, and 
be more universal than even Latin was, in the most brilliant days of an. 
cient Rome," , 

In short, according to our Traveller's account, Holland is completely 
FrenchiBed, Food» furniture, and dress, all are French. What a 
morigrel natioti must it be? A capering Dutch petit-niaitre miss^ 
of ail strange sights, be the most ridiculous. As we hiave recently 
beard much abdut a Jewish Council assembled by the Cprsican Solo- 
Dion at Paris^ we shall exiraft an anecdote relating to the subjeA. 

•* When, in the spring of 1798, Buonaparte was preparing for his cx- 
peiition to Egypt, French emissaries visited the richest and principal 
Jews in Holland, Italy, Germany, anid England, and pifered, for certain 
sums of money, to re-establish the Jewish nation in Palestine, ^nd to 
Ibrtify and garsison Jerusalem in the name of, and for, a Kin? of the 
Jews, seledled by them3elves. It was even hinted, that if their choice 
fell on Buonaparte, he had no cb^dlion to circumcision, or to abrogate 
Christianity. According to these proposals, a large sum was snbscribexlf 
Colk^ed, and presented to Buonaparte. A committee of wise ' (not y^ry 
mvittj* and wealthy Jews were organized and' permitted to sit and deiibe«. 
Yate at Paris* An address to all the Jews in Europe was already printed, 
inrlting them to prepare with their i^milies and treasures, to sail for the ' 
Hojy Land^ when the repulse (which) Buonaparte experienced from Sir 
Sidney Smith, before St. Jean d'Acre,' prevented tbe publication, Xbc 
ioembers of this commit^e continued, however, ^tiil at Paris unti) ^Hc 
t)eace of Amiens, when, not to give suspicion to j^ngland, Russia, and 
Xurke^^ they separated| but wore instro^4 (9 meet secretly again af 

Tie Bflpan TraviU^* 157 

ManeineSy whese they h^vc t^een'^egbtiating) deliberating, and irapos. 
iflg pomribntions on their sedtaries ever since, always in hope of return* 
ing to the Land of Promise — a hoM which Buonaparce and Talleynnd still 
keep up, and which has converted even the many Jews in the States of 
fiarbary to proselytes of our revolutionary politics, and adherents to our 
revolutionary government. The Rabbin" (from whom lie had this in- 
telligence), *' assured me, that he had been the secretary to this commit. 
tec, until the summer (of) 1802, when he resigned to accompany Sebas. 
tiani on his mission to Egypt and Syria. He seemed not to possess (i«* 
pose) much confidence in Buonaparte's assurances, nor desire to becpme « . 
Sttbjed of a King of Jerusalem." 

This man appears to us to have been the wisest Jew of the wkola 
tribe. It cannot be supposed that where so much jealousy is betrayed 
NOD the pan of the Government, and that Government absolute, not 
ruling iy^ but fiver the laws, the subjeA can enjoy even the shado^jv of 
personal freedom. The fa£t is, that Turkey, in comparison with any 
of (he coantries governed by Buonaparte, is a free Government. — 
But , when those furious ^tf/m/T, who have contributed essentially co 
the subversion of so many lawful and regular governments^ begin to 
feel (he lash which they were the first to inflid upon others,^ we coit- 
us that we are uncharitable enough to rejoice in their sufferings, coa* 
sidering them, as we do, as signal instances of retributive justice.-** 
Our Traveller went to a French coffee-house in Amsterdam, which^ 
ten years before, was the chief resort of persons of this description. 
But though he found nearly the same- company assembled, instead of 
the patriotic harangues wnich he had been accustomed to hear, a 
mournful silence prevailed throughout the room. In order to ascer- 
tain the cause of this singular change, he addressed himself to a maa 
whom he had frequently met there before, who was a language- 
master, and a ihost furious Jacobinical prator, when the fojlowjii^ 
dialogue ensued : 

" Piray Citizen," (said I) "is not your name "Berger ?*'— « Yes^ 
Citizen, it is, at your service. — I believe ^at I (have) had the honour 
«f seeing you somewhere." — ^* In this very coffee.hottse, where I moie 
than onoe have admired your eloquence and patriotism." — " Do not speak 
40 loud. Citizen, times are of late much changed*" — <' Changed indeed I 
but for the better for Citizens of your sentiments." — " You think so 
(taking me by the hand to a window, and whispering) but you ai'e egre- 
gionsly mistaken* We dare no longer express our opinions here, because 
We are surrounded with spics^ and run the risk of being transporte(f or 
shot."—*' A Citizen of your known patriotism !" — ** Yes ! yes I I speak 
from convidiion and experience ; I have endured ten mohths imprisonment 
ibr tta zeal in the cause of liberty and equality." — <' Is it possible !"-^ 
^' Yes ! not oAly I, but every other admirer of our Revolution, who, in 
this coffee-house, so enthusiastically served our |»triots,' and ptopagated 
their pneoepts, have severely sdlered for it. We were all taken op on the 
tame evening) as Anarchists, carried in irons to the Temple at Paris, from 
wbich we weit only liberated upon condition of neve/ more interfering in 


158 ORIGINAL exiftCJSU. 

^liticsi tr in die gdvemment of natioiit. We hire all been coniplet d y 
duped by hypocrites add impostors ; and^ when we expeded advanoemenf 
ind notice^ as a reward^ wete threatened with persecution and proscrtp* 
tion, as a due punishment. What shocking time^ da we n^t lire in I" 

The Patriot then took the Traveller out of the coiFee-house, and 
entered into a more particular desctiption of his grievafices. 

*' Under Louis XVI. and under the Prince of Orange,** (said he) 
** we dared speak our sentiments like men, like reasonikble beings ; under 
Buonaparte, and under his tools — a Batavian Dire^ory, we are reduced 
to the state of imbecility ; we are brutalized ; ^e dare hardly thinks 
jonuch less own (avow) wliat we think ; an assassin auid a highwayman ' 
ai:e sooner forgiven than the admirers of the rights of man, and the wor* 
shippers of a sacred equality," 

This man, it seenn, and all hts fellow-patriots, had been appre- 
hended for presuming to censure the cdndu£l of Buonaparfe, in assuna- 
ing the Consulate for life, 'and in concluding the Concordat with the 
Pope. When the original planters of the tree of liberty are in such 
dtserace, and are discontented, it is not to be expe£ledthat the tree it- 
self can be holden in much estimation. Accordingly while our Tra- 
veller was at Rotterdam, he had an opportunity of observing the re- 
spect which was paid to thkjeal French Upas, infinitely mo^e de«- 
4^ru6^ive than the /abu/ous Upas of Java. 

** Opposite the door of the inn where I lodge, is planted a tree of It* 
berty, decorated^ not with a bonnet (a cap) but with a hat. It is merely 
a long pole, painted with three colours, though courtesy calls it a tree* 
A wooden railing encompasses it, and a sentinel is placed by its side- 
Inquiring the other day of one of the Officers who dine at my inn, if the 
soldier was there to prevent it from running away ? he answered, ' No, 
Sir^ there is no danger of that f and where would it be received, should 
it take a fancy to escape ? The nauseous flavour of its bitter fruit has 
been /fit too much in those wietched coantries where it has been planted 
by force, to suppose that any peof^e would voluntarily accept of its cursed 
presence. The sentry is' there to prevent it from being cut down and 
burnt, as three other trees have been on the same spot/ The people heie 
are too wise, and have suf&red too much, to be amateurs of trees of li. 
bcrty, or other pedantic emblems of a freedom, entirely banished fnw 
the Continent by our friends of liberty/ 

<' I have just heard that Buona^rte has sent an ord^r to the Govern* 
inent of this Republic, to have all trees of liberty removed, as has alieadjr 
been done in France* Were it possible that he could repair aifthe sufer-. 
ings Endured, and eradicau all tba horrors witnessed, . smoe revolutioiiary 
tyianis tirst planted, and revolutionary slaves &r&c danced rojuiid these 
uees, he would confer greater blessings on hi» cotempotacies than muf 
shieftain ever did before* ^ . 

'^ Ihese trees of liberty haTej^ in tlie States where they have beem 
planted^ served as pointt to rally for traitors and conspirators, foir im* 
DOS tors and fools, tor sedition aixi infidelity. At their feet loyalty iiae 
bleds laod Christianity sufiered % in their poisonoos shades cannibals have 

, ibaste^ 

i _ 

Tie Silgiam DrmmMm. 159 

falted9 and itbeb Inltt&iaed ; anticlqr baw hcmrkd hymoB, and proiti- 
p/sj nreacbed fioentiousiieM. 

. '* kveo bcie» in HoUandi wheie less (few«r) lives Ifetve been Uvishej 
tfc^ ia aU Fran^ and Italy, by revoluuonary bandittit ianocence |ipaa 
more than ikxe, and for tbe most trifling accidoit, been sacriic^d, hat 
watered the trees of liberty with its tears, and inundated them witfa its ^ 

> ^* At Dort, some years ago, a j^onglady, ^ghter and sister of 0£|w 
oevB who had petished in the service oi' their country » was walking one 
day in the street with a favourite lap-dog under her arm. The colbur of 
the aniflsal was white, but round its bead were several spots of orange co« 
Ipar. ^Yoa hare no doubt read, that since (after) the restoration of the 
Stadtholder to his aathority in tj^Jy cockades oif this last colour were 
worn by the officers and men, botfx of the army and navy, and by thoie 
citizens who desired to display their attachment to the Ponces of tlie 
Boose of Orange). Some fanatics reproached her (for her)' want of pa- 
triotism, in carrying an animal so coloured,, and one of the men snatched 
it fsom her, dashed it against the pavement, and killed it on the spot.-^ 
In tbe first moae^t of surprize and .indignation, she exclaimed,'^ That 
one Prince oF Orange was preferable to thousands of patriotic oppressors ; 
and that she would willingly give her life to see him again in (possession 
of) the i^thority of his ancestors.' She had not dne to say more befoie 
slie was knocked down, and dragged to the tree of liberty, where^ after 
endoring for a quarter of an hour outragrv of every description, a friend 
of hers, who was unable to. deliver her, asked a French soldier, for hn. 
alaasty's sake, to dispatch her, which he did. What made her fate so 
omch the oH)re lamentable, was her engagemeni to marry a young gcnrlr« 
■WD 00 tbe Sunday following; and ^ had been, when stopped by 'the 
nbble, to her mantoa. maker to see how far her wedding-dress was ad« 
vanced. Her knrer, who resided at some miles distance, was the same after- 
noon informed of his loss, and arrived at Dart, accompanied by some 
friends, who with dificulty prevented him ^om laying violent hands on 
himsdf. He catried away the mutilated remains of his beloved mistress, 
and boned them in the vault of bis family, near his country-house. Hia 
' firiends remained with him for , a fortnight ; but the day after they lef^ 
kii^ be entered imperoeived the vault, amd blew put hb brains by the side 
of the coffin of his mistress/' 

If instead of blowing out his owi^ brains, he had blown oat those 
«f the as^sains 'pf his mistress, he would have aded luore wisely^ 
asid wottkl have excited more sympathy. The same may be said of 
the phlegmatic !Dmcbm9n» the friend of th<: lady, who stood by, and 
coQtcnied hioaelf with asking a French soldier to muider her ; any 
saao who bad a h^art beatii^ in his bosooi, would at least have made 
an attfoapt CQ resipoe her from the ipurderous hands of the ruffians, 
OVCD >cho4igh \m life had paid the forfeit of his temerity. 

Such instances as these of the most lohunQan murders, as well as of 
xapeSf and every other atrocity which the mind of a revolutionary 
Freachaian cancoaceivc, or his heart nrge him to execute, frequendy' 
occur ha tbes^ letters, Unha^N^i^JT' (be fa&s thltt are txitorious to the 
nbok worl4» su« so aaaierott^ thai pothingi however atrocious, is 


xio oHiciiJAL c&iticis'w. 

infredible* Bot hamantty sickens at the perosal ofsoch horrid sc^cf ^ 
tJi^ugh praise i^ certainly due to every one who submits to the uoplea-^ 
saiit cask of recording them, as they otFcr most instrudive lessons to 
thf present age, as well as to future ages. Thoush Dutch avarice 
has long been proverbial^ the following instance of it is curious : 

'' A Dutch farmer, who was worth ioo»ooo florins, had his house 
xob'ed, one Sunday, while he was at church, of two bags, each contain, 
ing one thousand florins. This loss pxeyed upon his miiKl, and affi^Aed his 
health ;- when a servant girl in the hoase endeavoured so successfully to 
console him, that he became enamoured of her, ^nd having in vain aU 
lempted to seduce her, he at length obtained his end, by promisiog to 
BMirry ber. Soon after she h^d yielded to his wishes, bis anxiety to le* 
cover his lost money returned, and, by dint of. persuasion, he induced her 
fo rob one of his neighbours, during his absence at church, of the exa^ 
amount. The girl, becoming pregnant, pressed him to fulfil his promise, 
instead of which he turned her out of doors. This bniul condudl occa. 
sioned a miscarriage, and brought on a fever, which terminated her exist- 
ence* On her deathubed she confessed the robbery which she had been led 
to commit, to the clergyman who attended her.* 

** The clergyman informed the magistrates of what his conscience and 
diity did not perinit him to keep secret. The farmer was taken up, tried, 
aad condemned, notwithstanding his denial, the sacks, with the marks of his 
neighbour, bearing evidence against him. When in that unfortunate state 
some persons oflered to carry him away from prison and save his life,' if 
he would advance of his property five thousand florins. This he lefnsed,. 
bot offered five hundred florins. Two days before his execution a French 
Officer called upon him, and promised his release upon assigning half his 
wealth to his deliverers ; but he continued obstinate, declaring that he 
was determined to expire a rich man, whether in his bed, or on the gal. 
lows. On the nraming of his punishment he sent, however, to the Offi- 
•cer, and assented te his former demand, but then it was too late." 

After about six months residence in Holland, our Traveller left that 
Republic, and proceeded to Antwerp. The iinpressioii made on his 
nsind during his stay in Holland was, that every class of Dutchmen 
is heartily sick of the French Revolution, of French perfidy,, and of 
French alliance ; and vyouUl be heartily glad to be again placed uoder 
|he government of their Stadtholders. The French, however, appear 
to have succeeded, in a great measure, in the achievement of one of 
their grand revolutionary objefls, wonhy of Satan himself, the era- 
dication of all religious and moral principles from the minds of the 
subjugated Dutch. When men, in a respe^Me station in life. Can 
take their wives and daughters to a brotbel, that they may witness 
scenes of vice ahd debauchery, ib order to becbme disgusted with 
them, as if religious principles 'were wholly insufficient to the produc- 
tion of such an effe£t ; it exhibits either such a gross depravity of heart, 
or such a woeful perversion of inielled, as to excite astonishment.*— 
We have ^dffiVii/ Authority, indeed, for the maxim, that *^ vice to be 
^^-^'cd, needs but to be seen ;'^ aud the same authority tells us the fatal 


Thi Bilgiam Traveller. l6l 

tooMtfnence of feeing it t9o oftt^. It would be vain» however^ to 
tarpu with a people^ whose feeliogs are not shocked at the bare idea of 
introdacing virruoos women to such places. They Would probably 
be disposed to enumerate, whith phlegmatic precision, the good and 
the bad etfedis of siich condud,* and to balance the account with all 
the artrhmeticai accuracy of a Cocker \ inferring coO| from its conse- 
ooences on the icy constitution of a Dutch woman» its efiefts upoatht 
females of all other nations. 

At Antwerp we find, to our surprize,' our old acquaintance Mr. 
Malouet, the author of several anti-revolutionary works, particularly 
on the French Colonies, and of same able articles in the admirable 
paper of his friend, the late excellent Mallet, DU Pan. This ' 
gentleman, it seems^ is Maritime Prefeft to Buonaparte, in that an- 
cient citv. But after seeing Mr. Monilosiei'^ who was one of the 
writers m the Ante- Ja.c6 bin Revilw, on its first ^tabtidunenr^ 
become the j^umaliste gagl oKhe Conican Usurper of his Sovereign's 
Throne, we have, long since, ceased to be surprized at any instance 
of French revolutionary tergiversation. 

'' After the massacres of September, 1792, be (Malouet) went brer 
to England, and wrote to ^t National Convention, claiming the right 
of a French Citizen, and the honour of being the official defender of his 
King, Louis XVI. then ordered before this tribunal of robbers and assas* 
siitt ; but upon the motion of Buonaparte's present Counsellor of State« 
Tieiilard, his request was refused, andhis name put cfpon the list of emi« 
grants* During 1793 he oiF?red his services to the British Government, 
and pretending to- possess both interest and property in the French Colo- 
nies" (wiuch, we believe, was perfedly.truej, ''he had the adroitness 
to procure himself a pension of one thousand suineas " (no pension to such 
amount could be granted without the interposition of Parliament ]f, '< which, 
be enjoyed until the moment he became a c<>nfidentlal counsellor of Buo. 
naparte, and was employed by him to prepare the descrudlion (» the Bri- - 
ttsb Empire." (How he could achieve this in his capacity of Maritime 
PrefeA at Antwerp, is not very obvious). '* This is a sample of his 
gratitude ! ! ! 

<' During his stay in England he declared himself the most stedfast 
adherent of his legitimate King, Louis XVIII. Do you want any other 
proof 'of his consistency than his present servitude under an Usurper ?— 
Bur I shall insert, in his own words, his former political confession, and, 
after reading this, leave you to draw your own conclusion. 

'' In a jetter printed and published fn London,, 4uring the month of 
July, 1799, .wben speaking of a rumour of changing the succession from 
the family that fillea the Throne^ on account of its pretended attachment 
to the abuses of the old system, he eKcIairos thus :— ' In this manner do 
Che regicides call around them all the interests, all the fears of those who 
have taken any share whatever in the revolution ; and thus do they hope 
to seduce even foreigners, who wish to be delivered at any rate from the 
French Republic. ^ Bm qjjiat Sovereign cmld he tempted to emn&mi the rem 
vdatiofi, bj yoBaetarify adjuiging the renuard of ii to em Uturfer ^'—-Soihe 
Sovereigns have been so tempted \ and, what if worsei several of th« 

^o, Cf ¥01. • x«T. ' M distinguished 

dtfcingaisbed at)d most favoured subje^s of Lottb XVI. t^bo oired on. 
doubted atlegiance to his lawftil SQccesfiorsy and, among these, even Ms. 
Malouec hinself! !— •* T/:e rights fsmc^es^M avd of pnperiy arhe fmm the 
mmthatUyttnd^ib* <vi9U:H.H ef tbtm lends to tkf tame c'*nseftseii€€S»' Mr. 
Bdakniety* by his condudy ihen^ has san^ioned the violation oi property, 
-^nAf cociseqiieocly aU the z£ii of,]^aHdeir iind confisraclon, which he lately 
ft^j^lfOngiy and so justly coiKletnuc»j. — f Wbc^e i> the hope of seeing ap 
end to so many calamities otherwire than by a i\frw consecration ot a]l 
l3|«fal> rights ? Those of the people and those of the Prince Iiave a common 
sKXirqe^ the pttreneu (puritj }. of which it is of the utmost importance u> 
restore and preserve* Where us tht* Frer.chrran, oui cf the circle of lend- 
ing criminals, who has npc more to drtad from the present tyranny than 
froiiv his old government ?'-:— Docs Mr. Miiloucr, then, mean to class him* 
self among the leading criminals, or has he voluntarily placed himself 
under the p'resatt tyranny urhich he dreads ? — Uirnm h,nun ma^-vis' accipe, 
\ ** The auihoriry of a King may be tco great ! Ahrsl Abused f.uthonty 
has beev rendered so execrahh hy Vsurptrs^** by none, either of ancient or of 
'modern times, so much so, xs by that Usurpicr wlose disgraceful commis. 
sion he now bears! — ** that a lawful Prince wiil never be tempted to 
employ it; but tutelar authority, that which proteds and preserves, 
cannot be too powerful. 

*^ It is the fiw^ious, then, and the most guilty among them, who con- 
tinue to mislead this agitated naiioni even in appearing to favour its in- 
clination towards Royalty. They call for a change ih the line of succes. 
won; that is to say, for an endless civil war ; lor either the ikw King 
would be alien to the House of Bourbon, or of the same blood, but of 
another branch. In the former case, it would not be for the intcrcbt of 
Europe more than for the French, that thfe Pr nee of another Sovereign house 
should sow the seeds of war by a title depending uf>on a diOerent succes- 
sion, cv* by so close a connexion between two great monarchies; in the 
latter case, the lawful heir of the Bourbons does nor renounce his rights. 
Koyalty, however, once established, would not the Usurper be sui>ported 
by. the Revolutionists ? — Granted : — but would . those who arc not so, 
would loyal subjedls, or even the dibconrtnied factions, hesitate to write 
in favour of the lawful King ? Orice again, thru, for the interest of a few 

»itlty men, would innocent b^cd he bh(^, and. the trapquiiUty of the 
Empire be dfsturbed I And nvhat charge can be I id ogahtst Lfiuis XVIII, bw 
njobich he forfeits tht nient ration and Iv^a'ty WK owe him ?"-^ Here Mr. 
Sdalouet stands before the public a ielj.cuu'vitied trait'jr\ for what is he but 
a traitor, who ofwes al^legiance to his lawful Sovcrtigr, and pays it to the 
rebellious Usurper of his throne? *' Where should we find a jCing bett^h- 
instrudied by inisfortunes, less exasperated against his enemies, or mote 
disposed to all the modiiicatioiis which reason could aufhoriae or policy 
counsel ? — Let the French nation, at length, throw off their tyrants^ ond 
Uf in their incapacity tt gwem otherwise than ^I'.te.rror, the necessity •frf^ 
t^ptmf t^ the Jpatemal and national sceptre,** So be:cause Mr. Ma^ouc^ 
Cf 11I4 t^ot^/^ the eyes of his countrymen to see this nooes&ity, which. every 
h^i^est mao acknpiiirledges^ he shuts his vum agaitut it. 

'f It. is ap length discovered that the revolutibnary oligarchy, ts'incpm'. 
pati^Ie.^ith the, safety of other States. It i» against t& apited^mimi^~ 
Md0gam$ ibtfirci bQUie tQ M L^ful fowtr^ that the war ^ now wagiei^ 

• • and 

Tki A/giati Tra^rikfi l$^ 

imI if tls panlcft t<?ftt igain wijdi « f'reiicli Repi&lic, it dm'fio Uinget 1^ 
oomposed either of the ame loen or -of the tame prioci^es ; now k reg^- 
imtioQ of it« ekments appean to me much more diftcuit thito the rest<r. 
ncion of tlie mooarGhy^ 

" Afe'we to wonder then that three hundred thoasand moItftiODisu^ 
who have but one obje^^ and a coaaon interest, should pitesent them- 
«dT^ to £urope as a miiitaty national /body, when they are allowed xk^ 
jneaas of converting their oj^ressed countrymen into aoxiliaries ) . 

*' On the dissolution of this revolutionary jpower, fand Louis XVIII; 
ALOirs cao dissolve it) depends the . repose of Europe ; and the meant \fi 
eieA it ate open to the French^ the road that would lead them to a lani^^' 
fi4 gO¥emiDieiit» to u mmarcby under Lyms XyilL wisely aioditad." 

Though the repose of Europe depends, according to Mr* NiaToueV 
OD the dissoliicion of the revolutionary power, he, Mr. Malouet, lends 
his aid to support that power; and though be again admTts thai! 
nothing but the restoration of the lawful Monarch-- (and in both these 
positions wc heartily concur with htni)— can produce this desirable 
end, he tenders his services to. an Usurper who is the principal obita*** 
cle to that restoration. Never did a n>ari pronomice his own condeni-' 
nation aK>re emphatically than Mr. Malouet i 

In a Letter fl-otn Lisle, our Traveller makes some remarks on the 
schism which prevails in the Gallican Church,- in consequence <lf 
the new oath required by Buonaparte from the clergy; and of ^ 
•tppoimment of most improper persons to fill the \:lferi€al office. 

^ A gentleman of the dinner party told me, that the imoKun^tf and 
known viciocift lives of many ofuhe present members of the clergy, wouki 
fer'a kn^ time retard the order so much wished for ; and that govemminlt 
)us done wrong not to exclude from clerical fundio^ns, all those who duf. 
idg the Revt^ution have preached infidelity, pronounced proscriptions, or 
shared in plunder. He said that one of the Grand Vicar» of the Bishop 
of Cambrav, was one of the most infamous and proftigate aasong- former 
icvoltttiomstSt He had seen this apostate priest many times in tlk tribune 
tf the Jacobin Club of this city, with a red cap on .his head, blaspheme 
kit Saviour, and commend the excesses of those his felk)w-citizens, who ^ 
veraccttted and murdered priests, whom he called a Set of impostors or 
mob* He blasted of the manner in ^hich he, when in the cooiessional^ 
seduced innocence, and inspired licentiousness and libertinism^ He oneb 
saw him even walk at the head of a set of jacobin banditti, who went io 
lh0 totNrn-kail, seized and murdered 'four clergymen, Who were detaffned 
tbece fi)r #ant of cards of citizensliip. When the people see such a vilYaft^ 
ss thb man, nrhose name is (if I remember right) Deoird, kneeling befoit 
the dron of Gdd, (whom) he has ^o pablitly outraged, and officiating at 
thste akavs onoe demolished and poUated by him ami his associates,, must 
11 not* excite bM^ indignation and kosror } Could any Soveieigii who dc^ 
sired the progress of infidelity, and the dettrudion of Christianity, aft 
.difeently, or with mose (greater) prosped orsuoceas^ than if he nomi*. 
Bated the most wicked of men, the intermediate servants of Christ } Com^ 
non aense must infiMnn even the most ignorant, that a iost God« as well 
f^VKtf'ffii^ aan^'oMiSt'teaii^gTiUt, and is iidBbaomm by its approach* 


mnch more by its services.'' — All wt shall $^y upon tliifsubjeA is, ihat 
" such priests as these arc truly worthy of their master— Boonafiartey who 
/exhibits, in his own person, the consummation of all wickedness and 
guilt. It was naturally to be expeded that where so much profligacy pre- 
vailed in HmT church, the [^cople would not be very virtuous. According- 
>fy we are told, that while the armies were encamped in French Flanders, 
■ six tfmsand and fweirty-fonr pmstittftes from Paris, in four months Only» 
f provided with the passes and licenses of the minister of police,' bad at- 
rived at Lille. The following account of a private ball in that city may 
' aufiice as a specimen of revolutionary morals, under the reign of Napo. 
leone the First. 

*' I was invited last night to a ball given to her children by a widow 
lady, a relation of ray correspondent. The prefeft and scvefal generals 
were of the parry ; but if sixteen years ago I had seen such a licentious 
manner of dancing, and heard such indecent and indelicate language, whicli 
here seemed natural, I should have supposed myself in a brothel, and not 
in a decent house of a respeAable mother of a family. I made this remark 
to Dieudonnd {^t prefeO) who said, laughing, < as you are going to 
-Piiris before you leave France, you will consider this ball as an example 
-cf modesty, and of modest behaviour. In advancing towards the interior^ 
you will find the progress of vice and corruption gradonlly augmenting.* 
Observing a young wotnan under twenty, who adorcssed herself in rather 
too familiar a way to three gentlemen near her, I asked whether she was 
.DQt one of the licentiates of the minister of police ? ' No such thing,' aiK. 
swered my friend, ' she has been married to all three of these gentlenieB* 
and is divorced from them, and neither of them is the father ofthe infant 
with which she is playing.' — But how could such a chara^r be admitted 
among so many innocent and virtuous women and girls as 'are assembled 
here? — * Here, certainly,* said ray friend, ' are some females of that de- 
scriptioti you mention, but I can shew you, in an instant, a dozen of 
divorced women, who both before and since their marriage^ have bastard 
children, and who have been or^ are still kept by somebody (some persons^ 
who does (do) not wish to ex()Ose himself (themselves) to the chance of 
matrimony. Do you judge Franct as it is from what it formerly was-f 
A revolution in morals and manners is nothing but the natural eff^A of « 
X religious and political revolution. You must see and jtdge by (fbr| 
yourselfj my explanations at present would be insufficient or incompre* 
liensible. If you return to Brabant this way you will understand me 
better.' " 

Our readers will, very naturally, infer from this description, that 
a madest ball-room, under the reign of Napoleoife, is an exadl coon- 
terpait of a brofthel, uncjer Louis XVI. Such are. the stupemUus ad- 
vantages of religious, political, and moral regeneration I 

The description of the French camp at Boulogne, which cxhibtved 
Paris in miniature, is curious; but it is too long for us to extrad. On 
his road to Paris, our Traveller passed through Clermont fieauvdisin; 
ntfj to which town the Duke of Fit2* James had formerly a magnifi- 
cent country sciat.,, 

^^ A baiber, for a trifltog ssm in assignats beonne master of the dttteain 
--.;;. wkick 

The Bdgkm traveller, ^ l6ji 

wbkk ke 4eflM)lttliedt' and for tfae muterialt of which he obtained fear* ^ 
teen times the porchase money, and was enabled bf it to buy a part off 
the park. All the timber and all the wood was (were) immediately cut / 
down and sold, which again more than doubled his capital. He then 
thought it prudent or dignified to change his name with his fortune. 
Under the appellation oi Beaumanoir he came tcf this capital (Paris},,. 
booghf an hotel, speculated in the lunds, increased his riches, was ad* > 
vanoed to the rank of a general, without ever having seen an enemy, and 
is now a commander of Buonaparte's Legion of Houoor. His wife's roots, 
assemblies^ and balls, arc now the resort and rendezvous of all fashionable 
people of both sexes. And what has the great nation gained by this sale 
of national propertyj which has ruined a Duke, and enriched a barber i 
Not the amoimt of twelve thousand livres, 500I. sterling!" 

The author's exctanuitions on revisiting Paris, aftet^a lapse of thir- 
teen years, aie perfcdly natural. 

" Thirteen years are passed away since I the last time inhabited this^ 
guilty city, this focus of corruption^ immorality, and crime! the.most 
patriotic of Kings then reigned ; or rather rebels used his name to tyrant . 
nize; but what atrocious monsters have since succeeded him ! 

^* When I was here in 1791, the revolutionary fame of the despicable La 
Fayette was (^lipsed by the increasing popularity of a vile Petion, of an 
infamous Brissot, and of their sanguinary and depraved accomplices. '* 
Ndw a man rules^ unlimited, who then was an obscure individual : aiMl 
the weight of hif iron sceptre, though oppressive and crushing, is en^ 

^ured, if not with content and satisfadion, at least without resistance. Those 
who then exclaimed, with hypocritical enthusiasm, liberty ! equality I frater. 

, mty or death I li ve^now the quiet and abjed slaves of an Usurper, who owns : 
no superior, who supers no equal ; who has trampled upon the- rights of 
ipan, invaded the Sovereignty of his Prince, and annihilated the Sove. 
jeignty of the people; who, unrelentingly, tyrannizes over the French 
nation, and oppresses and treats ail other states like France/' 

And it is. for t/ih ' that ancient institutions have been overturned ; 
that all property has been destroyed \ that law has been annihilated ; 
that marder has been consecrated ; and that so many millions of inoney 
have been squandered, and so many millioi^s of lives saciificed ! ! ! — If 
the evil were limited to France, we couM atinost wisih that Napoleone 
Buonaparte might long livb 10 govern the French, as the only punish- 
ment adequate vo their crimes. ... 

Fatalism^ we are told, has become the /asiionatlc reVigioti of the 
Parisians and of the armies i and as these two classes give the ton to* 
the whole £mpire, no doiibt the great majority of the French are 
faiedisisJ It is cenafuly the most tomforfSble kindof persuasibi) foi' a 
people who treat thecomitiands of their God with suorfemt contenfipt^' 
and are .determined to gratify their -pasaions without mtraim, and, in 
ihDiC, to live af they please. . ^ • 

** But this spirit of fatality also diininishes industry, flatters Idleness, 

and oiCttes a negled of eVe/y ihing that ^<yii not prodube ifi iiDmediate 

• • M I — - - ' ^' •- '^^ enjoy. 


lis •klQIKAL C&ITtC^kM* ^ 

,1 . • ■ ■ ■ 

eiijoynint. It tn^iieaMs the pastion of gamUing (of which gtivtiftmit^ takejr 

iliTantage to a shameful d^ree)^ and aoements the number of wretches^ 
Hriio^ after being disappointed^ become cksperate, and destroy others or 
themselves. la a kw words, its fatal effeAs are felt ad iufimitum^ alfeady' 
among all classei of society; and must be still more felt in genehitioos to 
come. Many true patriots and devout Christians hoped that the presemse 
, of tho Roman Pontiff would pot a stop to its progress^ and imjpede its n- 
*T«ges; but from what 4 have heard of the public ppihion, Plus VII. bf 
his submission to% Buonaparte, and by suffering hi|nself ro be an instrument 
of his ambition; if not, as many say here> an accomplice of hi^ guilt, haf 
'more scandalized faith, than converted infidelity." 

We always maintained that this wretched Pontiff had dose moirf^ 
to d^rade and to discredit the religion which he pfofesses, than afl 
lijs predecessors had done for some centuries. To become the minion 
. of an assassin, blasphemously to hail as his beloved Son in Jesus ChrUt 
a monster of iniquity, a linan drenched in human blood, a wretph 
stained with every crime, who had puhHcly renounced his Redeemer| 
add most impiously proclaimed his triumph over the Cross^ is such a 
degradation of charader, such a display of baseness and infairiy, as oo 
'lybrds are sufficiently strong to chara<Sierize. And yet this is tne Pon- 
tiff whdm the infatuated Romanists of Ireland ajc taught to veuer^tc^ 
tcp idolize* and almost to deify ; — they regard him as it^aUible^ ^aA 
are» we have reason to fear, but too well prepared to psiy implicil 
T]i>edtence to his coiiimands, be they what they may ; and what tbef 
'WJU be^. under the dictation of Buonaparte, it requires no gift of pre<» 
sipiencc to ^ivipc. Let our rulers look to this, and then, if.they dare^ 
or» rather, if their consciences will let them, issue their manositea to 
their dependents, not to defend the established religion of the realm, 
1>y exposiijg the dangerous tenets of the Romish Church. Heaven 
forbid, we should be ever reduced to the cruel necessity of enforcing 
» lecpad r^nvfa//0ff, or a second revplutifm\ if experience have not 
taught vs wisdom,' we ought to perish for our folly. We descrv 
jgreat, very great danger, in the present tinies» ana it behoves all 
^yal subjedlfi and fa(ithful Protestants, not only to be vigilant, but to 
speak plain truth ; careleK$ whon) it may offend. 1^ prit^iples 
which placed the House of Brunswick on the throne are those w^iich 
we profess, and around which ev6ry true friend of his country most 
rally, at this.mbmentous crisis, prepared not only to defend them with 
firfnfWft and resolution, but to proclaim to the world his iktermina* 
lioosp rodo, 

, Ovr Traveller 4^Qlares that, he had a lone conyenation with Boartays, 
^ho ii the nxipi^t^r of the Christian worship, a new office cmatoi fiov 
llttpi by tl^e: infidel iyraiit his master, on the suhjeA of tUt^mvciarf 

frevalence of fatalism, and on the subjeft of t^e Pope's yma^rtu^ 
^aps. Po^talis told.hiti) tha^be had foreseea thf danger of i|| and 
^lad dissuadi;a Bpbn^parte from insisung <^ it ; but that T^dleyrandji 
ifbo i^isbed to degrade the [eligiosi whidi he hates, pressed It ao 
'' • ^ ^ 1 ttiongly. 

' Mrooglf, fliat aH Ais arginnents faiktl.- Tht following. isriCtraA hmt a 
•lencT written by this Porialis, to a confideorial advilet ^ Lddk 
XVIIl. and Jared Paris, Augusta, I797t is curioul \ 

** The public spirit is now all over France, such as I wish it. ^1^ 
return of the Bourhons, and the restoration to his Throne of the ati^ti^t 
Chief of that illustrious House, to which France is indebted for Ml her. 
grandeur and posi'trity for ages, is th? common talk^ wish, and order df % 
the day here, as well as in the depaurtments. Some few culpable and obi 
scure Jacobins speak, Indeed, still of liberty and equality, but thdrfiow 
woold be totally insig^iiificant, and not heard, had they not u^ie&fA §ck 
their chief and protectt)r, the fortunate general of the army ft Italjr 
(Buonaparte); but measures have been taken hy the leading frivncis iS 
Monarchy, to remove this foreigner both from Ins comiBaml 9iA frolii 
France* Present my most humble nnd dotifol homage to my hetorWl 
Xing, and assure His Majesty of my iuifariabie, de^idkm wnA fiiiliij^ V^vkjf 
|a&c breath." 

TTiis invariable devotion and fidelity have been finely iNostrated Wr 
the alh glance which Mr. JPortalis has sworn to the Usurper of diit 
Monarch's Throne, and the murderer of his family. The Son 6f, 
Portalis was Secretary of Legation in tliis Country, during the A4- 
dingtonian truce, and is now Minister at Ratisbon. An anecdote b 
here told of one of Buonapane's senators, Lanjuinais, wKich, if trtfe, 
redounds verv inucli to hjs creuir, as it proves him to be a Co'iisl^^t 
charatSler, and a republican in principle^ which <^ail be said of Stij 
few indeed of ihc pretended /^rri^/i of France. . ' 

" When he, in i799> accepted fi;om Buonaparte his present place of a 
senator^^ it is certain that he was promised the continuance, andorganiza. 
tion, of a Republic, having for b^sis, liberty, equality, and popular re- ' 
presentations ; but in 1802, when ;'/ ivas question (therefwas a question} aboot 
a Consulate for life,, and he obtained an audience of Buonapiarte, to dii. 
saad;^ him from such an a^, and to cause him to remember his former 
proftshions'; he >k'as answircd, * that the mass of the people inclined X% 
and d^iired, monarchical forms and institutions.' — * Then be JU»t>', r^l 
plied Lanjuinais, ' recall Louis XVIII. ; and, if a throne Is agaiq to de« 
grade France, it 10 him 'and nobody else.* " J ' ' ' . 

'fTiis certainly was the language of an honest man, and therffon 
** Buona^rtehas never since uddres-^ed to him a word/' A very dju 
fevem charadier is piesented in the |)efSon of Mr. Fouche, an aposuiD 
AfoRk, and Buonaparte's bosom friend, and Minister of Polioew--^ 
Sopot year-s ^o, w))en on hi^ w^ay to Lyons, this devil in humM 
tiupe, stopped at Sens, wjiere he give a feaat to his brcttfaer Jacobins in 
the totvD. At this feast he cut into pieces the /uarts of the Daupirin 
Md Daupbineis. of trance, the iUustrioiis parents of Louis XVI^ 
Mkii^ hpad been priberVeA in ^e> Cathedral, and whicb he Ikk) fakcm 
from thence and ordered to te ^Msied fo^ t}ye ticcasf on^ afliMi«ltFitllS#6d 
ta his caAdttor go^stlSi iiQii#^6N¥M|glMJk>hidl^ chbiriis^ 

t68 OEl^OIKAL e^ITICISlff. 

claimedt << Oh ! goqU I but at die same time devour all Empeftxrit 
Kings, and Princes, I should make a repast to be envied even by the 
Gods!" , - 

At Chalons our Traveller met i^ith a Banker, who had been ^ fa« 
rious patriot at the beginning pf the French Revolution, but i^htifit 
ruin pnd imprisonment had restored to his senses. Adverting to hi? 
former mania, he observed, •* When 1 now hear any one speak of 
Jiber^y, t always put my hands in my pocktts ; whpn of equality, I 
•tremb}e as in the prescnc^p of an assassin ; and wlicn of fraternity, rui| 
^way as fpst ^s I can, for fear of being sti«|>bcd and pillaged." This 
most bie allowed to be very rational condu£l. 

We had marked several passages in xh^ fourth volume of thcsfu 
Travels for notice and comment, but we have already extended our 
observations so far, that Wq must bring tiiis article to a close. Passing 
then, over various anecdotes of low-born upstarts, and profligate thieves^ 
branded by the executioner, whom Buonapaite has raised lo places of 
frust and power ; and among oiiiers, of the Usurper's beloved uncle, 
the Cardinal Fcsch, who, we arc tqld, formerly kept, first a tavern, 
^d afterwards diflFerent brothels, we shall come to the result of tlie 
,Trayellejr's general obs>ervations on the state of religion and politics ill 
France^ or rather on the feelings of the people on those iroportaoc 
subjefls. Speaking of Lyons, a city, the population of which ba^ 
l)een reduced, by revolutionary horrors, from one hundred and sevrntjr 
fve thousand souls^ to one hundred and twenty thousand^ he remarks : 

*** As to religion in this city, it is^ as e^er^ nvhere else w France; the 
peofJe want a Sopr^me Being, a God to whom they can contide their sor. 
tows and griefs^ and ip whom they /ran address their prayers for relief, 
and from Whoni they can hope for succours. £ut their worship is merely 
exteriial mupimery ; t|ieir Christianity under Buonaparte is the same a^ 
their atheism under Robespierre, and their infidelity under the Dircftorj ; 
it is the mere fashion of the day. Were the fortune of Buojiaparte tp 
continue some years longer, he might with the same ea^e drive rrench, 
men into mosques^ as he nov drums them into churches ; and they would 
there^ >ivjth the same sincerity, prostrate themselves before Mahomet, as 

ihey at present kneel before the crucifix. 

• • •'•' •'• • • • * •. 

•' The clergy in this part of France (the South), as well as in the 
northern departments^ are divided by an unfortunate schism ; the churches 
of the constitutional priests are deserted, while every Sunday, or holiday, 
" the non-juring priests are forced by the faithful to celebrate often in opqi 
fields the mysteries of the Roman Catholic religion. Their audience is 
always very nomerous, and though they have no salaries, they are better 
supported than their opponents* A As of cruelty and of violeiKe have been 
exercised to cause this rejieious scandal to cease* and to produce a desir^ 
able union in the church, but all in vain ; and the people have preferred 
HOI to go to church at all, rather than to attend the mass of (said by) 
priests^whom they considlered as perjured apostates. 

<< At Cioiai the ^ens d'annes seized last jeaxy by the order of goverp. 
j^ept^ 4| non*jurb]^ prie^tj while officiating in a fields but the people rel 

ktocd hia»'and killed three of the gens d^armeSj, He'Wai^ hotreter, 
uken up again secretly, and ordere<l tO be transported. Oo the ibilowii^ 
Sunday the constitutional priest wa) assailed and dispatched before tihe 
altar, and for a month the opposite sedari^ almost every day occaaionedL 
cooftt^i^n and alarm, and numbers of persons perish^, until Government 
xhought it prudent to perinit the non-juring clergyman tO' tetum and tm 
nficiate undisturbed^ 

'' In many parishes in the south of France, tife F^pf hat h^en bumi m 
efigji %u^ a Jacohin cof on kii head; and every where his <buiis have 
been torn to pieces. He is considered as much under the power of 
the devil, as under that of Buonaparte, and a caricature is hawked about 
among the country |)eople, representing him fraternising between Napo. 
leone and Belzebub. Under their figures are written these words :— ^ 
Aid theu three make but one ferson.*' f i his allusion to the Trinity is im- 
pious)^ f* In another caricature an angel is seen seizing his tiara from hia . 
head, the instant he is placing an imperial diadem on the head of fiuorau 

** From what I ha;^e heard and seen, during my present journey, lam 
more than ever convinced that the < Ecratont tlnfame,' of Voltaire, haa 
never ceased to be the order of the day among his se^aries ; and that 
Chrlatiainty in France approaches every day nearer to its extind^ion.— r 
fiiKMiaparte and Talleyrand are too politic to knock on the head, at onc^ 
a religion of eighteen centuries. But the degradation of Christianinr, in' 
the person of its "ostensible chief, has produced the tame revolution m ra. - 
Jigious sentiments, as the humiiiation and murder of thehead of the^kingu 
^m of France, had already done in political ones ; and most Frenchmen 
are therefiire^ligious, as well as political, freethinkers. But, if I am not 
misinlbrmed, Talleyrand said, even when the Pope still fraternized witk 
Buonaparte in the Thuilleries, * Clvristi^nity in France will desoend into 
the tomb| without giving either alarm, or making any noise, because the 
present generation of the French clergy will leave no posterity behind theiQ^ 
Their faith i^ buried with them, and no resurrediun of either is to be 
apprehended by the friends of philpsophy/ Indeed when one remembei> 
that all the present French priests must be now either old, or above the 
middle age, as since 1 790 hardly any ^oung Frenchmen have entered inti 
orders, it is not improbable that within twenty or thirty years, the pre. 
aeot altars of Christ here will be deserted for want of servants to officiate/* 

These faSs and refle£tions we coasi|;n to the judgmeot of. oar 
j-eaders, observing however, that the last fa£t mentioned ^ is a very^ 
striking one, and one which never occurred to us. What a stjang^ 
fpedack will it be, to see an imroease empire without a qiiniuer of 
s^igion. But it is to be hoped that the goodness of Providence will 
inteqpose, and, by cutting off the infidel barbarians who thus laboifr to 
eradicate all relig^ious principle from the minds of the millions who 
are, for a tiime, subjedl to their dotpinion, prevent such a horrible di^ 
grace xq the Christian world. .. f 

' The political feeling,s of the FVench, as they appeared, iit least; to 
fwr TpreBer^ may b6 coBe^ed froiii the foUpwing observsftfons c ' 

f^ Oftt^fKAL ciirrfcfiK. 

V ^ Tlie {NiMk «|»rit is Mill more excellent for the reitontionirf' onler 
in tbe touthem, than in the northerni' part of France* The death of 
SMMparte, and the adroitness and popolarity of some loyal chief, ve 
ka^y leqnisije to make France happy , and other Statca secure. I wiU 
ifcfy the inost zealous friend of the present GoTemmeot, and of its Chsef^ 
«o risit a village, town orVcity,' an wa, a hotel, a coffee-house, a reuan^a^ 
temr, a public walk, or a theatre, without Bearing murniurings, com* 
filatnts, and oftein curses against them both; with jxpresbions of R-gret 
«o the recolle^ion of former times, and of wishes that these may soon 
vetnrn. Volney has justly said, ' that the French were a taii^ative^ and a 
gossiping people ;' notwithstanding Buonaparte's spies, gaols and execo. 
Mners, they speak, and will speak when in crowds or in parties, where 
-they hope to meet with fdlow feeling, both of bis atrocities, and of 
<heif execrations of them ; but they will do nothing but speak, and will 
aot sacrifice an hour of pleasure, or a Louis d'or of their property, in ai» 
«ttanpt to be released from their sufferings, or relieved of (from) their 
burdens. They seem all to expcd, that some supernatural power wiU, 
vithout their interference, put an end to their afflidions. Such a people 
«0ems as if created to be the most submissive of slaves, but will never 
Isnoi*^ how to enjoy the blessings of freedom." 

We believo this to be a very accurate account of the state of the fiub- 
lic miqd in FraiKe j but the Revolution has lasted so long, that a new 
i||eocraiionha& sprung up, ami what principles and what feelings may 
Save been instilled into their minds, it is not very difficult to conjeCi^ 
'CAre.-^-H^^e we had intended to close our review of these vokimes^ 
iivs mce we took up the pen, the account of the murder of a Ger^ 
fifian hookseiier, tried and sliot by a band of French ruffians, calling 
themselves a Afiiitary Commission^ sitting in ts^ foreign country, InK 
'sAing tinder the orders of their murderous tyrant, Buoniiparte, hss 
^teaclied us. On this transadlion, unparalleled 1n the annals of the 
tivilized world, we shall take another opportunity of stating our sen** 
fiinenrs ; but as it tend^ to confirm our Traveller's statemeni respe6ling 
the tyranny exercised over the press by the advocnres Jor Uhtrty and 
apudiiy in t^rance, and as^ coupled with that statement, it proves to 
diemonstration the formation of a r^ular ai)d comprehei>sive system 
*fox enslaving the public mind throughout Europe^ we shall lay it be- 
fore our readers. 
'. . ' / 

*" '« As to books or pamphlets, the booksellers, all dver PrJhce, are, 
upon the least suspicion, exposed to domiciliary vishs^ and arbitmry toK. 
jirisonments. A respeftable bookseller here («t Marseilles) of the naaOt 
«f Girard, the father of six childfen, was .arrested l«»i year by ib«»r gem 
«j|'«rrflie8, carried to Paris, 4nd shut op in the TeMple, where be is stud 
1^ tti0i dkd wdiefdy^ Hk crime was, that a pamphlet had been di sco v cac d 
jd iiii ibop, ndicoHr^ ioonapftrce and his expedition to E^ypd Ic 
4«i ben pcfnt^M long %o at 1798, andGiraini had foi;^tten. tkat- he 
liad>a copy of it left, 
«^: <r At) AQKOWMvai^p fieta Ukde FroMoe% was unle^ seqtitttratifD last 

K, for ^v^A months, an4 wi|f .^ot iKlcased smd restored to 4t# owner 
ce they (he) had paid a fine of sixty thousand lirtes^ 2500!. becauae 


TTki Silgiam TfjtnfiH^. 171 

en board of it we(^ discprcred son^jc English books, in which the Booiuu 
parte family was* hot treated with sufficient rtrfe&^ aftd their low origia 
exposed. An Austrian vessel .from Tdest was also laid undqr emba^go^ 
tbinelew weeks ^go, and not permitted to sail again befbit the mastef 
tad paid one thousand Louis d'ors^ for having on board a Gcnnan transbu 
tion of Sir Robert Wilson's History of the Campaign in Egypt. B«t #* 
leUrion of all afts of persecution and oppression for a pretended viola tion^ 
of the laws concerning the liktrty of the press, would fill volomes* Certain, 
it is, that though Buooaporte may sign treaties with ciMneCi, he will 
never, as long as he lives, be in (at) peace with printiftg^offcei. He 
and his principal adherents have too many crimes to conceal, and too few 
^good and generous anions to report, not to dread incessantly a publiciqr 
v^kI ix»J exhibit them in their true colours* 

'^ I hav0^ heard from one of Buonaparte's public fun^ionari^, that half 
of die state criminals dispatched in the Temple, or transported ^q Cayenne 
afe authors, booksellers, and printers ; and that as nany of thetn um 
Qfmem^ Italians, and £wiss, as Frenchmen. , llie Emperor of the French 
lias pardoned conspirators^ forgers, assassins, and even parricides ; but \» • 
never yet forgave an accused authorj a susjpe^led bookseneii.or a colpa« 
bic printer/' 

It moec be admitted that the Tyrant pays due homage to tihe 'preu, 
for fie admits its power while he stifles its voice, and destroys nt free*« 
dom. The system of destrudlion, however, potent as are the rticsma 
which he employs for giving it effect, is too diabolical, we triist, to^ 
wcceed in the nineteenth century, at least beyond the limits erf' nilu: 
jogatcd France. Nothing less than the establishaieot of a oomplei^* 
power of dilation over foreign Cabinets, can exsetid its deleterioue> 
effoAs to other countries ; unless, indeed, some miserable stale quackt^ 
trembling at the frown of tlie Usurper, should call in tl>e aid of legal* 
empirics 10 administer poison, in the shape of medicine, to \\\q loyat 
sibjeSs of their respe6live sovereigns, and so commit an mSi of poll* 
littcal and moral suicide, from the same motive fix^m which all adv 
of soicide proceed — fear. In such case, which we hope it not 
likely 10 occur (fer Ood forbid that che^^'ir^x of AiMapane sfaouhk 
ever be made the criterion of a libel in any Christian State)^ 'Aothtng;> 
but the most adive vigilance, and the most determined tigobr on the 
pan of the people, could rescue the country from siaverj> and cfo» 

By our copious extrafU from the work before us, qiHr readers wiS 
be enabled to fora^ an adequate notion of the eaicftainment which! 
they have to expeA from aip^usal of it.. The style of it, at mxm 
Ka«e heen seeni is ncorreQj^ it is evidently the produ^m iof a fei» 
signer, tandilw language is often disfigured by foreign idioiiis; ba« 
m thwi occor less Mquently than might natiii4lly be eocpeAcA under 
lecheirgi m istataetes ( and from the narture of tlie wevfc, the mom m ^ 
ii is;pf nupcli less imiporteiet tkaa the m^yitrr. 


art) ' 


I. Colonel Fullart0n^s StatemsfU J Letters^ and Docummts respe^ingtif 

Affairs of Trinidad. ' . 

%, Colonel ^iHon^s Letter to Lord Hobart. 
^, CokjulPuUartofCs Refutation of Colonel PiSotC s LeUer. 
4* iv'idenee taken at Port of Spain in tJie Case of Louisa Calderon, 
ij. Extracts from the Minutes of the Council of Trinidad, 
6. Lieutenant Colonel Dtraper^s Jddress to thi British Public^ 

(Coiaiuuedfnm VoU XXI F. page 11. J 

BY a circumstance before stated to our readers, we have been 
cempelted, equally against our inclination and intention, to postpobe 
our fenhef account of the various publications before us, respeflmg* 
tfce very ' extraordinary prosecutiort of Colonel Pidton, and the siiB 
more e^itt^or'dinary fa<5ls whfch preceded, accompanied, and foHowcd 
that prosecutioti. It may be necessary, for the information 6f our 
readers, to apprize them, that in the interval which has elapsed, since 
our attention was first drawn to this case, farther prosecutions have 
\fitxk insmuted. No l^ss than * three^ we understand, have been dt- 
xefied against Lieutenant-Colonel Draper, viz. i. An adion by 
Mr. FiiUartim : and here we cannot but commeud that gentleman's 
fairness^ because, by this mode of proceeding, he has afibrded the dc* 
fesdant an opportunity -of putting in a plea of juxtif cation^ and conse- 
quendy oi proving the truth of his averments, when (hey are susceptible 
of proof— an opportunity, of which, we believe, the said defendant 
bas most eagerlv availed himself. 2. A prosecution, ofwharnatvre 
ve know not, liy Mr. Monies^ a Spaniard, a friend of Mr« Fullar* 
ton's, 3. A. criminal information by Mr. Sullivan. In respcA of 
this last, though we feel great concern at the sele£lion of a mode of 
proceeding which precludes the possibility of any investigsition of the 
real merits -of ihe case, we cannot, on the other hand, but be grati-^ 
fied at the confidence with vhich the prosecutor has been able 10 state 
bis own innocence upon oath* For, before leave, would have been 
given to file saacb an joformation, an affidavit to that effect must have 
becn.made. In. this case, then, no evidence can be adduced on the* 
part of the defendant — the affidavit of Dr. Lynch, which .oootaiot 
tbe mattfN^' alleged to be Ubelious, cannot be received (as ii might 
have beettt in answec to an a^ionjj in his justification ; a verai&' 
must; be obtatiped against *him» and the public will be kit to decide, in 
their, awn mttdi-^icj silence^ ^ouoadhocy is:(hua authoritativdy imposed 
updo theffli'-^between tlie affidavit of Mr. Soljivagi, on the one hand^ 
aod tb^t of Dr. Lyncb on 4he other. We shall not here express our 
opinioiii.of .4)cse ptbsepotions, SS^e, perhaps, may be thought some* 
what selfish, or interested^ in giying a deoded preference to appcak 
to the public through the medium of the pres^ (particulariy where 
jpeconrse had already been bad to that channel of commanicatjon}» 


7^ Piffomsn'Pfdseoit!^. , 173 . 

over the tess-certatn, and more expensive, mode of estabKshing troth 
in a court of law. Be that as it may, we haVe a very decided opinion 
vpoa the question^ which, on all proper occasions, we shall be M 
ready to declare as to defend. We now proceed to the regofar dit- 
charge of our critical duty. 

in his preliminary observations, Mr. FuHarton observes, that noi^ 
thiiig but ** indications of coinciding sentiments,** on the part of 
Commodore Hood, the third Commissioner, could have encouraged 
him to undenake ** a task so delkatt and so arduous.* Now, if che 
situation were at this period one of such delicacy, and attended widl 
so many difSculries, what must it have been when Colonel PiAott 
was first appointed to it, bng before any insrru<Slioii6 bad been seiK 
from his M^esty ? But Mr. Fullarton would fain persuade us, rhat 
tJus delicacy, and these difficulties^ arose from ihe appointment ^ 
Colond Pi^on as second Commissioner, his displeasure at ivhich he 
takes ao pains to conceal, «as is manifest from xht language in wfaioli 
he adverts to it. ** Governor Pi6ton having been ai^inted to rtmdii 
second Commissioner,*' (how a man can be said to remain in a sittfo- 
tfon which he 'has never beford held, is not very obvious}^ *^ wtfh 
unrestraiaed power as Military Commandant, aira |>ossessiog ail the 
inflaence and means of counUraHlon^ arising from six years of absoicrfe 
and undivided authority, during which pericxi he had nonxinated (o 
their sitaations almost all the official persons in the isiaud/' Here k 
tnay be naturally asked, if Mr. Fullarton inic^^^d only to follow hj^ 
Majesty's instru£lions, what reason had he to fear any means of <omn>- 
teroRhn which Colonel Pinion might possess f or rattier, what meailfe 
of counteradioB could Colonel Pidon possess ? Whatever the appi^ 
henstons were on the one hand, or the means of counteradioa on the 
other, it is perfectly clear fliat a resolution was early formed to r^ 
move them, and on this supposition all Mr. FuUarton's subsequeitt 
proceedings may be lUituraHy accounted for. 

Mr. FultaiTon tells us, p^ge 6, that two days after his arrival oa 
die Island, Mr. Gtoster (his Majes^'s Attorney General of Trinidad), 
and Mr. Woodyear (Secretary to the Commissioners), ufged hie* 
** to concur in a -proclamaiioii, declaring that' all laws, usages, aad 
employments, should continue JnfuU force.'* He adds, that ^ as 
the ol^ed stated was to qtxict the minds of the inhabitants^ by remov« 
ing any apprehensions of innovations and supersessions!* he consented 
to the measure ; the proclamation was accordingly prepared, and or« 
dered to be printed. After all this was donf, and the proclamation 
was in the hands of the pfiiuer> it occurred to this scrupulously delicate 
Gentleman, that it was improper to take such a step without the pre* 
vious approbation of Commodore Hood, the third Commissiooer, 
ifvho was then at Barbadoes \ and, accordingly, he sent orders to the 
printer not to issue the proclamation. Now those who will give Mr« 
'Follarton credit for having been aduated by motivies of delicetcy oA 
this occasion, must consider the whole of his conduct, even as-pouiv 
trayed by htmielf, in the publicationt before US| in a ytttf differouc 
♦ , ' point 

fj4 ^xunnAv^eM^tTHuu. 

point, of Vi0# (rdn tha^in ^bich we^ frain, an attentive pennal of* 
theiDy 4r€ tod to coniider it. If Ke Jiod really bQen so deiicau, k must 
liave lOstRRtly pccurred to. him, that the proclamation was the joint afjk 
of himself and the second Commissioner ; i^nd that il having beep 
determined to issue it, and that determination, pf course having bcofi 
«Qmil)Ui)j<)9ted Co the second Comniis:>ipper, by the Secretary, it was 
JAj. FuUsirton's business to lake no farther step in it without previous 
consultation with his colleague ; and we douU. extremely ihe existence 
of any ^ght in him to countermand a joint order of himselt and ancv 
ihcir Commissioner. Be it qh^ervcd,. too, tliat two Commissioners, 
in the a^»MWKX of the thini« liatl the same plenitude of power, as the 
three when present together. There was no necessitv, tlieiefore, what- 
Kver,^ for the concurrence of t])e thiitl; an<) as for delicacy^ let the most 
ttupid, or the most prejudiced of human beings, read Mr. Fullattou's 
ponderous produiSiions, and then say, whether it. ever found a place 
io the mind of ibe first Commissioner. The first, prdcr for printing 
the proclauQ^tioa was sent, in the regular channel, by rhe Secretary 
to the Commission ; but the counter-order was sent by an Uruler- 
S^retary (what occasion there could be iox iwo^ it would be difficuk 
to devise), who was appointed by Mr. FuUarton hjmself. Mi*. 
Woodyear. we are told, npt withstanding this, dirediedlhe printer to 
.<ibcy the firsf ord^r ; ^ as he is unfortunacely dead/ he cannot answer 
lor hioiself, as he would have done, if alive \ but, if he did this, it ' 
would be no difficult matter to justify him, for he might think, as v^p 
A>» that 9tu Commissioner had no right to revoke an order issued by 
#ii;0. JBe that as it may> the order is proved, by all the subsequeoc 
events^ to -have iKcn a wise aud necessary order. Yet did Mr. Fultar- 
-ton, without any communication with Colonel Pidoh, order all the 
yrcxslaraations which had been stuck up to be p.ulkd down. If this 
"^txt not a manifest symptom of a' hostile disposition, we know not 
wliat constitutes hostility. Yet, dc^s not Mr. Fullartcn hesitate to 
•ay, in the very next page, that ** from the moment o^ my iirst arri- 
val in Trinidad) I fdt so ihuch dtlicacy on tlte subjefl of the relative 
Aituacian in which I was placed, by superseding Governor Pi^loOy 
ivbo had ruled the Cobny with absolute power lor six years, that I 
avcHckd every, thing which could wound his feelinj;s." Strange notions 
Mr* FuUarton must have of the susceptibility of the feehngs of an 
Officer and a Gentleman ( But pray, let us ask him what he means 
^y being seiU to supersede Governor Pi(^on? A man who is sent to 
jfttperside another, takesuhe. very situation from which that othev is 
fi^ympvedf cberelore, if Mr. PuJlarton is accurate, he must have been 
tent t$ ruh tbi Colony wiiA edf solute power* His condu£l, indeed, seemt 
ip. have hsea fbonded bnthis idea ^ but certainly his Majesty's instruc«> 
tioni:d9l«g9^;no such authority to him ; they only make him Jpin^ 
ConmaissifiQfi; with Colonel Pid^on and Commodore Uood. VFhstm 
ibeo did4bi| idea originate ? IVh9 ^ould have i^ifused it into the ouod 
0f Mr. FnUartpn ? Kealty wh^ we read these pnguarded admiasicmi 
# JMfi Ei4b«toib aod pdveit ta the HBpopti: sfq[te4 ia Dr. tifwki^ 

dUaintt we caimoi butisdspcfi the exittence of •oilie'MeretifMigvosv 
the <ikjc£t of which .was to deprive a brave ^rul experienced officer dt 
chell'iuts of his hooourable aiid valuable servicesy aud, still wotfc^ 
CO Arnish his reputation ) 

Mr. Fullarton tells os coo, that he ^* aAedon the deckred princi^ of 
avoiding a/i reiroipe^\^ ceruinly, as we have before sbown^ **.the 
instru6lioQS given to the^ oew Commissioners had nothing of a r«er«i> 
i;^/t^na{tii« in them ;*' — not so, Mr. Fullarton^s^^/«/nf ; for they^ai wie 
demonstrajed in the same place, prove dirediy the revefse.^ (See 
page 65 of our Review, VoL XXIV.) — We shall here just remark^ 
in addition tO what we there observed, on those strange tfansafilons^ 
that Mr. Fullarron's motion in council, for a list of all persons confined^ 
or punislicd, previous to his arrival in Trinidad, was either an iHegal 
:^uaiption of authority in Ititn, nor being sandlioned by any part of 
bis insiruSions/ or must have proceeded from some Jtf»v/ instrudlion«« 
If the former, it richly deserved punisiunent, as well from its incvi* 
Cable temlency to sow disseiitions jn the iJand, as from its beioi^ 
what Comn.odore Mood very jubily, in our'opinion* termed it, ♦* a 
libel upon his Majesty's Ministers,'* who had, very recently, boras 
honourable testimony to the merits of Governor Pidton ; — but if the 
latter^ rqspe(3 for that public to whom Mr. Fullarton has thought pcoperco 
appeal* as well as regard tor his own charax5ler, sliould have led him 
to produce his instrudions. At any rate, it is an intderaMe insult tc^ 
thccooamon sense of the public to assert, that he ** a£ted on thede* 
clarcd principle of avoiding all retrospe<9," and ,y^ to avow the mo« 
offensive, as weH as the most decisive of all retrospeeiive measures^— 
But he seems not to be fond of a straight forward path ; and to give a 
decided preference to the dark labyrinths of iucousiscency and contra* 
didlionj over the plain and even paths of truth and camlour. Advert* 
ing to the above list of criminals (which supplied him with his budgec 
of charges) he says, page 14, that it '* by no means implied that any 
person had suffered withcut some kind of trial \* yet in page 3^ coo- 
ler ring to these , very fa6ls, he s|)ecific ally enumerates, among thefHy 
** execution w//^pi<//nW." InmostofMr. Fuilarcort'site/fmtfW/SyCliereis 
a convenient ambiguity which rjtnders detedion difficuft, if not imprK> 
tidjMe ; hut, fortunately, in some of them, as our readers have already 
teen, be ha& been more positive, and less on his guard. As no frieiut 
of Governor Pi€kon*s escapes the lash of this quixotic assailant, Mn 
Gtoster comes in for his share of abuse; and not only of abuse, but of 
km also, for, we understand, he has brought an aaion against Mn 
Gloster, who, like Colonel Draper, has had the temerity xo put in a plea of 
JMsti&cation. He avers, — ** his declared friend and avowed adherent^ 
Jiilr, Qioeter, repeatedly pressed his services upon me in the capacity 
of Aid-^rOfOp ; an etnployment which I conceived to be by 09 
xpeasu WPa()taiihre. with, his official situajtioo as Colonial Attorney- 
X^ijMxal" Is. Mr. FuiUartoa very sure that Mr. Glostcr did ^«x 
^ mmm upm |iim? — We hav^ nearJ^ that there is not the smallest 
" fufik W ^mitiv% Who would supp^ from this 
' ^ ' ^' ^ Paragraph, 

176 OXlGitrAL cKificlm* 

.mragraph, thart Mt. Glosrer did really ibr some time zSt atltff* 
FuHartoii^s Aid-de^Camp ? Certainly, no one; yet such was really 
^e oase. Mr. FuHanon did appoint him to that office, all incompa^ 
tihle as he himself deemed it with thnc of Attorney- General f 
* PossiMy tlTe^w oh^M^rvatiom which we have hit) lerto. made, will 
tend to* diminish the surprize which our readers may experience on 
•the perusal of the first passage in Colouei Pi<Slon*s Pieface, to his 
Xetter addressed to Lord Hohart. 

*• Mr. Faliarton will rememher the following passage, in a cerraiit 
Vnannscript which was ** put into his hands,^^ he perhaps knows how 
\mdby whom : ** It may be unnecessary to observe,, t-hat when a per- 
son has been fully and unequivocally detected in maliciously advancing 
a notorious falsehood, his assertion or information, in a moral or ra<* 
tional point of view, is Hotio becreditwl upon any future occasion.'* 

Without meaning to apply tliis observation to any individual whaN 
«ver, we will vcinurc to declare that no man will deny the truth of ft. 

Mr. Fullarron, in his first book, repeatedly disclaims all kind of 
, approbation of tbc past proceedings of Governor Piddn, and suflers 
Jio opporiunity to escape him of representing that gentleman as the 
^ost infamous of men, /tind hiinse)t as differing from him in all his 
^ntiments, opinions, and anions. It was, therefore, not- without 
some little degree of astonishment, that we first read the foliowing^ de-^ 
daration of Captain Shelton, dated Port of Spain, 23d February 1803! 

'' On the evening of the 21st instant, I waited on Colonel Fullarten, 
by desire of Brigadier Gcncr;«l Pifton, in order to learn if he had made 
any arrangement to receive Commodore Hood^ the third Commissioner in 
Council^ on the next day. He immediately said, ' I am very glad ta 
see you, and shall embrace this opportunity of speaking to you inprhv£ie.* 
I accordingly withdrew with him, when he said as follows : 

** * You are no doubt, Sir, acquainted with the difierence- that subsists 
between General PiAon and myself, and I have to assure you it has not 
proceeded from hny intention on my part, as there is not any person who 
has a higher ophHam of his fut^ly abilities and energy : to his indefatigahie per^ 
Mtnieranee ani^atteHtim this colon/ is particularly indebted i and so far from my 
dtprtciating^ or nvisbing to lessen him in the public opumn^ I have to tssmrty^eo 
ibat I hold the highest opinion ^ not only ^f bis abilities, but of his admimstratiom ; 
nor do I know any person possessing more general information^ or a nxwe 
decided chara^er; and that / should think myself hound, as a manrf'bonomr, 
to grve the most ample testimonials; for in reality I think he has thJ strongest 
€laimj; and so far from my disopproving of his adminiUratitm, I should he hapfj 
to/oUiAu it; but my misfortune is, that J cannot^ at a moment^ derive 
such inforros^tion as he has acquired in an experience of six years in the 
colony. It has been said that I have coalesced with pendns inimical to 
bim and })is government ; this I ab»blutely deny^ and I dare any man to 
g^y so. In the situation in which I standi I have declared mya^f ready to 
receive all descriptions of people who wait on me, but not to tunura^ or 
eountenance complaints intended to he made hgftinst General PiSou ; SO Ikr frOfl^ 
i^ that when X perceived any attempt of this natutei t bdvt iuwrfatfy 


Tke Piflc^aH Pmecuih%. ifj 

AamrageJ it, mitariurg that the frHfeSivey And liot tlie rethi}e^^ Wai 
tte system on Wbich, on every occasion, 1 was detePrminal to»a6t. • My 
•eeeivii^ persons hostile to General FiAon, and whose principles? / iwrP 
tajf he JmtHjt C9iimreij ought not to be ittribaced to me ay a feiutt^ As* 
awmbera of this community I reoeivethem ; bat so far from countenanoingi 
that I aasure you they have felt my indifierence so fully as to have induced 
t^Km to say 9 that the joy they felt on my arrival in the colony has been tomod 
into mourning. Respecting my having sandioned a molatto woakaD» Dnval^ 
to remain bere for a short time, ^it was not a measorp intended in opposition 
to the General, but merely to ailow her to settle her affairs ; and if there had 
not been a misconception or misrepresentatipn, on the part of Mr, Woodyear^ 
the General would hot have attacked me in my own house, and in the jpre« 
sence of my wife and family,, in so^ high and imperious a tone. I have 
fiie'cliaftBC^^f^ officer and a gentleman to maintain, and cannot easily 
icooncsk the harshness of soch treatment. Notwithstanding, t beg yo^x 
will inform General Pi^on ofmj sincert nvish to co^operafr nvith him mostcor^ 
dialfyi bh wfbrmatton nvHl he fif the mnst essentiai service in the plans *which 
*» mffy adopt 9r pttrsue^ 'and his decided churaSer <iJom strengtbefe our councils i 
I am perie^y aware that by unanimity alone we shall succeed-^-notbln^ 
shall be wanting on my part. I repeat, as before, that \ admire bis abiA 
Ikies f emd bis extensive infomiaHon; and I, of Course, so far from censuring 
or having cause to censure any part of -his administrdtiatty that I thaH- 
erw think it <wortby of indtatriny rnnd such ai we ought to follow,* • 

*^ Soch was the substance of Colonel Fullar ton's conversation, whidl 
lasted, 1 believe, an hour, reiterating his approbation and admiration of 
Gcneml PiAon, and his hopes that I would do justice to his sentinient ttt 
my eommttnicaiion." Robert SitBLtOM, 

Capuin 57th Regiment. 

Atteslcd before the Privy Council. \ 

Mr. Fullarton, in what he is pleased to call his '* Refvitatiofl^*' 
admits that he had this conversation with Captain Shelton^ but seems 
to rely» for credit to his own allegation of its inaccuracy as stated 
above* on the circumstance of its length, which, in hia^estiiHation^ 
would have rendered it impossible for even tlie retentive memorf 
of the late Mr. Woodfall, to repeat. In this point, howeter, Mr. 
Fullanon is mistaken; Mr. Wobdfairs memory was much more re- 
tentive than he supposes. Still, Mr. Fullarton himself undertal^es to^ 
state the substance of that conversation ; in which he allows to Co* 
bnel Pi6lon •♦ great sagacity, a6tivity, and knowledge of the colony j'* 
acknowledges *• that the prospective^ and not the retrospe^y was the 
dbje6! to which my attention was direfted," and that it was improper 
for him to take cognizance of past events : but admits not a wora of 
panegyric or approbation of Governor Pifton's government. . 

It is important here to observe, that little more than tAirty-sixJutirs 
intervened between the perio(^ of the conversation in qu^tion, and 
th«at cin^ at which Captain Shelton committed the purpon of it to 
writing {. it having taken pbce in the ovining o( the 31st FebiHiary^ 
iSojt and the/< deabifKion^" bein^ datied on the 2^ df that month ; 
whereat My» FitUartoa^t aocwnc.of its suksumct war not written titt 

-.- so. C. VOL. XXV. N tvifji^ 

1)8 OftmiNAL CRITlCfSAT* 

twQ-years afcer» \ht date of his pamphlet being 1805. Now supposing 
chat both parties were equally desirous of stating the truth with tiie- 
vtoiost possible accuracy, is it not seif-evklent that he who cocnmic» 
his statement to paper in less than two days after the conversarioii» is^ 
more likely to be accurate, than he whose recolledion is not so called 
to it till after a la|ise of two years ? If to this we add, that the latter 
}urty must have a bias on his mind which the former could not have, 
we surely cannot for a moment doubt to which most credit is due* 
Beside$, we suppose that Captain Shelton's declaration must have bectt 
attested before tlie Privy Council u|>on oatA. 

The next noim on which the panics are at issue, relates to Com- 
modore Hoo<i. Mr. Fullarton had said : 

" * Commodore Hood is understood to have affirmed, that from thcf 
unqQalifie4 praise bestowed on General PiAon by^is Majesty's Miiusters,- 
he conceived that Colonel Fullarton and he were sent out to tcnem or 
adopt the measures of th^ former government ; and it is tmpfuti to b« . 
under that impression that he considered it so highly in^proper for Colonel 
Fuilaruon, being in the confidence of governmeptr to bring forward any 
charges against General Pidon. . 

*« * Though the Commodore supported General Pifton in every outrage, 
against the First Commissioner, it is ^lerfe^Uy well known that during. 
his (Mr. Fullarton's) absence, very high toiles and words of ao accusatory j 
nature passed between the two colle<*gaes. The General urged the Com. 
nodore to join in a few more imprisonments, to which the Commodore is 
si4ited io have replied, that for bis part he meant to be able to show hi^ 
face in London, and would leave the government to him and be daoined 
to it. 

*' * On another occasion the Commodore expressed a wish to know the 
specific objeds, as the Brigadier would only mention general ones, to 
which the sums drawn from the thre? and a half per cent, duties had been 
applied. Upon receiving no satisfadory reply the Commodore was heard^ 
to exclaim, ' That it was a damned clandestine manner of spending the 
public money ;' and again^ declared his determination t6 leave the govern* 
«ent of the Brigadier. Colonel Fullarton^ not being in the island, tan 
have no personal, knowledge of these fa^s ; but very resfeSabk penonp 
there have declared, that these conversations were carried on in so loud a 
key, as to be overheard from the Commodore's gallery, whose ^Jit/^ 
likewise spread them currently through the Port of Spain. 

V '' ' It was likewise well known to Commodore Hood> that General 
Pi Aon expressed himself in the most improper terms, upon Colonel Ful. 
I;irton'5 going on board the flag ship to welcome the Commodore, as soon 
as he cast anchor in the bay. 

«* * It has been affirmed, that Commodore Hood's mind had been poi- 
soned by misrepresentations sent him at Barbadoes, as laying a foundation 
for effe^ing the grand objeA of the Brigadier, which was to separate the 
First aixi Third Commissioner, and intercept the coMiality which sob. 
sisted between them, as the best means of overthrowing the commission^ 
and again vesting the power in the hands of the former governor. 

** * It was. known n the Public Secretary's office that secret meetings 
were lieU xt General Pidon Vhonse^ where the Commodore went to con** 


7Z> Pidinian PtosecittioiL 17^ 

sikk with him {ircTiOas to Colonel Follarton's joining them in tiMtais^ 
tioa.' " 

To this Cobnel Piston answers : 

^ I decbffe Qpoo my honoarj aS an Ofiioer and a GentUmaiij that theM 
is not a syllable of truth in the whole or any part of them : 

" That Commodore Hood never had any commanication or correspoa* 
deoce either with me, or with those whom Mr. Fnllarton is pleasod to 
call my friends, during his residence at Barbadocs : 4 

. ^* That he had not any conversation with me or my frieods respeAiiy 
my disagreement with the First Commissiooeri for nearly a month after 
his arriTal at Trinidad : 

" That the Commodore studiously avoided all commttnications on the 
subjeA, even with the Public Secretary Mr« Woodyear, until he had been 
perfeaiy snstrufted by Mr, FuUartoo in erery thing that had taken pboe^ 
and had expitssed to Mr. Fullarton his entire disapprobation of his coo* 
duA, fi^ooded wholly upon his own ex parte representations : 

** That Commodore Hood's public reprobation of Mr. FttUarton*s dis* ^ 
hoooorable conduAj in the presenoe of all the Members of his Majestf 'a 
Cowicil of that Island^ was prior to any cooimanicatioo between us 00 
the ■objeA, as will appear from the following conrersation and ob* 
•enrationsj addressed by the Commodore to Mr. Fuliartooi presiding in 

^* Mardi 34. — AH the Commissioners and Members of bis Majesty^t 
CouocU being assembled^ firigadier.General Pinion begged leave to ask 
Campiodore Uqod the following ij^uestions : ^ ^ 

*' Did Mr. Fullarton make any. communication to fon at Baibadoet 
respeAing a Proclamation of the Commissiooy dated the 6th of Jannary f 

'< Answer. — Never. I received no communication on the snbjeS^ 
nor heard any thing about ir, until my arrival at Trinidad. 

'* Mr. Fullarton th6i observed, that the indelicacy of a publication 
of that nature, without the participation of his colleague, had not occurred 
to him until too larc ; but that he had then ordered it to be taken down 
|br the purpose of consulting him by the first opportunity. 

'^ To which the Commodore replied : — ' But I was never copsolted re* 
spe^ng the Proclamation, and I am sorry. Sir, that you hare so bad a me. 
mory. Do you already forget having assured me, that theTroclamation waa 
tom down by Gen. Pid^on's partisans I I am ashaobed of jroit ; ashamed 
to be seen in the same company. Not with you. Gen. Pidoo-^I shall be 
pcood to a£^ with yon on all occasions— you have never attempted to im- 
pose upon me— you have allowed me to see mj own waj. I have never 
had any conversation with General Pidon respeAing the disagnementt ; 
bat as for you. Sir, (turning to Mr. Fullarton), yoor behavioar baa 
been aueh, that nothing but ^ paramoont obligation of his Majelty'a 
Commission could seat us at the same board. J shall however request to 
be relieved as soon as possible from so disagreeable a situation, witii a 
coUeagne with whom I can have no further confidence. I was in hopea 
yoo had been occupied in carrying his Majesty's orders into eiled, bjr 
forwardiiy the obje& of the Commission ; but I find, on the contrary^ 
that ivary step yoa hare taken has tended to protxaA t^iem : yon have in 

' N a the 

tl^ mpft aLxhltnvy, irdecent manner takeiv advantage- of mjr aibaenoe fo 
suspend the Public Secretary, conirary to the opinion of the Council and 
of your colleagoei who protested against the measure, and advised that 
the consideration should be postponed until By arrivaU Instead of cor- 
dially co-operating with General Pidon, you seem to have done every 
tjili^ tti )rott*' iy>wer'to inspire him* with disgust. The general dtssatis. 
fadion which your proceedings have given to the public bodies, ^magts. 
tmtesi and respiedabk people of the colony, is but too apparent. You 
an doing every thing you can to ruin the country ; but you shall not 
effeft it ; we will not allow you.' 

" << TBls' address sileiKcd Kfr. Fullarton ; he did not attempt to make 
ihy f^p^T whatever. 

*' That the Commodore had officially written, requesting that his re- 
signation might be accepted of, tvitbont gMng me any infotmathn pf such 

% <*• That there never was a disagreement of any nature, or a difference 
ofopifiion of any kitid, between the Commodore and myself, from the 
first. day I had the honour of being in relation with him to the present 
moment ; and that the imputed expressions and indecent scenes stated to 
ha\^ passed between us, are merely inventions, calculated to impose npon 
y^Mir Lordshfp, and mislead the world." 

. t^^ Fttltsrton.thiis commcnta on this passage :r^ 
** In order completely to mislead the reader, he marks off with dots. 
of'GOminai, proceedtuffs supposed to have taken place on'tbe a^lh of 
Marcih and- species frameid for me and for Commodore Hood^ a^ if 
they had adually been spoken, mtnuced at the time^ and eittinAe^- 
v^rborim from the reconls of that day's tratisadions.'' 

* ** AWioogh Commodore Hood has uttered many improper and 
inadmissible expressions ;" — (why did not Mr. Fullarton state* since he 
has such a propensity for stating^ those expressions, that the public^ 
v(lho cannot be disposed to accept his ipse dixit for proof, might judge 
f6r themselves whether ihey v/tr^f roper or Improper; and why,, too, 
we will ask, since they were in his opinion,. inadrnissihUydii he admit 
them)J'^'' Yet. so far was be from aflually pronouncing the speech 
cooM^^ied^ and. primed, for him by Colonel Pi(^n, that I nay veature 
zfk^f tcayaanhle bpc* lie* is incapable of getting it by lieart, or of spMsalt* 
]9|^iC|,4va%fiDw ttwirifi printedi in hi^ naipe*" — We must. here i«^ 
tM(rtipaoiic.4|OCKfKio» merely to i^ice, tba( ^>*Ic Mr. FulloctMi dis-*. 
datm&aB iiMMiioii ol insnltiag- tbtt^ MinistBiisy to whom fas: was iir» 
debCBd'fMK his appcintBKiiiv hos 'i$ incessantljr libelliog themi iii' dMr 
wvnMemmwmk ; foi^ we wJU aippcal ton every mian of comtnwi aeiiiey 
wbtthtr thsr^cMi ba -t- greater libel' pronounced on Ministers, thM»» 
thatcantMoed in the passage last quoted^ — for, if Sir Stniuei Hood 
vreiv reaMy the drfveller, the* ideot, which he is- here rcpixaeiucd to 
be, not only incapable of getting a few lines bjr heart, bur even of r«|rf- 
ifir them when printed, what criminality would not attach, to Aer 
liftofsrers whoa^{Y)}dtcd'him to a situation 6£ trust, and importance ? 
^t^l^weyer^ a^ not. disposed to crimiojit^ the. MiniscerijL.m the. 

Th PiShHtm FrMctnim^ |9i 

nnyle bBBcttion 6f Ml*. FoUarton, we wglikl Mtbet bettete A/«b.iflk 
ihi8 iosomccy to mistake tlie fa A, than them to be:giiiky of sn^h^con^ 
iu& ; and, lodged, we know suiBciem of the charmer of Sir Samuel' 
Hood^ to coQtradi^l sach assertioitt by whomever advan€ed.^^W« 
DDw resume our quotation. ^ 

'^^ With respe& to tlie discourse fatyricated for me» k YioUtos thn 
common rules of probability, without which even falshood ceases to 

A mor^ Jesuitical sentence than tliis, Ignatius Loyola bimsdf, or the 
mxMt sealous of his disciples, never composed. Our readers will ob- 
serve, chat Mr. Fullarton does not say that the speech imputed t^ 
him was never spoken: that the assertion that it was is ftdse^ 
DO such thing, he leaves the reader to draw the inference, from tb« 
alleged fa£l, that it violates the common rules of probability It— Butt 
learned Sir, Mr. F. R. S.» are you really to be taught, that " Tma a 
fki est vrai n\st pas vrai-simHabie .^**-— Wt proceed :— 

'* The proclamacion in question was pulled down by the printer^ 
Mr. Galbgher, by my own order, communicated to Kim in persoHi 
as a matter of notoriety, in the presence of various ^entkmen> because 
he had posted it up directly contrary to my instmdions*" : 

^* It is perfe£lly true* for reasons already stated, that the Commo* 
dore did not receive any communications from me respe£ling die pnp^ 
claibation while he remained at Barbadoe^." — {Where are these rea« 
ions stated) ? — '* but the idea of my mentioning at any period, the pn>» 
chmatiott having been pulled down by Mr. Piflon's emissariesi is 
too preposterous to admit of a reply^** (an answer^ good F. R. S}« 
** If any of Mr. Pi£b>n's adherents were foolish enough to make so 
incredible an assertion to Commodore Hood, it only affords an addi* 
lional proof of the violation of all honour, honesty, and trutby whh 
which these few unfortunate individuals, implicated in the crimes^ aD4 
interested .in die success of Mr. Pidlon, enveloped aod^istoned everjf 
£ift,"—- (it is a new figure of speech, to envelope fa^t wuh the violation 
^kvHowTy &c., in' Other words, it is palpable nonsense), ** and fabri* 
cated expressions, which no man shall ever dare to apply to mi with im^^ 
ftuuiy.^^'^limvOf bravissimo. Captain fiobadil ! — but, utifoitupatdy, 
such, and still strcfnger, expressions have been applied to you, by mo^ 
than one man, and we have not yet heard of any dangerdus conse«- 
queoces resulting from the use and application of them. 

^ It u necessary to inform the reader, tliat in the meeting whicln 
il staud as the scene of this very extraordinary display o£ phili^ig 
^Moryy I was inunifotm and with a sword/' — Hear this* ye Brigadier* 
Generals, ye Colonels, and ye Commodores, and tremUe ! — <« if tb» 
Commodore, captivated with the riadyrmamfaGuredAif\\i^tacQ hekl fprtk 
ibr hioD, should be pleased to adopt as his own, the speech provided for 
liim by Cotonel Pi^ioD, then, Ipresumt^ two things will appear T*-^ 
^ iim, tfaiu if CoinmodoretHood^ sitting as bia Majesty.'s Commas^ 
•iofier ts Goimcil, oonld jpe#/if^'— '(there cenainly was no in^6s$^ 
tUitff eidscr pbysitel or monly m n}--^^ tfxproa hsmsetf in luih termf 

N3 . as 


as are hhricr.ti for him, he not only proved himtelf onwoitby of a 
seat at any board, bat unfit to be admitted into the company of any 
'^^ndemaii.^**— ** In the second place, I trust that, on tlie sopposition 
of his choosing to admit the utterance, or (he wisli to titter such wovdSt 
even if tlie faculry of utterance were deficient, I may claim some cro* 
dit at least for moderation, in abstaining from personal extremities^ 
which, however intlecoroos in a council-room* bis subsequent con- 
dud undoubtedly proves, that in otber instances he hits coniplefeiy 

The confidence with which Mr. Fullaiton appeals tohis readen, 
imdiiMicbi them, in the same breath, is truly astonishing. Does he 
really suppose that all his readers are so ignorant of human nature as 
to believe that moJeration is the only feeling which induces men to 
abstain from the resentment of personal inbi^its ^— -True^ it would 
have been indecorous to display such reseiumcnr, in die way here in- 
dicated, in such a place ; but, it is evident, if tliere be any truth m 
Mr. Follarton's statement^ that subsequent to this insult, the gallam 
officer whom he abuses completely deserved chastisement. How 
then did it happen, that, with this convidion on his mind, Mr. Ful- 
-^larton did not \tA\6( that chastisement ? — bir Samuel Hood did not 
stand in the same relaiion to Mr. Fullarton^ a)» either Colonel Pi£lon 
or Lieutenant-Colonel Draper ; he was neither parry, nor witoeis, 
in the prosecutions -tommenced- against the former Governor of Tri- 
nidad ;— ^the same plea therefore as has been urged by Mr. FuUar- 
ton, in different parts of his publications, for not proceeding to per* 
Mtiai extremities against those geptlemen, could not possibly apply to 
the Commodore. Was it a spirit of moderation^ then, that deterred 
faim ? He will hardly say so. If he did, we should answer, Credat 
Judaus /-^We should as soon believe it, as we should believe that in 
the invasion of Egypt, Buonaparte consulted the^interests of the Ptmct 
and diat in the murder of the Due D'Enghien, he was a&uated ex- 
clusivdy by principles of justice! — But, fortunately ibc some per- 
sons, though unfortunately for his country, this gallant officer has 
recently lost his right arm, in the service of his King ! Verbum Sat. 

<* Tiiere is another point, to which, although of little moment, I 
mutt give an explicit contradidion. Colonel Pidon states, that 
Commodore Hood had officially written, requesting that his resigna- 
tion might be accepted of, without giving him any information of 
such determination."— <^Our readers must be aware that Colonel Pic- 
ton cotild only mean, either that Commodore Hood had so written, 
previous to the mcering of this council, or that he so wrote afterwards 
without giving to him (Coloner Pi£ton), any other information, than 
lie had publicly given to Mr. Fullarton himself, and to the otber 
members of the council. The expression cannot admit of any otber 
interpretation, for Colonel PiAon makes use mf it iinmediaieiy after 
he has reported the proceedings of the council, at which Comoaodom 
tiood had expresdy declared that he would write for diat very pm^ 
po^ It is most absurd apd ridiciiloua tbar i& Mr, FiflbrtDn to le* 
• preaem 

7Xr Piaman PrMcution. i^j 

present this, as lie does, as a fakhood. — ** This assertion is dire&ty 
otxitrarf to the hGtx insomuch thnr Commoclore Hood informea 
Colonel Pi<9on and the whole council, in my liearine* as can he at« 
tested by Mr. Adderley;*' {as has been attested hy Udonel PiAon 
himseify in the passage already before our readers), '^ a member of 
eornicH, now in England/' — <* that he wished not to a£t longer with 
the First Commissioner, who had so traduced his colleague, and that 
be meant to apply for leave to resign his office as commissioner. To 
which my answer was, jf such are your sentiments, clie sooner yoii 
apply the better.** 

No doubt Mr. F. wished to get rid of his colleagues with alfp^sibW 
expedition. But, wich his usual want of judgment — for cunnTrtg will 
sometimes over-reach itself — he has here sufiered his anxiety to 
convid Colonel Pidon oi faldiwdxo betray him into'iri^ involuntary^ 
and certainly unintentional, corroboration of that gentleman's state- 
ment. For, though the whole of his observations are intended to \ 
make the reader believe that no such conversation as that affirmed by 
Coionet Pidon to have occurred at tlie council, did really take place, 
he here expressly admits a very imjiortant part of it. And certainlv 
imm this admission, we^ and we have little doubt that our readers will 
concur with us, arc led to give Colonel Pidlon credit for the accu* 
ncy of his whole statement. ... 

** As for the ^disagreements^ which were currently and generally 
npQrud*' to have occurred between the Junior tommissioner* 
during my absence from Port of Spain, after 'the 29th of Marchv 
1803, I have already sated, that it is impossible for me to have any 
personal knowledge of the fad^s/' Mr. Fullarton has now been 
taught, what, it appears, he did not know before, thztfama mendex 
ai-^** Their agreements^ however, unfortunately for the Co.lony **— 
Erraium^br ^^ Colo ft f," read Mr. Fullarton, F.R.S. — ** and for 
Commodore Hood's "^erratum secundum^ for *♦ Commodore Hood*s ** 
read, Mr. Fullarton*6 — chara£ler, are of absolute notoriety, and 
upon record. The enumeration of them affords a melancholy in- 
stance of the pernicious influence of P esprit fort ^ sur P esprit fiibU. 
k might be tedious and improper, in this ]^lace, to enbrge upon the 
abase of power which the Commodore's name was used to screen and 
shdtcr, as an indication to the Colony that the satije system of sevfs- 
rity was to be continued, which had dismayed the inhabitants during 
Aedofmnatton of Governor Pi^on, 

In our fir^c account of these proda£lions, we quoted the opinion^ 
of those ^'xm^jr^^nnhabitants respedling the government of C(>looel 

* . Has Mr. Follarto»already forgotten his positive assurance— *'' I hav^ 
saiposed on myself the obligation of submitting e*vejy dsMrtim. which I 
inalce, to the test of proof, by ambentic 'voticbers, docnmentSf and trndistfU^ 
«tt eoiiim*^** WejBUiy Mailowed toask him, undor whifh of tmic'. 
dbuaAmhiBfiamr<od(nv»ta<lle/rW'oraMM^ . 

}9^ PEIP^HA^ C:RIT*C|fM*' ^ ^ 

Pi^on: opinions given- gander the solemn siin£lion of an oath, and M 
i (Ime when they pould have no possible nK>tive for concCfilmcHC or 
iHsgulse. They all gave a flat contradiftion to tlve assertion imflud in 
^hiyjast sentence. — We have here suffered Mr. FuUartoa to speak for 
{^imsejf; and if there any persons, of common s^nyc, who 
c^n conceive that the passages which we have quoted are a good and 
$u$cienc ansvyer to the alle^ions of Colonel Pidon, with such we 
iyiU not pretend to argue. To us it assuredly appears^ tlut ib^jr are 
po answer at all ; and that they rather tend to confirm, than Co 
porifuce, the fa£ls to which tliey refer. We shall here sulijoiiit 46 coa-. 
^e(£l^dw|th the subje£t, a Letter from Commodore Hood to £arl 
pim'd^, ^ „ ,_ 

I I /f Centaur, Carlisle Bay, ^arbadocs,.i6t Sept^ i&o^* 

^',Mt |^&%-^I should do great injustice to myself and my late <»l. 

league, Brlgadier.General Pidon, if I did not (after reading a pafolica.. 

. tion of Mr. FuUarton's respsfting the Commission at Trinidad laist year), 

inform yoor Lordship at an early period, of the fabrication in varidas. 

passages said to have been spoken by me. The very harsh exprnssioitf, 

and the acrimony with which Mr. Fullarton brings forward this epistle, 

i^lse almost in every pge, that I trust your Lordship, and others of hi» 

Majesty's Ministers, will view it as it deserves,^ Mr. Fullarton states. 

my consulting t))e Brigadier before council was assembled, of the matters 

Ive were to enter upon': I declare upon mine honour no such commanlga- 

tion ever took place ; neither did ever the Brigadier make use of one 

expression out of the Commission that could tend to lead me on his side i 

bttt I was guided by honourable sentiments^ and not by such duplicity and 

'^ i«imguing as was exhibited in every part of Mr. Fullarton's transa^ions ; 

Iwt Mr. Fullarton used every art, even to get his Lady to aid, to lead 

4^ iolo a track that must have soon destroyed the tranquillity of the 

Colony. This false philanthropy must now be sufficiently brought to 

Ifg^t^ that it needs no comment. He attributes words spoken in council, 

in my house, in not agreeing with my colleague : I give the most perfed 

conrradidlipn thereto ; and I cannot allow this to pass over without le. 

marking oh the means adopted by persons whom he calls Gentlemen, liiat 

should listen to any conversation where their business did not require^ and 

it not was probat>le that my servants should listen, and carry my conversar 

|ion to the house of the firs; Commissioner ; and I conceive such allegair 

tions can only tend to prove how ready Mr. Fullarton has been to caick 

at sobjeAs I should shudder to repeat, had 1 made use of such sgooble 

ibeans to gain the inforinatlon stated. I will not trespass loi^K 09 

your Lordship's time, and I shall conclude this in saying, the upright 

and just measures adopted by the late Governor saved the Island i aoa I 

fOft assurtsd his chafa^er cannot be spoken of too highly^ or tradaced by 

the artful measures of an old intriguing politician* 

\ ' ' ^ "J have the honour to be^ Sec. 

f* $A«U1L HOQD." , 

f^ Smrl CawuUm, K. G. l3f<. »€.'' 

So much still rep?9ins to be Qotk^dt in iitmpMiai6&nf wad m^ 
^Yc already cwMn4p4(iw iuticl0 ufkf^tb^ mo mm toimao mt 

The Pi^^itm.Fjrosecutlon. 18 j 

£inher comments upon thup, . Jn^Iecd di£t spirited and manly reply 
of Colonel Pidlon, prefixed to^he ** Evidence taken at Ponof Spain,** 
and the very able pamphlet of Licytcnant-Colonel Draper, whicli 
^though some pans of it have subjedled him to legal prosecutions^ 
tiecmyf the spirir of a soldier, cbe mind of a gentleman, and the ti^ 
cxafoplisliaieyts of a scholar, refle^ing equal credic on his head and * 
licaot, ar.e entitled to parttcvlar notice. The more we investigate 
chfs transadion, tlie moi^e we examine the circumstances connedted 
'Willi it, the more we reflicft on its immcdiato and remote conse- 
^oences, the more strongly arc we convinced that Colonel Pinion, is a 
RHich-injured, and highly-persecuted n)an.' We entered upon the 
inquiry with a mind perfcdly unprejudiced ; we had not exclianged a 
word wkhy'we bad never even «een, any one of tlve parties (Mr 
Woodyear^ who was tlien dci^d, alone excepted). Tbe seneimemr 
which w£ have delivered, a^ well as those which we may hereafter 
deliver, are the unbiassed result of deliberate convi^ion, founded on 
ihe cloaesi investigation, and tlie matarest reflefiion. We have not,' 
we <:3iiD0C have, any personal animosity against Mr. Fullaiton ; if we 
had, wecan asspre hitn, all kicreilible as tiie assertion may appear to him, 
that our sense of lionour would have made its abstain from the discussion 
of this question ; his threats of prosecution and vengeance, therefore, wc 
stedi continue to treat >^'ith contempt. While we resjiefl tlje laws of 
oor country too much, to be guilty of any violation of them, we value 
diib freedom of the press too highly to sacrifice it to the dread o( per* 
sonal inconvenience. Its licentiousness we abhor, but its lihfrfy we 
will defejid as firmly as we would the Dil Penates of our coumry««-«- 
Dr. Johnson has somewhere defiued a liMio be a satirical writing, 
intended not to reform^ but to vex. Now, in writing on th^ Pic« 
tpnian Prosecution, we have no intention co vex*-but we have a most 
eanonest wish to reform. A different definition has, indeed, been 
gi?f»)» by an authority, certainty respe£lable, but, as experience has 
^oved, not infallible ; it has been said, that if in the discussion of 
the puUie oondo£t of a public charaAer, the i^riter hurts h\% feelings, 
his produ&ion is a libel. This, we boldly a£Brm, is noi the law ef 
Et^Umd. If it were, the press would be as much fettered here, as it 
k se France ; and it would be extreme folly, it would be adding in- 
filk to injury, to talk of its freedom* But, when such a diefum has 
gone forth to the world, it ought to meet with the most public, and 
the most unqualified contradidioo. It is a ///^irm fraught with the 
most naischievous consequences ; it tends to secure impupity tjc^^vnr]^ 
9& of ministerial tyranny, or of ministerial imhecilitjr, atod it dc^roy^* 
the very basis on which the civil libeniei of British Mflljie^ afip 
fouiidpd. We have ever been the strenuous opDOsere of lihort]^ in 
l^fosicioi^i tQ law ; and we shall ever be found ibe dauotkis chainpi(iiis» 
U^t Uibqfly ivlwb the jaw secures. 

(Tq he CQtOnmdJ^ 

'. . . »• ■ "^ 



A Review c/ the CouduB •/ the Prince tf Wales in ^it nu^rhHS TraMS4iSsm9 . 
with Mr. Jeff4ifySp inrimg a Period of more iban twenty Years : camtam^ 
ing a Detail of many Circumstances relatroe to ibo Prince eofd Princess ^ 
Walesy Mrs. Fitzherhrrt, isfc. ifc. Vc. To iwlncb is added, M Letter 
to Mrs. Fitzherhert nton the It^uence of Example, He. i^c. He. By 
Nathaniel Jefierys^ late M. P. for th« City of Coventry. Sixth £di. 
tion, with Additions. 8vo. Pr. 76. * $%. 6i. Poblished by the 
Author^ 2o^ Pali Mall. 

IT if not withoot considerable reluAance that, in discharge of our 
iaty to the public, we ac length sit down to give some account of this, 
jHid of various other jpamphlets rislating to thesam^ subjed; because, the 
very high resped which a sense of allegiance to our Soveiei^ leads os to 
entertain for every branch of his Royal Family, renders it extremeiy 
painful to us to make any observations that may, even in appearance, be 
incompatible with that respeA, or which may, in any degree, hurt the 
feelings of the Illustrious Personages whose condud may have extorted 
them. But there are duties imposed on public writers, superior to the 
resped in question, which, if they feel not the resolution to discharge 
with firmness and honesty, they are unfit for their office, and ought to laj^ 
down the pen for ever. Thus, for instance, if cases wbre to occur» in 
which the religious and moral feelings of the public were to be openly 
outraged, would it not be the bounden duty of a public writer to repro* 
bate such condu^, by nvbme^er observed i Would a sycophant so ab- 
je£i, ar parasite so base, be found as to deny this self.evidenr propositioiv 
and to contend that vice and sin, when committed by the highest classes 
of society, should pass Unnoticed, because any comment thereon might 
have the efied of injuring the parties in the eyes of the public, and, con. 
seqoently, of loosening that cement which is nece^isary to keep the social 
fibric together ? Such language might, indeed, pass current in a land 
of slaves or of Infidels, but wo^d incur universal abhorrence in any coon.' 
try peopled with freemen and Christians. If then, asmustbeuniven^Uy 
admitted, there may l)e cases which would make silence base, and for- 
bearance criminal, it follows of course, that the lespedt due to lUustriotts 
Personaees must be subjcd to certain modifications and exceptions, not on 
the one nand to be hastily violated, and without good cause,- but on the 
other hand not to command the sacrifi*^ of superior and more sacred duties* 
Again, the man who holds the language of admooition, or even that of 
cetisttfe, to a Prince^ must not, on that account alone^ be regarded as his 
enemy. On the contrary, the courtier whose praises incessantly ring m 
kts ear, who flatters his foibles, encourages nis errors, and palliates 
his Tices, may, with infinitely greater justice, and with much less 
dai^ef of pRMounetng an erroneous judgment, be considered sn his ^fee. 
Are a wish to reform, and efifbrts correspondent to that wish, symptoms' 
•f esnnitjf or rather, is it nojt.a signal proof of friendship and resped, to 
•ssome the ungrateful office of a monitor, without the hope, the prosped9 
•r evfo the possibility of reward ; and, in that cbaraAer^ to poiat out 


' . Miseellamts. 187 

die p«th of ieferaiaticMi> and to indicate the means b/ which the partj 
addtinaed any become the objeft of general aftAtdn, esteenii and lere. 
leoce ? We have deemed it evpediept to prefluns thus much^ in order to 
prerent the possibtiity of misconception as to oar motives, in any remarks 
which we may be impelled to oif^T> either now, or hereafter, on any 
matter conneded immediatelyor remotely with the present subjedi of dis«. 
cnssion. From Mr. Jefferys himself, and from most,, if not all of the 
writers who have nndertaken to answer htm, we shall probably be Ibonl 
to difier very essentially. 

Mr, Jeflferys begins by informing his readers, that he was first hoooared 
with the command of the Prince of Wales in 17S3, when he opened a 
shop vA Piccadilly ()ie had before, we believe, k«>t a shop in the Strand). 
l|e was sent for by the Prince to Buckingham House, and the reception 
which he there experienced really seems to have turned his head, and to 
have deprivedliim of his judgment. 

** His Royal Highness received me with great kindness of manners, 
and so completely captivated me by his condescension, that, young and 
ciedttloas as I then was, / ima^iitei my fortrnm made hy hi$ gmilet /" 

Here, in our opinion, is the true cause of^ all Mr. Jefferys's subsequent 
jnhukes, misconduA, and rain. He conceived false hopes, without the^ 
shadow of a foundation to support them, and hence launched into specula* 
tioDs which his capital did not warrant, and which his resources did not 
justify. The Prince behaved to him with a condescension, which, though 
the natural result tA an accomplished mind, and of the most elegant man. 
iiers,'he did not exped; and from which, thetefore, his folly, not his 
€f9dmUij, for certainly no food was administered to that^ drew inferences 
the most chimerical, and the most unjustifiable. In 1787 Mr. Jefierys 
appears to have monopolized, as a goldsmith and jeweller, the favour of 
the Prince ; Mr. Gray, a respedabie tradesman, who had hitherto been 
honoured with a part of his Royal Highness's custom, not finding it con. 
Tcnieot to increase the amount of his demand. From this moment Mr. 
Jeierys makes the strange confession, that he spent one- half of his time, 
J^ st'veral yearty at Carlton House, negledled his other business, and 
despised the advice of friends, who had more exprience and prudenlce than 
Jiimself, and supplied every article, however expensive, M'hich the Prince 

Need we then wonder that a man, who could aft with such inconceiv. 
jlUe imprudence, who could thus negleft his business, waste his time in 
Mtmeceuary attendance, and run in debt, with a moral certainty of not receiv. 
iDg the money which he advanced for a considerable time, should be ruined ? 
and can we want any other cause for his ruin than lyhat he here assigns \ 
If, indeed, previous to the Mfilment of his Royal Highness's orders, he 
had, humbly and remdfully, submitted his inability to fulfil them, with- 
out sohjefting himself to great personal risk and inconvenience, and the 
Prince had then persisted in hb orders, or made some promise of paymenr, 
Mr* Jefierys might, perhaps, with some show of reason, lay his ruin at 
the Prince's door. But, by his own statement, nothing of this kind ap. 
pears to have taken place ; he stupidly supposed his firimte made by the 
rrioce's amik, and he afted without the smallest regard to prudence, or 
the leaat attention to his own Kmtted circumstances* 
^ Ail tl^ be it obaervfdt happened previoos «> an event which occarted 

1^ ORIGIMAX C&'ifacISM. 

in 1796; and bn wtficb Mf. Jefktj^ Lays verr gnat stress. At dK hi: 

S;ioiiing 4if dut year- the Prince oondcKcnded to ask, ib a favomr^ ^ Mr* 
ef&rytf the loan of .sixleea bvndred poundsi for wh^ch snm a.cneditor 
of Mrs* Fitzberben*s had threatened 10 arrest her. 1'he Prince hkl offered 
CO take tl^edebc on hiinsdft but the irary creditor rejeded the offer, on 
the plea« '* that Mrs. Ficzberbert hei$tg « nm/ium ef ao rank or considera^ 
twt- w th XJ^ 9f the Ivuft at U fersMol fri^ilege^ wa amenable «• mm 
immed'taff pr^cest^ which was not the case with his Royal Highness.*' The 
Prince is represented, and probably with great troth, as having brcn ex*' 
tiemdy. anxious and uneasy oh the business; and Nlr. Jeierys paid the 
debt, and ps^p^ented bis Royal Highness the next day with (he recetpr. 
The Prinoe, ^^xy naturally, expressed himself with great warmth upon the 
occasion, and even coadcscended so far as to calf on Mr. Jciierys the 
aanie day, with the Lady^ to lepeat his thanks for the ready eonipliaace 
with his request. Mr. Jefferys tells us, that <<fn>m the monified pride 
visible in the cbontenanoe " of Mrs. Fitzherbcrt, he inferred that he 
should be indebted to her for the loss of the Prince's favour; Whatever 
ground there mi^ht b^ for this inference, surely Mr. Jeflerys had every 
feason to be satufied with the condescension which his patron had dis. 
played— for it was, certainly, very great condescension in the Heir Appc^ 
icnt to the British Throne to accept t and much more to tfii, %fa!V'mr ttom 
one of his tradesmen : and a still greater condescension to visit that trades* 
man in order to return his thanks. Mr. Jef&rys might well be flatteivd 
by an honour so unexpected, and so unusual : it was well calculated to gra- 
tify even the most inordinate vanity ; but his sdfish feelings appear to 
have been always at work, for neither the honour nor the gratification of 
his vanity could satisfy him ; he looked forward to future jsr//^/ and assist,, 
anct in the event of misforttsael But, as Mr. Jefierys is loud in his oooi. 
plaints against the Prince, respediking this transadlion, the reader will m. 
turally suppose that his Royal Higtmess had not repaid the money wkicli 
he borrowed ! Not so ; the Prince engaged to pay it in three months, and 
he i^ligiottsly fulfilkd bis engagement ! True, says Mr. Jeflerys, he leL 
paid, the debty but not the obJigathit* With a man who so reasomtf and. 
who so feelsy argument would be of no avail. We shall, therefore, merely 
state our surprize at the k)ud complaints and bitter reproaches which m 
allows himself to vent against the Prince, for not lending him, or, in other 
and more proper words, for not gMvg him an equal sum with that which 
lie lent to his Royal Highness ! The expeAatkm was as saodesi as the ie« 
fHrpaches are decent. With the latter we shall not pollute our pages. 

Mra, F. it seems, afterwards dealt with Mr. Jeflerys, and bought goods 
pf him to the aniount of laol. which, '' though owing for a very conside. 
fable )ength of time," he was afraid to apply for ; but at length convinced 
by t eomfersaimu with the Prince at Carlson House, on the subjeft of his 
•ppitMching nuptials, that his appit'henaions were groundless, he did i^y 
ff>X the amount of his bUl, and was referred by Mrs. Fitxherbert (not very 
decmsiiy, ifc think) to his Rpyal Highness, who» with his wonted eene. 
.|Osity» paid xtM We have said that the rsfemnce of Mrs. Fitahenert^ 
9X such m fcriodgi on she eve of the Prinoe's iharriage, and with aa aajAf 
income of hei own too> waanot very ifeow, aad, weare persuaded, thert 
is not a man or woman in the ki^igdaii, of iny hoflour or riatne, who 
wovld tM concur wtt)i us^ if ive Mficoii)Md thbiiiWicateairfvifeiUng^ 


•' Miscelfakitf,' igij 

coKlfiifty in nracfarstroAger terms. Tk pss^ge to which we hare ;i() verted, 
rdating to the conversation between the Prince and his jeweller; is^ $o cu. ' 
rions^ that we shall transcribe it. 

** I declare it as roy firm beKcf, howev^n* sabseqoent events, which 
may truly be termed anforturtate for his Royal Highness and for the coan. 
tryj may contradict the probability of my assertion, that no person in 
the kingdom appeared to feel, and I believe at the time did feel, more 
stncerc pleasore in the prospeft of the proposed marriage, and the se. 
paration from Mrs. Fitzherbert, than his Royal Highness. I will not 
repeat the expressions of his Royal Highness upon this sobjed^, it is suffi. 
dent to say, that what I heard was not of a nature to increase the respe^ 
1 had for the charafter of that Lady ; but so far otherwise, as to remove 
from my mind every apprehension I had entertained, that his Royal High. 
ness would be c^ispleased by an applfcatton to her for money ; I accord . 
ingly sent in my acconnt, when I was told, I most tyiyAy to the Prince for 
the payment of it. I therefoK informed his Royal Highness of what hact 
passed', who directed General Hulse to discharge the account." 

Mr. Je£ferys then enters into the particulars of the jewels ordered for 
the Prince's marriage, in rcsped of which tfaene appears to be nothing to 
bhnoe inWs cMdu^, nor, indeed, do we know that blamr was ever im. 
poted to HidL We were present at the trial in the Court of King's Bench, 
when Mr. Jefferys brought his a^ion against the Commissioners, and the 
▼erdift appeared to as to be perfeAly jnst and proper. At a subsequent 
period the Prince again condescended to borrow money of his jeweller^ 
42ol. and he accuses his Royal Highness with a breach of promise, as he 
borrowed the money only for a few days, and did not repay it for upwards 
of a year. The rdarive situation of the parties considered. We cannot 
Wt regard the explanarion which Mr. Jefferys here ^ters into, and the 
lang;uage which he adopts, as extremely indecorous-,''- tor say no worse of 
it. We do not/ indeed, wonder at the disgust whilfBXtRe Prince mani. ' 
fested af'the coodu^ of a man who admits that, though no Idhgerin busi^ 
ness, and conaequently having no excuse for obmiding himself on the 
notice of his Royal Highness; was perpetually p^ting himself in his way. 

In 1797, Mr^ JeSerys states himself to be so embarrassed as to be under 
the necessity of beginning the worid again ; he according^ took a house 
in Pall. Mall> opened a jeweller's sbop^ and once more applmd to the Princt 
lor his custom. After Ml that had passed, could he serioosty exped to ob. 
tain that custom ?• or, indeed/ if he really conceived that the losses 
winch, he says, he sustained- by liisxonnexion with^ the Prince, were the 
occasion of lus distresi, ought he to have wished for rt^ Most people, 
we sospcift, will answer these questions in the negative; He enters mco 
a'cadctifatioQ' in order to shew that, in consequence of the deduAions from 
hia demand By the Commiastonert, he sustained a loss of i6,9o8K is. 66. 
Bat fae indudhr in his account a dedn^on of so per cent, which he lostby 
tBe srieof the debenture! ; whicn cannot, properiy, be taken into the 
ctfimare^ a$, bad hr kept them, the losvebuld not hare been incurred, 
afidF ihKf borr asf imeivft of fire per cent. It should beobserved, how. 
emeri at tUe'ttme-rime^ tint his oecesisitiesr oMipelled-him to sell them. 
Harioff tti^ his j|9s«r^ lots at this sum, he maW hW iitdtkntai loss, in 
coitjjiiietiiin' witE' it, ainminr tO' thirty thotaami fimmU'^ but as he enters 
i i seo u orc xi p Uaa ifaroii tUt head^ i^irimposiiblctO'kno^rwhat hemcans. 
-."• It 


It is well known thic Mr. Jefferys, daring this perioJ, becane Meoi^ 
ber for Coventry, though he studiously avoids all reference to that evcat 
as contributing in any degree, to the ruin which he deplores ; but the 
public caimot be ignorant that the acquisition of such a seat must have 
CQst some thoutandsy though Mr Jefferys appears, at the time, to have been . 
in a state of insolvency, and consequent];^ not to have had^a farthing ol* 
his own. We should not have thought it necessary to allude to this cir« 
cumstance, if we had not observed in one of his letters to the iPrince (in 
January 1803}, a reference to his condu^ in the House of Commors, as 
aifording him an additional claim to the support and protcftion of his Royal 
Highness; which he persisted in demanding, with eoual pertinacity and 
W;inr of feeling. For some time after tbis^ having round all his soldci- 
taiioiis unavailing, he forbore to renew his suit. But in January 18069 
he again wrote to the Prince to "beg 4x>o guineas, to defray the expence 
of arcTclcing his son to an attorney. It is almost needless to add, that 
this letter produced no answer. , The change of ministry, however, ln«. 
spiring Mr. Jefferys with fresh hopes, he once more became urgent in hi^ 
solicitations for reward for the sysjtemattc support that he had given to 
the Opposition. '^ the several vears in which I had a seat in the House of 
Commons »'' He wrote. to the Prince of Wales, Lord M^f^a^ Lord 
£rskine, and Mr. Fox. But the style of his letters was bj^no means 
cdculated to produce the desired effed. Indeed, in most of his letters to 
the Prince, he gives hi& Royal Highness to understand, that he was the 
cause of his ruin, iridired^ly repioaches him with obligations, aiyi rather v 
claims reward as a right than solicits it as a favour. In short, no man 
in his senses f could expe(fl that petitions m urged could be granted. The 
Prir.ce wottld^ indeed, have lost sight of his own dignity, had he condc. 
•scended to listen to so importunate and so indecorous a claimant. 

In his letter to *Mr. Fox, he is guilty of ^ flagrant violation of 
truth. ^* I hope jqu will excuse my reminding you of my unfortunate 
situation, from the dreadful sacrifice that has been made 6i my pcoperty 
and reputation, hy the ^ffreaums of the late admbiiuratkut." The man who 
can say this, and who can boa$toi having voted with Opposition upon everj^ . 
question, and make that a ground for his claim to reward', is certainlv 
entitled to very little credit ; while the meanness of his supplication is 
tjuly disgusting. What oppresshn did Mr. Jeffe^y^, experience from the 
Ministers r The i^*itf which authorized all the dedu^ops from his account, 
was the a^ of the Legislature y and not of the G-i'verttment. Besides, befor^ 
he talks of oppressions, of losses, of ruin, &c. he ought fairly to state 
to the public (since he will make the public a party in his private coq« 
cerns) tlie amount of his capital, when first employed by the Prince, his 
annual expences, the sum for which he failed, and how much in the 
pound he paid to his creditors. Without these accounts before them^ 
the public cannot possibly decide, either on the cause of his ruin, or oa 
the persons who have most reason for complaiiit. In his letter to Lord . 
Krskine, he tries another scheme, and holds out the threat of poblishiiy , 
the statement now before us! Lord^rskine and Mr. Fox, as mig^t rm,^ 
turally be expe^ed, returned him no answer; and his letter to the frinoe 
was sent back unopened. 

Having concluded his statement of (aifls, Mr* Jefierjs, subjoins his 
'' observations,"^ in which 4ie complains^ with what xeajKiOi o«r isadeta^ 

AHuilkuii/s. '" 191 

Ibvc afaindf teen, that the Prince refuses to do \Am justice; while he is 
incurring ''enormous and unnecessary expences," (of which no doubt 
Mr. Jdfeiys most be a competent judge \) *^ at Brighton and Carlton 
Hoose." The alteratioQs and additions at Brighton, he says^ will ex. 
ceed. *^ very considerably •m hundred tbomsaud founds;** While those at 
. Carlton House are *' beyond calculation/' For our part^ we nerer can 
grudge sny money which bis Royal Highness spends in a Priucefy manner; 
and wedaie say, though w< know nothing of the fkA, that the expenoes 
hem alluded to axe not in'«ny way derogatory to his rank and station. 
Mr. Jdlerys cooclodes his obserratitMis with the following statement. 

<' The Prince of Wales xeoeiTes at this time, a larger income than at 
any focoKr period of his establishment, and lives Without the state of that 
cstd>lishaient i which the latter grants of Parliament were intended to 
cnibk him to support, 

^' Upon the j^spiicapon iqade by his Royal Highness to Pkrliament; 
lor the arrears that accfoed during the minority of his Royal Highness^as 
Ooke of Cornwall; it was stated, by Sir Thomas Manners Sutton (ther^ 
Attomey.General to the Prince), that his R(^al Highness M/p imsbed jus- 
tice to h d^e to him, tbui he might do justice to others ; and to be enabled (by 
Kcetvtng the money to which he was so entitled) to resume the re-esta. 
blishment of his hous^ld, and to maintain that splendour so netessary- 
to the situation of the Heir-Apparent to the Thron?, which he was then 
deprived of,— 60,00^ •' per annum having been taken away by the Com- 
mtssiooers, to pay his former debts. 

*• Govemmeni, with an extreme liberality to the Prince, though they^ 
ttsisted the claim to the Cornish arrears, consented (for the purpose of 
fopporting the establishment of the Prince in its accustomed spiendourj, 
to give up the sixty thousand pounds psr annum,, restoring his Royal 
Highaess's income to its original amount. 

*f The Prince declines to revive the splendour of his estabfishment, 
notwithstanding this addition of income 6o,oool. profossing, as a reason 
for his continuing to live in a state of privacy, that it is with the laud- 
Ale motive to be enabled to discharge the deficiencies which the Com. 
I mtssioners for settling the debts of his Royal Highness had occasioned. 
This magnanimous declararion of the Prince was so flattering to his «re. 
ditors, who had sufii?red so much by the dedu^ions of the Coounissioners, 
and the delay in the payment of their several demands, that a meeting^ 
^as a^ually held at toe Thatched. House Tavern, and an address voted to 
the Prixice, expressive of their approbation and thanks at the mode the 
Prince bad adopted-for relieving and doing them justice finally. 

•* As the Prince of Wales, however, in the discharge of this maguaui* 
mmms dut^^ was'not quite in so great a hurry as the creditors, for the mo. 
imeDt of its performance, the intelligence of the intended address no sooner 
aeached has Royal Highness's lears, than Colonel M'Mahon was dispatch. 
led to aay the PHnce was so satisfied with their attachment as not to re. 

Eire way jddiess; — but, as it waa voted, it might be s^t to Colonel 

'^ The Prinoe of Wales, though in the receipt of the money from the 
lave 1 mentioned, has never pai4 a single shilling in diminntion of the 
lefiqienciea he was so anxious to diKharge^ and in ^titnde for which the 
RdBfOfB were W eager to addmi Urn," 

• • These 


Theie laAs spekk for tli^mselTes > and wto iImiU nat oSer a stng^ < 
xnand upon them* 

Haying tbus dismUsed his own cafee» the author adds a few. pages. eiv 
*^ Her Royal Highness thb PaiNCEts oif Walss and itfrj* Fitgbir^ 
h^rt.'/ We w«re not a little surpriaed at finding these two naaet cho^ 
atrangely Joined together ; and Mr. Jeierys biimdlf' deems an apoktgy: 
necessary ror so unitmg theoi. Be siiys, that Mrs. Fitzherbcvt wiUdeemk 
him guilty of presumption for placing her name after th^t of tlia Frinceia^- 
If sOf she aautt have more impudence than any othea woman in his M». 
Jesty's ^millions ; but we ho^, for the sake of decency, that Mr. Jef*. 
ferys has libelled her ; he, however, talks of .<^ fr^cedence,^ which (to 
the wrprhu of many of the nobility of t^^ cOaotfy, and. to theiHgrna of 
tjie pepp^ at large). th9 daijty^ f^Kei-iHs at the mvfuinmetnt rf tki grem$J* 
I'liis we cannbt believe \ — for what pretensions has Mis. Fitxheffocrt^ the- 
widow of a plain country gentlf mlil, to etaim prooedence over aojr of otar 
nobility? In whatr^^zr^^^r, in what r^«rify, cooU she psesVflK lO'JclbMV 
precedence ? — If, indeed, she were so far to forget herself, cxbts tliefe b- 
iiobleman, or his lady, so abje^, sp biise, » fo iieoapafade of degradki^ 
his, or her, rank and charaAer, by allowing hcf ao' assert such a daino f 
We have a better opinion of our countrymen and ccmntry women, than C9 
give ccedit to so monstrous an assertion. It is nbc surelv poisible chat 
she can build any claim to distindion on any eoMMncion wWh may sobi. 
sut betwaen her and the Illustrious Personage who has taken suci^ an m- 
terest in her affairs. If she were to make sucfa. an attempt, the only ef* 
te^ of it, we should suppose, would be to banish her from the society 
of all the virtuous and modest part of her own sex, and from that of a^ 
the lespeflable, and honourable of the.othQr ac?^. But it cannot be, we 
Vvill not believe it. Mr. JefiFerys's motive for introducing the nane o^ 
the Princess of Wales in his pamphlet, is to express his graritiid^ 
for the condescension which her Royal Highness has shewn him* The 
Motive is certainly a laudable motive, and what he says of the virtues of 
this IllusfriousPerspnage, and of the general sympthy which she oxcites, more than truth ; and such we constantly hear whenever 
her Royal Highnesses name is mentioned. . 

|n speaking of Mrs. Fitzherberr, Mr. Jefferys alludes to the leport of 
her marriage, for the thitd time, sorme years .ago, which, from a sobse. 
<|ucnt event, he concludes could never have taken place. Mr. Honae 
Tooke,. we teinsmber, published a pamphlet at the time, in |ustificatioi# 
of tbas reported marriage} and we have not f<ngotte& the diiierecKe^ 
v/fiich an aUasion to this ia^, in the House of Commons, produced be-* 
tween the late Mr. Fox and Mr. She? i4»i> ■ the former of whom retired in 
duilg^on to Bath. We, too, have heard a great deal aboat that event iam 
private j^ but whether any cereasooy w^ or wjis not performed,. ito Pi cgis* 
not^ The laws of this coontry had previously pfonounced it to be illcgii ^ 
ami, tber^fore any womaft, who could ^Ace hersdf in such « scfutaoii«. 
aould be regarded in no other Iigh« ^na as living ia » Mate of wboiaAoi^ 
t^'e dare, indeed, talked with very sensible Romish priests oivtiie aob^ 
yd£iy who have declared^ wilhoiit halisMioni tb>< s^cfra mw i iagi corttlct 
tiot possibty W coosidefad as a mArriage^ by. tktir dhuioli^ But 
we consider the dreadful peaaifj K^ikh^flie laar bv p ro ao aiw a d oo < 
the parties, in such a ^remony, M.taW r* ' ' - - - - - 

rij^t toiiicoeed t6 that inheritance' to #hich he was bdhiy and'Wl 
■ust constitute the chief pri<k and boast of his life, 'we are com^ 
to withhold our belief from those who assert that sacTi a ccremoAy 
aftuaHy {^rformed ; and to give implicit credit to Mr. Fox, who, 
doubt, upon the best authori:y, contradicted the* assertion ; thoug] 
was pretty clearly understood, that he had hiin»e'f been contradi^ed 
one of those bosom friends, who ar^ ever ready to flatter and toencoai 
CTcrr bad propensity of their superiors. 

We had written thos far, before wo perused the Letter to Mrs. F 
heibert, which is annexed to the pamphlet before us. On reading it, 
find the idL^k:^ about pmnmptkn and precedencty &c. which we thoi 
incredible^ re.stated, and reasserted with cirtunlatances that absoln 
shake our opinion. Not a word> however, nbc a syllable, of what 
hare said on the subject, do we feel the smallest disposition to reti 
If Mr. Jeffi*rys be corrc^k in his statement, no words which the iangi 
can supply, will suffice ;o express either our abhorrence of that Vain, 
samptuoas, mischieVous old woman, who ha*; not the smallest excuse 
her coodafl — she is no longer in the hey-day of her blood — she wi 
easy ctrcomstances — neither youth nor necessity fumi«jhed her with a p 
ative for any errors or vices which she might commit ; Or otir contc 
of SDch of the nobility as could so degrade th?msth'es. Mrs. Fitz 
bert has no claim to respc^ \ let her not think that she can derive a 
lowed last re, from the illustrious person tge who supports her. To 
ixxle^, all resped and deference are due ; but they are due to him 
J9ir#/^^«they extend, not to aay one whom he may chuse to take u 
his proteAion. Forbearance to her^ a()pearing in the light in which 
hcK appears, would be injustice, would b? insult to the virtuous and 
lal part of the commonity. We have censured Mr, Jefferys with 1 
dom, where we have thought him deserving of censure ; afld we ' 
with eq«al freedom^ and with much greater pleasure, praise him whei 
af^eara to ns to deserve praise, and ceriainly it does appear to us that 
entitled to very high commendation for the eomposition of the Lett< 
' question, provided always, that hs be corred^ in his faSii, If tha 
so, we heartily concur with him in every thing which he has said ' 
lespedting Mrs. Fitzherberr, Having said this^ we shall close ««i 
view of hfs •' Rtnritw/' by laying the Letter bcforcf our readers. 

*' A Letter addressed to Mrs, Fitxherbert^ upon th Influence of Exa 

efTr. £sfr. ^c. 

*" ' H^ ! ^Thou shalt be ♦•♦•• hereafter. 


'* God forbid! J 11 - 

'' Madam. — You ^, I understand, much offended at the fro 

with which I have mentionl^ your name in the appeal I have made t 

jpnblfc, add I am informed that. I have hurt your feelings ; if, Madai 

hut your fBelings should lead to an alteration ofyour condu^,^and ir 

jon to consult the feelings of othe/s, then should I have reason to ic 

tim J have been' instruihental in producvig a^nost desirable eflfedt. . 

•* Has (do you think) that Illustrious Personage, the Princess^of ^ 

op fisetings ? What must be the sensations of mind in that truly- unl 

xutte Lady, to witness,^ for years together, the, attention which is di 

her, paid to you, and to hear of jour fcelmgs} 

** Yoa aite disjdeased, I am informed, at my having mentioned thi 

JIQ, 9, VOL. XXV. O C< 


cedenoe JsWoi to yoa it the assemblies of the great. Can f on <iep7 that 
you do recei?e the precedence, whichi appertaioing only to hereditary 
rank, you, as a commoner, can haVe no pretensions to ? 

*' Do you not sit above your superiors ? Is not a marked attention 
paid to you as the fr^nd of. the Prince of "Wales ? Has it not occurred, 
and frequently too, at entertainmaits where you have been in the com- 
pany of U§ Royal Highners, that a circle has been farmed round ^-^h, ai- 
milar to the circle in the Queen's dra wing- fi7oni ! ! !— I know that such atw 
tetitions have been paid to j w, and I could name the places where, I find 
you complain that I have offended you by saying, that such precedence is 
a matter oi surprize to mitny of the nobility, andof great disgust co the 
people at large — is it possible to be otherwise ? 

•* What opinion must the public entertain of your understanding fro 
say nothing more), to see >^)u accept and appear to be gratified with an 
attention th^t you not only have no pretea^ions to, but which every body, 
except yourself, sees is |>aidto you from necessity, with disgust and con« 
tempt by many, with ridicule by others, and with real respe^ by none ? 

** Have the ancient nobilt'y, then, do you sup|iose, no fv'clings of un. 
easiness at the atfront thus offered them? And are the people at large, do 
you imagine, divested of all feelings u^)on such occasions ? 

** It is now many years since you were first upon a footing of intimacy 
with the Prince of Wales. A- house of great expence was taken for you 
in Pall Mall, communicating privattlj with Carlton House ; and the house 
adjoining the Pavilion it Brighton, till then inhabited by Mr. Weltje 
{house.steward to his Royal Highness), was appropriated to your use, with 
an establishment up^n a scale of magnificence (infinitely beyond the limits 
of your original income) at the charge of the public, and, consequently, 
. to the loss of the just creditors of the Prince of Wales, who can only be 
* considered a trustee for the proper disposal of the income allowed him by 
the country for the support of his dignity, 1 he world, therefore, con*, 
siders, and the Prince's creditors h^lj that you have been, and are still — 
living at the public charge. Have the public then, in your opinion, no 
£selings } They have : — and they" can be no other than fiselings of sx«. 


*' When ih^ Piince of Wales was married to the Princess, it was agreed 
that you should retire from that intimacy of frieftJship you had so long en. 
joyedj and your houses in Pali Moll and at fiiighton were given up ac- 

** However creditable (prospcftlvcly) to your charafler, that yon did 
retire to the villa purchased for you at Castle -Bear, yet, viewed in a 
rehQsfeili*ve light, the mdtnity of such a retreat (accompanied as it was by 
a pension of several thousands per annum, payablequarterly at an eminent 
tanker's, and a retention of the very valuable jewels, plitc, &c. &c# 
given to you by the Prince), did not, in, the opinion of the world, add 
much 'good Tame to your reputation. 

** Had you continued in the retirement expe^cd of you, the world 
would probably never have disturbed you in the enjoyment of your great 
possessions, by any reflediions upon the mode of their acquisition ; bat 
not long after the Prince of Wales was married, his Royal Highness dis. 
continued to live with the Princess, and returned to your society^ in which 
he was eagerly received ! ! ! 

'« < O shame, where is thy blush !' 

' « Ott 

Misciilariis. itj^ 

' On thti unexpected renejgtf of itiHmacj; an establkhmenf, opOD a 
I larger scale, was formed i6v you ; a nobl^ bou^e in Park^lane, mote 
ini&ceodj fitted up, and superbly furnished; a brge retinue of ser. 
ts ; carriages of vaHotn decriptions ; a new pavilion^ built for your 
rate residence! at Brighton ; and the Prince zaot^ frequently in your . 
cty than ever. 

^ Wben> Mpdani, your friendf pretend tbatjwKr feelings are hurt, let 
iuk you (and them) if you think the pcfople of moral chdra^er in thia 
htry have no feelings ? I am ^ure they must relinquish all claim to 
\ if they eoald view, with indifference, such a departure from dteency 
his conduct exhibits in you; and rtot see, with anxiety and fear for- 
^fatare, the probable result of such a dreadful infatuation — not less 
Iprous to the future interest of this country, than any xhat was ever 
erienced at the profligate Court of Versailles, proyed to France. 
Let no more beiaid, then, of j^cjrr feelings, but consider the Porc. 
FiBLiNCs of the much. pitied Princess of Wales. Consider. 
iKDiCNANT FEELI29GS of the ancicnt Nobi'ity of the country, in- 
led by: the precedence you enjoy. 

"Consider the disgustjd feelings of the public (while stiflfering^ 
t the weight of taxes) upon seeing so Lirge a. proportion of the fr uita 
their industry so unworthily bestowed upon, you. 
Consider the out a AG CD feelikg^ of the moral cl^ss of society, 
to their praise, attach importance to the influence derlired from 

' Give but a due consideration, Madam, to the feelings of thediftr.' 
classes of society alluded to, and they cannot fail of promoting that 
pee in the disposition of your mind> which will relieve you from the 
Itul feelings ot which your friends insinuate thaf you complain^ And' 
Ire you from the farther contempt of the world. 

** * ^ I ^arge thee, 'fling away ambition ; 

By that «sin fell the angels. Shake^pearb.' 

** 1 am,. Madam, your obedient servant, 
^ PaB MaO, jfufy f;^ i8o6, Nath. Jefferys.'* 

\ Later to Nuthaftiel Jfff^ryt^ lite GoUsm'th and Jetjotller tQ Hit Royal 
Higbnets the Prince of H^aleSf late Mrtnber.rf ParU anient for the City of 
Coventry, fm the SubjeB of hii extraordiftary Pamphlet^ entitled '* A Re» 
nne^w oftbeCondua of His R yal Uigbitesi the Ptince of ff^ales, GTr. ^c, 
Vc.*' ffiih an Examinatiott into (of) the M-jthiet of hit Pnhlkatienf 
and its frohabU Conuqnencet^ 8vo. Pf. 48. 2S. Matwman. i8o6, 

IN a brief "Advertisement" prefixed to this Letter, the author 
idares that he has taken op '^ the gauntlet in the cause of truth ;" 
e must therefore conclude that he stands by this pledge, bound like a 
itness to ** speak the truth, the nuhoU truths and nothing but the truth ;" 
d it is by this criterion that we shall briefly iavestigate the merits of 
s prododian. With the following remarks it is impossible for any friend 
' his country not fully to agree. 

" The same laws in this country happily bind the peasant ^ the 
ince, and the public mind, early taught to' reverence such a blessings 
oks with an uninfluenced eye on the assertions of the powerful, and wkli 
' unprejudiced one on the statements of the weak. Another of our 

O 3 gseatest 


gieaOMf blMings, that stable balwark- of porfireedoai, Hw liberty of ttM 
prtaSf d^isfcnses its ^idvantages equally to aU who cbuse to putake of it^*^ 
pvblicinirescigatjon a»ui discussion k (are) provoked; the beggar nu) 
cemtnent on the public a^s of his Monarch ; nor can oppressien tyrannize 
ot«r the indlFidiial who uses i/:^ (qu. *whaf^J prerogative." . 

Thank heaven ! it is true that the laws of this country are equal!) 
btr?diiig on the Prii^ce and t\it peasant ; a4id that the freedom of the prwa 
ytt reirains such as to allow any indlvidu^'l to censure, with equal fuoi 
dom, any violation of the laws by the Prince or by the peasant. Having 
made thi^ admission, the author miist allow, that the laws of religion aflij 
moiab are equally binding with tho^e of the country. No Cbristiam vil 
presume to deny this ; or even to deny, that were it passible fotP any sd 
of uaen to make laws in con tradition to of God, it would be th 
boundcn duty of every Chrlitian to disobey such laws, and to express U 
abhorrence of them. 

- The author then proceeds to charge Mf. Jeifcrys with a de?igi>«t> ** poi 

son the minds ^f the jxiople/' aid to excite hatred againi^t the Prince ^ 

Wales ; and be tells him, that Lv is *^ ur.pripcipled who would sow iin til 

minds of the tub je^ seeds ofdissatisfa^licn and discontent." We >*fl 

here put a case to this cnsuisty^ in order to prove that such a general inft 

rence is dirc6Hy at variance with his own premises. If the Heir App^ 

rent were so far to forget his duty as to lie guihy of a gross breach of fli 

laws, either of God or of his Country, would any man, who tued til 

liberty of the prc^s, •' that stable bulwark of our freedom," in order • 

censure such a violation, ^<<nd to dcmonstrare rhe dangerous consequence 

of it, deserve to be stigmatized as *' unpriiK:iplerj," because the jtisti<l 

and force of his observations were such as to carry conviction to the tniai 

of his readers, and had, therefore, a tendenty to render the people dissarh 

fied and discontented with the object of his censure ? Again, let os all 

this waiter, whether any exposure of the misconduft of ihe-grtat, ho* 

ever caHed for by a rej^ard for religious and moral principles, or by 

sense of danger lo rhe Country would Ror, of necessity, have the ^fak 

of producing such dif!iatij.fi4(51irn and discontent ? Certainly it would 

and if on that account it should be avoided, what becomes of this boaste 

liberty of rhe press — this " bulwark of our freedom ?" While, thel 

be professes a sacred resped for freedom, he is, unintentionally we hop 

the advocate of slavery. Mr. Jefter) ^'s crgumfntt my ^^Nweak, and h 

790ti<ves may be bad (nnd our reader^ have already seen jhat we have epar^ 

neitlier the one ni)r the other), bui he is not to be reprobated merely k 

c^Hu he may have rendered a part of the public di&sati&ficd with the Pei 

-sonagc whon> be attacks. If, as this author says, he has advana 

■* truihi misrepresented, statements inaccurate^ and assertions wtsuhsf-aHtiatedi 

let him be reprobated for so doing ; but not for doing that which ©▼« 

Briton has a right to do, and which, in many cases, it may be hi« diri 

to do — whatever parasites may say to the contrary. 

The observations which we have ourselves made on Mr. Jeiferys'a hi 
dfess renders it unnecessary to quote much from this Letter. Whi 
however, our author Says respeding the loss which Mr. Jefferys asserts I 
sustained on his debentures, is too just not to be noticed. We must fit 
^mise, however, that he seems to us to labour nndcr a mistake respet 
jti^ tfre deiindion of ten per cent, from the debts due by the- Prince ; fti 
^rilcsfwtlteemisvndcrit09d 0ic butincss, Mr. Jeffery^was ofieaeddi 
• "^*^'^*" ben^oji 

AftsttlUnits* If 7 

kntMet for ilie ^qU of the «a]B allowed huoa by the verdjift of the JwjTy 

ttearing A^/vr /^ r^xr/. iutece&C; ai^d h wa> left u> hiaeiihcc t^takeiu^b 

^cttres, oriO'd^u^ tei) per pent, from di^ amouoi of liU deimndy 

t^ ta^e deheiUuees bearing /^i;^ /^ ctut. ioteresr. it' we be rigbt in o«r 

pncepuoa, the author k% jmi»taLcQ in his &uppoutiof> that .tiM^.dedudion 

lose from the insadiciency of the sum vof'ed by i^ar It anient. 

<< Yoa suce> Sir, that you was paid in dcbeiuurcs, .which told H fo 

perige discount of tw^niy^ptrceiu. k>$s,^ and you make your c«!culacioiis 

ccordingly. You mast have been y^y UDfortunau; in the sale of jfO«r 

ebencures indeed ; iox I have been inibrmed by >ouic ^i the ccediitoiK •£ . 

iftRoyiil Highne«s, of equal respe^abilUy with yourself^ that ^hey.. fume 

pt loat a fartlui\g by thesn ; the interest on •tht.-in has been mg^hid^ 

iid) as well a^ the debentures as they became due. Ho'%v comes \l thmi 

latyou hliould have a^led^o vnwaxUy ? or, m.iy I be allowed tocooeeive 

t the sum stated in your accouat, is wh>\c you might haveios^i 4^^ 

it 1 be compelled to credit, whi jh 1 scarcely can, \\kxi you a^loali^ <lid 

twenry per cent, on ymr. dcb/ntures ? About that Ume there wcfe 

KOM people, like yourself now, anxious to circulate reports, teading to ^ 

ijme the<:redit and* cha rainier of the Prince of Wales, aad a^ch inidie 

!ity as wanted ^o purchase these debentur<^, were v«ry a(ftive ia^bs pvo* 

Uilgation of the fabrications. As ^th^ debentures Avere bco^ghi:i<ito^Aa9* 

itt, Hke any thing else on the Stock Exchange^ they boreiji value i«pr<K 

QFtion to theiciircuazst^aQces, |i& they were favourable or ur.favooraUe 4n 

he day of sale ^ bat how you. Sir, who h:)d such an exalted opinioa #f 

is Royal Highness, who wa^ so dally subjcd to his *^ constant and 4n. 

B^'*&V^ approbation,'* should have ceded your hwfwhdge to tl|e afr. 

!N(u)rot* the hears^ and parted with yours at the greatest poi^ubie Iobs 

i 20 per c«nt» while other more humble orediiofs^ who know 1^5$, 

pt a^d wiser, lo&t nothing, I am utterly at a loss ^o imagiae.'^. : r 

Hie author then truly observes, that when the CoaiinisGioners had bee^n 

lipoiiited by Parliament for settling the Prince's Ueots, the basinet was 

•UKly ta^en out of the hands of his Royal Highness, and ther^ibrc Mr. 

^&ry«C(Mild have no j i^t ground of complaiLU a^aiost h^m. Certain^ 

Us^rgQinent .would be conclusive, but for One cl^cumstaRce stated b^ 

^r. Jefferys> and which this wjiter studiously forbc«Lrs to notice* VS^e 

pieaa the kjnd of voluntary epga^emcnt contracled by the prince, to sBfUfcc 

' all deficiencies occasioned by the -mode of payment adopted by tl^e 

oissioaers ; and bis cousequent jrefusal to resu^ie that est.^bliskaieiit 

liohbocame bis >tation) ai^d for enabling hi la to resume wbich, t^e 

iitioaal incois^ had expressly been voted by Parliam. ^nt» How tlie,pro. 

ed advocate for truth ijould avoid the discussion of this (v«>\aiktiUMii4lJ 

|prt«f the question, it will become him to explain to the pubUc. 

\ The Lejtter-wrker next enters into art investigation of {y/Ir, jeflBerys's 

pHi Statement of his losses, and proves that, if he had kept his debsntwpes 

fcr one year^ -he would have received, instead of 43,2201. 17s. ad*, the 

pffl of 5-6,7271, ys. 8d, consequently, tbat be improvidently squandered 

ho lets a sum than i3.,5o61. ros. 6d. ; aod that his loss, ihcrcfore^ in. 

f^ of hein^, as eta tod by bimself, 4d,SoSU i^. 6d« would have beea 

f^l $»5wL 118. 

\ '* And new. Sir, after this, how will y<^ eyer account to the pablic 
^hftvii^paid fwo shilling ^d ii^ne^^nce im ihe foMud Mly^ failii^ibr 
fuf0,tbr€€ thousand fmndsy more or less, when you have acknowledged to 
i O 3 . ' bavc 


Iiave receiT^, hy your otvn statemnity no less a sum than ffxtf'^ 
tboMSoffd ttvo hundrtd and Mxtetttj pounds^ ei^htttn sbiHirtg$ miHf* ' 

This is a question which Mr. Jeffeirys, we suspeA, will find some 
culty in answering ; it is> however, afairand proper qoestioQi sifice 
Jeiferys h<i6 chosen to make the public a party in his private coDceros ; 
arises immedratejy, and naturally, out of his own statement. B^t ' 
very different description are some scandalous anecdotes which fiai 
and which no man ought to state, without proof, or, at least, witi 
ipving them the sandion of his name. In these Mr. Jeff^rys is chai 
with receiving from some schooUboys 120I. for a piece of plate, for \ 
<iie sent them one wo^th only 30I. ; with purchasing a houae, when 
state of insolvency, and paying for it with drafts which were nercr 
noored ; and'with requesting from a nobleman, who had ordered a scr 
of plate of him, an advance of zSv'Ol. to enable him to purchase 
silver ; ''and, after receiving the money, with sending only one-ciilrdi 
the order, and keeping the whole of the sum advanced. These are chai) 
of a v^iy serious nature, which should not bcitdvanced without being « 
stantiated. If we. mistake not, Mr. jtffjrys gave them^a flat contrad 
tion in the papers when they were first pubiibhed ; and' if the aatbor \ 
not been able to prove the truth of theu assertions, how can he exf 
credit for any others f We cannot, however, but admit the jusrijor 
his remarks upon the frequent applications of Mr. Jefferys to the Pri| 
for assistance ; for it is perfectly evident, that* had the Prince, even 
the present year, given Mr. Jefferys any lucrative situation, aJi his ( 
easiness respedlng his charader would have instantly ceased^ and 
pamphlet would never have been published; as the author tells him^ *^\ 
you obtained a place, you were content to sit quiet under that weight 
obloquy, which failing, you complain of; you would have wisely cdi 
promised your character, for the perquisites of office,"^ atKl resigned 1 
bubble reputationiox the substantial enjoyment of < the Iwifvei amdfisbes^* 

Adverting to tjie close of Mr. JcfFerys's Review, this author si 
" in the same page, and with equal presumption, you have sUtMsUrrJ 
Fitzhcrbeit, and dared to libel the Princess of Wales by yttttr camjm 
tion, S\xch f raise is Jin insult — such testimony a dcgwdation^** This as 
thing but the language of truth ! To slander is to belie; and, w|iei 
anonymous writer accuses a man of lyifg^ it behoves him to prove 
truth of his assertion^ for which something more than his i^se eli, * 
necessary. It was |iis duty to shew in what Mr. Jeflferys had sLua 
Mrs. Fitzherbcrt ; what fads rcspeding her he had mistated ; what 
cuffistances he had falsified, fiut no, this zealous, this Candid, this 
alsteiit advocate of truth, only pleads her cause where his own p 
purpose is to be answered by it, but descris her the moment he &nas^ 
adverse to that purpose. On this most interesting part of Mr. Je£feq 
publication, he observes, "I think I cannot say too little ;" wheoor 
public will, no doubt, infer with us^ that he could not confute 1 
Jeflferys's statement, and not having the courage or the honesty to m 
truth on the subjed, he chose to be silent. 'He ought to H 
known, however^ that argument and abuse arc not synonimous teiil 
and that when a man accuses another of slander^ he ought not to becoifli 
slanderer himself. How the praise of any one can be a degradeetmm to 
character of the Princess op Wal^^ it will require rattier more i^ 

jMixtlhmes. 199 

waXj to explaiDi than rbis writer possesaes. instead of haring fvovcd 

tlin Mr. .(eitetys has iiifeMed the Prif/cetif it u pretty evident to os chat 

I k has himself libelltd the Pmr^. He says^ '< Irom the feeling bosom of 

! that Prince Hvhooi you have 50 wantonly sought to injure^ ylTu can rzpeft 

n fiirgiv<ne$t,** Is tiot this advocate aware that there ts a passage ia a 

ceruin prayer, which, we hope^ is as well known in the Pahiee (we are 

lit it Is at St. James's) as in the cottage, to the Prince as to the pea. 

! unt ; relating to this ^me sobject oi firg.'venets, — *• Forgive us oatr ties* 

psses, us (in the same manner as) lae forgive other $ who have trespassed 

against us ?" It is as needless to observe. that no man who can lefose 

forgiveness to another, cancxpeA forgiveness himself; as it is, to leiiMiie 

that the fbi^tveness of injuries is most strongly entbrced by the Hotjr 

Foonder of our religion himself, it remained, however, for this writer 1 

1 to discover, that an mttfvrgi*vmg temper was compatible with 3^ /itiiMg kvern'^ 

^ Ssiely, then, we may retort his own woids upon him, and say with great 

tntth, — '* Such praise is an insuk.y — Arid again, 10 use his conclMding 

wofds, with very little alteration, we 'say to him, ** now torn, to the 

iestfige but one of your publication — read it — read it again. Sir; - tutn to 

tbe first, read that also, '^ go forth ere^," and endeavour tofindono 

konest man acquainted with your pamphk't, who will allow y6u to ba 

the champion of /nr/i&. * .1^ 



sift, • , 

SENSIBLE as I am of my prcsnmption, ?n having undertaken thi 
offieeof doing justice to your fame, yet 1 stand pledged co tlie task, and 
cannot now recede, though already I feel my faculties overpowered by tl4 
Waze of your virtues, as the waxen pinions of Icarqs melted wh^n he 
soared too near the ^un. Your goodness will. Therefore, I trust, pardon 
the imperfe^ions of'rtiy performance; and ascribe ihem to want of talenr, 
not to want of zeal. 

So many of your high qualities have afre?d}' been blazoned by abfet 
pens than mine, that with whatever trait of your character I attempt h> 
commence my panegyric, I find myself anticipated; ar.d that the origina- 
lity of the writer must be lost in the dulncss of the compiler, unless, like 
some authors, I should consider my hero as secondary to myself, and sa- . 
crifice your renown to my own vanity. 

Shall I speak ofyour military exploits ; of the rapidity with which yoo rose 
in little more than three years from your first becoming a soldier, to the ranl( 
of Commander in Chief of the Southern Army in India * > How you crpsa^ 
td unfbrdable rivers, passed jungles until then considered impassable^ 
stormed fort after fort lull of grain and treasure; reduced all the Tebellioos 

^ Colonel Fullarton's Statenient,^c. respefUng the affairs of Trinidad, 
Vide Letter to Secretaxy at War, in Appendix, Pp* 94 to B8. . . 

O 4 Polygars 

Polfgsn to Gibedienccf and would have porsoed four vi£brknii camff 
against Tippoo Soitaan MnMelf, but for counter orders I Hcre^ likeCaesar| 
yoa have been four own historian : and, not withoat good reason, for 
exceptipg from ail these athievements, the compiiment paid to jour spirit 
and a^^ivity in pushing into Darampord, i believe that you might say 
with Captain Bluff in the Old Bachelor, ** would you think it * I in aU 
this time, as I hope for a truncheon, that rascally Gazette .writer never 
so much as once mentioned me. Not 6nce by the wars ! look no more - 
ix>tice, than as if Noll Bluff hai not been in the land of the living." 
' If I advert to that Inviolable acThercnce to truth, which is the distin. 
goiUiing chara dens tic of every honourable ratnd, a cloud of witnesses oi 
^igh rank and respedability have already given you,/ on that bead, the 
anosc unequivocal te:>timony. ^ Sir Samuel Hood, K. B. in his \ letter to 
ShI Camden, declares that your episde, as far as it respecis him, ^* is 
iitse almost in every page +/' Briffadi-^r General Mairlani, in answer 
to your assertion, that lie obtained the Governaicnt of Trinidad for Co- 
)dtiel Pidou, declares that '< he was not indebted for that appointment 
to any interest which he made with Sir Rsilph Aliercromby, for that he 
nadanone to that end |.*' Colonel I>raper states, ** that you have not 
Mly misrepresented fads,*buc have adduced such ill-founded assertions as 
must subjedl you to the heavy charge of a breach of veracity §." C<^onel 
Mosheim, declares your statement rtispeding the expedition to the Spanish 
MafA)- 10 which he commanded the land forces, to be <' a most bMe and 
malicious falshoodj|." Captain Dickson of the Royal Navy, says, that 
an extradl from it, /* is notoriously false f ; and Cnptain Champain, says, 
•^ that every atom of what yon have asserted respeding the Navy, in 
their expedition to the Spanish Main, is perfeftly false ♦*." Nay, even 
the dead speak your praises ; for General Gr infield's Letters to Lord Ho- 
bart. Colonel Pidon, and the Commander in Chief ++, contradift the sen- 
timents which you thought proper to put into his mouth jj. 

Yotir regard to the public good, and to the welfare of that colony in 
particular, in whose government you had a . share, is established by the 
voice of his Majesty's Council of Trinidad, and of General Hislop, the 
present Governor : the former, voted the pamphlet which you wrote, and 
disseminated there, to be *< an attempt to interrupt the peace and tran. 
quiOity of the Colony, and a libel meant to throw refledions upon the 
present Government, and the Members of his Majesty's Council^ and to 
,aow. discord, disunion, and distrust among them;" all which the Go. 
yernor echoes in his answer to their address, conveying the foregoing 
resolution, which, he s^ys, ^' cannot fail to stand recorded on a basis 
the most impartial,, and must convince the world of the pure and honour. 

* Colonel Fullarton's Statement, vide notes of proceedings in commaixi 
0£ liorces Sooth of the Cokroon, in Appendiid; Pp. 89 to 94. 

+ Letter to Lord Hohart by Colonel Pifton, p. 66. 
. I Ditto, ditto, ditto, p. 6i^ ^ Ditto, dino> ditto^ p. ^7* 

i Colonel Draper's Address, Appendix, p.'4j, , 
Ditto, dflto,* ditto, p. 45I »♦ Ditto, ditto, ditto, p. 48. 

. tt Letter to Lord Hobart by Colonel Pidkm, Pp. 16 to ^5. 

It ColoDd FuUaxAm'i Suttment, (aoie) p, 1 ;« 
■•■ • ^ , abk 

Afiscilhamin. . ^ Ml 

iible moiiteft tliat had aAnated theniy in the s^tepi they had decBied it 
necessary to adopt, to refute unmerited calumnies */• 

Your (»ndour and ingenuousness, are displayed in the coriespondefiett 
vith the Baron de Montalambert, one of whose letters you printed f , white 
the others were suppressed; tl^us contriving to convey a meaning by the 
part, dire^ly opposite to that which wduld have been conveyed by the 
whole J. 

To prove your love of justice, . shall \ call the Reverend Fathw }osef 
Maria Angeles, who, to support your prosecution against Colonel Pic- 
tpn, not only fabricated a register of baptism, and swore to its authen- 
ticity, but almost suflfered m.irtyrdom in the cause; having since, at the 
request t>f his superiors in the chdrch, been prosecuted, convicted, and 
degraded from his sacerdotal fnnftions, for these offences 5 ? Or shall I 
appeal 10 that blessed innocent your interesting protegee, Miss Louisa 
Calderon; who to promote the ^ame good cause, left her native country, 
and the little suspicions upon whose character of prostitution, theft,- and 
perjury |j, will doubtless soon be washed away, since you are said to Save 
introduced her into the society of your family and friends f, -no doubt, 
with the laudable intention of reforming her morals by the force of good 

To establish your boundless generosity, and unexampled munificence, 
shall I send to Newgate, or to which of the other jails of the metropotii 
shall I send, for your trusty and well beloved agents, Mr. Minchin, 
learned in the law, and F. P. Mac Galium, author ^f " Traveb in Tri- 
nidad ;" or is the latter of these worthies still at large ? If it be liiotight, 
that your permitting such men, after such service*, to be exposed for a 
moment to such a situation, mny derogate from your claim to these noble 
qualities, \ct me proclaim in" your vindication, that your liberality, 
vaulting above individual objcds, and petty charities, soars to the wib- 
limer* height of relieving the wants of an army**. Oh, that all out 
commanders were aftuated by such patriotic principles ! " an anpjr 
enabled to a6: by private advances, when the public treasury was desti. 
tute++: exalted magnanimity, worthy the eulogium of Sir John Got 
Hippisjey ! But as you have modestly attributed this important service, 
to your being fortunately conjoined with men, »^* able, zealous, and 
anited in the public cause," I shall not break in upon the unity of my 
design, by dwelling upon deeds, however meritorious in theniselves, oF 
which you cannot claim the undivided honour. Before I quit thi8;tc^ic, 
let me, however, notice the injustice done to such rare desert. The 

• Golonel Draper's Address, Appendix, p. 42 and .43. 

-f- Gokxiel Fullarton's Statement, p. 177. 

J Letter to Lord Hobart, p. 44 — 59. 

^ Evidence under Mandamus, p. 43-^56, and Appendix, p« 136--^ 

If Wtto^ ditto, p, 7, 75, 76—80, 81, 8«, 84, 99, 129. 

f Colonel Draper's Address, p^m84. 

♦♦ Colonel Fullarton's Statement, Appendix, p« 86. 

\\ Ditto, ditto, dittO| TcstijBoaies, p. 44»-^N.. B, Sir Jobh ^as 
,pi^Mtttei of this army. 


Madrajr GoTemment made a re pfescnution, to the Suprefse Gore n Moe rff ^ ' 

•toting that a shanaeful discoont, of from ^o to 50 ytx cent, had been 
•exacted, by certain agei>t», from the pay of ' the soldiers in the army 
miKfer your commanki. Tlie Governor Geoeral^ in his answer^ lamented 
tke cinrumstance, and diredcd that on arty Kimilar occasiowi, meaaure» 
ifapold be adopted to prevent such disgraceful proceed lugs 111 At honx 
the Dircftors objected to your accounts, wh»ch wt-re at length sul>miircd 
toj^fiEffceSj by whose award yom- charge6> hovirevev just aiul icasonablc, 
wei9c Biost unconscionably mul^d. 

The records of the Ivast Indi? Company cstalnish your claim to thai 
K^lisnest of virtues, forgiveness f3^ our enemies. Wlien yoji had led your 
a-rny against the rebellious Polygar Chiefs, you overcame tliem not more 
by valour fhan by kindress, and so far from receiviiig presents^ as some 
pfyour predecessors in command are suspcded to have done*, actually 
advanced them large sums of money, out of your own private par:>c^ 
Your goodness, hovveyer, unfortunately UiWd of producing the desirrft 
cSed ; and was abused by those incorrigible ra .cals tlu: Rajah Catabo- 
minaigue of Pimdalumcourchy, and the Rajah of Shcvi^^herry, who nei. 
ther paid their joint bond to yot», nor di<i boih of them pr.*scrYe their faith 
with the East India Company. On your applying to theCoitrt of Diiec- 
tors for payment of this bond, th.-y reiu^eJ to disch^rrge the debt^ and 
left your virtue to be its own re ward » 

To ^hicb eves of your qu:)iiti^s I turn my m''nd^ bucb ample justice 
bas already been done -you, that 1 might throw down my y>cn in despair 
of being able to give to truth the grace of novelty, but for the opportiu 
mty of relating an anecJote, which, I fiiitter myself, will illustrate o»ic 
arait in your chara<:ler, not hitherto touched upon. In the yeai; 1-&03, Mr. 
Marryat, a merchant in this city, \yroie to Lord Hohart, then Secretary 
of State for the Coloiiial Department, complaining that you, as a^ing 
Commissioner in Trinidad, had unjustiEably refu^cd to enforce a decree, 
pronounced in his favour by the projier judge of that island, against Mr» 
Thomas Smith, a planter there -^ whom he described as a man of blasted 
chara^er, formerly dismissed the Commissary's OiEce in Martinique for 
peculation, and afterwards appointed by you to be one of your /^ 
Camp> and Captain Commandant of the quarter of Napa rime f » Lord 

• The " Whitehall Evening Post," of •« June 8th, 1773," respefting 
the debate in the House of Commons on the preceding evening, has the 
Ibllowing passage : " The clause preventing any civil or military officer 
firorn receiving any present or gift from any of the Indian Princes, was 
taken into consideration. Lord Clive observed, that such restri^ons 
wonld produce great inconvenience; particularly, when a town was be. 
sieged, that the army would always wish to take it by storin, instead of 
. capitnlafion, for the sake of the plunder. He dwelt much on the necessity 
of leaving a discretionary power in the Governor and Council, to allow 
presents to be received by Commauders of armies. The Commiuee did 
sot seem to approve of hi^ Lordship's advice, but readily accounted for 
lis entertaining that opinion." 
i Colonel jfuUarton's Stjitement, p. i4oatkd 142* 


Aflscellannm. ao} 

Hdbarty for reasc^ best known to bhnself, took no notice to tKe com. . 
plainant, of this representation, but it seems he transmined a copy of tke 
letter to yoo, which, with another^ purporting to be your answer to LdtiI 
Hobarc (for none was sent to the party supposing himself Aggrieved), • 
you printed in yotfr pamphlet respeding the affairs of Trinidad *. In 
this letter of your's, a hint to Mr. vShiith is introduced, to call Mr. 
Marryat to account for th(? liberties which lie.had taken with that gen* 
Pieman's chara^er ; and an intimation of your inten.ii^g to prosecute Mr. 
M. for what you were pleased to term his injurious and libellous asser. 
<ioii5 against yourself. Mr, Smith, probably thought, that as you styled 
yourself Colonel, there would have been more proprict)^ in your recom. 
Blending the prosecution to hrra, and reserving the other altefnati^ to 
yoorscif, so declined tlie invitation which you had so courteously held 
out to him; and either the Counsel whom ypuconsuhcd gave his advice, 
chat what had been represented couoerning you to ^Ayrd Hobart, was no 
libel, or you were aware that it was not libellous, without taking any 
^advice on the subjsd. Mr. Marryat had stated Mr. Smith's fiagrani)t 
/condudl to Lord Hobart, merely as forming a leading feature of the case 
which he had Lud before him in his official charafter ; and the knowledge 
pf it might have slept for ever in his Lordship's Liosom, had not you 
promulgated Mr. Smith's infamy to the world. Some nienave<lead to 
a sense of principle, who are yet alive to a sen$e of shame ; and thus it 
seems to have b^en with your unfortunate friend : for Roon after he, saw 
himiself proclaimed in your panfphlet, as a man of blasted charadler, and 
pointed out there as an objed foi* the finger of scorn, he sunk under the 
w^ejght of ignominy which you had thus laid upon him, sickened, and 
^ed. This, Sir, is the trait in your chara^r to" which I wish to do 
justice ; and the elucidation of it may perhaps be useful to your other 
Adherents and pHriizun*'. Be it rcconled'in indelible ch;<Vafters, that such 
was your condud towards this friend, in the hope of m iking him the tool 
jof your resentment ; and let mc claim the merit, of adding one line to 
your eulogium— -one wreath to your laurels, by shewing, that though your 
fnmity is harmles^^ your friendship may be deadly. 


Political craniology. 


THE public in general, and the medical world in particular, are in- 
finitely jindebted to the ingenious Dr. Gall of Vienna, for his late Essay , 
on Craniology. This learned gentleman has completely ascertained and 
demonstrated, by a series of curious experiments and incontrovertible de. 
dudions, that the protuberances and depressions in the external ^figure of 
the skull, decide the internal qualities of the mind : or, to use his own 
words, that •* every passion, every virtue, every vice, every talent, 
cyery folly^ has got a certain organ in the head, which suits (or denotes) 
the particular faculty.'' We now learn, too^ that the brain, which had 

♦ Colonel Fullarton'a Statemcjit, p. 142 — 144. 


Kcbeflf beenr tonsidereil m a rMx^pUole, m wMcfa ^iir nk«9 were tH fi«4* 
S&i logetlier in one promiscuouft mass, u subdivided i<k. variom con^ 
fftrtnents^ in wkich <he difiefcnc faculti«s» or spts of ideas, correftpondii^g 
with ihdt cKteriud organs, are as distindtly and reguiarly arranged^ a» 
l&c different wares ixi a grocer's or tabtrdashcr's fthop^ are asaorted ia tke 
miotts drawers appropriaiced to the rece)»2ion of oach article, 'like Do^^r 
ftaa poioKrd out in the cranium, the sitoatioti of neair tbirty of thet^c 
iirgaas, and -labelled eadi of them with its rc«pe^Ive coiHeoiSy x?(Mnpri&. 
ing all the leading passions by which the bra ins of nienar^i atiUiaced^ 

To prove the in^ilibility of his hypothesis, the Dudoir visiced the 
£^Feni jails in Germany, where, by h<iiidlii>g the skulls of the ■K>st 
«oi(m(M» j:ogiiCS in continemenr, heisunediatoly declared, with the iscmose 
fi^cijB&on^ to the adiniration of all around him, the crina&of which ea^b 
\mi been guilty » He distinguished a coiner by his organ of mechanicai 
arta ; a fellow who hid connnltted a rape, by his organ of sexual inatind ^ 
the captain of a gang, by his ergao at fighting; and a f>salrn -ringing; 
■Rthadist, who had unluckily strayed from the told of fhe hunb, by hia 
«rgan of music. The Do(ftor Amnd the organ of thieving very promi- 
aest in most of tjte 4)risoner« ; and sagaciously remarked, that in maajr 
«f this CompiiAy of rogues, the organ of rciledion was scarcely to^ seen 
iStalL^ as, on the contrary, the organ of lust was eminently displaced in 
taofit of them — an obserjvation which, I feur, he n> ght with equal justice 
kav<e applied to roaiy a company of very honest mcn» The Dodoi^ 
however, b%* his discrtmination) moscco^Dpletciycstablislicdht^ &ys<em«^ 
which is evidently. not only an important discovtiry in pathology, but in 
. Wy^hology too, as it throws new light on 'he organisation of i lie huitian 
intotle^, and offers a satisfactory ^lolutionof my&tt.iics which hirheno had 
«|ipeaied inscrutable. 

One of these js the partial derangement, of twisty which has-been ob- 
«eriKd in t!lie brains oi many men, on certain subjcde, whose ideas on all 
crthers are petfetUy just and cor red. Now, on Dr. Gall's system^ we 
httveonly to suppose that portion of the brain to be afiected, which cor. 
ffspomls with the particular orgnn, and the mystery is at oiitx explained* 
It is ii)Qf>ois3bje here not to acimire this new proof of the wisdcm of our 
Creator, m so separating our ideas, that any dcrangcnwnt of one class of 
them is prevented froin cxtci^ding to the otheri^ and throwing the whole 
bntin into confusion. 

I doobt not but.thst it will hax'e occurred to y^ur readers, as it fre- 
(^oently has to mc, that almost all great men who have devoted their 
Ithoughts to public affairs, are -subject in a peculiar degree ro a dorarge- 
IDcnt, in what Dr. Gall would call, the organ of politics* * The/ perfoon 
^1 the ordinary funftions of nature, and duties ot life, in other respefts, 
ycrfcdly well. 1 hey ralk and "ad rationally on all other sub jcds ; and 
ahew no signs of insanity, unless you touch the ideas that correspond 
with the ciiseascd organ : but then they become as outrageous as Don 
l^ulvote himself, when the discourse turned upon knight-errantry* Do 
we not constantly see, that the sentiments and opinions of men of the most 
aiperier talents and discriminating judgment, are diametrically opposite 
to each other on every political subjed ? Nay, do we not also see such 
IBen diHer even from themselves, on these points, as much as they do 
from others ; and soppoft the Tcry same measures oik d^y, which they 
iMdl opposed the day before I Nowj as the laws of truths and the prin- 


cifAn of nght and! wrong are.iounurahle^ this could noC p^Mtblf happea 
to pcrsQDs of sosnd intelk^, and therefore can only. be imputed to tbaft 
lacntal derangementi with which politicians arc so liable to be affe^d. 

Indeed, the nature of their complaint is sufiiciently establislied, by the 

mode of cu/c which is generally found efie^ual : for, as in otiier cases of 

insamt>% a total change of scene has oftctt fiuccceded in bringing about « 

Tevoluilon of ideas, and restoring the right use of the sense* ; so in poli* 

cic«l casesy change of place, more. particularly from out to i>^ and change 

tn I he parties with whom the patient has been accustomed to a^ ani 

as<K>ciate, frequently produces the same desirable efle^« The public have 

U* \f witnessed a very renoarkable instance of the efficacy of this tfeat« 

ment, in the cases of an entire set of gentlemen, who, while in .oppon- 

tion, d^laimed against the system of the then Minister, as being prcg-^ 

nast with ruio to the country ; but who, when called in to auottedliioi 

ids the administration oi public afFairs, ia»nicd'.ately adopted, and aiddl 

open, the very measures which had so long been the cunstant theme of 

''their reprobation. It is n most fortunate, as well as remarkable eiicuai^ 

stance too, that t!K)iigb other cases of insanity have seldom yieUed i» 

this ttvatmoct, except in the incipient stages of the malady, jtjt. th»t ia 

political cases it has been found to answer,, after all other meaos had beea ^ 

tried in vain, and when the patients were thought absolutely incarabAr. 

By the way« the air of certain apartmenrs about St. James's, producea 

aach eatraofdinary effe^ on those who enter them, that 1 hare sometimes 

been inclined to doubt, whother the Chemical Professor of the Royal Ir« 

aritation is not employed to keep it consuntly impregnate^ with tie 

gazeous oxide of Asote: whose influence ia so. delicious, that, as wean* 

assured by the learned gentlemen who have made the experiment, chose 

who breathe it fancy themselves in Heaven. 

lliat politicians are more liable to mental derangement than other men^ 

fiot only appears from the observaxions I have made, ajxl is accounted far 

by Dr. Gairs new system, but may be still further explained, by a refe. 

fence to the best n)edical authorities ; all which, as iirill be seen, ilhistrata 

\ and confirm this proposition. 

The great cau«e of madnefs, is intense thinking ; and who are ao sat\« 
jed to overstrain their faculties by intense thinking, as politicians* Aris- 
totle, in his Politics, affirms thit the bow must be sometimea unbent, fot 
that if kept in a continual state of tension, it will inevitably crack--^ 
alluding, no doubt, to some crack-brained politicians, whom be dared 
oot to mentioi), otherwise than figuratively, under the reign of ihaf 
fiery mad-cap, Alexander the Great. Dr. Btichan confirms this seo^ 
ciment, inosl justly observing, that man ia as incapable of coatinual 
thooght, as of continual aAion ; and that the mind will as certainly 
link BXKier the one, as the body under the other. ^ Tissot assurei 
«a, that whoever has thought deeply, has risen from his study with a 
violeni head-^che and burning, which arises from the state of exhauttioa 
. and extreme heat, in which the marrow of the brain i» then foand.— * 
Thoagh all these gentlemen were aware of the general efl^, none of 
thesii had the sagacity to explain the partial mode of its operation, tiU 
Dr. Gall illomMied mankiiid by hi& discovery, that that part of the brain 
alone was afije^bd^ which corresponded with the djiseased organ. 
Aw)tbsr gfeat eatwa of HKAtal doiangemen^ u a suddea elevation of 


ao6 Afisallofuotts. . , 

fcrtnite'. An eminent medical wrirer has observed, tliat m tfie Ikmotts-' 
Sooih Sea year> when so many fortunes wei^ gained and lost^ a vast nom^ 
ber of persons had their heads turned by the prodigious fiow of nnexpe^ed 
cliches. This is a most lamentable reflection, a^ it applies to politicianN> 
and more particiriarly as it a0e^ a new Administration, for ir shews 
that on their first coming intoofice, they are in extreme danger of having 
their heads tunned by their sodden elevation. 

Galen defines madness^ ** i.'.ttmprries ignta cerebri;'* and what is of so 
fiery and intemperate a nature as politic^il det>ate ? The learned author 
of Therapeutics, from this conviction, advises beginning the cure, by 
•* eliciting the vital heat out of the cerebrum," which, in my huml >t 
opinion, wouid end it too most efie^luaily. 

• The first diagnostics-^f madness are described to be, a wildness and 
rolling of the eyes^ and \bsurd discourse. Now, any gentleman taxf 
satisfy himself, by a short attendance in the House of Commons, that 
many of our politicians shew these symptoms in a violent degree. Mis. 
chievoosness is another of the diagnostics ; and, as the former are fouD4 
in what they say, so is the latter ibund in what they do. 

Lastlf , according to Dr. Beat tie, and indeed all our modem authorities, 
the distinguish! i>g charaderisric of madr.ess, is a false perception. Now, 
to distinguish between their perceptions and their conceptions,, though 
ifolomes upon volumes have beni written irpon the subject,, has puzz.'ed 
many poor metaphysicians, as indeed a distinction without a dii&rence 
well may ; but that some of our politicians of the day have false percep. 
tions, or conceptions, call them which you please, no roan in his senses, 
who has attended to their conduct, can possibly doubt. 

1 am taking^the more pains to establish this proposition, and the necessity 
of the practical application of Dr. Gall's system to the craniums of some 
of his Majesty's Ministers, from the public spirited rootiie of being use. 
itil to them in rheir unhappy situation. Perhaps 1 may find it diftcuk to 
make some of them sensible of the occasion which they have for my pro- 
fessional skill ; for as every drunken man will maintain that he is sober, 
so will every madman insist thit he is in hi^ perfeft tenses. Though^ 
however, I cannot hope to convince any one of them of bis own infir- 
mity, 1 shall probably be able to open the eyes of some or them to the 
infirmities of their colleagues ; and shall therefore prove this derangement 
actually to exist, by traits in their conduCt, which can- be accounted for 
on no other principle. 

To begin with the Chancellor of the Exchequer. He, last sessions^ 
proposed a tax on pig iron, which, finding a po^verfuL opposition af ainst 
it in tjic House of Commons, he withdrew, but with the declaration, that 
the tax was a good tsix, and that he should bring it forward again at some 
future period. The proprietors of the mines profited by the hint, and to « 
indemnh'y themselves against this future tax by anticipation, raised the 
price of the article at once. Thus this able financier contrived to levy 
tlie tax upon the public, without bringing' a single shilling into th£ Ex- 
chequer. Although on the first view of his case there appears reason to 
suspeCi a considerable derangement, eithei^ in the organ of vaiuty, or 
that of reflection (the latter of which Dr. Gall has found, in many sab- 
"^' ^ to be not at all formed), yet, on mature consideration, I am io. 
o hope that it may -be confined ta the organ of talking f and I 
' havo 


Kavc.ofasciTed in the ptaftice of a whipper-in, wlio li»es witlt a ncl 
lioaring -friend of mine, that this disorder, to H^hich- yoang hoQiids 
particularly subjeift, and which he calls g'rvhg t^ft^me^ is easily cured 

^ the liberal ciccrcise of the -Rliip, The veterinary professors hare la 
discovered, that man and beast are neaciy alike, and that the saaie tr< 
meftt and rem 'dies are proper foF both — of which, indeed, the m 
adopted in curing this copnplnint furnishes an addiciotlal proof: fbr li 
boys are kept from tnlking'at school, by the similar discipline ef flaj 
lation, which may doubtless be applied to great boys, who ieft sci 
before they were properly broke in, with equally gQod effe^. 

The Secretary of State for the War Department, after bestowing 
ten--c thought, for several months, upon a new military system, had 
organ of ingenuity so wrapt in mnaphysical abstradlion, that he toca 
lost sight of pr?^ utility. 1 o make his plan popular, he increased 
pay of both the ofSicexs and the soldiers ; gave additional pensions to 
disabled and sTjpernnjiuatcd ; and shortened the term of service, from I 
to the limited period of seven years. By a judicious «se of these inc 
fencies, at this favourable junClure, he mi^ht hnve establibhed ibcba 
f-^r the regulars, on the same footing as ihat for the militia ; and h 
recroited ihe army for ever, without a murmur, and without a guin' 
but he, like an imrhnfry prodigtl, squandered away all these bi< 
wichout gaining any ore advantage to il^ public in return. On the c 
trary, he has dissatisfied the officers, by depriving them of their men 
«K>n as they become completely disciplined. He has dissatisfied the j 
▼ates, by raising new men for limited service, >Ahi!c they are still boi 
for life ; and though as high bounties as were before given, are still c< 
tinu*^, the recruiting goes on just a^ slowly as ever. It is clear x\ 
the Right Honourabk Gentleman, from tl\e extraordinary tension H{ 
his political orgap, had a false perception. He imagined that the r 
would compare all the advantages and disadvantages of the present i 
the (brmer system ; that they would reason, like himself, on all the / 
and the «wi, but onfortunarely never dreanat of the simple truth, that qo 
-men enlist^ th^yne^ver ihink^/rt all. As system- mongers generally pall do 
other stTu6lures> in order to clear the ground for* rheir own, so, on t 
occasion, the Right flonourahle Gentleman bugan by depreciating : 
volunteer system ; and though our hai>ghiy foe, awed by the spirit w 
which these patriot bands came forward, shrunk back appalled fiom 
long threatened projeA of invasion, he declared that their ranks wo 

^ hs the repositories of panic in the day of danger. He br.)keout info< 
of his most outrageous paroxysms, at the idea of their being thought 
deserve thanks for their services : asserted the necessity of our havi 
mere soldiers, and fewer volunteers (in the last of which measures, indc 
li« has sQcceeded to admiration), and declared that the nation could i 
be efief^ually defended but upon his plan. And what was this ?< the le^ 
ing, and loosely drilling, 200^000 of the unwilling rabble ! ! I If 
the maladv of this Right Hon. Gentleman is very deeply seated, thus 
bnild his house upon a sand, and undermine that strong rock of natio 
safety, against which fhe winds might blow, and the floods might b 
in vain ; that national spirit and enthusiasm, which may be repress 
but caboot be recalled, and the want of which we may all yet live 

^ L 

t08 * Misc^tlane^ns. 

: Lbrd Sldftu>vitfa» poor manj for some time boUi before 9^ after the 
Treaty of Amiensy was in one of those ^tupors, which are among the 
liibst unfavourable symptoms of mental malady. God be thnoked, how^ 
€ver'y he had at last a lucid interval, and waking from the dream of pro- 
fcund peace, which he fancied, that, thanks to his wisdom, the Country 
(njoyedy he started up, and declared . that the whole condu^ of Buona. 
Aarfe, ever since the Treaty was signed, had been one uniform series of 
injustice, violence, and aggression. I lately feared that his Lordship, 
^nd some more of the Cabinet Ministers, felt a tendency to relapse into 
the same situation, and that the immediate use of stimulants and'corrobo- 
^ants wa» necessary.' 

The Lofd Chief Justice of the Court of King's Bench, on a Ute solemn 
occasion, delivered opinions in a great assembly, that were afterwards con<- 
tradi^ed by those of all the other Judges. Having never seen his Lordship's 
liead, since my attention has been devoted to the study of craniology, except 
when buned in an immense wig, so far fi-om being able to say which o£ 
]Uf Lordship's organs may be affed^cd, I can hazard no observations what- 
ever on the strufture of his cranium, I have only been able to notice, 
that the wig in which the head is enveloped, by coming dowo so very 
low on the forehead, tends to give it the appearance of that flat organiza- 
tion, which Dr. Gall considers as so peculiarly unfortunate : and, 1 
think it my duty, most respetlfully to offer this remark, being unwilling 
that the cut of the wig should excite an idea of the head, even in the 
mind of a Craniologist, derogatory to that high veneration, which ia 
^mxnon with the public, I sincerely feel for his Lordship's abiliriesl 

The late First Lord of the Admiralty, wrote to an oflScer, to whose 
«nterprize and spirit the country is recently indebted for two acquisitions 
of the highest importance; not a letter of congratulation, to inform 
Um that his achievements had been greeted with thanks, and rewarded 
with honour, but a letter of recall. This surely roust have been owing 
to a false perception: but wlierher the organ of indudion, or of party 
spirit be aie^d, till I have the honour of getting his Lordship's skall 
iJQto my hands, 1 shall not be able to determine. 

I could go on enumerating instances without end, to shew how im- 
portant it is, that immediate medical assistance should be called in to many 
members of the body politic. Much may be done for the personages to 
whoae cases 1 have adverted, by the use of dark rooms, clean straw, 
strait waistcoats, venesedlion, and copious evacuations : but if the 
^Common remedies fail, I am proud to say, that I have discovered a' spe- 
cific of superior potency, the use of which, I pledge my life, will relieve 
the nation from all the evils of their unhappy derangement. The utility 
of my advice will not end with them ; for when the skulls of new candid 
^ates for place and power are submitted to my examination, I shall scni- 
timze their organs of refleding, of thirst of glory, of- recolle^ing per- 
sons, (an or|an in which great mep on coming into power are very apt 
to be ddfeftive), their organ of vanity, ^ of talking (which it is very 
impof tant to keep in perfe^ order), of pride ; and this being an organ ia 
every body's head, I shall disclose for the benefit of your readers^ tlut 
It is exemplified by a protuberance on the skull, in the middle of the 
mt»ra ttipisiis, where unless they unfortunately are bald, or hap^o tp 
have their heads shaved, providence has very kindly {Jaced it f^xAQfy 

AfiScMamms* 2M 

^ of sighr. Itxieed I shall attend carefully to every other organ, that 
1ft in any degree conne^ed with th^ discharge of rheir public duties : and 
wheo the most proper cbaradlers are thas seledied for every public sitaa^ 
tioOy how happy and successful will be the progress of our public afairftl 

Dr. Gair very judiciously qualifies his do^rine, by Obserying, that 
the omns in the skull only point out promineilt innate propensities and 
mentaf powers, but ddnot involve the nccessiry of their being exerted or 
cultivated. In this position^ he follows ^the authority of Zopyros and 
Socrates. The former assertedji that he di'^covere'i in the latter, a strong 
propensity to vicious carnal indulgences; and the disciples of Socrates:^ 
jealous of their master's fair fame, reviled him for the injurious asper- 
tioo: but Socrates ingenuously acknowledged^ that he was by nature 
prone to SHch indulgences^ though he had succeeded in curbing his inclina- 
tions by the power of reason and philosophy ; and the penetration of Zo* 
pynsa waa admitted and applauded. Due attention to this anecdote^ 
will conopletely prove that the honour of the discovery nvnst be ascribed 
not to physiognomy, as has erroneously been done, but to craniology t 
tat the organ of lust, being seated in the back part of the cerebrum, could 
Inot ^possibly be discovered hy ^ny examination of the countenance ; and 
It is plaiQ to demon&tratiop, therefore, that this invaluable science was 
falOj underatood and appreciated, in those days, by the 'sages of sihd<^nt 
Greece, who have justly borne the palm of philosophical research from all 
lacteeding ages. Profitinjg by the lessons of antiquity, which have tfaos 
tanght Qi that those passions which are denoted by the external orgatis, 
may be sobdtied by reason and phllosopl^y, I am preparing a course of 
leftures for the use of his Majesty's Ministers : and I cannot look forward 
without self gratolation and triumph, to the period when I shall have the 
honour of delivering them, surrounded by all ^e ranky 'weight and taiemt 
. of the empire. How sublime will be the truths, and how instrti^ive the 
dodirines that will then flow from my lips, for the edification of my noble 
disciples I 

After having fdlly qualified his ^Majesty's Ministers for all their own 
dntaes^ I shall then extend, the benefits of this invaluable Science, by 

S'vtng them instro^ons, on the soundest priciciples of craniology, for 
e choice of all the persons employed under them, in their various de« 
partinenrs ; and, initiate them into the grand art, of discovering the qua. 
litieaof the miiid, by feeling for them oa the out^^e of t^ie skull. Here, 
let me observe, how much more certain as well as simple, is this cnte« 
tion, than the exploded system of endeavouring to discover them, in the 
inside of the head* Without, all is palpable and obvious ; within, all is 
deceitfU and obscure. 

When thus instrudled, the Commander in Chief, and the First Lord of 
the Admiralty, will deservedly be criminally responsible, if they appoint 
oSoers to commands, in whom the organs of fighting, of thirst of glory, 
and of judgment, are not conspicuously prominent. The Lords of the 
Tieasory, the Dlredors of the Bank, and the heads of all other public 
oflkes^ will then be enabled to examine the persons under them, as to 
their organs of arithmetic, in which some men, even in high situations, 
are at pifsent miserably deficient ; and as to their organs of cunning, add 
thieving, which, in many cases, have unfortunately been discovered too 
lace for the public intern t« CftbiiKt Ministers will then be able to goaxd 

TO« €• VOL. Zf T« f ai^afaAt 

%iCt Miscellamtm. 

•gainst tbe pievalctice of thit organ of^ talking^ hj whith so tnafrf ink* 
pontoi secrets ha?e been divulged, and such undue advantages ac^itd 
by individuals, particularly during the progress of a negotiation for peace, 
hi^ speculations on the Stock Exchange. 1 he Board of Contrbul, and tlie 
Court of Diredors of the Honourable the East India Company, will then 
jbave no more contests respe^ing the nomination of a Governor General, 
or any other officer ; as their choice will invariably fail on the man whoae 
S>xffa^ best qualify him for the appoititment, and rapacity, or'corruptioi), 
amoog their 6c:iv^nts, either in the milffsry or civil depattmertts, wBl 
then be known no more. Any Lord Chief Justice of the Court of King's 
^nch, under my tuition, may, at the same time, most delightfully abrime 
his ^luties^ and extend his ] owcrs. Listead of wasting the tedious izy ^ 
liJiSening to the harangues of mercenary counsel, the examinatiofft of dbT- 
tjal witnesse«, and in vainly civieavouring to reconcile contrary Secisions 
fcited from ponderous books of law^ I shall teach his'Lordship how to dn. 
.cover the truth at Once, by the unerring law of nature; and to condeqm 

Ja ni^n, if not out of his own mouth, at least out of his own head, ^by an 

''examination of his cranium. What a valuable acquisition may the Cabinet 
find^ especially' in cases of state trials, in a Chief Justice sbtutottd, wbo 
y/'i31 comprehend within his own grasp, the - united fun^ons of evidenoTj 

j^ fudge, and jury, and possess within hirilself the power of 'finding any 
maa^iiilty, whom Ministers wish to be thought so. When a dissoiiifioR ' 
t^ Parliament takes |)lace, what new lights shall I be^bie to tlitow on 

I the tharaAers of candidates, for the |oveminent of electors in gsTiAg 
their votes I How usefiil codd I be to the managers of the public tlieatfe^ 
who for want of being versed in the science of craniology, contitMudly 

Venga^e performers, most wretchedly defedlive in the organs of represents. 

* Uon, and of the imitative arts. Husbands and wives, who are dottbtfiil 

Jas to the fidelity of their respeJflive helpmates, might at once lecette 
from me an eclaircissement as to their natural propensities ; and, ais |»e. 
ventiof^ is better than remedy, young persons before they engage in ndl. 
trimony, may still more advantageously consult me on the choice cC their 
iutehded partners. But though I should extend the sphere of my ^ititit]^, 
;*nd promote the cause of virtue, by attending to the concerns of ptitMc 
life, yetl should also so entirely occupy my time, as would pre^rent the 
discharge of my public duties. Adopting, therefose, the s|ttm, aAd 

'nearly the very letter, of 'the celebrated exclamation of a Right^Ronour* 

^able Secretary, I say — Perish our morals, so our Constitotixjn Htel mod 
resolve to devote my talents wholly to the service of my coihitty. 

Qualified as I have shewn myself to ^, for the office to wfiic( I npiie, 
4Df Professor of Craniology, and Physician-Generat to his MjQehy's Mi* 
nisters, I consider my ^ppoiniment to it ascertain^ andin the^ljper. 

' auasion, that if none of the Members of Administration, on the Bwcar. 

'ance of this Letter, should call me in, some pabHc spirited M q nt gi' Haf 
Parliament will make a motion for ilut purpose, as .soon «s theffcN|ie 
jmts.' I have been referring to my books' to. see whaft^watd I imiy yea. 
fohably exjpeft for my services. As a .good Christiim, 1 darniot fhibk irf 
the deification conferred th Esctttapit)fi ;' and hdng rather of a inoieu,-4«us 
■ * ' turuj 1 «*ull beg leave to /decline su^ piilie hon 

^^hltious turn^ 1 «)ull beg leave to /decline su^ public honoort «$ ,. . 

fid to Hiijpocrates hy the Athenians ; ^at as ffiost snitAle to y e i ed em , 
b*Te liid'my fing^ ctoth^ Ycty iamdsoine, asd Jfityper lee, prtsi ^ 

Ici^n ^Miu »ni0lU)(tqi CO abpiit w<y (hiHUMin4.gwne«^» Wj^ t^^nHWh^ 
tude of rhe serTices which I ^bfttl tc^eft 907 c^^ntry are d^ iG/opsi4f^ti^§ 
I m per«M^eil rim « iiberid t)«^u<in »^iU not ihink of o#rii)g i^e k^i— - 
io^i^e inoftn tioDei Mr. E<UtQr> bcii^ ratter short pf ca^hi j[ ^y« j^ 
l^iie^t from /ou the ^oaa of teQ pounds, which shall be tf^a^&ll/ jqq^ 
otft of die ficst iDQtties thi^t 1 Unwh froni my public j^ppoiDtnjwV $ ai>4 jl 
^rther {irqmUe j^oa^ that ibe AcoQunts. of all the .cajiei thai €pinpx|)|^cUif 
Oi^ Gafe>iaQd .of aU the cures thac*I |;)e4'forf», which will certai^^ Jb^ 9^ 
-w'uk iin^omoion intriiest aod avidity, sjiall be ex^imiTely pybli|ae4 i^ td)e 
jlkQti.J^coDin K^riew and Magaisine. k^Q^%^^^^ . 

■ i ^ . 1 II 1« I M^ l » , I 1 —1 


* ^T Jast the political h^sphere has begtiii to asstlm^ ili>Hg|itef tsa 

lie^ and n serioiis attempt to effe(ft the emancipation of Europe Iroih the 

'fbaqSfei ^if' slavery^ seems on the point qf being m9de; Prussia is, ^t 

[Jei^tli; jsfacetj^in xhat situation, which, for years, yfc have predided, kt 

'.<hc certain result of her timid, wavering, and dishonest policy. Wd 

^have constantly warned her that the Corsican Tyrant .woula seea to l^jl 

Iier Vigilance to sleep, by altern^^te promises, assurances, aiyl even cqn* 

'c^sions, in order to secure both time and opportunity for the accomplish'^ 

'9em <$/ his ambitious schemes in other ^uarter^; for the subjugation ^ 

'the octghbouring States;' and thar^ ha vane eained his poitit so f^r, l|d 

'would reserve Prussia for the last vidlim of fits destru^iye policy, and of ' 

hlsinsa^ate vengeance. Encouraged by the past weaKncss of the Cabinet 

of ^rlinj Buonaparte, whose judgment is the slave of his passiotis,. 

1)2$ over^shot his ^ark ; and by the abrupt and peremptory demand ^f 

'cessipps^ whicli be had no conception would be refused, he has done wh|C 

^reason. Interest, experience, and self-preservation, combined^ had so Ipnv 

failed* to accomplish ; he has opened the eyes of Prussia, he has shewn hS 

•tie ganger of her adlual situation ; he has convinced her of the direful 

Jfipoiicy Q^ her past condu^ ; and he has impressed her with th^ dreadful 

.certainty^ that jipihjrig but her sword can preserve her iroitii[n tended, afkl 

l^i^nV^tated destrudion. If thePilissian Monarch wqre to Judge ^ 

9l^^]U^r\ccg by himself, .and were to 'infer t^ir conduQ td him xroih (luit 

jr^ch, under similar circumstances, he nas observed to then^i he mult 

^eofKliide~Hthj|it he would be left to fight hh Own battles, and that by h\$ 

i>wn<f3^ertion| ^pne, he jpust ^tand'^pr fall. If his conclusions were to 

!jpip^e well-jfounjled, and if, overpowered in the contest^ be .should Jose 

\ jAs t^<)be and his life, his ^11 would be considered as a signal example pf 

^re^ibati^e jg^ttce» It jivpuld hold out to t^e world a most awful lesson, 

^t i lcs§Df], Jdaii t whi^h would come too late for the world to profit bjr> 

'T^^ejiiw, Jiowev^r, (hat the tjme is now come, when Ptinces will ^acri* 

'jtt^air^^ llt|^e' JealpUsJes whidh they have cherished top long, ;ind 

'vhtj^^^e beep j^tfiiill^ fomept^ ]>y their com|non enemy, wbo ha^ alo|it 

I ^ifii^^rantagefrou: MtA'i did when dry willmmte^ with coidiattfy 

2 12 Summmy ^f^UAd. 

'- dM Tigoor, to CQfb tliat spiric* and to A^di dut Jnbicioo, wiAA v9 
-flevcr be ntisiied Imeil their thiones aie svliTertedy tlieiff coontties UiC 
waste, and tlieir people subjedcd to a foteign yoke* 

Twelve months dd/ hare elapaed moe the CoatinBRt of Enrope exhi* 
Uted nearly the tame appearance as at pKsent, with this difomoei that 
Austria was aAivdy engaged in the war, while Prtissi:^ contented heneUT 
with hostile d emms tmakm^ Prosaia is nnw a^ve, and Anstria atands bjr 
completely anned at every point. Pmnia ib^ had the fete of Eorope in 
htt hands ; and basely refased to decide it ; that enviable advantage mw 
vests with Austria,- and, if the gallant spirit of the Archduke Charles be 
aufeicd to animate her cooncils, and to direA hei cfixts, we have no leai. 
ion to think that she will imitate thecondud of her neighbour, and throw 
it away. .^ 

The united armies of Prussia and Saxony contain, on a moderate compota- 
tion, 220,000 men, a force amply sufficient to oppose the amy whick 
Fiance, who many moie points to ^/umA, caa possibly bring against 
tliiem. Old Gen. Moeilendorf, with the Kmg in person, commands the centre 
of the Pmssians, while the Duke of Brunswick, aixl Prince Hohenlohe, com- 
mand the wings^ which extend from the vicinity of Cassel (at present 

.mattraij on the right, to the confines of Bohemia on the leift. ll)e Froxk 
army, under the command of the Tyrant in person, with his^«f achausp 
Benhier, constantly at his side, had its head.quarters, when the last ac» 
counts were received^ at Wfirsburg, in Franoonia. (Gs forces were then 
▼ergiitig towards a poini, evidently with a view to nu^e an icruption into 
Saxony, where the Eledior's treasures hold out a tempting bait to his ca- 
tudity, and whence his projeded inarch to Berlin may with greater fact. 

' lity be e^efled. From the respedive situation of the two armies, either 
liad it in its power to Bring the other to adion, and unless there be a lark, 
ing desire ton accommodation in the bosom of the Pra&sian Monarchy 
tome important blow must have been stricken ere this. We confess, how. 
ev^, that notv^ithstandikg the flatrerirg appearances of vigpar and deci* 
sion now manifested, . we are fx>t without very strong doubts that hosts, 
lities will still be avouled. For what purpose can (hfi. King of Prassia 

. have taken with him Lucdbesini and Haugwitz, the two men, in l|is do. 
minions, who are rbc roost attached to French principle^, and who have 
infliQed the gieatett dishonour on their country ; Haugwitz, in particolaat 
who, even contrary to his instructions (as it is asserted in Germany) dis. 
graced his master, by coiurluding a treaty with Boonaparte last year, aftei 
the battle of Austerlitz, thereby ooiitributing to the subsequent peace of 
Presburg, and affording a san^ion to all the usorpationt which the Cor* 
sican had ip cooitefflplation I Could the King think, that after this man'a 

.f«sf conduct, and the detestation which had been manifested aga^n^ t ^ub* 

by ail his loyal snbjeds, he was a fit person to consult^ or to employ in a 

second negotiation ? It is scarcely credible that he should, yet on no 

s other supposition can we account for the cincumsunoe of his accompany ing 

hia Majesty to the army. On the other hand, Buonaparte, we know^ ia 

' aocooipanied by the wily Talleyrand, and, it is certain, that ^Ycty arti. 
fice will be used, every intrigue exerted, br the Corsicao and his aiinxont 
to draw the King into a ne^tiation, whidi, if it end not io a eompro* 

. mise. (at i% most probably wiD) will, at leatt^ have the efiA of amnl« 

ing time t^ the enemy &r atcertainioj bit (ffute fittoe and tkaatioQ^ 

Summmj 9f PMes. aj5 

mJ Ibr i i i ew isiii g Ms own io proportion ; mdwUlaboexcile aUtnitt ia 
the minds of other Pbwtfs who tdaj be inclined to sippport him. Dueadi^ 
<hi»^ as. we do, we shall not consider war as certain, till aa engageme^ 
has a^oally taken place. Should the Prussian Monaicb be so iaiatuaiaf 
as again to soffer himsdf to be deceived into another death.ULe trnoe, he 
wiU ha^e lost an ooportuaity nof easily^ if evern to be xegained* 

Oo the other hand, if he follow theobviogs dkiaies of a smmd poliqr, aad 
listen to the suggestions of sclf.pmervation, he has little or aothio^ to fear* 
He has certainly a formidable foe^ accustosKil lo con<|oer» and inflated 
with the pride of success^ to encounter. But his own forces aie follf 
adequate to the contest ; and if his generals be foiibful, and be too, be 
faithfol to himself, he miy look to its tcrminHtion with coafidenoe.^ The 
hearta of his people are with him ; the whole population of his oountij 
is read^ to rise for its protection ; defeat, there on-, in the first a^ioiv 
will not be rain. Indeed, we hold it to h^i an incoiKrovcrtible trutl^ 
that a eoontry united at home, its inhibsbiots bravely lesolved to coi^ 
quer 9r die, and its Sovereign, Minisrers, and Rulers, inspired with the 
'same spirit, and bent on the same end, camiot possibly be conquered by 
any military force that can be brought against it. If then, there be sucn 
hopes of successfol resist'^ce to the Arch.Usnrper, should Prussia alovc 
lie opposed to him, how much most the prosper of success be improved, 
ihonld she be seconded by the vigorous exertions of powerful Allies.—- 
The magnanimous Emperor of Rus:«ia, alike consistent and noble in all 
t&A aAionr, is dire^ng the whole force of his mighty empire toward^ the 
scene of* contention. Our informarion, however, is not sufficiently acou 
nte to enable os to ascertain, with any .tolerable accuracy, the period al 
which the Russian army will form a jondion with the Prussians. Possi* 
h\y^ the latter may deem it expedient not to ri&k a general adioo, until 
tKat event shall have taken place ; and the interval wil), of course, be . 
devoted* by the limping apostate, Talleyrand* to, the employment of (hose 
arts and intrigoes, to which his savage master has been infinitely moie 
Videbted for his successes, than to h.s own skill, or to ^he valour of hia 
troops. Should these fall, Buonaparte will, of Vourse, if soificiently' 
•trong, endeavour to force the Prussians to engage, in this Last casa^ 
however, we have little foar for the events The «r/#, and not the arm, 
4>l the Usurper, are the objeAs of our dread. The jun^ftion with the 
Russians once formed, it will be too late to retraft, 9nd the mostsaa. 
guine expe^ations may be reasonably entertained, that the Corsican and 
fits hordes will be driven back with disgrace beyond the Rhine, and the « 
snishroora monarchs of his creation be expelled from their dominions, and 
ledoccd to their original nothingness. • 

The gallint King of Sweden* sacrificing private enmity to the public 
gtxxi, £is settled his diflerence with the King of Prussia, and will, no 
doobt, be prepared to soppOTt him if he find him sincere in his pro. 
Sessions, and xealous in his exertions. Nor is it probable, that Austria 
viO remain a pssive spedtator of a contest, so near her oyrn territory*. 
and so importint in its consequences to her own welfare. Though de. 
aerted, basely deserted by Prussia, in the time of h^r need, she wiiL not 
anffer her reseotment to subdue her judgment* or to render her .blind to 
h» own interest. The oppvessive terms which .the Corsican Usurper im« 
posedonberatJRietborg; the. haughty and mubiog. Iffoe. wjiichj ip all 

lis lAs«A«rAhN«hfs Willi her, te IminvsriAIr Mtii i»ii0ffm m- 
ierform tbe sti polattons of the Tre«tf of Peace, his Detention of the ht^ 
f^ss of B^imaiii gfid Ms dda/ ifn sending home the Aa%ttia»fmoatrs 
famt hare ifispi red Aostria with a stiong wi^^ to icient the issnki which 
the ima received, and to revenge the injuries which she has sustaiiiedi 
while they afibtd her fair and just groonds for hostilicyf Iq tf Aorc nam 
Mt coald hting to hear, on any given point, an •jgcmy of soOfOOa oen, 
#htch Woold soffce completely to turn the scale against France, and to 
llecofn^ltsh the deliverance of Eoropel , Aware of this, Boonafarte h* ' 
Vfi an army of observation in Bavaria, find on the Ihn, in ord^ to keep 
€fte Anstrians in check ; but the force employed for this pui^ose it whoHj 
lAadeqtiate, itnd would speedily be annihilated by the Aoatrians. Indeed^ 
Ve Incline to believe that the Usurper relies less npon this army, tha^ 
4ipon iht success of his intrigues at Vienna ; and, if he find hiaDadf havi 

eshed, he will make some sacrifices to- avert the hostility of Austria | 
win probably s6nd back all the Austrian prisoners, and restore Braonat^ 
Bot the Austrian Emperor should recoiled, that he has now an opportunity, 
#h2ch may neyer again return, of recovering the greater portion of lua 
lost territory ; and should therefore npt sofier himselt' to be again cajoled 
'hy an enemy, who is bent on his destru^ion. One hundred tnouaaod metk 
would be sufficient to co.operate with the Allies in Germany/, 4nd the tetn 
ff hi^ army would suffice to re«conquer Loaabardy and the Whole of l|k 
JiMsLti dominions. 

In thc^vent of hoftilities, then, we may safely ledLOn upon 4{0)OO6 
^ Ae Allies being opposed to the French in Geteany, '<srac&w/ A«stm | 
^dfnd, H Austria join fhe Confederacy,, France will have to eneom^w 
i^oo,ooo men — a force amply sufficient to crush the tyrant|^ and to ^ive 
mm hick within the ancient frontiers of that kingdom,!^ the throne df 
frhlch, by dint of perjury, spoliation, and nraider, he l^s osvrped. it 
Will thus be made evident, that onr constant Assertion, that the ContiMplc 
ifft Europe wanted only the <t0i#, and not the aUtty^ to shake off the yol^ 
>«Afid to assert her freedom, was stri^ly corred. If then she fail, the fo&k 
will he her own ; sh^ will fall without pity from the present age, and wiij 
'indur the maledl^iolis of posterity. With the scene now bdere us, oof 
ll6pes would be more sanguine, if experience had not tat^ght ds ni&triis(« 
With the numerous adls of politkat suicide, which we hjfve witnessed 
^ariAg the last fourteen years, nothing, of a similar naturev appeara m 
m incredible, or eve'n improbabkt We, therefore, speak with, great ca«. 
<ion, and must wait, though with impatience, for farther new» frosi tiie 
Continent, before we can fix our opinion. 

Hitherto lye haye said nothing of the part which Great Britain h likeljr 
to take in the affai<% of the Comioeitt, and for tho beat possibie reason, 
fceoaose we know ilothing of the matter ; nor; to speak the truthi ^ we 
t)«Hev< thAt the Members of the Cabinet themselves know^much tooKv— ^^ 
But befdte we proceed to cbmtnept on she late proceedii^.of tbe Btitidh 
'G^verhlhefit, and 0ti other points oonneded therewith^* wo^haU avail oor^ 
-tfelt^ of fhe sentiments of a foreign anthor, on the hwmenaeiis «iib}e6l of 
Teaci, 4 t^MfA^ ^^j. ^ll}<^lhr at this cri&ia,^ makes every t»«b 
llaiTOir shiidder. 

'^ What, peac^ f Wha»| the eeuation of ttt hacflliti^l totf oaytaia^ 
thch caiidtia ##ri(thriM «o>.fftsl| 4iiaMrt| Vfiu ihr jsm ilgffiime 0f 
'"'- ^ . « . • ..^ ^ attcatjr 

iirt»i||4]f fMCr immU Mflbe to place F.urope under the yokc.^ Y«^ I 
oil] it 9jdt, for nations accwcooied . ciucumes to give the law, and ncvct 
tPReetvje it^ to suffer a dinumirio 4 of M political inHucnce -, to sobmit 
toa-coapoliory desertion of its taicht'ul Allies, and to the annihiiatiofi of. 
ip iriendftf 1 <^U it a yoke, for a Power qi the first order to be reduced 
tflfce second, and to be oondemncd to san^on, by its silence^ evcq^ ' 
tking wJiich injosrke and ambition may at tempt. 

*^ One only motivo could decide a nation, under existing circpnistaoQes, ] 
aat tog9 to war ; and tlMit is, the fear of sustaining fresh k)sses, of b(« ' 
mg oblig^ to sobmit to new sacrifices, and that fear, by tlie cocx:losiai> 
of a peaces w^iuki be converted into certainty. Let Europe disarm, an^ 
infasMoa^ annexations, and conquests, the bitter fruits ofv dtsastrooi* 
cvapaignf, wiU be renewed in the bosom of peace. In order to be coiw, 
yfiuBfii of tbia troth, it will suffice to recall the past, to contemplate tlxr 
ficsfttt, to look forward to the future, and to listen u> the words o{| 
Baooapart€ ymself. ^ 

** * I kire ascended the first throne in the world ; I smnmons to th^ 
ipn of tluit throne twenty sovereigns of my own creation, in oides to^ 
SMort mf superiority over diem ; and yet 1 hare done too much^ not to» 
due |o do nore* If Europe, apprize^ of my designs, by this excess oi 
pride and audacity, unite, 1 may still be exposed to dangers ; but, if I, 
MDOBBd indeoeiving her, or only in hilling her asleep for two yeais, I hope 
to be able, io that time* to pot myself in a situation to brave her ntmo&t 
eArts* Idtt a peace be offered to her on any terms, let a snare be laid 
ijir all her Cabinets, and let the condudors of the public prints havi^ 
so opportunity for celebrating my clemency. Peace has two signifi. 
e iti aas^ which my Miaisteia and myself qan understand and dtstioiguiah ; 
faff mj anennes, it meam an absohtte cessation of ail iKgotiatxons f h/r 
m0f dM most aAive aogoientation of all ooy pietensionsi, azid the v^^ov^ 
ptishment of all my designs. I have eoiafged my fortnne by war, an4 
w»i tacoDsoUdate it by peaoe. If I wage war, I »baU adrap^t more 
s|o«ly io my progress towards the attainment of my, ends ^ my cooquest^ 
will be disputed, and I shall be forced to buy my soocesses ; if .1 makiq 
pnee^ witbooc risking the fate of baules> I shall» by n\y couos^ naito 
wMe piovinces to my states. 

. *' \ In Older to dazzle the eyes of my people, I will asa^mbfe aaonaa 
wt t?ery thiisg which is destined to constitute my t aspire ; what I Jfosscsa 

1 wiH aoiiatfn to the caie of my ian %9b'}e^, wliix the dehisiTe tttk of 
SpvcftigO} that which 1 do not possess I will covet,, aod will rrsk^jrvia 19 ^ 
^ridf, by tha ptojeds which I have in view,, tl^ means of sccusio^ 

• • Since I most have sopexinte^daaitfi, since I cahnox repose confidence m 

R^ whom I subdue by my good fortune, but whom I crush with my taxes^ 
lU mwiwt those fiefs, those bacooa whom> duripg ten years I assiatad ia 
dcttrdying, and will make the philosophy of the 1 Sd» oantvry bring bacic 
Ae fi^ndal timas. Not being, able to xcly on the friendship of any^ I 
will interest the ambition of alU I wiU partake, in order to'pfescrva^ 

2 wtttfnrey ir^p the veiy love of possf saing a I will be prodigal, from 
anrafaoe«'' My empire being a^roadyf from my iof^tiate ambition^ out of 
all that |Nro|lortioo> in whicji I ooold hofc to gpvam it, I will place ft 
iHiUtjMmMh vfiimiifmV' t|flc% ja«id|i^tb^jiuq^9«^^koe|k 

P4 ¥% 

mB Summary }f Piflkieh 

kig^niy stibj)B^ within due bounds, whoj as soon at Acj rififl ha^ ibf^- 

got ten their wounds, ii^ill become my enemies. 

. ** * I will make peace with those nations ^icii I have not yet ^ufi- 
clently deceiTcd, in order to coi^plete the sobjehion of those wjion I an 
now employed in deceiving* Let £ngland, whose new Administration I 
have already sounded, remain in pos.session of all her Coloniet ; let bev 
retain Malta, if it be necessary, and that empire of the seas which war 
only tends to confirm. Let the Russians continue^ for a few ytstrSf to 
pVoteA Turkey ; I consent to leave the Sound open to the Powers of th* 
N )rth, the Straits of Gibraltar to the English fleets^ and the Dardanelles 
to the ships of Russia; my family are not yet seated on all the thrones* 
wh'xh I destine for them ; I must hj^vc, at least, two years of peace lO 
eoinqtier ihose States which I govern already, but the suhjeftioo ot n^rfaich I 
intend to coropicte. >Vhat advantage have I derived from the most for. 
tunate, and the most brilliant war which I have waged ? — the right of 
conceiving thit gigantic plan which peace will enable me to execute. 

•* '^ Thave no longer ?ny thing to fear from the grand armies of Eu. 
ftope'; I have placed between me. and the only one which 1 had any leaioqn 
fd dread, two vast States, which I have sul^ugated by my policy, and 
b} my ^ood luck. I have nOthin|[ to do but to remove the flcett of my 
etiemies, ?nd can only fight them by psac^. 

*' * With the aid of piace I shall take possession of all Italy, for, fy 
€efytg to *me A'^//pj, in order to make me Venounce Sicifyf they nmll mJj fa* 
eUitate the conquest of that liland. With the aid of peace I will give « 
Stadfholder, or a l^ing to Holland, £kdtors to Germany, and a Sovcfoigi^ 
of my own f mily to Switzerland, 

" < With the aid of peacc} 1 will avail myself of my asoendapcy «i 
Madridj in order to conquer Portugal ; and I wii) afterwards ilttktt on 
of the forces, and the situation of Portugal, in order to coopkte the 
amiihilation of the House of fiourbon. 

' '*My Federal Empire, once placed entire in my hands, I wilt amiHttly 
dire^l my attention to India ; and wili^ at last^ begin to realise the only 
dream that is worthy of such ambition as mine. 

*•* • I have lost by war the Navy which Republican France efttfiiste4 
to tny c^re; I will it by peace. From Embden to R^osa, on 
the Coasts of Holland^ Flanders, Fraooe, Spain, Italy, and ][Mitiatia, 
I have fifty dock.yards, in which I can build a hundred ships evefy year \ 
if Kngland will let me breathe for two or three years tweAty tquadrons 
iihill sail firom my ports at once ; 1 shall, 'indeed, exhaust the fctests 
which 1 have, but trade will come to my assistance ; the merchants, tliose 
pretended citizens of the world, who are never citizens ti their own 
country, never looking beyond the interest of the moment, will sell me 
sll the means of destroying, at a future day, the source of their fortune. 
"With the tears of the South, I will purchase iron of the North ; with 
Aat iron I will gain the gold which I want ; and 1 will,* at last, play afl 
the wealth of Europe against all the riches q& the East. 

*^ * Already in possession of Dalmatia, I will, during peace, leiseiipois 
Greeer,- which Russia might, at this moment, dispute with me to ad* 
-vantitte. Kept in check by her squadrons in the Mediterranean, I will 
^proit by their letnm to their ports, to take the Mores by sorpme. Mmmt 

^ Aibnbt ftiH«Aof ^ AH Paclui^ and of all the Toikkh imaifiaft, 
I Mrili invade the Republic of the Seven Island^, and will again fepair t# 
Egypt, which will open a passage, by the Red Sea, to Bombay, and t» 
tiut ioiporunt peninsula, where I wiU desire^ ibe very root of the fb|B» 
time and the power oi the English. 

'* ^ Lastly, if ^ny shipa ever reach Bengal, wjiither I can also pcn»» 
tiate by Syria and Persia ; if my LicatenaQts.can one 4<>y treat the con* 
qaetQf% of the kingdom 4>f Mysore, as tliQse rreared Tippoo SiUh, Eu^ 
fOpe shall be in chains, lor she will have no iBOie gold, and I shall have 
a mtllioo of soldiers. England, once deprived of her trad^, her navjr 
.pnce .anothilarfd, the sceptre ot' the ocean onee placed in my hands, mjr 
aqoaditma shall itducd the Baltic and the Black Sea to the state of vast 
golphs withoot an iasne ; and Russia, by having too soon yielded to ajr 
tertune, a^ually retiring before my genius, will leave me in quiet potsei^ 
, sson of that Europe, woich she alone ba»f at this moment, the power t^ 
contest with oie*.' " 

Gigantic and prep^steioos as the projeAs here imputed to the Cjorsicas 
Usurper may appear, let any man cast bis eye over the transactions of dm 
last fourteen years and say, whether schemes as gigantic and as prepo$ij^ 
9O0S have not been carried intoeCd. Yet with this prosper before thea^ 
4Wir Ministers condescended to sue for peace, at the Palace of the ThuiUe. 
ries. Indeed, it was naturally to be expcdzd that Mr. Fox, who h'ld M 
ail times, acftl under ail circumstances, b<fen the avowed advocate of peaeiv 
ivoBid eagerly embrace the first opportunity for m'tking avertuies m thaff 
porpose ; and it waV equally to be expend that ha would send Lord Lao* 
jderdalc to propose thetn. . But that LordOrenville and Mr. Windham— 
che constant of^poaers pf peace, who had, on all occasions^ reprobaad^ 
loodly and justly, the peace of Amiens^ should consent to sach a «»es. 
sure, was well calculated to excite surprize. Nor was it less sorpriziiy 
that they should consent to the choice of such a Plenipotentiary. It hai^ 
indeed, been affirmed, that Lord Grenviile was persuaded that Boonjparte 
vottld not accede to the terms proposed by tlie Cabinet, and that while hia 
coikagoes would be gratified by the cxp?riment, the national-honour and 
intaest would be exposed to no danger. If this were sof whatever opi* 
atoo may be- entertained of the wisdom of such a conoeasion, no one will bt 
disposed to impeach the political foresight of the Tvlinister. Yet, if the 
aersBS'wetey as has been stated, nothing less than the mU fouidttis^ hft 
whofoold build on the leje&ioD of theml^y Buonaparte, must have enter^ 
stained such notions of the insatiate ambition of the Usurper, at to be con. 
viifeed of the impradicabitity of concluding a ];>eace with him tipon any 
terms. By the lai fofsidttis, the continental tenitory of our Neapolitj^ 
Ally, whose fidelity to us occasioned the loss of his kingdom, together 
with all the usurpations in Germany and Italy, would have been sane. 
^iohed and coniTrraed by us ; while, on our part, the retention of Malta* 
Saint Luda, and Tobago, would have cQnstituted the sum of our acqol, 

■ . . ' ' '" ' ' " » 1^ 1 I t > I III,!. » 

« TMeam PotOifm dt VStmpe, &c This able ^va/fbifX mm iwicwel 
^t length in dor last Appendix. It has aince^ we believe, beea tmilated 
jnco English ; »nd weaimitly lyiwmarad it as g fMrodofttga wortlqr «£ 
Xcnenl 9tte&tio9* 

<9iSAMff^n Mcft' tente a» filese, wttich^ cotteiArring the idsidve sitoa. 
tfbn jinA pd^ve' of lb* eODttorflH^ fmitK^ wcfe iiifiwtf !y laoie advamau 
(e^«9 to Vrafner, fliaa dkc coodftiqiB of tbe f>r«i^ <^*eacy, die faUic 
jnost be left co decide. We tball oier no opinion ob rlie tub^e^ ontil 
ant p ob&c j e io ft of Ao«e«it)Mlie docmBenM^ wUdi can jlooe Mffir die 
■HfterinU Ofy trUrl* to grouflok » jotr dedsfOB. As to the choice of Lo«l 
ljradefK£4e» #io openly boasted m like Brittsli Seaace of \m ffkodafaipr 
Ibr WhMft^^lfimtt ftei^ of tfte aaft^nw^ poitf , who pfodsuted tbeir <fes£pt 
'^ CO'sef fco 1^ the foor tiOfnets of Sorope"T> who s^ hia pataiflMaind 
dlMte IM Older to parcKnae Hie property of tbe chorch^ and of the oobi* 
Mtff in^Fnmee^ of wMcb t4e BfiflaoticMaboAplimdered the Iswfbiptopne. 
tai9> «rid wfto opposed; wilb t bknce^ every meaaoie of that adiMnistra. 
nm df' which loilf Gitiivffi^ef and Mr. Windt>aaB weie hienben ; — ^it iraa 
dbr a6( ffbt «vil> putt tbe eiedirfity of focore timet^ oo tbe test, wbile theie , 
can be bat one opinioo of it among all importtal men of tbe pieaenc di^. 
Tbe d9fasiw»t dkplayed dofiv>g rhe whole period of tkar Ibigewn g, negOu 
Ation (tet iui f M i te d, at last, by tie dismission of onrMt i ' iiiiLr by the in- 
«dfetlf -Uaarperjy and tbe iafi»Mlion mnvenally exprcsacd at icb mptme, , 
were soAdenr inJ i cat i cto a of tfk? aatc of tbe pciilic nindy oii^tkei|ueitiott' 
of p^ace, at fbe piesent j^natase. At no ptfiod^ whatever, waa duaae 
iMndfese^ sncir a nannony and o nani inity of aeneiment, on sikIi an oee&. 
a iar i c ^tepring only the MInisven tbemelres, fbcir imaKdiate a&eatnt*, 
Jnd jirtiiKHtfy these way acarorly a nan in tbe ktHgdoni whoda4nnt- 
e O Wtbi ' i the tae^sore of opening a negotiation at snch a period^ andL aall 
MM^9 iW protoogation or it, afief all hopes of a sncccwfal tenBrauian^ 
niitf^, wo dionid think, hate been lost ; and, tfterthe viapug spisia of dbr 
C%d Wdttf taf Fd^rerry hapefarrrely K^red, on> oor part, the manifescaL 
Ai^ of t detfc nniiigd aai decisive line of coodud^ Tbeoacose vHnrh wnn 
oibeif,^ on a former occasion, could not be orged oi>fbepit8cnc, loo thcnef 
etA&fA no£ftrence of opmoo in the kiAgddns^ lespe^ng^ not oo^ ite 
justice, bat the necessiry of the .war, fhi rootfd and iaapiacaMe baaaedl 
4i the Cor^can U^rpcr eowaids this Country^ and hiscon bcyc nt 
tim iff Midce no peace with o& tbat wooid he eortipavibie widiowr ' 
dormtefest, or ocrr safety. On these anbjedh theffOWM a ntte, and 
ttiexauwaed aralomitty of icofiioent. < - < 

: While, howeyer, these tardy ^ d^sconragihg, wtAfaPrnfyOe negotiataDtio 
W^tffitng on, to damp the revirxng aidoor *df the doifiinMi, formwuffly 
fifc' Iffd^ b^d of Btttish hctdes, who bad been witbdr^n^i Imos cheHn^ 
|Mff tin territory, aiid wefe now stationed in tbe lateid of Ssdlyy aet mm 
fn^ttitfit of tigoor well cafedhfed to* incmso that mdonr, nad to exciter 
jp#rit.df emnbtion in aB tbe people oppresaed by France, and in ak tlie 
ant^.^bbof to be opposed to ber. The botdo df hfaida, in ndiicb seFva 
ihdmjbjd Brrfisb, ngbfing hand to haad> and w^tfmw&w wieh fnocntHyy 
$ekattii; wMrgieatrfioghter, nemfy^dtooble tfee^wnobovof teKxoodi; 
ijjpr eby confern% immortal ^onopr on themselves and on their country^ 
and giving t&e lie to the boastuig assertion, that tbe French are invim^ 
>ia un^martlttb yiiiyaga i ul #]Xh iatfannaif a^jr Jw^nitfyp mdjmdhaiiig 
ha h ji tii in bl o an'dfea opa^ the €ofttincn|^ jjap^llri ndttmtha* ha3 
froftthato io> p hw iwfu>,> ztA^ikmmA h^. dm^ vnin*boaith« nmaiiins 
jntght not ool^ be km^^ bq( conqnetcd. Ix showc4^ ^tmi9f. mU 
..I maft. 

»f k fmrnA '4uvr tlie ^m/^mxyfA the khftlbfli -of Nq>lea^w«tf 
^^ic«lfi«» and tfaat »f only t«4 thpmaod mofe JBritith troof« had beeit 
Mxtf toSicdy, whep die present lyiHHsien ctne Mit04Kiwery emit £MtiiM 
AUy, €lie King of the Two Sieiltes^ mi^t hare been retoofvi t<» Wl» 
tiiPQne.-— Tke reoiote vfib^ ai> ^uo^ » rtstoration wooki have bedi «£»itifedl 

Kiter conseqnence than ks iimnfldiibce ofe^, ixoporfant a» these mmvU 
e eertanly been, it irould hav^ estabiisked our iwtionai supertoltityt 
jby lanily aa. well* a» by sea ; k would h^e dtsconragf d the Fnaacb ; it 
apiould have inspirited their ^ncn|iesy and it wouM have bolden not a atrong 
lesiptation to other sabf agated* people to rise againit tbemj and lo Ifawi^ 
offthei^ diagracdful yoke« But the recovery of thii kif^doal, either bjr 
ffrms, or by negotiation^ api^ars to have fbfOKd^ no part of the doiigM 
0faiir Mmist^s, who^ neglecting even the most.obvioat polioy, of ]irepaft« 
ing for war while negotiacing for a peace — 0^«/ni«fffiKr/«9raft(»~ovidenriyc 
aaide theif wafrKke operations whoUy d^ndent on the issoa^ol the nago* 
lotion ; for, aa loag a« the latter continued/ not a single expedttaan .wa^ 
mdertajkien^ not a regiment was dtspatched, i^ any military pavpoc9 
whatever. The whole stuamer has been strflered to pass w»vfi a ad wIk^ 
tar M rzpidiy appreAchfog, witiiottt a single hoatik measuie o# anjT kin4 
itovidg been: undertaken. 

t Tl» captaiii of the^ €ape^ and the fedoaion of 9uenos hytm^ fk« nft«4 
ittpDrtant of ail onr etim^stSi were th& wofks of that Cabjiiet a# #feMi 
AT'Conitfttmdinggeniaii of Mr. Pitt pfeaided^ The |«tesant MiniMeff 
ite clain ao more merit ironv these sncceasful o^ferprizes, ttian> i%fMt fHi. 
^Mttra^Rtf system of the Sinking Fimd^ or Iretai .th6 etpiraf low of fhe Short 
AnnmCies* Indeed, it is pretty well anderstoodf that drdct^ kad bet^ i^^ 
^aaed by the Adtibiralty; no doobt af the suggestion of that aftltabfe dkl 
cer Lord\St. Vincent, for the recal of Si»* Hdmtt FbphaWi, wfto, Ibftur 
naftely forthe country, had sailed from the CapNe before those ortfer^ reacbnf 
Jttiol. and had assisted in achieving the redufticm of 6tiem>s Ayfefs. In^ 
deed, Mr. Fox was always unfortunate in the sfeiedion of his n^ai com. 
jaanders. We are old enough to remember, d^at, at fhe latter ttA of the 
Anferlcan war, wKen that gentleman was in power for a shore tfnfe;. 
Admiral Pigott, whdm he had frequently met at that cefefarated sdhocft 
for naval tables, BrotkeVty was sent out to supersede Sir Oeqrge ft(k!t« 
t^Yi who contrived, however, to defeat the French fleet under P% 
Grasse, before his successor arrived. Tha^ every attempt will be mi(fe» 
l>oth by France and Spain, to recover that interesting portion of th^ 
American Continent, is most certain ; and indeed as, wEUe tlie oOmmaiUr 
^er of the Channel fleet waa enjoying himself at Lisbon> a French a9U9b* 
dron sJipt out of Brest, there is good Reason to believe that ^ ^orpe. W 
already been dispatched for that purpose. It is true, that the. retmaroe)- 
ment sent by our Government, tince the dtsTmssf^n qf.LordLimdnrdaU ^ tie 
(MTikan Vtarper^ sailed some three or fonr days before^ boa \tvuit^ 
Icacy. far book improbabie^ that tbe .Fj£nch may overtake tiaai. Hc$ % 
ij^eck flkoald have paastid, after the recent of the iateUifatice of the f ju^ 
tut aS^ that settleaient, wit Wilt tbo adpptioo of tbe'neees^rf meana^ 
a^corificthepotteMionofit^tptb^Goafitiy.i BiK ii^e ^(MwJMd H;5^iU.i» 
f09tAg that tk^deby in* tk^ instance^ 3%inm^nj:0imh waapc^aAttHM 
^if,M %Usm»t^n9C6 Ibcfd; upon tbaa^ocM^ of th^mgatMaoaiat iMfe^ 

9$0 StUtttUdTJ fff^ P$fffK$* 

Sinent wliick Bas fi^vd but little aioii6 than half .of Its mtoriif Mv,*i% 
to lit, at least» a marter of lurprize. It eertainly wai the intentm (a| 
Vc stated at the time) not to dissoire it, oniois the negotiation at Pam 
ahouUl end in a peace. Had that been che ca.^e, and the teims of the |«acc 
had been fair and honourable to this, country, the'dtssolation wo«ld pro. 
hMj hare had the efieA of tncr^aung the number of tlie Minister's friends 
in FcrliaaKnt ; bot as it is, notwithstanding the exertions wUdi are osedf 
ciefttons as nnexampled in their Matmrt as in their aHwt/, we«iiich ques» 
tion whether it-^will have any other tWi(\ than that of fobstitnting the 
iricnds of the present Premier for those of the foraer, who presided at the 
Taeasufy when this Parliament was called* Had the Parlianieiit be<en ac» 
Soallf annihilated, we should hare felt it our dotj taatuke some serext 
•tfiAoies upon different parts of its proceedings ; iHit a^ it is not jet deal 
inlaw, these stridu res musr, of courte^ be pobtponed. 

Since ocar last reriew of the st:|te of the political woild, Mr. Fox has 
Wen called upon lodelirer op his earthly account before the highest of jA 
iribnnals* ' Of the political principles aiid p'-adices of this genUemao, we 
iare, at rarioas times, delivered our free and unbiassed opinion } and we 
*alio«ild DOW be disposed to consign them to oblirioo, to bory tliem in the 
-aanae grave with hitn, did not the officious zeal of bis iojodidoos admumi 
le^d them to hold him op to the world, as tlie first of statesmen, and as a 
muM to all succeeding politiciiins. Until we are ooiirinoed of the trmk 
«f the maxiia, that tl^ sovereign^ of a staie is ve$ttd ia the people $ mA 
wo are persuaded that, when the populace chuse to be dissattatiedv HR»h 
mxe IS rmbtced to a mere question of prudence -y and. until it be prosa^ 
that it is the dot^ of a patriot to r^oice in a peace, »KCAUsa it is fhrious la 
ike enemies of hts CQuniry, wt^ cannot possibly consent to receive Am m 
8D example. That he was endowed with talents of the iirat order, emy 
one who has heard him must admit ; but he was wholly defideQl in thai 
juc^raent to which talents are principally indebted for their use and cfi^ 
cacy. Hence be was so often impelled, by the ardour of bis mind, la 
commit htnoself ^ear^a//y, when the subjed did not call for such decision 
of sentiment ; and hence, too« those contradrdions into which ho washes 
Irayed so frequently/ that there is scarcely any one leading principle of l^w 
pCin the science of political economy, admltung of two opinions, on whifjh 
lie has not pledged himself for both. In the consideration of this sul:^^ 
too, it shoold never be forgotten^ that, not to the possession, but to the asf 
and epphcatian of talents, can merit attach. That he was possessed dp 
many good and aaiiable qualities, that he was warm in his attaduuents, and 
aibcere in his friendships, the concurring testimony of all. who knew him» 
ferbids 08 to doubt. That the co?{fident:e, the certainty, which he is stated 
to bare feh and declared in his last moments,' may not prove delusiv^e, totat 
bo the fervent wish of every Christian mind. Peace, then, be to his maoes! 
and let not mistaken friendship force opeu that tomb whidi political emuf^ 
would dose for ever. 

Of thefuneraltifMr. Fox we have taken no notice, considering it mcM^ 
ia a piece of paity-quaickery, wretchedly contrived, and wodfuUr ume» 
floeed. In truth it was disgraceful to his memory. It was naturally mof* 
posed that -the death of Mr. Fax, which necessarily destroyed a party, of 
which he was both the life and the soul, would produce some tndfeerill 
chaiiges in the Calnnet. It wasthooRht that Lord GrenriUe wootd aval 
Umsctfof thecpportunityto aludto filf mcp/ froi&wliom faehasdifoot 


^im^ghootdkewlMde ooune of his political life; snd with trhom^Aarafiira^ 
k J»«s iaoagiiied, be could ool cordially awciate. But the event ha* not, m 
i4st yp^i justified tbe sttpposLtion. Lpr4^|iowick»> whose ineAoencjr at 
dieiMauraity was too glaring to escape aolice, has succeeded Mr« Foi m ' 
M^eRfgn department, fpr which his ^ualiAcatioos reinaio to be ^rovieAi 
l€r. TliocDaa OretiviUe, who ought to have been sent to fieiiia, or VieoM^ 
at this monientous crisis, has been placed at the head of the Admiraky, « 
«ituatioii for which his habit*f and pursuits have by no means fitted hioi| 
the Priv^y Seal ha^Tbeen transferred from Lor J Sidmouth to Lord HoUan4» 
the id^rnier of the inyai volunteers of lus paiish ; aad General Fitzpatriclc 
iuA vacatcvl the office of Secretary at War, which has been ojered to Mr. 
^Vhitbread, tbe Brewer^ We say ojg^ered, bcxrauMC this ambitious youli^ 
who is brotber-ia4aw to Lord Mowick, aspirii^ to a seat in the Cabinei, hm 
oot yet deigned to accept it. We liad hopes, indeed, that his heaitatioa had 
Pfooeeded from antjther cause, and that, though history supplies us with t w« 
iBomotable iostailces of the sudden elevation of aspiring brewers, it haA 
leally occnrred to him that there would be something ralher incmgraotn 
and awkwat-d, in leading over the door of an ale-house. The RighiHmowMe 
Samuel fVkitlread '4 Entire , or, The Right HonourelU the Secretary «r 
Ware Bp<mn Stout. We should like to see a foreign nobleman walkiitf 
4he streets of London, and castii^ his eye on such an inscription, ao3 
afterwards to hear the account which be wmiid give of it to his own oouft» 
Tbe SOBS of commeice^ io a commercial country, cannot fail to be re* 
speAed ; aad indeed no cfaarader is more re6pe<3able than that of a BritiA 
BCeidiaaf. To him the road to civic honours Is disclosed ^ to him the. 
aenate ia open. But, when a man aspires to be a Cabinet Minister, be 
afaoaki cease to be a tradesman. In our estimation, and, we susped ia 
the xipkiKMi ot our Sovereign, tbe charaders are absolutely iacompatibfe} 
ja)d we therefae trust that we shall never sise them united. 

On Lord Howick*s removal, it-is understood that he solicited die Pre- 
Quer to ask bis Majesty to appoint Lord St. Vincent to succeed him at tbe 
• Adauralty, aad that, on the Minister*s refusal, he made the appli catioa. 
to tbe Throne himself. The result is, that the naval reformer is to ro* 
nam on abip-board, unless, indeed, the report be trui;, that he has, ia 
dndgocio, Bolidted permission to resign $ iu which case it would be the 
Jie^iit of cruelty and injustice not to grant hb request. Certain it is, tiuK 
tbeie are evident symptoms of discontent among the Whig members of 
^ilfuioistfation ; we Lave heard of several meditated resignations $. but, if 
we know any thing of tlie Whig charader, they are too much attached Co 
ihe sweets of place and power, to resign them without compulsion. Lord 
Holland, besides bis admission into tbe Cabinet, has been appointed oae 
4)f tbe Commiasioners tor sealing the^ disputes between this country and 
Ibe Unitied States of Ameri. a $ an office tor which be must be peculiarijr 
. Aoalificd, as be framed the memorable American Intercourse bill } besides, 
CQvy ittelf nuist admit, that as the estates of his wite, formerly . Lady 
Webster, are situated in the West Indies, he must be just as well fitted 
jbr anch an appointaient, as the Earl of Lauderdale was fbr that of Am* 
i^aisador to settle oar disputes with France. 

It ia imposaiUe,' however, to contemplate the present state of our do* 
aneatic a^airs without ieeiing a consideraole portion of anxiety and alarm* 
Tliat the crisis is momentous, almost beyond example, that Europe is now 
^i^^uDg i^er )^st Itmgg^le f^t libertjr, and that her success. may materialiy 
.^^^ depend 


^lepiend ih lite "ijgOTitand'aipecd df oor cor-opcrrtfej*!, ftrBtrdAs wbfab ijf* 
iKMrMce^tselfwill-^knie bedi9{)8i|bd tocofltest. it la, fberefore^ e rmCUmt 
hf Wiupcrtsablc necessity, tfatt a firm, vjgoroos, and efficient Atlministra- 
tion, «hoiild be formed, not professedly, but really, oofD;>rel)endiMg e^ 
thoch as posbtble of the uniteid ra^» weight, and talents, ot all the pcr^^ 
lies in tbe kingdom, Bvit ^]oDf^apibti principle of ej^unatt, so ioudijr 
Ve|irobaied, yet bitheHo^so jiertinaciously enforced, shall contimie to pre- 
Vifil : ^«o long as the friends of Mr. Pitt, as such, shall not' be admitted to 
Ae Coiuicils of their Sovereign 5 so long will interna! dissentiont obtain; 
•nd the nation be deprived of a vci^ large share of those talents, of thai 
Jcbnwledge, and of that experience, iflthout the* aid of whidi, the re^ 
4Mirces ^ the eonn^ry will either not be called fqrth with efficacy, or mX 
fi{>plied fo advantage. It is impos<;ible th:^t Lords CrenviWe and Spencer^ 
mho so Jong aded in concert with tlje noblemen and gendecneti lo wl)o«i 
me nrllude, add ai6ted, too/ witK dqual hononr to themselves, and advaotagg. 
i© the coiintty, can have tlie sinalles^ rcpnjgnance again to receive them a# 
their asisociates in power. Tlidr 3overe{gti, too, who has, on varioos ^Ch 
'casions, expressed his |)erfe6t satisfadipn with their services, cafk have m 
<)bje^ioii to receive those seriieea again. Where, then, it may beasko^ 
& the obstacle to an union, which t^he welfare of the State so imp^ativ^ 
<den}aiKl8,. to be found .> This is a question which any man of common 
4>bservation ttiay answer ; butwliich no one has bad the courage io aah 
^wer. Tliere in one rnditidttal in the Icingdom whose enipity to Mr. f i^^— 
nn enmity which does honour to its objeft-^extends to all his pblkioil 
'friends and connexions ; io the gratification of that enmity, is the secuHl^r 
of the country to be sacrificed ; and to that is the exclusion of iteomeof the 
£rst chnraders in the kingdom, ifor talent^j knowledge, and experkdKX^ 
Ho be ascribed, llie time, however, we thist, is not fardfstam, wImii 
this dreadfbl infatuation, this most unjust prejudice, will be removed, or> at 
4east, m4U cease to operate; when party, yielding to patriotism, will oeaae 
to exilt ; wlv^n a strong, efficient, and truly Iroad'hotiomed Admkikti«- 
*fioti, will lie formed ; that the whole strength and resources of tfaecoontigr 
-Aiay be efficaciously employed in this'' last awful struggle for the libertics^^ 
(the civilized world. With the serious admonitiot), which we Wish-Bioat 
-earnestly to impress on the mind of that individual, tbat " a hooae divitol 
against itself cannot stand,*' we take our leave of the subjeA for the 4K0- 

^*e have but one other topic to press upon the attention ef out r aft da w ^ 
the atrocious ifturder of the German bookseller. Palm. When alHbeelr- 
cumstances attending this horrid tfansa6tion, and all the eQn8(x}ueilGes -%o 
^kich it leads, are considered, it x^ll Appear to be an evept highly imerat- 
•Itig lo every individual in Europe. This uhfortuiMite man was in the quiet 
lind rc^lar pursuit of his business at Narcnrbur^b, a city of Gennaoy^, over 
>whiob the Freneh had no right either of occupation or.cbntroul. HOie Ki^i 
was seiacd by a French horde of nailitary rvinians, CQnveyed 4o jpriion, -ami 
'tried by a baad of French assassins, ycleiied a Military ComnaMm, ^t 
^raunau, ao Austrian fortress, retaiiied by the French in 4^G€t violatioB of 
tbe treaty of Presburg. The crime imputed «to this m^n> was the sole of 
*«ertoin books, r6Ae6ting on the person and government of tbp Goraicait 
UsiMpor. Amoiy ciyifkzed ^tates, tlie ordy mode ti( propoedii^ whi# 
could be adop^ed^ w^ dn apM^cation to t^e |9W9 of the<:oDQtry in v^luA 
HbeMOjMhliMMNM eppeared'f-tflhey oonuined aiiy ihiocibrbiddiQ bgr-dMio 


Ui9», Ae|]QoU]Mattj^^ v^oul^ orco^ne. lie t«0UM ; 

jmdiif dicre.wcre nodfiiig \l)eg;^ ib thetn* there existed no huniao ^cib^qal 
wliiiab qqM poiu«h ckher tbe autbor or j^uUithcr. ^Fir«t, then, by ^tklg 
(be solige&.of aaother Stute. t,he C^TBtcan has been ^uiltv of a fcaud$ilogs 
breach of tbe Lav of Nations, mxyi of an outrageoos lusult to jthf Soverd^ri 
of tfasft State ;--<iird» seeockllj> by tiyiqg hico without any .auti^rjtjr lo^ 
Aiffit APd without ati^ hiw to vrbk:|» he oonld be amenable, and by following 
4^ thtt .triaL by the executtoo of ail innocent matt* be* NapQleone 3uoqi* 
.parte; and a|f toe ott-throats who sate upon the trial, were g^fJiitv <^ d«ii« 
Jberaie and m\M muhdek. Should any of these wretches, by Ihe fortuoe 
of ^ar^ be thrown ,into the hunds of any of .the Powers of^posed \q Franpe^ 
we (rust, fiK the sake of outn^d humanity, for the^ake of vi.olau:d jusdcse, 
that thcqr wiV not be tnsated as prisoners of war, but cried as criminal^ ^ 
xhe in«i«tBr of Palai» and as suoi, consigned to ike gaUihtuf, Jt is jay su(3h 
M» a£b^jastice alope, that tbe murderous carder of these Sends in humiyi 
liapc pan possibly be checked. l£ the nv>st impenetrable torpor had o^t 
Micaded aJi die Princes fi£ £uippe, this gross atid dadQ|; atten^pt ^o^d 
bave alarmed thpr fears ifiit bad .not excited their iniigqation. SSiiltipllgd 
^otcstsaigainst oiis idarpUig e&arcise of supreme authority in forego States, 
s>fii»poaiiig and eaecntii^laws, ia oontmdi^tion to the^istii:^ laws qfibe 
iMuitiy, wxmid bave heeoiisaaed, and tbe whole Cocitinent would, kwe Pe« 
^mmdfsA witfajcdes of Teseoiiiieot.and ceveqge. ' Hercjthe.ranrderer ofj^ia 
biis chfuwD off .the ttiask i ic has displayed his determination to mke ^e^ 
tbto( bead tabis soveretgn .wiU ; be bas evinced iiis rosolution to bpar.dowa 
^4<^upi»cioD by ibrutal ^loe ; to sUence all. reason and trudi^y J(h^ ba>ionft 
aad ibesMPord $ and to nonihilate,^ at whatever cost, .the FajME^polff or tm« 
Pmm . Xhis bcii^ bis avowed objeft, H beoomcs the oomoxm cause of c^e 
JciviiUed «rorld, (o crush tbetyratic, wiio would stifle our vftxy thouigbtsjM 
thdr bkitb, aniil establish a worse than £astern despotism, in th<^e qouotci^ 
JBi^bere tbe .Brcss first .ushered io Aeligioos Freedom to a grateful people,-^ 
I«et£i)gUghfQen, 6om this example, leacn what their fate would be^ <;ouli 
ihts wcoiched Upstart, in the plenitude of ^viurped powrer, oithpr.)^ l^AP- . 
o^neat or h^ peace, io^pose iaws on this hated coantry, where a/ree^Presa 
4ML itbaok Bea%:en; subsists.; and still continues to diffu^ the maaly aod 
■ an pol b ned seotiiiients of free men, over the admiring world. Let us phe^ 
aasb dm blossing, as .our last and best rofuge from sls^veiyaofl w^rctcbeUmi^s^ 
iMfm destrudian kk all othft countries, stimulate us tp additional exer^iooa 
for Ha presosMpa here. Let us join, heart :aod, hand, jn execratiog that 
apro^of assai3pi(M^ wbo is bent on its extirpation : kt u^ justify bisjhatrcd 
p^sa -oi^awii^^yifbisicrimes j let us4no!ck bis rage by our prote^uA of its 
^kBim$/ -JkCtts.set laoaoUe <ex,amj)le;to£urope, and pip\e ourselves vfirj^^j 
^WpffffiH ^t^Cf. As we^Mf ao disposition in ilioSe vho, a fisw years 
a^, appropriated to themselves, exclusively,^ tbe^ppdiation qf /^r^nciilf jTo 
4ke Freedom tfthe Press, to stand forward on an occasion so peculiarly cAl- 
cnhted to call forth their utmost exertions, we heartily wish that All astociai* 
tioo of men, witboat di8tio6li6n df parlies, and a6luated solely by a sense 
of tbe importance of thejPmt^am of tbe PtfOSf H*^nd by a desire to preserve 
jtiigqip v^plati^n, may be now /ormed ; and a fiberai subscripjtion entered 
*1ta»B^4##i <^ilriftKbe0iDjrt4jieytrs, in onAcr torm^ a comfonMle provi-r 
M»tk * tit! SbtmiAow Mm^jAMmi c^Mop, wbose nobfoigrMieas In ste hour 
4r«eMb> iJLlMfc lnim<Hr<iiA^.i>— lipy, .«n4««rtMei bkuaolbe fp«<it«de 

MMaraijlwe. - . . ' 

AAf SumnUirf df PaUucs, 

P, A Since the zSxmt Summary was written. Dispatches from t6d CbA^ 
ttnent have brought an account of the commencement of hmtilities, by aa 
lAir of posts, and the Manifesto of tbePaassiAN Monarch. The former 
we by no means consttier as decisive of the question of peace or war ; biit 
the latter is certainly an instrutnetit of sodi importance as, in our opinion^ 
to rciufcp the appeal to arms uniavoidable. Wlii.e it exhibits the moit comi- 
f lete self-condemnation^ as to tlie'past policy of the Court of Berlin^ irtd 
demonstrates, beyond the po^'^ibility of cavil, the truth of that maxtitt wbidi 
we have so incessantly laboured to impfess on the Princes of Europe in ge- 
neral, and on that Monarch in particular, that concession to Buonaparte 
only increases his spirit of ' aggressioa, and his disposition to tyranny add 
insult y it contains that which the implacable soul of the Usurper wilt never 
foget pr forgive; we, therefore, consider war as certain. The Prutsiant, 
it seems, have fallen back, and, by that movement, have left the SaxoD 
frontier open to the incursions of the enemy. Tberr head-qoarters, when 
the accounts came away, are ^itated to have been at Nieustadt. This retro* 
grade movement was evidently for the purpose of concentration ; and it is 

' highly probable, that, before it took place, the King of Prtissiahad reccared 
authentic accounts of the progress of the Russian army, which he knew to 
be hastening to his assistance. In that case, we may suppose other tbaf 
the Russians will arrive in time to proted Saxony, or €it^t that in cAse the 
French should attempt to push forward to Dresden, the Prussians theai« 
iclves have adopted the necessary precautions for cutting off their retreat* 
Another point remains f.)r consideration. If the French enter Saxony, or 
if they even endeavour to attack the Prussians at Nieustadt, they will afibrd 

' an opportilhity to the Austrians, in Bohemia, to take them in the re^r : the 
taone opportunity which tb^ French last year afforded to Prussia, when they 
advanced into Moravia. Whether the Austrians now will avail themselves 
of it better than the Prussians did then, is another qnesdon. Our hopea 
and our fears on the subjed, are, we confess, in opposition to each others 
But of this we are certain, that if the Corsica n Usurper escape from the 
dangers which now surround hhn on every^ide, the Prtiices of the CoDfi« 
oent will deserve to lose their thror>es, and £nrope her liberties. One 
question forcibly obtrudes itself on the mind, on contemplating the present 
critical state of aff tirs-^Why rs such a man as Mr. Adair sufi^ered to remam 
at Vienna? We should be truly glad to know, whether it be theroiii^ 
the weight, or the talents, of this vulpine diplomatist, that recommend him 
to a situation of such extreme importance at the present moment. Why ia 
BOt Lord Malmesbury, Lord St. Helens, Lord Auckland> Mr. Thomas. 
Grenville, or some other experienced veteran in the science of diplomacy^ 
aent to the Impetjat Court, at a crisis which requires the utmost display oT 
•kill, knqwledge, and abilities, in the British ambassador ? The owiisskwi 
h culpable— may it not prove fatal ! 

- ArctsiUton Public Tributes, is anar<»dabl/ postponed— The DfaoBte 
Wtweea Dr. Gfeig and Mr, Lain^, on the History ofScotland by the Uf* 
tcr-^entxt on the supposed Dinnoation of Clerical Students—Ode 19 ^K 
Anagr, and other Coraittimiatigps^- shill sypeac inour next^ 



Review and Magazine, 

^C. ^C. ^'C. 

For NOVEMBER, 1^06. 
, Dam singuli pugnant, univcrsi viocuntur ! 


The Life $f jfohn Mllt&n. By Charles Symmonsy DTD. of Jesus 
College, Oxford. 8vo. Pp. 566. 1805. 

THIS work lias been printed some time, hut hein|[^ intended to 
^precede a new edition of the prose works of Milcon, a delay 
ot (he publication of that work has also delayed 4he publication of 
this- In every Life ycit written of our great epic |>6ct, his political 
conduct always makes the most prominent feature ; and, indeed, ]^ 
caa hardly be otherwise. The secret workings of*the iraaginatioa 
of the poet arc only seen in their produdtions ; but the autlior, whose 
pen is employed iij political controversy, must take some part in the 
scenes he is engaged iif describing nnd defending, and, in conse- 
quence of this, his adlions will sometimes be brought forward with his . 
writings. •. 

Besides the partiality a biograplicr feels for the person whose life he 
16 writing, and for that particular part of his adbons to which that 
life particularly relates. Dr. Symmons is an avowed advocate for that 
cause in which the pen of Milton was engaged. To avoid any charge 
of nfisrepiesentation, we will quote what he himself says^on this 
subjca. * . 

** For the political sentiments discoverable in my work I am neither 
inclined, nor, indeed, able to offer an apology. 1 hey flow directly from 
those principles which I imbibed with my first icfforts of reflection, which 
have derived foTce from my subsequent reading and 'observation, which 
have * grown with my growth^ and strengthencl v^ith my strength." — 

VO. CI. VOL, XXY, Q . ^^ ^ I 


If they should, thercror<*, unliappiJy be erroneous, roy misfortunes a» T 
fear, is hopelessly irremediable, for they arc now so viially blended with 
my thought and my feelings, that with them they must exist or must 
perish. The nature of thes? princ pies will be obviously and immediately 
apparent to my readers ; for 1 have ma^^^e too explicit an avowal of my 
political creed, with reference to the civil and rhe ecclesiastical system^ 
of which I am fortunately a member, to be under any apprehensions of 
suffering by misconstruAJon. it* any man should affeft to sea more deeply 
into my bosom than I profess to see myself ; or ro deteft an amfou»h of 
mischief which 1 have been studious to cover from observation — that man 
Ivill be the objeft, not of my resentment but, of my pity. . I shall be as- 
sured that he suffers the infJidion of a perverted head or a corrupt heart, 
and to that I shall contentedly resign him after expressing a simple perhaps, 
but certainly a sincere wish for his relief frdtn What may justly be consi- 
dered as the severest of human evils." 

Of this political creed of the Doftor wc can only say, that though 
It is not exadlly ours, we do not proless intuitively to know more of 
him than he professes to know of himself; but yet, if in the course 
of our examination of his work, certain symptoms of his canyjng, 
his political sentiments much fuitlicr, should discover tliemselvcs by 
manifest token, we hope we shall not ircur the censure of l)eing in- 
fli61ed with a pjervertcd or a corrupt heart, for seeing what it >s im- 
possible no^ to tee. 

The first paragra|)h of the »work is what we should have hardly 
expefled to find in (hcprodu6)ion of a man of Dr. Symmons's known 
taste and genius. 

'* The author of the * Defence of the People of England,' and of 
the ' Paradise Lost,' has engaged too much of the attention of his species 
not to invite their curiosity to the -circumstances of his life, and the pecu. 
liarities of his characlcr." 

Is ic possiI)le that any man of genius could name the Defence of 
the People of England, and the Paradise Lost, in the same sentence ? 

Mrs. Macaulay, of republican memory, used to say, that she 
thought little of Milton the songster, but Milton the patriot slic 
adored. From a man like Dr. Symmons, however strong his politi- 
cal prejudices may he, we should expert an opinion diredlly the rc-» 
verse,* and we should deprecate the public pursuits whici) drew aside 
the ayihor of such charming poems as the Comus, the Lycidas, 
L* Allegro, and 11 Penseroso, for twenty years from his poetical 
studies, and overwhelmed his mind in seditious controversy : or, tO' 
use the elegant and eniphatical words of his present biographer fO si 
omnia sicj, we must lament, that " ^ke baleful fury of politics cUverfcd 
hii fancy from where she — 

" Roll'd o'er Elysian flowers her amber stream, 
. Into a channel polluted v/ith weeds^ and horrid with precipices.*' 

Returning again to the political opinion of our biographer, wc sc- 


Symmons'j L'lfi of Milton, 127 

\eSi the passage rdative to the death of the unfortunate King. The 
annvy he says: v ^ 

** Having possessed themselves of the Parliament b}' force, they once 
more seize upon the Monarch, and, insulting him w'lih the mockery of a 
legal trial, under the pretended authority of an ur.repr^benred people, they 
lead him to suff. r on the scaffold. In pronouncing the iliegaliry of this 
whole proceeding, the voice of the dispssioniite and the intelligent must 
necessarily be unanimous; and the qacsthn njiiH fiol be found to inciude any 
part f)f that reipeHing the gudt rf Charles^ or the right of the nation to make 
bim n sponsible^ tvith hislife^ for the nbusenf his dcicg itrd sceptre. He fell, 
as it must be obvious, not by the judicial, but by the military sword ; 
and, though Bradshaw pronounced the seiuencc, the fanatic army, under 
the guidance of Ireton and Cromwell, were, in truth the authors of his 

The passage in italics avows the ri^ht of the people to put a mo- 
narch 10 death for the abuse, and consequently perhaps for the ima- 
gined abuse of his delegated |>ower. That the power of an heieditary 
monarch can not be said to have been delegated by the people is <>!>- 
▼ioiis ; nevertheless, loyal as we profess to be to one ot tlie best tf 
Sovereigns, we cannot admit that a King may invade those rights, 
iwhich it is his duty to defend, without resistance ; yet we can never 
assent to the notion, that when the irresponsibility ot the King is one 
of the fundamental parts of the constitution, it can be justifiable for 
any tribunal, however constituted, to inflict punishment on him. Such 
a cioflrinc might suit the regicides of England in the seventeenth, and 
the regicides of France In ili^ eighteenth century ; but if the mis- 
guided son of Charles, who was infinitely more culpable than his 
father, for in addition to his political errors, he tried to overturn the 
religion of his country, and substitute Papacy in its stead, had fallen 
into the power of his opposers, instead of escaping; to France, does it 
enter into the head of any the most determined VVhig in the coun- 
try, that the Houses of Parliament, who voted the throne vacant, in 
the latter case which ^//V/ happen, would have .proceeded to try him, 
and punish him in the former case, supposing it had happened? We 
shall have occasion to say more on this subjcdl as we piocccd. 

The following euhjgium on Cromwell, from the pen of Milton, is 
almost equal in adulation to the praises lavished on Buonaparte by tl)e 
literary sycophants of Fra^ice ; nor is it any excuse, that it was done 
with a view to induce Jn'm to estahlibh a Republic. Had Hambden 
petitioned Charles to abandon the levy of ship money in such abje<ft 
terms, what would the historiVm have said of him ? but we shall see 
presicntly the favourable distindiion inade by ti)c pseud j patriots of tiie. 
present'day with regard to usur]iers, whcncompaicd with lawful princes, 

*' Proceed then, O CromwelJ I and exhibir, under every circumstance, 
the same' loftiness of mind : for it becomes you^ and is consistent with 
your greatness. The redeenur^ as you are, of your country, the author, 
the guardian, the preserver of her liberty, you can assume no additional 

Q a charader 


vcharadler more important or tr\oie august : tince not only the aAioat of 
our kings, but the fabled exploits ot our heroes are ovcrcca&e by yoar 

•Wc had at first readiirg styled this blasphemous adulation, but on 
turning to the original Latin we found the very intproper word, to 
say the least of it, that \vc havQ marked bf italics, is not Milton's -^ 
his words are — patri^ liberator. 

As a striking proof of the dlsrinflion we have just noticed, wc 
cite Dr. Symmons's obicrvation on the Restoration, and the means by 
•which it was efFe^cd. 

** On this last excess of the army " (that is, their evpulsion of that rem- 
nant of the Long Parliament, commonly called in dierision the Romp), 
**'* under the influence «f mrn, dt.stitute alike of ability and of public 
feeling, and equally incapable of providing for their own interests, or 
for those of the communiry, the nation experienced a species of anarchy, 
an4 fell into the extreme of degradation under a military despotism. The 
Presbyterians, discontenied since the triumph of the Independents, hot 
crushed beneath the weighty sceptre of Oliver, and acquiescing in the 
succession of his son, now openly avowed their disaffe£lion to the ruling 
powers, and united themselves heartily wifh the Roy;ilists, 
' '* This extraordin;,ry confusion and conflift of parties opened a field to 
Monk, who had been placed by Cromwell at the head of the Ibroes in 
Scotland, and was now the governor of that kingdom, for the display of^ 
his inconstancy^ his cunning, and his perfidy. Peculiarly favoured by hit 
situation, and solicited by the Presbyterians, the people, and the Pariia, 
menr, for aid against an insolent boidiery, who, like the blind giant of 
classical fable, possessed brutal power without the vision requisite to di- 
vert it from self-destroying exertion, this wavering and narrow-minded man, 
with mean talents but with deep dissimulatior, was enabled to betray *U 
who confided in him, toab:.ndcn his Oi'd associates to the butchery of legal 
vengeance, and, with a fearful accumulation of perjury on his (leaS, to 
surrender the nation, without a single stipulation in its favour, to the do, ,j 
tninion of a master, in whom voluptuousness and cruelty were confounded 
in a disgusting embrace. By every intelligent and reflefthig man, the 
restoration of the monarchy of England must be hailed as a most auspi. 
clous ,ev^nt : but it may be questioned, whether the unconditional restora- 
tion of it, and this alone was properly the «ft of Monk, can be regarded 
as a benefit either to the Prince, or to the people ; to the former, whom 
it allured to those excesses which induced the final expulsion of his family l 
from the throne j to the latter, whom it immediately exposed to the evils ' 
of an injurious reign, and eventually subjected to the necessity of assert. \ 
ine, with the blood of two domestic wars, their right to civil and reii* 
gious liberty," 

Monk is a charafler never to be forgiven by republicansg for his i 
restoring the King and the legitimate GoverniTjent of the country ; i 
he was the only man who had it in his power to save the meiropoUs ^ 
and the kingdom from the worst of tyrannies— that of a licentioos i 
army ; and the only means he had to eiFedl tliis salutary purpose, jiave ' 
' ' always- 

Syromons^j Life of Milun. 529^ 


always been branded, by the disappointed votaries of democracy, as 

inconstancy, cunning and perfidv. What is the whole system of war«: 

iare bik a coadaued violation ot^the duties of civil life ? but shall it be 

called murder to push the bayonet at the breast of the invader, or 

treadiery to circumvent his scheme by feigned attacks in one placc» 

ixrhile real ones are made in another ? We must agree with the poet^ 


necessary means 

For good or noble ends can ne'er belong.** 

Had Monk used those means for the establishment of a republic,.^ 
instead of for the restoration of the King, we should have found no 
stigma on his charafler here, notwithstanding the concluding part 
of the quotation. 

We give another proof of the author's predilecElion for usurped go* 
vernment. While he is excused, and even applauded, for accepting .the 
office of Latin Secretary under Cromwell, let us mark what is said 
of his refusal of it under Cfiarles II. 

" When an offer was mad?i to him, soon after his marriage, of a restu 
tDUoo of his pfficial sitaation, she ** (his third wife), '< is said to have 
pressed, with much earnest and tronblesome importunity, his acceptance 
of the pro£fered benefit. But to be in office under the new government, 
and nnder Charles, whom he saw pollQted wi;h the blood of his friends^ 
^was abhorrent from all his principles and his feelings, and he silenced the 
solicitations of the lady with, ' You are in the right : you as other>women^ 
voold ride in your coach 2 my aim is to live ^nd die an honest man.' '* 

The offer of this office to Milton, whicli Dr. Symmons says rest* 
upon authority which seems to be decisive, completely refutes the 
malignant insinuation against Charles 11. in the following passiage : 

" As a story, which I have seen in print (but by whom told, or oni 
what authority, I know not), is in perfe^ harmony with the point and 
spirit of these verses, it shall be inserted for the amusement of my readers* 
It bears some internal marks of authenticity, and exhibits very justly the 
the gay and the glamy malignity of the two Royal Brothers^ Charles and 

" The Duke of York, as it is reported, expressed pne day to the King 
his brother, a great desire to see old Milton, of whom he had, heard so 
xnnch. The King replied, that he felt no objeAion to the Duke's satisfy- . 
inghis curiosity : and accordingly, soon afterwards James went privately* 
[to Milton's house, where, after an introdudion, which explained to the 
W lepabhcan the rank of his guest, a free conversation ensued between 
fthese very dissimilar and discordant charade rs« In the course, however^ 
'<rf the conversation, the Duke asked Milton whether he did not regard 
the loss of his eyesight as a judgment inflided on him for what he had 
written against the late King ? Milton's re9ly was to this effed^ : — ' If 
yoor Highness thinks that the calamities which^ befall us here are indica- 
rfoijs of the wradi of heaven, in what manner are we to account for the 
^of the King, your father? The displeasure of heaven mast^ upon 
I * (J i * - this 


this supposition, have been much mater against him than aj^aiiuti 
for I have lost only my eyes, bat he lost his head/ 

• '' Much discomposed by this answer, the Duke soon Cook his leave and 
went aw<iy. On his return to Court, the first words which he spoke to 
the King were — * Brother, you are greatly to blame that yon don't have 
that old rogue MJhon hanged.' — ' Why, what is the matter, James?' 
said the King, • \ou seem in a heat. AVhat, have you seen Milton?'— 
.* Yes,* answered the Duke, I have seen him.* — * Well,* said the King, 

* in what condition did you find him ?' — * Condition, why he is old 
and very poor.* — * Old and ponr ! Well, and he is bijnd too — is he not ?* 
-^* Yes, blint} as a beetle.' — * Why then,' observed the King, 'you are 
a fool, James, to have him hanged as a puni^^hment : to hang him willr'be 
doing him a service ; it will be tiiking him out of his miseries. No— if 
he is old, poor, and blind, he ib miserable enough ; in all coDscienot 
let him live !' " 

No man not warped by the grossest prejudices against a Monarch, 
ini monarchy» could iiavc seen any thing in this reply of the care- 
less and good-humoured King, but a sarcasm on the gloomy and mali* 
cious temper of his brother. 

We shall turn with pleasure from th^ remarks on the prose writings 
of Milton, whete a strong spirit of republican is apparent through* 
out the whole, notwithstanding a few saving clauses scattered here 
and there with a si>»ring hand, that the work mieht not be too oflfen* 
sive to the generality of its readers (for we believe the number of 
democrats is diminishing every day), to contemplate the man of uste 
and genius in the remarks on the poetry of Milton. 

With th^ sentiments of Dr. Symm'ons on the Paradise Regained, 
we pcrfc6lly agree^ 

** On the fate of the Paradise Regained " (he says) " the voice of thrf 
public, whiq^ on a question of poetic excellence cannot for any long tlGoe 
be erroneous, has irrevocably decided. Not to objedl to the impropriety, 
of the title,' which would certainly be more consistent with a workoq 
th.^ dea;h and the resurreftion of our Blessed Lord, the extreme narrow* 
ness uf the plan of the poem, the small proportion of it which is assigned 
to adion, and the large part'which is giveh to disputations and dldadic 
dialogue, ^ its paucity of charafters and of jXKtic imagery j and, lastly,! 
its general deficiency in the charm of numbers, must for ever preclude it 
from any extended range of popularity. It may 'be liked and appiauded 
by those who are resolute to like, and are hardy to applaud : bat to the 
great body of the readers of poetry, let t^e critics amuse themselves witll 
their exertions as they please, it. will always be 'caviare.' It is enit 
bellished, however, with kveral exquisite passages, and it certain^ 
^bows in some of its finer parts, the stiH existing author of the Pan^ 

Nor are his remarks on the Sampson Agonistes less just. 

** On the merits of the 'Sampson Agonistes,' thene has fortnnatth 
been no important contrariety of opinion. By the universal auffkage i 
has been pronounced a manly, noblcj and pathetic draina^ -^he progeny m 


' SymmoM^i Life of Afiliort. i^i 

t mind equally e^iQted, sensitiye and poetic. Its delineation of charac* 
ter^ though not rarious, if discriminate and true ; its sentiments are uni- 
formly weighty and dignified ; its di^ion is severe^ exquisite, and su. 
blime ; and ovrr the whole is thrown an awful and majestic gloom, 
which subduci at the same time that it elevates the imagination. 

** With reference, however, either to its condud or to its execution, 
it cannot be considere<f as a faultless piece. On the subjcdl of its condud, I 
tiDUst concur^with Dr. Johnson in thinlcing, that it is destitute of a jus)t 
poetic middle ; that the adion of the drama is suspended during some of 
Its intermediate scenes, which might be amputated without any injury to 
the Table. In the inferior department of execution, the author seems to 
have been betrayed into error by his desire of imitating the choral mea- 
sure^.of (he Greeks. He {:erceived that the masters of the Grecian thea. 
tre united in their chorusses ver&es of all descriptions, either without any 
rule,.. or without any which. modern critics had been able to ascertain ; and ^ 
his £ne ear could not be insensible to the harmonious consequence of this 
apparently capricious, association. He was, hence, unwarily induced to » 
imagine that a like arbitrary jun<flion of verses in his own language would 
' be produftive of nearly a like eflfed ; and without, perhaps, relledling on 
the rich variety of the Greek metres, or on the genius of the English 
language, and the habirs of the English ear, he threw together, in the 
choral parts of his drama, a disorderly rabble of lines of all lengths, some 
of which are destitute of rhythm, and the rest modifications only of the 
iambic. The result, as might be expelled, has been far from happy ; and 
the chorus, instead of giving to his piece the charm of varied harmony^ 
has injured and deformed it with jarring and broken numbers.", 

We do not think »his volume improved by the translation of Mil- 
ton's Latin Poems. The merit of modern Latin verse consists chiefly 
in happy allusions to, and application of, phrases used by the classic 
writers, every vesiige of which must be lost in a translation. 

We must think the biographers of Milton take too much pains to 
disprove the story of his corporal punishment at Cambridge, since we 
know from the existing statutes that sucli punishments were formerly 
in use at our universities. When (for we suppose that time will 
come), such punishments shall cease, at least with respeft to the larger 
boys at our public schools, would it be any disgrace to the memory 
either of Mr. Pitt or Mr. Fox, if it could be proved they were botU 
flogged at Eton ? 

'We cannot tal^e leave of this work without lamenting the family 
Misfortunes that affli6!ed the author daring the time he was engaged 
in it. The loss of a daughter, who could have written this sonnet, 
>vhcn only in the middle of her twelfth year, was a trial of noxom* 
moD severity. 


** Scarce had thy velvet lips imbibed the dew. 
And Nature hail'd thee infant queen of May ; 
Scarce saw thy opening bloom the sun's broad ray> \ 

And to the air its tender fragrance tbreW| 

Q4 When 

afl OltlGIKAL Gl.lTlGlSir«^ 

When the north 'wind enainpur'd of thee giev ; 

And by his cold^ rude kiss thy charms decay : 
Now droops thy head, now fade* thy blushing hue*— 

No more the queen of flowers, no longer gay. 
So blooms a maid, her guardians^ — health and joy— 

Her mind array'd fn innocency's vest — 
When suddenly, impatient to destroy. 

Death clasps the virgin to his iron breast. 
She fides — the parent, sister, friend, deplore t 

The chiirms and l)udding virtues now no more! 


Jn Attempt to illustrale those Articles of the Church of England^ which 
^the Calvinists improperly consider as CalvlnisticaL Jn Eight Ser^ 
mons, preached before the University of Oxford^ in the Tear 1804, 
at the Letlwrcs founded by^ y, Bampion^ M, A, Canon of Salisbury. 
By Richard Laurence, LL.D. of University Colfege. 8vo.^ 
pp. 460. Hanwell and Parker, Oxford ; and Rivingtous^ Sec* 
London, 1805. 

OF all the leSures founded by' pious individuals, for the support 
and illustration of the Christian farih, and which have rendered such 
cs$^ential service to the Church of England, that of Mr. Baropton, as 
it is on the most comprehensive plan, is perhaps the most tiseful.— * 
Othcfs h^rve furnished very complete confutations of Atheism and 
Deism, of Arianism and Socinianism ; but they are, each, more or 
less confined, by the will of the founder, to the discussion of sonaC' 
particular subjefl. The Ban;)pton Le£lurer may take a wider range. 
Whatever is conncfled with the Christian religion, the history of tn^ 
church in general, the do6lrine, discipline, andaonstitution of our own 
church ip particular: even the rules of reasoning, and the laws of hu- 
inan belief, fall witliin his plan. Hence it is, that these lectures may 
P6t only furnish antidotes to tho. varied poison of infidelity, as it 19 
daily administered, hue also prove a source of theological information 
to the student, aivibitious of fitting himself for the sacred office of 
feeding the flock of Christ. Other le6lures have been founded for 
the purposes of confirming and establishing the Christian faith, illus^ 
trating prophecy, and proving the divinity of our Loid and Saviour, 
and the divinity of the Holy Ghost ; but the Bampton ledlures, while 
they embrace every one of these objedls, comprehend likewise another 
of great iniportance — the confutation of all heretics an<^ schismatics, 
who by their writings controvert the faith, andby their pra<Slices dis- 
turb the peace of the diurch. 

The faith has been long assaulted, though assaulted in vain, by the 

4isciples of Socthus ; and ihe illitei-ate vulgar have ^een long led astray 

, by the ignu fatuus of itineraiu methodism,; but of late years the most 

rancorous dissenuonsi have heea excited within die botoo^ of the 


Laurence^i Bampton LeAi^s. %t^ 

jftburch herself^ by those vtho arrogate to tbeoiselves eifclusively tho 
^fc\\»x\on of evangelical preachers. The schisms excited by these 
xnen are infinitely more hurtful to the peace of society, and more diredUy 
: contrary to the genuine spirit of Christianity, thau the open separation of 
' those, who, dissenting from the csrabUshed faith, or disapproving of the 
established hierarchy, withdraw themselves from the communion of the 
Church of England, and form, as they think, more apostolical churches 
for themselves. With the conscientious Dissenter, however erroneous his 
faith may be, or however novel the constitution of his conventicle, thd 
j conscientious Churchman may live certainly in the bond of peace, if not? 
in the unity of the spirit ; but it seems to be impossible to live even in 
feace with that clergyman of the church, who represents nine-tenths 
of his brethren as heretics antl perjured knaves ;'and who embraces 
every opponunity, which his situation affords him, of intruding into 
his brother's pulpit, and alienating from him the affe clions and regard 
pf.those^ simple and' unlearned Christians who are committed to hif 
pastoral care, and are unable to judge of the conformhy of his doc* 
tiinc with that which the church enjoins him to teach. That sgch 
arc the pfafiiccsof that small number of clergymen, who, interpret- 
ing the diirty-nine articles of religion in a Calvinistic sense, denomi- 
nate chein^lves the only true Churchmen^ is a fa£V too notorious to be 
called in question. Every Anti-Calvinisc is by theiT\ loaded with the 
most opprobrious epithets, beca<use he docs not understand three or 
four anicles on the most abstruse questions in Christianity exadly as 
tbey understand tlieni ; because he does not think it necessary^ or vtcfi . 
expedient, to agitate such questions in sermons preached to a niixM 
audience ; and because he labours to prove that re|>entance and good 
works, as well as faith, are conditions of final justification. 

The question between these contending brethren is not» at least in 
the first instance, what is the sense of Scripture on the controv'erted 
points, but ^hat is the sense of the Articles^ which both hav& willingly 
and ex ammo subscribed in the literal and grammatical sense of each 
article. — "Much," ^as Dr. Laureftce observes) ** has. been written^ 
and satisfadortiv written, to prove that the Predestinarian system of 
Calvin is totally inconsistent with our Articles ; rliat it is equally irre- 
concikable with our liturgy and homilies ; and that ihs private scntw 
ments of our Reformers were likewise inimical to it." — The labours 
of the Bishop of Lincoln, of Dr. Kipling, Mr. Daubeny, Archdeacon 
pQtty Mr. Pearson, and, may we not add, of ourselves and our fellow* 
labourers the British Critics, in this righteous cause, seem indeed, in 
|he opinion of the more learned and judicious part of the pfublic» to 

have been crowned with complete success. 

** Bnt " (dontinoes Dr.( Laurence) '' complete in all points as such 

(vidence may appear (the force of which its opponents have been unable 

to invalidate], the author, still convinced that an elucidation of another 

kind was wanting ; that the weight of testimony might be augmented 

by an attempt, to trace the Articles, usually bontroverted on the occasion,^ 

sp ^0 their genuine fotircet^ to compare tlxem with tte'peculiar opinions of 

/ ' their 


their own tunes, and thus to determine tMr meaning with taorfc eer."^ 
tttinty, by ascertaining the precise objedls which their compilers had ht 

. Itisy indeed, only by ascertaining the precise objedh which any 
English writer of a former age had in view, that his meaning on coq« 
troverted points can be determined with certainty ; for of every living 
language the words are continually, though slowly, varying cheir 
ineaning ; and that which signified otie thing 200 years ago, majrnow 
be employed to denote something in various respeflis different. Thi^ 
is remarkably the case with rcspedl to the language of our Articles. Of 
the controversies which were iigitated among the Reformers themselves, 
as well as between the Reformers and the. Church of Rome, some arc 
pow forgotten ; whilst there are other controversies afloat at present, of 
^hich the Reformers could have no notion. The language, how- 
ever, of th^ Articles remains unchanged ; and such as imagine that 
their compijcrs intended them to express the sentiments of the, Church 
qf England on every topic in theology that could occur, even to the 
end of the world, must necessarily interpret some of them, so as to 
embrace opinions, of which Cranmer and his associates never dreamed^ 
whilst, by overlooking the circumstances under which they were drawn 
up, they lose sight ot the on}y sense in which they were, by the Re- 
formers, intended to be subscribed. Our author, adverting to* this 
circumstance, observes, in his first sermon, that — 

■ ** In discussing with impartiality questions of a remote 2cra> it ii rt- 
qaisite^ but not easy, to discard modern prepossessions ; to ' place oarseives 
exa^ly in the situation, and under the circumbtances of those, whose 
sentiments we wish to investigate, and display with fidelity. On soch 
occasions we are usually too much disposed to throw in light j where we 
perceive only an indistin^ mass of shade, or at least to revive that, which 
in our eyes appears faint and faded, endeavouring in every instance to im- 
prove according to our own taste and fancy, instead of faithfully exhibit* 
ing the simpler produ^ions of antiquity. But the subje^l before oie ^i 
attended with another difficulty. From its peculiar nature it is confined 
to disquisitions, which, having lost at this distant period their immediatt 
importance, and ceased to interest us, it seems almost impossible again to 
brmg forward, without fatiguing the attention, and appearing to clog the 
argument with much heavy detail, and which can seldom afibrd an oppor. 
tunity for the diffusion of ornament, for popular dissertationj or for ele« 
gant composition." 

In language, however, which Is sufficiently elegant, our aathot 
proves in this sermon, which is preached from 2 Tim. iti. 14, that our 
Articles, far from bejng framed according to the system of Calvin, were 
modelled after the i^utheran sy stein, in opposition to the Romish 
tenets of the day ; that our Reformation was a progressive work, com- 
menced in the reign of Henry VHL and completed in all its essen- 
tial pans under his successor ; that both diese Princes repeatedly soli* 
cited Mikna/ion to come^vcr to England and leod his powerful a!<l 

Laurence*i Bampton Lcflures. ^ ijc 

Id Cranmer and others, who conduced the Reformation ; that th« 
' rwo publications entitled the Bishop's Book, and the JC/«F*i Bo'ok^ whicli' 
"vrcrc avowedly systems of faitb, breathe the spirit of Lutheranism ; 
tSiat relative to the p<j>ints in controversy between the English Calvin- 
isms, and the majority of the established Clergy, there is little, if any 
ihing to be found in either of rhem, which is materially different from 
^vhat was subsequently established; and that not only the seuciinentSt' 
but many of the very expressions which are trans/eiced from these 
book^tosome of our existing Articles, have been evidently derived 
from the Confession of Augsburgh. In the course of the discussion 
Dr. {..aurence vindicates Cranmer from some censures passed on his 
talents aiid charadler by Burnet and others ; convifls Bumec himself 
of unpardonable negligence, to give it no harsher name,* in his cele-^ 
brated History of the English Reformation ; ai^d detc6ts a mistake of 
some importance into which the laborious, and general!^ accurate his-' 
toriaii Collier has fallen. He then observes, that — 

" Our first Refonners, had they been so di^sed^ might have tamed 
their attentton to the n6vel establishment at Geneva, which Calvin had 
just succeeded in forming according to his wishes ; might have imitated 
Ui singular institutions, and inculcated its peculiar dodrines ; but this 
they declined^ viewing it, perhaps, as a faint luminary (for as such onljr 
coold it^then have been contemplated), scarcely in the horizon of its cele« 
brity* This they might have done ; but they rather chose to give repu« 
tktion to their opinions, and stability to their system, by adopting, where 
reason permitted, Lutheran sentiments^ and expressing themselves in Lu^ 
theraa language. Yet slavishlv attached to no particular tenets, although 
fevering th^e which were held universally sacred, and submissive to no 
inan'sjdidates, they felt a conscious pride in reasoning for themselves ; 
anxious only to prove all things according to that talent which God had 
given them, by the test of truths and the unerring standard of Holy 
Scripture." (P. 24.) , 

s In the second sermon, from Jeremiah iii. 15, Dr. Laurence pur- 
sues the same subjed^ ; proving, by incontrovertible evidence, that our 
Reformation was cooilv and deliberately condufled ; that years were 
$pent in bringing the National Creed to a state of perfection ; that, in 
the reign of Edvi^ard VL Cranmer took no. step of importance with- 
out consulting Melandhon, then alone at the head of the Luther^ 
Church ; that those two eminent Divines proje£l?ed a general Cotm$:il 
of Protestants to be held in England fprthe compilation of a formulary 
of faith for the use of the' whole Protestant Church ; that Calvin 
applauded that measure ; but that when it was:dropt, he focmd fault 
with Cranmer for not settling the faith of the C|^urch of England 
more quickly. , To express his opinion of the proposed Council, 
which he offered to atttod, aiid to blame tlte deliberate proceedings of 
the English Primate, seems indeed to be all that Tie did (for he was 
fefiestedio do nothing) in the Work of our Reformation, whilst Me- 
^ lanflhon was continually pressing upon the congenial spirit of jho 
Archbishop the necq^iy of moderation^ ftiid cautioning him :igamsc 
^ '" ' ^ the 


^ihosf^stoical Joannes which liad disgraced other reformed churches ♦#• 
Accordingly it appears, that whatever was borrowed by Craiimer 
mm foreign churches, was borrowed from the Lutherans ; and that 
Parker, who succeeded him in this great wofrk, trod closely |in his. 

•* When a permanent system of faith was settled by the Clergy asaeni« 
bled in convocation ander Elizabeth^ the see of Canterbary was filled by 
Archbishop Parker, who, as an antiquarian and Saxon scholar, stil) ranks 
high in th£ republic of letters. Nor, as the restorer of our church, did 
he acquire a iess solid, if less brilliant, reputation.. Called by the pro- 
-fidence of God to rebuild the walls of our Zion, rudely subverted by 
Papal bigotry, he negle^ed not the revered mate rial/of the fornoer fabric. 
After the revival of our Liturgy, his attention was direded to the consi. 
deration of speculative questions : and here the temper^ite proceedings of 
the assembly which discussed them, seemeti perfe^^ly to correspond with 
his most sanguine wishes. Instead of entering upon the cask of innova. 
tion, instead of bringing forward a new code of dodrines, which some 
anight have thought more adapted to the improved state of religfoos 
usee and sentiment, the Convocation was satisfied to tread in a bcateis 
path ; it not only made the articles of Cranmer the basis of the pra< 
posed system, but adopted them, in general, Word for word* 0( 
what was the intention in this respeft, no testimony can be more conclu- 
sive, than the evidence of the original docpment itself, which is still pre^ 
•erved, with the signatures of the Clergy annexed to it, and which is no« 
thing more than an interlined and amended copy of the formulary, whicls 
had been adopted in the preceding reignf. 

** Whatsoever then might have been the dispositions of a few orcv 
zealous men, the members of this important convention displayed a re^ 
markable proof of their moderation and judgment, by generally reviving 
what had been before established, rather than, in order to gratify the 
restless spirit of icmovation, by inculcating novel dodrines. Instead of 
increasing the number of the ArticlesJ, they diminished them ; instead of 
extending their sense, so as to make them embrace a greater proportion of 
speculative tenets, chey contradled them, and appeareif in every case 
more disposed to extinguish dificrence of opinion,: than to augment it by 
adding fuel to a flame, already rising above controol. In one or two in* 
stances indeed jidditions, or rather additional elucidatfons, were admitted* 
Of the tendency however of these we cannot doubt, when we learn, that, 
with the exception of one obvious topic alone, they were not original ; 
that they were neither the produAionsof Parker nor the Convocation^ 

* '^ Illud autem te oro, ut deliberes cum viris bonis, ac vere doMs, ec 

quod statuendum et gtui moderaHmu initio in dicendo opus sit. •«• « Nimig n 

barrida fmrunt initio Stoit4e disfmtutioats apud nostras dtfato^ et disciplinte nocue^^ ' 
rnnt, QuanterogOy ut de tali aliqua frmuda djBrin^ cogitesJ* — See our 
Author's Notes at the end of the volume, p. 223. ^ 

+ Dr. Laurence evidently means in the reign of Edward. The, rciga 
immediately preceding Elizabeth's was the reign of Mary, — ^R^y. 

\ Xhe original Aitictet were in number forty.two, 


Lflurcnce*j Bampton Leflures. * ajy 

«))d that they, were hot borrowed froih any Calvinistical or Zuinglian^ 
Awit from a-LHtberan-Creed. The Greed to which I allude, is the Con. 
fission of Wirtembergh, which was exhibited in the Council of Trent • 
the vtry year, when our own Articles were completely arranged by Cran- 
iiier. 'itiat their resemblance to this composition should have been hi- 
therto overlooked is the more remarkable, because it seems too visible, 
one would concefve, to have escaped the notice of the most superficial ob- 
•ervcf . For it was not confined to a- mere affinity of idea, or the ocaa. 
clonal adoption of an indlvidifal expression ; but in some cases entire ex. 
tra^swere copied, without the slightest omission or minutest variation.'* 
(Pp. 40-42.) 

Dr. Jltaurence does not cxpeft his I'eauer lo admit these assertions 
on his hare authority, but furnishes Iiim, in the notes, with an oppor- 
tunity of convincing himself. Bv collating the Augsburgh and Wir-» 
tembergh Confessions with the lingli h, lie proves, beyond the reach 
of controversy, that from these two Lutheran Confessions are derived 
our F'irst, Second, Fifth, Sixth, Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh^ Twelfth, 
"Sixteenth, Twentieth, Twenty-fifth, Tweoty-sixth, Thirty-first, 
and Thirty-fourth, Articles ; and ic is the objedl of the six sufoseqaent 
Sermons to prove, that there is no one of our Articles' that hahuo^ 
cizes with the system of Calvin. 

**To the writings of Calvin it will be in vain to apply, as soin6 
liave done, from any conception that our Clergy, in the last revision, 
were eager to propagate the new principles^^which they may be supposed . 
to have imbibed during the sanguinary persecution of Mary. For, as 
if distrustful uport this head, the prudent restorers oCour church, unless 
on an Individual qjiiestion^ where the interests of truth forbad a compro* 
mi&Cj kept the c;ecd of a different communion in view ; the creed likewise 
of an £ra prior to that event, which, by coinpelling many of our pro- 
scribed countrymen to take refuge on the Continent, particularly at Ge- 
neva, laid the foundation of a controversy rcspefting discipline and ^Jje 
forms of divine worship, which long disturbed the tranquillity of our 
ecclesiastical establishment, often tRreatened its existence, ^nd once adu., 
ally subverted it. But to the name of Calvin, whose talents even preju. 
3ice must confesr to have been not inferior to his piety^ but whose love 
. of hypothesis wasjvrhaps superior to both, from the celebrity which it 
afterwards acquired, too much importance has been sometimes annexed. 
It has been forgotten, that at the time under contemplation^ the errors of 
the church of Rome were almost the sole objefts of religious* altercation, 
no public dissention of consequence having occurred among Protestants, 
although thinking variously on various topics, except upon the single 
point of the Eucharist. ♦ •^ ♦ • ♦• 

** His (Calvin's) theory of*predcstinationj at the period under review, 
had not passed the controversial ftame, from which, in the estimation of 
bis zealous adherents, it came foril) with additional brilliancy and pu, 
rity. It was not then, as afterwards, the objed of applause, bur, on 
the contrary, of disapprobation*. For \i\^ ^o^imtoi God* s dreadful decree^ 


* In a long note, our author proves from the most authentic docu. 
jnents, that in the. year 1552, when our Articles were compiled, the CaL 



which before had atrraclcd little notice^ wais then beginning to give offenee 
both within and^without the ttrritory of Geneva. Driadjul 1 term it, a« 


vinistic controversy, as it has since been generally termed, was only com* 
mencing; that then Calvin published his first work professedly on the 
subject ; and that even so late as the year 1555* a combinationj or, at 
fieza calls it, a fadion, of some neighbouring ministers, was formed against 
him. Perhaps the following view of eledion, as it is given in the first 
Confession 01 ihe Reformed Church of Scotland, may be deemed a suffi. 
cient proof that even Knox, the author of that Confcbsfon, had not, in lYtc 
year 1560, adopted the blasphemous notions of Calvin respefting elcAiori 
and reprobation. Of the Twenty. five Articles of which that Coniessioa 
consists, it is the Eighth, and entitled 


•' That same eternal God, who, of mere grace, elcdled us in Christ 
Jesas his Son, before the foundation of the world was laid, appointed him 
(Christ Jesus) to be our Head, our Brother, our Pastor, and great Bishop 
of our souls : but because that the enmity betwixt the justice of God and 
Cor sins was such, that no flesh by itself could or might have retamed 
unto God, it behoved that the Son should descend unto us, and take him. 
•elf a body of our body, flesh of our flesh, and bone of our bone, and so 
become the pcrfedl Mediator betwixt God and man ; giving power to so 
many as believe in him to be the sons of God, as he himself doth 
witness ; / pass up /a my Father and jour Father^ to my God and umtojour 
God: by which most holy fraternity, whatsoever we have lost in Adam is 
Restored to us again ; and for this cause we are nothing afraid to call God 
our Father, not so much in that he hath created us (which we have com. 
monwith thcjrcprohate}| as for that, that he hath given to us his only 
Son to be our Brother, and given unco us grace to embrace him for oar 
oidy Mediator, as before is said. It behoved further the Messiah and 
Redeemer to be very God and very man, because he was to suffer the 
punishment due for our transgressions, aiid to present himself in the pre. 
aence of his Father's judgment, as in our person, to suffer for our trans, 
gression and disobedience; by death to ovcrcqme sin that was the author 
of death. But because the only Godhead could not suffer death, neither 
eould only the manhood overcome the same, he joined both together in 
one person, that the ifnb.xility of the one should suffer, and be sabjeA 
to death (which we had deserved), and the infinite and invincible power of 
'the other, viz. of the Godhead, should triumph, and purchase unto us 
life, hberty, and perpetual victory ; and so we confess, and most on* 
4oubtedly believe." — Knox*s Historj^ Edit. 1790, p. 234. 

This view of eledion is widely different from that of Calvin, which wat 
first imported into Scotland, in 15759 by Andrew Melville, and is no^ 
incorporated with the established creed. Yet Knox was no stranger to 
the Calvinistic system, had a great respe^ for its author, and approved 
the npveL constitution which he had given to the Church of Geneva \ bat 
being at^Geneva in the year 1555, he had probably joined the fadlion-of 
neighbouring Ministers^ who, as Beza adxnits^ then opposed the do^iae 


Laurence*! Bampton iMlurei. . 1-3^ 

being no less so to his feelings, than to ours; for the same strong, epi* 
thet h« himself applied to ir. * Horribile quidem decrctum fateor,' 
were the precise expressions which he used, when shuddering at his own 
favoiyite idea of irrtspe^tive reprobation. 

*' lo the labours therefore of the/Lutherans I shall turn, in preference. 
Bat, before I enter upon the task, it seems necessary to'state, thafc some 
discrimioation will be exercised ; that, reje(^ing such opinions as they 
themselves abandoned about the sera' of the diet of Augsburgh, I shaU 
bring forward only those, which were subsequently established in their 
stead. For it ought not to be concealed, that previously to the time 
when Luihcranism first became settled upon a permanent basis, and added 
public esteem to public notice, tenets were advanced, which retarded the 
progress of truth more than all the subtleties of scholastical argument^ or 
the terrors of papal anathema. At the beginning of the Reforn^ation, as 
MelanAhon frankly observed to Cranmer in a correspondence already 
alluded to, there existed among its advocates stoical disputations rcspeft- 
ing fate, offensive in their nature, and noxious in their tendency. The 
daration, however, of these stoical disputations, it should be remarked, 
WIS but short ; aqd the* substitution of a more rational as well as pradi. 
cal system, for the space of more than twenty years before the appearl 
ance of our Articles, prevented the founder of our church from mistaking 
for the do^rines of the Lutherans, those which they themselves wished to 
forget, and were anxious to obliterate." 

Dr. Laurence having thus traced our Articles to the sources from 
which they were derived, proceeds to inquire into the sentiments of 
the Lutheran reformers on the subjefls of those Articles whi^h the 
Calvinists claim for their own. His Third Sermon, on ^Romans, vi 
19, is devoted toihe Anicle on original sin; and as we shall make 
several remarks on this dovStrine, it will he necessary \o make rathcf 
copious extratSls from the Sermon, th«t we may not be accused of 
misrepresenting fhe view which our author gives of the opinions either 
of the reformers, or of tfieir opponents. Having animadverted on the • 
scholastic doflri lie of OT^nV, as at once repugnant to reason, and sub* 
vcrsive of Scripture, and therefore peculiarly and justly obnoxious tci 
the reformers. Dr. Laurence observes, that ' . 

'« Upon original sin, the subjedl of our present consideration, .tfteif 
doArine was no less fanciful, and remote from every scriptural idea, thaH 
flattering to human pride. This they assumed as the ground. work of a 
system^ which wholly concealed from view what they professed to en, 
shrine*, the glory of the Lord, the bright manifestation of Deity display^ 
ed in the gospel covenant. They contended, that the infcdlion of our na^ 
ture is not a n^ental, but a mere corporeal taint ; that the body alone tt^ 
ceives and trapsmits the contagion, while the sodl in all instances pro., 
oeeds immaculate from the hands of ^er Creator. This disposition to dis* 

of tmeondit tonal elcdion and reprobation. This is the more probable^ 
that^ had visited the Lutheran churches in Germany, and was fo( some 
VODR one of the pastors of the English refugees at Frankfort, — ^Riv. 



ease, such a^ they allowed it to be, was considered by some- of them ai 
diecflfedt of a peculiar, quality in the forbidden fruit ; by others, as hav- 
ing been contra^ed from the poisonous breath of the infernal spirit^ whicli 
inhabited the serpent's body." (P. ^6.) 

This last opinion is indeed fanciful, and probably peculiar to the 
Scholastics ; but the former has been maintained by some very emi- 
uent divines of our own Chth-ch, with a pbusibility of argument ^which 
those who admit the positive infedlion of human nature, will nor find 
it an easy task completely to overturn *. If the infedlion be derived by 
generation from Adam, we apprehend that it must be confined dlre^lj 
to the body, and communicated from it only indire^ly to the soul, 
unless the soul, as well as the body, be extraduce^ as TertulWan, and 
a.fev^ other fathers, taught. But if the soul be extraduce, roust we 
not conceive it to be material, or» in other words, extended and solid ; 
to grow with the body, to decay with the body, and with the body 
to die? These consequences, which seem uiterl)^ inconsistent with 
all that we know of the soul, as well by reason as by revelation, 
too plainly follow from the ^ hypothesis, that we derive from Adam 

• t€ j^^ know," says Dr. Delany, " there are several fruits, in seve- 
ral parts of the world, of so noxious a nature", as to destroy the bgst hu- 
man constitution upon earth. We also know very well, that tbcre are 
•omc fruits in the world which inflame the blood into fevers and phrenzies. 
And we are told, that the Indians are acquainted with a certain juice, 
which immediately turns the person who drinks it into an idiot ; leaviD|( 
lum at the same time in the enjoyment of his health, and. all the powers 
of his body. Now 1 ask, whether it is not possible, nay, whether it \% 
not rational, to believe, that the same fruit which, in the prefsent infirmity 
of nature, would utterly destroy the human constitution, mi^ht, in the 
highest perfe^Hon we can imagine it, at least disturb, and impair, and 
disease it ? and whether the same fruit which would now inflame any 
pian living into a fever, or phrenzy, might not inflame Adam into a tur^ 
bulence and irregularity of passion and appetite ? and whether the same 
fluids which inflame the blood into irregularity of pssion and appetite, 
may not naturally produce infedVion, and impair the constitution ? Also, 
ivhether the' same juice which now so aifcdb the brain of an ordinary man, 
as to make ' him an idiot, might not so afledl the brain of Adam^ as to 
bring his understanding down to the present standard of ordinary men \ 
and if this be possible, and not absurd to be supposed, it is evident the sub. 
sequent ignorance and corruption of human nature may clearly be ac. 
counted for on these suppositions ; nay, I had almost said,r upon any ont 
of them ? For the periedlion cf human nature consisting in the dominion 
pf reason over the passions and appetites, whatever destroyed the absolute- 
ness of that dominion, whether by inflaming the passions, or impairing 
the powers of reason, must of necessity destroy the perfection of human 
nature ; and, in consequence of that, produce sin, guilt, and misery, in 
Mom^ ^n<i entail it upon his posterity." — Rrvclation exumintd wi^ Cawn 
dourf' vol. i. p. S. Edit. 3, ^ 


Laiirience'i Bampton LeHures. 241 

xVi'mfe&ed sMj for vs to adopt jhat hyi;>othe8is, merely that we may 
not harmonize with the Sclioolmen ! Th€ depravity of human nature 
may surely be maintained without running into such dangerous absur- 
dities i for the body is an essential part of man, and if // be depraved, 
human nature mu^c be depraved, even though every soul, proceed, as 
the Schoolmen taught, immaculate from the hands of her Creator.' 
In some fan)ilies there is a species of madncs^ which has descended, 
through many generations, from father to son ; and which, were 
families so hifefted to intermarry continually, would probably descend 
tothecxtinflion of the race; but no physiologist, we apprehend, has 
c^br thought of looking for the seat of the infe^ion in the sou/^ or 
flrcamed tliat the soul, if im material, passes frotn the parents to the 
diildren ! On this question, therefore, wc feel ourselves compelled 
by the force of truth to take the side of the Scholastics, however 
ratich we" may differ from them in some of the inferences which 
they draw from ic with respwSt to original sin. 

" Original sin they dire^ly opposed to original righteousness ; and 
this they considered not as something connatural with man, but as a su. 
perinduced habit or adventitious ornament, the removal of which, ac<. 
cording to the philosophical principles of the Stagirite, could not prove 
detrimental to the native powers of his mind. Hence they stated the 
former simply to be the loss or want of the latter ; of an accomplish, 
mcni unessential to his nature, of which it might be deprived, yfet still 
retain its integrity inviolate. When therefore they contemplated the ef- 
feftsof the fall, by confining the evil to a corporeal taint, and not ex- 
tending it to the nobler faculties of the soul, they regarded man as an ob- 
']t€i oi divine displeasure, not because he possessed that, which was cf- 
fcwive, but because he was defeftive in that, which was pleasing to the 
"eighty. While, however, they laboured to diminish the efFetts, they 
angmentcd in equal proportion the responsibility of the first transgression, 
asserting, that all participated in the guilt of Adam. He, they said, reJ 
ceivcd for himself and his posterity the gift of righteousness, which he 
wbscquently forfeited ; in his loins we were included, and by him were 
TirtoaJly represented : his will was ours, ar.d hence the consequence of 
fc lapse is justly imputable to us his descendants. By our natural birth 
therefore, under this idea, we are alienated from God, innocent in our 
ndividual persons, but guilty in that of him, from whom we derived our 
txisfence ; a guilt which, although contraded through the fault of an- 
whcr, yet so closely, adheres to us, that it effedually precludes our en- 
|rancc at the gate of everlasting life, until the reception of a new birth in 

" Thus they contended, that the lapse of Adam conveys to us solely 
^^itud gmih, the corporeal infedion, which they admitted, not being sin 
Itself, but only the subjed. matter of it, not peccatum^ but, according to 
*Wr phraseology, fames peccati^ a kind of fuel, which the human will 
lindles, or not, at pleasure. It required, however, no common talent 
it paradoxical solution to prove, what was pertinaciously held, the in- 
inoeDce of that occult quality, which disposes to crime without being it- 
^If criminal, which, void of all depravity, renders the mutd depran/ed ^ 
^lat metaphorical fuel of the affeflions, which, although not vicious in 

»o, cr. VOL, XXV. R its 

242 . ORIdlKAL C&ITlCltM. 

its own natare^ yet, when inflamed, genentes tIcq in the hearty }^fm 
which it preys/' (Pp. 58.60.} , * 

Every reader of attention must perceive, that this view of origina) 
sin is not consistent with itself; and whoever shall turn to the learned 
author's notes, will see that it is partly taken from different School* 
men, who were not agreed 4Dn the subje£i, and partly from the rcposi 
of the Lutherans. The report of the Lutherans, when uQaupportti 
by quotations from the Schoolmen themselves, must be receivea widi 
some hesitation. No man can think more highly of Melandthon, in aD. 
respcfls, than the uriter of this article, and few men are more tbo» 
roughly convinced of Luther's integrity; but it is hardly possible (such 
is the frailty of human nature) for men heated with controversy, at 
the first reformers were, to give such a report of the opinions of their 
antagonists as is entitled to implicit and unlimited credit* On the 
consequences of t/ie Jall^ and on the subjefis of grace zxA/ree-wiU^ 
&c. the se^artsts and theorists differed almost as much between them- 
selves, as the Church of England, and the novel ttSt of true church$nen^ 
differ at present. However, what is heie said of Adam's having re* 
ccivcdfor himself and his posterity the gift of righteousness \ of our^be* 
itigihcltided in his loins^ and by hitti being vtrtualiy represented; of 
his will being ours; of his lapse beine jusUy imputable to his de^ 
scendants \ and of all participating in his gtiilt^ harmonizes exaAIy 
with the Westminster Confession of Faith, and is the Cajyiuism now 
taught in the Church of Scotland. On the;. other hand, that view of 
original sin, in which the consequences of the fall are represented as 
consisting of the loss of something not connatural with man ; in the r/- 
moval of a superinduced habits is by np means peculiar to the scholar* 
tics. Bishop Bull has, in the third volume of his English work% 
completely proved, that, long before the asra of the Schoolmeo, tha 
doArine of the Catholic church, on this subje<5t, was, 

<* That our first parents, besides the seeds of natural <vlrtme and religis^, 
sown in their minds in their Ytry creation, and besides the nafural imm^ 
cevce {inirediiudcy wherein also they were created, were eixiowed witJ^^ 
certain ^///i and pciver supernatural^ infused by the Spirit of God; anl 
that in these gifts their perfect hn consisted I that these gifts were bestowed 
to fit them for a sopematural immortality ; and that Adam, in this statft 
pf ititegrity, had naturally^ and without the aid of the Divioe Spirit^ no 
more jower to perform righteousness .available to eternal life, than the 
vine hath to brmg forth wine, without the warm influence of the son, th^ 
dew of heaven, and dressing." , 

Thisdo6trine the Bishop himself adopted, and considered it as on^: 
of the main pillars of the Christian faith ; for, upon any other hypo- 

" I. challenge,'^ said he, *'any man to'show me, wherein that gn^ 
fall of mankind, of which the Scriptures, and the writings of the Cktho* 
lie Dolors, from the days of the Apostles to our present age, so loudly 

Laurence^i Bampthn Lefit&es. 343 

liog, can be supposed to consist. Hence/' continues he^ '' may be ga^ 
theied a clear solution o^i^zx question, so hotly agitated among modem 
diriAes, whether the $riginal H^htehnsttest ofthefint man 'Was supernatural f 
For the meaning of this qoestioh, if it signify i^ny thing to any cdnside. 
BUepofpose, is clearly this^— whether Adam, in this state of integrity, 
weeded a iufemetmral principle or pomser^ in order to the performing of 
lach a righteousness as, through the gracious acceptance of God, shouhi 
luTc been available to an eternal and celestial life and happiness ? Ami 
tbeanestibn being thus stated, ought to be held in the ajlr ma thue, if the 
odnsistent determination of the church of God may be allowed its doe 
veigfat in the balance of our judgments*." 
---—-—.———— — J j i 

* In adopting these opioionsi Bishop Bull was by no means singular* 
Archbishop iCing* in \^i» Sermo^ en, the Fall of Man, says, *^ We musC 
itmember, tliat if man's understanding was (originally) ne/er so clear, 
and his senses and faculties never ao spong ; yet, having made no o))ser. 
vatioD, and bein^ absolutely without experiencci he could know no more 
of any thing tnan what vira^ revealed by God to him. Therefore we must' 
coneeiTethat Adam was under the immediate condu^ and dlredtion of 
God, and Was. not to judge for himself, but was ta leave himself entirely 
to be guided 4nd diiedled by his Maker. You .see he was not left to de4^ 
tenpinc for himself what* be* firhoiiki eat ; but God^ by revelatioo, as- 
signed him his food, and provided it for him. It is to be considered ' 
that man, by his constitution^ was moi'tal, and subje^l to the impressions 
d the bodies which surrounded him ; for being 'domposed of the elemetifs^ 
as to his .'material parr, in which he resembled other living creatures,' 
thesr might brsep»'ated and dissolved ; and the separation of the part^ of 
oar body, iniersdeaih; and therefore man, in his natural composition/ 
WIS sid>jed to it, but yet was capable of immortality, to which he ootAd 
mt be entitled but from a supernatural principk^ and the peculiar care of 
God.'''*-*Aga!n, treathig of the command given to Adam> he says, " We 
oust consider iioitVEaxivtK^falkhUiuhismulerstandiw^i peccable in histuill^ 
and mortal in his body ; and therefore the preserving biro from deceit, sin, 
aSid death, must be due to some supernatural grace of God; and that to 
cwfer that grace, there ought to be some obvious mean, easy to be 
known, and ivady to be used,** — He then shews the wisdom of the law 
oW^r which the first pair were placed, and the mcjins by which they were 
•educed from their duty ; after which, speaking of the consequences of 
the fall, he observes, that one of these consequences was •' their sense of , 
that being naked, and shews that they were so. Shame proceeds from a 
i coofciousness of weakness, or of guilt, and fit>m a secret pride that makosr 
I Qs unwilling to cnvn it ; lest we should be despised for it. Man could 
I not be conscious of either before , his fall, because he was innocent fromi 
I gftijii and was covered by the^ power ^ God^ against .all the defeAs of hia 
I n^itmral lueai^ntis; but being n0w left to himself, he felt both. He had 
oiended Go^ and had no defeat, against his fellow. creatures : the sun 
Korckd hia, the rain wet biao^ 9nd the coi4 piefifcd bioi^ H^ foiiad an 
kn^S^paiency in e^posiii^ Wfaitdy^'^iid vasja&bamed o£..the dk^aiiu * 
He found himself moved with lust, and other irregular passions, .and hi^« . 
ftason unable to ^urb them. Wkeife«li/Ar«>««vbr;«/iO«4^.lvlitla^^ WuM 
tha) divine gOTerhuieiiti tai kept alLki* fafultiet im perfia 9nler.\' ^ 
K 9 This 


This seems to differ very little from the do£lrine of the SchoolmcQ; 
of the se£l of the Scotists ; and the same learned and excellenc prelate 
agrees with that sei^ in another opinion of greal importance. Oor 
author, in his notes (p. 259), refers to Scotus himself, as teaching that 
tlie punishment due to what he calls imputed gmlt^ consists naerely in 
a deprivation of the beatific vision; and Bishop BuU thus expresses 
himself of the covenant made with man in Paradise : 

'^ Fqedus vitae cum Adamo initum in statu integro per ipsios peccatom 
irritum fuit non mo46 ipsi, sed ct postcris ip^ius ; ut jamomncs AdiP filit, 
qu^ tales, sint filii mortis, h. e. a promisso omni vitae immortal is pcnitus 
exclusi, ac moriendl necessitatis absque spe resurrectionis, sub. 
jefti. Nulla est in universa theologia hac frepositionb cbr- 
TioR. Passim enim in Scripturis Novi Testamehti apertissimd ac verbis 
di^ertissimis triidityr; presertim in Epi«r. ad Row. cap. v, fere per totum. 
Unde et probati ecclesiae veteris dod^ores cmiveHn, turn qui ante, mm qui 
post Felagium vixere, in ea consenseruAt f ne^ue uhquam i quoquam im- 
pun^ ct bine harcseas nJti neguta foit;*" ' 

Instead of accbuntin;^ for this dis^ensstloA by the unintelligible hr- 
pothesis of irn^v/^// ,^»i//S and far from pi Tiling himsdf with tne 

Siestion» whether the tnfei^ion derived from Adam be sin itself, tbe 
ishop vindicates the ways of God <o man by the following obvkms 
and incontrovertible argument: 

'' Jure autf m patutsse Deum ob solum Aiami peccatimi posteros ipsins 
omnesi vita immortali excludere, nimis stianifestum est« Nem (ut opu 
timd CI. Gerardus J. Vossius) licet Adam non pee^asset^- pecerat Umen 
Deus, qui liberrimus estidonorum morum dispensator, creare horoinem wk 
finem naturalem, e6que et gratia in hac 'vit/i, et pest bartc nriiam giorut ex* 
pertem. Evidentissimum autem est, quod poterat Deus absolotd,- idem 
potu^sse relate, hoc est, cum respedlu ad pcimum piimarum pajnenton de-* 
li^um: qu5 simulostendet, se justi J udici^ officio pevhingtf." 

Such was the doflrine, not of Bishop Bull only, l^ut also of Arch- 
bishop King, Sherlock, afterwards Bishop ot London, Dr. Whitby, 
Dr. Wcll§, and all tlie other eminent divines, whose theological wiic* 
ings adorned the Church of England abput.the beginning of tbe last 

. * This hypothesis, if it be not unintelligible, is something modi 
worse — it is impious. ^^ In*hoc aotem peccati genere potest' quis ^sse sot 
laberi reus, pxna^que lucre culpae ab altero commissse. Fieri hoc posse, 
ut insons dicetur- reus per iniquum judkem, atque paenas luet- a potentt 
domino, non nego. ' Fieri qoidem et potest per absolutam dominatiooeoi^' 
quam ^iolemus appellare tyrannidcm. Sed id £at licet nihil mutat in rati. 
onibusJQsti et inju&ri, nee prpinde fieri -fotesc omnino nb aequo <judice 
dMninoqQc^'>'quaits et Oeus optima». -A OlOy ift^uam, fieri «m>n polest| 
obfittsm^pdiieatoriem «t 6anast«tm/V^bitiiM#i *4& Fkh^^'OJ^nt€hnir 

«iiwi^p#tid«:x)Nn^nvAiriiaa4venionllpif^ -or.d: i lj/v.* ...i'o . - : 

.1 •*%* V* i\^^ »t IV. «\^>\i V *' ' ^^^- x^ ^^^ %%tt9a, . » /o , ; II * crif ttrt r 
sidT 5? A ' ^ 

Laurence^j Bahpton LeSfures, 245 

century ;- nor are we aware that any other do6trine on this subjed 
was taught in our Church by a man of crue learnings till it became 
the fashion to negle^ the writings of the primitive fathers, and to 
adopt, in (heir stead, either the criticisms and speculations of a futile 
philosophy on the one hand, or the gloomy dojkrines of Calvin on the 
other. l*hat our reformers paid a due regard to the authority of the 
fathers of the primitive church, is apparent fron) their preface to the 
Book' of Common Prayer ; and that they were not misled, when 
drawing up the Articles of Religion, by a vain philosophy, or an un« 
due deference tothe Apostle of Geneva, is equally apparent from the 
following account of the condud of their Lutheran guides. 

" Avoiding all intricate questions upon the subje<5^, they taught, that 
original sin is a corruption of our nature in a general sense, a depravation 
of the mental faculties and the corporeal appetites; that the resplendent 
image of the Deity, which man received at the creation of the world, ' 
aldioagh not annihilated, is nerertheless greatly impaired ; and that in 
consequence the brizht characters of unspotted sandity, once deeply en. 
graven on his mind by the hand of the living God, are become oblite- 
rated, the injury extending to his intelle^, and affecting as well bis real 
son and his will, as his aflfedlions and passions. When therefore they 
contended, as frequently they did, that our nature is corrupted, they 
cootnited the position with the scholastical dodrine of its integrity : 
and when they urged its total corruption, they opposed the idea of a 
deterioration in one part only, and even that consisting of a propensity 
void of sin. To conceive that inclination to evil incurs not in itself the 
diiapprobation of Heaven, appeared to them little better than an apology, 
for crime ; or at least a dangerous palliation of that, which the Chris, 
tian's duty compels him not only to represss, but to abhor. 

" Yet while they argued, that in consequence of this depravity we are 
to be considered by our natural birth as the children of wrath, they ad* 
mitted, that by our new birth in baptism we all are made the children of 
grjce. When however, on this occasion, they pressed the necessity of 
coinplying with a gospel institution, we must not suppose them to have 
understood that expression in its strongest sense, as excluding from every 
Iwpe of mercy, those whom involuntary accident or incapacity has pre- 
vented from participating in the Christian covenant," (Pp. 60-62.) 

This extrafl is- taken by our author from the wririiigs of Melanc- 
thon and Luther ; and on that adcount, as well as oii some others, 
we doubt if it be altogedier just to the Schoolmen. To* conceive 
^'inclinatlonio tsW^ as eviU incurs not in itself the disapprobation 
of Heaven, is such a gross absurdity, tha( nothing but the most diredk 
evidence could convince us that it had ever entered into ^he discrimi-* 
Dating head of Scotus. That evidence, however, is not furnished by 
the note to which our author refers. There, indeed, we find Me- 
laoflhon saying, " Adversarii docent, naturalem iilam impotentiam, 
et inclinatTones Ugi Dei contrarias^ peccata non esse;** bat before we 
infer from this that the adversaries conceived inclination to evil not to 
incur the disapprobation of Heaven, we must know firK what natutal 

R % intliua-* 

a46 ^RIGlNAi; CtllTlCISM^ 

inclinations we have that are contrary fo the laws of God ; and se- 
condly, what laws of God are here meant. Luther, in the same 
note, expressly excepts from these sinful inclinations, **^ appetitus ciH 
etpofus, amor conjugis, Uberoruniy et parcntum^, ^i similes off e^s \ and 
admits that these *' etiam in Integra natura eoctitissent \* hut we think it 
may he douhted whether we derive immediately from Nature any 
other appetites ihan these, and such as these. Envy h :i passion* in* 
deed, radically evil ; but it cenainly is not derived by generation from 
Adam ; for there iiave been many individuals,' in whose hearts \t had 
no place ; and the process of iis formation has b.een frequently and 
clearly traced*. It may be douhted, we think, whether amiitiMht 
connate with the mind of man, for it seems to depencj upon the state 
of society; but whether it be or not, sure^ it cannot be said that 
every kind and every degree of ambition is sinful. Every appcnte, 
when excessive, leads to sin ; and so it would have done in the para- 
disaical state, had it not been checked by the spirit of God : but a man . 
is not surely a sinner merely because his appetites are strong, if he 
have been enabled so to curb thenu as to deny them every gratification 
not consistent with those wise purposes for which they were implanted 
in his breast. Propensio dd venerem is generally the concomitant of 
yoQtiitul vigour and good health ; it is, indeed, in the opinion of some 
pf the most eminent physicians of the age, inseparable from that stale; 
but is there any tiling sinful in health and vigour ^ Nay, that pro- 
pensity itself may, in some cases, be the occasion of virtue instead of 
vice\ for if he who feels it in its strongest degree, condu<5^ himself as 
reguliirly as he who hardly feels it at alt, the former is surely the more 
virtuous man of tlie two. 

It is, however, true, that in order to fit ourselves for that state of 
future felicity,, in which we shall neither eat nor drink ; marry, nor 
be given in marriage ; but be wholly spirituat as the angels of God in 
Heaven, we must endeavour gradually to eradicate our sensual appe* 
tites, as soon as they have answered tlic purposes of the present life ; 
for " the flesh and the spirit being contrary the one to the other," 
such appetites would render us incapable of relishing those good things 
wl^ich God hath prepared for ail who love and fear him. The incU* 
nations of the flesh, therefore, have, as our Article teaches, so far the 
nature oiWu^ as to render us unfit for the kingdom of Heayen, be- 
cause they are-*' contrary to the lav\ of the spirit of life in Christ 
Jesus ;" and if this were all that the Schoolmen meant by '*inclina- 
tiones legl Dei contrarias,** they might say with truth; ^^ peccata mn 
esse;'* because, while the struggle between ihe fltsh and the spirit 
continues, sCich inclinations must be occasionally felt ; aqd though 
they unfit him who feels them it>r the happir^ss of Heaven, they can- 
not, it resisted, subjeOA him justly to the pains of hell. But we shdl 

• By Locke, Hartley, and the author of the Dissertation prefixed to 
King's Origin of Evil, &c. '4irc« 


Laarentb'i Bampton Le^ures. 247 

• lia?c occasion to cnicr into thi$ suhje£t more fully bye-ancl-byc, when 
we state what we believe to be ihe sense of our own Ariicle on ortgi' ^ 
nlsin : in the mean time, we return to our author.^ 

" Upon the whole, their (the Reformers') adversaries rested much upon 
the following philosophical truths ; that we ought not to be esteemed vir- 
nous or vicious, worthy of praise or censure, merely on account of invo- 
luntary passions ; that sdl sin is determinable by the a^ of the will ; and 
that homan nature is not evil. This they readily admitted in its proper 
dace, when applied to a suitable objcdl, and brought before a suitable tri- 
bonal, the do^rine of morals and the judgment of mankind : but they re- 
probated the attempt of introducing it in order to supersede Christianity^ 
aad to prove from it the purity of man in the estimation of God ; of him, 
' iQ whose sight the very heavens are not clean, and who chargeth his angels 
widi felly.' If therefore they dwelt much upon the dark side of the ques. 
tioo, it was no more than the occasion* demanded ; the bright side of it had 
been long held up by the Church of Rome in so fallacious a point of view, 
-that n seemed almost impossible to err in that resped." (Pp. 65, 64.) 

Id this conclosion we cannot acquiesce. Though the Church of 
Rome had erred on one side, it surely was not impossible to err on 
the other ; and Dr. Laurence, we are persuaded, will readily admits 
Aat no opinions which have been attributed to Scotus and his foU 
lowers, on the subje£t of original Yin^ are more erroneous, or more 
dangerous, than the contrary opinions of Calvin on the same suhje£l» 
That Ludier and his adherents proceeded in x\\c course which they 
are here said to have pursued, wc have not n doubt ; nor are we in- 
clined to blame them, ihough, in their controversies with the Church 
of Rome, they sometimes carried riieir opposiiion too tar. In such a 
situation as ihcir's, extremities were unavoidable ; but when ihev sat 
down, not to write controversies^ but to compile formularies of faith for ' 
the use of the Church, it is to he. hoped that they wiilulrew iheir at- 
temion wholly from the writings of the Schoolmen, and dirc61ed it 
steadily to the Holy Scriptures, and the tradiuonnry interpretations* 
of those Scriptures wliit h may be colleiHcd from the writings of the 
three first centurie5, before the subtleties of a vain philosophy had 
much corrupted the simple though sublime do£trines of the Gospel. 
Ifthis was their conduct, when ihcy set themselves to draw up the 

* The opinion of a single father, or, indeed, of many fathers, re. 
spewing the sense of any passage of Scripture, is of no value, unless sup. 
ported by sound reasoning and sober criticism ; and-as reasoners and cri. 
tics, those men were in general far from eminent. When we find them, 
Wever, agreeing with each other in the interpretation of any text, and 
declaring that it has been so understood from the beginning, wherever the 
^spel has been preached, the case is very difierent, and he would be a 
ooldamnwho should controvert such an interpretation,' unless it be ob- 
vioosly oontrary to the grammatical sense of the words 10 interpreted, or 
lead to impiety or absurdity. . 

R 4 do£trine 


doSrine which they wished to esti>blish resj>e£Hng the consequences 
of Adam's transgression, ihcy wou|(l banish from their minds ihc opi- 
nions of Aquinas, Sct^tus, (kc. on the subject, and endeavour to dis- 
cover what had been taught by Moses, t!ie prophets, Christ, and his 
apostles ; convinced, as they all declared ihemselves to he, thrtt what- 
soever may not be proved by the Scriptures (whciher it be true or not) 
is not to be required of any man that it bhoukl be l)clicved as an anicfc 
of the Christian faith. \ 

As Adam fell bv transgressing the commaiidincnt recorded in the 
17th verse of the 2d chapter of the book of Genesis, it is obvious that 
the consequences of his fall must he implied in the meaiting of the 
•wprds which our translators have rendered, *' thou shalt surely die," 
and that he must himself have fully understood ihose words.. If the 
reformers wished to understand them lii^ewise, they would . of coune 
begip by inquiring how they had been used by Moses on other occa- 

' sions. Now they occur in the Pentateuch at least twehty-ninc tiroes*; 
but they are never, except in the two important passages (Gen. ii. 17, 
and iii. 4) of which we are inquiring into the sense, to be understood to 
ntean any other kind of death than that which is common to man and 
beast ; as the reader may convince himself, by turning to the texts re- 
ferred to at the bottom of the page. But we should be glad to know 
by what canon of criticism we arc authorised to interpret the two pas- 
sages in question, so as to give to the words ** thou shalt surely dity^ 
a sense quite different from what they will bear any where else in the 
books of Moses, and quite different, likewise, from what is their 
most obvious and natural sense even in these two passages themselves. 
Could Adam, when he was told that, on eating, the forbidden fruit, 

' he should surely die^ iina^;ine that, instead of passing to his former 
state insensible, this threat im;?lied that the natural faculties of his 
mind sliould be depraved ; that he should propagate a depraved lacej 
and that, on account of this natural depravity, he and they should be 
liable to tfuffer the pains of hell for ever ? 

We are perfe6lly aware, and so doubtless was he, that the human 
soul is of an order superior to the souls, or vital principles, of the 
brutes that perish, and that it does not necessarily die with the body ; 
but he must have been likewise aware, that its existence, as well as 
the existence of every thing created, depends upon the will of God, 
and that therefore it might die with the body, or survive it, according 
to the good pleasure of the Fatlicr of Spirits. To the apouate pair, a 
ray of comfort was held out in the promise, that the seed of the wo- 
man should bruise the head of the serpent; but without that promise, 
they could surely derive no hopes of any kind of immortality from the 

• Gen. ii. 17 ; iii. 4; xx. 7 ; xxvi, 11. Exod. xix. 12; xxi. .13, 
15, 16, 17; xxii. 19 (in the Heb. 18) ; xxxi. 14, 15. Lev. xx. 2,91 
10, II, 12, 15, 163 27; xxiv, 16, 17J xxvii. 29. Numb. XV. 3^; 
xxvi, 65; XXXV. 17, 18, 21, 3 u 

sentence : 

Laurence'j Bamptvn Lt^ures. 149 

selitencc :' " In the sweat of thy fcce shalt thou 'cat bread, till thou 
return qnto the ground ; for out of it wast thou taken ; for dust thoa 
art, and unto <lust shalt thou return." * / 

If this be not suflScient evidence that the penalty denounced against 
the first transgression, was neither more nor less than death in the 
most absolute sense of the word, as it denotes the loss of conscious ex- 
istence, it may be corroborated by the testimony of our blessed Lord 
himself, and his apostle, St. Paul. When Jesus said to Martha, «• I 
am the resuMcdtion and the life," it is obvious, from the context, that 
his meaning was not that he was the first revealer of a resurredioa 
from the dead, but that he was the author of ir, and tJiat every weU«- 
groun<Ied ho'(>e of living in a future state rests on him. Accordingly 
St. Paul says*, '' If the dead rise not, then 4s not Christ raised ; and 
if Christ be not raised, your faith is vain ; ye arc yet in your sins« 
Then thcy^ also, who are fallen asleep in Christ, are pierished--^ 
iiiw\o>1», are lost," as if they had never been. That this is the mean- 
ing of the verb iwtoXoilo is rendered indisputable by the 2 ad verse, in 
which wc are assured, that •* as in Adam all die, even so in Christ 
shall all be made alive;" for if the death which all incurred by the 
fell of Adam, was any thing else than the forfeiture of immortaittv, it 
IS evidently not true that as in Adam all d'le^ even so in Chriit^hBll all 
be made alive,'** 

Wheu all title to immortality was forfeited, those supcrpatui;;^ 
graces of the Holy Spirit, or that teaching of God, which the pri 11)1- 
tive fathers, as well as Bishop Bull and Archbi&JjOp King among the 
moderns, call sometimes original righteousness^ ajid sometimes the 
divint i/nage, \vc\e forfeited likewise ; for those graces, or that teach« 
ing, being origiiially intended to guide man on his way 10 Heaven t» 
must of course have been withdrawn when Heaven was shut ag^ust 

*' Part of man's punishment " (says Archbishop King) ''was the with, 
drawing of the extraordir.ary grace of God from him, that was ready to 
guide and direft him in all his jiftions, and leaving him to hi^ own pmver 
and faculties to conduft and support him. So I understand the 2 id 'verse 
of the 3d chapter : Afi^l the Lord G.:d said, B.-hold the ni^n is become as one 
of us to knofw g-.od t'Ttd e^vil. And noiv least he ftit fofth his hd*id and take 
also of the tree of lift , and e^at and li've for e^jer. Therefore the Lord God 
sent him forth from the G^4.rden of Eden, Some take this for an ironical 

• ist Cor. XY. 16, 17, 18. 

+ It was the dodrine of the primhive church, and it is a doArine which 
might easily be proved from tne Scriptures, that under the first covenant 
man was not intended to live for ever on this e^th ; but that after a 
sufficient probation here, he was, without tasting death, to be translated 
into some superior state^ or Heaven. Into this discussion our limits per. 
mit us not to enter ; but we refer the reader with confidence to Bishop 
Bull's Dissertation on the State of Man before the FullJ 


2j0 ORIGINAL CRlTlClsai. 

spcechi whereby God mocked and upbraided mao for hU felly 1 Boe I 
rather think it a declaration of the divine Will ; for since man had taken 
on him to choose for himself, and to judge what was good and evil for 
ium without consulting his Maket, therefore God resolved to deprive him 
of. the supernatural assistance he designed to afford him^ and leave -him to 
his natural faculties to guide and dired him ; let hijn be, as it were, his 
own God, and enjoy the fruit of his choice. To this purpose he deprived 
lim of the use of the free of life, drove him out of the garden where it 
#as,, and fenced it against him,. . 

*^ The efit^s of man's being left to his own power and faculi;j[es for 
his diredion and support, are many and fatal. It is easy to shew that from 
hence come all the erroh and follies of our lives. For obr understandings 
being finite, we are every moment at a loss^ we are forced in most things 
to guess, and being unable to find the truth, are frequently mistaken, 
from the same come all the sins, corruptions and crimes t&at overwhelm 
the world. For being left toour choice, we not only mistake, but choose 
amiss. One error, or sin, makes way for another ; we proceed daily io 
^^ruption, and the infedlion spreads as the world grows older. Costomt 
education and company, do all contribute to make us worse and worse ; 
and in nothing of all this is God to be blamed. We bring these on our. 
selves, and tl^y are not to be prevented without a miracle, which no one 
can say God is obliged to work for us *•" 

This profound reasoner, and most or.thodox Divine, neither charges 
God with irqustice, by talking of imputed guilty nor perplexes him- 
self and his readers with the question, which never can be solved, 
fiuhether tie natural pmjjers of the human mind were depraved by the fall 
of the first man; bur proves that all which has been forfeited by 
Adam, might, with perfeft justice on the part of the Deity, have been 
withheld from his descendants, though he himself had never fallen ; 
and chat all tlie natural and moral evil of the world may be fairly ac- 
counted fof by the withdrawing of that supernatural aid, which was 
vouchsafed to the parents of mankind in Paradise. In these sentiments 
3ishopBull agrees with him; though he admits, as the Schoolmen 
admitted, that a taint wtay have been transmitted from Adam to the 
forpareal part of every individual of the human race. 

*' Caeterum patres ilU, qui negarunt, homincra per gratiam Christi, 
quas in Evangeho promittitur, posse legem perfe6)i implere ac sine peccato 
esse, videntur mihi legem intellexisse 'xar' ax^Ciyoy, nempe originalem 
iilam, quae primiim hominem in statu integro ubligavit, perfe6)issimum. 
que fuit exemplar legis asternae ; ac peccati vocem minus pnprk accepisse 
pro quoticunque naevO sine d^fedu, qui licdt jam humano generi in paenaro 
primi peccati naturalis fadus sit, neque ullo modo in hie vit& penhus 
exui possit adeoque non sit proprid ac formaliter peccatom, sed potins, u^ 
dixi, peo^ti primi poena ; tamen est qaaedam a lege aetema, sire a crea« 
fionis lege dettexio. In hunc peccati censum venit ilia concojnscentiae sol« * 


* Sermon on the Fall of Man, 


i Lattreoce*^ Bamptbn Le£btres, aj^ 

Itcitatto, qd« optimos in hac mortalt vita pli^s ininOsve perpetoo exeitet^ 
etiaaxsi nullum omnino^ Toiuntatis assensom extorqueat : item defcftus iiU 
omnes atque inirmitates» qux frorsut necessaric piofluunt a vitioso httmani 
corpora temperamento primoiD pcccatuoi consecuto^ sine ab amisshrte «y. 
fuhitiissifiur iUins fene^fluriaKi qua in creelime tua detains fuit Prot'tplastes^ fuam* 
fMf^ xiu peccassetf eonservare foinisset per etum ligni njittCy ipsi a Deo coHm 

If this be compared with what we have quoted (p. 9) from the 
£ngllsh works of the same eminently learned and pioas man, no 
doubt can remain what side of this alternative he adopted He who 
affirmed, in one work, that the original righteousness of the first man 
vuis supernatural^ cannot with candour be supposed to have taught, in 
another, that die forfeiture of that righteousness consisted in the posi« 
rive depravation of his natural faculties. The question, however, to 
be discus&ed here is, whetlier this primitive view of the consequences 
of the first transgression be consonant with the doflrine of our 
Church ; for though the two Prelates were men of the highest abili- 
ties and integrity* they were yet liable to mistake, and may have de- 
'ccJved themselves when they subscribe J the Ai tides, as they undouBt- 
edly believed, in their literal and grammatical sense. That they did 
deceive themselves is incontrovertible, if our author's interpretation 
vof the Ninth^rticle be perfeflly coneft ; but whilst this is admitted 
on the one hand, it will not surely be denied on the other, either that 
Dr. Laurenceis as liable to mistake as they were, or tliat the language 
cannot be remarkable for perspicuity and. precision, which he and they 
have interpreted differeiltlj,. 

" The applicatioivofirhat has been observed " (says Dr. L.) " to the 
Article of our Church upon the same subjcdl, has been already, perhaps 
anticipated. Original sin is there defined to Le, the fuuU and c.rmptibn 
of the injure of rutiy many that naturally is engendered rf the offspring of 
Adsnty fwhertby man ii far gom from original righteousnessy and is tf h/t own, 
- nature inclined to e*vily so thct the flesh lusttth nliv^jfs contrary to the spirit^ 
and iherefrey m e^ery person born into this --worlds it deserveth God 's ivrath 
and damnation^ When we recollcdl the peculiar theory of the scholastics, 
we immediately perceive with what this definition was intended to be 
contrasted. According to their statement, original sin is norhing inore 
than a defed of original righteousness, which instead of being a connatu. 
ral quality, was itself only a supernatural orn;iment, unes^ntial to the 
soul.' In opposition, therefore, to such a conceit, our Church represents 
it to be the fault and corruption of every man's naturty nof the loss of a 
superadded gracey but the vitiation of his innate powers ; a vitiation, by 
which he is very far removed from original righteousness, and by which 
she subjoins, again repeating the word before used as disttodtly expressive 
of her meaning, he is inclined to evil of his own nature ; so that Us pas. 
liona continually resist the controul of his reason. Yet while she esteema > 

* Appendix ad Examen Animadversionisj 17, § i;. 


it not, as her adversaries held^ an innocuoas '^opensitjr, she does not 
declare it ro be punishable as a crime ; but steering a middle course, vrith 
a moderation, for which she is always remarkable, asserts it only to be 
desmftng of God's dipleasure*. After the preceding definition, to which 
none but the sophists of the schools could objedl, she proceeds to observe^ 
in perfeifl conformity with common sense, and with the doclrine of the 
Lutherans, that this depravation of nature remains after baptism, soxhat 
concupiscence, or whatever else may be nieant by the ^psvn^ ottpxoc of St* 
Pad, is not, as the Council of Trent had then recently maintained, and 
as the Church of Rome had always believed it to be, a sinless inclination; 
but one rebelling against the law of God, and which, according to the 
Apostle, who neverti)cless admits that there is no condemnation for them 
that believe and are baptized, retains in itself the nature of sin/'**- 
(P. 64—66.) 

That the Arilcle of our Church, thus interpreted, is Lutheran and 
net Calvinistical, cannot be denied ; and that the language of it will 
admit of this interpretarion we feel not ourselves inchned to contro* 
Tcri ; but we arc persuaded that it will likewise admit of an interpre- 
tation somewhat different from this, for it is cer.tainly less precise and 
perspicuous than the language of any other of our existing Articles.' 

I'hc phrase, original righteomnesSy cannot be taken literally in the 
sense in which the word righteousness is now used ,by any party ; for, 
in that sense, Adain-, when immediaieiy created, was neither rigkuous 
nor unrighteous. He wa^ indeed, innocent^ but however perfect wc 
may suppose his nature to have been, he had then done neither good 
nor evil ; and we kuow, on the highest authority, that it is only ** he 
who i/oth righteousness, that is righteous.'* Ey the phrase, original 
righteousness, therefore, must be understood, either that Adam's appe* 
liifes were undrr complete subjcdtion to his moral and inteUe6kual 
power, or that he was in all things of imponance directed by the 
s^uperadded grace of God*s good spirit, for another alternative is plainljr 
inconceivable. Thar his appetites were not under such complete sub- 
jcAion as Dr. Laurence seems to suppose, is apparent from his con* 
dud ; for we learn from Moses t and Sr. Paul t> that Adaii) was not 
deceived by the serpent, but seduced by his wife ; and it deserves to be 
considered, whether, on that occasion, he betrayed not more of the 
^f!niiM (rafxog, than his descendant Joseph afterwards betrayed, when 

* This is not the language of the Article. The lusting of the flesh 
contrary ro the spirit deserveth, according to the Article, '* God's 'wratJ^ 
tfiid damtuitioa ;" and the meaning of these words may probably be dis. 
covered, by comparing them with the same words as used i Thess. ii. 
15, 16. and' I Cor. xi. 29, 30. Oar author, indeed, admits (Notes, 
p. 27 1 ), that damnation does not here imply God's final condemnation to 
hclUfire, and quotes Bishop Hooper, one of the Reformers, as speaking 
of persons danvicd by the mogist rates, 

\ Gen., chap. iii. and i Tim. ii. 14^ 


Lauveoce'i Bampion LeSures. 25I 

be resisted the soIi<;uatioiM of Potiphar's wife. Is it not» therefore^ 
|Dore reasonable to suppose that our Reformers understood the phrase» 
triginal righteousness^ as it had been understood by the primitive' 
Church, and by rhose autliors of more recent date, with whose works 
ibey had all been conversant \ than that they employed ic in a sense* 
m once modern, and dired^ly contrary to fads, recorded by those 
vho wrote as they were moved by tjie Holy Ghost ? 

The Article, indeed, appears to have be6n direfted not so much 
against the Schoolmen* as against the .'■na&afftists, viho had lately re-* 
vived the heresy of Pclagius on this subje^ ; for, as it was agreed 
upon in 1552, it ran tiius ; — •* Original sin standeth not in the follow- 
ing of Adam, as the Pelagians do vainly talk, which also the Am^tap^ 
iisls dr> now a-days renew (ut fabulantur Pclagianiy et hod\e Anabap^ 
iista refetuni) \^ thus condemning both these sc6)S| but passing not 
the siiglitest censgre on the dodrine of the Schoolmen. Dr. Laurence, 
indeed says*, that in every part of the definition of original sin adopted 
by our Reformers, the attack is made prfnci|>nlly against the Papists ; 
that the error of the Anabaptists setims to have l^een introdnced merely 
for the purpose of less openly declaring the ohjeft of as^iult ; and that 
the clause respeSIng the Anabapiists was consequently Omitted in 
1562, rwhen disguise was less necessary, or less regarded. But for alt 
this no evidence whatever is produced. By comparing tl)e Articles, of 
works done before justification^ and purgatory^ as they were drawn up 
in 15529 with those which are now established on -the same subjeiSb, 
the reader will perceive that Cranmer and his friends scrupled as little 
as Parker to censure the Schoolmen dire£lly, when they deemed tbein 
wonhy of censure ; and yet, when treating of original sin they kept 
them, it seems from delicacy, entirely out of view, and answered 
tbem poly through the sides of the Anabaptists ! But if, as our au- 
thor says» these substitutes were drcpt, when disguise was less neces-*- 
sarV) how came die Pelagians to be retained, and still no mention to* 
be made of the Schoolmen .^ . 

Thea^iswer to tiiis question seems to be, (hat, on the subjedl of 
original sin, the doctrines of Pebgius and the Schoolmen have little 
. or nothing in .common ; and that our Reformers never intended to 
cjiass t^em together, or to pass on tiiem the same censure. Pelagius 
taught that Adam would have died, whether he had eaten of the for* 
l^iddeo fruit or not ; that his transgression affedted himself only ; that 
dl»tb is not the consequence of that transgi-ession, but proceeds. froml 
t^. necessity of nature; that man stands not in need ot divine aid to. 
enable him to subdue his appetites, and perform all that is fequircd of. 
him r -and that by thc^grace of Christ nothing more is meant than his 
4pAi:i9C.and liis exatn^ To these dodirines the scholastic 'vie^^ of. 
1,.^: . \ ' . . .. origipal 
^ii ■ ::: ''^ -:-: 1 ^ 

t Wc know little of ^ peculiar doctrines of Pd^gios^ but fi'om Au.' 
' -^'f gustine^ 

§54 DUioiirAt cRiTicrsM. 

original -810) which our amhor exhibits, bears no rewmblafice ; atlil 
we need hardly say, that the dodrine oF our Church, as understood 
by Bishbp Bull and Archbishop King, is farther removed from P6hgia« 
nism, than the same doSrine as understood by Dr. Laurence. Thd 
man can be in very little danger of flattering human pride, orof claun- 
ing any thing as the reward of human merit, who is aware that no 
created being has a title to eternal life, either as the right of hi» nature, 
or as the reward of his obedience ; and who believes thsk even ia 
Paradise man could perform nothing acceptable to his Maker, but 
through tlie grace of God, preventing him and working with hirft.-^ 
Siich appears to have been the doctrine of the primitive Church s sucb 
was indisputably the doctrine of those eminent Divines of our own 
Chiirch, to whom we have already referred; and such, we believe, 
to be the sense of our Article. When God placed man'tn the Gardeh* 
of Eden, he appears to have in efFefl said lo hiin :<^— 

^' Your nature requires that you should choose those things, the tn^oyr* 
ment whereof will make you happy. I will make your duty easy to you : 
abstain from this one tree, and whilst you do, I will take care that yoo 
shall not chuse amiss in any thing else. Your' obedience in this shall be an 
infallible means to secure you from choosing wrong in any other thing. 
Whilst you use your free-will right in this, I will take care that you 
shall not abuse it. on any other occasion. You are sufficient to conduA 
yourself properly as a man upon earth ; but you are now by covenant made 
the heir of immortality and heaven, to which you are not sufficient to' 
guide yourself. I will, therefore, he your guide in all things^ if by^ 
violation of the covenant you do not forfeit your title to immortality, 
and thereby Tender my .supernatural diredion si^rfluous*/' 

If this be ^ just view of the stdte of man before the fall, and to the 
present writer it has long appeared to be just, the original rigbteooa^ 
ness mentioned in the £ighth Article, must be looked upon as essentiill 
to man, considered only as an heir of heaven and immortality, but- 
as not essential to him, considered merely as a rational and sentient 
inhabitant of this earth. When Heaven; therefore, was forfeited, 
this original righteousness was forfeited lillcewise ; and ix was r^koreiP 
to us as our title to Heaven, and immortality was restored only t)irooglk 
the interposition of our Redeemer, who was the Lamb sIMn from the 
foundation of the world. But iJiough every regenerate Chris^ian'b 
iofluenced by tlie same sph-it, which was the guide of Adam in Par»«' 
dise, the lust of the flesh, which is often strongly felt, etxik by t(l»- 

Mstine, by whom they were opposed and confuiDed. Perhaps the nsosT 
inpattkl account of them extant, within a very small compass, is giveft 
by Cave, in /////• Literaria ; and it is of that account that we ^r^ 
she substance in the text. 

* See King's Sermon on the Fail, not for the w$r4k vhick we ha!V»^ 
fttedb but foff die Aff /five. 


kit men, and probably would have been felt vAder the fint omimm$ 
aaiciinnder the second, hath in itself so much of the naiure of sin* 
as to render every one, in whom it is 110^ sutdnut^ unfit for th^societf 
•f the blessed in 'Heaven. 

S«cb appears tons to be the do^rine of the Scriptores of the pri« 
mitive Choreh, and of the Churcl^ of England, respeding the con« 
sequences of Adam's transeression. We are perfectly aware ihat to 
many of the nM>st eminent Divines, among whom we have no hesita- 
tion to class our author, those conse(^uenccs appear to involve, besides 
the forfeiture of immortality and of divine grace, a poshivs diprava^ 
ihn of thi moral and intelUHual ptnvers of man^ so that he is now less 
able to resist his sensual appetites, than he would have been, if the for« 
bidden fruit h^d not been tasted. This do<Slrine may be true ; but we 
can find no evidence of its truth, whilst it seems utterly irreconcile* 
able with the short history of man in Paradise. The question, how-- 
ever, is not of the smaHest importance ; for we shall certainly bo- 
calkxl to account at the day of judgment, for the employment of the 
talents which we have received, and not of those which have 'been 
withheld from us, and shall be judged each according to his own 
deeds, and not according to the deeds of ano( her— whether progeni* 
lor or descendant.*-*-*' Ut quisque suum partet oiuis arque sui operis 
mercedem referat, est lex sequi, Deique judicio sequi&simi. fExod. 
xxxii. 3a, 33. Deut. xxiv. 16. Ezek. xviii. 20. Gal. >i. 5, 
1 Cor. iii. 8.) In hoc judicio stamus cadimusve." 

(To be continued, J 

A Vindication of the Celts^ ff^^ Ancient Authorities : with Observa-^ 
lions on Mr. Pinkerton^s Hypothesis concerning the Origin of thei 
European Nations^ in his Modern Geography^ and Dissertation om. 
the Scythians^ or Goths. &vo. Pp. 172. Willjaihs, and Long* 
man and Co. 1803. 

THE acquirement of notoriety seems to be as strong a passion 
in authors, as tha& of riehes in the trading part of the community \ 
and neither of them appears to be averse from the quoquo modo of ac-» 
quirement. We mean not to sny, that there are not many wrilert 
who conrt the approbation of the public by the fair and honest meant 
of conveying instruftion, or, innocent amusement ; or that there are^ 
not many traders who are not only just, but liberal in their dealings ; 
but, to arop the traders for the present, we will say that, since author' 
ship has become a craft, the notoriety, and consequent emolument of 
the writer, instead of the information of the reader, have too gene* 
rally been the objects in view. Hence, instead of truth, the author 
thinks only of novelty, and new systems of taste, reKgion, and polity^ 
aie poured upon us from every quarter. The Olympus of ages and 



^X|»ertcQce isassiilcd'on allsides; and, though the assailants are nqt 
giants,, yet, as assailants, they contrive to be coost>tcuous to the spcc- 
t^tors-rthey^sometimes gain, their ends« 

Our motives to a£lion are known only to Omniscience, for even 
the individual is often blind to his'own motives. We will not, there- 
fore, determine whether an overweening conceit, or ^ passion for 
notoriety, or both, have influenced Mr. Pinkerton's career ; but it is 
certain that in many of his works he has sfiewn himself more solir 
citous to. advance what was new and strange, than what was trne. — 
In taste, religion, aiid antiquities, under his plastic hands, old things 
are done away, and lo ! ali things are become new. Virgil and Horace, 
hitherto the delight of ages, this professor of legerdemain has con- 
verted into a pair of blockheads, worshipped by as great block- 
heads as themselves. In an elementary work on Geography, profess* 
ediy intended for the use of schools, he endeavours, co set aside the 
Scripture Chronology, and all thac is said of the creation, deluge, 6cc. 
in the hr&t chapters of Genesis ; and thus leads the minds of our youth 
to rejd^i the religion of their fathers. 

The work now before us is written against another of those noto* 
rious crotchets produced by the ever-fermentmg brain of Mr. Pinker- 
ton. It has been his will and pleasure, it seems, to conceive a most 
rooted antipathy to the C#//i ; and lie is a most exquisite Aater — the 
true Elisha of Elijah Ritson. It is a passion, a rage-^no lover, ever 
adored his mistress with half the ardour that he abhors t,his, by.him,. 
detested people. 1 hey are, according to him, a race so truly despi- 
cable, a cast so utterly vile and degraded, that tliere never v^'as an in- 
stance of a real Celt having atuined to any dcgiee of mental excel- 
lence. What was to be expe6ed from a Jiistory of 4his people from 
the hand of their abhorrer ? He has been at mere pain> to conceal, 
pervert, or falsify the testimony of antiquity, than it would have cost 
him to establish the truth. But, system once adopicd^ becomes a fa- 
vourite child, and the ardour of defence is in general proportioned to 
the feebleness of the adopted brat. 

The writer of this Vindication follows him, step by step, through 
all his windings and tergiversations, ami ovei turns his baseless fabric. 
The nature of our publication does not permit us to cjucr. minutely 
into the examination of the numerous passages from a variety of au-* 
tliors, and of the reasonings deduccil from them, on which the ques-. 
tion depends ; this could not be done satisfadcrily without extending 
this review to too great a length, on a subjed little suiicd to the gene- 
ral cbss of readers. t 

Before the author* of the Vindication proceeds to examine Mr. 
Pinkerton's Celtic, or rather Anti Celtic system, he animadverts on 
ivhat the latter has advanced in his Geography against the Chronology 
gf the Scriptures, the procession of the human race from a single pair, 
and against the account given of the Deluge in the book of Genesis. 
We lay before our readers Mr. Pinkerion** objcdlions to the Deluge, 
^ith the answer of his antagonist. 


rpaikatioh of ihi dliu . is7 

Mr. Pinketton says : 

'' The latest and best natural philosophers pronoonce the iooi impossi« 
hie ; and their reasons, grounded on matheniatical truths and the imma' 
table laws of Nature, have my full absent; llic Jews believed the earth 
L vast plain, and that the ram canie from a colledion of waters aSove 
the firmaiiient (Gen. i. 7), as the earth floated oh another mass of waters, 
(Gen. vii; 11), both of which were opened at the Deluge. As such 
wafers are now mathematicatly kndwn not to exist, and the earth is found 
spherical, the efPed must cease with the cause. M. de Buffbn has shewii 
that all the earth was' at £rtt undersea.'* 

To this It is answered : — ^ 

** Before he wrote this singular passage, the author ought to have con. 
«de|ed that ihe Supreme Being, who created the worlds might, with 
equal ease, cause it to be overflowed with water. He has obviously mis«> 
understood vwo pasf^ages in Scripture : and his nuithematical inferences de- 
moiistrate him to be ignorant both of mathematics and natural philosophy. 
While he seems to inter, if he infers atiy thing, that a spherical surface 
could not be covered with water, he adds, in the very next sentence, 
^'Mr. BuflR>n has shewn, that ali the ^artb ijnai at fir it under sea.' *' 

So much for the general reasoning, and maihematical knowledge^ 
of Mr. Pinkcrton. 

In proportion as thcCV//j arc an abomination to Mr. Pinkefton, 
his bowels yearn with every fraternal, and proteflorial feeling towards 
the Scyth^y Gette, or Goths ; who, he assures us,- were tlic same people 
under these various names.' He israes'his fiat^ and behold them esta- 
blished in an empire, exrending from Egypt to the Ganges, and from' 
the Persian Gulph, and Indian Sea, to the Caspian, 3660 years before 
Christ, that is, only 344 years after that period which the drivelling 
mass of mankind have assigned ro the creation of the world ; found- 
ing the belief on the basis of Scripture, which, to Mr. Pinkerton, 
appears to be the basis of unbelief. N ot contented with this wide domain, 
2160 years before Christ, they passed the Araxes, and pouring like a' 
deluge over the nations they approached, completely peopled Thrace, 
lUyricum, Greece, and*part of Asia Minor 15CO years, Italy abouc 
1000 years, Germany and Scandinavia, with a great part of Gaul 
and i>pafn, about 500, and passed into Britain, Ireland, and Scotland^ 
about 300 years, before the Christian aera. In short, the wild, and un« 
supponed hypothesis c$f Mr. Pinkerton, amounu to this, that Greeks, 
Romans, Germans, Gauls, all those deemed the ancient inhabitants, 
and, of course, all the modem inhabitants of Europe, are O^ths^ or ac 
least completely Gothiciscd (for we do not recoiled his alleging that 
their progress was accompanied by extirpation), except, perhaps, one 
or two insignificant tribes, of which the Celts are the most degraded 
and despicable ; nay, the most despicable race on the face of the 
earth. «< Wisdom and ingenuity,*' says he, " may be traced^among 
die Sarooides, Laplanders, Negroes, &c. bi^i among the CelB, none 
of native growth/' 

iw. 61. vol. «v, S These 



These dreams, originating in 'a diseased aod perrcHed iotdled* 
seem not to require a serious cpncradiAion. The author of the Vin- 
dicarion has* liowever, examined the foundMton of this G^kic fabric:^, 
and found the struiSurc raised upon the sand. He has proved rhar 
4his Scychic, Geric, or Gothic Empire, as eichibited by Mr* Pinkes- 
tonik never had «iit existence, except in the brain of ks fabricator.-r- 
That the appellation of Scythians, as given by the anciems» was so 
vague that no decisive inferences can be «liawn from it ;— that tbei 
Getae, Goths, ami Scythe, were the same people, h therefore far 
from i)istortc truth, as Mr. Pinkcrton asserts ;-^d)at the Celts had over* 
spread a great part of Europe long l>efore the a[ipearance of the Goths ^ 
— that even so late as tlie rime of Caesar's commanding in Gaul, hot 
only what was called Gallia Cckica, but what was called' the iielgic 
division of that country, was peopled chiefly by Ceks ; aod that ar 
late as the time of Tacixus, Germany itself vvas inhabited by a mix- 
ture of Germans, Celts, and Sarmatians;-^that the Celts were nor, 
therefore, that miserable and comcmpiible horde, as rqiresentcd by 
Mr. Pinkcrton ; nor his favourite Goths, that ancient, and uoiVenal 
nee of conquerors and colonizers, he has asserted them to be. 

This resole is produced by shewing that Mr. Pinkertoo's ancietit 
tfutltorities are either misunderstood, garbled, perverted, or norhing 
to the purpose ; and by bringing forward other ancient autbcititiesy 
which still farther evince the futility of the hypothesis. 

To boUjter up his hypothesis, Mr. Pinkerion is conapelled to have 
vecoitrse to assumptions the most absurd and monstrous* One of these 
ve sl)aU mention. To account for the wide-spread of Scythic, GetiCf^ 
or Gothic popukitioii and conquest, he assures us, *\ as some kind of 
animals are more prolific than others, so also may cenain races of 
fn€;n ; as the Scytliae, or.Gotlis, undoubtedly were.'* And luc- 
dotAiidly they must have been so, if they performed half the pro- 
gressive and populating feats attributed 4o them, by this their devoted 
historian ; who, among other matters equally wonclerful, tells us, chas 
when Cssar landed in Britain, he fouiul the southern part of it, ex<» 
elusive of the Celts, whom they had coo|x:d up in a corner of the 
island, inhabited by between 3 2^ 4,000,000 of Goths ! Wliat is 
Mahomet and his boasted procreative vigour ? WlKit even rhe genial 
Slight of Hercules himself with the fifty Tliespian virgins, to the 
Goths of Mr. Pinkercop ! But we forget that Hercules was a Greek, 
f. e. one of Mr. Pinkercon's Goths ; aiid are radier surprised that he 
(las not bronght forward this anecdote, among his other historic tnfi^ 
as. a proof of Gothic piolific si^riority. 

The following extrafl will give our readers an idea of what ibe 
outhor of this publication has endeavoured to prove, and wbat tw^ 
l^ink he has proved, in opposition to Mr. Pinkenoiu 


'* Fiom a retrospedlive view of the aathorities which have been prodncni 
bfim Uie ancient wdUif^Src m»J oow draw the fQUowinf in%reoces : 

yindicaiion of tht Cilts* 859 

*' i. Tke Kymry* or Celts, bad orcrspKad the greatest part oF Eu. 
^ope at the first dawn of history, ar^ foriijcd the principal popalation of 
Gattii both Transalpine and Cisalpine^ till a late priod of the Roman 

''1. About lao years before the time of Caesar, the Romans, having, 
^nqnered Cisalpine Oauli extended their power beyond the Alps, and 
formed the south-eastern part of Transalpine Gaul into a Roman province 3 
but the great mass of the people sfill remained Gallic, or Cclcic^ though 
intermixed with their conqueror^. 

*• 5. As laje as the time of Polybios, that part of Gaol, afterward* 
called A^iiitania, was poissessed by the Celts ; and according to Plrny, 
appears to have beerf denominated Armortca, signifying a maritime coun« 
tryt the ^ame name which was afterwards appropriated to firetagne.— - 
After the time of Polybius, and before that of Augustus, this country 
was invaded by a people from Spaiiii called Iberi, who^ either driving 
out, or mixing with the natives, formed a race, differing, according to 
Strabo, from the natives of the orher parts of Gaul. * ' 

" 4. As late as the time of Ca?sar, and even afterwards, the middle 
part, or the greater portion of Gaul, comprising, according to his account^ 
the territory between the Garonne, the Seine, the Roman province, the 
Alps, and the Upper Rhine, was iidiabited by people who may be teimed 
tmmixtd Celtic tribes. 

" 5* That part of Gael, called ficlgic by CaBsar, included between the 
Seine and the Lower Rhine, was inhabited principally by Celtic tribeSf 
though tome Germans had passed the Rhinei and either mixed with the 
natives, or formed a separate people. But the proper Belgic Gauls in ge** 
neral, under whatsoever name distinguished, used the Celtic language^ 
religion, and manners, with some variations, derived from lapse of time, 
and local circumstances. 

'' Different tribes emigrated, at dlfietent pefiod«, from the Coasts of 
Gaul to Britain % but ^ none, who may have quitted any part of the Coast 
of Gaul, between the Rhine and the Pyrenees, before the time of Caesar, 
were Gothic, or German j and therefore the Belgae of Britain were Celts, 
not Goths, though they might differ from the prior inhabitants in dialed 
and manners. 

. '' 7* There is no authority to prove that the ancient Scythian* wcie 
Gothsy and..still less to shew they were a distind^ specific people, using a 
common language, and uniformly following the same customs. 

^' g« The people called Gothic, do not appear to have overspread the 
greater part of Europe till a later period, eVen of the Roman Empire. 

*^ 9* The country called Germany itself, was not,^ in the time of Tacitot^ 
wholly /Occupied by German or Gothic tribes ; bi^t was also peopled partly 
with Celtic and Saraatic hordes. And even those tribes called German, 
diflbred essential^ tt/fiom^ themselves in religion, manners, and govern, 

'' 10. The Germans, under any denomination whatever, had not passed 
the Rhine, and peopled the greater part of Gaul, till even long posterior 
to the time of Caesar." 

Before we cooclude, we bare to remark, diat the writer of the 
ViodicatioDy cboogh evadsntly a Celt, has not been provoked by the 

S a X ferocioiia 


ferocious Goth who attacks his pro|;cnitors to return ruling for ran> 
ing; btK proceetts to invesiigatc the truth with coolness "iid sty- 

A list of words in the Greek and Welsh languages, in which x 
sitnilarity is discernrbfe,/is annexed in an Appendix/ 

Ckarles Ellis: or^ T^c Friends \ a Novtl, comprising the Incidents and 
Ohservatiom occurring on a Voyage to Uie Brfzils and fVest Indies^ 
a^ually performed by the Writer'^ Robert Seoiple': Author of 
** Walks and Sketches at the Cape of .Good Hope." 2 vob. 
]2mo. pp. 506. 9s. Baklwiss. 1806. . ' 

MR. SEMPLE stales himself to be a youcg merchant^ andl 
seenis to think that some apology is thet'efore necessary for the atteinpt 
of a person engaged in mercaniile pursuits to wiite a noyel. Now» 
oa thi« pointy w« beg leave to differ ftom him \ — if his novel be a 
good one, no apology can be necessary ; if a bad one, no apology will 
avail. In short* it is nothing to the reader wbetl^er the author be a 
merchant, un homme dt lettres^ or a garrctteer ; — wheclier lie be a 
Bnd^er of a Cabinet Minister ; but it is. something to hitxi^ whether 
the man who writes a bcok which he purchaser be qualified for the 
task or not," and whether the produdion so purchased be instrudive 
and amusing, or stupid and insipid. Having premised this, on (he ne- 
cessity of an apology, we must now admit, that as Mr. Semple chose 
to make an apologv, he could not well have made a better. 

" My apology,'' he says in his Preface, •* is briefly this — that I see 
1)0 reason, because the daily avocations of any class of men are the 
same, tl^t their amusements should also be similar. Perhaps, my 
good friend*' — (addressing himself to the * gentle reader,' we suppose)* 
— " you are a very industrious, plodding, thriving member of society" 
—(Alas 1 we fear that your industrious, plodding, thiivrng folks, never 
read novels, atid therefore this aildress will be thrown away); — ** but 
you have your hours of relaxation ; you sn)oke your pipe» or you 
drink your wijne ; or you mount your lK>rse or your gig" — (Oh fie i 
a plodding, thriving matt in a gig! what an artomaly I) ;»-*^ or you 
go to Sadler*s-wells, or perhaps the Opera" — (The Qpe%^/ worse^ 
and worse !). — ** Very well, then ; during the hours yoit were there, 
1 wrote the History of Charles Ellis,'^ 

Now is better to be a novel-writer ll^an a debauchee, mof 
be true; but that depends on the kind of novels which a man writes; 
because some novels prove the authpr to be a debauchee, and, still 
worse, tend to make others resemble bim. Not so, however, Cbarlei^ 
Ellis ; and certainly Mr. Semplfe wa< much better emploved* in com* 
posing his History, than he would have been in passing his evenings 
like loung PTildtng^ in the Ciiizni. Indeed, to say the truth, we 
have not, for maay a day, read a navel which has sonuch that 09 
good, aoid so little that is exceptiooaUe, 10 it* ' 


Scraple'j Charks Ellis. l6f 

The berot Charles EHts, is the son of a merchant, 'whb, having 
net with crosses in business, forsakes the metropolis at the age ci 
thirty*five, and retires, with his wife, then pregnant, to a small pa« 
ternal estate in a sequestered valley, terminated by the sea, in Cum- 
berland. Among (he inhabitants' of this vale was a Mr. Wilson, m 
tow illiterate tradesman, who had also retired from business with aa 
independeiKe of 300I. a year; an old seaman. Captain Seabold, who 
bad some of the eccentricities, and ail the good qualities, so generaltir 
and so justly ascribed to his profession; a Mr. Williamson, theparisli 
priest, who was such .as every parish priest ought tp he ; and a gentle- 
man, whom the author sneeringly denominates John Berkeley, Esquire^ 
'< a man of a very ancient fanaHy, and who, indeed, took no merit to 
himself on any one account, except that of his descent. For upwards 
of two hundred years, tlie little estate of Kerwood had^ descended 
from father to son in the Berkeley family,*' and much longer aecorl^ 
ing to their own private documents. Now we abje£t exceedingly to 
the attempt to hold up such a chara£ler to derision* We are tM to 
be told, ^ 

^ £t genns et proayos^ et quz non fecimus ipsi« 
Vix ca nostra voco • ;" 

for though it woof-J be the lieight of presumption, as wdl as of abfitir« 
dity, to impute the merits of our progenitors to ourselves ; yet the 
•pride of ancestry ought not to be an ofyject of sensele^ rklicole, since 
it is the parent of many aoble feelings and excellent virtnes ; it gene- 
fates a 'Spirit of emulation; k operates as an incentive to generous 
deeds ; k leack the mind to imitate the qualities which it admire^ 
^ merit which it records. The ciicumstance of living on the same 
spoton which his ancestors had lived for centuries, is, to any man, a 
just and honourable ground of exultation ; and so long as his own con- 
fluS does not refledt discredit on his forefathers, he may fairly be 
allowed tQJiK)ast ofit. Berkeley is not rc(>resented as a vicious or a 
dishonourable man ; in no respect does he disgrace his ancestors; and 
the mere a£l ** of taking no merit; to himself,'' is a proof that he pos- 
sessed great merit. While the author's words, therefore, tend to 
Tender Berkeley ridiculous, Ms own sentiments and a6tions make him re^ 
spedable. Berkeley appears to be a Toty^ and Ellis a fVlilg, 

Charles Ellis haying attained his sixth year« his education became 
a matter of seripus consideration ; and his father, wishing to hav/r the 
opinion of his friends on the suhjed, invited all the above-mentior\ed 
icharadiers {except the only one competent to give a jgood opinion oa 
it, the Clergyman) to dinner, for the express purpose of asking their ad- 
vice, with a, predetermination, however, to follow his own. He was 
tightly served, foi* all his attempts after dinner to£x the subje<Sl of conver« 
sation to the point to which he wished to draw it, proved fruitless.; 
the tradesman, y^holoved ajoke, told long stories ; the seaman fought 
his battles o'er again ; and ' the Torv engaged his host in a , jy^itical 
copv^rsstf ion on loyalty^ on which thejf disagreedp;; .but vbich Bcrko- 

S 3, ley> 

%6% OKTClVKh C&iriCISMT. 

le^f like ainian ofsfcnse, terminated by observing* ^* At all events, we 
agree most cordially in afic£tion to our present Sovereignv whose virtoes 
are such as scarcely Co entitle loyalty, merely consider^ as such, to any 
merit.** — ** We do, indeed," said Ellis; **and we will, if you please, 
drink loQg life^and heahli rohi;n, nor do I care if I never see another 
King on the Throne of England.'* We have said that Etlbi appears 
to be a Whig ; but justjce demands a retradation of the assertion* for 
certainly sucli an observation ^s this would have produced tiis instan- 
taneous .expulsion from the Whig Club. 

Foiled in his attempt to obtain the advice of his friench, he at length 
. |P|^ved to decide for himself; and, Hiough a perfcd freethinker, or 
irather, one of the very numerous sc(5t.of^<7//;/>r;^<3i'/Aiii, he finally dcter- 
inined to entrust the education^of his sou to tlic Clergyman of the pa* 
fhhf who had a son Qf his own, neatly of the same age, and a dau2>h^ 
ter, somewhat younger. With this worthy priest, Charles EHis re« * 
SDained.4iIl he ha^ attained his twentieth year; when his father, 
' having buried his wi^e, felt his commercial propensities return, and 
resolv^ to tal^e his son to London with him. There he was intro- 
duced to a strange charatSlcr, James Brown, who had been bred a 
tailor; but;, having fpilcd in business, and cheated his creditors, setup 
as a gentleman, wjtl| q capital of six or seven hundred pounds. He 
.i^as also introduced to some other young men, of tnuch the same 
stamp, who soon sapped the principles which he had imbil)ed under 
IVlr. Williamsont and led him into scenes of dissipation and de- 

Considerable ability, and knowledge of human nature, are dis- 
played in the deli uea I ion of this young inan^s charader, feelings, and 
condud. His slow and gradual progress from virtue to vice, after his 
arrival in towji* is ably pounrayed., 

" But what, above all, tended to restore hu spirits, was the introdoc.^ 
fion which his fatl'.er procured for him to several young men of his own 
jige, with whom he Joon became very intimate. He was pleased with 
the easiness of their manner^ and conversatioiY, so difivrent from that of _ 
voung rustics ; apd this mistaken idea of soperiorit^ unfortunately blind^ ' 
his eyes to the vices which they gradually developed to' him. He wa^ 
shocked at first, it is true $ but his surprise and sorrow were of no long 
^oration. Every thing tended to accelerate his initiation in the vices dt 
the metropolis ; the eagerness of his new companions in instrudin^; him — 
f he generous warmth of bis own disuosition, of his temperament, and his 
time of life — and the connivance of nis father, who was too much a man 
of the world not to rejoice at the progress which his son was daily making 
in getting rid of his native bashfulness, all contribated to impair his 
good resolutions. Before three months had elapsed, a material change 
had taken place in his external appearance for the better, and in his senti. 
inents for the worse. He still professed to revere ;he Sabbath ; but in. 
•dttlgence in innocent amusements on that day was sorely no harm, and 
fiever meant to be restrained. Drunkenness was the most odious and 
beastly of vices ; bat to take a cheerful glass, and get' merry with a few 
friepdsj was no disgrace. As for swcaringj nothing could be more 


Seniplc'j Charles ElSs. idj 

•liocklng-^nothing xnoresinfUj and, at the same' time, more pnprofltablej, 
Yhan profanity; yet surely, demme! sink me! zounds! atid the like, 
coald be npofience to Heaven. ]fi a word, the young man was beginning 
«o play with vice. It had always been represented to him as an objeA of 
horror ; but he 6\A not discover it when dressed in flowers j and he be- 
gan very shrewdly to suspedt; that the good Mr. Williamson, ih bis 
eagerness for his welfare, had painted some indiscretions in too strong co« 
lours. With all this, however, he did not as yet entirely neglcS his 
jBtudies ; he still repaired, at times, to rhe fountain-head of pure moralify, 
and took occasional fits of virtuous resolution ; for two or three days, sbu( 
up in his chamber, he renewed his acquaintance with his favourite authors ; 
but his new companions never faiied ^ call upon him with such astonish- 
ing anxiety, concerning his health, and the whole common-place rootine 
of idle inquiries, that* Charles con^iviered them as the warmest aixl si n** 
.oerest pf fH^nds ; and, unable to refuse them any thing, generally finished 
by making one of th::ir party in any scheme of pleasure. It was, however^ 
in tbese moments of retirement that the thoughts of home pressed tbe 
snoat warmly on bis mind ; and the recollc^ion of his youthful companlona • 
awoke emotions, which he soon discovered to be very difFcrent from those 
inspired by his new acquaintance." 

Thus was refle£lion intercepted in its course, and our hero wa&jhurr 
ried on from pleasure to pleasure. . -3- 

** It cannot be supposed that a young man of such a temperament as 
Charles, had been transplanted from the aflivity and temperance of ^ 
country life to the luxury and comparative indoknce of the metropolis^ 
without feeling the effet^s of such a change. Instead of a diet chiefly 
vegetable, water to drink, and a hard mattrass to sleep on, he now at^ 
daily of highly-teasoned dishes, drank freely of wine, and slept on a soft 
bed of down till long after the sun was up ; but, above all, the conver- 
sation of his new friends tended to inflame his active, nnd hitherto tin^- 
tainted^ imagination. At first he was shocked, and blushed at expres- 
tions and language whjch he daily heard ; but this wore off, and he somef. 
times tremblingly hazjrded witticisms which would have b?en strongly 
Tcpreiiendedinhis native valley, but which were pissed unnoticed, or re:- 
ceived with applause, by his new friends. It ^as now the eleventh day 
since he had received hi^ letters — he was dining with a jovial party — and, 
for the first time in his life, got intoxicated. Abput eleven o'clock at 
night he sallied out, with an intention to rejiair direftly home ; buf on 
his way, overtook one of those unfortunate women who infest the streets 
of all great cities, and who accosted him in a mild tcm? of voice, at the 
same time laying hold of his arm. Heated as he was «?tth wihe, the 
toiich thrilled to his very heart, and he had not the resolution to sh;:ke 
her off; on the contrary, he conceived the benevolent and sagadous idea 
of reclaiming her from such an evil life, and began forthwith to exhort he* 
with great warmth. The artful female encocraged the conversation, 
which soon took a very difierent turn :— but^l^hy should Iniwltipy w6rvlsf 
Even now I sec him standing wavering in tRe street— 1 mark his flushed 
and feverish cheek, and his eyes, beaming with a guil^ pleas ure.-;^ Ah 1 
stop Cbaries'i stop,, my boy!— it is thy preccptorV 4hy youthful etompa- 
nijns, tby mother's diiade. that call upon thee !«^bat they call in ^ahu 

§4 Whilst 

i64 OH^pIKA^ CRITIClSlf. 

Whilst 1 ftt spqtk^ a white female arm, jperfumed, and ho^fA with t « 
bracelet^ Is .extended from a door ha^* opened^ and gently draws along the 
yoong man. Ife turns round, as if copscious ofgiiiit| and fearful lest any 
person sjioold b<ehbld him; — but it is in A silent and ionely. court, where 
there are no pa&senger^, apd lighted only by a solitary lamp, which already 
begins to twinkle in its socket : his pulsf'beats high with you(h and wine , 
•^he turns and casts one last iQok on virtue ; then b^r^i^^ Pver the polluted ^ 
threshold^ and the dopr instantly cipses. Alas! poor (Jharles}" 

'ijrhis IS fine paintings The ^luthor's admonitions on the subjc£( are 
not less forcible, 

'/ The pleasures of vice, if pleafuirs they can be called, are of short 
duration, and leave behind them the most painful jemcmbrances. To the 
confirmed profligate, these remembrances '^H as inducements to plunge into 
iPresh excesses, and to endeavour to drown thetn in a new delirium — boi, 
with the novice in guilt, they province a contrary efied, and seldom fiiii 
to be succeeded i>y a momentary enthusiasm in the cause of virtue. Youngs 
man ptitserve, 1 beseech you, these first impressions — they are the surest 
criterions of right and wrong, and are the least sophisticated of all oar 
decisions respeaing our own condud. Whatever certain philosophers may 
talk of the calm and dispassionate investigation of our reason, rely upon 
itf that whatever the untainted he^rt condenins, the untainted judgment 
.cannot approve." 

Pharjes's remorse, his good resolutions, and his subsequent reforma- 
tion, are stropgly depi£led. He resolves to write, at last,, to his forr 
^icen friends in the country, and has just finished his letter* when Ed*- 
ward Williamson, . the son of his tutor, enters Ifis room in regimen- 
tals. This young man had obtained a commission in a q:iarching re- 
^iroient, and was preparing for his departure to the Contipent. The 
two friends, however, were to pass soiiie time together it) tendon, 
during which Edward was to sec every thing that was worthy of ob- 
servation in the capital ; among other places they visited Westminster 
Abbey, and, dining that day with a seledl party, the obje&s which 
they had contemplated in thejnorning became the subje<3 of convew 

'* The master of the family turned to Edward, and iisked him how he 
had been pleased that morning with Westminster Abbey ? Doubtless to 
any other' question the young soldier would( have returned a plain" and 
simple answer, but his mind being still iu\i of enthusiasm on that 
aobje^i,. he replied, ' that he had been delighted, and never in his life be. 
fore had experienced such feeling^.' The warmth with which this was 
delivered ^r^tly ititerested the company in his behalf ; and^ as it afbrded 
f. new topic of conyersation, the Abbey, with its aisles and towers, thf 
chapel with its corioas roof, tbe tombs of our kings, apd the n^pnumeots 
p5 our best men, soon became the subjeA of praise and criticism. The 
ponversation grew doubly interesting — for how tould men of literatoie 
'pnd genius talk of such themes, without awakening a thousand recoUec. 
fiona of parricttic ^^lions^ and immortal bards ? B^ de^reeS) however, 

icmple^j Chirks Eiils^* ^6% 

diU enthusiton subsideil, and thf taste «nd execQtIon'of ttae tftoniimentt. 
weie d*ksciused« Soxtte' praised the scolptort of this figure, and some of 
that; bat amidst all the teniarks madef it was observed that neither 
Charles nor Edward spoke a woid on thift snbjeA.*-*^ 1 suppose/ skid the 
host to Charles, ' you have no statues in your village cliurches, and that 
ponseqoently you have but little knowledge of 'sculpture.'— * 1 must in- 
deed be V^ry ignorant on that point, or naturally of a bad taste/ replied 
Charles, ' for really several monuments that have been highly praised by 
these gentlemen, appear to roe absurd in their very principles/—* How 
tor abked a Conziois^our, who had particularly distinguished himself by 
descanting on their \ arious jn^ts. — * Nay,' said Charles, ^ 1 do not 
pretend to set op my judgment in oppositiim to what seems the general and 
approved taste of men who have muilc- these s'ibjeds their study ; but, I 
must confers J it appears to me absolutely rldicuious to see so many re. 
oowntd Englishmen clothi'd in Roman garbs, and dtsplnying thetr naked 
limbs, in dired opposition to the habits and manners, not only of the («. 
riods in which tbey lived, hut of any nation in Europe for these sererai 
centuries past. ' b^ly friend and I were puzzling our brains to find out m 
cau^, or, to speak truly, an excuse for this taste ; l)iJt, I must ownj tt 
was beyond our comprehension*' — * Very likely,' replied the Connoisseiir« 
somewhat nettled, ' y*it still there ar^ reasons, which to men of talents 
have appeared sufficient to justify this -practice.' As the company seemed 
to listen to this dispute without any of them interposing • after a short 
pause, Charles replied, ^ I should be glad to hear ihem, Sir, if it is not 
too much trouble.' — * By no means,' i>aid the other: * In the first place, 
the Roman garb, both civil and military, is well calculated to shew the 
irt of the sculptor, and the shape of the limbs. The /€ga^ thrown in 
graceful folds over the shoulders, and round the body, is^eyond doubt in. 
Enitcly more elegant than the modem coa^: and^ on the other hand, the 
short military garb serves to shew the turn of the limbs, and enables the 
sculptor to display the swelling of the muscles to the greatest advantage ; ; 
add to this, the ancient garb being now obsolete in real use, has become 
a sort of classical dress, which will lie equally an invariable standard « 
thousand years heoce^ as it has been for these two centuries past r whereas 
our dress is^pcrpetually varying, and a statue in the dress, even of our. 
grandfathers, with long waistcoat flaps, high pocket. holes, hugcvt^igahd 
rapier, stockings rolled ov?r the knee, and broad. toed shoes, would cot 
rather a rf.iiculons figure in Westminster Abbey .'^^ Not so tnach so,* 
cried Charles, ' as an English AdmitiiLin n Roman dress leaniffg upon k 
canngn^ 4s in the monument of Admiral Holmes ; or, as another brave 
seaman standing between two p^lm trees, with his left foot upon tbo 
nshrumi or beak of an ancient. galley, as in that of Admiral Watson ; or. 
General Wolfe, dying on the field of battle stark nakid -^ or the monument 
of General Ligonier, in which battering rams are^ mixed with cannoni 
and bombs, . and muskets with shields, as ornaments and supporters. Such 
iixrongruities appeared both to my friend and myself as absolutely unpar* 
donable, although, I must confess,^jour ingenious defence has rendered die « 
custom somewhat more excusable in my eyes than it appeared this roonv. 
ing,' .After thanking him iot- the compliment, as the company seemed 
slUl wiUing to hear more on the subje^, by not interfering or changing 
the cobversation, the . gttitleinan vent on:-— 'But you' still have not 
voakened my obje^on to the statues of our great men being represented 

^66 d&ioiNii& cRitxcriic 

with modem gtrbsi nimety^ tbeatliMfd appearance tlie7 ttay make a huiklfel 
years hence.' — ' To tell ymi ths truths Sir/ replied Charles, 'yxmrobjec. 
tbn did not appear tome of any .great weight* In the ralley where I waa 
borri, lives a/ gentleman of very ancient family^ and an intimate friend of 
my father^ named Berkeley : amongst oth^r portraits, he has one at fall 
length of his great great grandfather, who was slain at the battle of Edge 
Hill, and notwithstanding he is represented stridtly in the dress of those 
times, and such as would certainly be r.*ckoned preposteroos at the preiirnt 
day, I never saw a nobler co^iuenance and figure ; and certainly no per« 
ton ever feels the smallest inclination to criticise hi» drc^s. Now, had 
this brave man been represented in marble, as on canvass, I cannot con. 
ceive any absurdity in the idea. On the contr^iry, as paintings are ao 
much more perishable than statuary, I should wish to see onr illustrious 
men represented in stone and marble with the dress they wore, even to the 
mioMtest article, when they performed the very a^lions for which thrir 
country <has thought proper to honour theto with memorials/ 

'' ^ Recoiled yourself a little^ yomig gentleman/ replied the Connofs- 
"aear, * you surely admit as legal the use which is made in English poetry 
of the heathen mythology and allusions. Perhaps jou sometimes moosic 
yoar Pegasus, wish to drink deep of the Pierian springs, or call upon the 
Muses to inspire you with bright ideas. Now, as &ach expressions and 
invocations arc universally allowed in our writers, in like manner, I con- 
tend, that a latii-ude should be, given to statuaries to dress their heroes ia^ 
they please ; and^ if they donot chuse to give them a coat and breechas^ 
why not shew them off in a to^a, and no breeches at ail ?* This remark 
inade the company laugh, which so pleased the Connoissciir, that he began 
to think his vidory secure, and that Charles would have no more to s^y^ 
The young man, however, joined in the laugh, atid when it had subsidied 
aetumed again to the charge. He contended, ' that Helicon, Paniasaasy 
Pegasus, and the like, were mere words of course, borrowed from the 
ancients, and employed metaphorically, because we h;id no corresponding 
expressions in our language ; but he aiRrmed, that it was not so wicl| 
painting and sculpture* which were confined to representing ohjeds as they 
^ally were, or migh.^ be supposed to be at the time. That Catp wi&h — 

< Long wig and lacquered chain,' 
was not a whit more absurd than a modern European in the senatorial 
fobes of Caro ;' and, in short recapitulated what he had before advanced* 
Aa hit antagonist hsA now nothing more to observe, the conversation 
wapii probably have terminated without being decided either way, had 
pot another of (he company repeated a remark on the stiffness of dre$» of 
p modem toldiery compared to that of the ancients. This, with other 
Bsniiaf observations, by degrees roused Edward for the honoar of his pro. 
lissaiooi of which, being youn^, he was a zealous supporter in all ita 
pranches* After sitting, therefore, full of impaticfnce for a short tiroe^ 
|ic stretched dot his hand, and addressing himself to the Connoisseur — 
f $ir,' said be, * If the dress of an English soldier were a thousand times 
laore ridicoloinly when compared to that of a Roman, than it is, I tti^ 
jthink that so many brave men havefought and bled in it, as to render It for 
twet lionoarable, and. worthy of being transmitted to futoce.ages. .Saielfi 
the ttoiibnii in which a Marlborough cooqnered, and a Wolfe feH, am 
which •• 9fpny gidlaot oficers are w^tiif at this jnomen^ ought to bcr 

Lcmaistre'j TtMih ihtough Ftwtce^ t^c. ^ 

objeft of contempt to a chipper of marUe ! think how maifj^ lnat» 
etoes wore this uniform at Hochstet, Ramiliesj and Oadenaide :• arMiiu 
eoy and even at Fcntenoj, where they so dearly maintained its honour | 
■d tell me, if ever Grecian or Roman garb was mote ennobled ? I need 
If nothing of our sea oiEcers : if /Ifeir dress be not worthy of tile s^olp^ 
Mr$ -where shall wc seek one more so ?' These observations^ which were 
lade in a most impetuous manner^ were a,liowed to be conclusive on the 
■bjofl, and judgment was passed in iotoupon all English artists represent* 
iKg their countrymen in. Roman drcssesj which not only they never wore^ 
ni perhaps never saw.' 

There is a great deal of good sense in these observations, hQwever 
efensive they may prove to Connoisseurs, or to those who pretend to 
he such. We cannot follow our friends through their various adven* 
tores ; Edward Williamson distinguishes himself on the Continent, 
it prcMDoted, and killed. Cliarles Ellis accompanies his father to the 
diflbreni places mentioned in the title-page; of 'which some brief ac-* 
coant h eiven, and, on his return to Europe, consigns him to a watery 
mve. He revisits his native valley, ntarries the daughter of old Sea- 
bold, and settles there for life. 

The tangcTage, as our readers must have seen from our extrads, is 
cancA ; the style plain nnd perspicuous ; the charaflcfs are wdl 
drawn, and ably sustained ; (lie incidents are natural, and the seap« 
mcnts, principles, and moral arc good. In $hort, the work is greatly 
fuperior to the generality (if modern novels ; and, in all xespcdls, ere* 
ditabJe to the talents ainl feelings of the author. 

Travels^ after the Peace of j^miem^ through Parts of France^ Swiizer* 
land^ Itaijy and Germany. By. J. G. Lemaistre, Esq. Autiior of 
a ^' Rough Sketch of Modern Paris.^ Svo. 3 vols. Pp* lagj. 
iL IIS. 6d. Johnson. 1806. ^ 

MR. LEMAISTRE is an indefatigable tourist; and con, when 
he pleases, he lively and pleasant, though ic does not oiten please him 
to be so. It has, however, become a custom, which it behoves us 
to notice, for men who fancy jhey have ability to write for the ii^. 
-strudion of ihe^ public, to make speculative tours \ that is, tours for 
the expr^ purpose of colled) ing materials for the press^ with a view 
to protit. ' Whether this be the case with Mr. Lemaistre, we shal 
Slot presume to decide \ but certain it is, that he understands the art 
of book'tnaklng as well as any prol'essional tourist of the whole tribeSf 
HaiUie condensed his observations, nefledlions^ aild catalogue ^ into ^■ 
sii^|le vdame in twelves, he might have easily comfived to rendef i( 
both amnsiog and instni£live ; but as it is, he has so completely re» 
verted the ririe ofmultum in farv&y talks 10 much about his ladyan^ 
hiflisdf, and appears to sufier his o|nnions of a place and ifs inbabt- 
pm tx>))t^ u^Ufi^ biaite4 by the reccfKion wMch he e3tperifeiices» 



the ^miers which htt eat5i,^ and the balls which he frequents, that tfa 
rational reader becomes disgusted, and throws by the book. Unhagj 
pHy, whatever disgust poor critics may feel, however disposed tlid 
Dnay be to throw down a hook, their duty compels them to subcM 
their feelings, and to persevere, until their eyes shall hail that ievcI 
come signal of repose — finis. 1 

-The work is dedicated, by permrssioff^ to the Prince of Wal 
who is hailed, in'all the modest langupgc of dedication, as "an £« 
' YxAi Msecehas.** 1'he Prince, however, is certainly entitled to gr 
praise for his munificence, in sending an Englisli gentleman, ar 
own ^xpence* to Porcici, to wifold die ancient manuscripts found ij 
the rums of Herculaneum ; a task which had been relinqui&hec] b| 
the King of Naples from dire necessity. This is a princely a^Sion^ 
of which no one can speak witi»oui commeinlation ; but when Mf^ 
Lemaistre determined to tell the world, that the Prince's *^ gencrcKH 
support of tl)e constitutional liberties of his country, bad, frocn vnf 
earliett years, excited my veiieration and rcspecSt," it assuredly Imn- 
came him to specify the instances in which that support had been 
manifested. As it is, a Cynic may possibly be disposed to apply ca 
his observation the cant expression of Burchell, in the Vicar of Wake- 
field. As to ** that general fame which is the necessary coDcomi* 
tant and just reward of public virtue," Mr. Lemaistre^s stuck of tdat* 
steal knowledge, which he displays without mercy, and of which he 
boasts without scruple, upon all occasions, will supply him with tha 
true charader of /i(77n^, without any a^sistatKe from us ; and shoukl* 
we think, have taught him by w/;^/ means it is often acquired, and 
what value ought to be placed upon it. 

Tlie author pursued his -way from France to Switzerland throagb 
Farisy Dijon, and Lyons. When, in Switzerland, he made excui^ 
sions to the Glaciers, and to different parts of thai interesting country 
which he deemed most worthy his attention. Thence he went frona 
Lausanne, by Meudon, Aix, St. Jean de Maurienne, and Mont 
Cenis, to Italy. He visited Turin, Genoa, Milan, «Piacenza, Parma, 
Modcna, Bologna, Rome, and Naple^, From the last city he re- 
turned to Rome, and then proceeded, by Ferrara and Padua, to 
Venice. From Venice he jveiit to Vientfti, thence to Berlin, atid 
from Berlin, through Lubeck, to Tonningen, where he embarked 
for England. We shall not be expeAed to follow him from place to 
place through the whole of this extensive Tour, ndr yet to notice all 
his desultory observations on the works of Nature and of Art. We 
can only stop with him here and there, where the entertainment ap^ 
pears inviting, or where sonietliing occurs to call for our animadvert 
sions. Dijon, we are told, is rendered so celebrated *^ by being the 
js^ where the great army of reserve, before the second expedition to 
it^ly, was assembled ;"-«a silly remark, which had better bcoi 
emitted — if that city was celebrated for nothing else, it was not wordiy 
pf notice. At Lyons, Mr. X«eaiaistre. visited the TowQ-ho^se, ana < 
took the trouble qi copying a lying inscriptioiiy in v/bicb the virma 


I^maistre'i Travels through France^ i^c. iSg 

El murderer of Jafe are recorded. He h tli^re called ^ the Con-* 
ff of Europe,"- of which, in the estimation of his slaves. Great 
in and Ireland, of course, form noj)art; and it is added, with 
bl irtdi^ that *' at sight of him, the aits revived in this citjV/aod 
hmcrcc was restored to its ancient splendour." When it is.noto* 
^s that he, and his brother regicides, caused all the monuments of 
izxis to be demolislved, and ruined the trade of Lyons, which has 
per, to this tnomeiK, been restored. The tourist wlio thoughtpro- 
ftotraosplaiH this conspilation of falshoods into his pages, should, 
peast, have submitted to the trouble of pointing them out to his rea* 
iri. Of the disposition of the inhabitants, our traveller, short l|s his 
If was at Lyons, seems to have acquired a pretty correct i^otion. 

I" From the heavy losses which the town has experienced, from the de-. 
ttat'on committed on its principal buildings, and from the mnjrder of 
best and richest citizens, Lyons derives a strong and rooted hatred to 
(Dame of Republic ; and, however satisfied the inhabitants oiay be with 
K Government of Buonaparte, their satisfadlion is only relative {com. 
ntive). They prefer bis administration to any which has existed sinod* 
^death of Louis XVL ; but they are still royalists; and if the House 
Bourbon shall, in' the course of years, be ri/cr restored, I am convbced 
iativo part of France will so heartily* rejoice in the measure, or so wil«, 
Dgly assist in promoting it, as the city of Lyons." 

On his arrival at Geneva, the author found the inhabitants disj)lay-^ 
fcgthe most unequivocal marks of attachment to their former Govern-, 
iwir, antl entertaining a rooted hatred of their tyrannical conquerors/ 
they seldom go to the theatre, which the French havcercvf^ed ; and. 
Irhcnthey do go, the ladicrs always prefer tfie pit, that they may not 
^suhjedled lo the impertinence of the French oflBiers, who are,, be- 
lond all comparison, the most ignorant and the most disgusting ani« 
|ul5 in the whole creation. Mr, Lemaistre, indeed, who presumes 
»kiiuw much better than the Gcnevcse themselves, asserts, without 
icsiiation, that "the military behave themselves with the greatest pro- 
tiety ;" but we must express our urter disbelrief of the f:kSL He adds, 
Ipwcvcr, that V none are received in the houses of. the principal citi- 
ros;" which is to us, added to our own knowledge pf thecharaderand' 
omlafl of the subrfterns of a French ^army, a convincing proof, that 
kc anchor has either formed an hasty and unwarrantable opinion of 
it own, or that he has been egregiously imposed upon. 

Mr. Lematstre further observes, in respedl of Geneva, that " the 
ristocraiic distindlions whicl:^ existed in the time of the Republic, 
re sHU scrupulously observed in the choice and divisions of society, 
nd prove to demonstration, that mariners, customs, and prejudices, 
re above the power of law." Indeed ! And did this traveller, in his 
Hirncy through France^ really find no difference in the manners^ 
^msy ^ui prejudices of the people, since the Revolvition? If he did 
lot, we shall vehture to say, that he either closed his eyes and ears,^ 
r jhA his obsertattoas ivere very liaiiled and superficial.' One of the' 
• ' / ' ^ prevailing 

279 0R1,G1KAL C&lflClsM.. 

prevailing customs at Geneva is so singular, and, as we beHei 
peculiar to that city> that we sliall extra<5l our author^s brief aeoBi 

'* Wbik on the subjedl of society, I Ought to mention another andj 
tsage which is still obscrted, and which is highly worthy of commezxlatd 
"i^he daughters of the Gcnevese are, from tlieir earliest years^ formed i^ 
circles of fourteen or fifteen, of corresponding ages, selected by their I 
spe^ivc mothers from among the children of their friends* The ym4 
ladies constitutiag such circle, or party, meet on every Sunday evcJ 
at the house of one of their }\i rents-— c^ch mother- receiving ia her a| 
the friends of her. daughter, and girirg thifhr tea^ frait, ices, sind od 
such i[efieshments. They amuse themselves in their little assemblies «^ 
the innocent gambols suited to tlicir age, with work, nuis;c, daociij 
and confidential conversation. No man, however nearly related roai 
of them, is admitted into these parties till one of the niembers is ns^rrid 
As soon as this event takes place, she who has changed her situaribn ■ 
cooies the chaptronfttej of her former associates ; and, under her anspU 
single gentlemen are received in the Sunday toteries of the female friend 
till by degrees the others become as l^rtunate as their iotrodu^ress. ' NJ 
does their union end here : the attachn^ents of early youth are noc eaa^ 
•radicated. In maturer years, those ha1>its of intimacy which weic oari 
traced in infancy a re continued ; and the married women of Geneva g c ne idi 
^end their lives in the sodetj' of those who were the companions afl 
playfellows of their girlish days* The children of these, fproi in tMJ 
turn a similar circle ; and it is no uncommon thing to see a partj of || 
aoales, whose hereditary union may thus be traced for many centuncr. , ^ 

*^ Thi^ institution, as a bond of friendship, and a source of happtn 
cannot be too highly praised. Perhaps, too, such an establishnoent 
in no small degree, contribute to that propriety of manner, and dec 
ofcondufl, which distinguish the ladies of Geneva. She must be 1 
weak and abandoned who, for any momentary gratification^ would i 
felt the good opinion of her friends, and the innumerable advan 
which arc enjoyed by a member of a society so constituted. Me 
every week under the eye of one of their parents, the females of C 
h^ve constantly instilled into their minds the principles of virtue ; 
each individual becomes^ as it were, the guardian of the hono^jr^r of! 
associates." ~ , 

That such an institutiorr may be (and, no doubt, is., at Genet 
produAive of good effcdh, we are not disposed to deny ; but we 
not sec what stronger inducement to the observance of a vinuoes 
iuSt it cao afford, than is holden out in other well-regulated 
where the inculcation of religious principles is dulv attended to. — Wl 
a woman straps from the paths of virtue, she is as much djacan 
from societv m England as at Geneva ; — with cne or tw^ cxcepoQ 
indeed, which only serve to strengtiien the rulew* 
^ In his excursions round Geneva, Mr. i^emaistre could oo(%3i 
visi^ Ferncy, the former residence of the arch-fiend Voltaire; 
otcoum of diis place exceeds^ in jpbkU of pocrilitj and absurdity. 

tlwig of the iiod which we have ever read* He gtresusn^hooredde* 
scnption of cve;ry apartmciu» the prints which, it containv inscriptions, 
&c. &c. The estate has revened to. the descendant? of its original 
proprietors, w1k> shewed, every part of it to our traveller with tho 
greatest politeness ; but Mr. Lemuistre was so lost in his admiration of 
Voltaire, thathecouhi not look with patience on a tree that was not 
planted, or on a room that was not furni>1icd, by ih^i philosopher^ ai 
ht caHs him, or philosbphist^ as we should call him« He assures us^ 

^* The whole place, though sufficient for every purpose of convenlencai 
and sociability I ha:; nothing in it which' would excite attention, if the 
genius of Voltaire had not scattered over this little domnin a dbgree of 
interest which the finest efforts of architedure would scarceiycommand* 
It is, indeed. On:: of the privileges oiexaked minds y to dignify the inani- 
mate obje^s which once belonged to them. Traifeileri nuiih warmfeeliMgt 
end Iftirnfj taste^ will never fail to visit with pleasure the ehdt^ of 
Fernc}', or the much humbler residence of our immortal Shakspeiie, 
whose miilberry-tree receives in its decay more votaries than the protidesc 
tmples «f antiquity."! 

Passing over the last part of this sentence, which is mighcy pMltff 
snd wants nothing but truth to recommend it; and also the insok 
oflered to our favourite bard, by coupling his name with that of the 
man who ilbelied^ because he could not understand, '\\\tn ; we shaH 
take leave to tell Mr. Lemaistre, that a traveller of proper feelingi 
would experience very dtfierent sensations from those of admiration 
and pleasure, on visiting that deadly spot, on which the veriest' mis* 
creant that ever devoted extraordinary talents to the basest of purposes^ 
planned the infernal scheme of subverting the Christian faitnj of 
overthrowing the ahars of Christ ; — a wretch who (we shudder whik 
«e repeat his enormities) stigmatised the blessed Redeemer of the hu* 
man tace 1% infamous^ and his holy Ajwstles as " twelve scoundrels I** 
—Do warm feelings and literary taste tend to suppress the indignation 
which cveiy religious, every virtuous, every honest mind must, -we 
should suppose, experience on contemplating the residence of sych ai 
mof\ster ? Or are genius and exalted minds-^such as we know Vol* 
taire to have possessed— sufficient to make us bury in oblivion the 
" inostUoriihle perversion of the one, and the most abominable profli* 
gacy of the other? — Do taleietst in the opinion of our tourist, atone^ 
tor^xifiri P He must either answer these (questions in the affirmative, 
or pronounce bis own condemiuition, for the senseless eulogies whicl^ 
he has bestowed on this baie libeller of his God. Let Mr. Lemaistre 
impress his mind with this truth, which we have often eodeavovrcA 
menfoire, thac genius and talents, being the gift of God, imply no 
iheritin those who possess them : and that it is only the wise and pro- 
per use and application of them that can entitle them to the approba* 
tbn of die world. If our Traveller thus seek to varnish over crimes, 
(U) at Ic^^ to subdue Qur rep robation ^f them» by calling on us to 


TJ2^ ' 0Rt6fK>^L tK'ttitUhl. — - 

aidmrnthe gcnitts by \trhicb ihev' wefe commirfed, it would f>e tnoHj 
better for society that he should eithei' retnain at home, or keep ibtf* 
iDfcrmation \Vhich he derives from his toiirsto himself. 

Ar Lnisaniie, Mr. /Lcmaistre visited the former residence of Gib-: 
bon, the historian, of whom he collefied tiie following anecdotes : 

" Soon after he became an inbabitanc of LaosannCy a lady of beauty 
/and talents made such an impression on the heart of the historian^ that he 
ebuld not resi&t the impulse of love ; and, f:«IIiitg on his knces^ he de- 
clared his passion. The objc^'of his afiedion heard unmoved his petition^ 
andy in spite of the eloquence of her lover, wa»deaf to bis entreaties,. T2ie 
disappointed Damon attempted to rise : he tried' ia vain : his weighty 
person, unaccustomed to such a position, was pot so ea.sily restored to 
Its proper balance. The lady> fearing that some person might discover 
ber admirer in this awkward situation, forgot .her anger, and endeavoufied 
with all her might to raise hiiti from the ground ; her strength was an« ^ 
equal to the task ; and> after several inefiedual struggles both in th^ aa- 
rhorand the lady, the latter was obliged to rjog the bell* aad to order 
her astonished servant to raise the prostrate scholar* The story, as might 
be expeded, became public the following morning, and entertained (ok- 
some days the gossiping circles of this little town. 

. «< lt|t notwithstanding the general esteem which Mr. Gibbon enter- 
tained for the fair sex, and notwithstanding this striking proof of daring 
gallarnry, I have been assured by a person who enjoyed the confidence of 
that distinguished man, that the historian of the Decline and Fall of the 
Roman Empire, though he ha« frequently^ described in glowing colo^s^rs^ 
and perhaps \x\ some passages with lascivious freedom, the passion oiFlove» 
was a stronger to its pkasures, and that he passed his li4e in a state of 
singuUr and rigid chastity. 

** Another scory, though of a difierent kind, is equaDy charaderistic 
Mr. Gibbon, finding himself indisposed, sent for a physician. The doc 
tor, jjdging from the appearance of his patient that his illness, whicU 
was but slight, simply arose from repletion, recommended abstinence. 
Three days afterwards he received a letter from the historxati'^ couched in 
pressing terms, but still in welLrounded sentences, i-equirin^ his inmie- 
diate presence at his house. On his arrival there, he found Mr. Gibbon 
«freadfully altered: his cheeks, usually plump, had now fallen ; his coner. 
plex ion sallow, and his person emaciated. The physician anxiously in. 
quired the cause of this sudden and unexpe^ed change. ' Sir,* said his 
learned patient,^ to follow with religious exaditude the ordinances of 
him whom I consult as my medical adviser, is a principle from which I 
have never yet ventured to depart ; but at this instant I am the vidtm of 
obedience, and of a do^rine. which I still believe to be generally salutary* 
You will recoiled. Sir, that when l<:st I had the hono.'^vy r of seeing you, 
you admonished me to abstain from animal food. Three days have elapsed 
since I received your injundions ; and during that period^ the only food 
which has passed these lips, has been a beverage of water ^rael : \ have. 
consequently become janguid ; and am now desirous of a m^it nutritions 
aliment ; but presuming not to interfere in a science which I do not under. 
etand, and having placed the dire&ion of my. health under the guidance of 
four profe.sional skillj I have awaited, I will not say without uopatiende, 

^ Ac 

Lemaistra'i Trmfdi thrmgh Frmiet^ h/ct t73 

lb iqwtitbo of jour vkit : I taw attend joar oidert.' The plixticiani 
who Ittd not cilkd during this intenral^ timply bccaaae he conceived Mr* 
GibboD bed no occjuion for further advice, now ran? the bdl, and* 
^taid of wiiting a pieacriptton, ordered dinner to be instantly 8er.ved4 
A cood imdtmj and a bottle of Borgnndyj toon lestored the historian to 
beudi and spirits. 

\^ The same physician advised Mr. Gibbon to take occasionally a dote 
of medicine. The obedient scholar, adopting with literal precision the 
ijstem recbmtnended, wrote immediately a Latin letter to his s^thecary^ 
diicAihjr that on the first of every month such a draught should be sent 
him ai ur. — - should diref) : and accordingly, at such suted period 
imug the iHt of his life, whether he were well or Hl» he lecdved and 
nraiUwed the accustomed dose/' 

In his tour through Switzerland, oar Traveller observes, oh Ms 
entrance into the canton of Lucerne, that •• the poverty and dirtof thfc 
inhabitants marked the limits, and would have proved our arrival iik 
a Catholic country, without the crosses, churches, and burying- 
groonds, covered with cc\o(ujTe&, crucifixes, which we met with at 
every mile." 

And, in a note, he adds : 

^ '' I have oeruinly no prejudices on leligioas subjeds ; but in travel, 
ling 10 Switzerland, it Is impossible not to remark the wide difierence io 
die appearance of the Catholic and (of (he) Protestant distrlAs^ la the 
fcnner, dirt, niseiy, and idleness present themselves on all sides ; and 
m the latter^ cleanliness, good order, high cititivationj^ and decent 

We have extradled this fa£V, for the purpose of slicwing the justice 
ofoarown observations (in our Review of Mr. Carr's ** Strange^ iti 
Ireland^) on the cause of the wretchedness of the lower classes in Ire- 
hnd. Therey as in the Catholic cantons of Switzerland, *< dirt, 
misery, and idleness,*' prevail. The source of thiii wretchedneai is 
(he same in both countries ; — it is to be found in the influence and the 
power of the pnests, and in the me which they make of them. 

At Turin, our Traveller took a view of the palace of the Sardinian 
Monarch, now, alas I occupied by the regicide Jourdan ! 

" The King's private apartment, as likewise the Queen's, we were re- 
r fitted the permission of seeing, because General Jourdan occupied the for* 
mer, at)d his wile, who was expelled from Paris the same night, intended 
I lodging in the latter. ^'AJasI' said our condudor, with a sigh o£ re« 
ptty * it was very di^^ent formerly : our good King, instead of deny*, 
sag leave to see his rooms, took great pleasure in shewing the palace hinu 
idf to strangers. — Mah en parvemut — • ' Here prudence stopped the con. 
tlosion of his sentence ; and he Ihanged the subjed by pointing out anoth^ 
chjed toour attendon." 

He thus sums up bis account of this capital : 

'^ I can only say that it is a well-built, regular, handsome city ; thai 

k staodb i*a fae ooantfy, and aKtsti while it enjoyed its national lade. 

^ ci« voL« xxr» T peodence^ 


pendence^ hare been an agreeable residence. It has now lost' its mttre 
Princesy and its most wealthy inhabitants. There is no indostry, because 
there is no commerce, and consequently, no spirit or a^vity among the ^ 
citizens. Idleness, dirt, poverty, ahd superstition, mark the appear. < 
ance of the peopfe ;' wba pass their iive^ in lounging about the streets, or 
in crouding the numerous churches, which are constantly opea.'*. 

Passing near the village of Marengo, Mr. Lemaistre tells us, tha^ 
from the accounts which he colleaed on the spot, the Austrian army, 
i^ the battle fought at that place, consisted of, i20,cxx> men, a»J that 
of the French of only 60,000 ; niKi that the fate of the battle was dc« 
cided by the arrival of Buonaparte from Toriooa, with the Consular 
guard, which a£led as a corps de reserve. Now there happens not to 
be one syllable of truth in this account ; and why Mr. Lemaistre, ^ 
ivbo asserts that he does not even pretend to give an opinion^ should 
think it worth bis while lo repeat these idle rales of the Italian rustics, 
except, indeed, for the purpose of swelling his book, we cannot con- 
ceive. The two armies, at the battle of Marengo, are known to have 
been nearly equal in numbers; Buonaparte, who commanded the 
French, had ad^ually lost the battle, late in the afternoon ; and when 
Desaix went up to him, _ to point out a manoeuvre which had sug- 
gested itself to his mind, he found Buonaparte (who had then aiSually 
ordered the retreat to be pounded) in such confusion tbkt he coul^ 
scarcely give him an answer ; and all the orders Desatx feceived from 
him was, to do as he pleased. Desaix, accordingly, carried hts plaa 
into ttk&y restored the fortune of the day, and lost His life in the at- 
tempt. Buonaparte had no more merit in gaining that vi£lory than ■. 
Mr. Lemaistre himself. 

Our author reached Parma soon after the death of the Prince, who 
"was generally supposed to have been poisoned by the French. But 
be^ thought himself " bound, in common charity, to dcsbetieve the 
whole, story," because /* neither the person who administered the 
deadly potion, nor the manner in which it was^givcn, nor the efie£ls 
by which it generally shews itself, did any one attempt to demon- 
strate." Our readers will probably think these very silly reasons for 
refusitig belief to the fad ; since the circumstances which are here 
thought necessary to iccure it, are geneially too well concealed to be- 
come the subjedls of public. notice* But, in a note, written at a sub* 
sequent period, he says : 

* ** This letter was of course written long before the murder of the I>oke 
D'Enghien. After the condudl/of Buonaparte on that occasion, one mighty ' 
without much injustice, be inclined to susjx:ft him, on very slight^ evi- 
dence, of crimes the roost enormous ; but as at the time when the Duke of j 
Parma died" — (in the summer, we believe, of 1802}, — *^ he had noi^rxMm 
cfiy indisputable proof s r,f a sauguinafy disposition, I conceived the 'reasoninj^ 
<m which I acquitted him of the supposed murder of that Prince was ^y 
TJie 9uhsie^oeot oiotder of the JDuc D'£nghi«& can baf e no poasiUe 

feffeAoQ^preYioilB reasons assigned by Mr. Lemaistre for his dis** 
bdidfof the murder of the Duke of Parma ; those reasons, which we 
^ve qaoced above, having 120 reference whatever to the dispositm of 
loooaf^rte* They consisted merely in the absence of such ctrcum* 
itamial proofs as, in his opinion, were necessary tg justify his belief 
pf tbe h& ; and assuredly some of these proofs were supplied by the 
feiidnigbt assassination in the wood of Vincennes. But, in the name 
rf common sense let us ask^ whether Mr. Lemaistre had been sleep- 

t; for twelve or fourteen years antecedent to this period ? For, if 
had been awake, he certainly could never have seriously advanced 
10 preposterous an assertion, belied by tlie knowledge of-every man in 
France, that, previous to (he sumnaer of 1802, fiuonaparte had i\ever 
|i?en any indisputable proofs of a sanguinary disposition.^ Did Mr* 
[lOnaistre never hear of Parisy of Toulon^ of Tanasco^ ofjaffay pi 

EBut we should as soon think of sitting down io prove that we 
ight from tlie sun, as to deduce specific fa£la. in order to de- 
te the sanguinary disposition of Buonaparte. If Mr. Lemaistre 
mlly want information on this subjcfl, let him consult the pases of 
ilhcMonncur, or the published speeches of Mr. Pitt and Mr. Wind- 
kiiB. If such a remark did not arise froin ignorance, it could only 
iroceed from a desire of misrepresentation, of which we should be 
INTT indeed to susped our author. 

Of the new Queen of Etruria (daughter to the King of Spain), 
who is represented as "a very amiable and^ worthy Princess," an 
anecdote is here recorded, which redounds so much to her honour, 
ihit it would be the height of injustice not to promote its circulation as 
far as we can. 

'' EFery English reader will join \n these praises, when it is n)en« 
tifiMd, that the refosed^ after the late declaration of war, to eompljr 
vith the demand of FraiKe, in issuing a proclamation,^ as regent, for the 
litttst of such British sobje^s as might be found in hy dominiefls. 
'Fraooe,* said this virtuous Princess, ^ may by fbrce Execute this zSi of 
tfntnny, but I will not lend my name to a measure of cruelty and in* 
justice.' " 

We have a most ridiculous account of the public appearance of the 
Pope in his capital. 

'^ We soon saw a shabby old coa^i appear, in which his HdineM wat 

<ntBd, drawn by four horses of lean and wretched figure • • The 

terrants and the guards of the Pope were at once so shabbily, and so ridiciu 
boslX dressed, tha^ I could easily have mistaken them for the attendants . 
itf Poach in a pantomime* The ^ivery of the servants was old-fashioned 
VkI grotesque i and the uniform of the guards, yellow and blacky with 
itocungs ofthe same party ^o\ofuJx% classed alternately. This unifoim^ 
.tattered and dirty of iu kind, was made in the shape of ooir beef*eattn' 
faiici at &• James's." 

This IS a woeful figure for that Pontiff to make who ent forced vA 
diepotenutes of Europe to tJ^'mble at the thunders of the Vatican ; 

T a Hho 

r[6 otLfcmAii eitirfcim. 

who gave laws to dieCoiidneiir^ and wlio lahbured t* 
soverergnty of Oiristendom. 

Our author speaks with great discontem, and eren ikgam^ ^ chfi 
Neapolitans, of both sexes. His account of them tertainly difeit, 
from others which we have read or lieard, but still it may be aocurait 
for any thing that we kpow ; and possiUy the Revolutioa umy haw 
ocdfsiooed the difference. , He records, two extraordinary instaii€xs<if 
ignorance, in persons of rank in Naples. 1 

** A Pucbess^ whom I have seen, and who possesses one of the mm 
splendi<i palaces in Naj^Ies, asked a friend or mine, who was lately ^ 
member of the House of Commons, why we kept such late hours in £ng. 
landj and particularly why we dined when it was almost time to siip«j 
Mr* ■' answered, that one principal cause of that custom axose firooj^ 

sbe aitcings of Parliament, whicii many gentlemen were obliged to ac«' 
tend*. < Le Parlemenk,' interrupted the lady, for she could speak a &w 
words of French ; < qu'est.ce que c'est que le Parlement ? est-ce one pto* ; 
nenadef , un corso ? Je n'ai jamais entendu parier de cet* 

** The other anecdote is this. During the late war, a Neapolitaa 
JBdarfMit came into the l)OX o{ a foreign Minister at the theatre pf Sm 
Carlos, and asked his Excellency if he had heard the npws which had joss; 
«rnvea, fiein^ answered in the negative, he continued, with a tone o£^j 
impatience^ * Sir, the English fleet have blockaded Mantua !' The Am^ 
1>assador smiled. * You. don't believe me?' rejoined the Neapolitan y. 
* my authority is indisputable ; I received the intelligence from thoKuqf 

^ Innamesable other instances might be given of the ignoiance^ of tho 

nobles tf 

— — ■ — — ^ — ■' 

* It was strange that the author's friedd should have assigned • rmiig 
so partial for a custt>m so general. In fact* we believe, that the attends 
ance in PaFliameca (seldom afieding more than 500 families in the nieCnM 
fqiis) had no shape whatever in producing this custom. It more profaabiX] 
proceeded, pastly from the predominant influence of the goddess of capricc»^ 
ycleped Fashion; and, partly, from the radical change which haa takeit 
placf; within the Ia»t twenty years, m the habits and manners of the mec^ 
caritile world. — Rev. » ^ 

+ The author has found it necessary to translate this difficvb passage in. 
a note ; but his knowledge of the English language supplied htm with ntfj 
word to explain the French promenade ; forgetting, no doubt, that sfaef^, 
was such a substantive as n»a<ik in our Di^onary. This contemptible 
lA^ation of unneoessarily introilucing French expressions^ pervades the 
^iMle work, and caniwt fail to dkgust every reader of taste or sensv;' 

:]: Mr. Leouistre mu$t pardon Os for observing, that w«do not think 
thtf superiority of his own understanding or ac<]uirements saficieatijr 
maiftftst to justify his dogmatical decisions on the ignoranoe of ^otkeis. 
We wonder that the mention of the Parliament did not briag to his'iniiidl^ 
^ne-or two proofs 9f//«6rtf;/« which, have been exhibited on tbh,iiditfjht\ 
^ptl He might hav6 recoUcded i naemorable exemplification of Black*| 
54one*s >ifcftrw of Parliamentary mnifetinct^' in the tx^tarfcr of a portion 

JjeaaiM^s TtdtvA thruigA Fifwice^ Isfc. 177 

f/Mfa^ t|Ot after Mclt specioMflit, it would be idle to repeti them. To 
uke the Parltaoieiit of England for the Rotteiwrow of Hyde Parkj and 
Id make a sea-port of Mantua^ are tolerable proofs of the little progress 
lets made, in the acquirement of that general kind of knowledge which it 
fispersed through ail societies in countries on the other side of the Alp«« 

Gross as this ignorance is, we have witnessed ignoratice full as 
|ro66, and stili more inexcusable, in France. Our readers will per- 
haps be imiuced to think, when tliey read the following passage* 
im^ hi his description of the Neapolitans, our aothoi*s pen was occa- 

tioaaUjr guided by pr^tidice : 

^ The Court, or company round the table was numerous, and formed 
I complete mob ; and, though I am persuaded that the notslest blood ia 
Harope flowed in the veins of the dukes, princes, and marquisses^ assem* 
lied on the occasion, they had very much the appearance of strolling 
•Aors, prepared to represent the heroes of tragedy, or of ibotmen in the 
iast-cff dresses of their masters. Their coats were laced and spangled all 
9rer ; their hair was frizzed, and powdered to vie with the coIq{mJt of 
mam ; and many of them had ribbands, stars, and chamberlains' keys ; 
|et there wu a meanness in their person^ and manners, which destroyed all 
Ae dk&, of their tawdry ornaments, and only rendered them doubly ridicu. 
jbos. I looked with pride on the dignified simplicity of my yottng country^ 
RKn, who, in their plain cloth coats, or manly uniforms, looked like su^ 
^iprbeings, when contrasted with these pigmy nobles, in spite of their 
**M, their velvet, their orders, and their grimaces." 


Tliere it^ in this passage, something more than prejudice; truth com* 

f Is us to say, that it is marked with iuiberality, insult, and impertinence, 
is somewhat strange that it should not have occurred to the author* 
Ihar what appeared to him to be dignified simplicity^ might be con- 
lUered by the Neapolitans as disgraceful meanness ; and that he and 
bis coamrymen might be 3ts ridiculous in r/ieir eyes, as they were in 
kk If a foreigner, of any country, had assumed this tone of supe- 
riority, in speaking of Englishmen, Mr. Lemaistre would have beea 
kieof the first to reprove him for his vanity and insolence. We 
ptnr no stronger proof of ignorance, than to adopt our own customs 
)ni maaoers as the criterion by which tho^ of all other count:ries are 
b be estimated ; and it is something worse than illiberality to repa^ 
i^iteness, civility, and attention, by ridicule, abuse and derision.—^ 
ihe passage, too, which we have quoted, is as silly as it is mi4« 
l^ievous ; for it is not very easy to conceive what likeness the Neapo* 
Kao nobks, in their court-dresses, whkh are represenied as covered 
pritb gold j^nd spangles, ribbands, and orders, could possibly bear to 
'£x>cmenii» the oii/-^ dresses of thbir n>asters.'' We nave said 

fjffi^^* by an Ad of Parliament, to Europe; and also, a notable in. 
tanoe of ministerial knowledge^ in the conversion of part of a Continent 
Ko an Islands 

. T3 that 

278 ORIGINAL CUtTiCl'stt. 

that the passage, thoogh silly, h miscAievws; \t is to far milcliievoiHi 
that, if the l^k should be read on the Continent (which, indeed, 
is not very probable) the cffedl of it would be to procure a very cool 
reception, indeed, for such of bur countrymen as should hereafter 
visit the Court of Naples. In summing up his account of Naples, 
the author gives us the following information. 

** Of literature, it would be presumptuoas in me to give an opinion. 
My stay has been $0 short, and my time has been so devoted to other par. 
suits, that it has been impossible for me to inquire into the state ofleam. 
ing in this city. I am inclined 16 think that few, if any, of the nobi. 
lity seek for amusement in the cultivation of letters ; and, though such a 
remark must be taken with many exceptions, it seems probable that well, 
informed peiions are rarely found in the first classes of society. J have 
no doubt that, among the professors, medical men, lawyers, and cle^y^ 
there must be here, as every where else, many individuals of scientific 
and general knowledge, and whosd acquirements would render them very 
yaluable companions ; but, circumscribed as I am in time, it is out of mj 
power to seek their acquaintance.'!. 

We should really have imagined, that the state of literature woaU 
have been one of the jfirst obje£ts of inquiry and attention to a tra- 
veller of *' literary taste," such as Mr. Lemaistre repeatedly prcMiooa- 
ces himself to be ; hut our readers may form a competent notion froni 
this specimen, of the nature and value of that information which they 
may expe£l to derive from a pdrusal of these volumes. He observes; 
that his stay in Naples had been so short as to preclude him from xnab 
ing any inquiries of this description ;# but he remained in that cin 
two months, and if he had devoted some portion of that time, wbicfl 
he appears to have allotted to the society of pe'rsons whom he despised^ 
to literary charaders, he might have enabled himself to givi 
some information op the suhje£l ; as ic is, he has said no more thai 
what he might have said, with equal propriety, if lie had nevd 
stirred from his own fire-side. 

His account of the Roman ladies is still less favourable thao that d 
the Neapolitan^. Of their manners he mentions the following instance 
which occurred in his own presence, in the public gardens of th 
Villa Borghcse. 

" One of the prettiest women here, who lives in the first class of so 
ciety, pretending to be angry with her ca^aliere tervanu^ desired an Rnglid 
gentleman, who haj^nedtohe of the party, to \\{i the former (him) a 
his back ; and wheti he was thus placed m the attitude, which at West 
minster and Eton schools preced€$ the usual discipline " (not only prtaA 
\iiax accmnpaintsy we should suppose), «* she took a whip in her haiKl, afli 
administered a flogging in proper form. There were several of oar coon 
trywomen present, who viewed this ceremony with equal astonisbmen 
and disgust ; while the Italian ladies laughed^ and seemed \yo t ^jwiV : tU 
pra^ical wit extremely entertaining." v 

Speaking of the last venerable Pontiff, Pius Vlth, the author td 

Letnaistre'j Travels through France, hie. 279^ 

ils,^tlM the accoQnt$ which lie received of him from different persons, • 
whah«de^al opportunities of knowing him well, were totally contra- 
£Aory. One assured iiim tiiat his piety was afFe6led, that lie was a 
dronkanl, a spendthrift, a glutton, and a debauchee ; and that a coun- 
tess was named to him, wlio had long been his Holiness's kept mis- 
tress; while t)ie othei denied all these alleged fafls, and asserted, the* < 
perfe6^ purity of his charaf^er. Mr. L. thinks, that the truth lay (ai 
usual) between the two extremes -^ but he had evidently no ground for 
the formation of such an opinion ; and as all that we ever heard of that 
PontifFcomraJids the account given by the republican, who insisted 
OQ hit profligacy, we are disposed to believe ham to have been a truly 
virtuous and. good ma^i. 
Of the successor of Pius VI. we have the following account : 

** Tkoagh esteemed as a man, for his many virtues, the reigning Pope 
it neither much followed, nor much talked of. When he drives along the 
streets in his carriage, crowds do not flock to receive his bcnediddon ;. 
snd those who accidentally obtain, in passing, that favo/^ary'r, appear not 
to be particularly sensible of its value. In short, I msch doubt, whe. 
tkr, even in this city, the infallibility of his Hoi incss is now confidently^ 
believed. I have sometimes discovered a smile on the countenances of per, 
sons of the lowest rank, when miracles and relics have been named j and. 
the luxury and idleness of the Cardinals afford a frequent and iaLwofuJtiXG, 
subjeft of merriment. »• 

Having experienced a most flattering reception at Vienna, Mr. L, 
dwells with delight on the virtues and accomplishments of the House 
of Austria. He tells us, however, that the gallant Archduke Charles 
has a mortal antipathy to the English, for having Ictl Austrfa into the 
firu revolutionary war with France— which wc very much doubt ; 
and he thinks that the confinement of " La Fayette and his injured 
associates'' (poor, innocent, inoffensive mortals !) is a drawback on 
ihejBxcdlent chara<5lcr of the reigning Emperor, Had Mr. Lenv^istre 
forgotten that this revolutionary coxcomb had been the voluntary- 
gaoler of his injured Sovereigns and their family ; that he had been a' 
preacher of tho^ fata! dodrines which had plunged thousands and tens 
of thousands into the horrors ot imprisonment, and had consigned 
millions of innocent vif^ims to an untimely grave ? or, are his philan- 
lliropic feelings interested only for rebels and regicides ? Curse on such 
whining philanthropy, which reserves all its tears for the guilty, and 
sees the innocent pcrisli unmoved ? 

in a note our author mentions the following curious fadts : 

<' A few weeks before, it seems, Buonaparte, at his pablic audience^ 
asked the Minister of the Elcdor of Bavaria, what were the revenue* of 
Ks master ; and, on receiving a satisfaftory answer, observed, ^ they are 
just what I supposed them to be. The Eledorate will afford a proper 
compensation to the Emperor of Austria for Venice and Trieste.' Not 
satisfied with thos insulting both these inde^iendent States, he next sent a 
message to the Empeiorj" requiring his presence in Italy> where he wished 
- • T 4 ^ ta 

«^ met him. Tke Empocor civifly * dtdiMfd th^ invk«tt«a* 'WUti* 
cried Baonaparte, in one of those fits of pai&ion tQ which he i» frequently 
subjed, *^ does he refuse to cone ? Tell him, then, I will pay htm a vUir 
at Vienna, and will sleep in his bed.' *' 

\ We shall now leave oisr Tourist to pursue his way to England ; 
paving given our readers a sufficient insight into the merits and de* 
merits or his produdlion, the latter of which greatly preponderate.-^ 
The style, thou^h^ occasionally easy, is often swkward and affeAed^ 
and sometimes stiflFand pedantic. The freqqent introdu^ion of French 
words and phrases, disgusts the Englisli reader ; all the sabsmntiTcs 
ending in our^ derived from the Latin, such as honour, iavour, &c. 
are, either from ignorance or affedation, written without the « ; so 
that, in fa£l, the Latin words are substituted for the English. Gram** 
floatical inaccaracies, too, often occur. A few instances of improper 
language we have marked. In vol. i. p. 273, we are told of ^ tJks 
sfcwd firust church of Milan." In p. 285, we have the word Afar^ 
ftttssiy whicli is neither French nor Italian. Vol. ii. p. iii,'tpeak« 
mg of the Cardinal York, the last Prince of the hapless House of 
Stuart, Mr. Lemaistre observes, ** instead of performing the hi^ 
fundions of executive magistrate in a great kingdotn, he passes ait 
thne in the ceremonies of a church ; and has changed ** (wh